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Notes and Queries, July So, 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



JWebium of Sntercommuntcatton 



FOR 



LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC. 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



TWELFTH SERIES. VOLUME VIII. 
JANUARY JUNE, 1921. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHEr BY 

THE TIMES PUBLISHING COMPANY, LIMITED 
PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE, E.G. 4. 



Notes'aud Queries, July 30, 1921. 




LIBRARY 



730982 

UNIVERSITY OFTORONTO 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 



31 JfUMmtt of 

FOR 

LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC. 

"When found, make a note of," CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No 142. PS 1 ] 



JANUARY 1, 1921. 






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1 



LONDON, JANUARY 1, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 142. 

NOTE .Swift's Verse, 1 A Radical Weaver's Common- 
Place Book, 3 Orders and Ordinances of the Hospitals, 
1582. 5 An English Army List of 1740, 6 Lines by 
Tennyson The Identity of Francis Lovelace, Governor of 
New York. 7 " Romantique " Giles Capel Representa- 
tive County Libraries, Public and Private. 8. 

'QUERIES : Was thre a Parsi Colony in the South Seas? 
9 _Hook: Oxenbridge: Morton: Portraits Wanted 
G. Pye, Book -Plate Designer Collections Sold by 
Auction, London, 1714 Who was Johnson's "Pretty 
Voluminous Authour " ? J. E. Gordon The British 
in Corsica " Believe " Aliustrel Bronze Tables. 10 
Mr. John Denton Scott of Essex Be verley Whising 
Broncivimont Beer Savery Family of Marlborough, 
Wilts 'The Western Miscellany ,'1775 and 1776 Hambly 
House, Streatham " Barons," 11 John Hughes of Liver- 
pool, A.D. 1706 Daniel Defoe in the Pillory Woodburn 
Collection Authors of Quotations Wanted, 12. 

REPLIES : Cruikshank and Westminster School, 12- 
John Thornton of Coventry Daniel Vinecombe Snipe 
in Belgrave Square Van der Plaes Early Railway 
Travelling, 13 London in the Fifties and Sixties : Police 
Uniforms The Legitimist Kalendar Pierre Frangois 
Gaillard Louis Napoleon : Poetical Works, 14 Arms of 
England and France Emerson's ' English Traits ' Dixon 
of Fnrness Fel's Admiral Benbow Notes on the Early 
de Redvere. 15 The Tragedy of New England Mile. 
Mercandotti Friday Street The Talhot Inn, Ashbourne. 
16 Death of Queen Anne Ancient History of Assam 
Royal Arms in Churches " Now then ! " Domestic 
History of the Nineteenth Century. 17 London Post- 
marksFolk-Lore of the Elder Oxford (Orford) House, 
Waltharnstow Dr. Alexander Keith Picture by Sir 
Leslie Ward Missing Words Wanted Authors of Quota- 
tions Wanted. 18. 

TCOTES ON BOOKS : ' Shakespeare's Last Years in 
London. 1536-1592 'A History of Scotland from the 
Roman Evacuation to the Disruption, 1843 ' ' Leicester- 

' shire.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



SWIFT'S VERSE. 

SWIFT'S name is now generally associated 
with his prose writings, but his powers ars 
no less conspicuous in his verse. Where it 
his command of language more evident 
than in ' Cadenus and Vanessa ' ? Where 
is his irony more impressive than in * Poetry, 
a Rhapsody ' ? Where is his intensity 
more developed than in 'The Journal of a 
Modern Lady ' ? Where is his peculiar 
turn of thought more displayed than in 
' The Petition of Mrs. Frances Harris ' ? 
Where will greater versatility be found than 
between the lines addressed to Stella on 
her last birthday, and those ' On the Death 
of Dr. Swift'? But at present Swift's 
verse is in a state of chaos. Its arrange- 
ment is neither according to subject nor 
chronology, its meaning is hidden from all 



but a few, and its extent is equally faulty 
in the inclusion of pieces that are supposi- 
titious and doubtful, and the exclusion of 
pieces which bear Swift's hall-mark. 

As at present arranged the first section 
is a hotch-potch of some eighty pieces. 
In it England jostles Ireland, and the 
personal is submerged in the general. For 
example 'The South Sea Project 'is in 
close proximity to ' The Description of an 
Irish Feast,' and the lines 'To Mr. Pope 
while he was -writing the Dunciad ' are 
followed by ' A Love Poem from a Phy- 
sician.' Chronology is frequently ignored. 
' Helter- Skelter,' which was written in 1730, 
is followed by ' The Puppet Show, ' which 
was written in 1721, and 'A Love Song in 
the Modern Taste,' which was written in 
1733, is followed by ' The Storm ' which 
was written in 1722. 

The second and third sections comprise 
respectively pieces written during Lord 
Carteret's viceroyalty and pieces addressed 
to Stella and Vanessa. On what basis the 
pieces have been selected it is impossible to 
divine. The first of the sections is remark- 
able for omitting far more pieces of the 
period than are in it, and for containing a 
piece written in the time of Carteret's 
predecessor. The second of the sections 
comprises pieces supposed to be written by 
Stella and Vanessa as well as pieces ad- 
dressed to them, and includes two pieces 
which treat of Mrs. Pilkington under the 
poetical name of Daphne. 

The fourth section comprises pieces com- 
posed at Market Hill. In it little attention 
is paid to chronology, and several pieces 
known to have been written at Market Hill 
are omitted, more particularly ' The Journal 
of a Modern Lady,' 'An Answer to Paulus ' 
and * The Answer to Ballyspellin. ' 

The fifth and sixth sections comprise 
respectively political pieces and pieces 
chiefly relating to Irish politics. In these 
sections the omissions include the notable 
pieces entitled ' Poetry, a Rhapsody, ' and 
'An Epistle to a Lady who desired the 
Author to make Verses on her in the Heroic 
Style,' as well as 'The South Sea Project ' 
and ' Judas,' and the confusion becomes 
intensified. In the first of these sections 
there are found * Cortinna ' and ' In Sick- 
ness,' which have no relation to politics 
and two pieces which concern Irish politicfs, 
'The Parody of the Recorder of Blessing- 
ton's Address ' and ' The Parody of the 
Recorder of Dublin's Speech.' In the 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. i, 1021. 



second of these sections there are severa 
pieces relating to English politics, such a 
'The Run upon the Bankers,' 'The Horric 
Plot discovered by Harlequin, the Bishc 
of Rochester's Dog,' 'The Dog and Thief 
and ' Mr. Pulteney being put out of th 
Council.' No attention has been paid t 
chronology in placing the pieces written 
during the agitation against Wood's coppe 
coinage and some of these pieces ar 
separated by an interval of many page 
from the others. 

Finally, the last section is devoted to 
pieces which are designated Trifles, bu 
presented as they are without method o 
comment they might more fitly be termec 
Nonsense. Pieces which have an importan 
bearing on Swift's life are mixed with 
pieces of no value, and by the ingenuity 
of successive editors the battle of rime 
between Swift and Sheridan has been 
broken up until it is unintelligible. 

No verse requires annotation more than 
that of Swift. In it the spirit of poetry 
has no part, and each piece has its origin 
in some public or private incident. Wha1 
light is thrown on ' A Ballad on the Game 
Traffic ' and 'A Ballad to the Tune of the 
Cut-purse,' when it is known that they were 
written at the same time in the summer of 
1702 after the famous Gloucestershire elec- 
tion in which Jack Howe was a protagonist, 
and that the scene was Berkeley Castle and 
not as one of the headings states Dublin 
Castle. What interest does it give to ' The 
Journal of a Modern Lady ' and ' An Epistle 
to a Lady who desired the Author to make 
Verses on her in the Heroic Style,' when it 
is known that the lady was the wife of 
Lord Gosford's ancestor, Sir Arthur Acheson, 
and the only child of Philip Savage, one of 
the great men of Ireland in Swift's day. 
What light is thrown on ' The Progress of 
Marriage ' when it is known that the 
marriage in question was that of Dean 
Pratt, erstwhile Provost of Trinity College, 
to Lady Philippa Hamilton, and that the 
autograph is dated January, 1722, a few 
weeks after Pratt 's death. Again what 
light is thrown on the 'Directions for 
making & Birthday Song ' when it is known 
that the autograph is dated October, 1729, 
and that its recipient was the wily Matthew 
Pilkington who produced soon afterwards 
aij ode for the birthday of George II. 

The present collection of Swift's verse 
has been the work of many hands. The 
first collection was in the Miscellanies which 
were issued by John Morphew in 1711. It 



comprised thirteen pieces. That collection 
was followed by the one in the Miscellanies 
in which Swift and Pope joined in 1727. 
It added twenty-two pieces to the thirteen,, 
which were reprinted in it. To these 
there were added in another volume of 
Swift and Pope's Miscellanies, published in 
1732, ten more pieces. Then in 1735 the 
prince of Dublin printers as Swift called 
George Faulkner, issued as the second 
volume of his edition of Swift's Works a 
collection in which an addition of sixty 
pieces was made to the forty -five previously 
collected. To that collection Faulkner 
added further in the sixth, eighth and 
eleventh volumes of his edition of Swift's 
Works issued respectively in 1738, 1746,. 
and 1762. Meantime in England Dr. John- 
son's contemporary, John Hawkesworth,. 
whose ambition was greater than his per- 
formance, took a part, and to him suc- 
ceeded John Nichols, whose researches in 
relation to Swift have afforded vast material 
for subsequent editors and biographers. 
Finally, Vice-Provost Barrett, whose fame 
now rests more on his penurious habits than 
on his academic attainments, and Sir 
Walter Scott gave their aid. 

The efforts of the later contributors to 
the collection have resulted in the addition 
not only of pieces of doubtful authenticity, 
>ut even of pieces actually known to be 
written by others. Amongst these are 
Jack Frenchman's Lamentation,' which as 
Prof. Firth kindly pointed out to me was 
written by Congreve ; ' The Garden Plot, ' 
which was written by Dr. William King ; 
A Town Eclogue,' which was written by 
Jonathan Smedley, Leonard Welsted, and 
)wo others ; ' John Deritiis, the Sheltering 
^oet's Invitation to Richard Steele,'; 'A 
r'arody on the Speech of the Provost of 
^rinity College to the Prince of Wales ' ; 
Dr. Delany's Villa,' which was written by 
heridan ; ' To the Citizens ' ; 'A Young 
^ady's Complaint for the stay of Dean 
wift in England ' ; ' The Logicians Refuted, ? 
which is claimed as the work of Goldsmith ,' 
A Vindication of the Libel,' which was 
written by William Dunkin ; ' An Ode to 
lumphrey French, ' and ' An Answer to a 
friend's Question.' In addition John 
^orster has attributed to Swift ' An Answer 
.o Lines from Mayfair, ' which appears to * 
aave been written by Prior. On the other 
land several pieces correctly attributed to 
wift, by the earlier contributors to the 
ollection have been rejected by their 
uccessors. Amongst these are 'The Life 



12 s. vm. JAN. i, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



and Genuine Character of Dean Swift, ' ' A 
Christmas-box for Namby-Pamby,' ' Hard- 
ing's Resurrection from Hell upon Earth,' 
and ' A Trip to Dunkirk. ' 

To supply the deficiencies of existing 
editions of Swift's verse is not impossible. 
A small expenditure of time and labour has 
enabled me to date and trace the origin of 
almost every piece that Swift is known to 
have written, and to add some new pieces 
to the collection, and this work will, I hope, 
prove, of assistance to the future editor of a 
worthy edition. 

F. ELRINGTON BALL. 



A RADICAL WEAVER'S COMMON- 
PLACE BOOK. 

THE book from which the extracts given 
below are taken is a small volume of sixty- 
eight pages backed with stiff brown paper- 
covered boards and measuring 7^ in. by 
5 1 in. The leaves are stitched and the 
paper varies in quality, suggesting that the 
volume had a domestic origin. The book 
has been used from both ends, forty-five 
pages in one direction and twenty-three 
in the other, and here and there a leaf has 
been torn out. Originally meant as a 
weaver's Casting and Calculating Book 
it came to be used by the owner also for 
other purposes, and some twenty-six pages 
are used, not for technical or business 
entries, but as a kind of commonplace 
book into which are copied paragraphs 
from newspapers and books, epitaphs, arith- 
metical problems, &c. There are also some 
entries which may be original matter. 

There is no owner's name on the first 
page at either end or on the covers, and 
from among the numerous names of persons 
scattered among the pages of the book it 
would be difficult to decide which, if any, 
belonged to the writer of the extracts. 
That the book belonged to a hand-loom 
weaver living and working in the vicinity 
of Manchester is, however, perfectly clear. 
The period covered lies between the years 
1793 and 1816, these being the earliest and 
latest dates that occur, and judging from 
the nature of the political entries the owner 
seems to have been a man of very decided 
Radical opinions, of a type made familiar 
later by Samuel Bamford and G. J. Holy- 
oake. Some ' Questions and Answers rela- 
tive to the National Debt ' are taken from 
The Manchester News of Apr. 23, 1796, and 



there is an extract from The Weekly Register 
referring to a speech of Pitt's on the Corn 
Importation Bill in October, 1799. But 
perhaps the most interesting entry is a set 
of doggerel verses entitled ' The New 
Fashion Shaver.' From a literary point of 
view there is of course little to be said for 
these verses, but they have a certain interest 
as representing a section of Radical opinion 
of the period. The reference to the siege 
of Toulon as taking place "last year " 
dates the writing of the lines from 1794. 
Whether or not they are original I do not 
know. There is no mention of their being 
copied from a newspaper, and the spelling 
is faulty and punctuation entirely absent. 
In the following transcript I have corrected 
the one and supplied the other. The writer, 
whoever he may have been, was a clumsy 
rimester. In the last verse the reference is 
clearly to some local incident. 

THE NEW FASHION SHAVES. 

1. 

As Paddy was walking upon the highway, 
He met his Mend Dondle and to him did say : 
Good-morrow, dear Dondle, come tell me I pray, 
Do you think it is true what the people do say ? 
After all their humming and drumming, 
Some say that the French they are coming, 
Without breeches and broogs they are running, 
Believe me, dear Dondle, it's true. 



The French they are fighting for all the world dear, 
This world of oppression they shortly will clear : 
If they meet with a traitor they'll stop his career, 
And cut his head off quite close to his ear ! 
It's a terrible method of shaving ! 
A delicate new way of shaving ! 
I would not lie under the Razor 
For anything under the sun ! 



There's one thing I'll ask you and then I'll 

have done, 
What would you do if the French they should 

come ? 

Would you fight for them, or would you run, 
When you hear the sound of the trumpet and 

drum. ? 

By my faith, I would sp*ak of their favour, 
For fear of the new fashioned shaver ! 
I would not lie under their Razor 
For anything under the sun ! 



As for Billy Pitt I would have him to take care, 
For the French they are conquering everywhere- 
And all the whole chief they do solemnly swear 
[f they get hold of him they'll clip off his hair. 
He's a hell of a fellow for vaunting, 
He's got such a fit of carranting, 
I wish that the Devil may haunt him, 
And carry him out of the way. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. i, 1021. 



5. 

'Come fill up your bumper and let us drink deep 
Of whisky itself, it composes to sleep ; 
A toast we must have, and the French it must be, 
Por they never intended to hurt you or me. 
But Justice they always commended. 
And Mankind they always befriended, 
And Friendship to' us they intended, 
To set poor old England free ! 

6. 

Don't you remember, dear Dondle, last year, 
'They sent us to Toulon like sheep from the shear ? 
They bid us set down without dread or fear, 
For the French were so frightened, they durst not 

come near. 

But they came running like bulls of a tedder, 
And thrashed us as thick as tanned leather, 
And drove us into ships altogether, 
Like as many young pigs in a creel. 

7. 

Good morrow, dear Dondle, before that we part, 
Let's drink to the memory of honest young heart, 
Who died like a man although b\it a boy, 
To think of his fate, how it sickened my joy. 
For he died for the good of the Nation, 
For which he has got a flue station, 
A man may be sure of salvation 
That dies for his Liberty's cause. 

Another entry, in the same handwriting* 
and entitled 'A Church and King Creed,' 
appears to belong to about the same period, 
but may be later than 1794, as the war 
taxes became very heavy only after 1796, 
when the outcry was general among all 
classes. 

A CHURCH AND KING CREED. 

" I believe in one Billy Fit.t, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, mighty Master of Lords and Commons 
and of all Court Intrigues visible and invisible ; 
and in one Secretary Henry Dundas, beloved of 
Pitt before all women, Minister of Ministers, 
Head of Heads, Light of Lights, Very Man of 
Very Man, beloved not hated, being of one opinion 
with our Creator, by whom all Ministers are 
made ; who for us men, and for our taxation 
-came up from Scotland, and was incarnate by 
the Devil, and was made fit for Billy's purpose, 
and is now chief Controller of the East India 
Company : he descended into Scotland and was 
there burnt in effigy, and the third day he came 
again according to the Newspapers, and now 
sitteth at the right hand of Pitt, from whence 
he shall come to judge both the loyal and dis- 
loyal, till folly shall have an end. And I believe 
in old George, the giver of all places and pensions, 
who together with Pitt and Dundas is worshipped 
and glorified, who speaks by Proclamation. I 
believe in one system of corruption, and I believe 
that the remission of taxes will not take place 
till the Resurrection of the dead, and I look for a 
better Government in the world to come. Amen. 

At the other end of the book is a further 
fiet of verses entitled ' New Song, called The 
Rambling Boy,' the merit of which is about 



equal to that of the ' New Fashion Shaver. ' 
The neat writing suggests a copy, but there 
are some corrections, one or two words 
being struck out and others inserted, and 
:he sixth and seventh verses are placed in 
wrong order. This occasions a footnote, 
which reads : 

" Mr. Editor, The 6th and 7th verses they 
are placed wrong, for the 6th is where the 7th 
should be and 7th where the 6th should be. 
[ am, Yours, &c., Jas. Greaves." 

From this it would appear that James 
reaves was the writer or transcriber of the 
verses and that he contributed them to some 
Local newspaper. Possibly Greaves was 
the owner of the book, but this is by no 
means certain. A loose sheet of paper 
preserved between the leaves, and setting 
forth a petition of weavers in the year 1758, 
is dated from Hollinwood, and bears 
eighteen signatures the first of which is that 
of J. Greaves, who seems to have been the 
draftsman. Perhaps this Greaves was the 
father of the writer of the ' Rambling Boy. ' 
Hollinwood lies between Oldham and Man- 
chester, about two miles south-west of the 
former town, with which it is now merged. 
But in the eighteenth century it was a self- 
contained village. 

THE RAMBLING BOY. 

1. 

I am a rambling shoemaker from Belfast town 

I came, 

And to my great misfortune, I 'listed in the Train. 
Their usage being very bad with me did not agree, 
Therefore I am resolv'd, my boys, to take my 

Liberty. 

2. 

We marched to Tipperary with courage stout and 

bold, 
They thought to make a slave of me, but them 

I plainly told 

To work upon a Sunday with me did not agree, 
So therefore, boys, I am resolv'd to take my 

Liberty. 

3. 

The very first night that we came there, our 

Captain gave command, 
That me and my poor comrade all on the guard 

should stand ; 
The night being dark and very wet, as you may 

plainly see, 
That was the night, my brave boys, I took my 

Liberty. 

4. 

Straightway I deserted and set out for the North, 
I being something weary I rested on a fort. 
I had not rested long there till I got up again, 
And looking all around me I spied five of the 
Train. 



12 s. vm. JAN. 1,1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



5. 

I was not afraid to face them all with courage 

stout and bold, 

I marched up to them and to them I plainly told, 
" Your officers I do defy, and all that they can 

say, 
So therefore, boys, I'm not afraid to fight for 

Liberty." 

6. 

Straightway I engaged them, and soon I beat 

them all, 
Soon I beat them all, my boys, for mercy they 

did call, 
Saying " Spare our lives, bold Irvine, and we will 

for you pray, 
And we'll declare you beat us all, and took your 

Liberty." 

7. 

I said " You cowardly rascals, what otter can 

you say ? 
Now since that 1 have beat you all and you will 

for me pray, 

yes, now I shall spare your lives, you may 
declare and say 

That noble Irvine beat you all and took his 
Liberty." 

8. 

Straightways there I left them and set off for 
Inceleed, 

1 worked there a half a year at my shoemaking 
trade, 

Rambling notions came in my mind my parents 

for to see, 
And I met two of the Train men a coming to 

take me. 

9. 

A-meeting these two Train men not knowing 

what to say, 
A-meeting these two Train men barefaced on the 

highway, 
They pulled out their hangers, I winded round 

my oak, 
And leathered these two Train men till they 

weren't worth a groat. 

10. 

Londonderry fair was coming on, that fair I went 

to see, 
And"co\vardly Steward he was there a thinking to 

take me,. 
And in that bloody quarrel my hammer they did 

steal, 
And pledged it there for seven bobs, wasn't that 

a precious meal ? 

The guards did there surround me, I might have 

beat them all, 

Till out of the back window I got a shocking fall. 
The guards did there surround me with a party 

of the Train, 
And lodged me in the guard- house my sorrows 

to bewail. 

12. 

The pretty girls of Belfast, hearing this news of 

me, 

Came flocking to the guard-house there me for 
. to see ; 



1 bid them to dry up their tears and weeping to- 

refrain, 
For, my pretty maids, I'm not afraid of Liberty 

again. 

13. 

Oh, but if I was in Paris I would be a va'liant man,. 
I would fight for my Liberty, but never for the 

Train, 
I would beat as many Train men as would stand 

in a row, 
And I'd make them fly before me like an arrow 

from a bow. 

These three extracts form the chief items 
of political interest in the book. The other 
entries call for no particular notice, but the 
following recipe for making porter is worth 
quoting for the sake of the prices. No date 
is given but it is opposite a sales item of 1801. 

INGREDIENTS FOR 6 GALLONS OF PORTER. 

s. d. 

One peck of malt 02 

A quarter of a pound of liquorice root 002 
do. of Spanish 

liquorice 

do. of essentia 

do. of colour 

Half a pound of treacle 
A quarter do. of hops 
Capsicum and ginger ' . . 
Coals 



001 
002 
002 
2\ 
004' 




006 
3 11 Jr 



Bought at the Public Houses at Qd. per 

quart 12 

Brewed at home 3 H 



Leaves clear gain 



8 



A note of earlier date, from a loose 
inserted sheet, states that in February ,- 
1759, potatoes were " sold out by retail 
10 pounds for one penny, and the buyer 
wanted Trust." F. H. CHEETHAM. 



ORDERS AND ORDINANCES OF THE 
HOSPITALS,' 1532. 

IN endeavouring to unravel the apparent 
confusion of this scarce work and its 
several reprints I have experienced diffi- 
culty in identifying a reprint said to have 
been prepared for Samuel Pepys, the 
diarist. I have not traced this statement 
to its source, but it is evident many oook 
collectors and even a few booksellers are 
misled by " the shadow of doubt " that 
this illusive reprint was an exact facsimile 
of the original. The perplexity is therefore 
to identify it definitely. Apparently, the 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.VIII.JAX. 1,1021. 



first printed issue of such ' Rules and Or- 
dinances' is the 1552 edition : 

1. * The Order of the Hospital of S. Bartholo- 
mews in Westsmythfielde in London.' 
The colophon reads : 

" Imprinted at London by Rycharde Graf ton 
_ rinter to the Kyng 
vimprimendum solim " (The B.M. copy is K 697 



Printer to the Kynges maistie cum privilegio ad 
a 16, 2). 



This was followed by a MS. volume of 
which apparently several copies were pre- 
pared : 

(2) "A true and Shorte Declaration of the 
-state and charge of the newe erectide hospitalles." 
(The B. M. copy is Harl. MS., No. 604,176, 
there are also copies at Cambridge, Arch- 
-bishop Parker's Library, Corpus Christi, 
and in a private library. ) 

The next work is apparently a re -issue 
-by Graf ton (3). Its title indicates its wider 
scope : 

"The Order of the Hospitalls of K. Henry 
the VHIth and K. Edward the Vlth, viz., St. 
Bartholomew's, Christ's, Bridewell, St. Thomas's. 
By the Maior, Cominalitie and Citizens of 
.London, Governours of the Possessions, Revenues 
and Goods of the sayd Hospitalls, 1557." 

"There is no colophon or other indication of 
printer, but Mr. J. A. Kingdon, in his 
"monograph 'Richard Grafton,' says of 
-fchis and the 1552 volume : 

" The two are so similar in design and con~ 
formation, their production so similarly on each 
-occasion at the end of Grafton's term of office, 
that identity of authorship can hardly be doubted. 
Grafton must have had much to do with it even 
if merely one of a number appointed to draw it 
up." 

There is not the similarity of conforma- 
tion that Mr. Kingdon claims. The later 



work is 12mo, whereas its prototype is 8vo ; 
the metter also has been enlarged, and while 
agreeing as to the identity of authorship I 
would suggest that the larger purpose of these 
Rules for the Order was the intention of this 
re-issue. It is this work (3) that is said to 
have been reprinted at a much later date. 

R. Rawlinson ('JEnglish Topographer,' 
1720, p. 144) says : 

" This Book has been since reprinted in the 
old characters and in the same size." 

Yet neither this bibliographer nor others 
consulted identify this reprint that is pre- 
sumably the so-called Pepys reprint. The 
late Mr. Wheatley informed me that Pepys 
had the 1557 edition reproduced so exactly 
that all copies bearing that date would be 
suspect. The occasion for the Pepys re- 
print would be the seme for all subsequent 
Governors of the hospitals, knowledge of the 
rules and orders. It was this that probably 
led to the provision of other re-issues, 
notably that of 1652 (4) which was reprinted 
by Dr. Morant Baker, 1885 (5). In his 
prefatory note it is stated that the issue of 
1652 is a reprint of the original pamphlet of 
1552 which " was again printed in 1580." (6). 
I have not seen a copy of the 1652 edition, 
but if Dr. Baker's facsimile is accurate it is 
pn entirely different work from the original 
pamphlet 'of 1552. The J580 issue is also 
otherwise unknown to me and I take leave 
to question the attribution of date. The 
succession of these re-issues would be cor- 
rectly identified and not subject to confusion 
if the so-called Pepys reprint was 'definitely 
known and described. 

ALECK ABRAHAMS. 



AN ENGLISH ARMY LIST OF 1740. 

(See 12 S. ii. passim : iii. 46, 103, 267, 354, 408, 438 : vi. 184. 233, 242, 290, 329 ; 
vii. 83, 125, 146, 165, 187, 204, 265, 308, 327, 365, 423.) 

The next regiment (p. 71) is one of four which were raised in Holland in 1674 for 
-service under the Dutch Government. 

It was brought on to the establishment of the British Army (ranking as the Fifth 
Regiment of Foot) in 1689, having been one of the regiments which came over to England 
-on 1688 with the Prince of Orange to join in the rebellion against James I. In 1782 the 
territorial designation "Northumberland" was added to its title, and in 1833 it was 
equipped as Fusiliers and designated the Fifth Regiment of Foot, Northumberland 
Fusiliers : it is now (1920) "The Northumberland Fusiliers." 

Dates of their Dates of their first 

present commissions. commissions. 



Colonel Irwin's Regiment of Foot. 
Colonel . . . . Alexander Irwin (1) 

Charles William Pearce 



^Lieutenant- Colonel 
Major 



James Paterson (2) 



27 June 1737 Ensign 1689. 

1 Jan. 1735/6 ditto, 14 June 1703. 
1 Jan. 1735/6 Lieutenant, May, 1709. 



(1) Major-General, Feb. 24, 1744 ; Lieut.-General, 1748. Died in 1762. 

(2) Appointed Lieut.-Colonel in the 7th Regiment of Marines on Jan. 24, 1741 ; Major-General 
. June 25, 1759 ; Lieut.-General, Jan. 19, 1761. Died at Richmond, 1771. 



12 s. vm. JAN. 1,1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Colonel Irwin's Regiment of Foot 
(continued). 

fDaniel Pacquer (3) 
I Arthur Balfour 
| George Lestanquett 
Captains . . . < Charles Fitzroy 

Peter Bruneval 
George Crawfurd 
I Gilbert Keene 

'Captain Lieutenant .. William Hele .. 

'Andrew Crew (4) 
Gary Godby 
Ralph Urwen . . 
John Purcell . . 

Lieutenants . . . . J Robert Cuthbertson 
Michael Mitchell (5) 
John Irwin (6) 
Lambert Vanriell 
George Lovell . . 

{John Fenwrick (7) 
James Reid (8) 
Henry Bourne 
Henry Fletcher 
James Edmonstoune 
John Edgworth 
Mead Vanlewen (9) , 

The names here following are entered 
<Captain . ,. Geo. Fowke 

Captain Lieutenant . . Jno. Corneille . . 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 

9 June 1721 

. 22 Dec. 1728 

1 June 1733 

. 20 June 1735 

1 Jan. 1735/6 
. 14 Jan. 1737 
20 June 1739 



1 


Jan. 


1735/6 


ditto 


.. 22 


Aug. 


1722 


ditto 


.. 25 


Aug. 


1722 


ditto 


.. 24 


Nov. 


1722 


ditto 


1 


June 


1724 


ditto 


. 11 


Mar. 


1731 /2 


ditto 


1 


Jan. 


1735/6 


ditto 


. 14 


Jan. 


1737 


ditto 


1 


May 


1739 


ditto 


. 20?June, 


1739 


ditto 


. 13 


Oct. 


1723 




7 


Feb. 


1737 




1 


Hay 


1739 




2 


May 


1739 




. 19 


June 


1739 




. . 15 


Dec. 


1738 




. . 20 


June 


1739 





Dates of their 
first commissions, 
ditto 8 July 1708. 

2nd Lieutenant 1708. 
ditto 1728. 

Cornet 10 May 1721. 
Ensign 24 Juiie 1710. 
Lieutenant 2 July 1735' 
Ensign 11 Mar'. 1710/11. 

5 Apr. 1720. 

1 Nov. 1710. 
25 Aug. 1709. 

24 Sept. 1709. 

5 Jan. 1715/16. 
31 May 1722. 

25 Aug. 1722. 
8 July 1736. 

24 Nov. 1722. 
24 Mar. 1730/31. 



^Ensigns 



rWm. Wilkinson 

Christopher Barbutt . 

Lewis Nicole . . 

Henry Troughear 
.Chudley Deering (10) 



(3) Major, Feb. 8, 1741. 

(4) Captain, Feb. 8, 1741. 

(5) Captain. June 8, 1749. 

.(6) LieuL-Colonel, Nov. 27, 1752. 



on the interleaf in ink ; 
..13 Mar. 1740/1 
.. 13 Mar. 1740/1 

.. 15 Jan. 1739/40 
.. 15 Jan. 1739/40 
.. 15 Jan. 1739/40 
.. 13 Mar. 1740/1 
6 June 1741 

(7) Lieutenant, Jan. 15, 1741. 

(8) Lieutenant, J\me 6, 1741. 

(9) Lieutenant, July 9, 1745. 
(10) Captain, Apr. 15, 1749. 

J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Colonel (Retired List). 
(To be continued.) 



LINES BY TENNYSON. The following lines 
of Lord Tennyson in the autograph of the 
poet were sold at a sale at Sotheby's as 
lot 159 on Feb. 28, 1910, and seem to 
-deserve a wider circulation than the sale 
^catalogue : 

O subtle various world, 
Not all concealed, 
Relation ! Difference ! 
O termless field ! 
Fair feast of soul and sense 
In part revealed. 

O soul reflecting forms 
No words can reach, 
Comparing, at thy will, 
Each form with each. 
Let tears of wonder fill 
Thy void of speech. 



Oxford. 



FAMA. 



THE IDENTITY OF FRANCIS LOVELACE* 
GOVERNOR OF NEW YORK. The writer on 
the Lovelace family in the 'D.N.B.' states 
that Francis Lovelace, Governor of New 
York, 1668-73, was a son of Richard, 1st 
Baron Lovelace of Hurley, and adds that he 
" must be carefully distinguished from Francis 
Lovelace {d. 1664), Recorder of Canterbury, and 
from Colonel Francis Lovelace, brother of Richard 
the Poet." 

Further research, however, would seem 
to prove beyond a doubt that Governor 
Lovelace was indeed a brother of Richard 
the poet, and a son of Sir William Lovelace, 
Kt., of Woolwich, by Anne Barne his wife. 

The writer in the 'D.N.B.' seems to have 
been unaware of an Ashmolean MS. entitled 
'Interment of Mr. Wm. Lovelace, New 
York, 1671,' which has been reprinted in 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. i, 1921 



The American Historical Review, vol. ix. 
(Macmillan, N. Y., 1904), and which contains 
an account of the funeral procession. 
Amongst those present at the ceremony 
were : 

8. Tho : Lovelace Esq., father of the deceased and 
his Lady in close Mourning. 

10. Coll : ffraucis Lovelace p'sent Governo r of New 

Yorke and uncle to the deceased in close 
Mourning single. 

11. Capt. : Dudley Lovelace uncle also to the 

deceased in like Mourning single. 

The ' Minutes ' of the Executive Council of 
New York (Albany, 1910),. state that 
" Thomas Lovelace, brother of the Governor, 
was at this time (1672) Alderman of New 
York City," having been so appointed 
Oct. 31, 1671, and was a Captain in the 
Foot Company of Staten Island on July 1, 
1672. 

Again, in The Magazine of History, vol. i. 
(New York, 1905) there are to be found 
several letters reprinted from a MS. in the 
Congressional Library, one of which, from 
Governor Lovelace, refers to "my neece, 
Mrs. Ruth Gorsuch " (who had married 
William Whitby of Virginia, Speaker of the 
House of Burgesses, 1653) with regard to 
the guardianship of her son William, by 
Thomas Todd of Virginia, husband of her 
sister, Anne Gorsuch. Further particulars 
of these families, too long to quote here, are 
to be seen in the above-named magazine. 

These records, then, establish the fact 
that Governor Francis Lovelace had brothers 
named Thomas and Dudley, and a sister 
married to a Mr. Gorsuch : no such persons, 
however, are to be found in the pedigrees 
of the Barons Lovelace of Hurley as issue 
of the first Baron Lovelace. On turning to 
the pedigrees of Lovelace of Woolwich, as 
given in Berry's 'County Genealogies' 
(County of Kent), and ^in Archceologia 
Cantiana, vol. x., &c., we find Col. Francis 
Lovelace with his brothers Thomas, Richard 
the poet, and Capt. Dudley, and a sister 
Anne (married to the Rev. John Gorsuch 
or Gorsage, Rector of Walkern, Herts, 
whose pedigree is to be found in 'The 
Visitation of London, 1633-4,' Harl. Soc., 
p. 327), all children of Sir William Lovelace 
of Woolwich. 

As the above quotations are mainly from 
American publications, which may not be 
readily available to readers of 'N. & Q.', 
it is hoped that they may serve to correct 
a long-standing error. 

C. CLABKSON SHAW, Capt. 



" ROMANTIQUE. " The year 1821 is gener- 
ally accepted as the opening of the Romantic 
Movement in France, and the origin of the 
term " Romantique " or "L'Ecole Roman- 
tique " seems to have puzzled many British 
and American writers of centenary articles 
and even books. J. Demogeot in his 
'Histoire de la Litterature Franaise ' 
(Paris, Hachette, 1st ed., 1861 ; 7th ed., 
1866) says : 

" Mme. de Stael avait la premiere, en France,, 
prononc^ le mot romantique. Elle d^signait 
ainsi la po^sie ' dont les chants des troubadours 
ont e'te' 1'origine, celle qui est .nee de la cbevalerie 
et du christianisme.' On sait que ces chants 
avaient eu pour premier organe les langues neo- 
latines qu'on appelait romanes, et les poemes 
Merits en ces langues et nommes pour cette 
raison rowans." 

Mme de Stael died in 1817, but her 
famous work on 'L'Allerr.agne ' and her 
novel * Corinne ' enrolled her among the 
prophets of 'L'Ecole Romantique.' 

ANDREW DE TERNANT. 

36 Somerleyton Koad, Brixton, S.W. 

GILES CAPEL, Fellow of All Souls' College^- 
Oxford, 1540; Rector of Duloe, Cornwall' 
1541, M.A.j 1545; Rector of How Capel 
Herefordshire, 1549 ; Prebendary of White 
Lackington in the Cathedral Church of 
Wells and Rector of Yeovilton, Somerset, 
both in 1554 ; was deprived of these two 
latter preferments in 1560, and went to 
Louvain where he was living in 1562 and 
1572. On July 3, 1574, he (described as 
formerly a Canon of Bath and as aged about 
60) was provided to a Canonry at Bruges by 
Pope Gregory XIII. (Archivio Vaticano,. 
Arm. lii. t. 31 ; Arm. xliv, t. 22 f. 206d). 
According to the' Concertatio Ecclesise ' he 
died abroad before 1588. What else is 
known about him ? 

JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 

REPRESENTATIVE COUNTY LIBRARIES,. 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. It would be quite a 
good thing for topographical scholars to 
know where to turn for information con- 
cerning a county not their own, and a list 
might be made of really first-class repre- 
sentative County Libraries by correspondents 
of 'N. &Q.' 

As far as my knowledge goes the best 
West Riding Library is at the Bradford 
Public Library (Mr. Butler Wood), the 
Library Committee having wisely acquired 
the library of the late C. A. Federer and 
the topographical part of that of the late 
J. Norton Dickon's library two noted- 



12 s. vin. JAN. i, 1921.] , NOTES AND QUERIES. 



9 



Yorkshire collectors. I take it that Hull I Seas, are actually peopled by the relicts of these 

Public Library (Mr. T. Shepperd) owns an J?T n Persians. 

the best East Riding collection. for "{, a P ?^i'e 

The Exeter Free Library has undoubtedly who went that voyage, to whom I was indebted 
the finest collection of Devon books in the for many of the particulars published therein ; 
world and the library of T. Cann Hughes and who is dead since the y were published. Of 
of. Lancaster is probably the best private ' this * entleman I ver * carefullv enquired what the 



-|-x -. 11 ". - I J. tCKOV_fAJ.O V>t.iti YY JJ.J.V/AJL JLLJ. U. U\^;U. JJ.J.XAA CVJJV4. JO.1O \y^J_H - 

Devonian library. My own collection of panions to advance that notion, which at first 
something like 3,500 books, &c,. of Cornish sight is none of the most probable. He told me 
interest may be considered the best Cornish the causes were chiefly three : First, that their 
collection and information from them con- I ^^^^^AJ^^^*?^^ 10 ^^^^ 
cerning the county I shall be glad to supply 

to correspondents of ' N. & Q. ' I inhabitants of Africa, or of India ; for whereas the 

J. HAMBLEY ROWE. | former are of a black, and the latter of a reddish 
or iron colour ; these were of a light olive, yet 
their aspects differed absolutely from the Chinese 
or Tartars. The second cause he assigned, was 

(ftitirtpr their worshipping the Sun and Fire ; turning 

^Z ********* towards the east when they prayed, and using a 

WE must request correspondents desiring in J low or whispering voice, all of which are suitable 

&328S sss ssis* sas $sr = ^S^^VSSfS 

a order that answer n,ay be sent to the Loot. | g-ggtbyg.* ff^^'^ SMS 

their great industry in several ingenious nianu- 
WAS THERE A PARSI COLONY IN THE I factures. I shall not take upon me to determine 



e, Q- T i what credit is due to these conjectures, but shall 
&EAS ,?- -bince his famous exodus content myself with observing, that they are 
irom Persia in the eighth century A.D., the worth remembering ; and considering perhaps, 
Parsi has emigrated to whatever places his OUT posterity may have an opportunity by con- 
instinct commercial, benevolent or roving versing with these people, to enter into them 

has drifted him to. Naoroji Rustomji Seth more minutel y-" 

was the first Parsi, as a matter of fact the Commodore Roggewin's Voyage, referred 
first Indian, to go to England in 1723 A.D. to m the above excerpt, seems to be a scarce 
Australia, Germany and China, Natal and work. It is certainly not in any of the 
Ceylon, Arabia and Aden, Karachee and Bombay libraries. Whether it could be 
Rangoon, Madras and Mecca, and various traced in Calcutta libraries, I know not. 
parts of this country have all claimed him But there is one book ' The Voyage of Cap- 
as their denizen in one or other capacity tain Don Felipe Gonzalez to Easter Island, 

as an agriculturer, shop-keeper, trader, 1770-71,' by B. G. Corney, 1908 (Hakluyt 
traveller or settler. Society Publication, Series 2, vol. xiii.)in the 

It is in Pinkerton's ' Voyages and Travels ' B <> ni |> a y Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society 
(vol. ix., London, 1811, p. 229) that I have whlch c(mtams an extract from the official 
come across a curious passage which seems lo ^ l . f < J n . e " Mx ' Jac Bgggeveen 
to point to a probable Colony of the Parsis in * hls , Kf^tS 7 f Island ' . 

the South Seas. It runs thus : (?P-, 1 ' 26 )' These P^ges make no mention 

of the conjecture of a Parsi colony in the 

lay the whole plan of the Persian gouth Seas, which, according to the above 
ySSffSSiS^ the Commodore ha! made in his 

tanism, is very near the same that it was three book of voyage. 

thousand years ago ; and yet the Parsees, who In the words of the above excerpt, I shall 
the ancient people of Persia, no t, for the present, take upon myself to 
to whom the constitution belonged, are now j-, j J.TI- 

reduced to so inconsiderable a remnant, that it determine what credit is due to this con- 
is doubted whether there may be ten thousand jecture of Roggewin, but shall content myself 
souls left in Persia of this race. Those that are with observing that it is worth remembering 
ed, i erve their primitive customs, | an d investigating by abler hands. In the 

_ itime will any reader enlighten me 

indeed "true", that thenT is' another small colony^f I as to any mention of a Parsi colony in 
these people in the Ihdies, and it may not be the South Seas in Commodore Roggewin's 

.iss to put the reader in mind of a conjecture, Voyage or in any other book ? 
mentioned m Commodore Roggewin's voyage, -D XT 

that some islands, discovered by him in the South I Tardeo, Bombay. ifc .. 



TVT 

- MuNSHI - 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vra. JAN. i, 1921. 



HOOK : OXENBRIDGE : MORTON : POR- 
TRAITS WANTED. Can any of your readers 
give me information about portraits of 
three prominent seventeenth- century divines, 
two of whom graduated at Oxford and one 
at Cambridge ? 

They were all identified with America at 
one time or another. These are the Rev. 
William Hook, a Hampshire man born in 
1601 ; the Rev. John Oxenbridge of the 
same county, born in 1609 ; and the Rev. 
Charles Morton, perhaps born in Wales in 
1626. They are all mentioned in the 
' Dictionary of National Biography. ' I think 
there must be portraits of these men, and 
I should like to know of them. 

C. K. BOLTON. 

G. PYE, BOOK-PLATE DESIGNER. I should 
feel grateful for particulars about this 
designer who nourished between 1790 and 
1810, making a speciality of pictorial and 
armorial plates. He is believed to have 
had business establishments in Birmingham 
and Manchester. ANEURIN WILLIAMS. 

Menai View, North Road, Carnarvon. 

COLLECTIONS SOLD BY AUCTION, LONDON, 
1714. Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' tell me 
what collections of pictures and sculptures 
were sold by auction in London in 1714 
old or new style ? I should be very grateful 
for information. 

(Mrs.) RACHAEL POOLE. 
The Museum House, Oxford. 

WHO WAS JOHNSON'S " PRETTY VOLUM- 
INOUS AUTHOUR " ? Boswell, under 1769, 
(near the end) says : 

" Johnson spoke unfavourably of a certain 
pretty voluminous authour, saying : ' He used 
to write anonymous books, and then other books 
commending those books, in which there was 
something of rascality.' " 

It seems to me that, whoever this may be, 
a little humour must be allowed for in the 
word "rascality." 

Was this Swedenborg ? The ' Arcana 
Caelestia ' (London, 1749-56) were anony- 
mous, and in later and smaller works 
('Heaven and Hell,' 1758, &c.) Swedenborg 
gives long quotations from the ' Arcana ' ; 
in 'Heaven and Hell,' two-thirds of the 
pages quote the 'Arcana.' Moreover, all 
his religious works were anonymous until 
1768, when his name appeared on the title- 
page of the 'De Amore Conjugali.' This 
work, published at Amsterdam in that 
year, would be a natural topic in London 
in the next. 



Boswell would obviously feel a delicacy 
about mentioning Johnson's hostile remark 
with the name of Swedenborg attached, as 
he was already attracting influential fol- 
lowers who were busy translating his Latin 
when Boswell was writing. 

ALBERT J. EDMUNDS. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 

J. E. GORDON, ETCHER. In. 1848 Joseph 
Candall, 12 Old Bond Street, issued an 
album of 38 little etchings, mostly of Ger- 
many and the Isle of Wight, by J. E. Gordon. 
What is known of him or her ? 

J. M. BULLOCH. 

37 Bedford Square, W.C. 

THE BRITISH IN CORSICA. Who were the 
officers and what were the regiments and 
ships engaged in the three occupations by 
the British of Bastia, San Fiorenzo and 
Calvi in Corsica in the years 1745, 1794, and 
1814 ? 

Bastia was in 1814 captured by the 
insurgents, I think, and handed over by 
them to the British. Did the latter invade 
Calvi ? 

There was a General Dundas engaged in 
the operations in 1794, and he was succeeded 
by General D'Aubant and, in 1814, General 
Montresor, but beyond these surnames I can 
find no particulars of them and the 'D.N.B..' 
is in Corsica not available. 

PENRY LEWIS. 

Ajaccio. 

"BELIEVE." I shall be glad to know 
whether any new material is available since 
the publication of the 'Oxford English 
Dictionary ' as to this verb, in particular 
as to its use in sense 3: "Believe in (a 
person or thing), i.e., in its actual existence 
or occurrence " at an earlier date than 
the quotation of 1716 from Lady Mary 
Wortley Montague's 'Letters,' ix. 1. 29. ^ 

Q. V. 

ALIUSTREL BRONZE TABLES. In 1876 an 
ancient bronze table was discovered in the 
copper and silver mine at Aliustrel in Por- 
tugal, both sides of which were covered with 
a Latin text. A second such table was dis- 
covered in the same mine in May, 1906, 
inscribed with ancient mining regulations. 
The text of the first table was dealt with by 
M. Mispoulet in an article entitled 
regime des mines a 1'epoque romaine et au 
Moyen-Age, d'apres la table d' Aliustrel 
in the Nouvelle Revue historique du Droit 
fran^ais et etranger for 1907. The text of 



12 s. vm. JAN. i, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



the second table was published and dis 
cussed by Signor Cattaneo in the Resocont 
delle riunioni delV Associazione Mineraria 
Sarda (Anno XH.). As I am unable to 
-consult either of these foreign periodicals 
\A-ill some kind reader tell me whether 1 can 
find anything about these tables in an 
English publication. L. L. K. 

MR. JOHN DENTON, "Rector of Stone- 
grave in Yorks, and Prebendary of York ' 
so styled on the gravestone of his daughter 
Mrs. Hellen Cock (widow of William Cock, 
mercer, of Kendall, Westmorland) who died 
Jan. 12, 1762, aged 81. No John Denton 
occurs as Prebendary of York in Le Neve's 
* Fasti,' ed. Hardy. The Stonegrave clergy 
list gives Robert Denton, M.A., of Catherine 
Hall, Camb, as rector from May 27, 1700, 
to his death June 1, 1747. Is the inscription 
in error ? J. W. F. 

SCOTT OF ESSEX. (See 7 S. vi. 194). At 
this reference C. GOLDING of Colchester 
mentions a MS. pedigree of the Scott family 
of Glemsford, co. Suffolk, in his possession. 
I should like to learn of the present where- 
abouts of this MS. C. B. A. 

BEVERLEY WHITING, son of Henry Whit- 
ing of Virginia matriculated at Oxford 
TTniversity from Ch. Ch. in 1722. Can any 
American correspondent of ' N. & Q.' give 
me further particulars of this man ? 

G. F. R. B. 

BRONCIVIMONT BEER. In his 'Travels 
Tavernier, writing of Batavia, says, " one 
must pay 40 sols for a pint of beer, whether 
English or of Broncivimont. " Where was 
this beer brewed, and what was its peculia- 
rity ? EMERITUS. 

SAVERY FAMILY OF MARLBOROUGH, WILTS. 
I should be very grateful for information 
respecting Martha, the wife of Servington 
Savery, M.D., of Marlborough, who died in 
1096, aged 34. What was her maiden 
name ? She is buried at St. Peter's Church, 
Marlborough, and her arms impaled with 
those of her husband on the monument 
in the church (tinctures not expressed, the 
colours being probably worn away), are a 
chevron between three crosses moline, two 
and one. 

I should also be glad to know the maiden 
name of Mary, the wife of the Rev. Serving- 
ton Savery, A.M., of St. John's College, 
Oxford, only grandson of the above Serving- 
ton Savery, M.D. She died Dec. 23, 1766, 



aged 51, and is buried with her husband at 
St. Peter's Church and to whom there was 
originally a brass on the floor of the chancel 
which disappeared at the restoration of the 
church in 1864. LEONARD C. PRICE. 

'THE WESTERN MISCELLANY,' 1775 AND 
1776. There has just recently come into 
my hand a volume in old binding, appar- 
ently co-eval with or circa the above date, 
the contents of which are pp. 541-660, with 
title-page and index of vol. v. of TheWestern 
Miscellany, pp. 25-648 of vol. vi., and the 
first weekly part of vol. vii., viz., for Monday, 
Oct. 7, 1776, pp. 1-24, printed at Sherborne, 
by R. Goadby. 

The contents are of a miscellaneous 
character and a feature was the provision 
weekly of two to four pages of Enigmas, 
Rebuses, Mathematical, Algebraic and As- 
tronomical problems, nearly all both as 
questions and solutions, being versified and 
contributed by persons residing in the west, 
from Cornwall upwards. 

Can your readers oblige with particulars 
of its continuance after 1776, the names of 
its editors, &c. W. S. B. H. 

HAMBLY HOUSE, STREATHAM. A 12mo 
Book of Common Prayer, 1823, has inside 
its front cover a label of crimson leather 
lettered in gold : 

" This prize book was adjudged to Master 
T. H. Davison who was first in the 4th class in 
the examination at Hambly House, Streatham, 
June 16, 1827." 

Was the house named a well-known academy, 
and where in Streatham was it situated ? 

W. B. H. 

"BARONS." In proceedings for trespass 
brought by John Payne against John Arthur 
it was alleged that the latter on Nov. 30, 
1491, by force and arms, namely with sticks 
and knives fished in the. several (i.e., private) 
fishery of John Payne at Weston-super-Mare 
and took and carried away 100 horse-loads 
of fish called "barons," 400 fish called 
"tubbelyns," 300 " haddokkes," and 200 
''whitynges," and inflicted other enormities 
bo his serious injury. 

"Tubbelyns" we know, for young cod 
are still known by that name, here, on the 
shore of the Severn Sea, and haddock we 
snow, and whiting we know, but we are 
sorely and sadly puzzled about " barons ": 
nany dictionaries we have searched in vain, 
and local inquiries have produced no results. 
Evidently they were a small fish, too small 
to be counted separately like cod, haddock 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. i, 1921. 



or whiting, and were only dealt with by the 
horse-load. November is the month for 
sprat fishing, and great quantities of them, 
boat-loads of them, are caught here every 
autumn. We rather think that "barons ": 
must be sprats, but we have no authority 
for this surmise, and it would appear that 
we shall not have any such authority, until 
the readers of ' N. & Q. ' pelt us with replies. 

ERNEST E. BAKER. 
The Glebe House, Weston-super-Mare. 

JOHN HUGHES OF LIVERPOOL, A.D. 1706. 
Particulars of the parentage and education 
of John Hughes are desired. 

He transcribed, "in Mason's characters," 
the Book of Common Prayer and Adminis- 
tration of the Sacraments, together with the 
Psalter or Psalms of David, &c., at Liver- 
pool, 1706. WALLACE GANDY. 
78 Egmont Road, Sutton, Surrey. 

DANIEL DEFOE IN THE PILLORY. Pope 
says that Daniel Defoe, author of ' Robinson 
Crusoe,' when put in the pillory, had his 
ears cut off. But I cannot verify this as a 
fact. Defoe stood in the pillory on July 29, 
30 and 31, 1703. His offence was, I believe, 
that of writing against the High Church party. 
I should like to know precise facts of his 
mutilation and offence. G. B. M. 

WOODBURN COLLECTION. I have several 
drawings and pictures which have on their 
reverse sides notes to the effect that they 
came from " the Woodburn Collection." I 
should be pleased if any reader could give 
me any information concerning it. 

A. STANTON WHITFIELD. 

Bentley Moor, Walsall. 

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. 
1. I should be glad to know the source of the 
quotation appended which appeared in an 
obituary notice in The, Times within the last 
twelve months. The Chief Constable of Lanca- 
shire is desirous of using it (with acknowledg- 
ments) on the memorial that is being erected to 
the men of the force who fell. 
Shall we not offer up our best and highest ? 
When duty calls can we forbear to give ? 
This be thy record where in peace thou liest 
' He gave his life that England's soul should live." 
I should be glad to be informed if it is copy- 
right. ARTHUR BRIERLEY. 

2. O England, in the smoking trenches dying 

For all the world, 
We hold our breath, and watch your bright 

flag flying, 
While ours is furled. 

These lines aresa id to have been published in a 
New York newspaper in February, 1915. What 
was the paper, and who was the author ? 

HARMATOPEGOS. 



JUpius. 

CRUIKSHANK AND WESTMINSTER 
SCHOOL. 

(12 S. i. 347). 

LOOKING back through the war volumes of 
*N. & Q.' I have just come across URLLAD 's 
query. I also have a copy of the cutting. 
The picture and letterpress form part of a 
review of 

'"The Devil's Walk.' By Coleridge and 
Southey. A New Edition, with several additional 
Engravings by Robert Cruikshank. Sirnpkin & 
Marshall." 

The commencement of the review, printed 
above the picture, is as follows : 

" Nearly thirty thousand copies of this jeu d 1 esprit 
having been already disposed of, we do not pretend 
to sit in judgment on its merit in the eleventh hour. 
It is, perhaps, all things considered, one of the 
riost singular poems ever penned ; having given 
rise to almost endless controversy respecting its- 
real authorship. That point is now, however, 
satisfactorily ascertained, and with its new illus- 
trations we consider it a rare morqtau. Our artist, 
Robert Cruikshank, seems to have entered into the 
spirit of the author with a real gusto, and has 
given us some rich specimens of his extraordinary 
talent. We select, by the kind permission of the 
Proprietor, the following characteristic sketch of" 

The remainder of the . review is quoted by 
URLLAD, subject to the following corrections, 
no doubt where his copy is frayed: for 
" very correct " read " A very correct " ; for 
" our hero "read " for our hero " ; for " he's 
well qualified " read " him well qualified." 

I cannot say where the cutting comes 
from ; the following passage printed on the- 
back suggests 1832 as the date: 

"QUERY FOR ARITHMETICIANS : If it cost a 
man fifty shillings to have his own windows broken 
by as many men at night, that being over hours, 
what will it cost the same individual to be cheered 
by an equal number of persons in the middle of the 
day ? If Coker cannot furnish an answer perhaps 
the Duke of Wellington can." 

Surely URLLAD wrongs the memory of a 
great headmaster in describing the figure of 
the schoolmaster in the caricature as a por- 
trait of Busby ; it bears no resemblance to- 
any of his portraits, and though Richard 
Busby liked his pint of claret, nothing in his 
character was compatible with a nose of 
the magnificent proportions depicted in the 
caricature. 

If URLLAD should by chance be able to 
identify the source of the cutting I should 
be grateful if he would let me know it. 

J. D. WHITMORE. 



12 s. vm. JAN. i,i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



JOHN THORNTON OF COVENTRY (12 S. vii. 
481). I may safely leave Mr. Le Couteur 
and others to deal with MR. KNOWLES'S 
theories about John Thornton. But with 
regard to his suggestion that the east window 
of Great Malvern Priory Church may be his 
work, I should like to make the following 
remarks. 

1. We possess only one date for the 
rebuilding of the quire of Great Malvern, 
and that is the consecration of the altars in 
1460, marking the completion of the work. 
The rebuilding must have taken several 
years, but I do not think the "glazing of the 
east window can be put back beyond 1450, 
at "the very earliest. Thornton must have 
been dead long before that. 

2. For years past I have been on the look 
out for analogies with the Malvern window, 
and with this object I have seen a good deal 
of mediaeval glass all over England. But 
I have never yet found anything in im- 
mediate relation with it. Some ten years 
ago, I made a study of the York glass from 
this point of view, and with the same result. 
Beyond what is common to all fifteenth- 
century glass painting, I cannot see any 
resemblance between Thornton's work and 
the Malvern east window, either in style or 
details. G. McM. RUSHFORTH, F.S.A. 

Riddlesden, Malvern Wells. 

DANIEL VINECOMBE (7 S. vi. 487). This 
query is of ancient date, but I have just 
perused D. Vinecombe's will, which disposes 
of a part of it. After leaving legacies of 
money or pieces of plate to a long list of 
'cousins," he makes similar bequests to 
friends, and among others a piece of plate 
to Eustace Budgell, son of Gilbert Budgell, 
D.D. There can be no doubt that the 
latter was the G. B., D.D., mentioned at the 
above reference. Eustace Budgell was 
"X." of The Spectator, whose name is in- 
cluded in the 'D.N.B.' The tankard re- 
ferred to in the query passed to Daniel 
Michell as the residuary legatee and prin- 
cipal heir. A. T. M. 

SNIPE IN BELGRAVE SQUARE (12 S. vii. 390, 

437, 476, 498). The Flask in Ebury Square 
was "the resort of those who came out 
duck-hunting, a sport much followed in the 
ponds about" ('Notes and Topographical 
Memoranda relating to the Out -Wards of 
St. George's, Hanover Square.' Appendix 
to a printed lecture by C. J. B. Aldis on the 
Sanitary Condition of large towns and of 
Belgravia, 1837). It is known that the 



whole area was formerly " The Five Fields," 
and has a subsoil of clean bright gravel and 
sand, much of the over-lying clay having: 
been dug up and made into bricks by Mr. 
Thomas Cubitt the builder who replaced it 
with an immense quantity of brick rubbish 
brought from all parts of London and which 
raised the surface 8 or 9 feet. Mr. Ward, 
then in the employ of Mr. Cubitt, informed 
Mr. Aldis that prior to this alteration of 
levels and building the area was marshy 
and repeatedly inundated, so that ducks, 
snipe, and other water-fowl frequented it. 
ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

VAN DER PLAES (12 S. vii. 29). The 
brief notice of this artist in Bryan's Dic- 
tionary should be corrected and supple- 
mented by the account given in A. J. 
van der Aa's ' Biographisch Woordenboek- 
der Nederlanden,' where references are given 
to various sources of information. Accord- 
ing to one authority (Kramm) David van 
der Plaes was born some years earlier than 
1647. Mention is made among his works of 
portraits of Prince Hendrik Casimir, Cor- 
nelis Tromp, son of the more famous admiral 
(why do so many English writers persist in 
writing " van Tromp"? Pepys was not 
guiltless), Jonkheer Hendrik van der Dols 
and his wife. For some years he worked 
for the publisher Pieter Mortier. who apppears 
in Bryan's Dictionary as Martin. A portrait 
of van der Plaes, engraved by Houbraken, 
is to be found on p. 58 of ' De Levens- 
beschryvingen der nederlandsche Konst- 
schilders en Konst-Schilderessen,' 1729, and 
a life on pp. 63-65. EDWARD BENSLY. 

EARLY RAILWAY TRAVELLING (12 S. 
vii. 461, 511). The writer of the letter 
printed at the first reference mentions early 
railway signalling by means of men 
posted at intervals along the line. That was 
known as "police signalling," by reason of 
the fact that no telegraphic or other system 
yet existed, and it was deemed necessary, in 
view of the absence of present-day discipline, 
to place the traffic in charge of police 
constables, who passed on the trains, by 
hand signals, in the manner noted by your 
correspondent. It is interesting to note 
that the old "hand signal " code survives 
at the present time in railway practice. 

The railway policeman figures in Punch,, 
and the uniform was the same as that 
described, including the bearing of the 
constable's staff. For the above reasons 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.vm. JAN. 1,1021. 



the modern railway signalman is often 
.to-day still termed the " bobby." 

The L. and N.W.R. Police Force retained 
in use the tall hat until the end of the 
'eighties, and were the last, I believe, to 
; relinquish the old-time usage. 

W. E. EDWABDS. 

LONDON IN THE FIFTIES AND SIXTIES : 
POLICE UNIFORMS (12 S. vii. 431, 475). I 
believe an illustration, is to be found in The 
Illustrated London News of the year 1862, 
depicting a London police constable, attired 
in helmet and tunic, that being the earliest 
record I can find. 

The County Constabulary, however, re- 
tained the tall hat for a longer period ; in the 
West of England it survived until the end of 
the 'sixties, but the leathern crowns were 
long before discarded. The tall hat was of 
beaver, having side stays of iron, so con- 
necting the brim and crown. The so-called 
"swallowtail " was really a modification of 
the outdoor dress of the period, and it was 
officially described as a "dress coat." The 
belt was worn in combination therewith, 
and each constable carried an unsheaved 
truncheon, including the House of Commons 
police. The dress coat, however, was but- 
toned up to the neck, and the collar was of 
the high type still worn by the Guards when 
in full dress. A stock was also included in 
the equipment, and a song, extant in the 
'sixties, ran thus : 

I would I were a bobby, 
Dressed up in bobbies' clothes, 
With a hi^h-crowned hat, &c. 

W. E. EDWABDS. 
Croxley Green. 

THE LEGITIMIST KALENDAB (12 S. vii. 471). 
The first issue of the Legitimist Kalendar 
was for the year 1894. It consisted of 
32 pages, and was published by Henry & 
-Co., 6 Bouverie Street, London, price one 
shilling nett. The editor's note on the 
back of the cover-title-page is dated 
December, 1893. In this note it is stated 
that "the Legitimist Kalendar will be issued 
annually and the editor hopes to enlarge 
it considerably year by year." 

F. H. C. 

The fourth and last edition was that for 
the year 1910. It was printed for the 
Forget - Me - Not Royalist Club, and Messrs 
Phillimore, 124 Chancery Lane, W.C., were 
offering a few copies (issued at 10s), at 
7s. Qd. net, in 1915. Amongst the contents 



of genealogical interest were folding pedi- 
grees showing the seize quart iers of the 
de jure sovereigns of England, the names 'of 
persons exempted from the various Acts of 
Indemnity, a list of titles still under attainder 
for fidelity to the Legitimist Dynasty, a list 
of the Ministers, &c., of the exiled Stuart 
sovereigns, and a list of 492 non-jurors, 
arranged under Dioceses ; the whole indexed. 

FBED. R. GALE. 
Crookbury, Fitzjohn Avenue, High Barnet. 

The last edition of this book was pub- 
lished in 1910. Copies can still be obtained 
from Phillimore & Co., Chancery Lane. 

G. 

PIEBBE FBAN^OIS GAILLABD (12S. vii. 489). 
This arch criminal, and his mate Pierre 
Victor Avril, were both guillotined at 
Bicetre on the morning of Saturday, Jan. 9, 
1836. A graphic account of their remarkable 
careers and last moments is given in 
' Studies of French Criminals ' by the late 
H. B. Irving. WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

He is the subject of a very interesting 
article entitled 'False Poet but Genuine 
Assassin,' by the late H. B. Irving in The 
Weekly Dispatch (Aug. 20, 1920). It may 
be added that Gaillard's (nom-de-plume 
" Lacenaire ") contributions to Parisian 
periodical publications (verse and prose) are 
still sought by "morbid" collectors in 
France. It was also said (about thirty 
years ago) that some of his unpublished 
MSS. were sold by a relative to a London 
literary agent, and adaptations were pub- 
lished anonymously by the now extinct 
firms of Edwin J. Brett (of Fleet Street) and 
James Henderson (of Red Lion Court) in 
their once popular periodicals. 

ANDBEW DE TEBNANT. 

Louis NAPOLEON : POETICAL WOBKS (12 S. 
vii. 490). Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (King 
of Holland), brother of Napoleon I. and 
father of Napoleon III., was a "poet," and 
published two collections of poems. These 
have been sometimes attributed to the son, 
Napoleon III., who before becoming Em- 
peror of the French was known as Prince 
Louis Napoleon, and during his exile in 
England wrote works dealing with politics 
and occasional sonnets, songs, and epigrams. 
The David Bogue publication is probably a 
translation of a selection. Napoleon III., 
however, after becoming emperor published 
no poetical works in French. His great 
literary work was the ' Life of Julius Caesar. ' 



12 s. vin. JAN. i,io2i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



Xucien Bonaparte (Prince de Canino), 
another brother of Napoleon I., was the 
author of a poem entitled ' Charlemagne, 
ou 1'Eglise delivree ' (two vols.. 1814, English 
translation by S. Butler^ and F. Hodgson 
London, 1815), and 'La Cyrneide, ou la 
Oorse sauvee ' (twelve cantos). The poeti- 
cal works of Napoleon I., most youthful 
-efforts, will be found in the ' CEuvres 
litteraires de Napoleon Bonaparte ' (vol. i.), 
edited by Tancrede Martel (Paris, Albert 
,Savine, 1888). ANDREW DE TERNANT. 
36 Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S. W. 

ARMS OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE (12 S. 
vii. 447). A paper was read by the late 
Admiral Albert H. Markham, K.C.B., in 
May, 1904, in Budrum Castle, Malta, and 
is printed, with reproductions of photo- 
graphs showing the heraldic carvings on 
the walls and towers, in Ars Quatuor Corona- 
torum., vol. xviL 74-80. W. B. H. 

EMERSON'S 'ENGLISH TRAITS ' (12 S 

vii. 428, 473). 9. " A blind savant, like 

Sanderson." This was Nicholas Sanderson, 
the blind mathematician. If your corre- 
spondent is requiring any further informa- 
tion not in print and will write to me T shall 
~be happy to help him, having compiled a 
pedigree of the family from wills proved at 
York and London and from the inscriptions 
which I have copied from Penistone, Yorks 
.and Boxworth, Cambs, &c. 

CHAS. HALL CROUCH. 
1>04 Hernaon Hill, South Woodford, E.18. 

DIXON or FURNESS FELLS (12 S. vii. 410). 
The last plate in Bout ell's 'Monumental 
Brasses of England ' reproduces the canopy 
(only) of the brass on the tomb of Nicholas 
Dixori (1448). Haines also describes him 
.as "Pipe Subthesaurarius. " 

WALTER E. GAWTHORP. 

16 Long Aero, W.C.2. 

ADMIRAL BENBOW (12 S. vii. 431, 478). 
am much obliged to Mr. W. P. H. POLLOCK 
for his reply re, Admiral Benbow, but I did 
)t want any account about the Sallee 
Rovers, but one concerning some pirates 
the Admiral took shortly before he met 
T)u Casse. 

Respecting the latter part of MR. POL- 
>CK'S note, I can only say that it is 
litional in my family that the money 
awarded to the Admiral was 4,OOOZ. I will 
>t say how manv millions it now amounts 
-though I pretty well know. 



I have the coat-of-arms (it is painted on 
wood, and the one on the Admiral's tomb- 
stone at Kingstown, Jamaica, is a copy). 

Paul Calton's account, which he gave to 
Campbell, is not to be relied on ; he said the 
Admiral left only two sons, he left three. 
I have a copy of his will in which he specially 
mentions his three sons. 

If MR. POLLOCK, or any one interested, 
will write to me, I shall be pleased to 
answer. I have spent many years collecting 
facts about my ancestor (I am a lineal 
descendant). H. STEWART BENBOW. 

Stetchford, Birmingham. 

NOTES ON THE EARLY DE REDVERS (12 S. 
vii. 445). It seems impossible to kill the 
myth that Richard de Reviers, or Redvers, 
was the son of Baldwin de Meules (alias 
Baldwin of Exeter), Sheriff of Devonshire, 
whose father was Count Gilbert of Brionne. 
Stapleton tried to do so ( ' Mag. Rot. Scacc. 
Norm.,' II. cclxix), but it cropped up again 
in Burke's 'Extinct Peerage,' p. 140, and 
Cobbe's 'Norman Kings of England,' 
Table II. Planche did his Jbest t3 slay the 
mistake ('Conqueror and his Companions,' 
ii. 45), but it re-appeared in the ' D.N.B.' 
sub "Baldwin," as was long ago pointed 
out by Dr. Round ('Feudal England,' 
p. 486). 

The parentage of Richard de Reviers has 
never been proved. The best that can be 
said on the question is to be found in the 
article on the Earls of Devon in vol. iv. of 
the new edition of the 'Complete Peerage.' 
This is contributed by Mr. G. W. Watson, 
who, I suppose, is the .leading authority 
after Dr. Round on Norman and Anglo- 
Norman genealogy. The theory that 
Richard de Reviers survived until 1137, 
instead of dying in 1107, is founded on the 
confusion between him and Richard Fitz 
Baldwin, son of Baldwin of Exeter. 

It is certain that, as DR. WHITEHEAD 
states, Richard de Reviers was never Earl 
of Devonshire ; and for that very reason 
he could not have been "Earl of Exeter." 
As Dr. Round explained, in the twelfth 
century an earl was always the earl of a 
county, but his title might be taken from 
either (1) his county ; (2) the capital of his 
county ; (3) his chief residence ; or (4) his 
family name ( ' Geoffrey de Mandeville,' 
pp. 145, 273, 320-1). Thus no one but the 
Earl of Devonshire could or would be 
styled Earl of Exeter. G. H. WHITE. 
23 Weighton Road, Anerley. 



16 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.vm. JAN. 1,1921. 



THE TRAGEDY OF NEW ENGLAND (12 S. 
vii. 446, 493). The authorities for the note 
hereon are many and varied, but chiefly 
seventeenth and eighteenth century his- 
torians. Amongst others Speed's 'Views 
of the American Colonies'; Neale's 'His- 
tory (not of the Puritans, but) of New 
England,' and another author whose name 
is not given in the 'History ' (1708-41) 
which is dedicated to the Attorney-General 
of Barbadoes. In the preface it is declared 
that 

" there was no part of this history which had not 
been shown to persons who have lived in those 
parts of the world, and been approved by them." 

One of those who were largely responsible 
for the prosecutions for "witchcraft " was 
Cotton Mather, the son of a Lancashire man. 
His book on the ' Wonders of the Invisible 
World, with a further Account of the Trials 
of the New England Witches,' by Increase 
Mather over-confirms some of the things 
charged against the "witch" prosecutors, 
for where one author affirms that even a 
dog was' hung for "witchcraft," Cotton 
Mather says two were executed. 

Nothing was charged against the "Pil- 
grims " for their treatment of the native 
Indians, but in this matter the Duke de 
la Rochefoucauld's ' Travels in the United 
States ' (circa 1794) may be consulted ; and 
the speech of " Red Jacket," an Indian chief 
at an assembly of tribes at New York before 
General Knox the Governor; and for the 
names of the founders of the First Settle- 
ments of North America, and the dates 
thereof Guthrie's ' Grammar of Geography ' 
published in 1798. This book names nine- 
teen separate colonies founded in North 
America between 1608 and 1787. 

M. N. 

See Rufus M. Jones, ' The Quakers in the 
American Colonies' (Macmillan, 1911) for 
the persecution of the Quakers in New Eng- 
land, and also for the exile of Anne Hutchin- 
son and others from the Massachusetts Bay 
colony in 1 637 for their religious opinions. 

M. H. DODDS. 

Home House, Kell's Lane, Low Fell, Gateshead. 

MLLE. MEBCANDOTTI (12 S. vii. 448, 493). 
There is a good deal about Edward Hughes 
Ball Hughes and Maria Mercandotti, in 
'The Beaux of the Regency' by Lewis 
Melville, 1908, which is well indexed. 
Facing p. 159 of vol. ii. is an etching by 
Richard Dighton (1819) of 'The Golden 
Ball. ' 



Hughes not only owned Oatlands, where 
the honeymoon was spent, but also "rented 
a mansion in Greenwich Park " where he 
and his wife 

"kept open house; but after a while there were 
quarrels, which led to a separation, and eventually 
a divorce. It is not clear, however, on which side 
was the fault." 

Hughes served for a short time in the 
army. He was commissioned a cornet in 
the 7th Light Dragoons, Aug. 28, 1817, and 
placed on half -pay Feb. 11, 1819. See 
Army List of 1834. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

FRIDAY STREET (12 S. vii. 490). Stow in 
his 'Survey ' (1842 edn. at p. 131), dealing 
with the Friday Street in the City of London r 
says " so called of fishmongers dwelling 
there, and serving Friday's market/' Per- 
haps the other Friday Streets were also fish, 
markets. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGKT. 

According to Hare ('Walks in London,' 
vol. i. p. 185), Stow says that the metro- 
politan example gets its name from " Fish- 
mongers dwelling there and serving Friday's 
markets." ST. SWITHIN, 

Does not this name usually denote a fish 
market ? I fancy this is the case with the 
old Marche de Vendredi, at Antwerp - 
although nowadays it attracts because of the 
presence there of the Folk Lore Museum, 
with its interesting ancient domestic utensils,, 
&c. J. LANDFEAR LUCAS.. 

101 Piccadilly, W. 

THE TALBOT INN, ASHBOURNE (12 S. 
vii. 350, 438, 515). The following additional 
information, also contributed to The Ash- 
bourne News, has reached me : 

"Mr. A. M. Wither, of Parr's Bank, Ashbourne,. 
informs us that the late Mr. W. R. Holland, who 
was admittedly an authority on local history, on, 
one occasion pointed out to him the premises next 
to the Town Hall, and formerly the offices of 
Messrs. Allsopp, the Burton brewers, as the old 
Talbot Inn, and there is certainly a good deal about 
the appearance of the building that suggests it may 
have been a hostelry at one time. So far. it will be 
seen, there are three opinions expressed as to the 
position of the Talbot. In his letter last week,. 
Mr. Twells referred to the late flev. Francis Jour- 
dain's contention that the inn occupied the site of 
the present Town Hall. We quote the following 
from the rev. gentleman's article on 'Ashbourne 
Signs : Ancient and Modern,' which appeared in. 
the 'Ashbourne Annual' of 1898: 'The Talbot 
stood in the Market Place, on the site of the 
present Town Hall. This reminds us of the Earls 
of Shrewsbury, who were once intimately con- 
nected with Ashbourne. In the Grammar School 
books the following entry occurs : '1614. Itni laid 



12 s. vin. JAN. i,i92ii NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17 



downe'for a prnt (i. e., present) given to the Earl 
of Shrew.sburie, at Ashburne. fur two gallons of 
claret wine 5s. iiiid. To Gregory Bircumshaw for 
a cake xviijd. To Thomas Taylor for sugar iis.' 
Two Talbots or Mastiffs are to this day the sup- 
porters of the Shrewsbury arms. The inn itself 
was evidently a place of note, and the arms in its 
windows were noted by the Herald when visiting 
Ashbourne in 1611. It is thus mentioned in 
Walton & Cotton's ' Angler,' where Piseator says : 
' We will only call and drink a glass on horseback 
at the Talbot and away,' and the travellers order 
ale, in spite of the warning given later on, that 
'Ashbourne has. whioh is a kind of riddle, always 
in it the best malt, and the worst ale in England.' 
The following notices of this famous house appear 
in the register; ' Buried 1639, P^dmund Buxton, of 
the Taibot. Baptized June 15, 1 7 15. Ann, daughter 
of Mr. Rob. Law, at the Talbot. Received July 24, 
1717, to church, Richard, son of Mr. Rob. Law, of 
the Talbot, which child was baptized by Mr. Dakin 
above a month ago. Baptized March 8. H'2'2-2, 
Gilbert, son of Mr. Jeremiah Groves (Talbot), 
Ashburne.' " 
This should prove of interest. 

CECIL CLARKE. 
Junior Athenaeum Club. 

DEATH OF QUEEN ANNE (12 S. vii. 508). 
There seems to have been another "white 
handkerchief " incident connected with this 
event. I have seen it related that on that 
memorable Aug. 1 Bishop Burnet, driving 
to court, met near Sinithfield Mr. John 
Bradford whom he stopped to speak to, 
and to whom he promised that should the 
Queen have passed away he would send a 
messenger to Mr. Bradford's chapel, who 
should announce the event by dropping a 
white handkerchief from the gallery. This 
was duly done, but Bradford took no notice 
until in his closing prayer he invoked bless- 
ings on the head of our rightful Sovereign 
King George the First ! It is matter of 
liistory how profoundly the Queen's death 
at that moment affected the fortunes of 
Nonconformity. SURREY. 

ANCIENT HISTORY OF ASSAM (12 S. 
vii. 110). If J. S. can see William Robin- 
son's 'Assam,' Calcutta, 1841, I think he' 
will find something to his purpose in chap. iv. 
J. W. FAWCETT. 

Templetown House, Consett. 

HOYAL ARMS IN CHURCHES (12S. vii. 470, 
517). In my communication at the second 
reference, 1. 11, "It would seem thatiu 1614 
it was unusual " should read it was usual. 

The church of Groombridge in Kent, 
"built by John Packer, Clerk of the Privy 
Seal to Charles I., in fulfilment of a vow, as 
-a thanksgiving for the safe return of the 



Prince of Wales from Spain, has in stone 
over the entrance porch a representation -of 
the Prince of Wales 's feathers and below it 
an inscription reading " D.O.M.S. ob felicissi- 
mum Caroli Principis ex Hispanijs reditum 
hoc Sacellum d.d. 1625, J. P." 

A house in Gold Street, Saffron, Walden, 
Essex, on the east side, has in plaster work 
the feathers and motto of the Prince of 
Wales, with the initials P. A., of probably 
early seventeenth-century date ; and in the 
oriel window of the great hall of Horham 
Hall, also in Essex, is a panel of glass dating 
probably from the early sixteenth century 
which also bears the motto and feathers. 
STEPHEN J. BARNS. 

Frating, Woodside Road, Woodford Wells. 

"Now THEN ! " (12 S. vii. 469, 512). 
This expression was used in Anglo-Saxon 
times and is found in sentences indicating a 
command. There is no temporal signification 
attached to the "now " and the "then " 
is unemphatic and enclitic. A somewhat 
similar French expression is or $a, which is 
used to imply that something begins, or 
being synonymous with maintenant and fd 
an interjection that is intended as an 
enc o uragement . 

T. PERCY ARMSTRONG. 

DOMESTIC HISTORY OF THE NINETEENTH 
CENTURY (12 S. vii. 191, 216, 257, 295, 399, 
452). The late Rhoda Broughton, in her 
last novel, 'A Fool in Her Folly,' when 
writing about a matter which appears to 
have taken place soon after the Indian 
Mutiny had been suppressed, states, in 
chap. xiii. : 

" Afternoon tea was still an upstart struggling 
for recognition ; born indeed and with a great 
future, but in many oases to be indulged in 
privately like dram-drinking, smuggled into 
bedrooms durin? visits, and sometimes shared 
with confidential servants in housekeeper's 
rooms." 

I presume that she refers to about the year 
1860. 

I do not think that afternoon-tea came 
into general use until about 1874; I think 
it was about this time that the late King 
Edward, when Prince of Wales, started the 
fashion of dining at a much later hour than 
the then recognized time. Afternoon -tea 
must have been a very rare thing in 1860 ; 
friends of mine, who are old enough to 
remember their daily life at that period, 
tell me that this date is far too early. I know 
that when visitors called, in the afternoon, 
at my father's house, they were offered 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. JAN. i, 1921. 



port, sherry, and sweet biscuits. This was 
the custom, certainly, about 1866, for 
I generally took toll of the biscuits during 
transit. Perhaps this was a custom in 
what was then called a middle-class family, 
and did not apply to those higher up in 
life ; who were called by the general term 
of "the Gentry," whatever that may have 
meant. HERBERT SOUTHAM. 

LONDON POST-MARKS (12 S. vii. 290,355). 

Would MR. WILLIAM GILBERT kindly 

give further particulars of John G. Hendy's 
' Post-marks of the British Isles from 1840 
to 1876 '? I have Hendy's work dealing 
with post-marks down to 1840 ; but the 
publishers of it know nothing of the con- 
tination, nor can I find any mention of the 
continuation in the ordinary books of 
reference. ERNEST S. GLADSTONE. 

Woolton Vale, Liverpool. 

FOLK-LORE OF THE ELDER (12 S. vi. 259, 
301 ; vii. 37, 59). According to Mr. Yoshi- 
wara's ' A Bundle of Magical Cures ' in the 
Kotyo Kenkyo, vol. i., no. 9, p. 563, Tokyo, 
1913, some folks in the southern part of the 
province Hidachi in Japan have the follow- 
ing formula for curing the toothache : 

" Bake as many beans as the mimber of years 
of the patient's age till they are quite black, bury 
them under a living elder, and ask it, ' Please 
take your food with deaf ears and rotting teeth 
until these beans begin to grow.' " 

Needless it is to say baked beans shall 
never bud and the toothache will never recur. 
The Japanese elder is Sambucus racemosa L.. 
which also grows in Southern Europe. 

KUMAGUSU MlNAKATA. 
Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

OXFORD (ORFORD) HOUSE, WALTHAMSTOW 
(12 S. vii. 469). This should read Orford 
House. The owl cameo denotes the crest 
of the family of Kemp, former residents of 
the premises, otherwise I believe the pro- 
perty is without historj^. 

WILLIAM R. POWER. 

157 Stamford Hill, N.16 

DR. ALEXANDER KEITH (12 S. vii. 406, 
478). As Dr. Keith did not understand the 
language spoken by the natives, it is quite 
possible that he got hold of the wrong 
version of the tale. On the other hand it 
is quite possible he was deliberately deceived. 
It is doubtful that a special law was enacted 
to meet our differential treatment to dead 
aliens. Probably the facts were that the 
hotel-keeper was anxious to get rid of the 
body as an undesirable object to give house- 



room to in his hostelry, and the mythical 
law was given as an excuse for his haste. 
The yarn about the two men watching for 
Dr. Keith's last breath is also ridiculous,, 
because they would not be allowed to touch 
a body until the " corpse- viewer " had seen 
it and given permission to remove it. As it 
was Miss Pardoe who came to the divine's 
rescue, perhaps she has related the incident 
in her ' The City of the Magyar ' (London, 
1840). L. L. K. 

PICTURE BY SIR LESLIE WARD (12 S. 
vii. 470). The. picture, about which L. Q. 
inquires, is not improbably a full-length oil- 
painting, life size, of the first wife of the 
late Col. Harry McCalmont who died in 
1902. He married in 1885 Amy, daughter 
of Major General Miller, and she died in 
1889. The portrait was an admirable, like- 
ness of the poor lady, and one of the gifted 
artist's happiest efforts. If I am correct in 
this conjecture, though Sir Leslie may have 
painted portraits of other ladies, the picture 
is now at Syston Court near Bristol, the 
residence of Mrs. Rawlins, a sister of the 
late Col. McCalmont 

WlLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

MISSING WORDS WANTED (12 S. vii. 232, 296 J. 
" Come not when I am dead." May I say in 
answer to a supplementary question that this 
poem has been very beautifully set to music, 
I forget by whom, but I remember the air well. 
The song with its setting was included in a 
volume of Songs from Tennyson published some 
forty years ago. I should be very glad to know 
whether this is still obtainable. Unf ortun ately- 
I remember neither the editor nor the publisher,, 
but the musical contributors were the most 
famous English composers of the day, such as 
Sullivan, Barnby, Macfarren, <fcc. The book 
was published, I believe, at 21s. C. C. B. 

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. 
(12 S. vii. 491.) 

The lines which M. P. N. sends are by Tennyson.- 
They are to be found, under the title'' The Silent 
Voices,' on p. 855 of his ' Complete Works,' one 
vol., (Macmillan, 1894), having first appeared in 
1892, in ' The Death of Oenone, and other Poems.' 
Tennyson's own text is less profuse of capitals, 
" black " and " starry " in the first and eighth . 
lines being undistinguished. EDWARD BENSLY. 

This poem was set to music by Lady Tennyson, 
arranged for four voices by Sir F. Bridge, and 
sung at the Laureate's funeral in Westminster 
Abbey on Oct. 12, 1892. 

ALICE M. WILLIAMS. 

Of " When the dumb hour," Palgrave in his 
' Golden Treasury of Songs and Lyrics,' Second 
Series, has this note : " The poet's last lines, 
dictated on his deathbed. If a friendship of near 
half a century may allow me to say it ; these 



12 s. vin. JAX. i,i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



solemn words ' As sorrowful, yet always rejoic- 
ing,' give tte true key to Alfred Tennyson's 
inmost nature, his life and his poetry." 

(12 g. vii. 511.) 

2. This is an incorrect quotation from "'The 
Stirrup Cup. 'as sung by Mr. Santley. Written by 
H. B. Farnie, composed by L. Arditi. London, 
Chappel& Co," 

Probably the song was published about 1875-80. 
It was in its time very popular ; witness the fact 
that it was published in three keys. The two verses 
are as follows : 
The last saraband has been danc'd in the hall, 

The last prayer breath'd by the maiden ere 

sleeping, 
The light of the cresset has died from the wall, 

Yet still a love-watch with my Lady I'm keeping. 
My charger is dangling his bridle and chain, 

The moment is neariug dear love ! we must sever; 
But pour out the wine, that thy lover may drain 

A last stirrup-cup to his true maiden ever ! 

I cannot ride off, I am heavy with fears, 

No gay disregard from the flagon I borrow, 
I pledge thee in wine, but 'tis mingled with tears, 

Twin-type of the Love that is shaded by sorrow ; 
But courage, mine own one, and if it be willed 

That back from the red field thy gallant come 

never, 
In death he'll remember, the she who had filled 

His last stirrup-cup was his true maiden ever ! 

Later there appeared * The Gift and the Giver,' 
sequel to 'The Stirrup Cup,' by the same authors 
and publishers, also "sung by Mr. Santley." A 
foot-note on p. 1 as to the title "The Gift, and the 
Giver' says, "A favorite inscription, in olden 
times, on betrothal rings." 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 



Shakespeare's Last Years in London, 1586-1592 
By Arthur Acheson. (Bernard Quaritch, 1 Is. 
net.) 

A RECONSTRUCTION of Shakespeare's life, even in 
regard to the periods of which .we know most, is a 
business which calls for more than ordinary judg- 
ment as to the value of such evidence as we 
possess. To make anything of the obscurer years 
one had need be, to start with, of so cautious a turn 
of mind as to count the task impossible. A lively, 
hopeful imagination will certainly create delusions, 
having vast spaces in which to disport itself, with 
almost no facts and not very many more clear 
inferences, to serve as checks or guides. The writer 
of this book, at the very outset, shakes our confi- 
dence in his pessimism the pessimism required by 
the situation. He suggests Jacquespierre as, 
possibly, the original form of Shakespeare, and 
therewith a Gallic origin for bearers of the name. 

So hopeful and ingenious a mind must be expected 
to show itself rather clever and entertaining than 
over-solicitous as to what the evidence in favour oi 
its surmises will bear : and so we find our author 
He advances little of which one can say positively ; 
This cannot be so ; but the reasons for which we 
are invited to agree with him remain slender. 



The most interesting of these studies, to our mind^ 
s that of John Florioas Sir John Falstaffs original. 
This is introduced by an exceedingly apt quotation 
from an eighteenth century criticism'of the dramatic 
character of Falstaff, the point of which is that those 
characters in Shakespeare which are seen only in 
3art are " capable of being unfolded and understood 
n the whole ; every part being in fact relative and 
nferring all the rest." This "wholeness" of 
Shakespeare's characters it has, of course, often 
Deen commented on is the subject of several good- 
remarks which conclude with the opinion that these 
jharacters may be considered "rather as Historic 
than as Dramatic beings." Our author proceeds, 
after quoting the passage, to declare that the reason 
For this life-likeness lies in the fact that every 
"very distinctive Shakespearean character" when 
acting or speaking " from those parts of the com- 
position which are inferred only and not distinctly 
shewn " is the portrait of a personage contemporary 
with Shakespeare whom the dramatist knew and 
took for his model. Fluellen, thus, is Captain 
Roger Williams ; Falconbridge. Sir John Perrot 
and Falstaff Florio. The Falstaff-Florio case is 
set forth most plausibly and . against it what 
we have to urge is chiefly our ignorance of 
Shakespeare's circumstances, his degree of ac- 
quaintance with Florio, and his actual methods 
of working. That quality in Shakespeare which 
has preserved him among the greatest and 
most lively forces in literature down to the present 
hour has often been described as a capacity for 
seeing and rendering the universal in the individual' 
along with even thereby enhancing individual 
peculiarities. A portrait on such lines would be 
immeasurably more troublesome to produce than a 
work of pure imagination imagination, that is, 
informed and inspired by observation and close 
knowledge of individual men. Would a man of 
Shakespeare's power adopt a method, to his per- 
ception of what goes to make up a man, so nearly 
impossible? Again, admitting he did, it cannot be 
proved tnat Florio was the model. Florio, we 
know, was furious with one, H. S-, for having made 
a satirical use of his initials, J- F. H. S., then, is 
to be identified with Shakespeare and much hangs 
on that identification but proof thereof is not to 
be had. 

We should, perhaps, follow our author more 
readily if he himself were not so well satisfied as to 
the truth of these conjectures and did not so cheer- 
fully forget how slender are the materials with 
which he is working and how honeycombed with 
doubts. And we should also have been grateful to 
him for so much more care and polish in his own 
writing as would have enabled a reader to seize his 
meaning at once. 

But we would by no means discourage students 
of Shakespeare from making acquaintance with his 
book. 

A History of Scotland from the Roman Evacuation to 
the Disruption, 1843. By Charles Sanford Terry. 
(Cambridge University Press, 1 net.) 

DR. SANFORD TERRY claims for the history of 
Scotland that it is " a story of development unsur- 
passed by the national experience of any modern 
community." We concede that claim, and we 
further agree with him that a new History of 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 112 S.VIII.JAX. 1,1921. 



Scotland is wanted. The History we should like 
to possess would resemble Green's ' Short History 
of the English People.' Green's point of view and 
his accuracy have both alike been challenged, but 
the fine proportion, the arresting style, the live- 
liness of the portraiture and the movement and 
charm of the work as a whole have not, we think, 
been rivalled, far less surpassed, in any other 
history of a like compass. 

Undoubtedly the history of Scotland is more 
difficult than that of England. Dr. Sanford Terry 
draws attention to its intimate connection with 
genealogy. This is equivalent to saying that not 
only the character of the people and not only the 
character of individuals require to be grasped and 
delineated ; between these two come the great 
families and their relations both with one another 
and the kingdom at large. Periods of French 
History show this peculiarity : but the stage of 
France is ampler and the total effect, therefore, less 
confused and puzzling. In Scottish history influ- 
ences from difference of race, from family rivalry, 
from external pressure and from the predominance 
of individuals produce at several points so intricate 
a tangle that a certain breadth of treatment 
becomes necessary in order to make plain to the 
reader's eye that development on which Dr. Sanford 
Terry justly insists. 

We do not think he has altogether succeeded 
in this, though we find much in his book to praise. 
By dint of the most minute workmanship he con- 
trives to present a huge amount of facts within a 
narrow compass ; and by rather alluding to than 
relating some of the incidents that are known to 
" every schoolboy " he finds room for more recon- 
dite matters. But the writing is so serried, and 
sometimes also so involved and abbreviated as if 
space had been saved by pruning sentence by sen- 
tence that the reader will find some difficulty in 
getting into the swing of the narrative, and in 
passing from detail to a survey of the whole. 
Persons stand out in too shallow relief, and carry 
little or no atmosphere, while on the other hand, 
the perception of national progress has to be arrived 
at mostly by way of laborious inference. Since the 
book is calculated for the general reader and the 
student, who already know the picturesque stories 
in which Scotland is so rich, we have perhaps no 
right to cavil at the omission of even the slightest 
description of Banriockburn, though we may 
wonder why, on the accepted plan, Rizzio's 
murder, for example, should have been described. 
But that which was intended to be treated should 
have been clearly set out, and arranged in some 
manner more easy for reference. In a subsequent 
edition some breaking up of paragraphs might be of 
service. 

None the less if rather too difficult for a work on 
the scale decided on and with the purpose it is 
designed to serve, this history of Scotland should 
be found very useful, and, if somewhat too thick 
and solid to be called stimulating, will certainly 
reward the careful reader by possessing him of a 
fund of well- authenticated and various knowledge. 
This has been carefully related to the contemporary 
histories of England and the countries of the 
Continent by the light of the most recent research. 
We are glad to mention the thirty-two genealogical 
tables of the great Scottish fa milies a novel and 
very good feature. 



Leicestershire. By G. D. Pingriff. (Cambridge 
University Press, 4*. 6d. net.) 

WE are glad to see another of these excellent 
county guides. The information given is sufficient 
to form a sound foundation for future studies ; or, 
by itself, to make a good body of knowledge con- 
cerning the physical characteristics, industries, 
antiquities, and general history of the county. 
Leicestershire cannot boast the varied and supreme 
interest of say, Warwickshire : but it holds plenty 
to reward the curious inquirer ; and, as to history, 
the Battle of Bosworth and the names of Wycliffe, 
Lady Jane Grey, Latimer, and Macaulay, form no 
poor illustration. We should have thought that 
Grosseteste at least equalled these in importance, 
and that, if he was to be mentioned at all, (his 
connection with Leicester not being a conspicuous 
part of his history) something more to the point 
than his being "like De Montfort, an opponent of 
Henry III." might have been brought forward. 

Some of our correspondents may be interested in 
the photograph of a bronze ticket used on the 
Leicester and Swannington Railway, supplied by 
the Midland Railway Company. Great pains have 
clearly been taken to collect an unhackneyed series 
of photographs, and, so far as this immediate object 
is concerned, with success. So far as providing a 
good idea of their several subjects goes, many of 
them are in truth excellent, but a good number 
especially those of the divers landscapes must be 
pronounced neither here or there. 



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21 



LONDON, JANUARY 8, 1521. 

CONTENTS. No. 143. 

1NOTES: The Tempests of Holmside, co. Durham, 21 
Atvorg the Shakespeare Archives, 23-Statues and 
Memorials in the British Isles. 25 The Prince of Wales 
in Australia : the Title Duke of Cornwall Pronunciation 
of Greek, 26 The Press and Christmas Madame de 
Sevign^ and Ma sson Tobacco : Returns Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart's Swords The A ntidote of Mithridates, 27. 

QUERIES : A Natural Daughter of George III. Cor- 
nelius Drebbel Matthew Paris Family of Dickson 
Samuel Dickson, M.D., 28' Qui Hi in Hindostan' 
'Life in Bombay' "To Outrun the Constable" 
' Franekinsence* The Green Man. Ashbourne Carlyle's 
French Revolution 'Spencer Mackay, Armiger The 
Glomery "David Lvall." Pseudonym, 29 Early Ascents 
of Mont Blanc by English Travellers Kensington Gravel 
at Versailles West-Country Place-names in the Seven- 
teenth Century Coats of Arms : Identification Sought 
" Meliora" Stevenson and Miss Yonge " Principal," 
30 Thackeray : ' The Newcoines ' Barlow Family 
Mfljor-GeneralSir Robert Sale Chatterton's Apprentice- 
ship to Lambert 'Frankenstein,' 31. 

(REPLIES- A Note on Pepys's Diary. 31 Pamphlet on 
Kensington Square Kmerson's * English Traits ' 
11 Fminere " Early Railway Travelling. 32 Lines on 
Nebuchadnezzar Beauclerc Denny, De Deene Jand 
Windsor Families, 33 Horseleperd St. Leonard's 
"Priory," Hants London Postmarks Notes on the 
>Early de Redvers RepresentativelCounty Libraries, 34 
OBaternan Brown Kildalton Cross, Islay " Hun" The 
British in Corsica Warwickshire Folk Sayings, 35' Poor 
Uncle Ned ' Voucher=Railway Ticket Thomas Farmer 
Bailey, 36 Bottle-slider Nola Lady Catherine Paulet : 
Sir Henry Berkeley Peacocks' Feathers The Original 
War Office, 37 Heraldic Wool-Gathering French 
Prisoners of War in England Tercentenary Handlist 
of Newspapers The Hermit of Hertfordshire " Now, 
then! 38 John Wilson, Bookseller Danteiana 
Hook : Oxenbridge : Morton, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Place-Names of Northumber- 
land and Durham ' ' The Story of " Our Mutual Friend." ' 

OBITUARY : Cecil Deedes. 
Notices to Correspondents. 



THE TEMPESTS OF HOLMSIDE, 
CO. DURHAM. 

IN vol xiii. of The Catholic Record Society's 
Publications at p. 117 (note 383) I- fell into 
some error about this family. Dodd ( ' Church 
History,' ii., Ill) seems also to have fallen 
into a similar confusion. Perhaps I may 
be allowed to rectify it here. 

(a) Robert Tempest, of Holmside, High 
Sheriff of Durham in 1561, married Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Lesthall, of Lachford, 
Oxfordshire ; by whom he had five sons, 
Michael, George, Robert, William and 
Thomas. He and his eldest son Michael 
were attainted in 1569 for having taken 
part in the Northern Rebellion. He was 
specially named by Thomas, Earl of Sussex, 
in a proclamation dated Nov. 19, 1569. On 
the failure of the Rebellion he crossed the 



border into Scotland and on Jan. 7, 1570, 
was with the Lord of Buccleugh at Braiik- 
some. He and his son Michael embarked 
from Aberdeen, Aug. 23, 157.0. They were 
at Louvain in 1571. On June 11, 1571 one 
John Lea wrote to Lord Burghley from 
Antwerp that Robert Tempest and others 
had been earnest suitors at Brussels for 
pensions of which they were assured : but 
on Jan. 1, 1572 Michael Tempest wrote to 
his cousin Cuthbert Vasey from Brussels, 
that he and his father were both in health 
and living quietly with safety of conscience, 
without any relief as yet of any prince ; 
nevertheless they were expecting it shortly 
by the grace of God, and hoped to see a 
happy end of all their troubles. In another 
letter addressed to James Swynhoe, gentle- 
man of the English Countess (i.e. of Northum- 
berland), and dated from Louvain Mar. 4, 
1572, Michael Tempest mentions his " cousin 
Swinburne." Robert Tempest the father 
died at Brussels. Shortly afterwards 
Michael went to Spain with one of his sons, 
probably William. They were in Madrid, 
May to July 1574, and received 300 ducats, 
with the promise of 35 ducats a month, or 
40 ducats a month in Flanders. Michael's 
banishment from the Low Countries was 
demanded, Dec. 1, 1574 and July 3, 1575. 
He died abroad before 1588.* 

. (b) Robert Tempest, the third son of the 
above-mentioned Robert took the law as his 
profession, as his father, and as his brother 
Michael had done, and going abroad before 
the Rebellion took the degree of J.U.L. at 
some foreign university, probably either 
Louvain or Paris. He arrived at the English 
College at Rheims Dec. 24, 1583 and was 
ordained deacon by Cardinal de Guise 
(afterwards known as the Cardinal of 
Lorraine) in the chapel of St Cross in the 
Cathedral Church of Rheims, Mar. 31, 1584, 
and left for Rome, being then a priest, 
Jan. 17, 1585. In 1587 he was living in 
Paris. He returned to Rheims from Paris 

Sept. 18, 1590 but left almost at once for 
Paris returning again to Rheims, Nov. 8, 

1590, and w r as appointed procurator to 
Dr. Worthington, the head of the College in 



* ' Cal. S.P. Dom. Add.' 1566-1579, pp. 91, 
95, 113, 117, 185, 352, 377, 386 ; ' Members of the 
Inner Temple ' (London, 1877), p. 32 ; Sharp, 
' Memorials of the Eebellion ' (London, 1840), 
pp. 33, 264 ; Bridgwater, ' Concertatio Ecclesiae '- 
Proost, ' Messager des Sciences Historiques ' 
(Gand, 1865), pp. 284-6 ; Hamilton, ' Chronicle 
of St. Monica's, Louvain,' ii. 136 ; Surtees 
' Durham,' ii. 327 pp. sqq. 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. s. 1921. 



the following December. In. 1592 he was 
again in Paris, but afterwards was papal 
envoy in Scotland in 1598, and then went 
to Antwerp, from which place he came to 
the English College at Douay July 3, 1599. 
Returning to Antwerp, he revisited Douay 
June 17, 1603, and left to take up work on 
the English Mission for the first time, June 20, 
1603. From England he returned to Ant- 
werp, where he died before September 1625, 
leaving various house property in Antwerp 
to Douay College, on condition that the 
College should educate one of his kin, on the 
rents thereof, such kinsman to be nominated 
by his brother William, of Somerton in 
Oxfordshire, or his nephew Thomas, one of 
the sons of the said William, by Elizabeth, 
dau. of co -heir of William More of Hadham, 
co. Oxon. The rents being insufficient, 
Robert Tempest's nephew and . executor, 
Henry Clifford, covenanted to supplement 
them out of his own pocket. Henry Clifford 
had married Robert's niece Catherine, 
daughter of his brother Thomas.* 

(c) The third Robert Tempest, grandson 
of the first, and nephew of the second, was the 
second son of Michael Tempest, by Dorothy, 
daughter of Sir Edward Dymokeof Scrivelsby. 
He was in Rome in 1580, and arrived- at the 
English College, Rheims, "a schola Augensi " 
Aug. 16, 1584. He was again at Rome in 
1585 when he entered the English College, 
but returned to Rheims Oct. 23, 1589, and 
left for Paris on a visit to his uncle Robert 
Jan. 15, 1590. While there he experienced 
a famine, in which he and his uncle were 
only too thankful to feed on the flesh of 
asses, mules, and horses. He returned to 
Rheims Aug. 21 and began to lecture on 
logic Aug. 30, 1590. He received minor 
orders Apr. 12, the subdiaconate Apr. 13, and 
the diaconate June 8 or 9, 1591, all at 
Soissons, and was ordained priest in the 
chapel of St. Cross in Rheims Cathedral the 
following Sept. 21. It is not known when 
he took the degree of S.T.D. which he did 
before 1599, but it would seem to have been 
either at Rome or Paris. In July 1599 he 
was lecturer on moral theology in the English 
College at Douay. In 1600 he went to 
Antwerp to say goodbye to his uncle, 
returning to Douay on June 12, and on 
July 15 of the same year he set out for 

* Knox, ' Douay Diaries,' pp. 12, 23, 200, 203, 
234, 236, 237, 250, 282, 300, 374 ; Cath. Rec. Soc., 
x. 7, 71 244, 245 ; Strype, ' Annals,' III. ii. 698 ; 
IV. 148 ; Hamilton, ' Chronicle of St. Monica's 
Louvain,' ii. pp. 134, 136. 



England.* He was captured in 1612 and 
imprisoned, but after two years he was 
released on bail and according to Cardinal 
Gasquet ('Hist, of Eng. Coll. Rome,' p. 155) 
"allowed to live with his brother-in-law in 
Hampshire on parole. In 1624 he became 
a Jesuit, and died in Hampshire July 13' 
1640." Who this brother-in-law was I- 
have been unable to find out. Foley 
(Records Eng. Prov. S.J., vii. 766) says that 
he was born in 1563 and professed of the 
four vows March, 1636. 

Robert's elder brother William passed 
through Rheims on his way to Verdun, 
where he was to be educated by the Jesuits, 
and stayed at the English College from 
May 2 to 12, 1582. On July 8, 1585 he was 
again received at the College coming from 
England, and finally on his way from Paris 
to England he was again the guest of the 
College from Mar. 25, 1590 to Apr. 23, 1591.f 
Another brother (the 4th son of Michael), 
Edward, arrived at Rheims June 1, 1586, 
was confirmed by Cardinal de Guise, Dec. 18 
following, and left for Rome Mar. 27, 1590.$ 
There, Cardinal Gasquet writes (op. cit., 
pp. 157-8), he 

' was ordained M.ar. 19, 1594, but did not go to 
England until 1597. Two years later he was 
already a prisoner in the Clink, London, as- 
appears from a list of prisoners in that year, and 
from a letter written to the Archpriest Blackwell 
from that prison on Jan. 15, 1590. He had been 
captured ten days before by the apostate 
Sacheverell " 
(as to whom see 'N. & Q.' 11 S. viii. 405). 

Nicholas Tempest, a cousin of the third 
Robert, being the elder son of his uncle 
Thomas, and brother of Catherine Clifford 
mentioned above, arrived at Rheims Apr. 28, 
1584 and again Nov. 8, 1590. He left for 
Namur July 10, 1591 and returned Sept. 12, 
1591. He again returned from Douay 
Feb. 13, 1593, and left on May 4 following 
to take up a military career, " nostri vitae 
generis pertaesus militatum abut D. Nicolaus 
Tempest, scholasticse theologies studiosus. " 
He died s.p. before 1643, and was buried 
at ? Carrow. If, as seems certain, he took 
service with the King of Spain, Carrow 
probably means Corunna (Sp. La Coruna).j 



* ' Cal. S.P. For.,' 1580 ; Hamilton, op cit.,. 
ii. 136; Knox, op cit., pp. 15, 32, 201, 227, 232,. 
233, 236, 239, 240, 241, 374; Cath. Rec. Soc* 
x. pp. 7,22, 26. 

f Knox, op. cit., pp. 187, 207, 229, 239. 

J Knox, op cit., pp. 210, 214, 229. . 

Knox op cit., pp. 201, 237, 240, 241, 249, 
250 ; Surtees, ' Durham,' ii. 327 sqq. 



12 s. vin. JAN. s, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



This originally sinister branch of the 
Yorkshire Tempests certainly suffered as 
much as the parent tree for the Catholic 
Faith. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 






AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE 
ARCHIVES. 

RICHARD SHAKESPEARE'S NEIGHBOURS. 

1. Sir Thomas Hargreave, Vicar of 
Snitterfield. 

WHILE John Shakespeare was taking his 
place among seniors and contemporaries in 
Stratford, his father held a position of some 
esteem among neighbours at Snitterfield. 
When Thomas Hargreave, vicar from 1541 
to 1557, died, Richard Shakespeare and four 
other parishioners were called upon to make 
the inventory of his goods and chattels. 
The Vicar's income was chiefly derived from 
his glebe land. He was an energetic farmer 
with a kinswoman, Ellen Hargreave the 
elder, to keep house for him. He made his 
will on Apr. 27, 1557, with bequests to his 
housekeeper and other relatives in the 
district a brother William, a sister Joan 
(wife of John Seylton of Desford), James 
Hargreave of Minworth ; Anthony Har- 
greave, who had a son Thomas ; and John 
Hargreave of Sutton (Southam), who had 
sons Anthony and John. The last named 
was probably the John Hargreave who was 
tenant with Richard Shakespeare and John 
Henley of Master Robert Arden's property 
in Snitterfield and near neighbour to Richard 
Shakespeare. Thomas Hargreave remem- 
bered also his servants and god-children, and 
left malt and peas to be distributed among the 
"poor where need is," likewise "beef and 
bacon as much as is in the house." He 
bequeathed his soul "to God Almighty and 
our Blessed Lady and all the Holy Company 
of Heaven," and his body "to be buried in 
the church of Snitterfield afore my seat in 
the chancel." Towards the re-casting of 
the bell he left Ws. Residuary legatees 
and executors were Anthony Fletcher, Vicar 
of Tachebrooke and our friend Edward 
Alcock of Wotton Wawen, who were to dis- 
pose of what was left for the good of his 
soul at their discretion. Master Thomas 
Robins of Northbrooke and his son-in-law, 
Master Edward Grant, he appointed super- 
visors. 

On Wednesday, May 5, Richard Shake- 
speare, in the company of Richard Maids, 



Walter Nicholson, William Perks and 
William Round, made a personal survey of 
the vicarage and farm. They noted the table^ 
benches, tressels, ambrey (cupboard), and 
seven painted -cloths in the hall ; bedding, 
linen and coffer in the parlour above the 
hall (of the value of 3Z. 2s. 3d.) ; six bedsteads 
in the chambers ; utensils in the mill -house 
and kitchen ; corn winnowed in the house, 
and corn growing in the field 12 acres of- 
wheat, 17 of rye and maslin, 8 of barley and 
dredge, 12 of oats and 19 of peas, 68 acres 
altogether; 4 oxen (71.), a little ambling 
nag (2 6s. Sd.), and an old lame mare (5s.) ; 
a wain and a cart, 2 old tumbrels, 3 ploughs, 
1 pair of harrows and other things : summcs 
totalis 34Z. 10s. 2d. 

2. Widow Townsend of the Wold. 

More than one family lived at the Wold 
in the parish of Snitterfield. Among them 
were the Townsends John and his wife 
Margaret, and their two sons, William and 
Thomas, and two daughters, Mary and Joan. 
John Townsend was a freeholder, known to 
Master Robert Arden. He witnessed the 
release of John Palmer's tenement, adjoin- 
ing Richard Shakespeare's farm, to Master 
Arden on Oct. ), 1529. When he made his 
will on Oct. 10, 1546, he left his freehold to 
his wife for life and to dispose of at death 
as she thought best. He expressed the 
wish that she and Thomas should occupy 
two parts of the farm jointly, and William 
the third part. Among the three he dis- 
tributed his corn and crop, carts, beasts and 
horses and other things, reserving a cow for 
his daughter Joan and a nose -calf for her 
son. This Joan was Mistress Waterman of 
Stratford, wife of Thomas Dickson alias 
Waterman, glover and whittawer in Bridge 
Street, and future Alderman, and her' son 
was young Thomas, the future husband of 
Phillipa Burbage and landlord of the Swan. 
John Townsend's other daughter (appar- 
ently Mary) was married to John Staunton 
of Longbridge, near Warwick, and the 
mother of children. One of her later born, 
or perhaps a grand- child, was Judith 
Staunton, who became the wife of 
William Shakespeare's friend, Hamlet 
Sadler. After Judith and Hamlet 
Sadler the Poet named his twin children 
on Candlemas day, 1585. 

Widow Townsend survived her husband 
ten or twelve years. With her sons, of 
whom Thomas married and had a son 
Thomas, she lived on the freehold farm at 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 8 , 1021. 



the Wold, taking an active share in the 
work. We see her in her " old coat " on 
week-days, with her head in a kerchief, 
.among her bees and milk-pails, grinding 
ms.lt and making cheese, and busy in the 
kitchen, aided by her servant and kins- 
woman, Alice Townsend, who after her 
death, we gather, married her son, William. 
"Thomas ploughed the fields with his team 
of oxen ; or followed the " ox-harrow with 
seventeen tines (or teeth) of iron." On 
, Sunday she went to church, where her 
husband was buried, in a hat or cap, wearing 
her beads and a silver ring, in a gown of 
velvet, a black kirtle and a red petticoat 
" over-bodied with red russels " (fox-skins), 
. and " a harnessed girdle of silver." 

She made her will on June 1, 1558, be- 
queathing the farm to Thomas, with " all 
the wood lying against the elms at the 
chamber end," and a cow and a few house- 
hold things, and all the remainder of her 
possessions, except some personal gifts, to 
William. Mistress W T aterman obtained her 
mother's cap; Thomas' wife had the 
"harnessed girdle of silver," and the rest 
of the Sunday garments ; a god-daughter, 
Margaret Phillips, daughter of William 
Phillips of Stratford (and cousin of the 
other Margaret Philiips, daughter of Mistress 
Waterman, now wife of Edward Walford 
of Evenlode) inherited the silver ring, and 
Alice Townsend, the prospective wife, as it 
appears, of William, a cow, a pair of sheets, 
a twilly (or coverlet), a caldron, two pewter 
dishes, a pair of tache-hooks and two 
"partlets." Mary Staunton's children re- 
ceived a memorial groat apiece, while her 
husband had the appointment of supervisor 
to the will. Thomas' right to seven gold 
pieces (two angels and five crowns), given 
to him one day by his mother in the barn, 
is acknowledged by William. 

On Oct. 10, 1558, the inventory of Widow 
1 Townsend's goods was made by Thomas 
Palmer, Thomas Mayowe, and William Bett 
(or Bott), another resident on the Wold. 

Was it through the Townsends that 
young John Shakespeare was apprenticed 
to a glover and whittawer in Stratford ? 
And did he enter the service of Joan Town- 
send's husband, Thomas Dickson alias 
Waterman, and become a member of her 
household ? When a nephew of Joan and a 
grandson of Widow Townsend named John, 
son probably of Thomas Townsend, had a 
son Edward baptized on July 13, 1578, 
Edward Cornwall, brother-in-law of John 
Shakespeare, living in John Shakespeare's 



old home in Snitterfield, stood godfather ; 
and when eight years later, on Sept. 4, 1586, 
John Townsend's son Henry was baptized 
in Snitterfield Church, John Shakespeare's 
brother, Henry Shakespeare of Ingon, was 
sponsor. 

3. Roger Lyncecombe. 

Another link between Snitterfield and 
Stratford was Roger Lyncecombe. He was 
a yeoman of Snitterfield with a small shop 
in Henley Street, Stratford, near the home 
of John Shakespeare and Mary Arden. His 
farm at Snitterfield was by the Lammas 
Close. He had land also at Yardley, which 
he purchased and bequeathed to his son 
Thomas. We get a glimpse of him in the 
year 1538 as overseer of the will of a Strat- 
ford man, William Facey, who also had 
land at Yardley. He had two sons, John 
and the aforesaid Thomas, and three 
daughters, one married to Thomas Warner 
of Wellesburn, the second to Henry Bowton 
of Pillardington, and the third, Agnes, who 
was not married in his lifetime. On Jan. 14, 
1557, he was appointed overseer to the will 
of a Snitterfield neighbour, William Bracy, 
whose goods he helped to appraise on 
Feb. 7 following. An item in this will 
throws light on the "second best bed " in 
William Shakespeare's will sixty years later. 
William Bracy said : 

"My wife Margery shall have to her use all my 
household stuff except one bed, the second-best, the 
which I give and bequeath to John my son with 
three pair of sheets." 

He evidently wished his wife to retain the 
best bed, and his son to have the second- 
best after his death. As evidently Shakes- 
peare wanted his wife to keep her bed, which 
was the second-best at New Place, when his 
daughter and her husband, Doctor Hall, 
came into the house on his decease. 

On June 24, 1557, Roger Lyncecombe was 
made overseer of the will of another Snitter- 
field friend, Thomas Harding. He signed his 
own will on Aug. 13, 1558, and Richard 
Shakespeare helped to value his goods on 
Apr. 21, 1559. The widow maintained the 
connection with Stratford, where on June 22, 
1560, her daughter Agnes married the young 
usher at the Grammar School, successor to 
old Dalam and assistant to Master William 
Smart, William Gilbert alias Higges (pro- 
noanced Hidges). They perhaps lived in a 
house in Rother Market, for which widow 
Lyncecombe paid rent until her death in 
1570. William Gilbert alias Higges lived 



12 s. vni. JAN. s, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



in Stratford (with a short break when he 
resided at Wotton Wawen) as usher, 
scrivener, clock-keeper, assistant-minister 
or in some other capacity for over half a cen- 
tury, and must have been a very familiar 
figure to "William Shakespeare. 

EDGAR I. FRIPP. 

(To be continued.) 






STATUES AND MEMORIALS IN THE 
BRITISH ISLES. 

(See 10 S. xi., xii. : 11 S. i.-xii. : 12 S. i.-vi. 
, passim.} 

ROYAL PERSONAGES. 

Boadicea. Westminster Bridge, inscrip- 
tions ; 

Boadicea | (Boudicca) | Queen of the Iceni 1 
who died A.D. 61 | after leading her people j 
against the Roman invader. | This Statue by 
Thomas Thornycroft | was presented to London 
by his son | Sir John Isaac Thornycroft, C.E. | 
and placed here by the London County Council j 
A.D. 1902. | Regions Caesar never knew | Thy 
posterity shall sway. | 

Parliament Hill, Essex Naturalist, viii., 1894, 
p. 248. 

Elizabeth, dau. of Charles I. Newport 
Church, I.O.W. Monument by Marochetti, 
erected by Queen Victoria. 

Charles II. Old Southwark Town Hall 
(12 S. v. 260)., underneath the statue was 
an inscription: " Combustum an. 1676. 
Reedificatum Annis 1685 et 1686." Re- 
moved from the watch-house to the garden 
of Mr. Edmonds at Walworth (Gent. Mag., 
1840, pt. i., p. 359). Offered for sale by a 
Kensington dealer in 1915, who found it in a 
field at Hayes, Middlesex (John o' London's 
Weekly, Sept. 4, 1920). Stocks' Market 
(12 S. v. 260). Sloane MS. 655, f. 42b. 

Charlotte. Kew Palace (Queen's bed- 
room). Brass plate over fireplace with 
inscription ; 

This tablet is placed here I by command of | 
Her Majesty Queen Victoria ] in memory of her 
grandmother | Her Majesty Queen Charlotte | 
consort of | His Majesty King George III. 
There is also a bust of Charlotte by Percy 
Fitzgerald in the room. 

George IV. Kingstown Harbour, Dublin. 
Obelisk surmounted by a crown marking 
the spot where the king ran down the slope 
to his barge. Royal Dublin Society (on 
staircase) statue with inscription ; 

This Statue | of | His Majesty George IV. 1 
was erected by | the Merchants engaged in the | 



Linen Trade of Ireland | to commemorate | Hi&- 
Majesty's gracious visit | to the | Linen Hall j 
on the 23rd of August | 1821. | T. Kirk fecit ] 
R. H. A. | 182L. [sic] \ DUBLIN. 

In entrance hall, Royal Dublin Society, 
statue by William Behnes, completed by 
C. Panormo, inscription on front of pedestal - r 

GEOBGIVS | IV. | MDCCCXXI. 
Bust in Goldsmith's Hall, London. 

Caroline. Statues at Queen's College, ~ 
Oxford and Stowe, Bucks. 

William IV. Statues over gateway, Royal 
Victualling Yard, Cremill, Plymouth, and 
Bank of England (Cheese). Busts in Gold- 
smiths' Hall (Chantrey), Vauxhall Gardens 
(sold for 10,9. in 1844) and on staircase of the 
Tower armoury. 

Victoria. Buckingham Palace, the 
National Memorial was prepared on Prim- 
rose Hill the large temporary wooden 
erection near the gymnasium being put up 
for the purpose ; see ' The Regent's Park and 
Primrose Hill ' (Webster), p. 90. Entrance 
hall, St. Thomas's Hospital, white marble 
statue in state robes, by M. Noble, the gift 
of Sir John Musgrove, Bart., President,. - 
1873. Junior Constitutional Club, Picca- 
dilly, white marble statue in state robes, 
by [Sir] Thomas Brock, with inscription ; 

This statue in commemoration of the Diamond 
Jubilee was subscribed for by members of the 
Club, and was unveiled on 5th February, 1902, 
by the Marquess of Salisbury, K.G., Prime 
Minister. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, in front of steps, 
inscription ; 

Here Queen Victoria | returned thanks to | 
Almighty God for the | sixtieth anniversary | of 
her accession, | June 22, A.D. 1897. | 

Houses of Parliament, two statues in 
Victoria Tower, one within the porch and 
the other immediately above the entrance, 
in Prince's Chamber (north wall) marble 
statue by J. Gibson. See also * Return of 
Outdoor Memorials in London,' issued by 
L.C.C., 1910, pp. 51-53. Maidstone, Kent, 
statue at top of High Street, by John 
Thorna- 3 , with inscription ; 

The gift of j Alexander Randall | to his native 
town | 1862. | 

Plaster replica in the town museum- 
Dublin. Courtyard of Leinster House, bronze 
statue by John Hughes, the pedestal being- 
wrought in France of French stone by H. 
Vienne. The three bronze groups represent 
Peace, Industry and War ; it is still un- 
completed and its effect spoiled by the sur- 
rounding high buildings. Unveiled Feb. 15 r . 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. s, 1021. 



