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Full text of "Notes and queries"

Notes and Queries, Jan. 28, 1922. 



Notes and Queries. Jan. 28, 1922. 



Notes and Queries, January 28, 1922. 



NOTES AND QUERIES 



<=*(-. Q 



jfWebium of 3ntcvcommuntcation 



FOB 



LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC. 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



TWELFTH SERIES. VOLUME IX. 
JULY DECEMBER, 1921. 



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PRINTING HOUSE SQTJABE, E.G. 4. 



Notes and Queries, Jan. 28, 1922. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES: 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



1 



LONDON. JULY 2, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 168. 

NOTES: A Manuscript by Samuel Cooper and a Side- 
light on John Hoskins, 1 Inscriptions in the Church- 
yard of St. Nicholas, Deptford, 3 Reynolds of Coolbeg, 
Co. Donegal, 5 The Mystery of Richard Parker of The 
Nore, 8 Parody on famous French Sonnet Richard 
Dudley, 9 Feeding Pheasants on Milk and Cheese 
Epitaph at Glencorse, 10. 

QUERIES : Fontenelle's * Nouvelles de la Republique des 
Lettres Peers' Mantles, 10 Fenning's ' Royal English 
Dictionary ' Queen Elizabeth and the French Am- 
bassador " Wild-cat Scheme" Sir Thomas Browne's 
' Religio Medici 'Varieties of Cheeses in 1534 Jacketed 
Cheese Vat, 11 Privilege of Templars and Hospitallers- 
Sir Benjamin Hammet William's, executed 1618 
Thomases : Artists and Engravers The Gregorian Calen- 
dar Dickson : Kirkpatrick Dannett Family Corbish- 
ley Family Song wanted, 12. 

REPLIES : The Plague Pits, 12 Canaletto, 13 Mary 
Godwin, 14 The Smallest Pig of a Litter G. 5L Cooke 
and his County Itineraries Coco-nut Cup, 15 " Parlia- 
ment Clock" Banquo Hicks's MS. History of St. 
Ives, Cornwall, 16 Cockney Pronunciation "Mobs 
Hole " Hair-brushes Swindon : " Damas " Cholerton 
Clementina Johannes Sobiesky Douglass Henry Clay 
Family Mottoes, 17" Single Whiskey " Lowestoft 
China Prisoners who have survived hanging Peter 
Beckford, 18 Handshaking May Saying Author 
Wanted, 19. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Studies in Islamic Mysticism.' 
Noti-es to Correspondents. 



A MANUSCRIPT BY SAMUEL COOPER 

AND A SIDE-LIGHT ON JOHN 

HOSKINS. 

CONSIDERING the importance of Samuel 
Cooper (1609-1672) as a miniature-painter, 
his wide circle of distinguished acquaint- 
ances and the reputation which he enjoyed 
during ^his lifetime, the information con- 
cerning him is decidedly meagre. During 
recent years several attempts * have been 
made to give an account of him, in which 
the facts recorded by Richard Graham f 

* Notably those of Sir B. B. Holmes, Burling- 
ton Magazine, vol. ix., pp. 296 et seq., and 367 
et seq. ; J. J. Foster, ' Samuel Cooper ' ; B. W. 
Goulding, fourth annual volume of the Walpole 
Society, pp. 20-24 ; Dr. G. C. Williamson, ' The 
Miniature Collector,' 1921. 

t Bichard Graham, ' A Short Account of the 
Most Eminent Painters,' 1695, pp. 338, 339. 



and Horace Walpole * have received 
numerous additions culled from Pepys's 
' Diary,' the Exchequer Accounts, the 
publications of the Historical Manuscripts 
Commission, and so forth. But none of 
these biographies, as far as I am aware, 
mentions any authentic specimens of the 
great limner's handwriting, apart from 
those on the face of miniatures. 

Sir R. R. Holmes f quotes an inscription 
on the back of a miniature by Cooper at 
Welbeck Abbey which runs as follows : 

The first Ivorey this pictr 

and on(e) other which Mr. 

graham had away 

is not paid for 

three guinis is the price. 

Sir Richard supposed this to be in Cooper's 
hand, but, as also with regard to the in- 
scription on the back of another miniature 
at Welbeck Abbey, Mr. R. W. Goulding J 
has shown that the writing is probably that 
of L. Cross(e), the miniaturist. Incidentally, 
with reference to the above-quoted in- 
scription, it may be pointed out that 
" Mr. Graham," who was doubtless identical 
with Richard Graham mentioned above, 
possessed several works by Cooper, one of 
which, Cooper's pastel self -portrait, is now 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum. The 
sale catalogue of Graham's collection is given 
in the Fifteenth Report of the Historical 
Manuscripts Commission, Appendix, Part vii. , 
p. 206. The auction, one of the earliest 
recorded in which miniatures by Cooper 
were bid for, took place on March 6, 1711, 
at Mr. Pelitier's, next house to the Wheat 
Sheaf in Henrietta Street, Covent Garden. 

There does, however, exist a manuscript 
written by the hand of Samuel Cooper, and 
duly authenticated by contemporary evi- 
dence. Sir Theodore Turquet de Mayerne, 
the son of a French historian, was born 
near Geneva on Sept. 28, 1573. He studied 
at Heidelberg, took medical degrees at 
Montpellier, and by 1600 was practising 
medicine at Paris, where he controversially 
advocated the use of chemical remedies. 
In 1606 an English lord whom he had 
cured took him to England, where he was 



* Horace Walpole, ' Anecdotes of Painting,' 
1762-1761. 

t Sir B. B. Holmes, loc. tit., p. 303. 

t B. W. Goulding, op. cit., pp. 83, 91, whence 
I have quoted the corrected transcription. 

See my account of it in The Art Journal, 
1909, p. 15* 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.ix.juLY2,id2i. 



appointed physician to the Queen and was 
given a degree at Oxford. He returned to 
Paris, but came to England again in 1611, 
was made physician to the King and soon 
acquired a great reputation and a large 
circle of acquaintances and friends. He 
was knighted in 1624, and died at Chelsea 
on March 22, 1655. 

Mayerne, besides being one of the most 
enlightened and enterprising physicians of 
the day, was keenly interested in chemical 
and other kindred matters, among which 
were questions connected with the tech- 
nique of painting and pigments. In pursuit 
of information on this subject he used to 
interview eminent painters of his day, and 
he recorded some of the facts he gleaned 
from them in a manuscript book which he 
inaugurated in 1620 under the title ' Pictoria 
Sculptoria & quae subalternarum Artium.' 
Mayerne's library perished in the Great Fire, 
but some of his manuscripts have survived, 
and this one, now known as Sloane 2052, has 
found a permanent home in the British 
Museum. 

The manuscript contains references, which 
I hope to deal with on another occasion, to 



Edward Norgate, who wrote his ' Miniatura '* 
at Mayerne's suggestion ; but for the moment 
we are concerned with Samuel Cooper and 
incidentally with his uncle John Hoskins. 
On fol. 29 occurs the following passage : 

Tire des di scours tenus avec Mr 

Huskins excellent peintre En- 

Lumineur. Le 14 Mars 1634. 
Blanc Excellent se faict avec deux parts 
de blanc de plomb Lave selon sa facon qui est 
dedans ce mesme livre escripte de La main de 
Cupper son Nepveu & dune part de blanc de Lune 
mesles & broyes ensemble selon Lart. 



Obviously, " Lave selon sa facon " 
" washed in accordance with Hoskins's 
system " ; but Mayerne states that in this 
very book is Hoskins's recipe written with 
Cooper's hand. The recipe in Cooper's 
hand can be seen on fol. 77 and runs as 
follows : 

for makeing of colers redy 

for white lede take your whit and grind it with 
A little gum, and when you have dun so put it into 
A porindger, and when you have dun so put 
water to it, and stir it well to gether and let it 
satle A letle while and pour of the uppermost, and 
let it satle halfe an oure, and then pour that of also 
and let it satle 24 ours and then pour the watter 



* The MS. is in the Bodleian Library. It was 
recently edited by Mr. Martin Hardie, B.E., and 
published by the Oxford Press. 



clean from it, and put it in to a shell and temper 
it with gum and suger-candy, and thus doe your 
bys and masticot and red leade and vermilyon. 

The rest of the page and fol. 77 verso are 
filled with recipes in French in Mayerne's 
own hand. Fol. 78 is blank, and on fol. 78 
verso is written in red ink " Enlumineur 
Cooper le jeune | neveu de M. Huskins 
februar. 1634 " whence it would appear 
that Cooper wrote down the recipe for 
Mayerne a few weeks before the latter's in- 
terview with Hoskins referred to on fol. 29. 

It is interesting to see this unique manu- 
script from the hand of him who was perhaps 
England's greatest miniature portrait- 
painter. The writing, in faded ink, is 
elegant and sloping, with flourishes to the 
letters " d," " y," " p," &c. ; the " s " and 
" c " recall those of Cooper's signature, and 
the letters are mostly separate from each 
other a feature which is often found in the 
handwriting of artists. Most of the eleven 
lines mount slightly. 

If little is known about Cooper, still less is 
known about his uncle John Hoskins. The 
following passage from fol. 29 verso of 
Mayerne's manuscript has never, as far as 
I am aware, been quoted in any English 
work dealing with Hoskins, and is therefore 
of considerable interest as throwing a light 
upon his methods of work : 

Huskins met touttes ses couleurs dedans des 
petits plateaux d'yvoire tournes, & diet quelles 
ne se Seichent pas comme dans les coquilles 
Pr travailler II a un platteau d'yvoire tourn(e) 
de diametre Environ quattre poulces qui se creuse 
lentemem vers Le milieu. II met ses couleurs 
en fort petite quantite Lune contre Lautre a la 
cir conference, & icelles premierem(ent) destrem- 
pees avec Eau de Gomme, & quand il sen veult 
I servir, II ne faict que mouiller son pinceau dedans 
de Leau fort nette, duquel il prend la couleur 

S'il veult faire quelque meslange cest au milieu 
de son platteau. 

Le blanc & les Azurs sont en des petit es couches 
d'yvoire a part. 

I may add that Mayerne's MS. was pub- 
lished in its entirety by Ernst Berger in his 
' Quellen fur Maltechnik wahrend der Re- 
naissance und deren Folgezeit,' Munich, 
1901, but (p. 96, line 4) he identifies wrongly 
the part written by Cooper, attributing to 
him a number of Latin recipes, which, if 1 
remember rightly, are in Mayerne's own 
hand and have nothing to do with Cooper. 
Berger was misled by the position in the 
book of the sort of title ' l Enlumineur. 
Cooper le Jeune neveu de M. Huskins 
Februar 1634." R. S. LONG. 



12 s. ix. JUL Y 2, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



INSCRIPTIONS IN THE CHURCHYARD j 
OF ST. NICHOLAS, DEPTFORD. 

[AMONG a few MSS. yet remaining over 
from the days of the War, we have found 
the following list of Inscriptions taken 
down and abstracted by our regretted 
correspondent, the late Lieut. -Colonel 
Gilbert S. Parry. They appear to have 
been received during the time when 
* N. & Q. ' was appearing monthly ; and 
we are glad at length to find room for 
them, and to have this opportunity for 
expressing our regret that these are the 
last results of the careful and useful 
labour devoted to rescuing from oblivion 
the memorials of those buried in so many 
churchyards in and near London.] 

These abstracts were made in 1913. 
NORTH SIDE. 

1. J. H. Bull, d. Sep. 1827, a. 19. T. Arundell, 
d. Feb. 1829, a. 80. J. C. Bull, d. Nov. 1830, 
a. 19. F. Bull, d. Ap. 1835, a. 21. E. Arundell, 
d. Jan. 1837, a. 81. W. Bull, d. July, 1844, a. 63. 

2. L Augustus Markett, (R.N. ?) . . . 

Elizabeth Markett . . . Anne Hooker Mar- 
kett . . . 

3. Captain John Arnold, d. Dec. 17, 18(4)2, 
a. 67. Capt. Thomas Arnold, his s., d. Aug. 
15, 18 , a. 40. Jane, w. of Capt. John Arnold . . . 

4. Margaget, w. of Samuel Ambrose, of this p., 
d. Jan. 29, 177-. Samuel Ambrose, d. Feb. 22, 

1781, a. 61. Martha, their dau., d. Ap. 13, 1779, 
a. 27. Samuel, their s., d. Ap. 15, 1780, a. 3(3). 
Thomas, their s., d. Sep. 11, 1789, a. 22. 

5. ... The above named Arthur Butler, d. 
Aug. 1793, a. 74. 

6. Sarah, w. of Mr. John Reeve, d. in child- 
bed, Ap. 2(3), 1797, a. 37. Mr. John Reeve, 
d. Nov. 7, 1823, a. 65. 

7. ... Mr. James Humphreys, senior, d. 
Ap. 11, 17(4)3, a. 59. 

8. James Denham, late of Flagon Row in 
this p. ... 

9. Mr. Henry Watson . . . 

10. Mary, w. of Richard Harris, d. Jan. 22, 
1806, a. 50. Mrs. Elizabeth Matt(hews ?), her 
mother d. July 19, 1807, a. (88). 

11. James Clark . . . John Newfnum], f. in 

law of the above, d. , 18 , a. ( 75). Elizabeth 

Newnum, w. of the above, d. July 18(32), a. 73. 

12. [Altar tomb.] Emma Susanna, dau. of j 



William and Matilda Ive, a. months. Also 
Albert . . . Also Fanny . . . 

13. [Altar tomb.] Mr. Richard Mansfield, d. 
10 May 17(13), a. 72. Mr. Abraham Dry, of 
Greenwich, d. 27 Ap. 1722, a. 71. Mr. John 
Mansfield, d. 8 June, 1724, a. 80. Ann, w. of 

Mr. Richard Mansfield, d. , 17(28), a. 90. 

Elizabeth [wife of] Mr. Abraham Dry, of Green- 
wich, d. 17 Sep. . Mr. Sheirlie Blad[w]orth, 

of St. Paul . . . (Mary), w. of Henry Blad- 
w[orth], d. , 1754, a. 7(5). 

14. Mrs. Judith Pratt, d. 13 Ap. 1846, a. 81. 
William Pratt, her husband, d. 19 Oct. 1832, 



a. 76. James Lewis Pratt, gr.son of the above, 
late Engineer, H.E.I.C.S., d. at Bombay, 8 Sep. 
1847, a. 26. 

15. Mr. Bridges Barnett, d. 18 3-, a. (8)4. 
Benjamin, his s., d. Oct. 1829, a. 31. 

16. Ann, w. of Francis Yeates, d. Dec. 18, 
1781, a. 32. Margaret Yeates, d. Jan. 15, 1782, 
a. 3 y. 9 m. Erected by order of George Yeates, 
of Moor(g) r, Ireland. 

ON NORTH WALL OF THE CHURCH. 

17. R. G. 1794 : L G. 1795 : T. G. 1797. 

18. John Addey, King's Master Shipwright, 
d. 16 Ap. 1606, a. 56. 

UNDER NORTH WALL. 

19. (William), s. of John & Elizabeth Frith, 
d. Feb. 1724, a. 21. 

20. William Goudy, d. Ap. 2, 1776, a. (44). 

NORTH-EAST OF CHURCH. 

21. Mary Farar, d. Feb. , 171(9), a. 49. 

Samuel Farar, d. July, , a. 67. Susanna, his 

w., d. Sep. 10, 1774, a. 70. 

22. [Altar tomb.] Mary, w. of Robert Wm. 

Olyett, dau. of George H , of the p. of St. 

M(ary) . . ., d. 23 Mar. 1842, a. 5(7). . . . 
sister of above Mrs. Mary Olyett, d. Feb. 3, 1843, 
a. 52. 

23. [Altar tomb.] Susanna, w. of Mr. John 
Godwin, d. . . . a. (43). Also Mr. John God- 
win ... a. 69. 

24. [Altar tomb.] Frances Mickell, d. Feb. 17(13), 
a. 55. Also Captain Mickell, her hus- 
band . . . 

25. William Rol[es]ton Riddall . . . Also 
Richard Riddall . . . 

26. Rebecca Williams . . . Also William 
Williams, d. 4 May, 18 . 

27. Mr. John Townsend, d. Mar. 18(3)2, a. . 
Mrs. Clara F(an)cett, d. May, 1842, a. (8-) 
years. Mr. Edward Evatt Baldwin, d. Ap. 
18(4)7, a. (41 ?). Clara Baldwin, his relict, d. 
11 Dec. 1848, a. 42. 

28. Captain Thomas Bruce, d. Dec. 14, 1826, 
a. 72. Mrs. Mary Anne Bruce, d. 2 July, 1842, 
a. 65. Mr. John Bruce, d. 21 Sep. 18(45), a. 72, 
husband of the above. Mary, relict of Capt. 
Thomas Bruce, d. 23 Feb. 185(4), a. 80. 

29. John Haley, Tilema[kerj, d. Oct. 9, , 

a. 38. [Stone of very ancient pattern.] 

30. Mr. William Harris, d. Nov. 12, 1843, a. 71. 

31. David Mackie, d. Aug. 2, 1794, a. 55. 
David, his son, d. Aug. 17, 1793, a. 25. Agnes, 

his w., d. Ap. 14, 1825, a. 84. John Mackie, 

of the above . . . 

32. Mr. John Richardson, of Whitby, d. Sep. 
18, a. 78. 

33. Wm. Scott M , of (Sand ) in the 

county of D , ... 

34. Margaret, wid. of Captain Thomas Grinley, 
d. 29 May, 1828, a. 88. 

35. Stephens, 1850. 

36. Mrs. Susannah Brodrick, d. 24 May, 1834, 
a. 82. Mrs. Honour Allen, her sister, d. 31 
July, 1840, a. 87. 

37. Mrs. Ann Bonner, of St. Andrew's, Holborn, 
d. 13 Feb. 1763, a. 55. 

38. Mary, w. of Mr. George Wilson, d. Jan. 
26, 1837, a. (2)6. Mary Ann, her dau., d. May 
8, 1837, a. 2 y. 5 m. The above George Wilson, 
Mariner, d. at Bombay, June 1840, a. 30. Mr. John 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 1:12 s.ix. JULY 2, 1021. 



-, Lower Trinity 



G. W. 



Elder, f. of the above, late of 
Ground, d. 10 Feb. 1846, a. 82. 

39. M. W. 1837. M. A. W. 1837. 
1843. A. E. 1851. 

40. Blank, immediately over the following, 
on the wall. 

41. Mrs. Ann Simpson, dau. of the above, 
d. Jan. 26, 1852, a. 24. 

42. William Butler, gent., Chief Clerk in the 
Master Shipwright's Office in H.M. Dockyard, 
Deptford, d. 28 Ap. 1796. Also 9 of his children. 
Elizabeth, his w., d. 24 Jan. 1802. Charles 
Hicks, Esq., his s. in law, d. 24 Sep. 1817. Eliza- 
beth Mary Hicks, his w., d. May 20, 1823, a. 64. 
Charlotte Hicks, their dau., d. Feb. 5, 1853, a. 68. 

43. Captain Moses [Ca]d[enhead], d. 23 Feb. , 

a. 70. Also Captain Ralph , d. Aug. 16, 1819, 

a. 51. ... Elizabeth Cadenhead, ... of the 
above . . . 

44. Richard Thomas, d. Nov. 1700, a. (53). 

Margaret, his w., d. , 1702, a. 53. Richard 

Thomas, Esq., d. Aug. 17(15), a. 44. Mary, his 
w., d. Sep. 19, 1738, a. 66. Thomas, s. of the 
Rev. Richard Loving, M.A., and of Margaret, 

dau. of Richard & Mary Thomas, d. May 10 , 

a. 9 y. 4m. 22 days. 

45. T. C. 1758. 

46. B. H. 1837; B. G. H. 1847; E. H. 1849. 

47. Ewen Cameron, d. Dec. 9. 1838, a. 68. 

48. Mrs. Lydia Metcalf . . . 

49. Captain John Crombie, of Yarmouth, 
d. 21 Aug. 1791, a. 78. Mary, his relict, d. Dec. 
28, 1826, a. . 

50. [Attar tomb.] Mary, w. of Benjamin Slade, 
Builder's Assistant of Deptford Yard. . . . Also 
Christian, dau. of Benjamin & Mary Slade, 
. . . Also Mary Slade, (sister) of Benj. & 
Thomas Fisher . . . Also the above John James 
Slade, d. Nov. 10, 1730, a. 66. Also Elizabeth 
Slade, dau. of Benj. and Mary Slade, d. 24 Oct. 
1786, a. 66. Also Mrs. Mary . . . 

51. [Tablet.] Mary, relict of Morgan Jenkins, 
d. Aug. 8, 1837, a. 79. , 

52. otherhit , d. 6 May, 1765, a. 20. Also 
the above Mrs. Mary Luing, d. 20 Dec. 17(9)3, 
a. 73. The above Mary Luing was dau. of 
James Chapman, of St. Paul's, Deptford. 

SOUTH-EAST OF CHURCH. 

53. [Tablet.] Erected by Mr. Wm. Soffee to 
the memory of Mr. Alexander Jefferey, who d. 
June, 182(5), a. . Sarah, his relict, d. Nov. 1842, 
a. 72. 

54. Mr. sers Shaw, Warden of the Dock- 
yard, d. 17 July, 18(28), a. 59. 

55. Braben. 1821. 

56. Mr. Tristram Walters, many years fore- 
"man Engineer to the Gen. Steam Nav. Go's. 

Works, d. 20 Ap. 1849, a. 54. Four of his 
children died infants. Edwin Walters, Quarter- 
master, his bro., d. Dec. 1848, after 24 years 
service in the 45th Regiment. 

57. Mr. Joseph Renoldson, of South Shields, 
d. 13 Feb. 1849, a. 72. 

58. Mary, w. of Captain Wm. Richardson, of 
the Upper Trinity Ground, d. Aug. 7, 1834, s. 
51. The above Capt. Richardson, d. May 6, 
1849, a. 78. 

59. [Altar tomb.] . . . Here also is interred. 
Maria, w. of John Sandom, who d. 22 Sep. 1829, 
a. 45. 



60. [Altar tomb.] Mr. Harry Steward, [son] of 
! Mr. Samuel Custins Steward, d. 9 Oct. 185(5), a. . 

I Maria, dau. of S. 0. Steward, d. 18 May, 1797, a. 
I 3. y. 9 m. Richard, his s., d. 19 Ap. 1813, a. 13. 
Samuel Custins, s. of the above, d. 21 Oct. 
j 1825, a. 29. James Newson Steward, s. of the 
I above, d. Jan. 26, 1851, a, 17. 

61. Mr. James Glover, d. May 1801, a. 33, of 

this p., Bu . Wm. Waller, of the same p., 

Butcher, d. May 1, 1807, a. 40. Mary Ann Waller, 

| d. in infancy. 

62. [Altar tomb.] George Sheloocke, descended 
of an ancient family in Shropshire, for long an 

inhabitant of this town. He was bred on ye 
! sea under Admiral Benbow and served on board 
I of the R.N. in ye wars of King William . . . 
; voyage round the Globe of the World, which he 
most wonderfully . . . great loss of ... Juan 
! Fernandez off the coast of the Kingdom of 
I Chili . . . died Nov. , a. 66. Susan, his w., 

dau. of Captain Richard Sib . . . Arms : A 

; lion rampant gardant. Crest : A mermaid hold- 
ing a mirror and ? % 

63. G. J. D. 1826. S. M. D. 1825. 

64. Mary, w. of Wm. Fiddey, d. 30 July, 1796, 
a. 51. William Fiddey, d. July 2, 1805, a. 63. 
Sarah, his w., d. Nov. 1822, a. 75. Jane, w. of 
Henry Benjamin Smith, d. 3 Oct. 18(44), a. 40. 

65. Caroline, w. of Mr. Joseph Huggett, d. 
11 June, 1844, a. 28. Joseph Henry Huggett, 
their s., d. 23 Jan. 1843, a. 10 months. Emma, 
2d. w. of J. Huggett, d. 28 Mar. 1853, a. . 

66. William Mills, Esq., Assistant to the Sur* 
veyor of H.M. Navy, d. 19 July, 1753, a. 69. 
Elizabeth, his relict, d. 1 Mar. 1777, a. 82. John, 

i their s., d. 21 Jan. 1732-3, a. 14 m. 

67. Catharine Jane, dau. of Captain Richard 
and Anne Douglas, d. Jan. 12, 1826, a. 3y. 6m. 
Sophia Melville, their 3d child, d. May 25,' 1827, 
a. 2 y. 1 m. 

68. ... Mr. John French, d. 28 Mav, 1811, 
a. 75. 

69. ... Mary Hoare, w. of -, d. Ap. 1717, 

a. 78. 

70. Jeremiah Watson . . . Also Mr. Charles 
Cooper, d. Ap. 22, 1841, a. . 

71. Mary, w. of Wm. Greenwood, d. July 
[17]70, a. 52. William, her husb., d. Feb. 1801, 
a. 62. Mr. George Greenwood, d. Mar. 12, 1829, 
a. 50. Mr. William Greenwood, d. July 26, 1834, 
a. 58. 

72. William and Maria, children of R- wood 
and Anne Brown, d. in infancy. Mrs. Elizabeth 
Hodgkinson, d. 21 Dec. 1799, a. 82. 

73. [Altar tomb.] Ann Mason . . . John Mason, 
Esq., Justice of the Peace . . . Counties of 
Kent & Surrey . . . Nov. 170-, a. . 

74. ... Mason . . . and dau. of William 
Bainbrigge, of Huggles[c]oat Grange, Co. of 
Leicester, Esq., deceased, d. 13 Oct. 1812, a. 60. 

75. Mr. Caesar Da vies, of Glandhlus, Co. Car- 
digan, d. Nov. 2, 1818, a. 79. Jane, his w., d. 
Nov. 11, 1827, a. 78. Two of their children: 
Susanna Maria, d. Oct. 21, 1781, a. 2y. ; Susanna 
Elizabeth, d. Sep. 23, 1792, a. 9 y. Mr. Caesar 
Davies. onlv s. of the above, d. 5 Feb. 1838, a. 63. 

76. C. D.', 1818. J. D., 1827. S. M., 1781. S. E.. 
1792. C. D., 1838. R. W., 1849. 

G. S. PARRY, Lieut. -Col. 
(To be concluded.) 



12 s. DC. JULY 2. mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 

(See 12 S..iii. 500; vi. 208, 308; vii. 2, 25, 

65, 105, 163, 223, 306, 432 ; viii. 443, 502.) 

REYNOLDS OF COOLBEG, 

CO. DONEGAL. 

VI. Ellinor Reynolds, mentioned in the 
will of Michael Hewetson, 1753, married 



ante 1753 to 
M. H.'s will). 



Dundas (Dundasse in 



burying-place in Mulliiiashee ( Bally - 
shannon). He was married (his wife's 
surname I cannot trace, but her Christian 
name was Margaret, as appears from a deed 
of lease and release dated May 23 and 24, 
1780,* executed subsequent to the marriage 



to 



VII. Frances Reynolds, married ante 1753 
Dyson, mentioned in the will of 



my freehold in Ballyshannon and Farm in 
Finner all in Donegal in trust for my son Hewetson 
Reynolds to take and receive the Rents and 
profits of said lands, the lands Killcar, Strabeel 
and Salmon Fisheries of Teelan excepted accord- 
ing to a Marriage Article and Settlement, made 
on my son Hewetson previous to his intermarriage 
with Miss Mary Ann Smith dated 25th May 1780. 
His issue failing then to my son Robert Reynolds, 
and his issue failing then to my son Michael 
Reynolds, and his issue failing then to my son 
Francis Reynolds, and failing issue to my sons then 



Michael Hewetson, 1753 ; who says," to my 
niece Frances Dyson and her four children." 

VIII. Rebecca Reynolds. In her will 
dated April 13, 1760, proved Aug. 19, 1760,* 

she is described as of Letterkenny, Co. I to my dau. Margaret Reynolds, and failing issue 
Donegal. Mentioned in the will of Michael then to F 1 / dau - Mar 7 McConnell otherwise Rey- 
He wet son 1753 wh o sa v<? " t o m v n i ftpo R i nolds - I leave and Bequeath to my son John 2, to 
Dn, 1 /Od, wn 5 says, to my niece Ke- my dau Margare t 500, to my son Michael 300, 
becca Reynolds. to my son Francis 300, to my dau. Mary 

IX. John Reynolds, b. 1704. He and McConnell 6, and I order that my Farmfof 
his brother Francis were the only two Firmer which I hold from John Folliott Esq. be 
brothers living on Sept. 27, 1753, on which ! sol : H mentioned that his property was 

,-, ! i TT subiect to the jointure of 50 per annum to his 

date their uncle Michael He uet son made | ^ f and 100 , be paid her at p Ms deathj settled 



his will, wherein he gave and devised to on her at their marriage. He bequeathed to 
his nephew, Col. Francis Reynolds, and his her his two wheeled chaise, two of his best horses, 
brother John Reynolds, his freehold called two best Milch cows, and furniture at choice. I 
Farsetmore, as also his farm of Coolbeg, M^^ J^^ ^JJ^^JgP 8 ^*^^ *^ 
&c. He died April 15, 1788, aged 84 years, j Margarett Lipsett, 5. Mary's husband wa^ 
and was bur. April 17, 1788 (Kilbarron j named George McConnell. I desire my Corps 
Par. Reg.). In his will, dated June 19, ! may be carried to the graveyard by twelve of 

1786, probate of which was granted to his * \^?* ^ r r 861 ^ nt^ne^ev RobSt 

p>lrlA<af nn TTTtrofcnv> "RoTm^lrla Ton 97 ' ana naDDana. i appoint tne tev. ivoueru 

Reynold.*, Jan. Zl, Caldwell of Tullybrook, the Rev. John Harris 

1789,t he desired to be buried m his family j O f Garnish and my son Hewetson Reynolds 

! exors. Dated 19th June 1786. 

* Extract from WiU : (Signed) JOHN REYNOLDS. 

I, Rebecca Reynolds of Letterkenny in Co. of Probate granted to Hewetson Reynolds one of 
Donegal give and bequeath to my dear sister the exors. 27th January 1789. 

^ y Gr^.?L^ii e sr 1 ^: .vsrSff v u v " flld in theKe * istry 

I ordain and appoint my said sister to be sole ? ^ ' _ ._ i .. _ ^^^ f T Q 

executrix of this my ,ast Will dated 13th April ^B^d^SdlSi 

24th May 17 80. Between John 
Reynolds (Senior) and Hewet- 
son Reynolds both of Coolbegg 



Proved 19th August 1760 by Mary 



1760. 

Chambers, widow, sole executrix. 

t I, John Reynolds of Coolbeg, Co. Donegal, 
Esq., desire my body may be bur. in my family 
burying place in Mullinashee (Ballyshannon) in 
a private manner. I give and devise to my good 



3 41_22 227375. 



Reynolds 

v. 

16 May 1781. i n c o . of DonegafEsqs. of the 
first part, Anna Coyne, widow, 
and Mary Smyth both of Ballyshannon in said 



friends John Hamilton of Broomhall, Esq., the I co. of the second part, and Daniel Eccles of 
Revd Josiah Marshall of Fahan, Laurance O'Hara j Ecclesville in Co. Tyrone, Esq., and John Camp- 
of Greggstown Esq. and the Rev. John Harris ; bell of Ballyshannon aforesaid gent, of the third 
of Garnish all in Co. Donegal, all my freehold j part. 

lands of Drummore commonly called the middle Release between John Reynolds (Senior) and 
third of Fersitmore, also the lands of Behee in Hewetson Reynolds his son of the one part, 



the Lordship of Ballyshannon, also my lease 
Culrinnen and Keeren which I hold from the Provost 
and Fellows of Trin. Coll. Dublin, also my lease 
in the See of Raphoe held from the Lord Bishop 



and Daniel Eccles and John Campbell of the 
other part. Reciting that in consideration of 
the Marriage, since been solemnized between 
his son the said Hewetson Revnolds and the said 



thereof, that is to say the lease of Killcar and Mary Smyth, and a further consideration of 



Killrean, Strabeel with the Salmon Fisheries of 
Teelan, Inver, Loughead and Gubarra, also 
my lease of Killbarron commonly called Corker, 



1200 paid to him by the said Anna Coyne, being 
the marriage portion of the said Mary Ann Smyth, 
granted to the said Daniel Eccles and John 



6 



NOTES AND QUERIES. r 12 a ix. JULY 2, mi. 



of his son Hewetson Reynolds), and by her, 
who survived him, had issue : 

i. Hewetson Reynolds, of whom pre- 
sently. 

ii. Robert Reynolds, who went to 
America. 

iii. Michael Reynolds, M.D., of Edin- 
burgh, who lived at Ballyshannon ; he 
married Barbara, dau. of John Campbell 
of The Rock, Ballyshannon, and by her 
had issue : 

1. Frances Reynolds, who married John 
Abraham Russell of Hampton Dene, Co. 
Hereford, a J.P., and Captain in the 51st 
Madras Infantry, and by him had issue : 

a. Harry Russell, who married Caroline, 
dau. of Colonel William Henry Meyrick 
by his wife Lady Laura Vane, and had 
issue : - 

a. Henry Vane Russell, who married 
Eloise Alice, dau. of Henry Calveley Cotton, 
Esq. : she died 1907. 

6. Nina Russell. 

c. Kathleen Russell. 

d. Mabel Vane Russell, who married 
Thomas Godwin Campbell Reynolds (q.v.). \ 

b. Emma Camilla Russell, who married j 
St. Barbe Sladen and had issue : St. I 
Barbe Russell Sladen, of Hampton Dene, 
Co. Hereford. He belonged to a Territorial ; 
Battalion of the Queen's Royal West 
Surrey Regiment, and served all through 
the war. He was killed in France on March 
12, 1918. At the time of his death he was j 
in temporary command of the 1st (Line) 
Battalion Royal West Surrey Regiment, | 
and was also a temporary or acting Briga- 
dier-General. He married Dorothy, dau. 
of Col. Turner, and by her had issue an only | 
child, Margaret, born 1904. 

2. Barbara Reynolds, who married her 
cousin Thomas Reynolds (q.v.) as his second i 
wife, and had issue. 



iv. Francis Reynolds, who went to 
, America. 

v. John Reynolds, b. June 27, 1761 ; 
died Sept. 10, 1790, and bur. Sept. 12, 
1790 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.). Was a - 
in the 34th Regiment. 

vi. Mary Reynolds, who married John 
McConnell ; their marriage is thus given 
in Sounders' Neivs Letter, Dublin, for Tues- 
day, March 16, 1784 : " In Mecklen- 
burgh-lane, John McConnell to Miss Mary 
Reynolds." 

Hewetson Reynolds, the eldest son, to 
j whom his father left the property at 
Kilbarron and Coolbeg, &c., married in 
May, 1780, Mary Ann, dau. of John Smyth 
of Ballyshannon, Co. Donegal (by Margaret 
his wife, dau. of Daniel Eccles of Ecclesville, 
Co. Tyrone). Their marriage settlements 
j are given in a deed dated May 23 and 24, 
1780. Hewetson Reynolds is also men- 
tioned as acting executor and adminis- 
trator of his father's will in a deed dated 
April 11, 1789* ; he died ante 1830, having 
had issue by his wife, who died May 18, 
1830, aged 69 years, and was bur. May 21, 
1830, at Kilbarron (Kilbarron Par. Reg.) : 

1. John Reynolds, b. June 27, 1781. 
Married Miss Wilson, sister to Mrs. Blake 
of Castlegrove, and had issue : 

1. Hewetson Henry Reynolds, b. 1814 ; 
d. May ; bur., May 31, 1875, having 
married Mary Buller, who died 1906 in 
Dublin, and had issue : John Reynolds, 
d. infans ; Charlotte Reynolds, Mary 
Reynolds, and Anne Reynolds. 

2. John Andrew Reynolds, d. July 27, 1888. 

3. George Reynolds of Coolbeg, b. 1817 ; 
d. Feb. , and bur. Feb. 25, 1851, at 
Kilbarron (Par. Reg.). 

ii. William Reynolds, b. July 27, 1782 ; 
d. ante 1836. A Captain in the Army. 



Campbell and their Heirs all that the said John 
Reynolds' Real Estate called Dromore in Barony 

of Raphoe" , as the former was then in the 

Possession of Messrs. John Hewenn and John 
Elhiny. . . . Keeran but commonly known 
as Coolbeg, . . . for the use of the said Mary 
Ann Smyth . . . and further subject to the 
sum of 50 yearly to be paid to Margaret Reynolds 
wife of the said John Reynolds. 

Witnessed by John Reynolds the younger of 
Coolbegg. 

(The above named John Reynolds of Coolbegg 
in Co. of Donegal, gent., aged upwards of Ifl years.) 

[The above Deed is very long and minute in 
detail, and I only copied as much as I considered 
useful for my purpose. A complete copy would 
be interesting. H. F. R.] 



* Extract from a Deed filed in the Registry 
of Deeds Office, Dublin : 

A Memorial of a Deed dated 

, ni . &f , 0f . Q o llth April 17 89 between Patrick 

Rtynolds McConegal of City of London- 

v. derry, exor. of the last Will 

Auchinleck. and Testament of Andrew 
K-egd Mackelwaine of City of London- 

derry, deceased, and Hewetson 
Reynolds of Coolbeg in Co. of Donegal, Esq., 
Acting Exor. and Administrator with the Will 
annexed of John Reynolds late of Coolbeg 
aforesaid, Esq., deceased of the one part, and 
William Auchinleck of Baron's Court in Co. 
Tyrone, gent., eldest son and Heir-at-law of 
William Auchinleck late of Mossmill in Co. of 
Londonderry, Esq., and Hugh Auchinleck of 
City of Dublin, Attorney-at-law. 



.s. ix. JULY 2, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



He married Ann, dau. of Col. Thomas Wood, 
C.B., of the Bengal Lancers ; she died 
Oct. 18, 1836, at Barryburn, near Deny, 



7. William Lowry Reynolds, b. Jan. 21, 
1823, at Banda ; died at St. Helena, on his 
way home, of wounds received in the Mutiny. 



aged 43 years, and was bur. Oct. 20, 1836 1 8. George Thomas Reynolds, b. June 
(Kilbarron Par. Reg.), in Ballyshannon | 30, 1826, on the Ganges, near Pirpainty ; 



Churchyard. They left no issue. 

iii. Coyne Reynolds, b. Aug. 12, 1785 ; 
d. May 24, 1839, aged 54 years (M.I.); 
bur. May '28, 1839 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.), 



died Nov. 1, 1826, at Tuttigash. 

Thomas Reynolds, married, secondly, his 
cousin Barbara, younger dau. of Michael 
Reynolds, M.D., of Ballyshannon, and by 



in Ballyshannon Churchyard. Of London- her had issue : 

deny. A Captain in the 39th Regiment, j 1. Michael Thomas Reynolds, b. March 
He married Elizabeth Jane, dau. of Gal- 25, m 1840 ; died, Feb. 22, 1915, at Hasle- 
braith Tredennick of Camless, co. Donegal mere, Surrey. He married, Aug. 5, 1862, 
(he died June 17, 1817, aged 62 (Kilbarron Catherine Hester Williams, and had issue : 
Par. Reg.) ), and by her had issue : a. Thomas Godwin Campbell Reynolds, 

1. Anna Maria Reynolds, bapt. June 20, b. June 18, 1863 ; married, April 19, 1904, 
1827 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.). Mabel Vane, dau. of Harry Russell. 

2. A son, d. infans. b. Harry Michael Reynolds, b. Sept. 
iv. Anna Reynolds, b. Aug. 11, 1784. 20, 1864 ;' died 1897. 

v. Michael Hewetson Reynolds, b. Aug. c . Robert Hewetson Reynolds, b. Nov. 
20, 1786 ; bapt. Sept. 26, 1786 (Par. Reg.), 1, 1870 ; died, 1898 ; he married but left 
at Kilbarron, co. Donegal. no issue. 

vi. Thomas Reynolds, b. March 7, 1788, d. John Francis Jodrell Reynolds, b 
died in 1873, was a Lieut. -Colonel in the March 28, 1873 ; married, Jan. 15, 1903, 
Hon. East India Company's Service. He Lilian Etherington, and had issue a dau. 
was married twice. By his first wife, w ho dw infans. 

Mary Blair, whom he married July 18, 1811, 2. Frances Barbara Reynolds, living at 
in Calcutta, he had issue : Bath. 

1. Eliza Mary Anna Reynolds, b. May 17, 3. Hewetson Russell Reynolds, died July, 
1812, at Kissengunge, India, and died Aug. 1912, having married and had issue : ^ 
20, 1838, at Singapore, having married, a. Edward Reynolds, died 1916, whilst 
April 21, 1834, Ninian Lowis, and by him serving in the Army. 

had issue : b. WinifredTJarbara Reynolds. 

a. Ninian Lowis, b. June 21, 1835, at c. Kathleen Reynolds. 
Sultanpore, Oude ; d. Grace Reynolds. 

b. Jessie Lowis, b. Nov. 5, 1836, at e. Ida Reynolds. 
Barhampore ; f. Norah Reynolds. 

c. John Lowis, b. Feb. 24, 1838. vii. Margaret Reynolds, b. Nov. 9, and 
The Lowis family are said to have em- bapt. Nov. 29, 1789 ; died March 18, and 

barked for England at Singapore, but were bur. March 20, 1824 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.), 
never heard of again. viii. James Smyth Reynolds, b. Jan. 12, 

2. A dau. b. Aug. 11, 1813, at Kallinger, 1792. 

and died the same day. ix. Sarah Frances Reynolds, b. Oct. 23, 1794. 

3. Jean Reynolds, b. Feb. 7, 1815, at x. Francis Reynolds, b. July 19, 1796. 
Sultanpore, Oude, mamed, March 12, 1833, xi. Robert Reynolds, b. March 23, 1798. 
at Dinapur, to William Ard Ruspini, and Of The Mullens, Ballyshannon, Co. Donegal, 
died Sept. 25, 1834, at Ghazeepore, leaving He died in 1889, having married, Jan. 12, 
issue by him a son, William Blair Ruspini, 1836, by licence in Drumholme Parish 
b. Xov. 23, 1833, at Dinapur. Church, Co. Donegal, Charlotte Reynolds 

4. Charlotte Reynolds, b. Oct. 24, 1816, Johnston, second dau. of George Johnston 
Calcutta, and died in Aug., 1817. of Laputa, near Ballyshannon, who was the 

5. Robert Reynolds, b. Sept. 22, 1819, second son of Capt. John Johnston of 
at Hozungabad and was killed at Luck- Magheramena, and by her, who died in 
now. j 1863, had issue : 

6. John Hewetson Reynolds, b. July 23, i 1. George Hewetson Reynolds, b. Jan. 21, 
1821, at Banda; married and had one or j 1837, at The Mullens, Ballyshannon ; bapt. 
more children. He and all his family were Jan. 31, 1837 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.); died 
killed at Cawnpore. I May 19, 1895, at The Mullens. 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



2. Thomas Reynolds, b. Nov. 11, 1838, 
at The Mullens, and bapt. Nov. 30, 1838 
(Kilbarron Par. Reg.) ; died, Feb. 22, 1901, 
in Dublin. 

3. Elizabeth Reynolds; bapt. Feb. 22, 

1840 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.). Living at 
Portrush. 

4. Mary Anne Reynolds ; bapt. July 24, 

1841 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.) ; married Arthur 
Mann, and by him had issue a dau. who 
died young. 

5. Robert James Reynolds, b. May .11, 
1843, at The Mullens. A J.P. for Co. 
Donegal. Married, Nov. 4, 1891, at Whitley, 
Northumberland, Kate Isabella, eldest dau. 
of Mark William Lambert of Whitley 
Hall, Northumberland. 

6. Letitia Jane Reynolds; bapt. Feb. 
20, 1845 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.), and died 
July 13, 1905, in Dublin. 

7. Charlotte Frances Reynolds ; bapt. 
Sept. 1, 1846 (Kilbarron Par. Reg.). 

8. William Reynolds, b. 1848. 

9. Jemima Reynolds, who married John 
Chapman Judge, only son of Poyntz Chap- 
man Judge of Gageborough, Horseleap, 
Co. Westmeath. He died Dec., 1902, in 
Dublin, aged 47 years, leaving issue by her. 

10. James Johnston Reynolds, b. 1852 ; 
died Aug. 15, 1903, in Australia. 

HENRY FITZGERALD REYNOLDS. 



He (Parker) interrupted the Commissioner, and, 
in a loud voice, distinctly heard by the three thou- 
sand sailors crowded on the deck or in the rigging, 
said to him : " What, my Lord ! When we 
receive you like the dove bringing the branch 
of peace and unity to the Ark, you come with a 
threat in your mouth and sentiments of hateful 
revenge in your heart ! You, who ought to be 
the Father of the Seamen you call for their 
chastisement, and are ready to order them to be 
Hogged ; you must have blood to wash away your 
sins ! Very well, you shall have some ! But 
may the blood of the innocent that you will 
spill fall on your head ! And may it leave an in- 
delible mark on your farthest descendants, so 
that all that see you may cry, ' There goes the 
executioner of the Fleet at The Nore ; may he be 
accursed ! ' Adieu, my Lord. You persist in 
m J us tice and oppression ; we persist in doing all 
we can to free ourselves ; and may God judge 
between us ! " 

De Jonnes attests that the effect of these 
words was indescribable ; that " a shout 
of approval and support went up from the 
crowd " ; and that later he saw Parker 
swing from the yardarm. The circum- 
stances in which the widow contrived to 



THE MYSTERY OF RICHARD PARKER 
OF THE NORE. 

THE native -bora and educated White - 
chapelers retain through many of their 
school-teachers, old and new, and not a few 
ancient English Freemasons of sorts re- 
tained for long, a sentimental interest in 
all that relates to Richard Parker, the 
leader of the ever -memorable Mutiny of 
the British Fleet at The Nore. There has 
just been t published a new translation of 
the ' Adventures in Wars of the French 
Republic and Consulate ' of Moreau de 
Jonnes, a sort of D'Artagnan of his day, 
who compiled his memoirs during his years 
of captivity in the English hulks, which 
began in 1809. In 1797 De Jonnes, during 
an extraordinary adventure in the English 
Channel, fell in with some of the British 
mutineers of the Naval rebellion. He met 
Parker, the leader, and of course gives a 
most sympathetic account of him ; and he 
declares he was aboard Parker's ship when 
the British Admirals came " to parley." 



to London Port and eventually to inter it in 
Whitechapel Church vaults, make a sorry 
story of East London ; but it seems to have 
been unknown to De Jonnes or he would 
certainly have exploited it. 

But no authorized " parley " such as 

; De Jonnes writes of is known to the official 

English records, and he probably refers to 

the trial by Court Martial on June 23, 1797, 

! and the four following days of Richard 

I Parker, then 30 years of age, who was the 

President of the Committee of Delegates 

which ruled for the nonce the very natu- 

i rally discontented and mismanaged Fleets at 

| The Nore and Spithead. The sentence 

j of death was carried out on June 30, 1797, 

| and it is in the last degree improbable that 

! any foreign outsider witnessed the exe- 

' cution. 

Under date of Monday, July 4, 1797, a 
news-sheet has the following : 

The body of Parker, the Mutineer, which was 
taken out of the New Naval Burying Ground at 
Sheerness, was brought to The Hoop and Horse- 
shoe public-house, Queen Street, Tower Hill, 
on Saturday evening. So large a concourse of 
persons assembled before the House next day 



premises ; and the corpse in the afternoon was 

j removed to the Workhouse in Nightingale Lane 

by order of the Parish Officers. Mistress Parker 

was taken before the sitting Magistrates at 

| Lambeth street (the Police Offlce of the time5 i n 

j the Goodman's Fields area) and examined touch- 
j i ng the object of her taking up the body. Her 



12 s. ix. JULY 2, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



answer was, " For the purpose of more decent 
interment." It was buried this morning early, 
in the vaults of Whitechapel Church. 
Years after, the coffin was found to be 
marked with Masonic signs. 

The really mysterious thing about the 
fate of Parker was that he had only just 
escaped from a debtors' prison when he 
" volunteered " for re-enlistment in the 
Navy, yet a few weeks before the outbreak 
of the Mutiny he was amply supplied with 
money to promote the great " demonstra- 
tion " of what is now called " direct action " ; j 
end so were his Committee of Delegates 
trom the other vessels of the Fleet, i 
And so the " stunt ers " of the time j 
charged the irregular and false Free- 
masons' Lodges in purlieus alongshore 
(unrecognized by bona fide initiates and 
uncertificated) with finding most of these 
funds, aided by French Revolutionists. 

It may be added that street-ballads were 
produced during all Georgian times at very 
short notice (sometimes before the criminals 
were cold and the crowd dispersed) upon 
any event which had the quality of news. 
For few of the labouring folk (certainly not 
in Stepney, " the Nursery of English sea- 
men " ) could read, and, for that few, the tiny 
news-sheets were a heavily taxed and other- 
wise costly luxury. The notorious ballad- 
factory in Spitalfields was, doubtless, re- 
sponsible for ' Mistress Parker's Lament,' 
which was long sung or howled as a duet 
by street choristers in the neighbourhood 
of Richard Parker's burial-place ; in the 
adjoining Rag Markets of Whitechapel, 
to the East and West ; and in that some- 
time sanctuary of eccentric Dissent and 
Huguenot Protestantism Petticoat Lane. 

In the middle fifties of the last century 
there was a Richard Parker, master car- 
penter and builder, at the eastern end of 
the Mile End Road, who claimed and was 
reputed to be the heir of the posthumous 
son of the Chief Mutineer at The Nore. 

Me. 



PARODY ON FAMOUS FRENCH SONNET. 
Many readers of 'N. & Q,.' will recall that 
shortly before the war broke out a not 
infrequent contributor to its j ages was DR. 
G. KRUEGER of Berlin, who was especially 
interested in English colloquialisms and slang. 
He published a \vork relating to the subject, 
which was reviewed in 11 S. ix. 239. He 
had also communicated to 11 S. vi. 240, a 



French sonnet which had attracted his 
admiration, and in publishing this the 
editor added a translation. 

I showed the original and translation to 
a pupil of mine at the Woman's Medical 
College, who spoke English and French 
fluently. She graduated in June, 1917, and 
at once \vent to France to assist in hospital 
work, where she remained until the armis- 
tice. In the course of hospital life she 
found, in a minor publication, a parody on 
the sonnet, the text of which I append. 
Some of the words are recent French slang, 
but the main meaning will be clear to all who 
read French. 

SONXET AU CUISTOT. 

La soupe a son secret, la rata a son mystere, 

Chef-d'oeuvre culinaire en un moment congu. 
Serait-ce un plat de riz ou de pommes de terre ? 

Le cuistot, qui 1'a fait, n'en a jamais rien su. 
II suivait du convoi la marche militaire, 

Entretenant le feu qui rechauffait le jus, 
Puis il jeta dans la vasque reglementa-ire 

Le ravitaillement que hier il a re^u. 
Et la conscience en paix, derriere sa roulante 

Sans vouloir deviner 1'enigme si troublante 
De la soupe qui cuit, il marche & petits pas, 

A 1'heure il en fera le partage fidele 
Et le poilu dira en humant sa gamelle : 

" Quel est done ce potage ? " et ne comprendra 
pas. 

Cuistot is the cook; rata, the mess or 
ration ; vasque means mud, but may be 
understood, probably, as hodge-podge; 
gamelle is the pan or bowl out of which the 
soldier eats. HENRY LEFFMANN. 

Philadelphia. 

RICHARD DUDLEY, b. 1562, was the eldest 
son of Edmund Dudley, of Yanwath, near 
Penrith (b. 1543), and Catherine, his wife, 
daughter and co-heiress of Cuthbert Hutton 
of Hutton John, and grandson of Richard 
Dudley, who died Jan. 1, 1592/3, and 
Dorothy his wife, daughter of Edmund 
Sandford of Askham (' Cumberland and 
Westmorland Antiquarian and Archaeolo- 
gical Society,' vol. ix., p. 138 *qq.). He 
arrived at the English College at Rheims 
June 11, 1583, and left for the English 
College at Rome on the following Aug. 13. 
On Aug. 11 the president of the former 
college, Dr. Richard Barret, wrote a letter 
to the president of the latter college, Fr. 
Alfonso Agazzari, S. J., in the course of which 
ha alludes to Richard Dudley thus : 

Est praeterea magnae nohilitatis adoleseens 
et suae familiae haeres, maximus natu filius, qui 
vocatur Dudley. Iste cum a parentibus ex scholia 
jurisconsultorum Londini esset evocatus domum, 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. ri2s.ix.juLY 2 ,i92i. 



ut uxorem duceret quam sibi habuerunt paratam, 
propter Christum reliquit et patriam et parentes, 
haereditatem et omnia, et venit in has partes ut 
theologiae studeret et crearetur sacerdos, sicque 
ad suos revertatur. Adjuva illius tam bonum 
animum in tam juvenali aetate, quaeso, mi pater. 
Ego rogo non quod necesse sit, sed ut T. E-. in- 
telligat praecipua quadam ratione hunc mihi 
commendatum atque charum esse. (Knox, 
Douay Diaries,' 196, 197, 331.) 

Dudley was ordained in 1588, and left- 
Rome for England in 1589. On July 11, 
1597, John May, Bishop of Carlisle, writing 
to Sir Robert Cecil, after alluding to the 
execution of the Catholic priest Christopher 
Robinson (' Gal. Cecil MSS. 'vii. 298), says: 

Among the said seminaries or Jesuits there is 
one Richard Dudley, termed by the aforesaid 
Robinson and other his associates the angel of 
that profession. He is the only heir of Edmund 
Dudley, esquire, whose grandfather old Richard 
Dudley, being a good Protestant, did in his life- 
time so detest his grandchild's obstinacy that he 
disinherited him of all his lands and conveyed 
them to his second brother. It is known to 
many of our gentlemen that the said angelical 
Jesuit or seminary is harboured in those parts, 
yet none of them will, though they see him, lay 
hands on him. 

Cardinal Gasquet, ' Hist, Eng. Coll., 
Rome,' p. 154, says : 

He is mentioned in the Jesuit Records as being 
among the number of priests betrayed and ar- 
rested by the apostate Atkinson. Having many 
solicitors in his behalf he was soon and secretly 
released. 

The Atkinson referred to was apparently 
William Atkinson, of the diocese of Chester, 
who arrived at the English College at Rheims 
April 17, 1589, and received the first tonsure j 
and minor orders either on Aug. 18, 1590, at 
the hands of the Bishop of Noyon in Rheims 
Cathedral, or on Feb. 24, 1592, at the hands 
of Cardinal Filippo Sega, Bishop of Piacenza, 
in the private chapel of the Archbishop's 
Palace at Rheims, and was sent to the 
English College at Valladolid, June 30, 1592 
(Knox, ' Douay Diaries,' 223, 232, 244, 246). 
The year in which Richard Dudley was ar- 
rested seems to hav e been 1 602. What else is 
known of him ? JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 



FEEDING PHEASANTS ON MILK AND 
CHEESE. The following extracts are from 
the Reports of the Historical MSS. Com- 
mission on the MSS, of the Duke of Port- 
land, vol. iv : 

Paid the same daye (i.e., October 24, 1607) 
to Widdowe Welborne for milke and chesse for 
jonge fessantes, bet wen the 26 of Julii and the 
16 of September 1607, beeng vij weekes, and iij 



dayes vijs ixd ; and for a peere of sysers to clippe 
their winges vjd viijs iijd. 

Again at a later date : 

Payd, the same day (i.e., July 8, 1611) by 
Mr. Brewer t. Thomas Paynter for chardges 
aboute the fesauntes settinge and for cheese 
and mylk for the young feasantes, xijs ijd. 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 

EPITAPH AT GLENCORSE. The following 
is on a stone in Glencorse churchyard, Mid- 
lothian : 

Death 

is not Care it is 
not pain but it is rest 

and Peace. Death 

Makes all our Terrors vain, 

And bids our Torments cease. 

this Stone is For to Mark the grave 

Where Mary Simson lies 
Lawful Wife to John McKean 
Till death did close her eyes 
Departed life at Marfield Lodge 

the Sixteenth of July 
Eghteen (sic) hundred and forty Two 

Where she did calmly Die 
Aged 65 years 

And David McKean 18 years. 

w. w. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers mav be sent to them direct. 



FONTENELLE'S ' NOUVELLES DE LA 
R&PUBLIQUE DBS LETTRES.' Perrens, in 
his book ' Les Libertins en France au 
XVII 6 Siecle,' refers at p. 386 to Fon- 
tenelle's allegorical history of a civil war 
in Borneo, written to Bayle, and published 
by him in the ' Nouvelles de la Republique 
des Lettres,' Jan. 1686. It concerns the 
contest between the two sisters, Mreo (Rome) 
and Eenegu (Geneve) for the succession 
to their mother, whose name Perrens gives 
as Glisee (Eglise). In the edition of the 
' Nouvelles,' in vol. i. of the folio edition 
of the works of Bayle (La Haye, 1727), the 
name is given as Mlisco. Will some one who 
has access to the original edition of the 
' Nouvelles ' say what is the name there. 

J. F. R. 

PEERS' MANTLES. When were the er- 
mine bars on Peers' mantles for the dis- 
tinguishing of rank first introduced ? I have 
seen a painting, said to be of Elizabeth's 



j-2 s. ix. JULY 2, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



reign, representing Richard II. confer- 
ring a barony, the recipient of which has 
two bars on his mantle. That must be an 
anachronism. But was the distinction in- 
stituted as early as Elizabeth's reign ? 

A. G. KEALY, 
Chaplain, B.X., retired. 
Stone Close, Maltby, Yorks. 

FENNING' s ' ROYAL ENGLISH Die- i 
TIOXAKY.' I recently unearthed a copy of! 
an old English dictionary entitled ' The i 
Royal English Dictionary ; or, A Treasury 
of the English Language,' compiled by j 
D. Fenning and printed in 1763. A special 
charter was issued by King George II. on 
July 3, 1761, giving Fenning exclusive 
rights to publish for fourteen years from 
that date, and the volume above referred ! 
to is a second edition. From personal ! 
inquiries I believe this is one of the first j 
English dictionaries printed, but shall feel 
obliged for any further information on 
the subject. GEO. M. WASON. 

QUEEN ELIZABETH AND THE FRENCH 
AMBASSADOR. It is related that Queen 
Elizabeth rode on horseback to meet a 
coming French ambassador and, when they 
met, held a mask before her countenance 
and continued straight ahead without paying 
the least attention to him until he followed 
her on foot. Only then, when she had 
made him thus show her deference, would 
she deign to acknowledge his presence. 
Where can I find the authority for this 
story ? -COLENSO. 

" WILD-CAT SCHEME." We all recognize a 
" wild-cat scheme " from its prospectus, 
but whence the name ? The ' N.E.D.' 
has " wild-cat " under " cat," but nothing 
to answer the query. The ' Century Dic- 
tionary ' (The Times Book Club) is more help- 
ful. A " wild cat " may mean an oil-well ; 
a " wild-catter " is one who prospects for! 
oil or ores, and carries on a dangerous | 
business ; and k ' wild-catting " means pro- i 
specting for oil. But a " wild-cat " scheme 
means, in the City, a wild, impossible 
scheme the prospectus for which is issued 
by an optimist, a fraud or individuals under 
the influence of such person or persons. 
The enclosed clipping from an American 
financial paper on " wild- cat " currency may 
supply a further clue : 

On December 23, 1816 (writes Breckinridge Jones, 
president of th' Mis-issippi Valley Trust Company). 



there was approved by the Missouri legislature 
" an act to encourage the killing of wolves, pan- 
thers and wildcats." It authorized a reward of 
$2 for killing a wolf or a panther, and 50 cents 
for killing a wildcat, to be paid out of the 
treasury of the county in which the animal had 
been killed. A justice of the peace was to de- 
stroy the scalps and "issue a .certificate on the 
county treasury for the same." The form for the 
certificate was prescribed and said " the treasurer 
of the county is hereby directed to pay the same 
to bearer," and was made a legal tender for any 
county taxes and should be so received by the 
sheriff. These "wildcat" certificates came to 
be used as currency and led to the name of " wild- 
cat " being given to other kinds of currency that 
were not redeemable in specie, and being specially 
applied to the bills of the non-specie paying banks 
in the ajoining territories. 

L. L. K. 



SIR THOMAS BROWNE'S ' RELIGIO 
MEDICI. ' In 1894 was published by G. 
Moreton, 42, Burgate Street, Canterbury, 
with subscription list approaching 700 
names, principally of the medical pro- 
fession, a choicely printed edition of the 
above, having prefixed a Prefatory Memoir 
with the initials " G. B. M. " appended. 
The latter vary from those of the publisher 
as given on the title page, and I should be 
glad to know to whom the Prefatory Memoir 
may be attributed. W. B. H. 

VARIETIES or CHEESES IN 1534. In 
' Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic,' 
there is recorded under date 1534 a Peti- 
tion on the " Regrating of Butter and 
Cheese " which reads : 

It may please the King, with the advice of 
Parliament, to enact that no one, English or 
stranger, may ship or convey any butter or 
cheese that shall be bought or that may be sold 
above the following prices : butter at 14s. a 
barrel and under ; Essex cheese 10s. a wey and 
under ; Suffolk and other cheese at 9s. a wey 
and under. 

Are there any references as to the " other " 
varieties of cheese in 1534 that were classed 
with Suffolk cheese ? 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 

JACKETED CHEESE VAT. A patent was 
granted in July, 1853, for a " metal cheese 
tub with a double bottom, having a coil of 
tubing into which steam or water is ad- 
mitted." Are there any references earlier 
than this date to cheese vats or tubs with 
double bottoms and sides like the cheese 
vats now in ordinary use ? 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. . r.i2S.ix.j UL T2,io2i. 



PRIVILEGE or TEMPLARS AND HOS- 
PITALLERS. In the Act of the thirteenth 
year of Edward I., chap, xxxiii., it is enacted 
that lands where crosses be set shall be 
forfeited as lands alienated in mortmain; 
and it proceeds : 

Forasmuch as 'many tenants set up crosses 
, . . that tenants should defend themselves 
against the chief lords of the fee, by the privilege 
of templars and hospitallers, it is ordained that 
such lands shall be forfeit to the chief lords or to 
the King . . . 

What was the privilege spoken of ? 

W. S. B. H. 

SIR BENJAMIN HAMMET, Sheriff in 1789, 
on October 13, 1797, was fined 1,000 for 
declining to serve the office of Lord Mayor 
of London, to which he had been elected. 
What else is known about him ? 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

WILLIAMS, EXECUTED 1618. A Mr. 
Williams, of the Middle Temple, barrister - 
at-law, was arraigned at the King's Bench, 
May 3, 1618, for libelling the King, and on 
May 5 was hanged and quartered at Charing 
Cross. Who was he ? 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

THOMASES : ARTISTS AND ENGRAVERS. 
The names of William, George and George 
H. Thomas are often bracketed together, as 
engravers, in books issued during the 
sixties. Were they members of the same 
family ? Place and date of the birth and 
death of each would oblige. 

AJSTEURIN WILLIAMS. 

THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR. When did 
this Calendar come into use in a popular 
sense in Ireland ? I have heard of a tomb- 
stone bearing the date 1715/16; but it was 
not adopted by the Irish Parliament till 
1782, although by the English in 1752, 
.and by the Scotch much earlier. 

HENRY FITZGERALD REYNOLDS. 

DICKSON : KIRKPATRICK. Lindsay F. 
Dickson (born 1835 at Cheltenham), eldest 
son of Samuel Dickson, M.D. (of Bolton 
Street, W.), by his wife Elizabeth John- 
stone, married a Miss Kirkpatrick, a rela- 
tive of the late Empress Eugenie. The 
exact relationship is sought. 

JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 



DANNETT FAMILY. The arms of the 
above family are : Gutty on a canton ermine ; 
crest, a greyhound's head erased. Did 
any branch of this family use a chief ermine 
instead of a canton ? I possess a silver 
seal said to have belonged to the Danuetts 
with a chief instead of a canton, other- 
wise the same arms and crest. Date of the 
seal between 1620-50. Any information 
would be gratefully received. 

LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

CORBISHLEY FAMILY. I shall be greatly 
obliged if any correspondent can give me 
information as to the above-named family 
and the origin of the name. Do the family 
possess any coat of arms ; if so, where can 
I obtain a description of same ? 

RONALD D. WHITTENBURY-KAYE. 

Newchurch, Culcheth, nr. Warrington. 

SONG WANTED. At the time of the South African 
War I attended a public dinner in a remote little 
Essex village. Among the items of a musical 
programme following the dinner was a song, 
very well rendered by a local youth, the martial 
air of which has remained in my memory ever 
since. The refrain ran as follows : 
" He was one of the dear old Regiment, 

One of the grand old Corps ; 
One of the bravest ; one of the best 

In times of Peace or War ; 
Beady to stand his corner 

Till every sou was spent ! 
One of the bravest ; one of the best 

In the good old Regiment." 

I should be glad to know the title of the^soiig 
and the names of the writer and composer. 

R. S. FARROW. 
8, Alma Road, S.W. 18. 



THE PLAGUE PITS. 
(12 S. viii. 450, 495.) 

THE triangular plot of ground in front of 
Tattersall's is all that remains of a village 
green that had its maypole down to the 
end of the eighteenth century. A portion 
of this green was set apart as a burial- 
ground to a lazar-house that had existed 
there from medieval times, and there is 
a tradition that the lazar-house was used 
as a hospital for victims of the Great Plague 
and that those who died there were buried 
in the triangular plot in question. But it 



2 s. ix. JULY 2,i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 13 



does not necessarily follow that there was those who had died in the lazar -house and 

a plague pit at this place. the story of their presence there is based 

The plague broke out first in Westminster, on "a tradition." How much is the tra- 

which consisted at that time of five parishes dition worth ? T. PERCY ARMSTRONG. 

St. Clement Danes, St. Paul, Covent The Authors' Club, Whitehall Court, S.W. 
Garden, St. Martin-in -the -Fields, St. Mary, \ 

Soho, and St. Margaret. In a " General j The exact local of these places of emer- 
Bill of Mortality from Bell's * London Remem- 1 gency interment has not been satisfactorily 
brancer ' " we are told that " in the five identified, and we are largely dependent 
parishes" of Westminster 12,194 persons j upon chance discovery and the intelligent 
were buried. If we may lay stress on the ' archaeologist tradition is, as always, un- 
meaning of the preposition "in," this state- reliable ; every churchyard and green in 
ment proves that the dead were buried in the London area is believed to be the site 
Westminster and not outside, and this seems of a plague pit. 

likely enough from what we know of what Henry George Davis ( ' Memorials of 

was done elsewhere. Vincent tells us that Knightsbridge,' p. 145), who was respon- 

" in September the churchyards are stuft sible for the Knightsbridge Green identifi- 

so full of dead corpses that they are in many cation, .has depended upon inference. The 

places swelled two or three feet higher only authentic plague pit within my know- 

than they were before, and new ground is ledge was found in the churchyard of St. 

broken up to bury the dead." In some Botolph, Aldgate, in the seventies, the 

cases the churchyards were enlarged. The ground caving in and disclosing the pit. 

great pits seem, sometimes at any rate, to MRS. E. E. COPE, who seeks an estimate 

have been quite near to where people lived ; of the deaths during this epidemic, should 

thus Pepys saw one at Aldgate close to a consult ' London's Dreadful Visitation,' a 

church ; others were at Houndsditch, collection of the Bills of Mortality pre- 

Finsbury, the north side of the Mile End pared by the Company of Parish Clerks 

Road, and in the parish of St. Stephen's, Col- and piiblished Dec. 1665. 

man Street not one of them, be it observed, ALECK ABRAHAMS. 
to the west of the City. We are also told 

that the corpses were sometimes carried CANALETTO (8 S. viii. 407). After the 

xt to a little distance in the environs " and lapse of more than a quarter of a century, 

that the night was too short in which to it may be considered rather late to reply 

bury them. to a question at the above reference, relating 

Now, surely, it is inconceivable that the to a book entitled ' Princes, Grands Capi- 

corpses were sent to Knightsbridge from taines, et autres Hommes Illustres de la 

what we should now call the East End, Grande -Bretagne,' which is said to have 

where the plague raged with especial vio- contained " some of Canaletto's etchings." 

lence. If there had been a pit at Knights- I should like, however, to place on record 

bridge it must have been for those who died the full title and description of the work 

in Westminister. But would they have been mentioned. It is as follows : 

sent so far ? In those days much of West- Tombeaux des Princes Grands Capitaines et 

minister was very sparsely populated autres Hommes Illustres, Qui ont fleuri (sic) 

There were a few taverns in Holborn ; a fans la Grande-Bretagne vers la fin du XVII et 

c ri T i j i -I- le commencement du XVIII Siecle. Gravez 

fair number of Cavaliers had built houses par les plus habiles Maitres de Paris? d > apres les 

in Lovent Garden ; Henrietta Street takes its Tableaux et desseins originaux des plus celebres 

name from the wife of Charles I. Some Peintres d' Italic. Tirez du Cabinet de Mon- 

who preferred solitude lived in Soho Fields, ' seigneur le Due de Richmond, de Lennox, et 
Pall Mall and St Tames' <? Tn th TTnv i d'Aubigny ; Chevalr de 1'Ordre de la Jarretiere, 

J*y- et Grand Ecuyer de S.M. le Rov de la Grande- 
market there was one house ; in Pecadilly Bretagne. Le tout dirige et mis au jour par les 
Mall none at all. From the high ground j soins de Eugene Mac-Swiny a Londres, 
there, the eye ranged over a charming ex- MDCCXXXXI. (1741). 

panse of lawn and woodland and St. James's > A copy of this work, from the library 

Park, and behind them rose what was no doubt of Consul Smith of Venice, is in the British 

then the crowded part of Westminster, i Museum (King's Library, 10 Tab. 25), 

It seems that it is safer to conclude that indexed under " MacSwiny, Eugene." 

if any victims of the plague were buried j This MacSwiny was none other than 

near \vhoro Tattersall's now is, they were Owen McSwiny, the theatrical manager 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. ri2s.ix.juLY2.i92i. 



(12 S. vii. 190, 236, 375), who made use of 
the name " Eugenic " while in Italy. 
At the second reference will be found 
Vertue's account of McSwiny's projected 
work. In the British Museum, in a collec- 
tion of Tracts, &c. (816 m. 23 (134)), there is 
a copy of the prospectus issued by McSwiny 
and addressed " To the Ladies and Gentle- 
men of Taste in Great Britain and Ireland." 

McSwiny's publication does not contain 
any etchings by Canaletto (Antonio Canal). 
Canaletto is connected with it only because 
he assisted in painting the landscape and 
perspective in one of the pictures which is 
engraved therein. This plate is inscribed : 
" J. B. Pittoni et A. Canal et J. B. Cimaroli 
pinx. D. Beauvais sculp. D. M. Fratta 
delin." HILDA F. FINBEBG. 

47, Holland Road, Kensington, W.14. 

MARY GODWIN (12 S. viii. 490). Percy 
Florence Shelley, Mary's surviving son by 
the poet, was at Harrow School from the 
third term of 1832 until the second term 
of 1836 ; that is, for nearly four years. He 
did not succeed his grandfather as third 
baronet until 1844. His mother went to 
live at Harrow in April, 1833, and she 
apparently stayed there until her son left 
the school on his way to Trinity, Cambridge. 
In the School Register, Percy Florence is 
entered as at the Grove the well-known 
boarding-house, then under the Rev. B. H. 
Kennedy, subsequently head master of 
Shrewsbury but on his mother's advent 
he appears to have become a home-boarder. 
As Mrs. Shelley refused to give up her son, 
and Sir Timothy only allowed her 300 a 
year in consequence, she had a hard struggle 
to keep the boy at the school. In spite of 
her love for her boy and her literary work, 
she felt lonely at " pretty Harrow." In a 
letter of July 17, 1834, to her friend Mrs. 
Gisborne she says : 

I am satisfied with my plan as regards him 
(Percy). . . . Still there are many drawbacks ; 
this is a dull, inhospitable place. I came 
counting on the kindness of a friend who lived 
here, but she died of the influenza, and I live in 
a silence and loneliness not possible anywhere 
except in England, where people are so islanded 
individually in habits ; I often languish for 
sympathy and pine for social festivity. 

Percy is much, but I think of you and Henry, ' 
and shrink from binding up my life in a child who 
may hereafter divide his fate from mine. But i 
I have no resources, everything earthly fails me i 
but him ; except on his account I live but to 
suffer. . . . 

I came here, as I said, in April 18 33, and 9th June 
was attacked by the influenza, so as to be con- 



fined to my bed ; nor did I recover the effects 
for several months. ... I am too poor to 
furnish. I have lodgings in the town disagree- 
able ones yet often, in spite of care and sorrow, 
I feel Wholly compensated by my boy. . . . God 
help me if anything was to happen to him ! 
should not survive it a week. Besides his society^ 
I have also a good deal of occupation. . . . 

And to the same, on Oct. 30, 1834, she 
writes : 

. . . He (Percy) is not all you say ; he has 
no ambition, and his talents are not so tran- 
scendent as you appear to imagine ; but he is a 
fine, spirited, clever boy, and I think, promises 
good things ; if hereafter I have reason to be 
proud of him, these melancholy days and weeks 
at Harrow will brighten in my imagination 
and they are not melancholy. . . At the same 
time I cannot in the least regret having come 
here : it was the only way I had of educating 
Percy at a public school, of which institution, 
at least here at Harrow, the more I see the more 
I like ; besides that, it was Shelley's wish that 
his son should be brought up at one. It is, 
indeed, peculiarly suited to Percy ; and whatever 
he may be, he will be twice as much as if he had 
been brought up in the narrow confinements of a 
private school. 

The boys here have liberty to the verge of 
licence ; yet of the latter, save the breaking of a 
few windows now and then, there is none. His 
life is not quite what it would be if he did not live 
with me, but the greater scope given to the 
cultivation of the affections is surely an ad- 
vantage. . . . 

And on June 11, 1835 : 

Percy is gone two miles off to bathe ; he can 
swim, and I am obliged to leave the rest to fate. 
It is no use coddling, yet it costs me many 
pangs ; but he is singularly trustworthy and 
careful. 

See ' D.N.B.' and ' Life and Letters of 
Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley,' by Mrs. 
Julian Marshall, 2 vols., 1889. 

A. R. BAYLEY. 

In his life of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley in 
the ' D.N.B.' Dr. Richard Garnett wrote : 
"In 1836 she was .... severely pressed 
by her exertions to give her son an edu- 
cation at Harrow, whither she had removed 
for the purpose." 

The son is, of course, the late Sir Percy 
Florence Shelley, who was born in Nov. 
1819. EDWARD BENSLY. 

Shelley's son, Sir Percy Florence, was 
sent to Harrow School, Michaelmas, 1832, 
and Mary went to live there in the following 
April in order to be near her son. She did 
not like Harrow and was taken ill there, 
afterwards fretting for the society of her 
friends in London. Apparently she lived 
there until Easter, 1836, when Percy left 
the school. W. A. HUTCHISOX. 



12 s. ix. JULY 2, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



THE SMALLEST PIG OF A LITTER (12; It is the Table of Contents I think so 
S. viii. 331, 376, 417, 435, 453, 497). In useful : 

3. Table of Distance from Town to Town. 

4. Inspection Table. 

5. An Itinerary, &c. 



Ceylon the smallest or last -born pig of a 
litter is called by the Sinhalese badapissd, 
which literally means " womb-sweeper " or 
"the womb-cleaner." This term is also 
applied to the last -born child of a family, 



10. List of Fairs. 



p. 9. End of Itinerary. 



11. General Description, Situation, Boundaries, 



Extent, Soil, Climate, Name, 
History, Population, Rivers. 



as when there is perhaps a long interval 

between its birth and that of the preceding lg> Civil and - Ecc iesiastical Divisions. 

child, and the parents are getting on in 19> Topographical Description. 

vears, it is supposed to be the most puny 81. Agriculture. 

and feeblest of the family. On one occasion 

when a Sinhalese native appeared before 

the civilian in charge of the province to be 

questioned about his grievances and was 95. Table of 'Contents. 



Ancient 



88. Population Table. 

89. List of Rare Plants. 
90-94. List of Topographical 

Countv. 



Works of the 



asked his name, he said it was "Badapissa.' 
The official, who knew what the ordinary 



96. Index to the Names of Places. 
I have also the cheaper edit on, which in- 



application of the word was, asked him eludes Rutland. The Huntingdonshire portion 
what he meant. " Had he no other name ?" has the 96 pages as above, and the Rut- 
His reply was that that was what everybody land portion consists of 46 pages each with 
in his village called him, and he knew of no the plain maps. I have been told that this 
other name. The headman explained that edition is Part xxxii. of the series and bears 
this was quite true, and that it was some- the date 1802. 

times the case that a man was known by no i I have given the contents above as at this 
other appellation than a nickname of this j period books of this class were not so 
kind. PENRY LEWIS, i clearly divided by subjects, and I was 

| greatly interested in the useful biblio- 
of five pages. It is very 
given by Brayley in his 



the 



When a boy, I remember 
pig of a litter was called a 
Huntingdonshire (see the same name in 
Shropshire, p. 376), and I have known it 
called a "runt," 

Many years ago I found a titlark's nest 
in the Great Meadow, St. Ives, containing 
five eggs, four of the usual size and one very 
diminutive. I can recall no name for the 
smallest egg in a clutch. 

HERBERT E. NORRIS. 
Cirencester. 



, graphical list 
smallest gjg^ to ft 

in 



' Beauties of England and Wales,' vol. viii., 
'Huntingdonshire' (1808). I wonder 
whether Brayley knew of Cooke's list or 
vice versa, or whether they each derived 
their lists from a common source, or, 
again, whether each list is quite original. 
I have consulted my friend Mr. A. L. 
Humphrey's valuable book on ' County 
Bibliographies' (1919) for help, but have 
failed to find either Brayley or Cooke under 
Huntingdonshire. 

' The Book of British Topography' (1881, 

G. A. COOKE AND HIS COUNTY ITINER- PP- 131), by Mr. John Anderson, mentions 
ARIES (12 S. viii. 393,436, 456, 498). MR. | ' The Modern British Traveller ; or, Tourists' 
FRED. R. GALE, at p. 436, says : " This Pocket Directory,' by G. A. Cooke (1802-10), 
superior edition I have not seen." I have i 12mo, vol. viii., containing Huntingdonshire. 
a copy of the best edition with coloured map ! This seems to be another work mentioned 
for Huntingdonshire, which is similar to by H. A. H. at ante, p. 456, and quoting 
the Middlesex one mentioned by MR. WILLIAM ! Sir Herbert George Fordham. 



GILBERT (p. 457). These small volumes are 
very interesting, and I should like to make 
a few remarks about my copy which be- 



HERBERT E. NORRIS. 



Cirencester. 



,--./ --i.-./ - COCO-NUT CUP (12 S. viii. 330, 395, 436). 

d to Edward Bradley (Cuthbert Bede). T have severa i o f thes e cups in my possession. 

I One is carved in excellent relief and is an 
Topographical and Statistical Description of interesting specimen. It represents two 
the County of Huntingdon. . . . [Here follows ships in fu n sail . ^th two inscriptions, 
a sub- title too long to give.] By George Alexander h f h linn lia i . " n. rl snftftd the shin " 
Cooke .... London: Printed for C. Cooke, No. | wn j C V< S P ee < sn ,P T 

17, Paternoster Row, by Brimmer and Co., j and bteam Ship City of London. 
Water Lane, Fleet Street. *. . . [No date.] ! have been told this vessel was wrecked 



16 



NOTES -AND QUERIES. [ 12 s.ix. 



and the foot of the cup made out of part 
of the wreckage. Perhaps some reader will 
be able to tell me something about the s.s. 
City of London, its date, and whether it 
was wrecked. 

I agree with my friend MR. F. BBADBUBY 
that these cups were usually carved by 
members of the crew, &c. ; but I think the 
mounting was mostly done ashore. 

HERBERT E. NORRIS. 
Cirencester. 

