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Notes and Queries, Jan. 30, 1915. 



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" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 





Notes and Queries, Jan. 30, 1915. 



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US. X. JCLY4, 1914.] 




CONTENTS. No. 236. 

NOTES : A Bibliography of Thomas Holcroft, 1 John 
Webster a Contributor to Sir Thomas Overburys 
' Character^,' 3 George Ballard's 'History of Susannah, 
6-The Wearing of the Oak -Court Leet : Manor Court 
A Shipwreck : Tristan de Acunha, 7 Wala of ' Widsith 
and Valliaricfe Insulre, 8 -Bruce: Freeman: Parry: 
Pyke "Cob": "Eyrer,"9 

OUKRIES : George Bubb Dodington, Lord Melcouibe 
Whitfleld, 9 Authors of Quotations Wanted Adye 
Baldwin of Slough Palm the Bookseller, shot by 
Napoleon Oriental Names mentioned by Oray Wanless, 
10 Marsack- Action of Vinegar on Bocks John Tekell of 
Spitalflelds " Dunnage " : " Busshewale "Publication 
of Banns : Curious Phrases Stevens, 11 Chilean Views 
Orlebar Semaphore Signalling Stations- Wills at 
St. Paul's, 12. 

REPLIES : Sir Gregory Norton, the Regicide, and his 
Son Sir Henry, 12 Chapel-house, 13-Tippoo Sahib's 
Stick" Blizar'd " as a Surname Missionary Ship Duff- 
Alexander Strahan, 14 -Henry Hase The "Flash" of 
the Royal Welsh Fusiliers" Among the blind the one- 
yed man is king "" Corvicer "Books on Chelsea, 15 
Sir Jacob Adolphus "Titmarsh " in an Alleged Poem by 
Tennyson Nell Gwyn : Rose Gwyn John Swinfen, 16 
'The Broad Arrow " " Blandandered "Lombard Street 

Privy Councillors Elfou West Indian Families 
Rawdon Family, 18. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Shaftesbury's 'Second Characters' 
'Comment and Criticism '' Charles Dickens in Chan- 
cery _ The Social Guide' Reviews and Magazines. 

Notice? to Correspondents. 


As basis for a work on which I am engaged, 
to take the form of a critical biography of 
Thomas Holcroft (1745-1809), I have drawn 
up the following tentative Bibliography. 
Holcroft was a very active man. From the 
time he came up to London, he alternately 
played the role of novelist, journalist, poet, 
critic, translator, dramatist, adapter, and 
editor. Many of his works were published 
anonymously, some were acted tinder the 
names of others, and, taking everything 
into consideration, the bibliographical pro- 
blems have been very numerous. I do not 
presume to have settled them all, but I do 
believe that I have disposed of a few. My 
purpose in publishing at this time is that 
I may avail myself of suggestions, additions, 
correction^, and objections from my readers. 
Any such will be more than welcome. I 
should like to hear of the existence of any of 

the Holcroft manuscripts. May I ask readers 
of ' N. & Q.' to communicate to me any 
variations, in copies of books which they 
possess, from the form noted here ? It is 
only by such critical comments that I may 
render my Bibliography complete. 

There is one problem which deserves a 
little consideration. In many instances I 
have discovered copies marked on the title- 
pages as " second " or " third " or " fourth " 
editions which corresponded in letterpress 
to the first editions. Careful comparison 
and application of the broken-letter test 
to each signature revealed an amazing and 
complete similarity. The question then 
arises if the publisher did not attempt to 
deceive the public. When an edition was 
not selling, did he not print new title-pages 
marked " Second Edition," &c., in an at- 
tempt to inveigle people into buying what 
appeared to be a good seller, but what was 
really a drug on the market ? And when, 
as in the case of the ' Letter to William 
Windham,' there are several variant copies 
of a first edition, is it not possible that care- 
lessness, or lack of time, prevented change 
in the title-page, and that what I have 
marked as merely a form (I. 4) of the first 
edition was really the bona fide second 
edition ; the " second edition " really a 
" third " ; and the " third " really a 
" fourth " ? Such schemes for disposing of 
books and such strange variations have 
appeared, and probably will ever appear as 
long as publishers are desirous of profit, 
and printers dilatory and undependable. 
Such lack of consistency may indicate the 
freedom of the press, but it certainly is the 
vexation of the bibliographer. 

In the case of Holcroft, however, when we 
find a " second edition," though printed 
from the same stand of type, I shall assume 
it a true second edition. I have looked into 
all cases very carefully, and have found a 
certain regularity in the agreement of later 
impressions with earlier. But if we stand 
aside and look at the broad aspect, and not 
with face to the page, we shall find that the 
plays damned on representation which 
naturally would not have sold well and 
would have been the most likely victims of 
falsification had usually but one edition, 
and that those which had marked success 
on the stage are the ones indicated as 
running into several editions. This seems 
to imply a faithfulness to the fact a faith- 
fulness, by the way, thoroughly consonant 
with Holcroft's characteristic stand for 
truth, honesty, and straightforwardness. 
James Boaden, in his ' Memoirs of Mrs. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. m a. x. JULY 4, 191*. 

Inchbald' (2: 83), refers to this connexion: 
" The crowd at a manager's door electrically 
attracts upon the publishers, and a play that 
draws is already destined to the press." I 
have therefore "accepted the indications of 
editions as given on the title-pages, but have 
also made notes of similarity in letterpress. 

The arrangement of the following Biblio- 
graphy is chronological, by first editions ; 
later editions are listed with the first, and not 
in chronological sequence. The references 
to volumes are in Arabic figures followed 
by a colon. 
? (Early, certainly before October, 1777.) Some 

articles in Whitehall Evening Post. 

Vide ' Memoirs,' 1902, Waller-Glover ed., 
p. 87. 

? Scotch songs and other songs for Vauxhall. 

' Memoirs,' p. 87, merely state that he had 
written some Scotch songs, including one 
beginning " Down the bourne and through 
the mead." 

1777. " Elegies. I. On the death of Samuel 
Foote, Esq. II. On Age. By Thomas Hoi- 
croft, of the Theatre-Royal, Drury-Lane. 4to. 
1. London : Bew. 1777." 
This was probably published in November- 
Samuel Foote died 21 Oct. As the book was 
reviewed in The Monthly Review for Decem- 
ber, 1777 (57: 489), and listed as published in 
November in the November, 1777, number 
of The London Magazine (46: 575), and the 
same month in The Universal Magazine 
(61: 279), we date it within the month, and 
obviously not " in the spring of the follow- 
ing year," as Hazlitt says(' Memoirs,' p. 87). 

? (Before 1779.) ' Maid of the Vale,' an opera, 
from ' La Buona Figliuola ' of Carlo Goldoni. 
Not acted and never printed. ' Memoirs ' 
(p. 86) say that it was not brought forward. 
' Biographia Dramatica,' however, speaks 
of an edition, Dublin, 1775, which I have 
not seen, and which I doubt to be Hoi- 
croft's play. 

1778. ' The Crisis, or Love and Fear,' a musical 


Written 1777-8, not printed. Produced 
at Drury Lane, 1 May, 1778, for the 
benefit of Miss Hopkins and ill-received. 
Played but once. ' Memoirs,' pp. 83-4 ; 
Oulton, ' History of the Theatres of 
London,' 2: 188 ; Genest ; ' Biographia 
Dramatica,' 1: 1, 353 ; 2: 142. It is as 
' Love and Famine ' that the sub -title 
appears in the ' Memoirs ' (p. 83), though 
Genest, Oulton, and the ' Biographia 

Dramatica ' give the title as ' Love and 
Fear.' Periodical reference to the play a* 
' The Crisis, or Love and Fear,' is to be found 
in The European Magazine (1: 49, 1782, and 
22: 403, 1792). 

1778. Contributions to The Toicn and Country 
Magazine : 

' The Philosopher.' 

' History of Manthorn the Enthusiast.' 

Other articles (?). 

Ascribed to him in article in European 
Magazine, 1: 49. 

177!). ' A Rondeau. Written by Mr. Holcroft.' 

This begins " Tell me when, inconstant 
rover." Universal Magazine, August, 1779= 
(65: 98). 

1779. (Written during the summer, ' Memoirs/ 
p. 86.) ' The Shepherdess of the Alps, a comic 

Not acted and not printed. Indisputable 
evidence that Holcroft did a piece of this- 
title is to be found in direct mention of it, 
and of his work on it, in a letter to Mrs. 
Sheridan (' Memoirs,' p. 86). 

" The Shepherdess of the Alps : a comic opera in 
three acts as it is performed at the Theatre- 
Royal in Covent Garden. London : Printed 
for G. Kearsley, No. 46, Fleet Street. 1780." 

The anonymous publication of a play of 
this title, acted at Covent Garden, 18 Jan., 

1780. would seem to settle the question of 
acting and printing, and so the 1902, Waller- 
Glover, edition of the ' Memoirs ' in a note 
indicates this as the play mentioned by 
Holcroft to Mrs. Sheridan when he was 
begging production. But the note is wrong. 
'The Thespian Dictionary' of 1800, the- 
' Biographia Dramatica ' in 1812, and the 
' English Stage ' of Genest, in 1832, all give- 
it to Charles Dibdin (1745-1814). Oulton, in 
1796, gives no author ; but there is quite an 
array of evidence for the Dibdin ascription, 
as is shown by MB. E. RIMBAUI/T DIBDIN, 
who includes the title in the Bibliography of 
his great-grandfather (' N. & Q.,' 9 S. viii. 
279), and who, answering a lengthy claim 
for the piece as Holcroft's, which I pre- 
sented to him by letter, writes to me, " The 
style of the songs and dialogue is almost 
certainly Dibdin's " a stronger claim than 
I can make for Holcroft. 

MR. E. R. DIBDIN also submits the follow- 
ing facts (cf. ' N. & Q.,' 11 S. ix. 68) : 

Kearsley was Dibdin's usual publisher at 
that time. 

In his 'Professional Life' (1803) Dibdin 
refers to the production of this piece in terms. 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 


which suggest that he was the author, and 
ho gives the words of eight of the songs 
(2: 54-62). 

In the ' Musical Tour of Mr. Dibdin ' 
(1787) he includes two songs from the play 
(Xos. 9 and 14) ; he gives the piece as No. 65 
in his list of productions (pp. 305-6) ; and 
he says, " My agreement for this piece was 
to have a third of the nine first nights " 
an author's, not a composer's, method of 

In the ' Collected Songs ' (5 vols., 1790, 
&?.) Dibdin gives some of the lyrics, and 
the 1842 edition gives twelve. 

In addition, I myself can bring forward 
the following : The introductory memoir (by 
Hogarth) to the 1842 edition refers to ' The 
Shepherdess of the Alps ' in no uncertain 
terms as the work of Dibdin. The West- 
minster Magazine, in the issue of January, 
1780, speaks of Dibdin as the author ; and 
The European Magazine in 1792 (22: 403) 
does not include it in the list of Holcroft's 
works, and some years later (55: 177) gives 
it as Dibdin's. 

MR. DIBDIN has what he calls a " con- 
temporary news-cutting " which says : " Mr. 
Dibdin is author as well as composer of the 
new comic opera ' The Shepherdess of the 
Alps.' ' 

I have not yet verified or dated this 
quotation, but am now certain in my 
own mind that Holcroft and Dibdin each 
did an opera of this title, and that Dibdin's 
was presented on 18 Jan., 1780, and later 
printed, whereas Holcroft's was not. Both 
writers did comic operas, and both took 
stories from the French Dibdin at this time 
especially, as he had just returned from 
France. The British Museum designates 
the piece as "From the French," and The 
Westminster Magazine, January, 1780, says 
that it is based on a tale of Marmontel. I 
have not traced the matter further, though 
there is probably some relation to ' La 
Bergere des Alpes ' of Nougaret, played in the 
French provinces. ELBRIDGE COLBY. 

Columbia University, New York City. 

(To be continued.) 


IT cannot be denied that the popularity 
of Sir Thomas Overbury as a writer was 
largely owing to the extraordinary circum- 
stances connected with his death. No 
sooner had he passed away (13 Sept., 1613) 

than his friends undertook to publish the 
MSS. of Rochester's friend and victim, 
among which the poem ' A Wife ' was con- 
spicuous. The book, entered in the Sta- 
tioners' Registers on 13 Dec., and issued 
early in the following year, met with such 
success that a second edition was printed, 
which contained, besides the poem and 
several elegies by friends and dependents 
of the author, his portrait by Simon Pass, 
and 21 prose Characters. In the Preface, 
dated 16 May, 1614, Laurence L'Isle the 
printer expressly informed the readers that 

" this surplusage. . . .was. . . .in some things only 
to be challenged by the first author, but others 
now added. . . .first transcrib'd by Gentlemen of 
the same qualitie." 

How many of these Characters, if any, are 

to be ascribed to Sir Thomas, and whether 

he forestalled or imitated Joseph Hall in 

this line of literature, is out of the question 

here. In my own opinion, the style in 

these short essays is altogether different 

from, and superior to, the prose writings 

subsequently printed under the name of 

Overbury. The Characters portrayed are : 

A good woman. A wise man. 

A very woman. A noble spirit. 

A dissembler. An old man. 

A courtier. A fine gentleman. 

A golden ass. An elder brother. 

A flatterer. A Welshman. 

A timist. A pedant. 

An amorist. A servingman. 

An affected traveller. An host. 

So successful, again, was the new volume 
that a third edition had to be supplied 
promptly, which was followed within three 
months by two others (the fifth one dated 
24 Aug., 1614), nine new Characters being 
contributed by an anonymous writer : 

A good wife. 

A melancholy man. 

A sailor. 

A soldier. 

A tailor. 

A puritan. 

A whore. 

A very whore. 

A mere common lawyer. 

The vogue of the book, far from decreasing, 
proved so persistent that a sixth edition 
was called forth, which was published in 
1615, with the following title-page : 

New and Choice Characters, of severall authors, 
together with that exquisite and unmatcht poeme, 
The Wife, written by Sir Thomas Overburie, with 
the former characters and conceited Newes, all 
in one volume. With many other things added 
to this sixt impression. 

Mar. Non norunt hcec monumenta mori. 
London. Printed by Thomas Creede, for Laurence 
L'isle, at the Tygers head in Pauls Church-yard. 

In this volume we find, besides the matter 
contained in the former edition, a new set 


[US. X. JULY 4, 1914. 

of Characters thus heralded on a new title- 
page : 

An addition of other Characters, or lively 

descriptions of Persons. 
A mere scholar. A chamber-maid. 

A tinker. A precisian. 

An apparator. A fantastic Inns of 

An almanac-maker. court-man. 

An hypocrite. A mere fellow of a 

A maquerela. house. 

Then comes a third title-page with these 
words : 
New Characters (drawne to the life) of severall 

persons in severall qualities. 
London, Printed for L. L'isle 1615. 
These additions, thus presented as a separate 
flection, consist of 
A Worthy Commander A buttonmaker of 

in the wars. Amsterdam. 

A vainglorious coward A distaster of the time. 

in command. A fellow of a house. 

A pirate A mere pettifogger. 

An ordinary fencer. An engrosser of corn. 

A puny Clerk. A devilish usurer. 

A footman A waterman. 

A noble and retired A reverend judge. 

housekeeper A virtuous widow. 

An intruder into favour. 1^^^^' 
A fair and happy milk- A cant i n g rogue. 

maid - A French cook. 

An arrant horse-courser. ^ sexton. 
A roaring-boy. X Jesuit. 

.A drunken Dutchman An excellent actor. 

resident in England. A franklin. 
.An improvident young A purveyor of tobacco. 

gallant. A rimer. 

This new contribution of 42 essays thus 
more than doubled the former set, and 
brought to public inspection a wider survey 
-of social characteristics. 

However, in the seventh edition, published 
in 1616, and in the eleven reprints of the 
book from that date to 1664, this separate 
collection was mixed up with the former one, 
And, several additional Characters having 
been given, no external sign of its independ- 
ent origin was left ; and the modern editors 
of ' Overbury's Characters,' E. F. Rim- 
bault (1856) and Prof. Morley (1891), having 
referred to no early impressions, made no 
mention of these successive instalments, 
though the latter, in his Introduction, stated 
that ' Overbury's Characters ' was but a 
general title for a miscellaneous collection. 

Three of the Characters in the third set 
(namely a Tinker, an Apparator, and an 
Almanac -Maker) had been claimed, in the 
very year of their publication, by a certain 
J. Cocke. Of this writer I shall have more 
to say hereafter. No attempt, however, has 
previously been made to ascertain the author- 
ship of the rest, though a study of the style 
jn the fourth set affords sufficient evidence 

to enable us to ascribe these 42 Characters 
to no other author than the great dramatist 
John Webster, whose prose work seemed 
to consist solely of his prefaces, apart from 
passages in his plays. 

Many students (among them Mr. Charles 
Crawford in ' N. & Q.') have illustrated the 
fact that John Webster repeatedly borrowed 
phrases, lines, and sentences, not only from 
contemporary books (Sidney's ' Arcadia ' 
and Florio's ' Montaigne '), but from his 
own works. Thus fragments of ' The White 
Devil ' and ' A Monumental Column ' were 
used again in ' The Duchess of Malfi,' ' The 
Devil's Law Case,' ' Appius and Virginia,' 
and ' A Cure for a Cuckold.' Of course, if 
only a few quotations from ' The White 
Devil ' and the ' Column ' (both published 
before 1615) occurred in the ' Characters,' 
we could hardly surmise that Webster was 
responsible for this prose work. The number 
of parallel passages, however, has proved 
so considerable as to convince me that 
nobody but John Webster could have 
written this ; for not only are several 
passages from his two printed works found 
in it, but numerous phrases were obviously 
borrowed from ' The Duchess of Malfi,' 
which (though it never appeared in print 
till 1623) must have been acted before 
December, 1614 :* and from these ' Cha- 
racters,' again, Webster took many a phrase 
when writing ' The Devil's Law Case ' at a 
later date.j 

The very motto affixed to the title-page 
in this sixth edition (never after repro- 
duced) was especially familiar to Webster, 
the quotation from Martial, Non norunt 
hose monumenta mori, occurring in the pre- 
face to ' The White Devil ' (1612) as well as 
in the title of ' Monuments of Honour' (1624). 

I append parallels, placing those from 
the ' Characters ' of 1615 second in each 
case : 

White Devil (1612). 

Vittoria. Your strict combined heads, 
Which strike against this mine of diamonds, 
Shall prove but glassen hammers. III. ii. 

.... meetes him as if Glasse should encounter 
adamant. ' A Worthy Commander." 

* The actor William Ostler, who, according to 
the Dramatis Personcc, was the original Antonio, 
died in December, 1614, as the documents printed 
by Prof. C. W. Wallace in The Times (2 and 4 Oct., 
1909) show. 

t Prof. C. E. Gough, in his dissertation on Over- 
bury's 'Characters,' Norwich, 1909, pointed out 
six parallel passages from ' The Duchess of Malfi ' ; 
however, he failed to recognize Webster's author- 
ship. Let him find here an acknowledgment of the 
courteous assistance he has given me in my work. 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 


Flamineo. Religion ! O ! how it is com- 
meddled with policy ! The first bloodshed in the 
world happened about religion. III. ii. 

Religion is his pretence of discontent. ' A 
Distaster of the Time.' 

Flamineo. And I do wish ingeniously for thy 

The dog days all year long. III. ii. 

He wishes the dogge dayes would last all yeere 
long. ' A Sexton.' 

Cornelia.. Since he paid the church-tithes 
duly. V. iii. 

No neighbour of his should pay his tythes 
duely. ' Ameere Petifogger.' 

The action of the play. . . .without striving to 
make nature a monster. Epilogue. 

He doth not strive to make nature monstrous. 
....He adds grace to the poets' labour. 'An 
Excellent Actor.' 

Monumental Column (1613). 

His rewards follow'd reason, ne'er were plac'd 
For ostentation. LI. 41-2. 

One whose bounty is limited by reason, not 
ostentation. ' A Noble and Betir'd Housekeeper.' 

Who found weak numbers conquer, arm'd with 

right ; 

Who knew his humble shadow spread no more 
After a victory than it did before. LI. 75-7. 

Never is he knowen to slight the weakest 
enemy that comes arm'd against him in the hand 
of Justice. . . .He doth not think his body yeelds 
a more spreading shadowe after a victory then 
before. ' A Worthy Commander.' 

Who knew that battles, not the gaudy show 

Of ceremonies, do on Kings bestow 

Rest theatres. 1,1. 90-92. 

He knowes the hazards of battels, not the 
pompe of Ceremonies, are Souldiers best Theaters. 

Duchess of Malfi (produced before 1615). 

Antonio. But a most provident council, who 

dare freely 

Inform him the corruption of the times .... 
Though some o' the court hold it presumption 
To instruct princes what they ought to do, 
11 is a noble duty to inform them 
What they ought to foresee. I. i. 

There is no place wherein dissembling ought 
to have lesso credit, than in a Princes Counsel. 
' A Reverend Judge.' 

Antonio. If lie laugh heartily, it is to laugh 
All honesty out of fashion. I. i. 

If all men we're of his minde, all honestie would 
bee out of fashion.' A Phantastique.' 

Antonio. He never pays debts unless they be 
shre\v<l t urns. I. i. 

Debts hee pwnes none but shrewd turnes. 
' An Intruder into Favour.' 

Antonio. She throws upon a man so sweet a look 
That it were able to raise one .... I. i. 

Bosola. You come from painting. . . .from your 
scurvy face-physic. II. i. 

One looke of hers is able to put all face-physick 
out of countenance. ' A Happy Milkmaid.' 

Bosola. I would have you learn to twirl the 
strings of your band with a good grace, and .... 
at the end of every sentence, to hum three or 
four times, or blow your nose till it smart again, 
to recover your memory. II. i. 

Hee hath learn't to cough, and spit, and blow 
his nose at every period , to recover his memory. 
' A Fellow of a House.' 

Ferdinand. He hath put a girdle 'bout the world 
And sounded all her quicksands. III. i. 

He hath, as it were, put a gird about the whole 
world, and sounded all her quicksands. ' A 
Noble and Retired Housekeeper.' 

Bosola. You are 

Your own chronicle too much, and grossly 
Flatter yourself. HI- i- 

His owne mouth is the chronicle of it. ' An 
Intruder into Favour.' 

Duchess. For know, whether I am doom'd to 

live or die 
I can do both like a prince. III. ii. 

Whether his time call him to live or die, he 
can do both nobly. ' A Noble Housekeeper.' 

Bosola. A politician is the devil's quilted anvil ; 
... .he may work in a lady's chamber. III. ii. 

Hee is a' day-bed for the Divell to slumber-on. 
' A Distaster of the Time.' 

No place holdes him so securely as a 

Ladyes Chamber. ' A lesuite.' 

Delio. He hath worn gun-powder in 's hollow 
tooth for the tooth-ache. III. iii. 

. . . .Gunpowder : if hee have worne it in his 
hollow tooth for the tooth-ach. ' A Roaring 

Pescara. These factions amongst great men, they 

are like 
Foxes, when their heads are divided, 

They carry fire in their tails. III. iii. 

A meere Pet ifogger is one of Sampsons Foxes. 
' A Meere Petifogger.' 

Delio. In such a deformed silence witchea 
whisper their charms. III. iii. 

Hee grumbles treason : but tis in such a 
deformed silence, as witches raise their spirits in. 
' A Divellish Usurer.' 

Madman. All the college may throw their 
caps at me ; I have made a soap-boiler costive 
it was my masterpiece. IN', ii. 

All the learned doctors may cast their caps at 
him. ' A Quacksalver.' 

Bosola. Riot begins to sit on thy brow twenty- 
years sooner than on a merry milkmaid's. IV. ii.. 
Character of ' A Happy Milkmaid.' 


Cardinal. Although he do account religion 

Hut a school-name. V. ii. 

Friendship he accounts but a word without 
any signification. ' A Divellish Usurer.' 

Julia. Why, ignorance 

In courtship cannot make you do amiss 
If you have a heart to do well. V. ii. 

Ignorance will not suffer her to doe ill, being 
her ininde is to doe well. ' A Happy Milkmaid." 

Bosola. The weakest arm is strong enough that 

With the sword of Justice. V. ii. 

To slight the weakest enemy that comes arm'd 
against him in the hand of Justice. ' A Worthy 

Bosola. For thou fall'st faster of thyself than 

Can drive thee. V. v. 

When he is falling, he goes of himself e faster 
than misery can drive him. ' An Intruder into 

The Devil's Law Case (acted before 1623). 

Leonora. Know, for your sakes, 

I married, that I might have children, 
And for your sakes, if you '11 be rul'd by me, 
I will never marry again. I. ii. 

For her childrens sake she first marries, for 
flhee married that shee might have children, and 
for their sakes shee marries no more. ' A Vertuous 

Criapiano. For the smallness of the kitchen, 

without question, 
Makes many noblemen .... 
Build the rest of the house the bigger. II. i. 

Hee is the prime cause why Noblemen build 
their houses so great, for the smalnesse of the 
Kitchin, makes the house the bigger. ' A French 

Romelio. The court is or should be 

As a bright crystal mirror to the world 
To dress itself. III. Hi. 

She ought to be a mirrour for our yongest 
Dames, to dresse themselves by. ' A Vertuous 

Romelio. Let me continue 

An honest man ; which I am very certain 
A coward can never be. V. iv. 

No coward can be an honest man. ' A Worthy 


(To be ontinued.) 


IN 1638 George Ballard published a small 
volume with the above title, which was 
' Printed by Thomas Harper for William 
Hope, at the Vnicorn in Cornhill Neare the 
Boyal Exchange." 

The author, who describes himself as 
*' the devoted honourer of the divine Muses,', 
dedicated his work " To the right Honour- 
able Anne Countesse of Northumberland," 

who, he says, " in countenancing Susannah's 
story for Susannah's sake,'' will " perpetuate 
through all generations " her name. 

The only edition of this book in the 
British Museum Library is that bequeathed by 
the late Alfred H. Huth, which is dated 1638, 
so, unless there was a previous edition, it was 
published after Lady Northumberland's 
death, which took place in December, 1637. 

There is an interesting suit in the 
Court of Chancery (Chancery Proceedings, 
Series II., Bundle 395, No. 42), dated 1636, 
relating to its publication. It is the " Com- 
plaint of Bichard Ballard, of London, 
Esquire," who states that his brother, 
"George Ballard, Gentleman," has "with 
great paines and studie made and written a 
book entitled the historic of Suzanna in 
verse," which, having dedicated the same to 
the Bight Hon. Ann, Countess of North- 
umberland, he left with the plaintiff to get 
printed at the best rate he could. 

The plaintiff, 

' conceyving and soe being enformed that the 
said booke was well and schollerlike written, and 
in that respect a great number of them printed 
would be easily vented," 

entered into communication with " one 
Thomas Harpur, Citizen and Stacon r of 
London," for the printing of the said book. 
And it was agreed that Harpur 

" should print fifteene hundred of the said books, 
and should finde paper for the doeing thereof to 
and for your orator s only use and dispose, and 
should delyver that number to your said orator 
or where hee should appointe ymeadiately after 
the same should be printed, and should not printe 
or cause to be printed any more of the saide 
books, nor anie of greater or lesser number than 
fifteene hundred, nor should sell or cause to be 
putt to sale anie of the said books to be printed." 
Complainant further agreed to pay 11Z. for 
the paper and printing. 

Now we come to the cause of the action, 
which was the refusal of Harpur to deliver 
the books without the payment of 18Z. 10a., 
which the plaintiff was forced to pay in order 
to obtain, not the 1,500 copies agreed upon, 
but only " fowerteene hundred and odd 
books, much short of the number." More- 
over, the said Harpur " pretended himself 
verie willing " to assist the plaintiff " in 
the selling and venting of the said books, 
and for that purpose recommended one 
George Cleaver," to whom the plaintiff 
delivered twenty- five copies, and who dis- 
posed of them, together with 
" soe great a number of the saide books printed 
and sould by the said Harpur and Cleaver or some 
other by there [sic] or 'one of their procurement, 
privitie, or consens that the plaintiff cannot make 
my vent or sale of anie more of his tooks." 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 


The plaintiff further states that the above 
mentioned persons have 

"' disparaged and disgraced the saide book 
amongst Stationers and others, soe that your saic 
orator is like to be circumvented not only of this 
money paide for the printinge of the saide books 
but likewise hindred in the sale of all the rest of hi 
books exceptinge the five and twenty soulde bj 
George Cleaver." 

Unfortunately the answer of the defend 
ants is not attached to the complaint, so w<_ 
have no means of knowing what defence 
was made. 

As the complaint in the above suit is datec 
1636, and the British Museum edition of the 
book is dated 1638, and published by the 
defendant, some satisfactory agreement must 
have been entered into. It seems evident 
that the latter is a second edition. 

Possibly, as no other publication appears 
to be attributed to George Ballard, ' The 
History of Susannah ' was the author's first 
and last experience of publishers. 

It would be interesting to know who these 
two brothers, Richard and George Ballard, 
were. PERCY D. MUNDY. 

THE WEARING or THE OAK. In ' N. & Q.,' 
6 S. vii. 449, a question is asked as to why, on 
Royal Oak Day, 29 May, the wearers of oak 
sprigs change them at midday for a leaf of 
another kind. No answer was given to this 
query. In this part of Somerset the village 
children substitute ash or maple for oak in 
the afternoon. The children themselves 
can offer no explanation. It has been said 
that King Charles exchanged his oak tree for 
an ash during the day he was in hiding ; but 
none of the narratives of the Kong's escape 
mentions this. In fact, they all say that he 
remained in the oak until nightfall. 

Downside Abbey, Bath. 

vii. 327, 377; viii. 16, 93, 334, 413; 11 S. 
11. 33; iv. 526; v. 78.) At Manor Lodge, 
Frognal, on 9 June, Hampstead duly held 
its summer Court, with all the quaint 
observances connected therewith. From an 
intere.-iting account of the proceedings in 
The Hampstead and Highgate Express, we 
learn that the number of copyholders has 
greatly diminished of late, in consequence 
of so many " enfranchisements " having 
been made. The curious fact is recorded of 
two brothers holding a well at North End, 
upon which quitrent is still paid, each 
brother possessing a half. " Suit rolls," 
"homage," "proclamations," "constables 

of the manor," " headboroughs," all figure 
in the business transacted, which was fol- 
lowed by the customary luncheon, with 
toasts, at historic " Jack Straw's Castle." 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

The following interesting letter would seem 
to be worth publishing in ' N. & Q.' (the 
peculiarities of the document have been pre- 
served in the transcript) : 
Adm. 1/5132. 

Tristan de Acunha 9th Jan 1 * 1822. 
To the Right Hon bl Lords Commissioners of the 


We whose names are hereto subscribed 
most respectfully beg leave to call your Lordships 
attention to the following circumstances. 

Having sailed from England in the Ship 
Blenden Hall Cap' Alexander Greig for Bombay 
on the 9 th May 1821, and proceeded as far as Lat: 
37 South Longitude 11 44 where we were Ship- 
wrecked on the Desolate Island called Inaccessible 
on 23 rd of July following, and should in all pro- 
bability have remained for years in the Utmost 
distress and Anxiety subject to as much privation 
as ever fell to the lot of any people that have 
experienced a similar Misfortune, were it not for 
the Ships Carpenter Robert Peirce and Leonard 
Hawkesley Boatswain who framed a Boat out of 
part of the wreck the Ships boats having been 
lost ; in which themselves and a few men of the 
Crew crossed over an Arm of the sea to the 
Island of Tristan de Acunha on the 8 th of Nov r 
1821 after an attempt being previously made by 
six others of the Ships Company) named Joseph 
Nibbs Andrew McCullock McCallister 

Macdougall Smith & Taylor who 

we lament to say have never been heard of since. 

The Carpenter and Boatswain with the others 
arrived safe, had the good fortune to meet A Man 
named William Glass formerly a Corporal in the 
Royal Artillery and divers, that has been on the 
tsland since Government sent some settlers with 

small military force from the Cape of Good 
Eope in the year 1811, and which force was 
withdrawn about six months after. 

This man with a Laudable Zeal that must ever 

reflect the Utmost Credit on himself and the few 

people* that are with him on the Island, imme- 

liately proceeded to Inaccessible bringing with 

./hem all manner of Refreshment for the relief of 

he unhappy suffers, part of whom they took off 

he following morning to Tristan, where we all 

xperienced such marked attention from himself 

*Vife and People as soon made us appear new 

in. us altogether, having not only given up their 

louses and Beds for our accommodation but 

ikewise all manner of refreshment & Wearing 

hat they possessed, though putting themselves 

* The names of the Tristan Islanders, " Wm. 
lass, John Nankaril, Thos. Fortheringham, John 
'urnbull, John Taylor, and John Mooney. The 
wo latter having been sent out by your Lord- 
hips Special order," follow the text of the letter, 
pposite the subscription, and before the Com- 
mander's signature. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. JULY *, wu. 

at the same time to the greatest inconvenience, 
particularly as M Glass being in a far advanced 
state of Pregnancy, such kindness having made 
so deep an impression on our Minds that dis- 
tance nor time can never obliterate for their 
Conduct towards us throughout in hazarding 
their lives so often having to traverse twenty five 
miles in a dangerous and uncertain sea in Small 
Boats three times backwards and forwards, getting 
all hands 44 from the late Scene of our Misfortunes. 
Under all these circumstances we most humbly 
intreat your Lordships will take such steps in 
recovering and causing to be paid to Cap* James 
Todrig of Hackney London, such sums as mav be 
allowed to the aforesaid Glass, and the others 
concerned in taking us off the Island of Inacces- 
sible, as Cap* T is fully empowered to transact 
all business in England for these people. Our 
object in intruding so long on your Lordships 
Valuable time proceeds from a conviction that 
should there be any as we are given to understand 
there is) some allowance from the liberality of the 
Government at home to such men as Hazard 
their lives in taking off Shipwrecked people) 
(Particularly from a desolate Island, where for 
the time of 4 months we Suffered Hardships of 
every kind almost incredible & such as has 
Seldom fell to the lot of any set people. 

We Humbly beg to 
Subscribe ourselves 

Your Lordships 
Most Ob* & Humble Servants 

Mrs. Mary Gormly 
Miss Margaret Harris 
Mrs. Ann Keys 
Mrs. Pepper 

John Pepper Lieut. H.C.S.* 
W m Law 

Colin Mactavish Ass* Surgeon H.C.S. 
Mark Giberne Cadet H.C.S. 
Kichard Furlong 
L. Harris L* 

John Patch Assis* Surgeon H.C.S. 
Eobert Liddel Ass* Surgeon H.C.S. 
John McLennan, Ass* Surgeon H.C.S. 
Bernard Gormly Q r M r H.M.S. 17" Reg* 

T George Symers Surgeon 
Tho" Symers 2 nd Officer 
Jn Scrymgour Chief Officer 
H. M. Greig Jun r Purser 
Alex Greig Commander 


Ap. 23. There is no such allowance, that my 
Lords know of, certainly n ne from this Office. 

ex' 1 8 May I. S. 

In 'The Convict Ship,' by W. Clark 
Russell (p. 130), there is an interesting 
account of this island in 1835. There it is 
stated that Governor Glass, an Englishman 
(then getting on to be an old man), was a 
corporal when Cloete's garrison was with- 
drawn, and was left as a volunteer in charge 
of a wreck and some military stores in 1824. 
For Tristan was occupied by a detachment 

* Probably stands for Honourable Company's 

of our artillery while Bonaparte was at 
St. Helena. 

Two seamen of the St. Helena squadron 
settled on the island with him. Mrs. Glass 
was a mulatto woman from the Cape, and 
the wives of the other settlers were negresses 
from St. Helena. The population was then 
about forty ; " though some of the women 
are well built and handsome, their com- 
plexions run from milk to chocolate." 


INSUXJE." A little geographical work called 
the ' Liber Generations ' was printed by Dr. 
Theodore Mommsen in ' Chronica Minora/ 
vol. i. It was compiled in the fifth or sixth 
century, and it has come down to us in four 
manuscripts, the oldest of which was written 
in the seventh century. It gives the follow- 
ing particulars about the Balearic Island* 
(p. 110, 216): 

*' Insulse autem quse pertinent at Hispaniana 
Terraconensem tres sunt quse appellantur Valli- 
aricse. Habent autem ciuitates quinque has r 
Ebuso, Palma, Pollentia, quse dicitur Majorica, 
lomsene,* Magone, quse appellantur Minorica." 

" lomsene " became Jamna, and is now 
Ciudadela. " Magone " is Port Mahon. 

The name given to the group of islands by 
the compiler of the ' Liber Generationis ' is * 
spurious metaphony, that is to say, it is an. 
intentional accommodation of the sound of 
the true word to a supposititious etymon. 
Cp. English Roth's child with Rothschild 
(roth+schild, i.e. "red shield"). The title 
accorded to Q. Csecilius Metellus in B.C. 125 
must be marked for length as follows : 
Bal&aric-us. But the word Valliaric-e con- 
tains " Vallia," the name of the greatest of 
the Visigothic kings, and " ric-," the Gothic 
reiki, " rule," " power," and it imist be 
marked thus : Valliaric-ae. 

The metaphony is attributable either to 
the fact that Vallia, the king of the Visigoths 
who succeeded Singiric in Hispania Tarra- 
conensis in October, 415, actually did conquer 
the Balearic Islands ; or else to an uncritical 
attempt made by the geographer to har- 
monize a word that he could not understand 
with a well-known and much - honoured 
personal name. Cp. " Wala " in ' Widsith/ 
'N. &Q.,' 11 S. vi. 7. 

In 'Widsith,' 1. 75, the poet tells us he 
was "mid Seringum." Mr. Chambers (' W./ 
p. 212) and some other comment ator 
believe that Widsith meant the Seres, 
i.e., Chinamen. ! But Latin e in early loan- 

MS. has tomcene (with t : : i). 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 



words became t in O.E.* In the next line 
Widsith tells us he visited Casere. This 13 
the Count Caesarius who ruled over Walarlce, 
i.e., the Gallias, and who was slain at 
Seville in 448 by a Gothic nobleman named 
Agyulf. Cp. " Casere weold Creacum," 
'N. & Q.,' 11 S. vii. 62. 

Now Singiric, the king of the Visigoths 
who preceded Wala, was a brother of Sams, 
the enemy of Ataulf. In O.E. Germanic 
Sar- became Sser-, and yielded Sering- as a 
patronymic, according to rule. Cp. Casere 
< *Casseri < Caesarius ; and Caesar > Casaer > 
casering, a coin bearing Caesar's image. 


30, Albany Road, Stroud Green, N. 


" The will of one Archibald Bruce, surgeon in 
the Royal Navy, was proved in 1729 in the 
Consistory Court of Rochester, Kent. The will 
gives all to wife Jane ; no other names men- 
tioned. This, probably, is the Archibald Bruce 
mentioned in the will of one William Pyke, of 
Greenwich (about 1727)." 

The above data were supplied by MR. 
R. J. BEEVOR, M.A., St. Albans, England. 
(Cp. 10 S. viii. 45.) 

I regret having overlooked the will of 
John Parry, of East Greenwich, Kent, 1781, 
in the book on ' Parry Wills ' by Lieut. -Col. 
G. S. Parry (11 S. ix. 146, 193). I am again 
indebted to COL. PARRY for some new facts, 
for he has kindly informed me that at 
St. Paul's, Deptford, is an "altar-tomb" 
with the following inscriptions : 

" Mr. Isaac Parry of this parish died (6) Mar. 
176(4), a. [aged] (55). Mary his relict, died (14) 
Oct., 1769, a. 60. John Parry, their son, died 
25 Nov., 1769, a. 29 ; Mary, wife of Isaac Parry, 
jun., died Feb., 1777, a. 32. Mrs. Mary Parry, 
wife of John Parry and daughter of the above, 
died Apl. 24, 1793, a. 2(5). Mr. John Parry, son 
of the above John and Mary Parry, died Mar. 24, 
1798, a. (5) years. [Apparently only one figure.] 

"[Also] Mrs. Honour Higgins . . . . Mr. Wm. 
Higgins. . . .of the above-named Isaac Parry. . . . 
Oct. 30, 1798, a. 6(3). Also the remains of Mm. 
Martha. . . . [The above on the top slab. There 
has also been an inscription at the side.]" 

COL. PARRY remarks that he does not at 
present see any sufficient reason to connect 
John Parry of East Greenwich (1781) with 
these Deptford Parrys. 

In the churchyard at St. Paul's, Deptford, 
is an " altar-tomb " with this inscription : 
"This is the ; family vault of James Pike," 
but if there was ever any other inscription 
it has disappeared. 

* Cp. Wright, ' O.-E Grammar,' 1908, 12~), 
and also the following instances : " Sigene " : 
Nfauana : " Ijirnit.-fplb : JPrn-rPttAm " *T,l.. " 

Sfquatut ; " Liccit-felb 
si-ta ("silk"). 

Leco-cetum ; 

MR. R. J. BEEVOR will renew his search 
among wills proved in the Consistory Court 
of Rochester, Kent, as there are Greenwich 
wills to be found among them, and the con- 
nexion of James Pyke with Greenwich is an 
established fact. 

" We have no evidence that the John Parry 
who married Mary Freeman in 1744 had any 
connexion with Greenwich. He cannot have 
been born later than 1724, and so he was not a 
son of Isaac Parry who died 1764, aged 55 
(see p. 6 of Third Series of ' Extracts from 
British Archives,' in Magazine of History, New 
York). If it is proved that this John Parry was 
not of Greenwich, that need not disturb any pre- 
viously framed hypotheses concerning him" 
(ex letter from MR. BEEVOR, 16 March, 1914). 

1200, Michigan Av., Chicago. 

" COB " : " EYRER." These two words, de- 
noting respectively the male swan and the 
female, occur in the Account Roll of the 
Bursars of Winchester College for the year 
from Saturday before Michaelmas, 6 Hen. IV., 
to Michaelmas, 7 Hen. IV. (1405-6), in the 
following item, under the heading ' Custus 
necessarii ' : 

" In soluto Willelmo swanherde de Twyforde pro 
j novo [sic] eyrer enipt,' de eodem ad copuland.' 
cum le cpbbe existente in riparia eo quod vetus 
eyrer occisa t'uit cum j serpente anno ultimo elapso 
vjs. viijrf." 

H. C. 

WK must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

COMBE. I should be very glad to know if 
any specimens of this worthy's manuscript 
correspondence have been preserved in 
private collections. An interesting selection 
from his papers was published not long since 
by the Historical Manuscripts Commission 
(' Various Collections,' vol. vi.), but, as he 
was a most voluminous letter- writer, it 
seems likely that other effusions of his may 
still be in existence. LLOYD SANDERS. 

59, Chancery Lane, W.C. 

WHITFIELD. Information is desired about 
the Whitfield family of Wem, Hodnet, and 
Whixall, Salop especially evidence of bap- 
tism of Thomas Whitfield, who died 1773, 
and is buried at Whixall. He was born in 
1678. Please reply direct to 

261, Lewisham High Koad, S.E. 



I should be extremely obliged if any of 
your readers could give me the reference to 
these lines, written some time ago : 

Gigantic daughter of the West, 
\Ve drink to thee across the Flood. 

Hands all round 1 
God the tyrant's cause confound, 
And the great name of England, round and round. 

J. C. W. 

[The lines seem an imperfect reminiscence of 
Tennyson's ' Hands All Round.'] 

The very law that moulds a tear, 

And bids it trickle from its source 
That law preserves the earth a sphere, 
And guides the planets in their course. 

Haddon House, Weybridge, Surrey. 
[The authorship of these lines was inquired for in 
the First Series of 'N. & Q,,' and at 1 S. xi. 394 
ESTE (Samuel Timmins of Birmingham) stated that 
they came from " Mr. Rogers' beautiful ' Lines on 
a Tear.' " He gave the following as their correct 
form : 

The very law which moulds a tear, 

And bids it trickle from its source, 
That law preserves the earth its sphere, 
And guides the planets in their course. 
The last verse of ' On a Tear,' p. ISlJof the beauti- 
fully illustrated ' Poems by Samuel Rogers,' 1834, 
reads, however, in the first line "That very law," 
and in the third " a sphere."] 

anything known of the above ? He was de- 
scribed in the will of Nathaniel Jenner of 
Widhill, Wilts, as "of Slough, Innholder." 

LEON. Has any biography ever been pub- 
lished of J. P. Palm, the German bookseller, 
who was shot by Napoleon's orders at 
Braunau on 26 Aug., 1806 ? 

In ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia ' for 1908 
it is recorded that Johann Philipp Palm 
was a bookseller of Nuremberg, who has 
acquired historic celebrity as a victim of 
Napoleonic tyranny for publishing or circu- 
lating a pamphlet entitled ' Germany in its 
Deepest Humiliation,' which indignantly 
referred to the conduct of the French troops 
in Bavaria- 
There is also an account in 'The Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica ' (1011) on the same 
subject. It mentions that Palm was born 
17 Nov., 176S, and that he married the 
daughter of the bookseller Stein, and adds 
that a life-size bronze statue was erected to 
his memory in Braunau in 1866, and on 
the centenary of his birth (1868) numerous 
patriotic meetings were held in Bavaria. 

There is also a reference to Palm in 
William M. Sloane's ' Life of Napoleon Bona- 
parte,' vol. ii. chap, xxxiv. p. 270. The 
author mentions 

that Palm met death with the fortitude of a 
martyr, conscious that his blood was the seed of 

The only other reference I have come acros s 
is to be found in a note of Sir George Tre- 
velyan's ' Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay,' 
chap. xii. vol. ii. p. 251, and is an amusing 
account of a speech of Thomas Campbell's 
at a literary dinner. Campbell had auda- 
ciously proposed the health of the Emperor 
Napoleon at a time when it was anathema 
in England. Despite the groans with which 
the toast was received, Campbell explained 
that he admitted the Emperor was a tyrant, 
a monster, and, indeed, a foe to England 
and to the human race ; yet that, in spite 
of all these faults, the Emperor was entitled 
to their gratitude on the simple ground that 
he had once shot a bookseller ; and thus 
Campbell changed the groans of his audience 
into cheers. 

It is rather curious that there does not 
appear to be any reference to this unfortu- 
nate bookseller in any volume of ' N. & Q.' 
at least. I can find no entry of the name 
Palm in the ten General Indexes. Nor 
can I trace any allusion to him in The 
Athenaeum, either in 1866 or on his centenary 
in 1868. Any information on this interest- 
ing topic would be welcomed. 


Can any one suggest a source for the follow- 
ing Oriental (or pseudo-Oriental) names 
mentioned by Gray in an unpublished letter 
to Walpole : Miradolin, the Vizier-azem, the 
Angel Israphiel, Abubekir, the Demon 
Negidher, the evil Tagot, the bowers of 
Admoim ? Also for the name Sarag, used 
by Gray as an equivalent for Cambridge ? 

Fiveways, Burnham, Bucks. 

WANLESS. Information is desired by 
the undersigned as to the use of the 
name Wanless, Wanlass, or Wanlys, and its 
etymology. It is used in Westmorland as 
the name of a house, and in Yorkshire is 
applied to two farms. In at least one other 
case in the same neighbourhood it is the 
name of an estate (?), farm (?), or field (?). 

The only reference I can find is in a 
' Dialect Dictionary,' where it is explained 
as "a surprise." A. C. A. 

fit is also known as a personal name : v. 4 S. i. 
.14:5. J 

US. X. JCLY4, 19U.] 



MARSACK. At 7 S. xii. 409, 478, are 
references to Major Charles Marsack of 
< 'aversham Park, Oxfordshire. 

In Burke's ' Landed Gentry ' (1905) the 
genealogy of Roorne is given : 

" This family traces descent from Will. Roome, 
Esq., who during the reign of George II. possessed 
landed property in Yorkshire, and m. Margaretta 
Holcroft (d. 1782), dau. of Margaret, Comtesse de 
Marsac, of Caversham Park, Oxon, whose family 
left France during the Huguenot dispersion and 
became attached to the Court of Hanover, and 
who, with her father the Count de Marsac, came 
orer with the Court to England." 

I am interested to know if there is any 
foundation for this story of the rather un- 
usual English name Marsack being derived 
from a " Comtesse de Marsac." 

As a matter of fact, there was no such 
person as a " Comtesse " connected with 
Caversham Park. That place was pur- 
chased by Major Charles Marsack in about 
1 790, on his return from India with a great 

I believe the Margaret Holcroft referred 
to above was niece of Major C. Marsack, and 
daughter of Thomas Holcroft the dramatist. 
Vide Hazlitt's ' Life of Holcroft.' 

G. J., F.S.A. 

stated in Juvenal, x. 153, that Hannibal 
" montem rumpit aceto," and Livy (xxi. 
37, 2) relates that Hannibal blasted the 
rocks by pouring vinegar on them when 
heated by fire. Pliny mentions it as a 
common process in the Spanish mines. 
Commenting on this, a well-known editor 
writes : " Calcareous rocks would be dis- 
solved by vinegar ; it is doubtful whether 
heat would add to the effect." 

Can any correspondent kindly add to the 
present meagre explanation of the process ? 

H. I. A. 

[Livy's " ardentia saxa infuso aceto putrefaciunt " 
hardly implies blasting : rather a dissolving of the 
surface which would nave the effect of softening 
the rock. See 4 S. ii. 289, 350, 443, 490, 534 : iii. 
136 ; 5 S. ix. 204 ; 8 S. iv. 85.] 

any reader of ' N. & Q.' give me information 
concerning this man, who was a dyer of 
scarlet cloth, or a weaver, in Spitalfields 
some time between 1780-1800 ? He was 
born in Gloucestershire in 1737 or 1739. 
He was supposed to have a country house 
.somewhere near London, or possibly a place 
of residence in London. I also wish to 
know the date of his death and place of 

Can any reader inform me if there were 
Tekells at Hambledon, Surrey, or Hamble- 
don, Hampshire, during the period 1780- 
1800 ? Are there any records extant of 
dyers or weavers of that period ? 


" DUNNAGE ": " RUSSHEWALE." Part of 
the expenditure for the galley called the 
Philip, built at Lynn in 1336 (Ace. Exch., 
K.B., Bundle, 19, No. 31, m. 1,) was: 
" in cccc et dimidia bordarum de Thorndene in 
Norwagia pro calfettacione et Dennagio dicte 
Nauis eniptis de Petro de Waltone precii centene 
Again (ibid., m. 4) : 

" In diuersis cordis de Russhewale cum schiuis 
et Trussis pro vno rakke inde faciendo." 

This appears (in another hand) revised in 
the margin to : 

" In pelle et russewale shiues et poliues 
xlvZi. xvijs." 

Are we to suppose the " rakke," whatever 
its purpose, was made of rushes ? 

Q. V. 

PHRASES. I hear that when banns of mar- 
riage are published for the first time a 
local phrase declares the woman to be 
" creased in the knees " ; when for the 
second time, " broken in the knees " ; 
and when for the third time, " thrown over 

If after due publication of the banns one 
party declines to marry, the offender is said 
to have " scorned the Church," and I am 
told that not more than a couple of genera- 
tions ago fees or fines were given to the 

Will some contributors kindly inform me 
whether these are purely local phrases, or 
arc known in other parts of the kingdom ? 
(Rev.) F. J. ODELL, R.N. 

Lapford, North Devon. 

STEVENS. When I was a small boy, some 
of the old people told me at Hybla House, 
co. Kildare, Ireland, that when Squire 
Stevens lived there, before my father, a Miss 
Stevens was born and lived there. As the 
matter would be of mvich interest to me, 
I should be glad if any reader would kindly 
give me any particulars as to whether a 
Miss Stevens was really born at Hybln 
House or not. 

I have seen Chambers' s ' Book of Days,' 
but not got much information from it 
further than what was told me years ago. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY 4, 191*. 

CHILEAK VIEWS. I shall be greatly 
obliged for descriptions of any prints relating 
to Chile, giving title of subject, artist, en- 
graver, size, date of publication, and where 
published also, whether coloured or not. 

I am particularly anxious to get the 
description of an aquatint view of Val- 
paraiso, in colours, published in London 
probably between the years 1820 and 1840. 


ORLEBAR. Information for family history 
purposes concerning the Orlebars prior to 
1650 would be greatly appreciated. The 
surname (an uncommon one) is found 
recorded in Northamptonshire and Bedford- 
shire, 1100-1914; in Essex, Suffolk, and 
City of London, 1600-1800. It appears 
also as Orlebere, Orlibar, Orlyngbere, Or- 
lingbury, and with the prefix " De." 

Silsoe Ampthill, Beds. 

desirous of tracing the locality of these 
stations between London and Portsmouth, 
and London and Plymouth. There are 
people alive now who recollect their use. 

WILLS AT ST. PAUL'S. Has any calendar 
of the wills in the keeping of the Dean and 
Chapter of St. Paul's been printed ? 



(1 S. ii. 216, 251 ; 6 S. xii. 187 ; 7 S. viii- 
324, 394 ; 10 S. vii. 168, 330, 376, 416.) 

THE Nortons of Rotherfield and the Nortons 
of Southwick have been fully dealt with in 
the pages of ' N. & Q.' Incidentally, Sir 
Gregory Norton, the regicide, and Sir 
Henry Norton his son have been referred to. 

Much information relating to the regicide 
and his son has recently come under my 
notice, and at the same time a few addi- 
tional facts]relating to the'two families men- 
tioned above. 

Nothing seems to be known of the parent- 
age or of the early history of Sir Gregory 
Norton. One contributor to ' N. & Q.' is 
inclined to believe that he belonged to 
the Nortons of Kent. Sir Dudley Norton, 
Secretary of State for Ireland (1612-34), 
son of John Norton of Boughton Monchelsea, 
Kent, is said to have had a brother Gregory 

holding a commission in the Irish army 
(Herald and Gen., iv. 288). This Gregory 
may have been the " regicide " or his 

Another contributor says it is thought he 
was either a grandson or nephew of this 
Sir Dudley Norton, who retired from office 
in 1634 from age and infirmity. 

Published accounts of Sir Gregory Norton 
in later ^life have come very largely from 
the pens of his enemies, so that it is 
very difficult to tell his story impartially. 
A search through the State Papers of his 
period seems to point to the fact that he 
was a shrewd fellow, and one keenly alive 
to his own interests and the " wherewithal." 
In a scarce work entitled 

" The true character of the educations, inclina- 
tions, and several dispositions of all and every one 
of those bloody and barbarous persons, who sate 
as judges upon the life of our late Dread Sove- 
reign King Charles I. of ever Blessed Memory. 
London, 1660," 

we read the following description of Sir 
Gregory : 

" A man of no considerable fortune before those 
wars, but he obtained afterwards Richmond 
House [Palacel, and much of the King's goods for 
an inconsiderable value, which made him to lend 
so ready an eare for the taking away of the King's 
life, he being one of the Judges that murmured 
themselves into a conspiracy against it." 

The 'History of King-Killers,' 1719, 
describes him as 

" the poor scoundrel regicide and beggarly knight, 
one of the pensioners of the King, who, in return 
for the bread he had eaten and for being kept 
from starving, became one of the King's mur- 
derers, sitting in the court to try him, and 
signing the warrant for execution, for which dia- 
bolical action he was rewarded with Richmond 
House and Manor, escaping the more proper 
reward of his villainy, an halter, by dying before 
the Restoration." 

In a curious broadside dated 1660, and 

" The Picture of the Good Old Cause drawn to 
the Life in the Effigies of Master Praise-God-Bare- 
bone with several examples of God's judgments on 
some Eminent Engagers against Kingly Govern- 

we learn that Sir Gregory Norton 
" died raving mad, which by his Physicians was 
not imputed to the distemper of his body, but 
a troubled, disquieted mind ; he was one of the 
King's judges." 

Created a baronet of Ireland on 27 April, 
1624, he was described as " of Charlton, 
co. Berks." In 1645 he was M.P. for Mid- 
hurst, Sussex, in the Long Parliament. 
He married Martha, daughter of Bradshaw 
Drew of Chichester, Sussex, and widow of 
John Gunter of Racton, Sussex. His son 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 


Henry of whom more later succeeded to 
his father's estates and baronetcy, and 
married Mabella, daughter of Sir Richard 
Norton, Bart, /of Rotherfield in East Tysted 
(Hants) a match which has given rise to 
great confusion in the Norton of Rother- 
field pedigree. Sir Henry Norton was 
apparently no blood relation of his wife. 

At Somerset House, in the Will Register 
for 1652 (Bowyer, fol. 179), is a reference to 
the will of " Sir Gregorie Norton of the 
Parish of Pauls Covent Garden in the 
Co untie of Middlesex Baronet." The will 
itself is dated 12 March, 1651, and contains 
these words : 

' : First whereas I have mortgaged my land in 
Perm in the Countie of Bucks to Robert Johnson 
of Lo nd on Esquire I leave the redemption thereof 
to my unnaturallie dysobedient sonne Henrie 

The testator confirms settlement by deed of 
his other property, and expresses the wish 
to be buried in or near Richmond. He 
was buried in the Richmond Parish Church- 
yard on 26 March, 1652. The will was 
proved on 24 Sept., 1652, by Dame Martha 
Norton, the relict, who on 20 Oct., 1655, 
married Robert Gordon, Viscount Kenmure. 
This nobleman was born in November, 
1622, and succeeded to the peerage in 
October, 1643. It is said he suffered much 
on account of his loyalty to the King, and 
was excepted from Cromwell's " Act of 
Grace," 1654. He died at Greenlaw in 1663. 
His widow died about 1671, the will being 
proved in November of that year. Accord- 
ing to Robert 'Baillie, 

4 Kenmure cast himself away on a foolish mar- 
y.iage which would accomplish the ruin of his 

The " disobedience " of Sir Gregory 
Norton's son referred to above was most 
likely no more than his disapproval of his 
father's extreme anti-Royalism, for, as we 
shall see later, Henry's wife speaks of her 
husband's abhorrence of the deeds per- 
petrated by the father, Sir Gregory. Suc- 
ceeding to his father's baronetcy and 
estate, Henry legally held these until the 
Restoration, when the post-mortem attainder 
of his father in 1660 deprived him of both 

On 10 March, 1658, Sir Henry was enrolled 
in the Register of Gray's Inn; and in January, 
1659, he was elected M.P. for Petersfield, 
Hants, in the Parliament of Richard Crom- 
well, but unseated by resolution of the 
House on 22 March of the same year. 


Richmond, Surrey. 

(To be continued.) 

CHAPEL-HOUSE (US. ix. 489). If R. A. H. 
will refer to road-books such as Keareley's 
' Traveller's Entertaining Guide through 
Great Britain,' 1801 ; Cary's ' New Itine- 
rary,' 5th ed., 1812 ; Paterson's ' Roads/ 
18th ed., by Edward Mogg, 1826, he will 
find that Chapel House, Oxfordshire, is, or 
was, between Enstone and Long Compton r 
being about ten miles north-west of Wood- 
stock, and about one mile north-east of 
Chipping Norton. 

It was apparently a place where a good' 
inn might be expected, seeing that it was 
where the road from Banbury entered that 
between Oxford and Stratford-on-Avon,. 
which was part of the road from London to 

Kearsley (col. 133) says " a good inn," but 
gives no name. Gary (col. 236) gives " Shak- 
speare's Head " ; W. C. Oulton in his 
' Traveller's Guide,' 1805, which is a gazet- 
teer, not a road-book, the same name, spelt 
" Shakespeare." At Chapel House was a- 
receiving-house for letters. 

Another name appears to have been 
" Chapel house on the heath." See Gough's 
'Camden's Britannia' (1789), i. 294. 

" Chapel house before-mentioned was an antient 
chapel used by pilgrims ; in later times it was 
converted into a public house, and by the industry 
of the present proprietor it has arisen to an inn 
of the better sort. In digging to enlarge it bodies 
were found in stone coffins ; in one a number of 
beads and a silver crucifix : three urns in a small 
vault like oven : many fragments of stone mul- 
lions and painted glass. The cemetery is under 
the present high road." Ibid., p. 295. 

If we may assume that the said " present 
proprietor," or some one like him, was in. 
possession of the inn at Chapel House,, 
called, perhaps, the " Shakespeare's Head," 
in 1776, it is easy to account for Johnson's 
remarks on " the felicity of England in its 
taverns and inns " (Boswell's ' Life of 
Samuel Johnson,' ninth edition, 1822, iL 
436, under date 21 March, 1776). 


The following is taken from Mr. H. A.. 
Evans's ' Highways and Byways in Oxford 
and the Cotswolds ' (1905), pp. 382-3 : 

" The direct road [from Chipping Norton] to- 
Knstone and Oxford ascends to the right at the 
northern extremity of the main street, but in 
order to visit Great Tew we must go a few niiles 
out of our way. Accordingly, we keep straight 
on by the Banbury road, and at the first cross 
roads we pass, a few yards on our right, all that 
is left of the once famous coaching inn at Chapel 
House. It had its gardens and its bowling green,, 
and was well known to all frequenters of the road 
as one of the pleasantest houses of entertainment 
in the Midlands. But in the 'forties, when the 
coaches came to an end, Chapel House, like many 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY *. 191*. 

another cheerful wayside hostelry, found its 
occupation gone ; what was left standing of the 
house was turned into labourers' cottages, and 
the extensive stabling devoted to farm purposes. 
Its isolated, desolate situation must have made 
it doubly welcome to the half-frozen outside 
passenger, whose twenty-mile drive over the 
-N"orth Oxfordshire downs enabled him to regard 
the blazing fire and good old English cheer which 
awaited him with feelings which may well be 
envied by the modern occupant of an artificially 
heated railway carriage." 

" As for the chapel, which gave the place its 
name, it belonged to the Priory of Cold Norton 
. . . .ami was intended for the use of the laity ; 
the site of the Priory is marked by the Priory 
Farm, half-a-mile to the east ; while a further 
relic of the foundation is to be found in the Priory 
mill, more than a mile to the north. This Priory 
of Augustinian canons was founded in the twelfth 
century by William Fitzalan, lord of Chipping 
Norton, ' to the honour of God, St. Mary, St. John 
the Evangelist, and St. Giles.' After the death of 
the last Prior, in 1496, the foundation died out, 
and its estates were bestowed by Henry VII. on 
the Convent of St. Stephen at Westminster. 
From this house they were soon after purchased 
by William Smyth, Bishop of Lincoln, and given 
by him to his new foundation of Brasenose Col- 
lege, in whose possession they still remain." 


Chapel House is 72J miles from Marble 
Arch, almost midway between Woodstock and 
Shipston. In the 1824 edition of Paterson's 
' Roads ' the name of the inn there is given 
as " Shakespeare's Head/' Modern maps 
mark an inn at the cross-roads, but, though 
I have ridden past it many times. I cannot 
now say that I remember it. 


Chapel House is near Chipping Norton 
and the inn mentioned was probably an old 
coaching house called " The Silent Woman," 
now converted into several cottages. Chapel 
House will be found on the Oxfordshire 
Ordnance Survey Map. WM. JAGGARD. 

WM. H. PEET also thanked for replies.] 

TIPPOO SAHIB'S STICK (US. ix. 408, 477). 
A stick formerly belonging to Tippoo 
Salu'b is in the possession of some members 
of my family in Hampshire. It is built up 
of alternate lengths of ivory and ebony, and 
has a crutch handle consisting of an ivory 
tusk about 5 in. long. It was given to 
my great-grandfather, Rear-Admiral Henry 
Stuart, R.N., by his uncle, Lieut. -General 
James Stuart, who commanded the Bombay 
army at the siege and capture of Seringa- 
pat am in May, 1799. This officer was 
formerly in the Seaforth Highlanders, of 
which regiment he became Colonel -in -Chief. 

He was also Commander-in-Chief of the 
Madras army. 

I believe this stick has no inscription on 
it, and, as far as I know, it has never been 
exhibited. EVAN W. H. FYERS. 

Wellington Club, S.W. 

" BLIZARD " AS A SURNAME (11 S. ix. 290, 
396, 437, 456). The name of Blezard is 
also found in Westmorland ; the author of 
'Original Westmorland Songs' was T. 
Blezard, who resided near Windermere 
about 1858. The above work, of which I 
have seen only part i., related chiefly to scenes 
and incidents in the districts of Kendal and 
Windermere, and contained notes and a 
glossary of the local words to be found in 
the songs. 


While the owners of this name are not 
numerous, they are fairly well distributed 
over the North American continent. Here 
are a few of the cities where they are to be 
found : 

Atlanta, Atlantic City, Baltimore, Boston, 
Brooklyn, Camden, Columbus, Dayton, Den- 
ver, Des Moines, Detroit, Indianapolis, 
Kansas City, Louisville, Montreal, Xew 
York, Philadelphia, Portland (Oregon), 
Richmond, Rochester, Salt Lake City, 
Scranton, Seattle, Spokane, Toledo, Toronto, 
Washington. JOHN E. NORCROSS. 

Brooklyn, U.S. 

457, 512). The following may be more acces- 
sible works on the above subject : Cousins, 
' The Story of the South Seas ' ; Stead, 
' Captain James Wilson ' ; Home, ' Story 
of the London Missionary Society.' I have 
obtained these references from a little book 
lately published by the S.P.G. entitled ' Yarns 
of the South Sea Pioneers,' pp. 13-20. 


ALEXANDER STRAHAN (11 S. ix. 490). 
Mr. Strahan, the publisher, was born about 
1830, and is, I believe, still living. He had 
no connexion with the Moxon business, 
although he succeeded that firm as the 
publisher of Tennyson's works. Mr. Strahan 
gave some account of his career, under the 
title of ' Twenty Years of a Publisher's Life,' 
in a magazine entitled The Day of Rest, 
published by himself during 1881. It was 
announced in 1882 as to appear in volume 
form by Messrs. Chatto & Windus, but it 
was never issued. See also ' A Great 
Publisher from the North of Scotland ' 
(Alexander Strahan), Inverness Courier, 20 
Dec., 1903, and an article by Mr. Sfcrahan on 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 



C'harles Knight in Good Words, September 
1 867. In ' The Kecollections of Isabell 
Fyvie Mayo,' 1910, will be found some 
interesting details of the career of Mr 
Strahan, who was for some time a prominen 
figure in the literary and publishing world. 


HENRY HASE (11 S. ix. 449). Abrahan 
Xewland, after holding office as Chie 
Cashier of the Bank of England for nearlj 
thirty years, died 21 Nov., 1807, and an 
official notice was issued that on and after 
1 Jan., 1808, Bank of England note, 
would be made payable to " Henry Hase 
or bearer." The phrase " To the tune o 
Henry Hase " would to-day be "To the 
tune of a fiver." 

It may be worth recording that during 
the tenure of office by a later Cashier the 
notes were known by the more poetica" 
name of " the Promise of May." 

J. H. K. 
[J. F. also thanked for reply.] 

FUSILIERS (11 S. ix. 488). According to 
the ' Kecords and Badges of Every Regi- 
ment and Corps in the British Army,' by 
< 'hichester and Burges-Short, published by 
William Clowes & Sons, Ltd., in 1895, 
officers and sergeants of this regiment are 
distinguished by wearing " the flash," a 
bow of broad black silk ribbon with long 
ends, attached to the back of the tunic - 
collar. No authentic explanation of the 
origin of the flash has appeared, and the 
official returns throw no light upon the 
subject. In an inspection report of 1786 it 
is noted that " the officers of this regiment 
wear the hair turned up behind." This 
method of having the hair fastened up with 
a bow or flash was then or later the " grena- 
dier fashion " of wearing it. Probably the 
flash was retained to commemorate some 
such distinctive method of dressing the 
hair in use in the regiment in the days of 
queues and hair powder. The regiment 
was founded in 1689 from some thirteen 
separate companies raised in 1686. 

There are two separate histories of the 
regiment : 

(a) The Historical Eecord of the 23rd or 
Royal Welsh Fusiliers, 1689-1850. Illustrated. 
Published by Parker in 1850. 

(6) Historical Record of the Royal Welsh 
Fusiliers. Hy Major Rowland Broughton-Ma in- 
faring, Royal Welsh Fusiliers. Illustrated. 
London, Hatchards, 1889. 

South Hackney, N.E. 

For the ornament consisting of three 
short pieces of black velvet ribbon sewn to 
the collar of a full-dress tunic, and hanging 
down the back, supposed to be the remains 
of the bow which fastened the " queue," 
and now worn only by the officers of the 
23rd Royal Welsh Fusiliers, see 8 S. vii. 31 1 
(20 April, 1895). From 1700 onwards the 
word was used as slang for a periwig or 
peruke, and is derived from the verb " to 
flash," itself apparently of onomatopoeic 
origin. A. R. BAYLEY. 

TS KING" (11 S. ix. 369, 412, 477). As to 
the mention of Erasmus at the second refer- 
ence, I may, perhaps, point out that in 
' Adagia, id est Proverbiorum, Paroemiarum 
. . . .Collectio,' the proverb " Inter caecos 
regnat strabus " is among those under the 
heading ' Excellentia et Insequalitas,' which 
is a subdivision of ' Dignitas, et Excel- 
lentia, et Insequalitas ' : in the edition of 
1599, col. 479 ; in that of 1670, p. 188. 

Perhaps the order of the proverbs col- 
lected by Michael Apostolios has not always 
been the same. In my copy, printed by 
the Elseviers in 1653, the proverb, 'Ei/ rots 
TOTTOIS Tv<Ae3i/ Att/Awv /?a(rt Aci'ct , is to be 
found at Cent. VIII. Prov. 31. The Latin 
equivalent in the opposite column is : 
" Caecorum in patria luscus rex imperat 
omnis." In a note, p. 310, yAa/xo>v appears 
as an alternative for Aa/xwv. The note gives 
TV^Awi/ TroAa TXap-vpos /3acrtAevi, of 
which the full reference is to be found in 
Liddelland Scott, s.v. yAa/xvpo?, "Proverb, 
ap. Schol. II. 24. 192." 


"CORVICER" (11 S. ix. 308, 395, 477). 
At the time the parish registers began, this 
name had almost become obsolete. 

On the Preston (Lanes) Guild Roll for 1415 

here were no fewer than eight tradesmen 
described as " corvisers.'' They were ad- 
mitted by the payment of fines, as their 

athers were not on the earlier Guild Rolls. 

[n 1562 there were seven of this trade ad- 
mitted, but they are all described as "shro- 

BOOKS ON CHELSEA (11 S. ix. 479). Tho 
dins alluded to existed in 1908 in a poor 
street between Fulham Road and the river. 

There is no question of the More family 
roup being " lost " : it is in the possossii 11 
)f a descendant, and is highly prized. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY 4, 1914. 

SIR JACOB ADOLPHUS (US. ix. 268, 397). 
He was appointed a Hospital Mate in the 
Army by warrant dated 2 Oct., 1795. In 
May, 1797, he became Lieutenant and 
Surgeon of the Xew Romney Fencible 
Cavalry, with which regiment he served 
during the rebellion in Ireland, until the 
corps was reduced in 1800. He then 
reverted to his employment as Hospital 
Mate until he obtained a commission as 
Assistant Surgeon of the 60th Foot, 10 Oct., 
1802. He passed through the grades of 
Regimental Surgeon, Staff Surgeon, and 
Deputy Inspector of Hospitals, and became 
Inspector of Hospitals, by brevet, 27 May, 
1825. On his retirement on half -pay in 
November, 1827, he was promoted to the 
permanent grade of Inspector of Hospitals. 
He took part in the Walcheren Expedition, 
but his service abroad was principally in the 
West Indies. There he appears to have 
passed his early years, having served his 
apprenticeship to a medical practitioner in 
Spanish Town, Jamaica. On 19 Nov., 1816, 
the degree of M.D. was conferred on him by 
Marischal College and University of Aber- 

A son, Edwin Adolphus, M.D. Edin. 1 838 
(born 5 March, 1817), was an officer in the 
Medical Service of the Army from 1839 to 
1849. W. JOHNSTON, Col. 

Newton Dee, Murtle, Aberdeen. 


TENNYSON (US. ix. 487). This bird is, I 
believe, a titmouse (Parus) most probably 
P. palustris. It figures in the Index of 
Swainson's ' Provincial Names and Folk- 
Lore of British Birds,' and lures you to 
p. 33, but is not to be found when you get 
there. ST. S WITHIN. 

The latest authority (Mr. H. Kirke Swann 
in his ' A Dictionary of English and Folk 
Names of British Birds,' 1913) does not 
include the word " titmarsh." 

It may be that the marsh tit is intended ; 
if so, the British species is now termed 
Pants palustris dresseri, Stejn. The British 
willow-tit, P. atricapillus kleinschmidti, 
Hellm., and the Northern willow-tit, 
P. atricapittus borealis, Selys., have often 
been confounded with the British marsh 
tit ('A Hand-List of British Birds,' by 
Ernst Ha-rtert, F. C. R. Jourdain, N. F. 
Ticehurst, and H. F. Witherby, 1912). 

If in the poem the word " titmouse " 
had been used, it would not have affected 
the scansion, and would have retained the 
form employed by the older authors 

MacGillivray and Yarrell having set the- 
fashion of abbreviating it to "tit." 

The term " blackcap " for this species is 
to be deprecated, as this is the recognized 
shortened name of the blackcap warbler, 
Sylvia atricapUla atricapUla, Linn. 


NELL GWYN : ROSE GWYN (US. ix. 410). 
Mr. Cecil Chesterton probably derived his? 
information from the notes to Mr. Gordon 
Goodwin's admirable edition of Peter Cun- 
ningham's ' Story of Nell Gwyn ' (see p. 215). 
It would appear that in December, 1663... 
" Rose Gwynn " was imprisoned in Newgate 
for robbery, but she possessed influence 
enough to gain a reprieve before judgment 
at the Old Bailey, and she was visited in 
prison by the King's favourite, Thomas 
Killigrew, and by Browne, the Duke of 
York's cupbearer. On 30 Dec. she obtained 
her discharge, having pleaded that her 
father had lost all he had in the service of 
the late King (' Cal. Stiate Papers, Dom., T 
1663-4, pp. 390, 393). The probabilities 
point to this Rose being Nell Gwyn's sister 
of that name. 

Rose Gwyn's first husband is stated to 
have been John Cassells, who apparently 
flourished as a highway " captain " for a 
time, and died in 1675, leaving his widow 
penniless. Charles II. gave her a pension 
of 2001. a year on the Irish establishment, 
which she enjoyed until the accession of 
William and Mary. Subsequently she mar- 
ried a person named Forster, and received a 
legacy of 200Z. from her sister Nell in the 
first codicil of the latter' s will, and a further 
sum of 2001. in the second eodici}. Her 
husband was bequeathed " a ring of the- 
value of forty pounds or forty pounds to 
buy him a ring." Nothing further seems to 
be known of her. W. F. PRIDEATJX- 

JOHN SWINFEN (11 S. ix. 307, 375, 438). 
The following additional particulars may be 
found useful. John Swinfen was M.P. for 
Stafford, not Tamworth, in the Long Parlia- 
ment, from 30 Oct., 1645, until secluded in 
" Pride's Purge " in December, 1648. He 
was eldest son of Richard Swinfen of Swinfen, 
co. Stafford, by Joan, daughter of George 
Curitall, gent. He was born 19 March, 
1612/13, bapt. at Welford 28 March; suc- 
ceeded his father 10 May, 1659; married, 
26 July, 1632, Anne, daughter of Mr. John 
Brandreth ; and died 29 March, buried 13 
April, 1694. at Welford, having survived all 
his sons. His wife was buried at Welford 
29 April, 1690. Their only daughter and 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 


heiress, Mary, married John Ferris. John 
Swinfen represented Tamworth in Richard 
Cromwell's Parliament, 1659, and after the 
Restoration sat for Stafford (1660), Tam- 
worth again (1661-79, March-July, 1679, 
and 1681), and Beeralston (1690, till his 
death). W. D. PINK. 

Lowton, Newton-le-Willows. 

" THE BROAD ABROW " ( 1 1 S. ix. 481 ). For 
what they may be worth, I have extracted 
the following from the ' History of the 
Worshipful Company of Pewterers of Lon- 
don,' by C. Welch, F.S.A. : 

1474-5. " Itm. delu'yd a ponchon of yrn (iron) 
AV* ye brode arowe hede fore the forfet niarke." 
In an inventory of goods belonging to the 
Pewterers' Company : 

1489-90. " It. a punchon of Iron w* abrode 
arowe hede grauyn therein." 

15645. " Itm. pd. for a hammer & a chesell & 
inending the Brode Arowhedd to saye the Tynne. 
iijs. iiijrf." 

Although the above references in no way 
refer to the broad arrow as the " King's 
mark," it is at this early date evidently one 
used under authority, and is first spoken of 
in 1474 as the " forfet " mark, wherewith, 
it is supposed, all wares of inferior metal 
or workmanship were branded, and ulti- 
mately forfeited by the maker and melted 
down. Secondly, in 1564 it is mentioned 
s the mark used for assaying the tin, and 
more directly implies under royal authority 
than when it was used as a company mark 
for confiscated wares. 


Foden Road, Walsall. 

" BLANDANDERED " (11 S. ix. 487). 
In Kipling's story ' With the Main Guard ' 
(see ' Soldiers Three ') the Irishman Mul- 
vaney, a splendid soldier ruined by the 
Tiabit of drinking, helps his comrades 
through a night of terrible heat in India 
by his wonderful gift of story-telling. On 
being complimented upon what he has done, 

" he looked at me wearily ; his eyes were sunk 
in his head, and his face was drawn and white. 
' Eyah,' said he, ' I 've blandandhered thiin 
through the night somehow, but can thim that 
helps others help thimselves ? Answer me that, 
Son- ! ' " 

C. L. S. 

EVANCE (US. ix. 230, 272, 298, 373, 453, 
494). The Calendars of Treasury Papers 
and of State Papers, William and Mary, 
contain a number of entries in reference to 
-Sir Stephen Evance or Evans, as the name 
is more frequently spelt in these volumes. 

In 1694 Sir John Somers, writing to the 
King, states : " Sir Stephen Evans and Sir 
John Foche are very considerable men in 
the City, and very useful to you upon all 
occasions of loans." Evance was one of 
the Commissioners of Excise, and was 
appointed one of the Commissioners to 
the Lieutenancy of the City of London in 
1694. He was concerned with army clothing 
contracts, was first Governor of the Hollow 
Sword-Blade Company, and connected with 
other chartered companies. It appears that 
he was born in New England, probably of 
Welsh parentage. Evance is still the pro- 
nunciation of Evans in, at any rate, some 
parts of Wales. RHYS JENKINS. 

REV. RICHARD SCOTT (US. ix. 430, 498). 
There is, it is true, some probability that 
the Dublin graduate mentioned by MR. 
HIPWELL in his kind reply was identical 
with the Rev. Richard Scott, M.A., who 
came from Fakenham to King's Lynn in 
1797, but positive testimony to that effect 
has not hitherto been forthcoming. 

A few additional clues may, perhaps, 
enable some of your readers to clear the 
matter up one way or another. The 
Richard Scott, aged 20. who entered Dublin 
University as a Sizar on 16 June, 1778, was 
the son of a farmer in co. Cl are ; he had been 
educated previously by a Mr. Numan (Dublin 
Universitv Matriculation Books). 

R. S. H. 


CAPT. BLIGH (US. ix. 489). In the June 
catalogue of second-hand books on sale by 
R. Hall of Tunbridge Wells occurs the 
following : 

" Bligh (Lt. W.) Voyage to the South Sea for 
the purpose of Conveying the Bread-Fruit Tree 
to the West Indies in H.M.S. the Bounty, 
including account of the Mutiny and subsequent 
voyage plate and charts, 4to, 1st ed., 1792." 

Possibly this may be the book to which 
MR. TEW refers. A copy is in the London 

Waltham Abbey, Essex. 

353,474,). See 'DieHistorie von einerFrau 
genannt Melusine ' in 'Deutsche Volks- 
buecher,' Langewiesche, 1912, p. 378. This 
is a reprint of the 1456 German version, by 
Tuering von Ruggeltingen, of a contem- 
porary French version of the Latin of 
Jean d'Arras. There is a curious woodcut 
illustrating the measuring of the land. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. x. JULY 4, 1914 

"!ONA" (US. ix. 490). In the Gaelic 
language at the present day it is called " I " 
(pronounced as e in English), which simply 
m^ans " island," but the ancient form 
" loua," used by Adamnan, the ninth 
Abbot of lona, who died in the year 703, 
is still occasionally employed. 


" loua " is a genuine form, ordinarily 
used by Adamnan in mentioning loua 
htsula, the island of Hy, an adjective with 
a fern, termination derived from a root-form 
lou. But in his second preface he says 
that Columba was homonymous w r ith lona 
(Jonah) the prophet, whose name in Hebrew 
signifies " dove. 1 ' This explanation, coupled 
with the connexion between Columba and 
Irs island, led to the erroneous form " lona," 
and the conversion of an adjective into a 
place-name. J. T. F. 


OLD ETONIANS (11 S. ix. 489). (11) 
Robert Shapland Carew, admitted 5 July, 
1765, left 1767, was only son of Shapland C. 
of Castle Boro. co. Wexford, by Dorothy, dan. 
and coheir of Isaac Dobson. He was M.P. 
for Waterford, 1776-1800, and co. Wexford, 
1806-7. He married Anne, dau. and heir 
of the Rev. Richard Pigott, D.D.,of Dysart, 
Queen's Co., in May, 1783, and was father 
of a son of the same name, who was created 
Baron Carew. He died 29 March, 1829. 

Makshufa, Harefield Road, Uxbridge. 

DANISH LYRICS (US. ix. 489). The most 
prominent lyrical poets of Scandinavia of 
recent or contemporary date are Holger 
Drachmann, Viggo Stuckenberg, J. Aakjaer, 
and Valdemar Rordam, in Denmark ; O. 
L^vertin, Gustav Froding, Pelle Molin, and 
V. v. Heidenstam. in Sweden ; and H. 
Wildenvey and Olaf Bull in Norway. Stuck - 
cnberg, Leverti , arid Froding are dead. 


National Liberal Club. 

PRIVY COUNCILLORS (US. ix. 449, 490). 
MR. A. L. HUMPHREYS at the latter reference 
is in error in his statement that " a Privy 
Councillor must be a natural-born subject of 
Great Britain." A notable exception was 
Max Miiller, who was appointed as a " natural- 
ized British subject." I saw him in his 
robes after the honour was bestowed on him, 
and he was justly proud of the distinction. 
His wish that we should meet again in 
Florence was, I painfully recall, his last 
adieu to me on that occasion. 


ELFOU (11 S. ix. 470). Perhaps Edfu is 
meant, which lies between Luxor and the 
First Cataract on the Nile. The Greek name 
of one of the nomes of Upper Egypt \va.-~ 
Apollinopolis Magna. Ptolemy IV., Philo- 
pator (B.C. 222), founded a temple there. 


The engraving evidently represents the 
famous temple at Edfu, on the left bank of 
the Nile, in Upper Egypt. Edfu is the 
'ATToAAon'os TrdAis or ' ATToAAwvos 7roAis /*eya Arf 
of the Greeks, and the Apollinis of Pliny, 
'Nat, Hist.,' 5, 9 (11), 60. 


[Several other correspondents take what 
seems certainly the right view that " Elfou " is- 
simply a misprint.] 

See ' Sketch Pedigrees of some of the Early 
Settlers in Jamaica,' by Noel B. Livingston 
(Kingston, Educational Supply Co., 1909 r 
8vo, pp. 139, iv.). A wealth of material, 
admirably indexed, will be found in the 
Slave Compensation Papers, made available 
for public examination at the Record Office 
in March, 1913. They comprise 1,847 
volumes, and are catalogued under T. 71. 

123, Pall Mall, S.W. 

RAWDON FAMILY (11 S. ix. 428, 475). In 
Wilson and Spence's ' History of York,' 1788, 
vol. ii. p. 433, will be found the following 
monumental inscriptions in the church of 
St. Crux (Holy Cross), York, concernin 
some members of the above family : 

"Laurence Rawdon, late of this city, Alderman 
who departed this life in the 58 th year of his age 
July 5t h , 1626. 

" Margery, his wife, by whom he had three son 
and two daughters, Roger, Robert, Marmaduke 
Elizabeth, and Mary. She deceased on the 17 l 
April, 1644 ; Also the body of Elizabeth, her granc 
child, daughter ol Sir Roger Jacques, Knt., wh 
deceased in the 20 th year of (.her) age, Oct. 20 th 

Thomas Rawdon was Sheriff of York ii 
1615 ; Christopher Rawdon was Sheriff ii 
1739. In 1628 Sir Roger Jacques, mer 
chant, served the office of Sheriff, and ii 
1 639 he was Lord Mayor. 


The Rev. Rawdon Hautenville, a Devon 
shire clergyman who died some years ag< 
in London, I believe, claimed some connexion 
with this family. Burke, who gives Lor< 
Moira's pedigree, says nothing of am 
descendants. Is the peerage extinct o 
dormant ? ENQUIRER. 

11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914.] 



0n looks. 

Shaftesbwn' 's ' Second Characters.' Edited by 

Benjamin Rand. (Cambridge University Press, 

7s. Grf. net.) 

THE present volume brings us a real contribution 
to the available literature of the early eighteenth 
century. It comprises four treatises on art and 
manners or rather three treatises and the 
material for a fourth the work of the last year 
of Shaftesbury's life, which was spent, for the 
sake of his declining health, at Naples. Of these 
treatises the first, the ' Letter concerning Design,' 
was printed for the first time in the fifth edition 
of the author's best -known book, the ' Cha- 
racteristics ' ; and the second, ' The Judgment of 
Hercules,' was published in French in the Journal 
des Scavans for November, 1712, appearing in 
English form separately in 1713, and in the second 
edition of the ' Characteristics ' in 1714. The 
fourth treatise, ' Plastics ' inchoate, but none the 
less clear as to intent, and of wider range than the 
others is published here for the first time, as 
are also the notes of the design for grouping the 
four together as a single work under the title of 
' Second Characters.' 

Dr. Rand, who has already done important 
work in regard to Shaftesbury, gives a sufficient 
Introduction. Shaftesbury's name on the whole 
a deservedly high one gains by this addition 
to his achievement. ' The Judgment of Her- 
cules ' may strike the modern reader as enunciat- 
ing rather obvious principles in regard to unity 
and propriety in the treatment of an historical 
scene in painting ; these principles did not, how- 
ever, appear so self-evident to Shaftesbury's 
contemporaries, and, even now, if used as a test 
in criticizing the new or newly approved work 
which occupies attention at the present day, 
might prove to be not so much ignored of set 
purpose as neglected. The beginning of the essay, 
with its distinction of the possible " moments " 
for the artist's portrayal, remains admirable and 

The ' Letter ' on design is virtually a confession 
of faith in the soundness of aesthetic perception 
and judgment in the people at large remarkable 
as coming from a man of Shaftesbury's position, 
whom ill-health, too excluding him from public 
work might have been expected to render some- 
what narrowly fastidious in his estimate of the 
average. Moreover, he has the insight to perceive 
the dependence of a people's soundness in art 
upon their civic rectitude and wisdom. 

Shaftesbury's translation of the ' Tablet of 
Cebes ' is given in the third place in lieu of the 
' Appendix concerning the Emblem of Cebes,' 
which remained unexecuted at his death. This 
enables the student to acquaint himself with an 
allegory which, in Shaftesbury's view, offered 
considerable opportunity for what we may call 
" civative comment," as well as here and there 
a pithy, suggestive counsel, though it cannot 
be pretended that, in itself, it is anything but a 
dull and frigid scheme for an interpretation of 
human life. 

Prom ' Plastics, an Epistolary Excursion on 
the Original Progress and Power of Designatory 
Art,' it is tempting to draw matter for discussion 
at 'almost every page. We will allow ourselves 
only to mention as examples the fourteenth section, 

on the " five parts in painting," which include- 
some penetrating remarks on affectation ; and 
the sixteenth section, where the functions of the 
" machine " are set forth. " Dens interxif. 
Always necessary," says Shaftesbury, " in tin- 
high heroic," and he goes on to contrast tin- 
poverty (pictorially) of common history, where 
no " machine " is introducible, with the scenes in 
which the Christian " machine " appropriately 
enters, to the advantage of the latter, though 
these in their turn must, he thinks, yield to 
scenes in which the ancient mythological 
" machine " may with truthfulness be employed, 
because Christian scenes are almost exclusively 
martyrdoms or other " invenuste subjects." We 
may notice that he says Domenichino's ' St. 
Jerome' is the best picture in the world, and that, 
criticizing Raphael's ' Transfiguration,' he bids us 
observe how the false double piece (viz., the 
part above) serves, however, as the machine 
part with infinite advantage." 

As he says himself in the notes on the Idea of 
the Book, Shaftesbury's design was to convey, 
through the medium of criticism of art, a subtler 
and more profound criticism of human life,, 
capacity, and morality. In this he has been- 
followed by many writers from Lessing onwards ; 
but, familiar as the line of thought is nowadays- 
to the shallowest tyro who can dawdle over- 
Ruskin, it strikes one here as new and original 
taking one back, perhaps, to Plato more dis- 
tinctly than to any one else if for nothing else, 
yet for the particular tone of its ethic. 

The formlessness of the most important part 
of the book, and that which will be new to students, 
shows itself, very suggestively, as something of a 
positive advantage. 

Comment and Criticism : a Cambridge Quarterly 
Paper for the Discussion of Current Religious and. 
Theological Questions. (Longmans, 6rf.) 
THIS number (Vol. II. No. 1, May), appears in a 
new form, the object of which is to render the 
preservation of copies practicable. It contains an 
article on the exact import of the historicity of the- 
Gospel, entitled ' Under Pontius Pilate, ' by Prof. 
Burkitt ; a plea for the reconstruction of English 
Ecclesiastical Courts, from the pen of Mr. Leslie : 
an appreciation and criticism bv Mr. H. L. Pass of 
Mr. Knox's recent book ' Some Loose Stones ' ; and 
a suggestive paper by Mr. W. Spens on current 
controversy, as delivered in the recent pamphlets 
by Dr. Bethune-Baker, Dr. Sanday, and Bishop 

MB. E. T. JAQUES, who is a solicitor of the 
Sui >reme Court, has made an interesting contribution 
to Dickens literature by giving, under the title of 
Charles Dickenx in Chanceri/, an account of Dickens's 
proceedings in respect of the ' Christmas Carol,' to 
which he has added some gossip in relation to the 
old Law Courts at Westminster. Messrs. Long- 
mans are the publishers, and the price is one 
shilling net. Mr. Janues is better known to 1 our 
readers as "Christian Tearle." the author of ' The 
Pilgrim from Chicago ' and ' The Gardens of Gray's 

MESSRS. A. & C. BLACK send The Social Guide 
for the present year, edited bv Mrs. Hugh Adams 
and Miss Edith A. Browne. The ' Guide ' includes 
the Indian seasons, Egypt, and Continental resorts. 
The price is half-a-crown net. 


[11 S. X. JULY 4, 1914. 

The Cornhill Magazine begins with the first 
chapters of a novel entitled ' Two Sinners,' by 
Mrs. Ritchie. It starts out pretty well. The poem 
" A True Dream,' from the unpublished remains of 
Mrs. Browning's early .work, is several degrees 
"better as poetry than the relics hitherto exhumed. 
Mr. A. C. Benson has some graceful commonplaces 
about old buildings in a paper called ' The Beauty 
of Age,' and Julia Cartwright contributes one of 
her pleasant studies of the Italian Renaissance in 
'Cardinal Benibo and his Villa.' Mr. Stephen 
Paget in the first instalment of a series called 
' The New Parents' Assistant' makes several sound 
and shrewd remarks which, however, are nearly 
lost in a mass of quasi-humorous illustration and 
paradox, which for some reason or other remains 
rather unconvincing. Of Mr. Bradby's three essays 
under the common title ' By the Wayside,' the third, 
' White, Black, and Grey,' is decidedly the best. 
'For good tales and several are really good the 
reader will turn to the Marchesa Peruzzi de' 
Medici's description of her life in the house of her 
father, the sculptor J ulian Story, at Rome, where 
Hans Andersen and Robert Browning both figure ; 
and also to Sir Henry Lucy's wonted ' Sixty Years 
in the Wilderness.' ' The Illustrious Garrison,' 
by Lieut.-Col. MacMunn, gives in a sufficiently 
telling way the story of Sale's Brigade at Jellalabad ; 
and there is a short story, 'Pride of Service," by 
Mr. Boyd Cable, of which the stuff, and also the 
descriptive treatment, are excellent ; indeed, it 
wants only firmer, less amateurish handling of the 
characters at the climax to give it a claim to quite 
outstanding praise. Just a year ago we commented 
sympathetically on an excellent article by Mr. 
Hesketh Prichard about the Grey Seals of Haskeir. 
We congratulate both him and the editor of The 
Cornhill upon the effect of that article, which, 
through the intermediation of Mr. Charles Lyell. 
M P.. " stung the Legislature into legislating," and 
has brought to pass the Grey Seals ("Protection) 
Bill. This has now gone through its third reading 
in the House of Lords, and provides a close season 
ior grey seals from 1 October to 15 December. 

THE July number of The Nineteenth Century is 
one of the best of recent years. The AbW Ernest 
Dimnet has an article, important for its literary as 
well as for its social information, on the question 
"* Does the Church play any Active Part in France ? ' 
The situation, as he depicts it, is of unique interest. 
The history of religion may often be shown by the 
"historian to repeat itself. The position of the 
'Church in France to-day would seem to be in all 
literalness unprecedented. Miss Edith Sichel gives 
-us an attractive account of the late Emily Lawless ; 
and Mr. Darrell Figgis draws from the volumes 
recently given to the world by Mrs. Parnell a por- 
trait of Charles Stewart Parnell, which certainly 
explains his peculiar effectiveness, as the descrip- 
tions of him prior to the publication of this new 
life do not. One of the most charming papers 
in the number and of a type to please, we think, 
many of our readers is Mrs. Stirling's ' A Georgian 
Scrap-book,' this being a book of extracts compiled 
; by Diana Bosville, daughter of one Yorkshire 
squire and wife of another, and a friend of Lady 
Mary Wortley Montagu's. Diana had a discerning 
eye in the matter of excerpts, and a brisk sense of 
humour, and the matter here selected out from 
her selections is most of it eminently worth while. 
Miss Arabella Kenealy contributes a lengthy and 

fascinating answer in the affirmative to the 
query ' Is Man an Electrical Organism ? ' stating, 
with considerable ingenuity and force, speculations 
which seem everywhere in the air about us just 
now. Miss Gertrude Kingston is a trenchant critic 
of the last three generations : her opinions seem to 
have been formed almost too exclusively from what 
she has observed in one stratum of society, and in, 
perhaps, only some of the circles even of this. Her 
warning note about the schoolboys of the present 
generation certainly deserves attention. 

IN the July Fortnightly Count Ilya Tolstoy 
continues his reminiscences of his father, the 
naive and homely record still of early childhood, 
with nothing in it unparalleled, but fairly interest- 
ing as to the details given. There is an account of the 
family sayings which became, within the family, 
proverbial, and this suggests that it would be 
interesting to have a collection of these started, no 
matter from what family, so they were properly 
authenticated and genuine. Mr. Gilbert Cole- 
ridge contributes a charming paper on Sir Thomas 
Browne, a personage whom it never seems weari- 
some repeatedly to contemplate. Prof. Gaston 
S^vrette interprets to us M. Jean Richepin's 
interpretation of Shakespeare correcting parts of 
it where he deems it needs correction, as, for 
example, in the matter of Desdemoua's character, 
whom M. Richepin, perversely we also think, 
will have to be "curious, super-subtle," "an 
intellectuelle." Mr. J. F. Macdonald admires Mr. 
Zangwill's play 'Plaster Saints,' and gives his 
reasons for doing so in a skilful analysis. Mr. 
William Archer's 'Manners in India,' and Mr. 
Wilfrid Ward's ' Oxford Liberalism and Dogma,' 
are perhaps not so far beyond the scope of ' N. & Q.' 
that we must forbear to mention them, being as 
they are very well worth consideration. The 
remaining papers are on national and interna- 
tional political questions, 

JHoitws to (tercspotttonts. 

ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

To secure insertion of communications corre 
epondents must observe the following rules. Lei 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately aftar the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages tc 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com- 
munication " Duplicate." 

W. H. P, Forwarded. 

MR. L. STANLEY JAST ("Sundial Motto"). 
Ecclesiastes iii. 15. 

L. V. desires to thank the correspondents who 
have sent him replies re " Wildgoose." 

" Inveni portum " has been discussed at 6 S. i. 494 : 
ii. 136, 409; iv. 76 ; 7 S. ix. 168, 237; and 9 S. ii. 
41,229. , 

n s.x. JULY ii, 19U.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


LOSDON, SATl'RDAY, JULY 11, 191k. 

CONTENTS. No. 237. 

NOTES : ' Berrow's Worcester Journal,' 21 The Governor 
of Malta in ' Midshipman Easy, 1 22 Webster a Con- 
tributor to Overbury's ' Characters,' 23 Anne Bronte 
*' Sandwich spoils " in 1457, 24 ' The Chronicle of the 
Kings of England ' Shrovetide Throwing at the Cock, 
25 William Sydenham, M. D. Fenimore Cooper : a 
Coincidence Rectory House of St. Michael, Cornhill 
'Lines quoted in Jonson's ' Poetaster,' 26 Royal Ladies 
as Colonels-in-Chief "The weakest goes to the wall" 
A Misquotation in Thackeray : Colman, Goldsmith, and 
Gray, 27. 

QUERIES : Judith Cowper : Mrs. Madan, 27 William 
Bell Scott Medallic Legends Old Etonians Recent 
Work of Fiction Sought Portrait of Dryden " Galleon " 
in English Verse, 28 Merchant Adventurers : Muscovy 
Company Fildieu Wall-Papers " There's some water 
where the stags drown "Folk- Lore Queries : Robins and 
Swallows Author Wanted Alexander Innes, D.D. 
F. Chapman Childe or Child Family, 29" The d d 
strawberry " McJannet Surname, 30. 

REPLIES : Registers of Protestant Dissenters, 30 
" Speak to uie, Lord Byron " Wildgoose, 31" Con- 
damine" Cromwell's Illegitimate Daughter, Mrs. Hartop 
A " trawn chaer "Moore of Winster, 32 Military 
Machines Encaustic Tiles Biographical Information 
'Wanted John Curwood Alexander Smith's ' Dream- 
thorp 'Voltaire on the Jewish People Centenary of the 
Cigar Register of Marriages of Roman Catholics, 33 
W. Baker: T. Crane Lethe, 34 " Ragiime "Heart- 
Burial De Glamorgan Clack Surname, 35' Ethics of 
the Dust ' " Master " and " Gentleman " during the 
Seventeenth Century Duke of Sussex : Morganatic 
Marriages, 36 'The Times': Bananas Loch Chesney 
Stubbs's Trade Protection Agency Napoleon IIL at 
Chislehurst Balnes, Laleham, and Littlyngton, 37 
Southwark Bridge Announcements in Newspaper Office 
Windows Old Etonians The Great Eastern Palla- 
vicini, 38. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :' London' 'London Survivals' 
' Bannockburn ' ' The Burlington Magazine.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


THIS paper has always appeared once a week, 
and to its present-day title the following 
assertions are added : " Established 1690. 
The Oldest Newspaper in Great Britain. 
Largest and leading county paper." 

L T p to the year 1836, no claim of this kind 
was attached to the title of Berrow's Wor- 
cester Journal, but to its issue for 22 Sept., 
1836, which professed to be "No. 6982," 
the statement was added " Established 
1709." This claim was continued up to 
and inclusive of "Xo. 8909," published on 
26 July, 1873. 

But in the following week's issue, " No 
9381," for 2 Aug., 1873, the claim was 
altered to "Established 1690." No expla- 
nation was given either of this alteration, 
or of the cause of the jump of 471 numbers 
in one week. 

Finally, to the title of its issue for 24 Jan., 
1885, professing to be " No. 9980," the journal 
added the second claim : " The Oldest News- 
paper in Great Britain " ; the third claim, 
with which I am not concerned, being added 

A simple calculation will convince any one 
that the numeration is, and has always been, 
incorrect, from the year 1836 downwards. 
If No. 6982 appeared in 1836, the paper 
must have commenced in 1722. And if the 
paper's present - day numeration is mor3 
accurate, it must have commenced in 1693. 

In Jan., 1890, Berrow's Worcester Journal 
seems to have celebrated a sort of bicen- 
tenary, and reprinted its articles on the 
subject as a pamphlet (illustrated), with the 
title of ' The Oldest English Newspaper.' 

From this pamphlet it appears that a 
passage in the book of one Worcester his- 
torian, Valentine Green, has been the cause 
of all these errors. 

Valentine Green was born on 16 Oct., 1739. 
He was by profession an engraver, and was 
25 years old when the first edition of his 
work appeared in 1764, with its then title of 
' A Survey of the City of Worcester.' In 
this he says : 

" From the best information it is conjectured 
that a public paper was established in Worcester 
as early as the commencement of the Revolution. 
....That Worcester was among the earliest, if 
not the first of the provincial cities that opened 
this important and ready channel of communica- 
tion of foreign and domestic intelligence is clearly 

" It will be seen in the next section that the 
magistracy of this City very early pledged them- 
selves, in their corporate capacity, to favour and 
support the public measures taken to rid the 
nation of a tyranny that had been found inimical 
to its liberty and happiness. This was, doubtless, 
the period that gave birth to the weekly Worcester 
paper. It is uncertain, however, in what order 
of succession those publications were first issued, 
whether monthly, weekly, or what day of the 
month or week, or in what form, folio, quarto, or 
otherwise ; but in June, 1709, they assumed a 
regular and orderly appearance in a small folio, 
containing six pages, which formed a weekly 
number, published every Friday, and wereprinted 
by Stephen Bryan, under the title of the Worcester 

Dr. Nash's two immense volumes con- 
stitute the authoritative history of Worcester. 
He quotes Green ; but severely disregards all 
his assertions about the Worcester paper. 
In 1903 the Rev. J. R. Burton published the 
second volume of his valuable ' Biblio- 
graphy of Worcestershire,' and on p. 5 
says : 

" In 1662, an Act restricted printing to London 
York, Oxford, and Cambridge ; it was renewed 
again in 167<J and 1685, and finally expired in 



1695. Befoiv this latter year, then, it was 
impossible for a book to be printed in Worcester 
except surreptitiously, and after Oswen (a six- 
teenth-century printer) nothing has certainly 
been produced there until 1708." 

The (quinquennial) Act in question was 
13 and 14 Car. II. c. 33. It can be seen in 
' The Statutes at Large.' It, however, was 
not renewed in 1678, owing to Titus Oates's 
plot. But it was in full force again from 
1680 to 1695. Nothing, therefore, was 
printed openly in Worcester before the year 
1695, and nothing is known to have been 
printed surreptitiously even when the Act 
was not in force. J. B. WILLIAMS. 

(To be continued.) 




IN his Introduction to ' Mr. Midshipman 
Easy ' in the " Illustrated Standard Novels " 
Series published by Messrs. Macmillan, Mr. 
David Hannay says : 

"The Governor who rejoiced in Jack's stories 
may be named with confidence as Sir Alexander 
Ball, whom Marryat may have known, and must 
at least have heard of, when he was in the 
Mediterranean with Dundonald in the Imperieuse." 

I propose to show that this Governor of 
Malta was not Sir Alexander Ball, but Sir 
Thomas Maitland. 

1. The Governor was much amused at the 
triangular method of fighting a duel, with 
three parties engaged at the same time, 
which was adopted by the Midshipman at 
the suggestion of Mr. Tallboys, the gunner. 
Capt. Wilson says to his First Lieutenant : 
" I dine at th3 Governor's to-day ; how he 
will laugh when I tell him of this new way 
of fighting a duel!" To which Mr. Saw- 
bridge replies : " Yes, sir, it is just the 
thing that will tickle old Tom " (chap, xviii.)- 

2. The Governor is addressed and spoken 
of as " Sir Thomas " (chaps, xxii., xxviii., 

3. But what seems conclusive is the remark 
made by Jack when the Governor takes 
very decisive steps to ensure that Jack's 
friend and fellow-midshipman, Gascoigne, 
shall not fight a duel with the Spanish 
" blackguard," Don Silvio, and to summon 
both ii idshipmen to appear before him. 
An aide-de-camp with " a corporal and a 
file of men " is sent to see that this latter 
order is duly executed. 

'This is confounded tyranny .... Well may 
they call him King Tom. ' Yes,' replies the 

A.D.C., ' and he governs here in rey absoluto so- 
come along.' " 

Now it is known that Mait land's nickname 
among his officers, civil and military, was 
" King Tom " or " Old King Tom." 

In addition to the argument from names, 
the character of the Governor of Malta, as 
depicted in the novel, is exactly that of Sir 
Thomas Maitland, who was noted for his 
eccentricities and arbitrary conduct. Sir 
Charles Napier, who had served under him 
for six years, describes him as " a rough old 
despot." He had, too, a sort of grim 
humour, and was fond of a joke, more 
especially a practical joke. He took strong^ 
fancies and antipathies was a good friend 
and a good hater. In the book Jack, as 
soon as he had given him an account of the 
grotesque duel, at which he " had laughed 
. . . .till he held his sides," became a first 
favourite, and afterwards, whenever Mr. 
Midshipman Easy had been through any 
other extraordinary adventure or was con- 
templating some fresh escapade, he used to 
say to himself, " I 've a famous good yarn 
for the Governor," or "It would be a good 
joke to tell the Governor." So did Capt. 
Sawbridge console himself on one of these 
occasions for stifling his instinct to assert 
discipline and spoil sport with the reflec- 
tion : "There'll be another yarn for the 
Governor, or I 'm mistaken." But with all 
his faults Maitland was a man of sound judg- 
ment and prompt action, and he had a kind 
heart. He gave Mr. Midshipman Easy 
whom he invited to make a home of Govern- 
ment House while he was detained at Malta 
very good advice, and helped to prevent 
him from spoiling Ms career. 

Like his predecessor Sir Alexander Ball , 
Sir Thomas Maitland died in office at Malta, 
so that the following incident proves nothing 
either way. The Governor promises to pay 
Jack a visit at his house " if ever I come to 
England again." On which the author com- 
ments : " But Sir Thomas never did go 
back to England, and this was t eir final 

It is, of course, chronologically inaccurate 
to make Maitland Governor of Malta during 
the period in which the Midshipman was 
serving in the Mediterranean, when England 
was at war with Spain as well as with France. 
Peace had been concluded with Spain in 
1809. Maitland came to Malta from Ceylon, 
where he had been for six years Governor, 
in 1812 or early in 1813, and died there in 
1824. But, as Mr. Hannay himself points 
out in his Introduction to ' Newton Forster,' 
Marryat " cared as little as Lever for mere 

ii s. x. JULY 11, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


dates," and " such details, though they may 
trouble the pedantry of our time, were 
despised by our bolder fathers." There was 
the probability that Marryat had met Mait- 
larid as well as Sir Alexander Ball, for he 
returned in 1813 to the Mediterranean 
station, where he had already served in 
1806 and 1811-12. Maitland left Ceylon 
on 15 March, 1812. 

Anyway, there is strong evidence that he 
was Midshipman Easy's patron. There is 
none that this was Sir Alexander Ball. 





(See ante, p. 3.) 

THESE are only the passages in which 
parallelism of phrase cannot be denied ; 
many are the instances when distinct, though 
remote, similarity may be detected. Some 
of the Characters seem to be copied or 
enlarged from certain dramatis personal in 
' The White Devil ' or ' Duchess of Malfi ' 
(the 'Distaster of the Time ' from Flamineo 
and Bosola, or the ' Vainglorious Coward in 
Command ' from Malatesti) ; while the per- 
sons of Leonora and Ariosto in ' The Devil's 
Law Case ' were but the dramatic versions 
of the ' Vertuous Widdow ' and the ' Rever- 
end Judge ' in the 1615 book. 

Webster's authorship is not to be deduced 
solely from such parallelism, but every one 
of these Characters is found to be exactly 
achieved in the dramatist's peculiar manner ; 
on the other hand, some passages in his 
dramas might have been lengthened into 
similar essays, as, for instance, Francesco's 
description of a cunning intruder into favour 
('W.D.,' III. iii.), Bosola's account of a 
politician ('D.M.,' III. ii.), or Appius 
Claudius's exposure of the knavish scrivener 
('App.,' III. ii.). Does not the following 
passage own the true Websterian ring ? 

" With one suitor she shootes out another, as 
Boies doe Pellets in elderne Gunnes.* She com- 
mends to them a single life, as Horse-cours* rs doe 
their Jades, to put them away." ' An Ordinary 

And the conclusion of the ' Fair and Happy 
Milkmaid,' so sweetly praised by Izaak 
Walton, strikes the genuine poetical note 
which Charles Lamb recognized in Webster : 

" All her care is, she may dye in the Springtime, 
to have store of flowers stuck upon her winding- 

We have seen that most of the parallel 
passages occur in ' A Monumental Column ' 
(written after November, 1612) and ' The 
Duchess of Malfi ' (acted before December, 
1614). These two works had already been 
considered as belonging to the same period, 
on account of constant verbal references to 
Sidney's ' Arcadia ' ; it now seems probable 
that the composition of the ' Characters ' 
published in 1615 must have taken place 
very shortly after the production of the. 
poem and tragedy. 

That Webster thought of turning the 
results of his observations into Characters 
only after the first appearance of ' Overbury's 
Characters ' (May, 1614) is probable ; that 
the last among his essays were written in 
1615, just before being sent to the press, is 
evident from a dir ct allusion to a book 
publi-hed in the same yea an allusion 
which brought down on him such a shower 
of abuse that it may have prevented him 
from ever publicly acknowledging the author- 
ship of his Characters. 

Early in 1615 a book by John Stephens of 
Lincoln's Inn had been published, under the 
title of ' Satyrical Essays, Characters and 
Others,' in which a very bitter description of 
' A Common Player ' was included. The reader 
must be reminded that, three years earlier, 
Thomas Heywood had triumphantly dis- 
posed of the objections raised by Puritanical 
prejudice against the Quality in his 'Apology 
tor Actors ' ; in 1615. however, the con- 
troversy had been revived with a ' Refuta- 
tion of the Apology ' (by J. G.), and so foul 
was John Stephens's abuse that it called 
forth a sharp retort from a friend of the 
stage players. So, in the character of 
' An Excellent Actor ' (meant as a repre- 
sentation of Richard Burbage), the dignity 
of the profession was vindicated by Webster, 
while he made a direct allusion to Stephens 
in the following words : 

" Therefore the imitating Characterist was 
extreame idle in calling them Rogues. His Muse 
it seemes, with all his loud invocation, could not be 
wak't to light him a snuffe to read the Statute : 
for I would let his malicious ignorance understand, 
that rogues are not to be imploide as maine orna- 
ments to his Maiesties Revels ; but the itch of 
bestriding the Presse, or getting up on this wooden 
Pacolet, hath defil'd more innocent paper, the 
ever did Laxative physicke : yet is their inven- 

* This simile is borrowed from Marston's 
' Malcontent ' (IV. ii.), a play to which Webster 
may havf contributed some passages, and from 
which he took several phrases. 

* The author of the 42 Characters of 1615 was 
well acquainted with Florio's Montaigne, whose 
intluence over Webster was proved at full length 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. JCLY n, m*. 

tlon such tyred stuffe, that like Kentish post- 
horse they cannot go beyond their ordinary 
stage, should you flea them." 

This downright abuse incensed John 
Stephens so highly that, before the year 
was out, a second impression of his book 
was issued, with an angry ' To the Reader ' 
aimed at his detractor, in addition to which 
a friend of Stephens's, J. Cocke, wrote a long 
epistle in prose and verse, intended to 
expose the meanness of the actors' friend. 
Cocke availed himself of this opportunity 
to claim the authorship of three of the 
Characters printed in the same volume 
with those of that unknown botcher.* 
Stephens, truth to say, asserted that he 
had meant no insult to the London com- 
panies, but that his description dealt solely 
with strolling players. Whatever his ad- 
versary may have thought of this explana- 
tion, he seems to have chosen promptly to 
pretermit the controversy, as the offensive 
lines were deleted f from the ensuing edition 
of the ' Characters,' the penultimate essay 
^' A Purveyor of Tobacco ') at the same 
time being omitted, never to be reprinted 
in the many subsequent editions of the 

By identifying Stephens's adversary with 
John Webster, we can partly account for 
the bitterness of Henry Fitzgeffrey's attack 
on Webster in his ' Notes from Blackfriars ' 
<1617 not 1620, as Dyce printed it), for 
Among the commendatory verses con- 
tributed by the satirist's friends some are 
signed John Stephens ; so the invidious 
feelings of this set of barristers against the 
^tage - players' champion had not subsided 
two years after the offence, and we may 
consider ' The Devil's Law-Case,' in which 
the foul proceedings of Contilupo and 
Sanitonella are exposed and branded, as 
the dramatist's final retort on his enemies. 

* " Unusquisque turpis et inscius et ventosus," 
says Stephens, ' malevol ac rudis suse calumniae 
fretus, alieni nominis ruina .... my poor detractor, 
who is like the slow-worm, venomous but blind." 
Cocke calls his adversary " an obscure vagrant," 
and adds : 

.... all was penn'd 

Them to protect from shame, who thee defend 

From want, 

an allusion to the author's connexion with the 

t Prof. Morley, in his ' Character Writing in 
the Seventeenth Century' (London, 1891), men- 
tioned that Stephens was probably attacked by 
an unknown adversary, but failed to detect the 
allusion to the sixth edition of the ' Characters,' 
And did not notice the deletion of the offensive 
paragraph and of the ' Purveyor of Tobacco.' 

ANNE BRONTE. (See 8 S. xii. 403, 471 ; 
9 S. ii. 151.) I am led to return to these 
somewhat ancient references of my own 
(the second excepted) through happening 
on the following in Mr. Clement Snorter's 
recent fascinating volume 'The Brontes 
and their Circle ' (p. 188) : 

" The tomb at Scarborough bears the following 
inscription : 

Here Lie the Remains of 

Anne Bronte, 

Daughter of the Rev. P. Bronte, 
Incumbent of Haworth, Yorkshire. 
She Died, Aged 28, May 2-, 1849. 
The inscription on the stone is incorrect. Anne 
Bronte died, aged twenty-nine, May 28th, 1849." 

There are two inaccuracies here : the lines 
of the inscription are wrongly divided, 
and the 8 is omitted in " May 2-." In- 
significant errors of transcription they may 
be, but call for correction all the same. 
In September, 1897, I copied the inscription, 
and inserted it in the article at the first 
reference thus : 

Lie the Remains of 

Anne Bronte 
Daughter of the 
Rev. P. Bronte, 

Incumbent of Haworth, Yorkshire. 
She died, aged 28, 
May 28th, 1849. 

Mr. Shorter's transcription, is either first or 
second hand : if the former, I am at a loss 
to account for the double misreading ; if the 
latter, " verify transcriptions " is as valuable 
as " verify quotations." 

J. B. McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

" SANDWICH SPOILS " IN 1457. Hall's 
' Chronicle ' records an incident in the 
history of this ancient port in the above 
year, when Sir Piers Bressy, a great ruler 
in Normandy and a lusty captain, was 
coasting along the Kentish shore on mischief 
bent. Having received information from 
his spies that Sandwich was neither peopled 
nor fortified, and that its chief rulers had 
departed on account of a " pestilenciale 
plague," he landed his troops, occupied the 
town and port, and secured some booty, 
but had to withdraw before night set in. 
According to our chronicler, the enemy did 
not get much for his trouble, althoiigh 
" French authors make of a little much." 

One of these writers, I find, was the 
author of the Chronicle of Charles VII. of 
France, a book often attributed to Alain 
Chartier, under whose name it is entered in 
the British Museum Catalogue. The day's 
proceedings are described with some detail, 

11 S. X. JULY 11, 1914.] 


but under the wrong year 1458. The 
event happened on 28 Aug., on a Sunday, 
which agrees with the correct year 1457. 

According to the French chronicler, his 
countrymen landed " a deux lieues " from 
Sandwich, " et cheminerent iusques a un 
bouleuert rempare nouuellement, duquel les 
fossez estoient plain d'eaue." This new 
" bulwark of brick to be built at Fishers' 
gate " in 1457 is mentioned in Boys's 
' History of Sandwich ' (Canterbury, 1792), 
p. 674. L. L. K. 

LAND.' This parody in its various forms was 
before the public for over a century. To- 
wards its bibliography I contribute a few 
examples from what was part of William 
Hone's collection of parodies : 

The Chronicle of the Kings of England from 
William the Norman to the Death of George III., 
&c. 1821. Fairburn's re-issue with chart chro- 
nology of the reign of George III. 

The Chronicle of the Kingdom of the Cassiter- 
ides, under the Reign of the House of Lunen. A 
fragment translated from an ancient manu- 
script. 1783. 

The New Book of Chronicles ; delineating 
in excentrical sketches of the Times a variety of 
modern Characters of the Great and Small Vulgar 
London. (1785) ?) 

The Chronicle of Abomilech, King of the 
Isles. Translated from a Latin Manuscript 
written in the year 1220 by William of Salisbury. 
London, 1820. 


Cockfighting and shooting at the cock are 
forms of (so-called) English sport of great 
antiquity, but the custom so long practised 
in the old grammar schools of allowing the 
boys to throw sticks at a live cock on Shrove 
Tuesday is of comparatively more recent 
origin. We find no evidence that such a 
custom obtained in the pre -Reformation 
schools, if we except the statement made by 
H}ne ('Every Day Book,' i. 126) that the 
scholars of Ramena in 1355 presented a 
petition to the schoolmaster for a cock he 
owed them upon Shrove Tuesday " to throw 
sticks at." As he gives no authority for 
tliis, and does not even say where Ramena 
is situated, it cannot be accepted as proof. 

Sir Thomas Moore, writing in the sixteenth 
century, speaks with pride of the skill 
which, as a schoolboy, he had " in casting 
a cok-stele." The word " stele " is to-day 
used in Lancashire for the handle of a house- 
hold brush. 

By the foundation charter of the Man- 
chester Grammar School, dated 1 April, 
16 Hen. VIII. (1525). it is provided that the 

" scollers shall use no Cokke feghts ne other 
unlawful gammes and rydynge about for 
Victours," and that neither the master nor 
usher shall receive any money " as cokk^ 
peny, victor peny, potacion peny." 

Notwithstanding this, the payment of 
cock-penny was not abolished there until 
1867. Cock-fighting was no doubt given, 
up, and throwing at cocks took its place. 
The cock-penny was paid in probably all 
the old grammar schools until quite a recent 
date. In Lancaster it was given up in 1824. 
a capitation grant being given to the master 
and usher in lieu thereof. 

In some schools in the seventeenth century, 
instead of throwing with sticks, the use of 
the bow and arrow was introduced. I am 
able to give two instances of this. 

James Clegg, a Nonconformist minister 
and Doctor of Medicine, in his Diary records 
that, whilst he was at the Rochdale Gram- 
mar School in 1686, on Shrove Tuesday, 
"ye young men of ye upper end of the school 
were shooting with bows and arrows at a cock, and 
the rest of us made a lane for the arrows to pass- 

Being anxious to see the sport, he put his 
head too far forward, and received the 
arrow on his temple ; and he adds : " The 
wound at first was said to be mortal." 

The Rev. Henry Newcome sent his chil- 
dren to the Manchester Grammar School, 
and in his ' Autobiography ' (Chet. Soc., 
xvi. 147, 162), under the date of Tuesday, 
31 Jan., 1665, writes : 

"The children shot at school for their cocks this 
day, and I was moved with fear about them. I 
had cause, for Daniel's [his son] hat on his head 
was shot through with an arrow " ; 

and again on Shrove Tuesday (13 Feb., 
1666) : 

" It was their shooting day at the cocks. W& 
prayed that God would keep our children from 
doing or receiving any hurt." 

This form of sport died hard. The editor 
of The Gentleman's Magazine in 1753 issued 
a caveat against 

" the wretched custom of throwing or shooting at 
cocks, a custom that initiates the youth into- 
cruelty and vice." 

It would be interesting to know in what 
schools the " throwing " continued longest 
in practice. 

As early as 1430 the public exliibitioii of 
this description of sport was in ill repute. 
In a poem of this date, ' How the Good Wive 
taught hir Doughter ' (E.E. Text Soc., 
xxxii. 40), the mother's advice is : 

Go not to wrastelinge, ne to schotinge at cok, 

As it were a strumpet or a gigglelot. 