1908, by the Lord Lieutenant (Lord Aber- 
deen). Kingstown, Dublin, on the jetty 
are two stones, forming part of the harbour 
wall boundary, recording the first and last 
-visits of the queen, the inscriptions are ; 

V.R. 1849. 
V.B. 1900. 

Medical Examination Hall, Strand (12 S. 
iii. 15). 

Particulars are desired of the Victoria 
memorials at Newport, I.O.W., and in 
-the grounds of Woodlands (Luttrelstown), 
Dublin (obelisk). J. ARDAGH. 

27 Hartismere Road, Walham Green, S.W.6. 



THE PRINCE OF WALES IN AUSTRALIA : 
THE TITLE DUKE OF CORNWALL. In con- 
mection with the visit of the Prince of Wales 
to Australia there is an incident relating 
to his titles which should be put on record 
in *N. & Q.' An official instruction was 
issued as to the manner in which His Royal 
Highness was to be described in addresses 
presented to him, and in the addresses 
prepared before his arrival the direction was 
followed. In these there is no mention of 
the "Duke of Cornwall." In fact in certain 
quarters where greater knowledge should 
;have existed it was asserted that the Prince 
was not the Duke of Cornwall. When His 
Royal Highness reached Victoria Sir Langdon 
Bonython, K.C.M.G., a well-known Cornish- 
man, directed attention to the omission by a 
letter in the Melbourne Argus. He em- 
phasized the points that the "Duke of 
'Cornwall " is not a mere title, but very 
much more than that, and that "the eldest 
son of the King is Duke of Cornwall," being 
made Prince of Wales. Correspondence 
followed with the result that the Prime 
Minister of Australia received from Lieut. - 
-Col. Grigg (Secretary to the Prince of Wales) 

.a communication in which he said : 

"The Prince of Wales has observed |that some 
discussion has taken place regarding the omission 
of the title of ' Duke of Cornwall' from the list of 
titles prefixed to the addresses presented to him 
here. His Royal Highness very much regrets that 
owing to some error in the original communication 
forwarded to this country on the matter, the title 
-of ' Duke of Cornwall,' of which he is very proud, 
.has not appeared in the addresses hitherto received 
by him. He directs me, therefore, to ask you to 
'have the proper list of titles, which I attach, 
-circulated to all concerned." 

The following is the list referred to : 
His Royal Highness Edward Albert Christian 
George Andrew Patrick David, Princ* of Wales 
and Earl of Chester in the Peerage of the United 



Kingdom, Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of Eng- 
land, Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick, and 
Baron of Renfrew in the Peerage of Scotland, Lord 
of the Isles and Great Steward of Scotland, K.G., 
GLC.M.G., G.C.V.O., G.M.B.E., and M.C. 

From the above list the words in italics 
in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, Duke 
of Cornwall, were omitted, the consequence 
being that the addresses prepared in 
accordance with the original instruction 
contain an absolute misstatement. His 
Royal Highness is not " Prince of W r ales and 
Earl of Chester in the Peerage of England." 
He is "Duke of Cornwall in the Peerage of 
England," and "Prince of Wales and Earl 
of Chester in the Peerage of the United 
Kingdom. ' ' 

AN AUSTRALIAN CORNISHMAN. 
Melbourne. 

PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK. Sir Richard 
C. Jebb, M.P., Regius Professor of Greek 
(1902), writes in chap. xvi. of the ' Cambridge 
Modern History,' vol. i. p. 581, headed 'The 
Classical Renaissance ' : 

"Mention is due here to the important part 
which both these eminent men [Sir John Cheke and 
Sir Thomas Smith I bore in a controversy which 
excited and .divided the humanists of that age. The 
teachers from whom the Scholars of the Renaissance 
learned Greek pronounced that language as Greeks 
do at the present day. In 1528 Erasmus published 
at Basel his dialogue De recta Latini Grecique 
Sermonis Pronuntiatione. His protest was chiefly 
directed against the modern Greek iotasism : i.e., 
the pronunciation of several different vowels and 
diphthongs with the same sound, that of the Italian 
''. He rightly maintained that the ancients must 
have given to each of these vowels and diphthongs 
a distinctive pound ; and he urged that it was both 
irrational and inconvenient not to do so. He also 
objected to the modern Greek mode of pronouncing 
certain consonants. His reformed pronunciation 
name to be known as the ' Erasmian ' ; while that used 
by modern Greeks was called, the 'Reuchlinian,' 
because Reuchlin (whom Melanchthon followed) 
had upheld it. About 15g5, Thomas Smith and 3 
John Cheke then young men of about twenty 
examined the question for themselves, and came to 
the conclusion that Erasmus was right. Thereupon 
Smith began to use the ' Erasmian ' pronunciation 
in his Greek lectures though cautiously at first ; 
Cheke and others supported him ; and the reform 
was soon generally accepted. But in 1542, Bishop 
Gardiner, the Chancellor of the University, issued 
a decree, enjoining a return to the Reuchlinian 
mode. Ascham has described, not without humour, 
the discontent which this edict evoked. After 
Elizabeth's accession, the 'Erasmian' method was 
restored." 

Arising out of this passage I should be 
glad to know : (1) Do the words "as Greeks 
do at the present day " mean in 152835 
or in 1902 ? The phrasing is somewhat 
obscure. (2) If in the former, what was the 



12 s. VIIT. JAN. s, 1921] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



value of the protest of Erasmus ? (3) Surely 
the Greeks "at the present day" (1528) 
would be better guides in the matter than 
either Erasmus or Smith or Cheke, as 
Italians are accounted to be in the pro- 
nunciation of Latin. (4) What is the root 
difference (other than that indicated above) 
between the two systems ? (5) Does either 
of them obtain in our Universities and 
colleges in our "present day " ? 

J. B. Me GOVERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester, 

THE PRESS AND CHRISTMAS. The general 
suspension of the publication of newspapers 
in England on Christmas Day, 1913, is 
recorded at 11 S. viii. 505, The Times being 
"tlie last of the London papers to break the 
continuity of issue. It may now be useful 
to note that no newspapers were published 
on Boxing Day, 1920, and that for three 
consecutive days (Sunday falling on Dec. 26) 
there wa^ an entire suspension of English 
'newspapers. ROLAND AUSTIN. 

MADAME DE SEVIGNE AND MASSON. 
The ' Selection from the Letters of Madame 
de Sevigne and her Contemporaries ' (Oxford 
Clarendon Press Series, French Classics 
first published 1868) was edited by Gustave 
Masson, professor at Harrow School. The 
*Lettres Choisies de Mesdames de Sevigne, 
de Grignan, de Simiane, et de Maintenon ' 
(Paris, Bossange, 1835) was edited by J. R. 
Masson. This is probably the only instance 
of " classics " edited by two annotators of 
the same surname for educational purposes. 
The selections (so far as Mme. de Sevigne is 
-concerned) are nearly similar. 

ANDREW DE TERNANT. 
'36 Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

TOBACCO : RETURNS. Inquiry among the 
tobacco authorities in this country having 
failed to elicit an explanation of the origin 
of this term as applied to a description of 
tobacco, I have been favoured by the 
Tobacco Merchants Association 1 of the 
United States, Beekman Street, New York, 
with the following references. 

Fairholt, in his ' Tobacco : its History 
Associations ' (1876), writes : 

'I The lighter kinds of tobacco, such as Returns' 
Orinoco, c., are very sparingly wetted ; only just 
sprinkled, and not allowed to soak. They are 
just sufficiently damp to squeeze into form in the 
box ; and, owing to their dryness, are less easily'cut 
than damper tobaccos, which owe their dark colour 
principally to 'liquoring' ; and to increase this, the 
fltianufacturer saves the stained water which drains 



from the leaves, to wet the tobacco with, over 
and over again ; nothing is wasted in a tobacco 
factory." 

Prescott, in 'Tobacco and its Adultera- 
tions ' (1858), writes : 

"Shag tobacco is chiefly prepared from the 
Virginian and Kentucky leaves. Returns, from the 
small pieres of broken leaf produced in the various 
processes of manufacture." 

W. A. Penn, in 'The Soverane Herbe,' 
page 125, states : 

" Shag, the oldest of cut tobaccos, is prepared 
from strong leaf, very finely cut into strips of one- 
fiftieth of an inch, and steamed and kneaded. 
Returns is made in the same way from light coloured 
and mild tobacco. It is so called from being 
originally prepared by returning shag for re- 
cutting." 

J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

101 Piccadilly, W.I. 

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD STUART'S 
SWORDS. The following short entry is 
transcribed from The Manchester Evening 
News, Wednesday, Oct. 13, 1920, which 
seems worthy of a place in ' 1ST. & Q. ' : 

u A sword which was worn by ' Bonnie Prince 
Charlie ' has gone to the United States as a gift 
from Lord Garroch to Mrs. Calhoun of Washing- 
ton, a descendant of the House of Mar." 

The underneath subject was on view at 
Royal Jubilee Exhibition, Old Trafford, 
Manchester ; department of Old Manchester 
and Salford, 1887, and it was described in a 
catalogue, 'Relics of Old Manchester and 
Salford,' pp. 92. 

Sword bearing the inscription : 

" Presented to Sir Thomas Sheridan, Kt,, by His 
Royal Highness Prince Charles Edward Stuart, 
Lawful Heir to the Throne of Great Britain. 
Ireland, France, c., in the presence of the Chevalier 
de St. George, Visoount Strathallan. Lords Nairn, 
George Murray, Kilmarnock, Cromarty, and Bal- 
merino, at our Palace of Holyrood, Edinburgh, 
1745. Semper fidelis secret et hardi." 
Owner (the late) Sir William Cunliffe Brooks, 
Bart., M.P. 

FREDERICK LAWRENCE TAVARE. 

22 Trentham Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

THE ANTIDOTE OF MITHRIDATES (See 
12 S. vii. 519). The antidote of which the 
receipt is said to have been discovered in 
the cabinet of Mithridates VI, consisted of 
20 leaves of rue, 1 grain of salt, 2 nuts, and 
2 dried figs, but this is not the Mithridatium 
of the Roman and later physicians, or any- 
thing like it. Celsus gives a receipt (I 
believe the earliest known) containing 38 
ingredients. These were afterwards in- 
creased to 75, but many receipts have 
less, and that adopted in the first London 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 8, 1921. 



Pharmacopoeia and retained until 1788 had 
from 45 to 48, none of the four named above 
being amongst them. The most active 
ingredient was opium, and to this the medi- 
oine doubtless owed its popularity. It owes 
(so far as is known) nothing to Mithridates 
but its name. C. C. B. 



( items. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries, 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

A NATURAL DAUGHTER OF GEORGE III. 
An old diary lately discovered contains this 
entry: "My mother was a very beautiful 
woman, and was of very high birth." The 
allusion is to Frances Hay wood or Hay word, 
who was m. (1) to Read, Reed, or Reid, 
and (2) on Dec. 22, 1800, at Liverpool to 
James Waller Hewitt, who was bapt. 
James only on Nov. 2, 1777, at Wickham 
Market, Suffolk, being son of William 
Hewitt and Sarah Waller. Tradition relates 
that Frances Haywood was a natural 
daughter of George III., that she was some 
years older than J. W. Hewitt, that she was 
" great friends " with George III. 's daughters 
Sophia, born 1777, and Amelia, born 1783, 
and that Mrs. Hewitt's daughter Frances 
used to go to the Duke of Kent's house and 
was given a scarf by the Princess Victoria. 
Further, that the beautiful Frances Hay- 
wood-Reed-Hewitt had her portrait painted 
by Allen Ramsay (1713-1784), or Sir Joshua 
Reynolds (1723-92), or Sir Henry Raeburn 
(1756-1823). 

I cannot find any record of the above 
marriage at Liverpool in 1800. On Dec. 11, 
1801, their daughter Frances was bapt. at 
New Windsor, Berks. In April, 1803, 
their daughter Mary Catherine was born, 
and in November, 1807, their daughter 
Clarissa was born. From October, 1808, to 
May, 1811, J. W. Hewitt was ensign and 
lieutenant in the Bedfordshire Militia. 
From May, 1811, to November, 1817, he was 
ensign and lieutenant in the 1st Regt. of 
Foot, of which the Duke of Kent was 
colonel. In November, 1817, he retired on 
half-pay. About that date he and his wife 
"separated," and she settled with her three 
daughters at Belfast, where in 1827-28 the 
two elder were married. Mrs. Hewitt diec 
and was buried at Belfast, as was also hee 
unmarried daughter Clarissa about 1888-96 



'Capt." Hewitt died at Reading on July 9, 
1867, aged 89. Tradition states that he and 
lis wife and their daughter Clarissa received 
until the day of their deaths " a secret grant 
~rom a high source." 

Can any student of the secret history of 
.he period 1750-1850 throw any further 
ight on this mysterious beauty ? 

C. PARTRIDGE, F.S.A. 

Stowmarket, Suffolk. 

CORNELIUS DREBBEL. I shall be much' 
obliged to any reader of <N. & Q.' who can 
give me further information concerning the 
person and the works of the Dutch naturalist, 
nventor and engineer Cornelius Drebbel, 
who lived about 1604-1625 in England at 
the court of James I, or concerning his 
son - in - law, Dr. Abr. Kufler, dyer, at 
Stratford, Bow. I am especially in search of 
such data as may be found in unpublished/ 
records or in the manuscripts of private' 
libraries, in judicial acts, bills, &c., the- 
printed records being already taken into 
account by me. 

PROFESSOR DR. F. M, JAEGER. 

The University, Groningen, Holland. 

MATTHEW PARIS. The following inveo 
tive against the Preaching or Mendicant 
Friars (presumably a modern translation 
from the Latin) is said to have been written, 
by Matthew Paris, who was a Benedictine 
monk at St. Albans, and naturally looked 
upon them as rivals : 

'The friars who have been founded hardly forty 
years have built residences as the palaces of Kings.. 
These are they who enlarging day by day their 
sumptuous edifices encircling them with lofty 
walls, lay up in them their incalculable treasures*. 
imprudently transgressing the bounds of poverty 
and violating the very fundamental rules of their 
profession." 

If some one will tell me where this passage 
occurs among the writings of Matthew Paris 
I shall be very much obliged. 

PHILIP NORMAN. 

45 Evelyn Gardens, S.W.7. 

FAMILY ' OF DICKSON. I am collecting 
data for a biographical and genealogical 
history of the family of Dickson of Scotland,. 
and I should be glad to hear from any of 
that name with genealogical details of their 
ancestry and any items of interesting family 
history. JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 



SAMUEL DICKSON, M.D., born 1802, 
the author of ' Chromo-Thermal System of 
Medicine.' He studied medicine at Edin- 
burgh, L.R.C.S. Edin., 1825, obtained a 



i2s. vin. JAN. s, mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



commission as Asst.rSurgeon in. the army 
and went to India to join the 30th Regt. 
of Foot. During five years' service in 
India he acquired a large surgical experience. 
On his return home in 1833 he took his M.D. 
degree at Glasgow and began private 
practice at Cheltenham. He subsequently 
removed to Mayfair. Was an author of 
'Hints on Cholera,' &c. He married Eliza, 
dau. of D. Johnstone of Overtoun, and died 
at 28 Bolton Street, Piccadilly, W., on 
Oct. 12, 1869, aged 67 years. 

I seek genealogical details of his ancestry. 
Was he a son of Samuel Dickson, W.S., of 
Edinburgh, born 1777 ? 

JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39 Carlisle Road, Hove. Sussex. 

' Qui Hi IN HINDOSTAN. ' I am anxious 
to know who was the author of ' The Grand 
Master, or Adventures of Qui Hi in Hin- 
dostan,' published in 1816 ; also where 
Rowlandson got the materials for his illus- 
trations to the ' Adventures of Qui Hi. ' 

S. T. S. 

'LIFE IN BOMBAY.' Can any of your 
readers tell me who was the author of ' Life 
in Bombay and the Neighbouring Out- 
stations,' published by Bentley in 1852 ? 

S. T. S. 

"To OUTRUN THE CONSTABLE." What 
is the origin of this phrase, which means to 
exceed one's financial resources ? It appears 
to have been fairly frequently used during 
the latter part of the last century. Besant 
and Rice use it in ' Ready-money Mortiboy , ' 
1872 (vol. ii. chap, v.), and R. L. Stevenson 
used it in one of his letters a few years later. 

W. ROBERTS. 

" FRANCKINSENCE. " (See 12 S. vii. 503). 
Does the entry "for pfumes and Franck- 
insence, xiiii d ," given by MR. ARTHUR 
WINN, in his ' Extracts from the Aldeburgh 
Records ' point to a post-reformation use 
of incense ? WILFRED J. CHAMBERS. 

Clancarty, Regent Road, Lowestoft. 

THE GREEN MAN, ASHBOURNE. I should 
like to know when this well-known inn with 
its famous signboard, hanging across the 
street, was built. Boswell in September, 
1777, took his post-chaise from the Green 
Man which he describes as "a very good 
inn at Ashbourne," and adds that the land- 
lady, one M. Killingley, presented him 
" with an engraving of the sign of her house, 
to which she had subjoined an address." 



It is now the principal inn of the town, but 
according to Bagster's edition of 'The 
Complete Angler,' published in 1815, the 
Talbot (see 12 S. vii. 350, 438, 515) "till 
about sixty years since was the first inn at 
Ashbourn." G. F. R. B. 

CARLYLE'S 'FRENCH REVOLUTION.' Car- 
lyle in his ' French Revolution ' stated that 
Billaud and Collot in 1795 were "shipped 
for Sinamarri and the hot mud of Surinam." 

Is there not a geographical error here in. 
confusing Dutch Guiana with the French 
penal colony ? THOMAS FLINT. 

SPENCER MACKAY, ARMIGER. Jacobus 
Alexander?] Gordon dedicates his thesis 
" Tentamen medicum inaugurale de arsenico" 
(Edinburgh 1814) to his maternal uncle 
("avunculus "), Spencer Mackay, armiger, 
London "tibi omnia post Deum debeo. " 
I believe Gordon is identical with Meredith's 
friend Dr. James Alexander Gordon (1793- 
1872), father of James Edward Henry 
Gordon (1852-93), -the electrician. Who was 
Spencer Mackay? The 'D.N.B.' gets no 
nearer the origin of James Alexander Gordon 
than the statement that he was born in 
Middlesex. J. M. BULLOCH. 

37 Bedford Square, W.C.I. 

THE GLOMERY. Sir John Cheke (tutor to 
King Edward VI.) is mentioned as being the 
last Master of the Glomery in Cambridge 
University. 

Perhaps some reader of 'N. & Q.' may 
be able to define his function ? R. B. 

Upton. 

[The * N.E.D.' explains " glomery " as "ad. med. 
L. glomeria, prob. ad. AF. * f/lomerie = gramarie, 
GRAMMAR,'* instances the Cambridge Magister 
Glome.riae, and quotes Mullinger, ' University ot 
Cambridge,' i. 140: "It was customary in the 
earliest times to delegate to a non -academic func- 
tionary the instruction of youth in the elements of 
the [Latin J language. Such, if we accept the best 
supported conjecture, was the function of the 
Magister Glomeriae." A pupil at a Cambridge 
grammar-school seems to have been called a 
glomerel."] 

"DAVID LYALL," PSEUDONYM. I have 
seen this pseudonym recently in a catalogue 
as being used by Annie S. Swan, afterwards 
Mrs. Burnett Smith. The British Museum 
Catalogue, however, records it as used by 
the late Miss Helen B. Mathers (Mrs. Reeves). 
3an it be definitely stated to which of these 
adies may be attributed the novels written, 
under this pen-name ? 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. s, 1921. 



EARLY ASCENTS OF MONT BLANC BY 
ENGLISH TRAVELLERS. The fourth ascent 
of Mont Blanc was made in 1788 by a young 
Englishman named Woodley accompanied 
by the celebrated guides Jacques Balmat 
and Cachat le Geant, and two others. He 
is described by the Genevese Alpine traveller, 
Marc-Theodore Bourrit, who accompanied 
him during part of the ascent, as " fils du 
gouverneur de 1'Amerique Anglo ise." Can 
any reader of 'N. & Q. ' throw any light on 
his identity ? 

I should also be particularly glad to know 
something about the following Englishmen 
the dates of whose ascents. of Mont Blanc 
I give in parenthesis : 

1. Capt. John Undrell (1819). According 
to the ' Royal Kalendar ' for 1818 he was 
promoted to the rank of commander in the 
R.N. in 1815. 

2. Frederick Clissold (1822). 

3. H. H. Jackson (1823). 

4. Capt. Markham Sherwill (1825). 

6. Dr. Edmund Clark (1825). 

7. Alfred Waddington (1836). 

8. Mr. Nicholson, a London barrister 
(1843). 

9. W. Bosworth (1843). 

10. Dr. Archibald Vincent Smith (1847). 

11. J. D. Gardner (1850). 

All of the foregoing except numbers 7, 9, 
and 10 published narratives of their expedi- 
tions, but as far as I am aware nothing else 
is known about their lives. 

HENRY F. MONTAGNIER, 

Member of the Alpine Club. 
Champe>y. 

KENSINGTON GRAVEL AT VERSAILLES. 
An old issue of The Quarterly Review is an 
authority for the statement that the garden 
walks at the Palace of Versailles were laid 
out with gravel from Kensington, which was 
of European repute. When and by whom 
was this transaction carried out ? By what 
method was the transportation of the gravel 
from Kensington to Versailles effected, and 
what was the total quantity of material so 
transferred ? Where were the Kensington 
gravel pits situated ? 

J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

WEST COUNTRY PLACE-NAMES IN THE 
SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. I have just been 
examining Ricraft's 'Survey of England's 
Champions,' the date of which on the first 
title-page is 1647 and on the second 1649. 
I am puzzled at the forms taken by some 
Devon and Cornwall names of places and 
should be glad of information about them. 



Budex, Beaudeux and Beaudeaux are, 
I suppose, forms of the modern St. Budeaux. 
The first evidently recalls the local nine- 
teenth-century pronunciation of "Buddix." 
What however is the place referred to as 
Pouldram House and what is the mociern 
name of "Tadcaster in Cornwall," taken 
along with "Foy " ? W. S. B. H. 

COATS OF ARMS : IDENTIFICATION SOUGHT. 
Can any reader of *N. & Q.' help me to 
identify the bearers of two coats of arms 
painted on the portraits of a man and his 
wife, dated 1558 ? 

His coat is Sable, on a chevron between 
three butterflies argent, an escutcheon of 
the field, charged with a fieur-de-lys. 

His wife's escutcheon shows two coats 
impaled : the first as above ; the second 
Gules, a fesse wavy arg. between an escallop- 
shell of the last in chief, and a crown or 
in base. 

Some member of the Papillon family 
would seem to be indicated, but I have been 
quite unable to trace the lady's family, 
which was evidently foreign. 

R. T. GUNTHER. 

Magdalen College, Oxford. 

' MELIORA. ' When a boy I often used to 
see copies of a magazine with this title. 
When did it originate and when did it die ? 
Who were its editors and contributors. 

1. F. 

[In The Times 'Handlist of English and Welsh 
Newspapers' Meliora is referred to the year J858 
and described as " A quarterly review of social 
science in its ethical, economical, political and 
ameliorative repects." Apparently it came to an 
end in L869.] 

STEVENSON AND Miss YONGE. Which of 
Miss Yonge's novels is alluded to by R. L. 
Stevenson in his essay, ' A Gossip on a Novel 
of Dumas 's ' ? In it he writes that he made 
the acquaintance of Dumas 's 'Le Vicomte 
de Bragelonne ' in 1863, and that he saluted 
the name of d'Artagnan like an old friend, 
having " met it the year before in a work of 
Miss Yonge's." The question is which ? 
EDWARD LATHAM. 

61 Friends Road, Croydon. 
"PRINCIPAL." In the official list of 'His 
Majesty's Ministers and Heads of Public 
Departments, Revised October, 1920,' this 
word appears to be used in a novel sense : it 
would be a convenience to have that sense 
defined. The members of the "Cabinet 
Secretariat " have the titles : Secretary, 
Principal, Assistant Secretary, Assistant 
Secretaries (three names), Principals (two 



12 s. vin. JAN. s, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



names), Assistant Principal (Private Secre- 
tary to the Secretary), Confidential and 
Chief Clerk, Assistant Chief Clerk. 

While the Committee of Imperial Defence 
is provided with : Secretary, Principal 
Assistant Secretary, Assistant Secretaries 
(three names), Principal, Confidential and 
'Chief Clerk, Assistant Chief Clerk. 

The noun Principal does not seem to occur 
elsewhere in the list. Q. V. 

THACKERAY : ' THE NEWCOMES. ' In 
vol. i., chap, ix., of 'The Newcomes,' 
Thackeray speaks of the Rev. Charles 
Houeyman's "luxurious sofa from Oxford, 
presented to him by young Gibber Wright 
of Christ church. " In later editions, in place 
of "young Cibber Wright," we find "young 
Downy." I shall be obliged to any one 
who will explain why Thackeray made this 
change of name. 

CHABLES E. STBATTON. 
Boston, Mass. 

BARLOW FAMILY. At 9 S. viii. 144, I 
asked for particulars of the Rev. F. Barlow, 
described as "Vicar of Burton" on the 
title-page of his ' Complete English Peerage, ' 
1772, &c., but nothing definite was elicited. 
At 12 S. i. 469 is mention of a Descendants' 
Dinner of the Barlow family, held in London 
in December 1906, and it may now be possible 
to renew the former query with better 
ohance of success. My principal object is to 
identify the " Burton " of which the Rev. F. 
Barlow was vicar at the period indicated. 

W. B. H. 

MAJOR-GENERAL SIR ROBERT SALE. It 
is said that in a despatch from him, sent 
from Jellalabad, concealed in a quill, a 
small paper was enfolded on which was 
written "iodine." When this was applied 
to the invisible writing, written with rice 
water, the letter became visible. 

What is the authority for this statement ? 

G. H. J. 

CHATTERTON'S APPRENTICESHIP TO LAM- 
BERT. Sir Sidney Lee's account of Chatter- 
Ion (published in 1906) contains the follow- 
ing statement : 

" He lived at his master's house, was harshly 
used and greatly overworked." 

The italics are mine.) All previous bio- 
graphers of Chatterton agree that he had 
much leisure time, and was thus able during 
office hours to carry on his own literary 
work. It would be interesting to know on 
"what grounds Sir Sidney Lee charges 



Lambert with having overworked Chatterton. 
This charge has not been brought before 
against Lambert even by the most ardent 
defenders of Chatterton. 

G. W. WRIGHT. 

' FRANKENSTEIN. ' I should be glad to be 
informed of the earliest recorded instance 
of the confusion between the protagonists in 
Mrs. Shelley's story 'Frankenstein, ' in general 
literature or journalism. In journalism at 
least three instances have occurred in the 
past few months of references to the creation, 
of a "Frankenstein," meaning of course the 
monster which Frankenstein brought into 
existence. 

It would be interesting to know if there 
is any satisfactory explanation of the 
extraordinary prevalence of this curious 
error, which constitutes a problem with few 
parallels in literature. H. J. AYLIFFE. 

2 New Steine, Brighton. 



JUplus* 

A NOTE ON SAMUEL PEPYS'S DIARY. 

(12 S. vii. 507.) 

I AM particularly interested in SIR CHARLES 
TOMES 's note, as I have for some time past 
been endeavouring to trace the exact 
relationship of Nan Pepys of Worcester 
with the Diarist, in connexion with my 
forthcoming book on Pepys and his family. 

The only information I have been able to 
obtain in relation to any Anne Pepys of 
Worcester is the following : 

In Water's 'Genealogist's Gleanings,' 
there is a reference to the will, dated Apr. 5, 
1658, and proved on Oct. 2 following, of 
John Danvers of Upton, in the parish of 
Ratley, Warwickshire, Esq., whereby he 
bequeathed a legacy of 100/. to Anne Pepes, 
wife of John Pepes of Littleton in the co. 
of Worcester. 

I searched at Somerset House for the will 
of John Pepes of Worcester, but found none. 
In the Administration Book now at Somerset 
House, however, I found that on May 31, 
1660, Letters of Administration to the 
estate of Anne Pepys alias Peakes, late of 
Littleton, Worcester, were granted by the 
Prerogative Court of Canterbury, to her 
husband John Pepys alias Peakes. This 
proves that this Anne died intestate and 
not leaving a will as Dr. Wheatley con- 
jectured. 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. s, 1921. 



I am inclined to think that John Pepys 
alias Peakes, married a Pepys and that he 
afterwards changed his surname to his 
wife's maiden name of Pepys. 

Who "my cozen Nan Pepys, of Wor- 
cester," referred to in the 'Diary,' under 
dates, Feb. 15, 1659/60, July 10, 1660, and 
June 12 and 15, 1662, and Nov. 3, 1667, was, 
I cannot say, but probably, as Dr. Wheatley 
remarked, she was a daughter of the above 
named persons. 

The Nan Pepys referred to in the * Diary, ' 
married first Mr. Hall and secondly, Mr. 
Fisher, and though it would seem strange 
that the Diarist should continue to call 
her "Pepys," I shall show in my book that 
in another instance, he continued to call one 
of his relations by the name of her first 
husband long after his death and her re- 
marriage. 

The most comprehensive pedigree extant 
is that by the Hon. W. C. Pepys in his 
* Genealogy of the Pepys Family ' (pub- 
lished in 1887) in seven sections. I hope to 
include a corrected and annotated genealogy 
of the diarist's ancestors and contemporaries 
in my work. 

W. H. WHITEAB, F.R.Hist.S. 



PAMPHLET ON KENSINGTON SQUARE (12 S. 
vii. 509). The pamphlet your corre- 
spondent inquires about is entitled : 

"Notes on Kensington Square and its notable 
inhabitants, A.D. 1881. London : Wakeham & Son, 
Printers, Church Street, Kensington, W., 1881, tor 
private circulation only." 

It contains 19 pp. and the reprint has 32 pp., 
with the same title except that the date is 
"A.D. 1881-1883," and the imprint is 1883. 
The prefatory note to the reprint is signed 
" J. J. M." The author was Dr. John Jones 
Merriman, long an inhabitant of the Square, 
who died in 1896. The dates given by 
Loftie are, it will be seen, incorrect. Both 
of the above mentioned editions are in the 
writer's possession. 

W. H. WHITEAR, F.R.Hist.S. 

EMERSON'S 'ENGLISH TRAITS' (12 S. 
v. 234 ; vi. 228). The heroine of No. 18 at 
the earlier reference, who was as mild as she 
was game, and as game as she was mild, is 
Esther Summerson. This praise was drawn 
from Inspector Bucket by her conduct 
during their journey in pursuit of Lady 
Dedlock. See the fifty-ninth chapter in the 
one volume edition of ' Bleak House. ' 

9. (At the second reference.) " A tent of 
caterpillars." One of the meanings of the 



substantive "tent " given by the 'N.E.D. *" 
is "the silken web of a tent-caterpillar," 
and on the next page a tent-caterpillar is 
defined as " the gregarious larva of a North 
American bombycid moth, Clisiocampa,, 
which spins a tent-like web." 

15. " Penshurst still shines for us, and its 
Christmas revels, * where logs not burn, but 
men.' " Emerson's quotation, only "where" 
should be "when," is the conclusion of Ben 
Jonson's 'Ode to Sir William Sidney on his 
birth-day,' the last piece but one in 'The 
Forest.' EDWARD BENSLY. 

"EMINERE" (12 S. vii. 427). This has 
no claim to be counted as an English word. 
It is merely the Latin infinitive constructed 
with an English auxiliary verb, and should 
be italicised. At 9 S. xii. 163, col. 2, an 
example of this usage was quoted from 
Burton's 'Anatomy of Melancholy,' 
III. i. ii. iii. "they shall matt audire in all 
succeeding ages." This was illustrated by 
Bentley's "But of some incidental things 
I do 7TY<v." In III. i. iii. of Burton's 
treatise we have "The Decii did se vovere." 
Other examples could be found if it were 
worth looking for them. EDWARD BENSLY. 

EARLY RAILWAY TRAVELLING (12 S. vii. 
461, 511 ; viii. 13). I have read with much 
interest the letters of your correspondents. 
In Mr. W. M. Acworth's delightful book 
The Railways of England ' it is pointed out 
that though the early English engineers 
hesitated to increase the size of the carriages 
they had no scruples as to the length of -the 
trains, and he quotes contemporary refer- 
ences to "a luggage train of 80 wagons," 
the length of which was nearly half a mile ; a 
passenger train that carried 2,115 passengers 
and another which consisted of 110 vehicles 
filled with passengers and propelled by five 
engines four in front and one behind, the 
length of which extended to nearly one- 
third of a mile. This was in the early 'forties. 
Coupe carriages, which must, I think, have 
originated in the diligences of France were- 
not uncommon about twenty-five years ago- 
I recollect travelling frequently in them on 
the main line of the Great Southern and 
Western Railway of Ireland, and also on 
the London and North Western Railway. 
I can recall such a journey on the last men- 
ioned line as recently as the year 1898. 
The carriage was a second-class one, but had 
probably begun life in the higher class. 

Another survival from coaching-days met 
with in early railway-practice was a long 
stop twenty minutes or more at some- 



128. VIII. JAN. 8, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



important junction where dinner was served 
to hungry through-travellers. The dinner at 
York " in the pleasant refreshment -room 
hung round with engravings," is mentioned 
in ' Mr. Verdant Green Married and Done 
for,' and on the Irish line mentioned dinner 
used to be served about 5 p.m. at Limerick 
Junction, where two rather slow trains 
leaving Dublin and Cork, at 1 p.m. and 
2.45 p.m. met and passed each other. Those 
of your readers who know this station, will 
recall its rather whimsical design which 
compels trains approaching from four 
different directions to run past their plat- 
forms before they can reach their proper 
stopping-places, by backing into them. 

M. G. L. 

The railway policemen at Shrewsbury 
Station (L. &N.W. and G.W.R. Joint) wore 
the tall hat a very few years ago, and may 
do so even now, but I am not sure. 

HERBERT SOUTHAM. 

LINES ON NEBUCHADNEZZAR (12 S. vii. 351, 
437, 439.) The authoritative note of the 
Provost of Queen's College, Oxford, at the 
second reference, makes it probable that the 
poem about Nebuchadnezzar which was the 
subject of T. S. O.'s inquiry was a bundle of 
fragments and not one connected poem. 
The story there mentioned that a similarity 
of names caused some unsuccessful sets of 
verses, intended for the Newdigate competi- 
tion of 1852 on ' Belshazzar's Feast,' to fall 
into the hands of an undergraduate instead 
of a judge of the prize, may be dismissed 
with a smile, and all that can now be done 
is to record such short fragments as are 
remembered, out of a considerable number 
thrown off by some clever writer or writers 
in the summer term of 1852. 

As T. S. O. (how thin the disguise !) par- 
ticularly asks for definite references, perhaps 
I may be allowed to add the only printed 
references which I know to the *"poem." 
One is an extract from ' A Son of Belial : 
Autobiographical Sketches, by Nitram 
Tradley ' (London, 1882, 8vo : the author 
was Edmund Martin Geldart, resident at 
Balliol, 1863-8) : 

P- 187. " 1 was never favoured with a> sight of 
one of these productions [the English Poem on a 
sacred subject, a triennial prize first competed for 
in 1851, and often not printed], but a couplet was 
quoted in my time as taken from a poem on Nebu- 
chadnezzar, wherein of that monarch it is told, that 
what time he ate grass like an ox- 
He murmured as he chewed the unwonted food, 
It may be wholesome, but it is not good. 



I think I have now nearly exhausted the field of 
theological pabulum on which the young Nebuchad- 
nezzas of Bosphorus [Oxford] were put to graze in 
my day, nor do I know that I should be inclined to 
pass upon it a much more favourable verdict than 
that of the Assyrian potentate. Good it most cer- 
tainly was not, and, however wholesome in the 
abstract, it did not agree with me." 

It will be observed that Mr. Geldart is 
mistaken about the quotation, being from a 
'Poem on a Sacred Subject,' which the 
context shows to have been on the writer's 
mind ; whereas the ' Newdigate,' a non- 
theological poem, was the real occasion of 
the Nebuchadnezzar fragments. 

The second reference is in the Oxford 
Undergraduate's Journal for Nov. 20, 1867 
p. 205, where the following passage occurs, 
as from a ' Rejected Poem for the Newdigate 
Prize ' : 

While at these words the wise men stood appalled 
Some one suggested Daniel should be called. 
Daniel was called, and just remarked in passing, 
Oh ! Mene, Mene, Tekel and Upharsin." 

Perhaps this is all that we shall ever 
recover of the lines inquired for. FAMA. 

BEAUCLERC (12 S. vii. 391, 437). In Sep- 
tember last The Times printed several letters 
about the early handwriting of the Kings of 
England. The correspondence was closed 
by a letter in the issue for Sept. 25, in which 
I quoted the following decisive statement 
by Mr. W. J. Hardy : 

" Prior to the reign of Edward III. we have no- 
evidence of any member of the Royal Family being 
able to write his or her name." 

The mark was written in in a space left 
by the scribe, who had previously written, 
the name to be represented by the mark. 
The first actual name signature of a King of 
England is believed to be that of Richard II 
in 1386. FAMA. 

Oxford. 



DENNY, DE DEENE AND WINDSOR FAMI- 
LIES (10 S. xii. 424; 11 S. ii. 153, 274; 
vi. 418; 12 S. vii. 247, 358). One feels 
great diffidence in venturing to dissent from 
DR. ROUND. But apart from any assump- 
tions connected with the fesse dancettee 
coat or otherwise, there would seem to be 
the indisputable evidence of fact that the 
surnames Denny and Dene, &c., did run. 
nto one another in the days when ortho- 
graphy was in a very fluid state. The 
following examples, from different periods,, 
will show what is meant. 

Robert "Dany," also called "Dene" 
and "Dan " (Subsidy Lists, Chancery Pro- 
I ceedings, &c.) succeeded William "Dany," 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. C i 2 s. VIIT. JAN. s, 1921 



probably his father, in the Manor of Horsted 
Parva. Of the same family was Agnes, 
wife of John "Daney," also called "de 
"Dene " and " atte Dene " (Subsidy Lists and 
Patent Rolls). " Dyn " is another variation 
in, the case of this family, in the same period, 
aiamely circa 1300 to 1430. 

John "Danney," K.B., 1306, also 
described as "Deane," "Dean," "Denie," 
.and "Dene." 

In the Inq. p.m. of Robert Dynne of 
Heydon, Norfolk, 1499, one of his trustees 
; is called sometimes William "Deen," and 
sometimes "Denne." This may have been 
the father of Baron Sir Edmond Denny 
(called "Deene" in a document of 1500), 
.And identical with William "Denny," 
"Denne" or "Dene," of London, a legal 
personage of the fifteenth century. 

The surname of Henry, Archbishop of 
-Canterbury, 1501-3, appears as "Deen," 
"Dene," "Deane," "Deany," "Deney " 
,-and " Denny. " Similar variations occur in 
^the case of the surname of Sir John Deane 
-of Great Maplestead, who died in 1625. 

The conclusion which I have drawn from 
such evidence as the above is supported by 
the very considerable authority of Mr. 
Walter Rye, who wrote as follows in an 
.article on 'Old Norfolk Families,' some 
years ago : 

" There were men of the name of Denny in the 

-county e.g in '1499, and in forms of Dene and 

Deney it occurs in Norwich much earlier still." 

During many years of research I have 
never come across any evidence that there 
was ever a family connected with Denny, 
<; Cambs, which took its surname from that 
place. Even if such evidence were forth- 
coming, it would not necessarily prove that 
-every family named Denny derived its sur- 
name from that or any other place. 

H. L. L. D. 

HORSELEPERD (12 S. v. 320).' My query 
v,as to the meaning of this word has now been 
answered by the Earl of Kerry in a letter 
which appeared in The Wiltshire Gazette 
(Devizes) for Sept. 30, 1920. This letter, 
^the last of a number on the same subject 
most of which appeared in The Gazette during 
^the early part of 1920, is quoted and sum- 
marized in The Wiltshire Magazine, the 
organ of the Wiltshire Archaeological Society, 
-vol. xli. (December, 1920), pp. 212, 213. 

O. G. S. CRAWFORD, 
Hon. Sec., Congress of Archaeological 
Societies. 



ST. LEONARD'S "PRIORY," HANTS (12 S. 
vii. 90). What authority is there for calling 
this a Priory ? I know of no references to 
it as such, and from the existing remains it 
would appear to have been merely a large 
farm belonging to the monks of Beaulieu 
Abbey to which it belonged. 

O. G. S. CRAWFORD. 

LONDON POSTMARKS (12 S. vii. 290, 355 ; 
viii. 18). The late John G. Hendy's ' Post- 
marks of the British Isles 1840 to 1876 ^ 
was issued as a serial supplement to ' Gibbons' 
Stamp Weekly ' some 12 or more years ago, 
and was afterwards published in volume 
form by Stanley Gibbons, Ltd., 391 Strand, 
W.C.2, with 842 illustrations, price in paper 
3s. and in cloth 4s. GEO. HARDWICK. 
8 Hallswelle Road, N.W.ll. 

NOTES ON THE EARLY DE REDVERS 
(12 S. vii. 445; viii. 15). Richard^ de 
Redvers was not son of Baldwin " de 
Brionne." I do not know who his father 
was. Baldwin the Sheriff, de Excestre, was 
father of three sons, the youngest of them, 
Richard fl. Baldwini, dying without issue 
on June. 25, 1137. No/ did the family of 
de Redvers hold the barony of Okehampton, 
which Baldwin the Sheriff held in 1086, his 
son and heir, William, in 1090, the latter's 
brother and heir, Richard, in 1129. In 
1166, Matilda d'Avranches, heir of Baldwin 
the Sheriff, and wife of Robert, the younger 
natural son of Henry I, was tenant of it. 
See V. C. H. Devon, I, 555 and seq. 

L. GRIFFITH. 

REPRESENTATIVE COUNTY LIBRARIES 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (12 S. viii. 8). A 
very valuable section of York Minster 
Library consists of Yorkshire books, MSS. 
prints,* &c., collected and left to it, by Mr. 
Edward Kailstone, F.S.A. of Walton Hall 
near Walsfield. To this treasure, something 
like a thousand kindred works have been 
added either by gift or purchase. There 
are some pleasant paragraphs about Mr. 
Kailstone in Chancellor Raine's preface to 
'A Catalogue of the Printed Books in the 
Library of the Dean and Chapter of York.' 

I should imagine that almost every 
county has a store such as that which Mr. 
ROWE desiderates ; but every town should 
try to keep together anything that throws 
a light on its own history. The " shire of 
broad acres " has not done badly, as your 
correspondent shows and, inasmuch as he 
did not mention the Kailstone garnering, it 



12S.VHLJAN.8, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



is not unlikely that there may be more 
caches, than he is aware of even in Yorkshire, 
for the benefit of posterity to say nothing 
of hoards elsewhere. ST. SWITHIN. 

Surely it is now a matter of general 
knowledge that every Public Library makes 
a special feature of collecting the literature 
of its own district and also that those in 
County and the larger towns possess (as in 
that under my care) very large local libraries. 
Apart from this, the information has already 
foeen printed in the ' Libraries, Museums, 
and Art Galleries Year-Book ' for 1914 and 
the Literary Year-Book ' for 1913, and if 
these are not accessible, a card to any 
Librarian always secures full information as 
o the extent of his own collection. 

The question of recording private collec- 
tions is another matter, and I doubt if it 
'would be welcomed generally. My own 
experience suggests that most correspon- 
dents are not interested so much in local 
history and topography as in genealogy, and 
too frequently they ask for searches to be 
made for references to their forbears which 
private owners would hardly undertake, 
and in my opinion should not be expected of 
custodians of public collections. I have 
found that the suggestion of a fee to be 
contributed towards the funds of the library 
in return for such services ends the corres- 
pondence. PUBLIC LIBRARIAN. 

BATEMAN BROWN. ( See under " The Her- 
mit of Hertfordshire " 12 S. vii. 466, .516). 
MR. PRESCOTT Row may be interested to 
have a few particluars I can give him of 
Bateman Brown, whose book he now 
-possesses. 

Bateman Brown, J.P., was born at the 
village of Houghton, Hunts, Apr. 9, 1823, 
the year of a great flood there. In 1896 he 
"bought Bridge House, Huntingdon, and died 
"lere May 9, 1909, aged 86, and was buried 
it Houghton. His wife, Mrs. Susannah 
Brown died at Bridge House May 7, 1913, 
aged 88, and was also buried at Houghton. 
'Reminiscences of Bateman Brown, J.P.,' 
was published at Peterborough, 1905. 

Bateman Brown was the son of Potto -and 
Mary Brown. Potto Brown was born at 
Houghton, July 16, 1797, and died Apr. 12, 
1871. A biography was published by Mr. 
Albert Goodman called ' Potto Brown : the 
Village Philanthropist,' 1878. I can remem- 
ber them all very well. 

HERBERT E. NORTHS. 
Cirencester. 



KILDALTON CROSS, ISLAY (12 S. vii., 511). 
The richly ornamented cross and other 
sculptured stones at the ancient church of 
Kildalton (not Kidalton as written in 
J. C. M. F's. query) are fully described and 
illustrated in Stuarts ' Sculptured Stones 
of Scotland,' vol. 11, p. 36: Proceedings of 
the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, vol. xvii, 
p. 277 ; R. C. Graham's ' Carved Stones 
of Islay,' p. 83, with plates xxiv. and 
xxv., and Romilly Aken's 'Early Christian 
Monuments of Scotland,' pt. iii., p. 392. 
In the National Scottish Museum of Anti- 
quities, Edinburgh, there is a plaster cast 
of tho cross, presented by Mrs. Ramsey of 
Kildalton, standing 9 feet high. 

HERBERT MAXWELL. 

Monreith. 

"HuN " (12 S. vii. 330, 375, 438, 492). 
'The Rowers,' by Mr. Rudyard Kipling, 
mentioned by MR. LEFFMANN at the last 
reference was published in The Times of 
Dec. 22, 1902 (see 12 S. iv. 25, s.v., Germans 
as "Huns"). The poem has been re- 
published in 'Rudyard Kipling's Verse,' 
1919, vol. ii. p. 57, where it is dated 1902. 
" (When Germany proposed that England 
should help her in a naval demonstration to 
collect debts from Venezuela)." 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

THE BRITISH IN CORSICA (12 S. viii. 10). 
A reference to Fortescue's 'History of the 
British Army ' would probably give the 
information required. In the occupation of 
1794 Sir David Dundas had the command, 
and the 18th Foot (Royal Irish) was at 
least one of the regiments engaged. In the 
affair of 1814 the Pembroke, and possibly 
' L'Aigle ' also took part ; there was a 
Brigade of Infantry engaged as well. The 
French hoisted the Bourbon flag on the 
approach of the English and a treaty was 
effected under which the French were placed 
under the protection of the English and the 
forts of Ajaccio, Calvi and Bonifacio were 
surrendered. 

Should Mr. Lewis wish for a more detailed 
account of the 1814 affair, I shall be glad to 
let him have a copy of some private papers 
I have. F. M. M. 

Rochester. 

A FEW WARWICKSHIRE FOLK SAYINGS 
(12 S. vii. 507). Some of these sayings 
are not confined to Warwickshire. My 
Tiother, a Leicestershire woman (born 
near Melton Mowbray), would often speak 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.YIII. JAN. 8,1021. 



of an idle shiftless person as " a poor come 
day, go day, God send Sundajr creature." 
The saying about apples not causing belly- 
ache after St. Swithin has christened them 
I have often heard in South Notts, where, 
too, the snail rime, with slight variation 
I fancy, was familiar. We used, too, to stir 
the cream in the churn with a hot poker to 
make the butter come, but I do not remember 
any mention of witchcraft in connexion with 
this. I have known salt to be thrown into 
the fire "to keep the witch out of the 
churn " in Lincolnshire. C. C. B. 

The proper reading of this first saying is, 
"The silent sow sucks the most wash." 
All sows may be reckoned sly, but the moral 
is that people who chatter the least, but 
best attend to the business in hand, are 
those who make the most out of life. 

SURREY. 

'POOR UNCLE NED' (12 S. vi. 287; 
\ii. 373, 438, 514). Probably there are 
many variants of this song, and most of 
them arise from trusting to memory of 
words never seen in print. I, for example, 
did not remember, when I last wrote, to have 
had the song before me ; but I now find it 
in 'The Scottish Students' Song Book, 
compiled in 1897, one of the editors of which 
was " J. Malcolm Bulloch, M.A., Aberdeen," 
now well known to readers of 'N. & Q. 
In this, the first verse is thus given : 

There was an old nigger and his name was Uncle 

Ned, 

But he's dead long ago, long ago ; 
He had no wool on the top of his head 
In the place where the wool ought to grow. 
Den lay down de shubble an' de hoe, 
Hang up de fiddle and de bow, 
Dere's no more hard work for poor old Ned, 
He's gone where the good niggers go. 
But what is wanted to settle the words 
is a copy of them as they appeared in print 
in, the earliest sixties, when they were first 
sung in this country, as all versions fron 
memory so markedly differ. 

ALFRED ROBBINS. 

My recollection of this song is that th< 
first verse ran thus : 

There once was a nigger and his name was UncL 

Ned, 

But he's gone dead long ago ; 
He had no wool on the top of his head, 

In the place where the wool ought to grow. 
[Chonu.'] 

Hang up the shovel and the hoe-o-o-o, 
Take down the fiddle and the bow ; 
For there's no more work for poor Uncle Ned 
For he's gone where the good niggers go. 



Probably all the " thes " should be written - 
' de. ") I know the tune quite well, and 
:ould write out the air but you wx>uld not 
vant to print it. 

One thing that has made this old song 
tick in my memory is a version in " Daily 
Telegraphese " which my father used to 
quote. I believe this is it literally : 

1 1 once had an avuncular relative whose name 
was Edward, but he has long since departed for 
that bourne whence no member of the community 
coloured or otherwise, has ever been known to 
return. He had no capillary substance on the 
summit of his pericranium, in that place where the 
capillary substance is wont to vegetate. 

" Hang up the mechanical instruments, agricul- 
tural or otherwise ; take down the musical instru- 
ments, stringed or otherwise. For there's no more 
nanual labour for my avuncular relative Edward, 
inasmuch as he has departed for that bourne- 
whence no member of the community, coloured or. 
otherwise, has ever been known to return." 

J. C. 

VOUCHER = RAILWAY TICKET (12 S~ 
vii. 510). The earlier form of railway pass- 
was a voucher by reason of the fact that it 
was printed on paper with a counterpart- 
The destination and amount of fare was 
added in. ink and a duplicate of the trans- 
action recorded on the counterpart. These- 
were in use at least until 1845, and possibly 
from the commencing date of railroad, 
transport. ALECK ABRAHAMS.. 

In the beginning the permit to travel by- 
train was conferred with more circumstance 
than at present, and, although I do not 
remember the receipt for a fare being called 
a voucher, the term does not seem out of 
character before the introduction of card- 
board tickets. At least on the line between 
Leicester and Swannington, metal tokens, 
octagonal in shape, were used. Each was 
numbered, and the number corresponded 
with that of the passenger, as entered in a. 
way-bill which was kept by the guard of the 
train. ST. SWITHIN. 

THOMAS FARMER BAILEY (12 S. vii. 410). 
There are at least five varieties of book- 
plates with the name Farmer Baily thereon, 
(not Bailey). They are as follows : 

1. Farmer Baily (crest). 

2. Farmer Baily, Hall Place, Kent 
(armorial). 

3. Thomas Farmer Baily, Hall Place r 
Tonbridge (crest). 

4. T. Farmer Baily, Hall Place (armorial 
shield (Baily impaling Addison) in a beadecl 
oval, in red). 



i2s.vm.jA^s,i92i.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



5. T. Farmer Baily, Sunnyside, Ryde, 
I.W. (armorial shield in a beaded oval sur- 
mounted by a foreign coronet, in red). 

Perhaps the additional fact that Baily 
apparently also lived in the Isle of Wight 
may be of assistance to MR. CLEMENTS. 

Farmer Baily purchased the estate of 
Hall Place in the parish of Leigh, Kent in 
1 82 1, and died in Oct. 1 828. His only son and 
heir (by Amelia Perkins his wife who married 
secondly, Sept. 2, 1832 Wm. Smith of 
.Sydenham) was Thos. Farmer Bailey of 
Hall Place. He was bom Sept. 24, 1823, 
and married on Feb. 21, 1863 Gertrude Sarah, 
daughter of James Addison, and grand- 
daughter of the Rev. James Addison, vicar 
of Thornton-cum-Allerthorpe, Yorks. He 
was a J.P., D.L., High Sheriff 1866 and 
Lord of the Manor of Leigh Hollanden. 

CHAS HALL CROUCH. 

BOTTLE-SLIDER, COASTER (12 S. vii. 471, 
516). If ST. S WITHIN had gone to the 
" mammoth mother," he might have found 
*' coaster " fully explained, with quotations 
for c. 1887 and 1888. We have a pair that 
date from the time of William IV. or earlier. 
They appear to be papier mache, varnished 
black, with grapes and vine leaves gilt 
thereon. J. T. F. 

NOLA (12 S. vii. 502). See Glossary to 
Durham Account Rolls under "Knoll," 
and p. 601, "ad campanam vocatam le 
knoll " (1397-8). The particular bell at 
Ripon described as " le knoll," also as "le 
blank knoll," required timber and car- 
penters' work, doubtless for the bell-frame, 
in 1379-80. See 'Memorials of Ripon' 
(Surtees Soc.) iii. 99. The term nola appears 
to have been applied also to a clapper, as at 
Winchester in 1572-80. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

LADY CATHERINE PAULET : SIR HENRY 
BERKELEY (12 S. vii. 511). As MR. FOSTER 
does not tell us the approximate dates of the 
miniatures to which he refers, it is impossible 
to answer his queries. 

Lady Catherine Paulet, dau. of William, 
third Marquess of Winchester, married Sir 
Giles Wroughton, Kt. Lady Catherine 
Paulet, second dau. of Harry, fourth Duke 
of Bolton, married first William Ashe, and 
secondly, 1734, Adam Drummond of Meg- 
ginch, and died in 1775. Lady Catherine 
Margaret Paulet, second dau. of Harry 
sixth Duke of Bolton, married Sept. 17, 
1787, William Henry, Earl of Darlington, 



afterwards Duke of Cleveland, and died 
June 17, 1807. See Burke 's 'Peerage.' 

Sir Henry Berkeley, of Brew ton, was 
knighted in 1585, and was Sheriff of Somer- 
set in 1587. He 

' married Margaret, daughter of William Leggon, 
of Staffordshire, esq., by whom he had three sons, 
viz.. Sir Maurice, Sir Henry (from whom descended 
the Berkeleys of Yarlington, which branch is now 
extinct), and Sir Edward Berkeley." See Collin- 
son's ' Somerset,' I. xxxvii. ; iii. 280-1. 

This second Sir Henry married Elizabeth, 
dau. of Henry Nevill of Billingbear, Berk- 
shire. HARMATOPEGOS. 

PEACOCKS' FEATHERS (12 S. vi. 334 ; 
vii. 137, 277, 477). In Baron von Haxt- 
hausen's 'Transcaucasia,' trans. J. E. 
Taylor, London, 1854, pp. 260-61, the 
Yezidis are spoken of thus : 

" Of the Holy Spirit they know nothing ; they 
designate Christ as the Son of God, but do not 
recognise his divinity. They believe that Satan 
(Speitan) was the first-created, greatest, arid most 
exalted of the arch-angeli ; that the world was made 
by him at God's command, and that to him was en- 
trusted its government; but that, for esteeming him- 
self equal with God, he was banished trom the Divine 
presence. Nevertheless he will be again received 
into favour and his kingdom (this world) restored 

to him, they suffer no one to speak ill of Satan 

On a certain day they offer to Satan thirty sheep ; 
at Easter they sacrifice to Christ, but only a Dingle 

sheep Satan is called Melik Taous (King 

Peacock)." 

Has not this heretical association of Satan 
and peacock been the cause of some Eur6- 
peans' opinions that peacocks' feathers are 
unlucky ? KUMAGUSU MINAKATA. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

THE ORIGINAL WAR OFFICE (12 S. .vii. 
310, 354, 416, 435, 452). Up to the present 
I have only been able to trace back the 
quotation given me by Professor Andrews 
to 1721 ; but hope for further success. 

As his book ( ' Guide to the Materials for 
American History to 1783, in the Public 
Record Office of* Great Britain 1914 ') is 
not very accessible to some of your readers, 
I may perhaps quote (from vol. ii, 274) : 

" The office of the Secretary at War must have 
been at first in or near the chambers of the Duke 
of Albemarle at the Cockpit. Lock is mentioned 
as having an office at the Guards House in 1676, 
and probably Blathwayt used Little Wallingford 
House for the same purpose. Clarke dated his 
letters from the Horse Guards in 1697. We learn 
that for a time the War Office was located on the 
south side of Pall Mall, in the old Ordnance Office, 
built for the Duke of Cumberland when captain- 
general. For the greater part of the early 
eighteenth century, however, the Secretary at 
War, the deputy secretary and clerks the 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. s, 1021, 



Paymaster- General of the forces and the Com- 
missary-General of the Musters bad their quarters 
in a building on the east side of the street leading 
from Charing Cross to Westminster, about where 
the War Office is to-day. This building had a 
frontage on the street of 55 feet, but was only 
46 feet wide at the rear, while the dimensions up 
one flight of stairs were only 31 feet before and 
behind. In 1751 the present building of the 
Horse Guards was begun and [it was] completed 
in 1756, on the site of the old Guards House, the 
yard, and the stables, and thither the War Office 
was removed in the latter year." 

The office of Secretary at War was 
abolished by Stat. 26 and 27 Viet. c. 12, to 
which the royal assent was signified on May 4, 
1863. Q. V. 

HERALDIC (12 S. vii 490). I wish your 
correspondent had cited an instance or some 
instances of the occurrence of the blazon 
which is the cause of his query. I imagine 
it to be due to the canting device, the inter- 
laced knot of . the Lacy family, or to the 
double B twist of the Bourchiers. 

ST. SWITHIN. 

WOOL-GATHERING (12 S. vii. 510). In 
the early part of the nineteenth century 
when people were careful of everything, 
and not ashamed of small economies, poor 
women would go wool-gathering, that is, they 
would glean from hedgerows, &c., flakes or 
locks which the thorns had torn from the 
fleeces of sheep that had approached too 
r*ear to pass untolled. When I was in the 
nursery a faithful shepherdess suggested 
that her charges might pursue this occupa- 
tion in our own paddock ; but the prospect 
of " great cry and little wool " was not found 
particularly alluring. When sheep were 
washed there must have been pickings for 
pious standers-by and when the shearing 
came coarse dag-locks would be a precious 
perquisite if the farmer did not keep them 
for himself. When at times "one's wits go 
a-wool-gathering, " as they are supposed to 
do, it is imagined that they stray about to 
small profit as did the women who sought 
stuffing for cushions in the hedges. 

ST. SWITHIN. 

FRENCH PRISONERS OF WAR IN ENGLAND 
(12 S. vii. 469, 517). An interesting volume 
could be written entitled ' Sons of French 
Prisoners of War in England who Became 
Famous.' One of the most conspicuous is 
Henry Litolff, the composer-pianist, born in 
London in 1818. He was the son of a 
French-Alsatian soldier taken prisoner in 
the Peninsular War, who became a violinist 



in a London theatre, and married an English- 
woman. Henry made his first appearance^ 
as an "English boy pianist, aged 12," at 
Covent Garden Theatre in 1832. When in 
his 17th year he married an English girl a* 
little older than himself. In 1851 he settled 
in Brunswick, became a naturalized Germaa 
(citizen of the Duchy), married the widow of 
a German musical publisher, and gave his 
name to the still flourishing firm of Litolff 
(London agent, Enoch, Great Maryborough 
Street). Three years before the Franco- 
German War, Henry Litolff settled in Paris y 
married his third wife, the Comtesse de 
Larochefoucauld, and died a Frenchman at 
Bois le Combes (near Paris) in August, 1891.. 

ANDREW DE TERNANT. 
36 Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

TERCENTENARY HANDLIST OF NEWS- 
PAPERS (12 S. vii. 480). A preliminary 
search in the Index of Titles to ' Section IL 
The Provincial Press ' shows that the 
Addenda for one county will amount to 
about 150, almost entirely belonging to the 
nineteenth century. The compiler's plarv 
of admitting school magazines to his list, 
while excluding parish magazines, has been, 
borne in mind. M. 

[We are prepared to print any Addenda to the 
Handlist which our correspondents may care to 
send us in the last number for each month. They 
should reach us not later than one week before the 
date of issue.] 

THE HERMIT OF HERTFORDSHIRE (12 S. 
vii. 466, 516). My mother remembers that, 
when staying with cousins at Hitchin, in 
1858, she was taken to see Lucas as one of 
the local attractions ; and that, being at that 
time an adherent of "Pussyfoot," she 
managed to evade drinking from a somewhat 
dirty bottle with which the hermit welcomed 
his visitors. A. R. BAYLEY. 

" Now, THEN ! " (12 S. vii. 512 ; viii. 17). 
Your correspondent MR. JOHN B. WAINE- 
WRIGHT makes the inquiry whether the 
German Nun as an interjection is not used 
in a similar way to "Now, then." Possibly 
he has in his mind the combination Nun 
also, but the more exact parallel would 
be found in the two words Nanu. This 
phrase has exactly the same meaning when 
spoken to children as the warning "Now, 
then," or " stop -it. " It has a second mean- 
ing, being an exclamation of surprise Nanu 
or "What can this be ? " a startled inquiry. 
The first word na is frequently used as a 
prefix, thus Naja, Nanu, Naso, also as the 



12 s. via. JAN. s, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



expression of doubt, na, na, na. Is there 
any connexion between this and the nah 
having the same pronunciation so fre- 
quently used in the West Riding of York- 
shire and referred to by your correspondent, 
J. T. F.? HENRY W. BUSH. 

JOHN WILSON, BOOKSELLER, HIS CATA- 
LOGUE (12 S. v. 237, 277, 297 ; vi. 21). 
It may interest contributors at above 
references to know that in The Bookworm, 
iv. 336 ( 1891), are thirteen lines commencing : 
Give me a nook and a book, 

And let the proud world spin round, 
giving William Freeland as the author. 

W. B. H. 

DANTEIANA, 'Puna.' v. 130-136 (12 S. 
vi. 226). Stendhal, as quoted by MR. T. 
PERCY ARMSTRONG at this reference, pro- 
vides a charitable, and therefore acceptable, 
version of the story of the unfortunate Pia 
de'Tolomei. But why did Dante place her 
in the 'Purgatorio ' amongst the "Neghit- 
tosi morti violentemente " (as Scartazzini 
terms those in this canto), or, as Lombardi 
calls them "negligent! che tardando il 
pentimento, sopraggiunti da morte violenta, 
si pentirono, e furono salvi " ? Of what had 
she to repent ? Not assuredly of Nello's 
mere suspicions of her infidelity nor of his 
taciturnity. Clearly Dante, in consigning 
her to purgatorial sufferings must have 
shared the then common belief in her lapse 
from fidelity to her husband, and have had 
some knowledge of her repentence as of her 
violent death. Lombardi quotes Volpi as 
holding that : 

"Pia, moglie di M. Nello della Pietra, la quale, 
come fu creduto, trovata dal marito in adulterio, 
fu da lui condo^ta in Maremma e quivi uccisa," 

but Lombardi 's ' Nuovo Editore ' adds : 

"ill Postill. del Cod. Caet. con mplta da grazia 
la storia, che sembra la piu genuina di questa 
donna, in tal guisa ' ' Ista fuit la Pia nobilis 
Domina de Tholomeis de Senis, et uxpr Domini 
Nelli de Petra de Panoteschis in Maritima, quse 
cum staret ad fenestram per aestatem, maritusejus 
misit unum famulum, qui csepit earn per crura, et 
projecit deorsum, propter suspectum, quern halm it 
ae ipsa, et ex hoc ortum est magnum odium inter 
illas domos.' " 

Seeing that opinions differ so widely as 
to the guilt or innocence of Pia (Landini, 
L'Ottimo and Commente, Volpi, and Buti 
for the former, with the Anonimo Fiorentino, 
Benvenuti, &c., for the latter view), and in 
doubt as to Dante's bias, I am constrained to 
hold that, to quote Mr. H. F. Tozer's words, 
as " of the manner of her death nothing is 



certainly known," neither is there of th& 
motive for that death. Yet one wonders 
why Nello did not find a corner to himself 
in 'Inf.' xii. amongst the "violenti contra 
ilprossimo." Dante's retributive justice is 
oftentimes curiously unbalanced. 

J. B. McGovERN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

HOOK: OXENBRIDGE : MORTON (12 S.- 
viii. 10). If the Morton referred to is the 
son of Robert Morton and an ejected minister 
afterwards an M.D. there is a portrait of him 
in a full bottom wig and a gown of the 
R.C.P. engraved in line by W T . Elder after 
B. Orchard D. A. H. MOSES. 



0tt 



The Place- Names of Northumberland and Durham^ 

By Allen Mawer. (Cambridge University 

Press, IL net.) 

THIS volume is worthy of its place in the Cam- 
bridge Archaeological and Ethnological Series. It 
carries forward a tradition of study now welL 
established, and the author claims to have 
developed this tradition in one or two respects on 
new and fruitful lines. In the first place he 
virtually confines himself to names for which we 
have documentary evidence dating before 1500, 
making a clear distinction between documented 
and undocumented names. Next, he lays great 
stress on the importance of topographical condi- 
tions and has rejected explanations which do not 
harmonize with those conditions, even if ety- 
mologically satisfactory. This principle is un- 
doubtedly sound. We are glad, too, to note hia 
interest in sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth 
century spellings, with their suggestion of pecu- 
liarities in local pronunciation. 

The great mass of names in Northumberland 
and Durham are of Anglian origin, and Mr. 
Mawer notes that no special frequency of Celtic 
names is to be observed on the north-western or 
western border whence the survival of a Celtic 
population in tke hill-country might be deduced. 
He observes, however, with justice that names- 
readily assigned to English and plausibly ex- 
plained may, after all, be etymological perver- 
sions of Celtic forms instancing the old English 
forms for York and Salisbury which could (and 
assuredly would) have been explained quite 
wrongly but for the Roman version of the 
original Celtic having been preserved. Several 
examples occur in which folk-etymology may 
well be suspected almost detected as Hexham, 
Gateshead and Auckland which are well dis- 
cussed here. 

The interesting question of the interpretation 
of -ing- names is dealt with in a good note, wherein 
Mr. Mawer accepts Prof. Moorman's dictum that 
the ordinary O.E. -ing-n&me (as distinct from 
-inga- and inges--nam.es) is simply a compound of a- 
genitive, -ing- being the possessive element 
therein. This is certainly the only view that 
covers all the facts and Mr. Mawer is able to 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. s, 1921. 



" bring forward among others a new and clinching 
example where an -ing- form is equated with a 
possessive. Birch has a seventh-century charter 
dealing with a grant of land at Wieghelmestun, 
and this name appears in an endorsement of the 
-tenth or early eleventh century as nunc wigel- 
mignctun [sic]. 

The Alphabet of names is preceded by a full 
"bibliography and followed by a useful alphabet of 
the elements used as the second part of place- 
names ; one of personal names used as the first 
part ; a scheme of phonology and an appendix on 
change of suffixes. 

The Story of ' Our Mutual Friend.' Transcribed 
into Phonetic Notation from the Work of 
Charles Dickens. By C. M. Eice. (Cambridge, 
Heffer, 5s. net.) 

IN his ' Notes on Pronunciation ' the transcriber 
tells us that "the pronunciation employed is 
generally that of an educated Southern English- 
man." However, according to the notation 
employed, the word " all " is to be pronounced 
-" or j an d that at once raises difficulties, for 
-we are prepared to deny that the " educated 
Southern Englishman " does so pronounce " all." 
Again in the phrase " all that is to be told " the 
same symbol represents the vowel sounds in 
" that " and " to." Only a very poor and 
slovenly speech would make them so ; and the 
same may be said about a speech which renders 
" er " at "the end of a word by exactly the same 
sound as the vowel in " the." 

The principle upon which this phonetic nota- 
tion works seems to be that of noting any vowel 
as sounded at its weakest. 

The slight nuance of its true quality which 
(1) is usually to be heard in cultivated speech 
even when rapid, and (2) becomes quite perceptible 
in slow or emphatic speech, is ignored, and 
if this notation ever prevailed would be lost. 
Thus the word " consolation " has the neutral 
vowel symbol for the second " o " : but who can 
pronounce the word with even a slight retarding 
and keep that vowel neutral ? The passage in 
which it occurs is an utterance of Mortimer's at 
the Veneering's dinner-party (he is speaking 
" languidly," too) and it may perhaps be argued 
that the spelling is conversational. But spelling 
of such over-refinement drives one into the 
opposite direction, making one wish that, if 
vowels are no longer etymological, they might be 
eliminated from spelling as far as possible. At 
any rate, if this phonetic method is seriously to 
Tt>e tried it ougnt to be standardized for ordinary 
writing by the pronunciation of approved and 
carefully chosen speakers. It would then, we 
believe, be found best always to note the charac- 
teristic sound of a vowel even when, in rapid 
speech, it tends to be slurred and nearly lost 
as in the example above. The sound can be 
weakened to suit the fashion ; but if written as 
merely neutral cannot so easily recover its true 
quality. We confess ourselves inclined to doubt 
the value of such transcripts as this, and even to 
think them undesirable. 

WE are informed by the Oxford University Press 
that the Early English Text Society has appointed 
Mr. Humphrey Milford to be the sole publisher 
for the Society as from the beginning of this year. 



CECIL DEEDES. 

BY the death of Prebendary Cecil Deedes wo 
have lost one of our most valued correspondents. 
Those whose studies have led them to any occupa- 
tion with mediaeval MSS. will need no indication 
of the greatness of the loss, for Prebendary Deedes 
was widely known as an authority in that field. 
Librarian for some time of Chichester Cathedral, 
he edited for the Sussex Eecord Society the 
Registers of Bishop Praty and Bishop Bede, and 
for the Canterbury and York Society the Muni- 
ments of the Bishopric of Winchester and the 
Register of John de Pontissara, besides much 
other work of a kindred character. It is no doubt 
as a scholar and ecclesiastical historian that his 
name will be best remembered, both by readers 
of ' N. & Q.' who owe him much curious infor- 
mation and by the general public. But his 
activities were by no means limited to scholar- 
ship. He had worked as a priest at Oxford 
(curate of SS. Philip and James and Chaplain* of 
Christ Church ; vicar of St. Mary Magdalene) ; 
in S. Africa (organizing secretary of Central 
African Mission and Canon of Maritzburg), and 
in Essex (Rector of Wickham St. Paul's, Halstead, 
Essex), before coming to Sussex, the county with 
which he is most closely associated. He was 
Prebendary of Chichester (" Hova Ecclesia," 
1902-3 ; " Exceit," 1903), and Rector of St. 
Martin and St. Olave in that city, after some 
thirteen years' work at Brighton as Curate of 
Brighton in charge of St. Stephens. 

Cecil Deedes was born in 1843 son of the Rev. 
Lewis Deedes, Rector of Bramfield, Herts and 
was unmarried. He had recently resigned the 
living he held in Chichester and gone to live at 
Frensham where his death took place. 



10 (ffi0rasp0n&ttts. 



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41 



LONDON, JANUARY 2.5, 19S1. 



CONTENTS. No. 144. 

NOTES: Old Church 'Music at Wimborne Minster, 41 
Letters of 1720 from the Low Countries and Hanover, 42 
Among the Shakespeare Archives, 45 An English Ariuy 
List of 1740, 46 The Geophone, 47 Poor Relief Badge 
Loretto Female Pseudonyms used by Men Ann Vane 
Stories of Whistler, 48. 

(QUERIES : Countess Macnarnara Book of Common 
Prayer Alchemical M>S., 49 Education of the First 
Duke > Marlborough St. Thomas's Day Custom Yew- 
trees in Churchyards An Old Silver Charm" Conty " 
Leigh Hunt and Charles Dickens The Legend of Dun- 
fraoich Passage in Lr ckhart'* ' Life of Scott ' Nortons 
in Ireland, 50 The Firsr, Lord VVestbury Bishopsgate : 
Drawings Wanted G. P. R. James, Novelist Simeon 
and Drummond Campbell : Forbes : Johnston : 
Hankey, 51 - Light and Dark A Headpiece Tulchan 
Bishops Authors of Quotations Wanted, 52. 

REPLIES : John Thornton of Coventry and the Great 
Kast Window of York Minster, 52 Bottle-slider, 53 
Beverly Whiting Christian Wegersloff Louis Napoleon: 
Poetical Works Representative County Libraries: 
Public and Private John Hughes of Liverpool, 1706 
Hambley House, Streatham, 54 Mode of Concluding 
Letters Orders and Ordinances of the Hospitals, 55 
' Life in Bombay ' London Postmarks ' The Western 
3Iiscellany,' 1775 and 1776 English Views by Cftnaletto 
Chartularies, 56 Kensington Gravel at Versailles 
The Glomery, 57 " To Outrun the Constable "Matthew 
Paris The Old Horse Guards Buildings, 58 The British 
in Corsica Gaspar Barlaeus Huddlings Warwickshire 
Sayings Gold Bowl Gift of George I. Edward Dixon, 
59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Studies in Statecraft : being 
Chapters, Biographical and Bibliographical, mainly on 
the Sixteenth Century'' The Antiquaries Journal.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



OLD CHURCH MUSIC AT WIMBORNE 
MINSTER. 

IN The Times of Saturday, Dec. 11, appeared. 

.a notice of William Byrd in, connection with 
the recent publication of his works as 
vols. xiv. to xvi. of the "English Madrigal 
School " ; and, in the following Thursday's 
issue, was a report of the "discovery " of 
some of his music in manuscript at Wimborne 
Minster. 

It was well known that there was a 

- quantity of old Church Music put away in 
boxes which were stored in the room above 
the vestry, which was formerly the Treasury 
of the Minster, but which, for nearly two 
hundred and fifty years, has been the apart- 
ment in which the celebrated Library of 

Chained Books has been kept. In all prob- 
ability these boxes had never been opened 



for sixty years. But, in the early spring o 
1917, the Rev. Walter Slater, Minor Canon' 
Sacrist, and formerly Precentor of Win- 
chester Cathedral, kindly went carefully 
through the whole of the music contained in 
these boxes, and subsequently gave a 
lecture on the subject, to the members of 
the Gild of St. Cuthberga. 

But how came this music to be at Wim- 
borne ? The Minster, which stands on the 
site of an old Roman church, or temple, the 
remains of which still exist beneath the 
floor of the nave, dates back to the year 705. 
It was first founded by St. Cuthberga, 
sister of Ina, as a Benedictine nunnery ; but 
was destroyed by the Danes in the early 
part of the eleventh century ; although the 
slab which covered the remains of Ethelred, 
the elder brother of Alfred the Great, who, 
as the A. S. Chronicle records, \vas buried 
there, still remains. The Minster was re- 
founded as a secular foundation, with a 
Dean and Canons, by Edw r ard the Confessor. 
It became a Royal Free Chapel, and so 
continued until the reign of Edward VI., 
when the College was dissolved. By letters 
patent of Queen Elizabeth it was refounded 
in 1563, and three priests and three clerks 
were to be provided to perform Divine service 
in the church, &c. From that time, now 
more than four hundred years ago (what- 
ever may have been the case previous to the 
dissolution of the College in 1547), there 
appear to have been a surpliced choir and a 
choral service at the Minster. The earliest 
existing Minute Book of the Governors 
dates back to 1579. On Nov. 30 of that 
year there is a minute recording that orders 
were issued by the Governors to the effect 
that "the servitors (i.e., 'secondaries,' or 
' reading-clerks ') are not to come into the 
choir without their surplices ; but to go 
into the vestry and put them on and to 
come into the choir together. " On the same 
day it was ordered that surplices were to be 
made for four " querister boys." And, a 
month later, it was enacted that Thomas 
Toogood, one of the "secondaries," should 
have 20s., in addition to the 4Z. which he 
already received as wages, for teaching the 
chorister boys and "pricking the books 
needful for the choir." By a later charter, 
of Charles I., 1639, it was provided that there 
should be "four choristers, two singers and 
one organist, in addition to the three priests 
and three clerks, whom they were to assist 
in the services of the church." Although 
there had been choristers before, they were 
now placed legally on the foundation. . 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. JAN. 15, 1921- 



In the Churchwardens' Account Books 
there are records of payments made in 
1494-5 for repairs to the organ in the chapel 
of St. Mary and to another organ in the rood- 
loft, and in 1496 mention is made of a pay- 
ment to "Richard Gilbert, keeper of the 
organs." From that time onwards there 
are constant records of payments for repairs, 
for organ blowing, and to the organ players. 

Enough has been said to show why it is 
not to be wondered at that some old Church 
music should be found at Wimborne. The 
collection contains an Organ Book in which 
are some Toccatas, or Voluntaries, by 
Girolamo Fescobaldi (born 1601), and two 
other organ pieces, viz., a 'Verse for ye 
Double Organ ' (apparently a two manual 
instrument), by Mr. Richard Portman 
(b. about 1610, a pupil of Gibbons, and 
Organist of Westminster Abbey in 1633) ; 
and a ' Verse for ye Single Organ ' (or one- 
manual instrument), by Dr. Orlando Gibbons 
(b. 1583, and also Organist of Westminster 
Abbey). The Organ Book contains, too, 
many services and anthems by composers, 
some number of whom lived before the Civil 
War, when so much of the Church Music was 
destroyed. The Minster possesses what 
appears to be an unique setting of the 
Benedicite by Richard Farrant. It seems 
to have no connexion with the Alto part of a 
Benedicite, for men's voices by R. Farrant, 
which is in the British Museum, nor with his 
organ part which is in the Library at Christ 
Church, Oxford. There are half-a-dozen 
anthems by Michael Wise, who was Organist 
at Salisbury Cathedral, 1668-87 ; in par- 
ticular two very beautiful ones, 'Prepare 
ye the way of the Lord,' and 'The ways of 
Sion do mourn.' There is also one for 
Christmas, ' Behold I bring you good 
tidings,' which seems not to be extant else- 
where. It is not given in Myles Foster's 
book, nor is it in the British Museum Cata- 
logue of MSS. sacred vocal music. This 
Minster Book has six lined staves, and on 
the cover is the date 1670. 

One of the MSS. books, written in score* 
contains the Creed, Sanctus, and Gloria in 
Excelsis, by Ebdon in C. It is remarkable 
because it omits the Kyrie, and because it 
seems to be the indication of Choral Cele- 
bration of the Holy Communion between 
the Restoration and modern times. It 
contains, also, in addition to known anthems, 
one by John Goldwin, 1670-1719, 'Come ye 
children, hearken unto me,' which is not in 
any other library. 



The Organ Books, numbered 5, 6, 7 r 
contain, in addition to services which are 
printed and easily accessible, works by 
former organists of the church, e.g., George 
Day, 1695-1713; John Fyler, 1713-43, and 
George Combes, 1743-56. The latter was 
afterwards Organist of Bristol CathedraL 
An anthem of Day's, 'Haste Thee, O Lord,' 
seems to have escaped the notice of Mr. 
Myles Foster, in his ' Anthem and Anthem 
Composers. ' 

There are also some interesting books 
containing the separate voice parts in 
different volumes, including Weelkes's 
(b. 1758), 'Verse Evening Service in 
G minor.' He was Organist of Winchester 
College, and afterwards of Chichester Cathe- 
dral. 

Amongst other composers, whose works 
are in the Minster collection, are Thomas 
John Mudd (b. 1580, Organist of Peter- 
borough Cathedral), Thomas Carter (b. 1735), 
Samuel Howard, and Hawkins. 

The Minster MSS. ought to be useful for 
collating with other MSS., e.g., The Nicene- 
Creed by Tallis, in one of the part-books at 
Wimborne, shows variations from his Creed 
in Boyce's (printed) Cathedral Musie- 
(Warren's Edition). 

Enough has been said to show the interest 
of the old church music at Wimborne 
Minster, and why it is to be found there. 
I must add that I am indebted for what 
I have written about the music itself to the 
notes which were given to me by the Rev. 
Walter Slater, after his inspection referred 
to above. JAS. M. J. FLETCHER. 



LETTERS OF 1720 FROM THE LOW 
COUNTRIES AND HANOVER. 

THE four letters which follow (recently 
acquired from Mr. P. M. Barnard of Tun- 
bridge Wells) were written during a lengthy 
tour of the Low Countries and Germany 
(lasting from 1720 to 1723) by one Robert 
Whatley to a recipient whose name does not 
indeed "appear in the text of any of them ; 
but who is evidently Sir Peter King, later 
Lord Chancellor and at this time Chief 
Justice of the Common Pleas. This attribu- 
tion is arrived at primarily by reason of the 
fact that the cover of letter II has been 
preserved and is addressed in Whatley 's 
hand to King, while the four letters obviously 
form a series. If further proof wer& 
needed, we might observe that the writer is- 



12 s. vin. JAN. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



known to have been a protege of the Chan- 
cellor, uriaer whose auspices he was admitted 
to the inner Temple (cj. his ' A Short History 
of a Ten \ears Negotiation....,' 173 /, 
p. 1), ana by \vhose favour he was called to 
the bar in i7l4 (op. tit., ibiaem). Further 
evidence on this point will be found in 
lying's letter to Newcastle of Apr. 3, 1724, 
recommending "Whatley for employment 
(Lriush Museum, Additional MSb. b2,6S7, 
tolio 11*), and to the relation between patron 
ana client the whole tenor of these letters 
bears witness. The attention devoted by 
What ley to ecclesiastical matters and, above 
all, the long aiscussion on the differences 
between Koman Catholicism and Protes- 
tantism that occupies part of the third letter 
point the same way, fcr King had already 
come forward as a theologian and, pace 
Lord tercival in 17bO, was known to spend 
his leisure hours in divinity, in which 
science he was "very learned" ('Diary of 
\iscount Percival,' Historical MSS. Com- 
mission, 1920, vol. i., p. 112), while, finally, 
two short endorsements, " June 28. 1720. 
M 1 Whatley " and " M 1 Whatley July. 22. 
1720 ", on the first and on the cover of the 
second letter respectively, are in a hand 
that is almost certainly identical with other 
recorded specimens of King's writing. 

Whatley 's subsequent career was undis- 
tinguished. Taking Holy Orders, he was 
presented in 1729 by the Crown to the 
Kectory of Toft in Lincolnshire, Just 
previously to which he had been made Pre- 
bendary of Bilton in York. In 1750 he 
exchanged this latter stall for the more 
lucrative one of Fridaythorpe in the same 
Cathedral, in the enjoyment of which post 
he died in June, 1767. The middle years of 
his life were embittered by a claim for pro- 
motion to be effected by Walpole, as the result 
of an alleged promise to King, and this 
accounts for five of the several publications 
(panphlets and sermons) with which he is 
credited in the catalogues of Bodley and of 
the British Museum. 

The letters show us a normal itinerary 
of the tourist of those days who was visiting 
Belgium a country which Whatley seems 
to have found a pleasant contrast with 
ungenial, Protestant Holland and reminds 
us that the passion of " doing " the battle- 
fields is no new thing, while forgotten 
Huy and the half-forgotten brother of 
George I. also pass before our eyesj It is 
perhaps also not unworthy of note that the 
writer visits the towns of French Flanders 
without so much as troubling to mention 



the fact that he had crossed from one State- 
into another. To this day they are not 
greatly dissimilar from those of Belgium r 
while at the time in question they had been 
French for less than two generations. Nor,- 
in the last place, is it likely that many 
accounts of the Jubilee of 1720 exist. 

1. 

Kotterdam, June. 28. O.S. 1720. 
MY LORD, 

Before this Letter will come to your Lordships 
hand You will undoubtedly have heard of the 
Beturn of the Yatchts* ; and as You have not seen 
Me to return You my Thanks for their bringing 
Me over You may very well conclude that^I am 
still on this side of the Water. I found it im- 
possible to satisfye my appetite for seing these 
Countrys, during the Interval of the Yatchts 
Stay. Besides having once passd the Rubicon,, 
I cou'd on no, account entertain Thoughts of 
retreating before I had advanc'd further. Brabant, 
& Flandres, those Scenes of the greatest Actions 
for some of the last Centuries, lye too near 
Me, not to eftectualy excite my Curiosity to 
visit them before I can think of returning. And 
the impatient Desire I have for forreign Conver- 
sation, and to see something more of the Manners 
of the Germans, will make Me spend the Residue 
of my Time at Hanover. So Your Lordship may 
see that I have cut my self out work enough 
for this Summer. I depend on it that I shall 
Spend it very much to my Satisfaction and I hope 
to my Improvement. 

The obliging Reception my Friend has given 
Me Here, has engaged Me to make this City my 
principal Abode till this Evening When I intend 
for Antwerp in order for Brussels. Tho' I have 
not advanc'd so far as y Hague, unless it was 
with my Eyes last Sunday from Delft Steeple, 
yet I have not confin'd my Self altogether within 
these Walls. One Day I have spent at Dort ; 
another at Scheidam and the parts adjacent ; 
and two more at at [stc] the Brille and Hel- 
voetslys, from whence I pass'd over the Maes to 
Maesland Sluys,t and so round to Rotterdam 
by Delft. The Inclination I have of seing the 
Country in all its Lights, induc'd Me to make 
this Tour, out of the way of the great Towns. 
I thought indeed to have gone as this Day to y e 
Hague for a week and to Amsterdam for another 
& so to have return'd by Naerden,t Utrecht & 
Tergou to this Place. But I find I must give 
Brussels the preference and pay Brabant & 
Flanders the first Visit. This has been occa- 
sion'd by their Celebrating in this latter City 
a famous Jubilee || which is to commence next 
Sunday. This being celebrated once in 50 years, 
has occasion'd my going thither at this Time. 
What it is or on what account it is celebrated 
I know not ; but as I am inform'd it will be very 
curious, and as I understood the greatest Pre- 
parations are making, to celebrate it with the 
utmost magnificence, I thought it proper to be 



* The King" with all the Yachts" had reached 
Helvcetsluys on the 16th ("London Gazette, "No. 
5860, p. 2) and Whatley had been allowed to travel 
with the cortege. 

t Maasluys. J Naarden. Gouda. 

II Of the Sacrement de Miracle of 1370. 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. VIII.-JA.V. 15, 1921. 



present thereat. Whatever it is I hope I shal 
prove my Self no incurious observer. When ] 
have in some measure satisfyed my Curiosity in 
that Country, I shall return to Holland, to do the 
-same, in order to proceed on my Journey to 
Hanover. Here Your Lordship may perhaps be 
for asking Me, with respect to y e Court there what 
M r Feilding did with respect to my desiring to 
-go aboard my Lady Dutchesses Yatcht, Whether 
I have any Views of being troublesome to any 
Body there, on account of my own Interest? to 
which I can safely say, No. I shall go thither 
to spend the residue of y Summer Season, as 
I wou'd to Bath, or Tunbridge, meerly for my own 
Entertainment ; which from y e Company that 
will be there may not be y e least improving. 
What extraordinary Expence I shall be at, will 
I don't doubt be abundantly made up in the 
pleasure and Advantage, I shall reap from my 
'Travells. I am pretty sure of meeting one good 
friend there, & that is D r Stagendahl the Kings 
Physician ; who came over aboard our Yatcht, 
with whom I had a great deal of Conversation ; 
& who shew'd Me particular Civilityes ; And 
told Me that what ever Services he could do Me 
at Hanover, should I come so far, he wou'd very 
Teadily perform. This I shall extend to no 
particular Favours from the King, but onely in 
-y* way of Conversation & Enjoyment of my Self 
while There. I shall be very glad, & I am sure 
I shall receive great Pleasure from it, if Your 
Lordship will honour Me with a Letter to my 
Xiord Carteret or any other of your Friends that 
are there. The abovementiond Lord will I 
reckon be there near about y e Time I propose to 
be there my Self. And I shall count my Self 
particularly happy in y e Honour of his Acquaint- 
ance. 

I forbear to mention S r Rob*. Corberts Mis- 
fortune as supposing Your Lordship has heard 
it related already in England. I wish his Native 
Country may restore the poor distempered 
Gentleman to Himself. I forbear mentioning any 
thing concerning y e Office of Insurance &c. lately 
set up in this Town, because I have this day seen 
a just account of it in our English Papers. 

Before this comes to your hand I hope Y r 
Lordsh p will have receiv'd a small Present I have 
venturd to send You^frqm hence. The Pickle 
Herrings are just now come in ; & being inform'd 
that on their first Coming They are made Presents 
of, to Persons of y e First Quality in Europe, This 
Reason & my Liking them so much my Self, 
made Me willing to complement Y r Lordship 
with a few Choice Ones. They eat them, when 
they are skin'd with Bread & Butter, & if You 
please, You may pick the flesh off tneir Bones 
& mincing it small You may mix it with a 3 (1 part 
Chalott & Cucumbers with Oyl & Vinegar. 
I wish they may please Your Taste, <!t those who 
You shall be pleasd to regale with them. I 
onely beg the favour of You to pardon the 
Freedom in sending them. And beleive, that 
I am & ever will be, My Lord. 
Y r Lordships most obliged, & most obedient 
humble Servant, 

ROB*. WHATLEY. 

p.S. If Y r Lordship shall you chafe [sic] to 
honour Me with a Line from You, Be pleasd 
to uso y e following Address, To Me at M r George 
Kemble's Merchant hi Rotterdam. 



II. 

Ostend July. 22. N.S. 1720. 
MY LORD, 

I can't allow My Self to come so near Your 
Lordship, as I am when at this Place, without 
paying my Duty to You by the Visit of this 
Letter. I acquainted Your Lordship in my last 
with the Reason of nay seing these Countrys, 
before I had made my Tour of Holland : and 
indeed I have receiv'd so much satisfaction from 
the Magnificence with which this Jubilee was 
celebrated at Brussels, that I should never have 
pardon'd My Self, if having an Opportunity, 
I had neglected to gratify my Curiosity on so 
curious an Occasion. The new Scenes I have met 
with since I came into these Roman -Catholick 
Countrys has given Me incredible Delight, and 
tho' there was an extraordinary Magnificence 
exhibited both in the Great Church, and streets 
of Brussels, beyond what I ever saw, or bad even 
an Idea of before, yet it has not drowned the 
Pleasure I have had in being Eye-witness to the 
Delightfulness of the Country, Beauty of the 
Towns, and Civility of the Inhabitants. But 
notwithstanding I have had very great Satis- 
faction in gratifying my Sight with the Variety 
and Newness of the Objects which have presented 
themselves to Me on all hands, Yet my most 
particular satisfaction has been in the Conversa- 
tion I have had in every Place I have pass'd 
through, and even on y e Road hi Travelling with 
the Ecclesiasticks of all Orders. It is impossible 
to mention with what Civility they receive a 
Stranger in their Houses, & how ready they are 
to satisfy one in every Particular that one wou'd 
desire. I hope I shall live to have the Honour to 
relate to Your Lordship some part of the Con- 
versation I have had with Them ; & design 
further to have before I leave the Country. It 
would be too tedious to make any mention of it 
in a Letter ; & I shall content my Self at this Time 
with making a Remark or two on the Procession 
we have had on occasion of this famous Jubile. 
I shall refer Your Lordship to the public accounts 
You will undoubtedly have at large of the occasion, 
and august manner in which it has been cele- 
brated. In order to Honour it, the fjjronts of the 
Houses in those Streets through which it pass'd 
were adom'd with Greens from the Bottom to the 
Top, & embellish'd with the finest Tapistrys and 
Pictures each inhabitant either had by them or 
could procure : Besides a vast number of 
Triumphal Arches set forth after the most beau- 
tiful Manner with Paintings, Mottos, and other 
Decorations. I saw the Procession from our 
Residents (M r Leathes) House ; near it was a 
most magnificent Triumphal arch, the Inscrip- 
tions of which were peculiariy calculated for the 
Neighbourhood. The Jesuits had the Direction 
of every Thing, and most of their Mottos on all 
the Arches tended either to establish the Truth 
of their Hoc est Corpus Doctrine, or to set forth 
;he greatness of the Miracle for the Commemora- 
tion of which this Jubile was instituted. The 
forementi9nd Arch had on each side the Quota- 
tions out of all the Gospels by which they ordi- 
larilv prove their Transubstantiation, and in the 
middle was the following Inscription, 

Eucharistise Veritas Hasreticis demonstratur. 



12 s. viii. JAN. 15, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



I shall further lay before Your Lordship 2 Couplets 
which I met with in the Church, among many 
Other of less Note, that relates to the particular 
occasion of the Jubile. It was writ under a 
Passage of S l John in the last Chapter of his 
Gospel, where He Speaks of the vast number of 
Miracles more, that were done by Christ, than 
what he had related. It was in these words, 
viz, 
Tot sacra fortasse stupes vi pignoris acta 

prodigia, haud uno dinumeranda Die ; 
Sed mage, qucd Species (minim super omnia) 
sacrae 

Post medium maneant, et tria Saecla, stupes. 
NB. It was 350 years ago the miracle happened 
of ye Hosts bleeding which very host yet remains. 

I L>ave Your Lordship to make your Reflection 
on it ; and shall intrench on your precious Time 
no longer than whilst I acquaint You that I 
came from Rotterdam through Antwerp and 
Mechlin to Brussels : That after I spent a week 
in this latter place, I came through Ghent and 
Bruges, to this Place ; whither I came this Day at 
Noon, and shall proceed to morrow for Newport 
(whither the Curiosity of visiting a Monastery of 
English Carthusians onely draws Me) to Dun- 
kirk, S l Orner, Ipre, Meriin, Lisle, Tournay & 
Mons <fc so to Brussels. Whether I shall go from 
thence to Namur & so down y e Maes to Ltrecht 
or directly thro' Louvain to Holland I have not 
yet Determin'd. 

But the Inclination I have to be at Hanover 
as soon as possible will I beleive determine Me 
for the Latter. Just on my Departure from 
Rotterdam I had the Good Fortune to fall into 
the Company of Admiral Norris's Son who with 
his Tutour was coming into these Countrys, with 
the very same Intent as my Self ; as y e latter has 
travelled here before, and is a very learned Gentle- 
man I reap great advantages by it. 

My Lord, Wherever I am, it is a sensible 
Pleasure to Me to think I have Your Lordship 
for my Friend ; and tnat You are pleas'd in any 
Manner to Interest Your Self in my Welfare. 
I have no greater Passion than to recommend My 
Self to Your Esteem : and I shall be ever ambi- 
tious of shewing My Self in what Degree I am 
My Lord, 

Your Lordships most obedient, 
and most faithfull humble Servant 
ROBERT WHATLEY. 

C. S. B. BUCKLAND. 

(To be continued.) 



AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE 
ARCHIVES. 

(See ante, p. 23.) 
95 RICHARD SHAKESPEARE'S NEIGHBOURS. 

4. Henry Walker, Thomas Palmer and John 
Sambridge. 

RICHARD SHAKESPEARE was in request 
among his friends in the last months of 
Queen Mary and the first of Queen Elizabeth 



He witnessed the will of one Henry Walker 
on Aug. 31, 1558, tenant of a leasehold-farm 
in Snitterfield, who died, apparently, a 
widower, leaving twelve children in the care 
01 his eldest son John. The farm was well 
stocked with 29 beasts (oxen, kine, calves 
and horses), 5 great hogs and 6 store hogs, 
4 geese, 6 hens and a cock, 2 pullets, 6 stalls 
of bees. There was corn in the barn and 
in the field, malt and hay, and 3 flitches of 
bacon in the roof. But if there was enough 
to eat the sleeping accommodation was 
limited, and the four bedsteads (some of 
them with "painted cloths about them ") 
must have been put-to -it to contain ther 
family, which included moreover a boy- 
boarder entrusted to the father's care by 
Master Bushell of Cleve at the rate of 
lid. a week. Among the testator's assets 
wa* a debt from Richard Shakespeare for 
65. Sd. 

Thomas Palmer belonged to a family 
much respected in Snitterfield and next- 
door neighbours of Richard Shakespeare, 
His father and his uncle had been decennaru- 
(tithing men) under the lord of the manor, 
and in performance of their duty had 
reported Richard Shakespeare for non suit 
of Court or neglect of his hedges. Such 
presentments made little difference in friend- 
ship, and when Thomas Palmer died leaving 
seven young children and debts which 
swallowed up more than a third of his small 
property, Richard Sljakespeere made the 
inventory, on Jan. 3, 1560. pricing his four 
oxen, two cows, four calves, one steer, two- 
mares and a weaning-colt, corn and hay in 
the barn, brass and pewter and linen. 

John Sambridge made his will on Sept. 18,. 
1558, and Richard Shakespeare 'praised 
his goods and cattle on May 7 following. 
He was a humble person with little to be- 
'praised. He left a widow and a son by a 
former wife. There were difficulties to 
face between the son and his step-mother. 
This memorandum appears in the will : 

" That Thomas Sambridge, the son of John Sam- 
bridgof Snitterfield, hath granted to his mother- 
in-law, Eleanor Sambridge, to have twelve years 
in the house that he hath right to have after the 
death of his father, John Sambridge; the said 
Eleanor permitting him to have two lands within 
the fields of Snitterfield yearly, and the said 
Thomas to find cider at his own cost and charges, 
and Eleanor to wash the suits of Thomas during 
the said time." 

The goods which Richard Shakespeare 
inventoried included 12 pewter platters and 
dishes and saucers, 4 brass pots and 2 pans, 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. VIIIJA*. is, 1021. 



and painted cloths in the hall and chamber ; 
.and the "cattle " comprised a cow, 2 store 
pigs and a little horse. 

5. William Bott of tJie Wold. 

William Bott, Batt or Bett (pronounced, 
Avith the vowel long, Boot, Bait or Beet) 
interests us as a Snitterfield man who was 
a younger contemporary of Richard Shakes- 
peare and an older contemporary of the 
latter 's son John, and settled, like John 
Shakespeare, in Stratford-upon-Avon, where 
he resided in and acquired the house which 
John Shakespeare's son William afterwards 
purchased and made his home, New Place. 

At Snitterfield William Bott lived at the 
Wold. He learned to write, and he became 
the agent of Squire Clopton. He had a 
wife, Joan, and children in 1552, when 
Thomasin Palmer left them all "a pied 
heifer of three year old and two launds of 
wheat lying in Woodway, the one betwixt 
.Roger Smith on both sides and the other 
betwixt William Bracy and John Hancorn." 
He witnessed the will and 'praised the goods 
of Hugh Green in Mar., 1553. On Jan. 31, 
1554, he witnessed the will, of which he was 
appointed overseer with Richard Maids, of 
his friend, Hugh Porter, after the death of 
the latter's daughter, wife of Robert Maids. 
Hugh Porter, who lived five or six years 
after making this will, bequeathed Bott 40.9. 
On Sept. 8, 1557, Thomas Palmer made 
Bott overseer of his will and left his children 
ra little gift of 3d. apiece. A list of Hugh 



Porter's debtors drawn up on Nov. 26, 1557, 
includes the following : 

"Richard Shakespeare of Snitterfield nweth nntq 
the same 40s. The executors of Robert Arden of 
Wilmecote and Thomas Stringer of Bearley oweth 
unto the same for Robert Arden 5. 2. 3. William 
Bott of Snitterfield 30, for the which sum of 30 
William Bott hath to mortgage to the forenamed 
Hugh Porter all the land within the town of 
Hatton." 

The executors of Robert Arden were his 
daughters, Alice and Mary, the second being 
in Nov., 1557, wife of John Shakespeare in 
Henley Street. William Bott was already 
engaged in those speculations which after- 
wards got him into trouble. Hugh Porter's 
will was proved in the Court of Canterbury 
on the 7th February, 1560, and to Bott and 
to Porter's natural and loved daughter, 
Eleanor, fell the task of distributing the 
residue of his estate " in charitable deeds 
and works, for the wealth of his soul and 
all Christian souls," Thus again Bott had 
the handling of money that was not his own. 
On Apr. 21, 1559. he made the inventory of 
the goods of Roger Lyncecombe with Richard 
Shakespeare and others. He witnessed the 
will of his 'master, William Clopton, on Jan. 4, 
1560. And with Richard Shakespeare and 
others he made the inventory of the goods 
of Henry Cole of Snitterfield on June 1, 1560. 
On the promotion of young William Clopton 
from New Place to Clopton House, in succes- 
sion to his father, Bott removed from the 
Wold to New Place. 

EDGAR I. FRIPP. 



(To be continued.). 

AN ENGLISH ARMY LIST OF 1740. 

(See 12 S. ii. passim ; iii. 46, 103, 267, 354, 408, 438 ; vi. 184, 233, 242, 290, 329 ; 
vii. 83, 125, 146, 165, 187, 204, 265, 308, 327, 365, 423 ; viii. 6.) 

The next regiment (p. 72) was raised in 1688 by Sir Robert Peyton to support the 
Prince of Orange in the rebellion against King James II. From 1741 it was designated 
the 20th Foot, but in 1782 the countv title East Devonshire Regiment was conferred 
upon it in addition to its number. This title it retained until 1881 when it became The 
Lancashire Fusiliers. 

Dates of their first 

commissions. 
Ensign 1690 

Cornet 1 July 1705. 



Colonel St. George's Regiment of Foot.. 



-Colonel 

Lieutenant-Colonel 

Major 



Richard St. George (1) 
John Batereau (2) 
Robert Catherwood (3) 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 
. . 27 June 1737 
. . 25 June 1722 
. . 31 Aug. 1739 



Ensign 



Dec. 1711. 



(1) Uncle of Sir Richard St. Georga, 1st Baronet (created, 1766). Appointed to the Colonelcy 
of the 8th Dragoons in Mav, 1740, being succeeded by Colonel Alexander Rose. 

(2) Cornet in Lord Windsor's Regiment of Horse, July 1, 1705. Captain in the 20th Foot, 
June, 1715 ; Major, Nov. 12, 1717. Appointed Colonel of a newly raised regiment of Foot in 1742, 
which was disbanded in 1748. Died in 1749. 

(3) Captain in this regiment Dec. 21, 1720 ; Lieut,-Colonel in Colonel Battereau's newly raised 
Regiment of Foot, 1742. Died in 1749. 



12 s. vm. JAN. 15, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



Captains 



Captain Lieutenant 



JLieutenants 



Colonel St. George's Regiment of Foot 
(continued). 

Robert Johnston 
James Gendrault 
John Vickars (4) 
Anthony Meyrac (5) . . 
Cromwell Ward 
John Price 

Francis Boussilliere . . 
Arthur Horseman (6) 
John Williams (7) 
Robert Cambie 
Robert Hart 
Christopher Turner . . 
Homer Maxwell 
William Lockhart 
Lewis Bouchetiere 
James Ash 
Daniel Robertson 
John Vickars (8) 
John Beckwith (9) 
Talbot William Keene 
Elex. Trapeau 
Richard King 
Richard St. George . . 
Bolton Barrington 
Walter Johnston 
Thomas Dalton 



Ensigns 



Dates pf their 
present commissions. 
, . 25 June 1722 

5 July 1725 
. 26 June 1730 

1 Aug. 1733 
. 26 Aug. 1737 
. 28 ditto 
. 31 Aug. 1739 
. 31 Aug. 1739 
. 25 June 1722 
. 24 Nov. ditto 
. 17 Apr. 1732 

1 Aug. 1733 
. 23 Jan. 1735 
. 14 Feb. ditto 
. 16 Jan. 1736 
. 26 Aug. 1737 
. 28 ditto 
. 19 Apr. 1731 

1 June 1733 
. 14 Feb. 1735 
. 23 Feb. 1735/6 
. 26 Aug. 1737 
. 28 ditto 
. 27 Feb. 1737/8 
ditto 



Dates of their 
first commissions. 
Lieutenant 28 Sept, 1706. 
Captain 29 July 1715. 
Ensign 14 Feb. 1701/2 
ditto 22 Sept, 1722. 
ditto 28 Aug. 1708. 
Lieutenant 18 Aug. 1708, 
Ensign 10 May 1718. 
ditto 9 Jan. 1719. 

ditto 9 June 1721. 

ditto 6 Apr. 1709. 

ditto 3 Feb. 1722. 

ditto 18 Oct. 1705. 
ditto 26 Jan. 1730. 
ditto 20 May 1732. 
ditto 5 Apr. 1723. 

ditto 8 May 1727. 

ditto 1 July 1727. 



Ensign, 10 Mar. 1710. 



..31 Aug. 1739 
The following additional names are entered in ink in the interleaf : 

Captain .. .. Lewis Marcell 13 Mar. 1740/1 

,-; /-Thomas Parsons .. 23 Apr. 1740 

* | Henry Jackson .. .. 1 July ditto 

(4) Died in 1769. See obituary notice in The Gentleman's Magazine. 

(5) Major, May 27, 1745. 

(6) Captain, July 1, 1740. 

(7) Captain-Lieutenant, July 1, 1740. 

(8) Lieutenant, Apr. 23, 1740. 

<9) Lieutenant, July 1, 1740 ; Captain, 12 Dec. 1746. 

J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Colonel (Retired List). 
(To be continued.) 



THE GEOPHONE. The geophone is one 
of the many devices which, developed under 
"the strenuous demands of war, now con- 
stitute permanent additions to our indus- 
trial equipment in peace time. It is a 
listening instrument invented for detecting 
enemy activities in sapping and min ng and 
for locating artillery. It is now being used 
by the U.S. Bureau of Mines for locating 
miners who have been entombed. Although 
quite small it- is essentially a seismograph, 
working on the same principle as the pon- 
derous apparatus which records earth-quake 
tremours. 

In connexion with this subject we are 
told in an American mining paper that 
Herodotus, describes the method by which 
opposing armies, in one case at least, 
detected the presence of the other's mines. 
The device employed may be considered 



the forerunner of the modern geophone. 
He says : 

" The Persians beleaguered Barca for nine months, 
in the course of which they dug several mints from 
their own lines to the walls. But their mines 
were discoveied by a man who was a worker in 
brass, who went with a brazen shield all round the 
fortress and laid it on the ground inside the city. 
In other places the shield, when he laid it down, 
was quite dumb ; but where the ground was under- 
mined, there the brass of the shield rang. Such 
was the way in which the mines were discovered." 

The translation is not faultless, but will 
serve our present purpose. The original 
text is given in Herodotus ('Hist. Libr.,' 
iv. 200 (2)) on page 238 of the Dindorfian 
edition. The siege of Barke (circa 512 B.C.) 
is mentioned also by JEneas, the Tactician 
( ' Poliorceticus, ' chap, xxxvii.), who gives 
the name of the besieger as Amasis. 

L. L. K. 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 15, 1021. 



POOR RELIEF BADGE. A curiosity of its 
kind, this may be worth reproducing^though 
it may not be without parallel. A handbill, 
of which this is a verbation copy, reads as 
follows : 

At a Vestry held in the Parish Church of Llanbeblig 

in the County of Carnarvon, on Monday the 4th 

day of May, J818 
It is ordered, 

That all the Paupers who shall in future apply for 
and insist upon having Weekly Relief, shall be 
Badged with Red Letters LI. P., to be fixed by the 
Overseers in the Front of the Hat of each Pauper to 
be worn daily, and if any of the Paupers shall be 
found at any time in the Town of Carnarvon or in 
any part of the Parish of Llanbeblig without a Badge 
upon his or her hat such Pauper shall forfeit one 
Week s allowance. 

That it is the opinion of the Parishioners present 
at this Vestry, that it is improper to permit persons, 
that are not settled in this Parish to wander and beg 
therein, and in order to ascertain who are settled 
in the Parish, It is ordered that the Overseers do 
without delay, procure printed Tickets in which the 
paying Overseer of the Poor is to write the name, 
age, and description of each Pauper wiehing to 
apply for Voluntary relief about the Parish. 
lhat these orders be translated into the Welsh 
language, and printed in English and Wel&h and 
distributed throughout the Parish. 
(Signed) Thomas Roberts, Vicar. 

William Griffith ) w , 
Robert Williams / Wardens. 
Rioe Jones ^ 

William Tannar 1 
David Jones J 

And the Parishioners present. 



the Poor. 



of 



L. E. Jones, Printer, Carnarvon. 



ANEUBTN WILLIAMS. 

LORETTO. There is a curious note on 
p. 436 of a short edition of ' Quentin Durward' 
edited by H. W. Ord and published by A. 
and C. Black. It runs as follows : 

"Loretto. There are three Lorettos, possessing 
images or relics of the Virgin Mary : the most 
celebrated is in Styria in Austria, where miraculous 
cures are reputed to be effected. Two pilgrimages 
are made annually to it." 

There appear to be eleven Lorettos in the 
Old and in the New world, and far and 
away the nost important of them is the 
Loretto, near Ancona, famed as it is for 
being the place, to which thfe house inhabited 
by the Holy Family was transported by 
angels from Palestine. This Loretto is a 
centre of pilgrimages. If there is a Loretto 
in Styria it is not mentioned in Meyer's 
'German Encyclopaedia,' and in Hitter's 
' Geographisch - Statistisches Lexicon ' no 
mention is made of any Loretto in Austria. 
T. PERCY ARMSTRONG. 
The Author's Club, Whitehall Court. S.W. 



FEMALE PSEUDONYMS USED BY MEN. 
In 1811 Shelley with T. J. Hogg composed 
' Posthumous Fragments of Margaret Nichol- 
son.' Grant Allen (1848-1899) published 
two novels, 'The Typewriter. Girl T and 
' Rosalba ' under the name of " Olive Pratt 
Rayner." The greater part of the Lest 
work of William Sharp (1856-1905), appeared 
under the name of "Fiona Macleod," and 
I believe that the name of "Agnes larrell ' r 
as author of the novel 'Lady Loran,' con- 
cealed the identity of Francis William 
Lauderdale Adams (1862-1893). This list 
can probably be extended 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

ANN VANE. Johnson in his 'Vanity o 
Human Wishes ' wrote : 

The teeming mother, anxious for her race, 
Begs for each birth, the fortune of a face, 
Yet Vane could tell what ills from beauty spring. 
Lord Hailes pointed out to Bo swell that 
the example was unfortunate as Van 
could lay no claim to the compliment^ 
Croker charges Lord Hailes with being 
hypercritical, remarking that Vane was 
handsome; or, what was mo re to the purpose, 
appeared so to her royal lover. An entry 
under date Mar. 13, 1731/2 in the recently 
published ' Diary of Viscount Percival t 
reviewed at length at 12 S. vii. 161 suggests 
that Lord Hailes 's criticism was sober : 

Col. Schutz told me that he had been with M" 
Vane, that he avoided it as long as he could till 
Prince [Frederick] took notice of his not going. 

This fat and ill shaped dwarf has nothing good 

to recomend her, neither sense nor wit. 

Mrs. Vane died in 1736 before Johnson- 
reached London, and is a different person 
from Frances Lady Vane whose career ,. 
is deployed in Smollett's 'Peregrine Pickle.' 

J. P. DE C. 

STORIES OF WHISTLER. Mr. A. B. Pidding- 
ton, K.C., of Melbourne, author of ' Spanish, 
Sketches ' (Oxford University Press) tells- 
his friends the following Whistler stories.. 
Is the second one new ? 

" When I was in Toledo I met the famous- 
etcher, Mr. Strarig, who was travelling through, 
Spain with his son. One afternoon we were 
talking of Velasquez and Whistler, and naturally 
the anecdote cropped up of the young idolater 
who told Whistler that he and Velasquez were 
the only artists who knew how to paint light and? 
air, and, was rebuked by Whistler's comment, 
' But why drag in Velasquez ? ' Mr. Strang told? 
me that he had known Whistler well and that 
during the famous trial when Whistler obtained^ 
one farthing damages from Ruskin (who had said! 
'nier alia, that one of Whistler's pictures was 



i2s. VITI. JAN. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



' a pot of paint thrown in the face of the public ') 
there was one particular afternoon when the 
hopes of Whistler's admirers sank very low 
because Walter Sickert, giving evidence as one of 
them, had failed miserably in cross-examination. 
That evening Strang called at Whistler's house, 
and the following dialogue took place : Strang 
' I can't understand how Walter came to make 
such a mess of it to-day.' Whistler ' No, more 
can I.' Strang ' I suppose it must have been 
conceit.' Whistler ' Very likely, but I can't 
understand anybody being conceited but me ! ' ' 

J. LANGDON BONYTHON. 
Carclew, Adelaide, South Australia. 



(Qturtas. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
ormation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



COUNTESS MACNAMARA. Miss Frances 
Williams Wynne, the writer of ' The Diaries 
of a Lady of Quality,' which were edited by 
Abraham Hayward in 1864, writing at 
Richmond in August 1832, says (op. tit. 
pp. 216-9) : 

"We have just had Countess Macnamara here 

she gave me a singular instance of devotion to 

her beloved Bourbons, which, being asserted on her 
personal knowledge, is, I suppose, in the main, true. 
A Miss W., who sonie fifty years ago was an admired 
singer on the English stage, made a conquest of a 
JVIr. A. a man of large property, who married her. 
Whether the lady's character was not immaculate, 
or whether, the march of intellect not having begun, 
actresses of the best character were not yet reckoned 
fit society for ladies, does not appear ; certain it 
is, that, finding she could not get any society in 
England, the A's went to establish themselves at 
Versailles, where they took a fine house, gave fetes, 
c., &c. His wealth gave splendour ; her beauty, 
her singing, her dancing, gave charm. The Polignacs 
came to her fetes, and afterwards introduced her to 
the little society, to the intimate reunions, of 
which Marie Antoinette was a constant member. 
When adversity befell this object of admiration, of 
almost idolatry, Mrs. A. devoted herself, her talents, 
and (better than all) her purse to her service. 

It was chiefly during the Queen's melancholy 
abode in the Temple that Mrs. A. most exerted 
herself. In bribes, in various means employed for 
the relief of the poor Queen, she expended between 
30,000 and 40,000 sterling. This of course was taken 
under the name of a loan, and soon after the restora- 
tion Mrs. A. made a demand upon Louis XVIII. 
Every item of her account was discussed and most 
allowed, till they came to a very large bribe given 
to the minister of police, one to the gaolor, and 
bribes to various persons, to manage the escape of 
the Dauphin and the substitution of a dying child 
in his place. Louis XVI II. would not agree to this 
article, and insisted upon its being erased from the 



account as the condition upon which he would order 
the gradual liquidation of the rest of the debt. 
To this condition Mrs. A. would not accede : 
Louis XVIII. died : the accounts were again 
brought forward. Charles X. was just going to give 
the order for paying the debt by instalments when 
the revolution came, and Mrs. A. seems now further 
than ever from obtaining any part of her money. 

It is to me very sad that Mac. does not seem to 
feel that, admitting all her premises, her story tells 

very much against her beloved Bourbons She 

concludes the history I have just written by saying, 
' I had a message for Mrs. A. from Holyrood, which 
I was desired to deliver in person. 1 had great 
difficulty in tracing her : at last I found her a week 
ago,' (she told me where but I have forgotten). She 
represents her as preserving remains of beauty at 
about 70, coiffee en cheveux, with a mask ot paint. 

...It seems 'that they are all convinced, and this 



have no evidence of his death, and know that it 
did not take place in the Temple, but I have 110 
evidence of his being alive at any subsequent 
period.' " 

The Miss W. is , Miss Charlotte Walpole ; 
the Mr. A. is Mr. Edward Atkyns. See 
10 S. ix. 343, xi. 457 and the authorities 
there quoted. 

Who was Countess Macnamara ? 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER. Can any 
reader kindly tell me whether the three 
Primers which preceded the first Prayer 
Book of Edward VI. can be obtained in a 
reprint, and if so, where; also, the same 
information as to the Scottish Prayer Book 
of 1637. EVERARD HAMILTON. 

ALCHEMICAL MSS. I shall be extremely 
grateful if any of your readers can help me 
trace the whereabouts of two interesting 
alchemical manuscripts. One is a four- 
teenth century volume that belonged to the 
late Reginald Cholmondeley of Condover 
Hall and is described in the 'Historical 
MSS. Commission Report,' vol. v. p. 334. 
Among numerous other alchemical texts it 
is said to contain a copy of Roger Bacon s 
Tractatus trium verborum ad Johannem 
Parisiensem. ' 

The other manuscript was the property 
of the late J. Eliot Hcdgkin of Richmond, 
Surrey. It is a fifteenth- century alchemical 
work and is described in the 'Historical 
MSS. Commission Report,' vol. xv., part 2, 
pp. 2-4. 

I am at present engaged in completing a 
catalogue of the early alchemical MSS. in 
the British Isles, which is to be printed as 
the opening volume of an International 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. is, 1921. 



Catalogue of Alchemical MSS. published by 
the Union Academique Internationale under 
the General Editorship of Prof. Bidez of 
Ghent. 

It is much to be desired that the contribu- 
tion from this country should be as far as 
possible complete, and any assistance in 
tracing either the above mentioned manu- 
scripts or any other early alchemical manu- 
scripts in private hands will be warmly 
welcomed and of course duly acknowledged 
in the publication. 

DOROTHEA WALEY SINGER. 

Westbury Lodge, Norham Road, Oxford. 

EDUCATION OF THE FIRST DUKE OF 
MARYBOROUGH. Can any reader give me 
any information as to where the first Duke 
of Marlborough was educated when a small 
boy ? I have reason to believe that his 
first school was a French one, but cannot 
find any details of his education in the 
' Lives ' which are at my disposal here. 

F. M. M. 

Rochester. 

ST. THOMAS'S DAY CUSTOM. In a letter 
irom his Vicarage of Fen Drayton, Cambs, 
my son mentions the occurrence there of 
what appears to be a very old custom. 

On Dec. 21, St. Thomas's Day, all the 
widows (or, as on the last occasion, all repre- 
sentatives) go round the village and collect 
money which is then divided equally among 
them. I should feel obliged if any of your 
correspondents could inform me if this 
custom is practised elsewhere, and what its 
origin was ? ALEX. THOMS. 

7 Playfair Terrace, St. Andrews, Fife. 

YEW-TREES IN CHURCHYARDS. Could any 
reader kindly give precise date and reference 
to the Statute, or other authority, ordering 
yew-trees to be grown in churchyards for 
supplying bows ? The date was about 1474. 
And why to be grown in churchyards ? Was 
it on account of the poisonous nature of the 
yew ? G. B. M. 