"PARLIAMENT CLOCK" (11 S. x. 130; 12 
g. viii. 451, 493, 515). Some years ago 
I had a small collection of these clocks ; 
a few were certainly older than 1797. I 
have still one left hanging in my hall. This 
is a good average one. The dial is 28 inches 
diameter, and the trunk 30 inches long. 
It would be rather interesting to know 
where some of the better ones are, and 
whether the actual dates of any can be 
authenticated. I always called mine 
" coaching clocks," and they seem pre- 
cisely similar to those so-called " Parlia- 
ment clocks." Before 1790 coaching be- 
came the chief and most important means i 
of travelling, and in 1792, when the mail- 1 
coaches were established on the road, these ; 
large clocks became more essential to the | 
inns and other public places than before. 

The last numbers of ' N. & Q.' contain 
such excellent replies about the " Act of 
Parliament " clocks that there seems little 
more to say on that point ; yet I should 
like some information about a few other 
details. What is the date of the earliest 
definite reference to any particular clock 
called a " Parliament clock " ? Are there 
any returns of this assessment ? Is it known 
how many clocks were in any county ? For 
instance, how many clocks were assessed at 
5s., we will say, in Huntingdonshire ? And 
how many were discarded, &c., to avoid 
the tax ? Is there any actual record of 
any clocks being ~ presented or sold to a 
town or an inn, or otherwise disposed of 
to escape the tax ? In the short period of 
the Act, what became of the clocks not 
used or assessed ? How is it that there 
were so many large clocks in small houses ? 
And so on. We know how many windows 
and hearths were taxed and in many cases 
the population of the several counties 
why should we not know the number of 
the clocks ? Were there no returns or 
have they been lost, or are they not yet avail- 
able ? Or have I missed these records ? Only 



the other da} r a gentleman was alluding to liis 
" Parliament clock " one he thought con- 
nected with the Houses of Parliament and 
denoted by that name as being superior^to 
an ordinary coaching clock. 

HERBERT E. NORRIS. 
Cirencester. 

BANQTJO (12 S. viii. 308, 354, 495). If 
in my inquiry concerning this name I said 
that proper names of persons and places 
ending in " o " were rare in Scotland, it was 
merely in comparison with Cornwall. I 
could add to those supplied by SIR HERBERT 
MAXWELL other place -names and certainly 
one still extant family name, that of Patullo 
in Perthshire not to mention Monboddo, 
who was both a person and a place. 

My remark on Thurso (Caithness -shire) 
and Tromsoe (Norway) was based on the 
latest writer on Scandinavian folk lore, 
Miss B. Phillpotts, who holds that this 
termination " oe " indicates an island, and that 
both places named were at one time sepa- 
rated from the n.ainland as in the case of 
the Cornish and Breton Monts St. Michel. 

Another contributoi suggests that Banquo 
and Fleance were introduced into the play 
to court favour from James VI. and I., 
but as it is Hollinshed, not Shakespeare, who 
is responsible for the names, and as he died 
about 1580, it is difficult to follow the train 
of thought. 

The point raised and riot cleared up by 
the correspondence was to elucidate how 
no trace of the names of Banquo or Fleance 
seems to linger either in persons or places 
in Scotland, whilst all the other characters 
of the drama can be identified by contem- 
porary names. Banquo's right of suc- 
cession to the Crown may have been due to 
the historian's or the poet's imagination, 
but that would not solve the problem of 
the appearance and disappearance of the 
two names. L. G. R. 

HICKS' s MS. HISTORY or ST. IVES, CORN- 
WALL (12 S. viii. 489). Both Mr. N. H. 
Nicolas, C.B., and the Rev. Percy Nicolas 
have been dead for more than ten or twelve 
years. If the manuscript has been restored 
to the family, it would probably be in the 
possession of Mr. Deighton Pollock (Nor- 
folk Square, Hyde Park), the grandson 
of Sir N. H. Nicolas ; or, as the executor 
of his uncle, he would probably know 
whether or not it had ever been returned. 

L. G. R. 



12 S. IX. JULY 2, 1921.1 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17 



COCKNEY PRONUNCIATION (12 S. viii. 
489). I clo not believe that Dickens's 
Cockney speech was ever much out of keep- 
ing with the periods of which he Wrote. 
I do not remember that the ancients found [ 
fault with it. The doubt about it is probably j 
of modern growth. Pronunciation changes \ 
even in cultured circles, so why not in 
those wherein the Cockney circulates. 

He can laugh at Sam Weller and the 
rest, and consider him out of keeping with j 
likelihood, for he caught his own horrible | 
twang in schools (rate-paid), and fortifies it | 
by intercourse with the ubiquitous American, 
who is, 1 feel, marring the English of this ; 
land and of the Continent. I have read ! 
that Cockney teachers have tainted the I 
tongue of Australia, and I fancy the north I 
of our own land has some inclination to- j 
wards metropolitan vowels : lidy for " lady " 
would not greatly astonish me in some j 
parts of Yorkshire. By the way, female | 
voices there are often quite feline when I 
the owners are animated and the intonation 
painful even to an unmusical ear : but so j 
are many recent musical compositions j 
which are complacently heard by con- ! 
noisseurs. ST. SWITHIX. 

The Cockney in Dickens spoke the Lon- 
don dialect of the eighteenth century. John ; 
Walker in his ' Pronouncing Dictionary ' j 
(2nd edn., 1797) enumerates four " pecu- 
liarities of my countrymen, the Cockneys " : 

1. Pronouncing s indistinctly after si. 

2. Pronouncing w for v, and inversely. 

3. Not sounding h after w. 

4. Not sounding h when it ought to be 
sounded, and inversely. 

The present Cockney pronunciation I 
have read somewhere is the Essex dialect ! 
and came into vogue with the extension of | 
the East End into that county. 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

"Moss HOLE" (12 S. viii. 489). At- 
the word " mob " has in times past signified 
(1) a pickpocket, and (2) a prostitute, per- 
haps we need go no further for the place- 
names. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

HAIR-BRUSHES (12 S. viii. 489). The 
first qu tation given in the '.N.E.D.' is 
from A. M.'s 1599 translation of Gabelhouer, 
' Book of Physicke,' 259/1 : 

Pinguefye the hayrebrushe in Hartes marrow 
or in stale Bitches milcke, when you will dresse 
your hayre. 

The thing is hardly known in some Latin 
countries to-day. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 



S WIND ON : " DAMAS " (12 S. viii. 489). 
In Scotland, Cheshire, Yorkshire, and War- 
wickshire the damson is called " damas," 
and the French have the " prune de damas " 
(Damascus). The manor house referred 
to by your correspondent was probably 
surrounded by a fruit -garden and was 
prolific of damson trees. 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

CHOLERTON (12 S. viii. 491). The 
Monthly Chronicle of North-Country Lore 
and Legend for February, 1889, has an article 
on Chollerford, a hamlet in the township 
of Humshaugh and parish of Simonburn 
near Hexham. The name is a modification 
of the ancient British Coill-uiran, " wood and 
water," corrupted by the Romans into 
Cilurnum and with the Anglican " ford/' 
added. Sun and moon worship was pre- 
valent there in prehistoric times, for the 
Romans raised altars at Cilurnum to the 
moon goddess known to the Britons as 
Comh-bhan-teinne, latinized Coventina, "the 
lady companion of the God of Fire," the 
Sun. 

With reference to Chollerton, Mawer, in 
his ' Place Names of Northumberland,' 
says : " The early forms of this name forbid 
our connecting this place with the Cilurnum 
of the Notitia Dignitatum." 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

CLEMENTINA JOHANNES SoBiESKYDouGLAss 
(12 S. viii. 411, 497). The extract from The 
Barrow News at ante, p. 497, states that the 
lady buried at Finsthwaite was " in all 
probability " the daughter of Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart and Clementina Walken- 
shaw. It would be interesting to know 
the grounds for -this opinion. How many 
children had Miss Walkenshaw and what 
was the fate of each ? ROSA ALBA. 

HENRY CLAY (12 S. viii. 449). This 
name appears as a " Manufacturer of Paper 
Tea Trays to their Majesties and the Royal 
Family " at 18, King Street, Covent Garden, 
in the 'Post Office Directory' for 1820. 
He is at the same address in the Directory 
of 1840. A. H. S. 

FAMILY MOTTOES (12 S. vii. 471). From 
a carded list of mottoes appearing on book 
plates (Ex libris) I extract the following. 
Each surname is counted as one. 

Dum spiro.spero . . . .89 

Esse quam videri . . . . 81 

Nil desperandum . . . . 77 

Nee temere, nee timide . . 46 

Semper fidelis . . . . 41 

R E. THOMAS. 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



"SINGLE WHISKEY" (12 S. viii. 489). 
This use of the adjective is illustrated by 
'N.E.D.,' vol. ix., p. 80, col. 3, under 
Single, 13 : "of beer, ale, &c. : Weak, poor, or 
inferior in quality ; small. Now archaic." 
The earliest example given is of 1485, " a 
vessell of single bere to the gonners," and 
there is one from the London Gazette in 
1704, in which "single French brandy" 
is mentioned. EDWARD BENSLY. 



LOWESTOFT CHINA (12 S. vii. 49, 115, 196). 
Several answers to the original query 
appeared last year, yet the following 
version may be acceptable. It is from the 
widow of Sir James Smith, the botanist 
(d. 1828), and at this time in her 96th year. 
She writes in 1868 : 

Surely, dear Mr. Reeve, this is not the first 
time you have inquired of me concerning Lowestoft 
china ? Either you, or Dr. Hooker it might be ; 
whichever it was. I sent him all that I knew 
a-bout it, and that all is very little, for I am one 
of the sceptics, and have been filled with doubt 
and surprise at the reports that I have heard. 
But I am told I am quite mistaken, and that it 
surely had arrived at a great state of perfection ; 
that foreign artists had been employed ; and that, 
if what is shown is not Lowestoft china, what 
other is it ? For there is a peculiarity in it which 
is totally different from Chelsea, or Derby, or 
Worcestershire, or Staffordshire. This I admit. 
One peculiarity has been observed. The bottoms 
of the saucers have very slight undulations, 
looking, as is said, like a ribbon that requires 
ironing to be perfectly flat and smooth. This I 
noticed ; and, I must add, I have seen the same 
in real Chinese china. There is a uniformity in 
certain little flowers and roses which is seen in 
no others. The shapes are good, and as the 
manufacture advanced the painting was improved, 
armorial bearings were represented and gilding. 

In my early youth there was a manufactory ; 
that I often went to and saw Mr. Allan dab a 
piece of white clay on a wheel, and, with his foot 
turning the wheel, with his right hand he formed 
a handsome basin or cup in a minute or two. 
The china basins, cups, saucers, pots, jugs 
everything was made here, painted here, by poor 
sickly-looking boys and girls, for it was a very 
unwholesome trade baked here ; and they had 
a shop in London, which I suppose, took off the 
bulk of their manufactured articles. I remember 
the great water-wheel which ground the clay a 
fearful monster, sublime, I must say for it " hid 
its limits in its greatness " ; but the beautiful 
lake that supplied it with water, and was covered 
with water-lilies, was one of my favourite resorts. 

Gillingwater tells us that Mr. Hewling Leeson 
found the clay on his estate in 1756, made experi- 
ments, was defeated ; other persons took it up, 
and were also hindered through jealousy ; another 
trial proved unsuccessful, but repeated efforts 
succeeded, and the manufacture began, and went 
on till about the end of the century, or early in 
1800, when my brother bought a few articles 



at the final sale by way of remembrance, but 
these, though pretty, are by no means the choicest 
specimens. A man in the town has a whole 
dinner service, with I think ducal bearings ; and 
only last summer Mr. Bohn (the well-known 
publisher) gave 5 to an old man for one little 
cup, which the poor fellow intended as a legacy to 
his daughter and he unwillingly sold it ; but 
5 bribed him or it might be more ; the original 
price was probably 4d. or 6d. at most. 

This is far away the best explanation of 
this most interesting question, and is from 
the ' Memoirs and Correspondence of Henry 
Reeve, C.B., D.C.L.' 

W. W. GLENNY. 

Barking, Essex. 

PBISONEBS WHO HAVE SURVIVED HANG- 
ING (12 S. vii. 68, 94, 114, 134, 173, 216, 
438 ; viii. 73). An earlier instance than 
any cited is in Henry Knyghton's * Chronicle ' 
as follows : 

In 1350, a criminal named Walter Wynk- 
bourne was hanged at Leicester, and having 
been taken down after the lapse of the usual 
period, was found to be yet alive. Some were 
for recommencing the execution, but the more 
humane took him to sanctuary in the church 
of St. Sepulchre in that town, until the will of 
the King should be known. Edward III., the 
then monarch, happened to be with the religious 
in Leicester Monastery at the very time, and an 
application was at once made to his clemency. 
The King thereupon forgave the criminal in 
Latin, Deus tibi dedit vitam, ct nos tibi dabi- 
mus castam. 

W. B. H. 

PETER BECKFORD (12 S. viii. 489). He 
was born in 1740, the son of Julines Beckford, 
who hailed from Jamaica. Julines was 
not a hunting man, but five years after 
Peter's birth his father purchased the house 
and manor of Stapleton or Steepleton- 
Iwerne in Dorsetshire, together with certain 
rights in Cranborne Chase, from one Thomas 
Fownes, who bought the place from George 
Pitt in 1654. Mr. Fownes was, I believe, 
the first gentleman in England who mastered 
a pack of hounds exclusively for fox- 
hunting. He hunted the Cranborne Chase 
district till his money became exhausted, 
and he sold his pack to Mr. Bowes, a York- 
shireman. Peter Beckford practically lived 
the whole of his life at Stapleton and died 
there. His son was created 3rd Baron Rivers 
and his great-granddaughters, the Misses 
Pitt, still own the place, I believe. Peter 
Beckford is understood to have started by 
hunting deer, as a youth, with a few buck- 
hounds. Later in life he ran a pack of 
harriers, and later still he presided over a 
pack of foxhounds. The country he hunted 



us. ix. JULY*. i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



was practically that which is now known 
as the South Dorset, which embraces Cran- 
borne Chase, of which he was appointed 
Ranger. I do not think any precise record 
exists of the period of his mastership of 
foxhounds. Some interesting notes, how- 
ever, on his- hunting career were collated 
by Mr. Otho Paget in an introduction to an 
edition of Beckford's monumental ' Thoughts 
on Hunting ' published by Methuen in 1890. 

WlLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

HANDSHAKING (12 S. viii. 451, 495). 
This seems a century before The Rambler 
to have been for men only. See ' Diary of 
Anne Clifford ' (Countess of Dorset, Pem- 
broke and Montgomery, 1590-1676) quoted 
in 'Papers and Pedigrees Relating to Cum- 
berland and Westmoreland ' (W. Jackson, 
vol. i., pp. 55-57) : 

Feb. 10th. This afternoon about one o'clock, 
did Sir George Fletcher and his lady and her 
daughter by her first husband, and Mr. Fleming 
and his eldest daughter come hither, so I had 
them into my chamber and kissed the women and 
took the men by the hand. 

. . . With Mr. Thomas Ubank of Ormside the 
doctor, so after dinner I had him into my cham- 
ber, and I took him by the hand. 

. . . And this day there dined without with my 
folks my cousin ... So after dinner I had 
them all into my chamber, and kissed the women 
and took the men by the hand. 

M. E. A. P. 

MAY SAYING (12 S. viii. 490). 
Cast not a clout 
Till May be out. 

I have been familiar with this saying 
all my life and have never anywhere heard 
it used, with reference to anything but the 
month of May. The fact that the weather 
of this month is unstable gives point to the 
proverb as a warning against being too 
ready to believe that summer has come. 
" May is a pious fraud of the almanac," 
says Lowell, and this is as true here as in 
New England. Not till June comes (and 
alas ! not always then) is it safe to cast 
our winter clothing. C. C. B. 

A similar suggestion as to the interpreta- 
tion of 

Don't cast a clout 

Till May is out 

was made, during the warm weather we 
had last Whit -week, in a letter which 
appeared in the London Daily Express. 
It is ingenious but not convincing, and is 
undoubtedly wrong, as will be seen by 



comparing the saying in question with a 
companion proverb in circulation in many 
parts of the country : 

Who casts a clout in May 

Shall sleep in clay. 

There is no mistaking the meaning of this. 

The recent correspondence in ' N. & Q.' 
on the Franklin Nights (or Days) has 
called attention to the cold snap which we 
invariably get in May, and which usually 
occurs after both the hawthorn and the 
meadow mayflower have blossomed. 

WM. SELF WEEKS. 

Westwood, Clitheroe. 

AUTHOR WANTED ^(12 S. viii. 471) : "Heart 
of Christ ! O cup most golden." This hymn 
was written by the Rev. Thomas Toke Lynch, 
and will be found in his book ' The Rivulet.' 
Mr. Lynch was from 1862 to 1871 (the year of 
his death) minister to a congregation worshipping 
at Mornington Chapel in the Hampstead Road, 
where I have occasionally heard him preach. 
' The Rivulet ' on its first appearance raised a 
considerable storm in the religious world on 
account of its alleged want of sound doctrine. 
The hymns certainly are not dogmatic, but they 
breathe throughout the spirit of true religion 
which their author exemplified in his life, and 
have " a faint mystical fragrance " such as is 
rarely found in more popular hymns. Speaking 
generally they are perhaps hardly suitable for 
congregational use, but several of them have 
been included in well-known hymn-books. 

C. C. B. 



on JSoofcs. 

Studies in Islamic Mysticism. By Reynold 
Alleyne Nicholson. (Cambridge University 
Press, 1 4s. net.) 

A WELL-KNOWN French writer, conversant with 
the modern life of Islam, has reproached the 
doctrine and practice of followers of the Prophet 
with being defective in mysticism. If the content 
of Islamic mysticism be considered, it may be 
conceded that it is not the richest, and thereby 
we may perhaps say not the profoundest, system 
of mystical doctrine. If, however, we consider 
the devotion, conviction and concentration of the 
mystic himself, then the holy men and doctors 
of Islam take high rank among those who are 
aware of and live by the supernatural. As their 
apprehension of this is vivid so is their con- 
sistency of profession and conduct apt to be 
uncompromising. 

The studies in this volume should have the 
same function for English readers as the delightful 
' Studies in Islamic Poetry ' which we noticed 
at ante, p. 139. That is to say, they should bring 
Eastern thought closer to us, and help to establish 
it at least as a constant element in the picture 
each of us forms of the world. But they should 
do a good deal more than this, and more even 
than arouse keen enjoyment. For those who 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. ti2s.ix.juLY2.io2i. 



care for the history of the Middle Ages in the 
West they afford material for most illuminating 
contrasts and comparisons between Islam and 
the 'Catholic Church. 

The three great Sufis who form the subject of 
these pages are contemporaries of the Medieval 
Church Abu Sa'id, at the end of the tenth and 
the beginning of the eleventh century ; Ibnu '1- 
Farid in the days of Innocent III. ; Jili at the 
turn of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

Abu Sa'id was a Persian, who, after his con- 
version to Sufism, spent years in the strictest 
and most ingenious asceticism. This training 
completed, his soul arrived at permanent com- 
munion with Allah, he lived and moved freely 
among his fellow-men, his ecstasies and miracles 
and his teaching attesting his divine inspiration. 
The biographical material for his life is abundant, 
and Dr. Nicholson has quoted from it freely, 
the curious riches of the story being conveyed in 
a very pleasant translation. Abu Sa'id's mystical 
outlook may, perhaps, be compared with that 
of those Christian mystics who have made much 
use of the Song of Solomon at least in so far as 
concerns its passionateness. His insistence on the 
selflessness of true love might be St. Bernard's ; and 
his attitude towards fortune and conduct has the 
lover's generosity and detachment : " To lay 
aside what thou hast in thy head, to give what 
thou hast in thy hand, and not to recoil from 
whatsoever befalls thee." Marcus Aurelius has 
several sayings not unlike this but it comes 
nearer to the " ne rien demand er et ne rien 
refuser " of St. Francis de Sales. Where Abu 
Sa'id differs from the Christian mystic is in his 
self-importance indication of some deep-going 
difference of theory, but not to be regretted by 
the humorous reader, since it is the source of 
many fine stories. 

Several of these are of interest from the point 
of view of the modern psychical research and 
kindred topics, and there is a passage of Abu 
Sa'id's wisdom which carries an idea akin to 
those of our busy friends the psycho-analysts. 
Somebody had objected to the young men's 
dancing and singing after they had entered on 
the Path. Said he: " The souls of young men are 
not yet purged of lust : indeed, it may be the 
prevailing element ; and lust takes possession 
of all the limbs. Now, if a young dervish claps 
his hands, the lust of his hands will be dissipated, 
and if he tosses his] feet, the lust of his feet 
will be lessened. When by this means the lust 
fails in their limbs, they can preserve themselves 
from great sins, but when all lusts are united 
(which God forfend !) they will sin mortally. 
It is better that the fire of their lust should be 
dissipated in the [dance] than in something 
else." 

Dr. Nicholson treats next al-Insdnu 'l-Kdmil 
(' The Perfect Man ') of Jili, the study which 
we are inclined to think the best of the three. 
Jili's system of mystical philosophy embraces a 
logos doctrine, and though, being a Musulman, 
he repudiates the possibility of an incarnation 
of God, the progress of God made manifest in 
matter descending into consciousness by the 
stages 'of Oneness, He-ness and I-ness, whereby 
at last, in the Perfect Man, God returns to God 
again, composes a system which has many obvious 
affinities with the Christian scheme. An im- 



portant difference would seem to be the more 
highly abstract and monistic nature of the 
Islamic conception which, however, in one 
place receives a curious contradiction as if some 
thwarted apprehension of another possible view 
asserted itself. Jili tells " as a fact known to 
few but revealed to him by mystical illumination, 
that everything exists in and for itself, and that 
its life is entirely free and self-determined. . . . 
On the Day of Resurrection each of a man's deeds 
will appear in visible shape and will address 
him and say, ' I am thy deed.' " In an Appendix 
to this chapter Dr. Nicholson gives some useful 
notes on the Fusus of Ibnu '1-Arabi. 

In the Odes of Ibnu '1-Farid the mysticism of 
Islam takes on another guise. Dr. Nicholson finds 
in the poet greater kinship to Dante than to 
Lucretius : we should be, rather tentatively, in- 
clined to compare them with another work which, 
though less philosophical and not in form poetical, 
is yet essentially poetry and resembles Ibnu '1- 
Farid in its USP of symbolism St. Francis de 
Sales' ' Traite de 1'Amour de Dieu.' Dr. Nichol- 
son not only gives a masterly account of the 
argument and spirit of the odes but furnishes 
translations of so large a part of them that it is 
quite possible for the reader who cannot tackle 
the original to gain from this study a real know- 
ledge of the author. 

We congratulate both Dr. Nicholson and the 
Cambridge Press on the production of a book 
which should long be of great value and im- 
portance for the study of Islam, and which 
will always be a source of enjoyment. 



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12 S. IX. JULY 2, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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21 



LONDON, JULY 9, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 169. 

NOTES : Glass-Painters of York : Petty, 21 Inscriptions 
in the Churchyard of St. Nicholas, Deptford, 22 The 
British Museum and the Upcott and Phillipps Collections, 
24 Aldeburgh Chamberlains' Accounts, 26 Old Cheese 
Fairs and Others Milton and Elzevicr, 28 Wife's Death 
140 years after her Husband's Birth London Taverns, 29 

QUERIES : " Quiet Neighbour "Merry Merest Name 
of Author Wanted The Suffolk Feast, 29 Hockley of 
Hampshire Penzance Fair : " Caput Johannis in Disco " 
-De Brus Tomb at Hartlepool, 30 Cheese Moulds of 
".letal instead of Wood Lord Camoys's Milk Syphons 
Waterloo ville Waterloo Bounty Survey of Pope Nicholas 
IV 6 Old Snuff-box from Foundation-pile of Old London 
Bridge, 31 Sir Henry Price French and Italian Trans- 
lators of Gellert Public Penance Authors Wanted, 32. 

REPLIES : Horse-riding Records, 32 Transportations 
after the Forty-five Domenick Angelo's Burial-place 
" Bishop of Oxford's Coinage," 33 ' Neck or Nothing ' 
Staresmore of Frolesworth Pye House, 34 Manchester 
and Midland Railway The Plague Pits Dr. John Mis- 
aubin, 35 Silver Medal : Identification Ladies' Por- 
traits, 36 Flag flown on Armistice Day Relapses into 
Savage Life Louis de Rouge mont, 37 Chautauqua 
Cigarette Smoking " Bomenteek " Combe House, 
Herefordshire Christopher Milles, 38 Aldeburgh : Salt 
Monopoly Window Tax and Daircs Sundials, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' More about Unknown London ' 
'Portsmouth Parish Church ' ' The Poems of Robert Her- 
rick.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



GLASS-PAINTERS OF YORK. 

(See ante, pp. 127, 323, 364, 406, 442, 485.) 

VII. THE PETTY FAMILY. 

MATTHEW PETTY, the head of one of the 
principal families of glass -painters of York. 
The year in which he was free of the city 
is not known. * He was probably born about 
the year 1415 and learnt his business with 
John Chamber the elder, for in 1437 he was 
one of the witnesses to the elder Chamber's 
will, who bequeathed him 3s. 4c. He was 
evidently also a brother-in-law of the 
Chamber brothers, for the younger, in his 
will made in 1450, speaks of " Gillot Pety," 
my sister, to whom he bequeathed 3s. 4d., 

* The Roll of Freemen of York (Surtees Soc.) 
contains over 36,500 names. It is possible, there- 
fore, that some glass-painters and the dates on 
which they were free have been overlooked. 



and a similar sum to Matthew Petty. Whether 
Matthew Petty carried on the Chamber 
business on the death of the younger brother 
or not it is impossible .to say. Chamber 
had intended that his son Richard should 
succeed him, but the son died within a 
month of his father, and, as has previously 
been shown, the probabilities are that the 
Chamber business was continued by the 
apprentice, William Inglish. It would seem 
at first sight that the most likely successor 
to Chamber would be his brother-in-law, 
Matthew Petty, who was not only fifteen 
years or more senior to Inglish, who had 
become free the same year Chamber died, 
but was the more highly esteemed of the 
two, for to Petty, Chamber bequeathed 
3s. 4rf., whilst Inglish received but a third 

?art of 5s. But the probabilities are that in 
450, when the younger Chamber died, 
Matthew Petty already had a business and 
a partner of his own, viz., Thomas My let, 
for these two are mentioned as doing work 
for the Minster in the Fabric Rolls of 1447 
and circa 1450 (date uncertain), whilst in 
1463, when the " hole craft of glasyers of this 
citee of York," consisting of eight master 
glass-painters, appeared before the mayor, 
aldermen, and council to have new ordi- 
nances granted, Thomas Mylet's name ap- 
pears next after that of Matthew Petty, 
who evidently headed the representatives 
of the craft and was presumably, therefore, 
master that same year. Petty and Mylet, 
whose name does not occur in the Fabric 
Rolls after that of c. 1450, though, as stated 
above, he was alive in 1463, evidently suc- 
ceeded Thomas Shirley in the care of the 
Minster glass, whose name or the names of 
whose workmen are entered in the Rolls as 
doing work at the Minster* in the years 
1443 and 1446. * 

Matthew Petty was evidently twice 
married, his first wife, named Gillot, being 



* It would seem that, with the exception of the 
great east window, which was executed by the 
Dean and Chapter themselves, in their own shop, 
and with labour hired specially for the purpose, 
the whole of the windows in the minster were 
ordered from firms of glass-painters in the city 
and paid for directly by private donors or through 
the chamberlain or sacrist. This explains why, 
with the exception of the years 1471 and 1577, 
not a single item relating to glass-painting as 
distinct from plain glazing and repairs appears in 
the Rolls. Where the work is specifically men- 
tioned it is invariably in emendacione fenestrarum ; 
emendantis et reparantis defectus in fenestris 
vitreis, &c. The Roll of 1 47 1 seems to be the fabric 
keeper's verbatim transcript of Matthew Petty's 
bill for painting forty-eight panels of glass all 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s. is. JULY 9, 1021. 



sister to the Chamber brothers ; his second 
wife being named Matilda. His sons evi- 
dently were John, afterwards Sir John 
Petty (free 1470, .died 1508), Robert (free 
1481, died 1528), and possibly William, 
who is mentioned in the Fabric Roll as 
working at the Minster in 1479, at which 
time he received a full wage of Qd. per day, 
so that he must have been of age at the 
time, beyond which fact nothing is known 
of him. In 1471 Matthew Petty painted the 
arms of the Dean and Chapter, which are 
forty-eight times repeated in the windows 
of the great tower, at a cost of Is. each 
for workmanship only. These were paid for 
either by the Dean, Richard Andrew, LL.D., 
Vicar-General, Canon of Windsor, and Arch- 
deacon of Bucks, out of his own pocket, or, 
through him, by the Chapter. These panels 
are the only medieval painted glass in the 
Minster (with the exception of the great 
east window) of which the name of the 
artist who executed it is definitely known. 
It is highly probable that the window fourth 
from west in the south aisle of St. Martin's, 
Coney Street, and the east window of Holy 
Trinity, Goodramgate, both of which have 
been painted in a large measure from the 
same cartoons and the latter is dated 1470, 
are Matthew Petty's work. Generally speak- 
ing, these windows show considerable decline 
from the standard of work of his predecessors. 
It would seem that Matthew Petty, evi- 
dently through failing health, retired from 
business some time before his death in 1478, 
and that the firm was carried on by his 
sons, for in his will he describes himself 
as " sound of mind though weak of body " ; 
moreover he does not mention his sons, nor 
make any bequests of the stock-in-trade, 
tools, or materials relating to his business or 
craft, so that we must sifppose that these 
had been respectively provided for and dis- 
posed of previously. He made his will* 
on May 9, 1478, desiring "to be buried in 
the ambulatory before the choir, of the 
Blessed Virgin Mary in the Church of St. Helen 
in Stanegate, York." To the fabric of the 
Minster he bequeathed 3s. 4d. and the same 
to the fabric of his parish church, St. Helen's, 
and various sums to the vicar, each chaplain, 
and the parish clerk of the same church. 

alike with the arms of the Dean and Chapter in the 
Lantern Tower, which were paid for by them. 
There are two items of the purchase of silver for 
stain and brushes for painting in 1577, but in view 
of the late date these can only have been for some 
email job such as a shield of arms or for repairs. 
* Reg. Test. Ebor. v. 123. 



" To Elizabeth Tyndale, my servant, a 
basin with ewer." The residue of his 
goods he left to his (second) wife Matilda, 
whom he also made his executrix, and John 
Wyndill, vicar of St. Helen's, and " James 
Lewty of York yoman," co-adjutors with 
her, to each of whom he bequeathed 3s. 
Witnesses, William Inglish (free 1450, died 
1480), who at that time must have been a 
business " rival " for nearly thirty years 
past ; and Thomas Shirwyn (free 1473, died 
1481), another " competitor," to whom he 
had probably taught the business, as he is 
mentioned along with Petty in the Fabric 
Rolls of 1471 and 1472. Will proved 
June 1, 1478. 

JOHN A. KNOWLES. 



INSCRIPTIONS IN THE CHURCHYARD 
OF ST. NICHOLAS, DEPTFORD. 

(See ante, p. 3.) 
SOUTH OP THE CHURCH. 

77. [Altar tomb], . . . Hughesdon. Margaret, 
w. of the above Andrew Hughesdon . . . 
Thomas, s. of the above, d. July, 18, . 

78. ... Sep. 1767, a. 57. Also 2 of his chil- 
dren. Mary, w. of William Williams, d. Ap. 
18, 1780, a. 5(4). Thomas Williams, their s., 
d. Mar., 178-, a. 32. Also . . . Mary, w. of 
Goodinch William, d. 31 Mar., a. 36. . 

79. Frances, w. of [John] Scrutton, d. 30 Sep. 
-, a. 35. Also above John Scrutton ... a. 80. 



80. Ann, wid. of Thomas West, d. Jan. 6, 1807. 
Thomas Thompson West, s. of above . . . 

81. John Taff, d. July 15, 1800, a. 49. Sarah, 
his w., d. July 13, 1800^ a. 56. Erected by their 
children. 

82. Mr. William gifton . . . Mrs. Mary Eliza- 
beth Brown, relict of the above, and w. of Mr. 
Andrew Brown, d. , 18 , a. 70. 

83. Mr. Robert Benjamin Dobbin, d. July 
1, 1828, a. (5)7. Mary Ann Dobbin, d. Nov. 
1817, a. 2 y. 8m. Emma Dobbin, d. , 182(8), 
a. months. Maria Dobbin . . . 

84. [Altar tomb] . . . Also the above Mr. 
(II. S.) Grig, d. June, 1829, a. 8(0) years. 

85. Sarah, dau. of John Parrot & Sarah Jeves, 
d. 2 Oct. 1837, a. 18 m. The above Mrs. Sarah 
Jeves, d. Jan. 10, 1848, a. 51. Jane Jeves, d. 
4 Dec. 1851, a. 19. 

86. Mr. Andrew Coller, shipwright, d. Feb. 25, 
18(14), a. 7(1). Mr. Colin Campbell, his s. in law, 
d. , 1822, a. 61. 

SOUTH-WEST AND NORTH-WEST OP CHURCH. 

87. James Lillingston, d. 29 June, 18 3-, 'a. 
4(9), having been for nearly 20 years the faithful 
servant of Nathaniel (Wigg). 

88. Ezekiel, s. of Robert & Susannah Gilbert, 

d. , 1780, a. 13. Also 6 more of their children. 

Also W Gilbert, of the above, d. on the 

coast of Africa, Oct. 9, 17(88), a. 20. The above 

Susannah, d. ,1806, a. 55. Mr. Robert Gilbert, 

d. Nov. 29, 1828, a. 82. 



12S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



89. ... Also Mrs. Mary Edwards, w. of Elizabeth Selmes, d. 17 Dec., 1857, a. (4)2, and 
[the above], ... i was bur. at Nunhead Cemetery. Elizabeth, w. 



90. ... Also Mr. Thomas Hudson, husb. of 
the above Mary H., d. Mar. 1809, a. -8 years. 

91. Maria, dau. of William & Mary Ham- 
bidge, d. Jan. 25, 1823, a. 1 y. 6 m. The above 
William Hambidge, d. Ap. 25, 1830, a. 57. 
Selina Diana H., dau. of above, d. Nov. 11, 1830 ; 
in her llth month. Mrs. Mary Hambidge . . . 

92. Joseph Mellard Stone, d. Sep. 13, 1767, a. 
years. George Stone, d. May 7, 1775, a. 3 y. 
Sarah Stone, d. Dec., 1778, a. 17m. Elizabeth 



of the above Jeremiah Selmes, d. July, 1869, 
a. 79. 

107. [Altar tomb.] Mr. Walter Bevan Knott, 
shipwright, d. Aug. 12, 1832, a. 65. Mary, his 
w., d. Dec. 4, 1822, a. 53. Eight of their children 
d. in infancy. Sarah, w. of Wm. Knott, builder, 
d. Sep. 28, '1833, a. 34. Three of their children 
d. in infancy. The above Wm. Knott, d. Mar. 13, 
1851, a. 57. William Flecknell Baker, s. of 
Wm. & Sarah Knott, d. Aug. 17, 1877, a. 49, 



Stone, mother of the above, d. May 9, 1799. at Roberts Bridge, Sussex, and was bur. at 
a. 65. Nathaniel Stone, their f., d. Mar. 6, 1803, i Nunhead Cemetery. Mr. Richard Graham, d. 



a. 64. Lucretia Stone, d. Sep. 1, 1808, a. 76. 
Also Joseph Bedford ... *;' 

93. James Hillman, the Assistant Master 
Shipwright in H.M. Dockyard, Deptford, d. 1828 



a. 59. Elizabeth, his w., d. 



, 1836, a. 62. 



Joseph Hillman, d. 1841, a. 36. James Penny 
Hillman, d. 1860, a. 57, late churchwarden of 



-, 18 , 



St. Nicholas. 

94. John Robert Gransden, d. 

[or 47 ?]. Also Prances Jordain Gransden . 

95. Edward Jones, d. 13 June, 1793, a. 39. 

96. William Bell, d. Ap. 26, 1815, a. 31. Also 



Ap. 5, 1837. a. 45. Susanna, his w., d. Ap. 22, 
1844. a. 39. 

108. George Beacon, d. May 1, 1836, a. 10 m. 
Mary Ann Beacon, d. Mar. 13, 1836, a. 4 y. Alfred 
Becon . . . Mrs. Mary Becon . . . 

109. Jane, w. of Captain John Marston, d. 
24 Jan. 1850, a. (3)9, [or 79 perhaps]. 

110. Mr. Charles Dean, d. 8 Nov., 1837, a. (5)6. 

111. Susannah, w. of Mr. T. Thomas, of Green- 
wich, d. 23 May, 1840, a. 36. George Llewellyn 
and Evan Oliver, two of their children, died 
infants. The above T. Thomas, 23 years con- 



William & Peter, sons of Wm. & Margaret fidential clerk to J. Penn & Son, Engineers 



Bell, d. in minority. 

97. [Altar tomb.] William Flecknell . . . d. 
Nov. 1826, in his 8(6)th year. 

98.' [Altar tomb.] Mary, w. of Thomas Todd, 
Esq., d. Mar. 21, 1821, a. 54. The above Thomas 
Todd, d. Jan. 12, 1828, a. 65. Robert, s. of 
Thomas & Mary Todd, d. Dec. 9, 1796, a. 7 years 
4 m. Charles Todd, d. Oct. 13, 1798, a. 3 weeks. 
Mary Charlotte Todd, d. May 26, 1811, a. 16 



Greenwich, d. 15 Ap. 1850, a. 52. 

112. Eleanor, w. of Mr. Milson . . . 

113. Mr. John Roper, d. 8 Dec. 1849, a. 77. 
Susanna, his w., d. 17 June, 1851, a. 71. 

114. Mr. Robert Bowring, d. 3 May, 1840, a. 78. 
Mary Bowring, his dau., d. March, 1845, a. 48. 

115. Mr. John Andrew, of Devonshire, d. (May), 

182-, a. 80. John, his s., d. , 1837, a. 64. John 

Andrew Smith Webb, gr. s. of above, a. 2 years. 



years. Catherine, w. of Richard Edmonds, d. of j Mr. Henry Smith Webb . . . Mrs. Mary An- 
T. & M. Todd, d. Ap. 10, 1830, a. 38. drew . . . 

99. William James, s. of John & Elizabeth; 116. Mary Edmonds Lidgould, d. 10 Feb., 1826, 
Dickenson, d. 11 May, 1839, a. 10 y. sons of a. 39. 

above died in infancy. Elizabeth, their dau., i 117. Mr. John Buckland, d. Sep. 22, 1830, a. 72. 
d. a. 20. Mrs. Eliz. Dickenson, d. 1850-, a. 66. j 118. Mr. Thomas Moses, d. 20 Mar. 18(1)5, 

100. [Altar tomb, covered with ivy and illegible.] [or 1845], a. 80. Mrs. Hellen Moses, his w., d. 
Mr. John Allen ... i 27 July, 18(4)7, a. -9 yrs. 

101. Bear, 1832. 119. Capt. Iver Falkenberg, d. 11 July, 1849, a. 

102. Susan, dau. of William & Mary Smith, i 36. fin Norwegian?] 



d. Nov. 6, 1818, a. 11 m. Mrs. Mary Smith, 
d. Sep. 1844, a. 60. Jane Smith, dau. of above, 



d. 



-, a. 3( 8). The above William Smith, d. , 



1854, a. 76, and buried at Nunhead Cemetery. 

103. Maria, dau. of Thomas & Chrystal 
Machin, d. Nov. 10, 1826, a. 11. James, their s., 
d. May 6, 1827, a. 1 y. 9 m. Eliza, their dau., 



120. Mr. Thomas Hawkes . . . 

121. Mary Ann, w. of William Willson, d. 
19 July, 18 , a. . Also two of her children: 
Mary Ann, d. 19 Sep. 1822, a. 10 m. ; Elizabeth, d. 
1 1 Mar. 1 830, a.' 2 years. William Samuel Willson,, 
d. 17, Nov. 1840, a. 22 m. Martha Jane Willson, 
d. 30 Dec. 184(5), a 21 m. Amelia Mary Willson, 



d. June 30, 1830, a. 12. Mrs. Chrystal Machin, d. 2 Feb. 18(46), a. months. Mrs. Thos. Wm. 
d. June 6, 18[44], a. . Willson . . . 

104. David Cowie, Master in the Royal Navy, 122. John McCann, R.N., d. 7 Nov. 1846, a. 80. 
d. 24 June, 1829, a. 37. Sarah Beauchamp, ] Catharine, his w., d. 24 Dec. 1843, a. . His 
d. 1 July 1829, a. 82. Elizabeth, w. of Wm. ! dau., Elizabeth, d. 24 July, 1838, a. 31. 

Evans, d. Ap. 4, 1830, a. 28. Elizabeth, dau. of j 123. [Altar tomb.] Elizabeth, dau. of John 
the above, d. Feb. 10, 1830, a. 3 m. Hesketh & Elizabeth Barratt, d. May ... a. 4- years. 
Davis Wells, d. 12 Feb. 184-, a. 7(3). Anne ! 124. [Altar tomb.] Mr. Jesse Hill, d. Jan. 22, 
Wells, his relict, d. , 1852. ! 18(3)0, a. 60. Sarah, his relict, d. May 6, 16(5)0, 

105. Mr. Robert Mimpriss, d. 1 Oct. 1813, a. 74. 

a. 42. Four of his children d. in infancy. Eliza- j 125. William Harris . . . Also Ann, sister of 
beth Mimpriss, his mother, d. 14 May, 1822, 
a. 79. Mr. John Kinipple, son in law of the 
above, 32 years foreman shipwright to Mr. 
Barnard, d. 18 Dec. 1838, a. 60. ... 

106. [Altar tomb.] Mr. Jeremiah Selmes, d. 
Feb. 15, 1814, a. 67. Mary, his w., d. June 13, 
1823, a. 77. Elizabeth, dau. of Jeremiah & 



the above, and w. of Mr. John Thornton, b. 
27 Ap. 1790, d. Nov. 18(4)3 [or 1813]. 

126. Mr. Thomas Halfpenny, d. 22 Dec. 1829, 
a. 56. Thomas, his s., d. 15 June, 1847, a. 
(3)9. Sarah, his w., d. 13 Aug. 184-, a. 73. 

127. Mr. Benjamin Bristow, d. Feb. 18, 1768, a. 



39. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. JULY 0,1021. 



128. Mr. John Jenner, d. Oct. 2, 1822, a. 54. 
Also Edward & Jane, 2 of his children. Jane, 
his w., d. 5 Nov. 18(3)0, a. 88. 

129. Mary Ann Jenner, d. 24 Nov., 1825, a. 
59. Thomas Jenner, her nephew, d. Feb., 1851, 
a. . 

The following inscriptions are from the 
small burial-ground in Wellington Street, 
Deptford, consecrated in 1705, which 
belongs to the parish of St. Nicholas. They 
are all that remain. 

130. Susanna, w. of Thomas Langman, d. 
Jan. 25, 1808, a. 72. Joseph, s. of Joseph Essen, 
and Ann, dau. of the above, d. Oct. 27, 1811, a. 
7 m. 

131. Mr. John Davis, B.N., d. 11 Nov. 18 (11 
or 44), a. (3)7. Thomas William, his s., d. 10 Ap., 
1824, a. 12 y. 11 m. George Robert, his s., late an 
apprentice in the barque ' Onyx,' d. on board in 
the Banda Sea, Ap. 18(40), a. 16 y. llm. 

132. Mr. Thomas Badham, d. May 180-, a. 
(44). Bichard, his only s., d. Aug., 1826, a. 32. 
Ann, w. of Mr. Thos. Badham. . . . Also Mrs. 
Elizabeth Tilley, d. 16 Sep. , a. 27. 

133. Mrs. Lucy Kneeshaw, d. May 30, 182(1 or 
4), a. 85. Mr. Joshua Kneeshaw, d. Ap. 29, 1798, 
a. 58. Also Lieutenant Samuel Kneeshaw, s. of 
the above, an Agent for Transports, d. in Africa, 



INDEX OP NAMES continued. 



! Markett, 2 


Bichardson,32, 


Thomas, 44, 1 1 1 


Marston, 109 


58 


Thornton, 125 


1 Mason, 73, 74 


Biddall, 25 


Tillev, 132 


I Matthews, 10 


Boper, 113 


Todd, 98 


1 Melville, 67 


Sandom, 59 


Townsend, 27 


' Metcalf, 48 


Scrutton, 79 


W., 39, 76 


! Mickell, 24 


Selmes, 106 


Waller, 61 


i Mills, 66 


Shaw, 54 


Walters, 56 


Milson, 112 


Sheloocke, 62 


Watson, 9, 70 


Mimpriss, 105 


Sib , 62 


Webb, 115 


| Moses, 118 


Simpson, 4 1 


Wells, 104 


; Newiium, 11 


Slade, 50 


West, 80 


i Olyett, 22 


Smith, 64, 102 


Wigg, 87 


Parrot, 85 


Soffee, 53 


Williams, 26, 


i Penn, 1 1 1 


Stephens, 35 


78. 


Pratt, 14 


Steward, 60 


Willson, 121 


Beeve, 6 


Stone, 92 


Wilson, 38 . 


Benoldson, 57 


Taff, 81 


Yeates, 16 



Africa, 88, 133 
Banda Sea, 131 
Bombay, 14, 38 
D - , Co. of, 33 



Ap. 1825, a. (39) 






IXDEX OP NAMES. 


Addev, 18 


Cowie, 104 


Haley, 29 


Allen, 36, 100 


Crombie, 49 


Halfpenny, 126 


Ambrose, 4 


D., 63, 76 


Hambidge, 91 


Andrew, 115 


Davies, 75 


Harris, 10, 30, 


Arnola, 3 


Davis, 131 


125 


Arundell, 1 


Dean, 110 


Hawkes, 120 


Badham, 132 


Denham, 8 


Hicks, 42 


Bainbrigge, 74 


Dickenson, 99 


Hill, 124 


Baldwin, 27 


Dobbin, 83 


Hillman, 93 


Barnard, 105 


Douglas, 67 


Hoare, 69 


Barnett, 15 


Dry, 13 


Hodgkinson, 


Barratt, 123 


B.,39 


72 


Beacon, 108 


Edmonds, 98 


Hudson, 90 


Bear, 101 
Beauchamp, 


Edwards, 89 
Elder, 38 


Huggett, 65 
Hughesdon, 77 


104 


Essen, 130 


Humphrey, 7 


Bedford, 92 


Evans, 104 


Ive, 12 


Bell, 96 


Palkenberg, 


Jefferey, 53 


Benbow, 62 


119 


Jenkins, 51 


Bladworth, 13 


Fancett,-27 


Jenner, 128, 


Bonner, 37 


Farar, 21 


129 


Bowring, 114 


Fiddey, 64 


Jeves, 85 


Braben, 55 


Fisher, 50 


Jones, 95 


Bristow, 127 


Flecknell, 97 


King William, 


Brodrick, 36 


French, 68 


62 


Brown, 72, 82 


Frith, 19 


Kinipple, 105 


Bruce, 28 


G., 17 


Kneeshaw, 133 


Buckland, 117 


Gilbert, 88 


Knott, 107 


Bull, 1 


Glover, 61 


Langman, 130 


Butler, 5, 42 


Godwin, 23 


Lidgould, 116 


C., 45 


Goudy, 20 


Lillington, 87 


Cadenhead, 43 


Graham, 107 


Loving, 44 


Cameron, 47 


Gransden, 24 


Luing, 52 


Campbell, 86 


Greenwood, 71 


M , 33 


Chapman, 52 


Grig, 84 


McCann, 122 


Clark, 11 


Grinley, 34 


Machin, 103 


Coller 86 


H 


Mackie 3 1 


Cooper, 70 


H., 46 


Mansfield, 13 



Devon, 115 
Glandhlus, Card., 75 
Greenwich, 13, 11 
Hugglescoate, Leic., 74 
Ireland, 16 
Juan Fernandez, 62 

G. S. 



INDEX OF PLACES. 

Nunhead, 102, 106, 107 
Robertsbridge, Suss., 

107 
St. Andrew's, Holborn, 

37 

Shropshire, 62 
South Shields, 57 
Whitby, 32 
Yarmouth, 49 



PARRY, Lieut. -Col. 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

AND THE UPCOTT AND PHILLIPPS 

COLLECTIONS. 

IT is generally known that these remark- 
able collections of MSS. and autograph 
letters have been dispersed by auction sale, 
after having been offered to the Trustees of 
the British Museum. 

In the case of Sir Thos. Phillipps's enor- 
mous accumulation, sixteen successive sales, 
occupying 74 days between Aug. 3, 1886, 
and May 23, 1913, have produced 
71,272 3s. 6d. and a considerable portion 
is still unsold. The worth of his offcer is 
not to be judged by this, although the 
reason of its refusal in 1835 was possibly 
want of funds. On the other hand, the 
offer was not made in a manner that would 
commend itself to the Trustees. 

Of Upcott's offer more could be said. 
The value of the collection was much 
smaller, both at the date of his offer and 
when ultimately realized by auction sale 
after his death ; and the interest of the 
Museum authorities may be considered 
to have been much greater. Possibly the 



1 2 S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



fact that the collection was situated, at 
Islington, and accessible, may have been 
then a determining factor in the refusal, 
but we know that Madden advocated the 
purchase, and Sir Henry Ellis, after 
frequent visits, purchased, on June 3, 1842, 
for 20, a quarto volume containing 59 
letters from Frederic II. (This item is 
detailed at the top of p. 64 of the pri- 
vately printed 1836 catalogue.) The pur- 
chase, made for Mr. Hebeler, then Prussian 
Consul-General, was forwarded to Berlin. 
Upcott's expectations are also reflected j 
in his correspondence with Robert Nasmyth. 
On May 22, 1837, having sent him a copy j 
of the privately printed (1836) catalogue, i 
he writes : 

My catalogue is printed with a hope to secure 
the collection in some public Library. To this 
hour nothing is done and I cast my eyes on my ; 
volumes daily, almost in despair. Then anon j 
my prospect brightens a Letter or a visitor ! 
comes looks slightly at some one portion and 
gives one hopes of a purchase. But try and 
look at the last printed Report respecting the 
British Museum in the Advocates Library 
wherein is given certain evidence before the 
Committee of the House of Commons relative to 
my collection with an intention of placing it in ! 
the British Museum. But the Officers and Trustees 
seem to have no more souls for purchasing than : 
an oyster. 

The following is Upcott's offer to the 
Trustees of the Museum made subsequently 
to the letter and more comprehensive. 
This draft with letters quoted have been j 
in the A. A. collection for some years : 

To the Governors and Trustees 
of the British Museum. 

Feb. 22, 1838 (presented the 23rd). 
My Lords and Gentlemen, 

Having been many years much employed in j 
forming a collection of 1,050 drawings, chiefly 
by John Buckler, P.S.A., and his son, as well 
as portraits and views amounting- to 1,250, 
illustrative of the history of the City of Oxford, 
its universities and the county, and having now | 
completed an arrangement of them in eight ! 
yols. folio, they form a series very highly 
interesting to the topography of this country. 
This collection, which is well known to the 
officers of the British Mus., who can give to 
your Honble. Board many particulars of the 
excellence of the whole, I am very desirous to 
see placed in our National Liby., and beg to 
offer it to the consideration of the Governors 
and Trustees, should they be disposed to enter 
into a treaty for the purchase of it. Added to 
this is a topographical col. for the county of 
Northampton similar in many respects to the 
above, the drawings being made expressly for 
the late Mr. John Townley amounting to about 
1 1 hundred irrespective of engravings. A 
MS. catalogue of the Oxfordshire portion made \ 



out by myself is now submitted for yr in- 
spection. 

I beg also to offer to the Governors and Trustees 
my extensive and unique collection of State 
Papers, Manuscripts, Autographs, original corre- 
spondence, &c., described in a privately printed 
catalogue which I have now the honor to lay 
before you. It consists of about 32 thousand 
letters, one half of which are bound suitably to 
the subject and are illustrated with [several] 
hundred portraits of fine impressions. This 
series as well as the preceding has been partially 
examined by Sir H. Ellis and Sir Fred. Madden 
and is well known to many of the most leading 
literary gentlemen of the country all of whom 
have expressed a very warm desire that the 
whole may be deposited in the Brit. Mus. as 
the most fitting Library to receive so valuable a 
series of original matter as may be found in the 
highly curious documents above mentioned. 
The second proposition I have the honor to 
make to the honorable Board is, an extra- 
ordinary set of catalogues amounting to about 
5,000, comprising the whole of the celebrated 
col(lection) of Mr. G. Baker of St. Paul's Ch. 
yard relating to coins, pictures, Books, works of 
art and whatever has appeared remarkable since 
the commencement of public sales in England 
in the year 1676, acknowledged to be the most 
extraordinary formed by any individual mostly 
priced and [completed with] purchasers names, 
in very beautiful condition. Many of them 
being quite unique and printed on large paper 
expressly for himself and which wd be of the 
greatest importance as books of reference for 
the various departments of the Brit. Mus. 
They have likewise been acknowledged to be the 
most remarkable col. in the kingdom, vide 
Dibdin's Bibliomania, page 504. 

It is not for me to say too much of the rarity, 
the beauty, the condition as well as the utility 
of the three collections I now ,pffer to the 
Governors and Trustees of our Nat. Library. 
If you, my Lords and Gentlemen, feel disposed 
to purchase the whole or any one of the three 
series I am perfectly ready and willing to submit 
them to inspection of such competent judges as 
may be appointed to fix a value. It would be 
to me a proud moment to see the whole placed 
where it would be of utility to the public, and an 
honorable pledge of five and twenty years' 
labour on my part. I am perfectly aware that 
the acquisition of these objects will require an 
application to government for the necessary 
pounds. I beg to state that if the sum should 
be considered much, I am quite ready to accept 
an annuity, if such an arrangement would be 
more agreeable to the wishes of the Trustees. 

In transcribing this draft I have been 
exact, although obviously the particularized 
recommendation of the collection of sale 
catalogues is intended for the whole and 
not the George Baker section only. 

The Phillipps ofter is presented in his few 
letters to Sir Henry Ellis here transcribed. 
The last has no direct bearing on the 
subject of this note, but its interest may be 
considered sufficient to justify inclusion. 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.ix.j UL Y9,i92i. 



My Dear Sir Henry, 

Do you think Government would purchase 
my Manuscripts ? at a fair estimate. 
Believe me, yours truly, 

(Signed) T. PHILLIPPS. 
Middle Hill, 25 March, 1835. 
To Sir Henry Ellis, K.H., 

British Museum, London. 

Dear Sir, 

I am sorry to say Lady P's illness still lingers j 
upon her, and I shall not, I fear, be able to see you. 
If the subject upon which you called the other I 
day was the offer of the MSS., and the possible 
amount required to execute my proposal, I beg 
to say that it would be between 4=0 & 50,000, or 
perhaps 50,000. 

tt is a sum which probably can only be raised by 
an appeal to the Nation in general. 

You ca^ write me a note privately, stating 
your opinion as to the feasibility of the plan. 
I am, Dear Sir, very truly yours, 

THOS. PHILLIPPS. 
29 Feb., 1832, St'ford PI. 
To Henry Ellis, Esq., 

British Museum, Bloomsbury. 

Middle Hill, 2 May '47. 

My Dear Sir Henry, 

I have just received yours this morning. 
It is singular that we should have thought of 
each other probably at the same moment. I 
sent to you yesterday through Sir P. Madden, the 
first leaves of the Index to my catalogue of MSS., 
with my Compliments, begging your acceptance 
of them. The remainder shall come, when 
finished. 

I am sorry to say there were only 50 Copies 
of the Glamorgan Pedigrees printed, and all are 
gone, or engaged. The fact is, I only printed 
them for the*Glamorgan Gentlemen, and nearly 
every one is swallowed up by that County. 

You ask me, " Why I print so very few." 
Alas ! The reason is but too plain, my Dear 
Sir Henry, " because many people will not buy." 
When I started in life as a Topographer, I was 
desirous of spreading knowledge much more 
widely, and therefore printed my 100 & 200 
Copies of each, but I soon found very few would 
buy, either through some dandy affectation of 
fine Paper, or fine Printing (neither of which do 
I profess, being merely desirous to preserve the 
simple facts of History), or through some other 
absurd motive. The consequence was that my 
works lay rotting in the sheets and encumbering 
my house, and compelled me to reduce the 
number printed. Therefore the quantity fell 
to 50 Copies, and still more recently to 25, or 30. 
I was never desirous of making a profit by them. ; 
all I wanted was the repayment of the cost of 
printing, binding, paper and plates. 

I see no remedy but to recommend Gentlemen 
who wish to have my Printed Works to form them- 
selves into a Club, which they may call if they 
please " Middle Hill Club," who will engage to 
take what I print. I will guarantee that what I 
print shall not have been printed before as an 
entire work. 

As to the works already printed, those who j 
join the club first ought of course to have the i 



priority as far as the copies, which are left, extend. 
I would, however, confine the number to 50, 
and 5 copies extra for the Public Libraries, unless 
the applications for admission should be so very 
numerous as to call for an extension, but in no 
case whatever to exceed 100 copies. 

I should be glad to hear your opinion of my 
plan, and in the meantime, believe me, 

My Dear Sir Henry, most truly yours, 

(Signed) THOS. PHILLIPPS. 
To Sir Henry Ellis, British Museum. 

ALECK ABRAHAMS. 



ALDEBURGH. 

EXTRACTS FROM CHAMBERLAINS' 
ACCOUNT-BOOK. 

1625-1649. 

(See 12 S. viii. 506, and references there given. } 
16 PAYMENTS. 38 

THE further item for renewing the charter 
in 1637 brings the charges up to 52 13s. Od. 
The letter to the Bishop is the one re- 
ferred to under date 1632 ; the dispute 
lasted many years. The copy of the Earl 
of Arundel and Surrey's letter is in the 
' Copy-Book of Letters written to and from 
the Corporation in the years 1625-1663,' 
f. 138 ; he encloses the petition from, his 
tenants, and beseeches that the Bishop 
will confirm the Chancellor's report and 
free the tenants from further vexation 
from the vicar, " whose part and duty 
it is to pratize peace, and not to give his 
parishioners so much ill example and dis- 
content as appeeres in their peticon." 

Thorpe about a mile and a half from 
Aldeburgh is still celebrated for its lob- 
sters. I am unable to find the word 
" cravize " in any old dictionary, and have 
come to the conclusion it is derived from the 
French ecrerisse. Am I wrong ? 

The former opening to the Haven at 
Thorpe is now quite closed ; it was free, a 
few years back, at high water, but frequently 
had to be " cut open." 
pd June 7th 1638 to Mr Thomas Johnson 
to make up a some of money that he paid 
at London towards the charge of re- 
newinge the Charter the some of . . 17 13 00 
pd Mr Bond for expencs at Ipswich at 
the Assizes himself and his horse fowre 

dayes 00 12 00 

More* that he paid for a Court booke 00 05 00 
Paid willm Dinyngton for horse hyre to 
Norwich to carry a lettr to the Bishopp 
<fc for horsemeat and mans meat for three 

dayes . . 00 10 08 

Spent with the secretary to get the letter 
delived & givne the porter .. 00 02 06 



12 S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



Paid Robt Fowler his quarters wags for 
being Sextine due at Lames . . 00 14 00 

more to him. for takinge down a tree in the 
marshe and settinge up for cattle to 
rubb, <fc for mendinge the fence.. 00 01 00 

pd Mris Peryman for Chargs when Capt : 
Camock and Lievetenant Land were in 
towne to viewe the ordnance . . 00 04 06 

Paid for the Fee fearme due upon the 
Charter for one whole yeere due at St 
Michaell 1637 01 00 00 

pd Tho : Smith for sendinge to Thorpe for 
Cravizes when Sr John Mildrum was in 
towne . . . . . . 00 00 04 

pd Tho : Bullitout (he beinge Constable) for 
chargs to carry Elizabeth Powes to Melton 
Gayle & hors there . . . . . . 00 06 00 

pd the wife of Christofer wake for her attend- 
ance concernynge the child of Elizabeth 
Powes . . 00 01 06 

pd novemb : 23 to labourers to cut open 
thorpe haven viz ; to John Hills for 2 
daies 00 02 08 

pd Mr Squier Bence for a. yeeres rent of a 
howse to lay the Cariage of the Ordnance 
in due at St Michaell 1638 .. .. 00 10 00 

More to him that he paid the wife of John 
Reynolds for healinge of Robt Smithes 
legg .. .. .. . . 00 10 00 

pd Mr John Bedingfteld for two yeeres fee 
for being the Towne Councell due at St 
Michaell 1638 06 00 00 

For chargs when the Lord Muttravers his 
sonne was in towne June 7th . . 01 05 10 

More to her (Audrie Bardwell widd :) for 
Comunion wyne taken at sevall tymes 
28 quarts at xiiiid the quart . . ~01 12 08 

16 RECEIPTS. 39 

Recvd of the Executors o f mr Phillip Garn- 
ham for buriall in the Church for him- 
self and his wife the some of . . 00 13 04 

16 PAYMENTS. 39 

The " Market Crosse " no longer exists, it 
was demolished, I believe, about the end of the 
eighteenth or the beginning of the nineteenth 
century. A small woodcut has been met 
with, showing the Moot Hall, Stocks and 
Market Cross. A few years ago, some of 
the " Newcastle " stones were unearthed 
on the site of the building, and some pieces 
of the old " Crosse " form part of a rockery 
in a garden near the old " Markett Stead " 
or I am mistaken. 

pd Mr John Bace the Chiefe Constable for 
the Marshalcies and mayned soldiers 
for half a year due March 25th 1639 00 13 00 

pd Tho : Boone for doeinge busines for the 
Towne for the tyme before the Towne 
Clerke w'as chosen 03 00 00 

Paid George Dawson for stones that he 
brought from Newcastle to pave the 
Crosse 120 .. .. .. . . 03 13 00 

More to him for freight for bringinge 
them 01 07 00 

To James Birch for caryinge of his brother- 
inlawe out of towne t<yBli thorough 00 02 00 



Paid to a Messenger that came from Nor- 
wich that brought writings from Mr 
Peart, proctor there out of the Arches 
the some of . . . . . . 01 16 04 

Geven the messenger for his chargs paines 
and for servinge citacons . . . . 01 00 00 

Paid John Beale for pavinge the Crosse 
with stones and for settinge stones about 
the Market stead for fowre daies worke 
for himself and thre servants at 4s 4d 

the day together 00 17 04 

for 7 loads of lyme a load of sand and for 
doeinge some worke about the roofe 

of the Crosse 00 06 08 

Paid to Belt the Smith for yron worke for 
a newe beere . . . . . . 00 06 00 

pd Mr Squier Bence money that he laid 
out for Armes viz : for Mr Beemond for 
a partezan staffe and trimynge 01 06 00 

More for a Rapier . . . . 01 00 00 

More for a belt .. .. 00 14 00 

More for Tho : Boone a Rapier 00 16 00 

for a belt .. .. .. 00 14 00 

for a fether . . . . . . 00 06 00 

To Payne that he paid for cloathes for the 

woman that lave in the howse . . 00 06 00 
to a woman for washinge the woman 00 01 06 
pd for takinge doWne the cradle and rope 
of the beakon and carryinge it to the 
storehouse . . . . . . . . 00 00 06 

Paid Thomas Payne for keepinge of a poore 
woman that was brought to Towne by 
passe called Ann Vincent for 7 weeks at 
15d the weeke . . . . . . 00 08 09 

16 RECEIPTS. 40 

It is difficult to understand why the " ould 

woman that came from Newcastle " was 

buried in the church. I have searched the 

lists of inscriptions on brasses and stones 

in the church and fail to find any mention 

of a burial in 1639 or 1640. Did the " ould " 

lady (for she must be of " quality " to be 

buried in the church) come from New- 

i castle with the stones, and was the journey 

| too much for her ? 

Some of Mr. John Bedingfield's " opinions," 
still exist ; his annual fee is certainly not 
excessive. 

The Cheney Bequest is annually dis- 
tributed. 
Recvd for breakinge the ground in the 

Church to bury Mris Hayward widd 00 06 08 
Recvd for breakinge the ground in the 

Church to bury an ould woman that 

came from Newcastle . . . . 00 06 08 

16 PAYMENTS. 40 

pd the wife of John Reynolds for healinge 
of widd : Cobbs daughters legg and for an 
other Cure 01 00 00 

pd Mr Baker for takinge recognizance for 
Thomas Saven for to keepe an Ale- 
house . . 00 02 00 

Paid widd : Lowdie for carryinge away tile 
sherds from the Pillory that the masons 
left & for making cleane the markett 
sted .. 00 01 00 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. JULY 0,1921. 



for one thousand of brick . . . . 00 15 00 \ 

for!3coftyle 0019061 

for 16 roof tyles and 28 corner tyles 00 03 05 
pd more to Mr John Wall for the use of Mr 
Alexander Bence money paid by Mr Bence 
for chargs in suite expended betwixt the 
Towne and George Nun in the Arches for 
doctors and proctors fees as pr bill 
appeereth . . . . . . . . 05 14 08 

More paid by him to Mr Creswell the proctor 
for psecutinge the suite in the behalf of 
Benjamen Hooker . . . . . . 02 00 00 

pd Thomas Groome money due to him upon 
an account when he was Church- 
warden . . . . . . . . 02 14 07 

Paid Mr John Bedingfield for beinge the 
Towne Councell for one yeere due at St 
Michaell 1640 .. ".. .. 03 00 00 

pd an Anuitie given by Mr Thomas Cheney 
late of Aldeburgh deceased bequeathed in 
his last Will and testament One hundred 
pounds to be paid yeerely upon good 
friday as followeth viz : For a sermon 
upon that day . . . . . . 01 00 00 

To be distributed to the poore of the 



Towne that dav 



03 00 00 



pd unto the Constables for the Composicon 



for his Mats househould 



00 05 00 



ARTHUR T. WINN. 
Aldeburgh, Suffolk. 

(To be continued.} 

OLD CHEESE FAIRS AND OTHERS. In 
the first volume of The Farmer's Magazine, 
covering the period June, 1832, to March, 
1833, there is given in the first three weekly 
parts a list of fairs in England and Wales. 
From these lists I extract the following : 
Thursday, June 21 : 

Boss, Hereford. Horned cattle and cheese. 
Friday, June 22 : 

cattle, cheese 



Saturday, July 7 : 

Pamphill, Dorset. Hogs, cheese and toys. 

Rugby, Warwickshire. Horses, cows, sheep 

and cheese. 
Tuesday, July 10 : 

Blandford, Dorset. Horses, sheep and cheese. 

Leominster, Hereford. Horned cattle, horses, 
wool and Welsh butter. 

Do any of these fairs still exist anywhere ? 
The three lists in The Farmer's Magazine 
are of interest as showing variation in the 
name applied to cattle, such as " horned 
cattle," "bullocks," "cows," " black cattle," 
" beasts," " oxen " and " lean cattle." 
Some of the fairs listed seem to be for toys 
only, such as Sudbury, Suffolk ; St. Peters, 
Kent ; Foulness Island, Essex ; Little Burn, 
Kent ; Eling, Hants ; Stratford, Suffolk ; 
Canvey Island, Essex ; and a number of 
others. There seems to have been in 1832 
a fair held at Coventry, Warwick, for eight 
days for " flannels, linen and woollen," 
and one for five days at Boughton Green, 
Northampton, for " coopers' ware, &c.. 
ready-made clothes, hats and stockings, &c." 
Another at Debenham, Suffolk, for " braziers 
and toys," and at Moor Kirk, Yorks, for 
" leather ware." At Folkingham, Lincoln, 
the fair was for *' hemp, hardware, and 
besoms," and at Church Whitfield, Kent, it 
was for " lemons, oranges, and toys." 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 



MILTON AND ELZEVIER. State Papers, 
Foreign, Holland, 203 (Public Record Office), 
contains a letter written by the renowned 
printer, Daniel Elzevier, to Williamson, 
concerning Milton. I went through these 
State Papers for a certain purpose, but 



Ledburv, Hereford. Horned u,nae, uueest; , - TI/T-U- 

and wool. have not made any special study ot Milton. 

Saturday, June 23 : I am even unaware whether his letters have 

Bromsgrove, Worcester. Linen, cloth, cheese been published or not. As, however, this 

^ -,, and h ? 3es - j letter seemed to me to be worthy of notice 

Sodbury, Gloucester.-Cattle, cheese and ped- 1 j have CQpied what follows> Maybe it ig 

Mells, Somerset. Cattle of all sorts, cheese j of some interest to readers who specialize 



and toys. 
Friday, June 29 : 

Fareham, Hants. Cheese and toys. 
Saturday, June 30 : 

Bridgnorth, Salop. Cattle, horses, sheep, hops, 

cheese, &c. ; sheep's wool considerable. 
Tuesday, July 3: 

Shrewsbury, Salop. Horned cattle, horses, 
pigs, cheese, linen, sheep and lambs' wool. 
Thursday, July 5 : 

Bricet, Suffolk. Butter, sheep, and toys. 
Gloucester, Gloucester. Cattle, pigs, horses, 

and cheese. 
Lancaster, Lancashire. Cattle, cheese, pedlary, 

and wool. 

Wareham, Dorset. Hogs and cheese. 
Woodland, Dorset. Horses, cheese and toys. 



on Milton. 

II y a environ un an que ie suis convenu avec 
Monsieur Skinner d'imprimer les lettres de 
Milton et un autre Manuscript en Theologie, 
mais ayant receu lesdits MSS. et y ayant 
trouve des choses que ie iugeois estre plus propres 
d'estre supprimes que divulgez, iai pris reso- 
lution de n'imprimer n'y 1'un n'y 1'autre, c., &c. 

The letter is dated Amsterdam, Nov. 
20, 1676. 

The opinion of a man like Elzevier on 
these letters seems worth recording, not to 
mention the fact that he refused publishing 
them. W. DEL COURT. 

47, Blenheim Crescent, London, W.ll. 



12 S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



WIFE'S DEATH 140 YEARS AFTER HER 
HUSBAND'S BIRTH. Lady Brewster, who 
died at Melrose on June 22, must have created 
something of a record, her death having I 
taken place 140 years after her husband's | 
birth. Sir David Brewster, F.R.S., was ; 
born in 1781, and married (as his second | 
wife) Jane Purnell in 1857. Sir David j 
died in 1868, his wife therefore survived i 
him 53 years. GERALD LODER. 

Abinger House, Brighton. 

LONDON TAVERNS* (see 12 S. viii. 61). 
In an observation on Hogarth's ' Night ' 
at the above reference, I questioned the 
existence, so early as 1738, of a Flying Coach 
to Salisbury. Having since alighted on 
unimpeachable evidence that such a coach 
was on the road, it is perhaps incumbent 
on me to place the fact on record. Arthur 
Collier, the metaphysician and rector of 
Laiigford Magna in Wilts, writing to " Mr. 
Whiston in Great Russell Street over against 
Montague House, London," on July 22, 
1726, thus concludes a long letter on theo- j 
logical topics : 

And now I guess you are ready to say aloud i 
to yourself, What would the man have ? Why, i 
sir, I will tell you plainly and in short, I would 
fain have the happiness of about a month's con- 
versation with you as finding, by much experience, 
that there is more labour than profit in all paper 
controversies. . . . It is a time of vacation, 
the town empty, and the country pleasant. 
But one day's journey by the flying coach to 
Sarum, thence but seven or eight miles to a com- 
fortable retreat, the most hearty welcome, and 
whatever else is in the power of, sir, 

Your most obedient humble servant, 

A. COLLIER. 

P.S. The coach sets out from the Angel behind 
St. Clement's in the Strand. 

The recipient of the letter was the Rev. 
William Whiston (1667-1752), latitudinarian, 
mathematician, and friend of Queen Caro- 
line. The postscript bears out the informa- 
tion relative to the Angel given at the 
above reference. 

At 12 S. viii. 196, mention is made, from 
the Chevallier Correspondence of 1744, 
of the Lock and Key Alehouse in Smith - 
field. It is worth noting that this would 
appear to be the house in Bartholomew 
Close that was destroyed in a German 
air-raid, the sign of which a huge cast- 
iron lock with depending key is now pre- 
served in the London Museum at Lan- 



(fiuerie*. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



caster House. 



J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 



" QUIET NEIGHBOUR." Rustic names for 
flowers, whether of field or garden, are 
always precious, though not invariabty 
quite elegant. I wonder if a common 
Gloucestershire name for valerian, namely, 
quiet neighbour, is common elsewhere. 
There is a sweet rural touch in the name 
which commends it. 

Such names should be jealously guarded, 
and, where possible, always used. Yet, I 
observe that many of my friends, especially 
my lady friends, keen on gardening, discard 
(as an example) the dear old name " snap- 
dragon" for the more learned name antir- 
rhinum. They are equally descriptive, these 
two names, of a peculiarity in the flower, 
and the former must yield, in point of 
antiquity, to the latter. But the English 
term is consecrated by centuries of daily use 
among ourselves ; it is English, racy of the 
soil, a sweet name, dear especially to our 
cottage children, who delight in pressing 
the monster's cheeks to compel him to open 
his monstrous jaws, and then snap ! 

C. SWYNNERTON. 

MERRY. John Merry was admitted to 
Westminster. School in Oct., 1722, aged 
11, and Robert Merry in Oct., 1724, aged 10. 
Can any correspondent of ' N. & Q.' help 
me to identify them ? G. F. R. B. 

THE REV. CHARLES MEREST, vicar of 
Chertsey, Surrey, died Nov. 26, 1786. 
Particulars of his parentage and career 
are wanted. G. F. R. B. 

NAME or AUTHOR WANTED. ' A Review 
of Mr. James Foster's Account of the 
Behaviour of the late Earl of Kilmarnock, 
by a Westminster Scholar,' was published 
in London in 1746. I should be glad to 
learn, the name of this Westminster 
scholar. G. F. R. B. 

THE SUFFOLK FEAST. In a catalogue of 
books printed for Thomas Newborough, 
dated 1688, is an entry entitled ' Humaiiity 
and Charity. A sermon preached at the 
Suffolk Feast, Nov. 30, 1686, by W. Claget, 
D.D.' What was the " Suffolk Feast " ? 

INIGO. 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. JULY 0,1021. 



HOCKLEY OF HAMPSHIRE. Can any 
reader inform me where I can obtain an 
account or pedigree of the Hockleys of 
Hampshire ? 

STEVENSON HOCKLEY WALSH. 

PENZANCE FAIR : " CAPUT JOHANNIS IN 
Disco." 'What is the origin of the Corpus 
Christi Fair at Penzance ? Can it be sup- 
posed to have anything to do with the arms 
of the town St. John Baptist's head in a 
charger ? 

In the York Breviary, in one of the lessons 
for the Feast of the Decollation of St. John, 
it is said, " Caput Johannis in disco signat 
Corpus Christi quo pascimur in sancto 
altari." When did this idea first arise, and 
where ? And upon what may it be founded? 
There was some correspondence at 12 S. vi. 
227, 276, upon St. John's Head altar-slabs, 
but these questions were not discussed. 

Are there any* other Corpus Christi Fairs 
in England held at the present day, or 
recorded ? If so, is there any similar 
possible connexion between the feast and 
the arms of the town ? Is " Caput Johan- 
nis in disco " in the arms of any other 
town ? PEREGRINUS. - 

DE BRUS TOMB AT HARTLEPOOL. 
Situated in the churchyard of St. Hilda's 
at Hartlepool is a massive table monument, 
measuring Oft. Sin. by 5ft. 9in., which for 
over a century has been credited by his- 
torians and writers generally with being 
the tomb or cenotaph of a member or 
members of the De Brus family. Upon 
what grounds writers based their statements 
that the tomb stood, formerly, within the 
chancel does not transpire. Having in 
mind the tradition associated with the 
tomb, doubtless the least hint that that 
part of the edifice was its former resting- 
place would justify even those engaged 
in the great and difficult task of a county 
history in making a statement which was 
then, perhaps, quite justified, but which 
may be misleading successive historians and 
students. That there were arms of some 
sort upon the four sides of the tomb at one 
and the same time without variation is not 
disputed, but to say that the charge or 
charges are similar to those borne by the 
De Brus of Skelton before they assumed the 
arms of Annandale has not the ordinary 
rules of heraldry for corroboration. 

After making allowance for the principal 
charge (a most grotesque looking animal) 



being a lion rampant which ordinarily 
would be regarded as the De Brus arms 
we have " in pale " several lozenges or fusils 
at either side six in number and in the 
dexter chief point are a pair of interlaced 
links which do not savour much of twelfth - 
century work, to which date the tomb is 
frequently ascribed. Regarding the lozenges 
or fusils as subordinate ordinaries, and 
therefore later than the honourable ordi- 
naries, it would perhaps materially help to 



nmiiiiimmiiumiinmiiMnmnmmiinmiiii 




date the tomb 'if anyone could say about 
what date the former ordinaries came into 
use ? The latter seem to have got an 
impetus during the Crusades. 

W. A. Copinger, in ' Heraldry Simplified,' 
p. 20, quotes Mr. Gough as saying that 
" the arms sculptured on the effigy in the 
Temple Church of Geoffrey de Magnaville, 
Earl of Essex, who died in 1144, are the 
earliest which have been discovered/' 

Is it possible that this rude tomb erected 
to the memory of some member of a once 
famous family is of contemporary date 
with the effigy of the Earl of Essex ? If 
not, what is the origin of the great tomb at 
Hartlepool ? A. E. OUGHTRED. 

Scagglethorpe, Malton. 



12 s. ix. JULY 9, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 31 



CHEESE MOULDS OF METAL INSTEAD OF 
WOOD. The earliest patent I can find 
is recorded in April, 1859, for 

Cheese vats (moulds or hoops) made of tinplate, 



WATERLOO BOUNTY. -Can anyone tell 
me anything about the above ? When was 
it distributed and to whom ? 

" HANTS HENWIFE." 



galvanized iron, tinned or plated iron or copper or 

other metal. They have a loose shifting bottom Q ^ TA7 n 

and a perforated disc or follower. bURVEY OF POPE NICHOLAS IV. One 

Cheese moulds, called vats, forms and has heard of this as being a survey and 
hoops used to be of wood made of staves account of all the ecclesiastical property 
coopered, and for some varieties are even ^ England whether m the form of 
-in use to-day. Are there any references , churches and other buildings belonging to 
indicating the replacement of the wooden the . various parishes, abbeys and nun- 
moulds by galvanized iron ? The movement s belonging to the various religious 
probably began before 1859, as the following bodies or the benefices attached to offices 
extracts from ' Recreations in Agriculture, from the lowest sacristan to the highest 
Natural History, Arts and Miscellaneous archbishop and Papal Legate, authorized 
Literature,' by James Anderson, LL.D., an required by the above Pope. 
No. 19, Sept., 1800, indicate. In the. . But I find m examining the statutes 
article ' On the Utensils of the Dairy ' we ' & ve11 b y Pickering m vol. i. of his Statutes 
reac l . at Large,' that that of 4 Edw. I., stat. i., 

The utensils of the dairy must, in general, ! A ' D - 1276 > required the taking of a census 
from the nature of the business, be made of wood. | or survey, over the whole kingdom, 01 the 
But of late, many persons who affect a superior j buildings, demesnes, common pasture, parks, 
degree of elegance and neatness, have fallen | demesne woods, common woods, pawnage, 
P^7^^ "*. Swings, freeholders cus- 

earthen-ware, both of which ought to be care- , tomary tenants, cottages and curtilages, 
fully excluded. . . . perquisites of counties and courts of 

Fashion, however, having once in- patronages (of churches), liberties, fairs, 
troduced among fine folks a dislike to wooden mar kets, customs, pleas and perquisites 
utensil^ for the dairy, an ingenious gentleman, Q courtg> &c> 

To what extent, if any, was this inquiry 
connected with the ecclesiastical inquiry 
under Pope Nicholas ? 