>\ (icnham, eldest son of Thomas Sydenham, 
M.D. (1624-89), the English Hippocrates, 
was born in London about the year 1659 or 
1660 (the record of his baptism has yet to 
be traced). He was admitted to Pembroke 
<'o liege, Cambridge, " ad secundam men- 
sam," 18 Feb., 1674, " annosque habens 15." 
He married Henrietta Maria Banister of 
St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, at the parish 
church of St. James, Duke's Place. Aldgate, 
London, 19 June, 1684, and by her had issue 
eight or ten children, six of whom were bap- 
tized at St. James's, Piccadilly, January, 
1685/6 October, 1704. She was buried 
at St. James's, Piccadilly, as Mrs. Maria 
Sydenham, 31 Dec., 1741. 

Dr. Sydenham was living in Soho, 1706-9; 
in 1716 he was at Kingston-on-Thames, and 
in 1719-29 at Richmond, Surrey. He died 
10 April, 1738, and was buried seven days 
later at St. James's, Piccadilly. His will, 
as of St. Ann's, Westminster, dated 12 Sept., 
1731, proved 17 June, 1738, by his son John, 
the widow renouncing, is filed in the P.C.C., 
tut not registered. He owned estates at 
Allexton, Leicestershire, and at Yardley 
and Clothall, Herts. 

This note will supplement the brief 
account of him in ' D.N.B.,' Iv. 250. 


84, St. John's Wood Terrace, N.W. 

MR. J. A. JACOBS of Sandwich sends me 
the following : 

" 1 find among the Wingham registers, circa 
1750, Fennimore Cooper. I have been wondering 
if the above was a coincidence, or if the American 
novelist was a connexion." 

The late Mr. W. P. W. Phillimore informed 
me that Fenimore Cooper derived the name 
from his mother, a daughter of Richard 
Fenimore of Burlington County, New Jersey, 
and that a family of Fennimores were 
settled at Christchurch, Philadelphia, as 
^arly as 1749. R. J. FYNMORE. 




S. vii. 247 ; viii. 446.) The following from 

The City Press of 13 June will be read with 

interest : 

f has b T e r en some dela y in the rebuilding 

of the Rectory House of St. Michael, Cornhill, by 
reason of the dispute in the building trade. The 
new structure, like its predecessor, will be of red 
brick, with stone facings, and it is now about half- 
completed. Meanwhile, a temporary iron building 
in the graveyard is used as the Vestry Room The 
tenants of the old Rectory House-Messrs. Parker, 

Garrett & Co., solicitors have arranged to 

take a lease of the main portion of the new Rectory 
House as soon as it is completed, and in this 
connection it may be of interest to state that they 
entered into occupation of the old Rectory House 
in September, 1863. That building was erected 
soon after the Great Fire of London. Its successor, 
while covering the same quantity of ground, will be 
one storey higher, and altogether more adapted to 
modern requirements. As before, provision will be 
made on the ground floor for a Vestry Room for the 
parish of St. Michael, Cornhill, which will also be 
used for the Cornhill Wardmotes." 

Many must regret the disappearance of this 
picturesque old Rectory. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

JONSON'S ' POETASTER.' Amongst other 
passages in Jonson's ' Poetaster ' ridiculing 
the bombastic drama of his day, there occurs 
the following : 

Tucca. Now, thunder, sirrah, you the rumbling 

2nd Pyrgiis. Ay, but somebody must cry 
" Murder," then, in a small voice. 

Tucca. Your fellow-sharer there shall do 't ; 
cry, sirrah, cry. 

1 Pyr. Murder, murder. 

2 Pyr. Who calls out murder ? lady, icas it you '* 
Histrio. O admirable good, I protest. 

' Poetaster,' III. i. 

It seems to have been generally assumed 
that Jonson is here parodying the famous 
scene of the murder of Horatio in ' The 
Spanish Tragedy.' 

Prof. Boas (''Thomas Kydy p. 400) and 
Prof. Penniman (' Poetaster/ Belles-Lettres 
edition, p. 225) both state that the passage 
is aimed at Kyd's play. The assumption is 
not unnatural, seeing that the lines of the 
player's speech immediately following are 
borrowed from an earlier scene of ' The 
Spanish Tragedy.' Kyd's Bel-imperia does, 
indeed, cry " Murder, murder !: ; but her 
cry is followed by the entrance of Hieronimo 
with the famous speech, " What out-cries 
pluck me from my naked bed. . . .Who calls 
Hieronimo ? " &c. 

It is not Kyd, but Chapman, who is the 
subject of Jonson's ridicule. The lines are 
from ' The Blinde Begger of Alexandria.' 
Count Hermes murders Doricles, and 
Aspasia exclaims : 

Go, wretched villain, hide thy hated head, 
Where never heaven's light may shine on thee, 
Who 's there, Come forth, for here is murder done, 
Murder, murder of good prince Doricles. 

[Enter Euribates.] 
Who calls out murther, Lady was it you ? 

' Chapman's Dram. Works,' Pearson, i. 40. 


11 S. X. JULY 11, 1914.] 



The Daily Telegraph of the 23rd of June 
calls attention to this new precedent : 

" No feature of the list of honours on the King's 
'birthday, celebrated this year June 22nd, is of 
greater interest than that of the appointment of 
the Queen, Queen Alexandra, the Princess Royal, 
and Princess Louise, Duchess of Argyll, to Colonel- 
cies-in-Chief of British regiments. It is, of course, 
no new thing for the name of a Royal lady to be 
associated with that of a famous regiment, as in the 
case of the Yorkshires, who have long had the 
privilege of calling themselves 'Alexandra Princess 
of Wales's Own,' and the Army List will give some 
other instances of the same kind. But to be 
gazetted as Colonel-in-Chief is a most notable in- 
novation in this country, and may be taken as 
showing a recognition of the greater concern that 
women are manifesting in the service of the 

A. N. Q. 


lately heard an explanation of the origin of 
this proverb which is new to me. In former 
days there were no seats in churches, but 
several of them had (and have) stone 
benches running along the walls. It is 
averred that these were intended for the use 
of such people as were too weak or infirm to 
stand during the whole service. 

E. L. H. TEW. 

[This explanation seems an instance of mis- 
placed ingenuity, for it does not fit in with the 
actual use of the phrase, which implies the very 
contrary of protection or consideration.] 

GOLDSMITH, AND GRAY. Thackeray in his 
' English Humourists,' p. 243, 1.40, Wheeler's 
Clarendon Press Edition, refers to Gold- 
smith's " compassion for another's woe " 
as a quotation from Colman's ' Random 
Records.' Mr. Wheeler in his note states 
that he cannot find this quotation from the 
younger Colman. The only German anno- 
tated edition (teste Mr. Wheeler), by Prof. 
Regel (Halle, 1885), suggests that Colman 
was recollecting (but not remembering) ' The 
Deserted Village,' 11. 371-2 : 

The good old sire, the first prepared to go 

To new-found worlds, and wept for others' woe. 

Prof. Phelps of Yale, in his edition pub- 
lished in 1900, affords us no clue. 

I venture to suggest that " compassion for 
another's woe" comes from Gray's 
The tender for another's pain, 
Th' unfeeling for his own. 

Lord Morley well put .it that English 
pessimism was beginning to appear in 
English literature in Gray's work. With 
all respect, I should suggest reappear, 
English sepulchral or ghastly wit being 

typical of English humour. Gray, anyhow, 
produced his lines in 1747, and Goldsmith 
about 1769 or 1770, I think. 


Perth, W.A. 

WK must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
'n order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

10 S. ix. 323.) In his excellent study of 
' Dodsley's Famous Collection of Poetry ' 
MR. W. P. COURTNEY devoted one entire 
article to Judith Cowper (later Mrs. Madan), 
accumulating much more information there 
than I have been able to find elsewhere. Will 
some reader of ' N. & Q.' who can come at 
books now inaccessible to me kindly en- 
lighten me on three points ? 

MR. COURTNEY averred (p. 324) that the 
poem ' Abelard to Eloisa ' had been assigned 
both to Judith Cowper and to William 
Pattison, and quoted a similar assertion 
from Fawkes and Woty. But are there not 
two different poems under the same title ? 
I have not the various books mentioned by 
MR. COURTNEY ; but I have an anonymous 
octavo, ' Abelard to Eloisa,' published by 
T. Warner in 1725, and I have Pattison's 
poems (H. Curll, 1728, octavo), with an 
' Abelard to Eloisa ' on pp. 67-77 ; and 
these two poems, while they naturally have 
much of substance in common, are separate 
and distinct productions. 

Twice, in his letters to Judith, Pope refers 
to her portrait : 18 Oct., 1722, he wrote of 
"... .verses. . . .which. . . .1 made so long 
ago as the day you sat for your picture " ; 
and in an undated letter : 

" He [Pope] has been so mad with the idea of 
her [Judith], as to steal her picture, and passes 
whole days in sitting before it," &c. 
The picture, one may assume, was a minia- 
ture. Is this or any other portrait of Judith 
Cowper known to be still in existence ? 
Mr. Arthur E. Popham of the Department 
of Prints and Drawings tells me the British 
Museum has no portrait of her, and that 
he can find no reference to any. It seems 
probable, then, that none was ever pub- 
lished, and that if any likeness now exists 
it is a privately owned picture. George 
Paston in her ' Mr. Pope ' (1909, pp. 275-90) 
offers some further contributions concerning 
Judith from privately owned papers to 
which she had access (at Rousham), but 
makes no allusion to a portrait. 


I have a folio MS. copy of verses beginning : 
O Pope, by what commanding, wond'rous Art ? 
all in laud of Pope, and signed " Judith 
Cowper | 1720." There are three pages of 
the poem an even ninety lines. The hand- 
writing is certainly old, and it is possible 
that the MS. is an autograph. Are these 
lines the same as the ' To Mr. Pope, written 
in his works, 1720,' said by MB. COURTNEY 
to occur on f. 149 of B.M. Additional MS. 
28,101 ? Have the verses ever been printed ? 
They are not great poetry ; but, written by 
a young lady, 1 8 and beautiful, they warrant 
the great poet in exerting himself to turn 
pretty compliments for the authoress, far 
more than does the passage usually quoted 
from her ' Progress of Poetry.' 


The University of Texas. 

grateful for bibliographical information as 
to this poet's work. 

To what beliefs do the following lines in 
' The Witch's Ballad ' refer ? - 

I call'd his name, I call'd aloud, 
Alas ! I called on him aloud ; 
And then he filled his hand with stour, 
And threw it towards me in the air ; 
My mouse flew out, I lost my pow'r ! 

F. H. 

MEDALLIC LEGENDS. I should be grateful 
for the sources (chapter and verse) of any 
of the following medallic legends. I know 
on what pieces they occur, and some are 
found in the Emblem Books. 

1. Aspice et aspic iar. 

2. Auspiciis jam plura tuis. 

3. Absentis luce refulgent. 

4. Ad spem spes addita. 
6. Arte atque metallo. 

6. Agiles si postulet usus. 

7. Amor meus pondus meum. 

8. Amputat ut prosit. 

9. Ad nutum educit in auras. 

10. Armis mine tota. 

11. .^quatis ibunt rostris. 

12. Afflictos docet viam suam. 

13. A navibus salus. 

14. A necessitate libertas. 

15. Ambitiosa superbia. 

16. A minimis quoque timendum. 

17. Alius peccat, alius plectitur. 

18. Cui pater eeternas post ssecula tradat habenas. 

19. Cuique regas orbem cum seniore senex. 

20. Coalum non solum. 

21. Coalestes sequitur motus, 

22. Concors vera fides. 

23. Colligo ut spargam. 

24. Ourat majus et minus. 

25. Cosli benedictio ditat. 
20. Cum sole et aatris. 

(To le continued.) 

OLD ETONIANS. I shall be grateful for 
information regarding any of the following : 

(1) Carlyon, Thomas, admitted 2 June r 
1764, left 1766. (2) Cartwright, William, 
admitted 18 June, 1764, left 1768. (3) 
Cary ( ? Carey), Charles, admitted 20 May, 
1758, left 1766. (4) Chaloner, William, 
admitted 14 May, 1755, left 1762. (5) 
Chambers, John, admitted 11 Jan., 1760, 
left 1761. (6) Chambers, Thomas, admitted 
7 Oct., 1758, left 1761. (7) Chartres, John, 
admitted 20 Jan., 1762, left 1763. (8) Che- 
shyre, Charles Caesar Cholmondeley, ad- 
mitted 3 May, 1765, left 1773. (9) Che- 
shyre, John, admitted 6 Sept., 1760, left 
1769. (10) Chichester, John, admitted 27 
Jan., 1764, left 1769. (11) Churchill, 
Joshua, admitted 17 Sept., 1763, left 1768. 
(12) Churchill, William, of Dorset, admitted 
25 June, 1756, left 1762. B. A. A.-L. 

Can any reader tell me the title and author 
of a work of fiction in which some of the 
chief characters were a giant, a dwarf, and 
an Irishman, and a prominent incident in 
the story was an exciting escape from a 
prison (or fort ?), in which the above- 
mentioned men took part, having drugged 
the guard ? 

The book was in existence fifteen years 
ago, and possibly still earlier, and was 
illustrated. I shall be very grateful for any 
help in finding this book. 


55, Vanbrugh Park, Blackheath, S.E. 

' Surrey ' it is stated that among the pic- 
tures at West Horsley Place was a portrait 
of John Dryden, described as " a Head, in 
an oval, with a large wig, surrounded by 
several mottoes from the Latin poets .... 
at the bottom on a scroll Par omnibus unus." 
Is the whereabouts of this picture known ? 

P. D. M. 

word seems to be generally pronounced in 
English verse as "galleon" a disyllable, 
with accent on the first. Thus Tenny- 
son : 

f hip after ship the whole night long 
Their high-built galleons came ; 
and Mr. John Masefield : 
Stately Spanish galleons coming from the Isthmus. 

The present writer, however, remembers 
that James Anthony Froude used to pro- 
nounce it as if written " galloon." Does 
this latter pronunciation occur anywhere in 
English verse ? L." M. H. 

11 S. X. JULY 11, 1914.] 


PANY. Can any of your readers tell me 
where to find an account of the Company 
of Merchant Adventurers and the Muscovy 
Company of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries ? I should like especially to find 
some lists of names of members. B. M. 

[Several works on the general history of the 
Muscovy Company were named at 10 S. vi. 252.] 

FILDIEU. At the French Be volution a 
Madame Fildieu with two sons and two 
daughters fled from France and landed in 
Devonshire. The family in England would 
be very glad to obtain any information 
possible as to the origin and history of the 
Fildieu family. Beplies may be sent direct' 

32, Annandale Road, Chiswick, W. 

WALL-PAPERS. Can any one refer me 
to any sources of information concerning 
the first designers of wall-papers in France 
and England, and also concerning the 
firms who first produced them ? Is it 
known whether any of the earliest French 
designs are preserved ? If so, where may 
they be seen ? HYLLARA. 

STAGS DROWN." A friend of mine recently 
quoted this proverb with the meaning 
" There is no smoke without fire." She 
has been familiar with it since her early 
cliildhood, which was spent under South 
Yorkshire and Hampshire influences. I 
desire to know whether the proverb is 
generally known. 

If only local, is it current in the neighbour- 
hood of the New Forest, or in the district 
round Wakefield, which was once a wood- 
land forming part of Bobin Hood's country ? 

M. P. 

countrywoman tells me that robins have a 
bad name in this neighbourhood (Bucking- 
hamshire). People believe that the young 
ones, when ready to fly, peck the mother- 
bird's eyes out. Is this belief generally 
known ? and if so, what traditional 
foundation for it is there ? 

2. Swallows. I was told not long ago by 
a farmer's daughter that, if a swallow's nest 
on a farm be taken, and the young destroyed, 
the cows on the farm will give no milk or 
yield blood instead of milk. She related an 
instance of this in her own home. Can 
any reader tell me of other recent cases 
of belief in this superstition ? 


AUTHOR WANTED. Who was the author 


*' Civil Polity : a Treatise concerning the Nature 
of Government, wherein the Reasons of that Great 
Diversity to be observed in the Customs, Manners, 
and Usages of Nations are Historically Explained : 
and Remarks made upon the Changes in our 
English Constitution ; and the differing Measures 
of our several Kin^s " (London, 1703) ? 



ALEXANDER INNES, D.D., was Preacher 
Assistant at St. Margaret's, Westminster, 
and published in 1728 ' An Enquiry into the 
Original of Moral Virtue. He was asso- 
ciated with George Psalmanazar, and it is 
stated that he was " Chaplain to a British 
Begiment in the pay of the Du'ch, and 
sta'ioned at Sluys." W T ho was he ? 

A. N. I. 

of Thomas Jekes, clerk, of Surrey, 1362, 
shows a shield with a cross paty accompanied 
by five roses. The legend is [DAT CRUCE 


The letters in brackets are broken away. 
Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' explain the 
legend and indicate its origin ? 


founder of The Fortnightly Review, and is 
said to have been born in Cock Street, 
Hitchin, in a house reputed to have belonged 
to his collateral ancestor, George Chapman 
the poet. 

Where can I obtain further particulars 
concerning him ? W. B. GERISH. 

[Frederic Chapman died 1 March, 1895. There 
are accounts of him in the First Supplement to 
the ' D.N.B ' and in Boase's ' Modern English 
Biography,' Supplement, Vol. I. Both give the 
place of his birth as Cork Street, Hitchin.] 

reference was made to a William Child of 
Blockley, Worcestershire, in the interesting 
letter from Sir Bobert Thrpckmorton (US. 
ix. 405). The family of Child seems to have 
settled at Northwick, near Blockley, in 
1320, and continued to reside there, cer- 
tainly till 1679, for in that year Thomas 
Child of Northwick was buried at Blockley. 
About that time they sold the manor, or 
more probably the lease of it, to Sir James 
Bushout, Bart. Can any of your readers 
k ndly tell me whether William Child (born 
at Bristol), au eminent doctor of music in 
the reign of Charles II., belonged to the 
Northwick family ? and also what connexion 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. JULY n, 1914. 

(if any) there was between the Childs of 
Northwick and Mr. Child the London 
banker, who purchased Upton House in 
the parish of Ratley, Warwickshire, in 1757, 
and whose daughter was married at Gretna 
Green to John, tenth Earl of Westmorland ? 

A. C. C. 

ix. 293.) Will PROF. BENSLY kindly indi- 
cate where his quotation, " The d d straw- 
berry at the bottom of the glass," is to be 
found ? 

I have heard it stated that strawberries 
in a " bowl " absorb alcohol. Is this the 
meaning ? Further information on the sub- 
ject would be gratefully received by 


MCJANNET SURNAME. Can any reader 
suggest the origin of the name McJannet ? 

It has been said that the name originated 
from Maclan, head of the Macdonalds of 
Glencoe, and that after the massacre one 
of the sons settled in Carrick, Ayrshire. 

R. M. HOGG. 

Irvine, Ayrshire. 



(US. ix. 489.) 

THESE are at Somerset House, and are 
described as 

" The Xon-Parochial Registers of Baptisms, Births, 
Burials or Deaths, aid in a few instances ol 
Marriages, being the Registers or records kept by 
various bodies and congregations of Nonconformists 
prior to the general system of registration begun in 

These include the Registers kept formerly 
at Dr. Williams' s Library, and dating from 
1742 ; at the Bunhill Fields burial-ground, 
from 1713 ; by the Society of Friends, and 
also at some foreign churches in England. 
By the Acts 3 and 4 Viet., cap. 92, and 
21 Viet., cap. 25, extracts from these 
Registers stamped with the seal of the 
General Register Office are accepted as 
evidence in all civil cases. 

In 1841 there was issued an official list 
of these Non-Parochial Registers, arranged 
under counties, and in 1857 there was printed 
a further Report on Non-Parochial Regis- 
ters. Both these publications are now out 
of print, and rarely turn up. They should, 
of course, be reprinted. 

Although Dr. Williams's Library has 
yielded up its chief Register, there are still 
lodged in Gordon Square (i.e., in that 
library) a large number of MSS. relating to 
Dissenters. These are reported upon iu 
the Hist. MSS. Comm. Report, iii. 365-8. 
It is as well to remember that the Friends 
or Quakers, with their usual care and admir- 
able arrangements, had. their Registers 
transcribed before yielding them up, with 
the result that at Devonshire House, 
Bishopsgate, E.G., it is possible to refer to 
any name by paying a small fee. I should 
like to make use of this opportunity to 
xpress an opinion, formed after some 
experience, that of all Dissenting bodies, 
the Friends are more ready to help 
students, and better equipped to do so, 
than any other sect. Nothing could exceed 
the courtesy which is at once extended by 
them to any genuine student. 

The Registers of the Friends, the Inde- 
pendents, and the Baptists are the oldest at 
Somerset House, and these begin at different 
seventeenth-century dates. The Bible Chris- 
tians begin as late as 1817 ; Lady Hunting- 
don's Connexion in 1752 ; the Primitive 
Methodists in 1813 ; the Wesleyans in 1772. 
Bunhill Fields Register begins in April, 1713, 
although the burial-ground was first used 
in 1665. Looked at from every point of 
view, it has been a benefit to have the Non- 
Parochial Registers lodged in London. They 
were carelessly looked after locally, and 
often strayed from the vestry rooms of 
the chapels into the hands of ministers 
and deacons. Very many are still thus 

The Dissenters have had some grievances 
with regard to these Registers. By the 
Stamp Act of 1783, 23 Geb. III., c. 71, a 
duty of 3d. was imposed upon every entry 
in the parish registers. The Dissenters were 
encouraged to hope that if their Registers 
were impressed with the Government stamp, 
they would be placed on an equality with, 
the Parish Registers. Upon this under- 
standing they consented to share the tax, 
and in 1785, 25 Geo. III., c. 75, the Stamp 
Act was extended to all Protestant Dis- 
senters. By a gross breach of faith, the 
privilege granting an official value to the 
Registers was withheld, although the fees 
were taken. Many years later (18 June, 
1838), after a Government inquiry had been 
held, the Commissioners appointed brought 
in a report recommending that about three 
thousand volumes of Non-Parochial Registers 
which they had collected and authenticated 
should be deposited with the Registrar- 



General, and should be made of official value. 
Those recommendations were carried into 
effect 10 Aug., 1840, 3 and 4 Viet., cap. 92. 
Another Cormaission was appointed later 
(I Jan., 1857), and the provisions of the Act 
of 1840 (supra) were extended in 1858 to 
265 other Registers which had been collected 
since 1838. 

As to fees, I believe they vary, and there 
have been reasonable complaints. A Con- 
gregational minister wrote to the papers 
a few years ago, stating the difficulty of 
consulting the registers of his own chapel 
lodged at Somerset House without paying 
the full fees. Another Dissenter wrote : 

" For the general search lasting two days they 
charged me a guinea, although I made special 
request to the Registrar General that my purpose 
was literary research." 

It is a pity that all Dissenters have not done 
as the Friends have done, and made copies 
of their Registers before parting with them. 


' Lists of Non-Parochial Registers and Records in 
the custody of the Registrar-General,' 1841. 

4 Report on Non-Parochial Registers,' 1857. 
Both these are Blue-books. 

' Observations on Parish Registers and the 
Marriages of Nonconformists, with the outlines of a 
Bill for establishing a more certain General Register 
of Marriages, liirths, and Deaths in each Parish,' 
London, 1819. 

Sims's ' Manual,' pp. 365 and onwards, is, 
as always, invaluable, and the same can 
certainly be said of Rye's ' Records and 
Record Searching,' 2nd ed., 1897. Cox's 
' Parish Registers in England ' has references, 
and Phillimore's ' How to Write the History 
of a Family, 'pp. 336-7, has titles of numerous 
Dissenting Registers which have been 
printed. Lyon Turner's ' Original Records 
relating to Nonconformists,' recently com- 
pleted, is a monumental work of immense 
value from the Indexes alone. Chester 
Waters's ' Parish Registers in England,' 
1887, has much information which I have 
found useful. In The Daily News, 18 and 
25 Dec., 1893, and 2 Jan., 1894, there was a 
correspondence of some importance upon 
Non-Parochial Registers ; and in January, 
1894, the subject was discussed in Parlia- 
ment (see Times reports, 5 Jan., 1894). 


187, Piccadilly, W. 

1. A vast majority, if not all that now 
exist, are at Somerset House under the 
Registrar-General. There is a full Calendar 
at the office, under counties. 

2. These are not indexed. 

3. One shilling is charged for every con- 
gregation's books consulted, and 2s. Id. for 
a certificate of an entry. I have a certifi- 
cate which runs : 

"William the twenty seventh son and thirty 
first child of Peter Magee baptized at Whitehaven 
May 30, 1756. The sd. Peter is 86 and his Wife 
50 year old. She is his 8th Wife." 

Surely a good 3*. Id. worth ! 

Makshufa, Harefield Road, Uxbrklge. 

" SPEAK TO ME, LORD BYRON " (11 S. ix. 
388). The line which L. G. R. asks for will 
be found in a ballad entitled ' Devil Byron,' 
by Ebenezer Elliott. This poem appeared 
on 23 Jan., 1847, in a publication known 
as The People's Journal, edited by John 
Sanders, and published at The People's 
Journal Offices, 69, Fleet Street. 

The poem has to do with the Lord Byron, 
father of the poet. In a Foreword of the 
ballad the poet relates the following : 

" I had the facts on which this ballad is founded' 
from old Luke Adams, a forgeman, who had 
worked many years, when young, in a small 
charcoal Bloomery near Newstead Abbey ; but 
I have not adhered strictly to his narrative. The 
words uttered by the lady (she was quite sane) 
were, ' Speak to me, my Lord ! Do speak to 
me, my Lord ! ' uttering which words with pas- 
sionate calmness, she was often seen on horse- 
back, accompanying her Brother in his drives. 
She was pitied, respected, and must I add ? 
slandered. I am not willing to record scandals 
and to hint at them is to record them ; I have 
alluded to them, but not to give them credence. 
The character which Luke Adams gave me of the 
old Lord of Newstead differs from the received 
and accredited one." 

There is a very lurid illustration to this 
poem by William Harvey. " Devil Byron " 
is riding on what might be the box seat of 
an old-fashioned curricle with four wheels, 
driving two horses, while his sister rides by 
his side with clasped hands, and an imploring 
expression on her face. Evidently a storm 
is raging, and the storm fiend is seen at the 
back with upraised hands, while the lightning 
is playing round. The horses are galloping 
furiously, apparently uncontrolled by any 

If L. G. R. will send me his address, I will 
send him my copy to have a look at. 

100, Lothian Road, Edinburgh. 

WJLDGOOSE (11 S. ix. 330, 397, 438). 
John Wildegoos, a member of the Company 
of Carpenters in 1651, is described as an 
"old Master" in 1664. He lent 4001. to 
the Company prior to the latter date. 



" CONDAMINE " (11 S. ix. 511). According 
to Joanne's ' Dictionnaire de la France ' 
(vol. ii. Paris, 1892, p. 1044), this term (with 
the variants " condomine " and " conta- 
m'ne ") conies from the Low Latin word 
" condomina " (i.e., cum domino), and desig- 
nates uncultivated land which has been 
handed over by its owner to some one to 
clear and put in order, the profits being 
shared between the lord and his tenant who 
held by this feudal tenure in s'lort, the 
well-known " metayer " system. 



"Condamine" is derived from "campus 
domini." A relative of mine married a 
gentleman named De la Condamine, a 
descendant of Charles Marie de la Conda- 
mine, and he and others have told me that 
this is the derivation of Condamine. Is it 
possible that one of the Condamines was once 
the property of a religious house ? I see in 
a gazetteer of the world that a Condamine 
is a town in Queensland, co. Bulwer, 240 
miles west of Brisbane, and there is a river of 
that name there, a head stream of the River 
Darling. It would be interesting to find 
why that name was given to those Queens- 
land localities. M.A.OXON. 

MRS. HARTOP (11 S. ix. 29, 94, 372, 452, 497). 
The difficulties raised by the Editor at 
11 S. ix. 452 occurred to me before I made 
my inquiry about the passage in The Wolver- 
hampton Chronicle. If Hartop's third wife 
really was an illegitimate daughter of the 
pseudo-Protector, she probably was a very 
old woman when he married her, and thie 
marriage must have been a fortune-hunter's 
match. Cash to the extent of 500Z. was a 
considerable fortune in the seventeenth 
century : quite enough to live upon. That is 
why I drew attention to the case of Thomas 
Philpot, who in 1654 signed his printed 
petition to Cromwell " your son-in-law 
Thomas Philpot," with the intention, I have 
no doubt, of being disagreeable. 

Cromwell's legitimate children are all well 
known, and this claim of relationship must 
have meant that Philpot had married an 
illegitimate daughter of Cromwell. 

Those who are familiar with the dreadful 
way in which eighteenth- century writers 
often contrive to confuse the most ordinary 
issues will realize that Hartop may very well 
have said that his third wife was a daughter 
of an illegitimate daughter of Cromwell. She 

may really have been Philpot's child by 
Cromwell's illegitimate daughter. 

Thomas Philpot was " Corrector of the 
Press " to several very important printers 
up to and after the Restoration. I gave 
an outline biography of him in the chapter 
on the 'Beginnings of Journalism' in vol. vii. 
of ' The Cambridge History of English 
Literature,' with a reference note to my 

The proper line of inquiry would be, in the 
first instarice, to find out the entries of 
Jonathan Hartop's marriages. Probably 
the earliest of these took place in London. 
After the Restoration Thomas Philpot was 
described as of " Snow Hill," London. He 
was M.A. of Cambridge, and had also been a^ 
schoolmaster in Kent, which is why I added 
a caution against confusing him with the 
Thomas Philpot or Philipot of the ' D.N.B.,' 
who was a Kentish man. 


A " TRAWN CHAER " (11 S. IX. 488). 

Thrown chairs, i.e., chairs constructed of 
turned or twisted bars, were in fairly common 
use to the end of the sixteenth century. The 
original sense of the O.E. word thrawen, to 
twist, is retained by potters. In an inven- 
tory of " the howshold stuff e at Browsholme," 
dated 28 Dec., 1591, " in the schole cham- 
ber," appears, " Item, one wiker chayre and 
a thrawen chayre viijs." The " thrawen 
chayre " is still here. 

I understand that a good specimen has 
been recently added to the collection at the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 


Browsholme Hall, near Clitheroe. 

A " thrown chair," i.e., one turned in a 
la^he. See ' N.E.D.' under ' Thrown.' 

T rp T^ 


MOORE OF WINSTER (11 S. ix. 490). 
The late Mr. T. N. Ince contributed a number 
of pedigrees to The Reliquary, but I fear the 
one MR. SEROCOLD names is not among them. 
If, however, he has not referred to this 
excellent journal, the following information 
may be useful to him. On p. 45 of vol. iv. 
is a copy of the will of Thomas Eyre of 
Rowtor, dated 2 Sept., 1717. By this will 
the testator appoints his " trusty & well 
beloved Friend Robert Moore ye elder of 
Winster " one of his trustees. On p. 224 
of vol. vi. is a list of baptisms, marriages, 
and burials of persons of the name of Smedley 
extracted from the registers of Melbourne, 
co. Derby. These commence in 1655, and 
end 1808. CHARLES DRURY. 


MILITARY MACHINES (US. ix. 430, 471). 
I am extremely obliged to your corre- 
spondent for his kind help, but my query 
still remains unanswered as to particulars of 
penthouses and galleries in John Gray's 
time (1731). As they were classed with 
mantlets and blinds, and like these were 
said to be similar to musculus, pluteus, 
testudo, and vinea, they were evidently of a 
movable kind. As an old sapper and 
miner, I am fully acquainted with every- 
thing connected with modern immovable 
galleries and huts put up for an army. 

Since sending in my query I have found 
descriptions and drawings of mantlets and 
blinds in ' The Military Engineer,' com- 
posed by M. Le Blond, 2 vols., an English 
translation of which appeared in 1759, 
hence very near to John Gray's time. More 
modern Military Dictionaries, such as Major 
James's (4th ed., 1876), give an explanation 
of penthouses and galleries, but these are 
fixtures. L. L. K. 


' Encaustic Tiles and Recent Discoveries at 
Launceston Priory.' Arch. Cambrensis, Fifth 
Series, v. 13. 

' Flooring and Mural Tiles.' Hulme's ' Birth 
of Ornament,' 1893. 

' Manufacture of Tiles.' Art Journal, 1895. 

' Pavements of Figured Tiles.' " Gentleman's 
Magazine Library " (' Ecclesiology '), 1894. 

Greenfield (B."\V.), 'Encaustic Tiles of Middle 
Ages, especially South Hampshire,' 1892. 

Henniker ( J. H. M. ), ' Two Letters on the 
Origin of Norman Tiles,' 1794. 

Shaw (H.), 'Specimens of Tile Pavements,' 

The last three books are in the London 
Library. WM. H. PEET. 

(11 S. ix. 488). (4) ?Balph Carr, s. of 
Ralph of Whickham, co. Durham, arm. 
Christ Church, matric. 12 May, 1785, aged 
17, B.A. 1789 ; Merton Coll., M.A. 1792 ; 
of Stannington, Northumberland, and Bar- 
rowpoint Hill, Middlesex ; barrister-at-law, 
Middle Temple, 1796 ; died 5 March, 1837, 
aged 67. A. R. BAYLEY. 

JOHN CURWOOD (11 S. ix. 430, 498). 
Some interesting personal impressions of 
this learned counsel are to be found in the 
late Serjeant Robinson's ' Bench and Bar.' 
Curwood at one time shared with Mr. 
Adolphus the bulk of the most lucrative 
business at the Old Bailey, but some time 
before he relinquished practice he had been 
to a great extent ousted by younger men. 
According to Serjeant Robinson, he was 

blest with a very extravagant wife, and was 
the defendant, under an assumed name, in 
the case of Seaton v. Benedict, which estab- 
lished the non-liability of a husband for 
debts contracted by a wife who is properly 
supplied with necessaries by her husband. 
Robertsbridge, Sussex. 

(US. ix. 450, 493). MR. F. A. CAVENAGH'S 
first quotation comes from the well-known 
English folk-song ' The Beggar.' This may 
be found in Mr. Cecil Sharp's ' Folk-Songs 
from Somerset,' pt. iv., where the first 
verse and the chorus go thus : 

I'd just as soon be a beggar as a king, 

And the reason I '11 tell you for why ; 
A king cannot swagger, nor drink like a beggar,. 
Nor be half so happy as I. 

Let the back and the sides go bare, myboys,- 

Let the hands and the feet gang cold ; 
But give to the belly, boys, beer enough, 

Whether it be new or old. 

Mr. Sharp has a long note on the song. The- 
chorus is almost the same as that of "I 
cannot eat but little meat." 


ix. 49, 298). I find that the words quoted 
by me at the first reference occur in a letter- 
written by Voltaire at Ferney on 12 Sept., 
1761, to M. de Burigny, who had sent him 
a book on Bossuet (' Lettres Choisies de 
Voltaire,' tome troisieme, p. 36, Paris,. 
1792). HERTHA HAMILTON'S apposite extract 
from ' Le Pyrrhonisme de 1'Histoire ' shows 
that the author still retained, when compos- 
ing a serious work, the opinion he had 
hastily expressed in a letter. 


235, 454). Godsmark, tobacconist, Mickle- 
gate, York, still holds out the bait of " Se- 
gars " upon his sign. The spelling of the 
word cigar was not fixed until the Victorian 
Age. Segar and seegar seemed to John Bull's 
ear in the eighteenth century to be the 
best phonetic rendering of cigarro. Spelling 
reformers may, perhaps, revert to that 
opinion. ST. S WITHIN. 

CATHOLICS BEFORE 1837 (11 S. ix. 469). 
The record of the marriage of two Frenclt 
emigres in 1795 might very possibly be 
found at the old Sardinian Chapel, the 
Registers of which are now, I believe, at 
St. Anselm and St. Cecilia's Church, Kings- 

NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. x. JULY n, 1914. 

\\ ay. or at St. Patrick's, Soho, where, I 
think, the Registers date back beyond 1795. 

The Registers of the Bavarian Chapel, now 
the Church of the Assumption, Warwick 
Street, go back to 1797, so it would be 
worth examining them. 


L'nthank Road, Norwich. 

WILLIAM BAKER (11 S. ix. 369), THOMAS 
CRANE (10 S. vi. 189), and Robert Watton 
were each of them admitted twice to a 
Fellowship at Winchester College. Baker 
was admitted first on 16 Feb., 1537/8, and 
must have resigned before 1 Oct., 1543, when 
he was admitted again in succession to 
William Sparkman. He resigned again be- 
fore 6 July, 1549, when Crane came in as 
his successor. That was Crane's second ad- 
mission, for he had been admitted previo\isly 
on 19 Nov., 1548, on the death of Elisha 
Warham, but had resigned before 8 March, 
1548/9, when Mathew Cole succeeded him. 
Robert Watton was first admitted on 26 July, 
1561, when a vacancy had arisen 

" per deprivationem domini Thome Crane recu- 
santis subscribere quibusdam articulis in visi- 
tatione Episcopi Winton. exhibit is." 

In the December of the same year Watton 
resigned on the 19th, but he was readmitted 
two days later as successor to William 
Adkins, who had died on the 18th. On the 
24th John Taylor was admitted to the 
Fellowship which Watton had vacated on 
the 19th. 

The above facts come mainly from 
the College Register called " O," which 
contains the notarial acts relating to the 
swearing"- in of the Fellows. This little- 
known Register is marred by some unfortu- 
nate gaps and omissions ; but, even so, it 
gives much information not to be found in the 
Register of Fellows, which is more often 
consulted, and which occurs in the book 
called ' Liber Albus.' 

William Sparkman, who is mentioned 
above, is not in the list of Fellows which 
Kirby printed in his ' Winchester Scholars,' 
and, so far as the two Registers referred to 
above are concerned, I can find nothing 
about him beyond the fact that he ceased to 
be Fellow (cause not disclosed) in 1543 
[Reg. O). It appears, however, from the 
Bursars' Account Roll of 1539-40, under 

Stip.-ndia socionim," that he was ad- 
mitted Fellow on John Chubbe's death in 
1 540. T should be glad to learn what became 
of Sparkman after 1543. 

Another Fellow who is not in Kirby's list 
though in both the Registers, is 'Walter 

Colmere, M.A., of Marshwood Vale, Dorset. 
He was admitted together with John Scott 
on 2 Sept., 1554 (when there were vacancies 
due to resignations by Nicholas Smith and 
James Bay ley), and he resigned before 
31 Aug., 1558, when John Dolber succeeded 
him. He is presumably identical with the 
Walter Colmer who graduated M.A. at 
Oxford in March, 1541/2 (see Foster, and also 
Boase) ; but the record apparently does 
not name the Oxford College to which he 
belonged. Is anything known of him after 
1558 ? 

The troubles which arose at Winchester in 
1559, upon the passing of the Act of Uni- 
formity, have already been noticed in these 
columns (10 S. ii. 45, 115). So far as I can. 
ascertain from the College records, Crane 
was the only Fellow who actually suffered 
deprivation for recusancy. 

A later Thomas Crane, who became a 
Winchester Scholar under the election of 1603, 
is sadly lost in Kirby's book, because he is 
there miscalled " Thomas Evans " (p. 161). 

H. C. 

LETHE : PLAIN OR RIVER ? (11 S. ix. 326.) 
Your correspondent MR. F. W. ORDE 
WARD may, perhaps, be surprised to learn 
that Lethe Plain, AI^TJS TreSiov, is, and 
was, perfectly well so understood by scholars 
even in the Middle Ages. The fact that 
well-read Grecians among Roman poets, 
such as Vergil, Tibullus, or Horace, mis- 
understanding mythology, made errors is 
surely not astounding any more than 
Shakespeare speaking of clocks in his 
plays of ' Julius Caesar ' and ' Coriolamis.' 

Omnia uel medium fiant mare 
for Theocritus's 

TTO.VTO. 6" fvaXXa yevoiVTO 
is known to boys of much less attainment 
than Macaulay's schoolboy. 

Your correspondent might consult the 
Ravenna Scholia to Aristophanes 's ' Frogs ' 
(B.C. 405), 1. 166 (188) Dindorfs edition: 
" Ti's eis | T^> Avy$7j 7re8iov ; " ywpiov ev AiSov 
Ai'6\y*os <f>r)<riv, a place or district in (the 
realm of) Hades. 

We cannot afford to neglect works such as 
Stephanus or Tzetzes or Du Cange ; but 
Liddell and Scott have not made error as 
to Lethe, even in 1869, as the Editor has 
pointed out. 

The date of Plato's ' Politeia ' compared 
with the ' Frogs ' would hardly solve the 
question. Your correspondent may re- 
member that the Greeks were heirs to a 

n s. x. JULY 11, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

mythology which had its roots in many 
lands. As to Plato's River " Ameles," I 
should like to hear of the most recent recen- 
sion of the Plato ' Republic ' MSS. 

It must be remembered that Plato went 
to Egypt, and I should not be surprised to 
find evidence that the River Ameles hid 
some such term as Amenti or Amentes, the 
Egyptian name for the Western Land, the 
bourne of the dead. 

Further, I should incline to see a joke in 
TO A-/y#?;? irtBiov, the plain of the River 
Lethe, whereon only dead men can walk 
i.e., water. I should not reject a theory that 
Lethe river is sound mythology after all. 

My old friend and master the late C. J. 
Cornish when at St. Paul's was always in 
the habit of writing on the papers of boys 
whose Latin verse he was correcting Ovid's 
line from the ' Metamorphoses ' : 

Rivus aquse Lethes crepitantibus unda lapillis. 
He and that line live in my memory together. 

Perth, W.A. CECIL WEN - 

[Readers of Ovid will remember that the text 
actually has 

Rivus aquse Lethes, per quern cum murmure labens 
Invitat somnos orepitautibus unda lapillis.] 

" RAGTIME "(US. ix. 488). In American 
slang to " rag " a melody is to syncopate a 
normally regular tune. " Ragtime " may be 
said to be a strongly syncopated melody 
superimposed on a strictly regular accom- 
paniment, and it is the combination of these 
two rhythms that gives it its character. A 
very exhaustive disquisition on " ragtime " 
music, which has been popular in America 
for over twenty-five years, was printed in 
The Times of 8 Feb., 1913. 

[MR. ARCHIBALD SPARKE also thanked for reply.] 

HEART-BURIAL (US. viii. 289, 336, 352, 
391, 432, 493 ; ix. 38, 92, 234, 275, 375, 
398, 473). In the Archives Nationales, 
Paris, are certificates for the heart-burials 
of Henrietta Maria (1669), James II. (1701), 
Marie d'Este (1718), and Marie Louise, 
daughter of James II. (1712). These burials 
took place at the Couvent de la Visitation 
at Chaillot. Henrietta Maria's body is 
biiried in the church of the Hopital du Val- 
de-Grace. This was founded as a Bene- 
dictine monastery by Anne of Austria, and 
was converted by Napoleon I. into a mili- 
tary hospital. James II. 's body was buried 
in the Church of St. Germain-en-Laye, 
where he died. 

The Couvent de la Visitation was founded 
at Chaillot by Henrietta .Maria. Marie 

d'Este supported it, and there is at the 
Archives a most interesting correspondence 
between her and the Mother Superior. 
But I do not know the site of the Couvent. 
The only " Chaillot " with which I am 
acquainted is a district lying between the 
Etoile and the Seine, and the only convent 
of which I could find traces was in Rue 
Christophe Colomb. That convent was 
formerly called Notre Dame de Sagesse, 
and the building is now used for an " ecole 
paroissiale." Can some reader of ' N. & Q.' 
tell me more about this convent ? 
Extracts from certificates : 

(a) Henrietta Maria "nous a ete remise le 

coeur et les entrailles de la reine d'Angleterre, par 
1'ordre du roi et de Monsieur." 

(b) James II. "Je, sous-sign^ Maitre des cer^- 
mouies de France, certifie que le cceur de tr6s-haut, 
tres-puissant, et tres - excellent Prince Jacques 
second Roy de la grande Bretagne decede" i St. 
Germain-en-Laye le 16 du present mois de Septem- 
bre, ayant esti miz dans une boete de plomb ren- 
fermtte danz une autre boete de vermeil dore, j'ay 
eu ordre du Roy dele t'aire transporter au couvent 
des Religieuseux de S te Marie a Chaillot, suivant 
le desir du Roy d'Angleterre d&'unt et de la 
Reyne d'Angleterre son Epouse, que la nuit 
du 17 au 18 du d. mois il a esti remiz par un des 
Aumoniers de sa Majeste Britannique entre les 
mains de la Superieure du d. Couvent, en presence 
de M. le Due de Barwik, des principaux officiers du 
Roi et de moy," &c. 

I-:. M. F. 

DE GLAMORGAN (US. viii. 468 ; ix. 153, 
476). Respecting the pedigree of this 
family, I should like to draw the attention 
of those interested to two books which, I 
think, throw some further light upon it. 
The first is ' Historical Notes on Parts 
of South Somerset,' by the late John 
Batten, F.S.A., 1894, where, in the early 
history of Brympton, there is a good deal 
about the De Lisle and Glamorgan families. 
The second book is a recent privately printed 
history of the Baildon family by W. 
Paley Baildon, F.S.A., in which the con- 
nexions of the Lisle, Stopham, and Gla- 
morgan families are very ably treated. 
have access to these works, I shall be happy 
to lend them. E. A. FRY. 

227, Strand, W.C. 

CLACK SURNAME (11 S. ix. 428, 494). 
On the very day on which the reply 
appeared I found at the Record Office (W.O. 
13 : 4166), among the Peterhead volunteers 
of 1803, one " George Clackie." The Scots 
word " clake " means a gossip. 


123, Pall Mall, S.W. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. x. JULY n, 1914. 

' THE ETHICS OF THE DUST ' (11 S. ix. 289, 
336). 4. When Buskin referred to Richter's 
" lovely illustrations of the Lord's Prayer," 
he probably had in mind the German artist 
(Adrian) Ludwig Bichter, 1803-84, and not 
the painter of English birth, but German 
parentage, Henry James Bichter, 17721857, 
suggested by your correspondent MR. 
HOWARD S. PEARSON. Ludwig Bichter 
was probably the most popular German 
illustrator of his day. Among other works 
he illustrated Schiller's ' Lied von der 
Glocke,' Goethe's ' Hermann und Dorothea,' 
Hebel's ' Alemannische Gedichte,' the collec- 
tions of fairy-tales by Musaus and Bechstein, 
and ' The Vicar of Wakefield,' which, by the 
way, has always been a favourite English 
novel with the Germans. His illustrations 
of the Lord's Prayer which are indeed 
" lovely " appeared for the first time in 
1856 ; the series consists of nine woodcuts. 
Ludwig's work is typically German, and as 
homely as some of the fairy-tales which he 
has so charmingly illustrated. The sim- 
plicity of his style reminds one of Diirer. I 
may add that his ' Lebenserinnerungen 
eines deutschen Malers,' which appeared 
posthumously, is the most amiable auto- 
biography that it has been my pleasure to 
read. In the city of Dresden a monument 
has been erected in honour of its beloved son. 

Madison, Wisconsin. 

(US. ix. 510). On further investigation, I 
think, your correspondent will find that 
"Master" was a title of office, and 
" Gentleman " a title of social rank. The 
case he cites of the overseer of fortifications 
evidently refers to a Quarter Master. A 
similar title of office was that of Master 
at Arms. In the Navy there were such 
titles of office as Quarter Master, Sailing 
Master, &c. In civil life an employer of 
labour of any sort was a "Master." At the 
old English Universities the title belonged 
especially to those who graduated as 
Masters of Arts, &c. The head of the 
college was "The Master" par excellence. 
So it was with the schools. There was 
one "Master"; the other teachers were 
known by another name. In all these 
cases the title was one of office, and it 
belonged to those who held the office 
whatever their social origin might have 

The title of " Gentleman " was different. 
It referred primarily tp birth] and social 

position. There were certain occupations 
which gave the title to those who followed 
them. The Army, the Navy, and the Law 
were three such occupations. It used to 
be said that a lawyer was a gentleman by 
Act of Parliament. It meant that the 
Legislature looked upon a lawyer as having 
the status of a gentleman, and designated 
him as such in its proceedings, quite irre- 
spective of his birth. 

The great difference seems to be that a 
man can be born a gentleman, but he 
cannot be born a Master. As there is 
no caste system in England, a man by 
his ability or intellectual aptitude has always 
been able to climb into the higher grades ; 
and this process was going on in the seven- 
teenth century just as it is going on now. 

F. P. 

RIAGES (11 S. ix. 470, 518). The tradition 
in the Dunmore family is that the Duke of 
Sussex was bribed by the payment of his 
debts to repudiate Lady Augusta Murray. 
The very dissimilar treatment of Lady 
Cecilia Buggin (nicknamed " Duchess of 
Nevertheless ") was attributed to Whig 
influence at Court. 

Some authorities hold that Col. D'Este 
had a rightful claim to the throne of Hanover, 
the Boyal Marriage Act affecting only the 
succession to the English crown. 

G. W. E. B. 

The Boyal Marriage Act was one of 
expediency to safeguard the Boyal family, 
and so many of the sons of George III. tried 
to evade it that the King found himself 
forced into a very strict observance of the 
Act, for he saw the danger of complications 
with subjects when his son or sons came to 
the throne. It was also expediency, tem- 
pered by affection, which led Queen Victoria 
to disregard the Act in the case of her uncle, 
the Duke of Sussex. She knew that he 
would never come to the throne, that no 
children would result from the union, and 
that he had from her babyhood shown more 
thought for her than had all the other uncles 
together. Though Sussex joined his royal 
brothers in their jealousy of Prince Albert, 
he was always the first to give way to Her 
Majesty's desires. When the trouble about 
the Prince's precedence occurred in the 
House, he was quick to seize the opportunity 
by sending a message to the Queen that he 
desired an important favour, and Her 
Majesty at once guessed that this was in 
connexion with Lady Cecilia Underwoods 



Whatever the Queen's first feelings about it 
were, the Duke and Lady Cecilia, with 
whom he had been living for years, were 
speedily married, and in April of the same 
year the Queen conferred the title of Duchess 
of Inverness upon her uncle's wife. From 
that time the Duke gave no annoyance to the 
Queen ; even the sight of the young Prince 
sitting in a special chair next the throne at 
the opening of Parliament did not draw a 
word from him, though all his world ex- 
pected a protest. CLARE JERROLD. 

' THE TIMES ' : BANANAS (US. ix. 503). 
The statement of The Times as to the early 
importation of bananas to the United States 
does not strike me as quite correct. I was 
born in the summer of 1850 near New York, 
and lived in that city (save when at school 
in New Hampshire) till the summer of 1864, 
when I came to Europe. Now I distinctly 
recollect that at some time during those 
fourteen years probably in the late fifties 
or the early sixties bananas were very 
common in New York, and I used to go to 
market in the early morning with my father 
to buy them for breakfast. We often did 
this, so that more than " a few bunches " 
must have been imported to New York 
long before 1864. W. A. B. COOLIDGE. 

LOCH CHESNEY (US. ix. 389, 433, 495). 
The surname Chesney still occurs in Gallo- 
way, but it is not common. The only person 
of that name mentioned in ' The County 
Directory ' of Scotland is " James Chesney, 
Kirkmagill, Stoneykirk, Wigtownshire." The 
mention of Stoneykirk reminds one that the 
name has nothing to do with stones. It is 
a dedication to St. Stephen (who, indeed, 
was stoned to death). " Steenie," being the 
familiar form of Stephen in Lowland Scots, 
became corrupted into " Staney," which 
being misunderstood, it was thought genteel 
to write, as in English, " Stoney." 



S. ix. 510). Through the courtesy of Stubbs' 
Mercantile Offices (Stubbs, Ltd.), which is 
the correct title, I am enabled to inform 
BRADSTOW that Perry's Trade Protection 
Offices are the oldest of the kind in the world. 
Business was commenced some time towards 
the end of the eighteenth century, and it is 
believed that copies of the Gazette issued by 
this concern, containing notices of insolven- 
cies published prior to 1800, are still in 
existence. W. R. Perry, Ltd., is the present 

style of the agency, which is carried on in 
Bush Lane, Cannon Street. Stubbs', Ltd., 
was founded in 1836 by the amalgamation 
of several small businesses. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

Of societies of this kind, one of the largest 
and best known is the London Association 
for the Protection of Trade, whose head- 
offices are at 66, Berners Street, W. Estab- 
lished in 1842, and affiliated with 112 Mutual 
Societies in the United Kingdom, it has a 
membership of nearly 50,000, and is managed 
by an unpaid Commercial Committee, who 
are elected annually by the members. 


Fair Park, Exeter. 

509). Camden Place, Chislehurst, became 
the property of Mr. N. W. J. Strode in 1860. 
The new owner, who had been a friend of 
Louis Napoleon during the latter's early 
sojourn in England, partially rebuilt and 
greatly improved the house, taking as his 
pattern the best French work of the eigh- 
teenth century. 

After Sedan, Mr. Strode, on hearing that 
England was to be the place of refuge of the 
Imperial family, at once placed the house at 
the disposal of the Empress, and there she 
arrived in December, 1870, Napoleon joining 
her in March, 1871. 

The house dates from the time of Lord 
Chancellor Camden, and the place had early 
associations with the historian William 

8, Queen Square, Leeds. 

I remember having read in La Lecture 
pour Tons (Hachette & Cie., Paris, Londres), 
within the past eight months, an article on 
Camden House, Chislehurst, in 1871, by 
M. Auguste Fillon, preceptor to the Prince 
Imperial, in which he makes mention of Mr. 
Strode ; but I am writing this severely from 
memory. EDWARD WEST. 

STANES (US. ix. 508). According to Lewis, 
' Topographical Diet, of England,' 1831, 
Balne is a township of Snaith, which latter 
place is seemingly called the manor. In a 
modern county atlas there is a railway 
station at Balne. 

In the fifteenth century there was a 
manor held by a certain man named 
Goldington, called after him, in Lidlington 
or Litlington, Beds. M.A.OxoN. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [iis. x. JL-LV 11,1914. 

ALECK ABRAHAM-; aayfl at the above reference 
that " the bridge will disappear unregrettecl 
and unsung."' If your correspondent will 
look in Mr. J. Ashby-Sterry's last volume, 
' The River Rhymer,' he will find the latter 
condition is assuredly unfulfilled. At p. 230 
he will discover a charming lyrical picture of 
the bridge and its surroundings in its last 
days, as well as ample reference to the 
interesting Dickensian associations con- 
nected with it. I observe, however, that the 
Rhymer makes no allusion to the steamboat 
pier which years ago was attached to one of 
the buttresses of the bridge. DUMPS. 

WINDOWS (11 S. ix. 508). Following this 
statement of my friend MR. ALECK ABRA- 
HAMS, it may be mentioned that, whatever is 
the custom in this country-, in Paris the news- 
papers continue to give full reports of news 
in their windows as it arrives. For instance, 
the Matin, a journal of large circulation, 
with offices in a prominent position in the 
French capital, has crowds all day outside, 
reading the many messages displayed, and 
inspecting the pictures also on 'view of 
topical events and persons. 


(11 S. ix. 489). I should think the Calverts 
mentioned were connected with the Calverts 
of Albury, Brent Pelham, and Furneaux 
Pelham, Herts. Chauncy states that the 
Calverts of Herts were a branch of the 
ancient family of the Calverts of Lancashire. 
Many of the Calverts are buried in Albury 
Church vault. M.A. 

LEVIATHANS (11 S. viii. 506; ix. 55, 116, 
158, 298). See The Illustrated Times, 1859, 
in which, especially in the July-December 
volume, are many interesting prints and 
much letterpress. 

270, 314, 375, 435, 511). At the last refer- 
ence a reply of mine appeared in which I 
said, concerning the epitaph of Horacio 
Pallayicine, "The following is an exact 
copy." As it appears it is not exact. 
This is probably owing to some accident 
or to faulty type. The last two lines of 
the epitaph should read : 



[The type was correctly set, but two or three 
letters were broken during printing.] 

Jlofcs on BBooIts, 

London. By Sir Laurence Gomme. (Williams & 

Norgate, 7*. 6rf. net.) 
London Survivals. By P. H. Ditchfield. (Methuen 

& Co., 10s. 6d. net.) 

WORKS on London and its surroundings multiply- 
apace. Only the other week we reviewed two 
books on Chelsea, and to-day we have these further 
contributions to the history of London. 

Anything written by Sir Laurence Gomme on 
London is sure to receive a hearty welcome. In 
his book on ' The Governance of London ' (1007) 
he dealt with a newly discovered aspect of the 
question of origins; in 'The Making of London/ 
published in 1912, he attempted to apply the results 
of this study to the evolution of the city ; and in this 
his latest book he deals with a part of the subject 
which is only incidentally touched upon in the two- 
previous works, and claims to have discovered the 
great fact of historical continuity conscious and 
effective continuity underlying the main issuer 
of London life throughout all its changes. As the 
result of his investigations he maintains that " the 
continuity springs from the city-state of Roman. 
Londinium, is carried through the hundred years 
of historical silence, is handed on to the London 
of Anglo-Saxon times, proceeds through the great 
period of Plantagenet rule, runs deep down under 
the preponderating mass of Tudor and Stuart 
changes, and comes out in the open when the 
Georgian statesmanship broke away the blocking 

Sir Laurence acknowledges that " the con- 
tinuity thus revealed is not unchanging through- 
out the centuries. Each age modifies its form ; 
or rather its form is modified by the different 
forces which have constantly worked upon 
it " ; but he asserts that " the ideal of con- 
tinuity comes from Roman London and from 
Roman Augusta, and it has never lost touch with 
the realities. Each age has possessed the feeling 
for continuity, has expressed itself in terms 
belonging to itself. It is only the terms which 

have been altered The material was different, 

but the undying ideal was always the same." 

The author is aware that there will be opposi- 
tion to such a point of view, and an opposition 
not easy to meet, coming as it does from " the 
schools which have so long been dominated by 
the sweeping generalities of Freeman and his 
followers." He says that the story he has to tell 
" differs altogether from that hitherto told," for 
it includes masses of material which have until 
now been ignored. In the present work he has 
but one word to say about " the tradition of 
London " ; he could not omit this from his 
evidence, and he could not complete it, for it will 
make a book by itself, and we are glad to know 
that he means to publish it soon. He gives in 
the text of the present work a summary sufficient 
for immediate purposes, expressing a conviction 
that " the completed study will satisfy many that 
the position he takes up for London is historically 

The last chapter, ' The Greatness that is 
London,' refers to its magnificent development, 
which has never been at the bidding of outside 
forces, for " its whole history shows it to be a 

ii s. x. JULY 11, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


living organism at every stage of its exhausting 
life." " Neither monarch nor noble has had a 
hand in its making." Whatever the future may 
bring, London, the author predicts, " will be the 
centre, as she has been the centre all these cen- 
turies, of the new institutions which will come into 
existence. It will not be a small uncared-for 
London, not a London shrinking within its walls, 
and commanding nothing but the fragments of its 
former greatness the greatness that was London. 
She will be a great London with a territorium 
stretching from the Thames to the sea [we hope 
not], endowed with powers of self-government 
within the empire to which she belongs." 

There are twenty-four illustrations. We much 
wish that the compiling of the Index had been 
more thorough. 

Mr. Ditchfield, in a series of pleasant rambles, 
takes us through the quaint streets of the City, 
and points out the treasures of beauty and 
antiquity that still survive. The wanderings do 
not extend far beyond the demesne of the Cor- 
poration, and most of the illustrations (114 in 
number) by Mr. E. L. W T ratten have been 
sketched within the area of the City. The con- 
stant references made in our pages to vanishing 
London show how rapidly old landmarks are 
disappearing, and we are grateful to Mr. Ditchfield 
for these descriptions and sketches of places, 
some of which will in course of time become mere 
matters of history. 

The author begins with a quest for the earliest 
relics to be found of London civilization. He 
does not concern himself about Celtic London, 
but contents himself with searching for Roman 
London, the first object looked for being 
the Roman wall. The survey is begun at 
the Tower, where among the remains of the 
Wardrobe Tower, close to the White Tower, there 
is a portion with some mediaeval building attached 
to it. This was long concealed by modern brick- 
work, and eventually it was found that the wall 
had continued further south. " From the Tower 
it ran northwards across the moat, through 
Tower Hill (though no signs appear above the 
ground) to Trinity Place, where we see a large 
portion from the level of the street. It has been 
repaired, and a roof has been placed over the top 
to preserve it." Northwards, a considerable 
portion of the wall is to be found in Barber's 
Bonded Warehouses, Cooper's Row. Mr. Ditch- 
field was permitted to examine this, which forms 
part of the eastern wall of the great warehouse 
and vaults. "Its height here is 35 ft., and we climb 
stairs and descend into cellars, and inspect each 
part of this magnificent stretch of 1 12 ft. ' In the 
basement it is 8 ft. thick, and entirely Roman. 
" That part which is displayed on the ground and 
upper floors is mediseval, and you can see the 
rampart, along which the guard walked, protected 
by a bulwark." In Crutched Friars, No. 1 has 
been named " Roman Wall House," where a 
perfect piece of the wall was discovered which 
forms the foundation of the neighbouring houses. 
Mr. Ditchfield then traces the wall to the site of 
Christ's Hospital, where, during the erection of 
the new Post Office, a fine part of the wall was 
discovered beneath the ground. Steps have been 
made to lead to it, so as to facilitate inspection of 
this piece. The wall proceeds southwards, "run- 
ning probably through Printing House Square 
towards the river." 

Wo must leave the author's readers to ramble 
with him through the pre-Reformation churches, 
the churches built by Wren, the Inns of Court, the 
City Palaces, and the Halls of the Companies, 
and we feel sure that they, like ourselves, will find 
enjoyment in doing so. 

Bannockburn. By John E. Morris. A Centenary 
Monograph. (Cambridge University Press, 5s. 
net. ) 

WE have great pleasure in recommending this 
monograph alike to historical students and to 
general readers who are interested in mediseval 
warfare and in the battle of Bannockburn in par- 
ticular. Dr. Morris has assimilated with some 
eagerness the work done by Mr. Mackenzie in 
elucidating the puzzles presented by the ordi- 
nary accounts ot the battle. Not all modern 
experts on the question will agree with him, but 
we must confess that on the all-important question 
of the real site of the battle he seems to us to make 
out an incontrovertible case for the theory which he 
and Mr. Mackenzie hold. This is to the effect that 
the fighting took place not on the upland, but on 
the level Carse, in the tract between the Forth and 
the Bannock the English, most disastrously for 
them, having the Bannock at their backs. If this 
ground is accepted, the movements of the Scottish 
army otherwise almost unintelligible as the 
tactics of a master of war are readily explained, 
and the accounts of the different authorities may 
be harmonized without violence. 

The story of the battle as we learnt it in our 
childhood falls almost to nothing. Edward's army 
of 100,000 men soon, no doubt, began to seem 
doubtful ; but the awful charge of the heavy-armed 
English horse, and the plunge into the treacherous 
"pots," covered with earth and hurdles, and fitted! 
with wicked stakes, seemed still to survive, as did 
the " multitude that watched afar " which poured 
down on the wearied English at the end of the day 
and completed the rout. Dr. Morris, however, 
assured that the Carse was the battle-field, tells u* 
that the "pots" were dug, indeed, but, as things- 
turned out, were never used, while the camp- 
followers on Gillies' Hill must be relegated to the- 
region of myth. 

One of the ablest features of the work is the 
handling of the original authorities, and the skill 
and insight with which each is corrected as to his 
errors, and made to yield his quota of truth. Thus 
we have discrepant accounts of the position of the- 
English archers, said by the Lanercost Chronicler 
and by Trokelowe to have been in the first line-,, 
and by Baker to have been in the rear. Dr. Morris 
plausibly conjectures that the main body of them 
was in fact in the rear, but that in the course of the 
battle Edward threw out a skirmishing line of 
archers a small proportion only of the whole 
number which drew northwards towards the 
English right, and did some rapid and not ineffec- 
tive shooting into the left flank of Douglas. 

The account of the battle is preceded bv a good' 
and careful study of the evolution of tactics andthe 
composition of armies during the previous reign 
while the whole monograph points forward to the 
methods employed at Crecy and Poitiers. It is 
curious, in analyzing the levies, to observe how 
unwarlike at one time were the northerners of 
England, and, again, for how long a time it was 
Welshmen, not Englishmen, who could alone be- 
counted on to do execution as archers. 



The illustrations are photographs giving views of 
the tract over which the armies moved, and of the 
supposed Held of the battle, and an attentive con- 
^deration of them is well worth while for the 
light it throws on the historical material at our 

THE July number of The Burlington Magazine 
contains further ' Notes on Pictures in the 
Koyal Collections,' by Mr. Lionel Gust, these re- 
lating to pictures by Pieter de Hooch. One, ' A 
Garden Scene,' now at Windsor Castle, has only 
received notice comparatively recently, owing 
to its seclusion in private apartments. Illus- 
trations of this and of two others are provided. 
The results of the continued exploration of 
the soil of Persia are recorded in notes on 
eirly Persian pottery from the excavations at 
Rhages, of which plates are given, and a de- 
tailed description by M. Charles Vignier. Some 
interesting Limoges enamels by an unidentified 
master receive comment and illustration. The 
series of ' Notes on Italian Medals,' by Mr. G. F. 
Hill, is continued. Attention is called to some 
thirteenth-century portrait-heads of St. Louis and 
"his family in the Chateau Vieux, St. Germain, the 
plates of four of these showing work that is full of 
vitality, early in date as it is. There is a full-page 
coloured illustration of a tapestry picture recently 
brought from China by Mr. Larkin of Bond Street, 
droll and quaint in character, though perhaps some- 
what slight as a work of art. Mrs. J. H. Pollen has 
n article on ' Ancient Linen Garments,' and Mr. 
Egerton Beck some interesting notes on ' Pre- 
litial Crosses in Heraldry and Ornament.' Four 
sketches of scenes at Tivoli by Turner are repro- 
duced, with some comments on the points of 
interest in the neighbourhood by Mr. T. Ashby. 
The frontispiece is a reproduction of a Persian 
miniature of the sixteenth century from the collec- 
tion of M. Leonce Rosenberg. 


IN his Catalogue No. 340 Mr. Francis Edwards 
has brought together something short of 300 works 
on Alpine Climbing and Mountaineering generally. 
The earliest work described is Fynes Moryson's 
* Itinerary,' the 1617 folio, offered here for 11. 10*. 
Nearly a century separates this from the book next 
in date, 'Itinera Alpina Tria, 1702^4,' by Joh. Jac. 
ficheuchzer, a small 4to, published in London, 1708, 
and to be had here for 14s. Of eighteenth-century 
works, the best is Baron de Zurlauban's ' Tableau 
de la Suisse,' four folio vols., containing 430 copper- 
plate views unlettered proofs and published at 
Paris, 1780-86, 14Z. Among early nineteenth- 
century things we noticed as worth mentioning 
Yon Humboldt's 'Vues des Cordilleres,' bound in 
'half-morocco, 1810, 91. ; Brockedon's ' Illustrations 
of the Passes of the Alps ' K>ne of the 12 copies on 
large paper in 2 vols., having the plates, of which 
'there are 109, in two states, 1828, 4. ; and Beau- 
mont's ' Travels from France to Italy through the 
Lej on tine Alps,' a coloured copy, 1800, 31. 

MR. J. MKTCALFE-MORTOX of Brighton has sent 
us his Catalogue No. 14, which is both various and 
entertaining. One of the best collections here is 
that of works on botany, which includes a number 
of useful works, and also a set of ' Anne Pratt,' 
Complete in six volumes, and an unopened copy, 

offered for 2f. 10*. 6^. Under the heading 
' Curious ' we notice a copy of Defoe's ' Colonel 
Jacque,' the second edition, published in the same 
year as the first (1723), 11. 5*. ; and under 'Early 
Printing' there is an interesting little sixteenth- 
century production from Rome, 24 pp., roughly 
bound in contemporary parchment, and bearing 
marginal notes in ink here and there, containing 
a treatise on calligraphy and letter-writing, 1543, 
3Z. ' Freemasonry ' covers nearly 130 items in the 
catalogue, and not a few are worth considera- 
tion. We noted the Masonic print by Gillray 
(19f in. by 17J in.), in which Count Cagliostro is the 
principal figure, mentioned in TrowBridge's book 
on that hero, 1786, 4. ; and also a ' Recueil de 
Chansons,' dated "Jerusalem 1765, and Philadelphia 
1773," and offered for 31. 7s. 6V/., which has bound 
up with it a work on Female Masonry, both of 
them belonging to the circle, if not to the pen, of 
Cagliostro. Under ' Old Plays ' and ' Old Poetry ' 
are some good first editions ; and two interesting 
volumes with which we may conclude this notice 
are a copy of the first issue ot the sixth edition of 
Frederick Locker's ' London Lyrics,' which, it may 
be remembered, includes half a score or so of 
poems here published for the first time, 18C-2, 
10*. 6d., and a first edition of 'Eothen,' 1844, 
18s. 6d. 

MESSRS. PROBSTHAIN & Co.'s Catalogue of Indian 
Literature, Art, and Religion (No. 28) is certainly 
worth an Oriental student's looking through. 
There are useful collections of Sanskrit and Pali 
texts and translations, as well as some examples 
in like kind of divers Indian dialects, and a number 
of Grammars and Dictionaries. Books on the 
Jains and Parsis, on Folk-lore, Yoga and Vedanta, 
Numismatics, and Music also include several good 
items, among the last being six works by S. M. 
Tagore. The most important item in the list of 
Journals and Transactions is a complete set, 
from Vol. I. to Vol. LXXIIL, of the Journal of 
the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1&32-1904), for which 
1251. is asked. Under Art and Archaeology we 
noticed the Reports of the Archaeological Survey of 
India, 1871-87, done by Major-General Cunningham 
and Messrs. Beglar and Carlleyle, complete in 
24 vols., including a General Index, 20/. There are 
also Fergusson's 'Tree and Serpent Worship,' 
second edition, 1873, 121. 12s. ; Moor's ' Hindu 
Pantheon,' 1864 edition, 21. 10*. ; and Dubois's 
'Description des Castes Indiennes,' in a MS. of 
1,019 pages, bound in calf, and thought to be the 
author's original copy from which the English 
translation was made, 1QI. 10s. A copy of this last 
(1817) is also offered here at 18*. 

JJotiws to Comspontonts. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposins of them. 

CORRESPONDENTS who send letters to be for- 
warded to other contributors should put on the top 
left-hand corner of their envelopes the number of 
the page of 'N. & Q.' to which their letters refer, 
so that the contributor may be readily identified. 

E. L. H. T. See ante, p. 26. Forwarded. 

ii s.x. JULY is, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 238. 

NOTES : The Probable Date of Webster's 'The Devil's 
Law Case.' 41 Illustrations of Casanova, 42' A Biblio- 
graphy of Thomas Holcrofb,' 43 - ' Berrow's Worcester 
Journal ' Record of Monumental Inscriptions in Hert- 
fordshire, 46 Lines hy Sidney Godo'phin " Anent " 
" Felix Summerly " (Sir Henry Cole), 47. 

QUERIES : " Placing " in Universities, 47 Cotterell, 
Coterill, and Variants An Oxford University Print 
Adulation of Queen Elizabeth Medallic Legends, 48 
Safety hi a Thunderstorm Moses Franks John Bacon 
of the "First Fruits Office Translation of the Life of 
M. de Benty Plautilla and some Mediaeval Princesses 
"Aschenald" Greek Newspaper published in London 

Wellington : Chandos 'The Manchester Marine' 
The Order of Areopagus, 49 Robert Burton's Symbol 
Signs of Cadency Isaac Savage of Kintbury Maria 
Riddell and Burns Rv. James Thomas, c. 1819 52, 
Newgate Street : a Sculptured Stone, 50 Army Scouts 
and the Fleur-de-lis, 51. 

E.EPLIES : Sir Gregory Norton, the Regicide, 51 "The 
Broad Arrow " : the King's Mark Burnap, alias Burnett 

Cowlard, 52 Oriental Names mentioned by Gray 
Hessian Troops in America, 53 Scott's 'Rob Roy' 
Lesceline de Verdon, 54 Palm the Bookseller, shot by 
Napoleon, 55 "Condamine" Books on Chelsea Authors 
of Quotations Wanted Old Etonians George Byam 
Edward Richard Burrough, 57" B'izard " as a Sur- 
name Tristan de Acunha Adye Baldwin of Slough 
Military Execution A Bibliography of Thomts Holcroft 
Alexander Smith's 'Dreamthorp' Privy Councillors, 
58 Chilean Views, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS :-The Oxford Dictionary' Pageant 
of the Life and Death of Richard Beauchamp, Earl of 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE full title of the play runs thus : 

" The Deuils Law-Case, Or, When Women goe 
to Law, the Deuil is full of Businesse. A new 
Tragecpmoady. The true and perfect Copie from 
the Original!. As it was approouedly well Acted 
hy her Maiesties Seruants. Written by John 
Webster 1623." 

Mr. Fleay has asserted that the play may 
have been written in 1610, on the score that, 
in Act IV. sc. ii., Romelio states his age 
to be 38, having been born in the year 1572. 
This kind of argument, which was used, 
in the case of ' Romeo and Juliet,' in order 
to assign 1591 as the date of the play, on 
account of the 1580 earthquake, is not 
altogether to be relied upon, especially for 
* The Devil's Law Case,' as most of the cha- 
racters in this play are convicted of false- 
hood. The second piece of evidence adduced 

by Mr. Fleay is not unimpeachable either : 
" The enclosure of commons, he says, was 
then beginning" (a fact alluded to by Wini- 
fred, Act I. sc. ii. ). This was no recent 
grievance, however, since a petition of the 
inhabitants of Stixwold in Lincolnshire has 
been quoted by Mr. G. Shaw-Lefevre in 
' English Commons and Forests ' (1894) ; 
nay, a popular song published in ' N. & Q.' 
(5 S. vi. 246) proves that as early as 1548 
the public were complaining of an edict of 
the Regent Somerset to the same effect. 

The play is reported to have been acted 
by " Her Majesty's Servants." Therefore it 
can have been produced no later than 8 July, 
1622, when the late Queen Anne's Men were 
granted a new privilege under the style of 
" Children of the Revels " three years 
after their patron's death. The name of 
" the Queen's Servants," indeed, is men- 
tioned subsequently in Sir Henry Herbert's 
papers (with reference to Massinger's ' Bond- 
man,' for instance) when " the Queen of 
Bohemia's Servants " are meant. In the 
present case, however, the latter company 
is out of question, the words " Her Majesty's" 
being applied to none but the Queen of Eng- 

The under-title of the play has been 
hitherto unheeded, though it plainly alludes 
to some scandalous lawsuit in which the 
litigants had been women. Among the 
many cases which were tried in James I.'s 
reign, during which Lord and Lady Rochester, 
Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Giles Mompesson, 
and Bacon appeared before the Courts of 
Justice, none answers Webster's description 
so well and is so fitly paralleled by the play 
as Lake v. Exeter, which came to an issue 
in February, 1619. 

The daughter of Sir Thomas Lake, Secre- 
tary of State, having married Lord Roos, 
the Earl of Exeter's grandson and heir, a 
serious misunderstanding soon broke out 
between her and her husband's very young 
step-grandmother. Lady Lake, who of 
course took her daughter's side, not only 
hinted that the Countess had been unduly 
intimate with Lord Roos, but accused the 
noble lady of having attempted to poison 
her and Lady Roos, and produced a written 
apology by which the Countess had tried 
to gain the mother's and daughter's forgive- 
ness This lawsuit between an illustrious house 
and the family of a powerful statesman 
created a tremendous excitement, especially 
after Lord Roos's escape to Rome. Lady 
Exeter, however, asserted herself innocent, 
and protested that the written confession 
had been forged by Lady Lake. The latter 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. JULY is, 1914. 

purported the document to have been 
drawn up by the Countess at Lake's house at 
Wimbledon, in the presence of Diego, Lord 
Roos's foreign servant ; besides, it was stated 
that one Sarah Swarton, Lady Lake's maid, 
standing behind the arras, had overheard 
Lady Exeter's reading of the document after 
it was signed. The trial proceeded from 
January, 1618, to February, 1619, during 
which time 17,000 sheets of paper were used 
by the counsel of both parties. 

This extraordinary case, and the wicked- 
ness of Lady Lake, countenanced by her 
devoted servant Sarah Swarton, certainly 
suggested to Webster the apparently in- 
credible scheme of the unnatural mother 
Leonora and her accomplice Winifred. What 
is more striking still is the conclusion of this 
plot, for which Webster is indebted to no 
other person than King James I. himself. 

In the play, Leonora's supposed lover of 
yore is Crispiano, whose portrait is produced 
in Court, when the judge turns evidence 
and discloses himself to be Crispiano in 
person. Thus had King James in 1619 de- 
livered from the Bench the positive con- 
viction of Lady Lake's falsehood. As he 
happened to hunt in the neighbourhood of 
Wimbledon one day, he bethought himself of 
going and ascertaining the conditions under 
which the confession had been drawn up ; 
and, having been shown the room in ques- 
tion, found that the arras was too short by 
2 ft. for allowing Sarah Swarton to stand 
concealed behind it. None but the canny 
Scottish king had been a match for the 
cunning lady. 

It was, therefore, after February, 1619, 
that Webster undertook his tragi -comedy, 
or at least the latter part of it. Three 
months before (November, 1618) had 
taken place the execution of Sir Walter 
Raleigh whose firmness in death is alluded 
to in Act V. sc. iv. Webster, however, 
was so slow in composition that the play 
was not completed till the summer of the 
next year, after the news of the Anglo - 
Dutch conflict at Sumatra in August, 1619, 
had reached England (Act IV. sc. ii.) and 
the Mompesson scandal (Act III. sc. i.). 

It is possible that Webster began the 
portion of the play dealing with Contarino, 
Jolenta, Ercole, and Romelio before 1618 ; 
for this he is indebted to some Spanish 
novel, perhaps to Don Diego Agreda's 
' El Hermano Indiscreto '* (The Unwise 

Brother).' He, however, found it impossible 
o make up a whole play out of this subject, 
and forced it into the subsequent plot of 
L,eonora's scheme. Unless some earlier law- 
suit may be found that obviously influenced 
The Devil's Law Case,' I shall maintain 
hat this part of it was suggested by the 
Lake affair. It is likely that Shakspeare 
was no favourite of Lady Lake, who else 
might have pondered over the lines in 
Hamlet ' (II. ii.) about stage-players : 
"After your death you were better have a. bad 
epitaph, than their ill report while you live." 


* This novel was dramatized by Alexandre 
Hardy, whose play, however, is unknown except 
for the account of the scenery in Mahelot's MS. 


THE splendid recognition M. Charles- 
Samaran has given of the work done by 
N. & Q.' in his excellent study ' Jacques 
Casanova, Venitien ' (Paris, Calmann-LeVy), 
Drompts the notes which follow : 

II. (Edition Gamier) 343. Le Due de 
Matalone, at Paris. M. le Comte Dufort de 
iheverney, 1751-2, p. 140, says : 

" J'avais attire dans la raaison de Madame- 

B les etrangers les plus distingues, les Princes 

de Corsini, dont un depuis a etc cardinal, et le- 
duc de Matalone de Naples." 

II. 384. Le Comte de Melfort, Louis 
Drummond, Comte de Melfort (1722-88); 
see ' The Scots Peerage,' vi. 69. He was 
[Dufort de Cheverney, i. 128) 

" de petite taille, mais fait comme un modele- 
et fort comme Hercule, suivait la chasse, quand il 
ne faisait pas sa cour & Versailles." 

II. 406. Prince de Saxe-Hildbourghausen. 
Ernst Friedrich III. (1727-80). Suc- 
ceeded his father in 1745. Married : l r 
Louise of Denmark, died 1756 ; 2, Christiane 
of Brandenburg-Baireuth ; 3, Auguste of 

III. 106. Maria da Riva. See Rinato 
Fulin, ' Maria da Riva, Studi. ' 

III. 435. L'Abbe Galiani. See Swin- 
burne's ' Letters,' 20 June, 1777, and ii. 295. 

III. 493. Madame la Gouvernante, mere 
du Stathouder. Anna, daughter of King 
George II. of Great Britain, widow since 
1751 of William IV. of Orange, mother of 
William V., died 12 Jan., 1759. Her son 
was born in 1748. 

IV. 228. L'electeur de Cologne. Clement 
Augustus of Bavaria (1723-61). 

" His electoral Highness has a just Title to be 
called Clement Aur/usdm, for he is of stately mien, 
is handsome, and of easy Access, and loves 
Pleasures and particularly Hunting, as much as- 

ii s. x. JULY is, ion.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

his Condition will admit of ; his Regular Life, and 
the Soundness of his Morals, may serve for an 
example to many older Prelates, that are not so 
powerful nor so nobly descended." Baron de 
Poelnitz's ' Memoirs,' ii. 341. 

IV. 330. Le jeune Due de Rosebury. 
Neil, third Earl of Rosebery, born 1729. 
His elder brother died in 1755, and he 
travelled abroad " some time on the Con- 
tinent.'' He returned home, and was 
elected a Scottish representative peer in 
1768 (' The Scots Peerage,' vii. 224). 

IV. 479. Parcalier, Marquis de Prie\ 
See L. Dtstens, ' Me" moires d'un Voyageur 
qui se repose,' pp. 132-4. 

V. 288. Lord Talon. See ' Jacobite Peer- 
age,' by the Marquis de Buvigny, pp. 76-7. 

V. 331. " Pendant la semaine sainte les 
Juifs n'osaient pas se montrer dans les rues 
dc Turin." 

" The Jews here have a quarter called Gheto, 
with a Synagogue and burial-place. Every JVw 
is obliged to wear a yellow ribbon sewed on to 
the breast of his coat." Swinburne's ' Letters,' 
i. 272, Turin, 6 June, 1779. 

V. 388. La Renaud. Catherine Renaud 
married (contract dated 23 June, 1768) 
M. Bohmer, Jeweller to the Crown, so well 
known through " 1' Affaire du Collier." 
He died at Stuttgart, 18 Sept., 1794, and she 
remarried at Bale, 28 July, 1796, his partner, 
Paul Bassenge, by wjiom she had a son. 
She died at Dresden, 12 Sept., 1806 (Funck 
Brentano's ' The Diamond Necklace,' p. 349). 

V. 515. " Bal du theatre de Carignan." 

" \Vi- went to the little opera-house of Carignan, 
which is the only one open at this time of the 
year. No one seems to attend to the music or 
representation. . . .This theatre is but ill lighted ; 
it does to dance in during the Carnival, when the 
Opera is held, at the Grand Theatre adjoining 
t he Palace, which is very large, and one of the most 
magnificent in Italy. ' 6 June, 1779. Swin- 
burne's ' Letters,' i. 21'1. 

Miss Berrv describes it also in her Diary, 
2 July, 1183. 

VI. 195. La Princesse de Monaco, nee 
Catherine de Brignole. She married 
secondly, 24 Oct., 1798, Louis Joseph, 
Prince de Conde\ Her first husband, Prince 
Honore III., died in France, in exile, 1795. 
She, the niece of Rodolfo Brignole, Doge of 
Genoa, died in 1813. 

VI. 236. Babet Rangoni. Prince Aloys 
III. (Luigi II.) of Gonzague-Solferirio, born 
1745, married Elizabeth Rangoni. He suc- 
I his grandfather, Prince Luigi, in 
1768, and died in 1819 (Betham, 'Genea- 
logical Tables,' and also Stokvis). The wife 
of his father, Prince Leopold, is called by 
Betham " Helena Medina." 

VI. 318. " Je fis arreter a Paris.... et 
m'etant fait apporter des montres dans ma 
voiture, j'en achetai une pour quinze louis." 
William Cunninghame, writing in 1751,. 
says that the Parisians offered wares to- 
each post-chaise, 

" so that in a few hours you are as well fitted out 
in equipage and everything at Paris as in other- 
places in as many days." 

VI. 468. " Comte de Schwerin, neveu de 
1'illustre feld marochal." Marshal Chris- 
topher Schwerin, the Prussian general,, 
killed at the battle of Prague, 6 May, 1757. 



(See ante, p. 1.) 

1780. Contributions to The Westminster Magazine- 
(' Memoirs,' p. 87) : 

' The Actor,' No. I., January, p. 7. 
No. II., March, p. 121. 

No. III., April, p. 180. 
No. IV., May, p. 241. 
No. V., August, p. 419. 

1780. " Alwyn, or the Gentleman Comedian.. 

London : Fielding and Walker, 1780." 2 vols., 


European Magazine (I: 49) says 1779, but 
later (22: 403) corrects the date to 1780. 
The volume was noticed cursorily and un- 
favourably in the September, 1780, number 
of The Monthly Review (63: 233). It is 
almost entirely the work of Holcroft, but 
William Nicholson (1753-1815) assisted some- 
what in its writing ('Memoirs,' p. 95) the 
same Nicholson who was living with Holcroft 
at the time, and who did the Prologue to 
' Duplicity.' 

1780. (June or early July probably last of 
June.) " A plain and succinct narrative of 
the late riots and disturbances in the cities 
of London and Westminster and borough of 
Southwark. Containing particulars of the 
burning of Newgate, the King's Bench, the 
Fleet, and New Bridewell Prisons. Also, the 
Houses of Lord Mansfield, Sir John Fielding, 
Messrs. Langdale, Bainsforth, Cox, Hyde, &c. 
Bomish Chapels, Schools, &c., with an account 
of the Commitment of Lord George Gordon to 
the Tower and anecdotes of his life. To which 
is prefixed, An Abstract of the Act lately passed 
in favour of the Boman Catholics. And an 
account of the Bill, as moved for in Parliament 
by Sir George Savile, with the observations of 
Sir George and Mr. Dunning on tho Papist 
penal Laws. By William Vincent, of Gray's 
Inn. Paternoster Bow. (Price one shilling.) 
London, printed for Fielding and Walker, 1780. 
Entered at Stationers' Hall." 

1780. " ....The Second Edition, corrected:. 
with an appendix." Octavo, 02 + 11 pp 
same date. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. JULY is, 1914. 

This work, published within a short time 
after the conclusion of the notorious Gordon 
riots, is certainly Holcroft's. Contem- 
porary references are to be found in The 
Town and Country Magazine for July, 1780 
(12: 351); Monthly Review for June, 1780 
(62: 502) ; European Magazine for Januarj% 
1782 (1: 49) ; The Westminster Magazine for 
August, 1780 (8: 438), as well as in the 
' Memoirs ' (p. 99). Lecky (3: 522) refers to 
it as the best and most complete account 
brought out at the time. The Town and 
Country Magazine called it " one of the best 
productions of this kind that has ever ap- 
peared in the form of a pamphlet " ; and 
added, " Our last [June, 1780]. .. .contains 
the substance of this narrative," but I do not 
think that this means that the magazine 
article referred to was done by Holcroft. 

In the account of the riots which appears 
in the ' Annual Register ' for 1780 pp. 1-6 
of this pamphlet are reprinted on pp. 254-6. 
In both cases is given the verbatim record of 
the Act itself, over which the agitation arose ; 
and the short explanatory passages in the 
' Annual Register ' correspond exactly to the 
-explanations which accompany the reprint 
of the Act in this pamphlet. 

In The Westminster Magazine for July, 
1780, pp. 297 ff., is an account of the riots. 
The publishers of this magazine were the 
same as the publishers of the " William 
"Vincent " pamphlet, Fielding & Walker. 
Pages 15 ff. and 298 ff., of the pamphlet and 
the magazine respectively, bear a remarkable 
similarity. In the magazine article the 
Parliamentary proceedings are given at 
greater length ; certain other parts of the 
narrative are condensed ; and, in an amazing 
number of cases, entire paragraphs, even 
pages, are transferred without alteration. 
And from this I shall assume that Holcroft 
or some other person rewrote or rearranged 
his pamphlet for the magazine: I cannot 
yet determine which. The magazine article 
is considerably better than the pamphlet: 
more orderly, and less burdened with details 
and extraneous matter. 

A careful examination of the " second 
edition, corrected," the only one which I 
have seen, suggests a few hypotheses which, 
since I have not yet been able to lay my hands 
on a first edition, I shall offer tentatively : 
for objection, correction, or addition. It 
seems fairly obvious from this copy (Yale 
University Library) of the "second edition, 
corrected," that the ten pages (five leaves) 
containing the Appendix were added to the 
book in the second edition. The Appendix 

refers to the text, and the text to the Appen- 
dix, by lettered notes, (A), (B), (C), &c. 
These references in the text are usually 
inserted at the end of a paragraph, a con- 
venient place after the tj^pe had all been set. 
On the several occasions where they are 
inserted in the middle of a line, the type of 
the line is so crowded relatively to the set 
of the type in the lines preceding and follow- 
ing that we cannot but assume that the 
parentheses and the letters (A), (B), (C), &c., 
were put in later : I should assume, between 
editions. A statement near the end of the 
Appendix that the author has not changed 
the text in accordance with a certain correc- 
tive letter which he prints (the original mis- 
take is left as in the first edition) leads us to 
believe that the second edition was printed 
from the same stand of type. 

Examination of the signatures would 
break the volume quite unequally into a 
single leaf containing the title, four signa- 
tures of sixteen pages each, an eight -page 
signature at the end, and a single final leaf. 
(This is in the only volume which I have 
examined, in the Yale University Library.) 
The single leaf at the end contains the 
Advertisement, and is printed on one side 
of the paper only. I should suggest then, 
from my examination of the " second 
edition, corrected," only, that the first 
edition was paged : 2 (including title-page and 
a blank page)+6 (including the Abstract 
of an Act passed, &c.) + 7-62 (including 
the body of the ' Plain and Succinct 
Narrative,' &c.) + 2 (including Advertise- 
ment and a blank page). The signature 
division was, in my opinion, the same as in 
the " second edition, corrected," which I have 
examined. But it is obvious that the signa- 
tures came out evenly, four of sixteen pages 
each, with the title-page pasted on at the 

Since the above was written I have 
had time to make an examination of a 
copy of the first edition, and find nothing 
contradictory to the above. In the first 
edition (British Museum copy) the Appendix 
does not appear at all, " Finis " coming on 
p. 62. But we can deduce very little from 
the absence of the " Advertisement," since 
in this copy the last three leaves have been 
very badly damaged, and repairing alone has 
prevented their loss altogether. In this copy 
pp. 16 have been lost (containing the 
Abstract, &c.), so that ' A Plain and Succinct 
Narrative,' &c. (p. 7), would follow directly 
after the title-page, had not some one 
inserted six pages from The Sunday Magazine 
of 11 Feb., 1781. 

11 S. X. JULY 18, 1914.] 



It is interesting to remark that the 
"second edition, corrected," varies from the 
first edition, pp. 59-62, by two lines of type. 
This variation is caused by the insertion of a 
foot-note in the second edition on p. 59 : 
" In justice to the author, it is mentioned 
that these anecdotes are by another person." 
It was evidently Holcroft who added in ink 
in the Museum copy, " And, in justice to 
myself, they by no means agree with my own 
private opinion of Lord George Gordon. 
T. H." . In the same hand there is written 
on the title-page " The Anecdotes by I. 
Perry," after the word " Tower," and 
"Thomas Holcroft" beneath the printed 
pseudonym " William Vincent " ; and on 
the last page of the Appendix the catchword 
" Adver " is crossed out, and there is filled 
in, still by the same hand, " Finis. The 
Advertisement follows the Title-Page ' ' 
which indicates the fact of binding. 

I may add that the printing of the correc- 
tive letter may possibly indicate a second 
issue of the second edition. If the type could 
be tampered with to such an extent as to 
insert (A), (B), (C), &c., as references to 
notes, between the printing of the first and 
second editions, why could not the simple 
change have been made on p. 53 of the word 
Thursday to Wednesday, as the " Volunteer 
in the London Military Association of Foot " 
suggests ? May we assume that the Adver- 
tisement originally followed the words 
" total want of education " on this page of 
the Appendix, as it could easily have done, 
in the second edition, and further assume 
that the extra leaf at the end did not appear 
in the real second edition ? May we assume 
that this letter from " A Volunteer," &c., 
was received after some, possibly all, of the 
" second edition " was printed, and that it 
was put in where it now stands in the 
" second edition, corrected," and that the 
Advertisement was then pushed further on 
to be added as a separate leaf ? The 
placing of a single leaf at the beginning and 
the end would not be a usual proceeding. 
Each of these single leaves is in the " second 
edition, corrected," each is printed on one 
side only ; and an argument that the pub- 
lisher would not have planned two single 
leaves attached in this way, and that they 
were later added as a corrective measure, 
may be hypothetically answered by saying 
that this very fact of being printed on one 
side only is an indication of forethought, and 
shows that this kind of make-up for the book 
was premeditated. Or may we assume 
as I should like to do, but think scarcely 
warrantable that there were a " first 

edition," and a " second edition," and that 
there was then a " second edition, cor- 
rected," basing our assumption on the 
reading "second edition, corrected," and not 
" second, corrected edition " ? 

I cannot explain the reference to a " third 
edition, London, 1780," in the 1908 edition 
of the ' New International Encyclopaedia ' 
(9: 45). To me the statement seems un- 

1781. " The Trial of the Hon. George Gordon, 
Commonly called Lord George Gordon, for 
High-Treason, at the Bar of the Court of King's 
Bench, On Monday, the 5th of February, 1781. 
Before The Right Hon. Earl Mansfield, Chief 
Justice ; Edward Willes, Esq. Sir William 
Henry Ashhurst, Knt. and Francis Buller, 
Esq. Containing, Not only the Evidence on 
both Sides but an Account of the Manner of 
conducting the Trial ; the Arguments of 
Counsel ; the contested Points in Law, &c. 
Also the speech of the Attorney-General ; Mr. 
Kenyon, the Solicitor-General, and Mr. Erskine. 
Taken in short-hand By William Vincent, 
Esq ; of Gray's-Inn. London : Printed for 
Fielding and Walker, No. 20, Pater-noster-row. 
MDCCLXXXI. [Price one shilling and six-pence. 1 
[Entered at Stationers-Hall.]" Octavo, 4 + 3- 
81 pp. 

I have not seen this item previously 
attributed to Holcroft. At the present 
time I have not seen a copy in any library 
collection. The only notice of its publica- 
tion is a single line in the March, 1781, 
London Magazine (50: 143). My own copy 
was secured by mere chance through a 
perusal of a second-hand bookseller's cata- 
logue and for the charming price of 3s. 
The Monthly Review editor, March, 1781 
(64: 234), speaks of " several different publi- 
cations," but has " seen only Mr. Gurney's." 

The connexion between this pamphlet and 
that which immediately precedes it in my 
Bibliography is perfectly obvious. I have 
been able to learn of no other person writing 
under the pseudonym of William Vincent of 
Gray's Inn. The two pamphlets are issued 
by the same publishers, have the same 
pseudonym, and concern the same events. 
The ' Advertisement ' to this second one 
contains a reference to, and a recom- 
mendation of, ' Vincent's Plain and Succinct 
Narrative of the late Riots.' In the 
' Memoirs ' by Hazlitt (pp. 98-9) we find : 

" He was employed by them [the booksellers] 
to write a pamphlet, under the name of Wm.. 
Vincent, Esq. of Gray's Inn, containing an account 
of the riots in 1780. For this purpose he had 
attended the trials at the Old Bailey, where he 
was the means of saving the life of an innocent 
man, who was brought there as a prisoner. I have 
heard Mr. Holcroft mention this circumstance, 
with tears of pleasure at the recollection." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. JCLY is, ioi4. 

Holcroft's interest in the riots might easily 
have rendered him willing to perform another 
service to the booksellers. If he had attended 
the Old Bailey trials for one pamphlet, why 
should not he have attended the King's 
Bench trial for another ? 

Columbia University, New York City. 

(To be continued.) 

(See ante, p. 21.) 

THE early history of this paper is bound up 
with the story of its first two publishers, 
Stephen Bryan and H. Berrow. 

Stephen Bryan's apprenticeship inden- 
tures expired in London in the year 1706, 
and he appears to have migrated to Wor- 
cester in the year 1708. When he started his 
Worcester Post-Man (not Postman) in June, 
1709, it was a small half -sheet printed in 
two columns on both sides, and did not 
contain six pages (as Green asserted). There 
is (as in other cases) no evidence that any 
charge was made for the paper at first, and 
it is tolerably certain that advertisements 
were gratis. Probably, like Jos. Bliss's 
Exeter Post-Boy, it was a coffee-house pro- 
duction. In principle it was so strongly 
Jacobite that it advertised the fact by 
professing to be collected " from Dyer's 
letter." An illustration in the pamphlet 
published by Berrow' 8 Worcester Journal in 
1890 shows this very clearly. 

The Victoria Public Library at Worcester 
contains a fine collection of the earlier 
issues of Bryan's paper ; which, owing to its 
Jacobite principles, I suppose, changed its 
name no less than three times. But the 
numbering was consecutive throughout, and, 
as will be seen from the following list, accu- 
rate throughout. 

The present Librarian of the Victoria 
Library has very kindly furnished me with 
the actual numbers : 


1. The Worcester Post- Man, Xo. 185, for 2 Jan. 
1712/13, to Xo. 041, for 6 Oct., 1721. 

2. The Worcester Post ; or, Western Journal 

' for 4 Oct -' 1723 > to No - 75 . f r 20 Dec. 

3. The Weekly Worcester Journal, Xo. 827, for 
23 April, 1725, to Xo. 2007, for 1 Jan., 1748. 

According to Green, Bryan died on 18 June 
1748, and Berrow, who had printed the 
Journal for three months before his death 
then succeeded him as printer and pub- 
lisher. Green states that these facts were 

announced in the Journal on 23 June, 1748, 
Xo. 2031. The Victoria Library does not 
appear to possess a copy of this particular 

Two more titles complete the list in tlv? 
Victoria Library : 

4. The Worcester Journal, Xo. 2032, for 30 June. 
1748, to Xo. 2305, for 4 Oct., 1753. 

5. Berrow's Worcester Journal, Xo. 2306, for 
11 Oct., 1753. 

Since this latter date the paper's head- 
ing has not varied. But, as I have shown, 
the numeration has altered very much at 
first, I believe, accidentally, though I have 
not traced all the variations. It is quite pos- 
sible that Berrow's Worcester Journal may 
be able to claim the second place, with 
regard to age, in the British newspaper press, 
and may rank next to The London Gazette 
(the only original soxirce of many items of 
news), though, with the history of the 
provincial press still waiting to be written, 
it is not safe to assert even this. But it is 
unfortunately only too true that its present- 
day numeration is inaccurate. And the 
Journal's claims to have been " Established 
1690," and to be " The Oldest Newspaper 
in Great Britain," are hardly worthy of a 
periodical with so long and honourable a 
history. J. B. WILLIAMS. 

IN HERTFORDSHIRE. It is believed that 
Hertfordshire is the first county to have had 
its monumental inscriptions fully recorded 
and made accessible to students. It is, of 
course, probable that some small disused 
burial-grounds have escaped the notice of 
workers, but these will in course of time be 
discovered, and the lists inserted in the 
volumes to which they belong. 

To give an idea of the magnitude of 
the task, which has occupied over seven 
years, it may be stated that the transcripts 
fill thirteen large quarto volumes occupying 
a shelf -space of 6 ft. (Both lists and 
indexes are written out twice : first taken 
down on slips which permit of their being 
arranged in alphabetical order, and then 
transcribed on quarto sheets, which are 
bound in the volumes of the Hundreds to 
which they pertain.) The inscriptions oc- 
cupy 5,582 pp., and the indexes of names 
2,127 pp., the latter representing some 
70,000 names, which do not include relation- 
ships, as these are not at present indexed. 
In many cases the more interesting epitaphs 
have been added, and in some instances also 

n s. x. JULY is, i9u.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

certain facts about the churchyards. Corre- 
spondence of interest respecting the work 
has been inserted, and the volumes have 
been very strongly bound, in order that 
they may last with reasonable care for 
C3nturies to come. 

It should be stated that all the foregoing 
may be freely consulted by appointment at 
the residence of the Hon. Secretary of the 
East Herts Archaeological Society, Ivy 
Lodge, Hockerill, Bishop's Stortford ; or 
inquiries will be answered, if a stamped and 
addressed envelope is enclosed. Correspond- 
ents are asked, however, to allow a reason- 
able time for research and reply. 


Tmry in vol. ii. of his ' Caroline Poets ' 
collected the scattered verse of Sidney 
Godolphin, but he missed one piece which, 
though of no great intrinsic interest, has yet 
a certain value in that it displays him as 
a critic of religious verse. In MS. Lansd. 
489, f. 127 verso, occurs the following : 

Y* Judgm"* off Sidney Godolphin 
On y fformer worke not printed 
Not in y* ardent course, as where he woes 
Y e sacred Spouse, & her Chast love persues 
With brighter fflames ; And with a higher Muse : 
This worke had bin proportion'd to our sight 
Had you but knowne w" 1 some allay to write, 
And Now preserv'd your authors strenght, & 
light : 

But you soe Crush those odors, soe dispense 
Those rich perfumes, you make y* too intense : 
And such ! Alas ! as too much please our sense. 
S. G. 

The " former work," which begins on f. 121, 
is a ' Paraphrase uppon y e songe of Solomon.' 
It was apparently addressed to Henrietta 
Maria, for it is preceded by a twelve-line 
poem, ' To y e Queene,' signed " G. S." ; 
but when Sandys printed it in 1641 he dedi- 
cated it to the king. The criticism upon it 
seems to be quite justified. 


" ANENT." This useful, but neglected 
word usually has a North British origin 
assigned to it, with a derivation which 
makes the t intrusive. I note, however, 
from the records of one of the Livery Gilds 
that it was in not unfrequent use in London 
in the Tudor period, and was then written 
anendes. The ' N.E.D.' refers to this variant 
of the word, and suggests the inference that 
the t (or d) is not intrusive, but a salient 
portion of it ; and if so, the commonly 
accepted derivation may need revision. 


C.B.). The pretty little handbooks by this 
author are an interesting item in the 
bibliography of London. The following 
list is compiled from the author's own set : 

' Dulwich Gallery,' 1842. 

' Pictures in the Soane Museum, Society of Arts, 

and British Museum,' 1842. 
'City of Canterbury,' 1843. 
' National Gallery.' 1843. 
' Westminster Abbey,' 1843 ; French edition, 1843 ; 

abridged edition (1845?). 
' Excursions out of London ' (1843 ?), reprinted from 

The AthencEum of 1842. 
' Hampton Court,' 1st edition, 1845 ; 6th edition, 


4 The Vernon Gallery,' 1848. 
' The Temple Church,' 3rd edition (1848?). 


Dr.- Whichcote, Provost of King's College, 
Cambridge, in ' D.N.B.,' Ixi. 1, states that 
" the name of his wife is not recorded." 

He married Rebecca Glover, widow, of 
St. Swithin's, London, at St. Mary Cole- 
church, London, 26 April, 1649 (Parish 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

early days at Harvard College the members 
of the Freshman class were not arranged 
alphabetically, but were " placed " in accord- 
ance with the social position of their fathers ; 
and, next to expulsion, the highest punish- 
ment was " degradation," or putting a 
student below the place originally assigned 
him. This curious system, so alien from 
present notions of equality, lasted for about 
a century and a third (1639-1772). The 
class that graduated in 1772 was " placed " 
in June, 1769, or nearly a year after its 
entrance, and the members of that class 
retained the places assigned them through- 
out their college course. The class that 
graduated in 1773 was arranged alpha- 
betically at entrance. Hence " placing " 
disappeared at Harvard on Commencement 
Day, 1772. 

Did this system of " placing " ever exist 
at Oxford or at Cambridge ? If it did, how 
late did it last at those universities ? Where 
can information be found on this matter ? 
Some of the university men who came to this 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. JULY is, 191*. 

country in the seventeenth century were 
graduates of Oxford, but most of them were 
graduates of Cambridge. Nathaniel Eaton, 
the first head of Harvard, matriculated at, 
but did not graduate from, Trinity, Cam- 
bridge ; and the Rev. Henry Dunster, the 
first President of Harvard, graduated from 
Magdalene, Cambridge : hence it is to Cam- 
bridge rather than to Oxford that one would 
look for customs introduced at Harvard. 

Boston, U.S. 


am hoping shortly to found, with Capt. W. 
Sandford Cottrill, S.A.M.C., of Johannesburg, 
a " Cotterell Family Association " for the 
purpose of collecting together, indexing, and 
printing, if possible, pedigrees, genealogical 
data, historical facts, and other interesting 
details with reference to bearers of this name 
and its many variants throughout the 

It would be a considerable help if the 
secretaries of other family associations 
already established would communicate with 
me, and, if willing, acquaint me with the 
methods of working their respective organi- 

I would also appeal to all bearers of the 
name to send me the fullest possible informa- 
tion with regard to their descent ; however 
insignificant it may appear, it may prove the 
link which will unify the whole. 

Much spadework has already been done 
by Capt, Cottrill and myself, but much 
more remains to be done; and I would 
finally appeal to any brother genealogist 
who may happen to have any Cotterell notes 
to afford me facilities for taking copies 


F.R.Hist.S., F.R.S.A. 

Foden Road. "Walsall. 

a print marked " HB," " Proof," entitled ' The 
Chancellor of the University of Oxford 
attended by Doctors of CiwZLaw,' " Published 
by Tho" M c Lean, 26, Haymarket, Dec r 1 st 
The word "Civil" is underlined, 
.t represents a procession from left to right. 
The Duke of Wellington as Chancellor is 
stepping along daintily at the extreme right 
m square cap and a gorgeous gown, the train 
of which is held by some one in uniform with 
epaulets and cocked hat. Then come, two 
and two, six figures in various uniforms, 
mostly military, the two foremost (of whom 
one looks like Sir Robert Peel) having, 
however, black squash hats. All, excepting 

the aide-de-camp, appear to have gowns over 
uniform. The rear is brought up by an 
officer in a lancer's helmet. Can any one 
give me the names of the persons so 
represented ? Are they Sir Robert Peel's 
Ministry of 1834 ? Is the print rare ? Why 
is the word " Civil " underlined ? 


the P.R.O., ' Transcripts from Rome,' First 
Series, vol. iii., is a transcript from the Bor- 
ghese papers in the Vatican archives (Bor- 
ghese, i. 448), the original of which is said 
to have at the back, in the handwriting of 
Father Persons, S.J., " De Regina Anglise.' r 
The transcript runs as follows : - 

De impia hcereticorum in Anglice Reginant 


Ex Anglia referunt eo tarn processisse haereti- 
corum erga Reginam adulationem ut non tantum 
de ea canant poetae, 

Diva potens divxim, virgo sanctissima, etc. 
verum etiam quod nuper altare quoddam ei in 
aula scenico more erexerint thusque adoleverint,. 
prseterea quod ad effigiem eius omni genere 
lenpcinii adornatam hi versus subjungantur 
tipisque vulgentur, 

Pallas, Juno, Venus frondosae in vallibus Idae 

Judicium formae cum subiere suae, 
Formosas inter si tu Dea quarta fuisses, 

Vicisses omnes o Dea quarta Deas.- 
Quam Juno ieiuna foret, quam pallida Pallas, 
Quam Dea vana Venus, quam Dea sola fores. 
Is it known who wrote these verses ? 


MEDALLIC LEGENDS. (See ante, p. 28.) 

27. Desxiper auxilium. 

28. Duo protegit unus. 

29. Data munera coeli. 

30. Diversam junximus. 

31. Dum zephyri spirant adversas despicit undas. 

32. Dum spiro, fero et spero. 

33. Ea est fiducia gentis. 

34. Ex libertate cornrnercii ubertas r[eficitur ?] 

35. Ex pace ubertas. 

36. Excubant et arcent. 

37. Et sunt otia divis. 

38. Et adhuc spes durat avorum. 

39. Ego magis mihi quam aliis noceo. 

40. Fidisse juvat. 

41. Feliciter undis. 

42. Frustra conatur impius. 

43. Fluctuat nee mergitur. (Motto of City of 


44. Gratum quo sospite coelurn. 

45. Hoc maria onmia duce. 

46. Hinc decus unde effundit. 

47. Hoc fcedere florent. 

48. Hoc duce tuta. 

49. Hoc agmine tuta. 

50. His quoque subjecta. 

51. Hostesque arcet dum ludit in hortis. 

(To be continued.) 

ii s.x. JULY is, 19M.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


coroner, at the recent inquest on the person 
struck by lightning at Wandsworth, is state< 
to have said that a man who escaped owe* 
his life to the fact that he was wearing rubber 
soled shoes. Is it the case that one is saf 
from lightning in the following circum 
stances ? - 

(1) When wearing rubber-soled shoes. 

(2) In a greenhouse. 

(3) In a motor-car. 

(4) In a train. 

(o) In an ordinary rowing-boat on a lake. 

(6) On a piece of plate -glass. 

If one had, say, a fishing-rod with gun 
metal reel and joints, would one still be safe 
in a boat ? And how, if lightning strikes 
downwards, does the plate-glass protect one ' 

[Sir Ray Lankester in The Daily Telegraph o: 
29 June had a long article on ' How to get struck 
by Lightning, and how not to.'] 

MOSES FRANKS. In Catalogue No. 33 
recently issued by Mr. F. Marcham, oi 
129, High Koad, New Southgate, item 31 
refers to " Moses Franks, Attorney and 
Advocate-General for the Bahama Islands. 
....1794." I should be grateful for any 
information concerning his parentage and 

(See 11 S. ix. 470.) Since my query soliciting 
information, I have been informed by a 
descendant that the above acted as secretary 
to*Lord North during the American War, and 
that valuable notes of his were burnt by his 
daughter-in-law. This secretaryship is not 
mentioned in any account I have seen of the 
Receiver, and I should like to ask if it can be 
confirmed. W. L. KING. 

Paddock Wood, Kent. 


THE | HOLY LIFE | OF | Monsieur DE RENTY, | 
A LATE | NOBLEMAN | OF I FKANCE, | and some- 
time | COUNSELLOR | TO | KINO LEWIS the Thir- 
teenth. | written in French by | John Baptist S. 
Jure | And Faithfully translated into English, By 
E. S. Gent, | 

London, Printed for Btnj. Tooke, at the Sign of 
the | Ship in St. Paul's Churchyard. 1684. 

On p. v the Publisher ' To the Reader ' 
says of Renty that " he may seem to contend 
with the ancient Saints, yet lived but the 
other day, and dyed not nine years ago, 
April 24/1649." 

Can any reader tell me who E. S. was, and 
how he came to make this translation ? 


are the dates of birth of the following, if 
known ? Plautilla, wife of Caracalla, d. 211 ; 
Sunigilde, wife of Odoacer, d. 493 ; Justina 
( ? daughter of Germanus), wife of Theodosius, 
son of the Emperor Maurice, d. 607 ( ?) ; |Egi- 
lona, wife of Roderick, " last of the Goths," 
d. 714 (?) ; Bertha, wife of Philip I. of France, 
d. 1094 ; Marie, wife of Manuel, Emperor 
of the East, d. 1183 ; Anne, wife of Ladis- 
laus VI. of Hungary, d. 1506 (?). 

18, Horton Road, Platt Fields, Manchester. 

" ASCHENALD." Could any of your cor- 
respondents let me know what " Aschenald " 
means in the following quotation on p. 11 
of Whitaker's ' History of Craven ' ? 

" The Castle, Town, and lands about Broken- 
bridge (Pontefract, co. York) longgid (belonged) 
afore the Conquest to one Richard Aschenald," &c. 

The question is, Does it mean Richard of 
Ascania, Richard, son of Aschenald, or 
Richard the ashen ? or is there any other 
interpretation ? ST. G. M. KIRKE, Col. 

DON. I have a prospectus, dated 1860, 
oncerning '0 BPETTANIK02 A2THP,' 
a weekly illustrated journal of politics, 
commerce, literature, science, and art, to 
je published in London every Thursday, 
commencing in July. I should be glad to 
tnow how long this newspaper lasted, and 
any particulars about its career. 


iVellesley was made a duke as a reward for 
lis great services, why was his title taken 
rom Wellington in Somersetshire ? 

Where is Chandos, the place-name which 
accompanies the title of duke in the title 
' Duke of Buckingham and Chandos " ? 

H. A. H. 

vriter states that Thomas Dibdin (merchant ) 
>roduced in March, 1793, an interlude 
tyled ' The Manchester Marine.' Will some 
orrespondent kindly say where this can be 


his order ? Is it Greek or English ? What 
re its aims ? I have seen a lady wearing 
be jewel of the order, presented to her by 
lie Sovereign of the order. 

H. A. C. T. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. JULY is, 1914. 

tremely interesting little volume, ' Some 
Oxford Libraries,' Mr. Strickland Gibson 
says (p. 104) : 

" In the Lower Library, preserved as a separate 
collection, are the books bequeathed to Christ 
Church by Robert Burton, the author of ' The 

Anatomy of Melancholy' A portion of his library 

is in the Bodleian Fortunately, for the most 

part, they [' baggage books 'J have Burton's name 
or initials on their title-pages, and may thus readily 
be identified. A curious symbol, composed of three 

r's, r r r, is also found in most of the books in all 

they number about a thousand." 

What is the key to this symbol ? I fancy 
the letters represent the three r's in his 
Christian name and surname. If this 
conjecture be correct, they would represent 
his monogram. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

[See the explanation by Mr. P. Henderson Aitken 
in The Athenceum of Aug. 24, 1912, p. 193.] 

SIGNS OF CADENCY. I should like to 
know when heralds first began to use the 
signs of cadency ; and whether, in the 
fourteenth century, if you find a mullet 
imposed upon a coat of arms, you can be 
as sure as you would be, for instance, in 
the seventeenth, that the bearer was a third 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

["Cadency" has been discussed at 4 S. viii. 12, 
75, 175, 254 ; x. 44 ; 6 S. iii.. 80 ; 7 S. iii. 517 ; iv. 177, 

Can any of your readers give me any infor- 
mation on the following point ? 

In a manuscript notebook of the Rev. 
Thomas Leman of Bath (1751-1826) the 
course of the Roman road from Speen to 
Bath is thus described : 
"Also from Spene to Wickham Chaple, from 
thence to Clapham high-raised with pollards on it. 
to a great ash tree, then to a new brick house built 
by Mr. Savage, thence thro' a wood called Winding 
Wood where it is visible with ditches on each 
side, thence thro' Rugeley Farm" [now Radley 
r arm]. 

The above description was probably taken 
by Leman from the manuscript notes of 
Smart Lethieullier (1701-60), for in an- 
other manuscript book, written by Sir 
Richard Colt Hoare, there is added the 
following note relative to Mr. Savage : 

l? 1 i^ clearin8 tt lit $ le c PP ice to make a garden 
about 1/32 was obliged to remove an entire piece 
e bank [of the Roman road], where he found 
the strata of sand and gravel near the surface, and 
under them several layers of flints and great stones 
lam in a bed of mortar." 

To this Sir Richard adds a reference to 
Smart Lethieullier MSS., p. 359." 

Through the kindness of the Vicar of 
Kintbury, I have ascertained that Isaac 
Savage was " supervisor :! there in 1731 and 
1740, and churchwarden in 1736. What I 
\\ ant to discover is, Where did he live ? 
It must have been either in Elgar's Farm or 
Orpenham Farm, or in one of the adjoining 
homesteads, all in the parish of Kintbury. 
The point is an important one, because it 
will determine the exact course of the 
Roman road, which cannot now be traced at 
this spot. I shall be glad to hear from any 
one who can throw any light on the matter. 

The Grove, East Woodhay, Newbury. 

Kerr & Richardson of Glasgow (in a Cata- 
logue of second-hand books issued about 
1890) state, when advertising a copy of 'The 
Metrical Miscellany,' that 

this volume was edited by Maria Riddell, to 

whom Burns sent his own MS. copy of ' Tarn 
o' Shanter,' with a quotation beginning 'How 
gracefully Maria leads the dance.' " 

I can find no confirmation of Burns having 
sent a copy of his ' Tarn o' Shanter ' to 
Maria Riddell, nor have I been able to 
trace the quotation attributed to him. Pos- 
sibly some of your readers may be able to 
assist me. HUGH S. GLADSTONE. 

REV. JAMES THOMAS, c. 1819. I have a 
mezzotint engraving (10 in. by 9 in.) of the 
Rev. James Thomas, painted by I. Lonsdale, 
engraved by T. Lupton, London, published 
1 July, 1819, by I. Lonsdale, Berners 
Street. The portrait is of a clergyman, 
aged about 60 to 70, wearing the usual 
clerical wig. 

Who was he ? He does not appear in 
Phillips's ' Dictionary of Biographical Re- 
ference,' 1871, or in the 'Dictionary of 
National Biography.' 


TURED STONE. Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' 
inform me what became of a well-known 
stone embedded in the front of this 
house, which was pulled down in 1868 ? It 
seems hardly possible that a sculptured 
stone of some considerable merit should 
wantonly have been destroyed ; but although 
I have made a somewhat exhaustive search, 
I can find no trace of it. The stone is men- 
tioned in the ' Survey of London and Middle- 
sex,' vol. iii. pt. i. (Nightingale, 1815); by 
John W. Archer, 1851, in ' Vestiges of Old 
London ' ; and in ' The History of Signboards,' 
by Larwood and Hotten, 1866. The two 

n s.x. JULY is. i9u.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


last-named authors give an illustration. The 
carving represents Adam and Eve, with 
date 1669, and initials , at the top of the 
stone, "I. S." Eve is shown handing an 
apple to A lam, and a tree occupies the 
centre, round the stem of which the Serpent 
is winding. The year 1868 is not a very 
remote date, and some of your readers may 
recollect seeing the stone, and possibly know 
what became of it when the house was 
pulled down. I have made inquiries at 
the Guildhall and British Museums. 

Staverton, Briar Walk, Putney, S.W. 

-Could any reader of ' N. & Q.' oblige me 
with information as to the reason for the 
adoption of the fleur-de-lis as the badge of 
the trained scouts of the British Army ? 

R, K. 


(1 S. ii. 216, 251 ; 6 S. xii. 187 ; 7 S. viii. 
324, 394 ; 10 S. vii. 168, 330, 376, 416 ; 
11 S. x. 12.) 

IN the State Papers (Chas. I., 1638) we 
find Sir Gregory refusing to pay over certain 
moneys to a Valentine Saunders. 

It appears, from a petition addressed by 
Valentine Saunders to the Council, that the 
late Corporation of Soapmakers of West- 
minster granted one share of 40 parts, con- 
taining 125 tons of soap, to Sir Henry 
Poore, Viscount Valentia. Lord Valentia 
by indenture sold to petitioner (Valentine 
Saunders) one-fourth or quarter part of the 
said share, for which petitioner paid 3001. 
Petitioner, at the request of the Corporation, 
sent the indenture to be submitted to the 
Lords of the Council, but for .some reason or 
other he was unable to recover it. Subse- 
quently to the dispatch of the indenture the 
King had given for the use of the Corporation 
40.000Z., to be paid by the soapboilers of 
London at the rate of 41. a ton for all soap 
made by them. Lord Valentia, who was 
living in Ireland, appointed Sir Gregory 
Norton to receive the whole of his (Lord 
Valentia's) share. Valentine Saunders 
applied to Sir Gregory for his part of the 
share, but was refused because the indenture 
could not be found. Saunders therefore 
appealed to the Lords in Council, asking that 

Sir Gregory Norton be ordered to attend and 
pay the fourth part of what he had received 
to the petitioner, pointing out that he could 
not take any course of recovery owing to the 
indenture being kept back. After con- 
siderable delay, it was ordered that Sir 
Gregory pay Valentine Saunders his part of 
the share, and be acquitted as against Lord 
Valentia for the same, and that Saunders 
give bond to repay the same in case the 
Lords within one year order the same. 

About this time Sir Gregory was wavering 
in his fidelity to the Royal cause. Early in 
the year 1639 Charles I. set forth on his way 
to Scotland on the expedition which came to 
be known as the First Bishops' War, and we 
find the Council writing to Sir Gregory from 
Whitehall on 26 April, 1639, as follows : 
" The Council to Sir Gregory Norton. 

" The King has gone in person to resist the 
dangerous rebellion in Scotland which threatens 
the peace and safety of this kingdom. All the 
nobility and many other persons of quality do 
readily assist him, some in their persons, others 
with considerable sums of money, whereof we 
do hereby give you notice, that you may also lay 
hold on this occasion to express your fidelity and 
good affection, and you will do very well to signify 
forthwith your resolution to this board, from 
whence his Majesty shall understand the same." 

By 1642 Sir Gregory had unmistakably 
gone over to the Parliamentary side ; for on 
3 Sept. of that year he received a message 
from the Commons appointing him receiver 
for Midhurst and Chichester. It will be 
remembered that it was on 22 Aug., 1642, 
that Charles set up his standard at Notting- 
ham as a sign of war. 