AN OLD SILVER CHARM. Can any one 
explain the symbolism of a small antique 
silver ornament in the form of a leafy twig, 
with a heart, a key, and a queer little 
serpentine bird, arranged among the leaves ? 

The end of the twig has a hole drilled 
through it (as if the ornament were intended 
to be worn round the neck), and a coil of 
silver cord round it. The heart looks as if 
meant to be pierced. 



Woldingham. 



G. A. ANDERSON. 



"CONTY." In a letter of Nov. 28, 1843, 
my father (Edward Whitwell) described a 
visit to a "Thief School," where he was 
asked to help in teaching the first class. 
One of the boys opened a conversation with 
a mate with : " Your brother nailed three 
half conties," and insisted on explaining to 
his teacher that it meant that he had stolen 
three half-sovereigns. What is the origin 
of the word ? ROBT. J. WHITWELL. 

10 Brompton Square, S.W.3. 

LEIGH HUNT AND CHARLES DICKENS. Is 
any appearance of Leigh Hunt's sonnet of 
welcome to Household Words (1850) known 
earlier than the posthumous edition of 
Hunt's poems in 1860 ? F. PAGE. 

THE LEGEND OF DUNFRAOICH. I shall be 
very grateful if you can tell me something 
about the "Legend of Dunfraoich." It is 
onnected with Loch Fraochy in the parisr 
of Kenmore, Perthshire, Scotland. I should 
also oe glad to know where I am obtain a 
copy of Gillies' 'Collection of Gaelic Songs ' 
(in English). M. D. ADAMSON. 

Lisle Court, Lymington, Hants. 

PASSAGE IN LOCKHART'S 'LiFE OF SCOTT.' 
In Lockhart's 'Life of Scott,' vol. viii.,will 
be found at pp. 70-1 the following passage : 

"I was much struck by his description of a scene 

he had once with Lady (the divorced Lady 

). upon whom her eldest boy, who had been 

born before her marriage with Lord , asking 

her why he himself was not Lord (the second 

title). 'Do you hear that? ' she exclaimed wildly 
to Scott, and then rushing to the pianoforte played 
in a sort of frenzy, some hurried airs, as if to drive 
away the dark thoughts then in her mind. It 
struck me that he spoke of this lady as if there 
had been something more than mere friendship 
between them. He described her as beautiful and 
tull of character." 

Who is the lady referred to ? 

FREDK. CHARLES WHITE. 

14 Esplanade, Lowestoft. 

NORTONS IN IRELAND. Can any reader 
interested in genealogy inform me whether 
a younger branch of the Norton family 
(formerly) of Rotherfield Park, Hampshire 
went over to Ireland and settled there about 
the seventeenth century ? A great-grand- 
father of mine, Samuel Norton, came from 
Ireland and settled in Hampshire at the end 
of the eighteenth century, and he is sup- 
posed to have been a descendant of a 
younger branch of these Hampshire Nortons, 
but I have not yet been able to trace which 
particular branch of this family settled in 



12 s. vin. JAN. is, mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



Ireland. Possibly one of the younger of the 
eight sons of Richard Norton (died 1556) by 
Jiis wife Elizabeth (dau. and heiress of Sir 
William Rotherfield, Knt.) may have 
founded a cadet branch in Ireland. 

I shall be glad of any information on this 
point. 

It may be of interest to note that during 
the Civil War the senior branch of this 
family (viz. the descendants of Sir Richard 
^Norton, Knight [died 1592] by his first wife) 
were staunch Royalists, and suffered very 
heavily for their loyalty; whilst Colonel 
Norton, a descendant of the above men- 
tioned Sir Richard by his second wife, was a 
staunch Parliamentarian, and, about 1643, 
tock a leading part in the storming of Basing 
House, which was held on behalf of King 
harles by John, 5th Marquis of Winchester 
(whose nephew Francis Paulet married, in 
1674, Elizabeth, d. and heiress of Sir Richard 
Norton, 2nd Bart.). 

It would be interesting to know if Colonel 
Norton and any other of his branch of the 
family accompanied Cromwell to Ireland, or 
were sent there by his orders, and whether 
if so Colonel Norton left any of his younger 
kinsmen in Ireland. It is known that he 
himself did not settle there, but Cromwell 
frequently stayed with him at old Alresford 
House (Hants), and he may very probably 
have obtained a position in Ireland for one 
or more of his younger kinsmen through his 
friendship with the Protector. 

F. CROOKS. 

Eecleston Park, Preseot. 

THE FIRST LORD WESTBURY. What was 
the episode thus referred to in the notice of 
Oharles Neate (1806-1879) in the 'D.N.B.' ? 

" [He] was called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn 
in 1832, but an unfortunate fracas with Sir R. 
Bethell, afterwards Lord Westbury, terminated 
his career there. . . .' the old scoundrel,' as he was 
in the habit of styling Westbury." 

In 'Memory's Harkback,' 1808 to 1858, by 
F. E. Gretton, B.D. (1889) are two allusions 
to the same occurrence ; at page 138, 

" [Bethell] To his juniors he was curt, almost 
rude, so that you wondered that one or another 
did not, in the robing-room imitate the late 
Professor Neate, and apply the lex digitalis." 
At page 285 : 

" From hard words we come to legal, or illegal, 
blows : for example, Mr. Neate boxing Bethell's 
ars in the robing-room." 

The ' D.N.B.' does not mention the 
Incident in its account of Lord Westbury. 

W. B. H. 



BISHOPSGATE : DRAWINGS WANTED. In 
connexion with a history of the ward of 
Cripplegate in the City of London, which 
I am about completing, I should be glad to 
hear of any original unpublished drawings 
of buildings, &c., of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. I have all those con- 
tained iri the British Museum and the 
Guildhall Library JOHN J. BADDELEY. 
32 Woodbury Down, N. 

G. P. R. JAMES, THE NOVELIST. I should 
be glad to learn some particulars of his 
mother, whose name is not recorded in the 
'D.N.B.' xxix. 209. His father, Dr. Pink- 
stan James, Physician Extraordinary to the 
Prince Regent, died at the novelist's house 
near Evreux, July 14, 1830. 

G. F. R. B. 

SIMSON AND DRUMMOND. The Rev. 
Matthew Simson (born 1675, d. May 20, 
1756) ordained to Pentaitland, Sept. 10, 
1705, translated to Fala, 1742, married, 
March 1709, Alison (born 1686, died 1736), 
5th dau. of Adam Drummond, 9th Baron of 
Lennoch and 2nd Baron of Megginch, by 

Alison Hay his wife, dau of Hay of 

Haystoun, and had, with other issue known 
to me : 

Adam, a Lieut., smothered in the black 
hole of Calcutta, June 18, 1756. 

James. 

Colin, who went to India. 

Whom did they marry and are any of 
their descendants living ? Please reply direct. 
JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39 Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

CAMPBELL: FORBES JOHNSTON : HANKEY. 
I should be glad of any information as 
to the careers of the following officers after 
they left Ceylon: 

1. Lieut. -Col. James Campbell of the 
45th Foot, author of 'Excursions, Adven- 
tures ana Field Sports in Ceylon,' published 
in London, 1843. 

2. Major Jonathan Forbes, 78th High- 
landers, author of ' Eleven Years in Ceylon,' 
London, 1840. 

3. Major Arthur Johnston, 19th Foot, 
author of ' A Narrative of the Operations 
of a Detachment in an Epedition to 
Candy in the Island of Ceylon in 1804,' 
London, 1810. 

4. Sir Frederick Hankey, G. C. M. G., some- 
time of the 51st and 19th Regiments. 

None of these appear in the 'D.N.B.' 
PENRY LEWIS. 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 15, 1921. 



LIGHT AND DARK A HEADPIECE. Many 
books of no tab 1 e interest or instruction 
published during the period 1570-1641 
have on the title-page, or elsewhere, a head- 
piece in which a light A (left) end dark A 
(right) are conspicuous. What is the origin 
of the device, and what interpretation can 
be placed upon this emblem ? 

R. L. EAGLE. 
19 Burghill Road, Sydenham, S.E.26. 

TULCHAN BISHOPS. What are they ? In 
what countries are they found. I. F. 

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. 

I should be grateful to any reader of *N. & Q.' 

who would tell me the names of the authors of the 

following : 

1. From 'December and January,' an article in 
Blackwood, February, 1886. 

" Though to-morrow, in the experience of most of 
us, has generally turned put to be very like yester- 
day, it is never necessarily so, and the heart that 
can still believe in to-morrow is the strength of 
humanity, and the hope of the world." 

2. A novel entitled ' The Old (or Odd ?) Farm- 
house.' H. E. G. E. 



JOHN THORNTON OF COVENTRY, 

AND THE GREAT EAST WINDOW OF 

YORK MINSTER. 

(12 S. vii. 481.) 

IN the course of his very interesting paper 
upon John Thornton of Coventry, MR. 
KNOWLES raises several points which call 
for particular comment. 

1. He is correct in stating that previous 
to 1405, nothing is known of John Thornton 
except that he was "of Coventry." It is 
quite evident from the details given in the 
contract with the Dean and Chapter of 
York, that he was a master glazier. But 
it is also at least permissible to suggest that 
prior to 1405, he had been employed at 
Coventry rather than at Nottingham. It 
must be remembered that, until the dissolu- 
tion of monasteries, Coventry was a town 
of great importance. In addition to its 
Benedictine Abbey, and several stately 
churches, it was the home of numerous 
wealthy merchants whose trading Guilds 
were amongst the foremost in the land.* 



* For an interesting account of Coventry, 
past and present, refer Dr. Button's ' Highways 
and Byways in Shakespeare's Country.' 



Such a town as this would be sure to- 
number glass-painters amongst its popula- 
tion. John Aubrey, the Wiltshire antiquary, 
(1626-1697) tells us that when a schoolboy 
at Blandford in Dorset, he used to visit the 
shop and furnaces of " old Harding, the only 
countrey glasse-painter that ever I knew 
though before the Reformation there was no 
county or great town but had its glass - 
painters." Harding died c. 1643, aged 
83 or more. 

If a small town like Blandford could still 
find work for a glass -painter at a time when 
the art was thought but little of, what must 
have been the position of affairs in Coventry 
during the fifteenth century, when painted 
glass was in ever increasing demand, andl 
when great abbeys, priories, and churches- 
were being erected both in the town, and 
in the country round about ? 

2. MR. KNOWLES has mistaken the pur- 
port of a statement on page 20 of my book 
* Ancient Glass in Winchester. ' I merely 
ventured to suggest that John Thornton of 
Coventry might be identical with one John 
Coventre who as a " clorour and jcynour '* 
was employed upon the King's works at 
Westminster in 1352-3. I did not suggest 
that he was a son. This tentative theory is,, 
however, effectually disproved by MR. 
KNOWLES 's further statement that John 
Thornton was still alive in 1433. This, 
assuming him to be identical with John 
Coventre (who must have been at least 
18 years of age in 1352), would make him 
close upon 100 in 1433. Certainly he would' 
be past taking much interest in glass- 
painting. 

As MR. KNOWLES brings forward no- 
documentary evidence in support of his 
theory that John Thornton was a son of 
John Coventre, it is naturally impossible to- 
deal further with the point at present, but 
it may be added that Thornton's name does 
not appear either amongst the glaziers 
employed at Westminster in 1351 and 1352 ; 
or amongst the few men mentioned in the 
fabric rolls of Windsor as late as 1367. 

3. MR. KNOWLES 's suggestion that the 
work of glazing the Royal Chapels at St. 
Stephen's, Westminster, and at Windsor,, 
was "rushed through" by means of im- 
pressed labour, is certainly not borne out 
by the fabric rolls of Windsor Castle. 
These fabric rolls are quoted at great length 
by the late Sir William St. John Hope in his 
magnificent book upon Windsor Castle 
[from which much of the following informa- 
tion is taken). 



12 s. vin. JAN. is, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



The glaziers, some thirty in all, were 
certainly impressed from various parts of 
England. On the other hand they were 
paid good wages, the master glaziers 
receiving 7s. a week each, and the lesser 
grades in proportion to their tasks, while 
they were allowed a fortnight's holiday at 
Whitsuntide. 

The work of glazing the windows of 
St. Stephen's Chapel at Westminster appears 
to have lasted from June 20 to Nov. 28, 1351, 
and early in March, 1352, the craftsmen 
commenced work upon the glass intended 
for Windsor, which, in turn, was finished by 
Michaelmas of that year. 

The completed panels were not inserted 
in the windows of the Castle Chapel and 
Chapter-house until the next year, as may 
be proved by the following entries in the 
fabric rolls for the week beginning, Mar. 18, 
1353 : 

Paid for 18 elm boards for making boxes 
for carrying the. panels of glass from 
Westminster to Windsor . . . . 3" 

36 elm boards of the same, a piece 4 d . . 12" 8 U 
Carriage of the same from London to 
Westminster . . . . . . . . 5 1 

for Hay and Straw to put in the boxes 14 d 

300 nails for making the said boxes 12 d 

whilst there is a further payment of 18s. 
to John Talwych for freightage of his 
'shout " or sailing barge, carrying 6 boxes 
of glass from Westminster to Windsor. 

It should also be pointed out that im- 
pressment of labour was not confined to 
these few glaziers. Between 1350 and 1377 
King Edward III. carried out very extensive 
building operations at Windsor, during 
which several successive Clerks of the Works 
were appointed (amongst them William of 
Wykeham, afterwards Bishop of Win- 
chester). Each of these officials was given 
power to impress men and set them to work 
upon the King's works at Windsor. 

The same practice still prevailed in later 
reigns. Thus in 1390 Letters Patent were 
granted to Geoffrey Chaucer, Esq., Clerk 
of the King's Works in the Palace of West- 
minster, the Tower of London, and else- 
where, authorizing him to choose and set 
to work masons, carpenters, and other 
workmen about the necessary repairs of 
"Our Collegiate Chapel of St. George 
within our Castle of Windsor " ; whilst in 
1472 King Edward IV. granted similar powers 
to " our dearly loved cousin the venerable 
father in God, Richard, Bishop of Salisbury, 
Master Surveyor of the King's works 
at Windsor." Nor was this power of 



impressing labour entirely confined to home- 
service, in 1370 William Wynford, one of 
the Royal masons, was ordered to retain 
workmen for the King's works "beyond the 
Seas."* 

Again we find King Henry V. on hi& 
second expedition to France in 1416 au- 
thorizing Thomas Morstede, his only Army 
surgeon, forcibly to impress as many surgeons 
as he needed, together with a suitable number 
of mechanics for the making of surgical 
appliances and to embark them in the port 
of Rye.f 

Previously to this the King had asked the 
London Corporation of Surgeons to supply 
him with a dozen volunteers for the use of 
his Army and it was upon their failure to 
comply with his wishes that he resorted to- 
to drastic measures. 

4. MR. KNOWLES'S concluding suggestion 
that the east window of Great Malvern 
Priory representing the Passion of our Lord 
is probably a later work of John Thornton's, 
may easily be tested by a single reference 
to the St. William window at York Minster 
with which he compares it. A panel i from the 
latter window depicting Robert and Richard, 
two sons of the donor (William, seventh 
Baron de Ros) and his wife Margaret, shews 
that the canopy shaft is enriched with a 
small figure standing on a base beneath a 
projecting canopy. This is a very common 
characteristic of the York school of glass- 
painting but does not appear in the east 
window of Great Malvern Priory. 

JOHN D. LE COTJTEUB. 
Winchester. 



BOTTLE-SLIDER (12 S. vii. 471, 516; 
viii. 37). The large ornate plated specimens^ 
with florid mounts must have been con- 
temporary with the introduction of heavily 
cut glass decanters with which they were- 
formerly used. They were also manu- 
factured in silver, inlaid wood and japanned 
ware to-day, almost invariably made in 
electro- plate when for hotel use. They are 
described as "bottle trays," or "bottle 
stands " in the old Sheffield makers' pattern 



* ' A History of Winchester College,' p. 109, 
A. F. Leach, F.S.A. 

t This incident is graphically depicted in The 
Illustrated London News for Sept. 6, 1913, by 
Mr. A. Forestier to whom I am indebted for 
several interesting particulars. 

J The panel in question is illustrated in the 
Handbook on Stained Glass, published by the- 
South Kensington Museum (p. 64, fig. 43). 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm. JAN. is, 1921. 



T^ooks of the eighteenth and early nineteenth 
centuries. One firm alone illustrates one 
hundred and five varieties between the 
years 1788 and 1815. 

Some years ago I recollect being shown at 
one of the Oxford colleges a miniature kind 
of railway line on which ran a pair of 
coasters in form of a wagon with wheels, 
made of old Sheffield plate, holding two 
decanters. Whilst sitting round the hearth 
after dinner, in this manner the Fellows 
could circulate the bottles by pushing the 
wagon up and down the rail without leaving 
their seats. F. BRADBURY. 

Sheffield. 

BEVERLY WHITING (12 S. viii. 11). 
Beverly Whiting was admitted to the Middle 
Temple on Sept. 8, 1722, as the son and heir 
of Henry Whiting (American Historical 
Review, vol. xxv. p. 683). He afterwards 
Ibecame the godfather ef George Washington 
(Howe's 'Historical Collections of Virginia,' 
p. 509). Further particulars about him and 
JKis family may be found in a ' Memoir of 
Rev. Samuel Whiting, D.D., and his wife 
"Elizabeth St. John,' by William Whiting, 
former President of N. E. Hist. Geneal. 
Society, Boston, 1871. 

C. E. A. BE DWELL. 

Middle Temple Library, E.G. 

CHRISTIAN WEGERSLOFF (12 S. vii. 231). 
A man bearing these names, doubtless the 
cfather of the Westminster boy, petitioned 
for naturalization in the 12th of Will. III. ; 
he had then been living for seventeen years 
in London and the suburbs ; see Huguenot 
Society Publications, vol. xviii, p. 300. 

J. B. WHITMORE. 

Louis NAPOLEON : POETICAL WORKS (12 S" 
vii. 490 ; viii. 14). The David Bogue publi- 
cation is not a "translation of a selection " 
of the occasional sonnets, songs, and epi- 
grams of Louis Napoleon. It is a political 
skit directed against the Prince, who at the 
.time of its publication was in the transition 
stage from President to Emperor. David 
Bogue 's name on the title-page is followed 
l>y the announcement that the book "may 
be had of all French booksellers who have a 
weakness for Cayenne," and the "preface 
t>y the translator " quotes a decree of the 
Prince President "done at the Ely see, this 
1st of April." The full title is 'The Poetic 
Works of Louis Napoleon now first done 
into plain English.'" There are ninety-five 
small woodcut illustrations, the source 
of which is not stated. Most of these were 



used again twenty years later by John 
Camden Hotten in ' Napoleon III. from the 
Popular Caricatures of the last Thirty Years. ' 

F. H. C. 

REPRESENTATIVE COUNTY LIBRARIES : 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (12 S. viii. 8, 34). 
The Public Library of Newcastle-on-Tyne 
and the Library of the Lit. and Phil, of 
Newcastle, are pretty good for local works 
(but not perfect). Two splendid libraries 
of local works (of the late M. Mackey and tl 
late R. Welford) have recently been dis- 
persed. Sunderland Public Library is fairly 
good for Sunderland printed works, and 
Darlington Public Library for works relating 
to that town. Probably the best private 
Durham library is that of Mr. J. W. Fawcett 
of Consett (one of your correspondents) 
which in 1915 numbered over 15,000 printed 
volumes of which some 5,000 were local 
(North country) works. Besides these it 
had over 10,000 charters, deeds, &c. (copies 
and originals) relating to Durham, North- 
umberland, &c. BESSIE GREENWELL. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

JOHN HUGHES OF LIVERPOOL, 1706 (12 S. 
viii. 12). Presumably the transcript "in 
Mason's characters " refers to the shorthand 
of William Mason, the famous stenographer 
(see 'D.N.B.'). Little light can be thrown 
on the identity of John Hughes. In 1705 
and 1708 "Mr. John Hughes " had a sugar 
warehouse in John Street and a he use in Lord 
Street, Liverpool. In 1727 one of the name 
was Mayor. In 1719 J. H., mariner, was 
overseer of the poor ; in 1726 sidesman and 
in 1727 churchwarden, of the Parish Church. 
Possibly this was the transcriber. If so, 
his will was proved at Chester, 1739, and he 
may have been a son of Moses Hughes, of 
Water Street, buried at St. Nicholas' Church, 
Jan. 27, 1712, will proved at Chester, 1713. 

R, S. B. 

HAMBLEY HOUSE, STREATHAM (12 S* 
viii. 11). In the early years of the nine- 
teenth century Streatham possessed a num- 
ber of schools. J. Hassell in ' Picturesque 
Rides and Walks,' published 1817, says : 

" The air of Streatham is considered very 
salubrious and healthful and being a pleasant 
and convenient distance from London, is par- 
ticularly desirable for the placing of children 
and advantageous for seeing them, being only an 
hour's ride from the bridges. There are coaches 
to this village three times a day. Fares inside 
2.9. 6d. ; outside 1.9. 6d. The stages go from 
Gracechurch Street and the Ship, Charing Cross. 
There are also the Croydon and Brighton coaches 



12 s. viii. JAN. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



which pass through the village every hour in the 
day from the Elephant and. Castle, Xewington 
Butts.... The academies of Streatham and its 
vicinage have long been reputed as first-class 
seminaries, and some of them occupy situations 
of great beauty." 

Hambley House Academy was situated 
on the High Road facing the west side of 
Streatham Common occupying the land 
between the present No. 412 and Barrow 
Road. RORY FLETCHER. 

MODE OF CONCLUDING LETTERS (2 S. 
x. 326, 376, 434, 501). The following ex- 
amples, from Parr's 'Life of Usher,' 1686, 
cover a period of almost half-a-century : 

"Oo-draros, Jac. TJsseriiis, 1607, 1611. 
Ever at your service, Edward Warren, 1610. 
Wishing unto you as unto mine own self, James 

Usber, 1611. 

Yours as his own, Thomas Lydiat, 1611. 
Yours in all Christian Affection, James Usher, 

1613. 
Yours ever to his Power in the Lord, H. Briggs, 

Yours ,yery loving in the Lord, Tobias Ebora- 

censis, 1616. 
Yours to be commanded in all Christian Duties, 

Thomas Lydyat, 1616, 1617. 
Yours in Christ, William Crashaw, 1617(?). 
Your poor Friend, Edward Warren, 1617. 
Your assured loving Friend, Samuel Ward, 1613. 
Your truly affectionate and faithful Friend, 

Henry Bourgchier, 1617. 
Y"our true affectionate Friend, while I am Henry 

Bourgchier, 1617. 
Your most assured loving Friend and Brother, 

James Usher, 1617, 1619. 

Your most loving and firm Friend, Id., 1615. 
Your true and devoted Friend, William Camden, 

1618. 
Your unfeigned Well-wilier, Alexander Cook, 1614. 

To Usher when Bishop o/ Meath. 
Your Lordships to be commanded in the Lord, 

^Thomas Gataker, 1621. 
Y. L. most affectionate to love and serve you, 

William Boswel, 1621 (from Westminster 

Colledge). 

Y. L. to be commanded [Sir] Henry Spelman, 1621. 
Y. L. humble Servant, J. Selden/1621. 
Y. L. constant and assured and to be ever com- 
manded [Sir] Robert Cotton, 1622 (New 

Exchange). 

Y. L,. in all service, Sanmel Ward, 1622. 
Y. L. in nil duty, Thomas James, 1623. 
Y. L. in all observance, Samuel Ward, 1624, 1626. 
Y. L. in all practice, Id., 1624 (Much-mondon and 

Cambridge). 
Y'. L. humble Servant to his Power, Abraham 

Wheelock, 1625 (Clare-Hall). 

To Usher when Archbishop of Armagh. 
Your Grace's in all Duty, Thomas James, 1625. 
Your Lordships in what he may, Samuel Ward, 

^Earnestly desirous to be directed by your Lord- 
ship, or confirmed in the Truth, John Cotton, 

I 1626. (This letter was written from Boston in 
Lincolnshire ; and seven years later the writer 
of it-went to Boston, New England.) 



Y. L. ever obliged, Ralph Skynner, 1624 (Wal- 

thamstow). 

Y. L. for ever, Samuel Ward, 1626. 
Y. L. poor welwiller, A. Cook, 1626. 
Your Graces in all Duty to be commanded, 

Thomas Davis, 1627 (Aleppo). 
Your Lordships ever truly assured, to honour and 

serve you, J. King, 1628 (Layfield). 
A Servant thereof [i.e., of your Grace] most bound 

and devoted [Sir] Henry Spelman, 1628 

(Barbacan). 
Your Lordships unfeignedly to command, Geo. 

Hakewill, 1628 (Exeter Coll.). 
Whose faithful Servant I remain Jo. Prideaux, 

1628. 
Your Graces faithful Servant, Jo. Philpot, 1629 

(Dublin). 
Your Graces loving poor Friend, and Brother, 

Guil. London [Laud], 1629. 
Your Lordships most engaged Servant, Ger 

Langbaine, 1647 (Queen's Coll.). 
Yours hi the Lord ; Yours, to use, in the Lord ; 

Yours to command in what I may, Thorn. 

Wh alley, 1653(?). 

RICHARD H. THORNTON. 
Portland, Oregon. 

ORDERS AND ORDINANCES OF THE HOS- 
PITALS (12 S. viii. 5). A good example of 
the 1552 edition, produced by Rycharde 
Grafton, abides in the Guildhad Library. 
It is some years since I handled it, but 
speaking from memory it is distinctly an 
original impression rather than a reprint. 
The size is small octavo, signatures A 1 - to J 8 - 
in eights, unpaged, black letter. Likely 
places in which to find other issues, or 
reprints, would be the Bishopsgate Institute 
and St. Bride's Institute. The. very limited 
demand will explain the small number 
printed, and great rarity of these early 
official publications. 

One of the surest clues as to precise age 
lies in the paper (and watermarks, if any). 
Both paper and press -work in Pepys's time 
had begun their downward grade. It will be 
noticed, by close observation, that paper, used 
for official city publications, in the sixteenth 
and early seventeenth centuries, if not 
specially white in tone, was of good honest 
rag substance, with ample tub size. Hence 
the longevity of exemplars. For instance, 
compare other issues of the kind, to be 
found at the Guildhall : 

" Decree for tythes to bee payed. lohn Wolfe, 
1596." 8vo. Black letter. 

" General matters, 1600." 8vo. Black letter. 

" Order of my Lord Maior, Alderman and 
Sheriffes for meetinges and ... .apparel through- 
out the yere. lohn Windet, 1604." 8vo. 
Black letter. 

" Lawes of the market. W m Jaggard, 1620." 
8vo. Black letter. 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. is, 1921. 



There is a reason for the conformity of 
quality which marks these books. The 
enviable and much-sought office of " official 
printer to the city " was given only to work- 
men of established reputation. Before ap- 
pointment they undertook to produce good 
work at a fair price. W. JAGGARD, Capt. 

I possess a copy of this scarce work in 
its original binding (whole leather) in 
excellent condition with a preface signed, 
Goodfellows, which belonged to my grand- 
father, Ralph Price, Treasurer of Bridewell 
Hospital in 1836. In the beginning is 
written, " very scarce. " 

LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

'LIFE IN BOMBAY ' (12 S. viii. 29). Has 
been attributed to James Gray ; possibly a 
son of James Gray, poet and linguist, who 
died in India in 1830, where, says 'The 
Dictionary of National Biography,' his 
family mostly settled and also to a Miss 
Cormack. The lithographs in the book are 
from drawings by the author. Do these 
bear any name (OT initials) other than that 
of the lithographers ? R. B. 

LONDON POSTMARKS (12 S. vii. 290, 
365 ; viii. 18, 34). One of the most 
objectionable of these, perhaps, is current 
at the present time for ship-letters, viz., 
"London: Paquebot." As the letters 
are conveyed on English vessels surely 
the older form "ship letter " might be 
preserved in place of the mixture o'f lan- 
guages noted above. 

English postmarks, too, are sadly illegible 
yet those from abroad (United States or 
Switzerland, for example) are clearly arti- 
culated throughout showing what can be 
done. R. B. 

Upton, 

'THE WESTERN MISCELLANY,' 1775 AND 
1776 (12 S. viii. 11). Goadby's publication 
circulated in several counties in the West of 
England (see Western Antiquary, iii. 50), 
and would seem to have borne different 
titles in different districts. 'The Ter 
centenary Hand-List of Newspapers ' refer: 
to it as The Weekly Miscellany, and mentions 
vols. i.-v., vii.-xix. (1773-83), and again as 
The Weekly Entertainer ; or Agreeable and 
Instructive Repository, &c., and mentions 
vol. iii., &c., 1784-1818, and N.S. 1823-25. 
W. S. B. H. finds it called The Western 
Miscellany, while other titles are Weekly 



Entertainer for Cornwall and Devon, or ili& 
Agreeable and Instructive Repository (1782- 
1815), and Weekly Entertainer and West of 
England Miscellany (1816). 

Goadby himself died in 1778 (see G. C. 
Boase, ' Collectanea Cornubiensia,' col. 1429) 
and a memoir cf him appeared (so it is 
stated at 8 S. i. 393) in the issue of Jan. 3 r 
1820. Goadby's wife (d. 1798) may have 
edited the paper as she seems to have been 
a person of some literary ability, if it be 
true that she wrote the life of Bampfylde- 
Moore Carew, King of the Beggars. Some 
think, however, that it was Goadby who was 
the author of the book (see Western Anti- 
quary, vol. vii. p. 86 ; see also ' The Gypsy 
Bibliography,' published by the Gypsy Lore 
Society in 1914, and at 2 S. iii. 4; iv. 330, 
401, 522). M. 

ENGLISH VIEWS BY CANALETTO (12 S. 
vii. 448). A few years ago a most interesting 
collection of paintings of Old London by 
Canaletto, Scott, and Boydell were sold at 
Christie's, King Street, St. James's Square.. 
Many of these were purchased by the late 
Mr. 'Henry Andrade Harben, a good and 
enthusiastic London collector, son of the 
late Sir Henry Harben, first Mayor of 
Hampstead. 

Mr. Harben bequeathed a number of these 
to the London County Council, of which- 
bcdy he had been a member. Some of them 
were hung in various parts of the Council's 
offices at Spring Gardens and I think 
I recollect one of old Westminster Bridge 
being among them. 

I hope this information may be useful to 
MRS. HILDA F. FINBERG, and that it may be- 
worth investigating further. 

E. E. NEWTON. 

Hampstead, Upminster, Essex. 

CHARTULARIES (12 S. vii. 330, 414). Gross 
( ' Sources and literature of English History 
from the earliest times to about 1485/ 
London, 2nd edn., 1915) gives a lot of infor- 
mation with regard to these, both published 
and unpublished. The manuscript index 
volumes in the Manuscript Room at the 
British Museum are specially arranged under 
this heading and are drawn up with ad- 
mirable clearness. I would recommend 
Dr. Howe to make friends with the autho- 
rities there. k j*. i 

The Beaulieu Chartulary is in the posses- 
sion of the Duke of Portland ; a MS. tran- 
script by Harbin (eighteenth century), 
collated with the original in 1831 by Sir 



12 s. vin. JAN. 15, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



57 



Frederick Madden, is at the British Museum 
(Harl. 6603). It has never been published. 

For Montacute see Somerset Record 
Society's publications. A query addressed 
to the Editor of Somerset and Dorset Notes 
and Queries (Witham Frary, Bath) would 
'be sure to be answered. 

It is certainly high time that a " biblio- 
graphv of existing monastic records " was 
compiled. Will not Dr. Howe himself fill 
the gap ? If our provincial archaeological 
societies would undertake bibliographical 
work of this kind they would be fulfilling a 
useful purpose. What is needed to-day is 
not the piling up of raw material but the 
making accessible of what already exists 
unknown to students. This can only be 
done through the bibliographies and indices 
geographic ally arranged. 

O. G. S. CRAWFORD. 
Hon. Se.c., Congress of Archaeological 
Societies. 

XENSJ-NGTON GRAVEL AT VERSAILLES (12 S. 
viii. 30). MR. LANDFEAR LUCAS will find 
copious references to the Kensington gravel 
t>its in vol. v. of Walford's 'Old and New 
London,' at pp. 178 et seq. 

WlLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

One of the largest of the Kensington 
gravel pits, was near Church Street, Ken- 
sington. The site is now covered by 
Sheffield, Vicarage, Berkley, Inverness, 
Brunswick and Courtland Gardens. Another 
is marked on Rocque's map, 1754, a little 
north of Kensington Palace, and in the 
same, the part of "Netting Hill, High Street, 
where it is joined by Church Street, is 
marked " Gravel Pits. " I have, many years 
ago, seen letters for the neighbourhood of 
Campden House, addressed " Kensington 
Gravel Pits." Pepvs ('Diary,' June 4, 
1666) refers to "walking through the Park 
and seeing hundreds of people listening at 
the Gravel Pits " to the sound of the 
guns of the fleet during the sea"- fight 
with De Ruvter. 

|W. H. WHITEAR, F.R.Hist.S. 

JLewis's 'Topographical Dictionary,' 1835, 
states that what it calls the " village " of 
Kensington was "amt>lv supplied with 
water by the Wast Midilesex Company, 
who have a spacious reservoir at Kensing- 
ton Gravel Pits, elevated more than 120 
feet above the level of the Thames." 

ST. S WITHIN. 



THE GLOMERY (12 S. viii. 29). The late 
A. F. Leach in 'The Schools of Medieval 
England,' speaking of Cambridge in 1276, 
says : 

" As between the grammar school master and 
the chancellor and archdeacon, the decision was 
that the master of glomery, as by a curious 
corruption of the word grammar he was called 
had the jurisdiction in all suits in which the 
glomericules (glomerelli), or grammar school boys, 
were defendants " (p. 157). 

And the accounts of the Merton College 
Grammar School (beginning 1277) : 

" show that instead of the term Magister Glomerise 
being, as stated by Dr. Rashdall in his ' History 
of Universities,' a ' wholly peculiar Cambridge 
institution,' it was in use at Oxford. The fact is 
that the word " glomery " is merely a familiar 
corruption of the word ' grammar,' and was in 
use not only at Oxford and Cambridge, but at 
Orleans and Salisbury and no doubt elsewhere ; 
the word ' glomerelli,' for small grammar boys, 
being found at Bury St. Edmunds " (pp. 171-2). 

On p. 180, Mr. Leach, speaking of four- 
teenth-century Oxford, says : 

" These superintending masters [two M.A.s 
yearly elected to superintend the grammar 
schools] correspond to the Master of Glomery at 
Cambridge, a term in use there as late as 1540. 
There being only one at Cambridge, instead of 
two as at Oxford, points to a less number of 
grammar schools and schoolmasters." 

A. R. BAYLEY. 

For a brief account of the office and 
function of the Master of the Glomery in 
Cambridge University, the following from 
Mr. R. S. Rait's 'Life in the Medieval 
University ' may be of service to R. B. : 

" The degrees which Oxford and Cambridge 
conferred in grammar did not involve residence or 
entitle the recipients to a vote in Convocation, 
but the conferment was accompanied by cere- 
monies which were almost parodies of the solemn 
proceedings of graduation or inception in a 
recognized Faculty, a birch, taking the place of a 
book, as a symbol of the power and authority 
entrusted to the master. A sixteenth-century 
Esquire Bedel of Cambridge left for the benefit 
of his successors details of the form for ' enteryng 
of a master in Gramer.' The ' Father ' of the 
Faculty of Grammar (at Cambridge the mys- 
terious individual known as the ' Master of 
Glomery ') brought his ' sons ' to St. Mary's 
Church for eight o'clock mass. ' When mass is 
done fyrst shall begynne the Acte in Gramer. 
The Father shall have hys sete made before the 
Stage for Physyke [one of the platforms erected 
in the church for doctors of the different faculties, 
etc.} and shall sytte alofte under the stage for 
Physyke. The Proctour shall say. Incepiatis. 
When the Father hath argyude as shall plese the 
Proctour, the Bedeyll in Arte shall bring the 
Master of Gramer to the Vyce-chancelar, delyver- 
yng hym a Palmer wyth a Rodde, whych the 
vyce-chancelar shall gyve to the seyde master 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. J AN . 15, 1921. 



in Gramer and so create hym Master. Then shall 
the Bedell purvay for every Master in Gramer a 
shrewde Boy, whom the Master in Gramer shall 
bete openlye in the Scolys, and the Master in 
Gramer shall give the Boy a Grote for Hys 
Labour, and another grote to hym that provydeth 
and the Palmer, &c. de sigulis. And thus 
endythe the Acte in that Facultye.' " 

We know of the existence of similar 

ceremonies at Oxford. The degree was not a 

popular one ; very few names are mentioned 

in the University register of either University. 

F. A. RUSSELL. 

116 Arran Road, Catford, S.E.6. 

"To OUTRUN THE CONSTABLE " (12 S. 
viii. 29). This expression doubtless owes 
its origin to Smollett who in ' Roderick 
Random ' says : 

" Harkee, my girl, now far have you overrun 
the Constable? I told him that the debt 
amounted to eleven pounds." 

WlLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

It appears from the 'New English Dic- 
tionary ' that this phrase, with the meaning 
of spending more money than one has, was 
used much earlier than Stevenson and 
Besant. Brewster in his ' Dictionary of 
Phrase and Fable ' explains the phrase by 
saying, " The constable arrests debtors and 
of course represents the creditor ; wherefore 
to overrun the constable is to overrun your 
credit account." G. F. R. B. 

Yes, people used to talk of doing that in 
the last century. Perhaps their expenditure 
led them into excesses, beyond those with 
which a parish constable could deal. The 
expression may have originated on the 
stage as many others have that are now 
almost unintelligible from want of context. 

ST. SWITHIN. 

To overdraw one's banking account, or 
spend without caution. This is the usual 
meaning, and though Shakespeare did not 
use the proverb, a phrase in 'Macbeth' 
illustrates it : "To outrun the pauser, reason. " 
There is another possible meaning of the 
saying, whereby in outrunning the police- 
man you could secure safety, instead of 
losing it. Old Bell Yard, Fleet Street, at 
one time, had nearly two scores of taverns, 
each with a "bolt-hole" at the rear. 
Some of the drinkers there, up to the eyes 
in debt, at a given warning, drinking- vessels 
in hand, would sally forth down the back 
yards, and so beyond the jurisdiction of 
Fleet Prison bailiffs, ever on the prowl for 
victims. 



In Scotland "constable " is the name o 
a very large tumbler or glass goblet, out 
of which a guest is compelled, to drink should 
he fail to consume less than the average 
drink of the assembled company. At the- 

Radish feast " on May 12, celebrated at 
Levens Hall, near Kendal, each visitor 
stands on one leg only, gives the toast : 
" Luck to Levens as long as the Kent flows," 
and then drains the large glass " constable " 
(see at 5 S. viii. 248). 

If he requires the " constable " recharged, 
the chances are he won't repeat the feat on 
one leg, in which case he would " outrun the 
constable. " W. JAGGABD, Capt. - 

MATTHEW PARIS (12 S. viii. 28). The 
passage asked for is in the 'Chronica 
Major a,' under the vear 1243, on pp. 279 y 
280, vol iv. of Dr. H". R. Luard's Edition in 
the Rolls series. The occasion is a contro- 
versy between the Dominicans and Francis- 
cans. 

" Et quod terribile est, et in triste praesagium, 
per trecentos annos, vel quadrirgentos, vel 
amplius, ordo Monasticus tarn festinanter non 
cepit praecipitium, sicut eorum ordo, quorum, 
fratres, jam vix transactis viginti quatuor annis, 
primas in Anglia construxere mansiones, quarum 
aedificia jam in regales surgunt altitudines. 
Hi jam sunt, qui in sumptuosis et diatim ampliatis 
aedificiis, et celsis muralibus, thesauros exponunt 
impreciabiles, paupertatis limites et basim suae 
professionis, juxta prophetiam Hyldegardis Ale- 
manniae, impudenter transgredientes." 

On comparing this with the English 
version that was quoted it will be seen that 
"hardly forty, " ought to be " hardly twenty- 
four, " and that the Latin adverb qualifying 
the last word of the extract is not impru- 
denter, but impudenter. 

Dr. Luard notes that this passage, with 
what follows about the extortions of the- 
friars from the dying, has been erased in 
the original MS. at Corpus Christi College. 
Cambridge, and that his text is here supplied 
from the Cottonian copy. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

THE OLD HORSE GUARDS BUILDINGS 
(12 S. vii. 232, 258). A note in The General 
Advertiser of Oct. 16, 1749, states that the 
old Horse Guards building was to be pulled 
down that winter. 

The same paper (Oct. 12, 1750), states that 

" yesterday a free Passage was opened under the 
new Stone Arch at the Horse Guards, for Coaches, - 
&c., into St. James' Park." 

The present building must therefore have 
been well on the way to completion at that 
date. A. H. S. 



12 s. vm. JAN. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



THE BRITISH IN CORSICA (12 S. viii. 10, 
35). I cannot find that there was any 
British occupation of Corsica in 1745 or in 
1814. In 1794 it was captured. General 
Sir David Dundas was in command of the 
British Force. A full account of the opera- 
tions is given in Sir John Moore's ' Diary,' 
vol. i., published in 1904, by Edward Arnold. 

J. H. LESLIE. 

GASPAR BARLAEUS (12 S. vii. 431, 513). 
It may be of interest that the original manu- 
script of his ' Poemata ' was sold in 1859 by 
Messrs. Puttick & Simpson when the manu- 
script library of Dawson Turner, Esq., of 
Great Yarmouth was dispersed. Its official 
description is thus given : 

" No. 34. Barlaeus (Caspar) Poemata et 
Epistolae Latinae ; half morocco, folio, pp. 40, 
1636, &c." 

It was bought by one Boone, and fetched 
14s. Sd. WILFRED J. CHAMBERS. 

Clancarty, Regent Road, Lowestoft. 



(12 S. vii. 311). This must 
be the game of shovelboard which is fully 
described at 10 S. vii. 403. At 9 S. ii. 187 
it is stated that to huddle means to make a 
winning cast at shovelboard. 

F. JESSEL. 

WARWICKSHIRE SAYINGS (12 S. vii. 67, 
156, 198). The Somerset version of N. 2 at 
the first reference is : 

Friday cut hair and Sunday cut horn, 
Better a man had never been born. 

M. N. O. 

GOLD BOWL GIFT OF GEORGE I. (12 S. 
vii. 450, 514). Many thanks to MR. PRES- 
COTT Row for his answer re Bowl. It is 
really a bowl not cup ; it' measures in dia- 
meter 10 in., height 6 in. The inscription 
on it is : 

" The gift of his Majesty King George to 
hia Godson, George Lamb. Anno Domini, 1723.'' 
On the reverse side are the Royal arms. 

E. C. WIENHOLT. 

EDWARD DIXON (12 S. vii. 349) was born 
at Halton, near Leeds (s. of Joseph and 
Mary D.), Mar. 25, 1778. He must have 
lived at Halton for some years as his son 
George Dixon was also born there circa 1807. 
This George had a son Edward, b. Apr. 21, 
1828, at Chapeltown Road, Leeds, and 
dying Aug. 26, 1900, at Scarborough, buried 
iii S. Cemetery. A. D. C. 

131 Victoria Street, S.W. 



0n 

Studies in Statecraft : being Chapters, BiographicdT 
and Bibliographical, mainly on the Sixteenth. 
Century. By Sir Geoffrey Butler. (Cambridge 
University Press, 10s. net.) 

WE would advise students of International Law, 
and those general readers who are watching with 
interest the rise and progress of the League of 
Nations to read this book. It is no ponderous 
tome contributory to their severer studies ; but 
a set of five pleasant essays reminding us that 
our problems concerning international relations 
have presented themselves, from the time when- 
the Europe of the Middle Ages was broken up by 
the Renaissance, not only to practical statesmen 
but also to abstract thinkers. 

The first essay is on Bishop Rodericus Sancius's 
dialogue ' De pace et bello.' The writer puts 
before us with admirable skill an outline of the 
political situation which called it forth, a situa- 
tion chiefly determined from the standpoint of 
Rodericus himself by the cautious policy of 
consolidation and preparation pursued by Pope 
Paul II. Rodericus was a propagandist of the 
finest order and there is reason to take this 
dialogue as propaganda, intended to rebut the 
pacificism of the day at a time when pressure 
from the Turks and the unruliness of heresy 
made it desirable for the Church to show herself 
steady and militant. The pacificist speaker in the 
Dialogue is Platina whom, in all probability, 
Rodericus, as Castellan of St. Angelo, had, while he 
was writing, under his charge. The arguments on 
both sides have much in them common with ours of 
to-day, but they are drawn also from the astronomy 
then current, are illustrated copiously from the 
classics, and are set out in the flowery style of the. 
Renaissance. Our author finds the value of the 
dialogue in Rodericus's power of getting behind, 
phrases, of bringing his argument back to con- 
crete fact urging, for example, that it is idle to 
consider war apart from the reasons which set 
men to wage it. This line is what we might 
expect from. Sancius's character and career a 
man who deserves to be more widely known, 
and whom Sir Geoffrey Butler assists the student 
to discover by printing a list of his works (forty- 
five in number) taken from Antonio's ' Biblioteca 
Hispana Vetus,' with some additions of his own. 

The next essay deals briefly with French 
commentators on Roman Law the French 
" civilians " of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. Their minds ran on the nature of 
sovereignty and the relation impersonally con- 
sidered of the princeps to the law ; from their 
study of Roman Law was evolved the theory 
underlying the new monarchy. 

The chapter on William Postel brings before 
us one of the most curious figures of a time when 
it was still possible for an erudite person more 
or less to take the whole of knowledge for his 
province. How Postel acquired his erudition 
is but obscurely indicated except that it is 
clear that indomitable industry and tenacity 

Elayed a great part therein. An obscure orphan, 
e had from his childhood to earn his own liveli- 
hood. At 26 he was so well known as an Oriental 
scholar that he was sent with Peter Giles to the 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm.-jA*.i5,i92i. 



"East to collect Oriental MSS, for the King's 
library at Fontainebleau. He wrote on geo- 
gra.r>hy, on theology and on history as well as on 
philology ; but through his work and his un- 
doubted learning there ran a morbid strain of 
fanaticism, which, through many years increased, 
brought him into collision with authority, led 
him into strange extravagances, and well-nigh 
ruined him altogether. In the end, so great a 
disturber of the r>eace had he become, striving 
to set the world's wrongs right, that he was 
compelled, as a sort of voluntary prisoner, to 
take up his abode in the monastery of St. Martin. 
There, it is consoling to reflect (for it is impossible 
not to feel some attraction towards Fostel) 
his brain cleared : the visions which had pursued 
him vanished and he spent the end of his life in 
peace, not to be tempted forth from his refuge 
"bv any promises of princely favour. Postel owes 
his place in this book to his theory that God must 
fulfil himself in a manifestation of divine unity 
on earth to be brought about by the operation 
of a great world power which should keep th 
world's peace. This power Postel declared to b 
the people of France : a conclusion from many 
points of view of curious interest. 

The two following essays deal with the " grand 
design " of Sully and with that of Emerich 
Cruce, Of Sully 's " design " most historica 
students have heard something though, it seems 
clear that it must be considered as little more 
than an exercise of academic quality which 
amused some leisure hours or served to straighten 
out the thoughts of the great minister. Cruc 
(1590-1648) is little more than a name to us and 
his book, which has escaped oblivion only bv 
three copies, has been recently re-discovered 
In its own day it created a stir. Virtually he 
proposes a kind of League of Nations in a city 
"where all sovereigns should have perpetually 
tteir ambassadors, in order that the differences 
that might arise should be settled by the judg- 
ment of the whole assembly." The theory of 
' Le Nouveau Cynee ' in which the proposal is 
worked out grapples with the very problems 
which the League of Nations itself envisages 
embracing all the nations, bending itself not only 
to settle disputes but also to meet the animosities 
and the other causes which engender them. 
The ambassadors assembled in the chosen city 
" will be trustees and hostages of public peace .... 
would maintain the ones and the others in good 
understanding ; would meet discontents half- 
way." Sir Geoffrey well compares with utter- 
ances such as these sentences from General 
Smuts's pamphlet and it might be well, not 
merely from historical curiosity, but also in 
search of suggestions and confirmation to draw 
the attention of students to Grace's work. As 
our author quotes " II est bon de s'apercevoir 
qu'on a des aieux " ; and, besides that, a system 
or body of ideas when seen from a distance of 
time is apt to show truths which do not so easily 
appear in a contemporary presentation. 



The Antiquaries Journal, vol. i. No. 1. (Oxford 

University Press, 5s.). 

'" THIS volume represents " we quote from the 
Foreword of Sir Hercules Bead, President of the 
Society " a new departure in the history of the 
Society of Antiquaries." 



It represents, indeed, an expansion, a renewal 
of energy, a^d a spirit of youthful enterprise in that 
beloved a^d venerable Society which we are sure 
everv reader of ' N. & Q.,' whether or not privi- 
leged to belong to it, will hail with pleasure and 
with great hopes of advantage to all students of 
the past. It is intended, in addition to the work 
published in the old Proceedings, to give a record 
of archaeological discovery, to note the activities 
of the chief kindred Continental societies and set 
up more intimate ^relations with them, and to 
supply such reviews of archaeological literature 
as shall keep readers au conrant as to the character 
and utility for any special purpose of any works 
published. 

The first instalment of the plan proposed is 
excellent. We have first the deeply interesting 
paper of Mr. A. W. Clapham on the Latin Monastic 
Buildings of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at 
Jerusalem. This breaks new ground, the diffi- 
culties of exploration under the Moslems having 
hitherto proved virtually hopeless obstruction. 
Lieut.-Col. Hawley and Mr. C. B. Peers supply 
an interim Beport on the Excavations at Stone - 
henge which needs no recommendation to our 
readers' attention. The silver discovered at 
Traprain Law (Mr. A. O. Curie) ; an imperfect 
Irish Shrine (Mr. E. C. B. Armstrong) ; and a 
Coffin Chalice from Westminster Abbey (the 
Bev. H. F. Westlake) each supplied with 
adequate illustration deal with metal-work of 
different ages. Mr. Johnson contributes a most 
interesting 'document a grant of forty marks a 
year by Henry VI. for the " Children of the 
Chapel Boyal " whose history for the fifteenth 
century is still in obscurity. M. Aime Butot 
deals with the discoveries at Spiennes. There 
are four or five weighty reviews of books, notices 
of periodical literature, editorial notes and a 
bibliography. 



tn 



EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' "Adver- 
tisements and Business Letters to "The Pub- 
lishers" at the Office, Printing House Square, 
London, E.C 4. ; corrected proofs to the Athenaeum 
Press, 11 and 13 Bream's Buildings, E.C.4. 

FOR the convenience of the printers, correspon- 
dents are requested to write only on one side ot 
sheet of paper. 

CORRIGENDA. (General Index to Eleventh 
Series, and Index to Vol. VI. of the present Series). 
We regret to find that the name of so well- 
jnown and -greatly valued a correspondent as PRO- 
CESSOR BENSLY has been misspelt in both these 
Indexes. Will those of our readers, who have not 
already done so, correct Bensley to Bensly. 

NOLA (12 S. vii. 502 ; viii. 37). In my reply 
at the last reference for " blank knoll," read 
klank knoll. J. T. F. 

BEPRESENTATIVE COUNTY LIBRARIES PUBLIC 
AND PRIVATE (12 S. viii. 8, 34). The name of the 
antiquary who garnered Yorkshire records was 
Hailstone not " Bailstone " as printed three 
times, p. 34. I am sorry my writing was less 
legible than I meant it to "be. ST. S WITHIN. 



12 s. vm. JAN. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES 



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How to Learn 
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LATEST ACHIEVEMENT OF 
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12 s. vm. JAN. 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



LONDON, JANUARY 22, mi. 

CONTENTS. No. 145. 

"NOTES : London Coaching and Carriers' Inns in 1732, 61 
Letters of 1720 from the Low Countries and Hanover, 
63 Among the Shakespeare Archives : Changes in Strat- 
ford on the Accession of Queen Elizabeth, 66 " Lucasia " 
Grey in sense of Brown " Rex illiteratus est asinu? 
coronatus," 68. 

'QUERIES : New Style, 68-Snuff : " Prince's Mixture" 
Street Court. Kingsland, Herefordshire- Col. Bonhain 
(Falconer) Old Contribution to ' Chambers's Journal ' 
Douglas of Bornock Terrestrial Globes. 69 Dr. Wells -. 
Paper on 'The Dew and Single Vision' Lady Anne 
Graham Robert Darley Waddilove Sir John Wilson- 
Coats of Arms : Identification Sought San Severino 
Consecrated Roses in Coats of Arms Christma.s Pudding 
and Mince-pies Scoles and Duke Families. 70 Mayne 
and Knight Stonehenge " Wytyng "Andrew Forrester 
Stapleton : O'Sullivan T. Jones, Author of 'The Heart 
its right Sovereign,' <fec. John Scaife for Scafe) 
"Rigges" and " Granpoles." 71 Reference Wanted 
Authors of Quotations Wanted, 72. 

UEPLIES : " Franckinsence, " 72 The Handling of Sources 
A Few Warwickshire Folk Sayings -Prisoners who have 
Survived Hanging, 73 Vnucher=Railway Ticket 
William and Ralph Sheldon. 74 The British in Corsica- 
Matthew Paris Askell. 75 " Frankenstein "Friday 
Street The Rev. John Theophilus Desaguliers " Now, 
then V Kensington Gravel at Versailles Repre- 
sentative County Libraries, 76 Early Ascents of Mont 
Blanc The Green Man, Ashbourne Charles Pye, Engra- 
ver, 77 Kentish Boroughs " Heightem, Tighfcem and 
Scrub " Carlyle's ' French Revolution '- Daniel D^foe in 
the Pillory Pronunciation of Greek (and Latin) Family 
of Dickson, 78 -Books on Eighteenth-Century Life A 
Note on Samuel Pepys's ' Diary 'Stevenson and Miss 
Yonge Early Railway Travelling, 79. 

TfOTES ON BOOKS :' English Wayfaring Life in the 
Middle Ages ' ' Essays and Studies by Members of the 
English Association.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



LONDON COACHING AND CARRIERS 
INNS IN 1732. 

YOUR correspondent, W. B. H., at 12 S. 
vii. 457 cites from a somewhat scarce hand- 
book of reference ' New Remarks of London 
.... Collected by the Company of Parish 
Clerks,' 1732. From this source I have 
selected, condensed and tabulated informa- 
tion buried within it relative to the travelling 
and transport facilities that radiated from 
the metropolis nearly two hundred years 
ago, when the Golden Cross at Charing Cross 
and the other celebrated coaching-houses 
of Piccadilly were as yet unknown. 

The precise locus of the inns mentioned 
below, save such as are preceded by an 
asterisk, will be found clearly mapped in 
Rocque's ' Survey ' : those unable to con- 
sult that valuable work may perhaps obtain 
-additional information from the Lists of 



Eighteenth-Century Taverns that have 
appeared in ' N. & Q. ' during 1920. 

I confine myself to one observation only. 
These lists afford evidence that Hogarth 
avoided personalities by purposely con- 
fusing incidents in his pictures. 

Describing the plate 'Night,' T. Clerk 
in his 'Works of Hogarth,' 1812, i. 144, 
wrote : 

" On each side are the Cardigan's Head and 

the Bummer Tavern The Salisbury Flying 

Coach which has just started from the inn is 
oversetting near a bon-fire." 

The information herewith attached shows 
that Flying Coaches at that date ran only to 
Bath, Bristol, and Northampton, and that 
the Salisbury Coach set out, not from 
Charing Cross, but from the Angel nigh unto 
St. Clement Danes Church. 

Expatiating on the first plate of the 
'Harlot's Progress,' Clerk, at p. 61, re- 
marks : 

" The heroine of this tale, about sixteen years 
of age, is delineated as having just alighted from 
the York waggon : and the huge bell suspended 
over the door indicates the scene to be laid in the 
yard of the Bell Inn in Wood Street." 

Although, as will be seen below, the Bell 
in Wood Street was a carriers' inn of great 
resort, it is equally clear that at the precise 
date at which, Hogarth painted the intro- 
ductory picture to this famous series 
the York wagon patronized the Bear in 
Basinghall Street and the Red Lyon in 
Aldersgate. 

Angel : Back Side, St. Clement Danes. 
Coaches. 

M. W. F. Salisbury. 
T. Th. 8. Winchester. 
Th. . . Marlborough. 

Ax : Aldermanbury. 
Carriers. 

M. . . Ashby de la Zouch. 
Th. . . Ormskirk. 
F. . . Scarborough. 

Bear : Basinghall Street. 

Carriers. 

T. . . Hallifax [sic], York. 

F. .. Anwick (PAlnwick), Leeds, 

Rippon [sic] Roheram [sic]. 
* Bear : Lime Street. 

Carrier. 

Th. . . Halstead. 

Bear and Bagged Staff : Smithfield. 
Carriers. 

M. . . Bridgnorth. 
F. . . Greton (? Gretton). 

Bell : Aldersgate Street. 
Coaches. 
T. Th. S. St. Albans. 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.',vm. JAN. 22, 1921. 



Bell: Friday Street. 

Coaches. 

M. & S. . . Exeter. 

Carriers. 

M. & S. . . Exeter. 

M. . . Truro. 

W. . . Burford. 

Th. . . Cirencester. 

F. . . Ted bury. 

S. . . Caerlion, Caermarthen, Caernarvon, 
Cardigan, Chepstow, Con way, 
Monmouth, Newport, Stroud- 
water. 

Bell : Holborn. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Edgworth (? Edgeware), Hendon. 
T. Th. & S. Banbury, Barkhamstead [sic]. 
F. . . Stradford-on-Avon [sic]. 
Carriers. 
F. . . Woodstock S. Fairingdon. 

Bell : Strand. 
Coaches. 

T. Th. Bath, Blandford. 
Carriers. 
W. S. . . Bracknor (? Bracknell), Brecknock. 

Bell : Warwick Lane. 
Carriers. 

T. . . Becconsfield [sic]. 
W. & S. Edmonton. 
F. . . Chiner (? Chinnar). 
S. . . Brackley. 

Bell: Wood Street. 

Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Lancaster. 

Carriers. 

M. . . Newark, Noneaton. 

W. S. . . Boroughbridge. 

F. . . Blackborn, Boulton in Moor, Lever- 
pool [sic], Middlewich, Mont- 
gomery, Newton, North wich, 
irescot, Rochdale, Warrington 
and Wigan. 

S. .. Mortonhindmost, Fershore, Taun- 
ton, Tiverton, Worcester. 

Bell Savage : Ludgate Hill. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Windsor, Tunbridge (summer only). 
M. W. F. Bath (summer only). 
T. Th. S. Cirencester, Newberry. 
M. & Th. Bristol. 
Carriers. 
Th. . . Gosport, Kingclere, Wickham. 

Black Bull : Leadenhall Street. 
Coaches. 
F. . . Brain tree. 

* Black Bull : Whitechapel. 
Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Bishop Stortford. 

* Black Lyon : Water Lane, Fleet Street. 

Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Egham, Maidenhead, Staines. 



Black Swan : Holborn. 
Coaches. 

Several times a day. Hampstead. 
M. W. F. Durham, Newcastle, Oxford. 
T. Th. S. Aylesbury. 
M. Th. Leeds, Waketteld, York. 
M. . . Berwick. 

Blossoms Inn : Lawrence Lane. 

Coaches. 

Every day in summer. Epsom. 

Carriers. 

M. Th. Drayton. 

M. S. . . Denbigh. 

M. . . Nantwich. 

F. . . Manchester, Sandbpch, Stopporfr 
(? Southport), Wotten - undridge- 
(? Wotten-under-edge). 

S. . . Chester. 

Blue Boar : Holborn. 
Coaches. 

M. . . Bridgnorth, Worcester. 
Carriers. 
Every day. Harrow. 

Blue Boar : Whitechapel. 
Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Brentwood. 

T. S. . . Saffron Walden. 

W. S. Bellerica [sic], Maldon. 
Carriers. 

W. S. . . Brentwood. 
Th. . . ' Bellerica, Dunmow. 

Bolt and Tun : Fleet Street. 
Coaches. 

Everyday. Maidenhead, Reading, Windsor- 
M. W .F. Henley [sic], Hereford. 
M. Th. Gloucester. 

Bull (Black) : Bishopsgate. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Edmonton, Wallend (?). 
M. W. F. Cambridge. 
T. Th. S. Hertford. 
W. .*. Norwich. 
Th. . . Bury St Edmunds. 
Carriers. 

M. . . Bungey. 
W. & Th. Norwich. 

Th. . . Bury St. Edmunds, Cambridge. 
T. W. Th. F. Downham. 

Bull (Black) : Holborn. 
Flying Coaches. 
Th. . . Northampton. 
Coaches. 

Every day.Uxbridge, Watford. 
M. W. F. Harrow. T. I. Stanmore. 
Carriers. 

Every day. Edgworth. 
M. Th. Swafham. S. Bingham. 

Bull and Mouth : Aldersgate. 

Carriers. 

Th. .. Trubridge (PTrowbridge), Westbury. 

S. . . Barnstable, Beddeford [sic], Here- 
ford, Leinster (? Leominster),, 
Torrington, Worcester 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 
(To be continued.) 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



LETTERS OF 1720 FROM THE LOW 
COUNTRIES AND HANOVER. 

(See ante, p. 42.) 

III. 
MY LORD, 

If my Letters hacL th6 honour of being con- 
sidered by Your Lordship, as a Testimony of my 
Respect and Veneration for You (as from your 
Goodness I hope they have) and not as an in- 
stance of my Levity in presuming to interrupt 
your Lordships more important Thoughts with 
my Follys, I am sure I have more than sufficient 
Reason to give You an Account of my Silence 
ever since I had the honour of writing to You 
from Ostend y e 22 d of July N.S. last. This 
I shall do in one word. After I have thank'd 
your Lordship for the favour of it, I am to 
acquaint You, that Your letter of the 29th of 
July, O.S. found Me but the 20 th of September 
at Maestricht, on my departure from thence to 
Louvain, with which Town I finish'd my Tour 
of those Countrys. From there thro' Brussels, 
Mechlin & Antwerp I returned to Rotterdam. 
I have had it frequently in my Thoughts to pay 
my Duty to your Lordship since that Time 
(which vv-as about y e beginning of tnis Month 
Octob r ) and I have been as often unaccountably 
prevented : I may truly well say unaccountably 
because ye honour of your Lordships Considera- 
tion is by much the greatest Satisfaction of my 
Life, and it must have been something very 
much ag" my Will, that should have prevented 
Me from cultivating it. 

I now return to acquaint your Lordship, That 
I was too much taken with my new manner of 
Life, to take up with a slight Survey of those 
famous Countrys, and and [sic] the Company 
which I accidental}* (tho' indeed I might say by 
reason of the great Pleasure and advantage 
accrued to me from it, providentialy) fell into 
y" Day of my Departure from Rotterdam, made 
Me alter my Resolution of contenting my Self 
with so slight a Survey of them, as I at first 
intended. And therefore after I had gone from 
Ostend, through Newport [,J Dunkirk, S l Omer, 
Aire [,]Bethune, Lille, Tournay, Mons (where my 
curiosity drew Me to see y* field of Battle) & so 
return 'd to Brussels, We all agreed to finish our 
Tour by Seing y e Towns on y e Meuse, and that 
famous River it Self ; the going down which from 
Namur to Maestricht (thro' Huy, & Leige) was 
none of the least Delight, I received hi my 
Peregrination. At Huy we stai'd 3 weeks for y e 
Sake of y e Waters, & y e Company from all Parts, 
which rendezvous there for y Sake of them. 
The most agreable Situation oi this Place, the 
goodness & variety of the Company, & the 
Benefitt which I hi particular receiv'd with 
respect to my own Health, made y e 3 weeks of our 
Stay there y c most pleasant of all our Tour, as 
y 3 months we spent in it were by much the 
most pleasant of of [sic] all y c former part of my 
Life. After some time spent at Leige, we made a 
small Tour on horseback to Spaw, and Aix la 
Chapelle, taking Stablo,* & Limburg hi our way ; 

* Stavelot. 



y e former being a Monestary which by Reason 
of the Antiquity of its Establishment highly 
deserves the Strangers Curiosity : the latter we 
saw onely as it lay in our way ; Tho' it is a Capital' 
of one of y e seventeen provinces, & is remarquable 
for its manufacture of broad Cloth (which I found 
not comparable to ours in England) & y e Country 
around it more deservedly famous for excellent 
cheese ; which I may truly say it makes to Per- 
fection. From Aix la Chapelle We came to 
Maestricht & from thence Cross'd the Country 
another way to Louvain ; passing through S* 
Tron, & Tirlemont (two very ancient Towns) & 
by y e famous Landen. By the Course I took, 
which I have here represented to your Lordship, 
You will easily conceive that it was no slight View 
I have had cf the Country : But the Seing of 
so glorious a Country as is in particular Brabant 
for its prodigious fertility, & y e Countrys adjacent 
to y e Meuse for y e incredible Beauty of its Pro- 
spects, &c, tho' it was a Considerable Satisfac- 
tion in it Self, yet it was vastly inferior to the 
Pleasure I had in the many hours of Conversation 
I have spent with learned Men especialy Eccle- 
siasticks of all Countrys, & Orders, & Religious 
of both Sexes. One may easily by imagination 
travel over different Countrys, for it is onely 
varying in our Thoughts y e Face of the Earth, 
But there is something so peculiar in what relates 
to y e difference of Religions among Mankind that 
one can never make a right judgment of Men 
hi this particular without personaly sounding: 
Them. I have ever Since I began to think for 
Myself, thought Religion to be not onely the 
Charactaristick of Humane Nature, but the 
noblest Distinction that belongs to it. And I 
have thought it a Subject well deserving Time, 
& Pains in order to have a right apprehension of 
it. In order to have this I have enquir'd into 
most Religions of the World, But I know not how 
it has happened, that I was the least acquainted 
with the Roman of any; Unless it is owing to This, 
That it is impossible to have a just Idea of the 
Romish Religion, but by seing their Churches, 
their Convents, their Ceremonies in those Coun- 
trys where they have a free Exercise of it. It 
must have been occasion'd by a particular In- 
curiosity that I never was in the Popish Chapel* 
at London hi my Life ; for I am sure, was there 
a Chinese paged, or a Mahometan Mosque, I had 
not fail'd to have seen them. On this account 
I came into a New World, when I came first to 
Antwerp, and so much was I possess'd with it, 
that the novalty of it hardly disappeard, when 
I came to that famous city (worthy by its Situa- 
tion & magnificent buildings of a much better 
Fate than it has) a second Time on my Return. 
As the Result of y e Inquiry I have made into 
Religion, is not to overvalue what may happen 
to appear more particularly right to my own 
Eyes, to the Prejudice of Other Persons judg- 
ments ; So it is with all the Pleasure hi the World 
that I hear another lay open the Grounds of his 
particular Sentiments," and not without repug- 
nance that I enter into a Dispute with him on y e 
account of their Diversity from my Own. I am 
persuaded the true Nature of Religion lyes, in 
the living under the Sense of a Supreme Being, 
and in exercising that Power He has given Us 



* The Sardinian Chapel? 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vra. JA N . 22, 1921 



in our moral Capacity towards the Happiness o 
Ms Creatures ; and in so doing, to the Embellish 
ing of his Works, & the Encrease of his Glor> 
"This, I think, all Religions are agreed hi. An< 
as to Speculative Matters, or to the diiteren 
Manner in which our particular Homage is to b 
^paid him, it was as easy for the Supreme Beinf 
to have made as great a Conformity in thei 
Sentiments in this Respect, unless he had though 
it more proper to let it go as it is. Being pos 
sess'd therefore with these principles, it wa 
/with a much more sublime Pleasure, than ano 
would have had, more bigotted to his own 
Opinions, that I had all y 6 vast Superstructure 
of the Roman Religion display'd unto Me, in th 
several Conversations I have had with y Pro 
lessors of it. And as my Discourse for the mos 
Part tended more towards informing my Self o 
their Sentiments, with the Reasons of them, thai 
to Oppose Them, I had at once the Pleasure o 
the Information, and procur'd their Good Wil 
by the Easiness and Openness of my Conversa 
tion. Sometimes indeed, according as either the 
opportunity of the Time, Place, or humour o 
the Person would permit, I have enter'd the 
Lists with them, And it is not easily conceiv'c 
{as I never had studied their Religion thoro'ly 
how far a few generous well grounded principles 
of Natural Religion will carry one to put to 
Silence or at least to shifts worse than Silence 
the Contenders for some of these absurdities that 
are grafted on Revealed Religion. Was the 
Orthodox Doctrine of the Trinity but once 
exploded, The most absurd Part of Popery 
to a Protestant must fall with it. I mean 
their famous doctrine of Transubstantiation. 
For where would be the Bon Dieu, & all the Train 
of Whimsical Appendices of him, were he but 
found to have been but a meer Man, or at y 6 
most a finite Being, of a degree somewhat Superior 
to Us? 

But let the absurdity of the concluded Doc- 
trine appear ever so great, it must be the principle 
on which it is founded, that must be considered, 
& removed out of the Way, before ever the 
Conclusion is medled with. I have great Reason 
to make this Observation, from a Reflexion that 
ame into nay Mind on my first going into y 
great Church of Antwerp (the most famous for 
its paintings, & the most truly superstitious 
Roman Church that T have yet seen, or as I am 
told, can see) Which was, That notwithstanding 
these Religious Appearances were so grosse, 
& unaccountable to M.e, yet that there were men 
of Conscience, Integrity* and good Sense that 
beleived them. This (so far as I could be a judge) 
I have found in many a Person I have had the 
honour to converse with ; and it was with great 
Pleasure I have heard their several Justifications 
on y 6 respective heads of their Religion. And 
truly I can't say I have not found much more 
Reason for many Arcles [sic] of their Faith than 
I expected, or than y 6 Inconsiderate World 
govern'd by Appearances, think they can alledge 
in their Behalf. And were it not that the last 
Article of their Beleif is so great a Degree of 
Un charitableness, as as [sic] an Exclusion of all 
that differ from Them from y e Favour of God, 
I could almost deliver my Self with respect to 
y 6 Roman Sect in particular, as Agrippa did of 
y e Christian in general that I am almost become 
.a^Catholick. But this Doctrine of Un charitable- 



ness which is of the Essence of their Religion, 
and y* of Persecution which many if not most 
of the Ecclesiasticks hold with it is So unchristian, 
So contrary to the genuine Spirit of Christianity, 
Humanity, and of all Religion, and even of the 
'Beleif of a God it Self, that were I not able to 
answer one argument for their Particular Opinions 
this One Thing alone wou'd absomtely alienate 
my Mind from it. But a propos to this variety 
of Opinion in Religious matters whereof I have 
been now writing, and with which it is Time to 
have done, I cant avoid laying before your Lord- 
ship a Reflection I made this Week as I was 
crossing the barren Heaths of Westphalia, after 
I had seen the fertile Plains of y Low Countrys : 
Why might not the Almighty have expresly 
intended Something in the Intellectual World 
that should differ one from Another, as these 
Countrys do, from the Beauty of Brabant 
Flanders ? And yet contribute to y 6 Beauty of 
the Whole, as the different Faces csf the Earth, 
most manifestly does ? With this Reflection 
I take leave of this Subject, & of your Lordship ; 
asking your Pardon for Detaining You so long 
with my imperfect Reasonings if they have 
proved tedious ; or if your goodness has pardon 'd 
them, referring My Self to y 6 renewing of them, 
when I shall have the honour of conversing with 
Your Lordship face to face. 

Hitherto I have entertain'd Your Lordship 
out of the Ten Provinces ; And I have entertain'd 
You so long on y m or what arose out of them that 
I have no Time, nor Yr Lp patience to have any 
Thing said of the other Seven. Nor of West- 
phalia, from whence I write You this Letter. All 
this, and a great deal more I have to say of y e 
same Countrys, I shall refer to another Occa- 
sion. And proceed for acquaint You, That my 
Seing so fully the Low-Countries was so far from 
Extinguishing or any manner Satisfying my 
Curiosity of encreasing my acquaintance with 
e Works of my Creator (for what else is y e 
ravelling out of once Country into another, but 
;he going out of One Room, & that a very small 
one, of his Vast Palace, into another, of a different 
furniture) That I could not deny my Self the 
Resolution of Spending this Winter in Germany. 
VLy long stay hi y e Way, made Me lay Aside all 
lopes of seing y e King long at Hanover. How- 
ever as I expect to be there in a day or two I 
expect to have that honour for a few days. 
'. write Your Lordship this Letter from Osnabrug, 
where I have thought fit to make some short stay 
a,s well to ease my Self after a land Voyage of 
' days & 3 nights incessant Continuance, as to 
wait on y e Duke of York, & to see his Court. On 
whom I waited yesterday and was received very 
>ratiously, & honoured for sometime with his 
Conversation. I propose to spend this Winter 
t Hanover, Berlin, Leipsick, &c & at Brunswick 
i Case the Congress will be held. For most of 
rhich Citys I have recommendations to some of 
e Principle Persons in them So that I hope I shall 
ot only travel with i'leasure but Profit also. 
Nevertheless it will be an additional Advantage 
ould I have a Line from one of your Lordship's 
)istinction to M r Whitworth ; and I should count i 
: as a very great honour to have him know from 
our Self that I was known to your Lordship, 
or this I should think a particular acquaintance 
1th M r Whitworth on your Part is not absolutely 
ecessary. I write this not knowing whetner 



12 S. VIII. JAN, 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



your Lp knows him or not. But I submit it to 
your own Pleasure. 

I will add no more than while I assure Your 
Lp that I shall not be so much delighted with the 
Newness of y Objects around Me, but I shall 
have room for y e Delight which y e Continuance 
of your Regard for Me will give Me ; when You 
shall give Me y Honour of hearing from You. 
Which I shall be in y e less danger of missing, if 
You shall be pleas'd to direct to me at M r Kembles 
Marchant in Rotterdam ; who will forward them 
to Me. 

In y 6 mean Time, I remain, 
Yr Lordships most obliged & 
most obedient humble Servant 
Osnabrug. ROBERT WHATLEY 

Oct. 27 th . NS. 
1720. 

F.S. Yr Lp has I presume receiv'd'D r Martins 
Book of Louvain. I had y e honour to present 
one of y 6 same with a Letter to L d Sunderland 
in this Town 2 nights ago. Who knows him 
very well, as do all our English Gentry that 
have been in those Countrys ; & who mind y 
Conversation of Learned Men. He desir'd Me 
to make You his Compliments. 



MY LORD, 



IV. 

Hanover. Nov. 20. 1720. NS. 



Altho' it be so late that I did my Self the 
Honour of writing to Your Lordship so largely 
from Osnabrugh ; yet I can't let this Opportunity 
slip of the Departure of the last Body of English 
Gentry from this Place, without Remembring 
Your Lordship in particular, with the rest of my 
Friends in England. 

I came to this Place the 30th of last Month 
about 4 days after the Kings returnfromGohre.* 
The Court was very full of Persons of Quality 
that [camjef from all Quarters to take leave 
of his Majesty. J Among the rest two of the King 
of Sweden's Brothers. I found but very few 
English. The Earl of Sunderland I met at 
Osnabrug, fc S r G Bing on the Road, and besides 
my Lord Stanhope, The Marquis of Winchester, 
y v Lord's Barrington & Gage, S r Alex. Cairns, 
!c Alderman Bailys, who were here with 2 or 3 
merchants on the Harborough account, were all 
that were here of any Distinction. 

I found the Prince a Youth of the Greatest 
hopes. For Comelyness of Person, Goodness of 
Nature, and brightness of Parts he has not, 
I beleive, his Match, in y e World. In his Face 
You see a great resemblance of his Fathers 
Features, softened with y Princesses Mildness. 
He has all y e Vivacity of his Father, temper'd 
with his Mothers Sweetness. In short, He has 
his Fathers Body, but his Mothers Soul. He 
has always 3 Gouvernours attending Him. And 
is never admitted to play with those of his own 
Age. For these last 8 months he has made no 
progress in his Studys, by reason of his being 



* Die Gohrde, a forest, and Electoral hunting- box' 
situated South-East of Lxineburg. 

t Partly illegible through sealing. 

J Owing to the South feea trouble the King was 
compelled to return to England at short notice. 



[ndisposed. The King lives with more Grandeur 
here, 1 think, than at London. The Palace is a; 
regular building, containing 3 square Courts., 
The Apartments are suited to y Dignity of an 
Electoral Court. And suitably furnish'd. Here 
are no less than 4 Open Tables kept, besides the- 
Prince's, of 10 or 12 Covers Each, Which with 
bhe Kings while he was here makes Six. Na 
Person appears at Court of any Distinction but 
is invited to them all in their Turn. The Kings 
Stables are fine & in them he keeps above 200 
oach and Sadie horses. The Town of Hanover 
is but indifferently built. 'It has 3 Lutheran, a 
French, a Reformed, & a Popish Church. 

I hope these particulars will not displease Your 
Lordship : As they are laid before You from a 
Desire of gratifying your Curiosity. 

I come now to mention to your Lordship anp r 
Matter. When I waited on D r Martin at Louvain.' 
the Gentlemen who sent your Lordship that 
Book concerning y 6 Constitution) I found him 
writing to L ds Sunderland & Stanhope, with a 
Design to send them each a Copy of y 6 same Book, 
& understanding I was going to Hanover, desired) 
the favour of Me to convey it, with his Letters to 
Them. I must add that in these he made a* 
Proposal of Consequence, Which was That he 
wou'd very speedily publish a Book wherein he 
wou'd prove that y 6 Catholicks were obliged in 
point of Conscience to observe the Oath of 
Allegiance, & that the Pope had no Power of 
Dispensing in the Case. By the means of these 
Letters to L d Stanhope T had access to Him \. 
with a very good Grace & he seem'd mightily 
pleas'd with y 6 D" Proposal &c, & received Me 1 
very obligingly. As I have a great Inclination, 
my Lord, to introduce My Self into y 6 World, & 
hi particular into y 6 Service of one in my Lords 
Station or of one "in an Ambassadors, I took y 
Opportunity to recommend my self to Lord' 
Stanhope ; and on his objecting my being a~ 
stranger to Him, I nam'd your Lordship as One- 
from whom he might receive a Character, of me r 
so as to take off that Objection. I told his Lord- 
ship, that as He was designed for Cambray he 
might encrease his Family, & want the Service 
of a Gentleman who has had a liberal education. 
His Answer to this was as good as a Promise in 
Case he went to Cambray he wou'd accept of my 
Service. T own, My Lord, I have an Ambition 
to begin to Act a Part in Life ; And as I find my; 
Genius chiefly turnd that Way I have pointed 
to Your Lordsp As You will certainly allow Me,. 
My Ambition is a laudable One, So Your Lordship 
will I hope forgive Me if T desire You to mention 
my name on a proper Occasion to my Lord Stan- 
hope so as I may have y 8 honour of being employed 
under Him. 

My Lord Carteret was here 3 nights. If your 
Lordship by your Credit with him could reco m end 
Me eftectualy to Him, I should be equaly or 
rather better pleas'd than to find my self in my 
Lord Stanhopes Service. He is one of y 8 most 
aimable Gentlemen I ever saw ; & entertained the 
Prince, with a vast Variety of Stories from what 
he bad observ'd in his Embassy. I desire Your 
Lordsp to lay this Request of mine to Heart, 
You can never act lor one who will have a more 
gratefull Mind of y Favour You will do Him, no* 
for one who is more 

Your Lordships most obedient 
& most hu. serv'. R. WHATLEY 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 22, 1021. 



If your Lordship honours Me With a Letter, 
'be pleas'd to direct it for Me, at his Excellency 
My Lord Whitworth's at Berlin, where I propose to 
be in a little Time, & from whence I shall have it 
convey'd to Me, wherever I am. I shall be very 
glad to find a a Summons hi it either to England 
or Cambray, but more so for y 6 News of vour 
JLps Welfare. 

C. S. B. BUCKLJLND. 



AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE 
ARCHIVES. 

(See ante, pp. 23, 45.) 

-CHANGES IN STRATFORD ON THE ACCESSION 
OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

One of those pardoned at the Coronation 
of the new Queen on Jan. 15, 1559, was 
Alderman Jeffreys of Sheep Street. He was 
a staunch Catholic, had been Bailiff in the 
first year of Mary, and during her reign had 
been guilty of actions which made it advis- 
able to seek the royal clemency. He was 
forgiven everything committed before Nov. 1, 
1558, except what might be of a treasonable 
nature, on payment of 26s. Sd. The same 
'day, Coronation Day, William Smart, the 
Protestant Schoolmaster, who was in holy 
orders and therefore forbidden to marry 
under Mary, took unto himself a wife, 
Katherine Lewis. On Feb. 1 John Shakes- 
peare sued a neighbour for debt, Matthew 
Bramley, who was in the leather trade and 
lived in Rother Market. The case came up 
again on the 15th, when Shakespeare in- 
curred the usual penalty of 2d. for riot 
following his suit. Apparently he declined 
to prosecute in consequence of the illness 
of Bramley's wife, who died, and was buried 
on the 22nd. In the interval between the 
1st and 22nd Feb. there was a change of 
Steward. Master Roger Edgeworth made 
his last signature as Senescallus on Feb. 1, 
and his successor, Master William Court, 
made his first on Feb. 20. Edgeworth was 
also Steward of Warwick, where he resided. 
He was recognised as "an adversary of 
Religion " that is, a Catholic. The Strat- 
ford Chamber parted with him and imme- 
diately appointed Court in his stead. 

William Court alias Smith, who was 
presumably a Protestant, lived in Alveston 
parish on the south bank of the Avon. He 
liad acted frequently as attorney in the 
Court of Record, once, on July 29, 1556, on 
t>ehalf of Thomas Siche of Arscote against 
John Shakespeare. He had a son, William, 



aged nine, who was to become a lawyer. 
He had also kinsmen in Stratford Richard 
Court alias Smith, who on May 2, 1558, 
married Juliana, daughter of the late 
Alderman Thomas Dickson alias Waterman ; 
John Court alias Smith, a well-to-do butcher 
and gentleman ; and Christopher Court 
alias Smith, a yeoman, living in High Street. 
On July 5, 1559, and on Aug. 19 following 
John Shakespeare sued Richard Court for 
a debt of 65. 8d. 

But if the Stratford Chamber was dis- 
satisfied with its Steward, it was yet more 
aggrieved by its Romanist Vicar. When 
Thomas At wood, nephew or grandnephew 
of the Thomas Atwcod, alias Taylor, who 
died in 1543, made his will on May 15, 1559, 
it was witnessed among others by David 
Tong, priest, probably the curate to Roger 
Dyos in succession to William Brogden. 
Atwood died a Catholic, as his bequests 
show I2d. to the holy mother church of 
Worcester, and 5s. to ""the whole choir with 
priests and clerks " of Stratford Church at 
his burial. Other legacies, like those of his 
namesake of 1543, show friendship with the 
Quynies 40s. "to Annes Q.uyny, widow in 
Stratford,"' probably widow of Richard 
Quyny and mother of Adrian Quyny ; 
6s. Sd. to John Quyny, who may have been 
an uncle or a brother of Adrian ; 3s. 4rf. to 
Elizabeth Bainton, step-daughter of Adrian 
Quyny ; and the residue of his estate to 
Adrian Quyny and the Bailiff of 1558-9, 
Robert Perrott, "my trusty lovers, who I 
make to be my full executors. " The testator 
was buried on May 31, and his will was 
proved in the peculiar court of Stratford on 
June 8 before Roger Dyos. The latter date 
was rather more than a fortnight before 
St. John Baptist's Day when the Prayer - 
Book was to come again into use. We hear 
nothing more of the Vicar until the autumn, 
when on Oct. 14 a letter was addressed from 
Coughton by Sir Robert Throgmorton and 
Sir Edward Greville (of Milcote) to the 
Stratford Chamber in the following terms : 

' And whereas we understand that there is stay 
made of the Vicar's wages which was due at 
Michaelmas last, upon what consideration we 
know not; and whether he mind to keep his 
benefice or to leave it. for any respect, it is no 
reason that you should keep it from him, which he 
hath served for, nor the law will not permit you so 
to do. Wherefore we shall both desire you to see 
him paid his duty, for otherwise we shall not think 
so well of you as we have done. So fare you well.' 

A f oojbnote informs us : 
" Master Vicar saith they owed him for half a 
year at his entry and one year they owed him at 



12 s. vni. JAN. 22, 1921] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



his departure, upon agreement for bonds to save 
him harmless of the fifteenth and tenths and all 
-other duties." 

Salaries were paid at Lady-Day and 
Michaelmas, and we conclude that Dyos 
had received nothing since Sept. 29, 1558, 
the last pay-day under Mary. He evidently 
contemplated "departure " when the magis- 
trates wrote on Oct. 14, 1559, and when the 
Council were assured of it they gave him a por- 
tion of the amount claimed. He asked for 30Z, 
they paid him less than 20Z ; and seventeen 
years afterwards he sued for and recovered 
the balance 1 3Z. 17s. Qd. This sum they had 
probably spent on Protestant preachers, 
and felt justified in deducting from the 
stipend of the Vicar, whom they had never 
wanted and whose services they considered 
to be dispensed with at Mary's death. 
Protestants, we may be sure, officiated in 
the interval between the "departure " of 
Dyos and the appointment of a new Vicar, 
Master John Bretchgirdle, in Jan. 1561. 

We know something of the personnel of 
the Stratford Chamber at the time of the 
-dispute with Dyos. The Court Leet was 
held on Oct. 6, 1559, eight days before the 
letter of the magistrates was written from 
<Joughton. Adrian Quyny was sworn Bailiff, 
and his colleagues were William Whateley, 
High Alderman ; John Taylor, John Shake- 
speare, William Tyler and William Smith, 
haberdasher, Constables ; Humfrey Plymley 
and John Wheeler, Chamberlains ; Thomas 
Dickson alias Waterman, and Roger Greene, 
Tasters ; Richard Sharpe and William 
Butler, Serjeants - at - the - Mace ; William 
Trowt and Henry Featherston, Leather 
Sealers. The Serjeants, and in a less degree 
the Leather Sealers, were permanently, 
though pro forma annually, appointed. The 
rest were chosen more or less in succession 
and according to seniority, but there is no 
mistaking their Protestant complexion. 
Adrian Quyny, John Wheeler and John 
Shakespeare were ultra-Protestant, and some 
of the others were hardly less pronounced in 
their convictions. 

The minutes of this Leet are in the Gothic 
hand of Symons and are witnessed by the 
affeerors Richard Biddle, Lewis ap 
Williams, John Wheeler, William Tyler and 
John Shakespeare. Symons has written 
the names at the bottom of the page, on the 
right hand, and the affeerors have attached 
their signature or mark. Biddle and 
Wheeler have signed ; Lewis ap Williams, 
Tyler and Shakespeare have made their 



marks. Ap Williams' mark resembles 
a church-gable and may mean Holy Church ; 
Tyler's is a circle containing a circle, 
with a common centre, divided by a cross 
and may signify the Trinity ; Shakespeare's 
is a glover's compasses and denotes, no 
doubt, " God encompasseth us " (corrupted 
in a less religious age into " Goat and 
Compasses " !) Shakespeare's mark is 
daintily drawn, and does not give the 
impression of illiteracy. 

Squire Clopton, the champion of the 
Catholic party, must have keenly felt the 
change from Mary to Elizabeth. He had 
taken part in the ^Coronation feast of Mary 
on Oct. 1, 1553, serving the wafers at the 
Queen's table and having for his fee " all the 
instruments as well of silver or other metal 
for making of the same wafers and also 
all the napkins and other profits thereunto 
appertaining." On Jan. 31, 1559, rather 
more than a fortnight after the Coronation 
of Elizabeth, he buried his wife in the parish 
church of Stratford ; and less than a year 
later, on Jan. 4, 1560, he signed his will and 
died, leaving instructions that he should 
be interred in the same place. Their bodies 
were laid, no doubt, in what is sometimes 
called " the Clopton Chapel," in the east end 
of the north aisle, behind the handsome 
monument built for himself by Sir Hugh 
Clopton. There is nothing to mark the 
grave. Any intention the heir, William 
Clopton, may have cherished of erecting 
a tomb was probably prevented by the 
difficult years that followed for himself and 
his children. He inherited the bulk of the 
property, including manors and lands in 
Ryon Clifford, Bridgetown, Clopton, Ingon, 
Welcombe, Bearley and elsewhere in War- 
wickshire. His unmarried sisters, Anne, 
Eleanor and Rose, received 200 marks 
(113 6s. 8rf.) apiece, and his married sister, 
Elizabeth Arundel, 100Z. Among the credi- 
tors were William Hopkins, draper of 
Coventry, and William Tyler, Rafe Cawdrey, 
Lewis ap Williams, Francis Harbage and 
John Shakespeare's neighbour, William Smith 
the harberdasher, of Stratford. The wit- 
nesses included William Bott the agent. 
Immediately after Squire Clopton's death 
(if not shortly before it) his son and his wife 
removed from New Place to Clopton House, 
and William Bott, as we have seen, left 
Snitterfield for New Place. 

EDGAR I. FRIPP. 
(To be continued.) 



(68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 22, 1921. 



"LUCASIA." (See 11 S. vii. 228.) MB. 
J. J. FOSTER'S inquiry about the meaning 
of 'Lucasia's Portrait,' a work ascribed to 
Samuel Cooper, has so far met with no reply 
in 'N. & Q.' The portrait is the subject 
of eight riming triplets under the title " To 
Mr. Sam. Cooper, having taken Lucasia's 
Picture given December 14, 1660,' on 
pp. 158, 159 of Mrs. Katherine Philips's 
Poems (1669). "Lucasia " was the poet- 
ess's romantic name for her friend Miss Anne 
Owen of Landshipping who entered the 
"Society of Friendship " on Dec. 28, 1651, 
and was married to a son of Sir Thomas 
Hanmer in May, 1662. See Mr. Gosse's 
essay on ' The Matchless Orinda ' in his 
'^Seventeenth Century Studies.' 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

GREY IN SENSE OF BROWN. This mean- 
ing is not clearly shewn in the 'N.E.D.,' 
but there is no doubt about it. "Grey," 
Latin grisius, often means brown, as do its 
equivalents in French and German. Brown 
paper is often called grey paper. The 
brown habit of the Grey Friars is described 
as "russett " in 1406. Brown loaves are 
called panes grisei in 1437-8. Pain bis is the 
modern French term for brown bread. 
Pisae grisiae, c. 1450, were the produce of 
the common " grey " or field pea, Pisum 
arvense, and are distinctly brown when ripe. 
The 'N.E.D.' has several quotations for 
" grey-eyed," which probably means, having 
eyes with brown irises. Eyes grey in the 
ordinary sense would scarcely be remarkable 
enough to deserve the epithet. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

"REX ILLITERATUS EST ASINUS CORO- 

NATUS." (See 12 S. vii. 519.) From the 
review of Roger Bacon's edition of the 
' Secretum Secretorum ' it appears that 
Bacon noted that Henry I. used to make 
the above remark to his father and brothers. 
No doubt he had in mind a passage in 
William of Malmesbury's ' De Gestis Regum 
Anglorum ' : 

"Itaque pueritiam ad spem regni litteris 
muniebat ; subinde, patre quoque audiente, jactitare 
proverbium solitus, 'Rex illiterates, asinus 
eoronatus.' Ferunt quinetiam genitorem, non prae- 
tereunter notata morum ejus compositione quibus 
vivacem prudentiam aleret,ab unoiratrum laesumet 
lacry man tern, his animasse, *Ne fleas, tili, quoniam 
et tu rex eris."' (ed. fctubbs, 'Rolls' Series, 11., 
467-8). 

Although William of Malmesbury -Joes 
not say that Henry used to make this 
pointed remark to his brothers, the last 



sentence certainly suggests that he had done 
so to one of them, and promptly had hi& 
head punched. For we may say of boys, as 
Dr. Round said of the Irish, "Aevum non 
animum mutant." 

Apparently the gibe at an unlearned king, 
was already proverbial, and its origin may 
be lost in antiquity. The author of the 
' Chronica de Gestis Consulum Andega- 
vorum ' attributed it to Fulk the Good,, 
Count of Anjou. Fulk was a canon of 
St. Martin of Tours, and liked to take 
part in the services at the festival of th.e 
Saint. The King of France visiting Tours 
on such an occasion, his nobles jeered at 
the Count, and Louis himself followed their 
example : 

Rex autem Franciae, cum aliis deludens, nobile 
opus viri derisit; quo audito, comes Andegavorum 
litteras hujusmodi tormam habentes scripsit : " Regi 
Francorum comes Andegavorum. Noveritis, domine, 
quia illitteratus rex est asinus coronatus." (" Chro- 
niques des Comtes d'Anjou,' ed. Marchegay et 
Sainaon, p. 71). 

But probably we are concerned with one 
of those stories which are revived at in- 
tervals under various guises and attributed 
to any one to whom they may seem appro- 
priate. Every reader must have com 
across instances of this practice, and Barrie 
has a hit at its occurrence in modern* 
journalism, in 'When a Man's Single.' 

G. H. WHITE. 

23 Weighton Road, Anerley. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



NEW STYLE. A contemporary ballad 
('Political Ballads,' ii. 311) opens witn thi* 
couplet : 

In seventeen hundred and fifty-three 
The Style it was changed, to popery. 

In fact the Style was changed as from Jan. 1, 
1751 (Old Style), which, in accordance with. 
24 G. II. c. 23, became Jan. 1, 1752. Nicolas,, 
however, like the couplet quoted above, 
gives Jan. 1, 1753 in two places as the^ com- 
mencement of New Style in England. 
I am puzzled to explain an apparent in- 
accuracy ; though inasmuch as the New 
Style year, Jan. 1-Dec. 31, 1752, was 
incomplete by the elision of September 3-13 
inclusive, in accordance with the Act of 
G. II., it can be stated with accuracy that 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



the first complete English New Style year 
began on Jan. 1, 1753. Is there another 
solution of the couplet (supported by 
Nicolas), or does it perpetuate an in- 
accuracy? C. SANFORD TERRY. 
Westerton of Pitfodels. 

SNUFF: "PRINCE'S MIXTURE." When I 
was a lad a favourite kind of snuff in vogue 
was called " Prince's Mixture " a very 
aromatic snuff it was. Was it so designated 
on account of the maker or inventor ; or was 
it like a well-known sauce, made from the 
recipe of a certain royal personage addicted 
to " snuffing " ? M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

Percy House, Well Street, S. Hackney, E.9. 

STREET COURT, KINGSLAND, HEREFORD- 
SHIRE. Among some family papers in my 
possession is a MS. note stating that an 
illustration of this house appears in some 
work of topography or on country seats. 
I shall be grateful if any reader can verify 
this and will kindly furnish me with the 
reference. V. B. CROWTHER-BEYNON. 

Westfield, Beckenham, Kent. 

CoL. BONHAM (FALCONER). In ' Game- 
"birds and Wildfowl,' 1850, one of the 
delightful books written by that good 
sportsman and naturalist the late Mr. A. E. 
Knox of Trotton, near Petersfield, mention 
is made of his friend Col. Bonham of the 
10th Hussars who for some years rented 
Scardroy Lodge with about 30,000 acres in 
Ross-shire, near Strathconnan. This moor 
was rented not only for grouse-shooting 
but also for grouse-hawking, a sport to 
which the Colonel was especially addicted, 
and for which purpose peregrine falcons 
were trained and used by him in collabora- 
tion with setters. Knox has indicated 
several localities in Ireland and Scotland 
from which these hawks were obtained, and 
also mentions the fact that Col. Bonham 
obtained a pair of goshawks (Astur palum- 
barius) which were bred on the Duke of 
Gordon's estate at Fochabers, on the Spey. 
As there are comparatively few instances on 
record of the nesting of the goshawk in the 
British Islands, it is regrettable, from the 
naturalist's point of view, that Knox has 
not mentioned the year in which Col. 
Bonham's birds were taken at Fochabers. 
I should be very glad if any reader can 
supply the date, and at the same time 
furnish any particulars concerning the 
duration of the Colonel's tenancy of Scard- 
roy, and give the date of his death. It may 
perhaps afford some clue to mention that 



he was a friend of Mr. Cole Hamilton, an 
Irish falconer, from whom he was in the 
habit of receiving Irish peregrines for grouse 
hawking. In a letter dated Oct. 20, 1862, 
Mr. Knox, whom I knew very well, informed 
me that he had twice seen a goshawk in the 
Forest of Mar. I now much regret that it 
did not occur to me at that time to ask him 
for the information which I now desire to 
obtain. J. E. HARTING. 

OLD CONTRIBUTION TO 'CHAMBERS'S 
JOURNAL.' Perhaps forty years ago there 
appeared in Chambers' s Journal an article 
or story the title of which I cannot recall. 
The tale is of a man who in London comes 
across an office of a society founded about 
the time of the Lisbon earthquake (1755), 
for the relief of sufferers by that disaster. 
He finds that although the organization has 
long lost its usefulness, it still has some 
invested funds, the interest on which is 
entirely devoted to paying the salary of the 
"Secretary," wiio thus holds a profitable 
sinecure. 

I shall be very glad if any reader can refer 
me, even to the year in which the story 
appeared. BURDOCK. 

New York. 

DOUGLAS OF DORNOCK. (See 5 S. vii. 243). 
In Mr. C. T. Ramage's account of this 
family, now followed by Burke, Archibald 
Douglas of Dornock is given as having 
died s. p. about the middle of the last century. 

In Burke's 'Peerage,' 1921, under Clon- 
curry, Valentine Browne, second Lord Clon- 
curry, is said to have married 

" Secondly, June 30, 1811, Emily, third dan. 
of Archibald Douglas of Domock (cousin to 
Charles, third Duke of Queensberry)." 

This lady was sister of the Rev. Archibald 
Douglas who married, as her third husband, 
Lady Susan Murray (Dunmore). 

Can any reader of 'N. & Q.' give the 
exact relationship of the Archibald Douglas 
who is said to have died s. p. to the father of 
Lady Cloncurry ? W. R. D. M. 

TERRESTRIAL GLOBES. About what 
period did these come into use in schools and 
elsewhere ? I came across a couple of 
miniature ones, dated 1832, in a curiosity 
shop a while ago, measuring one 4 and the 
other 2 inches in diameter. Though a 
frequenter of such haunts I have never 
seen any others, nor can map-sellers give me 
any information on the subject. 

M. B. H. 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm. JAN. 22, 1921. 



DR. WELLS : PAPER ON ' THE DEW AND 
SINGLE VISION.' In an Italian trans- 
lation of a treatise published in English 
early in the last century about the origin 
of Darwinism, there is mentioned a paper 
by a Dr. Wells entitled ' On the Dew and 
Single Vision.' 

Researches made in Italy have failed to 
trace Dr. Wells 's paper. Could any reader 
give an explanation of its somewnat puzzling 
title (possibly a translation thereof in Italian 
or French) and a very short general idea of 
the paper itself ? J. GUILLERMIN. 

1 Old Broad Street, B.C. 

LADY ANNE GRAHAM. I am endeavouring 
to trace the ancestry of a certain Lady 
Anne Graham, who came to reside in 
Jersey, C. I., during the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. I understand that her 
husband was descended from the Grahams, 
former owners of Dalkeith Palace. Her 
daughter Anne, married John Dolbel of 
Jersey in 1792 and died in 1808. 

JOHN D. LE CONTEUR. 

Winchester, Hants. 

ROBERT DARLEY WADDILOVE. Dean of 
Ripon. The 'D.N.B.' Iviii., 406 states that 
he was the son of Abel Darley of Borough- 
bridge, but omits the name of his mother. 
Can any correspondent supply it ? 

G. F. R. B. 

SIR JOHN WILSON (1780-1856). The full 
date of his birth and particulars of his 
parentage are wanted. The 'D.N.B.' Ixii., 
112, gives no assistance, but I have come 
across a statement that he was a " son of 
Lt.-Col. Wilson and grandson of Philip 
Wilson of Balingary, co. Londonderry." 
Where is a pedigree of this family to be 
found ? G. F. R. B. 

COAT OF ARMS : IDENTIFICATION SOUGHT. 
Can any reader assist me to identify the 
following (colours cannot be given as the 
coat occurs sculptured upon a mantelpiece 
of Purbeck marble) : 

First and fourth quarters On a chevron 
between three paws razed five fire-balls or 
bombs and at the top of the chevron an 
estoile (or mullet ?). 

Second quarter Three bends, and third 
quarter A chief indented. 

The paws have four toes with claws, and 
might be leopards, lions or otters. On the 
opposite side the arms of the Ironmongers' 
Company occur, whilst between them is a 



coat quite undecipherable. I cannot iden- 
tify these arms as having belonged to the 
'amilies who formerly owned the house, 
which dates from 1460. 

CHARLES S. TOMES. 
Mannington Hall, Aylsham Norfolk. 

SAN SEVERING. -Can any one give me 

he parentage of Gianetta di San Severino, 

he wife of Louis d'Enghien, Count of 

Brienne and Conversana (d. post 1383), 

whose grandson, Peter de Luxemburg, 

Count of St. Pol Brienne and Conversana 

d. Aug. 31, 1433) was one of the original 

mights of the Order of the Golden Fleece 

Jan. 10, 1429 /30), and grandfather, through 

Jacquetta, Duchess of Bedford and Countess 

of Rivers, of Elizabeth Wydville, Queen of 

Edward IV. ? MEDINEWS. 

CONSECRATED ROSES IN COATS OF ARMS. 
Have there been any instances of recipients 
of roses consecrated by the Pope emblazon- 
ing these roses in their coats of arms ? If 
so, does the consecrated rose assume a form 
different from that of the ordinary heraldic 
rose ? NOLA. 

CHRISTMAS PUDDING AND MINCE-PIES. 
When did plum pudding become the recog- 
nised Christmas pudding and since when has 
the idea been in vogue that every mince- 
pie eaten before Twelfth Night brings luck ? 
Fifty years ago I was taught that the first 
mince-pies should be eaten on " Stirup 
Sunday " and every one eaten between then 
and Twelfth Night, in a different house, 
meant one month of happiness in the New 
Year. All the mince-meat had to be 
finished by Shrove Tuesday. RAVEN. 

SCOLES AND DUKE FAMILIES. In St. 
Mary's Church, Maryborough, Wilts, is a 
monument with the following inscription : 

" Near this Place Lyeth ye Body of Jane, The 
wife of Robert Scoles of Wroughton, gent., 
eldest daughter of Andrew Duke of Bulford, 
Esq. She died November 16th, 1733. Anno 
Aetat. 41." 

Heraldry (in colours) : arms of Scoles 
impaling Duke, namely, Gules, on a chevron 
between three escallops argent as many 
mullets of the fields for Scoles. Per fesse 
argent and azure three chaplets two and one 
counterchanged for Duke. Who were the 
parents of Robert Scoles ? Any information 
respecting him and his family would be 
gratefully received. 

LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 



12 S. VIII. JAK. 22. 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



MAYNE AND KNIGHT. Wanted date and 
place of marriage of Robert Mayne, M.P. 
for Gatton, Surrey, with Anne, daughter of 
John Knight, Esq., I believe of Gloucester- 
shire. I shall also be glad to know the date 
of her death. 

Robert Mayne, born 1724, was a London 
banker, and he married, secondly, in 1775, 
Sarah, dau. and co-heiress of Francis Otway 
of Lincolnshire. I shall be grateful for 
information about the Knight family. 

H. C. BARNARD. 

Yatton, Somerset. 

STONE HENGE. In the Bristol Museum 
there was to be seen a few years ago, an old 
Wiltshire map, illustrating Stonehenge, and 
shewing nine upright trilithons, dated 1610, 
by "John Speed." The lettering read as 
follows : 

Aurelius Ambrosius 

buried at Stonehenge anno 500 

This ancient monument was erected by Aurelius 

surnamed Ambrosius of the Brittaines whose 

nobility in the reign of Vortiger his country's 

scourge about y e yere of Christ 475 by treachery of 

y e Saxons on a day of parley were there slaughtered 

and their bodies there interred in memory of which 

the- King Aurel caused this trophy to be set up 

admirable to posterity both in form'and quality. 

Was this the popular belief in James I.'s 
reign with regard to the origin of Stone- 
henge ? There are of course barrows in the 
vicinity, but probably of an earlier date than 
the sixth century. Or, is "John Speed " 
hastily settling to his own satisfaction, the 
very abstruse problem concerning the origin 
of Stonehenge ? F. BRADBURY. 

Sheffield. 

"WYTYNG." In the Glossary to vol. ii. 
' The Stornor Letters e-nd Papers ' (Camden 
Third Series, xxx., 1919) I read : 

" Wytyng, wyte, to depart, a sone wytyng a 
quick going, i. 97." 

Dr. Bradley 's edition of Stratmann gives 
no instance of wyten later than 1300 ; so a 
fifteenth-century survival would be valuable, 
-and I looked up the original ('Auc. Corr.,' 
xlvi. 243) only to find tJtiat Thomas Stonor 
wrote "a sone departyng." Is it possible 
that the reference is wrong, and that the 
word occurs somewhere else in the book ? 

Q. V. 

ANDREW FORRESTER. Son of Alexander 
Forrester, minister of Tranent, was minister 
-of Glencross, and apparently also of Penicuik, 
in 1588. Two years later, he was translated 
to Costorphine, and in 1598 was removed 
to Dunfermline. 



I seek the name of Andrew Forrester's 
wife, also the names of his children. A Nell 
Forrester, of Corstorphine, married James 
Simpson (born 1746/49, d. Apr. 27, 1819) 
at Cramond about 1774. Was she a des- 
cendant of Alexander ? Were these For- 
resters related to Sir George Forrester who 
was created a baronet Mar. 17, 1625 and a 
peer, as Lord Forrester of Corstorphine, 
July 22, 1633 ? 

JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39 Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

STAPLETON : O' SULLIVAN. Can some one 
inform me if there exist (and where), any 
portraits of Prince Charles Edward's two 
generals Brigadier Walter Stapleton sup- 
posed to have died after the battle of Cullo- 
den, 1746, and Coi. John O 'Sullivan, 
knighted by the Pretender, 1748, who 
escaped to France after Culloden date of 
death unknown. (Mrs.) C. STEPHEN. 

Wootton Cottage, Lincoln. 

T. JONES, AUTHOR OF 'THE HEART ITS 
RIGHT SOVEREIGN,' &c. Can any particulars 
be furnished about the author of this book 
birth, personalia and year of demise ? 
He also wrote 'Rome no Mother Church,' 
1678. ANEURIN WILLIAMS. 

Menai View, North Road, Carnarvon. 

[The authorities for his life given in the 
' D.N.B.' are Wood's ' Athenae Oxon.' ; Wood's 
' Fasti Oxon.' ; Burrows's ' Registers of Visitors 
of the University of Oxford ' ; ' Bye-Gones relating 
to Wales and the -Border Counties,' Mar. 4, 1874, 
and Jan. 20, 1875, and Thomas's ' History of the 
House of St. Asaph.'] 

JOHN SCAIFE (OR SCAFE), of Tanfield, 
Co. Durham, born in 1776 ; was a Capt. in 
43rd Regt. and was living at Alnwick, Nor- 
thumberland in 1819-20. Can any one give 
further particulars, as to date of birth and 
place of burial ? Have no access to Army 
Lists so am prevented from getting help in 
that way. J. W. F. 

" RIGGES" AND "GRANPOLES." In the 
Report of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic 
Society for 1856, p. 35, Jonathan Couch, 
F.L.S., &c., mentions a Commission under 
the Great Seal of Charles II. in which, 
Nicholas Saunders of Truro, is authorized 
"to secure, recover, recerise. and regav6 . . . . all 
fishes Royall, viz., Sturgeon, Whales, Rigges, Por- 
puses, Granpoles," &c. 

What was meant in the days of "the 
Merry Monarch " by " Rigges," and " Gran- 
poles " ? " W. S. B. H. 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 22, 1021. 



REFERENCE WANTED to following pasag^, from 
a letter of Henry Sedgwick to F. W. H. Myers : 

" My difficulty is that I cannot give to principles 
of conduct either the formal certainty that comes 
from exact science or the practical certainty that 
comes from a real consensus of experts." 

J. E. T. 
AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. 

I should be much obliged if any reader can 
give authors' names and exact reference for the 
following quotations. I am quoting only from 
memory : 

1. Did not the learned Sergeant Maynard 
To prove all traitors guilty strain hard ? 

2. 'Tis rare the father in the son to trace 

He sometimes rises in the third degree, 
Now on the crest of the wave 

And now in the trough of the sea. 

3. Oft have I seen a game of chess, 
The king and bishops in distress, 
Queen, knights and castles all forlorn, 
And now and then a pawn. 

W. H. GINGELL. 
8 East Parade, Leeds. 

4. endlessly pexplexed 

With impulse, motive, right and wrong, the 

ground 

Of obligation, what the rule and whence 
Tfce sanction. 

[Wordsworth, Prelude, ' bk. xi. 298.] 

J. E. T 



" FRANCKINSENCE." 
(12 S. viii. 29.) 

The use of incense for ceremonial purposes 
in the English Churchpractically ceased, in 
the reign of Edward VI.; it seems, however, 
that no Act was passed or order promul- 
gated for its abolition. At Aldeburgh and 
many other towns the Church was used for 
elections and other secular purposes ,(the 
sale of ships took place in the church at 
Aldeburgh) and in this particular case 
I think the entries refer to fumigation only 
and extracts from the later Chamberlains 
Account books (which I am now preparing 
for *N. & Q.') confirm this impression : 
1625. Item to Mr. Oldringe for pfume oyle anc 
Fran ckensence for the Churche .. 00 01 06 

1625 Item to Mr. Oldringe for pfume Candl 

Aprill 18 00 01 06 

1626 To Mr. Owldrine for perfumes at Christide 

and Easter . . . . .. 00 03 00 

I have read somewhere that the "per 
fume pan " and bearer bore their part at th< 
coronation of George III. 

AUTHUB T. WINN. 

Aldeburgh 



MB. CHAMBERS 's query should probably 
}e answered in the affirmative. The follow- 
ng, which was written to some Anglican paper 
n the late nineties, may interest him : 

INCENSE, &c. 

Sir, In an interesting book in my possession 
published in 1820, I find the following record 
of the ceremonial use of incense in the procession 
at the Coronation of King George III., in 1761 : 

THE ORDER OF THE PROCESSION. 

Children of the Chapel Royal 

in surplices with scarlet mantles over them. 

Choir of Westminster 

in surplices. 
The Kind's Organ Blower The King's Groom of the 

(John Kay), Vestiy 

in a scarlet coat, with a (William Smith), 

silver-gilt badge on his left in a scarlet dress, holding a 
breast. perfuming pan, burning per- 

fumers. 

The book also contains a picture of the pro- 
cession, with William Smith and his cloud of 
incense and perfuming pan very much in evidence. 

The same book also contains the following 
reference to the ceremonial use of lighted candles- 
at the funeral of the previous monarch, King 
George II. : 

At the entrance within the chnrch, the Dean and Prebent 
daries in their copes, attended by the choir, all having wax 
tapert in thir hand*, are to receive the Royal body, and are 
to fall into the procession just before Clarenceux, King of 
Arms, and are so to proceed singing, etc. 

S. EOYLE SHORE. 

January 16. 

It is unfortunate that Mr. Shore omitted 
to give the title and other particulars of the 
"interesting book." The use of incense 
in the consecration of chanceJs and altars 
was a matter of complaint among the 
Puritans in 1641 (see 'Hierurgia Anglicana,' 
p. 367). 

Incense was "swung and waved " in Ely 
Cathedral at the end of the eighteenth 
century (see a letter of Dr. Harvey Goodwin^ 
Bishop of Carlisle to The Guardian of Jan. 6,. 
1875). 

In the Form of Dedication and Consecra- 
tion of a Church or Chapel drawn up in 
1685 by Archbishop Bancroft, and first 
printed for John Harley in Holborn in 1703, 
there is a form for the dedication of a censer, 
and of candlesticks, though the form does- 
not contemplate that a censer and candle- 
sticks will always be presented for dedica- 
tion. 

In the well-known case of Martin v_ 
Mackonochie (L. R., 2 A. and E. 116) Sir 
Robert Phillimore remarked (p. 213), that 
incense "for the purposes of ornament or 
fumigation of the Church " appears to have- 
been used in the Anglican Church afc various 
times since the Reformation, " and especially 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



by the saintly Herbert," and at p. 215 he 
said : 

" Bishop Andrewes, a very high authority* 
appears to have used it, though in what way is 
not clear, in his own private chapel," 
and that it 

" certainly was in use in the time of King Edward 
the Sixth's first prayer book. The visitation 
article of Cranmer as to forbidding the censing to 
certain images, &c., supplies one of the proofs of 
the fact." 

StilJ, though he regarded the ceremonial 
use of incense as "an ancient, innocent, and 
pleasing custom," he decided that "to 
bring in incense at the beginning or during 
the celebration and remove it at the close of 
the celebration of the Eucharist," to be 
"a distinct ceremony, additional and not 
even directly incident to the ceremonies 
ordered by the Book of Common Prayer," 
and to be therefore illegal. 

In the later case of Sumner v. Wix (L. R., 
3 A. and E. 58) the same judge held that the 
use of incense immediately before the cele- 
bration of the Holy Communion in such a 
way aa_to be preparatory or subsidiary to 
the celebration was also illegal. 

These legal decisions have, however, as is 
well known done very little to impede the 
ceremonial use of incense in Anglican 
churches. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 



THE HANDLING OF SOURCES (12 S. vii. 
499). From the literary point of view I agree 
with almost everything that your reviewer 
has said in his kindly criticism of my book 
'William Bolts.' But he raises an interest- 
ing question. Given a mass of MS. records 
of historical interest concerning a man once 
famous, records hitherto unpublished and 
difficult of access, what is the best method of 
making them available for the historical 
student ? 

He offers two alternative methods, either 
complete digestion of the material and the 
composition of a literary biography, or the 
orderly printing of the records with full 
annotation. 

The former method I deliberately rejected, 
because it would not have made the records 
available for the student. For the same 
reason I rejected, except to a limited extent, 
the substitution of a paraphrase for an exact 
quotation. It seemed to me that the only 
way of fulfilling nty design was either to 
print and annotate the records, in which 
case no general reader would open the book, 



or to put them kito the form of a biography 
by writing a brief connecting narrative, 
I chose the latter method because, while it 
would enable me to retain the ipsissima 
verba of all the most important documents, 
the story might still interest some members 
of the general public. I was aware that 
I should be producing in either case what 
Charles Lamb would have called "a book 
which is no book " ; but I thought that th& 
historical value of the material justified me 
in braving the distaste which the form of my 
book was bound to excite in the mind of 
any good judge of literature. I am still not 
sure, however, whether there is any better 
way of doing what had to be done unless r 
of course, one were to double the size of the 
volume by relegating all the MS. quotations 
to an appendix and writing a literary bio- 
graphy with " something of a mise-en-scene 
and an atmosphere." But then who would 
publish it ? N. L. HAIXWARD. 

A FEW WARWICKSHIRE FOLK SAYINGS 
(12 S. vii. 507 ; viii. 35). A racier, if not an 
earlier, form of the " silent sow " proverb is 
recorded in Camden's ' Remaines ' : " The 
still sow eateth up all the draffe," p. 307 r , 
ed. 636. EDWARD BENSLY. 

Much Hadham, Herts. 

PRISONERS WHO HAVE SURVIVED HANG- 
ING (12 S. vii. 68, 94, 114, 134, 173, 216,- 
438). Abraham Chovet was liveryman and 
demonstrator of anatomy in the (London) 
Company of Barber -Surgeons, in 1734, and 
for several years thereafter. S. Weir Mit- 
chell mentions that Dr. Physick told his 
father : 

" While living in London, Chovet tried to save 
a too adventurous gentleman about to be hanged 
for highway robbery, by opening the trachea 
before the hangman operated. The patient was 
rapidly removed after the execution, and is said 
to have spoken. A queer tale, and doubtful, 
but worth the telling. The Government is said 
to have lacked due appreciation of this valuable 
experiment, and Chovet brought his queer 
Voltarian visage to America." 

Quotation is from p. 219 of 'American 
Medical Biographies,' which Drs. H. A. 
Kelly and W. L. Burrage have recently 
edited. This has many notices of those who 
(like Mitchell) have ridden two horses, 
medicine and literature, and can doubtless 
be found already in the larger libraries. 
In any case, it is well worth calling the 
attention of the readers of ' N. & Q.' to it. 

ROCKINGHAM. 
Boston, Mass. 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm. JAN. 22, 1021. 



VOUCHER = RAILWAY TICKET (12 S. 
Trii. 510 ; viii. 36). Two unused first and 
second class " vouchers " with their counter- 
foils intact are in iny possession. They 
measure 8| in. by 3f in., the first class 
ticket being on a poor quality yellow paper 
.and the second class on green paper. Each 
bears the initials of the official issuing the 

The tickets bear the following particulars : 



tickets and the numbers are also written 
These particular vouchers were issued 



FIRST CLASS. 

BRISTOL TO GLOUCESTER. 
:39 August 5, 1844. 



Paid 6s. Qd. 



at special rates for an excursion on the 
occasion of a Wesleyan Conference held at 
Birmingham during the week beginning 
Aug. 5, 1844. The local paper states that 
over a thousand persons travelled by the 
trains. 



FIRST CLASS. 



BRISTOL TO GLOUCESTER. 
Monday, August 5, 1844. 



39- 



Tke Bearer must return by the Special Train from Gloucester, at 
nine o'clock on Tuesday Evening, Aug. 6, or exchange this Ticket and 
. Wellings, Northgate-Street, Gloucester, and return 



pay Is. at Mr. B. 

by any of the regular Trains, on Wednesday, August 
Paid 6s. Qd. 



A. T. M. 



SECOND CLASS. 

^GLOUCESTER, CHELTENHAM. 

OR TEWKESBURY, TO 

BIRMINGHAM. 

.562 August 5, 1844. 



Paid 5s. Qd. 



This Ticket must be carefully preserved and produced when 
required. 

SECOND CLASS. 



GLOUCESTER, CHELTENHAM, OR TEWKESBURY, TO BIRMINGHAM. 
562 Monday, August 5, 1844. 



Gloucester. 



The Bearer may return by either of the Trains which leave the 
Camp-Hill Station, Birmingham, Monday Evening, at Eight o'clock, or 
Tuesday Afternoon, at Six o' Clock. 

Paid 5s. Qd. . A. T. M. 

This Ticket must be carefully preserved and produced when 
required. 

ROLAND AUSTIN. 