By what machinery was this second 
Domesday carried out and what historical 



a Mr. Hayes, with a view to humour the whim 
of the day, proposed to substitute vessels made 



of cast-iron. 



R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 



LORD CAMOYS'S MILK SYPHONS. In 1851 

there appeared in various journals an | references are there to it ? W. S. B. H. 
advertisement by a London firm of glassware, 
such as glass slates, glass tiles, glass milk- OAK SNUFF-BOX FROM FOUNDATION-PILE 
pans and cream-pots, glass preserve -jars, i O F OLD LONDON BRIDGE. At a recent sale 
pastry-slabs and pins, hand-glasses, cucum- i^ the New Forest, I purchased an old 
ber-tubes and propagating bee-glasses. In- wooden snuff-box mounted in gold with 
eluded in this advertisement are lactometers the following inscription : 
and " Lord Camoys milk syphons." For This Box is part of an Oajc pile that was 656 
what purpose were these syphons used years in the foundation of Old London Bridge, 
and have they been described anywhere ? being put down A.D. 1176 by Peter, a Pi-iest, 
As it is to be presumed that they were who was the engineer, & taken up A.D. 18 32 by the 
of glass, none of L m is likely to E come i %&*& ^^ *"** 
do to a later gener^on.^ second ^ js ^ followjng fa . 

script] on : 

A small relic of Old London Bridge. Pre- 

V\ ATERLOOViLLE. Can any reader tell me j son ted to Mr Nathan Dunn, Chinese Collection, 
the origin of the name of this village (Hants) London, July, 1843. By J. Ovenston, 32, Great 
and whether it has anything to do with T;chfield Street. 

the battle of Waterloo ? I am told that in I should be interested to know if this is 
old maps it is marked as Wheatlane End, a unique specimen or whether others 
and that the Duke of Wellington, riding exist, with a similiar inscription to the first 
on that old coaching road, remarked that one above quoted ; and also whether any- 
the country reminded him of the Field of thing is known of the persons named in 
Waterloo. " HANTS HENWIFE." ; the inscriptions. P. D. MUNDY. 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[12 S. IX. JULY 9, 1921. 



SIB HENBY PRICE. Who was Sir Henry 
Price, whose daughter Henrietta Maria 
married Alexander Stanhope (her portrait 
was said to have been painted by Sir 
Peter Lely) ? Any information respecting 
him will be gratefully received. 

LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

FRENCH AND ITALIAN TRANSLATORS OF 
GELLERT (see ' The Rhine regarded as a 
French River,' 12 S. viii. 509). It may 
perhaps be worth while to learn the names 
of the French and Italian translators (with 
their dates) of Gellert's celebrated ' Fabeln ' 
and * Geistliche Lieder ' to which Michael 
Denis refers, as quoted by MR. W. H. 
DAVID. These versions in French and 
Italian are probably found, if not in the 
British Museum, in the Paris Biblio- 
theque Nationale and in one of the great 
Italian libraries accessible to students, 
and deserving the interest of comparative 
literature. H. K. 

PUBLIC PENANCE. In ' Select Bio- 
graphical Sketches from the Note-Books 
of a Law Reporter, by William Heath 
Bennet, Barrister-at-Law,' 1867, after re- 
lating the troubles of Mary Ann Dix, 
who, for defamation, was sentenced in or 
about 1812 to perform penance in the 
Church of St. Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, the 
author wrote : " This, I believe, was the 
last sentence of penance ever pronounced 
in Protestant England." The late William 
Andrews quoted the Rev. Mackenzie Walcott 
for the statement that the last case of public 
penance performed in this country took 
place in April, 1849, at Ditton Church, 
near Cambridge. Leicestershire and Rut- 
land Notes and Queries, ii. 74 (1893), 
instances a penance performed at the 
church door of Stoke Golding soon after 
alterations " in 184 " ; and a well-known 
resident in Hampshire told me, some 
twenty years ago, that he had seen penance 
performed with usual full rites, but whether 
there or in London I do not recollect, 
though I incline to the latter. The ' En- 
cyclopaedia Britannica' says that "public 
penances have long been abolished " ; 
whilst ' Chambers's Encyclopaedia ' states that 
it was inflicted publicly in a church at 
East Clevedon, Somersetshire, in 1882. 
Perhaps this last (like a recent incident 
that has appeared in the newspapers) was 
merely domestic to the local officials con- 



cerned, and not the sentence of any con- 
stituted tribunal, ecclesiastical or legal : 
and some correspondent may be able 
to give the last date when a formal sentence 
was actually put in force. W. B. H. 

AUTHORS WANTED. 1. Who wrote 
" It is a good and soothfast saw, 
Ralf -roasted never can be raw. 
And, having tasted stolen honey, 
You can't buy innocence with money " ? 

J. B. H. 

2. Could any reader tell me where I could find 
the underneath lines ? I heard them from my 
grandmother about 60 or 70 years ago. 

Geo. IV. : Caroline of Brunswick, 

She has a pretty hand, Sir, 
And if you will but pay my debts 
I'll have her at command, Sir. 

Geo. III. : To pay your debts myself, my son, 

I should be much to blame, Sir, 
There's Fred and Dick and all the rest, 

Would ask of me the same, Sir. 
But Johnny Bull, who pays for all. 

Would pay, you need not doubt it, 
So do you prepare to wed 

And I'll speak to Pitt about it. 
I should be very grateful for the information. 
I am told it is some skit of the times. 

S. J. WOOD. 



HORSE-RIDING RECORDS. 

(12 S. viii. 509.) 

IN the days of my youth a common 
phrase in commending a horse was that 
the animal was " as good as Pentland " 
Adjoining the old tower of Monreith, now 
converted into a farmhouse, there is a field 
called Pentland, deriving its name from 
an incident in the seventeenth century. 
In the religious war that distracted Scotland 
during the latter half of that century, 
brothers not infrequently espoused opposite 
sides, which, in the case of landowning 
families, at least ensured that a representa- 
tive of the victorious party should be in a 
position to claim succession to the estates. 
Such was the case in my ancestor's family, 
John Maxwell, the elder son and heir to 
Monreith, jo.ining the Covenanters, while 
his younger brother, William, declared for 
the Government. John was engaged in the 
action fought at Rullion Green, in the 
Pentland Hills, on Nov. 28, 1666, where 
the Covenanters were hopelessly routed, 
many of them being killed as fugitives by 



12 S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



the country people. John. Maxwell, 
mounted on a good grey horse, escaped 
from the field, and was carried safely to 
his home at Monreith, distant between 120 
and 130 miles, it is said without a halt. 
To remain at home would have entailed 
dire consequences to his family, " harbour 
of rebels " being an offence visited with 
very severe penalties. But before leaving 
he turned the grey horse into the paddock 
now called Pentland, vowing in gratitude 
for the good service rendered that the gallant 
animal should never look through bridle 
again. Maxwell then went into hiding in 
various parts of the country, as recorded in 
the contemporary Session Records of 
Glasserton parish, finally escaping to Ireland, 
where he died four years later, leaving 
his forfeited inheritance to be conferred, 
with a baronetcy, upon his loyal or more 
prudent younger brother William. 

HERBERT MAXWELL. 
Monreith. 

A well-known huntsman once told me 
that one should not ask a horse to do more 
than 16 miles a day for six days, with a 
rest on the seventh day. M. H. C. W. 

HIPPOCLIDES will find a list of these 
records, including particulars of the ride 
from Berlin to Vienna to which he refers, 
in Haydn's '.Dictionary of Dates/ under the 
head of ' Riding.' 

WlLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

An account of such records and of one 
made by the author himself will be found 
in Pocock's ' Frontiersman.' 

D. R. WEBSTER. 

TRANSPORTATIONS AFTER THE FORTY-FIVE. 
(12 S. viii. 510). I have a note under June 12, 
1716, that several prisoners imported by 
Captain Scarsbrook from Liverpool, from the 
rebels at Preston, are advertised to be sold. 
I do not recollect if their names appeared, 
but further details can be seen in the Minutes 
of the Council and Assembly of the Island ot 
Antigua (P.R.O.). 

After the Monmouth rising it was ordered, 
on Oct. 11, 1685, by their lordships that all 
rebels transported must be bound for ten 
years, but I believe in later times the period 
was reduced to seven. There is a good de- 
scription of such convicts in the Jeaffreson 
papers relating to the island of St. Kitts, pub- 
lished by J. C. Jeaffreson in 1878, but I do 



not know of any account of the Jacobite 
rebels in the West Indies. These white ser- 
vants were in great request by the planters, 
as they constituted the backbone of the 
militia. Special laws were enacted for their 
protection, and I believe they were more 
humanely treated than they would have been 
in England. In the census of the island 
of Montserrat, made in the year 1730, there 
is a special column for white menservants, 
and they numbered 70, but their names were 
not given. y L OLIVER, F.S.A. 

DOMENICK ANGELO'S BURIAL-PLACE (12 S.. 
viii. 491). -In MR. SWYNNERTON'S very in- 
teresting communication there reappears 
the statement that George IV.'s early 
friendship with Sophia Angelo secured her 
a Dameship at Eton while she was scarcely 
18 years of age. As she died in April, 1847, 
aged 89, she would therefore have had to 
be a Dame as early as 1776. Apart from the 
improbability of George IV. being able to 
secure Miss Angelo such a post, when he 
was only 14 years old himself, there is no 
evidence of any kind that I know of to 
show that she was a Dame till about 1800, 
though possibly she may have been as 
early as 1796. 

One or two misprints occur in the identifi- 
cation of the names in the poem. Thus 
"Longford" should be " Langford," and 
" Regenceau " should be " Ragueneau." Also 
" B-rbl-ck " can be identified as " Bearblock." 
R. A. AUSTEN-LEIGH. 

" BISHOP OF OXFORD'S COINAGE" (12 S.. 
viii. 512). Bishops do not appear to have 
" coined money," in any sense, at any 
period ; and the * odd money ' referred to 
was assuredly " Maundy coins." These are, 
or were, a special issue from the Mint for 
the Sovereign's purses distributed on Maundy 
Thursday. Until 1731, at least, the Arch- 
bishops of York were the Lords Almoners, 
and the Palace of Whitehall the local. I had 
the reviewing of Canon Ash well's ' Life ' of 
(Samuel) Bishop Wilberforce, and seem to 
recall that he was once Almoner or Sub- 
almoner. Anyhow his son (friend of my 
earlier days), Bishop Ernest R. Wilber- 
force, when a Canon of Winchester, held 
the latter office, and presented my mother 
with a set of these silver moneys, in duplicate 
(from a one-penny bit up to a sixpence), 
and she had them made into a brooch. 

J. V. FOOTE. 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



' NECK OB NOTHING ' : AUTHOR WANTED | 
(12 S. viii. 509). This satirical piece has' 
been very generally attributed to Samuel I 
Wesley, eldest son of the rector of Epworth, 
first a scholar, and afterwards for nearly 
twenty years usher, of Westminster School. 
The piece is reprinted, with an article on ! 
the same, in ' N. & Q.,' 2 S. ii. 361 (Nov. 8, 

1856). A. R. BENTEN. 

I 

MR. CLEMENT SHORTER will find an 
answer to his query given in the pages of ! 
* N. & Q.' just upon forty years ago, under j 
the note ' Edmund Curll, Bookseller ' by i 
the REV. J. I. DREDGE : 

[It] was the production of Sam. Wesley, M.A., 
jun.. and will be found in the edition of his poems 
by Mr. Nichols, 1862, pp. 304-11. Mr. Wesley 
was then the head usher of Westminster School 
(see 6 S. iv. 98). ,, 

MR. EDWARD SOLLY had a note about | 
Wesley's ushership at the school (p. 112), to j 
which MR. DREDGE replied at p. 171, cor- j 
recting MR. SOLLY in one remark he made | 
about the poem, and continuing : 

Mr. Wesley's brochure was not an epistle or a j 
letter to John Dunton. He cleverly personates ! 
Dunton, and designates his piece Neck or Nothing : 
a Consolatory Letter from Mr. Dunton to Mr. 
Cll, &c. 

From a further note by MR. SOLLY I will 
quote only a couple of sentences : 

He very ingeniously adopts the [name and 
style of his uncle, John Dunton, by prefixing the j 
words " From Mr. D-nt-n to Mr. C-rll." John 
Dunton was then alive, and many readers might 
imagine that he really was the author. 

The 'D.N.B.' (lx., p. 317), under Samuel 
W T esley the younger (1691-1739), says 
that many of his poems were published 
separately ('Neck or Nothing,' 1716). 

An account of the incident is given in 
the ' D.N.B.' (xiii., p. 327) under Curll 
(1675-1747). The Westminster b y s en ' 
ticed the bookseller into Dean's Yard and 
tossed him in a blanket, and the incident is 
said to have been the theme of ' Neck or 
Nothing,' a poem " believed to have been 
written by Samuel, the elder brother of, 
John, Wesley." 

In the ' Curliad ' (p. 25) the victim states that I 
the torture was administered not with a blanket 
but a " rugg " and the whole controversy relating 
thereunto shall one d y see the light.^ 

The castigation of Curll took place on 
Aug. 3, 1716. It is rather interesting and 
curious that John Dunton also wrote a 
work called ' Neck or Nothing ' about 
the same time (see ' D.N.B.' vi., p. 236) : 

[Dunton] took to writing political pamphlets 
on the Whig side, one of which, called ' Neck or 



Nothing,' attacking Oxford and Bolingbroke, 
went through several editions, and is noticed with 
ironical praise in Swift's ' Public Spirit of the 
Whigs.' In 1723 [he published] an appeal to 
George I. in which his services are recounted 
and a list is given of forty of his political tracts 
beginning with ' Neck or Nothing.' 

The subject by Dunton is continued in 

' Neck for Nothing : or, a Satyr upon Two 
Great Little Men now in the Ministry. . . . The 
whole written by Mr. John Dunton, author of 
Neck or Nothing.' n.d. Price Is. [May 27, 1719.] 

As the 20th edition of ' Neck or Nothing ' 
in prose was unprocurable in London, 
Dunton advertised ' Neck or Nothing ' in 
verse, printed for the author, Mr. John 
Dunton, price Qd. 

Another little volume in my possession 
is ' Mordecai's Dying Groans from the 
Fleet Prison ; or, The Case and Sufferings 
of Mr. John Dunton (author of ' Neck or 
Nothing ' ),' 1 7 1 7. This is full of the Duntons' 
troubles and is a different book from 
Wesley's. It is singular that these terms 
should be used by each. It suggests that 
Dunton may have had some connexion with 
W'esley's tract. 

Dunton, in his ' Life and Errors,' says he 
had very much written for him " both in verse 
and prose, though I shall not name over 
the titles, in regard I am altogether as 
unwilling to see my name at the bottom of 
them." 

The literature of Dunton, Curll and the 
Wesleys is a large one. I feel sure that 
now the founder of The Sphere has the clue, 
some important additions will be made to 
our knowledge of his rare tract. 

HERBERT E. NORRIS. 

Cirencester. 

STARESMORE OF FROLESWORTH (12 S. 
viii. 512). There are two pedigrees of this 
family in the ' Visitation of Leicestershire,' 
published by the Harleian Society in 1870. 
Nichols's ' History of Leicestershire ' and 
Burton's ' Description of Leicestershire ' 
also give pedigrees of it. There is a pedigree 
of one branch of the family in the ' Visita- 
tion of Northamptonshire,' edited by W. C. 
Metcalfe in 1887, and in Miscellanea Genea- 
logica et Heraldica, 4th series, i. 182, is a 
continuation of the pedigree from the time 
of the above Visitations to about 1660. 

H. J. B. CLEMENTS. 

PYE HOUSE (12 S. viii. 490). This was 
probably some venerable tuck-shop. There 
is nothing more recondite about it than 
there is in Eel Pie House or Chelsea Bun 
House, &c., &c. ST. SWITHIN. 



32S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



MANCHESTER AND MIDLAND RAILWAY 
(12 S. viii. 510). -Your correspondent will 
find help from a book by Mr. Frederick S. 
Williams entitled ' The Midland Railway : 
Its Rise and Progress : A Narrative of Modern 
Enterprise.' (London (n.d.), Strahan and Co., 
Paternoster Row.) ST> SWITHIN. 

In 1845, when the railway mania was at 
its height, a company was formed to pro- 
mote a railway from Crewe to Milford Haven 
by way of Llanidloes and Lampeter. But 
like many other projects of this ill-fated 
year the " Manchester and Milford " scheme 
collapsed. In 1852 an attempt was made 
to fill up the gap between Llanidloes and 
Milford, but without success. In 1860 an 
Act was obtained authorizing the M. & M. 
Ry. Co. to construct a line from Pencader, 
on the Newcastle -Emlyn branch of the 
G.W.R., to Llanidloes, from where there 
was a fairly direct route to Manchester by 
the Cambrian and L. &. N.W. Railways. 
Work was begun from both ends and on 
Jan. 1, 1866, the first portion, Pencader to 
Lampeter, 12f miles, was opened. On 
Sept. 1, 1866, the railway was opened from 
Lampeter to Strata Florida, 15 miles, and 
throughout to Aberystwyth in the follow- 
ing August. The line from Strata Florida 
to Aberystwyth was originally intended to 
be a branch. At the northern end the work 
progressed very slowly, owing to the heavy 
earthworks which were necessary. The 
railway was carried to Llangurig, about 
three miles from the junction with the 
Cambrian system. It was ready to be 
opened to that point when the work was 
brought to a sudden conclusion owing to 
lack of funds. Year after year passed, and 
the little railway became more and more 
involved in difficulties, so that all idea of 
the completion of the main line was aban- 
doned, the rails on that portion already con- 
st meted were removed, and the Manchester 
and Milford Railway settled down as a 
struggling local line serving a sparsely 
populated agricultural district. For some 
years its affairs were administered by a re- 
ceiver in Chancery. In July, 1905, the 
Court of Chancery was asked to sanction 
an agreement by which the M. & M. line 
would be worked by the G.W.R. ; this was 
vigrously opposed by the Cambrian Rail- 
ways. The application was refused. In 
1906, however, the M. & M. Ry. was leased 
to the G.W.R. and has since been worked 
by that line as a part of its system. The 



G.W.R. thus obtained an entrance to Aber- 
ystwyth, of whose traffic the Cambrian had 
practically had a monopoly. 

A complete account of the Manchester 
and Milford Railway appeared in The Rail- 
way Magazine for March, 1906, from which 
this account is condensed. 

H. P. HART. 

Ixworth Vicarage, Bury St. Edmunds. 

THE PLAGUE PITS (12 S. viii. 450, 495; 
ix. 12). I have been told that the site of one of 
these lay at the back of No. 16, Silver 
Street, Golden Square (now No. 41, Beak 
Street), and that when excavations were 
made preparatory to putting up new build- 
ings, cartloads of bones were removed from 
this spot. H. F. F. 

DR. JOHN MISAUBIN (12 S. viii. 511). 
In J. T. Smith's ' Nollekens and His Times ' 
(1828, ii. 227) will be found a footnote 
relating to a " family picture of Dr. 
Misaubin," painted in body-colour by 
Joseph Goupy, and containing " the por- 
traits of his [Misaubin's] father, wife, and 
son. The latter was murdered when re- 
turning from Marylebone Gardens, aged 
twenty-three years. This picture was 
bought of his [i.e., the Doctor's] grandson, 
Mr. Angiband [? Angibaud], of St. Martin's 
Lane, in the year 1799," &c. 

HILDA F. FINBERG. 

47, Holland Road, Kensington, W.14. 

Macmichael, in his ' Storv of Charing 
Cross,' 1906, at p. 190, writes : 

Behind No. 96, St. Martin's Lane, was the room 
which Hogarth has painted in ' Marriage a la 
Mode.' The quack is Dr. Misaubin. The woman 
is his Irish wife. The quack realized a great 
fortune by a famous pill. His son was murdered ; 
his grandson squandered his money and died in 
St. Martin's Workhouse. 

"Macmichael gives as his authorities 
Thornbury's ' Haunted Houses,' 1880, 
p. 253, and Smith's * Nollekens,' 1828, 
ii., p. 228. 

When searching the Assessments Lists 
of the parish I noticed that Mary Misaubin, 
presumably the widow, was residing in 
St. Martin's Lane as late as 1749 in a house 
rated at 55. 

Misaubin is mentioned in the corre- 
spondence of the period as " Mizaubin," 
" Mirry," and " Dr. Missibank." 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



a ix. JULY ,. 



SILVER MEDAL: IDENTIFICATION (12 S. 
viii. 512). The personage commemorated 
by this coin or medal is Emmerich Joseph 
von Breidenbach-Biirresheim, who, accord- 
ing to Gams, ' Series episcoporum ecclesiae 
catholicae,' was Archbishop of Mainz, July 5, 
1763-July 11, 1774, and Bishop of Worms, 
March 1, 1768- July 11, 1774, the latter 
date being that of his death. 

The inscription looks as if it has been 
misread; it begins clearly enough, " Emerich 
Joseph, by the Grace of God and of the 
Holy See (D.G. & S. SED.), Archbishop of 
Mainz." 

Was he perhaps Chancellor of the Holy 
Roman Empire (S.R.T.P. GER. ARCAN)"? 
PR. EL. is Prince Elector, and EP. WO. 
Bishop of Worms. He does not seem to 
occur in the 'Allgemeine Deutsche 
Biographic.' D. R. WEBSTER. 

The arms are as follows : 1 and 4, Arch- 
bishoprick of Mainz ; 2 and 3, Bishoprick | 
of Worms. The wyvern on the shield of 
pretence is for Breidbach. The " coronet 
of unusual shape " is a Fnrstenhut. For | 
Breidbach, argent, a wyvern (Drache) \ 
gules crowned azure, see the baronial j 
families of the Duchy of Nassau in vol. ii., 
part vii., p. 5, and plate 5 of J. Sieb- i 
macher's ' Wappenbuch.' 

The earlier shield of the Bishoprick of j 
Worms is sable, a key argent bendwise j 
between eight crosses or, but its later form 
has billets instead of crosses. 

The medal commemorates one of the 
latest of the Archbishop -electors of Mainz, 
Emmerich Joseph, Baron von Breidbach zu 
Burresheim. As Elector of Mainz he was 
ex-officio Arch- Chancellor of the Holy 
Roman Empire. (It will be remembered that 
George I. of England playfully styled his 
brother-in-law, Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector 
of Brandenburg and King of Prussia, the 
" Erz-Sandstreuer des heiligen Romischen 
Reichs " " Arch-Sandbox-Beadle " as Car- 
lyle translates it.) 

Emmerich Joseph, as the medal reminds 
us, was born in 1707, and died in 1774, 
having been Elector -Archbishop of Mainz 
from 1763 to 1774 and, in addition, Bishop 
of Worms from 1768 to 1774. The 'All- 
gemeine Deutsche Biographic ' devotes four 
pages to his life. His father was an official 
and Privy Councillor in the Archbishoprick 
of Trier. Emmerich was born at Coblenz, 
educated at Trier, Mainz and Rheims, and 
appointed Regierungsprasident by the 
Elector of Mainz (his predecessor) in 1752. 



This post he exchanged in 1758 for that of 
Dean of the Cathedral Chapter. As Arch- 
bishop he was an active and beneficent 
administrator in financial, educational and 
ecclesiastical matters, though some of his 
numerous regulations seem fussy now- 
adays, e.g., Ms prohibition of the keeping 
of dogs as mere articles of luxus. His 
memory was long cherished by the inhabi- 
tants of Mainz. EDWARD BENSLY. 
Much Hadham, Herts. 

This might be a memorial piece of Emrich 
Joseph Breidbach von Biiresheim, who 
was Archbishop and Elector of Mainz, 
1763-1774, and also simultaneously Bishop 
of Worms, 1768-74. I do not know what 
ED stands for in the inscription, but the 
rest of it appears to run : EMERIC[HVS] 
JOSEPH[VS] D[EI] G[RATIA] S[ANCTI]S[SIMI or 
JE] ED [?] MOG[UNTIACENSIS] AR[CHI]EP[ISCO- 
PVS] S[ANCTI] R[OMANI] I[MPERII] P[RINCEPS] 
GER[MANI^E] AR[CHI]CAN[CELLARIVS] PR[IMAS] 
EL[ECTOR . ET] EP[ISCOPVS] WORM[ENSIS], 

MEDINEWS. 

LADIES' PORTRAITS (12 S. viii. 510). Mr. 
J. LAND FEAR LUCAS quotes a statement by 
Sir Claude Phillips that the names of ladies 
other than actresses whose portraits were in 
the earlier exhibitions of the Royal Academy 
are not mentioned in the catalogues, and 
asks why this practice existed and when it 
was abandoned. 

It was begun in the catalogues of the 
Society of Artists, whose first exhibition was 
in 1760, and was probably an adaptation of the 
custom prevailing at the Paris Salon. It 
was followed at the Royal Academy from the 
opening of the first exhibition of 1769 nearly 
to the end of the eighteenth century, when 
by the artists' own initiative the names 
of the sitters began to appear in the cata- 
logues. 

In 1798 The True Briton, a daily paper 
which had for some years published lists of 
the names of the originals of the principal 
portraits, announced that it would be un- 
necessary to do so any longer as so many were 
given in the catalogues. Other journals fol- 
lowed suit, and the critics in general wel- 
comed the publication of the information 
in the catalogues, because, as one of them 
put it, " It prevents all that buzzing and 
fidgeting about the gallery, which has been 
so much practised heretofore in the ardent 
wish to discover who or what such a lady is." 

Although for nearly thirty years the por- 
traits appeared in the catalogues without 



12 S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



names, these were always known to the 
Academy Council, as artists were required to 
send them with their canvases when they 
were submitted. The list containing the 
names was invariably carried by the secre- 
tary when he, with the president and the 
other officers, accompanied the* King round 
the exhibition ; for George the Third, who 
had a remarkable memory for faces, liked on 
such occasions to display it by identifying all 
the* portraits he could. The lists, unfor- 
tunately, have not been preserved, but the 
industry and care of Mr. Reginald Graves, Mr. 
William Roberts and others, have identified 
for us the originals of numbers of the por- 
traits exhibited anonymously between 1760 
and 1800. WILLIAM T. WHITLEY. 

FLAG FLOWN ON ARMISTICE DAY (12 S. 
viii. 510). Perhaps the flag was that of the 
Leeward Islands, of which the arms are 
Barry wavy of eight azure and argent with 
six escutcheons, &c. See illustration in 
" Caribbeana," vol. i. 

V. L. OLIVER, F.S.A. 

The L.C.C. has been accustomed, of recent 
years, to fly over its offices in Spring Gardens, 
S.W.I, a flag which has, inter alia, "wavy 
blue lines on a white field," on high days 
and holidays. Doubtless the Clerk of the 
Council would give the Librarian of the 
Royal Colonial Institute the history of, and 
authority for, this flag. HARMATOPEGOS. 

The arms of the Merchant Adventurers 
or Hamburgh Merchants, to whom Edward I. 
granted a charter in 1296, were : Barry 
nebulee of six argent and azure, a chief 
quarterly gules and or, 1st and 4th a 
lion passant gardant of the 4th, 2nd and 3rd 
two roses of the 3rd barbed vert. The first 
part of the above blazon appears to agree 
with Mr. Lewin's description of the flag. 

1. The coat of arms was used on brasses 
(see All Hallows Barking in the City) and 
monuments. 

2. Name of society as above and possibly 
the Hanseatic League. Also the Merchants 
of the Staple (England and Calais) in Ed- 
ward III.'s reign, who used the same field 
with a single lion in chief for England. 

3. The society was formed by merchants 
to foster and protect trade between England 
and European towns. 

4. The arms may have been used as a flag, 
for it is reasonable to suppose that ships 
trading for the members woiild carry a flag 
of similar design. WALTER E. GAWTHORP. 

16, Long Acre, W.C.2. 



RELAPSES INTO SAVAGE LIFE (12 S. viii. 
511). Charles Darwin, in his < Voyage of a 
Naturalist/ gives the story of Billy Button, 
the Patagonian, at some length. He re- 
lapsed because he was not strong enough 
by himself to stand against the united in- 
fluence of his old tribe, not because he 
preferred savage life. FRANK PENNY. 

Two references to cases asked for by 
EMERITUS occur to me. The first is in 
chap. x. of Da/win's ' Voyage of the 
Beagle,' and deals with the Fuegians. The 
second is an interesting note in Millar's 
' Origin of Ranks,' p. 143, published in 1806 ; 
it concerns Hottentots. 

J. E. LATTON PICKERING. 



In, reply to the request for references 
to cases in which people of the lower culture 
of civilized life have reverted to their ori- 
ginal state of savagery, I may refer the 
! inquirer to Miss Gordon Cummings's en- 
| tertaining and instructive volume * At Home 
j in Fiji.' In this book, a fourth edition of 
which was published by Messrs. Black- 
wood in 1882, may be found much informa- 
tion concerning the return, to cannibalism 
by the natives of certain islands in spite of 
all the work of missionaries, who had to a 
great extent succeeded in putting a stop 
to this barbarous and horrible custom. 
In some cases the chiefs were permanently 
reclaimed and converted to Christianity ; 
in others, after amending their mode of 
life for a time, they relapsed into their 
former abominable practices. This book, 
j when I first read it, had a great attaction for 
I me, not only on account of the author's 
j vivid descriptions of scenery and life in the 
I islands of the South Pacific, where she re- 
I sided for two years, but also because it 
narrated some of the experiences of two 
personal friends, namely, the late Edgar 
Layard, who was for some time H.B.M. 
Consul at Levuka, and Baron von Hiigel, 
who, as an archaeologist and naturalist, was 
exploring some of the islands and collect- 
ing native weapons and utensils as well 
as natural history specimens. 

J. E. HARTING. 

Louis DE ROUGEMONT (12 S. viii. 508). 
COLONEL SOUTHAM errs in thinking that the 
hamlet of Gressy is anywhere near Rouge - 
mont on the Pays d'En Haut. It is a small 
hamlet of some 180 inhabitants, situated 
a little to the south of Yverdon, which 
is at the southern end of the Lake of 
Neuchatel. W. A. B. C. 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. JULY 0,1021. 



CHATJTAUQUA (12 S. viii. 431, 474). This 
name, now applied widely ~to combinations 
of educational and entertaining features, 
especially in the vacation season and in the 
less populated districts, is derived from 
Chautauqua Lake, New York State, where 
the original affair was held and still con- 
tinues. It was organized many years ago 
by Bishop Vincent, and many independent 
systems have since been established on the 
tvpe, some of them, however, much more 
devoted to entertainment than to serious 
study. HENRY LEFFMANN. 

Philadelphia. 

CIGARETTE SMOKING (12 S. viii. 432). 
From data published from time to time 
in medical journals it seems that no definite 
information is yet at hand as to the injury, 
if any, done by moderate smoking, whether 
of cigars, pipes or" cigarettes. Chewing 
is believed to be injurious, and has for- 
tunately diminished much of late years in 
the United States, at least in the north. 
The filthy practices which disgusted Charles 
Dickens on the occasion of his first visit 
to this country are not now much in 
evidence. HENBY LEFFMANN. 

Philadelphia. 

"BOMENTEEK" (12 S. viii. 510). This 
word was discussed in ' N. & Q.' (6 S. i. 256, 
304 ; ii. 98, 297). It will also be found under 
" Beaumontague " and " Bomanteg " in the 
' E.D.D.,' where some additional evidence is 
given. It seems to be a general term em- 
ployed more or less derisively or jocularly by 
workmen, especially carpenters, to describe any 
substance or mixture used to fill up holes or 
cover defective work. The nature of the 
material so designated varies according to the 
particular trade of the workman using it. 
The word is used in this district with varying 
pronunciation, but with the accent on the 
last syllable, which rhymes with fatigue. 

LAWRENCE F. POWELL. 

Oxford. 

" Bomenteek " it is known as " boman- 
teg" in Somerset is a word with which I 
have been familiar from my youth up. I do 
not recollect having met with it in any other 
county but my native one, and, curiously 
enough, Jennings has not included it in his 
glossary, nor does Dr. John Read in his dialect 
works. Elworthy, however, preserves it, 
" Boman-teg " means putty or mortar 
" That's what we call boman-teg, so hard's 
any 'ood or ire." I recollect a dear old 



tradesman in my native town who constantly 
used the word in the sense suggested by 
W. R. C. when filling up holes or faults in 
pieces of furniture. Quite naturally I used 
the phrase but a few hours ago to indicate 
pominade hongroise. And that caused me to re- 
collect the query in the current number of 
*N. & Q.,' and hence this reply. The glue 
and sawdust, the mortar and putty and the 
sticky pommade hongroise all indicate a similiar 
substance. W. G. WILLIS WATSON.' 

Single's Lodge, Pinhoe. 

My recollection of this word in con- 
nexion with iron and steel work is that it 
was pronounced " bomantaig." The stuff 
itself is a composition or putty used in 
filling up defects with intent to deceive 
hence the atmosphere of " fake " and 
"camouflage" suggested by your querist. 
In the weekly journal Work of Sept. 30, 
i 1893, directions are given for making the 
! material as used in cabinet-making, and it is 
I there spelt beaumantique. 

ARTHUR BOWES. 
Newton-le- Willows. 

COMBE HOUSE, HEREFORDSHIRE (12 S. 

I viii. 510). Thomas Bourke Ricketts, the 
eldest son, was entered at Eton in 1796 as 
of Combe. George William Ricketts, the 

| second son, was entered at Rugby in 1803 as 
of Ashford Hall, Ludlow. George Crawford 
Ricketts, their father, made his will in 1808 
at Ashford and devised his estate in Shrop- 
shire to trustees to sell. He entailed on Ms 
eldest son his estate at Presleigh and all his 
property in Jamaica. Proved May 6, 1811 
[P.C.C. 251 Crickitt]. Testator died at Ash- 
ford, April 6, 1811 [Gentleman's Magazine, 
494J. V. L. OLIVER, F.S.A. 

The only place of this name I know of in 
Herefordshire is two and a half miles E.S.E. 
from Presteign. In 1840 the township of 
Coombe contained 101 inhabitants. In 
1914 it was said to contain 57 inhabitants 
to its 652 acres. I believe that the house 
(which you pass on the left as you go from 
Presteign to Shobdon) is now called Combe 
Park and is a farm. 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

CHRISTOPHER MILLES (12 S. viii. 489). 
Christopher Milles, second son of Christopher 
M. of Neckington, Kent, deceased, was 
admitted to the Middle Temple on June 18, 
1755, and called so the Bar June 29, 1759. 
C. E. R. BEDWELL. 



12 S. IX. JULY 9, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



ALDEBURGH CHAMBERLAINS' ACCOUNT - 
BOOK: SALT MONOPOLY, 1635 (12 S. viii. 
506). Judging by the style in which the 
Aldeburgh accounts are written it seems 
much more likely that " the pattine for 
salt " means " the patent for salt " than 
that there should be any connexion, with 
the Latin patina. F. W. READ. 

WINDOW TAX AND DAIRIES (12 S. viii. 
449, 492, 518). I remember my wonderment 
when, as a child, I found the word " Dairy " 
above a window lighting a little place where 
household pottery was ranged and where 
milk for current use was kept in a white 
basin. Having see a real dairy, in a farm- 
house, it seemed to me that it was hardly 
fair to call a pantry by the same honourable 
name. 

The desire to evade the window tax 
spoilt many a house. People blocked up, 
or in some way rendered useless, such lights 
as they determined to do without, and ugly 
blanks destroyed the balance of windows 
in fa9ades. Not infrequently an attempt 
was made to improve matters by having 
sham blinds painted on the economic 
shutter, which was, however, generally of 
uncompromising black. ST. SWITHIN. 

At the old manor house of Thornethorpe, 
standing near the western boundary of this 
parish (Langton, Malton), may still be seen 
over some of the windows small oak boards 
on which are cut the words, " Cheese 
Room," " Dairy." C. V. COLLIER. 

Langton. 

SUNDIALS (12 S. viii. 511).!. In 1872 
' The Book of Sundials,' by Mrs. A. Gatty, 
was published by G. Bell, and in 1889 the 
same publishing house brought out another 
edition enlarged by H. K. F. Gatty and 
E. Lloyd (15s.), and still another edition 
enlarged by H. K. F. Eden, in September, 
1900 (31s. 6d.). This book does not appear 
in 'The Publishers' Catalogue,' 1920. 

2. Foulis published, Dec., 1906, 'The 
Book of Sundial Mottoes ' in the Garden 
Lover's series, by A. H. Hyatt, with an 
introduction by Alice Meynell, 2s. 6d net. 
This book does not appear in * The Publishers' 
Catalogue,' 1920. 

3. Foulis published, Nov. 1915, 'A Book 
of old Sundials and their Mottoes.' Eight 
illustrations in colour by Alfred Rawlings 
and 34 drawings by Warrington Hogg. 
The price of this book in 1920 is quoted 
as 5s. net. 



4. 'Friendship Booklets,' ix., is ' A Little 
Book of Sundial Mottoes,' published by 
Foulis, Nov. 1916. The price of this book 
in 1920 is quoted at 9d. net. One of the 
above books may be the one which 
H. K. ST. J. S. is seeking. 

W. B. WHITE. 

The following information is taken direct 
from ' The Book of Sundials. Collected 
by Mrs. Alfred Gatty. London : Bell and 
Daldy, York Street, Covent Garden, 1872.' 
(377 in all.) 

Sundial No. 115: Horas non numero nisi 
sercnas. I only reckon the bright hours. This 
elegant motto is on dials at Sackville College, 
East Grinstead : on the Town-hall at Aldeburgh 
in Suffolk, which was built circa 1500 ; at Learn, 
near Leamington ; in the Garden of Beard 
Sheppard, Esq., Frome ; in front of a farmhouse 
near Farnworth, Lancashire ; at Campo Dolcino ; 
at Cawder, near Glasgow ; at Arley Hall, Cheshire ; 
and . . . near Venice. 

The motto is alluded to by Sir Arthur 
Helps in his ' Friends in Council,' first 
series, vol. i., Book 2. W. M. CLAY. 

Alvtrstoke, Hants. 



on 

More about Unknown London. By Walter G. 

Bell. (John Lane, 6s. 6d. net.) 
HERB are seventeen essays on London topics* 
which, if found unsigned in some paper would* 
without much hesitation, be ascribed to Mr. Bell. 
There is no one at the moment writing on London 
who spreads his net so wide, sets out with such 
evident affection what he catches in it, and has 
such stores already gathered from which to illus- 
trate it. 

His geniality and rapidity, while they form an 
inseparable element in the pleasantness of his 
work, sometimes in this volume betray him into 
slight incoherence, whereby we are forced to 
read sentences twice to discover their meaning, 
and we found a strange word in the essay on 
' Gogmagog and Other Giants '--" divergisation" 
to wit which we believed Mr. Bell's pen made up 
as it ran. However, we feel not a whit less grate- 
ful to his pen on this account. 

Among the most interesting chapters is that 
on the Carmelite vault in Brittons Court, White- 
friars Street. It seems to have been discovered 
in 1895, when investigations were undertaken in 
preparation for the sale of the property in which 
it is included. It had long been used for storage 
and as a receptacle for rubbish ; but the fine 
mason's work now attracted attention, and closer 
examination showed that this was of the fourteenth 
century walls formed of chalk blocks, still white, 
with moulded ribs of dark stone making the 
vaulted roof. Mr. Bell informs us that its present 
owner, Mr. Smee, is no less anxious than he is 
himself for its preservation, but, in view of the 



NOTES AND QUERIES. tita.ix.iux9.ini. 



mortality of the best-intentioned persons, he puts 
in a plea, which every reader of ' N. & Q.' will 
endorse, for intervention in its behalf by the 
Ancient Monuments Commission winding up with 
a severe word for the City Corporation as guardians 
of such treasures. 

One of the most delighful of these essays is 
' London Out of Bounds.' A red rose was no un- 
common quit-rent, so that we are not sure that we 
can reason from it to the superlative beauty of the 
quondam rose garden of Ely Place but that en- 
chanted corner has no need of the ghost of a rose- 
garden to give it romance. It has, among other 
things, a beadle, who is also a watchman and 
who represents the authority of the Crown and the 
proud independence of Ely Place, where the 
City Police have no power. Mr. Bell is justly 
scornful of the general ignorance of London, and 
pokes a little fun at correspondents of ' N. & Q.' 
for hunting up and down the country for 
examples of curfew-ringing, and never mentioning 
either the Gray's Inn curfew or that of the Tower. 

From the Tower he cannot yet drag himself 
away : here is a paper about Tower Hill. And 
AnneBoleyn reappears, a propos of that letter at 
the British Museum which purports to be hers 
a copy of hers, that is addressed to the King 
four days after her arrival at the Tower. ' An 
Election of Sheriffs ' is an amusing and picturesque 
description of one of the best survivals of old 
custom in London. The essays on St. Martin-le- 
Grand, the Apothecaries' Company and Treasure- 
houses also deserve a mention. 

We might instance many others, but we believe 
enough has been said to whet the appetite of lovers 
of London for a book which, though it makes no 
pretensions to being more than a collection of 
sketches offered as recreation, well sustains its 
author's reputation both for enthusiasm and for 
knowledge of London. 

Portsmouth Parish Church. By Henry T. Lilley 
and Alfred T. Everitt. (Portsmouth : Char- 
pentier, 12s. 6d. net.) 

THE Parish Church of Portsmouth with St. 
Thomas of Canterbury for patron saint is 
among the richest of English parish churches in 
historical associations, and can boast, besides, 
architectural features of great interest. John 
de Gisors, about ten years after the Archbishop's 
murder, gave the Canons of Southwick ground on 
which to build a Chapel in his honour. The 
original building was erected between 1185 and 
1196, and the chancel and transepts of the pre- 
sent church contain the chief remains of it. The 
nave was rebuilt in the late seventeenth century. 
The most interesting portion of the church be- 
longs thus to a specially interesting period of 
English architecture, that of the transition be- 
tween Norman and Early English, and Ports- 
mouth has two singular features belonging to 
it : the double arches of the aisles under each 
single bay of the chancel and the curiously re- 
cessed east wall which makes a wide arched 
niche, within which is a lancet window. 

The architectural detail of the building ; the 
heraldry ; the general history ; the biographies 
of vicars, benefactors and other worthies con- 
nected with the church and the town, are all 
treated in a pleasant, lively style which, how- 
ever, does not conceal the great pains taken in 



compiling the material. The illustrations are 
numerous, excellently chosen, and, on the whole, 
very well reproduced, while literary sources and 
documents have been copiously drawn upon. 

In fact Portsmouth Parish Church may now 
boast of one of the most elaborate monographs 
that has recently been put together upon any 
parish church in 'England. 

The Poems of Robert HerricJc. Edited by F. W. 

Moorman. (Humphrey Milford, 5s. net.) 
IN 1915 appeared the library edition of Herrick 
in the Oxford English Texts, a notice of which 
will be found at 11 S. xi. 443. Professor Moor- 
man's death and the war have delayed the pub- 
lication of this smaller edition, which is the fruit 
of the same labours as the larger, and intended 
as a companion, volume. It is addressed to the 
lover of poetry, not to the professed scholar. 
It therefore confines itself to the text of 1648, 
omitting the critical appendix and the discussion 
of the text, which are important features of the 
library edition. It also, with few exceptions, 
omits the ' Epigrams ' of the ' Hesperides.' 
Both curtailments are well advised ; no one 
carrying this volume for the pleasure of Herrick' s 
poetry could wish to burden himself with the 
' Epigrams,' and though some attention to 
textual variants has its place even in the general 
reader's enjoyment of an author, it is but a 
subordinate affair and useful chiefly when the 
poet's work has already grown dear and familiar. 

The ordinary title page of the 1648 edition 
is here reproduced, and, as frontispiece, in de- 
ference to the present enthusiasm for originals, 
we are also given the frontispiece of that edition, 
which certainly has no intrinsic merit to re- 
commend it. 

The Oxford Edition of Standard Authors 
is so well known that there is no need to praise 
it as a series. 



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41 



LONDON, JULY 16, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 170. 

NOTES : London Clubs : Bibliography, 41 The Mystery 
of Richard Parker of the Sore, 42 Irish Family History, 
43 An English Army List of 1740, 45 Robert Tol- 
caron, Thomas Kyrton, Sir Robert Peckham, William 
Browne, "Potentate to the Pope," 46 Warwickshire 
Folk- Lore " Prophecies of Reform " Epitaphs Men- 
tioning Day of the Week " An Omission in Mrs. Cowden 
Clarke's Concordance," 47 Hops, Beer, and Heresy 
Charles Dickens Pope : Smollett, 48. 

QUERIES : Prince Rupert's Fort, Cork Harbour, 48 
English Versions of Latin Charters in Pickering The 
Hon. Frances Ingram-Shepherd-r-Dickson of Edinburgh, 
49 Ormiston of Ormiston, Haddingtonshire Suther- 
land Family Leif Ericson Six Lords : Chewar Monke, 
50 Monson Princess Elizabeth, " Refined Intrigante " 
" A Frog he would a-wooing go " Price Family 
Signs used in Place of Signatures, 51 Glass and Tin 
Churns Agricultural and Horticultural Writers : Bio- 
graphical Details Wanted Disraeli, Rogers, or Shaftes- 
bury, 52 Verses Wanted : Conjugal Squabbles, 53. 

REPLIES : Relapses into Savage Life, 53 Cockney 
Pronunciation School Magazines Fenning's ' Royal 
English Dictionary ' Fontenelle's Allegory in Bayle's 
' Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres,' 54 
" Howlers " Anecdote of Laurence Sterne " Orgy "- 
John W T inthrop : Inner Temple, 1628 Peers' Mantles. 
55 Queen Elizabeth and the French Ambassador 
Reference Wanted Privilege of Templars and Hos- 
pitallers Clementina Johannes Sobieski Douglass 
Horse-Riding Records Bonte, 56 Wild Darrell : Date 
of Trial Shakespeariana Danteiana, 57 The News- 
paper Placard Sir Benjamin Hammett Inscriptions at 
St. Nicholas, Deptford, 58 Foxes and Lambs Sun- 
dials Epitaphs Desired Royalist and Roundhead Rates 
of Pay, 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : The Library Proceedings of the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society Journal of the Friends His- 
torical Society ' Survey of London.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



LONDON CLUBS : BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

ONE of the many sub -headings of the long- 
hoped-for Bibliography of London will 
have to be ' Clubs and Coteries ' for the 
reason that these are a distinctive feature 
of London history and topography and their 
literature is considerable. The following 
few notes are put forward as an attempt 
at the task, being the list of a small col- 
lection gathered in forming a library of 
London books : 

GENERAL HISTORIES. 

1. Secret History of Clubs, particularly the 
Kit-cat, Beefsteak, Virtuosos, Quacks, Knights 
of the Golden Fleece, Florists, Beaus, &c., with 
the Originals and Characters of the Most Noted 
Members. First Edition, 8vo., Calf, 1709. 
[By Edward Ward.] Reprinted about 1884. 

2. History and Antiquities of the Most Re- 
markable Clubs in London and Westminster. 



Collected by a Gentleman who frequented those 
places nearly forty years and was an excellent 
Judge of Mankind and Human Nature. Frontis- 
piece. 12mo, Calf, 1748. 

3. A Compleat and Humorous Account of all 
the Remarkable Clubs and Societies in the City 
of London and Westminster. Seventh Edition, 
1756. pp. iv.-xii. and xiii., xiv., Text pp. 2-327. 
This is a late edition of No. 1 with change of title. 

4. Clubs and Club Life in London. With 
Anecdotes of the Famous Coffee-Houses, Hos- 
telries and Taverns from the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury to the Present Time. By John Timbs, 
F.S.A. With Numerous Illustrations, Frontis- 
piece, Preliminary Pages, Contents, &c. pp. 
viii-xiv., Text pp. 2-544. Dated Nov. 7, 1872. 

5. Les Clubs de Londres. Par Jean Harley. 
Londres : Plackett et Moody, 1870. Introduc 
tions pp. v.-xxxv., Text 3-242. A note on the 
last page explains that this is only a first part 
of a " Compleat History of Clubs from their 
Origin to the Present Day," to be issued in a 
number of volumes published at intervals. 
The text is largely a translation and adaptation 
of Ned Ward's familiar Volume No. 1. 

INDIVIDUAL "CLUBS. 

6. The Athenaeum. 

Rules and Regulations, MDCCCXXXVIII.-IX., 
with Addenda, pp. 8-120 and 4-42 in one vol., 
Cloth. 

7. Suggestions for the Classification of the 
Library now collecting. For Private Circula- 
tion only. 1838. Pamphlet, 8vo, 10 pp. only. 

8. Members of the Athenaeum Club from the 
Foundation. By F. G. Waugh, M.A. Pri- 
vately printed, pp. 1-151. 

9. Copy of the first published List of Members . 
4 pp. 4to circular dated the Athenaeum, 12, 
Waterloo Place, June 22, 1824. 

10. The Athenaeum, 1867. Statement to Mem- 
bers on the Increase of Membership and Financial 
Resources. 4 pp. 4to circular. Other circulars 
convening meetings of members, &c. 

11. Army and Navy Club. 

The Rules and Regulations with an Alpha- 
betical List of the Members, 1857. pp. 12-139. 

12. The Britton Club. 

Many pamphlets, circulars, list of members, 
&c., were issued by John Britton, 1821-1849. 

13. Brooks's Club. 

Memorial of Brooks's Club from the Founda- 
tion of the Club, 1764, to the Close of the Nine- 
teenth Century, compiled from the Records of the 
Club. Ballantyne and Co., Tavistock Street, 
London W.C. MCMVII. 4to. pp. v.-xxii. and 
3-295. Boards, Half Cloth with label. 

14. The Burlington Fine Arts Club. 

The publications, usually consisting of 4to 
catalogues of annual exhibitions and 4to mono- 
graphs describing the exhibits in some detail, 
are well known and justly esteemed. There 
are also Rules and Regulations, Notices, &c., 
relating to the Club ; the earliest in this collec- 
tion is dated Dec. 10, 1866. 

15. City of London Club. 

Rules, &c., issued as an 8vo pamphlet, pp. 4-22. 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [-i* & la 



, m. 



16. Cobden Club. 

Very many Essays, Pamphlets, Books, Leaf- 
lets. &c. Vide Catalogue of the Guildhall Library, 
1889. p. 203. 

17. The Cocked Hat Club. 

The Magna Charta of the Cocked Hat Club. 
Text pp. 5-iO. Published about 1875. This 
is an inner coterie of the Society of Antiquaries. 

18. The St. George's Club. 

Notes and Jottings on Hanover Square and the 
St. George's Club. 4to. 12 pp. only. No title. 
Frontispiece on cover. 

19. Grillon's Club. 

Grillon's Club from its Origin in 1812 to its 
Fiftieth Anniversary. By P. G. E. London: 
privately printed, 1880. Small 4to. pp. vi.-x. 
and 1-126. 

20. The Garrick Club. 

The Garrick Club. Notices of One Hundred 
and Thirty-five of its Former Members. By the 
Rev. R. H. Barham. Privately printed, 1896. 

21. The Garrick Club. By Percy Fitzgerald, 
F.S.A. London, 1904. 4to, Red Cloth, lettered, 
pp. ix.-xviii. and 2-252. 

22. The Henpecked Club. 

Some Account of that Ancient and Honourable 
Society vulgarly denominated the Henpecked 
Club. To which is prefixed a Dedication to a 
Reigning Monarch. By a Member of the Society. 
Workington, 1820. 

23. Nobody's Friends. 

List of the Members of the Club of Nobody's 
Friends since its Foundation, 21 June, 1850, to 
30 September, 1885. 8vo. pp. viii.-xiii. and 
1-254. 

24. The Club of Nobody's Friends. Pro 
Ecclesia et Rege. Record for 1887. 

25. The Oriental Club. 

The Oriental Club and Hanover Square. By 
Alexander F. Baillie, F.R.G.S. With Photo- 
gravure Portraits and other Illustrations. Long- 
mans, Green and Co., 1891. 4to. pp. 2-290. 

26. The O.P. Club. 

The O.P. Club : Its History and Future. 
Pamphlet, 8vo. Text pp. 1-8. 

27. The Playgoers' Club. 

The Playgoers' Club, 1884 to 1905 : Its History 
and Memories. By B. W. Findon. London, 
1905. pp. 1-72. 

28. The Royal Society Club. 

Sketch of the Rise and Progress of the Royal 
Society Club. London, 1860. 4to. pp. 6-84. 
With " An Additional Word on the Pristine 
Establishment of the Royal Society Club." 
1861. 

29. The Temple Club. 

List of Members, &c. 1874. 

This is only a skeleton list ; the omissions 
are numerous. For example, works by 
Mr. Louis Fagan on the Reform Club, &c., 
are omitted as being architectural, and not 
relating to the club itself. Of White's, 
the club in Gerrard Street, and the Savage 
Club, mention would have been made 
but the volumes are not at hand. I also 



omit the several MS. histories of clubs 
that are frequently scurrilous and aim 
more at deriding members or the committee 
than at recording the history of the club 
itself. 

Some printed histories have a purpose 
other than being merely histories. For 
instance, the many pamphlets on the Calves' 
Head Club are political and anti-Whig. 
Of the insignificant minor clubs much could 
be recorded ; Renton Nicholson founded 
nearly a score of these. So much remains 
to be recorded that this preliminary note 
is intended to be merely provocative. 

ALECK ABRAHAMS. 



THE MYSTERY OF RICHARD PARKER 
OF THE NORE. 

(See 12 S. ix. 8.) 

THE sentence of death on Richard Parker 
was carried out aboard the Sandwich, the 
flagship at the Nore, on June 30, 1797, three 
days after the five -days' trial by court 
martial. Richard Parker, the admitted 
leader and organizer of the Nore Mutiny, 
it should be held in mind, had formerly 
served as midshipman and had been de- 
graded by court martial for insubordination, 
and had been discharged as " unfit for 
service " in 1794. It was only as " super- 
numerary able seaman " a term which 
marks the Admiralty stresses of the time 
that Parker was rated on the flagship of the 
squadrons off the Thames Estuary. By 
the same verdict several other of Parker's 
active co-adjutors were condemned to 
ignominious death and executed ; many were 
" flogged round the Fleet " ; a full score of 
the " Delegates " escaped to France, pro- 
bably, as tradition has it, by Port of London 
aid ; and 180 were detained in prison. But 
to these severities there is a not uncoiisoling 
historical sequel. 

On Oct. 11 of the same year, the Dutch 
Fleet under Admiral Winter was on its way 
to cooperate with the French in a landing 
on Ireland. It was intercepted by Admiral 
Duncan (and his sullen crews of sixteen line- 
of -battle ships), who at once gave battle, 
broke through the Dutch array of about the 
same strength, and in the general action 
which followed captured eight ships, in- 
cluding the flagship,' the Vrijheid, and the 
Hollander Admiral. The British, so very 
lately mutinous and sullen, lost 1,040 lulled 



12 S. IX. JULY 16, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



wounded ; the Dutch 1,160 and 6,000 , eventually her title was decided to be in- 
prisoners. The work at Camperdowii was valid. She fell into deep distress ; became 
eventually completed in August, 1799, by ! nearly sightless ; and besought assistance 
the dispatch of an expedition to Holland ; from the charitable public. King William 
which captured the Texel and the twelve IV. gave her 10 at one time, and at 
remaining first-class ships of the Dutch | another 20. In 1836, it is on record that 
Fleet, without bloodshed. Meantime the ] the London magistracy provided her with 
imprisoned and degraded Nore mutineers, a temporary refuge ; and, later, there were 
by an act of unusual wisdom, were released | other piteous appeals on her behalf, inside 
and pardoned by King George, and put in i and outside Freemasons' Lodges. At 70 



the fighting line. They found that, 

In our rough Island story 
The path of duty was the way to glory. 



years of age, blind and friendless, it was 
stated that her devotion to the memory of 
Richard Parker was unquenched ; " and she 



Me. 



Port rumours about Parker were number- ! spoke of him with all the enthusiasm of 
less. Most of the authorities set down the , youthful love, and still mourned what she 
years of his apparently overcrowded life as regarded as his unjust fate." 
between 1767 and 1797, but the actual date 
of his birth is an inference, not a certainty ; 
and he was, in more than one sense, generally 
" older than his years." It may be fairly 



IRISH FAMILY HISTORY. 



(See 12 S. ix. 5, and the references there given.) 
WITHERINGTON OF DUBLIN. 

WILLIAM WITHERINGTON, a woollen-draper 
in Graftoii Street, Dublin, died intestate 



assumed that he first entered service in the 
British Navy in a frigate, as an emergency 
midshipman, and he is said to have been 
Acting Lieutenant at the close of the Ameri- 
can War of Independence in 1782, when re- 
putedly barely over fifteen years of age. in ^^ Admin ted Feb 25 1802 * 
A considerable interval of still greater to hig gon Edward ? He marrie(I , about 
obscurity m his record followed. He is said 1?55 Catherine , elder dau . o f the Revd. 
to have returned to England with a con- ; Edward Fanning b y his wife Joanna French 
siderable share ot prize-money, which he ; (gee Fanning pe digree, 12 S. vii. 307); she 
spent in riotous living as was too often | died A i} . lg> 1797? in Agh street, Dublin ; 
the .seamen sway in all maritime countries >; [ her wm dated Feb 29 1794 wag ed 
to have considered himself ill-treated by his , Jul n 1797 f havi had iggue : _ * 
captain m the Navy; and to have dared to | Edward Witherington, born Jan. 23, 
send his commanding officer a challenge | 175g in DubHn , passed to u p wards of 20 years 
which tlie amazed captain promised to ; in the ^^ ^j sold J ut when ^ was 
answer with his cane. Then L among the [ Lieut .. Co lonel of the 9th Dragoons, for 
many stories once current in Stepney and 7 000 (English) about the year 1808. He 
mother ports of the Navy regardmg Richard gettled in Parig ftftep 1820 and married 

Parker it was said that he was chief mate . 

on board a merchant vessel trading to j * Administration of the estate of William 

Genoa and Leghorn, when he incited the 

crew to mutiny ; ' on account of the vileness 

of the provisions " ; that he was mate of 

the Lascelles, East Indiaman, where he got 

into trouble for '' excessive drinking " ; that 

he served aboard the Bull Dog sloop -of -war 

in the West Indies under Captain Edward 

Riou ; that he left to his hapless wife a boy 

some six years of age, who soon after the 

execution at the Nore was given a baby 

brother. 

It may be mentioned, also, that " Admiral 
Parker " as the crowd alongshore persistently 
called him for nearly half a century left a 
will bequeathing to his wife a small property 
upon which he had claims, at Exeter. She 
enjoyed this for a number of years, but 



Witherington, late of Grafton Street, in the City 
of Dublin, woollen-draper, a widower, deceased, 
intestate. Granted to Edward Witherington, the 
natural and lawful son of the deceased, dated the 
25th day of February, 1802. 

t The last Will and Testament of Catherine 
Witherington, wife of William Witherington of 
the City of Dublin. My father the late Revd. 
Edward Fanning. My daughters Joanna, Har- 
riett and Catherine. To be bur. in the tomb 
with my father and children. My son Henry 
Witherington 1,000, and the house 69, Grafton 
Street, left him by the Revd. Edward Fanning. 
My niece Miss Elizabeth Groves, deceased. My 
son Edward Witherington, Captain in the 9th 
Dragoons . . . 

Dated the 29th day of February 1794. 

(Signed) CATHERINE WITHEBINOTON. 

Proved 17th of July, 1797, in the Prerogative 
Court, Dublin. 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[1-2 S. IX. JULY 16. 1921. 



there, in May, 1825, Miss Ann. Childe, a i by the rector, the Revd. Thomas Williams* 
young lady of 22 years old, who lived with tin the church at Usk, to Maria, sister to 
a Colonel and Mrs. Buiibury as their ward, ! Lieut. -Colonel Henry Bird of the oth Foot, 
and was said to be the daughter of an ! and second dau. of Colonel Bird, an American, 
officer of the Buffs left under Col. Bunbury's Loyalist, who, at the conclusion of the 
care. She was very extravagant and soon American War, came over to England 
dissipated the greater portion of her hus- j hoping for employment and remuneration 
band's property. In the autumn of 1831 from the British Goverment for his losses, 
he left Paris and went to Dublin, where, in his services, and his sufferings in the Royal 
the spring of 1832, he contracted and died cause. Finding his hopes in this respect 
of the cholera morbus which was then raging, disappointed, and his little property dimin- 
leaving issue a son, born in May, 1827, in \ ishing, while his family was increased to 



Paris. - 

II. Joanna Witherington, born May 10, 



six daughters and four sons, he took refuge 
in Monmouthshire, and buying about 



176-, and died Aug. 23, 1793, in Grafton | 100 acres of land in a clearing in the centre 
Street Dublin. ! f Goytra Wood, he built himself a two- 

III ' Matilda Witherington, born June i store y house and cultivated the land round 
17, 1769, and died March 18. 1849, at George- r about. Henry Witherington s wife dying 
town, in the District of Columbia, U.S.A., m * he ea f j y part of 1809, leaving him with 
having married, firstly, on July 21, 1785, if. dau., he obtained, in exchange for his 
at St Andrew's Church, Dublin, Theobald j lieutenantcy in the Militia, an ensigncy in 
Wolfe Tone (see Tone pedigree, 12 S. vi. ! the 63rd Foot, and died at Deal Sept, 
288), who died Nov. 19, 1798 ; and, secondly, 16 > 1809 > on ^ r f tlirn from the ^alcheren 
on Aug. 19, 1816, Thomas Wilson of Dul- Expedition of the ague, caught on that 
latur Scotland island. The announcement ot his death 

' j is thus given in The Gentleman's Magazine 

IV. Harriett Witherington, born June 6, i for 180 g , . _ 

1771, in Dublin, died July 29, 185] : at 24 | At Deal ^ where he was landed from Hushing 4 r 
St. John s Wood Road, .London, JM.VA ., and ^^ O f a fever brought on bv excessive fatigue, 
bur. in St. Helen's Church, Welton, near I Henry Witherington, Esq., of the 63rd Foot. In 
Brough, East Yorks, she married March 25, ' the year 1799, his desire for active service induced 

i7Q/i a + V^y rnntVipT-'sj Vioimp f>Q r^rafton hi 111 to exchange from the 9th Dragoons, and join 
1/94 at her mother ouse, .W , U , 



or Quen , g Regim ent, then embarking for 
Street, Dublin, Thomas Reynolds, only , Holland w j h who mh! greatly distinguished him- 



son of Andrew Reynolds, silk manufacturer, I se i f through the whole of that arduous campaign. 
of Dublin, by his wife Rose, eldest dau. of --- -- -i 
Thomas Fitzgerald of Kilmead, Co. Kildare 
(see Fitzgerald pedigree, 12 S. vi. 308), 
and had issue, for which see pedigree of 



Reynolds of Rhynn, Co. Leitrim. 

V. Henry Piercy Witherington, born Nov. 
16, 177- ; died young. 

VI. Catherine Witherington, born Feb. 
20, 1775 ; married (marriage licence dated 
1796) John Heaviside of the Bank of Ireland, 
Dublin. He lost his situation about 1800, 
when they joined her brother Henry Wither- 
ington, and all went to live near the village 
of Usk in Monmouthshire. They had 
issue a son. 

VII. Henry Witherington, born May 17, 



In the late Scheldt expedition the same motive also 
induced him to volunteer by exchange from his 
own into the Light Cavalry of the 63rd. In him 
His Majesty has lost a most spirited and active 
officer, an ornament to his profession. 

His dau. was brought up by her grand- 
mother, Mrs. Bird, but I know nothing of 
her life, except that on a paper left by my 
grandfather, Andrew Fitzgerald, among 
some family records, he says the following 
refers to her: "August 21, 1849. At 
Ripoii by the Revd. R. Poole, J. H. S. Sad- 
ler, Esq., of Bleak Hill, Wiltshire, to Selina 
M. A. Witherington. daughter of late Col. 
Witherington, 9th Lancers." Henry 
Witherington did not attain to the rank of 
Colonel, neither was he in the 9th Lancers. 



V 11. jienry vviv>iioiiiigwjju, M >iu ^J-t*^ * * ? ' ; r ,. -. , -, - , i 

1779 in Dublin, served in the 9th Dragoons I consequently I am inclined to doubt 
and afterwards in the 2nd Foot. He sold | being Henry's daughter, and think she was- 
out of the Army about 1800, and, joined by j more likely the daughter of his brotJ 
his sister, Mrs. C. Heaviside, and her husband, Colonel Edward Witherington, buf^ 
went to live near the village of Usk in Mon- fortunately I have not been so far able to 
mouthshire. He shortly after obtained find any proof or otherwise on the subject, 
a commission as Lieutenant in the Mon- j ^VIII. Elizabeth Witherington, born Sept. 
mouth Militia. He was married in 1802 j 17. 1780. 



ix. JULY 16, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



In some family papers I possess, William 
Witherington, the first of this family of 
whom I have any record, is described as of 
Northumberland, a Lieutenant in the Royal 
Navy, but I cannot find any confirmation of 
this, and all the records I have searched 
describe him as a " woollen-draper " of 
Dublin. He is given as such also in Peter 



Wilson's * Dublin Directory.' The entries 
in this are as follows : 

1768-1774. William Witherington, Woollen- 
draper, Grafton Street. 

1775. William Witherington, Woollen-draper, 
22, Grafton Street. 

1776-1782. William Witherington, Woollen- 
draper, 68, Grafton Street. 

HENRY FITZGERALD REYNOLDS. 



AN ENGLISH ARMY LIST OF 1740. 
(See 12 S. ii., in., vi., vii. passim ; viii. 6, 46, 82, 185, 327, 405, 445.) 

THE next regiment (p. 78) was raised by Colonel Thomas Meredith in February, 1702, 
and in due course became the 37th Regiment of Foot. In 1782 it received the territorial 
title " North Hampshire," and was styled the " 37th (North Hampshire) Regiment," a 
title which it retained for exactly 100 years. In 1881, when the regimental numbers were 
abolished, it became the " Hampshire Regiment," which title it still (1921) retains. 



Colonel Ponsonby's Regiment of Foot. 

Henry Ponsonby ( 1) 



Colonel 
Lieutenant Colonel 
Major 

Captains 



Edward Richbell (2) 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 

. . 13 May 1735 Captain, 
. . 18 May 1722 ditto 



Dates of their 
first commissions. 

25 Aug. 1705 
24 Mar. 1708 



Richard Bassett ( 3) 
Lord John Sackville (4) 
Thomas Timpson 
James Coates 
William Gee 
James Dehavs . 



11 April 1722 
3 April 1734 
7 Dec. 1734 
26 Aug. 1737 
28 Oct. 1737 
1 May 1739 


Lieutenant, 
Captain, 
Ensign, 
ditto 
Lieutenant, 
ditto 


10 Apr. 
3 April 
1 July 
20 May 
11 Sept. 
24 Mar. 


1710-11 
1734 
1709 
1732 
1711 
1712 



Captain Lieutenant George Bell (5) 



1 May 1739 Ensign, 



1 Dec. 



1711 



f Henry Wetherall (6) 


3 Sept. 1725 


ditto 


9 Sept. 


1715 




Thomas Brady 


2 Jan. 1726 


ditto 


7 Dec. 


1711 




Russell Chapman 


7 Aug. 1733 


ditto 


22 Oct. 


1718 




Jordan Wren (7) 


2 April 1734 


ditto 


28 July 


1720 


. 


Samuel Boucher ( 8) 


.. 11 May 1735 


ditto 


3 Sept. 


1725 


jieiitenants . . . . 


George Wheatley 


. . 10 April 1736 


ditto 


31 Mar. 


1721 




Edward Loftus 


7 Mar. 1736-7 


ditto 


2 Jan. 


1726 




John Kirrell 


. . 26 Aug. 1737 


ditto 


10 April 


1736 




John Doyne 


. . 28 Oct. 1737 


ditto 


2 Jan. 


1732-3 


John Hill (9) .. 


1 May 1739 


ditto 


3 April 


1734 



(1) 2nd son of William Ponsonby, 1st Viscount Duncannon. He was killed at the battle of 
Fontenoy, May 11, 1745. 

(2) Major in the regiment, June 3, 1720. Became Colonel of the 39th Foot in 1743, and in 1752 
of the 17th Foot. Died in 1757. 

(3) Major, Jan. 15, 1739-40; Brevet Lieut-Colonel, 1745. Died in 1746. 

(4) Lord John Philip Sackville, 2nd son of the 1st Duke of Dorset. Died in 1765. 

(5) Captain, Jan. 15, 1739-40. 

(6) Captain Lieutenant, Jan. 15, 1739-40. 

(7) Major, Dec. 26, 1755. Lieut. -Colonel in the 75th Foot, April 20, 1758, and in the 37th again, 
Nov. 24, 1759. Colonel of the 41st Foot, Aug. 5, 1771. Major-General, Aug. 29, 1779 ; Lieut.-General, 
Feb. 19, 1779. Died Jan., 1784. He served in the battles of Dettingen, Fontenoy, and Culloden 
(April 16, 1746), for the last of which he was awarded one of the so-called " Cumberland " medals 
gold. 

(8) Captain, May 7, 1745. 

(9) Captain, Feb. 17, 1745-6. 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. t i 2 s.ix. JULY u, 1021. 



Colonel Pousonby's Regiment of Foot. 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 



Dates of their 
first commissions. 



Ensigns 



\ John Worge (12) 
j Francis Jones (13) 
i Charles Fleury . . 
j Thomas Bermingham 
Brabazon Ponsonby (14 
Charles Bellew . . 
John Lyons 
Loftus Cliff (10).. 
John Wright 



7 Dec. 
11 May 
19 July 
10 April 

7 Mar. 
26 Aug. 

1 Oct. 
28 Oct. 

1 May 



1734 

1735 

1735 

1736 

1736-7 

1737 

1737 

1737 

1739 



The following additional names are entered in ink on the interleaf : 



Captains 


C Thomas Buck (11) 
' * ( Jno. Plucknett 


.. 15 Jan. 1739-40 
. . 23 Apl. 1740 


Lieutenants . . 


Henry Flecher . . 


. . 13 Mar. 1740-1 


Ensigns 


(" James Kinner 
. . ] Audw. Nesbitt 
(.Hugh Warn es .. 


.. 15 Jan. 1739-40 
ditto 
. . 4 Nov. 1740 



(10) Captain, Feb. 6, 1749-50. 

(11) Major, Aug. 7, 1749. 

(12) Lieutenant, Jan. 15, 1739-40. 

(13) Lieutenant, Nov. 4, 1740, 

(14) Son of Cc^onel H. Ponsonby see supra. 



(To be concluded.) 



J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Colonel. 



ROBERT TOLCARON, THOMAS 

KYRTON, SIR ROBERT PECKHAM, 

WILLIAM BROWNE, " POTENTATE TO 

THE POPE." 

IN a long list of English subjects abroad 
(P.R.O., S.P. Dom. Add. Eliz. xxvii. 11), 
printed in The Downside Review, xxxv. 
71-5, which has been conjecturally dated 
April, 1580, mention is made of " Morgan 
Clynock, Gustos of the English Hospital " 
at Rome. " Morgan " is obviously a mistake 
ior " Morris," and this mention seems to put 
the document in the year 1578 (see 12 S. v. 
161). 

Another official of the English Hospital 
whose name occurs in the list is " Rob. 
Tolkanen, rent-gatherer to the English Hos- 
pital." This would appear to be Robert 
Tolcaron, or Talcarne, a Cornishman, who 
was a Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford, 
irom 1543 to 1551, and took the degree of 
M.A. in 1547/8. He was in Rome in 1564 
(Cath. Rec. Soc. ii. 3) and was one of the 
executors of the will of Thomas Kyrton, 
together with Nicholas Morton (10 S. ii. 
206) and William Giblett (10 S. vi. 189 ; 
11 S. ii. 346). 

Thomas Kyrton was born at Gloucester 
in 1532, and went to Corpus Christi College, 



Oxford, in 1547, where he became a Fellow 
in 1550, and M.A. in 1553. He was or- 
dained acolyte at Oxford in Sept., 1554, 
became a Fellow of Eton College in 1557/8, 
and was ejected Sept. 11, 1561. He sup- 
plicated for the degree of B.D. at Oxford 
in 1558/9. On leaving Eton he went to the 
English Hospice at Rome, where he was 
Warden from 1568 till his death, April 6, 
1571. His executors erected a monument 
to him in the Church of San Tommaso 
degli Inglesi. He was one of the executors 
of the will of Sir Robert Peckham, Knight, 
of Buckinghamshire, a Privy Councillor 
under Queen Mary, who fled abroad at the 
accession of Queen Elizabeth, and, dying 
in Rome on Sept. 15, 1569, was buried in the 
Church of San Gregorio in Monte Celio. 

At the date of this list Charles Parker 
(12 S. vi. 39) was also living in Rome, as 
was one " Wm. Browne, my L. Montague's 
second brother's son." It is noted that 
" his father alloWeth him a pension, and 
had of the K. of Spain 100 crowns to 
bring him to Rome." The father in ques- 
tion would seem to be Charles Browne 
(12 S. iii. 418). The name Geo. Brom- 
browe would appear to conceal that of 
Edward Bromborough (10 S. vi. 189). 
There are two nephews of Dr. Owen Lewis 



12 s. ix. JULY is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



mentioned as residing in Rome, viz., Owen 
Griffin and Thomas ap Griffin. Owen Griffin 
is probably to be identified with Hugh 
Griffin (12 S. vi. 86.) 

This shows that either the list itself 
or its transcription is inaccurate. So when 
we find among the Roman sojourners 
Wm. Berslock and Ralph Butler, each of 
whom is described as " D.C.L. and Potentate 
to the Pope," we need not hesitate to 
identify them with John Bearblock (11 S. 
vii. 364) and Thomas Butler (9 S. xi. 227, 
?50; 11 S. viii. 409: ix. 518). "Potentate 
to the Pope " appears to mean " Podesta " 
or Magistrate in the Papal States. 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 



WARWICKSHIRE FOLK-LORE. 1. Wife 
Sales. Any man could sell his wife for 
a sum varying from one to three half- 
crowns ; but he must first lead her through 
three turnpike gates and pay the toll, and 
that with a rope round her neck. The sale 
when carried out seems to have been con- 
sidered quite above reproach. I heard 
this in my own village, Whitchurch, and was 
assured the version, was quite correct by 
the late learned antiquary, Mr. F. Scarlett 
Potter of Halford, a folklorist of no mean 
standing. 

2. Hanging in Effigy. A man named 
Wheatley was hung in effigy on a poplar 
tree growing on the church land in Ilming- 
ton called Crowyard. The effigy was after- 
wards burnt. It had this rhyme affixed : 

This old bloke to Warwick went 

False witness for to be, 
James Blomefleld Bush was for murder hung, 

This man for perjury. 

Wheatley was hung in effigy for enclosing 
part of the common, including the village 
stocks. 

3. Rounding. This practice was remem- 
bered as late as 1855. In South-West War- 
wickshire, under the old Poor Law the farmer 
paid half a man's wages if supported by the 
parish, and the parish paid the other half. 
Such men were known as yard-land-men, 
and the proverb " To work like a yard -land - 
man " was not complimentary. 

A man whose regular work through the 
winter was threshing was called a " tasher." 
The word died out about 65 years ago and 
only survives as a surname. 

J. HARVEY BLOOM. 



' PROPHECIES OF REFORM.' In No. 37 
of The Farmer's Magazine for Friday, Feb. 
15, 1833, the following is printed under the 
title ' Prophecies of Reform.' Is its author- 
ship known ? 
When a lawyer sheds tears while he's striking a 

docket, 
When assessors heave sighs while they empty your 

pocket, 
When reviewers feel pangs like the authors they 

cut up. 
When conscience for sale shall no longer be put 

up, 

When placemen Unmasked throw up sinecures, 
When any quack medicine performs any cures. 
When women of eighty confess they're in years, 
When they make such confession without shedding 

tears, 
When poor curates thrive, while fat bishops get 

skinny, 
When a note with a shilling is preferred . to a 

guinea, 
When there's peace, because monarchs are wearv 

of killing, 
When a good thumping loaf's to be had for a 

shilling, 

When like cattle at market base voters ar'nt sold, 
When tea-scandal ceases, and fish-fags don't scold, 
When Ale's made again from good malt and hops, 
When Corn-Jews are found to rejoice at good crops, 
When truth shall no longer be deemed a foul libel, 
When men follow precepts preached from the 

Bible, 
When symptoms like these hall be seen through 

- the land, 
They'll seem to portend " A Reform is at hand." 

E. HEDGER WALLACE. 

EPITAPHS MENTIONING* BAY OF THE 
WEEK (see 12 S. vii. 487). In continuation 
of my Note I am now able to give the scarce 
M.I. which mentions the hour of death. It 
is from the churchyard of Shillingford St. 
George, near Exeter. 

Sacred to the memory of John Zeal who de- 
parted this life the 7th* day of Jany. 1836 at 
11 o'clock a.m. and of Christian his wife who 
departed this life the same day at 7 a.m. aged 
75 years. 

The copy was made and presented, most 
kindly, by the Rev. S. H. Atkins, rector of 
Dunchideock-with-Shillingford. M. 

" AN OMISSION IN MRS. COWDEN CLARKE'S 
CONCORDANCE " (12 S. vi. 58). Kindly- 
permit me to draw your correspondent's 
and perhaps some other reader's kind 
attention, who may be living far away from 
England, to a more recent Shakespeare 
concordance which appeared under the 
title ' Shakespeare-Lexicon : A Complete 
Dictionary of all the Words, Phrases, &c., 
in the Works of Shakespeare,' by Alexander 
Schmidt, in one vol., 1874-75. However 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [iis.ix.joi.Yie, 1921. 



practical and most useful Mrs. Cowden 
Clarke's original work will ever remain with 
Shakespeare readers and students, it may be 
worth noting that Alexander Schmidt's 
later Shakespeare lexicon presents, at the 
same time, as its title states, a methodical 
arrangement and definition of the words, 
according to the various sense and different 
meaning in their connexion. As an instance 
of its completeness, the verb " to chide," oc- 
curring in ' 2 Hen. VI.' in. i. 182, is registered 
under *' loser" as well. H. KREBS. 



HOPS, BEEB, AND HERESY. ' Cassell's 
Book of Quotations,' by W. Gurney Benham, 
p. 461, has : 

Hops, Reformation, Bays, and Beer 
Game into England all in one year. 

Old Rhyme. 

Hops, carp, pickerel, and beer 
Came into England all in one year. 

Another version of the same, 

referring to 1532. 

According to Brewer's ' Dictionarv of 
Phrase and Fable,' p. 29 : 

Hops were introduced from Holland and used 
for brewing in 1524, but their use was prohibited 
by Act of Parliament in 1528 a prohibition 
which soon fell into disuse. 

W. Toone, ' Chr. Hist.' i. 122, under the 
date 1525, wrote : 

Divers things were imported into England, 
whereupon this rhyme was made : 

Turkeys, carps, hops, piccarel and beer 
Came into England all in one year. 

Southey's ' Common-place Book,' first series 
(2nd ed.), p. 413, quotes from ' The Virtue 
of Sack ' in Beaumont's poems, 
There's heresy in hops ; 

and from 'The Old Song of the Ex-ale- 
tation of Ale ' : 
To the Church and Religion it is a good friend, 

Or else our forefathers their wisdom did fail, 
That at every mile next to the church stile 

Sat a consecrate house to a pot of good ale. 
But now, as they say, Beer bears it away, 

The more is the pity if right might prevail ; 
For with the same beer came up heresy here, 

The old Catholick drink is a pot of good Ale. 
JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

CHARLES DICKENS. In ' The Minor 
Writings of Charles Dickens,' 1900, Mr. 
F. G. Kitton identified two only as appear- 
ing in vol. i. of All the Year Round, 1859. 
But I think the following note, printed at 
p. 442 (September 3), bears the hand 
of " the Chief " too plainly for error : 

It will be perceived that the title of this journal, 
All the Tear Round, is repeated at the head of 



every page instead of every alternate page, as 
heretofore. Our apology for this tautology is 
obedience to the Majesty of the Law. That 
powerful engine is set in motion by the 18th 
Victoria, cap. 2, which, in its wisdom, commands 
:hat not only the date of each number, but the title 
shall be printed at the top of every page of every 
periodical, before the Post-Office authorities can 
.egally register it for transmission to foreign coun- 
tries and the colonies. The Law being the perfection 
of human reason, gives as its reason for this 
absurdity, that the constant repetition prevents 
fraud. In what manner, or in whom, or where, 
or how, or why, we are unable to divine ; neither 
s it in the power of the Postmaster-General to 
enlighten our benighted understanding. 