In July of 1644 we find Sir Gregory 
petitioning the House of Lords for recom- 
pense for the loss of his place at Court, 
taken from him for adhering to the Parlia- 
ment. He asks that he may be 

" settled in some constant way for receiving his 
pay for the future out of His Majesty's Revenue, 
ind for his present subsistence, a year's pension, 
"o repay his losses hitherto sustained." 

The petition was sent to the House of 

Commons with certain recommendations to 

be referred to the Committee for the Revenue. 

It appears that the petition was successful, 
! or, from the beginning of the year 1645 
onwards, Sir Gregory's appointments under 
Parliament were numerous and important. 
Vfost of them were to special Commissions or 
"'ommittees for the carrying out of various 
Acts and Ordinances, such as 

" For raising and maintaining of forces for the 
defence of the Kingdom under the command of 
Sir Thomas Fairfax, knight, 17th Feb., 1G44 5." 

" For appointing the sale of bishops' lands for 
th.' us.> ,,f Hi.' CMininomvralth, 30th Nov., 1646." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. JULY is, 191*. 

" For a Committee of Militia for the City o^ 
West minster and parts adjacent, Feb. 16th 1647/8." 

" For the settling the Militia in the several 
('..unties, Cities, and places within the Kingdom 
of England, Dominion of Wales, and town of 
Barwick-on-Tweed, 2nd Dec., 1648." 

Under the momentous 

" Act of the Commons of England assembled in 
Parliament for the erecting of a High Court of 
Justice for the trying and judging of Charles 
Stuart, King of England, Jan. 6, 1649," 

Sir Gregory was appointed one of the 
Commissioners and Judges. One of his 
biographers says : 

" He was so anxious to show his zeal in the 
murder of the King that he sat all the days, 
except on the 8th and 12th of January, in the 
Painted Chamber, and the 22nd in Westminster 
Hall, and closed his wickedness by signing the 
\\ arrant to deprive his royal master of fife." 

In 1649 we find him acting in an official 
capacity as Justice of the Peace, for in the 
proceedings at the Committee of both Houses 
of Parliament on the 13th April of that 
year, it was ordered 

" that the Marshall at Whitehall in whose custody 
Captains Stanley, Philips, and Taylor now are do 
carry them before Sir Gregory Norton and Mr. 
Edwards, J.P.s, together with the information 
given to the Judge Advocate concerning them, that 
they may examine them and secure their persons 
till further order be taken in it." 

Richmond, Surrey. 

(To be continued.) 

MARK (11 S. ix. 481 ; x. 17). I have read 
with much interest the note on ' The Broad 
Arrow : the King's Mark,' at the earlier 
reference. I append the explanation of the 
origin of the mark of the broad arrow which 
appeared in The Broad Arrow : the Naval 
and Military Gazette, 30 April, 1904, and 
hope it may be acceptable to your readers : 

"In our issue of the 28th December, 1901, we 
published an interesting note by Viscount Dillon, 
President of the Society of Antiquaries, in which 
he pointed out that the mark of the broad arrow 
haa been in use as a Royal mark for military and 
other stores from so early a date as the year 1553. 

" On the 6th February, 1553/4, Sir Thomas Gres- 
ham notified the Council that he had shipped at 
Antwerp certain barrels of gunpowder 'und r this 
marke + in the margent.' 

" ' This marke in the margent,' referred to in the 
text, is as follows : 


announced that hs had shipped some specie (100,000 
ducats) in 'cassys marked w th the brode arrow.' 

"Through the courtesy of a correspondent we 
are enabled to carry the history of the adoption of 
the broad arrow as a Royal badge to a far earlier 
date than those just mentioned. 

"This correspondent has furnished us with the 
following information, which will be read with 
much historic interest : 

"Again, on the 30th November, 1554, Sir Thomas 
Gresham, writing from Seville to the Council, 


" The ancient Cymric symbol above reported 
called the ' three rods or rays of light ' signified 
the eye of light, or the radiating light of intelli- 
gence shed upon the Druidic circle. This symbol 
was appropriated by King Edward III., and adopted 
as one of his badges. It was also borne by his son, 
the Black Prince, and by other subsequent Princes 
of Wales. The broad arrow occurs as a mark of 
the Royal household as early as 1380. 

" The origin of the mark of the broad arrow was 
given in a pamphlet by ' Ceinwen,' published some 
years ago by Mr. Quaritch, of Piccadilly, W., and 
now out of print. In this pamphlet it is pointed 
out that the sign is derived from the Welsh Nod, 
or the three rays of Divine Light of the Druids and 
Bards, and (as a Government mark) is used to ex- 
press no less than Divine right." 


BURNAP, AUAS BURNETT (11 S. ix. 448, 
498). DR. CLTPPTJSTGDALE denies that the 
Burnetts are a Scottish family because they 
can trace their origin to a county in England. 
If all families of foreign origin were to be 
denied their acquired nationality, the list 
of Scottish families would be of infinitesimal 
proportions. Away would go Bruce, Douglas, 
Stewart, Chisholm, Fraser, Maxwell, Murray, 
Fleming, and a host of others. 

According to DR. CLIPPINGD ALE'S ruling, 
even purely Celtic families must be expunged 
from the Scottish list ; for the Celts, whether 
Goidhelic or Brythonic, were no more abori- 
ginal in North Britain than the Saxons, the 
Norsemen, or the Normans. The Burnetts 
migrated to Scotland and became nationalized 
in the twelfth century ; they must therefore 
be reckoned as truly Scottish as any other 
family in the land. 



COWLARD (11 S. ix. 471, 514). There 
is a family of solicitors of this name at 
Launceston in Cornwall. The earliest mem- 
ber I can find is Thomas Cowlard of 
Tiverton, father of William, Balliol Coll., 
matric. 7 July, 1798, aged 18 ; B.A., 1802 ; 
perpetual curate of Laneast, Cornwall, and 

ii s.x. JULY is, 1911] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


curate of Lamerton, Devon. William be- 
came master of Launceston School, and is 
the first I can trace at that town. In 1834 
Charles Gurney and John Lethbridge Cow- 
lard were partners in the firm of solicitors at 
Launeeston, a business which had as far back 
as 1784, and perhaps earlier, been conducted 
by Christopher Lethbridge, " attorney and 
town clerk " in 1784. In 1860 the firm was 
constituted of Charles Gurney, John Leth- 
bridge Cowlard, and Lethbridge Cowlard ; in 
1861 it was Gurney, Cowlard & Cowlard ; in 
1863 Gurney, Cowlard & Kempson ; in 1871 
Gurney & Cowlard ; in 18 75 Cowlard & Cow- 
lard ; in 1884 Cowlard, Cowlard & Grylls ; 
in 1908 Cowlard, Grylls & Cowlard. Various 
members of the family have held important 
positions locally. Christopher Lethbridge 
Cowlard, Henry L. Cowlard, and the Misses 
Cowlard were, until quite recently, living at 
Launceston. John Lethbridge Cowlard pub- 
lished in 1879 (W. Clowes & Sons) 'The 
Present Agricultural Depression in Devon and 
Cornwall and How to Meet It,' pp. 15. In 
The Times, 1 Oct., 1873, there is a letter 
signed " John Lethbridge Cowlard," upon the 
subject of ' Launceston, a Pocket Borough.' 
187, Piccadilly, W. 

(11 S. x. 10). These are really Oriental, viz. : 

1. Miradolin=Amir 'adl, Lord of Justice. 

2. Vizier - azem = Sadr el 'azam (prime 
minister) and Wazir el 'azam, by contami- 
natio the " breast " being the same as the 
"agent" (or " vice -regent ") when the 
person meant is one and the same the 
Premier of the Sultan. Still, a Turk would 
never say what Gray says, if the Ottoman 
was speaking of his Padishah's prime 
minister, " Sadr el 'azam." 

3. Israfil, not ' Israphiel," is E. A. Poe's 
loan not from the ' Hadith ' and not from 
the Q'ran, where it does not occur as a 
name of the Angel of the Day of Judgment, 
that Angel who has the sweetest voice of all 
God's creatures. 

4. Abubekir, or (rather) Abu Bakr, was 
the first Khalifa, or Caliph, and the father- 
in-law of Mohammad the Prophet. 

5. Negidher is the Demon of Apostasy, 
from Arabic nakada (" he denied "). 

6. Tagut (not " Tagot ") figures in the 
Q'ran, of whose Elysium 

7 . Admoim is an adumbration. 

8. Sarag (for sarg) means a wooden saddle, 
or wooden pack-saddle, and stands for 

Cambridge, through the following fanciful 

proportion : 

Sarg : swingle-tree : cambren :: Cambridge. 

. ' . Sarg (sarag)= Cambridge. 
Cambren, or cambrel (a corruption), is the 
Welsh for a swingle -tree, and the River Cam 
has a Welsh name (in modern Welsh Cam- 
bridge =Caer Grawnt). 

Reverting now to the Arabic names, we 
may explain them thus : 

1 as the Chief Justice of the date of the 

2 as the Premier, Robert Walpole. 

3 as Poetry, or her sister Music, or the two 
in one. 

4 applies to any marriage connexion in 
religion or politics. 

5 fits well such a " rat " as Maryborough. 

6, the evil Tagut, is Mathematics (and 
the " monstrous " Scots hills). 

7, Admoim, squares with Stoke Poges and 
Gray's happy days by that village's country 
churchyard. H. H. JOHNSON. 

Miradolin intended for Miramolin, the 
title of the Emperor of Morocco. 

The Vizier-azem Azim, the young 
convert in Moore's ' Lalla Rookh.' 

The angel Israphiel, or Israfil th& 
Angel of Music, who possessed the most 
melodious voice of all God's creatures, and 
who is to sound the Resurrection Trump. 
Israfil was one of the three angels that 
warned Abraham of Sodom's destruction 

Abubekir the Caliph who was the 
first successor of Mahomet ; died at Medina^ 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

364, 436, 475). At these references several 
statements are made that are not in strict 
accordance with facts, as shown in con- 
temporary literature. A letter relating to 
the desire of the Hessian princes that their 
soldiers should not be sent back is said to be 
a forgery; and COL. SOUTHAM'S statement 
that the sending of Hessians to America did 
much towards increasing the sentiment for 
independence is seemingly disputed by MR. 
ALBERT MATTHEWS, who states that the 
Hessians did not arrive until six weeks after 
independence had been formally declared. 

The facts are, however, that the knowledge 
that contracts had been made with German 
princes for forwarding mercenary troops was 
widely spread among the colonists some 
months before 4 July, 1776, and is frequently 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY is, 

mentioned in the resolutions and speeches 
of the time. The Declaration of Indepen- 
dence was in course of preparation during 
June, and it contains a specific arraignment 
of the King for " transporting large armies of 
foreign mercenaries " to America. Towne's 
Pennsylvania Evening Post of 8 June, 1776, 
contains resolutions passed by the Penn- 
sylvania House of Assembly, referring with 
condemnation to treaties entered into by the 
King for engaging foreign mercenaries; and on 
10 June a body of citizens in Chester, Pa., 
also adopted resolutions referring to these 
" mercenaries." It does not seem possible 
to escape the view that the people were 
greatly angered by the engagement of the 

As regards the desire of the princes that 
men should not be returned, the following 
extract from a letter dated Hamburgh, 
13 Feb., 1776, appears in The Pennsylvania 
Gazette (established by Franklin) in the 
issue of 19 June : 

"By the treaties concluded with the German 
Princes, it seems to be their interest that none of 
their respective corps should ever return again, for 
as they receive for every man thirty crown (seven 
guineas) as levy money, the same sum is to be 
paid to them whenever any of the soldiers are 
killed, or lost by any accident whatever, which 
upon the whole means 14 guineas per man, and as 
the princes are furnished with soldiers at a very 
cheap rate, it is evident they do not wish them 

The letter is written from an English point 


SCOTT'S ' ROB ROY '(US. ix. 471, 516). 
6. In Andrew Lang's ' Lilac Fairy Book,' 
p. 1 18, is given ' The Brown Bear of Norway,' 
from ' West Highland Tales.' The story is 
similar to ' The Black Bull of Norroway,' 
but told with a few variations. 


Quotation 10 : 

No truth in plaids, no faith in tartan trews, 
is a highly inaccurate quotation from some 
satirical verses written by an Alexander 
Craig on the seventh Earl of Argvll. The 
verses are : 

Now earl of Guile, and lord Forlorn thou goes, 
Quitting thy prince, to serve his Spanish foes. 
No faith in plaids, no trust in Highland trews, 
Lamehon-like, they change so many hues. 

Characteristically enough, Scott quotes from 
memory, and makes three blunders in the 
one line. 

Perhaps I may be allowed to say that the 
circumstances alluded to in the satire are 

recounted in my Life of the eighth Earl of 

By the way, the same poem is quoted in 
an earlier passage in ' Rob Roy, ; chap, xxix., 
where Galbraith speaks of " thae Dukes of 
Guile and Lords for Lorn.". 


LESCELINE DE YERDON (11 S. viii. 371 ; 
ix. 130, 255, 330, 391). I have delaved 
replying to MR. RELTON'S observations and 
queries at the last reference given above 
until I had an opportunity of seeing his 
first communication on the subject (11 S. 
viii. 66). Having read this and the reply of 
MB. ST. CLAIB BADDELEY (11 S. viii. 171, 
253), and having noted the points estab- 
lished at the references given above, I think 
the doubts and difficulties which MB. 
RELTON originally expressed have been sub- 
stantially resolved or cleared away. In 
view of MR. RELTON' s last communication, 
however, it seems necessary for me to make 
clearer one or two points. 

1. I must admit that the evidence on 
which I based the opinion that Hugh de 
Lacy, Lesceline's husband, was not of age 
until about 1196 (or 1195) is merely circum-. 
stantial, and that the opinion is incon- 
sistent with the time-honoured statement 
(which, however, I reject) that Hugh was 
Justiciar in 1189-90. The authorities to 
which I referred in ' Ireland under the 
Normans,' ii. 112, are not of a high order, 
but they are at once independent and 
mutually consistent. They go to show 
(a) that immediately after the murder of 
Hugh de Lacy the elder in 1186 Meath was 
taken into the King's hand ; (b) that 
Walter de Lacy did homage to Richard I. 
for Meath in ll94; (c) that Walter received 
charters both from Richard and from John, 
probably at that date ; (d) and that in 1194 
Walter obtained seisin of Meath (" recepit 
domumim de Media "). The presumption is 
that Walter, Hugh's elder brother, had only 
recently come of age, but no doubt seisin 
may possibly have been delayed from some 
other cause. This presumption is, of course, 
liable to be rebutted by positive inconsis- 
tent evidence, but is it the fact, as stated by 
your correspondent MR. ST. CLAIB BAD- 
DELEY (viii. 171), that Gilbert de Lacy, to 
whom, according to the agreement in July, 
1191, between John and the Chancellor 
Longchamp, Winchester Castle was to be 
entrusted, was a younger brother of Hugh ? 
How is the relationship established ? There 
was a Gilbert de Lacy, brother of Walter 

ii s. x. JULY is, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

and Hugh, but Gilbert was a common name 
in the family, of which there were many 

2. As to Maud de Lacy. The covenant 
for dower by David FitzWilliam, Baron of 
Naas, with his mother, Matilda du Pont de 
1'Arche, is dated 23 March, 1227 (' Gormans- 
ton Register,' f. 19 Id). This gives the 
approximate date of his succession (cf. 
' Cal. Docs., Irel.,' i. 1551). Hugh de Lacy's 
grant of Carlingford, &c., to his daughter 
Maud on her marriage with David, Baron 
of Naas, is for this reason, as well as for 
that already given (ix. 331, par. 3), to be 
dated in or after 1227. She may have been 
born c. 1210 or later. Maud de Lacy, Lady 
of Xaas, was alive on 15 Jan., 1279 ('Cal. 
Docs., Irel.,' ii. 1523), but was clearly dead 
in 1302 perhaps for many years (' Justiciary 
Rolls,' i. 434). 

3. When I said I had " a suggestion to 
make by and by " as to Lesceline's death 
(ix. 330, par. 1 ), I was referring by anticipa- 
tion to my later paragraph o, where I sug- 
gested that Lesceline, not Emeline, was the 
wife said to have been abandoned before 
1225. Lesceline may have died at any 
time between that date and the date of 
Hugh's marriage with Emeline, which in my 
view did not take place until towards the 
end of Hugh's life. At any rate, there is no 
reason to doubt that all Hugh's legitimate 
offspring, including Maud, were by Lesce- 
line. It is very improbable that he had any 
children by Emeline. Had any issue of his 
by her survived, we should certainly have 
heard of them as heirs of the Ridelesford 

4. Finally, MR. RELTON asks me what 
date I assign for the births of Emeline 
and Ela de Ridelesford. The early date 
(1212-16) assigned by MR. ST. CLAIR BAD- 
DELEY for the marriage of Emeline (viii. 172) 
is due, I fancy, to the supposition that she 
was a daughter of Strongbow's feoffee ; but 
I think I have shown pretty conclusively 
that there were two successive Walters de 
Ridelesford (presumably father and son), 
and that Emeline and Ela were daughters 
of the latter (ix. 331, par. 6). I have 
arrived at a much later date for Emeline's 
marriage, not only for the reasons given in 
ix. 331, par. 5, but also from the following 
considerations. Robert de Mariscis, Ela's 
husband, died shortly before 19 Aug., 
1240 (' Cal. Docs., Irel.,' i. 2493). From a 
document assigned to October or November, 
1248 (ibid., 2970), but to be probably dated 
at least a year or two earlier Henry Tyrel, 
one of the jurors, appears to have been dead 

before August, 1247 (ibid., 2892) I gather 
that Robert had not been long married whe i 
he died. In this document Christiana, his 
heir by Ela, is said to have been then 
" almost seven years of age." She was, 
therefore, born c. 123940. As she was 
apparently the only child of the marriage, 
the presumption is that Ela was married 
c. 1238-9. Emeline, said to have been her 
elder sister, may have been married to 
Hugh de Lacy a little earlier. On these 
premises we may provisionally assign tho 
years 1217-23 as the period within which 
the sisters were probably born. Heiresses, 
whether prospective or actual, married 
young. Walter de Ridelesford, their father, 
was alive in 1237 (' Cal. Docs., Irel.,' i. 2418), 
when, to judge by his record, he must have 
been still in the full vigour of life ; and th'? 
first intimation we have of his death is 
16 May, 1244 (ibid., 2663), when he was 
presumably only lately dead. I do not 
know to what family his wife belonged, but 
Emeline's mother's name was Annora. 
See Emeline's quit-claim to the Canons of 
Ashby (Dugdale, ' Mon. Angl.,' 292-3). 


LEON (11 S. x. 10). I know two German 
biographies of Palm : Soden, ' Johann 
Philipp Palm ' (Nuerenberg, 1814), and 
Rackl, ' Der Nuernberger Buchhaendler 
Johann Philipp Palm, ein Opfer Napoleon- 
ischer Willkuer ' (Nuerenberg, 1906). 



I am not aware of the existence of any 
biography of Palm in English, but there aro 
very numerous references to him in English 
boolcs. The fullest account in any modern 
reference book is in Larousse's ' Grand 
Dictionnaire,' but without going outside our 
own country MR. F. C. WHITE will find a brier 
biography in Timperley's ' Dictionary.' ' Tho 
Annual Register,' vol. xlviii., has somo 
interesting notes, and it prints the letter 
which Palm wrote to his wife an hour or so 
before execution, dated from " the dungeon 
of the military prison of Braunau, August 26, 
1806 six o'clock in the morning." When 
Napoleon had circulated all over the Conti- 
nent 6,000 copies of the sentence upon Palm, 
the patriots of Germany responded by send- 
ing out 60,000 copies of this letter. 

Lanfrey, vol. ii. chap, xv., has some para- 
graphs on the subject, and Fournier's new 
' Life of Napoleon,' vol. i. pp. 420 and 503, 
should be consulted. Fyffe's 'Modern Europe ' 
and Miss Martineau's volume introductory to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. x. JULY is, 1911 

the ' History of the Peace ' point out how 
Kurope was stirred by this incident. What 
D'Enghien's murder was for the nobility of 
Europe, Palm's was for the people. 

1'ii.lin was born at Schorndorf in Wurtem- 
berg 17 Xov., 1768, and was 38 years old 
when executed. The house in Nuremberg 
where he lived and carried on his business is 
29, Winklerstrasse. 

There are many German books upon Palm, 
and his bibliography is extensive. I wish to 
make clear the fact that none of these books 
has ever been translated into English. I 
print the titles in English, however, in the 
hope of interesting a larger number of readers. 
I fancy that only one or two of these are in 
the British Museum, but they are all in that 
wonderful institution at Leipzig, the Borsen- 
verein derDeutschen Buchhandler : - 

Soden (Julius, Count). Johann Philipp Palm, 
Bookseller at Nuremberg. Executed by Jsapoleon's 
orders at Braunau, August 26th, 1806. A contribu- 
tion to the history of the last decade. Dedicated 
to sympathizing humanity, and especially to noble 
benefactors, by the Palm family. Nuremberg, 1814. 

Life of J. P. Palm, Bookseller at Nuremberg. 

Shot at Braunau by order of Napoleon With a 

reprint of the book ' Germany in her Deep Humilia- 
tion,' as the cause of Palm's execution. Published 
on the occasion of the completion of the memorial 
tablet erected by order of His Majesty King Lud- 
wig of Bavaria at his former house in Nuremberg. 
Re-edited by his son. Munich, 1842. 

Short History of the Life of the Nuremberg 
Bookseller J. P. Palm. Shot by Napoleon's order 
&c. Nuremberg, 1842. 

Johann Philipp Palm. Article in the ' Conversa- 
tions-Lexikon,' 5th eel., vol. yii. 

Ringler (Alexander). Philipp Palm. A poetic 
tragedy in five acts. Leipzig, 1860. 

Schultheis (Friedrich). Johann Philipp Palm, 

Bookseller in Nuremberg credible information, 

authenticated from hitherto unknown sources, 
about the publisher and author of the book ' Ger- 
many in her Deep Humiliation.' Nuremberg, 1860. 

'Germany in her Deep Humiliation.' A contri- 
bution to the history of the Napoleonic foreign 
rule. Newly edited by Henrich Merkens. Wurz- 
bui g, 1877. 

Kckardt (Luclwig). Palm, a German Citizen. A 
tragedy in tive acts. Jena, I860, in ' Eckardt's 
Dramatic Works.' vol. iii. 

Gan/.horn (\V.). Peter Heinrich Merckle, Pro- 
prietor of the Lion Hotel at Neckarsulm, and 
Gottlieb Linck, Merchant at Heilbronn, the Com- 
pani .us of Bookseller Palm of Nuremberg, who was 
shot on August 26th, 1806. From oral communica- 
tions and written documents. Heilbronn, 1871. 

Meindl (Konrad). History of the Town of 
Braunau on the inn, 2 parts. Braunau, 1882 
Part I., pp. 194-201, deals with the scene of the 
execution of Palm in 1806. 

Spielmann (C.) Johann Philipp Palm. In 
memoriam. upon the anniversary of his death. 

Rackl (J.) Palm, the Nuremberg Bookseller a 
Victim of Napoleonic Tyranny, with 14 illustra- 
tions. Nuremberg, 1905. 

Besides the statue erected in 1866 at 
Braunau, there are portraits of Palm in 
Heinrich Lempertz's ' Bilderhefte,' and in 
the Illustrirte Zeitung, No. 1006, Leipzig. 

Numerous ballads and poems were circu- 
lated at the time of the incident in 1806. 
From the current number of the Borsenblatt 
of the German booksellers I take the follow- 
ing : 

" There is at present a smaller exhibition in the 
Century Exhibition of the Battle of the Nations in 
the Museum of the history of the town of Leipzig, 
It deals with German booksellers at the time of 
French rule. Palm, of course, is first thought of 
with the original edition of the celebrated publica- 
tion 'Germany in her Deep Humiliation"; also 
some autographs." 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

Any one seriously interested in Palm 
should try to consult the monographs by 
F. Schultheiss and J. Rackl mentioned at 
the end of the article in ' The Encyclopaedia 
Britannica,' and his life in the ' Allgemeine 
deutsche Biographie.' It is strange that 
while MR. F. C. WHITE refers to the account 
of Thomas Campbell's speech as given in 
Sir G. O. Trevelyan's ' Life ' of Macaulay, 
he should have overlooked the passage in 
Carlyle's ' Heroes : : 

" Injustice pays itself with frightful compound- 
interest, lam not sure but he had better have lost 
his best park of artillery, or had his best regiment 
drowned in the sea, than shot that poor German 
Bookseller, Palm ! " ' The Hero as King.' 


The best and most complete account I 
have seen of the murder of Palm is in that 
excellent, but somewhat voluminous work 
entitled " The Pictorial History of England 
during the Reign of George III., by George 
L. Craik and Charles Macfarlane, assisted by 
other contributors," vol. iv. p. 246, note. 
It was published by Charles Knight & Co. 
My edition is 1844. 

Palm had sold a pamphlet containing 
some criticism of Napoleon. The case 
seems to have been even worse than that 
of the Duke d'Enghien. Nuremberg, where 
he lived, was then under the protection 
of Prussia, and he was a Bavarian, and not 
a French subject. Notwithstanding this, 
he was seized and taken to Braunau. Brau- 
nau, too, though still illegally held by the 
French troops, had been restored to Austria 
by the Treaty of Presburg. Palm, having 
been warned before of this, might have 
escaped from Nuremberg, bxit, conscious of 
the justice of his cause, he could not believe 

ii s. x. JULY is, i9u.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that Xapoleon would be capable of so unjust 
and illegal an action. At Braunau he was 
tried by court-martial and shot in three 
hours. This act caused the deepest resent- 
ment among the Bavarians, and, through 
them, among the Prussian and other Ger- 
man States. The bleeding figure of Palm 
was carried on regimental banners, and 
0,000 copies of his letter written just before 
his execution were circulated. It was 
probably, more than anything else, the cause 
of that intense national hatred which could 
never be wiped out but in blood, and of 
which the victory of Sedan and the reprisals 
which followed were the direct, if somewhat 
long-delayed result. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

"CONDAMINE" (11 S. ix. 511; x. 32). 
Condamina is a ProvenQal word, which Emil 
Levy, in his ' Dictionnaire Proven9al-Fran- 
9-iis' (1909), explains to mean "champ franc 
do toute redevance ; domaine seigneurial." 
The word has been \ised in the same sense 
in charters and other legal documents 
in the mediaeval Latin of the South of 
France since the beginnning of the tenth 
century. Ducange gives many instances of 
its use between the tenth and the fourteenth 
c ^ntury (s.v. Condamina vel Condomina). 
''Ih word is generally explained as a variant 
of condominium : " condamina, quasi, a jure 
unius Domini dicta " (Ducange). Some ex- 
plain the prefix con to be the equivalent of 
tamp (" champ "). the Proven9al form of 
Lat. campus : since " in Occitania, maxime 
versus Sevennas Camp aut Con, Campum 
sonat " (Ducange). In later times the word 
condamina was commonly applied to land 
orchards or nursery gardens adjacent to a 
town. A. L. MAYHEW. 


In some parts of the South of France 
gardeners and others speak of mould as " la 
condamine." This fact may elucidate the 
derivation of the place-names in question. 

BOOKS ON CHELSEA (US. ix. 479 ; x. 15). 
It is rather bold to assert that " there is no 
question of the More family group being 
lost." There certainly is a question, 
although, of course, it may be answered in 
the negative. The authenticity of the 
various pictures claiming to be the More 
family group is fully discussed in A. B. 
Chamberlain's ' Hins Holbein the Younger,' 
vol. i. pp. 293-302 ; vol. ii. pp. 334-40. 
The picture at Xostell Priory is thought to 

show some traces of Holbein's workmanship ; 
but even in this case the point is doubtful, as 
the picture is dated 1530, a year when 
Holbein was not in England ; also the group- 
ing of the figures does not correspond with 
that in the undoubtedly authentic Basle 
study, and the painting is inferior to Hol- 
bein's best work. M. H. DODDS. 

ix. 429). The lines 

And I still onward haste to my last night ; 
Time's fatal wings do ever forward fly ; 
So every day we live, a day we die, 

are Thomas Campion's. The poem from 
which they are taken occurs in his ' Divine 
and Moral Songs,' and begins: 

Come, cheerful day, part of my life to me. 

0. C. B. 

OLD ETONIANS (11 S. ix. 449). (2) BONNIN 
(or BONEEN), GOOSEY. Gousse Bonnin of the 
Island of Antigua, surgeon, probably a 
Huguenot, was in London in 1712 to give 
evidence relating to the killing of Governor 
Parke, and his will was proved 18 Aug., 
1713, at Antigua. He left an only son 
Henry, or Henry Gousse Bonnin, who died 
in 1778, and who may have been father of 
Henry Bonnin, jun., who was married in 
1759, and died the following year, and of 
Goosey Bonnin the Etonian. In Howard's 
Misc. Gen, et Her., Third Series, ii. 116, is a 
M.I. from Leghorn to a child of Henry 
Gousse Bonnin and Charlotte his wife, b. 
1819, d. 1821. 

S. ix. 449). (4) GEORGE BYAM, admitted 
1715, aged 10. He was elder son of Edward 
Byam, Lieutenant-Governor of the Island 
of Antigua, by his second wife, Mrs. 
Lydia Martin, widow, having been born 
24 April, 1704, and baptized on the 29th in 
St. John's parish. He became a merchant, 
married Henrietta Maria, daughter of Col. 
John Frye, and was buried in St. George's 
parish, 13 Nov., 1734. His younger brother, 
Francis, born 8 Aug., 1709, was also at West- 
minster. See ' Biographical Register of 
Christ's Coll., Camb.' V. L. OLIVER. 


469). Son of Richard Burrou^h of Dublin, 
admitted 1812. It is possible he may have 
been Sir Edward R. Boron ph. Bart., banker 
and army agent of Dublin, who clir-d about 
1880 at a very advanced ago. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY is, 191*. 

NAM i-: (11 S. ix. 290, 396, 437, 456 ; x. 14). It 
i-. perhaps, worth noting that "the ship 
Bliz.ird, Robert Davis, Commander," was men- 
tioned in The Massachusetts Gazette of 7 Feb., 
1765. The word blizzard has been used in 
1 his country in the sense of " a fearful volley 
of musketry,'' and " from the fact that it 
was applied to a ship " it has been inferred 
that "the word originated among sailors." 
The present writer's guess is that the above- 
mentioned ship Blizard derived its name from 
some person (perhaps its owner) named 
Blizard. As pointed out at the third reference, 
the name is common in Antigua, and it is 
also known in thi? country ; and the ship in 
question arrived from, and was bound to, 
New Providence, perhaps on its way from 
or to Antigua. ALBERT MATTHEWS. 

Boston, U.S. 

As a surname this has undergone some 
corruption. Bligh (gh sounded as y) sig- 
nifies milk, and ard signifies hill. The name 
had been given to a hill on which there was a 
fold where cattle were penned at noon and 
night, and milked morning and evening. 


S. x. 7). A nearly contemporary account of 
the island will be found in. 

" A narrative of a nine months' residence in New 
Zealand in 1827, together with a journal of a 
residence in Tristan d'Acunha, an island situated 
between South America and the Cape of Good 
Hope. By Augustus Earle 1832." 8vo. 

This journal also contains a plate showing 
Governor Glass and his residence. Glass 
was a Scotchman who married a Cape 
" Creole " (sic). There is a pleasant little 
spicy story of buried treasure that has 
escaped Mr. Paine's industrious researches 
(' The Book of Buried Treasure,' by R. D. 
Paine, 1911). 

W. McB. & F. MARCHAM. 

The Baldwin family were established at 
Slough for a considerable period. Adye 
Baldwin (who was a cousin of the Nathaniel 
Jenner referred to by COL. FYNMORE) 
owned property there, including a well- 
known hostelry, " The Crowm," on the Great 
Bath Road. At that time upwards of sixty 
coaches (besides numerous post-chaises) 
passed through Slough daily. It was at 
" The Crown that " the blessed heretick " 
(as Pope Clement XIII. styled him on 

account of his piety and benevolence) 
Joseph Wilcocks passed away in December,. 

Adye Baldwin died on 19 Oct., 1785, at 
the age of 68, and his widow Elizabeth 
(nee Brooker) on 3 Sept., 1804. Their 
daughter Maria Baldwin (by her second 
marriage) became the wife of the famous 
astronomer Sir William Herschel, who 
resided at Slough, and whom she survived. 


MILITARY EXECUTION (11 S. iv. 459). At 
this reference there is an extract from ' The 
Official Records of the Mutiny of the Black 
Watch,' where at p. 113 is 'An Exact 
Representation of the Shooting the Three- 
Highlanders on the Parade in the Tower.' 
There is a full account of the procedure on 
this occasion in the Camden Society's 
vol. xxii. p. 114, from General Williamson's 
Diary, he being then Deputy-Lieutenant of 
the Tower : 

" 1743. 17th July the two Corporals McFersons- 
and Forquaher Shaw, were orderd to be Shott 
within the Tower, by the soldiers of the 3 d Regim* of 

Guards they saw not the men appointed by Lott 

to shoot them then the eighteen men who were 

on the write Wing by the corner of the Chappie 
advanced, and four to each man, were by the wave 
of a handkerchif, without any word of Conimaud, 
directed to Make ready, Present- fire, which they 
did, all at once, and the three Men fell at the Same 

moment dead." 


(11 S. x. 1 ). There is an account of him by 
J. P. Rylands, and an imperfect list of his 
works, in ' Local Gleanings relating to- 
Lancashire and Cheshire ' (Earwaker), 1875-8, 
ii. 160. R. S. B. 

S. ix. 450, 493 ; x. 33). 

7. " The English are a nation of vagabonds ; they 
have the ' hungry heart ' that one of their poets 
speaks about." 

The reference is to Tennyson, ' Ulysses/ 

For always roaming with a hungry heart, 
Much have I seen and known. 


PRIVY COUNCILLORS (US. ix. 449,490; 
x. 18). As " one swallow does not make a 
summer," I may add Sir E. Cassel and Sir 
E. Speyer as other German-born natura- 
lized Privy Councillors to the exception 
that I already have instanced in the case of 
Prof. Max Miiller of Oxford. Others could 
probably be found. WILLIAM MERCER. 

ii s.x. JULY is, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


SABE should look at Maria Graham's ' A 
Journal of a Residence in Chile,' 1824, and 
Alexander Caldcleugh's ' Travels in South 
America,' 1825. The latter has eight plates. 
If QUIEN SABE likes to communicate with 
me, I may be able to give him two addressei 
where he may be able to obtain some illus- 
trations. W. H. QUARRELL. 

0tt Hooks, 

A Neic English Dictionary on Historical Principles. 
(Vol. X.) Traik-Triniiy. By J. A. H. Murray. 
(Oxford, Clarendon Press, 5-9.) 

THIS double section, as a moment's consideration 
will of itself show, contains a large number ol 
words derived from Latin and Greek, and but a 
small proportion of words of Teutonic origin. It 
embraces two great groups of compounds, each 
of which occupies many columns those with 
" trans-," and those with " tri-." To both an 
excellent General Introduction is supplied. Of 
the words in " trans- " and it may be said, of 
the words of Latin derivation in this section 
throughout the most interesting have come to 
us, not direct from the Latin, but through French. 
There is a curious series of compounds of " trans- " 
with true English words, which at any rate 
shows how completely the syllable has established 
itself in our vernacular. The best of these 
which goes back to the late eighteenth century, 
and has the authority of Wellington's dispatches 
is undoubtedly " tranship." In the little 
collection of instances of " transact " used 
" dyslogistically " and between inverted commas 
in the sense of " to compromise," it should have 
been noted that the writers are simply englishing 
the French " transiger." The most interesting 
" trans- " words from the point of view of the 
history of thought are " transcendental " and 
" transubstantiation," and the words connected 
with them : all the articles concerned are satis- 
factory. An interesting word from its long, 
continuous, and varied career in technical use 
legal and commercial is " transfer," which 
begins with Wyclif in Ezek. xlviii. 14, as " trans- 
ferrid," having in an explanatory gloss " or born 
ouer," and changed in 1388 to " translated." We 
do not see much nowadays of " transformism " 
or of " transmutation," but quotations here show 
that, as late as the eighties, these terms were still 
rivals to the term " evolution," which has happily 
triumphed. An amusing and instructive collec- 
tion of meanings and instances is to be found 
under " transient." The word appears to have 
got a footing " transatlantic-ally " as a substantive 
in the sense of a passing guest at an hotel a 
curiosa infelicilas, as we think. The origin of 
'' tr.-msept " remains as ever unelucidated the 
gaps of a century and a half between Leland and 
Wood, and of a century or nearly so between 
Wood and Warton, being still unfilled. Some 
lit Mr light seems to be thrown on " transmogrify " 
l>y its appearance in the ' Xew Canting Dictionary ' 
(1725) as " imumoprify, or rather trans- 
vngraju" which, as the editor of the ' N.E.D.' 
suggests, may well be a vulgar or uneducated 

formation in -fy from " transmigrate " or " trar.s- 
migure." We hope the great Dictionary has by 
its article on " transpire " " scotched " the- 
misuse of that word which it imputes in the 
first instance to the United States for " to 
occur." As examples of the minute care of tho 
compilers we may notice " transriverine," from 
The Athenceum of 1900, apparently a nonce-word 
as yet, and Coleridge's quaint " transnihilation." 
On the other hand, it is curious, in an historical 
dictionary, that the date and occasion of the 
giving of the name " Transvaal " to the territory 
won by the Great Trek should have been entirely 
omitted ; as it is also curious that one hardly 
sufficient and merely allusive quotation should 
be all that is given on the subject of the charac- 
teristic discipline of the Trappists, which, after 
all, has become proverbial. An excellent article- 
which falls into the midst of these " trans- '" 
compounds is " transom." It is believed by 
Prof. Skeat, as by Sir James Murray, to come 
from transtrum, but no intermediate forms 
have been found, and since it is a word of long 
standing in more than one great craft, it is 
suggested that our form of it, which goes back 
to the fifteenth century, may be a workman's 
corruption of the Latin. 

The internal arrangement of some of the- 
longer articles in this section has struck us as. 
unusually good. We may mention among them 
" trial " and " tree " and " trim," v. Good, too, 
is the brief summary of facts given in such his- 
torical articles as explain " trailbaston," " trea- 
surer," or " trimoda necessitas " so long known 
to historical students by a travestied name. 

The article on " tramp " is one of the most 
entertaining. We confess we did not know 
before of the existence of the peculiarly unhappy 
word " trampism," which, indeed, seems to have 
as yet no more than feeble journalistic authority. 
A synonymous word, " trampage," has also 
cropped up -equally, to our thinking, an atrocity, 
and equally illustrating the need there is for the 
revival of English suffixes. These queer, un- 
pleasant words come to us chiefly from the other 
ide of the globe. Would it not be a good plan 
to send Mr. Lascelles Abercrombie on a mission 
to the Far West to listen to as much unsophisti- 
cated conversation as possible, and see if he 
cannot find some new substantives, with English 
suffix to an English root, and having sound life 
in them ? Dialect dictionaries might furnish 
forms, but they would too probably prove de- 

How an unusual event revives old \ffTrds might 
be illustrated from more than one term connected 
with the coronation of our last two kings, and 
here we have an example in " traverse," used for 
a small curtained-off compartment in a church. 
" A little traverse," says Dell in 1633, speaking 
of James I.'s coronation, " is to be made on the 
South side of the Altar. . . .for the King to. ... 
disrobe himself," and in 1902 The Westminster 
Gazette tells how King Edward " went into his 
traverse." " Treacle, " trick," " trifle," " trek- 
schuit," and " triforium " may be mentioned out 
of a host of words full of suggestion and instruc- 
:ion as we have them here presented to us, but 
we have not space to single out further examples. 
Tho section contains 3,936 words, illustrated 
jy 14,405 quotations, and it certainly comprises 
some of the best things in the Dictionary. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. JULY is, 1914. 

Pageant of the Birth, Life, and Death of Ri<-liur<l 
Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, K.G., 1-W-14-M 
Edited by Viscount Dillon and W. H. St. John 
Hope. (Longmans & Co., 11. la.) 

THE original manuscript is in the British Museum, 
and has here been reproduced in photogravure 
by Mr. Emery Walker. This is not the first 
reproduction. In 1775 Strutt included it, in 
rather an imperfect version, in vol. ii. of his 
* Horda Angel-cynnan ' ; and the late Lord Carys- 
fort presented to the Roxburghe Club a magni- 
ficent facsimile, of which a very small edition was 
made. The present volume is issued at a price 
not absolutely beyond the reach of the student 
of mediaeval history, and it may be said that, 
for the sake of those who have not a guinea to 
spare, as well as for the benefit of the curious 
general reader, every public library should acquire 
this authentic document. 

Who was its author ? Sir E. Maunde Thompson 
in the Roxburghe edition opines that he was a 
foreigner. The present editors give reasons which 
wetcannot but think to be sound for believing 
him to have been an Englishman. He shows a 
minute knowledge of English quarterings such 
as a foreigner would hardly possess, while he 
leaves blank the banners both of the Emperor 
and of the Duke of Burgundy, which a Continental 
artist would almost certainly have known how 
to emblazon. 

The main importance of the work is no doubt 
archaeological, and from this point of view it 
instructs us chiefly as to the equipment of knights 
and men-at-arms, and the dress of ecclesiastics, 
illustrating delightfully the use of badges, of coats 
of armour, crests, and other heraldic appurtenances. 
The treatment of buildings, and in some degree 
also of vessels, is largely conventional. 

The artistic interest of these fifty -three or 
fifty-four drawings is, if unequal, extraordinarily 
great. W T e notice first the pleasant qualities 
belonging to work which has the touch about it 
of script or hieroglyphic. In the faces and figures 
beauty or grace counts only secondarily. Clothes, 
because they express intention, count for more. 
Still the treatment of feature and form has both 
force and charm, and in three or four of the 
battle-scenes the grouping of the figures is strong 
and eloquent, while some of the scenes with ships 
are managed splendidly. Secondly, the wealth 
of detail and the intelligence with which it is 
used are both remarkable. And thirdly, gone 
through as a history in pictures, the series will 
"be found to have an unexpected cumulative 
impressiveness. Earl Richard, distinguished at 
first from the other characters merely by his 
crest or coat, imperceptibly gets differentiated 
out, and comes to be truly felt as the centre of 
the work. When, after so many appearances in 
magnificent array, he is seen, on turning the 
page, lying naked on his death-bed, one feels 
what the artist, one may conjecture, did not feel I 
something of the shock that comes with 

There are several drawings of peculiar interest/ 
Earl Richard being invested with the Garter ; 
Earl Richard's three encounters with three French 
Icnights at the time when he was Captain of 
Calais ; Earl Richard at the Council of Constance, 
bearing the Emperor's sword in procession before 
him, and courteously refusing the gift of St. 
George's heart, that Sigismund might himself 

present it at Windsor ; the sea-fight, in which 
he won two carracks ; how he was made " Mas- 
ter " to King Henry VI. we might mention 
three or four more not less excellent. But 
perhaps the best of all are the three pictures 
which tell how in the long journey through 
Europe and the East which he made when a young 
man ' Sir Baltirdam, the Soldan's lieutenant, 
received Earl Richard ' ; ' How Sir Baltirdam 
entertained Earl Richard at Dinner,' and ' How 
Earl Richard feasted Sir Baltirdam's Men.' The 
artist had evidently great delight himself in the 
portraying of these Oriental figures. They are 
expressive beyond almost any others in this 
series in their stateliness and their air of cour- 
tesy, and almost anxious kindness. The details 
of their dress are given with great exactness and 
care, and might have been taken, as the editors 
justly observe, from some Afghan magnate of 
the present day. 

It is hardly necessary to give an account here 
of Richard Beauchamp 's life. He was an heroic 
figure among the men of his day. That he 
actually moved among them equipped as these 
pages depict him is, however, improbable. So 
far as can be ascertained, it seems likely that 
this manuscript was made for his daughter Anne, 
the King-maker's wife, and that it represents the 
knighthood belonging to her generation rather 
than to that of Earl Richard, as does also the 
famous tomb at Warwick. The earliest covenant 
for this dates from February, 1449/50, or ten 
years after his death, and may be taken to repre- 
sent the armour worn some forty years after the 
exploits of Earl Richard at the tilt before the 
King of France. 

to Comspontottts. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.G. 

CORRESPONDENTS who send letters to be for- 
warded to other contributors should put on the top 
left-hand corner of their envelopes the number of 
the page of ' N. & Q.' to which their letters refer, 
so that the contributor may be readily identified. 

To secure insertion of communications corre 
spondents must observe the following rules. Let 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer airj 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 
put in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
heading, the series, volume, and page or pages tc 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com 
munication " Duplicate." 

R. T. and DR. WILLCOCK. Forwarded. 

R. K. For " Easter eggs and the hare " see 1 S. 
i. 244, 397, 482 ; ii. 52 ; 10 S. iv. 306 ; v. 292 ; 11 S. 
iii. 285- 

MR. WILLIAM CUBBON. Many thanks for reprint 
of letter on the Standish family from The Isle of 
Man Examiner. 

ii s. x. JULY 25, 1914. i NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.. No. 239. 

NOTES : A Note on Sheridan, 61 Rectors of Upham and 
Durley, 63 Alexander Pope the Elder and Binfield, 65 
Shakespeare Criticisms : " The extreme parts of time " 
" Every man has his price "Muffins, 66 Burning oi 
the Houses of Parliament Dr. Nicholas Sander Bunt- 
lark. 67. 

QUERIES : West Norfolk Militia Liberalism, 67 Arms 
in Hatbersage Church Page Huguenot Regiments in 
English Service Library Wanted Biographical Informa- 
tion Wanted Medallic Legends, 68 J. J. Park Authors 
of Quotations Wanted Johnston Family Black-Letter 
Testament Wiest Family, 69 Last King of Naples 
"The Poor" as Godparents Dwarkanauth Tagore 
Indian galloping to the Sea "Mr. Good "=George II. 
St. Katherine's-by-the-Tower Voltaire in London, 70. 

REPLIES : Chapel House, 71 ' To One in Paradise ' 
Octopus : Venus's Ear Bathos in French Verse : Rostand, 
72 Callipedes-Ice : its Uses, 73 Condamine, 74 Ralph 
Carr Wall-Papers Wanless Rixham Fair and Matthew 
Prior, 75 Old Etonians Child Family West Indian 
Families Palm the Bookseller, 76 Heart - Burial 
41 There's some water where the stags drown " Balnes : 
Littlyngton Semaphore Signalling Stations, 77 Folk- 
Lore Queries" The weakest goes to the wall," 78. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Place of the Reign of 
Edward II. in English History ' ' The Antiquary.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



I PURCHASED in 1913 from Messrs. Simmons 
& Waters of Leamington Spa a copy of the 
first edition (1825) of Thomas Moore's 
' Memoirs of Richard Brinsley Sheridan.' It 
was extra-illustrated by William Linley 
(1771-1835), the youngest brother of the 
first Mrs. Sheridan, and given, by him to his 
niece Elizabeth Tickell, to whom he ulti- 
mately bequeathed his property. Betty 
Tickell, the only daughter of Mary Linley, 
became, through her marriage with an Indian 
civil servant, mother of John Arthur Roe- 
buck (1801-79), the politician. Her aunt, 
Mrs. Sheridan, in an informal will of 1792, 
desired that " the picture of my dear 
Mary " should be 

41 unset, and one copied of me joined to it, and the 
hair blended, and this, I trust, Mrs. Tickell 
{Betty's stepmother] will permit my dearest 
Betty to wear in remembrance of her two poor 

W. Linley has inserted twenty-two por- 
traits, woodcuts, and mezzotints of persons 
mentioned in the text, including Mrs. 
Sheridan, Rogers, Byron, Whitbread, Moira, 

Grey, Burke, Pitt, Parr, Moore, &c. But 
the most interesting is a charming drawing 
in water-colours by Jane Ireland (1827), 
sister of the forger of Shakespeare MSS., of 
Richard Tickell, Betty's father, the pam- 
phleteer and dramatist, copied from the 
original miniature by Cosway. There are 
also inserted three of the original tickets 
issued to Sheridan for the trial of Warren 
Hastings. The first of these is for the 
thirty-second day of the trial, and upon it is 
written, in, I think, Sheridan's own hand, 
"Mr. Sheridans first day, 3d June, 1788," 
which was a Tuesday. The ticket is signed 
and sealed by " Rodney." Admiral Lord 
Rodney had been at Harrow School more 
than thirty years earlier than Sheridan. 
The second ticket is for the thirty-fourth 
day, viz., Tuesday, the 10th "Mr. Sheridan's 
third day " whereon the proceedings were 
interrupted by his sudden indisposition. 
The ticket is signed and sealed by " Strange." 
John, fourth Duke of Atholl, had been 
created in 1786 a peer of Great Britain as 
Earl Strange. The third ticket is for the 
thirty-fifth and last day of the trial, Fri- 
day, the 13th, "Mr. Sheridans fourth day." 
It is signed and sealed by "Cholmondeley." 
George James, fourth Earl, was created first 
Marquess of Cholmondeley in 1815. 

At the end of the book Linley has inserted 
some twenty-eight pages of matter illus- 
trative of the contents. These are all in 
MS. of his own handwriting, save the first 
item, which is in print. It is a poem of 
twenty-four lines : ' On seeing a Cast of 
Sheridan's Countenance, taken after Death,' 
by W. L. B., 18 May, 1826. The initials, no 
doubt, indicate William Lisle Bowles. 

The next insertion is the following : 
Copy of a Letter to Thos. Moore, Esqre. 
Furnivals Inn Chambers. 

Novr. 7th, 1825. 

Having compleated the perusal of your delight- 
ful work, it becomes my pleasing duty to thank 
you for the high, and interesting distinction you 
have attached to the character and acquirements 
of my belov'd and lamented Sister. 

Would I had your own eloquence to describe in 
adequate language how grateful I feel, not only 
for the lustre you have spread round her memory, 
but for the flattering and, what I more cordially 
feel & value, the friendly manner in which you 
have been pleased to honor my own humble 
name : indeed the delicacy with which you have 
mentioned every branch of our family, and the 
circumstances connected with it, evinces as 
strongly the urbanity as it does the benevolence 
of your disposition. I can only repeat my 
warmest & sincerest acknowledgements. 

Allow me now to indulge myself with a few 
remarks though they may not be of sufficient 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. JULY 25, 1914, 

consequence to mention hereafter. Dr. Burney, 
you say in his " biographical sketch " calls the 
Linley Family " a not of Nightingales." I have 
now before me a letter from Garrick to my 
Father dated from Hampton, in which is the 
following passage : " my call upon you, my 
friend, is only for your nest of nightingales. ' 
It is a letter on the subject of the theatrical 
transfer, and it is an odd coincidence, for 
Burney's Sketch must have been written many 
years subsequently to that transaction. In page 
136 should not Garrick's Partner be young Lacy 
instead of Leasy ? the last name, however, is 
frequently repeated. I have heard my mother 
say that the drama you allude to in P. 224 was 
originally Mrs. SWeridan's, that she (Mrs. S.) 
called it ' the haunted village,' and that my 
father & brother had actually begun the music 
for it. ' Robinson Crusoe ' too, I have every 
reason to believe, was Mrs. Sheridan's pantomime ; 
as was one of very great originality in point of 
story, called ' Harlequin Junior or the Magic 
Cestus.' The little book with delineations of 
character for ' Affectation,' I was the first to 
discover, and to dislodge from an old Chest full of 
nothing but the coverings of old letters, though 
p or Sheridan used to accuse me of having pur- 
loined from it sundry notes of hand and bonds to 
an immense amount. This scrap book together 
with the contents of the Chest Mr. C. Sheridan 
received from me a short time only before his 
father died. P. 353 when Sheridan in his speech 
facetiously gives his veracity to one, and to Mr. 
Shore the Finance Depart -query should not 
Middleton have had Memory instead of Humanity 
assigned to him ? witness the cross questioning 
during that worthy's examination. There are 
three of S.'s country residences which you have not 
mentioned Heston in Middlesex, Harrow, and 
RandalVs. I suspect that the Gambols you have 
noticed were played principally at Harrow. One 
farce I well remember being myself a spectator of 
there, for I was at school at the time and lived with 
S. & my sister. Fitzpatrick, Tickell & my Sister 
Mrs. Tickell, were of the party. The gentlemen 
had been left as usual by the ladies after dinner, 
and when summoned to Coffee, found, on entering 
the room, not the Ladies, but several Barristers in 
their gowns and wigs, in high debate with parch- 
ments before them a huge bowl of punch, pipes, 
and tobacco the rest of the fun was to discover 
each lady, they were all variously & ludicrously 
masked, according to her gesture & disguised 
tone of voice. I remember Mrs. Tickell being 
very comical on the occasion. At Heston, I was 
first introduced to my nephew poor Tom, there was 
only a difference of four years in our ages. And 
there I well remember a most cruel trick having 
been played upon me by Tickell & Sheridan. I 
had done something amiss, and they made me 
believe it was necessary for them to hang me for 
my fault ; and actually worked upon my feelings 
to such a degree, carrying on the preparation of 
a rope and cap with such solemnity, as to induce 
me, in my agony of mind to begin " the Lord's 
prayer." At length Mrs. Sheridan made her 
appearance, and guessed in a moment what had 
been doing. I never saw her so seriously enraged 
(as well she might be) and it was a long time before 
she would speak to either wicked wight. Tom 
was rather too young to be included in this pretty 
piece of waggery, otherwise we had been equally 

The Song of " Think not, my Love " was written 
by Sheridan for my Father, and makes one of 
twelve beautiful ballads composed by him : not 
long before his settlement in London. Tickell 
supplied the words of another beginning "Aht 
dearest Maid " addressed before his marriage to 
my Sister Mary. 

You do not seem to be aware, my friend, that 
my father presented to both my Sisters 2,000 on> 
their marriage ; and of another circumtances,. 
that Miss Browne and Mrs. C'argill were one & the 
same person. She was shipwrecked, poor woman,, 
on board an East Indiaman. 

Poor S. says " I never borrowed money of a 
private Friend " ; he has, however, nude free 
with his own relations ; for I have a cheque of his 
for 100 on Biddulph & Co. and I remember hi 
once borrowing 2 gs. of me tiH the post came in to- 
pay the Piano Forte Tuner at Randall's. This was 
truly comical & he saw at the time that I was 
ready to laugh. In part payment, (I considered 1 
it full payt), of the 100 loan, however, I have got 
Gainsborough's charming picture it is now excel- 
lently placed in the Dulwich Gallery. 

In your distressing & highly interesting acct. of 
Mrs. Sheridan's last moments, the name of her 
dearest friend is not mentioned ; but I know it to 
be that excellent woman Mrs. Canning is she- 
yet alive ? 

How admirable is Tickell's description of 
Sheridan " written 300 years to come." How I 
laughed ! I am right glad you did ) ot omit it~ 
" The one idea between us " from his ' Anticipa- 
tion ' might not have been amiss. 

The " Rudis Indigestaque moles " before we- 
come to the compleat ' School for Scandal ' is 
highly interesting ; indeed in every page of your 
invaluable volume, there is scarcely a foil to set 
off a gem. You may call this flattery be it so. T 
shall indulge my feelings nevertheless. I shall be 
happy to know that you have received this letter. 

When you have leisure indulge me with a line & 
with a hope that you will not forget your promise- 
to be my guest at the Catch Club any Tuesday 
before the 17th of Janry. next 

believe me, my dear Moore, 
Your most faithful 

& obliged friend & servant 


It will be remembered that, 
" being himself a poet, [Dr. Samuel] Johnson was; 
peculiarly happy in mentioning how many of the- 
sons of Pembroke [Oxon] were poets ; adding, 
with a smile of sportive triumph, ' Sir, we are a 
nest of singing birds.' " 

Both Sheridan and his biographer Moore 
were bom in Dublin, and the former in his 
early letters turns " Lacy " into " Leasy." 
Willoughby Lacy began as an actor, his 
father having long been Garrick's partner. 
Lacy House, near the riverside at Isleworth,. 
was built by James Lacy, and was at one- 
time the residence of Sir Robert Walpole. 
In 1792 the owner was the younger Lacy ; 
but Sheridan leased it from Mrs. Keppel,. 
Walpole's daughter, and widow of the- 
Bishop of Exeter. 

In his 'Sheridan' (1909), i. 67 n. and 
458 n., Mr. Walter Sichel says that in 1785 

ii s x. JULY 25, ion.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

an operetta in which Mrs. Sheridan 
apparently had a hand, and which was 
p-obably 'The Haunted Village,' was not 
acted simply because the music was too 
sad. A fragment remains under the name 
of ' Rural Amours.' 

" ' Robinson Crusoe ' appeared in 1781. It con- 
tained a song called ' The Midnight Watch,' 
scribbled at the last moment on a playbill, and 
set to music by Thomaa Linley." Ibid., i. 18. 

The remaining pantomime mentioned is 
possibly identical with, or the original of, the 
' Harlequin Hurly-burly ' produced by Sheri- 
dan in 1786 (ib., i.*612, but " 1783 " in index). 

Mr. Sichel quotes passages and aphorisms 
from the fragment of what promised to be a 
brilliant comedy, had it ever beqn finished. 
The Morning Post for 6 Nov., 1781, 
announced that "Mr. Sheridan has made 
considerable progress in his new comedy of 
' Affectation,' which will succeed the opera of 
Mr. Tickell." Again, as late as the end of 
April, 1795, the date of his second marriage, 
Sheridan was reported to have his comedy 
ready for the stage. But when he was once 
asked why he had not produced his long- 
promised work, his interlocutor answered for 
him : " You are afraid of the author of ' The 
School for Scandal ' " (ibid., passim). 

It was in another passage of his four days' 
speech at the great trial that Sheridan 
fastened upon Nathaniel Middleton the nick- 
name of Memory Middleton ; where, after 
rallying the discreet witness " prevarica- 
tion personified " on his assumed forgetful- 
ness, he assured their Lordships that of 
nothing would they ever be more oblivious 
than of Mr. Middleton's memory (ibid., i. 91) 

Which of the numerous country houses 
rented at various times by Sheridan was 
called Randall's ? 

In 1781 Sheridan, who had left the school 
about thirteen years before, in Mr. Sichel's 

" resumed his abode at Harrow, this time in the 
Grove, one of those white Georgian mansions 
which still adorn the hill. Sheridan's study, the 
fine old marble mantlepieces, the spreading cedar 
outside, can still be seen. So can a spot in the 
garden, commanding the long view towards 
Windsor, which tradition asserts to have been his 
wife's favourite nook. The red brick buildings, 
once his stables, still front the climbing high 
road, and a coloured print of ' Mr. Sheridan's 
stables at Harrow ' is yet extant. In the Grove's 
garden For and Burke and [General the Hon. 
Richard] Fitzpatrick met and forgathered. 
From the Grove Mrs. Sheridan addressed some 
charming letters to her ' dear LeFany,' his sister 
Alicia. [Three of these letters are given in the 
Appendix to Mr. Sichel's second volume.] " 
At the bottom of the page from which I have 
quoted (ibid., i. 260), Mr. Sichel gives a 

vigorous stanza from the Harrow Tercen- 
tenary Prize Poem of 1871, beginning, 
Still jaunty Acres walks our cricket field. 

The entire poem of twenty-four nine-line 
stanzas may be seen in the school com- 
memoration volume of the above date. It 
presents in singularly happy fashion a brief 
chronicle in verse of Harrow history, the 
author being Mr. Sichel himself, at that 
time a member of the school. 

The Grove, which stands near the top of 
the hill, to the north of the parish church, 
almost certainly occupies the site of t he- 
Rectory Manor House. A few remains of 
former greatness may still be seen : an old 
well faced with Purbeck stone, some broken 
fragments of an oriel window built into a 
wall, and certain cavernous cellars. Indeed,, 
the house has undergone many vicissitudes.- 
It has been used as one of the large boarding- 
houses of the school since about 1819 ; was 
almost burnt down in January, 1833, but 
rebuilt ; and was bequeathed, together with 
its garden of ten acres, to Harrow School, on 
his death in 1901, by Edward Ernest Bowen, 
who had presided over its destinies for 
twenty years. Mrs. Sheridan, in her letter 
of 20 December (1781) to Alicia Le Fanu, 
says : 

" He (Sherry) intended at that time not to 
have another Country House as our lease of Heston 
was expired, but has since chang'd his plan, and 

has taken a very pretty place at Harrow, for 

a long lease, where he means to put my dear Tom 
next year." 

But Thomas Sheridan, the father of t he- 
three famous beauties, was never an Harro- 
vian, although in 1786, when aged 11, he 
was consigned to the care of Dr. Parr, whom 
R. B. S. in his career at Harrow had known r 
both as a senior boy, and later as an assistant 
master. Charles Brinsley, Sheridan's son 
by his second wife, was educated at Win- 
chester and Cambridge. 

( To be continued.) 


IT is no unusual thing in the present day to- 
find lists of incumbents hung up in churches. 
Thereby a great contribution is made to 
ecclesiastical history, and it is much to be 
wished that this were done in all ancient 

The following list has been compiled at 
considerable trouble and some expense from 
the Diocesan Registers, supplemented by 
the lists of Oxford and Cambridge graduates, 



* D.N.B.,' &c., and is as perfect as I have 
been able to make it. 

Several Rectors were men of note, though, 
with the exception of Edward Young, 
father of the author of ' Night Thoughts,' 
they do not all seem to have resided here. 
A note added in the Register says that 
Mary, daughter of Cuthbert Allanson, was 
4t mother of Bishop Heber." 

Till the death of John Haygarth (26 Oct., 
1854) the adjoining parish of Durley was a 
chapelry dependent on Upham ; it was then 

made a separate rectory, the income being 
about equally divided, though Upham was 
left to bear the upkeep of a large house and 
grounds. It is singular that, although the 
church of Durley bears the name of Holy 
Cross, the dedication of the mother-church 
is unknown, all attempts to discover it 
having failed. The patronage, as is here 
shown, passed for two turns to the Bishop 
of Lichfield, then by a further arrange m^ut 
to the Lord Chancellor, in whose gift both 
benefices now remain. 

Date of 





Bishop of 

1304. July 28 

Robert de Borghayse 


1305. Oct. 17 

William de Essex 


1326. Aug. 15 

John de Gorges 

1327. Jan. 6 

[Commenda to William de Hare- 



1327. June 26 

John de Madeley 


1335. July 15 

John de Beautre 



R. of S. Helen t, Wor- 

1339. Feb. 10 

John de Overton 



Had dispensation for 

1348. April 6 

John, son of William Wodelok . . 



1349. Aug. 11 

Thomas de Wolverton 

1371 Feb. 10 

Stephen Canell 



with next. 

1375. Nov. 7 

John Crabbe 


H. of Nursling. 

1376. Oct. 11 

John Benet 



1378. April 17 

Thomas, son of Richard Wykyn 

of Swaffham. 

1453. Nov. 10 

John Elys 


1457. July 14 

John Voke 



1459. May 16 

John Redyng alias Riddying 



1471. Aug. 2 

William Palmer 



1473. July 1 

Richard Sewele 


1511. Aug. 18 

John Turhulle (elsewhere Tyrell) 


1529. Aug. 1 

John Hurte 


1569. April 4 

Thomas Jeffrys 


1598. Mar. 28 

Thomas Fryar or Frere 


R. of Harming ton. 

with above. 

1639. May 11 

Myrth Waferer, M.A., Oxon. 
Matthew Stocke (intruder) 


Extruded in Rebellion 
restored. D.D.,1660. p re . 
bendary of Winchester. 

Myrth Waferer (restored) . . 


Buried in Cathedral. 

1680. Nov. 15 

'Edward Young, B.C.L., Oxon. . . 



Fellow of Winchester Col- 

lege, Prebendary, after 

wards Dean of Salisbury. 

1705. Aug. 17 

Charles Woodroffe, D.C.L., Oxon. 



Prebendary of Winchester 

R. of Uoughton, d. 1726. ' 

1720. Aug. 8 

John White, M.A. 


Buried at Upham. 

1738. July 4 
1746. Dec. 24 

Ferdinando Warner 
Middlemore Griffith, M.A., Cantab. 



R. of St. Michael, Queen- 
hithe, London. 1746 ; 
I, I,. I).. 1754 ; R. of Earner, 

1753; d. 1768. 

1749. Oct. 10 

Cuthbert Allanson, B.A., Oxon. . . 



M.A., B. and D.D., 1778; 

1756. Sept. 23 

William Tomlins, B.A., Oxon. . . 



R. of Wath, Yorks, d. 

1788. Mar. 15 

Matthew Woodford, M.A., Oxon. . . 



R. of Todmorton. Oxon., 
Prebendary of Win- 

chester, H. of Crawley 

and Chilbolton, 1789, 

Archdeacon, 1795, d. 1807. 

1792. April 4 

Joseph Warton, D.D., Oxon. 



Head Master of Winches- 

ter College, 1766-flS, 

Prebendary of St. Paul>, 

1782, of Winchester. 1788, 

H. of Wickham, buried 

in Cathedral. 

1800. April 25 
1814. Oct. 20 

William Gamier, M.A., Oxon. 
John Haygarth, M.A., Cantab. . . 



Prebendary of Winchester, 
R. of Droxford, 1801, d. 

US. X.JULY 25, 1914.] 


RECTORS OF UPHAM (Durley separated}. 

Date of 
Collation. Rector. 




1855. Jan. 22 

Charles Simon Faithfull Fanshawe, Bishop of 


M.A., Oxon. 


1873. July 18 Richard Shard 

Gubbins, M.A., 

Bishop of 

Resignations D - *** e ?" buried at 




1884. Nov. 18 

William Wyke 

Bayliss, M.A., 



Formerly V. of 8ton 
Staffs, buried at Upham' 

Date of 



1890. April 19 

Henry Poole 

Marriott, B.A., i Lord Chan- 

Resignation. 1 V. of Blackwell, Derbys^ 




1897. Feb. 6 

Edmund Lawrence Hemsted Tew, 
M.A., Oxon. 


V. of Hornsea and R. of 
Long Riston, Yorks, 1W3- 
97. Domes! ii: Chaplain to 

the Marquis of Ailesbury. 


N.B. Cardinal Beaufort's Registers for the early part of the fourteenth century and those of Bishop 
Andrewes for the first part of the seventeenth are missing, which accounts for gaps in the list at those 

Upham. E. L. H. TEW. 


THK interesting information as to the family 
of Alexander Pope published by MR. F. J. 
POPE in ' N. & Q.,' US. vii. 281, has only 
recently been seen by me ; but, as the exact 
date of the acquisition of the house at 
Binfield by the poet's father seems unknown 
to him, he may be glad to learn it through 
your columns. The history of this house 
was traced by me in an article which appeared 
in The Home Counties Magazine in January, 
1900. The dates are taken from the pur- 
chase deeds. 

Alexander Pope the elder purchased 
Whitehill House, with two closes of arable 
or pasture land containing fourteen acres, 
in the parish of Binfield in the county of 
Berks, on 29 July, 1698. The vendor was 
Charles Rackett, late of Hammersmith in the 
parish of Fulham in the county of Middlesex, 
now of Binfield in the county of Berks, gent. 
In addition to the fourteen acres already 
mentioned, there were three a^res in the 
common field of Binfield, and a close, known 
as Little Comer, of about two acres : al- 
together about nineteen acres. 

Pope is described as of Hammersmith 
aforesaid, merchant, and the price was 445?., 
being the sum Rackett had paid for the 
property three years earlier, when he had 
bought it of Gabriel Yonge, gentleman, of 
Warfield, Berks (4 Feb., 1695). A Pope was 
one of the witnesses to this deed, and 
Rackett was no doubt his son-in-law the 
husband of his daughter, Magdalen Pope. 
At this date the house and ground were in 
the occupation of one Thomas Holmes as 
tenant by a lease for three years, dated 

13 Sept., 1694. Neither Rackett nor Pope 
could have come to Binfield before the last- 
mentioned lease had expired in the autumn 
of 1697. But on 9 April, 1700, Alexander 
Pope the elder, of Binfield in the county of 
Berks, merchant, conveyed to Samuel Maw- 
hood, citizen and fishmonger of London, and 
Charles Mawhpod of London, gentleman,. 
" all that brick messuage or tenement 
wherein he, the said Alexander Pope the 
elder, now dwelleth," in trust for his only 
son, Alexander Pope the younger. The 
latter was now 12 years of age, the age at 
which he afterwards said he went with hi* 
father into the forest, and at which he pro- 
fessed to have composed the ' Ode to Soli- 
tude,' in praise of a rural and secluded Hie, 
Fifteen years later, however, when the pro- 
ceeds of the ' Iliad ' and other works had 
rendered him independent, the poet desired 1 
to move nearer London, and his father and" 
the two Mawhoods, " at the request and 1 
desire " of Alexander Pope the younger, sold 
Whitehill House to James Tanner of the 
parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, London, 
gentleman, for the sum of 5501. paid to 
Alexander Pope the younger. The price had 
advanced a hundred pounds. The signa- 
tures of father and son appear on this deed* r 
the elder, still described as merchant, signing 
"Alex r Pope"; the younger, "Alexand, 

On 23 Oct., 1717, the old merchant died at 
Mawson's Buildings, Chiswick, aged, accord- 
ing to his monument, 74. He would, there- 

* Dated 1 March, 1715, or 1716 historically. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. JULY 25, 1914. 

-fore, have been about 55 when he left 
Hammersmith for Binfield. The Backetts 
.(Magdalen Pope and her husband ) were living 
At Hall Grove, near Bagshot, within a ride 
of Binfield, in 1711, and were there in 1717, 
as the poet's correspondence shows. Un- 
fortunately, this correspondence was revised 
before publication by Pope himself, and is, 
therefore, un trustworthy ; but Mr. Court- 
hope gives a letter found among the 
Homer MSS.* in the British Museum, from 
"which we learn that the elder Pope devoted 
his attention to gardening. Sir William 
Trumbull of Easthampstead, near Binfield, 
wrote on 15 June, 1706 : 

" I wish I could learn some skill in gardening 
ironi your father (to whom with your good 
Mother all our services are presented with thanks 
for the Artichokes), who has sent us a pattern 
that I am afraid we shall copy but in miniature : 
rfor so our Artichokes are in respect to his." 


V. ii. 750, GLOBE). The Folio reads : 
The extreme parts of time, extremelie formes 
All causes to the purpose of his speed : 

"*" Forming a cause extremely " is at best a 
very strained expression, if, indeed, ade- 
quate sense can be made of it. But the 
slightest possible change makes for clearness 
and sense, viz. : 

The extreme part of time's extremity forms 
.(" extremity " being probably written " ex- 
tremetie "), i.e., not merely time's extremity, 
but the extreme part of that extremity. 
''^Time's extremity " occurs in the ' Errors,' 
V. i. 307 ; and " time," " extremities," and 
" extreame," in collocation, in ' Borneo and 
Juliet,' II. Prol., 13 and 14. Shakespeare 
revised ' Borneo and Juliet ' in 1596, and 
very probably had this latter passage in 
mind when revising ' Love's Labour 's Lost ' 
viz., in 1597. HENRY CUNINGHAM. 

vii. 367, 470, 492.) In ' N. & Q.' for 15 June, 
1907, MR. ALFRED F. BOBBINS, discussing 
Walpole's connexion with the maxim " Every 
man has his price," quoted the passage from 
Sir William Wyndham's speecli in which it 
iirst occurs (1734), and the pertinent sen- 
tences from Walpole's rejoinder. Then he 
mentioned the absence of comment in the 
daily and weekly periodicals, and asked 

* Correspondence, vol. vi. p. 2. The MS. of 
Dope's translation is in the Britisli Museum, and 
is largely written on the backs of loiters. 

concerning contemporary allusions to the 
matter of which the earliest he had found 
bears the date 12 Oct., 1766. The topic is 
of some interest, and inasmuch as no addi- 
tional references have since appeared in 
' N. & Q.,' the following brief notes are, 
perhaps, worth recording. 

The speeches quoted by MR. BOBBINS from 
' The Parliamentary History of England ' 
are both to be found in The Gentleman's 
Magazine, iv. 589-92, 641-4 (November- 
December, 1734), and are there said to have 
been delivered on 13 March. 

Ten years later, in February, 1744, was pub- 
lished a verse satire against Walpole, entitled 
' The Equity of Parnassus.' A vignette on 
the title-page is a caricature of the nobleman 
arraigned before the bar (literally) of the 
Muses. Lines 195-8 are these : 
Since, as thou say'st, each Mortal has his Price, 
And every Heart is all compos'd of Vice, 
Thy darling Deamon* shall thy Doctrine quote, 
And with thy own fell Maxim cut thy Throat. 

The poem is an anonymous folio of sixteen 
pages, printed for C. Corbett. 

The University of Texas. 

MUFFINS. Only within the last few days 
have I found time to read ' The Confounding 
of Camelia,' which has been lying on my 
table for twelve months or more. It con- 
tains much that surprises me and that con- 
tradicts my knowledge of human customs. 
In its way nothing struck me more than to 
find that the elegant and detestable heroine 
" ate a muffin " (p. 185) at afternoon-tea, 
and that later on (p. 195) Mrs. Jodsley, the 
vicar's wife, should be shown with " a 
muffin in one hand and a cup of tea in the 
other." The muffins on which I have been 
nourished from youth until now are soft, 
bread -like disks about 5 in. in diameter. 
They are toasted externally, split by being 
torn asunder, and then prodigally buttered, 
and quartered by means of a cut perpendicu- 
lar and a cut horizontal. Not many girls 
would consume an entire muffin at 5 o'clock 
tea ; not many clergywomen would sit in a 
drawing-room grasping a whole one in the 

I suspect that muffins north of the Trent 
and muffins in some part of the south of 
England known to Anne Douglas Sedgwick 
are of different varieties. There is, perhaps, 
some confirmation of this in a quotation 
which the ' N.E.D.' gives from Jerome K. 
Jerome's ' Idle Thoughts ' (p. 120) : " I 


ii s.x. JULY 25, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


eat a large plateful of hot buttered muffins 
about an hour beforehand." 

The story of the Hon. Mr. Darner or 
another, who doted on muffins, and who 
ordered three for breakfast and shot himself 
in order to evade dyspeptic'' pangs which 
were his due, is told in Boswell's ' Life of 
Johnson ' (Croker's ed., 1860, p. 628), and 
has been discussed in ' N. & Q.' in connexion 
with Sam Weller's tale about a greedy fellow 
who was willing to sacrifice himself for a 
feast of crumpets. Three muffins of even 
Northern mould might not be too much for 
a glutton who preferred death to moderation. 


MENT. Of the many pamphlets and broad- 
sides published after this disaster few at- 
tempted to be facetious. Before me 
is a humorous doggerel apparently not 
published signed " W. Brett, Liverpool, 
25 Nov., 1834." The last section is suffi- 
cient indication of its import and merit : 

" This is the Peer who in Town being resident 
sign'd the report for the absent Lord President 
and said that the History was cleared of its 
mystery by Whitbread the waiter adding his 
negative to that of John Riddle who laughed 
and said Piddle when told Mr. Cooper of Drury 
Lane had been down to Dudley and back again 
and had heard the same day a Bagman say that the 
House was a blazing a thing quite amazing even 
to John Snell who knew very well by the smoke 
and the heat that was broiling his feet through 
his great thick boots in the Black Rod's Seat that 
Dick Reynolds was right that the fires were too 
bright heaped up to such an unaccountable 
height in spite of the fright they gave poor 
Mistress Wright when she sent to Josh Cross so 
full of his sauce both to her and to Weobly who 
had heard so feebly the Directions of Phipps when 
he told him the Chips might be burnt in the 
flues yet never sent the News as he ought to 
Milne [who] would have burnt in a Kiln those 
confounded old Sticks and not heated the bricks 
nor set fire to the house that Josh Burnt." 


MR. H. E. MALDEN in his note on ' The 
True Story of the First Marriage of John 
Ponet, Bishop of Winchester ' (11 S. ix. 501), 
remarks : " No one need believe Sanders 
unsupported in such a matter." He thus 
seems to adopt the view of Sander taken by 
Heylin, Strype, Collier, Burnet, and Froude. 
I should like, however, with your permission, 
to set out some testimonies in his favour. 

Aubrey in his ' History of Surrey ' (1723), 
iv. 235, says that Sander's writings, " though 
not absolutely free from Exceptions, contain 
many bold Truths made out too plainly to 
admit of any denial.'' 

The late Rev. Nicholas Pocock, the editor 
of Burnet, after remarking in his Preface to 
Harpsfield's ' Pretended Divorce ' (Camden 
Soc., 1878), i., that " it has been the fashion 
ever since the days of Burnet to disparage 
him [Sanders] as eminently untrustworthy," 
adds : 

" At one time I was of the same opinion, but the 
more intimately acquainted I became with Sanders s 
work the more reason I found to change my judg- 
ment about him." 

The late Mr. T. G. Law in his article on 
Sander in the ' D.N.B.' wrote : 

"Recent authorities have shown that, notwith- 
standing his animus and the violence of his lan- 
guage, his narrative of facts is remarkably truthtul. 
In almost every disputed point he has been proved 
right and Burnet wrong." 

The late James Gairdner, C.B., in his 
' Lollardy and the Reformation in England 
(1908), ii. 71, wrote : 

" Sanders was much better informed and more 

accurate about many things when he wrote than 
paet historians have believed." 

Finally, Prof. A. F. Pollard in ' The Politi- 
cal History of England, 1547-1603 ' (1910), 
at p. 369, writes that " his books are now 
accepted as worthy to be ranked with those 
of his best antagonists." 


BUNT-LARK. This is the corn -bunting 
according to Wright's ' Eng. Dialect Diet.' 
In a district of Hampshire where the corn- 
bunting is very rare, the name is given to 
the yellowhammer or to the meadow-pipit. 

W. M. E. F. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

WEST NORFOLK MILITIA. I should be glad 
to receive information as to the whereabouts 
of any engravings, paintings, or other 
illustrations of the West Norfolk Militia, 
especially about the year 1800. 

GEO. A. STEPHEN, City Librarian. 

Public Library, Norwich. 

Can any one refer me to any pamphlets, 
articles in reviews, or passages in longer 
works which set out the theory of " Liberal- 
ism " in politics, and define what is necessary 
to constitute a " Liberal " ? I may mention 
that I know of M. Ostrogorski's 'Demo- 




NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. jow 25, 191*. 

arms reproduced below appear on a shield 
on the porch of Hathersage Church, Derby- 
shire, and also on the font. Those on the 
porch are very much weather -worn and 
difficult to decipher, but on the font they 
are perfectly distinct. As no tinctures are 
shown, and it is difficult to say what the 
two charges like trefoils with long stems are 
meant to be, it is not possible to describe 
the arms in heraldic terms. The chevron 
being placed over them also seems curious. 

Identification of the arms is much desired, 
as they have, I believe, puzzled many 
archaeologists. They will be connected in 
some way with the family of Eyre, and 
identification would probably lead to the 
discovery of the name of the wife of an 
early member of the family. 


FACE. Can any of your readers identify 
the authors of the following works quoted 
by Allibone ? 

1. John Fage : ' Speculum Egrotorum : 
The Sick Man's Glass ' (London, 1606 and 

2. Mary Fage : ' Fame's Boule ' (London, 

3. Robert Fage : * Infant Baptism ' (Lon- 
don, 1645). 

4. Robert Fage : ' Description of the 
World ' (London, 1658). 


LISH SERVICE, 1689-1725. Can any one 
tell me whether there are anywhere in exist- 
ence rolls of the commissioned and non- 
commissioned officers of the French Hugue- 
not regiments raised and maintained in the 
reigns of King William III. and Queen 
Mary II. and Queen Anne ? If so, do such 
rolls contain the Christian names as well 
as the surnames of such officers, and is 
information as to pensions or casualties 
on service likely to be obtained from 
them ? In the work entitled ' Protestant 
Exiles from France in the Reign of Louis 
XIV.,' compiled about thirty years ago by 
the late Rev. David C. A. Agnew, there is a 

chapter devoted to the ' French Regiments,' 
and lists of names are given therein ; but 
Mr. Agnew offers no indication as to the 
sources from which the information he gives 
was derived, and it is not possible, therefore, 
to verify what he writes. F. DE H. L. 

LIBRARY WANTED. Where can I obtain 
access to the ' Select Essays ' and other 
works of Sir James Paget, and also to such 
books as Mr. Howard Marsh's ' Memoir ' and 
Miss Putnam's ' Bibliography ' ? There are 
twenty-one books under the heading ' Paget r 
at the B.M. ; these do not include the 
hospital reports, &c. Dr. Williams's Library 
possesses the ' Life ' only. I have tried 
several ordinary libraries. I need the books 
for a literary purpose, and at home. I shall 
be most grateful for any suggestion. 


I should be glad to obtain any information 
concerning the following Old Westminsters : 

(1) Robert Castile, admitted 1750, aged 7. 

(2) Henry Caswell, admitted 1751, aged 10. 

(3) Charles Cathcart, admitted 1730, aged 9, 

(4) Tobias Caulfield, admitted 1751, aged 10. 

(5) George Chadwick, admitted 1719, aged 
12. (6) Philip Chales, admitted 1730, aged 
12. (7) Thomas Challener, admitted 1812. 
(8) Thomas Chamberlain, admitted 1720, 
aged 12. (9) Richard Chambers, admitted 
1787. (10) George Edward Champ, ad- 
mitted 1814. G. F. R. B. 

MEDALLIO LEGENDS. (See ante, pp. 28, 

52. Justum rectumque tuetur. 

53. In numeris ordo. 

54. Indueunt sidera casus. 

55. Jus dedit et dabit uti. 

56. In sacra inque coronas. 

57. Juvenis senexque tuetur. 

58. Jam quantus in ortu. 

59. Ingenium vires superat. 

60. Justa nit in. 

61. Labor alitis aufert. 

62. Libertas auren. 

63. Liberat a condemnantibus anirnam ejua. 

64. Lux fugat ut tenebras, sic ordine cuncta 


65. Lucentque reguntque. 

66. Lex regit, arma tuentur. 

67. Memento quid fuit, respice quid venit. 

68. Magnes amoris amor. 

69. Mens sidera volvit. 

70. Moriamur dummodo vivant. 

71. Me custode tutum. 

72. Mala undique clades. 

73. Mediis sic tuta procellis. 


(To If. continued.) 

11 S. X. JULY 25, 1914.] 



F JOHN JAMES PARK, 1794-1833. A book- 
seller friend has, after many years' persistent 
search, been able to secure for me a large 
number of autograph letters of this justly 
esteemed historian of Hampstead. They 
are nearly all addressed to Sir Egerton 
Brydges, and belong to the writer's last 
period, when, as Prof. Park, he had consider- 
able reputation as a lecturer and examiner 
at Lincoln's Inn. The letters show that he 
was trying to clear the involved financial 
difficulties of his correspondent, who had 
suffered from avaricious and dishonest 
solicitors and pleaders. Much interesting 
comment on contemporaries, many recollec- 
tions of Hampstead, and autobiographical 
notes are also provided. Park's judgment 
of the world is tinged with the acerbity 
natural in a man who has found the com- 
mon standards of his profession less generous 
than his own. I intend later on to have 
these letters privately printed for distribu- 
tion amongst my friends. 

Their number, as at present known to 
exist, is not great, nor, with but few excep- 
tions, are they very interesting. Perhaps 
this notification will lead to the discovery of 
others. I shall be greatly obliged if any 
one owning letters of John James Park 
would allow me the use of them for the little 
pamphlet I am preparing. 

51, Rutland Park Mansions. N.W. 


1. Nullo penetrabilis astro. 

2. Coelum ipsum petimus stultitia. 

3. Prayers that e'en spoke and Pity seem'd to call, 
And issuing sighs that snioak'rl along the wall ; 
Complaints and hot desires, the Lovers' Hell, 
And scalding tears that wore a Channel where 

they fell. 


JOHNSTON FAMILY. 1 . Is anything known 
of the descendants of George Johnston, who 
was the miller of Bonshaw Mill on the 
River Kirtle, in Annandale, Dumfriesshire, 
about 1748-88 ? He had a son Thomas 
(who married a Harkness) and six grand- 
children, viz., George and Jean of Mill- 
town, who married a brother and a sister 
Rickerby ; Thomas of Birmingham, who 
married a Woodiwiss of Wirksworth, direct 
descendant of Thomas Woodiwiss, born in 
1580 ; John of Edinburgh ; Alexander ; 
and Anne of Milltown, who married a 

2. Sir Walter Scott in his ' Journal,' on 
13 June, 1826, wrote that he had come across 
" a curious thing " : that three brothers of 

the Johnston family had fled to the North in 
consequence of feuds, and taking refuge on 
the side of the Soutra Hills had changed 
their names to Sowter-Johnston. It has 
been suggested that this Sowter-Johnston 
eventually became corrupted into St. John- 
ston. Is anything known to-day of the 
So wter- Johnstons ? 

3. What is " the Annandale Beef-stand " 
mentioned by Scott in another part of the 
same passage from the ' Journal ' ? 

Kennington, Leckhampton Road, Cheltenham. 

help me to identify an edition of the New 
Testament in which Colossians iv. 14 is 
rendered (exactly) as follows : " Deare 
Lucas the Phisition, and Demas greeteth 
you " ? The title-page is wanting, but the 
following details may suffice : size 8vo, 
5 J in. x 3 J in. (this limits the inquiry con- 
siderably). The verses are numbered, so the 
edition cannot be earlier than 1557. The 
first verse of each book begins with an orna- 
mental Roman capital. There are 45 lines 
to a full page. After the ' Actes,' and 
beginning on leaf P. iii, is ' The order of 
Times,' i.e., the chronology of Paul's 
journeys. The Table at the end, to find 
Epistles and Gospels, is in double columns. 
The volume resembles, in some respects, 
Testaments printed by Richard Jugge. At 
the end is Sternhold and Hopkins's complete 
version of the Psalms, with tunes, which 
cannot be earlier than 1562. 


In hope that some of your German corre- 
spondents n\&y be able to enlighten me on 
the following subject, I write to you. 

My ancestor was a Johannes Wiest from 
Wiirttemberg, who arrived in America 
19 Sept., 1738, with his wife and two sons, 
viz., Jacob and Johannes. They arrived 
penniless, and he sold his sons as ser- 
vants for $30 each until they became of a 
certain age. Johannes sen. meanwhile 
located at Oley, Berks co., Penn., and 
settled on a 100-acre tract of land, which he 
bought. Jacob returned, but the father 
could not locate John. By corresponding 
with his descendants, we found out that he 
(Johannes or John, jun.) settled at Esopus 
(near Kingston), New York, and his family 
intermarried with such names as Du Bois, 
Osterhoudt, Eelsech, Freer, Van Alsen, 
Elmendorf, &c. From two branches of the 
family which have been separated for five 
generations I learn that Johannes Wiest 



was an heir to seven million dollars, or was 
of a family worth that much. Personally, I 
do not think they were worth more than 
several hundred thousand at the most, and 
that in landed property. Tradition has it 
also from all sides that he intermarried with 
the Jewish race. I do not want to try to 
recover any money, &c., but I want to 
establish his relationship (if any) with an 
armigerous family located in Erdenmoos(bei 
Biberach), on a manor called " Hof Wasen- 

This family descends from a Notar 
(notary) Wiest, who was granted arms at 
Gmiind, 1592, as follows : A griffin segreant 
upon three mounts in base. Helm a demi- 
griffin segreant between wings addorsed 
upon a helmet affronte. The colour is 

I have the birth record of a Johannes Wiest, 
b. 1690, son of Johannes Wiest in Ochsen- 
hausen (near Biberach), but cannot find out 
if he had any children born around 1720, or 
if his father was very wealthy. 

The first record of the Wiests of Hof 
Wasenburg was August Wiest, b. 1650, 
who had two sons, viz., Georg, b. 1680, and 
Jacob, b. 1685. Could it be that Johannes 
sen. was a brother to August ? Johannes 
or his father must have come from Hof 
Wasenburg, or such traditions as being of 
a family of wealth would not have been 
handed down to his descendants, surely. 
Is it possible he may have been disinherited 
for marrying a Jewess ? The family held 
the manor of Wasenburg in fief from the 
Abbey of Ochsenhausen. The family is 
supposed to have been resident there ever 
since the Abbey was built, which was around 
the year 1000. 

The Wiests in this district spell the name 
Wiest, while in other parts of Wiirttemberg 
and Germany it is always spelt Wiist or 
Wues t. My ancestor spelt it Wiest, as do 
all of his descendants. 

I have also heard that the first of the name 
was a robber-knight, and the name Wiest 
(wild, dissolute, lawless) would be an appro- 
priate name for one, although they were 
more than likely poor peasants. 

In Nordlingen, Bavaria, there is a branch 
of this family that has been located there 
ever since the Reformation. Could Johannes 
Wiest have come from them ? 

I will be deeply indebted to any one who 
c;vn help me prove that my ancestor had a 
r.ght to the above arms, and if he was con- 
nected with that family. 


442, Jefferson Street, Portland, Oregon. 

very glad if any of your readers could tell 
me where I can get information about 
Francis II., ex-King of Naples, who lost his 
throne in 1860. Beyond the fact that he 
wintered in Paris, and passed most of his 
summers in Bad Kreuz, I have been able to 
ascertain but little about him. Was he 
pensioned by the Italian Government ? Did 
he leave any heir ? Francis lived until 1894, 
I believe, and during his thirty-four years 
of exile made no attempt to regain his 
throne. Was he recognized to the last as 
a monarch by the European Governments ? 
I shall be glad of any information on this 
subject. ARTHUR HAY WARD. 


in his life of M. de Renty says of his hero that 
he had 

"the Poor to present him at the Font, God so 
ordering it by a particular Providence, that the 
Poor should be Godfathers to him, who afterwards 
during his life should be a Sollicitor, Protector, 
and Father of the Poor." 

Will some reader kindly cite other and 
specially earlier instances ? PEREGRINTJS. 

DWARKANAUTH TAGORE. I am desirous of 
obtaining some information concerning this 
Indian visitor to England during the forties 
of the last century, whose portrait was 
painted by Count D'Orsay. Engravings of 
this portrait attained considerable popu- 
larity. See 'D.N.B.,' v. 1157. 


St. James' Club, Piccadilly, W. 

letter to Walpole, Richard West speaks of 
" the wild Indian that galloped with full 
speed till he came to the sea, and then won- 
dered that he could gallop no further." 
Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' say where this 
incident is related ? 

2. " MR. GOOD " GEORGE II. In a letter 
written in 1737, on the occasion of the death 
of Queen Caroline, George II. is referred to 
as " Mr. Good." Was this a recognized 
nickname for the King ? If so, what was 
the origin of it ? PAGET TOYNBEE. 

Fiveways, Burnham, Bucks. 

any one tell me in whose custody are the 
registers of this parish ? G. S. PARRY. 

17, Ashley Mansions, S.W. 

VOLTAIRE IN LONDON. Can any reader 
inform me where Voltaire stayed in Wands- 
worth during his residence in England ? 

ii s. x. JULY 25, ion.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


(11 S. ix. 489; x. 13.) 

THIS inn, where Dr. Johnson dined, still 
stands. It is on the main road from London 
to Birmingham and Worcester, and half-way 
between the villages of Enstone and Long 
C'ompton. It is in the civil parish of Over 
Norton, and in the ecclesiastical parish of 
Chipping Norton. The inn stands 200 yards 
the London side of the four cross-ways 
whore the Birmingham road is intersected 
by the fine, wide road connecting Chipping 
Norton with Banbury. Turning to Dr. 
Birkbeek Hill's ' Boswell,' one is surprised 
to see that, with all his admirable editorial 
powers of annotation, he has not added a 
single line as to Chapel House. 

It has been stated in at least one popular 
topographical book that the inn has been 
turned into labourers' cottages, but this is 
not correct. The inn itself remains very 
much as it was in March, 1776, when John- 
son, accompanied by Boswell, pulled up in 
his post-chaise. The stabling, which stood 
on the left-hand side of the road going 
westwards, has been turned into cottages, 
and the wide entrance through which the 
coaches drove has been built up by a stone 
wall. The yard is now an enclosed garden 
for the cottagers' use. The 1 inn itself is 
exactly facing this, on the opposite side of 
the road, and adjoining it are what were 
once the bakery and brew -house. There is 
also a pigeon-house, and all of these are 
much the same as in the eighteenth century. 
The dry wall which fences-in the inn garden 
from the road is of a more modern date. 
There were formerly posts and chains where 
the wall is now ; and what is a lawn was 
formerly more of a courtyard, with a bowling 
alley at the bottom. The hall and entrance 
to the inn are much the same as before, 
but the wing furthest from the road has been 
rebuilt by the landlord of the place, Col. 
Dawkins. Hospitality is still dispensed at 
Chapel House, and paying guests are now 
entertained there. The tenant, Mr. W. 
Warne, is proud of the house and its associa- 
tions. As long as he remains in occupation 
nothing very dire can befall the place. It 
would be interesting to discover who was 
the landlord in 1 776. Mr. Warne says that 
at least one old lease of the house is in the 
Public Library at Stratford-on-Avon, but 
perhaps Col. Dawkins has further documents. 

The name " Chapel House " is associated 
with an earlier monastic building, which 
was connected with an adjoining priory, 
remains of which are still to be seen. A 
priory of Augustinian canons was founded 
in the twelfth century by William Fitzalan, 
lord of Chipping Norton. Stone coffins, 
bones, a crucifix, and some beads have been 
dug up beneath the house. Two fields in 
the immediate neighbourhood bear the names 
" First Chapel Hill " and " Second Chapel 
Hill." There is also "Chapel Close," and 
adjoining it are " Abbey Close " and " Abbey 

In Ogilby's ' Britannia Depicta,' 1720, 
published nearly fifty years before Johnson 
visited the place, the house is marked on a 
map with the words " A house called Chappel 
on the Heath." 

Notwithstanding all these evidences of 
the origin of the name " Chapel House," 
no one has, I believe, yet discovered any 
documentary evidence of the existence of 
the chapel as used for ecclesiastical purposes 
but it is certain that it was so. 

The road-lore of the neighbourhood is 
interesting. When Dr. Johnson made his 
journey the road was then a new one, a 
former road having passed a little south of 
the present one, and joined the new road 
at Chapel House after passing through 
Chipping Norton, which town by the present 
road is left high and dry. Traces of the old 
road can still be seen. In the parish books 
of Enstone the Rev. Samuel Nash, an 
eighteenth-century vicar, entered some notes 
on the roads : 

" As it is probable that the water at Oxford was 
always passed at the ford, we may see that the 
original road, to this day called the London drift 
road, was from Oxford to Campsfield, and from 
thence through the parishes of Wpotten, Glympton, 
Kiddington, Enstoue, and Chipping Norton, where 

it becomes the Birmingham road Of late years a 

new road has been made from Woodstock to Chip- 
ping Norton, through the village of Enstone." 

This was the road which Johnson took. 
The village of Enstone was a great centre 
for coaching, and Mr. John Jolly was a 
large local proprietor of coaches. Twenty- 
two four-horse coaches passed along this 
road every day. In 1501 Paul Bombyn, a 
London merchant, was waylaid and killed 
close to Chapel House, and priests were 
suspected of the crime (see Beesley's ' His- 
tory of Banbury,' p. 190). In 1641 Taylor 
the water-poet visited the chief inns in 
Oxfordshire. His itinerary is printed, but 
I cannot at this moment get at it. Mr. 
Warne says that Queen Victoria slept at 
Chapel House on one of her progresses as a 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. JULY 25, 191*. 

child, and that, having weak ankles, she was 
carried downstairs on a chair to her sitting- 

Bibliography. Although Chapel House is 
not named in either, there are two works 
which give the local atmosphere as it was in 
the eighteenth century. One is Miss Sturge 
Henderson's ' Three Centuries in North 
Oxfordshire ' (Oxford, 1902), and the other 
the Transactions of the North Oxford- 
shire Archaeological Society. The only 
illustration of Chapel House is in C. G. 
Harper's ' The Inns of Old England,' 
vol. ii., facing p. 102. The picture is not 
by. any means exact, and omits the bake- 
house and the brew-house and the cottages 
which take the place of the stables, and into 
which some of the windows formerly in the 
inn have been built. Mr. Harper gives a 
good account of the inn in his narrative. 
Mr. H. A. Evans in ' Highways and Byways 
in Oxford and the CotswoJds,' pp. 382-3, 
is interesting, but, I think, inadequate. 
Excellent is the Rev. John Jordan's ' Paro- 
chial History of Enstone,' 1857, one of the 
first parish histories to be written on lines 
which have since been followed by others. 

Much about Chapel House as an inn 
in the eighteenth century would probably 
be found in Jackson's Oxford Journal. 
Mr. Mordaunt of Doughty Street, W.C., 
started an Index to this valuable Journal, 
but I believe only one part was ever issued. 
Brasenose College owns property in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the inn, and 
in the MSS. of that College the names of 
former owners of the inn might be found. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

Archdeacon Hutton in his ' Burford 
Papers,' 1905, p. 113, says that the old inn 
at Chapel House was, according to tradition, 
a rendezvous for Jacobite plotters. Some 
seventy years ago Chapel House was one of 
three sites the other two were Swalcliffe 
Park and the Manor House, Sibford which 
were inspected and deliberated upon by 
members of the Society of Friends with a 
view to the establishment of a school. 
Ultimately, Sibford Ferris was chosen, and 
there the Friends' School was established in 
1842, under the headship of Richard and 
Rebecca Routh, parents of the well-known 
scholar Dr. Routh. G. L. APPERSON. 

Chapel House was about a mile to the north- 
east of Chipping Norton, on the main road. 
The famous inn and posting-house there was 
at one period called " The Shakespeare's 
Head," and a quarter of a century later than 

the date mentioned by the querist frequently 
enjoyed the patronage of the Regent. 

In 1852 the house was shorn of its principal 
glories, and only the old tap-room survived 
as a roadside public -house, under the title 
of "The Royal." BKADSTOW. 

' To ONE IN PARADISE ' (11 S. ix. 511). 
The full stanza runs : 

And all my days are trances, 
And all my nightly dreams 
Are where thy dark eye glances, 

And where thy footstep gleams 
In what ethereal dances, 

By what eternal streams ! 

The person apostrophized is, presumably, 
nobody specially, this being in Poe's manner 
" Une erotomanie necrophilique, follement 
faite de platonisme ethere et de materialisme 
superstitieux," as E. Lauvriere calls it. 
The original of the stanza is : 

av 5' 

% ircur' 

airb Kvaveov 
ffrl\{ifi piirJi 
7ro56s ePre 

irap riffi 
dOavaroiffi ; 


(11 S. ix. 128, 173, 216, 276, 434). The 
following instruction is given in the 
sixty-second tome (which was written in 
A.D. 1825) of Count Matsura's ' Koshi 
Yawa ' : 

" To heal a burn or scald. Put lukewarm water 
in a Venus's-ear shell, and repeatedly rub the inside 
of the latter with a piece of flint. Then the water 
would turn white, as if rice was washed in it. 
Apply this to the afflicted part, and see that it is 
instantaneously cured." 

This recipe appears to be endemically a 
Japanese one, no Chinese work on medicine 
mentioning it so far as I know. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

ROSTAND (11 S. ix. 466 ; x. 72). The follow- 
ing is from The Times of 1 Dec., 1900 : 

" There is one thing, however, which I [i.e., the 
Paris correspondent] regret, namely, a poem on 
Mr. Kruger in the Figaro by M. Rostand, the 
author of 'Cyrano de -Bergerac' and 'L'Aiglon.' 
The verses mean nothing, and are tedious, hollow, 
and devoid of real enthusiasm, but they sadden me 
because they betray a faltering pen, a laboured 
inspiration, and at times a disconcerting vulgarity. 

n s. x. JULY 25, 1911] K OTES AND QUERIES. 

They sadden me because they are neither well 
inspired nor well written, and because the author's 
admirers would be glad to tear them up. To justify 
this criticism let me quote one stanza, which sug- 
gests the mawkishness of a schoolboy's composi 
tion : 

Non, 1'histoire n'a rien dans aucun de ses cycles 
De plus tragique etde plus beau 

Que 1'apparition de ce vieux a besides 
Avec ce crepe & son chapeau ! " 

The St. James's Gazette of the same date 
gives three other stanzas from the poem, 
which it describes as " a long poem on Mr. 
Kruger's mission in Europe " : 

Pardon pour cette Europe effroyable qui laisse 

Opprimer les faibles toujpurs, 
Tuer lea Arme'niens, assassiner la Grece 

Et massacrer les pauvres Boers ! 

Va vers cette blancheur dont le Nord s'illumine 

Et que Dieu regarde regner ; 
Vieux Kriiger, va trouver la reine Wilhelmine, 

Et dis-lui de t'accompagner. 

Tu diras, en rendant aux fillettes, je pense, 
Les gros bouquets aux uoeuds nambants : 

" Je n'^tais pas venu demander a la France 
Des mots Merits sur des rubans." 

The St. James's Gazette says that Mr. 
Kruger, on being told of M. Kostand's 
verses, and of their power to make Europe 
thrill, said simply, " God is great and 
miraculous in His power." Perhaps the old 
man with the spectacles and the mourning 
hatband was occasionally humorous. 


CAIXIPEDES (11 S. ix. 508). The name 
should be spelt Callippides, and was applied 
proverbially to any one who, in spite of all 
his efforts, got " no forrarder." Cicero, 'Ad 
Att,' xiii. 12, 3, when referring to Varro's 
delay with his promised ' De Lingua Latina,' 
writes : " Biennium prseteriit, cum ille KuA- 
AITTTTIO'T/S adsiduo cursu cubitum nullum 
processerit." Suetonius, ' Tiberius,' 38, tells 
us that Tiberius, who when emperor was 
continually making preparations to revisit 
the provinces, but never went, was nick- 
named Callippides, " quern cursitare, ac ne 
cubiti quidem mensuram progredi, proverbio 
graeco notatum est. ' ' The only form in which 
the Greek proverb is found is KaAAwrTros 
T/>x t ) in ' Mantissa Proverbiorum,' i. 87, 
in Leutsch's ' Parcemiographi Graeci,' where 
it is said to be used TTI TWV iroXXa 
fjLt\f~<i>VTWv 7roii)<rcu, oAiya &e Spiavrtav. 
Erasmus, under ' Tarditatis et Cunotationis,' 
p. 682 in the 1629 ed. of the ' Adagia,' sug- 
gests that the Callippides in question is to 
be identified with a tragic actor mentioned 
by Plutarch. Tyrrell and Purser in their 
edition of Cicero's ' Correspondence,' v. 107, 

regard this as improbable. A. Otto, ' Sprich- 
worter der Romer,' p. 66, points out that 
Callippus was apparently a runner who r 
after all his exertions, never reached the 
goal. He supposes the patronymic Cal- 
lippides to mean " a man like Callippus," 
and its treatment in the passage of Suetonius 
as a real name to be due to a misunder- 

The modern parallel, though not yet pro- 
verbial, and taken from the brute creation, 
is surely Mr. Pecksniff's horse, which " was 
full of promise, but of no performance. He 
was always, in a manner, going to go, and 
never going." EDWABD BENSLY. 

ICE: ITS USES (11 S. ix. 469, 512). In 
this country ice for the table does not appear 
to be mentioned in any work until t he- 
eighteenth century. The ' New English Dic- 
tionary ' supplies several quotations, dating 
from 1722, which include ice-waters, ice- 
cooled potations, ice-makers, ice-houses, &c~ 
To these may be added eatable ice, called 
" iced -butter," which was first known to the 
Parisian coffee-houses in 1774. The com- 
bination of ice and salt which is still in every- 
day use for such purposes as ice-cream 
freezing is said to have been used by Fahren- 
heit in 1762. 

But the use of ice as a luxury or as 
refrigerant is matter of ancient history. 
The several gradations in bringing this- 
greatest luxury of warm climates and modern 
times to perfection were probably the- 
following : First, preserving snow in pits 
which it is likely was practised in very 
early ages and mixing it with drink ? 
next, boiling water, and placing it in a vessel 
in the midst of snow, a method recognized 
at least in principle by Aristotle and Galen \. 
then the use of evaporation, by which 
artificial ice is procured throughout Hindo- 
stan ; and, lastly, the employment of nitre 
to refrigerate the water containing the 
liquor to be used. This last discovery was- 
claimed by Villa Franca, a Spaniard, in 1550, 
but it is more probable that the Portuguese- 
found it in their Indian possessions. At 
this period there were no ice-cellars in France ; 
the word gladere is not met with in the oldest 
dictionaries, and it does not occur even in that 
of Monet, printed in 1635. 

The practice of cooling liquors at the table 
of the great was not usual in any country 
besides Italy and the neighbouring state* 
before the end of the sixteenth century.. 
Under the reign of Henry III. the use of 
snow must have been well known at the 
French Court, though it was considered by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY 25, 

the people as a mark of excessive and effemi- 
nate luxury. In recent times no one has 
succeeded in congealing water by saltpetre 
alone (without the help of snow or ice). 
Farmers say that a field is cold because it 
abounds with saltpetre. Latinus Tancredus, 
physician and professor at Naples, whose 
Tx>ok ' De Fame et Siti ' was published in 
1607, assures us that the cold was much 
strengthened by saltpetre : that a glass 
filled with water, when quickly moved in 
now mixed with saltpetre, became solid ice. 
In 1626 the well-known commentary on 
the works of Avicenna, by Sanctorius, 
was published at Venice in folio. The author 
of this work relates that he had converted 
wine into ice by a mixture of snow and 
common salt. Bacon says that a new method 
had been found of bringing snow and ice to 
such a degree of cold, by means of saltpetre, 
as to make water freeze. This, he tells us, 
<*an be done also with common salt, by which, 
it is probable, he meant unpurified rock salt ; 
and he adds that in warm countries, where 
snow was not to be found, people made ice 
'with saltpetre, but that he himself had never 
tried the experiment. About 1660 Procope 
Ck>uteaux, an Italian of Florence, conceived 
the happy idea, soon after the invention of 
lemonade, of converting that liquor into ice 
by a process which had before been employed 
by jugglers. Later on liquors cooled by or 
changed into ice were the principal things 
sold by the limonadiers. When De La 
Quintinie wrote in 1691, iced liquors were 
extremely common. 

This brings us tip to the eighteenth cen- 
tury, mentioned at the beginning of this reply. 
In 1816-17 Prof. Leslie invented an ice-making 
apparatus, which never came into use, con- 
fectioners, restaurateurs, and others con- 
tinuing to supply themselves as of old with 
ice of Nature's own making, and importing 
their supplies at a vast expense from the 
North. In the words of Thomas Masters 
' The Ice Book,' 1844 

"The cadger providers of our Gunters and 
Verneys continue, as in the days of Pepys, to lay 
every suburban pond ' from Stratford Marshes to 
Wilsden Bottom under contribution." 

Hippocrates, 460 B.C., warned people of 
the danger of drinking iced waters in the heat 
of summer, because anything that is exces- 
sive is an enemy to nature; and further 
observes : 

" but they would rather run the hazard of their 
lives or health than be deprived of the pleasure of 
drinking out of ice." 

Hippocrates, Celsus, and others employed 
cold water as a drink in ardent fever. In 

modern times also it has been extensively used 
for the same purpose. Pisanellus ( 1 590) states 
that the fevers which were so prevalent among 
the natives of Sicily ceased upon the intro- 
duction of ice into that country. The doctors 
of the eighteenth century recommended it. 
Dr. Hancocke (1724) called it the febrifugum 
magnum; Dr. Currie (1797) was in favour of 
cold affusions ; Sir Ast ley Cooper (1804) re- 
commended ice-poultice for hernia! tumours. 
In regard to the trade in natural ice, 
prior to 1844 the consumption and use of 
foreign ice in England were very insignificant. 
In that year the Wenham Lake Ice Company 
established their business in London for the 
supply of pure ice only. This they procured 
from a lake about 18 miles from Boston, but 
in consequence of the high freight and the 
great waste attending its transportation 
and storage, the speculation proved a failure. 
The company then turned their attention 
to Norway, from which ice of equal thickness 
and compactness could be obtained at less 
cost, the only difficulty being that of obtain- 
ing it of equal quality. The lake ultimately 
selected by the company is remarkable for 
the purity of its water, which is attributable 
to the fact of its being supplied by springs 
only, and not by mountain torrents, which 
bring down with them decomposing vegetable 
matter in large quantity. This lake lies a 
few miles from Drobak in the Christiania 
Fjord. As soon as it became known that ice 
of great thickness could be obtained cheaply 
from the fjords and lakes adjoining the coast 
of Norway, fishermen began to use it in pre- 
ference to English ice for packing and pre- 
serving their fish. The further development 
of the ice-trade, and that of refrigeration, is, 
of course, beyond the scope of this reply. 


CONDAMINE (11 S. ix. 511 ; x. 32, 57). 
The family of De la Condamine were from 
very old times Co-Seigneurs of Serves, a 
large tract of country in the South of France, 
their principal, if not their only, residence 
having been at or close to Nismes, now called 
Nimes, a large town surrounded by the 
Cevennes hills in the Departement Gard. 
The surname seems to have been derived 
from the nature of the tenure by which they 
held their lands, Co-Seigneur having been 
latinized into Con-dominus, or corrupted 
into Condamine. 

The authenticated pedigree of the family 
commences with Andre de la Condamine, 
Co-Seigneur de Serves, who was bom in 
1560, and who married Marie Genevieve of 
the noble family of De Falcon de Viguier de 

11 S. X. JL-LY 25, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Vezenobre, and by her had a son, Jean de 
la Oondamine (born 1583), who became a 
member of the household of King Henri IV. 
The latter's grandson, Andre de la Conda- 
mine, was a staunch Huguenot, as was his 
wife Jeanne, daughter of Pierre Agerre de 
Fons, who, in spite of the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, remained on in possession 
of their estates, enduring much persecution, 
which in course of time became so intolerable 
that after the Peace of Utrecht (1713) they 
resolved to fly the country with their four 
sons and three daughters as soon as 
opportunity occurred. The parents and 
six children set out from their residence near 
Nismes, and travelling by night, concealing 
themselves by day, after great sufferings and 
privations reached St. Malo, whence they 
crossed over to Guernsey, where the family 
have been ever since located as British 
subjects. The third son, Jean de la Con- 
damine, was persuaded by an. uncle who was 
serving in the army to remain with his regi- 
ment in France, and he was the ancestor of 
the family occupying the Chateau de Pouilly, 
Metz. The eldest son, Pierre, afterwards, 
on the deaths of his parents, returned to 
France from Guernsey, and conformed to 
the Catholic religion. 

A member of the Guernsey family became 
one of the earliest settlers in Queensland, and 
gave his name to the River Condamine, 
a head-stream of the Darling River, and to 
the post-town in the county of Rogers, about 
1 70 miles west of Brisbane, which is situated 
on the River Condamine. F. DE H. L. 

RALPH CARK (11 S. vii. 70, 133, 193 ; ix. 
488 ; x. 33). This gentleman, born 25 May, 
1768, died on 5 March, 1837, and was 
therefore nearly 69 years old, not 67. A 
much fuller biography of him appears at the 
third of the above references (11 S. vii. 193). 
He entered Westminster School in November, 


WALL-PAPERS (11 S. x. 29). Fine speci- 
mens of early wall-papers can be seen in 
the drawing-room at Marlborough, Falmouth. 
They are quite a hundred years old, and deal 
with the adventures of Ulysses and Don 
Qtiixote. Capt. John or his father, Capt. 
James Bull took them out of a French ship 
during the great war I heard they were 
found in barrels. 

Hickstead Place, the home of the Stap- 
lc\ - at Twinrham, in Sussex, also has old 
pa PIT in excellent condition up the hall 
staircase. These are. hunting scenes, 'and 
zmist be of equal age. 

I fancy William Morris once told me he 
had some books on wall-paper. His friend 
Mr. Emery Walker may be able to say 
where they are. WILLIAM BULL. 


WANLESS (11 S. x. 10). Besides Wanlass 
and Wanlys, another form, Wanliss, may be 
seen in The Athenceum of 4 July, 1914. This 
name represents two Gaelic words uan lios, 
pronounced " oo-an lees." Here o is not 
sounded, though it serves a purpose. Uan 
signifies lamb, and lios signifies fold. In 
autumn, on sheep farms lambs are taken 
away from their mothers, and penned at 
night in folds out of the sight and the hearing 
of their mothers, and they make" a great 
outcry for a few days. 

Unthank is a name which I see in ' N. & Q.' 
occasionally. It also signifies lambfold. 
It is pronounced " oon thank," and is com- 
pounded of uan, lamb, and fang, fank or fold. 
A has been dropped out of * tan, and / in fang 
has been changed to ih. 


Wanless is the name of two copyhold tene- 
ments in the Forest of Trawden, co. Lanes : 
Far and Near Wanless. The name occurs 
there at least as early as the sixteenth cen- 
tury. Three miles to the north-weet, be- 
tween Colne and Foulridge, there is another 
tenement known as Wanless House. The 
form " Wanless " suggests that the name 
was first applied to an inferior or shaded 
pasture : O.E. wann and Icesu. The name 
seems to occur chiefly in the forest or hilly 
districts of the North, where small home- 
steads were, in the early Middle Ages, being 
painfully won from the woodlands and 
wastes. W. F. 

ix. 511). " Rixham " Fair should be read 
as Wrexham (N. Wales). Sir Thomas 
Hanmer's ancestral home was at Bettisfield 
Park, in the parish of Hanmer, co. Flint, 
about 12 miles from Wrexham. 

Euston is the Suffolk seat of the ducal 
house of Grafton. Sir Thomas Hanmer's 
first wife was Isabella, daughter of the Earl 
of Arlington, and widow of the first Duke of 
Grafton. Hence his occupation of Euston 
Hall, which his wife inherited from her 

Bow Library, E. 

In Rye's ' Norfolk Topography ' there is 
a reference to a deed relating to Rixam (sic), 
in which the rights of common and the 
allotting of the waste pieces are the subjects 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY 25, 

dealt with. Some one better acquainted 
with the map of Norfolk than I am may be 
able to say the exact locality of Rixam in 
the county. 

As to Euston, this is no doubt an allusion 
to the Duke of Grafton's seat in Norfolk, 
near Thetford. Sir Thomas Hanmer, to 
whom Prior wrote the letter, married as his 
first wife, in 1698, Isabella, Dowager Duchess 
of Grafton, and widow of Henry FitzRoy, 
the first Duke, and only daughter of Henry 
Bennet, Lord Arlington. She lived until 
February, 1723. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

In editing Thackeray's ' Humourists,' 
where this letter is given in a foot-note, I 
failed, after a lengthy search, to identify 
Rixham ; but Euston is surely, as I there 
suggest, the seat of the Duke of Grafton, 
near Thetford. Sir Thomas Hanmer married 
Isabella, the widow of the Duke, and lived 
at Mildenhall, which is only about ten miles 
from Euston, so that a servant of Sir 
Thomas's might well ride the horse over to 
Euston, as requested. C. B. WHEELER. 
80, Hamilton Terrace, N.W. 

OLD ETONIANS (11 S. x. 28). (10) John 
Chichester. ? s. William of Georgeham, 
Devon, cler. Balliol Coll., matric. 12 March, 
1771, aged 18 ; died 1 Aug., 1800, father of 
Sir Arthur, 7th Bt. 

Or (Sir) John C. (Bt.), s. John of Haldon, 
Devon, Bt. Magdalen Coll., Oxon, matric. 
29 March, 1771, aged 19 ; 6th Bt. ; died 
unmarried 30 Sept., 1808. 

Or John (Hody) C., s. Henry of Northover, 
Somerset, arm. Wadham Coll., matric. 31 
May, 1771, aged 18; B.A. 1775; died at 
Stoke House, Shepton Mallet, 6 May, 1834. 

x. 29). Sir Francis Child (1642-1713); 
banker and Lord Mayor of London, and 
ancestor of the celebrated family of bankers, 
was the son of Robert Child, clothier, of 
Headington in Wiltshire. 


WEST INDIAN FAMILIES (11 S. ix. 489 ; 
x. 18). The answer must be in the negative. 

' Sketch Pedigrees of some of the Early 
Settlers in Jamaica,' compiled from Chancery 
suits by N. B. Livingston, is a useful little 
book ; and ' Monumental Inscriptions of the 
British West Indies,' by L. Archer, gives 
much genealogical information. A few pedi- 
grees have appeared in my West Indian 
magazine, Caribbeana, but hundreds more 
remain imprinted. During a visit to the 

Islands last winter I transcribed all the 
monumental inscriptions in Barbados and 
the Leeward Islands, and these will be pub- 
lished as soon as possible. 


LEON (11 S. x. 10, 55). In the Catalogue 
of the Library of the Borstnverein der 
Deutschen Buchhandler zu Leipzig, 1902, 
I find the following references to Falm : 

Eckardt (Lud wig) .Palm, ein deutscher Burger. 
Trauerspiel in fiinf Aufztigen. Jena, I860. Eckardt, 
'Dram. Werke,' III. 

Ehren-Gedicht auf dem (sic) Buchhandler Palm, 
in Niirnberg, welcher wegen eines Buches, das er 
verkaufte, uuter dem Titel : Deutsch lands Ernie- 
drigung von den Frarizosen aus Niirnberg abgeholt 
und in Braunau 1806 erschossen worden ist. 

Ganzhorn (W.). Lowenwirth Peter Heinrich 
Merckle von Neckarsulm und Kaufmann Gottlieb- 
Linck von Heilbronn, dieGenossen desani 26 August, 
1806, erschossen en Buchhandlers Palm von Jsiirn- 
berg. Nach miindlichen Mittheilungen und schrift- 
lichen Ueberlieferungen. Heilbronn, 1871. 

Meindl (Konr.). Geschichte der Stadt Braunau. 
am Inn. (2 Theile.) Braunau, 1882. Mit Ansicht und 
Holzschuitten. 1. Theil S. 194-201 : Die Hinrich- 
tung dcs Buchhandlers Palm zu Braunau, 1806. 

Johann Philipp Palm (In III. Zeitimg.Xo.lQQ6). 
Leipzig, 1862. Slit Portrait. 

Spielmann (C.). Johann Philipp Palm. Zum 
Gedachtniss seines Todestages, 26 August. (Aus- 

Timperley's ' Dictionary of Printing,' 1839,. 
(p. 824), gives the following extract from 
Ihe pamphlet against Bonaparte issued by 
Palm. The authorship is attributed to 
M. Gentz. 

Je suis seul en ce lieu, personne ne m'ecoute. 

Morbleu ! qui me repond ? Qui est avec moi .' 


Sais-tu si Londres resistera ? Resistera. 

Si Vienne et d'autres cours m'opposeront tovjours ?' 


Ah, ciel ! que dois-je attendre apres taut de 

malheur* ? Afalheurs. 

Apres tant de hautsfaits, que dois-je entrepreneurs ? 


Rendre ! ce que j'ai acquis par des exploits iuou'is r 


Et quel serait la fin de tant de soins et de peines ?' 


Enfin, que deviendrait de mon peuple malhenreux 2 

Quo serais-je alors moi, qui me crois \mmortel ? 


L'univers n'est-il pas rempli de mon nom ? Non. 
Autrefois mon nom seul inspirait la terreur. 

Triste echo ! laisse-moi, je m'eunuye, je me mewrs. 


n s.x. JULY -25,1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In 1806 the publisher Palm issued a pam- 
phlet entitled ' Germany in its Deepest 
Humiliation ' (' Deutschland in seiner tief- 
sten Erniedrigimg ' ), in which the anony- 
mous author, a German Count, complained 
of the outrages with which Napoleon was 
permitted to ill-treat the Fatherland with 
impunitv. As soon as the Corsican despot 
heard of it, he ordered Palm to be placed 
before a jury at Braunau, in Upper Austria, 
and to be "condemned to death. As the 
jurors dared not resist, Palm was doomed ; 
the sentence was carried out on the same 
day on 26 Aug. He was led in front of a 
party of soldiers, who fired, but did not kill 
him, so that the victim howled and clutched 
the ground with his nails. The officer in 
charge lost his head, and stood helpless 
till the clergyman who had accompanied 
Palm implored him to have a second volley 
fired, which he did, and this time the bullets 
hit better. G. KRUEGER. 