WILLIAM AND RALPH SHELDON (12 S. 
-vii. 466, 516). While information has been 
given in regard to the tapestry industry 
founded at Barcheston by William Sheldon 
of Beoley, and his identity has been estab- 
lished, his relationship to the Catherine 
Sheldon who married Edmund Plowden is 
;Still unanswered. In the hope that more 
information may be forthcoming, let me 
state the difficulty. The question is 
whether Catherine was the daughter of this 
William (Sheldon pedigree) or his cousin 
(Plowden pedigree according to Archdeacon 
-Cameron in the extract quoted by MB. 
WAINEWRIGHT). The Sheldon pedigree will 
be found in full detail in Nash's ' Worcester- 
shire, 1781-99,' having been contributed to 
that work by J. C. Brooke, Somerset Herald, 
as an act of gratitude to the memory of the 
"great" Ralph Sheldon (1623-84) who 
gave over 300 MSS. and numerous pedigrees 
to the College of Arms. Some useful addi- 
tions are contained in Glazebrook's ' The 
Heraldry of Worcestershire.' 1873, and in 
the Sheldon pedigree in vol. v., p. 849, of 
JToley's ' Records of the English Province of 



the Society of Jesus.' According to these 
authorities, Ralph Sheldon who married the 
heiress of the Rudings and acquired with 
her land in Beoley, Feckenham, Hanbury 
and Martin Hussingtree, had six sons. Of 
these William, the eldest, of Barford Hall, 
purchased the Manor of Beoley from 
Richard Neville, Lord Latimer, in the reign 
of Edward IV. He was an ardent supporter 
of the House of York, followed Richard III. 
to Bosworth and had his estates confiscated 
by the victorious Henry VII. He died with- 
out issue September, 1517, the estates 
having been restored to him in that year 
[This is the William that the Plowden 
pedigree makes father of Catherine.] 
William's younger brother Ralph eventually 
succeeded to the Beoley property. He 
married Philippa, daughter and co -heiress of 
Baldwin Heath and died September, 1546. 
Of their issue William the eldest son is the 
one who established the tapestry works at 
Barcheston having married as his first wife 
Mary, daughter and co -heiress cf William 
Willington of Barcheston. He purchased 
the Manor of Weston "uxla Chiriton, co 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



Warwick, 24 Henry VIII. Of his brothers, 
Francis was the founder of the Sheldons of 
Abberton, Thomas of the Sheldons of 
-Childswicombe and Baldwin of the Sheldons 
of Broadway. 

William Sheldon, ob. Dec. 23, 1570, had 
issue two sons and four daughters by his 
marriage with Philippa Heath. Ralph the 
.heir (1537-1613) built the mansion at 
Weston which became the principal residence 
of the family after the destruction of the 
house at Beoley during the Civil War. He 
-also purchased Steeple Barton, co. Oxon. 
His first wife was Anne, daughter of 
Sir Robert Throgmorton of Coughton. 
Catherine who married Edmund Plowden 
was one of his four sisters. 

If the Sheldon pedigree be correct, 
Catherine must have been much younger, 
than her husband. If, ^n the other hand, 
she was the daughter of 'William Sheldon of 
Barford Hall, her father died 1517, the same 
year that her husband Edmund Plowden 
"was born. 

Perhaps the privately printed ' Records 
of the Piowden Family,' by B. M. P., 1874, 
may throw some light on this question. 
I have not access to this work nor can I, at 
the moment, refer to the Plowden pedigree 
in Foley's ' Records,' vol. iv. 

To those using the Brooke pedigree in 
Nash, I would add one word of caution. 
By a slip, probably a printer's error, Ralph 
Sheldon, who succeeded to the estates on the 
death in 1684 of his cousin the " great Ralph 
Sheldon," is given as Rcbert, and this mistake 
has been copied by Dr. Kirk in his ' Bio- 
graphies of English Catholics.' Nash in the 
text of his book correctly describes him as 
Ifcalph. RORY FLETCHER. 

THE BRITISH IN CORSICA (12 S. viii. 10, 
35, 59). According to Clowes's 'History of 
the British Navy,' a squadron was sent to 
Corsica in 1745, under the command of 
Com. Thomas Cooper. Bastia was bom- 
barded for two days, Nov. 17-19, after 
which Cooper withdrew, two of his ships 
having suffered somewhat severely. No 
further details of the expedition are given, 
and as no mention of it is made in For- 
tescue's 'History of the British Army,' we 
may conclude that, so far as the British 
Army was concerned, it was a purely naval 
operation. 

In September, 1793, Lord Hood des- 
patched a squadron of five ships from 
"Toulon, under Com. Robert Linzee, which 
on Oct. 1 bombarded Formeille, near San 



Fiorenzo, without effect. After the evacua- 
tion of Toulon Hood despatched five ships, 
again under Com. Linzee, with transports 
containing troops commanded by Major- 
General David Dundas, the expedition 
arriving in Mortella Bay on Feb. 7, 1794. 
The troops consisted of detachments of the 
following regiments : 2 /1st, llth, 25th, 30th, 
50th, 51st (under Lieut. -Col. Moore, after- 
wards Sir John Moore) and 69th. Later on 
they were joined by the 18th. San Fiorenzo 
was taken on Feb. 17, but Bastia, which 
was next attacked, proved a harder nut to 
crack. Owing to differences with Lord 
Hood as to the conduct of the operations 
Dundas gave up his command, and left on 
Mar. 11, being succeeded by Col. D'Aubant, 
of the Engineers, the naval force on shore 
being under Nelson, then in command 
of the Agamemnon. Bastia surrendered, 
owing to want of provisions, in May, and 
shortly after Charles Stuart arrived and 
took command of the forces. Calvi was 
attacked on June 19, and surrendered after 
a siege of fifty-one days. It was during 
these operations that Nelson's eye was 
injured by some sand or gravel, thrown up 
by a round shot, the sight of which was 
eventually lost. The casualties were slight, 
but the troops suffered terribly from sick- 
ness, two -thirds of the force being in hospital 
at the end d'f the siege, and the remaining 
third worn out by their exertions. 

I have failed to find details of the opera- 
tions in 1814, referred to by F. M. M. 

T. F. D. 

MATTHEW PARIS (12 S. viii. 28, 58). 
The passage required is to be found at 
pp. 279-280 of vol. iv. of the Master of the 
Rolls' edition erased in MS. B., but given 
in MS. C. 

The prophecies of St. Hildegard are 
printed in Migne, ' Patrclogia latina,' vol. 
cxcvii., pp. 145-382, according to Potthast 
('Bibl. Hist. MediiAevi," 1896 edition, vol. i. 
p. 598). W. A. B. C. 

[Text of passage has been given by PROF. 
BENSLY at ante. p. 50.] 

ASKELL (12 S. vii. 409, 513). It might be 
noted that Lindkirst in his 'Middle English 
Place Names of Scandinavian Origin ' (Upsala, 
1912) at f. 173 says the names Asketill, 
Askell, Eskell old west Scandinavian had 
a wide diffusion in England in O.E. times 
and was one of the most usual Scandinavian 
names there Askytel, Askill, Aeskitil, Eskil, 
&c. See also Bjorkman, ' Personennamen, ' 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 22, 1021. 



f. 16. Again, see Munch in his ' Samlede 
Afhandlinger ' (G. Storm), vol. iii., 1857, 
'Names of Norsk origin ' f . 126 on Ketil and. 
affiliated names Askel, Grimketil, &c. The 
A.-S. forms were Oseytel, Grimcytel. Com- 
pare also O. Lygh work on 'Scandinavian 
Personal Names.' This seems to eliminate 
Askulfr-Anskekle, &c., as that name existed 
in England before the Normans came here. 
ALEX. C. MOFFAT. 

'^FRANKENSTEIN " (12 S. viii. 31). An 
instance of this prevalent confusion occurs 
in the last sentence of the fifth paragraph 
of chap. xxix. in 1 James Payn's novel 
'By Proxy,' first published in 1878. The 
most satisfactory explanation of the error 
seems to be that Mrs. Shelley's story is 
little read, although most people who write 
have a vague acquaintance with the plot of 
the same. A. R. BAYLEY. 

FRIDAY STREET (12 S. vii. 490; viii. 16). 
It is remarkable that replying to this query 
reference has not been made to the late 
Mr. H. 4 A. Harben's 'Dictionary of London.' 
Obviously the name is derived from the 
day of the week and its use as a market for 
a specific dietary or commodity is not 
necessarily a direct cause of its being so 
named. Its earliest mention (Hen. II. 
cited by Harben, p. 246) is almost con- 
temporary with the existence of Fish wharf 
("Kaya que vocatur Le FisshewarfL " vide 
Harben, p. 233). This and other places were 
retail markets of Friday's special need with- 
out being so named ; so the inference is that 
the market that gave Friday Street its name 
was not principally in fish or supported by 
fishmongers. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

THE REV. JOHN THEOPHILUS DESAGTJ 
LIERS (12 S. v. 318). It appears from 
Agnew, 'Protestant Exiles from France, 
(2nd ed.), ii. pp. 89-94, and the pedigree in The 
Genealogist, vol. v., that John TheophiluE 
Desaguliers, married at Shadwell on Oct. 14 
1712, Joanna, dau. of William Pudsey, Esq 
About his three sons referred to in 
the ' D.N.B.,' there*is some discrepancy. 

Agnew gives (1 ) John Theophilus, b. Mar. 7 
1715 ; d. Aug. 19, 1716 ; (2) John Theophilus 
b. Aug. 18, 1718 ; (3) John Isaac, b. Oct. 17 
1719, a beneficed clergyman in Norfolk,wh< 
survived only to 1751 ; (4) Thomas, b. Feb. 5 
1721, Equerry to George HI. ; with othe 
details given in 'D.N.B.' 

According to the pedigree John Isaac, th 
third son, d. Oct. 31, 1719, and the son wh 



ied in 1751 was John Theophilus : the 
edigree also gives Thomas's birth -date as 
an. 5, 1720/1, and gives the name of his 
wife, Mary, dau. of John (F. A. Crisp, 'Visit, 
f Eng.,' Notes, vol. ii, Shuttleworth pedi- 
gree, calls him Job) Blackwood of Charlton, 



It seems probable on the whole that there 
ere only two sons to survive .infancy. It 
s certain that Thomas was the fourth son 
see a note to the pedigree in The Genealogist), 
nd neither authority mentions a son younger 
han Thomas. J. B. WHITMORE. 

"Now, THEN ! " (12 S. vii. 469, 512 ; viii.. 
7, 38). Na is paralleled in Slavonic lan- 
guages by the interjection nu, used as a term 
>f encouragement. For example, Russian, nu 
hto, " well, what now " ? Czech, nu dobre, 
'Well, now ! " FRANCIS P. MARCHANT. 

My experience of this expression differs 
rom that of MR. ARMSTRONG. I know it 
as a warning. For example : two small-' 
>oys climbing over a garden wall: passer- 
>y, wishing to stop them, "Now, then 1 " 
and they rapidly came back to the footpath, 
and decamped. Q V. 

KENSINGTON GRAVEL AT VERSAILLES 
V 12 S. viii. 30, 57). That the gravel pits at 
Kensington were of early date is indicated 
ay two tokens in my cabinet, one a half- 
penny issued by Peter Sammon, dated 1667 
"in Kinsingt on Gravel Pits." The other ,. 

halfpenny of Robert Davenporte (undated 
but of the same period), " at Kinsingto- 
Gravell Pits." 

WILLIAM GILBERT, F.R.N.S. 

The following will be found in Swift's 
'Journal ' to Stella, November, 1711 : 

" The Lord Treasurer has had an ugly return 
of his gravel, 'lis good for us to live in gravel- 
pite [Kensington Gravel Pits was noted for it 
good air] but not for gravel pits to live in us 
a man in this case should leave no stone unturned.' 

H. E. T. 

REPRESENTATIVE COUNTY LIBRARIES 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (12 S. viii. 8, 34, 54).- 
There is one aspect of this question whicl 
will be abundantly obvious to PUBLIC 
LIBRARIAN, although, in his position, he 
could not be expected to refer to it, viz., that 
private collectors would frequently be placed 
on the horns of a dilemma, either to run the 
risk of damage to, or the loss of some of, 
their treasures as a consequence of lending, 
or appear churlish by refusing to lend. For 
it is a lamentable fact that few people aro 



i2s.vm.jAK.22 f io2i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



-capable of handling books properly. Hence 
I have no desire to advertise nay own fairly 
-large collection of Yorkshire books. 

In addition to the collection in York 
Minster Library mentioned by ST. SWITHIN, 
DR. ROWE may like to know that the Wake- 
field Public Library has a large collection of 
local works. If my memory serves me 
correctly, these were once the property of 
Charles Skidmore, Esq., who had its con- 
tents catalogued by the late C. A. Federer. 
This catalogue, privately printed, is an 
extremely useful guide. Mr. W. T. Free- 
mantle's ' Bibliography of Sheffield Books ' 
may also be mentioned here, it is a model 
of what such a work should be, and it is to 
be hoped that we may see It completed, for 
as yet it only comes down to the year 1700. 

E. G. B. 

If I remember aright on the decease of 
Robert Davies, Esq., F.S.A. (a former Town 
Clerk of York) many valuable books and 
pamphlets relating to Yorkshire, from his 
collection, went to enrich the Minster 
Library^ T. SEYMOUR. 

Newton Road, Oxford. 

EARLY ASCENT OF MONT BLANC (12 S. 
viii. 30). Henry Humphrey Jackson, who 
made the thirteenth successful ascent of 
Mont Blanc, Sept. 4, 1823, was the only son 
of Henry Jackson of Lewes, Sussex. He was 
born Feb. 5, 1801, and was admitted to 
Westminster School, Jan. 10, 1815, where he 
remained until April, 1819. He matriculated 
at Oxford from Exeter Coll., June 2, 1819, 
but appears to have never resided there. 
I should be glad to ascertain the date of his 
death. G. F. R. B. 

It seems not unlikely that the eleventh 
of Mr. Montagnier's series was John Dunn 
Gardner, born July 20, 1811, died Jan. 11, 
1903. He was educated at Westminster, 
and was M.P. for Bodkin, 1841-6. He died 
J.P. for the Isle of Ely, and D.L. for Cam- 
bridgeshire. He married: (1) 1847, Mary, 
dau. of Andrew Lawson, late M.P., of The 
Hall, Boroughbridge, Yorks ; and (2) 1853, 
Ada, dau. of William Pigott, of Dullingham 
House, Cambridgeshire. 

HARMATOPEGOS 

THE GREEN MAN : ASHBOURNE (12 S. 
viii. 29). I remember visiting this old 
country town and remarking what I believe 
is a unique feature. There is a strange local 
custom of plavinoj football there in the main 
^street at certain fixed periods. In this sport 



all the natives old and young participate. 
I fancy the sign then gets badly used. 

What I wish to know is this, why was the 
house called The Green Man ? There are 
other "publics" of like nomenclature, for 
example, Leytonstone and Winchmore Hill, 
Neither of those taverns have any painted 
figures. M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

Percy House, Well Street, S. Hackney, E.9. 

CHARLES PYE, ENGRAVER (12 S. viii. 10). 
Charles Pye (not G. Pye) was born in 
Birmingham in 1777. He was apprenticed 
to James Heath, the celebrated engraver. 
He published a very interesting ' Description 
of Modern Birmingham, made in an Excur- 
sion round the Town in 1818.' In 1808 
William Hamper the antiquary writes :- 

" Charles Pye the engraver has returned to 
Birmingham. He is m.uch improved (witness his 
plate of Malmesbury Cross in Britten's ' Anti- 
quities '), and is certainly an able artist. He has 
made drawings of the Birmingham Priory and 
Deritend Guild Seals, and will engrave them for 
me, and as he intends to follow the profession 
of a draughtsman (for which he is well fitted), 
in preference to an engraver, J shall find him very 
useful about Aston Church, its interesting monu- 
ments, &c." 

On Apr. 1, 1852, Pye writes from London 
to a friend : 

" Although my sight still continues very bad, 
I have managed to put together the coins I 
promised, and have sent them to you by rail 
addressed to the Stamp Office." 

He gives particulars, and says he still has 
the copper-plates cf the octavo edition and 
would be glad to sell them, but those of the 
quarto edition he has sold to Sir George 
Chetwynd, who, he believes, has 
" left them, together with the coins they illus- 
trated to trustee?, and having omitted to mention 
the subject or intention of the trust, the coins, 
&c., have been packed in a box, and will now 
be deposited in the cellars of his former bankers 
here ; where I suppose they will remain unseen 
and unknown until some future Sir George may 
feel sufficient interest in the matter to bring 
them to light again." 

The writer of the letter containing the 
above details (signed " J. M., 53 Gough 
Road, Birmingham ") hopes that the coins 
may be found. He says he has a small 
statuette of Pye, and speaks of a private 
token issued by the latter as a beautiful 
example of the die-sinker's art. 

Charles Pye had a younger brother John, 
who was a far more famous engraver than 
himself. He was a well-known man, and 
energetically advocated the admission of 
engravers to the honours of the Royal 
Academy. The particulars of his life will 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 22, 1921. 



be found in the ' D.N.B.' He died in London 
at a great age in 1874. 

There was another John Pye, also a 
noted engraver, some of whose works were 
published by Boydell in 1775. The date of 
his death appears to be unknown, and there 
is no appearance of any connexion between 
him and the family of Charles Pye. 

HOWARD S. PEARSON. 

KENTISH BOROUGHS (12 S. vii. 511). 
" Borough " as used by Hasted and earlier 
Kentish writers is equivalent to ' ' tithings ' ' 
in other counties, i.e.," a district com- 
posed originally of ten freemen, heads of 
families who were sureties for each other ' ' 
(Sandys, ' History of Gavelkind '). 

The borough of Crothall is, no doubt, now 
indicated by a farm in Benenden parish 
called Critt Hall and in former times, Grit 
Hole. 

In Benenden churchyard there are, or 
were, several gravestones to members of a 
family named Crothall dating from 1738-52, 
and a Robert Crothall is mentioned in the 
Archdeacon's 'Visitation ' of 1603. 

It is probable that there was a " dene " 
of the same name spelt Cradhole or Crithole. 

H. HANNEN. 

The Hall, West Farleigh, Kent. 

" HEIGHTEM, TIGHTEM AND SCRUB " (12 S. 
vii. 248, 295, 356). "Hightum, Tightum, 
and Scrub " are mentioned under the year 
1818, in I. T. Smith's 'A Book for a Rainy 
Day,' edited by Wilfred Whitten (1905), 
p. 230. A. H. S. 

CARLYLE'S TRENCH REVOLUTION ' (12 S. 
viii. 29). It looks very much as if Carlyle 
has made a mistake, for Billaud -Varennes 
was banished to Sinnamari, which is near 
Cayenne, and the Surinam is in Dutch 
Guiana far away. Were there an ocean- 
current flowing eastward it might perhaps 
have carried alluvial matter from the 
Surinam in the direction of Sinnamari, but 
the Equatorial current runs in the opposite 
direction. 

But even if Carlyle confused the Surinam 
with some other river, it does not follow 
that Billaud was seriously inconvenienced 
by river-mud on any occasion. Carlyle says 
little about his exile, but such impression as 
he gives is incorrect probably. Everything 
goes to prove that Billaud had as pleasant 
a time in French Guiana as was possible 
under the circumstances. He himself speaks 
in one of his letters (published, I think, since 



Carlyle wrote) of the beautiful landscape 
and of his delightful home, as romantic "as 
it was picturesque. Carlyle tells us that her 
"surrounded himself with flocks of tame 
parrots," whereas the parrots were, no 
doubt, always there and would have re- 
mained there without Billaud 's kind atten- 
tions. This judicial assassin occupied him- 
self mainly with agricultural pursuits,, 
meditating on the doctrines contained in 
'Emile,' impressing upon his erring wife in 
France that there is such a thing as " an 
irreparable fault " and enjoying the rural 
calm all the more after the terrific ex- 
periences of his political career. Carlyle, in 
short, seems to have aimed at setting forth 
striking details rather than at producing a 
picture of what really happened. 

T. PERCY ARMSTRONG. 

DANIEL DEFOE IN THE PILLORY (12 S. 
viii. 12). In reply to G. B. M.'s question 
the following extract from The London 
Gazette, No. 3936, Aug. 2, 1703, may be of 
interest : 

" (London, July 31 1703.) On (Thursday) the 
29th instant, Daniel Foe alias Be Foe, stood in 
the Pillory before the Koyal Exchange in Cornhill, 
as he did yesterday near the Conduit in Cheapside, 
and this day at Temple Bar ; in pursuance of the 
sentence given agairst him, at the last Sessions 
at the Old Bailey, for writing and publishing a 
seditious libel, intituled ' The Shortest Way with 
the Dissenters.' By which sentence, he is also 
fined 200 marks, to find sureties for his good 
behaviour for seven years, and to remain in 
prison till all be performed." 

W. W. DRUETT. 

PRONUNCIATION OF GREEK (AND LATIN) 
(12 S. viii. 26). This interesting question 
raises another. When was the pronuncia- 
tion of Latin altered in England from the 
mediaeval Continental fashion, in vogue at 
the time of the Reformation, and still used 
in English Roman Catholic churches. I have- 
put the question to many scholars, each of 
whom has given a different answer. The 
process must have been gradual, but when 
was it finally adopted ? SURREY. 

FAMILY OF DICKSON (12 S. viii. 28). 
MR. SETON-ANDERSON may find reference 
to the following work (copy in Brit. Mus.) of 
interest : 

" The Border or Biding Clans, followed by a 
history of the Clan Dickson, and a brief account 
of the family of the author, &c." 

" Enlarged Edition pp. 223. Joel Munsell's 
Sons, Publishers, Albany, N.Y., U.S.A., 1889,'jl<V 
For private distribution." 

D. INTERIORIS TEMPLI. 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 



BOOKS ON EIGHTEENTH CENTURY LIFE 
(12 S. vii. 511). I have in my possession a 
MS. of the eighteenth century, which states, 
on good authority, that the " Monks " or 
members of the Medmenham Society were 
as follows : 

" L* Le De Spencer, D r Benjamin Bates, 
jno wilkes Esq r , Paul Whitehead, Esq r , L d Sand- 
wich, BeV 1 M r Levett, M r Bivett, S r W Stanhope, 
S r John Delaval, S r W m Hamilton, S r Thomas 
Stapleton." 

A good deal of information about the 
society is contained in a book called 
'Chrysal,' written "conjunctively " by the 
celebrated John Wilkes and a Mr. Potter, 
nephew to Dr. Potter, Bishop of Gloucester ; 
the story is founded on fact, but told in 
" a most ludicrous and exaggerated manner. " 
The " Monks ' ' are also dealt with in a modern 
novel called 'Sir Richard Escombe,' by 
Max Pemberton. This also appears to be 
somewhat highly coloured. 

BENJAMIN WHITEHEAD. 

2 Brick Court, Temple E. C.4. 

A NOTE ON SAMUEL PEPYS'S * DIARY ' 
(12 S. vii 507 ; viii. 31). I wonder if your 
correspondent knows of the collection of 
Pepys's letters official, I believe in the 
charter closet at Gordonstoun near Elgin, 
the seat of Sir William Gordon Gumming, to 
whose ancestor I think they were written. 
They were shown to me some twenty years 
or more ago. R. B R. 

STEVENSON AND Miss YONGE (12 S* 
viii. 30). Someone has written me direct* 
referring me to : 

" ' The Young Stepmother ' (first published as 
a serial in The Monthly Packet 1857-60) where 
Gilbert Kendal is detected reading ' one of the 
worst and most fascinating of Dumas's romances ' 
and d'Artagnan is mentioned." 

As my informant omits name and address, 
I am unable to thank him except through 
'N. & Q.', which I hasten to do; and in 
case the above information is not otherwise 
being sent to the Editor for insertion, here 
it is. EDWARD LATHAM. 

EARLY RAILWAY TRAVELLING (12 S. 
vii. 461,511; viii. 13,32). Humour in railway 
station design, described at the last reference, 
is not confined to Ireland. We have an 
example of it on the L.S.W. line at Dor- 
chester, amusing to the leisured, and ex- 
asperating to the hurried, traveller. There, 
trains may daily be seen rushing past their 
proper platform, and then solemnly backing 
to the appointed place. 

W. JAGGARD, Capt. 



Jiote rrn 

English Wayfariny Life in the Middle Ages. By 
J. J. Jusserand. A new edition revised and 
enlarged by the Author. (Fisher Un win, 25s.) 
WE are glad to welcome an old friend in a new 
edition of M. Jusserand's ' English Wayfaring 
Life.' It is now some five and thirty years since 
'La Vie Nomade ' first made its appearance, 
and some thirty since the first English edition 
was published. Within this period there have 
been not fewer than nine impressions, a fact 
that vouches for the popularity of the work. 
The volume before us is the second edition, 
printed from new plates, revised in the light of 
modern research by its distinguished author,, 
virtually a new book. In format, too, we note 
a difference. Those who are, familiar with the 
older edition will not be displeased to find that 
this perhaps the most successful of M. Jusse- 
rand's labours has been brought into line with 
the author's more ambitious work ' A Literary 
History of the English people.' This is all to 
the good ; for in the later impressions the platea 
were beginning to exhibit distinct signs of wear 
and tear, and lovers of the book could not but 
hope that this delicate piece of work might escape 
the fate of most stereotyped classics. The pub- 
lishers are to be congratulated on their enterprise 
in undertaking the work in these difficult times 
and on carrying it through so successfully. 

In the preface to the new edition (in itself a 
graceful piece of writing) the author reveals to 
us the genesis of the work. In the first ardour 
of youth, when the shouldering of vast intellectual 
burdens is a matter lightly undertaken, he pro- 
posed to make his life companion a social history 
of England in the fourteenth century, that century 
of unique interest in which the amalgamation of 
race being all but complete, we see the definite 
emerging of English traits and characteristic?, 
and the first blossoming of a national literature. 
But diplomatic duties proved too exacting, and 
our author abandoning perforce the whole devoted 
himself to perfecting the part. The result is a 
classic, a classic of essentially French character. 
For it is in the selection of a limited field of research 
in the digestion of a vast amount of knowledge 
derived from original sources, and in the presenta- 
tion of the whole pleasantly leavened with a 
delicate play of wit and irony that the peculiar 
strength of much French scholarship lies. A 
somewhat similar tour de force lies to the credit 
of Maitland, whose rsum6 of our constitutional 
history is a classic in its kind. But here the field 
is larger and occasions for the lighter touch 
appreciably fewer. A further merit is that the 
book was virtually the work of a pioneer. 
Attempts had been made before to present social 
history in a more or less popular form. Matthew 
Browne is still readable ; but this was the first 
attempt of a competent scholar, the first attempt 
moreover based on original sources. 

The book we have said is virtually a new book. 
This is no exaggeration. The bulk has not been 
appreciably increased and a page for page collation 
with an earlier impression will not reveal a large 
amount of additional matter. What it will reveal 
is a systematic rewriting of the whole. There is 
hardly a sentence but bears the trace of labor 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAK. 22, 1921. 



imce, of careful reconsideration and refinement 
Corrections and additions have been so skilfully 
introduced as to be barely perceptible. The 
fres-hness and whimsicality of treatment remain. 
A few new illustrations are inserted and some of 
the old ones appear to have been printed from 
new blocks. The press work is good, and the 
only complaint we have concerns the paper 
which is too heavily clayed for permanence. 
But times are difficult for publishers and to have 
carried the work through so successfully is a 
matter for congratulation. 

Essays and Studies by Members of the English 

k Association. Vol. VI. Collected by A. C. 

Bradley. (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 6s. 6d.) 

'THE first volume of this Series was published in 
1910. Each year saw the issue of a successor 
up to, and including, that epoch-making 1914, 
which brought so many enterprises to a pause, 
if not to their term. With the volume for that 
year the Series remained at a standstill, until 
now, when vol. vi. calls upon us to congratulate 
its promoters on the resumption of their 
pleasant and useful task. 

A collection of papers like this carefully 
selected and printed and put into a strong and 
neat cloth cover seems, by its very appear- 
ance, to set up some little claim to be taken 
more seriously than the literary essays of 
current journalism to be kept and, in fine, 
to be re-read. The claim would not, as the 
book stands, be without foundation, yet we 
wonder, somewhat, that the writers have not 
thought it worth while to add that additional 
depth of working, and also that additional 
polish, which would have made it obviously 
solid and well-founded. Three of the essays 
are occupied very largely with style : it seems 
curious that writers with that pre-occupation 
should not have been brought to consider the 
importance not merely of style in phrase but 
also of style in form the form of the whole. 
Suggestive and interesting as these papers 
are they are more ephemeral in quality than 
they need have been by reason of a certain 
formlessness. 

Having delivered ourselves of this com- 
plaint we can proceed to pay the thanks due 
for real and considerable enjoyment. Prof. 
Saintsbury "re-visiting" Trollope delivers 
himself of a principle of criticism which we 
wholeheartedly endorse. The questions he 
asks about a work of fiction, he says, are : "Is 
the romance such that you see the perilous 
seas and ride the barriere as in your own 
person ? Are the folk of the novel such that 
you have met or feel that you might have met 
them in your life or theirs ? If so the work 
passes ; with what degree of merit is again a 
second question." The difficulty of applying 
this principle where nicety of judgment is 
required lies in the diversity of the judges' 
minds. Things " come alive " much more 
readily to one person than to another, and 
even to the same person more readily at one 
time than another. We agree that the best 
of Trollope " passes " upon this principle being 
applied ; but, or so the present writer has 
found, the first reading remains the most 
vivid and decisive ; the second and third 



readings which heighten the vivacity of the 
characters in the greatest fiction slightly 
reduce the effect of all but the greatest of 
Trollope's creations. This is perhaps to be 
put down to that inequality as a story-teller 
with which Prof. Saintsbury gently, but justly 
reproaches Trollope. 

Mr. George Sampson contributes a delightful 
essay ' On playing the Sedulous Ape,' which 
consists of reflections and their branching 
reflections on the well-known passage where 
Stevenson declares that, in the process of 
acquiring the art of writing he imitated divers 
masters of style. He argues that critics have 
taken Stevenson's words with too literal and 
heavy a seriousness, and that, allowing them 
to indicate a certain amount of practical study 
and practice in divers English styles, done at 
the prentice stage of authorship, there is 
nothing to do but applaud. Style, as here 
dealt with, is an affair of sentences and phrases. 
As such we think it has been somewhat over- 
considered. No doubt phrase and sentence 
construction require care Mr. Sampson puts 
some ludicrous deterrents before the careless 
but we do not hear enough of the greater care 
which should be expended, and expended first, 
upon the construction, the balanced form, of the 
piece of writing as a whole. Again, " the 
nation that is muddled in its prose," he says, 
" will be muddled in its thought " : trite 
though it be, we think the converse not only 
truer but better worth saying. That is to say, 
we would support Mr. Sampson's arguments 
to the effect that there is a great deal to be 
said in favour of direct imitation of the style 
of this or that master of English, with a 
proviso : that the would-be imitator have 
already exercised himself in the larger problems 
of construction and occupied himself ade- 
quately with the classifying, selecting and 
ordering of the ideas he intends to set forth. 
The " getting" of a language, like the making 
o fa friendship, cannot be quite left to chance 
but yet is most successfully brought off if it is 
not, at the beginning, pursued too directly. 

Miss Melian Stawell's analysis of the work of 
Mr. Conrad is a very good article and should 
send new and keen readers to an author worthy 
of them. The paper for which we must 
express our personal predilection is the clear 
and charming account of the ' Caedmonian ' 
Genesis by Dr. Bradley a paper which alone 
would justify giving this attractive little 
volume a permanent place upon one's book- 
shelf. 



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lishers" at the Office, Printing House Square, 
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IT is requested that each note, query, or reply 
be Tirritten on a separate slip of paper, with the 
signature of the writer and such address as he 
wishes to appear. 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 22, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES 



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128. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



81 



LONDON, JANUARY 29, 1921. 



CO NT E NTS. No. 146. 

NOTES : Problems of Vagrancy in the Eighteenth Century, 
81 An English Army List of 1740, 82 Among the Shake- 
speare Archives: The Town Clerk's Pig, 83 London 
Coaching and Carriers' Inns in 1732, 84 St. Paul's 
Chapter House " Boss-bent," 88 "Parapet," a Street 
Footway Karly Effort at Flying John Egerton Sir 
Walter Scott and France a Century Apo, 87. 

QUERIES: "Mrs. Drake Revived' Bagration Green, 
of co. Tipperary Paul Marny The British in Sardinia 
Zella Trelawny Volans. 88 Robert Croke,^. 1270 John 
tBeaumont Portrait of Leopold I. of Belgium Gouger 
Stapleton, Tutor to O'Connell Edward Booty Kinema 
or Cinema ? The Mayflower : Peter Brown Maundrell's 
' Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem,' Easter, 1697, 89 
Tobacco: "Bird's Eye" 'Thomas Bann and Alice 
Lucas ' " A miss is as good as a man " TheTurbulines 
Book Wanted Stanier Tavern Sign : " None the 
Wiser "William Holder Chippendale. 90 Leigh Hunt 
Morgan Phillips Spencer Turner Authors of Quota- 
tions Wanted, 91. 

iREPLIES : Tercentenary Handlist of Newspapers, 91 
Poor Uncle Ned,' 93 The First Lord Westbury An Old 
Silver Charm Tulchan Bishops, 94 A Wake Game 
Nola: Cnollare : Pulsare Cbartularies, 95 Bottle-slider 

Education of the First Duke of Marlborough, 96 -Poor 

'Relief Badge Book of Common Prayer " To Outrun the 
Constable "Yew-trees in Churchyards, 97 Statues and 
Memorials in the British Isles Light and Dark "A" 
iHeadpiece, 98 " Coiity " Prince Charles Edward 
Stuart's Swords French Prisoners of War Scott of 
Essex Author of Quotation Wanted, 99. 

:NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Udimore : Past and Present ' 
' The Adventures of Ulysses ' ' A Saunter through Kent 
with Pen and Pencil ' ' Quarterly Review.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



JJote. 



.PROBLEM OF VAGRANCY IN THE 
EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

IN view of the present condition of un- 
employment the enclosed letter, undated, 
.and unidentified but for the name of Denys 

Rolle of Bicton and Holcombe, South Devon 

(who married Ann, daughter of Arthur 
Chichester of Hall, and died in 1797), is 

useful as showing the social condition in the 

-county after a long period of war about 1748. 

The remedy then was the provision of work 

and not, as now, money. 

The letter is long, but several clauses are 

worthy of reproduction : 

MY LORD, 

Reading in the Morning Paper Lord, Radnor's 
observations on the Vagrant Bill respecting 
soldiers and sailors and your Lordships senti- 
ments coinciding with Lord Radnors as I am 
ignorant of the Amendments intruded I beg 
Jl.-ave to intrude on your Lordship a few lines on 
"that subject of what has occurred to me I hope 



not unworthy your Perusal. Being introduced 
to the meeting some years since which was then 
held at the late Duke of Montague's and being 
honoard by His Grace with a seat near Him : on 
a Mr. Bowdlers delivering some Propositione 
relative to Vagrants and on which there had been 
Justices of Peace as Delegates from each County 
met in Town. There was an exception in the 
taking up of Vagrants as to soldiers and Sailors 
I took the liberty to observe to His Grace the 
Duke of Montague " That much ill applied 
Charity to a great amount was bestowed par- 
ticularly to Persons under the Description of 
Sailors " : as a Maritime County, my Residence 
Devon, we saw therein a vast number of such, 
but when they were Real sailors most deviated 
far from the direct Tract from Port they landed 
at to the port at Home they proposed to go. 
But cheifly under that Denomination were 
Villains who either had Forgd Papers or xised 
Plausible False Complaints and Travelld round 
the County for years and committed frequently 
Robberies and murders and for want of a proper 
Police at Plymouth our Goal List is commonly 
filled with Real Sailors from that District. On 
the press. I think it might be on the Application 
of the Russian War a Fear of being Pressd some 
Sailors migrated from the Southern Ports towards 
the Northern Coast and hoverd about for some 
time near my seat and on their committing some 
acts of Robbery or attack my Daughters were 
prevented even from walking the least distance 
from the House. In my walks in the County of 
Hants I was accosted by a Real Sailor for Alms 
to whom making scarce any or low answer, being 
but little way passd him he turned about and 
accosted me. " Have you no Tongue in your 
Head ' ' he had a short stick in his hand I probably 
should have felt had not a man been within sight 
making a Hedge. No Person would wish more 
to assist Real Distress than myself but believe 
the Best Charity is That Indiscriminately 
bestowd on Beggars should be entirely droppd 
and Proper Care be provided on the spot by a 
Good Police Indescriminately on all to whatever 
Parish they belong, and that the same Power 
exercise their Authority on all found begging 
capable of work to be immediately made to work 
in such manner as they are capable to work. 

Having in my early youth in the conclusion 
of the War of 1730 in 1748 put all Persons 
coming from that war, instead of "relieving them 
by Charity, to work during the whole Winter from 
October to May they then without my dis- 
charging them, gave me thanks and betook 
themselves to their antient employ. At the 
same time reduced the Poor Rates of a con- 
siderable Town one hundred on nine Hundred 
and fifty if I remember right by attending the 
Weekly Payments and regulating Indiscriminate 
and Improportionate Relief. 

That this Nuisance and Imposition of Soldiers 
and Sailors or Vagrants under such Descriptions 
should be prevented the safety of the subject 
requires. 

ffhe 3 Ports of Falmouth Plymouth and Dart- 
mouth occasion many to traverse Cornwall Devon 
Dorset Somerset and Western Counties to the 
Ports in the Eastern or Northern Shores or their 
own Homes at a distance. Passes I humbley 
presume might be given by the Magistrate of 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 29, 1921, 



those Town to proceed to the next Town in their 
respective Routs and so by the magistrate of 
such next Town to the next marking the Dates of 
time passing such town and relieved by each Toivn. 
The Selfish objection is that it would bear hard 
on the Maritime Counties if reimbursd out of 
the County store but the inhabitants of such 
Counties would not wish them to be Inland 
Counties. They have certainly 



y ^ 

superior Benefits by such salva- I 

:s I 



Some Members 
of Parliament 
may fear to 
express such 
sentiment. 



tion from Exports and Imports 
Eich Travellers, Trade and 
Manufacturers and those Men- 
dicant Travellers must have relief as well in the 
Inland Counties also they necessarily pass through 
from Port to Port at any considerable distance. 

These Papers should express a Time allowd for 
such Rout and be alterd every 3 or 4 Months with 
marks, Information thereof circulated to each [ 
Justice or Magistrate of Towns within each I 
County and on producing to another County | 
the Pass of that County with their peculiar Marks ' 
of that County to transmit them further on their j 
Journey to Port or Home. For I have met with 
passes that serve not only many Months but 
years with a very little alteration or Forgery and 



some indigent Scribes have established offices for 
such Forgery. 

The misapplied Charity to the encouragement 
of Robbery and Murder and Expenditure for 
Removals and on Litigation for Settlement* 
would suffice for a great deal more than the 
Real Wants or even present Poor Rate and! 
prevent the Diminution of Subjects by Execu- 
tions and Transportation which is remarked to 
have little or no effect as still appears more to 
suffer such Penalty year after year. 

Thinking I might have an opportunity of men- 
tioning the within matter to your Lordship on 
your usual visit to Lord Fortescue when his- 
observations perhaps might corroberate my 
assertions I omitted the sending my Thoughts as- 
within written now take this opportunity of 
enclosing with the other Memorial and hope your 
Lordship will excuse any incorrectness or im- 
propriety therein by 
My Lord 

Yours Lordship most Obedient and 
Humble Servant, 

DENTS ROLLE. 

H. WILSON HOLMAN, F.S.A., M.I.M.E. 



AN ENGLISH ARMY LIST OF 1740. 

(See 12 S. ii. passim; iii. 46, 103, 267, 354, 408, 438; vi. 184, 233,^'242, 290, 329; 
vii. 83, 125, 146, 165, 187, 204, 265, 308, 327, 365, 423 ; viii.*6, 46.) 

The next regiment (p. 73) was raised in Edinburgh in 1689 originally called 
"Leven's," or the Edinburgh Regiment by the Earlr of Leven and other Scottish noble- 
men and gentlemen who had been refugees in Holland during the reign of James II. 
It was later designated : 

1751. The 25th Regiment of Foot ; 

1782. The 25th (or The Sussex) Regiment of Foot ; 

1805. The 25th (or King's Own Borderers) Regiment of Foot ; 

1881. The King's Own Borderers ; 

1887. The King's Own Scottish Borderers, 
which title it still (1920) retains. 



Earl of Rothes' Regiment of Foot. 

Colonel 

Lieutenant- Colonel 
Major 



Captains 



Earl of Rothes (1) 
James Kennedy (2) 
James Biggar (3) 
James Dalrymple 
David Cunningham (4) 
Lord ColviU 
Henry Ballenden 
Robert Armiger (5) 
John Maitland 
Richard Worge 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 
. 29 May 1732 
4 July 1737 
. 19 July 1732 
6 Mar. 1723 
8 Apr. ditto 
18 Dec. 1727 
25 ditto 
18 May 1735 

1 Mar. 1738/9 

2 ditto 



Dates of their first 
commissions. 



(1) John Leslie, iHh Earl of Rothes ; became Colonel of the 2nd Horse Grenadier Guards, Apr. 26 
1745, and of the 2nd Dragoons, Jan. 17, 1750. Died Dec. 10, 1767; See ' D.N.B.' 

(2) Sixth son of Sir Thomas Kennedy, Kt., of Dunure, Ayrshire ; became Colonel of the 43rd 
Foot, Feb. 7, 1745/6 ; Major-General, Jan* 28, 1756 ; Lieut.- General, 1761. Died 1761. 

(3) Lieut.-ColoneL 37th Foot, Ma*. 27, 1742. Killed in the battle of Falkirk, Jan. 17, 1746. 

(4) Now spelled Cunynghame. Second son of Sir David C., Bart., of Milncraig, Ayrshire ; 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Feb. 25,1745/6. Succeeded his brother James as 3rd Baronet in 1747; became 
Colonel of the 57th Foot, Mar. 22, 1757 ; Major- General, June 28, 1759 ; Lieut.- General, Jan. 19, 1761. 
Died Oct. 10, 1767. 

(5) To the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, as Captain and Lieut.-Colonel, Feb. 7, 1747 ; became 
Colonel of the 65th Foot, Apr. 2, 1768, and of the 40th Foot, Dec. 10, 1760 ; Major- General, June 25, 
1769; Lieut.- General, Jan. 19, 1761. Governor of Landguard Fort from May 25, 1768, until his 
death on Mar. 18, 1770, aged 68. 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



Earl of Rothes' Regiment of Foot 
(continued). 



Captain Lieutenant 



Lieutenants 



Ensigns 



Frederick Bruce (6) . . 
William Baird (7) 
William. Brodie 
George Scott (8) 
Harestreet James 
William Lucas 
James Hamilton (9) 
David Watson (10) 
David Douglass 
David Home (11; 
Charles Stevens 
James Levingston (12) 
George McKenzie 
Thomas Goddard (13) 
James Sandiland 
Robert Hay 
Alexander Garden 
Alexander Mackay 
Thomas Goodrick (14) 
^Patrick Lundin 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 

1 Mar. 1738/9 
. 21 Apr. 1724 
. 12 Mar. 1728 
. 30 May ditto 
4 Oct. ditto 
15 June 1732 

18 July ditto 
22 Dec. 1733 

19 July 1735 

8 Feb. 1737/8 

1 Mar. 
24 May 1733 

1 Nov. ditto 
14 Feb. 1734 
20 June 1735 
19 July ditto 
14 Feb. 1736 
11 Aug. 1737 

8 Feb. 1737/8 



Dates of their first 
commissions 



1 Mar. 1738/9 

The following additional names are entered in ink on the interleaf : 
Captain .. .. James Cunningham .. ..23 Apr. 1740 
Lieutenant .. .. Archibald Campbell .. .. 13 Mar. 1740/1 
/Charles Wedderburne .. 1 July 1740 

Henry Riggs 13 Mar. 1740/1 

Ensigns . . . . 1 John Abercrombie . . . . ditto 

Peter Labilliere . . . . ditto 

I Francis Hay .. .. .. 7 June 1741 

(6) Captain, July 1, 1740. 

(7) Captain-Lieutenant, July 1, 1740. 

(8) Ensign', Oct. 29, 1726 ; Major, Oct. 4, 1754 ; Lieut.-Colonel, Mar. 22, 1757. : 

(9) Captain, Feb. 25, 1745/6. 

(10) Cap tain -Lieutenant, Jan. 22, 1755. 

(11) Captain, July 4, 1749. 

(12) Lieutenant, July 1, 1740. 

(13) Lieutenant, Mar. 13, 1740/1. FT 

(14) Captain, July 4, 1749 ; Major, Mar. 22, 1757. 

J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Colonel^ (Retired List). 
(To be continued.} 



AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE ARCHIVES. 

(See ante, pp. 23, 45, 66.) 

THE TOWN CLEBK'S PIG. 1 



ALLOWANCE must be" made at this time for 
people's tempers, including that of the old 
Town Clerk. Richard Symons had a 
grievance against the wife of Christopher 
Smith, j glover L and whittawer not to be 
confused with Christopher Court, alias 
Smith, yeoman and kinsman of the new 
Steward. Christopher Smith, glover and 
whittawer, interests'?, us as being of the 
same craft as John Shakespeare and there- 
fore known to him. Besides being a glover 
and whittawer he kept, as John Shakespeare 
did not, an alehouse. He was a respected 
man, who had served at least once on the 
the Jury of Frankpledge, but like other 



respected townsmen he had been fined for 
breach of the bye-laws for allowing his dog 
to go unmuzzled, making a sterquinarium by 
the Mere side (where perhaps he lived) and 
permitting gambling in his house. On Feb.J28, 
1560 which was Ash Wednesday and a day 
of sorrow his dog bit the Town Clerk's pig. 
Even the Town Clerk had his delinquencies. 
On more than one occasion he had been fined 
for suffering his pig to wander in the streets. 
The pig in question was a particularly fine 
beast, valued at thirteen shillings and four- 
pence. It was deliberately worried, the old 
gentleman alleged, at the instigation of 
Christopher Smith's wife, Margaret., She 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vnijAK.29,i02i: 



ihad the dog on a chain and set him upon the 
pig, with the result that after lingering in 
pain (languebat) until Mar. 4, which was a 
Monday, the pig expired. On this day, 
however, Margaret Smith, instead of ex- 
pressing regret at what had occurred, added 
insult to injury by making use of the 
following words, in English (Anglice), 
" Richard Symons' wife did steal our gander. " 
This abominable charge was too much for 
the old officer, verus et fidelis legens Dominae 
Reginae et sic apud omnes graves homines et 
fideles subditos ejusdem Reginae a tempore 
nativitatis suae et ita inter omnes notes et 
vicinos suos acceptus, datus et reputatus, 

" the true and faithful liegeman of our lady the 
'Queen, and among all grave men and faithful sub- 
jects of the same Queen from the time of his birth 
and among all his acquaintance and neighbours ac- 
cepted, allowed and well-reputed," 

who forthwith proceeded to claim damages 
in the Court of Record, 13s. 4c?. for his pig 
and 30s. for his wife. 

Three months later, on May 29, Richard 
Symons in his turn made a serious charge in 
public against the new resident at New Place. 
"You may see," he said, in scorn, "what 
honesty is in William Bott, that hath taken 
forty pence of Holloway to be a counsel with 
him against Rawlins, and now hath made 
Rawlins play against Holloway, of his own 
handwriting, and that I will justify. " From 
what we know of William Bott, Symons was 
not far wrong in his estimate of the Cloptons' 
agent. On June 1, three days after Symons' 
speech, Bott was at Snitterfield, making -the 
inventory of the goods of Henry Coles, the 
village blacksmith, with old Richard Shake- 
speare. 

EDGAB I. FRIPP. 

(To be continued.) 



LONDON COACHING AND CARRIERS 
INNS .IN 1732. 

(See ante, p. 61.) 



Castle : Smithfield. 
Coaches. 
M. . . Uttoxeter. 



Carrier. 
Tb. Oundle. 



Castle : Wood Street. 
Carriers. 

M. Th. . . Grantham, Stamford. 
M. . . Ashborn, Burton. 
Th. . . Bridgwater, Frome. 
F. .. Carlisle, Chesterfield, Doncaster, 

Kendal, Shrewsbury, Sheffield, 

Whitehaven. Wells. 



Castle and Falcon : Aldersgate Street. 

Coach. 
-M. . Birmingham. 

Carriers. 

M. F. S. Birmingham. 

M. TJQ. Chester, Denbigh, Drayton, St. 
Asaph, Shrewsbury, Stafford, 
Whitchm-ch, Newport (Salop). 

T. .. Newcastle (Staffs.). .. 

W. . . Litchfield [sic]. 

F. . . Leverpool, Stockport. 

S. . . Brickhill, Cranfield, Knotsford [sic], 
Macclesfield, Rugby. 

Catherine Wjeel : Bishopsgate Without. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Dulwich. 

W. S. Stretham [sic], Siddenham [sic]. 
Carriers. 
M. W. F. Broxburn, Cheshunt, Hertford, 

Wormley. T. Golden. 
Th. . . Chatris (? Chatteris). F. Ashwell. 

*Chequer : Charing Cross. 

Flying Coach. 
.M. W. F. Bath, Bristol. 

Coaches. 
V T. Th. S. Hampton Court. 

*Coach and Horses : Charing Cross. 
Coaches. 

Every day in summer. Epsom. 
T. Th. S. Chertsey. 

Coach and Horses : Against Somerset House. 
Coaches. 

Every .day. Acton, Chelsea, Eaton, Ealing, 
Hammersmith, Kensington. 

Cock : Aldersgate. 
Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Luton. 
Carrier. 

T. & F . . Welling ( Wellyn), Luton 

T. & S. St. Albans, W. Kimbolton. 

Th. . . Ampton, Fenny Stratford. 

M. . . Barnet. 

Cock : Old Street. 
Carriers. 

M. . . Baldock. 
T. & F. . . Steveneage [sic]. 

Cross Keys : Gracechurch Street. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Camberwell, Chatham, Clapham, i 
Croydon, Deptford, Epsom, 
Green wich, Rochester. 
M. W. F. Beccles, Ipswich, Portsmouth, Sax- 

mundham, Woodbridge. 
T. Th. S. Witham. 
M. F. . . Gosport. 
Carriers. 

W. . . Woodbridge. 

Th. . . Lavenham, [ Lenham, Stowmarket, I 
Sudbury. 

Cross Keys : St. John's Street. 
Coaches. 
Twice daily. Barnet. 

Cross Keys : Wood Street. 
Carriers. 

F. . . Hereford. 
S. . . Cambden (? Campden). 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921. NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85- 



Crown : Holborn. 
Coaches. 

M. W. F. Aylesbury. 
T. S. . . Rickmans worth. 

Crown : St. Margaret's Hill. 
Coaches. 
T. F. . . Guildford. 

Dolphin : Bishopsgate Without. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Cheshunt. 
T. Th. S. Buntingford, Haddam, Hcddesdon, 

Fuckeridge, Ware. 
Carrier?. 
T. Th. S. Buntingford, Ware. 

Four Swans : Bishopsgate Within. 
Coaches. 
Every day. Cheshunt, Hertford. 

Fox and Knot : Cow Lane. 
Carriers. 

W. . . Chipperfield. 
M. W. F. Watford. 

George. Aldersgate. 
Coaches. 

M. W. F. Chester, Northal (? Northaw). 

M. W. Warrington. 

T. Th. Cadicout (? Codicote). 

M. . . Shrewsbury. W. Litchfield [sic]. 
Carrier^. 

M. . . Boston. S. Ludlow. 

George : Smithfield. 
Coaches. 

Th. S. Coventry. 
Carriers. 

M. . . Nottingham, Bedford. 

T. S. . . Buckingham. 

Th. . . Oney. S. Tewksbury. 

George : Snow Hill. 
Coaches. 

Th. . . Witney. T. Bristow (?). 
Carriers. 
V. & S. Watford. 

George : Southwark. 
Carriers. 

T. & F. . . Southborough. 

Th. . . Endfield (Sussex), Shoreham, West 
Gr instead. 

Gerrard's Hall : Basinghall Street. 
Carriers. 

S. . . Shaftesbury, Sherbourn, Dorchester. 
Th. . . Beading. 

Golden Lyon : St. John Street. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Whetstone. 
Carriers. 
W. .. Newport Pagnel. Th. Haddon (?) 

Green Dragon : Bishopsgate Street Within. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Ely, Endfield, Tottenham, Walt- 
ham Abbey, Walthamstow. 
M. W. S. Newmarket. 
T. Th. S. Cambridge. 
M. Th. Lynn. W. F. Norwich. 
Th. S. . . Yarmouth. M. Bury St. Edmunds. 
Carriers. 

T. Th. S. Wisbech. T. Th. Downham. 
T. F. . . Hertford. W. Cambridge. 
Th. . . Ely, North Walsham, Norwich. 



Greyhound : Holborn. 
Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Oxford. 
Carrier. 
S. .. Swaffon (?). 

Greyhound : Smithfield. 
Flying coaches. 
Every day. Northampton. 
Coaches. 
T. Th. S. Hitching (Hitchen). 

Greyhound : Southwark. 
Carriers. 

M.& F. . . Mitcham, Stretham, Suttan. 
T. & F. . . Westram (? Westerham). 
W.& S. . . Darking (? Dorking). 
Th. . . Eastborn, Forest Bow, Hurst, May- 
field. 

Half-Moon : Southwark. 
Carriers. 

W. . . Blechenley, Linfield. 

Th. . . Buckstead. 

S. . . Oakstead. 

Horse Shoe : Goswel Boad [sic]. 
Coaches, 

Th. . . Boston. 
Carriers. 

M. .. St. Neats. 

W. .. Wellingborough. T. F. Baldock^ 

S. . . Cadicout (? Codicote). 

Ipswich Arms : Cullum Street. 
Carriers. 

M. W. Hitching (Hitchen). 
F. ... Broadoak, Falstead [sic]. 

King's Arms : Holborn Bridge. 
Carriers. 

M- F. . . Salisbury. W. F. Southampton. 
W. . . Andover, Newberry. 
Th. . . Warmester [sic]. 

King's Arms : Leadenhall Street. 
Coaches. 

M.T. Th. Bomford. 

T. Th. S. Bishop Stortford, Chelmsford, Col- 
chester. 

T. Th. Chipping Norton. 
T. F. . . Harwich. W. S. Bellerica [sic], 
Carriers. 

T. F. . . Chelmsford. 
Th. .. Boxford, Colchester. F. Dedham, 

King's Head : Old Change. 
Carriers. 
S. .. Wotton. Th. Gloucester. 

King's Head : Southwark. 
Coach. 

W. .. Horsham. T. S. Leatherhead. 
Carrier. 

M. Th. Godalmin, Petersfield. M. S.] Hor- 
sham. 

T. S. . . Epsom, Leatherhead. 
Th. . . Dover, Steyning. 

King's Head : Strand. 
Coaches. 
T. Th. S. Basingstoke. 

Nag's Head : Aldersgate Street. 
Coaches. 
Every day. Highgate. , 



86 



NQTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vra. JAN. 28, 1921. 



:Nag's Head : Whitechapel. 
Coaches. 
T. W. Th. S. Epping. 

"Oxford Arms : Warwick Lane. 
Coaches. 

31. W. F. Oxford. M,. Dorchester. 
Carriers. 

T. S. . . Bray, Windsor. 

31. Blandford, Henlow, Layton Buzzard 
W. . . Buckingham, Bicester, Wendover. 
Th. . . Beading, Oxford, Wallingford, Wat- 

lington, Wantage. 
F. . . Chipping Norton, Haddingham 

(? Haddenham), Thame. 
S. . . Highworth, Oundle, Winslow. 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 
(Tote continued.) 



ST. PAUL'S CHAPTER HOUSE. 

press has noticed the impending use of 
this fine house as a bank for the term, of 
21 years. The well-meant protest by archi- 
tectural students from University College 
failed, because it came too late and the 
lease had already been signed. Notwith- 
standing this, their endeavour was novel and 
commendable ; it was I believe the first 
-occasion on which a demonstration for such 
,a purpose had been held, and if this interest 
develops it may yet attain to definite suc- 
cesses and the general reformation of the 
custody of National monuments. 

The house is well known and has been the 
.subject of several illustrative monographs. 
Its claims, other than the architecture and 
decorations, lie in the commemorative 
importance of the site, which was, prior to 
the erection of the Chapter House, part of 
the site of the Bishop of London's Palace. 

Useful evidence is provided in an Inden- 
ture of Sale by the Commissioners appointed 
fey the Commonwealth to Richard Coyshe 
or Coyish, " Citizen and Skinner of London " 
on Aug. 15, 1649, for 300Z.. 

" All that ground or soyle no we or late parcell 
of or appurteyninge to the capital messuage or 
Pallace situate in or neare Paulls Churchyard 
London late called the Bishopp of London's 
Pallace conteyninge from East .to West thirty- 
five foote of assize and from North to South 
Ninety Nine foote of assize being Two Third 
Parts of the ground alloted and staked out to be 
sould to build houses upon in Paulls Alley and 
abutteth West upon a parcell of ground called 
in the survey thereof the middle parte of the said 
Pallace conteyninge Two hundred [and] fifty- 
rseven feete in length from East to West alloted 
-.for New buildings and sould unto the said 
Bichard Coysh North upon a parcell of the said 
vground alloted to build houses upon in Paull s 



Alley whereupon William Bolton hath begun to 
erect buildings and extendeth Eastward to the 
outside of a Stone Wall standing or w[hic]h 
lately stood next Paull's Alley soe farre as that 
reatheth (reacheth] and then 'towards the South 
end to an even range w[i]th that Stone wall 
into a Shopp in the possession of Robert Taylor 
and another in the possession of Webb and 
soe abutteth East upon a slipp of ground in 
Paulls Alley supposed to have been formerly 
parte of the Wast[e] or Churchway whereupon 
now stands or lately stood narrow Shopps or 
Shedds which Shopps or Shedds are in breadth 
att the North End three foote from East to West 
and att the South End three foote of assize and 
Seven Inches and South upon another parcell 
of the ground alloted and staked out to build 
houses in Pauls Alley sould also to the said 
Richard Coysh together with all waies passages 
Watercourses Lights Easements, &c." 

The deed is signed by the Commissioners 
(Sir; . John Wollaston, Thos. Noel, Will. 
Hobson, John Bellamie, Lawrence Brom- 
field, James Stowye, Stephen Estwicke, 
Richard Vennar, Robert Meade, and has 
the necessary endorsement and signature of 

"Elisha Coysh, Doctor in Physicke, sonne 
and heire of ye within named Richard 
Coysh," surrendering Dec. 29, 1662, all his 
inheritance of the within mentioned pre- 
mises acknowledging to have received " full 
satisfaction for ye pretended purchase." 

This description of the site is specially 
interesting as helping towards the identifi- 
cation of the site of the Bishop of London's 
Palace. Printed reference to this are few 
and of small usefulness. Dean Milmati 

'Annals of St. Paul's'), the leading his- 
torian of the Cathedral and its environs has 
ittle to say except of Cornelius Burgess 
who unluckily also purchased Cathedral 
property from the Parliamentary Com- 
nittee. Canon Sparrow Simpson ('Chap- 
ters in the History of Old St. Paul's ') has 
made some slight research but evidently 
considered that it did not help to illustrate 
;he annals of the Cathedral, so relatively the 
subject has been neglected and it is due 
solely to the architecture of the Chapter 
House that present-day interest in its 
Dossible change has been awakened. 

ALECK ABRAHAMS. 



' BOSS-BENT." This word, which would 
seem to be a synonym of " boss-backed," is 
not recognized in the ' N.E.D.' 

Southey visited Selkirk on Sunday, Oct. 6, 
1805, and remarks (' Commonplace Book,' 
4th Series, p. 529) : " The people dismally 
ugly, soon old, and then boss-bent." 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



"PARAPET," A STREET FOOTWAY. In 
1908 a note of mine appeared (10 S. x. 366), 
in which, after remarking that "parapet " 
was the word generally used in Lancashire 
(possibly I should have said South Lan- 
cashire) for a street footway, I gave a 
quotation from a 1766 French book in which 
the word apparently meant footway. 

The ' New English Dictionary ' gives this 
meaning as used "locally," but has nothing 
-earlier than, 1840, and its one quotation is 
dated 1900. The 'Dialect Dictionary' 
does not give the word. John Chetwode 
Eustace uses "parapet " apparently for 
*' footway" in his 'Classical Tour through 
Italy, An. MDCCCII.' I am referring to the 
fourth edition, published at Leghorn, 1818, 
vol. iii. In his description of Pompeii he 
writes : 

"The street which runs from the neighbourhood 
-of the soldiers' quarters to the gate is narrow, 
that is, only about thirteen feet wide, formed 
like the Via Appia at Itri and other places, 
where it remains entire of large stones fitted to 
each other in their original form, without being 
cut or broken for the purpose. There are on each 
side parapets raised about two feet above the 
middle and about three feet wide." (P. 66 .) 

"The gate has one large central and two less 
openings on the side, with parapets of the same 
breadth as the street." (P. 67.) 

The footways in Pompeii were of various 
heights. There are several plates (6, 11, 
51, 85) in Sir William Gell's 'Pompeiana,' 

.837, in which they do not appear to be at 
all high. In the description of plate 38, 
vol. ii., viz., 'Windows of the Atrium ' (of 
the house of the Tragic Poet), Gel! writes, 
pp. 101, 102 : 

"The foot pavement itself is here one foot 

*even inches higher than the street or vicus 

The vicus, without the footpaths, which are each 
a-bout three feet nine inches wide, measures only 
seven feet six inches in breadth." 

^ A 'Guide de Pompei,' by Nicolas Pagano, 
'Surveillant des fouilles d'antiquite, 6th ed., 
:Scafati, 1881, p. 27, says, "Toutes les rues 
sont bordees de trottoirs." 

It is not improbable that "parapet" 
meant "footway" in Staffordshire where 
Eustace was at Sedgley Park school, 1767, 
or thereabouts 1774, according to the 
Dictionary of National Biography. ' Appar- 
ently in his ' Classical Tour ' he was, -on 
P- 56, referring to an unusually high 
parapet. " I find in ' Pompeii : its History, 
Buildings, and Antiquities,' by Thomas H. 

).ver, LL.D., 1867, pp. 70, 71 : 
" The width of the streets varies from eight 

i* nine feet to about twenty-two, including the 
footpaths or trottoirs The kerb-stones are 



elevated from one foot to eighteen inches, and 
separate the foot-pavement from the road. 
Throughout the city there is hardly a street 
unfurnished with this convenience. Where there 
is width to admit of a broad foot-path, the interval 
between the curb and the line of building is filled 
up with earth, which has then been covered over 
with stucco, and sometimes with a coarse mosaic 
of brickwork." 

Perhaps Eustace was not exact in his 
measurements. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

[See also 12 S. i. 190, 319.] 

EARLY EFFORT AT FLYING. Possibly one 
of the first attempts to use the air was that 
of Eilmer, or Oliver, of Malmesbury, in the 
reign of King Harold. So confident was he 
of success that, after fitting on a pair of 
large wings, he threw himself off a lofty 
tower and is said to have skimmed through 
the air for quite a furlong before he fell, 
breaking both legs in go doing. He ascribed 
his accident to having neglected to fit on a 
tail for the purpose of balancing. R. B. 

Upton. 

JOHN EGERTON, THIRD EARL OF BRIDG- 
WATER (1646-1701). A French novel 
founded on the fortunes of this earl and 
his first wife forms Sloane MS. 1009, ff. 
360-365. This does not appear to be noted 
in the 'D.N.B.' J. ARBAGH. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT AND FRANCE A 
CENTURY AGO. It is not generally known 
that Charles X. was the first to introduce 
Sir Walter Scott's novels into France. The 
last legitimist King of France during his 
first exile in Britain resided some time at 
Holyrood House, Edinburgh, and is said to 
be the first Frenchman who read ' Waverley ' 
on its first appearance. The King, after his 
coronation, told the Duke of Northumber- 
land that the happiest time of his life was 
when he was reading the ' Vicar of Wake- 
field ' in England and the ' Lady of the 
Lake ' in Scotland. Armand, Comte de 
Pontmartin, who afterwards became a dis- 
tinguished literary critic, as a small boy 
was one of the pages at the coronation, and 
four years before his death in his feuilleton 
of the Gazette de France (July 17, 1886), 
gives the following account of the vogue of 
Scott's novels in France a century ago : 

" Quel que soit le talent ou,le ge'nie d Pouch- 
kine, de Go&ol, de Tourguenef, de Dostoiesky, de 
Tolstoi, quelle que soit leur vogue aupres de la 
jeunesse Iettr6e, avide de renouveau, elle n'egalera 
jamais celle de Walter Scott pendant la phase 
brillante qui va de 1820 a 1835. Cette fois, ce 
n'^tait pas un groupe studieux et curieux, se pas- 
sionnant pour une litte>ature e'trangere : c'^tait la 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. JAN. 29, 1921. 



France tout entire, depuis 1'academicien jusqu'au 
petit bourgeois de province, depuis la grand dame 
jusqu'a la grisette, qui preriait feu pour les recits 
de cet Ecossais, plus populaire dans notrepays que 
dans le sien. ll s'etait empare de nos salons, de nos 
theatres, de nos ateliers, de nos expositions de 
peinture. II teignait de ses couleurs 1'histoire et le 
roman : il etendait son influence sur les fantaisies 
de la mode, sur les ameublements, les costumes, sur 
toutes les varietes du bric-a-brac moyen age qui date 
de lui. C'est que 1'auteur de 'Waverley' arrival t 
pour nous a son moment ; il s'accordait merveilleuse- 
ment avec une epoque pu notre ecole romantique 
cherchait sa voie, ranimait le culte du passe, 
renouvelait les etudes historiques, et rompait avec 
les Grecs et les Romains en 1'honneur des XV e et 
XVI e siecles. Un peu plus tard, apresles journ^es 
de juillet 1830, sa vogue eut encore un regain, grace 
a nos imaginations legitimistes et romanesques, qui 
d^couvraient des analogies entre les Bourbons et 
les Stuarts." 

Charles X. was again in exile at Holyrood 
House, when Sir Walter Scott passed away 
at Abbotsford, in September, 1832. 

ANDREW DE TERNANT. 
36 Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in. 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their querie s 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



'MRS. DRAKE REVIVED.' The late Col. 
Vivian in his ' Visitations of Devon, ' under 
the name of Joan, eldest daughter and co- 
heiress of William Tothill, and wife of 
Francis Drake of Esher, notes that she was 
the subject of a remarkable memoir bearing 
this title; and that Katharine, her sister, 
was the youngest of thirty-three children. 
Can any reader tell me whether the title is 
correctly given, and for what the memoir 
is specially remarkable ? It is not in the 
London Library. A. T. M. 

BAGRATION. I wonder if any reader could 
give me information concerning the family 
of the lady who, in 1850, married Prince 
Alexander Petrovitch Bagration. The mar- 
riage took place in London. She was of a 
Welsn family named Williams. 

Prince Bagration was at the time a 
Russian military officer, and a member of 
the family who formerly held the throne of 
Georgia prior to the annexation to the 
Russian Empire. 

I am contemplating an attempt to write 
a history of the Bagratia Dynasty, which is 
considerably older than any other in Europe, 
being, in point of antiquity, only exceeded 



by some of the Rajput lines in India. I aiiT 
a grandson of the person concerning whom 
I am inquiring. I was taken from Russia 
as a small boy, and of my British grand- 
mother or her people I know nothing. 

Any information concerning this marriage, 
or concerning anything else material to the 
story of the Bagration family in England,, 
would be very gratefully accepted. 

ALEXANDER BAGRATION. 

Lockport, N.Y. 

GREEN, OF co. TIPPERARY.- Dorothy,, 
daughter and co-heiress of Major Samuel 
Green, of Killaghy, co. Tipperary, was the 
mother of the fifth Viscount Allen. 

Can any reader supply me with the name 
of Major Green's wife, and any particulars 
of this lady ? P. D. M. 

PAUL MARNY. I should be glad to know 
something of the life of tnis water colour 
artist. A recent notice of acquisitions by 
the British Museum gave "two colour 
prints after De Marny." Is this the same- 
artist ? C. G. N. 

THE BRITISH IN SARDINIA. The following 
paragraph is taken from ' England's. 
Artillerymen,' by J. A. Browne, published 
in 1865 : 

" Detachments of Royal Artillerymen were sent 
to the Mediterranean to serve on board the bomb- 
vessels of Admiral Mathews's fleet. In 1744 the 
King of Sardinia applied to the admiral to allow 
these artillerymen to take charge of the most im- 
portant ports and batteries on his frontiers. One 
captain, four lieutenants, and twenty-four bom- 
bardiers were accordingly landed, and served with, 
distinction at the defence of Montalban and Mont- 
leuze. These two fortresses being assaulted and 
taken by the French and Spaniards in April, the- 
detachments were made prisoners." 
Where were these fortresses situated ? 

Does any account exist of their capture 
in 1744 ? J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Col. 

ZELLA TRELAWNY.- I have been unable 
to trace the history of Zella, the daughter of 
Edward Trelawny, the friend of Shelley 
and Byron. 

Trele.wny mentions Zella in letters to- 
Claire Clairmont circa 1829, but not ^later ; 
perhaps some reader of ' N. & Q.' may 
kindly afford information. E. M. S. 

VOLANS. I shall be pleased if any 
genealogist can inform me of the source of 
the family name Volans. It is found chiefly 
in Yorkshire, being fairly common aroundl 
Selby and York. J. R. VOLANS. 

41 Norwood Road, Shipley, Yorks. 



12 s. vin. JAN. 29, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



ROBEKT CHOKE, ft. 1270. In 'Some 
Feudal Coats of Arms and Pedigrees ' there 
occurs a Robert Croke who took up the 
cross in the last Crusade 1270. Can any of 
your readers say from what part of the 
country this Robert Croke came, or, better 
still, inform me to what family he belonged ? 
I have no evidence, but it is just possible 



that he may have belonged to the Lanca- 
shire Crooks, the senior branch of which held 
the manor of Crook in the township of 
^yhittle-le- Woods from the twelfth to the 
sixteenth century. In the short skeleton 
pedigree given below there is a Robert who 
would be contemporary with the one 
named in the above-mentioned work : 



Gilbert de Whittle, living circa 1150=r 

(See ' Lancashire Pipe Rolls,' 
&c. (Farrer) 



Henry de Whittle. Made a grant of land in=f 

Whittle to the Knights Hospitallers | 



Hugh de Crook (also styled^r... 
"de Whittle"), living 1257 I 

Issue. 



Richard de Clayton=f= 
(or "de Crook") 



Issue. 



Roger de Crook (also styled=p. 
"dejWhittle") | 

RobertFf 

Issue. 

I should be grateful for any information sent direct to me at the address below. 
Eccleston Park, Preseot, Lancashire. F. CROOKS. 



JOHN BEAUMONT. The following query 
appeared at 8 S. viii. 187 : 

" I have an oval miniature on vellum, about three 
and a half inches by three inches, enclosed within 
a silver-gilt case with glass ; a loop, formed in the 
shape of a true lover's knot, for suspension. The 
miniature is probably by Richardson, a portrait 
painter of some repute early in the eighteenth 
century, and the portrait is dressed in a grey open 
coat, coloured waistcoat and frill or lace neckcloth. 
Who was the John Beaumont above referred to ? 

J. HENRY." 

Can any one inform me if the writer of 
this query is still alive, or who has possession 
of the eighteenth century miniature of John 
Beaumont to which he refers ? 

E. BEAUMONT. 

1 Staverton Road, Oxford. 

PORTRAIT OF LEOPOLD I. OF BELGIUM. 
A fine equestrian life-size painting of King 
Leopold I. of Belgium was a notable feature 
for many years of the principal dining- 
room of the former De Keyser's Royal 
Hotel at Blackfriars. Where is this picture 
at present located ? 

J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

101 Piccadilly, W. 

GOUGER. Information required as to 
name of Gouger believed now to be 
extinct. (Mrs.) C. STEPHEN. 

STAPLETON, TUTOR TO O'CONNELL. Can 
any one give any record of a Brian Stapleton 
or Bryan Stapylton, tutor to Daniel 
O'Connell? (Mrs.) C. STEPHEN. 

Wootton Cottage, Lincoln. 



EDWARD BOOTY. Information is sought 
concerning the life and remains of Edward 
Booty of Brighton, landscape painter, who 
exhibited in London between 1846 and 
1848. Was he a connexion of Henry R. 
Booty who exhibited in 1882-3 ? 

F. GORDON ROE. 
Arts Club, 40 Dover Street, W.I. 

KINEMA OR CINEMA ? I do not know 
whether the spelling and pronunciation of 
this word has been discused in ' N. & Q.' 
There is, I believe, a Cinematograph Act of 
Parliament ; and if so spelt in the Statute 
Book, it may be regarded as an authoritative 
ruling. G. B. M. 

THE MAYFLOWER : PETER BROWN. One 
of the passengers was a Peter Brown, 
carpenter, an ancestor of the renowned John 
Brown of Harper's Ferry. Could any one 
state birthplace or county of origin of Peter ? 

F. BROWN. 
1 and 2 Whitfield Street, E.C.2. 

MAUNDRELL'S 'JOURNEY FROM ALEPPO 
TO JERUSALEM,' EASTER, 1697. This passed 
through many editions not only alone, and 
combined with the same author's * Journey ' 
from Aleppo to Beer on the Euphrates, and 
to Mesopotamia ; but bound up under one 
title-page with Dr. Clayton's translation 
of the Journal which the Prefetto of Egypt 
kept of the journey he took in 1722 from 
Cairo to Mount Sinai and back, and, in at 
least one instance, along with Jos. Pitts's 
'Faithful Account of the Religion,' &c., 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. JAN. 29, mi. 



of the Mahometans, and of the visit he paid 
to Mecca. 

I have a copy of the second edition dated 
Oxford, MDCCVII, and I have compared two 
copies, dated London, 1810 ; one of which 
is said to be the eighth and the other the 
tenth ! I should like to be informed when 
and where the first was issued, and also the 
ninth ? W. S. B. H. 

TOBACCO: "BIRD'S EYE." We know 
why certain kinds of tobacco are called 
Returns. Why was "Bird's Eye" so 
called ? I am not learned in tobaccos, but 
I believe "Bird's Eye " has "knots " in it. 
How are they made ? 

M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

'THOMAS DANN AND ALICE LTJCAS.' 
I have an etching by W. J. White, 1818, 
named as above. Can any reader inform 
me as to its origin ? A. E. BOWDEN. 

8 Bloom Grove, West Norwood, S.E. 

"A MISS IS AS GOOD AS A MAN." In a 

lecture delivered at Toulouse on July 10, 
1918, by M. Emile Boutroux of the Academie 
Fran^aise, the eminent Academician said : 

"Les fe"ministes n'oubliereut pas, toutefois, 

queleur ambition essentiellee'taitdefaire admettre 
que, dans une foule de professions, la on Ton croit 
que 1'homme seul peut re"ussir, la femme, en 
re'alite', peut rendre les mmes services, a miss is as 
good as a man.'* 

Did M. Boutroux invent this perversion 
of the old proverb, or did he take it from 
some comic paper ? 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

THE TURBTJLINES. Any source of infor- 
mation regarding this sect would oblige. 

Schaff-Herzog in ' A Religious Encyclo 
psedia,' vol. iii. p. 1994, 3rd edition, 1894, 
compares them to the " Ranters, An Anti 
nomian sect of the Commonwealth Period,' 
whom Fuller in his ' Church History ' 
associates with the Familists. 

" They are described as believing themselves in 
capable of sinning, and fancying themselves in 
Adam 's state as he was in Paradise before the fall, 
as stripping themselves naked (like the Turbulines, 
&o.) at their public meetings." 

FREDERICK CHARLES WHITE. 

BOOK WANTED. Can any one tell me 
the author's name or title of a book, written 
as an autobiography, describing how a 
young man, living in London, goes into the 
country to his father's funeral and finds 
his estate was mortgaged and wrecked. He 
returns to London, seeks work, becomes 



secretary to Lord , and has a varied 

career, landing at last in Newgate. Thence 
escapes with a pal to sea, acting as super- 
cargo in trips to France, and eventually 
goes to the South Seas, a description of 
which covers more than half the story. 
Date, say, eighteenth or early nineteenth 
century. " E. H. C. 

STANIER. Wanted particulars of the 
marriage of John Stanier and Bridget, 
1716-1727 ; probably in Shropshire (not in 
printed registers) or Oxfordshire, or North- 
amptonshire. H. ST. JOHN DAWSON. 

TAVERN SIGN: "NONE THE WISER." 
The other day I noticed an inn in Edmonton 
bearing the above sign. 

Can any reader inform me what is the 
origin of it ? It is not mentioned in Larwood. 
WALTER B. PATON. 

10 Stanhope Gardens, Queen's Gate, S.W.7. 

WILLIAM HOLDER was admitted to West- 
minster School in April 1733, aged 11. Was 
he one of the Holders of Gloucester (See 
12 S. vii. 510) ? Any information about his 
parentage and career would be useful. 

G. F. R. B. 

CHIPPENDALE. Is anything known of the* 
parentage of Thomas Chippendale, the 
cabinet maker ? The 'D.N.B.' simply says 
that he was "a native of Worcestershire 
who came to London in the reign of 
George I." Mr. J. P. Blake, in his little 
book 'Chippendale and his School,' says : 

*' There were three Thomas Chippendales, all of 
whom were carvers or craftsmen, or both. The 
second of the three was the great Thomas Chippen- 
dale. The first Chippendale is said to have been a 
well-known cabinet-maker at Worcester at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. It is believed 
that father and son came to London about 1727 and 
started business together." 

The same authority states that he was 
buried at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on 
Nov. 13, 1779. 

In the Register of the Cathedral Church, 
Sheffield, is the following entry : 

"Married 11 Nov. 1707 Thos. Chippendale and 
Martha Hudson ot Hallam." 

Can this be the father of the great 
Thomas ? Did he come to Sheffield for his 
wife ? I have not met with any other 
instance of the name in the Register. 

CHARLES DRURY. 

12 Ranmoor Cliffe Road, Sheffield. 

[Our correspondent might consult 11 S. vi. 407 ; 
vii. 10,54, 94, 153,216.] 



i2s. vm. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



LEIGH HUNT. In ' Chambers's Cyclopaedia 
of English Literature ' (editions from 1844- 
1892) there is included, among the re- 
presentative selections from Leigh Hunt a 
*' Dirge " ("Blessed is the turf, serenely 
blest "). I have not found this elsewhere 
^attributed to or acknowledged by Leigh 
Hunt. Can any reader trace it for me ? 

F. PAGE. 

MORGAN PHILLIPS. This Roman Catholic 
worthy, one of the founders of Douay College, 
where he died 1570, was also known and 
referred to as Phillip Morgan. Where was 
lie a native of originally ? 

ANEURIN WILLIAMS. 

SPENCER TURNER. Information is desired 
about this man. He had a nursery at 
Holloway Down, Essex, in 1787 (?) Had 
tie any connexion with Turner's oak ? 

J. ARDAGH. 

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. 

The following must belong to some work between 
1700-1770. Are they from Pitt's speeches? 

1. " My hold of the colonies is in the close affec- 
tion which grows from common names, from kindred 
blood, from similar privileges and equal protection. 

44 These are ties which, though light as air, are as 
strong as links of iron." 

2. " To hinder insurrection by driving away the 
people, and to govern peaceably by having no sub- 
jects, is an expedient that argues no great profundity 
of politics. It affords a legislator little self-applause 
to consider that, where there was formerly an in- 
surrection, is now a wilderness." L. H. P. 

3. Will some one please supply author of these 
lines, and fill in missing words? 

^Somewhere there wanders thro' this world of ours 

Two hungry souls 

Each chasing each thro' all the weary hours, 
And meeting strangely at some sudden goal, 
Then blend they, like green leaves with golden 

flowers, 

Into one beautiful and perfect whole, 
And life's long night is ended, and the way 
Seems open onward to Eternal Day. 

M. A. P. 

4. Who wrote the following, and concerning 
whom? It is a quotation from Beckmann. 

Si son execrable m^moire 

Parvient a la poste'rite'. 
C'est que le crime, aussi bien que la gloire 

Conduit a I'immortaUte. 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 
^>. Who wrote : 

Time, and the ocean, and some fostering star, 
In high cabal have made us what we are. 

J. R. H. 

5. Sir William Watson : ' Ode on the Day of the 
Coronation of King Edward VII.,' 11. 8 and 9.1 



TERCENTENARY HANDLIST OF 
NEWSPAPERS. 

(12 S. viii. 38. See vii, 480.) 

EVERYONE interested in the history of news- 
papers and periodicals must be grateful to 
Mr. J. G. Muddiman and to The Times for 
the compilation and publication of the 
'Handlist ' to the former for undertaking 
such laborious work, and to the latter for 
enabling it to be printed for the use of 
students. The more the 'Handlist ' is 
used the more its value will be appreciated 
and if, with the co-operation of readers of 
'N. & Q.', the earlier history of the press 
can be brought to completion a * very 
necessary piece of research will be available 
for posterity. Mr. Muddiman will be the 
first to acknowledge that such a work as 
his must be incomplete, more especially, 
perhaps, in the provincial section, and here 
I think he might well have asked publicly 
for assistance in compiling lists and so have 
made his ' Handlist ' of even more value. 
The fugitive nature of provincial papers is 
well known and records of many can only 
be obtained by using local knowledge. 

Two other suggestions are offered. Having 
put the index to a fairly close test the need 
for more direct reference to the titles is felt. 
The chronological arrangement having been 
adhered to throughout makes searching 
for titles more difficult than would have 
been the case had the group of papers under 
each year been numbered. For example, 
under 1888 in section II. there are 126 titles 
and had these been numbered from 1 
onwards and referred to in the index as 
1888 (1), 1888 (2), &c., instant reference 
could have been made. The initial labour 
would have been greater and the cost of 
printing added to, but the ultimate saving 
in time to users of the list would have been 
immense. 

Secondly, the index would have been 
more complete had it included the titles of 
papers which were the successors, under 
different names, of earlier ones. As examples 
I give (1) the (second) Gloucester Mercury 
(1856), which was a continuation of The 
Gloucester Free Press (see p. 240, col. 2), 
and (2) The South Midland Free Press, the 
continuation of The Northamptonshire Free 
Press. Neither is indexed. Unless one has 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 29, 1921. 



special knowledge of these changes it may 
be assumed too quickly that they have been 
omitted. 

The following list has been compiled frcm 
papers actually in my possession or seen 
elsewhere. It is divided in two parts in 
accordance with the plan in the ' Handlist. ' 
I have made every effort to check the titles 
so that they may be real additions. 

PART I. LONDON. 

1809. Bell's Weekly Dispatch. Vol. ii., No. 396, 
Apr. 9. [I cannot trace this in Hand- 
list : Grant, Newspaper Press, iii., 
39-40 says established in 1801 but had 
not seen it earlier than 1812.] 

1820. Riley's Political Digest. Dec. 11. 

1829. The Weekly Free Press. Vol iv., No. 183, 
Jan. 10. 

1831. A Political Register (Wm. Carpenter's). 
Jan. 28. 

1833. The Wag. No. 3, Nov. 24. 

1834. The Official Gazette of the Trades Unions. 

Conducted by the Executive of the 
Consolidated Union. Nos. 1-2, June 
7, 14. 

The People's Police Gazette. No. 29. 
Mar. 1. 

The Pioneer and Weekly Chronicle. Nos. 
2-8, New Series, July 19 to Aug. 30 ; 
No. 9 [Entitled] Pioneer and Official 
Gazette with which is Incorporated the 
Weekly Chronicle, Crisis, and The New 
Moral World, Sept. 6 ; No. 10 [Entitled] 
The Pioneer and Official Gazette of the 
Associated Trades Union, Sept. 13. 

Twopenny Dispatch. No. 21, Nov. 1. 

Weekly Police Gazette. No. 2, Jan. 11 ; 
Vol. ii., No. 27, July 4, 1835. 

1835. The Axe and Working Man's Advocate. 

No. 1, Sept. 5. 

The New Political Register. No. 1, Oct. 17. 
People's Weekly Dispatch. No. 1, Oct. 4. 

1836. Carpenter's London Journal. No. 1, 

Feb. 13. 

The Champion. No. 1, Sept. 18 ; No. 10 
[Entitled] The Champion and Weekly 
Herald, Nov. 20. No. 1, N.S., May 13, 
1837; No. 174, "with which is in- 
corporated the London Dispatch," 
Jan. 12, 1840, 

Church and State. No. 1, Jan. 16. 

1837. The Omnibus. No. 1, Feb. 18 ; No. 5, 

Mar. 18. 

1838. Holt's Saturday Journal. No. 1, Nov. 10. 
The London Universal Advertiser. Vol. i., 

No. 2, May 19. 
The Museum. A Journal of Literature, 

Science and Art. No. 1, Mar. 24 ; 

Nos. 7-8, May, 5, 12. 

1838? Entertaining Knowledge Gazette. No. 2. 
1845. London Journal and Weekly Record of 

Literature, Science and Art. No. 1, 

Mar. 1. 

The Voice of the Poor. No. 1, Oct. 11. 
1845 ? Lloyd's Companion to the Penny Sunday 

Times and People's Police Gazette. 

No. 197, June 15. 



1846. Gulliver. No. 1, Jan. 24. 

1851. The Art News : an illustrated journal of 

the Great Exhibition of 1851. Nos. 1-4,. 
May 10-31. 

1852. British Museum and Week Book offFacts. 

No. 1, Mar. 13. 

1853. The Silver Penny. No. 2, Dec. 10. 
1855. The Pilot. No. 2, June 23. 

PART II. PROVINCIAL. 

1741. The Cirencester Flying Post and Weekly- 
Miscellany. No. 42, Oct. f, 1741 to- 
No. 164, Feb. 6, 1774. In Bingham 
Library, Cirencester. [See my note in 
' N. & Q.,' 11 S. x. 325-6.] 

1784. The Gloucester Gazette ; and South Wales,. 
Worcester and Wiltshire General Adver- 
tiser. Vol. ii., No. 100, July 8 (Glou- 
cester). Last number seen Nov. 18,- 
1796. 

1801. The Glocester Herald. No. 1, Oct. 3. 
1801. Continued as The Gloucester and 
Cheltenham Herald, Jan. 7, 1826. Last 
number seen June 2, 1828. 

1815. The Gleaner, or Cirencester Weekly Maga- 
zine. Nos. 1-52, Dec. 28, 1815 to 
Dec. 23, 1816. 

1830. The Tewkesbury Yearly Register and 
Magazine. 1830-1849. Issued annually.. 

1832. The Gloucester and Cheltenham Standard. 
Nos. 1-8, Sept. 1 to Oct. 20. 

1838. The New Moral World and Manual of 

Science. No. 203, Sept. 15 (Birming- 
ham). 

Victoria Journal or Moral political and 
Social Reformer. No. 1 , July 21 (Man- 
chester). 

1839. The Gloucestershire Paul Fry. No. 7, 

Aug. 17 (Gloucester). 

1841. The Gloucestershire Beacon. Nos. 1-2,. 
Feb. to Mar. 1841 (Gloucester). 

1843. The Mirror of Schism. No. 1, June 3, 
1843. No. 5, Opt 7, 1843 (Gloucester). 
Tewkesbury Magazine and Literary Journal.. 
Nos. 1-3 (All), May to July. 

1846. Tunbridge Wells Looker On. No. 8,. 
Aug. 14. 

1861. The Triad (Cheltenham). Nos. 1-2 (All) 
Nov. to Dec. 

1866. The Cheltonian. No. 1, March 1866 to 
Oct. 1869. Continued as The Chelten- 
ham College Magazine, Nov. 1869 to 
Aug. 1874. Continued as The Chel- 
tonian, Oct. 1874. In progress. 

1868. Banner's Monthly Illustrated Journal 
No. 1, May 1868 to April 1869 (Ciren- 
cester). 

1874. The Glocestrian. No. 1, 1874. Continued 

as The London Amateur and The Gloces- 
trian, March 1879 to March 1880. 
Continued as The Glocestrian, May to 
July 1880. 

1875. The Gloucester Independent. No. 3^ 

Oct. 23. 

1876. The Gloucester Herald. No. 1, May 6. 

1877. Cheltenham : a fortnightly serial. No. 1,. 

Nov. 15 ; No. 8, St. Patrick's Day,. 
1878. 



128. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



1878. The Bee (Cheltenham). No. 2, June. 
Gloucester Guardian. No. 2, June 27. 
Gloucestershire Templar Record and 

Quarterly Guide. Nos. 2-5, May 1878 to 
Feb. 1879 (Stroud). 

1879. Gloucester Observer. Nos. 1-3, June 14- 

28. Fire occurred July 8 and issue 
ceased. 

1880. The Cheltenham Ladies' College Magazine. 

No. 1, February. In progress-. 

1881. The Evening Mercury. No. 6, Mar. 21 

(Gloucester). 

Gloucestershire Wasp. Nos. 1-7, Oct. 29 
to Dec. 10 (Gloucester). 

1882. The Gloucestershire and Herefordshire Con- 

gregational Magazine. No. 1, Jan. 
(Bristol). 

1885. The Philistine. No. 1, Oct., 1885. Continua- 
tion of Cheltenham Working Men's College 
Magazine (276, col. 2) (Cheltenham). 

1888. The Gloucester and Cheltenham Congrega- 

tional Magazine. No. 1, Jan. 1888 ; 
Vol. 2, No. 9, Sept. 1889. 

1889. Glo'strian. No. 1, Jan. 1889; Vol. 3, No. 3, 

1891 (Gloucester). 

1893. The Cheltenham Mirror. No. 15, Feb. 28. 
1897. The Independent. A monthly review. 

No. 1, May 1897 to No. 3, July 1897 

(Gloucester). 
1901. The Protestant Chronicle. Nos. 1-13, 

Oct. 15, 1901 to Oct. 22, 1902. 
1907. The Cryptian. No. 1, Dec. 1907. In progress 

(Gloucester). 
The Gloucestershire Scholastic Magazine. 

No. 1, Jan. 1907 to Vol. 4, No. 23, July 

14, 1914 (Cheltenham). 

1909. The Plutonian Magazine. No. 1, July 

1909 (Gloucester). 

1910. The Gloucester Free Press. No. 1, Dec. 2 

to No. 13, Feb. 24, 1911. Incorporated 
with Gloucester Household News (319, 
col. 1). 

1911. The Calton Magazine for boys and girls. 

April 1911 to Spring 1913 (Goucester). 
The Gloucester Conservative and Unionist 

monthly. No. 1, October 1909 to No. 25, 

December 1911. 
The National School Magazine. No. 1, 

December, 1911. In progress. No issue 

between Easter 1915 and Midsummer 

1920 i Gloucester). 

1912 Gloucester Technical Schools Magazine. 
. Nos. 1-2, December to March 1912-13. 
More Hall Magazine. Xos. 1-19, May 1912 

to October 1916 (Stroud). 
1913. Bristol and Gloucestershire Automobile 

Club Monthly Journal. No. 1, Jan. 31, 

1913 to Vol. iii., No. 12, December 1915, 

Vol. v., No. 3, March 1917. 

1913. The Rich School Magazine. No. 1, De- 

cember; No. 2, July 1914 (Gloucester). 

1914. The Star. The organ of the progressive 

forces of Cheltenham, Tewkesbury, 
Cirencester, &c. No. 1, Mar. 14 (Chel- 
tenham). 

1916. The Hillfield Magazine. No. 1, Nov. 25, 
1916. Continued as The Palace Voluntary 
Aid Hospital Magazine, No. 5, May 1917 
to July 1918 (Gloucester). 
The Rendcombe Gazette. Nos. 1-16, 
Aug. 17 to Sept. 4, 1916 (Cirencester). 



NOTES. 

Page of Handlist. 

120 (2) Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. No. 1 

April 1879. Published first in Stroud. 

Last number Vol. x., No. 90, January 

1914. 
218 (2) Gloucester Journal. First published Apr, 

9, 1722. A complete file to beyond 

1885 is in private hands. 
222 (2) The Gloucestershire Repository. Read 

Glocestershire. Continued to Vol ii., 

No. 10, Apr. 19, 1822. 
227 (2) The Looker On. This is also given under 

1836 (229, col. 1) the later date being a 

new series. Publication discontinuecF- 

July 24, 1920. 
289 (1) Gloucestershire Magpie. For 1892 read 

1893. 
300(1) Stroud Weekly Press. No. 1, June 28, 

1895. 

323(2) The Link. No. 1, January 1916. Con- 
tinued April 1918 as The Linkman. 

Discontinued July 1918. For Upton 

St. Leonards, read Gloucester. 
Index, Sec. I. Cleave's has been placed after 

Clerkenwell and may therefore be missed. 
Index, Sect. II. Reading Mercury, 218, omittedj- 

ROLAND AUSTIN. 



' POOR UNCLE NED ' (12 S. vi. 287 ; vii. 373, 
438, 514; viii. 36). I have two books 
which contain a vast number of songs 
(words only.) viz., 'St. James's Song Book/ 
printed and published by R. March & Co.,. 
St. James's Walk, E.G., and ' Cole's Funniest 
Song Book in the World,' edited, &c,, by 
E. W. Cole, Melbourne : Cole's Book Arcade,. 
London : 25 Paternoster Row, E.C. Neither 
is dated. In the first a former ownerphas 
written "1896 " under his name. The 
following is the song as it appears in the- 
' St. James's Song Book,' p. 545 : 

UNCLE NED. 

There was an old nigger, his name was Uncle Ned,. 

He died a long while ago ; 
He had no wool on the top of his head, 

In the place where the wool ought to grow. 

Hang up the shovel and the hoe, the hoe, 
Lay down the fiddle and the bow, 

There's no more work for poor old Ned, 
He's gone where the good niggers go. 

His nails were longer than the cane in the brake,. 

No eyes had he for to see, 
He had no teeth to eat the hoe-cake 

So was forced to let the hoe-cake be. 
Hang up the shovel, &c. 

On a very cold morning poor uncle Ned died, 

In his grave they laid him low, 
And ev'ry nigger said, he was very much afraid,. 

His like they never more would know. 
Hang up the shovel, &c. 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm. JAN. 29, 1921. 



The version in ' Cole's Funniest Song 
Book,' p. 257, is the same except that the 
second line is : 

He died long ago, long ago. 

"That the song is some seventy years old or 
more is evidenced by Delane's 'Journal,' 
quoted at the first reference. 

What sort of bread or cake is or was a 
hoe-cake ? ROBERT PIEBPOINT. 

In an old volume of music I find this 
pathetic ballad, with a frontispiece portrait 
of the hero. It was published by the 
"Musical Bouquet," 192 High Holborn. 
No date, but the book itself was bound up 
some time in the fifties of last century. The 
-first verse runs : 

I once knew a nigger, his name was Uncle Ned, 

He died a long while ago, 
/He had no wool on the top of him head, 

Just the place where the wool ought to grow 

Chorus 
Hang up the shovel and the hoe, the hoe, 

Lay down his fiddle and his bow. 
There's no more toil for poor old Ned, 
He's gone where all good niggers go. 

S. PONDER. 

Torquay. 

Dar \vas an old nigger, and dey called him Uncle Ned 

But he's dead long, long ago. 
He had no wool on de top of his head 

On de place where de wool ought to grow. 
Second verse : 

Uncle Ned he was married when he was berry young 

To a yaller girl dey call Lucy Lee, 
She died in tree week, by an alligator's tongue, 
On de banks ob de old Tenessee. 

There are five verses. Chorus after each 
^as follows : 

Den lay down de shubble and de hoe, 

Hang up de fiddle and de bow, 
Dar's no more work for poor Uncle Ned, 

He's gone where de good niggers go. 

E. C. WlENHOLT. 

7 Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath, S.E.3. 

THE FIRST LORD WESTBURY (12 S. 
^viii. 51). My old friend the late J. B. 
Atlay in the section of his 'Victorian 
Chancellors ' which treats of Lord Westbury 
(Richard Bethell) in commenting on his 
overbearing demeanour, writes as follows : 

" No one was immune, not the Court itself, nor 
the solicitors who instructed him, least of all his 
juniors. One of these, Charles Neate, Fellow of 
Oriel, and in after years member for the City of 
Oxford, was goaded beyond endurance ' Shut up, 
you fool ! ' are the words which are said by the 
late Thomas Mozley to have been addressed to him 
and retaliated in a fashion which all but lost him 
(his gown, and did compel his disappearance from 



active work at the Bar, Whether he knocked 
Bethell down, as the Oriel tradition runs, or pulled 
his nose outside the Vice-Chancellor's Court, or, 
in a still more modified version, merely lunged 
at him with an umbrella, I am not prepared to 
decide." 

WlLLOUCHBY MAYCOCK. 

AN OLD SILVER CHARM (12 S. viii. 50). 
Can this be one of the old Italian charms 
against the evil eye, called, I believe, 
" sprig-of-rue " ? 

WALTER E. GAWTHORP. 

16 Long Acre, W.C.2. 

TULCHAN BISHOPS (12 S. viii. 52). 
Tulchan is a Gaelic term meaning "a little 
heap," then, a stuffed calf -skin placed imder 
a cow's nose to induce her to give her milk, 
then, derisively, applied to the titular 
bishops in whose names the revenues of 
the Scottish sees were drawn by the lay 
barons, who thus had " ane tulchen lyk as 
the kow had or scho wald gif milk, ane calfis 
skinstoppit withstra " (Lindesay, ante 1578), 
quoted in 'N.E.D.' J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

Nominal bishops, not consecrated or even 
in priest's orders, who held office in Scotland 
at the time of the Reformation. So named 
as tulchan means a stuffed calf's skin set up 
in sight of a cow to persuade her to give her 
milk. See J. H. Blunt, ' Dictionary of Sects, 
Heresies,' &c., 187<L p. 543, and note. 

W. A. B. C. 
Grindelwald. 

In accordance with the Concordat at 
Leith (February, 1572) and the General 
Assembly at Perth (August, 1572) bishoprics 
were in the gift of lay lords who appointed 
to the bishopric those who would take the 
smallest stipend, while they themselves 
enjoyed the full emoluments of the see. 
These were called, in ridicule, "tulchan 
bishops." Tulchans is the Gaelic name for 
calf-skins filled with straw which were 
placed before cows to induce them to yield 
their milk more readily. C. G. N. 

I. F. will find in the late Bishop Anthony 
Mitchel's 'Short History of the Church 
in Scotland,' London, Rivingtons, 1911 
("Oxford Church Text Books Series "), the 
information he requires on pp. 60 and 61. 
It appears that after the Reformation in 
Scotland when, in 1560, Episcopacy was 
banished, and the superintendent system 
founded, there were two distinct parties in 
the Church of Scotland, one for Episcopacy, 



12 S. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



the other strongly against it, having as its 
leader Andrew Melville. As the rich living! 
became vacant the Earl of Morton (after 
wards Regent) overcame men's scruples b^ 
appointing superintendents or sham bishops 
and some of the clergy were tempted to 
accept these so called bishoprics for a verj 
small endowment, the rest of the revenue? 
being held by the greedy nobility. It is 
related that Earl Morton in talking to one 
Mr. John Douglas said : " Mr. John, listen 
I shall get you raised to the archbishopric o: 
St. Andrews, a part of the revenue shall b< 
yours the rest mine. You understand ? ' 
and so the deed was done. Mr. John hac 
the title and part of the revenue, but the 
bulk of it went to the Earl. The example 
thus set was soon followed. A crop of 
(Tulchan) Bishops soon sprang up. They 
got the droll name of Tulchans, a tulchar 
being a calf-skin stuffed full of straw se1 
down before a cow that will not yield her 
milk. J. CLABE HUDSON. 

Woodhall Spa. 

These were titular bishops in Scotland 
about the year 1572. As to their real status 
and the origin of their name see McCrie's 
* Sketches of (Scottish) Church History, 
vol. i. p. 96 (4th ed., Edin., 1846). 

C. J. TOTTENHAM. 
Diocesan Library, Liverpool. 

T.ie briefest and most lucid explanation 
of fiat term is in the Introduction to Car 
lyle's ' I Betters of Oliver Cromwell.' 

G. B. M. 

rSeveral other correspondents thanked for re 
<plies.] 

A WAKE GAME (12 S. vii. 405). Under a 
very slightly different name, the " Jenny 
Jo " game was played twenty to forty years 
ago by children in the Carolinas and in 
Mississippi. People I have asked did not 
know of the game, however, in Texas or 
Wisconsin. I was much pleased to find a 
iew months ago that it has been placed upon 
a phonograph record, along with similar 
song-games. "Miss Jennia Jones," slightly 
doctored, I think, from the form in which 
I knew it as a boy, is in the ' Third Bubble 
Book,' a printed book with records in 
pockets, prepared by the Columbia Grapho- 
phone Co., and published by Harper & 
Brothers. It is doubtless procurable in 
England as well as in America. And the 
i-une is the same I was used to sing : 

"One player acts the part of the mother and 
-stands so as to hide the other player, Jennia Jones, 



behind her. The other players form aline facing 
the mother and. with hands joined, skip forward 
and backward (eight steps each way) and bow at 
the words how is she to-day? ' The mother makes 
the appropriate motions to indicate washing, ironing, 
etc. Whenever the players say 'white they all 
attempt to run away. The first one Jennia catches 
takes her place and Jennia herself takes the part 
of the mother. Then the game is repeated. ' 
The first stanza and refrain are : 
We've come to see Miss Jennia Jones, 
Miss Jennia Jones, Miss Jennia Jones, 
We've come to see Miss Jennia Jones, 
And how is she to-day ? ( She's washing.) 

We're right glad to hear it, 
To hear it, to hear it, 
We're right glad to hear it, 
And how is she to-day ? 

The second stanza repeats, changing the 
reply to " She's ironing " ; .and the third, to 
"She's dead." Then the refrain changes 
"glad" to "sorry," and the query is 
"What shall we dress her in ? " Blue is 
for sailors, and will never do ; red is for 
firemen ; pink is for babies ; but "White 
is for angels, so that of course will do." 

For the last line of the refrain, we sang 
"We'll call another day " ; and instead of 
being "right glad," we were "very glad.' 
And we should not have known then what 
a " wake " is, if we had been asked. 

R. H. GRIFFITH. 



: CNOLLABE : PULSARE (12 S. vii. 502 ; 
viii. 37). It may be interesting, in connexion 
with H. C.'s important article under this 
heading, to note that in the early accounts of 
Queen's College, Oxford (1340-1480) ncla is 
never used for a bell. Campana is the regular 
word, tintinndbulum being used twice, both 
times for a small bell, in the expenses of the 
chapel, pro factura tintinnahuli iiijd and 
pro tintinnabulo iiijd ? In view of the 
suggestion that nola may be a clapper, it is 
to be observed that under tintinnabuLum 
Vlaigne d'Arnis gives tintinnabulum campane, 
as tudicula, battant, i.e.. hammer or clapper. 

JOHN B. MAGBATH. 
Queen's College. Oxford. 

CHARTTJLARIES (12 S. vii. 330, 414 ; 

Hi. 56). In a handbook drawn up for the 

se of contributors to the 'Victoria County 

History ' will be found a list of chartularies 

;ounty by county. The chartularies refer - 

ing to Beaulieu are Cottonian MS. Nero A. 

XII. ; Duke of Portland, 1832 ; Harl. MSS. 

3602, 6603. In Sim's 'Manual for the Genea- 

ogist ' there is also a list of chartularies. 

t therefore seems that "a bibliography of 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm.jAN.29.i92i. 



existing monastic records " had already been 
published. As, however, these lists in the 
works referred to may not be accessible to 
members of local archaeological societies 
I quite agree with MR. CRAWFORD that such 
lists should be printed in the Journals of 
these societies. 

J. HAUTENVILLE COPE, 
Editor Proceedings Hampshire Field Club. 

BOTTLE-SLIDER (12 S. vii. 471, 516; viii. 
37, 53). A somewhat similar contrivance to 
that noted by MR. BRADBURY existed in the 
old Combination Room at Trinity Hall, 
Cambridge, but if I remember rightly the 
coasters were leathern and the table semi- 
circular in front of the fireplace. I have 
frequently admired the coasters (and the port) 
in undergraduate days when invited by Mr. 
Henry. Latham (the beloved "Ben " of all 
Hall men) to "go up after hall." Alas! the 
coasters must be nearly fifty years older. 
ARTHUR T. WINN. 

Aldeburgh. 

We had at the Royal Artillery Mess, 
Woolwich, small wagons of silver on wheels, 
each to take two bottles round the table 
after mess when the cloth was removed. 
This was forty years ago, but probably they 
are still in use. B. C. 

My grandmother had silver coasters, date, 
Queen Anne. Inherited by me are some 
silver-rimmed ones, the coaster itself being 
made of light-coloured polished wood, date, 
early 1700. Also I have some in papier 
mache (?) coloured red and polished. 

E. C. WIENHOLT. 

7 Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath, S.E.3. 

EDUCATION OF THE FIRST DUKE OF 
MARLBOROUGH (12 S. viii. 50). I have 
before me a copy of the ' Memoirs of the 
Duke of Marlboro ugh ' by William Coxe, in 
a new edition by John 'Wade, and dated 
1847. In chap. i. it is stated : 

" Of the education of a person afterwards so 
illustrious, we only know that he was brought up 
under the care of his father, who was himself a man 
of letters, and author of a political history of 
England, entitled Divi Britannici.' He was 'also 
instructed in the rudiments of knowledge by a 
neighbouring clergyman of great learning and piety. 

Soon after the Restoration, when his father was 

established at court, we find him in the metropolis, 
and placed in the school ot St. Paul's. He did not. 
however, remain a sum' cent time to reap the 
advantages afforded by this foundation, for he was 
removed to the theatre ot active life, at a i period 
when the ordinary course of liberal education is 
scarcely more than half completed." 



Thrc.ugh the interest of his father, Sir 
Winston Churchill, he was appointed page- 
of-honour to the Duke of York, and at an 
early age he manifested a decided inclination 
or the profession, of arms, which did not 
escape the notice of the Duke, for he 
received a Commission at the age of sixteen.. 

This being so, it would appear that he did 
not go, as suggested, to a school in France. 
LEES KNOWLES, Bt. 

Westwood, Pendlebury. 

In a Life of John, Duke of Marlborough,. 
'sold by John Baker in Pater Noster Row r . 
1713," which I happen to possess, the 
anonymous biographer writes : 

"No care was omitted on the part of his tender 
jarents for a liberal and gentle education, for he 

was no sooner out of the hands of the women but 
le was given into those of a sequestered clergyman, 

who made it his first concern to instil sound prin- 
iplesof religion into him, that the seeds of humane 
Literature might take the deeper root, &c." 

Lord Wolseley, in his Life of the Duke y . 
earmarks this divine as the Rev. R. Farrant, 
Rector of Musbury Parish, who tutored 
young Churchill for ten or twelve years. 
When his father went to Ireland in 1662 
young John attended the Dublin City Free 
School, of which the Rev. Dr. W. Hill, 
Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, was 
Master. He was, however, only there about 
a year, for his father returned to London in 
1663, and John was sent to St. Paul's School, 
of which Samuel Cromleholme was at that 
time head master. He remained there till 
1665, when the school was closed owing to 
the Plague, and with it young Churchill's 
education appears to have terminated. 
I can find no allusion in am^ of the "his- 
tories " to his having been educated in 
France. WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

It is stated in Gardiner's ' Admission, 
Registers of St. Paul's School,' p. 53, that 
John Churchill was a scholar of St. Paul's 
under Samuel Cromleholme, who was high 
master, 1657-72, and that he left "to enter 
the household of James, Duke of York, in 
1665." G. F. R. B. 

Thackeray reminds us cf Marlborough's 
chief place of education by saying that Lord 
Castlewood and Churchill "had been con- 
discipuli at St. Paul's School " ('Esmond/ 
bk. i. ch. 2). The Rev. R. B. Gardiner in 
his ' Admission Registers of St. Paul's 
School ' is only able to say that Churchill 
left the school in 1665 to enter the Duke of 



12 S. VIII. JAN, 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



York's household. As to his earlier boy- 
liood Archdeacon Coxe tells us that : 

" He was brought up under the care of his father 
.... He wis also instructed in the rudiments of 
knowledge by a neighbouring clergyman of great 
learning and piety." 

EDWABD BENSLY. 

Much Hadham, Herts. 

POOR RELIEF BADGE (12 S. viii. 48). 
The following appears in :>ne of tie Church- 
wardens' Account Books at Aldeburgh, 
Monday, Feb. 23, 1773 : 

" do agree to fix the penalty upon the Overseers 

of this Parish if they relieve any poor person be- 
longing to this parish without they constantly wear 
a Badge on the Right Arm marked Red Cloth with 
two large Black Letters PA without side of their 
Garments so that it may plainly appear such persons 
receive Alms from this Parish And that the Over- 
seers at onee get Cloth for that purpose." 

ARTHUR T. WINN. 
Aldeburgh. 

BOOK or COMMON PRAYER (12 S. viii. 49). 
Wijat your inquirer needs will probably 
be found in the issues of the Parker Society, 
1847-55. This private Society was rather 
short-lived and long ago disbanded. Though 
its publications, all in funereal black cloth, 
have long been out of print, they may often 
be met with cheaply in the antiquarian 
bookshops. The three most likely volumes 
are : 

' Liturgies. Primer, and Catechism set forth in 
the reign of King Edward VI.. ..1844.' 8vo. 

1 Liturgies and Occasional Forms of Prayer set 
forth in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Edited by 
Wra. Keatinge Clay. 1847.' 8vo. 

' Private Prayers put forth by authority in the 
reign of Q. Elizabeth ' ; the * Primer ' of 1559 ; the 
' Orarium ' of 1560 ; the ' Preces privates ' of 1564 ; 
the 'Book of Christian Prayers of 1578. With an 
appendix containing the Litany of 1544. Edited 
byW.K. Clay. 18-')l.' 8ro. 

Full detailed list of Parker Society issues 
may be seen in Lowndes' 'Bibliographer's 
Manual,' vol. xi., pp. 5558. 

W. JAGGARD, Capt. 

Memorial Library, Stratford-on-Avon: 

" Three Primers put forth in the Reign of 
Henry VIII." will meet MR. HAMILTON'S 
requirement, as regards the Book of Common 
Prayer. They were published in one volume 
at th> Oxford University Press in 1834, 
and would perhaps be easily met with second- 
hand or be found for consultation in a 
public library or on clerical shelves. 

ST. SWITHIN. 



MR. EVERARD HAMILTON will no doubt 
find what he requires in the following 
works : 

'Prymer a Prayer Book of Lay People in the 
Middle Ages.' Ed. H. Littlehales. Longmans. 
1891-92. 

Old Service Books of the English Church.' By 
the Rev. Christopher Wordsworth and H. Little- 
hales. Methuen. 1904. 

'Church Services and Service-Books before the 
Reformation.' By the late Dr. B. Swete, S.P.C.K. 
1907. 

J. CLARE HUDSON. 

Woodhall Spa. 

"To OUTRUN THE CONSTABLE" (12 S. 
viii. 29, 58). This appears as far back as 
Butler's 'Hudibras,' i. 3, 1368, published in 
1663, but there having the meaning of 
talking about things about which one knows 
nothing. In a foot-note reference is made 
(in my copy, 1801) to Ray's 'Proverbs, 1 
2nd ed., p. 326. W. A. HUTCHISON. 

YEW-TREES IN CHURCHYARDS (12 S. 
viii. 50). The statute referred to by 
G. B. .M. which required yew-trees tc be 
planted in churchyards for the supply cf 
bows is doubtless that passed in the reign 
of Richard III., in 1483, which according to 
Stow ordained a general planting of yew 
trees for the use of archers. Later on in 
the time of Elizabeth it was enacted that 
they should be planted in churchyards in 
order to preserve and protect them from 
injury, and also to keep them out of the 
way of horses and cattle, in consequence of 
the poisonous property of the leaves. But 
there were other reasons assigned for the 
situation selected. One was the protection 
of the church from damage by storms ; a 
poor reason if we consider the slowness of 
growth and the horizontal direction of the 
branches, both of which, as pointed out by 
a writer in The Gentleman's Maqazine 
(1786, p. 941) : 

"prevent its rising high enough, even in a century, 
to shelter from storms a building of moderate 
height." 

Moreover, as seldom more than cne or 
two yews of any size are to be seen in a 
churchyard, the amount of protection they 
can afford in time of storms must depend 
upon whether they happen to be standing 
to windward or not. 

Evelyn in his well-known ' Sylva,' says : 

"The best reason that can be given why the yew 

was planted in churchyards is that branches of it 

were often carried in procession on Palm Sunday 

instead of palms." 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. JAN. 29, 1921, 



This view is justified by the words of a much 
earlier authority, namely Caxton. 

In his 'Liber Festivalis,' 1483 oddly 
enough the date of the statute of Richard III. 
above mentioned wherein the festivals of 
the Church are explained in four sermons, 
it is said with reference to Palm Sunday : 

"We take ewe (-sic) instead of palm and olyve, 
and beren about in processyon, and soe is thys day 
called Palm Sunday." 

The last statute respecting the use of 
yew for bows is 13 Eliz. cap. 14 which directs 
that bow-staves shall be imported into 
England from the Continent, and fixes the 
price to be paid for them ; e.g., bows meet 
for men's shooting, being outlandish yew of 
the best sort not over the price of 6s. 8d. ; 
of the second sort 3s. 4d. : of a coarser sort 
called livery bows 2s. ; and bows being 
English yew, 2s. 

In 1595 an Order in Council dated Oct. 2, 
directed that the bows of the train bands 
be exchanged for calivers and muskets. It 
is believed that the last active service of 
the war-bow was in the conflict between 
Charles II. and his Scottish subjects, bow- 
men forming part of the forces commanded 
by Montrose. 

G. B. M. should refer to ' The Yew-trees 
of Great Britain,' by the late Dr. John 
Lowe (Macmillan, 1897) in which he will 
find much to his purpose. 

J. E. HARTING. 

G. B. M. should consult the elaborate 
chapter on all this in Johnson's 'Byways 
in British Archaeology.' Reference is made 
to an order of 1483 for the general planta- 
tion of yews and another in Elizabeth's 
reign for plantation in churchyards, but the 
author had found no such statutes or 
authority. He considers the yew an ancient 
sacred emblem which in later times helped 
to supply the village quota of bow-staves. 

R. S. B. 

Lowe in ' The Yew-trees of Great Britain 
and Ireland,' 1897, devotes a chapter to the 
why and \vherefore of planting yew trees in 
churchyards, and quotes from Giraldus 
Cambrensis (1184) and dozens of other 
authorities. Various statutes are exhaus- 
tively given in Hazlitt's 'Dictionary of 
Faiths and Folklore,' vol. ii., which were 
enacted for various purposes incidental to 
the subject. The consensus of opinion seems 
to be that originally these trees were planted 
in churchyards as an emblem of the resur- 
rection owing to their perpetual verdure, 



but a glance at the books mentioned above r 
and to the Indexes of * N. & Q. ' will supply 
your correspondent with more than sufficient 
material to keep him guessing for some 
considerable time. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

There is a popular belief that such a 
statute as that mentioned was passed, but 
I have never heard where it may be found.. 

(1) It seems unlikely that bows should be 
in great request as late as 1474 when gun- 
powder was displacing the old artillery.. 

(2) Moreover, the yew tree seems a most 
unsuitable tree for the purpose of making 
bows. (3) And as G. B. M. hints in his 
query, it is strange that trees should be 
grown for that purpose in churchyards. 

In 1549 Tyndale's ' Prologues ' to the 
Pentateuch were inserted in Matthew's- 
Bible, and before Exodus notes were printed 
on certain terms found in the text. Among 
others is the definition of a " Boothe " 
" an house made of bowes " (Dore's ' Old 
Bibles,' p. 119). It is more likely that yew 
trees were grown in churchyards to provide 
the congregations with " bowes " to carry 
in the processions on Palm Sunday. 

W. F. JOHN TIMBRELL. . 

Coddington Rectory, Chester. 

STATUES AND MEMORIALS IN THE BRITISH 
ISLES (12 S. viii. 25). St. Paul's Cathedral 
in front of steps, inscription : 

Here Queen Victoria | returned thanks to | Al- 
mighty God for the | sixtieth anniversary j of her 
accession | June 22, A.D. 1897. 

When this was first cut on the stone 
pavement the inscription ran "sixtieth 
anniversary of her reign ! " I remember 
standing over it and reading with amaze- 
ment. The alteration was of course quickly 
made. TJ. L. 

LIGHT AND DARK " A " HEADPIECE (12 S. 
viii. 52). The light and dark "A " shewn 
in headpieces of books of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth century plainly refer to the 
cypher mentioned in ' Cryptographiae ' 
(Gustavus Selenus, 1624), p. 17. They 
ndicate a method of secret writing in which 
some letters of the secret message are 
jhanged, but not all, and in which each 
etter may be itself or its twin, i.e., may be 
ight (obvious) or dark (secret). This 
nethod is suggested also in Du Bartas' 
'Divine Weekes and Workes,' 1613, where a 
double circle (double O or cypher) is shewn 
with letters round it, part light, part dark 
Shakespeare's Sonnets are dedicated to 
"M. B. W. H.," and that arrangement to 



128. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



the double alphabet in which M may be M 
or R, while W may be W or H, will be found 
to yield very interesting results. If your 
questioner desires to know more about the 
light and dark "A " he is recommended to 
study Baptiste Porta's * De Furtivis Liter- 
arum' (1602), and the * Cryptographiae ' of 
, Gustavus Selenus (1624). E. NESBIT. 
Well Hall, Eltham, S.E.9. 



" (12 S. viii. 50). Should not 
this word be "colter " ? A couter is a 
common slang word for a sovereign, being 
derived, according to the * Slang Dictionary ' 
(John Caraden Hotten, London, 1869) from 
the Danubian Gipsy word cuta, a gold coin. 
Illustrations of its use are -given in the 
'N.E.D.,' which quotes the 'Slang Dic- 
tionary ' for its origin. T. F. D. 

PRINCE CHARLES EDWARD STUART'S 
SWORDS (12 S. viii. 27). The inscription on 
the second of the two swords mentioned at 
this reference would appear not to have been 
placed thereon by the order of Prince Charles 
even 11 the sword were presented by him. 
Not to speak of other serious difficulties, 
there was no such thing as "the Throne of 
Great Britain " from the Jacobite point of 
view. The Act of Union was regarded as a 
mere nullity, like all post-Revolution legisla- 
tion, for want of the assent of a lawful king. 

F. W. READ. 

FRENCH PRISONERS OF WAR (12 S. 
vii. 469,517; viii. 38). Your correspondent 
will find much to interest him in 'The 
Depot for Prisoners of War at Norman Cross, 
Huntingdonshire, 1796 to 1816,' by T. J. 
Walker, M.D. (of Peterborough), Constable 
& Co., 1913. 

W. H. WHITEAR, F.R.Hist.S. 

SCOTT OF ESSEX (7 S. vi. 194 ; 12 S. 
viii. 11). The late Mr. Golding's MSS. are, 
I believe, in the possession of the Essex 
Archaeological Society at their Museum, 
Colchester Castle. 

WILLIAM GILBERT. F.R.N.S. 

AUTHOR OF QUOTATION WANTED. 
(12 S. viii, 12.) 