G. A. Sala, in his ' Life and Adventures,' 
1894, says: " The only notice that the State 
liad ever taken of Charles Dickens was to 
sanction the prosecution of the proprietors 
of The Household Budget by the Inland 
Revenue authorities for an alleged violation 
of the Stamp Act. I think that the prosecu- 
tion broke down." W. B. H. 

POPE : SMOLLETT.- I do not know whether 
the following " crib " has been noticed : 
Dunciad (1728) : i. 279. 

How Index-learning turns no student pale, 
Yet holds the eel of Science by the tail. 
Peregrine Pickle (1751) : c. 42. " He rated him 
in his own mind as a mere index-hunter who held 
the eel of science by the tail." 

H. C. N. 



finerfe*. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



PRINCE RUPERT'S FORT, CORK HARBOUR 
(see 12 S. viii. 169). From the map of 1774 
previously referred to, Prince Rupert's 
Fort was situated near the present Fort 
Carlisle on a commanding position on the 
cliff above the battery, which formed part 
of its defence, at the water's edge. Its 
form was square with flankers at each 
corner. 

A map of the old fort on Haulbowline, 
built by Lord Mount joy in 1601 (vide 
' Pacata Hibernia,' vol. ii., p. 424), is 
strikingly similar, but no mention can be 
found that any work was erected at the 
harbour mouth in that period. 

That there had been one is, however, 
apparent from official correspondence of 
1625, in which year a King John's Fort was 



12 s. ix. JULY 16, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



constructed at Corkbeg with the old stones 
and on the site of a fortification built there 
in the reign of King John. It is signifi- 
cant that despite frequent mention in sub- 
sequent years of " Halebolin " and King 
John's (or Corkbeg) Forts, and although 
in 1659 when invasion was a bogy, a list 
of garrisons " which are thought fit to be 
constantly kept " specified the garrison 
of these two forts, no mention is made of 
Cork Harbour defences at other points. 
It thus seems fair to assume that before 
1660 Prince Rupert's Fort did not exist, 
that it was not built under the Admiral's 
direction, but was named after him. How 
soon after is still uncertain. Smith's 
'History of Cork,' Book in., p. 107, relates 
that in 1667 the Earl of Orrery, having 
intelligence that the French were preparing 
an attack on Kinsale, 

encamped all the militia and standing army of 
Monster, brought some of the largest guns out 
of his Majesty's ships of war, planted batteries 
along the shore. . . . 

Perhaps such batteries showed the need 
of and led to the erection of Prince Rupert's 
Fort ? 

Can any reader of ' N. & Q.' assist to find 
a, plan of this fort, or otherwise determine 
the date of its erection ? R. C. L.-H. 

ENGLISH VERSIONS OF LATIN CHARTERS 
IN PICKERING. In Pickering's edition of 
the 4 Statutes at Large,' &c., the first 
charters given are printed both in Latin 
and in English ; they are followed by some 
in Norman-French, of which an English 
version is also given. In some cases cor- 
rections are given where the version is not 
quite correct. There is no preface or intro- 
duction giving any information as to the 
sources of the English versions as is afforded 
by notes at the heads of Latin or Norman 
versions. May I ask, then, what are the 
.sources and the authority for the various 
English versions of the statutes printed by 
Pickering ? W. S. B. H. 

THE HON. FRANCES INGRAM-SHEPHERD, 
second daughter of Charles Ingram, 10th 
Lord Irvine, married, 1781, Lord William 
Gordon, second son of Cosmo, 3rd Duke of 
Gordon. She was the mother of the child 
who sat for Sir Joshua Reynolds' s ' Angels' 
Heads ' in the National Gallery. 

Information of date of birth and death 
asked for. E. E. LEGGATT. 

62, Cheapside. 



DICKSON or EDINBURGH. I am compiling 
a genealogical tree of the family of Dickson 
of Edinburgh and collateral branches, and 
should be grateful to any of your corre- 
spondents who might be able to give me 
genealogical information regarding the 
ancestry of : 

. . . Dickson (Christian name unknown). 
He was a fur merchant in, or connected 
with, St. Petersburg, and died at Edinburgh 
in or about 1798, aged 94. He married 
(name of wife unknown) and had two sons 
and two daughters. The eldest son, Samuel 
Dickson, born 1749, was a builder and con- 
tractor, and built a very considerable part 
of the new town of Edinburgh. He mar- 
! ried at Edinburgh in College Kirk parish 
April 19, 1772, Agnes, youngest daughter of 
Thomas Baillie, by his wife Helen Gordon. 
(Thomas Baillie was a millwright at Water 
of Leith. He had ten sons and two daugh- 
ters Thomas, a colonel, who died in India, 
1799 ; John, a merchant in Edinburgh, 
married Margaret Sutherland (dau. of 
Alexander Sutherland, farmer), July 29, 
1764; William, born Nov. 20, 1744; 
Andrew, born Feb. 6, 1756, Agnes and 
others). Samuel Dickson died July 2, 1793, 
aged 44 years, having had issue : 

1. James, writer, Edinburgh, served heir 
to his father, 1794. 

2. Thomas, born 1775, died young. 

3. Samuel, born March 29, 1777, Writer 
to the Signet in Edinburgh. 

4. Helen, born June 20, 1779. 

5. Mary, born Aug. 4, 1781. 

6. Thomas, bom May 16, 1783. 

7. Henry Gordon, bom 1786, W T .S. in 
1817, married Aug. 1, 1817, Elizabeth, 
second daughter of William Gillespie, mer- 
chant in Edinburgh, and had a numerous 

i issue. Mr. Henry Gordon Dickson was a 
partner in the firm of Ker and Dickson, W.S., 
and resided at 27, Drummond Place, Edin- 

I burgh. He died there Sept. 30, 1860. 

8. Janet, born April 20, 1788. 

9. Robert, born Jan. 21, 1790. 

10. George, born Jan. 12, 1792. 

11. Agnes, born Dec. 15, 1793, died un- 
married at Ayr, 1874. 

I have particulars of the descendants of 
3 and 7 above, but I should like particulars of 
the issue of the other sons and daughters 
who married. Professor James Dickson 
of Edinburgh was either a son or grandson 
of one of the above. 

JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



ORMISTON OF ORMISTON, HADDINGTON- 
SKERE. I seek genealogical details of this 
family. JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlise Road, Hove, Sussex. 

SUTHERLAND FAMILY (12 S. viii. 108). 
With regard to my query at this refer- 
ence relative to the ancestry of Alexander 
Sutherland, a farmer of Ackergill, I give 
hereunder a copy of a letter which may 
lead to the discovery of the ancestry of 
Alexander Sutherland, and which is also 
interesting in connexion with the oft -ex- 
pressed doubt as to whether the Duke of 
Sutherland is the rightful holder of the 
ancient earldom of that county : 

July ??nd, 1852. 

My dear John, 

In your last letter to me you wished to 
know the reason why our family left Sutherland- 
shire to settle in Mora.ysbire. I will tell you as 
far as it was explained to me by my great-giand- 
fatlter, who was Laird of Kilpeter in Sutherland- 
shire, a place above Helmsdale. The first Laird 
was son of an ancient Earl of Sutherland and the 
Sutherlands of Kilpeter had for ages to sit, as 
was the custom, on the right band of the Earl 
and were on all occasions looked upon by the 
inhabitants as second to none, excepting the 
Earl. When I visited Sutherland in the year 
1805, seeing my uncle and friends, the old people 
would say to me, " You ought to be the Earl of 
this County." I replied, " it was not my luck to 
be so." The charter of the Earl gives it to the 
nearest male to the Earl of Sutherland, but it is 
the female who inherits it now. 

A son of the Earl of Aboyne married the 
heiress of Sutherland when the Gordons, who 
were a strong clan, dared anyone to interfere. 
The late Duchess married the Marquess of Stafford 
when it was attempted to throw her oat and re- 
instate the male line that is the Kilpeter family. 
However, this was not done as they had not the 
courage. Several lawyers in Edinburgh offered 
large sums to get the job. 

When a grand-uncle's son of mine came home 
from India express, on his arrival he was offered 
a certain sum of money yearly, a Captaincy, 
or to take a farm on the lands of* General Munis. 
However, this passed on all well until he got a 
dose of some stuff that finished him for he turned 
insane and died. Now I will tell you how we 
came to Morayshire. The last Laird of Kilpeter 
bad three sons and when their father died they 
agreed to sell the estate as owing to the supersti- 
tion of the time believing as they did so much 
in witchcraft, and the Laird having greatly 
offended a witch the report got common that 
as soon as any member of the family took posses- 
sion they were sure to die immediately. Be that 
as it may, the estate was sold, One of the 
brothers went to Caithness and was a merchant 
in Thurso and was chief magistate while he lived. 
A second brother went to Edinburgh and was a 
merchant. The third was my grandfather and 
was long a merchant in Tain, Ross-shire, and had 
a farm in Easter Ross called Dourans. He was 



in those days called " Cornish Douran, the 
merchant of* Douran." When he died my 
father and the rest of the family were left in 
charge of their Aunt, who was wife of the Factor 
of Balnagowan. This person treated them 
badly and my father Donald ran off and settled 
in Morayshire. . . 

Believe me, your loving father. 

GEORGE SUTHERLAND. 

The inference to be gathered from this 
letter is that the Kilpeter branch of the 
family should have succeeded to the earl- 
dom, and it would be interesting to know 
whether there are any charters extant 
which bear out this contention. 

I have not been able to discover the 
pedigree of this branch of the family, and 
should esteem any genealogical details 
thereof, especially of the three sons of the 
last Laird of Kilpeter. Is it possible that 
the second son was Alexander, a farmer 
of Ackergill, who migrated to Edinburgh, 
and whose second daughter, Margaret, 
married John Baillie in 1764 ? 

JAMES SETQN-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

LEIF ERICSON. The interior of the 
recently erected Cunard building in Lower 
Broadway, New York, is embellished with 
mural paintings of the first voyagers to 
America by the artist Ezra Winter, who 
trained in the Chicago Academy of Fine 
Arts and the American Academy in Rome. 
The voyagers depicted in their order are 
Leif Ericson, Columbus, Cabot, and Drake. 
The first is shown in an orange viking ship 
with a high gilt dragon prow, and huge 
square yellow sail blazoned in black with his 
emblem the seahorse. 

There is a statue of Ericson at Boston, 
but the ' Ency. Brit.' states that Ameri- 
can professors are not agreed as to the spot 
on which this Danish mariner landed. Has 
any later information come to light to settle 
the point ? J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

101, Piccadilly, W. 

Six LORDS : CHEWAR. Information in- 
vited as to the origin of the name " Six 
Lords," the sign of a public-house at Single- 
borough, near Winslow, Bucks ; also of 
"The Chewar," a thoroughfare in Bucking- 
ham. J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

101, Piccadilly, W. 

MONKE. James Monke Was admitted 
to Westminster School in April, 1740, aged 
8, and William Monke in Jan., 1743, aged 
7. Any information about these two Monkea 
would be acceptable. G. F. R. B. 



12 s. ix. JULY i-6, io2i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



MONSON. George Monson was admitted 
to Westminster School in. Oct., 1734, aged 
13, Henry Monson in April, 1737, aged 8, 
and Philip Monson in May, 1717, aged 14. 
Can any correspondent of 'X. & Q.' assist 
me in the identification of these Monsons ? 

G. F. R, B 

PRINCESS ELIZABETH, " REFIXED INTRI- 
GANTE." Mr. Walter Sichel, in his excel- 
lent Life of Emma Lady Hamilton, 1905, 
2nd ed., remarks of the above-named in 
a note on p. 24 : 

This extraordinary woman claimed (and per- 
haps rightly) to be the Czarina's daughter by 
Count Rasoumowski. After an education in 
Persia, and many wanderings, she appealed to the 
aid of the Sultan, besought Hamilton's assistance 
at Naples and was betrayed by the Russian 
Minister Orloff to the Court of St. Petersburg, 
where she languished a prisoner till she died. 

Can any reader suggest where further 
details may be obtained ? 

FREDK. C. WHITE. 

" A FROG HE WOULD A-WOOING GO." 
Who was the original author of the old 
doggerel, 

A frog he would a-wooing go, 

*' Heigho ! " said Anthony Rowley; 

and of whom was it written ? King Charles 
was always called " Old Rowley " because 
of his likeness to a frog. Alluding to the 
doggerel verse, can anyone say where the 
whole poem may be found or give any 
interesting items about it ? 

A LANCASHIRE WITCH. 

[There was a correspondence on this subject in 
the earliest days of ' N. & Q.,' initiated by a 
query at 1 S. i. 401. We give below two of the 
replies, which appeared at 1 S. ii. 74 (June 29, 
1850) : 

Your Sexagenarian who dates from 
" Shooter's Hill," has not hit the mark when 
he suggests that Anna Bouleyn's marriage 
with Henry VIII. (in the teeth of the Church) 
is the hidden mystery of the popular old 
song : 

" Sir Frog he would a-wooing go 
Whether his mother was willing or no." 
That some courtship in the history of the 
British monarchy, leaving a deep impression 
on the public mind, gave rise to this generally 
diffused ballad, is exceedingly probable ; but 
the style and wording of the song are evi- 
dently of a period much later than the age 
of Henry VIII. Might not the mod-cap 
adventure of Prince Charles with Buckingham 
into Spain, to woo the Infanta, be its real 
origin ? " Heigho ! for Antony Rowley " is 
the chorus. Now " Old Rowley " was a pet 
name for Charles the Second, as any reader 
of the Waverley Novels must recollect. No 



event was more likely to be talked about and 
sung about at the time, the adventurous 
nature of the trip being peculiarly adapted to 
the balladmonger. FRANCIS MAHONY. 

Your correspondent T. S. D. is certainly 
right in his notion that the ballad of "A 
Frog he would a-wooing go " is very old, 
however fanciful may be his conjecture about 
its personal or political application to 
Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn. That it 
could not refer to " the Cavaliers and the 
Roundheads," another of T. S. D.'s notions, 
is clear from the fact that it was entered at 
Stationers' Hall hi November, 1581, as ap- 
pears by the quotation made by Mr. Payne 
Collier, in his second volume of " Extracts " 
printed for the Shakespeare Society last year. 
It runs thus : 

" Edward White. Lycensed unto him, 
Jec., theis iiij. ballads folio winge, that is to 
saie, A moste strange weddinge of the irogge 
and the mowse," &c. 

Upon this entry Mr. Collier makes this 
note : 

" The ballad can hardly be any other than 
the still well-known comic song. ' A Frog he 
would a-wooing go.' " 

It may have been even older than 1581 
when Edward White entered it ; for it is 
possible that it was then only a reprint of an 
earlier production. I, like Mr. Collier, have 
heard it sung " in our theatres and streets," 
and, like T. S. D., always fancied that it was 
ancient. THE HERMIT OF HOLYPORT.] 

PRICE FAMILY : MARRIAGE ALLEGATION 
BONDS, DIOCESE OF BATH AND WELLS. 
John Price, Rector of Priston, and Emma 
Catherall of Englishcombe, spinster, aged 
28, at Farmborough, Bath, Priston, Bath, 
Dunkerton, Bath, or Stratton-on-the-Fosse, 
Bath, Jan. 8, 1724-5. To what family of 
Price did he belong ? Any information 
will be gratefully received. 

LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

SIGNS USED IN PLACE or SIGNATURES. 
Chapter vi. of Erredge's ' History of Bright - 
helmston ' gives some account of ' The 
Book of all the Auncient Customs,' dated 
1580. 

This " book " is signed by some of the 
principal inhabitants, most of whom, how- 
ever, do not write their own names but 
affix a mark. These marks, sever ty- three 
in number, are shown on p. 38 of Erredge's 
book. He says it has been conjectured 
that the signs refer to the trade or occupa- 
tion of the persons using them ; but if this 
were the case, instead of being all different 
the same signs would surely recur frequently, 
especially at Brighton, where so large a 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 1-2 s.ix. JULY IG, 1021. 



proportion of the inhabitants were fisher- 
men. 

Are there other instances of signs of this 
description being used, either by individuals 
or by the members of a trade or calling ? 

O. K. S. 

GLASS AND TIN CHURNS. -On Jan. 16, 1851 
a patent was granted to Robert Cogan for a 
cylindrical glass churn. The report of the 
juries of the Great Exhibition of 1851 shows 
that thirteen churns were tested at the first 
trial and two of these churns shown by 
French makers were of tin. At the second 
trial five of these chums found a place, 
including both the tin. churns along with 
two wooden box churns and a wooden! 
barrel churn. The report states "in bothj 
trials, the small family* churn of Lavoisy } 
(tin) did its work so well that we awarded it i 
a prize medal." Are there any references 
to glass churns before 1859 and to tin! 
churns before 1851 ? 

R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 

AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL j 
WRITERS : BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS WANTED. 
The following eight names I am unable to . 
trace in the * D.N.B.' and should be glad 
if readers of ' N. & Q.' could favour with 
details and references. 

1. John Sillett, who published, in 1850,' 
' A New Practical System of Fork and Spade 
Husbandry.' He states he was a native of 
Kelsale, Suffolk, was apprenticed to a grocer 
and draper, was in different situations as a 
linen draper in London and Birmingham, 
went into business as a general shopkeeper 
in Suffolk and failed, and then carried on 
a haberdashery business in London, seem- i 
ingly with success. He returned to his , 
native village and bought two acres of ' 
land, and began to demonstrate " How \ 
to keep a cow and a pig upon an acre of 
land," following the advice given in the 
Labourers' Friend's Magazine. 

2. George London, who died in 1717, one 
of the earliest of London's market gardeners, 
beginning in 1681 with four partners, all, 
like himself, ex-head gardeners. 

3. John Bartram and his son, William 
Bartram. John was the discoverer of 
" Venus's Fly-trap." He was an F.R.S. 
arid was presented with their gold medal. 
William was, in 1775, botanist to the King, j 

4. The Rev. Chas. Marshall, died in 1818, 
aged 74. He published, in 1776, 'Plain and 
Easy Introduction to the Knowledge and 



Practice of Gardening, with Hints on Fish- 
ponds.' It is stated that he was a London 
schoolmaster who got a living in Northamp- 
tonshire through marriage. 

5. James Donald, published in 1851 
' Land Drainage, Embankment and Irri- 
gation.' Geo. W. Johnson, in The Cottage 
Gardener for March 20, 1851, says: " It is 
the best little manual on the subject we 
have ever perused." 

6. Walter Nicol, who died in 1811. He 
published in 1798 his ' Scotch Forcing and 
Kitchen Gardener,' in 1799 ' The Practical 
Planter,' in 1809 ' The Villa Garden Direc- 
tory,' in 1810 'The Gardener's Kalendar,' 
and in 1812 ' The Planter's Kalendar.' He 
was probably born in Fifeshire and his father 
and himself were gardeners in that county. 
He was in 1809/10, along with Dr. Patrick 
Neill, secretary of the Caledonian Horti- 
cultural Society. 

7. Henry Dethicke, who signs the dedica- 
tion of ' The Gardener's Labyrinth.' It is 
stated that he was Archdeacon of Carlisle 
and admitted a Doctor of Law at Oxford in 
1581. 

8. Martin Doyle, who published in 
' The Economic "Library ' in 1851 ' Rural 
Economy for Cottage Farmers and Gar- 
deners.' R. HEDGER WALLACE. 



DISRAELI, ROGERS, OR SHAFTESBURY. 
Can any of your readers aid me in a matter 
of perplexed parentage ? 

Who is the father of the mot that 
follows ? 

' What religion are you, Mr. X ? " 
" What religion, Madam ? I am of the religion 
of all sensible men." 
" And what is that ? " she asked. 
" All sensible men, Madam, keep that to them- 
selves.-" 

J. A. Froude, in his essay on ' A Plea for 
Free Discussion,' ascribes this to Mr. Rogers. 

Hilaire Belloc, in his Introduction to 
'' Everyman " edition of Froude's Essays, 
sa y S . " There is often set down to Disraali 
the remark that his religion was the religion 
of all sensible men." And upon being asked 
what this religion might be, that Oriental 
is said to have replied : " All sensible 
men keep that to themselves." Mr. Belloc 
then goes on : 

Now Disraeli could no more have made such a 
witticism than he could have flown through the 
air ; his mind was far too extravagant for such 
pointed phrases. Froude quotes the story, but 
rightly ascrib'es it to Rogers, a very different man 



H& DC. JULY ia,io2i.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



tfrom Disraeli an Englishman with a mastery of ' 
^he English language. 

Xow hear Mr. Buckle in the 6th vol., p. 560, | 
of his ' Life of Disraeli.' After showing how j 
Disraeli was sometimes guilty of literary kid- j 
napping and had borrowed the above wit- 
ticism and put it into the mouth of Walder- j 
share, in his novel ' Endymion,' he adds in a 
footnote : " Lord Fitzmaurice, in his ; Life of 
Lord Granville,' points out that this passage 
is a reproduction of Speaker Onslow's reply | 
to Burnet's character of Shaftesbury in his; 
' History of His Own Time,' vol. i.,p. 164." j 

Who is right ? It is a pity that so fine a 
-child should bear the brand of bastardy. 

ARTHUR G. HABGBEAVES. 

"Bythorne," Tunbridge Wells. 

VEBSES WANTED : CONJUGAL SQUABBLES. ! 
3 remember reading, more than 60 years ago, j 
^some verses which described how a woman ! 
applied to a savant to tell her how to restore ! 
peace in her house. He gave her a bottle of 
medicine with a direction that she was to hold \ 
a small dose in her mouth whenever she met j 
her husband. She was thus unable to scold i 
in answer to his complaints ; and he then i 
ceased complaining, and peace was restored, i 
Can anyone tell me where these verses I 
can be found ? A. D. T. 



RELAPSES INTO SAVAGE LIFE. 

(12 S. viii. 511 ; ix. 37.) 









IBELAND, that evolved a brilliant civiliza- 
tion when England and much of the j 
Continent were in disorder, sank into a 
condition of barbarism that had lasted for] 
one hundred and fifty years when Henry II. j 
invaded the island. The Tatar obliterated 
the civilization of Kiev, which at one time 
threatened to outrival that of Byzantium. 
The modern Annamite has made no attempt 
to continue or reproduce the magnificent i 
civilization that seems to have existed cen- j 
turies ago in Cambodia, and the Indian of 
Latin America has never risen to the heights 
of his ancestors who made Mexico and Peru 
what they were before the Spanish conquest. 
In Hayti, since the elimination of the whites 
who controlled and Christianized the slave 
.population, the superstitions of Africa 
have reappeared. The serpent is wor- 
shipped, as it once was on the coast of 
Guinea; sorcerers are held in honour ; j 



children have been sacrificed, and people who 
are supposed to be invested with super- 
natural powers utter mysterious incanta- 
tions to put themselves into communication 
with the invisible world. 

A large tract of South-Western Africa was 
Christianized by the Portuguese, but when 
Portuguese influence declined, the natives 
reverted to their former beliefs and practices. 
In Asia Minor the barren Turk supplanted 
the supple Greek with his glorious past, 
pagan and Christian. The Greek, perhaps, 
was sometimes absorbed rather than de- 
stroyed, and there are many curious instances 
of Christian communities that embraced the 
Moslem creed. In our own days a number 
of Jews of a low type have annihilated the 
civilization of the Tsars and have substituted 
chaos in its place. But of course much 
depends, in a matter of this kind, on the 
exact meanings that we attach to the word 
" civilization" and its opposite, and if a con- 
tempt for simplicity, proportion, tradition, 
harmony, combined with a strong preference 
for discordant noises, senseless speed and 
monstrous machines is a characteristic of 
barbarism, then I think that we shall be 
constrained to admit that more than one 
of the so-called leading nations of the world 
to-day ought perhaps to be classed with 
those that were once civilized and are now 
reverting to a savage state. 

T. PEBCY ABMSTBONG. 

The Authors' Club, Whitehall Court, S.W. 

Sir Henry M. Stanley relates such an 
incident in his voyage up the Congo in his 
expedition for the relief of Emin Pasha ( ' In 
Darkest Africa,' London, 1890, i. 106-8). 
A Basoko named Baruti ("Gunpowder") 
had been captured on the Aruwimi river when 
a child, in 1883, and had been taken to 
England by Sir Francis de Winton. He 
afterwards * entered into Stanley's service 
and accompanied the Emin relief expedition 
in 1887. When they reached his native 
village and tribe, " from which he had been 
absent six (sic) years," he was welcomed by 
his brother, and Stanley offered him the 
choice of rejoining his tribe or continuing 
with the expedition. The lad at first de- 
clined to be restored to his native land and 
tribe ; but (writes Stanley) 
a day or two after reaching -Yambuya he altered 
his mind, came into my tent in the dead of night, 
armed himself with my Winchester rifle and a 
brace of Smith and Wesson revolvers, a supply of 
rifle and revolver cartridges, took possession of a 
silver road-watch, a silver pedometer, a hand- 
some belt with fitted pouches, a small sum of 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[12 S. IX. JULY 16. 1921. 



money, and, possessing himself of a canoe, dis- 
appeared down river. 

He was not seen again. 

I am under the impression that I have read 
of similar cases in the Sudan or other parts 
of Africa. Such action, after all, is only 
natural. " What is bred in the bone won't 
come out of the skin." 

FREDK. A. EDWARDS. 

An instance of relapse is given by Darwin, 
in a letter of April 6, 1834, viz., that of 
Jemmy Button, a native of Tierra del 
Fuego, who had been brought to England 
and afterwards restored to his country, where 
Darwin saw him. He writes : " Instead of 
the clean, well-dressed stout lad we left 
him, we found him a naked, thin, squalid 
savage." He refused to be taken back to 
England ( ' Life and Letters of Charles 
Darwin,' edited by Francis Darwin, 1887, 
vol. i., ch. vi., p. 251). 

Grant Allen's story does not pretend to 
be anything but a fiction. In it a negro, 
educated at Oxford, and married to an 
English wife, reverts to savagery when he 
returns to Africa. The story is one of the 
best in Grant Allen's excellent volume, 
' Strange Stories.' M. A. WILLIS. 

COCKNEY PRONUNCIATION (12 S. ix. 17). 
It may be worth while to instance a 
verse of Barha-m's in the poetical skit pub- 
lished with his * Ingoldsby Legends,' and 
styled ' The London University ; or, Stin- 
komalee Triumphans. An Ode to be per- 
formed on the opening of the new College 
of Graf ton Street, East.' 

Fat F , with his coat of blue, 

Who speeches makes so hot in town, 
In rhetoric, spells his lectures through, 

And sounds the y for W, 

The vay they speaks it at the U- 

niversity we've Got in town. 

Barham was, of course, parodying the 
famous * Gottingen ' poem in The Anti- 
Jacobin. W. B. H. 

SCHOOL MAGAZINES (12 S. viii. 325). I 
noted The Blackheathen, issued for Black- 
heath Proprietary School, at 10 S. xii. 89. 
The numbers I have are May 2, 1865, and 
May 4, 1866. One who was a pupil at the 
school a few years later than the above has 
told me that the memory of names prominent 
in the magazine was then fresh, but he had 
no knowledge of any magazine having been 
published, so that it is probable The Black - 
heathen enjoyed only a short life. 

W. B. H. 



FENNING'S ' ROYAL ENGLISH DICTIONARY '' 

| ( 12 S. ix. 11 ). There were many dictionaries 

I before 1761 and 1763. An article headed 

' About Dictionaries ' in The Bookworm, iii. 

i 49 (1890), gives the names of several. Dr* 

; Samuel Johnson's Dictionary appeared in 

1755 ; an interleaved copy of Bailey's 

i Dictionary, 1730, folio, having been largely 

! used in its preparation. W. B. H. 

t 

Something like two centuries separates 

j this work from the " first English dictionaries 

| printed," as the following brief list will prove, 

1 and this list by no means exhausts the- 

early flow of English lexicons : 

Levins. Manipulus Vocabulorum : A Rhyming 
! Dictionary, 1570. [Reprinted 1867.] 

Baret. Alvearie or Quadruple Dictionarie, 1580.. 

Exposition of Hard Words . . . 1609. 

Bullojtar. English Expositor, 1616. 

Minsheu. Guide into Tongues, 1017. [Polyglot 
Dictionary.] 

Cockeran. English Dictionarie, 1623. 

W. JAGGAED, Capt. 

FONTENELLE'S ALLEGORY IN BATTLE'S- 
' NOTJVELLES DE LA REPTJBLIQTJE DES 
LETTRES' (12 S. ix. 10). Fontenelle's 
allegory was headed ' Extrait d'une Lettre 
ecrite de Batavia dans les Indes Orient ales, 
le 27 Novembre 1684, contenu dans une 
Lettre de M. de Fontenelle, recue a Rotter- 
dam, par M. Banage.' With an editorial 
introduction- and postscript it appeared as 
article x. in the January, 1686, number of 
Ba.vle's ' Nouvelles de 'la Republique des 
Lettres.' (The heading of the query was 
therefore rather misleading.) The name 
of the Mother in the story is Mliseo, the 
daughter who succeeds her is Mreo. Eenegu 
is the pretender to the throne who main- 
tains that she is the true daughter of 
Mliseo. The names are printed in the 
first volume of Bayle's ' QEuvres diverses ' 
Mliseo (not Mliseo, as at p. 10 ante), Mreo 
(both without accents), and Eenegu. Them 
is a short account of Fontenelle's allegory 
by A. C. Guthkelch on pp. 307, 308, in Vol. 
viii. of ' The Modern Language Review,' 
where a suggestion of G. C. Macaulay is 
quoted that " Mliseo is an anagram for 
Solime, i.e., Solyma (Jerusalem)." See also 
pp. xxxvi., xxxvii., in the Introduction to 
A. C. Guthkelch and D. Nichol Smith's 
edition of Swift's ' A Tale of a Tub ' (1920). 
The edition of the ' Nouvelles ' that I 
know is of 12mo size in gatherings of 12 

I leaves with a separate title for each month. 

[ Amsterdam, Henry Desbordes. Is this a 






12 s. ix. JULY 16, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 55 

reprint of the original issue? Where did I JOHN WINTHROP : INNER TEMPLE, 1628 

Perrens find the name Glisee ? j (12 S. viii. 391, 476). Winthrop's ' Life and 

EDWARD BENSLY. < Letters ' says that John Winthrop, son 

[The Editor apologizes t>oth to the Querist and heir of John Winthrop of Groton in 
.and to the Readers of ' N. & Q.' for having inad- the coun ty of Suffolk, was " admitted to 
vertently written " Fontenelle instead ot , T^n^r TV-m-nlp TiVV 9fi 1 fi94. " 

Ba y ,e " in the heading to the q ue ry .] ****** Te^le FeK - 1624.^ ^ ^ 

ANECDOTE, OF LAURENCE STERNE (12 S. found in the Temple records in 1860 by his 
viii. 129, 215). MR. BENSLY misread my . friend Judge Warren, and that there was a 
note about Sterne, or his pen ran away, subsequent record, as follows : " John 
The Yorkshire Herald was my authority. Winthrop, Gentleman, specially admitted 
It has a long time behind it though it has 29 June 1628." He says, " This may have 
tampered with its title. The Yor kshire ! been the elder Winthrop." 
Post, much to be respected, is quite a The Winthrop ' Life and Letters ' shows 
*' young thing " in comparison. that the elder Winthrop practised law as 

ST. SWITHIN. early as 1622, that in 1626 he was made 

,, .,_ ... .. -.'attorney of the Court of Wards and held 

"ORGY" (12 S. vm. 48/). Orgy and the Q CQ geveral g> and practised 

"orgie" are, I fancy too well established before that court> A letter of Brampton 
for any protest to avail against them. For Gurdon to j w seniorj of Oct> 27 (it was 
what decent dictionaries say on the ! f 1627 Qr 1628) ghowg that at that time 
subject see the < O.E.D under Orgy, orgie. jj w ior had a cham ber in the Inner 
The quotations given for both these .forme .are T le He p res ented drafts of bills to 
more than respectable , the , ea rhf <t of them : p^j^^t m 1628 . One part of his prac 
being dated 1665. In the 'Tauchmtz Pocket | tice w&g attendance on the Committee of 
French Dictionary find Orgie, f. revel, : the Houge of CommonSi He was also a 
drunken feast, so that the French seem to Justice of the Peace . This seems to i ndicate 
be equal sinners with ourselves; C. C. B. j w ? genioi% wag the Qne specially admitted 

Sir Herbert Maxwell is, I fear, too late in Jin 1628. M. J. CANAVAN. 

his protest against the use of this word in the 133, West Springfield Street, 
singular. The ' N.E.D.' gives quotations j ton > Mass - u --A. 

from Sir Thomas Herbert ; in 1665, the late j pEERg , MAKTLEa (12 s> ix> 10)> _ 
Robmson Ellis in 1871 Mr Frederic Har- iThe Historical Associa tion have issued 
rison m 1883, and the late Lord Bowen in Httle hlet Pic tures of Parliament,' 

1887 ; . T1 fr T ,f m ^ lar 'r, rg /' 1 al ,?/ e ?? g '! reprinted from 'The Evolution of Parlia- 
nized in ' The New Gresham English Die- , ^ , fe p rofess0 r A. F. Pollard. The 
tionary of 1920, * The Concise Oxford Die- ; H Q thege ictures is a contemporary 
tionary of ^1911, and ' Oiambers's Twentieth ; drawin of the ^ ^ of Par ii ame P nt on 
Century Dictionary ot 1902. | A n f g 1523 an P d ^ the ers are re . 

JOHN B. A\AINEWRIGHT. LJted.*Mh ermine bars for the dis- 

PRIVILEGE or TEMPLARS AND HOSPI- tinguishing of rank on their mantles. 
TALLERS (12 S. ix. 12). The privilege was M - H. DODDS. 

exemption from tithes, firstfruits &c ; T }{ ^ ted authority for correct 

Information on the subject is to be foimd f ^ and nobi iit y is commonly 

in Southey's Common-place Book voL i. supp( f sed to "^ % ob iii tas pol f ti ca vel civilis 

I ... [by Robert Glover and Thomas Mffles]. 

These two Orders were absolutely inde- Ln : William Jaggard, 1608,' fo., with 
pendent of all spiritual and temporal juris- full-page copper -plates of the King, House 
diction whatsoever, saving only that of of Lords, Prince of Wales, Duke, Marquis, 
the Pope ; their property was exempted ; Earl, Viscount and Baron, all in full-dress 
from all taxation, even from ecclesiastical : official robes. 

tithes ; they had their own clergy ; they The plates and text (translated into 
also had their own cemeteries and chapels English) afterwards appeared in Mexia's 
which could not be placed under interdict. ' Treasurie of Ancient and Modern Times, 
The first privilege mentioned is doubtless 1613-19,' 2 vols., fo., also printed and pub- 
that referred to in the query. | lished by my ancestor. 

JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. W. JAGGARD, Capt. 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. dss.ix.n-i.rie, mi. 



QUEEN ELIZABETH AND THE FRENCH 
AMBASSADOR (12 S. ix. 11). The ambassador 
was the Due de Biron, the place Basing 
Park or hard by, the year 1601. See the 
account in Stow's ' Annales ' (1615), p. 796, 
col. 2, and vol. ii. of Nichols's ' The Pro- 
gresses and Public Processions of Queen 
Elizabeth.' EDWARD BENSLY. 

REFERENCE WANTED (12 S. viii. 471). 
" The most dangerous thing in the world is j 
ignorance in motion." The attribution of| 
this saying to Goethe is correct. His words j 
are: " Es ist nichts schrecklicher, als eine ; 
thatige Unwissenheit." The sentence isi 
towards the end of the third division of his | 
' Maximen und Reflexionen,' which form 
part of the section ' Spriiche in Prosa,' vol. 
x., p. 402, of Ludwig Geiger's edition of i 
Goethe's ' Werke ' (1896). 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

"HOWLERS" (12 S. viii. 449, 497). 
Presuming C. C. B. to quote from the , 
' N.E.D.' or, as perhaps better known, ' 
the ' Oxford Dictionary,' such authority j 
defines the word also as "an animal that j 
howls." My suggestion was that dogs ; 
howl sometimes otherwise than with pain. 
CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

CLEMENTINA JOHANNES SOBIESKY DOUG- ' 
LASS (12 S. viii. 411, 497; ix. 17). The: 
following note, taken from The Edin- 1 
burgh Advertiser dated January 20, 1789, ' 
may be of value to those interested in the 
children of the " Young Pretender " : 

The Duchess of Albany, who is said to be soon 
expected to visit this country by invitation from 
the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, is natural 
daughter of the late Pretender, by a Miss Walkin- 1 
shaw. Notwithstanding the strong attachment j 
which the Pretender had for Miss Walkinshaw, ' 
he refused, in opposition to repeated solicitations, j 
to recognise the daughter, till the last year of his 
life, when he sent for her from Prance to Florence, 
where he resided, and by virtue of his royal 
prerogative, admitted very kindly on the Continent, 
created her Duchess of Albany. He also con- 
stituted her his heir ; as such she has received 
a very large fortune in the French funds, and a 
considerable quantity of valuable jewels belong- 
ing to the Crown of 'England, which were taken 
from this country by James the Second on his 
abdication. 

I have always understood that the Pre- 
tender had one daughter only by Miss 
Walkenshaw the lady referred to in the 
foregoing extract. It is, of course, quite | 



clear that she could not have been the- 
" Mysterious Princess " referred to in the 
extract from The Barrow News. 

It would be interesting to know whether 
the Duchess of Albany came to this country 
and stayed with the Duke and Duchess of 
Gloucester. JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

HORSE-RIDING RECORDS (12 S. viii. 
509; ix. 32). Queen Elizabeth died on 
the morning of Thursday, March 24, 
1603, and the news was conveyed to 
King James VI. of Scotland by Sir 
Robert Carey, who galloped into the 
quadrangle of Holyrood Palace on Saturday 
evening, March 26, having accomplished the 
journey from London to Edinburgh in about 
54 hours a wonderful feat of dispatch for 
the commencement of the seventeenth 
century. I do not know how many horses 
he used during the journey of 400 miles. 

A Colonel Ross in September, 1789 
undertook to ride on one horse from London 
to York in 48 hours. He performed the 
journey (202 miles) in 46 hours with ease, 
for he had only 15 miles to travel in the last 
5 hours. JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

BONTE (12 S. viii. 151, 196). This surname 
does not appear in Firmin Didot's ' Nouvelle 
Biographie Generate,' but some medical 
works are entered under the name of Bonte 
in the British Museum Catalogue. The 
works are C. L. Le Cat, ' Nouveau Systeme 
sur la cause de 1'evacuation p6riodique du 
sexe. Lettre suivie d'une reponse a des 
objections faites contre ce systeme (by . . . 
Bonte) (1768, 8vo) ; Q. T. Bonte, 'Disser- 
tation sur la blennorrhagie chez 1'homme' 
(Strassburg, 1799, 4to) ; Eugene Frangois 
Bonte " Quelques reflexions sur les differentes 
methodes de traitement de fievre typhoi'de * 
(Paris, 1839) ; and August Bonte, ' Rela- 
tion topographique et medicale d'une cam- 
pagne sur les Cotes Occidentales au Mexique, 
1864-1865 ' (Montpellier, 1866). There were 
evidently three or four generations of the 
same family in the medical profession. 

The surname of Bonte also frequently 
appeared as contributors to early nineteenth- 
century Parisian journals, but unfortunately 
French periodical publications so far back 
are poorly represented in England's greatest 
library. " ANDREW DE TERNANT. 

36, Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 



s. ix. JULY 16, i92L] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



57 



WILD DARRELL : DATE OF TRIAL (12 8. doubted testimony that at this period of his 
vii. 30, 53, 98). Foss, in his 'Judges of life, besides being given to drinking and 
England,' 1870, emphatically writes at 

from a hostel in Southwark with a band of 



p. 528: " No record has been found of the 
trial though every search has been made in 



desperate characters to Shooter's Hill, where 



the proper repositories. | they stopped travellers and took from them 

In ' Haunted Houses, &c.,' by Charles G. | not only their money, but any valuable corn- 
Harper, 1907, p. 32etseq., the author in a long ! modities.". 

account writes fully upon the subject. We j On p. 228, Lord Campbell quotes Sir 
give a few sentences : Walter Scott, the last few lines being as fol- 

* "No one will ever succeed in satisfactorily lows ' " Darrell was tried at Salisbury for 
settling the historic doubts as to the character the murder. By corrupting the Judge he 
ard career of the "Wicked Will." Mr. escaped the sentence of the law, but broke his 
Harper continues : " The one is content to ! neck b F a fal1 from ms horse jin hunting, in a 
see Darrell painted in the blackest of hues, few months after. 

A 1 A -rx 1_ _ -I _ T 



F. C. WHITE. 



while the other would have us believe him 
a* much injured man." " It is a tale of a 
midwife being suddenly summoned one dark 



14, Esplanade, Lowestoft. 



SHAKESPEARIAN^. (12 S. viii. 446). Does 



of Barston in^ Warwickshire. DIEGO. 

DANTEIANA (12 S. viii. 462, 517). I am 



night, blindfolded and led on horseback to : not the word " but " in * 2 Henry IV.' v. iii. 
a mysterious mansion, where in a stately room 93, mean "except"? In that case the 
was a masked lady who gave birth to a child, j comma would apparently be correct. The 
A gentleman who was also present took the 1 meaning " except " is given in the glossary 
child from the nurse into an adjoining room j of the ' Temple Shakespeare ' edition. " I 
and threw it upon a blazing fire, and crushed j think he is one of the greatest men in this 
it with his boot heel until it was entirely con- i realm, except Goodman Puff of Barson," 
sumed." would seem to be Silence's meaning. In the 

The name of Sir John Popham (1513 ?- glossary " Barson " is said to be a corruption 
1607), Lord Chief Justice of the King's 
Bench, seems to have been connected with 
DarrelPs alleged crime. Foss remarks : 

" Sir John Popham died in possession of j obliged to MR. T. PERCY ARMSTRONG for his 
Littlecote, in Wiltshire." In connexion courteous comment on my paper at the 
with this a dark and improbable story is fi rst reference and regret that we join issue 
related of its having come into the Chief ou ( as i take it) Dante's lack of modesty in 
Justice's hands as the price of his corruptly j his bidding Lucan and Ovid be silent while 
allowing one Darrell, the former proprietor, ' he speaks. I must still hold that in so doing 
to escape on his trial for an atrocious mur- the poet, again to quote Dean Plumtre's 
der. Foss goes on : " It would be curious verdict, " stoops from his higher level in 
to' trace the circumstances to which such a the very act of competition." I hope I am 
tradition owes its origin, &c." numbered amongst " the competent critics 

And again : " If the petition which Sir w h o would agree that Dante is right in his 
Francis Bacon in his argument against estimate," for I did not question that ; but 
Ho His and others for traducing public jus- , I am still unconvinced that " there is 
tice states was presented to Queen Elizabeth no lapse from humility on the part of a man 
against Chief Justice Popham, and which w ho knows his own place in the world and 
after investigation by four Privy Council- j realizes that it is a high one." To know this 
lors was dismissed as slanderous (' State | alx d even to express the knowledge modest ly 
Trials,' ii. 1029) could be found it might pos- ; as did Bacon and Milton and Keats 



sibly turn out this story was the slander, &c." 
Lord Campbell, in his " Lives of the Chief 
Justices of England,' (1849) begins his bio- 
graphy of Popham, vol. i. chap, vi., by 
confidently recording : " Although at one 
time in the habit of taking purses on the 
highway, instead of expiating his offences at 
Tyburn, he lived to pass sentence of death 
upon highwaymen, &c." ; and at p. 210 Lord 
Campbell adds: "It seems to stand on un- 



is far removed from conceit, but to proclaim 
it by bidding brother poets take a back 
seat is, to say the least, an unworthy ex- 
hibition of that weakness. Keats is not 
recorded to have told 'Byron or Shelley to 
stand aside, nor did Tennyson order Brown- 
ing or Swinburne to cease singing. Even 
Napoleon did not command Alexander or 
Caesar to step beneath him, but merely, and 
indirectly, expressed a belief in his own 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



a ix. JULY 10,1021. 



immortality. This was all that Bacon, and 
Milton and Keats did, and they did it 
modestly. " Correctly to predict their own 
immortality " is certainly not vanity, but 
to announce it bombastically by lowering 
others most certainly is. This was my 
point and not a debatable relative su- 
periority which MB. ARMSTRONG has over- 
looked. 

May I add as a pendant to my estimate of 
Dante's inferiority to Shakespeare in certain 
powers what Dr. Paget Toynbee, in Ms 
recent ' Britain's Tribute to Dante ' (ad ann. 
1819), chronicles thus : r? 

Shelley, ill a letter to Leigh Hunt from Livorno 
(Sept. 3), dissents from the view that Michael 
Angelo is the " Dante of painting, and asks where 
he has equalled ... all the exquisite 
tenderness and sensibility and ideal beauty, in 
which Dante excelled all poets except Shake- 
speare ? " 

J. B. MCGOVERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

THE NEWSPAPER PLACARD (11 S. x. 
483; 12 S. i. 13, 77, 129, 230, 317, 435; 
ii. 114). My uncle, Mr. J. Passmore 
Edwards, was, I believe, the first to print 
" contents bills " as they are usually 
called in newspaper offices by a w r eb 
machine, in connexion with The Echo, 
of which he was the proprietor. This must 
have been in the early '80's of the last cen- 
tury, or possibly the late '70's. I remember 
the installation of the little machine 
(American, I think), in an upper room in 
Catherine Street, Strand, which quickly 
printed the bills on a reel of paper, instead 
of the older press, in which the sheets had 
to be fed in by hand. The slow process 
of the earlier mode of printing necessitated 
these contents bills being set up before the 
edition of the paper to which they referred ; 
and, as the most important news frequently 
came in at the last moment, it was often 
found that this, which would be most 
effective in selling the paper, could not be 
put in the bills. The installation of the 
web machine enabled the bills, with the 
latest " lines," to be printed simultaneously 
with the paper. 

Although bills setting forth the contents 
had long been utilized to advertise the 
morning papers, it was the evening papers 
that gave the lead in the big headlines 
designed to catch the public eye. The 
morning papers were slow in giving up 
the older form of bill, which detailed in 
smaller type the headings of many features 



of the paper. This is still in vogue with 
the suburban and some provincial papers. 
Some of the London morning papers long 
seem to have regarded it as hardly re- 
spectable to issue a contents bill at all ; 
The Times was, I think, about the last to 

; come into line in this respect. 

May I take this opportunity to put on 
record another instance of enterprise in 
connexion with The Echo ? It must also 

'' be in the early '80's that I heard John 
Bright speak at a meeting of the Liberation 

I Society at the Metropolitan Tabernacle. 
Before concluding his speech he had put 
into his hand a copy of The Echo containing 
the opening passages of the speech, and he 
publicly commented on this journalistic 
enterprise. FREDK. A. EDWARDS. 

SIR BENJAMIN HAMMETT (12 S. ix. 12) 
Was Alderman of Portsoken Ward, 1785-98, 
knighted August, 1786, Sheriff of London 
1788-9, elected Lord Mayor in 1797, but 
| declined to accept office and paid the fine. 
!He was M.P. for Taunton, 1782-1800; 
died July 22, 1800. Will [P.C.C. 6C3 
.Adderley] proved Aug. 30, 1800. He was 
a member of the Haberdashers' Company, 
I of which he was Master in the year 1785-6. 
| In Parliament he voted with Pitt's adminis- 
tration. His son , John Hammett, succeeded 
| him as M.P. for Taunton, and retained the 
; seat till his death. The somewhat scandal - 
j ous ' City Biography ' which credits him 
I with the qualities of " meanness, ignorance 
; and impudence " records that he was a 
I native of Taunton, son of a barber in that 
town, and afterwards a footman in the ser- 
\ vice of " Vulture " Hopkins, the noted 
; usurer, whose wife's sister, daughter of Sir 
'James Esdaile (Lord Mayor, 1777-8), ad- 
vanced him money which enabled him to 
make successful building speculations. In 
1781 he became a partner with his father- 
in-law in the banking firm of Esdaile, 
Hammett and Esdaile established in that 
year, in which the name Hammett remained 
until 1832 ; the bank (then Sir James Esdaile, 
Esdaile, Grenfell, Thomas Co.) finally 
stopped payment in 1837. 

ALFRED B. BEAVEN. 

INSCRIPTIONS AT ST. NICHOLAS, DEPT- 

,FORD (12 S. ix. 4). For a full account of 

' Captain George " Sheloocke " referred to in 

jthe above list, see Sir John Laughton's 

! ' Life of Captain George " Shelvocke," ' in 

the D.N.B.,' vol. 52, pp. 46-8. R. B. 

Upton. 



12 



2 s. ix. JULY 16, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 






FOXES AND LAMBS (12 S. viii. 511). 
According to ' The Living Animals of the 
World,' in hilly countries the fox becomes 
a powerful and destructive animal, killing 
not only game but lambs. Mention is 
also made of one being shot when carrying 
away a lamb from a sheepfold near the 
cliffs of Sidmouth, in Devon. 

A. H. W. FYNMORE. 

Arundel. 

SUNDIALS (12 S. viii. 511; ix. 39). An 
illustrated article on sundials, by Warrington 
Hogg, appeared in The Strand Magazine, 
June, 1892, pp. 607-12. A paper on ' Ancient 
Sundials of Scotland,' illustrated by draw- 
ings of about 200 examples, was read before 
the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, on 
January 14, 1889, by Mr. Thomas Ross, 
architect, of Edinburgh ; a report of it, with 
illustrations, was printed in The Builder, 
January 26, 1889. See also The Western 
Antiquary, Plymouth, March, 1889, p. 176. 
FREDK. A. EDWARDS. 

EPITAPHS DESIRED. (12 S. viii. 211). 
[ enclose the copy of epitaph on George 
Routleigh's tombstone in Lydford church- 
yard, Devon : 

Here lies, in Horizontal position, 

The outside case of 

George Routleigh, Watchmaker, 

Whose abilities in that line were an honour 

To his profession ; 

Integrity was the main-Spring, 

And Prudence the Regulator 

Of all the actions of his life; 

Humane, generous, and liberal, 

His Hand never stopped 

Till he had relieved distress ; 

Sincerely regulated were all his movements, 

That he never went wrong, 

Except when Set a-going 

By people 
Who did not know 

His Key ; 
Even then, he was easily 

Set right again : 
He had the art of disposing his Time 

So well 

That his Hours glided away 

In one continual round 

Of Pleasure and Delight, 

Till an -unlucky Moment put a period to 

His existence : 

He departed this Life 

November 14, 1802, 

Aged 57, 

Wound up, 

In hopes of being taken in Hand 

By his Maker, 

And of being 

Thoroughly cleaned, repaired, and set a-going 
In the world to come. 



In Aberconway churchyard there is, or 
was, an almost precisely similar -worded 
epitaph, save that the word "motions" 
occurs for "movements." 

It would be interesting to know if it is 
still there. L. H. CHAMBERS. 

Bedford. 

ROYALIST AND ROUNDHEAD RATES OF 
PAY (12 S. viii. 411). The rates of pay of 
the Royalist and Roundhead soldiers are 
given in detail in Grose's ' Military Antiqui- 
ties,' vol. i. The pay of the army just 
before the outbreak of the Civil War was 
as follows : 



FOOT. 



Captain 

Lieutenant 

Ensign 

Serjeant 

Drummer 

Corporal 

Soldier . 



Colonel 

Lieut.-Colonel 

Captain 

Lieutenant . . 

Cornet 

Corporal 

Horseman 



s. d. 

8 per day. 

4 

2 6 

1 2 

1 
10 



8 



HORSE. 



s. d. 



1 





10 

8 

5 

4 

2 
2 



(Fortescue says that a horseman provided 
his own horse, and received a higher rate of pay.) 

The following entry appears on the 
Journals of the House of Commons showing 
the pay of officers of the Parliamentary 
troops in 1647, but Fortescue states that 
at this period the pay of the Foot was 18 
weeks, and the Horse 42 weeks in arrears. 

FOOT. 





s. d. 


Captain 


. 




8 per da> 


Lieutenant 


, 




4 


Ensign 


m 




2 6 


Serjeant 


m 




1 


Drummer 






1 


Corporal 






1 




HORSE. 




s. c 


Colonel (with 


4 horses) 


1 10 


Major (with 3 


horses) 


1 1 


Captain (with 


2 horses) 


14 


Lieutenant (with 2 horses) 


9 


Cornet (with 2 horses) 


8 


Corporals and 


Trumpets 


2 



At a later date (1659) we find that the 
pay of a private soldier was 9d. per day, 
while the pay for the above ranks remained 
much the same. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



on 



The Library. Fourth Series. Vol. II., No. 1. 

June 1, 1921. (Oxford University Press, 5s. 

net.) 

AN important paper is to be found in this issue of 
The Library, Professor Albert C. Clark's 
lecture to the Bibliographical Society on ' The 
Reappearance of the Texts of the Classics.' 
Professor Clark begins by stating the three 
dangers which the Latin classics had to face : the 
attitude of the Church towards Pagan literature ; 
the inroads of the barbarians ; and the growth of 
the Romance languages, which led to the cor- 
ruption of Latin texts. How narrowly much of 
Latin literature escaped these dangers is shown 
by Professor Clark's long list of works (they 
include Apuleius, Catullus, much of Cicero, some 
of Livy, Petronius, much of Tacitus) which have 
come to us from a single manuscript. Due 
honour is paid to Cassiodorus, to Petrarch, to 
Niccolo Niccoli, to Poggio and others who laboured 
to discover and preserve Latin literature. The 
whole article is not only a notable contribution 
to scholarship but interesting and even exciting 
to read. In the same number Mr. Stephen 
Gaselee's paper on ' Samuel Pepys's Spanish 
Books,' Mr. E. R. McC. Dix's account of the 
initial letters and factotums used by John Franck- 
ton, printer in Dublin (1600-18), and Dr. W. W. 
Greg's notes on old books are of great interest 
and value. 

Proceedings of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society, 
Oct., 1917, to May, 1920. No. LXX. (Cam- 
bridge : Deighton Bell ; London : G. Bell and 
Sons, 15s. net.) 

THE paper of widest general interest is that in 
which Dr. F. J. Allen discusses the famous " Old 
Mill " at Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A. Dr. 
Allen decides that the structure would have been 
useless, when new, for the purpose of a windmill, 
as unable to stand the strain. He publishes, also, 
proof that Governor Benedict Arnold, who in his 
will (A.D. 1677) described the building as " my 
stone-built windmill," was not (as had been 
supposed) a Warwickshire but a Somerset man, 
and therefore unlikely to have known the Inigo 
Jones mill at Chesterton, Warwickshire, which 
has been regarded as the model for the New- 
port ruin. He does not go so far as to conclude 
that the building is indeed the remains of a round 
church built by the Norse colonists in the twelfth 
or thirteenth century, but he suggests that ex- 
cavations should be made for further architectural 
evidence. Canon Stopes and Dr. Cranage con- 
tribute an interesting paper on the Augustinian 
Friars and Friary in Cambridge ; and the Master 
of Corpus's article on the accounts of John Bot- 
wright, his fifteenth-century predecessor, is full of 
good things. 

The Journal of the Friends Historical Society. 

Vol. XVIII., Nos. 1 and 2, 1921. (The 

Friends Bookshop, 3s.) 

To the curious in the drama no less than to 
Friends we commend the quaint tale told in 
' The Theatre and Barclay's " Apology," ' of how 



a performance of Dibdin's The Quaker, at Drury 
Lane, started the conversion of a Doctor of 
Medicine and his wife. There is a good paper on 
the Devonshire House reference library and its 
foundation, and an interesting account of life at 
the Friends school at Lisburn, Co. Antrim, a little 
more than a century ago. 

Survey of London. Vol. VII. : Chelsea (Part III.), 
The Old Church. By Walter H. Godfrey. 
(The London County Council. Spring Gar- 
dens, S.W.I.) 

WE are glad to take note of the appearance of 
this new instalment of a great and most useful 
undertaking. The Old Church at Chelsea is 
here fully described both as to structure and 
fittings. The monuments within the church 
and those in the churchyard are fully listed 
and their inscriptions and heraldry set out, together 
with historical and biographical notes. An 
Appendix gives the names and dates of rectors 
and incumbents, and an index of names is sup- 
plied. 

Of all the priests who have had charge of the 
church. Robert Henry Davies has the longest 
record of service there some fifty-three years 
(1855-1 908) and he is memorable, too, for having 
obtained for the parish the freeholds of the well- 
known Lawrence and More Chapels. 

The Plates, numbering 83, illustrate every 
feature of interest within the church, the more 
important by drawings and plans as well as by 
photographs. No one who has any experience 
of this kind of work will fail to realize how much 
labour has been expended upon this exhaustive 
description, or to congratulate the labourers on 
the successful execution of their task. It may 
be worth mention that Robert Chambers's MS. 
account of the church (1816), recently acquired 
by the Chelsea Library, has been here extensively 
used for the first time. 



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61 



LONDON, JULY 23, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 171. 

NOTES .-Glass Painters of York : Sir John Petty, 61 
Dantescan Criticism in the Settecento : Antonio Conti, 
64 Domesday and the Geld Inquests : Villeins on the 
Comital Manors, 65 A Curiosity of Endeavour Smith- 
field, London : Bibliography, 67 Long Married Life 
Charles X. as a Pioneer of English Horse-racing in France 
Marriages, 68 Sussex and Surrey Dialect Words and 
Phrases " Opinionation " : "Innumerous" Bath- 
women Appreciation of Cheddar Cheese in 1681 
Fire at Santiago Cathedral in Spring, 1921, 69. 

QUERIES : The Origin of Feeding Oxen with Oil Cake- 
Gleaning by the Poor Murray Musgrave H. Crouch, 
Artist Hoscoes Kinds of Bread in A.D. 1266, 70 
Pastoral Ear-rings Hartlepool Canal Warrington Gang 
Tantary Bobus " To go to Warwick " Cateaton Street, 
London Old English Names of Girls Duatyeff, 71 
Butt Woman Ann Hathaway George Wateson 
Edward Corbould Flight Barr and Barr De Valera 
James Chalmers Wanted : Burnet : Coffin : Colleton : 
Sir Anthony Barclay Brandenburgh House, Fulham, 72 

REPLIES : Gladstone on Dante" State Room " = 
A Passenger's Cabin Horse-Riding Records, 73 The 
Year 1000, 74 Silver Medal Identification Sir Henry 
Price Transportations after the Forty-five, 75 The 
Suffolk Feast " Honest " Epitaphs Oak Snuff-box,76 
" Poor Uncle Ned " Bomenteek Flag Flown on Ar- 
mistice Day Curry Favour Cockney Pronunciation, 
77 Hearth Tax Sundials De Brus Tomb at Hartle- 
pool Penzance Fair Willow Pattern China Rustic 
Names for Flowers, 78 Benjamin Sowden Domenick 
Angelo's Burial Plare Jocelyn Flood Authors Wanted, 
79 

NOTES ON BOOKS : Arabian Medicine.' 
Notices to Correspondents. 



GLASS-PAINTERS OF YORK. 

(See 12 S. viii. 127, 323, 364, 406, 442, 485 ; 

ix. 21.) 

SIB JOHN PETTY. 

THE most famous of the Petty family of 
glass-painters of York and evidently a son 
of Matthew Petty (died 1478). Free of 
the city 1470. Married (i.) Isabel; (ii.) 
. His second wife was evidently a 
widow, as in his will he mentions " Mr. 
Richard my wiff . son," to whom he be- 
queathed ' a ryall [a gold coin value 10s. first 
issued by Edw. IV. in 1465], and a lityll 
covered cope borderd at fot w fc silver and 
gilt." Daughter Annes by his first wife, 
who, as shown in the life of Robert Preston 
(q.v. ante, 12 S. viii. 486), was probably a 
daughter of William Winter, founder. Petty 
had evidently a son named John, who pre- 
deceased him, for in the Fabric Roll of 1472 



" John Pety de Ebor " is described as sup- 
plying thirty " wyspes " [a sheet of crown 
glass ; vide note, 12 S. viii. 324] of glass, 
whilst in the same roll " Joh. Pety jun." is 
mentioned. As the latter received a full 
man's wage of 6d. per day he was evidently 
of age, and if this supposition is correct, 
Sir John must have been forty years of age 
or more when he took up his freedom in 
1470, or he could not have had a son aged 
21 or more in 1472, and this would make 
him about eighty years of age at his death 
in 1508. Like most of the York glass - 
painters Sir John evidently lived in Stone - 
gate, but at the top end near the Minster 
instead of, as seems to have been more 
generally the case, at the lower end of the 
street. This street lies in two parishes, 
the bottom end being in the parish of St. 
Helen, where twelve York glass-painters 
are recorded as being buried [viz., Robert 
Wakefield in 1414 ; Thomas Benefield in 
1422 ; Thomas Rose, 1433 ; John Chamber 
(the elder), 1437 ; John Chamber (the 
younger), 1451 ; *Richard Chamber, 1451 ; 
*John Witton, 1451 ; Thomas Shirley, 1458 ; 
Matthew Petty, 1478 ; William Inglish, 
1480 ; Thomas Shirwin, 1481 ; Robert 
Preston, 1503]. The top end of the street 
is in the parish of St. Michael -le-Belfrey, 
where three " glasyers " found sepulture 
[viz., John de Preston in 1337 ; Sir John 
Petty in 1508 ; William Thompson in 
1539], whilst in the near-by church of St. 
Wilfrid, pulled down under the Act of 
1 Ed. VI. (1547) for removing superfluous 
churches in York and the parish united 
with that of St. Michael-le-Belfrey in 28 
Eliz. (1586), one only [viz., William Bownas 
in 1431] was laid to rest. 

Sir John Petty evidently took a promi- 
nent part in the affairs of the city and held 
many public offices. He was Chamberlain 
in 1488, Sheriff in 1494-5, and elected 
Alderman Nov. 29, 1504, vice Thomas 
Foulneby, deceased. Besides his glass - 
painting business he evidently kept an inn. 
The medieval inn corresponded to the 
modern smaller hotels, and there members 
of the merchant class put up, whilst persons 
of quality and the nobility were accommo- 
dated in the guest-houses of the monasteries. 
The inns had little in common with the 
beer-house the forerunner of the present- 
day " pub," which was generally kept by an 

* It is not certain whether these two are actually 
buried in the church though they worshipped 
there (vide ' N. & Q.' 12 S. viii. 128, 443). 



NOTES AND QUERIES, m s. ix. JULY 23, 1921. 



ale-wife. On attaining to the dignity of an 
alderman Sir John was ordered " to leve 
his kepyng of hostery and take down his 
signe apon payn of forfettour of ye payn 
provided " [Skaife MS. in York Public 
Library]. Only the previous year a civic 
ordinance of York had enacted that every 
person keeping an hostelry should have a 
sign over his doors before Ascension Day 
[* York Five Hundred Years Ago,' lecture 
delivered by the Rev. Angelo Raine at Rail- 
way Institute, reported in Yorkshire Herald, 
Jan. 20, 1921], but victuallers and brewers 
were prohibited from holding public offices 
of all kinds [Stat. 12 Ed. II., cap. 6, ; 6 Rich. 
II., st. i., cap. 9. Hist. MSS. Comm. ix. 
174, and xi. 3, 19] in order to protect the 
public from fraudulent administration of 
the laws concerning food. These laws 
were, however, everywhere evaded. The 
famous riot which occurred at Oxford on 
St. Scholastica's Day, 1357, started in a 
tavern which was kept by the mayor, for 
which offence he suffered excommunication. 
At Canterbury in 1507, within three years 
of the date on which John Petty at York 
had been ordered to "leve his kepyng of 
hostery," one Crompe, a brewer, having 
been mayor a year, returned to his former 
business on leaving office and went about 
busily canvassing the smaller retailers, 
promising that if they would sell Crompe' s 
beer he would be their " very good master 
whatsoever they had to do in the Court 
Hall," and that he would see to it that 
their pots should not be carried off on 
charges of short measure to the Hall [Mrs. 
Green, * Town Life in the Fifteenth 
Century,' vol. ii., pp. 62-63]. At a later 
date the laws against innkeepers holding 
public offices evidently fell into abeyance. 
John Beane, who kept a tavern, was Sheriff 
of York in 1538, and Lord Mayor in 1545, 
whilst Thomas Waller " yeoman and inn- 
keeper " and lord of the manor of Middle- 
thorpe near York, was one of the Chamber- 
lains of the city in 1565 [Skaife MS. in 
York Public Library]. Although John 
Petty is always styled " Sir " it does not 
appear how he acquired that distinction. 
Besides being the title of those who had 
attained to the honour of knighthood the 
word " Sir " was applied to priests [vide 
note, 12 S. viii. 324] who had a cure of souls, 
and to laymen who had taken degrees as 
Bachelors of Arts, in this case the word 
being a translation of " dominus " ; but 
there is nothing to show that Sir John had 



received his education in a university, 
unless ' Caumerege,' the name of a place to 
which he bequeathed a sum of 4 13s. 4d. 
for Masses for the soul of one named Richard 
Robynson, is a corrupt spelling of " Cam- 
bridge." The late Dr. Purey-Cust, in his 
' Walks Round York Minster ' (p. 176) 
wrote : " I venture to think . . . that 
. . . John Pety . . . received the honour 
of knighthood as well as the Lord Mayor, 
Sir John Gilliott, when the Princess Mar- 
garet, the King's daughter, passed through 
York in the year 1503 to marry James IV. 
King of Scotland." Sir John Gilliott, how- 
ever, was not knighted on this occasion, 
having already received that honour in 
1500-1. [Skaife MS. in York Public Library]. 
Moreover John Petty does not describe 
himself as a knight in his will, which he cer- 
tainly would have done had he borne the title, 
nor was he so described in the Latin inscrip- 
tion on the window erected to his memory in 
the Minster after his death ; though accord- 
ing to the late Dean [ibid.] both Torre 
[MS. in the York Minster Library] and Drake 
[' History of York '] mention two inscriptions. 
One of. these is said to have been on the rose 
window of the south transept, in which are 
shown the York and Lancaster roses con- 
joined, in allusion to the marriage of Henry 
VII. and Elizabeth of York, which was there- 
fore executed subsequently to the year 1486. 
This inscription is said, by the above writers, 
to have read : " This window was glazed 
by Sir John Pety, Knight, sometime Lord 
Mayor of the City of York, who died 8 
November, anno Domini 1508." In this 
Dr. Purey-Cust or the authorities he quotes 
may have been mistaken, as if Sir John did 
the window, which is extremely likely, the 
inscription cannot have formed a part of 
the original glass as it describes his death, 
so must have been added after. Moreover 
the date is incorrect, as Sir John did not die 
on Nov. 8 but on Nov. 12, 1508, moreover 
" his mortal body " did not find " an 
appropriate resting-place beneath his work " 
(presumably the above rose window), for 
Sir John was buried in St. Michael-le-Belfrey 
Church, though it is possible it was to this 
edifice Dean Purey-Cust referred ; as it is 
situated across the street and not fifty 
yards away from the window. 

The most likely explanation of Petty' s 
right to the title of " Sir " is found in the 
fact that he was made Lord Mayor of the 
city in 1508 and that his death occurred 
during his year of office. The position of 



12 s. ix. JULY 23, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



Lord Mayor in medieval times was attended 
with a degree of dignity and worship far 
above what it is at the present day. The 
Chief Magistrate was not allowed to walk 
abroad alone but was preceded by two men 
in livery with his name on their coats, and 
citizens had to uncover as he passed [Rev. 
Angelo Raine, lecture quoted above.] 
An old couplet has it : 

My Lord is a Lord for a year and a day 
But his Lady is Lady for ever and aye, 

and cases are on record where the wife of 
the mayor was styled " Lady " until her 
death. In a comedy entitled ' The North- 
ern Heiress ; or, The Humours of York,' 
written by Mary Davys, a writer of some 
little note in her day, which was produced 
both in London and York in 1716, three of 
the characters, Lady Swish, Lady Cordi- 
vant and Lady Greasy, owe their titles to 
the fact that their respective husbands had 
been Lord Mayors of the city [Davies, 
* Walks through York,' p. 281]. It is possible 
the same rule applied to Lord Mayors who 
died during their term of office, and that 
the title " Sir '' was still applied to them as 
a mark of respect after their decease. Sir 
John Petty evidently had a 'large business 
and was much patronized by the monasteries, 
for in his will he left 13s. 4d. to Furness 
Abbey in Lancashire, " besechyng thame 
of clere absolucion be cause I have wroght 
mych wark there." He must have also 
executed considerable work for the Minster 
and for St. Mary's Abbey at York, to each 
of which -he bequeathed " x schafe (i.e., 
sheets) Renyshe glase '* with an additional 
" vj tabyls (rectangular sheets) of Nor- 
mandy white glase " to the Dean and 
Chapter. He was admitted a member of 
the exclusive Guild of Corpus Christi, to 
which all candidates had to be introduced 
by a priest, in 1472, as shown by the 
following entry in the register of the guild, 
" Joh. Pety et uxor ejus. Per dom. Ric. 
Coke " [Reg. Guild of Corpus Christi, 
Surtees Soc., vol. 57, p. 96]. He made a 
fine will describing himself as " John Petty 
than beyng Mai or of the citye of York," 
and desiring "to be buryd in Sanct Michell 
church called Belfray, at ye ende of the 
he alter in the where (quire) afore Sanct 
Michell " and that there should be " spendyd 
aboutt my corse xxli wax in xxti candels and 
x scolers to bere them," and also that a tren- 
tall of masses should be said for the repose of 
his soul. He mentions a number of 
rich garments, including " a violet gowne 



furd wt blak fur," " a tawny gowne 
furred w* fox, and a murrey gown 
furred w* grey," a " violett gowne 
furryd w* shankes," a ' chamlett jackett," 
a " jaket of welwit," a " gowne w* foxfur," 
and a " scarlett gowne w* ye fur and lyn- 
ynge longynge therto," and a " sarsynett 
tippitt," as well as " buskyns and a pare 
(of) duble sooll shoos." In view of such a 
lengthy list of clothes it is perhaps not 
surprising that Sir John owed his tailor 
money, and in the inventory of John Carter, 
Citizen and Tailor of York, taken <.n Sept. 
14, 1485, we find under the heading " Small 
debts which are owing to deceased, " one of 
4s. due " From John Pety, glasyer" [Sur- 
tees Soc., vol. 45, p. 303]. He also possessed 
quite an armoury, including " a salet w* 
harnes for ye slevys, a f aid of male, a gorget 
and a hawberd," "a breisi, plait, sieves of 
male, w* a battilaxe and a salett." In his 
house he had many objects of art and value, 
including "a Primer lomned w fc gold," " a 
standyng cup w* a cover gilt, wt a egill of 
it," " and a lityll covered cope borderd at fot 
w* sylver and gilt." He evidently kept a 
respectable establishment, as amongst his 
household servants he mentions " my 
steward " and " Jenett my madyng," both 
of whom received gifts ; the former receiv- 
ing, in addition, " his wages as long as he 
servys whuche is xls." He also remembered 
his " two servandes famulare " and " Rauffe 
Batty my scribe," who presumably kept 
the books and wrote his business letters. 
To his brother Robert he left his business 
and trade appliances as well as a quantity 
of armour and wearing apparel. To his 
" doghter Annes a pare corall beides y* was 
hir moders. To Mr. Richard, my wiff son, 
a ryall " and a silver cup. " To my commoder 
Judson, a gold ryng and a ryall." The 
word commoder, according to the * N.E.D.% 
which gives four examples, one earlier and 
three later than the above and all north 
country, was the name applied to the re- 
lationship between one godparent and an- 
other or the actual parents, e.g., 1523, Test. 
Ebor., Surtees Soc., v. 171 : "To my Com- 
moder Smyth my musterdevilys gowne.'* 
Amongst his friends he mentions " The 
vicar of Onsyngore " (Hunsingore, near 
Wetherby, Yorks), " Mr. Barra, prebendary 
of Osbaldwik " (near York), and " Sir John 
Faceby, Kynsman, called Sir William Crak," 
and Sir William Spenser. " To my breder 
(aldermen) yt berys me to ye churche evere 
ichon of thame xijd. To the mase-berer 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 1 12 s.ix. JULY 23,1921. 



and swerd-berer (the officials who bear the 
sword and mace before the Lord Mayor in 
civic processions) other of thame xld. ; 
and the sex ofecers, ichon of thame xxd" 
Neither did Sir John in his will forget the 
needy nor neglect to forward works of 
public utility, for he willed that his executors 
should " gif to pure folkes of my viij day 
xlvjs. viijd." whilst he bequeathed a sum ot 
five shillings " to the skowryng of y e dike 
at Sanct Anne chapell (on Foss Bridge) so 
yt ony other will make ye brigges." He 
appointed as his executors " Mr. Barra 
[the above-mentioned Prebendary of Osbald- 
wick], my wiff, and Annes my doghter," 
and devised that the first of these should 
" have for his costes and expenses for his 
commyng, my gret brase pott w* the feet." 
He died on " Sunnday in the morning," 
Nov. 12, 1508, and on the following day he 
" was nobly entered at the parish church 
of St. Michael called the Belframe, with the 
sword and mase borne by esquyers afore the 
body and corse and sex aldermen berying 
the sayd corse to the sayd church "' [Skaife 
MS. in York Public Library]. Finally a 
window was erected to his memory in the 
south transept of the Minster, since re- 
moved to make room for the figure of Solo- 
mon by Peckitt, in which the late Lord 
Mayor was depicted in his robes of office 
and kneeling at a desk. On a scroll beneath 
was inscribed : " Orate pro anima Johannis 
Pety Glasarii et Majoris (civitatis) Ebor qui 
obiit 12 Nov. 1508 [Drake Eboracum]." 
His will [Reg. Test. D. & C. Ebor. ii. 54 b., 
printed in Test. Ebor., Surtees Soc., vol. iv., 
p. 333] was proved on Dec. 13, 1508. 

JOHN A. KNOWT/ES. 



DANTESCAN CRITICISM IN THE 
SETTECENTO : ANTONIO CONTI. 

THE history of Dantescan criticism in Italy 
still remains to be written, and with the 
possible exception of the chapter in the 
' Poesia di Dante ' of Croce ' Intorno alia I 
storia della critica dantesca ' and isolated 
works like that of Zacchetti, ' La fama di 
Dante in Italia nel Secolo XVIII.,' where 
no effort is made to enter more deeply into 
the genuine critical penetration, it is im- 
possible to quote even partial critical 
evaluations. The following essay is in- 
tended to fill up some of the lacunae left by 
Zacchetti and develop still further the 
suggestions made by Croce in the chapter 
already mentioned, and by G. Brognoligo 



in his valuable * Opera letteraria di Antonio 
Conti' (Ateneo Veneto, 1893-4). Dantescan 
criticism in the early Settecento, if we 
; consider only the narrow limits within 
which criticism was confined and the 
almost aggressively ethical tone which 
; pervaded every theoretical production, 
' actually reached some basic unity of 
| appreciation. Purification of literature from 
! the licence of the seventeenth century 
! could only be achieved, according to the 
critics, through a rigid literary morality, 
i and, while the national ideal should be 
! ennobled by a true criticism of the great 
i Italian poets, that ideal must conform to 
| the ethical standard. But there are ink- 
; lings of a more intuitive, more aesthetic 
criticism of Dante ; in the Vichian con- 
ception of Dante we can see perhaps the 
most notable production of that time in 
aesthetic criticism, while through Gravina, 
Becelli and Antonio Conti the deeper 
aesthetic penetration gleams through the 
traditional appreciation. But even with 
this deeper insight, even with the theory 
of Vico that the genius of Dante lay in the 
genius of poetry itself and that the emer- 
gence of Italy from a long period of poli- 
tical and emotional unrest into a calmer 
world of thought and expression found a 
voice in the Dantescan poetry and became 
fused in his soul to the very stuff of poetry, 
the beauty and power of the ' Divina Corn- 
media,' in, the living conception of the 
eighteenth century, are not explained, are 
not brought into the living reality de- 
manded of the critical interpretation. 
This insufficiency characterizes the criti- 
cism of Dante expressed by Antonio Conti 
in several passages of the ' Prose e Poesi ' 
(Venezia, 1756, vol. ii.) and especially in the 
* Discorso sopra la Italiana Poesia,' but a new 
element comes into Dantescan criticism, 
the comparison of the * Divina Commedia ' 
with the ' Paradise Lost ' of Milton. Conti 
thus shows the beginning of that school of 
criticism which, taking its inspiration from 
English writers and especially Addison, 
Gray, Swift, Pope, and, latterly, Shake- 
speare, Ossian, Young, led ultimately to 
Italian Romantic criticism. In the * Dis- 
corso sopra la Italiana Poesia' this com- 
parison inspires undoubtedly the first effort 
to attain a real historical perspective not 
only in the appreciation of Dante but in 
the conception of Italian poetry. 

Dante, appreciating the strength and beauty 
of a still crude language, set out, not to perfect 
the romance or love-poem, not to flatter the 



12 s. rx. JULY 23, mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



princes of his time, but to explain in the most the comparison, with Milton, there is little 

^ J 1 * _ ! 1 J_l __-!! "I 1 i J I * 



poetical form possible the sublime and hidden 
elements in revealed theology and scholastic 



advance on the Renaissance criticism of 
Mazzoni, and an almost entire lack of 



philosophy, using as a basis the monarchic system * ***. ail ^ . " 1V ^ U . ww ??, " 
and grading penalties and rewards due to vice appreciation of the poetical spirit becomes 
and virtue according to the principles of that ! evident, that appreciation which vibrates 
system. I believe that he derived the spirit i n Borghini, in Orsi even, and in Gravina. 
and form of his poetry from the Books of Scripture, With Conti we touch on a uew attitude 

I Awards Dante, a neglect of the Italian 



we examine carefully 



hr 



Comedy ' we do not 



find any comparison in the Greeks or Latins, 
either in time, place or in the action imitated. 
Its scene is no less than all creation and the entire 
system of the world: he travels by stages from the ^^ aud the R - omantics does the . Divina 



poem for foreign works, and the English 
influence had the" one evil consequence of 
diverting the attention of Italian critics 



centre of the earth to the planets and from 
these to the stars and beyond. To give unity 



Commedia ' receive the worship accorded to 



to the scene a fact hitherto unnoticed by com- it by Gravina, and between the latter and 

the Romantics no real Dante enthusiast, 



mentators he makes Lucifer of a definite stature, 
like Milton who provides him with a shield equal 
to the disc of the moon, increasing so much 
the bulk of his body that, falling head downwards, 
he displaces so much earth from the uninhabited 



with the possible exception of Bianchini, 
Becelli and Gozzi, appears. 

The cult of Dante in the early Settecento 

zone that he throws up the mountain of Purga- coincided with the desire to construct a 
tory which links up with the planets. The torrid j definite and modern poetical theory 
zone, believed to be uninhabited in Dante's i .-, -,- % % 

time increases the effect of the poetic image ; whl j e - the diversion of criticism of 

poetry to dramatic criticism tended to 



concentrate attention on the drama of 
French pseudo- classicism, on the work of 



and the gradation of the scales of the mountain 
of Purgatory is not less wonderful than that of 
the days and bolge of the ' Inferno ' where every- _ _ __ __ 

tt*3M S^ 6 ^?^!^^ 

s^e'T ^*L'S 

the poetical content and adheres to the ! weakening are already evident in Conti. 
geometrical, allegorical, didactic explana- | . Italian cnticism enters on a new phase, 
tion of the poem, disdaining Mazzoni's j Ration and adaptation of foreign models 
theory of an ecslatic dream. Poetry, ! -^ eighteenth-century literary cosmo- 
moral philosophy, revealed theology are ; POUtaniam. HUGH QUIGLEY. 

personified in Virgil, Cato and Beatrice: 
the ' Divina Commedia " is " the most sub- i 

lime example of poetry and allegorical; TFTTl TN 

creation known to the human mind." The d OM.bbDAY AND iJi, Gi^LD 1JN- 
comparison with Milton is developed ' QUESTS : VILLEINS ON THE COMITAL 
further:- MANORS. 