HEART-BURIAL (11 S. viii. 289, 336, 352, 
391, 432, 493 ; ix. 38, 92, 234, 275, 375, 
398, 473 ; x. 35). In the third volume of 
the late Mr. James Hilton's ' Collections of 
Chronograms ' occur two instances of hearts 
interred with chronogrammatic inscriptions. 
On p. 163 is that of Dionysius L'Argentier, 
the forty-fourth abbot of Clairvaux. He 
died at Airvault, but his heart was brought 
to Clairvaux and entombed there with the 
inscription : 

aethera Mens sVperat L'argentler, aVrea") 
CoroVs sors tenet et CLara Cor slbl V = 1624 
VaLLe laCet 

On p. 482 is that of Archduke Charles 
Joseph of Austria, who died at Linz. His 
heart was preserved " ad B.V. Cellensem 
in Styria. . . .positum a Josepho comite de 
Rabatta episcopo Labcensi." The inscrip- 
tion commences : " Sub hoc saxo jacet 
magni principis parva protio cor," and con- 
tains the chronogram date : 
Cor loseph In ManV Delparae sponsaereLInq^ens 

Chichester. C - DEEDES. 

DROWN" (11 S. x. 29). In Scotland this 
proverb is widely prevalent in the form 
" There 's aye some water whaur the stirkie 
droons." That is, if the depths have been 
sufficient to overwhelm even a little stirk, 
one of lst year's calves, they may safely 
be credited with being positively dangerous. 
As the querist observes, this is another way 
of saying that " there is no smoke without 
fire " ; or, as Kelly puts it in his ' Scottish 

Proverbs,' p. 309 : " There was certainly 
some occasion for so much talk, rumour, and 
suspicion." It may be added that Ruddi- 
man's definition of " stirk " (A.-S. styrc, 
juvencus) still holds good. In Northern 
Scotland, he explains, " they distinguish 
between stirk and steer, the first being younger, 
and either male or female, the other some 
older, and only male." 


STANES (US. ix. 508; x. 37). Littlyngton 
is the modern Littleton, which is situated 
about midway between Sunbury, Shepperton, 
and Laleham, and is one of the smallest 
parishes in Middlesex. There are several 
references to the manor and advowson in 
Hardy and Page's ' Calendar of Feet of Fines 
for London and Middlesex,' in which the 
place figures under a variety of spellings 
Litlington, Lutlington, Litelton, Lytleton, 
&c. The earliest, under date 5 John 
(1203-4), is Lutleton, which is not far from 
the modern orthography. I cannot find 
among the Fines any reference to the 
transactions in which Robert Eglesfield was 
concerned. A note of the exchange of the 
Manor of the Hide at Laleham in 1328 for 
lands in Cumberland is given by Lysons in 
his 'Middlesex Parishes,' 1800, p. 198. 
According to this writer, the king's manor 
of " Kenyngton " is the present Kemp ton, 
in the manor of Sunbury. 

As for " Balnes," unless it is a misreading 
of Barnes, I can find no mention of it. 
Balmes, in Hackney, is of much later date. 
There was an ancient manor, called Grove- 
barnys, in the parish of Staines, and I have 
no doubt Balnes belonged to that district. 


x. 12). I have been told that " The Tele- 
graph Inn " on Putney Heath derives its 
name from the semaphore signalling station 
which once existed there. Would not the 
earliest edition of the one-inch Ordnance 
map help your correspondent ? 

L. L. K. 

I have a 'Navy List' of 1836 which gives 
the following list of stations between London 
and Portsmouth, with the name of the 
lieutenant in charge of each : Admiralty, 
Chelsea, Putney, Kingston, Esher, Cobham, 
Guildford, Godalming, Haslemere, Mid- 
hurst, Beacon Hill, Compton Down, Ports- 
down Hill, Portsmouth Dockyard. Ply- 
mouth is not mentioned. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. JULY 25, 191*. 

FOLK- LORE QUERIES (11 S. x. 29). 
1. Robins. It is believed in the East Biding 
of Yorkshire that in the autumn the young 
birds kill the old ones ; and that, I think, is 
not improbably a common occurrence, for 
your robin is not an amiable creature unless 
lie be cold and hungry, as he is when he con- 
descends to make approaches to mere mortals 
at Christmastide. See ' Folk-Lore of East 
Yorkshire,' by John Xicholson, p. 129. Per- 
haps in the heat of battle the parents' eyes 
are often picked out. 

They say in Germany that if one kill a 
redbreast the cows give milk that is tinged 
with the ruddy colour. The same belief is 
to be found in Yorkshire. See 4 S. i. 193. 

2. Swallows. In Yorkshire, too, if you 
even rob a swallow's nest, the cows will 
yield either bloody milk or none at all. 
PEREGRINTJS will find a story about this in 
Henderson's ' Folk Lore of the Northern 
Counties,' p. 122, or he may consult Swain- 
son's ' Provincial Names and Folk-Lore of 
British Birds.' There are many bits of 
doggerel which testify that both robin and 
swallow are in some sort consecrate. 


2. The tradition about the swallow is 
common in Cheshire, Yorkshire, and Switzer- 
land, and applies equally to the martin, the 
wren, and the robin in those districts. It 
is believed in Cheshire that if a martin's nest 
is destroyed on a farm, the cows will give milk 
tainted with blood ; and both in Yorkshire 
and Switzerland it is said that if the bird 
(robin, wren, or swallow) is killed on a farm, 
the farmer will be punished with " bloody 
milk " from his cows. 



(11 S. x. 27). Writing of Shotteswell Church, 
Warwickshire, on p. 55 of ' Rambles round 
the Edge Hills,' the late Rev. George Miller 
says : 

" On the north and west side of the north aisle, 
the old stone seats against the wall of the church 
remain. In those days there were no seats in the 
midst of the church, and -the congregation stood 
or knelt. When the clergyman commenced his 
sermon, he used to say ' Let the weakest go to 
the wall,' hence the proverb so strangely perverted 
from its original meaning." 

In ' English Church Furniture ' (1907), by 
Dr. J. Charles Cox and Alfred Harvey, it is 
stated (p. 261) that 

"the early rule for a congregation in English or 
other Christian churches was to stand when not 
kneeling. The stone benches or tables round the 
walls would suffice for the aged and infirm ; such 

were probably much more numerous in the early 
churches than would appear from their surviving 
remains at the present time. Nevertheless such 
rows of stone seats are more frequent than is usually 

Since it is obvious that Mr. Miller's state- 
ment, made in 1900, only rests upon tradi- 
tion, it would be very interesting if any of 
your correspondents could cite an actual 
record of such a direction as he refers to ever 
having been given from the pulpit. 

A. C. C . 

JSofcs 0n 

The Place of the Tleign of Edicord II. in EnglisTt 
History. By T. F. Tout. (Manchester Uni- 
versity Press.) 

THIS study is an expansion of the Ford Lectures 
delivered by Prof. Tout at Oxford in the Hilary 
term of last year. It forms one of the most 
instructive and suggestive of recent historical 
works. In a superficial view of English history 
the reign of Edward II. appears somewhat as a 
depression between two eminences, while the 
person and career of the King serve chiefly to- 
make effective separation between the two great 
kings who preceded and followed him. No one 
would turn to these twenty years for an illustra- 
tion of the dominance of any great national ideal 
or desire, or for the discovery of any new principle 
governing, or winning its way to govern, the 
relations between the several parts of the State. 
Just as low levels between hills may interest the 
geologist, who finds exposed there the strata 
upon which the higher formations rest, so periods 
such as this are welcome to the historian because 
in them he can best trace all the constant, normal 
detail of custom and routine, of the trend of self- 
interest in the average man of the day, and of 
the devices employed and struggles maintained 
in dealing with difficulties not strictly political. 
A great number of the facts which thus fall 
under consideration necessarily belong on the 
one hand to the history of national industries 
and commerce, and on the other to the history of 
the administration of government ; and if it 
happens that in both these fields a period when 
they are left as the chief matter of history coin- 
cides with a period which is a turning-point 
in their own development, then the absence of 
obviously greater things which might have 
warped or obscured them will not be regretted 
by the student. 

Prof. Tout points to this reign as offering such 
a coincidence, and one main object of his book is 
to demonstrate that it was the turning-point 
where the differentiation between " Court ad- 
ministration " and " national administration "" 
first began to show itself distinctly. The data 
for this are chiefly contained in the history of the 
two branches of the royal household, the King's 
Wardrobe and the King's Chamber, which re- 
mained intimately concerned with the national 
finance, in spite of the independence and definite 
organization attained by the departments of the 
Exchequer and the Chancery. Under Edward I. 
the Wardrobe was the King's most effective 

ii s.x. JULY 25, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

because most direct, pliant, and generally service- 
a tjl e instrument of administration. Had he 
roiTied longer, or been succeeded by a monarch 
of equal personal force, the officers of the house- 
hold, under royal superintendence, might have 
overborne the activity of the other administra- 
tive bodies, and reduced the affairs of the nation 
to a department of the affairs of the Court. 
Edward II., however, if he had the doggedness 
requisite to postpone indefinitely compliance 
with the ordinances issued by the Committee of 
Ordainers, had neither the firmness nor the wit 
to surround himself with a body of servants 
capable of ensuring the supremacy of the Court, 
and still less his father's capacity for the skilful 
and indiscriminate use of men good, bad, and 
indifferent as tools for his ends. 

Prof. Tout is inclined to think that the signifi- 
cance of this reign as a turning-point in ad- 
ministrative history may be extended to cover 
more than the modifications it produced in the 
position of the royal household. A good deal of 
work requires to be done before his reading of 
the period can be established ; but whether or 
no his theory is found to have permanent value 
in itself, it cannot fail to prove useful as a provi- 
sional hypothesis and as a storehouse of suggestion. 
Perhaps the most interesting chapter is that 
which deals with the social and economic history 
of the reign in particular, with the origins of 
the Staple. Prof. Tout connects the first Staple 
Ordinance of 1313 with the Ordinances for the 
Reform of the Household of 1311, and thereby 
claims for the Ordainers whose work has been 
" so often regarded as a mere illustration of 
baronial reaction " a share, modest though it 
be in English economic development. The 
history of the Staple during the short period 
from 1313 to 1327 is extraordinarily complete. 
Established first at Saint Omer, after sundry 
vicissitudes it was in 1326, by the Ordinance of 
Kenilworth, transferred to fourteen towns in 
England, Ireland, and Wales a measure popular 
with the general run of English merchants, but 
opposed, as was natural, by foreigners and those 
in closer connexion with them. The fall of 
Edward in the following year brought with it 
the abolition for the time being of the Staple 
bringing to an end an attempt at economic 
adjustment which was repeated on the same lines, 
though with more amplitude and success, about 
a generation later. 

By no means the least valuable part of the 
book are the Appendixes. Appendix I. gives the 
text of the Household Ordinances of Edward II., 
and Appendix II. a list of the officials during his 

The Antiquary for July contains an illustrated 
article by Mr. Druce on ' Birds in Mediaeval 
Church Architecture,' and refers to the difficulty 
in identifying the numerous carvings of birds in 
churches " not so difficult with those which 
possess distinctive natural features, such as the 
peacock, swan, and owl, or where there are 
accessory details, as in the case of the pelican or 
ostrich ; but when birds occur singly, and have no 
special characteristics, it is generally impossible 
to distinguish them." 

Mr. Eminson concludes his account of The 
Howes of the Manor of Scotter in I.indsey, and 
Mary Philip her account of New Hall, Chelms- 
ford. The latter is illustrated by views of the 

Hall, including the front entrance, showing royal 
arms, inscription to Elizabeth, and Sidney crest. 
There is an article on ' The Mulberry Tree of 
Stratford-on-Avon,' by our frequent contributor 
Mr. Aleck Abrahams. In this he records how in 
1600 William Shakespeare planted a mulberry- 
tree at New Place. " This flourished they 
rarely fail and tradition fondly depicts the 
poet-dramatist entertaining Ben Jonson, Drayton,. 
and other friends under its overhanging branches- 
This," continues Mr. Abrahams, " reads pleasantly,, 
but it is improbable. The tree is of slow growth- 
A specimen at Kenwood attained a height of 
twenty-five feet after thirty-eight years' growth v 
but the trunk was only thirteen inches in diameter,, 
and Shakespeare's tree had only been planted 
seven years when he died." Mr. Abrahams gives 
the different versions as to its destruction, which 
may be assumed to have taken place in October ,. 
1758. " The greatest purpose for which any of 
the wood was utilized was the casket to contain 
the freedom of the borough presented to Garrick 
in 1768. Garrick also had two cups made from 
the wood jone for his own use, and the other 
carved to his own design. On its sides there was a 
medallion with profile portrait of Shakespeare, his. 
arms, and the following lines : 

Behold this fair goblet, 'twas 
Carved from the tree 

Which o' my sweet Shakespeare 

Was planted by thee. 

As a relic I kiss it, and bow at the shrine ; 
What comes from thy hand must be ever divine f 


This was presented to Munden, and used by 
the distinguished actors known as ' the- 
rebellious eight ' to pledge ' the immortal, 
memory of Shakespeare at their meetings Leldt 
to consider their differences with the proprietors. 
of Covent Garden Theatre." 


IT is always a pleasure to look through the- 
scholarly catalogues of Mr. P. M. Barnard of 
Tunbridge Wells. We have now two new ones 
in our hands : No. 92, describing Autographs,. 
MSS., and Documents ; and No. 93, describing 
books chiefly of Mediaeval interest. The former 
contains a number of interesting liturgical items,.. 
Ethiopic, Dutch, Hindustani, Greek, and Latin ;: 
an interesting English armorial compiled between 
1550 and 1565, containing 790 coats of arms, em- 
blazoned in their proper tinctures, 8/. 15s. ; a 
Gospel of St. Mark in the Vulgate, evidently 
forming part of a longer MS., written by a thir- 
teenth-century English scribe, 10L 10. ; a collec- 
tion of four fourteenth- and fifteenth -century 
MSS. in English, written probably in East Anglia,. 
giving receipts for medicines and other similar 
matters, 351. ; and a rather miscellaneous collec- 
tion of treatises, written out by fifteenth-century 
English scribes on 235 leaves, catalogued under 
the name of John Waldby, author of some of 
them, III. 

In the way of autographs we noticed a docu- 
ment signed by Sir Philip Sidney, 1576, KM. 10. ;. 
a letter of Thomas Sackville, first Earl of Dorset, 
87. Ids. ; a letter, having nine lines added to it 
and the signature in the hand of Queen Marguerite,. 

NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. JULY 25, 1914. 

wife of Henry IV. of France, 81. 8s. ; an auto- 
graph letter from .Arabella Stuart to her grand- 
mother, " Bess of Hardwick," 1587, 50 guineas ; 
.and a list of the plate and jewels of Lettice 
Dudley, eldest daughter of Sir Francis Knollys, 
incorporated in the inventory of the property 
of her third husband, Sir Christopher Blount, 
forfeited for high treason, 1601, 20 guineas. 

In Catalogue No. 93 we may mention having 
noticed Reinhard's Boethius (Strassburg, 1501), 
with 77 woodcuts imputed to Sebastian Brandt, 
77. 15s. ; a copy, in contemporary English binding 
of calf over oak boards having at the beginning 
part of two leaves of a Psalter, and at the end a 
fragment of a leaf of the ' Golden Legend ' of the 
' Silua nuptialis ' of Johannes de Nevizanis, in 
Gothic letter " Lugduni, Johannes Moylin, alias 
de Cambray, 1524," 81. 10s. ; and a copy of the 
1545 edition, printed at Bale by Henricus Petrus, 
of the ' Geographica universalis, vetusetnova,' of 
Ptolemseus, 4Z. 15s. The whole catalogue is well 
worth reading. 

their Catalogue No. 3 describe about 500 books, 
which cover a considerable range of interests, and 
are offered at a moderate price. One which we 
noted as particularly attractive is a volume made 
up of almanacs for the year 1697, bound in 
contemporary morocco, and offered for 31. 1ft?. A 
set of Coleridge's Works Pickering & Moxon, 
1837-53, in 21 yols. is not dear at 31. 3s. if it is 
in good condition, as seems indicated. Two other 
books may also be mentioned : John Leo's " A 
Geographical Historic of Africa, written in 
Araoicke and Italian, translated by John Pory," 
1690, 4i. 10*. ; and " American Historical and 
Literary Curiosities ; consisting of some Plates, 
Ac., relating to Columbus and Original Documents 
of the Revolution, &c., with a variety of Reliques, 
Antiquities, and Autographs," edited by John J. 
.-Smith, I860, 31. 10*. 

MESSRS. SOTHERAX & Co.'s Catalogue 747 
describes Engravings, MSS., and Books relating to 
'the French Revolution, and the 1,430 items form 
a truly fascinating list, the captivating qualities 
of which are assisted by numerous illustrations. 
Marie Antoinette is the predominant figure ; the 
first seventy items or so are portraits of her, 
either alone or with other members of the Royal 
Family. Alix's coloured aquatint after Madame 
Le Brun is one of the best of these, offered here 
for 84Z. ; and another very attractive one is Malgo's 
mezzotint after A. Hickel, which is offered, with 
the portrait of the Princesse de Lamballe by the 
same artist and engraver, for 105?. the pair. 
There are portraits of most of the other cele- 
brated characters of the times, but we have only 
space to mention a pair of rare coloured aqua- 
tints by Alix portraits of two boys of 13 years, 
who were killed by " les Rebelles," and died 
crying " Vive la Republique " and " Je meurs 
pour la Libert4." There are about a score of 
views of Paris, of which the most important is 
an aquatint by Janinet after a design by Florentin 
Gilbert, ' Projet d'un Palais de Legislature.' 
The next heading, ' Events of the Revolution,' 
introduces us to a fine series of engravings arranged 
in chronological order, beginning with the ' In- 
te'rieur de la Salle construite dans la Place de 
Greve, a 1' Occasion de la Naissance de Mgr. 
le_Dauphin, 1782,' II. 10., and ending with an 

engraving in stipple and line by Fogg, after 
Hamilton, depicting Sir Sidney Smith's defence 
of the breach at Acre in 1802. There is a 
good series of pictures of the taking of the 
Bastille ; a fine aquatint of the unlucky charge 
of Prince Lambesc at the Tuilejies, which preceded 
the attack on the Bastille, 21 if. ; and an aquatint 
by Le Cceur after Swebach's picture of the 
Sermon Fede>atif du 14 Juillet, 1790, 21Z. Of 
the books on the Revolution the outstanding 
one is a transcript made by herself of the 
Journal kept by the Duchesse d'Angouleme while 
imprisoned in the Temple the MS. from which 
the 1817 edition of the Journal was printed. It 
is here offered for 105Z. Another important item 
is a copy of the English translation of Duruy's 
edition of the Barras ' Memoirs,' published in 
1896 in 4 vols., which have been expanded into 
15 by the addition of more than 1,700 portraits, 
380 views, pictures of historical events, &c., 
116 caricatures, and over 116 autograph signa- 
tures. The price asked for this a collection of 
importance for Napoleonic history is 6501. 
A collection of 23 Nelson autograph letters, from 
4 March to 27 May, 1801, addressed to Trou- 
bridge, with a holograph list of the ships forming 
the Baltic Fleet, and a letter to the Secretary of 
the Admiralty asking leave to return home on 
account of ill-health, is offered for 210Z. 

[Notices of other Catalogues held over.] 

BORROW HOUSE. We have received the following 
from Mr. G. A. Stephen, City Librarian at the 
Public Library, Norwich : . 

"On the occasion of the George Borrow celebra- 
tion in Norwich last year, the house in which 
Borrow resided with his parents when in Norwich 
was acquired by Mr. A. M. Samuel (then Lord 
Mayor of Norwich), and generously presented by 
him to the Norwich Corporation with the view of 
its being maintained as a Borrow Museum. The 
Norwich Public Library Committee has just 
undertaken to collaborate in the development of 
the literary side of the Museum, and would there- 
fore gladly welcome donations or information 
respecting the whereabouts of any Borrow letters 
and manuscripts, engravings or photographs of 
Borrow's friends and places described in nis works, 
and other items of Borrovian interest." 

Mr. Stephen would be glad to receive donations 
or information at the above address. 


ON all communications must be written the name 
and address of the sender, not necessarily for pub- 
lication, but as a guarantee of good faith. 

WE cannot undertake to answer queries privately, 
nor can we advise correspondents as to the value 
of old books and other objects or as to the means of 
disposing of them. 

COL. J. RIVETT-CARNAC. For the custom of 
placing a be-ribboned tree on the roof of a house at 
its completion see " Raising Feast," 11 S. vii. 488; 
viii. 32, 57, 77, 134. 

R. F. B. "The Crooked Billet" as a tavern 
sign was discussed at 10 S. ix. 190, 452 ; x. 38, 77. 

DR. KROEGER. " All the world and his wife " 
has been discussed at 10 S. xii. 13, 93, 177. 

US. X. AUG. 1, 1914.] 




CONTENTS. No. 240. 

NOTES: A Note on Sheridan, 8t A Bibliography of 
Holcroft, 83 Cryptic Utterance of Fielding's, 85 Grin- 
ning Matches Old St. Pancras Church Dover and 
Calais temp. James I., 86 -Falstaff's Nose" Christening 
of the apples " Dwight, anciently Dyott, 87. 

QUERIES : St. Angus Cairns Family Reference 
Wanted-Seventh Child of a Seventh Child Moriarty : 
Barristers, Inner Temple Nidderdale Theodore Haak 
Galdy Family of Port Royal Puritans in Newfoundland, 
88 Schubert Queries Judges addressed as " Your Lord- 
ship " Dr. Croly on a Servian Hero Reference for 
Quotation Wanted Maguires of Fermanagh Medallic 
Legends, 89 Scott: 'The Antiquary ' Grimes Sloe 
Fairs The Cusani Heraldic M.sS. London Bushel in 
the Fourteenth Century Biographical Information 
Wanted, 90 Neckinger, Bermondsey Fielding's Letters, 

REPLIES : Sir Gregory Norton, 91 Bence, 92 ' Bon 
Gaultier Ballads ' Registers of Protestant Dissenters 
William Bell Scott, 93 Christopher Columbus 
"Master" and "Gentleman" Anne Bronte "Speak 
to me, Lord Byron," 94 Gladstone on the Office of 
Chancellor of the Exchequer " Bjood - boltered " 
"Galleon" in English Verse, 95 Action of Vinegar on 
Rocks General Francis Columbine Rev. James Thomas 
First Barmaid Dr. A. Innes Orlebar, 96 Oxford 
University Print Devices on Encaustic Tiles Judith 
Cowper, 97 Signs of Cadency Smith's 'Dream thorp' 
" Felix Summerly "Life of M. de Renty, 98. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Putnam's ' Memories ' ' Edinburgh 
Review'' Quarterly Review.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


(See ante, p. 61.) 

MRS. ANN CARGILL, born about 1748, was the 
original Lauretta in Sheridan's short farce 
of ' St. Patrick's Day ; or, The Scheming 
Lieutenant,' on its production at Covent 
Garden on 2 May, 1775. On her return 
from India in 1784, the Nancy packet, in 
which she had taken her passage, was lost. 
Her body was found " on the rocks of Scilly, 
floating in her shift," with an infant in her 

The charming Gainsborough in the Dul- 
wich Gallery is the picture of the two sisters. 
Elizabeth Ann and Mary Linley : the elder, 
Mrs. Sheridan, stands gazing three-quarter 
face to the left ; the younger, Mrs. Tickell 
is seated facing the spectator. 

Mehetabel Patrick married Stratford Can- 
ning, the banker, who sent his nephew 
George, the future Prime Minister, to Eton 
and Oxford. At her cottage in Clement's 

Lane, near Putney Hill, the first Mrs. 
Sheridan and her sister often stayed. Her 
youngest son, Stratford, was the celebrated 
diplomatist, who was created Viscount 
Stratford de Redcliffe. Mr. Sichel says, 
" Tickell wrote ' Anticipation,' a political 
skit of 1778, the greater part of which seems 
to have been due to Sheridan " (ibid., i. 4). 

For the Catch Club, attended for a time 
ay Fox, Selwyn, and Sheridan, see John 
Bernard's ' Retrospections of the Stage ' 
(1830), ii. 150. 

The third insertion is : 

A Sermon on the Abuse of Riches. 

Text : " For the oppression of the poor, for 
the sighing of the needy, now will I arise, saith 
the Lord : I will set him in safety from him that 
puffeth at him." Ps. xii. v. 5. 

Among the various calamities to which human 
nature is subject, there is no misfortune so great 
or Oppression which appears so strongly to re- 
commend the Sufferer in the sight of our all 
merciful Creator, as a state of helpless poverty. 
The poor Man is every where mentioned in Scrip- 
ture as so peculiarly entitled to divine protection 
and commiseration, that arguments might almost 
be drawn against those efforts of industry which 
tend to raise a man from the state which appears 
to be " the lot most favored in the eye of God." 
But it is to be remembered that the poverty and 
humbleness of station which are here so favorably 
spoken of, must proceed from guiltless disasters, 
or disappointed industry, and not be, the merited 
effects of indolence or prodigality. " The poor 
committeth himself to God," saith David, but his 
trust in the Lord must be founded on a conscious- 
ness that no honest endeavor has been omitted 
on his part to avoid the state of helplessness to 
which he is reduced, and then he may be assured 
his lamentation will be heard and, in the words 
of our text, " For the sighing of the needy the 
Lord will arise." 

This confidence is warranted from the extreme 
indignation which is every where expressed in 
the Psalms against the pride and oppression of tha 
rich. Indeed there seems to be no vice or in- 
feriority of the human heart more abominable to 
God, than the insolent, and persecuting spirit 
which ever accompanies the Pride of Riches. 
Pride of whatever sort, or however supported, is 
strongly rebuked by Scripture. But that pride 
which is founded solely on a superiority of worldly 
treasure is the most offensive to God and to 
reason. To God whose impartial bounty gave 
the goods of this world in common to all man- 
kind, to reason, which teaches that such posses- 
sions themselves, form no part, quality, or 
attribute of the Creature whom we are to respect 
for possessing them. 

Jt is not difficult to trace the cause why this 
sort of pride is considered in so odious a light. 
There is no vanity or self-sufficiency beside, but 
what originates in a better principle, and may be 
productive of some better consequence. The 
pride of birth is in itself, empty and ridiculous, 
but where it is encouraged, it is frequently asso- 
ciated with ideas of hereditary virtue, and a fear 
of disgracing those from whom our title to pre- 
eminence is derived. There is nothing in the 



[iis. x. AUG. 

nature of this vanity to debase or deprave the 
mind, though it be a prejudice of a weak, and 
illiberal nature. 

The pride of Power is of a sterner and more 
insolent temper ; but this, when founded in fair 
authority, must be granted to the infirmity of 
human nature ; and by a judicious allowance, 
may be employed to gain respect and obedience 
from the vulgar to the weakness of human institu- 

The pride of cultivated talent, or great acquired 
knowledge, is of a very different nature. Con- 
cealed with propriety, or decently subdued, it 
mav serve only to give spirit to science and inde- 
pendence to Genius ; or, though it should degene- 
rate into a disgusting and arrogant self-sufficiency, 
yet no base or cruel effects are to be apprehended 
from it ; for the pursuits of learning and genius 
do in themselves meliorate and liberalize the 
heart, implanting in their progress, qualities to 
compensate every vanity which their success can 

But the pride of wealth can in no case, nor 
under any circumstances whatever, admit of the 
smallest justification, or lead to any possible 
good. He who takes pride in his Riches will covet 
to preserve them, and " the covetous (we are told 
by the Psalmist) are those whom the Lord most 
abhorreth." If his Riches come to him by In- 
heritance, he hath not even the pretence of skill 
or industry to ground his pride on, but makes it 
a part of liis pride that he is born above the need 
of either of those qualities. And, if from a mean 
estate he becomes preposterously possessed of 
such disproportionate wealth, it is more than 
probable that the illiberal drudgery through 
which he has toiled for it and the mean caution 
with which he has amassed it, have driven every 
just and worthy feeling from his mind ; and of 
this his oppression and insolence to the poor and 
humble of spirit will be a sufficient confirmation. 
But the needy shall not alway be forgotten, 
The expectation of the poor shall not perish for 

Hence, it is that our Saviour announces that 
seemingly partial and hyperbolical judgment 
against the wealthv : " That it is easier for a 
Camel to pass thro* the eye of a needle, than for 
the rich man to enter the kingdom of Heaven " ; 
not that Riches are in themselves Crimes, but 
that the means by which they are, for the most 
part, acquired, pollute and corrupt the heart, so 
that the Possessor, " through the pride of his 
countenance will not seek after God." 

It is to be considered beside, that the actions of 
the rich man are scanned and judged by a dif- 
ferent line from those of the poor Man whose 
occupation is toil and whose chiefest Virtue must 
be resignation and abstinence from evil. But 
the situation of the rich man is critical in propor- 
tion to the power he has of doing good ; it is not 
sufficient in him that he abstain from evil : every 
day, every hour of his existence has some duty of 
benevolence attached to it, the omission of which 
is a reproach and crime in the eyes of the Lord, 
who has entrusted him with the means of procur- 
ing blessings on his Providence. 

For these considerations I would say to such of 
you who hear me, and whose hard lot in this world 
is poverty and oppression, from the pride of the 
more fortunate, that to the haughtiness of the 
high-born your humbleness need make no reply ; 
the day shall come when the lowly shall be 

exalted. To the insult of the powerful prudence- 
will dictate to you to submit perhaps the power 
you shrink from today, may at another time be 
your protection. Or, should the learned and 
Knowing Man rebuke you, though his vanity be 
his reproach, yet take shame that you have not 
better cultivated your own -mind, and respect in 
him the improvement of the nobler part of your 
nature. But when the " rich man persecutes the 
poor," when he says to you in his pride, " bow 
down to me, for thou art poor, and I abound," 
boldly deny his claim say to him, " are we not 
equal ? " Or if he would be thy superior let him 
praise the God who gave him the most blessed 
Means let him relieve thee ; but if his churlish 
heart refuses, he abuses thee, and Heaven that 
views his mean presumption : while thou mayest 
say, with David, " though I am poor and needy,, 
yet the Lord careth for me ! " 

Before I conclude I must repeat that as Man is- 
ordained to Labour, no degrees of misery and 
penury, if brought on by the sluggish or wasteful 
habit of the Sufferer, will entitle him to this 
benign regard and commiseration of the Al- 
mighty. Poverty in that case becomes the 
punishment of evil, and, though God's mercy 
delights to comfort the afflicted, it is not consistent 
with his justice to cherish the disobedient. 

But [let] whosoever with a manly and persevering 
industry hath struggled with calamity, combating 
to delay the hour of helpless adversity, though 
not dismayed at its approach to him at the last,, 
in confident resignation commit himself to God's 
protection, and the Lord will " set him in safety 
from him that puffeth at him, and for the oppres- 
sion of the poor, for the sighing of the needy >r 
icill he arise. 

The grace of Crewe which passeth, &c. 

Frances Anne, daughter of Fulk Greville,. 
married in 1776 John afterwards Lord 
Crewe. To her Sheridan dedicated ' The 
School for Scandal.' 

Moore, in a note on p. 444 of the ' Memoirs/ 
says : 

" The Rev. Mr. O'B (afterwards Bishop- 

of ) having arrived to dinner at Sheridan's- 

country-house near Osterley, where, as usual, a 
gay party was collected (consisting of General 
Burgoyne, Mrs. Crewe, Tickell, &c.), it was pro- 
posed that on the next day (Sunday) the Rev- 
Gentleman should .... give a specimen of his 
talents as a preacher in the village-church. On 
his objecting that he was not provided with a 
sermon, his host offered to write one for him, if 
he would consent to preach it ; and, the offer 
being accepted, Sheridan left the company early, 
and did not return for the remainder of the 

evening. The following morning Mr. O'B 

found the MS. by his bedside, tied together neatly 
(as he described it) with riband : the subject of 
the discourse being the ' Abuse of Riches.' Hav- 
ing read it over and corrected some theological 
errors (such as ' it is easier for a camel, as Moses 
says,' &c.), he delivered the sermon in his most 
impressive style, much to the delight of his own 
party, and to the satisfaction, as he unsuspectingly 
flattered himself, of all the rest of the congrega- 
tion, among whom was Mr. Sheridan's wealthy 
neighbour, Mr. C . 

" Some months afterwards, however, Mr. 
O'B perceived that the family of Mr. C , 

11 S. X. AUG. 1, 1914.] 


with whom he had previously been intimate, 
treated him with marked coldness ; and, on his 
expressing some innocent wonder at the circum- 
stance, was at length informed, to his dismay, by 
General Burgoyne, that the sermon. .. .was, 

throughout, a personal attack upon Mr. C , 

who had at that time rendered himself very un- 
popular in the neighbourhood by some harsh 
conduct to the poor, and to whom every one in 
the church, except the unconscious preacher, 
applied almost every sentence of the sermon." 

The bruising and playwriting parson, 
O'Beirne, was afterwards Bishop of Meath. 
He contributed to The Englisman and to 
'The Bolliad.' 

Some time before the end of 1781, when 
he took The Grove at Harrow, Sheridan 
occupied a large house at Heston, the village 
that lies about half a mile westward from 
Osterley Park, the owner of which appears to 
have incurred his resentment. In 1782, 
Sarah Anne, the only daughter and heiress 
of Robert Child, the London banker, and 
owner of Osterley Park, eloped with, and 
became the first wife of, John Fane, tenth 
Earl of Westmorland. 

After his first wife's death, besides nume- 
rous town houses, and the house at Isle- 
worth already mentioned, Sheridan appears 
to have occupied at one time a large cottage 
at Wanstead, so as to be near Mrs. Canning, 
who had retired there after her husband's 
death, and a villeggiatura at Barnes. 

The remaining insertions at the end of 
the volume are extracts from the preface to 
the fifth edition, dealing with criticisms of 
the book contained in The Westminster and 
Quarterly Reviews ; an extract from The 
Edinburgh Review for December, 1826, 
giving a flattering account of Moore's style 
throughout this work ; and lastly the follow- 
ing verses : 

Lines addressed to the Lord Forbes by R. B. S. on 
being asked the Reason of the Author's Absence 
from Church. 

While you sit yawning in the Kirk 

Starch'd up like some puir punded Stirk 

Hearing how Noses do the wark 

O' Bagpipe Notes 

And wishing that some Highland Dirk 

Might stop their throats 

I " gang my gent "[sic] where fancy leads 

'Mang lanesome glens and flowery meads 

Seeking some nook where no one heeds 

The Warld apart 

To ponder o'er my own misdeeds 

Wi' ruefu' heart. 

The blossoms of my life are fled 

And small 's the fruit gain'd in their stead 

Each graft from wisdom's stock, is dead 

Or feebly thrives 

And all my mind at random sped 

As folly drives 

He too, wha' stands on Poortith's brink 

Had mickle better laugh, than think 

He 's glad to gi' the Jad a wink 

E'en for a Wee 

A plackless poke without a chink 

Is bad company ! 

Yet when by chance, I Ve got my day,. 
'Mang sonsie Lads and Lasses gay, 
Wi' Mirth, wi' Sang, wi' frolic play, 
Each sigh I miss sends me a lift 
Abune the brae 

Fortune's bliss ! '. 

Yet trust me we'el 'mang faults enow, 
A heart that 's warm, a heart that 's true, 
An' whiles I 'm sober, whiles I 'm fou, 
George ! by my faith 

1 've baith for Jane and baith for you 
Come Gude Come Skaith ! 

I suppose the recipient of the above 
verses was George John, Viscount Forbes, 
son of the sixth Earl of Granard. The Lord 
Forbes was born in 1785, became a major- 
general in the army, married in 1832, and 
died in 1836 during his father's lifetime. 
George, sixth Earl of Granard, was born in 
1760, succeeded to the title in 1780, and 
married in 1779 the Lady Selina Rawdon, 
sister of Sheridan's fellow-Harrovian and 
friend, Francis Rawdon-Hastings, first Mar- 
quess of Hastings and second Earl of Moira. 
But I cannot find any lady of the Forbes- 
family whose name was Jane ! 

A. R. 


(See ante, pp. 1, 43.) 

1781. " Duplicity : a comedy, as it is performed* 
at the Theatre-Royal in Covent Garden. By 
Thomas Holcroft. London, Printed for G. 
Robinson, Paternoster Row, 1781." Octavo,. 
viii+2 + 1-80 pp. 

This piece was produced at Covent Garden,. 
13 Oct., 1781. The book was reviewed 
in The Monthly Review, November, 1781 
(65: 370) ; noticed in The Universal Magazine 
for the same month (69: 279); and reviewed 
in the January, 1782, number of The Euro- 
pean Magazine (1: 47). 

" Duplicity : a comedy as it is performed in 
Covent Garden. By Thomas Holcroft. The 
Third Edition. London : Printed for G. 
Robinson, Paternoster Row, 1782." 

A book with the above title-page is iden- 
tical in letterpress and pagination, and well 
survives the broken-letter test of similarity, 
Two obvious errors from the first edition are 
however, corrected in " the third edition " r 
the erroneous roman numerals (vii) on p. vii. 
are made to read (viii), and the erroneous 



" ([produced) " on p. v is altered to " ([pro- 
duces)." These readings appeared as above 
in every one of the dozen or more copies 
that I have seen. I shall be grateful for 
additional data. These changes might have 
"been made in the process of printing a single 
edition ; or, on the other hand, and more 
probably, the type might have been left 
standing and the corrections made prior to 
publication of " the third edition." We 
have the further difficulty that I have not 
yet been able to locate any copy of a second 

There was an edition of the work in Dublin, 

1782, according to the ' D.N.B.' 

The epilogue was reprinted in The Uni- 
versal Magazine, November, 1781 (69: 269). 

The play was also reprinted in Mrs. E. 
Inchbald's 'The Modern Theatre,' 1811; 
4 The London Stage,' 1824 ; ' The Acting 
Drama,' 1834 ; ' The British Drama. Illus- 
trated,' 1864 ; and Dicks's * Standard Plays,' 
No. 131, 1883. 

The play was cut down to three acts and 
revived at Covent Garden Theatre, as ' The 
Mask'd Friend,' 6 May, 1796. I have 
found no record of a printing in this form. 

1783. " Shakespeare and Voltaire. By Mr. Hoi- 

In The British Magazine and 'Review, 
August, 1783 (3: 140). A twelve-line epi- 
gram, evidently mailed to the editor from 
Paris. It appears in the ' Memoirs ' (p. 107) 
as part of a note sent to the Count de 
Catuelan the same summer, 24 June. It 
was reprinted as ' Epigram IV.' in the 
April, 1784, number of The Wit's Magazine 
(1: 156), which was then edited by Holcroft, 
and issued by the same publishers, Harrison 
& Co., No. 18, Paternoster Row. 
1783. " Epigram. By the Same." 

In The British Magazine and Review, 
August, 1783 (3: 140). 

1783. Contributions to ' The English Review.' 
In The Monthly Mirror for December, 1799 
(8: 326), there appears in a list of Holcroft's 
writings : 

" All the Criticisms and Remarks on the Drama in 
the early numbers of The English Review." 

I therefore list the following articles as 
Holcroft's : 

-" THEATRE. A State of the London Stage, during 
the last Season. With an Account of the new 
Tragedies, Comedies, Operas, and Farces, which 
were Represented at the Theatres Royal of Drury 
Lane and Covent Garden, from September 1781 
to May 1782." (Issue for Jan., 1783, 1: 72-81.) 

" THEATRE. A View of the Performers, Tragic and 

Comic, of the London Theatres, and of their 

respective Powers and Abilities." (Issue for 

Feb., 1783, 1: 171-8.) 
" THEATRE." [The above continued concerning 

Mrs. Siddons.] (Issue for March, 1783, 1: 259- 

" THEATRE." [The above continued concerning 

the comic actors at Drury Lane.] (Issue for April 

1783, 1: 349-56.) 
"THEATRE." [The above continued concerning 

the comic actresses at Drury Lane.] (Issue for 

May, 1783,1: 438-44.) 

The last of these five articles concludes with : 
"We shall defer our critical remarks.... 
till the ensuing season, when we shall again 
renew the subject." But this division of the 
Review headed ' Theatre ' was not continued 
at all, even in the autumn after the opening 
of the houses for the new season. A ques- 
tion arises if Holcroft did not write the 
detached criticisms of printed plays which 
appeared in later numbers, but I think 
any assumptions to that effect would be 

We must next establish the authenticity 
of this ascription by The Monthly Mirror. 
In connexion with the biographical sketch 
in that magazine, there appeared " A Por- 
trait of Thomas Holcroft, Esq. Engraved by 
Ridley, from a Painting by Drummond." 
The following, from the ' Memoirs ' (p. 228), 
shows that the printing of the sketch pro- 
bably had his approval, though from the 
sketch itself I should say that it did not have 
his supervision, for there are several minor 
errors, and the tone is of flamboyant lauda- 
tion. (He might, however, have submitted 
a list of his writings) : 

''March 5th. Went after breakfast at ten, and sat 
to Mr. Drummond, Carlisle-street. Soho, at the 
request of the proprietors of The Monthly Mirror. 
Taken in crayons, size of life 

"6th. Went a second time and sat to Drum- 

Then, to increase further the probability of 
Holcroft's authorship of these articles, I find 
in the " Catalogue of the Library of Books, 
the property of Thomas Holcroft, Esq. 
(Deceased). .. .Sold by Auction. .. .Tues- 
day, Oct. 17, 1809," the entry of a single 
year of this magazine in the following item : 

" 391. English Review. 1783." 
He probably saved the copy because it 
contained contributions of his own. I do 
not know whether to assume that this item 
included but one volume, Jan. -June (the 
number of volumes was indicated in the other 
items listed), or that it included the whole 
year, Jan.-Dec. I suppose we never shall 
be able to tell. 

11 S. X. AUG. 1, 1914.] 


1783. " The Family Picture ; or domestic dia- 
logues on amiable subjects ; illustrated by his- 
tories, allegories, tales, fables, anecdotes, &c., 
intended to strengthen and inform the mi ml. 
By Thomas Holcroft, Author of Duplicity, a 
comedy. London. Lockyer Davis, 1783." 
2 vols. duodecimo. 6. 

Hazlitt in the ' Memoirs ' (p. 104) assigns 
this to the year 1781. But he speaks merely 
" from memory," and other evidences point 
to 1783. Cf. Monthly Review, August, 1783 
(69: 170); British Magazine and Review, 
July, 1783 (2: 43); and English Review, 
March, 1783 (1: 255), where the work was 
reviewed. Some of the stories are original, 
some selected. 

1783. " Human Happiness ; or the Skeptic. A 
poem in six cantos. By Thomas Holcroft, 
author of Duplicity, a comedy. Non satis 
est risu diducere rictum auditoris. Hor. La 
Nature est donne" aux Philosophes comme un 
grand e'nigme, oil chacun donne son sens dont 
il fait son principe. Rochefoucault. London : 
Printed for L. Davis, Holborn ; J. Bobson, 
New Bond-Street ; J. Johnson, St. Paul's 
Church- Yard ; J. Sewell, Cornhill ; J. Fielding, 
Paternoster- Bow ; and J. Stockdale, Piccadilly, 

Hazlitt places this piece as either 1782 or 
1783 (' Memoirs,' p. 104). But it was noticed 
in The Monthly Review later than ' The 
Family Picture,' November, 1783 (69: 410), 
though The European Magazine reviewed 
it in April, 1783 (3: 283), and The English 
Review (1: 135) and The British Magazine 
and Review (2: 129) as early as February, 

1784. " Philosophic essays on the manners of 
various foreign animals ; with Observations 
on the laws and customs of several Eastern 
Nations. Written in French by M. Fpucher 
D'Obsonville, and Translated into English by 
Thomas Holcroft. London : Printed for John 
Johnson, No. 72, St. Paul's Churchyard, 
M.DCC.LXXXIV." Octavo, viii+ 1-395 pp. 

My sources of information concerning this 
book have been the ' Memoirs ' (p. 107 and 
note), the review, and the British Museum 
Catalogue. I cannot account for the work 
very well. Holcroft had been to Paris, yet 
his whole interest at the time was chiefly 
theatrical, and he probably translated the 
book as a piece of sheer hard work, with the 
advantage of learning the language previous 
to his future Parisian trip. In fact, unless I 
had found a review in The European Maga- 
zine for August, 1784 (6: 108), or The 
English Review, August, 1784 (4: 108), I 
should not have included the piece in this 
Bibliography. See also European Magazine, 
December, 1792 (22: 403). Cf. Monthly Re- 
view, 1783 (69: 529) ; English Review, 

January, 1784 (3: 57) ; New Review, May r 
1784 (5: 318) ; and European Magazine for 
October, 1783 (4: 273), for notices of the- 
1783 French edition. 

1784. " The Noble Peasant ; a comic opera in. 
three acts, as performed at the Theatre-Boyal,. 
in the Hay-Market. By Thomas Holcroft.- 
London : Printed for George Bobinson (No. 25) 
Pater-noster-Bow. 1784.: Octavo, 6+5-68 pp^ 

This play was produced at the Haymarket, 
2 Aug., 1784. Some of the glees and one of 
the songs are parodies, and very cleverly 
versed. Cf. ' Memoirs ' (p. 87, and note- 
p. 109) ; ' Biographia Dramatica ' (3: 85) - r 
an announcement in The European Maga- 
zine for September, 1784 ; and a review of 
the printed work in The Monthly Review for 
December, 1784 (71: 441). There is in the 
Yale University Library what appears to* 
be a presentation copy of the work from the- 
author. Six of the songs were reprinted in 
The Town and Country Magazine for August, 
1784 (16: 439). ELBRIDGE COLBY. 

Columbia University, New York City. 

( To be continued.) 

In the opening sentence of chap. ii. of the 
fifth book of ' Tom Jones ' (in which takes 
place the battle between Thwackum and his- 
quondam pupil) Fielding refers to " the well- 
wooded forest of Hampshire," and remarks 
in a foot-note that 

" well-wooded is an ambiguous phrase, and may 
mean either a forest well clothed with wood or 
well stript of it." 

That Fielding at times expanded his ideas- 
in foot-notes is seen in his ' Vemoniad,' 
' Tom Thumb,' and ' Aristophanes,' but as- 
the annotations to the voluminous ' Tom. 
Jones ' number only twenty-two in all, it 
has ever been perplexing at any rate, to- 
me why Fielding went out of his way to- 
define a word which, in its usual acceptation,. 
is sufficiently well defined. In the absence- 
of a motive suggesting irony one could only 
suppose that it was the explanation of a- 
technical term. 

Having some time since to consider a 
point connected with New Forest law, I 
went into the literature of the subject, and 
in doing so Fielding's note coming to mind, it 
became evident that his play on words con- 
stituted an oblique reference to one of th& 
gross abuses of his times. 

J. B. Wise in his book ' The New Forest * 
(Gibbings & Co.) described with much pre- 
cision the state of things to which Fielding, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AU. i, 

when fully apprehended, so scathingly refers. 
Wise's words, on pp. 43-5, are as follows : 

" Under the Stuarts we find the first traces of 
that system which at last resulted in the almost 
ontire devastation of the New Forest. James I. 
granted no less than twenty assart lands, there 
having been previously only three ; whilst officers 
actxiafiy applied to him for trees in lieu of pay 
for their troops : and Charles II. bestowed the 
young woods of Brockenhurst to the maids of 
honour of his court.... The consequences soon 
came. There was nothing left but wind-shaken 
and decayed trees in the New Forest, quite unfit 

for building ships At last William III. in 1693 

legislated on the subject, for, to use the words of 
the Act* ' the Forest was in danger of being 
destroyed ' ; and power was given to plant six 
thousand acres. In 1703 came the great hurri- 
cane, which Evelyn so deplores, uprooting some 
four thousand of the best oaks. In 1707 only 
12,176 trees are reported as serviceable, whereas 
in 1608 there had been no less than 123,927 grow- 
ing trees fit for felling. Nothing was done 
towards planting during the reigns of Anne and 
George I. ; Phillipson's and Pitt's plantations in 
1755 and 1756 are the next, but they have never 
thrived owing to the land not having been 
drained, and the trees not having been thinned 
out at the proper time." 

Fielding, who wrote the note in question 
probably about 1746-7, was a member of the 
Western Circuit, and consequently his know- 
ledge of the Forest was first-hand, for in those 
pre -County Court days questions in which 
forest-lands were concerned were doubtless 
litigated at Winchester Assizes, albeit the 
~Verderer's Court was busier judicially than 

Moreover, the Bar who travelled the circuit 
halted atRomsey (until 1785) in passing from 
Winchester to Salisbury, and it will also be 
remembered that " Partridge " himself lived 
in Lymington for three years (bk. xviii. 
chap, vi.). It is noteworthy, too, that 
Fielding, soon after his call to the Bar, pur- 
chased, inter alia, Manwood's ' Forrest Laws ' 
<1741 ed.). J. PAUL DE C ASTRO. 

1, Essex Court, Temple. 

GRINNIHG MATCHES. Readers of ' Xotre 
Dame de Paris ' will recall among the vivid 
scenes of that masterpiece the grinning 
match, "le concours de grimaces" (liv. l cr , 
chap, v.), in the description of which Hugo 
lavished such wealth of epithet. As did an 
early English reviewer of the book (Eraser's 
Magazine, July, 1835), they will recollect 
Isaaxi Bickerstaff's description of the old 
English amusement of grinning through a 
horse-collar in Addison's Spectator. (Hugo's 
sources for this episode have been carefully 
worked out by M. Maurice Souriau in La 
Revue des Cours et des Conferences, x., 1902.) 
That this queer amusement still found favour 

even a few years ago in Hugo's own land i.s 
evident from the following newspaper notice : 

"Le 14 juillet le comite des fetes de Beziers avait 
organise des 'jeux' populaires, et parnii ees jeux 
ngurait un concours de grimaces. Pour ce concours 
deux prix devaient etre distribues aux heureux 
vainqueurs : l er prix, ciixj francs ; 2 prix, un objet 
d'art." cho de Paris, Echos, 31 juillet, 1911. 

Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S. 

the appeal for funds to restore this much- 
mutilated church will be successful, as it is 
possible some of the harm done in previous 
restorations by incongruous additions may 
be made good. 

The greatest harm was done in 1848, when 
it was largely rebuilt. The following ex- 
cerpt from Nathaniel Bryceson's Diary 
indicates, however, that some work for its 
preservation was necessary : 
" Sunday, 2 JarCry, 1848. 

" .... before coming home I walk'd round to 
see old St. Pancras Church, or rather what is left 
of it. The Tower is now totally removed, and 
some of the Church and the Vestry room too 
have disappeared, about the foundation of which 
[sic ? the church] and near to some brick vaults 
as I was prowling I discovered a Human Skull 
in pretty fair preservation, which I hurriedly 
wrapped in my handkerchief and made off as 
precipitately as an hungry Cat possessed of its 
meat, but not without some feeling of fear of 
discovery which might have caused a little un- 
pleasantness, but which I evaded [sic] and [arrived] 
back home with my prize under my arm, and 
deposited it in my box unbeknown to poor old 
Dame Granny Shepard. It is in rather a filthy 
state and will want cleaning. My object in 
possessing this is to view myself [in] time to 
come. It may be beneficial in checking any 
feelings of pride which at times may arise." 


11 S. ix. 29 I cited a passage (1595) indicat- 
ing that people might be seen from Calais 
sands walking on Dover Cliff. Beaumont 
and Fletcher, in 'The Scornfvl La-die,' 1616, 
c2, speak of " Captaines of Gallifoists, such 
as in a cleare day haue seene Callis " ; but 
add that they " haue no more of God, then 
their oaths comes to." In the same play, 
B2, it is intimated that an ordinary passage 
took five hours : 

" The thing by her commanded, is to see Douers 
dreadfull cliffe, passing in a pore waterhouse ; the 
dangers of the mercilesse Channell twixt that and 
Cattis, fiue long houres saile, with three pore 
weekes victuals. 

May it be that Calais sands extended much 
further north than they do now ? 


11 S. X. Auo 1, 1914.] 



FALSTAFF'S NOSE, ' HEX. V.,' II. iii. 16. 
The " babbling of green fields," however 
Captivating, must not stand. There are 
three or four dramatic cries of repentance 
only (see Falstaff's promise in ' M.W.W.,' 
IV. v.) ; the rest is silence. 

Read " his nose was 'as sharp as a Penon, 
on a Table of green fields " : the knightly 
nose was like the knightly pennon, as seen 
so often against its natural background at 
tourney or pageant (" penon, a lytell banner 
in a felde," MS. Harl. 838 ; and see below, 
III. iv. 49). The white peaked nose against 
the green pallor of the face is, in fact, 
"' Death's pale flag advanced there " (' R. 
:and J.,' V. iii.). The Hostess's ideas are 
mixed ; but could she have chosen a more 
appropriate simile ? E. ILIFF ROBSON. 


This was a common expression for St. 
Swithun's Day in the neighbourhood of 
Banbury in the middle of the last century. 
On that day the apples were supposed to 
begin to get big and to mature quickly. 

I have not seen this expression noted in 
any South Midland glossary. It does not 
appear in ' E.D.D.' A. L. M. 


ter of a possible derivation no English sur- 
name has been so baffling as that of Dwight, 
Avhich surname (more American nowadays 
than English) historically owes much to 
Mr. C. J. Feret, whose active antiquarian 
spirit has lifted it out of a partial oblivion 
at least in Britain through the pages of 
his ' History of Fulham ' (scholarly, lengthy, 
handsomely illustrated, sectional) article 
probing into the mysterious career of Dwight 
the Fulham potter, born 1640, died 1703. 
There one notes a leaning toward a Dutch 
Dwight origin. Purely imaginary this half- 
belief, resting perhaps upon an 1862 Art 
Journal conjectural suggestion, and repeated 
by Miss Meteyard in the Wedgwood bio- 
graphy. Rather must I lean in the direc- 
tion of the late C. W. Bardsley of surname- 
delving estimation. To him Dwight con- 
strues itself into a later form of Dyott. This 
declaration seems supported by the fact 
of my forbears, viz., the seventeenth- and 
eighteenth-century Massachusetts Dwights, 
having borne as their family arms, and no 
other, the armorial ensigns granted to the 
Stafford Dyotts of long continuance, still 
flourishing in that shire. Then, again, I 
venture to offer by way of another support- 
ing bit of evidence a letter of anno 1668 

never before printed, I think from the 
potter himself, written four or five years 
ere he had assumed the pottery role : 
Reuerend S r 

The desir'd blacke booke is at length fall'n 
into niy hands, & it is so great a treasure that I 
dare not part with it, without your particular 
direction about its Conveyance. And although 
an opportunity of sending it may perhaps be 
more obvious to me y" your selfe, I shall not 
venture to choose one, untill you please to signify 
unto me at Wigan in y c County of Lancaster, that 
you confide enough in y e Care of Mr. Deane. 
Y r most obedient humble servant 

Feb. 13, 1668, 


This to ihe Reuerend Dr. Sancroft, Deane of 
St. Pauls, London Present. 

Here we will note with some emphasis 
that the above epistle is actually dated 
from Chester. Of John Dwight's parentage 
nothing has come down save that his mother 
was a Joane Dwight. No notice of him 
names his birthplace. In 1661 he was 
appointed Registrar and Scribe of the Dio- 
cese of Chester. Glancing at the ' Dyott 
Diary,' 2 vols., London, 1907, one finds em- 
balmed within its introductory matter these 
lines : 

" The [Dyott] manor of Freeford, near Lich- 
field, Staffordshire, is of very considerable 
antiquity, being recorded in Domesday^ Book 
among the lands of the Bishop of Chester." 

To me this points strongly to the proba- 
bility of the potter having been a cadet of 
the house of Dyott, and well-to-do, and, as 
is known, university - trained, and conse- 
quently able to have secured the nomination 
to the above dignity of registrarship. May 
not the right to nominate have been held 
by the above-named manor of Freeford ? 
Furthermore, being, as we may perhaps 
insist, a native of Staffordshire, was he not 
naturally inspired with a love for the 
delights of the ceramic arts. Surely it 
was directly from that storied county, 
ever the great field of the toiling, inven- 
tive English worker in pottery a clay- 
ground running back to a dim past that 
the love in the heart of the richly talented 
John Dwight arose ? Surely not from 
a distant, alien Holland. It is asserted, 
though some authorities differ, that Dr. 
Plott (1640-96) of Oxfordshire, author of 
'The Natural History of Staffordshire,' 
printed anno 1679, wherein appears the first 
initial reference to the pottery fame of 
Dwight, was a native of Lichfield, and so 
intimately connected with the Dyott race. 
67, Franklin Street, Boston, Mass. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. i, 191*. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

ST. ANGUS. References to information 
relating to St. Angus will be appreciated. 
The ordinary works, such as Alban Butler, 
Baring-Gould, encyclopaedias, &c., fail to 
name the saint, who was buried within the 
walls of the old parish church at Bal- 
quhidder, where an incised stone, men- 
tioned and figured in Stuart's ' Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland,' marks the place. 


CAIRNS FAMILY. I should be glad of 
any information in regard to this family 
its origin, past history, coat of arms, present 
representatives, and distribution throughout 
the United Kingdom. Bibliographical notes 
in particular would be welcome. C. C. 

New Zealand. 

REFERENCE WANTED. I shall be grateful 
if some reader can give me the reference for 
the following quotation from Br^beuf. The 
collected works of this poet have been 
searched, and the aid of the Intermediate des 
Chercheurs has been invoked, in vain : 

Les courtisans sont des jetons ; 

Leur valeur depend de leur place : 

Dans la faveur, des millions, 

Et des zeros dans la disgrace. 

It is just possible that the attribution to 
Brebeuf is wrong. F. P. B. 

Where may I find the folk-lore on this 
subject ? Does it apply to the male line 
only ? I have heard that such a child is 
supposed to have " second sight," and that 
his presence at a christening is unlucky ; 
but I do not know any good authority for 
this. E. M. F. 

[See 5 S. xii. 386 ; 6 S. xii. 204, 346, 428, 500 ; 7 S. 
i. 47 5.] 

Was the Edward Aubrey Moriarty who 
translated Dickens's works into German, 
and whose career is given in F. Boase's 
' Modern English Biography,' the same man 
as the Edward Alexander, son of Christopher 
Moriarty and Honoria Beytagh, who com- 
menced his legal studies' at King's Inns, 
Dublin, in 1836 ? Also, who was the 
Aubrey Moriarty who in 1873 wrote a book 
on 'Personality and Disputed Identity ' ? 
He is described as a foreign jurisconsult. 

I am told that the son of a Moriarty, a juris- 
consult, was a member of the Legion of 
Honour. How can I find out about this ? 

35, Manor Park, Lee, S.E. 

NIDDERDALE. Can any reader of 
' N. & Q.' give me the names of any books 
containing woodcuts or engravings of any 
Nidderdale village, published previous to 
the year 1863 ? 

I know of Hargrove's ' History of Knares- 
borough,' 1798. CARL T. WALKER. 

Mottingham, Kent. 

THEODORE HAAK. Can any reader inform 
me where a copy of the following may be 
seen or purchased ? I should also be glad of 
information about the author, Theodore 

"A Plain and True Narrative touching the late 
Version of the Bible out of the Original Tongues 
into the Belgick or Netherlandish, and the Annota- 
tions on the same as they came forth together in 
the year of Christ 1637. With a dedication to His 
Highness the Lord Protector of the Common Wealth 
of England, Aug. 24th, 1657." 

Please reply direct to J. J. PIPER. 

Cintra Park, tipper Norwood, S.E. 

be most grateful if any of your readers could 
tell me whether the following memorial is 
still to be found at Port Royal, and whether 
any of the name are in existence : 

" Here lyes the Body of Lewis Galdy, Esquire, 
who departed this life at Port, Royal the 22 nd of 
December, 1739, aged 80. He was born at Mont- 
pelier in France, but left that country for his- 
Religion and came to settle in this Island, where he 
was swallowed up in the great earthquake in the 
year 1692, and by the Providence of God was by 
another shock thrown into the sea, and miraculously 
saved by swimming until a Boat took him up. He 
lived many years after in great Reputation, 
Beloved by all that knew him, and much lamented 
his death." 

Arms and crest above. Motto : " Dieu 
sait tout." LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Ewell, Surrey. 

' The History of Newfoundland,' by the 
Rev. Lewis Anspach (1819), a magistrate of 
that island, the following statement is made 
in reference to its colonization in 1621 by 
Sir George Calvert, afterwards Earl of 
Baltimore, who obtained a patent from 
King James I. to erect a province there : 

" A considerable colony, composed chiefly of 
Puritans, accompanied to Newfoundland Capt. 
Wynne, whom Sir George had sent, with the com- 
mission of Governor, to prepare everything for his 
reception, while he employed in the meantime his 
interest and his fortune in securing the success 

11 S. X. AUG. 1, 1914.] 



of his enterprise, in which he is said to have laid 

out 2,50(M. sterling. Capt. Wynne built the 

largest house ever yet seen on the island, erected 
granaries and storehouses, and accommodated his 
people in the best manner possible, while he like- 
wise endeavoured to establish intercourse and 

trade with the natives A saltworks was erected 

and so delighted was the proprietor, now created 
Lord Baltimore, that he removed thither with all 
his family, built a spacious house and fort at 
Ferryland, where his son Cecil resided several 

Oldmixon in his ' British Empire in. 
America,' first published in 1720, quotes 
letter of Capt. Wynne who, we are in- 
formed (' D.X.B.'), was a Welshman and a 
Protestant in which are given the names 
of the first colonizers sent to Ferryland. 
These are : 

" Capt. Daniel Powell ; John Hickson, saltmaker ; 
Mr. Nicholas Hoskins ; Mr. Robert Stoning ; Sybil 
Dee, maid ; Elizabeth Kerne, Joan Jackson, girls ; 
Thomas Wilson, John Praler, smiths ; John 
Bevel, stone layer ; Ben Hacker, quarryman ; 
Nicholas Hickson, Robert Bennet, Will Hatch, 
carpenters; Henry Duke, boat master; William 
Sharpus, tailor; Mr. Robert Fleshman, surgeon; 
Henry Dring, husbandman ; Owen Evans ; Mary 
Russell ; Eliz. Sharpus ; John Bayley, Anne Bayley 
his wife ; Widow Bayley ; Joseph Panser ; Robert 
Row, fisherman ; Philip Lane, cooper ; William 
Bond, Peter Watton, boat masters ; Ellis Hinkson, 
George Fleshman, Richard Higgins, boys : in all 
thirty- two." 

Is it possible to trace whether any of the 
foregoing were really Puritans ? M. N. 


1. Who was the author, and what was the 
original language, of the words set to music 
under the title ' Ave Maria ' by Schubert, 
as well as by Gounod in his impertinent, 
though successful outrage on Bach's Prelude 
in c ? 

2. Who is the Schmidt von Ltibeck to 
whom the words of Schubert's song ' Der 
Wanderer ' are assigned, and in what collec- 
tion or anthology can the original be con- 
sulted ? 

I shall be most grateful if some one of 
your other readers can give me this in- 
formation. A. CECIL CURTIS. 

Wellington Club, Grosvenor Place, S.W. 

SHIP." What is the earliest instance of 
judges being called " My Lord," " Your 
Lordship " ? The title seems to have been 
used in connexion with judges of the High 
Court for a considerable time, though few 
of these judges were members of the Upper 

Edmonton, Alberta. 

ing to Miss Laura Jewry, the author of ' The 
Forest and Fortress, a Romance of the Nine- 
teenth Century ' (London, 1850), her 
" hero was admirably described by Dr. Croly as one 
of the bold creations of wild countries and troubled 

The leading incidents of her tale were taken 
from Mrs. Kerr's translation of Ranke's 
' History of Servia ' (London, 1846). Where 
did Dr. Croly make that statement ? 

L. L. K. 

Where does Cicero speak of the ideal 
orator : " Orator qualis adhuc nemo fortasse 
fuerit? " T. 

mation welcomed on any member of the 
Maguire family of Lisnaskea, Fermanagh, 
who, after the Boyne, went to Portugal, and 
later to the United States. Please reply 

79, Talbot Street, Dublin. 

(See ante, pp. 28, 

48, 68.) 

74. Non Isetior alter. 

75. Non exhausere triumphi. 

76. Novum decus addita. 

77. Nee cessat lustrare prbem. 

78. Numero stant omnia certo. 

79. Nefas tetigisse [coronam]. 

80. Nee pondus obstitit. 

81. Nee tenui filo extricatur [of a labyrinth]. 

82. Nil cassis et umbo, ni magnos animos arment. 

83. Nihil inexplorato. 

84. Nee igni nee ferro cedo. 

85. Obsequio flrmata quies. 

86. Orbem pacare laborat. 

87. Omne ferens malum. 

88. Offensi numinis astrum. 

89. Propriis invictus in armis. 

90. Procurant placidi solita ratione quit-torn. 

91. Parvo pro munere quanta. 

92. Prselio terribilis, parta victoria clemens. 

93. Pax sacra tuetur. 

94. Pugnat et excitat artes. 

95. Parit ordo decorem. 

96. Placida hie laboribus otia rniscet. 

97. Pax aut victoria crescat. 

98. Principis arces. 

99. Ponimur impares, pares tollimur. 

100. Pax nuptiis felix. 

101. Pondere virtutis libranda negotia cuncta. 

102. Quid non juncta domant ? 

103. Quos alit illustrat. 

104. Quo sidere tutior ? 

105. Quod respicit ornat. 

106. Quid miscere juvat vires ? 

107. Qui Domino fidit bonitate ejus circuin- 



(To be continued.) 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. i, 1911. 

SCOTT : ' THE ANTIQUARY.' I should be 
grateful to any reader of ' N. & Q.' who could 
tell me the source of any of the following 
quotations : 

1. He hobbled but his heart was good ! 
Could he go faster than he could ? (Chap, v.) 

2. When folks conceived a grace 
Of half an hour's space, 

And rejoiced in a Friday's capon. (Chap, vi.) 

3. He came but valour so had fired his eye, 
And such a falchion glittered on his thigh, 
That, by the gods, with such a load of steel, 
I thought he came to murder, not to heal. 

(Chap, vi.) 

4. Ah ! cruel maid, how hast thou changed 

The temper of my mind 1 
My heart, oy thee from all estranged, 
Becomes like thee unkind. (Chap, x.) 

5. When courtiers galloped o'er four counties 
The ball's fair partner to behold, 

And humbly hope she caught no cold. 

(Chap, xi.) 

6. " Its parent lake." (Chap, xvii.) 

7. " Work in the fire." (Chap, xviii.) 

8. I bear an English heart, 
Unused at ghosts and rattling bones to start. 

(Chap, xix.) 

9. O weel may the boatie row, 

And better may she speed, 
And weel may the boatie row 
That earns the bairnies' bread I &e. 

(Motto to chap, xxvi.) 

10. Stern to in flict, and stubborn to endure, 
Who smile d in death. 

11. Who are the " great Pymander " and the 
" herald, as we call Ernhold," of chap. xxi. ? 

12. What magical properties has a " triangular vial 
of May-dew " ? (Chap, xxiii.) 

20, Pollux Gate, Lytham. 

[12. For the virtues of May-dew see the quota- 
tions at 10 S. iii. 429, 477 ; iv. 17.] 

GRIMES. Wanted derivation of the word, 
and local applications of the name, such as 
Grimes Graves ; also instances of its use as 
a personal name, and in mythology and folk- 
l ore - GBIMSHOE. 

[See IS. iv 192, 244, 330. 372, 454; v. 43, 163, 231, 
284; 7S. 1.469; xii. 508; 8 S. i. 112, 282.] 

SLOE FAIRS. A fair known as the " Sloe 
Fair " has been held at Chichester from 
time immemorial from 5 to 13 October, 
and a Court of Pye Powder was formerly 
held during its continuance. 

In a note to vol. Ivi. of the Sussex Archaeo- 
logical Collections it is stated that the name 
of the fair was derived from a " sloe tree ' 
m a field where it is held. The writer 
regards this as very questionable, especially 
as the tree which bears sloes is usually known 
as the blackthorn, and considers it more 
likely that the fair took its name from the 

sale of sloes, which are in demand in various 
counties for sloe vinegar, which is much 
esteemed by country-folk in many places for 
sprains and bruises both of man and beast, 
and for the excellent old West - Country 
liqueur known as " sloe gin," of which there 
are several brands in the London market. 

It would be interesting to know if there 
is any certainty as to the meaning of the 
name, and if there are any^Sloe Fairs held 
elsewhere. E. H. 

THE CUSANI. Can any reader supply me 
with information concerning the Cusani, a 
nation that (according to Webster-Overbury) 
used to weep when children were born and 
to laugh when people died ? These customs 
are mentioned by Montaigne, who, however, 
names no nation. A writer on funeral rites, 
Guichard (whose work was published during 
Montaigne's lifetime), borrows from several 
Greek authors the names of some Eastern 
nations who kept such ceremonies, but the 
word Cusani does not occur in this book. 
Is it to be found in Holland's Plutarch ? 


HERALDIC MSS. Can any one tell me 
the present owner of a vellnm-bound book 
consisting of four MSS. by Bolton on heraldic 
subjects ? It once belonged to Sylvanus 
Morgan, and was bought by Beeves in 1861. 
It is wanted for reference only. E. P. 

82, Carlisle Mansions, Westminster. 

CENTURY. Had London a bushel of its own 
in the Middle Ages, or would " bussellus 
Londonie " in 1340 mean what was generally 
known as a Winchester bushel ? If it had, 
what was the capacity thereof if, e.g., used 
for measuring peas or beans ? 


Queen's College, Oxford. 

should be glad to obtain any particulars 
concerning the following Old Westminsters : 
(1) John Champernown, admitted 1735, 
aged 13. (2) Charles Champion, admitted 
1738, aged 12. (3) Thomas Champion, ad- 
mitted 1726, aged 9. (4) Charles Charlton, 
born 31 Aug., 1817, admitted 1828. (5) Ed- 
ward Edmund Charlton, born 7 Jan., 1825, 
admitted 1839. (6) Francis Charlton, ad- 
mitted 1749, aged 11. (1) Philip Charlton, 
admitted 1783. (8) Benjamin and John 
Charnock, admitted 1738, aged 14 and 15 
respectively. (9) Thomas C'heyne, at school 
1701. (10) Thomas Cheshire, admitted 1731, 
aged 9. G. F. B. B. 

ii s. x. AUG. i. MM.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


origin of the name of Neckinger water-cut, 
street, and leather mills at Bermondsey ? 
The proprietor of the mills has kindly 
favoured me with two diverse, interesting, 
but possibly mythical solutions. 


Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey. 


" A new and correct Catalogue of all the English 
books which have been printed from the year 1700 
to the present time, with their prices," &c., 

London, 1767, among other works by Henry 
Fielding, I find the following entry : 

" H. Fielding's Letters, 3 vols. 12mo^-0-9-0." 
The same is reproduced in two more cata- 
logues (1773 and 1791), and probably in 
many others ; but nowhere else can I find 
any trace of the books or any proof of their 
existence. Can any of your readers help 
me to trace them ? AUB^LIEN DIGEON. 

18, Rue Victor Hugo, Le Havre. 


(1 S. ii. 216, 251 ; 6 S. xii. 187 ; 7 S. viii. 
324, 394 ; 10 S. vii. 168, 330, 376, 416 ; 
11 S. x. 12, 51.) 

FKOM 1649 to 2 Jan., 1652, only three months 
before his death, Sir Gregory continued to 
receive many appointments at the hands of 
the Parliamentary party, the last being as 
one of the Commissioners for the carrying 
out of " An Act appointing a Committee for 
the Army and Treasurers at Wars." The 
constituencies he represented at various 
times were Buckinghamshire, Devonshire, 
Middlesex, Surrey, Sussex, and the City and 
Liberty of Westminster. 

In all probability he found this Commis- 
sion and Committee work not particularly 
remunerative, for in August, 1645, he applied 
to Parliament for an appointment as in- 
former against the Papists and Delinquents, 
the latter being the name given to all those 
who had assisted Charles I. by arms, money, 
or personal service from the time the King 
set up his standard of war in 1642. In- 
formers received a percentage of the money 
brought in on their discoveries, the Parlia- 
ment supplying itself with money by forcing 
Royalists and others to compound that 
is to say, to pay down a sum of money, 
without which they were not allowed to 
enjoy their estates. 

As a result of his petition, it was ordered 
on 10 Sept., 1645, that 

" Sir Gregory Norton bart. shall have one thousand 
pounds out of such Papists and Delinquents 
Estates, not yet discovered, as he shall discover, 
and that he shall hold and enjoy the sequestered 
house of Sir Roger Palmer, in Westminster ; and 
the Committee for Sequestrations in Westminster 
do pay to the landlord thereof the yearly rent of 
twenty-five pounds, reserved to be paid for the 

From the time of this appointment to 
within a year of his death we find, from 
reference to the State Papers, that Sir 
Gregory was very busy with his discoveries, 
and numerous cases are cited. 

The following document is interesting as 
showing Sir Gregory Norton's connexion 
with Surrey : 
" Dec., 1651. Council of State. Day's Proceedings. 

" Certificate by John Intwood, John Wale, and 
John Webb, surveyors for Surrey, that they 
estimate the damage done to Sir Gregory Norton, 
tenant of Oatland Park, by felling of trees there 
for the navy, hewing them, making saw-pits, 
routing the grounds, with carting, and breaking 
pales, at 10Z." 

Between August, 1650, and March, 1652, 
when he died, Sir Gregory came into posses- 
sion of the manor of Richmond, with " much 
of the King's goods " some writers say 
"for an inconsiderable value "; others "as 
a reward for his services to the Parliamentary 
party" ; whilst one modern authority speaks 
of the property as being " transferred to 
him." After his death his relict, Dame 
Martha Norton, was enrolled as Lady of the 
Manor, until her second marriage with 
Robert, Lord Gordon, Viscount Kenmure, 
in 1655, when their names appear on the 
Court Rolls as Lord and Lady of the Manor. 
In January, 1657, Sir Henry Norton's name 
appears for the first time as Lord of the 
Manor. It appears that, after Sir Gregory 
Norton's death in 1652, Henry, who had 
been disinherited for his fidelity to Charles I., 
was involved in a long and expensive suit 
at law to substantiate his claims to his 
father's title and estate. This probably 
accounts for the length of time that elapsed 
before his name appears on the Manor Roll. 

On 31 Jan., 1655, three years after Sir 
Gregory Norton's decease, we find " Mr. 
Thos. Moreton, late Bp. of Durham," giving 
information to the Council that Norton, 
on his ordinances for 1,000/., had received 
1,530Z., and that since his death Martha, 
his widow and executrix, had taken his 
estate, and ought to repay the overplus, and 
requesting that she may be summoned to 
do so. Dame Martha was ordered to appear 
and show cause why she should not pay in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. i, im. 

the 5301. overplus, John Jackson, John 
Wheeler, and three others being summoned 
to appear and give their evidence in the 
case. To this order Lady Norton replied 

" that her late husband did not receive as much 
money as \vas due to him, and that if he did 
receive more, she is not able to pay, as she has 
no assets." 

This reply is endorsed "April llth, Jackson 
and Wheeler are to appear, or to be brought 
up in custody. 1 ' On 12 June Lady Norton 
asks for further time to examine witnesses. 
The Council orders 

" that she may bring them to be examined vivd- 
voce, sending in her interrogations before she 
takes out copies of the previous depositions." 
On 17 Julj- it was ordered that Lady Norton 

" be heard this day week, and if she be not here, 
the Committee will proceed ex parie." 

Lady Norton did not appear on the 24th. 
The ordinance for Sir Gregory to receive 
1,OOOZ. being read, and proofs given in of his 
receipts, it was adjudged 

" that Sir Gregory had received 516Z. 19s. lid. 
above the 1,OOOZ. granted him, and therefore 
the Lady would have to pay the 5161. 19s. lid., 
and at the same time show cause why she should 
not pay the 200Z. which Sir Gregory had in his 
hands being money from Aug. Belson, recusant, 
which should have been given over to the Seques- 
tration Committee, also the 17Z. 15s. IQd. paid 
him by Treasurer Dawson over and above the 
516Z. 19s. lid. received by him out of the estate 
of Mark Slingsby." 

Nothing further is recorded of this affair 
in the State Papers, so it may be assumed 
the amounts were paid. 

Bichmond, Surrey. 

(To be continued.) 

BENCE (11 S. ix. 508). The family of 
Bence is traceable chiefly in Suffolk, and 
principally at Aldeburgh and Thorington, 
near Halesworth. It is found represented, 
but less numerously, at Benhall, Bingsfield, 
Henstead, Kelsale-cum-Carleton, Saxmund- 
ham, Beccles, Harwich, Redisham, Kentwell 
Hall, Heveningham, Long Melford, Bed grave, 
Stanstead (Suffolk), Marshfield (Wilts), Dub- 
lin, Lisselan (co. Cork), and London (St. 
Benet's, Gracechurch Street, and later gene- 
rations at St. Mary's, Bryanston Square). 
In 1805 Sir George Nayler compiled a 
valuable pedigree of the family, which has 
since been added to and reprinted. 

The family should be searched for under 
the variants of Bens, Bense, Bence Jones, 
Bence-Bence, Bence Sparrow, as well as 
simply Bence. 

The information available is ample. 1 
will give some leading facts, and append a 
list of books where further particulars may 
be found. 

By far the most important book is the- 
Bev. T. S. Hill's ' Registers of Thorington ' 
(Mitchell & Hughes, 1884). This contain* 

(1) all Bence memorial and monumental 
inscriptions in the church and churchyard ; 

(2) all entries from the Begisters relating to 
the Bence family, printed apart on pp. 101- 
104 ; (3) all Bence entries classified under 
Christian names in the Index ; (4) Sir G. 
Nayler's pedigree of 1805 brought up to 
date (1884). 

In the Preface there is a paragraph which 
states that 

" by the kindness of the Bence family I give a very 
full statement of their pedigree. They have been 
an influential family in this neighbourhood for more 
than three hundred years, dating their recorded 
history from the time when they were the most 
important of the inhabitants of Aldborough [i.e., 
Aldeburgh], and have held the chief portion of the 
property in this parish [Thorington] since 1691, when 
they bought the estate of the Coke family, who 
were the previous owners. In that portion of their 
pedigree relating to the Rev. Thomas Bence. Rector 
of Kelsale-cum-Carleton, who died 1757, the descend- 
ants of Catharine, who married Gabriel Trusson, 
and whose daughter Catharine married Anthony 
Collet, are represented now by the Rev. Anthony 
Collett, Rector of Hastingleigh, in Kent." 

The following books, &c., will be found of 
use in further pursuing the subject. The 
' D.N.B.' has biographies of Henry Bence 
Jones, M.D., 1814-73 ; William Bence 
Jones, agriculturist, 1812-82, with notes 
upon his eldest son, William Francis Bence 
Jones. Boase's ' Modern Biography ' has 
Henry Bence Bence, b. 12 March, 1788, d. 
September, 1824, son of Bev. Bence Sparrow, 
Bector of Beccles. He assumed the name 
of Bence 2 May, 1804. Burke's ' Landed 
Gentry,' first issue, has a pedigree of the 
Thorington branch. See Harrow School 
Begister and Bugby ditto ; The East 
Anglian, vi. 332 ; Suffolk Instit., Proc., ii. 
71, 96; B.M. Harleian 1449; Add. MS. 
19,118; Bawlinson A 241 (Bodleian); Gent. 
Mag. (1771, p. 335; 1793, p. 91; 1861, 
p. 354) ; Wood's ' Athenae ' (Peter Bense), 
ii. 624 ; Copinger's ' Suffolk Becords ' (see 
Index) ; Law Times, Ixxiii. 168 ; Times, 
24 June, 1882 ; and Foster's ' Alumni.' 
There is an engraved portrait of Henry 
Bence Jones (1814-73) by C. Holl, from a 
painting by G. Bichmond. There is also a 
portrait of the same in The Illustrated London 
News, Ixii. 424, from a negative by B. & E. 
Taylor. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

11 S. X. AUG. I, 1911] 



Ernald, son of Bence, was a tenant of the 
fee of Balliol in Dromondby in Clevelanc 
during the reign of Henry II. He gave lane 
there to the monks of Fountains (Add. MS 
18,276, f. 67). He attested a number of 
grants made to the monks of Rievaulx 
(' Chartul.of Rievaulx, 'Surtees Soc., passim) 
" Bencius filius Reginald! " gave land in 
Little Broughton in Cleveland to the canon.' 
of Hexham early in the thirteenth century 
(Coll. Top. et Gen., vi. 45). W. F. 

A glance through the directories reveals 
the following distribution of this surname : 
London, 8 ; Liverpool, 4 ; Burton, 1 ; and 

The name Bence occurs amongst resident 
in Doynton, Willsbridge, and Warmley, in 
the county of Gloucester. H. A. C. T. 

KENNY MEADOWS (11 S. ix. 450). Some 
years ago I bought a second-hand copy of 
these ballads, and (seeing W. B. H.'s query 
at the reference above) looked out the book. 
The title-page (in colour) is the same as that 
of the 1849 edition. The publishers are 
Wm. S. Orr & Co., London, but there is no 
date. The text on each page is surrounded 
by double lines, and at each corner between 
the lines there is a small caricature. To 
many of the ballads there is a humorous 
tail-piece. The exceptions have either an 
ornamental design, or the tail-piece is 
omitted owing to want of space. I can 
discover nothing to indicate the artist. 

In a list of books at the end of the volume 
there is an advertisement of the fourth 
edition of the ' Ballads.' J. A. C. 

(11 S. ix. 489; x. 30). The following is 
taken from Urwick's ' Nonconformity of 
Worcester,' pp. 186-7, relating to searching 
through non-parochial registers in Somerset 
House for literary purposes : 

" Down to 1889, access free of charge was enjoyed 
by properly accredited persons to search and make 
sxtracts from these registers for historical and 
literary purposes ; and the present writer [Rev. 
William Urwick, M.A.], from 1860 downwards, has 
from time to time availed himself of this obvious 
right. But in 1889 he received a letter from the 
Registrar-General refusing free access on the plea 
ot want of necessary accommodation for applicants. 
The matter was brought before the House of 
Commons, and Mr. J. Carvell Williams, M.P., 
asked the Government to make representations to 
the Registrar-General to restore the facilities for 
many years enjoyed. On May 30. 1895, it was 
announced in Parliament that 'the Registrar- 

General has made arrangements for the accom- 
modation of any gentleman whose application i* 
backed by an introduction by any M.P. or other 
well-known person, and who wishes to consult for 
literary and historical purposes the Non-Parochial 
Registers and Records which are deposited at 
Somerset House. No fees will be charged for 
searching the registers by persons duly accredited.' 
Since this date every facility has been given me 
on occasion of my visits by the chief clerk, Mr. 
Edward Whitaker." 

Does this " obvious right " still exist ? 
If not, on what grounds has it again been 
withdrawn ? If it no longer exists, ought 
not another appeal to be made to the House 
for restoring these privileges ? 


60, Rothesay Road, Luton. 

WILLIAM BELL SCOTT (11 S. x. 28). An 
appreciation by Joseph Knight, with refer- 
ences to several of Scott's volumes and inci- 
dental poems, will be found in ' The Poets 
and the Poetry of the Nineteenth Century : 
Frederick Tennyson to Arthur Hugh Clough,' 
edited by Alfred H. Miles, pp. 403-8 (Rout- 
ledge, 1905). 

The following list of Scott's books and 
works relating to him is taken from ' The 
English Catalogue,' &c. : 

Hades : Transit and Progress of the Mind. A 
poem. 12mo. 1839. 

Year of the World. A poem. 8vo. 1846. 

Steps in the Journey of Prince Legion. 12 
designs. Imp. 8vo. 1851. 

Antiquarian Gleanings, North of England. 
Royal 4to. (Issued with plain illustrations and 
also with coloured illustrations.) 1857. 

Ornamentist ; or, Artisan's Manual. Imp. 4to. 

Poems. By a Painter. 12nx>. 1854. 

Half-Hour Lectures on the Fine Arts, &c. 
Cr. 8vo. 1861. (2nd ed., 1866 ; 3rd ed., 1874.> 

Memoir of David Scott, B.S.A. 8vo. 1861. 

Albert Diirer : his Life and Works. 8vo. 1869 1 . 

Gems of French Art. 4to. 1870. 

Gems of Modern Belgian Art. 4to. 1871. 

H. B. Forman's ' Our Living Poets.' 1871. 

British School of Sculpture. 4to. 1872. 

Gems of Modern German Art. 4to. 1872. 

Murillo and the Spanish School of Painting. 
Folio. 1872. 

Our British Landscape Painters. 4to. 1872. 

Pictures by Venetian Painters. Folio. 1875, 

Poems. Illustrated by the author, and L. Alma 
Tadema. Post 8vo. 1875. 

J. G. Wilson's ' Poets and Poetry of Scotland/ 

W. B. Scott and Modern British Poetry. Mac- 
millan's Magazine, vol. xxxiii. 1875-6. 

Little Masters. " Great Artists Series." Poafc 
8vo. 1879. 

Memoir of William Bell Scott. By H. Buxton 
Torman. " Celebrities of the Century." 1887. 

Autobiographical Notes of his Life. 2 vols. 8vo. 

The Poet's Harvest Home. 12mo. 1893. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG. i, 1014. 

A memoir of Scott will be found in the 
* D.N.B.,' also some bibliographical details 
<of his work. A Life of him was published 
in two volumes in 1892, edited by W. Minto, 
and containing two portraits from etchings 
Iby himself. It may be interesting to note 
that Swinburne wrote some memorial verses 
an The Athenceum (28 Feb., 1891), which 
commenced thus : 

A life more bright than the sun's face, bowed 
Through stress of season and coil of cloud, 

The British Museum Catalogue has nearly 
three columns devoted to Scott's poetry and 
his illustrated work. 


ALITY AND RELIGION (11 S. ix. 448, 513). 
Hylahd C. Kirk of Washington, D.C., has 
published a pamphlet of 64 pp. named ' The 
Secret of Columbus,' to prove Columbus was 
a Galician Jew. 

Dr. Constantino de Horta y Pardo of 
Havana, Cuba, has also published a pamphlet, 
in Spanish, of 96 pp., named ' La Verdadera 
Cuna de Cristobal Colon,' to prove the same 

New Bedford, Mass. 

(11 S. ix. 510 ; x. 36). The following entry 
from the registers of Great Parndon illus- 
trates the use demonstrated by F. P., other- 
wise it would seem mere tautology : 

"1590 May 3. Thomas Bedwelf Esq. of the 
Tower of London and Judith Raynesforde, the dau. 
of Master Richarde Rainesford, Gent, of Eppinge, 
were married." 

In a burial entry at Epping (1603) we have 
merely "Mr. Richard Rainsford." 

It would seem that the prefix Mr. gradually 
extended itself downwards throughout the 
seventeenth century until, according to the 
' Oxford Dictionary,' it has now become 
universal in its application. 

In parish registers it seems to have been 
used only for a short time in the eighteenth 
century, after which it is probable that 
its extension colloquially caused it to be 
dropped as meaningless in the official record. 

Public Library, Colchester. 

ANNE BRONTE (11 S. x. 24). When at 
Scarborough about two years ago I saw the 
monument to Anne Bronte, and I procured 
a photograph of it from a local stationer. 
The inscription as it now appears differs from 
that given by MR. McGovERN by the addi- 

tion of d to " Rev.," and by the date being 
" May 2-," as Mr. Clement Shorter has it. 
I was told that the stone had been renovated 
in recent years, which may account for the 
error in the date. The stroke after the figure 2 
seems peculiar and unnecessary. The whole 
of the lettering is in capitals, except the 
sixth and seventh lines, which are in script. 


" SPEAK TO ME, LORD BYRON " (11 S. ix. 
388 ; x. 31). It is plain that Ebenezer 
Elliott's ballad of ' Devil Byron ' relates to 
the " Wicked Lord," who was not the 
father, but the great-uncle, of the poet. 
The fifth Lord Byron succeeded to the title 
in 1736, and died in 1798, and, his son and 
grandson having predeceased him, he was 
succeeded by his great-nephew. In stating 
that his sister was the heroine of the legend, 
I think the axithor must be in error. The 
" Wicked Lord " had only one sister, Isa- 
bella, whose first husband was the fourth 
Earl of Carlisle, by whom she became the 
mother of the fifth Earl, the little-loved 
guardian of the poet -Lord. After the 
Earl's death she married Sir William Mus- 
grave of Hayton Castle, who, according to 
Walpole, was 

" but three-and-twenty, but in consideration of the 
match, and of her having years to spare, she has 
made him a present of ten, and calls him three- 
and- thirty." 

Lady Carlisle was eccentric, but there is 
nothing to show that she was not on good 
terms with her brother. The legend prob- 
ably is connected with Lord Byron's wife 
Miss Elizabeth Shaw, the daughter of 
Charles Shaw of Besthorpe Hall in Norfolk, 
who was the heiress of 40,00'^Z., seems to 
have been of a " flirtatious " disposition. 
She had been engaged to Lord Coke, the 
eldest son of the Earl of Leicester, but the 
match was broken off, says Walpole, " upon 
some coquetry with Mr. [James Stewart] 
Mackenzie at the Ridotto." Her ill-fortune 
led her, a couple of years afterwards, to 
marry Lord Byron, and her relations with 
him were of the unhappiest description. 
All sorts of wild rumours began to float 
about the country. One story was that in a 
fit of rage he shot his coachman, and flung 
the dead body into the carriage in which 
his wife was seated. Another was that he 
threw his wife into one of the Newstead 
ponds with the purpose of drowning her. 
At best he was a man of ungovernable 
temper, as the whole historj^ of his duel 
with Mr. Chaworth clearly proves, and he 
rendered Lady Byron's life a torment 

11 S. X. AUG. 1, 1914.] 



through his ill-usage, until death relieved 
her of her sufferings. She died just ten 
years before her husband, and Elliott's 
legend doubtless refers either to her or to 
the old Lord's mistress, who was known as 
" Lady Betty." W. F. PRIDE AUX. 

I enclose the first four verses of the poem. 
They will give your readers a general idea 
of what it is like, and also show how the 
phrase " Speak to me, Lord Byron ! " comes 
in : 

A strange man own'd yon Abbey once, 

Men call'd him " Devil Byron ;" 
Yet he a sister had, who lov'd 
Well that Man of Iron. 

And well he lov'd that sister Love 

Is strong in rugged bosoms ; 
Ev'n as the barren-seeming bough 

Oft hoards richest blossoms. 

Yet from his heart, when she espous'd 

A peasant, he dismiss'd her ; 
And thenceforth " Devil Byron " spoke 
Never to his sister ! 

Therefore, whene'er he drove abroad, 

She chas'd the Man of iron ; 
Rode by his wheels, and riding cried. 
" Speak to me, Lord Byron ! " 

100, Lothian Road, Edinburgh. 

I presume that Ebenezer Elliott's ballad 
entitled ' Devil Byron ' alludes to the fifth 
Baron (1722-98), who was convicted of the 
manslaughter of his kinsman, Mr. Chaworth, 
before the House of Lords, 16 April, 1765, 
and was thereafter known as "the Wicked 

Otherwise the ballad might allude to 
some confused memory of the poet and his 
sister, Mrs. Leigh. The fifth Lord is said 
to have ill-treated his wife. 


Admiral Lord John Hay of Fulmer Place, 
Slough, has favoured me with a reply to the 
query at this reference, embodying something 
he was told by a reliable person at the time 
Lord Palmerston was Prime Minister. A 
gentleman calling at Cambridge House one 
forenoon was discussing some political 
question. Lord Palmerston said, " If you 
wish to be quite sure about this, look in that 
drawer and take out the papers, and you can 
then satisfy yourself. ' ' The gentleman pulled 
out a drawer, and Lord Palmerston said, 
" That is not the right one ; that contains 
all Gladstone's resignations." 

Lord John Hay concludes from this that 
it is possible Mr. Gladstone acted upon the 

advice he is alleged to have given in the 
American paper I quoted, and always carried 
his written resignation to Cabinet Councils 
while Chancellor of the Exchequer in 
the four Governments under other Prime 
Ministers. J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey. 

(11 S. ix. 369, 417). We say " Der Schnee, 
das Mehl ballt sich " = backt, i.e., forms 
into lumps, which corresponds exactly to 
" the snow bolters," so that it does not seem 
to be rash to conclude that a connexion 
exists between the two words. The surmise 
is supported by the passage from Holland 
which MR. THOMAS BAYNE aptly quotes : 

"Now by reason of dust getting among, it [the 
goat's beard] baltereth and cluttereth into knobs 
and bals." 

Bal -\-teren would have been formed from bal, 
as dot -\-teren from clot. G. KRUEGER. 


28). The ' N.E.D.,' s.v., gives the answer 
to L. M. H.'s query. In Lyndesay, ' Com- 
playnt,' 406, " galleons," spelt " gailzeownis," 
rimes with "loons," spelt "lownis" ; and 
in Dibdin, in 'Naval Chronicle,' xiii. 394, 
" galleon," spelt " galloon," rimes with 
" tune." This seems to be one of an increas- 
ing number of instances in which a word 
adopted by some one who has never heard 
it pronounced is given a pronunciation 
more in consonance with the spelling than 
the real one is. " Galleon " is, I suppose, 
originally a nautical term. To my know- 
ledge, sailors pronounced it " galloon " as late 
as the fifties of the last century. Tennyson, 
Masefield, and, I may add, Kipling, have, 
however, I fear, settled the pronunciation 
for future centuries. 


Probably the earliest appearance of this 
word in English verse is in Thomas Deloney's 
' A Joyful New Ballad ' on the Armada 
fight, entered at Stationers' Hall, 10 Axig., 
1588, in which it occurs three times. As I 
only know the verses in Arber's ' An English 
Garner ' (vii. 39), I cannot say how T. D. 
spells the word ; the pronunciation he intends 
it to have must be gathered from the verses 
themselves : 

Another mighty Galleon 

Did seem to yield at last. 
The chiefest Captain 

Of this Galleon so high. 
Who was the General 
Of all the Galleons great. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. x. AUG. i, 1914. 

These are the three passages in which it 

Sir Francis Vere in his ' Com- 
mentaries ' has the form " gallions " : see 
' N.E.D.,' s.v., where also there is this 
quotation from Dibdin in ' Naval Chron.,' 
xiii. : 

We took a Galloon, 

And the Crew touch'd the Agent for cash to some 

C. C. B. 

When I first went to school, about 1860, I 
used a spelling-book which gave the pronun- 
ciation, and in that book " galleon " was said 
to be pronounced " galloon/' There seems 
to be a tendency, when foreign words ending 
in on are converted into English ones, to 
make the termination oon ; for instance, 
gadroon, maroon (the colour), saloon, Walloon, 
and others. DIEGO. 

(11 S. x. 11). Any rock of calcareous 
structure, whether of chalk or marble or 
calcareous spar, would, of course, be subject 
to the action of vinegar or any other acid. 
In the case of vinegar the carbonic acid 
would be displaced by the acetic acid, and 
an acetate of calcium formed instead of a 
carbonate. If enough vinegar could be 
employed, the whole rock might, in fact, be 
dissolved. In rocks which are partially 
siliceous the solution would, of course, be 
incomplete. This would, no doubt, be the 
first effect, solution of the accessible part 
of the calcium carbonate. But the idea of 
blasting need not be excluded. It is also 
quite conceivable that if a large quantity of 
acid were introduced into a calcareous rock 
embedded in others that are non-calcareous, 
the sudden liberation and expansion of 
carbonic acid would cause the disruption of 
the latter. The principle is precisely the same 
as when gunpowder or dynamite is used 
for blasting. All these methods depend for 
their effect on the sudden liberation of gas. 

8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

408, 478, 499). I possess what I have been 
informed is a rare mezzotint portrait of 
General Francis Columbine and his wife, 
engraved by J. Faber, jun., after Joseph 
Highmore. The general is seen on the right 
of the picture, nearh' whole length, holding 
a truncheon in his right hand, his three- 
cornered hat tucked under his left arm. His 
wife is seated on the left, wearing a hand- 
some silk gown, a cap, and a pearl necklace. 

She holds a chaplet of laurel leaves. Behind 
her is a parrot, and in the further distance a 
ship. The print measvires 16 in. by 12 J in., 
and the original picture seems to have been 
painted in 1741. I should be glad if any 
correspondent could tell me the whereabouts 
of the latter. JOHN LANE. 

The Bodley Head, Vigo Street, W. 

REV. JAMES THOMAS (11 S. x. 50). A 
clergyman of these names was Vicar of 
Bolton-in-the-Sands, curate of Lancaster, 
and curate of Wyersdale in 1817, as appears 
in Rivington's ' Clerical Guide ' for that 
year, the first publication of the kind. He 
is probably the person inquired for. 


THE FIRST BARMAID (US. ix. 148, 197, 
238). According to the Historical MSS. 
Commission in its report (llth) on the MSS. 
of the Borough of Lynn, there is in the 
Assembly (or Congregation) Book of this 
borough, which extended from 31 Henry VI. 
to 11 Henry VII., the following rule, dated 
30 Oct., 5 Edward IV. : 

" This day it is ordeyned by all the Congregation 
abovesaide that no man within the Towne of Lenne 
dwellyng fro hens furthward shall kepe nor favour 
nor mayteyue eny common Tapster with in his 
house as servaunt or tenaunt, whiche is knowen for 
a misgoverned woman, upon peyne of XIs. als often 
as ony persone is so founden defectif." 

If the meaning of the word " tapster " is the 
same as that of the present day, then it would 
appear that barmaids were known at a much 
earlier period than has yet been indicated. 

H. W. K. 

ALEXANDER INNES, D.D. (11 S. x. 29). 
There is an interesting reference to this 
" past master in the arts of imposture " at 
p. 219 of the late W. P. Courtney's ' Secrets 
of our National Literature ' (Constable), 

ORLEBAR (11 S. x. 12). This seems to be 
a place-name derived from the village of 
Orlingbury, co. Northants, but it must not 
be assumed that all the persons who took 
the name of " de Orlingbury " or " of Orling- 
bury " were originally related. A history 
of the village and manor will be found in 
Bridges's ' Northamptonshire.' 

There is a pedigree of Orlebar of Hinwick, 
Beds, in Harvey's ' Hundred of Willey/ 
p. 392, which, however, does not go back 
beyond the seventeenth century. See also 
authorities cited in Marshall's ' Genea- 
logist's Guide.* B. WHITEHEAD. 

11 S. X. AUG. 1, 1914.] 



WELLINGTON (11 S. x. 48). In each of the 
nine volumes of ' Political Sketches, &c., by 
H. B.,' published by Thos. M'Lean, in the 
Carlton Club library, is a printed catalogue 
of the sketches with the names (a few 
omitted) pasted on a fly-leaf. The entry 
concerning the sketch in question is : 

350, 351. The Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford attended by Doctors of Civil Law. 

1. 2. Sir Henry Fane. 3. 4. Lord 

Londonderry. 5. Sir Henry Hardinge. 6. Lord 
Hill. 7. Lord Fitzroy Somerset. 8. Hon. Mr. 
Bagot. 9. Duke of Wellington. 

It will be seen that No. 1 (he with the lancer 
helmet) and No. 3 are not named. 

Lord Fitzroy Somerset, raised to the 
peerage as Lord Raglan, died in the Crimea 
in 1855. Two numbers are given to the 
sketch because it occupies two pages. 
The underlining or italicizing of "Civil" I 
take to be a little jest in allusion to the fact 
that these Doctors of Civil Law are all 
soldiers. In this respect it is worth 
noting that sketch No. 313 (21 April, 
1834) gives the Duke of Wellington in the 
gown of Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford. (He was chosen 29 January and 
installed 10 June, 1 834. ) In his right hand is 
a mace, in his left an academical square cap ; 
his military boots (? spurred) appear under 
the gown, and behind him is a cannon. The 
title of the sketch is ' A Great Doctor of 
Cannon Law,' in capitals ; but " Cannon " 
is in italic capitals, and the first N is 
crossed out. This also is a mild jest. 

The following appears in ' An Illustrative 
Key to the Political Sketches of H. B., from 
No. 1 to No. 600,' London, published by 
Thomas M'Lean, 1841, p. 227 : 


" The Chancellor of the University of Oxford, 
attended by doctors of civil law f" civil " not 
underlined.] This is a faithful sketch of the 
procession at Oxford, on the installation of his 
Grace the Duke of Wellington into the office of 
Chancellor of that University. The Duke is 
attended by the Hon. Mr. Bagot, as his train- 
bearer, and followed by Lord Fitzroy Somerset, 
Lord Hill, Sir Henry Hardinge, the Marquis of 
Londonderry, and Sir Henry Fane." 

The omissions are not noticed. H. B., 
of course, means John Doyle. 

It was at the inauguration of the Duke as 
Chancellor in the Theatre of the Univeristy in 
1834 that there was a scene of wild enthu- 
siasm when a certain passage in the Newdi- 
gate Prize Poem by Joseph Arnould, of 
Wadham College, was delivered by the 
author. The subject of this poem was ' The 
Hospice of St. Bernard.' A description of 

the scene by the late Sir John Mowbray is 
given in the late Sir William Frazer's 
' Words on Wellington,' 1889, pp. 76, 175 : 

"The Poet, standing in the rostrum, turned 
slightly to the left, in the direction of the Chan- 
cellor ; and gave these lines with marked emphasis : 

When on that field, where last the Eagle soared, 
War's mightier Master wielded Britain's sword : 
And the dark soul a World could scarce subdue 
Bent to thy Genius, Chief of Waterloo ! 

bowing at the same time to the Duke 

"The Under acraduates in the galleries rose to 
their feet, and for five minutes continued cheering ; 
joined of course by the Masters on the floor of the 
Theatre : the ladies who were present waving 
their handkerchiefs. Then there was a pause : 

and the Poet endeavoured to go on During the 

whole of this scene the Duke sat like a Statue; 
apparently unmoved : after a time motioning to 
trie Poet to continue." 

Frazer quotes the lines from ' Oxford 
Prize Poems,' 1839. In my copy of the 
poems " down to the present time," 1836, 
the words " Chief " and " Waterloo " are in 
large capitals, while " Eagle," &c., do not 
begin with capitals. 

I think that it is customary for an officer 
to wear a D.C.L. gown over his uniform when 
he receives the degree. I well remember 
seeing Lord Kitchener in his uniform with 
the gown over it when he was made a Doctor 
of Civil Law. 

I believe that single H. B. sketches are 
of very small commercial value. 


509 ; x. 33). A long paper, illustrated with 
twenty-four plates, on ' The Uses and 
Teachings of Ancient Encaustic Tiles,' was 
contributed to the Transactions of the Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society in 
1891 by the late Dr. Frank Renaud. It was 
afterwards reprinted for private circulation 
in folio. C. W. SUTTON. 

27). Being nearly related to the Madan 
family, I found the late W. P. COURTNEY'S 
article on this lady as full of interest as MR. 
GRIFFITH appears to have found it, and after 
reading it, I took an early opportunity of 
consulting the MS. 28,101 at the British 
Museum, of which I had never previously 
heard. It is a good-sized volume, entirely 
in the handwriting of Mrs. Madan's third 
brother, Mr. Ashley Cowper, and among other 
things it contains no fewer than twenty-seven 
poems, some of considerable length, all of 
which are stated by the writer to have been 
composed by his sister. Among them are 
' Abelard to Eloisa,' ' The Progress of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. x. A i, 1914. 

Poetry,' and the verses to Pope referred to 
at the above reference, all of them dated 1720, 
when the authoress was only 18. The first- 
mentioned contains 178 lines ; the latter is 
clearly identical with MR. GRIFFITH'S MS. 
copy, containing exactly 90 lines, and it is 
said by Mr. Ashley Cowper to have been 
written by her in her copy of Pope's works. 

I have never seen a copy of William 
Pattison's poems. He was only 23 when he 
died, and Pope said that Curll killed him by 
starving him ; but it is stated in the ' D.X.B.' 
that he too wrote a letter from ' Abelard to 
Eloisa ' : indeed, Pope's ' Eloisa to Abelard ' 
must have appeared like a challenge to every 
minor poet of that period to essay a reply 
from Abelard. 

Shortly after Mrs. Madan's death in 1781 
somebody discovered her ' Progress of 
Poetry,' and published it as a new poem. 
The following extracts from The Gentleman's 
Magazine (1783), vol. liii. part i. p. 152, 
refer to this, and also contain some useful 
notes as to the publication of some of her 
other poems : 

" ' The Progress of Poetry,' 
"by Mrs. Madan. 4to. 

" The Editor of this ' master-piece ' (as he 
justly styles it) of this late ingenious lady cries 
* ettpTjKa ' with much less reason than the sage of 
Samos, by pretending ' to introduce to the public 
notice' a poem of which the public were in 
possession probably before he was corn ; it having 
been inserted in a collection called ' The Flower 
Piece ' as long ago as the year 1731, and since 
that date in the 'Poetical Calendar,' 1763, and 
other more recent publications. Instead, there- 
fore, of dwelling longer on this not new (however 
excellent) performance, we will add a short account 
of the admired writer and some verses de sa fa$on, 
much less known. 

" Miss Judith Cowper was born in 1702. She was 
eldest daughter of Spencer Cowper, Esq. (one of the 
judges of the Court of Common Pleas in the reign of 
King George I.) and niece to the Lord Chancellor of 

that name Miss Cowper distinguished herself in 

the literary world at the age of 18 by writing some 
Verses to the Memory of Mr. Hughes, in 1720, and 
others to Mr. Pope, which are prefixed to their 
Poems (Eng. Poets, vols. xxii. and xxxii.)and were 
justly admired. Her ' Epistle from Abelard to 
Eloisa ' is also well known, having been frequently 
published. Arid her ' Progress of Poetry ' (as has 

been said) first appeared in 1731 Several smaller 

pieces, by Mrs. Madan, have been handed about in 
manuscript," &c. 

The portrait of Mrs. Madan to which MR. 
GRIFFITH refers is in coloured crayons, 
measuring thirty inches by eighteen. It 
was the work of Charles Jervas ('D.N.B.'), 
an intimate friend of Pope, whose portrait 
by him, as well as those of Queen Caroline, 
Martha Blount, and Dean Swift, are now in 
the National Portrait Gallery. It has always 

been in the possession of some member of 
the family, and is now the property of the 
Rev. Nigel Madan of Bleasby Hall, near 
Nottingham, and Hon. Canon of Soxithwell 
Cathedral. ALAN STEWART. 

SIGNS OF CADENCY (11 S. x. 50). Mr. 
John E. Cussans, in his ' Handbook of 
Heraldry ' (1882), p. 151, says : 

"It was not until the fourteenth century that 
cadency, as the word is now understood, became 

general, for although Edward I., before he was 

King, assumed a Label to mark his position towards 
his father, then living, we find in the Roll of Caer- 
laverock (A.P. 1300) the two systems, one of changing 
charges, the other of adopting marks of cadency, it* 
vogue at one and the same time (Cott. MS. Calig.,. 
A. xviii., Brit. Mus.). Thus Englished by Thomas. 
Wright : 

And the two brothers Basset likewise 

Of whom the eldest bore thus : 

Ermine, a red chief indented 

Charged with three gold mullets, 

The other with three shells. 

And Maurice de Berkeley 

Who was a partaker in this expedition 

Had a banner red as blood 

Crusilly with a white chevron 

On which there was a blue label 

Because his father was (fathers were ?) living." 


S. ix. 450, 493 ; x. 33, 58). 5. This passage 
can be traced in Carlyle's ' Cromwell,' 
Part V., after Letter CXXXII. When 
Cromwell was received in London. 31 May,. 
1650, on returning from his campaign in 
Ireland, with " one wild tumult of saluta- 
tion," he 

"said, or is reported to have said, when som& 
sycophantic person observed, ' What a crowd come 
out to see your Lordship's triumph ! ' ' Yes, but 
if it were to see me hanged, how many more would 
there be ! '" 

Carlyle gives as authorities newspapers (in 
Kimber, p. 148) ; Whitlocke, p. 441. 


"FELIX SU-MMERLY" (11 S. x. 47). I 

" Felix Summerly's Pleasure Excursions 

Eastern Counties, South Eastern, Brighton and 
South Coast, South Western, and London and 1 
North Western Railways.' London, published at 

the 'Railway Chronicle' Offices 1847." 

R. B R. 

RENTY (11 S. x. 49). The translator of this, 
whose initials are E. S., is not improbably 
Sir Edward Sherburne, himself a Catholic. 
He was not knighted until 1682. 

Oxford. L " L 

11 S. X. Au.. 1, 1914.] 



on !8oohs, 

Memories of my Youth. By George Haven 

Putnam. (Putnam's Sons, 7s. 6d. net.) 
MAJOR PUTNAM has done well in supplementing 
the delightful memoir of his father, a noble record 
of a noble life (reviewed by us on the 14th of 
December, 1912), by giving in this volume 
memories of his own youth from 1844 to 1865. 
These memories are based in part upon home 
letters and in part upon his memory of 
conversations with his father. He has now 
completed the seventh decade of his life, having 
been born at the paternal cottage in St. John's 
Wood in 1844. 

His father was one of the first of the American 
publishers to invade England, and his American 
agency in Waterloo Place became a centre for 
American residents and for the not very large 
groups of Englishmen who were interested 
in American affairs. Major Putnam gives a 
pleasant description of the group of pub- 
lishers of those days. It " included John 
Murray the second (Byron's Murray), and his 
son John the third (I have had the pleasure 
of continued personal association with John the 
fourth, and with his son, John the fifth, who ably 
continue the dynasty of this historic house) ; 
Kichard Bentley, stalwart Tory and ' publisher 
to Her Majesty ' ; Francis Rivington, ' publisher 
for the Church ' ; Thomas Longman ; Edward 
Moxon, the first publisher of Tennyson, and also 
publisher for Thomas Hood and Charles Lamb 
(Moxon, whom my father described as having a 
most attractive personality, married Emma 
Isola, the adopted daughter of Charles Lamb) ; 
Henry George Bohn, creator of the first ' libraries,' 
or uniformly printed series of books accepted as 
classics ; George Smith, then a youngster amongst 
the bookmen, head of the firm of Smith & Elder, 
the publishers of Cornhill, from whose office 
Thackeray sallied forth for his famous journey 
from Cornhill to Cairo ; Nicholas Triibner, a 
scholarly young German, who became known as 
the leading publisher of Oriental literature ; and 
Daniel Macmillan, founder (with his younger 
brother Alexander) of a publishing firm which 
within a comparatively brief term of years has 
become one of the most important in Europe." 

In June, 1847, in consequence of changes con- 
nected with the business arrangements in Ame- 
rica, G. P. Putnam returned to New York, and 
founded the present firm of Putnam. He resided 
with his wife and family in the village of Stapleton, 
Staten Island, and among the guests during the 
earlier years there Major Putnam recalls Miss 
Bremer, the Swedish authoress ; Susan Warner, 
the author of ' The Wide, Wide World ' ; and 
Wendell Phillips. 

The author's second glimpse of England was in 
1851, when he was seven years old, and his 
father took him to the opening of the Exhibition, 
where he heard Prince Albert deliver the address ; 
he remembers " the sunshine breaking through 
the crystal glass and the treetops, and falling 
upon the uplifted heads of the dense crowd and 
upon the figure of the man speaking." 

Among other early recollections was his seeing, 
in the following year, his father with " a tall, good- 
looking man in the dress of a naval officer. 

' Haven,' said he, ' you want to remember this 
gentleman. He tells us that he has discovered 
a new people of whom, in the course of the next 
half-century, we shall hear a good deal.' The 
tall officer was Commodore Perry, who had been 
received by the Tycoon of Japan, and who had 
secured for the commerce of the United States- 
privileges that had thus far been accorded to the- 
representatives of no other nation. It proved, 
of course, impossible to refuse to Great Britain,. 
France, and Germany facilities that had been; 
conceded to the United States.... My father- 
published Perry's account of his visit, which was- 
in its way an epoch-marking book." A year or 
two later young Putnam " picked up " in his- 
father's office Layard's ' Nineveh and Babylon,.'' 
the American edition of which was issued by his 
firm. Among the callers at the office was Cyrus 
Field, " whose imagination and persistence 
brought into existence the first Atlantic cable." 

In 1857 a terrible financial crisis occurred in the^ 
States, when bank after bank suspended payment, 
and at the age of forty-three the elder Putnam 
had to begin his business life over again and to- 
lay the foundations of a new business while 
supporting a large family. The old home was- 
the property of Mrs. Putnam, it having been' 
settled on her when there was no question of 
the solvency of the firm. She, however, insisted 
upon its being handed over to the creditors, " withi 
the entire approval of her husband, although Mr. 
Mason, the assignee, told her that the house was 
hers by law and in equity." 

In 1860 young Putnam was sent to Europe for 
his education. He studied first in Paris, and 
afterwards in Germany, and he gives many 
reminiscences of his life as a student. In 1861,. 
while at Gottingen, he read in The Times of the 
disaster at Bull Run. This was looked upon by 
many as indicating the collapse of the United 
States as a nation, and his " German friends were- 
not a little surprised that months after the- 
battle the North was still proceeding with its 
preparations, and that the Northern leaders were 
in fact taking the ground that they had only 
' just begun to fight.' " In December came to 
him the news of the boarding of the Trent, and 
in July of the following year (1862) his traps were 
packed and he was off to New York. As he passed 
the office of the Herald he saw on the poster, 
" A battle is now going on." By August he 
was with the army in the field, and for three 
years took part in the war. He gives a graphic 
account of his adventures. He thus lost the oppor- 
tunity for a college training, which was to him a 
great deprivation, as he took a keen interest in 
literature and science. During the war he had 
to bear for two years exposure to the heat and 
the damp of the swamps of Louisiana swamps 
in which nearly one-third of the 19th Army Corps 
lie buried. He had barely recovered from the 
series of swamp fevers before he was captured 
and had to endure five months of prison life. Not- 
withstanding all he had undergone, he found him- 
self, on landing in New York, in fairly good con- 
dition, and he now remembers with satisfaction his 
being able in October, 1865, to register his name 
for his first legal vote. We agree with him 
that " he had fairly earned his citizenship." 

We have much enjoyed these memories of 
Major Putnam's youth, and look forward to the 
account he promises of the years since 1865. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. A, i, 1914. 

THE July Edinburgh Review is certainly not to 
be ranked with the less successful of the 44 
numbers to which it forms the next accession 
Dr. Horace Micheli's study of the working of the 
Referendum in Switzerland should command 
careful attention. It has an obvious bearing on 
present political controversy ; but, more than 
that, it opens up consideration of a possible line 
of development which may carry the modern 
State on past the present plan of representative 
government. It may also rightly cause us to 
reflect on the effects produced by giving a sound 
education to the people as a whole ; it seems 
clear that our own popular education being less 
sound than that of Switzerland forms one reason 
for anticipating that the Referendum would not 
.at the present moment work so well with us as 
it does with the Swiss. Mr. Horace Bleackley 
A name familiar to all readers of ' N. & Q.' 
contributes a lively and well-considered article 
on Casanova, which, one is tempted to think, 
might suffice in the way of information about 
"that worthy for all except professed students of 
the eighteenth century. The appearance of 
Mr. J. A. R. Marriott's able discussion of English 
diplomacy from 1853 to 1871 may prove to be well- 
timed beyond the expectations of its author. 
Mr. P. Amaury Talbot s paper on ' West African 
Religions ' carries the weight belonging to first- 
Land observation extended, sympathetic, and 
of scientific quality. It should not be missed by 
those interested in this study. Miss March 
Phillipps in ' The Pirates of Algiers ' has one of 
the most fascinating subjects in the history of 
the Mediterranean, and she does it justice. The 
pirates' reign is apt to seem matter of the remote 
past, but not only is the tablet at Sidi-Feneh, 
commemcrating the French conquest of Algiers, 
dated 1830, but the writer tells us that her own 
grandfather used to relate the story of how he, 
as a young officer, helped the young wife of the 
English Consul at Tunis to escape from the 
pirates, by whom, if captured, she would have 
-been sold into slavery. Signer Luigi Villari 
whites of the Roman Campagna in a way that vi ill 
make the more romantic of its lovers sigh. Modern 
improvements are creeping over its immemorial 
loveliness, which will hardly be annihilated, but 
-will certainly be changed. Mr. F. A. Wright's 
article on * Greek Music ' is delightful reading, 
-and instructive too. But it is surely quaint to 
put Sophocles and Mendelssohn side by side ; in 
fact, both musicians and classical scholars will 
find several points to quarrel over in the com- 
parison Mr. Wright institutes between five 
-selected Greek poets and five modern musicians. 
Mr. J. E. G. de Montmorency is wholesomely ad- 
vmonitory in his paper on ' English Universities 
and National Life ' : he makes good suggestions 
too, but there are many obstacles to the carrying 
out of these which he does not tackle. Mr. 
Walter de la Mare contributes several pages of 
bright, sometimes far-fetched, comment on 
eight items of current literature. Of a French 
writer on the " English soul " he says : "As 
Drake shepherded the Armada, she shepherds 
'th English soul." Such brilliancy as this is 
just as cryptic as dark icss. 

THE new number of The Quarterly Review sets 
out with Dr. C. H. Turner's ' Study of Christian 
Origins in France and England a weighty 
piece of work concerned, naturally, to a great 

extent, with the work of Duchesne. Mr. Rolles- 
ton's paper on ' Modern Forces in German Litera- 
ture ' contains an indictment of English men 
of letters and English publishers for carelessness 
in not providing thoroughgoing introductions to 
the study of the poets and novelists of this 
country and generation. We are ourselves of 
opinion that much may be said for letting this 
alone ; however that may be, it is not a matter 
let alone in Germany, and from German judg- 
ments and interpretations, as well as from the 
original works themselves, Mr. Rolleston draws 
a highly interesting, though not entirely hopeful 
picture of the interplay of forces in German 
literature at the present moment. Mr. H. 
Stuart Jones's article on ' The Mysteries of 
Mithras ' is one of the most interesting of this 
number in particular, in the pages dealing with 
the part played by Stoic philosophy as a guide 
for thought no less than for conduct. Prof. 
George Forbes gives us a delightful biography of 
the late Sir David Gill. Mr. H. Dodwell treats 
the rather well-worn subject of the East India 
Company from the point of view made possible 
by the publication of new material, offering the 
present account as a continuation of the summary 
of the history of the Company before the Battle 
of Plassey given in the number of this Review 
for October last. Mr. Robert Steele's paper on 
' Roger Bacon ' ought to find many interested 
readers, especially in view of the fact that not 
many tolerably adequate accounts of him have 
till quite recently been available. Not least 
worthy of consideration among these articles {is 
' The Logic of Thought and the Logic of Science,' 
a study of the modern position of this department 
of philosophy by Mr. H. S. Shelton. ^ 

GRIFFIN RECORDS. Mr. H. Griffin (care of 
Stokes & Cox, 75, Chancery Lane) writes that he 
has 100 MS. volumes relating to Griffin and Griffith 
families in which are also references to 500 other 
names in England and Wales. He would be glad 
to exchange notes with other genealogists. 

to <K0msp0ntonts. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to "The Editor of ' Notes and Queries'" Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

CORRESPONDENTS who send letters to be for- 
warded to other contributors should put on the top 
left-hand corner of their envelopes the number of 
the page of '''N. & Q.' to which their letters refer, 
BO that the contributor may be readily identified. 

VERA desires to thank correspondent for reply re 
' Rose Gwyn.' 

DR. KRUEGER. Probably an incorrect version of 
"crimine ab uno Disce omnes" (Virg., '^En.,'ii.65). 

H. N. E. ("'Twas whispered in heaven"). 
For this riddle see 6 S. ix. 260 ; 7 S. ii. 253. 390 ; iii. 
33, 73, 158 ; 9 S. vi. 85, 177. 

DR. MAGRATH ("Troy weight for bread "). The 
latest reference for this in ' N. & Q.' is at 9 S. vii. 90 
an article by COL. NICHOLSON. It has also been 
discussed at 8 S. x. 255, 278, 305, 338, 383, and at 
4 S. ix. 447, 514. 

n s. x. A, s, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 241. 
i NOTES: A Source of Massinger's 'Parliament of Love, 
i 101 Sir John Gilbert, J. F. Smith, and ' The London 
Journal,' 102 Statutes and Memorials in the British 
Isles, 103 Hugh Peters: Post-Restoration Satires, 105 
Printers' Phrases Reference to ' Chevy Chase 'Mur- 
derer reprieved by Marriage " Huckleberry "Monthly 
Catalogue, 1714-17, 106 Servian Terms: "Narodna 
Obrana" and "Samouprava," 107. 