2. The Observer on January 31, 1915, published a 
letter signed "Alice Cobbett," and dated from 
Uckfield, Sussex, from which I append an extract : 

"Last November the New York Herald pub- 
lished some verses of mine, in which I emphasised 
the * Call of the Blood.' I have received in answer 
the enclosed verses from California. J have no 
knowledge whatever of the writer." 



FROM AMERICA. 

Oh, England, a,t the smoking trenches dying 

For all the world, 

We hold our breath, and watch your bright flag:, 
flying 

While ours is furled. 

We who are neutral (yet each lip with fervour 

The word abjures), 
Oh, England, never name us the time-server j 

Our hearts are yours ! 

We that so glory in your high decision, 

So trust your goal 
All Europe in our blood, but yours our vision, 

Our speech, our soul. 

J. R. H. 



0tt 



Udimore : Past and Present. By Leonard J.- 
Hodson. (Robertsb ridge, Sussex, 5s. post free.); 

THIS pleasant little book deals with a small East 
Sussex parish consisting of 2,884 acres, with 
5 acres of water, having a population at the last 
census of no more than 416 souls. It lies on a 
ridge between two valleys north and south on 
the western side of Rye ; and in the jearliest 
extant record of it an entry in Domesday Book 
appears, as the holding of one Reinbert, under 
the name of Dodimere. The families with which 
it was most notably associated in the Middle 
Ages are the Echinghams and the Elringtons. 
In the sixteenth century it passed to the Windsors, 
who were followed by the Bromfeilds, as these 
by the Comptons with whom it remained till" 
1843, when it was sold to Thomas Cooper Lang- 
ford. 

The name, which cannot be explained with, 
absolute certainty, and the church are the subject 
of a legend, of a well-known type. The site 
first chosen for the church was not acceptable, it 
seems, to Heaven. Work done by day disappeared 
during the night, till the watching parishioners 
beheld a company of angels taking up the materials 
and conveying them across the water, chanting the 
while " Over the mere ! Over the mere ! " The 
church built in legendary days has been replaced 
by an early English structure small, bare, and 
plain, thought to be the work of a builder who 
made other churches in West Sussex. It has ; 
undergone divers vicissitudes in the way of decay, . 
of lamentable alteration and restoration and, 
again, of restoration both careful and affectionate.- 
It seems to have lost a south aisle, of which no 
trace remains and has a curious feature in two 
doors side by side both now walled up. The 
interior has some interesting detail in the way 
of carving, but is in general, except for modern 
colouring, plain. Traces of ancient colour decora- 
tion have been discovered. Mr. Hodson goes- 
thoroughly into every detail of it. The monu- 
mental inscriptions are both more numerous and 
more interesting than such often are in a church 
of this character. 

Our author gives a chapter to the history of 
the advowson and a list of the Incumbents 
who for most of the time are styled " Vicars," 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. JAN. 29, 1921. 



t>ut for a few decades subsequent to 1792, are 
described as " Perpetual Curates." From. 
Nicholas Chauntler (1600-1601) onwards most of 
the names have some notice attached to them. 

In 1676, the year of Archbishop Sheldon's 
religious census, a single Non-conformist was 
mentioned in the return for Udimore. Early in 
the nineteenth century Methodism gained a 
footing there, and flourished to the extent of 
erecting a chapel, though not maintaining a resi- 
dent minister. The chapter on ' Parish Records ' 
gives us several good things in the way of detail 
as well as some interesting particulars regarding 
management under the old Poor Law, and the 
upkeep of the parish workhouse. Under ' Mis- 
cellanea ' is collected a number of interesting odd 
notes ; and under the heading ' Ancient Homes 
.and Families ' we are given a good account of the 
principal houses of parish forming one of the 
best of these chapters. 

Those who possess Mr. Hodson's ' History of 
."Salehurst ' will find his ' Udimore ' no less useful 
. and entertaining than the former work. 

The Adventures of Ulysses. By Charles Lamb. 

Edited by Ernest A. Gardner. (Cambridge 

University Press. 4s. net.) 

THIS is a delightful edition of a delightful little 
work. The short Introduction says what is 
necesary to make new-comers to the Odyssey at 
home in it : inevitably negligible by most readers. 
But every one may be glad to have the sketch 
map and traditional itinerary of Ulysses : as 
also the illustrations and, again, the excellent 
notes, which, though calculated in the first in- 
stance, for children, are so pleasantly written 
and contain so many details which might not 
have been recalled by the reader, that even for an 
old lover of the Odyssey and of Lamb they 
contribute some additional enjoyment. Perhaps 
a word or two as to Greek vases in general would 
not have been amiss. 

A Saunter through Kent with Pen and Pencil. 

By Charles Igglesden. (The Kentish Press, 

Ashford, Kent. 3s. 6d.) 

IN this volume the fourteenth of the series 
Mr. Igglesden conveys his readers through five 
parishes to wit, Westwell, Hothfield, Bearsted, 
Thurnham and Kingsnorth. His method which 
admits a good deal of description of landscape 
and thereby the pleasant creation of a varied 
picture in the mind's eye displays itself here to 
much advantage. In fact the verbal descriptions 
are far better, as illustrations, than the drawings 
which lack the qualities necessary for successful 
reproduction. 

At Westwell is Ripley Court in the garden 
whereof Mr. Igglesden maintains that Jack Cade 
was killed. Here, too, is a well-known beacon, 
which gives occasion for the insertion of an 
interesting ' Carde, of the Beacons, in Kent,' 
about which we should have liked further in- 
formation. 

The churches of all the parishes have been 
carefully studied and neatly described. Yet 
more valuable are perhaps the accounts of houses, 
quotations from old records, gossip concerning 
legends, family histories, and miscellaneous notes 
of which good abundance has been collected. 



THE January Quarterly deals chiefly with 
political and social questions. The three papers 
which depart from that field are, however, good 
enough to send a man of letters or of art to the 
review for their sake alone. First of these is 
\Ir. Cloriston's rendering of Leopardi's ' Ginestra.' 
So far as any rendering of it can be satisfactory 
bhis may be esteemed so. We quote a short 
passage as example : 
There [i.e. at Pompeii], in the dread, uncertain 

hour of night, 

Through empty theatres, disfigured shrines, 
And houses rent in twain, 
Where the bat hides her brood, 
Like a funereal torch 

Through silent palaces that flickering goes 
Wanders the ominous lava's mournful gleam 
And, reddening in the darkness from afar 
Tints dimly all around. 

Dr. Hagberg Wright, in showing that Russian 
literature has for its meaning and intention the 
proclamation of the country's wrongs and 
sufferings, and the cry for freedom and justice, 
does not, indeed, present us with a new conception 
of that literature, but he fills out, justifies and 
illustrates the conception in a manner which 
will make his paper welcome to all students of 
Russia. Mr. Laurence Binyon, taking occasion 
by the Walpole Society's Publications, contributes 
a detailed and most interesting and instructive 
criticism of English art showing how much 
stronger and more estimable is our tradition in 
painting than we are apt to suppose it to be, 
in spite, of the ill-fortune which in great measure 
broke it up at a time when the traditions in art 
on the continent were at their highest point of 
glory. The notes on E wo rth,Hilliard and Cooper, 
are especially stimulating, as are also the remarks 
on the influence of English painting abroad during 
the Middle Ages. 



tn 

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12 S. VIII. JAN. 29, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES 



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101 



LOS DON, FEBRUARY '>, 1S2J. 

CONTENTS. No. 147. 

NOTES : Gray's Eton Exercise and Pope, 101 London 
Coaching and Carriers Inns in 1732, 102 Gaimar's Patron : 
' Ran! le FIB Gilehert.." 104 Errors in Carlyle's French 
Revolution,' 105 The Pancake Bell The Knowle Hotel, 
Sidmouth Note .to Wordsworth's ' Prelude,' Bk. v. 26 
Joseph Hatton The Site of the Boston Tea Party, 106 
The School of Samuel Butler, 107. 

QUERIES : Vanessa, 107 Thomas Chatterton Suther- 
land of Ackergill- Jack's Coffee House, 108 ' Wash ' 
(' Wassh ') Blacksmith's Tool Cripplegate : Drawings 
Wanted Charles Hollingbery ' Auster" land ten 



Lamb in Russell Street Colonel Owen Rowe Major- 
General the Hon. William Herbert, 109 Cowper: 
Pronunciation of Name St. Andrew's, Scotland: Pre- 
Reformation Seal "The Ashes" The Honourable 
Mr. Cardinal da Rohan Chabot Wat Tyler, 110 Old 
.Song Wanted Rodger Mompesson The Packership of 
London, 111. 

REPLIES : Representative County Libraries, Public and 
Private, 111 So. Thomas's Day Custom, 112 Dr. Wells : 
Paper on The Dew and Single Vision ' The Green Man, 
Ashnourne, 113 -Chatterton's Apprenticeship to Lambert 
Portrait of Lord Monteagle Loretto Countess 
Macnamara " Over against, Catherine Street in the 
Strand," 114 St. Leonard's Priory Armorial Bearings 
upon Tombs Hamiltons at, Holyrood Frankincense 
Among the Shakespeare Archives, 115 London Coaching 
and Carriers' Inns in 1732 Lady Anne Graham New 
Style Voucher = Rail way Ticket Grey in sense of 
Brown Christmas Pudding and Mince Pie, 116 Stone- 
henge "To Outrun the Constable "The Tragedy of 
New England Wideawake Hats Emerson's 'English 
TraitV 117 Daniel Defoe in the Pillory Authors of 
Quotations Wanted Tercentenary Handlist of News- 
papers, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Burford Records: a Study 
in Minor Town Government.' 

Revised Edition of Liddell and Scott's Greek English 
Lexicon. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



GRAY'S ETON EXERCISE 
AND POPE. 

THIS note is intended to catch the eye of 
ome future editor or biographer of the 
poet Gray. As far as the writer is aware, 
the close connexion in thought and language 
between Gray's Latin Poem, designated 
* Play- exercise at Eton,' and the First 
Epistle of Pope's ' Essay on Man ' has never 
been noticed, or at least is nowhere set 
forth. But it is of interest because it shows 
that Gray read the Essay, or the first part 
of it, at Eton, and that he based his " play- 
exercise " almost entirely on it. Gray went 
to Eton in 1727, and entered Peterhouse in 
July 1734. The first part of the "Essay " 
Tvas published in 1733, anonymously, and in 
1734 Pope avowed himself its author. 
Gray therefore, if he read it at Eton, must 
have come across it soon after publication. 



His Latin poem written to the motto : 

quern te Deus esse 

Jussit, et humana qi\a parte locatus es in re 
Disce, 

consists of some 75 hexameter lines. How 
close the imitation is the following passages 
will show : 

Ask for what end the heavenly bodies shine, 
Earth for what use ? Pride answers " 'Tis for 

mine : 

For me kind nature wakes her genial pow'r, 
Suckles each herb, and spreads out every flow'r ; 
Annual for me, the grape, the rose renew 
The juice nectareous and the balmy dew ; 
For me, the mine a thousand treasures brings ; 
For me, health gushes from a thousand springs ; 
Seas roll to waft me, suns to light me rise ; 
My footstool earth, my canopy the skies." 

Gray's equivalent is pretty close : 

Et quodcunque videt, proprios assumit in usus. 
Me propter jam vere expergefacta virescit 
Natura in flores, herbisque illudit, amatque 
Pingere telluris gremium, mihi vinea fetu 
Purpureo turget, dulcique rubescit honore ; 
Me rosa, me propter liquidos exhalat odores ; 
Luna mihi pallet, mihi Olympum Phoebus 

inaurat, 
Sidera mi lucent, volvunturque aequora ponti. 

Incidentally these lines, like others later, 
show Gray's acquaintance with Lucretius. 
Let us proceed with Pope : 

What would this Man ? Now upward would he 

soar, 

And little less than angel, would be more ; 
Now looking downward just as grieved appears 
To want the strength of bulls, the fur of bears. 
Gray has : 

Plurimus (hie error demensque libido lacessit) 
In superos coelumque ruit, sedesque relinquit, 
Quas Natura dedit proprias, jussitque tueri. 
Humani sortem generis pars altera luget, 
Invidet armento et campi se vindicat herbam. 
" Oh quis me in pecoris felicia transferat arva." 
continues his Man, who after adopting a 
whole line straight from Lucretius, asks 
why he has not a lynx's eye : 

" Cur mihi non lyncisve oculi, vel odora canum 

vis 

Additur, aut gressus cursu glomerare potestas ? 
Aspice ubi tenues dum texit aranea casses, 
Funditur in telam et late per stamina vivit ! 
Quid mihi non tactus eadem exquisita facultas 
Taurorumve tori solidi, pennaeque volucrum." 
This recalls : - 

Why has not man a microscopic eye ? 
and 

the lynx's beam .... 

And hound sagacious on the tainted green .... 
The spider's touch, how exquisitely fine ! 
Feels at each thread and lives along the line. 

(Gray clearly liked his Latin for this last 
line for it occurs again in another Latin poem 
of his 'De Principiis cogitandi.') Then 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.viu. FEB. 5,1921. 



comes the answer, which we will give firs 
Ui Pope's words : 

Say what the use were finer optics giv'n, 

To inspect a mite, not comprehend the heav'n 

Or touch, if tremblingly alive all o'er, 

To smart or agonize at ev'ry pore ? 

Or quick effluvia darting through the brain, 

Die of a rose in aromatic pain ? 

If nature thundered hi his op'ning ears 

And stunned him with the music of the spheres . 

which Gray converts into 

Pertaesos sortis doceant responsa silere. 
Si tanto valeas contendere acumine visus, 
Et graciles penetrare atomos ; non aethera possi 
Suspicere aut late spatium comprendere ponti 
Vis si adsit major naris ? quam, vane, doleres 
Extinctus fragranti aura, dulcique veneno ! 
Si tactus, tremat hoc corpus, solidoque dolore 
Ardeat in membris nervoque laboret in omni 
Sive auris, fragor exanimet, cum rumpitur igne 
Fulmineo coelum, totusque admurmurat aether 
Minor and more general similarities to 
Pope may be detected elsewhere in Gray's 
Latin ; but these are the obvious ones. 

C. W. BBODBIBB. 



LONDON COACHING AND CARRIERS 
INNS IN 1732. 

(See ante, pp. 61, 84.) 

Peacock : Glare Market. 
Carrier. 

Th. S. . . Eisborough. 
W. . . Colebrook, Telsworth. 

Pewter Platter : St. John Street 
Coaches. 

Th. . . Sudbury. F. Brain tree. 
Carriers. 
W. S. Capel. T. F. Silso. 

Pewter Pot : Leadenhall Street. 
Carriers. 

M. W. F. Witham. T. Th. Becking. 
W. . . Barnstead, Stanford. F. Braintree. 

Pyed Bull: Aldgate Without. 
Coach. 
Every day. Barking. 

Queen's Head : Billingsgate. 
Carriers. 
Th. . . Ashford, Laiigley. W. F. Maidstone. 

Queen's Head : Southwark. 
Carriers. 

M. W. S. Arundel. T. Th. Guildford. 
M. Th. Godalmin, Petersfield. F. Pul- 

borough. 
M. . . Isle of Wight. 

Earn : Fenchurch Street. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Blackheath, Deptford. 
Carriers. 
Th. . . Beardfield (?), Finchingfield. 



Earn : Smithfield. 

Coaches. 

M. W. F. Leicester, Nottingham. 

M. . . Wolverhampton. 

Th. . . Great Bowden, Uppingham. 

F. . . Wellingborough. 

Carriers. 

M. Th. Banbury. Th. S. Coventry. 

M. . . Melton Mowbray, Nottingham ,Wal- 
sail, Wolverhampton. 

Th. . . Culworth, Deddington, Great Bow- 
den, Lutterworth, Northampton^ 
Stratford-on-Avon, Uppingham. 

S. . . Eugby. 

Eed Lyon : Aldersgate. 
Coaches. 

M. Th. Harborough. T. Th. Hatfield. 
T. F. .. Bedford. Th. S. Hurst. 
M. . . Grantham, Hull. Th. Warwick. 
Carriers. 
M. . . Boston, Gainsborough, Homcast e r 

Lincoln, Loughborough, Lowth, 

York. 

T. . . Harborough. 
Th. .. Huntingdon, Potten, Southam. 

Eed Lyon : Bishopsgate Street Without. 
Carrier. 
F. . . Waltham Abbey. 

Eed Lyon : Eed Cross Street. 
Carrier. 
F. . . Baldock. 

Eose : Holborn Bridge. 

Carriers. 

M. Th. Winchester. 

Th. . . Allsford (? Alresford), Marlborough r 

Pool, Eumsey. W. Bristol. 
Eose : Smithfield. 

Coaches. 

M. .. Derby. Th. Kettering. 

Carriers. 

W. .. Kettering. Th. Simpton. 

Rose and Crown : St. John Street. 
Carriers. 
W. .. Amphil. Th. Bedford. 

Saracen's Head : Aldgate. 
Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Chigwell, Hornchurch. 
M. Th. Eomford. 

T. F. . . Forwich (? Fordwich;, Harwich. 
Saracen's Head : Bread Street. 
Coach. 

Th. . . Hereford. 
Saracen's Head : Carter Lane. 
Coaches. 

T. S. .. Longfield. 
W. .. Brickhill. F. Cirencester. 
Carriers. 

Th. . . Layton Buzzard. F. Gloucester- 
Saracen's Head : Friday Street. 
Coaches. 

Exeter. Th. S. Abingdon. 
Taunton. W. Farringdon. 
Bath. S. Dorchester. 



M. W. F. 

M. 

Th. .. 

Carriers. 

M. S. .. 

W. 

S. 



Plymouth. M. Falmouth. 

Wantage. 

Columpton, Dorchester, Totnes._ 



12 s. vm. FEB. 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



Saracen's Head : Snow Hill. 
Carriers. 
M. .. Birmingham, Broom e,Harslton, Sax- 

mundham, Thwaite. 
Th. . . Aylesbury. 

F. . . Basingstoke, Brickhill, Bridgnorth. 
S. . . Bewdley, Coleshill, Droitwich, Kid- 
derminster, Stourbridge, Warwick. 
Grace church Street. 



Spread Eagle 
Coaches. 
Every day. 
M. W. F. S. 
T. Th. S... 

Carriers. 
Th. 



Eltham, Ewel, Peckham. 
Bromley. 

Canterbury, Chelmsford, Colches- 
ter, Maidstone. Th. S.Dover. 



Beccles, Clare, Ipswich, Neadham, 

Saxmundham. 
F. . . Colchester, Hatfield. 

*Spur : Fish Street Hill. 
Coaches. 
T. Th. S. Dover. 

Spur : Southwark. 

Coach. 

Every day. Dartford. 

Carriers. 

T. F. . . Sevenoak [sic], Sunderidge [sic], 

T. .. Town Mailing. 

W. .. Battle, Farningham [sic], Pen- 
hurst [sic]. 

Th. . . Appledore, Hastings, Rumsey, Bye, 

Tenderten (sic.) 
Star : Fish Street Hill. 

Coaches. 

Everyday. Carshalton. 
Star : Strand. 

M. Th. Worcester. 
Sugar Loaf : Bishopsgate. 

Coaches. 

Every day. Hackney. 
Swan and Two Necks : St. John Street. 

Coaches. 

Every day. Finchley. 

T. Th. S. Hatfield. 

Carriers. 

T. Th. S. Hatfield. 

Th. S... Northal(?Northaw). T. F. Hitching. 

Swan with Two Necks : Lad Lane. 
Carriers. 

M. F. . . Newcastle (Staffs.). M. Lichfield. 
T. . . Stone. 
F. . . Clithero, Freston, Knotsford [sic], 

Lancaster, Leek, Macclesfield , 

Mansfield, Preston. 

Talbot: Strand. 
Flying Coaches. 

M. W. F. Bristol (summer only). 
Coaches. 
W. S. Guildford. 



Comer. 
Th. 



Ashford. 



Talbot : Southwark. 

Coaches. * 

Every day. Dulwich. 

Th. . . Brighthemstone, Lewis [sic]. 

Itham (? Ightham;. 
Carriers. 

W. S. . . Mailing. 
Th. . . Cranbrook. Lewis. 



hree Cups : Aldersgate Street. 
Coaches. 
M. W. F. Barton, Hull, Humber (? Great 

Grimsby), Lincoln. 
M. . . Boston, Louth, Peterborough, Spal- 

den [sic]. 

Th. . . Huntingdon. 
Carriers. 

M. W. Kimbolton, Ramsey. 
M. . . Baldock, Hull, St. Neots. 
Th. . . Biggleswade, Peterborough. 

'hree Cups : Bread Street. 

Flying Coaches. 

M. W. F. Bath, Bristol (summer only). 

Coaches. 

M. Th. Bath, Bristol. 

Carriers. 

W. S. . . Bristol, Fernham. 

S. . . Bath. 
;hree Cups : Old Street. 

Coaches. 

T. Th. S. Dunstable. 

Three Cups : St. John Street. 
Coaches. 

M. . . Daventry. 

Th. . . Rugby. 
Carriers. 

M. Th. Daventry. 

F. . . Hunslip. 

Three Nuns : Whitechapel. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Woodford. 
T. Th. S. Onger. W. F. Low Layton. 
Carriers. 

T. F. . . Chipping Onger, Epping, Harlow. 
W. S. Romford. T. Bishop's Stortford" 

Two Swans : Bishopsgate Without. 
Carriers. 

F. S. . . Fulborn [sic]. T. Ashdpn. 
F. . . Basingbourn. W. Cottingham. 
Th. . . Ely. 

Vine : Bishopsgate Street. 
Carrier. 
F. . . Royston. 

White Hart: Southwark. 
Coach. 

F. . . Chichester. 
Carriers. 
Th. F. Chichester. Th. Hayltham [sic]^ 

White Hart and Three Tobacco Pipes : White- 
chapel Bars. 
Carriers. 

T. Th. S. Hornchurch, Rumford. 
W. .. Baddo [sic]. 

White Horse : Cripplegate. 
Carriers. 
M,. . An wick (? Alnwick), Darlington r 

Hexham, Newcastle, Richmond. 
Th. . . Bradford. 
F. . . Hallifax [sic], Otley, Tadcaster.- 

Wakefield. 

*White Horse : Fleet Street. 
Coaches. 

Every day. Brentford, Twickenham, Windsor. 
M. Th. Andover, Dorchester. W. Alden- 
ham. 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 5, 1921. 



"White Horse : Friday Street. 
Carriers. 
W. . . Wellington. Th. Abingdon. 

"White Swan : Holborn Bridge. 

Coaches. 

M. W. F. Southampton. 

Carriers. 

Every day. Uxbridge. M. W. Chippingham. 
T. Th. Cain. W. S. Chesham. 

M. . . Bristol. T. Auburn [sic]. 

W. . . Bath, Devizes, Lamborne, Swinden, 
Wootten Bassett. 

Th. . . Alton, Asston [sic], Chipping Wai- 
den, Hungerford, Ramsbury, 
Wendover. 

F. . . Odiam. S. Amersham. 

Windmill : St. John Street. 
Carriers. 

Th. S... Stevenage. Th. F. Dunstable. 
W. .. Obourn. T. Stony Stratford. 

J. PAUL DE CASTBO. 



GAIMAR'S PATRON: 
"RAUL LE FIZ GILEBERT." 

IT is well-known to students of Anglo- 
Norman that Gaimar's ' Estoire des Engleis ' 
ends with the death of William Rufus and 
that in the Royal MS. of that work there 
is appended to it a long epilogue in which 
are given some particulars of the conditions 
under which Gaimar completed his work 
and of the sources he used in compiling it. 
Though found only in a comparatively late 
MS. and though not all of its statements 
appear to be supported by the very abridged 
version found in the two earlier MSS. (of 
Durham and Lincoln respectively ; that at 
Herald's College the fourth and latest 
contains no trace of an epilogue), it has 
generally been accepted as authentic. The 
question of Gaimar's authorship, extremely 
probable from internal evidence, could be 
more .satisfactorily determined were it 
possible to identify convincingly the patron 
" Raul le fiz Gilebert " and patroness 
"dame Gustance," his wife to whom 
reference is made in the epilogue, and it is 
this problem of identity that I propose to 
discuss here. 

The close acquaintance with Lincolnshire 
topography shown on many occasions in 
the "Estoire" and the interest displayed 
in East Anglian traditions Haveloc, St. 
Edmund, Hereward, &c. have led to the 
general assumption that the author had 
lived in that part of the country, and with 
this as starting point previous students 
have endeavoured to identify Gaimar's 
patron. Apparently little has been done in 



this direction since the publication of the 
edition in the Rolls' Series but, in view 
of the amount of material made available for 
students since that date, a brief account of 
the present position of the question, and of 
the few additional data I have been able to 
glean from the sources of my disposal, may 
possibly lead to the solution of a problem 
which is not entirely without importance. 

Of the several Ralf fitz Gilberts who 
figure in the contemporary records and are 
connected with Lincolnshire, the one most 
generally identified with Gaimar's patron is 
that "Redulphus films Gilleberti " who held 
land at Scampton (Lines.) which he granted 
c. 1150 to Kirkstead Abbey. Beyond the 
identity of names there does not appear to 
be any particular ground for supposing him 
to be the "Raul le fiz Gilebert " of the 
epilogue nor does there appear to be any 
reason, except that he had a son named 
Ralf, for identifying him with his contem- 
porary and namesake, the founder of Markby 
Priory. In the Introduction to the second 
volume of the Rolls' edition the editor says 
the latter must have had property in Wilt- 
shire under Henry II., but the only evidence 
he gives in support of this assertion is a 
reference to the ' Pipe Roll of 7 Henry II. ' 
where, under Hampshire, we read : Et in 
perdona per brevem regis Radulphus filius 
Gilleberti iiii m et debet iiii m qui requirendi 
sunt in Wiltescire. ^s we shall see there 
appear to be traces of this Ralf in later 
entries of the Pipe Roll. 

If we turn to the account of the manor of 
Empshott (Hants) in the third volume of 
the Victoria History of that county we find 
a reference to a charter of " Radulphus 
filius Gileberti " and of Constance his wife. 
Curiously enough, though the name figures in 
the text, it dees not occur in the index 
to the History, which probably accounts 
for the reference having passed unnoticed. 
(It was only while casually turning over the 
leaves that I came across the notice myself. ) 
The charter is to be found in the British 
Museum Add. MSS. 33280 atf. 202 and of it 
I have procured the following transcript. 

" Carta Radulphi Filij Gilebti de Capdla dc 
Imbeschete. Notum sit oibz tarn p'sentibz qam 
Futuris qd Ego Ridulph' filius GileV & Con- 
stancia ux' mea & Rad' filius & heres nost' 
p redempcone animar: nrar: & ancessor: nror: 
dams & concedims <fe p'senti Carta confirmams 
Deo & ecclie be Mar' de Suthewic' ad incremntuo 
noiatim reddiV coqine Fru nror: Canonicor: dee 
ibm servienciii Capellam nram de Imbisita in 
ppetua elemosina cu decimis & oblaconibz & 
oibz pt'en' suis cu una v'gata ire cuis^ dimidia pte 



12 s. vin. FEB. s, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



libam & quieta ab oibz servicijs esse annuims 
alia v ps solumodo dni nri Reg' solvet <fc duor: 
houm servicia in autupno ad singlas p'ces nras. 
Hijs Test' . Philipp' qen'o nro en Isabel ux'e 
ana & Peto & Rad' filior : eiusd Philipp' & alijs. 
Rogavims p caritate del &: impetravims ab 
p'fatis fribz nris ut audito obitu nro & Philippi 
gen'i nri & ux'is eis Isabel & hedes nri faciant 
serviciu p aiabz nris sicut p aiabz specialiu frm 
& sororunt." 

The priory, originally founded at Port- 
chester by Henry I, was removed to South- 
wick between 1145-53, after which date 
the above grant must have been made ; 
since, however, the grant was confirmed 
between 1170 and 1180 by Pope Alexander 
III, together with that of the ecclesiam de 
Portseia (granted by Baldwin de Portseia 
c. 1170), of the ecclesiam de Nuthlia, and of 
a house in Winchester, the above charter 
must be earlier. If, as I think probable, 
the entry, under Hampshire, of the ' Pipe 
Roll of "13 Henry II.' is to be read: [I]m- 
besseta Rad redd comp de dim m ; then Half 
fitz Gilbert still had property there in 1167 
and the date of his grant to Southwick is 
very probably to be ascribed to c. 1170. 

It is now time to consider the remaining 
references to Half fitz Gilbert in Hampshire. 
In this same 'Pipe Roll of 13 Henry II.' 
there is also the following entry under 
Hampshire : Eslega Rad redd comp de dim 
m, and we learn from the ' Placit. Abbrev. ' 
of 10 John (p. 69) that this was " Radulphus 
films Gileberti," and that he held of William 
de Venuz, who was lord of the manor of 
Empshott, among other places, in the 
second half o f the twelfth century. Moreover 
" Hugo filius Radulphi " (of Eastleigh) bought 
land from John de Venuz, c. 1220 according 
to V. C. H., Hants (vol. iii, sub Eastleigh) 
where a reference, which 1 have been unable 
to control, is given to ' Pedes Finium 3 and 4 
Henry III.' ; since William de Venuz was 
contemporary with Ralf fitz Gilbert and 
since John de Venuz was his grandson, 
it is probable that " Hugo filius Radulphi " 
stood in the same relationship to Ralf fitz 
Gilbert. At any rate it seems fairly certain 
that Ralf of Empshott and Ralf of Eastleigh 
are one and the same person and it is, it 
seems to me, probable that this Hampshire 
Fitz Gilbert is identical with the founder of 
Markby Priory who, as we learn fro/n ' Placit. 
Abbrev.' 7 John (p. 46) and 9-10 John (p. 58), 
had a son Ralf and a grandson Hugh, who, 
to judge by an entry in the Rotuli Hugonis 
de Welles (' Lincoln Record Society,' vol. iii, 
p. 202), was still interested in Markby 
Priory, c. 1230. 



This Ralf fitz Gilbert appears to have 
been a brother of Robert fitz Gilbert of 
Legbouriie (Lines.) though the evidence 
does not seem altogether satisfactory whose 
family (for an. account of which cf. Lincoln- 
shire Notes and Queries, vols. vi. and xii.) 
held extensively of the Earls of Chester, 
It is noteworthy in this connection that 
Gaimar has special references to this family 
and to one at least of its traditions. Further 
he was undoubtedly familiar with the 
country stretching between Reading and 
Southampton, e.g., he chooses Portsmouth 
as the scene of a fictitious battle recorded by 
him, and preserves an account of an English 
retreat before the Danes up the Loddon 
valley by Twyford and Whistley. There is 
then^no difficulty in the way of identifying 
the "Raul le fiz Gilebert " and "dame 
Custance " of the epilogue with the Ralf 
fitz Gilbert and Constance of Empshott, 
but is the genealogical evidence sufficient,, 
at present, to warrant the further assump- 
tion that this Hampshire Fitz Gilbert is the 
same as the founder of Markby Priory an 
identity which would do much, if substan- 
tiated, to determine the authenticity of t he- 
epilogue ? It is on this account that I 
hesitate to press the evidence too far, though- 
more competent students than myself may 
be able to strengthen the claim of identity 
from the genealogical side. 

ALEXANDER BELL. 
46 All Saints Road, Peterborough. 



ERRORS IN CARLYLE'S 'FRENCH REVOLU- 
TION.' A writer in last year's August 
number of L' Intermediate, under the heading: 
'Erreurs dans Carlyle,' has indicated two 
oversights in this book. As neither of them 
draws a comment in the annotated edition 
of Prof. J. H. Rose or that of Mr. C. R. L. 
Fletcher, readers of the ' French Revolution ' ' 
may care to note the corrections, even if,, 
remembering Mr. Oscar Browning's essay 
on ' The Flight to Varennes,' they are proof 
against any surprise at the inaccuracy of 
Carlyle 's picturesque details. 

1. In vol. i., Bk. III., chap. 6, " fascinating 
indispensable Madame de Buffon," mistress 
of the Duke of Orleans, is described as the 
" light wife of a great Naturalist much too 
old for her." Yet in his description o 
Egalite on his way to the guillotine (vol iii.,. 
Bk. V., chap. 2), when, as the procession 
stops at the quondam Palais Royal, " Dame 
de Buffon, it is said, looked out on him, 
in Jezebel headtire," Carlyle gives a reference^ 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vra.FHB.5,i92i. 



,to Montgaillard, i.e., the Abbe Montgaillard's 
*Histoire de France.' This being looked 
.up is found to describe how ' ' la f emme 
Buffon, inaitresse en titre du prince, epouse 
du fils de 1'illustre Bufton. . . .contemple 
'froidement la victime allant a 1'echafaud." 
2. In vol ii., Bk. I., chap. 2, the French 
word for the Charter-Chests is given as 
Chartiers, instead of Chartriers. This may 
be a mere misprint, but we surely owe it to 
.the estimable wife of " le Pline frangais " 
that she should no longer be pilloried at 
the window as a Jezebel, but yield this 
place of dishonour to her daughter-in-law. 
EDWARD BENSLY. 

THE PANCAKE BELL. Pancake day, as 
-every one knows, is the Tuesday before 
Ash Wednesday. From the following notes 
it will be seen the custom was well observed 
on the borders of Warwickshire adjoining 
the Cotswolds. 

At Ilmington the church bells were rung 
-on Shrove Tuesday and the ringers then 
went round to the farmers, &c., collecting 
pancakes, in a large basket lined with 
flannel, one man being left in the tower to 
pull the "ting tang." The visit was 
^accompanied by singing the couplet 

Link it Lank it, 
Give us panket. 

The older custom, followed as late as 
1800, was that the parish clerk did the like, 
And claimed as his right a pancake from all 
the more substantial houses. All the men 
And boys on the farm received a pancake on 
that day, and although, as a rule, the making 
'was restricted to Shrove Tuesday, the 
shepherd was entitled to a pancake when 
the first lamb came, even if it chanced to be 
midnight. J. HARVEY BLOOM. 

Twig KNOWLE HOTEL, SID MOUTH, was 
-opened as such in August, 1882. It had 
originally been built by Sir Thomas Staple- 
ton, sixteenth Lord Le Despencer, in 1810 
.as Knowle Cottage, and I am told that when 
the Duke and Duchess of Kent arrived at 
Woolbrook Cottage, Sidmouth, on Christmas 
13ve, 1819, with the baby Princess Victoria 
it had already become something of a show 
place. Later on, at any rate, the aviaries 
.and the small collection of animals and the 
,ub- tropical plants were well known. On 
Nov. 20, 1823, John Wallis, of the Royal 
"Marine Library, Sidmouth, published a 
.series of coloured prints of Knowle Cottage, 
which was then in the possession of T. L. 
;Fish, Esq. These were drawn by J. Fidler, 



and engraved by J. Sutherland. Other 
prints were published by I. Hervey of Fore 
Street, Sidmouth, and drawn by C. F. 
Williams. The aviaries, &c., 'have dis- 
appeared, but this seems to be an interesting 
lostelry, of which too little has been 
recorded. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

NOTE TO WORDSWORTH'S 'PRELUDE,' 
BK. v. 26. Turning over the pages of vol. iii. 
of Knight's edition of Wordsworth I came 
across an admission on the editor's part 
that he could not trace the quotation in 
the line: 
Might almost " weep to have " what he may 

lose 
at the reference given above. 

It is, of course, a reminiscence of the con- 
clusion of one of Shakespeare's best known 
sonnets ('When I have seen by Time's fell 
hand defaced ' Ixiv.) which runs : 

This thought is as a death, which cannot choose 
But weep to have that which it fears to lose. 

E. R. 

JOSEPH HATTON (See 12 S. vi. 274, 300). 
The enclosed may interest those who read 
the query and replies on " Guy Roslin " at 
the above references. 

IN AN ESSEX WORKHOUSE. 

" Those who knew that charming man, Joseph 
Hatton, will be sorry to read this sad note in 
The Athenceum. ' In an Essex workhouse has 
just died Joshua Hatton, brother of the late 
editor of The People, and himself not only a 
journalist of great experience and mark, but also 
a poet who had the kindly opinion of Tennyson. 
It was Hatton to whose misfortunes attention 
was drawn in this column some months since. 
Hatton was seventy ' years old, and at the time 
of his death was still hoping that the materials 
for his fifth volume of verse would see the light. 
There may be work of value among them : we 
trust at least they may be carefully examined by 
competent hands.' " 

DE V. PAYEX-PAYNE. 

49 Nevern Square, S.W. 

THE SITE OF THE BOSTON TEA PARTY. 
Readers of Mr. Lucas's letters to The Times, 
last autumn, 'From an American Note 
Book,' will recall the statements that he 
could find no one to direct him to the place 
where, in December 1773, three cargoes of 
tea on British ships were thrown overboard 
by citizens of Boston, as a protest against 
taxation : 

" I found the harbour [he writes] : I traversed 
wharf after wharf ; but there was no visible 
record of the most momentous act of jettison 
since Jonah." 



12 s. vin. FEB. 5, 1921] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



"Such a record, however, does exist, and has 
existed since December 1893 when a bronze 
tablet was placed by the Massachusetts 
Society, Sons of the Revolution, on a building 
at the corner of Atlantic Avenue and Pearl 
Street the actual site of ' Griffins Wharf, ' 
long since reclaimed from the harbour and 
now effectually cut off by the elevated rail- 
way and opposite line of high warehouses. 

The tablet shows a sailing ship of the 
period and below it, within an appropriate 
border of tea leaves, runs the following 
inscription : 

Here formerly stood 

GRIFFINS WHARF, 
at -which lay moored on Dec. 16, 1773, three 

British, ships with cargoes of tea. 
To defeat King George's trivial but tyrannical 

tax of three pence a pound 
.about ninety citizens of Boston, partly disguised 

as Indians, boarded the ships, 
threv the cargoes, three hundred and forty-two 

chests in all, into the sea, 
-and made the world ring with the patriotic 

exploit of the 

BOSTON TEA PARTY. 

No I- ne'er was mingled such a draught, 

In palace, hall, or arbor, 
As freemen brewed and tyrants quaffed 
That night in Boston harbor. 

HUGH HURTING. 
46 Grey Coat Gardens, S.W. 

THE SCHOOL OF SAMUEL BUTLER. Though 
Aibrey says that Samuel Butler, author of 
''Hudibras,' went to school at Worcester, 
aid tradition has it that he was educated 
A: the King's School in that city under 
Henry Bright, one of the most celebrated 
S3hoolmasters of that age, many later writers 
lave disagreed as to the identity of Butler's 
.school, either assigning him to the Worcester 
Royal Grammar School (known previously 
AS the Free School, or Queen Elizabeth's 
Grammar School), or questioning whether 
he was educated at Worcester at all. Car- 
lisle in his ' Endowed Schools ' places Butler 
"at Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, 
Worcester,' and is followed by the writer 
in the 'D.NtB.' Chambers in his 'Bio- 
graphical Illustrations of Worcestershire,' 
writing of Lord Somers, says: 

" I am not acquainted that any register is in 
-existence to give to any school in this city the 
honour of educating Butler or Somers." 
However, as far as Butler is concerned, such 
;a register does exist, which, though it does 
not actually contain Butler's name, confirms 
the tradition that he was educated at the 
King's School, Worcester. 



In his ' Brief Life ' of Butler Aubrey 
states, "He went to schoole at Worcester 
from Mr. Hill," and adds in a note: 

" He was born in Worcestershire hard by 
Barbon-bridge half a mile from Worcester,' in the 
parish of St. John, Mr. Hill thinkes, who went to 
schoole with him." 

This Mr. Hill, as is seen from other references 
to him in the 'Brief Lives,' was the Rev. 
Richard Hill, incumbent of Stretton in 
Herefordshire. He matriculated at Oxford 
from Balliol College in July 1634 as "son 
of James, of Upton-on-Severn, co. Wore., 
pleb., aged 17." In the register of boys 
elected to King's scholarship, at the King's 
School, Worcester ('Wore. Cath. Mun.' 
A. xxi, printed in Mr. A. F. Leach's ' Early 
Education in Worcestershire ') there occurs 
the name of Richard Hill under the date 
November 1626. Thus the identification of 
this Richard Hill with Aubrey's Mr. Hill 
who went to school with Butler appears 
certain. 

Butler, who was baptized in February 
1612-13, would be Hill's senior by about 
four years, and probably left the school 
soon after Hill entered it. Butler's name is 
not found in this register because he was 
never elected to a King's scholarship. This 
fact gives point to Aubrey's statement that 
" his father was a man but of slender fortune* 
and to breed him at schoole was as much educa- 
tion as he was able to reach to. . . .He never wag 
at the university for the reason alledged." 

C. V. HANCOCK. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



VANESSA. DR. ELBINGTON BALL'S note 
on Swift's verse (p. 1) brings to mind a 
point which has often puzzled me. How 
did the German naturalist Johann Christian 
Faber or Fabricius (1745-1808), pupil of 
and collaborateur with the Swedish natura- 
list Carle von Linne, better known as 
Linnaeus (1707-1778), come to designpte a 
genus of butterflies as Vanessa, Linnaeus 
adding the specific names ? The British 
representatives of this species are the most 
brilliant of our native butterflies, viz., the 
Red Admiral, the Peacock, the Camberwell 
Beauty, the Large and Small Tortoiseshells 
and the Painted Lady. How did Fabricius 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.vm. FEB. 5,1921. 



get hold of the name Vanessa, which was 
coined as a cryptonym for Esther Van- 
homrigh to match his own anagram of 
Cadenus for Decanus ? 

Swift's poem * Cadenus and Vanessa ' was 
written in 1713, but not published till 1727. 
Swift died in 1745, the year of Fabricius's 
birth, and it was not until 1767 that Fabricius 
paid his first visit to England. Unlike 
Linnaeus, he was a fluent linguist, and was 
much in the company of Sir Joseph Banks 
and other entomologists. It would be 
interesting to know by what happy accident 
he hit upon the name Vanessa for the beauti- 
ful insects that now bear it. 

HERBERT MAXWELL. 
Monreith. 

THOMAS CHATTERTON. According to 
Gregory ('Life of Chatterton, 1803,' p. 70), 
who apparently quotes the Coroner, Chatter- 
ton " swallowed arsenic in water, on Aug. 24, 
1770, and died in consequence thereof the 
next day." The italics are mine. The 
Coroner had been interviewed by Sir Herbert 
Croft, it will be remembered, and Gregory's 
version of the inquest was the accepted one, 
and has been copied by Chatterton 's later 
biographers. The phrase, ""the next day," 
deserves attention. If Chatterton died on the 
25th, why is it said that he took poison on the 
24th ? He returned to his room on the 24th, 
and his room was broken into "early in 
the morning " of the 25th (probably by 
Mrs. Angel's husband before leaving for 
his work). What justification was there 
for this forcible entry after so short a se- 
clusion ? Did Mrs. Angel suspect he had 
' * flitted ' ' in the night to avoid paying his 
rent ? Again, how did she know that he 
had been without food for some days ? 
Who had Chatterton's few belongings in the 
Brooke Street lodging ? 

If I have overlooked any books on Chatter- 
ton which discuss these points, I should be 
grateful to any of your correspondents who 
would give me their titles. 

It may be interesting to students of 
Chatterton if I add that I have been exa- 
mining the theory of his burial at Bristol, 
and while I agree with Masson's reason for 
disbelieving it, I would submit that the 
theory is also untenable from the fact that 
a study of the time-tables of the coaches of 
that period between Bristol and London 
shews that there would not have been time 
for an exchange of letters between Chatter- 
ton's friends in London and Bristol before 
the date of the recorded burial in Shoe 



Lane workhouse graveyard, i.e., the 28th. 
Assuming that the burial took place as 
recorded, there remains the possibility of 
an application for disinterment of the body.. 
Of that nothing is known. Yet Mrs. Ballance 
would surely have heard of it, and have 
spoken of it to Sir Herbert Croft. Failing, 
an authorized disinterment, there is the 
remoter possibility of "body-snatching." 
That might have been managed by bribery,, 
but it points to an expenditure of money 
and trouble in a dangerous transaction on, 
the parjb of distant relations of Mrs. Chatter- 
ton that is unthinkable. 

Might I say that on a recent visit to 
Brooke Street, I noted that No. 39 bears 
no inscription to the effect that it occupies- 
the site of the house in which Chatterton 
died. I suggest that the authorities who 
have done such good work in placing 
memorial tablets on London houses, might 
fittingly pay this simple tribute to Chatter- 
ton's memory. G. W. WRIGHT. 

Brixton. 

SUTHERLAND OF ACKERGILL. Alexander- 
Sutherland, a farmer of Ackergill, near 
Wick, married (name of wife sought) and 
had issue: Henrietta, baptized, Feb. 21,. 
1730 ; Margaret, baptized, May 13, 1733 ; 
Alexander, baptized Feb. 15, 1736. 

The second daughter, Margaret, married 
July 29, 1764 in New Kirk Parish, Edin- 
burgh, John Baillie (Merchant in Edinbur^i),, 
son of Thomas Baillie (millwright, on flie 
water of Leith), by his wife Helen Gordoa. 

I am anxious to trace the ancestry of 
Alexander Sutherland, and it has occurred 
to me that, in view of of the fact that Acker- 
gill is the property of Major Sir George Duff- 
Sutherland-Dunbar, Bart., the representa- 
tive of the family of Sutherland of Duffts 
whose ancestor was Nicholas, 2nd son of 
Kenneth, 4th Earl of Sutherland, Alexandef 
Sutherland may have been connected witli 
that family. 

The ancestry of Thomas Baillie is alsoj 
desired. Was he connected with the Jervis-J 
woode or Mellerstain Baillies ? 

JAMES SETON- ANDERSON. 
* 39 Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

JACK'S COFFEE HOUSE. I have a thin, 
copper token about $ in. in diameter which 
reads on one side, " JACK'S COFFEE HOUSE,. 
6d." on the other side, " RODNEY, 12th April,, 
1782." I shall be glad to know when, and 
where, it was issued. 

WILLIAM GILBERT, F.R.N.S. 



12 s. VIIT. FEB. 5, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



' WASH ' ( ' WASSH '), BLACKSMITH'S TOOL. 
Dr. Bradley has been supplied with a 
reference to a membrane of the King's 
Remembrancer's Memoranda Roll of 1363, 
for this word. Careful examination of that 



COLONEL OWEN ROWE. What is known 
concerning the arms and descendants of this 
regicide ? I believe there has been some 
correspondence on the subject in 'N. & Q.,' 
but lack references. A precis of the in- 



membrane does not show the word. It may formation elicited would be welcomed, 
be that the reference was miscopied. 

I shall be glad if one of your correspon 
dents can supply any early reference to the 
word with a quotation. There are, no doubt, 

seyeralprintedinventoriesthat record the tools marjt ^ oulBf m uuf _ UJ uia _ yi _, oayo 

ol a smith s torge ; but I do not know where that Owen Howe was descended from Sir Thomas 



TRIUMVIR. 

[We reproduce a query which appeared in 
1 S. ix. 449 : 

" OWEN ROWE THE REGICIDE. 
Mark Noble, in his Lives of the Regicides, says 



to find these. 



ROBT. J. WHITWELL. 



DRAWINGS WANTED. In 
a history of the ward of 



Rowe, Lord Mayor of London In 1568. In the 
Additional Manuscripts (British Museum), 6337, 
p. 52, is a coat in trick : Argent, on a chevron 
azure, three bezants between three trefoils per 



CRIPPLEGATE : 

connexion with - ~~v^ . *. Uiw rr*.^ ^ 

flrinnWato in +V,o rm-cr * T ^^A^ i~- T~ pale gules and vert, a martlet sable for difference ; 
the City of London, which ^ rest f a roe>s head co ed gules> at tired or, 

1 am about completing, I should be glad to rising from a wreath ; and beneath is written 
he&r of any original unpublished drawings f< Coll. Row, Coll. of hors and futt." These arms 
of buildings, &c., of the eighteenth and 
nireteenth centuries. I have all those con- 
tained in the British Museum and the 
Gu Idhall Library. JOHN J. BADDELEY. 
32 Woodbury Down, N. 

CHARLES HOLLINGBERY was admitted to 
Vest minster School in September 1826, 
aged 13. I should be glad to obtain any 
iiformation about him. G. F. R. B. 

" AUSTER ' ' LAND TENURE. In a deed dated 
1800, a house in this parish is described as 
' all that Messuage and Tenement of Old 



arms 

I imagine to have been the regicide's. If so, he 
was a fourth son. Query, whose ? The Hackney 
Parish Register records, that on Nov. 6, 1655, 
Captain Henry Rowe was buried from Mr. Simon 
Corbet's, of Mare Street, Hackney. How was he 



related to Colonel Owen Rowe ? I should feel 
particularly obliged to any correspondent who 
could furnish me with his descent from Sir Thos. 
Rowe. 

" According to Mr. Lysons (Environs of London, 
vol. iv. p. 540) the daughter of Mr. Rowland 
Wilson, and widow of Dr. Crisp, married Colonel 
Rowe ; adding in a note, that he supposes this 
Colonel Rowe to have been Colonel Owen Rowe, 
the regicide. The same statement is found in 
s History of Kent (edit. 1778), vol. i., 



the regi 
Hasted' 



muster in the Manor of Yatton." Can anv P- 181 - l snould be ? lad of some more certain 

1_-_ ,* _ . ., information on this point ; also, what issue Owen 

two daughters, whose 



term 

which I understand has something I SarriagesYre ^OT^dlT thTrfa^SSy "Se^fetS! 
o do with a system of land tenure. Was "I am likewise anxious to learn whether there 
t confined to Somerset ? In a neighbouring exist any lineal descendants . of this family of 
3arish there is land formerly known as the I . Rowe ' which had ^ s OT W^ in Kent; and thence 



duster tenements. 
Yatton, Somerset. 



H. C. BARNARD. 



LAMB IN RUSSELL STREET. Charles Lamb 
and his sister for a time occupied lodgings 
in Russell Street, Covent Garden, where 
Will's Coffee-house formerly had stood. 
This street is by no means the same as 
Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury. 

Was Russell Street, Covent Garden ever 
correctly known as Great Russell Street ? 
The 'D.N.B.' and Ainger's 'Charles Lamb * 
in the ' English Men of Letters ' series both 
call the street Great Russell Street, Covent 
Garden, while the latter book uses both 
names ; and magazine and newspaper 
writers frequently repeat the error. 

It seems desirable that an important 
book of reference like the 'D.N.B.' should 
be correct on such a simple point. 
Cambridge, Mass- E. BASIL LTJPTON. 



branching oft in the sixteenth century, settled 
and obtained large possessions in Shacklewell, 
Walthamstow, Low Layton, Higham Hill, and 
Muswell Hill. Through females, several of our 
nobility are descended from them. TEE BEE." 
At 10 S. i. 356, in reply to a short general 
query, reference is given to 

" The indictment, arraignment, tryal, and 
judgment at large of twenty-nine regicides, the 

murtherers of King Charles I begun 

at Hicks's-hall, 9th Oct., 1660, and continued at 
the Old Baily." London, 1739, 



MAJOR-GENERAL THE HON. WILLIAM 
HERBERT, son of Thomas, 8th Earl of 
Pembroke, and father of Henry, 1st Earl of 
Carnarvon is stated by * G. E. C.' to have 
married Catherine Elizabeth Tewes, of Aix- 
la-Chapelle. 

Is it possible to trace the parentage of 
this lady ? P. B. M. 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. s, 1921. 



get hold of the name Vanessa, which was 
coined as a cryptonym for Esther Van- 
homrigh to match his own anagram of 
Cadenus for Decanus ? 

Swift's poem ' Cadenus and Vanessa ' was 
written in 1713, but not published till 1727. 
Swift died in 1745, the year of Fabricius's 
birth, and it was not until 1767 that Fabricius 
paid his first visit to England. Unlike 
Linnaeus, he was a fluent linguist, and was 
much in the company of Sir Joseph Banks 
and other entomologists. It would be 
interesting to know by what happy accident 
he hit upon the name Vanessa for the beauti- 
ful insects that now bear it. 

HERBERT MAXWELL. 
Monreith. 

THOMAS CHATTERTON. According to 
Gregory ('Life of Chatterton, 1803,' p. 70), 
who apparently quotes the Coroner, Chatter- 
ton " swallowed arsenic in water, on Aug. 24, 
1770, and died in consequence thereof the 
next day." The italics are mine. The 
Coroner had been interviewed by Sir Herbert 
Croft, it will be remembered, and Gregory's 
version of the inquest was the accepted one, 
and has been copied by Chatterton's later 
biographers. The phrase, "the next day/' 
deserves attention. If Chatterton died on the 
25th, why is it said that he took poison on the 
24th ? He returned to his room on the 24th, 
and his room was broken into "early in 
the morning " of the 25th (probably by 
Mrs. Angel's husband before leaving for 
his work). What justification was there 
for this forcible entry after so short a se- 
clusion ? Bid Mrs. Angel suspect he had 
* ' flitted ' ' in the night to avoid paying his 
rent ? Again, how did she know that he 
had been without food for some days ? 
Who had Chatterton's few belongings in the 
Brooke Street lodging ? 

If I have overlooked any books on Chatter - 
ton which discuss these points, I should be 
grateful to any of your correspondents who 
would give me their titles. 

It may be interesting to students of 
Chatterton if I add that I have been exa- 
mining the theory of his burial at Bristol, 
and while I agree with Masson's reason for 
disbelieving it, I would submit that the 
theory is also untenable from the fact that 
a study of the time-tables of the coaches of 
that period between Bristol and London 
shews that there would not have been time 
for an exchange of letters between Chatter- 
ton's friends in London and Bristol before 
the date of the recorded burial in Shoe 



Lane workhouse graveyard, i.e., the 28th. 
Assuming that the burial took place as 
recorded, there remains the possibility of 
an application for disinterment of the body. 
Of that nothing is known. Yet Mrs. Ballance 
would surely have heard of it, and have 
spoken of it to Sir Herbert Croft. Failing. 
an authorized disinterment, there is the 
remoter possibility of "body-snatching." 
That might have been managed by bribery,, 
but it points to an expenditure of money 
and trouble in a dangerous transaction on. 
the parjb of distant relations of Mrs. Chatter- 
ton that is unthinkable. 

Might I say that on a recent visit to 
Brooke Street, I noted that No. 39 bears 
no inscription to the effect that it occupies- 
the site of the house in which Chatterton 
died. I suggest that the authorities who 
have done such good work in placing. 
memorial tablets on London houses, might 
fittingly pay this simple tribute to Chatter- 
ton's memory. G. W. WRIGHT. 

Brixton. 

SUTHERLAND OF ACKERGILL. Alexander 
Sutherland, a farmer of Ackergill, near 
Wick, married (name of wife sought) end 
had issue: Henrietta, baptized, Feb. 21,. 
1730 ; 'Margaret, baptized, May 13, 1723 ; 
Alexander, baptized Feb. 15, 1736. 

The second daughter, Margaret, married 
July 29, 1764 in New Kirk Parish, Edin- 
burgh, John Baillie (Merchant in Edinburgh),, 
son of Thomas Baillie (millwright, on fae 
water of Leith), by his wife Helen Gordon. 

I am anxious to trace the ancestry of 
Alexander Sutherland, and it has cccurrsd. 
to me that, in view of of the fact that Acker- 
gill is the property of Major Sir George Bui- 
Sutherland-Dunbar, Bart., the representa- 
tive of the family of Sutherland of Duff us- 
whose ancestor was Nicholas, 2nd son c 
Kenneth, 4th Earl of Sutherland, Alexander 
Sutherland may have been connected witl\ 
that family. 

The ancestry of Thomas Baillie is also 
desired. Was he connected with the Jervis 
woode or Mellerstain Baillies ? 

JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 
* 39 Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 



JACK'S COFFEE HOUSE. I have a 
copper token about in. in diameter which 
reads on one side, " JACK'S COFFEE HOUSE,. 
6d. " on the other side, " RODNEY, 12th April,, 
1782." I shall be glad to know when, and 
where, it was issued. 

WILLIAM GILBERT, F.K.N.S. 



12 s. vm. FEB. 6, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



' WASH ' ( ' WASSH '), BLACKSMITH'S TOOL. 
Dr. Bradley has been supplied with a 
reference to a membrane of the King's 
Remembrancer's Memoranda Roll of 1363, 
for this word. Careful examination of that 
membrane does not show the word. It may 
be that the reference was miscopied. 

I shall be glad if one of your correspon- 
dents can supply any early reference to the 
word with a quotation. There are, no doubt, 
several printed inventories that record the tools 



f VU ' -L j. T T 1 i UOXrm, i.-t<JU.I.e, 111 Alls fJfVVO UJ K/t.0 j.tc.j/nxn*c-o, ocvjro 

ol 9, smith s forge ; but I do not know where that Owen Rowe was descended from Sir Thomas 



COLONEL OWEN ROWE. What is known 
concerning the arms and descendants of this 
regicide ? I believe there has been some 
correspondence on the subject in ' N. & Q.,' 
but lack references. A precis of the in- 
formation elicited would be welcomed. 

TRIUMVIB. 

[We reproduce a query which appeared in 
1 S. ix. 449 : 

" OWEN ROWE THE REGICIDE. 
" Mark Noble, in his Lives of the Regicides, says 



to find these. 



ROBT. J. WHITWELL. 



CRIPPLEGATE : DRAWINGS WANTED. In 
connexion with a history of the ward of 
Cripplegate in the City of London, which 
I am about completing, I should be glad to 
he&r of any original unpublished drawings 
of buildings, &c., of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries. I have all those con- 
tained in the British Museum and the 
Guildhall Library. JOHN J. BADDELEY 
32 Woodbury Down, N. 

CHARLES HOLLINGBERY was admitted to 
Vest minster School in September 1826, 
aged 13. I should be glad to obtain any 
iiformation about him. G. F. R. B. 

" AUSTER ' ' LAND TENURE. In a deed dated 



Rowe, Lord Mayor of London In 1568. In the 
Additional Manuscripts (British Museum), 6337, 
p. 52, is a coat in trick : Argent, on a chevron 
azure, three bezants between three trefoils per 
pale gules and vert, a martlet sable for difference ; 
crest, a roe's head couped gules, attired or, 
rising from a wreath ; and beneath is written, 
" Coll. Row, Coll. of hors and futt." These arms 
I imagine to have been the regicide's. If so, he 
was a fourth son. Query, whose ? The Hackney 
Parish Register records, that on Nov. 6, 1655, 
Captain Henry Rowe was buried from Mr. Simon 
Corbet's, of Mare Street, Hackney. How was he 
related to Colonel Owen Rowe? I should feel 
particularly obliged to any correspondent who 
could furnish me with his descent from Sir Thos. 
Rowe. 

" According to Mr. Lysons (Environs of London, 
vol. iv. p. 540) the daughter of Mr. Rowland 
Wilson, and widow of Dr. Crisp, married Colonel 
Rowe ; adding in a note, that he supposes this 
Colonel Rowe to have been Colonel Owen Rowe, 



lonrk T- JT i I ^uiuuei riruwt; IAJ u.*ve uccn ^uiuurr-jL v/wcij. j.n^wc, 

00, a house in this parish is described as the regicide. The same statement is found in 



all that Messuage and Tenement of Old 
Auster in the Manor of Yatton." Can any 
oie explain the meaning of the term " Old 
Duster " which I understand has something 
t> do with a system of land tenure. Was 



Hasted's History of Kent (edit. 1778), vol. i., 
181. I should be glad of some more certain 
information on this point ; also, what issue Owen 
Rowe left, if any, besides two daughters, whose 
marriages are recorded in the Hackney Register. 
I am likewise anxious to learn whether there 



t confined to Somerset ? In a neighbouring exist any lineal descendants . of this family of 



parish there is land formerly known as the 
-luster tenements. H. C. BARNARD. 

Yatton, Somerset. 

LAMB IN RUSSELL STREET.' Charles Lamb 
and his sister for a time occupied lodgings 
in Russell Street, Covent Garden, where 
Will's Coffee-house formerly had stood. 
This street is by no means the same as 
Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury. 

Was Russell Street, Covent Garden ever 
correctly known as Great Russell Street ? 
The 'D.N.B.' and Ainger's 'Charles Lamb ' 
in the ' English Men of Letters ' series both 
call the street Great Russell Street, Covent 
Garden, while the latter book uses both 
names ; and magazine and newspaper 
writers frequently repeat the error. 

It seems desirable that an important 
book of reference like the 'D.N.B.' should 
be correct on such a simple point. 
Cambridge, Mass- E. BASIL LuPTON. 



Rowe, which had its origin in Kent; and thence 
branching oft in the sixteenth century, settled 
and obtained large possessions in Shacklewell, 
Walthamstow, Low Layton, Higham Hill, and 
Muswell Hill. Through females, several of our 
nobility are descended from them. TEE BEE." 
At 10 S. i. 356, in reply to a short general 
query, reference is given to 

" The indictment, arraignment, tryal, and 
judgment at large of twenty-nine regicides, the 

murtherers of King Charles I begun 

Hicks's-hall, 9th Oct., 1660, and continued at 
the Old Baily." London, 1739, 

11 be found hi the Corporation Library, 
] 



MAJOR- GENERAL THE HON. WILLIAM 
HERBERT, son of Thomas, 8th Earl of 
Pembroke, and father of Henry, 1st Earl of 
Carnarvon is stated by ' G. E. C. ' to have 
married Catherine Elizabeth Tewes, of Aix- 
la-Chapelle. 

Is it possible to trace the parentage of 
this lady ? P. D. M. 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES, [is a TOLP. 6 , IMI. 



COWPEB : PRONUNCIATION OF NAME. 
I have been told that the poet Cowper said 
somewhere cr other that he pronounced his 
name so that the first syllable rhymed with 
"loop." Could any of your readers give 
me a reference or supply me with any 
evidence that may serve to determine the 
question? T. NICKLIS. 

[This subject has been discussed in ' N. & Q.' 
See, for example, 10 S. xii. 265, 335, 372, 432, 616. 
At the first reference MB. THOMAS BAYNE gives 
the solution of Cowper's riddle on the Kiss (Gent. 
Mag.,' vol. Ixxvi.), which, not itself by Cowper, 
.was taken to be his and to decide the pronuncia- 
tion. It runs : 

A riddle by Cowper 

Made me swear like a trooper ; 

But my anger, alas ! was in vain ; 

For, remembering the bliss 

Of beauty's soft kiss, 

I now long for such riddles again. 
In 5 8. i. a similar correspondence will be 
found, and at p. 274 occurs the following : 

COWPEB : TBOOPEB (5 S. i. 68, 135). My 
wife saw some years ago a letter from the poet 
Cowper to the late Mrs. Charlotte Smith, the 
poetess, in which he stated the pronunciation of 
his name was " Cooper." That letter was in the 
possession of a lady in Leamington, who was 
niece to Mrs. Smith. JOSEPH FISHEB. 

Waterford.] 

ST. ANDREW'S, SCOTLAND : PRE-REFORMA- 
TION SEAL. I shall feel obliged if any reader 
can tell me (1) whether the Seal of the 
Bishop of St. Andrew's for the Archdiocese 
of St. Andrews, Scotland, was lost at the 
Reformation ; or (2) whether it is still in 
existence ; or (3) whether it was used 
during the early years of the Reformation, 
and when ? 

HISTORICAL STUDENT. 

"THE ASHES." May I appeal to the 
omniscience of 'N. & Q.' to tell me the 
exact derivation of the expression "The 
Ashes,", used to mean the supremacy of 
Australia (comes first this time) or England 
in the Test International Cricket Matches. 
I have asked several people who are all 
r-greed that it means the championship 
but why "The Ashes " ? 

ANXIOUS ENQUIRER. 

[The Intelligence Department of The Times 
informs us that the origin of the catch-phrase 
obout " bringing back the ashes " is to be found 
in The Sp&rting Life of 1882. In this year 
England was defeated at Kennington Oval by 
the Australians fand the paper referred to pub- 
lished an ' In Memoriam,' the exact wording of 
which cannot be remembered, to " English 
cricket, which died at the Oval on Aug. 29, 1882. 
The body will be cremated, and the ashes taken 
to Australia."] 



THE HONOURABLE MR. In accordance 
with a suggestion made in the Montagu - 
Chelmsford Joint Report on Indian reforms, 
the use of the courtesy designation "The 
Honourable Mr." has been curtailed. 
Members of the Provincial Councils will no 
longer enjoy that distinction, for an official 
announcement states that 

" The Governor- General is pleased to permit 
the title ' Honourable ' to be borne during their 
term of office by the following officers in India : 
(1) Members of the Governor-General's Exe- 
cutive Council, (2) President of the Council of 
State, (3) President of the Legislative Assembly, 
(4) Chief Justice and Puisne Judges of the High 
Courts, (6) Members of Executive Councils and 
Ministers in Governors' Provinces, (6) Residents 
of the 1st Class, (7) Presidents of Legislative 
Councils in Governors' Provinces, (8) the Chief 
Judge and Judges of the Chief Court of Lower 
Burma and (9) Members of the Council of State." 

Hence arises my query. When did the 
"Mr." append itself to the title ? I think 
I am correct in saying that when the title 
was first used in India there was no question 
of "Mr." When he arrived at the requisite 
attitude John Jones became The Hoi. 
John Jones : nowadays he would be callel 
The Hon. Mr. Jones. Why ? The officiil 
regulation quoted above says the title s 
"Honourable," and omits both "the " ard 
"Mr." Ought we to speak of "Honourabb 
Jones " or "Honourable John Jones ? " 

May I also be permitted to inquire whqi 
Provincial Governors in India first acquire! 
the title "His Excellency " ? There is ai 
odd sequel, for the wife of a Governor s 
designated by usage if not by ofncid 
sanction from the Government of India 
"Her Excellency." Yet I never heard o 
the wife of a Lieutenant -Governor, who is 
by right "His Honour," being called "Hei 
Honour." ! S. T. S. 

CARDINAL DE ROHAN CHABOT. I should 
be grateful if any reader could give me \ 
further information with regards to the life I 
and career of Cardinal Francis Louis \ 
Augustus de Rohan Chabot, Archbishop of i 
Besau9on who died in 1833, and as to whether 
there are any portraits extant of him. 

M. B. McA. 

WAT TYLER. Mr. C. E. Clark at p. 189 
of his ' Mistakes We Make ' says that Wat 
Tyler was killed 

"certainly not as an insurgent, but as one who 
had incurred the vengeance of the Mavor by setting 
fire to all the Southwark houses of ill-fame which 
Walworth held as a very profitable monopoly." 
Can this statement be substantiated ? 

ALFRED S. E. ACKERMAN. 



i2s. vm. FEB. 6,i9Ho NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



OLD SONG WANTED. 

' Framley Parsonage ' chap. xi. : 

"fLudovic," said Lady Lupton, " won't you 
give us another song ?".... "I have sung all 
that I knew, mother. There's Culpepper .... 
He has got to give us his dream how be ' dreamt 
that he dwelt in marble halls ! ' ' "I sang that 
-an hour ago," said the captain ...." But you 
certainly have not told us how ' your little lovers 
ame ! ' ' 

The dream about the " marble halls " is 
pretty well known ; but from what song 
oomes the allusion to the " little levers " ? 

J. C. 

ROGER MOMPESSON. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.' give me the name of the consti- 
tuency represented in Parliament by Roger 
Mompesson, cf Lincoln's Inn, about 1700 ? 

E. A. J. 

THE PACKEBSHIP OF LONDON. In June 
1552 Sir John Thynne resigned his patent 
of the "Packership of London." What 
office would this represent ? Perhaps a 
reader of 'N. & Q.' can say if it is still in 
-existence ? R. B. 



REPRESENTATIVE COUNTY 
LIBRARIES, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. 

(12S. viii. 8, 34, 54, 76.) 

THE average Public Library and Public 
Librarian are not at all equipped to answer 
genealogical problems. 

May I make a few suggestions as to what 
a library should acquire before beginning 
to qualify to fulfil such a function ? It 
might then be found that to invest a locality 
with direct personal interests, via the study 
of genealogy, is the surest road to the 
attainment of whatever aims Public Libraries 
are generally supposed to possess. 

1. Of course, copies of all the histories of 
the county in which the library is situate, 
of the County Visitation Pedigrees and of 
all local histories. 

2. Copies of the Parish Registers from 
beginning to end, of all the Manorial Ccurt 
Rolls and of all the Monumental Inscriptions 
in all the churhes, churchyards and ceme- 
teries in the parish or town that the library 
represents. 

3. Every original document, parchment, 
deed, &c., upon which it can lay hands, 
properly calendared and indexed, so that 
the list of its contents can be seen at a glance . 



4. Complete copies of all the local Direc- 
tories, and before then, of the local Subsidy 
Rolls, Land Tax Assessments, Hearth Tax 
Assessments, Muster Rolls, Recusant Rolls 
and complete copies of the Census Returns 
of 1841 and 1851. 

5. Then abstracts of all the wills of people 
connected with the place, of the pleadings 
and depositions in lawsuits, and of every 
loose deed or document which exists amongst 
the millions in the Public Record Office, the 
Probate and Diocesan Registries and in 
private hands. These to be arranged simply 
in order of date and type-written. 

I think that, this working material at 
hand for ready reference, PUBLIC LIBRARIAN 
might begin to be in a position to answer 
genealogical enquiries. It might cost a few 
thousand pounds for any single parish to 
acquire such a collection, and take a^few 
years to get together, and he himself would 
be all the better equipped with some years' 
experience of record searching outside his 
own library ; but until both possess these 
qualifications he cannot expect inquirers to 
contribute for special searches much towards 
the library funds, for they will assuredly be 
disappointed at the result. 

GEORGE SHERWOOD. 

210 Strand, W.C.2. 

There is a fine collection of Norfolk 
items at the Norwich Public Library (Mr. 
Stephens). And the Lowestoft Public Lib- 
rary (Miss K. Durrant) contains a good 
selection of books on the twin counties of 
Norfolk and Suffolk, together with the 
interesting MSS. of Mr. William Blyth- 
Gerish, of Southtown, Great Yarmouth, 
relating to Norfolk Archseologv and Folk- 
lore. W. J. CHAMBERS. 

Clancarty, Regent Road, Lowastoft. 

County of Suffolk. The Ipswich Public 
Library contains a large collection of local 
books relating to Ipswich and the county 
generally. I believe the Suffolk Institute 
of Archaeology at Bury St. Edmunds pos- 
sesses a collection of books and MSS. The 
Public Library at Lowestoft also owns a good 
collection of local bocks, while as to those in 
private hands, Mr. Milner-Gibson-Cullum, 
D.L., Hardwick House, Bury St. Edmunds 
has a fine collection, and the library of Mr. 
F. A. Crisp at the Grove Park Press is a 
considerable one and rich in MSS., but now 
being dispersed. The collection of Mr. 
H. B. W. Wayman at Bloomsbury is rich 
in rare broadsides, Commonwealth quartos 
and MSS. J. HARVEY BLOOM, M.A. 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 5, 1921. 



No mention has yet been made of the 
collection of Lancashire books which will be 
found in the Chetham's Hospital Library, 
Manchester, and the Reference Library in 
that city. This county is so congested 
with towns of considerable size that most 
of them are content to specialize in the 
bibliography of their own district, and 
mention should be made of the collection 
of Liverpool literature in the Public Library 
there. Bolton has gathered together a big 
collection, and ' Bibliographia Boltoniensis,' 
compiled by your correspondent Mr. Sparke, 
and published by the Manchester University 
Press, 1913, is a bibliography with bio- 
graphical details of local authors from 1550 
to 1912, and books printed and published 
in the town from 1785. It is a quarto 
publication of 206 pages, and would serve as 
an excellent model for anyone who contem- 
plates such a compilation. Most of the 
Lancashire towns give special attention to 
the collection of local literature. 

J. W. SINGLETON. 



Accrington. 



ST. THOMAS'S DAY CUSTOM (12 S. viii. 
50). My maternal grandmother, who came 
to live here before 1828, and died in 1854, 
used to give sixpence a piece to poor widows 
who called for it on St. Thomas's day, or 
had it sent to them. A writer in Hone's 
'Every Day Book ' vol. ii, p. 1627, calls it 
Doleing Day, and describes doles of wheat, 
flannel, loaves, and money, at Loose, Linton, 
and Banning, all near Maidstone, in 1825. 

Winterton, Lines. J - T - F - 

In the mid- Victorian age, impecunious 
old women in Kesteven, used to go about 
begging, or, as they said, "mumping" on 
Dec. 21, which was popularly known as 
Mumping Day. I do not know why the 
festival was devoted to such an observance ; 
nearness to Christmas may have suggested 
the choice, and the fact that St. Thomas is 
commemorated on the shortest day of three 
hundred and sixty-five, may have conduced 
to the patience of donors. 

ST. SWITHIN. 

The custom of "going a Thomasing," as 
it is called, still survives in parts of Lincoln- 
shire. In the lele of Axhobne, at any rate, 
it is not confined to widows, and I never 
heard of any division of the spoils. The old 
women go round in groups ; at private 
houses they will, I suppose, usually have 
money given them, but at the shops they 
receive small very small doles of goods 



a candle from a grocer or chandler, for 
instance. I have so frequently heard a 
"St. Thomas's candle" asked for that I 
was once led to suppose it a relic of the 
Catholic custom of presenting a candle at 
the Saint's shrine, but I could never find 
any confirmation of this. A local news- 
paper had a paragraph on St. Thomas in 
December last, telling the story of his- 
legendary adventures in India and con- 
necting this custom with them. If struck 
me as a rather cheap way of building 
"mansions in the skies " to give a few old 
people a candle apiece. C. C. B. 

Hone in his ' Every Day Book ' gives soma 
information which may be useful to your 
correspondent. A custom at tl;e village of 
Loose, near Maidstone, in 1825 is described 
of the poor receiving quantities of wheat,, 
and widows a new flannel petticoat each ; 
in addition donations in money are solicited,, 
and it is " no uncommon thing for a family 
to get in this way six or seven shillings." 
A similar custom was prevalent (c. 1825) 
in Linton where the richer inhabitants gaver 
their alms in the way they thought best. 
The custom was known as "Doleing " and 
the day was called " Doleing-day. " In 
some parts of the country the day is marked 
by a custom among poor persons of going- 
a gooding that is to say (Chambers 's ' Book 
of Days ') calling at houses of richer neigh- 
bours and begging a supply either of money 
or provisions. It is also known as "Mumping 
(begging) day." In Warwickshire the- 
custom is known as going a corning, and 
here particularly corn was solicited. 
'N. & Q.' for 1857 contains some further 
information, and also Hazlitt in ' Dictionary 
of Faiths and Folklore,' 1905, vol. i. On 
St. Thomas's Day, at Chipping, Lancashire,, 
"Dole-sermons," are preached, and doles of 
money given to the poor of the parish. 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

This is an ancient custom in several 
counties. In Kent it is called "going a- 
gooding " and elsewhere " a-Thomassin," or 
"a mumping," when poor people beg for 
money or provisions for Christmas. Some- 
times in return for the charity bestowed a- 
sprig of holly or mistletoe was given. This \ 
custom and many others in most countries ; 
in Europe took place chiefly on St. Thomas's ! 
Eye (see Clement E. Miles's 'Christmas in i 
Ritual and Tradition ' and authorities there ! 
quoted). H. HANNEN. 

West Farleigh. 



12 s. vin. FEB. 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



Dec. 21 was observed as "Begging-Day " 
in North Devon within my recollection. 
It was customary to solicit from the farmers 
a penny. BRUCE Me WILLIAM. 

38 Gains Road, Southsea. 

DR. WELLS : PAPER ON ' THE DEW AND 
SINGLE VISION ' (12 S. viii. 70). The 
reference is probably to 'Essays on Vision, 
and on Dew,' by Dr. William Charles Wells, 
F.R.S. These were published in 1818 and 
reprinted in 1821. The 'Essay on Dew' 
was reprinted with annotations in 1866 
(Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer). It is 
an account of a long series of experiments 
on the formation of dew. Dr. Wells pub- 
lished many works on medical, philosophical 
and biographical subjects. A list of these 
is given in the 'Essays on Vision, and on 
Dew.' A. WHTTAKER. 

Emmanuel College, Cambridge. 

William Charles Wells (1757-1817), physi- 
cian, published in 1792 an 'Essay upon 
Single Vision with two Eyes ' ; in Philoso- 
phical Transactions, 1811, a paper on 
'Vision'; in 1814 'Essay on Dew' 
(amended by Aitken). Sir John Herschel 
in his ' Preliminary Discourse on the Study 
of Natural Philosophy,' part 2, chap, vi., 
pars. 163-9, pp. 159-164, gives a good 
account of it. J. S. Mill in his 'Logic,' 
vol. i., bk. iii. 'Of Induction,' chap, ix., 
sec. 3, reproduces most of Herschel's account 
interspersed with scientific elaboration based 
on his own methods or canons of induction. 

W. DOUGLAS. 

31 Sandwich Street, W.C.I. 

THE GREEN MAN, ASHBOURNE (12 S. viii. 29, 
77). The Green Man as the sign of an inn 
originated from the green costume of game- 
keepers. It sometimes happened that when 
the head gamekeeper gave up his legitimate 
occupation he would take unto himself an 
inn, and start a new business on his own 
account, and would adopt as a trade sign 
the name he was best kncwn by, viz., " The 
Green Man." The inn at Leytonstone, on 
the borders of Epping Forest, was probably 
so called from one of the forest-keepers 
with their old-time green costume. 

Originally, no doubt, the sign represented 
the green-clad morris-dancers of the shows 
and pageants of medieval times. The Green 
Man at Leyton is mentioned in the 'Trials 
of Swan and Jeffries ' in 1752, while the Green 
Man at Leytonstone is mentioned by Daniel 
Defoe in his ' Tour through Great Britain, ' 
first published in 1724, and- both are marked 



on Roque's 'Map of Ten Miles round 
London,' published in 1741. 

Mrs. F. B. Palliser in her 'Historic- 
Devices, Badges, &c.,' p. 386, says : 

" Queen Anne bore, as one of the supporters of 
her arms, one of the savage men, wreathed with 
ivy and bearing clubs, of Denmark, since desig- 
nated and adopted for an inn-sign at the Green 
Man." 

For further information see 'The Trade 
Signs of Essex,' by Miller Christy, p. 137,. 
The Essex Review, vol. xi. p. 142 and 
vol. xiv. p. 143. GHAS. HALL GROUCH. 

South Woodford. 

Anent MR. M. L. R. BRESLAR'S note,, 
The Ashbourne News tells us in a recent 
issue how 

" The Ashbourne Shrovetide Football Com* 
mittee are making arrangements for this year's 
celebration to take place on Feb. 8 and 9, and 
they hope to be able to announce the names of 
the gentlemen who will have the honour of 
starting the game on each day." 

I may mention that the practice of play- 
ing football in the streets is not confined to 
this old Derbyshire town. It certainly still, 
obtains, or at any rate did do so, in the 
High Street of Dorking, Surrey, and I think, 
in other places. CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

This sign probably represents a forester 
or park-keeper. There is a wayside inn- 
with this sign near the Broyle, an ancient 
chase or park at Ringmer, some three miles 
from Lewes. According to Lower the- 
Sussex antiquary 

" This house was formerly kept by the ranger 
or keeper of that enclosure, and at one time had 
a sign which represented a stalwart man in bis 
foresters suit of green." 



Lewes. 



JOHN PATCHING. 



This paragraph was in a local newspaper 
of March, 1917 : 

" The historic property known as the Green Man 
Hotel, Ashbourne, has been sold by auction. Ihe 
hostelry is more familiar to the older than the pre- 
sent generation of Burtonians by reason of the fact 
that prior to the advent of the North- Western line 
from Ashbourne and beyond visitors to Dovedale 
made the hotel the jumping-off ground for the 
famous resort, engaging conveyances for the journey 
by road, unless they preferred to walk the live miles. 
Old documents show that the site was originally 
that of the old Ashbourne Theatre or " playhouse. 
In time past this was leased by Mr. Stan ton, who 
during the Ashbourne theatrical season lived at the 
CJreen Hall, and his stock company comprised many 
of the leading actors and actresses of the day. 
Most of the well-known exponents played at the 
Ashbourne Theatre, and amongst the actresses were 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vni.FE B .6,i9si. 



Madame Vestris, and Harriet Mellon, who married 
Mr. Child the banker, and afterwards the Duke of 
8t. Albans. In her memoirs she makes frequent 
references to this and particularly to the Green Man 
Hotel, and narrates how she always looked forward 
to a favourite dish of hers which was served there." 
Burton Chronicle. 

Firth's ' Highways and Byways in Derby- 
shire ' (1908), says : 

" The Green Man still survives .... though, as 
the sign declares, which projects a long arm towards 
the opposite houses, it has taken to itself the addi- 
tional name of the ' Black's Head ' . . . the original 
"* Black's Head' was an old posting house a little 
higher up the street, and its business was taken over 
by the ' Green Man.' " 

Hobson's 'History and Topography of 
Ashbourn,' 1839, at p. 96, sets out a letter 
of invitation, Sept. 9, 1741, from Jo. Allsop, 
Recorder, for the annual feast at the Black's 
Head, to dine with the mayor, Sir Nathaniel 
Curzon, and assist in choosing his successor. 
Ashbourne was never a corporate town ; 
but the holding of the gathering at the inn 
named suggests its one-time importance. 

W. B. H. 

CHATTERTON'S APPRENTICESHIP TO LAM- 
BERT (12 S. viii. 31). 'Homes and Haunts 
of the British Poets,' by William Howitt 
(1847), has concerning the above period : 

" Here Chatterton's life was the life of insult 
and degradation . . . .Twelve hours he was chained 
to the office, i.e., from 8 in the morning to 8 at 
night, dinner hour only excepted ; and in the 
house he was confined to the Kitchen, slept with 
the foot-boy, and was subjected to indignities of 
a like nature, at which bis pride rebelled, and by 
which his temper was embittered." 

This corrobates the account in the ' D.N.B. ' 

W. B. H. 

PORTRAIT OF LORD MONTE AGLE (12 S. 
vii. 509). This portrait is No. 431 in the 
Catalogue of the first special exhibition of 
National Portraits to James II., on loan to 
the South Kensington Museum, April, 1866 : 
painter, Van Somer ; lent by Mr. John Webb. 
Mr. Webb lent three other portraits, the 
subjects being of somewhat earlier dates. 
jNb address appears, nor does the owner's 
name occur as having lent to the later 
exhibitions in May, 1867, and April, 1868. 

W. B. H. 

LORETTO (12 S. viii. 48). There is a 
Loretto in Styria, Austria, but it is better 
<known as Maria Zell. It lies in the valley 
of th,e Salza amid the N. Styrian Alps. Its 
entire claim tc notice lies in the fact that 
it is the most venerated and most frequented 
sanctuary in Austria, being visited annually 



by some 200,000 pilgrims. The object of 
veneration is a miracle-working image of 
the Virgin, carved in limewood and. about 
18 in. high. This was presented in 1157 
and is now enshrined in a chapel or loretto 
lavishly adorned with silver and many 
costly marbles. The large church of which 
this shrine or loretto forms part, was built 
in 1644, and the shrine-chapel was incor- 
porated in it. See M. M. Rabenlehrer 
'Maria Zell, Oesterreich's Loreto (Austria's 
Loreto),' Vienna, 1900. The name " loretto" 
or "lorets " is bestowed on several places, 
that in Italy being "The Holy House" 
(" Santa Casa ") said to be the actual house 
of the Virgin transported thither by super- 
natural means. All the other lorettos are 
places where statues (more or less celebrated 
and visited) of the Virgin are preserved. 
Maria Zell is the place name and loretto is 
the title of the shrine or chapel itself. 

F. J. ELLIS. 

COUNTESS MACNAMARA (12 S. viii. 49). 
She was a Scotch lady and generally under- 
stood tc have been the mistress of Charles X. 
(of France). Her title of Countess was a 
' ' creation ' ' of the King of Naples. She 
followed .Charles X. in his exile after the 
revolution of 1830, and lived with him at 
Holyrood. During the early part of the 
reign of the Orleanist King Louis Philippe 
it was frequently asserted in the Parisian 
newspapers that she was secretly married 
(morganatiquement) to the last Legitimist 
King of France. There are some of her 
autograph letters (in English and French) 
in existence written on behalf of Charles X. 
ANDREW DE TERNANT. 

36 Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

" OVER AGAINST CATHERINE STREET IN 
THE STRAND " (12 S. vii. 321, 378). Since 
contributing the note at the first reference 
I have remarked the following advertisement 
in The London Journal of Feb. 2, 1722/3 : 

"The Cambrick Chamber is removed from St. 
Martin's the Grand to Mr. Tho. Atkins up one pair 
of stairs at the sign of the Buchanan Head, a book- 
seller's shop, the corner of Milford Lane over 
against St. Clement's Church in the Strand where 

there is to be sold the finest cambrick " 

The 'D.N.B.' states that Andrew Millar 
came to London about 1729. It would 
seem therefore that Millar not only tcok the 
sign with him when he removed to premises 
west of Somerset House but had acquired 
it from a predecessor in business. 

J. P. DE C. 



12 s. vni. FEB, 5,1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



ST. LEONARD'S PRIORY (12 S. vi. 90, 160, 
178 ; viii, 34). In reply to MR. O. G. S. CRAW- 
FORD'S query at the last reference the remains 
of this building are not these of a priory, 
mit of a barn (spicarium) which the Cistercians 
of Beaulieu erected to store their harvest on 
this part of their estate. Quite close to the 
ruins of this great barn are the ruins of St. 
Leonard's Chapel, which was built for the 
iise of the lay brothers or conversi, who 
worked this part of the monastic property. 
^The ruins of this chapel have doubtless given 
rise to the idea that it was a priory. The 
Oistercians were great agriculturists and 
-employed lay brothers to till their estates. 
Eventually the lay brothers were done 
away with and hired labourers took their 
place. These monastic estates were known 
as "granges," hence this property is cor- 
rectly described as St. Leonard's Grange. 

J. HAUTENVILLE COPE, 
Editor, Proceedings, Hampshire Field Club. 

ARMORIAL BEARINGS UPON TOMBS (12 S. 
vii. 450, 495). George Canning would appear 
also to have missed the true meaning of the 
verb "to blazon." The last two lines of 
the * Fragment of an Oration,' on p. 149 of 
"* Lyra Elegantiarum, ' read thus : 

My name shall shine bright as my ancestors' shines, 
Mine recorded in journals, his blazoned on signs ! 

J. R. H. 

HAMILTONS AT HOLYROOD (12 S. vii. 110, 
172). In The Edinburgh Advertiser, dated 
Feb. 20, 1789, appears the following notice 
under deaths : 

"At Stockholm, Count Gustavus David Hamil- 
ton, Field Marshal of Sweden, aged 90. He 
entered the Army in 1716, and has been in several 
<chief battles, under different powers, since that 
time." 

Was the Countess Margaret Hamilton 
(the subject of the above references) the 
daughter of the Field Marshal ? And who 
were his parents ? Burke does not en- 
lighten me. JAS. SETON- ANDERSON. 
39 Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

FRANKINCENSE (12 S. viii. 29, 72). The 
following facts on the use of incense in Ely 
"Cathedral are to be found on p. 87, ' Cathe- 
drals of England and Wales,' by Bumpus. 

Incense was burnt at the High Altar on 
the great festivals UD to the end of the 
eighteenth century. Dean Warburton dis- 
continued the use of the cope at Durham 
about 1780, because it discomposed his wig. 
Minor Canon Metcalfe and Prebendary 



Green at Ely persuaded the Dean and 
Chapter to discontinue the use of incense, 
the former because he was troubled with 
asthmatic tendencies and the latter, a 
"finical man," because it spoiled the odour 
of his snuff, to which titillating compound 
he had, in common with many of his clerical 
brethren of that day, an excessive partiality. 

Again, the following extracted from 
Aubrey's 'Natural History and Antiquities 
of Surrey,' 1718 (vol. ii. pp. 179-180) is of 
interest. Aubrey is writing on the monu- 
ments in Carshalt on Church and says : 

" On the S. wall on a black marble enchas'd 
in white are arms an urn or, and in capitals is this 
inscription : 

M. S. 

Under the middle stone, that guards the Ashes 
of a certaine Fryer, sometime Vicar of this Place, 
is raked up the Dust of William Quelche, B.D., 
who ministered in the same since the Beforma- 
cion. His Lott was, through God's mercy to 
burn Incense here about 30 Years, and ended his 
course, Aprill the 10. An. Dni. 1654, being 
aged 64 Years. 

1. Beg. 13. 31. 
Quos bifrons templo divisit cultus in uno 

Pacificus tumulus jam facit esse pares. 
Felix ilia dies, qua tellus semina solvit, 

Quae placidae fidei regia condit humo. 
Hie 'sumus ambo pares, donee cineremque 
fidemque 

Discutiat reddens Christus utrique suum. 
Those whome a twofac'd service here made twaine* 
At length, a friendly Grave makes one agayne. 
Happy that day that hides our Sinfull Jarrs, 
That shuts up all our shame in Earthen Barrs. 
Here let us sleepe as one, till Christe the Juste 
Shall sever, both our service, Faith and Duste. 

Perhaps some of your correspondents 
could say whether this tomb and inscription 
still exist in Carshalton Church. 

CHR. WATSON. 

294 Worple Boad, Wimbledon. 

AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE ARCHIVES (12 S. 
viii. 66). It may be of interest to mention 
that I have an inventory dated 1556 of the 
goods and chattels of Hugh Raynolds, 
deceased, late of Strat ford-on- Avon, ap- 
praised by Awdryan Quyney, William 
Mynse(?), Francis Barse (? Barfe), John 
Burbage, and Richard Symonds. 

The inventory, which is of interest as 
enumerating the furniture and belongings 
of a prosperous citizen of the period and 
the values set upon them, I propose to 
publish in the Antiquarian column of The 
Evesham Journal : and afterwards to present 
it to the Trustees of the Shakespeare house 
at Str&tford-on-Avon. 

CHARLES S. TOMES. 

Welbeck House, Wigmore Street, W. 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 5, 1921. 



LONDON COACHING AND CARRIERS' INNS 
IN 1732 (12 S. viii. 61). With reference to 
the carriers from Blossoms Inn, Lawrence 
Lane, referred to at ante, p. 62, I see that 
MR. DE CASTRO translates " Stopport " as 
"Southport." I hardly think that this can 
be correct, seeing that the site of Southport, 
in those days, was merely a sweep of barren 
sandhills. 

Having regard to the fact that the 
carriers on the same day accepted goods for 
Manchester and Sandbach, it seems to me 
that, from the geographical point of view, 
" Stopport " is obviously Stockport. 

T. A. KENYON. 

31 Derby Road, Soutbport. 

LADY ANNE GRAHAM (12 S. viii. 70). 
It may interest MR. JOHN D. LE COUTEUR 
to know that, among my family archives, 
there is a letter written to a great-grand- 
father of mine by John Dolbel, of Jersey, 
under date July 20, 1813. This document, 
which was printed for the first time in The 
Connoisseur (January, 1915), describes in 
some detail the experiences of the writer's 
son, Cornet Dolbel, in the affair at Morales 
(Peninsula War), June 2, 1813. 

In addition to other amplifying facts, 
I am indebted to Col. Harold Malet, the 
learned historian of the 18th Hussars, for 
a note that young Dolbel broke his neck by 
falling from his horse in March, 1814. 

It transpires, from the letter in question, 
that my great-grandfather saved Cornet 
Dolbel' s life on some occasion, although no 
other mention of such an action has been 
transmitted to me. F. GORDON ROE. 

Arts Club, 40 Dover Street, W.I. 

NEW STYLE (12 S. viii. 68). It is curious 
that Sir Harris Nicolas, in his 'Chronology 
of History,' 1838, should have twice tripped 
up over the date when the change in the 
calendar became effective in England. On 
page 41 he gives it as " 1753," and on 
p. 48 as "1752." Both dates are shown 
to be wrong by the abstract of the Act oJ 
Parliament, 24 George II. c. 23, which he 
prints, and which expressly provided thai 
it should come into operation on the day 
following Dec. 31, 1751. This was, o 
course, Jan. 1 of the same year (1751) by 
the Old Style, which became Jan. 1, 1752 
New Style. There was some corre 
spondence on this point in The Time^ 
Literary Supplement last year (1919, pp. 110 
126, 152, and 184), from which it appear: 
that the bill passed the House of Common 



n "Mar. 27, 1751 " (or rather Mar. 27,. 

1750, O.S.), and received the royal assent 
n May 22, 1751. It was therefore the Act 
>f 1751. Haydn's 'Dictionary of Dates' 
Correctly gives the date of the change as 
'1751." Apparently the New Style was 
n more or less popular use before the date 
f that Act of Parliament, and was gradually 

superseding the old legal year which com- 
menced on Mar. 25. It is easy to see, 
therefore, that in default of evidence as to 

which style is made use of, errors may 

easily arise. It would be interesting to 
uiow how far this was the case. On 

Mar. 25 as New Year day, see 10 S. vi. 268. 
FREDK. A. EDWARDS. 

VOUCHER = RAILWAY TICKET (12 S. vii. 
510; viii. 36, 74). Regulations of the Grand 
Junction Railroad Company : 

" Booking. There will be no booking places 
except at the Company's Offices at the respective 
stations. Bach Booking Ticket for the first- 
class trains is numbered to correspond with the 
seat taken. The places by the mixed trains are 
not numbered. "(Freeling's Grand Junction Ball- 
way * Companion ' to ' Liverpool, Manchester and 
Birmingham Guide,' 1838)." 

A. H. W. FYNMORE. 

Arundel. 

GREY IN SENSE OF BROWN (12 S. viii. 68). 

The modern French term for brown bread,. 

pain bis, refers to quality more than colour,, 
thus, white (best or first) = 1 ; darker (or 
seconds) = 1 bis, and the Ater panis of 
1437-38 called panes grisei had doubtless the- 
same meaning. 

As regards the German grau, which is 
said often to mean " brown," would J. T. F. 
kindly give us one or two examples. 

HENRY W. BUSH. 

Helenslea, Beckenham, Kent. 

CHRISTMAS PUDDING AND MINCE PIE 
(12 S. viii. 70). The mince pie appears to 
be of greater antiquity than the plum- 
pudding. Mince pies are, I believe, men- 
tioned by Selden who says the crust wa* 
intended to represent the manger in which 
the Holy Child was laid. They were made 
with mutton or ox-tongue and the same- 
ingredients as are now used. Herrick men- 
tions the Christmas pie. 

Plum-pudding is the descendant of plum 
pottage or plum-broth made by boiling bee: 
or mutton with broth thickened with brown 
bread; when half boiled, raisins, currants, 
prunes, cloves, mace and ginger were added, , 
Plum-broth is mentioned in 'Poor Robins 



12 s. viii. FEB. 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



Almanac ' for 1750 among items of Christ- 
mas fare. There is a recipe in Mrs. Frazer's 

* Cookery Book,' 1791. Plum-pudding is 
mentioned in The Tatter. 

It may be of interest to note that both 
^plum-broth and mince pies were distasteful 
to Quakers and Puritans. C. G. N. 

STONEHENGE (12 S. viii. 71). This belief 
as to the origin of Stonehenge is expressed, 
in Geoffrey of Monmouth's 'History of the 
Britons ' (temp. Stephen). 

Inigo Jones was commissioned by James I. 
to examine and report on Stonehenge. His 
"Conclusion was that the masses of stone were 
;the remains of a Roman Temple. 

C. G. N. 

There is no mystery about John Speed. 
He was born in Cheshire about 1555, and 
>devoted himself to the study of English 
History and antiquities. Having no truck 
with Geoffrey of Monmouth and other 
fabulists, he commenced at once with solid 
and rational matter, as has been said of him. 
The map referred to by your correspondent 
is no doubt a copy of the map of Wiltshire 
in Speed's 'Theatre of the Empire of Great 
Britain ' having Stonehenge engraved in a 
-corner, with the inscription quoted by 
Mr, BRADBURY, beneath it. Speed wrote 
further a 'History of Britain,' 1614, in which 
he again takes up the problem of Stonehenge. 
He died in 1629, and while he probably 
settled the matter to his own satisfaction, it 
:seems to have been done after timely 
deliberation and thought by Speed, (Mr. 
BRADBURY began the play on the word.) yet 
without haste. His son John Speed, M.A., 
M.D. wrote 'Stonebenge, a Pastoral,' which 
was acted at St. John's College, Oxford, \but 
seems not to have been printed. Can it be 
said that, with its bibliography of some 
thousand volumes, there was ever a popular 
belief in regard to the origin of Stonehenge ? 
See 'Stonehenge and its Barrows,' by 
Wm. Long, F.S.A., 1876, Devizes, &c. 

J. L. ANDERSON. 

Edinburgh. 

This map appeared in John Speed's 

* Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine,' 
first edition, 1611. The quotation is in- 
complete and not quite accurate. A very 
useful handbook, ' Stonehenge To-day and 
Yesterday,' has been written by Mr. Frank 
Stevens, Curator of the Salisbury Museum, 
and published, 1916, by Sampson Low, 
Marston & Co., Ltd. 

PRESCOTT Row. 



"To OUTRUN THE CONSTABLE" (12 S. 
viii. 29, 58, 97). The reference to Ray's 
'Proverbs,' 2nd edition, 1678, at the last 
reference is incorrect. The proverb is to be 
found on p. 236 of that edition with the ex- 
planation: "To spend more than one's 
allowance or income." 

DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE. 

THE TRAGEDY OF NEW ENGLAND (12 S. 
vii. 446, 493 ; viii. 16). A short note to the 
ballad ' Cassandra Southwick ' by Whittier 
the American poet appears in a new edition 
of his works published in England in 1861. 
It is therein stated that : 

" The son and daughter of Laurence Southwick 
were fined 10 each for non-attendance at Church 
which they were unable to pay. The Court at 
Boston issued an order which may still be seen 
on the Court Records bearing the signature of 
Edward Bawson the Secretary by which the 
Treasurer of the County was empowered to sell 
the said persons to any of the English Nation at 
Virginia or Barbadoes to answer the said fines. 
An attempt was made to carry this order into 
execution, but no shipmaster was found willing 
to convey them to the West Indies. Vide Sewell's 
History, pp. 225-6." 

Upon this incident Whit tier's ballad was 
founded. Z. 

WIDEAWAKE HATS (12 S. vii. 28, 157, 171, 
198, 214, 238, 316). The following paragraph 
is from p. 41 of ' Paul Periwinkle or the Press - 
gang,' by the author of 'Cavendish' (W. 
Johnson Neale), published 1841, and carries 
the origin of the phrase to an earlier date 
than any yet given in ' N. & Q. ' : 

" Jonathan replied that his hat was like him- 
self wide awake, and that he held it on a tenure 
somewhat similar to that by which the Lombard 
kings did their iron crowns." 

J. B. 

Croydon. 

EMERSON'S 'ENGLISH TRAITS ' (12 S. vi. 
9, 228). At No. 22 of the first reference the 
words attributed to Nelson are from his 
description of "a brush with the enemy " 
before the fortress of Bastia on the N.E. 
coast of Corsica, in the year 1794. 

" A thousand men would certainly take Bastia ; 
with five hundred and Agamemnon I would 
attempt it. My seamen are now what British 
seamen ought to be, almost invincible. They 
really mind shot no more than peas." Southey: 
4 Life of Nelson,' chapter iii. 

No. 11, at the second reference, 

" The English are those ' barbarians ' of 
3 amblichus, who ' are stable in their manners, and 
firmly continue to employ the same words, which 
also are dear to the gods.' " 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.VIII.FBB. 5,1921. 



The Greek original is in lamblichus's 
'De mysteriis Aegyptiorum,' Section 7, 
near the end of the fifth chapter : 

Ba/o/3apoi $ yotovt/xot TOIS yOto-iv ovres KOU 
rots Aoyois /?e/2ai(os TOIS ai'Tots e/x/xevovcri' 
avroi re etcri Trpoo-^jtAet? TOIS $<H? KCU 
Adyovs aTJTOis Trpo<r<f>povo-i Keyapivukvovs. 
lamblichus is discussing the rites of the 
barbarian, that is non-Hellenic, nations of 
the Egyptians, Assyrians, and Persians ; 
especially the Egyptians. 

EDWABD BENSLY. 

DANIEL DEFOE IN THE PILLORY (12 S' 
viii. 12, 78). In spite of the familiar line in 
the ' Dunciad ' (ii. 147) there can be no doubt 
that Defoe did not suffer mutilation. Mr. 
W. J. Courthope, commenting on this 
passage, Pope's 'Works,' vol. iv., p. 329, 
writes : 

" Daniel Defoe never lost his ears, though Pope, 
by comparing him to Prynne in Book i. 103, seems 
to insist on the fact." 

The writer of the article on Defoe in ' The 
Encyclopaedia Britannica,' says that Pope 
"knew that the sentence to the pillory had long 
ceased to entail the loss of ears." 

Defoe had been found guilty of a seditious 
libel, the performance in question being his 
pamphlet ' The Shortest Way with the 
Dissenters.' EDWARD BENSLY. 

AUTHORS OF QUOTATIONS WANTED. 

(12 S. viii, 72.) 

1. These lines in their correct form, are found 
in the anonymous life of Samuel Butler prefixed 
to the 1704 edition of ' Hudibras,' and reprinted 
in several later editions. 

" There are some Verses, which for Reason of 
State, easie to be guess'd at, were thought fit to 
be omitted in the first Impression, as these which 
follow : 

Did not the Learned Glyn and Maynard, 
To make good Subjects Traitors strain hard, 
Was not the King by Proclamation, 
Declar'd a Traitor thro' the Nation? " 
They do not appear in any impression of the 
poem itself. 

This ' Life,' " according to Oldys, was written 
by one Sir James Astrey, a learned lawyer who 
resided at Wood Green, Harlington, in Bedford- 
shire, and published an edition of Spelman's 
Glossary with his life." (R. Brimley Johnson's 
edition of Samuel Butler's Poetical Works, 
vol. i. p. xxix.) EDWABD BENSLY. 

3. The last stanza in Dryden's poem ' On the 
Young Statesmen.' It run correctly thus : 
So have I seen a King at Chess 

(His Rooks and Knights withdrawn) 
His Queen and Bishops hi distress 
Shifting about, grow less and less, 
With here and there a Pawn. 

H. DAVEY. 



TERCENTENARY HANDLIST OF NEWSPAPERS 
(12 S. viii. 91). The date of The Cirencester 
Flying Post on p. 92 (col. 2, 1. 12) should read 1744 r 
not 1774. ROLAND AUSTIN. 



The Burford Records : a Study in Minor Town 

Government. By R. H. Gretton, M.B.E, 

(Clarendon Press, 42s. net). 

BOOKS about the beautiful old Cotswold town of 
Burford are becoming fairly numerous. In 1861 
the Rev. John Fisher, who was curate there r 
wrote a short history of the place. More recently 
Mr. Wm. J. Monk, a local antiquary, produced a 
' History of Burford,' and several other guide- 
books and notes. In 1905 Dr. Hutton, now the 
Dean of Winchester, published his ' Burford 
Papers ' letters to Mrs. Gast who lived in the 
Great House there, from her brother Samuel Crisp 
of London, the friend of Fanny Burney who con- 
stantly comes hi to their pages. Last year Mrs. 
Sturge Gretton produced ' Burford : Past and 
Present,' a delightful volume, fit companion to 
her charming ' Three Centuries in North Oxford- 
shire,' based upon her husband's larger book 
which, so long awaited by lovers of Burford^ 
has now seen the light. 

Mr. Gretton has undertaken a very arduous 
task and has performed it well. The large volume 
of over 700 pages which the Clarendon Press has 
just published consists of a study of the history 
of the Burford Corporation, based on the town's 
records, together with chapters on local history 
and topography, the Manor, the Priory, and the 
Church, the last from the pen of the vicar, the 
Rev. Wm. C. Emeris. The second half of the 
book is a classification and transcription of the 
local documents, enriched by many other records 
and extracts from the Public Record Office, the 
British Museum, the Bodleian Library, and the 
muniments of Brasenose College, together with 
the Burford and Upton Enclosure Awards. 

Mr. Gretton's critical study of the rise and 
decay of the Corporation is admirably done. 
The original grant of liberties to Burford is the 
earliest dated instance of the establishment of a 
gild merchant, the first charter in the name of 
Robert FitzHamon having been granted some- 
time between 1088 and 1107. It included also 
" the liberties customary in the setting up of a 
borough.... and other 'free customs 'in this case 
the free customs of the men of Oxford." The author 
adduces reasons for believing that the bestowal 
of these liberties arose from the desire of Robert 
FitzHamon to make this outlying manor of his 
possessions a source of monetary revenue ; the 
motive was not apparently given by the in- 
habitants of the place. An examination of the 
charters granted to the town shows that the two 
Royal charters are not strictly charters granted 
to the inhabitants of Burford but Royal con- 
firmations of manorial grants. The privileges 
and liberties secured by other British towns are 
quite unrepresented here. Mr. Gretton then pro- 
ceeds to show how the Burgesses of the town 
were misled as to their legal position throughout 
the centuries before Sir Lawrence Tanfield 
acquired the manor. The lords of Burford living 



12 s. viii. FEB. 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



at a distance, the Burgesses gradually took a 
greater and greater share in the affairs of the 
town, being " confronted with no very strict 
assertion of the manorial supremacy." When 
the manor passed into the hands of the Crown the 
Royal tenure of it led them to suppose that their 
position was independent of intermediate lordship 
as a fully chartered borough held at fee farm 
from the Crown. The liberties, privileges and 
franchises were held by the Crown simply as lord 
of the manor, and were alienated by purchase 
in 1617 to Sir Lawrence Tanfield. At the 
instigation of the new, grasping, and powerful 
lord he was Chief Baron of the Exchequer the 
Burgesses were put upon their defence in the 
Court of Exchequer by a writ of Quo Warranto 
within two years of Tanfieid's purchase. The 
Burgesses' case collapsed like a house of cards, 
and the position of Burford as resembling that 
of the great free boroughs came to an end. The 
answer of Oxford to the appeal of the Burgesses 
as to how Oxford held its similar privileges shows, 
as the author points out, the whole difference 
between the position of Oxford and that of 
Burford. Oxford replied that they had the 
rights in question " as part of that wee hould by 
fee farme and for which wee pay the same." 
The Burgesses of Burford had never paid any 
rent for the sources of profit which they had taken 
into their hands, and obviously therefore had no 
right U/ them. 

Mr. Gretton traces the history of the Corpora- 
tion in the period of decline which followed, when 
it continued in being principally by reason of its 
administration of certain charities. The final 
collapse came in 1861 when, after a period of 
general mal-administration of these charities, it 
was extinguished by a schedule of an Act of 
Parliament, " surely the depth of insignificance 
to be abolishf d by a schedule." 

There are one or two minor unsolved mysteries 
about Burford which confront us as we read 
these fascinating pages, small points but in- 
teresting to the antiquary and the student of the 
town. One is the fine decorated altar tomb in 
the south transept of the church, from which all 
the inscription has perished save the name 
" Willelmus." That the person buried there 
was a merchant and connected with the family of 
Hastings is shown from the fact that the arms 
include a merchant's mark and the Hastings 
maunch. A branch of the Daylesford family 
lived at Burford as is proved from the records 
printed by Mr. Gretton, including a grant in 
1648 from George Hastings of " Dalford " to 
Wm. Sessions. The family of Sessions of 
Churchill ard Burford married into that of 
Hastings of Daylesford, as shown in the Heralds' 
Visitations, a> d possibly a study of the Hastings 
pedigree might reveal who was the probable 
occupant of this tomb. 

The connection of William Lenthall, the Speaker 
of the Long Parliament, with Burford before he 
bought the Priory in 1637, is another interesting 
point in local history. Mr. Gretton notes that it 
must have begun before that date, for in 1626 
William his second son was baptized in Burford 
Church. The author in company with other 
writers on Burford seems to have missed the fact 
that William Lenthall was a nephew (? by 
marriage) of Lady Tanfield see her will proved 



hi P.C.C. in which he is made a trustee for keep- 
ing in repair the Tanfield tomb. His connection, 
therefore, with Burford and the Priory is fairly 
obvious. Simon Wisdom, the greatest figure hi 
the history of the town and corporation is not 
met with, says the author, in the annals at an 
earlier date than 1530. Mr. Gretton thinks it 
likely that he came of a family of substance 
living elsewhere. Oxfordshire wills show that 
the Wisdoms were established before that time 
both at Church Enstone and at Shipton-under- 
Wychwood. There is no reason to doubt that 
Simon was of the same family. One last point, 
Why did not Mr. Gretton print at least extracts 
from Christopher Kempster's day-book or diary 
which is now in the possession of a former tenant 
of Kempster's house at Upton Quarries ? Kemp- 
ster was one of the masons of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
as a monument in Burford Church recalls (See 
some interesting correspond an ce on this subject in 
The Times Literary Supplement in Feb. and March. 
1919). The diary is of interest as showing how the 
stone from Upton Quarries was conveyed to 
London. Mr. Gretton identifies the quarries 
which the Kempsters owned for nearly two 
hundred years with a freestone quarry mentioned 
in a Manorial Account Roll of 1435-6, and there 
called Whiteladies Quarry, probably a corruption 
of Whiteslate which occurs elsewhere in the 
records. 

Mr. Gretton notes that a few of the local 
records have no traceable connection with Bur- 
ford at all. One of these is of interest, as every- 
thing concerned with the magic name of Shake- 
speare must be. It is an indenture of sale (1664) 
by Thomas Greene the elder and Thomas Greene 
the younger, of Packwood, co. Warwick, to Ann 
Shackspeare of Meriden, same county, widow, of 
the remainder of a lease of 99 years of a cottage 
in Old Fillongly, and 26 acres of land belonging, 
called Cotters Lands, which Thomas Greene held 
of Adrian Shackspere, late of Meriden, by 
indenture dated 1. 12. 1631 ; also assignment by 
the said Ann Shackspeare to Thomas Shack- 
speare, gentleman, her son. Adrian Shakespere 
witnesses by mark. How were these related to 
the poet's family, and how came these papers 
among the Burford records ? 



REVISED EDITION OF LIDDELL AND" 
SCOTT'S GREEK ENGLISH LEXICON. 

THE need for a revision of Liddell and Scott's 
Greek Lexicon has long been appreciated by the 
Delegates of the Press. The discovery, since the 
last substantial revision of the Lexicon, of the 
' Constitution of Athens,' the poems of Bacchy- 
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Alcaeus, and Callimachus, and from those of 
other writers who were previously little more 
than names to us, has added a considerable 
number of new words and early examples or new 
uses of known words. The study of the numerous 
non-literary papyri has immensely widened our 
knowledge of Hellenistic Greek, besides intro- 
ducing us to a new technical vocabulary in con- 
nexion with the administration of Ptolemaic and 



120 



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Egypt. During the same period the 
dtaverv of Afresh inscriptions and the correction 
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Constant -the science of Comparative Philology 
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language more fully explored. 

r, 1911, Mr. Henry Stuart Jones was 



during which he was engaged on war work of 
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^Assistant Editor. Mr. Stuart Jones has had 
the assistance of several voluntary helpers 
amongst whom special mention must be made of 
Mr. Herbert W. Greene, formerly Fellow of 
Magdalen College ; Prof Jouguet of Pans 
Prof. Martin of Geneva ; Mr. M. N. Tod, of One 
College, University Reader in Greek Epigraphy, 
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was felt that in the more technical subjects the 
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portance, and the Editor has been fortunate m 
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121 



LONDON, FEBRUARY IS, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 148. 

UOTES : -Hazebrouck, 121 Among the Shakespeare 
Archives : The Death of Richard Shakespeare, 124 -Glass 
Painters of York: I. The Chamber Family, 127 St. 
Valentine's Day, 128 Prices in the early Nineteenth 
Century Anecdote of Laurence Sterne-Mary Roberts 
Exeter College, Oxford Curious Jacobite Toast, 129. 

-QUERIES Scott's 'Legend of Montrose,' 129 Legisla- 
tion against Tobacco -Cottage at Englefleld Green The 
"Invalid Office "Royal British Bank Robert Gascoigne 
and Walthamstow Matthew Carter, 130 Hollingworth 
John Milton and the Milburns " Such as we make no 
Musick" The Sentry at 'Pompeii Identification of 
Arms, 131 Pitman or Quarley, Hants : Arms Sought 
Alliances of Allen Family Tavern Sign : The New Found 
Out Curtis : Lathrop : Willoughby Captain Cook : 
Memorials Covill Author Wanted Author of Quota- 
tion Wanted, 132. 

JKEPLIES : The Western Miscellany. 132 Terrestrial 
~ Globes Telia Trelawny ' Mrs. Drake Revived,' 134 
"The Ashes" "Kigges" and "Granpoles," 135 Paul 
Marny Lady Anne Graham Morgan Phillips or Phillip 
Morgan, 136 Pigueuit (Caesar and Dan by) -Problem of 
Vagrancy in the Eighteenth Century Spencer Turner 
'MaundVell's 'Journey from Aleppo to, Jerusalem, Easter, 
1697 Nortons in Ireland -William Holder, 137 The 
Turlupins (Turbulines), 138 Leigh Hunt Author of 
Quotation Wanted, 139- 

^NOTES OX BOOKS : 'Studies in Islamic Poetry ''The 
Oxfordshire Record Series ' ' Fleetwood Family 
Records'' Folk-Lore.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



HAZEBROUCK. 
I. 

HAZEBROUCK, the capital (chef -lieu) of one 
of the arrondissements of the Departement 
du Nord, lies between Dunkerque and 
Lille at a distance of 18 kilometers from the 
Belgian frontier, and 22 kilometers east of 
St. Omer. The arrondissement to which the 
town gives its name comprises the inland 
western portion of the old province of 
Flandre Maritime, and is co-terminous with 
the former chdtellenies of Cassel and Bail- 
leul. In its full extent under the Old 
Regime (from the Peace of Ryswick down 
to the Revolution) the province consisted 
of the six chdtellenies of Bourbourg, Bergues, 
Cassel, Bailleul, Furnes, and Ypres, together 
with six "territories " which need not here 
be named. Of the chdtellenies that of Cassel 
was the largest, and in it were included 



three open towns, of which Hazebrouck 
was one, and forty-seven villages. The 
population of the chdtellenie in 1698 was 
37,969, but of these only sone 1,300 lived 
in the town of Cassel itself, which at that 
time had been reduced to 250 houses. 
Hazebrouck had suffered less and the 
population of the parish was then 3,725, 
and the number of houses 560. These 
figures are taken from a Memoire drawn up 
by M. Hue de Caligny in the year after 
Ryswick. Under the Spanish domination 
the region had possessed nourishing manu- 
factures, but M. de Caligny notes the perishing 
industries of the province. Agriculture, 
as at the present day, alone was prosperous. 
This industrial decay, which was one of the 
results of the religious troubles of the 
sixteenth, and of the wars of the seventeenth 
century, was unfortunately not arrested : 
" 1'industrie drapiere tombe peu a peu et finit 
meme par disparaitre de la plupart des localit^s 
sous la domination fran^aise." 

Hazebrouck, which at the outbreak of 
the war had a population of about 13,000, 
is soiretim.es styled the capital of "la 
Flandre flamingante," or rather of that 
portion of it which is now French and in 
which the Flemish language is still com- 
monly spoken. In its fullest extent . " la 
Flandre flamingante " comprised the whole 
of the country between the North Sea and 
the river Lys, from Aire to Ghent, with the 
river Aa as its western boundary. The 
native inhabitants of this region, on both 
sides of the present frontier, especially the 
peasants and working-clr^s, still generally 
use the Flemish tongue, but French is well 
established in the towns, and the river Lys 
can no longer be said to mark a language 
boundary. M. Ardouin-Dumazet, writing 
shortly before the war, placed the border a 
little further north, approximately along 
the line of railway Hazebrouck- Armentieres, 
and drew attention to the curious fact that 
in one of the streets of Bailleul both lan- 
guages were in use, French on one side 
and Flemish on the other. North cf 
this line of railway French place-names are 
few in number, while to the v south they 
predominate. 

The place-name Hazebrouck is entirely 
Flemish, and means "the marsh of the 
hare," a derivation recorded in the six- 
teenth century by Marchant,* who states 
that the hare " (in Flemish "haze") "here 

* Jac. Marchant, Flemish historian and poet. 
1537-1609. 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. FEE. 12, 1921. 



had its habitat in a spot favourable to the 
propagation of its species, for the country 
was not only marshy but also covered 
with woods and forests." The theory that 
Hazebrouck owes its naiie to a Lord of the 
name of Haza, who is supposed to have 
founded the church, is now abandoned. 
It finds mention, however, in Blaeu's 
'Theatrum Urbium Belgicae ' (1649), in 
which the town is thus described : 

" Hazebrouck is a fair and populous munici- 
palitv in western Flanders, enjoying the rights 
and privileges, as well as the name, of a town, 
with a special jurisdiction of its own. It received 
laws from Philip of Alsace (Count of Flanders), 
its fairs in June and market on Monday from 
another Philip, Duke of Burgundy, and its name, 
according to Gramaye,* from Haza, a former 
magnate and founder of the church (cimahs 
ecclesia). It stands on a very marshy site, and 
owes its reputation to linen weaving and cloth 
making. At one time it attained great wealth 
by means of the canal cut through the forest of 
Nieppe to the river Lys. In addition to all its 
rights as a town, it has a Senate of seven men, 
and a special law for the regulation of measures 
and of fairs : it has also a guild of archers and one 
of rhetoric. The people are divided according to 
their occupations into trade guilds, and had not the 
town been afflicted by civil wars, they would have 
attained a prosperity equal to any. The parish 
church, which has a splendid tower, is dedicated 
to St. Eloi. The patronage belongs to the 
Bishop of Ypres, by right of succession from the 
see of Therouanne. * A small mmnery and hospital 
of Grey Sisters of the Third Order of St. Francis 
was founded here two hundred years ago by two 
pious sisters. The friars of the Order of St. 
Augustine were admitted to the town under 
certain conditions, their house being founded and 
endowed by the Senate and people. It main- 
tains a school of polite letters, which has received 
confirmation from the Catholic King, Philip IV." 

This description dates from e time when 
Hazebrouck formed part of -the Spanish 
Netherlands, Philip IV. being the reigning 
sovereign. Accompanying it is a view- 
plan of the town, which shows the lines of 
the principal streets exactly as they are 
to-d&y. though the space covered by build- 
ings is very much less. The fields then 
encroached on whpt is now the centre of the 
town, and a large garden is shown attached 
to almost every house. It was nearly 
thirty years after Blaeu's book appeared 
that * Hazebrouck became definitely French 
(1678). 

A century later Hazebrouck seems to 
have been considered a place of small 
importance. The reference to the town in 
the 'Encyclopedie,ouDictionnaire Raisonne 



* Jan Bapt. Gramaye, Flemish traveller, poet, 
and historian, c. 1580-1635. 



des Sciences, des Arts, et des Metiers ' (ed.. 
Neufchatel, 1765), is very short : 

" Haesbrouk, petite ville de Flandre, a deux, 
lieues d'Aire. Longit. 20.4, latit. 50.40." 