Addison praises the ' Paradise Lost ' of Milton ! 

as an incomparable poem which does not yield ; IN the Geld Inquests preserved for the five 
in beauty to the ' ^Eneid,' in greatness to the - A - 1 --- - -- J ^-- ------ i--u--- 



' Iliad,' in novelty to the ' Metamorphoses,' 
the finest poems of antiquity. That may be 
true but Milton has based his poem on histories 
and traditions where Dante has derived every- 
thing from his own idea, creating time, place and 
action. In reading Milton, all wonder ends 
with reading, since all is limited to the knowledge 
of Scriptural fact ; in Dante, on the contrary, 
the more we strive to penetrate to the meaning 
of the ' Comedy ' the more numerous the mean 
ings appear. 



western shires, we find the villein holdings 
on comital manors in the King's hand con- 
stantly returned as not paying geld. But 
though this is the result, the ways in which 
it is stated vary considerably. 

The writers on Domesday seem generally 
to have accepted the conclusion that the 
villeins were merely in arrear with their 
payments. But it is impossible to believe 
| that these men, on whom the royal authority 
In a sense Conti rounds off and completes ! must have been exerted most directly, could 
the work of Gravina, who subjected the I have been universally withholding payment. 
' Divina Commedia ' to a critical examination ! Vinogradoff ('English Society,' p. 194) 
in the * Ragione Poetica ' by this insistence ! speaks of them as " peasants who were remiss 
on the architecture and theological -allego- in paying." Eyton constantly refers to 
rical inspiration of the poem, but, apart from i them as "insolvent.' 1 Ballard seems to 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. JULY 23, 1021. 



take the same view ('The Domesday In- 
quest,' p. 134). 

But it seems to me plain that as a matter 
of fact they claimed exemption from the 
geld. Whether the claim was based on the 
old comital status of the manors, or on the 
modern fact that they had been annexed 
to the Terra Regis, I do not find any clear 
indication. But the circumstance that 
manors of Godwin's family, when granted to 
William's subjects, seem to have paid geld 
like other lands rather supports the latter 
hypothesis. 

I think we may gather that the villeins' 
claim to exemption was in dispute. The 
variations in the scribes' treatment of such 
cases in the Geld Inquests can hardly be 
explained except on the theory that they 
were uncertain about the ultimate decision. 

Some of their statements are quite colour- 
less. " From the . King's villeins of 

the King has no geld." " The King ? s vil- 
leins retained the geld." In other cases the 
geld is " behind " (retro.). Again, in others 
the amount is included in the cash total that 
is stated to be still due from the Hundred. 

A curious result of the uncertainty is pre- 
served for us by the three different versions 
we have of the Geld Inquest for Wiltshire. 
We might naturally suppose that when the 
scribe begins his account with the state- 
ment that in the Hundred he is dealing 
with there are so many hides, we have a 
fixed and recognized assessment, probably 
of some duration ; though the frequent 
absence of round figures shows that varia- 
tions have at some time occurred. 

But the case of Wiltshire indicates that in 
fact this preliminary statement is not a 
record of a standard, but merely a total of 
the figures of detail which follow : a total 
which in modern accounts would be found 
at the foot. 

One of the three versions of the Inquest 
gives quite different totals for the Hundreds 
from those of the other two copies ; and on 
examination it is found that the difference 
is caused by the entire omission from the 
statement of the manors formerly held by | 
the f amily of Godwin. They are thus placed 
in the same position as the old royal endow- 
ments inherited by William from the Con- 
fessor, which, being mostly never hidated, 
have necessarily no effect on the figures. 
In this copy of the Inquest, neither the 
King's demesne is entered as exempt nor 
the villein lands as in arrear the whole is 
simply ignored. 



In another version of the Inquest for 
Wiltshire the villeins on the comital manors 
are stated in marginal additions to have 
rendered no geld. 

In the third version, these marginal state- 
ments have been embodied in the text. 

In these versions, the second and i/liird, 
the stated totals of hidage include the 
comital manors. 

It has been inferred (Jones, ' Domesday 
for Wiltshire,' pp. 154, 162) that these 
variations show a difference of date, though 
it is clear that the three versions relate to 
the same levy of geld. But the evidence of 
date (chiefly lying in the notice that some 
arrears have lately been paid up) is conflict- 
ing. And, as regards the point I am at 
present discussing, I think the variations are 
sufficiently explained by the differences of 
opinion as to whether the villeins' claim 
would be ultimately allowed. 

In Somerset and Dorset the method of the 
scribe who compiled the third version of the 
Inquest for Wiltshire was followed. The 
demesne lands are included in the King's 
exemption ; the villein lands are accounted 
for among the defaults, with variations of 
phrasing which plainly show the uncer- 
tainty of the scribes whe ; ther their geld was 
recoverable. 

In Devon, from various causes, there is 
great difficulty in explaining the treatment 
of the matter. But an examination of the 
entries has convinced me that the scribes 
simply treated the whole hidage of the 
comital manors as exempt. The manors 
were not omitted altogether, as was neces- 
sarily the case with the unhidated lands. of 
King Edward ; their entire hidage was in- 
cluded in the King's exemption for demesne. 
Thus no statement as to the villein holdings 
appears among the defaults. 

This has caused Mr. Reichel, in the various 
papers he has contributed to the Transactions 
of the Devon Association, much perplexity, 
and he resorts to ingenious conjectures to 
account for the figures of royal exemption. 
But I believe that in many cases at least the 
above simple explanation will suffice. 

In Cornwall yet another course was 
adopted. From royal lands in custody of 
Baldwin, Sheriff of Devon, Walter de 
Clavilla and Gotselm, " the King has not 
the geld." The totals due are noted at the 
end of the Geld Inquest (Exon Domesday, 
in vol. iv., Additamenta, p. 67). On com- 
parison of figures it becomes plain that 
these statements of hidage and of geld 



12 S. IX. JULY 23, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



correspond with the sum of the villein lands j Was he some queer kind of occultist, 
on the manors [formerly held by Harold and j whose aim was to bring out the significance 
by Brihtric. Thus, here again, the villein I of his peculiar symbolism by spreading it 
holders have not paid, though the form of | abroad and making it popular ? This 



the entries at first disguises the fact. 

J. A. RUTTER. 

Elizabethan House, Fore Street, 
Totnes, Devon. 



A CURIOSITY OF ENDEAVOUR. 



does not seem to be the case, because the 
book bears no indication of ever ha\ ing been 
reproduced. 

Was he perhaps inventing a new system 
of teaching elementary history ? Did he 
think that, once the idea of symbols had 
been inculcated, they would be more 
easily memorized than the fact without 



PECULIARITIES of temperament have led men its symbolical illustration ? If so, he was 
ir to many strange fields of endeavour, but a I wrong> for the fact would have to lie within 
more curious method of instruction or the conte nt of the consciousness before 



a little work entitled ' Symbolical Illus- 
tration,' by F. Brodribb. 

Possibly the only extant copy is now in 



the symbol could be appreciated. 

Perhaps neither of these explanations is 
correct. It may be that friend Brodribb 
was a revivalist. He may have wished to 



. . " .'*' W C*;O Cb A v? V J. V CtlAOf J-.iV/ JHJ.CVV J.J.CV V C7 W JjDJ.J.C'VI. V\J 

my possession, since it is a manuscript j make Citing more expressive, and his 
work, bound in quarter calf, marbled in the invention of symbolism may have been, 



conventional fashion of a century ago. The 
amount of labour represented is very great, 
and it is strange that it should have ap- 
peared to anyone that any useful purpose 
could be served by the undertaking. 

The symbolical illustrations contained in 



to his mind, a step in this direction. The 
book may be an example of a system 
of pictorial writing which he desired to 
make general. But all speculation regarding 
this curiosity of endeavour is now fruit- 
less. 



the book represent various outstanding Many years since Brodribb must have 
occurrences in the history of England, j been gat hered to his fathers, and he has 
but they are certainly as ; symbolical as their j omifcted to include in this small volume, 
author claims. The only difficulty is that I probably the resillt of his life > s work a ke ^ 
anyone who does not possess the key to the to his met hod. It is therefore only as an 
symbolism must find these extraordinary product of an unconven- 

-*- ne tional and apparently purposeless intelli- 



method of 

drawings difficult to interpret. 

jj , . 1 J 1 11- i VAX/i.J.WI.4. ^WAiVl CVK'I^/UU. V^J_LVJL V 1J J^LL LJ V^O^l^QO JLiJ. U^AJJ. ~ 

studies are not .uniform and the sy m bohsm | gence that the nitlo vo i ume can interest 



G. E. FUSSELL. 
70, Josephine Avenue, Brixton Hill, S.W.2. 



is therefore limited. When the idea under- : a mo dern mind, 
lying a few of the pictures has been grasped, 
the author appears to adopt a new system 
quite arbitrarily. 

Mainly the figure of a man is represented 
by a rod or line, and his rank is indicated SMITHFIELD, LONDON : BIBLIOGRAPHY. 
by the hat or head-dress peculiar to his | This area of about three acres j ust outside 
class. For instance, a bishop is indicated j the north-west extremity of the City walls 
by a line capped by a mitre, or a king by j has a considerable bibliography dealing 
a crown. The death of a king is almost with the Priory of St. Bartholomew and 



invariably shown by a broken line with an 
inverted crown on the ground beside it. 
It is curious that almost the only difference 
from this rule is the death of the Conqueror, 
which is represented by a riderless horse 
in addition to these ordinary symbols. 

The spectacle of Canute rebuking his 
nattering courtiers is shown by means of an 
empty chair set before the waves and a 
few 1 lines with helmets. It is impossible 
to conceive why the chair should be un- 
occupied, but it is perhaps more impossible 
to discover the complete aim of the author 
of this ' Svmbolical Illustration.' 



ils derivatives, the Church, the Hospital, 
Bartholomew Fair, the Cattle Market, 
Meat and Provision Markets, &c. Their 
interest is so great that they have been the 
subjects of some excellent volumes, but no 
writer in recent years has attempted a 
history of Smithfield, and so far as I am 
aware there is only one little book on the 
subject, sufficiently scarce to be wanting 
from several public libraries claiming com- 
pleteness in such literature. Published 
about 1848 as the first instalment of * Wil- 
loughby's London Library of Amusement 
and Instruction ' (Willoughby and Co., 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. ju L v 23 , 1921. 



26, Smithfield), ' The History of Smithfield,' 
by Thomas Gaspey, appeared in green 
paper covers at 6dL, or bound in blue cloth, 
title gilt, at Is. Its pagination is, frontis- 
piece, title (verso blank), and text, pp. 
1-99 (advt. on p. 100). 12mo. The paper- 
cover issue is rather fuller ; the text extends 
to pp. 1 04 ; a list of contents and engravings 
is provided on pp. iii. and iv. A small 
folding picture plan, ' A map of Smithfield 
and its Neighbourhood in the Time of Eliza- 
beth about the Year 1563,' is given in 
both issues and the text is identical, with 
the exception of the omissions noted. To 
illustrate the comprehensiveness of this little 
work I transcribe the contents : 

Chap. I. Smithfield in the twelfth, thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries Its origin Used as 
a place of execution Origin of Bartholomew 
Fair Meeting of the rebels in Smithfield 
Death of Wat Tyler. 

Chap. II. History of St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital Sketch of the life of Bahere Execu- 
tion of Bradley for heresy. 

Chap. III. Burning of " the Witch of Eye " 
Trial of John Lambert His execution. 

Chap. IV. Martyrdom of Ann Askew, John 
Adams, John Lacels, and Nicholas Beleman in 
Smithfield. 

Chap. V. Smithfield in the sixteenth century 
Its increasing importance. 

Chap. VI. Smithfield in the seventeenth 
century Disorders in Bartholomew Fair Dura- 
tion of the fair limited to three days. 

Chap. VII. Christ's Hospital Its origin 
Bishop Ridley His efforts for its establishment. 

Chap. VIII. -Endowment of Christ's Hospital 
Death of its royal founder Rebuilt in 1675 
Its description. 

Chap. IX. Appearance of Smithfield during 
Bartholomew Fair Endeavours to remove it 
Some account of the Court of Pie Poudre. 

Chap. X. Form of Proclamation for opening 
the fair Present appearance of Smithfield 
Its supply Concluding remarks. 

There are omissions from the list of topics 
and the author % has only endeavoured 
to write a popular resume, but the book 
has a distinct interest and it would be an 
advantage for some one to attempt a volume 
on the same comprehensive plan. 

ALECK ABRAHAMS. 



LONG MARRIED LIFE. Edward Anderson, 
of Glanton, Northumberland, born 1611, 
died November, 1719, aged 108 years. Jane, 
his wife, died January, 1719, aged 100 years, 
having been married to her husband 83 
years. She died the same day on which 
they were married, viz., the Epiphanj^. Is 
nob this something of a record ? 

JAMES SETON-AXDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 



CHARLES X. AS A PIONEER OF ENGLISH 
HORSE-RACING IN FRANCE. It is not 
generally known that King Charles X., 
when Comte d'Artois, was the earliest 
regular purchaser of English race -horses 
in France, and his subsequent most for- 
midable rival was the father of the future 
Louis Philippe, ' Hoi des Frangais.' 
Frederic Masson, in his chapter ' Les Courses 
en France,' in the volume ' Jadis ' (Paiis, 
Ollendorff, 1905), says : 

Les premieres ecuries qu'oii voit paraitre sont 
celles d'abord du comte d'Artois et du due de 
Chartres. . . . Les couleurs du comte 
d'Artois sont vert pomme galonne de rose, du 
due de Chartres noir galonn6 de rose. . . 

A Fontainbleau, aux courses du 1 3 novembre 
(1776), le comte d'Artois a paye 1,700 louis 
le cheval qui doit porter ses couleurs King Pippin, 
par Turf et Cygnet. Le due de Chartres n'a 
paye un moindre prix son champion Gloiu Worm, 
un produit de 1'immortel Eclipse. Les paris sont 
ouyerts et le notaire Clos Dufresnoy a deja 3,800 
louis de consignes, compris le petit ecu que 
Louis XVI. risque sur King Pippin. 

Le grand jour arrive. Dans le pavilion de la 
Reine, une grande table est servie, couverte 
d'une ample collation, au pillage d'une troupe 
de jeunes gens indignement vetus et faisant un 
bruit a ne pas s'entendre. Le comte d'Artois 
court du haut en bas, se desolant quand il perd, 
se livrant a des joies pitoyables quand il gagne, 
s'elancant dans la foule du peuple pour aller 
encourager '* ses postilions ou jaquets " et il 
presente a la Reine celui qui a gagne une course. 
Mais c'est le jockey de Gloio Worm qu'il presente, 
car King Pippin est outrageusement battu. 

The Due de Chartres, who afterwards 
became the revolutionary Due d'Orleans 
(Philippe Egalite), was subsequently the 
bitterest enemy of both the Comte d'Artois 
and the unfortunate Louis XVI., and after 
the Revolution of 1830, Charles X. had to 
leave France to make way for his son, 
the Orleanist King Louis Philippe. 

ANDREW DE TERNANT. 

36, Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

MARRIAGES (sfee 12 S. v. 262 ; viii. 188, 367, 
468). In continuation of my Notes at the 
above references, the following may be 
found useful : 

At Quebec, 1687, Antoine de la Mothe 
(born 1661), Sieur de Cadillac, married 
Maria A., dau. of Denis Guy on. 

At Montreal, 1745, Joseph Couloii, son of 
Nicolas Coulon, Sieur de Villiers, married 
Anne, dau. of Jean P. Soumande. 

At New York, 1651, Augustine Herman, 
married Jane Varlett. 

At New York, 1686, John Archer, married 
Sarah Odell. JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 



i 2 s. ix. JULY 23, 19*1.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



SUSSEX AND SURREY DIALECT WORDS 
AND PHRASES (see 12 S. viii. 481). A good 
many of these words and phrases are in 
common use in Nottinghamshire and neigh- 
bouring counties, and some, I venture to 
say, all over England. The following I have 
heard familiarly in the county named : 

Allowance, or more commonly 'lowance. Usually 
it means beer given in return for some special 
service, but it may include victuals. 

Bergamy pears : bergamot pears. 

Bright as bright. This form of speech is 
common with many adjectives. 

Fir.st off : first. 

Forelong : before long. 

Gahmy : (pronounced gawmy) sticky. 

Hap (= happen): perhaps; as "Happen I 
shall ? " 

Plat : a plot of grass ; usually as grass-plat. 

Postes (disyllable), often as poses. 

Shackle about. This seems allied to our 
shacking about, idling. Another form of the 
word is shucky, idle. A nickname of a labourer 
on my father's farm was " Shucky Jack." A 
man always at a loose end is called a " shackbag." 

Spindly : said of anything that seems to have 
run up beyond its strength ; tall but weakly. 

Shatter : said of corn that sheds its grain. 

Strangely : very much ; as " strangely put out." 
Several ot these are heard in Lincolnshire. 
In that county alone have I heard flash as a 
name for a pool of water. " The Flash " is 
the address of an old friend of mine. 

" How's yourself " ; "of no account " ; 
" Scotch fiddle " ; " slug " ; " vally " ; 
" whop " ; and a few other of the list at 
the above reference one hears almost every- 
where. It is strange that the flower names, 
" lady's smock " and " milkmaids," are 
not to be found in dialect dictionaries. 
They are both in the ' O.E.D.' C. C. B. 

" OPINIONATION " : " INNUMEROUS."- 
' Main Street,' by Sinclair Lewis ("first 
printing, October, 1920 " ; " eighteenth 
printing, March, 1921 "), has been hailed 
in some reviews as an epoch-making novel: 
It is undoubtedly clever, though written 
very often in a phraseology which few 
people on this side of the Atlantic can be 
quite certain that they understand. The 
use of dialect and slang, however, is one 
thing, and the coining of new English words 
quite another. The two words at the head 
of this note will serve for examples. The 
author, at p. 183, says that the heroine 
" sough b to dismiss all the or. inionation of an 
insurgent era " ; and at p. 196 he refers to her 
intention not to have children till she could 
afford them as " this sacrifice to her opiniona- 
tion." What does " opinionation " mean ? 
Presumably the same as the hideous word 



" opinionatediiess " ; but why should we 
have two hideous words, when perhaps even 
one is unnecessary ? Would not dogmatism 
do ? 

At p. 210 the author writes of " Swedish 
families with innumerous children." Why 
this unnecessary new Latinism ? In- 
numerable is a much more musical word. 
JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 

BATHWOMEN. It is well known that in 
the public baths in Sweden there are women 
attendants who wash the visitors from head 
to foot, be they male or female. Travellers 
in Sweden who read ' N. & Q.' may be ii- 
terested to be reminded that the same cus- 
tom existed in Homeric times. 

T6v S'errfl ovv Sfjupal \ova~av KOI \picrav eXattp 
(Od. viii, 454). So true is it that there is 
nothing new under the sun. 

T. PERCY ARMSTRONG. 

2, Whitehall Court, S.W. 

APPRECIATION OF CHEDDAR CHEESE IN 
1681. In the Historical MSS. Commission's 
Report on the MSS. of the Duke of Portland 
extracts are given from a MS. describing a 
journey from Oxford to Cambiidge by 
Thos. *Baskerville in May, 1681, to which 
are attached some rhymes, called proverbs, 
of which the following are the first twelve 
lines : 

A Dunstable lark and straw hats. 
An Essex calf, St. Albans straw tankards and 

pots, 

A Cheddar cheese, 
A Warfleet oyster, 
Herefordshire cyder, 
Derby ale, 
An Ock eel, 
A March hare, 
A Whitney blanket, 
A Flanders mare. 
A Lancashire lass. 
And Hampshire honey is current goods for your 

money. 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 

FIRE AT SANTIAGO CATHEDRAL IN SPRING, 

1921. As far as I am aware no English 

newspaper, religious or profane, considered 

that it had readers of sufficient culture and 

i intelligence to care for details of a catas- 

I trophe which The Times glanced at through 

Le Matin and Le Petit Parisien, and assured 

us that the event had prostrated with grief 

the octogenarian archbishop " Cardinal de 

iHerrera de la Iglesia" " de la Iglesia " 

I should have been translated, of the Church. 

The burning of one of the departments of 

Harrods Stores would have gained greater 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s.ix. ^1*23,1921. 



attention and been treated as a matter to be 
more completely deplored. 

Years hence, archaeologists may ask ' N. & Q.' 
to tell them exactly what did happen : it 
may be easier to make a record now than 
it will be then. I am quite sure that every- 
body who has been at Compostela, and who 
happens to have heard of the firing of its 
" magnifical " shrine, will be glad to have 
details. I think The Times said the Pan- 
theon had been destroyed. 

ST. SWITHIN. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



THE ORIGIN OF FEEDING OXEN WITH 
OIL CAKE. In 'Georgical Essays,' by A. 
Hunter, vol. v., 1804, there is a note by Mr. 
I. Bannister on " The Origin of Feeding 
Oxen with Oil Cake," the first three sentences 
are as follows : 



use of oil cake for fattening oxen owes its 
rise to accident, from whence many other valuable 
discoveries date their origin. About 70 years 
ago [? Z734] some cakes, which is the substance 
remaining after the oil is pressed out, had been j 
flung on a meadow by the proprietor of a lin-j 
seed oil mill for manure, the only purpose this 
refuse of the mill was at that time supposed j 
capable of answering. In this meadow, some j 
horned cattle were then feeding, and the grass 
being short, they were tempted to taste of the 
cake, which after a few days proved so agree- 
able to their palates that it was devoured by i 
them with great avidity. 

Are there any references which will j 
substantiate this statement, or will indi- 
cate when the refuse from crushing oil seeds j 
was first considered to be suitable for feeding 
cattle, either in Great Britain or on the 
continent ? R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 



GLEANING BY THE POOK. In ' The New 
Farmers' Calendar,' 4th ed, 1802 (the 
preface dated April 28, 1800), the writer 
says : 

Gleaning by the Poor was formerly held to 
be a right depending upon ancient custom, but 
within these few years such right has been 
abrogated, as will appear by reference to the 
trials in the court of King's Bench ; and it was 
indubitably an act of patriotism in the farmer 
who tried the cause, since not only the frauds 
of the practice were continual and enormous, 



but the principle itself was vicious- The glean- 
ing field was a school for juvenile thieves, as I 
have observed in too many instances." 

What was the case and decision referred 
to above ? R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 

MUBBAY. Alexander Murray was ad- 
mitted to Westminster School in Feb. 7, 
1778 ; Charles Murray, born in June 7, 1804, 
was admitted in Jan., 1819, and John 
Murray in Oct., 1778. I should be glad to 
obtain any information about these Murrays. 

G. F. R. B. 

MUSGBAVE.- George Musgrave was ad- 
mitted to Westminster School in Jan., 
1752, aged 12, and Richard Musgrave in 
Oct., 1727, aged 13. Particulars of their 
parentage and respective careers are want ed. 

G. F. R. B. 

H. CROUCH, ABTIST. Where can I find 
some account of H. Crouch, nineteenth- 
century artist ? The name does not appear 
in the D.N.B., nor in Boase's ' Modern Eng- 
lish Biography,' nor in Bryan's ' Dictionary 
of Painters.' P. J. ANDEBSON. 

HOSCOES. 

1678, November 1, Edinburgh. Order by the 
Earl of Lmlithgow to the Earl of Mar for all 
officers in regiments using pikes ... I have 
sent for all the officers of the King's regement to 
acquent them with ane order that I have given for 
ther carving all hoscoes when they are togither, 
and at other tymes only thes upon guarde." Hist. 
MSS. Com. Report on MSS. of Earl of Mar and 
Kellie, p. 210. 

What are hoscoes ? 

P. J. ANDEBSON. 

KINDS OF BBEAD IN A.D. 1266. The 

Statute " Assisa Panis et Cervisise " provides 
for the weights to be given in various kinds 
of bread as follows : 

" When a quarter of wheat is sold for xiid. 
then Wastel Bread of a Farthing, shall weigh vil. 
and xvi. s. 

But Bread Cocket of a Farthing, of the same 
Corn and Bultel, shall weigh more than Wastel by 
iis. (olidos) . . . Bread made into a Simnel shall 
weigh iis. less than Wastel. Bread made of the 
whole Wheat shall weigh a Cocket and a half, so 
that a Cocket shall weigh more than a Wastel by 

" Bread of Treet (Trait in the Latin) shall weigh 
ii Wastels. 

When a Quarter of Wheat is sold for xviiid. their 
Wastel Bread of a Farthing white and well baked 
shall weigh ivl. xs. viiid. and so on for every ad- 
vance of 6d. per Quarter. 

Where can I obtain an explanation ? 

W. S. B. H. 



12 s. ix. JULY 23. i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 






PASTORAL EAR-RINGS. In 1799, Sir 
Joseph Banks, P.R.S., suggested the above 
as a desideration to those who attempted 
to improve the breed of sheep ; not for 
their own wear but as a label for theif 
" fleecy charges." No mark, he said, had, then 
been thought of by means of which sheep 
without horns could be distinguished with 
certainty from each other during the whole 
course of their lives, except by cutting and 
maiming their ears, which at best only 
divided them into classes without paiti- 
cularizing each sheep from the rest. Ac- 
cordingly he had made in Birmingham 
some flattened wire rings, or rather fetter- 
shaped loops of rustless metal, either 
jointed like a woman's ear-ring, or madt 
of an elastic metal. They were attached 
by meaas of a hole pierced in the sheep's 
ear. Each Joop was stamped with figures, 
e.g., 9999 signifying a bheep lambed in the 
year 1799, and the 999th sheep marked 
that year. A large number were supplied 
to Sir Joseph, who expected a great demand 
for them, since it was variously estimated 
that there were 10 to 17 sheep to a man in 
England. He first brought them to public 
notice at Lewes Fair in July, 1799. Did 
they ever come into general use ? 

A.W. 

HARTLEPOOL CANAL. Who was Sir John 
H. Duval, who in 1764 (see Rees Cyclo- 
pedia, article Canals) paid for the making 
of the above canal, the existence of which has 
just been re-discovered ? 

Is anything known of a " manuscript 
Treatise which has been prepared 
intended for separate publication (perhaps 
extending to two volumes in Octavo) on 
the Principles and Present state of Canals, 
River navigation, Railways, &c., in the 
United Kingdom by John Farcy, late of 
Woburn Beds., now of Upper Crown Street 
Westminster (February, 1806)," or of the 
author, John Farcy? This treatise is 
the source of Rees's information. 

F. E. ROWLAND. 

15, Friar Terrace, lEartlepool. 

WARRINGTON GANG. Can any reader give 
me the names and full particulars of the 
trial of the " Warrington Gang " in 1806, 
also of their execution for " unnatural 
offences " on August 23 of the same year ? 
R. D. WHITTENBURY-KAYE. 

Newchurch, Culcheth. 



TANTARY BOBUS. I should be much 
obliged if any reader could explain the origin 
and meaning of this phrase. SALMO. 

"To Go TO WARWICK." What is the 
origin of the phrase "to go to Warwick," 
in the sense of coming to a quarrel ? It is 
frequently to be heard in Sussex. 

C. H. H. 

CATEATON STREET, LONDON. This street 
is given as ths address of several merchants 
in Roger 1' estrange' s 'A Collection of the 
Names of the Merchants living in and about 
the City of London,' 1677. Can someone 
please indicate the location of this street ? 
EDWARD FULLER. 

OLD ENGLISH NAMES OF GIRLS. In a 

! book of travel in England, written by one of 

our clergy* a few years ago, is a copy of a 

strange epitaph in the church at Campden, 

Gloucestershire. A list of the dead man's 

| children is given, including two which are 

| new to me (both of girls). They are " Mose- 

| lyn " and " Gizzey Gamme." 

What are they in modern English ? 

WILLIAM ABBATT. 
Tarrytown, N.Y. 

DUATYEFF. About 1875 there was domi- 
ciled in Paris a Russian named Duatyeff, 
| or a person passing as a Russian and going 
| by . the name of Duatyeff. Over that 
I signature he contributed to various perio- 
dicals in Paris articles of varying length 
and some prose fictions in the nature of 
short stories. Translations of some of his 
articles and tales appeared in various 
I American periodicals about 1875. I have 
j been able to identify but one : a tale or 
! article called ' The Lion-Killer ' (from the 
| French of Duatyeff), by Mary Wager 
j Fisher, printed in St. Nicholas for Dec., 
1877, volume v., pp. 78-81. 

Now I can find nothing about anyone 
named Duatyeff in any work of reference 
likely to tell about a writer domiciled in 
Paris about 1875 and passing as a Russian. 
Can any of your readers give any light on 
the questions as to who he was, where he 
came from, what were the dates of his birth 
and death (if he is not yet alive) and what 
he wrote and where it was published ? 
! I should be greatly obliged for any in- 
formation. EDWARD L. WHITE. 
1,228, Mount Royal Avenue, 

Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.A. 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. JULY 23, 1021. 



BUTT WOMAN. On taking duty in a West 
Country church recently, I was told by the 
sexton that various matters were attended 
to by the butt woman. 

The term seemed unknown and unused 
in the place except by the sexton. I should 
be glad to know the meaning of the word 
and also whether this is a local Description. 

POROUS MARINUS. 

ANN HATHAWAY. Are any portraits of 
her, or of any of her family, known, and in 
whose possession ? And if there are, by 
any well-known, painter or by local Warwick- 
shire artists ? In the possession of a lady 
in. Hampshire are two half-length portraits 
in oil, on canvas, of girls, one in tight-fitting 
pink dress showing a good deal of bust, 
the other in looser dark blue gown, both cut 
low at the neck ; both the girls have 
darkish hair dra\vn back. By tradition long 
handed down in the lady's family these 
portraits are of Ann Hathaway and her 
sister. What foundation there is for this 
belief is not known. WINTON. 

GEORGE WATESON became Rector of 
Millbrook, Beds, in 1684 and was deprived 
in 1690. Was he one of the Non -jurors ? 
A Rev. George Wateson appears to have 
lived in Ampthill and died about 1740. Any 
information as to George Wateson, Rector 
of Millbrook, will be very welcome. 

HARRY P. POLLARD. 

Millbrook, Beds. 

EDWARD CORBOULD. Was he any rela- 
tion to Richard and Henry Corbould ? I 
have a water-colour depicting a highway- 
man standing by a chaise door holding an 
unconscious girl in his arms, dated 1837, 
and signed Edward Corbould. This would 
show him to have been a contemporary of 
both Richard and Henry. C. G. N. 



FLIGHT BARR AND BARR. I have two 
vases marked with the crown and the letters 
F.B.B. below, impressed without colour ; 
one is painted by J. Callowhill and the other 
by J. Rushton. Chafters (p. 796, ed. 1912) 
gives B.F.B. with crown above, 1807 to 1813, 
and Flight Barr and Barr (in italics), 1829 to 
1840, and does not mention either of the 
painters. I should be glad of any informa- 
tion which would point to the date of the 
vases, and any particulars as to the painters. 

C. G. X. 



DE VALERA. Your reviewer of ' Memorias 
Antiguas Historiales del Peru' (12 S. viii. 
440) mentions Bias Valera, natural son of 
Don Luis de Valera and an Indian woman, 
who was born about 1540 and became a 
Jesuit and a prolific author. 

Can the descent of our present day 
notorious Irish agitator be traced back to 
this family ? If not, can one of your 
readers give us the true descent of the 
present day Mr. de Valera ? It would in- 
terest many. W. DEL COURT. 

47, Blenheim Crescent, W. 1 1. 

JAMES CHALMERS. George Chalmers, 
the author of * Caledonia,' left in manuscript 
a history of printing in Scotland which has 
never been published although almost ready 
for the printer. For his facts and 
book-titles he was greatly indebted 
to a James Chalmers, who appears to have 
resided in London and collected his notes 
from both printed sources and public 
records. These notes are still in existence, 
written in a fine hand and bound in two 
large quarto volumes. Where can any 
information be obtained about this James 
Chalmers ? W. J. C. 

WANTED : BURNET : COFFIN : COLLETON : 
SIR ANTHONY BARCLAY. 

1. The name of the livings held by Rev. 
William Burnet, son of William Burnet, 
Goyernor of New York, and grandson of 
Bishop Gilbert Burnet. 

2. Did Jonathan Perrie Coffin (Inner 
Temple, 1788, and Middle Temple, 1796) 
practise at the Bar in England? Date of 
death also wanted. 

3. What was the family connexion be- 
tween John Colleton (Middle Temple, 1703), 
son and heir of James Colleton, Barbadoes, 
and the Colleton family in South Carolina ? 

4. Date of Sir Anthony Barclay's appoint- 
ment as British Consul in New York and 
date and place of death. 

BIOGRAPHER. 

BRANDENBURGH HOUSE, FULHAM. An 
inscription on the back of an old oil paint- 
ing of the interior of a stable reads : " The 
Duke of Buckingham's collection of Mor- 
lands, June, 1832. Brandenburgh House, 
Fulham." I cannot trace this house on any 
available London map. Where is, or was, 
it situated ? M. B. 



12 s. ix. JULY 23, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 73 






dozen people were making the trip to 
Europe, is disclosed by the vivid account 
the ambassador's wife gives of the many 
discomforts encountered on the occasion, 
(12 S. v. 122.) "when the whole ship is at our service, 

IT is only fair to many kind correspon- \ {i is little better than a P ris on." The vessel 
dents to inform them, through the medium was de eply loaded with oil and potash, 
of 'N. & Q.', that exhaustive enquiries the former leaking, the latter smoking, 
have proved that the Right Hon W E wmle the P ag sengers quarters were so 
Gladstone did not write an article entitled i filth y that Mrs " Adams had personally to 
'The Natural History of Dante' Canon or ganize measures for making them habi- 
Vaughan's article on ' The Birds of Dante ' table - The ca P taul was at be t a rough 
appeared in The Churchman of Mav, 1894 dia mond, but the cook figures as " a great, 
and in The Nineteenth Century of June, dirt y' laz y ne gro, Wlth no moi> e knowledge 
1892, there is an article by Mr. Gladstone of cooking than a savage," who would 
entitled ' Did Dante study in- Oxford ? ' dish U P the P ork Wlth the bris tles on, and 
Possibly this mav have given rise to the serve a P air of fowls before the roast beef 
statement, made to me by a friend, which the potatoes not being produced till 
lead me to insert my original query in the meal was Dearly over. 
'N. &Q.' I may add that Dr. Facet Toyn- TT ? e ^ llar P asse *ger service between the 
bee, author of ' Britain's Tribute to Dante Ui u ted States and England was not put on a 
in Literature and Art.' knows of no such P ro P e r working basis apparently till after 
paper by Mr. Gladstone. the war of 1812 - Even - before systematic 

HUGH S. GLADSTONE emigration set in the number of passengers 
from America was insignificant compared 

"STATE ROOM"=A PASSENGER'S CABIN ^ the ^^g new-comers and others 
(12 S. i. 307, 475; v. 104). From the ex- !l no c T trived to find their way westwards, 
tracts supplied by MB. ROBERT PIERPOINT I - H * \\ Fairbairn, a sociological writer, 
and MR. ALBERT MATTHEWS at the last two : affirms : " The second period [of immigra- 
references, it is, I think, pretty clear that tlon ^ from 1783 to 1820 marks the beginning 
the American use of the word " state ^? f national life - ^ was a period of small 
room "as a passenger's cabin did not become ; immigration, and ^ closes with the year in 
general till the early years of the nineteenth !? ^icli f ederal statistics were first collected 
century ; though the citation from Hodg- ( Immigration, p. 28). 

son's ' Letters from North America ' anti- Tt ma y be safel y Burned that in the 
cipates the ' N.E.D.'s ' first example by meantime sleeping accommodation had 
sixteen years greatly unproved on American coasting and 

The accommodation described in the river boats ; and as the better class cabins 
aforesaid extracts, howev.r, points plainly were de cprated and distinguished by the 
to it being that belonging to the officers of ^f* j the dl ? er ^ States like the 
a merchant ship, which had been leased for chief bed rooms m hotels m those da y 8 
the nonce to private individuals for a <f e 12 S ' L . 307 )' the uame state r ? om ' 
monetary consideration ; that the said rooms though not originating thus, would be likely 
were not regularly so reserved, and that the *9 ^P its diffusion and vogue to this means, 
temporary tenants were only using nautical Mr ' Ma h ews admits that such a tradition 
terminology when they called such apart- ^ 3 lon S existed ir * America, so there must 
ments "our state rooms ": the possessive be some g od ^^ d for the belief. At 
pronoun being here employed in a vague' ^ ra * e / ^ T uld rather accept thls vl - ew 
and indefinite sense, as when an editor : than thmk the term owed lts ad option 
speaks of "our author," "our readers," i cluen > to lts somewhat grandiose tone 
&c. Naturally enough a passenger of the l and character. N. W. HILL. 

rank of the Hon. Mrs. Adams might so! Berkeley, Cal. 

enlarge on the advantages she possessed : j HORSE-RIDING RECORDS (12 S. viii. 509; 
the more so as she at the same time uses ix. 32, 56). See "Endurance Tests for 



" cabin " in its two ordinary meanings 
of a saloon and a sleeping berth. That 
the good ship Active was nothing more 
than an Atlantic cargo boat, on which some 



Horses " in The Times, Nov. 12, 1920. Among 
other items is an account of 50 miles a 
day for five days done in Sussex by Arab 
horses. W. BRADBROOK. 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.ix.juLY23.i92i. 



THE YEAB 1000 A.D. (12 S. viii. 369, 
438, 455.) It seems a pity that Mr. T. 
PERCY ARMSTRONG (12 S. viii. 438) should! 
state so boldly that " there is no truth " 
in M. de Pas's views on this question, for j 
his note indicates that he possesses neither 
acquaintance with the recent literature of 
the subject nor ability to distinguish be- 
tween primary and secondary historical 
authorities. 

During the last fifty years considerable 
attention has been paid to this story by 
continental scholars, among whom may be 
mentioned P. Orsi in ' Ri vista Storica Ital- 
iana,' vol. 4 (1888), H. von Eicker in 'For- 
schungen zur deutscher Geschicht,' vol. 23 
(1883) and F. Plain in ' Revues des Questions 
historiques ' (1873). The gist of the con- 
clusion at which they have independently 
and unanimously arrived is as follows : 
The statement that as the thousandth year 
from the Incarnation approached a uni- 
versal panic swept over Western Europe 
is first found in Baronius' 'Annales Eccle- 
siastici,' 1605. It was extensively propa- 
gated, partly for controversial purposes, 
in the eighteenth and early nineteenth cen- 
turies by Michelet, Sismondi, Hallam, and 
others, and William Robertson's ' Table 
of the Progress of Society ' in his history 
of Charles V. (1769) is probably chiefly 
responsible for the widespread nature of 
the error. In point of fact the story is 
not found in the Middle Ages at all. None 
of the great universal histories, such as 
Vincent of Beauvais's ' Speculum historiale ' 
(thirteenth century), or even 'Herimannus 
Augiensis' ( X 1054) ' Chronicon de Sex 
Aetatibus Mundi ' mentions it. Nor do any 
of the chroniclers of the late tenth or early 
eleventh centuries in Italy, Germany, or 
France. It is not found in any of the 
contemporary lives, i.e., those written by 
persons intimate with their hero, such as 
Thangman's ' Vita S. Bernwardi, Episcopi 
Hildesheimensis Ecclesise ' ( X 1022), or Hel- 
gaudus' * Vita Roberti regis' (X 1031) ; nor 
in any papal Bull, though some 150 are 
extant for the period 970-1000; nor 
in any of the acts of general or provincial 
Councils of the late tenth century, num- 
erous though these are, nor in any legal 
documents, leases, wills, &c. 

But let us turn to the evidence which Mr. 
Armstrong produces in favour, of the story. 
In view of the fact that no late tenth cen- 
tury Council mentions it (why did the Council 
of Rome in 998 inflict a ten years penance 



on. King Robert of France ?) the vague 
statement attributed to this unnamed 
Council of 909 is valueless. In any case 
it has nothing to do with the year 1000 in 
particular, but with the idea of the Second 
Advent, which has occupied the minds of 
all earnest Christians, from St. Paul down- 
wards, in general. This is also the case 
with the Hermit of Thuringia : here again 
vague foreboding is all that can be dis- 
cerned and the year 1000 is not so much 
as hinted at. Add to this the Hermit 
appears for the first time in Tritheim's 
'Annales Hirsaugiensium,' which saw the 
light in 1514. It is as if one quoted Mr. 
Armstrong .as a contemporary authority 
for the Battle of Agincourt ! 

'YA sermon preached in Paris in 990." 
This is vague indeed and shows clearly 
that Mr. Armstrong has taken all his autho- 
rities at second or third hand. I presume, 
however, that the sermon is that mentioned 
by Abbo, Abbot of Fleury (X 1004) 
in his ' Libra Apologeticus ' (Migne. 
' Patrologia latina, ' vol. cxxxix.). Here Abbo 
says that as a youth (i.e., before 970) he 
heard a sermon on Antichrist. His words 
are : " De fine quoque mundi coram populo 
sermonem in Ecclesia Parisiorum adole- 
scentulus audivi quod statim finito mille 
annorum numero Antichristi adveniret et 
noil longo post tempora universale judi- 
cium succediret." Even taking for granted 
that the preacher was basing his remarks on 
Revelations xx. 3 and 4 (though Abbo does 
not say so) there is nothing to show that he 
was referring to the year 1000 from the 
Incarnation, nor is there any exact state- 
ment either here or in the Bible (e.g., Rev. 
xx. 3) as to when the thousand years began. 

The reference to Godellus is an unfortunate 
one. In the first place the chronicle which 
goes under his name did not appear till 
1173. I have not examined the original 
manuscript (Bibl. Nat.man. lat. 4893), neither, 
I suppose, has Mr. Armstrong. But the 
extracts which Bougent prints ('Receuil 
des historiens des Gaules et de la France' 
X262) gives not M. but MX. as the year 
of anxiety. This, of course, knocks Mr. 
Armstrong's case on the head. I suppose 
that " Godellus " was quoting from Radul- 
phus Glaber, whose history extends from 
987 to 1044, which shows that the year 
1010 marked an epoch because it was that 
in which the Holy Sepulchre was rifled by 
the Mad Caliph"! A mere, reference to 
Glaber's work would show that the building 



**. ix. JULY 23, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



7o 



(not "' rebuilding) of the churches men- 
tioned by him had begun before the year 1000. 
And why, one might ask, did the King of 
France fortify Laon in 990 and Abbeville 
in 996 if the world was to end so soon ? 

Mr. Armstrong is still more unfortunate 
in his reference to charters, for he shows 
himself to be probably unacquainted with 
the contents of such documents. The 
term " Appropinquante nmndi termino " 
is a mere legal formula and can be traced back 
at least as far as Gregory of Tours in the 
sixth century, and there are plenty of 
examples of its use in France in the eighth 
and ninth centuries, but few or none at the 
end of the tenth, though it is found again in | 
the eleventh : while in Italv it is not found 
till after 1 000, and in Germany not at all. The 
vague references to the opinions of a ' modern j 
writer ' in Mr. Armstrong's last paragraph , 
are obviously not worth powder and shot. 1 

G. BASKERVILLE. 
Crowsley Park, Henley-on-Thames. 

SILVEB MEDAL:' IDENTIFICATION (12 S. j 
viii. 512, ; ix. 36). This is a memorial coin'or i 
medal, probably a coin, of Emerich Joseph ! 
von Breitbach-Biirresheim, Archbishop of j 
Mainz (Moguntinum), 1763-1774. Such ! 
coins were very common in Germany and I 
were known as sterbethaler. In the Adolph j 
Meyer sale at Frankfurt -am- Main, 1894, j 
there was, lot 2127, a J sterbethaler of this ; 
Archbishop, 1774, with arms crowned on 1 
the obverse and an inscription on the reverse. ! 
I have also seen in lists l/6th and I/ 12th | 
thalers apparently of the same type. The 
weight will show what particular fraction of 
the thaler the example mentioned by your 
reader may be.* The weight of the Im- 
perial thaler of this period was about 
28 grammes (430 grains) and the Prussian 
thaler rather lighter, about 22 grammes 
(339 grains). HORACE W. MONCKTON. 

For George I. of Fngland please read 
George II. The full force of the title 
" Erzsandstreuer " is realized when we 
remember not only the privileges of the 
individual Electors, the King of Bohemia, 
e.g., being Erzschenk. and the Elector of 
Brandenburg, Erzkammerer, but that 
Brc.ivkn^urg has been nicknamed the 
" Sandbiichse (sandtox) des Heiligen 
Romischen Reichs," because of the char- 
acter of its soil. 

As a correspondent, at p. 36, was unable 
to f nd Archbishop Emmerich in the ' Allge- 
meine Deutsche Biographie,' it should be 



said that his life is given under his Christian 
name, Emmerich ; the page-heading being 
" Emmerich v. Mainz." Bishops are elusive. 
For Joseph Butler's works one has some- 
times to look in German catalogues under 
Durham. EDWARD BENSLY. 

SIR HENRY PRICE (12 S. ix. 32). Is the 
Christian name Henry ascertained beyond 
any doubt ? If not, the name of the daugh- 
ter, Henrietta Maria, tempts one to suggest 
that Sir Herbert Price may be meant. For 
Sir Herbert, who died in 1677/8, see the 
account in G. E. C.'s ' Complete Baronetage,' 
vol iii., pp. 18, 19. He was Master of the 
Household to Queen Henrietta Maria and 
afterwards to Charles II., and his wife 
Goditha, second daughter and coheir of Sir 
Henry Arden, of Park Hall, Co. Warwick, 
whom he married in or before 1641, was at 
one time Lady of the Privy Chamber to the 
Queen Mother (Henrietta Maria). 

Evelyn mentions Sir Herbert as taking 
part in the coronation procession of 
Charbs II. EDWARD BENSLY. 

TRANSPORTATIONS AFTER THE FORTY-FIVE 
(12 S. viii. 510; ix. 33) Thera was some 
correspondence on this subject in the tenth 
series of ' N. & Q.' At p. 66 of vol. iv., 
under the heading ' Jacobite Rebels,' Mr. 
Gerald Fothergill mentioned the existence 
in the British Museum (Add. MS. 19,796) of a 
' List of Persons engaged in the Rebellion in 
Scotland, showing their Places of Abode, 
their Present Place of Residence, 1764,' and 
added " In my own MSS. I have lists of the 
political prisoners transported in 1716 to 
Virginia, Jamaica, Maryland, South Carolina, 
Antigua and St. Christopher's. The total 
number of them is 623. My collections 
show that in 1747 a still larger number of 
rebels were sent to the Leeward Islands, 
Jamaica, Maryland and Barbadoes." 

In vol. viii. of the same series there were 
letters, at pp. 68, 135, 176, 235, 317, under the 
heading ' Highlanders " Barbadosed " after 
the 1715 and 1745 rebellions.' At the first 
of these references Mr. J. Graham Cruick- 
shank, writing from the Audit Office, 
British Guiana, spoke of a copy of an " In- 
denture " in his possession " signed by 127 
Jacobite prisoners, who apparently were sent 
to Barbadoes in the ship Frere in 1746 (the 
list includes 20 McDonalds, 19 McKenzies, 
and 16 Grants : 112 of the prisoners sign by 
'mark')." At pp. 135, 136, two lists are 
given from ' A Cloud of Witnesses,' Glasgow, 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 6. ix JOLT 23, 1921. 



1836, of persons banished to Barbadoes in 
1687. But N. S. should consult the whole 
of the correspondence. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 
Much Hadham, Herts. 

THE SUFFOLK FEAST (12 S. ix. 29). See 
3 S. ii. 286, ' Oxfordshire Feast ' ; 392, 
' Oxfordshire Feast : County Feasts,' and 
438, ' County Feasts.' At the second 
reference W. H. Husk wrote, " These feasts 
were annual assemblages of the gentry and 
others, natives of many of the principal 
English counties, who were inhabitants of 
London. They were carried out by the 
company first attending divine service at 
one of the City churches (usually that of St. 
Mary-le-Bow) and hearing a sermon preached 
either by a native of, or one holding prefer- 
ment in, the county, and afterwards dining 
together at the hall of one of the City com- 
panies, hired for the occasion." The writer 
adds that the first such meeting of which he 
has found mention was in 1654, and he gives 
the title of a sermon by Samuel Annesley, 
LL.D., ' The First Dish at the Wiltshire 
Feast, November 9, 1654, or a sermon 
Preached at Lawrence Jury to those that 
there offered their Peace Offerings, and went 
thence to Dine at Marchant-Taylors' Hall.' 

The latest gathering known to this 
correspondent was that of the natives of 
Herefordshire, on Feb. 7, 1727/8, when a ser- 
mon was preached at St. Michael's, Cornhill, 
by the Chancellor of Hereford. A list of 
twelve counties is given which held such 
meetings, to which, on p. 438, a correspondent 
adds Suffolk and mentions the sermon re- 
ferred to in INIGO'S query. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

Towards the end of the seventeenth century 
there were in vogue periodical gatherings in 
London of natives of, or of those connected with, 
various English counties, at which it appears 
to have been the custom to make the preaching 
of a sermon part of the proceedings ; this being 
generally delivered either at St. Mary-le-Bow 
or at St. Michael's, Cornhill. ... It seems, 
also, to have been customary to select as preacher 
a native of the particular county, or holding 
preferment there. 

The above is an extract from Ars 
Quatuor Coronatorum, xxvii. 26 (1914), 
where, and also in vol. xxix., are several 
references to these county feasts. The 
Evening News of June 6, 1914 contained an 
article headed " The Counties in London," 
bringing the topic up to date, and inci- 
dentally giving Cirencester men in 1701 



and Cumberland men in 1745 as earliest 
examples ; but as the first -named source 
instances similar gatherings from 1675, 
and the Suffolk feast of the query was in 
1686, it is obvious there was a pre- eighteenth 
century custom of the kind. The sermon 

by Dr. Clagett was catalogued by John 

' Camden Hotten in 1863. 

W. B. H. 

" HONEST " EPITAPHS (9 S. x. 306 ; 11 S. 

vi. 261, 308, 377; vii. 517; 12 S. viii. 413, 

I 498). In writing out my notes for my last 

j reference (p. 413) I overlooked the well-known 

i circular marble tablet in St. Dunstaivs 

Church, Fleet Street, with inscription : 

To the memory | of HOBSON JUDKFN, ESQ. | late 
1 of Clifford's Inn, | The Honest Solicitor, | who 
J departed this life June the 30th 1812. | This 
| Tablet was erected by his Clients | as a Token of 
j Gratitude and respect for his | honesty, faithful 
| and friendly conduct to them | thro' Life, j Go 
READER and imitate HOBSON JUDKIN. 

There is also the famous (? mythical) iii- 
| scription on Sir John Strange, " Here lies 
I anjhonest lawyer and that's Strange." 

J. ABDAGH. 

OAK SNUFF-BOX from foundation-pile of 

Old London Bridge (12 S. ix. 31). The 

! Guildhall museum contains a similar box 

and a stone one ; other stone relics of the 

! bridge are the Jackson memorial, St. Peter's 

j Church, Burnham, Bucks, and the sundial 

; in, the cloister garden of Gloucester Cathedral. 

Wooden relics include portion of a pile in 

' a museum in, the Royal Gardens, Kew, and 

an oak table in the London Museum, 

, bequeathed by Mr. William King in 1917. 

The master's chair in Fishmongers' Hal 

is made of wood and stone from the bridge. 

J. ABDAGH. 

The box recently found by Mr. Mundy 

! is unfamiliar, but why does the Revd. Wm. 

I Jolifte, according to the inscription, claim 

j to be the builder of JSTew London Biidge ? 

: A more familiar form of snuft-box was made 

in some numbers from the old piles and 

distributed by William Knight, F.S.A., 

whe was resident engineer and assistant to 

Rennie during the demolition of the old 

bridge and erection of the existing structure. 

He had prepared and printed a quarto single 

sheet with an illustration of the carved top 

of the box and underneath the following : 

The above design is intended to illustrate 

the lid of boxes formed out of the timber taken 

from the foundations of the piers of the original 

Old London Bridge. The date of its erection, 



2 S. IX. JULY 23. 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



according to Stows authority, is 1176. It repre- 
sents the City arms in the centre, with the cap 
of maintenance over. On the right hand side is 
the arms of the Borough of Southwark, and on 
the left is represented the monogram of the 
original architect of the bridge, Peter, a Priest, 
of St. Mary Cole church.' WILLIAM KNIGHT. 

The date of this may be inferred to be 
between 1826 and 1828 when he made 
some interesting discoveries on the con- 
struction of the old bridge during its demoli- 
tion, which he subsequently communicated 
to the Society of Antiquaries, vide ' Archseo- 
logii,' XXIII., 1831. Knight later lived at 
Canonbury -place, and his interesting library 
was sold by Messrs. Sotheby, Aug. 2, 1847, 
and five following days. 

As relics neither of the snuff-boxes is of 
great interest now, as early this year an 
arch of the northern extremity of the old 
bridge was re-discovered and the measured 
drawings and photograph, taken prior to 
its re-burial, will no doubt be published 
elsewhere. ALECK ABRAHAMS. 



"Poos UNCLE NED" (12 S. viii. 36, 
93).- As your correspondents seem still in 
doubt 0s to the words of this old song, 
I send herewith the version found in the 
latest book of Negro Minstrel Melodies in 
Boston. 

The first two verses I recognize as the 
same which were sung here sixty -five years 
ago. CHARLES E. STRATTON. 

70, State Street, Boston, U.S.A. 

UNCLE NED. 
(By S. C. FOSTER.). 

I. 
D'ere was an old Nigga, 

Dey called him Uncle Ned, 
He's dead long ago, long ago 

He had no wool on the top of his head 
De place where de wool ought to grow. 

Chorus. 
Den lay down de shubble an de hoe, 

Hang up de fiddle an de bow ; 
No more hard work for poor old Ned, 
He's gone where the good niggers go. 

II. 

His fingers were long like de cane in de brake, 

He had no eyes for to see 
He had no teeth for to eat de corn cake, 
So he had to let the corn cake be. 
Chorus. 

III. 
When old Ned die Massa take it mighty hard, 

De tears run down like de rain, 
Old Missis turn pale an she gets berry old, 
Cayse she nebber see old Ned again. 
Chorus. 



BOMJENTEEK (12 S. viii. 510 ; ix. 38). 

I Beaumont egg was frequently mentioned 

i in the course of the inquiry as to the Tay 

Bridge disaster. This " egg " is a substance 

well known in the iron moulding trade. The 

principal ingredient in the mixture is made 

up of iron or steel filings, and is used for 

stopping up and concealing the air holes 

! which may arise in the course "of a casting. 

A. 

FLAG FLOWN ON ARMISTICE BAY (12 S. 
i-viii. 510; ix. 37). The Merchant Adven- 
| turers of York still use the arms which Mr. 

Gawthorpe describes in his first paragraph, 
| but I do not know the tinctures. " Barry 
, nebulee " should, I think, be ondee : I 
! suppose that part of the blazon has reference 
i to the restless waves the adventurers had 
I to brave. I had a fancy that the roses in 
j the bearing were the emblem of York, and 

that the lions were, so to speak, a sample of 
I those in the city arms. Dr. Maud Sellers, 
j who is at this time devoting her life and 
| learning to disentangling the history of the 
| York Adventurers and who may be found at 
| the Merchants' Hall, Fossgate, would, I 
I feel sure, be able to give Mr. Gawthorpe 
(and. others information that they might 
I desire. ST. SWITHIN. 

CURRY FAVOUR (12 S. viii., 512). Dr. 
I Cobham Brewer in his ' Dictionary of Phrase 
I and Fable ' has the following concerning this 
I phrase: "The French courir, to hunt 
j after, to seek, as courir une charge, courir 
\ un benefice, to sue for a living ; courir les 
| tables, to go a spunging." Similarly, courir les 
faveurs, to sue for, court, or seek favours. 

. WALE. 



COCKNEY PRONUNCIATION (12 S. ix. 17, 
54). As to the substitution of " i " for 
"a" (e.g., lidy for lady), I think that the 
change can be traced to Essex. I spent 
four years in Essex in the mid-fifties, thirty 
miles from London, having up to that time 
lived in the West or South, but never in 
London- I remember during a walk asking 
a cottage matron whose was yonder house 
on the hill, to which question she promptly 
made answer : " Oh ! that's Mr. Mison's." 
This rendering of the name of Mr. Mason 
was new to me, but, as above stated, I 
am not able to compare it with the Cockney 
pronunciation of that time, with which I 
had no acquaintance. K. S. 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.ix.jm.Y23. 1021. 



HEARTH TAX (12 S. viii. 471, 518). 
William Gates of Pontefract lived, at the 
time of the Hearth Tax, in a house in the 
Nant Market, one of the largest and best 
in the town, and therefore would probably 
contain 7 hearths. The house was called 
"The Leaden Porch." I shall be glad 
to give R. G. S. further information of the 
Gates family of Pontefract if he cares to 
write direct to me. R. J. SHILLETO." 

61, St. John's Road, Oxford. 

SUNDIALS (12 S. viii. 511 ; ix. 39, 59). 
In any bibliography of books on sundials, 
the following should certainly find a place : 
' Primitive Sundials, or Scratch Dials, Con- 
taining a list of those in Somerset.' By 
Dom Ethelbert Home, with a Preface by 
[the late] Dr. J. Charles Cox, F.S.A., Taun- 
ton : Barnicott and Pearce, The Wessex 
Press, 1917 ; pp. xii. and 90 ; 8vo., with 17 
plates. This work is a delightful specimen 
of a learned enthusiast on ancient sundials, 
and should be better known. 

J. CLARE HUDSON. 

Woodhall Spa. 

The enclosed clipping, from Rochdale 
Observer, Aug. 12, 1916, re a noted sundial 
may prove serviceable in the history of 
sundials. 

A REMARKABLE SUNDIAL. 
INTERESTING TIME INDICATOR AT BAGSLATE. 

Writing to us yesterday, Mr. James Kershaw 
Grindrod, of Ivy Cot, Oulder Hill, directed 
attention to an extremely interesting old time- 
teller which may be seen at Bagslate. In the 
letter Mr. Grindrod said : In these days of day- 
light saving and altered clock time, it might 
interest your readers to know of the remark- 
able sundial at Clay Lane House, Bagslate, the 
old home of the Kershaw family, for some time 
occupied as' Norden Vicarage, and the tem- 
porary home for crippled children before their 
removal to the picturesque mansion erected by 
the munificence of Mr. Walter Scott, J.P. 

On this sundial the " time shadow " from the ; 
gnomon at noon is contrasted with the time 
at distant places on the earth's surface, such j 
as Jerusalem, Surat, Siam, Ispahan, the Bar- 
badoes, New York, Lisbon, &c. The sundial I 
bears the name of the owner, John Kershaw, j 
and the date, 1807. Thus it is dated two 
years after the great naval battle of Trafalgar, 
and eight years previous to the Hundred Days j 
Campaign which closed at Waterloo. 

The stonedial measures 22 J inches square and 
is 3J inches thick. Its Latin inscriptions are 
cut deep, but are somewhat obscure through 
old paint or other " filling." They appear to 
read in the left-hand corner " Vegetate f orate, 
Tempus Mors," and in the right-hand corner 
" Tempus Obit, Fugit, Venit." 

The John Kershaw mentioned was interred 
in St. James's Church, Ashworth, which is 



more widely known as " Ashworth Chapel," and 
is in the gift of the Rt. Hon. Earl Egerton of 
Tatton. Inside this church there also rest the 
remains of John Milne and his Wife, relative 
of John Kershaw, and grandfather and grand- 
mother of the late Professor John Milne, the 
world-famed seismologist, and a native of 
Rochdale. 

FRED I.. TAVABE. 

22, Trentham-street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

DE BBTJS TOMB AT HABTLEPOOL. (12 S. 
ix. 30). The town and haven of Hartle- 
pool were once defended on every side with 
, walls, except where the abrupt eastern 
cliffs and rocky coast rendered all defence 
needless. In the time of some of the earlier 
historians Hartlepool exhibited a perfect 
and interesting specimen of the fortifications 
, of former times, having a long extended 
wall, strengthened by demi-bastions at 
intervals, some rounded, others square ; 
: gates and sally-ports, secured by machicola- 
tions and the portcullis, some of the gates 
defended by angular, others by square tur- 
rets in short, displaying all the variety 
in fortifications which had grown into use 
in those days. These walls appear to have 
been originally reared by Robert De Brus 
in the latter part of the thirteenth century. 

The early history of this place is very 
scanty, and relates chiefly to a religious 
establishment noticed in Bede's ' Life of 
St. Hilda,' but which finally perished 
during the Danish invasion. 

Who was this Robert Da Brus ? No 
doubt the tomb is that of his family 

JAMES SETON-ANDEBSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

PENZANCE FAIR : ' CAPUT JOHANNIS IN 
Disco ' (12 S. ix., 30). There are long letters 
on this subject in The Tablet for July 2 and 
9, and no doubt the correspondence in that 
paper will continue. HARMATOPEGOS. 

WILLOW PATTEBN CHINA (12 S. viii. 496). 
The Willow Pattern, an opera in two epi- 
sodes, by Basil Hood, music by Cecil Cook, 
was produced at the Savoy Theatre on 
Nov. 14, 1901. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 



RUSTIC NAMES FOR FLOWERS (12 S, ix. 
29). I have heard White Arabis called 
"Snow on the Mountain," and the Red 
Garden Hawkweed " Grim the Collier." 
Both of these, I think, are quaint descrip- 
tive names. C. B. E. 



12 S. IX. JULY 23, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 






BENJAMIN SOWDEN (12 S. viii. 168, 236, 
311). The identification of the two Sowdens 
proves to be incorrect. Benjamin Sowden 
became minister of the English Church at 
Rotterdam in 1748, where he died in 1778 
or 1779 (Steven's History of the Scottish 
Church,' Rotterdam, 1832, pp. 229, 335). 
Benjamin Choyce Sowden became minister 
of the English Church at Amsterdam in 
1782, and held office there till 1796 (ibid., 
p. 282, where he is wrongly styled M.A.). 

I have still to discover from what printed 
source Henry Dell (Select Collection of 
the Psalms of David, 1756) took his psalm 
versions by the elder Sowden. Steven 
speaks of him as "the pupil and constant 
correspondent of Dr. Doddridge," but no 
light is thrown on the subject in Doddridge's I 
Diary or in his Life by Orton. 

P. J. ANDERSON. 

University Library, Aberdeen. 

DOMENICK ANGELO'S BURIAL PLACE (12 
S. viii. 491 ; ix. 33). The evidence for 
Sophia Angelo's early connection with Eton 
is to be found quoted in my ' History of 
the Angelo Family,' published in 1903 
in ' The Ancestor ' (see vol. viii. p. 32). 
That evidence, which must have had an 
authoritative source, I reproduce here : 

DEATH. April 7th, 1847. At Eton College, 
aged 88, Mrs. Sophia Angelo. She was the 
eldest and most celebrated Dame of Eton having 
been connected with that establishment near 
seventy years. (G.M. xxvii. 561). 

For "18 years of age " in my recent note 
should be substituted " 20 years of age," 
as stated in my said history. She must 
have been of Eton College in 1779 or soon 
after, when George, Prince of Wales, was 
17 or perhaps 18 years old, quite old enough 
for a young man's fancy lightly to turn, &c. 
But the whole family, especially Domenick, 
enjoyed exceptionally high Court favour, 
and George III. himself, when Heir Apparent, 
was Sophia's brother Henry's godfather 
('Reminiscences'). It was common know- 
ledge in the family that she owed her pre- 
ferment, not to any direct appointment 
by the Prince that would be absurd 
but to his influence exercised on her behalf. 
As one connected with the family I had 
the information direct from Colonel Richard 
Fisher Angelo, whose father Colonel 
Richard Frederick Angelo, born in 1802, 
knew his great Aunt Sophia of Eton very 
well. He was 16 when Sophia penned her 
amusing rimed letter of 1818, recently 
published in* N. & Q.', in which, a charming 



woman not yet 40, she playfully refers to 
herself as still the admired of the Regent. 
So that the evidence was that of actual 
personal knowledge, before knowledge had 
time to fade into mere tradition. 

Perhaps Mr. Austen Leigh may be able 
to identify others whose names figure in 
Sophia Angelo's interesting letter.* 

CHARLES SWYNNERTON. 

* There is apparently a discrepancy of one 
year between the age of Sophia at death as given 
in the G.M. and as given in her mon. insc. Her 
baptismal certificate has still to be found. 

JOCELYN FLOOD (12 S. vii. 409, 456, 
518). The registers of St. Peter and St. 
Kevin, Dublin, printed by the' Dublin 
Par. Reg. Society, record the christening, 
on July 15, 1746, of Jocelyn, son of Warden 
Flood, Solicitor General. 

J. B. WHITMORE. 

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. ix. 32). The lines 
about which J. R. H. inquires are : 
It is a good and soothfast saw ; 
Half roasted never will be raw ; 
No dough is dried once more to meal, 
No crock new-shapen by the wheel ; 
You can't turn curds to milk again, 
Nor Now, by wishing, back to Then'; 
And having tasted stolen honey, 
You can't buy innocence for money. 
They head the 17th Chapter of ' Felix Holt, the 
Radical ' and are, I assume, by George Eliot. 

J. J. FREEMAN. 



on 

Arabian Medicine : Being the FitzPatrick Lectures 
delivered at the College of Physicians in November, 
1919, and November, 1920. By Edward G. 
Browne, M.B., F.R.C.P. (Cambridge University 
Press, 12s. net.) 

FAMOUS as an Arabic and Persian scholar, Pro- 
fessor Browne is also a physician, who studied at 
Bart.'s under Sir Norman Moore ; and the com- 
bination of his two strains of learning makes an 
interesting, original and often amusing book. In 
it he is able to show how much the world owes to 
the scholars and physicians of Islam for preserv- 
ing something of ancient Greek and other medical 
science through the Dark Ages, and to plead also 
for greater recognition of the foundation of 
serious scientific labour which underlies the 
poetry and philosophy now constantly winning 
new admirers among the people of the West. 

He speaks, as do most of us, of " Arabian " science, 
" Arabian " medicine ; but he warns us that 
the common phrase is scarcely accurate for " that 
body of scientific or medical doctrine which is 
enshrined in books written in the Arabic language, 
but which is for the most part Greek in its origin, 
though with Indian, Persian and Syrian accre- 
tions, and only in a very small degree the product 
of the Arabian mind. . . The translation of 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. 



the Greek books into Arabic, either directly or 
through intermediate Syriac versions, was 
effected for the most part under the enlightened 
patronage of the early ' Abbasid Caliphs at Baghdad 
between the middle of the eighth and ninth 
centuries of our era by skilful and painstaking 
scholars who were for the most part neither Arabs 
nor even Muhammadans, but Syrians, Hebrews 
or Persians of the Christian, Jewish or Magian 
faith." 

It was these men who kept alive for the West 
some of the Greek learning until the revival of 
a direct knowledge of Greek laid the original 
works of Galen and others open to Western men 
of science. Indeed, as Professor Browne shows, 
there was, even in Muhammadan countries, some 
prejudice against Muhammadan physicians. There 
is but little medicine in the Koran, and " Prophet's 
medicine " was a term of scorn to good physicians. 

It was in the middle of the eighth century and 
into the newly founded city of Baghdad that 
Greek and other ancient learning poured, to 
clothe itself in Arabian dress. The great old 
Sasanian school of Jundi-Shapur, fortified by the 
Nestorians whom Diocletian's persecutions had 
driven from Byzantium to Persia, and by Indian 
learning lured to Persia by the King we know as 
Chosroes, was still in existence to exercise its 
influence after the Arab conquest ; and through 
its great men Greek medicine came to Baghdad 
in Arabic dress. They preserved for us, for 
instance, the ninth to the fifteenth books of 
Galen's ' Anatomy,' of which the original Greek 
is lost, and their translations, some direct into 
Arabic from the Greek, some through Syriac 
versions, were the link between classical science 
and modern. 

In his second lecture Professor Browne comes 
to the special period which he has chosen for this 
study. What he calls the Golden Age of Arabian 
learning culminated at Baghdad in the century 
between A.D. 760 and A.D. 850. His special period is 
the two centuries following the close of that Golden 
Age. He chooses out four great men, who, working 
on the foundation laid by the translations from 
the Greek, made more or less independent in- 
vestigation, and wrote more or less original treatises 
qn medicine arranged on their own plan. We 
must not, it seems, expect too much originality. 
Dissection, for instance, was unknown, unless, 
indeed, it be true that in the first half of the 
ninth century the celebrated Yuhanna ibn 
Masawayh " being unable to obtain human 
subjects, dissected apes in a special dissecting- 
room which he built on the banks of the Tigris, 
and that a particular species of ape, considered 
to resemble man most closely, was supplied to 
him by the ruler of Nubia." But these men 
were keen observers, and made the most of their 
opportunities. The first of the four whom Pro- 
fessor Browne selects is 'Ali ibn Babban of 
Tabaristan, a Christian or a Jew, who wrote 
' The Paradise of Wisdom,' a practitioner's 
handbook, as Professor Browne calls it, con- 
taining very little about anatomy or surgery 
and a great deal about climate, diet and drugs, 
including poisons, with a long section on the 
symptoms and remedies of diseases. Then 
comes the man whom the medieval Latinists 
knew as Bhazes, arid whom Professor Browne 
regards as the greatest and most original of all 



the Muslim physicians. Legend and his own 
writings (especially the great ' Hawi ' or 
' Continens ' with its clinical notes of actual 
cases treated) combine to show him entitled to 
this honour. Apparently he blinded himself by 
his excessive devotion to alchemy ; but the man 
was no fool who, on being asked to choose a site 
for a hospital, caused pieces of meat to be hung 
up in various parts of the city and chose that 
part where the meat most slowly decomposed. 
The third was the man known to the Middle Ages 
as Haly Abbas, who wrote the ' Liber Regius,' in 
which both anatomy and surgery have their 
place. Haly Abbas was even more successful, 
in the worldly sense, than a "fashionable" 
doctor or surgeon of to-day. For bleeding and 
purging Harun-al-Raschid (as we call the great 
Caliph of the ' Arabian Nights ') twice a year he 
was paid 200,000 dirhams (well over 8,000), 
and he died worth 3 millions sterling. Last 
comes the great Avicenna, philosopher, physician, 
poet, man of pleasure, who lived so hard that 
he died, worn out, at 58. His chief work is the 
still famous ' Canon,' which Professor Browne 
will discuss more fully in the FitzPatrick lectures 
this year. 

It is a fascinating subject. To all men of 
science the last lecture, in which Professor Browne 
discusses some of the characteristics of medieval 
science (e.g., " the solidarity and interdependence 
of all its branches, and the dominance of certain 
numbers in its basic conceptions "), will be of 
great interest. And the " general reader," 
especially perhaps he who loves ' The Arabian 
Nights ' and Persian poetry and euphuism, 
will find the book full of entertainment. In all 
times (' Gil Bias ' and Moliere, ' Tristram Shandy ' 
and Bernard Shaw leap to the mind) doctors 
have been fair game. And when we read Professor 
Browne's stories of what the Muslim doctors 
thought of the Frankish doctors, of what the 
Muslim patients thought of the Muslim doctors, 
and what the Muslim doctors said about each 
other, we can all but hear the laughter that must 
have broken out during the delivery of these very 
entertaining and instructive lectures. 



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81 



LONDON, JULY 30. 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 172. 

NOTES : Dickson Family of Edinburgh, 81 The Ivory 
Gate of Virgil: English Misconception, 84 Principal 
London Coffee-houses, Taverns and Inns in the Eighteenth 
Century, 85 Christ's Hospital and the Navy Saunders 
Welch, 87 An Unpublished Letter of Lady Hamilton 
Carlyle and a Bookseller Petronius and a Modern 
Advertisement, 88 The Aske Family London Clubs 
Bibliogi-aphy, 89 

QUERIES : Whyte-Melville and Adam Lindsay Gordon- 
Appointment of the Mayor by an Abbot, 89 Proverbial 
Sayings Captain Jones Cruttenden Family " Miss 
Croker," by Sir Thomas Lawrence Parsons Family 
y..-.irriage Ralph Izard Samuel Matthews, Organist 
Dr. John Misaubin Milborne Morrison Thomas Parratt 
Meredith Valentine Randolph, 90 George Quarme 
Baron Ricasoli Daily Advertiser- Sabine The Mystery 
of Richard Parker of the Nore Dr. John Keave of Etor 
Apple Christening " Made t hem eat Beans "- " Cuckoo 
Pen " and " Cuckoo Pound," 91 Sidesman Sir Thomas 
Miller, of Chichester Authors wanted, 92. 

REPLIES : " To Curry Favour," 92 Williams, Executed 
1618 Vcre es wanted : Conjugal Squabbles Sir Benjamin 
Hammctt James Macburney, C3 Acid Test The 
Smallest Pig of a Litter Combe House, Herefordshire 
Aide burgh :Ecrevisse Double Firsts at Oxford Disraeli, 
Rogers, or Shaftesbury, 94 " A Frog he would a- wooing 
go " Signs in place of Signatures Single Whiskey 
Petty France Wife's Death 14o Years after Her Husband's 
Birth Elephant and C*stle, 95 Six Lords : Chewar 
Bomenteek Agricultural and Horticultural Writers: 
Biographical Details Wanted School Magazine, 96 
Danteiana The Hon. Frances Ingram-Shepherd The 
Ingoldsby Legends American English The Plague Pits, 
97 Poems for Children, Titles Wanted Oak Snuff-box- 
Martin (Marten) Reference Wanted, 98 H orse-riding 
Records Viscount Stafford, 1680 Robert Parr De 
Valera, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' A Short History of Scotland ' 
'The Octccentenary of Reading Abbey' 'The Eton 
College Reg'ster, 1753 1790' 'The Cambridge Scene' 
'The Print-Collector's Quarterly/ 

Notices to Correspondents. 



DICKSON FAMILY OF EDINBURGH. 

SINCE writing the Note on this family to 
which you kindly gave publicity under 12 S. 
ix. 49, I have obtained a considerable 
amount of information from several of your 
readers particularly from Mr. R. Gordon 
Smith, of Manor Road, Brockley for which 
I am very grateful. 

It is thought that Dickson, the fur mer- 
chant, was a connexion of the Dicksons of 
Hartree, and I think proof of this might be 
obtained if the full pedigree of the family of 
Dickson of Hartree was compiled. 

John Dickson acquired the lands of Kil- 
bucho in 1630, and those of Hartree in 1633. 
In 1649 he was raised to the Bench as Lord 
Hartree. At his decease he gave the lands 
of Kilbucho to his son William, who was a 
Commissioner of Supply, in 1704, and the 
lands of Hartree to his son John, also a Com- 
missioner of Supply in 1704, but the two 



estates became united in the early part of 
this century. The first-named John Dickson, 
of Kilbucho and Hartree, had 18 chil- 
dren, 10 of whom appear to be unaccounted 
for. He died in 1653. I understand there 
is a great mass of papers and letters carefully 
docketed and separated into various boxes 
for various generations at Hartree, and if 
these documents were examined the con- 
nexion between the two families might be 
established. 

In, 1908, Major-General J. B. B. Dickson 
(who will be mentioned later) wrote me : 
" I always understood that my father's 
family came from Hartree." 

One of the daughters of the fur merchant 
became a Mrs. Dodds, but so far I have been 
unable to obtain any information about her 
husband. 

It is thought that the fur merchant's 
youngest son was named James and that he 
married and had a daughter, Isabella Dick- 
son, who married James Simpson at Ravels- 
ton, on Nov. 26, 1790. James Simpson was 
factor, or something of that sort, to Sir 
William Foulis, Bart. James Simpson died 
April 27, 1819, and his wife on July 2 (?), 
1830, leaving with other issue, Helen, born 
Sept. 24, 1795, married John Anderson, July 
23, 1824, and died in 1863. 

With regard to the children of Samuel 
Dickson mentioned under 3 and 7 in my last 
note : 

3. Samuel Dickson was born March 29, 
1777. He resided in Edinburgh, and was a 
Writer to the Signet ; but I have not been * 
able to obtain any information about him 
except that he married and had issue : 

1. Samuel, born in Edinburgh, 1802, of 
whom presently. 

2. Thomas, died at St. Vincent. 

3. James. 

4. George. 

The date of Sanrnel Dickson's death is un- 
known. His eldest son, Samuel, born 1802, 
M.D., author of ' Chromo-Thermal System 
of Medicine at Edinburgh,' L.R.C.S. Edin. 
1825, obtained a commission as Asst.-Sur- 
geon in the Army and went to India to join 
the 30th Regt. of Foot. During five years' 
service in India he acquired a large surgical 
experience. On Jiis return home in 1833 he 
took his M.D. degree at Glasgow and began 
private practice at Cheltenham. He sub- 
sequently removed to Mayfair. Was also 
author of 'Hints on Cholera,' &c. The 
doctor married Aug. 1, 1832, Eliza, second 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. JULY 30, 1021. 



daughter of David Johnstone, Esq., of Over- 
toil, and died at 28, Bolton-street, Piccadilly, 
W, on Oct. 12, 1869, aged 67 years. By his 
wife he had issue : 

1. Lindsay F., born 1835, M.D., married 
Miss Kirkpatrick, a cousin of the Empress 
Eugenie, and had issue. 

2. Madeline, born 1836, married Binnie, 
Esq. 

3. Eliza, born 1838, died unmarried. 
(These three children were born at Chel- 
tenham.) 

4. John Baillie Ballantyne, born 1842, 
C.B. (Mil. 1893), C.M.G. (1901). Cornet 
Bengal Cavalry 1860. Adj. Lahore Light 
Horse, Adj. 18th Bengal Lancers ; ex- 
changed to Royal Dragoons ; Special Service 
Cape of Good Hope, 1879 (despatches, 
Zulu Medal and clasp) ; Nile Expedition, 
1884-5 ; D.A.A.G., andD.A.Q.M.G. (severely 
Wounded Abu Klea, despatches, medal with 
two clasps, bronze star) ; promoted Lieut- 
Col. 5th Dragoon Guards, commanded 
Regt. till 1893 ; commanded 49th Regimen- 
tal District, 1895-97 ; Jubilee Medal ; com- 
manded 4th Cavalry Brigade, 1897-99 ; 
commanded troops Straits Settlements, 
1899-1900; commanded 4th Cavalry Bri- 
gade, South Africa, 1900 (despatches, medal 
with five clasps). Retired 1891 as Hon. 
Maj.-Gen. Maior-General Dickson married 
(1) Marion (d. 1876) daughter of the late 
C. F. Huth ; (2) in 1889, Kathleen, daughter 
of the late W. J. Browne, of Buckland Fil- 
leigh, Devon, and has issue. 

Henry Gordon Dickson (seventh child of 
Samuel Dickson the builder) was born 1786, 
became a Writer to the Signet in 1817 and 
married August 1, the same year, Eliza, 
second daughter of Wm. Gillespie, merchant 
in Edinburgh. By his wife he had issue : 

1. Henry Gordon, born March 11, 1820, 
who became a Writer to the Signet in 1855. 
He married in 1851, Jane Alder, eldest 
daughter of Adolphus McDowall Ross, M.D., 
by his wife Catherine, third daughter of 
David Hume, Esq., one of the barons of the 
Court of Exchequer in Scotland. Mr. Dick 
son died without issue in 1889. 

2. William Gillespie, born 1823, of whom 
presently. 

3. Samuel, born Jan. 12. 1826, appren- 
ticed to Henry Gordon Dickson, passed W.S. 
in 1855. He married July 31, 1860, Mary 
Campbell, youngest daughter of David 
Johnstone, of Overton, by his wife Lindsay, 
4th daughter of the Rev. Dr. George Camp- 



bell, and niece of John Campbell, 1st Lord 
Campbell, the distinguished lawyer. 