DUERIES : ' Jackdaw of Rheims' Thirteenth-Century 
i Dyers' Ordinance Sir William Temple on Huniades 
Bombay as a Surname Patazonian Theatre, Exeter 
Change, 107 Clapping and Hissing Byroniana Jesuit's 
Hiding-Place G Quinton Old Etonians Sir Richard 
gyl es _Story of ' Bull and Poker ' Oldboy : Artemisia 
Ear Burning Power Family, 108 Crimean War Banquet : 
Memorial Tablecloth Medal lie Legends " Bell and 
Horns," Brompton Dr. Allen, 1579, 109 Fenwick 
Wool-Gat hering Stick Biographical Information Wanted 
Thomas Legett Joseph Game, 110. 

REPLIES: Wall-Papers, 110 Heart-Burial, 111 Lesee- 
line de Verdon, 112" Condamine" 52, Newgate Street : 
a Sculptured Stone "The Broad Arrow" Greek News- 
paper published in London, 114 Library Wanted Wreck 
of the Jane, Duchess of Gordon Penmon Priory Tit- 
marsh Westminster School Usher Ralph Carr 
Robert Clayton, 115 Gladstone as Chancellor of the 

Wanted : ' Hands All Round ' " Annandale Beef-stand ' 
Moses Franks' The Manchester Marine,' 117. 

SOTES ON BOOKS :' Survey of London: St. Giles-in- 
the-Fields' ' Book-Auction Records ' ' Book-Prices 
Current ' ' Yorkshire Archaeological Journal 'Reviews 
and Magazines. 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


THE plot of ' The Parliament of Love,' as of 
many of Massinger's plays, is constructed of 
materials derived from various sources. 

Dr. Koeppel has pointed out that for its 
central idea, the institution of a court or 
Parliament of Love for hearing the complaints 
and redressing the grievances of lovers, the 
dramatist was indebted to the ' Aresta 
Amorum ' of Martial d'Auvergne ; and an- 
other conspicuous feature, common to this 
play and Webster and Rowley's ' A Cure 
for 'a Cuckold ' the story of the lover com- 
manded by his mistress to kill his dearest 
friend was doubtless borrowed from Mars- 
ton's ' Dutch Courtesan.' 

But a further unmistakable source of the 
plot has been overlooked. The character of 
Clarindore, the " wild courtier " of Mas- 
singer's play, is clearly modelled upon that 
of Tharsalio, the " impetuous wooer " of 
Chapman's comedy ' The Widow's Tears.' 

Tln> conduct of the courtship scenes in 
: '.vo plays is almost exactly the same, 

Massinger not only reproducing incidents, but 
also echoing words and phrases from his pre- 
decessor's play. How closely the scenes con- 
nected with Clarindore's wooing of Bellisant 
in ' The Parliament of Love ' were founded 
upon. Tharsalio's wooing of the Countess 
Eudora in ' The Widow's Tears ' may be 
seen in the following comparison of the two 

The Widow's Tears. Tharsalio announces 
to Lysander and Cynthia, and their son 
Hylus, his intention of marrying the Countess 
Eudora, whom he had previously served as 
a page. In spite of the Countess's vow of 
perpetual widowhood, he is, he says, " as- 
sured of his speed " ; he will show them " with 
what facility he will win her." Lysander, 
incredulous, mockingly observes that this 
is "a good pleasant dream." Tharsalio 
leaves them, calling upon Confidence to 

Command her servant deities, Love and Fortune, 
To second my attempts for this great Lady. 

The Parliament of Love. Clarindore, Mont- 
rose, Perigot, and Novell discuss the " noble 
lady " Bellisant. The three latter agree that 
she is so proud and unapproachable that it is 
useless to attempt to gain her favour. Clarin- 
dore taunts them with their " fainting 
spirits " ; he is confident that he can win her 
for his mistress. Perigot asks him if he is 
" talking in his sleep." Clarindore then 
wagers that within a month he will make 
Bellisant yield to him, and leaves his com- 
panions, exclaiming : 

Love, blind archer, aid me I 

The Widow's Tears. Tharsalio forces him- 
self into the Countess's presence, notwith- 
standing that she is engaged in conversation 
with three great noblemen who have come to 
pay their addresses, and boldly woos her. 
She angrily bids him begone, or she will have 
him " tost in blankets," and, on his refusing 
to obey, bids her ushers " quit the house of 
him, by th' head and shoulders." If he 
dares to come again, they are charged to 
shut the doors upon him. He leaves, raging 
at his reception : 

Hell and the Furies take this vile encounter ! 

The Parliament of Love. C'larindore gains 
access to the presence of Bellisant in spite of 
the fact that her woman (the supposed Cal- 
lista, but in reality Beaupre, Clarindore's 
wife) has been " charged not to admit a 
visitant." Immediately Bellisant approaches 
he makes violent love to her, and endeavours 
to force a kiss from her. She repels his ad- 
vances with contempt, and bids her servants 

. . . .thrust him headlong out of doors, and see 
He never more pass my threshold. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. s, wu. 

He leaves, bitterly reviling himself for his 
failure : 

all hell's furies light on the proverb 

That says " Faint heart." 

The Widow's Tears. Tharsalio endeavours 
to conceal his ill-success from Lysander, but 
finds that he has already got wind of it. 
" What, blanketed ? " exclaims Lysander. 
" O the Gods ! spurn'd out by grooms like 
a base Bisogno ? thrust out by th' head and 
shoulders ? " Both he and Cynthia his wife 
bait Tharsalio unmercifully, Cynthia sar- 
castically congratulating him upon the easy 
conquest he has made. " The whelp and 
all ! " exclaims the mortified Tharsalio, as 
Hylus, too, adds a gibe at his expense. 

He next goes to the pandress Arsace for 
assistance in his designs. She and her servant 
Tomasin have also heard the news, and they 
likewise jeer at him. Arsace asks the servant 
in his presence whether they had not already 
heard of the success of his suit : 

Arsace. Did not one of the Countess's serving- 
men tell us that this Gentleman was sped ? 

Tom. That he did, and how her honour grac't 
and entertained him in a very familiar manner. 

Atsace. And brought him downstairs herself. 

Tom. Ay, forsooth, and commanded her men 
to bear him out of doors. 

Arsace. Nay more, that he had already pos- 
sessed her sheets. 

Tom. No indeed, Mistress, 'twas her blankets. 

Tharsalio angrily kicks Tomasin out of the 

The Parliament of Love. -On Clarindore's 
return from his interview with Bellisant, his 
friends Novall and Perigot, hearing of his 
reception, resolve to make merry at his 
expense. On his entrance, melancholy and 
taciturn, Perigot mockingly suggests that his 
silence must be due to pride at his success, 
and No vail greets him with : 

We gratulate 

Though we pay for 't, your happy entrance to 
The certain favours, nay the sure possession 
Of madam Bellisant. 
Upon which Clarindore exclaims, aside : 

The young whelp too ! 

Amongst other sarcastic pleasantries Noval 
observes : 

I have heard that Bellisant was so taken with 
Your manly courage, that she straight preparec 

A sumptuous banquet. 

" Yet," interposes Perigot, 

his enemies 
Beport it was a blanket. 

" She show'd him her chamber too," says 
Novall ; and Perigot adds that, whilst she 
was doing so, 

Against her will, her most unmannerly grooms, 
'or so 'tis runiour'd, took him by the shoulders 
And thrust him out of doors. 

larindore, in a transport of rage, pulls the 
nose of one, kicks the o*her, and makes his i 

The Widow's Tears. Tharsalio gives Arsace 
a jewel to present to the Countess, and 
Arsace, thus provided, gains admittance to 
ler, and, as a means of arousing her interest 
n Tharsalio, tells her that he is a dangerous 
orofligate and of his reputation amongst | 
ourtesans. By bribing the ushers, who havfr ] 
jeen " charg'd to bar his entrance," Tharsalio 
again manages to obtain an interview with 
:he Countess. This time her anger at hUi 
joldness gradually gives place to admiration* 
She yields to his suit, and consents to marry I 

The Parliament of Love. Clarindore's first 
interview with Bellisant is contrived by 
giving Beaupre a purse as an inducement to) 
admit him. He instructs her always toj 
praise him to her mistress, and to tell her 
how many women are mad for his love ancD 
of his notorious reputation for profligacyj 
In spite of his first repulse, he seeks and] 
obtains a further interview with Bellisant. ^ 

On this occasion his passionate protestaJ 
tions of his affection, and of his deep repent-j 
ance for his previous outrageous behaviourj 
coupled with a threat to kill himself if sha 
refuses, induce her to surrender herself tq 
him, or rather to pretend to surrender, foi 
Massinger here introduces a fresh develop 
ment of his plot in the shape of a repetition 
of the ruse by means of which Shakespeare'i 
Helena reclaims her husband in ' All 's Wei 
that Ends Well.' H. DUGDAL.E SYKES. 



(See 11 S. vii. 221, 276, 375; viii. 121, 142. 

I THOUGHT I had finished with Smith, bu 
quite lately I have been lent a little volunn 
of the greatest interest to those who cai 
recollect the times literary, artistic, an< 
Bohemian it concerns itself with, namely 
about fifty ye r after 1837. In this I fim 
the following : 

" ' Cassell's History of England ' had jus 
commenced publication in weekly numben 
J. P. Smith, a very popular writer of fiction, ha< 
been contributing to The London Journal th 
' Lives of the Queens of England,' and probabl; 
for that reason he was engaged to write thl 
' History.' This was by no means a happ; r 
arrangement. Smith was not sufficiently indutfi 
trious to make any subject a study ; his eagernesfl 

11 S X. AUG. 8, 1914.] 



to describe dramatic situations was likely to 
carry him away from dry historical fact into the 
realms of fancy ; and a matter of more import- 
, ance from a printer's point of view his delivery 
of ' copy ' was uncertain. After a brief period, 
therefore, the work was placed in more com- 
petent hands, William Howitt having undertaken 
at a short notice to continue it." 

The title of the book in which I found this is 
" A Few Personal Recollections by an Old 
i Printer. London. Printed for Private Cir- 
culation. 1896." 

The author tells me that he knew Smith, 

and that he dyed his hair black. It certainly 

1 looks very black in his portrait. (See 

1 viii. 143, col. 2.) That he was somewhat 

' deaf may account for his apparent want of 

' sociability (see vii. 223) ; and that he was 

never overburdened with cash seems to give 

the keynote of his object in emigrating to 

the United States. 

Having been through The London Journal 
again, I observed two facts which had pre- 
viously escaped me. I notice that to 
'Stanfield Hall' (11 May, 1850) Smith 
puts " author of ' The Jesuit,' ' Robin 
Goodfellow,' &c.," and to the first chapter 
of ' The Will and the Way,' " author of 
' The Jesuit,' ' The Prelate,' &c." I have 
, not been able to find any novel with the title 
' Robin Goodfellow.' It may have been a 

Elay, but I find none with that title during 
mith's time in any of the lists, nor has your 
able contributor and all-round expert on the 
subject of actors and the stage, MB. WILLIAM 
DOUGLAS, any note of a play with that name 
in the years in question.* With the anony- 
mous novel simply entitled ' The Prelate ' 
I have been more fortunate, as I think I 
dearly identified it. In the Index to 
'The London Catalogue 1816-51,' at p. 126, 
I find ' The Prelate, a Tale of the Church.' 
! On referring to the ' Catalogue ' itself, I find 
" The Prelate, a Tale of the Church. By the 
Rev. S. Smith. 2 vols. 11. Is. Boone," 
publisher. 'The London Catalogue' gives 
no dates. 

On looking at ' The English Catalogue, 
lfe35-62, I cannot find the book at all, but 
the 'Index of Subjects, 1837-56,' p. 214, 

* Since this note was in type MR. DOUGLAS has 
directed my attention to the following from an old 
newspaper : 

"lu 18:30, while attached to the company of 
Smith, of the Norwich circuit, Miss Noel married 
Mr. Henry Marston, the bride being given away 
by the 'heavy man' of the troupe, who was the 
milliner's son Mr. J. F. Smith, subsequently 
author of 'Stanfield Hall.'" 

I am -liul to be able to add this, as it is sometLing 
in Smith's favour. 

has "The Prelate. By the Rev. C. S. 
Smith, &c. 1840." There was clearly some- 
thing wrong about the book, as it is not under 
C. S. Smith. The date enabled me to look 
for reviews. The Literary Gazette, I found, 
had no index ! The Athenceum, however, 
has an index, and by that I find a review on 
11 July, 1840, p. 554, which says : 

" It is impossible to speak of this fiction with- 
out adverting to the unworthy trick by which, in 
advertising it, an attempt was made to foist it 
on the public as a tale by the author of ' Peter 
Plymley's Letters.' ' The Prelate ' needed no 
such quackery." 

What I consider a further confirmation is 
that I find that most of the characters in 
' The Prelate ' have names the same as those 
used by Smith in The London Journal. This 
makes two novels identified, so that if 
another is found, Vizetelly's remark (11 S. 
vii. 221) may be justifiable. I have now 
come to the conclusion that the less we know 
of Smith's private life the better. 

I wish to ask your readers to erase the name 
of Stiff (viii. 122, par. 3), and substitute 
the name of the second proprietor of The 
London Journal W. S. Johnson. 

(To be continued.) 


(See 10 S. xi. 441 ; xii. 51, 114, 181, 401 j 
11 S. i. 282 ; ii. 42, 381 ; iii. 22, 222, 421 ; 
iv. 181, 361 ; v. 62, 143, 481 ; vi. 4, 284,. 
343 ; vii. 64, 144, 175, 263, 343, 442 ; viii. 
4, 82, 183, 285, 382, 444; ix. 65, 164, 
384, 464.) 

LOGIANS, &c. (continued). 


Kettering, Northants. On 22 July, 1909, 
a bronze plate, fixed to a stone setting, 
was unveiled in front of the house in w 1 ich 
the Baptist Missionary Society was in- 
augurated in 1792. The house is now 
owned by Mr. J. T. Stockburn J.P., who 
readily gave his consent. The plate was 
designed by Mr. R. J. Williams of Kettering, 
and was unveiled by the Rev. J. B. Myer*v 
Home Secretary of the Baptist Missionary 
Society. It bears the following inscription : 

In this house on October 2nd, 1792, a meeting 
was held to form a society for propagating the 
Gospel among the heathen, and 13Z. 2s. Qd. was 
contributed for that purpose. Andrew Fuller 
was elected Secretary, and Reynold Hogg, Trea- 
surer. William Carey, to whose sermon at 



Nottingham, in May of the same year, the move- 
ment was due, embarked for India on June 13th, 
1793. This meeting marks the founding of the 
Baptist Missionary Society, and the inauguration 
of modern Foreign Missions. 

On the lower part of the stonework is 
carved Carey's famous motto : " Expect 
great things from God : attempt great 
things for God." 

In the Carey Memorial Church, opened 
in October, 1912, is a stained-glass window 
containing a medallion portrait of Carey 
and the following inscription : 

William Carey, D.D. 
Born Paulerspury 1761. Died Serampore, Bengal, 


Founder of Modern Missions. 

A Northamptonshire Shoemaker, Baptist Pastor, 
First Missionary of the Baptist Missionary Society, 
Professor of Oriental Languages, Government 
Translator, and Author of many Versions of the 
Scriptures in Indian languages. 

Moulton, Northants. On the wall of the 
Baptist Chapel, at the back of the pulpit, 
is a marble tablet inscribed as follows : 

This Tablet 

is erected to the memory of 
Wm. Carey, D.D., 

who was 
the honoured founder of 

this place of worship, 

and who for four years was 

the devoted pastor of this church. 

He afterwards 
became the Evangelist of India, 

Professor of Sanscrit 

in the College of Fort William, 

and the Father of 

Modern Missions. 

lie died at Serampore, June 9th, 1834, 
aged 72 years. 

Leicester. On the wall beside the pulpit 
of Belvoir Street Baptist Chapel a tablet 
i? thus inscribed : 

In memory of 
the Rev. William Carey, D.D., 

who entered on his work 
as Pastor of this Church A.D. MDCCLXXXIX. 

and left his native country 

as a Missionary to India A.D. MDCCXCIII. 

where he rose to the highest eminence 

as an Oriental Scholar. 
Deroted to the ministry of the Gospel among the 


he was chiefly engaged 

in the translation of the Sacred Scriptures 

into the various dialects of the East ; 

and became Professor 
ot the Sanscrit, Bengali, and Mahratta languages. 

He was distinguished by elevated piety 
indomitable perseverance and disinterested bene- 

and having built for himself, 
by his vast attainments and great labours, 

a bright and imperishable monument, 
died at Serampore ix June MDCCCXXXIV. 

aged LXXIT years. 
" Attempt great things, expect great things." 

Paulerspury, Northants. In 1885 a brass 
plate was fixed inside the church porch. 
It is very near the head of the grave of 
Carey's father, and is thus inscribed : 

To the Glory of God 

and in 
Memory of Dr. Wm. Carey, 

Missionary and Orientalist, 

who was born at Paul -rspury, Aug. 17th, 17C1, 
and died at Serampore, India, 

June 9th, 1834. 

The remains of his father Edmund Carey 
lie near this spot. 

The headstone on Edmund Carey's grave 
was renovated at the same time and the 
inscription recut. The whole work was 
executed at the cost of Mr. E. S. Robinson 
of Bristol. 

Hackleton, Northants. The Baptist 
Chapel was rebuilt in 1887 as a memorial 
to Dr. Carey. A tablet on the front of the 
building is thus inscribed : 

This Chapel was built to the glory of God in 
memory of Dr. Carey, the Father of Modern Mis- 
sions to the heathen, and one of the Founders and 
the first Missionary of the Baptist Missionary 
Society. He toiled as a shoemaker, was con- 
verted to God, and preached his first sermon in 
this Village. 

A Baptist Church existed at Hackleton so 
far back as 1781, and its 133rd anniversary 
was celebrated in May last. 

Calcutta, India. In 1842, eight years 
after the death of Carey, the Agricultural 
and Horticultural Society of India decided 
by resolution to place 

" a marble bust to his memory in the Society's 
new apartments at the Metcalfe Hall, there to 
remain a lasting testimony to the pure and dis- 
interested zeal and labours of so illustrious a 

The bust was duly sculptured by Lough, and 
shows forth to this day " the veneration in 
which the name of the illustrious founder of 
the Society is held." 

Serampore, India. Dr. Carey's remains 
were interred in the Baptist Mission burial- 
ground. His grave is marked by a plain 
slab of stone, bearing merely his name and 
the dates of his birth and death. At the 
head of the grave is a large square memorial 
surmounted by a dome supported by four 
pillars. This monument commemorates 
Carey's three successive wives, and also 
contains the following laconic inscription 
to his own memory, placed there in accord- 
ance with the instructions given in his 
will : 

William Carey. 
Born August 17, 1761, 

Died June 9, 183). I 

" A wre';ched, poor, and helpless worm, 
On Thy kind arms I fall." 

11 S. X. AUG. 8, 1914.] 




Godalming. In front of the chapel of the 
Charterhouse School is placed a statue ol 
Canon Haig Brown. It was set up by the 
subscriptions of past and present Carthusian.* 
during the Canon's lifetime. The beloved 
head master is represented seated c'ad in his 
academic gown, and holding in his right hand 
a small model of the school chapel. The 
pedestal contains the following inscription : 

William Haig Brown 
Head master 1864-1897. 
Sapientia aedificabitur 

et prudentia roborabitur. 


Long Itchington, Warwickshire. 

(To be continued.) 


(See 11 S. vi. 221, 263, 301, 463 ; vii. 4, 33, 
45, 84, 123, 163 ; viii. 430, 461.) 

THE post -Rest oration satires about Peters 
have^ been the subject of much hostile 
comment, a great deal of which is justified ; 
but the hitherto received inference, that 
they were uniformly the work of Peters's 
enemies, is erroneous. With the exception 
of satirical ballads, they were all the work of 
Peters's quondam supporters, and were 
published partly in order to prove a loyalty 
that was more than doubtful ; and, in one 
case at least, to divert the attention of those 
sent to search for the fraudulent ' Speeches 
and Prayers ' and other seditious tracts which 
the same publishers were secretly dispersing 
to another class of customer. 

The most important of these satirical 
books is the ' Tales and Jests of Mr. Hugh 
I't-triN,' a copy of the first edition of which 
is in the Dyce and Forster Library at South 
Kensington Museum. The title-page of this 
edition runs : 

" The Tales and Jests of Mr. Hugh Peters. 
Collected into one volume. Published by one 
that hath formerly been conversant with the 
author in his life time, and dedicated to Mr. John 
Goodwin and Phillip Nye. Together with his 
sentence and the manner of his execution. Lon- 
don. Piinted for S. D., and are to be sold by 
most of the booksellers in London. 1660." 

^dication is also initialled " S. D." 

Tho hook contains 59 tales, and consists of 

- ]']>. .Many of the tales have been taken 

haphazard from Royalist Mercuries and 

satires, and all are most inaccurately told. 

The rest consist of mere gossip, but I do not 
think there is one in the book that can be 
traced to any ancient jest-book. In later 
editions of this book (' Mr. Peters, his 
Figaryes,' &c.) ' Scoggin's Jests' and other 
outside sources were freely drawn upon in 
order to increase the number of tales, with 
the result that the book became even more 

" S. D." was the Simon Dover of ' Speeches 
and Prayers ' fame, and it is tolerably clear 
that the book was published by him in 
order to divert attention from himself as the 
printer of that fraud. 

In like manner George Horton, the pub- 
lisher of the various Anabaptist " Scouts ' 
which attacked Cromwell, issued on 2 Sept. 
1660, ' The Speech and Confession of Hugh 
Peters,' &c., and many similar tracts of the 
same class. This contained the first bio- 
graphy of Peters, and was merely abusive 
fiction from end to end. 

There are at South Kensington two 
portraits of Peters which I believe to be 
unique. The first is prefixed to but no 
part of the Dyce and Forster copy of the 
' Speeches and Prayers,' and is a half- 
length engraving of Peters, clad on one side 
in full armour, in reference to his share in 
the Irish massacres, and on the other in a 
gown, as a preacher. He carries a standard 
with " L. L. L." on it (Lords, Lawyers, and 
Levites the three classes he would have 
had destroyed). The following inscription 
is underneath : 

" Magister Hugo Peters, Clericus, Olivero 
Cromwellio a consiliis tarn Ecclesiasticis quam 
civilibus intimis, religionis et Ecclesise Anglicanre 
persecutor, Caroli I. Regis Proditpr, Anabap- 
bistarum, Quackerorum, Tndependentium, Chilias- 
tarum, eorumdeniq. dogmatum patronus. Vir 
Insignis Malitise et Atheus." 
The probable date is 1660. It may be 
Dutch. There is another engraving in the 
same volume depicting Peters presenting 
some Dutch petitioners to Thurloe. 

The same volume also contains (among all 
other and better-known satirical portraits) a 
small half-length engraving of Peters, with 
the printer's name " Peter Cole " at $ the 
Foot, and the legend '"^Et. 57.' This, 
therefore, seems to have been published 
n 1656, and may have been prefixed to- 
;he " recantation " Peters was said to be 
about to publish with regard to the scanda- 
lous events of that year. It is the original 
of the engraving of Peters prefixed to the 
'Dying Father's Legacy' in 1660, on which 
the legend runs : " JEt&tis suae 61." I 
believe this copy (which is accompanied 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. A, s, 

by the later prints) has not before been 
no iced. 

The Cambridge portrait of Peters was 
reproduced recently by Dr. John Willcock 
in his ' Sir Henry Vane the Younger.' 


B -TE," " CORRECT." The ' N.E.D.' gives 
1^83 as the earliest instance of the word 
distribute with reference to distribution of 
t T -pe. 'See Cyril Tourneur's ' Funerall 
Poeme ' on Sir Fra. Vere, 1609, c. iv. : 

That, when the thunder of a hotte Alarme 
Hath cald him sodainly from sleepe to arme, 
Vpon the instant of his leaking, hee 
Did with such life, and quicke dexleritie, 
His troupes direct, the seruice execute, 
As practis'd Printers Sett and Distribute 
Their Letters : And more perfectly effected, 
For what he did was not to be corrected. 

I have ventured to amend the faulty punc- 
tu ition ; otherwise, the copy follows the 

fo' lowing late testimony to the popularity of 
th -} ballad of ' Chevy Chase ' has, perhaps, 
not yet been noticed. In 

<: A Scourge for Paper- Persecutors, or Papers 
Co'iiplaint, compil'd in ruthfull Rimes. Against the 
Pa^er-spoylers of these Times, by I[ohn]. D[avies]. 
With A Continued Inquisition against Paper- 
Persecutors. By A. H. Printed at London for 
H. H. and G. G. and are to be sold at the Flower 
Deluce in Popes-head Alley, 1624," quarto (Bodl. 
Malone 296), 

occur these lines at verse 67 of the ' Con- 
tinued Inquisition ' : 
As in North- Villages, where every line 
Of Plumpton Parke is held a worke divine. 
If o're the Chymney they some Ballads have 
Of Chevy-Chase, or of some branded slave 
Hang'd at Tyborne, they their Mattins make it, 
And Vespers too, and for the Bible take it. 

The ' Continued Inquisition ' is ascribed by 
Wood ('Fasti,' ed. Bliss, i. 245) to Abraham 
Hartwell. H. SELLERS. 



II S. v. 18, 136. ) A couple of years ago there 
was a discussion in ' N. & Q.' on this subject. 
Perhaps this cutting from a Western paper, 
The Edmonton Journal, may be of interest. 
It relates to a Saskatchewan murder case. 
Whether the law in the Austrian province 
of Galicia is as alleged I cannot say, but 
here is a twentieth-century illustration of 
the belief : 

" PRINCE ALBERT, June 24. A double execu- 
tion will take place here on Thursday, July 16, 
if the sentence of death passed upon Anton 

Drewnick and John Peter Hanson some time ago 
is carried out. So far no intimation has been 
received here of a commutation of sentence in 
either case. 

" Drewnick, who is 20 years of age, also was 
sentenced to die for the murder of a compatriot 
on the railway at Peterson last winter. A pathetic 
incident connected with his incarceration occurred 
when the condemned man's sister, who resides 
in another part of the province, came to see him 
at the jail here and requested that he be given 
his freedom, as she had found him a wife. It 
seems that it is the custom in their native Galicia 
that if a man under sentence of death can obtain 
a wife he can also obtain his freedom. Drewnick's 
sister apparently complied with the letter of the 
law as it obtains in her own home land, and brought 
the news here that she had been successful in 
securing a woman who had consented to become 
the wife of her brother. Naturally, she was 
shocked upon arrival to learn that the custom of 
her native country did not extend to the Dominion. 

" No petition has yet been circulated for 
Drewnick's reprieve, although an application for 
clemency has been forwarded to the minister of 
justice, according to C. E. Gregory, K.C., who 
defended the condemned man at his trial at Hum- 
boldt. So far no reply has been received in the 


Edmonton, Alberta. 

" HUCKLEBERRY." The ' N.E.D.' ascribes 
this word to the United States. It sejems, 
nevertheless, to be of English origin, as 
shown by the following passage from Cham- 
berlayne's ' Present State of Great Britain ' : 

" Here is great Plenty of excellent Fruit. 
Fields, Woods, and Hedges are stored with Apples, 

Pears Blackberries, Huccleberries, Dewberries, 

Elderberries, Services, and the like." 

My copy is the 22nd ed., 1708, biit doubtless 
the passage is in earlier editions. The fruit 
intended is that of Vaccinium myrtillus, the 
bilberry or whortleberry. If, as is con- 
jectured, " huckleberry " is a corruption of 
" whortleberry," it seems that we cannot 
ascribe the corruption to America. 

J. S. 

Prof. Arber in his reprint of the Term Cata- 
logues from 1668 to 1711 has called atten- 
tion to their importance as an index to the 
life and thought of the period. This im- 
portance is fully shared by the Monthly 
Catalogue which Bernard Lintott began to 
publish in May, 1714. The only copies 
known to Messrs. Growoll and Eames when 
they published their ' Three Centuries of 
English Book-Trade Bibliography ' in 1903 
were the first eight parts represented in the 
British Museum. The periodical, however, 
continued to appear for at least three years 
more. The London Library possesses the 

11 S. X. ACG. 8, 1914.] 



first three years to April, 1717. The 
Reform Club Library has a copy containing 
the numbers for May, June, September, and 
October, 1717, but wanting those for Janu- 
ary, February, July, and August, 1717. 
This copy has a title-page which runs : 

' A | catalogue j of all | books, | sermons, | and | 
pamphlets, | publish'd in May 1714, | and in every 
month to this time. j| To be continued monthly. [ 
: Price 3d. each month. || London : | Printed for 
Bernard Lintott, | between the Temple -Gates in 

There is no date. With vol. ii., Nos. 6 
and 7 (Oct.-Nov., 1715), two numbers began 
to appear together, the price being Qd. , with 
| the exception of the number for September- 
October, 1716, when it was 4d. It would be 
interesting to laam whether other copies of 
the later numbers are in existence. 
*.> E. G. T. 

AND "SAMOUPRAVA." It maybe desirable 
at the present moment to record and inter- 
pret the sense and signification of two 
Servian terms now frequently met with in 
our daily newspapers, viz.: (1) " Narodna 
Obrana," i.e. National Defence ; (2) " Samou- 
prava," i.e. Autonomy, or Home Rule. 
(Observe: "Obrana," not "Okrana," as 
now and then misprinted.) H. KREBS. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

daw of Rheims ' is still sufficiently popular to 
make its pedigree of some general interest. 
In a letter dated 29 April, 1837, Mr. Barham 
says : 

" I have no time to do more for this number [.of 
Bentley's Miscellany] than scratch off a doggerel 
version of an old Catholic legend that J picked up 
out of a High Dutch author." 

That the original of his poem is of a very 
respectable age there is no doubt, as the 
story, wanting in no material detail " fluere 
ah alis sponte remiges plumae " and " itur 
in nidum Interque paleas sordidatus elucet 
Tandem repertus Annulus " is to be found 
in ' Pia Hilaria R. P. Angelini Gazaei e 
Societate Jesu a Trebatis,' of which I have 
a copy of the second edition, issued by the 
Plantin Press in 1629. The title of this 
Latin metrical version (pp. 725) is ' Coruus 
ob furtum occultum anathemate percussus 
contebescit ; solutus deinde reuiuiscit. Ex 

lib. de Viris illust. Ord. Cistert.' I should be 
very glad if any of your readers could furnish 
the references to a still earlier version of this 
well-known Ingoldsby legend, which seems to 
be associated with the annals of the Cister- 
cian Order. D. A. CRUSE, Librarian. 
Leeds Library, Commercial Street, Leeds. 

[W. E. A. A(XON) referred to Angelinas Gazseus 
at 5 S. i. 516. Other parallels are mentioned at 
4S. i. 577; ii. 21.] 

NANCE. The ' Liber Custumarum ' (Rolls 
Series, i. 121 et seq.) contains some ordi- 
nances agreed upon by the civic authorities 
and the representatives of the cloth-working 
gilds in London in 1298. Among them is 
one forbidding, under pain of a fine, " qe 
nul teynturer qe teynt burnetz blus, et 
autres manere de colours, ne teygne blecche 
ne taune." It appears from this ordinance 
that " burnet " had become the name of a par- 
ticular kind of cloth, not necessarily of a 
brown colour. " Blecche " may be either a 
corruption of " black," or may be " bleach," 
i.e., white (see ' O.E.D.,' s.v. ' Bleche '). 
' O.E.D.,' s.v. ' Burnet,' quotes " blak 
bornet," c. 1325. Can any reader suggest 
what was the gravamen of the abuse which 
this ordinance was passed to prevent ? 

G. R. Y. R. 

According to Miss Hannah Brand, Sir 
William stated somewhere that Huniades 
" was one of the three worthies who de- 
served a crown without wearing one " 
(' Huniades ; or, The Siege of Belgrade,' 
Norwich, 1798). Could some kind reader 
supply the exa^t reference in Sir William's 
writings ? L. L. K. 

told that there are, or were, families named 
Bombay. For any instances I should be 
greatly obliged. J. A. ALBRECHT. 

CHANGE, STRAND. Will some reader kindly 
inform me how long this additional attraction 
to Exeter Change existed ? It was only a 
winter house, and I have records of it during 
1777 and 1778. There were box and pit 
seats, at three and two shillings respectively ; 
and the entertainment, although largely 
musical, included in season a pantomime. 
Presumably, it was situated in the large 
supper room of the Change. Were any play- 
bills issued ? I cannot trace any in the 
Lysons Collectanea at the B.M. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. s, m*. 

a time when hissing and clapping the hands 
we iv both equally signs of disapprobation ? 
If so, what was the date ? The Romans, 
I believe, made clapping a plaitdite ; but 
Job, in his parable to his three friends and 
counsellors, says of the rich and wicked 
man : " Men shall clap their hands at him, 
and shall hiss him out of his place." 

It is quite evident that here both actions 
signify the same emotion. A writer of the 
sixteenth century, whose thoughts were 
possibly coloured by this Biblical quotation, 
also wrote : 

Men shall pursue with merited disgrace, 

Hiss, clap their hands, and from his country chase. 

It would be interesting to learn when the 
significance of these two actions diverged. 


BYBONIANA. Who wrote ' Gordon, a 
Tale : a Poetical Review of Don Juan,' 
London, printed (by J. G. Barnard, 57, 
Skinner Street) for T. & J. Allman, 
Prince's Street, Hanover Square, 1821, 8vo, 
pp. 79 ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

123, Pall Mall, S.W. 

Among the Jesuits that were hunted down 
in the early seventeenth century, is any one 
known to have hidden in a lady's bedroom, 
which the officers modestly would not 
search ? B ON A. F. BOURGEOIS. 

G. QUINTON, 1801-3. Was he a water- 
colour artist ? or did he execute aquatints ? 
I have some very curious pictures of Bury 
St. Edmunds signed by him. 

E. E. COPE. 

Finchampstead Place, Berkshire. 

OLD ETONIANS. I shall be grateful for 
information regarding any of the following: 
(1) Chute, Thomas Wiggett, admitted 3 May, 
1763, left 1769. (2) Clarke, George, ad- 
mitted 28 June, 1755, left 1758. (3) Clive, 
William, admitted 1 Sept., 1760, left 1761. 
(4) Clough, Edward, of Llanowell, Denbigh, 
admitted 1751, left 1756. (5) Collier, Charles, 
admitted 18 Jan., 1762, left 1772. (6) Colt- 
hurst, William, admitted 18 April, 1763, left 
1770. (7) Constant, Wilhelm, admitted 
5 June, 1760, left 1764. (8) Conyers, Henry 
John, of Copt Hall, Essex, admitted 1784, 
left 1797. (9) Cook, George, admitted 
28 Feb., 1757, left 1763. (10) Cook, William, 
of Eton, admitted 1753, left 1765. (ll)Cooke, 
Thomas, admitted 15 Jan., 1761, left 1765. 
(12) Cooper, George, admitted 24 Julv, 1754, 
left 1756., E. A. A.-L. 

meeting of the Corporation of Harvard 
College held 6 April, 1741, it was voted : 

" That the Pres jt be desir'd to give the Thanka 
of the Corporation to Henry Newman of London 
Esq r , for the Information he gives us by D r Colman, 
of some Prospect there is, of our obtaining a part 
of the Library of S r Richard Eyles Bar. which he is 
about to bestow upon Dissenters, & pray him to 
continue his good Offices to the College, & par- 
ticularly in that Affair." 

Henry Newman, who graduated from 
Harvard in 1687, had settled in London ; 
while the Rev. Benjamin Colman, who 
graduated from Harvard in 1692, was a 
Boston clergyman. But w r ho was " Sir 
Richard Eyles, Bar." ? According to 
G. E. C.'s ' Complete Baronetage,' v. 22, 
Francis Eyles was created a baronet 1 Dec., 
1714, died in 1716, and was succeeded by his 
son Sir John Eyles, who died in 1745. 
Presumably, therefore, " Sir Richard 
Eyles " was a mistake for Sir John Eyles. 
Can any one give me information in regard 
to Sir John Eyles's library ? 


Boston, U.S. 

an unpublished letter to Horace Walpole, 
dated 10 August, 1757, Gray writes : " li 
you see Garrick, do not fail to make him tell 
you the story of ' Bull and Poker.' ' < 'an 
any reader of ' N. & Q.' inform me whether 
this story has anywhere been recorded ? 

2. OLDBOY : ARTEMISLI. In what plays 
are these characters ? 

Fiveways, Burnham, Bucks. 

mon superstition in the West of England 
that if two people are talking about a third 
person the ears of the latter will burn : " The 
right ear for rag, the left ear for brag." 
But I have just heard an interesting addi- 
tion to this superstition. It is to the effect 
that if the owner of the ear which is burning 
pinches that organ, the person who is the 
cause of the burning will at once bite his (or 
her) tongue. Is this addition peculiar to 
Devonshire ? W. G. WILLIS WATSON* 


POWER FAMILY. Can any reader inform) 
me where a pedigree of the Power family o| 
Clonmult, co. Cork, can be seen ? also what 
connexion (if any) there is between them 
and the Waterford or Clashmore Powers ll 
Where may I find details as to the murder of! 
John Power, of Benvoy, Waterford, on 7 Mayy 
1809? J. J. PIPER. 

Cintra Park, Upper Norwood, S.E. 

11 S. X. AUG. 8, 1914.]" 


TABLECLOTH. I have in my possession a 
large damask tablecloth which was used at 
the banquet given in the City to celebrate 
the close of the Crimean War. 

It has woven thereon the portraits of the 
generals, Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and 
Florence Nightingale, the flags and trophies, 
and the names of the battles of the war. 
It was made by Messrs. W. Dewar, Son & 
Sons, Dunfermline and London. Some par- 
ticulars of the banquet were published at 
the time, but I am unable to trace them in 
the press ; neither can I trace the manu- 
facturers, who might be able to give me some 
information. Could any of your readers 
help me in this direction ? 

28, Gore Road, Victoria Park. 

MEDALLIO LEGENDS. (See ante, pp. 28, 
48, 68, 89.) 

108. Regit imperiis et fulmine. 

109. Regum mensis arisque deorum. 

110. Reddit et auget. 

111. Redit idem. 

112. Respondent intima quanto. 

113. Servat terretque vicissim. 

114. Servat mens cauta futuri. 

115. Sua cuique ministrat. 

116. Servat vigilantia regna. 

117. Sub sole sub umbra virens. 

118. Semper metit qui non evellit. 

119. Sua circuit orbe fama. 
12d. Slat mutuis viribus. 

121. Societatis bene unitse. 

122. Soles paritura serenos. 

123. Secura duabus [ancoris]. 

124. Securius bellum pace dubia. 

125. Spes super est sola spes ultimuru soiamen. 

126. Sub hoc clypeo. 

127. Sors omnis bene credita forti cst. 

128. Surgetque faventibus undis. 

120. Subditis clemens. 

130. Spes altera vitee. 

131. Solatur conscientia et finis. 

132. Themis cum pace resurgit. 

133. Tot sedes unica firmat. 
131. Tercet dum torret. 
135. Territat et laesus. 
.13(5. Te toto orbe sequemur. 

137. Tempore et loco. 

138. Tantum calcaribus opus. 

139. Unicus est specie. 
lln. Ut prosit et ornet. 

141. Vincet dum protegit aras. 

142. Vigili custode fugantur. 

143. Victorias praemium libertas. 
141. Vis imperio secura benigno. 


familiar to Dickens, is now closed, and 
scheduled for demolition. Any particulars 
of its history will be welcome. 


DR. ALLEN, OB. 1579. One Dr. Allen, a 
priest, landed at Bilbao with James Fitz- 
maurice Fitzgibbon in August, 1578, having 
sailed with him from Brittany, and went with 
him to Madrid. 

On 2 Feb., 1579, Dr. Nicholas Sander wrote 
to the Cardinal of Como, Tolomeo Galli, the 
Papal Secretary of State : 

" There is no need for me to commend further 
Dr. Alan. He can safely be entrusted with the 
very highest duties, and I should like him to be 
joined as colleague to any Legate, who may be 

appointed This would give satisfaction to the 

English, who are more likely to resort to an 

See Bellesheim, ' Geschichte der Kathol- 
ischen Kirche,' &c., ii. 708. It is, however, 
by no means certain that Sander is refer- 
ring to this Dr. Allen, and not to his friend 
the famous Dr. William Allen, afterwards 

Dr. Allen sailed with Fitzmaurice, Sander, 
and others from Ferrol, 20 June, 1579, and 
landed with them in Dingle Harbour (or 
possibly in Ferriter's Cove), co. Kerry, 
18 July. He was slain in the skirmish of 
Monasteranenagh, 3 Oct., 1579. 

John Hooker alias Vowell in ' The Chro- 
nicles of Ireland,' forming part of his 1587 
edition of ' Holinshed's Chronicles,' at p. 159 
says : 

" This doctor Allen was an Irisheman borne 

and devoted himselfe a professed Jesuit to the 
Romish anti-christ, and an open traitor unto his 
lawful prince " ; 

and at p. 154 : 

"James Fitzmoris during his being in Rome, he 
fell acquainted with doctor Sanders, an English 
Jesuit, and doctor Allen, an Irish Jesuit." 
Hooker is certainly wrong in saying that 
Sander was a Jesuit, and that Sander and 
Fitzmaurice were ever in Rome together. 
Perhaps he is also wrong in saying that Dr. 
Allen was an Irishman and a Jesuit. Cam- 
den, Thomas Leland, W. E. Flaherty, and 
others have followed Hooker in calling Dr. 
Allen an Irish Jesuit, but Froude says he was 
an English Jesuit, and Mr. Bagwell also 
thinks he was English. Was he a Jesuit ? 
Was he English or Irish ? He was certainly 
not the Irish student in Paris named Thomas 
Alan, whose name occurs in a list printed by 
Bellesheim (op. cit., ii. 718), because this list 
was sent from Paris by Monsignor Anselmo 
Dandini to Cardinal Galli on 12 Sept., 1579, 
at which date Dr. Allen had been absent 
from France more than a year, and was 
already in Ireland. 

What was Dr. Allen's Christian name ? 
Mackenzie Walcott, in his ' William of Wyke- 
ham and his Colleges,' speaking of Sander, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. s, 

says, at p. 400 (but without citing any 
authority), that he died in Ireland " while 
serving with Robert Allen." It would seem 
most probable that Sander died in April, 
1581, thus surviving Dr. Allen a year and a 
half. So Mackenzie Walcott's statement is 
clearly erroneous ; but perhaps he had 
authority for calling Dr. Allen Robert. One 
Robert Allen took the degree of B.A. at 
Oxford, 15 June, 1 44 ; and one Robert Alyn 
matriculated at Cambridge from St. John's 
College in 1556. 

One Roger Allen took the degree of M.A. 
at Oxford, 13 July, 1554; and a priest of this 
name is said in the ' Concertatio Ecclesise ' 
to have died in Chile before 1588. 

If Dr. Allen was an Englishman, I am in- 
clined to think it probable that his Chris- 
tian name was Ralph, and that h~> is to be 
identified with the Ralph Allen who took 
the degree of M.A. from Brasenose College, 
Oxford. 14 Feb., 1564/5, and arrived at 
the English College at Douay in 1572, as a 
priest of this name is said in the ' Concer- 
tatio ' to have died in exile before 1588, and 
Dr. Allen is always treated as though he 
were junior to Sander. Where was Ralph 
Allen ordaii ^d ? Whence did Dr. Allen 
obtain his degree ? 


FENWICK. I have read somewhere that 
the Sir John Fen wick, Bart., who was be- 
headed 28 Jan., 1697, and buried the same 
day at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, London, 
left an illegitimate son, who, on the death of 
Mary Fenwick, the widow of Sir John, was 
taken by Sir William Blackett and put to sea. 
If any reader can corroborate the statement 
and inform me where the same is recorded, 
I shall be grateful. R. C. BOSTOCK. 

been shown a curiously carved wool-gathering 
stick, with an iron hook at the end, from 
Sixhills, Lincolnshire. A friend of mine 
tells me also that he once heard wool- 
gathering sticks casually mentioned in the 
railway station at Doncaster. I should be 
glad of further information about them. 

M. P. 


I am anxious to obtain information about 
the following Old Westminsters : (1) Henry 
Chester, admitted 1751, aged 12. (2) Wil- 
liam Bromley Chester, M.P. for Gloucester- 
shire, who died 12 Dec., 1780. (3) Jacob 
Chevet, admitted 1716, aged 11. (4) John 
Child, admitted 1721, aged S. (5) Richard 
Child, admitted 1720, aged 8. (6) Thomas 

Child, admitted 1717, aged 11. (7) Abra- 
ham Chitty, at school 1689. (8) Richard 
Church, admitted 1777. (9) Bartholomew 
Churchill, born March 29, 1809, admitted 
1817. (10) Charles Churchill, admitted 1730, 
aged 9. (11) John Churchill, admitted 1745, 
aged 10. (12) Robert Churchill, admitted 
1720, aged 10. G. F. R. B. 

THOMAS LEGETT of Beccles, in the county 
of Suffolk, clockmaker, worked about the 
middle or the third quarter of the eighteenth 
century. Information concerning him or his 
work will be gratefully received by 


7, Roland Gardens, S.W. 

JOSEPH CARNE, F.R.S. Where may I find 
a portrait of this Cornish worthy, one of the 
founders of the Royal Geological Society of 
Cornwall, a society that this year has cele- 
brated its centenary? J. H. R. 

(11 S. x. 29, 75.) 

THE earliest history of paper-hangings occurs 
in Beckmann's ' History of Inventions and 
Discoveries,' dated 1797. 

In the year 1692 the first patent for paper- 
hangings was obtained by William Bayly 
(see 11 S. i. 268, 350). The date of this 
patent seems to fix the exact time when the 
manufacture of paper-hangings began in 
England. With the production of suitable 
paper, the demand for such a cheap form of 
decoration, no doubt, rapidly increased, for 
in 1712, in the reign of Queen Anne, the 
manufacture attracted the attention of the 
Government, and a duty was imposed. 

In 1753 Edward Deighton obtained a 
patent for 

" an entire new method of manufacturing Paper for 
Hanging and Ornamenting of Rooms, and other 

purposes, and the same will be of great use 

and benefit to the public." 

In 1754 a manufacturer of paper-hangings 
at Battersea, named Jackson, published a 
work on the invention of printing in chiaros- 
curo. From Jackson's account it is evident 
that paper-hangings were then in general 
use, though they were doubtless rather 
expensive, and to be found principally in the 
houses of the wealthy, and places of public 
resort. At this period English paper-hang- 
ings are said to have been much superior 
to those of the French, with regard to both 

11 S. X. AUG. 8, 19U.] 



execution and beauty of design. In an old 
work entitled ' The Handmaid of the Arts,' 
printed for J. Nourse in 1764, there is a very 
minute description of the manufacture of 
paper-hangings, from which it is evident that 
the trade mi-it have flourished for a long 
period. In 1793 Francis F. Eckhardt took 
out a patent styled an 

" invention and method of preparing and printing 
paper in different patterns, and to silver it over 
with fine silver leaves, so as to resemble damask 
lace, and various silk stuffs, to be used for hangings 
and other furniture of rooms." 

Gold is mentioned in another patent taken 
out by Eckhardt in the following year. The 
so-called gold used for paper-hangings was 
the invention of John Hantsch of Nurem- 
berg, who died in 1670, and is a preparation 
of tin. Other metals treated in a similar 
manner produce various metallic colours. 
Eckhardt's establishment must have been a 
large concern, for artists of considerable 
talent Boileau, Fouglet, Joinot, and Jones 
were retained for finishing the designs by 
hand, while more than fifty young girls 
completed the less important parts. 

The earliest specimens of paper - hangings 
that have attracted attention are those 
hung on some of the picture galleries at 
Hampton Court Palace. The paper-hang- 
ings in King William III.'s bedroom 
and other rooms, are all composed of long 
single pieces, not of small sheets fastened 
together. As paper of that length could not 
be made before the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, and was not in use much 
before 1830, they cannot be very old. It 
was in 1799 that a French operative, Louis 
Robert, made the first attempt to produce 
paper in an endless length. The invention 
was purchased by Leger Didot, and a rela- 
tion of his in England, John Gamble, 
obtained patents for it in 1801 and 1803. 
In 1805 Joseph Bramah obtained a patent 
" for making paper in endless sheets." This 
great improvement was the result of the 
continuous efforts of Messrs. Fourdrinier of 
London in perfecting the paper -making 
machine, before which all paper was made 
by hand. On the repeal of the duty in 1836 
paper-hangings came into general use. 

A paper was read in 1839 on ' The History 
and Manufacture of Paper-Hangings,' by 
John Gregory Grace, before the Royal 
Institute of British Architects. It was pub- 
lished in The Civil Engineer and Architect's 
Journal for 1839; but the original MS., 
preserved in the library of the Institute, 
contains some unpublished information. 
The author did not succeed in tracing the 

history of paper-hangings to its beginning 
in England ; but he was more fortunate with 
regard to the early use of such kinds of 
decoration in France. The trade in that 
country appears to have existed so early as 
the middle of the sixteenth century, though 
associated with the manufacture of other 
kinds of paper, such as marble paper used by 
bookbinders ; the makers were called Domi- 
notiers. These details J. G. Grace quotes 
from the ' Dictionnaire de Commerce' by 
Savary, printed in Paris, 1723, v. ' Domino - 

It may be observed here that as plain 
paper was made in France before its inven- 
tion in England, it is probable that paper- 
hangings may also have been adopted earlier. 

The ' Manuel du fabric ant de Papiers 
Peints,' by L. S6b. Le Normand, published 
in Paris, 1830, says : 

" The art of manufacturing paper - hangings came 
from China, where from time immemorial this in- 
dustrious people painted on fine paper designs 
imitating painted cloth. The first specimens of 
this kind were imported into England ; we soon 
received them in France, and our artists endea- 
voured to imitate them." 

Paper-hangings imported from China are 
said to have been frequently used in the 
reign of Queen Anne, but there is little reason 
to suppose that these Chinese paper-hangings 
originated the idea of the manufacture in 
England, though they may have given some 
additional impetus to a more extensive use 
of such hangings. TOM JONES. 

The walls of the drawing-room at Rose 
Castle, the residence of the Bishop of Car- 
lisle, are covered with an early wall-paper 
said to be 150 years old of, if I remember 
rightly, a rich design of scrolls and birds. 
One at least of the rooms in Lumley Castle, 
co. Durham, used to be covered with an old 
wall-paper of simple pattern. R. B K. 

HEART-BURIAL (US. viii. 289, 336, 352, 
391, 432, 493 ; ix. 38, 92, 234, 275. 375, 398, 
473; x. 35, 77). 

Upon the Tombe of the Heart of Henry the third, 
late King of France, slaine by a Jacobin Fryer, 

Whether thy choyce or chance, thee hither brings ; 
Stay Passenger, and waile the hap of Kings. 
This little stone a great King's heart doth hold, 
That rul'd the fickle French, and Polacks bold, 
Whom with a mighty warlike host attended 
With trayterous knife, a cowled monster ended. 
So frayle are even the highest earthly things, 
Goe passenger and wayle the fate of Kings. 
i Camden's 'Remaines concerning Britaine,' 
1637, p. 400. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. s, 1914. 

LESCELINE DE VERDON (11 S. viii. 371 ; 
ix. 130. 255, 330, 391 ; x. 54). MB. GOD- 
DARD H. ORPEN has again made me his 
debtor by kindly giving, in his communica- 
tion at the last of the above references, 
some further interesting details in reply to 
the inquiries I ventured to address to him 
at 11 S. ix. 391. 

1. With reference to Hugh, Earl of 
Ulster, having been Justiciar of Ireland in 
1189-90, I have never yet discovered the 
authority for the statement. Certainly Gil- 
bert in his ' Viceroys of Ireland ' (pp. 55, 
59, 65) speaks of him as Viceroy of Ireland 
in those years, and again in 1203 and 1205, 
and "Viceroy" may be deemed synonymous 
with Justiciar of Ireland ; but the writer of 
the article on Hugh in ' D.N.B.,' xxxi. 377, 
asserts that Gilbert was mistaken, because 
ths records show that John de Courci and 
Meiler Fitz-Henry held office uninterruptedly. 
In the absence, therefore, of any other reli- 
able authority, MR. GODDARD H. ORPEN'S 
rejection of the statement would appear to 
be fully justified. 

As regards the Gilbert de Laci who was 
Governor of Winchester Castle being iden- 
tical with the Gilbert de Laci, presumably a 
half-brother to Walter and Hugh (for that 
the said Gilbert was not the issue of Hugh 
the elder by his first wife, Rohesia or Rose 
de Momonia, is clearly shown in the pedigree 
as submitted to the House of Lords in 1835, 
on the claim to the Irish barony of Slane, 
where Walter and Hugh are the only issue 
assigned of this marriage [Banks, ' Baronies 
in Fee,' i. 221 ; cf. also Banks, ' Dormant 
and Extinct Baronage,' i. 104 ; and Burke, 
' Extinct Peerage,' 1840 ed., p. 300]), I much 
regret that I am not in a position to offer 
any evidence, but I hope MR. ST. GLAIR 
BADDELEY may reply to MR. GODDARD H. 
ORPEN'S inquiry. 

2 and 3. The latest possible date for the 
marriage of Hugh de Laci and Lesceline de 
Verdon is assigned by MR. ORPEN (US. ix. 
330) as 1199, and therefore one wondered for 
the moment, in reading par. 2, ante, p. 55, 
why the date of Maud's birth was put so 
late as " c. 1210 or later." But on reaching 
par. 3 we find MR. ORPEN stating that 
" there is no reason to doubt that all Hugh's 
legitimate offspring, including Maud, were 
by Lesceline." According to MR. ST. CLAIR 
BADDELEY (11 S. viii. 172), four children, 
exclusive of Maud, are assigned to Hugh as 
his legitimate issue, viz. : Walter and Roger, 
who, according to Sweetman (i. 1372), were 
alive in 1226 ; Rose (may she have been the 

daughter of Hugh who married Alan of 
Galloway [' D.X.B.,' xxxi. 379], and there- 
fore the missing mother of Helen, Alan's 
eldest daughter, who became, before 1234, 
first wife of Roger de Quincy, 2nd Earl of 
Winchester ? [Doyle, ' Official Baronage of 
England,' iii. 695]) ; and a daughter, un- 
named, who married, according to ' The 
Four Masters,' iii. 349, Miles Mac Costelloe. 
Under these circumstances it is quite feasible 
that Maud was the youngest child, and born 
c. 1210. L T nless, however, one can assign a 
son killed in 1238 (' The Four Masters,' iii. 
239 n.) and a daughter called Roysya 
(Carew MSS., v. 412) possibly, however, 
identical with Rose as Hugh's legitimate 
issue, I am doubtful whether c. 1210 may 
not be taken as the latest probable date for 
Maud's birth. 

The statement (' Cal. Docs., Irel.,' ii. 1523) 
that Maud was alive on 15 Jan., 1279, would 
be, had such been needed, further evidence 
that she was not the wife of Walter de 
Burgh ; whilst that quoted by MR. ORPEN, 
that Maud " was clearly dead in 1302 
perhaps for many years " (' Justiciary Rolls,' 
i. 434), is particularly interesting, because 
I had hitherto accepted the actual year of 
her death as 1303 (11 S. viii. 371). As MB. 
ORPEN justly observes, had any of Hugh's 
issue been by Emeline, there would doubtless 
have been claims made by such issue to the 
Ridelesford lands, whereas of any such 
laims one has heard nothing. 

4. I am very grateful to your corre- 
spondent for his reasons for the assignment 
of 1217-23 as the probable years between 
which Emeline and Ela de Ridelesford were 
born, which suggested dates I venture to 
consider may be accepted as approximately 
correct, judging by the evidence he has now 
put forward. As regards the date of the 
death of their father, Walter de Ridelesford^ 
Archdall's edition of Lodge's ' Peerage of 
Ireland,' i. 120, states that he died 1243. 
With reference to the name of his wife, may 
we not assume that Annora is synonymous 
with Alianor, and that she was Alianor de 
Vitre, as recorded in Gilbert's ' Viceroys of 
Ireland,' p. 105 ? 

At 11 S. ix. 130 MR. ORPEN gave his 
reasons for thinking that there were two 
Walters de Ridelesford. I have been making 
some investigations, the result of which I 
append in tabular form. It will be seen 
from this table that Amabilis Fitz-Henry 
was clearly wife of Walter (1) de Ridelesford, 
and therefore, doubtless, the mother of 
Walter (2) who married Alianor de Vitre, 
first cousin to Ela, Countess of Salisbury, 

US. X. AUG. 8, 1914.] 



thus bearing out the theory advanced by 
your correspondent. 

In Gilbert's ' Register of the Abbey of 
St. Thomas, Dublin,' there are, at pp. 170, 
369, two grants of Walter de Ridelesford 
witnessed by " Amabili, filia Henrici," and 
at the latter pr ge there is a foot-note which 
begins " For grant from Walter and Ama- 
bilis de Ridelsford of rent," &c. This con- 
firms the marriage. At p. 150 of the same 
work there is also a grant to which " Meilero 
Filio Henrici " and " Waltero de Rideleford " 

subscribed their names as witnesses, which, 
to my mind, strengthens the hypothesis that 
Meiler and Amabilis were brother and 
sister. Unfortunately, in this Register dates 
are conspicuous by their absence. But 
from the table below it will be seen that 
Meiler was quite young in 1157, and that 
Walter de Ridelesford was born not later 
than c. 1150; and as the former died in 1220, 
it was doubtless Amabilis's husband who 
was the co-witness to the grant with Meiler, 
her brother. 

Andre L de Vitre, Seigneur de Vitre [Planche", 'The =j=Agnes, d. of Robert, Comte de Montaigne (half-brother to 

Conqueror and his Companions." ii. 300], + 1135, 
fifth in direct descent from Juhael, Comte de 
Bennes [Bowles and Nichols, ' Annals and Anti- 
quities of Lacock Abbey,' 1835 ed., p. 264*]. 


Robert de Vitre", inferred born 

after the Conquest 

[Planche", ib. 301]. 

Kmme de la Guerche 

[Bowles and Nichols, 


the Conqueror) [Bowles and Nichols, j'6.], by Matilde de 
Montgomery, d. of Roger, Earl of Shrewsbury and 
Arundel [Doyle, ' Official Baronage of England,' L 433]. 

King Hemy I. (t 1135) by the Princess Nesta (fl. 1106), d. of 
Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of South Wales (t 1090) ['D.N.B ,' 
xlviii. 88], and wife (=c. 1095) [ib. xl. 228] of Gerald of Wind- 
sor, Constable of Pembroke Castle [' Itinerarium Cambria-, 
pp. 89-91]. who was probably dead by 1136 
[D.N.B, 'xix. 135; xl. 229]. 

Robert de Vitre, called the younger= 
[Plancbe, ib.] t 1174 
[Bowles and Nichols, ib.]. 

Knune de Dinan, d. of Alan de Dinan 
[Planche", ib.] or of Olivier, Vicomte 
de Dinan, by Agnorie, sister to Eudo, 
Comte de Pentnievre, second husband 
of Duchess Bertha 
[Bowles and Nichols, il.]. 

Henry, b. aftei=j=a Welsh lady, name 
1114 [t'6. xix. 211] unknown [t'6. xix. 211]. 
Slain 1157 [Betham, 
[ib. xix. 164, 211] 'Genealogical Tables/ 
1795 ed., 
Table DCIV.] 

Alianor de Vitre,= 
=3. e. HSfi 
Doyle, ' Official 
Baronage,' iii. 233] 
=3. shortly after 
[W. D. Pink. 
Leigh, Lanes], 
+ betw. 1232 and 
Aug,1233 [Pink] 

=3. William Fitz- 
2nd Earl of 
b. after 1148, 
t 1196 
[Doyle, t'6., 
232, 233]. 

Andr6 II. =j 
de Vitre", 
t 1221 
[Bowles and 

^Matilda de Mayenne, d. of 
Geoffroi de Mayenne 
[Bowles and Nichols, ib.], 
alias Geoffrey, Earl of 
Anjou and Nantes 
(t 1157). brother to 
King Henry II. 
[Betham, ' Genealogical 
Tables,' I795ed., 
Table CCLXJ.], 
by Constance, sister to the 
Duchess Bertha [Bowles 
and Nichols, ib.]. (a) 

Meiler Fnz-Henry, Amabilis (filia. 
quite young in Henrici) 
1157. t 1220 Fitz-Henry(6> 
[16 , xix. 164]. (6) ['N. 4 Q., 1 
=1182 a niece of 11 S. viii. 371], 
Hugh de Laci b ante 1157. 
(t 1186), =Walterde 
Lord of Meath Ridelesford, 
[ib , xix. 164]. (c) b. not later 
than c. 1150 
[16. 11 S. 
ix. 132], 

a, Countess of Salisbury ,=pWilliam " Lungespe'e,' nat. son of King 

b. 1187 [Doyle, ib., iii. 233]. 

b. 1188 [Wiihaui, ' Hist, of 

Lacock Abbey,' 1806 ed.], 

under 6 at father's death 

[Pink] =? 1198. t 1261 

[Doyle, ib.]. 

Henry II. (by Rosamond de 

Clifford, the "Fair Rosamond"), 

b. before 1176 ; cr. Earl of Salisbury, 

1193 [Doyle, ib., iii. 234], 

1 1226 [Doyle, t'6., 235]. 

Alianor de Vitre=p Walter de Ridelesford, 


' Viceroys of 

Ireland,' p. 105], 

b. ante 1221 ; 

or Annora 

['N. &Q.' US. 

x 55]. 

Baron of Bry, 

co Wicklow, i 1243. 

[Archdall's ed. of 

Lodge's ' Peerage of 

Ireland,' i. 1.0]. 

Stephen de Longespee, probably b. c. 1214, as^fEmeline de Ridelesford, liv. 1276 [' N. & Q ,' 
second son, the elder son William having 11 S. viii. 371], eldest d ; , and widow of 

been born c. 1212 [v. Doyle, t'6., iii. 236], 

Justiciar of Ireland in 1259. Slain 1260. 

Second husband [Banks, ' Dormant and 

Extinct Baronage,' iv. 311]. 

Hugh de Laci, Earl of Ulster (t 1242-3), 

- secondly c. 1243 [' N. & Q ,' *.], 

[Pat. Rot. 50 Henry III. m. 10]. 

[v. 'N. &Q.,'11S. viii. 871.] 

Co) They were the daughters of Conan le Gros (f 1140) [v. Betham, Table CCLXI ]. 
(6) "Their father Henry was a natural son of King Henry I. by the Princess Nesta, daughter of Rhys ap Tudor, 

Prince of South Wales" [Gilbert's 'Register of St. Thomas's Abbey, Dublin, p. 369], ['N. & Q., 11 S. 

viii. 371]. 
(c; I should be interested to learn the name of this lady, and who her parents were. Betham, Table DCIV., calls 

Meiler's wife Hugh de Laci's daughter. 


8, Lansdowne Road, East Croydon. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG. s, 1914. 

" CONDAMINE " (11 S. ix. 511 ; x. 32, 57, 
74). Charles Marie de la Condamine had 
no heirs. He married a niece and had 
no issue. The name appears in the gazetteer 
from the circumstance that General Darling 
was in command in Queensland, and had two 
aides-de-camp on his staff. One morning 
the general gave orders that the two aides- 
de-camp should go out, each in a different 
direction, exploring. Their names were 
Capt. de la Condamine and Capt. Du- 
maresque. The general was also to o on 
his own account. 

When they met in the evening each had 
discovered a river to which each gave his 
name, and the singular thing was tlrxt the 
two rivers discovered by the aides-de-camp 
were tributaries of the Darling. 

The Villa, Guernsey. 

The family mentioned may have had their 
seat at Uzes (Gard), where a street was 
called by their name (now Rue Jacques 
d'Uzes). Valuable information might be 
gathered from Madame la Baronne de 
Charnizay, a Uzes, who has collected many 
notes concerning Protestant exiles, and who 
will readily supply every document in her 
possession. B ON A. F. BOURGEOIS. 

TURED STONE (US. x. 50). Mr. Deputy 
W. Hayward Pitman, Chairman of the 
Bridge House Estate Committee, informs 
me that the description given of the stone 
which was affixed to this house, and dis- 
appeared when it was pulled down in 
1868, exactly corresponds to the arms of 
the Fruiterers' Company. One wonders if 
the house in question was formerly the 
property of the Company. Deputy Pitman 
adds that it was the custom to mark the 
property of the Royal Hospitals, Bridge 
House Estates, &c., with metal panels 
bearing the owners' arms. 


MARK (11 S. ix. 481 ; x. 17, 52). Whatever 
other meanings the mark we call the " broad 
arrow " has or may have, I venture to 
suggest that as " the King's mark " it is a 
conventional sign for the gallows, and is the 
mark referred t ) in a marginal note by 
Robert Ward on p. 108 of his ' Animad- 
versions of Warre ' (1639). Against a list of 
various Ordnance stores this note is printed 
in the margin, viz. : 

" These Tooles ought to be marked with the 
Gallowes ; he that steales them dyes without 

It is evident that the broad arrow is meant 
by " the Gallowes," these having been for- 
merly constructed in the form of a tripod. 

In the heraldic " broad arrow " and 
" pheon " the centre branch shows the 
socket for the shaft of the arrow, and the 
inner edges of the barbs .of the "pheon" 
are serrated. In this connexion (viz., the 
gallows) it may be interesting to note that 
the kind of crane we call a " derrick " is 
said to have derived its name from the 
celebrated executioner in the time of Eliza- 
beth and James I. He served in the Cadiz 
Expedition under the Earl of Essex, and 
was one of twenty-four culprits condemned 
to death for misconduct by Essex, but he 
was pardoned on condition of hanging his 
twenty-three comrades. Only about four 
years later he executed the Earl himself. 
There is a curious old ballad on the subject 
(No. LXIX. in the ' Shirburn Ballads,' 
Clarendon Press, 1907). Derrick is said to 
have invented the machine which bears his 
name as a convenient form of gallows for 
use in his trade or profession (?). 


DON (11 S. x. 49). The British Star 
(O BPETTANIK02 A2THP) commenced 
publication on 9 July, 1860, and ran for 
two years. Its object was the dissemi- 
nation of English ideas in Turkey and 
Greece, but the Turkish Government con- 
sidered the paper seditious, and requested 
the British Government not to allow it to 
be circulated by the English Post Office in 
Constantinople. Accordingly, in May, 1862, 
the proprietor was informed that in future 
copies would be returned. He requested 
to be allowed to send the literary and 
scientific part of the paper, which was 
separate from the four pages devoted to 
political views. The request was refused, 
and the paper ceased publication with the 
number for 26 June. On 24 July, 1862, a 
supplement was issued giving the corre- 
spondence relating to the suppression of tha 
paper. Papers were moved for in the House 
of Commons on 20 June, and a heated 
debate followed, in which John Bright took 
part. The Times devoted a leading article 
to the subject next day. The proprietor 
was Stephanos Xenos, a Greek broker who 
became naturalized in 1858. He wrote 
various works in Greek and English, for 
which see Allibone's ' Critical Dictionary.' 
The paper was printed by Joseph Clayton, 
17, Bouverie Street, Whitefriars, and pub- 
lished by Charles Bradbury at the office, 

ii s. x. AUG s, i9R] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


14, York Street, Co vent Garden. The price 
to foreign subscribers was 3Z. 3s. per annum. 
Tin copy in the possession of the Reform 
Club is in four half-yearly volumes in the 
publisher's half-binding. E. G. T. 

[L. L. K. thanked for reply.] 

LIBRARY WANTED (11 S. x. 68). The 
London Library, St. James's Square, has : 

' Selected Essays and Addresses.' By P. Ed. 
S. Paget. 8vo. 1902. 

' The Alcohol Question.' By Sir J. Paget and 
Others. Sm. 8vo. 1879. 

' Memoirs and Letters of Sir J. Paget.' Ed. 
Stephen Paget. 1901. 


Waltham Abbey, Essex. 

GORDON (11 S. vii. 447, 496 ; viii. 53, 114 ; 
ix. 496). I am obliged to MR. E. H. FAIR- 
BROTHER for his information. Can he say 
what other vessels besides the Jane, Duchess 
of Gordon, and the Lady Jane Dundas 
were lost in this storm ? The William Pitt 
left Colombo in their company. According 
to Mr. J. J. Cotton (' List of Madras In- 
scriptions,' pp. 42 3), the storm "destroyed 
nearly a whole squadron off the Cape." The 
extract quoted from The Caledonian Mercury 
of 25 June, 1810, refers to the " loss of the 
ships Lady Jane Dundas, Bengal, Calcut a, 
and Duchess of Gordon." Does this necessarily 
mean that they were all lost in the same 
storm ? Another Bengal " Hon. E.I. Com- 
pany's ship " probably the successor of 
th r s one, was burnt in Galle Harbour on 
19 Jan., 1815. There is a description of the 
catastrophe in the ' Journal ' of Lady 
Nugent, which was privately printed in 
London in 1839. Lady Nugent, who was 
at Galle on her way home from Calcutta, 
where her husband, Sir George Nugent, had 
been Commander-in-Chief, was a witness of 
it. The Bengal seems to have been an 
unlucky name. PENRY LEWIS. 

PENMON PRIORY (11 S. ix. 490). This old 
priory on the east of the island of Anglesey 
has been dealt with in Archceologia Cam- 
brensis, vol. iv. (1849), pp. 44, 128, and 198. 

Pennant in his ' Tours in Wales,' vol. iii. 
p. 37, edition 1810, has some account of it ; 
and so has Richard Llwyd in his ' Beau- 
maris Bay,' p. 24, edition 1832 ; he also 
gives the following important references 
regarding it : " Dugdale's ' Monasticon,' 
ii. 338; Tanner, 699." 

Perhaps the most trustworthy account 
of it is that given by Miss Angharad Llwyd 
in her admirable ' History of the Island of 
Mona ' 1833), pp. 317-27. Of course, all tho 

modern guides to North Wales have notices 
of it, and they are generally trustworthy 
as far as they go. T. LLECHID JONES. 
Yspytty Vicarage, Bettws-y-Coed. 

TITMARSH (11 S. ix. 487; x. 16). I 
observe that this word has not a place in 
the ' H.E.D.' That makes in favour of the 
theory that there is no bird which is so called. 
As surnames we have Tidmarsh, Titchmarsh, 
and the like, but their origin is local, places 
in Berkshire and Northamptonshire respec- 
tively being thus designated. The only 
human Titmarsh I can think of was W. M. 
Thackeray, though the author of ' Chez 
John Bull ' writes of a Mr. Titmarsch. 


ix. 469). Pierson Lloyd was the son of 
Thomas Lloyd of Westminster. He was 
probably admitted to the School before 
1715, and in 1717 was an unsuccessful 
candidate for election into College. In 1718 
he was elected into College, and in 1722 ob- 
tained his election to Trin. Coll., Camb. 

RALPH CARR (US. vii. 70, 133, 193 ; ix. 488 ; 
x. 33, 75). My query at vii. 70 was about the 
Ralph Carr who was one of the Stewards of 
the Westminster School Anniversary Dinner 
in 1795. The query at ix. 488 was about a 
Ralph Carr who was admitted to the School 
6 Nov., 1781. The two queries are not 
necessarily about the same Ralph Carr, for 
there is another admission to the School of a 
Ralph Carr on 5 June, 1776. Perhaps MR. 
WELFORD can identify these two, or possibly 
three, Ralph Carrs. 

To save valuable space in ' X. & Q.,' may 
I assure MR. BAYLEY that the ' Alumni 
Oxonienses ' has always been consulted 
before troubling your correspondents with 
these school queries ? 

ROBERT CLAYTON (US. ix. 430, 475). 
If Robert Clayton's age is correctly given as 
28 in his epitaph at St. Martin's, he could 
hardly have been Sir Robert Clayton's son, 
who was " christened Robert and died very 
young." According to the monument in 
Bletchingley Church, Sir Robert's wife died 
25 Dec., 1705, after "a happy partnership 
of forty-six years." She must, therefore, 
have been married in 1659. The Robert 
Clayton who was buried in St. Martin's in 
1672 must have been born in 1644 ! More- 
over, the Robert Clayton, the subject of my 
inquiry, was admitted on the foundation of 
Westminster School in 1664. 

G. F. R, B. 



OF THE EXCHEQUER (11 S. ix. 488; x. 95). 
In The Observer of 19 July is a letter from 
Mr. H. V. Beckley which refers to a story 
told by Lord John Hay, in The Observer of 
12 July, " of the drawer in Lord Palmerston's 
study packed with Gladstone's resignations." 
The writer then quotes Mr. Arthur Dasent 
(reference not given) as writing that 

" Pahnerston once told Delane that he had set 
the library chimney on fire at Broadlands in the 
process of burning Gladstone's resignations." 

The above corroborates to some extent the 
idea expressed in the saying attributed to 
Gladstone by The Christian Science Monitor 
of Boston, Mass. 

It may be that such a saying has been 
rightly or wrongly attributed to more than 
one such eager and peremptory statesman. 

Here is a parallel taken from ' John Bull, 
Junior,' by Max O'Bell, London, no date, 
p. 26 : 

"21th May, 1873. For many months past, M. 
Thicrs has carried the Government [sic] with his 
resignation already signed in his frockcoat pocket. 
Gentlemen,' he has been wont to say in the 
Houses of Parliament, ' such is my policy. If 
you do not approve it, you know that I do not 
cling to power ; my resignation is here in my 
pocket, and I am quite ready to lay it on the table 
if you refuse me a vote of confidence.' 

" I always thought that he would use this 
weapon once too often. 

" A letter, just received from Paris, brings me 
the news of his overthrow and the proclamation 
of Marshal MacMahon as President of the Re- 

At Max O'Rell's date above Gladstone was 
Prime Minister, and soon afterwards Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer for the third time. 

It may be that Thiers was a plagiary of 
Gladstone. Very possibly neither of them 
ever said anything of the sort, whatever 

ix. 489 ; x. 17). MR. A. COLLINGWOOD LEE 
has misread my query. I asked for par- 
ticulars of Bligh's second voyage in search 
of breadfruit plants, and not the first, 
which resulted in the " mutiny of the 
Bounty." I have now a further question 
to ask. 

Among those set adrift in the launch 
with Bligh appears " Robert Tinkler, a 
boy." Sir Cyprian Bridge conjectures that 
he may have been entered on the Bounty's 
books as one fit to take the place of midship- 
man, should a vacancy occur. Peter Hey- 
wood on his trial (' Minutes of Taint 
Martial ') regrets Tinkler's absence, because 

he might have given evidence in his favour. 
In turning over James's ' Naval History r 
I have just lighted on the name of Robert 
Tinkler, who was first lieutenant of the 
Isis at Copenhagen in 1801. Can this be 
identical with the boy of 1789 ; and, if so r 
what further service had he ? Perhaps- 
SIR J. K. LAUGHTON can throw light on the 
matter. E. L. H. TEW. 

Upham Rectory, Hants. 

RANO ' (11 S. ix. 318, 4C8). Voulez-vous per- 
mettre a un Franfais de vous donner son 
opinion au sujet de la traduction de la 
dedicace de ' Cyrano ' ? " L'ame de Cy- 
rano a passeen toi, Coquelin," ne signifie pas, 
comme 1'indique le traducteur cite par vous, 
que Fame de Cyrano est entree dans Tame de 
Coquelin et s'est enquelque sorte substitute 
a elle, mais que Coquelin a tenement bien 
etudie et compris Fame de Cyrano qu'elle a 
passe en lui et lui a permis de donner 
Fillusion complete du personnage. 

II est incontestable que le temperament 
personnel de Coquelin lui a rendu plus 
facile Fadmirable creation du type de 
Cyrano, mais, d'une fa9on generale, c'est 
Fart du comedien de si bien representer son 
personnage que le spectateur doit se croire 
en presence de 1' original. " C'est en quoi 
vous faites mieux voir que vous etes une 
excellente comedienne de bien repre- 
senter un personnage si contraire a votre- 
humeur," a dit Moliere. Et ceci est decisif 
en montrant bien que Fame du person- 
nage n'a pu entrer dans 1 'ame de cette 
comedienne qni etait d'une humeur con- 
traire, mais elle a pu passer en elle et 
diriger tous ses gestes pendant la repre- 

Ne faisons done pas dire a Rostand plus 
qu'il n'a dit ; il a donne la note jiuste qu'il 
ne faut pas exagerer. C' etait un des grands, 
principes de Coquelin que Fartiste devait, 
pour produire tout son effet et porter a son 
maximum Femotioii du public, ne pas etre 
emu lui-meme. HENRI MORY. 

Boulogne-sur- M er. 

S. x. 67). The following book will probably 
supply the information sought : " Why I 
am a Liberal : Definitions. . . .by the Best 
Minds. London, Cassell, 1886," cr. 8vo. A 
list of other matter on the subject could be 
obtained from the Librarian of the National 
Liberal Club, Whitehall Place, London, S.W. 

Rose Bank, Stratford-on-Avon. 

ii B. x. AUG. s. 19U.J NOTES AND QUERIES. 


* ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY ' (11 S. vi. 390 ; 
vii. 314). These two communications dealt 
with a copy of the sixth edition of the 
' Anatomy ' alleged to have belonged once 
to Samuel Johnson, though this appears to 
be very doubtful. At the earlier reference 
I quoted a statement in the Huth Catalogue 

*' in a bookseller's catalogue many years ago was 
a copy of a later edition which had also belonged 
to him," 

and said that I should be very glad to learn 
the present whereabouts of this book. 

The desired information is contained, it 
seems, in the following passage from Mr. 
Austin Dobson's essay on Johnson's Library, 
recently reprinted with other select essays 
of his in ' Eighteenth Century Studies ' 
(Dent's " Wayfarers' Library ") : 

" Among the remaining folios on the same 
page is Burton's ' Anatomic.'. . . .This, which was 
bound up with Sir Matthew Hale's ' Primitive 
Origination of Mankind,' 1677, is the issue of 
1676 [the 8th ed.] ; and the volume now forms 
part of the material for that gigantic enterprise 
at present in progress at Oxford under the guiding 
hand of Sir J. A. H. Murray. An inscription which 
it bears affirms it to have been bought at John- 
son's sale by one William Collins. It was after- 
wards presented to the Philological Society in 
1863 by a subsequent owner, and so ^ passed into 
the Sunnyside arsenal of authorities.' 
Mr. Dobson adds in a foot-note that he is 
" indebted for these particulars to the courtesy 
of Sir J. A. H. Murray himself." 


Reydon, Southwold, Suffolk. 

WILLS AT ST. PAUL'S (11 S. x. 12). The 
records of the Peculiar Court of the Dean 
and Chapter of St. Paul's, previously 
deposited partly in the office of the Deputy 
Registrar, Dean's Yard, Doctors' Commons, 
and partly in the Chapter House, were, by 
an Act of Parliament, 20 & 21 Vic. c. 77, 
transferred to the Court of Probate, with the 
records of other courts exercising testa- 
mentary jurisdiction prior to 1858. 

The jurisdiction of the Peculiar Court 
extended over twenty-two parishes within 
the diocese of London, viz., five in the City 
of London, eight in Middlesex, five in Essex, 
and four in Herts. 

The records, wills, administrations, and 
inventories belonging to it are deposited at 
the Principal Probate Registry, Somerset 
House. The official (MS. ) Calendar contains 
a large number of entries of grants of pro- 
bates of wills and letters of administration 
from 1535 to 1837. DANIEL HIPWELL. 

(11 S. x. 10). This poem appeared in The 
Examiner in 1852, over the signature of 
Merlin. The next time it appeared was in 
The Times in 1880, over the signature of 
A. Tennyson 

There were considerable differences in the 
two versions. Lord Tennyson never ac- 
knowledged the first version, wh?ch, I think, 
was very much better than the s^ond. 


Junior Reform Club, Liverpool. 

(11 S. x. 69.) 

1. "Nulli [not "nullo "] penetrabilis astro" is 
from Statins, 'Thebaid,' x. 85. 


[Several correspondents have kindly furnished 
the reference to No. 2. Hor., ' Odes,' I. iii. 38.] 

69). Four or five miles from Moffat the 
Edinburgh road passes through the hill farm 
of Ericstane along the brink of a precipice 
forming one side of a deep corrie known as 
the Dail's Beef-tub or Annandale's Beef- 
stand. It is described by Sir Walter Scott in 
' Redgauntlet ' : "It looks as if four hills were 
laying their heads together to shut out day- 
light from the dark, hollow spaoe between 
them." Sir Walter tells how in 1745 a 
Jacobite prisoner on his way to be tried at 
Carlisle escaped from his escort by wrapping 
himself in his plaid and rolling down to the 
bottom of the tub. He names the prisoner 
Maxwell of Summertrees, a mythical person ; 
the real individual was called MacEwen or 
MacMillan, whom Sir Walter remembered 
seeing in his boyhood. 

Th-3 Beef-tub or Beef-stand got its name 
from the Marquess of Annandale using it as 
a pen for cattle and sheep, which could only 
be driven in or out on the south-east side. 


MOSES FRANKS (11 S. x. 49). I suggest 
that Moses Frank, Attorney and Advocate- 
General for the Bahama Islands, was the 
same as Moses Franks, second son of David 
Franks of Philadelphia, admitted to member- 
ship of the Middle Temple on 28 Jan., 1774. 

Middle Temple Library. 

' THE MANCHESTER MARINE ' (11 S. x. 49). 
This was probably a piece by Thomas 
Dibdin, whose stage name at that time (1793) 
was Thomas Merchant. He was prompter 
and actor at the Theatre Royal, Manchester, 
ani was married in that town on 23 May, 
1793. In 1791 ho produced 'The Mad 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG s, 191*. 

Guardian ; or, Sunshine after Bain,' at 
Manchester, and during his several visits 
it is probable he wrote other pieces for the 
house. I find no record, however, in his 
' Reminiscences ' (or elsewhere) of ' The 
Manchester Marine.' Perhaps some local 
ivMtl-T may be able to trace it in a playbill. 
I doubt if it is now in existence, although 
' The Mad Guardian ' survives in print. 

64, Huskisson Street, Liverpool. 

Survey oj London. Vol. V. St. Giles-in-lhe-Fields. 
Part II. (London County Council, 1Z. Is.) 

THE present volume the fifth in the Survey of 
London completes the record of the parish of 
St. Giles-in-the-Fields, the first part of which 
was reviewed at 11 S. v. 439. 

As in the case of the other volumes issued, the 
ruportant part of the work, from the point 
of view of the Survey, is to be found in the 
photographs and drawings, to which the letterpress 
is strictly subservient. At the same time consider- 
able attention has been devoted to history, and 
" an attempt has been made to retrace the history 
of each plot of land to the time before the erection 
of buildings, that is, practically to the reign of 

The earliest mention, of the parish boundary 
occurs in a decree of 1222 terminating the dispute 
between the Abbey of Westminster and the See of 
London respecting the ecclesiastical franchise of 
the conventual church of St. Peter. 

The first considerable alteration in the limits of 
the parish took place in 1731, when the parish of 
St. George, Bloomsbury, was formed out of the 
old parish, and made to include all that part 
which lay to the north of High Holborn and east 
of Dyot Street and of a line drawn northwards 
from the termination of the latter in Great 
Russell Street. This northward line was after- 
wards slightly modified, and a plan is given 
showing the boundaries of the two parishes in 
1815. These remained unchanged until 1800, 
when, under the London Government Act, the 
size of the parish was further curtailed. 

The space between the parish boundary and 
Great Turnstile was occupied by houses at least 
as early as the reign of "Henry VIII., and probably 
long before. " Great Turnstile is mentioned 
as early as 1522 under the name of Tumgot- 
lane ; it was also known, as shown by grants by 
Henry VIII., as Turnpiklane ; but no houses had 
been built along the sides of Great Turnstile in 
1545, and none probably were erected there unti' 
many years later. The earliest records of such 
houses on the eastern and western sides of the 
lane are dated respectively 1632 and 1630 : 
probably these dates are not far removed from 
the actual time of building." Where now is the 
entrance to Little Turnstile there existed in 
1590 an open ditch or sewer. The account of a 
house and a picturesque garden occupied in 1640 
by a Mr. Braithwait fills us with envy. There 

was an arbour formed of eight pine trees, besides 
' the 'sessamore ' tree under the parlour window, 
L3 cherry trees against the brick wall on the east 
of the garden, 14 more round the grass plot, 
rows of gooseberry bushes, rose trees, and ' curran 
rees ' ; another arbour ' set round with sweet 
brier ' ; more cherry trees, pears, quince, plum, 
and apple trees ; a box plot planted with French 
and English flowers ; six rosemary trees ; one 
apricock ' tree, and a mulberry tree." 

Inapetitionto the Earl of Salisbury ("undated, 
a ut evidently belonging to the period 16051612 ") 
:he " inhabitantes of the dwellings of the newe 
jate neere Dreury Lane " state that " they have 
petitioned the Queen (obviously Anne of Denmark, 
the Consort of .Tames I.) to ' gyve a name unto 
that place,' and have been referred to him. 
They therefore request him to give it a name on 
tier behalf." The result was the name Queen 
Street. Great Queen Street, in distinction to 
Little Queen Street, does not seem to have been 
in common use until 1670. 

As we turn over the pages we are constantly 
reminded of vanishing London. The County 
Council have added to their collection many old 
tablets of dates on houses that have been 
destroyed, and numerous relics of historic and 
antiquarian interest. Thus from one of the 
houses in Great Queen Street a beautiful mahogany 
staircase has been taken and preserved : it is now 
lent to the London Museum. 

Endell Street is named after the Rev. James 
Endell Tyler, who was Rector of St. Giles's in 1846, 
when the street was planned. To the right from 
Holborn was a population in the direst poverty, 
many of the houses being used for lodgers at 3d. a 
night, the kitchens, known as the thieves' kit- 
chens, being for general use. The present church 
of the parish is the third erected on the site. It 
contains a tablet to Marvell, near to the place 
where he was buried, erected by his grand- 
nephew Robert Nettleton in 1764 ; and at the 
west end of the north aisle is the stone monument 
(originally in the churchyard) of George Chappian 
the poet, said to have been designed and given 
by Inigo Jones. Among other memorials is an 
oval tablet to the memory of the Rev. Richard 
Southgate, Rector of Warsop, Sub-Librarian of 
the British Museum, and Curate of St. Giles's, 
who died on 21 Jan., 1795. 

If thou canst =excell him : 

It will be well, 
If thou canst equal him. 

It is a relief to leave this poverty-stricken 
neighbourhood of the Dials, and to find oneself in 
Great Russell Street and Bedford Square. Many 
of the fine houses are noted for their staircases, 
carved white marble chimneypieces, and mahogany 
doors with finely carved panels and metal fittings 

The volume contains in addition to a map 107 
plates beautifully executed, the full size of the 
P'ge: these include seven of Freemasons' Hall, 
Queen Anne's Bath, Endell Street, several of the 
Church of St. Giles, a number of ornamental 
portions of Bedford Square houses, and heraldic 
illustrations. We again express our thanks to all 
concerned in this Survey and to the general 
editors, Sir Laurence Gomme and Mr. Philip 

ii s.x. A, s.1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Book- Auction Records. Edited by Frank Karslake. 

Vol. XI. Part 2. (Karslake & Co., 21. 2s. yearly.) 
THE largest amount we have noticed in this part is 
that realized for the collected works of Shakespeare, 
including the First Folio, the Second and Third 
Impressions, and the Fourth Edition, together 
4 vols., in oak case with lock and key, for which 
Mr. Quaritch gave 1,2007. In this copy of the 
First Folio " ' Troilus and Cressida ' is correctly 
paged throughout 1-29, and apparently no other 
copy is recorded with this peculiarity. In all 
other known copies the Prologue and first page of 
text are unnumbered, after which pp. 7980, then 
25 pp. on 13 11. without numbers, the last leaf 
being blank as in this copy. This important 
detail is mentioned by Sir Sidney Lee in his 
Supplementary Census, where he records this 

Works of the Kelmscott Press included Chaucer, 
for which Mr. Bain paid 121. Baxter prints 
continue to fetch good prices : the portrait of 
Peel after Lawrence, 31. 10s. ; Prince Frederick of 
Prussia with the Princess Royal, 61. 10s. ; ' The 
Opening of Parliament ' and ' Coronation of 
Victoria,' in original frames, a pair, 167. 

The part opens with a picture of Isaac Watts's 
statue at Southampton, and an article on ' South- 
ampton, as the Realm of Books,' by Maude 
Harrison. Mr. Karslake among his ' Collo- 
quialisms ' states that ' The Old English Squire," 
by John Careless, 1838, and ' The Angler's 
Souvenir,' 1835, were written by W. A. Chatto, 
the father of the late Andrew Chatto of Chatto & 
Windus, whose son is at the present time a 
member of that firm. To the last-mentioned 
work the author attached the punning pseudonym 
of " Piscatorius Fisher." 

Book -Prices Current. Vol. XXVIII. Parts III- 

and IV. (Elliot Stock, 11. 5s. Qd. yearly.) 
THE most important sale recorded in Part III. is 
that of the library of the late Major Lambert, 
which took place in New York on 25-27 February, 
when the amount realized was 28,523Z. This 
included his collection of Thackerayana. On 
26 February Messrs. Sotheby sold the second 
portion of the library of the late Mr. George Punn, 
which brought 8,2687. They also sold between 
25 February and 5 March the fifth and final 
portion of the late Charles Butler's library, which 
brought 6,0127. 

In Part IV. the sales include portions of the 
libraries of Mr. C. E. S. Chambers, Mr. John Eliot 
Hodgkin, and Mr. Hunter AitmdeL The arrange- 
ment will in future be alphabetical. 

PART LXXXIX. of The Yorkshire Archcvological 
Journal, which forms the first part of Vol. XXIII., 
is particularly valuable in that it contains Mr. S. J. 
Chadwick's history of the origin and progress of 
the Society from 1863 to its jubilee year, 1913. 
This is illustrated with numerous photographs, 
and gives an account of the Jubilee dinner of the 
Society, held at York on 23 Oct. of last year, as 
well as a reproduction of the highly ingenious 
menu card designed by Mrs. E. K. Clark for the 
occasion, in which Father Time, with a vast and 
flowing forelock, presents an aspect more fierce 
and truculent than, we hope, he does in the 
actual lives of the company there assembled. 
This history is followed ly a full and delightful 
on the Abbey of Vi liars in Brabant, from 

the pen of our esteemed correspondent Canon 
Fowler, which certainly ought to send those who 
know the English Cistercian abbeys on the first 
opportunity to Brabant, to make out for them- 
selves the detail set forth so clearly and authori- 
tatively in these pages. 

THE August Cornhill Magazine brings to an end 
Sir Henry Lucy's entertaining and often illu- 
minating Sixty Years in the Wilderness.' The last 
two chapters describe for us a group of peers in a 
manner which certainly appeals for kindly indul- 
gence towards infirmities rather than for admira- 
tion of capacity. Mr. F. C. Conybeare's sketch 
of General Picquart, which we should have wished 
longer, is the most noteworthy of the shorter 
articles ; and next to it we would put Canon 
Vaughan's paper on Fuchs, written round a copy 
of the famous ' De Historia Stirpium ' which he 
unearthed in the Winchester Cathedral Library. 
S - James Yoxall writes pleasantly on ' Sundry 
luarf Abroad,' and Mr. Stephen Paget, in the 
second instalment of ' The New Parents' Assist- 
ant,' makes a number of quaint and ingenious 
remarks which all ring like an introduction to 
something that is not there. 

THERE is much to interest readers of The 
Fortnightly Review in the August number of that 
periodical. Count Ilya Tolstoy's reminiscences of 
his father which till now, we confess, we have 
found somewhat jejune offer matter of real 
interest, especially in the pages describing the 
relations between Tolstoy and Turgenyef. Mr. 
Arthur Baumann's appreciation of ' Walter 
Bagehot ' is perhaps the best paper w r e have seen 
on the siibject, confining itself as it does to what is 
of permanent interest. ' The Popular Reprint in 
England," by Mr. James Milne, brings together a 
number of interesting details, and sets in a good, 
clear light some of the greater significance of an 
important literary development. Mr. Henry 
Irving has here given to the public an eloquent 
and obviously earnest address by the late Laurence 
Irving on ' The Drama as a Factor in Social 
Progress,' delivered last March before the Uni- 
versity of Toronto. From the literary stand- 
point, the most important paper in the number 
is Mr. Edmund Gosse's account of Swinburne's 
unpublished writings. These include a good deal 
of characteristic, if in part fragmentary, work 
among the rest, a vivid juvenile skit, ' M. Prud- 
homme at the International Exhibition.' Mr. 
H. S. Shelton has a noteworthy paper discussing 
the claim of sociology to be regarded as a science. 
Mr. Maurice Woods s studyof Mr. Chamberlain 
the point of view being first granted is a highly 
satisfactory performance, being worked out from 
the right -flstance, and in itself skilfully managed. 

The Nineteenth Century for August has the 
merit it is not the only one of variety. The 
articles on burning questions are not only political : 
they include a vigorous discussion of the query 
' What is Wrong with the Telephone ? ' by Mr. 
C. S. Goldman : a castigation of us all wholly 
justified, we think, and well administered for 
having suffered the virtue of obedience to vanish, 
from the energetic and highly virtuous pen of 
Mr. W. S. Lilly ; and a kind of threnody (chiefly 
appreciative retrospection and analysis) over 
departing ' American Humour,' by Prof. Stephen 
Leacock. Mr. Harry Roberts replies to Dr. 



Brend on the matter of ' A National Medical 
Service,' and Miss Eva Gore-Booth has a charac- 
teristically sound and thoughtful paper on 
' Women's Wages.' Other interesting papers are 
Lord Eversley s study rather damning to the 
Royal Family of ' Marie Antoinette and Bar- 
nave ' ; Mr. Alexander Carlyle's reprint, with 
explanatory notes, of twelve new letters of Mrs. 
Carlyle's they are good and characteristic ; Sir 
Fred'erick Wedrnore's account of the Louvre as 
now enlarged ; and a pleasing study by Rowland 
Grey of Etienne Dumont, written round his 
English correspondence. 

PERHAPS the most interesting feature in the 
August number of The Burlington Magazine is 
the illustrated article by Sir Claude Phillips con- 
cerning a fragment of a large altarpiece on panel 
in oils, which he recently acquired. He attributes 
the authorship to Melozzo da Fori. The panel 
has suffered considerably from the ravages of 
time, but the two angels remain in the detached 
lunette which once capped the lost altarpiece ; 
they are swinging their censers, and holding in 
their unoccupied hands the crown of the saint. 
The fragment is of serene beauty. One feels less 
drawn towards the early Guardi, '.Piazza S. 
Marco,' illustrated and described by Mr. G. A. 
Simonson. The characteristic qualities of the 
picture are doubtless not such as are easily tran- 
scribed in monochrome. Chinese art is repre- 
sented in two articles one on the incised lacquer 
of various periods, by Mr. A. A. Breuer, the other 
on Chinese jade, by Mr. I. B, Maxwell ; both are 
well illustrated. The ' Notes on Pictures in the 
Royal Collections ' are concerned with the various 
portraits of Isabella d'Este ; and there is an article 
on some very interesting remains of a wooden 
ambone from Southern Italy, which can now be 
seen to more advantage at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum than formerly. The frontispiece is a 
reprod iction of a fifteenth - century Venetian 
miniature from the collection of M. Leonce 


MR. F. MARCHAM'S Catalogue No. 33 is a 
clearance list of Books and MSS., which includes 
some 70 Mnily histories, pedigrees, and memoirs, 
and over 60 items connected with London and 
Middlesex. Of the latter the most interesting 
is the original trust deed of the Princess's Theatre, 
dated 6 May, 1837, on 24 skins of parchment, 
signed by James Prescott of the one part, and 
Thomas Miller, Henry Broadwood, and Curtis 
Reed of the other, 61. 6s. Other good MSS. are 
an Elizabethan MS. transcript on 40 folios of the 
' Liber Rubeus ' of the Exchequer, 11. Is. ; a 
collection of about 120 original letters addressed 
to William Hone, arranged in three quarto 
volumes (1811-40, 1876), 11. 15s. ; and the 
indenture, dated 27 March, 1626, between the 
Hertfordshire Commissioners and the King for 
the lay subsidy, with the return for the hundreds 
of Hertford and Braughing a noteworthy item, 
seeing that no return is preserved among the sub- 
sidies at the Public Record Office 51. 5s. Mr. 
Marcham has also a complete set of ' The Annual 
Register, : in 148 vols., from its beginning in 1758 
to the voume for 1904, 311. 10s. ; and a copy of 
Weever's ' Ancient Funerall Monvments,' 1631, 

11. 10s. ; as well as a copy of the first complete 
edition of Domesday Book, brought out in 1783, 
vols. i. and ii., 40s. Under ' Americana ' the most 
important entry describes a collection of about 
170 letters addressed to T. Spring Rice when 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, in response to a 
circular letter to " Persons in Receipt of Pensions " 
published in The Globe 11 Dec., 1837, offered 
for 21Z. 

MR. EDWARD PARSOXS'S Catalogue No. 33 
comprises over 600 items : Old Engravings, 
Original Drawings, Coloured Views, and other 
like pieces. We found the Original Drawings 
particularly interesting, noticing, to give one or 
two examples, a fine Fragonard (Garden Scene of 
a Chateau, crayon, heightened in sepia and wash, 
1501. ) ; a Venetian scene by Guardi, 100 guineas ; 
a Rembrandt (Hagar and Ishmael), 100Z. ; a 
design for a ceiling, and a red crayon drawing 
from Raphael, by Alfred Stevens, 30 guineas and 
251. respectively ; and an Albrecht Diirer (Stf 
Veronica), 251. An interesting little collection o. 
modern etchings and lithographs includes a 
signed proof of D. Y. Cameron's ' John Knox's 
House,' 38Z., and one of the same artist's ' The 
Workshop,' 35 guineas. Among the coloured 
aquatints the first place is given to a picture of 
an early flying machine (1843) passing over 
Primrose Hill, with a wondering crowd beneath 
it, and St. Paul's dome showing dimly in the dis- 
tance : the machine has an outline roughly like a 
monoplane 20Z. The price asked for a set of eight 
coloured hunting-scenes ' The Quorn Hunt ' 
by H. Alken and F. C. Lewis, is 195Z.. There are 
130 coloured views of Switzerland 11 of them 
Aberli's and 80 or so examples of Piranesi's 
work. Of the English views described here the 
most interesting are four aquatints by Stadler, 
after Turner : ' Ashburnham,' ' Battle Abbey,' 
' Beauport,' and ' Rpsehill,' engraved about 1817, 
privately printed in colour, and finished by 
Turner's own hand, 65 guineas. 

[Notices of other Catalogues held over.] 

in (tempontonts. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, B.C. 

To secure insertion of communications corre 
spondeuts must observe the following rules. Lei 
each note, query, or reply be written on a separate 
slip of paper, with the signature of the writer and 
such address as he wishes to appear. When answer- 
ing queries, or making notes with regard to previous 
entries in the paper, contributors are requested to 

Eut in parentheses, immediately after the exact 
eading, the series, volume, and page or pages tc 
which they refer. Correspondents who repeat 
queries are requested to head the second com 
munication " Duplicate." 

H. N. E. The enigma is Miss Catherine Fan- 
shawe's. We rather assume that correspondents 
like to know where to find all there is in our 
columns about any subject in which they are 

ii 8.x. A, is, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS.-No. 242. 

NOTES : Fulham Parish Registers, 121 Holcrofb Biblio- 
graphy, 122 Emendations in ' All 'a Well that Ends 
Well' and ' Cymbeline,' 125 Chattels of Roger Mortimer 
of Wigmore, 126 ' Poems on Several Occasions ' 
"Ruby" Early Instances of Words for the ' N.E.D.,' 
127 John Heywood the Dramatist a Freeman of London 
"Chatterbox," 128. 

QUERIES : Machiavellt : Testina Editions Eleanor 
Needham, 128 Andrew Lang, Pindar, and Mr. G. O. 
Smith Sir Philip Howard Rev. H. Salvin Acrostics 
Saints' Day Customs Sumptuary Laws ' Poems written 
for a Child' 'The Pamela Magazine' Authors of 
Quotations Wanted Capt. Richard Hill and the Siege 
of Derry, 129 Duke of Ormonde's Followers Retforde : 
Derlee : Officials of Edward III. Sir Beauchamp St. John 
" lebie horse "" Act of Parliament Clock James 
Win. Gilbart Holcrof t of Vale Royal Biographical 
Information Wanted, 130 Lord Erskine's Speeches 
"Lady" Wm. Carr, Mayor of Liverpool Samuel 
Derham Portrait of Wellington by Salter, 131. 

EEPLIES : Sir Gregory Norton, 131 Wellington, 132 
Chandos, 134 Seventh Child of a Seventh Child Napo- 
leon III. at Chislehurst Holcroft Bibliography : Gordon 
Riots Old Etonians, 135 Adulation of Queen Elizabeth 
Last King of Naples West Indian Families Palm the 
Bookseller, 136 -Stevens Balnes : Laleham " Galleon " 
in Verse Wall -Papers, 137 Marquis de Spineto The 
Cusani Voltaire in London Stones of London, 138 
' Aut Diabolus aut Nihil 'Folk-Lore Queries, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'Proceedings of the Cambridge 
Antiquarian Society '' Dwelly's Parish Records' 'The 
English Borough in the Twelfth Century ' ' Transactions 
of the Birmingham Archaeological Society' Report of 
the Birmingham Free Libraries ' Francis David ' 'The 
Religious Philosophy of Plotinus.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE following extracts from the parish 
registers of Fulham, co. Middlesex, recently 
made, are perhaps worthy of preservation. 
The registers consist of two parts i.e., 
" Fulham side " and " Hammersmith side." 


Nicholas, son of Sir Nicholas Crispe, Baronet, 
and Judith, his lady, baptized 8 Oct., 1676. 

Mary, daughter of Sir John Williams, Knight, 
and Mary, his lady, baptized 17 May, 1679. 

Judith, daughter of Sir Nicholas Crispe, 
Baronet, and Judith, his ladv, baptized 4 June, 

Anne, daughter of the Bight Reverend Ed- 
mund, Lord Bishop of London, and Margaret 
Gibson, his wife, baptized 9 Dec., 1727. 


More Mollineux and Cassandra Cornwallis, by 
licence, 6 March, 1721. 

M r Charles Tryon and the hon ble Mary Shirley, 
by licence, in the Bishop's Chapel, 3 July, 1722. 

Bowater Vernon and Jane Cornwallis, by licence, 
in the Bishop's Chapel, 11 Dec., 1722. 

Sir Wilfred Lawson, Baronet, and M re Elizabeth 
Mordaunt, by licence, 14 March, 1723. 

Robert Tyrwhit and Elizabeth Gibson, in the 
Chapel at the Palace, by licence, 15 Aug., 1728. 


Humphrey Henchman, Lord Bishop of London, 
departed this life at his house in Aldersgate 
street, London, the seventh day of October, and 
lyes buried in the South Aisle of Fulham Church, 
under a black marble stone, buried 13 Oct., 1675. 

Edward Sheaffield, armiger, buried 13 March, 

The Lady Elizabeth Herbert, buried 27 Feb., 

Elizabeth, Viscountess Mordaunt, buried 1 May, 

Sir Francis Compton, K', buried 28 Dec., 1716. 

Lady Elizabeth Childe, buried 27 Feb., 1719/20. 

Sir William Withers, K*, buried 7 Jan., 1720/1. 

Sir Robert Childe, buried 11 Oct., 1721. 

Dr. John Robinson, Lord Bishop of London, 
buried 19 April, 1723. 

Henry Mordaunt, Esq., buried 6 May, 1724. 

The Lady Mohun, buried 21 May, 1725. 

Dorothy, daughter of Col. John Mohun, 
buried 21 Feb., 1726/7. 


William, son of Sir John Cope and Ann, his 
lady, baptized 3 March, 1684/5. 

Christopher, son of Sir Robert Legard and 
Mirabella, his lady, baptized 28 May, 1685. 

John, son of John and Jane Leccy, valued 50Zi. 
per annum, baptized 27 June, 1698. 

Florah, daughter of Edward Hyde, Lord Corn- 
bury, and Catherine, baptized 31 Jan., 1700/1. 

Elizabeth, the daughter of John and Jane Leacy, 
50Zi. per Annum, baptized 20 Jan., 1703/4. 

Thomas, son of Thomas and Mary Talmaish, 
baptized 12 Jan., 1706/7. 


Sir George Worburton, K*, and Diana Allington, 
married 18 June, 1699. 

Francis Berkeley of the Inner Temple, gentle- 
man, and Elizabeth Jenkins, married by licence, 
28 Sept., 1704. 

John Hook, Esq., and Elizabeth, Viscountess 
Bulkeley, by licence, 12 Dec., 1729. 


Humphrey Henchman, Lord Bishop of London 
buried 13 Oct., 1675. 

Alban, son of Sir John Cope, buried 11 Aug., 

Meadows, daughter of Sir Phills lady (sic), 
buried 31 March, 1687. 

The Lady Elizabeth Box, wife of Sir Ralph, 
buried 2 Feb., 1693/4. 

Sir Samuel Morland, K* and Baronet, buried 
6 Jan., 1695/6. 

Benjamin Driden,* Gentleman, from Durham 
Yard, in the Parish of St. Martin in the Fields, 
his widow executrix, buried 30 Jan., 1698/9. 

* Benjamin "Driden" was probably the son of 
Sir John Dryden, second Bart. , and first cousin to 
the poet. Sir John had a son Benjamin, born in 
1649, who is said to have married " an old woman " 
and died s.p. Margaret " Driden," buried at Fulham 
in 1711, is probably the widow. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. 15, IOM. 

Florah, daughter of Edward Hyde, Lord Vis- 
count Cornbury, buried 6 Feb., 1700/1. 

\darn Wright, gardiner to the Princess Ann, 
buried 18 April, 1701. 

James Cadona, servant of the Venetian Ambas- 
sador, buried 10 July, 1702. 

Mary King, widow, 600 Zt value, from Mincen 
lane, London, buried 25 Nov., 1703. 

Lewes Hencort, a French Marquis, buried 

Philip Nevell, gentleman, buried 30 June, 1705. 

Sir Edward Nevell, buried 11 Aug., 1705. 

Elizabeth, the daughter of Thomas and Mary 
Tolmaish, Gent., buried 25 Sept., 1705. 

Thomas, the son of Henry Box, Esq., buried 
12 Feb., 1705/6. 

Anne, the wife of the Right Reverend William 
Loyd, buried 19 June, 1708. 

Margaret Driden, buried 10 Sept., 1711. 

The I,ady Frances Nevill, buried 18 Oct., 1714. 

Sir Timothy Lennoy, Kt., buried 30 Sept., 1718. 

The wife of John Downs, carried away,* buried 
5 April, 1719. 

Dame Elizabeth, wife of Sir Edward Chisenhall, 
buried 25 April, 1720. 

Mary, daughter of Benjamin and Elizabeth 
Tichbourn, buried 5 July, 1726. 



(See ante, pp. 1, 43, 83.) 

1784 " The Wit's Magazine ; or Library of Momus. 
Being a Compleat Repository of Mirth, Humour, 
and Entertainment. Mirth ! With thee I mean 
to live. Milton. Vol. I. London : Printed for 
Harrison and Co. No. 18, Paternoster- Row. 

The first four numbers were edited by 
Thomas Holcroft, January-April (cf. Pref. 
to ' Tales in Verse,' 1806). 

Several verses with the title of ' Epitaph ' 
(Feb., March, and April, 1: 76, 116, 156), 
Epigram IV. (April, 1: 156), 'The Abode of 
the Graces ' (January, 1: 35), ' The Decline 
of Wit' (February, 1: 71), and 'The Beg- 
gar's Hats' (April, 1: 151) were written by 
Thomas Holcroft. In the March number of 
the magazine for the same year (1: 116) we 
find verses " To Mr. Holcroft, on reading 
'The Decline of Wit.' By Mrs. S. E. 
Spencer," as follows : 

You picture the Decline of Wit 

In flowing numbers, easy lays ; 
And while you sing so wondrous sweet, 

Its consequence again you raise. 
Wit was neglected, (happy bard !) 

Because a rarity it grew ; 
But now once more it claims regard, 
Since it appears so bright in you. 

'Politeness' (March, 1784, 1: 111-12), 
written by Mr. John Martin, a butcher at 

* This form frequently occurs. It 
refers to a parishioner buried outside the parish. 

Mitcham, in Surrey, was entirely rewritten 
by Holcroft, " except two lines." Holcroft 
says : " Mr. Martin. . . .sent me a letter of 
thanks, acknowledging that he no longer 
knew the poem as his own " (Preface to 
' Tales in Verse '). 

In the first number, January, 1784 (1: 21), 
is a translation from Lope de Vega, ' The 
Father Outwitted,' accompanied by the 
note : " We have not always been literal ; 
and those who shall compare the transla- 
tion," &c. The same translation was re- 
printed in The Theatrical Recorder for 
July, 1805 (2: 27-36), a work of which Hol- 
croft was avowedly " author," with the 
note : 

" The foregoing Interlude was translated, in 
1784, not from the Spanish, as far as the trans- 
lator recollects, but from a French version." 

The case is fairly obvious. I note that the 
texts are identical, save for the song of the 
second musician, which had been changed 
in 1805 to read with the polite, or poetic, 
" thou " and " thy," instead of " you " and 
" your " as in 1784. I also note that here 
the translation is signed " E." 

It was, of course, natural that as editor, 
particularly in those times, Holcroft should 
have written much and rewritten more 
himself. But, beyond what I have above, 
there is little direct evidence for identifica- 

I find in the February number (1: 52) the 
following note : 

" S3T The Editor advises this Correspondent 
to leam by rote the following Epigram, which 
was suggested by the vision he himself mentions 
to have had. 

He who to get too much aspires, 

May get much more than he desires : 

May get in prison ; and, no doubt, 

May get, when sheriffs take him out, 

A cart, a parson, and a psalter, 

An exhortation and a halter. E." 

The fact that this is signed " E.," signifying 
" Editor," and that the initial was used else- 
where (1:61) with that meaning, and that Hol- 
croft was the editor of the magazine January- 
April, leads me to place the above in this 
Bibliography. But then the question arises 
if " E." all through the four numbers of 
The Wit's Magazine refers to Holcroft. I 
should say that it does, because Holcroft 
signs it to'' The Father Outwitted ' (1: 17-21, 
see above), and because I find no references 
to correspondents or contributors by that 
initial ; though I see no reason why, save 
to give a semblance of many contributors, 
Holcroft should sign some of his work with 
E., some with his name, and leave some 

ii s. x. AUG. 15, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


unsigned. Therefore I attribute to him, in 
addition to the above, the following, signed 
-p " . 

JZj. . 

Epigram I. (January, 1: 38). 

Epigrams II. and III. (February, 1: 76). 

The Story-Teller I. (January, 1: 9-16). 

The Story-Teller II. (February, 1: 43-6). 

The Story-Teller III. (March, 1: 83-9). 

The Story-Teller IV. (April, 1: 123-7). 

The Parricide Punished (March, 1: 92-4). 

The Town-Talker I. (February, 1: 62-4). 

The Town-Talker II. (March, 1: 95-97). 

The Town-Talker III. (April, 1: 137-40). 

Curious Electioneering Letter (March, 1: 108- 

Epigram III. (March, 1: 116). 

Account of a Remarkable Trial by Combat. 
Translated from the French (April, 1: 132-3). 
From Froissard [ic]. 

Epigrams II. and III. (April, 1: 156). 

Epitaphs I., III., and IV. (April, 1: 156). 

IP the May number (1: 163-8) appeared the 
' Conclusion of the Story -Teller,' signed 
" H " instead of " E." ; but that person 
was not Holcroft. Vide infra. 

The submitted ' Enigma V. by Mr. T. H.' 
in the May number (1: 198) may be his, for 
he had severed his connexion and could 
enter the competitions. To him I also give 
' Answer to all the Enigmas. By Mr. 
T. H.' in the June number (1: 240). 
We read in the fifth number (May) : 
" This Work will in future be conducted by the 
chief Editor of the British Magazine and Review, 
.lately compleated in three volumes ; who has 
takon. the liberty to finish ' The Story-Teller,' and 
discontinue the Town-Talker." 

From this I judge that the " H " signed 
to the ' Conclusion of the Story-Teller ' was 
not Holcroft, but the editor ; but that the 
" E." signed to the first four parts was 
Holcroft, since we know (cf. Preface to 
' Tales in Verse ' ) that Holcroft was the 
editor January-April. Furthermore, ' The 
Night -Walker,' beginning in the June num- 
ber, is avowedly by the new editor, and is 
signed " H ." 

I find that the signature " E." is used 
several times after the April number. We 
know that Holcroft was in Paris from 
September to December, 1784, and that 
his part in the magazine must have been 
very slight at that time. The use of 
the " E.'' fits in very well with this 
absence : 
1784. June : The Orators (1: 235). 

Home News (1: 235). 

Epigram V. (1: 235). 

Epitaph V., On a Moses (1: 236). 
August : Epigrams IV. and V. (1: 316). 
September : Epigram IV. (1: 356). 

[Here comes the gap, when Holcroft was in 

1785. January : The Art of Story Telling (2: 7-10 ) 
The Confessor (2: 30). 
Advice to Tradesmen (2: 30). 
Morning (2: 30). 
Noon (2: 30). 

Extempore. On Brevity (2: 30 J.- 
February : The Dull Joker (2: 69). 

Progress of a Great Estate 

(2: 69). 

April : Essay on Matrimonial Quarrels- 
(2: 121-2). 

It is, of course, possible that " E." may 
stand for " Eudosia " or " Eugenic," who 
contributed at one time or another ; but 
this seems improbable in view of the ascrip- 
tion of ' The Story-Teller ' to the preceding^ 
editor by his successor. We know, then, 
that the " E." signed to ' The Story -Teller ' 
stands for Holcroft. Awaiting further con- 
tradiction, I shall assume that the other 
occurrences of the " E." also stand for 
Holcroft, as listed above. We have the 
additional evidence that much of the work 
signed " E." comes from the French (e.g., 
' The Parricide Punished ' in March, ' Ac- 
count of a Remarkable Trial by Combat r 
and Epitaphs III. and IV. in April, 1784), 
and this at a period when Holcroft was 
doing translation. His April-October, 1783 r 
Parisian trip had sent him home rich in 

I find (April, 1784, 1: 129) an unsigned 
article in the form of a letter beginning ' 

" I have the happiness of a friend in Paris, who' 
is so good as to transmit to me every thing that i 
curious which comes out in that great city, whether 
in regard to news, or the belles lettres. He has- 
lately done me the favour to send me a most ela- 
borate treatise . . . . " 

and so I tentatively offer this article on- 
'Nothing' (1: 129-32) as another of Hoi- 
croft's writings, for he had a friend in Paris 
(De Bonneville), and the article either 
came from him or Holcroft brought it irt 

There are articles and verses in almost 
every number bearing the signature " H ,' r 
and the assumption would be that " H " 
was Holcroft. But the direct evidence in 
connexion with the ' Conclusion of the 
Story -Teller ' above mentioned militates- 
against this on grounds of consistency, and 
I note the new editor's swan-song at the 
end of the last number issued : 


On the Editor of the Wit's Magazine. 
Header 1 here lies thy quondam, merry Friend, 
Chop-fall'n, alas ! and quite at his Wit's End. 

H . 

The fact that this, at the end, is signed 
" H ," at a time when Holcroft certainly 
was not editor, confirms my rejection of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. 15, 

this " H " material from my Holcroft 
list. Finally, I may say that the style and 
content of the work signed " H " do not 
indicate Holcroft as the author. Then 
The British Magazine and Review, which 
the succeeding editor conducted before he 
took over The Wit's Magazine, has many 
occurrences of this signature " H ," one 
of them a biographical sketch of Frederick 
the Great, written in a tone of praise which 
Holcroft would never have adopted. 

1784. " Memoirs of the Life of Voltaire, written 

by Himself. Translated from the French. 

8vo. 3s. Qd. Robinson, 1784." 

T have copied the above, except the date, 
from The Town and Country Magazine for 
June, 1784 (16: 323). In the September 
number of the same periodical (16: 492) 
another notice appeared, probably merely a 
piece of advertising by the Robinsons. In 
the July and August numbers (16: 372-5, 
411-12)" are anecdotes of Voltaire, appa- 
rently selected from this work I have not 
had an opportunity of examining the book 
^and magazine articles together, so cannot say 
with certainty as to this. There were reviews 
in TheEnglish Review for June, 1784 (3: 463), 
The European Magazine for July, 1784 (6: 50), 
and The Monthly Revietv for September, 1784 
(71: 229). There were no fewer than four 
French editions within the year (Querard, 
10: 365); and the title of one published 
at Berlin reads simply (Bibliotheque 
Nationale) : 
" Memoires pour servir a la vie de Voltaire, 

ecrits par lui-meme. [Vignette.] A Bwlin. 

M.DCC.LXXXIV." Octavo, 2 [title ]-f 3-80 pp. 

The B.M.C. (8: 240) lists two London 
editions in French as 1784 (630. g. 20. [1] 
nd 831. d. 22) ; The Monthly Review (70: 
574n.), in mentioning the original French, 
speaks of an importation and a translation 
issued by the Robinsons; and The English 
Review (3: 463^ 1'sts the Robinson importa- 
tion with this translation. 

Later, these ' Memoirs ' of Voltaire were 
added by the Robinsons to Condorcet's 
' Life of Voltaire,' both in the French and in 
the English editions. They were often re- 
printed in this connexion. I have seen a 
book : 

J ' The Life of Voltaire by the Marquis de Condorcet, 
to which are added the Memoirs of Voltaire, 
written by himself. Translated from the 
French. In two volumes. London : Printed 
for G. O. J. and J. Robinson, Pater-noster-Row. 

Vol. i. contains a translation from Con- 
-dorcet, and vol. ii. contains " a selection of 
justificatory pieces" and the ' Memoirs.' 

The evidence for Holcroft as translator is 
not very strong. He mentions the transla- 
tion and the French original in a letter to 
Mr. Freeman at Bath (' Memoirs,' p. 267) : 

" Had I any means of conveyance, I would 
send you a book just published (by me) in French 
and English, very curious ' Memoires de Vol- 
taire, ecrits par Iui-m6me.' If you will be kind 
enough in your next to inform me who in London 
sends you parcels oftenest, I can take occasion 
now and then to send you such trifles as I have 
any concern in." 

By this it seems to me that Holcroft' s 
authorship is fairly obvious. Even if we 
admit that Hazlitt, the editor of the ' Me- 
moirs,' inserted the parenthetical " by me," 
it seems the words " such trifles as I have 
any concern in" would indicate the modesty 
of an author, characterizing as " trifles " 
works of his own. If the " concern " was 
merely an interest, and not an active part, 
why regard them as trifles ? This is the 
phraseology of an author not wishing to 
appear immodest, and not the tone of an 
enthusiast recommending the works of 

There is in the British Museum (630. g. 20) : 
" Memoires de M. de Voltaire, ecrits par lui-meme. 
A Londres : Chez Robinson, X 25, Pater- 
noster-Row. M.DCC.LXXXIV." Duodecimo, 2 
[title] +ii-f 1-208 pp. 

Bound in the same volume with it there 
is a translation : 

" Memoirs of the Life of Voltaire. Written by 
Himself. Translated from the French. Lon- 
don : Printed for G. Robinson, X 25, Pater- 
noster-Row. MDCCLXXXIV." Duodecimo, 
p.l.+2 [title] +ii + 1-225 pp. 
It is probably this to which Holcroft 
refers in his letter to Mr. Freeman. " A book 
just published (by me) in French and English, 
very curious ' Memoires de Voltaire, ecrits 
par lui-meme.' ' It is a minor detail, but 
worth noticing, that Holcroft's omission of 
the accent in " Memoires " in the letter cor- 
responds to the omission on the title- page. 
There was a second edition of the London 
edition in French : 

" Memoires de M. de Voltaire, Merits par lui- 
meme. A Londres : Chez Robinson, X" '!">, 
Pater-noster-Row. M.DCC.LXXXIV." Duodecimo, 
2 [title] +ii + 1-208 pp. 

The pagination and letterpress are the 
same as in the first edition, except that in the 
second edition two corrections have been 
made and indications of the errors have 
been omitted in accordance with the follow- 
ing on p. ii of the first edition : 


" Tres-necessaire a remarquer, page 204, ligne 2, 
au lieu de Novembre 1769, mettez Decembre 
1759. Ligne 5, pour Decembre, mettez No- 

ii s.x. AUG. is, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Holcroft had a friend in Paris, De Bonne- 
ville, who was keeping him informed of 
literary phenomena. So the following seems 
to fit with perfection into the Holcroft trans- 
lation hypothesis : 

In the French edition, pp. i ii : 

" Extrait d'une Lettrc de Paris du 2 Mai, 1784, 
pour servir de Preface a celte Edition des 

Memoires de Voltaire. 