At whet date the spelling of the name 
became fixed in its present form I cannot 
say, but the following variations occur' 
before the beginning of the last century : 
Hasbruc, Hasbroc, Hasbroec, Hasbroucq,. 
Hasbourg, Haesbroecke, Haesebrouck, 
Haesebroucq, Hazebrouc, Hazebreuc, Haze- 
bruch, Hazebruec, Hazebruck, and Haze- 
brouck. The earliest of these is found in a- 
charter of 1122 by which Charles le Bon, 
Count of Flanders, notifies that Lambert r 
Provost of Cassel, has given to the church 
of Oxelaere a certain piece of land situated 
near to the town of Hasbruc (apiid villain 
Hasbruc). y 

At this period, says M. Taverne der 
Tersud (from whom the above is cited) : 

" la ville n'e"tait qu'une agglomeration de quelques 
habitations baties au milieu des eaux et des bois- 
. . . .Sa situation a te" une cause d'empechement 
a sa developpement." 

M. de Tersud's was the only book on Haze- 
brouck that I was able to discover during 
a residence in the town of some months 
immediately before the evacuation of 1918 
and again during the winter of 191819^ 
It is true that life was then abnormal and 
the times not well fitted for the pursuit of" 
the study of local history. But inquiry 
at the principal stationer and booksellers' 
shops failed to produce any volume dealing, 
with the history or institutions of the town 
not even a guide-book. In the Biblio- 
theque Communale at St. Omer, however,. 
I found M. de Tersud's volume : 

" Hazebrouck, depuis son origine jusqu'a nos 
jours ; par Charles Taverne de Tersud. 4to_ 
Hazebrouck, 1890. 454 pp." 

Though published in 1890 the book seems to 
have been written at least three years 
earlier, as the preface is dated May, 1887. 
In the thirty years that have elapsed since 
the appearance of this work some changes 
have, of course, taken place in Hazebrouck^ 
but generally speaking M. de Tersnd's 
description held good down to the outbreak 
of the war. 

The outstanding events in the history of 
the town may be summarized as follows : 

1213. Philip Augustus, in order to avenge 
the disasters inflicted on his fleet off the 
coast of Flanders, ravaged the adjacent 
country, in the course of which action 
Hazebrouck and other towns were burned^ 



12 s. viii. FEB. 12, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



This was the year before the battle of 
Bouvines. 

1347. Philip of Valois, intending to repair 
the defeat of Crecy and with the object of 
obliging Edward III. to raise the siege of 
Calais, put on foot a formidable army, 
which appeared before Arras in May, 1347. 
Hazebrouck was burnt and pillaged shortly 
after, and the development of the town was 
arrested a second time by the events of war. 
Calais surrendered on Aug. 4. 

1436. In May of this year the English, in 
order to revictual Calais, raided the country 
round Hazebrouck and Cassel, from which 
they carried off large numbers of cattle, 
sheep, goats, grain and forage. To prevent 
a recurrence of these incursions the militia 
of the communes was called out and a 
battle fought at Looberghe in which the 
English were victorious. The Flemish loss 
is said to have been 300 killed and 120 
taken prisoners. The total English loss is 
given as 70. The town of Hazebrouck, 
however, did not suffer 'any material damage. 
1524-5. The winter was made memorable 
by the occurrence of famine and pestilence, 
and by the beginning of religious troubles. 
These latter culminated in the war of the 
Gueux in 1566, during the course of which 
the church at Hazebrouck was pillaged 
(Aug.- 15-16), the altars being broken and 
the sepulchral monuments carried away. 
Many other churches in the neighbourhood 
also suffered at this time. 

1578. The church at Hazebrouck was 
again pillaged by the Gueux (Sept. 24), the 
bells on this occasion being carried off. 

1582. Hazebrouck again suffered severely 
when the soldiers of Philip II., on their 
way to Ypres, passed through the town 
(July 27), setting it on fire at various points. 
The church was again pillaged. The de- 
struction at this time was very great, the 
old Town Hall in the Market Place being 
burnt down, and many years elapsed before 
the town was able to recover. 

1587. Wandering bands of Gueux from 
Holland again set fire to Hazebrouck. The 
misery of the inhabitants at this time was 
great. The building of the new town hall 
was stopped for lack of funds, and the 
banks of the canal, the construction of 
which had only recently been begun, were 
falling in. Money was only about a quarter 
of its former value. 

1644. In October, Hazebrouck, still 
Spanish, was invaded by a French army, 
which occupied the town for eight days, 
inflicting loss and ruin on the inhabitants, 



a number of whom took refuge in the 
church. 

1677. The battle of Cassel was fought 
on the plain below Mont Cassel 12 kilometres 
o the north-west of Hazebrouck, on Apr. 11. 
As a result this part of Flanders was de- 
finitely restored to the French crown in the 
'ollowing year. * Henceforward Hazebrouck- 
s a French town, and its history till the end 
of the eighteenth century and the coming 
of the Revolution, is one of peaceful develop- 
nent, if of little progress. 

The linen industry, mentioned by Blaeu,. 
dated back to the fourteenth century. The 
Lynwaet Halle, where the linen was ex- 
Dosed on Saturdays, stood on the north side 
of the Market Place on the site of the present 
}own hall, but was pulled down about 1793. 
The industry declined from the end of the 
seventeenth century, as already mentioned,., 
and about 1789 was confined to table linen. 
A little flannel appears also to have been 
manufactured in Hazebrouck at this time- 
The old town hall stood in the centre of the 
Market Place. After its destruction by the 
Spaniards in 1582, something like seven 
ears elapsed before its successor was com- 
oleted. This is the building shown on 
Blaeu 's plan. It had a belfry and carillon 
of eight bells, but was destroyed by fire in 
February, 1801, and was never rebuilt. The 
present town hall on the north side of the 
Square dates from 1806-20. 

The Market Place, or Grand' Place, which 
measures roughly 220 paces in length by 
100 in breadth, was in existence in the 
fourteenth century, at which period, accord- 
ing to M. de Tersud, it was : 

" une grande place non pavee au milieu de 
laquelle existait une fosse entouree d'une haie : 
les maisons n'avaient presque toutes qu'un 
rez-de-chaussee, elles etaient couvertes en paille 
et enduites d'une couche de torches." 

The only buildings of antiquarian interest 
now remaining in Hazebrouck are the 
parish church of St. Eloi, and the Hospice- 
Hopital (formerly the convent of the 
Augustines). The rest of the town has been 
rebuilt at different times, mostly in the 
nineteenth century, such houses of earlier 
date as remain being of little or no archi- 
tectural interest. According to M. de Ter- 
sud the church is a rebuilding at the close 
of the fifteenth century of an older structure 
which suffered from fire in 1492, the in- 
terior being then wholly destroyed. The 



* For battle of Cassel see inscriptions recorded' 
in N. & Q.' 12 S. vi. 225-6 : also 12 S. vii. 241. 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm.F E B.i2,io2i. 



-tower is said to have been completed in 
1512, and is surmounted by a spire of open- 
work, the total height of which is 278 ft. 
'The building is of red brick with stone 
dressings, and consists of choir, transepts, 
aisled nave, and west tower. A smaller 
spire, which stood originally at the inter- 
section of nave and transepts, was demo- 
lished in 1767. Except for the disappear- 
ance of this feature the church is to-day 
externally pretty much as shewn in Blaeu's 
view. Internally, however, it underwent a 
somewhat drastic change in the last century, 
when plaster ceilings were erected and other 
alterations of a like nature made. The 
structure suffered little or nothing during 
the bombardment of 1918. 

The buildings of the Hospice-Hopital 
are also of red-brick. The older wing, 
which is an excellent example of Flemish 
Renaissance design, is dated 1616, and the 
later and smaller wing 1718. The whole 
was restored in 1868 and again in 1895-6. 
'The convent was suppressed in 1793, and 
for some years the building was used as a 
kind of tenement house by all sorts and 
conditions of people. Considerable damage 
was done to the interior and it was not till 
1800 that the building was cleared, and put 
to other uses. After the destruction of the 
old town hall in 1801 the convent was used 
for municipal purposes till the new town 
hall was completed (1820), since when it has 
served as a hospital. 

The earlier convent of the Grey Sisters 
mentioned by Blaeu, founded in the fifteenth 
century, stood on a site behind the present 
town hall, now occupied by the Maison 
d'Arret. It was suppressed in the Revolu- 
tion and the buildings demolished. 

In February, 1814, a corps of Saxons and 
Cossacks staved three days in Hazebrouck, 
camping in the open air, but appear to have 
left the town unharmed. After the final 
overthrow of Napoleon Hazebrouck was 
occuoied for two years (1815-17) by an 
English dragoon regiment. The name of 
the regiment is not given by M. de Tersud, 
but it is gratifying to know that 
"les documents qui reposent a la mairie attest- 
ent que les rapports entre les habitants, les officiers 
Sb les soldats n'etaient pas tendus et que de part 
et d'autre on se faisait toutes les concessions 
possibles pour vivre en bonne intelligence. 

''A cantury teter British troops were once 

more in occupation of Hazebrouck, but 

under conditions at once more pleasing and 

mors difficult. F. H. CHEETHAM. 

(To &e continued.) 



AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE 
ARCHIVES. 

(See ante, pp. 23, 45, 66, 83.) 

THE DEATH OF RICHARD SHAKESPEARE. 

ATTENTION was drawn to Snitterfield in 

Dec., 1559, by the death, of Master Thomas 

Robins of Northbrooke. His will was signed 

on the 7th of that month, and proved in 

London on the 23rd by Richard Charnock 

on behalf of the executor, Edward Grant. 

The testator's prayer to the Trinity and 

bequest of his soul to Jesus Christ, and his 

instruction that his body should be buried 

"without pomp " before the choir-door in 

the parish-church "in the place which I 

have been accustomed to walk in," point to 

his being a Protestant. But his son-in-law 

and heir, Edward Grant, was a Catholic, and 

the will was witnessed and supervised by that 

"unlearned and stubborn priest " whom 

Bishop Sandys soon after deprived, William 

Burton. Master Robins was a widower at 

the time of his death and had lost his 

daughter, his only child, wife of Edward 

Grant. This Edward Grant was son to 

Master Richard Grant of Briary Lands, and 

father by Master Robins' daughter of three 

children, Mary, Thomas and Richard. He 

had married again, taking for his second 

wife Anne Somerville, daughter to Master 

Robert Somerville of Edstone. She bore 

him a son, Edward. To the four children of 

his son-in-law Master Robins made bequests 

to Mary of 40Z, a gilt bowl and a ring of 

gold "which was my wife's wedding-ring, 

to be delivered when she shall be married 

or at her father's pleasure," and to the three 

boys of 61 13s. 4d. apiece. The residue of the 

estate after their father's death was to be 

bestowed " so that Mary have two kine 

more besides her own two in my keeping 

and six pair of flaxen sheets," and Edward 

" all such household stuff whatsoever that 

I have in Northbrooke, the standing beds, 

cupboards, .tables, forms and joined-stools 

excepted." To his son-in-law's second wife, 

whom he calls his "daughter-in-law," Anne 

Grant nee Somerville, he left "my little 

silver salt which I bought lately at Coventry 

Fair." We shall hear of the Grants and 

their connections the Somervilles. Thomas 

Grant inherited Northbrooke, Edward Grant 

his mother's property of Kingswood at 

Rowington. Edward Grant's cousin, John 

Somerville, born about the time of Master 

Robins' death, married an Arden of Park 



12 s. vin. FEB. 12, 1021.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



Hall, a kinswoman of John Shakespeare's 
wife, Mary Arden. These events were in 
the future. At present, 1559, we will note 
that John Arden, prebendary of Worcester, 
and a determined Catholic, was probably a 
relative of Mary Arden. 

The care of his father at Snitterfield may 
have added to the growing responsibilities of 
John Shakespeare. On May 21, 1560, 
Robert Arden's widow, Agnes nee Webbe, 
leased her late husband's property at Snitter- 
field to her brother, Alexander Webbe of 
Bearley, husband of her step-daughter, 
Margaret Arden. It consisted of "two 
messuages with a cottage, in the occupation 
of Richard Shakespeare, John Henley and 
John Hargreave." The lease was for forty 
years from Mar. 25, 1561, or so long as 
Agnes Arden should live, at the rental of 40s. 
per annum. There was probably no intention 
of disturbing Richard Shakespeare. In view 
of the fact that he died before Mar. 25, 1561, 
it is likely that he was infirm and unwilling 
to renew his lease in May, 1560. He may 
have contemplated removal to Ingon with 
his so*?- Henry, or even to Stratford, to join 
the household of his son John in Henley 
Street. 

On June 1, 1560, he and William Bott and 
others valued the goods of Henry Cole the 
blacksmith. We get a glimpse of Henry 
Cole in an entry in the Churchwardens' 
Account of St. Nicholas, Warwick, for the 
year 1554: "to Coles of Snit'field for his 
painstaking to come into the parish to give 
counsel to the filing of the third quarter bell, 
and spent on him and upon one that did 
fetch him, 7cL" His daughter married 
Thomas Eggleston of St. Nicholas' parish, 
probably the son of the late vicar of St. 
Nicholas, Master John Eggleston. His son, 
Edward Cole, was partner with him in the 
smithy. Edward died before his father, on 
or shortly after Sept. 22, 1558, when he made 
his will. He died a Catholic, bequeathing his 
soul to Almighty God, the Blessed Virgin and 
the Holy Company of Heaven, 12c?. to 
Snitterfield Church, 4rf. to the Mother Church 
of Worcester and 12c7. to the Vicar of 
Snitterfield, William Burton. The Vicar 
witnessed and probably wrote the will, and 
acted as overseer with Richard Wllmore of 
the Heath. To his brother-in-law, Thomas 
Eggleston, who was not yet nineteen, Edward 
Cole left his russet coat of frieze. His 
young widow died almost immediately. His 
goods were valued on Jan. 22, 1559, by 
Robert Pardy, Robert Nicholson, Henry 
Burgess and William Perks, but her small 



possessions were appraised some time pre- 
viously by Nicholson, Burgess and Perks 
with the help of Richard Shakespeare. Ad- 
ministration was granted on Mar. 23, the 
widow having "died before the will was 
proved." Henry Cole the father made his 
will probably before the decease of Queen 
Mary on Nov. 17, 1558. He also died a 
Romanist. He bequeathed 4d. to the 
Mother Church of Worcester, a strike of 
wheat to the Church of Wolverton, 4cL 
towards the reparations of the Church of 
Norton Linsey, and to Snitterfield Church 
"two strike of wheat and a stall of been to 
help to maintain two tapers, one before the 
Blessed Sacrament of the Altar and the 
other before the image of Our Lady of a 
pound and a quarter apiece." Most of his 
little property he left to bis son's children, 
Edward and Anne, and to his son-in-law, 
Thomas Eggleston, the executor. Queen 
Elizabeth had come to the throne, the Prayer- 
Book had been re-introduced, tapers and 
images and the Blessed Sacrament of the 
Altar were abolished and supposed to be all 
gone when he signed this will unrevised oiv 
Jan. 23, 1560, in the presence of William 
Burton the vicar, Robert Pardy and John 
Hargreave, the day after the making of the 
inventory of the goods and chattels of his 
son. It is possible that the vicar and his 
churchwardens had not carried out the 
Injunctions. William Burton, who was 
Sir William, a graduate of Oxford (supplicated 
for B.A. June 9, 1527, determined 15*8), was 
deprived before Sept. 26, 1561, when the 
Puritan, John Pedder, a Marian exile, was 
instituted in his room. The valuation of 
Henry Coles' goods on June 1, 1560, by 
William Bott, Richard Shakespeare, William 
Perks, Henry Burgess alias Parsons, and 
John Hargreave, amounted to 16Z. 0,9. 6d. r1 
Richard Shakespeare helped to appraise 
the goods of his old neighbour, Richard 
Maids, on Sept. 13, 1560. None stood higher 
in the regard of his fellow -villagers than 
Richard Maids. His name appears con- 
tinually in the local wills and inventories. 
He witnessed the release by John Palmer of 
his tenement to Master Arden Oct. 1, 1529, 
was fined with Richard Shakespeare for 
overburdening the Common pasture Oct. l r 
1535, was executor of the will of Sir John 
Bonne, vicar, Feb. 1, 1541, 'praised the goods 
of William Mayowe and Thomasin Palmer 
(whose will he witnessed) in 1551, and the 
goods of Hugh Greene on Mar. 27, 1553, was 
overseer of the will of Hugh Porter Jan. 31, 
1554, 'praised with Richard Shakespeare the 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm.FBB.i2.i92i. 



; goods of the vicar Sir Thomas Hargreaves 
May 5, 1557, was overseer of the will of 
Thomas Harding June 24, 1557, 'praised the 
^oods of Henry Walker July 11, 1558, wit- 
nessed with Richard Shakespeare the will of 
Henry Walker on Aug. 31 , 1558, and 'praised 
-the goods of Walter Nicholson on Feb. 7. 
1559. 

Apparently he died without issue, in. the 
summer of 1560, but left a number of nephews 
-and nieces, children of Rafe Maids. One of 
these nephews, Richard, was known in 1557 
-as Richard Maids the Younger to distinguish 
him from his uncle. Another nephew, 
Pobert, married the daughter of Hugh Porter. 
A third nephew, William Maids, became a 
close friend of Alexander Webbe and his son 
Robert Webbe, the brother-in-law and 
nephew of John Shakespeare. 

At the View of Frankpledge at Snitterfield 
on Oct. 3, 1560, Richard Shakespeare was 
fined 4d. for keeping his beasts upon the 
Lea<?, contrary to order, and was one of the 
lord's tenants instructed "to make their 
hedge and ditch between the end of Richard 
Shakespeare's lane and Dawkins' hedge 
before the Feast of St. Luke's," i.e. Oct. 18.' 

In the meantime at the Court Leet at 
'Stratford on Oct. 5 John Shakespeare and 
his fellow Constables presented their list 
of offenders since April. Master Thomas 
Trassell, a lawyer, living in Bridge Street, 
agect about thirty, a connection of the 
Trussells of Billesley, and therefore perhaps 
of Mary Shakespeare, was fined for drawing 
'blood on Roger Brunt, Thomas Featherstone 
for a fray on Thomas Walford, Thomas 
Holiday alias Drudge, for drawing blood 
on Luke Hurst, Humfrey Holmes for drawing 
blood on one not named, Thomas Merrick for 
a fray on John Henshaw, Alderman Rafe 
Cawdrey for a fray on George Green of 
Wotton Wawen, Master Harbage's man, 
Thomas, for a fray upon "the other of 
M .^er Harbage's men the Irishman," and 
Richard Court, alias Smith, for " oppro- 
brious words and reviling " against the 
Constables. John Shakespeare and John 
Taylor were probably not sorry to bring 
their second year of office to a close. 

Other offences reported have their interest. 
William Smith, haberdasher of Henley Street, 
complained that "a piece of aproning, 
colour russett " had been stolen from him 
by a stranger and then taken from the 
stranger by one Bradley of Evesham. A 
Welsh Tian "using archery in Sheep Street " 
was presented for " living idly and sus- 
piciously," and Anna Shurton for being "a 



common scold and an unquiet woman." 
Anna Shurton, who was doubtless hoisted in 
the Market Place or ducked in the Avon, 
in the cuckstooi, was wife of William 
Shurton alias Adams, a tailor, living in a 
cottage in Ely Street. She had three 
children, one of whom died in the Plague 
of 1564. She herself died in April, 1567, and 
her husband promptly married, on June 3, 
a second wife, with the promising name 
Anne Primrose. 

At the same Court Leet, of Oct. 5, 1560, 
Roger Sadler was elected Bailiff and Rafe 
Cawdrey High Alderman. William Smith 
and William Tyler (colleagues of John 
Shakespeare and John Taylor in the year 
past) entered on their second twelvemonth 
as Constables with William Perrott (brother 
of Robert Perrott) and John Bell as their 
juniors. Humfrey Plymlej^ and John 
Wheeler were re-elected Chamberlains. To 
John Wheeler, yeoman, son of John Wheeler 
who died in April, 1558, and father of John 
Wheeler born about the year 1557, was 
leased by the new Bailiff and his colleagues, 
on Oct. 10, 1560, two small houses in Henley 
Street in his occupation, for sixty-one years 
at a rent of 10s. per annum. This pair of 
tenements stood on the site of the present 
Free Library near the Birthplace. John 
Shakespeare and John Wheeler had been 
neighbours probably for ten years past, and 
they remained such for the next thirty-six 
years. They were of one mind in religion 
and became Puritan recusants. 

On Feb. 10, 1561, John Shakespeare 
c btained at Worcester letters of administra- 
tion of his father's estate, on the exhibition 
of an inventory of his goods and cattels 
valued at 38Z. la. Od. Richard Shakespeare 
had died a short time previously. In the 
bond father and son are described as of 
Snitterfield, and John is called agricola. 
John retained for a few months an interest 
in his father's holding and was held respon- 
sible for the condition of the hedges, being 
fined I2d. on Oct. 1, 1561, for the non- 
fulfilment of the order of Oct. 3, 1560. About 
this time (Michaelmas 1561) Alexander 
Webbe, John Shakespeare's brother-in-law, 
entered into possession. He brought with 
him from Bearley his wife Margaret (nee 
Arden, sister of Mary Shakespeare) and four 
young children Anne, Robert. Elizabeth 
and Mary. Anne, born after April, 1555, 
was probably named after Widow Arden 
(who was her father's sister and her mother's 
step-mother) ; Robert, born about Oct. 1558, 
was probably named after his grandfather, 



12 8. VIII. FEB. 12, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



Elizabeth after her mother's sister, Elizabeth 
Scarlet, and Mary after Mary Shakespeare. 
"Two more children were born at Snitterfield, 
Edward and Sarah. Edward was baptized 
-at the Church on July 30, 1562, Sarah on 
ApriJ 23, 1565. Edward (or Edmund: the 
flames are interchangeable) probably had his 
uncle Edmund Lambert for godfather. 
These children were all first cousins of William 
Shakespeare, and of special interest to him 
PS living in his father's and grandfather's old 
home. There is evidence of friendship be- 
tween the John Shakespeares and the Webbes. 
Unfortunately we have not Richard 
.Shakespeare's will. We might have learned 
from it something of the relationship, if any, 
between himself and a family of Shakespeares 
connected with Snitterfield and Clifford 
Chambers, and a younger and more in- 
teresting family of Shakespeares at Warwick. 
It might have shed light on the kinship 
between the testator and the family of 
Greene alias Shakespeare of Warwick and 
Stratford, and on the personality of the 
Joan Shakespeare who died and was buried 
.at Snitlorfield on Jan. 5, 1596. 

EDGAR I. FRIPP. 
(To be continued.) 



GLASS PAINTERS OF YORK. 
I. THE CHAMBER FAMILY. 

JOH. DK LA CHAUMBRE, glasyer ('Freemen 
of York' Surtees Soc.). " John Chamber 
the elder " mentioned in Thomas Benefeld 
r Byngf eld's will (Reg. Test D. and C. Ebor., 
i. 212). One of two brothers both named 
John who each had a son called Richard. 
Free 1400, Wife, Joan. In his will he twice 
refers to the other Chamber as " John 
Chamber my brother." His workmen evi- 
dently were Robert Wakefield (free, 1400; 
d. 1414), Matthew Petty (died 1478), and 
John Newsom the elder (free, 1418), and 
probably Robert Hudson. He was closely 
connected in some way, whether as a partner, 
friendly rival, or what, does not appear, 
with Thomas Byngf eld (free, 1400 ; died 1422) 
as Robert Wakefield directs that his will 
made Jan. 20, 1414, proved Feb. 16 (Reg. 
Test. D. and C. Ebor., i. 172) shall be 
carried out "by the sight, counsel, and 
advice of John Chambre my master and 
Thomas Byngf eld." Byngf eld who died in 
1422 also made "John Chambre the elder, 
glasyer " his executor (Reg. Test. D. and C. 
Ebor., i. 212). Chamber's son, Richard, 
*t the time of his father's death in 1437 



was evidently still a child, for his father in 
his will says : 

"The residue of all my goods 1 give & 

bequeath to Joan my wife & Richard my son. And 
I will that Joan my wife shall have all the goods 
belonging to Richard my son in her own hand tor 
the relief and helping of him." 
It would seem that the son was an invalid 
as further provision is made "if t he ? said 
Richard my son shall depart this life for 
masses for the repose of the souls of both 
father and son. Chamber was doing work 
for the Dean and Chapter between the 
years 1421 and 1433. He made his will 
on Monday next before the feast of the 
Ascension, 1437. Proved May 15 of the 
same year [Reg. Test. D. and C. Ebor., 
i. 243d J. To Matthew Petty he bequeathed 
3s. 4rf. ; to John Newsom, 2s., and to Robert 
Hudson, 20d. The latter was evidently 
identical with the Robert Hudson, glasyer, 
working for John Chamber the younger in 
1450, into whose service he evidently went 
on the death of John Chamber the elder in 
1437, at which time he was probably an 
apprentice. Hudson was free in 1453 so 
that there must have been some delay in his 
taking up his freedom and a master glass- 
painter in 1463-4 when new ordinances were 
granted to the craft. Chamber bequeathed 
"To the fabric of the Cathedral Church of 
Blessed Peter of York 6s. 8c?.," and to his 
brother John a similar amount, Executrix, 
his wife Joan ; and Sir Robert Flete, Rector 
of Lastingham, and his brother John co- 
adjutors with her. Witnesses, his brother 
John ; John Newsom (free 1418. His son 
John was free in 1442 and his grandson 
Thomas, in 1470. All three were glass- 
painters), and Matthew Petty (d. 1478). 
Chamber was buried in St. Helen's Church 
in S to negate. 

Joh. Chambre, junior, glasier (' Freemen 
of York' Surtees Soc.) Brother of John 
Chamber the elder. Free 1414. Wife 
Matilda. Workmen, William Inglish, (free 
1450, died 1480), Robert Hudson (free 1453), 
and Thomas Coverham (free 1448). He 
was evidently brother-in-law of, and possibly 
in partnership with, Matthew Petty to whom 
he bequeathed 3s. 4c?., for in his will he 
mentions " Gillot Pety my sister," to whom 
he left a similar sum. Sons, Richard and 
Fr. William Wencelay, a monk. He made 
his will Mar. 16, 1450. There is no date of 
probate, but Chamber died before the end 
cf the month of March, 1451, as appears from 
the date of the probate of the will of John 
Witton, his apprentice, who had named him 



128 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 12, 1021, 



as one of his (Witton's) executors and pro- 
bate of whose will was granted Mar. 31, 1451, 
to "Matilda wife of John Chamber lately 
deceased." To "Fr. William Wencelay, 
monk, my son," he bequeathed six silver 
spoons, 20s. in money and " a small mazer 
set with silver," with the proviso that the 
testator's wife was to hav-e the use of it 
during her life. He left various sums to the 
vicars and chaplains of St. Helen's Church 
in Stonegate, where he desired to be buried 
"before the crucifix." To his son Richard 
he left his business, but the latter died the 
same month as his father. John Chamber 
was thus left without any male heir to 
succeed to the business, his other son being 
in religion. Who carried on the business 
after his death we do not know, but his 
successor would no doubt be found amongst 
his three workmen, William Inglish, Robert 
Hudson, and Thomas Coverham ; whom, 
in his will he calls "my servants " and to 
whom he bequeathed 5s. by equal portions. 
All three appear before the Lord Mayor in 
1463-4 as representatives of the "hole 
craft of glasyers ", and presumably therefore 
they were masters, when new ordinances 
were granted. Chamber evidently enjoyed 
a wide reputation as a glass painter. In 
1449 he executed windows for the parish 
church of St. Mary Magdalene in Durham 
(Durham. Account Rolls, ed. by Rev. 
Canon Fowler, Surtees Soc., vol. ii. p. 408). 
In John Chamber the younger we most pro- 
bably have the outstanding genius who 
executed the masterpieces of glass-painting 
such as the west window of St. Martin-le- 
Grand, Coney Street (dated 1437), and 
others done between the date at which we 
must presume the death of John Thornton 
(c. 1435) and the middle of the fifteenth 
century. (Will, Reg. Test. D. and C. 
Ebor./i. 266.) 

Ricardus Chambre, glasier, fil. Johannis 
Chaumbre, glasier. Son of John Chamber 
the younger (free 1414, died 1451), and 
Matilda his wife. Richard Chamber's wife 
was called Margaret, to whom John Chamber 
the younger bequeathed "his blood red 
girdle adorned with silver," and to" Richard 
Chamber, my son, my green girdle adorned 
with silver and all the instruments and 
utensils belonging to my shop if he shall be 
living and he shall happen to return." 
As likely as not Richard Chamber (whose 
name appears in the Freemen's Roll of 
1447 so that he was presumably 24 years of 
age in 1450) and John Witton (who was 
evidently an apprentice with Richard's 



father, whom Witton in his will calls my 
"master," though John Chamber in his will 
dees not mention Witton along with " hi& 
servants " William Inglish, Robert Hudson, 
and Thomas Coverham, thereby showing 
that Witton was an apprentice at the time) 
had gone abroad together on the completion, 
of their indentures in order to complete 
their artistic training by foreign travel.* 

Richard Chamber and John Witton^made- 
their respective wills one on the 10th and 
the other on the llth of June, 1450, and 
each desired that his body should "be 
buried with church burial where God shaE 
dispose for me " without specifying a 
particular church as was the usual custom. 
Probate of the two wills was granted within 
four days of one another, one on Mar. 31, 
and the other on Apr. 3, 1451. These facts- 
taken together point to their having met 
with a violent death in company and they 
were probably either drowned at sea or died 
together in battle, possibly in one of the 
last fights of the Hundred Years War. 
Richard Chamber in his will (Reg. Test. 
D. and C. Ebor., i. 267) bequeathed to his- 
parish church of St. Helen in Stonegate 
IQd. for tithes and oblations forgotten and 
made his. father and another his executors, 
the former however pre-deceased him by a. 
few days. JOHN A. KNO\V:LES. 



ST. VALENTINE'S DAY. At Armscot, co. 
Worcester, a small hamlet near Ilmington, 
the children went round to the farms singing 
for apples, which were kept for Shrove 
Tuesday fritters. The lines ran : 

Good morrow, Valentine, t vl;' _ 
First its yours, then its mine, t_i^|T V^ 1 
Please give us a valentine, o 
J. HABVEY 



* This was evidently the custom in the case of 
the son of the house who would eventually have to> 
take over his father's business and who had there- 
fore to keep up to date and in touch with the latest 
art movements on the continent. There is reason, 
to believe that Witton like Chamber was in the 
the above position. He cannot have been a poor 
boy for he leaves a fair amount of property arid ari 
annuity to his father for life. Valentin Bouch. glass- 
painter of Metz (died 1451) had evidently travelled 
in Italy as he bequeathed to Herman Foliq, whom 
he calls his " old workman" "twelve pieces of 
portraiture of Italy or of Albert" (Le Vieil. 'L'Art 
de la Peinture sur Verre.' p. 95). The remarkable 
similarities in design and details of glass on the 
continent to glass of very slightly later date in 
England can only be accounted for by such an 
hypothesis. There would be little difficulty i 
getting a passage across, as ships were continually 
crossing. 



12 s. vin. FEB. 12, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



PRICES IN THE EARLY NINETEENTH CEN 
TURY. (See ' A Radical Weaver's Common 
place Book, ante, p. 5). The following is a 
old Lancashire recipe, with the prices of th 
various articles, for what was known in 181 
as a "funeral cake." I have copied it from 
the original account in the possession of a 
aunt of mine : 

1817, Feby. 5th s. d 

To 3 Ib. Brown sugar at 12d 30 

" 3 Ibs. Lump sugar at lid. . . ..43 

,, 1 oz. Sinnamon, Is., Carraways, IJd. 1 1 

8 Ib. Flour "..40 

6 Ib. Butter, 5s. 3d, 4 oz. Candid 

Lemon, Sd 5 11 

Nutmeg, 4d., 2^ Ibs. D. Currants, 

2s. Sd 30 

Rum and Escence of Lemon . . ..06 

60 Eggs, 4s. ; Paper, ld 41 

Making . . . . . . ..20 



1 7 11 



I send this as it may be of interest in view 
of MR. CHEETHAM'S interesting article undei 
the heading of 'A Radical Weaver' 
Common-place Book ' in which he gives 
some particulars of prices in 1801. 

F. CROOKS. 

ANECDOTE OF LAURENCE STERNE. The 
following anecdote which may now be a 
chestnut, was reprinted by The Yorkshire 
Herald of Oct. 21, 1919, from its forerunner 
of 1765 : 

"Anecdote relating to the Rev. Mr. Sterne when 
he was in Paris : A French gentleman asked him, 
If he had found in France no Original Characters 
that he could make Use of in his Life and Opinions 
of Tristram Shandy, * No,' replied he, ' the French 
resemble old Pieces of Coin whose Impression is 
worn out by rubbing.'" 

I hope it may be a new anecdote to some- 
body. ST. SWITHIN. 

MARY ROBERTS. The 'D.KB.' under 
"Samuel Roberts (1763-1848)" mentions 
his daughter Mary, author of 'Royal Exile,' 
and has in square brackets, "see under 
Roberts, Mary, 1788-1864." On turning to 
"Mary Roberts," it will be seen that the 
last paragraph of the article reads : 

" Some confusion has arisen between Miss 
Eoberts and a cousin of the same name, Mary 
Eoberts, daughter of Samuel Roberts (1763- 
1848) [q.v.-] of Sheffield, authoress of 'Royal 
Exile,' 1822." 

There was no necessity for this para- 
graph which is somewhat misleading. The 
two Marys may have caused confusion, but 
they were not cousins, nor have I been able 
to trace any connection whatever between 
the two families. CHARLES DRURY. 

12 Ranmoor Cliffe Road, Sheffield. 



EXETER COLLEGE, OXFORD. With the 
election of Dr. E. G. Hendy to be Principal 
of Jesus College, Oxford, on Jan. 13, 1921, 
it ought to be noted that Exeter has pro- 
vided four Heads of Colleges, all in office 
at the present time. These are as follows : 

1. Dr. Lewis Richard Parnell, Rector of 
Exeter, m. 1874 ; Fellow of Exeter ; Rector, 
1913 ; Vice-Chancellor, 1920. 

2. Dr. Henry Boyd, m. 1849 ; Principal^of 
Hertford, 1877. 

3. Mr. John Arthur Ruskin Munro, m. 
1882 ; Rector of Lincoln, 1920. 

4. Dr. Ernest George Hendy, m. 1871 ; 
Fellow of Jesus, 1874 ; Principal of Jesus, 
1921. 

This should be recorded in 'N. & Q.' 
I need not set out their distinctions, or 
their services to the University and their 
several Houses. W. H. QUARRELL. 

CURIOUS JACOBITE TOAST. In July, 1713, 
a certain Mr. John Birch was indicted at 
Cork, found guiJty, and sentenced to pay 
a hundred pounds for, besides other things, 
having publicly drunk to a seditious toast, 
namely " May you never want three pounds, 
fourteen shillings, and five pence ! " Accord- 
ing to the Kalendar of MSS. of the Marquess 
of Ormonde this alarming toast had a 
triple signification, viz., the health of James 
the THIRD, Louis the FOURTEENTH, and 
Philip the FIFTH, the three Catholic mon- 
archs in league against England. R. B. 
Upton. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
r ormation on family matters of only private interest 
;o affix their names and addresses to their queries 
n order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



SCOTT'S 'LEGEND OF MONTROSE.' Can 
any reader of ' N. & Q. ' give the origin of the 
ollowing : 

1. Motto to chap. iii. : "For pleas of right 
et statesmen vex their heads," &c. 

attributed to Donne, but apparently not by 
lim. 

2. Motto to chap. ix. : "Dark on their 
ourney lowr'd the gloomy day," &c. ; from 
The Travellers, a Romance ' (perhaps by 
cott ?). 

3. Motto to chap. xi. : " Is this thy castle, 
Baldwin ? " &c. attributed to Brown. 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. EU s. vm. mm. 12, mi. 



4. The old song, quoted in chaps, vi. and 
xii. : " When cannons are roaring, and 
bullets are flying," &c. 

5. The famous lines on General Wade 
(chap, xviii.) is their authorship known ? 

F. A. CAVENAGH. 
Manchester University. 

LEGISLATION AGAINST TOBACCO. Robert 
Ghristison, M.D., in 'A Treatise on Poisons ' 
(Edinburgh 1829), writing on Tobacco, on 
p. 619 says : 

" Soon after it was brought to England by 
Sir W. Raleigh, King James wrote a philippic 
against it, entitled ' The Counterblast to Tobacco.' 
Some countries even prohibited it by severe 
edicts. Amurath the 4th in particular made the 
smoking of tobacco capital ; several of the Popes 
excommunicated those who smoked in the 
church of St. Peter's ; in Russia it was punished 
with amputation of the nose ; and in the Canton 
of Bern it ranked in the tables next to adultery, 
and even so late as the middle of last century a 
particular court was held there for trying delin- 
quents (note Paris and Fonblanque's ' Medical 
Jurisprudence,' ii. 416). Like every other per- 
secuted novelty, however, smoking and snuff- 
taking passed from place to place with rapidity ; 
and now there appear to be only two luxuries 
which yield to it in prevalence, spirituous liquors 
and tea." 

Unless this subject has already been 
discussed in <N. & Q.' particulars of the 
'severe edicts " might be of general interest 
if any readers can supply them. 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

COTTAGE AT ENGLEFIELD GREEN. In a 
book in the British Museum, entitled ' Views 
of Noblemen and Gentlemen's Seats,' &c 
by J. Hassell, 1804, there is a plate of ' St.' 
Agnes Cottage, Berks, [sic] the Seat of Mr! 
Knowles,' and in the accompanying letter- 
press it is stated that this stood 
"in the old Winchester Road, and takes its name 
from a well near the house, called St. Agnes Well 
and it is mentioned by Camden and most historians 
for being a celebrated spot where pilgrims and 
devotees, going to Winchester used to stop and 
do homage to the Saint. Hither, also came many 
for the benefit of the water, which was reputed to 
possess many healing qualities." 

Now as the house stood in a bye-lane 
from Englefield Green to Windsor Great 
Park, I should be glad if any reader could 
give any explanation of the statement about 
the old Winchester Road or give any infor- 
mation about the well. I can find no 
reference to it in my copy of Camden 
(Gibson, 1695). The spring which fed the 
well is or was until recently still in evidence 
And who was the "Mr. Knowles " whose 
seat it was ? W. H. WHITEAB, F.R.Hist.S. 

10 Fairlawn Court, W.4 



THE "INVALID OFFICE." A building 
with this name is shown on the east side of 
Whitehall, between Scotland Yard and the 
" Banqueting House " in a late seventeenth 
century map in the Grace Collection. I shall 
be grateful for information as to the business 
transacted there, and for some one who will 
supply my failure to observe Capt. Cuttle's 
rule "When found, make a note of" 
as regards the exact reference and date. 

Q. V. 

ROYAL BRITISH BANK. When did a 
London bank with this name or something 
very like it, come to a. stop ? And what was 
the cause ? I am under the impression that 
it ceased to exist shortly after the Crimean 
War. G. 

ROBERT GASCOIGNE AND WALTHAMSTOW. 
This forgotten soldier and poet of the 
sixteenth century, so a writer in an old 
volume of Temple Bar tells us, married a 
rich widow, presumably after his return 
from campaigning, and settled down in a 
" poor house at Walthamstow in the Forest. " 
Many of his poems seem to have been written 
in that retreat. But ' Walthamstow in the 
Forest ' is just a trifle vague. Can any 
correspondent identify for us the "poor 
house," which means a cottage, I take it ? 
M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

Percy House, Well Street, South Hackney, E.9 

MATTHEW CARTER. I should be glad to 
learn if any information can be obtained 
about "Matthew Carter, Esq.," author of a 
valuable work on Heraldry, known as 
' Honor redivivus,' and published by " Henry 
Heringman at the Ancker on the lower 
side of the New Exchange " in 1673. This 
appears to be a second edition, and contains 
what I suppose to be a full-page copy of the 
author's coat of arms, which is identical 
with the arms originally granted to a family 
of Carters residing for three or four genera- 
tions in St. Columb, Cornwall, and admitted 
in the 'Visitations ' of 1620 and' 1686. 

I have failed to trace Matthew Carter in 
the pedigree of any of the St. Columb family 
of that name. The first to be mentioned is 
"Richard, s. of Thomas Karter " with 
whom the pedigree begins. He was born on 
Jan. 17, 1540. The last member of the 
family mentioned in the Registers of St. 
Columb is Honor Carter, whose death is 
recorded on Sept. 13, 1691. She was the 






128. Till. FEB. 12, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



eldest of three co-heiresses, who succeeded 
to the Carter property which at one time 
was extensive, and it is a curious circum- 
stance that at the present day the remnants 
of that property are again in the hands of 
three co-heiresses, the daughters of the late 
Wm. Paget Hoblyn, Esq., of Fir Hill, Little 
Oolan, Cornwall, whose ancestor married in 
1683 Mary Carter, the second of the co- 
heiresses previously mentioned. 

G. T. G.-C. 
Barbados. 

HOLLINGWORTH. Frederick Hollingworth 
was admitted to Westminster School in 
1745, aged 9, and John Hollingworth in 
1747, aged 8. Can any correspondent of 
*N. & Q.' help me to identify them ? 

G. F. R. B. 

JOHN MILTON AND THE MILBURNS. I 
have discovered in two branches of the 
descendants of Thomas Milburn of London, 
1801-2-1848, a tradition of descent from the 
poet John Milton. From the published 
accounts of the poet's family, it would seem 
that any relationship must be collateral 
unless the descent is through the Clarkes. 
It is supposed that the maiden name of 
'Thomas Milburn 's mother was Warren. 
I have searched the Milburn wills at Somer- 
set House without definitely ascertaining 
the name of Thomas Milburn 's father. The 
most significant wills are these : 

Rev. Thomas Milburn, Rector of Raworth, 
Essex, signed Aug. 21, 1773, proved London, 
Dec. 6, 1775. Mentions children, Thomas, 
Richard, Charles, and Ann ; also cousins 
William and Thomas Studdart (?) of Burn- 
liam. Leaves property in Wickford, Essex, 
to wife Ann (P.R.C. Alexander, 482). 

Ann Milburn of parish of St. Botolph, 
Aldersgate, London, July 20, 1787, makes 
brother Thomas Milburn her heir (Calvert, 
145). 

Thomas Milburn, sailor, only son of Ann 
Bolt of Wickford, Essex, 1803 (Marriott, 
721). 

Thomas Milburn, sawyer, of Hampton, 
Middlesex, is made administrator of estates 
of father, Thomas Milburn, late of St. 
George's, Hanover Square, and of his 
mother, Elizabeth Milburn j who died before 
she could take out letters of administration 
(Admon. 1777). 

Hannah Milburn, 1821, formerly of East- 
wich Park, near Guilford, Surrey, but 
recently of Lambeth Square, Surrey, men- 
tions brothers William and John and their 
children (Mansfield, 159). 



I have also found the following Milburn 
marriages : 

Thomas Bourton Milburn and Elizabeth 
Wordsworth of St. James at St. George's 
Chapel, Feb. 21, 1750. 

Thomas Milburn of St. Mary White Chapel, 
Middx., w., and Elizabeth Lodge, w., at 
St. Benet Paul's Wharf, Sept. 13, 1745. 

Richard Milburn of St. Ann, Westminster, 
and Elizabeth Ogilvy at St. Edmund's, 
.Sept. 23, 1795. 

In 1812 Thomas Milburn & Co., Wine and 
Spirit Merchants, were at Lloyd's Coffee 
House. From 1818 until 1830, Thomas 
Milburn, wine and spirit broker, was at 
6 Commercial Sales Rooms, Mincing Lane. 

I shall be glad if your readers will give 
me any information that will connect these 
scattered notes, and especially any clue to 
account for the Milton tradition. 

JOSEPH M. BEATTY, JR. 
Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 

"SUCH AS MAKE NO MUSICK. " This 
phrase is used by Jeremy Collier in his 
address ' To the Reader ' in ' An Appendix 
to the Three English Volumes in Folio of 
Morery's Great Historical .... Dictionary .' 
The date of the Appendix is 1721. He writes 
near the end of the address : 

" I am far from Translating the whole Two 

Folio's of the Dutch Supplement For not a 

few Heads in this Holland Impression are bor- 
row'd from the three English Volumes : And as 
for the rest pass'd over, they are foreign Genea- 
logies, lean Subjects, and such as make no 
Musick." 

Was the phrase proverbial ? 

ROBERT PIEBPOINT. . 

THE SENTRY AT POMPEII. There is a 
story of a certain Roman soldier being en 
sentry duty in Pompeii at the time of its 
over -whelming by an eruption of Vesuvius 
and that he died at his post while patiently 
waiting for the change of guard. Who is 
responsible for this story, and has it been 
justified or proved false ? 

ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

IDENTIFICATION OF ARMS. I have a 
wooden carving representing an animal with 
a face like a tapir, knobs on its back 'and 
claws on its feet, seated with a shield sus- 
pended from its neck. The arms on the 
shield are coloured and are Barry of eight or 
and gules, upon the second ten roses of the 
first, 4, 3, 2 and 1, impaling or three annulets 
gules. Whose arms are these ? The im- 
palement is similar to the arms of Hutton. 
WILLIAM GILBERT, F.R.N.S. 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. FEB. 12, 1921. 



^(PITMAN OF QUARLEY, HANTS : ARMS 
SOUGHT. No arms are given in the * Visita- 
tion ' pedigree of 1686. A note states that 
Mr. Pitman promised to produce a sketch 
of his arms, but omitted to do so. 

Edmund Pitman, Recorder of Salisbury, 
a descendant of the Quarley family, who 
died Dec. 18, 1743, bore " two cutlasses in 
saltire argent between four bay leaves vert, 
bladed argent, hilted or, with an annulet 
for difference." 

These arms are not given in Burke, 
nor is there anything similar given in Pap- 
worth. 

I shall be glad to know if the above arms 
are to be found on any bookplate, seal or 
monument, or are given in any work on 
heraldry. 

Authority is also wanted for the following 
crest : Pitman of Wilts *' A dove rising 
volant issuing out of a mural crown." 

H. A. PITMAN. 

65 Cambridge Terrace, W.2. 

ALLIANCES OF ALLEN FAMILY. Frances, 
dau. of Gaynor Barry, of Dormstown, co. 
Meath, married Joshua, fifth Viscount 
Allen. I should be glad to know who were 
the parents of this Gaynor Barry, and what 
arms the family bore. 

The mother of Frances, Viscountess Allen, 
is stated to have been Anne, daughter of the 
Rev. Richard Richards, Rector of Killany, 
co. Monaghan. 

Can any Irish genealogist inform me of the 
name of the rector's wife ? P. D. M 

TAVERN SIGN : THE NEW FOUND OUT. 
Forty years ago, when a frequent visitor to 
Hitchin, I noted in its outskirts an inn with 
this sign. What is its origin ? A. R. 

CURTIS : LATHROP : WILLOUGHBY. Ed- 
ward Curtis lived at Mardyke House, Hot 
Wells, Bristol, about a hundred years ago. 
What family did he belong to ? What 
relation was he to Thomas Curtis (or Curteis) 
Lord Mayor of London in the sixteenth 
century ? His arms (which I remember 
seeing as a child) were of a seafaring nature 
and I think included dolphins and anchors. 

His wife was a Lathrop. Is anything 
known of this family ? Her sister Margaret 
married a clergyman called Allen. Her 
mother was a Willoughby of Gunnersbury 
House, Middlesex (afterwards sold to 
George III. for his daughter Princess 
Amelia). Can any reader give me any in- 
formation about the Willoughbys ? 

W. HAYTHORNE. 

83 Abbey Road Mansions, N.W.8. 



CAPTAIN COOK : MEMORIALS. I shallfbe- 
glad to learn how best I can obtain informa- 
tion and particulars of any memorials 
erected to the great circumnavigator| both 
in Great Britain and in other parts of the 
world. T. H. W. 

COVILL. I should be glad of information 
about the above surname its derivation 
and the history of any families that have 
borne it. . C. B. C. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Who was the author of a 
very able pamphlet called Seasonable Hints from 
an Honest Man on the Present Crisis of a New 
Reign and a new Parliament,' published in London 
in 1761, by "A. Millar in the Strand"? 

W. D. DODWELL. 

167 Iffley Road, Oxford. 

AUTHOR OF QUOTATION WANTED. 

Who wrote the lines : 

And if there be no meeting beyond the grave,. 
If all be darkness, silence ; yet 'tis rest. 
Be not afraid ye waiting hearts that weep ; 
For God still giveth His beloved sleep, 
And if an endless sleep He wills so best. 

And are they correctly quoted ? 

G. B. M. 

[By Henrietta Anne Huxley, wife of Thomas ; 
Henry Huxley. By Huxley's special direction 
the last three lines, which run : 

Be not afraid, ye waiting hearts that weep ; 

For still He giveth His beloved sleep, 

And if an endless sleep He wills, so best, 
were inscribed upon his tombstone.] 



THE WESTERN MISCELLANY. 

(12 S. viii. 11, 56.) 

YOUR correspondent M remarks as a side-- 
issue that either Robert Goadby (1721-1778) 
of Sherborne or his wife was the compiler of 
'The Life and Adventures of Bampfylde 
Moore Carew.' I venture to think that 
neither could have been more than editor,. 
p.s the editio princeps of 1745, in which the 
main facts and incidents already appeared, 
was printed " by the Faiieys for Joseph 
Brew, Bookseller opposite Castle Lane " in 
Exeter. I have sometimes wondered 
whether your correspondent X who at 12 S. 
vii. 166 evinces a* considerable knowledge of 
the Farley family could throw any light on 
the point, but his anonymity prevented 
communication with him. The title of th 
Exeter-printed book is 'The Life and 
Adventures of Bampfylde Moore Carew the 
noted Devonshire Stroller and Dog-stealer, 



i2s.vnT.pjsB.i2.iMi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



&c. ' It is an unvarnished aocount of the 
tricks and ruses of a scoundrel put forth as a 
warning to" the public, the preface stating: 
"... .Whatever were the motives that drew 
from him [Carew] this narrative. .. .the Editor 
would not have brought it to the light had not 
he apprehended that it might be of use to guard 
well-meaning people against ,the impositions of 
the like impostors [i.e., mumpers or gypsies] for 
the future." 

Goadby would then be 24 years of age only 
and, so far as is known, unconnected with 
Exeter. That the mumpers were giving 
trouble at the time is clear from contem- 
porary newspapers, e.g., The Reading Mer- 
cury for Jan. 14, 1745. 

The next issue of the book, the first to 
connect it with Goadby, is undated, but 
was probably the one referred to in the 
Register of Books in The Gent. Mag. for 
October 1749 (p. 480). It will be noticed 
that the title has assumed a bolder form : 
" An Apology for the Life of Bampfylde Moore 
Carew commonly known throughout the West of 
England by the title of King of the Beggars, and 
Dog-Merchant-General. . . .Printed by R. Goadby 
and SoldL by W. Owen, bookseller,* at Temple 
Bar, London." 

New material is incorporated which is 
balanced by some omissions, but the most 
noticeable difference is the change of tone. 
Warnings to the beneficently-minded find 
no place, and in lieu are substituted certain 
specious arguments justifying Carew's mode 
of life. Clearly some one with a turn for 
satire had revised the book. 

The next or third edition, bearing dete at 
the end of the preface of Feb. 10, 1750, was 
much enlarged, and the work is for the first 
time broken up into chapters. The imprint 
now becomes " Printed for R. Goadby and 
W. Owen, Bookseller, at Temple Bar.'" Of 
added matter is a footnote to p. 313 con- 
taining a depreciatory remark on Fielding's 
'Tom Jones ' which, but for the event, 
would pass unnoticed. 

The next edition is announced in The 
Whitehall Evening Post, Nov. 12 to 14, 
1751 : 

" This day was published in a pocket volume, 
neatly printed, the second edition, with consider- 
able additions and a Dedication to Justice 
Fielding, An Apology for the Life of Mr. Bamp- 
fylde Moore Carew who has been for more than 
twenty-eight years past, and is at this time, the 

King of the Beggars With a parellel drawn 

between Mr. B. M. C. and Tom Jones printed 

for R. Goadby in Sherburn, and W. Owen at 
Temple Bar." ' 

By calling this "the second edition " the 
j editio princeps and the edition of 1749 
: appear to be disavowed, which probably 



caused the Exeter origin of the book to be- 
ultimately forgotten. 

The text of this 1751 edition was greatly 
altered, the narrative, including a long 
dedication, being made subservient to 8r 
rancorous attack on Fielding as opportunity 
offered. In this form it ran through many 
editions, the last two, of which I possess 
copies, being the eighth of 1768, and the 
ninth of 1775. 

Even if it be supposed that Mr. or Mrs. 
Goadby recast the 1749 and 1750 editions 
it is difficult to believe that they were con- 
cerned in the book, other than financially ,- 
when it became a professed attack on 
Fielding. In 1751 Fielding had many 
enemies in London quite ready enough to 
assist Owen who, in fact, published in that 
year an ' Examen of Tom Jones,' a malicious- 
criticism of the novel. 

It was not uncommon at that period for 
books sold in London to be printed in the 
country. In 1766 the first edition of 
Goldsmith's ' Vicar of Wakefield ' pub- 
lished by Xewbery of Pater Noster Row 
was printed by B. Collins in Salisbury. 

In 1782 an edition of the Apology ' 
was produced by J. and R. Tonson and 
other London publishers 

"omitting the parallel between Mr. Carew 

and Tom Jones The remarks on Mr. Fielding's 

performance being so very ill-natured and appeared 
much more like private pique than candid criti- 
cism." 

There is one point that gives secret satis- 
faction to those with friendly feelings 
towards Fielding. One of Carew's victims 
was Mrs. Rhodes of Kingsbridge from whom 
the arch villain obtained money by false- 
pretences. Had Fielding's detractors only 
known that this lady, as Sarah Andrew, had 
been his first love what scurrility they would 
have indulged in ! 

One word in praise of the book. It is 
invaluable to the topographer. The frauds 
of the itinerant were practised over so wide 
an area that he obtained an extensive and 
detailed knowledge of places in, and a wide 
acquaintance with the inhabitants of, Devon, 
Somerset, Dorset, Hampshire and Cornwall, 
and to such purpose that the work may 
not inaptly be called a Georgian Kelly's 
Directory of those counties. 

In 1810 Thomas Price, of Poole in Devon,, 
had access to Carew's journals which were 
then said to be in the possession of his^ 
family. Are these still extant ? 

J. PAUL DE CASTBO. 

1 Essex Court, Temple. 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.viii. FEB. 12, 1921. 



The British Museum contains no copy of 
& Western Miscellany, nor does the Tercen- 
tenary Handlist refer to such a magazine. 
The Weekly Miscellany and Weekly Enter- 
tainer of Sherborne are correctly described 
in it. They are two distinct periodicals, not 
one and the same. Vol v. of the Weekly 
Miscellany, printed by " R. Goadby," 
pp. 1-660, began on Oct. 2, 1775 and ended 
-on Mar. 25, 1776. 

Vol. iii. of the Weekly Entertainer (the 
earliest at the British Museum) began with 
page 1 on Jan. 5, 1784. It was printed by 
M R. Goadby and Co." X. 

TERRESTRIAL GLOBES (12 S. viii 69). 
^Globes have been known, as Prof. E. Raven- 
-stein has pointed out, from, at least, the 
latter part of the thirteenth century, Cam- 
pano having written and published 1261-4 
a 'Tractatus de Sphera Solida ' in which he 
describes the manufacture of globes in 
J wood and metal. 

Thomas Hood published several works on 
nautical matters and amongst them ' The 
Use of both the Globes, Celestial and Terres- 
trial,' &c., in 1592. In 1594 Robertus Hues 
published a ' Tractatus de Globes et eorum 
Usu, accommodatus us qui Londini editi 
fiunt anno 1593, &c.' In the same year, 
1594, M. Blundevile published a treatise on 
the subject and dedicated it to " all young 
gentlemen of this realm." In 1659 Joseph 
3Moxon, hydrographer to the king published 
'A Tutor to Astronomie, &c., or an easy and 
speedy way to know the use of both the 
Globes, Celestial and Terrestial.' Similar 
treatises were published by W. Fisher in 
1680. 

In 1703 John Harris published a descrip- 
tion and " Uses " of both Globes which was 
issued again, revised, by Joseph Harris, 
third edition, 1734. This last was printed 
'by Thomas Wright, who, in the advertise- 
ment, announced that he had made large 
Orrerys for noblemen and small ones for 
schools, and by E. Cushee who described 
himself as " Globe maker, &c." 
* The writer has a pair .which measure 
3 in. in diameter and date from about 1800, 
-and one large one dated 1799. H. HANNAN. 

West Farleigb. 

A sixteenth-century globe was offered 
for sale in Munich in 1903 (Geographical 
.Journal, xxii., November, 1903, p. 573). 
Revue de Geographic, xxxvii., September, 
1895, p. 175, is also quoted in the note. 

J. ARDAGH. 



ZELLA TRELAWNY (12 S. viii. 88). See 
"Deaths " in The Times of May 11, 1906. 
Zella Trelawny Olguin, widow of Joseph 
Olguin, M.R.C.S., and daughter of John 
Edward Trelawny, died at Hove, Sussex, 
on May 8, 1906. The Times, on Mar. 27, 
1912, recorded the death on Mar. 26, at 
Streatham, of Joseph Trelawny Olguin, 
Trelawny 's grandson, aged 56. He had 
been manager of the River Plate Gas 
Company, Buenos Ayres. 

STEPHEN WHEELER. 

Oriental Club, Hanover Square. 

' MRS. DRAKE REVIVED ' (12 S. viii. 88). 
The book referred to is 

" The Firebrand taken out of the Fire ; Or,. 
The Wonderfull History, Case and Cure of M is 
Drake, sometimes the wife of Francis Drake 

of Esher Esq." (London, 1647, 1654, ar.d 

1782.) 

The secondary title is ' Trodden downe 
Strength, or, Mrs. Drake Revived.' It is 
a pitiable tale of a lady (Miss Joan Tothill) 
married against her will, who fell into 
melancholy and occasional hysterics, and 
was only released from them by death. Xo 
fewer than six divines interested themselves 
in the case, namely Mr. Dod (probably John 
Dod of Jesus College, Cambridge, d. 1645) ; 
Archbishop Ussher ; John Forbes (the pastor 
at Middelburg, d. 1634), who, after a " tough 
dispute," was quite out-matched by her ; 
Robert Bruce (of Edinburgh, d. 1631), who 
composed a ' ' patheticall speech" for the 
lady to address to Satan, here printed in 
full (in which the addressee is soundly 
trounced) ; Thomas Hooker, who subse- 
quently went to New England : and Dr. 
John Preston, afterwards Master of Em- 
manuel College, Cambridge (d. 1628). One 
" thundering preacher, Mr. [John] Rogers of 
Dedham " (d. 1636) wisely declined to inter- 
fere in any way. John Dod was the most 
persistent tormentor, being in and out of 
the house from the first, until at last after 
some ecstatic visions the poor woman died 
quietly. It may be doubted whether her 
husband used judicious measures to cure 
the melancholy, for when Mistress Drake 
heard Mr. Dod coming and flew upstairs to 
her room and locked the door, Mr. -Drake 
" took tie great iron forke in his hand, and 
run up after her, threatning to beat down the 
door." 

As to Mr. Bruce, she 

" now having a fit person to rough hew her 
(as it were), whom she could neither weary out 
nor over-come in Argument. .. .there every 
way fell out strong disputes betwixt thexn...^ 
Satan delighting still to rase new uprores in her.' 



12 s. vin. FEB. 12, 1921] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



The poor thing, when she came to die 
*' caused herself to be dressed from top tc 
toe all in white," as a bride. Your readers 
have now probably had enough, and A. T. M 
too. The occurrences must all have taken 
place about 1610-20, at Esher in Surrey 
.{where Mr. Drake was patron of the living 
except that the last few weeks were spent 
&t Shardeloes, near Amersham, where she 
'was buried. 

The first edition is *'by Hart On-hi,' 
i.e., John Hart, who is nowhere mentioned 
*he others are anonymous. All three edi- 
tions are in the British Museum, under 
Hart's name. FAMA. 

Oxford. 

The late Sir W. R. Drake, F.S.A., notes 
in his * Devonshire Notes and Notelets ' : 

" It is this Mrs. Joan Drake, whose peculiar 
melancholia is narrated in a curious and rare 
pamphlet printed in 1647, intituled ' Trodden - 
down Strength, by the God of Strength, or Mrs. 
Drake revived ; shewing her strange and rare case 
great and many uncouth afflictions for some 
years together ; together with the strange and 
wonderful manner how the Lord revealed himself 
Tin to her a few days before her death.' Her 
husband appears to have considered that his 
wife's disease was more fitted for the care of 
learned Divines than of Physicians, as he called 
to his aid to preach to her several church cele- 
brities, including the Rev. John Dod, and the 
Eev. Mr. Hooker. It is recorded by Manning 
and Bray ( * Hist, of Surrey,' fo., vol. ii. p. 746, 
note) that Mrs. Drake when dying caused herself 
to be dressed in white, like a bride, and desired 
to be so buried, which was done." 

CAREY P. DRAKE. 
Yat tendon. 

"THE ASHES" (12 S. viii. 110). It is 
astonishing what a number of inaccurate 

1 .and misleading statements have appeared 
in print respecting the origin of this term 

i in relation to the cricket matches between 

i English and Australian teams. For ex- 
ample, soir.e twenty years ago that eminent 

I cricketer, Mr. P. F. Warner, brought out a 
hook entitled 'How we recovered the 
Ashes." It was originally published by 
v'.hapman & Hall and subseqiiently in a 
cheaper form by George Newnes in 1905. 
The epitaph which created "The Ashes" 
figured as a frontispiece to this book, and 
it was stated to have appeared in Punch. 
That, so far as I know, started the mis- 
, apprehension. 

In The Morning Post of the 22nd ult. 
a paragraph appearecj, commencing, "It 
jwas our old friend, 'Mr. Punch,' who in- 
| vented the * Ashes ' " ; and now, I observe 



from the editorial footnote to ANXIOUS 
ENQUIRER that the Intelligence Depart- 
ment of The Times attributes the ~ his- 
torical epitaph to The Sporting Life. 

The truth of the matter is as follows. 
On Aug. 29, 1882, a memorable match at the 
Oval terminated by Murdoch's Australian 
team defeating the English Eleven by 
seven runs. Four days later, viz., in its 
issue of Sept. 2, The Sporting Times printed 
the following epitaph with a black- edged 
border : 

Jn Affectionate Remembrance 

of 

ENGLISH CRICKET 

Which died at the Oval on 29th August, 1882. 

Deeply lamented by a large circle of sorrowing 

friends and acquaintances. 

R.I.P. 
N.B. The body will be cremated and the Ashes 

taken to Australia. 

In the autumn of 1882 the Hon. Ivo Bligh 
(now Lord Darnley) took out a team to 
Australia. They played in all 17 matches. 
They won 9, lost 3, and 5 were drawn. Of 
these, 4 were called test matches and each 
team won two apiece. Anyhow, our eleven 
were deemed to have recovered the " Ashes " 
in that season, for the ladies of Australia 
presented Mr. Bligh with a little urn con- 
taining them which now reposes in his 
smoking room at Cobham Hall, Kent. A 
picture of it recently appeared in The Daily 
Mail as well as in one of the illustrated 
weeklies. WLLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

"RIGGES" AND "GRANPOLES" (12 S. 
viii. 71). These names which occur in an 
enumeration of "royal fishes," temp. 
harles II. are referable to two kinds of 
shark. "Rig," commonly known to sea- 
coast fishermen nowadays as "Tope " and 
'Toper," a widely distributed species, is 
Galeus vulgaris. " Granpole," i.e., big-head, 
is the Basking Shark (Selache maxima] our 
argest British fish, locally known as the 
' broad-headed gazer. ' ' Both are well figured 
>y Couch and Day in their respective works 
on British fishes. 

In August, 1917, I received a photograph 

f a large basking shark which had been 

recently captured off Carradale, Kintyre, 

and was labelled "Broad-headed Gazer." 

This established its identity. The dimen- 

iions were not given, but the length of 

inother specimen from the Isle of Wight 

preserved in the British Museum (Nat. 

Hist.) was ascertained to be 28 ft. 10 in., 

he length of its huge head being 6 ft. 10 in. 

J. E. HARTIXG. 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEE, 12, 1021. 



PAUL MARNY (12 S. viii. 88). The 
following very fine pictures by this artist 
are still in my collection : 

(a) Tournay. 

(6) Tremouille Hotel, Paris. 

(c) Brighton Sands. My late father 
(Thomas Hughes, F.S.A., of Chester) had 
two others which he sold : 

(d) Fecamp Abbey. 

(e) Pont L'Eveque. 

Marny used to reside at Scarborough, but> 
if living, must be a very old man. 

T. CANN HUGHES, M.A., F.S.A. 
Lancaster. 

Paul Marny was a Frenchman by birth, 
but spent most of his life at Scarborough, 
where he died 1914, aged 85. He was first 
employed at the Sevres China works as a 
decorator. Early in life he came to Scar- 
borough and annually visited the Continent 
to secure views and sketches. 

E. E. LEGGATT. 

62 Cheapside, E.C.2. 

LADY ANNE GRAHAM (12 S. viii. 70, 116). 
I doubt if her husband could have proved 
his descent from the Crahams of Dalkeith. 
That family ended in the middle of the 
fourteenth century in two heiresses, one of 
whom married into the Douglas family 
who held the estate until 1642 or so, when 
it was acquired by the Scotts who still hold 
it. It is Lady Anne's own history that is 
'wanted, 1 know. But if one was sure who 
her husband was it ,.night simplify matters. 
J. L. ANDERSON. 

Edinburgh. 

MORGAN PHILLIPS OR PHILLIP MORGAN 
(12 S. viii.91). ' Alumni Oxonienses ' gives 
the following : 

" Morgan Philipps, died 1570 ; Catholic Divine ; 
native of Monmouthshire ; entered Oxford, 1533; 
Bector of Cuddington, Oxford, 1543 ; Principal 
of St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, 1545-6." 

MR. WILLIAMS may be able to identify 
him as being a member of the family of 
Morgan Wolf alias Philips, mentioned in 
Lyson's ' Environs ' as being the owners 
of the manors of Little Ilford, Leyton anc 
Woodford, in Essex in 1541. 

A genealogy of this family is given in the 
Visitation of Essex, under the name of 
Morgan Wolf of Gwerne (which I take to be 
a shortened form of Gwernesney, in Mon 
mouthshire). Two generations are referrec 
to in the genealogy as Philip Morgan 
whereas Lysons calls them Morgan Philips. 
WALTER H. PHILLIPS. 



Gillow in his ' Biographical Dictionary of" 
nglish Catholics,' vol. v. p. 303, says : 

" Morgan Phillips, divine, a native of Mon- 
mouthshire, and nephew of Henry Morgan, the 
ast Catholic bishop of St. David's, entered the 
Jniversity of Oxford in or about 1533, where, 
Wood says, ' he was commonly called Morgan 
he sophist er.' He was elected a fellow of Oriel! 
College, Apr. 17, 1538. He was rector of Cud- 
dington, principal of St. Mary's Hall, and one of 
he triumviri who publicly disputed agairst Peter 
Martyr. In 1549 he was presented to the vicarage 
f St. Winnock, Pembrokeshire. Through con- 
scientious motives he resigned his principalship 
of St. Mary's Hall in 1550 and shortly after the 
restoration of religion in 1553 he became pre- 
centor of St. David's Cathedral. Upon the 
accession of Elizabeth he was deprived ard with- 
drew to Louvain. In the autumn of 1567 he set 
out on a pilgrimage to Rome in the company of 
lis former pupil, William Allen, and of Dr.- 
Vendeville. He co-operated with Allen in 
establishing tb,e College at Douay, resided there 
! rom its opening until his death, Aug. 18, 1570_ 
To Douay he left his' whole property." 

Gillow gives as sources for an account of 
his life : Bliss, Wood's ' Athen. Oxon.' ; 
Dodd, ' Ch. Hist.,' i. ; Foster, * Alum. 
Oxon.' ; Records of Eng. Caths. i., xxv.? 
xxx. i., 3, 5 ; Lewis, * Sanders Angl. Schism '; 
Bridgewater, ' Concertatio,' 1594, 404b. 

RORY FLETCHER. 

According to the 'D.N.B.,' which gives- 
his surname as Philipps or Philippes, he was 
a native of Monmouthshire. He cannot r 
strictly speaking, be called a founder of the 
English College at Douav. When Dr.- 
William Allen started the College in 1568 
he had four English students of theology r 
and two Belgian. The writer of the First 
Diary, after recording their names, says : 

" Huic porro coetui continenter se adjuiixit 
D. Morgan us Philippus, venerabilis sacerdos, 
quondam ejusdem Alani in Universitate Oxoniensfc 
praeceptor, nunc vero ejus in hoc sancto opere et 
vivus coadjutor et moriens insignis benefactor." 
Then writing of the year 1570, he says : 

" Mortem, obiit eodem. anno die 18 August, 
praefatus Dominus Morganus Philippus, qur 
testamento suo D. Alanum unicum omnium 
suorum temporalium bonorum constituit haere- 
dem, bonam ei pecuniarum summam reliquens " 
(see T. F. Knox, ' Douay Diaries ' (London, 1878) r 
pp. 3, 5). 

Morgan Philipps took the degree of M.A. 
at Oxford in 1542, and was B.D. before 
1546. He became Precentor of St. David's 
in 1554, and held two prebends at Exeter, 
and the livings of Harberton, Devon, and 
St. Winnocks, Pembrokeshire. He was de- 
prived of all these preferments soon after the 
accession of Queen Elizabeth, and was ; 



12 s. viii. FEE, i2 s 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



succeeded at St. David's in 1559, at Hars- 
berton in 1560, and in his two prebends at 
Exeter in 1561 and 1562 respectively. He 
was nephew to Henry Morgan, Bishop of St. 
David's, and is often called Philip Morgan 
(Wood's ' Fast.,' i. 105), under which name 
he occurs in S. P. Dom. Add. Eliz., 1 
xi. 45, in which paper he is supposed to be 
in Herefordshire, but had probably already 
fled to Louvain. JOHN B. WATNTSWBIGHT. 

PIGUETJIT (CAESAB AND DANBY) (12 S. 
iv. 218). It seems probable that these are 
two descriptions of the same boy, as I find 
Caesar Danby Piguenit (not Pigueuit), a 
bookseller, living or carrying on business in 
1774 in Berkeley Square (Westminster Poll 
Book) and in 1791 at 8 Aldgate (Directory). 
J. B. WHITMORE. 

PROBLEM OF VAGRANCY IN THE EIGH- 
TEENTH CENTURY (12 S. viii. 81). Denys 
Rolle's complaint that "the expenditure for 
removals and on litigation for settlements 
would suffice for a grea't deal more than the 
real wwits of the Poor " finds weighty 
support in Henry Fielding's ' Enquiry into 
the Causes of the late Increase of Robbers,' 
1751, where, in section 6, he remarks : 

" The several Acts of Parliament relating to the 
settlement, or rather removal of the poor, though 
very imperfectly executed, are pretty generally 
known, the nation having paid some millions 
to Westminster Hall for a knov/ledge of them." 

J. P. DE C. 

SPENCER TURNER (12 S. viii. 91). 
Turner's oak (Quercus Turner i], reputed to be 
a hybrid between the evergreen ilex and the 
English oak, was. raised, says Mr. W. J. 
Bean of Kew, in Spencer Turner's nursery 
at Hollo way Down in the latter half of the 
eighteenth century. HERBERT MAXWELL. 

Monreith. 

MAUNDRELL'S JOURNEY FROM ALEPPO 
TO JERUSALEM, 'EASTER, 1697 (12 S. viii. 89). 
According to Brunet's 'Manuel': 

"L'Excellente relation du voyage d Henry 
Maundrell d'Aleppo a Jerusalem A.D. 1697, fut 
imprimee pour la premiere tois a Oxford tn. 1699, 
in 8 " 

H. KREBS. 

The first edition of this book was pub- 
lished at the Theater, Oxford, in 1703, and 
3 followed by others in 1707, '14, '21, 
'32, '40, '49, 1800, '10, '11, '12, '47,, and '48 ; 
the third, fourth, and tenth editions, pub- 
lished in 1714, '21, and 1821 respectively, 
have additional journeys described, and the 



Travels ' have been included in collected 
editions such as Harris, Moore and Pinker- 
ton's Collections of Voyages and Travels. 
It is also completely reprinted in Bohn's 
collection of 'Early Travels in Palestine,' 
1848. I can find no record of a ninth 
edition. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

NORTONS IN IRELAND (12 S. viii. 50). 
I think it probable that one of the Nortons 
of Southwick settled in Ireland. A cousin 
of theirs, Capt. John WMtehead, third son 
of Col. Richard Whitehead of West Tytherley, 
Hants, was living in Wicklow in 1688, and 
it is possible that he went over to Ireland in 
company with Norton relations. Both 
families were staunch Parliamentarians, the 
Whiteheads certainly up to the date of the 
Seclusion. If your correspondent were to 
trace the Whiteheads in Wicklow, he might 
obtain some information as to Nortons, and 
I should be glad to hear from him thereon. 
I suppose he is aware that the large estates 
of the Nortons of Southwick devolved upon 
the Whiteheads of Tytherley, on the death 
of the last Rd. Norton. 

BENJAMIN WHITEHEAD. 

2 Brick Court, Temple, E.C.4. 

WILLIAM HOLDER (12 S. viii. 90). There 
is a tablet in the parish church of St. James 
in the Island of Barbados, recording the 
deaths of the 

" Hon William Holder, li Aug., 1706, aged 48 ; 
Mrs. Susanna his wife, 12 March, 1725, aged 57 ; 
William their grandson, 14 Aug., 1752, aged 31 ; 
who were all buried at the family estate of Black- 
rock." 

The vault may be still seen in a cane 
piece near the house, and on the white 
marble slab is an inscription as above, but 
with the addition of 

" Mrs. Eliz., wife of above William., died in 
England, 19 June, 1783, buried at Hinton in 
Somersetshire." 

It is obvious that the grandson was the 
Westminster boy. In his will dated Aug. 13, 
1752, sworn Oct. 17, 1752, and proved 
Feb. 1, 1753 [P.C.C. 47 Searle] he named 
his mother Mary Ashley, his wife Eliz., and 
devised Hillaby plantation to his son 
William, and Blackrock to his son James, 
both sons to be sent to England at the age 
of nine. They were accordingly entered at 
Eton in 1759 and later at Oxford. Elizabeth 
the widow died in King Square, Bristol. 
Will [359 Cornwallis]. In the churchyard 
of the parish of St. Philip, Barbados, is a 
slab with a Jacobean shield bearing crest : 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vin.FKB.i2, 1021. 



out of a coronet a lion sejant. Arms : 
Argent, between three griffins segreant a bar 
indented, and inscription to John Holder, 
Esq., died Mar. 22, 1724, aged 31. He was 
probably the missing father. The above 
coat is apparently that of a family in Cam- 
bridgeshire, whose pedigree was in the 
'Visitation ' of 1619. The first immigrants 
seem to have been Melatia Holder, who 
became agent for the island in Londom, 
where he cl. in 1706 s.p.m. Will [147 Eedes]. 
John. Holder (I think his brother) was of 
St. Joseph's parish in 1666, owner of 
400 acres in 1673, will recorded in the 
island office in 1,684. 

These local wills I have not seen. 



Sunninghill. 



V. L. OLIVEB, F.S.A. 



THE TTJRLTTPINS (TTJRBULINES) (12 S. 
viii. 90). Possibly this is a late variation of 
Turlupins of whom T. Williams in ' A 
Dictionary of All Religions,' third London 
edition, date of preface, 1823, writes : 

" A sect of enthusiasts, which appeared about 
the year 1372, in Savoy and Daupbiny. They 
taught, that when a man is arrived at a certain 
state of perfection, he is freed from all subjection 
to the divine law, which we call Antinomianism. 
John Debantonne was the author of this de- 
nomination. Some think they were called Tur- 
lupins, because they usually abode in desolate 
places, exposed to wolves, lupi." 

' A New General English Dictionary ' 
begun by Thomas Dyche, finished by 
William Pardon, tenth edition, 1758, gives 
a very similar account of their tenets, adding 
that they held 

" That God was to be applied to only by 
mental prayer. They practised the most ob- 
scene matters in publick, and went naked both 
men and women, and yet to recommend them- 
selves, they pretended to extraordinary degrees 
of spirituality and devotion. They called them- 
selves the fraternity of the poor ; Dauphiny and 
Savoy were the principal places they appeared in, 
whence by a severe punishment they were also 
quickly extirpated." 

Landais in his ' Grand Dictionnaire,' four- 
teenth edition, 1862, in the complement says 
that the Turlupins issued from the Vaudois 
of the Dauphine, and were mostly to be 
found in the Netherlands. Under the 
orders of Charles V. of France most of those 
in France were burnt. 

According to the ' Dictionnaire des Dates,' 
1845, the sect was excommunicated by 
Pope Gregory XI. in 1372. 

Landais quotes the proverb " Malheureux 
comme turlupins." 



Le Roux de Lincy in ' Le Livre des Pro- 
verbes Fra^ais,' second edition, 1859,. 
vol. ii. p. 66, writes of them as "heretics of. 
the sect of the Vaudois," and gives, appar- 
ently as quoted by Ducange, s.v., " Tur- 
lupini," an ancient verse chronicle : 
L'an MCCCLXXII je vous dis tout pour voir 
Furent les Turlupins condamnes a ardoir. 

He also gives the proverb, "Enfant de* 
Turlupin, malheureux de nature." He says* 
nothing about any indecent practices. 

Landais (quoted above) says that the 
Turlepins were also called " Begards " ; 
Boyer in his ' Dictionnaire Francois- Anglois,' 
1748, says that they were called also 
" Fraticelli. " Begards according to Landais- 
were sectaries, partisans of an extreme per- 
fection who later permitted all excesses. 

The Turlupins were very possibly much 
the same in their tenets and practices as the- 
Vaudois and the Fraticelli. Bayle in his 
Dictionary English translation, 1710 r 
p. 1360 gives stories of the Fraticelli attri- 
buting to them worse excesses than t hose- 
told of the Turlupins, but at the same time 
quotes " an illustrious Protestant " (Du 
Plessis) who denies that the Fraticelli were- 
guilty of enormities. Apparently they were- 
very active heretics. 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

In his 'Hussite Wars' (p. 117), Count 
Liitzow states that the direct fore-runners 
of the Adamites were the " so-called Tur- 
lupins " in France. He shows that the- 
Turlupin doctrines passed to Austria, thence- 
to Bohemia, early in the fourteenth century. 
Opponents of the Hussites puiposely con- 
fused them with the Adamites, but the grim 
general, Jan Zizka, destroyed a number of 
the former near Tabor. The writer knows 
the Hussite stronghold Tabor, with the- 
baptismal pond "Jordan," and the pretty 
valley of the Luzhnitsa, where these mis- 
guided folk tried to establish a "garden of 
Eden." FRANCIS P. MARCHANT. 

The sect meant are certainly the Turlupins- 
who were especially active in France in the 
reign of Charles V. Robert Gaguin men- 
tions them briefly in the ninth book of his 
'Compendium super Francorum gestis/ 
There is an account of the heresy in the 
ScharT-Herzog 'Religious Encyclopaedia,' ed. 
1909. See also H. C. Lea's 'History of the 
Inquisition,' vol. ii. pp. 126 and 158. 
"Turlupins" was apparently a nickname,, 
the origin of which is uncertain. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 



12 s. vm. FEB. 12, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



139 



LEIGH HUNT (12 S. viii. 91 ). The ' Dirge 
does not appear in the later (3 vol.) edition 
(1901-3) of 'Chambers's Cyclopaedia of 
English Literature.' 

H. M. CHARTERS MACPHERSON. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club, Pall Mall, S.W.I 

AUTHOR OF QUOTATION WANTED. 

(12 S. viii. 91.) 

In reply to L.H.P., the first quotation " My 
hold of the colonies," &c. is from Burke's famous 
speech on the American question. It is wel 
worth study to-day 

G. A. H. SAMUEL, Cadet Major (ret.). 



0n 



Studies in Islamic Poetry. By Reynold Alleyne 
Nicholson. (Cambridge University Press, 
1 6s. net.) 

DR. NICHOLSON, in his Preface, tells us that 
these Studies, written during the war, grew out 
of a wish to impart some things he had enjoyed 
in Arabic and Persian not only to fellow-students 
but also to others who, without being specialists, 
are interested in the literature and philosophy 
of the East. We should like to extend the range 
of his appeal. His work, we hope, will serve to 
arouse interest in readers to whom Arabic and 
Persian literature have so far been a closed book. 
When one considers how old, and widely ramified, 
and deep-penetrating, is the connection between 
England and the East it is curious how tittle 
present to the ordinary cultivated Englishman 
are Eastern letters and Eastern thought. Their 
existence, just beyond his visible horizon, is 
known : but they cannot be said in more than a 
few cases even to form an indistinct background 
uiioii any quarter of it. This is doubly to be 
regretted first, because whatever is not thus 
within the horizon of the average educated person, 
will fail to be really operative in national opinion 
.end action; and secondly, because Oriental litera- 
ture illustrates the human spirit in a manner 
that we cannot properly afford to ignore, whether 
we seek letters for enjoyment or for instruction. 
To those who either know nothing of the subject, 
or whose ideas upon it have been merely filtered 
t' them through Western romantic versions of 
Eastern story in verse or prose, this book may 
be emphatically recommended. 

The first chapter is a study of the most ancient 

! literary compilation in Persian, the ' Lubab ' 

; of Muhammad 'Awfi, of which the text, edited by 

i'rof. Browne, was pxiblished in 1903-1906. The 

'"mpiler flourished in the latter half of the 

twelfth century appearing to us but a vague 

re, yet of true Oriental lineaments. He came 

in>m Bukhara, lived as a wandering scholar, and 

travelling into India played his part at the courts 

of Xasiru'ddin Qubacha of Sind, and then of 

lUtatmish. 

The ' Lubab ' is valuable almost solely as an 

inthology though it cor tains also notices and 

lyrics of poets, and what the writer intended 

hould count as history and biography. As an 

inthology it is a perfect treasure-house wherein 



,are to be found, ranged in chronological order,- 
specimens of the work of poets belonging to five 
dynasties and covering a period of about four 
hundred years (A.D. 820-c. 1220). 

The poems fall into four main types of which 
the ghozal and the quatrain will probably awake 
old echoes in most readers' minds. A* certain 
number of the latter love poems and mystical 1 
pieces are not merely interesting, but beautiful* 
and worth making a permanent possession. Dr.- 
Nicholson's renderings are deft and happy 
best perhaps, in epigram, but meritorious also hi' 
longer pieces by a certain slight but well-calculated 1 ' 
aloofness from the tone of ordinary English verse ,- 
echoing, thus, as nearly as is possible, the original 
untranslatable tone. In general, the level of the 
work as poetry is not actually of the highest, and 
Dr. Nicholson, to make the account true and 
complete, has included some examples of worth- 
less and fulsome panegyric. The qasido the 
form of verse largely employed for panegyric 
is, in its rhyming system, of a hopeless difficulty 
in English. The opening couplet rhymes and 
this rhyme has to be repeated at the end of the 
second hemistich of each succeeding couplet 
throughout the poem. Dr. Nicholson has con- 
trived to give a short English illustration. 

A work of greater interest both as to matter 
and as to form is dealt with in the second chapter- 
on the ' Meditations ' of Ma'arri. Ma'arri him- 
self, whether he kindle indignation or sympathy,- 
arrests the imagination. Blind from his child- 
hood, as a consequence of small-pox, he spent 
the first years of his youth in strenuous study iri 
the chief towns of Syria, and the next fifteen 
years in work and poverty at Ma'arra, his native^' 
town. Then, having made such a reputation 
for learning as would ensure his honourable 
reception in the great city, he journeyed to 
Baghdad to try his fortune there. He met with 
praise, indeed, but with so little support that 
after a sojourn of but eighteen months, he 
returned to Syria bitter at heart, and having his 
bent towards pessimism confirmed by the rankling 
of injured pride. For about fifty years he lived in 
retirement, but a retirement in which he not only 
worked out his great poem the ' Luziuniyyat,' 
but likewise dictated many works on learned 
ubjects and taught a throng of scholars. 

Dr. Nicholson gives a detailed and lucid account 
of the metres used in the ' Luzi'imiyyat.' Illus- 
tration of these in English cannot be attempted so 
far as rhyme is concerned, but, rhyme being aban- 
doned, we are supplied with examples of the 
schemes of the four principal metres hi English, 
and also what is still better for the purpose, 
since the metres are quantitative in Latin. 

He gives 332 excerpts from the work, some in 
unrhymed verse of the form of the original, others 
n ordinary English metres rhymed or unrhymed. 
EEere, again, he is to be congratulated on having 
achieved considerable success. Ma'arri, in these 
versions, we speak of the cumulative impression 
made by a careful reading of all that is given 
lere appears in a sufficiently true reflection of 
limself , as a poet, but a poet whose depth of 
hough t and amazing skill lack the last touch 
>f genius which fuses and irradiates ; as a thinker,- 
mt one whose pre-occupation with poetry of 
peat technical difficulty, has deflected his mind 
rom the highest or central way of pure philo- 
sophy. 



140 



NOTES AND QUERIES. i[i2s. vm.FEB.i2, 1921. 



" The pessimism of the ' Luziim,' says Dr. 
^Nicholson, " wears the form of an intense per- 
vading darkness, stamping itself on the mind 
and deeply affecting the imagination." This 
expresses very happily the special quality of 
Ma'arri. The whole work looks towards death : 
and meanwhile, the chafing captive of life, like 
all those whose thoughts are chiefly expectant, 
whose attitude is that of waiting, has a strange 
and vivid consciousness of time. In poetry so 
resolutely abstract as these ' Meditations ' one is 
not surprised that figures should be few : and 
therefore the instances of a figurative present- 
ment of time are the more striking. Like many 
Eastern writers Ma'arri has a special consciousness 
or apprehension of the passage and alternation of 
night and day the two strong youths that drag 
him deathwards. Our perversity in lighting up 
the darkness of night, and living in it so largely, 
has no doubt blunted us to the simple majesty of 
the "endless file." (It is interesting, by the way, 
to note that Emerson, in his fine lines on the 
"hypocritic Days" turns, as if by some instinct, 
to the East for "his imagery they come, he says, 
-" muffled and dumb like barefoot Dervishes.") 

Dr Nicholson's account of Ma'arri's philosophy 
leaves nothing to be desired. The writer of these 
lines would suggest that the full quality of that 
philosophy might best be savoured by means of a 
contrast by reading, in companionship with the 

* Luziim,' some western work of about equal value 
and authority on kindred subjects. 'The Tus- 
culan Disputations,' perhaps, would serve as well as 

an y the more instructively because the political 

disturbances of the close of the Roman Republic 
may well compare with the disturbances of 
Ma'arri's day and people in so far as concerns 
their probable effect on a cultivated man's esti- 
mate of the value of life. If the East cherishes a 
joie de mourir in place of the much-vaunted joie 
de vivre, there remains the curious fact that 
pessimism of this " intense pervading darkness " 
has a stimulating quality which is absent from 
the petulant or half-hearted pessimism more 
usual in the West. 

The Oxfordshire Record Series. Vol II., Parochial 
Collections of Anthony a Wood and Richard 
Rawlinson (first part). Edited by the Rev. 
F. N. Davis, B.A., B.Litt. (Oxford, issued 
for the Society, 1920.) 

THIS is the second volume issued by the Oxford- 
shire Record Society, founded in 1919 for printing 
documents relating to the history of the county. 
'The first volume, issued last year, was the Chantry 
Certificates and Edwardian Inventories of Church 
goods. The present volume adds another in- 
teresting collection of documents relating to 
Oxfordshire churches and parishes. The tran- 
scription has been made by the learned general 
editor of the series from several manuscript 
volumes preserved in the Bodleian Library and 
in the British Museum. The earlier collections 
are the work of Anthony a Wood (1632-95), the 
latter of Richard Rawlinson (1690-1755), the 
well-known antiquaries. In the present issue the 
notes have been arranged under the parishes in 
alphabetical order, and when complete they will 
probably extend to three volumes. This volume 

covers the parishes- Adderbury to Cuxham. 
Besides many details ae to the ownership of the 



principal estates and various other information, 
the notes are very valuable as forming a con- 
temporary account of monuments and inscriptions 
in the parish churches, not a few of which have 
since perished. Oxfordshire antiquaries will be 
grateful to the Societ^" for making these notes so 
easily accessible. Those who wish to join the 
Oxfordshire Record Society should communicate 
with the Hon. Secretary, 10 New Road, Oxford, 
or Rowner Rectory, Gosport. 

Fleetwood Family Records. Collected and edited 

byR. W. Buss. Parts V., VI., VII. (Privately 

printed, 12s.) 

THIS new instalment of an interesting work winds 
up the whole, we regret to say, more quickly 
than the compiler had intended owing to diffi- 
culties and expense arising out of the war. We 
have in Part V. the conclusion of George Fle-t- 
wood's letter on the battle of Lutzen, a pedigree 
of Fleetwood of Little Plumpton ; notes on the 
two sieges of Preston, and a list of the Fleetwoods 
who have served in the Army or Navy, with a 
biography of the Parliamentarian General Charles 
Fleetwood. 

Part VI. contains among other things, two 
pedigrees (descendants of General Charles Fleet- 
wood and descendants of Sir Edmund Denny of 
Cheshunt), and a list of vessels entering Madras in 
1700 as well as the Preface and the Indexes. 
The Preface sets out an array of miscellaneous 
items, each one of interest in itself, but a 
rather disjointed collection. The range of the 
Fleetwoods in occupation and social status seems 
somewhat unusually wide. 

Part VII. consists of illustrations principally 
portraits including a reproduction of that of 
Milton at the age of 20. 

Folk- Lore. December, 1920. (London, Glaisher, 

6s. Qd.) 

THE contents of this number are both various 
and important. Dr. Bartlett, in his paper ' Psy- 
chology in Relation, to the Popular Story ' 
suggests a combination of psychological, socio- 
logical and historical lines of research as the 
S roper method of the study of the popular tale, 
r. Rivers's ' Statues of Easter Island ' a deeply 
interesting article turns largely on the signifi- 
cance of the crowns and wigs and other head- 
dresses with which the statues are adorned. 
Under Collectanea we noticed discussions of 
Glastonbury and the Grail Legend (Mary A. 
Berkeley) ; and ' Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves ' 
(W. R. Halliday), and the number includes three 
or four good reviews. 



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128. VIII. FEB. 19,1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



141 



LONDON, FEBRUARY 1'J, 1521. 



CONTENTS. No. 149. 



: _ Nathaniel Field's Work in the '* Beaumont and 
Fletcher" Plays, 141 Ha/.ebrouck, 143 Among the 
Shakespeare Archives : Master John Bretchgirdle, 146 
" Hogle Grodeles" A Coachman's Epitaph" Counts of 
the Holy Roman Empire," 148 " Lhnmig," Earl of 
Chester: Lymage, co. Hants The Albert Memorial, 
Hyde Park Dickens, Mrs. Blimber, and Colley Cibber, 
149. 

> )UERIE^ : Skelton of Hesket and Armathwaite Castle, 
Cumberland Arms : Identification sought- John Crook, 
Quaker . Portrait Wanted John Bear, Master of the 
Free School at Ripon Volunteering in "The Forties," 
I?,Q _ Early History of the Scottish and Irish Gael " The 
Sword of Bannockburn " Hawke Family Wilson, the 
" Ranger of the Himalayas" Innys Collection of Maps 
Phaestos Disk American Customs: A Long Grace 
Bonte, 151 Embroidered Bible. 1660 : Stewart : Beal^s 
Dr. Robert James Culverwell-John Barne Heraldic 
Arms Wanted Route through Worcestershire Arch- 
bishop John Williams' " Manual," 152. 

REPLIES : St. Thomas's Day Custom, 152 The Pancake 
Bell Grey in sense of Brown Hamiltona at Holyrood, 
154 _ Edward Booty Representative County Libraries : 
Public and Private Shilleto, 155 Col. Owen Rowe 
Lamb in Russell Street, 156 "To outrun the Constable" 
_ Book of Common Prayer The Green Man, Ashbourne, 

. is; Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon Books 
on Eighteenth Century Life Old Song Wanted Rogei- 
Moinpesson Tobacco : " Bird's Bye," 158 Snuff : 
Prince's Mixture" London Coaching and Carriers' 
Inns in 1732, 159. 

;NOTES ON LOOKS : ' The Tempest : being the First 
Volume of a New Edition of the Works of Shakespeare ' 
The Composition of ihe Saxon Hundred in which Hull 
and Neighbourhood were situate as it was in its Original 
Condition ' ' The English Klement in Italian Family 
Names '-Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Man- 
chester.' 

^Notices to Correspondents. 



NATHANIEL FIELD'S WORK IN THE 
BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER " PLAYS. 

THOUGH it has with good cause been sus- 
pected that Nathaniel Field had a hand in 
some of the plays printed in the Beaumont 
and Fletcher folios, and portions of certain 
plays have (more or less tentatively) been 
assigned to him by different critics, there is 
no general agreement either as to the iden- 
tity of the plays in which he collaborated, 
or the extent of his contributions to them. 
It is not strange that this should be sc, 
since Field is not a writer whose work can 
easily be recognized. He does not, like 
Malinger, constantly repeat himself, nor 
ha^ he, like Fletcher, strongly marked 
metrical peculiarities. The most distinctive 
characteristic of Field's verse a charac- 
teristic exhibited in both his acknowledged 



plays ( ' A Woman is a Weathercock ' and 
'Amends for Ladies '), in the parts of 'The 
Fatal Dowry ' written by him, and in all 
the work here assigned to him on other 
internal evidence is the free use of rimed 
couplets, not only at the ends of scenes as 
commonly in the dramatic work of the 
period but interspersed with the blank 
verse. This feature makes it easy to dis- 
tinguish him from Massinger or Fletcher, 
both of whom are sparing in the use of 
rime, but is useless as a means of distin- 
guishing between Field arid Beaumont, since 
Beaumont also introduces rimed couplets in 
his blank verse. Field's style has indeed 
much in common with that of Beaumont 
and it is therefore not surprising to find 
that Beaumont has been credited with work 
written by Field. This mistake has been 
made both by Boyle and by Fleay. Speak- 
ing of what he calls Boyle's " absurd theory " 
that Beaumont contributed certain scenes 
to 'The Knight of Malta,' Fleay ('Biog. 
Chron. Eng. Drama,' i. p. 205) observes that 
Boyle " is, as I have frequently pointed out, 
incapable of distinguishing Field's work 
from Beaumont's." But Boyle's error is a 
venial one compared with that of Fleay, 
who has actually made use of a work of 
Field's to establish the canon for Beaumont's 
verse. Of ' The Four Plays in One ' 
(Op. cit. i. 179) he remarks : 
"the shares of Beaumont and Fletcher are 
singularly independent and the marked difference 
of their metrical forms afforded me the starting- 
point for the separation of all these [Beaumont 
and Fletcher] plays in 1874, which was till then 
regarded universally as an insoluble problem." 

The two first "Triumphs " of 'The Four 
Plays in One,' assumed by Fleay to be by 
Beaumont, are Field's, as I hope shortly to 
prove. Fortunately for Fleay, however, 
the metrical styles of these two authors are 
so similar that the value of his conclusions 
has not seriously been affected by his choice 
of these "Triumphs" as the standard for 
Beaumont's verse. 

The other plays of the Beaumont and 
Fletcher folios in which Field collaborated 
are 'The Queen of Corinth,' Acts III. and 
IV., of which are his, and 'The Knight of 
Malta,' of which he wrote Acts I. arid V. 

There is no evidence to connect Field with 
the authorship of any of these plays, but 
such as can be obtained by comparing them 
with his acknowledged works, 'A Woman is 
a Weathercock ' and ' Amends for Ladies, ' 
and his 'share of 'The Fatal Dowry,' written 
in collaboration with Massinger. Field's 



142 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm.F E B.i9,i92i. 



share of ' The Fatal Dowry' is Act II., j 
Act III. sc. i., after the second entry of 
Novall Junior, and Act IV. sc. i. As the 
assignment of these parts of the play to him 
has hitherto rested chiefly upon evidence 
of a negative kind, having been arrived at 
by subtracting the scenes that clearly show 
the more easily recognizable hand of Mas- 
singer, it is desirable that 1 should give some 
positive evidence of his authorship of the 
parts of this play referred to before I proceed 
to assign to him plays, or portions of plays, 
of which external proof of his authorship 
is lacking. First, then, at the beginning 
bf Act II. sc. i. we have the word " practic " 

... .a man but young 
Yet old in judgment ; theoric and practic 
In all humanity. 

This is a word that, to the best of my 
knowledge, Massinger never uses in his 
indepenclent plays. Field has it in the 
first scene of ' Amends for Ladies ' : 

Indeed, my knowledge is but speculative, 
Not practic ; I have it by relation, &c. 

In the same scene we have the verb 
"to exhaust " used in its primary sense of 
"draw out " : 

your thankless cruelty, 
And savage manners of unkind Dijon, 
Exhaust these floods, 

an uncommon use of the word not to be 
met with in Massinger which will be found 
again in ' A Woman is a Weathercock, ' I. i. : 

Were you my father flowing in these waves, 
Or a dear son exhausted out of them 

Three times in 'The Fatal Dowry,' we 
have allusions by gallants to the dis- 
arranging or crumpling of their "bands." 
Two of these occur in the second scene of 
Act II. Here Liladam says to Novall 
Junior : 

Ud's-light ! my lord, one of the purls of your 
band is, without all discipline, fallen out of his 
rank. 

and a little later on, when Malotin says to 
Pontalier : 

Dare these men ever fight on any cause ? 
Pontalier replies : 

Oh. no ! 'twould spoil their clothes, and put 
their bands out of order. 

The third is in IV. i. where Aymer, who 
has been roughly handled by Romont, 
exclaims : 

Plague on him, how he has crumpled our bands ! 
These allusions point clearly to Field, in 
whose ' Amends for Ladies ' there are two 
more allusions of the same kind one in 



111. iii. where Lady Bright says of Master 
Pert : 

I have seen him sit discontented a whole play, 
because one of the purls of his band was fallen 
out of his reach to order again 
and the other in IV. iii. where Ingen, during 
the course of his duel with Lord Proudly, 
observes that he " had like to have spoiled " 
his lordship's " cutwork band." 

In II. ii. Novall Junior addresses Bellapert 
in this strain : 

No autumn nor no age ever approach 

This heavenly piece ; which Nature having- 

wrought, 

She lost her needle, and did then despair 
Ever to wof-k so lively and so fair ! 
while in IV. i. Aymer begs Novall Junior 
to put his looking-glass aside lest, " Narcissus- 
like," he should dote upon himself and die 

. . . .and rob the world 
Of Nature's copy, that she works form by. 

No doubt hyperbolical speeches not much 
differing from these may be found in 
Massinger, but they are particuh rly charac- 
teristic of Field, who has two references to 
Nature's fashioning of men in each of his 
independent plays. With the above pas- 
sages we may compare Pendant's adulatory 
speech addressed to Count Frederick in* 
' A Woman is a Weathercock,' I. ii. : 

Nature herself, having made you, fell sick 

In love with her own work, and can no more 

JVJake man so lovely, being diseased with love. 
Count Frederick mildly protests : 

Pendant, thou'lt make me dote upon myself, 
and Pendant replies : 

Narcissus, by this hand, had far less cause. 

Both in ' The Fatal Dowry ' and ' A 
Woman is a Weathercock ' there is much 
talk of clothes and tailors. Pontalier in 
' The Fatal Dowry ' (II. ii.) says of Liladam 
and Aymer : 

If my lord deny, they deny ; if he affirm,, 
they affirm : they skip into my lord's cast skins 
some ticice a year, &c. 

and in 'A Woman is & W r eathercock, ' II. i., 
Pendant, when asked by Mistress Wagtail' 
how he came by his good clothes, replies : 
By undoing tailors ; and then my lord (like a 
snake) casts a suit every quarter, ivhich I slip into* 

Again in IV. i. Aymer says of Novall 
Junior : 

. . . .bis vestanients sit as if they grew upon him, 
or art had urought them on the same loom as 
Nature framed his lordship 

Compare Lady Bright 's comment on Pert 
in ' Amends for Ladies,' III. iii. : 

I do not think but he lies in a case o' nights- 
He walks as if he were made of gins as if Nature' 
had tcrovght him in a frame 



12 s. vm. FEB. 19, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



Almost at the end of IV. i. there is an 
allusion to fairy's treasure, which vanishes 
if its possessor reveals it : 

But not a word of it : 'tis fairies' treasure, 
Which, but revealed, brings on the blabber's ruin . 

This is found agajn in 'A Woman is a 
Weathercock,' I. i. : 

I see you labour with some serious thing, 
And think (like fairy's treasure) to reveal it, 
Will cause it vanish. 

These are, so far as I have noticed, the 
only explicit allusions to this belief in the 
Elizabethan drama, though Shakespeare 
glances at it in 'The Winter's Tale,' III. iii. 
" This is fairy gold, boy," says the Shepherd 
to the Clown, when he discovers the gold 
left by the sea-shore, " and 'twill prove so ; 

up with't, keep it close We are lucky, 

boy ; and to be so still requires nothing but 
secrecy." 

This brief examination of 'The Fatal 
Dowry ' will, 1 hope, satisfy the reader that 
it is possible to detect Field's hand in his 
anonymous work, or work cf his that has 
been -.assigned to others, from its con- 
nexions with his acknowledged writings. 

Before I attempt to do this, it will be 
well to add a few words as to Field's vocabu- 
lary as displayed in the three plays to which 
his name is attached. It is not very dis- 
tinctive. It is true that he has a few quite 
uncommon Latinisms, but they are of little 
use to us in this investigation, since scarcely 
any of them are used more than once. 
"Pish" and "hum " (or "humh," as the 
folio usually prints it) are characteristic 
interjections of his. Other noticeable words 
are "continent" or "continence" (four 
times in the three plays), "importune" 
(three times), "innocency" (four times) 
and "integrity" (four times). I draw 
attention to these words merely because 
they are characteristic words that one may 
expect to find in Field, and do not suggest 
that some, perhaps most, of them are not 
occasionally used by one or other of the 
other authors of the Beaumont and Fletcher 
plays. "Continent," "importune" and 
" innocency " are the more valuable. I may 
note also " transgress " (used once in ' Amends 
for Ladies ! ) because it is of comparatively 
infrequent occurrence in these plays, and 
therefore affords slight corroborative evi- 
dence of Field's authorship where there are 
other suggestions of his hand. Generally 
with regard to the weight to be attached to 
words such as these words that are charac- i 
teristic but not uncommon while one or two ' 



in a play are obviously of little or no value,, 
the presence of several much increases their 
importance, though in all cases they needs 
the support of other evidence. 

H. DUGDALE SYKES.. 
Enfield. 

(To be continued.) 



HAZEBROUCK. 

II. 
(See ante, p. 121.) 

HAZEBROUCK'S record during the war earned 
for the town the Croix de Guerre. The 
citation, dated Oct. 31, 1919, was in the 
following terms : 

" Ville soumise pendant quatre ans au bom- 
bardement par avions et pieces a longue portee. 
A tenu jusqu' au bout avec une froide tenacite- 
A deux reprises sous la menace de la pression de 
1'ennemi a gard6 son calme, accueillant refugies- 
et blesses, leur prodiguant ses soins." 

At the outbreak of hostilities the town, 
was occupied for a fortnight by a regiment 
of French reservists, but on the invasion 
of the Department du Kbrd on Aug. 20, the 
troops retired, and Hazebrouck was left 
without defence. A few days later refugees 
from Belgium, both civil and military,, 
began to arrive, quickly followed by French 
civilians from the inyaded districts. In one 
day Aug. 25, 1914 no fewer than 2,000 
Belgians entered the town, and during the 
months and years that followed Haze- 
brouck was ever ready to extend its hos- 
pitality to its neighbours from over the 
border. In recognition of these services 
the King of the Belgians has lately con- 
ferred the Order of Leopold upon the Mayor 
of Hazebrouck as representative of the town... 
"Flamands de France," said the Belgian 
Vice-consul in conferring the decoration,, 
"vous avez recu fraternellement les Fla- 
mands de Belgique, je vous remercie de 
tout cceur ! " For all these refugees, both 
French and Belgian, Hazebrouck set to 
work in August, 1914, to organize relief, and 
became eventually a kind of rail-head for 
charitable works connected with the war. For 
two months the tide of battle passed Haze- 
brouck by, but on Oct. 8, about 9 o'clock 
in the evening, when the town was occupied 
by a single troop of f rench cavalry, enemy 
scouts, creeping along the line of railway, 
reached the station and even penetrated to 
the square in front, from where they fired 
into the town killing three civilians and five 
soldiers. They then retired. The next day,.. 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 19, 1921. 



"Friday, information reached the Mayor that 
the authorities must be ready to receive 
15.000 German troops by 10 o'clock the 
following morning (Saturday, Oct. 10), and 
during the same day the French cavalry 
retired. On Saturday at the appointed 
hour the Mayor, Abbe Lemire, waited at the 
Hotel-de-Ville to receive the enemy, but the 
clay drew to a close without incident. 
Believing Hazebrouck to be occupied by 
French troops the Germans had avoided 
the town, which remained undefended the 
whcle of that and the following day. It 
was, however, on the evening of Sunday, 
Oct. 11, that the British Third Corps com- 
pleted its detrainment at St. Omer and was 
being moved to Hazebrouck, where it 
remained throughout Oct. 12. From that 
time onward, until the close of the war, 
Hazebrouck was a "British town." When 
the enemy was pushed back to the other side 
of Armentieres, and the line became more or 
less stabilized, Hasebrouck experienced a 
period of comparative quiet. The German 
lines were some 25 kilometers to the east and 
the inhabitants began to feel that their 
worst days were over. Work? of charity 
multiplied. Danger was apprehended only 
from the air. Then, after two-and-a-half 
years of this comparatively uneventful life, 
began a period more difficult and more full 
of anguish than that of 1914. The first 
bombardment by long-range guns took 
place on July 3l, 1917. But the shelling 
was intermittent and long intervals elapsed 
between the bombardments. The worst of 
these occurred on Dec. 13-14, when 120 
shells (380 m., or 15 in. diam.) fell into the 
town doing great damage to property and 
killing fifteen civilians, among whom were 
the cure and two assistant priests of the 
Church of St. Eloi. After this, except for 
a serious air attack in January, Hazebrouck 
was left alone till Mar. 16, 1918, when the 
long-range guns began their work again, 
and from that time forward the bombard- 
ment was more or less continuous, though 
the number of shells that fell in any one day 
was sometimes small. Then in April came 
the burst through at Armentieres, and the 
Battle of the Lys, which in one of its aspects 
was known in France as the Battle for 
Hazebrouck.* On the night of Friday, 



* Col. Eepington wrote in his Diary under 
date Apr. 14. 1918 : " Robertson sends me up 
his views.... He says that if the Boche gets 
Hazebrouck, or the Kemmel-Mont des Cats 
heights, the Ypres salient lot will fee! very un- 
co mf or table . ' ' 



Apr. 12, the order was given in Hazebrouck 
for the total and immediate evacuation of 
the town, and the next day saw everything 
abandoned under the saddest and most 
! lamentable conditions. The inhabitants 
were dispersed to the four corners of France. 
The Mayor, Abbe Lemire, was the last to 
leave the town, and eventually installed the 
mairie in the village of St. Martin d'Ecublei, 
in the Department of the Orne, at which 
place the children of the Wareiii Orphanage 
at Hazebrouck had previously found a 
refuge. From April to September, 1918, 
Hazebrouck was left to the mercy of the 
German guns, but the enemy, though at one 
time within a distance of 6 kilometers, 
never was able to reach the town. Imme- 
diately prior to the renewal of the bombard- 
ment in March, 1918, the civilian population 
of Hazebrouck had been reduced to about 
3,000, and of these 61 were killed and 
150 wounded. On Oct. 1, 1918, the Mayor 
once more took possession of the Hotel- 
de-Ville, and during the autumn the in- 
habitants- began to return. Out of 3,334 
houses, 229 were wholly destroyed, and 
nearly 2,000 were more or less damaged. 

Once again, after an interval of over 
three hundred years and as the result of acts 
of war, Hazebrouck stands at the beginning 
of a new period in its history. On Januavv 
30, 1921, a local census showed the 
population to be 16,468. The plans for 
reconstruction comprise much more than 
a mere rebuilding of destroyed property 
and include a scheme for the extension and 
industrial development of the town. In 
modern times two events stand out in Haze- 
brouck's history. At the end of the eight- 
eenth century the Revolution raised the 
town to its present position of chef-lieu, or 
capital of an arrondissement, and half-a- 
ceritury later the coming of the railway 
made it not only a centre of administration 
but also to some extent of commerce and 
industry. A third period is now looked 
forward to when Hazebrouck shall become 
the veritable industrial capital of middle 
Flanders, linked up with Dunkerque, the 
capital of maritime Flanders, on the one 
hand, and Lille, capital of the Department, 
on the other. Hazebrouck has been for 
long an important railway centre, lying as 
it does on the main line between Calais and 
Lille and at the junction of five other lines, 
which connect it with Dunkerque, Bethune, 
and the towns on the Lys, as well as with 
Belgium. Yet, notwithstanding these ad- 
vantages the town, so far, has scarcely 



12 s. vin. FEB. 19, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



145 



become the place of importance that its 
situation "warrants. Commenting on this, 
M. Ardouin -Dumazet in his 'Voyage en 
France,' wrote shortly befcre the war : 

" Hazebrouck est loin de presenter Fanimation 
<i< sea \ nUiiic-s de la Lys. L'activite se porto vers 
la gare ou passent tous les trains qui, par Calais, 
font communiquer FAngleterre avec FEurope 
centrale. La tres grande Industrie ne s'en est 
point emparee, bien qu'il y ait d'assez nombreuses 
usines. Le chef-lieu admmistratif de la Flandre 
ilamingante s'est en quelque sorte recroquevill 
dans son particularisme au lieu de devenir un 
centre pour Fexpansion de la langue franeaise." 

INI. Du.mazet sees in the use of the Flemish 
language and the fostering of local patriot- 
ism, a danger to the greater idea of national- 
ism. He joins issue with the Abbe Lemire, 
who in pleading for the encouragement of 
the Flemish tongue has drawn a comparison 
between Flanders and Brittany and Pro- 
vence. There exists in the region a " Gomite 
Flamand de France " whose chief object it 
is to maintain the Flemish language and 
customs and to keep alive the sentiment' of 
the "petite patrie." Opponents of this 
movement, like M. Dumazet, reject the 
comparison with Brittany and Provence as 
a false one, as neither Breton nor Provencal 
speech has any idiom in common with a 
foreign tongue, whereas Flemish, they main- 
tain, is a foreign language akin to German. 
Notwithstanding the purity of motive of the 
Comite Flamand and its supporters M. 
Dumazet maintains that the movement 
tends in the long run to work against 
national interests : 

" Vouloir constituer, de Bailleul a Hazebrouck 
( a C'fis.-iel, un groupe flamingant, c'est preparer 
un terrain separatiste au pur profit de FAlle- 
magne qui revendique les pays de langues flamande 
et^hollandaise corume germaniques." 
Whether M. Dumazet "would write in exactly 
this strain since the war I do not know. 
But the words quoted are interesting as 
showing the point of view of many in- 
tellectual Frenchmen prior to 1914. It 
may be questioned, however, whether the 
argument will stand. The case for the 
preservation and encouragement of the 
Flemish language is a strong one, and was 
wHl put by the President of the Comite 
Flamand, Canon Looten, at a meeting of 
the " Congres Regionaliste " at Lille on 
Dec. 7, 1920 : 

" La question du flamand, si delicate en Bel- 
gique, MC sizable pas aussi dangereuse en France. 
Les IJOK.OOO flamands de France sout des Francais 
'' ' >u. Us ne demandent qu'une chose, 
gardcr Icur lanirui'. Le flamand est menac6 par 
le courant de centralisation de ces cinquantc der- 
nieics jumees. II est cependant urgent de la 
maintenir : un peuple qui change de langue 



change d'ame. Et quelle ame plus grande que 
celle du pays de Flandre ? " 

A writer in a Hazebrouck newspaper has 
put the case thus : 

" Notre belle langue flamande, qui nous est si 
utile poiir apprendre le Ho Hand a is, FAnglais 
FAllemand, est meprisee ; elle est bannie de nos 
^coles. Et pourtant il nous manque des diplo- 
mates, des officiers, des agents commerciaux 
capables de defend re nos interets dans les pays 
etrangers, ou F usage de notre langue serait si 
precieux " 

And in the Chamber of Deputies, the Abbe 
Lemire, who has represented Hazebrouck in 
Parliament since 1893,* used these words 
on Oct. 4, 1919, in pleading for the preserva- 
tion of the native language in Alsace and 
Lorraine : 

" Je suis moi-meme d'un pays ou deux langue,s 
vivent cote a, cote, la langue flamande et la langue 
franchise, juxtaposees depuis Louis XIV. En 
Flandre Fexperience de tous les jours nous 
apprend qu'il ne faut point froisser les populations^ 
en ayant 1'airde les mepriseret de les soupQOnner,- 
losqu'elles par lent en flamand. II ne faut point 
ceder 4 la tentatioii de croire que quiconque se 
sert d'une autre langue que la langue nationale 
dit quelque chose centre la patrie." 

That Hazebrouck is essentially a Flemish 
town is at once impressed on the mind 
of the visiting stranger by the names on 
the shop-signs and in the columns of the 
local newspapers. A few surnames taken 
at random from these sources may be 
quoted: Baelden, Behaghe, Boddaert, Boerez, 
Boorteel, Bossus, Brouckaert, Butstraen, 
Cauwel, Cleenewerck, Drynckebier, Elveraere, 
Everwyn, Faes, Gaeymaey, Geloen, Gob- 
recht, Haese, Houcke, Huyghe, Itsweire, 
Kieken, Lestaevel, Leuwers, Mantez, Nieu- 
wjaer, Ochart, Ooghe, Pauw^els, Rebbelynck,. 
Schoonheere, Schotte, Serlooten, Spas, Ter- 
nynck, Tiberghein, Vancauwemberghe, Van- 
damme, Vanderboogaerde, Vandevelde, Van- 
derberghe, Vanhoutte, Vanhove, Van- 
poucke, VerstaeVel, Verwaerde, Waeles,. 
Warein, Wyart, and Wyckaert. The name 
of the cure'-doyen of St. Eloi, killed in the 
bombardment " of December, 1917, was 
Dehandschcowercker. At Hazebrouck the 
communal fete, which falls on the Sunday 
after the Assumption, is known as the- 
Ducasse, and the Sunday following is the 
" raccroc de la ducasse. " And so also in the 
other towns and villages of the region. 



* Abb Lemire ewas elected for the arrondisse- 
ment of Hazebrouck, under the old system of 
single-member constituencies, ;it -v< i y Election 
from 1893 to 1914. Under the new system of 
modified scritiin de liste, in the general election 
of November 1919, he headed the list of successful; 
candidates of the Federation Republicaine in the 
Departement du Nord with 141,513 votes. 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.vm. FEB. 10,1021. 



The mid-Lent fete, known in Hazebrouck 
as " Den Graef van Half Vasten," has a very 
distinct local interest, its origin going back 
1;o the beginnings of the town, and it 
may be said to combine the ancient "Fete 
>du Lievre " (den Haeze Feste) with the later 
" Fete des Koix." At the Fete du Lievre a 
hare was let loose in the market-place, and 
was chased by the inhabitants, but in course 
of time the amusement degenerated, and, 
having become a source of animosities and 
disturbances, the fete was suppressed in 
1539. The custom of distributing nuts 
-among the people at the mid-Lent festival, 
which gives its name to the Fete des 
Xoix, is said to have originated in an 
incident of the feudal period when a Lord 
*>f Hazebrouck refused to grant the town a 
fair in mid-Lent for which the inhabitants 
had petitioned. The townspeople replied 
'by causing a mannequin in the semblance 
of their Seigneur to be paraded on horse- 
back through the streets on the day in 
question, accompanied by a servant who 
~threw nuts among the crowd derisively to 
symbolize their lord's largesse. Held annu- 
ally the spectacle attracted the inhabitants 
of the whole district to Hazebrouck and in 
time the fete gained for the town the advan- 
tages which had been sought and refused. 
Such in brief is the story of the origin of the 
Fete des Noix. It is told in some detail in 
an interesting article by M. Joseph Pattein, 
of Hazebrouck, in Le Beffroi de Flandre, 
Feb. 15, 1920. Discontinued for five years 
-during the war, the fete was again cele- 
brated, though shorn of some of its former 
pageantry, on Mar. 15, 1920. The effigy 
of the feudal lord led on horseback through 
the streets amidst the jeers of the towns 
people will naturally recall to Lancashire 
readers the somewhat analogous procession 
of the Black Knight at Ashton-uncler-Lyne, 
which takes place on Whit-Monday. " At 
Hazebrouck the procession of the manne- 
quin took on a new significance in 1602 as 
the result of a local incident in that year 
the details of which are too long to repeat 
here. The distribution of nuts was dis- 
coritriued in 1782, but was revived ten 
yea-s later, when the municipality decided 
(November, 1792) that 

" pour ne plus donner un nom d'ancien esclavage 
ou de feodalit^ a cette fete, elle sera des a present 
de"nommee ' la fete des Sans-Culottes ' et le 
boniet de la liberte sera arbore" en signe de cette 
iibert6 conquise." 

Under varying forms the fete, with its dis- 
tribution of nuts, continued to be held till 



its interruption by the war. At its resump- 
tion in 1920 : 

" la distribution des noix fut abondante. Le 
senieur de largesse les jetaieiit a tour de bras 
dans toutes les directions. On les recueillait 
avidement pour les emporter au loin ou les en- 
voyer aux rnembres disperses des families." 

Though nothing of the ancient Haeze 
Feste finds place in the fete of to-day, it 
may be considered as the embryo from 
which the present festival emerged. For 
a long time the two fetes existed side by 
side, then one disappeared and the other 
held the field alone. The hare, in the words 
of M. Pattein, has now taken refuge in the 
arms of the town, where it appears on a 
golden escutcheon held by the legendary 
Lion of Flanders, or in heraldic language 
Argent, a lion salient sable holding an 
escutcheon or, thereon a hare courant bend- 
wise proper. F. H. CHEETHAM. 



AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE 
ARCHIVES. 

(See ante, pp. 23, 45, 66, S3, 124.) 