4. George Claud, a farmer in Buenos 
Ayres, married a Miss J. J. Keene, of Buenos 
Ayres, and had issue. 

5. Eliza, born 1829, died 1831, aged 2. 
Mr. Dickson died Sept. 30, 1860, aged 

74. His 2nd son, William Gillespie Dickson, 
wts born April 9, 1823. Legal writer. 
He was admitted 9th March, 1847, Advocate, 
L.L.D. In 1868 he was Sheriff -Substitute 
at Glasgow ; Sheriff-Principal of Lanark- 
shire, and sometime Procureur and Advo- 
cate-General of Mauritius. He was the 
author of standard book- ' Treatise of Law 
of Evidence in Scotland.' He married in 
1856 Mary C. Tytler, daughter of John 
Tytler, M.D., and died suddenly Oct. 19, 
1876, having had by his wife issue : 

1. Henry Gordon Gillespie Dickson, born 
July, 1857, married Miss J. Toombe, of 
Warwick. 

2. Anne, died young. 

3. Elizabeth Mary, married 1875 Max- 
Well Hanny, Esq., and has issue : (a) 
Marion Tytler, (b) Maxwell Halliday. 

4. William John. 

5. Mary Bedingfeld Gillespie. 

6. A boy, died a baby. 

7. Barkley Gillespie, died 1898. 

8. A boy, died a baby. 

9. Charlotte Dorothea, married June 4th, 
1896, Seymer Mitford, 5th son of Sir 
Thomas Tancred, 7th Bart., of Borough- 
bridge, Co. York, and has issue : 

la. Seymer Thomas, born and died June 
5th 1898. 

la. Mary Tytler, born March 21st 1897. 

2a. Margaret Selby, born Feb. 13th 1900. 

I have not been able to obtain any in- 
formation regarding the descendants of 
the other sons and daughters of Samuel 
Dickson, the builder, but a genealogical 
correspondent informs me that her great 
grandfather was Robert Dickson, a well 
known architect in Edinburgh, and his 
father a builder and contractor, and thinks 
that her great grandfather may have been 
the Robert Dickson (ninth child of Samuel 
the builder) who was born Jan. 21st 1790. 
My correspondent adds that her great 
grandfather married Jean Lucas, sister of 
Dr. Lucas, a well-known physician in 
Edinburgh, and had issue : 

1. James Creighton Dickson, married 
Rebecca Sneddan, and went to Melbourne 
about 1854. 

2. Richard Dickson, married 3 times. 



.2S.ix.jrn.Y30.mM NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



3. Robert Dickson, married Emily Hanna 
dau. of Hamia by his wife MacMillan. 

4. John Dickson, married and had several 
children. 

5. Alexander Dickson, went to Australia. 

6. Joseph Dickson. 

My correspondent may be correct, but 
proof is lacking 

As mentioned at 12 S. ix. 49, the wife of 
Samuel Dickson, the builder, was Agnes 
Baillie, youngest daughter of Thomas Baillie 
by his wife Helen Gordon. Thomas Baillie 
is said to have been connected with the 
Baillies of Lamington. but although an 
exhaustive search has been made, no proof 
of this has so far been found. By his wife 
Helen Gordon he had : 

1. Thomas, a colonel, died in India, 1799. 

2. John, merchant in Edinburgh, of 
whom presently 

3. William, born Nov. 20, 1744. 

4. Andrew, born Feb. 6, 1756. 

0. Janet. 

6. James. 

7. Agnes, married Samuel Dickson. 
John Baillie, merchant in Edinburgh, 

married July 29th 1764, Margaret, da a. of 
Alexander Sutherland, of Ackergill, Wick, 
farmer, and had issue : 

1. George Robertson Baillie, of whom 
presently, 

2. Helen, born May 2nd, 1772. 

3. Margaret, born Sept. 16 1774, died 
April 22, 1776. 

4. Margaret, born April 12, 1777, died 
Stpt, 8, 1779 

George Robertson Baillie, born Dec. 14, 
1769 (baptised Dec. 20, 1769 ; witnesses 
Thomas Baillie, Millwright at the Water 
of Leith, and Peter Reid of Edinburgh). 
.Army surgeon in Jamaica, 1788-91, pract. in 
England, returned to West Indies, 1794, 
where he served till 1811. Deputy Inspector 
of Hospitals in England, 1816. Had 19 
years' foreign and 8 years' home service ; 
consultant in Sloane Street, London, W., 
Crest on seal: A boar's head erased. 

His " Record of Services " is as follows : 

I commenced the study of my profession in 
1783 with Alexander & George Wood, Surgeons, 
Edinburgh, and served 5 years 4 years of which 
I attended the professor of Anatomy and Surgery 
Theory and practice of Physic-chemistry and 
Materia .Medica in that University, and in 1788 
1 received a diploma in surgery. 

In 1788 I was appointed Surgeon's Mate to 
14th Regt. of Foot then stationed at Jamaica. 

In 1791 I returned to England and in the year 
following in consequence of bad health I left 
the army and entered into private practice at 



Edinburgh. In 1794 my health being re-estab- 
lished, I was appointed Hospital Mate and again 
sent to West Indies. In 1795 while at St. Vin- 
cent, and doing duty, I was captured by the 
French and sent to Guadaloupe where I was 
kept a close prisoner at first in Common Jail 
then to Prison Ship where I suffered great hard- 
ships and privations for months. 

On my release in 1796 was appointed by Dr. 
Young, Surgeon in Second, to 14th Regt. of 
Foot, 

In 1801 Staff Surgeon at capture of Danish 
Island of St. Croix and second time captured by 
enemy and sent to Spanish Settlement of Cxir- 
rana and was not released till the peace of 1802. 
In same year, I was sent to Dominica where I 
remained two years ; during this time Yellow 
Fever raged among the troops ; the Surgeon and 
Asst. Surgeon were both confined with that fever 
and the latter died therefore the whole duty 
devolved upon me ; in consequence, Major- 
General Provost was pleased to notice my zeal 
to Sir William Meyers, Commander of the 
Forces : 

" The exemplary humane and diligent dis- 
charge of the duty of Garrison Surgeon as 
performed by Mr. Baillie during the distress 
and sickness has made too lasting an impres- 
sion on my mind to allow such unusual 
qualifications to pass by without a feeble 
effort to bring his merit to notice. 

" The Commander of the Forces directs 
that Dr. Baillie the Surgeon may be informed 
that he is fully sensible of his Merits on this 
occasion and the report will be transmitted 
to His Royal Highness the Commander- 
in-Chief. 

"(Signed) C. GRANT, Major." 
In 1804, was removed and sent to St. Vincent 
where I remained till 1811 but my long residence 
in West Indies, for nearly 17 years, my health 
was so much injured that I obtained leave of 
absence to return to England for recovery where 
I was again put in duty (before my expiration 
of my leave) at Depot Hospital, Canterbury, and 
was ordered to Peninsular in 1812 but on my 
arrival there was unable to undertake Field 
Duty. I was sent back in following year to Eng- 
land in bad health and third time captured by 
enemy and sent to France and was kept a prisoner 
of war until 1814. 

On 25th June, 1815, I was ordered to Flanders, 
in consequence of Battle of Waterloo on which 
occasion I received the thanks of Sir John Meade, 
Deputy Inspector of Hospitals, for the promptness 
in which I obeyed the order to embark. 

I continued with the Army in France until 
February. 1816, and since that period I have 
had charge of Channel Islands Jersey, Guernsey, 
and Alderney with Brevet Rank of Deputy 
Inspector of Hospitals. 

(Signed) G. R. BAILLIE. 
1st April, 1819, Jersey. 

Dr. Baillie married in St. Vincent, Oct. 27, 
1808, Jane Ann, dau. of Charles John 
Warner, of Bequia, one of the Grenadines, 
and had issue : 

1. George, born Sept, 13, 1809 ; M.R.C.S., 
Govt. surgeon in St. Vincent. J. P. 1847 of 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. ri2S.ix. JULY 30. 1921. 



Bequia, removed to Trinidad. He married 
a sister of Major Board, and died 1878. She 
died .... and is burried in St. Vincent. 
Issue : 2 children. 

2. Elizabeth, born March 17, 1811, died 
Jan. 9, 1839. 

3. Charles, born March 1, 1813, died at 
Jersey, Mar. 12 1846. He married and 
had: 

(1) Charles Deyman Baillie, Born 1837, 
Lt.-Col. 2nd. Foot, d. 1916. 

4. Frederick, born Feb. 25, 1816. M.R.C.S., 
Army Medical Staff, d.s.p. 1846 at Corfu. 

5. Adelaide, born Jan. 30, 1817, married 
May 14, 1839, at Holy Trinity Church, 
Brompton, Edward Horncastle Smith, Sur- 
geon, born July 28, 1813. He died 1842 
aged 29 and she died 1868, and is buried at 
Shooter's Hill. 

6. Louisa, born Oct. 14, 1818, died young. 
T. Thomas, born April 8, 1820, died un- 
married. 

8. Mary, born Oct. 13, 1821. 

The Times of Mar. 23, 1838, states : 

' On 20th. inst., at Sloane Street, aged 67 
years, Dr. George Robertson Baillie, deputy 
Inspector-General of Army Hospitals.' 

Dr. Baillie in his will mentions an inden- 
ture of 5,000 relating to his marriage with 
Jane Ann Warner, eldest dau. of Charles 
John Warner, Esq., of Bequia. His said 
wife died in 1823. He mentions children : 
Adelaide, Elizabeth, Louisa, Charles and 
Thomas Baillie. Dated 1836. Proved 1838. 
JAMES SETON- ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 
(To be continued.) 



THE IVORY GATE OF VIRGIL: 
ENGLISH MISCONCEPTION. 

IN the closing lines of the Sixth 
Aeneid two gates of sleep (i.e., dreams) 
are described " the one, as story tells, 
of horn, supplying a ready exit for true 
spirits ; the other gleaming with the polish 
of dazzling ivory, but through it the powers 
below send false dreams to the world above " 
(Conington). The last two lines in Latin' 
are : 

Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephant o, 
" Sed falsa ad coelum mittumt insomnia manes." 

Compare Tibullus, Book II., 6, 37. 

" Ne tibi neglecti mittant mala sonmia manes." 
" Insomnia " appears to include bad 
dreams and a restless obsession like that of 



Dido at the beginning of the Fourth Aeneid. 
Virgil obviously founded his account of the 
gates on Odyssey xix. 562, even in the 
rhythm of " nitens elephant o." The word 
\<j>as in the Odyssey is associated with 
the verb rXc^cupeo-lcu, " deceive," as Kepas, 
" horn," is with upatvciv, " accomplish." 
The elephant was unknown to Homer, and 
Herodotus does not associate it with tricky 
behaviour. Perhaps the suggested deriva- 
tion of the two materials is a mere pun, or 
may it be due to the reputation of the 
Phoenicians as tricky traders in ivory ? An- 
chises dismisses Aeneas and the Sibyl by the 
Ivory Gate. Why this is chosen is not clear, 
unless because he was no " true ghost." 
But the preference for this gate seems to have 
fixed it in the mind of some English writers 
as that of true vision. Perhaps they have 
not troubled to examine the references in 
Virgil and Homer, or have forgotten them, 
and have naturally supposed that, ivory 
being a much more valuable material than 
horn, the Ivory Gate was associated with 
truth and fair dreams. Perhaps also they 
may have been influenced by such passages 
as " out of the ivory palaces, whereby they 
have made thee glad." (Psalm 45, 8.) What- 
ever be the reason, the Ivory Gate stands in 
passages where the other would seem more 
correct unless, indeed, the writers regard 
fiction as " unfulfilled " and " false dreams." 
William Morris, in the charming poem intro- 
ducing ' The Earthly Paradise,' writes : 

Dreamer of dreams, born out of my due time, 
Why should I strive to set the crooked straight ? 
Let it suffice me that my murmuring rhyme 
Beats with light wing against the ivory gate, 
Telling a tale not too importunate 
To those who in the sleepy region stay, 
Lulled by the singer of an empty day. 

I do not quite gather what the situation is 
as envisaged by Morris ; but he surely would 
not care to compare his visions to " falsa 
insomnia." They are not deceitful : rather 
they make their appeal as true to life and 
art. It was not till some years later, I 
note, that Morris translated the Aeneid. 

A clear case of error occurs in ' The Dozy 
Hours and Other Papers,' by an accom- 
plished essayist, Dr. Agnes Repplier. For 
in the first of her essaj^s, which gives the title 
to her book, she speaks of letter-writers 
" sure to put us into a good and amiable 
frame of mind, fit for fair slumber and the 
ivory gates." Later in the same para- 
graph, I read that, " unless we go cheerfully 
to bed the portals of horn open for us with 
sullen murmur, and fretful dreams, more 



12 s. ix. JULY so, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



disquieting than even the troubled thoughts 
of day, flit batlike round our melancholy 
pillows." 

Mr. Compton. Mackenzie has made, if I 
remember right, the same mistake in his 
' Poor Relations ' ; but novelists in these 
days do not worry about the correctness 
of their allusions ; and " ivory " being 
a prettier word than " horn," the gate of 
insomnia is likely to continue its vogue as a 
piece of frippery for the sentimental modern. 

V.R. 



PRINCIPAL LONDON COFFEE-HOUSES, 

TAVERNS, AND INNS IN THE 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



(See 12 S. vii. 485 for previous references.) 

" Mr. Prynn's books, having been made 
use of for waste paper, begin now to be got 
into curious hands, purely for this reason, 
because he commonly cites his vouchers for 
what he delivers, and thereby gives his 
reader an opportunity of examining the 
truth of them." 

THOMAS HEARNE, Aug. 25, 1719. 



ADDITIONAL ABBREVIATIONS. 

Chancellor's Strand^' The Annals of the Strand,' 
by E. Beresford- Chancellor, 1912. (Chap- 
man and Hall.) 

Clinch =' Marylebone and St. Pancras : their his- 
tory, Celebrities, Buildings and Institutions,' 
by George Clinch, Truslove and Shirley, 1890. 

Diary of Viscount Percival = ' Manuscript of the 
Earl of Egmont.' Hist. MSS. Com. Diary of 
Viscount Percival, 1920. 



Garrards = ' The Story of Garrards : Goldsmiths 
and Jewellers, 1721-1911.' (Stanley Paul 
and Co.) 

Harben=Harben's ' Dictionary of London,' 1918. 

Heiron's Ancient Freemasonry, 1921 = Arthur 
Heiron's ' Ancient Freemasonry and the Old 
Dundee Lodge, No. 18. 1722-1920.' (Ken- 
ning and Son, 1921.) 

Jacob = Reginald Jacob's ' Covent Garden,' 1913. 

Levander, A. Q. C. Vol. xxix., 1916 = ' F. W. 
Levander's ' The Collectanea of the Rev. 
Daniel Lysons, F.R.S.' Ars Quatuor Corona- 
torum. vol. xxix, 1916. 

Mitton and Besant's Hampstead = ' Hampstead 
and Marylebone,' by G. E. Mitton and Sir 
Walter Besant, 1902. (Adam and Charles 
Black.) 

Parish Clerks' Remarks of London=' New 
Remarks of London, or a Survey of the 
Cities of London and Westminster, of South- 
wark and part of Middlesex and Surrey 
within the circumference of the Bills of Mor- 
tality ' Collected by the Company of Parish 
Clerks. Printed for E. Midwinter at the 
Looking Glass and Three Crowns in St. 
Paul's Churchyard, 1732. 

Rimbault's Soho = ' Soho and its Associations,' 
by E. F. Rimbault and George Clinch. 
(Dulau and Co., 1895.) 

Rylands A.Q.C., vol. iii, U890=W. Harry Rylands's 
' A Forgotten Rival of Masonry : The Noble 
Order of Bucks.' Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, 
vol. iii. 1890. 

Shakespear's Head =" Memoirs of the Shake- 
spear's Head in Covent Garden,' 2 vols. 
1755. 

Smales and Tuck' Illustrations of the Site and 
Neighbourhood of the New Post Office, St. 
Martin's le Grand, etc., with an account of 
the ancient Mourning Bush Tavern, Alders- 
gate, and various London Taverns, its con- 
temporaries.' (Smales and Tuck, 1830.) 

Timbs's Clubs =' Clubs and Club Life in London 
from the Seventeenth Century to the present 
time,' by John Timbs, 1898. (Chatto and 
Windus.) 

Wheatley's Bond Street =' A Short History of 
Bond Street, Old and New,' by H. B. Wheat- 
ley. (Fine Art Society, 1911.) 



THIRD SUPPLEMENTARY LIST. 



Adam's 
Adlam's 

Admiral Vernon and 

Porto Bello 
Albemarle 
Aldersgate 

Amsterdam . 



Red Lion Street, Holborn 
Near the Duke of Newcastle's 
house, Lincoln's Inn Fields 
Norwood Common 

Dover Street 

Between Aldersgate Street and 

Little Britain 

Near the Royal Exchange 



1720 
1744 



Daily Courant, July 8. 
General Advertiser, March 12. 



Anchor (Blew Anchor) Little Britain (north side) 



Anchor and Baptist Chancerv Lane, West side 

Head 
Andrew's . . . . Corner of Eastcheap 



1745 Levander A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

1751 Levander A. Q.C., Vol. xxix,. 1916. 
1780 Public Advertiser, Jan. 11. Smales 

and Tuck, p. 11. 
1712 Defoe to Lord Harley : Portland 

MSS., October 3. 
1722 London Journal, April 7. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks ' Remarks of London,' 

p. 39. 

1744 London Daily Post, Feb. 21. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 
p. 143. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 136, 161. 
1720 Daily Courant, Nov. 21. 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. JULY 30, 1021. 



Angel 

Angel 
Angel 

Angel 
Angel 
Angel 

Angel and Crown . . 

Angels 

Artichoke 

Artichoke (some- 
times Hartichoke) 
Atkinson's 

Ax 



Axe and Crown 
Bacchus and Bunch 

of Grapes 
Bag o' Nails 

(Bacchanals) 
Baleard's 
Baptist Head 
Baptist Head 

Barleymow 
Barleymow 
Basing House 

Baxter's 

Bear 

Bear 

Bear 

Bear and Ragged 
Staff 

Bedford Court 
Bell 

Bell 

Bell 

Bell 

Bell 

Bell . . .. 

Bell .. .. .. 

Bell 

Bell 

Bell . 



Bell .. 



Upper end of Fleet Market, West 

Side 

Aldersgate Street, East Side . . 
Blackman Street, South wark, 

West Side 

Next to the " Bxill and Mouth," 

Martin's le Grand 
Ilford 

Ironmonger Lane 

Broad Street 

Upper St. Martin's Place . . 

Opposite St. George's Fields, 

Newington Butts 
Newgate Street 

Old Bailey -. . . . 

Aldermanbury 



Downing Street, Westminster. . 
Broad Street, Golden Square . . 

Arabella Bow, Buckingham 

Palace Road 
Albemarle Street 
Cateaton Street 
Corner of Aldermanbury, facing 

Milk Street. 
Frog Lane, Islington 
Salisbury Court, Fleet Street . . 
at 27. Kingsland Road, Shore- 
ditch 

Dover Street 

Holborn, near Bloomsbury Sq. 
Lime Street 

At foot of Strand.Bridge 
West Smithfield, N.E. corner . . 

Bedford Court, Covent Garden 

Mincing Lane 

Grub Street 

Red Lyon Market, Whitecross 

Street 
Bell Yard, Fleet Street 

West Smithfield, east side 
Coleman Street, east side and 

south of Armourers' Hall 
Bell Docks, Rotherhithe 
Between Great Swallow Street 

and Heddon Street 
Dirty Lane, Long Acre 
Holborn, opposite Fetter Lane 

Addle Hill, Doctors' Commons. 



1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 



1744 
1720 



86 



1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' Smales and 

Tuck, p. 21. 
1761 Scott and Hildesley's 'The Case of 

Requisition,' 1920, p. 241. 
1712 ' London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv., 92. 

1735 The Craftsman, Sept. 20. 
1785 Levander A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1739 ' N. & Q.', March 5, 1921, p. 196. 

1744 ' London Topographical Record,' 

1903, ii., 97. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 382. 

1744 London Daily Post, Jan. 5. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
Thornbury, iv., 60. 

1714 Portland M8S. ; Harley Papers iii. 

381. 
Thornbury v. 9 ; Larwood, p. 347. 

General Advertiser, March 19. 

Daily Post, Dec. 29. 

Gomme's G.M.L., Part xv., p. 228. 

Timbs's ' Clubs,' p. 457. 
Levander A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
' N. & Q.' Aug. 23, 1879, pp. 147, 253, 

1785 Levander A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 19 16. 

Marquis of Bath MS., iii., 393. 
1732 'Parish Clerks' Remarks of London' > 

p. 388. 
1707 Midd. and Herts: ' N. & Q.', 1896, 

ii., 122. 
1732 'Parish Clerks' Remarks of 

London', p. 394. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey ' 
1735 Lane's 'Handy Book,' p. 184. 
1749 Levander A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1743 Levander A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

1720 Daily Courant, Aug. 9. . ' London 
Topographical Record,' 1903, p. 38 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

Levander A.Q.C., vol. xxix.', 1916. 
1720 Wheat-ley's Bond Street: plate I. 

1735 The Weekly Oracle, Feb. 1. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks ' Remarks of London', 

p. 394 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1706 ' London Topographical Record ' 

1906, iii., 164. 

1744 London Daily Post, Jan. 28- 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1754 Simpson's ' City Taverns and 
Masonry.' 



12 s. ix. JULY so, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Bell . 



Bell . . 



Bell (One Bell) 



Fell and Dragon 



Aldeisgate, two doors from the 
Barbican 



Friday Street, west side .. 1732 'Parish Clerks' Remarks of Lon- 

don/ p. 394. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1749 ' London Topographical Record.' 

1907, iv., 96. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London." 

p. 382. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey,' Thornburv ii.. 

227. 

North of St. Mary-le-Strand 1714 Marquis of Ailsbury MS. 1898, p. 217 
Church 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of 

London,' p. 383. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1754 Public Advertiser', Feb. 15. 

Hog Lane, St. Leonard's, Shore- D.N.B., art., T. Topham. 

ditch. 

(To be continued.) 



CHRIST'S HOSPITAL AND THE NAVY. On 
his recent visit (May 12) to Christ's Hospital 
at Horsham, the Prince of Wales, who is 
President of the institution, emphasized, in 
his address to the boys, the manner in which 
the traditions of the school had been handed 
down intact, and spoke with pride of its roll 
of honour, which contains nearly 400 names 
of " Old Blues " who gave their lives in the 
Great War. The Heir Apparent did not dis- 
criminate between the naval and the mili- 
tary services rendered by the long list of 
those who won distinctions, including two 
Victoria Crosses ; but it is of special interest 
to recall an early connexion Christ's Hospital 
had with the work of training for the Navy. 

In the Calendar of Treasury Books 
1672-1675 (pp. 379-80) is noted Treasurer 
Osborne's subscription of a docquet, dated 
Aug., 1673, of a declaration of the King's 
pleasure for erecting and establishing a 
foundation within Christ's Hospital in Lon- 
don for the maintenance of 40 poor boys to 
be chosen out of the Blue Coat boys there, 
who are to be educated in a mathematical 
school to be built for that purpose within 
the said Hospital until their proficiency in 
arithmetic and navigation shall have fitted 
them for public service, which boys are to be 
called the children of the New Royal Founda- 
tion and to be distinguished from the other 
boys by a special badge in cognizance to be 
worn upon their blue coats : for which the 
King grants to the Governor of the said 
Hospital 1,000 a year for seven years from 
June 24 last, .with licence to him to lay out 
the same in the purchase of lands in fee 
simple to the uses aforesaid, and to purchase 
any other lands not exceeding 1,000 per 
annum to them and their successors, not- 
withstanding the Statute of Mortmain. 



Doubtless, those intimately acquainted 
with Christ's Hospital can tell the subsequent 
history of this special grant, a number of 
payments on account of which are to be found 
in the Treasury Books' Calendar above noted. 
ALFRED BOBBINS. 

SAUNDERS WELCH. Johnson's close as- 
sociation with Welch is recorded by Boswell 
in chapter 61, which deals with the vear 
1777. 

Johnson maintained a long and intimate friend- 
ship with Mr. Welch, who succeeded the celebrated 
Henry Fielding as one of his Majesty's justices of 
the peace for Westminster ; kept a regular office 
for the police of that great district, and discharged 
his important trust for many years faithfully and 
ably. Johnson, who had an eager and unceasing 
curiosity to know human life in all its variety, told 
me that he attended Mr. Welch in his office for a 
whole winter. , 

Many writers, on this statement, have 
alleged that Welch was Fielding's successor 
at Bow Street e.g., Larwood in his ' History 
of Sign-boards,' in explaining the derivation 
of the Welch Head in Dyott Street, St. 
Giles, says, " Saunders Welch kept a regular 
office of the police of that district in which 
he succeeded Fielding." 

As a fact Fielding was succeeded by his 
blind half-brother John, and Mr. Austin 
Dobson, in his ' Life of Fielding,' declines 
to accept Boswell's statement. Says Mr. 
Dobson : 

John Fielding succeeded his brother at Bow 
Street, though the post is sometimes claimed on 
Boswell's authority for Mr. Welch. The mistake 
no doubt arose from the circumstance that they 
frequently worked in concert. 

During the whole time Henry Fielding was 
a magistrate, Welch occupied the post of 
High Constable of Holborn, and Welch 
carried out many raids on gaming-houses 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. ms.ix. JULY so, 1921. 



under Fielding's directions. So excellent; 
an officer was Welch that Fielding wrote to j 
Lord Chancellor Hardwicke, on Dec. 6, 1753, 
recommending Welch's name for the Com- 
mission, but Welch was not actually ap- 
pointed till April, 1755, when Fielding was i 
dead. 

It appears that there is a more specific j 
reason for the confusion to which Mr. Dobson 
refers, which may be thus stated : 

I. In the 18th century there existed two j 
Bow Streets in close proximity. There \ 
was the present Bow Street lying between 
Co vent Garden and Drury Lane, but not 
then extending into Long Acre. There t 
was also a Bow Street which, as may be ! 
readily seen in Rocque's Survey of 1745, w T as 
an extension of Drury Lane north of Oxford 
Street. It is now the southern end ofi 
Museum Street. 

II. I have shown ( ' Modern Language Re- ! 
view' for April, 1917, at p. 233) that Henry 
Fielding's house on the west side of the more 
famous thoroughfare was two doors north 
of the still existing Bunch of Grapes \ 
publichouse and was rated at 63. By the 
assistance of Mr. R. Holworthy's Sewer- 
Rolls I am now able to state that in a 

' Presentment for Raising money to pay for 
Work about Hartshorne Lane Sewer,' 1749, 
roll 275, Saunders Welch's name appears 
as a householder in the Bow Street of St. 
Giles parish (membrane No. 131) ass3ssed 
at 23, the highest figure in the street. Ergo, 
Saunders Welch was a Bow Street magistrate, 
but not of Fielding's Bow Street. 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 
1, Essex Court, Temple. 

AN UNPUBLISHED LETTER OF LADY 
HAMILTON. The subjoined letter was 
written by Lady Hamilton in a kind, but 
vain, endeavour to save a man of the name 
of Joseph Woolman Thompson (who had 
served as a sailor in the Navy), from sen- 
tence of death for forgery. 

After his execution, his widow, who was 
left with three young children, made an 
appeal for relief. Amongst the seventeen 
who subscribed to it are the names of 
" Miss Horatio [sic] Nelson " and " Lady 
Hamilton," who each gave a guinea. 

150 Bond St., August llth, 1812. 

Your Lordships known goodness to humanity is 
so well known that. I will not make an opoligy for 
writing in haste as it will be the means of saving 
a Life which has been sadly misrepresented if 
Thompson can be reprieved till the enclosed 
Documents can be looked into poor fellow he was 



a Sailor and you my Dear Lord who loved Nelson 
and his brave Companions will I am sure do 
your utmost for poor suffering Thompson and 
tomorrow allso being the Birth day of our Dear 
and gracious Prince Beg I Humbly beseech you 
the life of this persecuted man be saved till you 
see He is worthy of being saved which I hope you 
will be convinced he is and your Lordship will 
have the Blessings of a numerous and respectable 
family and eternally oblige. 

Your Lordships ever 
Gratefull 

EMMA HAMILTON. 
[Viscount Sidmouth, 
&c., &c., &c.] 

E. H. FAIRBROTHER. 

CARLYLE AND A BOOKSELLER. The follow- 
ing is a note from Thomas Carlyle, written 
in his own hand on a 4to sheet of paper : 

Mem. For Mr. Menzies, Edin., 2 Copies of 
Carlyle' s Frederick, to the respective addressed : 

lo, " Mrs. Austin, The Gill, Cummertrees," &c. 
And 2^, Mr. Carlyle, Scotsbrig, Ecclefechan " : 

Be so good as wrap them into one Parcel, 
addressed " Mr. Carlyle, Scotsbrig, Ecclefechan " 
(2d of the already given addresses) ; convey 
said Parcel across to the Caledonian Railway 
Station, and despatch : it will, once started, get 
to its place in four hours, after lying about 5 weeks 
in its present quarters ! 

T. C. 
Chelsea, 1 Nov., 1858. 

N.B. If No. 2 is gone (whh I doubt), despatch 
No. 1, with its own address, from same place ; 
and buy a Bradshaic or Murray for future use ! 

The Mr. Menzies mentioned was John 
Menzies, founder of the firm of John Menzies 
and Co., Ltd., wholesale booksellers, Edin- 
burgh. Mr. Menzies did no retail trade, 
and Carlyle got consequently little attention 
from his staff. " Murray " refers to a 
railway time-table published by a Glasgow 
firm of that name. 

Tok Q T. RUDDIMAN JOHNSTON. 



PETRONIUS AND A MODERN ADVERTISE- 
MENT. In the tube I observe an advertise- 
ment of a new brand of rum. It pictures 
two workmen, both blown about by the wind 
and shivering in overcoats. A sailor, with 
no such protection, has one hand on a gigan- 
tic bottle of the rum and the other extended 
in an oratorical position. The legend be- 
neath runs : 
WORKMAN : G-^od morning, Jack, lost your 

overcoat ? 

OCEAN WAVE : No, THIS has been the overcoat 
of the Navy for centuries. 

The rabble of Rome in the days of Xero 
was capable of a similar sentiment. In the 
' Cena Trimalchionis ' of Petronius, 41, 



12 s. ix. JULY so, 1921.] NOTES AND. QUERIES. 



89 



Dam i, a freedmin, remarks : " Tamencalda 
potio Vestiarius est." = " Still a warm drink is 
the best clothier." Seleucus takes him up 
with objections to bathing, and adds, " Sed 
cum mulsi pultarium obduxi, frigori laecasin 
dico," i.e., " But when I have drunk a good 
pot of mead, I bid the cold go and be hanged." 
Thus Roms in Nero's cUy supplies a pre- 
cedent for a twentieth-century advertise- 
ment. NEL MEZZO. 

THE ASKE FAMILY. Some time ago a 
correspondant asked me for information about 
this family which I was unable to give. I 
have found a passage which may be useful, 
but I have lost my correspondent's name 
and address. If ' N. & Q.' will kindly print 
the following, it may meet the right eyes : - 

John Aske, Esq., d. 1605. His son 
Richard Aske, of London, sergeant-at-law, 
Counsel to the Regicides and Master of the 
Crown Office, d. 1656, leaving by Joan his 
wife, daughter of Thomas Heber, of Marton, 
Yorks, and widow of Thomas Lister, of 
Arnoldsbiggin : 

1. Richard, a barrister, whose son Conan 
was living in 1714. 

2. Thomas. 

3. Rev. Nathaniel Aske, rector at Somer- 
ford Magna, Wilts, d. 1674, leaving a son, 
Richard, a minor. 

4. Mary. 

5. Elizabeth, m. Shaw. 

Trans, of the East Riding Antiquarian 
Society, vol. vi. (1898), p. 51n. 

M. H. DODDS. 

LONDON CLUBS: BIBLIOGRAPHY (12 S. 
x. 41). ; There are two other modern works 
which W. Alack Abrahams might well 
have included in his list, viz : ' Clubs and 
Clubmen,' by Major Arthur Griffiths 
(Hutchinson and Co., 1907), and ' London 
Clubs, their History and Treasures.' by 
Ralph Nevill (Chatto and Windus, 1911). 

WlLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 
80, St. George's Square, S.W. 

Readers of ' N. & Q.' generally will share 
Mr. Aleck Abr.ihams's opinion that the 
future complete Bibliography of London 
must include fts one of its sub-headings 
' Clubs and Coteries,' for, among other 
reasons, that these are a distinctive feature 
of London history and topography, and 
will be grateful to him for the interesting 
preliminary list he has given us at the above 



reference. I feel that all who can do so 
will help him to make the list as exhaustive 
as possible so that it may be of real assist- 
ance to the compilers of the much-needed 
Bibliography. At the present moment I 
can offer but two additions to Mr. Abrahams's 
list. 

' The Kennel Club. A History and 
Record of Its Work,' 1873-1905; 4to, 
pp. 429 ; and " The Political Economy 
Club.' Founded in 1821. Centenary 
volume. Vol. vi., Macmillaji, 1921, 21s. 
net. P. A. RUSSELL. 

116, Arran Road, S.E.6. 

IT may interest Mr. Aleck Abrahams to 

know that * Notes and Jottings on Hanover 

Square and the St. George's Club ' was 

written by J. B. Payen-Payne, about 1886. 

DE V. PAYEN-PAYNE. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



WHYTE -MELVILLE AND ADAM LINDSAY 
GORDON. In Miss Humphris and Mr. 
Douglas Sladen's ' Adam Lindsay Gordon ' 
(1912) someone, unnamed, is stated (p. 203) 
to have said that Why te -Melville praised 
Adam Lindsay Gordon's well-known poem 
' How we beat the favourite.' When did 
Whyfce-Melville appraise Gordon's work ? 
Mr. Sladen tells me he does not know. 
Further, in what English paper was 
Gordon's verse first noticed ? In Baily's 
Magazine of Mar., 1870, H. A. Leveson, 
" the old shekarry," eulogized it. 

J. M. BULLOCH. 

37, Bedford Square, W.C. 

APPOINTMENT OF THE MAYOR BY AN 
ABBOT. -The Abbot of Reading enjoyed 
the privilege of appointing the Warden of 
the Guild Merchant, afterwards the Mayor, 
out of three burghers submitted to him 
by the Guild. What other abbots possessed 
a similar privilege, and what formalities 
were observed on the occasion of the 
appointment ? 

JAMIESON B. HURRY, M. D. 

Westfield. Reading. 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s,ix. JULY so, 1021. 



PROVERBIAL SAYINGS. (!) In Francis 
Hitchman's ; Richard F. Burton,' 1887, 
vol. ii., p. 340, the author, apparently 
quoting Burton himself about his voyage ! 
on the s.s. Queen to Iceland in 1872, j 
writes : 

The slaty green seas made the too lively Queen I 
dance and reel with excitement. The cabin table 
was put into its straightest [sic] waistcoat, and 
men avoided the deck .... Our numbers 
shrank at mess, and passengers seemed to become 
like the royal and feminine Legs of Spain. 

What is the allusion in ; ' like the royal; 
and feminine Legs of Spain " ? 

(2) In The Times of June 21, 1921, p. 15, 
s.v., " Gala day at the Horse Show " is 
the following : 

Certainly if drink, in the proverbial saying, has 
proved on occasion " the shortest way out of 
Manchester," it is hard to imagine a more speedy 
means of escape from our present host of worries 
than a visit to Olympia. 

Is or was such a proverbial saying cur- j 
rent ? ROBERT PIERPOINT. 



CAPTAIN JONES. If my memory is cor- 
rect Louis de Rougemont (see 12 S. viii. 
508 ; ix. 37), soon after his fraud had been 
discovered, made an affidavit to the effect 
that his stories were true. It is perhaps I 
worth recalling that apparently a similar i 
case had occurred over a century earlier, i 
In ' Elegant Extracts in Poetry,' Book iv., | 
before the middle, is the following : 

Epitaph on Captain Jones, 

Who published some marvellous Accounts of j 
his Travels, the Truth of all which he thought i 
proper to testify by 

AFFIDAVIT. 

TREAD softly, mortals, o'er the bones 

Of the world's wonder, Captain Jones ! 

Who told his glorious deeds to many 

But never was believ'd by any. 
Posterity let this suffice, 
He swore all's true, yet here he lies. 

In the edition of (?) 1796 the reference is 
p. 846 ; in that of 1816 it is p. 908. Is 
anything now known about this Captain 
Jones ? ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

CRUTTENDEN FAMILY. Anthony Crutten- 
den, of Burwash, Sussex, 1662 : John Crut- 
tenden, of Burwash, bearing arms, 1716. 
Were they i elated to Eward Holden 
Cruttenden, married at Trichinopoly, India, 
Mar. 1, 1819, Charlotte, daughter of 
Harry Taylor of the Madras Civil Service. 
Where can a pedigree of the family be seen ? 
LEONARD C. PRICE 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 



" Miss CROKER," BY SIR THOMAS 
RENCE. Can anyone give any information 
as to the parentage and marriage, if any, of 
the subject of this portrait ? 

T. C. RUSSELL PARSONS. 

PARSONS FAMILY MARRIAGE. Henry Par- 
sons, Esq., married Rebecca Chase Webb, of 
Wynyan House, Fulham, at Fulham, 1777. 
He is described as " of St. Martins in the 
Fields." Any information a,s to his occupa- 
tion and parentage very gratefully received. 
T. C. RUSSELL PARSONS. 

Forest Garth, near Christ church, Hants. 

RALPH IZARD. -Where can one see a copy 
of ' The Correspondence of Mr. Ralph Izard, 
of South Carolina, from the year 1774 to 
1804, with a short Memoir,' which was pub- 
lished in Boston, U.S.A., by his daughter in 
1844 ? The British Museum seems only to 
possess the first volume, which ends abruptly 
and contains no Memoir. G. F. R. B. 

SAMUEL MATTHEWS, ORGANIST. -When 
was he a lay Clerk at Winchester Cathedral ? 
For how long did he serve as organist at 
Trinity and St. John's, Cambridge ? He 
died Dec. 9, 1832. G. F. R. B. 

DR. JOHN MISAUBIN (12 S. viii. oil'; 
ix. 35). When was the doctor's son mur- 
dered, and where can I see an account of 
the murder ? G. F. R. B. 

MILBORNE. -Christopher and Clayton 
Milborne were admitted to Westminster 
School in Jan. 7, 1727, aged 11 and 12 res- 
pectively. Any information about them 
would be acceptable. G. F. R. B. 

MORRISON. -George Morrison was admit- 
ted to Westminster School in July, 1729, 
aged 12, and Robert Morrison in Juty. 1749. 
I should be glad to obtain any information 
about them. G. F. R, B. 

THOMAS PARRATT MEREDITH, son of 
James Meredith, of Westminster, was born 
May 1, 1782. I should be glad to know any 
particulars of his career. G. F. R. B. 

VALENTINE RANDOLPH was admitted to 
Westminster School in Jan.. 1724, aged 10. 
I should be glad to obtain any information 
about his parentage and career. 

G. F. R. B. 



,-s. ix. JULY so, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



GEORGE QUARME was Admitted to West- 
minster School in Jan., 1777. Particulars of 
his parentage and the date of his death are 
required. G. F. R. B. 

BARON RICASOLI. Can any reader tell 
where a good life of Baron Ricasoli may 
be found ? (*I have read much of Count 
Cavour.) He was born Mar., 1809, and was 
a trusty leader. W. W. GLEXXY. 

Barking, Essex. 

' DAILY ADVERTISER.' -Will one of your 
readers kindly tell me where a copy of this 
newspaper for Jan. 6 and 7, 1746, may be 



seen 



BERXARD KETTLE. 



Guildhall Librarv. 



SABINE. Can anyone give me particu- 
lars as to the parentage of William Sabine 
(approx. 1750-1815), a resident in Isling- 
ton and a freeman, of the City of London ? 
His dates I do not precisely know, but he 
had a son, William, born in 1787 and another, 
Ch -tries, born in 1796. 

I should also be obliged for the names, 
d-'.tes, &c., of the father, brothers (if any), 
and children of General Jos. Sabine, of Tewin, 
Herts (1662-1739). The 'D.X.B.' has been 
consulted. G. K. PRATT. 

THE MYSTERY OF RICHARD PARKER OF THE 
SORE (see 12 S. ix. 8, 42). I should much ap- 
preciate a reference to authorities, cr tangible 
foundation, for the statements on pp. 8-9 ante : 
(a) as to a sentimental interest having been 
retained for long, or at all taken, in all that 
relates to Richard Parker ; (b) as to ornaments 
found upon Parker's coffin years after [1797]. 
Without impugning the accuracy of the 
statements in question, I may say that search 
in contemporary and later works, where such 
" -"iitimental interest " would hardly have 
failed to find a place, and inquiry of persons 
likely to possess the knowledge have pro- 
duced no result. A narrative of Parker's 
career and a detailed account of the widow's 
dealings with his body are in Camden Pelham's 
' Chronicles of Crime,' 1841, vol. i., in which 
the latter is described as living, and " now 
seventy years of age, blind, and friendless." 

The accounts of Parker greatly differ as to 
the circumstances under which he became a 
seaman at the Nore ; but my concern is with 
the two matters above indicated, on which 
I trust the author of the note which has ap- 
peared in your columns will throw what further 
light he can. W. B. H. 



DR. JOHX KEATE, OF ETOX. Could any 
of your readers inform me whether Dr. John 
Keate, of Eton (b. 1773, d. 1852), was deis- 
cended from the Berkshire Keates, of West 
Hagborne, and through which branch ? 

C. B. D. 

APPLE CHRISTENING. To which date of 
the year (May 29, Oak Apple Day, or July 
15, St. Swithin) applies the saying, ' A 
shower to christen the apple ' ? Until 
this year I dated the saying as May What 
is a christening but that dene " early 
and the apple is decidedly young in May ! 
but I am disturbed in my belief because 1 he 
Daily Telegraph, July 16, 1921, has named 
St. Swithin for this christening event 
a period when the apple is ready for 
burial, i.e., eating ! It will be of interest 
to know the real history. 

WILLIAM R. POWER. 

157, Stamford Hill. N.I 6. 

"MADE THEM EAT BEAXS." Fosbroke 
(Encyclopedia of Antiquities, I., 221), in a 
short account of the Anglo-Saxon Alma- 
nack or Staffordshire Clogg, mentions 
that St. Gregory (March 13') is represented 
by a schoolmaster " holding a red and 
ferula in his hand. . . . because he founded 
the famous chant, whipped his scholars 
well, and made them eat beans." What is 
meant by the last sentence ? Has it any 
connexion with the slang expression " gave 
them beans " ? Reference is made to 
Hawkins's ' Mustek,' v. 57, 58, 346. I 
have not access to this book. 

G. B. MILLER. 

William Salt Library, Stafford. 

" CUCKOO PEX "' and " CUCKOO 
POUXD." Close to Wytch Farm, which 
is situated on the north coast of the Isle 
of Purbeck, are the remains of an old circular- 
rampart about 100 feet in diameter. A 
few trees stand in the rampart itself, and the 
stumps of others are visible. It is named 
on. the Ordnance Map " Cuckoo Pen,'' 
and by this name it is known by the local 
inhabitants. 

About a mile south of Leescn, Langton 
Matravers, is a small plantation of stunted 
trees surrounded by a dry stone wall. It 
is of an irregular quadrilateral shape and 
measures about 70 yards by 80 yards. It 
is named " Cuckoo Pound.'' 

These two objects, though so similarly 
named, bear no resemblance to each other. 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2S .ix. JULY so, 1021. 



I can find no explanation either of their 
names or of their original purposes. Can 
there be any connexion with the old story 
of *' walling the cuckco " ? Or might 
" Cuckoo Pen " be a euphemism for cock- 
pen or cockpit ? There was formerly an 
inn at Wytch where " skittling " was played ; 
possibly cock-fighting . was another attrac- 
tion. Are tnere any other cuckoo pens 
or cuckoo pounds in Dorset or elsewhere ? 
Any light on the subject would be grate- 
fully received. G. M. MABSTON. 

SIDESMAN. On p. 43 of ' Xew Elements 
of Conversation, French and English,' by C. 
Oros, author and editor of severa-1 books of 
instruction. Fifth edition, carefully revised 
3,nd corrected. London : 1824, and under 
the heading, ' A Diner : At Dinner,' you 
rec.d : " Que vous offrirai-je ; une cuisse ou 
une aile ? Je pref ere un morceau de la car- 
casse, le cote du croupion. / prefer a bit of 
the body, a sidesman." In the wordbooks 
one finds no example of " sidesman " in this 
sense. Where are other specimens of it to 
b3 met with ? EDWARD S. DODGSON. 

Poste Restante, Douglas, Tsle of Man. 

SIR THOMAS MILLER, OF CHIC-HESTER. 
Sir Thomas Miller, of Chichester, b. 1635, 
d. Dec. 2., 1705 ; knighted in 16 , 1st 
baronet (cr. 1705), J.P., Mayor and M.P. 
for Chichester, married in 1665 " Hannah." 
Neither on the memorial marble to him and 
" Hannah :! in the N". chancel aisle of 
Chichester Cathedral, nor in the Miller 
pedigree given by Dallaway and Cart- 
wright in their 'Western Sussex,' is any 
maiden name given for " Hannah."' This 
is now sought, also date of knighthood of 
Sir Thomas Miller. Family tradition says 
that Hannah was an " heiress " 

UVEDAXE LAMBERT. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Can any of your readers 
kindly tell me Author and Publisher of a book 
in which the following lines occur : 
" At last she raised her hand, appalled, 
And quickly found that she was bald, 
And for her speech did strive." 

And 

How would yoa feel, if General Bligh 
Were taken from us to the sky 

And you should be the cause ? 

The book, which is in verse, is a kind of bur- 
lesque on the " didactic " poetry once written for 
children. The writer is, I think, a woman. 

ALICE M. WILLIAMS. 
7, Ullswater Boad, 

West Norwood, 8.E.27. 



And 

Life is a Story in Volumes three. 
The Past, the Present, the Yet to be. 
The first is finished and laid away ; 
The Second we're reading day by day. 
The Third and last of the Volumes three 
Is locked from sight, God keepeth the kej . 
Walsall. s. A. GRUXDY-^EWMAN. 



'TO CURRY FAVOUR." 
(12 S. viii. 512; ix. 77.) 
THE ' X.E.D.,' under ' Favel,' says 
that ;i the phrase ' to curry Favel/ O.F. 
estriller, torcher Fauvel, comes from the 
Roman de Fauvel (1310), the hero of which 
is a counterpart of Reynard the Fox ;: and 
refers to Paulin Paris's ' Les manuscrits 
francais de la Bibliotheque du Roi,' I. 306. 
We are told that the phrase has been adopted 
in German as den fahlen hengst streichen,' 
but that ic it is not clear whether before the 
date of this poem a ' fallow ' horse was 
proverbial as the symbol of dishonesty." 
The German ' den fahlen hengst reiten ' (re- 
corded from the loth century) is quoted 
with the sense "to play an underhand 
game, act deceitfully." See also ' curry ' 
in Prof. Weekley's ' Etymological Dictionary 
of Modern English.' 

Paulin Paris, in the place referred to by 
!the ' X.E.D.,' gives a detailed account, 
with extracts, of a manuscript in the Biblio- 
theque Xationale containing the ' Roman 
de Fauvel ' with the curious addition of 
" motets, ballades et autres morceaux 
chantes," which were designed apparently to 
accompany the recitation of the Roman. 

The latest edition seems to be ' Le Roman 
de Fauvel par Gervais du Bus public d'apres 
tou's les manuscrits connus par Arthur 
Langfors,' Paris, Firmin Didot et Cie, 1914- 
1919 (Societe des anciens textes francais). 
The poem is an allegory. In the first book 
we are shown all people on the earth, the 
highest princes and potentates included, 
doing homage to Fauvel, who typifies the 
Vanities of the World. The second book 
describes Fauvel's Court and his proposal 
I to marry Dame Fortune. She repulses 
him and^he takes as his wife Vaine Gloire, 
The work has been ascribed to more than 
one author. In the text printed by Lang- 
f ors his name is given by means of an enigma 
as Gervais du Bus. " EDWARD BE^SLY. 

Much ITadham, Herts. 



12 s. ix. JULY 30. i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



WILLIAMS, EXECUTED 1618 (12 S. ix. 
12). The county to which Williams be- 
longed is mentioned in the notice of his 
case given on pp. 88-90 of ; Un Continuation 
des Reports de Henry Rolle Serjeant del ' 
Ley, De Divers Cases En le Court del " 
Banke le Roy. En le Temps del ' Reign de 
Roy Jaques/ London, 1676. The defen- 
dant is described as '' Williams de Essex " 
and said to be ; ' a Papist, and a Barrester 
del" Middle -Temple, mes expelled 7 ans 
passed pur Religion." Is not the date of 
his death 1619 ? A letter of May 4, 1619, 
from Mr. Lorkin to Sir Thomas Puckering, 
Bart., printed in ' The Court and Times of 
James the First/ London, 1848, has these 
words : " Yesterday being Monday, Williams 
the Author of Balaam's Ass, was arraigned 
at Westminster, and there condemned to be 
hanged, drawn, and quartered." On May 
5, the same correspondent writes. " I thought 
fit to add this word more, to let yoxi under- 
stand, how that this day Williams was 
executed at Charing Cross, according to 
the sentence in my last specified." James 
Howell in a letter dated Aug. 9,1648 ('Familiar 
Letters " iii. 22) has a reference to Williams 
and his ' Vision of Balaam's Ass,' and 
quotes some " prophetic verses of White- 
hall " upon this book, " which were made 
above twetxty years ago to my knowledge." 
EDWARD BENSLY. 

VERSES WANTED : CONJUGAL SQUABBLES 
( 12 S. ix. 53). These verses appeared in No. 2 
of The Toiler, April 14, 1709, with the title 
" The Medecin : A Tale for the Ladies." 
The author was William Harrison (1685- 
1713), remembered chiefly as* the friend of 
Swift, who mentions him frequently and 
with affection in the ' Journal to Stella.' His 
life is in the ' D.X.B.' Steele in his editorial 
introduction to the poem asserts that '' the 
Foundation is from a real Accident which 
happen'd among my Acquaintance." But 
the story is told in Burton's ' Anatom^ of 
Melancholy,' 3, 3, 4, 2. Harrison's poem 
- reprinted in ' A Select Collection of 
Poems,' printed and published by John 
Xichols, 1780-82, vol. vii., p. 234. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

Your correspondent will find the verses in 

Humourist's Miscellany,' 2nd edn, 

1804 (anon.), under title, at p. 17, of "A 

-M' deciiie for the Ladies." Recently I came 

he same verses in a weekly publica- 

i 'ii< \\>}>;iper) of the first half of the 18th 

tury, and the contribution was signed 



by (I think) Daniel Turner, the medical 
writer. GEORGE C. PEAC, ; EY. 

Ridge. Bariiet, Hert-. 

SIR BENJAMIN HAMMETT (12 S. ix. .12, 
58). He was a banker, partner in the firm 
of Sir James Esdaile and Co. Esdailes 
made a speciality of acting as agents for 
country bankers. When one of these, Wm. 
Clarke and Sons of Liverpool, got into 
difficulties, in 1799, Sir Benjamin came 
to Liverpool to investigate. The attorney 
for the bankers was a William Roscoe, just 
about to retire from the practice of the law 
on a comfortable competency. Hammett 
perceived his ability and made it a condi- 
tion of not throwing the estate into bank- 
ruptcy that Wm. Roscoe should join 
the firm. Roscoe repeatedly refused, but 
out of friendship for the Clarkes reluctantly 
consented. Sixteen years later this com- 
bination again came to grief, and the latter 
days of Wm. Roscoe were embittered. 
Esdailes themselves were wound up under a 
deed of inspection in 1837. They were 
then agents for 72 country banks, and their 
profit on agency account was estimated at 
25,000 yearly. I have the following note, 
taken from some philatelic paper whose 
name I have failed to record : "In the 
bad old days of franking, many mercantile 
houses paid members of Parliament for 
sending their letters under the member's 
autograph. Sir B. Hammett was accused 
of having made over 2,400 a year in 
this way." The author of the article 
! was H. I. Maguire. J. H. K. 

JAMES MACBUKNEY (12 S. viii. 431, 474, 
516). I see that Madame D'Arblay says 
he was steward to the Earl of Ashburnham. 
Tn 1716 and 1717 he was one of the trustees 
of the marriage settlement of Lord (not 
then Earl) Ashburnham, who married in 
1714 Lady Anglesey, one of the daughters 
and coteries of the ninth Earl of Derby. 
I There were two sets of trustees, one for each 
party, and as " James Mackbumie " he 
joined in several deeds by which -some of 
his wife's properties in Lancashire were 
sold to defray her husband's debts. Con- 
siderable sums were raised in this way. 
The Earl seems to have been extravagant, 
and in 1730 sold Ashburnham House, in 
Westminster, to the Crown. This had been 
built by Inigo Jones and was where some 
of the Cotton MSS. were destroyed by fire 
in 1731. R. S. B. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. ^-30,1921. 



ACID TEST (12 S. viii. 449). Mr. Wilson, 
late President of the United States, gave 
currency to this expression by employing 
it in one of his public papers at a time when, 
because of the majority here not being of 
c. mind with him, all that he said was 
subjected to close and unfriendly criticism. 
Many " phrases " which he coined or 
employed (" too proud to fight," " me.ital 
neutrality," &c., &c.) were taken up and 
passed from tongue to tongue ; this Was 
one of them. C. S. D. 

New York. 

THE SMALLEST Pic OF A LITTER (12 S. 
viii. 331, 376, 417, 435, 4S3, 497 ; ix. 15). 
On the border of Somerset and Devon, when 
I was r, boy, I often heard the smallest 
pig of a litter called " Tha Parson's Pig." 
The implication being, of course, an economy 
in the matter of tithes ! C. CORNER. 

Sunnybank, Easton, Wells, Somerset. 

During a recent visit to Somerset I made 
enquiries for the local name of the smallest 
pig of a litter, and found that it is known 
as " Nestle-tripe," " Squeaker," and 
" Cadman," three names Within an area of 
nine miles. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

Another form of the word "pennuck" 
given by Mr. Vernon (12 S. viii. 497) is 
" rinnuck," which I have heard on and near 
the Severn " wharf." H. C, 

In Massachusetts " Runt." C. S. D. 

COMBE HOUSE, HEREFORDSHIRE (12 S. 
viii. 510). Tn reference to the enquiry in 
your issue of the 25th ult., Combe House, 
near Presteign, is now the property of 
Mary Victoria, Clara Anne Margar3t, Harriet 
Helen Mabel, and Charlotte Virginia-, 
daughters and co-heirs of the late Edward 
Coatos by his wife Mary Aim, eldest daughter 
of John S. Bannister, of Weston House, 
Pembridge. The Coa-tes family was origin- 
ally settled ia Yorkshire. 

Tho preseat occupier of Combe House is 
Major H: N. M. Clegg. 

THOMAS B. ECROYD. 

Credenhill Park,*Hereford. 

ALDEBURGH: ECREVISSE (12 S. ix., p. 26). 
In the 'Imperial Dictionary' (1867), by 
John Ogilvie, LL.D., under crayfish/crawfish, 
is the following : " Qu. is not fish in these 
words from the last syllable of the French 
ecrevisse ? " WALTER E. GAWTHORP. 



DOUBLE FIRSTS AT OXFORD (12 S. viii. 249, 
294, 334, 396). The Frederic Rogers;-, of 
Oriel noted on p. 295 as having won a Double 
, First in 1832, became Lord Blachford (not 
; Blaekford) in 1871. The barony was con- 
ferred by Mr. Gladstone, his contemporary 
at Eton and Oxford, with whom he had been 
associated in ecclesiastical movements as 
well as in officiaj life. He was Permanent 
Under-Secretary for the Colonies from 1860 
; to 1871, and was given a Privy Councillor- 
ship as well as a peerage in the latter year, 
dying in 1889. ALFRED BOBBINS. 

DISRAELI, ROGERS, OR SHAFTESBURY (128. 
ix. 52). As full a reply as has yet been 
attempted to the query of Mr. Arthur G. 
HARGREAVES was furnished in ' N. & Q.' 
(10 S. vi. 62) exactly fifteen y^ears ago 
by myself, in a note entitled " Verify your 
References." Herein the whole story was 
told of the Froude allusion and the 
Belloc mistake, with a full quotation of 
Speaker Onslow's note attributing to the 
Stuart Earl cf Shaftesbuiy the authorship 
of the phrase in question. I then described 
that note as furnishing the original of the 
story, as far as it can be traced "for it may 
not be original after all, ' and I retain my 
doubt on that head. But it was in 'N. & Q.' 
that the earliest systematic attempt was 
made to trace the parent of what Mr. Har- 
greaves rightly calls so fine a child. 

ALFRED ROBBING. 

Mr. Osmund Airy, in ' D.N.B.' xii. 130, says 
that Sir Anthony Ashley Cooper, first Earl 
of Shaftesbury (1621-83) " was reputed 
a deist, but the state of his mind is perha,ps 
best represented by the anecdote in Sheffield's 
memoirs, which represents him as answering 
the lady who inquired as to his religion ; 
' Madam, wise men are of but one religion,' 
and when she further pressed him to tell 
what that was, ' Madam, wise men never 
tell.' ' 

But I have s'een this anecdote also fathered 
upon the third Earl of Shaftesbury (1671- 
1713), author of the ' Characteristicks of 
Men, Manners. Opinions, and Times,' and 
grandson of Cromwell's " little man with 
three names" a far rarer "characteristic^ " 
then than now. The anecdote, however, 
accords well enough with what we know 
of the first Lord Shaf tesbury's mordant wit ; 
and has been appropriated, consciously or 
xmconsciously, by many clever people since 
his dav. A. R. BAYLEY. 



2 s. ix. JOLT so, m..] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



"A FROG HE WOULD A-\VooiNC4 Go (12 
S. ix. 51). The complete modern version 
is given in Randolph Caldecott's picture- 
book of the same name. Two early versions, 
one dated 1611, are given in A. H. Bullen's 
' Lyrics from Elizabethan Songbooks,' first 
series, pp. 60, 186. Anthony Rowley does 
not appear in the chorus of either of these. 
Perhaps the old song was given a political 
application in Charles II. 's reign, and the 
King's nickname introduced. 

M. H. DODDS. 

SIGNS IN PLACE OF SIGNATURES (12 S. ix. 
51). The marks referred to by your corre- 
spondent would seem to be in embryo the 
Merchants' Marks of later centuries. These 
were personal to their owners and not to 
trades ; and were analogous to . the trade- 
mark of to-day, which may not be counter- 
feited. Perhaps some legal contributor: 
could say if there was any protection by law : 
against infringement. 

But such marks were not infrequently . 
the source of pride, when they had been in : 
use for long years. 

In the church of Burford, Oxon., the 
southernmost of several aisles is called the 
Sylvester Chapel, as it was (perhaps) en- 
dowed by that family, and contains a long 
series of mural monuments to them. They 
were a wealthy Cotswold family of wool- 
staplers, and the monuments run over 150 to 
200 years, according to my recollection. 
Tney were non-armigerous ; but with a proud 
humility inserted their Merchants' Mark 
on shields of a pattern usually employed to 
display arms. I have not seen this mode of 
blazoning (as it were) Merchant's Marks ; but 
it is possible that there are similar instances 
among the Cotswold churches. W. C. J. 

Tnese are fairly common on the marriage 
bonds of Durham and Carlisle registries in 
the 17th and 18th centuries. Farmers are 
said to have made their sheep marks as 
4 _ uitures. M. H. DODDS. 

SINGLE WHISKEY (12 S. viii. 489; ix. 18.) 
If " Single Whiskey " means whiskey 
" Weak, poor or inferior in quality," I am 
i i i aid the querist would hardly relish offering 
iris friends a glass out of a decanter so 
labelled, and what would be the feelings of 
the recipients ! -i Single whiskey " means 
unblended whisky that is, a single distillate 
not a mixed one. W. E. WILSON. 

Hawick. 



PETTY FRANCE (12 S. viii. 407, 452, 477). 
Your correspondent, M.E.W., says the 
name was changed to York Street when 
Frederick, Duke of York, lodged there for 
some months. In ' Wheatley and Cun- 
ningham ' (vol. 3, p. 451), however, it is stated 
it was so-called after John Sharp, Arch- 
bishop of York, whose town house was in 
1708 in this street. What are the facts ? 

W. R. DAVIES. 

Kingsclear, Camberley, Surrey. 

WIFE* s DEATH 140 YEARS AFTER HER 
HUSBAND'S BIRTH (12 S. ix. 29). Tnese 
further particulars may be of interest. In 
1857, at the age of 75, Sir David Brewster 
married Jane Purnell, aged 29. On Jan 27, 
1861, in Sir David's 80th year, a daughter 
was born of this marriage, so we have here 
a case not only of longevity but of great 
virility ! Lady Brewster died in her 94th 
year. W. R. DAVIES. 

ELEPHANT AND CASTLE (12 S. vi. 11, 49, 
132). Tne following may be of interest. 
In Mampur two forms of Chess are played, 
called Satrang and Gaitrang. In the former 
the piece occupying the place of a Bishop 
in our game is called Samu = Elephant. 
It moves two squares diagonally, but has 
no power over the intermediate square, 
over which it can leap, even if the square 
be occupied. The piece corresponding to 
our Castle is called Hi = Boat, and moves 
just as a Castle does with us. The place of 
our Queen is taken by the Senapati = Com- 
mander-in-Chief. It can only move one 
square diagonally in any direction. The 
Knights are represented by Sagol = Horses, 
and move as with us. The Pawns are called 
Khong-mi = Footmen, they move and take 
as with us, but do not move two squares in 
their first move. On reaching the eighth 
square a Khong-mi becomes a Senapati. 
| There may be several Senapatis on the 
j board at the same time. Should all a 
player's pieces be taken but one, that one 
can not be taken, for the Ningthau, or King, 
cannot be left unattended. The Ningthau 
moves as the King with us, but Castling is 
not allowed. Gaitrang is played with the 
same men as Satrang, but they move as 
with us except that the Ningthau once in 
the game may make a Knight's move, and 
should a Pawn reach the opposite side of 
the board on the King's or Queen's square 
it is changed into a Senapati. If there is 
, already a Senapati on the board, the new 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. JULY so, 1921. 



Senapati will only have the powers of 
Senapati in Satrang, but if the first Senapati 
is taken the new one gains his full powers, 
i.e., can move as a Queen in our game. 
Pawns reaching the opposite side of the 
board on other squares become the piece 
on whose sqiiare they arrive. My note 
does not say what happens if there is already 
a full complement of these pieces. 

Satrang appears to be exactly the same 
game as played in Europe prior to the 
15th century, v. Encyl. Britt., vol. 6, p. 
102 c. The Elephant still represents the 
Bishop. The Boat represents the Ship as 
mentioned by John W. Brown (12 S. vi. 49). 
The " board " on which both games are 
played is uncoloured, the squares simply 
being marked by cross-lines. Satrang was 
evidently imported into Manipur from 
either Bengal or Burma. I have never 
played Chess with a Burman, but I have 
played a few games with Indian gentlemen, 
and, as far as I recollect, they played much 
as we do. If I am correct, it would appear 
that the isolation of Manipur has led to the 
survival there of the ancient game. 

J. SHAKESPEAB. 

Six LORDS : CHEWAB (12 S. ix. 50). The 
sign of ' Six Lords ' is not mentioned in 
Larwood and Hotten's ' History of Sign- 
boards. ' Is it possible that it originated with 
a sympathizer with the Jacobite party, and 
alluded to the Earl of Derwentwater, the 
Earl of Nithisdale, the Earl of Carnwath, 
Viscount Kenmure, Lord Widdrington and 
Lord Nairn, who were impeached for high 
treason for the part they took in the Re- 
bellion of 1715, and having pleaded guilty 
were together brought to the Bar of the House 
of Lords and together sentenced to death ? 
It is true there was a seventh lord, the Earl 
of Winton, also implicated, but as he 
pleaded not guilty he was tried separately 
at a subsequent date. This rather militates 
against my suggestion, as there were thus 
seven lords altogether brought to trial, 
though perhaps the fact of the first six 
having been sentenced together fixed that 
number in the public mind. With reference 
to ' Chewar,' Halliwell's ' Dictionary of 
Archaic and Provincial Words ' gives 
" chewer " as a West Country word for " a 
narrow passage." It is probably a variant 
of " chare," which is to be found in ' N.E.D.,' 
where the following forms of it are given : 
13th century " chihera," 14th century 
" chere," 15th century " chare " ; also 



16th century "* chayer," 18th century 
" chair," and it is explained as " local name 
for a narrow lane, alley, or wynd, in New- 
castle and some neighbouring towns ; also 
for some country lanes and field tracks, 
e.g., the three which converge at Chare 
Ends, by the landing-place on Holy Island." 

' N.E.D.' queries whether it is the same 
as " chare," a turning, and suggests a 
comparison with the Scotch " wynd." 

WM. SELF-WEEKS. 

West wood, Clitheroe. 



BOMENTEEK (12 S. viii. 510; 12 ix. 39, 77). 
This word was in common use in Essex, 
and an old wheelwright in my employ 
frequently used it, when he found it in 
the course of repairs, and he thought it 
out of place to stop a hole or to hide a 
defect ; in his mouth it seemed a jeering 
word applied only when he wished to 
ridicule the work of some other man of less 
ability than himself. W. W. GLENNY. 

Barking, Essex. 

AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL 
W T RITERS : BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS WANTED. 
i (12 S. ix. 52). Britten and Boulger's ' Bio- 
! graphical Index of British and Irish Bota- 
! nists ' (1907) mentions Nos. 2, 3 and pro- 
| bably 5. 

2. George London (d. 1713). Apprentice to 
| Rose. Gardener to Bishop Compton, William 

and Mary, and Anne. In partnership with Henry 
Wise at Brompton Park. Nursery, 1694-1701. 

3. John Bartram( 1699-1777). Born at Marple . 
Co. Delaware, Penn., March 23, 1699. " King's 
Botanist in America," 1765. Linnaeus said he was 
" the greatest natural botanist in the world." 

5. ? James Donald (1815-72). Born at Forfar, 
1815 ; died at Hampton Court, Dec. 13, 1872. At 
Chiswick, 1839-42. Pupil of Lindley. Superin- 
tendent, Hampton Court, from 1856. Left an 
Herbarium, and wrote on Begonias. 
?V ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

I have been' told that George London in- 
vented or developed the useful border plant 
that is commonly called " London Pride," 
but is properly named " London's Pride." 

C. S. B. 

SCHOOL MAGAZINES (12 S. ix 54). The 
Blackheathen was still in existence when I 
left the Blackheath Proprietary School in 
1871 or 1872. It was published by a book- 
seller named Burnside. - The school expired, 
I believe, a few years ago. H. F. O. H. 



12 s. ix. JULY so, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



DANTEIANA (12 S. viii. 462, 517 ; ix. 57). 
With all due respect to my betters, may I 
suggest that in the lines beginning '' Taccia 
Lucano " Dante is not bidding Ovid and 
Lucan take back seats as poets, but merely 
means that the marvels he is about to relate 
are much more extraordinary than those of 
either poet ? 

Surely this passage cannot be quoted as a 
proof of Dante's want of humilitv. 

C. S. F. 

THE HON. FRANCES INGRAM- SHEPHERD 
(12 S. ix. 49). This lady was born in 1761, 
and died on Sept. 29, 1841. The Rev. 
William Webb Ellis preached a funeral ssr- 
mon on " this benevolent and truly Chiistian 
lady " in St. George's Chapel, Albemarle 
Street, Oct. 3, 1841. There is a copy of it in 
the British Museum. The best account of 
her family appears in the ' Scots Peerage ' 
(v. 9-20). I have dealt fully with her hus- 
band, Lord William Gordon, in my ' Gay 
Gordons,' pp. 103-123. J. M. BULLOCH. 

37 ; Bedford Square, W.C.I. 

THE INGOLDSBY LEGENDS (12 S. viii. ! 
473). Your correspondent suggests that 
the persons and current events to which re- j 
ference is so often made in the ' Legends,' i 
should be annotated by the contributors to ' 
' N. & Q.' But as there are scores of persons 
mentioned, it might take up more space) 
than could be given to one subject if all 
these Ingoldsby biographies were written. ; 
As a sample and these are names taken; 
quite at random who are "Captain Large " 
and " Mr. Withair," both mentioned in 
' Misadventures at Margate ' where the " Mr. j 
Levi " occurs, of whom so many of your 
correspondents have written recently ? Or 
in ' The Tragedy,' "wise Mrs. Williams " ; 
in ' St. Gengulpnus,' " von Morison " ; in 'A 
New Play,' "Mr. Munro " ; in 'The 
Spectre of Tappington,' " Miss Bailey " ; in 
' The Black Mousquetaire,' " Mr. Grosvenor 
of Oxford " and in the same " Mr. M'Clise " ; 
in 'The Auto-da-* e,' "Thomas Gatacre, ' 
" Pye Smith," " Jeffrey's Review," " Cock- 
er," and " Brigadier Evans " ? Explana- 
tions of things and events to which reference 
is made would be about as endless. For 
instance, in ' The Lay of St. Dunstan,' 
" Just as when the great vat burst in 
Tott'n'am Court Road " ; in ' Unsophisti- 
cated Wishes,' "the ball which the Lord 
Mayor gives for the relief of the Poles " ; 
in ' The House Warming,' " at Court t'other 



day, at the fete which the newspapers say 
was so gay." Or turning to objects men- 
tioned, in ' Aunt Fanny ' is " Doctor Ar- 
nott's new stove," in ' Sir Rupert the Fear- 
less,' " George Robin's filters, or Thorpe's 
(which are dearer) " ; in ' The Merchant of 
Venice,' " the right sort of ' flimsy ' all 
sign'd by Monteagle," and one might go on 
almost endlessly. Then again, as well as 
persons, events and objects referred to, 
there are numberless quotations taken from 
the books and plays of the day, and in some 
instances these would be difficult to trace. 

A well annotated edition of the ' Legends ' 
would preserve for us in pleasant form many 
details of the domestic history of eighty 
years ago, but the collection of the whole of 
the matter woula be too heavy a bin-den to 
put upon the shoulders of ' N. & Q.' 

ETHELBERT HORNE. 

AMERICAN ENGLISH (12 S. viii. 449). 
" The United States " is a singular noun 
since we became a nation, by approved, 
current usage. We refer to it as " it " 
and not "thej," &c., &c. C. S. D. 

H. C.-N., who writes under the head of 
" American English " of the use by the Presi- 
dent of the Uaited States in his address 
of April 21 last of the word " illy," may- 
be interested to know that in an p,ddress by 
the President to the graduPting class of 
the Naval Academy, in June last, he was 
reported by The New York Herald to use 
the Words " illy advised." The New York 
Times, on the contrary, printed it "ill- 
advised." I wrote to both the Herald 
and the Times. The Herald stated that 
it thought its version was correct ; from 
tha Times I received no answer. I s id in 
my letters that I thought the President's 
English ought to be as good as the " King's 
English." C. E. S. 

THE PLAGUE PITS (12 S. viii. 450, 4% ; 
ix. 12, 35). A map of the parish of St. 
James's, Westminster, 1720, reproduced as a 
frontispiece to Wheatley's ' Bond Street, 
Old and New, 1686-1911,' published by the 
Fine Art Society, shows a rectangular space 
marked " Pest-house Fields," a portion of 
which was used as the burial-ground of St. 
James's, Piccadilly. The fields and burying- 
ground were bounded by houses, on the north 
by Great Marlborough Street, on the west 
by Carnaby Street, on the East by Poland 
Street, and on the south by Silver Street. 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ J8 s. ix, J^Y 30, mi. 



Consequently the discovery of bones in 
excavations in Silver Street referred to by 
H. F. F. supplies intsrasting corroboration. 

Macaulay remarked of these fields : ; ' It 
was popularly believed that the earth was 
deeply tainted with infection, and could not 
be disturbed without imminent risk to human 
life." Consistently with this view was esta- 
blished on the site Carnaby Market, clearly 
shown in Rocque ; s 'Survey' of 1745. 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 

POEMS FOB CHILDREN, TITLES WANTED 
(12 S. vi. 67). I find the subjoined adver- 
tisements in Charles Swain's ' Art and 
Fashion,' London, Virtue Brothers and Com- 
pany, 1, Amen Corner, Paternoster Row, 
1863. 

Nursey Rhymes, an illustrated edition. 
By the same authors. 

Original Poems for Infant Minds. 

Select Poetry for Children, by Joseph Payne. 

I may note that Charles Swain, the Man- 
chester Poet, was my father's cousin by 
the marriage of my grandfather's sister, 
both aliens in this country. 

FRED. L. TAVARE. 

22, Trentham Street, Pendleton, Manchester. 

OAK SNUFF-BOX FROM FOUNDATION-PILE 
OF OLD LONDON BRIDGE (12 S. ix. 31, 76). 
A gavel made of oak from a foundation -pile 
of Old London Bridge is in the possession of 
the Lodge of Antiquity, No. 2. It had 
originally two silver plates, one of which bore 
the Arms of the Society of Master Carpenters, 
the other the inscription : 

This mallet, which is formed from one of the 
oak piles of Old London Bridge erected in the reign 
of Henry II., A.D. 1176, was presented to the 
Society of Master Carpenters by Mr. Thomas 
Grissell, Dec., 1833. 

These are now covered by two silver-gilt 
plates, one bsaring the Arms of the Lodge 
of Antiquity, the other the inscription : 

Upon the dissolution of the Society of Master 
Carpenters, this mallet was returned to the donor, 
Mr. Thomas Grissell, the builder of the present 
Houses of Parliament, who, A.D. 1869, gave it to his 
brother, Mr. Henry Grissell, who gave it to the 
L. of A. 

In a letter accompanying the presentation 
Mr. Henry Grissell stated that the piece 
of oak was in 1833 in the possession of an 
old member of the Court of Common Council 
of the City of London, and that he gave it 
to Mr. Thomas Grissell, who was then Master 
of the Society of Master Carpenters. 

C. W. FIREBRACE, Capt. 



I cannot trace any connexion between 
the Rev. Wm. Jolliffe and the present London 
Bridge, opened in 1831 This bridge was 
designed by George Rennie, a Scotch engineer 
and architect, and his brother, Sir John 
Rennie, another engineer, supervised the 
carrying out of the work. Jolliffe's name 
is not in the index of ' Ency. Brit.' (9th ed.), 
r nor in Haydn's ' Die. of Biog.' 

ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

MARTIN (MARTEN) (12 S. viii. 433). In- 
formation about one of the Martins men- 
tioned in the * Diary of Samuel Pepys ; will 
i be found in H. R. Plomer's ' Dictionary of 
i Booksellers and Printers, who were at work 
! in England, Scotland, and Ireland, from 
| 1641 to 1667,' where we find : 

John Martin or Martyn. Mentioned as a book- 
| seller at the Bell in St. Paul's Churchyard from 
1649 to 1680. He was in partnership with James 
; Allestry (also mentioned by Pepys) and succeeded 
! him as publisher to the Royal Society. Refer- 
] ences to him cease in 1680. 

From references under the name of Allestry 

i we find that, during the rebuilding of St. Paul's 

| Churchyard, the partners moved into Duck 

Lane (now Little Britain) amongst the other 

booksellers, returning to the Churchyard 

after under the old sign. 

As Pepys's references to Martin do not begin 
until 1667-8, it may well be that it \vas the 
position Martin held with the Royal Society 
which brought the diarist in contact with 
him. . W. H. WHITEAR. 

Chiswick. 

REFERENCE WANTED (12 S. viii. 471; 
ix. 56). Professor Bensly quotes in your 
issue of 16th inst. Goethe's saying in the 
third division of his ' Maximen und Re- 
flexionen,' " Es ist nichts schrecklicher, 
als eine thatige Unwissenheit," but Goethe 
expressed the same thought in somewhat 
different words at the conclusion of the 
fourth paragraph from the end of the first 
division, as follows : " Nichts ist schreck- 
licher, als die Unwissenheit haudeln zu 
sehen." In both cases Goethe says that 
there is nothing more frightful than igno- 
rance in action. He does not say that there 
is nothing more dangerous (gefdhrlich), and 
the quotation, therefore, as originally given 
in the enquiry, that " the most dangerous 
thing in the world is ignorance in motion," 
is not, strictly speaking, correct. 

F. R. CAVE. 
Folly Gate, Okehampton, Devon. 



12 s. ix. JULY so, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



HORSE-RIDING RECORDS (12 S. viii. 509 : 
ix. 32, 56, 73). In the Autobiography of 
Sir Harry Smith, Chapter 32, Sir Harry 
describes his ride from Cape Town to 
Grahamstown. He started on Jan. 1, 1835 
and arrived in Grahamstown 
fresh enough to have fought a general action, 
after a ride of 600 miles in six days over moun- 
tains and execrable roads on Dutch horses, living 
in the fields without a grain of corn. I per- 
formed each day's work at the rate of fourteen 
miles an hour, and had not the slightest scratch 
even on my skin. 

C. LESLIE SMITH. 

Baling. 

VISCOUNT STAFFORD, 1680 (12 S. viii. 
409, 454, 478, 497, 516). I wish to thank 
all correspondents who have so kindly 
replied to my query re Viscount Stafford. 
I have found Burke's ' Extinct Peerage,' 
recommended by E. E. COPE, give much 
useful information ; that same Work states 
that John Howard, second son of William 
Viscount Stafford, married as his second 
wife Theresa, daughter of Robert Strick- 
land, Esq., and had issue by her a son and 
daughter, Edward and Harriott. Nothing 
more is mentioned concerning them ; did 
either or both of them marry and if so were 
any children born to them. Is it known 
where Robert Strickland lived ? 

L. H. CHAMBERS. 
Bedford. 

ROBERT PARR, CENTENARIAN (11 S. iv. 
309, 378 ; 12 S. viii. 457). In ' Records of 
Longevity,' by Joseph Taylor, published 
in 1818, it stated that Robert Parr died in 
August, 1757, but as the date of the month 
is given in Toone's Work probably that is 
correct. A Mrs. Parr, widow, of Liverpool, 
died 1818, aged 103. She had been a 
widow for fifty-five years ; was she related 
to Robert and Thomas Parr ? ' Records 
of Longevity,' by Thomas Bailey, 1857, says 
Robert Parr Was married twice. By his 
first wife he had but two children, who both 
died young : and one, a daughter, by his 
second. L. H. CHAMBERS. 

Bedford. 

DE VALERA (12 S. ix. 72). The surname 
of Valera is fairly common in Spain, Portugal 
and Italy. The founder of the noble branch, 
of which the present day Mr. de Valera is a 
descendant, was Don Diego de Valera, born 
at Cuenca, 1412, d. about 1482. He was 
majordomo to Isabella of Castille, and made 



historiographer of " United Spain " by 
Ferdinand the Catholic. He was the author 
of the valuable " Cronica de Espana 
abreviada " (first edition, 1482). During 
the following three centuries several mem- 
bers of the family distinguished themselves 
as military officers in the Spanish South- 
American colonies, and in the eighteenth 
century some entered the Austrian service 
in Belgium and were " created " barons and 
counts of the " Holy Roman Empire." 
The best known member of the family in the 
nineteenth century was Don Juan de Valera, 
born Cabra (Cordova), 1824, died 1905. 
He held for some time a diplomatic position 
at Washington, and was the author of 
several popular novels, plays, and poems. 
ANDREW DE TERNANT. 
36, Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 



on 



A Short History of Scotland. By Charles Sanford 
Terry, Litt.D. (Cantab.). (Cambridge Univer- 
sity Press, 8s. net.) 