" . .Ce n'est pas-la tout ce qu'il y a ici de nouveau 
On parle beaucoup des Memoires de M. de VOL-. 
TAIRE, Merits par lui-meme. On a deja saisi deux 
ou trois Editions. II y a sept Libraires d'arret^s. 
Le Boi de Prusse est in-ite". Ce Voltaire est si 
ingrat ! On clit que le Roi de Prusse travaille a 
r^pondre a ces Memoires. Personne ne doute 
de leur authenticity ; ses amis 1'avouent. Le 
Ministre de.... son ami, assure qu'il les avoit 
jettes au feu ; mais que son infidele Secretaire 
en avoit probablement gard^ copie. On accuse 
aussi M. de Beaumarchais d'imprudence : mais 
on a beau faire ; les Memoires sont regiment [sic] 
de Voltaire, & ils se vendront t6t qu tard. Ce 
Voltaire a Fair d'un malin Genie qui n'est venu 
sur la terre que pour aigrir nous maux & s'en 

In the English edition, pp. i-ii : 
"Extract of a letter from Paris, dated May 2, 1784* 

Which may serve as a PREFACE to this Edition of 

" This is not all the present news of Paris. 
They speak very much of the Memoirs of Voltaire, 
written by himself, two or three editions of which 
have already been seized. Voltaire is called 
ungrateful. The King of Prussia is highly 
irritated, and is said to be very busily employed 
in writing an answer to these Memoirs. The 
friends of Voltaire allow them to be authentic, and 
nobody doubts it. The Ambassador of *****, 
his most intimate friend, has assured me he 
threw them in the fire ; but his deceitful Secretary, 
had, in all probability, reserved a copy. M. de 
Beaumarchais likewise is accused of imprudence. 
But accusations are fruitless. The Memoirs are 
really written by Voltaire, and must, soon or 
late, become public. This Voltaire is a sort of 
malignant spirit, who came upon earth only to 
embitter the cup of life, and afterwards laugh at 
our wry faces." 

The whole tone of the ' Memoirs of Vol- 
taire,' abusive of Frederick II., would natur- 
ally have drawn Holcroft. Hazlitt tells us 
in the 'Memoirs' (p. 116) that Holcroft, 
though translator of Frederick's ' Posthu- 
mous Works,' had no admiration for the 
Prussian king that in very fact he made 
elaborate preparations, and collected a large 
number of books as source-material, for an 
historical study of bad government, which 
should centre about Frederick. I would 
mention the attacks on Frederick in the 
Life of Baron Trenck. Perhaps we say 
enough about the " tone " of the ' Memoirs 
of Voltaire ' if we quote from a notice of the 
book, Town and Country Magazine, June, 
1784 (16: 323) : 

" The picture he draws of kings and courts,, 
greatly lowers the ideas which those who contem- 
plate them at a distance, usually conceive of 
such persons and such places. The King of 
Prussia appears here what he has always appeared 
to the lovers of justice, a dangerous and despicable 
byrant ; despicable, because he philosophized,, 
and understood the sacred rights of those he 
trampled on." 

The omission of the title from the list of 
Holcroft's works that appeared in The 
European Magazine for December, 1792 (22: 
403), is of small importance when we remem- 
ber that many other translations were also 
omitted from this list. The ' Biographia Dra- 
matica ' (1: 1, 354) and Watt's ' Bibliotheca 
Britannica' (I., 1: 504, t) are unnecessarily 
misleading when they list the book as ' The 
Private Life of Voltaire.' The ' Biographie 
Universelle ' (20: 478) has the same mistake^ 
saying, " II a traduit la ' Vie privee de Vol- 
taire.' " Such slipshod recording of titles 
soon becomes a nuisance, especially when the 
book deals with Voltaire, concerning whom 
so much has been written. Madame de 
Grafigny's ' Vie Privee de Voltaire,' Paris, 
1820, is the only work of the title which the 
three books above mentioned give, and to 
try to connect it with a translation of 1784 
would require something of the miraculous 
It is easier to explain it in the correct way. 

Columbia University, New York City. 

( To be continued.) 


(a) I see that men make rope's in such a scarre. 
All 's Well that Ends Well,' IV. ii. 38. 
(&) Had ever scarre for. ' Cymbeline,' V. v. 305, 
A crop of hopeless " emendations " of 
this vexed passage in ' All 's Well ' may be 
found in the ' Cambridge Shakespeare.' 
Out of these, two can be selected which, in, 
combination, form a very passable reading, 
viz., may cope's for " make ropes," the con- 
jecture of W. W. Williams (in The Parthenon- 
for 6 Sept., 1862, p. 595, as quoted by Dyce), 
and in such a case for " in such a scarre," 
the conjecture of Mitford, which is adopted 
by Dyce in his text. It is remarkable that 
both words are found in the same line in 
Marlowe's 'Edward II.,' 1. 1751 (ed. Tucker 
Brooke, 1910) : 

Our kindest friends in Belgia have we left, 
To cope with friends at home : a heauie case 
When force to force is knit. 

If Shakespeare wrote cope ' (i.e., cope us, 
encounter us), it is possible he did so from. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. Arc, 15, 1911. 

a reminiscence of Marlowe's line. The 
phrase " in such a case " is quite common 
in Shakespeare. See, for example, ' Komeo 
and Juliet,' II. iv. 54 ; ' Julius Caesar,' IV. 
iii. 6 ; ' Othello,' III. iv. 143 (cases) ; ' An- 
tony and Cleopatra,' II. ii. 98 ; ' Corio- 
lanus,' V. iv. 34. 

But I am inclined to think that we must 
look into this play itself for the true solution 
of the crux. In III. v. 74 we find : 

Hel, May be the amorous count solicits her 

In tlie unlawful purpose. 

Wid. He does indeed ; 

And brakes with all that can in such a suit 

Corrupt the tender honour of a maid ; 
and having regard to this passage, it is, 
perhaps, not too daring to suggest that 
Shakespeare wrote in IV. ii. 38, 

I see that men may broke 's (i.e., broke us), 
using the verb with a transitive instead of 
a neuter force no uncommon usage with 
liim or rather, perhaps, treating " us " as 
an ethic dative. One merit of this reading 
is that it accounts for the r of rope 's, which 
the reading " cope 's " does not do ; unless, 
indeed, we are to assume that the r is a 
misprint for c, a corruption not uncommon 
in the Folio, owing to the similarity of 
the letters in the type used. See, for example, 
the 'Errors,' I. i. 117, 

Had not their barke been very slow of sail, 
where " barke " is misprinted backe. It 
also accounts for the k in " make." 

As for the latter part of the line, the word 
" suit " in III. v. 74 is of itself enough to 
convince us that for " scarre " we should 
read not " case," but cause ; and powerful 
support is lent to this view by the ductus 
literarum, the rr representing a misprint 
of u, and the c being merely transposed or 
out of place a metathesis of letters which 
not only is exceedingly common in the 
Polio, but occurs in almost every newspaper 
of the present day. 

It is a very remarkable fact the more 
remarkable that it seems never to have been 
noticed that the identical corruption of 
cause, into " scarre " occurs in ' Cymbeline,' 
V. v. 305, where Belarius, speaking of 
Guiderius, says to Cymbeline : 

This man. . . .hath 

More of thee merited than a band of dotens 

Had ever scarre for. 

"Substituting cause for " scarre," we have a 
simple and elegant correction which throws 
a flood of light on an otherwise obscure and 
wrongly interpreted passage. Of course, 
'" scarre " (" scar " in modern texts) is 
defended. Was there ever a rankly gross 

corruption in the Folio which has not been 
defended by some critic ? 

The correction, then, of the passage in 
' All 's Well ' will run, 

I see that men may broke 's in such a ca use 

That we '11 forget ourselves 

a reading which fulfils every requirement 
both of sense and context. Cope 's gives 
excellent sense, but it does not readily 
account for the aggressive r in " rope 's," 
or for the k in " make " ; and it is not so 
striking or effective in meaning as broke 's. 

Another argument in favour of broke 's is 
that which has been called the " argument 
from repeated expressions." It is not un- 
common for Shakespeare at least, in the 
later stages of his career to use a striking 
word or phrase twice in a single play, and 
not afterwards. Examples may be found 
in ' Much Ado,' IV. ii. 89, " everything 
handsome about him," and V. iv. 105, 
" nothing handsome about him " ; ' Julius 
Caesar,' I. ii. 317, " Caesar doth bear me 
hard," and II. i. 215, " Ligarius doth bear 
Caesar hard " ; and elsewhere. It is not, 
therefore, straining probability to assume 
that this usage may be found in the above- 
mentioned passages in ' All 's Well;' 


WIGAIORE. In the Chancellor's Roll, No. 127 
of 8 Edward III. (B.O.), we find an interest- 
ing list of certain goods of Roger Mortimer 
of Wigmore, the paramour of Queen Isabella 
of evil fame. It comes in the account of 
Thomas de Ely and others, late Sheriffs of 

By brief of the King in October, 4 Ed- 
ward III., &c. 

Among Roger's goods and chattels they 

" de magno chargouro, pondere xix. lb., pretii 
xxiv. lb. : j cipho argenti cum pede et cooperculo 
deaurato pro vino de Vernache aimellato in fundo, 
et cooperculo sculpto de armis dicti Rogeri, 
pondere xxxv.s. 5.d., pretii Ix.s. : j cipho cum 
cooperculo et tripode argenti sculpto de foliagiis, 
aurato et aymellato de diversis armis de Mortimer 
et Geneville, pondere iv. lb. 2.5., pretii vi. lb. : 
j gotdetto argenti pro vino aimellato de diversis 
armis, viz. armis dicti Rogeri : j aquarip de eadem 
setta : iiij godetti quorum unum interius deaura- 
tum pro vino de Verenach, et ceteri in fondo 
aimellati de armis dicti Rogeri : j salsario piano 
cum cooperculo argenti pondere vi. lb. 6.d., 
pretii ix. lb. vi.s. viii.dL : j lieva [or liena] de cericq 
argenti pretii vi.. viii.d. Que fuerunt dicti 
Rogeri et manibus Johls de Hynxeton aurifabri 
London' tempore arrestationis predict! Rogeri." 

ii 8.x. AUG. is, i9R]i NOTES AND QUERIES. 


" [And all the aforesaid vases remained 
possession of the said John by brief of the king 
dated 21st Dec., 4 Edward III., the said Johi 
to keep all the said vases until the king shouk 
end and ask for them, for which also the sau 
John should answer.]" 

I imagine this extract from the origina 
roll will be of interest to readers of ' N. & Q. 
One longs to have the handling of such 
lovely things. C. SWYNNERTON. 

one issuing a new volume of poetry with this 
title renders himself liable to the charge of 
plagiarism. I have been idle enough to 
make a list of volumes with this title that 
have been issued in the past. I give them 
here in chronological order, with the author's 
name where known, and date of issue : 

Charles Cotton, 1689, 8vo. 

Duke of Buckingham, Mr. Wycherlev, &c., 
1701, 8vo. 

Anonymous, 1701, 8vo. 

Matthew Prior, 1709. 

Lady Chudleigh, 1713, cr. 8vo. 

John Smith, 1713, 8vo. 

Anonymous, 1713, 8vo. 

Thos. Parnell, 1722, 8vo. 

Walter Harte, 1727, 8vo. 

John Phillips, 1728, 12mo. 

J. Mitchell, 1729, 8vo, 2 vols. 

Mary Masters, 1733, 8vo. 

Saml. Wesley, 1736. 

Stephen Duck, 1736. 

Nicholas .tames, 1742, 4to, Truro. 

Rev. Thos. Warton, 1748, 8vo. 

Wm. Hamilton, 1748, 12mo, Bangour. 

Edwd. Cobden, 1748, 8vo. 

Nicholas Rowe, 1751, 12mo. 

Anonymous, 1752, Oxford. 

Thos. Blacklock, 1754, 8vo, Edinb. 

W. Whitehead, 1754, sm. 8vo, Lond. 

John Pomfret, 1766, 8vo. 

John Gay, 1775, 8vo, 2 vols. 

A Young Gentleman of Chichester, 1776. 

Rev. T. Fitzgerald, 1781, 8vo, Oxford. 

Ann Yearsley, a milkwoman of Bristol, 1785, 

Rev. Thos. Browne, 1800, 12mo, Hull. 

Anonymous, priv. printed, 1844, cr. 8vo, Lond. 

Pascoe Grenfell Hill [1845], 8vo, Penzance. 

Several volumes have this title with 
additions, notably Ed. Waller's ' Poems, &c., 
written upon Several Occasions and to 
Several Persons,' 1645, 12mo ; NahumTate's 
* Poems by Several Hands and on Several 
Occasions,' 1685 ; B. Molesworth's ' Ma- 
rinda, Poems and Translations on Several 
Occasions,' 8vo, 1716. As variants of this 
much-vised title we find ' Poems on Various 
Occasions,' by R. Ferguson, 1785 (third 
edition), 12mo, Edin., and also by the Rev. 
John Horseman, 1845, Camb. J. H. New- 
man called his volume of poems ' Verses on 
Various Occasions.' ' Poems on Various 
Subjects,' by Jane Cave, 17S3, Winchester, 

and an anonymous volume, 12mo, with the 
same title, published in Edinburgh in 1799, 
complete my collection, garnered chiefly 
from the pages of second-hand booksellers' 
catalogues. J. HAMBLEY ROWE. 

" RUBY." I find a curious and umc- 
corded use of this word in Cyril Tourneur's 
' Atheists Tragedie,' 1611, sig. E3. Borachio 
log. : 

" 1 knock'd out 's braines with this faire Rubie. 
And had another stone iust of this forme and 
bignesse ready : that I laid i' the broken skull vpo" 
the ground for 's pillow ; against the which they 
thought he fell and perish'd." 


' N.E.D.' 


(See 11 S. ix. 387.) 

Abeigh, at a shy distance, aloof (' O.E.D.,' 1707). 
C. 1568, A. Scott, ' Poems ' (S.T.S.), xxvii. 34 : 
" Quhen scho growis skeich, I byd on beich*" 
To the account in ' O.E.D.' may be added that 
the word occurs only in a burlesque context, and 
only in connexion with akeigh, with which ex- 
clusively it rimes : see also quots. in ' B.D.D.' 

J 4nfepend=antependium, a veil for the front of 
the altar (' O.E.D.,' 1542). 1506, ' Ld. H. Treas. 
Accts.,' iii. 80 : " Item, the xx day of Maij, for 
ane antepend to the altair of Sanct Anthonis in 
the Crag, Is. Item, for ane othir to Sanct 
Nicholais Chapell in Leith, Is." 

Apparitor (' O.E.D.,' 1533). C. 1450, Henry- 
son, ' Tale of Dog,' quoted by ' O.E.D.,' s.v. 
' Corbie.' 

Ark, the masonry in which the water-wheel of 

mill moves ('E.D.D.,' ' O.E.D.'). 1563-4, 

Edinb. Rec. (Town Treas. Accts.),' i. 463 : " for 

ane daill to mend the waiter ark of Drynis heichtt 

myln " ; ibid., 466, " mending of the waiter ark." 

Barragan, -on, a corded stuff (' O.E.D.,' 1787). 
1677, Cunningham, ' Diary,' 89 : " 11 ells Bar- 
ragon to be a cloak." 

Barras, " A coarse linen fabric originally im- 
ported from Holland " (' O.E.D.,' 1640). 1535, 
Ld. H. Treas. Accts.,' vi. 261 : " Item, for 
j xxx einis barres canwes to be sorpclaithis to 
cary the Kingis gracis woll fra Selkirk, and to 
>ak the samyn to be send to the sey, price of ilk 
"Ine xviijd. ; summa xvij/t. v." 

Brander, v., prob. f. Brander, 6. 2 , as if "to 
arrange cross-bars in the form of a gridiron," or 
. F. brandir, to fasten two pieces of wood together 
with a peg (' O.E.D.,' 1869). Our quotation 
would suggest the derivation from Brander. 1580, 
Aberd. Reg.,' ii. 35 (Jan. 23) : " the geir and 
wnderwrettin .... ane standand bed of ayik, 


,he pryce thairof ten libs.,. . . .ane mait buird of 
ayik branderit, pryce thairof iii lib. [" Mait " ? = 
mat, " the coarse piece of sacking on which the 
feather-bed is laid *' (' E.D.D.,' ' O.E.D.,' 1702).] 
Buzz, Sc. bizz, to molest by buzzing (' O.E.D.,' 
1079). ? 1645, ' MS. Colmonell Kirk-Session ' 
(May 1) : " Hew M'llwrik entered a bill against 
Patrick M'Lymont and Andrew his son in Lagar- 
trie, complaining that they both had stricken 
and bizzst his wyfe, being within a month of her 

Bypertii, divided into two parts (' O.E.D., 
1574). 1455, Holland, ' Howlat,' 357 : " Ane 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. is, 191*. 

Egill. . . .All of sable the self, quha the suth leris, 
The beke bypertit breine of that ilk ble." 

Cachesiidl, -)tulr, the game of tennis (' O.E.D.,' 
1568). 1557-8, ' F.dinb. Rec. (T. Tr. Accts.),' 
i. 271 : " twa dosoun of cachepull balls." 

Cogue, Cog, a small drinking-vessel of wood 
(' O.E.D.,' 1690). 1504-5, ' Ld. H. Treas. Accts.,' 
iii. 57 : " Item, the xx day of March, Cena 
Domini [the usual alms clothes given to 33 poor 
men and 16 women], with 'stopes, cogis and 
pLitis.' " 

Cradden, -on, a craven, coward (' O.E.D.,' 1513). 
1505, Dunbar, ' Flyting,' 76 : " Cukcald 

Lunt, a slow match (' O.E.D.,' 1550). 1532, 
1 Ld. H. Treas. Accts.,' vi. '38. 

Edinburgh. R " L ' G ' RICHIE. 

MAN OF LONDON. I lately received kind per- 
mission to consult the arcliives preserved at 
the Guildhall, and in doing so came across 
the following items, which refer, I have little 
doubt, to John Heywood. the author of ' The 
Four P.P.' I am not aware that Heywood'. ? 
connexion with the City has been noticed 

Repertory IV., fo. 141 : " Jovis 22 die 
Januarij 1,1522/3] Isto die lecte sunt Kferae downni 
Regis pro quodam Joftanne Heywood vno 
senriente domini Regis admittendi in libcrtatem 
Ciuitatis et super hoc concessum est et ei re- 
sponsmn quod sine communi consilio nil inde 
possunt facere & ad proximum commune con- 
siliuiu niocio net." 

There is a similar statement in Reper- 
tory VI., fo. 13, under the same date. 

Letter -Book N, fo. 222 (1522-3): "John 
Heywode & Tho. Tyrwhytte for whom the 
King directed letters to be made freemen been 
denyed to be made free except on payment of 
10Z. according to the new Act. 

Journal XII., fp. 235 b : " xviij die Junij 
anno regis henr. via xv [1523]. John Heywode. 
Itm. at the contemplacon of the Kynges 1're 
John Heywode is admytted in to the liberties of 
this citie paying the olde Haunse." 

A similar statement in Letter-Book N, 
fo. 2.'55. G. C. MOORE SMITH. 

" CHATTERBOX.'' No satisfactory deriva- 
tion of this word having been suggested as 
yet, it may be well to note that, before being 
applied to a noisy person, the word " chatter- 
box " was applied to a noisy carriage. This 
appears from the following quotation from 
' Wine and Walnuts,' bv Ephraim Hard- 
castle (W. H. Pyne, 1769-1843), second 
edition, 1824, vol. ii. p. 64 (n.) : 

" Chatterbox ; a name given to a post-chaise 
by the wags of the last century. For certain, 
these vehicles, in my remembrance, were uneasy 
carriages, being usually obsolete, four-wheeled, 
rattling, crazy concerns. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

five (according to Gamba) editions of the 
' Opere ' of Machiavelli, all dated 1550, are 
well known. Critics are not agreed as to their 
authority in regard to the text. Macri 
Leone, the editor of the last critical edition 
of the ' Principe,' does not allow them much 
value. None of the ordinary copies of these 
editions has either name of printer or place 
of publication. 

In Mr. T. Thorp's catalogue recently pub- 
lished at Guildford a copy was included, 
with " presso Pietro Alberta in Geneva." 
Before my order reached the bookseller the 
copy had been sold over the counter to some 
unknown purchaser. 

I wish for information as to what copies 
of the Testina (1550) edition are known 
having name of printer and place of printing, 
and to which of Gamba's classes they belong. 
He does not mention any such copy, but 
Bmnet mentions one. 

The copy sold at Guildford was probably 
one of Gamba's No. 3. J. F. ROTTON. 


ELEANOR NEEDHAM. Does any reader 
remember who purchased a portrait of this 
lady a few years ago 1 There was a reference 
to it in London Opinion in 1908, I believe. I 
shall be grateful for any information concern- 
ing both the picture and the lady. Very 
little is known of this mistress of the Duke of 
Monmouth, except that she bore him four 
children, one of whom became Duchess of 
Bolton, and another was Major-General 
James Crofts. She afterwards married John 
South, who died in Dublin, 1711, leaving a 
daughter, who married Philip Doyne of 
Wells, Wexford, in 1709. Eleanor died on. 
31 Dec., 1717, place unknown. 

Mrs. Evan Nepean, author of ' On the Left 
of a Throne,' has favoured me with a very 
interesting theory, viz., that possibly it was 
Eleanor Needham who commissioned the 
painter (unknown) of the recently discovered 
portrait of the Duke of Monmouth, painted 
just after his execution, and now in the 
National Portrait Gallery, having beea 
removed thither from a Kentish farm-house. 


11 S. X. AUG. 15, 1914.] 



SMITH. According to the writer of ' Th< 
Poetry of Games ' in The Times Literary 
Supplement of 16 July, Pindar 
"shirked all the sporting details and invariablj 
behaved, as Mr. Andrew Lang once observed, 'as i 
one were offered five pounds to celebrate Mr. G. O 
Smith, and then wrote an ode on Hephaestus.' " 

When and where did Andrew Lang make this 
observation ? JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 

SIR PHILIP HOWARD. The Corporation of 
Carlisle possesses certain portraits which 
that the inhabitants may the better see 
them, have been recently removed to the Arl 
Gallery. One of these is said to be that oi 
Sir Philip Howard, 'K.G., M.P. for Carlisle 
1661-81. I am not able to consult any 
books upon knights, and shall, therefore, be 
glad to know if he was really a Knight of the 
Garter. It is not impossible, but Chester, 
in the note on his burial in Westminster 
Abbey, does not say that he was one. 


BEV. H. SALVIN. I am anxious to obtain 
information regarding the above, who wrote 
an interesting account of his stay on the west 
coast of South America while acting as 
chaplain of H.M.S. Cambridge. The title of 
the book i$ ' Journal written on board 
H.M.S. Cambridge from Jan., 1824, to May, 
1827,' " By the Rev. H. S., Chaplain," and 
it was privately printed at Newcastle in 1829. 
If there are any known descendants of the 
author, I should like to communicate with 
4, Somers Place, Hyde Park, W. 

ACROSTICS. Between the years 1865 and 
1870 five books of ' Double Acrostics in 
Prose and Verse ' were edited by A. E. H., 
and published by Mr. Thomas Bosworth or 
by Mr. John Camden Hotten. I have the 
' Key ' to the Second Series. Can any 
reader kindly tell me if it is possible to 
obtain the other ' Keys ' ? I. 

usual in the seventeenth century to bleed 
horses on St. Stephen's Day ? (6) Was 
St. Patrick's Day a special holiday for 
servants in England ? 

SUMPTUARY LAWS. I should be glad 
of particulars concerning English sump- 
tuary laws and edicts. In particular, were 
any enforced during the seventeenth and 
early eighteenth century, as was the case 
in France under Louis XIV. ? 


FRIENDS. This book was published by 
Strahan & Co., 1869. Who were the authors ? 

2. ' THE PAMELA MAGAZINE.' When was 
this published, and by whom ? 


Founder's Day at Dr. Barnardo's Girls' 
Village Home on 4 July the Archbishop of 
Armagh said in his speech : 

" Two ladies were watching a potter, and said 
how tired the working foot on the wheel must be. 
Slowly he raised his patient eyes, 

With homely wit inspired : 
' No, ma'am, it 's not the foot that kicks, 

It 's the one that stands that 's tired.' 
I wish any one who knows where these lines came 
from would kindly tell me, and I would gratefully 
remit the postage." 

Perhaps ' N. & Q.' could furnish the 
inforniation required. 

J. B. McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Kectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

I should feel deeply obliged if any of 
your readers would kindly tell me who is 
the author of some lines called ' At the Sign 
of the Heart.' They begin : 

But art Thou come, dear Saviour ? 

Hath Thy love 
Thus made Thee stoop and leave 

Thy throne above, 

Thy lofty heavens, and thus Thyself to dress 
In dust to visit mortals ? 

College House, Esplanade, Madras. 

Who is the author, and who is the subject, 
of the following liries ? 

A dreamer of the common dreams, 

A fisher in familiar streams, 

He chased the transitory gleams 

That all pursue ; 
And on his lips the eternal themes 

Again were new. 
The words seem applicable to Burns, and 
verses are in the same metre as that of 
Wordsworth's three poems on Bums. 


DERRY. In a letter written by my great- 
grandfather John Hill, dated Barnhill (co. 
barlow), I Nov., 1821, there occurs the 
ollowing : 

" This medal, struck in commemoration of the 
oint crossing of King William the 3rd and his 
onsort Queen Mary, was given me, being eldest 
on, by my father Edward Hill, Esq., long a resi- 
ent in the County of Carlow. He got it from 
is father Richard Hill, who died in Carlow a half' 
ay Captain of horse by commission under the 
"ing the medal records, and at whose coronation 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. A, is, wu. 

he had the honour of receiving it.... In addi- 
tion to his half pay, Captain Hill had a pension of 
three hundred a year from King William, a singular 
instance of Royal bounty, but I have heard my 
father say ib was in consequence of some display 
of merit at the siege of Derry." 

Can any of your readers tell me whether 
there is a record of those to whom such 
medals and pensions were granted, and of 
the causes for their bestowal, in order that 
I may verify the above ? 

Richard Hill died 1747 in Carlow, and his 
will is in the Diocesan Registry of Ferns 
and Leighlin. E. E. HILL. 

Maycliff, St. Luke's Road North, Torquay. 

the most interesting ' Life of the Duke of 
Ormonde,' by Lady Burghclere, it is said the 
Duke's followers went with him to France. 
Is there any record of who these were, or 
of those, if any, who died in France ? If so, 
where is it ? E. E. COPE. 

Finchampstead Place, Berkshire. 

WARD TIL The letters patent of Edward III., 
18 Jan., 1340/41, giving licence to Robert 
de Eglesfeld to found Queen's Hall, Oxford, 
are countersigned Retforde. Is this a known 
name of one of that King's officials ? 

The same King's letters patent. 28 Feb., 
1349/50, giving licence to the Provost and 
Scholars of Queen's Hall, Oxford, to build a 
chapel, and to John de Stouford to contri- 
bute thereto, are countersigned Derlee. Is 
anything known of this person ? 


Queen's College, Oxford. 

in the Long Parliament, was the sixth 
son of Oliver, third Baron St. John of 
Bbtshoe, and was M.P. for Bedfordshire in 
1621-2, and for Bedford Town in 1626 
1628-9, April-May, 1640, and in the Long 
Parliament from November, 1640, unti 
secluded in Pride's Purge, December, 1648 
Is the precise date known when he died ' 
Collins's ' Peerage ' erroneously gives it as 
1631, and this date has been copied by al 
the Peerages, being accepted by the '' Vic 
toria County History, of Bedford 'upon the 
authority of Lodge's ' Peerage 'in the 
account given of the descent of the manor o 
Tilbrook, to which estate Sir Beauchamr 
succeeded in 1625 by the bequest of his 
father-in law, William Hawkins. He, how 
ever, certainly survived the Restoration 
being one of the secluded members whose 
return to Westminster was enforced b 1 
General Monck in Feb.-March, 1660. Th 

atest reference I have to him is 2 June, 1662, 
when power was reservedto him as co-executor 

prove the will of his nephew, Sir Oliver 
St. John, first Baronet of Woodford. At 

hat date he would be about 70 years of age, 
and probably died shortly afterwards at 
L'ilbrook, where he may have been buried. 

W. D. PINK. 
Lowton, Ne\s ton-le-Willows. 

" IEBIE HORSE." What can this be? 
Possibly a variant of " hobby-horse," though 
I doubt it. 

" He hath some smacke of iudgement in 
vawting, tumbling, and in dauncing xvith the 
!ebie horse." Barnaby Riche, 1606, ' Faultes, 
faults,' fo. 8 verso. 


Bruce Chapel in SS. Peter and Paul's, Picker- 
ng, is suspended a large, ugly clock of 
mammoth warming-pan shape the pendu- 
lum or weight-box representing the handle 
which is said to have been made at some 
period when a tax was laid on time-keepers. 

1 should like to know something about this 
fiscal scheme, and to learn what there was 
peculiar in the make of clocks such as that 
at Pickering which made them legal. 


JAMES WM. GILBART. I am anxious to 
ascertain the date and place of marriage 
of the Rev. Francis Gilbart, the father of 
the famous banker, and also to know the 
full maiden name of Mrs. Francis Gilbart. 
I am in possession of Francis Gilbart's 
Cornish ancestry back to 1677. 

J. H. R. 

correspondent of ' N. & Q.' give me 
particulars of the ancestry of Sir Thomas 
Holcroft, or Henley, of Vale Royal, Cheshire, 
or Blackheath ? 

Was he identical with Thomas Holcroft of 
Battesby, Surrey, whose daughter Elizabeth 
married William Ayloffe, King's Serjeant in 
1577, who died 1585? 


Manor House, Dundrum, co. Down. 

I should be glad to obtain any informa- 
tion concerning the following Old West- 
minsters : (1) Frederick Cope, admitted 
1723, aged 12. (2) John Coppendale, 
admitted 1731, aged 11. (3) Richard 
Corbet, admitted 1748, aged 10. (4) 
Thomas Corbet, admitted 1716, aged 11. 
(5) William Cornish, admitted 1719, aged 

ii s. x. AUG. 15, 19H.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


12. (6) William Corry, admitted 1721, 
aged 12. (7) Edmund Cosyn, a student 
at Cambridge, 1543. (8) John Cotes, ad- 
mitted 1731, aged 15. (9) Edward Cot- 
trell, son of Charles Cottrell of York City, 
at school 1761, aged 14. G. F. R. B. 

more's ' Ecclesiastical Law of the Church of 
England,' vol. ii. p. 1231 (edition 1873), it is 
stated in a foot-note that " the whole trial " 
of the Bishop of Bangor at the Shrewsbury 
Assizes in 1796 " is reported in vol. i. of Lord 
Erskine's Speeches." Can any reader of 
1 N. & Q.' inform me in what edition of the 
Speeches this report is to be found? I have 
consulted some editions, and failed to find it 
in them. Phillimore in the last edition of 
his ' Ecclesiastical Law ' has, I think, speci- 
fied ' Miscellaneous Speeches,' but I have 
failed to find that the Catalogue of the 
British Museum Library contains such a 

Yspytty Vicarage, Bettws-y-Coed. 

" LADY." When first was the wife of a 
Knight called " Lady" ? E. G. 

1741. Can ai*y one inform me who was the 
father of this William Carr ? He died 9 May, 
1752, aged 63 years, and married Mary 
Gildart, the daughter of Richard Gildart, 
who was Mayor of Liverpool, 1714. 

Her brothers were (1) Francis Gildart, 
Town Clerk of Liverpool, 1742 ; (2) J. Gil- 
dart, merchant of Castle Street, and Mayor 
of Liverpool, 1786 ; and (3) Richard Gil- 
dart, M.P., 1734, and Mayor of Liverpool, 
1736. The Gildart family remained in 
Liverpool until after 1800, when the Rev. 
James Gildart, curate of St. Nicholas's, 1808- 
1813, became Rector of High Wycombe. 
William Carr's father is supposed to have 
been a certain Stephen Carr of Cocken Hall 
(co. Durham), who is said to have settled in 
Liverpool, 1690. It is this connexion which I 
wish to establish, and I shall be very grateful 
for any help that your readers may be able 
to give me. (Rev.) W. ARNOLD CARR. 


SAMUEL DERHAM, M.A., M.D., died of 
smallpox at Oxford, 26 Aug., 1689, and 
was the author of ' Hydrologia Philosophica ; 
or, an Account of Ilmington Waters in 
Warwickshire.' I shall be obliged to any of 
your correspondents who can tell me what 
relation (if any) he was to William Derham, 
admitted in May, 1675, at Trinity College, 
Oxford, who was subsequently Vicar of 

Wargrave, Berks, and Canon of Windsor 
(1716). In 1730 he received the degree 
of D.D. by diploma from the University of 
Oxford, anddied 5 April, 1735, at Upminster, 
Essex, in his 78th year. A. C. C. 

SALTER. Where is the original of that 
portrait of the Duke, standing with his sword 
under his left arm and his hat in his right 
hand, which was published on the back of 
p. 21 of ' Lest We Forget, a Keepsake of the 
Nineteenth Century,' by the late Mr. W. T. 


(1 S. ii. 216, 251 ; 6 S. xii. 187 ; 7 S. viii. 
324, 394 ; 10 S. vii. 168, 330, 376, 416 ; 
11 S. x. 12, 51, 91.) 

TOWARDS the end of 1659, when the Restora- 
tion was almost daily expected, Sir Henry 
Norton (who, as already stated, came into 
possession of the manor of Richmond in 
1<557) must have known very well that when 
Charles II. came to his own, he (Sir Henry) 
could lay no legal claim to this property, 
which had belonged to the late unhappy 
king. We are not surprised, therefore, to find 
that in January, 1660, either as a result of 
pressure brought to bear upon him by the 
Royalists, or feeling that it would be more 
dignified for him to take the first step, 
he decided to give up the manor and his 
home there. How this was effected is 
shown in the following document, to be 
seen in the Record Office. One cannot help 
feeling that it was a bogus case, and that 
Mathew Mead was a mere " man of straw," 
probably in the hands of the Parliament, 
who were by this time practically on the 
King's side : 

" Between Mathew Mead gent ptf And Henry 
Norton baronett & Mabella his wife defen to of 
the Mannor of Richmond otherwise West Sheene 
with the appurtenances and of three messuages 
three gardens three orchardes one hundred and 
twenty acres of land forty acres of meadow one 
hundred and sixty acres of wood & comon of 
pasture with the appurtenances in Richmond & 
West Sheene Whereupon a plea of covenant 
was sumoned between them etc That is to say 
That the aforesaid Henry and Mabella have 
acknowledged the aforesaid Mannor tenaments & 
comon of pasture with the appurtenances to be 
the right of him the said Mathew As those which 
the said Mathew hath of the guif t of the aforesaid 
Henry & Mabella And those they have remised 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. 15, 1014. 

& quitt claimed from them the said Henry & 
Mabella and their heires to the aforesaid Mathew 
& his heires for ever And moreover the said 
Henry & Mabella have graunted for them and 
the heires of the said Henry that they will warrant 
to the aforesaid Mathew & his heires the aforesaid 
Manner tenaments & comon of pasture with the 
appurtenances against them the said Henry and 
Mabella & the heires of the said Henry for ever 
And for this etc the said Mathew hath given t 
the aforesaid Henry and Mabella foure hundred 
pounds sterlinge. 

" Surrey, from the day of St. Hillary in fifteen 
dayes In the yeare of our Lord one thousand six 
hundred fifty nine." 

About two months later, on 4 April, 
Charles II. signed a declaration known as 
the Declaration of Breda, in which he 
offered a general pa.rdon to all except those 
specially exempted by Parliament, and 
promised to secure confiscated estates to 
their new owners in whatever way Parlia- 
ment should approve. On 25 May of the 
same year he landed at Dover, amidst 
enthusiastic crowds. 

On 18 May, 1660, upon complaint made 
by the Commons in Parliament, it was 
ordered by the Lords in Parliament assembled 
that certain persons (including Sir Gregory 

" who sate in judgement upon the late King's 
Majesty when sentence of death was pronounced 
against him, and the estates both real and personal 
of all and every of the said persons (whether in 
their own hands, or in the hands of any in Trust 
for their, or any of their uses) who are fled, be 
forthwith seized and secured ; and the respective 
sheriffs and other officers whom this may concern, 
are to take effectual order accordingly." 

This proclamation was ordered to be 
printed and published. 

On 9 June of the same year the House of 
Commons resolved 

" That several persons [a list of whose names 
appears, which includes Sir Gregory Norton's] 
be excepted out of the General Act of Pardon 
and Oblivion for, and in respect only of such 
pains, penalties, and forfeitures (not extending to 
life ) as shall be thought fit to be inflicted on them 
by another Act, intended to be hereafter passed 
for that purpose." 

On 23 June Denzil Holies, who soon after 
was admitted to the Privy Council, and was 
created a peer by the title of Baron Holies 
of Ifield, submitted to Parliament, from the 
Committee for the Do wager- Queen Henrietta 
Maria's jointure, a schedule of the honours, 
manors, and lands, parcel of her jointure, 
which had been purchased by various persons 
during the Commonwealth, whose estates 
had become liable to forfeiture. This 
schedule includes the manor of Richmond, 
with the house and materials there, purchased 
by Sir Gregory Norton. 

The following report was also submitted 
to the House by the Committee : 

" That the Queen's Majesty ought to be forth- 
with restored to the possession of the several 
Houses, Manors, and Lands aforesaid, mentioned 
to be Parcels of her Majesty's jointure, and to 
have been purchased by. Persons, whose Estates 
are liable to forfeiture. That what Monies for 
Kent, or any other Payments, due out of the 
aforesaid Lands, now remain in the Hands of 
the Tenant, or of any other Person, that hath 
received such Monies to the Purchaser's use, 
and not paid it over to the Purchaser, shall pay 
it unto such Person, as shall be appointed to 
receive it for Her Majesty's use." 

The House of Commons 

" resolved that the Queen's Majesty be forthwith 
restored to the Possession of the several Houses, 
Manors, and Lands, after mentioned, being 
Parcels of Her Majesty's jointure, and purchased 
by Persons, whose Estates are liable to Forfeiture ; 
That is to say." (Here follows the schedule.) 

It was also resolved : 

" That the Lords' concurrence be desired to 
these Votes, and that Mr. Holies is to carry them 
to the Lords." 

There was evidently no trouble so far as 
the House of Lords was concerned, for 
almost immediately after the resolution 
was sent in, Queen Henrietta Maria was 
enrolled as Lady of the Manor of Richmond. 

Richmond, Surrey. 

(To be continued.) 

WELLINGTON (11 S. x. 49). The reason 
why Arthur Wellesley took his title from 
Wellington in Somerset has, so far as I know, 
never been satisfactorily explained, but I 
would offer the following suggestion. 

There is nothing extraordinary in the 
fact of a man adopting a territorial title 
from some place with which he has little 
acquaintance. The peerage is full of the 
names of families, the representative mem- 
bers of which 'bear titles which have been 
selected for reasons of euphony only. In 
the year 53 George III. an Act of Parlia- 
ment was passed entitled 

" An Act for granting a sum of money for pur 
chasing an estate for the Marquis of Wellington 
in consideration of the eminent and signal services 
performed by the said Marquis of Wellington to 
His Majesty and the public." 
It was enacted that a sum not exceeding a 
hundred thousand pounds should be paid 
out of the Consolidated Fund, and that 
certain trustees appointed they were Charles 
Abbott, Speaker of the House of Commons ; 
Robert Banks, Earl of Liverpool ; Nicholas 
Vansittart, William Wellesley Pole, and 

ii s. x. AUG. is, MM.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


the Hon. Gerald Valerian Wellesley, D.D. 
should lay out the money in. lands, manors, 
and tenements. In obedience to the direc- 
tions of this Act, the Duke became possessed 
of the lordship of the manor of Wellington 
Borough with hereditary rights. The above 
explains, to some extent, the connexion oi 
the Duke of Wellington with this town 
since 1813, but it throws no light on the 
reasons which led him, in 1809, to select 
Wellington for his title. The Duke visited 
the town in 1814, and was publicly received. 
The family of the Duke of Wellington had 
close associations with Somerset long before 
Wellington Manor was purchased for the 
gallant Duke. The surname of this eminent 
family was originally Cowley or Colley. 
The first to be mentioned was Walter 
Cowley, who was an English gentleman sent 
to Ireland in the time of Henry VII., in the 
political service. From that period the 
family was closely associated with Ireland. 
One of them married a Wellesley of Dangan, 
co. Meath, a branch of the Wellesley family 
of Welleslej-, Somerset, a place about one 
and a half miles from the city of Wells. 
This family is said to have had connexion 
with the cider county as early as 1261. 
The father oSrthe great Duke of Wellington 
was Garret Wellesley, first Earl of Morning- 
ton, and when his son Richard came to the 
peerage he was created Baron Wellesley of 
Wellesley, county Somerset. The Iron Duke 
was knighted before he went to Spain. Sub- 
sequently he was created Baron Douro of 
Wellesley, and there is, perhaps, nothing 
surprising about the fact that, when the Act 
was passed giving certain trustees the right 
to purchase land on his behalf, this par- 
ticular estate being in the market at the 
time, the Duke should have chosen it, seeing 
that it was not far removed from Wellesley, 
which had been associated with his family 
from the very earliest days. The Duke of 
Wellington has thus a closer association 
with the West of England than is, perhaps, 
generally known. 

It may be interesting to mention that 
it was on 5 Sept., 1815, that, at a meet- 
ing which was held at "The White Hart 
Inn," Wellington, it was decided to per- 
petuate the memory of the Duke of Welling- 
ton by erecting a monument at the highest 
point of Blackdown, which formed part of 
the estate of the Duke. The foundation 
stone was laid on 26 Oct., 1817, but the 
structure was, in a large measure, rebuilt 
on a more worthy scale in 1860. 


The subject of the connexion of the 
Duke of Wellington with the town of 
Wellington in Somersetshire has been dis- 
cussed at various times. The most authori- 
tative statement is one which in 1891 the 
present Duke of Wellington authorized his 
secretary, Mr. George Coxon, to make to a 
correspondent, and I believe that it em- 
bodies in brief all that can be said 
with certainty upon the subject. It is as 
follows : 

"Richard Colley, 1st Baron Mornington," the 
Duke's grandfather, succeeded to the Wellesley 
estates, and assumed the name and arms iu 
1728. It is not improbable, therefore, that the 
Duke, when looking about for a title, should go 
to the county and neighbourhood of the family 

This memorandum was printed in The 
Somerset County Gazette, 11 July, 1891, 
Further correspondence appeared also in the 
same paper both in 1890 and 1891. 

The inhabitants of the town of Wellington 
are very proud of the association of the great 
Duke with the place. Travellers by the 
Great Western route to Exeter notice, soon 
after leaving Taunton, a stone pillar pro- 
minently placed upon the Blackdown range, 
overlooking the town of Wellington. This- 
monument was erected to commemorate the 
victories of the Duke, and to mark his con- 
nexion with the town from which he took 
his title. 

In 53 George III. an Act was passed 

" An Act for granting a sum of money for 
purchasing an estate for the Marquess of Welling- 
ton, in consideration of the eminent and signal 
services performed by the said Marquess of 
Wellington to His Majesty and the public." 

It was enacted that a sum not exceeding 
100,OOOJ. should be paid out of the Con- 
solidated Fund, and that certain trustees 
should lay out the money on manors, 
lands,. &c. These trustees were Charles 
Abbott (the Speaker), Bobert Banks, Earl 
of Liverpool, Nicholas Vansittart, William. 
Wellesley Pole, and the Hon. Gerald Valerian 
Wellesley, D.D. In obedience to the direc- 
tions of this Act, the Duke became possessed 
of the lordship of the manor of Wellington 
Borough with hereditary rights, as well as 
other property elsewhere. 

In 1815 some few men of influence in the 
neighbourhood of Wellington expressed a 
desire to start a subscription for the pur- 
pose of putting up a monument on the 
Blackdown Hills. They met at " The White 
Hart Hotel," Wellington, then the chief inn 
in the place, on 5 Sept., 1815, presided over 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. x. AUG. is, 1914. 

"by Mr. Sanford of Nynehead. It was re- 
solved that, 

<( to perpetuate the memory of the military achieve- 
ments of the Duke of Wellington, a monument be 
raised on the highest point of Blackdown, near 
the town of Wellington and upon the estate of 
the noble Duke." 

A committee of influential men in the 
county was formed, and on 19 Jan., 1816, a 
meeting was held at " The Thatched House 
Tavern," St. James's Street, to discuss the 
ame subject. The foundation stone of the 
first Wellington monument was laid on 
20 Oct., 1817. It was not completed for 
more than a year afterwards, and the struc- 
ture was, in a large measure, rebuilt on a 
more worthy scale in 1860. 

Many years ago, the late Mr. R. A. King- 
lake sent me the following letter from the 
great Duke to Lord Somerville : 

Paris, February 1st, 1816. 

I received by last post your letter of the 22nd, 
and I assure you that 1 am much flattered by the 
measures which have been adopted with a view 
to erect a monument for the Battle of Waterloo 
-on the estate at Wellington. I have received Mr. 
Kinglake's report. I have so little knowledge of 
my own affairs, and possessing no former report 
to which I can refer, I can form no opinion of it. 
My opinion has long been that I have either too 
much or too little property in the neighbourhood, 
;and I will readily as depends on me follow your 
advice in increasing it by way of enclosure". I 
shall be obliged to you if you will give such direc- 
tions as you may think necessary respecting the 

Ever, my dear Lord Somerville, 

Yours most sincerely, 


When the monument had been completed 
on the Blackdown Hills, a man who was 
known as Doubledanger organized a plea- 
sure fair to be held annually on the 
open space surrounding the pillar, and to 
be called Waterloo Fair. This was con- 
tinued for a year or so, and was the 
occasion for much rowdyism. 

Next year (1915) the town of Wellington 
intends to have a pageant to celebrate the 
anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo and 
other episodes in the history of the town. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

I take the following information from an 
unpublished source, and with some reserve, 
as I cannot find any other reference to 

" Wellington, S. Somerset. This is the Welling- 
ton from which the Duke chose his title, and is so 
-called from its springs or wells, as at Holywell or 
Rockwell, or from having belonged to the See of 

Wells Wellington Court replaces the house of 

Chief Justice Popham (1531 - 1607), which was 
destroyed in the Civil War. It gives the titles of 
Viscount (1809), Earl and Marquis (1812), and Duke 
of W. (1814) to the Wellesleys, through the Duke ; 
whose family name is derived from a place called 
Wellsleigh, in the neighbourhood." 


For the victories of Oporto and Talavera 
Sir Arthur Wellesley was raised to the 
peerage on 4 Sept., 1809, as Baron Douro of 
Wellesley and Viscount Wellington of Tala- 
vera. The title was chosen by his brother 
William Wellesley-Pole (afterwards third 
Earl of Mornington and first Baron Mary- 
borough), apparently to minimize the change 
of name. A. R. BAYLEY. 

CHANDOS (11 S. x. 49). Chandos or 
Chandois is a French place-name, and was 
borne for three centuries by a family of 
knightly rank in Herefordshire. (See ' The 
Gallant Sir John Chandos ' in Walford's 
' Chapters from Family Chests,' vol. ii. 
p. 312.) In 1554 John Brydges, Knt., was 
created Baron Chandos of Sudeley, and in 
1719 James Brydges became first Duke of 
Chandos. In 1789 the third Duke of 
Chandos died, leaving no male issue, 
although thrice married. His daughter and 
heir (Lady Anne Eliza Brydges) married 
the second Marquis of Buckingham, and 
this nobleman, in 1822, was created the 
first Duke of Buckingham and Chandos. 


Chandos is the more modern spelling of 
Candos or Chaundos. Robert de Candos 
was a companion in arms with the Con- 
queror (Banks, ' Extinct Peerage/ i. 256, 
and ' The Battle Abbey Roll,' by the 
Duchess of Cleveland). The place where the 
family is earliest found in l]ngland is in 
Herefordshire (Robinson's ' Castles of Here- 
fordshire,' p. 1 2 1 ). Chandos, near Much Marc le 
(Herefs. ), now a farm, was held by John de 
Chandos in 1285. But the name is, of course, 
French, and Candos, from where the family 
came originally, is between Barentin and the 
Seine. It is in the commune of St. Pierre de 
Varengeville (Seine Inf6rieure). The most 
authoritative account of the Chandos family 
is Mr. G. W. Watson's contribution to the last 
edition of the G. E. C. ' Complete Peerage.' 
The reason why the Duke of Buckingham 
has " Chandos " added to his title is because 
Earl Temple took by royal licence, 15 Nov., 
1799, the additional surnames of Brydges- 
Chandos, having married the heiress of 



those families. On 4 Feb., 1822, he was 
created Earl Temple of Stowe, co. Bucking- 
ham, Marquess of Chandos, and Duke of 
Buckingham and Chandos. 


Robert de Chandos, a companion of 
William the Conqueror, is supposed to have 
been the ancestor of two families one 
settled in Herefordshire, and the other in 
Derbyshire. To the latter branch Sir John 
Chandos (d. 1370), the famous soldier and 
friend of the Black Prince, belonged. To 
the Herefordshire branch belonged another 
Sir John Chandos. He was grandson of 
Roger de Chandos, who was summoned to 
Parliament in 1333 and 1353 as Baron 
Chandos, and son of Sir Thomas Chandos. 
He died on 16 Dec., 1428, without issue. 
Alice, the daughter of his sister Elizabeth 
Berkeley, married Giles Brugges or Brydges, 
the ancestor of the Brydges family, succes- 
sively Lords Chandos and Dukes of Chandos. 
Richard Temple Nugent Brydges Chandos 
Grenville, first Duke of Buckingham and 
Chandos (1776-1839), married in 1796 Anne 
Eliza Brydges, only daughter and heiress 
of James, third Duke of Chandos. 


(11 S. x. 88). I do not know if in other 
counties this superstition applies only to the 
male line, but I do know that in some parts 
of South Devon the seventh daughter of a 
seventh son was believed to possess certain 
gifts of healing. An old lady, now dead, 
who belonged to a good Devonian family, 
was always ready to help her neighbours by 
fhe inherited powers she believed herself to 

It may be worthy of record in the year 
1914 that she undoubtedly did cure warts 
(amongst other maladies), and I am not 
ashamed to own that I asked her aid for 
myself some twenty years ago. The " cure " 
was simple to a degree. She looked, she 
counted, she wished, and she changed the 
subject. When, after a very few days, the 
warts had vanished, and I tried to thank her, 
she evaded the subject, only saying that the 
' power " was her birthright, that she had 
never yet failed in seventy years, and that 
she could not talk about it or the other 
inys ic ifts that distinguished her. 

In rister it is truly " no joke to be a 
seventh son," for I knew in my childhood 
of small traders in country towns who were 
j 'stored by patient-, to the groat hurt of 
their business. They could not refuse their 

aid to those who had been brought in spring- 
less carts some thirty miles of mountain 
road, but they detested their own celebrity. 
My impression is that they chiefly dealt with 
erysipelas and such diseases, and that they 
professed to cure by prayers and in the 
name of God. 

In Norfolk the superstition is so strong 
that the seventh son was till recent days 
fated to be a doctor from his cradle. 

Y. T. 

ix. 509 ; x. 37). Count d'Herisson, in his 
book on the Prince Imperial, published in 
1890, writes that Miss Emily Rowles, to 
whom Prince Louis Napoleon (later Napoleon 
III.), after his escape from Ham in 1846, 
became attached, lived then with her father 
at Camden House, Chislehurst. 

Is this exact, and under what circumstances 
did Camden House pass in 1860 into the 
possession of Mr. Strode, as mentioned by 
your correspondent MB. E. BASIL LUPTON ? 
Was Mr. Rowles the owner of Camden 
House in 1846, or who else, in case Mr. 
Rowles then only rented the property ? 
It is further doubtful that in 1871 Mr. 
Strode placed Camden House gratuitously 
at the disposal of the Emperor. There is 
reason to believe that the Empress Eugenie 
rented the property through an agent with- 
out the intervention of Mr. Strode. 

M. L'E. 

GORDON RIOTS (11 S. x. 43). With respect 
to the pamphlet giving an account of the 
Gordon Riots, I may say that I possess a 
similar pamphlet of thirty-two pages. The 
title is so remarkably like the one printed at 
the above reference that I venture to repro- 
duce it : 

" Riots. | A Genuine j Account | of the | Pro- 
ceedings | of the late | Disturbances and Riots | 
in the | Cities of London and Westminster, | and 
| Borough of Southwark. [ Containing I An Ac- 
count of the burning of Newgate, the King's | 
Bench, the Fleet, and New Bridewell Prisons. 
Like- j wise the Houses of Lord Mansfield, Sir 
John Fielding, | Messrs. l<angdale, Hainsforth, 
Cox, Hyde, &c. Romish | Chapels, Schools, &c. 
with an Account of the Com- | mitment of Lord 
George Gordon to the | Tower. | And Anecdotes 
of his Life. I To which is added, | An Abstract of 
the Act lately passed in favour of the Ro- | man 
Catholicks. | London : | Printed by O. Adams & 
Co. 1780. | [Price Six-Pence.] 

OLD ETONIANS (11 S. x. 28). John 
Chartres might possibly be a relative of the 
Rev. James Chartres mentioned at 9 S. vii. 
447 ; viii. 68. JOHN T. PAGE. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. A. 15, 1914. 

x. 48). George Buchanan has a similar 
poem on the same queen : 
Cui us imago Deae, facie cui lucet in una, 

Temperie mixta, Juno, Minerva, Venus ? 
Est dea : quid dubitem ? cui sic oonspirat amice 

Mascula vis, hilaris gratia, celsas honos : 
Aut dea si non est, Diva est qua; prsesidet Anglis, 

Ingenio, vultu, moribus aequa Deis. 

' lUpigrarumata,' lib. ii. 58. 

There is nothing surprising in this. Little 
provocation was required to make the 
Renaissance Latin versifiers cry " O dea, 
certe ! " and the " Juno, Minerva, Venus," 
business was worn pretty threadbare. 

John Owen hails his patroness thus : 

Si nos Pythagorse non fallunt dogmata, corpus 
Ictrarunt Pallas, Juno, Venusque tuum. 

' Epigr.,' i. 4. 

Like the elder Weller, Father Persons may 
have objected to young women being 
called Venuses, but if he allowed himself 
to be seriously distressed by such conven- 
tional deification, he must have added a new 
source of uneasiness to a life that was 
already troubled enough. 

Reydon, Southwold, Suffolk. 

Francis II., son of King Bomba, was a 
peaceful character, and brought up by 
Jesuits ; his wife was of more heroic mould, 
and defended Gaeta when driven out of 
Naples. I never heard of any pension 
allowed him by his enemies, and he probably 
existed on his private funds, as Italians are 
slow to any extravagance. W. MERGER. 

After he had lost his throne poor " Bom- 
balino " spent most of his time in Munich 
and Paris, and died at Arco in the Tyrol, in 
the Archduke Albrecht's villa, on 27 Dec., 
1894. He left no issue. L. L. K. 

WEST INDIAN FAMILIES (11 S. ix. 489 ; 
x. 18, 76). The under-named sources of 
information MSS. and printed books avail- 
able for reference at the British Museum 
should not be overlooked : 

Genealogical Collections relating to Families 
connected with Jamaica, Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth Centuries. Add. MS. 27,068. 

Pedigrees of West India Families. Add. MS. 

List of Landowners in Jamaica about the Year 
1750. Add. MS. 12,430. 

List of Marriages on record in the parishes of 
St. Catherine and St. Andrew, Jamaica, 1686- 
1679. Add. MS. 21,931. 

List of Testators registered in the Office of 
the Island Secretary, Ja?uaica, 1663-1750. - 
MS. 21,931. 

Monumental Inscriptions in Barbados ami 
Jamaica before 1750, with Selections from thus.- 
of later date and Extracts from Parish Registers. 
Add. MS. 23,608. 

Extracts from Parish Registers and other 
Public Records in the Islands of Jamaica and 
Barbados, with Copies of Monumental Inscrip- 
tions from 1643 to 1800; Add. MS. 27,969. 

Abstracts of Wills proved in Jamaica between 
1625 and 1792. (Add. MS. 34,181.) 

' Antigua and the Antiguans : a Full Account 
of the Colony and its Inhabitants.' With ;m 
Appendix containing genealogies of the principol 
settlers in the island. 2 vols. 8vo. London, 1844. 

V. L. Oliver : ' The History of the Island of 
Antigua ... from the First Settlement in lf>:)5 
to the Present Time.' 3 vols. folio. London. 

Capt. James Henry Lawrence Archer : ' Monu- 
mental Inscriptions of the British West Indies 
from the Earliest Date, with Annotations.' 4to. 
London, 1875. 

N. D. Davis : ' The Cavaliers and Roundheads 
of Barbados, 1650-52.' 8vo, pp. 261. George- 
town. 1887. 

W. A. Feurtado : ' Official and Other Per- 
sonages of Jamaica from 1655 to 1790.' Svo 
pp. 135. Jamaica, 1896. 


84, St. John's W r ood Terrace, N.W. 

LEON (11 S. x. 10, 55, 76). I cordially thank 
all the correspondents who have so cour- 
teously supplied me with information oil 
this topic. I subjoin from ' The Annual 
Register/ 26 Aug., 1806, xlviii. 439 and 440, 
the rendering of the letter written by Palm 
to his wife before his execution : 

In the Dungeon of the Military Prison of 
Braunau, August 26, 1806 Six o'clock in 
the morning. 

MY DEAREST BELOVED, When you read these 
lines you are a widow and our dear, dear children 
have no longer a father. My destiny is fixed ; in 
five hours I cease to live. But though I die the 
death of a criminal, you know that I have com- 
mitted no crime. I fall a victim of the present 
calamitous times, times when an untimely death 
can neither dishonour a man whose whole life has 
been irreproachable, nor throw a stain on hi* 
surviving family. In our miserable days what 
virtue has not expired by the hands of the exe- 
cutioner. Do not let your affliction for the fate 
of a husband deprive you of firmness to support 
the duties of a mother. Our dear, dear babies 
(Oh, my God, I shall never more press them 
or you to my bursting heart) have now a double 
claim on your love, as well as on your maternal 
tenderness. Implant on their tender minds all 
those virtuous sentiments which made their good 
mother so very dear to their unfortunate father. 

I advise you to collect, as soon as possible, the 
wreck of our fortune (if any) and to retire with 
it to England or America. In those fortunate 
lands innocence is still secure, and patriotism is 
still revered. 

In my last fervent prayers I recommend you all 
to the protection of an Omnipotent Providence, 

n s. x. AUG. is, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and to the compassion of those contemporary 
patriots of all countries whose noble bosoms 
sympathise with my own feelings, and deplore, 
if not weep, over the destruction of liberty 
in wretched Germany. 

He \vard the friend who delivers this ; and 
fui'iiive and teach our dear children to forgive 
my murderer. May heaven pardon hitn as much 
as I do. I cannot dare not say more my 
heart is too full. Oh, my God never more to 
behold and embrace them and you. Almighty 
t'r.'.-ilor, bless and preserve you all, until we meet 
in another and better world. 
With my last breath, 

Your ever affectionate husband, 


I should certainly like to know what 
became of the wife and children. 


STEVENS (11 S. x. 11). Dr. Stevens, 
the principal founder of Stevens's Hospital, 
does not seem to have had any property in 
co. Kildare. Whitelaw in his ' History of 
Dublin,' 1818, says : 

" Dr. Richard Stevens, a physician of Dublin 
in 1720, bequeathed all his real estate situate in 
the county of Westmeath and King's County, 
and let for lives renewable for ever at a yearly 
rent of 00 4 1. 4s., to his sister Griselda Stevens 
during her life, andvafter her decease vested it in 
trustees for the purpose of erecting and endowing 
an hospital near Dublin, for the relief and maintaiu- 
nce of curable poor persons, and to be called 
* Stevens's Hospital.' " 

Dr. Stevens is said to have died the day 
after making his will. 

Miss Stevens (she was his twin sister) set 
about erecting the hospital in her lifetime. 
She handed over the bulk of the property to 
trustees, and also began collecting money 
for the building. It was started in 1720, and 
finished in 1733, the cost being 16,000?. All 
this money was raised by subscription, Miss 
"Steveris's 'money going entirely to endow- 

Among Miss Stevens's supporters was a 
wealthy gentleman, Mr. Edward Cusack. 
He bequeathed to this hospital lands in the 
following counties in Ireland : in co. Carlow, 
lands bringing in rental of 161. lO.s. Id. ; in 
co. Meath, 910Z. 6s. Q\d. ; in co. Kildare, 
110Z. 8s. 9rf. 

The fact that the last-named property be- 
longed to the hospital may have set the legend 
going that it was formerly in the possession 
of the Stevens family ; or it may be that the 
father of Dr. Stevens did occupy Hybla House, 
and whet her Miss Stevens and her brother were 
born there it certainly would be interesting 
to know. The ' D.X.B.' does not mention 
Dr. Stevens's name. There is a long account 
of the hospital in Whitelaw's ' History of 

Dublin,' and also in Harris's ' History of 
Dublin,' 1746. 

I do not know when the pig-faced lady 
legend sprung up. I have not seen any 
mention of it in any Dublin publication, 
although it was implicitly believed by the 
humbler classes there forty years ago. I am 
fairly familiar with books dealing with 
Dublin, but have not come across any 
reference to this matter. 


STANES (11 S. ix. 508; x. 37, 77). Thanks 
to kind correspondents who have answered 
me directly or in ' N. & Q.,' I have now a 
complete reply to my queries. I should 
not send this, but that the only information 
as to Balnes has come to me directly. It 
appears to be clearly the same manor as 
that of Loweswater in Cumberland. The 
names seem to be indifferently used in 
Inquisitions post mortem of the Lucy 
family, one of whom made the original 
charge on the manor for the benefit of Robert 
de Eglesfeld. If I add that Kempton is a 
manor in the parish (not the manor) of 
Sunbury, readers of ' N. & Q.' will now 
have all the information which my inquiry 
has elicited. JOHN R. MAGEATH. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

28, 95). In G. Kingsley's ' Westward Ho ! ' 
the heading of one of the chapters is ' How 
They Took the Great Galleon.' This, it is 
true, is not exactly verse, but I venture to 
think that Kingsley, who was very particular 
about the headings of his chapters, would not 
use one so cacophonous as this would sound 
if " galleon " were to be pronounced r.s 
three syllables, with the accent on the first. 
There can be no comparison between the 
sonorous ring of ' How They Took the 
Great Galloon ' and the jerky cadence of 
' How They Took the Great Gallion.' To 
me it is very obvious that Kingsley intended 
to stand by the old pronunciation. 


8, Royal Avenue, S.W. 

WALL-PAPERS (11 S. x. 29, 75, 110). A 
fine specimen of wall-paper can be seen at 
Mamhead, the beautiful residence of Sir 
Robert Newman. Bart., situate a few miles 
from Exeter. There are a bedroom and 
dressing-room, upon the walls of which is the 
original paper placed there when the house 
was built, over eighty years ago. The paj er 
is of chintz pattern with flowers and fiuit 
in bold design. The colours are i nfac'ed. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG. is, 1911 

Some time ago a portion of the paper became 
discoloured through water finding its wny 
through the roof. By accident a roll of the 
identical wall-paper was found in a store 
cupboard. This was used, and it is almost 
impossible to-day to say where the strip of 
new paper was placed. 


The best general accounts of wall-papers 
are in Havard's ' Dictionnaire d'Ameuble- 
ment et Decoration ' and in Larousse's 
' Grand Dictionnaire.' Both these works 
contain encyclopaedic articles crystallizing 
all the important data, historical and artistic, 
under the heading ' Papier-peint.' The 
chief wall -paper factories on the Continent 
were at Bixheim, Lyon, Metz, Caen, Tou- 
louse, Epinal, and Le Mans. The great 
centre in Paris for the sale of wall-papers is 
in the Faubourg St. Antoine. 

Beckmann's ' Inventions ' is a little out of 
date, but it has a lengthy historical article 
on wall-papers. There was published in 
Liverpool in 1875 ' The History of Paper- 
Hangings, with a Review of other Modes of 
Mural Decoration,' by G. H. Morton. I 
have not seen this book, and it is not in the 
British Museum. Other authorities are 
D. Kaeppelin, ' Fabrication de Papier- 
Peint,' in E. Lacroix's ' Etudes sur 1'Exposi- 
tion de 1867,' vol. i. (1867) a later edition 
was issued (perhaps separately) in 1881 ; 
K. Sanborn, ' Old -Time Wall-Papers,' 1905; 
and A. S. Jennings, 'Wall -Paper Decora- 
tions,' 1907. A. L. HUMPHREYS. 

187, Piccadilly, W. 

UNIVERSITY (11 S. ix. 510). I have just 
seen in 'N. & Q.' of 27 June that inquiries 
are being made concerning the Marquis de 

From the Burial Register of All Saints', 
Cambridge : 

" August 24th, 1812. Matilda, wife of Nicola 
D'Auria, Marchese di Spineto of the Kingdom of 
Naples, was buried ; aged 20." 

Her surname is unknown. 

From Cambridge Chronicle and University 
Journal, Isle of Ely Herald, and Huntingdon- 
shire Gazette of 1 Sept., 1849, in the obituary 
notice of the Marquis : 

"....was a native of Italy. In early life he 
held a commission in a regiment of cavalry, and 
fought under the Austrian colours at the Battle of 
Marengo. Through life he was on the side of 
the established order, and the sincerity of bis 
attachment to that cause was exemplified by his 
sufferings on its behalf. Upon the ascendancy of 
Napoleon he quitted his native country, choosing 

that course rather than the more profitable one 
of deserting his principles and paying court to 
Murat, King of Naples. He accompanied Lord 
Nelson to England, being upon terms of intimacy 
with that immortal hero, and for some time after- 
wards, being cut off from his paternal property, 
he came down to Cambridge, and about the year 
1807 was nominated by Professor Smyth to the 
academic office of Italian -teacher, which he filled 
to the day of his death." 

The Marquis's eldest son, Samuel Marie 
Rocco Doria, was born 14 Feb., 1807, in the 
county of Middlesex. This has been gathered 
from the Registers of Admission of Shrews- 
bury School, Felsted School, and St. John's 
College, Cambridge. 

Can any reader tell me the place and date 
of the Marquis's first marriage ? (The second 
was in Edinburgh in 1814.) In what 
parish was Samuel born ? 

The two other children of the first mar- 
riage, Matilda, born 1 Oct., 1808, and Adair 
Andrew, born 17 Sept., 1810, were baptized 
at All Saints', Cambridge, 12 Oct., 1813, and 
were presumably born in Cambridge. 

(great-granddaughter of the Marquis). 

THE CUSANI (11 S. x. 90). May one 
suggest that the savage custom alluded to 
was, perhaps, observed among the Cumani, 
a tribe of the Turkish race, described by 
the Byzantine historians of the Middle Ages, 
who first invaded Rxissia in the eleventh 
century ? After having been driven back 
by the Tatars in the thirteenth century 
they entered Hungary, and received there 
a separate district. Their descendants still 
exist between the Danube and the River 
Tisza, but are now mostly mixed up with 
the Magyar people of Hungary. H. K. 

Herodotus (v. 4) tells this story of the 
Trausi. I cannot trace Cusani. H. C. 

VOLTAIRE IN LONDON (11 S. ix. 70). 
In the first volume of Parton's ' Life of 
Voltaire ' it is stated that Voltaire was, for 
much of his time in England, at the house of 
Everard Falkener, silk and cloth merchant 
(afterwards Sir E. Falkener, English Ambas- 
sador at Constantinople), at Wandsworth. 
No more details of the address are given. 


THE STONES OF LONDON (11 S. vi. 429, 
515; vii. 16, 77, 211 ; viii. 18). Small marble 
slabs from the Tivoli Music -Hall in the 
Strand, lately demolished, have been used in 
the construction of a footpath around a 
bowling green laid out on the local recreation 
ground at Woking, Surrey. SYL VIOLA. 

ii s. x. AUG. is, MM.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

' AUT DlABOLUS AUT NlHIL ' (1 1 S. ix. 270). 

This story appeared in Blackwood's Maga- 
zine in November, 1888, under the signature 
X. L. It was reprinted with four or five 
other short stories in 1894 by Methuen. 
The author was Mr. Julian Field, who also 
wrote ' The Limb.' I may mention that I 
supplied this information to L' Intermediate 
(30 Mars, 1914) after inquiry of Messrs. 
Blackwoou. MARY H. BENSLY. 

Reydon Cottage, South wold. 

29, 78). A detailed account of four robins 
setting upon and deliberately doing to death 
another of their species was given in The 
Daily Mail of 30 Sept., 1907. The fray was 
witnessed from start to finish by the writer, 
Edith Grey Bumand of Pinkhurst Grange, 
Horsham, Siissex. JOHN T. PAGE. 

In Hertfordshire it was always said that 
if you killed a robin you would break your 
leg*. HAROLD MALET, Col. 


Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
No. LXV. (Cambridge, Deighton, Bell & Co., 
5s. net.) 

A NOTABLE paper in this number is that entitled 
' The Reformation of the Corporation of Cam- 
bridge, July, 1662,' the materials for which have 
been collected by Dr. Palmer mostly from the 
notebooks of Sir Thomas Sclater, Justice of the 
Peace for Cambridgeshire from 1660 to 1684. 
They are in the Bodleian in three volumes. In 
addition to warrants and references to the pro- 
ceedings of the Commissioners for regulating Cor- 
porations, there are many entertaining notes. 
Those about conventicles have very vivid touches. 
There are several references to the well-known 
Nonconformists Holcroft and Oddey. In one of 
the later books is an account of the granting of 
licences at the Easter private sessions held at 
" The Griffin " in Linton in April, 1682, which 
will be found important to all who are interested 
in the early history of licensing. One of the 
conditions was that the applicant " had to pro- 
duce a certificate, under the hand of the clergy- 
man of his parish, that he had constantly resorted 
to the parish church, and had received the Sacra- 
ment according to the usage of the Church of 
England, during the year preceding." 

The Rev. G. Montagu Benton supplies particu- 
lars of a Saxon brooch lent for exhibition by 
Mr. Arthur Thornewill. Although of the well- 
known cruciform type, it is interesting as having 
been found in Derbyshire, where such brooches 
are of rare occurrence. Mr. Brindley discourses 
on ' Mediaeval and Sixteenth-Century Ships in 
English Churches'; and Mr. Benton in a second 
paper describes a damask linen cloth woven with 
snrrod designs, and dated 1631, and states that 
" these cloths, although manufactured primarily 
for domestic purposes, were sometimes, on accounl 

of their costliness and suitability of design, pre- 
sented to churches for altar use." Since the 
paper was read Mr. Kirke, the owner, has pre- 
sented the cloth in question to the Fitzwilliam 

Dwelly's Pariah Records. 3 vols. (E. Dwelly r 
Margate Road, Ilerne Bay. Vols. I. and II., 
15s. net each ; Vol. III., la. 6d. net post free.) 

THE first two volumes contain the first portion of 
he Bishop's Transcripts at Wells, being those that 
are in the most fragile condition. These have- 
Deen copied from the originals by Mr. Arthur J. 
Jewers, under the editorship of Mr. E. Dwelly, 
who points out that " these transcripts are of 
particular value to any one collecting information 
ibout a family and knowing the county they 
belonged to, but not the parish or parishes. A 
search through the transcripts, which are com- 
paratively few in number, will generally, in a 
very short time, disclose connections with parishes- 
that one might have hunted for in vain for years 
by going through all the registers in several 
arishes." As the Devon and Cornwall Record 
ociety have taken in hand those at Exeter, Mr- 
Dwelly decided to begin with those at Wells. 

Mr. Jewers, who rightly commends Mr. Dwelly's 
public-spirited enterprise in starting on the task of 
minting at his own expense these transcripts of 
Somerset registers, states that at Wells they were 
for a considerable time lying loose in a room in one- 
of the gateway towers. Although they had been 
gathered up and fastened in bundles, Mr. Jewers 
found them to be wrongly endorsed, and many of 
the early returns in a state of decay from damp. 
It was only by the aid of a powerful magnifying- 
glass that the "contents could be deciphered. The 
dates of the transcripts range from 1597 to 1677- 
The two volumes include about 28,000 names. 

The third volume contains all the monumental 
inscriptions in the parishes of Reculver cum 
Howth, Herne and Herne Bay, with tricks of all 
the armorial bearings, and rubbings of the old 
brasses. A view of St. Martin's Church, Herne 
Bay, is also given. This is the first volume of 
the series to be devoted to monumental inscrip- 

The English Borough in the Twelfth Century. By 
Adolphus Ballard. (Cambridge University 
Press, 3s. 6d. net.) 

THIS little study is composed of the two lectures 
delivered by the author at Oxford in October of 
last year. Students of his works on Domesday 
Book and on British Borough Charters will not 
be disappointed as to the clearness and solidity of 
the account offered them here, even though they 
may feel constrained to follow some other inter- 
preter with regard to this or that disputable 
point. The first lecture ' Burgess and Lord ' 
is, in particular, excellent. We have seldom 
come across an instance of better handling of 
complicated matters, or more telling choice and 
use of illustrative facts. The frequent com- 
parisons between the details of English and of 
French custom in the matter of municipal charters 
are in a treatise jjecessarily so brief a useful 
and well-managed feature. The greatest con- 
trast, as Mr. Ballard points out, between these 
charters in England and in France during the 
twelfth century is the exemption from toll 
which the English borough enjoyed. Calais and 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. is, MM. 

"Rouen received such exemption from their 
English lords, but in the dominions of the French 
ting no such privilege is granted. It seems not too 
much to impute, as Mr. Ballard does, to these early 
practical economists in England some half-con- 
scious perception of the principle accepted in later 
centuries, that the removal of restrictions is a 
main condition of prosperity in commerce. 

Another curious anticipation of modern ways 
may be detected on examining the development 
of a borough from the point of view of the lord. 
At first sight, what with their independent 
jurisdiction, their tenure of their lands by a 
money-rent free from all servile conditions, their 
freedom to sell and devise their lands, and the 
frequent possession of a monopoly of trading 
within the borough, it certainly might appear 
that the burgesses gained hugely more than the 
lord by the charters conceded to them. But the 
lord, besides often pocketing a good round sum 
in cash as the price of his charter, gained also by 
-the enhancement of his rents. The sites of 
boroughs were plotted out, just as building 
estates are at the present day, and Mr. Ballard 
quotes the case of Stratford-on-Avon, where the 
plots were something like a quarter of an acre in 
-extent, and commanded each plot a rent of 
l'2d. ; whereas for agricultural land the rent 
paid was but dd. for a whole acre. 

The lecture on ' Borough and Hundred ' is of 
necessity more largely than the previous one 
a discussion of the diffeient theories propounded 
by different scholars, comparison with the French 
commune being again used very instructively. 

There are four good discussions by way of 
appendixes, and added to them is a useful table 
showing the characteristics of the principal 
Domesday boroughs. 

THE Transactions of the Birmingham Archaeo- 
logical Society for the year 1913 include an 
account by Mr. F. T. S. Houghton of ' The Stone 
Lecterns at Abbots Norton, Crowle, and Wenlock.' 
These he believes to be the only three remaining 
examples. The one at Abbots Norton was dug 
up in 1813 ; the history of that at Crowle seems 
to be quite unknown. That at Wenlock, found 
within the site of the Priory Church, is carved out 
of a block of the local Silurian limestone. Al- 
though the details differ markedly, the basis of 
the design is the same in all three examples. 

Mr. Philip B. Chatwin traces the history of 
Edgbaston from the entry in the Domesday 
Survey, and gives particulars of the various 
owners of the estate the Middlemores, Gages, 
and others. The first clear idea of Edgbaston is 
from the survey made by Sparry in 1718 after 
the property had been purchased by Sir Richard 
Gough. At this time it was a quiet little place, 
but with no actual village, there being only sixty- 
four houses scattered over the whole parish. Of 
the original church but little is known ; in its 
earliest days it was only a small chapel. Several 
beautiful views of the church at more recent 
periods, as well as a survey of the lordship of 
" Edgberston " in 1701 by William Deeley, illus- 
trate this carefully prepared paper. There is 
also a fine portrait of Sir Richard Gough. Richard 
the antiquary was his grand-nephew. 

Mr. J. A. Cossins writes on ' The Excursions of 
1913 ' ;*Mr. Philip B. Chatwin takes for his second 
subject}' Kyre Wyard ' ; Mr. J. A. S. Hanbury 

contributes a paper on ' Early Periodical Litera- 
ture '; Mr. H. R. Hodgkinson, ' Notes on the 
History of Midland Waterway.- ' ; and the Rev. 
J. E. H. Blake a paper on some remains of the 
Bronze Age at Mathon. The excursions included 
Ludstone and Claverley ; Coleshill and Maxstoke ; 
Dorchester and Christchurch; and Shrewsbury and 

We are glad to see that twenty-one members 
have been added to the Society during the past 
year, the number now being 2u7. Additional 
members are greatly needed to cop with the 
large amount of photographic work remaining to 
be done. The mounted photographs belonging 
to this Section can be seen on application to Mr. 
C. J. Woodward, 25, St. Mary's Road, Harborne. 

THE Fifty -Second Annual Report of (he 
Birmingham Free Libraries is highly satisfactory : 
8,078 volumes have been added to the Reference 
Library, making a total of 2i2,3G3, while the 
number added to the Lending Libraries and 
Branch Reference Libraries has been 9,869. The 
grand total in all the libraries amounts to 151,510, 
the total issue being 2,250,197. Quick reference 
books are well used. 

WE have received two little books from the 
Lindsey Press, each published at one shilling net. 

In Francis David, Mr. William C. Cannett 
relates in sixty pages the story of the founder of 
Unitarianism in Hungary. He died a mart\T fur 
his faith, and an illustration is given depir-tiug him 
pleading for liberty and toleration in religion at 
the Diet of Torda in 1568. This is reproduced 
from a picture by Korosf o i- Kriesch Aladar, 
painted by order of the Town Council of Torda 
when Hungary in 1896 was preparing to celebrate 
its millennium. 

The second book is The Religious Philosophy of 
Plotinus, and some Modern Philosophies of Kclit/ioH, 
by Dean Inge, and forms one of the Essex Hall 
Lectures established by the British and Foreign 
Unitarian Association in 1893. The first lecture 
was delivered in that year by Mr. Stopford Brooke, 
who discoursed on ' The Development of Theology 
as illustrated in English Poetry from 1780 to 
1830.' There is no intention on the part of the 
Association of making the Lectures manifestos 
of a denomination or sect ; they are the free utter- 
ance of the lecturers on some religious subjects 
of general interest. 

' BOOK- AUCTION RECORDS.' The subscription to 
this is II. Is. yearly not 21. 2-?., as stated in our 
review last week. The arrangement, as our readers 
will remember, has been alphabetical from the 
commencement. We are glad to see that Messrs. 
Karslake have in preparation a Ten Years' Index, 
1902-12, by Mr. William Jaggard, the price of which 
will he 21. 2>>. to subscribers. 

to (E0msp0ntonts, 

MR. J. G. BARTLETT and M. GAIDOZ. Forwarded. 

W. D. H. (" Cuius octavum," Arc.). Hor., ' Odes,' 
II. iv., last lines. 

CORRIGENDUM.- Ante. p. 69, col. 2 (' Black-Letter 
Testament'), for "P. iii" please read "Y iii " as 
the signature of the leaf on which begins ' The order 
of Times.' The slip, I fear, was mine. R. S. H. 

ii s. x. AUO. 22, 1914. j NOTES AND QUERIES. 


CONTENTS. No. 243. 

NOTES :Sir Launcelob du Lake in 'Widsith,' 141 Sir 
John Gilbert, J. F. Smith, and 'The London Journal,' 
144 Illustrations of Casanova, 145 The National Flag 
at Sea Scioppius's ' Scaliger Hyperbolimoeus ' Twisaday 
Spoon Folk-lore-" The Case is Altered," 146 Guildhall 
Library : Subject Index, 147. 

iJUERIES : Henderson's ' Life of Major AndreaLowell's 
' Fireside Travels ' ' Almanach de Gotha,' 147 Old 
Etonians Earls of Derwentwater : Descendants Seven- 
teenth-Century Corn Laws The Four Ancient Highways 
of England Hogarth's Portrait of T. Morell ' Humours 
of Heraldry 'Authors Wanted, 148 Hats Chains and 
Posts in the City, 1648 Stockwell Ghost Gate Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields Pedigrees of Knights, 149 Saying of 
Bede's Burial- Place of Eleanor of Provence" Hurley- 
hacket "Famous Ulstermen Epigram on Frederick the 
Great Henry IV. 's Supper of Hens First Philosopher- 
Johannes Renadicus Duchess of Marlborough's Striped 
Gown " Queen Elinor in the ballad," 150. 

REPLIES: Pauline Tarn, 151 St. Katherine's by the - 

Family Schubert Queries Burning of the Houses of 
Parliament, 154 G. Quinton " Master " and " Gentle- 
man "Anthony Munday Wills at St. Paul's Sir W. 
Temple on Huniades Scott's ' Antiquary ' Saffron 
Walden, 155 Justification of King John Joshua 
Webster, M.D. Shakespeare and Warwickshire Dialect 
Maimonides and Evolution, 156" Beau-pere "Throw- 
ing a Hat into a House The Candle" Sparrowbills," 
157 Mary, Queen of ScT>ts "Left his corps "Language 
and Physiognomy Byron's "Lay" Again "Wait and 
see " Culpeper of Kent Oriental Names mentioned by 
Gray-St. Christopher, 158 Snuff-boxes, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' A Description of Brasses in the 
Chapel of Magdalen College ' ' Notes on South African 
Place-Names' 'The Remaking of China.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 




THE historian Ammianus Marcellinus men- 
tions two military tribunes, contemporaries 
of his in 355, who were named Bainobaudes. 
This name presents the Gothic diphthongs AT 
and AU. The former occurs in such Gothic 
words as stains and hdims : the O.E. stem 
and ham, our " stone " and " home." Con- 
sequently a Gothic " Bain- " postulates O.E. 
Ban-, and that we find in ' Widsith,' 1. 19 ; 

Becca [weold] Baningum Burgendum Qifica, 
Becca ruled the Baningas, Gifica the Bur- 

The stem of the patronymic, however, 
should undergo palatal umlaut, and we 
ought to get Baening-. In ' Widsith ' the 
stem-vowel is uninfected. This is not ex- 
plained, and perhaps it has not been noticed 
by commentators who have sought for 
evidence of antiquity in the poem itself. 

Palatal umlaut, of course, does occur in 
' Widsith,' and we get Hcelsing-, Myrging-, 
Thyring-, Sercing-, and Sering-. On the 
other hand, in addition to Baning-, Hunding-, 
Boding-, Branding-, and Folcwalding-, we 
find, among uninfected forms, Hoeing-, 
Wulfing-, Prating-, and Amothing-. Con- 
sequently, out of fourteen patronymics in 
' Widsith,' nine have escaped palatal um- 
laut. All these tribes, it is true, were not 
English ; but at the same tim<$ there was 
no reluctance in the O.E. dialect with 
regard to admitting vocalic infection, and 
we may assume from its absence from 
" Baning- " that the dialect from which 
Widsith took over this tribal name either 
had not adopted i-umlaut by A.D. 450, or 
else that the theme that dialect employed 
in forming patronymics did not commence 
with the palatal vowel *'. The Gothic 
dialect responds to both these requirements : 
it did not admit palatal umlaut, and it 
formed tribal names with -ung, not -ing ; 
cp. Grutung-, Amalung-, and so *Bainung-. 
For these reasons I assume that Bain-, the 
O.E. Ban-, was the pro to theme in the name 
of either an Ostro-Goth or a Wisi-Goth. 

The name of the Baningas has been 
dubbed " fictitious " by commentators, and 
fantastic meanings such as " the sons of the 
slayers," " the righteous ones," " the hos- 
pitable ones," have been ascribed to it. 
These are incoherent and uncritical. To an 
Angle or a Saxon the word Baningas would 
have suggested only one meaning, namely, 
the sons (with their allies) of some chief the 
head-word or prototheme of whose name 
was Ban. The real problem before us is, 
not What does ban mean ? but Who was 
Ban ? 

Now in Chretien de Troyes (fllOl) we 
are told that the elder brothers of Sir 
Percival ( = Perciwald) were sent to the 
Court of King Ban," le bon roi de Gomeret," 
to be educated. This King Ban is well 
known in the unexplained melange of 
Cymric and Germanic hero -tales which 
make up " la matiere de Bretagne." In 
Index I. (p. 267) of the late Alfred Nutt's 
' Studies on the Legend of the Holy Grail,' 
at ' Bans ' (the s here indicates the Old- 
French nominative), three references are 
given to the ' Queste del Saint Graal ' and 
the ' Grand Saint Graal.' Of these the 
' Queste ' was composed by Walter Mapes 
(f 1210) "pour lamor del roy Henri mon 
seignor " therefore before liOO; and the 
' Grand Saint Graal ' was received by Robert 
de Borron from " mon seignor Gautier lou 
preu conte de Mobeliart," who went to 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. 22, 191*. 

Palestine in 1199, and died in 1212. In the 
, Queste ' Sir Launcelot du Lake has a 
vision of a prince crowned and surrounded 
by stars, and accompanied by seven kings 
and two knights. He learns that the prince 
is Celidoines (i.e., Celyddon Wledig*), and 
that one of the kings is Ban, his own father. 
The two knights are himself and his off- 
spring, Sir Galahad : " the product of direct 
literary invention, the son of Christian 
mysticism, "t 

In Malory we find Sir Launcelot's father 
called " King Ban of Benoyc," and Ban has 
two brothers : King Bors of Gaul (cp. 
" Borsena " in " Borsenan beorg," Kemble, 
'Codex Diplomatics,' No. MCXXIIL), 
and Guenbaus (i.e., Wenbald or Wynbald). 
King Ban and King Bors came over from 
Gaul to help King Arthur at the request of 
the latter, we are told. 

In Malory's Fourth Book we read that 
Merlin and the lady he was " assotted " 

" went over the sea unto the land of Benwick 
where as King Ban was king that had great war 
against King Claudas, and there Merlin spake 
with King Ban's wife .... Elaine, and there he 
saw young Launcelot. There the queen made 
great sorrow for the mortal war that King Claudas 
made upon her lord and on her lands. Take none 
heaviness, said Merlin, for this same child within 
this twenty year shall revenge you on King 
Claudas .... and this same child shall be THE 


first name is Galahad, that know I well, said 
Merlin, and since ye have confirmed him, Launce- 
lot. That is true, said the queen, his first name 
was Galahad." 

The ending of the name Galahad is pure 
Old English. Mr. Searle has accidentally 
omitted had from his list of deuterothemes 
of O.E. personal names on p. xvii of his 
' Onomasticon,' but he gives, inter alia, 
Wille-had, Wulf-had, and Ni5-had. The 
O.E. had means " grade," " rank " ; cp. 
Wright, ' Word Formation,' ' O.E. Gram- 
mar,' p. 296. It is our " -hood." " Gala-," 
however, presents a dilemma. In the regular 
gallicizing of Germanic names initial w 
became g. But every G in such names does 
not equate W. In Galahad, then, G may 
represent Germanic W, and the following 
reasons will be found to warrant the assump- 
tion that it does. 

1. Gala- as a prototheme is unsupported. 
Galmund and Galfrith would appear to 

* Vide Aihenceum, June, 1909, pp. 677, 733. 

t Vide ' The Legend of Sir Percival,' by Miss 
Jessie L. Weston (1909), ii. 309. Miss Weston's 
' Sir Launcelot du Lake ' should also be read in 
this connexion. 

contain Gold, and that is recognized as a 
head-word in proper names, but not so 

2. Galahad-Launcelot, the son of King 
Ban, had a brother, Sir Hector de Maris. 
Malory drops the .aspirate throughout. 
But it appears in the older compositions, 
such as the ' Queste ' and the ' Conte del 
Graal ' of Manessier (c. 1220, vide Alfred 
Nutt, u.s.). In his Twentieth Book Malory 
tells us (chap, xviii. ) how Sir Launcelot and 
his friends and kinsmen passed over-sea 
from Cardiff to " Benwick " : 

" Some men call it Bayonne and some men call 
it Beaume, where the wine of Beaume is. But 
to say the sooth Sir Launcelot and his nephews 
were lords of all France and of all the lands that 
longed unto France ; he and his kindred rejoiced 
it all through Sir Launcelot's noble prowess .... 
and he crowned Sir Lionel [another son of King 
Ban] king of France and Sir Bors he crowned him 
king of all Sir Claudas' lands ; and Sir Ector de 
Maris, that was Sir Launcelot's youngest brother, 
he crowned him king of Benwick and also KINO OF 


LAND. And he made Sir Ector prince of them 
all, and thus he [Ector] departed." 

In the formation of personal names the 
trouveres frequently added -or ; cp. Brandeg- 
ore, Breun-or, Morgan-ore. In the case 
of " Hect- " the addition was, moreover, a 
natural one to make. But Hect- is neither 
Germanic nor real : it is scribal, and springs 
from Hecc. Moreover, h here is a mis- 
reading of 6.* Hence for Hect < Hecc I 
read Becc, and I identify Sir Hect-or, the 
youngest son of King Ban, whom Sir Launce- 
lot his brother made prince of all the kins- 
men and descendants of their father, with 
Becca who ruled the Baningas. 

3. Becca i.e., Sir Hector having been 
made King of " Guienne," Sir Launcelot's 
own particular province, we are hereby 
reminded of the noble gift that the Emperor 
Honorius made to Wallia, King of the Wisi- 
Goths, in 418. This was Aquitania Secunda f 
" the Pearl of Gaul," or Guyenne : cp. 
' N. & Q.,' 11 S. vi. 7. As this was Launce- 
lot's own land, as he was son of King Ban, 
and as his brother Becca was ruler of the 
Baningas, I propose to equate the Romance 
name of Galahad with an O.E. Walahad. 
The Gothic form postulated by this is 
*Wailihaidus, and the pet-name for that 
would be Waila. 

" Waila " actually occurs in the ' Later- 
culus Regum ' prefixed to the ' Legum 
Corpus Visigothorum ' (' Chronica Minora, r 

* Collision of h and b is frequent : cp. Heli t 
Herili, Hernicia : : Beli, Benli, Bernicia. 

ii s. x. AUG. 22, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


iii. 465, in MS. T). This copy is now at 
Coimbra. It was not written till the 
twelfth century, but in addition to yielding 
Waila, it retains, along with some younger 
MSS., the very ancient form of Sigericus 
(MS. -gus), whereas the three oldest MSS. 
present Searicus. 

In the ' Getica ' of Jordanis, ed. Th. 
Mommsen, 1882, Wallia is mentioned seven 
times by name. The text is drawn from 
ten manuscripts. The oldest of all are the 
Heidelberg (of the eighth century) and the 
Palatine and the Valenciennes (both of the 
ninth). These all give uallia or uuallias. 
Later manuscripts give iialia. That is in- 
accurate, but Miillenhoff (' Index Nominum,' 
p. 145, ' M.G.H.,' v. pt. i.) preferred it. It 
is obvious that the old form uuaila could not 
be Latin, so some Latin writers, having 
regard to the stem-form Waili, rejected 
the Gothic diphthong ai and doubled the 
liquid in order to mark the length of a. It 
does not follow even from " Valia " that 
the stem-vowel was a (cp. alium, " garlic "), 
and the gemination of I removes all un- 

Wala of ' Widsith* then, is the Galahad 
of Old Romance i.e., Sir Launcelot du Lake. 
A Middle High German poet, Ulrik von 
Zatzikhoven, who flourished in the thir- 
teenth century, tells us that " Lanzelet " 
was son of " Pant von Genewis " : cp. 
" Hector de Maris " and " Percival de 
Galis " for the ending -is, which I do not 
understand. " Genew-," the modern Ger- 
man Genf , is Geneva, and this fact not only 
helps us to explain why Sir Launcelot is 
styled " du Lake." but enables us to locate 
and classify the tribe of the Baningas. 
Ulrik drew his material from a Romance 
source, and did not identify " Launcelot " as 
a Germanic name to wit, Wlanci-lof.* 
Neither did he hand down " Ban " correctly. 
Instead of the true Middle High German 
equivalent Pein (this rimes with our word 
" main," not with German mein), he gives 
us an accommodated form " Pant " (a), 
O.E. Banta ; cp. for the latter Searle, 
p. 80. We must thank him for " Genewis," 
however. The country around that lake 
formed part for six centuries of the Regnum 
Jnrense, or Kingdom of Burgundy, as 

* Cp. Wlanc-heard, a moneyer under Ethel- 

\Vl,mc-J>egn, another under Cnut ; Hlanc- 

Avulf. a (liird, under Edward the Confessor; and 

Lanc-fer, a Domesday tenant (Ellis, list B). Also 

Wincing, son of JElle, the first Bretwalda. 

I- 1 "! 1 -lot cp. Guinge-lot (Wade's boat), Un-lot 
(a Domesday tenant =Hun-lo)>), and Vinovi-loth 
of the ' Getica.' 

distinct from the Duchy and from the 
Regnum Provincice. Now Widsith links 
he Baningas and the Burgundians together 
in 1. 19, and, as Mr. R. W. Chambers has 
acutely pointed out ('Widsith,' p. 191), the 
author of the seventh-century tract about the 
Origo Gentis Langobardorum ' similarly 
inks together " Bainaib," the land of the 
Bains, and " Burgundaib," the land of the 

There is yet another indication of great- 
value in connexion with Bains and Bur- 
gundians : the kings of the latter were of 
;he race of Athanaric, the judge of the 
Wisi-Gothic tribe of the Therwingas. This 
recalls what Pliny tells us about the Bur- 
^undians, namely, that they were a part of 
:he Windili whom he classed with the 
Gutones i.e., the Goths. The combined 
weight of these details should confirm our 
inclusion of the Baningas among the Wisi- 
Goths, and certify the conclusion already 
come to that Ban and his son Waili, or 
Vallia, were of that race. 

In conclusion, I would turn to my little 
note on 'Valliaricse' in ' N. & Q.' (11 S, 
x. 8*). The real object of that note is the 
lucidation of statements made in Malory 
and in the ' Merlin ' to the effect that Sir 
Galahalt (Wallia) was Lord of the Far Out 
Isles. The Balearic Islands are about 150 
miles from Tarragona, the capital of the 
Wisi-Gothic province in Spain, and in the 
' Merlin ' (p. 577) we are informed that 
" Galehaut " was " sone of the feire geaunt r 
and lord of the fer oute ylles," and one of 
those princes who did homage to King 
Arthur. The latter statement is " favour 
of poets," and we need not discuss it. But 
" Far Out Isles " are the Balearic Islands, 
or " Valliaricse Insulse " ; " feire geaunt " 
is a misrendering of the titular phrase 
" Gor Ban," which equates Old Welsh 
Guor Ban i.e., Banus Prceses, and "Gor' r 
is not gawr (a giant), as the compiler of the 
" Merlin ' supposed. The second word was 
mistaken for the Celtic for " pale," " fair," 
" blessed " ; cp. colleen bawn, " fair girl." 

Wala of ' Widsith,' then, who prospered 
most of all those princes that Widsith had 
heard tell of, and whom we have already 
identified with Wallia, the greatest of all 
the kings of the Wisi-Goths, is none other 
than the real Galahad of Old Romance the 
man of most worship in the world, namely, 
Sir Launcelot du Lake. 


* In both places in this note for " Singiric " 
read Sigiric. 




<See US. vii. 221, 276, 375 ; viii. 121, 142; 
x. 102.) 

As to the illustrations in the Guildhall 
volumes, I presume Sir John Gilbert had 
no time to put them in order, so gave them 
loose, just as they were. 

However, the collection came into the 
hands of Mr. Bernard Kettle, the Guildhall 
Librarian, and its value was certainly not 
under-estimated, for they are nicely laid 
down and bound by Zaehnsdorf. But Mr. 
Kettle is under the disadvantage of not 
having been born fifty years before he was, 
so as to have a personal knowledge of the 
first appearance of each print. I have 
checked more than once the following list, 
a,nd in doing so I have become more than 
ever in love with these splendid illustrations 
the delight of my youth, and my admiration 
in old age. As these two volumes are by 
far the handiest means of reference for any 
one who wishes to get an idea of Gilbert's 
fictional work in black and white, I have 
made out a short summary of their con- 
tents. From all the prints the names of 
authors have been cut off, and there is no 
date or reference to the numbers in which 
the illustrations appeared. Mr. Bernard 
Kettle has now paged the volumes right 

The first volume contains prints to the 
following tales : 

1. ' The Flower of the Flock ' (1858), p. 1. 

2. ' The Wonder of Kingswood Chace ' 
<1860), p. 14. 

3. ' Imogen ; or, The Marble Heart ' 
<1862), p. 36 all three by Pierce Egan. 

4. ' Stanfield Hall ' (Smith's name cut off 
and without date [1849]), p. 58. As with the 
other tales, there are .only a few of the 

4A. There follow cuts from a story 
unnamed, which was, in fact, ' Stanfield 
Hall,' continued under the sub - title of 
' Cromwell ; or, The Protector's Oath,' begun 
11 May, 1850. 

5. ' Masks and Faces ' (1855), p. 77. 

6. ' The Will and the Way ' (1852), p. 98. 
.(See also No. 16.) 

7. 'Temptation' (1854), p. 112. 

8. 'Love me, Leave me not' (1859), by 
Pierce Egan, p. 126. 

The second volume begins with 
9. 'Eudora' (1861), p. 146. 

10. ' Brandon of Brandon ' (1859), p. 156 ; 

11. ' The True and False Heiress ' (1855), 
p. 164 all three by Mrs. Southworth. 

12. ' The Double Marriage,' with eiuht 
illustrations by Gilbert (1857), p. 173. 

13. ' The Snake in the Grass,' by Egan 
(1858), p. 177. 

14. 'Woman and her Master' (1853), 
p. 181. To this story there were fifty-three 
as fine illustrations as were ever drawn 
by any artist full of life and interest and 
variety of character. All are in the Guild- 
hall Collection. 

15. A plate of ' Hercules and the Cretan 
Bull,' after a piece of sculpture in tho 
Great Exhibition, Dublin, without date, 
but from The London Journal of 16 July, 
1853. I can hardly believe this is Gilbert's 
work : it is too inferior. It may be com- 
pared, for example, with a similar engraving 
of sculpt ure, by another artist, in The 
London Journal of 27 May, 1854. 

16. One cut ' The Duel ' from ' Thev 
Will and the Way.' (See No. 6 above). 
The London Journal, 11 Dec., 1852, vol. xvi. 
p. 209. 

17. An illustration of a supper scene, with 
nine figures, from ' Kenneth: a Romance- 
of the Highlands,' by G. W. M. Reynolds, 
p. 210. After considerable trouble I have* 
eventually found this in Reynolds's Miscel- 
lany (see my list). 

18. 'The Poor Girl,' byEgan(1862), p. 211, 
and one on p. 236, misplaced after No. 19. 

19. ' The Scarlet Flower,' by Egan (1802), 
p. 225. 

20. ' Ivanhoe ' (1859), p. 237, with seven- 
teen (the full number) illustrations. 

21. ' White Lies,' by Charles Reade (1857), 
p. 254, with fourteen illustrations. 

22. 'Too Late' (1858), p. 263 (see 11 S. | 
viii. 122). Several of these cuts have 
" drawn by John Gilbert " printed after the 
subject, but I presume he stopped this. 

23. 'Laura Etheridge ' (1860), p. 2 
The last illustration to this tale has 
wards of thirty figures, showing that if 
Gilbert got a congenial subject he did not 
spare himself, as he could easily have 
chosen a simpler incident. 

24. The second volume (pp. 282-94) 
finishes with twenty-four illustrations to 
' The Snake in the Grass,' by Egan (1858). 


(To be continued.) 

118. X. AUG. 22, 1914.] 




(See ante, p. 42.) 

THROUGH the kindness of two correspondents, 
I am enabled to add considerably to my own 
comments and notes on the experiences 
and the Slavonic acquaintances of Casanova 
in Russia and Poland. 

Vol. VII. (Edition Gamier) p. 146. Bal 
masque, a la Cour. Sir George Macartney 
wrote in February. 1766, to Lady Holland : 

" It is now high Carnival, but indeed differs 
very little from the rest of the year, except with 
r<-uMr.l to the masquerade. There are two kinds 
of these one at a public room kept by an Italian 
adventurer, where everybody pays for admission; 
the other at the Palace, where the entry is free to 
every one that can procure a ticket, a point by no 
means difficult, as there are generally five or six 
thousand distributed on these occasions . . . .These 
Court masquerades are highly magnificent, being 
held at the Palace, where all the great apartments 
are thrown open." ' Our First Ambassador to 
China,' by E. Bobbins, p. 21. 

Ibid., p. 147, Gregoire Orloff, born 17 Oct., 
1734, died 30 April, 1783. Son of Gregory 
Ivanovitch and his wife, nee Zinovieva. 

P. 149. Le Comte Rzewuski, Ambassadeur 
de Pologne. Can tfriis be WacJaw (Vin- 
ci.slaus) Rzewuski, Hetman of the Crown ? 
II" strongly opposed the election of King 
Stanislas Poniatowski, and was exiled to 
Kaluga 1768-72 He returned to Poland, 
and died in 1779. 

P. 153. Melissino. Peter Ivanovitch, the 
General. Took part in the Seven Years' 

Pp. 153-9. Zinowieff . . . .parent des Or- 
loffs. Stepan Stepanovitch ZinovierT, Am- 
bassador to Spain, died in 1764. The family 
were cousins of the Orloffs, and one of the 
daughters married in 1777 (in spite of great 
opposition) Gregory Orloff. 

Ibid. La demoiselle Chitroff. Perhaps 
" .Madlle. Keyshoff," of whom Lord Macart- 
ney wrote that she was 

" of a great family, but neither young, hand- 
some, nor clever. . . .Her only merit in my eyes 
passion which she either had, or affected to 
Ii;ivc. forme." ' Our First Ambassador to China,' 
vl Hpr<i, p. 25. 

P. 154. Le Grand Veneur Narishkin. . . . 
(p. 155) etait 1'epoux de la celebre Maria 
jnaulowna. Simon Cyrillovitch Narishkin, 
born 1710, had been Ambassador to Eng- 
land 1740-41, and Marechal de la Cour to 
the Tsarevitch. He died in 1775. His wife 
( 1 728-93 ) was daughter of General Balk-Poler. 

P. 16H. Les deux freres Lunin. Sons 
of .Michael Ciprianovitch Lunin (d. 1776). 
Alexander Michaelovitch was General Major, 
Governor of Polotsk, and Director of the 

Hospital of Pavlovsk. Born 15 Nov., 1745, 
died 4 June, 1816. 

P. 176. Son grand ecuyer le Prince Repnin, 
Perhaps Prince Nicolas Vassilievitch Rep- 
nin (1732-1801), Field-Marshal, Governor- 
General of the Baltic Provinces. 

Pp. 178-81. M. le Comte Demidoff. At 
the time there were two brothers Demidoff: 
Prokofi Akimovitch (1710-86), famous for 
his charity and " originality," and Nikita 
Akimovitch (1724-89), a scientist and art 
lover, who corresponded with Voltaire. 

P. 211. Comtesse de Flemming, Princess 
Adam Czartoryska. Her son, Prince Adam 
Czartoryski, was born in 1770. 

P. 2 1 2. Mgr. Krasinski, Prince eveque 
de Warmie. Ignaty Krasinski, Bishop of 

Ibid. Le Palatin de Wilna, Ogniski. 
Michael Casimir Ogniski, married to a 
Czartoryska, and an unsuccessful candidate 
for the throne of Poland. He died at War 
saw in 1800. 

Ibid. General Roniker. Of a Lithuanian 
family, Gentleman-in-Waiting to the King. 

P. .214. Le magnifique Palatin de Russie. 
Augustus Prince Czartoryski, uncle of 
King Stanislas Poniatowski, died 1782; 
father of Prince Adam, who married Isabel' 
^mQoesse de Flemming. P. 215. Son epouse 
. . . .etait de la famille d'Enoff. . . .heiress of 
the Dunhoff family. Son frere, Prince 
Michael, Prince Chancellor. 

P. 216. Mgr. Zaluski, eveque de Kiowie. 
Joseph Zalucki, Bishop of Kiev. In 1775 
he gave his magnificent library to the 

P. 220. Le Comte Poninski. Adam 
Poninski, Vice -Treasurer. 

Pp. 222-6. Xavier Branici, Postoli de la 
Couronne. Francis Xavier died 1817. Pod- 
stoli w Kor. 21-12-1764 (' Genealogie 
Zyjacych Rodow Polskich'). 

P. 248. Prince Auguste Sulkowski. (Pala- 
tin of Kalisz, 1772.) Writer to the Crown 
(1764-5). Took part, with Frederick the 
Great, in the Partition of Poland. 

P. 255. M. le Comte de Briihl, qui est a 
Dresde, et dont la femme est fille du palatin. 
This was Francis de Sales Potocki, palatin 
de Kiovie (p. 259), 1700-71, the richest 
Polish magnate and the "power" in the 
Ukraine. His daughter Marianna Cle- 
mentine (died 1779) married Frederick, 
Comte de Bruhl (1739-93), son of the chief 
Minister of Augustus III. 

P. 257. Comte Zamoiski. Count Andrew 
Zamoiski (1716-92), Chancellor of Poland 
from 1764-7. The first to free his serfs of 
any of the Polish magnates. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. 22, wu. 

P. 258. La Castellane Karninska, daughter 
of Francis Potocki, and wife of Count 
Stanislas Korsakowski, Castellan of Kamien- 
ski. She appears to have sided at first with 
the Russian party, then with Kosciusko. 

events having called attention to the question 
as to the flag to be flown by British subjects 
at sea, it appears from the following letter 1 
have received from the Admiralty that the 
Bed Ensign is the proper flag to be flown : 

Admiralty, 6 August, 1914. 

SIR, With reference to your letter of the 
4th inst. inquiring whether the Union Jack rnay 
be flown on board a yacht owned by an English- 
man, I am commanded by my Lords Commissioners 
of the Admiralty to acquaint you that under 
Section 73 of the Merchant Shipping Act, 1804, 
the Red Ensign is the correct national colour to 
be worn by all ships and boats belonging to any 
British subject, except in the case of H.M. ships 
or boats, or in the case of any other ship or boat 
for the time being allowed to' wear any other 
national colours in pursuance of a warrant from 
T!is Majesty or from the Admiralty. 

Admiralty warrants authorizing special ensigns 
to be flown by yachts are issued only upon a 
written application from the secretary of an 
approved yacht club. 

I atp, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 


British subjects have thus the right to two 
flags : the Union Jack to be flown by them 
on land, and the Red Ensign on the sea. 

Among the many perils that environ the 
bibliographer is that of confounding folios 
"with pages. A slip of this kind in describing 
the same work has been made in succession 
by two authorities of such high reputation 
that an attempt to prevent its being per- 
petuated seems desirable. 

Mark Pattison in his ' Joseph Scaliger,' 
'Essays' (1889), vol. i. p. 191, reprinted 
from The Quarterly Review of July, 1860, 
wrote of Schoppe's famoxis attack on J. J. 
Scaliger : 

" ' The Supposititious Scaliger ' (' Scaliger Hyper- 
bolimaeus ') oi Gaspar Scioppius is a thick quarto 
of 400 pages." 

R. C. Christie in 'The Scaligers,' p. 220 
of his ' Selected Essays and Papers ' (1902), 
reprinted from his article in the ninth edition 
of ' The Encyclopaedia Britannica,' speaks of 
" ' Scaliger Hyperbolimaeus ' (' The Suppositi- 
tious Scaliger '), a quarto volume of more than 
/our hundred pages " ; 

and these same words are retained in the 
eleventh edition of the ' Encyclopedia ' in 
Christie's article revised by Sir J. E. Sandys. 

Evidently the number 400 was mentioned 
to show how large a book could be filled 
with personal abuse, but it is still more 
remarkable when we' find that it contains 
no fewer than 879 pp., made up as follows : 
Preliminary matter, including title-page 
with mottoes on the reverse, 10 folios ; 
then folios numbered 1429 ; two are num- 
bered 336, and the reverse of 429 is blank. 

It is curious that Christie himself in a 
neighbouring essay on ' Elzevier Biblio- 
graphy,' p. 307, foot-note 1, points out an 
instance where folios are inaccurately given 
as pages. 

Jacob Bernays's ' Joseph Justus Scaliger ' 
(1855), p. 85, overstates the size of Schoppe's 
work as " ein neunhundertseitiger Quartant." 

3?eyclon, Southwold, Suffolk. 

TWISADAY. This surname, which 
appears as Twisday and Twiceaday, is 
regarded by Mr. Bardsley as a form of 
Tuesday, and commemorating a birth on 
that day of the week. The name, however, 
occurs in records as " Twvsontheday " (e.g., 
Patent Roll of 1411), showing that '" Twice- 
aday " is the proper spelling and meaning. 


SPOON FOLK-LORE. New to me is this 
fancy. A servant dropped a spoon, and as 
she made no attempt to pick it up, her mis- 
tress told her to do it. Without speaking, 
the girl left the kitchen, but soon returned 
with another maid who performed the duty. 
The one who dropped the spoon explained 
her subsequent procedure by saying that if 
she herself had picked it up she would have 
met with some dire misfortune. 


" THE CASE is ALTERED." The origin of 
this curious public -house sign has been to me, 
and I suppose many other people, a great 
puzzle, and I did not succeed in finding it 
until I read a memorial article in The Tablet 
for 18 July on the late Mr. Plowden of 
Plowden, who represented that very old 
Roman Catholic family in the West of 

It seems that an ancestor of his, Ed- 
mund Plowden, the great lawyer, defended 
some one accused of hearing Mass. The 
supposed priest was proved to be an im- 
postor an agent provocateur we should call 
him now. " The case is altered," said 

11 S. X. AUG. 22, 1914.]; 



Plowden : " no priest, no Mass, no violation 
of the law " ; and so acquittal followed. 

The sign will b> found wherever Roman 
Catholics had any influence. 


rThis sign was discussed and this explanation 
given so long ago as 2 S. iv. 188, 235, 299, 418.] 

The venerable traditions of the City Cor- 
poration are evidently no deterrent to daring 
new departures when the occasion seems to 
demand them. As an instance, readers at 
the Guildhall Library may have noticed the 
spelling of its Subject Index, wherein the 
recommendations of the Simplified Spelling 
Board are adopted throughout. This im- 
portant step is one worthy of record in the 
pages of ' N. & Q.' E. L. P. 

[MB. BERNARD KETTLE, the Librarian of th e 
Ouildhall Library, in a letter to us, explains the 
matter as follows : 

" The Library card subject -index is arranged 
according to the Dewey Decimal classification, 
which is an American production. It is un- 
doubtedly the best classification for large (or 
small) libraries ever yet devised, and is used all 
over the world. 

" Its only drawback is that simplified spelling 
is used. There is no English edition of the work, 
or we should certainly use it. We are, however, 
most careful in repeating the headings upon the 
cards themselves to avoid the simplified spelling 
eyesores. To do the index justice, it has not 
' gone the whole hog ' and adopted the new 
spelling throughout, but is here and there blurred 
with such monstrosities as egs, colums, engin, 
nervs, offis, delks, def, practia, and the elimination 
of countless e's and ph's. 

" I think you will readily agree with me, that 
because we use the best classification, we do 
not therefore necessarily adopt the language in 
which it is explained." 

We felt sure that our friends at the Guildhall 
Library had no intention of adopting the "new 

Is this a fictitious title ? I cannot now recall 
where I saw a reference to it in 1898, but 
I have tried hard to find out since then 
whether or no there was such a book pub- 

The following authorities have been con- 
u'ted in vain, viz., Catalogues of the British 
Museum, Bodleian Library, Advocates' 
Library, Edinburgh, Dublin University 
Library, and London Library ; Watt's ' Bib- 
liotheca,' 'London Catalogue of Books.' Can 
any one help ? W. ABBATT. 

410, East 32nd Street, New York. 

be grateful to any reader of ' N. & Q.' who 
could give the source of any of the following 
quotations. (The references are to the 
pages in E. V. Lucas's edition, Oxford 
Press) : 

1. Not caring, so that sumpter-horse, the back, 
Be hung with gaudy trappings, in what coarse, 
Yea, rags most beggarly, they clothe the soul. 

P. 24. 

2. He needs no ships to cross the tide 
Who, in the lives around him, sees 
Fair window-prospects opening wide 
O'er history's fields on every side, 
Rome, Egypt, England, Ind, and Greece. 

W T hatever moulds of various brain 

E'er shaped the world to weal or woe, 

Whatever empires wax and wane, 

To him who hath not eyes in vain, 

His village-microcosm can show. P- 26. 

3. For Achilles' portrait stood a spear 
Grasped in an armed hand. P 41. 

4. Like the fly in the heart of the apple. P. 64. 

I have been unable to trace the following 
allusions : 

5. " One of the old travellers in South America 
tells of fishes that built their nests in trees, and 
gives a print of the mother fish upon her nest, 
while her mate mounts perpendicularly to her 
without aid of legs or wings." P. 59. 

6. " raised it, like the Prophet's breeches' 

into a banner." P. 66. 

7. " That quarrel of the Sorbonists, whether one 
should say ego amat or no." P. 78. 

8. " Where that Thessalian spring, which, 
without cost to the country, convicted and 
punished perjurers ? " P. 119. 

9. Who were Lechmere (p. 67), Esthwaite 
(p. 73), Capt. Spalding (p. 116), Tito (p. 135)? 
and where are the Half-way Rock (p. Ho) 
Torneo (p. 143), Passawampscot (p. 176) ? 

20, Pollux Gate, Lytham. 

'ALMANACK DE GOTHA.' In the volume 
for 1863 a history of the 'Almanach' is 
given, and it is said that the issue for 1764 
is the first of ths series of which that for 
1863 is the hundredth. But it is also said 
that in 1766 the ancient 'Almanach de 
Gotha ' seems to have ceased to exist, and 
the number for 1766 would therefore appear 
to be more properly the first of the present 
series. It has continued without inter- 
ruption until now, except that Napoleon 
confiscated and burnt the edition for 1808, 
and had a reprint, altered to suit his tastes, 
substituted for it. The original issue for 
1808 exists only in the few copies which 
escaped the holocaust. 

Copies of the ' Almanach ' from its com- 
mencement must be very rare. I know of 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. 22, mi. 

one, from 1766, which wants only the 
volume for 1767 ; but the French edit : on 
of some years is supplied by the German : 
for some years there are both editions. The 
issue for 1808 is, of course, the Napoleonic 

Can any of your readers say what com- 
plete copies of the ' Almanach,' from its 
commencement Tintil 1815, exist in public 
or private libraries ? The issues between 
1774 and 1788 contain illustrations, many 
of them by Daniel Chodowiecki. The later 
issues, from 1815 onwards, are not un- 
common. J. F. R. 

OLD ETONIANS. I shall be grateful for 
information regarding any of the following : 
(1) Cope, John, admitted 21 Sept., 1757, 
left 1760. (2) Corryton, John, admitted 
4 July, 1754, left 1757. (3) Cotton, Evelyn 
Rowland, admitted 19 July. 1756, left 1761. 
(4) Cotterell, Clement, admitted 11 Sept., 

1765, left 1773. (5) Cox, John Saville, ad- 
mitted 24 April. 1760, left 1765. (6) Craw- 
ford, Francis, admitted 8 Sept., 1758, left 
1763. (7) Crawford, William, admitted 12 
March, 1759, left 1763. (8) Croft, John, 
admitted 25 April, 1763, left 1764. (9) 
Croft, Thomas, admitted 19 April, 1765, 
left 1772. (10) Croftes, William, admitted 
11 Sept., 1758, left 1765. (11) Cunningham, 
Anthony, admitted 30 Jan., 1759, left 1763. 
(12) Curtis, John, admitted 5 Feb., 1760, 
left 1763. (13) Curtis, Michael Atkins, ad- 
mitted 5 Feb., 1760, left 1764. (14) Cus- 
tance, Jolm, admitted 31 May, 1762, left 

1766. R. A. A.-L. 

ANTS. There are at least two families in 
which there is a tradition of descent from 
the Earls of Derwentwater, in one of them 
through Husseys of Bristol, whose mother 
was a Percival. 

From such records of the Derwentwater 
family as I have had access to, I can find no 
If kely channel of such descent, and shall be 
gr ateful for any assistance your readers can 
afford me. T. M. HARVARD. 

4, Queen's Leaze, Forest Hill, S.E. 

Were any duties laid on foreign cereals 
in England at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century ? 

ENGLAND. Which were these? 


[Watling Street ; the Icknield Way ; Ermin 
Street ; the Fossway.] 

S.T.P. This portrait " Win. Hogarth, del. 
James Basire, sculp." faces the title-page 
of ' Thesaurus Graeeae Poeseos,' by T. Morell, 
S.T.P., Etonae, 1762. 

In the ' Chronological List of Hogarth's 
Works ' in ' Hogarth's Works,' by John 
Ireland and John Nichols, F.S.A. (no date, 
a new edition, circa 1874), Third Series, 
p. 315, we read that " some impressions 
are without either the inscription of ' The- 
saurus ' or ' JEtat. 60.' ' 

My copy has " JEt. [not ^Eitat.] 60" on a 
sheet of paper on the front dexter side of the 
table, and " Thesarus " (not Thesaurus) at 
the top of a sheet of paper lying under 
Morell's hand. Are there copies of the 
print with the last word correctly spelt ? 

TER. Was only one paper of eight pages 
issued ? or were other similar pamphlets 
done and headed " second edition with 
double acrostic" ? If so, where can I obtain 
these ? The one I know is extraordinarily 
clever. E. E. COPE. 

Finchampstead, Berks. 

AUTHORS WANTED. Can any one tell me 
where I may find the following lines ? 
But the good deed [deeds ?] through the ages 
Written in the immortal pages. 

J. R. M. 
[Should be : 

But the good deed through the ages, 
Living in historic pages, 
Brighter grows and gleams immortal, 
Unconsumed by moth or rust. 

Longfellow, ' The Norman Baron.'] 

Will any reader give me the author of tlie 

In ParadiseU learned to ease my soul in song ? 

Who was the author of a well-known 
volume of poems and ballads, published by 
Duffy of Dublin, called ' Spirit of the Nation'? 


Who is the author of the following lines, 
and where do they occur ? 

The heart desires, 

The hand refrains, 
The Godhead fires, 

The soul attains. 


[Asked for at 10 S. viii. 449, but without 
success. ] 

11 S. X. AUG. 22, 1914.] 



HATS. What is the standard work upon 
hats as worn at different periods ? When 
did the custom of men wearing hats at 
meals which was usual in Stuart times, 
? Is not the reason that a member of 
Parliament, before addressing the Speaker or 
the Chair, puts on his hat, while the Speaker 
remains bare-headed or bare-wigged, to 
emphasize the fact that the Speaker is the 
servant of the House ? G. M. 

[For various items of information on this subject, 
see 4 S. ii. 286 ; vi. 360 ; ix. 444, 517 ; x. 96, 193, 219, 
247, 318; 5 S. v. 96 (worn at meals); vi. 306, 309, 
334, 359, 397 ; 88. iii. 87 ; iv. 533 ; v. 134 (worn in 
the House of Commons) ; vii. 148, 338, 391 ; 9 S. i. 
267, 395, 495 ; viii. 81, 368, 452 ; ix. 34 ; x. 26.] 