MASTER JOHN BRETCHGIRDLE. 
While John Shakespeare was administering 
his father's affairs at Snitterfield a Protestant 
vicar was instituted at Stratford in succession 
to Roger Dyos. John Bretchgirdle was a 
native of Baguley in Cheshire and was 
educated in that nest of heresy, the home of 
the "Christian Brothers," Christchurch, 
Oxford. He and a fellow-student, who was 
probably also a fellow-countryman, John 
Sankey, supplicated for their B.A. in Mar. 

1544, were admitted on the same day, Apr. 7, 
and after being twice dispensed in the 
Michaelmas term, determined together in 

1 545, Bretchgirdle took his M. A. on July 1 1 , 

1546, and early in King Edward's reign 
returned to his native country as perpetual 
curate of Witt on cum Twenbrooke near 
Ncrthwich. At Witton he had a school, 
attended by boys from Northwieh, among 
whom was a gifted and loved scholar named 
John Brownsword (pronounced BrowrCs 
word}. In 1550 or 1551 he obtained for his 
home and school, from Sir Thomas Venables 
of Kinderton, the lease of a messuage, a 
croft and half an acre of land, " lying and 
adjoining the Chapel-yard," and entering 
on the premises he "occupied and enjoyed 
the same by the space of seven years," during 
which term he " did upon his own costs and 
charges newly erect a chamber, and also 
amended and repaired divers other houses 



128. VIII. FEB. 19, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



and buildings at an outlay of 201. and 
above " say 2001. in our pre-war money. 
In 1557 an old Northwich boy, a native of 
Shurlach (a mile or less from the town), a 
wealthy cleric, rector of St. Bartholomew's, 
Smithfield, .Dominus John Deane, invested 
property with local trustees "for the good 
instruction of boys within the township of 
Witton near Northwich," and by Michaelmas 
1558, a school had been ouilt^and statutes 
drawn-up for what was thereafter The Free 
Grammar School of Witton. Br-etchgirdle, 
without doubt, had to do with this, and was 
among the "learned" whose "godly and 
discreet advice " was taken in the framing 
of the statutes and course of instruction ; 
and, without doubt, he became the first 
headmaster (with a salary of 121. and 
x ' lodgings "), as his boys, including John 
Brownsword, became the first scholars (with 
free teaching) of the new foundation. From 
first to last Brownsword was nearly thirteen 
years under John Bretchgirdle. He owed 
to him his excellent, if somewhat pedantic 
Latigiity ; and in view of the fact that the 
pupil in a few years followed his master to 
Stratford and. became himself the head- 
master of Stratford School, we read with 
more than curiosity the statute respecting 
the authors to be studied at Witton: 

"I will." said the founder following John Colet, 
*' the children learn the Catechisma, and then the 
Accidence and Grammar set out by King Henry 
the Eight, or some other if any can be better for 
the purpose, to induce children more speedily to 
Latin speech, and then Institutum Christiani 
Hominis that learned Erasmus made, and then 
Copia of the same Erasmus, Colloquia Erasmi, 
Ovidius : Metamorphoses, Terence, Mantuan, Tully, 
Horace, Salust, Virgil and such other as shall be 
thought most convenient to the purpose unto true 
Latin speech." 

Deane was less of a Protestant than 
Bretchgirdle, but his language in describing 
the old learning is significant : 

" All barbary, all corruption and filthiness, and 
such abusion which the blind world brouyht in I 
utterly banish and exclude out of this School, and 
charge the master that he teach alway that is best 
and read to them such authors as have with wisdom 
joined the pure chaste eloquence." 
Like Colet he had had enough of monkish 
Latin and monkish morals. 

But Bretchgirdle had hardly got into the 
nevv premises when Christchurch presented 
him to the vicarage of Great Budworth, on 
Nov. 14, 1558. Apparently he did not 
object to be a pluralist, and with clerical 
assistance kept his curacy and mastership at 
Witton while he held the wealthy living of 
the mother parish. So we gather, at any 
rate, from the slender facts available. Queen 



Mary, however, died on !Nov. 17, 1558, and 
great changes followed. Bretchgirdle re- 
signed the vicarage of Great Budworth 
before May 19, 1560, when .Richard Eaton 
was presented ; and in Jan. 1561, he gave 
up the curacy and mastership at AVittoii to 
become vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon. He 
was admitted to his difficult charge on 
Feb. 27. Xothing is said in the record of his 
investiture about Roger Dyos. The usual per 
mortem or per resiynationem after vacant-is is 
wanting. The late vicar, it seems, had 
neither "deceased" nor "resigned," but had 
taken his " departure " because the Corpora- 
tion had adopted the simple but effective 
expedient of withholding his "wages." 

For four years and four months John 
Bretchgirdle, unmarried, with a sister, 
perhaps two, to keep house for him, was head 
of the wide Stratford parish in the conten- 
tious days of transition from Roman Catho- 
licism to Protestantism. The Prayer Book 
services were organized on Puritan lines, 
frescoes were whitewashed, stained glass was 
replaced by plain, and carvings were hacked. 
Feeling ran high. Cases of assault were 
again dealt with at the Court Leet of May 4, 
1561. John Tchiner (or Ichiver), a yeoman 
of Packwood and a brewer in Stratford, 
living in his own house in Henley Street, a 
stirring active man and one of the Tasters 
of this year, was presented for a fray on John 
Bradshaw the currier ; Tho nas Dickson 
alias Waterman, of the "Swan," was pre- 
sented for a fray upon his brother Richard, 
and for a fray also on his brother-in-law, 
Edward Walford ; Master John Grantham, 
the Vicar's kinsman, was presented for 
drawing blood on Thomas Bates, and Thomas 
Bates was presented for drawing blood on a 
stranger of Birmingham ; John Lane of 
Bridge Street, brother of Nicholas Lane of 
Bridge Town, was presented for a fray on 
one Tibbins of Langley ; and Thomas 
Knight the younger, coverlet- weaver, son of 
Thomas Knight of Middle Row (next door to 
the " Swan ") was presented for drawing 
blood on a stranger in Edmund Barrett's 
house, the "Crown Inn " in Bridge Street. 
The fine for reviling an officer was still kept 
at 20,9. Henry Biddle, Lewis ap Williams, 
William Minsky and John Shakespeare acted 
as affeerors and attached their marks to 
their names written at the end of the minutes 
by Richard Symons a cross, the church- 
gable, a headless cross and the glover's 
compasses a more elaborate pair, again 
daintily drawn. Symons, it will be observed 
always spells Shakespeare in his own fashion 



148 



NOTES AND QUERIES, [is s.vm. FEB. 10,1921, 



Shakspeyr and pronounced it as we do 
now. 

The parish-registers are very defective 
from the departure of Dyos until the arrival 
of Bretchgirdle. They are then well kept 
and contain some interesting entries. Among 
them we may' note the burial of Alderman 
Harbage of Corn Street, the skinner ( "Francis 
Furrier " he was sometimes called) on 
Apr. 17, 1561 ;. the baptism of Joan, 
daughter of William Smith haberdasher of 
Henley Street on Apr. 22, the first child of 
his second wife, Agnes Chit-law (whom he 
married on May 17, 1560, after the death 
of his first wife Elizabeth in April, 1559), a 
child that lived to be an old lady of eighty 
and one of the last to have known William 
Shakespeare from his birth ; the baptism of 
a son of the young Squire Clopton on June 8, 
Lodovifus fiiius Gulielmi Clopton de Clopton 
fas John Bretchgirdle records the event) ; 
the baptism on June 15 of William Shakes- 
peare's future schoolfellow and comrade, 
John Sadler, son of John Sadler the miller, 
and grandson of Roger Sadler the baker ; 
the marriag? ot Squire Clopton's sister, 
Rose, with Master John Combe on Aug. 27 ; 
and the burial of Alderman Robert Perrott's 
first wife, Alice, on Sept. 13. 

This John Combe was the second of the 
name. His father, John Combe the First, 
was still living in Old Stratford, and had six 
years to live. John Combe the Second had 
lost his first wife, Joyce Blount, a few months 
only before his second marriage. She left 
him with five little sons, the youngest of 
whom, Christopher, was buried on May 15, 
1561. Bretchgirdle officiated, no doubt, at 
the burial of this child, and at the wedding 
of his father and Mistress Rose Clopton on 
Aug. 27. The wedding must have been a 
function of importance in the neighbourhood. 
It had religious as well as social significance. 
The Cloptons w^ere Catholics. They main- 
tained a priest in their house. John Combe 
the First, notwithstanding his association 
with the late William Lucy, was little of a 
Protestant. He may have had enough of 
Protestantism, as very many had, in the 
reign of King Edward. In Oct. 1564, he 
was marked clown by a Puritan neighbour as 
an "adversary of the True Religion." His 
sons John and William, on the other hand, 
were of the new faith. To her husband's 
fortune Mistress Rose added the 200 ma,rks 
bequeathed to her by her father : and to his 
four sons she added six more children, four of 
whom died in infancy. EDGAR I. FRIPP. 
(To be continued.) 



" HOGLE GRODELES." At the risk of 
adding yet another column to Dr. Addison's 
statistics of the public health might one- 
enquire what this fashionable malady was ? 
The last word of it is easily guessed but 
what is "Hogle " ? 

Lord Mount Cashell wrote to the Marquess 
of Ormonde on June 15, 1706, as follows : 

"....(the loss of a lawsuit) which has given 
Lady Newburgh one of the fashionable distempers 
that reigns at Tunbridge Wells for vapory people,, 
called the Hogle Grodeles." 

The name is that apparently of the actual 
complaint and is not a slang description of 
one. (It will be found in a report of the 
Historic Manuscripts Commission ; in print.) 

R. B. 

Upton. 

A COACHMAN'S EPITAPH. The following 
appears on a carved headstone now built in 
the wall cf Haddiscoe Churchyard, Suffolk.. 
I do not find it in the various books on 
epitaphs : 

WILLIAM 8 ALTER. 
Yarmouth Stage Coach Man. 
Died October the 9th, 1776. 

Aged 59 Years. 

Here lies Will Salter honest man 
Deny it Envy if you can 
True to his business and his trust 
Always punctual always just 
His horses coud they speak woud tell 
They loved their good old master well 
His up hill work is chiefly done 
His Stage is ended Race is run 
One journey is remaining still 
To climb up Sions holy hill 
And now his faults are all forgiven 
Elija like drive up to heaven 
Take the Reward of all his Pains 
And leave to other hands the Reins. 

WILLIAM GILBERT, F.R.X.S. 

"COUNTS OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE/ 
Mr. Yeatman, in his ' Early Genealogy, 
deals in a large volume with the 'History 
of the House of Arundell,' and gives a full 
translation of the almost unique patent,, 
which has recently undergone examination 
at the College of Arms, granting the title of 
Count of the Holy Roman Empire to the- 
first Lord Arundell of Wardour. 

The patent was granted by the Emperor 
Rudolph on Dec. 14, 1595, and what makes 
it so specially remarkable is that, contrary 
to the normal custom, the dignity is made 
to descend to all the legitimate issue of the 
original grantee for ever. This is most 
unusual. Queen Elizabeth, Mr. Yeatman 
points out, would not recognize the title,, 
saying that "she did not wish her own 



i2s. viii. FEB. 19, io2i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



sheep to be shepherded by another shep- 
herd," and she created Thomas Arundell 
Lord Arundell of Wardour. Mr. Yeatman 
gives a full translation, of the patent, a Latin 
copy of which is at the Heralds' College, 
while the original is at Wardour Castle : 

" We, by our full Imperial authority and 
power, have created, made, and nominated you, 
the aforesaid Thomas Arundel (who before this 
time derive Crom ymr ancestors in England the 
consanguinity of Counts), and all and every of 
your children, heirs, and legitimate descendants 
of both sexes, already born, or that ever hereafter 
shall be, true Counts and Countesses 01 the sacred 
Roman . Empire : and we have granted and 
ennobled you with the title, honour, and dignity 
of the Empire, as by the tenor of these presents, 
we do create, make, nominate, grant, and ennoble. 
Willing, and firmly and expressly decreeing, by 
this our Imperial patent, which 'will be always 
in force, that you the aforesaid Thomas Arundel, 
with all and every oi' your children and legitimate 
posterity, both male and female for ever do have, 
possess and assume for ever, the title, stile, and 
dignity of Counts of the Empire : and that you 
be honoured, called and stiled by that title, both 
in writing and speaking in things spiritual and 
temporal, ecclesiastical and prophane." 

The dignity has thus descended to all the 
issue, by his first marriage, of the fourth 
Earl of Rosebery ; to all the issue of Sir 
Henry St. John-Mildmay, fourth Baronet, 
and M.P. for Winchester ; and of his brother, 
Mr. Paulet St. John-Mildmay, M.P. for 
Winchester, and their descendants. Inquiry 
from a member of the Mildmay family has 
elicited the fact that while they are fully 
aware that they are possessors of the dignity, 
they seldom, if ever, make use of it. We 
understand that there are very few patents 
of a similar kind in existence. Mr. Yeat- 
man's work, which covers a very extensive 
field, deals with every known branch of the 
great House of Arundell, including the 
family of the Duke of Norfolk. 

I shall be glad to hear of any other 
Patents of this dignity. I believe that the 
one cited above is almost if not entirely 
unique in. its very wide and comprehensive 
limitation. A. A. A. 

" LIMMIG," EARL OF CHESTER : LYMAGE, 
co. HANTS. In the index to Mr. H. L. 
Camion's ' The Great Roll of the Pipe 
26 Henry III ' (1241-2), 1918, appears, 
under "Cestre," " Limmig, comes de." 
The reference is to p. 242 where we find, 
under the heading " De Placitis Foreste " 
(Cainbriclge and Huntingdon), " Limmig' 
comitis Cestr' debet jm. pro veteri vasto." 
The indexing is clearly wrong as there was 
no such Earl of Chester and the genitive is 



used. The reference must be to some 
place in Cambridgeshire or Huntingdonshire 
belonging to the late Earl (John the Scot, 
d. 1237) which owed a mark as a fine for 
waste. We find on the Charter Roll of 1302 
that John de Hastings (whose ancestor ob- 
tained a share of the Earl of Chester and 
Huntingdon's honour of Huntingdon) owned- 
lands in Brampton and "Lymmynge," co. 
Hunts. This led me to make inquiries as 
I could find no such place in gazetteers. 
Mr. S. Inskip Ladd, of Huntingdon, states 
(1) there is a farm called Lymage Farm in 
West Perry, parish of Great S taught on, 
which is now separated by the parish of 
Grafham from Brampton, though not far 
away ; and (2) the old county maps show 
a wood called Limage Wood, to the north 
of the farm. The wood has ceased to exist. 
I think we may safely identify "Limmig " 
as Lymage. R. STEWART BROWN. 

THE ALBERT MEMORIAL, HYDE PARK. 
The following may be worth noting, from 
' The Life and Letters of Lady Dorothy 
Xevill,' by Ralph Nevill, 1919, p. 276 : 

" According to a story, which may or may not 
have been true [Sir Henry] Cole it was who caused 
the Albert Memorial to be built where it is, by 
persuading Queen Victoria that the site was a 
' revelation of Providence.' He declared that if 
a line were taken through the centre of the 
Exhibition of 1851, ard prolonged, and then 
another line breadthways through the Exhibition 
of 1862. and also prolonged, the two would cut 
each other at the spot where the Monument was 
to be placed." 

For Sir Henry Cole, 1808-1882, see the 
'D.N.B.' W. B. H. 

DICKENS, MRS. BLIMBER, AND COLLEY 
CIBBER. Dickens was, or could have been, 
a great actor. His fondness for the stage 
is well known. I cannot help thinking that 
he must have read Gibber's 'Apology,' and 
derived from the Dedication to it a hint for 
Mrs. Blimber in ' Dombey and Son.' Th&t 
learned lady in chap. xi. exchanged com- 
pliments concerning her family with Mr. 
Dombey, and then : 

"'But really,' pursued Mrs. Blimber, 'I 
think if I could have known Cicero, and been his 
friend, and talked with him in his retirement at 
Tusculum (beau-ti-ful Tusculum 1), I could have 
died contented.' " 

This is sufficiently absurd; but so is 
Gibber's Dedication 'To a Certain Gentle- 
man,' which includes the following high- 
flown passage : 

" Let me therefore only talk to you as at 
Tusculum (for so I will call that sweet retreat 



150 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s. VHJ. FEB. 19. 1021. 



which your own hands have raised) where, like 
the famed orator of old, when public cares permit, 
you pass so many rational, unbending hours : 
then, and at such times, to have been admitted, 
still plays in my memory more like a fictitious than 
a real enjoyment ! How many golden evenings, 
in that theatrical paradise of watered lawns and 
hanging groves, have I walked and prated down 
the sun in social happiness ! Whether the retreat 
of Cicero, in cost, magnificence, or curious luxury 
of antiquities, might not out-blaze the simplex 
munditiis, the modest ornaments of your villa, 
is not within my reading to determine : but that 
the united power of nature, art, or elegance of 
taste, could have thrown so 'many varied objects 
into a more delightful harmony, is beyond my 
conception." 

This parade of enthusiasm for classical 
archaeology reminds me of Dr. Blimber also, 
though there is a note in it of the subservient 
coxcomb which belongs specially to the 
ingenious and conceited author. V. R. 



(gruriea. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



SKELTON OF HESKET AND ARMATHWAITE 
CASTLE, CUMBERLAND. The following is 
copied from a note which was made by a 
great-grandson of Thomas and Amabilis 
Skelton : 

"On a tombstone in Hesket Church-yard 
* Hie recubat Thomas Skelton et Amabilis uxor | 
et cinis est unus qua? fuit una caro | Filius hos 
inter Gulielmus contuit ossa | Corpora sic uno 
pulvere trina jacent | Sic opifex rerum omni- 
potens qui trinus est unus j Pulvere ab hoc uno 
corpora trina dabit. 

( Thomas Skelton A.D. 1720 JE. 78. 
Obiere -J Gulielmus filius A.D. 1726 M. 26. 

(Amabilis Skelton A.D. 1759 M. 94. 
Optimorum parentum memoria sacrum ac grati 
animi argumentum hoc posuere liberi superstites 
Thos. Isaacus, et Sarah Skelton A.D. 1762.' 
N.B. Of the ancient family of Skeltons." 

Evidently the writer had reasons for 
thinking the Skeltons buried in Hesket 
churchyard were related to the Skeltons 
who were at Armathwaite Castle until 17 12. 
From the sources open to me at present I 
cannot trace the relationship. Foster's 
' Pedigrees of Lancashire Families ' does not 
show Thomas and Amabilis among the 
Skeltons. I shall be grateful to any one 
who can aid me in tracing the connection. 
E. W. BRUNSKILL. 

Cark-in-Cartmel. 



ARMS : IDENTIFICATION SOUGHT. I have 
a bookplate of arms, viz., a chevron, purpurc, 
between three (query) cat-a-mountain heads, 
or. Crest, a Hermit. Are these Barring- 
ton or Berington ? See Burke 's ' Landed 
Gentry ' (Berks. Chester, Hereford and 
Worcester). 

I have miniatures painted on ivory of 
Judge Berington and his wife, and my 
grandmother, his niece. My grandfather, 
Paul, came from Datchet, near Windsor, to 
Essex. I shall be glad if any reader could 
throw light 011 the arms ? 

HENRY GOODY. 

Colchester. 

JOHN CROOK, QUAKER : PORTRAIT 
WANTED. Is there any known existing 
portrait of John Crook (born 1617), Quaker ? 
Stated to have been of Lancashire stock but 
resided in Bedfordshire. According to the 
'D.N.B.' he wrote a number of books 
several of which had a wide popularity 
during the eighteenth century. In 1653 
he was recommended to the Protector as a 
fit person to serve as knight of the shire for 
Bedfordshire. He died at Hertford in 1699 
and was buried at Sewel (Beds). 

F. CROOKS. 

Eccleston Park, Prescot. 

JOHN BEAR, MASTER OF THE FREE SCHOOL 
AT RIPON. Hearne in his ' Collections ' 
under Mar. 17, 1721-2, states that 

"Mr. John Bear, Bach, of Arts and Student of 
Ch. Ch., who determined the Lent, was about five 
months pgo made Master of the Free School ot 
Rippon in Yorkshire " (vol. vii. 339). 

I am unable to find any John Bear of 
Ch. Ch. in 'Alumni Oxon.,' or in the 'Cata- 
logue of Oxford Graduates,' and it would 
seem that there is a mistake somewhere. 
Can any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' give 
the name of the master of Ripon School, 
who was appointed in 1721 ? G. F. R. B. 

VOLUNTEERING IN "THE FORTIES. "- 
I entered an Edward VI. Grammar School 
in 1846. We were drilled by an ex-Sergeant 
of Militia. There was not then any semb- 
lance of a company or corps, but there 
survived memories of such an organization ; 
and I remember, as a child, seeing at this 
school a senior boy wearing, I think, some 
sort of uniform and certainly armed with a 
sword. Is there any recollection of any 
general drilling or enrolment of volunteers 
at this time ? and if so for what reason? 
France had been engaged with Abd-el-Kacler 
and the Sultan of Morocco, and this conflict 



12 s. VIIL FEB. 19, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



led to the bombardment of Tangiers by a 
French fleet under Prince de Joinville : an 
expedition mercilessly ridiculed by Punch. 
England resented this action by France ; 
but was this difference sufficient to promote 
anything like a general enrolment of volun- 
teers ? Was there any other cause, or only 
the memory of the Waterloo campaign ? 

K. S. 

EARLY HISTORY OF THE SCOTTISH AND 
IRISH GAEL. What amount of credibility is 
to be attached to the ' Chronicles of Eri, ' 
published by Sir Richard Phillips & Co. in 
1821 ? 

This purports to be a translation from the 
original records of the Irish Olam or 
official recorders. The two volumes pub- 
lished extend only up to B.C. 7, and the 
translator, The O'Connor of the time, gives 
-a lengthy dissertation intended to prove 
that the Hebrews, Greeks and Romans were 
offshoots of the original stock new directly 
represented by the Scots. 

I have hitherto failed to find any refer- 
ence to<his work in any modern historian. 

A. D. M. 

"THE SWORD OF BANNOCKBURN." I 
have been much exercised to find the 
English original of the words said to be 
engraved on the ancient " Sword of Bannock- 
burn " belonging to the Douglas family. 
In Theodore Fontane's account of his trips 
to England and Scotland, I came upon a 
-German version, containing the distich : 

Dann trag du, wenn ich gestorben bin 

Mein Herz zum heil'gen Grabe hin. 

These words inspired the much admired 
ballad 'The Heart of Douglas,' .by Leo von 
'Strachwitz. I have not been able to lay 
hands on a book called : ' Old Scottish 
Weapons,' by Drummond, Edinburgh, 1881, 
which might very likely contain the infor- 
mation desired, flight I appeal to yourself 
and your learned correspondents for the 
authentic words and whatever else may be 
known about the sword and its inscription 
.in literature ? J. L. CARDOZA. 

117 Middenweg, W-meer, Amsterdam. 

HAWKE FAMILY. Can any reader of 
'N. & Q.' give me information of the 
Ancestry of Edward Hawke, Esq., father of 
the great Admiral Hawke ? Was his family 
resident at Towton during the seventeenth 
century ? Information of his uncles or 
aunts desired. J. HILLSTONE. 

[Sir J. K. Laughton in the ' D.N.B.' says that 
this family had been for generations resident at 
Treriven, Cornwall.] 



WILSON THE "RANGER OF THE HIMA- 
LAYAS." Bayard "rflylor in his 'Travels in 
India, China, and Japan,' speaks of meeting 
in Rajpore, India (1853), "Wilson, the 
noted 'Ranger of the Himalayas,' as he is 
called." 

Who was he ? I can find no mention of 
him in the ' D.N.B.,' and will be glad of any 
details, including dates of birth and death, 
if possible. From Taylor's account he must 
have been born about 1803. 

WILLIAM ABBATT. 

INNYS COLLECTION OF MAPS. In Go ugh 's 
'Camden,' vol. i., 1789, p. 274, occurs the 
following passage : 

" In Westbury-on-Trim is ' Redlands,' the 
residence of John Innys, Esq., elder brother of 
the eminent bookseller of that name, whose 
matchless collection of maps, views and plans of 
all parts of the world in near 100 volumes are 
since his death, passed into the library at 
Holkham." 

Who is the present owner of this collec- 
tion ? O. G. S. CRAWFORD. 

PHAESTOS DISK. This is a round piece of 
pottery, covered with Cretan pictographs ; 
and as the inscription is rather a long one, 
and well preserved, it ought to give some 
evidence, or be capable of an explanation. 
Sir Arthur Evans was inclined to see in it 
a hymn, or metrical composition of some 
kind. I should be glad to know if any 
progress has been made in its decipherment 
during the last ten years. W. H. GARLAND. 

AMERICAN CUSTOMS : A LONG GRACE. 
We are told by Mr. Herbert Paul in his 
'Life of Froude,' that in America in 1872 
"a very long grace is always said before 
dinner." Has that practice been modified 
somewhat since ? Will someone learned in 
American manners give us the grace in 
extenso, if it is not too long for printing in 
' N. & Q. ' It cannot exceed in length the 
ritual of the Hebrews, probably the longest 
grace in the world. 

M. L. R. BRESLAR. 

BONTE. One of my maternal ancestors 
was the first wife of Dr. William Roxburgh, 
Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic 
Gardens, 1793 (see 'Diet. Nat. Biog.'). Her 
maiden name was Bonte ; according to 
family tradition, her father (Christian name 
unknown) was of French or Swiss extraction, 
and was at one time " Governor of Penang." 
But this cannot I think have been the case, 
for at 11 S. iii. 325-6, MR. A. FRANCIS 
STEWART points out that Penang was from 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 10, 1921. 



its foundation in 1786 until 1794 under the 
charge of its founded, Francis Light. He 
was succeeded as Superintendent by Philip 
Manington, he by Major Forbes Ross 
MacDonald, and Sir George Leith was 
appointed the first Lieut. -Governor in, 1800. 
Can any one give information about this 
M. Bonte, who was in fact my great-great- 
grandfather ? PHILIP NORMAN. 
45 Evelyn Gardens, S.W.7. 

EMBROIDERED BIBLE, 1660 : STEWART : 
BEALES. Embroidered Bible printed 1660. 
On one cover is portrayed Charles II. in 
needlework, and on the other Catherine of 
Braganza. On the fly leaf is written : 

"Mary Stewart born Sept 23rd, 1743, died 
May 15th, 1807." 

" William Beales born 25th Deer. 1744, died 
April 28th. 1828." 

" Mary Beales born 16th March, 1770, died 
5th Novr., 1807." 

" William Beales born 13th Febry, 1777." 

There is a velvet bag for carrying the 
Bible in, which is made of the Royal tartan. 

Can any reader give me any information 
regarding Mary Stewart, Mary Beales and /or 
William Beales ? 

PERCIVAL D. GRIFFITH?, F.S.A. 

Sandridgebury, St. Albans. 

DR. ROBERT JAMES CULVERWELL. This 
personage, who kept baths at 10 Argyll Place 
and 5 Xew Broad Street, and wrote several 
curious books was born in 1802. Boase says 
he died in 1852. But he was still writing in 
1855 and I have reason to believe was living 
in the early sixties. When did he die ? Is 
Culverwell a Devonshire name ? 

J. M. BULLOCH. 

37 Bedford Square, W.C. 

JOHN BARNE. To whom was John Barne, 
second son of Sir George Barne, Lord Mayor 
of London, in 1586, married ? He had a 
daughter, Mary, his co-heir, married to 
Francis Roberts of Willesdon, ancestor of the 
Roberts, extinct baronets of Willesdon. 

WM. JACKSON PIGOTT. 

Manor House, Dundrum, Co. Down. 

HERALDIC ARMS WANTED. Paly argent 

and azure a bend or charged with three 
cinquefoils. E. E. COPE. 

Finchampstead. 

ROUTE THROUGH WORCESTERSHIRE. On 
Nov. 7> 1605, the Gunpowder Plot con- 
spirators left Huddington, in Worcester- 
shire, at 7 o'clock, with a cart of ammunition, 
to rise in rebellion. They arrived at Hewell 
Grange at 1 o'clock P.M., and broke into 



Lord Windsor's house, where they stole- 
armour and horses. They then proceeded 
to Holbeche House, about 4 miles from 
Wolverhampton, where they arrived at 
10 o'clock P.M. At some part of their 
journey they had to cross the river Stour, 
and in doing so, the powder in their cart 
which was "low built " got "wetted." 
Could any of your Worcestershire readers 
indicate where they would cross that river 
and generally the route they would be- 
likely to take in that journey ? G. B. M. 
The Lodge, Laleham Road, Clifton ville, Kent. 

ARCHBISHOP JOHN WILLIAMS' " MANUAL." 
A Biographical Dictionary consulted, 
besides Ambrose Phillips' Life of the 
Archbishop, makes no mention of the Prelate's 
'Manual,' pointed in London 1672-22, 
years after his death. Title-page contents 
describe it thus : 

Manual : 

or 

Three Small and plain 
Treatises, 

viz 
1. Of Prayer, or Active "j 

2 -- Principles, or Positive Divinity. 

3 Resolutions or OppositiveJ 



Translated and Collected out of the Ancient 
Writers for the Private Use of a most Noble Lady 
to preserve her from the Danger of Popery. 

The final 8 pages of this 16mo book seem, 
to confute the general premises of the rest 
of the work as though a pieced addition. 
Can anything be said on that head ? Who* 
was the Noble Lady referred to for whom, 
the Manual was directly intended ? 

ANEUBIN WILLIAMS. 

Menai View, North Road, Carnarvon. 



ST. THOMAS'S DAY CUSTOM. 

(12 S. viii. 50, 112.) 

THE custom of distributing alms on 
Thomas's Day appears to have been for- 
merly pretty general thoughout the country. 
Brand in his ' Popular Antiquities ' (ed. 
Ellis) says : 

" I find some faint trace of a custom of going 
a gooding (as it is called) on St. Thomas's Day, 
which seems to have been done by women only 
who in return for the alms they received, appear 
to have presented their benefactors with sprwa 
of evergreens, probably to deck their houses wi 
at the ensuing festival." 



12 s. viii. FEB. 19, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



And in the notes there is a reference to The 
Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1794, whore 
the writer, speaking of the preceding mild 
winter says : - 

" The wom"n 'who went a gooding (as they call 
it in these parts) on St. Thomas's Day might, in 
return for alms, have presented their benefactors 
with sprigs of palms and bunches of primroses." 

Brand lias, however, underestimated the 
evidence for the custom. In addition to 
the information contributed by corre- 
spondents at the last of the above references, 
Thiselton Dyer ('British Popular Customs,' 
London, Bell, 189 Ij states that 

" in soiu" parts of the country (Northampton- 
shire, Kent, Sussex, Herefordshire, Worcester- 
shire, <!cc.), St. Thomas's l)a> is observed by a 
custom called Going a Gooding. The poor people 
K' round the parish and call at the houses of the 
principal inhabitants begging money or pro- 
visions wherewith to celebrate the approaching 
festivity of Christmas." 

He further states that in Cheshire 

" the poor people go from farm to farm ' 
thomasm ' and generally carrying with them a 
bag and a^can, into which meal, flour and corn are 
put. Begging on this day is universal in this 
and the neighbouring counties." 

In Herefordshire a similar custom i. 
called "going a mumping." In Stafford- 
shire not only the old women and widows 
but in many places representatives from 
evrv poor family, went round for alms. 
In some places in this country the monej 
collected \vas given to the clergyman and 
churchwardens " who distributed ^it in the 
vest rv on the Sunday nearest to St. Thomas's 
Day. The fund was called St. Thomas's 
Dole (see 2 S. iv. 103, 487). In Cope'; 
'Hampshire Glossary ' (English Dialed 



ipsh 

Society, 1883), we find : 



" To go flooding is when poor old women go 
about on St. Thomas's Day to collect money for 
Christmas. The recipients are supposed to be 
the wives . .f holders of cottages " good men." 
i.e., householders (cp. St. Matt. xxiv. 43) and 
were called Goodwife or Goody. Hence the 
name. In old lists of Goodings of Bramshill, 
the recipients .-ire all entered ' Goody so-and-so.' " 

A writer in The Quarterly Review for -Inly, 
1874. ]>. 32, in an article on the Isle of Wiyht , 
when referring to old customs then still 
prevailing there, says 

" Old women go about a-gooding on St. 
Thomas's Day." 

Halliwell ('Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words ') has 

"To go a. gooding, among poor people, is to 

3 about before Christmas to collect money or 

corn to enable them to keep the festival Kent " | 



and. he explains " Mumping Day " as 
" the 21st of December when the poor go about 
the country begging corn, &c., Herefordshire- 
See Dunkiri's ' History of Bicester,' p. 270,. 
j-:,l. 1816." 

The practice of "mumping' formerly 
existed at Clitheroe about Christmas time. 
My informant now dead was not certain of 
the exact day, but it was no doubt St. 
Thomas's Day. It seems to have been 
longest kept up at the residence of Mr. 
Jeremiah Garnet t, whose wife was a Miss 
Eddlestone, of an old Clitheroe family. 

" One condition rigidly exacted was that the 
recipients were not to talk, but merely knock at 
the door and say nothing but present themselves,, 
receive, and go away. On account of this the 
custom was known as Mumping Day." 
The gifts appear to have been "something 
very good to eat." 

St. Thomas's Day was often chosen as 
the day for the distribution of parochial or 
other local charities. Edwards ( ' Old Eng- 
lish Customs and Remarkable Charities,* 
London, 1842) gives cases as occurring at 
Horley (Oxfordshire), Xevern (Pembroke- 
shire)," Taynton (Oxfordshire), Alrewas 
(Staffordshire), Wokingham (Berks), Mel- 
bourne (Derbyshire), Cliffe Pyparcl (Wilts),. 
Slindon (Sussex), Oxford, Reading, St. 
Andrew Undershaft (London), Cambridge 
and Ottery St. Mary (Devonshire). As 
Edwards only made a selection of cases 
from the Reports of the Commissioners for 
inquiring into the Charities of England and! 
Wales, it is probable that a search through: 
the whole of the reports would furnish many 
more examples. 

In mediaeval tiir.es it was the practice to 
fix the doing of acts, or the payment of 
money, by reference to a Holy Day a 
usage still often kept up, probably without 
thinking about it. The four usual quarter- 
(U:ys originated from their being Church 
festivals, and in this district the days fixed' 
for payment of rent in old leases, were often 
the Feast of Pentecost, and the Feast of 
St. Martin the Bishop in winter (Nov. 11), 
and our tenancies of agricultural land stilF 
usually end, and farm servants often change 
their situations, on Feb. 2, which the older 
country people still refer to as Candlemas. 
So ingrained was the habit of regulating 
lates by Holy Days that in some Court 
Rolls of the Manor of Gisburn, which I 
recently had the opportunity of perusing,, 
although Parliament had abolished the use- 
)f the Prayer Book, together with the 
)bservance of Christmas and oo.any other 
olidays, and although the Lord of the- 



154 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm.pEB.i9,i92i. 



3Ianor was a strong supporter of the Parlia- 
mentary Cause, yet we find the jury during 
the Commonwealth still directing matters 
to be done on or before " Christmas," 
"Michaelmas," "Bartholomew's Day," 
"Whitsunday " and " Peterstyde. " ' 

Hence, although St. Thomas appears to 
.have had no particular connexion with alms- 
giving, we can understand that his day was 
selected as a convenient day before Christ- 
mas on which to make gifts to the poor, so 
that they might be the better enabled to 
njoy the coming festival. 

"A St. Thomas Bole " is still sometim.es 
used as if it were a proverbial expression. 
Some years ago, after having carried through 
some professional business for a client to his 
satisfaction, I received from him just before 
Christmas a pair of silver candlesticks, and 
in the letter which accompanied them, which 
was dated Dec. 21, he referred to them as 'a 
'St. Thomas Dole.' ' 

With reference to the " St. Thomas's 
Candle " mentioned by C. C. B., it may be 
doubted whether it has any other connexion 
with St. Thomas than the fact that it was 
Pegged on St. Thomas's Day. As other gifts 
on this day were for the purpose of helping 
.the poor to keep Christmas, so the gift of a 
candle was probably to furnish them with 
.a " Christmas candle." Brand says that 
on Christmas Eve our ancestors were used 
to light up candles of an uncommon size 
called Christmas candles, and he quotes from 
Blount that Christmas was called the Feast 
of Lights in the Western Church, because 
that they used many lights or candles 'at the 
feast, or rather because Christ the light of 
lights, that true Light, then came into the 
world hence the Christmas candles. In 
the Buttery of St. John's College, Oxford, 
there is an ancient stone candle socket 
formerly used to burn the Christmas candle 
in. Brand states that at Ripon on Christ- 
mas Eve the chandlers sent large mould 
candles to their customers. Nicholson's 
'Folk-Lore of East Yorkshire' (London, 
1890) speaking of Christmas customs says : 

" At this season of the year Shopkeepers are 
expected t? s/md presents to their customers. 
With Growers almanacks have superseded the 
coloured Christmas Candle. On Christmas Eve 
this candle, is lighted and burns in the post of 
honour either in the middle of the table or on 
the mantel piece." 

Hazlett ('National Faiths and Popular 
'Oustoms ') has a quotation from the 'Country 
Farmer's Catechism ' (1703), in which the 
term "Christmas candle " is used in such a 
way as to show it was a thing well known. 



It should be recollected that Christmas 
took the place of the pre-Christian festival 
of the winter solstice, and that the various 
sun festivals were celebrated by the burning 
of lights or fires. WM. SELF -WEEKS. 

Westwood, Clitheroe. 

A lady speaking from personal recollec- 
tion tells me that in the middle of the nine- 
teenth century at Harworth in Notts, a 
gentleman farmer used on St. Thomas's Day 
to give three pints of wheat each to poor 
families, and two pints each to widows in the 
parish. At Plumtree, Notts, and afterwards 
at Beeford Grange, Yorks, the same lady's 
father gave cree'd wheat to all who came 
for it, and raised mutton pies to widows. 
To " cree " grain is to soften it by boiling. 
Wheat was cree'd preparatory to the making 
of frumenty. J. T. F. 



THE PANCAKE BELL (12 S. viii. 106). 
A single bell was rung in Durham Cathedral 
as the "Pancake Bell" until some few 
years ago, when it was discontinued. 
Children, victims of a perennial hoax, used 
to watch for pancakes to drop from the 
mouth of the famous sanctuary knocker 
on the "north door, year after year, and I 
have seen them on the look out since the 
bell has ceased to ring. It seems not un- 
likely that the orginal object of this bell 
was to invite people to confession before 
Lent. J. T. F. 

GREY IN SENSE OF BROWN (12 S. viii. 68, 
116). Gasc's Concise French Dictionary, 
1903, gives "grey," gris ; "brown" (of 
bread), bis. Bis, "brown": pain h/.v, 
"brown bread " ; pain blanc, "whity-brown 
bread." 

Sachs - Villatte, German Diet., gives: 
(1) grauer Wein=schmutzig rotlicher ^Yein = 
vin gris ; (2) Franziskaner or Graue Briider. 
Meyer's ' Lexicon ' says that their habit was 
a dunkel braun. Prof. Herdener, of Dur- 
ham, who has sent me the German refer- 
ences, adds that he knows British tailors 
and dvers call a brown suit a grey suit. 

1 J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

HAMILTONS AT HOLYROOD (12 S. vii. 110, 
172; viii. 115). Count Gustavus Davi 
Hamilton was created a Count of Sweden 
in 1751. He married Jacobina Hildebrand 
and had eight sons ('Heraldry of the 
Hamiltons,' 110). He was seventh of t 
ten sons of Baron Hugo Hamilton, by his 
wife Margaretta Hamilton. This Hugo, and 



12 s. VIIT. FEB. ID, 1921] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



his elder brother Malcolm, a Major-General 
dn the Swedish Army, were both created 
Barons of Sweden in 1689. They were the 
sons, by Jean Somerville, of John or Johan 
Hamilton, who settled in Sweden, a younger 
brother of Hugo Hamilton, created Lord 
Hamilton of Glenawly in 1661, and son of 
Malcolm Hamilton of Ballygally and 
Moyner, co. Tyrone, Archbishop of Cashel, 
who died in 1629. Unfortunately, the 
heraldry of the Hamiltons makes no men- 
tion of daughters. C. K. S. M. 

EDWARD BOOTY (12 S. viii. 89).- MR. 
ROE will find some account (with portraits^ 
of Frederick William Booty, artist, in The 
Philatelic Record', June, 1905, pp. 110-116, 
and in The Stamp Lover, March, 1910, 
pp. 211-214. P. J. AXDERSOX. 

University, Aberdeen. 

REPRESENTATIVE COUNTY LIBRARIES : 
PUBLIC AND PRIVATE (12 S. viii. 8, 34, 54, 
76, 111). The library of the Bucks Archaeo- 
logical Society is at the County Museum, 
Church Street, Aylesbury. This library 
contains all the important works on Bucks 
history and topography, also a collection of 
parish histories and monographs. The MSS. 
collection includes : 

The Gough MSS. dealing with the Xew- 
port Hundreds. 

The Lipscomb MSS. biographical ccJlgc- 
tion (presented by the late Sir Arthur 
Liberty). 

^ The County Treasurer's Rolls for the 
eighteenth century, more than 200 bundles. 

A collection of Bucks deeds and Manor 
Court Rolls, seventeenth and . eighteenth 
centuries about 800 in number. 

MSS. Hi.st. of Buckingham (Rev. T. 
Silvester). 

About fifty parish registers in MS., some 
of which are incomplete. 

A copy of Aylesbury register, 40,000 
entries, &c. 

W. BRADBROOK, Hon. Secretary. 
The Museum, Church Street. Aylesbury. 

County of Shropshire. The Shrewsbury 
Public Library contains a very large collec- 
tion of local books, manuscripts, and deed-. 
and there is <> printed e.-.tr.logue of the boo'---. 
The manuscripts are /Mostly of genealogical 
or historical interest, which include some fifty 
volumes of pedigrees; the others have 
| reference to the most important families 
in the County. There are about one thou- 
sand deeds (mostly catalogued), and these 



relate entirely to families and property. 
The list under Shropshire in Humphreys's 
County Bibliography contains 155 items. 
H. T. BEDDOWS. 
Public Librjry, Sh ewslmry. 

Some yea-rs ago, when chairman of the 
" Books " Committee of the Free Library, 
at Shrewsbury, I did what I could strongly 
backed by members of this Committee, 
and the Council of the Shropshire Archaeo- 
logical Society to start on the lines sug- 
gested by MR. GEORGE SHERWOOD, who gives 
a very good idea of what is required. 

We obtained by means of special sub- 
scriptions and gifts, many valuable county 
deeds, pedigrees, and such like : especially 
all the deeds concerning the county of 
Salop, which were formerly in possession of 
the late Mr. Henr Cray. These we owe to 
the generosity of Sir Offley Wakeman. 
Also, there are in the library a number of 
deeds relating to the same county, and to 
the counties of Worcester and Hereford, 
which are there on " Permanent Loan." 

1 have always tried to impress on people 
that all books, pedigrees, deeds, Poll-books, 
assessments for taxation, &c., should be 
found in the public library of the county 
town, so that any person desiring to note 
such matters connected with the particular 
county, need only go to this place for the 
bulk of the information, and save much 
time and money. I think that there should 
be a separate card -index for books and MSS. 
relating to the history, and another for 
genealogy. 

The Poll-books ere of great conseouence, 
as they show up to a certain date the 
names of all Freeholders. 

HERBERT SOUTHAM. 

Loxley TIousc, Woking. 

SHILLETO (US. ix. 71, 136, 212. 296, 
335). The Rev. William Shilleto (1817- 
1883), Vicar of Gooshaigh, Lanes, who 
collected much information on the origin 
and genealogy of his family, declared that 
the Shilletos came to England a,s Flemish 
merchants and settled in the West Riding of 
Yorks, during the reign of Edward III., 
and that the name owed its derivation to the 
River Schelte in Flanders. That trp-clition, 
lie declared, had been handed down to 
successive generations from a very early 
date. 

I have since discovered that a family of 
the name was still residing at Ypres in 
Flanders in the seventeenth century and 
that at the Revocation of the Edict of 



156 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. FEB. 10, 1021, 



Xantes in 1685 they came to England, 
settling in Colchester together with a family 
named Boggis, who are said to have intro- 
duced the manufacture of baize into this 
country. 

The first mention of the name in iYbrks. 
Records occurs in 1374 when William 
Shillito and Sybil his wife are defendants 
in a fine touching 6 acres of land in Ponte- 
fract ( Yorks. Arch. Soc. Rec. Ser 52). Again, 
in 1403 occurs the administration of Agnes, 
wife of John Shilleto (so spelt) of Snyclal 
near Heath, co. York. The Rev. W. S. 
(a younger brother of the famous Greek 
scholar) compiled a pedigree of the Heath, 
Aberford and Kirkby Wharfe branches, all 
of whom bore the same arms. I now find 
that the Heath branch were closely con- 
nected with the branches of Mathley, 
Gastleford and Featherstone, who were 
yeomen and weavers in those parishes, 
during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. 
ROWLAND J. SHILLETO. 

Oxford.' 

COL. OWEN HOWE (12 S. viii. 109). In 
answer to TRIUMVIR, I notice that though 
TEE BEE (1 S. ix. 449) quoted from vol. iv. 
of Lysons's 'Environs of London,' he had 
apparently overlooked the following refer- 
ence in vcl. i. : 

"Sir William Rovve, of Higham Hill, had taken 
so active a part against the Royal Cause, as to 
occasion his commitment to prison, soon after the 
Restoration (Public Infe/liyeiicer, July 9-16, J660). 
His cousin, Colonel Rowe of Hackney, was one of 
the regicides." 

In the 'History and Antiquities of the 
Parish of Hackney,' by Wm. Robinson, 
X.L.D., F.S.A. (London, 1842), is found the 
following : " Owen Rowe was of the Re we 
family of Hackney." 

The 'D.JST.B.'' states, of course, that 
Owen's father was John Rowe of Bicklej', 
Cheshire, yeoman ; and his brother, Capt. 
Francis Rowe (died c. December, 1649), who 
was Scoutmaster General of Cromwell's 
Irish Expedition. Also that Owen married 
thrice : first, Mary. dau. of John Yeo- 
mant [sic] ; second, Dorothy, dau. of - 
Hodges, of Bristow ; and third, Mary, dau 
of Rowland "Wiseman [sic] (Hasted says 
Wilson), of London, and widow of Dr 
Crisp. He had a son, though by whicl 
wife is not mentioned, Samuel Rowe, Fellow 
of All Souls, Oxford. 

Chester's 'London Marriage Licenses 
refers to one, dated Feb. 4, 1616/7, for 
Owen Roe, bachelor, aged 24, and Mary, 28 
spinster, dau. of John Yeoman [sic] 



At 6 S. v. 327 ITHURIEL wrote on the olla 
podrida of a herald's w^ork book (1648-66),. 
and quoted an entry : 

" Arms of Col. Rowe (the regicide) of Darlston, 
n the parish of Hackney, impaled with those of his 
,vife L s he was the daur of Hodges of Bristowe,, 
b. 18 Sept. 1650, and was buried at Hackney." 
["his appears to afford additional evidence- 
hat it was the Regicide who married 
Dorothy Hodges, and also that he was in 
he habit of using armorials. 

BEATRICE BOYCE. 

LAMB IN RUSSELL STREET (12 S. viii. 109)- 
In maps of London by Harwood and 
3ary, dated 1799, 1804/1816, and 1839 
Respectively, the Russell Street in Covent 
harden is given as " Russell Street " simply y 
3iit on the other side of Bridges Street its- 
continuation is marked as Little Russell 
Street. 

In Elmes's 'Topographical Dictionary of 

Condon,' 1831, however, I find the following 

ntry : 

" Russell Street. 1. Great, is in Bloomsbury 
Square, at the N.W. corner, extending to Totten- 
iam Court Road. 2. Little, is in Bloomsbury, 
ihe first street parallel southward to part of the 
preceding. 3. Little, is in Drury Lane, on the N. 
side of the Theatre. 4. Great, is in Covent Garden,, 
the continuation of the preceding to the East 
side of Covent Garden." 

Moreover, on the trade card of Thomas 
Owen, Lamb's landlord, the brazier, is a- 
picture of his house, which, being a corner 
one, bears also the name of the street, thus : 
Gt. Russell Street. And Crabb Robinson,, 
in a letter to his brother at Bury (Nov. 23,. 
1818) says : 

" At Xmas I will thank nay sister to send 
Turkies as usual.... One to Charles Lamb at 
Mr. Owen's, 20 and 21 Great Russell Street*. 
Covent Garden." 

This evidence proves, I think, in spite of 
the maps, that the appellation " Great," 
though often omitted, was nevertheless a- 
legitimate part of Lamb's address. 

G. A. ANDERSON. 

Woldingham. 

Mr. C. van Noorden to whose article in 
The Bookman's Journal, Feb. 6, 1920, I am 
indebted discovered in the British Museum 
Library the business card of the brazier 
Owen, over whose shop lived Charles and 
Mary Lamb. A reproduction of the card 
which shows a view of the shop and house, 
known as "Russell House," is given in the 
above-named journal and at the foot of it is 
printed " Thos. Owen, 20 and 21 Gt, Russell 
Street, Covent Garden." The name of the 



12 s. viii. FEB. 19, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



157 



v't is also discernible on the corner of the 
house. The two numbers formed one house 
"externally, the whole of the ground floor 
being Owen's shop. After Wills's Coffee 
House ceased to exist the upper part was 
divided into two dwellings, the Lambs 
living at Xo. 20, not the corner house No. 21 

-rated by Barry Cornwall. 

\V. A. HUTCHIXSON. 

"To OUTRUN THE CONSTABLE " (12 S. 

viii. 29, 58, 97, 117). I gave the reference 
iiay's Proverbs just as I found it in 
^Hudibras,' but not possessing the book 
\v<;,s unable to check the reference. The 
meaning given'in ' Hudibras ' is quite clear, 
however, as will be seen from the quotation : 
Quoth Hudibras, friend Ralph, thou hast 
Out-run trie -constable at last : 
For thou art fallen on a new 
Dispute, as senseless as untrue, &c. 

W. A. HUTCHISON. 

BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER (12 S. viii. 49, 

.'97). It may interest ST. SWITHIN (see 

i second reference) to know that there is no 

difficulty in obtaining ' Three Primers. ' 

'The book is still in the Clarendon Press 

-Catalogue, p. 62 ;, the price 5s. 

R, W. C. 

THE GREEN MAX, ASHBOURNE (12 S. 
viii. 9, 77, 113). In reply to G. F. R. B.'s 
'inquiry, The Ashbourne News of Jan. 28 

courteously furnishes me with the following 
exhaustive information : 

"... .The late Rev. Francis Jourdain, M.A., 
who was vicar of Ashbourne, wrote an interesting 
;artide on ' Ashbourne Signs : Ancient and 
Modern,' which appeared in The Ashbourne 

Annual in 1898 The Green Man, with which 

is 110 \v inrorpor.-itt'd the Black's Head, is situated 
in St. John Street, Ashbourne. There are various 
explanations of this popular representation the 
sportsman ' clad in cote and hode of grene,' the 
wild man of the woods, and the herbalist distilling 
tis medicines from herbs, all claim to have 
original "d th" sign. In the last case it is generally 
known as the ' Green .Man and Still.' The poet 
Crab be writes : 

But 1he Green Man shall I pass by unsung, 
Wliich mine own .lames upon his sign-post hung ? 
His sign, his image, for he was once seen 

lire's attendant, clad in keeper's green. 
Tli'-n follows th" reierencfi to Bosweli's visit to 
tit- hoslrlry, arid '.Mrs. Killingley's address. The 
! . Joiirdain also wrote : 

' Tli" Black's or Black-a-M,oor's Head,' now 
d with 1h<' '(Jreen .Man Hot*-],' was former! y 

paratc and very important est:ib!ishm'.-iit. 

It stood on the south side of St. John Sired. 
and oocnpi'-d th" range of houses now | in ISUs] 

ting the shops of .Messrs. \Vitrky. { oole. and 
Muiple. 'I 1 }!-- sig i itself was Die "crest of tin- 



family, of which the Earl of Xewburgh 
was the titular head. In past days it was known 
as the 'Royal' or ' Holyoak's Hotel,' the grand- 
father of tne present Mr. H. D. Holyoak [since 
decvusc'd] being then the landlord. It was the 
recognized inn for visitations of the clergy and 
archdeacon's courts, in iact it was devoted to 
all great functions. The assizes for the county 
were held there on December 10, 1748. The 
register informs us that in the year 1710 ' the 
performers (who had assisted in tne organ opening) 
were entertained at dinner at the parish charge 
(service being ended about two o'clock), and at 
night at the signe of the Black-Moor's Head they 
made a line consort both of instrumentall and 
vocall musick, and so concluded the musick 01 
ye day.' The sign may be that of a Virginian 
in the time of Sir Walter Raleigh, and as, that 
distinguished man once held property in Ash- 
bourne, I will not pronounce against his claim to 
be represented on our sign boards. I add some 
notes from the register, showing the antiquity 
of the house. Baptized March 4, 1712-3, Jona*- 
than, son of John Mellor, Black-Moor's II* ad. 
Buried April 8, 1709, Ralph Woodward, of Black- 
Moor's Head. Baptized Nov. 24, 1709, John, 
son of John Mellor, and Mary, his wife, innkeeper, 
of Black's Head, Ashbourne. Baptized August 
16, 1717, James, son of Mr. John Mellor, of the 
Black-Moor's Head, Ashbourne. Not only were 
inquisitions and courts held here, but when the 
French nobility and clergy were driven from 
France at the end of tl:e last century, permission 
was granted from Quarter Sessions in the year 
1804, for the Reverend Paul Roger, an emigre 
to celebrate divine service in this hostel for the 
benefit of his iellow countrymen." 

This should prove of interest to readers 
of ' N. & Q.' who may know this famous 
old hostelry. CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

At the last reference a correspondent 
states that the Green Man, as the sign of an 
inn, originated from the green costume of 
gamekeepers, and, further back, from the 
green-clad morris -dancers ; and another, 
that the sign probably represents a forester 
or park-keeper. None of these interpreta- 
tions is universally correct. Close to Port- 
land Road Station is a public-house with the 
legend the ' Green Man and Still,' which, in 
this instance at least, if not in the others 
also, undoubtedly refers to the herb- 
simpler and the apparatus in which he- 
distilled his waters and essences. 

(The once rural character of this district 
is further perpetuated in the public-house 
in Albany Street, bearing the sign of the 
Queen's Head and Artichoke,' on the site of 
the artichoke gardens which, in the reign of 
Elizabeth, covered the ground on which, 
within present memory, the old Coliseum, 
stood. In houses opposite to the ' Queen"*-; 
Head and Artichoke ' lived Frank Bucklaml 
and Signer Arditi.) PERSICUS. 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vni.FEB.i9.i92i. 



LlDDELL AND SCOTT'S GREEK-ENGLISH 

LEXICON (12 S. viii. 119). Your reference 
to the proposed new edition of this monu- 
mental work, together with letters in The 
Times on the two editors, reminds me of 
an amusing incident which deserves to be 
known to a wider public than librarians and 
bibliographers. I refer to the story told 
by Mr. Falconer Maclan, late Bodley's 
Librarian, in his Presidential address, in 
October, 1020, before a meeting of the 
Bibliographical Society. 

It appears that in the year 1871 an 
Oxford undergraduate, who was preparing 
for Classical Moderations, greatly daring; 
began to test the accuracy of these well- 
known editors, noting down at first, a few 
misprints ; then, by the end, of the year 
turning up some 300 more, and in the next 
year 533, and so on ! His friends tried hard 
to dissuade him from wasting his time over 
these wretched little lists of Errata, when he 
ought to have been working for Moderations ; 
but, 110, he stuck to his purpose. Naturally, 
he got talked about, and some years later 
there was a scene in the Deanery of Christ 
Church, when a voice about seven feet 
above him (Dean Liddell was standing on a 
sort of bench in front of the fire, and he 
sitting in a very low chair) offered him the 
editorship of the Lexicon ! Luckily he 
remembered in time those old lines (query 
where ?) : 

.... Condendaque Lexica mandat 
Damnatis poenam pro poenis omnibus ttnam. 

Though he was unable to accept the offer, 
yet these insignificant and discouraged lists, 
did lead to work on the Lexicon ! 

Query : one would like to know the year 
of publication of the various editions of this 
fine work in quarto and octavo. The 
second edition appeared, I believe, in 1843-5, 
and the eighth in 1901. J. CLARE HUDSON. 

Woodhall Spa. 

BOOKS ON EIGHTEENTH CENTURY LIFE 
(12 S. vii. 511 ; viii. 79). At the latter refer- 
ence the statement is made, or quoted, that 
"a book called 'Chrysal ' ' was "written 
conjunctively ' by the celebrated John 
Wilkes and a Mr. Potter, nephew to Dr. 
Potter, Bishop of Gloucester." Has any 
evidence been produced to shew that the 
well - known eighteenth century novel, 
' Chrysal or the Adventures of a Guinea ' 
was not the work of Charles Johnstone ? 
There has never been a Bishop of Gloucester 
of the name of Potter. The Mr. Potter 



meant we may presume to be the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury's second son, Thomas- 
Potter, M.P., and Paymaster-general, an, 
intimate associate of John Wilkes, whose 
morals he is said to have corrupted, having,, 
apparently, a promising pupil. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

OLD SONG WANTED (12 S. viii. 111). 
This is Praed's ' I remember, I remember/ 
in four eight -line stanzas. It begins : 

I remember I remember 

How my childhood fleeted by. 

The part to which Trcllope particularly 
refers is in the final stanza : 

I was merry I was merry 

When my little lovers came, 
With a lily, or a cherry, 

Or a new invented game. 

But nowadays Praed's original lines are less 
familiar than the use to which they were put 
by a later Cambridge classic. 

The cat in Calverley's ' Sad Memories * 
soliloquizes thus : 
" I remember, I remember," how one night I 

" fleeted by," 
And gain'd the blessed tiles and gazed into the- 

cold clear sky. 
" I remember, I remember, how my little lov< 

came " ; 

And there, beneath the crescent moon, play'd 
many a little game. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 
Much Hadham, Herts. 

ROGER MOMPESSON (12 S. viii. 111). 
According to the ' Return of Members of 
Parliament, 1879,' Roger Mompesson, 
Recorder of Southampton was member 
for that place in the Parliament of 1698, 
being elected Dec. 27, 1699, in place of Sir 
Benjamin Newland, Knt., deceased. He also- 
served in the next Parliament which met 
Feb. 6, 1700-1, and was dissolved Nov, 11. 
1701. JOHN PATCHING. 

TOBACCO : " BIRD'S EYE " (12 S. viii. 90). 
The leaves of this tobacco are not stripped 
of its mid-rib, but cut up intact with the 
central stalk, and it is the sections of these, 
supposed to resemble birds' eyes, that give 
it the name. All fine honeydews and " cuts ' 
are shaved into "flakes" as distinguished 
from "stripping" one cut through, and 
the other stripped in lengths. 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

This is so called because of the little 
pupil-like bits which result from the ribs of 
the tobacco leaves being manufactured with 
the fibres. A bird's-eye pattern in drapery 
annotes spots. ST. SWITHIN. 



128. VIII. FEB. 19, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



159 



SNUFF: '-PRINCE'S MIXTURE" (12 S. 
viii. 69). Xamed after the Prince of Wales 
(George IV.). "Sir Richard's Mixture" 
was named after Sir Richard Puleston of 
Emral. E. E. C. 

'The Soverane Herbe,' by W. A. Penn 
(Richards) 1901, records that the Regent, 
afterwards George IV., used a compound of 
rappee scented with attar of roses, which is 
still sold as "Prince's Mixture." Another 
famous mixture of the same period was 
Taddy's "37 ", which to be without was a 
sign of social degeneration. It is said the 
numeral used arose from the number of 
[votes accorded at a meeting where the 
loaerits of various snuffs were being dis- 
fcussed. A majority of 37 was given to 
Taddy's and a few for other makes. 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

LONDON COACHING AND CARRIERS' INNS 
3N 1732(128. viii. 61, 84, 102, 116). " Stop- 
port " is undoubtedly Stockport. Until a 
few years ago no Cheshireman would ever 
have pronounced the name in any other 
way. "A Stoppot chaise " is two women 
riding sideways on one horse. The pillion 
was called a " Stopport horse." 

JOSEPH C. BRIDGE. 

I am much obliged to MR. KENYON for 
jointing out that by "Stopport," Stockport 
ind not Southport was indicated. 

MR. KEN vox's note has put me in mind 
)f the case of " Eastborn " whose carrier 
tarted each week from the Greyhound in 
Southwark (ante, p. 85). As in the 
Memoirs of William Hickey,' 1918, ii. 82, 
Sastbourne is described in July,. 1776, as 
'only an insignificant fishing town con- 
sisting of about eight or ten scattered 
louses," it would be curious to know what 
class of goods were carried forty years 
earlier. One suspects "run " goods largely, 
and Hickey makes it abundantly clear that 
;he excellent claret he and his friends un- 
expectedly enjoyed there was of such origin. 
J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 



0n 

Hi* Ti-mpi-fit : being the Firnt Volume, of a New 
Edition of th< \V or 1^ of Shakespeare. Edited for 
the Syndics of the Cambridge University Press, 
by Sir A. Quiller-Couch, and J. Dover Wilson. 
(Cam bridge University Press, 7*. 6d.) 
k 'E are the debtors of those who summon us to 
?-read * The Tempest ' and feel again the spell of 
!ie magic story, which can enthral the imagination 
. a child and provide wise men with material for 



speculation and research. It is memorable that at 
the close of life the riches of experience had taught, 
its writer to achieve the work that holds most 
delicrht for simple minds. The charm that it can 
exercise over the unlearned makes it the worthier 
theme for the study of great scholars, and the 
suggestion of apology with which the Cambridge 
Press offers its new edition is unnecessary. 

The General Introduction from the pen of Sir 
A. Quiller-Couch applies to the whole series, and 
contains a summary of the evolution of criticism 
with regard to Shakespeare the gradual stages by 
which his name, from being merely that of a play- 
wright, came to represent "a book." Only as a 
book could he have survived the Puritans, but 
survival did not imply established fame. The 
name of Shakespeare had no impressive quality 
for Pepys, and the whole record shows that it was 
the stolid assurance of the Victorians that exalted 
him to his present pinnacle ; the fulness of 
appreciation remaining for their successors. There 
is a valuable article on the textual criticism 
of the plays which suggests the wide field for 
labour that lies before the Shakespearean student. 
With this basis of knowledge, Folid enough to give 
a footing to independence, the Editors frankly 
present the plays in book form for the modern 
English reader, as distinguished from the 
Elizabethan playgoer, because, as they explain, 
" a play-book is a very different thing from a 
moving audible pageant." As a result certain 
unfamiliar stage-directions make their appearance, 
most noticeable (and most susceptible of criticism)- 
in their interpretation of Miranda's manners as a 
listener in Act I. In this, however, no more 
license is claimed than a play-goer willingly 
accords to every actor, and the effect throughout 
is wholly to the advantage of the reader, who may 
now pursue his way unchecked by obscure 
passages that, in the past, have claimed a reference 
to Notes. 

Few readers of 'The Tempest,' probably, think 
of it as a play at all. Some will regard it as a fairy 
story, some as a parable, some as the vehicle of its- 
author's philosophy of life, while to others it is 
merely the background of three marvellous symbolic 
figures. (Strangest among its attributes perhaps is 
its power to hold a mind like that of Kenan and to- 
provoke from him his most grotesque experiment. 
By showing us what Caliban and Prospero and 
Ariel became in other hands he pays involuntary 
tribute to their creator.) There is possibility of 
too much explanation in a field that gives scope for 
many theories and Sir A. Quiller-Couch practises 
an admirable reserve in his prefatory pages. He 
gives little space to the question (so fascinating to 
Shakespearean scholars in the nineteenth century)' 
of the Sources from which suggestion for the play 
was drawn. Perhaps indeed in his resentment at 
the excessive labouring of such points by earlier com- 
mentators he errs a little by indifference. Lovers 
of 'The Tempest' will not seriously imagine that 
it owes anything to 'The Fair Sidea,' yet it is 
interesting to know that the English 'and the 
German dramatist seized at the same time on the 
same suggestion of a plot. And if, as every lover 
of ' The Tempest ' must, we seek to draw a little 
closer to the mind of Shakespeare, we welcome 
evidence as to his choice of books. We are the 
richer because * The Tempest ' shows its that he was 
a careful reader of Montaigne. And to some minds 



160 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 10, 1921. 



the play conveys suggestion of greater import. Pro- 
fessor Conway in a recent volume finds many 
arguments to prove that Shakespeare, at the date 

when he wrote ' The Tempest,' was familiar with 
the Aeneid. Investigation of such theories opens 
the way to infinite delight. And, after all, whatever 

be the verdict on any problem that we 'connect 
with it, the play itself, 'with all the magic in its 
poetry remains. 

The Composition of the Saxon, Hundred in which 
Hull and Neighbourhood were situate as it iva* 
in it* Original Condition. By A. B. Wilson- 
Bark worth. (Hull, Brown & Sons). 
'THIS careful monograph deserves the attention of 
all students of the Hundred, and also of all those 
who are interested in the antiquities of the neigh- 
' bourhood of Hull. The Hessle division of the 
Hessle Hundred is the tract studied. Dr. Wilson- 
Barkworth has been for some time occupied in dis- 
covering the system according to which the division 
of this Hundred was laid out. Having worked with- 
out success on the assumption that the entries in 
Domesday Book could be taken as representing the 
original condition of the district in Saxon times, he 
has now convinced himself that the two are widely 
different. In his opinion. the Saxon 'Hundred was 
a complete drainage area, whereas the Hessle 
Hundred of Domesday Book was composed of groups 
of drainage districts. This view, combined with a 
comparison of the conditions along the Humber 
with those along the River Hull, which has brought 
out sundry other points of importance, has furnished 
the framework of the study before us. The. book, 
with all its abundance of documents and detail, 
illustrates also most satisfactorily a contention of 
the writer's which must commend itself to every 
competent student, especially after a perusal of 
These pages viz., that a true solution of Domesday 
Book can only be arrived at through a full know- 
edge of localities. 

After a chapter on the composition of the 
Hundred, Dr. Wilson-Barkworth gives a closely 
reasoned statement of his theory of the Anglo-Saxon 
methods and assessments for the maintenance of 
the banks of the Humber and the River Hull There 
follow discussions of the laying of a carucate and a 
ten-carucate manor ; and of the Domesday league 
and quareritene. The four following chapters deal 
in detail with the topographical and other material 
relating to the Hessle division which, in the 
author's opinion, give evidence of the local govern- 
ment having been in a transitional state during the 
later years of the Saxon period. 

Among interesting general remarks may be noted 
the reasons given tor thinking the Conqueror's 
devastation of Yorkshire to have been largely 
exaggerated. They are drawn from the Domesday 
compilations of 1086. which seem to shew that the 
destruction fell on sheep-farms rather than on 
arable land. Dr. Wilson-Barkworth takes the 
" berewick" to be a sheep farm and to have been 
so called from the barley grown upon it. 
The English Element in Italian Family Names. By 
Signor Cesare Poma. (Hertford, Stephen Austin.) 
THIS short brochure, published in the Philological 
Society's Transactions, was read at a meeting of 
that Society two years ago. The subject turns out 
to be narrowly limited, but none the less possesses 
interest. After a little play with witty suggestions, 
as that Gromo, the Counts of Ternengo,may derive 



their name from "groom," a word brought in by 
the English archers serving at Vercelli, and that 
something may be made between Crollalanza in 
Italy and ^Shakespeare in England, and identifying, 
as monumental inscriptions certify, Aguto and 
Hawkwood, Offamiiio and "of the Mill," Signor 
Poma goes on to show that what English element 
there is in Italian surnames comes almost, exclu- 
sively from varieties of the word Anglius Inglese, 
which denotes Englishman. Scotns has similarly 
furnished a few surnames. Our author discusses 
some family names derived from the Arthurian 
cycle, and concludes with the words of a popular 
Piedmontese song called ' Moran d'Inghilterra.' 

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester. 

Vol. 6. Nos. 1-2. January. (Manchester 

University Press. 4s.) 

IN these days of the dwindling shillings-worth 
it is astonishing to find that this Bulletin of well 
over 200 beautimlly printed pages and containing 
brilliant work of permanent interest may br 
still had for four shillings. The Librarian gives 
a thorough-going and most satisfactory account 
of the Library ; we have Professor Tout's notable 
article on the captivity and death of Edward II. 
which has already appeared separately and beei 
noticed in our columns and a stxidy or receni 
tendencies in European Poetry by Dr. Herforc 
which goes well to the heart of the subjec 
Dr. Grenfell writes on Papyrology, its presenl 
position and the inspiriting mass of work yet 
be done. "It is very unsatisfactory " he say; 
" that we are still quite ignorant of the natra 
of so many of our unpublished finds." Dr. 
Rendel Harris contributes an important paper o: 
Celsus and Aristldes ; and Dr. Mingana disc 
recent criticism of the Odes of Solomon. 



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161 



LONDON, FEBRUARY <?/;, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. loO. 

3IOTES : Loss of Her Majesty* Steamer Birkenhead, 161 
Aldeburgh : Extracts from Chamber! tins' Account-Book, 
1625-1649, 163 Nathaniel Field's Vv ork in the "Beaumont 
and Fletcher" Pliys, 164 Harborne or Harbron Family, 
167. 

QUERIES: Benjamin Choyce Sowden (or Sowdon;, 
" Eminent English Poet " Syriac MS. : Life and Passion 
of Our Lord An Elizabethan Shoe Horn : Jane Ayres, 
168 Prince Rupert's Fort, Cork Harbour Richard III. 
Original Portraits of John Howard, the Philanthropist- 
Edward Snitpe " H. K.," Member for Maldon, 169 The 
Mannequin or Dressmaker's Doll Tavern Signs -Sheffield 
Plate: Matthew Boultou Army Badges Ranelagu in 
Paris Mrs. Susanna Gordon, 170 Fieldson Family Sir 
Simon Le Blanc "Perfide Albion " Scottish Emigrants 
after Culloden Old Anglo-Indian Songs, 171. 

REPLIES : John Thornton of Coventry, and the Great 
East Window of York Minster, 171 Tercentenary Hand, 
list of Newspapers, 173 Royal British Bank Sir Robert 
Bell of Beaupre, 175 " Such as make no Musick " The 
Green Man, Ashbourne The Honourable Mr. A Wake 
Game Capt. Cook , Memorials, 176 The Old Horse 
Guarcio Buildings Scott's ' Legend of Montrose ' The 
Sentry at Pompeii, 177 Cardinal de Rohan Chabot 
Askell ' Franckinsence," 178 Cowper : Pronunciation 
of Name Author Wanted Author of Quotation 
Wanted. 179. 

tNOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Manor of Hawkesbury and its 
Owners' ' Charles Lamb : Miscellaneous Essays' 
'French Furniture under Louis XVI. and the Empire.' 

.Notices to Correspondents. 



LOSS OF HER MAJESTY'S STEAMER 
BIRKEXHEAD. 

As Feb. 26 will be the sixty-ninth anni- 
versary of the wreck of the Birkenhead, the 
subjoined official report, taken from The 
Colonist, dated at Graham's Town, Mar. 20, 
1852, will furnish fresh particulars of that 
disaster, and refresh the memory as to the 
regiments which suffered loss thereby, and 
the names of their officers. After striking 
the ground, she filled and went down in 
twenty minutes. 

Simon's Bay, 1st March, 1852. 
SIR. 

It is with the feelings of the deepest regret that 
'I have to announce to you the loss of Her Majesty's 
ISteamer "Birkenhead," which took place on a rock 
about "21 or 3 miles off Point Danger, at 2 a.m., 26th 
February. 



The sea was smooth at the time, and the vessel 
was steaming at the rate of 8J knots an hour. She 
struck the rock, and it penetrated through her 
bottom, just aft the foremast. The rush of water 
was so great that there is no doubt that most of the 
men in the lower troop deck \vere drowned in their 
hammocks. The i est of the men and all the officers 
appeared on deck, when Major Seton called all the 
officers about him, and impressed on them the 
necessity of preserving order and silence amongst 
the men. He directed me to take, and have executed, 
whatever orders the Commander might give me. 60 
men were immediately put on to the chain pumps 
on the lower after deck, and told off in three reliefs. 
60 men were put on the tackles of the paddle-box 
boats ; and the remainder of the men were brought 
on to the poop, f-o as to ease the forepart of the ship. 
She was at this time rolling heavily. The Com- 
mander ordered the horses [about 26j to be pitched 
out of the port gang way, and the cutter to be got 
ready for the women and children, who had all been 
collected under the poop awning. As soon as the 
horses were got over the side, the women and 
children were passed into the cutter, and under 
charge of Mr. Richards, Master's Assistant, the boat 
then stood off about 150 yards. Just after they got 
out of the ship the entire bow broke off at the fore- 
mast, the bow-sprit going up in the air towards the 
fore-top mast, and the funnel went over the side, 
carrying away the starboard paddle-box and boat. 
The other paddle-box boat capsized when being 
lowered. The large boat in the centre of the ship 
could not be got at. 

It was about 12 or 15 minutes after she struck 
that the bow r broke off. The men then all went up 
on the poop, and in about 5 minutes more the 
vessel broke in two, crosswise, just abaft the 
engine room, and the stern part immediately filled 
and went down. A few men jumped off just before 
she did so, but the greater number remained to the 
last, and so did every officer belonging to the 
troops. All the men I put on the tackles, I fear, 
were crushed when the funnel fell ; and the men 
and officers below at the pumps could not, I think, 
have reached the deck before the vessel broke up 
and went down. 

The survivors clung, some to the rigging of the 
mainmast, part of which was out of the water : 
and the others got hold of floting pieces of wood. 
I think there must have been about 200 en the drift- 
wood. I was on a large piece along with 5 others 
and we picked up 9 or 10 more. 

The swell carried the wood in the direction of 
Point Danger. 'As soon as it got to the weeds and 
breakers, finding that it would not support all that 
were on it, I jumped off and swam on shore : and 
when the others, and also those that were on the 
other pieces of wood, reached the shore, we pro- 
ceeded into the country, to try to find a habitation 
of any sort, where we could obtain shelter. Many 
of the men were naked and almost without shoes. 
Owing to the country covered with* thick thorny 
bushes, our progress was slow, but after walking 
till about 3 p.m., having reached land about 12, 
we came to where a wagon was out-spanned 
and the driver of it directed us to a small bay, 
where there is a hut of a fisherman. The bay is 
called Stanford's Cove. 

We arrived there about sunset, and as the men 
had nothing to eat, I went on to a farm-house, 



162 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 20, 1921. 



about 8 or 9 miles from the Cove, and sent back 
provisions for that day. The next morning I sent 
another day's provisions, and the men were removed 
up to a farm of Capt. Smales' about 12 or 14 miles 
up the country. Lt. Girardot, of the 43rd and 
Cornet Bond, of the 12trr Lancers, accompanied 
this party, which amounted to 68 men, including 
18 sailors. I then went down to the coast, and 
during 1 Friday, Saturday and Sunday, 1 examined 
trie rocks for more than 20 miles, in the hope of 
finding some men might have drifted in. I fortu- 
nately fell in with the crew of a whale-boat that is 
employed sealing on Dyer's Island. I got them to 
take the boat outside the sea-weed, whilst I went 
along the shore. The sea-weed on the coast is very 
chick, and of immense length, so that it could have 
caught some of the drift wood. Happily, the boat 
picked up two men, and I also found two. Al- 
though they were all much exhausted, two of them 
having been in the water 38 hours, they were all 
right next day, except a few bruises. it was 
86 hours, on {Sunday afternoon when I left the 
coast, since the wreck had taken place ; and as I 
had carefully examined every part of the rocks, 
and also sent the whale boat over to Dyer's Island, 
I can safely assert that when I left there was not a 
living soul on the coast of those that had been on 
board the ill-fated Birkenhead. 

On Saturday I met Mr. Mackay the Civil 
Commissioner of Caledon, and also Field Cornet 
Villiers. The former told me that he had ordered 
the men who had been at Capt. Smales', to be 
clothed by him, he having a store at his farm. 
40 soldiers received clothing there. Mr. Mackay, 
the field cornet, and myself, accompanied by 
a party of men brought down by Mr. Villiers, 
went along the coast, as far as the point that runs 
out to Dyer's Island, and all the bodies that were 
met with were interred. There were not many, 
however, and I regret to say it could easily be 
accounted for. Five of the horses got to shore, 
and were caught and brought to me. One belonged 
to myself, one to Mr. Bond, of the 12th Lancers, 
and the other three to Major Seaton of the 74th, 
Dr. Laing, and Lt. Booth of the 73rd. I handed 
the horses over to Mr. Mackay, and he is to send 
them on to me here, so that they may be sold, and 
that I may account for the proceeds. 

On the' 28th of February, Her Majesty's ship 
Rhadamanthus was seen off Sandford's Cove ; so I 
went down there, and found Capt. Bunce, the 
Commander of the Castor frigate, had landed, and 
gone up to Captain Smales, to order the men down 
to the Cove, so as to embark in the steamer to be 
conveyed to Simon's Bay. On Sunday, when I was 
down on the Coast, the field-cornet told me that 
at a part where he and his men had been, a few 
bodies were washed up and buried ; also a few 
boxes, which were broken in pieces, and the 
contents strewed about the rocks. I then ceased 
to hope that any more were living, and came down 
to the Cove to join the other men. We arrived 
there at about 6 p.m. 

The order and regularity that prevailed on 
board, from the time the ship struck till she 
totally disappeared, far exceeded anything that I 
thought could be effected by the best discipline; 
and it is the more to be wondered at, seeing that 
most of the soldiers were but a short time in the 
service. Everyone did as he was directed, and 



there was not a cry among them, until the vessel, 
made her final plunge. I could not, name any 
individual officer who did more than another. All 
received their orders and had them carried out, as 
if the men were embarking instead of going to the 
bottom ; there was only this difference, that I never 
saw any embarkation conducted with so little nois6 
or confusion. 

I enclose a list of those embarked, distinguishing: 
those saved. I think it is correct, except one man 
of the 91st, whose name I cannot find out. The 
only means I had of ascertaining the names of the 
men of the different drafts, was by getting them 
from their comrades, who are saved. You will see 
by the list enclosed, that the loss amounts to 9 
officers and 349 men, -besides those of the crew ; 
the total number embarked being J5 officers, and 
476 men (one officer and 18 men were disembarked 
in Simon's Bay). 

I am happy to say that all the women and chil- 
dren [7 women and 13 children] were put safely on 
board a schooner, that was about. 7 miles off' when/ 
the steamer was wrecked. This vessel returned to 
the wreck at about 3 p.m., and took off 40 or 50 men 
that were clinging to the rigging, and then pro- 
ceeded to Simon's Bay. One of the ship's boats, 
with the assistant surgeon of the vessel and eight 
men, went off and landed about 15 miles from the 
wreck. Had the boat remained about the wreck, 
or returned after landing the assistant surgeon on 
Danger Point, about which there was no difficulty, 
I air, quite confident that nearly every man of the 
200 on the drift wood might have been picked ur> 
here and tjiere among the weeds, and landed as 
soon as eight or nine were got into the boat.* 
Where most of the drift wood stuck in the 
weeds, the distance to the shore was not more 
than 400 yards ; and as by taking a somewhat 
serpentine course, I managed to swim in, with- 
out getting foul of the rock, or being tumbled 
over by a breaker, there is no doubt the boat might 
have done so also. 

One fact I cannot omit mentioning. When the 
vessel was just about going down the Commander 
called out, "All those that can swim, jump over- 
board, and make for the boats." Lieu t.Giradot and 
myself were standing on the stern part of the poop. 
We begged the men not to do as the Commander 
said, as the boat with the women must be swamped. 
Not more than three made the attempt. 

On Sunday evening, at 6 p.m., all the men 
at Captain Smales', and the four I had myself on 
the coast were embarked in boats and taken 
on board the Rhadamanthus, and we arrived in 
Simon's Bay at 3 a.m. on Monday 1st March. 
18 of the men are bruized and burnt by the sun, 
and the Commodore has ordered them into the 
Naval Hospital. The rest are all right; and 70 



* Jn justice to Ass*-Surgeon Culhane it ought to 
be stated that there is a letter from him in which 
he denies having left the wreck in the gig. On the 
contrary he was the last to leave the ship, and at 
length succeeded in swimming to the boats, which 
were then a mile from the wreck. That 24 hrs 
later they landed at Port D'Urban at least 30 
miles from the wreck later rode 100 miles through 
strange country to Cape Town, and then proceeded 
to Simon's Bay to report the disaster. 



12 s. vin. FEB. 26, 1021.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



163 



require to be clothed : I need scarcely say that 
everything belonging to them was lost. 
I have <fcc.. 

EDWARD W. C. WRICHT, 

Capt. 91st Regt. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Ingleby. R.A., 

Commandant of Cape Town. 

P.S. I must not omit to mention the extreme 
kindness and attention shown by Capt. S. males to 
the men at his house ; and by Capt. Ramsden. of 
the schr. Lionels, and his wife, to those taken on 
board his vessel. E. W. C. W. 

List of Drafts on board, and names of 
officers drowned : 

Draft, 2nd or Queen's Regt., Ensign Bo viand 
6th Royal Regt., Ensign Medford. 
,, 12th Lancers. 

60th Rifles. 
12th Regt. 
43rd Light Infantry. 
45th Regt. 
73rd Regt., Lieut. G. \V. Robinson, 

Lieut. A. H. Booth, 

74th Highlanders, Major Set-on, En- 
sign Russell. 
91st Regt. E. H. FAIRBROTHER. 



ALDEBURGH. 

EXTRACTS FROM CHAMBERLAINS' 
ACCOUNT-BOOK. 

1625-1649. 

UNFORTUNATELY, the Chamberlains' Ac- 
counts are missing for the last twelve years 
of Elizabeth's reign, and only a few pages 
for those of James I. have been found, but 
it is hoped that more may exist amongst 
the unsorted papers in the Mcot Hall. 

The Accounts for the whole of the reign 
of Charles I. are beautifully written and 
kept, but the book itself is in a very dilapi- 
dated condition. 

There are a great number of proclama- 
tions, as might be expected, in this reign, 
and in consequence frequent repairs to the 
"drum " are entered. Several entries occur 
referring to Irish travellers. 

1624. 10 PAYMENTS. 25 
Inprimis payd for Proclamcons . . 00 03 00 
I tin to the Sgeants att xxmas 1624 for ther 

wages . . . . . . . . . . 01 05 00 

I tin to M r Thomson town clerk then for his 

quarters wages . . . . . . 03 00 00 

Itm to Banton the Pen Eeve then for his qs 

Wai:- . . . . . . . . 00 04 00 

Itm to Thomas Incont for ii pierses . . 00 00 04 
Itm for aC billett into the towne hall 00 01 04 
Itm to Dowc the Smyth for work att the 

north mill Jan. 3. 1(>2\ .. .. 00 07 03 

Itm to }p Osborno the 8 of ' Jan. 1624 for 

nuivm-d soldiers .. .. .. 00 06 08 

Itm to M r Oldringe for pfume oyle and 

Franckeiiseiice for the Churche . 00 01 06 



Itm for makinge 3 newe market t Stalls and 

mending 1 01 04 06 

Itm. to wilim Bardwell ii daies att the Chamb- 

lins accompt . . . . . . . . 00 04 0&- 

Itm for Comunyon wyne and bread a Christ- 
mas . . ,. " . . . . . . 00 0-5 00 

Itm for settingo the stones in the mkctt whon 

the stalls were st-tt up . . . . 00 00 08 

Itm to page for a load of thatch for the 

butchers stalls . . . . . . 00 05 Off 

Itm to Beales the mason for work about the 

Church . . . . . . .. 00 01 OP 

1624. 
Itm paid to Page January 28 for a load of 

Thatche .. .. .. .. 00 0-5 00 

Itm to Goldinge for trymge the Javl" 

lock ' . . . . " 00 00 04 

Itm to him for a staple . . . . 00 00 04 

Itm to him for Orlop nayles for the butchers 

stalls 00 00 06 

Itm to him for parkers bucketts hoopes 00 01 02 
Itm to newson the thatcher for layinge 3 

loads of tnatcte on the Butchers 

stalls 00 12 00 

Itm for lath and nayles . . . . 00 00 04 

Itm for pclamacons 28 Jan. . . . . 00 04 06 

Itm to Page for half a load of thatche 00 02 06 
Itm the 29 of Jan. 1624 paid M r Bences gnift 

to the poore . . . . . . . . 02 00 00 

Item to Arthure Blowers for mending the 

Comunion Cupp 00 07 06 

Item to John Orvis the Sexton Febr. 3. 1624 

for his quarters wages for ringing the 

Bell . . . . 01 02 00 

Item to the Princes players . . . . 00 08 00 

Itm to Leon Reynolds for glassing the 

Church . . " . . . . , . 00 OS 06 

Itm for a lock for Scruttons howse . . 00 02 00 
Itm for a hingell for his gate. . . . 00 00 03 

Item for two barres for the Churche win- 

dowes . . . . . . . . 00 01 06 

Itm for naylinge the town howse wtndowe 

00 00 06 
Itm to Beale for mason work att the 

Churche 00 03 00 

Itm to a poore minister . . . . 00 02 00 

Itm to goodman Boone for diet and lodginge 

for M r Choner the Minister. . . . 00 09 06 

Itm to John lowday for Carying away old 

thatch in the mkett . . . . * 00 00 OS 

Itm for dyed and wyne for M r dades man 

when he came to take bond for the 

shippinge . . . . . . . . 00 00 06 

Itm to Newson the Thatcher for layinge half Ir^} 

a load of thatch on the Butchers , 

stalls 00 03 00 

Itm to John Catmer the younger for Repaeoias 

of the how.so he dwells inn. . . . 00 09 01 

Itm to M r Baliff mshall for pclam laide out 

by him 00 02 00 

Itm to John Parker for reparons of the 

howse . . . . . . . . 00 19 60 

Itm to Thomas Clark upon an accompt since 

he was Chamb.rlyii .. .. 00 06 00 

Itm for wyiH> att meetinge atBaldwyns 00 02 06 
Itm paid to the watchmen att the Fayre 

mche . . . . . . . . . . 00 04 00 

Itm to Willm Bardwell fcr wyne and died att 

the asse.ssingo the subsidye jkarch 3 01 05 00 
Itm to him for Comunion wyne . . 00 03 00 
Itm to Thomas Cook*- for p'ailes and nayling 
them up in Francis Scrattons yard ' 00 01 9 



164 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. * 



0. 1021. 



;!tm more for trymiuge the frame of the great 

Bell 00 00 

:3tm for ii streets . . . . . . 00 00 I 

Itm to the plunier for souldring of the lead 

on the steeple and for his stuff . . 00 18 
Jtm to Willm Bardwell Murche 23 for \v\ne 
and dyed when the Comisshroner was in 
towne . . . . . . . . 00 15 OC 

T I<tm to him. for Comunion wyne Marche 

20 00 07 

1625. 

iiltm to Thomas farent for his qr wage att o r 
ladye 1625 .. .. .. ."". 00 12 06 

2l<fcm for payles and nayles for the marshe and 
doing . . . . . . . . . . 00 00 06 

Itm to Robt Felgate for repacons about the 

north mill as appeares by his bill . . 00 04 6 

..Itm given to poore Irishe people . . 00 01 OC 

JEtm to Richard lilborne for his q r wages 

men 1625 . . . . . . . . 00 12 06 

Itm to Mr. Thompson for his q r wag s then 
due . . . . . . . . . . 03 00 00 

'Itm paid to M r Jell for keepinge of the 
Register two yeares viz 1623 and 

1624 00 10 00 

! Itm to M r Meene S r William wicherpolls 
Baliff for the rent of the Ferry 30 March 

1625 . . . . 00 10 00 

Itm to Nicholas Revett esquire Recorder of 
' this towne for l>is yeares allowance 05 00 00 
; Itm to w m Bardwell for dyett and wine and 
horse-meate the same day the sd M r 
Revett was in towne . . . . 00 15 00 

JEtm to willm Bardwell for wine and bere 

when M r Deeks was in towne . . 00 05 BO 
;Itm to him for Comunion wyne Aprill 3 00 04 08 
Itm to Richard Footye a skynne of pchm* for 
the drum when King Charles was pclavmed 

Kinge ' 00 02 06 

Itm to M r Balut Cheney for pclamacons 00 02 00 
.Itm to the Constables for caryinge a prisoner 

to melton . . 00 02 00 

Itm gcven to a poore woman . . . . 00 02 00 

Itm to Thomas Incent for his jorney to 

M r Revett 00 02 00 

.Itm to John Daniell and John Coo for worke 
about theChurche yard and for tymber and 
nayles Aprill 16 ; , . . . ..-. 00 14 00 

'Jtrn to M r Oldringe for pfume Candle Aprill 

18 00 01 06 

Itm to Robt Baldwyn for Comunion wyne 
for 2 daies Aprill 26 . . . . 01 03 00 

i Itm to Thomas Andre wes the same day for 
mending the tyles on the goose hoose viz 
newe tyles and other stuff . . . . 00 10 00 

Tltm to John Lowday for Caryinge a wave 
the br )ken tiles . . . . . . 00 00 09 

Itm to the Constables for Composicen money 
for the Towne Marshe . . . . 00 05 00 

Itm to him for a barrell of bere geven to 
hefferinym . . . . . . . . 00 06 00 

; Itm to John hulloeke for Caryage of lead from 
slaughting to the Churche . . . . 00 01 00 

l ltm geven to the sgeants for help up of 

it 00 00 01 

Itm bestowed of them in bere that 

tyme . . . . . . . . . . 00 00 01 

. Jtm to m r John Bence April 29 for lead of 
drum and case and for other charges as 

appeares by his bill 09 01 08 

_(Ttm to M r Balift Cheney w oh he laid out for 

sending a woman out of the towne 06 02 00 



Itm to M r Osborne for the mayned soldiers 
Aprill 29 . . . . . . .> 00 06 OS 

Itm to M r Thomson Aprill 29 for money he 
laid out for the towne . . ..00 04 00 

Item to 4 for worke in the Marshe . . 00 00 60' 
Itm to John Or vis for his quarters wages due 
att Maye .. . . .. .. 00 14 00 

Itm to Francis Chapman for mendinge the 

hower glasse for the Churche . . 00 00 GG 
Itm to Benjamyn Reynolds for mending*? the 
Churho win do wes . . . . . . 00 02 06 

Itm to Thomas Cooke for layings the bridges 
in the Marshe and for other Rayling work 

then . . GO 09 06 

Itm to Mathewe Frggett for plancke and 
tymber for the Marshe . . . . 01 05 OS 

Itm ll c orlope nayles .. .. .. 00 03 OS 

Itm for 3 C Speeks . . . . . . 00 00 10 

Itm a latch for the Marshe gate . . 00 00 05 
Itm to John hullock for Cariage about the 

Marshe 00 10 00 

Itm to Nicholas Murford for a Bell Rope 
may 16 . . . . . . . . 00 04 00 

Itm to a poore Captive that gathered 

may . . . . . . . . . . 00 00 06 

Itm to John Orris for Ringinge by the 
appDyntm* of M r Marshell . . . . ' 00 05 00 

Itm for Caringe ii bar of powder from 

slautinge . . . . . . 00 00 04 

Itm to Bridge for Cariage of bread and beare 
on the pambulacon daye . . . . 00 01 00 

Itm to Richard Lilborne" for bread att that 
tyme . . . . . . . . 00 04 00 

Itm to M r Thompson for a gun of beare for 

that use " 00 04 00 

Itm to M r Banff Cheney for ii barrells of 
gunpowder . . . . . . . . 10 00 00 

Itm more to him for 10 L> matche and a tran- 
fare out of the Custome howse as appeares 

by his bill 00 04 10 

Itm to helpe to dryve The Cattell in the 

Marshe Maii 10 00 03 00 

Itm to the Fen Reves John Richardson and 

Robt Spudy for ther wages May 30 00 16 00 
Itm to M r Baliff Marshall for charges for 

goinge to the Comishioners . . 00 04 00 

[tm bere to a workeman . . . . 00 00 03 

Itm to Willm Bardwell for Comunyon wine 
and bread 2 . . . . . . . . 00 10 05 

Ltm more him for bread beare and wyne and 
dyett on the pambulacon daye . . 00 08 10 

Aldeburgh, Suffolk. ARTHUR T. Wixx. 
(To be continued.) 



NATHANIEL FIELD'S WORK IN THE 
BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER "PLAYS. 

(See ante, p. 141.) 

I come now to the three plays of the 
Beaumont and Fletcher folio : 

. 'THE TRIUMPH OF HONOUR,' AND ' THE 

TRIUMPH OF LOVE '("Four Plays in One.") 

It was not until after I had completed 

ny own investigation of these " Triuir.phs, " 

hp-t I found that Beaumont's claim to them 

lai already been challenged by Mr. E. H. C. 

Oliphant and Prof. Gayley. Mr. Oil pliant 



12 S. VIII. FEB. 26, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



165 



('Englische Stuclien,' xv. (1891), pp. 348-9) 
accepts Beaumont's authorship of 'The 
Triumph of Love,' but gives the Induction 
and ' The Triumph of Honour ' to Field. 
Prof. Gavley ('Francis Beaumont,' p. 303) 
further assigns to Field three scenes (i., ii. 
and vi.) of 'The Triumph of Love.' I go 
further still, claiming for Field the whole of 
both "Triumphs," as well as the Induction. 
If the two authors collaborated in the same 
piece, I should have little faith in the ability 
of any critic to distinguish them by the 
characteristics of their verse, and as I find 
in every scene of 'The Triumph of Love ' 
suggestions of Field's vocabulary and 
imagery, 1 see no reason for assuming that 
Beaumont had any share at all in the " Four 
Plays in One." Moreover there is, as will 
be seen, strong presumptive evidence that 
they belong to a considerably later date 
than is usually assigned to them, and it is 
more than probable that they were not 
written until after Beaumont's death. 

If a critic with a knowledge of Beaumont's 
characteristics as intimate as Prof. Gayley's 
cannot find Beaumont's hand in the Induc- 
tion or "The Triumph of Honour,' one may 
rest satisfied that there are substantial 
grounds for rejecting his authorship. But 
the reason given by Prof. Gayley (Op. cit., 
p. 302) for attributing them to Field can 
hardly be called satisfactory. After remark- 
ing that they are full of polysyllabic Latin- 
isms such as Field uses, he adds : 

" Beaumont never uses : ' to participate 
affairs,' ' torturous engine,' &c., and they are 
marked by simpler Fieldian expressions, ' wale,' 
' gyv'd,' ' blown man,' ' miskill,' ' vane,' ' lubbers,' 
' urned,' and a score of others not found in 
Beaumont '^undoubted writings.'' 

It is true that not one of these words or 
expressions is used by Beaumont. But the 
first two, though they occur in Field's 'A 
Woman is a Weathercock,' do not occur in 
either of the two "Triumphs," while the 
other words (with the sole exception of 
"vane," which is significant) occur in the 
"Triumphs" but not in any of Field's 
undoubted writings, and to call them 
"Fieldian expressions " is merely to beg the 
question. On the other hand "basilisk," 
noted by Prof. Gayley as one of the few 
words slightly suggestive of Beaumont, is 
equally characteristic of Field, who has it 
twice in ' A Woman is a Weathercock ' and 
once in 'Amends for Ladies.' 

What led me to the conclusion that * The 
Triumph of Honour ' and ' The Triumph of 
L"ve ' had been wrongly attributed to 
Beaumont was the discovery that they were 



written by the author of Acts III. and IV. 
of 'The Queen of Corinth,' in which Beau- 
mont's collaboration has never been alleged 
and is, indeed, all but impossible, since- 
Act III. contains an allusion to Goryat's- 
' Greeting,' not published until 1616, the 
year of Beaumont's death. The two- 
"Triumphs " are so closely related to these 
two acts of ' The Queen of Corinth ' that 
I propose first to show that they are by the 
sa:iie hand, and afterwards to identify that 
hand as Field's. 

In sc. ii. of ' The Triumph of Honour/ 
Martius, the Roman general, makes ad- 
vances to Dorigen, the chaste wife of the 
Duke of Athens, and she reproaches him 
for his violation of "friendship, hospitality, 
and all the bonds of sacred piety " in ar* 
eloquent speech that contains these lines : 
When men shall read the records of thy valouiy- 
Thy hitherto-brave virtue, and approach 
(Highly content yet) to this foul assault 
Included in this leaf, this ominous leaf, 
They shall throw down the book, and read no- 
more 
Thoxigh the best deeds ensue. 

In Act IV. sc. ii. of ' The Queen of Corinth/ 
Euphanes, the Queen's favourite, says to- 
the Corinthian general Leonidas : 
. . . .when posterity 

Shall read your volumes filPd with virtuous acta,- 
And shall arrive at this black bloody leaf, 

. what follows this 

Deciphering any noble deed of yours 

Shall be quite lost, for men will read no more. 

There are only two possible explanations- 
of the resemblance between these passages ; 
either both were written by the same man- 
or one is a deliberate imitation of the, other. - 
Any doubt as to the correct inference to be 
drawn will soon be dispelled if the two 
"Triumphs " and the acts of 'The Queen 
of Corinth ' referred to are compared more 
closely. 

To 'begin with the Induction, the Queen 
of Portugal in her first speech thus addresses - 
the king : 

Majestic ocean, that with plenty feeds 
Me, thy poor tributary rivulet ; 

Curs'd be my birth-hour, and my ending day, 
When back your love-floods I forget to pay. 

In Act III. sc. ii. of ' The Queen of Corinth 5 

Euphanes says to his mistress : 

I came to tender you the man you have made, 

And, like a thankful stream, to retribute 

All you, my ocean, have enrich'd me with. 

In * The Triumph of Honour ' note firsfr 
that the alliteration "arts and arms/' in 
sc. i. (third speech of Martius) : 
This Athens nurseth arts as well as arms. 



166 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.viii.F E B.2G,io2i. 



as found again in 'The Queen of Corinth, 

Jll-.i. : 

Five fair descents I can decline myself 

From fathers worthy both in arts and arms. 

and with the couplet that concludes one of 

Cornelius's speeches in the latter half 6f the 

scene : 

Yet when dogs bark, or when the asses bray, 

"The lion laughs ; not roars, but goes his way. 

compare the observation of Crates in 'The 

Queen of Corinth,' III. i. : 

. . f .the lion should not ' 
Tremble to hear the bellowing of the bull. 

In sc. ii. there is the speech of Dorigen 
-containing the striking parallel with that 
of Euphanes in IV. ii. of 'The Queen of 
'Corinth ' already noted. 

In se. iii. Dorigen uses the word " ante- 
.-date " in the sense of "anticipate " : 
Yet why kneel I 

For pardon, having been but over-diligent 
Like an obedient servant, antedating 
jVly lords command ? 

So also Euphanes in ' The Queen of Corinth, 
III. i. :- 

You need not thank me, Conon, in your love 
You antedated what I can do for you. 
The word is not used by Beaumont. 

In 'The Triumph of Love,' just before 
Gerrard's entry in sc. ii., Benvoglio says to 
Ferdinand : 

Thy person and thy virtues in one scale 
Shall poise hers, with her beauty and her wealth 
-compare, in IV. iii. of 'The Queen of 
Oorinth ' : 

. . . .when in the scales, 

Nature and fond affection weigh together, 
One poises like a feather. 

A little later on in sc. ii. we have the rare 
.adjective "antipathous " : 

. . . .doth thy friendship play 
;In this antipathous extreme with mine 
Lest gladness suffocate me ? 
which appears again in 'The Queen of 
Corinth,' III. ii. : 

She extends her hand 
As if she saw something antipathous 
Unto her virtuous life 

.and in the last scene there is the almost 
equally uncommon adverb "jocundly " : 

Oh Violante ! 

Might my life only satisfy the law, 
How jocundly my soul would enter Heaven ! 
^also found in 'The Queen of Corinth,' 
III. ii. : 

. . . .cast ops the casements wide 
'That we may jocundly behold the sun. 
. Here is- enough evidence to prove that 
these two "Triumphs" and Acts III. 
.-and IV. of ' The Queen of Corinth ' are from 
the same hand. And it is clear also th at 
hey must have been composed much about 



the same time, probably in the same year. 
Apart from the parallels I have noted, they 
are so exactly alike in style and metre, and 
so much more intimately connected with 
one another than with any play to which 
Field's name is attached, that it is impossible 
to arrive at any other conclusion than that 
they were written practically contempo- 
raneously. If 'The Queen 'of Corinth ' 
cannot be dated before 1617, it is to that 
year, or one very close to it, that the " Four 
Plays in One " belong. 

The direct clues to Field in ' The Triumph 
of Honour' and' 'The Triumph of Love/ 
if not quite so plain as those connecting 
these plays with 'The Queen of Corinth,' 
are yet clear enough. 

To take first the vocabulary -test, of the 
words noted as characteristic of Field, we 
find the exclamations "pish " and "hum " 
and the word " transgress " in the Induc- 
tion; "pish" occurs again in. the second 
"Triumph " and "hum " thrice in the first 
and twice in the second. Either " continent " 
or "continence *' appears in all three cf Field's 
acknowledged plays. The latter is to be met 
with in sc. ii. of ' The Triumph of Love ' : 

.-. . .you have over-charged my breast 
With grace beyond my continence ; I shall bluest, 
in a context which suggests a passage in 
'A Woman is a Weathercock,' I. i. : 

... .to conceal it [a secret] 
Will burst your breast ; 'tis so delicious, 
And so much greater than the continent. 

"Innocency" (Field shows a marked 
preference for the quadrisyllable form of 
the word) appears twice in ' The Triumph of 
Love ' (sc. iv. and v.), " integrity " once in 
each play, and "transgress " twice in 'The 
Triumph of Honour,' and once in 'The 
Triumph of Love.' 

In sc. ii. of 'The Triumph of Honour 'ap- 
pears the " vane " metaphor. See the 
second speech of Martius : 

. . . .the wild ragp of my blood 
Doth ocean-iik'e o'erflow the shallow shore 
Of my weak virtue ; my desire's a vane 
That the least breath from her turns every way. 
It is not used by Beaumont, Fletcher or 
Massinger. One would expect it from the 
author of ' A Woman is a Weathercock,' 
who has it in ' The Fatal Dowry, ' II. ii. : 

Virtue strengthen me ! 
Thy presence blows round my affoetion's vane ! 
You will undo me if you speak again. 
In the same scene of ' The Triumph of 
El.onour ' Martius says to Dorigen : 

thy words 

r>o fall like rods upon me ; but they have 
Such silken lines, and silver hooks, that I 
Am faster snar'd. 



12 S. VIII. FEB. 26, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



167 



Compare these lines from the song ('A 
Dialogue between a Man and a Woman ') 
in 'The Fatal Dowry,' II. ii. : 
"Set " Phoebus " s?t ; a fairar sun doth ris - 
From th? bright radiance of my mistress' eyes 
'Than ever thou begatt'st : I dare not look ; 
Each haii' a f^^lden line, each word a hook, 
The more I strive, the mors still I am took. 

In his la ?t speech in sc. iii. of ' The Triumph 
of Honour ' Sophocles thus apostrophizes 
the deity : 

Thou that did'st order this congested heap 
When it was chaos, 'twixt thy spacious palms 
Forming it to this vast rotundity, 
.Dissolve it now, shuffle the elements 
That no one proper by itself may stand. 

In III. i. of ' The Fatal Dowry ' Charalcis 
says to Romont : 

Had I just cause. 

Thou know'st T durst pursue such injury 
Through lire, air, water, earth, nay were they all 
Shuffled again to chaos. 

In sc. v. of ' The Triumph of Love ' for 
the curious application of the adjective 
" female " in the expression "female tears " 
(Benvoglio's last speech) : 
Come, turn thy female tears into revenge. 
compare "female hate" in 'Amends for 
Ladies,' III. ii., where Lord Proudly, who 
suspects that his sister is in Ingen's custody, 
.exclaims : 

. . . ,bf> she lost, 

The female hate shall spring betwixt our names 
Shall never die. 

Finally, in the last scene of ' The Triumph 
of Love, ' Gerrard observes that 

. . . .the law 

Is but the great man's mule, he rides on it 
"And tramples poorer men under his feet 
Which is much the same as what Strange 
says of the law in ' A Woman is a Weather- 
cock,' II. i., except that he compares it, not 
to a mule, but to an ass : 

../. .some say some men on the back of law 
ride and rule it like a patient ass. 

H. DUGDALE SYKES. 
Enfield. 

(To be continued.) 



HARBOBNE on HABBRON FAMILY. (See 
.3 S. iv. 471; 9 S. iii. 308, 372; iv. 89, 275.) 
The following references to printed books, 
containing references to members of this 
family, may prove useful to some reader or 
future reader. The name in its many 
variants appears to be derived from the 
place-name Harborne in the Midlands, and 
from Hartburn on the Tees, for the northern 
{branches. 



British Record Society, Index Library 
vol. iv. pp. 3, 20, 24, 97 ; vol. v., bundle H. 5 
Xo. 38 ; H. 14, Xo. 16 ; H. 21, Xo. 62 ; 
H. 23, Xo. 34 ; H. 37, Xo. 22 ; H. 38, Xo. 18 ; 
H. 48, Xo. Qla : H. 57, Xo. 57 : H. 62, 
Xo. 30 ; H. 72, Xo. 57 ; H. 73, Xo. 13 ; 
H. 77, Xo. 53 ; H. 80, Xo. 35 : H. 88, Xo. 49 ; 
H. 116, Xo. 180; H. 117, Xo. 14; H. 118, 
Xo. 141 ; H. 119, Xo. 149 ; H. 120, Xos. 1, 
68, 149 ; vol. vii. pp. 54, 533 ; vol. x. p. 252 (2), 
vol. xviii. p. 143 ; vol. xxxiii. p. 57. Pap, 
worth, pp. 304, 835; Burke's 'Gen. Armoury,' 
p. 454. 'Genealogists' Guide,' p. 377. 
Fairbairn's ' Crests, Biog. Diet. English 
Catholics,'' p. 121. Yorks Arch. Soc. Re; 
cords Papers Index Marriage Lie. x. 194 - 
xiv. 491, 492. Northumberland and Dur- 
ham Parish Reg. Soc. Middleton St. George, 
Bishop Middleham. ' Cal. State Papers 
Compounding,' vol. i. pp. 89, 2080 : vol. iv. 
pp. 92, 672, 2797, 2798. Directory X. and 
E. Yorks, 1823. Yorks Par. Reg. Soc. 
Marks by the Sea, Kirkleathain, Terrington. 
Grant- James, 'The History of the Church 
of St. Germain Marske by the Sea. Harl. 
Soc. Pub., vols. i. 5, 12, 15, 46, and Grantees 
of Arms. 'Cal. State Papers. Venice,' 
1581-91, many references. 'Domestic,' 
1625-26, p. 345 ; 1547-80, p. <>97 : 1063-10, 
p. 479; 1640-1, p. 326. Gent.' a Mag., 
Ixxx. ii. 198 ; xxxvx. 609 ; Ivi. 996 ; xlii. 
542 ; 44th and 45th Annual Report Dep. 
Keeper Pub. Rec., 'State Papers, Letters 
and Papers Henry 8th,' p. 867. Surtees 
Soc Pub., vol. ii. p. 77 ; vol. ii. p. 186 ; 
vol. xv. p. 77 ; vol. xxxviii. ii. p. 49 ; 
vol. xxi. pp. 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 193, 
194, 195, 196 ; vol. xxii. pp. 56, 124, 130 ; 
lx., xxx., Ixix., vol. cxxv. (Boldeii Boke); 
vol. xcvii. pp. 47, 77, 120, 137, 239, 243 : 
vol. iii. pp. 13, 15, 22, 25, 57, 66, 234-235. 
Surtees, ' History of Durham. ; Victoria 
County History of Durham. Cal. Com. 
Adv. Pub. Money, Domestic, part 1. 1642-56, 
p. 167. Cotman, vol. ii. p. 46. ' Xat. Diet. 
Biog.,' vol. xxiv. Marquis of Salisbury's 
Coll. Hist. MSS., part 4, pp. 104, 61, 258; 
part 8, p. 185 ; part 9, p. 57 ; part 10, p. 214. 
Parish Reg. Soc. Pubs. Stratford-on-Avon, 
Monk Fryston, Yorks, Rowington. (Warwick) 
Solihull. The Reg. of Richard de Kellawe ; 
Cath Rec Soc., vol. xii. p. 78 : vol. xviii. 
pp. 79, 76. Washington Irving, * Life of 
George Washington.' Lansdowne MSS. 
Index. Index Charters and Rolls British 
Museum. 

There are also many records in Reacl- 
marshall, co. Durham, Parish Reg., but 
this is not yet printed. 



168 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vm.FEB.2o, 1021. 



Any further information will be welcomed 
by the writer, especially with reference to 
the Durham branch. 

DUDLEY HARBRON. 



(SJumes. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



BENJAMIN CHOYCE SOWDEN (OR SOWDON), 
"EMINENT ENGLISH POET." In 1781 Ben- 
ja nin Williams edited a volume whose title 
runs : 

"The Book of Psalms, as translated, para- 
phrased, or imitated by some of the most eminent 

British Poets; viz., Addison...... Milton Sowden 

Watts. Salisbury : MDCCLXX1. Price four 

shillings." 

On p. 471 appears a version of Psalm cxlvi. 
attributed to Sowden : 

Indulgent Father ! how divine ! 
How bright thy Bounties are ! 

What is known of this "eminent English 
poet," and where did Williams find the 
version which he quotes ? The name Sow- 
den does not appear in the 'D,N.B.' or in 
the ' Cambridge History of English Litera- 
ture,' or in Holland's ' Psalnists of Britain ' 
(1843), or in Julian's ' Dictionary of Hymno- 
logy ' (1908). In the last (p. 932) it is 
stated that " numerous versions of individual 
Psal us are given in the ' Index to Seasons 
and Subjects ' in this Dictionary ; but no 
such Index is to be found. The British 
Museum Catalogue of Printed Books has 
entries of Sermons on various subjects under 
Sowden, Benjamin (1751, '59, '60), and 
under Sowden, Benjamin Choyce (1780, '98); 
but these volumes include no Psalm versions. 
The two Sowdens turn out to be the same 
man, who is described as "of Emmanuel 
College, Cambridge." 

Through the courtesy of tho Master of 
Emmanuel, I am able to add that 

"Benjamin Choyce Sowdon (it is pretty dis- 
tinctly o in the second syllable in W. Bennetts list of 
members of the College : Bennet was a Fellow in S.'s 
time and possibly his Tutor), or Sowden. was born at 
Rotterdam, and was admitted to the College as a 
Sizar* on March 25, 1773. He intended to study for 
the B.D. degree under the Statutes of Elizabeth. 
He was apparently a 'ten years man,' ie., gener- 
ally a beneficed clergyman who came up for one 
term a year with a view to qualifying ultimately 



for a degree. They did not disappear till the 
Statutes of 1882. Sowdon never graduated. Our 
records are probably complete as regard* names o 
members of the College, but are lamentably lacking 
in other details down to 1877. The above contains 
all we have about Sowdon, and none of his works- 
are in the College Library. The name seems to be 
rare."- 

Sowden's credentials as an eminent Eng- 
lish poet are still to seek. 

P. J. AlSTDERSON. 
University Library, Aberdeen. 

SYRIAC MS. : LIFE AND PASSION OF Ous. 
LORD. Can any reader give information 
about the existence and place of the follow- 
ing manuscript which was mentioned in 
Sotheby's catalogue as for sale on May 21, 
1838- but no price or buyer's name is 
recorded ? The book belonged to Dr. Adarn 
Clarke, F.S.A., M.R.I.A., <&c., whose son, 
the Rev. J. B. B. Clarke, Trin. Coll., Camb,,. 
and assistant curate of Frome, Somerset, 
1834, compiled a catalogue in which among 
Persian, Syriac, Arabic, &c., volumes the- 
MS. is thus described : 

"The life &; passion of our blessed Lord; in- 
Syriac; collected from the four evangelists: one 
of the old evangelistaria : it is a kind of Harmony 
of the gospels, giving our Lord's life in the words o 
the evangelists. " 

The .following is a note in the hand- 
writing of Mr. Edward Ives of Titchfield, 
Hants : 

'Turkey, July 2nd, Sunday, 1758. At a pocsr 
Christian town called Caiiialisk Gawerkoe, situated 
about six hours' journey S. of Mosul, this MS. I 
bought of a Deacon then belonging to the old 
Christian Church there ; and the town he informed 
me was once the seat of a Chaldaean Bishop." 

The MS. is written in the ancient Estran- 
gelian character, in a very bold hand. It 
was. much damaged and in ruins, but has- 
been most beautifully inlaid in English 
paper and arranged by my father, and now 
forms one of the best preserved and most 
ancient Syriac MSS. extant, being probably 
upwards of 1,000 years old. It formerly 
belonged to Jacob Bryant. Very large 
quarto, strongly extra bound by one of the- 
first hands in stamped Russia, pp. 368. 

GEORGE HORNER. 
The Athenaeum, Pall Mall. S.W.I. 

AN ELIZABETH SHOE HORN : JANE AYRES.. 
This shoeing horn is inscribed as follows : - 

" This is Jane Ay res shoeine Home made by the 
hands of Robert Mindurn 1595. '' 

Can any reader by any chance give me any 
information regarding Jane Ayres ? 

PERCIVAL >. GRIFFITHS, F.S.A* 

Sandridgebury, St. Albans. 



i2s.vm.FEB .26/1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



169 



PRINCE RUPERT'S FORT, CORK HARBOUR. 
When Marlborough's fleet attacked the 
harbour entrance September, 1690, it was 
engaged by a battery of eight guns, even- 
tually silenced by three landing-parties of 
resolute seamen. Lord Wolseley says these 
guns were at Prince Rupert's Fort. Old 
maps show a fort of this name as late as 
1774. It is a matter for research as to why 



it was so-called. 
It may have 



been erected by Prince 



Rupert's men circa 1649, or, merely named 
after him in consequence of his nava 
successes against the Dutch, 1666/7. Some 
attribute the building to Lord Mount joy 
Both this and a Prince Rupert's Tower at 
Kinsale appear to have been contemporary 
and to have been close to the water's edge 
at the entrance of their respective harbours 



Can any reader of 



& Q.' supply 



additional information regarding Prince 
Rupert's Fort in Cork Harbour, or indicate 
any picture or tij.r- previous to 1774 ? 

R, C. L. H. 

RICHARD III. Is there any record of the 
natural children of King Richard III., and 
of their descendants ? MEDINEWS. 

ORIGINAL PORTRAITS OF JOHN HOWARD, 
THE PHILANTHROPIST. According to his own 
declaration, John Howard would never 
allow his portrait to be taken. He was 
much annoyed by some who followed him 
in the streets of London for this purpose, 
but generally managed to escape them. 

The best and most authentic portrait is 
that by Thomas Holloway, an artist of some 
note, and an intimate friend of Howard. 
He was much in his company. This was 
done in India ink, and is the basis of many 
of Howard's likenesses. It .was engraved for 
Brown's ' Life of Howard.' It is admirably 
executed. This is now in my possession. 

There is a "pencil sketch," a mere out- 
line, taken by stealth whilst in church. 
It was originally owned by Mr. Palmer, 
M.P. for Reading. 

Two plaster casts of Howard's face were 
taken after his death by order of Prince 
Potemkin, who retained one, and gave the 
other to Thomasson, Howard's servant, 
when it was purchased by Mr. Whitbread. 

The Gentleman' 's Magazine for 1790 speaks 
of a portrait of Howard from an original 
sketch "taken by stealth in church." 
Whether it is the one above referred to is 
a question. 

I have also in my possession a beautiful 
pastel, full length, size 21 by 28 in., oval, 



representing Howard sitting at a table, 
holding a paper, marked "Howard on 
Prisons," but the features are much younger 
than in other portraits : the artist, unknown. 

There was a print engraved by Edmund 
Scott, published in London, Sept. 22, 1789, 
about four months before Howard's death. 
It purports to be from an " original picture " 
by Mather Brown, an American artist, born 
Oct. 7, 1761; died in May, 1831. There 
were two of these paintings : one in the 
National Portrait Gallery, the other in 
Howard's house at Cardington. I have 
this print in my possession. 

If from an " original picture," does this 
mean that Howard receded from his deter- 
mination not to sit for his likeness, and 
finally yielded ? Or, did the artist paint 
him from memory, whenever he may have 
seen him ? The size of the print is 17 by 
14 in. It is doubtless a good likeness, and 
indicates the character of the subject. 

At whose request was this portrait 
painted? Is it really an "original"? 
Who knows anything of its history ? Who 
was the first owner ? 

I shall be glad to know of any other 
portraits of John Howard. 

HOWARD EDWARDS. 
2026 Mount Vernon Street, Philadelphia, U.S.A. 

EDWARD SNAPE. Who was Edward 
Snape, whose portrait was painted by 
Whitty and engraved by Godby ? Was he 
of the famous family of veterinary surgeons 
to the King ? I understand that the last 
in direct descent of that line was a clergyman 
and not a "vet." Edward Snape's portrait 
was published in May 1, 1791. 

D. A. H. MOSES. 

78 Kennington Park Road. 

[Our Correspondent will find lives of James 
Newton and John Pordage, about whom he also 
enquires, in the ' D.N.B.'j 

"H. K.," MEMBER FOR MALDON. In a 
joem by an anonymous writer, entitled 
Oppression,' and published in London, 
1765, the phrase "Portsmouth Yankey " 
appears. 

This is said to be the first appearance of 
he word " yankee," and it is applied to a 
member of the House of Commons of the 
)eriod, who was a native of Portsmouth, 
N.H., had removed to England, entered 
Parliament and was a supporter of the 
Stamp Act. He is referred to as "H. K." 
Can any one identify him ? He was 



apparently member for Maldon. 



CUB DO OK* Y 



170 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vin.FE B .26 f i92i. 



THE MANNEQUIN OR DRESSMAKER'S DOLL. 
I am anxious to trace eighteenth-cen- 
tury references to the mannequin or dress- 
maker's doll. Rose Bertin, the leading 
French modiste of the seventeen-eighties 
(and, I think, other dressmakers), was accus- 
tomed to communicate the newest Paris 
fashions to the capitals of Europe by sending 
to them an elaborately dressed doll, iSmile 
Langlade, in his * Life of Rose Bertin,' refers 
to the practice, which is also touched on in 
the first number of the Cabinet des Modes 
(Nov. 15, 1785), where the method of the 
fashion-plate Planche in taille douce 
enluminee- is commended as far better. 
Certainly by the end of the century the 
fashion-plate, both in France and England, 
had reached so high a level of artistic ex- 
cellence as entirely to supersede the dressed 
doll. But I should like to trace eerlier 
references to the mannequin and to discover 
if any actual specimens remain in museums 
or private hands. Some of the dolls in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum may possibly 
be mannequins, but I know of no authentic 
evidence to this effect. 