LAST year Professor Sanford Terry produced 
his ' History of Scotland from the Roman Evacua- 
tion to the Disruption, 1843,' in order to fill 
the gap between the histories in several volumes 
and tha schoolroom textbooks. This year 
lie produces a smaller History of Scotland for the 
use of schools, training-colleges, and similar 
institutions. The good qualities of the larger 
History are so well known already that the 
smaller one is sure to be warmly welcomed ; 
and it deserves to be the " standard " book of 
its kind. It is compact, but not dry ; it is well- 
balanced and well-proportioned, and it is free 
from bias. There is a good map, four genealo- 
gical tables, and a useful, if not impeccable, 
index. 

The Ociocentenary of Reading Abbey: A.D. 1121- 
A.D. 1921. By Jamieson B. Hurry, M.A., 
M.D. (Elliot Stock.) 

THE eight hundredth anniversary of the founding 
of Reading Abbey fell on June 18 this year; 
and Dr. Hurry, well-known as the historian of 
that great foundation, has written this volume 
as a memento of the occasion. It is a handsome 
book, illustrated with reproductions of pictures 
of events in the Abbey's history and with a 
large pictorial reconstruction of what Reading 
Abbey must have looked like in its original state. 
The history of the Abbey need not be closely 
examined here : we had rather refer to Dr. 
Hurry's new book such of our readers as are not 
familiar with his other writings on the subject. 
Pounded by Henry I., Beauclerc, to enshrine 
the hand of St. James of Compostella (which 
possibly may still be seen at St. Peter's Church, 
Marlow-on-Thames), Reading Abbey, at the 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ S .IX.JULYJO,I.. 



junction of the Thames and the Kennet, was a 
Benedictine (Cluniac) house of great wealth and 
dignity. Yet, as Dr. Hurry says, " the most 
enduring memorial of the ancient Abbey " and 
its chief title to fame in future years may be 
the MS. (now in the British Museum) of ' Sumer 
is icumen in," which there was composed and 
transcribed. 

There is much else, however, that is of out- 
standing interest in the subject, and Dr. Hurry 
tells the story, from the foundation to the Disso- 
lution and from the Dissolution through the Civil 
War to the present day, from many points of 
view and in very attractive style. He has some 
wise words, also, about what might have hap- 
pened if a constructive policy had attended the 
dissolution of this and the other monasteries. 

The Eton College Register, 1753-1790. Alpha- 
betically arranged and edited with biographical 
notes by Richard Arthur Austen-Leigh (Eton : 
Spottiswoode, Ballantyne. 30s. net.) 
MB. AUSTEN-LEIGH begins with 1753 because only 
from that time forward is the Eton MS. collection 
of Annual School Lists approximately complete ; 
and he ends with 1790 because Etonians from 
1791 onwards are already included in Stapylton's 
Eton School Lists. The preface shows what 
sources he consulted (among them his own happy 
discovery the MS. list of boys admitted by Dr. 
Barnard, Headmaster, between 1754 and 1765) 
and what labour he has been at to make his book 
as complete as possible. He has done the work 
well, and has produced a volume that will be not 
only of interest to Etonians but of great value 
to biographers and genealogists. The period 
that be has chosen is one rich in notable names. 
Under " Wesley " one may find the Duke of 
Wellington ; Cornwallis appears also. Sumner 
and Simeon are among the Churchmen. Fox, 
Canning, Grey, Melbourne (Mr. William 
Lamb, 1789-96) and Windham are of the States- 
men ; Person among the scholars ; Hallarn and John 
Hookbam Frere among the writers ; Wordsworth's 
Sir George Beaumont among the painters ; 
Ba-nkes among the men of science ; Charles 
Y6ung among the actors. Here, too, are Beau 
Brummel and his brother, and Colonel George 
Hanger, the dandy, who married his cook ; 
and Henry Angelo, the fencer, and the capable 
eldest son of " Capability " Brown, the gardener. 
And here are less successful and reputable people, 
like queer old George Combe (Combes in the list), 
" of uncertain parentage," who wrote " Dr. 
Syntax " and lived many years in the Fleet ; 
and Thomas Palmer, who was sent to Botany 
Bay for sedition ; and that romantic scoundrel, 
George Robert (" Fighting ") Fitzgerald, who 
after a wild life killed a man in a fracas and was 
hanged for murder. 

" Browsing " through its handsomely printed 
ges, one comes across many a well-known 
tonian name Hawtrey, Luxmo'ore, Cust. Han- 
bury. By arranging his names alphabetically 
Mr. Austen-Leigh has conferred a benefit on all 
who wish to use the book for general, as distinct 
from Etonian, purposes ; and his Introduction 
is full of interesting facts and comments on Eton 
life during the period. Among those whom Mr. 
Austen-Leigh thanks for help in his work is the 
Rev. Alfred B. Beaven. 



pag 
Eto 



The Cambridge Scene : Being Sketches of the 
Colleges. By the Rev. H. P. Stokes, LL.D., 
Litt.D., F.S.A. (Cambridge : Bowes and 
Bowes.) 

CANON STOKES contributed these 21 papers 
(his book includes Girton and Newnham) to The 
Cambridge Review in 1918-1919, "when staff 
officers and naval lieutenants and military cadets 
were living in the rooms of the Colleges described.' ' 
But they make up a little book which any novice 
in the subject will find complete in itself and a 
valuable introduction to the fuller works by 
Clark and others. Canon Stokes is learned 
enough to be impaitial, and adroit enough to 
say much in few lines. No College gets more 
than ten pages ; no College less than five. Big 
Trinity has only six ; little Peterhouse has ten. 
All are good ; and the author's jetting humour 
and lively mind make the book amusing as well 
as instructive. There are some neat black-and- 
white illustrations by Constance Prescott. 

The Print-Collector's Quarterly. Vol. 8, No. 2. 

July 1921. (J. M. Dent, 209. p.a.). 
THIS is the second number of this excellent 
little periodical to be published in England, 
whither it has been transferred from the United 
States. The magazine may be confidently 
recommended to amateurs of prints of all kinds, 
since its scope includes work, old and new, of all 
nations, in etching, engraving, lithography, 
wood-cutting and the allied arts. The contents 
of the current issue consist of a paper on Jean 
Duvet, by Mr. A. E. Popham ; the first article 
of two on modern woodcuts, by Mr. Herbert 
Furst ; a specially valuable paper on " Some 
Undescribed States of Meryon Etchings," by 
Mr. Harold J. L. Wright, and an account, by 
Mr. Frank Gibson, of the etchings and litho- 
graphs of Mr. George Clausen, R.A. In all cases 
the work is scholarly and the lists of great service 
to collectors ; while the illustrations are ex- 
tremely good for their size. 



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Notes and Queries. " This delightful and erudite booklet should find a place on the shelves of all lovers of 
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NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.IX.AUO. 0,1921. 





LITERARY SUPPLEMENT 



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12 S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



LONDON. AUGUST 6, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 173. 

NOTES .-Curious Medieval Seals, 101 Dickson Family 
of Edinburgh Glass-Painters of York, 103 Heraldic, 
101 Principal London Coffee-houses, Taverns and Inns 
in the Eighteenth Century, 105 Two Items Concerning 
Edmund Burke Washington Family : Origin and Arms 
Sound of Final " a " 107 Anglo-Dutch Relationships 
Opinionation, &c. Lowse Faire Bathwomen, 108 
The Lancashire Hollands The Royal Route to Wey- 
n^outh Remember the Grotto, 109. 

QUERIES : Sicco Pede Babylonian Astronomy, 109 
Thomas Gage Shakespeare's Cheese-loving Welshman 
Dairies and Milkhouses in 1594 and 1624, 110 Sixteenth- 
century Ewe's Milk Cheese in Essex Arms on Seal 
Campbell Shield of Arms " Floreat Etona 1 " A. Bryant 
Title of Book Wanted Books Wanted Hay ward's 
Life of Henry IV. Thomas Dickson, M.D., 111 Helen 
Dickson Charles Dickens in Cap and Gown M, Me, 
Mac Nautical Song Authors Wanted, 112. 

REPLIES : Gleaning by the Poor, 112 Brandenburgh 
House, Fulham, 115 The Year 1000 Milton and Elze- 
vier French and Italian Translators of Gellert, 116 
Sundials Kinds of Bread in A.D. 1266, 117 Chewar 
A Curiosity of Endeavour The Plague Pits, 118. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Prehistory ' ' Poems of W. E. 
Aytoun ' ' A Contribution to an Essex Dialect Dic- 
tionary ' ' The Owl Sacred Pack of the Fox Indians ' 
The Quarterly Review The Antiquaries,' Journal. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



CURIOUS MEDIEVAL SEALS. 

As is well known, the seals ' hanging from 
ancient deeds are sometimes unexpectedly 
original, fanciful, and decidedly non- 
heraldic. I find among my papers the 
appended examples, temp. Edw. I. and II., or 
early Edw. III., all of which are in the 
muniment room of Hilton, South Stafford- 
shire, a manor held since Elizabethan times 
by a branch of the Vernon family. Hilton 
was one of the many vills within the wide 
limits of the great moorland and forest 
tract of Cannock Chase, most, if not all, of 
which had been afforested by the date of the 
coronation of King Henry Fitz -Empress 
( 1 1 54), and at Hilton resided, during the whole 
of the Plantagenet period, the Seneschals or 
Chief Wardens of the forest. The seals 
which I have selected are such as were 
invented and used, though not exclusively so, 



by lesser freeholders having in some cases no 
claim to coat-armour, by rising attorneys, 
by rich burgesses, or by merchants who had 
prospered and acquired lands, a class which in 
the thirteenth century was becoming increas- 
ingly important, as witness the Statute of 
Merchants of Acton Burnel of 2 Edw. I. 
The seals are generally of excellent crafts- 
manship, and in character some are senti- 
mental, some satirical, some humorous, 
some quaintly symbolical. The examples 
given here were, I think, in all cases the 
seals of men having holdings within the 
regard of the forest. 

1. From a deed of " Ric. le Taillour " of 
Essington depends a seal showing an eagle 
with wings displayed and the motto Aquila 
volente (for volante ?). 

2. Of another deed of the same Richard 
the seal bears figures of a man and a woman 
draped in long loose frocks reaching to 
mid-calf, the man bare-headed, the woman 
veiled, the twain standing face to face each 
side of a tall plant or tree of a single stem, 
which springs out of a heart in base and 
bears fruit which may also be smaller hearts, 
one in the midst and one on the apex of each 
of its two stiff branches above. Each 
figure grasps the stem of the tree with the 
right hand, and the legend is " Love me and 
I yew." The mystic meaning, if mystery 
there be, of the tree issuing from a heart, let 
the ingenious reader fathom. 

3. Another deed has a seal of a bird 
perched on a tree-top, surmounted by the 
single word " Yay." This puzzle also I 
commend to the wise. 

4. The seal of another deed of the same 
* Ric. le Taylour ' displays busts of a man 

and a woman gazing at each other 
the man uncovered, the woman 
veiled. Between them stands a 
palmlike tree rising (as in No. 2) 
out of a heart in base. The tree 
has three branches shown fan- 
fashion, and each branch has three 
smaller branches, nine altogether, 
no doubt of some once -obvious 
signification. The legend or motto is " Je 
suis sel de amour lei," which may be 
rendered " I am the seal of affection leal." 

Richard the Taylor, a prosperous gentle- 
man, held some land of Sir Robert de 
Essington in Essington, a manor close to 
Hilton and well within the regard. He seems 
to have been a man of delicate vein and 
apparently, in his role of the constant lover, 
much beloved of the ladies. 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. AUG. 6,1021. 



5. Here we have a seal adorned with the 
figure of a crowned lady and the motto 
" Ave Mia reule." What hidden secret 
lies here ? Have we here Mary the Virgin, 
01 is this an example of contemporary 
trifling with things sacred a great liberty, 
though not greater than that sculptured 
^picture of the Fall in the church of Stanley 
St. Leonard's, where Adam and Eve are 
-represented in the quadrupedal form of 
two beasts with human faces ? But if 
Mary the Virgin, what becomes of the 
obtruded reule ? Now it so happens that 
within easy distance of the forest there lived 
a family named Reule or Rewle or Rewel. 
The Reules of Reule (Rule) were Stafford- 
shire folk not exactly of knightly rank, 
yet still of quite gentle origin and standing. 
What then if, notwithstanding the royai 
alb-like robe, the crowned head, and the old 
formula of salutation, the matrix of this 
seal was designed in honour, not of the 
Queen of Heaven, but of the queen of the 
enamoured donor's heart ? In that case 
we must assume that Mary Reule was a 
famous beauty, the toast of the country- 
side, and we may feel some regret that we 
have not her portrait, by some contemporary 
Sir Joshua, with which to garnish a page of 
'N. & Q.' On the other hand, in the 
absence of the preposition, there may be no 
secret in the matter, and the reading, some- 
what absurdly, may stand thus " Ave Mia 
rule(s) " ! 

Now comes another puzzling seal attached 
to a deed of Sir Robert de Essington, and 
showing a stag at bay or dying," and the 
curious legend " Alas Bowles." At first 
sight it might seem as if we had here, in 
Bowles the Stag, an old fable -companion 
or cousin of Renard the Fox, Bruin the 
Bear, Puss the Hare, Jenny the Wren, 
and Robin Redbreast. But that is not so. 
Bowles was the name of a well-known family, 
tenants of the fee of Rushall, held, like 
Essington, as of the Barony of Dudley, and 
situated within the forest limits only four 
miles from Hilton as the crow flies. William 
de Bowles, a Reguarder in Edward I.'s 
time, was promoted Verderer in Edward 
II. 's time. His was a rising family, for 
his son, another William, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of Sir John Giffard of Chillington, 
who was in his father's debt 100. In 1286 
William, de " Boweles," with his fellow- 
Reguarders, failed to make presentments, 
as in duty bound, of old and new assarts, 
and was fined 40d. He was also himself 



an offender in the matter of new assarts, 
and had been fined more than once and 
ordered to level his fences. And it may be 
that he had been brought to bay, too, in the 
matter of a stag, as a much greater man than 
himself had been namely, Hugh de Loges, 
the Chief Warden of the Forest, temp. 
Hen. III., who did not escape under a less 
penalty than a round fine of 200 marks. 
This seal hangs from a deed of Robert de 
Essington, and Robert de Essington had 
been presented for waste in his woods 
at Essington, and certain of his family 
for new assarts. Neighbours are not always 
neighbourly, and perhaps Robert de Es- 
sington in this seal was having a sly 
dig at neighbour Bowles a conclusion, 
however, which is only a surmise, a bow 
drawn at a venture. 

7. A deed of late Edw. I. from Philip, 
son of Robert Walter (Waltare) of Molleslie 
(Moseley) to John de Swynnerton, Kt., 
concerning a selion of land at Essington 
called Holefeld, has a seal displaying a lion 
rampant and the motto " Sum leo fortis " = 
" I am the lion strong ! " 

8. Again, there is a deed of 1330 of 
Richard Osberne of Essington to Sir Jno. 
de Swynnerton, which gives us a hare riding 
on a dog, a Uporarlus, and the motto " Sohou 
Roben." 

9. Lastly we have another of the same 
type, but displaying a hare courant only, 
and the motto " Sohou sohou." This 
example is paralleled by a seal dated 1307 
and quoted in the Oxford Dictionary under 
Soho, the only difference being that the 
seal of the latter shows us the hare in her 
form. 

The foregoing examples are too interest- 
ing not to be recorded. Perhaps other 
contributors can add to the list. 

There seems to be no connexion between 
the old coursing cry soho, in which some 
see the origin of the name of our London 
Soho, and the exclamatory shoo. But a 
survival may perhaps be found in the cry 
soo, common in the Isle of Man many years 
ago, and perhaps elsewhere. That little 
kingdom in the sea was always a good 
coursing country, and the cry was used 
relatively to dogs and to dogs only. Thus 
even boys when chasing a cat or hunting a 
rat would urge on their dog with " Soo, dog, 
soo ! " And again, with a note of menace 
in the voice, to drive an unwelcome dog 
away, a prolonged soo-o-o would be uttered. 
CHARLES SWYNNERTON. F.S.A. 



12S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



DICKSON FAMILY OF EDINBURGH. 

(See 12 S. ix. 49, 81.) 

JAJVIB& SIMPSON, born between] 1746 and 
1749, was said to have been connected with 
the family of Simson. The first of which I 
have a note of was the Rev. Andrew Simson, 
Master of the Grammar School, Perth, 1550- 
60 ; Minister and Master of Dunning and 
Cargill in 1562 ; of Dunbar, 1564; and Dal- 
keith, 1582. Jean Simson, born July 5, 1735, 
a descendant of the Rev. Andrew Simson, 
married John Moore, M.D., of Dovehill (son 
of the Rev. Charles Moore, Minister of Stirling, 
by Marion, dau. of John Anderson, of Dove- 
hill), and was the mother of three very noted 
men, viz., Lieut. -Gten. Sir John Moore, 
K.C.B., of Corunna fame, Sir Graham 
Moore; G.C.B., G.C.M.G., Admiral, R.N., and 
Francis Moore, sometime Under-Sec, of 
State for War. 

James Simpson married, firstly, at Cramond, 
about 1774, Nell Forrester, who claimed 
descent from the Lords Forrestor of Cor- 
storphine, who built Corstorphine Church in 
1385. I have not, however, succeeded in 
establishing the connexion, and a query at 
12 S. viii. 71, failed to elicit any information. 
James Simpson resided at Cramond until the 
birth of his first child (Isabella, born May 10, 
1775). He then went to Ravelston, near 
Edinburgh, where he lived for seventeen 
years. He had issue by his first wife : 

1. Isabella, born May 10, 1775, married 
to John Liddell, and died at Cramond in 1808. 

2. Robert, born Aug. 30, 1777. He mar- 
ried a Miss Hastie, and had daughters who 
married gentlemen named Miller and Niven, 
particulars of whom I seek. Robert Simp- 
son was farrier to the stud of the Duke of 
York. 

3. John, born April 17, 1780, died young. 

4. Betty, born April 5, 1784, married to 
William Peacock, and had issue. A daughter 
married a Mr. Steel. 

James Simpson married, secondly, at 
Ravelston, Nov. 26, 1790, Isabella Dickson, 
relative of Samuel Dickson the builder,' 
referred to in a previous Note, and had 
issue : 

5. James, born Sept. 21, 1791, died in 
infancy. 

6. Anne, born Oct., 1793, married to 
John Douglas, of Cupar, Fife. 

7. Helen, born at Bantaskine, parish of 
Falkirk, Sept. 24, 1795, married in Edin- 
burgh, July 23, 1824, John Anderson of 
Young Street, Edinburgh, and had issue : 



1. Isabella Anderson, born Aug. 8, 1825, 
married to George Harper of Croydon, and 
died April 4, 1891. 

2. George Anderson, born July 19, 1829, 
married, in 1852, Jane Bulman, cousin to the 
late Colonel Richard Bulman, steamship - 
broker, of Chapel Street, Liverpool.! He 
was master of the Caledonian Schools in 
Liverpool, and died without issue June 23, 
1860. 

3. Anne Anderson, born April 17, 1830, 
died 1843. 

4. Helen Anderson, born June 7, 1834, 
married - MacGregor. 

5. James Simpson Anderson, F.E.I.S. 
and of Edinburgh University. He was born 
Jan. 8, 1838. He was schoolmaster of 
Olrig, Caithness, in 1875 ; Callander in 
1880, &c. He died at Aigburth, Liverpool, 
in 1914. 

Mr. James Simpson died April 27, 1819, 
and his wife Isabella died in July, 1830. 

This branch of the Anderson family 
dwelt in Haddington from times immemorial. 
John Anderson's father was 87 years of 
age when he died, and his grandfather was 



ge 
0. 



90. John Anderson had four brothers, who 
went out to Canada and became farmers. 
They married, and some of their grand- 
children reside in Alberta, but I have no 
other information regarding them. If any 
of them should see this article If hope they 
will communicate with me, as I desire in- 
formation concerning the collateral branches 
of the family. 

John Anderson's father married, as his 
second wife, a daughter of the illegitimate 
son of George Seton, fifth and last Earl of 
Winton, who took a prominent part in the 
Scottish Rebellion of 1715. 

JAMES SETON-ANDEBSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 
(To be continued.) 



GLASS-PAINTERS OF YORK. 

(See 12 S. viii. 127, 323, 364, 406, 442, 485 ; 
ix. 21, 61.) 

ROBERT PETTY. 

FREE of the city 1481 [Freemen of York, 
Surtees Soc.]. Evidently son of Matthew 
Petty [died 1478], though the exact 
relationship is not definitely established. 
He was a brother of Sir John Petty [free 
1470,'died 1508]. Wife, Isabel. Son, Robert, 
free 1509, vicar choral of the minster. 
Robert Petty the glass -painter has been 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.IX.AUQ. 6.1021. 



confused with Robert Petty, tapiter i.e., a 
tapestry or coverlet -weaver an important ; 
industry in York during the fifteenth ! 
century, who at his death left a widow, | 
Alice, who subsequently married Henry i 
Drayson, alderman of York. These two I 
Robert Pettys were both free of the city 
within a year of one another ; they both j 
held civic offices, and both died in the same 
year, so that it was almost inevitable that | 
one should be confused with the other. 
Whether there were two ^brothers of the same j 
name, as in the clearly established case of j 
the two Chambers both named John, is not j 
known, but it is unlikely. It is possible j 
that not infrequently twin brothers were | 
both given the same Christian name. A I 
similar case, though an imaginary one, | 
provides the plot for The Comedy of Errors, \ 
where the twin brothers Antipholus are ! 
attended by the two Dromios, another pair j 
of twins. It is unlikely, however, that the i 
two Robert Pettys were brothers, as Sir j 
John Petty in his will speaks of " my | 
broder Robert " without specifying to j 
which brother of that name he referred, as I 
would have been necessary had there been i 
two, for both the Robert Pettys were alive i 
at the time. Robert Petty, like his brother j 
Sir John, lived in Stonegate. They were j 
on very cordial terms, and Robert evidently '< 
succeeded to Sir John's business after his ! 
death in 1508. He also benefited con- j 
siderably by bequests of his elder brother's 
personal effects, for in his will Sir John ! 
bequeathed : 

To my broder Robert all my toels and scroes 
[i.e., scrolls ; evidently cartoons on paper rolled j 
up] and a credill of Normandy glase, and a white 
crose, a salet wt harnes for ye slevys, a fald of 
male, a gorget and a hawberd. ... To Robert 
Petty, my broder, my violett gowne furryd 
wt shankes. ... I bequeth my best buskyns 
and a pare duble sooll shoos to Robert Petty. . . . 
I wille my gowne of foxfur to my brother Robert 
Petty. . . . To my brother Robert a waw * 
of glase. [Reg. Test. D. and C. Ebor., ii. 546, 
printed in Test. Ebor., Surtees Soc., vol. iv., 
p. 333.] 

Robert Petty is mentioned in the Fabric 
Rolls as executing work for J/he Dean and 



Chapter between the years 1472 and 1510. 
In the former year he is described as an 
apprentice, at which time he would be 
twelve years of age if he was twenty-one 
when he took up his freedom in 1481. 

In 1488 he glazed three windows in the 
east end of the chapel of Finchale Priory, 
a dependent of the Abbey of Durham, as 
appears by the following entry in the 
Account Rolls : 

1488. Et solvit Robert Pety de Eboraco 
glasario pro nova vitriacione cum le sowder et 
plumbo ac farramentis pro iij fenestris in fine 
oriental! cancellae ecclesiae de Fynkhall . . . 
Ixvs. i]d. [Account Rolls of Finchale Priory, 
Surtees Soc., p. ccclxxxiii.] 
There can be little doubt that he would be 
the artist employed to execute the portraik 
of his brother, Sir John, erected in a 
window in the south transept of the 
minster after the death of the latter in 1508. 

One of the two Robert Pettys was one 
of " the twenty -f our, " i.e., a councillor 
of the city, in 1510. [York Memorandum 
Book, Surtees Soc., ed. by Dr. Maud Sellars, 
ii. 283.] This was most probably Robert 
Petty, the glass painter, as the " tapiter " 
had been chamberlain in 1496. 

Robert Petty died in 1528. He left a 
will which iinfortunately no longer exists. 
The memorandum of administration of it is, 
however, still extant [Reg. D. and C. 
Ebor. 2, fol. 145], which states : 

That on Tuesday, viz., the 12th day of May, 
A.D. 1528, Isabel Petty executrix named in the 
will of Robert Petty late of Stangait, York, 
deceased, renounced execution of the said will. 
And on the same day and year administration 
of the goods, &c., was granted, to Sir Robert Petty, 
vicar choral of the church of York, natural son * 
of the said Robert Petty deceased, as if he had 
died intestate. Sworn in form of law, &c. 

JOHN A. KNOWLES. 



* The wau, wave, wey, or weigh is defined in 
the York Minster Fabric Rolls (Surtees Soc.), 8. a. 
1479, as follows : " Willelmo Melrig de Ebor 
pro uno wawe vitri cont Ix wyspe." The wyspe was 
evidently 51b. [vide ' N. & Q.', ante, 12S. viii. 324], 
so that the weigh contained 300lb. According 
to Ward, Lock and Co.'s ' Penny Ready Rec- 
koner ' the modern Suffolk wey contains 
2561b. and the Sussex wey 3361b. 



HERALDIC. Mrs. Cope, Finchampstead, 
would be very glad of any coats of arms not 
in Burke, Berry, or Papworth for her Heraldic 
Dictionary. 

* According to the ' N.E.D.' the word 
" natural " applied to a child meant " legitimate " 
as opposed to " adopted." It was not employed 
in the modern sense of " illegitimate " until 1536. 
I was unaware of this when mentioning Robert 
Petty, the vicar choral, in my account of the Inglish 
Family, ante, 12 S. viii. 324, until the Rev. Canon 
Fowler very kindly pointed this out. The word 
" natural " as there used by me conveys a sense 
which is incorrect/' 



1 2 S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



PRINCIPAL LONDON COFFEE-HOUSES, TAVERNS, AND INNS IN THE 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



(See 12 S. vii. 485; ix. 85.) 



Bellsize 

Ben Jonson's Head 

Berkley 
Bird-in-Hand 
Bishopsgate 
Black Boy . . 



Black Bull 
Black Bull .. 
Black Bull 
Black Bull .. 

Black Bull Alehouse 
Black Horse 

Black Horse 
Black Lion 
Black Lion 
Black Prince 
Black Raven 
Black Swan 
Blakeney's Head Ale- 
house 
Blue Ball 

Blue Boar 
Blue Boar 
Blue Boar . 



Blue Boar's Head . . 

Blue Last 

Blue Post (kept by 
Ellidge) 

Blue Posts 

Blue Post . . 
Boar and Castle 
Bread Street 
Brill 
Britannia 

Britannia 
Britannia Sloop 
British 

Brown 
Brown Bear 

Bull 

Bull He-ad 
Bull Head 



Bull Head . . 
Bull and Anchor 



Bridges Street, Co vent Garden . . 1720 

Pelham Street, Spittleflelds (sic) 1750 

Berkley Square .. 1754 

High Street, Hampstead . . 1780 

Bishopsgate 1728 

Ave Maria Lane . . . . 1705 

1708 

Haymarket 1700 

Holborri, opposite Fetter Lane 1745 

Gray's Inn Lane . . . . 

Whitechapel 1732 

Devonshire Street, Bishopsgate 1744 

Long Acre . . . . . . 1755 

Bond Street (at Nos. 34 and35) 

Montague Street, Spittlefields . . 1754 

Church Street, Chelsea . . 

Xewington .. .. .. 1788 

Fetter Lane . . . . 1748 

Bartholomew Lane . . . . 

Bow Street, west side, next to 1755 

Mr. Justice Fielding's house 

Between Lombard Street and 1745 

the Mint in Southwark 

Fleet Street 1723 

1724 

Junction of Oxford Street and 1745 

Tottenham Court Road 

Whitechapel, north side, between 1 732 

Shoreditch and the ' Nag's 

Head ' 1745 

Between Duke Street and King 1745 

Street, Westminster 

Distaff Lane " . . . . . . 

Russell Street, Co vent Garden . . 1785 



Dean Street 

Cork Street, Piccadilly .. 

On site of Oxford Music Hall. . 1744 

Fronting Basing Lane .. .. 1744 

Skinner Street, Somers Town .. 1780 

Facing the "Jamaica" in St. 1744 

Michael's Alley 

Deptford 1787 

St. Katharine's 1743 

Finch Lane, near the Royal Ex- 1744 

change 

Great Onnond Street . . . . 1744 

Leman Street, Goodman's Fields 1754 

Kent Street, towards Walworth, 1745 

south of the Lock Hospital 

Gracechurch Street, east side 1732 

" Near Allgate " .. .. 1711 

Wood Street, Cheapside . . 1706 

Hammersmith .. 1750 



Daily Post, Nov. 23. ' 

Heiron's ' Ancient Freemasonry,' 

1921. 

Public Advertiser, Feb. 20. 
Rebuilt, 1876 

Lane's .' Handy Book,' p. 177. 
Larwood, p. 432. 
* London Topographical Record,' 

1903, ii. 99. 

H. of Lords MSS., 1908, vol. iv. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 
Thornbury, iv. 546, 551. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of 

London,' p. 383. 
London Daily Post, Jan. 16. 
Coxhead's ' Thomas Stothard, R.A.,' 

1906, p. 2. 

Wheatley's ' Bond Street,' p. 24. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

Thornbury, v. 90, 96. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

Smales and Tuck, p. 68. 

A plan, the property of the Bedford 

Estate Office. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 

Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 167. 
The Daily Post, Oct. 28. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 391. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Annual Feast of the Society of 

Artists. 

Timbs's ' Clubs,' p. 429. 
Larwood, p. 124. 
Rimbault's ' Soho,' p. 188. 
Thornbury, iv. 309. 
Thornbury, iv. 471. 
London Daily Post, Jan. 3. 
Thornbury, v. 342. 
General Advertiser, March 21. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
London Daily Post, Feb. 10. 

General Advertiser, March 17. 
Heiron's ' Ancient Freemasonry,' 

1921. 
Rocque's ' Survey/ 

1 Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 14. 
India Office Records : Court 

Minutes, xliv. 373 ; N. & Q.,' 

Sept. 25, 1920, p. 255. 
' London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 81. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix. 1916. 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 a ix. AUG. 6, 1921. 



Bull and Last 
Bunch of Grapes 

Capstack's 
Cardmakers' Arms . . 

Careless's 

(kept by Betty Care- 
less) 



Kentish Town 

Bow Street, Covent Garden . . 

Flying Horse Court, near St. 

Dunstan's Church, Fleet St. 
Gray's Inn Passage, Bed Lion 

Square 
Drury Lane Passage, Bridges 

Street 



Castle . . . . Smithfleld Bars 

Castle . . . . By the Savoy, near Exeter Street 

Castle . . . . Wood Street, East side 



Castle . . St. Giles's 

Castle . . Moorgate 

Castle . . Kentish Town Road 

Castle . . High Street, Putney 

Castle . . Richmond 

Castle and Leg . . Holborn 

Cat in Pattens . . Westminster 

Cat and Mutton . . Goldsmith's Row, Hackney 

Catherine Wheel . . Opposite St. George's Church, 

Southwark 

Cecil Street . . . . Cecil Street, Strand 
Chadwell's . . . . Threadneedle Street 
Charke's (Mrs.) . . Near Stuart's Rents, Drury Lane 

(Stake & Soup House) 
Chequers . . . . By the Golden Cross, Charing 

Cross 



Chequers . . . . Dowgate Hill 



Cherry Tree 

flheshire Cheese 

Glare's 

Coach and Horses . 

Coach and Horses . 

Coach and Horses . 

Coach and Horses . 
Coach and Horses . 

Ooachmakers' Arms 
dock . . 



Cock 

Oock 

Cock and Bottle 

Alehouse 

Cock and Dolphin . . 
Cock and Flask 

Cock and Half Moon 
Cock and Hoop 
Constitution 



Opposite the ' Basing House ' in 

Shoreditch 
Chelsea 

Conduit Street, Hanover Square 
Facing the Foundling Hospital 
Compton Street 
' Against Somerset House ' 

Maddock's Street 
Heath Street, Hampstead 

Long Acre 

Old Street 



Pickax Street, west side Alders- 
gate, south of the " Red 
Lyon " 
Near "William IV." in 

Hampstead 
Ab church Lane 

Gray's Inn Lane, east side 
Strand, Charing Cross end 

Chancery Lane . . 

Houndaditch 

Near Bedford Street, Strand . . 



Thornbury, v. ai9-20. 

1749 Fielding's 'The Case of Bosayern 

Penlez.' 
1720 Daily Courant, Nov. 19. 

1743 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

1742 Lyson's * Collectanea,' Brit. Mus. 
1772 Graves's ' Spiritual Quixote,' Bk. 1,. 

ch. 1. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,* 

p. 382. 

Chancellor's ' Strand,' p. 325. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,. 
p. 382. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1780 Public Advertiser*, Jan. 22. 

1723 Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 167. 

Ryland's A.Q.C., vol. iii., 1890. 

Thornbury, v. 318, 321. 

1758 Simpson's ' Suburban Taverns,' p. 46-. 

1762 Hickey, i. 34, 95 ; ii. 345. 

1727 Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 177. 

1746 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916; 

Thornbury, v. 507. 

Thornbury, vi. 79, 88. 

1744 General Advertiser, Mar. 17. 
1744 London Daily Post, Feb. 17. 

1744 General Advertiser, Mar. 24. 

1732 Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 
p. 383 ; Simpson's ' London Ta- 
verns and Masonry,' p. 38. 
Midd. & Herts ' N. & Q.,' 1897, iii. 
196. 

1732 * Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 
p. 95. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

' N. & Q.,' Aug. 23, 1879, p. 253. 



1753 
1722 

1753 
1732 

1731 
1743 

1785 
1732 

1745 
1732 

1745 
1746 

1743 

1708 



Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Marquess Townshend's MSS., p. 191. 
Thornbury, v. 320. 
Levander. A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London, 1 

p. 387. 

Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 180. 
Copy of the Manor Court Rolls of 

Ha-mpstead. 

Levander A.Q.O., vol. xxix., 1916. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,* 

p. 393. 

Rocque's 'Survey.' 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 

p. 382. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 
Copy of the Manor Court Rolls of 

Hampstead. 
N. & Q.,' March 5, 1921, p. 196. 



Larwood, p. 212. 

Midd. and Herts ' N. & Q.' 1898, iv. 

126. 

1724 Daily Post, Oct. 28. 
1755 ' N. & Q.,' Mar. 5, 1911, p. 196. 

Chancellor's ' Strand,' p. 321 ; 

Timbs's ' Clubs,' p. 435. 



J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 



(To be continued.) 



12 S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



Two ITEMS CONCERNING EDMUND BURKE. 
The following facts concerning Edmund 
Burke, which were recently made public, 
should foe duly made available for future 
reference : The Daily Sketch (June 21, 1921), 
referring to a sale at Sotheby's on the previ- 
ous day, records that : 

A prayer-book given by Richard Burke to 
Edmund Burke on his 23rd birthday was sold for 
2 5s. This volume establishes the birthday of 
Edmund Burke as January 10. 

Lord Morley in his Life of Burke (p. 4) 
writes : 

The precise date of Burke's birth cannot be 
stated with certainty. All that we can say is 
that it took place either in 1723 or 1729, and it 
is possible that we may set it down in one or the 
other year, as we choose to reckon by the old or 
the new style. The best opinion is that he was 
born at Dublin on January 12, 1729 (N.S.). 

It is also of interest to note that a special 
correspondent reports in the London Times 
an interview with Cardinal Gasquet, who, in 
referring to the English MSS. in the Vatican 
archives, said : 

There are two letters from Edmund Burke in 
his own handwriting. They are both written to 
the Vatican, and in one he urges with energy and 
almost with violence the advantage of an alliance 
between this country and the Holy See. 

JOSEPH J. MACSWEENEY. 

Howth, Co. Dublin. 

WASHINGTON FAMILY : ORIGIN AND 
ARMS. Recently much has been made of 
sketches, memoranda, memorials and other 
particulars of Washington celebrations 
largely fastening the English origin of the 
family on Sulgrave Manor, Northampton. 

Is it likely to interest you at all that 
John fil. John Washington, of Warton, near 
Kerneford (now Carnforth), was wounded 
at the Battle of Agincourt (1415) ? This 
was probably long before the family 
appeared at Sulgrave. 

It is not intended to claim for Warton 
the position of " fount." As near as this 
can be got you have it in Bardulf, Lord of 
Ravensworth, Richmond, Yorks., temp. 
William the Conqueror, the second descen- 
dant from whom was styled " Bonde ?? 
Lord of Washington-/ttotfa-Ravensworth and 
gave the name to the place, temp. King 
Stephen. 

The Bardulf mentioned probably had, 
by the way, one remove further back in 
Torfin, temp. Edward the Confessor. The 
early form of Washington is Wessington or 
Whassington or Whaseyngton, all of which 
have been used as Washington-cwm- 



Ravensworth, four miles from Richmond, 
Yorks, testifies to this day. 

On Warton Church tower, easily decipher- 
able now (outside) is, in stone, the Washing- 
ton .arms or early hatchment = Shield bar 
gemel and three mullets (said to be the 
origin of the " Stars and Stripes " flag). 
The four-pointed rowel (or mullet) is said 
to be very early. The family at one time 
considered Warton as a very important 
headquarters, for here they lived ; prob- 
ably they built a later tower upon the site 
of Roman or Saxon remains, now standing, 
but this was, of course, long before the 
" Sulgrave n advent. 

SOUND OF FINAL "A." Some years ago I 
suggested that when Tennyson rhymed 
" Cophetua " to words like " say " it was 
because he gave the final vowel of that name 
the sound of "English <a." Prof. Saints- 
bury, in his ' History of English Prosody ' 
(iii. 536), doubts this, but I think there is 
much to be said for it. Readers will remem- 
ber that in ' Pacchiarotto ' Browning rhymes 
xpvo-aopa to " gray or ray," and that in his 
earlier * Home-thoughts from the sea ' he 
makes " Africa " the last word in a poem 
every other line in which ends with the 
sound in question. My impression is that 
formerly many teachers of Latin gave this 
sound to terminal vowels in that language. 

English speech has often been vague 
regarding the sound of " a," and seems unable 
to discriminate between ah and aw. Prof. 
Saintsbury aptly quotes the alternative 
spellings of " pasha " and " bashaw," and 
we may compare the various sounds given 
to the final syllable of "hurrah ! " (some- 
times spelt and pronounced " hurray ! "). 
Even in America the same looseness seems 
to prevail, since in ' Marco Bozzaris ' we 
find: 

His few surviving comrades saw 

His smile when rang their proud hurrah. 

Again, some speakers Dean Liddon for 
one used to give the sound of " English * a ' " 
to the indefinite article. For this I know of 
no historical justification, though it may be 
convenient sometimes to emphasize " a 
man," meaning one particular man only. 
Of late the sound of ah is often represented 
by ar, a barbarism on which I shall not ven- 
ture to enlarge. 

I shall be glad to know if students of 
' N. & Q.' have any opinion on this subject. 

T. S. OMOND. 

14,.Calverley Park, Tunbridge Wells. 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2S .ix A. 6,1921, 



ANGLO - DUTCH RELATIONSHIPS : FAGEL - 
BENTINCK - ATHLONE - HE AY - BOREEL. 
It may perhaps be worth recording an 
instance where the ancient ties between 
two nations survive unknown to. the 
multitude in one solitary individual after 
a lapse of time almost beyond belief. 

When in 1688 William of Orange set foot 
on these shores, Caspar Fagel was Grand 
Pensionary of the United Provinces of the 
Netherlands, one of the principal instiga- 
tors of the enterprise, and William IJI.'s 
right hand. Soon after, Bentinck was 
created Earl of Portland, and after the 
Battle of the Boyne Ginckel became Earl of 
Athlone. 

At that very time Colonel Mackay, younger 
of Reay, was commander of the Scottish 
Brigade in the service of the United Pro- 
vinces. 

During the Civil War, William Borcel, 
the Dutch Ambassador, was created a 
Baronet by Charles I., in 1645. The 
other day I came across Baron Fagel, 
the last representative of his name, at the 
residence of his first cousin, the Lord Reay, in 
Berkeley Square. 

Baron Fagel's seat in the Netherlands, 
named Avegoor, came to him through his 
great-aunt, the last Dowager Countess of 
Athlone of the William III. creation. His 
mother was a Bentinck, and the late Burgo- 
master of the city of Haarlem in Holland, 
Sir Jacob Boreel, Bart., is his cousin. 

Truly a wonderful instance of the very 
ancient ties between the Netherlands and 
Great Britain converging in one person now 
alive. Baron Fagel unfortunately is a 
confirmed bachelor and the last male of his 
race so far. W. DEL COURT. 

47, Blenheim Crescent, W.ll. 

OPINIONATION, &c. (12 S. ix. 69). I 
am glad that MB. WAINEWBIGHT protests 
against the invention of hideous and un- 
necessary barbarisms. The word " self- 
opinionatedness " has long vexed me in a 
devotional litany with which I am, familiar. 
May I call attention to a burden which the 
hysterics of our lady writers are rapidly 
fastening upon us the substitution of 
'' selfless " for " unselfish " ? If the mean- 
ing is the same, why not stick to the existing 
word, which is both good and clear ? If 
the new creation has a different meaning, 
I can only conceive that it resembles " soul- 
less," and is therefore by no means the 
complimentary term intended by its coiners. 

W. E.'B. 



LOWSE FAIBE. The following are extracts 
from Holinshed's ' Chronicles,' reprint 
1807-8, vol. i. : 

There are verie few of them [the great towns] 
that haue not one or two faires or more within, 
the compasse of the yeare assigned vnto them by 
the prince. And albeit that some of them are 
not much better than Lowse faire or the common 
kirkemesses beyond the sea, yet there are diuerse 
not inferiour to the greatest marts in Europe 
(p. 343). 

There is almost no towne in England, but hath 
one or more such marts holden yearlie in the 
same, although some of them (I must needs con- 
fesse) be scarse comparable to Lowse faire, and 
little else bought or sold in them more than good 
drinke, pies, and some pedleric trash : wherefore 
it were no losse if diuerse of them were abolished 
(P. 4H). 

These extracts are from 'The Description 
of England,' attributed to William Harrison,, 
being respectively in ii., xviii., and iii., xv. 

I have not found tr Lowse Faire " in the 
* New English Dictionary,' where, however, 
" Kirkemesse," given s.v. " Kermis," is 
described as " In the Low Countries, parts 
of Germany, &c., a periodical (properly 
annual) fair or carnival, characterised by 
much noisy merrymaking." The latter 
part of the above first quotation is given, 
except that the words " Lowse faire or the ' r 
are omitted. Can it be that the edition of 
Harrison's England, which is quoted by 
the dictionary, leaves them out ? The Dutch 
word is " Kermis " ; the French appears 
to be "Karmasse" or " Kermesse." I 
have a French engraving of Rubens's " La 
Kermesse Flamande," in which most of 
the men and women- peasants- are dancing 
or hugging one another or both. Little, if 
anything, is being sold. 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

"BATHWOMEN" (see 12 S. ix. 69). 
MB. ARMSTRONG seems a little precipitate in 
saying that Homer represents women as 
bathing men. Whether Homer meant this, 
or only intended to represent the women 
as preparing and furnishing the bath, has 
been the subject of much discussion. Strong 
arguments for the former view are given 
by Max Schneidewin, ' Homerische Naive - 
tat ' (1878), p. 150-2 ; for the latter, by 
Gladstone, ' Studies- on Homer, &c.,' vol. 
ii., sect, ix., p. 513-7. It seems quite 
possible that the majority of critics favour 
the latter view. The question is fully con- 
sidered by Merry and Riddell in their 
edition of the first twelve books of the 
Odyssey, in their note on Book m. 465. 

AGATHIPPE, 



12 s. ix. AUG. e, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 109 



THE LANCASHIRE HOLLANDS.' The 
following note with reference to the Sutton 
Hall branch of this family may be of interest 



our forefathers (the expression is his) did 
it, and we did it in memory of them. He 
said it was taught by an old man who lived 



to those readers who possess Mr. Bernard j near or in a cave. I asked where the cave 
Holland's book, ' The Lancashire Hollands.' | was. He answered " near Bromley." I 
The last-named Thomas Holland (living asked how he made his grotto, and he said 
1717), shown in the pedigree on p. 238, with grass, cockle-shells, and flowers when 
changed his name to Waring in the hope of he could get them. I think this mid- 
avoiding penalties on account of his summer folklore in an urban district is 
religion. The following is a short pedigree | interesting when one remembers the caves 
(given to me by a descendant) showing some of Chislehurst and Blackheath, the mar- 
vellous shell-lined grotto of Margate, and 



of his descendants : 

Thomas Holland (afterwards = Ann Waring of 



the cockles of the Iceni and other races. 



Waring). Living 1717, as j Goosnargh, So far as I can discover, the proper time 
already named above. I Co. Lanes. f or earth-worship is midsummer. I have 

met with the grotto in May ; but often it 

Ja ! S iST LWus4 7 EUlabeth - Postponed Vtil the schools close for 

and farm known as Bleaky I holidays. U. J. 

Height. ! 



Joh 



^n Waring of Bleaky Height = Mary Crook. ^.^ , 

House. Married at Hoghton j OUCttCS. 

Church. 



Margaret Waring = James Turner. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 



\ \ to affix their names and addresses to their queries 

Issue. in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



Sicco PEDE. For some time past I have 
been puzzled by a Latin idiom frequently 
used by Linnaeus in his series of dissert a- 



FREDERIC CROOKS. 
Eccleston Park, Prescot. 

THE ROYAL ROUTE TO WEYMOUTH. I am 

indebted to the Town Clerk of Weymouth j tions "reprinted as ' Amoenitates Acade- 
and to Mr. Harry Pouncy, of the Dorset m i ca e,' namely, " sicco pede." Here is an 
Field Club, for information upon this sub- instance from the thesis ' Betula nana ' : 
ject. King George III. and his suite j p r i or em Betulae speciem Europaeis, et 
made fourteen summer holiday visits to in j^s, septentrionalibus praecipue notissi- 
Weymouth between 1789 and 1805. On mam sicco pec i e pra eterimus . . ." mean- 
the occasion of his first visit, and also that of ing to pass over or by the named object ; 
1792, the King started from Windsor, and elsewhere it is var i e d as " sicco, ut aiunt, 
apparently accomplished the journey in a pede > . ."from which it would seem 
day. The Times of Aug. 13, 1792, says : to be a colloquialism at Upsala at a time 

On Friday morning at 4 o'clock the Royal wne n so much instruction and conversation 
S WA WMfffift f of 2S: was still conducted in Latin. I have asked 
bury's on their journey, and they are expected for an explanation of classical and Swedish 
to arrive at Gloucester Lodge, Weymouth, in the friends, but hitherto in vain. " Dryshod 
evening. is in Swedish " torrskodd " or " torrfot," 

The route followed was apparently through but it seems only used in a literal and not 
Salisbury, Blandford, and Dorchester. Fur- 1 a metaphorical sense. If anj^ reader of 
ther references to this may be found in the ' ' N". & Q.' can supply light on this point, 
Court Circulars, and in the Diary of Fanny I shall be grateful. 
Burney. J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. B. DAYDON JACKSON. 

101, Piccadilly. 

BABYLONIAN ASTRONOMY. I should be 

" REMEMBER THE GROTTO." -A few yards much obliged if some one could refer me 
from Lewisham Obelisk, on July 23, I was to any book or article giving an account of 
invited by three barefoot little boys to Babylonian astronomy as known from the 
" remember the grotto." As I am always cuneiform tablets what were the Baby- 
interested in the festival, I asked questions. ! Ionian names for planets and stars, &c. 
The most intelligent one explained that ! J. C. HUGHES. 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.ix.Aua.6,io2i. 



THOMAS GAGE. I should like to obtain 
gome information regarding the birthplace 
of Thomas Gage (1597 ?- 1656) the author 
of ' A New Survey of the West Indias,' 
(1st ed., London, 1648). Thomas Gage was 
the second son of John Gage of Haling, in 
Surrey, and a great-grandson of Sir John 
Gage of Firle, Sussex. The 'D.N.B.' 
does not mention the place or date of his 
birth, and some old French and Spanish 
and also a few English biographical notices 
state that he was a native of Ireland, which 
seems to me very doubtful. Sir Henry 
Gage, his elder and better known brother, 
is supposed to have been born in 1597. 
There are references to Gage and the Gage 
family in ' N. & Q.' 1 S. vi. 291 ; vii. 609 ; 
viii. 144; 10 S. vi. 468; vii. 102; viii. 
241-2 but his birthplace is not mentioned. 
Is anything known regarding his residence 
as rector of Acrise (1642) and Deal (ap- 
pointed about 1651) in Kent after his con- 
version to the Protestant faith ? Gage 
died in Jamaica in 1656, after taking part 
as chaplain in Oom well's unfortunate 
expedition to Santo Domingo. Gage's ob- 
servations upon his stay in Mexico and 
Guatemala between the years 1625 and 1637 
are of great value to students of the Colonial 
period of Mexican history. 

G. CONWAY. 

Apartado 490, Mexico, D.P. 

SHAKESPEARE'S CHEESE -LOVING WELSH- 
MAN. The majority of the references to 
cheese made by Shakespeare will be found 
in The Merry Wives of Windsor, and they 
centre round the character of the Welsh 
parson and schoolmaster, Hugh Evans. 
Evans goes back to the dinner table for 
" there's pippins and cheese to come," 
but Nym the Englishman loves not " the 
humour of bread and cheese." Ford states 
that he would rather trust " Parson Hugh 
the Welshman with my cheese . . . than 
my wife with herself " ; and Falstaff: cries 
out in respect to Parson Hugh Evans: 
" Heavens defend me from that Welsh 
fairy, lest he transform me to a piece of 
cheese." Again, we have Falstaff and 
Evans sparring :-> 

Falstaff'. "Am I ridden with a Welsh goat 
too ? i Shall I have a coxcomb of frieze ? 'Tis 
time I were choked with a piece of toasted cheese." 

Evans : " Seese is not good to give putter, your 
pelly is all putter." 

Falstaff: "'Seese' and 'putter'! Have I 
lived to stand at the taunt of one [that makes 
fritters of English?" 

We are told that in 1542 "the naturall 



disposicions of Welshmen " were towards 
good rosted chese," and in 1607 we 
learn that " the Northern man loves white 
meats, the Southern man sallats . . . the 
Welshman leeks and cheese." 

In Shakespeare's days the cheese -pro- 
ducing countries were Essex, Suffolk and 
Cheshire. Wales did not produce cheese, 
and toasted cheese was a rare bit in Wales 
now indicated by the degenerated term a 
" Welsh rabbit." 

What grounds were there for Welsh- 
men and cheese to be coupled together ? 
The Englishman used to couple Frenchmen 
and frogs together. It was a generaliza- 
tion that was inaccurate. Can it be said 
that coupling Welshmen and cheese to- 
gether had a more natural basis, even when 
it is done by Shakespeare ? 

R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 

DAIRIES AND MILKHOUSES IN 1594 AND 
1624. In ' Archseologia,' vol. 48 (1885), there 
is a paper on Inventories of Household 
goods and Farming stock at Walton and 
Grilling Castle, Yorkshire, in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. 

At Gilling, in 1594, the " Darye " contained 
among other things : " 2 mattresses, 2 
bowlsters, 5 coverlettes, 1 cheese presse, 
7 leades for mylke, 24 bowles, 2 chirnes and 
cheese fattes." In 1624 there was at Gilling 
" in the milkhouse," among other things, 
"5 butter kittes, 20 milk bowles & 3 cream 
pottes," " in the landry " " a cheese trough, 
3 kyrnes " and " 1 frame for a kyrne to 
run in & 2 iron crookes to turne it about 
with" ; and " in the wash-house " "6 ches 
fattes, 1 sinker & 3 chees presses." 

At Walton, in 1624, the " milkhouse " 
contained, among other things, " a bed 
stockes, a paire of sheets stopt with new 
feathers, a bolster, a paire of blanketes, 2 
coverlettes, and a matteresse," also "16 
boweles, 8 ches fattes, 2 synkers, 4 skeeles, 
1 kyrne, 4 butter kittes, 2 creames pottes, 
1* scummner, 1 cheese trough and a syle," 
and " in the store chamber " there were 
" 5 butter kittes and a wheele kyrne." 

At this period, did dairymaids and milkers 
use dairies and milkhouses as bedrooms ? 
The ordinary kyrne or chime would, I 
suppose, be the upright plunge churn ; 
what kind of churn was it that needed a 
frame to run in, and iron crooks to be turned 
by, and what kind of churn was the " wheele 
kyrne " ? R. HEDGER WALLACE. 



12 S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



SIXTEENTH-CENTURY EWE'S MILK CHEESE 
IN ESSEX. In Norden's ' Description of 
Essex ' (1594) there is the following pass- 
age : 

Nere the Thames mowth, below Beamflete, 
are certaine ilandes, called Canuey Islandes, 
low Merishe grounds, and for that the passage 
ouer the creeks is vnfitt for cattle, it is onlie 
conuerted to the feeding of ews, which men 
milke, and thereof make cheese (suche as it is), 
and of the curdes of the whey they make butter 
once in the yeare, wch serveth the clothier. 

Was this sheep's milk cheese known by 
any distinctive name ? 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 

ARMS ON SEAL. I have a seal on which is 
the following blazoning as far as I am able 
to make out : 

Quarterly 1st and 4th : 

Paly of six arg. and az., within a bordure 
of the first, semee de lys, on a chief gu. a 
lion passant arg. (?). 

2nd and 3rd : 

Azure, a lioncel (?) arg., on a chief or, 
three crosses patee. 

Crest Swan's head, erased at neck, 
ducally gorged. 

I shall be obliged if any of your heraldic 
correspondents can inform me to whom the 
above arms belong or have belonged. 

F. R. J. 

CAMPBELL SHIELD OF ARMS. I have a 
shield, emblazoned on vellum, of four quar- 
terings, with mantling or and sable and an 
esquire's helmet, the first and fourth quar- 
terings being Campbell and Lorn quarterly ; 
the second quartering appears to be on an 
argent shield, another shield azure with 3 (?) 
heraldic roses ; and the fourth quartering is 
per pale gules and azure 9 crosses croslet, 
and over all a lion rampant argent. Over 
the shield is the crest, a lion's head regardant, 
and over the crest the motto, "I bear in 
mind." On a scroll beneath the shield is 
the motto Ex seipsa renascens. To what 
families do the arms on the second and third 
quarterings belong, and the motto beneath 
the shield ? D. K. T. 

" FLOREAT ETON A ! " Many of your 
readers may be able to recall during the first 
Boer War the affair at Laing's Nek (Jan., 
1881), in which two of our young officers, 
with the battle-cry of " Floreat Etona ! " 
led a charge that proved fatal to both. 
Some of those who see these lines may be 
able and willing to"do me the great kindness 
of telling me the names of the officers in 



question, as well as the whereabouts and 
date of some Cornhill Magazine lines in 
which Matthew Arnold, under the above 
heading, commemorated the incident. 

H. T. S. ESCOTT. 
33, Saekville Road, Hove. 

A. BRYANT. Biographical details are 
desired of the above person, who published a 
county map of Hertford in the early part of 

! the nineteenth century. The title page is 
worded : County Map of Hertford | by | 
(from actual survey) | A. Bryant | In the 
Years 1820 and 1821 | Inscribed by Per- 

' mission | to the | Most Noble the Marquis 
of Salisbury, K.G. | Lord Lieutenant | and 

i to the | Nobility, Clergy, and Gentry of the 
County. | London | Published by A. Bryant, 

! 27, Gt. Ormond Street | April 10, 1822. 

; Was he, in any way, related to John Briant, 

j the noted Herts bellfounder, who lived for 

! many years at Hertford and died at St. 

! Albans on Friday, Feb. 27, 1829, and was 
interred in All Saints' churchyard, Hertford ? 

L. H. CHAMBERS. 
Bedford. 

TITLE OF BOOK WANTED. Can any 

reader kindly supply the correct title of a 

book entitled, I think, ' The Merry Order 

of St. Bridget ' by a Margaret Ashton or 

Aston or some similar name. I can find 

no trace of it in the B.M. catalogue. It 

} was published about 1891 for private cir- 

| culatioiL INQUIRER. 

BOOKS WANTED : -Please refer me to 
books in English on Germany, Italy, Russia, 
| Austria, and Hungary similar to Lowell, 
' Government of England ' ; Bryce, ' The 
American Commonwealth ' ; Bodley, 
' France.' ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

HAYWARD'S LIFE OF HENRY IV. What 
I copies extant of Sir J. Hayward's ' Life and 
| Raigne of King Henry IV," published by 
John Wolfe, 1599 ? LESLIE B. TAYLOR. 
Bournbrook. 

THOMAS DICKSON, M.D. I should be 
glad to have particulars of the ancestry 
and descendants (if any) of Thomas Dickson, 
M.D., physician to the London Hospital in 
1760. I understand he resided at Dyers 
Court, Aldermanbury 

JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ia S.IX.AUCK 6,1921. 



HELEN DICKS ON, married James Gavin, a 
Covenanter, of the village of Douglas, and 
had children : a son baptized November 2, 
1694 ; a daughter, 1698 ; and a son in 1700. 
Who was she ? 

JAMES SETON- ANDERSON. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

CHARLES DICKENS IN CAP AND GOWN. 
I have a silhouette of Dickens "in his 
college dress." His signature, but not that 
with which most of us are familiar, is below 
the likeness. 

When was this silhouette taken, and of 
what college was Dickens a member ? 

W. COURTHOPE FORMAN. 
Compton Downs, Winchester. 

M, Me, MAC. What, if any, is the signifi- 
cance of these variations of the Scottish pre- 
fix for " son of " ? 

WALTER E. GAWTHORP. 



years ago I 
the chorus of 



NAUTICAL SONG. Many 
heard a sailor sing a song, 
which was as follows : 

Heave away, haul away, jolly Boys, 

At the mercy of fortune we go ; 
Now you're in for it, damme what folly, Boys, 

For to be down-hearted, Yo-ho. 
Can any reader say where the words of 
the song are to be found ? H. C. B. 

AUTHORS WANTED. The sources, authors, 
and to whom or what respectively the following 
three quotations refer : 

1. " She, standing in the yellow morning sun> 
Could scarcely think her happy life was done." 

2. " Fancy free, 
She dwelt un wedded, lonely as a star." 

3. "A painter-priest, 
Something about two hundred years ago." 

E. R. A. 

I should be very grateful if readers of N. & Q.' 
could fix up for me the following quotations or 
misquotations t 

1. " Speak as you think . . . fate or fortune *' 
(Emerson). 

2. " That the light of a Sun that is coming may 
scatter the ghosts of the past." 

3. " You did right to dissemble your love ; but 
why did you kick me downstairs ? " 

4. " Windows richly dight." 

5. " God in the garden heard and smiled " ( W. E. 
Henley). 

6. " Get leave to work in this world " (Brown- 
ng?). 

7. " The law's a hass." 

8. Bobus " Sausage-maker on the great Scale " 
(Carlyle). 

9. Those " petty cares and crawling interests " 
(Lowell ?). 



10. " Ah, when shall all men's good 

Be each man's rule ? " 

11. "To fawn, to crouch, to wait, to ride, to- 
run." BICHAKD FREE. 

St. Clement's Vicarage, 
Fulham, S.W. 



GLEANING BY THE POOR. 

(12 S. ix. 70.) 

THE custom of gleaning, that is allowing 
the poor to go into the harvest field to 
gather the scattered ears of corn that were 
left after the crop had been carried, was 
pretty general throughout the country . In 
some parts the practice was called "leasing," 
a term used by Wycliffe in his translation 
of Leviticus xix. 10 : 

In thi vyneyeerd the reysonus and comes 
fallynge down thou shalt not gedere, but to pore 
men and pilgrimes to ben lesid thou shalt leeve. 
In some of the older authorities there 
were statements that there was a legal right 
in the poor to glean by the Common Law. 
The earliest judicial dictum to this effect is 
by Sir Matthew Hale, in a case at the Norfolk 
Summer Assizes in 1668, in the course of 
which he said, " The law gives license to 
the poor to glean, &c., by the general 
custom of England" ('Trials per pais/ 
c. 15, 438, 534). Lord Chief Baron Gilbert, 
in his ' Law of Evidence ' (4th ed., p. 250), 
founding himself on Hale's obiter dictum^ 
states : 

By the custom of England the poor are allowed 
to glean after the harvest, which custom seems 
to be built on a part of the Jewish Law that 
allowed the poor to glean, and made the harvest 
a general time of rejoicing. 
Mr. Justice Blackstone (3 'Commentaries/ 
p. 212) writes : 

It hath been said that by the Common Law 
and custom of England the poor are allowed to 
enter and glean upon another's ground, without 
being guilty of trespass . . . this humane 
provision seems borrowed from the Mosaical Law ; 
and he refers to Leviticus xix. 9, .10, and 
xxiii. 22; and Deuteronomy xxiv. 19. 

Selden (' History of Tithes,' vol. 6, p. 1087) 
states that 

it appears the actual property was in the poor 
unless they absolutely neglected the collection, 
and then it belonged to the owner of the field, 
and it did not accrue as a donation but as a legal 
right. It was thought of so sacred a nature that 
it was exempted from tithes. 

The Private Inclosure Act for inclosing 
the common fields of Basingstoke, passed in 






12S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



1786, after reciting that the poer people of 
the town of Basingstoke had from time 
immemorial enjoyed the privilege of glean- 
ing or leasing in and over the said common 
fields as soon as the corn had been carried 
from the same in the time of harvest in every 
year, which privilege the owners of the said 
common fields were desirous of continuing 
to the said poor people under proper regula- 
tions, provides that the poor people of the 
town of Basingstoke might from time to 
time go and glean or lease in the time of 
harvest in the said common fields, provided 
th^y did not do so till the. crops should be 
cleared or carried off, and should not glean 
for more than six days in a wheat field, nor 
more than three days where the crop had 
been any other kind of grain, and it further 
provided that within the time so allowed for 
gleaning^no cattle or swine should be turned 
into the* fields. 

Whether there was any legal right to 
glean was in 1766 incidentally referred to in 
the case of R. v. John Price (4 Burrow, 1927). 
In this case persons had been gleaning in a 
barley-field where the grain had not been 
carried, and a good part of it was lying on 
the ground and had neither been raked nor 
cocked, and they took away some of the 
barley after having been forbidden by the 
farmer to do so, who then charged them 
with stealing the barley. Sir Fletcher 
Norton, who argued the case for the gleaners, 
strongly insisted on the right of the poor to 
glean after the corn was carried off the land. 
Mansfield, C.J., said the charge was stealing 
the .barley before the crop was carried off, 
and there did not appear any sort of contest 
between the farmer and the poor about 
leasing. His objection and his forbidding 
were confined to the stealing of it. Yates, J. , 
said that it would be time enough to deter- 
mine the right of leasing when it came 
directly in question. Aston, J., said that 
the right of leasing was not part of the 
question then before the Court. It might 
be exercised by law or custom in a certain 
degree, but that question might depend on 
circumstances; and Hewitt, J., stated that 
the right of leasing did appear in our 
books, but it must be under proper circum- 
stances and restrictions. 

The question again came up in the case 
of Worlledge v. Manning, decided by the 
Court of Common Pleas in Easter term 
(26 George III.). This was an action of 
trespass for entering on land and taking 
corn, &c. The def?ndant pleaded in justifi- 



cation that, after the crop was reaped 
and carried, he, being a poor necessitous- 
and indigent person, entered to glean and 
gather the corn scattered in the field, being 
the gleanings of the said crop, for the neces- 
sary support of him, the defendant. The 
plaintiff demurred, and the Court held that 
the defence set up was no legal answer to 
the claim of the plaintiff and gave judgment 
for him. The defence in this case did not 
state that the defendant was an inhabitant 
of the parish in which he gleaned, and there- 
fore it only decided that a stranger had no 
right to glean. 

The point was, however, definitely raised 
and decided, in 1788, by the Court of Common 
Pleas in the case of Steel v. Houghton and 
Wife, reported (1 H. Blackstone's Reports, 
p. 51). This was an action of. trespass for 
treading down grass and corn, &c., and 
carrying away corn, barley, &c., by the wife. 
It was twice argued before the Court, which, 
finally decided that 

No person has at Common Law a right to 
klean in the harvest field, neither have the poor 
of the parish legally settled (as such) any such, 
right. 

Gould, J., gave a dissenting judgment, 
relying on the dicta before referred to of 
Sir Matthew Hale, Gilbert, C.B., Blackstone, 
J., and Selden, and supporting his opinion, 
by the Mosaic Law and by the provisions 
of the Basingstoke Inclosure Act, which' he- 
considered amounted to a recognition by 
Parliament of the right to glean. He also- 
observed that the custom appears to have 
been known in Germany and France, and 
refers to Minshew in voce " Glean," and gives 
it as his opinion that the word " leasing "' 
was brought from the Germans, and 
" gleaning n from the Normans. 

Lord Loughborough, C.J., and the rest of 
the Court, however, agreed in the decision- 
above stated. 

Lord Campbell, in his ' Lives of the 
Chancellors * (vol. viii., p. 51), says : 

Perhaps the most stirring case which arose in hia 
(Lord Loughborough's) time was Steel v. Houghton, 
where the question was whether the poor of 
the parish have a legal right to glean in a corn- 
field, after the reapers, in harvest time ? A 
benevolent association supported the right 
agitating for it, and defraying the expenses of 
the litigation. They had in their favour one of 
the Judges of the Court, Mr. Justice Gould. . . . 
A Chief Justice fond of popularity would have 
gained a great name in the newspapers and with 
the vulgar, by showing how his Court, when, 
appealed to, could protect the starving gleaner 
from a wicked combination of tyrannical squires 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix AUG. 6,1921. 



and hard-hearted farmers. Lord Loughborough, 
however, acted a more manly part, and gave due 
weight to the principles of law and the dictates 
of reason. 

" There can be no right of this sort," said he, 
" to be enjoyed in common except there is no 
cultivation, or where that right is supported by 
joint labour ; but here neither of these criteria 
will apply. The farmer is the sole cultivator of 
the land, and the gleaners gather each for himself, 
without regard either to joint labour or public 
advantage. If this custom were part of the 
Oommon Law, it would prevail in every part of the 
Kingdom, and be of general and uniform practice ; 
but in some districts it is wholly unknown, and 
in others variously modified and enjoyed. The 
law of Moses, cited as a foundation for this claim, 
-enjoins that a part of the crop shall remain 
unreaped by the owner of the field ; and such 
political institutions of the Jews cannot be 
obligatory upon us, since even under the Christian 
dispensation the relief of the poor is not a legal 
obligation but a religious duty. The conse- 
quence which would arise from such a custom 
being established as a right would be injurious 
to the poor themselves. Their sustenance can 
only arise from the surplus of productive industry ; 
whatever is a charge on industry is a very 
improvident diminution of the fund for that 
sustenance ; the profits of the farmer being 
lessened, he would be less able to contribute 
his share to the rates of the parish, and thus the 
poor, from the exercise of this supposed right in 
the autumn, would be liable to starve in the 
spring." 

Mr. Justice Heath stated that, from the 
best inquiries he was able to make, in some 
cojmties gleaning was exercised as a general 
right, in others it prevailed only in common 
fields, and not in enclosures, in others it was 
precarious and at the will of the occupiers. 
In the county in which that action was 
brought (Suffolk), it never in practice 
extended to barley, nor was the time 
ascertained. In some counties the poor 
gleaned whilst the corn was on the ground, 
but in the case before the Court the usage 
set up was to glean after the crop was 
housed. 

This case is probably the one referred to in the 
extract quoted by your correspondent, though 
it was a decision of the Common Pleas and 
not of the King's Bench. On the other hand, 
such a long continued and valued privilege 
as that of gleaning could hardly be put an 
end to at once, and it is quite possible that 
subsequent actions were brought on account 
of the practice being persisted -in against 
the wish of the farmer, but as such cases 
would establish no new principle they are 
not likely to have been reported. However 
this may be, the case of Steel v. Houghton 
is the one usually cited as establishing the 
principle that there is no legal right to 



glean (see Halsbury's ' Laws of England, 1 
and Wharton's 'Law Lexicon 5 ). 

It is clear that the above case did not 

Eut an end to the practice of gleaning or 
casing. Most farmers continued to permit 
I it to the families of their labourers and their 
I poorer neighbours. Marshall ('Rural 
| Economy of the Southern Counties,' 1798), 
speaking of the district of Maidstone, says : 
Gleaning is, here, universally forbidden, until 
the crop be carried off the ground. I did not, 
at least, see a single instance of gleaning, either 
after the reapers, or among the shucks : not, 
however, through a want of " leasers," who 
: follow the harvest waggons, and flock into the 
i fields, in numbers, after the ground is cleared. 
| For reflections on this subject, see ' Midland 
i Counties,' Min. 80. 

Unfortunately Marshall's volume on the 
Midland Counties is not accessible here so 
that I am unable to give his reflections. 

Vancouver (' General View of the Agri- 
culture of Hampshire,' 1813), p. 388, 
speaking of the Isle of Wight, states : 

The universal bread corn is wheat, which is 
used as well among the peasantry as in farm 
houses, and in the latter with the broad bran 
and coarse pollard only taken out. This economy 
prevails among the peasantry so long as their 
gleaning giists may last. 

When William Cobbett lived at Botley, 
Hants, he on one occasion forbade the poor 
people to come gleaning in his cornfields. 
A day or two afterwards, as he rode through 
the village, he saw written on a wall in large 
letters, " We will go a-leasin in spite of old 
' Cob.' " Cobbett got off his horse, and 
rubbing out the word " leasin " substituted 
" thieving," and so left it. 

The Rev. William Barnes, in his ' Poems 
of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect,* has 
several incidental allusions to the practice. 
For example : 

'Tis merry while the wheat's in hile, 

Or when, by hill or hollow, 
The leazers thick do stoop to pick 

The ears so ripe an' yollow. 
Again : 

When leazers wi' their laps o' corn 

Noo longer be a-stoopen, 
An' in the stubble, all vorlorn, 

Noo poppies be a-droopen. 
And in another place : 

You leaz'd about the stubbly land, 
An' soon vill'd up your small left hand. 
Wi' ruddy ears your right hand vound, 
An' traifd the stalks along the ground. 

As a boy, in the Isle of Wight, I wall 
remember talk about the countryfolk going 
leasing in the cornfields. 



12 S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



Owing to the cheapening of the price of 
bread by the repeal of the Corn Laws, and 
the better wages now obtained by the agri- 
cultural labourer, the privilege of gleaning 
is not now of the importance it once was ; 
and having for nearly forty years lived in a dis- 
trict exclusively devoted to grazing and dairy 
farming, I am unable to say to what extent 
leasing is now practised, or whether the 
custom has died out altogether. 

WM. SELF-WEEKS. 

Westwood, Clitheroe. 

BRANDENBURGH HOUSE, FULHAM (12 S. 
ix. 72). Brandenburgh House, so cele- 
brated in the eighteenth and nineteenth 
centuries for its many remarkable owners, 
was in Hammersmith on the right-hand 
side of Fulham Road, opposite Sussex 
House, and its grounds stretched clown 
to the bank of the Thames. 

In the seventeenth century, before it 
rose to its future splendour, it bore success- 
ively the names of Crab -Tree House and 
The Great House. It was built by the 
noted loyalist Sir Nicholas Crispe and cost 
him 23,000, a good- price in those days, 
more especially as amongst his many useful 
inventions was the art of brickmaking 
as it is now practised. Sir Xicholas was the 
prototype of that interesting hero in ' The 
Scarlet Pimpernel,' and his wonderful ad- 
ventures in the cause of his Royal master 
were most thrilling. At his death in 1665, 
his heart, by his express desire, was en- 
shrined in an urn and placed on a pedestal 
in Hammersmith Church, below a bust of 
Charles I. which he had erected, and he left 
money for refreshing it with wine every 
year, which bequest was carried out for a 
hundred years. 

His house was sold by his grandson to 
Prince Rupert, who spent much of his time 
there with Margaret Hughes, the actress, 
for whom he bought it. At the end of ten 
years she sold it to a wealthy merchant, 
Sir Timothy Lannoy, descendant of an 
ancient French Huguenot family who made 
his fortune by scarlet silk-dye. His son's 
widow married the second Duke of Atholl, 
and in 1748 she sold it to George Bubb 
Dodington, afterwards Lord Melcombe, the 
intriguing politician, who renamed it La 
Trappe and spent a fortune on it. He 
left it to his cousin, Thomas Wyndham, and 
from him it passed into the hands of Mrs. 
Sturt, whose wonderful masquerades and 
other entertainments made her celebrated 
in the gay w oriel. 



In 1792 it was first called Brandenburgh 
House when it -was bought by the Margrave 
of Brandenburg-Anspach, and became more 
celebrated than ever for its festivities and 
theatricals, reigned over by that wonderful 
lady, the Margravine, formerly Countess 
of Craven and nee Berkeley. A great deal 
about Brandenburgh House is to be found 
in her memoirs. She left it in 1819, and 
t he-last occupant was Caroline of Brunswick f 
George IV.'s wife, who died there in 1821. 
Soon after the house was sold by auction 
and then pulled down, a factory being 
erected on its site. 

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Beading. 

There is an account of this house in 
Hughsqn's ' London,' vol. vi., p. 537. It- 
is described as " a celebrated villa, seated 
on the Thames at Hammersmith." A 
footnote says : " This house, although it 
adjoins to and is generally esteemed a 
part of Hammersmith, is actually in the 
Fulham division of the parish of Fulham." 

It was bought in 1792 by Christian,. 
Margrave of Brandenburg-Anspach, who 
had mairied Elizabeth, widow of William, 
6th Baron Craven (see the Hon. Vicary 
Gibbs's ' (In)Complete Peerage'). 

J. Norris Brewer, in vol. iv. of ' London 
and Middlesex,' 1816, devotes five pages 
to the house, with an engraving entitled 
' Brandenburgh House and Theatre.' 

Queen Caroline appears to have lived 
at the house generally during her trial, 
and there she died. 

Another view of the house, entitled 
' Brandenburg House, Hammersmith, Her 
Majesty's Residence,' is given in Robert 
Huish's ' Memoirs of Caroline, Queen Con- 
sort of England,' 1821, vol. ii., on the 
engraved title page of which is a small 
print of ' Her Majesty receiving Addresses 
at Brandenburg House.' This gives the 
land side of the house, whereas the other 
two give the river in the foreground. 

According to a little book called ' Round 
about London,' by a Fellow of i?he Society 
of Antiquaries, 4th ed., 1878, pp. 58, 59, 
Brandenburgh House was immediately East 
of the Hammersmith Suspension Bridge. 
" It has been pulled down ; a madhouse 
occupies part of the site, and Fulham 
Workhouse another part." 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

Formerly the residence of the Margravine 
of Anspach, this was demolished in 1823 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. AUG. 6,1021. 



and the site is now ooccupied by the Ham- 
mersmith Distillery, and although best 
reached from the Fulham Palace Road is 
really in Hammersmith. At the highest 
point of its celebrity when her Majesty 
Caroline, the idol of the populace, lived 
here, there were numerous prints and press 
descriptions of the house. The Queen 
died there, Aug. 7, 1821. 

ALECK ABRAHAMS. 

The site of the old Brandenburgh House 
is! commemorated by Brandenburgh Road, 
which will be found on any current map of 
London, and which runs westward from 
Fulham Palace Road to the river. The 
mansion, built in the reign of Charles I. 
by Sir Nicholas Crispe, is best known as 
the final residence of the unfortunate Queen 
Caroline, wife of George IV. Here she 
held her. rival Court, and here she died on 
Aug. 7, 1821. Within a year the house 
was pulled down. The name was subse- 
quently given to a new house built in a 
part of the grounds and used latterly as 
a private lunatic asylum. The original 
mansion, a woodcut of which is to be found 
in Walford's ' Old and New London,' was 
occupied by General Fairfax in 1647, and 
in 1748 became the residence of George 
Bubb Dodington, afterwards Lord Melcombe. 
In 1792 it was sold to the Margrave of 
Brandenburg-Anspach, whose widow con- 
tinued to occupy it for mnay years after 
his death in 1806. FBED. R. GALE. 

Selby, Gerrards Cross. 

THE YEAR 1000 (12 S. ix. 74). In the 
article on this subject a few misprints have 
occurred, of which the most important are : 
Libra should read Liber; tempora should 
read tempore ; and Bougent should read 
Bouquet. Geschicht should, of course, be 
Geschichte. G. BASKERVILLE. 

MILTON AND ELZEVIER (12 S. ix. 28). 
A detailed account of the business with 
which Daniel Elzevier's letter deals will be 
found in Masson's ' Life of Milton,' vcl. 
vi., pp. 790-806. An English translation of 
the letter is given on p. 800 ; and on pp. 
798-9 is a long extract from a letter written 
by Daniel Skinner the younger to Samuel 
Pepys about the same matter. The MSS. 
returned by Elzevier to Daniel Skinner 
the father were apparently delivered by 
him to Sir Joseph Williamson in the wrap- 
ping in which they had come from Holland. I 



| The parcel was put into a press in the 

j Old State Paper Office in Whitehall, and was 

! to be heard of or looked at no more for 

j nearly a hundred and fifty years. Readers 

of Macaulay's famous essay on Milton 

will remember that it was occasioned by 

the discovery of this parcel, resulting in the 

publication of Milton's theological treatise, 

'De Doctrina Christiana' (1825). 

The majority of Milton's Latin dis- 
patches had been surreptitiously published 
in 1676 (' Litterae Pseudo-Senatus Anglicani, 
&c.'). Those in the parcel that had not 
already appeared were printed for the 
Camden Society in 1859, in ' Original 
Papers illustrative of the Life and Writings 
of John Milton,' edited by W. D. Hamilton. 
Elzevier's letters to Sir Joseph Williamson 
and to Daniel Skinner, senior, are both 
given here in the original French. In the 
latter of these is enclosed a Latin prospec- 
tus of Elzevier's proposed edition of Milton's 
letters. The younger Skinner's letter to 
Pepys is given at length. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

FRENCH AND ITALIAN TRANSLATORS OF 
GELLERT (12 S. ix. 32). Here is an attempt 
at a French translation : 

Extrait des (Euvres de Mr. Gellert, contenant 
ses Apologues, ses Fables, et ses Histoires, traduit 
de I'Allemand en Francois par M. Toussaint, 
Avocat du Parlement de Paris, de I'Academie 
Royale de Prusse, 

2 vols. paged continuously, Zullichow 
[Ziillichau] 1768. The work is dedicated 
" a Son Altesse Royale Madame La Prin- 
cesse, Epouse de Monseigneur Le Prince 
Henri, Frere du Roi." Fra^ois Vincent 
Toussaint writes a very amusing preface 
to his translation. He acknowledges the 
extreme difficulty of translating a work of 
literature : 

C'est tine entreprise bien hasardeuse que de 
faire parler un Auteur dans une langue qui n'est 
pas lasienne.., Iln'yapresquequ'a perdre et point 
& gagner. 

In spite, however, of his repugnance to 
the office of a translator he undertakes 
it in the present instance, 

comme quelqu'un qui n'a pas un gout decide 
pour le mariage, mais qui par le merite piquant 
d'une Belle que des circonstances ont offerte a sa 
vue, perd sa froideur et son gout pour le celibat. 

He takes, however, a liberal view of the 
privileges of a translator, frankly confessing 
that " quand la pensee de 1' Auteur m'en 
a occasionne une a moi-meme, je ne 1'ai 
pas voulu laisser perdre." It was Toussaint 



12S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



who in translating ' Peregrine Pickle ' 
changed the here's name to Sir William 
Pickle ! 