The rioting on Sunday, 9 April, 1648, in 
which a party of apprentices marching to 
Westminster were met and driven back by 
Fairfax, occasioned the issue of a Proclama- 
tion by the Mayor, addressed to the Alderman 
of the Ward of Farringdon Within, requiring 

" that for the safety of this city you take care 
and see that the hookes and stapels which fasten 
the chaines to the posts within your Ward be 
forthwith this night pulled out, and that they 
and the chaines be by you taken and disposed of 
in some safe and secure place where your Deputy 
and Common-Counsel shall think most con- 

The purpose of this order was apparently 
to prevent these being made an obstruction 
by these Royalist 'apprentices against the 
militia or Fairfax's horsemen. But what 
was their use in ordinary times ? Did they 
enclose the approaches to New Gate and 
Lud Gate or the enclosure of St. Paul's 
Churchyard, or were they a safeguard for 
pedestrians from the road traffic ? The local 
place-name St. Paul's Chain may afford an 

THE STOCKWELL GHOST. A co-collector 
of Londoniana questions the authenticity 
of the pamphlets describing the strange hap- 
penings at the houses of Mrs. Golding and 
nth. T.H, 6 and 7 Jan., 1 772. The contemporary 
pamphlet ' An Authentic, Candid, and Cir- 
cumstantial Narrative of the Astonishing 
Transactions at Stockwell,' &c., 1772, is now 
exceedingly scarce. It was reprinted in 
1809 for " Mr. Partridge," a schoolmaster, and 
" sold by him at his academy, Stockwell." 
ft was, I believe, again reprinted in the '70's, 
but I have only the two pamphlets named. 
There is nothing to suggest that the story is 
wholly fictitious, but I shall be glad to learn 
if any further matter relating to it is avail - 

Those who remember Gate Street will no 
doubt recall the house with the tall memorial 
cross in front of it. Both are in course of 
demolition, though I trust the cross will be 
preserved and set up somewhere else. For 
many years this house was a school for Roman 
Catholic children, and the cross was erected 
in 1839 in memory of Joseph Booker, who 
was a pioneer in the work of Catholic 
education. The inscription on it has long 
since been obliterated, but it may be worth 
while recording it here : 

" Of your charity pray for the repose of the 
soul of Joseph Booker, many years honorary 
secretary of the Associated Charities, whose 
interest he promoted with the greatest zeal and 
devotion. This monument was erected by public 
subscription to his memory. A.D. 1839. Pater. 
Ave. Amen." 

Perhaps some reader of ' NT. & Q.' can tell 
me whether Gate Street has any interesting 
associations, literary or otherwise. 


23, Unthank Road, Norwich. ^ ii : 

the ancestry of the following knights, and 
shall be most grateful, to any of your 
readers who can inform me where a printed 
pedigree of each, or any, of them is to bo 

Sir Thomas Stafford of Grafton. His 
daughter Emma = Sir Geoffrie Dethick, living 
25 E. III. (Blomefield's ' Norfolk,' vii. 505). 

Sir Adam de Kingsley. His daughter 
Catherine = William Fitz-Gerald, who t 1173, 
of Castle Kerrin, Carmarthenshire (Burke's 
' Landed Gentry,' 1846 ed., p. 186). 

Sir Matthew Walrington. Joan, the 
daughter of William, son and heir of Sir 
Matthew = William de Hach (Vivian's ' Visi- 
tation of Devon," p. 455). 

Sir John, or Sir Thomas, Murdack or Mur- 
doke. His daughter Wenlyan = Robert 
Hatch. Inq. p. m., 7 Henry IV., No. 69 
(Vivian, ibid.). 

Sir Andrew Medsted. His daughter 
Eleanor = John Holland of Thorpwater in 
24 E. III. (Vivian, ibid., p. 475). 

Sir Walter, or Sir William, Cornwall. 
His daughter and coheir Mary = James 
Peverell (Banks, ' Baronies in Fee,' ii. 119). 

Sir James Boehay. His daughter and 
heir Amicia=John Cobham (Banks, ibid.). 

Sir Edward St. John, or de St. John = 
Anastatia de Aton, daughter of William, 
second Baron Aton, who was summoned to 
Parliament 44 E. III. (Banks, 'Dormant and 
Extinct Baronage,' ii. 15; Banks, ' Baronies 
in Fee,' i. 109, 136). 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. 22, i9u. 

Sir Josce de Dinant. His daughter 

Hawise = Sir Fulke Fitz-Warine, who f ant<i 

1195 (Banks, ' Dormant and Extinct Baron- 

age,' ii. 214 ; Burke, ' Extinct Peerage,' 

1840 ed., p. 210). 

Sir John Fresh marsh. His daughter 
Catherine=1189 Amatellus St. Quintin, 
Feudal Baron of St. Quintin (Burke, ' Ex- 
tinct Baronetcies,' p. 462 ; Banks, ' Baronies 
in Fee,' i. 407). 

Sir John Brumfield. His daughter Jane = 
John Chute, living 1274 (Burke's ' Com- 
moners,' i. 632). 

Sir John Chadioke or Chideoke. His 
daughter Christian = Cut hbert Chute (ibid.). 

Sir John Britton. His daughter (un- 
named) = Philip Chute (ibid.). 

Sir John Chichester. His daughter 
Anabel= Ambrose Chute (ibid.). 

Sir John de Ingham, living 5 John= 
Albreda, daughter and coheir of Walter 
Waleran (Banks, 'Dormant and Extinct 
Baronage,' i. 349 ; Burke, ' Extinct Peerage,' 
1840 ed., p. 290). 

Sir Simon de Veer of Goxhall, co. Lincoln, 
and Sproatley, Holderness, who = Ada, 
daughter of Roger 'Bertram, summoned to 
Parliament 14 Dec., 1264, as a Baron (Burke, 
' Extinct Peerage,' 1840 ed., p. 59). 

8, Lansdowne Road, East Croydon. 


" The saying of Beda is to be remembered 
so work as to offer Prayer ; so Praye as to work 
not with thy Lips alone." ' Heliotropes,' 1625. 

I should be glad of the reference in Bede. 
It seems a variant of " laborare est orare " 

H. N. E. 


Can any contributor give me reliable 
information as to where Eleanor of Provence 
was buried ? 1 have heard she died a nun 
nineteen years after her husband. Any 
information will be gratefully received. 


" HURLEY -HACKET.'' Can any reader 

explain the origin of the use of the word 

in the expression " hurley- 

hacket, a sliding down a steep place in a 

trough or sledge ? 

"Racket" as a proper name is the 
diminutive of Hal (Henry) as " Halket." 
d * is a 



FAMOUS ULSTJERMEN. Has any list been 
made of famous Ulstermen who have served 
under the Crown, notably in the East ? 
Perhaps your readers would help in com- 

Wanted, the occasion and original (appa- 
rently French) of the epigram of which the 
following translation occurs in a letter 
dated 29 March, 1741 : 

How can you doubt if the Xew King 
Means what he writes, or feigns, 

Since what his learned pen conceals 
His honest sword explains. 

a letter to West, Gray writes : 

" My life is like Harry the Fourth's supper of 
hens, ' Poulets a la broche, Poulets en Ragout, 
Poulets en Hachis, Poulets en Fricasees.' Read- 
ing here, Reading there ; nothing but books 
with different sauces." 

Can any one explain this allusion ? 

OLYMPIC GAMES. In a letter to Walpole, 
Gray writes : 

" The first man that ever bore the name [of 
philosopher], if you remember, used to say that 
life was like the Olympic games (the greatest 
public assembly of his age and country), whore 
some came to show the strength and agility of 
body, as the champions ; others, as the musicians, 
orators, poets, and historians, to show their 
excellence in those arts ; the traders, to get 
money ; and the better sort, to enjoy the spec- 
tacle, and judge of all these." 

Can any one supply the reference to the 
philosopher here referred to ? 

4. JOHANNES RENAD^US. In a letter to 
Walpole, Gray mentions a certain Johannes 
Renadaeus as the author of * Dispensatorium 
Medicum et Antidotarium ' (Paris, 1609). I 
should be glad of information as to the 
nationality and date of this writer. 

STRIPED GOWN. In a letter to Walpole, 
dated 15 April, 1764, Gray writes: 

" Patriotism appears again with all its old 
faults on its head, even to the Dutchess of Marl- 
borough's striped gown." 
Can any one explain this allusion ? 

In a letter to Gray from Paris,dated 25 Jan., 
1766, Walpole writes : 

" Like Queen Elinor in the ballad, I sunk afc 
Charing-cross, and have risen in the Fauxbourg 
St. Germain." 

What is the ballad here referred to ? 

Fiveways, Burnham, Bucks. 

11 S. X. AUG. 22. 1914.] 




(US. ix. 488.) 

I AM able to supply some of the information 
required about the deceased poetess Pauline 
Tarn, having seen her almost continually 
from 1900 to 1907, when I had the honour 
of giving her some literary advice. 

Pauline's mother was an American lady 
from Honolulu. Her father, John Tarn 
(1846-86), was of Scotch descent, and the 
youngest son of William Tarn of Homewood, 
Chislehurst, Kent. William had made a 
fortune as founder and director of a dry- 
goods store in London. 

Born in England (1877), Pauline came to 
Paris when still a child with her mother, 
who took an appartemeni in the Avenue du 
Bois de Boulogne during the winter, and 
travelled the rest of the year. Pauline was 
the eldest child ; a younger sister married 
a Mr. Alston. During a year or more 
Pauline was placed in a boarding-school at 
Fontainebleau ; she was proud to recall the 
fact that she had won there a first prize in 
French. She spoke French without any 
accent, quite like a French girl ; besides her 
native and her adoptive tongue, she also 
knew German and Italian. About 1897 she 
was presented at the Queen's Drawing -Room 
in London ; then she came to live in Paris 
with a companion (a French lady), and 
henceforth devoted herself entirely to litera- 

The best period of her short life extended 
from 1900 to 1906 ; then, especially in 
1901-3, she wrote her finest verses. Fre- 
quent travels brought her to the United 
States, to the Sandwich Islands, to India, to 
Japan, to Egypt ; in Europe, to Spain, to 
Holland, to Bayreuth (she had a passion for 
music), to Italy, to Norway, to Constanti- 
nople, Athens, Smyrna, and more than once 
to Mitylene, where she took a house and 
lived for several weeks. All those experi- 
ences have left traces in her writings. Japan 
and India in particular had fascinated her, 
and she lived surrounded by Buddhas, by 
Japanese ivories, and by Chinese paintings 
and statuettes, which she preferred even to 
their Japanese derivates. 

Pauline had a morbid taste for solitude, 
and a healthy disgust for every form of 
reclame and pushing. Besides some girls 

and ladies to whom she was very much 
attached, she admitted to her society but a 
few writers of distinction : Ernest Charles, 
Ledrain, the poet Droin, the novelist Willy, 
&c. They admired her beauty (there exists 
a touching portrait of her by Levy-Dhurmer), 
but, more still, her kindness and simplicity. 
Loving art and music, rich, admirably gifted, 
she suffered, nevertheless, from incurable 
melancholy, partly due, no doubt, to her 
bad health and to the perpetual tension 
of her nerves, but also to a great sorrow 
which had struck her when about 23 the 
death of her beloved friend Violet Shilleto, 
an accomplished and beautiful girl, who 
died of consumption in Southern France. 
Since 1908 Pauline's health rapidly de- 
clined ; she neither ate nor slept. Three 
days before her death by starvation 
caused by an occlusion of the stomach, 
she was converted to Catholicism by Abbe 
Riviere. She lies buried in a fine mauso- 
leum in the cemetery of Passy. Some 
beautiful verses of her composition have 
been engraved on the tomb, within and 

I think that your correspondent has not 
gone too far in expressing the opinion that 
many verses by Pauline Tarn rank among 
the finest in the French language. Like 
Swinburne, whom she admired and occa- 
sionally imitated, she sometimes allowed her 
musical genius to take the upper hand ; but 
in her best poems there is not more bril- 
liancy and harmony than intensity of vision 
and profoundness of thought. Her most 
remarkable volumes in verse are entitled 
'Etudes et Preludes' (1901), ' Cendres et 
Poussieres' (1902), 'Evocations' (1903), 
'A 1'heure des mains jointes ' (1906). Of 
her works in prose, no doubt the most 
interesting, which bears some characters of a 
confession, is entitled ' Une Femme m'ap- 
parut ' (1904). All these books appeared 
under the pseudonym Renee (or Rene) 

In a pamphlet published in 1911 (Charles 
Brun, ' Renee Vivien,' Paris, Sansot), I gave 
some information about the life and works 
of that charming woman ; your readers may 
also find there (pp. 33-6) a complete bib- 
liography of her writings and the list of a 
few interesting articles published after her 
death. I ought to have added an eloquent 
obituary notice by E. Ledrain, late Keeper 
of Oriental Antiquities in the Louvre 
(^Opinion, 27 Nov., 1909, p. 688). 
Professor in the Lyc6e at Chartres. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. 22, wu. 


x. 70). These Registers are now in the 
custody of the Master of St. Katherine's 
Collegiate Church, Regent's Park. Mem- 
bers of the public desiring to search them 
should make appointments to do so between 
the hours of 10 and 4, and are liable to be 
charged the statutory fees. According to the 
Parliamentary Return of 1831, these Regis- 
ters comprise the following volumes : 

Vols. i.-iv. Bap. 1584-1618, 1620-1696; 
Bur. 1584-1678 ; Marr. 1584-1695, interrupted 
by vols. v., vi. Bap. 1684-1690, 1684-1727 ; 
Bur. 1684-1693, 1684-1711, 1713-1727, also by 
vols. vii., viii. Marr. 1686-1700, 1695-1734. 
Vol. ix. Bap. Bur. 1704-1713. Vol. x. Bap. 
1728-1769 ; Bur. 1677-1695, 1727-1794. Vol. 
xi. Marr. 1735-1753. Vol. xii. Bap. 1770-1812 ; 
Bur. 1795-1812. Vols. xiii., xiv. Marr. 1754- 


x. 11, 96). To those of your readers who 
are interested in this subject I would 
recommend the perusal of an article entitled 
' Felssprengen mittelst Feuer und Essig bei 
den Alten ' in the Zeitschrift jur das gesamte 
Schiess- und Sprengstoffwesen for 1 Aug., 
1909, and also of the article on ' Essig ' in 
Pauly's ' Real Encyclopaedic,' vol. vi. part ii. 
(1907). It must be borne in mind that 
according to Livy the rocks were heated 
before vinegar was poured on them to render 
them soft and crumbling, and thus it was 
merely a case of " fire-setting " as practised 
formerly in Spain, Norway, Hungary, and 
Germany. In the last country, in the 
Rammelsberg mines near Goslar, the prac- 
tice survived till 1870, when it had to be 
discontinued owing to the high price of 
firewood. The process was fully described 
and illustrated by George Agricola in his 
book 'De R Metallica' (first edition, 1556), 
a translation of which by Herbert C. Hoover 
and Lou H. Hoover appeared with copious 
notes in London in 1912. According to the 
translators, seventeenth-century writers in 
England continue to describe the process ; 
and the rate of advance achieved with it 
in the Koenigsberg mines was from 5 ft. 
to 20 ft. per month. According to Livy's 
account, Hannibal spent only four days about 
the particular rock which had to be cleared 
away by fire, vinegar, and iron instruments ; 
and the bulk of the work of rock-cutting 
must, therefore, have been comparatively 

The famous French chemist M. Berthelot 
has dealt with the subject in the Journal des 
Savants for April, 1889 ; and Mr. Douglas W. 

Freshfield, in his recently published book 
' Hannibal Once More,' has called attention 
to a diploma granted by the Emperor 
Frederick III. to the Marquess Louis of 
Saluzzo, in which vinegar is mentioned as 
one of the means to be employed in making 
the Traversette Tunnel : 

" Ad perforandum ferro igne aceto ac variis 
aliis ingeniis saxeum atque altissimum montem 
ilium qui pre-eminet altitudine ceteras Ytalie 
colics vulgariter Vesalus nuncupatum." 

The date of the deed is 21 Feb. ,1480. In the 
usual practice of fire -setting no vinegar was 
employed, but only cold water. 

Hannibal's troops, no doubt, carried 
vinegar in large quantities with them for 
making " posca," as the Romans called it, 
i.e., for mixing it with the water for drinking, 
a practice which, it is stated, survived in the 
French army till the thirties of last century. 

L. L. K. 

The solution of rocks in vinegar would 
be so slow that I cannot imagine its ever 
being accomplished so as to be of any 
practical use, and I doubt the possibility 
of any extensive disruption from confined 
carbonic acid gas, the liberation of which 
would not, I think, be sudden enough, and 
it would escape through fissures, &c., as fast 
as it was generated. J. T. F. 

x. 87). Hone in his 'Everyday Book' 
mentions the saying, " St. Swithin is christen- 
ing the apples," current in some parts of the 
country when rain falls on St. Swithin's Day. 
And CUTHBEBT BEDE (3 S. viii. 146) ( was told 
by a Huntingdonshire cottager that " unless 
St. Swithin rains upon 'em, they '11 never 
keep through the winter." TOM JONES. 

"The Apple - Christening Day" is still 
quite a common folk -name given to St. 
Swithin's Day in Surrey as well as in Berk- 
shire and Oxfordshire, as I am told by 
several friends. H. K. 

[U. C. B. also thanked for reply.] 

SLOE FAIR (11 S. x. 90). A Sloe Fair 
would certainly seem to owe its name rather 
to the fact that sloes were sold at it than 
from its being held in a field where a sloe tre 
grew, sloe trees being much too common 
to give a distinctive character to any 
particular field. But the term " sloe tree " 
was much more familiar to me as a boy in 
the Midlands than " blackthorn " ; both it 
and " sloe thorn " are familiar everywhere. 
Your correspondent should have thought of 
Tennyson's " Poussetting with a sloe-tree," 

ii s. x. AUG. 22, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


in ' Amphion.' I think, too, that the chief 
use of sloes was not primarily to make 
vinegar, but wine. Sloe wine used to be 
found in all farm-houses and many cottages ; 
and sloe vinegar, so far as my experience 
goes, was only the same wine turned sour 
for want of drinking, which in our house, at 
any rate, it rarely did. The wine was 
regarded as a specific for diarrhoea, and when 
fortified, as it usually was, with brandy, it 
was neither a bad remedy nor a bad drink. 

C. C. B. 

How far back can, not this Chichester fair 
itself, but the name of the fair in this form, 
be traced ? One of the oldest churches in 
Chichester as to foundation and site, 
though not as to its present fabric is 
St. Olave's. Is it possible that "Sloe" is a 
corruption for " St. Olave " ? I am aware 
that St. Olave's Day falls at the end of July, 
but I believe this is not necessarily an in- 
superable objection. PEREGRINUS. 

May I be allowed partly to answer my 
own query at the reference above ? The 
fragment is : 

How gracefully Maria leads the dance ! 
Slic's life itself : I never saw a foot 
So nimble and so elegant. It speaks, 
And the sweet whispering Poetry it makes 
Shames the musician. 

' Adriano ; or, The First of June.' 

" This elegant little fragment appears, in the 

poet's holograph, on the back of an MS. copy of 

the ' Lament of Mary, Queen of Scots,' that 

apparently had been presented by the author to 

.Urs. Maria Riddell." W. Scott Douglas, 

'The Works of Robert Burns,' vol. iii. (1877), 
1, 82. 

The fragment has been photo -lithographed 
by William Griggs, with an introductory 
note by H. R. Sharman, 1869. ' Adriano ; 
or, The First of June,' is " a poem by the 
author of ' The Village Curate ' " (J. Hurdis), 
1790, p. 94. The quotation by Burns is 
incorrect, insomuch that in the third line of 
the original the word " eloquent " is used 
instead of " elegant." 

MR. SCOTT DOUGLAS (vide supra) states 

that he discussed the subject in ' N. & Q.,' 

April, 1877, and that he was answered on 

3 April, 1877, but this I have not been able 

to confirm. 

I am still unable to verify the statement 
tluit Burns sent Maria Riddell an MS. copy 
of his ' Tarn o' Shanter.' 


[The query appeared at 5 S. vii. 189, and the 
reply by the late W. R. MoBFlLL lit p. 339 of the 
same volume.] 

iv. 248, 292, 352). Mention is made at the 
last reference of the copy of ' Pickwick 
Papers ' in parts catalogued (Catalogue 264, 
No. 1683) by Messrs. Maggs in 1911 with a 
detailed bibliographical description. Another, 
and finer, copy was sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
on 26 May last, when the record price of 
495Z. was bid. This formed part of the 
library of the late Capt. Douglas, and is- 
catalogued as " probably the finest copy 
extant." The description of this copy 
(lot 331) is of special value for the full par- 
ticulars as to the advertisements which 
should accompany each part, and in this 
respect supplements the collation given by 
Messrs. Maggs. ROLAND AUSTIN. 

ROBERT TINKLER (11 S. x. 116). In, 
' The Royal Navy,' by Wm. Laird Clowes, 
Robert Tinkler is included in the list of 
midshipmen on the Bounty on 23 Dec., 1787. 
In the index he is referred to as being 
identical with First Lieutenant Robert 
Tinkler of the Isis on 2 April, 1801, at the 
battle of Copenhagen. J- F. 

WELLINGTON (11 S. x. 49, 132). A writer 
in ' N. & Q.' (1 S. vi. 516) says that the title 
of Wellington in Somerset was selected for 
the Duke because that town is near the 
village of Wensley a name which bears a 
close resemblance to Wesley, the old family 
name, since altered (he says) to Wellesley. 
As a matter of fact the original name of the 
family was not Wesley, but Wellesley, being 
derived from an ancient manor in Somerset 
called Wellesley or Wellesleigh. In the 
course of time the name of the family 
became abbreviated to Wesley, and up to 
the age of 29 the Duke was always known as 
the Hon. Arthur Wesley. But the Duke's 
ancestors were not Wesleys at all, but 
Colleys, and it was only at the beginning of 
George II. 's reign that the Duke's grand- 
father, Richard Colley, in accordance with 
the terms of his cousin Garret Wesley's 
will which gave him Dangan Castle and 
Mornington, took the additional name of 
Wesley and became Richard Colley Wesley. 
As to the Colley (or Cowley) family of Castle 
Carbery, co. Kildare, from whom the Duke 
of Wellington is descended, it is said that 
they once possessed the estate of Wellington 
in, Somerset. If this be correct, it would 
perhaps account for the title of Wellington 
bring selected by or for the Duke. A 
curious bit of information is furnished by 
Lord Colchester's Diary. Lord Colchester, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. tn s. x. AUG. 22, wu. 

then Charles Abbot, was Speaker of the 
House of Commons at the time of the 
Peninsular War, and the entry in his Diary 
is as follows : 

" 1810, Feb. 9. Canning and Hutchinson 
drank tea in my room. It appears that Lord 
Wellington's peerage was conferred at [his 
brother] Wellesley Pole's instance without Sir 
Arthur Wellesley 's wishes \ being known either as 
to the peerage or the title." 

Talavera had been fought in July, 1809, 
and Sir Arthur Wellesley was raised to the 
peerage in the following month as Viscount 
Wellington of Talavera. In 1813 the Duke 
acquired possession of the manor of Wel- 
lington at a cost of 22,500Z., and in 1814, 
when the Peninsular War was over, he 
visited the town and had a public reception. 
Strathfieldsaye was not purchased till three 
years later, at a cost of over a quarter of a 

BETTER; I AM HERE" (11 S. vi. 469). -The 
original, subject, and place of the above 
" of ten- quoted epitaph of an Italian tomb " 
were asked for. I would suggest that the 
original, as long as it is riot forthcoming from 
another source, might be reconstructed from 
what would seem to be an adaptation of the 
epitaph by Horace Walpole : ' 

" In short, he and the Scotch have no way of 
redeeming the credit of their understandings, but 
by avowing that they have been consummate 
villains. ' Stavano bene ; per star meglio, 
stanno qul.' " Walpole to the Rev. William 
Mason, Aug. 2 [6 ?], 1778: No. 1888 in Mrs. 
Toynbee's edition. 


Reydon. Southwold, Suffolk. 

CAIRNS FAMILY (11 S. x. 88). In the 
' Dictionary of National Biography,' which 
should be in all good Colonial * libraries, 
there are four biographies (Cairnes 2. Cairns 
2) that may be helpfxil. H. Cairnes Lawlor's 
' History of the Family of Cairnes or Cairns,' 
1906, is a valuable work on the subject, and 
there are the old references : Shirley's 
' History of the County of Monaghan,' p. 216 ; 
O'Hart's ' Irish Pedigrees,' 2nd Ser., p. 146 ; 
Wotton's ' English Baronetage,' vol. iv. 
p. 130; and Burke's 'Extinct Baronetcies.' 
These authorities deal mainly with the north 
of Ii eland and the south-west of Scotland, 
ignoring the Cairns family located at Dun- 
blane, Bridge-of-Allan, Edinburgh, &c. One 
of my grandmothers was Isabella Cairns 
from Bridge-of-Allan, and her view was that 
only in the east were to be found the pure 
Caimses free from any suspicion of Celtic 
Kearns taint. She was a wise woman, and 

it was not for me to teach her how to svick 
pedigree eggs. The ' Registers of Testa- 
ments ' of the various Commissariot Records 
published by the Scottish Record Society 
would afford C. C. much useful guidance to 
Cairns wills. A. T. W. 

SCHUBERT QUERIES (11 S. x. 89). The 
song ' Ave Maria ' was published with the 
title " Ellen's Gesang. Hymne an die Jung- 
frau aus Walter Scott." The German 
translation was by Ad. Storck. 

The following account of ' The Wanderer ' 
is to be found in Coleridge's ' Life of Schu- 
bert,' translated from the German of Kreissle 
von Hellborn : 

" A clergyman in Vienna, of the name of Horni, 
drew Schubert's attention to the poem of Georg 
Filipp Schmidt, of Lubeck (born 1766, died 1849). 
Horni probably found it in a volume called 
' Dichtungen fur Kunstredner,' published by 
Deinharstein in the year 1815, where it is marked 
as ' Der Ungliickliche,' by Werner. Schubert has 
consequently written on the original ' by Zacharias 
Werner.' " 

The original manuscript of the music 
still exists, with Schubert's endorsement, 
" October, 1816." 


1. The publisher of the original edition 
of Schubert's ' Ave Maria ' had English 
and German words printed. But as Adolf 
Storck's German translation of Walter 
Scott's poem used by Schubert did not 
adhere closely to the English verse measure, 
the result was unsatisfactory, as may be 
seen in the Litolff edition, vol. iii., in which 
both German version and the original Scott 
poem are given. 

2. The " Schmidt von Lubeck " was Georg 
Philipp Schmidt, born at Lubeck in 1766. 
His poems, and probably amongst them 
' Der Wanderer,' were collected (some ap- 
peared first in newspapers) and published 
by his friend Prof. H. Ch. Schumacher in 
1821. A third edition was brought out 
by the poet himself in 1847. Schmidt died 
at Altona in 1849. J. S. S. 

The words of Schubert's ' Ave Maria ' are 
supposed to be a translation of Ellen's hymn 
in Sir Walter Scott's ' Lady of the Lake.' 

Schmidt of Lubeck was Georg Philipp 
Schmidt (1766-1849), whose 'Lieder' were 
edited by Prof. Schumacher in 1821. 

L. L. K. 

MENT (11 S. x. 67). The parody referred to 
was written by the Rev. R. H. Barham, and 
will be found in his Life by his son, vol. ii. 

us.x.Auo.22.1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


p. 319, and also in ' The Ingoldsby Lyrics,' 
p. 174. At p. 108 of the latter work 
will be found another parody of the same 
original, written eight years earlier, and 
referring to the new Custom House. 

E. G. B. 

G. QUINTON, 1801-3 (11 S. x. 108). 
George Quinton, engraver on copper or 
aquafortist of the eighteenth century, born 
at Norwich in 1779, was an autodidact. In 
1796 he made engravings for The Gentleman's 
Magazine. H. KREBS. 

(11 S. ix. 510; x. 36, 94). The following 
extract from a will dated 21 Feb., 1648, 
shows that the title " Master " was used at 
that period : " My will is that Master Seaman, 
Parson of Snoring parva, may bury me." 



181, 235, 274). In 'A Chronicle of Friend- 
ships,' by Luther Munday, the author 
writes : 

" One Anthony Munday, a roystering com- 
panion of Shakespeare's who, according to recent 
revelations, appeared with him at the Police 
Court, wrote three books and some plays between 
1570 and 1610. He had a brother a monk, and 
they both settled in Cornwall in 1540, coming 
from Calvados, in Brittany. In 1509 he wrote a 
"hook which was first published with the name 
of ' William Shakespeare ' on the title-page, but 
the ascription to Shakespeare was promptly 
withdrawn. This is all I can discover, even with 
the aid of two friends at the College of Heralds, 
as to the origin of my name and family ; as the 
last Visitation in Cornwall was in 1620 and my 
forbears for four generations, which is as far back 
as I can trace them, descended in single line ; 
o that at my death the race becomes extinct, I 
having no brother nor any male relation." 

In the above statement there are several 
errors. In the first place there is no evidence 
to connect Anthony Munday the dramatist 
wii 1 1 the Mundys of Cornwall, who were sons 
of Sir John Muiidy, Lord Mayor of London. 
Moreover the Mundys of Cornwall (by whom 
arc probably meant Thomas Mundy, the last 
Prior of Bodmin, and his brother John, who 
both settled in Cornwall) descended from a 
family settled in Buckinghamshire prior to 
tic' Lord Mayors acquiring the manors of 
ttarkeaton, Mackworth, and Allestrey, co. 
I > rhy. 

In my notes on Anthony Munday the 
dramatist (II S. ix. 181), I commented on 
th<' fact that both Shakespeare and Munday 
were connected with the Hall family. I 

should be glad to know the authority for the 
statement that these two appeared together 
" at the Police Court," also whether it is 
known that they were " companions," and 
what book by Munday was published with 
Shakespeare's name on the title-page. 

Mr. Luther Munday's connexion with the 
dramatist is vague, considering that he can 
only trace his ancestry for four generations. 
On these other points he has been, no doubt, 
misinformed. PERCY D. MUNDY. 

WILLS AT ST. PAUL'S (11 S. x. 12, 117). 
Reference should also be made to ' Manu- 
scripts of the Dean and Chapter of St. 
Paul's,' described in one of the earlier 
reports of the Historic MSS. Commission, 
as these contain still earlier records of 
bequests, &c. R. B. 

x. 107). 

" They [John Huniades and Scanderbeg] are 
ranked by Sir William Temple in his pleasing 
' Essay on Heroic Virtue ' (' Works,' vol. iii. p. 385) 
among the seven chiefs who have deserved, with- 
out wearing, a royal crown : Belisarius, Narses, 
Gonsalvo of Cordova ; William, first Prince of 
Orange ; Alexander, Duke of Parma ; John 
Huniades, and George Castriot or Scanderbeg." 
Gibbon's ' Roman Empire,' chap. Ixvii., author's 
note (Bonn's edition, vol. vii. p. 270). 


SCOTT: 'THE ANTIQUARY' (11 S. x. 90). 
9. The lines, " O weel may the boatie 
row," &c., open the Scottish song 'The 
Boatie Rows,' by John Ewen (1741-1821). 
It is in all worthily representative antho- 
logies. See, e.g., Mary Carlyle Aitken's 
' Scottish Song,' p. 127 (Macmillan). 

[T. F. D. also thanked for reply.] 

SAFFRON WALDEN (US. ix. 87, 177, 217, 
295, 334, 414). ' Essex : Highways, Byways, 
and Waterways,' by Mr. C. R. B. Barrett, 
1892, has the following on the names of the 
above town : 

" In days of Edward Confessor the town was 
called Walden simply.... As at Witham so at 
Walden, the name of Chipping or Cheping occurs, 
and this probably originated when, by the license 
of the Empress Matilda, the market was removed 
to Walden from Newport, a village a few miles 
distant, it was not until the reign of Edward III. 
that the additional name of Saffron was given 
to the town, a name which still remains, though 
the saffron plant is no longer cultivated in the 

The eight months' " reign of Matilda " in 
1141, and the reign of Edward III., 1327-77, 
sufficiently fix the date given for each change 
of name. W. B. H. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. m s. x. A. 22, WM. 

vii. 43; ix. 63, 155, 257). The death of 
King Henry II. is stated to have been 
caused by the disclosure of the name of 
his son John at the head of a list of those 
whom he was to pardon for deserting him, 
and doing homage to his son Richard, who, 
in alliance with Philip, the French king, had 
recently defeated him. To obtain peace 
King Henry was obliged to submit to any 
terms the conquerors chose to impose, 
this pardoning of the rebels being one of 
them. Nearly all our histories refer to a list 
of rebels, but Lhe only name qxioted from it 
is that of John. 

Is there any chronicle or history in which 
all the names as originally written in the 
list are given ? Can any of your readers 
kindly tell me where the original list was 
deposited, and, if it has escaped the ravages 
of time and destruction, where can it now be 
seen ? Was such a list ever compiled "? 

Dr. Stubbs in his ' Early Plantagenets ' 
tells us that 

** Geoffrey, his natural son and Chancellor, after- 
wards Archbishop of York, was with him, and the 
poor father clung to him in his despair. To him, 
through his friend Giraldus Camtsrensis, ice one 
the story of these sad days." 

This mention of Prince John's name at the 
head of the list of rebels to be pardoned by 
his father is the only account we have of 
any variance between King Henry and his 
youngest son ; and as both Geoffrey and 
Gerald were bitter enemies of John, would 
it be very unreasonable to suggest that the 
story of Prince John's desertion of his father 
was the invention of Geoffrey, and published 
by Gerald for the purpose of defaming King 
John, as he does King Henry and his sons in 
his ' De Principis Instructione ' ? 


JOSHUA WEBSTER, M.D., 1777 (US. ix. 8). 
The Dean of St. Albans, who has been 
making local inquiries regarding Joshua 
Webster, writes that the only information 
he can discover from local records concerning 
him is the following extract from ' The Old 
Inns of St. Albans,' by the late F. G. Kitten, 
which in itself seems worthy of a place in 
* :N T . & Q.' : 

" ' The White Hart ' is doubtless the veritable 
hostelry at which the Scotch lord, Simon Lovat, 
tested in 1710 during a sudden illness while on his 
way to London for committal to the Tower, and 
here Hogarth painted the famous portrait oi his 
lordship at the express invitation of Dr. Webster, 
who was a notable St. Albans man and a friend of 
Samuel Ireland, the biographer of Hogarth. This 
picture, which is now in the National Portrait 
Gallery, was painted in great haste probably 

at one sitting for Dr. Webster, who attended 
Lord Lovat professionally : it is said to have been 
lound eighty years afterwards in the house ot a 
poor person in the neighbourhood ot St. Albans 
a singular fact regarding it being that until its 
discovery such a portrait was not known to be in 

F. DE H. L. 

DIALECT (11 S. ix. 288, 337, 376, 394). Over 
and over again it has been stated that in the 
plays we find Warwickshire words, peculiarly 
Warwickshire, and used in no other part of 
the country than Warwickshire. ' The 
English Dialect Dictionary ' completely dis- 
proves this. The contention is supposed to 
get rid finally of the Baconian authorship 
of the dramas. But what is the actual state 
of affairs ? I have been unable to trace a 
purely Warwickshire word in the plays. 
Once upon a time Mr. Appleton Morgan, 
President of the Shakespeare Society of New 
York, gave a glossary of 518 words which he 
claimed as pure Warwickshire words, and 
presumably used by Shakespeare. Then a 
leading member of the Bacon Society came 
forward and proved conclusively that of the 
518 " pure Warwickshire words " there were 
only 46 which are not as current in Surrey 
Sussex, Kent, Wiltshire, Hampshire, Lin 
colrishire, and Leicestershire as they are 
Warwickshire, and that not one of these 
46 words, not recognized as common in the 
southern and eastern counties, is to be found 
in Shakespeare ! This is entirely confirmed 
by ' The English Dialect Dictionary.' 

For instance, we are informed that the 
word " moither " " is indigenous to the soil 
of urban as well us rural Warwickshire." 
It is nothing of the kind. The Dictionary 
says, " It is in dialect use in Scotland, Ire- 
land, and the Midland Counties, in Rutland, 
Montgomery, and Gloucestershire." And 
so with dozens of other words claimed as 
" pure Warwick shire. ' ; 


47). The claim that Maimonides anticipat 
Darwin rests upon a misappreciation of 
Darwin's work, and reading into Maimonides 
what he did not say. Darwin is not looked 
upon as the founder of the theory of evolu- 
tion, nor did he so regard himself. His work 
was to present a theory as to the cause and 
method of evolution, to adduce facts to 
prove the theory, and to discuss the diffi- 
culties that have been raised against it. 
Maimonides' language, at the reference give: 
indicates merely that the Jewish scho!" 

ii s. x. AUG. 22, mi] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


as did many other observant persons, saw 
the progressive development of animal and 
vegetable forms from embryo to adult. 
That a general plan exists in living organisms 
wa- 1 noted as soon as man began to appre- 
ciate his environment. Distinct allusions 
to such views can be found in Aristotle and 
Au.mistine ; but the oldest allusions are in 
Genesis, in which the cosmos is represented 
as passing from 'the " independent, in- 
coherent homogeneity " by a succession of 
developments, " the diapason closing full on 
man." The essential community of animal 
forms is shown by the fact that they all 
have the " nefesh hayah " ("living soul"), 
and that when a help meet for Adam (not a 
help -meet, as often erroneously expressed) 
w,s to be selected, the whole animal world 
was passed in review. Surely the basic idea 
of ths companionship was the propagation 
of the species, and this could not have been 
presumed unless there was essential simi- 
larity in the nature of the whole animal 
creation. The penalty imposed on the 
serpent finds interesting application in the 
fact that some living serpents show rudi- 
ments of a pelvic arch and may be degenerate 
quadrupeds. HENRY LEFFMANN. 


" (11 S. viii. 466; ix. 62). 
The English forms in " step " (literally 
bereaved, deprived) are a clumsy and ' 
when applied to parents and brothers and 
sisters an etymologically absurd attempt at 
differentiating relations. The present ^rigid 
distinction between the groups " step- " and 
" in-law " is quite modern. Bailey's ' Dic- 
tionary,' 1736 edition, gives the definition 
of " step-father " as " father-in-law," and so 
on. As late as 1837 the second Mrs. Weller 
is always referred to as Samuel's " mother- 
in-law." Proverbial French, at least, has 
an attempt at discriminating "step-mother" 
(in a bad sense), e.g., " Maratre est le diable 
en at re," which goes back at any rate to the 
eighteenth century. 

Even in English other relations by marriage 
are not discriminated ; e.g., " a sister-in- 
law " may be a brother's wife, a wife's 
Bister, or a husband's sister ; " a niece-in- 
law " may be a nephew's wife or a husband's 
<or wife's) niece. E. M. F. 

viii. 288, 336, 377 ; ix. 136). Agreeing with 
the writer at p. 288 that a solution has not yet 
1 < < n found, I submit the following as possible 
siiils to that end : (1) Since men first fought 
behind defensive works, doubtless the ruse 

has been used of exposing the head-covering 
upon a spear or gun to draw the " fire " of 
the enemy, if any such be within eyeshot, 
so it would naturally occur to any one to 
throw in his hat as a ballon d'essai to see if 
the housewife is inimical. (2) The hat 
especially represents the father in that fossil- 
bed of old British customs, the North 
Carolina Mountains ; in an article on the 
folk-lore of this region in the Journal of 
American Folk-Lore, vol. xx.,at p. 249 is the 
direction, " To relieve the pangs of child- 
birth, put the hat of the child's father under 
the bed." (3) Further in that line is ' Der 
Hut als "Symbol,"' &c., in Zentralblatt fii>- 
Psychoanalyse,- 1912, iii. 95, which is well 
worth personal examination by those in- 
terested. ROCKINGHAM. 
Boston, Mass. 

THE CANDLE (11 S. viii. 502; ix. 173). 
Perhaps I may be allowed to allude to the 
custom of " selling by candle " incidentally 
mentioned by MR. TOM JONES. I have notes 
of such sales having occurred at Raunds, 
Northamptonshire (1889); Warton, War- 
wickshire (1904) ; Broadway, Dorset (1909); 
Chard, Somerset (1910) ; and Aldermaston, 
Berkshire (1913). 

The following is copied from The Graphic 
of 29 March, 1873 : 

" Garraway s Coffee House, famous for its inoh 
of candle sales, and for being the first establish- 
ment where tea was retailed as a drink, was 
finally closed on Tuesday [25 March] after an 
existence of 216 years." 

See also 4 S. xi. 276, 371 ; 5 S. vi. 288, 
435, 523 ; ix. 306 ; xii. 446 ; 8 S. ii. 363 ; 
v. 106 ; ix. 414 ; 9 S. xi. 188, 353 ; 10 S. ix. 
388; 11 S. i. 404. 

With reference to the snuffing of candles 
I may say that I remember the candle- 
snuffer going round during the service to 
perform this office at a little Nonconformist 
chapel in Northamptonshire in the early 
sixties. JOHN T. PAGE. 

viii. 449, 494). " There were also sparrow 
bills or sparables," says J. T. F. May I 
point out that this word, pronounced 
sparbliss, exists still in Lleyn, S. Carnarvon- 
shire ? 1 last saw it (in English) in one of 
the skits on the attempted divorce of Queen 
Caroline skits of the time, collected. Barm- 
cloth and roundhouse are two more old 
survivals, commonly used in Welsh talk 
to-day. A collection of these remanets 
might be useful. So might the Welsh, as 
illustrating the Cornish, totem-terms (applied 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t n s. x. AUG. 22, 1911 

to Anglesey, Carnarvonshire, and Merioneth- 
shire i'olk)^ " Modi " (unless connected here 
with Latin mox), " Lladron," and " cwn 
duon " respectively. Andrew Lang post- 
humously refers to the Cornish " mouse " 
on p. 175 of Folk-Lore for July, 1913. With 
o-/ziv^os connect the above pigs, thieves, 
and black dogs of N. Wales. 


On 30 Dec., 1836, a Mr. W. Leigh issued a 
prospectus of a work based on the papers 
discovered at Bardon in Somerset in 1834. 
It is described as 

" a new view of the case of Mary, Queen of Scots, 
as connected with the Babington Conspiracy, 
deduced from six autograph letters from Lord 
Treasurer Burghley to Sir Christopher Ilatton, 
in September, 1586, and other State Papers ; 
comprising three autograph foolscap sheets of the 
.Notes of Sir Christopher Hatton ; and amongst 
the ' Notes of Kemembrance of Mr. Sergeant 
Puckering,' the Speaker oi the House of Commons, 
a copy of the letter from Mary to Babington .... 
an original despatch from Lord Burghley to 
Secretary Dayison from Fotheringhay Castle, 
pending her trial," &c. 

The copy of this prospectus before me is 
endorsed by Sir Henry Ellis of the B.M. : 
" I believe this proposed work was never 
published." ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

"LEFT HIS CORPS" (US. ix. 225). This 
reminds me of a funny story I once was 
told by a parson friend with a keen sense of 
humour, who said it happened to himself. 
He was conducting a funeral, and when the 
melancholy procession was leaving the 
church for the grave, the sexton evidently 
one of the old sort came up to him in the 
porch and told him that " the corpse's 
brother wished to speak to him " ! 

R. B R. 

365, 416; 11 S. i. 33). A note of mine on 
this subject, which was printed at the first 
reference, did not evoke as much comment 
and information as I sought, and I have 
pursued my solitary course of thought 
without meeting with anything that strongly 
supports my theory that language is an 
important tool in the shaping of racial 
physiognomy. Just recently I have found a 
passage in Baron E. de Mandat - Grancey's 
' Chez John Bull ' which is on my side. He 
says, with regard to an English-speaking girl 
in the Salvation Army : 

" EUe tait assez jolie. Elle avait notamment 
de tres belles dents, un pcu longues commrs celles 
de beaucoup de ses compatiiotes, mais pas encore 
repouss6es en avant conime cela arrive trop souvent 

sans doute par Tabus du tli, dont la piononciation 
exige que la langue prenne un point d appui sur 
les dents et qui finit par los incliner du c6t6 i!es 
levres. C'est du moins 1'explication que m'adon- 
nee un savant rnedecin." P. 24(5. 

As one that " filleth the place of the un- 
learned," I should fancy that the teeth are 
as likely to be blown out by esses as to be 
levered forward by th. What do fellow- 
readers know about facial modifications due 
to these and other vocables ? 


BYRON'S " LAY " AGAIN (US. ix. 506). 
Sir James Murray has a note on the in- 
transitive uses of " lay " in the ' N.E.D.' 
He gives many instances of these from 
c. 1300 downwards, but says that although 
the use of " lay " for "lie " was not appa- 
rently considered a solecism in the seven- 
teenth or eighteenth century, it is now 
dialectal only, or a sign of illiteracy. Dr. 
Hodgson, in his ' Errors in the Use of English,' 
quotes several passages from authors later 
than Byron in which it occurs, among them 
Dasent and Henry Kingsley. I venture to 
think, however, that it is, generally speaking, 
a vulgarism merely. C. C. B. 

" WAIT AND SEE " (11 S. iii. 366, 434 ; 
iv. 74, 157 ; v. 414). Another and earlier in- 
stance of the literary use of the above phrase 
is quoted in the 'X.E.D.' under ' Remedy,' 

" We had no Remedy but to wait and see 
what the Issue of Things might present." 1719, 
De Foe, ' Crusoe ' (Globe), 267. 


AND PHILIPPA (11 S. viii. 429). May I 
suggest that Hinkstead is perhaps Hick- 
stead, in the parish of Twineham, Sussex ? 
Some ninety years ago Hickstead Place was 
the home of the Wood family. 


62, Nelson Road, Stroud Green, N. 

11 S. x. 10, 53). May I suggest the 'Dic- 
tionary of Islam,' a facsimile edition of 
which has appeared lately ? I cannot for 
the moment remember the name of the 
author. L. L. K. 

HILL (US. viii. 467, 516 ; ix. 37). Is your 
correspondent certain that the six scenes 
refer to St. Christopher ? Is it not more 
probable that they depict different saints, 
such as St. Hubert, St. Edward, St. George, 
St. Thomas, &c. ? At Sulhamstead Abbotts,. 

n s. x. AUG. 22, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Berks, there was a St. Christopher in a very 
imperfect state, which has now disappeared. 
Tin -re is another at Bramley, Hants, which 
has been restored. At Pickering, Yorks, also 
the frescoes have been restored. St. Chris- 
topher walks in water full of fishes and mer- 
maids, and the shore has a chapel, a praying 
monk, some fishermen, -and a windmill. 

E. E. COPE. 
Finchainpstead Place, Berks. 

SNUFF-BOXES (11 S. viii. 148). Here is a 
clipping from The People, London, Sunday, 
15 March, 1014, under ' The People Mixture,' 
p. 18. It may add an interest to the topic : 

" Armada R-lic. A golden snuff-box en- 
graved with the arms of the Duke of Medina 
Sidonia, the commander of the Spanish Armada, 
has been washed ashore during a storm at Vigo." 

Pcndleton, Manchester. 


A Description of Brasses and Other Funeral 
'Monuments in the Chapel of Magdalen College. 
By B. T. Giinther, Fellow of the College. 
(Oxford, printed by H. Hart for Magdalen 
College, 2s. 6d. net.) 

MB. GUNTHER to whom we are already indebted 
for an historical description of the Chapel Porch 
of Magdalen, for an admirable and learned account 
of Oxford gardens, and for a charming book 
upon the Oxford country, of which he was editor 
and to which he contributed has produced a 
valuable little work which should appeal to many 
besides those who owe allegiance to the College 
of the Lilies. 

In his Preface he acknowledges the assistance 
of the Bev. H. A. Wilson, Fellow and historian 
ot the College ; of the Bev. F. E. Brightman, 
Fellow ; and of Mr. H. W. Greene, sometime 
Fellow. Mr. Brightman not only lent careful 
rubbings of eight of the Brasses, but has con- 
tributed a much-needed note upon medieval 
academical costume, a subject which has fre- 
quently been misinterpreted even by experts. 

The Chapel and its monuments have suffered 
many vicissitudes. In 16345 the floor was un- 
fortunately disturbed, in order that it might be 
covered whh black and white marble pavement- 
quarries. Some of the monuments which were 
relaid after this move were again disturbed when 
a new heating apparatus was installed in 1838, 
and several brasses were litted from gravestones 
and stored in the Bursary. Five of these were 
rescued by the piety of Dr. Macray, the latest 
o<l it or of the College Begister, and relaid in the 
Chapel during 1893. Sundry fragments still 
loose in 1911 were finally replaced by College 
order. Moreover, Dr. Bloxam records that in 
1832 " tablets were removed from the clustered 
columns fof the Antechapel] and placed in some 
convenient situation." A cemetery for the 
members of the College who were not interred 
within the building was uncovered in St. John's 

Quadrangle, just under the western wall of the 
Chapel. This has now been re-covered with turf. 
Mr. Giinther notes that, unfortunately, the 
spots selected for the relaying of the most inter- 
esting of the older brasses are just those most 
liable to be walked upon or to have Chapel 
furniture dragged over them, to the inevitable 
deterioration of the brasses. He suggests that 
the fifteenth- and sixteenth-century originals 
should be preserved in a place of safety, or at- 
tached to a wall, and twentieth-century electro- 
types laid in their present places on the floor. It 
will be remembered that the magnificent brasses 
in Winchester College Chapel disappeared in 
Butterfield's restoration of 1874-5, and that by 
the munificence of Dr. Edwin Freshfield who> 
fortunately, when a boy in the School, had taken 
rubbings of them, they have been reproduced. 
Magdalen, at any rate, escaped the ruthless hand 
of Butterfield. 

Mr. Gunther says of the ancient brasses, 
" Several bear portraits of the deceased en- 
graved with convincing clearness." We confess 
we are somewhat sceptical on this point. 
Mediaeval brasses appear to give us digni- 
fied studies of the habits in which men and 
women lived and moved lather than a record of 
their faces. A special type of countenance seems 
often to have been given to members of a par- 
ticular profession or rank in Society, or to have 
been fashionable in a particular district, or 
among a certain school of brass-engravers. It 
was not until the late and declining period that 
orasses became pictorial, and actual portraits of 
those commemorated seldom appear to have been 
attempted before the reign of Elizabeth. 

The oldest funeral monument remaining within 
the College is the nameless and fractured tomb- 
stone, belonging to the thirteenth or fourteenth 
century, of some member of St. John's Hospital, 
which stood on part of the site of the present 
College. The fragments were found in the summer 
of 1913 in the middle of St. John's Quadrangle, 
and are at present in the Tower. They measure 
about 2 ft. across, and are identified by a cross cut 
upon the stone. The latest is a memorial brass 
of 1913 in the Chapel to a Demy. Boughly 
speaking, the seventeen extant brasses, or frag- 
ments of brasses, commemorate three Presidents, 
ten Fellows, one College Chaplain, one M.A. 
who was chaplain to the Bishop of Winchester, 
the College Visitor, one Scholar of Divinity, 
, and one Demy (scholar) who was ultimately 
Archdeacon of Salop. The funeral monuments of 
1575-1855 commemorate eight Presidents ; the 
wives of two of these (Presidents Butler and 
Jenner) ; thirty - two Fellows ; one Chaplain : one 
Schoolmaster, viz., Thomas Collins, sometime 
Chorister, and for fifty years, until his death in 
1723, Master of the College School the inscrip- 
tion on whose monument was written by the 
notorious Dr. Henry Sacheverell, sometime Demy 
and Fellow ; three Ushers ; two Clerks ; six 
Demies; three Commoners ; and one gentleman who 
appears to have been father of a Demy. There is 
another gravestone to one whofje connexion with 
the College is uncertain. No burial within the 
Chapel has taken place since the interment of 
President Ronth in 1854, all the later monuments 
being merely memorial. They commemorate one 
1'p'siilcnt, six Fellows (one of whom was also a 
Professor), one Hon. M.A., one Schoolmaster 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. ATO. 2-2, 191*. 

and Fellow, one Organist ( Sir John Stainer, 
also Hon. Fellow and Professor), four Demies, 
and seven Commoners. Some of the later Latin 
inscriptions are from the graceful pen ot Dr. 
Warren, President of Magdalen since 188o, and 
Professor of Poetry since 1911. Certainly since 
the time of Anthony Wood, the antiquary, six 
brasses have been lost ; and of the. fifteen other 
persons known to have been buried in the Chapel 
some may have had memorials. One who pro- 
bably ha'd no memorial was Samuel Parker, 
President, and Bishop of Oxford, who died in 

^.mong the more interesting brasses may be 
mentioned that of William Tybard \,1480), first 
President, the scattered fragments of which were 
put together again in 1911 ; the remains of the 
brass of John Hygden (1532), President, who was 
appointed in 1525 first Dean of Cardinal College 
{now Christ Church) by the founder, Wolsey, 
himself a Magdalen man ; and the fine brass of 
Arthur Cole (1558), President, and also a Canon of 
Windsor. The last-named wears the Garter mantle , 
the Garter cross thereon being enamelled red. This 
brass was found to be a palimpsest. The reverse 
of the head shows the royal arms ; 'the reverse 
of the trunk a priest, lacking head and feet, in 
mass vestments (c. 1450) ; while the piece at the 
bottom appears to have been cut from the brass 
of a kneeling figure with a tasselled girdle. The 
reverse of the inscription plate is made up of two 
inscriptions, viz., to Robert Cobbe, citizen and 
tailor of London, his wife Margery (1516), and 
probably their son Sir Thomas Cobbe ; and to 
Margery Chamberleyn (1431), who was buried 
In the Chapel of St. Mary in the London church 
-of the Greyfriars. 

Among the more interesting of the monuments, 
other than brasses, may perhaps be mentioned 
the fifteenth-century alabaster table-tomb of 
Richard Patten, father of the founder, Bishop 
Waynflete of Winchester, which, after having 
received much damage at the demolition of the 
old church at Wainfleet All Saints, co. Lincoln, 
was eventually re-erected in the Founder's 
Oratory near the altar of Magdalen Chapel in 
1833. A pathetic interest attaches to the monu- 
ment of two youthful members of the College 
made by Nicholas Stone. John the eldest and 
Thomas the third son of Sir Thomas Lyttelton 
of Frankly, aged respectively 17 and 13, were 
drowned in the Cherwell, near the top of Addison's 
Walk, on 9 May, 1635, in the vain endeavour of 
the elder boy to rescue his little brother, who had 
fallen into the water. 

Motca on South African Place-Names. By Charles 

Pettman. (South Africa, Kimberley.) 
THE author of ' Africanderisms ' here brings 
together most of the items of interest directly 
connected with place-names in South Africa. It 
must be acknowledged that the field is not rich 
either in philological or in historical interest ; 
still, what it comprises may just as well be made 
generally available, and Mr. Pettman's little 
treatise gives " all that any one not specially 
occupied with theetymologyof the native languages 
can want. Here and there it would have been 
worth while to make historical explanations some- 
what fuller; and the geography of the country 
might have been taken into some account, and 
.some clearer idea of the distribution of the names 

conveyed. There are about two hundred Hush- 
men and Hottentot names in the map not 
counting those in Xamaqualand ; and of French 

mes, derived from the Huguenots who came 
into South Africa after the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, there remain about twenty-seven. 

On the whole save for Natal and the 
of Good Hope, so hackneyed that they have 
their charm the Dutch names, among those ( .f 
European origin, seem to include the greatest 
number of successful inventions. A curious 
circumstance, which may not be known to all 
our readers, is the belief of some of the earlier 
settlers that Egypt lay but a short journey to the 
north of them. Mr. Pettman tells us that there 
has been at least one trek from the Transvaal in 
search of Canaan, and that the Nylstroom, which 
runs northwards, was given its name in the belief 
that it was the head-waters of the Nile. 

The Hottentot and other native names have 
usually a delightful musical quality, and generally 
touches of graceful poetry to recommend them. 
We noticed here Umdedelele, the mountain ' that 
must be left alone " the name for the Cathkin | 
of the Drakensberg, and the Outeniqua Moxm- 
tains Outeniqua meaning, it is said, '" the me 
loaded with honey." 

The main text of the book presents the ns 
in a more or less readable medley, but there is _ 
Index so far as we have tested it perfect- whic] 
makes it easy to find any definite item desired. 

The Remaking of China. By Adolf S. Walej 
(Constable & Co., 2s. Qd. net.) 

THIS book should prove useful to the gener 
reader who has not mastered the outline of the" 
late extraordinary transformation of China. 
There is no padding, no attempt at detailed or 
distinct portraiture, and but a very small 
amount of picturesque incident. Neither will be 
found here any descriptions of the country or the 
people, still less any reflections or philosophical 
generalizations. What is offered is a careful 
skeleton account of political and military events, 
set out in as few words as possible, and simplified 
by many omissions. Its merits are clearness, 
just proportion, and upon attentive reading 
that vividness which is often achieved by writers 
who are absorbed in their subject-matter to the 
exclusion of any particular care for style. The | 
facts related are too recent, and, on the whol 
too well known, to need comment. 

Jiottas to Comspotttonts. 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Bream's Buildings, Chancery 
Lane, E.C. 

R. A. A.-L. and E. B. L. Forwarded. 

MK. C. BAKER. No, not Talleyrand ; Voltaire- 
referring, no doubt, to the execution of Admiral 
Byng: "II est bon de tuer de temps en temr.s un 
amiral, pour encourager les autres" ('Candide,' 
chap, xxiii.). 

CORRIGENDUM. Ante, p. 107, col. 2, 1. 4 from 
the bottom, for " supper room " read upper room. 

ii s. x. A. 29, MR.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. -No. 244. 

NOTES : Meiler Fitz-Henry and Robert Fitz-Stephen, 161 
Holcroft Bibliography, 163 Webster and the 'N. E. D.,' 
165 The Berkeley Family Whitehead Family : Saxon 
Descent Result of Cricket Match given out in Church 
Irish Pillar- Stones, 167 Regiments and their Colours in 
War Time Brave Belgians Early Virginia Colony The 
Royal Exchange, 168. 

QUERIES : Sophie Anderson Gelria Harden S. Melville 
" Dun Cow's Rib " in Stanion Church, 168 Goethe : 

e notation Wanted Sepulchral Slabs in Hampsthwaite 
hurch 'The Harlequin' " Le sinistre " Statue of 
Charles I. at Charing Cross Old Etonians Edward 
Akam, 169 Leverian Museum " Wakes " : " Laik " 
Line-Endings in the Old Dramatists Catherine Parr's 
Descendants "Silverwood" Early Railway Travelling 
Friar Tuck Ciphers before Figures in Accounts, 170 
Lawyers in Literature Pharaoh's Lean Kine Devotions 
on Horseback R. H. Wood, F.S.A. " The hindmost 
wheel of the cart " Epitaph at Christchurch, Hampshire 
-" What you don't know won't hurt you "Calendar, 171. 

REPLIES : Sir Gregory Norton, 171 Between Winchester 
and London, 172' Aut Diabolus aut Nihil 'Life of 
M. de Renty, 173 Folk-Lore : Swallows Sloe Fair 
St. Angus Seventh Child of a Seventh Child London 
Bushel, 174 " Trod "Holcroft of Vale Royal 'Poems 
written for a Child ' " lebie horse,' 175 W. Carr, Mayor 
of Liverpool " Memmian naphtha -pits " : Medicinal 
Mummies, 176 Marquis de Spineto Wearing of the 
Oak Author Wanted Old Etonians Lord Erskine's 
Speeches W. Carey, 177 Sir P. Howard Saints' Day 
'Customs " Corvicer " Dwight Red Hand of Ulster 
Scott's, ' Antiquary 'Rev. Ferdinando Warner, 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Memorials of an Ancient House ' 
' Chats on Household Curios ' ' Transactions of the 
Hunter Archaeological Society.' 

Booksellers' Catalogues. 


IN these days, when an examination of the 
works of genealogical " authorities " so 
often reveals inaccuracies which, in the 
volumes of such writers, should not have 
been present, one is apt to turn to the 

* D.N.B.' for statements concerning historical 
personages which can be accepted as reliable. 
But apparently this great work is not always 
to be trusted. 

In the course of certain investigations 
I have recently been making, I have had 
occasion to refer to the two articles under 
the above names which appear in the 

* D.N.B.,' 1890 ed., vol. xix. pp. 164, 211, 
respectively. Both these articles are from 
the pen of a learned professor of mediaeval 
history ; but in each slips occur which, if 
allowed to remain unnoticed, might lead 
fiome unfortunate student of the lives"of the 
above-mentioned individ vials into a""miser- 

able tangle. I therefore venture, with all 
due apologies to the writer of the articles, to 
call attention to these slips through the 
medium of your columns, as the most likely 
means of putting the unwary on their 

In the article (xix. 164) upon Meiler Fitz- 
Henry, T. F. T. correctly (cf. Betham, 
' Genealogical Tables,' 1795 ed., Table DCIV.) 
records the ancestry of the said Meiler (and 
quotes his authorities, q.v.), namely, that he 
was the son of Henry, natural son of King 
Henry I., by Nesta, the wife of Gerald of 
Windsor, and daughter of Rhys ap Tewdwr, 
King of South Wales (xlviii. 88) ; the writer 
adding that consequently Meiler was first 
cousin (of the half-blood) to King Henry II. 
But then he goes on to say that Robert 
Fitz - Stephen, Maurice Fitz - Gerald, and 
David II., Bishop of St. David's, were his 
half-brothers, yet proceeds : 

" In 1157 his father Henry was slain during 
Henry II. 's campaign in Wales, when Eobert 
Fitz-Stephen so narrowly escaped (Giraldus, 
' Opera,' vi. 130). Meiler, then quite young, now 
[1157] succeeded to hia father's possessions." 

The statement that Meiler was half- 
brother to Maurice Fitz-Gerald (f 1176) 
also occurs in Mr. T. A. Archer's article 
(xix. 135) on Maurice, such relationship 
being apparently vouched for by the refer- 
ences following, namely, ' Exp. Hib.,' 229 ; 
Girald., ' Itin. Cambr.,' 130 ; ' Earls of Kil- 
dare,' 3. 

But this supposed relationship did not 
exist, nor was Meiler half-brother to either 
Robert Fitz-Stephen or David the Bishop. 
Robert Fitz-Stephen was either the legiti- 
mate or natural son (vide xix. 211 ; xl. 229) 
of Stephen the Constable, by Nesta, the 
widow or wife (xix. 164) of Gerald of Windsor, 
who " was probably dead by 1136 " (xix. 135 ; 
f. xl. 229) ; whilst Maurice and David II. 
were her legitimate issue by her husband 
Gerald (xl., ib.). Meiler Fitz-Henry was her 
grandson, and (xix. 164) cousin to Raymond 
le Gros (Raymond Fitz-Gerald [t 1182 ?], 
xix. 144), son of William, elder brother of 
Maurice (t 1176), and to Giraldus Cam- 
brensis (xxi. 389). Had Meiler been the 
half -brother of Robert Fitz-Stephen, Maurice 
Fitz-Gerald, and David II., Bishop of 
St. David's, Raymond Fitz-Gerald and 
iraldus Cambrensis would have been, not 
ais cousins, which they were, but his nephews 
of the half-blood, which they were not. 

The exact relationship which existed 
jetween the persons referred to is shown in 
he following table : 


NOTES AND QUERIES. in s. x. AUG. 29, 1914 

Rhys ap Tewdwr, King of South Wales, 1078 : 
t between 17-23 April, 1093 


: Uwladys, dau. of Rhiwallon ap Cynfyn 

(xlviii., ib.). 

Nest, or Nesta (fl. 1106) = c. =, 
1095 or soon after (xl. 228). 

^Gerald of Windsor, by Stephen by King 
Constable of Pern- the Constable Henry 1. 

Abducted by her cousin 

broke Castle. of Cardigan 

1 1135. 

Owen, son of Cadwgan, 1106. 

Appears to have 

V 1 I f 11 0/^ 


After a time rejoined 1 


died betore 113o 

husband (ib., 229). 

(xix. 135 ; xl. 229). 

William Maurice (ib.)^= Alice de Mont- David II. Nesta,= 

pWilliam Robert 


(xl. 229). t c. 1 Sept., 

gomerie, grand- (xl. 229), 2nd 

de Barri, Fitz- 

born after 


daughter of Bishop of wife 

lord of Stephen, 


(xix. 136). 

Roger de Mont- St.David's (xxi. 

Manor- born 



gomerie (ib.), 1148 (xiv. 121). 390) or 

bier. probably 

Slain 1157 


of Arnulph, t soon after An- 


(xix. 164, 

4th son of Roger 1 March, 1176 ghared 

1111 and 


(Burke's (ib. ; Hook's (xiv. 


' Peerage,' 1898, ' Lives of the 121 ; 

1 1183-4. 

p. 881). Archbishops xl. 229). 

s. p. leg. 

of Canter- 

(xix. 211). 

bury,' ii. 534). 

Raymond =Basilia Nesta, Ray- =Hervey Giraldus de Barri, 

Meiler Fitz- = 

a niece 


le Gros (Burke's 

mond's de called 


identified) of 

-c. 1174 'Extinct 

cousin Mount- Cambrensis, 

= 1182. HughdeLaci, 

t s. p. leg. Peerage,' 


136, maurice the historian, 

t!220 lord of Meath 


145). (xix. born 1146 or 1147. 

(xix. 164). 

[t 11861 

p. 123), 

145). 1 1220 (?) 

(xix. ib.); 

sister of 

(xxi. 389). 

also called 


dau. of Hugh 

and widow 


of Robert 

Table DCIV.). 

de Quincy 

(xix. 145). 

T. F. T. in his article (xix. 211) upon 
Robert Fitz-Stephen, to make the half- 
brotherhood fit in, actually describes Meiler 
Fitz-Henry as Nesta's son by King Henry I. ; 
but, naturally, no authorities for this state- 
ment are quoted. Yet, in direct contra- 
diction to this statement, we read in the same 
article : 

" In 1157 Robert Fitz-Stephen followed 
Henry II. 's expedition into North Wales, and 
narrowly escaped the ambush in which his 
half -brother, the King's son, was slain." 

This half-brother of Robert's was, of 
course, Henry, the bastard son of King 
Henry I. by the Princess Nesta, and not 
Meiler Fitz-Henry. When we remember 
that King Henry I. died 1135 ; that Nesta's 
child by him was born c. 1114-15 (xl. 229); 
and that Meiler was quite young in 1157 
(xix. 164), it becomes perfectly evident that 
the statement that Meiler Fitz-Henry was 
Nesta's son by the King is incorrect. 

If we look, too, at the dates of the deaths 
of the so-called half-brothers of Meiler Fitz- 
Henry, we find that Robert Fitz-Stephen 
probably died soon after 1183 (xix. 212) ; 

that Maurice Fitz -Gerald died at Wexfoi 
c. 1 Sept., 1176 (xix. 136); and that 
brother David II., the Bishop, died soor 
after the Legatine Council of Cardinal Hug! 
(xiv. 121). This Council, we learn (Hook' 
' Lives of the Archbishops of Canterbury, 
ii. 534), was convened for 1 March, 117( 
but broke up the same day owing to 
quarrel between the Archbishops of Canter 
bury and York. " No Council, of coi 
could be held. The assemblv dispersed 
(ib., 535). 

Meiler Fitz-Henry and Giraldus Car 
brensis, both of whom were Nesta's grand- 
sons, died in 1220, although a query appes 
(xxi. 389) after the year in the case of the 
latter. The Rev. H. R. Luard, D.D., in the 
course of his article at the above referenc 
correctly records that Giraldus was nephev 
of David Fitz-Gerald, Bishop of St. David') 
who died 1176 (ib., 390). 

I think from the above evidence it is cle 
that Meiler Fitz-Henry was not the son 
Nesta, but her grandson, and that coi 
quently he was not half-brother either 
Robert Fitz-Stephen or Maurice Fitz-Geralc 

ii s. x. AUG. 29, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


or to David II., consecrated 19 Dec., 1148, by 
Archbishop Theobald at Canterbury, Bishop 
of St. David's (xiv. 121), but their nephew of 
the half-blood. 

Oiraldus de Barri, called Cambrensis, is 
said to have been the youngest son of William 
de Barri by his second wife, Nesta, grand- 
daughter of Bhys ap Theodor, Prince of 
South Wales (xxi. 390), and was born in 1146 
or 1147 (ib., 389). T. F. T., however (xiv. 
121, says: "His [David's] sister Anghared 
was the wife of William de Barry, lord of 
Manorbier, and the mother of Giraldus Cam- 
brensis." Giraldus's mother is also so 
called by the Rev. William Hunt in his 
article on Nesta (xl. 229). I have found no 
confirmation, however, at present for the 
name being recorded as Nesta by the Rev. 
H. R. Luard, D.D. (xxi. 390). For neither 
name is any authority quoted. 

8, Lansdowne Road, East Croydon. 


(See ante, pp. 1, 43, 83, 122.) 

1784. " A Favourite Pastoral, Sung by Mrs. 
Kennedy at Vauxhall Gardens. The Words 
by Mr Holcroft. Set to Music by Mr. Hook." 
This appeared in The Universal Magazine, 

June, 1784 (74: 31*8). 

1784. " Songs, Duets, Glees, Choruses, &c., in 
the Comic Opera of the Noble Peasant : as 
performed at the Theatre Royal, in the Hay 
Market. London, Printed for G. Robinson, 
No. 25, Pater-Noster Row, 1784." Octavo, 
!+ 3-22 pp. 

This is a reprint of the songs, &c., from the 
item which immediately precedes it in this 
Bibliography. The type was evidently left 
standing, from all appearances. The broken- 
letter test holds, and, for instance, quotation 
marks are retained (p. 7), though the reason 
for their existence has disappeared, along 
with the explanatory note concerning them. 
There are other ways of showing omission 
in representation. There are other changes : 
" The Hero, conscious of his worth " (p. 5), 
is called a song rather than a rondeau ; the 
omission in the staging of verse ii. in the fool's 
song (p. 12) was not originally indicated ; 
and in the Finale of Act II. (p. 17) lines are 
rearranged, redistribvited, and omitted. 

This reprint forms, in my mind, a very good 
justification of my assumption that type was 
left standing, or some sort of plates were used 
probably the former for later editions. 
This is not a later edition, and here the same 

type is rather obviously employed. It is, of 
course, possible that Robinson from the first 
planned two issues the play and the songs 
and used his set type accordingly. 

1785. " Tales of the Castle, or stories of instruc- 
tion and delight. Being les Veill4es du Chateau, 
written in French by Madame la Cointesse de 
Genlis. Translated into English by Thomas 
Holcroft. London : G. Robinson, 1785." Duo- 
decimo, 5 vols. 

This work was noticed in The Monthly 
Review for August, 1785 (73: 92) ; reviewed 
in The European Magazine for January, 1785 
(7: 42) ; and announced in The Universal 
Magazine supplement to the December 
number, 1784 (75: 378). 

The original work, a copy of which Marie 

Antoinette preserved in her own library, 

Holcroft probably brought from Paris in 

1783 or 1784. The French title-page ran 

(Bibliotheque Nationale R. 21760-21762): 

" I/es Veil!e>s du Chateau, ou Cours de Morale a 

1'usage des enfants, Par 1'auteur d'Adele et 

Theodore. ' Comme il gusto il mulare- 

esca, | Cos! mi par che la mia Istoria quanto | 

Or qua, or la piu variata sia, | Meno a cla 

1' udira nojosa fia. | Orlando Furioso, Canto 

terzodecinio. | Traduction Littrale. Comino le 

changement de nourriture ranime le gout, ahisi 

il me semble que plus mes recits seront varies, 

le moins ils paroitront ennuyeux a ceux qui les 

entendront. Toii-.e Premier. A Paris, Chez 

M. I*ambert & F. J. Baudouin, Impr.-Libraires, 

rue de la Harpe, pres Saint-Cdme. M.DCC.- 

LXXXII." Duodecimo. I., xxiv+1-348 ; II., 

4 + 1-410 ; III., 4 + 1-352 pp. 

The British Museum Catalogue gives an 
edition in 4 vols., D. (duo decimo) Dublin, 
1785 ; 3rd edition in 5 vols., D. London, 
1787 ; 8th edition in 5 vols., D. London, 
1806 ; an edition in 2 vols., D. London, 
1817, part of " Walker's British Classics.'* 
A '" second edition " in five volumes is 
advertised in the Robinsons' second edition 
of Mrs. Inchbald's ' Child of Nature,' 1789. 

" Tales of the Castle : or, Stories of Instruction 
and Delight. Being les Veillees du Chateau, 
written in French By Madame la Comtesse de 
. Genlis, Author of the Theatre of Education, 
Adela and Theodore, &c. Translated into 
English By Thomas Holcroft. Come raccende 
il gusto il mutare esca, \ Coal mi par, che la mia 
Istoria, quanto \ Or quit, or la piu variata aia, \ 
Meno a chi V udira nojosa fia. ABIOSTO. | As 
at the board, with plenteous Viands graced, 
Gate after Cate excites the sickening taste, 
So, while my Muse pursues her varied strains, 
Tale following Tale the ravish'd ear detains. 
HOOLE. 11 Vol. I. Dublin: Printed for Messrs. 
Price, Moncrieffe, Jenkin, Walker, Burton, 
Exshaw, White, Byrne, Parker, H. Whitestone, 
and Cash. MDCCLXXXV." Duodecimo. I., 1 
p.l. + 4 + 1 - 295. II., 1 p.l. + 2 + 1-280. 
III., 1 p.l. + 2 + l-244. IV., 1 p.l.+2 + l- 
280 pp. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG. 29, i9u. 

The word " Muse " appears on the title- 
page of Vol. IV. as " muse," and in the other 
three volumes as " Muse." 

*' Tales of the Castle : or, Stories of Instruction 
and Delight. Being les Veillees du Chateau, 
written in French By Madame la Comtesse de 
Genlis, Author of the Theatre of Education, 
Adela and Theodore, &c. Translated into 
English By Thomas Holcroft, Comme raccende 
il gusto il nwtar' esca, \ Cost mi par, clie la mia 
Isioria, quanto \ Or qua, or la piu variata sia, \ 
Meno a chi V udird nojosa fia. AKIOSTO. As 
at the board, with plenteous Viands grac'd, \ 
Gate after Gate excites the sickening taste, \ So, 
while my muse pursues her varied strains, \ 
Tale jolloicing Tale the ravish' d ear detains. 
HOOLE. | The Third Edition. Vol. I. London : 
Printed for G. G. J. and J. Robinson, N. 25, 
Pater-noster-row, 1787." Five Volumes, Duo- 
decimo. I., 1 p.l. +6 + 1-298. II., 1 p.l.+ 
2 + 1-263. III., 1 p.l. +2 + 1-28 4. IV., 1 p.l. 
+2 + 1-256. V., 1 p.l. +2 + 1-261 pp. 

Vols. II.-V. spell the word " Muse " with 
a capital, Vol. I. " muse." 

'" Tales of the Castle : or Stories of Instruction 
and Delight. Being les Veillees du Chateau, 
written in French By Madame la Comtesse de 
Genlis, Author of the Theatre of Education, 
Adela and Theodore, &c. Translated into 
English By Thomas Holcroft. The Eighth 
Edition. Come raccende il gusto il mittar' esca, \ 
Cosl mi par, che la mia Istoria, quanto, \ Or 
qua, or let, piu variata sia, \ Meno, a chi V udird, 
nojosa fia. ARIOSTO. | As at the board loith 
plenteous viands grac'd, \ Cate after cate excites 
the sickening taste, \ So, tchile my Muse pursues 
her varied strains, \ Tale jolloicing tale the 
ravish' d ear detains. HOOLE. ( In Five Volumes. 
Vol. I. London : Printed for G. Robinson, 
R. Phillips^, Wilkie and Robinson, Scatcherd 
and Letterrnan, and J. Walker. 1806." Duo- 
decimo. I., front. + 6 + 1-307. II., front.+ 
2 + 1-263. III., front. +2 + 1-285. IV., front. 
+2 + 1-249. V., front. +2 + 1-257 pp. 

'" Tales of the Castle ; or, Stories of Instruction 
and Delight. By Mad. de Genlis, Author of 
the Theatre of Education, Adela and Theodore, 
&c. Translated by Thomas Holcroft. Vol. I. 
London : Printed for Walker and Edwards ; 
F. C. and J. Rivington ; J. Nunn ; Cadell and 
Davies ; Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and 
Brown ; J. Richardson ; Law and Whittaker ; 
Newman and Co. ; Lackington and Co. ; 
Black, Parbury, and Allen ; J. Black and Son ; 
Sherwood, Neely, and Jones ; R. Scholey ; 
Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy ; Gale and Fenner ; 
J. Robinson ; and B. Reynolds. 1817." In 
two volumes, duodecimo, part of " Walker's 
British Classics." I., 2 p.l. +6 + 1-456. II., 
2 p.l. +2 + 1-467 pp. 

^Vol. I. has "J. Black and Son," Vol. II. 
" J. Black and son." 

There was a book published : 
J< The Beauties of Genlis ; being a select collection, 
of the most beautiful tales and other striking 
extracts, from Adela and Theodore ; The 
Tales of the Castle ; The Theatre of Education 
and Sacred Dramas ; written by the Countess of 

Genlis. With copper plates. Printed for the 
Booksellers. MDCCLXXXVII." Octavo, front. + 
4+1-352 pp. 

On pp. 55-68 of this book I find " The 
Brazier ; or Reciprocal Gratitude. From 
the Tales of the Castle. Translated by 
Tho. Holcroft and Published by Robinsor 
London." On pp. 117-30 appears ' Tl 
Solitary Family of Normandy ' ; and or 
pp. 191-271 'The Castle of Truth,' which, 
in the light of the ascription appended to 
' The Brazier,' we may judge to be taken 
from Holcroft. Careful comparisons estab- 
lish the fact. On pp. 273-83 there is ' The 
Widow of Sarepta. A Sacred Drama, in 
One Act,' also in Holcroft's version. 

" Tales of the Castle : or, Stories of Instruction 
and Delight. Abridged from the original work 
of Madame de Genlis, and adapted for youth. 
By Mrs. Elizabeth Kerr. Glasgow : Printed 
for Richard Griffin & Co., Juvenile Library, 
Hutcheson Street ; and Thomas Tegg, Cheap- 
side, London. 1824." Duodecimo, 4 + 1-176 

These stories are obviously abridged from 
Holcroft's version, and not " from the 
original work of Madame de Genlis," as the 
title-page would have it. Of course, many 
changes have been made, principally in the 
matter of abridgments. But in the main 
Holcroft has been very faithfully followed : 
turns of idiom, curious spellings archaic in 
1824 and even strange punctuation are 
retained in sufficient number to indicate the 
similarity. I, of course, make due allow- 
ance for mere coincidences in translating 
from the same sources, but still think the 
matter clear enough not to grant any 
degree of probability of truth to the title- 

I have seen an edition, five volumes in 
two, designated as the " ninth edition " 
" Btattleborough : Published by Williar 
Fessenden, 1813 [sic]." 

Miss Mary Shakshober, Librarian, Public 
Library, Brattleboro, Vermont, writes me 
as follows : 

" William Fessenden was a publisher in Brattle- 
boro from 1803 until his death in 1815. He began 
his career as a publisher by editing and printing 
The Reporter, a weekly newspaper ; then he 
' took over ' a Webster's Spelling Book from 
a publisher in Bennington and made a great ) 
success of it, and at the time of his death his 
printing establishment was the largest in this 
country. After his death, the business was 
conducted by his brother, Joseph, and his father- 
in-law, Deacon Holbrook, and finally the business 
was reorganized and took this name : ' Brattle- 
boro Typographic Company.' But it is now 

11 S. X. AUG. 29, 1914.] 


1785. "Sonnet. By Mr. Holcroft." 
Begins " Though pale and wan my cheeks 
appear," and was printed in The European 
Magazine for February, 1785 (7: 148). 

178;". " The Dying Prostitute, an Elegy. By 
Mr. Holcroft.' ' 

Appeared in The European Magazine for 
April, 1785 (7: 305). 

1785. " The Follies of a Day ; or the marriage of 
Figaro. A comedy, as it is now performing at 
the Theatre Royal, Co vent-Garden. From the 
French of M. de Beaumarchais. By Thomas 
Holcroft, author of Duplicity, a comedy, the 
Xoble Peasant, an opera, &c. London : Printed 
for G . G. and j. J. liobinson, Paternoster Bow, 
1785." Octavo, 8 + 1-108 pp. 

This play was produced at Co vent Garden, 
14 Dec., 1784. The Preface was dated 
Upper Marylebone Street, 21 Feb., 1785. 
The account of the pirating of this play 
given in 'Memoirs' (p. 112ff.) is a good 
illustration of conditions arising from the 
lack of international copyright regulations 
between England and France. A copy in 
the Yale University Library has a large 
number of manuscript notes concerning 
representation, casts, revivals, &c., by John 
Genest. The Universal Magazine, Decem- 
ber, 1784 (75: 334), and The Town and 
Country Magazine, December, 1784 (16: 
631), reprint the Prologue, with eight lines 
inserted by Holcroft when he spoke the 
Prologue himself the first three nights. 
The latter magazine reprints (16: 664) the 
song beginning, 

To the winds, to the waves, to the woods, I com- 
plain ; 

and The European Magazine, December. 
1784 (6: 467), reprints the Prologue, with a 
review of the acted play. ' Follies of a Day ' 
is listed as a " new publication " in the 
March, 1785 (76: 167), number of The Uni- 
versal Magazine. The book is reviewed in 
The Monthly Review, May, 1785 (72: 372), and 
The English Review, May, 1785 (5: 362). 

There exist many copies with the title- 
page as above, and with pagination, broken 
letters, &c., identical, save that the " G. G. 
and J. J. Robinson " is changed to the 
correct " G. G. J. and J. Robinson." A " New 
Edition " of which I have seen two copies is 
identical in nearly all respects. Certain minor 
details of printing, however, indicate changes 
while printing, if not new editions from the 
same ^much-used type. The " G. G. and 
J." copies have " Marcelina " (p. 9), 
" Figaro." (p. 26) one copy I have seen, 
however, has "Figaro 1 " with the period 
misplaced and " dressing - room door " 

(p. 38). Three separate copies of the " new 
edition" examined by me have " Figaro' " 
(p. 26) and a most peculiar " dressind-rocm 
door " (p. 38). One of the copies has " Mar- 
celina " ; in the second the last three 
letters have been accidentally moved above 

the line thus : " Marcel ma " ; and in the 
third the word appears " Marce lin." Then, 
as if to balance these variations, I found 
the typographical error " Enter " at the 
bottom of p. 13 of every copy of all 
editions I have ever seen. It seems very 
obvious that all were printed from the same 
type, and that through use the letters got 
shaken out of place. 

We learn from Genest that the play wa* 
reduced and revived as a farce at Covent 
Garden, 23 Oct., 1811. That is probably 
the explanation of the following : 

" The Follies of a Day ; a comedy, in three acts, 
by Thomas Holcroft. Now first published, as- 
it is acted at the Theatre-Royal in Covent- 
Garden. London : Printed and published by 
J. Barker, Dramatic Repository, Great Russell- 
Street, Covent Garden, 1811." Octavo, 4 +5-1S 

This I take to be the same as that 
which the British Museum Catalogue gives as 
London, 1811, "with alterations by J. P, 
Kemble." The play was reprinted in W, 
Oxberry's ' The New English Drama,' 1818 ; 
'The London Stage,' 1824; 'The Acting 
Drama,' 1834. ELBRIDGE COLBY. 

Columbia University, New York City. 

( To be continued.) 

(See US. ix. 302, 324, 343, 398.) 

IN my previous articles I quoted instances 
of a number of w y ords which were used by 
Webster, but had not been included by 
Sir James Murray and his collaborators in 
the ' N.E.D.' I now append a list of words 
occurring in Webster earlier in most cases 
than the instances cited in the ' N.E.D.,' 
and in giving the references to Webster 
I have used the following abbreviations : 

App.,' ' Appius and Virginia.' 

Cuck.,' ' Cure for a Cuckold.' 

D.L.C.,' ' Devil's Law Case.' 

D.M.,' ' Duchess of Malfi.' 

M. Col.,' ' Monumental Column.' 

.Mi MI. Hon.,' ' Monuments of Honour.' 

W.D.,' ' While Devil.' 

aftergame, noun=a special game of tables. "A 
cause has prov'd like an after-game at Irish." 
' D.L.C.,' IV. ii. 46. (First ex. of aftergame, 
1031 ; first ex. of aftergame at Irish from 
Etheredge, 1609.) 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. AUG. 29, 1911. 

afler-reckonings, noun. " I could never away 
with after-reckonings." ' D-L.C.,' IV. ii. 518. 
(First ex. 1649.) 

apology, intrans. v. =to apologize. " For which 
he cannot well apology." ' Cuck.,' V. i. 14. 
(This instance is unaccountably dated 1671, 
though the play was printed in 1661, and was 
written before 1630 ; the only example besides 
this is from Heywood's ' English Traveller," 
printed 1633.) 

apprehension, noun=fear. " The sudden appre- 
hension of clanger." ' D.M.,' V. i. 67. (First ex. 
from Sanderson's ' Sermons,' 1648.) 

arras, arras-powder, no un= orris-powder. " Her 
hair is sprinkled with arras-powder." ' W.D.,' 
V. ii. 124. " Powder their hair with arras." 
' D.M.,' III. i. 60. (These forms are mentioned 
under the word orris as occurring only in the 
sixteenth century.) 

arrive, intrans. v. =to succeed. "The decency 
and ingenious structure arrive not to make up 
....a harmony." ' D.L.C.,' To the Header. 
(First ex. from Dryden, 1673.) 

arse (to hang an)=to hold back. "The Welsh- 
man in 's play, do what the Fencer could, 
Hung still an arse." ' D.L.C.,' V. iv. 20. 
(First ex. from Massinger's ' Bondman.') 

assure, intrans. v. =to rely, to be certain. " I do 
assure you would not strike my head off." 
' Cuck., II. ii. 67. (Last instance, 1420.) 

balance, act. v. =to weigh. " Balanc'd in the 
scale." ' App.,' I. iii. 158. (First ex. from 
R. L'Estrange, 1694.) 

bed-staff, noun. "She's good.... to make her 
maids catch cold ; they dare not use a bed-staff 
for fear of her light fingers." ' W.D.,' V. i. 210. 
(This passage supports Dr. Johnson's definition, 
no instance of which is quoted in the ' N.E.D.,' 
namely, " a wooden pin stuck anciently on the 
sides of the bedstead, to hold the clothes from 
slipping on either side.") 

blood-shed, adj.=bloodshot. "His eye's blood- 
shed."' W.D.,' II. i. 310. (First ex., 1684.) 

blow up, act. v =to ruin, to undo. " We 're 
blown up, my lord." ' W.D.,' IV. i. 138. (First 
ex., 1660.) 

boast, act. v. =to own, to be endowed with. " The 
ancient virtues he was wont to boast." ' App.,' 
IV. ii. 38. (First ex. from Dryden's ' Ec- 

by-slip, noun=bastard. "A many things.... 
are but by-slips." ' D.L.C.,' IV. ii. 302. 
(First ex., 1670.) 

candy over, act. v. = (fig. ) to endow with a pleasant 
outside. " Sins thrice candied o'er." 
' W.D.,' V. v. 57. (First ex., 1039.) 

chamber, noun=o(Yice. "A lawyer's chamber." 
' D.L.C.,' I. ii. 69. (First ex., 1611.) 

-character, no un = description of somebody's quali- 
ties. "You give me, noble lord, that cha- 
racter." ' App.,' I. ii. 7. (First ex., 1645.) 

choice, adj.=fastidious. "Those of choicer 
nostrils." 'W.D.,' IV. i. 112. (First ex., 
1616, choice car.) 

civil, adv. =in a civilized manner. "Let me 
have.... his eye-brows filed more civil." 
' D.M.,' V. ii. 59. (First ex., 1612.) 

floae, ad j.= niggardly. " Your close and sparing 
hand can be profuse " ' App.,' II. iii. 07. 
(First ex., 1654.) 

curling-iron, noun. "A bodkin or a curling-iron." 
' D.L.C.,' III. ii. 90. (First ex., 1632.) 

dcirJc-lantern. " Enter Bosola with a dark lan- 
tern." ' D.M.,' II. iii., stage-direction. (First 

ex., 1650.) 
deathless, ad j.= everlasting. "Some deathless 

shame." ' W.D.,' II. i. 393. (First ex., 1646.) 
deer-stealcr, noun=poacher. "A most notorious 

deer-stealer." ' D.L.C.,' I. ii. ISO. (First ex., 

distastefully, adv. =with displeasure. " Why do 

I take bastardy so distastefully ? " ' D.L.C.,' 

IV. ii. 310. (First ex., 1627.) 

dog-ship, noun=the personality of a dog, or a dog- 
fish. " Darest thou pass by our dog-ship 

without reverence ? " ' D.M.,' III. v. 132. 

(First ex., 1679.) 
double, act. v. =(fig.) to evade. " I have doubled 

all your reaches." ' W.D.,' V. v. 150. (First 

ex., 1812, from J. H. Vaux's ' Flash Dictionary.') 
draw out, act. v. =to detach (a body of soldiers). 

" Draw me out an hundred and fifty of our 

horse."' D.M.,' III. iii. 74. (First ex., 1638.) 
drawer on, noun =provoker. " Protesting and 

drinking are both drawers on."' W.D.,' V. i. 

202. (First ex., 1614.) 
drop off, intrans. v. =to withdraw. " Do these lice 

drop off now ? " ' D.M.,' III. ii. 237. (First 

ex., 1709.) 
dung-boat, noun = a boat for the conveyance of 

filth and refuse. " The galley dung-boat."- 

' D.L.C.,' II. i. 183. (First ex., 1667.) 
Dutchwoman, noun. " Travel as Dutchwome 

go to church." ' W. D.,' III. ii. 6. (First ex., 

echoing, adj. " These echoing shouts." ' App.,' 

IV. ii. 72. (First ex., 1667.) 
ecstasied, ad j.= enraptured. " I am struck with 

wonder, almost ecstasied." ' D.L.C.,' IV. i. 94. 

(First ex., 1624.) 
employ, act. v. =to engross the attention of. 

" This Monument should your eye and ear 

employ." ' Mon. Hon.,' 419. (First ex., 1665.) 
engagement, noun=duel. " I did but name my 

engagement." ' Cuck.,' III. i. 40. (First ex.", 

express, act. v. =to represent allegorically.- 

" The Ilock expresses the richness of the King 

dom." ' Mon. Hon.,' 375. (First ex., 1649.) 
false door, noun. " Have you ne'er a false door ? " 

' W.D.,' I. ii. 211. (First ex., 1627.) 
false-key, noun. " Ha ! false keys i' the court ? " 

'W.D.,' V. v. 170. (First ex., 1701.) The 

word also occurs in Overbury's Character of 

' A Jesuit ' (1615), one of those which I have 

claimed to be Webster's : " Hee is a false Key 

to open Princes Cabinets." 
fatten, iutrans. v. " Blackbirds fatten best in 

hard weather." ' D.M.,' I. i. 39. (First ex., 

fiddle, intrans. v. =to take gross liberties with a 

woman. " He was never well but when he was 

fiddling." ' D.L.C.,' IV. ii. 352. (First ex., 

freedom, noun=free use. " Let the freedom of 

this room be mine a little." ' D.L.C.,' V. iv. 47. 

(First ex., 1652.) 
frown away, act. v. =to terrify with angry looks. 

" You frown away my witness." ' App.,' IV. i. 

105. (First ex., 1805.) 
fur-gowned, adj. " A fur-gown'd cat " ' Cuck.,' 

II. iv. 94. (First ex., 1757.) 

(To be. continued.) 

11 S. X. AUG. 29, 1914.] 



Sir Edward Brabrook, in his paper on the 
* Directors of the Society of Antiquaries ' 
(Archasologia, Ixii. 59-80), mentions (p. 70) 
that Samuel Lysons's ' History of the Berke- 
ley Family ' occupied fifteen evenings in the 
reading. This paper was not printed in 
Archceologia, though it is evident that its 
publication was intended, and it may be of 
interest to record that a portion of it was set 
up in type. I have acquired a set of the 
sheets, of which a few copies may have 
been struck off, these being paged 1 to 39, 
with signatures B to F. P. 1 is headed 

" Archaeologia 1. Extracts from a MS. 

History of the Berkeley Family. Com- 
municated by Samuel Lysons, Esq. Director. 
Read May 23, 1779, &c. &c." In the left- 
hand bottom corner is printed " Vol. XV.," 
in which volume it was intended to publish 
the paper. I know of another set (though 
only to p. 24) of these sheets, on p. 1 of which 
is written in pencil by Samuel Lysons, 
" These Sheets were set up for the 15 vol. 
of Archaeologia, but afterwards Cancelled. 
S. L." 

I am informed that there is not a copy of 
these printed sheets in the library of the 
Society of Antiquaries. 

Lysons prepared his paper from the MS. 
compiled by John Smith of Nibley, 'A Rela- 
tion of the Lives of the Lords Berkeley,' lent 
to him by the Earl of Berkeley. This MS. 
was published in full in 1883-5 by the 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological 

DESCENT. The following paragraph as to 
the Royal ancestry of the late Mr. T. N. 
Whitehead, which appeared in the daily 
papers of 13 February last, seems to be 
worth reproducing in ' N. & Q.' : 

of the late Mr. Thomas Newman Whitehead, a 
native of Cheltenham, who was for forty-five 
years Town Clerk of Burton-on-Trent, have 
decided to record on his tombstone in Burton 
public cemetery particulars of his ancestry, and 
the inscription in this respect will read as follows : 
4 Thirty-seventh in descent from King Alfred the 
Great ; thirty-sixth from King Edward the Elder ; 
thirty-fifth from King Athelstan ; thirty-fifth from 
Guy, the famous Earl of Warwick ; thirtieth from 
Ermenild, sister of Leofric, Earl of Mercia, and 
Lady Godiva, his wife, better known as Lady 
<'odiva of Coventry; ninth from Joan, sister of 
William Shakespeare of . Stratford-on-Avon, the 
celebrated dramatist." 

In addition, I am told by the executors that 
this Royal descent comes through Leonetta, 
daughter of King Athelstan, and thence 

through the Ardens and Shakespeare's 
sister Joan, who married William Hart, a 
descendant of whom married William White- 
head, the grandfather of the late T. N. 

I have suggested that the tombstone might 
record the names of Kings Cerdic and Egbert 
and also Woden 

2, Brick Court, Temple, B.C. 

CHURCH. The successful result of a cricket 

match between the R Town Club and 

M , a village hard by, was announced 

to the assembled parishioners from the altar 

rails in W (the parish) Church on 

Sunday, 3 May, 1914. I do not for obvious 
reasons give the names, but I can vouch for 
the fact. I am not aware of any similar case. 
Perhaps your readers can supply one. 


IRISH PILLAR - STONES. Commemorating 
the sites of bygone battle-fields ; fixing the 
boundaries of neighbouring septs and dis- 
tricts ; marking the resting-places of de- 
parted heroes, like Dathi's red column at 
Rathcraghan, and Brien's, the ancestor of 
the Connaught kings, at Roscam, by Galway ; 
symbolizing worship, like the group once 
surrounding the great idol of Crom Cruach, 
on the plains of Magh Slecht, in Cavan the 
pillar-stones of Ireland form an interesting 
study. They figure chiefly in districts 
where stone circles, cairns, and cro mlechs 
predominate. Forming the simplest of all 
memorials, and having their prototype 
in early Biblical history, they have to-day 
equivalents in other lands in the hoar stones 
of England, the harestanes of Scotland, the 
maenqwyrs of Wales, and the menhirs of the 
Continent. Christian emblems appear on 
several of the Irish pillar-stones, made by 
the leaders of the faith which displaced 
the old belief of the Celt signalizing the 
triumph of the former, and manifesting the 
wish to set at naught any influence for evil 
still attaching in the minds of believers to 
the pillars as linked with paganism. 

Ogham inscriptions are also on some Irish 
pillar-stones. Into Irish nomenclature enter 
the various equivalents for pillar-stones, like 
coirthe, gallaun, liagan, ailethri (from aill, 
an upright stone, and triallim, to go round, 
symbolizing the course of the sun). A 
pillar-stone in one of the great Raths of 
Tara disputes with the stone in Westminster 
the right to be the Lia Fail. Dr. Petrie 
gave weighty arguments in favour of the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG. 29, 191*. 

former ; others give the honour to it the site 
of the gravestone raised more than three 
thousand years ago over the body of Tea, 
t h< Milesian princess. She asked as her dower 
the hill of Tara, " and that her gravestone and 
mound might be raised thereon," " that she 
might be interred therein," and that there 
" every prince to be born of her race, should 
dwell for ever." WILLIAM MACABTHUR. 
79, Talbot Street, Dublin. 

OF WAR. The Daily Chronicle of 17 August 
reminds one that the practice in the British 
Army of leaving the colours behind on 
talcing the field dates from the battle of 
Isandhlwana in 1879, when Lieuts. Melville 
and Coghill lost their lives in endeavouring 
to save the colours of the 24th Regiment. 
It would appear that in all other armies the 
regiments still take their colours into action ; 
or are there exceptions ? The Daily Chronicle 
states that " in the Franco -German War the 
Germans claimed to have taken 107 flags 
and eagles, while only losing one themselves." 

A. N. Q. 

BRAVE BELGIANS. A correspondent who 
recalls the fact that Julius Csesar described 
the Belgians as the bravest tribe among tho 
Gauls sends to The Daily Telegraph of the 
18th inst. the following neat epigram : 
Caesar ait quondam," Gens sunt fortissima Belgse " ; 

Atque hodie Kaiser testificatur idem. 

X. Y. Z. 

still a vague tradition of some such colony 
as is described in ' Eastward Hoe,' sig. E, 
1605, prior to the Yorktown settlement : 

" A whole Country of English is there man, bred 
of those that were left there, in 79. they haue 
married with the Indians, &make 'hem bring forth 
as beautifull faces as any we haue in England : 
and therefore the Indians are so inlouewith'hem, 
that all the treasure they haue, they lay at thei? 

An extravagant eulogy of Virginia follows. 

508; iii. 385; iv. 138, 176, 499; ix. 220.) 
One is glad to find that in the Royal 
Exchange has now been placed a neat oaken 
chest, with a glass case on the top, wherein 
are exhibited a few opened copies of Mr. 
Welch's exhaustive ' Illustrated Guide ' to 
the pictures in the ambulatory, with instruc- 
tions as to where to purchase the booklet at 
the modest cost of 6rf. This indication was 
much needed. No doubt the public will 
respond readily, for the Guide is of great 
assistance when inspecting this notable 

gallery. It is sad to observe the prohibitive- 
notice excluding ladies from the Exchange, 
It is to be hoped the authorities may soon, 
see their way to a removal of the unwonted 
interdict. CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenasum Club. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries,, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

SOPHIE ANDERSON. I wonder if any 
reader can give me any biographical details, 
relating to Sophie Anderson, an artist. She 
was born in 1823, and was the wife of Walter 
Anderson, also an artist. She painted the 
' Elaine ' which is now in the Walker Art 
Gallery at Liverpool. She is not recorded 
in Bryan, nor Boase, nor Phillips, nor in 
the ' D.N.B.' Graves records her exhibits. 

Walker Art Gallery. 

names of the earliest members of tl 
College occurs that of Herman de Gelria. 
Gelria looks like the name of a place, but 1 
have been unable to locate it. Can any one 
help me ? He is described in one document 
as "Trajectensis dicecesis," of the diocese of 
Utrecht, which may afford an indication of 
the direction in which to look for Gelria. 

Queen's College, Oxford. 

HARDEN S. MELVILLE was draughtsman 
on H.M.S. Fly when this ship was exploring 
the South Pacific, 1842-6, and published a 
series of drawings. Is it known what 
became of him after this ? There is no 
record in the ' D.N.B.' E. 

CHURCH. Has any palaeontologist examined 
the bone of abnormal size kept in St. Peter's 
Church, Stanion, near Thrapston ? It is 
described as being 7 ft. long and 9 in. 
across, quite flat, and of great thickness. 
Many people have conjectured it to be a 
whale's rib, but there are others who dis- 
agree. Is it not a whale's jawbone, of 
which many specimens are still to be found 
up and down the country ? According to a 
local legend, it is a rib which once belonged I 
to the village cow, which gave milk to- 
everybody, and always filled whatever | 
sized vessel was brought to her, till one day 
a witch brought a riddle and milked tha , 
cow into that, and killed her. L. L. K. 

11 S. X. AUG. 29, 1914.] 



Where in Goethe's works is the followin 
quotation to be found? " If you call a bac 
thing bad, you do little ; if you call a gooc 
thing good, you do much." 

Ivy Bank, Beckenham, Kent. 

CHURCH, NIDDRRDALE. In the south pore! 
of Hampsthwaite Church, Nidderdale, are 
preserved a number of ancient sepulchra 
slabs, discovered during the restoration o 
the church in 1821 and 1901. 

One of these slabs is ornamented by two 
triangles inscribed to a depth of nearlj 
half an inch. 

Another slab bears five deep holes aboul 
two inches in diameter four of them placed 
as if they formed the corners of a square 
whilst the fifth is cut in the centre. 

It has been suggested that these form 
rude representations of the Trinity and the 
Five Wounds respectively. I should be 
glad to learn if this is their true significance. 

Mottingham, Kent. 

' THE HARLEQUIN.' When did this comic 
or humorous paper cease to exist ? 

I have two numbers : vol. i. Nos. 2 and 3, 
dated respectively 1 and 8 April, 1893, 
price Id. The drawing of the title-page is 
signed " C. H. Falcon." Each number con- 
tains a double-page cartoon with the same 
signature. They are strongly anti-Glad- 
stone, Harcourt, &c. Others of the wood- 
cuts are signed variously " Hal Hurst," 
"quicun (?)," "Fred Pegram," "Harry 
Astel," " Cynicus," " Starr W.," "CO 
Murray." Presumably the first number 
appeared on 25 March, 1893. 


" LE SINISTRE." Any one who has corre- 
sponded with a French fire insurance 
agency knows this term the technical 
expression for damage done by fire. What 
is its exact meaning and history in this 
connexion ? Is the word used at all as a 
substantive otherwise ? Is it used to cover 
juiy sort of damage for which insurance may 
be paid ? Is the term ancient or modern ? 
[f ancient, how far back can examples be 
traced ? I know " sinister " as a Latin 
word, and its meanings. HYLLARA. 


t have had occasion recently to study 
the history of the statue of King Charles 
at Charing Cross. I have always been 

under the impression that to-day it does not 
occupy its original site, but I see it stated 
in a usually well-informed journal that, 
though its railings have been removed, its 
position has never been changed. 

On examining various pictures of the 
statue made in pre-camera days one would 
come to the conchision that the King has 
changed his site not only once, but several 

What are the actual facts ? Does he 
ride just where he always has ridden since 
his erection after the Restoration, or has he 
been moved in any way ? Also, when were 
the railings removed, and why ? 


[References to the history of this statue will be 
found at 5 S. iii. 348 ; iv. 34, 158 ; 10 S. xii. 225, 397 ; 
11 S. i. 194. At the last one MB. ALECK ABRAHAMS 
comments on the position of the statue and the 
date of removal of the posts.] 

OLD ETONIANS. I shall be grateful for 
information regarding any of the following : 
(1) Dalby, Henry, admitted 25 Jan., 175*, 
left 1758. (2) Dalrvmple, John, admitted 
13 Jan., 1762, left 1766. (3) Dampier, 
John, admitted 27 April, 1756, left 1756. 
(4) Darby, John, admitted 30 Jan., 1764, 
left 1764. (5) Davis, John, admitted 24 
May, 1757, left 1758. (6) Davis, Richard, 
admitted 24 May, 1757, left 1761. (7) Davis, 
Mark, admitted 4 Sept., 1762, left 1772. 
(8) Dawson, Edward, admitted 25 April, 
1761, left 1765. (9) Dawson, Joseph, ad- 
mitted 11 Sept., 1762, left 1768. (10) 
Dayroles, Thomas Philip, admitted 23 June, 
1763, left 1768. (11) Dealtry, James, ad- 
mitted 2 May, 1758, left 1761. (12) De- 
ancey, Stephen, admitted 13 Sept., 1761, 
eft 1766. R. A. A.-L. 

EDWARD AKAM. I have before me as I 
write a very neatly executed volume in 
nanuscript covering xi and 519 small folio 
Dages, furnished with frontispiece, title-page, 
jreface, contents, head -lines, and indeed, 
n every respect, ready for the printer, 
ranscribe the title-page: "A Moral and 
"hilosophical Treatise concerning the Origin 
f Man : the Immortality of the Soul : and 
he Nature of Death. In Opposition to 
icepticism. Argumentum ad Judicium. By 
Edward Akam. London. 1852." 

Does any reader know of this Edward 
Akam who in his Preface refers to his 
natural languor arid feebleness of health " 
of his descendants, if any t 

i, Grove Lane, Camberwell, S.E. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. 29, 

Seaman of Ipswich had a museum of natural 
curiosities, presumably in that city, and 
issued a catalogue without indication of 
place or date. It was named the Leverian 
Museum, possibly from its proprietor having 
made extensive purchases at the dispersal 
of Parkinson's Leverian Museum. Or was 
he a recognized successor to the exhibition 
oiiginally established by Sir Ashton Lever ? 

" WAKES " : " LAIK." What is the origin 
of these words, used in the West Biding of 
Yorkshire and in Lancashire : the former 
to denote the annual week's holiday, and 
" laikino " to express that a man is out of 
work ? RAVEN. 

[" Laik " more commonly written " lake " 
has been discussed at 5 S. vii. 106, 258, 439 ; 
viii. 159. The ' N.E.D.' gives instances of its 
use in the senses " to play, sport," and dial. " to 
be out of work," beginning with ' Havelok,' and 
ending 1892. The word occurs in O.E. and O.N., 
but seems to be only of Northern currency.] 

I find the following passage in Act I. of 
' Every Man out of his Humour ' : 
Blest be the hour wherein I bought this book, 
His studies happy that composed the book, 
And the man fortunate that sold the book. 
This at once recalls the lines ending with 
" the ring " in ' The Merchant of Venice,' 
V. i. And the nineteenth epigram by 
J. D., ' In Cineam,' which is eighteen lines 
long, contains thirteen lines each ending 
with " a dog " (Dyce's ' Marlowe,' p. 357/1). 
Are there further examples of this literary 

36, Upper Bedford Place, W.C. 

have copied a few notes from some old 
papers in my possession dealing with the 
descent of my family from Catherine Parr 
by her last marriage to Thomas Seymour, 
t IB generally supposed that there was no 
issue of this marriage. Can any of your 
readers throw any light on the subject ? 

Catherine Parr, queen and widow of 
Henry Yin., married afterwards Thomas 
Seymour (created Lord Seymour of Sudeley) 
brother of Edward Seymour (created Duke 
of Somerset). She died in childbirth of an 
only daughter, b. 1548, who is said in these 
papers to have married (1572) Sir Edward 

Apparently there was only one child of 

l m .^ ma e ' a dau ghter, who married in 
1598 Silas Johnson, son of Paul Johnson of 
ordwick and Nethercourt, in the county of 

Kent, by Margaret Heyman, sister of Willit 
Heyman of Xethercourt, Kent, who fouude 
the Heyman Exhibitions, and from whicl 
marriage I am descended. 

This daughter of Sir Edward Bushel and 
granddaughter of Catherine Parr is de- 
scribed in my paper as being " a great for- 
tune to her husband." KINGSTON. 

" SLLVERWOOD." I read in The Daily 
Telegraph, 31 March, 1913, in an article on 
the miners' strike in Yorkshire : 

" Here in the southern part of the county. . . . 
some of the pits have been closed down for some 
weeks.... At the Silverwood and other collieries 
distress and bread funds have be^n opened." 

Is the name of the pit derived from a loc 
place-name or from a family name, fc 
Silverwood has become a cognomen ? 

Some time since it was noted in ' X. & Q.' 
that the " Silverwood " of the old ballads 
had yet to be identified. Is it possible that 
it lay in South Yorksliire, in Robin Hood's 
country ? M. P. 

heard it stated lately that in the early days 
of railways the passenger, on presenting him- 
self at the station, had his name, address, 
and destination entered in a book. The 
clerk then gave him a copy of the entry on a 
piece of paper, which constituted liis ticket 
for the journey. 

On what railway systems was this method 
employed ? and for how long ? 


Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey. 

is not men- 
rimes relating to 

FRIAR TUCK. Friar Tuck 
tioned in the ancient 

Robin Hood which have come down to us. 
It is only in the later literature concerning 
the " gentle thief " that he appears. Hence 
it is said that he, like Maid Marion and other 
characters, was unknown to the early ballad- 
writers. But may he not have played 
part in verse now lost ? What ecclesiastic 
are there comparable with him in meduevf 
literature, English and foreign ? Surely tl 
jolly and lawless Churchman must have | 
figured in the light literature of the Middle 
Ages in the popular songs, dance -rimes, 
and so on. F. T. 

It was the custom down to about 1800 
to specify amounts in accounts thus : 
010-05-06. What was the purpose of the 
cipher before the figures ? Was it to pre- 
vent fraudulent alteration ? 


ii s. x. AUG. 29. MI*.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


to know if anything has been written on this 
subject, excluding the Dickens lawyers, who 
have been dealt with fairly thoroughly. I 
should be obliged if any reader would 
suggest examples of legal characters in 
English literature. H. V. B. 

subject ever been treated by any painter ? 

was the Hebrew general who was accus- 
tomed to say his prayers on horseback ? 


Ainsworth dedicated his ' Beau Nash ' to a 
man of this name, of Rugby. Is this Mr. 
Wood a descendant of the celebrated archi- 
tect Wood mentioned in the book, author of 
4 A Description of Bath ' ? F. R. SMITH. 


The Italians have a way of alluding to a 
person who lags behind as " 1' ultima ruota 
del carro." Can the use of this simile bo 
traced far back ? It is not mentioned in 
1 Chi 1' ha detto ? ' L. A. DUKE. 


What is the interpretation of the follow- 
ing ? 

We were not slayne but raysd 

Raysd not to life 
But to be buried twice 

By men of strife. 
What rest could the living have 

When dead had none 
Agree amongst you 

Here we ten are one. 
Hen: Rogers, Died Aprill 17, 1641. 


YOU." I have heard this expression from 
sever 1 persons. Is it commonly known ? 
Probably some one will say that it is an 
Americanism. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

THE CALENDAR. An innumerable variety 
of calendars and almanacs are now printed 
year by year in various forms of diaries, &c. 
Whence do the several printers and pub- 
lishers obtain their " copy " ? i.e., who 
works out one or more years beforehand the 
actual dates of festival and fast, the times 
of the moon and the sun rising, setting, and 
of the changes of the moon ? 

I assume there is some standard basis 
to which each publisher adds the matters 
which best suit his own class of customers. 

W. S. B. H. 


(1 S. ii. 216, 251 ; 6 S. xii. 187 ; 7 S. viii. 
324, 394 ; 10 S. vii. 168, 330, 376, 416 ; 
11 S. x. 12, 61, 91, 131.) 

TOWARDS the end of 1660 we find Lady 
Mabella, wife of Sir Henry Norton, Bart., 
petitioning the King for 

" restoration of 300Z. a year, recovered by her 
husband, at expense of her portion of 2,0001., 
out of the estate of his father, Sir Gregory Norton, 
who had his hands died in the blood of the late 
King, and disinherited her husband because he 
abhorred such deeds. Her own father Sir Richard 
Norton bart and her late brother Sir John Norton 
of Hampshire bart suffered for the late King in 
the Wars." 

This petition was sent to Treasurer 
Southampton, who on 18 Oct., 1661, reported 
as follows : 

Treasury (Miscellaneous Warrants), 51/7. 

Lady Mabella Norton wife to Sir Henry 
Norton, bart. That this pet r is daughter of S r 
Richard Norton Kt & Baront who manifested 
his loyalty by Imprisonm* & sufferings during 
his life, and is sister to S r John Norton of Hampsh r 
a sufferer likewise That the pet r having 2,0001. 
portion married S r Henry Norton sonn of S r 
Gregory who had his hands in the blood of his 
Soveraigne, w ch horrid Act the pet re husband 
abhorred, in so much that his father disinherited 
him, whereby hee was forced to contract great 
debts for his subsistence. That the pet husband 
w th the expence of her pore 'on in divers suits 
recovered pt of his Estate to the value of 300Z. p. 
ann w ch is setled upon the pet r for her ioynture. 
And praies his Mat to restore what remaines it 
being all the support & future subsistence of her 

Referred 20 July 1661 by Do r Mason from the 
King to my Lord Tre'r to give such ord r therein 
as his Lordsp. shall thinke meete", and to certify 
his Ma tie what he conceives fit to bee done therein. 

May it pleane yo r Ma tie 

Though this petic'on bee referred singly to 
myself, yet upon a generall ord r concerning 
buisness of this nature, I considered it in the 
company of my Lord Chancello r , Lord Chamber- 
lain, and Lord Ashby. And wee all having 
weighed the certificat of M r Sollicitor Generall 
who conceives in extremity of Law because the 
Lands (wch are valued at 3001. p. ann) were 
vested in the father Sr Gregory Norton, yo r 
Maty by the Act of Parliament may have a right 
to them, yet because they were recovered by the 
son with the fortune of his wife and that hee him- 
self was disinherited of them by his father in 
respect of his constant loyalty to the Crowne 
(wch loyalty and disinherison for that cause were 
likewise certified to us by many psons of quality) 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11 s. x. AUG. 29, 1914. 

Mr Sollicitor conceived him very capable of yo r 
Mat 7 * grace And wee conceive it suitable to yo r 
Matys goodnes to take noe advantage of this 

Oct 18. 1661. T. SOUTHAMPTON. 

I can find no further reference to this 
petition among the State Papers or else- 
where, so we may assume it was granted. 
In the light of what has been already recorded 
in these articles, the following documents 
are particularly interesting, inasmuch as 
they indicate the extent of Sir Gregory 
Norton's estates, and the difficulties the 
Crown must have had to contend with in 
respect to the settlement of claims made 
by parties who had suffered, and were still 
suffering, for their fidelity to the Boyal 
cause : 

" [? October, 1660.] Eobt Gordon Viscount 
Kenmure for a grant of Stockenham Rectory, co. 
Devon, and Clymsland Prior, and Landulph 
Manors, co. Cornwall, forfeited by Sir Gregory 
Norton, bart for treason in murdering the late 
King ; he settled them on his lady, who conveyed 
them to the petitioner, but by the power of the 
late times, they were taken from him." ' Cal. 
State Papers, Domes. Ser.,' 1660. 

" 1661, July 25. Petition of Nicholas Delves ; 
Sir Henry Norton, son and heir apparent of Sir 
Gregory Norton, deceased, entered into a statute 
of 700Z. to petitioner on the 12 th March 1659-60, 

Eetitioner being moved to furnish the money 
ecause he had often heard that Sir Gregory 
Norton had disinherited his son for his affection 
to His Majesty. Sir Henry was involved in a 
long and expensive suit at law before he could 
regain his estate. Petitioner did not know at 
the time he lent the money that Sir Gregory 
Norton had been in any way concerned in his 
late Majesty's death. 

" Parliament having been pleased to allow all 
statutes etc upon the estates of such persons as 
are reserved to pains and penalties until Septem- 
ber 1659, petitioner had hopes his debt had been 
therein comprehended and secured, but finding 
the Bill has passed the House of Commons, and 
that he is therein excluded only in point of time, 
he prays that in case their Lordships shall think 
fit to take away the estate of Sir Henry Norton, 
they will allow petitioner's statute by way of 
proviso to the Bill." ' Cal. of House of Lords' 
MSS.,' Hist. MSS. Comm., 7th Report, App., 151A. 
" 1661, Nov. 27. Whitehall Petition of Nicholas 
Delves of London to the King. Lent 350Z. to Sir 
Henry Norton, bart on a bond of 700Z. because 
his father had disinherited him for loyalty. The 
money not being paid, extended the Manor & 
Rectory of Stokenham in Devonshire, for the 
debt, but it is forfeit by the treason of Sir Henry's 
father ; hears that it is re-granted to Sir Henry, 
who has taken it in another name, which will 
endanger his money. Asks satisfaction for the 
debt. With reference thereon to the Attorney & 
Solicitor General, and report of the latter that 
Sir Henry Norton should either pay the debt or 
have the grant of the lands passed in his own 
name." ' Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser.,' Chas. II., 

" 1661, Dec. 28. Order that no 'grant of the 
Manor and Rectory of Stokenham in Devonshire 
be made until Sir Henry Norton have secured or 
paid a debt of 350Z. to Nicholas Delves, or that 
the grant to Sir Henry be made in his own name 
in order that the land may be liable for the 
debt." ' Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser.,' Chaa. II., 

" 1662, March. Grant to Sir John Norton, bart 
and two others of the Rectory of Stokenham, co. 
Devon, with all lands etc belonging thereto, 
except the advowson of the church, now in the 
King's hands by forfeiture of Sir Gregory Norton, 
deceased." 'Cal. State Papers, Dom. Ser.,' 
Chae. II., 1661-2. 


Richmond, Surrey. 

ix. 471). Having quoted the above in the 
columns of The Farnham, Hindhead, and 
Haslemere Herald, I have been favoured 
with permission to publish the following 
remarks, which MR. R. P. L. BOOKER, 
F.S.A., of Ling Cottage, Hindhead, and 
Eton College, Windsor, was kind enough to 
send me concerning the same. 

MR. BOOKER says : 

" Practically, no one knows the history 
of English roads between Roman times and 
the days of Charles II. It is a favourite 
device of writers to piece together fragments 
of old roads, and call the whole by a name 
which has at some time been applied to one 
or more of the fragments. And I strongly 
suspect that the so-called Pilgrims' Way is a 
case in point. What evidence there is for 
the name west of Guildford is, I expect, 

" The permanence of the old roads was 
due as much to fairs as to pilgrimages, and 
the good order in which the Roman roads 
centring on Winchester and Cambridge still 
exist is due to the importance of St. Giles's 
Fair and Stourbridge Fair principally. 

" When the Winchester authorities posted 
men to guard Alton Gap at fair-time (see 
Austen-Leigh's book on Chawton), I have 
no doubt it was to protect traders from 
London chiefly. Other traders would have 
been much less important. 

" Alton Gap was, I presume, a gap 
between wooded tracts, and the road there 
to be protected was no doubt much on the 
line of the existing road near Med stead 
station. None of the roads thereabouts 
are Roman, though the first four or five miles 
out of Winchester may be so. 

" When the roads emerge again in the 
seventeenth century into the fierce light of 
day Winchester is an unimportant place, 

ii s. x. AUG. 29, 1911] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and it is obvious that the Southampton 
road misses it altogether, and goes by More- 
stead and Twyford (see Ogilvy, ' Britannia,' 
1675). Then the highway came from 
Bagshot by Frimley, Aldershot, Farnham, 
Alton, and Alresford as now and Celia 
Fiennes rode that way in 1 695 ( ?) : ' Through 
England on a Side' Saddle,' p. 233. She 
came from Winchester, but the main 
Southampton road still misses Winchester 
in the earliest editions of Paterson's ' Itine- 
rary. " 

" The Roman road from Winchester to 
Basingstoke seems to have been neglected 
till turnpiked." 

I have expressed my acknowledgments to 
MR. BOOKER for these interesting comments. 

Glendora, Hindhead, Surrey. 


270 ; x. 139). When I first read this story 
on its appearance in Blackwood 1 s Maga- 
zine, my opinion of it was that of The 
Spectator, which spoke of it as " distinctly 
original, and in the highest degree imagi- 
native." There was also a notice of it in 
The Alhenceum for 6 Oct., 1888 the story 
having appeared in the October, and not 
the November, number of Blackwood for 
that year which sought to identify some 
.of the characters of the drama, and con- 
cluded by saying that " Parisian society is 
extremely anxious to know who X. L. is." 
In the Preface to the book published by 
Methuen in 1894 the author gave "an 
emphatic and unqualified denial to the 
rumour that the characters in this little 
drama are portraits," with the exception of 
the Prince of Evil himself, who is said to be 
" a photograph taken from life." In addi- 
tion to the title-story, the Methuen volume 
contained some other tales which had been 
originally published in Macmittan's Maga- 
zine, Pall Mall Magazine, and TempU Bar. 
Their names were ' A Waltz of Chopin,' ' A 
Kiss of Judas,' ' The Strange Story of a 
Diamond,' and ' The Luck 'of the 'Devil.' 
They are all of the strange, uncanny nature 
of the first story, and evince great powers of 

Of the author himself, we can only learn 
that he had lived many years in Paris : 
that he was the friend of Victor Hugo 
and of several other distinguished French- 
men, as well as of Sir Walter Besant (to 
whom he dedicated his book); and that 
In- was a man of great cultivation and 
extensive reading. On the title-page of the 

book he is described as " Author of ' Little 
Hand and Muckle Gold.' ' Like the Pari- 
sian public, I should certainly be glad to know 
more of a writer of such original gifts. 
Was " Julian Field " his real name, or 
merely a nom de guerre 'f I have sometimes 
thought that in " X. L." we should read 
" Exsul." W. F. PRIDE AUX. 