TSToRAH RICHARDSON. 

Red House, Wilton, Salisbury. 

TAVERN SIGNS. What is the derivation 
of the following tavern signs which I have 
lately seen on public-houses in London. 
Xone of them is given in Larwood and 
Hotten's ' History of Sign Boards ? '- 

Old Blade Bone, Bethnal Green Road. 

Sun in the Sands, Old Dover Road, 
Blackheath. 

Flying Scud, Hackney Road. 

Rose of Denmark, Newington Causeway. 

Hares Foot, Mortimer Street. 
, British Queen, Old Street, E. 

PHILIP GOSSE. 

25 Argyll Road, Kensington, W.8. 

SHEFFIELD PLATE : MATTHEW BOULTON. 
A presentation of Sheffield plate was 
recently made, and according to the report 
of an expert the two candelabra and four 
candlesticks were the work of Matthew 
Boulton at the Soho Works, Sheffield, about 
1815, and bore his mark of "the Sun in 
Splendour," double struck. The pair of 
wine coolers also bore his mark and their 
date was about 1810. The famous Soho 
Works were of course and still are in Bir- 
mingham (not in Sheffield) ; Matthew Bolton 
was born and remained all his lifetime in 
Birmingham, where he died on Aug. 18, 
1809. Moreover, his mark was a horseshoe 



surmounted by a ball, according to Bertie 
Wyllie's ' Sheffield Plate ' (re-issued in 1913). 
I have not seen the presentation plate myself 
and suspect that the " Sun. in Splendour, 
double struck " is probably the mark of the 
Soho Plate Co., also of Birmingham, namely 
two stars of eight points each ; but I am 
open to conviction. Mr. Wyllie states that 
Boulton had moved from Sheffield to 
Birmingham in 1764 and started silver 
plating in that town too. As a matter of 
fact the Soho Works were opened by him in 
1762. His biographers say nothing about his 
stay in Sheffield but tell us that his father 
with whom he served his apprenticeship had 
been a silver stamper and piercer at Bir- 
mingham. L. L. K. 

ARMY BADGES. I am anxious to know 
when the present badges of rank worn by 
officers and W.O.s and N.C.O.s of the army 
at the present time came in to use. 

What badges were worn before the 
present ones ? 

Are the chevrons on the uniform of the 
City Marshall relics of such badges ? 

Why do the metal stars worn by officers 
bear the motto Tria juncta in uno ? 

Is it correct to say that the title major- 
general is a shortened form of sergeant- 
major-general ? TERRIER. 

RANELAGH IN PARIS. I understand that 
these gardens were opened in 1774. Did 
they ever 'attain a fashionable reputation, 
and when were they closed ? The location 
of Ranelagh Gardens is still indicated in the 
topography of the French capital by an 
avenue; a rue, and a square, so named, in 
the Passy district. J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

101 Piccadilly., 

MRS. SUSANNA GORDON.-^-! find among 
my family papers a 'Copy Mr. Jeremy's 
Opinion on instructions to settle Bill by the 
Rev. Mr. Plees against Mr. Short and Wife,' 
and wish to trace the relationships or 
associations of the various persons named 
therein ; also anything of interest relating to 
the matter itself. The opinion, given by 
" George Jeremy, Lincoln's Inn, 21st Jan- 
uary, 1835," commences as follows : 

" Presuming that the Will of Mrs. Susanna 
Gordon was duly executed to pass real Estates 
as it appears to have been, I am of Opinion, that 
Mr. and Mrs. Plees have the same grounds for 
proceeding in Equity as she had ; but the case 
must, of course, be supported by evidence.... 
If such evidence be forthcoming I think Mr. and 
Mrs. Plees have good grounds of proceeding. 
At all events, I should think that, under the 



12 S. VIII. FEB. 26, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



171 



^circumstances of the case the effect of filing a 
bill would be well worth the trial. And I have 
-accordingly altered that originally drawn by 
me on behalf of Mrs. Susanna Gordon as Plain tiff 
and made M.r. and Mrs. Plees Plaintiffs in the 
proposed Suit in her stead. I have also intro- 
dxiced the Annuitants and Legatee under Mrs. 
Susanna Gordon's Will as parties Defendants 
therein, because Miss Williams, being an Infant, 
she cannot disclaim, and must therefore be made 
a Party, &c., &c." 

Other names occurring in the Opinions are 
those of Mrs. Williams, Mr. Barnes, and the 
.aforesaid Mr. and Mrs. Short. 

The will of a Mrs. Susanna Gordon, of 
New Milman Street, St. Pancras, widow and 
.relict of Alexander Gordon, late of Charter- 
house Square, was proved in 1834. Amongst 
those mentioned in it are her sons (Richard 
Osborne, John Rolfe, and George), a de- 
ceased daughter (Mrs. Mary Ann Bickler), 
and two surviving daughters (ILaisanna Rolfe 
Gordon, and Mrs. Hannah 7> /ie Rowett). 

It seems likely that the R \ Mr. (William 
Gordon) Plees 's mother was born a Gordon 
(? Janet). Any further information will be 
of interest. F. GORDON ROE. 

Arts Club, 40 Dover Street, W. 

FIELDSON FAMILY. I should be much 
obliged for any information regarding the 
surname of Fieldson. The family came 
originally from the city of Lincoln, England. 

I have been told that it is a corruption of 
Fielding, Fieldsend, or one of the many 
^variations of the name Field, all of which 
are found fairly frequently. 

R. L. FIELDSON 

74 Hutchison Street, Montreal, Canada. 

SIR SIMON LE BLANO, Justice of the 
King's Bench ; who died unmarried Apr. 15, 
1816, was the second son of Thomas Le 
Blanc of Charterhouse Square, London. 
I should be glad to obtain the date of his 
birth, or baptism, and the maiden name of 
lii.s mother, concerning whom the 'Diet. 
Nat. Biog. x (xxxii. 330) says nothing . 

G. F. R, B. 

"PERFIDE ALBION." In a quotation 
book I find the expression " Perfide Angle- 
terre " attributed to Bossuet, but who first 
-called England "Perfide Albion " ? 

G. A. ANDERSON. 
Woldingham. 

SCOTTISH EMIGRANTS AFTER CULLODEN. 
I have a small illustration of a gold badge 
with Prince Charles Edward Stuart on it, 
and the paper from which it was taken says 
it formerly belonged to an old Scottish 
family, who migrated to Ireland soon after 



the battle of Culloden. Does any one know 
the name of that family ? and if there are any 
descendants living ? (Mrs.) C. STEPHEN. 
Wootton Cottage, Lincoln. 

OLD ANGLO-INDIAN SONGS. Can any one 
inform me who wrote the following songs, 
well known to all Anglo-Indians : ' The 
Buffalo Battery,' and 'Wrap me up in my 
old stable jacket.' I would also be obliged 
if some one could give me the words in full. 
H. E. RUDKIN, Major. 

Brewery House, Wallingford, Berks. 



JOHN THORNTON OF COVENTRY, 
AND THE GREAT EAST WINDOW OF 

YORK MINSTER. 
(12 S. vii. 481 ; viii. 52.) 

MR. JOHN D. LE COUTEUR'S thoughtful and 
considered criticism of my note on John 
Thornton, merits an equally careful reply, 
which I now give. 

1. In the absence of any direct evidence, 
MR. LE COUTEUR, in contending that John 
Thornton was more probably a practitioner 
in a school of glass-painting situated at 
Coventry than, as I suggested, at Notting- 
ham, is just as likely to be correct as I. 
The fact that there was a John Coventre 
working on the St. George's Chapel windows 
in 1352-3, and a John Thornton of Coventry 
executing the great east window of York 
Minster in 1405-8, certainly points to the 
fact that there were, at any rate, one or 
more glass-painters there. Bat that Coven- 
try cannot have been of importance as a 
school of design is shown by the fact that 
forty years after Thornton came to York, 
when we should naturally expect the 
Coventry school, if it existed at all, to 
have grown both in numbers and in skill, 
the order for the windows of the Beauchamp 
Chapel at Warwick, not many miles away, 
was not placed there but in Westminster. 
The reasons for preferring Nottingham as 
a more probable centre for a school of 
glass-painting in the Midlands are firstly, 
that window-making is not only an art but 
a manufacture, in which the raw material, 
lead and glass, is heavy stuff. When roads 
were few and bad, the chief method of 
transport for heavy goods was by water. 
Moreover, most of the glass had to be 



172 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.viii.FEB.2o,i92i. 



imported from the Continent, hence the | 
chief centres for glass-painting were situated 
on navigable rivers having an outlet on the 
east coast. This explains why fat orders 
from Durham, which did not possess a 
navigable river, and from Cumberland and 
Lancashire, to reach which entailed a 
voyage all round England, came to line the 
pockets of the York glass-painters on the 
banks of the Ouse. (Vide 'Durham Acct. 
Rolls,' ed. by Rev. Canon Fowler, Surtees 
Soc. ; and ' Will of Sir John Petty, glass- 
painter of York, Test. Ebor.,' Surtees Soc.) 
Nottingham had its ships sailing direct to 
the Continent, whence came not only glass, 
but new ideas ; and in dealing with Thornton 
it must not be overlooked that he was 
regarded by his contemporaries not only as 
n artist of outstanding merit, but also as 
an innovator, for he evidently displaced John 
Burgh, the glass-painter. The latter was 
doing work for the Minster in 13C9, and he 
was still being employed by the Dean and 
Chapter for repairs in 1419. ('York Min- 
ster Fabric Rolls,' Surtees Soc.). But he 
must have been quite out of dato in 1405 
when Thornton was brought to York, for 
at that moment what was wanted was not 
only glass of "new colour-: such as is 
mentioned in the ' Durham Account Rolls ' 
of 1404, but new ideas also. Lastly, 
Nottingham seems to have been a centre 
for church furnishers. One of these, 
Nicholas Hill, did a thriving trade as a 
carver of statues and sent his wares as far 
as London. One consignment consisted of 
110 fewer than fifty-eight heads of St. John 
the Baptist, some of them with canopies 
('Nottingham Records,' iii. 18, 20, &c.). 
In 1367 the altar table or reredos of St. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, was made there, 
evidently because it was carved in alabaster. 
It was not, however, taken to Windsor by 
water but by road, requiring eighty horses 
and ten carts to move it.* 

2. Through hasty writing I have un- 
fortunately misquoted rather than (as MB. 
LE COURTEUR courteously and kindly puts 
it) "mistaken the purport of " a query on 
p. 20 of his 'Ancient Glass in Winchester,' 
which is inexcusable and which I regret. 
As MR. LE COUTEUR shows, John Coventre 

* The Neville screen (still to be seen in Durham 
Cathedral) and the base of the shrine of St. Cuth- 
bert were done by a London carver and sent by 
water to Newcastle ; the prior of the abbey under- 
took the cartage thence to Durham. " Durham 
Account Rolls," ed. by the Rev. Canon Fowler. 
Surtees Soc. iii., p. xxix. 



working at Westminster in 1352-3, ancl- 
John Thornton of Coventry who was stil! 
alive in 1433 cannot have been one and the 
same person. 

3. The reasons for assuming that the 
windows of St. Stephen's Chapel and of the 
Chapter House and St. George's Chapel at 
Windsor were rushed through are as follow : 
Until the -year 1344 Edward III. ftadbeen 
building the Round Tower at Windsor 
which was (according to W. J. Loftie.,- 
' Windsor Castle,' p. 58) "built in haste," 
though never finished, the work being, 
evidently interrupted by the departure of 
the King and his army for the renewal of the 
French war in 1345 which culminated in 
the battle of Crecy. On his return work 
was not resumed on the Round Tower ; the 
king whilst away had evidently changed hi& 
mind, and in the middle of the year 1348 
founded the Order of the Garter. In August 
of that year the Black Death appeared in 
England and rapidly spread and was at it& 
worst in the second half of 1349. "Seeing 
that " (as stated in a proclamation issued 
the same year), "a great part of the people 
and principally of labourers and servants is 
dead of the plague " (Warburton, ' Edw. III.' 
p. 142) all building was at a standstill. The 
newly formed order had therefore no place 
in which to meet. The king "seeing the 
necessity of masters and the scarcity of 
servants who will not work unless they 
receive exorbitant wages " (ibid.) had 
therefore not only to obtain labour by force 
but to pay wages in excess of his own 2nd 
Statute of Labourers (February, 1350-51).. 
By these mean/? (again to quote W. J. 
Loftie) "the original chapel of St. George,, 
like the Round Tower, was very rapidly and 
hastily erected " ('Windsor Castle,' p. 155) r 
and, as MR. LE COUTEUR shows, in less than 
fifty years more men were impressed to 
repair it, so that it must quickly have 
fallen into a very dilapidated condition. 
For the decoration of the Chapel glass- 
painters and decorators likewise had to be 
impressed, and the power to do this required 
a writ empowering the holder to force whom 
he wished, which document generally con- 
tained a clause entitling him " to commit 
to prison all rebellious subjects therein to 
stay until they find security to serve faith- 
fully," or some similar clause. Moreover^ 
the word "impress " (as a reference to the 
'N.E.D.' shows) always has the sense of 
compulsion and frequently of force ren- 
dered necessary through haste. Thus,. 
Hamlet, "Such impresse of Ship-wright& 



12 s. viu. FEB. ae, K)2i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



173 



whose sore Taske Do's not diuide the Sunday 
from theweeke;" and the example which 
MB. LE COUTEUB gives of Henry V. 
forcibly impressing army surgeons when an 
appeal to the patriotism of the gilds had 
proved a failure, supplies another instance. 
Such means are absolutely without parallel 
in the whole history of window-making. 
Moreover, the St. Stephen's Chapel accounts 
and those for the Chapter House and St. 
George's Chapel at Windsor given in the 
late Sir William St. John Hope's 'Windsor 
Castle ' prove that the time expended on 
the work was extraordinarily short. There 
were three separate and distinct series of 
windows. The first, those for St. Stephen's 
Chapel, were done between June 20 and 
Nov. 28, 1351, i.e., in approximately six 
months. The second for the Chapter House, 
Windsor, were begun early in March, 1352, 
and finished before Whitsunday which in 
1352 fell on May 27, that is in less than 
three months. The St. George's windows 
were begun on June 11, 1352, arid finished 
some time after Michaelmas, thus taking six 
months^ r so to do. As practically the same 
staff of artists was employed we may assume 
that the work was of the same quality 
throughout, and if we may judge from 
published drawings of fragments of the 
St. Stephen's glass, the work was of an 
elaborate character. Considering the primi- 
tive .nethods of cutting glass and firing it 
then available, it is remarkable that the 
work could be done in the time. The items 
quoted by MB. LE COUTETJB from the 
accounts for 1353 are for making packing 
cases. The glass itself, however, according 
to Sir William St. John Hope had been 
finished for some time during which it was 
"kept there (i.e., at Westminster) until the 
following March when it was sent to Windsor 
and set up in the chapel windows " ('Wind- 
sor Castle,' i. p. 143). 

4. My suggestion (made with all diffi- 
dence) that the east window of Great 
Malvern Priory representing the Passion of 
Our Lord might possibly be a later work of 
Thornton's was founded upon the remark- 
able similarity in the details of this window 
to those in the St. William window at York, 
notably in the sleeves tight on the forearm 
with three buttons below, furred round the 
cuff and puffed above the elbow; in the 
chaplets of leaves with "owche " in front 
worn by some of the male figures, and in the 
thickness of the traced lines in shadow 
parts such as under the eyelids and under 
the tip of the nose. (For a minute and 



learned- description over one hundred 
fifty pages in length see the late Dr. James 
Fowler's paper, Yorks. Arch&ol. Journal r 
vol. iii.) The little figures in the canopy 
shafts are certainly characteristic of much 
of the work of the York school, but they are 
by no means universal and are only intro- 
duced where there was room for them. 
Thus of the hundred and five panels in the St.. 
William window only the five panels of 
donors contain figures in the she/f tings-. 
These figures are also to be seen in work 
far removed from York, e.g., at Altenberg' 
in Germany. JOHN A. KJSTOWLES. 



TERCENTENARY HANDLIST OF 
NEWSPAPERS. 

(12 S. viii. 38, 91; see vii. 480.) 
ONE of MB. ROLAND AUSTIN'S criticisms- 

of Mr. J. G. Muddiman's Handlist ' 

the suggestion that that he " might well 
have asked publicly for assistance in com 
piling lists " appears to a fellow-student 
of the newspaper not quite sound. Had 
Mr. Muddiman taken this course he would* 
surely unless his collaborators had all 
been" students already familiar with his 
main sources of information, the British 
Museum collections have been overwhelmed 
by a tremendous mass of data already under 
his hand, the checking and collating and 
sifting of which would have made his task 
even more laborious than, it has already 
been. The method he has adopted, of invit- 
ing collaboration after the publication of his 
'Handlist,' is really the better one, as it 
avoids any overlapping of research, and 
provides only for additions which actually 
do supply gaps in his consecutive summary 
of newspaper history. No student and lover 
of the old newspaper can be too grateful for 
that summary, or for the help and stimulus 
of all Mr. Muddiman's work in this wide 
field of research. 

The following list slightly supplements the 
Handlist.' I hope, later, further to supple- 
ment and annotate it and particularly to 
ante-date many provincial papers already 
included by comparison with a large collec- 
tion in private hands, for the moment 
inaccessible. 

I am indebted to Mr. H. Tapley Soper for 
access to notes for an as yet unpublished 
history of Trewman's Exeter Flying Post. 

PART I. LONDON. 

1743. The British Intelligencer, nr Universal' 
Advertiser. No. 10, May 23. (Salisbury 
Museum.) 



174 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vin. FEB. 26, 1921. 



1803. Le Miroir de la Mode. Vol. i., Jan. -Dec. 
(Victoria and Albert Museum.) 

PART II. PROVINCIAL. 

1771 The Maryborough Journal. No. 2, April 5, 
1771 July 2, 1774. (Marlborough.) See 
paper by Mr. J. J. Slade irj Wilts 
Archaeological, &c., Magazine. t Vol. xl. 

1352. The Original Letters of Smith, Brown, Jones 
and Robinson. To the Inhabitants of 
Salisbury and Wilton. No. 1, June 12 
No. 5, July 10. 

1854. The Salisbury Times and Wiltshire Mis- 
cellany. No. 1, Nov.- 4. 

1877. The VViltshire Telegraph. No. 1, Jan. 13 
in progress. (Devizes.) See paper by 
Mr. J. J. Slade, us above. 



Page of Handlist. 

33 (1) 



NOTES. 



The Present State of Europe. Vol. ii., 
No. 11, Nov. 1691. (Writer's collection.) 
33 (2) The Flying Post. No. 4428, Apr. 7-9, 1720. 

( Writer 's collection . ) 
50(1) Evans' and Ruff's Farmers' Journal. For 

Ruff read Ruffy. 

217 (1) The Bristol Post- Boy, etc. No. 281, Mar. 
20, 1708; No. 287', Sept. 10, 1709; and 
No. 340, Aug. 26,1710. In the possession 
of Miss Georgina Taylor, of Bristol. 
219 (1) and 224 < 2) The Salisbury Journal. No. 58, 
July 6, 1780. Last number of first issue. 
In the possession of Messrs. Bennett 
Bros , Salisbury. 

- 

bnry and Winchester .Journal, Dec. 
1772 in progress. See 7>aper by Mrs. 
Herbert Richardson in Wilts. Archaeo- 
logical, etc. Magazine, Vol. xli. 

224 (2) The Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette. This 

was originally Simpson's Salisbury 
Gazette and Wilts, Hams, Dorset and 
Somerset Advertiser. No. }, Jan. 4, 
1816- July 1819. Continued as The 
Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette. July 
1819-Nov. 1 1, 1909. See paper by Mr. 
J. J. Slade in Wilts. Arch geological ^.etc. 
Magazine, Vol. xl. 

225 (1) Trewman's Exeter Flying Post. This was 

originally The Exeter Mercury or West- 
Country Advertiser. No. l\ Sent. 2, 
1763 No. 97. Continued as The Exeter 
Evening Post or The West Country 
Advertiser, .No. 98, July 11, 1765"; 
and as The Exeter Evening Post or The 
Plymouth and Cornish Courant, No. 99, 
July _18, 1765 No. 210. Continued as 

mth 



The Exeter Evening Post or Plymouth 
and Cornish Advertiser. No 211, Sept 
18, 1767 No. 292; and as Trewman's 
Exeter Evening Post or Plymouth and 
Cornish Advertiser, No. 293, Apr. 28, 
3769 No 379. Continued as Trewman's 
Exeter Flying Post or Plymouth and 
Cornish Advertiser. No. 380, Dec. 28, 
1770 (with various slight modifications of 
title, such as occasional dropping of 
* Trewman's ' and final dropping of 



sub titles) to Apr. 21, 1917. the last issue. 

( V 7 ery complete files in Exeter Public 

Library). 

240 (1 ) Trowbridue Advertiser. No. 1 . May 6. 1854. 
243 (2) S \vindon Advertiser. No. 1, Feb. 6, 1854. 

XOBAH RICHARDSON. 

PART II PROVINCIAL. ADDITIONS (Boi/rox). 
1813. Bolt on Herald. No. J, May 1, date of cessa- 
tion unknown. 
1823. Bolton Express and Lancashire Advertiser. 

July 5, 1823 to June 26, 1827. 
Bolton Reflector. No. 1-19, July 12 to Nov. 
22, J823. 

1830. .Bolton Literary Journal. Vol. 1, 1830-1. 

1831. Working Man's Friend. No. 1-14, Feb. 1, 

1831. to April 14, 1832. 

1848. Bolton Band of Hope Messenger. 1848 to 1880. 

1849. Farn worth and Kersley Moral Reformer. 

No. 1. March, 1849. 
1851. Bolton Protestant Association. No. 1-12, 

3851. 
Bolton Bee. No. 1-12, June, 1851 to May, 1852. 

1853. The Boltonian. No 1-3, 1853. 

1855. Bolton Monthly Advertiser. No. 1-26, May, 
1854 to June, 1856 

1858. Bolton Examiner. Dec. 30, 1858. Ceased 

publication in 1862. 
Chirps from the Robin. No. 1, Nov. 13, 1858. 

1859. Bolton Independent. -Oct. 8. 1859 to Jan 21, 

1860. Continued as Bolton Guardian Jan. 
28, 1861) to Dec. 31, 1892. Incorporated 
with Bolton Journal May 27, 1893. In 
" progress. 

1864. Rechabite Magazine. Jan. 1864. (Was still 
issued in 1886). 

1871. Bolton Weekly Journal. Nov. 4. 1871, to 
May 20, 1S93. Continued as Bolton Jour- 
nal' and Guardian, May 27, 1893. lu 
progress. 

1874. Bolton Free Christian Church Record. No. 
1-4, 1874. 

1877. Journal Budget. Vol. 1, 1877. 

1881. Phonetic Reporter. Jan., 1881 to Dec. 1882. 

1854. Bolton Standard. May 3, 1884, to Dec. 5, 

1885. 

1885. Warbler and Football Reporter. Aug. 29 to 
Dec. 12. 18*5. 

1887. TheBrifH. Nc. 1-12, 1887-9. 

1890. Bolton Co-operative Record. 1890. In pro- 
gress. 

Labour Light. 1890. Continued as The 
Leader. 

1894. Bolton Evening Echo. No. 1-54, June 4 to 
Aug. Hi, 1S94. 

1896. Bolton Review. Vol. 1, 1898-7. Continued 
as The Lancashire Review. 

1899. Bolton District Congregationalist. In pro- 
gress. 

1905. Bolton Municipal Officer. 1905-1913. 
Bolton, Bury. Leigh, and District Deaf and 

Dumb Society Quarterly News. 1905. 

1906. Guild of Help Magaz ne. 1903-1914. 

1907. Bolton Churchman. No. 1-12, Nov., 1907 to 

Nov. 1908. 

190 4 !. Green Final. Sept., 190% to Dec., 1917. 
1910. Supers. Vol. 1, 1910. In progress. 
1912. Popular Science Monthly. No. 1-11, Jan. to 

Nov., 1912. 



12 s. viii. FEB. 20, 1021.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



175 



227 1 

227 I 

:234 2 

235 2 

538 2 

233 1 

-254 1 

.62 1 



277 2 
-289 1 



312 2 
314 2 
Index. 



CORRECTIONS. 

Voice of Truth. Commenced Clitliproe, 
Jnru, 1830 Published ai Koltuii, Feb., 
1831, to Dec , 1833. 

Bolton Chronicle. Commenced Oct. 9, 
1824. Ceased publication, Dec. 22, 1917. 

Bolton Advertiser July, 1848 t<> -Inly, 
1900 Was known as Mackie s Advertiser 
until Angus'-, 1851. 

British Temperance Advocate. Com- 
menced Bolton. July, 1849. 

Winterburju'H Advertiser. Commenced 
January I. !854. and ceased pnnie year. 

Bowtun Luminary. 1852 to 862. 

Bolton Kveiiig Ne\vs. AJarch ]9, 1867- 
In progress. 

Frti-nwortli Observer, 18RO 1o !873- Con- 
tinued as Farn worth Weekly Journal 
and Observer, 187'^. In progress. 

Bolt.on Daily Cnronic^-. C>ramenced 
Sept. 8, 1SG8. Ceased publication Dec. 22, 
1917. 

Football FieH. Ceased public ition 1015. 

Bolton Express Full tille. Bol.ron Express 
and County Kifcctive A^vertisei. 

Bolton Star, jNo.'l to 5G June 5, 1891 
to June 2,>. : 1"92. 

Bolton (:J:-iznite. Ceased publication after 
a few numbers. 

Farnwnrtli Chronicle. Ceased publication 
D-c, 1917. 

Bol'-on Catholic lit- raid. No. 1 issued 
1894. 

Bolton Citizeri. Index states page 320; 
should be p. -me 322. 

ARCHIBALD SPASKB. 



ROYAL BRITISH BANK (12 S. viii. ISO). 
was founded in 1840 and suspended pay- 
ment in September, 1856. The chief pro- 
jector and original Governor of the bank 
was John McGregor, 31. P. for Glasgow, who 
died soon after the closing of the b&nk and 
so escaped prosecution. The directors (ex- 
cept McGregor and another who had fiecl 
the country to avoid arrest) were tried for 
conspiracy to defraud and convicted in 
February, 1858, together with the manager , 
Hugh Innes Cameron. They were sentenced 
to various terms of impr; .uong 

them were Humphry Brown, M.P. for 
"Tewkesbury, Richard Hartley Kennedy, 
Alderman of London, and Henry Dunning 
Macleod, author of a \vork on the ' Theory 
and Practice of Banking ' and of a text -book 
of Political Economy, and also of ., ' History 
of Banking in Great Britain.' There is R.TI 
article on Mr.oleod in the second supple- 
ment of the 'D.N.B.' in which, no reference 



...is ma.de to his connexion with !]' 
I British Bank. Ih v-;;s son-in-law of (' 
von. McGregor, who was a \vry strong Free 
'Trader, (as were Brown and Macleod) luvl 

"been one of the two Permanent Secretaries 



to the Board of Trade and had much to do 
with the preparation of Sir Robert Peel's 
measure for the repeal of the Corn Laws. 
I believe he was the " Popkins "of " Pop- 
kins' Plan " on which Disraeli poured ridicule 
in his speech on the third reading of the bill. 
A full account of the trial of the directors 
will be found in Morier Evans' ' Facts, 
Failures, and Frauds,' pp. 268-390. 

ALFRED B. BE A VEX. 
Leamington. 

The Royal British Bank failed on Sept. 3, 
1856 ; some directors brought to trial, 
Feb. 27, 1858. See 'Annals of 'our Trials,' 
by J. Irving, under these dates. 

E. C. A.-L. 

Sm ROBERT BELL OF BEATPRE (12 S. 
vi. 39 ; vii. 178, 414, 475). I am grateful to 
MR. BEDWELL for asking my authority for 
my statement regarding " Robert Bell of 
the Temple " in 12 S. vii. 414. As a result 
of further- scrutiny of some papers I find 
that the records of the College of Arms and 
of the Temple do not quite tally with regard 
to the Robert Bell referred to. From the 
records in the former which was - the 
principal authority for my statement it 
appears that the arms " Sa., on a chevron 
between three church bells ar. as many 
lion's heads couped gu." were granted by 
oatent in 1560 to "Robert Bell, of the 
Temple, London, son of William Bell of co. 
York." These were not the arms borne by 
Sir Robert Bell of Beaupre, which were 
"Sa., a fesse erm. between three church 
bells ar." There were thus two Robert 
Bells of the Temple about that time. MR. 
BEDWELL asserts that this was not the case, 
and I think the solution lies partly in the 
fact that " Robert Bell, late of Lyons Inn, 
Gent.," was admitted a member of the Inner 
Temple, on July 13, 1571. Lvon's Inn was 
one of the Inns absorbed by the Inner 
Temple. Sir Robert Bell, Cliief Baron of 
the Exchequer, was a member of the Middle 
Temple. But even now the question is not 
solved for in the patent of arms granted to 
Robert Bell in 1560 he is described as "of 
liic Temple," whereas the Robert Bell, 
formerly of Lvon's Inn, was not admitted 
to the Inner Temple until 1571. It would, 
appear, therefore, either that one Robert 
Bell has been lost sight of in the Temple 
records ; or that Sir Robert Bell had two 
grants of arms. Doubtless the College of 
Arms could throw light on this point. I 
regret that I wrote "Hertfordshire" where 



176 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 20, 1921. 



I should have written "Huntingdonshire" 
as being the county in which Robert Bell of 
the Temple (and formerly of Lyon's Inn) 
was settled. He lived at Leighton in that 
comity, and inquiries in all the usual sources 
of information have failed to discover 
whether he had any issue, or, indeed, 
whether he was married. 

H. WILBERFORCE-BELL. 

" SUCH AS MAKE NO MusiCK" (12 S.viii,131). 
It may be noted with interest that the 
above phrase, in conjunction with the one 
immediately proceeding it in the original 
("lean subjects"), is practically a para- 
phrase from Shakespeare's much quoted 
description of Cassius in ' Julius Caesar ' : 

Let me have about me men that are fat ; 
Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o'nights : 
Yond' Cassius has a lean and hungry look ; 

Would he were fatter ! but I fear him not : 
Yet it" my name were liable to fear, 
I do not know the man I should avoid 
!So soon as that spare Cassius. 

he loves no plays, 
As thou dost, Anthony ; he hears no music : 

Act. I., scene ii., line 192, &c. 

BEATRICE BOYCE. 

THE GREEN MAN, ASHBOURNE (12 S. 
viii. 29, 77, 113, 157). It may be of interest to 
mention that The Ashbourne News of the llth 
inst. has a long, illustrated description of 
the annual game of football as played in 
the streets of the town on Shrove Tuesday. 

CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

THE HONOURABLE MR. (12 S. viii. 110). 
I append for what it is worth the explana- 
tion that I have heard given in Ceylon of 
the introduction of the "Mr." into the title 
assigned to certain officials in the Crown and 
other Colonies. 

When the late King Edward VII. made 

his visit, as Prince of Wales, to Ceylon in 

1875, he was struck with the number o 

supposed sons of peers who were presented 

to him. He kept asking what noble family 

each respectively represented, and on being 

informed that the honorific merely in 

dicated that they were members of the 

Executive or Legislative Council, gave 

instructions that in future their official 

designations were to include the title of 

"Mr." so as to distinguish them from the 

sons of peers in whose titles it is not included. 

But I am inclined to think that this story 

has been invented to account for a change 

which has certainly been distinctly made in 



all official documents e.nd publications, but 
of which the origin, having never been dis- 
closed, is not known to the general public. 

I am confirmed in this view by the f act- 
that originally, up to the thirties or forties- 
of last century, the full designation of every 
official who bore the title of Honourable was 

"The Honourable Esquire" (see the 

Gazettes and Almanacs of the period). 

PENRY LEWIS. 



A WAKE GAME (12 S. viL 406 - viii. 05). A* 
a child in Dublin, I well remember playing 
' Jenny Jones ' in Merrion Square. My 
recollection is that we played in a ring, with 
one child in the centre,, but I think we all 
sang together. 

We 've come to see Jenny Jones, Jenny Jones,. 

Jenny Jones, 
We've come to see Jenny Jon^s, how is she to-day 

Oh, Jenny Jones is dying, is dying, is dying. 
Jenny Jones is dying, so what shall we wear 
Oh, red is for the soldiers, the soldiers, the soldiers^ 
Kbd is for the soldiers, so that will not c?o ! 

Oh ! blue is for the sailors, &c. 
ih ! black is for the devil. &c. 

Oh ; white is for the angel*, the angels, the angels,, 
White is for the angels, so that will just do !: 

C. B. E. 



CAPT. COOK : MEMORIALS f!2 S, viii. 132).. 
- London can, I think, boast of only two, 
viz., the bronze statue by Brock rected 
near the Admiralty Arch in 1914 ; and a 
tablet commemorative of residence affixed 
by the London County Council in 1907 to 
Mile End Road. " There i* a bronze 
statue by Mr. John Tweed which the late 
Lord Beresford unveiled at Whitfey in 1912,. 
a gift to the town by the Hon. Gervase 
Beckett, M.P. There" is a tablet in St. 
Andrew's Church, Cambridge, with a long- 
inscription to the memory of the navigator 
and several other members of >iis family. 
There is a monument to his memory at 
Great Ayton in Yorkshire, where he was- 
partly educated, erected in 1827 and re- 
stored in 1895. Another monument stands 
on one of the small islands in Lord Temple's 
gardens at Stowe : and in the garden at 
Mereville, erected by La Borde is ' 
tombeau de Cook," with bas reliefs of 
savages, broken columns, and funerary urns. 
There was a monument to Capt. Cook for 
many years at Manby Hall, midway between 
Brigg and Scunthorpe (Lincolnshire), but 
I believe it is now little more than a ruin, 
Cook stayed there just prior to embarking; 
on his last voyage. Probably the finest and'- 



las. VIET. FEB. ao, 1021.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



177 



-roost imposing memorial is the bronze 
statue by Woollier in Hyde Park, Sydney, 
anveiled by Sir Hercules Robinson when 
< Governor of Xew South Wales. At Chalfoiit 
St. Giles, Bucks, Admiral Sir Hugh Palliser, 
.a great friend of Cook's, erected a brick 
building with a pedestal in front of it "To 
Captain James Cook, the ablest and most 
renowned navigator this or any other 
country hath produced." Lastly, there is 
an obelisk in Owhyhee, erected by Lord 
Byron and the officers of the Blonde on the 
-pot where Cook's body was burned. It is 
.a cross of oak ten feet in height with this 
inscription .: 

Sacred 

to the Memory of 

Captain James Cook, R.N., 

who discovered these islands 

in the year of our Lord 1778. 

This humble monument is erected 

by his Countrymen 
in the year of our "Lord 1825. 

WILLOUGHBV MAYCOCK. 

THE OLD HORSE GUARDS BUILDINGS 
12 S. vii. 232, 258; viii. 58). The London 
Magazine, or Gentleman's Monthly Intelli- 
gencer, vol. xxiii., February. 1754, published 
.an engraving of ' The New Buildings for the 
Horse Guards ' with the following paragraph 
ii the opposite page : 

"The apartments for the Horse Guards at the 
entrance of S 1 James's Park, over against the 
.Banqueting House, Whitehall, having been lately 
rebiiilt in an elegant and grand manner, we have 
thought tir, to present our readers with a per 
spective VIEW oi the same, as hereto annexed." 

J. R. H. 

SCOTT'S 'LEGEND OF MONTRQSE ' (12 S 
viii. 129). 4. Mr. H. F. Morland Simpson 
in his edition (Cambridge, 1896) notes tha 

iro, pt. 1, p. 65, of his ' Expedition ' 
"commences his 'Sixteenth Observation 'with th 



words : ' when cannons are 



and bullet 



Hying, he that would have honour must not fear 
( l.yi'>g', perhaps an accidental jingle, which caugh 
Scott's ear," 

According to this Scott would have ad 
i^trd the words to form the first two lines 
which differ in chap. vi. and xii., and adde 
thf two others quoted in the latter chapter. 
T>. In the edition by Mr. \V. Keith Leas 
..1 '.)!>:}) these lines are said to have bee 
attributed on good authority to Capt 



Whoever made them, there is muc 
by in their form, due picsum.-.bly t 
.nisi nis^ion. The version which Scot 
in the "Highland Widow,' chc,p. i., 



not the same, as that in the ' Legend of 
Montrose,' and neither of these agrees with 
the quotation in the ' D.N.B.' life of Wacle. 
EDWARD BENSLY. 

THE SENTRY AT POMPEII (12 S. viii. 131). 
The story has somehow attached itself to 
the tomb of Marcus Cerriiiius Restitutus, 
just outside the Porta Ercolanese. A. J. C. 
Hare gives it, with two mistakes in the 
jelling of Cerriiiius, on p. 212 of his ' Cities 
f Southern Italy and Sicily' (1883), where 
le speaks of 

a vaulted niche, in which the fully-armed skeleton 
: a soldier was found. He was evidently on 
uard at the neighbouring gate, and. faithful to 
is trust, only took shelter here from the burning 
lower, whilst his fellow citizens were escaping. 

But the greatest authority on Pompeii in 
lis day, the late Prof. August Mau, w r ho 
was responsible for the account of Pompeii 
n Baedeker's ' Unter-Italien und Sizilien,' 
leclarecl, p. 148, 13th eel., that the legend, 
ike so many stories about Pompeii, was an 
nvention. 

The ill-informed are still called on at 
imes to believe that the town was over- 
whelmed by a stream of lava ! 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

In 1865 the late Sir Edward Poynter, 
afterwards P.R.A., exhibited in the R.A. 
a painting called ' Faithful unto Death,.' 
which is now in the Walker Gallery at Liver- 
pool, representing a Roman soldier in full 
irmour, awaiting his fate at his post, amid 
the dead and dying. Marc Monnier, * Pom- 
pei et les Pompeiens ' ( ' Tour du Monde,' 
1864) at pp. 415, 416, as reported by W. H. 
Davenport Adams, ' Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum ' (1881), at pp. 268, 271, says : 

"In 1863, under a mass of ruin, the excavators 

discovered an empty space, at whose bottom some 
bones were discernible. They immediately sum- 
moned M. Fiorelli to the spot, -who conceived a 
felicitous idea. He caused some plaster to be 
poured while liquid into the hole, and the same 
operation was renewed at other points where 
similar bones were thought to.be visible. After- 
wards the crust of pumice-stone and hard ashes, 
which enveloped, as in a shroud, the*e objects, 
having been carefully removed, before the eye 
were revealed the skeletons of four human corpses. 
You may see them now in the Museum at Naples.* 

The fourth body is that of a man of uigantic 

stature. He has filing himself on his back to die 
bravely ; his arms and legs are straight and im- 
movable. His clothes are very sharply defined, 
the tunic which once was new arid brilliant, the 
sandals (*<>/< a <) laced to the feet, with the iron 



.They are not now at Naples, but in the 
Museum at Pompeii. J. B. W. 



178 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vm. FEB. 26, 1921 



nails that fastened the wooden soles still plainly 
discernible. <Jn the bone of one ringer he wears a 
ring of iron ; his rnouih is open, and some teeth 
are wanting ; his nose and cheek-bones are boldly 
marked ; the eyes and hair have disappeared, but 
the mustache remains. There is a martial and 
resolute air in this line corpse." 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

CARDINAL DE ROHAN CHABOT (12 S. 
viii. 110). According to L. Lalanne's ' Dic- 
tionnaire historique de la France ' (Paris, 
1872), p. 1574, he was born in 1788 (order of 
names L. F. A.), was chamberlain of the 
Princess Pauline, then of Madame Murat, 
and finally of Napcleon, succeeded 1816 
his father as Due de R-.-C., and became a 
widower in 1815. Next a cavalry colonel, 
he took Hcly Orders (1822), and became 
successively Archbishop of Auch and soon 
after of Besanon (both in 1828) and Car- 
dinal, 1830, dying in 1833. W. A. B. C. 

Grindelwald. 

There is a portrait of "L. F. A. le Due 
de Rohan-Chabot, Prince de Leon, Arche- 
veque de Besancon et Cardinal " in the 
Cathedral House of the diocese. There is 
in existence a lithograph print of it (taken 
about the time of his death in 1833), and 
woodcuts appeared in some of the French 
illustrated periodicals of the period. 
, The Cardinal-Duke, who was born at 
Paris, 1788, escaped as an infant with his 
parents to England at sthe beginning of 
the French Revolution. His ancestors in- 
cluded the famous Admiral de Chabot 
(feeigneur de Brion), who, according to Pere 
Mathieu de Goussencourt in his ' Histoire 
Celestine ' (unpublished Mb. in the Bibl. 
de 1' Arsenal, No. 42 H.I.) : 
" flit inhume le 5 juillet 1545 dans I'e'glise du 
convent des Celestins ou est sa representation 
de marbre blanc au natural." 
It was he who gave the idea of the Colony of 
Canada. ANDREW DE TERNANT. 

36 Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

Louis Francois Auguste, grandson of 
Lieut. -General Louis Antoine Auguste, Due 
de Rohan-Chabot (1753-1807), was bom in 
Paris in ,1788, and died at Chenecey, near 
Besancon in 1833. As Comte de Rohan- 
Chabot he was chamberlain to Napoleon's 
sister Pauline, the Priiicipessa Borghese 
whom Canova has handed down to posterity 
as long as his marble lasts as Venus Victrix. 
(As to this statue see A. J. C. Hare's ' Walks 
in. Rome' (15th edn, 1000), ii. 296.) 

Eventually he became chamberlain to 
Napoleon hi .n self, but, as a good Catholic, 



resisted the treatment meted out to- 
Pope Pius VII. , whom he visited at Fon- 
bainebleau. This resulted in the Comte d& 
Rohan-Chabot being forced to leave France. 
He returned to Paris in 1814 as Prince de- 
Leon. In 1816 he succeeded his father as- 
Due de Rohan-Chabot, and Peer of France.. 
Very shortly afterwards his wife was burnt 
to death. In 1819 he entered the College 
of Saint Siilpiee, arid he was ordained priest 
In 1822. Almost at once he was given a- 
Janonry at Notre Dame, and became \icar- 
General to the Archbishop of Paris. In 
1828 he was consecrated to the Arch- 
bishopric of Auch. Be exchanged this see 
Eor that of Besar^on that same year ; and 
in 1830 he was created a Cardinal. His- 
statue (by Clesinger) is to be seen in hia 
Cathedral Church of St. John at Besancon. 
He declined to recognize Louis Philippe as 
King, and so ended his days in obscurity. 
Most of the above facts are taken from. 
'Ncuveau Larousse Illustre,' vii. 355. 

JOHN B. AVAINEWRIGHT- 

ASKELL (12 S. vii. 409, 513; viii. 75). 
This name occurred in Lancashire at any 
early period. Baines in his ' History of 
Lancashire,' vol. ii. p. 581, referring to the 
history of Cockersand Abbey, says : 

" The earliest notice of this house appears to- 
be in the charter of William de Lancaster, who 
granted to Hugh, a hermit, the place Askelcros 
and Crok, \vith his fishery upon Loyne, to main- 
tain a hospital." 

F. CROOKS. 

"FRANCKiNSENCE"(12S.viii.29,72, 115).- 
The cases of post-Reformation use of incense- 
in the English Church have been examined in 
detail by Mr. Dibden, Q.C., in his speech 
before the Archbishops of Canterbury and 
York at Lambeth during their inquiry into 
the legality of incense, in May, 1899. The 
speech together with that of Mr. Ewington. 
and Prof. Collins who also addressed the 
Court was published at the time by Messrs. 
Spottiswoode & Co. W. AVER. 

Primrose Club, Park Place, St. James's, S.W.I. 

The "interesting book" quoted in the 
newspaper extract on p. 72 must have been 
" A Faithful Account of the Processions and 
Ceremonies observed at the Coronations of 
the Kings and Queens of England ... 
edited by Richard Thomson. .. .London, 
Major, 1820," Svo ; at pp. 9 and 41 of 
which are the passages given ; and the 
folding frontispiece of which shows the 
groom of the vestry carrying a " perfuming 



12 S. VIII. FEB. 26, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



179 



pan," as the newspaper correspondent terms 
it. This frontispiece is, in all essentials, a 
reduced copy, with direction of the figures 
reversed, of a large' copperplate print, 
37 in. by 22 in. " colected [sic] from Sand- 
ford and other best Authorities," depicting 
the coronation procession of James II., and 
showing the groom of the vestry carrying 
a fumigating appliance more primitive in 
form than that shown in the volume of 1820. 
No date is upon this large print,' which is 
lettered, "Printed and sold by Thomas 
Bowles in St. Paul's Churchyard, and Jno. 
Bowles & Son at ye Black Horse in Corn- 
liil [sic]." Bowles of the Black Horse was an 
early employer of William Hogarth as an 
engraver, ?nd the latter may have himself 
cut this coronation procession of 1685, as 
the print, from its appearance, was probably 
issued circa 1720. W. B. H. 

COWPEB : PRONUNCIATION or NAME (12 S. 
viii. 110). In a deed of 1662, William Powle 
is described as "citizen and cowper " 
(cooper). W. BRADBBOOK. 

ATTTHOK WANTED (12 S. viii. 132). * Seasonable 
Hints from an honest Man on the Present Crisis 
of a New Reign and a New Parliament,' 62 pp., 
London, 1761, was written by John Douglas (1721- 
1807). It is an exposition of the sentiments of 
Pulteney, Earl of Bath, to whom it has been 
ascribed. Douglas was Bishop of Salisbury, and 
wrote various political pamphlets under Bath's 
direction, and in 1763 took part with Johnson in 
the detection of the Cuck-Lane Ghost. There is 
a notice of him in * D.N.B.' 

ARCHIBALD SPARK E. 

AUTHOR OF QUOTATION WANTED. 

(12 S. viii. 91.) 

3. Sir Edwin Arnold, K.C.I.E., wrote a poem 
called ' Destiny,' which begins : 
'Somewhere there waiteth in this world of ours,' 
However, 1 do not know in which volume of his 
Doems it is to be found. It is not in 'Poems 
National and Non-Oriental' (1888). 

JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 



The Manor of Hawkesbury and its Oicners. BJJ, 
the Rev. Henry Lyttelton Lyster Denny. 
(Gloucester, John Bellows). 

THE present Lord of the Manor of Hawkesbury 
and Upton is Sir Anthony Banks Jenkinson, 13th 
Baronet, born in 1912, who at the age of three suc- 
ceeded his grandfather, the 12th Baronet, in 1915. 
To him this family history is addressed, in memory 
of his father Capt. John Banks Jenkinson who 
went oui to France with the first Expeditionary 
force and fell at the Aisne in September, 1914. It 
is principally a pedigree, from which three or four 
characters stand out conspicuously, and in which, 
as a whole, the genealogist will find his account. 



Anthony Jenkinson, the merchant and traveller of 
Elizabeth's day, the first Englishman to make his 
way to Central Asia, makes an impressive appear- 
ance at the head of the line. He journeyed much 
in Russia, and treated face to face more than once 
with the Tsar. The Baronetcy dates from the 
Restoration ; the wife of the first Baronet \vas the 
daughter of the heroic lady who defended Corfe 
Castle for Charles I. Sir Charles Jenkinson, the 
7th Baronet, was, in 179(1, created Earl of Liverpool 
a politician and something of a verse-writer, 
whose son, the 2nd Earl was the Tory Prime 
Minister of a century ago. With the death of the 
third Earl and ninth Baronet without male issue 
the Baronetcy went to his first cousin Charles, 
elder brother of the Bishop of St. David's, whose 
son succeeded him. 

Hawkesbury is a parish in Gloucestershire the 
old Manor House of which was for centuries the 
residence of the Jenkinsons. However, a tragedy 
it would seem in the late seventeenth or early 
eighteenth century caused them to abandon it. 
A daughter of the Baronet of the day fell in love 
with the son of a neighbouring Roman Catholic 
family. Her father forbade their marriage, but 
allowed the lover to come and say good-bye. The 
girl, leaning from the window to wave farewell, 
overbalanced herself, fell out and was killed. 
Years later Hawkesbury was lent to the young 
mother of the Prime Minister, for change of air 
after her child's birth ; she died on her journey 
thither, and her body was brought to the house, 
which soon afterwards bein^c made gloomy by 
such sad associations was pulled down. 

The Church at Hawkesbury contains numerous 
memorials of the Jenkinson family, and is of 
considerable interest also as a fabric. The foun- 
dation dates from Saxon times, and every period 
thereafter is represented. It had been consider- 
ably defaced at and after the Reformation in the 
usual manner, but since 1882 its restoration has 
been taken in hand. 

The book is lavishly illustrated with portraits. 

Charles Lamb : Miscellaneous Essays. Edited by 
Hamilton Thompson. (Pitt Press, 6s. net.)* 
AFTER eight years' interval another volume has 
been added to the Cambridge series of the writings 
of Charles Lamb. It should serve in the first 
place as a timely reminder of its predecessors. 
The ' Essays of Elia ' as Mr. Thompson presented 
them in 1913 satisfied the sense of fitness proper 
to a self-respecting reader. The size and type 
were right, the evidence of editorial scholarship 
complete yet not obtrusive. There have been 
more elaborate editions and their popularity 
showed they were suited to the public taste 
But the true lover of Elia is intolerant of illus- 
tration or adornment, he is an epicure and resents 
untimely seasoning of fare that is perfect in its 
in1ur.il s^.-ile. Tin- twin volumes of 1913 were 
designed for him, and from him their new com- 
panion is stecure of welcome. 

Admiration for the diction of the Essays does 
not by an nu-ans imply a love of Elia ; he makes 
his indefinable appeal to an instinct that may 
exist in the un-lettered and be lacking hi the 
rtwter-stylist. None can be familiar with his 
work and remain unconscious of his personality 
and unless we desire 1. be ail mil led to his con- 
fidence the secret of his charm, is hidden from. u. 



ISO 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. vni.FEB.2o, 1021. 



His humour indeed is so ceaseless a play on 
personal experience that the individual and the 
man-of -letters can never be detached and, as 
among his contemporaries there were some 
KThomas Carlyle was one of them) who had no 
liking for the individual, so in these present days 
we may pay homage to his English and take no 
pleasure in his Essays. He said that it was 
Shakespeare's method to write " to make the 
<reader happy." He was animated by a like 
benevolent intention , but he added to it the 
satisfaction of a natural craving. Isolated by the 
tragic conditions of his life his demand for sym- 
pathy was expressed in the best of his essays 
for to those who love him the best are those that 
hold the most soliloquy. Dreams, ambitions, 
disappointments, and self-condemnation, memo- 
ries of childhood and fear of death, all the 
intimate revelation of himself that a man will 
snake to the one nearest to him was made by 
EHa to his unknown lovers. It is the Essays 
that admit to intimacy, and to his intimates the 
Miscellaneous Essays of Charles Lamb are 
indispensable. 

The first twelve in the present volume appeared 
before their writer borrowed the name of a com- 
panion and Elia became known in the literary 
world. The criticism (or eulogy) of Hogarth is 
the most celebrated, and that on the fitness of 
Shakespeare's tragedies for the stage is charac- 
terized by the quality of boldness which makes 
Charles Lamb so delightful a companion in a 
library. His own joy in reading is never more 
evident, and appreciation of that joy (which may 
Dimply participation) is the first essential to under- 
- standing of him as he lived and thought and 
wrote. Face to face with such a tragedy as 
breaks the barriers of established custom a man 
.will choose for sacrifice that which he values 
most. The event that blackened life for Lamb 
summoned him, as he thought, to relinquish what- 
ever stood for happiness. Under that stress he 
wrote to Coleridge he would have no more books. 
-The book- lover stands confessed in that decision. 

Considerable light on the detail of his wide 
reading and retentive memory is thrown by the 
Xotes to this volume and to its predecessors. 
They are worthy of study. 

French Furniture under Louis XVI. and the 
Empire. By Roger de Felice. Translated by 
F. M. Atkinson. (Heinemann, 4s. Qd. net.) 
THIS volume is the last of the series of " Little 
Illustrated Books on Old French Furniture." 
We recommend it to our readers' notice with 
great pleasure. The one criticism we would make 
is that the illustrations in themselves admirably 
chosen are hardly large enough and in several 
< xses not clear enough to give an adequate notion 
of details. A few drawings or photographs of 
detail would have been both acceptable and 
useful. 

It is amusing to reflect on philosophy as modi- 
Diving the shapes of tables, chairs and chests. 
From Louis XV. furniture, through that of 
Louis XVI. to the Empire, we follow not merely a 
change of fashion but a change of ideal. Furni- 
ture must be adapted to the new classical severity. 
The right angle and the straight line, formerly 
avoided, are now more than tolerated. The 
'house, instead of presenting the pleasant assem- 
blage of delightful things which, on the bad days 



of a northern climate, can compose and exhilarate 
the mind as successfully as a garden may on fine 
ones, takes on the aspect suitable for countries 
where, in general, enjoyment is to be found out of 
doors, and the interior becomes the place for 
work, sleep and the storing of one's possessions. 
The historical side of the matter must also be 
emphasized. People occupied with the example 
of ancient heroes will make such furniture as 
those heroes might suitably use. You could not, 
as oxir author wittily contends imagine Leonidas 
" stark naked, his sword between his legs and on 
his head his great casque with its flowing horse- hair 
crest " looking anything but ridiculous seated 
on the flowered brocade of a Louis XV. bergere. 

M. Felice writes charmingly and the translator, 
on the whole, does him justice. Though only 
professing to give a short summary of his subject, 
and setting out such matters as belong to a text- 
book for beginners, M. Felice shows himself s< 
copious, displays learning of so enthusiastic a 
complexion, and possesses so good a knack of 
infusing life into his subject, that it is quite 
possible to read and remember these pages 
simply as a literary essay. 

A few of the illustrations chosen have his- 
torical interest ; we may mention the humble 
cane-seated chair, lyre-backed, and with a fluted 
fillet across the front below the seat, which was 
Marie Antoinette's seat in her cell at the Con- 
cierzerie. 

There are some good notes on the choice of 
furniture for modern houses conformable to tl 
Louis XVI. style of architecture and decoratior 
now prevalent. 



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CORRIGENDA. " Weekly Miscellany " (not 
Western) (ante, pp. 11, 56, 132, 133, 134). 
W. S. B. H. writes : " I am very much obliged to the 
correspondents at the later references, especially 
to the last, who have enabled me to recognize, to 
my great regret and vexation, that an error was 
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lapsus calami I must apologise, and especially to 
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examination, recognized that no weekly publica- 
tion was issued bearing the title of The Western 
Miscellany." 

" Glass Painters of York : 1. The Chamber 
Family " (ante, p. 128) for " Durham Account 
Bolls ; ed. by Rev. Canon Fowler, Surtees Soc., 
vol. ii. p. 408," delete " vol. ii. " and read p. 2*B 
The volumes are paged continuously throughout. 
JOHN A. KNOWLES. 

MR. HENRY POWLE. A life of Henry Po\vl<-. 
the Speaker and Master of the Rolls will be found 
in the ' Dictionary of National Biography, 
followed by a long list of authorities. 



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B. vin. MARCH s, io2i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



181 



LONDON, MARCH 5, 1521. 



CONTENTS. No. 151. 

'NOTES Among the Shakesp^re Archives : John 
Shakespeare as Chamberlain. 181 Nathaniel Field's 
Work in the " B*aumonfc and Fletcher" Plays, 183- 
Fit-ldine's Pamphlet, 'The Female Husband,' 184 An 
English Army List of 1740, 185-William Challinor: 
Birth Centenary of a Dickens' Link, 186 English Slaves 
in Barbary: Tavern Sign, the Turkey Slave, 187- 
Marriages Nuns and Dancing, 183. 

QUERIES : The O'Flaherty Family. Kings of Connanght, 
188 St James's, Bury St. Edmunds Cheval or Chevall 
Family Thomas Chudleigh, Envoye to the Hague, 1682- 
85 George Frank of Frankenau, 189 Francis Boyce 
Tavern Sign : The Brentford Tailor Churches of St. 
Michael The Fisherman's "Indian Grass" "Colly my 
Cow" John and Charles Thomas Brooks Culben Sands 
A Proverb about Eating Cherries, 190 "Death as 
Friend "- 52nd Regiment of Foot Foundlings in the 
Eighteenth Century William Langham "The Empire" 
A Motto of Erasmus Giuseppe Parini Capt. Smith, 
Founder of Jesus Chapel -Rev. William Loe, B D. 
Tutoiement, 191 Parliament Hill Authors Wanted, 192. 

'REPLIES :" The Sword of Bannockburn " John Bear, 
Master of the Free School at Ripon " Auster " Land 
Tenure, 192 Dr. R. J. Culverwell The Packership of 
London Wat, Tyler, 193 Ma j. -Gen. the Hon. William 
' Herbert Wilson, Ranger of the Himalayas New Style, 
]9t Charles II. and the Smith Family Yew-trees in 
Churchyard*-Dome*tic History of the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury Norrons in Ireland William and Ralph Sheldon 
Gouger, 195 Bont A Coachman's Epitaph Kinema 
or Cinema? Alliances of Allen Family London Coffee 
Houses, Taverns and Inns in the Eighteenth Century. 196 
Hazebrouck Suggested German Source of 'Merry 
Wives of Windsor 'Archbishop John Williams's 
'Manual' Wideawake Hats Covill. 197 Volans The 
Pancake Bell Capt. Cook : Memorials Representative 
County Libraries. 198 Route through Worcestershire, 199. 

NOTES ONT BOOKS : ' The Year Books ' ' Later Essays, 
" 1917-1920 ' ' Le Comique et la Signification ' ' Our 

Clapham Forefathers.' 
.Notices to Correspondents. 



AMONG THE SHAKESPEARE 
ARCHIVES. 

(See ante, pp. 23, 45, 66, 83, 124, 146.) 
JOHN SHAKESPEARE AS CHAMBERLAIN. 
On Oct. 3, 1561, John Shakespeare was 
'sworn Chamberlain of the borough of 
/Stratford with John Taylor, the shearman 
of Sheep Street, as his senior colleague. 
John Taylor was his old fellow-Constable of 
1558-1560. The oath they took was very 
much as follows : 

" We shall be faithful and true officers unto our 
master the bailiff, diligent of attendance at all 
times lawful, obedient to his commandments and 
ready to do his precepts. We shall improve the 
livelihood belonging to the commonalty of this town 
to the most behoof of the same, and the tenements 
thereof we shall well and sufficiently repair during 
-our office. And we shall well and truly charge and 
discharge ourself of all lands' rents belonging to this 



town arid of all other money as shall come to our 
hands belonging unto the commonalty of this town, 
and thereof a true account shall yield up unto the 
auditors assigned in the end of our year, and all 
other things lawful that belongeth or pertaineth to 
our officers well and truly to our powers we shall 
do. So keep us God, the Holy Evangel and the 
contents of this Book ! "* 

The Bailiff, whom John Taylor and John 
Shakespeare promised to serve was the 
Welshman, Master Lewis ap Williams, iron- 
monger in High Street. The Head Alderman 
was Master Robert Perrott the brewer, who 
had just lost his wife. John Taylor's Account 
for the year Michaelmas 1561 to Michaelmas 
1562, is a bare statement of receipts and 
expenses. Master William Court receives 
3Z. 6s. 8rf. as Steward, Richard Symons 10s. 
as Town Clerk (the c trice brought him other 
fees and professional employment as a 
lawyer and a scrivener), William Smart the 
Schoolmaster 161 ; the assistant master, who 
was William Gilbert alias Higges, 4Z. ; 
Richard Godwin for looking after the two 
clocks, at the Market Cross and Chapel (he 
tolled the bells at the Chapel), 16s. ; and the 
acting Chamberlain, 20s. A new inmate in 
the Almshouse, with the interesting but not 
uncommon name in Stratford of Hamlet (it 
is variously spelt Hamlet, Hamolet, Amblet, 
Hamnet), pays 2s. 6d. for his admission. 
Payments to the clergy did not pass through 
Taylor's hands they were made direct to 
Master Bretchgirdle (20L), and to his 
assistant, apparently the married priest, 
Rafe Hilton, who was in such straits in 
Mary's reign, (10^, by the farmer of the late 
College tithes, Alderman Smith the mercer. 
But the rent of "the Vicar's House," 24s., 
w as paid by the Chamberlain. The Account 
was presented and passed on Jan. 24, 1563. 
We have only the official copy made by 
Symons. It is signed at the back by John 
Taylor with his cross, for himself and his 
colleague. 

Entries in Bret engird! e's registers for the 
year of John Taylor's acting Chamberlain- 
ship call for notice : the baptism on Nov. 16, 
1561, of Richard Field, son of Henry Field 
the tanner in Back Bridge Street, the future 
friend of William Shakespeare and publisher 
of his ' Venus and Adonis ' and ' Lucrece ' ; 
on Nov. 18 of a son of Master Rafe Hilton ; 
on Feb. 18, 1562, of a son of John Bretch- 
girdle's kinsman, John Grantham ; on Mar. 1 
of a son. of the assistant schoolmaster, 
William Gilbert alias Higges ; on May 13 
of a daughter of William Smith, haberdasher 

* Adapted from the oath taken at Leicester. 



182 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.viii.MABCH5.i92i. 



in Henley Street ; on May 23 of John, son 
of Nicholas Lane ; and on Sept. 17 of Gieza 
otherwise Joyce, daughter of Master William 
Clopton ; the burial on Mar. 2 of Mistress 
Agnes Jeffreys, wife to Alderman Jeffrey 
of Sheep Street, and the marriage on June 21 
of Nicholas Barnhurst and Elizabeth Bain 
ton, daughter to the late Lawrence Bainton 
and step -daughter of Adrian Quyny. 

Henry Field, the father of Richard, may 
have been brother to John Field of Tan 
worth. * He was settled in Stratford before 
Nov. 1556, when, it will be remembered 
John Shakespeare sued him for barley un 
delivered. His wife was named Ursula 
They had a daughter Margery, born about 
1557, and a son Rafe, baptized on Jan. 26 
1560. Nicholas Barnhurst was a yeoman 
and woollen-draper, living in Sheep Street. 
He probably came from Wotton Wawen. 
Like his wife's step-father he was a Puritan 
but more obstinate and quarrelsome. 

In October, 1562, John Shakespeare 
entered on his year as acting Chamberlain, 
his colleague John Taylor taking the 
passive part. Humfrey Plymley was Bailiff 
and Adrian Quyny Head Alderman. We 
will summarise the events of the twelve- 
month chronologically. 

On Sunday, Nov. 22, Thomas Barber 
married Mistress Harbage, widow of Francis 
Harbage, the furrier. Entering into the 
late Alderman's business, perhaps his late 
master's, he began to prosper. He may 
have come from Drayton, where he had a 
brother, Richard. Widow Harbage bore 
him no children but brought him two sons 
and two daughters by her first husband. 
Barber, who was a yeoman as well as a 
skinner, had two tenements side by side in 
Rother Market, for which he paid 13.9. 4c?. 
rent, and two barns by Bankcroft at 13s. 4df. 
a year. He became a leading man in 
Stratford and a gentleman. 

A few days after this wedding, on Wednes- 
day, Dec. 2, John Shakespeare took a second 
daughter to the Parish Church to be christ- 
ened. The ceremony differed in several 
respects from that of four years previously. 
It was Protestant instead of Catholic, 
Bretchgirdle and not Dyos officiated, the 
service was entirely in English and at the 
font, the anointing was omitted, and the 
minister concluded with an exhortation to 
the godparents to call upon the child, " so 
soon as she shall be able," to hear sermons. 
This second baby- Shakespeare (the first, 



* The conjecture of Mr. T. Kemp of Warwick. 



Joan, was probably living) was named 
Margaret, no doubt after her mother's sister, 
Margaret Arden, wife of Alexander Web be,, 
now living in John Shakespeare's old home 
at Snitterfield. 

In January, 1563, John Shakespeare sued 
Richard Court alias Smith, for a debt. The 
case was settled out of court by arbitration,, 
as we learn from the entry in the Court of 
Record Roll of Feb. 3 : Actio debiti inter 
Johannem Shackspere et Ricardum Court 
concordata per arbitramentum. Extra. 

On Sunday, Jan. 31, there was another 
interesting wedding at the parish church 
of Thomas Rogers and Margaret Pace. 
Thomas Rogers is a man to bear in mind. 
He was a butcher in Com Street, and builder 
in his old age of the fine timber-house 
erroneously called "Harvard House." His 
first wife, whose name we do not know, bore- 
him a child, Anne, who lived to womanhood,, 
and in September, 1562, a second child, 
Margaret, who died two months afterwards- 
The mother died before or shortly after this; 
second child's baptism on Sept. 24. Rogers' 
second wife, Margaret Pace, was daughter of 
Richard Pace, a farmer in Shottery. She 
bore him nine children in the course of 
seventeen years. By a third wife, whom he 
married in 1581, Thomas Rogers became- 
grandfather of John Harvard, who was the 
founder in 1638 of Harvard University. 
But no Harvard had to do with the building 
of Thomas Rogers' house in 1596. 

As Chamberlain John Shakespeare was 
concerned in the leasing of a, number of town 
properties in the spring of 1563. Three of 
these were in Henley Street a house to 
Widow More, a house to Roger Greene a- 
miller, and a house to Gilbert Bradley the 
glover. The last was three doors from the 
Chamberlain's own, next to Richard Hornby's 
smithy, a dwelling of eight small bays or 
gables rented at 21s. per annum. Friend- 
ship had nothing to do with these lettings, 
for in each case the lease was a renewal. 

On Apr. 30 John Shakespeare buried his 
recently baptized infant, Margaret. She 
did not live to "hear sermons." John 
Bretchgirdle read over her grave the words in 
:he revised Order for the Burial of the Dead: 
"He cometh up and is cut down like a 
lower. " 

Happily the Chamberlain was busy. He 
uperintended the felling of trees in the 
Churchyard (which had now a new sacred- 
less for him), sold five trees for 20s. to 
Thomas Barber, and two elms to Richard 
the woollen -draper in Wood Street for 



i2s.vm.MABCH6,i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



183^ 



5s., and had other trees squared and sawn 
for repairs at the Vicar's House and Chapel 
and the making of a pinfold. John Bretch- 
girdle's residence was overhauled the cen- 
tral chimney was rebuilt, the roof retiled, 
wood-work renewed, and the ground-floor 
clayed and sanded at an outlay of 61. 15s. 5d. 
It was perhaps during the "reparations" 
that the Vicar took the lease of a small house 
in Church Street, at a rent of Ss. per annum. 
The pinfold was erected in Tinkers' Lane on 
land belonging to the Almshouse, and a rent 
of Sd. a year was henceforth paid to the 
inmates. The Protestantising of the Chapel 
was in hand and "images" had been 
"defaced " when the energetic Chamber- 
lain's term of office ended in October. Not 
coming under episcopal supervision, the 
Gild Chapel had been left in statu quo, 
probably through the influence of the 
Cloptons and William Bott at New Place. 
John Shakespeare did not spare it. When 
the frescoes were discovered under the 
whitewash in 1804, some were found nearly 
in a perfect state, but in the chancel "many 
parts, especially the crosses, had been 
evidently mutilated by some sharp instru- 
ment through the ill-directed zeal of our 
early Reformers. The lower compartment 
was one of those intentionally mutilated a 
cross, an altar and a crucifix." The Cham- 
berlain may not have handled the instrument 
but he had the directing of it. Fortunately 
he did not vent his zeal upon the figures as 
on the symbols. He claimed in his old age 
that he had some of his son's humour, and 
it would be difficiut to believe that the poet's 
father failed to appreciate the little horned 
and winged devil in one of the frescoes 
wielding a very sharp instrument on the 
heads of the "damned. By having him 
whitewashed John Shakespeare preserved 
him for our enjoyment, but we are sorry 
that his son never saw him. 

On Oct. 6, 1563, when Geprge Whateley 
was sworn Bailiff and Roger Sadler Head 
Alderman, new Chamberlains were ap- 
pointed in the persons of William Tyler and 
William Smith the haberdasher. John 
Shakespeare, however, was requested to 
continue the work he had begun and he 
served as acting Chamberlain for the next 
twelvemonth. He concluded the reforma- 
tion of the Chapel, taking down the rood- 
loft, and providing seats for the minister 
and the clerk, a piilpit and a communion- 
board. The officiating minister here was not 
Bretchgirdle nor his curate, but the School- 
master, William Smart, who was in holy 



orders. The assistant schoolmaster, we 
must note, was no longer William Gilbert 
alias Higges, but one Allen, whom John 
Shakespeare paid 41 "for teaching the 
children. ' ' G ilbert found work as a scrivener 
and in other capacities in Stratford. 

EDGAR I. FRIPP. 

(To be continued.) 



NATHANIEL FIELD'S AVORK IN THE 

"BEAUMONT AND FLETCHER "PL AYS., 

(See ante, p. 141, 164.) 

II. 'THE QUEEN OF CORINTH ' 
(Acts III. and IV.). 

This play is by three authors, Massinger,- 
Fletcher and Field, Massinger's part being 
Acts I. and V., Fletcher's Act II., and Field's 
Acts III. and IV. All the critics who have 
discussed its authorship recognize that it 
contains work that cannot be either Mas- 
singer's or Fletcher's. Macaulay ( ' Camb. 
Hist. Eng. Lit.,' vol. vi.), and Boyle (New 
Shaks. Soc. Trans., 1880-6, p. 609) attribute 
it to Massinger, Fletcher, and a third author 
whom they do not identify, though Boyle, 
who gives III. and IV. to the unknown 
author, suggests Field as a possible candi- 
date. Fleay at one time favoured Middle- 
ton's claim, but later, in his ' Biographical 
Chronicle of the English Drama,' he cor- 
rectly assigned these acts to Field. 

Though it will involve some repetition, 
I propose to include with the other indica- 
tions of Field's hand in this play references 
to its connexions with the first two of the 
"Four Plays in One" already noted, in 
order to show that the marks of Field are 
sufficiently numerous throughout Acts III. 
and IV. to justify the assumption that they 
are entirely his. 

Act III. In sc. i. we have : 

(i) .... the lion should not 

Tremble to hear the bellowing of the bull. 

paralleled in ' The Triumph of Honour. ' 

(ii.) Theanor, the vicious son of the queen 
of Corinth says of Euphanes, whom the 
Queen favours and protects : 

. . . .like a young pine 
He grows up planted under a fair oak. 

Con pare II. i. of * The Fatal DowTy ' where 
Ch&ialois, distributing his father's effects 
among those who have done him service, 



H84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vni.MA*cH5,i92i. 



-commends Romont, to whom he gives a 
medal of the dead marshal!, as one 

. . . .that, like 
A hearty oak, grew'st close to this tall pine. 

(iii.) With these lines from the speech of 
Euphanes immediately preceding the Queen's 
- entry : 

Virtue's a solid rock, whereat being aim'd 
The keenest darts of envy, yet unhurt 
Her marble heroes stand, built on such bases 
Whilst they recoil, and wound the shooters' faces. 
Compare these, from Seldom 's speech at the 
end of II. i. of ' Amends for Ladies ' : 

. .even as dirt, thrown hard against a wall, 
Rebounds and sparkles in the thrower's eyes, 
So ill words, uttered to a virtuous dame 
Turn, and defile the speaker with red shame. 

Tn addition to these three passages, note 
in the portion of the scene between the entry 
of Euphanes and that of the Queen, the 
exclamations " pish ! " and " hum ! " " ante- 
date," "transgress" and the alliteration 
"arts and arms." 

In sc. ii. there is the figure used by 
Euphanes : 

I came like a thankful stream, to retribute 

All you, my ocean, have enrich'd me with, 
which occurs again in the Induction to 
'The Triumph of Honour,' also the ex- 
.^clamation "pish," the adverb "jocundly," 
and the adjective " antipathous. " 

Act IV. In the first scene I find no note- 
worthy parallels either with the two " Tri- 
umphs " or Field's acknowledged plays; 
,but "hum," "importune," and " inno- 
cency " may serve to suggest his hand here. 
There are no parallels either for the short 
second scene, but in sc. iii (where the word 
'"innocency" again appears) besides the 
lines : 

when in the scales 

Nature and fond affection weigh together, 
One poises like a feather, 
recalling a passage in ' The Triumph of 
Love,' and the lines in Euphanes' speech 
beginning : 

. . . .when posterity 

Shall read your volume filled with virtuous acts 
so closely paralleled in sc. ii. of 'The 
Triumph of Honour,' we have Conon's 
description of the Queen's erratic behaviour : 
' She chafes like storms in groves, now sighs, now 

And both sometimes, like rain and wind commixt 
resembling Ferdinand's words in sc. iii. o* 
' The Triumph of Love ' : 
J weep sometimes, and instantly can laugh ; 
Nay I do dancs and sing, and suddenly 
. Roar Wee a storm. 



In the fourth and final scene we have the 
exclamation "pish"; and (in the two last 
~ines) the image of two streams flowing 
together : 

Nature's divided streams the highest shelf 
>Vill over-run at last, and flow to itself 

appears again in ' The Fatal Dowry, ' II. ii. : 

. . . .let these tears an emblem of our loves 
ike crystal rivers individually 
?low into one another, make one source, 
Which never man distinguish, less divide ! 

H. DUGDALE SYKES. 
Enfield. 

(To be continued.) 



FIELDING'S PAMPHLET, 'THE 
FEMALE HUSBAND.' 

WILBUB L. CROSS in his ' History of Henry 
Fielding,' 1918, closes the third volume 
with an exhaustive bibliography of Field- 
ing's writings. Under the year 1746 (p. 313) 
there is one entry only which runs : 

The Female Husband ; or, the Surprising History 
of Mrs. Mary alias Mr. George Hamilton [who was] 
convicted for marrying [of having married] a young 
woman of Wells [and lived with her as her hus- 
band. Taken from her own mouth since her con- 
ftne'ment. Quotation from Ovid ' Metam.' Lib. 1'2] 
London : -M. Cooper [at the Globe in Pater-noster 
Row] 1746. Price Sixpence. 

Dean Cross of Yale remarks that no copy 
is known, and that he includes it on the 
authority of Andrew Millar's advertisement 
attached to Sarah Fielding's ' Cleopatra 
and Octavia,' published by him in 1758, 
that is four years after Fielding's death. 

A correspondent of ' N. & Q.' for the 
purposes of another subject, has very 
courteously sent me a bound volume of 
eighteenth-century pamphlets for inspec- 
tion, and I have therein discovered a copy 
of the ' Female Husband.' The full title of 
this 2 3 -paged pamphlet is indicated above, 
the portions within brackets not appearing 
in Cross's citation or Millar's advertisement. 
It is an account of a case tried at Wells 
Quarter Sessions the details of which need 
not detain us, but it is bio graphically 
interesting as after arrest we read that the 
prisoner 

" was committed to Bridewell, and Mr. Gold, an 
eminent and learned Counsellor at Law, who lives 
in those parts was consulted with upon the occa- 
sion, who gave his advice that she should be prose- 
cuted on a clause in the Vagrant Act 'for having 
by false and deceitful practises endeavoured to im- 
pose on some of his Majesty's subjects.' " 

Now Henry Gold (1710-1794), who even- 
tually became a Judge of the High Court, 



128. VIII. MARCH 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



185 



was Fielding's first cousin, and both were 
at that time members of the Western Circuit. 
Gold's home was at Sharpham Park, the 
house in which Fielding was born in 1707, 
and the graphic account of the examination 
of Mary Price, " the wife," by Gold leaves 
the impression that Fielding was himself in 
Court seated among counsel. It is therefore 
probably true that the particulars of the 
prisoners' early years were, as stated on the 
title-page, " taken from her own mouth." 

The story is vividly told, but the subject- 
matter is unedifying despite the character- 
istic moral reflections, and some psychologic 
master strokes. There can be no doubt 
that the case created much excitement and 



enquiry, and Fielding, then a widower with 
children, probably saw in it an opportunity 
of re-imbursing himself for some of the 
expenses of travelling the circuit. By the- 
kindness of Messrs. Spottiswoode, Ballan- 
tyne & Co., Ltd., I have been enabled to 
examine the original ledgers recording the 
printing of this pamphlet, and it appears 
that in November, 1746, one thousand 
copies were printed, and that in June, 1747, 
a further 250 were cast off. Does the latter 
entry mean that Fielding saw his way to- 
disposing of further copies when attending 
Wells Assizes the following year ? 

J. PAUL DE CASTBO.. 
1 Essex Court, Temple. 



AN ENGLISH ARMY LIST OF 1740. 

(See 12 S. ii. passim; iii. 46, 103, 267, 354, 408, 438; vi. 184, 233, 242, 290, 329; 
vii. 83, 125, 146, 165, 187, 204, 265, 308, 327, 365, 423 ; viii. 6, 46, 82.) 

The next regiment (p. 74) was raised in February, 1694, with Sir John Gibson, Kt.. 
(see 'D.N.B.'), as its colonel. It was disbanded in 1698, but was reformed in 1702, with. 
Gibson as its colonel again. 

Since 1751 it has been successively designated : 
The 28th Regiment of Foot 1751. 

The 28th (or the North Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot 1782. 
The Gloucestershire Regiment 1881. 



Colonel Bragg's Regiment of Foot. 



Colonel 
Lieut. -Colonel 
Major 



Captains 



Captain Lieutenant 



Lieutenants 



Philip Bragg (1) 
Alexander Hutcheson 
Stephen Downes 
Carlton Whitlock (2) 
John Stan wick . . 
Isaac Sailly 
Henry Holmes . . 
Folliott Ponsonby (3) 
Scott Floyer 
Edward Brereton 
Joseph Capell (4) 
/Denis Sullivan (5) 
Thomas Tonge (6) 
Robert Innes 
J Elias Darrassus 
. I Henry Cossard . . 
\ Daniel Pinsun (7) 

(Thomas Wise . . 
T hoi well Powell 
John Nugent 
- William Johnston 



Dates of their 
present commissions 

10 Oct. 1734 

4 Feb. 1730 
8 July 1737 

15 Mar. 1721 

5 Jan. 1723 
1 May 1724 

11 May 1727 

12 Feb. 1732 
8 July 1737 
1 May 1738 
8 July 1737 

28 Jan. 171(5 

23 Nov. 1717 

30 Nov. 1718 

18 Nov. 1721 

15 Mar. 1721/2 

1 May 1724 

4 July 1728 

1 July 1731 

10 April 1736 

8 July 1737 



Dates of their 
first commissions* 
Ensign, 10 Mar 1701. 
ditto 1 July 1795.. 

Lieutenant,! Mar. 1704.- 
Ensign, 29 Sept. 1719. 
ditto ' 1 April 1706. 
Lieutenant, 2 April 1706. 
Ensign, 1 Nov. 1721. 
Lieutenant, 16 April 1724. 
Ensi<jn, 10 Nov. 1710. 



Lieutenant, 5 Aug. 1712. 
Ensign, 23 June 1709. 
ditto 5 Aug. 1712. 

Lieutenant, 30 Aug. 1708.. 
Ensign, 31 Mar. 1718. 
ditto 23 Dec. 1707. 
ditto 5 April 1720. 

ditto . 1 Nov. 1702. 
Lieutenant, 24 June 1710., 
Enxiyn, 3 Nov. 1717. . 
ditto' 6 May 1721. 3 



(1) See ' D.N.B.' He held the Colonelcy of the Regiment from 1734 until his death on June 6^ : 
1759 ; Major- General, July 5, 1743 ; Lieut.-General, Aug. 10. 1747. 

The Regiment earned' the sobriquet "The old Braggs " from him. 

(2) Major, Feb. 10, 1740/1. 

(3) Died, 1746. 

(-1) Captain, Feb. 10, 1740/1. 

(5) Captain-Lieutenant, February 10, 1740/1. Died, 1747. 

(0) Captain, July 5, 1745. Served until 17C7. 

(7) Captain, Aug. 1, 1741. 



186 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Colonel Bragg's Regiment of Foot 
(continued). 

Thomas Buck (8) 
Francis Nesbett (9) 
Roger Holt 
Richard Gibson . . 

^Ensigns .: .. {Essex Edgworth (10) 
Richard Hutch eson 
Robert Dalrvmple 
Loftus Cliffc* . . 
Robert Cope 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 

9 Aug. 1722. 

5 Jan. 1723-4. 
. . 11 May 1727. 
.. 12 Sept. 1729. 
.. 13 Mar. 1732. 
. . 10 April 1736. 

1 May 1737. 

8 July 1737. 
.. 27 Feb. 1737-S. 

The names here following are entered in ink on the interleaf : 



ILieut.- Colonel 
'Captains 
-lieutenant . . 

-Ensigns 



Lord Geo. Sackville (11) 
f Richard Fitzgerald 
I Geoffrey Jocelyne (12) 

Henry Wright (13) 
/Thomas Span (14) 



19 July 1740. 

13 Mar. 1740/1. 

13 Mar. 1740/1. 

10 Feb. 1740/1. 

10 Feb. 1740/1. 



(Charles Abraham Graydon (15) 23 Apr. 1740. 



. . { Ralph Corry (16) .. .. 24 Apr. 1740. 

Hunt Walsh (17) .. .. 7 June 1741. 

vMoryne Harman . . . . 1 Aug. 1741. 

(8) Lieutenant, Feb. 10, 1740/1 ; Lieut.-Colonel of the 53rd Foot, Dec. 20,1755. 

(9) Lieutenant, Feb. 10, 1740/1. (10) Lieutenant, Aug. 1, 1741. (11) See ' D.N.B.' 

(12) Lieutenant-Colonel of the Regiment, May 5, 1746. Left in 1757. 

(13) Captain, May 8, 1746. Still serving in 1755, but not in 1756. 

(14) Captain, Aug. 28, 1753. Still serving in 1760, but not in 1763. 

(15) Captain-Lieutenant, Oct. 12, 1747. Still serving in 1755, but not in 1756. 

(16) Captain, May 2, 1751 ; Major, Feb. 27, 1760. Still serving in 1763, but not in 1766. 

(17) Major in the regiment, Aug. 28, 1753 ; Lieutenant- Colonel, Feb. 2, 1757 ; Colonel in the 
.army, Feb. 19, 1762. Served in the regiment until 1767. 

J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Colonel (Retired List). 
(To be continued.) 



WILLIAM GHALLINOB : BIRTH CENTENARY 
OF A DICKENS' LINK. As there is no men- 
tion of William Challinor in the 'D.N.B.' 
it may be of permanent interest to preserve 
the. chief facts of his life in the pages of 
'1ST. & Q.' Some of these are to be found 
in Simms's ' Bibliotheca Staff ordiensis,' 
where they are stated as follows : 

" b. Leek, 10th March, 1821 ; s. of William Challinor 
and Mary, his wife ; educated Leek Gr. Sch. ; King 
William's Coll., Isle of Man; Trin. Coll., Dublin; 
B.A. ; M.A. ; Solicitor practising in Leek ; m. Mary 
Elizabeth Pemberton, of Birmingham." 

! This entry is followed by a list of his 
publications and appeared in his lifetime, 
1894. His chief writings are contained in 
his book entitled ' Lectures, Verses, Speeches, 
Reminiscences, &c.' (Leek : H. M. Miller, 
Times Office, 1891). From this volume and 
private information a few fuller particulars 
. alre to be gleaned. His lectures show a wide 
knowledge of Staffordshire, and the series 
of five dealing with Leek contains valuable 
information, including much that is his- 
torical, dialectal and legendary; other 
addresses deal with matters of public 
futility, such as 'Waste and its Prevention,' 



and the railways in Staffordshire. His 
output of verse, though he began writing 
early, was not large, but only selections 
were published. To turn to his reminis- 
j cences, he tells us that at the age of 13 he 
went to King William's College, Isle of Man, 
! and among the lasting friendships then 
| formed was one with the well-known Manx 
I character, John Howard, afterwards vicar 
1 of Onchan, near Douglas. He often visited 
Howard, who in turn visited him at his 
home at Pickwoocl. Under the elate, 
I "Tuesday, June 7th, 1842," is the first 
intimation of his legal studies: "Went to 
the Hall, Chancery Lane, to pass my ex- 
amination as a solicitor there I rather 
liked it than otherwise as I had read hard 
during my clerkship, and especially the 
last six months with Mr. Baylis " (Thomas 
I Henry Baylis, Q.C., 1817-1908 (see 'D.N.B.' 
Sec. Sup. ) to whom he dedicated his book of 
! lectures, &c., together with the Rev. William 
Beresford). His notes contain much per- 
sonal information intermingled with fancies 
and observations. 

In 1849 Challinor issued a pamphlet on 
'The Court of Chancery: its Inherent 



128. VIII. MARCH 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



187 



Defects),' &c., and this lead to the publica- 
tion of his ' Chancery Reform : being a 
Supplement to the Court of Chancery,' 
which he undertook at the suggestion of 
Joseph Hulme, who requested Challinor to 
raeet him in London. The recommenda- 
tions contained therein met with the ap- 
proval of Lord Denham, Thomas Noon 
Talfourd, and others, and the author sent 
a copy to Charles Dickens who acknow- 
ledged the receipt as follows : 

"Mr. Charles Dickens presents his compliments 
*o Mr. Challinor, and begs with many thanks to 
-acknowledge the receipt of his pamphlet and 
obliging note." 

In the preface to ' Bleak House ' Dickens 
refers to Challinor' s pamphlet as follows : 

*' I may mention here that everything set forth 
in these pages concerning the Court of Chancery 
is substantially true, and within the truth. The 
case of Grid ley is in no essential altered from one 
-of actual occurrence, and made public by a dis- 
interested person who was professionally acquainted 
with the whole monstrous wrong from beginning to 
end." 

Forster, in his Life of Dickens, refers to 
the pamphlet : 

"Dickens was encouraged and strengthened in 
his design of assailing Chancery abuses and delays 
by receiving, a few days after the appearance of 
his first number, a striking pamphlet on the subject 
containing details so opposite that he took from 
them, without change in any material point, the 
memorable case related in his fifteenth chapter. 
Anyone, who examines the tract, will see how 
exactly true is the reference to it made by Dickens 
in his preface," &c. 

On Thursday, Jan. 30, 1851, a public 
meeting, convened by the Chancery Reform 
Association, was held at the Hall of Com- 
merce, Threadneedle Street, for the purpose 
of hearing statements as to the abuses of 
the Court of Chancery. Challinor rose to 
move the first resolution. 

These are the main facts in the important 
incident that entitles William Challinor to 
remembrance, and which had such a marked 
effect on one of Dickens' s works. For 
elaboration of the particulars I must refer 
treaders to Challinor' s 'Lectures,' &c., men- 
tioned above. It only remains to mention 
that after all these years further light has 
'been thrown on the story of Gridley, and the 
source from which Dickens took the inci- 
dents, by a writer in The Times Literary 
Supplement for Dec. 7, 1917, identifying 
the actual case in Staffordshire cited by 
'Challinor who gave no names, and modify- 
ing somewhat the facts of the case. 

William Challinor' s death occurred on 
Mar. 21, 1896. RUSSELL MABKLAND. 



ENGLISH SLAVES IN BABBABY : TAVEBN 
SIGN, THE TURKEY SLAVE. I have a pam- 
phlet entitled : 

** The English Slaves ; or, A Succinct and Authen- 
tic Narrative of the Captivity and Sufferings of 
Eighty-Seven Unfortunate Englishmen, who were 
Shipwrecked on the Coast of Barbary, written by 
Peter Lebau, who formerly kept the Turkey Slave, 
in Brick-Lane, Spitalfields'; and Thomas Troughton, 
a Painter, who lately died in St. Luke's Workhouse ; 
being two of those Persons who were redeemed by 
the Bounty of King George the Second." Not dated, 
date on frontispiece 1807. 

The Inspector Privateer, Richard Veale, 
Commander, having sprung a leak, was 
run aground in Tangier Bay, Jan. 4, 1746. 
The officers and crew were taken by the 
Moors ; some escaped by the barge of 
H.B.M. ship Phoenix : the rest were en- 
slaved, although the Vice-Consul, Mr. Petti- 
crew, a merchant, intervened. On Jan. 27, 
1749, the money was paid to ransom 
twenty -five, among whom was Peter Lebau, 
and the next day they were put on board 
His Majesty's ship the Crown, which landed 
them at Portsmouth, May 11. The re- 
maining twenty -seven were not redeemed 
until Dec. 8, 1750. They reached England 
Jan. 17. 

The freedom of the second batch would 
have been, at least, delayed had it not been 
for the arrival from Gibraltar of Commodore 
Keppel, with a squadron of menrof-war. 
The ransoms and presents cost England 
4,399?. Is. At the end of the narrative is 
the following : 

"On their return home, Mr. Rich, of Covent 
Garden Theatre, gave them a benefit; so did the 
proprietors of Sadler's Wells ; where they appeared 
with their irons, which they worked in in Barbary 
.... Peter Lebau afterwards kept the Turkey Slave, 
in Brick-lane, Spitalfields, and died about twenty 
years ago. Thomas Troughton lately died a pauper 
in St. Luke's Workhouse." 

Presumably the Turkey Slave tavern was 
represented by the Turk and Slave, Brick 
Lane, Spitalfields, mentioned in Larwood 
and Hotten's 'History of Signboards,' 
6th edn., p. 429. 

In Kelly's Post Office London Directory 
for 1914, *No. 308 Brick Lane is the Turk's 
Head, very possibly the successor of the 
Turkey Slave and the Turk and Slave. 

The truth of the story told by, or on 
behalf of, Lebau and Troughton is to some 
extent corroborated by references to " his 
Excellency, William Latton, Esq., the Am- 
bassador from his Britannick Majesty to 
the Emperor," otherwise "his Britannick 
Majesty's Plenipotentiary and Consul - 
General " (pp. 6 ? 11), also by the mention of 



188 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.viii.MABCH6,io2u 



"Mr. Rich of Covent Garden Theatre." 
William Latton, Esq., appears in 'The 
Court and City Register ' for 1747, p. 109, 
as His Majesty's Consul in Morocco, and 
Rich was the manager of Covent Garden 
Theatre at the date given. , 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

MARRIAGES. (See 12 S. v. 262.) Further 
to my Note at this reference, the following 
information may be found useful : 

At Edinburgh, January, 1789, Mr. Dewar, 
surgeon, to Ann Stewart, dau. of John 
Stewart, Esq., of East Craigs. 

At Blackwood, January, 1789, Rev. John 
Shaw of Queen's College, Oxford, to Mary 
Dunbar. 

At Glasgow, January, 1789, John Murray, 
Esq., to Isabella Lindesay, dau. of Prof. 
Dr. Hercules Lindesay. 

At Ayr, January, 1798, James Maxwell, 
Esq., of Williamwood, to Mary Campbell, 
dau. of John Campbell of Ayr. 

At Glasgow, January, 1789, Andrew 
McCulloch of Ayr, to Janet Douglas, dau. 
of Andrew Douglas of Ayr. 

At Aberdeen, Jan. 29, 1789, Alexander 
Harvey of Broadland, to Mary Morison, dau. 
of James Morison of Terreglestown. 

At Edinburgh, Feb. 11, 1789, Dr. A. 
Thomson, late of Jamaica, to Rachel 
Pittillo of Balhoussie, Fifeshire. 

At Edinburgh, Feb. 16, 1789, Rev. George 
Sym, to Sarah Couper, dau. of Rev. Mr. 
Couper of Lochwinnoch. 

At Brightmoney, Feb. 14, 1789, Ranold 
Stewart to Miss Fraser, dau. of Capt. Fraser 
of Brightmoney. 

JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39 Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 
(To be continued.) 

NUNS AND DANCING. In * Southey's 
Commonplace Book ' 4th Series, p. 568, is 
this entry : 

"The English nuns at Ghent told Mrs. Carter 
that country dances were one of their amusements, 
and that they had the newest from England. 
Mem., vol. l,p.264." 

For Mrs. Elizabeth Carter (1717-1806), see 
the 'D.N.B.' In the Catholic Record 
Society's nineteenth volume ('Miscellanea 
xi.') at p. 1, it is stated : 

"The Benedictine Abbey of the Immaculate 
Conception of our Blessed Lady was founded at 
Ghent A.D. 1624 for English subjects. It was a 
filiation of the monastery at Brussels established in 
1598 by Lady Mary Percy, daughter of the Earl of 
Northumberland, and was colonised by four pro- 
fessed nuns of Brussels When the French 



Revolutionary army invaded Flanders in 1794, the- 
community fled to England, and settled at Piestor* 
in Lancashire; then (in 1811) it was transferred to 
Caverswall Castle in Staffordshire, and finally in 
1853 to Oulton near (Stone, in the same county 
where it still exists." 

In November of last year the late Dame'- 
Laurentia Ward, O.S.B.", who died Feb. 3, 
1921, in the fifty-third year of her religious 
profession, having been twenty-one years 
Abbess of Oulton Abbey, wrote to me : 

" We had several in the community who had 1 
known some of the Ghent members when I entered 

in 1866 One of our old members related that 

one from 'Ghent used to say: 'We always had a? 
dance on 'Our Lady's wedding-day,' that is the 

23rd of January I quite believe that our nuns at 

Ghent had a style of recreation that was more 

lively than the present style but still the 

country dances as an amusement was rather far- 
fetched. Of course I cannot guarantee or vouott 
one way or the other ; I can only say 1 never heard 
of them." 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 



Queries. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

THE O' FLAHERTY FAMILY, KINGS OF 
CONNAUGHT. The pedigree of this ancient 
Irish family, as shewn in B. O'Flaherty's 
' lar-Gonnacht,' is very incomplete, and,, 
among other deficiencies, it fails entirely 
to name those who were the husbands of 
numerous " daughters." I have been en- 
deavouring for some years to discover the- 
history of one of these " daughters," who 
is said to have been married first of all 
to the first Viscount Castlereagh (1769- 

1822), and afterwards to Wilson, Bar- 

rister-at-Law, agent to Lord Londonderry.. 
The 'D.N.B.' states that Lord Castlereagh 
was only married once to Lady Emily 
Anne, voungest daughter to John Hobart, 
2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire and I sup- 
pose the authority of the valuable work 
must be taken to be correct. The same 
applies to the statement made therein that 
he had no children. I have been unable 
to discover whether Lord Londonderry 
(Query, Lord Castlereagh or his father ?) 
had for his agent a man named Wilson, 
who besides being a kinsman, is said also 
to have been related to Lord Edward Fitz- 
Gerald and to the Earls of Kildare. En- 
deavoiirs made to discover anything about 



12 S. VIII. MARCH 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



189 



him from enquiries made regarding his 
reputed home, Edenderry House, Belfast 
have been unproductive ; although at the 
end of the eighteenth century there were 
Wilsons in that part of the world. 

Miss O' Flaherty is said to have had a 
son by Lord Castlereagh, who was born 
after his father had committed suicide,and 
after his mother had married Mr. Wilson. 
This son was named Joseph Wilson. But 
the supposition appears to be impossible, 
since Lord Castlereagh died in 1822, and 
Joseph was baptized in 1783. He lived in 
his latter years in Yorkshire, at Leeds and 
Beverley, died on Nov. 17, 1852, and was 
buried at Beverley. He was married twice, 
his first wife dying in July 1849 at Leeds. 

Joseph Wilson had at least one sister, 
Elizabeth, and two sons, Robert and Frede- 
rick, born respectively in 1820 and 1830. 
These sons were both clergymen. The 
latter was Vicar of St. James the Less, 
Philadelphia, in his earlier ecclesiastical 
years, and after a short though distinguished 
career, he died at Sledmere in Yorkshire, of 
which- place he was vicar, at the early age 
of 47. The elder brother, Robert, was a 
chaplain to the Forces, and also at the Penal 
Settlement at Botany Bay. He settled in 
Tasmania, where he had a numerous family. 
But he died at Scarborough in 1897. 

The two brothers were in America and 
Australia respectively when their father 
died, and as soon as they could do so, they 
came home to settle up his affairs. But 
meanwhile their step-mother, who had only 
been married to their father for two years, 
disappeared with all his papers and effects, 
and their efforts to trace her have been 
unavailing. The mystery of Miss O' Fla- 
herty's marriage thus remains. Perhaps 
some reader of 'X. & Q.' may be able to 
solve it. In the church at Oughterard 
(Ireland), is a marble tablet which records 
that "William Wilson, Executor of the 
late Miss Sarah Wilson of Belfast gave 700 
towards the enlargement of the church, &c.," 
This tablet is dated 1852, and the names 
of the churchwardens appear upon the 
tablet, one of them being " Geo. F. O'Ffla- 
hertie, Esq." Can Miss Sarah Wilson have 
been one of the three daughters of Wilson 
the land agent, and Miss O'Flaherty ? 

RANGER. 

ST. JAMES'S, BURY ST. EDMUNDS. Can 
any reader send me a list of the incumbents 
of this church ? HAYDN T. GILES. 

11 Kavensbourne Terrace, South Shields. 



CHEVAL OR CHEVALL FAMILY. Entries of 
this family which originated in Herts and 
Bucks, appear in the following London 
Church registers : All Hallows, Bread Street ; 
St. Mary's Aldermary ; St. Peter's,' Cornhill ; 
St. Michael's, Cornhill ; St. Helen's, Bishops- 
gate ; St. James', Clerkenwell, and St. 
George's, Chepel, Mayfair. There exist at 
present Chevall Place, S.W., and Cheval 
Street, E. Is there any connexion between 
the family and these names ? Have the 
church registers above mentioned been 
transcribed, and if so are copies obtainable ? 
Any assistance in tracing this family or any 
general inform aticn would be much appre- 
ciated. A. H. CHOVIL. 
Maison, Russell Road, Moseley, Birmingham. 
[See also 12 S. vii. 350. 458.] 

THOMAS CHUDLEIGH, ENVOYE TO THE 
HAGUE, 1682-85. I should like to find the 
Chudleigh letters to Sir Richard Bulstrode, 
Minister to Brussels during the period Chud- 
leigh was at the Hague. Chudleigh' s letters 
were written from the Hague and London, 
1682, and from the Hague, 1683-85. 
There were ninety-one letters in the Chud- 
leigh collection and originally they were in 
the Le Froy collection; they were bought 
by John Waller, and when his collection 
was broken up, they were purchased by 
John E. Hodgkin who transcribed and 
annotated them. These letters are de- 
scribed by Hodgkin in his ' Rariora,' vol. i. 
p. 22. Hodgkin' s collection of MSS. was sold 
by Sotheby's in March-May, 1914. The 
Bulstrode collection was broken up, parts of 
it \vere purchased by the British Museum, 
e.g., a few letters from Benj. Shelton to 
Bulstrode, &c., but I can find no trace of 
Chudleigh' s letters to Bulstrode. I should 
appreciate it very much if any one can 
inform me where these particular letters 
are to be found. F. A. MIDDLEBUSH. 

1 Gordon Street, Gordon Square, W.C.I. 

GEORGE FRANK OF FRANKENAU. Can 
any reader give me any information about 
Georgius Francus de Frankenau, probably 
a physician either to George I. or George II. ? 
I have a small line engraved portrait of him, 
no engraver's name nor artist's. He is 
represented with a very full wig hanging 
over the left shoulder, and is dressed in a 
collegiate gown over a coat resembling a 
uniform with an elaborate lace insertion. 

What is particularly required is an account 
of his life and career. D. A. H. MOSES. 

78 Kensington Park Road. 



190 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.VIII.MABCH 5,1921. 



FRANCIS BOYCE. I should be grateful 
if any one could give me some details con- 
cerning Capt. Francis Boyce such as parent- 
age, wife's family, dates of birth, marriage, 
death, &c. 

He commanded the Royal Charter,, and 
also the Eagle. While with the latter 
vessel he received a presentation of plate 
bearing the following inscription : 

" Presented by the owners Gibbs, Bright & Co 
to Capt. Francis Boyce of the Australian packet 
ship Eagle for making the fastest passage known 
from Melbourne, Victoria to London having 
arrived on Nov. 19, 1852, 76 days." 

He possessed a seal bearing, what he 
apparently used for his crest, a lion rampant. 
BEATRICE BOYCE. 

TAVERN SIGN : THE BRENTFORD TAILOR. 
There is an inn of this name in the village 
of Cholsey, Berks. Who was this individual? 

H. E. R. 

CHURCHES OF ST. MICHAEL. I am very 
much interested to find whether there is a 
tradition in England that churches to bear 
the name of St. Michael should always be 
on high ground. I have read rather recently 
that that was the case and should be glad 
to have it substantiated. 

An old St. Michael's Church here, named 
by a Welshman, in 1735, has always been a 
matter of query, as to why it was named 
after that particular saint, but it certainly 
stands on a hill -top. 

(Miss) E. D. KINGSBURY. 

80 Prospect Street, Waterbury, Connecticut. 

THE FISHERMAN'S "INDIAN GRASS." 
What was the substance known as Indian 
grass or Indian weed or East Indian weed, 
introduced here about 1700 as a substitute 
for horsehair for the cast or point of fishing 
lines ? It appears to have been extensively 
used during the eighteenth century. It was 
superseded by silkworm gut, first mentioned 
in 1724, but not in general use till the end 
of the century. J. W. H. 

" COLLY MY Cow." In Motteux's trans"- 
lation of ' "Don Quixote ' (vol. ii. chap. ix. ) 
a passage is rendered : " But what is the 
rout at Roncesvalles, tell me ? It concerns 
us no more than if he had sung the ballad of 
' Colly my Cow.' ' In the original it is the 
ballad or romance of ' Calainos,' one belong- 
ing to the same epoch and collection as that 
referring to the defeat of the French at 
Roncesvalles. Motteux, I presume, thought 
that an English reader would understand the 



passage better if the name of a popular 
English ballad were substituted for that of 
' Calainos.' But what is the ballad or song 
of ' Colly my Cow ' ? Where is it to be 
found ? Curiously enough in Browning's 
'The Ring and the Book' (Count Guido's 
second speech, 1. 553) the phrase "Colly 
my Cow " occurs as an expression of con- 
tempt. Does it mean "kiss my cow?" 

I should be glad to hear where the ballad or 
song, if extant, is to be found. 

JOHN WILLCOCK. 

JOHN AND CHARLES THOMAS BROOKS. 
Can any of your readers tell me in what 
parish I should be likely to find the burial 
entries of the above. John Brooks of 

II Mansfield Place, Kentish Town (parish 
of St. Pancras) died between June 8, 1823, 
and Apr. 22, 1825, the dates of the making 
and proving of his will. Charles Thomas, 
his son, of Duke Street, Manchester Square 
(parish of St. Marylebone) died between 
Apr. 19, 1820, and Feb. 27, 1823, the elates 
being similarly determined. I have searched 
the Registers of the above two parishes 
without result ; nor are they buried in the 
native parish of the father, Churchill, co. 
Oxon. . E. ST. JOHN BROOKS. 

122 Beaufort Mansions, Chelsea. 

CULBEN SANDS. I should be glad to 
know of any trustworthy book dealing with 
Culben Sands, the tract of land now covered 
with sand, near Nairn in Scotland. 

B. C. 

A PROVERB ABOUT EATING CHERRIES. 
In Thomas Wright's ' Essays on Subjects 
connected with the Literature, Popular 
Superstitions and History of England in the 
Middle Ages,' London, 1846, vol i, p. 174 
we read : 

" Another very curious English proverb, 
quoted by Ray, ' Those that eat cherries with 
great persons shall have their eyes sprinted out 
with the stones,' occurs also in German ' Mit 
grossen Herrn ist nicht gut Kirschen essen, sie 
schiessen gern mit Steinen zu, und werffen die 
Stiele einem an denKopf (Griiter 59 Prov. Alman.).' 
The same proverbs thus quoted in the German 
' Reinhard.' 

XJig haint id etzelige wale geweten : 

Mit peren ist quait kirsen eten. 

Si willent, dat ir geselle grife, 

Alzit de hardi, in de si de rife. 

(' Grimm. Reinh. F., p. 383)." 
What is the explanation of this proverb ? 
I am here unable to get access to any of 
the three works quoted. 

KUMAGUSTJ MlNAKATA. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 



128. vin. MARCH 6, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



191 



"DEATH AS FRIEND." An old Dalziel 
-engraving with this title taken from a 
picture by a German artist, was cut from a 
part of The Sunday Magazine about 1870. 
It represents a very aged man, looking at 
the sunset from a room in a belfry tower ; 
near by, Death in a monk's robe is tolling 
the passing bell. Who was the artist, 
and where is the original picture ? 

J. J. B. 

52ND REGIMENT OF FOOT. Was this 
regiment quartered in Surrey about 1781-2 ? 

E. G. T. 

FOUNDLINGS IN THE EIGHTEENTH CEN- 
TURY. In the registers of a country parish 
in Surrey the burial of foundlings was first 
recorded in 1757. In that year there 
were 7 ; in 1758, 17 ; in 1759, 28 ; in 1760, 13. 
The numbers then dropped suddenly to one 
or two a year. Can any reader suggest a 
probable cause for this fluctuation in 
numbers ? E. G. T. 

WILLIAM LANGHAM DIED 1838, AGED 81. 
Can any one inform me where in London he 
was born, and if he was the son of Robert 
Langham who received the Freedom of the 
Oity of London, 1744 ? 

(Mrs.) C. STEPHEN. 

Wootton Cottage, Lincoln. 

" THE EMPIRE." In the advertisement 
to his ' Fashionable Lover,' which was pro- 
duced in January, 1772, Richard Cumber- 
land (as to whom see the ' D.N.B.'), wrote ; 

" Wherever. . . .1 have made any attempt at 
novelty, I have been obliged to dive into the 
lower class of men, or betake myself to the 
outskirts of the empire." 

What earlier use is there of " the empire " 
meaning the British dominions ? Usually 
before 1804 "the empire" meant the Holy 
Roman Empire. 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

A MOTTO OF ERASMUS. The last mottc 
or adage quoted by Erasmus from Quintilian, 
under the division headed " Dissimilitu- 
<liuis " runs thus : 

" Extra organum. Ductum est ab organo musico. 
<iuod intra vigesimam vocem consistit. Conveniet 
in valde clamosum." 

The comment is intelligible enough, but what 
is the vigesima vox ? Is it the twentieth 
stop or the vox humana ? An ordinary 
modern organ has generally (with three 
manuals) thirty stops and twenty-six pipes 
or, tubes. . J. B. McGovERN. 

St- Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M.,, Manchester. 



GIUSEPPE PAKINI. In ' Due Saggi Critici ' 
just issued by the Clarendon Press, Francesco 
de Sancti pronounces a somewhat over- 
wrought eulogy on Giuseppe Parini, but 
provides no dates and but a scant biography 
of his subject. A similar want is observable 
in the second sketch or essay on Ugo 
Fossolo, but one is better acquainted with 
the latter than the former and so is not as 
resentful at the deprivation. No doubt 
these essays were either written for or read 
to Italians, but the benighted foreigner 
justly craves for a few biographical details 
at the hands of the essayist. Perhaps some 
reader of ' N. & Q. ' could furnish me with 
such or refer me to some biographical 
dictionary wherein they lie concealed. 

J. B. McGovEBN. 
St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

CAPT. SMITH, FOUNDER OF JESUS CHAPEL. 
I have a late sixteenth or early seventeenth 
century portrait. On the back of the canvas 
is inscribed the following : "Captain Smith, 
Founder Jesus Chapel." 

I shall be extremely glad if any reader 
can tell me anything about Capt. Smith 
and Jesus Chapel. He could not, of course, 
have been the founder of Jesus College 
Chapel, Cambridge. JOHN LANE. 

The Bodley Head, Vigo Street, W.I. 

THE REV. WILLIAM LOE, B.D., Rector of 
Kirkby Masham, Yorkshire, in 1639. Can 
any correspondent of ' N. & Q. ' give me the 
name of Loe's mother, and the date of his 
death? The 'Diet. Nat. Biog.' xxx. 68, 
where he is described as a D.D., is silent on 
these points. G. F. R, B. 

TUTOIEMENT. In Anne Douglas Sedg- 
wick's *A Childhood in Brittany Eighty 
Years Ago ' (1919, ch. 1. p. 16) we read : 

" The servants and the peasants in the Brittany 
of those days had a pretty custom of always 
using thou when addressing their masters or the 
Deity, thus inverting the usual association of 
this mode of address ; for, to each other they 
said you, and on their lips this was the familiar 
word, and the thou implied respect. Our servants 
were of the peasant class, but service altered and 
civilized them, very much, and while no peasant 
spoke anything but Breton, they talked in an 
o ddly accented French." 

Is it possible that such use of "thou" 
and "you " was a linguistic as well as a 
social characteristic of Breton ? And was 
it widely spread in France ? Does it 
survive ? Q. V. 



192 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.vni.MABCH6.i92i. 



PARLIAMENT HILL. Why was Parliament 
Hill, London, N.W., so named ? I have 
heard it said, Because the conspirators in 
the Gunpowder Plot stood there to watch 
the House of Parliament be blown up. 

ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

AUTHORS WANTED. 

I should be glad to know who wrote the 
following : 

1. How thick with acorns the ground is strewn 

rent from, their cups and brown 1 
How the golden leaves of the windless elms 

come singly fluttering down ! 
The briony hangs in the thinning hedge, as 

russet as harvest corn ; 
The straggling blackberries glisten jet, the 

haws are red on the thorn ; 
The clematis smells no more, but lifts its 

gossamer weight on high 
If you only gazed on the year, you would 

think how beautiful 'tis to die. 

2. In the golden glade the chestnuts are fallen all ; 
From the sered boughs of the oak the acorns 

fall, 

The beech scatters her ruddy fire ; 
The lime hath stripped to the cold, 

And standeth naked above her yellow attire; 
The larch thinneth her spire 
I'o lay the wavs of the wood with cloth of gold. 

D. W. 

Who is the author of the following lines : 
3 I shall remember while the light lasts, 
And in the darkness I shall not forget 

(MRS.) F. S. BENJAMIN, 

[Swinburne ' Poems and Ballads.' The lines 
ocf*ur in ' Erotion ' and run 

I shall remember while the light lives yet, 
And in the night-time I shall not forget.] 



"THE SWORD OF BANXOCKBURK'' 
(12 S. viii. 151.) 

PROBABLY the sword referred to under this 
title is the blade preserved at Douglas 
Castle in possession of the thirteenth Earl 
of Home, who represents in the female 
line the ancient Lords of Douglas. It is 
said to have been given to the Good Sir 
James of Douglas by Robert I., King of 
Scots. There is nothing in the blade itself 
inconsistent with its traditional origin, for 
it is not a double-handed sword like that 
ascribed to Wallace, long preserved in 
Dunbarton Castle and now, if I mistake not, 
in the Wallace Monument on Abbey Craig 
near Stirling. Double-handed swords were 
unknown until nearly one hundred years 



after Wallace's death. But if the sword - 
blade at Douglas be genuine, as it well may 
be, the verses bitten into it by acid are 
certainly of later date, being in Roman- 
characters. Moreover, the mention of many 
good men of one surname does not fit the 
chronology, seeing that family surnames 
were still in a state of flux in the early part 
of the fourteenth century, and very few 
persons as yet had borne the territorial one 
"de Douglas." Many years ago I tran- 
scribed the legend on the sword-blade. .It 
runs as follows : 
So mony gvid as of the Doyglas Beine 
Of 'ane surname was never in Scotland seine 

I wil ye charge efter that I depart 

To holy grayfe and thair bvry my hart 

Let it remain for ever both tyme and hovr 
To the last day I sie my Saviovre 

So I protest in tyme of al my ringe [reign] 
Ye lyk subject is had never ony Keing. 

HERBERT MAXWELL. 
Monreith. 

JOHN BEAR, MASTER OF THE FREE SCHOOL 
AT RIPON (12 S. viii. 150). In 1730 the 
master of Ripon School was a Mr. Barker 
who might be the John Barker of Christ 
Church, "1717, B.A., 1721; M.A., 1724. 
He was succeeded in or before 1732 by Mr.. 
Steevens or Stephens. J. B. WHITMORE. 

41 Thurloe Square, S. Kensington, S.W.7. 

" ATJSTER " LAND TENURE (12 S. viii. 109) 
Yesterday, or was it on July 15, 1882, 
I made a somewhat similar inquiry in the 
columns of ' N. & Q. ' thus : 

In the Enclosure award of the parish of 
Weston-super-Mare dated in the year 1810 
the Commissioner appointed for the purpose, 
after making various awards, sets out, allots, 
and awards : 

" The residue and remainder of the said moor* 
common, and waste lands unto, for and amongst 
the several proprietors and persons claiming and 
being allowed rights of common thereon in respect 
of their tenements commonly called old Auster 
or ancient tenements situate within the Parish of 
Weston-super-Mare in the proportions and 
manner hereinafter mentioned that is to say, 
unto James, &c." 

I received several replies, and to my mind, 
the correct solution from MR. G. FISHER, 
who wrote : 

" I would refer your correspondent E. E. B. t- 
' X. & Q.,' 1 S. i. 217, 307 where it is said that 
this word is a corruption of the word astrum 
meaning a messuage held in villenage of the 
Lord of a Manor." 

ERNEST E. BAKER. 

Weston-super-Mare. 



12 S. VIII. MARCH 5, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



193 



This is probably derived from " Auster- 
land " or " Astreland " meaning "hearth "- 
or "home. "-land. Elton's ' Origins of Eng- 
lish History,' p. 191, has the following note 
with reference to the inheritance and divi- 
sion of land or property : 

" The word Astre is often used in old documents 
for the hearth, and for the dwelling house. A 
provincial use of the word in the latter sense in 
Shropshire is noticed by Lambarde, ' Peramb. 
Kent,' 563. Other instances are found in the 
local idioms of Montgomeryshire, and in many 

Earts of the West of England, where ' Auster- 
ind 'is that which had a house upon it hi ancient 
times." 

The Austerland generally passed to the 
youngest son or daughter. 

Sandys ' Consuetudines Kanciae ' has 
(p. 155) : 

" If a man die seised of landes in Gavelkinde? 
of any estate of inheritance all his sonnes shal 
have equall portion .... there ought to be graunted 
to the eldest the first choice after the division 
so to the part of the youngest there ought to be 
allotted in the division that piece of the mesuage 
which our treatise calleth ' astre,' that is to 
say, the stocke, harth, or chimney, for fire ; 
which ^oord (as I thinke) was derived of the 
Latin e astrum, a starre, bicause the fire shine th 
in the house as the starre therof ; and which, 
though it be not now commonly understood in 
Kent, yet do they of Shropshyre and other parts 
receive it in the same signification till this day." 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

DR. ROBERT JAMES CULVERWELL (12 S' 
viii. 152). Boase seems to be quite correct 
in his statement that Culverwell died in 
1852, and is supported by The Gentleman's 
Magazine, which says that he died " in 
Argyll Place on December 9, 1852, aged 50." 
Though some of his books bear the date 
1855, this is no proof that he was alive then. 
The surname is quoted by Bardsley as a 
London one. . ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

THE PACKERSHIP or LONDON (12 S. 
viii. 111). This was an officer charged with 
the packing, or supervision of the packing, 
of exported goods liable to custom. The 
Calendar of Letter Books of the City of 
London gives several entries relating to this 
Office. Letter Book "L." records the 
reversion in 1495 of the Offices of " Pakker- 
ship " and " Gawger Shippe " for a certain 
term to a Robert Goodeyere, Mercer, and 
gives the following note : 

" The offices of packing all manner of mer- 
chandize and of gauging wine-vessels (to see if 
they contained lawful measure) were granted 
(Infer alia) to the Mayor and Commonalty in 
1478 by King Edward IV for a sum of 67,000." 



The same volume records the duty payable- 
to the " Pakker of London " in 1474, and in 
1482 records 

" that Robert Fitzherbert, the Common Packer, 
thenceforth take for his labour for the package 
of every hundred calf-fells (he finding the cords- 
for such packing) the sum of 8 pence." 

A similar office is mentioned in P. L, 
Simmond's 'Dictionary of Trade Products,. 
Commercial Manufacturing, and Technical 
Terms,' 1858 : 

" Packing Officer : an excise officer who- 
superintends or watches the packing of paper, 
and other exciseable articles. 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

Henry Chamberlain in his 'History and 
Survey of London ' (1769), at p. 229, writing, 
of King Charles I., in 1640, says : 

"The citizens advanced the king a con- 
siderable sum of money in consideration of his 
granting them another charter : by which, after 
first reciting their former privileges of package,, 
survey, or scayage of all goods, and of baillage,. 
' his majesty, in consideration of four thousand 
two hundred pounds, confirmed the said offices,, 
and created ordained and constituted an office 
or officer of package of all sorts of goods and 
merchandize whatsoever, and an office oi carriage 
and portage of all wools, &c., and merchandize 
whatsoever ; and did ratify and confirm the 
fees set down in the tables hereunto annexed,- 
due to the said office. And his majesty did also 
give and grant the said offices of scavage, or 
surveying, baillage, package, carriage and postage,,, 
and their lawful fees, to the Lord-mayor and 
citizens of London to be exercised and occupied 
by sufficient ministers or deputies. ..." Waich- 
charter is dated the fifth day of September, in 
the sixteenth year of his reign." 

Chamberlain, then, pp. 229-35, proceeds 
to set forth in detail : (1) the Scavage Table 
of rates inwards ; (2) the Balliage [sic]' 
Duties outwards; (3) the Package Table of 
Rates ; and (4) Fees taken by the packers 
and water-side porters for landing and ship- 
ping out the goods of strangers. Probably 
the Packership cf London had ceased to be 
granted by patent to a private individual 
for seme considerable time before 1640. 

JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 

WAT TYLER (12 S. viii. 110) Stow in his 
'Survey of London ' 'fed. 1842), at p. 151,. 
says : 

"I find that in the 1 4th of TCichard II. these 
stew-houses belonging to William Walworth,. 
then mayor of London, were farmed by Froes 
of Flanders, and spoiled by Walter Tyler, and 
other rebels of Kent," 
and his note is : 

" Li. St. Mary Eborum. English people dis- 
dayned to be baudes. Froes of Flaunders were 
women for that purpose." 



194 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.vm. MARCH 5, 1021. 



As the rioters broke open the prisons, 
burnt Lambeth Palace, all the Inns of Court, 
the Palace of the Savoy, the Priory of St. 
John of Jerusalem % at Clerkemvell, and 
numberless private dwellings, it is quite 
absurd to say that Wat Tyler was killed 
merely for having burnt the stews. Wal- 
"worth as Mayor held the lease of them it is 
true from the Bishop of Winchester as 
ground-landlord. The land on which the 
stews were built had belonged to the see of 
Winchester and had been so employed 
centuries before William of Wykeham was 
born, and continued to be so used down to 
37 Henry VIII. See Brayley and Britton, 
'History of Surrey' (London, 1850), 
pp. 316-7. JOHN B. WAINEWBIGHT. 

MAJOR -GENERAL THE HON. WILLIAM HER- 
BERT (12 S. viii. 109). The following is a 
copy of an inscription which was in the 
'Cathedral at Aix-la-Chapelle in 1863, and is 
doubtless there still : 

Vir admodum reverend us 
DOMINUS FRANCISOUS ANTONIUS TEWIS, 

Archipresbyter, 

Per 43 Annos Parochus divae virgin is 
"Plebanus Aquisgran