BENTY (11 S. x. 49, 98). PEREGRINUS 
requested information about E. S., who 
appears as the translator of a Life of M. de 
Benty (London, Tooke, 1684). If we turn 
to Gillow's ' Bibliographical Dictionary of 
English Catholics ' (London, Burns & Gates, 
1885 ?), v. 499, we find the following notice 
under ' Sheldon, Edward, Esq.,' who proves 
to be E. S. : 

"Born Apr. 23, 1599, third son of Edward 
Sheldon of Beoley, co. Worcester, Esq., by 
Elizabeth, dau. of Thomas Markham, of Ollerton, 
co. Notts, Esq. Entered Gloucester Hall, Oxford, 
as a gentleman-commoner about 1013, became a 
student at Gray's Inn, Mar. 1, 1019/20, and 
matriculated as a member of University College, 
Oxford, iu Nov., 1021. He then travelled on 
the Continent for some years, during which time 
he acquired proficiency in French and Italian. 
Upon his return he settled on his patrimony at 
Stratton, co. Gloucester ; but, falling under 
persecution on account of his religion, and alarmed 
by the outbreak of the Civil War, he retired to 
London, where he continued to live in great 
privacy till his death at his house in St. Jame* 
Street, Mar. 27, 1087, aged 84[?]. 

" By his wife Mary, daughter of Lionel Wake, 
of Antwerp and of Pedington, co. Northampton, 
Esq., he had nine sons and three daughters. 
From his eldest son, William, descended the 
Sheldons of Ditchford. of whom Francis Sheldon 
inherited the estates of the Constables and Tun- 
stalls of Burton Constable and Wyclif, and 
assumed the name of Constable. His fourth son, 
Dom Lionel Sheldon, O.S.B., was chaplain to 
the Duchess of York ; his fifth son, Dominic, 
was a colonel of horse under James II. in Ireland ; 
another son, Ralph, equerry to James II. ; and 
two of his daughters were maids of honour to 
Queen Catherine. Ralph Sheldon, the antiquary, 
was his nephew." 

Besides the Life of M. de Benty men- 
tioned by PEREGRINUS, Gillow gives the 
titles of three other works as follows (I give 
the barest form) : ' The Bule of the Catholic 
Faith,' from the French of Francis Veron, 
D.D., Paris, John Billain, 1660; 'Counsels 
of Wisdom,' from the French of M. Nicolas 
Fouquet, Marquis of Belle Isle, London, 
1680 ; ' Christian Thoughts,' from the 
French, London, 1680. 

A short notice of Sheldon appears also in 
' The Catholic Encyclopedia,' s.v. 

Another notice is to be found in the 
4 D.N.B.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG. , wu. 

With reference to M. de Renty, I might 
refer to that excellent book by Maurice 
Souriau, ' Deux Mystiques Normands au 
XVIIe Siecle : M. de Renty et Jean de 
Bernieres ' (Paris, Perrin, 1913). 


Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S. 

(11 S. x. 29, 78). The superstition about 
swallows mentioned by PEREGRINUS seems 
to coincide with a similar one regarding the 
robin in Yorkshire. A correspondent of 
*N. & Q.' related the following (I forget 
which number of 'N. & Q.' it was in, as I 
have only a written copy of it) : 

" A young woman, who had been living in 
service at a farm-house, one day told her relatives 
how the cow belonging to her late master had 
given bloody milk after one of the family had 
Jdlled a robin. A cousin of hers, disbelieving the 
tale, went out and shot a robin purposely. Next 
morning her uncle's best cow, a healthy one of 
thirteen years, that had borne nine calves without 
:uishap, gave half a canful of this ' bloody ' milk, 
And did so for three days in succession, morning 
And evening . . . .The young man who shot the robin 
milked the cow himself on the second morning, 
still incredulous. The farrier was sent for, and 
the matter furnished talk to the village." 

The above was written at least thirty 
years ago. A. S. WHITFIELD. 


[The incident, which is said to have occurred in 
the neighbourhood of Boro'bridge, is related in 
* N. & Q.' for 29 Feb., 1868 (4 S. i. 193). The belief 
in the connexion between robins and " bloody " 
milk exists in the Alps (4 S. i. 329). See also 
4S. viii.505; ix.24.] 

SLOE FAIR (11 S. x. 90, 152). In Stephen 
Whatley's ' England's Gazetteer,' 1751, men- 
tion is made of a fair at Chichester at 
Michaelmas, which " holds 9 days, and is 
called Slow Fair."' The other three fairs 
appear to have been of only one day's 
duration each. 

Might not a fair which covered nine days 
be called reasonably a " Slow Fair " ? 

Can this be the explanation of the term 
" Sloe " or " Slow " Fair ? 

The sloe is such a poor fruit that it would 
appear impossible that it should give its 
name to a nine days' fair. 


ST. ANGUS (11 S. x. 88). It would be 
interesting to know more about the saint 
buried at Balquhidder. His name, in this 
form at least, does not appear in the verv 
full ' Table hagiographique ' published by 
Monsignor Paul Guerin in vol. xvii. of ' Les 
Petits Bollandistes ' (Paris, 1882). 

L. L. K. 

CHILD (11 S. x. 88, 135). I had an intimate 
knowledge of a seventh child, a relative, 
who was said to possess the power of healing 
by touch, and also the gift of clairvoyance, 
because she was born at midnight on All- 
Hallows so her Derbyshire friends asserted. 
She certainly had clairvoyance to some 
degree, and had a curious way with young 
girls, after a quiet look at their fa r ;es 
telling them things concerning their future 
lives, some of which came about after \vards. 
Her touch was singularly soothing, and gave 
relief to pain. THOS. RATCLIFFE. 

Southfield, Worksop. 

The seventh child of a seventh child is 
supposed by Devonians to possess the 
power of curing King's Evil. Within 
recollection one answering this descriptk 
was sought from a long distance. 


CENTURY (11 S. x. 90). There never wi 
any real difference between the London ar 
the Winchester bushels : they were twc 
slightly variant measures of the same ancient 
standard. The bushel contained the same 
weight of heavy wheat as a cubic foot con- 
tained of water i.e., 1,000 averdepois 
ounces=62 lb., and was divided into 8 
gallons, each of 270 cubic inches. The 
gallon of the London bushel was 268 '8 
cub. in., that of the Winchester bushel was 
272 cub. in., corresponding to 2,150 cub. in. 
and 2,178 cub. in. for the bushel, the differ- 
ence being apparently due to the difficulty 
in casting shallow bronze bowls of absolutely 
the same capacity. 

The ancient standard bushel attributed to 
King Edgar, existing at Winchester accord- 
ing to comparatively modern accounts of 
the city antiquities, seems to have dis- 
appeared : it is not in the Westgate collec- 
tion of weights and measures, and I could 
find no trace of it. On a recent visit to 
Dorchester, I found in the museum one of 
Queen Elizabeth's standard bushels, and 
I discovered within it the figures 2 157 '3 in 
faded white paint, only just legible. This 
number, evidently the capacity in cubic 
inches, is very close to the 2,160 of a bushel 
of 8X270 cub. in. When and by whom it 
was gauged I could not find out ; probably 
by an inspector of weights and measures. 

The unity of the standard bushel is shown 
by its being called alternately " London " 
and " Winchester " in four statutes of the 
reigns of Charles II., William III., Anne, 
and George III. 

ns.x.Aco.29,1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


In the United States, where the gallon 
has not been unified, as in our Imperial 
gallon of 277 cub. in., the two " Queen 
Anne's " gallons for wine and for corn are 
still used, and the bushel is known as " Win- 
ch'-st'T," though its standard is that of the 
old London bushel. This is also the stan- 
dard bushel of Brazil, metric system not- 

I may mention that a short, but accurate 
account of these measures will be found in 
the Weights and Measures article of ' Whit- 
aker s Almanack' for 1913, which I recom- 
mend readers of ' N. & Q.' who have it not 
to look up and keep for reference. 


" TROD " (11 S. ix. 27 ; 116, 158, 454, 492). 
" Trod " is still in common use in th 
Isle of Axholme (North Lincolnshire) as a 
name for a footpath. Compare Spenser's 
In humble dales is footing fast, 
The trode is not so tickle. 

C. C. B. 


There were two Sir Thomas Holcrofts of 
Vale Royal. The first was second son of 
John Holcroft of Holcroft in Lancashire, 
descended from a long-established family 
in that county. He was one of the many 
Royal favourites, parasites at the Court of 
King Henry VIII., who were indebted for 
their after-fortunes to the unscrupulous 
following-out of that monarch's will, and 
who fattened upon the ruin of the monas- 
teries. Appointed a Commissioner to treat 
with the Abbot of Vale Royal in Cheshire, 
he so managed the business that for a nominal 
sum and a still more nominal ground rent he, 
on 7 March, 1542, obtained from the King 
the tyrant of " the scite of the Abbey of 
Vale Royal," together with much other 
surrounding property, where he thereafter 
fixe; I his residence. He was knighted in 
Scotland by the Earl of Hertford, 11 May, 
1544, " after the destruction of Edinburgh" ; 
served as Sheriff of Lancashire in 15456; 
was M.P. for Lancashire 1545-7, Cheshire 
lf>.">.'!, and Arundel 1554 ; and died in 1564. 
Will dated 25 June, 1558 ; proved 20 April, 
1564. By his wife Juliana, dan. and heiress 
of Nicholas Jenyns, in 1526-9 Alderman of 
London, he left an only son and daughter. 

His son and heir, the second Sir Thomas 
of Vale Royal, was one of the Gentlemen of 

I the Privy Chamber to Queen Elizabeth, 
Sheriff of Cheshire in 1598-9, and M.P. for 
the same county in 1593, 1597-8, 1601, and 
1604-11. He was knighted at York by 

' James I., 17 April, 1603; married Elizabeth, 

dau. of Sir Edward Fitton of Gawsworth, 
and was living at the Visitation of Cheshire, 
1613, but died shortly afterwards, leaving 
issue. The Vale Royal estate was sold in 
1616 to Lady Cholmondeley. 

Thomas Holcroft of Battersea (not Bat- 
tesby), co. Surrey, was only remotely akin 
to the foregoing, being second son of Geoffrey 
Holcroft of Hurst, an early fourteenth- 
century branch of the Holcrofts of Holcroft. 
He married Joan, dau. and heiress of Henry 
Roydon of Battersea, who after Thomas 
Holcroft's death married Oliver St. John, 
first Viscount Grandison (died December, 
1630). It is thus clear that he could not be 
the Thomas Holcroft whose dau. Elizabeth 
married William Ayloffe, Serjeant-at-law 
in 1577. Ayloffe, who was a Justice of the 
Queen's Bench from 1577 till his death in 
November, 1585, according to Foss, married 
Jane, dau. of Eustace Sulyard. This is 
confirmed in Burke's ' Extinct Baronetcies ' 
(art. 'Ayloffe of Braxted Magna, Essex'). 
I fancy, therefore, that your correspondent 
must somehow be mistaken in his references. 

W. D. PINK. 

Winslade, Ldwton, Newton-le-Willows. 

A pedigree of Sir Thomas Holcroft is 
given in Ormerod's ' Cheshire ' (ed. Helsby), 
ii. 153-4 ; and an account of the descent 
from Culcheth of Culcheth and Hindley of 
Hindley, both in Lancashire, will be found 
in the ' Victoria History of Co. Lancaster,' iv. 
160, &c. There is no mention of the sug- 
gested connexion with Holcroft of Battesby. 

Warrington Museum. 

For an account of Sir Thomas Holcroft 
see ' Local Gleanings (Lanes, and Ches. ),' 
1877, vol. ii. p. 124. R. S. B. 

[ J. J. B. thanked for reply. ] 


Two FRIENDS (11 S. x. 129). The above 
book was written by Miss M. B. Smedley in 
collaboration with one of her friends. The two 
afterwards published " The Child World, by 
the authors of ' Poems written for a Child.' " 

" IEBIE HORSE " (11 S. x. 130). This is 
evidently an old way of spelling " jibby 
horse." A " jibby " was a giddy, flaunting, 
showily-dressed girl, and a " jibby horse " 
was the term used for a showman's horse 
decorated with parti -coloured trappings, 
plumes, &c. It was also sometimes applied 
to persons. The quotation given by your 
correspondent seems to refer to a show, 
and thus supports the above explanation. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. A. 29, 

1741 (11 S. x. 131). Have the lists of wills 
proved at Chester about the date in question 
been consulted in the Record Society's 
volumes ? I see wills of William Carr of 
Liverpool, merchant, 1754 ; Laurence Carr 
of same, 1762 ; Edward Carr of same, 
mariner, 1710 ; and several others from 
Liverpool and places round Chester. I 
noticed no Stephen Carr. 

A pedigree of the Gildarts would be 
interesting. Surely your correspondent is 
in error in saying J. Gildart, Mayor in 1786, 
was a brother of Mrs. Carr. Her brother 
James was Mayor in 1750, and it was his 
son of the same name who was Mayor in 
1786. B. S. B. 

MEDICINAL MUMMIES (11 S. ix. 67, 70, 115, 
137, 157, 195, 316). MR. J. B. WILLIAMS 
asked at the second reference whence, 
why, and where dead bodies could 
have been used for medicine. Curiously 
enough, MR. L. B. M. STRACHAN in the 
same number, puzzled by " Memmian 
naphtha -pits " in Tennyson's less-known 
sonnet, asks (p. 67) whether " Memnonian " 
can possibly be the real reading. Tennyson 
admittedly is, as a rule, accurate. In these 
connexions " Memmia sedificia " stated to 
be found in ' Paulus apud Festum ' might 
be taken as asphalted or bitumened brick 
buildings, and " hence or otherwise " might 
explain Tennyson's transference of the 
rare adjective " Memmian " to his naphtha- 
pits. I confess that as a close student of 
Tennyson I feel inclined to hazard a guess 
in textual criticism, not to say prosody 
(which " Memnonian " violates, I think), 
and to ask whether in this less-printed, less- 
published sonnet the true reading may not 
have been " Mummy and Naphtha pits," 
which solution, I hope, is sufficiently close 
to what " nice " scholars classically love to 
term the " ductus literarum." Further, 
the query occurs to me, Did Tennyson write 
"&" or "and" in his MSS. generally, or 
here incidentally ? If so, my emendation of 
" mummy and " naphtha pits may be put 
forward with more assurance. 

But to return to my mutton, or in this 
case mummy, it is somewhat tiring how- 
ever great an admiration one may have for 
the ' N.E.D.' (its pronunciation always 
excepted, because here I follow the strictures 
of the present Poet Laureate as sound) to 
note the indolent neglect with which Oriental 
philology is treated, even in the simplest 
terms. In the ' N.E.D.' Persian (!) is quoted 

as the source of " mummy " ; but no 
evidence is adduced. Far more evidence is 
there, indeed, for supposing " mummy " to 
of Egyptian origin, merman, of Aman, 
Aman's property, protected, sanctified ; 
' preserved " for ever from harm, cured, 
laved. As to the eating of mummy, on 
;he assumption that " you eat the best, and 
what you eat does you good," the accounts 
of passages in reference to " mummy " in 
;he ' N.E.D.' easily enable an inquisitive 
and curious outsider " to get the hang of the 
hing." Let us see. First, in 1400, we have 
^anfranc's ' Cirurg.,' 153, "Take mummie 
3ss." In 1525 Jerome of Brunswick, ' Surg.,' 
)3, " Take mumie." Hakluyt in his ' Voyages/ 
ii. 1. 201, says : "These dead bodies are the 
Mummie which the Phisitians and Apothe- 
aries doe against our willes make us to 
;wallow." (We may note that mummy is. 
also, when ground up and pounded, a paint 
still used by modern painters.) Blount in 
1656, in his ' Glossographia,' says : " Mumie is 
digged out of the Graves [Egyptian] of those 
bodies that were embalmed .... Arabian 
mummie. The second kind is onely an 
equal mixture of the Jews Lime and Bitu- 
men." In 1755 we find Swift suggesting 
medicinally " the mummy of some deceased 
moderator of the general assembly in,] 
Scotland to be taken inwardly as an 
effectual antidote against Antichrist." 
In 17 86 Beckford in his ' Vathek ' says : 
" My taste for dead bodies and everything" 
like mummy is decided." Shakespeare's 
" mountain of mummie " in ' Merry Wives,' 
III. v. 18, also refers ad rem. Wiedemann 
the Egyptologist produced an article in the 
Zeitschrift for 1906 entitled ' Mumie als 

MR. J. B. WILLIAMS'S inquiry, then, as to 
the colonel who believed and practised these 
methods falls within the limits of ordinary 
experience. As touching Shakespeare's 
witchcraft of " liver of blaspheming Jew " 
and the mid-nineteenth-century fight be- 
tween allceopathic and homoeopathic chem- 
ists and apothecaries, or sympathetic sur- 
geons and chemists, readers of Early-Vic- 
torian reviews or magazines will recollect 
pictorial chemists' advertisements therein : 
" Don't go to the fellow over the road j 
he 's an Homoeopath. He '11 give you what 
you 've had already again ! " &c. The 
root-idea seems to have been that Egyptian 
natron, asphalt, and bitumen, or mummy 
(as Herodotus first tells, apart from the 
Bible), inherently and subsequently pos- 
sessed a medicinal principle which, partaken 
by the invalid, produced in him and for him 

ii s. x. AUG. 29, mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


also, and for any third party, a perfect and 
safe cure. After all, the sources of 
modern surgery and physic are, in some 
at least, dependent on smallest herbs 
and creatures. They are witchcraft less 
the Babylonian and Chaldaean incanta- 
tions. Hence MB. J. B. WILLIAMS' s 
" colonel who was hanged " no doubt con- 
sidered quite honestly and conscientiously 
that " a slice of burglar's liver " was an 
excellent remedy for the gout. Dr. Budge 
of the British Museum in his painstaking 
compilation on ' The Mummy ' quotes (from 
Pettigrew, I think) how the Turks of Asia 
Minor suppressed a very businesslike Jewish 
mummy merchant, whence the failure of 
modern medicinal mummy. 

Perth, W.A. 

MARQUIS DE SPINETO (US. ix. 510; x. 
138;. Lady Granville wrote (22 Aug.,' 1820) 
that, at the Queen's trial, 

" the interpreter is the man that delights them 
all. Uis name is Spinetto ; he is an Italian 
teacher at one of the Universities, as quick as 
lightning, all gesticulation, and so eager he often 
answers instead of the witness. Between them 
they act all the evidence, and at times they say 
this is so irresistibly comic that the noble lords 
forget all decorum and are in a roar of laughter." 
' Letters of Harriet, Countess Granville,' vol. i. 
p. 161. 


It seems to be forgotten that one daughter 
<of tliis Neapolitan nobleman, Mary Jane 
JDoria, married in 1846 Henry Philpott, 
D.D., Master of St. Catherine's College, 
afterwards Bishop of Worcester. 

F. DE H. L. 

Autumnal fires were known in Europe long 
before the days of Guy Fawkes. Is it not 
probable that oak-leaves were worn at some 
May festival earlier than th'j Battle of 
Worcester ? Some few fragments of folk- 
lore suggest that the first of the month was 
not the only time of merrymaking in May. 
An old Lincolnshire woman, who would 
have been more than a hundred had she 
lived till now, once described to me a festival 
anciently held in the pasture of a village in 
the north of her native county. At this 
feast a garland of oak-leaves had to be set 
up. Its date could scarcely have been Old 
May Day, for frequently oaks have no leaves 

What evidence exists of a festival con- 
nected with milk and milkmaids about the 
end of May ? 

If wearing oak-leaves has to do with a 
spring festival, doffing them at noon may 
have some connexion with the sun. 

M. P. 

x. 129). The lines about which MR. MAT- 
THEW HUGHES inquires are from Mr. William 
Watson's poem on ' The Tomb of Burns/ 
published in ' The Father of the Forest, and 
Other Poems ' (John Lane, 1895), p. 42. 
In the fifth line quoted " And " should be 

1C. L. S. also thanked for reply.] 

OLD ETONIANS (11 S. x. 108). "Llano- 
well, Denbigh," must be an English con- 
tortion of " Glanywern, Denbigh." Glanywern 
is a mansion still standing in the neighbour- 
hood of the town of Denbigh. "Edward 
Clough," who was admitted to Eton in 1751 
and left in 1756, in all probability was 
Edward (b. 1741), the third of the thirteen 
children of Hugh Clough, Esq., of Glanywern, 
Sheriff of the county of Denbigh in 1759. 
Edward Clough must have died early in life, 
as his brother Bichard Clough (b. 1753) 
inherited Glanywern after their father. 
-:. It is of interest to point out that Roger, 
the thirteenth child of Hugh Clough, Esq., 
of Glanywern, and brother of Edward 
Clough of this query, was the father of 
James Butler Clough, who was the father 
of Arthur Hugh Clough, the poet. 


Yspytty Vicarage, Bettws-y-Coed. 

There can be no doubt that Phillimore's 
reference to ' Miscellaneous Speeches ' is to 

" Speeches of Lord Erskine, when at the Bar, 
on Miscellaneous Subjects. London, Printed for 
J. Ridgway, 1812." 

In vol. i. there is a good report of the Bishop 
of Bangor's trial, but " the whole trial " is 
not reported, as the evidence is omitted. 

It is stated in a note at p. 95 that the 
report is taken from Gurney's shorthand 
notes of the trial, published by Stockdale of 
Piccadilly. HARRY B. POLAND. 

Inner Temple. 

[MB. O. E. A. BEDWELL also thanked for 

ISLES : WILLIAM CAREY (11 S. x. 104). 
The bust of Dr. William Carey by J. C. 
Lough is no longer in the vestibule of the 
Metcalfe Hall, Calcutta, as a " lasting 
testimony " to his memory. On the Hall 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. AUG. 29, 191*. 

being reqiiired for the purposes of the 
Imperial Library in 1903, the bust was 
removed to the entrance of the gardens of 
the Agri-Horticultural Society at Alipore, a 
suburb of Calcutta, where, I believe, it still 
remains. Carey was a founder of the 
Society in 1820. If I remember rightly, 
when I last saw it it stood in the open, and 
was easily seen from the public road. 


SIB PHILIP HOWARD (11 S. x. 129). 
' Cumberland and Westmorland M.P.'s,' by 
Robert Ferguson (London, 1871), gives a 
lengthy account (pp. 379-80) of " Colonel 
Sir Philip Howard, Knight, M.P. for Carlisle 

He may have been a Knight of the Bath, 
but, I feel pretty confident, not of the 
Garter, though my books at hand do not 
enable me to verify the fact. H. 

He was knighted at Canterbury 26 May, 
1660, and was not a K.G. M.P. for Malton 
in 1659 and 1660 (then esquire), for Carlisle 
1661 to 1681 (three Parliaments) as Knight. 
Died 2 Feb., 1685/6 ; buried at Westminster 
Abbey. W. D. PINK. 

NEWMAN also thanked for replies.] 

SAINTS' DAY CUSTOMS (11 S. x. 129). 

" In Overbury's ' Characters,' describing a foot- 
man, he says : ' "Tis impossible to draw hi picture 
to the life, cause a man must take it as he 's run- 
ning ; only this, horses arc usually let bloud on St. 
Steven's Day : on St. Patrick's he takes rest, 
and is drencht for all the year after.' " Brand's 
' Popular Antiquities,' ' St. Patrick's Day * 
(Chatto & "VVindus, 1900, p. 55). 

In Brand's book, under ' St. Stephen's 
Day,' will be found several quotations 
dealing with the bleeding of horses on that 
day. I will only give one from Tusser's 
' Husbandry ' (1580) : 

Yer Christmas be passed, let Horsse be let blood, 
For manie a purpose it dooth them much good : 
The Day of S. Steeven, old fathers did use, 
If that do mislike thee, some other day chuse. 


"CORVICER" (11 S. ix. 308, 395, 477; 
x. 15). " Corversarius, corvisarius : a cord- 
wainer ; a cobbler," is given in Martin's 
' Record Interpreter.' BROWNMOOR. 


An old friend of this family writes me : 
" The Dwights gave me to understand that 

the name is Dutch, and is a contraction of De 


Mappleton, Derbyshire. 

HAND OF ULSTER (11 S. vii. 189, 275, 
334, 373, 434; viii. 14, 95, 154, 217, 273; ix. 
195, 238, 257). Further as to the Oriental 
end of this question, the finger-prints of 
Murad I. are said to have been worked 
into the Imperial Osmanli seal. Thurston's 
' Omens arid Superstitions of Southern 
India ' says in part on p. 119 : 

" The sacrificer dips his hand in the blood of 
the animal, and impresses the blood on his palms 
on the wall near the door .... At Kadur, in the 
Mysore Province, I once saw impressions of the 
hand on the walls of Brahman houses. Impres- 
sions in red paint of a hand with outspread 
fingers may be seen on the walls of mosques and 
other Muhammadan buildings." Citing Journal 
Anthrop. Insl., 1890, xix. 56. 

Impressions of a hand on the wall of a house 
are depicted on the page opposite p. 119. 

'' When cholera, or other epidemic disease, 
breaks out, Muhammadans leave the imprint of 
the hand dipped in sandal paste on the door " 
(pp. 119-20), 

thus leaving the requisite red mark. 

Boston, Mass. 

SCOTT: 'THE ANTIQUARY' (11 S. x. 90, 
155). 6. " Its parent lake " (chap. xvii.). 
This is probably a reference to Smollett's 
' Ode to Leven Water,' 1. 17 : 

Devolving from thy parent lake, 
A charming maze thy waters make. 


369). He was created LL.D. by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, 5 March, 1754 (Patent 

Memorials of an Ancient Hou$e : a History of the 
Family of Lister or Lyster. By the Rev. 
Henry Lyttelton Lyster Denny. (Ballantync.) 
THIS sumptuous volume does not disappoint the 
expectations it excites. The family of Lister or 
Lyster furnishes, perhaps, as good an example as. 
any in Great Britain or Ireland of a stock, not, 
indeed, distinguished by any name belonging un- 
questionably to the first rank among the leaders 
of mankind in any particular sort of activity, but 
proved capable of bearing generation after 
generation of sound gentlemen and gentlewomen. 
those brave enough and able enough to make 
some mark among their compeers, and these for 
the most part supplied with the beauty and ele- 
gance and accomplishments requisite to make- 
them the fitting repositories and handers-on of the 
gentler part of the traditions of a good family. 

The first of the name to make any distinct 
appearance was one John Lyster de Derby, 
living in 1312, brother of Geoffrey Lyster, in 

n s.x. AUG. 29, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


that same year member of Parliament for 
prrliy, these being sons of Sir Thomas Lyster, 
Knt.. who was living in 1272. John Lyster 
iiii leased the wealth and importance of the 
family by his marriage with an heiress, Isabel de 
Boltnn, who brought him Midhope, Rimington, 
(iislnirne, and Clitheroe lands on the banks of 
the Ribble which her descendants have held ever 
since. Fourth in descent from John and Isabel 
de Bolton comes Christopher Lyster of Midhope, 
whose two sons, William and Thomas, were the 
progenitors of the two main branches of the house 
of Lister those with which Mr. Denny has been 
principally occupied. The descendants of the 
second son have, on the whole, done most, as they 
have become most numerous. Jane Lyster, the 
daughter of Thomas, was, by her marriage with 
John Alan of Rossall, the mother of Cardinal 
Alan, the distinguished sixteenth-century scholar. 
Jane's brother, another Thomas, married a 
Wi'Mliy, and from Thomas, his eldest son, come 
the Listers of Gisburne, the Lords Ribblesdale, 
and the Listers of Armitage, as well as, through 
a second grandson, the Listers of Manningham ; 
while from his second son, Anthony of Newsholme, 
is derived the interesting line of the Lysters of 
Boscommon. This Anthony's youngest son, 
Walter, went to Ireland as secretary to Judge 
Osbaldeston, and married his daughter Debora, 
thus bringing into the Lyster family the blood of 
half the royal houses in Europe which, indeed, 
was to be reinvigorated as the generations went 
on by union with more than one other lady of 
royal descent. 

Mr. Denny has added to particulars of marriages, 
progeny, and deaths such interesting details of the 
life and character of individuals as he has been 
able to get together, and the careers of the Ros- 
common Lysters are among the liveliest. Anthony 
Lister, son of Walter, married a Miss Blood, who 
with her five children was murdered in 1641 by 
the Irish insurgents. Anthony himself, the story 
goes, was saved by being hidden in an " oven " 
by the ready-witted nurse of his children which 
" oven," it has been conjectured, was a round, 
hollow mound, of which several are found in 
groups in that part of the country. A delightful 
boy must have been Thomas Mark Lyster true 
son, too, of an impetuous father who died at the 
age of 23, but contrived before that to meet little 
Miss Henrietta Bourke, aged 14, who had been 
reprimanded at school, and had run away crying. 
Heating what was the matter, Thomas Mark, ex- 
claiming, " No one will ever scold you again," 
carried her off and married her then and there. 
The uncle of Thomas Mark, Anthony Lyster, 
through whom the line descends, also made a, 
romantic marriage, having for wife a beautiful 
Rirl called " Anna McLellan," reputed to have 
been a daughter of Princess Amelia Sophia : 
her father, one of her grandsons used to say, 
would never be known. The eldest son of these 
ha'l a pleasant adventure as a young man. 
Or.lerr-d by the War Office to go to Leith to 
reeruit there for his regiment, he embarked with 
his wife and child in a sailing vessel, which was 
wrecked off the Fame Island Rocks. After 
nearly losing the child, they were rescued by the 
brothers of Grace Darling, and taken to Bam- 
borough Castle, where they stayed as guests of 
Ardnloacon Thorpe. There they met two under- 
graduates (Henry Temple and William Lamb), 

who arrived " with their vacation knapsacks 
filled chiefly with books, on their backs." \ 
friendship sprang up between them and the 
Listers, and they all seem to have made their 
way back to London as strolling players. When 
Temple had become Lord Palmerston and Lamb 
Lord Melbourne, the friendship grew to have 
no little value for Lister, shown chiefly in the 
bestowal of commissions in the army on his 
numerous sons. 

From William, Christopher Lister's elder son 
come the Listers of Thornton and Burwell, and 
the Listers of Skelbrooke, now known as Neviles. 
These have intermarried, as every genealogist 
is aware, with many ancient and well-known, 
tamihes, and in the seventeenth century attained 
to some distinction in medicine and natural 
science: witness Sir Matthew Lister, faithfuF 
servant of Charles I., and Dr. Martin Lister,, 
author of the ' Historia sive Synopsis Methodic,-* 

The surname was undoubtedly borne by several 
families who were not connected with the "ancient 
house here in question, and Mr. Denny has 
collected pedigrees and biographies illustrating 
no fewer than fifteen which may be taken as 
independent. Among them is the family of the 
one Lister who has given the name its widest 
renown, the great surgeon whose discovery of the 
cause of the suppuration of wounds and inven- 
tion of antiseptic surgery have revolutionized the 
whole treatment of wounds. His ascendants are 
traced up to a Bryan Lister of Bingley in York- 
shire, who was buried in 1607. 

The book is illustrated with numerous highly 
interesting portraits, some of which deserved,, 
however, to be better reproduced. The excellent 
plan of the book, the carefully accumulated in 
formation of collateral interest, and the un- 
usual liveliness of the way in which the different 
matters are set out are worth some special praise^ 
t should prove of real use and value to the- 
student of genealogy, and also a source of enter- 
tainment to the general reader. Indeed, Mr. 
Denny may consider himself rewarded for what 
mast have been prolonged and often somewhat 
arduous labour by the knowledge that he has 
produced one of the most notable books of its, 

Chats on Housefiold Curio/). By F. W. Burgess, 

(Fisher Unwin, 5s. net.) 

THIS is the sixteenth of the series of these use- 
ful books, and may be regarded as a companion 
to the 'Chats on Copper and Brass.' Mr. Burgess 
has, with his wonted industry, made diligent 
search for examples among public collections- 
and private friends, and the numerous illustra- 
tions show with what good result. 

The " Ingle side," being the central attraction 
in British homes, naturally has first place ; and 
the tinder box is naturally one of the most 
prominent curios. Mr. Burgess gives the date 
of the lucifer match as 18'JO, but we do not 
think it came into general use before 1834. It 
is remarkable that it was not until about 1860 
a match that would light only on the box was 
introduced by Messrs. Bryant & May. 

The subject of table appointments (knives, 
forks, and spoons) gives occasion for much folk- 
lore, as does the punch-bowl, which until recent 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t n s. x. AUG. 29, 1014. 

years \vas inseparable from the convivial feast- 
Among peg tankards mentioned is the one origin- 
ally belonging to the Abbey of Glastoubuiy, 
afterwards in the possession of Lord Arundel of 
Wardour. It held two quarts, the pegs dividing 
its contents into half-pints, according to the 
Winchester standard. On it were carved round 
the sides the twelve Apostles, and on the lid the 
scene of the Crucifixion. Under ' The Old Work- 
box ' we get chats about spinning-wheels, and 
are reminded that St. Distaff's Day, formerly 
the 7th of January, was the day on which women 
resumed work after Christmas. The article on 
musical instruments gives an interesting 'note! of 
the introduction of the piano. On a playbill of 
Covent Garden Theatre issued in 1767 it was 
announced that " Miss Brickler will sing a 
favourite song from ' Judith," accompanied by 
Mr. Dibdin on a new instrument called the 

The " Chats " close with a list of obsolete 
household names. Among these are " Ample," 
an ointment box formerly carried by a medical 
man ; " Bombard," a large leathern bottle for 
carrying beer, a term also applied to ancient 
ale-barrels ; and " Finger guard," to protect 
.the nails when nibbing pens. 

Transactions of the Hunter Archceological Society. 
Vol. I. No. 1. (Sheffield, the Society.) 

TTHIS Society was inaugurated at Sheffield 
University on the 13th of May, 1912, when a 
hundred members were enrolled, and we are glad 
to see that it is now a flourishing association of 
some 300 members. The objects of the Society 
are " the promotion of interest in the preserva- 
tion, excavation, and restoration of the ancient 
sites, buildings, &<:., in Sheffield and its neigh- 
bourhood, and in the preservation of local place- 
names, folk-lore, and dialect ; the collection and 
preservation of books, manuscripts, maps, coins, 
-and objects of local, and particularly antiquarian, 
interest, and the undertaking of the care of such 
-objects on loan ; the preparation and publica- 
tion of papers on local history, and of biographical 
and genealogical accounts of local worthies," &c. 

The first paper, by Mr. Charles Drury, rightly 
gives an account of Joseph Hunter, whose name 
the Society has adopted in honour of the historian 
-of Hallamshire. This is followed by a gossip on 
' The Customs of Hallamshire,' by our old con- 
tributor Mr. S. O. Addy, who explains that " the 
word Hallamshire is a convenient expression for 
Sheffield and the surrounding villages, such as 
Ecclesfield, Bradfield, and Handsworth, without 
attempting to define its original limits." Mr. 
Edmund Curtis writes on ' Sheffield in the Four- 
teenth Century ' ; Mr. T. Walter Hall on ' Ye 
Backer Way ' ; Mr. R. E. Leader on ' The House 
at the Church Gates ' ; and Mr. W. T. Free- 
mantle on ' The Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D., a 
Bibliography.' An account is also given of the 
summer excursions. 

The illustrations include ' Lady's Bridge in 
1844 ' ; 'Ye Racker Way, 1914 ' ; 'A Brass 
Sealing Box, 1644 ' ; and some ancient local 
furniture from the late Reginald Gatty's collec- 
tion, of which Mr. Charles Green furnishes 

We offer our cordial greetings to this latest of 
our Archaeological Societies. 


READERS whose wants are apt to be much 
longer than their purses might do well to consult 
Catalogue No. 138 issued by Mr. Andrew Baxen- 
dine of Edinburgh. It contains a large number 
of useful works offered at low prices. We mention 
half a score or so of those which happened to 
fall in with our own line of thought at the moment ; 
it would be easy to make several other such lists. 
There is the 1790 edition of Barbour's ; Bruce ' 
with Pinkerton's Notes and Glossary, 3 vols., 
10s. Gd. There is a copy of the edition of Burke 
in 12 vols. brought out by Bickers, a new copy 
and out of print, 21. 18s. Gd. Mr. Eckel's ' Biblio- 
graphy of First Editions of Dickens,' published 
last year, is offered for 12s. 6<7. ; and we noticed 
a set of Blackwood's ' Works ' of George Eliot, 
published at 21. 12s. 6d., to be had here at 1?. 15s. 
Lord Braybrooke's ' Pepys,' the edition published 
three years ago in 4 vols., is certainly cheap at. 
10s. 6d. ; and the 1902 edition of Lockhart's 
' Scott,' now out of print, in 10 vols., is not dear 
either at SI. 10s. Mr. Baxendine has also a 
complete set of The Yclloic Book from April, 1894, 
to its end in April, 1897, the price being 21. 2s. ; 
and Weiner's translation of Tolstoy the whole 
of the ' Works ' for which he asks 21. 15s. Qd. 

MESSRS. BROWNE & BROWNE of Xewcastle-on- 
Tyne describe over 1,100 items in their Catalogue 
No. 109 recently sent us. The principal one is, 
perhaps, the complete set of the Surtees Society's 
Publications from 1834 to 1905, running to 
111 vols., and offered for SQL We noticed 
'Plutarch's Lives ' A. H. dough's edition of the 
Dryden translation, so called 5n 5 vols., uncut, 
1893, 41. 4s. ; a first edition of Johnson's ' Dic- 
tionary,' a good copy in the original calf, 1755, 
4L 4s. ; and a copy of the best edition of Grote's 
' Greece,' in 8 vols., 1862,3?. An item which may 
interest those who care for antiquities and for 
curious information is the collection, in seven 
folio volumes, of some 373 engravings, with 
appropriate letterpress, by different authors, 
illustrating costume in Great Britain, China, 
Turkey, Russia, and Austria, ranging in date froiu 
1804 to 1818, and having cost over 701., which is 
here to be had for 161. We may also mention the 
late S. W. Stevenson's ' Dictionary of Roman 
Coins,' revised by C. Roach Smith and completed 
by Frederick W. Madden, 1889, SI. 10s. ; and a 
copy, priced 51. 5s., of Mr. George Bedford's ' His- 
tory of Sales of Pictures,' 1899. 

have sent us their Catalogue No. 16, which is full 
of good things relating to the North of England, 
principally Cumberland and Westmorland. It 
includes books on topography, books on archae- 
ology and history, volumes of verse, transactions 
of societies, and even a certain amount of fiction, 
as well as sundry pamphlets, papers printed for 
clubs or societies, and records of different sorts 
and periods. The most unusual of the items ia 
one of which the description is entitled ' Cale- 
donian Railway,' consisting of plans of the railway 
from Carlisle to Edinburgh, on 18 sheets, and 
plans also of the line to Castle Carly (Dumfries) 
on 5 sheets, as well as 23 more sheets giving tables 
of cost, &c., all mounted on linen and bound in 
leather, 101. 10s. 

u s. x. SEPT. 5, 1914. ] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



CONTENTS. No. 245. 

NOTES : Capt. Cook's Old Master, 181 Webster and the 
'N.E.D.,' 182 Sir John Gilbert, J. F. Smith, and 'The 
London Journal,' 183 The Original of ' Aladdin 'Forti- 
fications of Antwerp in the Seventeenth Century, 186 
Humphrey Halley : "The Unicorn " " Frap " lowerth 
ab Espus of Avan, 187 Memorial at Southampton 
St. Paul's Cathedral Gallery "Skillington Time " 
Flower-Women in London " Handy-dandy," 188. 

QUERIES : Rate -Books kept by Overseers of the Poor 
Alexander Reid of Kirkennan James Lonsdale, Por- 
trait Painter Carlyle's ' Past and Present ' Bishop 
Stubbs and 'N. <fc Q.,' 189 A Napoleonic Button 
Presenting the Lord Mayor to the Constable of the 
Tower Daughter of a St. Paul's Schoolmaster temp. 
Elizabeth Rev. W. Langbaine of Trotton Sixteenth- 
Century Flemish Sideboard Bonar Whitfield 
"Kennedie," 190 Sir Hugo de Gray of Broxruouth 
British Coins and Stamps Whitehead " Spade Tree " 
as a Sign "The Dark Ages," 191. 

EEPLIES : Fielding's 'Tom Jones,' 191 Hugh Peters: 
'Tales and Jests 'Registers of Protestant Dissenters 
Shilleto's Edition of Burton" I was well ; I would be 
better," 193 Sir Gregory Norton, the Regicide 
Henry IV. 's Supper of Hens " Queen Elinor in the 
ballad," 194 Burial - Place of Eleanor of Provence 
Napoleon and Wellington Napoleon as Historian 
Napoleon's Diversions at St. Helena, 195 " Left his 
corps " Palm the Bookseller Spoon Folk - lore 
" Chatterbox " Language and Physiognomy Shake- 
speare and the Warwickshire Dialect, 196 Lowell's 
'Fireside Travels' The Stockwell Ghost Action of 
Vinegar on Rocks Emendation in ' All's Well that Ends 
Well ' Author of Quotation Wanted Pedigrees of 
Knights, 197 Wall-Papers Acrostics Author Wanted 
' Almanach de Gotha,' 193. 

IfOTES ON BOOKS : ' New Light on Drake ' 
'Customary Acres' ' English History in Contemporary 
Poetry ' ' Analecta Bollandiana 'Reviews and Maga- 


I HAVE for some time been trying to get 
information regarding the Wm. Sanderson 
of Staithes to whom Capt. Cook was appren- 
ticed when young, and the result of my 
labours may be of interest to readers of 
4 N. & Q.' 

It has always been said that Wm. Sander- 
son was a small shopkeeper in Staithes, 
whose business combined drapery and 

His will (dated 14 Aug., 1773) was proved 
at York on 12 April, 1774. In it he de- 
scribes himself as of Staithes in the parish 
of Hinderwell, Yorks, merchant. He leaves 
his messuages in Staithes, where he then 
dwelt, with the shop, &e., to his eldest son 
John Sanderson, and his freehold estates 
to his wife Elizabeth Sanderson, his son 
John Sanderson, and John Harrison -of 
Guisborough, co. Yorks, gent. they to sell 

the same, and the proceeds to go for their 
support to his son John and the remainder 
of his children, viz., Elizabeth, Ann, Robert, 
Augustine, Thomas, George, William, and 
Isaac, who were to take equal shares at the 
age of 21. If his wife married again she 
was to have one-tenth of the proceeds. He 
left all his personal estate to his wife, son 
John, and the said John Harrison upon trust, 
they to pay all funeral expenses, &c., and be 
executors and guardians for his younger 
children. The witnesses to the will are 
Frith Jefferson, David Lincoln, and Henry 

I had an idea that the above Wm. Sander- 
son was the same Sanderson who bought the 
Handale (or Grendale) Benedictine Nunnery, 
dedicated to the Virgin Mary, in the parish 
of Lofthouse-in-Cleveland, Yorks, in 1758, 
and whose daughter parted with it ; and 
having discovered the present owner of the 
property, I asked him whether he would be 
so kind as to refer to his deeds and tell me 
the Christian name of the Sanderson who 
bought it and his occupation, and the name 
of his daughter who sold it, and the date of 
the sale. His solicitor thereupon furnished 
me with the following particulars : 

" By deeds of lease and release dated 27th 
and 28th Feb., 1758, made between Roger Beck- 
with and Eliz. his wife of the 1st part, Wm. 
Consett and Wm. P. Consett and John Preston 
the Younger of the 2nd part, and Christopher 
Wayne, then of Stokesley, apothecary, and 
Samuel Gill, then of Staithes, gent., of the 3rd 
part, and Wm. Sanderson, then of Staithes afore- 
said, gent., of the 4th part- the said Wm. Sander- 
son acquired the Manor or Lordship of Handall, 
otherwise Grindall, with the rights, &c., and the 
mansion house called Handale, otherwise Grin- 
dale Abbey, and the land held therewith, con- 
taining 290 acres of the yearly value in the whole 
of 901. or thereabouts." 

A later deed describes Wm. Sanderson as 
a merchant, and mentions that his will 
was proved as above. His six children 
living in 1787 were named John Sanderson, 
Elizabeth (wife of Thos. Richardson), Ann 
Sanderson, Augustine Sanderson, George 
Sanderson, and Isaac Sanderson. 

On 23 June, 1788, a common notice of 
bankruptcy was awarded and issued against 
Elizabeth Sanderson and John Sanderson, 
directed to Thos. Nugent, John Wm. Rose, 
and Augustus Greenland, and recites 

" that the Commissioners had found that the said 
Eliz. Sanderson and John Sanderson had for the 
space of one year and eight months then last past 
carried on the trade or business of Shopkeepers 
(in the name of the said John Sanderson only) by 
buying of Grocery, Linen, Drapery, and other 
goods and selling the same," &c. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. x. SEPT. 5, 1914. 

On 29 Nov., 1788, the said T. Nugent, 
J. W. Rose, and A. Greenland sold the above- 
mentioned estate to Thos. Pearson of King's 
Street, Cheapside, London, factor, and Thos. 
Mayiiard of Wood Street, London, grocer, 
subject to the incumbrances then subsisting 
thereon in trust for the creditors. On 
4 Aug., 1789, the said property was sold by 
the bankruptcy trustees and the Sandersons 
to Thos. Richardson of Manchester, merchant. 

This shows that my svipposition was 
correct, and that the Wm. Sanderson whose 
will was proved in 1774 was identical with 
the purchaser of Handale Nunnery. It will 
also be seen that the family only held the 
property for some thirty years. 

Little now remains of the nunnery except 
the west end of the chapel and some of the 
walls in the farm-house (Graves's ' Cleve- 
land ' ). 

Home's ' Guide to Whitby,' 3rd ed., 1893, 
p. 107, states that the shop at Staithes 
where Wm. Sanderson carried on his business 
was situated in a row of houses which about 
1740 was washed away a few years after 
Cook had run away from his master. The 
only house remaining of the row is the 
" Cod arid Lobster Inn." A little shop is 
pointed out where, it is said, Cook was 
apprenticed, but it is merely the place 
where his old master carried on business after 
the destruction of the shop in which Cook 

Any further information regarding these 
Sandersons will be very welcome to me. 


62, Nelson Road, Stroud Green, N. 

(See 11 S. ix. 302, 324, 343, 398; x. 165.) 

gentleman-porter, noun = the officer in charge of a 
gate. "To Castle Angelo the gentleman- 
porter."' W.D.,' V. iii. 46. (First ex., 1642.) 

glass-metal, noun = glass in a state of fusion. 
" Our chairs of state are but glass-metal." 
' Mon. Col.,' 116. (First ex., 1620.) 

great-master, noun = the head of the Knights ol 
Malta. " This styled Great Master of Malta.' 
' Mon. Hon.,' 279. (First ex., 1632.) 

hand (by thc-^, phrase =expeditiously. "And they 
will save by the hand." 'App.,' IV. i. 206 
(First ex., 1658.) 

impending, adj. = (fig.) imminent. "Impending 
storms." ' App.,' II. iii. 62. (First ex. of this 
figurative meaning, 1682.) 

impertinently, adv. = intrusively. "I shall never 
to your ear.... press unmannerly or imperti 
nently." ' Mon. Hon.,' Dedication. (First ex. 

interest, act. v. =to inspire with concern. " Him 
[who] stands interested to Your Lordship." 
: .Mon. Hon.,' Dedication. (First ex., 1630.) 

jealously, adv. =suspiciously. " I '11 love yoi 
wisely, that's jealously." ' D.M.,' II. 
(First ex., 1718.) 
ick#h<nc, noun=a frivolous person, a mock- 
beggar. "Many noblemen .... Build the rest 
of the honse the bigger ;... .some sevenscore 
chimneys, But half of them have no tunnels 
A pox xipon them, kickshaws, that beget .Such 
monsters without fundaments." ' D.L.C.,' II. 
i. 82. (First ex., 1651.) 

knight's service, phrase = good service (fig.). 
" This paper may do knight's service." 
' D.L.C.,' I. ii. 27. (First ex., 1675.) 

'andlady, noun = mistress of a lodging-house. 

"No cruel landlady. .. .which lends forth 

groats to broom-men." ' W.D.,' IV. i. 163. 

(First ex., 1651.) 
'.ane, noun (fig.). "Plagues that make lane* 

through largest families." ' D.M.,' IV. i. 101. 

(First example of this figurative meaning, 1625.) 
',aw case, noun=lawsuit. ' D.L.C.,' title. (First 

ex., 1710.) 
lawsuit, noun. " For one strange law-suit." 

' D.L.C.,' IV. ii. 621. (First ex., 1624.) 
lay, act. v. =to set (a scheme). " The same 

project which the Duke laid down." ' W.D.. r 

IV. i. 205. (First ex., 1669.) 
league, intrans. v. =to associate. "You might 

fall in love and league with him." ' Cuck.,' IV. 

ii. 173. (First ex., 1638.) 
lemon-pill, noun. " Thy breath smells of lenion- 

pills." ' D.M.,' II. i. 131. (First ex., 1672.) 
liven, act. v. =to give life to. " And, as it were, 

liven death in the Nuntius." ' W.D.,' To the 

Reader, 14. (The word is quoted only from 

nineteenth century ; however, Marston had 

used to lifen,' Revenge,' II. v.) 
look up at, intrans. v. =to reverence. " I do not 

altogether look up at your title." 'D.M.,' 

Dedication. (First ex., 1626.) 

low-bred, adj.=of a lowly origin. "Virtue low- 
bred aspiring to high deeds." ' Mon. Hon./ 
164. (First ex., 1757.) 

marriage-night, noun. " The marriage-night la- 
the entrance into some prison." ' D. M.,' I. i. 
339. (First ex., 1664.) 

mechanic, adj. =worked by machinery. " The 
working or mechanic part of it." ' Mon. Hon., r 
20. (First ex., 1625.) 

meet, act. v. =to answer (an objection). "We 
meet that opposition thus." ' App.,' II. iii. 50 
(First ex., 1854.) 

melting, adj.=(fig ) affecting, moving. "Melting 
words." ' App.,' III. i. 63. (First ex., 1656.) 

model, act. v. =to fashion in clay, wax, or the like. 
"The College of St. John Baptist exactly 
modelled." ' Mon. Hon.,' 338. (First ex., 

moon-eyed, adj. = (fig.) purblind (a term used by 
farriers). " Too much light makes you moon- 
eyed."' D.L.C.,' I. ii. 53. (First ex. of 
figurative use, 1688.) 

nutmeg-grater, nuun. " She looked like a nutmeg- 
grater." ' D.M.,' II. i. 36. (First ex., 1695.) 

out, used verbally =to reveal. "She will out 
with 't." ' Cuck.,' II. iv. 83. (First ex., 1802. > 

out-of-fashion, adj. " This out-of -fashion melan- 
choly." ' D.M.,' II. i. 99. (First ex., 1680.) 

n s. x. SEPT. 5, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


outside, adj. " What appears in him mirth is 
merely outside." ' D.M.,' I. i. 188. (First ex. 

ovation, noun = exultation. " As in triumphs and 
ovations." ' Cuck.,' I. i. 2. (First ex., 1649.) 

-passage, noun ==locus in a book. " "Tis neither 
satire nor moral, but the mean passage of a his- 
tory." Ind. to ' Malcontent,' 67. (First ex., 

perspicuous, adj.=eminent, conspicuous. "My 
weighty and perspicuous comment." ' D.M.,' 
Dedication. (First ex. of this meaning, 1634.) 

l>i'n--icew, a scornful interjection. " Pew-wew, sir, 
tell not me." ' W.D.,' I. ii. 76. (First ex., 
1638 ; pew occurs singly in Fletcher, 1625.) 

policy, noun = a promissory note. "I'll fetch 
a policy for a hundred double ducats." 
' D.L.C.,' III. ii. 142. (First ex., 1709 ; pre- 
viously the meaning of policy for insurance is 
often illustrated.) 

propriety, noun=fitness. " He could not have 
invented his own ruin with more propriety." 
' W.D.,' V. i. 69. (First ex., 1615.) 

prospect, noun = expectation. " Noble houses have 
no such goodly prospects as into their own 
land."' D.L.C.,' I. i. 175. (First ex., 1665.) 

provocative, adj. =aphrodisiac. " The provocative 
electuaries doctors have uttered." 'W.D.,' I. ii. 
102. (First ex. as an adjective, 1621.) 

purchase, noun = purchase - money. " I never 
would give great purchase for that thing." 
' D.L.C.,' V. i. 18. (First ex., 1718.) 

put off, act. v. =to sell away fraudulently. " To 
put off horses and slight jewels." ' W.D.,' III. 
iii. 51. (First ex., 1653.) 

rapture, noun=charm, delight. "Her discourse 

is so full of rapture." ' D.M.,' I. i. 208. (First 

ex., 1629.) 
rid off, act. v. =to sell off (stale commodities). 

" Their false lights are to rid bad wares off."-^- 

' D.M.,' I. i. 448. (First ex., 1680.) 
ring in, act. v.=to surround. "The iron wall 

that rings this pomp in." ' App.,' I. iii. 127. 

(First ex., 1871.) 
ropes, noun =tight ropes for vaulting. " Flamineo 

is dancing on the ropes." 'W.D.,' V. ii. 117. 

(First ex., 1620.) 
run, intrans. v. =to be persistent in a family. 

" The lunacy runs in a blood." ' D.L.C 1 .,' IV. 

ii. 72. (First ex., 1777.) 

Scotchwoman, noun. " Nor the Scotchwoman 
with the citterne." ' D.L.C.,' I. ii. 172. (First 
ex., 1818.) 

sea-music, noun = music performed on water. 
" What brave sea-music bids us welcome." 
' Mon. Hon.,' 53. (First ex., 1819.) 

tingle-sword, noun=a sword used in duels. 
" What 's the weapon ? Single - sword." 
' Cuck.,' I. ii. 94. (First ex., 1688, when the 
\\nnl is explained as single-stick, which seems 
wrong, as in the present case the duel is to be a 
si'i-iuus affair.) 

sillhiu, noun = a spell of sitting to an artist for a 
portrait. "At next sitting." 'D.L.C.,' I. i. 
l.VJ. (First ex., 1706.) 

snwll drink, noun = a restorative drink or julep. 
II' would call for small drink." 'D.L.C..' 
IV. ii. 384. (First ex., 1659.) 



(See 11 S. vii. 221, 276, 375 ; viii. 121, 142; 
x. 102, 144.) 


TURNING over the pages of The London 
Journal, I happened to see the following 
announcement (20 Nov., 1847) : 

" Cartoons for the people : the first six after 
Hogarth* [but they were not, as No. 6 was after 
Wilkie, published on 17 June, 1848 ; see p. 229- 
of The London Journal]. The other six will be 
selections from the finest pictures of other great 
masters : price one penny each to subscribers,, 
one shilling to others." 

The only cartoon I can find in the National 
Library copy is No. 1, bound up between 
vols. vii. and viii. This is a print of Ho- 
garth's ' Marriage a la Mode,' dated 17 Nov. r 
1847. I believe it is by Gilbert. 

On 20 May, 1848, vol. viii. p. 170, is 
announced : 

" Cartoons for the People : No. V. Mr. Gilbert's 
picture of a scene from ' Othello.' We have great 
pleasure in presenting to our readers the fifth 
number of our ' Cartoons for the People,' a very 
beautiful engraving from an original oil painting 
by Mr. Gilbert, an artist already favourably known 
to our subscribers by his spirited executions in this 
Journal, particularly for his illustrations of 
' Faust,' and ' Martin the Foundling.' " 

I was very much surprised at this, as I had 
settled that the illustrations to neither of 
these romances were Gilbert's (see 11 S. vii.. 
222). I now find Gilbert began with' 
chap. Iv. of ' Faust,' which had up to then 
been illustrated by another artist. 

In deference to the statement by the 
editor of The London Journal I have in- 
serted ' Martin the Foundling ' in the list 
below, but I still cannot believe the engrav- 
ings are Gilbert's. If they are, he imitated the 
French drawing well, but I would ask readers 
to compare the style with that of a beautiful 
portrait in the same volume (L.J., 12 June, 
1847, vol. v. p. 225) of Jenny Lind, which 
is undoubtedly by Gilbert ; and a splendid' 
picture in black and white of ' Old Christ- 
mas ' (27 Dec., 1845, vol. ii. p. 241), which 
is signed J. Gilbert, G. Stiff being the- 

* In reply to my question Messrs. Bradley,, 
:he publishers, write to me : " We regret that 
we are unable to add to the information you 
already possess re The. London Journal cartoons. 
They were issued as supplements, and are not 
Jound up in the volumes in our possession." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [11. s x. SEPT. 5, wu. 

engraver. There are eleven other cuts to 
this article about Christmas by Gilbert. The 

trations to ' Martin the Foundling. 

In referring back to my own notes I have 
experienced some difficulty in finding the 

titles I required. I have therefore drawn 
up the following chronological list, which 

style is quite different from that of the illus- will serve as an index, not only to the 

notes, but to the Guildhall Collection. It 
also enables me to correct one or two over- 


Title of Novel in ' The London Journal.' 

' Notes and Queries.' 



' It was Time,' by F. Soulie. Gilbert illustrated this 
story only from 17 Jan. (vol. ii. p. 297) to 7 March 
(vol. iii. p. 9) ; the leading story was ' Faust.' 


' Faust,' by G. W. M. Reynolds. Gilbert only began 
with chap. Iv. on 14 March, and continued to the end 
on 18 July (vol. iii. p. 305). 

-2Q July, 

' Cromwell's Death Bed,' by F. Soulie (vol. iii. pp. 321 
and 337 ) ; two cuts only. 

1 Aug., 

' Martin the Foundling,' by E. Sue. Ended 29 Mav, 

1 IS. vii. 222, col. 1 

HI Nov., 

-5 Aug., 

' The Seven Cardinal Sins,' by E. Sue. A fine picture 
on 4 Dec., signed J. Gilbert, and illustrations by him 
to 22 Jan., 1848 (vol. vi. p. 321), when the Journal 
was almost taken up with the French Revolution. 

11 S. vii 222, col 2 

3 March, 

11 S vii 222 col 1 


10 May, 

25 Jan., 

' Stanfield Hall.' Concluded, with the sub-title of 
'Cromwell; or, The Protector's Oath,' 16 Nov., 1850 
(vol. xii. p. 171). 

US. vii. 222, cols, 
land 2; viii. 143; 
x. 103, 144. 

11 S. vii. 121, col. 1 

pp. 58-70 


25 Jan., 

11 Oct., 

' Kenneth : a Romance of the Highlands,' by G. W. M. 
Reynolds. Published in Reynolds's Miscellany, vols. 
vi. and vii. ; concluded 27 Dec., 1851. Illustrated 
throughout by Gilbert in his happiest vein. En- 
graver's name, E. Hooper. The Guildhall volume 
has only one illustration of minstrels sitting at a 
banqueting table, from R.M. of 22 Feb., 1851 (p. 65). 

(Not in my first 
11 S. x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 121, 

p. 210. 


col. 1. 


9 Oct., 

16 July, 

' The Will and the Way ' 
' Hercules and the Cretan Bull ' 

11 S. viii. 121, 
col. 2; x. 103, 
11 S. viii. 121, 
col. 2. 

pp. 98-111, 
and 210. 

p. 209. 

3 Sept., 

9 Sept., 

' Woman and her Master,' with fifty-three illustrations 

11 S. viii. 121, 
col. 2; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 121, 

pp. 181- 

DD 112- 1 


col. 2 ; x. 144. 

fF J-i- 


3 March, 

' The True and False Heiress ' 


11 S. viii. 121, 
col. 2 ; x. 144. 

pp. 164- 

n s. x. SEPT. 5, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES . 

Title of Novel in ' The London Journal.' 

'Notesand Queries.' 

' Masks and Faces ' 

' The Star in the Dark ' 

' Blythe Hall.' Ends 10 Aug., 1856 . . 

' Quadroona ' 

' Harding the Moneyspinner ' . . 

' Madame de Marke ' 

' White Lies ' 

[See next entry.] 

' The Double Marriage ' (by Charles Reade) ends 31 
Oct. This and ' White Lies ' ran concurrently in the 
L.J. In 1857 Charles Reade published a three- 
volume novel entitled " White Lies ; or, The Double 
Marriage, a new edition." 

' The Flower of the Flock ' . ; 

' The Snake in the Grass ' 
' Too Late ' . . 

' Ivanhoe ' . , 

' Brandon of Brandon,' by Mrs. Southworth. Begins in 
vol. xxx. p. 33 ; ends 17 Dec., 1859, in vol. xxx. 
p. 309. Some of the illustrations to this tale are not 
Sir John's. 

' Love me ; Leave me not ' 

' Laura Etheridge ' 

' The Wonder of Kingswood Chace ' 

' Eudora ' . . 

' Imogen.' Ends 14 June, 1862 

' The Scarlet Flower.' Ends 15 Nov., 1802 

' The Poor Girl.' Ends 5 Sept., 1863 

11 S. viii. 121, 
col. 2 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 121, 
col. 2. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1 ; x. 144. 

(Omitted from first 

11 S. x. 144, 

col. 2. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1 ; x. 144. 

(Omitted from pre- 
vious lists.) 
11 S. x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 1 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 2 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 2 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 2 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 2 ; x. 144. 

11 S. viii. 122, 
col. 2 ; x. 144. 

pp. 77-79, 

pp, 173- 

pp. 1-13. 

pp. 177- 
180 ; 282- 

pp. 263- 


pp. 237- 

pp. 156- 

pp. 12C- 

pp. 14-35. 

pp. 146- 

pp. 30-50. 

pp. 225- 

pp. 211- 
224 and 

(To be contimied.) 



NOTES AND QUERIES. tns.ix. SEPT. 5, 1914. 


I WKOTE in 1910 the subjoined for an Aus- 
tralian newspaper, and it struck me that 
I have discovered the track of a story 
wandering across Asia between 200 and 
1000 A.D., and getting " improved " on the 

I do not think I ever heard the Chinese 
origin of ' Aladdin ' explained before. 

" The story of Aladdin, as we have chosen to 
shorten his real name Allah-ed-din, the servant 
of God is of course taken straight out of the 
' Arabian Nights,' or, more correctly, ' The Book 
of the Thousand Nights and a Night.' 

" This famous collectioii was made during the 
palmy days of the early Mohammedan Empire, 
which then extended from Spain to Persia, and 
had a capital of great brilliance at Bagdad on 
the Euphrates. The stories told are, no doubt, 
assembled from all parts of the world, and repre- 
sent new forms of old tales, as all known collec- 
tions of stories do. This is especially the case 
with ' Aladdin.' The scene is laid in China, and 
at Ldangchow, in the west of China, on the Upper 
Hoang-ho River, we find a story which obviously 
forms the groundwork of the Arabian variation. 
What were the steps of the wanderings of this 
story from China to Bagdad we know not, but 
we may surmise it was carried along the routes 
followed by the stream of trade which traversed 
Asia between those places for centuries. 

" The story is to be found, in a literal transla- 
tion from the Chinese, in a book describing the 
Croat Wall of China, by Dr. Geil, who, it is inter- 
esting to note, is quite unconscious of it being the 
same story as ' Aladdin.' It runs as follows in a 
somewhat shortened form : 

' ' During the Ming dynasty there dwelt in a 
village near Liangchow a worthy widow, with a 
sturdy son named Wang. The widow lived on 
. small farm under the shadow of the Great Wall, 
then, as now, honeycombed at that point with 
caves, in which wastrels dwell to-day, and, no 
doubt, dwelt then. The farm, which at first sup- 
ported her, gradually decayed in value, and, to 
add to her misfortunes, the country began to be 
attacked by the wild horsemen from Tibet, just 
beyond the Wall. These attacks caused the men 
of the country to be told off to garrison the Wall, 
and among them were taken Wang, the widow's 
only son and her main support, and her worthless 
brother, a drinking man, and also a gambler, who 
had squandered much of his nephew Wang's 
estate. Thinking his sister's remarriage would 
bring money into the family, he urged it on her, 
but in vain. He therefore formed the plan of 
ruining her livelihood by the murder of Wang, 
and compelling her to take a second husband 
when left alone and helpless on her little farm. 
The wicked uncle made a plot accordingly with 
another scoundrel to throw Wang among the 
Tibetans at their next attacks, but the youth fell 
into a dry well unnoticed, and the uncle and his 
Associate themselves lost their lives. The raiding 
party overran the neighbourhood, burned the 
farm, and carried off the widow on a horse, which, 
luckily, stumbled and threw her, so that she 
rolled into a dry well and escaped the ruffians. 
In the well, to her joy, she found Wang unhurt, 
find both were rescued by friendly soldiers. 

Finding their home in ashes, their only resource 
was to settle in a cave in the Wall, where they 
lived on vegetables they collected. Wishing to 
lay by a stock for the winter in a safe place. I hey 
began to burrow deeper into the Wall, and after 
much labour they struck, to their astonishment, ;>, 
door, which proved to be the entrance to a cave 
stocked with gold, hidden centuries before. 
There are other legends of gold being hidden in 
the Great Wall, no doubt in troublous times. 
Wang honestly reported the find to the magis- 
trate, who informed the Viceroy of the province, 
and the story thus reached the Emperor of 
China. The sovereign rewarded Wang with 
great honours, as a dutiful son and a loyal subject. 
He was made a general, and his mother en- 

" In this story we have the dramatis persona; 
of ' Aladdin ' the poor widow, the son, the wicked 
uncle as well as the wealth and position the son 
attained. Nor has the story any miraculous 
element. It may very well have been founded 
on facts which occurred at that spot. It no 
doubt gives us the actual locality and origin of 
the Chinese story, which travelled thousands of 
miles to Bagdad, and appears, in its present en- 
larged and embellished shape, crusted over with 
marvellous details and supernatural agencies. 
Stories lose nothing in the telling, and the space 
this one has covered in its wanderings implies 
that it has been, during many years, told and 
retold uncounted times, even before the incom- 
parable authors of the ' Arabian Nights ' recast 
it to stand for ever in literature." 

University of Sydney. 

[It is, perhaps, worth while to remind our 
readers that the story of 'Aladdin,' like that of 
' Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves,' does not form 
part of the original collection of the ' Arabian 

account of the fortifications of Antwerp as 
they existed at the end of the seventeenth 
century should be of interest at the present 
time. It is taken from Fran9ois Maxi- 
milien Misson's ' New Voyage to Italy,' 
which first appeared in French in 1691, and 
was translated into English in 1695. Misson 
was a French Protestant refugee in England 
after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and was appointed tutor to the Earl of 
Arran, whom he accompanied on the grand 
tour. Addison speaks highly of the book. 
The edition here used is the fourth (1714) : 

" The famous City of Antwerp, is seated on a 
smooth and level spot of Ground, on the right 
Bank of the Scheld ; its Figure approaches to a 
Semi-circle, the Diameter of which is washed by 
the River .... The Fortifications formerly good are 
now indifferent. The Ramparts are adorn'd 
almost throughout with double Alleys border'd 
with great Trees, which make very pleasant Walks. 
The Citadel is strong, but somewhat neglected ; 
'tis a regular Pentagon. It was built in the Year 

ii 8.x. SEPT. 5. 19W.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


1567, and I have read it cost Five hundrec 
thousand Ducats. The Duke of Alva's Statue 
in Brass was erected in the Middle of the Place oJ 
Arms : he was represented in compleat Armour 
but without a Head-piece : his right Arm was 
extended toward the City, and his Hand open 
Under his Feet was a monstrous Figure with two 
Heads and six Arms, that had two Dishes hanging 
at its Ears, and at its Neck a Wallet or Satchel 
out of which issued two Serpents. The six Hands 
held a Torch, a Leaf of Paper, a Purse, a torn 
Cloak, a Club, and an Ax, and at the Feet of the 
Monster there was a Visor. On the Face of the 
Pedestal that look'd towards the City were these 
Letters : F. A. A. T. A. D. P. s. H. K. A. B. p. Q. E. s. R. 
P. R. P. I. c. P. P. F. R. o. M. F. P. [i.e., Ferdinando 
Alvarez ;\ Toledo, Albse Duci, Phil. Secundi Hisp. 
Regis apud Belgas Praofecto, quod extincta sedi- 
fcione, Rebellibus pulsis, Religione procurata, 
Justitia culta, Provinciis Pacem firmaverit, Regis 
Optimi Ministro fidelissimo posituin]. This 
Statue was not long after broken by the People. 
The Manner in which that great Prince (the Prince 
of Orange) whom we have just now heard, has 
spoken of this Figure, well deserves our Relation 
of it here. ' The Duke of Alba,' says he, ' has 
arrogantly trampled our Liberties under Foot, 
&c. His insupportable Contempt of all these 
Countries has above all appear'd in this Superb, 
Ambitious, Prophane, Heathenish, and Foolish 
erecting his Statue in the Middle of the Cittadel 
of Antwerp, marching impudently over the Belly 
of the Lords the States, and of the whole People ; 
a Monument of his Tyranny, and an evident 
Proof of his Pride, &c.' (' Apol.,' p. 89, 93). Some- 
body has very well applied to this barbarous 
Murderer what was formerly said of a cruel Roman 
Emperor, That never any Person had drank so 
much Wine as he had shed Blood (' Tantum 
. vini hausit nemo, quantum fudit Sanguinis ')." 
Vol. iv. p. 537. 


The Newberry Library, Chicago, one of 
the four largest public libraries in this city, 
contains a copy of ' " The Grasshopper " in 
Lombard Street,' by John Biddulph Martin 
(London, 1892). On pp. 202-5 are some 
remarks about " The Unicorn," which was 
probably identical with "The Unicorn" 
occupied at one time by Humphrey Halley, 
vintner, grandfather of Dr. Edmond Halley 
the astronomer. 

The following extract is from a letter 
dated 25 Feb., 1910, from Mr. J. Wrench 
Towse of the Fishmongers' Company, Lon- 
don, addressed to Mr. B. J. Beevor of 
St. Albans : 

I gladly give you what particulars I 

can of Humphrey Halley. 

" The first mention of him in this Company's 
books appears in a Court Minute dated the 13th 
January, 1631, where he is described as ' Humfrie 
Halleye of the Company of Vintners, London, 
dwelling in a tenement, belonging to this Com- 
pany, called " The Unicorn," in Lombard Street, 
&nd petitioned to have a new Lease, &c.' 

" In a Minute dated 24th March, 1650, ' Mr. 
Humfrie Halleye offered 200Z. fine to make up 
his time in Lease on his house in Lombard Street, 

" At a meeting of the Court on the 29th day of 
May, 1651, he i again mentioned as a citizen 
and Vintner of London ; and on the 14th April, 
1652, his name appears in regard to a lease of 
the same premises. 

" I have also found confirmation of your 
statement that he assigned his lease of the pre- 
mises to his son William Halley on the 25th 
April, 1669. 

"....I should think that the Vintners' Com- 
pany could probably give you more information 
about him, and from the first quotation from 
our Court proceedings given above. .. .1631, it 
appears fairly certain that he actually lived at 
' The Unicorn ' in Lombard Street before sub- 
letting it." 


135, Park Row, Chicago. 

" FRAP." "The two ostensible senses* 
are so irreconcilable that the supposition of 
a blunder seems justifiable." So the ' Ox- 
ford English Dictionary.' Maj' I venture to 
suggest an instance in which the two uses 
might practically coincide ? William Cat- 
ton, Keeper of the ships of Henry V., in his 
account for the period ended in 1420 (' For- 
eign Ace., 3 Hen. VI.,' m. F 2 dorso) credits 
himself with a payment for " ij. haunsers 
de filo Burdegalie pro fraplynesf et Warp- 
ropes inde faciendis." Probably ropes 
that beat noisily on (e.g.) cleeks and other 
fixed tackle were " f rapped," in sense 2, to 
prevent their fraying. Q. V. 

MORGAN, 1194. In the Rot. Cur. Reg., 
6 Ric. I., Somerset (Essoigns, 3 Nov., 1194), 
occurs a case of Juel de Mainne against 
Richard fitz Pagan of Avene. For the 
plaintiff appeared as his essoigns Jord' 
ftl Espus and Jord', prior. In the 
Calendar of the Roll both of these essoigns 
are indexed as " Jordanus." 

Now at this time, and till c. 1225, there 
was in the Lordship of Avan (Avene), Gla- 
morgan, a Welshman named Joruard (lor- 
werth) fil, or ab, Espus, his father being son 
of Caradoc ab Jevan, du, of Newcastle 
n the same county. Joruard and his an 
jestors named were homagers of the Welsh 
Lords of Avan, Newcastle, &c., who in 1194, 
and till 1213, were represented by that 
Morgan ab Caradoc ab lestin whom Giraldus 
r 'ambrensis (' Itin. of Wales') in 1188 

* "l.a. trans. To strike; to beat; also -fig. 
Obs. exc. dial, fb- intr. To strike (at, on). 
Obs. 2. Naut. To bind tightly. (So also in 

f On m. K 2, " Frapelinea et Warpe." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. ix. SEPT. 5, 1914. 

called " Prince " of that country. Joruard 
fil, or ab, Espus appears as witness to a 
number of grants made between c. 1198 and 
c. 1220 by local magnates to the neighbour- 
ing Abbey of Margam. and, as usual at that 
date, his name is variously spelt e.g., 
Yoruard, Zoruard, &c. See ' Catal. 
Penriee and Margam MSS.,' Dr. W. de G. 
Birch. 1893, Nos. 58, 72, 128, 289 (29), &c. ; 
Brit. Mus. Harl. Ch. 75, B. 4. 

The name of this lorwerth's father, 
Espus, is so comparatively rare, that I am 
inclined to think the Jord' fil Espus of 
the Rot. Cur. Regis (as cited) is to be 
identified with the loruard or lorwerth ab 
E.pus of A van, Glamorgan. 


ately in front of the Church of Holy Rood, 
High Street, Southampton, let into the 
public pavement, is a small brass cross 6 in 
or 8 in. square. This cross marks the spot 
where a heavy stone pinnacle fell from the 
top of the church during the busiest part 
of the day without injuring a single person. 


40, Eichmond Road, Drumcondra, Dublin. 

parently there are no indications in the 
ordinary works of reference as to the uses 
made of this Gallery in the present century. 
Except on occasions of public rejoicing or 
funerals, when every part affording a view 
of the ceremonial procession up the nave or 
the service under the dome would be occu- 
pied, we have been allowed to suppose that 
the Gallery was as little used as the Tri- 
forium at Westminster Abbey in the last 
few centuries. 

A MS. diary before me affords an illu- 
minating reference to its use in 1816. John 
Reynolds (1798-1868), a schoolmaster of 
Arlington House Academy, Clerkenwell, 
records : 

" Sunday, 7 May. Fayerman and I took 
Mrs. B. and my daughter Mary Ann to St. Paul's 
in the afternoon ; perched up in the Gallery, 
could not hear anything but the shuffling of feet 
in the body of the church, the voices, not the 
words, of the chanters, and the echo of the sermon, 
by some mumbling old Dean who looked into 
his cap on saying the prayer, in a manner some- 
what like Pindar saith of K. G. the 3rd beholding 
the immense vat at Meux's brewery like a 
magpie looking down a marrowbone. Felt un- 
commonly cold, would gladly have departed, but 
was locked in. Amused myself, as I was top far 
off to hear the words of the preacher, by examining 
the carv'd work, particularly, the features of the 
little Boys, not Girls, with their Duck's wings." 


" SKILLTNGTON TIME." I have taken 
the following note from The Oranlham 
Journal of 4 April : 

" The Correct Time. During the past few days, 
a very old custom has been abolished. We refer 
to the time that has been observed for generations 
past in this village, which has always been half- 
an-hour before ' English time.' How ' fast time r 
originated we are not able to say, but at last we 
liave fallen into line with other people, and all 
that now remains of ' Skillington time ' is a 

It is amusing to find how completely 
the village of Skillington has ruled itself in 
temporal matters, and how it now changes- 
the time of day without any appeal for 
outside aid. ST. SWITHLN. 

in the dress of the London flower-women 
may be worth noting. 

I believe that a good many years ago the 
practically invariable head-dress was a 
black bonnet adorned with black feathers. 
Many of these women now wear black 
" sailor " hats with plain black ribbons. 
Yet some old women in the West End still 
wear the feathered bonnet. Recently at 
Piccadilly Circus, among several women, 
there was only one an old white-haired 
woman who wore the black bonnet with 
black feathers. I have made similar obser- 
vations in Regent Street, north of Oxford 
Circus ; but there a few days ago I saw 
three flower-women all old or elderly - 
wearing the bonnet and feathers, and no 
young women. If I remember rightly, the 
partial disuse of the black bonnet with black 
feathers began with a gift of cloth bonnets 
to the flower-women at the latter station 
from a benevolent lady some twenty years 

About that time I was told by a friend 
of mine, long since dead, who could talk 
" Cockney " very fairly well, that the 
street or slang term for " flower-woman " 
was " Flower Sally." Was he correct ? I 
have searched five slang dictionaries in vain. 

"HANDY-DANDY." The ' N.E.D.' gives 
instances of the mention of this child's game 
15S5, 1598, 1601. The following deserves- 
to be added : 

1598. " Why loe heere we are both, I am in 
this hand and hee is in that, handy dandy prickly 
prandy, which hand will you haue." Geo. Peele, 
Blind Begger,' B 4. 


ii s. ix. SEPT. 5, i9i4.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



WK must request correspondents desiring in 
formation on family matters of only private interesl 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 


POOR. I should be very glad to know 
\vli/-ther any of your readers could give me 
any information as to where I could find 
the Rate- Books kept by the overseers oi 
the poor for (a) the parish of Hammer- 
smith (originally a chapel of ease of FulhanV 
and (6) the parish of St. Pancras. 

In both cases we have seen the books that 
are in the possession of the Borough Councils ; 
but in the case of Hammersmith they do not 

o back earlier than 1795, and in the case of 
t. Pancras they were certainly not earlier 
than 1800. 

Secretary, London Survey Committee. 
27, Abingdon Street, S.W. 

many years past I have been making re- 
searches concerning the life of Alexander 
Reid of Kirkennan (1747-1823), a friend of 
Burns, Grose, Glenriddell, and others. I 
have gleaned a great deal of information 
concerning his life, and have made up a list 
of about thirty of his works, painted and 
engraved, the most of which I have examined 
or have in my collection. I am anxious to 
complete my inquiries, and am asking for 
the kind co-operation of readers of ' N. & Q.' 

Three of the items of Reid's which I have 
discovered the last three on my list may 
be of use as clues. 

(1) Portrait of George Cairns. The lettering on 
this engraving describes it in these terms : 

George Cairns, Esq., late of Kipp. Drawn 
by J. E. Woodford, from an original picture 
painted by and in the possession of A. Reid, 
Esq., of Kirkennan. Engraved by W. & D. 
Lizars, Edinburgh. 

(2) View of Dumfries : 

Plate as engraved by J. Walker from an 
original drawing by A. Reid, Esq. Pub- 
lished December 1, 1783, by Harrison & Co., 
No. 8, Paternoster How, London. 

(3) Engraving of Friars Carse : 

Plate 39. Engraved by T. Medland from 
:in original drawing by A. Reid, Esq. Pub- 
lished September 1, 1793, by J. Walker, 
No. 16, Rosomans Street, London. 

(4) View of the town of Kirkcudbright : 

Plate 17. Engraved by W. & J. Walker 
from an original drawing by A. Reid, Esq. 
Published U.-tober 1, 1792, by J. Walker, 
No. 10, Rosomans Street, I,ondon. 

(5), Dumbartonshire : 

Plate 30. Engraved by Barrett, from an 
original drawing by A. Reid, Esq. Pub- 
lished April 1, 1793, by Harrison & Co., 
No. 18, Paternoster Row, London. 

I am informed that engravings after Reid 
are to be found in (1) The Itinerary, (2) The 
Copper Plate Magazine. Unfortunately, I 
have not had access to these works. 

I shall be grateful for any assistance, and 
for the names and addresses of those who 
could help me in any way. JOHN MUIR. 

219, St. Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

Can any one refer me to portraits by this 
artist ? He was born at Lancaster on 
16 May, 1777, and died at Berners Street, 
London, on 17 Jan., 1839. I know of 
many local pictures by him, and of the 
three in the Nottingham Art Gallery. Any 
biographical details will be valued. Who 
are his present representatives ? Where 
was he buried ? Please reply direct. 


78, Church Street, Lancaster. 

be grateful for information as to the source 
of the two following passages : 

1. "A certain degree of soul, as Ben Jonson 
reminds us, is indispensable to keep the very 
body from destruction of the frightfulest so^t ; 
to ' save us,' says he, ' the expense of salt.' " 
Book ii. chap. ii. 

2. " He reminded me of Solomon : Many 
sons I have ; it is not fit that I should smile on 
them.' " Book ii. chap. xi. 


letter to J. R. Green from Kettel Hall, 
Oxford, 26 March, 1877, Bishop (then Prof.) 
Stubbs wrote (' Letters of Bishop Stubbs,' 
1904, p. 175) : 

" If you look at Notes and Queries, you will 
see me described as a thief and anonymous 
slanderer. Avenge me mildly if you have the 

Where, and by whom, in ' N. & Q.' is this 
learned prelate and great historian so des- 
cribed ? Had the editor of his letters enriched 
this remarkable passage with an explanatory 
foot-note, or even supplied the reference, 
these queries would have remained un- 
penned. Though there is evidence in his 
letters that he consulted ' N. & Q.,' there is 
none that I know of that this consummate 
historian had ever contributed to its columns. 

Further question : Did Green avenge his 
fellow-historian ? J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [n s. ix. SEPT. 5, iou. 

A NAPOLEONIC BUTTON. I have a button 
said to have been worn on his uniform by 
Napoleon I. On one side is the letter N 
surmounted by a crown ; and on the other, 
going round the button, " A. Bonnardot & 
Cie, F eur de 1'Empereur," with a crown and 
the words " G & Cie " in the centre. 

Can any one say if this was a button 
likely to have belonged to the Emperor 
himself ? I surmise that Bonnardot was 
" Facteur de 1'Empereur." RAVEN. 

Henry Calthrop's interesting little work 
' The Liberties, Usages, and Customes of 
the City of London,' &c., 1642, provides at 
p. 19 the following : 

" The Constable of the Tower of London, in 
the default of the Barons of the Exchequer 
being absent from Westminster, and also of the 
King at such times as the Major ought to be 
polluted [sic], must take the oaths of the Major 
and of the Sheriffes without the Tower Gates." 

For " polluted " we, of course, read pre- 
sented, but the appended reference, " lib. 
albo. fol. 36 b, Anno 12 H. 3," is appa- 
rently incorrect, as I cannot trace the original 
form of this direction, and it has possibly 
escaped the notice of several writers on this 

I shall be greatly obliged for any references. 

traveller Martin Csombor, who in 1616-18 
made an extensive tour in Europe, mostly on 
foot, mentions in his description of London 
the daughter of the schoolmaster of St. Paul's 
who, at the age of 15, wrote for Queen Eliza- 
beth a book of poetry in Latin, Greek, and 
Hebrew, which " even after her death " was 
republished and read with great delight by 
everybody. What was the clever young 
lady's name ? L. L. K. 

TROTTON, SUSSEX. In his will and codicil 
(dated respectively 1771 and 1779) he speaks 
of a niece Elizabeth Alcock, to whom he 
leaves " Buttermilk Hall," in Oving parish, 
Bucks; of a great-niece Mary, and great- 
nephews William and Charles, children of 
John Alcock ; and of estates in East Wittering 
parish, Sussex. 

If any Alcocks of the above family are 
extant, have they any Langbaine informa- 
tion ? Please reply direct. 

Pooley Bridge, Westmorland. 

BOARD. I have recently had the oppor- 
tunity of examining an interesting carved 
oak sideboard of sixteenth-century Flemish 
workmanship. It is such a splendid example 
that I feel it will in all probability be known 
to furniture collectors and experts. 

I should be glad to know if the piece can 
be recognized from the following descrip- 
tion ; and what fables, legends, and persons 
the scenes carved on the cupboard doors 

The sideboard contains six cupboards : 
three above the board, and three below. 
On the top right-hand cupboard door are 
carved two foxes, a stag, and a tree faintly 
resembling a vine. One of the foxes is 
carrying two geese by their necks, whilst 
the other appears to be attempting to 
reach the fruit on the tree. Possibly this 
is intended to represent the fable of the fox 
and the grapes. The centre cupboard door 
is ornamented by a mermaid combing her 
hair in front of a mirror, whilst a " bird- 
beast," not unlike the " griffin " of ' Alice 
in Wonderland,' looks on. Two goats and 
a horse are carved on the third door. 

Only two of the three bottom cupboards 
are carved, both bearing female heads, 
apparently those of queens, as both wear 
crowns. CARL T. WALKER. 

Mottingham, Kent. 

BONAR. The Rev. A. C. W. Hallan in 
Northern Notes and Queries, iv. 114, sug- 
gests that this surname was of Flemish 
origin, and came into Scotland in the 
fifteenth or sixteenth century, when there 
was a large immigration of tradesmen from 
Flanders. Can any of your readers give 
me a reference to its being in common use 
in Flanders at the above period or earlier ? 
Can they give me any information of its 
being now in use there ? 



WHITFIELD. I am seeking for informa- 
tion about persons bearing the surname 
Whitfield or Whitefield, and shall be most 
grateful to any reader who can supply me 
with any. A. S. WHITFIELD. 

High Street, Walsall. 

" KENNEDIE." To what bit of Scots 
history do the following lines refer ? 

'Twixt Wigton an' th' town of Ayr, 
Portpatrick an' th' Creves of Cree, 

No man need think for biding there, 
Unless he count the Kennedie. 


ii s. x. SEW. 6, 1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


HADDINGTON. (See 11 S. viii. 235.) He 
flourished about the year 1248, in, the reign, 
of Alexander II. This Sir Hugo de Gray 
left a son and heir of the same name, who 
succeeded him in his estate, and from him 
descends Andrew Gray of Foulis (first Lord 
Gray), who was created a Lord of Parlia- 
ment by King James II. in 1439, on succeed- 
ing his father, Sir Andrew Gray, on his death 
the previous year, confirmed by Royal 
charter dated 1 Oct., 1440, which charter 
is not on record, nor is it mentioned in the 
Gray Inventory of Writs (Maunder's ' Trea- 
sury of Knowledge,' London, 1862, p. 837 ; 
Stuart's ' Fowlis Church and Parish,' p. 97). 

Can any reader elucidate the earlier 
portion of the subjoined pedigree, and show 
in what way (if any, at this period) the 
Chillingham Greys are connected with the 
first Sir Hugo de Gray of Broxmouth ? The 
arms of the two families are the same ; and 
it is worthy of remark that coats of arms were 
introduced into England in 1100. It would 
appear they were first used to distinguish 
noblemen in battle. 

The pedigree from father to son may be 
stated thus : 

Fulbert of Falaise, c. 1030. 

John, Lord de Croy. 

Sir Arnold de Grey. 

Auchitel de Grey, 1086. 

Columbanus de Grae. 

Robert de Grey. 

Robert de Grey. 

Walter de Grey of Rotherfield, co. Oxford. 

Sir Hugo de Gray of Broxmouth, 1248. 

Sir Hugo de Gray of Broxmouth, 1296. 

Sir Andrew de Gray of Broxmouth and 

Sir David de Gray of Broxmouth and 

Sir John de Gray of Broxmouth and 

Sir Patrick Gray of Broxmouth and Long- 

Sir Andrew Gray of Foulis and Brox- 
mouth, married Janet Mortimer of Foulis 
(first wife), died 1438. 

Andrew, first Baron Gray of Foulis, who 
died in 1469. PATRICK GRAY. 

the head of the monarch reversed, in suc- 
cessive reigns, on the coinage, and not on 
the stamps and postal orders ? 

2. When did the ship and lighthouse first 
appear on the reverse of the copper and 
bronze coinage ? and when, and why, were 
they removed ? J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

WHITEHEAD. Can any correspondent 
kindly inform me whether there are any 
villages, hamlets, manors, or farms now or 
formerly called " Whitehead " or "The 
White Head " or " Quitehead " ? I ask as I 
find instances of the family name preceded 
by " de." I know of the town of White- 
head, near Belfast. 


2, Brick Court, Temple, E.G. 

" SPADE TREE " AS A SION. In a Leicester- 
shire village there is a public -house bearing 
the words " Spade Tree Inn," painted on a 
large fascia-board by way of sign. What is 
its significance ? and is it known elsewhere ? 

W. B. H. 

"THE DARK AGES." Whose was the 
blunder of so dubbing mediaeval times 
1000-1400 or thereabout ? ST. S WITHIN. 

[See 7 S. i. 309, 434, 494 ; 9 S. vi. 406.] 


(US. ix. 507.) 

MR. PAUL DE CASTRO'S note at the above 
reference, and his query as to Lidlinch in 
Somersetshire (book viii. chap. 8), are inter- 
esting to me, as I also have been unable to 
find any trace of this village. It is probable 
that Fielding had a real personage in his 
mind when he described the pettifogger, and 
therefore he might properly conceal his 
place of residence under a fictitious name. 
Apparently also he invented the name of 
Little Baddington (ii. 5), where Partridge 
lived, and which was said to be about fifteen 
miles from Mr. Allworthy's residence (ii. 6). 
Justice Willoughby, who presided at the 
trial of the man accused of horse-stealing, 
came from Noyle (viii. 11). Where was it ? 
The three Misses Potter joined in the attack 
on Molly in the churchyard, and their 
father is said to have kept the sign of the 
" Red Lion " (iv. 8). Was there such an 
inn in the neighbourhood of Sharpham 
Park ? Then there is Ox-cross, where 
Farmer Halfpenny was buried with a stake 
through his body, in Honour's story of the 
suicide (vii. 7). Where was it ? Parson 
Thwackum refers to both Aldergrove and 
Westerton (xviii. 4) as livings to which All- 
worthy had the right of presentation, but I 
fail to find any parishes so named in Somer- 
set. It is, of course, possible for Allworthy 



to have had these rights in parishes situated 
in another county. 

A most interesting geographical puzzle 
is Fielding's reference to Hazard Hill. 
Jones reached this place after turning to the 
left from the main road from Gloucester 
to Worcester, while Xortherton came to 
the north-west slope of this hill on his way 
from Worcester to Hereford, after passing 
through " a large wood " (ix. 7). Appa- 
rently this wood was Malvern Chace, which 
Xortherton would have reached by taking 
the road through Ledbury, and so Hazard 
Hill should be south-east of the Chace, and 
it could not have been further west, or else 
Upton would not have been the nearest 
town (ix. 2). Now no gazetteer makes 
any reference to Hazard Hill, and the latest 
available surveys, on a scale of an inch to 
the mile, show no elevation at all in this 
neighbourhood. Fielding's biographers have 
all taken it for granted that there was such 
9 hill, and one at least has conjectured that 
George Lyttelton must have persuaded 
Fielding to climb it on some journey from 
Bath to Hagley Park, as it was acknow- 
ledged that Fielding would not have been 
naturally inclined to this sort of exertion ; 
but no one hitherto has hazarded the con- 
jecture that the author of ' Tom Jones ' did 
but easily and comfortably climb a hill of 
his own imagining and yet this, after all, 
seems to have been the case. One can 
appreciate the merriment of the author 
when he gave his two reasons for not pre- 
senting to the reader a more particxilar 
description of the noble prospect from the 
summit (ix. 2). And yet how convincing 
all these names are ! 

Another confusing reference relates to the 
good lieutenant whom Jones met on his 
travels, who had won his commission by 
gallantry at the Battle of Tannieres, and, 
it is added, had remained a lieutenant for 
" near forty years." This would give the 
date of the battle as a little later than 1705, 
but the gazetteers disclose no such hamlet 
as Tannieres, nor does the history of that 
period record any battle under that name. 
Yet we must conclude that Fielding was 
familiar with the campaigns of the Duke oJ 
Marlborough, as his father rose to high 
rank in that service, and he would be un- 
likely to invent the name of a battle when 
so many real ones would have served. The 
explanation is, I think, that the battle 
intended is now known as Ramillies. fought 
23 May, 1706. Harlborough began his 
attack on the French centre, resting on 
the village of Ramillies, and with their 

right on the village of Tavieres. Now the 
ieutenant, joining in this attack on Tavieres, 
would naturally think of the battle by the 
name of his objective point. Soldiers are 
apt to do this, and a considerable engage- 
ment may be known by several names 
until the historians finally agree upon one. 
This would indicate that Fielding got his 
story he is apparently recording a real 
incident from his father or one of his 
father's friends ; he had doubtless never 
seen the name of the action in print, which 
would account both for the misnaming and 

In one of her entertaining contests with 
the squire, Hrs. Western exclaims, " Green- 
land Greenland should always be the scene 
of the tramountain negotiation." To whicl 
the irate squire replies, " I thank heaven 
don't understand you now. You are got 
to your Hannoverian linguo " (xv. 6); anc 
unless the author desired to confuse and 
confound his readers as well as the squire, 
I confess I do not understand this empha- 
sized reference to Greenland. 

There is a curious geographical error in 
' The Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon ' which 
none of the commentators or editors have 
corrected. Near the end of his journal 
Fielding refers to " Bellisle," which, he 
says, was about three miles below Lisbon, 
and states that Catherine of Aragon is there 
buried in a church close to the convent of 
the Geronymites. Now there is no Bellisle 
in Portugal, and what he evidently refers 
to is Belem, a suburb of Lisbon, in which 
was the Convento dos Jeronymos de Bolem 
(i.e., Bethlehem). At the south-east angle 
of the monastery was the Church of Santa 
Haria, and there was buried Catherine of 
Braganza, queen-consort of Charles II. 
Catherine of Aragon was buried at the 
abbey church of Peterborough. ' Baedeker ' 
insists that Catherine of Austria is buried in 
Belern, but possibly the editor of this work 
has confused "Austria" with "Asturias," 
and the lady of Braganza is intended. 

Another reference on which I would 
appreciate enlightenment, though it is not 
geographical, is to be found in the dialogue 
between Jones and Partridge after leaving 
Gloucester (viii. 9), when Partridge says 
that " the miller with three thumbs, who is 
now alive, is to hold the horses of three 
kings up to his knees in blood." Mr. 
Partridge could scarcely have imagined this 
gruesome spectacle, but where did he dis- 

215, West 101st Street, New York. 

n s.x. SEPT. 5,1914.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


x. 105). May I be allowed first of all to 
thank your correspondent MR. J. B. WIL- 
LIAMS for his extremely valuable and interest- 
ing articles, and to express the hope that 
lie will amplify what he has said on the 
subject of the ' Tales and Jests ' ? I have 
myself made from time to time certain notes 
as to the sources from which some of these 
talcs may have been immediately derived, 
but a very short experience is sufficient to 
convince one that to attempt to discover 
the origin of such matter as is contained 
in this book is a practically hopeless task. 
I have used Caulfield's reprint, which I 
believe reproduces the first edition, though 
it seems there were at least three issues of 
the same date ; and a fuller bibliographical 
note as to these than that in Collier's ' Cata- 
logue ' would be useful. 

Of the ' Tales and Jests ' as they appear 
in the reprint, No. 1 is, according to a MS. 
note in a copy in the B.M., a Norman tale 
of the twelfth or thirteenth century, and 
appears in Le Grand's ' Fabliaux ' ; Nos. 3, 
4, 8-10, 14, 16, 17, 19, 20, and 23-30 are 
taken from Taylor's ' Wit and Mirth,' 1630, 
in some cases verbatim ; No. 6 is from 
Armstrong's ' Banquet of Jests.' These, 
and no doubt some of the others, did not 
originate with Peters. 

There are references in ' Peter's Pattern ' 
and ' Peter's Resurrection ' (both printed in 
1659) to No. 39, and the first of these two 
tracts also mentions Peters's best-known 
" jest," No. 7, which may be allowed him, 
though the same thing in a slightly different 
form is to be found in ' England's Vanity,' 
1683, and ' The Scotch Presbyterian Elo- 
quence,' 1692, without any reference to his 
authorship. G. THORN-DRURY. 

(11 S. ix. 489; x. 30, 93). I had occasion 
to consult some Non-Parochial Registers 
at Somerset House some time ago, and was 
given every facility for so doing, without the 
formality of a personal recommendation, 
on showing that it was not my purpose to 
make extracts therefrom that might deprive 
the Department of its statiitory fees. In 
other words, the registers were not accessible 
to me, without payment, for genealogical 
purposes. That there is some means of 
getting over this ruling is, however, apparent 
from the fact that entire registers of Roman 
Catholic missions, in the Registrar- General's 
'"study, have been transcribed by private 
individuals and printed by the Catholic 
Record Society. 

The Non-Parochial Registers are of genea- 
logical and antiquarian rather than of legal 
value, and should be treated accordingly. 
One would like to see a Literary Search-Room 
opened in the Department on similar lines 
to that in the Probate Division, with rules 
of admission applicable to all alike, and a 
scale of charges framed in accordance with 
the special nature of these documents. At 
present there is no proper accommodation 
for the antiquary, and no staff available 
for his supervision, so it is in the interests of 
the Department to discourage applicants for 
free admission. 

To MR. A. L. HUMPHREYS' s bibliography 
of the subject may be added ' The Quaker 
Records,' by Josiah Newman, printed in 
' Some Special Studies in Genealogy,' 1908,. 
and ' Some Notes on the Early Sussex: 
Quaker Registers,' by the present writer > 
in Sussex Arch. Coll., vol. lv., 1912, which 
should be consulted by those interested in 
the records of Quakerism. 


Rackham, Pulborough. 

(11 S. ix. 186, 513). Baptista Mantuanus's 

Sorte tua contentus abi, sine cetera nobis. 

(' Eel.,' v. 46), 

is apparently, as Prof. W. P. Mustard has 
pointed out in his excellent edition of the 
' Eclogues,' indebted to Petrarch's 

Sorte tua contentus abi, citharamque relinque. 

' Eel.,' iv. 68. 

But it should certainly have been noticed 
that Petrarch's predecessor in expression 
was Claudian, who in the second book of his 
' Raptus Proserpinae ' (220, 221) wrote : 

Fratris linque domos : alienam desere sortem : 

Nocte tua contentus abi. 

BETTER ; I AM HERE " (11 S. vi. 469 ; x. 154). 
Since writing the answer at the latter 
reference I have come on the following 
passage : 

" It would seem (he added) that Addison had 
not acquired much Italian learning, for we do not 
find it introduced into his writings. The only 
instance that I recollect, is his quoting, ' Stavo 
bene ; per star meglio, sto qul.' " Boswell's 
'Johnson,' 7 April, 1775 (vol. i. p. 546, in the 
'Everyman's Library" edition). 

Malone's note is : 

" Addison, however, does not mention where 
this celebrated Epitaph, which has eluded a very 
diligent enquiry, is found." 

I am not able to consult Birkbeck Hill's 

Reydon, Southwold, Suffolk. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. in s. x. SEPT. 5, 1914. 

(11 S. x. 12, 51, 91, 131, 171). By way of 
a small addendum to MR. A. A. BARKAS'S 
interesting and welcome articles upon this 
Long Parliament M.P., may I be permitted 
to point out that the heretofore somewhat 
uncertain parentage of the Regicide appears 
to be definitely settled by the ' Visitation of 
Berkshire, 1623 ' (vol. ii. p. 116, Harl. Soc.) ? 
In the pedigree of Norton of Charleton, in 
the parish of Wantage, Gregory is said 
to be son of Henry Norton (eldest son of 
John Norton of Wierton, in the parish of 
Boughton Monchelsea, co. Kent) by Eliza- 
beth, dau. of William Nelston of Chadleworth, 
<>o. Berks, and nephew to Sir Dudley Norton, 
Knt:, the King's Secretary in Ireland. 
Inasmuch as in the patent of his creation 
to the baronetcy in 1624 he is styled " Gre- 
gory Norton of Charlton, co. Berks," there 
can be no doubt of the identity. 

W. t). PINK. 

150). This allusion of Gray's to Henry IV., 
quoted from a letter to West, may be traced 
to the following story of a king and his 
father confessor. 

A certain king was reproved by his father 
confessor for his many love-affairs with 
many too willing ladies of high and low 
degree, while neglecting his beautiful and 
virtuous queen. The king said nothing, 
but next day the father confessor was 
invited to the royal table, and to his astonish- 
ment got only partridge to eat. The first 
course after the puree de perdrix consisted 
of perdrix a la broche ; the second of perdrix 
en casserole ; the third of a ragodt de perdrix; 
the fourth of a hdchis de perdrix ; the fifth 
of a fricassee de perdrix ; the sixth of perdrix 
en cocotte ; the seventh of perdrix d lamaitre 
d'hdtel; the eighth of perdrix d la bonne femme, 
and so on. The reverend father needed 
extra copious potations to wash all this 
partridge down, and when the repast was 
finished the king asked him how he had 
liked it. "A splendid dinner, "answered he ; 
"I am very grateful indeed, mais toujours 
perdrix / " " Well, sir," remarked his Majesty 
dryly, "in future you will perhaps agree with 
me that always the same stuff, however 
excellent and well cooked and served, palls 
on the palate reason why we should occa- 
sionally,vary our diet to sharpen our appetite." 

This story has been told of several kings 
besides the son of Antoine de Bourbon and 
Jehanne d'Albret, who had Idme entiere aux 
cJioses viriles, and sang a lusty song while 
giving birth to him, that he might be ni 

pleureur ni rechigne, nodding approval when 
his happy sire rubbed his lips with garlic and 
made him solemnize his advent with a sip 
of Jurancon wine before laying him to her 
breast. It appears to have come to France 
from Spain, see, e.g., the ' Curiosa Relacion 
Poetica ' (Barcelona, 1837), " Del verdadero 
aspecto del mundo y estado de las mujeres," 
where we find : 

come dice el adagio 
Que causa de comer perdices. 

The gastronomic demonstration attributed 
to Henry IV., in his relations to his father 
confessor (and his queen), of a truth ac- 
knowledged in the proverbial lore of most 
countries, evidently got mixed up in Gray's 
brain with one of the hackneyed sayings, 
thanks to which the monarch who thought 
" que Paris valait bien une messe," and acted 
upon that idea, became 

Le seul roi dont le peuple ait gard la me"ruoire : 
I mean the wish he expressed to the Duke 
of Savoy (according to Hardouin de Perefixe), 
and preserved in the words : " Je veux 
que le dimanche chaque laboureur de mon 
royaume puisse mettre la poule au pot " ; 
or " Je veux que le dimanche chaque paysan 
ait sa poule au pot." 

It must be admitted, by the way, that he 
did not conceal the personal motive behind 
his paternal care for his subjects : " Ventre- 
saint-gris ! " said he, " si Ton ruine men 
peuple, qui me nourrira ? qui soutiendra It 
charges de 1'Etat ? Vive Dieu ! S'en prendi 
a mon peuple, c'est s'en prendre a mo - 
meme." J. F. SCHELTEMA. 


x. 150). That Horace AValpole was very 
much interested in our old ballad literature 
is evidenced by his letter to Dr. Percy, 
dated 5 Feb., 1765, to which he appended a 
version of ' Lord Lovel,' quoted entirely 
from memory, though it was " above five 
and twenty years since I learned it " (Wai- 
pole's ' Letters,' Toynbee's edition, vi. 181-5). 
This letter was first printed by Mrs. Toynbee 
from the original in the British Museum, 
and Walpole's version of the ballad seems 
to have been unknown to Prof. Child, who 
has, however, printed a version which Percy 
had received from the Rev. P. Parsons of 
Wye, under date 22 May, 1770, and 19 April, 
1775, several years after Walpole had com- 
municated his version.* Except for a few 
verbal differences of very little importance, 
the two versions are identical, and evidence 

* ' The English and Scottish Popular Ballads,' 
ed. Child, ii. 207. 

11 S. X. SEPT. 5, 1914.] 



is thus afforded of Walpole'a wonderful 
memory. In the ballad after which MB. 
I'ACIOT TOYNBEE inquires, Walpole made a 
whimsical variation. The ballad was popu- 
larly known as ' Queen Eleanor's Fall,' but 
its mil title was 

"A Warning Piece to England against Pride 
and Wickedness : Being the Fall of Queen Eleanor, 
Wife to Edward the First, King of England ; who, 
for her pride, by God's Judgments, sunk into the 
Ground at Charing-cross and rose at Queenhithe." 
It was originally published in ' A Collection 
of Old Ballads' (1723), i. 97, and will be 
found in several subsequent collections, the 
best of which is Prof. Child's earlier book, 
' English and Scottish Ballads,' in which 
(vii. 291) it is shown that the beloved queen, 
Eleanor of Castile, has been confounded by 
the balladmonger with her unpopular mother- 
in-law, Eleanor of Provence,wife of Henry III. 
The pertinent stanzas are the following, it 
being understood that the queen had very 
vilely entreated the wife of the Mayor of 
London, and tortured her to death : 

A judgment lately sent from heav'n, 

For shedding guiltless blood. 
Upon this sinful queen, that slew 

The London lady good ! 
King Edward then, as wisdom will'd, 

Accused her of that deed ; 
But she denied, and wioh'd that God 

Would send his wrath with speed, 
If that upon so vile a thing 

Her heart did ever think. 
She wish'd the ground might open wide, 

And she therein might sink ! 
With that, at Charing-cross she sunk 

Into the ground alive, 
And after rose with life again, 

In London, at Queenhithe. 

It is plain that there is here a confusion 
between Eleanor of Castile and the cross 
i in her honour at Charing and Eleanor 
of Provence, who rendered herself odious to 
tin- City of London by her endeavours to 
compel all vessels to unlade, and pay the 
port dues, at her quay at Queenhithe. 


In TJeorge Peele's ' Famous Chronicle of 

King Edward the First ' (1593) several most 

fxt raordinary violations of history and pos- 

s:!)ility appear to have been taken from a 

ballad called ' A Warning Piece to England 

t Pride and Wickedness,' in which 

Queen Eleanor of Castile, Edward's consort, 

! held up to contemporary prejudice as a 

pattern of Spanish sin and vindictiveness. 

is possible, however, that the ballad 

follows the play, instead of preceding it. 

See Dyce's ' Peele,' pp. 373-4. 


This ballad is printed by A. H. Bullen in 
his edition of the ; Works of George Peele,' 
vol. i., in connexion with Peele's play of 
'King Edward I.,' which is founded on the 
same story as the ballad. M. H. DODDS. 

[MR. A. COLLINGWOOD LEE also thanked for 

(11 S. x. 150). 

" She died at the nunnery of Ambresbury, 
during the absence of her son in Scotland. On 
the king's return, he summoned all his clergy and 
barons to Ambresbury, where he solemnly com- 
pleted the entombing of his mother, on the day 
of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary, in her 
conventual church, where her obsequies were 
reverently celebrated. But the heart of his 
mother King Edward, carried with him to London 
indeed, he brought there the hearts of both 
the queens ; and on the next Sunday, the day of 
St. Nicholas, before a vast multitude, they were 
honourably interred, the conjugal heart in the 
church of the Friars Preachers, and the maternal 
heart in that of the Friars Minors, in the same 
city." Latin Chronicle of Thomas Wikes. 

S. B. 

ONCE MET (11 S. vi. 349). Apparently this 
never happened, since Lord John. Russell, in 
a full report of a conversation with Napoleon 
at Elba, 25 Dec., 1814, stated : " Speaking 
of Lord Wellington, he said he had heard 
he was a large strong man " (' Lady 
John Russell,' by MacCarthy and Russell, 
p. 53). 

156). Query evidently relates to what, in 
the English edition, is ' Napoleon's Notes on 
English History,' edited by H. F. Hall, 
London, 1905. 

(11 S. ix. 188). Apparently the design and 
exhortation should be classed with the pious 
forgeries formerly ascribed to Napoleon. 
Can any one with access to the recent 
bibliography of the 80,000 Napoleon books 
state whether Napoleon's real position re- 
garding religion has ever been fairly treated ? 
I know of no item thereon more interesting 
than that in Lord Rosebery's ' Last Phase,' 
p. 172 (1900), as to Napoleon's "ante-library " 
having been found by Louis XVIII. to be 
chiefly theological. On Grenville's asking if 
Napoleon was a believer, Talleyrand replied : 
" Je suis porte a croire qu'il etait croyant, 
mais il avait le gout de ces sujets." 

Boston, Mass. 



" LEFT HIS CORPS " (11 S. ix. 225 ; x. 158) 
So the term corsaint was applied not only 
to the dead body of a saint, but to the same 
saint considered as living. See ' N.E.D.,' 
and ' Metrical Life of St. Cuthbert ' (Surtees 
toe.), 254. 

A maidservant in Lincolnshire on her 
return from a funeral entertainment informed 
her mistress that she had enjoyed herself 
very much indeed, and that " the corpse's 
brother was the life of the party." " The 
corpse " had been an accepted suitor of her 
own. J. T. F. 

Winter-ton, Lines. 

The way in which I have heard the tale 
is at the house of mourning, when the under- 
taker said to one of the mourners : " The 
corpse's brother would like to take a glass 
of wine with him." H. A. C. S. 

LEON (11 S. x. 10, 55, 76, 136). The refer- 
ences already given do not contain any 
mention of Poultney Bigelow's ' The Ger- 
man Struggle for Liberty,' which, starting 
in the July, 1895, number of Harper s New 
Monthly Magazine, ran through several 
months. The opening chapter, consisting 
of one-and-a-half pages of letterpress and one 
full-page illustration of the tragic event, is 
entitled ' Execution of John Palm, Book- 
seller.' I do not know if the articles were 
afterwards published in book -form. 


46, Marlborough Avenue, Hull. 

SPOON FOLK-LORE (11 S. x. 146). A 
similar superstition, but in regard to um- 
brellas, is not uncommon about here (Bury, 
Lancashire). Not so long since, in one of 
the principal streets, I heard a young shop- 
woman exclaim to a sceptical female friend 
who was standing smilingly by a fallen 
umbrella, " Oh, do pick it up, please ! 
am so superstitious. I am frightened some- 
thing will happen if I pick it up." What 
connexion there is between a dropped article 
and bad luck I cannot fathom, but I rather 
fancy the ill-luck is in the dropping of the 
thing, and the kindness of the intervening 
friend breaks the spell. 


To drop a spoon is a sign that an alter- 
cation will speedily take place, and remarks 
to that effect when a spoon is dropped may 
still be heard at dinner- or tea-table. Years 
ago, if a silver spoon solid silver was 
dropped, some one would be sure to exclaim, 
'' There goes sixpence ! " meaning that the 
value of the article was depreciated to the 
extent of sixpence. Many poor families 

possessed " solid " silver teaspoons, am 
orized them much. A set of six which 
possess constituted a previous owner 
" bank," for they were wont to go to " Uncl 
John '" to fill a gap in finances on the 
week of every month, to be redeemed th 
second week in the following month. 

Southfield, "Worksop. 

" CHATTERBOX " (11 S. x. 128). Accordii 
to Allibone's ' Dictionary,' William Her 
Pyne's " Wine and Walnuts : or, After 
Dinner Chat, by Ephraim Hardcastle," 
originally published in The Literary Gazette, 
1820-22. The reference to " the last cen- 
tury " in the passage quoted by M. is rathe 

" Chatter Box. One whose tongue 
twelve score to the dozen, a chattering ma 
or woman," appears in ' A Classical Die 
tionary of the Vulgar Tongue ' (by Fram-i 
Grose), 3rd edition, 1796. 

Since writing the above, I have referred 
to Farmer and Henley's ' Slang and its 
Analogues,' 1890-94. I find that the above 
definition of chatter box is there quoted from 
the 1785 edition of Grose's ' Dictionary.' 

It appears, then, that chatter box, meaning 
a chattering man or woman, was current 
fifteen years before the end of the eighteenth 
century, and thirty-five years before Pyne 
began to publish his ' Wine and Walnuts.' 

365, 416; 11 S. i. 33; x. 158). A dentist 
once told me that protruding teeth usually 
resulted from allowing children to suck 
their fingers. The pressure of the fingers, 
especially of a finger curled over the thumb, 
pushed the upper teeth and jaw out, while 
the lower teeth were pressed inwards. 

When I was in Switzerland in 1881 with 
a brother, we marvelled at the ugly, but 
flexible mouths of the people near Morat, 
and asked each other whether the vowels 
of the German patois spoken by many of the 
families had any effect on their faces. 

P. W. G. M. 

DIALECT (11 S. ix. 288, 337, 376, 394; x. 156). 
I do not know who is responsible for the 
assertion that in Shakespeare we find words 
" used in no other part of the country than 
Warwickshire." Such a -claim displays an 
entire lack of local knowledge. If you leave 
Stratford-on-Avon, by the Shipston-on- 
Stour road, and travel four miles, you enter, 
in the following order, the parishes of 

11 S. X. SEPT. 5, 1914.] 



Clifford Chambers (Gloucestershire), Ather- 
stone-on-Stour (Warwickshire), Preston-on- 
Stour (Gloucestershire), and Aldermmster 
(Worcestershire). The fact remains that we 
find in the plays words still in use in the 
!>ourhood of Stratford, but " Shake- 
speare's Country " is by no means exclusively 
Warwickshire, as so many writers appear to 
suppose. A. C. C. 

x. 147). 3. The lines 

For Achilles' portrait stood a spear 
Grasped in an armed hand 

should run : 

That for Achilles' image stood his spear, 

Grip'd in an armed hand. 

They are to be found in Shakespeare's ' The 
K i]i<> of Lucrece,' 11. 1424-5, and are quoted 
by C'harles Lamb in his Essay on Hogarth. 


5. Fishes building in trees. In the ' Com- 
pleat Account of the great CountBy of 
Brasile ' in Harris's ' Voyages ' there are 
references to crabs that live in the trunks 
of trees, and in Robert Harcourt's ' Voyage 
to Guiana ' (same collection) we are told of 
oysters that may be gathered " from the 
Branches of the Trees by the Sea-side," but 
I find nothing of fishes that actually build in 
trees. C. C. B. 

7. " That quarrel of the Sorbonists, 
whether one should say ego amat or no." 

" Incredibile prope dictu est, sed tamen verum 
et editis libris proditum, in Parisiensi Academia 
Doctores extitisse, qui mordicus tuerentur ac 
defenderent, Ego amat, tarn commodam orationem 
esse quam, Ego amo, ad eamque pertinaciam 
comprimendam consilio publico opus fuisse. 
This is quoted as from Freigius's life of 
Ramus by Motteux in his note on Rabelais, 
i. 19; and Motteux cites Cornelius Agrippa 
('De van. Sci.,' chap, iii.) to the effect that 
the Sorbonists founded their theory on the 
Hebrew of Isaiah xxxviii. 5, which, if 
literally translated, would run " Ecce Ego 
aililct super dies tuos." S. G. 

THE STOCKWELL GHOST (11 S. x. 149). 
In Hughson's ' Walks through London,' 
1817, p. 304, the following occurs : 

" Stockwell was the scene of a singular 

deception, at the house of Mrs. Golding, m the 
yt-.-u- 1772, when, it is said, all the furniture 
lit. rally danced about the house, and was some- 
lim.'s broken without any visible cause. Mr. 
l.y^.ns observes, that an auction being held at 
tliis house, in 1792, after the death of Mrs. 
Gol.ling and her daughter, ' the dancing furniture 
sold at a very extravagant price. 


x. 11, 96, 152). When I wrote what I did 
at the last reference, I did not know that the 
rocks were previously heated by fire, as in 
" fire-setting." In that case vinegar would 
undoubtedly cause disintegration, but I 
dare say that cold water would do just as 
well. The use of vinegar seems to have been 
something like that of " acoustic pots " in 
churches, based on a supposed advantage 
that was wholly imaginary. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

I think that the successful use of vinegar 
to destroy rock was mentioned in ' N". & Q.' 
not long since. According to my memory, 
the subject was spoken of in a review of the 
Intertnediaire, a French priest having formed 
an excellent road through rocky ground by 
this method. Holes drilled in rock and 
thin filled with lime, which is subsequently 
wetted, result in cleavage. Holes into which 
dry pegs of wood are driven, the wood 
being subsequently soaked with water, also 
tear rock to pieces. As the wood swells 
the rocks give wav under the strain. 

M. P. 

ENDS WELL ' (11 S. x. 125). 

I see that men make ropes in such a scarre. 
It is possible that " ropes " here means 
cries. Roup, roop, or rope is old and pro- 
vincial English for "cry." Diana, with an 
ironic touch, pretends to own that men by 
vehement pleading can scare women away 
from their better selves. Her words are 
but a blind to cover her abrupt " Give mo 
that ring." If my reading of " ropes " is 
correct, there is no need for the tt after " we," 
and the two lines should run : 

I see that men make roups in such a scare 
That we forsake ourselves. Give me that ring. 

x. 148). " The heart desires," &c. Here is 
a clue. These four lines were inscribed on 
the four pictures of Pygmalion and Galatea 
in the old Grosvenor Gallery of blessed 
memory. I suggest that they may have 
been Burne-Jones's own. 

[MR. H. A. C. SAUNDERS also thanked for reply.] 

Much information as to the Grafton Staffords 
would probably be gleaned by looking 
through the Collections published by the 
William Salt Archaeological Society. Consult 
also ' D.N.B.,' s.v. ' Stafford.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ii s. x. SEPT. 5, wu 

WALL-PAPERS (11 S. x. 29,75, 110, 137). 
The walls of two rooms at Beau Desert, 
the Staffordshire home of the Marquess of 
Anglesey, are covered with a Japanese wall- 
paper which was affixed on the occasion of 
the visit of the Prince Regent, that on the 
bedroom used by him being so arranged 
as to fit the room exactly without any 
repetition of subject. I have recently seen 
this paper, which is bold in design and ex- 
cellent in colour, and " as good as new." 



ACROSTICS (11 S. x. 129). I would 
suggest that the ' Keys ' required should be 
advertised for in the ' Books Wanted ' de- 
partment of The Bookseller and The Pub- 
lishers' Circular. This can be done either 
direct or through a bookseller. The cost is 
very trifling. War. H. PEET. 

AUTHOR WANTED (11 S. x. 148). 
In Paradise I learned to ease my soul in song. 
Is this an imperfect recollection of Keats's 
' Faery Song ' ? 

Dry your eyes O dry your eyes, 
For I was taught in Paradise 
To ease my breast of melodies. 

C. C. B. 

'ALMANACK DE GOTHA ' (11 S. x. 147). 
I possess copies from 1801 (inclusive) to 
1815 (inclusive). 


Castle Pollard, Westmeath. 


New Light on Drake : a Collection of Documents 
relating to his Voyage of Circumnavigation, 
1577-1580. Translated and edited by Zelia 
Nuttall. (Hakluyt Society.) 

THIS is one of the most interesting, as it is one of 
the most important, of the publications of the 
Hakluyt Society. It is the extraordinarily rich 
result of researches, at once acute and lucky, 
among hitherto unpublished matters in the 
archives of Mexico and Spain relating to Drake's 
exploits in the South Sea. The occasion of these 
researches was Miss Nuttall's discovery, in the 
National Archives of Mexico, of the MS. of a 
declaration concerning his rapture by English 
pirates made by a Portuguese pilot, Nuiioda Silva, 
to the Inquisitors on his trial for heresy. This 
incited her to further investigations, in the course 
of which she found at Seville the log-book of 
Nuno da Silva, as well as the depositions of a 
number of Drake's prisoners, and the sworn 
declarations of John Oxenham, John Butler, and 
Thomas " Xerores," then lying in the prison of 
the Inquisition at Lima, who were examined by 
order of the Viceroy, upon the news of Drake's 
arrival in the South Sea, as to what Drake knew 
or intended with regard to the Strait of Magellan 

and other matters. These are the most sti-ikir 
of her finds, though she gives a list of twent 
three other documents bearing on her subje 
which should furnish good matter for later 

It is unnecessary here to retrace t lie well-known 
events of Drake's famous voyage. Miss Nuttall 
in her Introduction concentrates attention on the 
two reproaches which have in many minds sullied 
its glory. It has been said that Drake was a 
mere pirate ; it has been said that the execution 
of Doughty at San Julian was unjustifiable. The 
defence against both is virtually one and the same, 
and it is clinched by one of the relations of a 
prisoner of Drake's included here. The ques- 
tion at issue is, Had Drake, or had he not, 
a licence from the Queen to harry the King 
of Spain's lands and vessels while he sougl 
for good lands to colonize in her service 
On 4 April, 1579, he captured the vessel 
person of a Spanish nobleman, Don Fraicisco 
Zarate, whom he conveyed on board the Gold 
Hind and kept with him for some days, treatir_ 
him with every courtesy, and even with confidence. 
To him he showed " the commissions that he had 
received from her and carried," and to him also 
he gave an account of Doughty's attempt at 
mutiny, " speaking much good about the dead 
man, but adding that he had not been able to act 
otherwise because this was what the Queen's 
service demanded." This is related, together 
with a number of highly interesting detai