There seems to have been some earlier 
French version of the Fables. In the 
interview which the Bang of Prussia had 
with Gellert in 1760 (see Carlyle's ' Fred- 
erick,' Bk. xx., chap, vi.) he says to the 
poet, " Tell me why we have no good Ger- 
man authors." Whereupon Quintus Icilius 
interposes, " Your Majesty, you see here 
one before you ; one whom the French 
themselves have translated, calling him 
thd German La Fontaine ".! 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

Much Hadham, Herts. 

SUNDIALS (12 S. viii. 511 ; ix. 39, 59, 
78). Mr. Thomas Ross's paper on ' Ancient 
Sundials of Scotland,' a report of which in 
The Builder was mentioned at p. 59, may be 
read at length in the ' Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland,' vol. 
xii., new series, 1890, pp. 161-273. It is 
profusely illustrated, and has at the end a 
table of dated examples. In the extract 
from The Rochdale Observer, given at the 
last reference in ' N. & Q.,' " Vegetate 
f orate " ought surely to be "Vigilate et 
orate " (Matthew xxvi., 41 ; Mark xiv., 38). 
EDWARD BENSLY. 

KINDS OF BREAD IN A.D. 1266 (12 S. ix. 
70). Much that is very interesting about 
early bakery is to be read in Mr. H. T. 
Riley's * Memorials of London and London 
Life in the 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries,' 
a book to which I cannot now easily refer. 
I think your correspondent will find there, 
nd elsewhere, that wastel was bread made 
of fine flour, as good as any ordinarily used, 
but perhaps a little inferior to that demanded 
for simnel bread and demain. The word 
wastel is related to the still familiar French 
g&teau, a cake. 

Cocket was somewhat inferior to wastel 
and was eaten by the middle classes. It 
is believed that its name came from the 
fact that in London it was stamped with 
the baker's seal or cocket. 

" Bread of a farthing " means a farth- 
ing's worth of the article. Such a purchase 
in these days would be impossible, and I 
wonder if I am dreaming when I seem to 
recall a day when a penny would buy a 
nice little loaf ? ST. SWTTHIN. 

The Assize of Bread fixed a sliding scale 
for the weight of tiie various kinds of bread 



I by reference to the weight, according to 
j the provisions of the Assize, of a farthing 
i loaf of wastel bread. 

There were three ordinary kinds of bread 
1 sold, of which " wastel " was the, first 

quality, " cocket " the second quality, and 

" bread of treet " the third quality. Besides 

those there was the " simnel," a kind of 
! super bread of a quality better than wastel 

bread. 

Tomline's ' Law Dictionary ' (published 

1820) says : 

! the wastel bread was what we now call the 
1 finest bread or French bread ; the cocket bread, 

the second- sort of white bread ; bread of treet, 
! and of common wheat, brown or household 

bread. 

I It further states that these three classes 
: of bread answer to the three sorts of bread 
mentioned in the Statute of Anne (by which 
! the Assize fixed by the Statute of Henry 
| III. was repealed) and therein called white, 
wheaten, and household bread, and that 
I in religious houses they formerly dis- 
I tinguished bread by these several names, 
! panis armigerorum, panis conventualis, and 
panis famulorum. Tomline says : 

The English simnel is panis purior or the 
purest white bread. It is said to come from the 
Latin simila, which signifies the purest part of 
the flour. 

Halliwell gives " wastel " as well baked 
j white bread next in quality to simnel ; 
! and " cocket bread " as the second kind 
I of best bread. " Treet " appears to be 
still a dialect word for a kind of bran, for 
| according to Brockett's ' Glossary of North 
I Country Words', * " bye-bpotings," or 
i " sharps " are the finest kind of bran ; 
j the second quality being called " treet " 
i and the worst " chizzel." 

It is probable that bread of treet con- 
tained a good deal of the bran. Under 
the Assize, instead "of making the loaf of 
a certain weight vary in price with the price 
of corn, the price of the loaf remained the 
same, but its weight increased or dim- 
inished as the price of wheat fell or rose. 
The Assize contained a scale fixing the 
change in the weight of the farthing loaf 
for each variation of sixpence in the price 
of a quarter of wheat from twelve pence to 
twelve shillings. Barrington in his ^ Obser- 
vations on the More Ancient Statutes,' 
speaking of the Assize, p. 54, observes : 

It is said that there are many mistakes in the 
proportions between the weight of bread as 
settled, and the price to be paid for it, which is 
very possible, as the legislators in those days 
were not very accurate arithmeticians. 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. AUG. 6,1921. 



Some interesting information as to the 
Assize of Bread will be found in the transla- ! 
tion of the ' Liber Albus,' p. 302 et seq. 
Reference might also be made to Ashley's ; 
' Economic History,' p. 187 et seq. 

WM. SELF-WEEKS. 



Westwood, Clitheroe. 



CHEWAR (12 S. ix. 50, 96). The supposed 
origin of this word was described by the 
Rev. T. Cockram, head master of the Royal 
Latin School, Buckingham, on p. 85 of i 
' Historical Buckingham,' by J. T. Harrison, j 
1909. As his letter is a very interesting! 
but not a lengthy one, I will give it in full. 
He says : 

It will be in the recollection of many of your 
readers that some years ago, when the Ordnance 
Survey people were making the necessary 
measurement for the large map of Buckingham/ 
they were considerably exercised about the 
proper spelling of the word " chewar," which 
they found applied by the inhabitants to the 
alley between Mr. C. A. Bennett's house and the 
Bucks and Oxon Bank. Several of the best 
informed and oldest residents were asked to give | 
their opinions as to the correct spelling of this; 
strange name, and the form which received the 
greatest amount of support was finally adopted j 
and in due course permanently recorded in iron, 
upon the walls ! 

It would appear that after all the popular j 
verdict was an erroneous one. The most recently I 
issued part of Murray's new English dictionary, | 
published at the Clarendon Press, includes the | 
word Chare, which is evidently identical with our 
old friend Chewar. It is curious that this spelling 
does not occur amongst the forms of the word 
collected by the Philological Society, which are 
Chihera, Chere, Chare, fihoyer, and Chair. Sir 
James Murray's definition of Chare is " a local 
name for a narrow alley or lane." 

The earliest spelling which has been discovered 
is " cherhera " in the thirteenth century, in the 
documents of William de Glanville, in Surtees's 
' History of Durham.' One of the extracts is 
from the London Gazette -of 1707: "A large 
dwelling house in the Broad Chair in Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne " will be sold. In Tennant's ' Tour 
of Scotland,' 1790, occurs : " The lower Streets 
and Chares, or Alleys, are extremely narrow." 
It would be interesting to find out if the local 
pronunciation, which settled the spelling of the 
Buckingham alley, can be supported by any 
papers or documents in the possession of your 
readers. L. H. CHAMBERS. 

Bedford. 

A CURIOSITY OF ENDEAVOUR (12 S. ix. 67). 
The MS. book described by Mr. G. E. 
Fussell is only a schoolboy's exercise, in- 
tended to " rub in " some of the principal 
facts of English history, and at the same 
time to teach the neat-handed use of pen 



and ink. In much the same way, and with 
a similar object, most of us have made school -\ 
boy maps of ancient Greece and Italy. 

B. B. 

THE PLAGUE PITS (12 S. viii. 450, 495 r 
97 ; ix. 12, 35). Now that discussion 
is revived regarding the identity of th& 
plague pits of London during the severest 
epidemic visitation, it may be noted that 
Mr. Balleine, the sometime curate at 
Whitechapel St. Mary's, declared it is a 
myth that victims of the dreaded disease 
were buried pell-mell at the AVhitechapel 
Mount. The plague pit for that then 
semi-rural locality was where St. Philip's 
Church now stands, behind the modern 
London Hospital. By the by, the White - 
chapel St. Mary cleric says the much- 
debated Mount " existed from the very 
earliest times, being probably a Saxon 
fortification to protect the High Road from 
the Danes, who held the Eastern Counties. 
In 1642, when Charles I. was supposed ta 
be marching on London, it was restored 
to its original use, men, women, and children 
working night and day digging trenches 
from the road to the River Thames and 
piling all the earth on the top of the Mount 
which was crowned by formidable stone- 
works."' When was made what was called 
the New Road a way down to the then 
new docks and river quays, in 1807, 
across the last remains of the ancient 
Stepney-Wapping marsh these lowlands 
so much increased in value, that the White - 
chapel Mount was carted away and the site 
built upon for the accommodation of the 
fast increasing trading interests of the port 
and the evicted of St. Katharine's precinct. 

Me. 



J?otcs on 



Prehistory : A Study of early Cultures in Europe 
and the Mediterranean Basin. By M. C. 
Burkitt, M.A., F.G.S. (Cambridge : Univer- 
sity Press, 35s. net.) 

MB. BUBKITT is, we believe, a young man ; but 
he has already made his mark in the study of 
prehistoric man, where he has proved the most 
brilliant pupil of the Abbe Breuil (who contributes 
a delightful little preface to this book). He is 
himself an excavator, a cave-explorer, who has 
contributed valuable discoveries to the common 
stock ; and his book is as independent and as 
first-hand as that of a young investigator should 
be. It is also cautious : he does not present 



12 S. IX. AUG. 6, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



his new suggestions as proved facts. Taking 
it as a whole, it is a book to be warmly recom- 
mended to all who have at least a smattering of 
this alluring science, for it maps out the whole 
field as well as presenting the latest theories 
on particular points. 

Mr. Burkitt is, perhaps rightly, shy of physical 
anthropology, which he regards as outside his 
own field. He is shy, also, and a little too shy, 
of geology. Useful as is his correlation of geo- 
logical and anthropological eras, it might have 
been carried further to the advantage of the 
student. Yet, when Mr. Burkitt gets to work 
on what he is justified in claiming as his own 
subject, we have nothing but praise for his 
chapters. They are full, clearly arranged, and 
exact wherever exactness is possible. He 
knows the tools of primitive man thoroughly, 
and, with the help of the admirable plates at the 
end of the volume, he makes the study of them 
easy. Speaking broadly, the distinctive feature 
of his book is the prominence that it gives to the 
idea of migration. The field of discovery is 
no longer cut up into isolated portions. We 
get the implications of the contact of one civiliza- 
tion with another and of one race with another ; 
and there are several instances in which this 
idea gives satisfactory explanations of points 
hitherto obscure. The relations of Aurignacian, 
Solutrean and Magdalenian cultures, for instance, 
are the subjects of some of Mr. Burkitt's most 
fruitful suggestions ; and his inquiry whether 
the Piltdown skull and the Heidelberg jaw are 
of the same age, though of different type^ 
the jaw corresponding to the development in 
Germany of Chellean man into Mousterian, and 
the Piltdown skull to the development in France 
of the Chellean into the Acheulean is one of 
which all students of the subject will see the 
significance. In all cases Mr. Burkitt is desirous 
of elucidating the origin and movement of the 
\arious races ; and such phenomena as, for 
instance, the effect of Solutrean upon Aurigna- 
cian (an effect largely due to the lower race's 
possession of a better spear-head which 
rouses Mr. Burkitt to a rather unkind com- 
parison) ; and the passing of the Neanderthal 
race, beetle-browed ard prognathous, before 
the far superior Cro-Magnon from North Africa 
become almost, one might say, matters, not of 
prehistory, but of history. 

Of all the chapters in this book none is more 
interesting and vigorous than those on pre- 
historic art. Mr. Burkitt, following Breuil, has 
mapped it all out pretty clearly. Art begins 
in the Aurignacian age with the engraving of the 
sinuous lines known as " macaroni," and then of 
the first simple animal figures ; and the painting 
in outline of animals. In the Lower Magdale- 
nian age the engraving in silhouette improves, 
and there is a tendency to greater exactness 
in detail ; while in painting we get the first 
shading and modelling, and stump-drawing 
comes into use. In the Middle Magdalenian, the 
engraving reaches its highest point ; but colour, 
employed largely in monochrome flat wash, 
destroys the modelling, and the next period, 
the Upper Magdalenian, shows colour trying 
to get back in polychrome the modelling pre- 
viously lost, and engraving poorer than ever. 
Last, in the Azilian age, there is no engraving 



at all. And the purpose of this prehistoric art ? 
Mr. Burkitt argues it out carefully, and comes to 
the conclusion that as a general thing neither 
decoration nor the expression of the joy of life, 
but magic, was the prime motive. The subjects 
often forbid the idea of joy ; the position of the 
cave-art, usually difficult of access and far from 
the front of the cave where man lived, makes the 
idea of decoration unlikely. The " art mobi- 
lier " engraved bones and weapons included, 
no doubt, " sketches " made by pupils or by 
artists preparing to execute a cave-work ; but, 
in the main, art was a matter of religion ^-of 
procuring a good supply of food, of protecting 
the home, or of other spiritual affairs. And Mr. 
Burkitt sees good reason to believe in the exist- 
ence of a caste of medicine men, who maintained 
and modified the artistic traditions throughout 
the widely separated areas inhabited. As with the 
tools, so with the prehistoric art : the illustrations 
are excellent and of extraordinary interest. 

Poems of William Edmondstoune Aytoun. (Oxford 
University Press. Oxford edition, 5s. net. 
Also hi the ' Oxford Poets,' 8s. 6d. net ; and on 
India paper, 9s. 8d. net.) 

IT is good to have a complete and handy edition 
of Aytoun. The ' Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers' 
are always fresh and stirring. ' Bothwell ' is not 
too long, considering the movement and vigour 
of its verse. In the ' Miscellaneous Verse ' there 
are beautiful things besides the well-known 
' GEnone.' It is satisfactory to know which of 
the ' Bon Gaultier Ballads ' were Aytoun's 
(the ' Snapping Turtle ' was his, and so was the 
immortal and perfect ' Massacre of the Mac- 
pherson '). But the clou of this edition is 
undoubtedly the ' Spasmodic Tragedy,' Firmilian, 
by * T. Percy Jones,' and the review of the tragedy 
which was published before the work itself ap- 
peared. In tragedy and review Aytoun made 
hilarious fun of the poetic extravagances of such 
writers as ' Festus ' Bailey of Nottingham, and 
Sydney Dobell with his 'Balder,' and Alexander 
Smith with his ' Drama 'of Life.' No one who 
loves a witty burlesque but will enjoy these two 
brilliant specimens of it now first reprinted. 
Another side of this remarkable poet may be 
seen at its best in the ' Lament for Percy Bysshe 
Shelley,' written in the metre of ' Adonai's.' 
The book is well arranged and well printed, and 
the price of the cheapest edition is cheap indeed. 

A Contribution to an Essex Dialect Dictionary. 
Supplement II. (Reprinted from The Essex 
Review, July, 1921.) By the Rev. Edward 
Gepp, M.A. (Colchester : Benham, Is. 3d. ; 
post free, Is. 4d.) 

AT 12 S. vi. 239, we reviewed Mr. Gepp's original 
'Contribution,' and at 12 S. vii. 380, we noticed 
the publication of the first Supplement. The 
second Supplement, just issued, amplifies the 
former works, comprising many new words and 
usages and new comments on and illustrations 
of words and usages already given. The Supple- 
ment gives also a few Essex dialect words not 
yet recorded in the author's own district of High 
Easter, Felsted and Little Dunmow, and some 
Suffolk and Norfolk words which may be found 
to occur in Essex. Not all the words given are 
exclusively Essex words. For instance, a 
" gaggle," or flight of birds, is the word that all 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 S.IX.A 6,1021. 



correctly speaking sportsmen use for a flight of 
wild geese ; and " swab," " swab-hook " (some- 
times " swap ") are regular in Sussex. The 
Supplement (which, like its predecessors, has some 
delicious little touches of humour) cannot be 
dispensed with by those who have the ' Contribu- 
tion ' and the first Supplement ; and Mr. 
Gepp's close and chronological use of the ' N.E.D.' 
for examples of words and usages tends to justify 
his claim that dialect speech is the preserver of 
classic English. To dialect and to classic English 
alike Mr. Gepp is rendering yeoman service. 

The Owl Sacred Pack of the Fox Indians. By 
Truman Michelson. (Smithsonian Institution : 
Bureau of American Ethnology ; Bulletin 72. 
Washington : Government Printing Office.) 
LINGUISTICALLY and ethnologically this book is 
of high value. Mr. Michelson prints the Indian 
text on the left hand page and his English transla- 
tion on the right hand ; and his linguistic notes 
on the text and other apparatus criticus are the 
work of a scholar. From the ethnological point 
of view the work has special claims to study. 
The pack itself is now in the Museum fur Volker- 
kunde, Berlin ; but Mr. Michelson's text is the 
narrative of its former owner, Alfred Kiyana, 
who knew not only the legend of its origin, but 
the ritual connected with it, its esoteric meaning 
and its traditional powers. The contents of the 
pack included the owl-skin, a tobacco-pipe, a 
flute, a fire-flint, and other ceremonial articles. 
Two children, Black Rainbow and his niece 
(sister's daughter) Deer -. Horn, had been 
chosen out in childhood by the Owl to be 
" blessed " ; and the pack and its contents (all 
except the flute) were given to them by a naked 
man in a lonely spot when, after a dedicated 
youth, they had grown up. The man also gave 
them full instructions about Fox dances in summer 
and in winter, about the use of the pack in war- 
fare, in medicine, and other fields of life. The 
lore thus handed down, with the words of the 
ritual, songs and many other minute details, were 
all remembered by Alfred Kiyana, and they 
form a valuable repository of Indian lore of many 
kinds. The narrative, too, is very charming and 
interesting ; and there are passages in which the 
nature of religion as understood by the Foxes is 
illuminated. A few good illustrations help to 
the understanding of the whole. 

The Quarterly Review for July includes a study 
by Dr. F.C. S. Schiller of William James, chiefly 
as seen in the two volumes of his letters edited 
by his son Henry. Dr. Schiller's account of 
James, his personality, and the difficult paths 
by which he won through from Spencerian natural- 
ism to his bracing religious faith (for so it must 
be called) makes an article of great interest and 
value. Mr. John Freeman points out well how, 
in restoring the English peasant to the English 
landscape, Mr. Maurice Hewlett's three volumes 
of poetry, ' The Song of the Plow,' ' The Village 
Wife's Lament,' and' ' Flowers in the Grass,' 
have achieved a singular triumph ; and his 
article is a sterling piece of criticism. Lord 
Haldane's ' The Reign of Relativity ' and Lord 
Bryce's ' Modern Democracies ' are the subjects 
of two judicious articles ; and there is a readable 
paper on sixteenth- century travels and dis- 
coveries. M. Elie Halevy's history of Chartism 



and Dr. Arthur Shadwell's masterly analysis 
of the coal strike are also to be noted. 

IN the August Cornhill Mr. J. H. Roberts 
analyses in lively style the names of London 
streets ; we should like to see more work from him 
in the same fruitful field. Sir Henry Lucy 
begins some more reminiscences under the title 
of ' From the Diary of a Journalist.' Dr. Bernard 
W. Henderson's tribute to George Macdonald 
as preacher will warm many a heart, and his 
memories of Henry Allon, Beecher, Gordon 
Calthrop and other preachers of the eighteen- 
eighties are good reading. Short stories by Mr. J . 
D. Beresford and Mr. George Blake, and Mr. Julian 
Huxley's charming Italian study, ' A Legend and 
some Peasants,' make up an attractive number. 

The Antiquaries' Journal for July (Oxford Uni- 
versity Press, 5s. net.) leads off with Sir Her- 
cules Read's presidential address on ' Museums 
in the Present and Future,' the gist of which may 
be familar to our readers from the daily papers. 
It deserves careful study in its complete form. 
Mr. C. R. Peers and Mr. Reginald A. Smith con- 
tribute an acute and careful account of Way- 
land's Smithy, near Ashbury, Berks ; the latter 
giving the history of the monument, and the 
former describing the excavations of 1919-20. 
Mr. Stanley Carson's paper on the Dorian 
Invasion in the light of some new evidence ; 
Mr. W. L. Hildburgh's on some English alabaster 
carving, and Mr. H. F. Westlake's note on 
the excavations by which he discovered the 
Misericorde of Westminster Abbey behind No. 20, 
Dean's Yard, are full of interest. 

THE Chief Librarian of the City of Birmingham 
Public Libraries sends us the catalogue of the unique 
collection of War Poetry presented to the Re- 
ference Library by an anonymous donor. The 
collection, while surprisingly large, is not com- 
plete ; and the Librarian asks for any information 
or help that would lead to the acquisition of 
such war poems as may be absent. Address, The 
Chief Librarian, Public Libraries, Ratcliff Place, 
Birmingham. 

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121 



LONDON, AUGUST 13, 1921. 

CONTENTS. No. 174. 

NOTES : The Sforzas and the Order of the Golden Spur, 
121 The Oldest London Statue, 122 Richard Parker 
and Masonic Emblems, 123 An English Army List of 
1740, 125" Sweet Lavender," 126 Seals of Married 
Women in the Middle Ages The Great Rain A John 
Raphael Smith Discovery " A Native of America " 
" Word-painting," " Word-painters," 127. 

QUERIES : James McGill, Founder of the McGill Univer- 
sity, Montreal The King as Prebendary of St. David's 
Father Marianus A Hindustani Grammar A Transla- 
tion of Khafi Khan, 128 Weatheral George III.'s son, 
Ernest, Duke of Cumberland Royal Exchange Assurance 
Corporation ' The Noble Laird of Thornyburn ' The 
29th Division Groute's Enamelled Pictures ' Shuffle- 
wing " or " Shovel-wing " Sir Humphry Davy's Family 
Davie, Davy and Davye Faibus Segnius and Raphael 
Placentinus Sir John Parsons, t., 129 Parsons Family 
Roche-Pichemer Col. Hutchinson the Regicide 
English Railings in America Cheese Saint James I. 
and a Widow Bookseller of Bristol Vicar of Thirsk 
Quotation Wanted Authors Wanted References 
Wanted, 130. 

REPLIES : Waterloo Bounty, 131 The Ivory Gate of 
Virgil Manor of Churchill, Oxon State Trials in West- 
minster Hall, 132 Wild-cat Scheme Demagogue 
Robert de Morley and Robert de Monlalt Dr. Arndell, 
Hobart, 133 Baptism of Infant on its Mother's Coffin 
Emerson's ' English Traits ' Princess Elizabeth, " Re- 
fined Intrigante," 134 " A Frog he would a-wooing go " 
Robert Johnson, Governor cf South Carolina Or- 
miston of Ormiston, Haddingtonshire, 135 Agricultural 
and Horticultural Writers : Biographical Details wanted 
Verses wanted : Conjugal Squabbles American English 
Gleaning by the Poor Tantary Bobus, 136 Butt 
Woman Book Borrowers " Mark Rutherford," 137 
Old Song Wanted Smallest Pig of a Litter Long 
Married Life De Valera, 138 War Portents Epitaphs 
Desired, 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' A History of Pisa : Eleventh and 
Twelfth Centuries ' ' Epilegomena to the Study of Greek 
Religion' 'Ann Dutton : A Life and Bibliography.' 

OBITUARY : William Jackson Pigott. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



JSotesf. 

THE SFORZAS AND THE ORDER OF 
THE GOLDEN SPUR. 
I. 

SOME time ago I had before me original 
letters patent issued in 1840 by Lorenzo 
Duke Sforza Cesarini (" Laurentius Dux 
Sfortia Caesarinus "), in which he recited 
that : 

Paulus Papa III. per suas Literas Apostolicas 
sub Plumbo expeditas sub datum Romae apud 
Sanctum Petrum Anno Incarnationis Dominicae 
MDXXXIX. xviii. Kalendis Maji Pontificatus Sui 
Anno v. Majoribus nostris, Nobis, ac caeteris 
omnibus de Familia, et Prosapia Sfortia amplam, 
liberam, et omnimodam facultatem, et auctor- 
itatem inter alias concesserit Equites, et Milites 
Auratos, et Sacri Palatii, Aulaeque Lateranensis 
Cpmites creandi, instituendi, et solemniter or- 
dinandi, et quos benemeritos, dignosque censere- 
mus, Equitis Auratae Militiae, Comitisque Palatini 
hujusmodi titulo, nomine, et insignibus decorandi, 
and proceeded, with a superfluity of words 



and commas, to confer these honours on 
the grantee. 

Long excerpts from the Bull of Paul III. 
(Alessandro Farnese) are given by Ratti 
('Delia Famiglia Sforza,' i. 264-6). The 
grantee, Sforza Sforza, Count of Santa 
Fiora, was son of Count Bosio II. by Cos- 
tanza Farnese, the legitimate daughter 
of the grantor. The Pope's tendency to 
nepotism, of which the most signal instance 
was the grant of the Duchy of Parma to his 
son, is said to have caused him remorse 
in his later days : 

Si je n'avais point fait princes mes parents, 
je serais maintenant sans reproche devant Dieu, 
et exempt d'un grand peche (' L'Art de verifier 
les Dates,' iii. 422-3). 

II. 

In Anglo -Latin " miles auratus " would 
mean simply a knight bachelor ; but Duke 
Lorenzo's patent goes on to grant the new 
knight the right 

Crucem auream aurato calcari insignitam ante 
pectus pendentem defer endi, Palliumque simili 
Cruce auro sericoque rubeo contexta ornandi. 

Here we have clearly the insignia of the 
Order of the Golden Spur, known as St. 
Sylvester since its statutes were revised by 
Gregory XVI. in 1841 (Lawrence -Archer, 
' Orders of Chivalry,' pp. 191-2, 331, and 
Plate xxxvi.). 

Lawrence -Archer states that : " The 
Knights used to be styled, in their patents, 
' Latern Counts Palatine.' " (ibid., p. 191). 
Perhaps we should read Lateran, but even 
then the description seems curious. 

It is interesting to find " Comes Pala- 
tinus " used in the original sense of " Count 
of the Palace," and still more interesting to 
find " Comes " combining its original mean- 
ing of " Companion " with that of " Count," 
the right being granted to the new knight 
uti Comiti Palatino Sanctissimum Dominum 
Nostrum Papam una cum aliis Comitibus con- 
comitandi. 

III. 

The date of the foundation of the Order 
of the Golden Spur seems to be uncertain. 
Lawrence -Archer mentions the legend that 
it was founded by Constantino and confirmed 
by Pope Sylvester, adding : " The true 
origin, however, must be attributed to 
either Pope Paul III. or to Pope Pius IV. 
in 1559 " (p. 191). This might mislead the 
unwary reader into supposing that Pius IV. 
succeeded Paul III. in that year ; but 
Paul III. reigned from 1534 to 1549, and 
Pius was not elected until the night of 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.ix.Auo.i3,i02i. 



Dec. 25-26, 1559, being crowned Jan. 6, 1560 
(' L'Art de verifier les Dates,' iii. 422, 427). 
However, in the Chronological Table at the 
end of his book, Lawrence -Archer gives 
the " authentic or probable date " as 1534; 
and the Sforza grant shows that the Order 
was already in existence in 1539. It is 
curious that in the same table Lawrence - 
Archer gives the "traditional or apocryphal 
date " of foundation as 1539, which must 
be an error. St. Sylvester died Dec. 31, 
335 (' L'Art de verifier les Dates,' iii. 257). 
Lawrence -Archer states that :< 
The right of nomination having been con- 
ceded to Cardinals and Dukes, its reputation was 
at length impaired. Pope Gregory XVI. . . . 
in 1841 decreed that it should only be conferred 
for zeal in the [Roman] Catholic religion, for civil 
virtues, and for eminence in science and art 
(p. 191). 

It would be interesting to know if he 
deprived, or tried to deprive, the House 
of Sforza of their right to create knights 
of the Order. 

IV. 

Amongst many other titles at the head of 
his letters patent, Lorenzo styles himself 
" Princeps Romanus et Sacri Romani 
Imperii." But there seems to be some 
doubt whether the Sforzas were really 
Princes of the Holy Roman Empire. Sieb- 
macher, although he includes the Dukes of 
Sforza- Cesarini amongst the Princes of the 
Empire, is unable to discover their right to 
the title. The first to whom he attributes 
it is Filippo (d. 1764), whose wife was the 
daughter of a Prince of the Empire, Sieb- 
macher suggesting that Filippo probably 
assumed the title in right of his wife 
" wohl jure uxoris ? " His nephew (" Nef- 
fe ") and successor, Gaetano (d. 1776), also 
married a Reichsfurstin and assumed the 
title of Prince of the Holy Roman Empire ; 
and Gaetano' s son Francesco bore the same 
title, without it being apparent whether, 
and when, it had been conferred : " ohne 
dass zu ersehen, ob und warm derselbe ver- 
liehen worden ware " (* Wappenbuch,' Ite 
Band, 3te Abt., 3te Reihe A., p. 248). On 
this it may be remarked that : 

(1) Gaetano was the brother, not the 
nephew, of Filippo (Ratti, op. cit. t pp. 358, 
360). 

(2) The M.I. on the tomb of Filippo's 
father, Giuseppe Sforza (d. 1744), gives him 
the title of " Sacri Romani Imperii Prin- 
cipis " (ibid., p. 358) ; so the title was prob- 
ably borne by him, although doubtless it 



may only have been attributed to him by 
his son after his death. 

(3) The wives of Filippo and Gaetano do 
not seem to have been princesses in their own 
right, and presumably only enjoyed the 
title of Reichsfurstin as daughters of a 
Reichsfurst ; in which case their husbands 
can hardly have been entitled to assume 
the title jure uxoris, although this is no proof 
that they did not do so. 

I hope that other contributors will be able 
to supply an explanation. 

G. H. WHITE. 

23, Weighton Road, Anerley. 



THE OLDEST LONDON STATUE. 
1395-1921. 

THE statues of London have been listed 
and photographed with infinite care, and yet 
there has remained this almost unidentified, 
and certainly the oldest, stone effigy prac- 
tically unknown. Of its history and origin 
nothing has been ascertained or recorded 
until this brief narrative came to be written 
after much research, the inspiration of a 
small drawing and close examination of the 
statue in situ. 

In the eighteenth year of his reign, that 
is the year 1395, King Richard the Second 
ordered the restoration of Westminster 
Hall. Fire had destroyed the roof, and a 
better entrance was needed from Palace 
Yard. So it was built much as we see it 
to-day, the most important improvement 
being the great North Porch, with its many 
niches. 

Some of the original contracts between 
the King et Richard Washbourn et Johan 
Swalwe Masons d'autre part are textually 
preserved in that well-known work Rymer's 
' Fcedera.' 

The records, however, are not complete, so 
we are left to infer that the work was not 
finished when the King abdicated, and some 
of the niches were never filled with these 
intended statues of tutelary saints or kings 
and queens of preceding reigns. About 
a century later the changes in the uses 
of the great hall had created a demand for 
taverns, and at least two, named respec- 
tively " Heaven " and " Hell," were pro- 
vided by extraneous buildings built against 
this porch, and hiding most of its niches 
and statuary. These additions to the build- 
ings persisted until early in the nineteenth 
century, when extensions of the Courts 
of Law were made and all taverns, inns, 



12 s. ix. AUG. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



and coffee-houses banished. James Wyatt 
was the first architect employed, but subse- 
quently Sir John Soane carried out the 
desired improvements. They seem to have 
concurred in thinking that the removal of the 
buildings hiding the porch was essential, and 
so it came about that the niches and their 
statues were rediscovered. The contem- 
porary drawing referred to illustrates three 
figures that may be identified as Edward I., 
Queen Philippa, Edward II. The removal 
of an obtruding hand and arm noticeable in 
two of the statues is due to the circumstance 
of ->he back wall of the houses having been 
built flat against these niches and statuary. 
This discovery, although attributed to James 
Wyatt the architect, was probably due to 
his Clerk of Works, Thomas Gayfere, who 
held a similar position at Westminster 
Abbey. Exactly how he disposed of these 
statues is not known, possibly they were . 
broken up before their interest was realized ; 
but when, in 1825, a further discovery j 
of statues was made at least one 
was sold or presented, and so came to 
be preserved to this day. Those who seek I 
it must make their way to Trinity Square, 
Borough, and there, in an enclosure fronting 
the Ionic Church, will find an old statue, 
without name, erected on a pedestal largely 
made of cement. Why this statue came to 
migrate to this square is explained by thei 
fact that about the date of its discovery at 
Westminster and eviction from the niche 
it had occupied for over 400 years, the 
square was being completed and some 1 
ornament was required for the centre grass j 
plot. Local tradition has identified it as a j 
Biblical hero, preferably Aaron, but offi- 
cially it is believed to represent Alfred and 
this is correct, as some consideration of de- 
tail will prove. 

Obviously the statue in design is of the 
late fourteenth century, the crown or wide j 
banded coronet resembling that shown on! 
the contemporary portrait of Richard II. , 
at Westminster Abbey. Here also is ai 
toga held in at the waist by a girdle having j 
a design of conventional waves ; the mantle, 
held together under the chin by a large 
brooch, has a border of diamond-shaped 
-<jiiares surrounding Lombardic crosses and 
half circles with pellets. 

The statue, probably seven feet high, j 
lias been much repaired with cement and 
across the back are two iron clamps to 
prevent a flaw extending. Originally it! 
was carved from a block of marble, possibly 



from Purbeck, and the exposed surfaces 
polished, then painted. There is evidence of 
this remaining, and the right knee slightly 
advanced, therefore exposed to the weather, 
has the upper surface so corroded as to 
show the texture of the stone. This posi- 
tion of the knee provides problematical 
explanations for much that has been lost. 

The right hand now missing from above 
the wrist probably held a book, resting 
it on the knee ; it was also supported by an 
iron stay of which only the socket below 
the girdle remains. The thumb of the left 
hand is missing, but the position of the other 
fingers and the inner surface of the fore- 
finger suggest that this hand held aloft a 
short sword as an emblem of Justice. These 
symbols would adequately represent King 
Alfred as the first lawgiver of his people. 

The patriarchal beard, moustache, and 
hair is intended to be typical of a Saxon 
king, but it is too patriarchal. 

So here is the re-discovery of a fourteenth- 
century statue, mutilated but still preserved, 
in a South -London square. By all means 
let it be identified so that those who read 
may know who is represented and its origin ; 
and if removal is thought necessary I 
suggest the Royal Courts of Justice as offering 
a suitable place in which to erect it, sadly 
wanting as they are in some memorial of the 
antiquity of English law. 

ALECK ABRAHAMS. 



RICHARD PARKER AND MASONIC 
EMBLEMS. 

ALTHOUGH, as I have said (12 S. ix. 8), many 
East Londoners retain a sentimental interest 
in all that relates to Richard Parker, of the 
Nore Mutiny, I have never been able to 
range among those who indiscriminately 
attach occult or sinister importance to the 
use of the supposed Freemason emblems and 
furniture in connexion with funerals and 
graves ; for I am old enough to recollect that 
these prides, pomps, and heraldries were 
frequently included in the advertised stock- 
in-trade of undertakers in town and country. 
In the cases where these relics were genuine 
lodge, guild, or society furniture, their use 
was often due to the complaisance, courtesy, 
or " profiteering " of the custodians of the 
paraphernalia. When I was a child the 
sometime jobbing carpenters who undertook 
funerals were quite commonly in possession 
of a miscellany of shields, &c., some appa- 
rently Masonic, some of the Trinity Corpora- 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [izs.ix.Ano.i8.ion. 



tion, and other societies (varying with the 
neighbourhood of the workshop) ; and all 
these could be hired. Indeed, I have 
" played at buryings " with the '' Masonic" 
insignia and tools, when " Mr. Mould " (our 
next-door neighbour) and his subordinate 
employees were away on " business." The 
many " duds " among the coffin-nails were 
our buttons. Moreover, I have ever held in 
mind the reveries of Price, the old Stepney 
parish clerk and factotum of the Rev. 
Richard Lee, rector of Stepney, when I, 
a musing boy, accompanied him in his medi- 
tations among the tombs of the reputed 
kk sea parish." He was full of tales of what 
Freemasons, or reputed Freemasons, old and 
new, had done to the church and churchyard 
ornaments in the days of grave civil and 
religious disorders ; and over these memories 
my father and Price had, years before, often 
wrestled and wrangled when they ought to 
have been heeding their rector's very dull, 
if very learned, sermons. 

The Rev. Richard Lee, M.A., who became 
Rector of Stepney in June, 1847, " testified " 
at a conference of clerics and magistrates in 
his rectory parlour (a troop of the Guards 
being posted in sight at the narrow gut of 
Stepney High Street) on the rather anxious 
day of the 10th April, 1848, when the 
Chartists proposed to hold a meeting of 
200,000 men on Kennington Common, to 
march thence in procession to Westminster 
to " present a petition " to Parliament, a la 
Lord George Gordon. It was to the effect 
that in the times of his predecessors, the 
Rev. Ralph Cawley, M.A., the Rev. 
Giles Fairclough Haddon, D.D., and almost 
all the others who had officiated in person 
up to the Rev. Daniel Vaudrey, M.A., the 
belief of the Church officials was that the 
association of " Antient " Freemasonry with 
the old Stepney Vestry, and, consequently, 
with the Trinity Guild and Corporation, was 
lengthened and most intimate ; also that the 
belief was general among the educated in 
Stepney that the original Spert family 
memorial bore mystic Masonic signs similar 
to those once subsequently found in the 
churches and churchyards of Whitechapel, 
Spitalfields, Wapping, Shadwell, and even 
in the Queen Anne church of Limehouse. 
Mr. Mellish, a prominent local magistrate and 
a Freemason, said there were persons in his 
family who had seen Masonic signs worked 
in at each corner of the Trinity pall, and 
upon the reputed furniture of the court 
room of the Trinity House at Ratcliffe. 



There were other magistrates and clerics 

present who testified similarly, and one said 

he had seen what purported to be the Trinity 

j pall in the hands of a New York dealer in 

curios who tried to induce Washington Irving 

to buy. And the then rector of White - 

chapel (the Rev. W. W. Champneys, M.A.) 

said he had been reliably informed that 

some of the furniture in the offices and 

; museum of the East India Company in 

! Leadenhall Street bore some of these 

\ symbolic markings, although they were of 

Oriental manufacture ; and he had always 

! understood from the old officials that, in the 

; vaults of Whitechapel Church and in the 

structure of the old edifice there were these 

mystic signs to be found, " as had been 

| stated by the Rev. Daniel Mathias " a 

predecessor in his rectorate. 

Nevertheless, the ever- cautious, if idealis- 
tic, grand secretary of the Freemasons re- 
united Laurence Dermott -nearly sixty 
years before (when he dwelt in Mile End aiid 
in Leyton near by) does not appear to have 
accepted the popular implication with any 
enthusiasm. Indeed, he expressly pointed 
out that in the old days in the North and 
in Ireland, Masonic emblems were apparently 
used by working guildsmen as a sign of 
professional handicraft and ornament at ion r 
or simply in pride of their craft, without 
reference to the personality of the interred ; 
and that as a fact these emblems were some- 
times clumsily removed by church authori- 
ties, Roman Catholic, Anglican, and Dis- 
senting, on the pretext that they were 
merely trade advertisements. In short , 
Laurence Dermott's personal knowledge 
of the loose practices of many of those who 
held charge of Freemasonic, " Trinity,'' 
and other guild regalia in the Port ot 
London accentuated his desire not to accept 
Masonic occultism as necessarily imolved 
in the use of the brotherhood's insignia. 

Laurence Dermott's reminder, of course, 
met the occasion of a moment when the 
occultism of Freemasonry was being widely 
aspersed ; but it by no means disposed of 
the evidence that there was a time, in respect 
of symbolism and ornamentation, when,, 
as Ruskin always insisted, the guildsmen 
masters, craftsmen, and apprentices of 
the " mistery " enjoyed work for work's 
sake without a thought of self -advertise- 
ment without a notion that the title of 
"working man" was, as some degenerate 
Sam Tappertits latterly spout, " a badge 
of serfdom imposed upon one particular 



12 s. ix. AUG. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



section of human society which labours 
with its hands." Every equipped anti- 
quary knows this to be false false even 
of the so-callea Dark Age which followed 
the downfall of Roman civilization. There 
is something in the genuine monuments of 
the great medieval builders and workers 
in many renascent arts which convinces 
the student that they strove for excellence 
and spared nothing to attain it. The simple 
truth is admirably stated in the recent 
observation of The Times that : " To-day 
the traveller may penetrate into the inmost 



recesses of some great cathedral, and there, 
perhaps in a remote gallery hid away from 
sight, he will find the same exquisite finish, 
the same loving care, the same striving for 
beauty, where the eye of man would seldom 
penetrate and where labour would seem 
to be the least profitable." 

Richard Parker II., I remember, adorned 
his little house in Mile End Road with 
Masonic and other escutcheons, for he had 
a profitable side-line in funerals ; and his 
relations with mid-century Freemasonry 
were certainly intimate. Me. 



AN ENGLISH ARMY LIST OF 1740. 
(See 12 S. ii., iii., vi., vii. passim ; viii. 6, 46, 82, 185, 327, 405, 445 ; ix. 45.) 

THE last regiment of this list (p. 79) was raised in Ireland by Colonel Richard Coote, under 
a warrant dated February 13, 1702. In due course it became the 39th Regiment of Foot, 
and in 1754 proceeded to India, being the first King's Regiment to serve in that country.* 
Hence it bears upon its Colours the motto, " Primus in Indis." In 1782 a territorial title 
was given to the regiment and it was styled " 39th (or The East Middlesex) Regiment of 
Foot," which was changed to " 39th (or the Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot " in 1807. 
Since 1881 it has been designated " The Dorsetshire Regiment," which title it still retains. 



Colonel Dall way's Regiment of Foot. 



Colonel 

Lieutenant Colonel 
Major 



Captains 



Robert Dallway (1) 
Phillip Savage 
Theo. Diiry 

'Jos. McXoe 

Peter Beaver 

Henry Keene 

George Lucy 

James Caddel 

Isaac Coutier (2) 
^Edward Williams 



Dates of their . 
present commissions. 

6 June 1739 Cornet, 
18 Aug. 1739 Ensign, 
. 31 Aug. 1739 ditto 



Dates of their 
first commissions. 

8 Mar. 1704 
2 Nov. 1707 
7 June 1720 



Captain Lieutenant George Symes 



20 May 1730 

12 May 1731 

22 July 1731 

2 Aug. 1731 

18 Nov. 1731 

19 Nov. 1731 
31 Aug. 1739 

31 Aug. 1739 



ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 
ditto 

ditto 



10 April 

22 Oct. 
28 July 
21 April 
18 Dec. 
15 Jan. 

23 Dec. 



1710 
1711 
1716 
1720 
1722 
1718 
1709 



13 June 1727 



/Thomas Townsend (3) .. 18 Nov. 1731 ditto 20 May 1730 

David Hepburn (4) . . 19 Nov. 1731 ditto 8 Oct. 1730 

Adam Speed .. 17 Mar. 1731 ditto 23 Mar. 1727 

Row. Lewis (5) . . 18 Mar. 1731 ditto 22 July 1731 

John Clopton . . 30 Sept. 1732 ditto 29 July 1731 

James Cope .. 30 Sept. 1732 ditto 9 Dec. 1731 

Thomas Buck . . 4 Mar. 1735 ditto 8 Jan. 1731 

Henry Fox (6) .. 1 Oct. 1739 ditto 17 Mar. 1731 

i VernyLovett .. 1 June 1739 ditto 20 April 1732 

'yTohn Semphill .. .. 31 Aug. 1739 ditto 30 Sept. 1732 

(1) Appointed to Colonelcy of the 13th Dragoons, May 12, 1740. Was succeeded by Colonel 
Samuel Warter Whitsed on Dec. 28, 1740. 

(2) Name should be Courtier. 

(3) Captain, April 15, 1749. 

(4) Captain, Aug. 7, 1746. 

(5) Rowland Lewis. Captain, June 3, 1752. 

(6) Captain, July 19, 1740. 

* As a fact, the first so-called King's troops which served in India belonged to The Royal Regiment 
of Artillery, one company of which, commanded by Captain John Goodyear, was sent there in 1747 
with Admiral Boscawen's expedition, returning to England in 1750. 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.ix.Auo.i3.i92i. 



Colonel Dallway's Regiment of Foot. 

Edward Beaver (7) 
David Urquhart (8) 
William Dawkins (9) 
Thomas Hassell . . 
Ensigns . . . . \ Ken Cope 

Arch Grant (10) 
John Noble 
Richard Luke 
Henry Wray (11) 

War Office, Whitehall, 
20 March, 1739-40. 



Dates of their 
present commissions. 

1 June 1733 

30 April 1734 
1 Sept, 1734 
4 Mar. 1735 

10 April 1736 
27 Sept. 1737 
1 Oct. 1738 
1 June 1739 

31 Aug. 1739 



Dates of their 
first commissions. 



WILL. YOXGE. 



The following additional names are entered in ink on the interleaf : 



Lieutenant . . 
Ensigns 



John Lyons (11) 
Francis Forde (12) 
Arthur Blennerhassett 

Abbott 
William Cotterell 
Lancelote Willen 



15 Jan. 1739-40 

5 Dec. 1740 
15 Jan. 1740-1 
13 Jan. 1740-1 

ditto 
1 Aug. 1741 



(7) Lieutenant, Mar. 13, 1740-1. 

(8) Lieutenant, July 19, 1740. 

(9) Lieutenant, Aug. 1, 1741. 

(10) Captain, Feb. 9, 1751. 

(11) Captain, Feb. 14, 1754. 

(12) Captain, April 30, 1746. 



This is the end of ' An English Army List of 1740,' the first instalment of which appeared 
in ' N. & Q.' on July 1, 1916. 

Major -General Astley Terry sent a most interesting note upon other old Army Lists, 
which appeared in ' N. & Q.' of Aug. 12, 1916, but made no mention of Milan's lists of 
' The succession of Colonels to all his Majesty's Land Forces, &c.,' published in 1742, 
1744, 1745, and probably in other years. 

These lists were printed from engraved plates ; they contain some curious remarks 
against the names of officers, such as : 

* Obliged to sell for his cowardice at Lisingin." No date. 

* Broke for surrendering Deynse to the French." Nov. 1, 1695. 
' Broke for not relieving Derry." April 13, 1689. 

' Cashiered for extortion in his regiment." Mar. 4, 1 695. 
' Removed for refusing to introduce the Pope's Nuncio." July 23, 1687. 
' Broke for cowardice at Londonderry." April 13, 1689. 
"Beheaded." July 15, 1685, and Jan. 28, 1697. 

There is also the printed list of the Parliamentary Army, which was published in 1642 
and reprinted in Peacock's ' Army List of the Roundheads and Cavaliers.' There is a 
copy of this in the library of the Royal United Service Institution. 

J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Colonel. 



"' SWEET LAVENDER " (see 10 S. x. 146 ; 
xii. 176; 11 S. ii. 144; iv. 66; 12 S. 
vii. 107). Vendors of fragrant bunches of 
" sweet lavender," from the " fields " of 
Mitcham and elsewhere, were seen much 
earlier than usual in our London streets 
this summer. The writer heard the melo- 
dious cry in a northern suburb at the end 
of June, though the merchant seemed 



depressed in spirit as well as in song, per- 
chance through lack of business. Indeed, 
his appeal for custom was so feebly rendered 
as to be scarcely intelligible, which was sad 
for those who love to hear the old familiar 
chant softly warbled. The days have 
passed when barrow-loads were wont to find 
a ready market where now a basketful 
suffices to meet the demand. Is the process 



i2S.ix.Auo.i3.i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



of production on the wane, or have the ! 
lilac sprigs lost favour with the careful ( 
housewife ? It would be a pity if a once 
fertile industry were threatened with ex- ' 
tinction. The touch of war's cruel hand 
may still be heavy thereon. Let us hope 
it will soon be lifted. CECIL CLARKE. 

SEALS OF MARRIED WOMEN IN THE MIDDLE 
AGES. Among the Additional Charters at 
the B.M. there is a deed (No. 53,588) of 
Joan, sister and heir of William Martin, 
who married as second wife Henry de Lacy, 
Earl of Lincoln, on whose decease she 
married Nicholas de Audley of Heley Castle, 
a Staffordshire Baron,. The deed (dated 
13 Edw. II.) carries a seal showing the arms 
of the Lacys, a lion rampant purpure, 
impaled with the Audley fret. The legend 
shows that it is the lady's sigillum secretum. 
She styles herself Countess of Lincoln and 
Lady of Heley. I take it that she used 
the arms of her first husband as her own 
of right, but these are given on the dexter 
side, while those of her second husband, 
then also deceased, appear on the sinister side. 

I have evidence of a rather similar in- 
stance of a lady's seal (1 Edw. III.), which 
displays her father's arms on the dexter 
side, and her husband's, who was still 
living, on the sinister. Incidentally I may 
mention that this seal led to the discovery 
of the lady's maiden name, till then un- 
known, an example which shows how 
valuable Heraldry as the handmaid of History 
can sometimes be. 

May I ask if any of your readers can give 
other examples where the femme takes 
precedence of the baron on seals of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries ? 

CHARLES SWYNNERTON. 

THE GREAT RAIN. In this time of 
drought, the following information regarding 
a period of continual wet weather is cooling 
and refreshing. It will be interesting to 
hear if constant rain was experienced 
in the period named in other parts of England, 
and if any special record exists of what 
must have been the cause of much distress. 

The extract herewith I made when con- 
sulting the registers of Bicester last week. 
The entry is on the last leaf of the 5th vol. : 

1763. June ye 19th it began Raining and 
Continued Mostly Wet Wether till the begining 
of February 1764 and A Perpetual Flood In the 
Most part of Novembr December January and the 
begining of Februy 15 Capital Weeks. 

HERBERT SOUTHAM. 



A JOHN RAPHAEL SMITH DISCOVERY. 
The rare and finely-engraved mezzotint 
numbered 155 in Chaloner Smith's catalogue 
is thus described : 

' Mrs. Smith,' half-length oval, frame facing 
right, hat and feathers, hair powdered, kerchief 
across bosom, dark cape thrown down from 
shoulder. Inscription painted and engraved 
by J. R. Smith, published Jan. 20, 1783, by 
J. R. Smith, 83, Oxford Street, London. Size 
12f X 10|. 

Thus named on authority of Brandes's 
catalogue, p. 610. Query if she was the 
engraver's second wife. 

Mrs. Frankau, in her catalogue of J. R. 
Smith's works, No. 198, 'Miss Johnstone,' 
says Chaloner Smith notes that he has twice 
met the above portrait with Miss John- 
stone's name upon it in pencil, and he raises 
the question of Miss J. being " Smith's 
second wife." But J. R. S. had only one 
wife, whose maiden name was Hannah 
Croome. 

An old and unique catalogue of J. R. 
Smith's publications from 1781 to 1798, 
given to me by Mr. J. P. Heseltine, clears up 
the mystery, as the print is numbered 
No. 44 and properly called ' Miss John- 
stone,' the size and date of publication being 
absolutely identical. ' E. E. LEGGATT. 

62, Cheapside. 

" A NATIVE OF AMERICA. "In the Parish 
Church of St. Peter and St. Paul, Uplyme, 
Devon, there is a tablet on the north wall 
inscribed as follows : 

In the aisle opposite to this monument are 
deposited the mortal remains of Mrs. Ann Stuart, 
a native of America, and wife of the Revd. James 
Stuart, formerly Rector of George Town, and 
All Saints, South Carolina, and Chaplain to the 
King's Rangers in N.A. She departed this life 
the 12th of July 1805. In the same grave is 
interred the body of the above named Revd. James 
Stuart, born in 1743 at Boyndie, near Banff, in 
North Britain, and died 1809, at Newbury, 
Berks. 

J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

101, Piccadilly. 

" WORD-PAINTING," " WORD -PAINTERS." 
Apparently these expressions were a 
novelty in the 'fifties of last century, as 
shown by the following extract from The 
Ceylon Times of Feb. 13, 1855 : 

Of late The Observer has used a new term, 
word-painter or word-painting, in reference to 
the description of the actions in the Crimea, 
and we find The Examiner of Saturday has the 
same expression. It is not, however, quite 
original, as it occurs in The Dublin Evening Mail. 



128 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 aix. AUG. is, 1021. 



The Colombo Observer and The Examiner 
were the two other English newspapers of 
the time published at Colombo. 

PENRY LEWIS. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may he sent to them direct. 



JAMES McGiLL, FOUNDER or the McGiLL 
UNIVERSITY, MONTREAL. It is stated that 
James McGill, founder of the McGill Univer- 
sity, Montreal, was born in Glasgow, Scot- 
land, on Oct. 6, 1744. He matriculated 
into Glasgow University m 1756. The year 
of his coming to Canada is unknown. It is 
probable that he went to the New England 
>tates before the American Revolution, and 



mation is also desired as to his connexion, 
if any, with the United States, as well as his 
early life in Canada. The author, Professor 
Cyrus Macmillan, McGill University, Mon- 
treal, Canada, or the undersigned, will be 
most grateful for such information. 

JOHN LANE. 
The Bodley Head, Vigo Street, London. 

THE KING AS PREBENDARY OF ST. 
DAVID'S. Will some one be good enough to 
tell how it is that H.M. the King is a Preben- 
dary of St. David's Cathedral ? What king 
was the first to hold this office, and has any 
king ever been actually installed ? Are 
there any duties attached to it ? Has the 
disestablishment of the Church in Wales 
made any difference to this custom ? 

H. P. HART. 

The Vicarage, Ixworth, B u ry St. Edmunds. 



FATHER MARIANUS. In his little book, 

_ _ Zwei Klostergeschichten des vorigen Jahr- 

thaThe7ameYo^ (Leipzig, 1858), Stephan Gaet- 

broke out. He became a fur-trader and | schenlerger 'deals with the life of Graf 
amassed considerable wealth. He was | James Gordon, oder Patei ' Marianus _ of 
elected to represent one of the electoral Wurzburg (born at Banff 1704 ; died 1734). 
divisions of Montreal in the Legislative j The British Museum catalogue, following 
Assembly, and subsequently he was made ! the prefixed 'Graf," enters him as James 
a member of the Provincial Cabinet in Lower Earl of Huntly-though no Earl of Himtly 
Canada. He was too old for active service ; was ever called James. Fischer ( Scots 



Germany,' p. 303), following Wieland, enters 
him as " Mar. Gordon," a monk at Wiirz- 



he volunteered to fight in the war of 1812. 

In 1811 he made his will, in which he left his 

real estate and 10,000 to found a college to ! burg in 1719. Can any Catholic ecq> 

be known as McGill College, " in which the 

youth of Canada might be instructed in 

religious and moral truths, and in the arts 



and sciences." The college was to be estab- 
lished within ten years of the making of the 
will. 

He died on Dec. 19, 1813, in Montreal, and 
was buried in Montreal. 

In 1821 McGill College was founded. 



me more about him ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. 



A HINDUSTANI GRAMMAR. In 1898 the 
late Sir Monier Monier-Williams informed 
me that Adam Lindsay Gordon's father, 
Adam Durnford Gordon, compiled a " very 
elementary grammar for the use of the boys 
at Cheltenham College," where he became 



James McGill was brought up a Scotch j professor of Oriental languages in 1846. The 
Presbyterian ; in Canada he attended St. British Museum has an 



Gabriel Presbyterian Church, and also the 
Anglican Church. He married a French- 
Canadian Roman Catholic wife, Madame 
Desrivieres, the widow of a French-Canadian 
gentleman. It is highly probable that 
obituary notices appeared in some of the 
Scottish and Canadian newspapers at the 
time of his death, all of which are now 
doubtless defunct, or at any rate very 
difficult to consult. 

In view of a Life of James McGill, now hi 
preparation, I am particularly interested as 
to his birth and ancestry, and further infor- 



the Hindoostanee Grammar adapted to the 
use of students in the Presidency of Madras,' 
published in Madras in 1842, a second edition 
being issued in 1851. Was this by Adam 
Durnford Gordon ? 

J. M. BULLOCH. 
37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. 

A TRANSLATION OF KHAFI KHAN. The 
British Museum has two copies (Add. MSS. 
26617-26619) of a translation by Captain 
Gordon (dated Nagpur, ApriL 1821) of part of 
Khafi Khan's ' History of the Mogul Empire.' 



12 s. ix. ATO.I 3, mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



Was this Captain William Gordon (1784- 
1841) of the Madras N.I., whose son, Thomas 
Wilkinson Gordon (1821-41), was born at 
Nagpur on Aug. 19, 1821 ? 

J. M. BULLOCH. 
37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. 

WEATHERALL. -I shall be much obliged 
for information respecting Captain Weather- 
all, who was in command of H.M.S. 
Observateur in 1809. Are any of his de- 
scendants now living ? 

CHRISTOPHER W. BAYNES, Bt. 

27, Lowndes Square, S.W.I. . 

GEORGE III.'s SON, ERNEST, DUKE OF 
CUMBERLAND. Mr. Lytton Strachey, author 
of a recently published book, ' Queen 
Victoria,' says (p. 7) : 

The Duke of Cumberland was probably the 
most unpopular man in England. Hideously ugly, 
with a distorted eye, he was bad-tempered, and 
vindictive in private. 

Was he ''hideously ugly" ? The 
numerous portraits of him that I have seen 
have led me to quite a contrary conclu- 
sion, but I think they were mostly in profile 
and that secured the concealment of the 
unfortunate eye, and I do not forget that 
portraits, like epitaphs, are given to flattery. 

ST. SWITHIN. 

ROYAL EXCHANGE ASSURANCE CORPORA- 
TION. Information on the early history 
of above in Dublin and the Irish Provinces 
will be welcomed. Please reply direct. 

WILLIAM MACARTHUR. 

Gardiner House, 43, Lower Gardiner Street, 
Dublin. 

'THE NOBLE LAIRD OF THORN YBURN.' 
I have a Northumbrian Border Ballad en- 
titled ' The Noble Laird of Thorny burn.' 
It is stated in the introduction to my copy, 
which was published by Saunders and Otley, 
Conduit Street, in 1855, that it is " the 
modernized narrative of a tradition of a by- 
gone foray on the Borders, which took place 
between the English and the Scotch, tempo 
Edward III., circa 1333." The Laird 
Dodde is the hero of it. 

I should be glad to know whether there 
are any earlier editions of this ballad, and, 
if so, where they can be found ; also where 
the " tradition of the foray " is to be found. 

J. D. 

THE 29TH DIVISION. Has any history of 
the fighting done by the 29th Division been 
published, and, if so, by whom ? J. D. 



GROUTE'S ENAMELLED PICTURES. I have 
a reference of 1720 to ' ; Mr. de Groote's pic- 
tures," and to a family of " limners " called Le 
Grout. Who were they ? R. S. B. 

" SHUFFLE-WING " OR " SHOVEL-WING." 
Does anyone know "' shuffle-wing " or 
'' shovel-wing " as the local name for the 
sparrow ? If so, in what localities is the 
name found ? Does it persist to-day ? Is 
it modern, or has it been used " time out of 
mind " ? Its significance is obvious, and 
from the way sparrows manage their wings 
it seems a peculiarly appropriate name for 
them. W. J. L. 

SIR HUMPHRY DAVY'S FAMILY.- The 
scientist, whose ancestors owned the Varfel 
estate near Penzance for many generations, 
was descended from the Davy family of 
Ingoldisthorpe Hall, near Sandringham, 
Norfolk, the arms of both being almost 
identical. Could any reader kindly supply 
details of such descent ? The first known 
Norfolk Davy to settle in Cornwall did so 
before 1588. H. H. H. 

DAVIE, DAVY AND DAVYE. Could any 
readers kindly give genealogical links con- 
necting families so named in or about Exeter, 
Credition, Newton Abbot, Torquay and 
Plymouth, with families similarly named in 
the Penzance district, the origin of the name 
I of Sir Humphrey Davie, 10th Bt. (of Credi- 
! ton), and that of Sir Humphry Davy, 1st 
j Bt. (of Penzance), being alike the Norman 
j name De la Wey, later altered to De Wey, 
De Vie, Davie, Davy and Davye ? Who 
were the forefathers of James, William and 
Henry Davy (brothers), born between 1800 
! and 1820 in or near Newton Abbot ? 

H. H. H. 

FABIUS SEGNIUS (FABIO SEGNI) AND RAPH. 
PLACENTLNUS (RAPHAEL OF PIACENZA). 
Can some 'one kindly tell me the death-dates 
of these two Italian neo-Latinist poets ? 
Was the former related to Bernardo Segni 
the historian of Florence, who died in 1559 ? 
Poems by them were published by Gmter 
and by Bottari. SLEUTH-HOUND. 

SIR JOHN PARSONS, KT. He lived at 
Reigate Priory and represented that town 
in every Parliament from 1685-1717, be- 
sides holding the office of Lord Mayor of 
London in 1703. Can anyone give me infor- 
mation regarding his forbears ? 

J. C. RUSSELL PARSONS. 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [is aix. AUG. is, 1921. 



PARSONS FAMILY. Miss Mary Anne Par- ! Anything throwing light on this most extra- 
sons, born 1781, married as her second ordinary document, which, from its being at 
husband, in 1827, John Blagrave, Esq., of Loseley, would seem to have been addressed 
Calcot Park, Co. Berks. Any information as | to Sir' George More (as to whom see the 
to this lady's parentage very gratefully | ' D.N.B.'), would be of great interest to 



received. J. C. RUSSELL PARSONS. 

Forest Garth, near Christchurch, Hants. 



' students of the period. 

JOHN B. WAINE WRIGHT. 



RoCHE-PiCHMER. I shall be glad if any- 
one can tell me what is the origin of this 
name of a chateau near Montsurs in Mayenne, 
France. P. ALLSOPP. 

9, Walpole Street, S.W.3. 

COL. KUTCHINSON THE REGICIDE. I am; 
wanting to hear of any contemporary j)or- j 
trait of Col. John Hutchinson the regicide, 
other than one already known to me at \ 
Peterhouse, Cambridge. 

E. BASIL LUPTON. 

10, Humboldt Street, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. ! 

ENGLISH . RAILINGS IN AMERICA. The 
Outlook of New York states that the iron 
railings surrounding the old Bowling 
Green in Lower Broadway (to which recent 
reference was made in ' N. & Q.' in the 
notice of the new Cunard building, 12 S. 
ix. 50) were sent out from England inj 
1771. It would be of interest to ascertain; 
where they were made. 

J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 

101, Piccadilly. 

CHEESE SAINT. I am advised that there 
is a Patron Saint for cheese, cheesemakers, j 
and cheesemongers ; also that there used 
to be cheese sacrifices. Any references or 
information will be acceptable. 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 

JAMES I. AND A WIDOW BOOKSELLER OF 
BRISTOL. On p. 50 of ' A Century of Perse- 1 
cution,' Dr. Hyland prints from the MSS. i 
preserved at Loseley in Surrey ( ' Bundle i 
1329 (II.) Miscellaneous Papers'), without 
any explanatory notes, the following curious j 
paper : 

The Widdow Bookseller at Bristol, whose name j 
I am charged with at the time, is in my proposal j 
for printing my Book Horae Sacro-Poetical, and | 
I charge not myself with a remembrance of that | 
name, because I expect to see my Book published, ! 
and her name with the rest are due to me in that ! 
conspeximus. I will not be enslaved with this i 
memory of persons' names for the future, but 
take the strongest test of Poysons, Razors, and 
other Trials (as I have done) to maintain my ! 
title and Dignity in the Pace till my Restoration. 

God my Father witnesseth this and my mother i 
Stuart has satisfied you in yonder House that I 
am her son according to the flesh. 

JAMES YE KINO. 



VICAR OF THIRSK. Can any reader 
kindly supply a list of the Vicars of Thirsk,, 
Yorks ? HAYDON T. GILES. 

11, Ravensbourne Terrace, South Shields. 

QUOTATION WANTED. My parents have often 
quoted to me what they believe to be the first 
verse of a jingle which occurred in an Indian paper 
somewhere about the time 1885. The popular 
title of this paper was "The Pink 'Un," which I 
guess to have been The Evening Telegram or Mail, 
printed on pink paper. 

The first verse is quoted to me as follows : 
" The patient, mild Hindu, 

In far-off Raj-Putan (Sp. ?) 
Smiles to think how very few 

Will ever reach Nirvan." 

This verse has been a tradition in our family, 
and I very much want to authenticate it, and, 
if possible, get the remaining verses. I do not 
believe anybody short of ' N. & Q.' could possibly 
do this for me. ACTON GRISCOM. 

37, Fifth Avenue, New York. 

AUTHORS WANTED. -1. " By the clock of my 
belly 'tis the dinner hour [or some such con- 
text]." This phrase occurs, if my memory serves 
me, in one of the sixteenth-century or early 
seventeenth-century dramatists. Can anyone 
oblige me with the reference ? SLEUTH-HOUND. 

2. I should be glad to know the author of the 
following lines, and the poem from which they 
are taken : 

" Wrap me in Thy crimson robe, 
Speak to me of Thy love." 

GEORGE WADE. 
45, Riseldine Road, Honor Oak Park, S.E. 23. 

3. (a) " II dit tout ce qu'il veut, mais mal- 
heureusement il n'a rien a dire." (Quoted by 
Matthew Arnold in his Preface to Poems, 1853.) 

(6) "A true allegory of the state of one's own 
mind in a representative history is perhaps the 
highest thing one can attempt in the way of 
poetry." (Quoted in the same Preface.) 

(c) " Whose changing mound, and foam 
that passed away 

Might mock the eye that questioned where I 

lay." 

(Quoted by Ruskin in his chapter on the Pathetic 
Fallacy in ' Modern* Painters.') 

(d) " Each' smoother seems than each, and 
each than each seems smoother." E. D. J. 

REFERENCES WANTED : 

(a) Where in Ben Jonson is the phrase 
" sphere of humanity " to be found ? (Attri- 



12 s. ix. AUG. is, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



buted to Jonson by Lamb in his essay on the 
Tragedies of Shakespeare.) 

(6) " Coleridge remarks very pertinently some- 
where that wherever you find a sentence musi- 
cally worded, of true rhythm and melody in the 
words, there is something deep and good in the 
meaning too." (Carlyle in ' The Hero as Poet.") 
Where does Coleridge say this ? E. D. J. 



^WATERLOO BOUNTY. 

I; (12 S. ix. 3.1.) 

THE following circular is taken from Section i. 
of the ' Collections of Orders, Regulations, 
&c., for the Army,' vol. ii.. War Office, 
August 1, 1815: 

REGIMENTAL PAY AND DAILY ALLOWANCES. 

Circular No. 287, announcing a progressive 
Increase of Pension for wotmded Officers of the 
Army ; and granting other advantages, to the 
Subalterns and Soldiers who were engaged in the 
Battle of Waterloo, or in the Actions which pre- 
ceded it. 

War Office, 31st July, 1815. 

Sir, The Prince Regent having taken into 
his most gracious consideration the distinguished 
Gallantry manifested upon all occasions by the 
Officers of the British Army, and having more 
particularly adverted to the conspicuous Valour 
displayed by them, in the late glorious Victory, 
gained near Waterloo, by the Army under the 
Command of Field Marshal the Duke of Welling- 
ton ; and His Royal Highness being desirous of 
testifying the strong sense entertained by him 
of their devotion to His Majesty's Service ; I 
have the honour to acquaint you, that his Royal 
Highness has been pleased to order, 

First, That the Regulation * under which 
Pensions are granted to Wounded Officers, shall 
be revised, and that the Pensions which have 
been, or may be granted to Officers, for the 
actual loss of Eye or Limb, or for Wounds certified 
to be equally injurious with the loss of Limb, 
shall not be confined to the Amount attached, 
by the Scale, to the Rank, which the Officer held 
at the time when he was wounded, but shall 
progressively increase, according to the Rank, 
to which the Officer may, from time to time, be 
promoted ; the augmentation with regard to the 
Pensions of such Officers, now upon the list, being 
to take date from the 18th of June, 1815, in- 
clusive. 

Secondly, That every Subaltern Officer of 
Infantry of the Line, who served in the Battle 
of Waterloo, or in any of the actions which imme- 
diately preceded it, shall be allowed to count 
Two Years' Service, in Virtue of that Victory, in 
reckoning his Services for increases of Pay given 
to Lieutenants of Seven Years' standing ; and 
every such Subaltern will therefore be entitled 
to the additional Shilling a Day, whenever he 
shall have served Fiye Years as a Lieutenant. 



* Of 181L>. 



And -Thirdly, That this Regulation shall be 
extended to every Subaltern of Cavalry, and to 
every Ensign of the Foot Guards, who served in 
the above-mentioned Actions ; and every such 
Subaltern and Ensign will therefore be entitled 
to an additional Shilling a Day, after Five Years" 
Service, as a Lieutenant in the Cavalry, or as an 
Ensign in the Guards. 

His Royal Highness being also desirous of 
marking His Sense of the Distinguished Bravery 
displayed by the Non-Commissioned Officers and 
Soldiers, of the British Forces, in the Victory of 
Waterloo, has been most graciously pleased to 
Order, that henceforward every Non-Commis- 
sioned Officer, Trumpeter, Drummer, and Private 
Man, who served in the Battle of Waterloo, or in 
any of the Actions which immediately preceded 
it, shall be borne upon the Muster Rolls and 
Pay-Lists of their respective Corps as " Waterloo 
Men " ; and, that every " Waterloo Man " shall 
be allowed to count Two Years' Service in Virtue 
of that Victory, in reckoning his Services for 
increase of Pay, or for Pension when discharged. 
It is, however, to be distinctly understood, that 
this indulgence is not intended in any other- 
manner to affect the conditions of their original 
inlistment, or to give them any right to then- 
discharge before the expiration of the period, tc 
which they have engaged to serve. 

The Duke of Wellington has been requested 

to transmit Returns of the Subaltern Officers to 

whom these Orders may be considered, by His 

Grace, to apply ; together with accurate Muster- 

| Rolls containing the names of all the " Waterloo 

Men " in each Corps ; such Muster-Rolls being 

to be preserved in this Office as a Record honour- 

i able to the Individuals themselves, and as Docu- 

I ments by which they will at any future time be 

; enabled to establish their Claims to the 

I benefits of this Regulation. 

I have great pleasure in com muni eating these 

Instances of the Prince Regent's Gracious Con- 

! sideration for the Army ; and I request that you 

will be pleased to take the earliest opportunity 

of announcing the same to the Officers and Men 

of the Corps under your Command. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, &c., 

PALMERSTON. 
Officer Commanding 

Regiment of 

No. 69, 823. 

The Provisions contained in this circular 

i were subsequently made applicable to the 

! Military Corps of the Ordnance (The Royal 

Regiment of Artillery and the Corps of 

Royal Engineers). 

The letter from the Secretary to the 
Board of Ordnance, addressed to Major- 
General J. Macleod, Deputy Adjutant - 
General, Royal Artillery, conveying this 
information, is as follows : (Public Record 
Office. W.O. 55/652, Ordnance. General 
Orders (Artillery). Series 3, 1813-1816) : 

Office of Ordnance, 1 September, 1815. 
Sir, The Board having ordered that the bene- 
fits of the Regulation of His Royal Highness the 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.ix.AuG.i3.i92i. 



Prince Eegent with respect to a progressive 
encrease of Pension for Wounded Officers of the i 
Army, and granting other advantages to the j 
Subalterns and Soldiers who were engaged in the j 
Battle of Waterloo, or in the Actions which! 
immediately preceded it, communicated in a 
letter from the Secretary at War dated 31 July! 
1815 to Officers Commanding Regiments of the [ 
Line to be extended to the Military Corps of the 
Ordnance. 

I have the honor by the Boards Commands to | 

acquaint you therewith and to signify their j 

desire that you will communicate the same in , 

Public Orders to the Royal Regiment of Artillery. | 

I have the honor, &c. 

(Signed) 0. A. OUVRY. 
Lieut. Genl. Macleod. 
&c., &c., &c. 

J. H. LESLIE, Lieut. -Colonel. 

THE IVORY GATE OF VIRGIL : ENGLISH 
MISCONCEPTION (12 S. ix. 84). Even 
although some English writers imperfectly 
acquainted with Greek and Latin literature 
have confused the two gates of sleep, their 
knowledge of standard English authors 
ought to have prevented their making the 
mistake to which V. R. refers. Spenser, in 
canto i. of his "Faerie Queene,' alludes! 
correctly to the gate whence issue the false 
dreams. 

Archimago sends one of his " sprites " to 
Morpheus for a " fit false dreame that can 
delude the sleepers " : 

He making speedy way through spersed ayre, 
And through the world of waters wide and deepe, 
To Morpheus house doth hastily repaire. 

Whose double gates he findeth locked fast, 
The one faire fram'd of burnisht Yvory, 
The other all with silver overcast. 

The dream obtained, the sprite returns by ! 
the " Yvorie dore." 

It will be noticed that the other gat e is 
described as being of " silver overcast," not I 
of horn. 

Sir Thomas Browne concludes his essay 
' ' On Dreams " as follows : 

That some have never dreamed is as im- | 
probable as that some have never laughed, j 
That Children dream not in some countries, with 
many more, are unto me sick men's dreams ; 
dreams out of the ivory gate, and visions before ; 
midnight. 

S. BUTTERWOBTH. 

MANOR OP CHURCHILL, OXON (12 S. | 
vii. 47). I can suggest an answer to my 
query under this reference, at least as re- 
gards the fate of the Court Rolls before 
1689. It appears from a Chancery suit 
(Bridges, 318/79) that the manor house at 
Sarsden, where the Churchill memorial 



records were presumably kept (for the 
Walters of Sarsden purchased that manor 
at Easter, 1689), was burnt down towards 
the close of the seventeenth century. Sir 
John Walter, the complainant, under date 
1704, states that he has not got the counter- 
part of one of his leases "as it was burnt 
about 20 years since when your orator's 
father's house was burnt at Sarsden." A 
reference to Anthony a Wood's diary 
shows that the correct date was 1689, just 
after the purchase of the manor, the entry 
being "Nov. 6, 1689, the house of Sir 
William Walter, baronet, at Saresden neare 
Churchill was burnt. His losses 20 thou- 
sand pounds. Rebuilt in 1693." Sarsden 
is about a mile from Churchill, so it can 
hardly be the same fire (though the date 
" shortly before 1690 " is about the same) 
which is mentioned in another Chancery 
suit (Bridges, 165/65) which speaks of the 
"late dreadful fire that happened in the 
said town of Churchill, where above half 
the town and the houses there standing 
were at that time consumed and burnt." 
E. ST. JOHN BROOKS. 

STATE TRIALS IN WESTMINSTER HALL 
(12 S. viii. 371, 455). In The Universal 
Magazine for April, 1776, is a " Summary 
of the Trial of her Grace the Duchess of 
Kingston,' 2 preceded by 

A plan of the Inner Court in Westminster 
Hall, as settled by the Board of Works, and ap- 
proved by his Grace the Lord Great Chamber- 
lain, for the Trial of the Duchess of Kingston, 
April 15. 

In my copy of 'The Trial,' published by 
order of the House of Peers, 1776, a former 
owner has inserted a carefully drawn plan 
of the " Inside of the Building for Trial of 
Peers in Westminster Hall, as on 16th 
April, 1765." (This Was the date of the 
trial of William 5th Lord Byron for killing 
William Chaworth in a duel.) 

Following this plan is a written descrip- 
tion of the order of procession from the 
steps leading up to the lobby of the 
Court of Requests to the House of Lords, 
and, after prayers, to the Court iri West- 
minster Hall, followed by instructions 
ending with " The Clerk of the Crown 
in the King's Bench opens the Commission 
and reads it." 

There are very few differences between 
the two plans. Perhaps the most interest- 
ing is that in the plan of the Kingston trial 
a bench or box appears as provided for 



12 s. ix. AUG. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



the Queen. It is between the Archbishops' 
and the Bishops' benches. 

Written in pencil in my copy of the 
Kingston trial is " Sir George Xayler's copy 
with an extra drawing inserted by Sir 
George." George Nayler was appointed 
York Herald in or about 1795. There can be 
little doubt that Sir George was the former 
owner. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

WILD-CAT SCHEME (12 S. ix. 11). The 
following appears in ' A Dictionary of 
Slang and Colloquial English,' abridged 
from ' Slang and its Analogues,' by John 
S. Farmer and W. E. Henley, 1912 : 

A bank in Michigan had a large vignette on its 
notes representing a panther, familiarly called 
a wild-cat. This bank failed, a large amount 
of its notes were in circulation, which were denomi- 
nated wild-cat money, and the bank issuing 
them the wild-cat bank. Other banks stopped 
payment soon after, and the term became general 
in Michigan to denote banking institutions of 
an unsound character. 

This is apparently quoted from John R. 
Bartlett's ' Dictionary of American Words 
and Phrases ' (ed. of 1877); it may be that 
the original (1848) edition of Bartlett con- 
tained the passage. 

Farmer and Henley add, concerning the 
quotation : " Hence wild-cat currency, 
schemes, etc. (1842)." 

In Barrere and Leland's ' Dictionary of 
Slang, Jargon and Cant,' 1890, appears : 

Wild-cat villages (American), places with odd 
names. The following are all in existence : 
A.B.C., Accident, Axle-Town, <fcc., &c. 
No authority is quoted. Nothing is 
said about wild -cat money and the like. 
ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

DEMAGOGUE (12 S. viii. 447). The Italian 
form appears in John Florio's ' Queen Anna's 
Xew World of Words,' 1611 : 

Demagogia, turbulency, factiousnesse. Dema- 
gogo, a factious, turbulent man. 

The cognate Latin words are given in 

* Josephi Laurentii Lucensis, S.T.D., Amal- 
tliea Onomastica,' Lucae, 1640 : 

Demagogue, populi ductor, ut qui illi sit 
gratiosus, demagogia, populi ductio. 

It was not long before the adages collected 
by Cousin were absorbed in the book of 

* Adagia Erasmi,' &c. The extract given by 
E. W. appears in the 1599 edition under 

* Facundia.' In the ' Elenchus et Series 
hujus operis ' one of the items is : 

;, juxta locos 



Gilberti Cognati Adagiorum 
etiam disposita. 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 



ROBERT DE MORLEY AND ROBERT DE 
MONT ALT (12 S. vi. 312). In a plea at 
Chester of 1405 concerning the advowson 
of Hawarden Church, Elizabeth, widow of 
William de Montacute, Earl of Salisbury, 
being claimant against John de Stanley, 
chivaler, it was stated that Robert de 
Montalt presented one Robert de Watford 
to the rectory in the time of Edward II. 
From that Robert de Montalt the right 
descended to Robert de Morley, knight, as 
kinsman and heir, namely, son of Isabel, 
sister of the said Robert de Montalt. Sir 
Robert de Morley afterwards gave the 
same to Isabel, lately Queen of England, in 
exchange for the manor of Framelesden in 
Suffolk (Chester Plea Roll 109, m. 6). 
This plea is referred to in the pedigree of 
Montalt in Harl. MS., 1988, fo. 180 (174). 

It supplies the name (Isabel) missing in 
the deed of 1334 recited in Blomefield's 
" Norfolk," ix. 46, which is probably the 
deed of gift referred to above. According 
to the inquisition taken after his death, 
Robert de Montalt died in December, 1329, 
and his heir was Robert de Morley, the 
exact kinship not being recorded ("Cal. ' 
Inq. p.m.," vii. 471). 

The reported exchange for Framsden 
raises a doubt, for this was a Montalt manor, 
held of the earldom of Chester. In later 
times it belonged to the Morleys. 

J. J. B. 

DR. ARNDELL, HOBART (12 S. viii. 410). 
The family of Arndell, apothecaries, was 
connected with those of Carter of Totten- 
ham and St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and of 
Price of Radnorshire, by marriage. 

John Carter, farmer and gentleman, of 
Hanger's Green, Tottenham High Cross, by 
his will, 368 Warburton, dated March 13, 
1773, proved in September, 1779, left, inter 
alia, to his daughter, Mary Ann, wife of 
Thos. Arndell, apothecary of Moorfields. 
I can assist with the pedigree of this John 
Carter if necessary. 

His son, of Staple's Inn and Tottenham, 
died in 1798. His will is 16 Howe, P.C.C. 

In 1781, Thos. Arndell, then of Buck's 
Row, Hoxton, was legatee of Geo. Carter of 
St. Giles's, Cripplegate, butcher. 

Thos. Arndell died in 1792, leaving a 
widow, Mary Ann, and a son, Benjamin, 
sometime resident upon his bequeathed 
estate at Leddicoat, near Shepden, in the 
county of Hereford. The town residence of 
himself and his widowed mother was at 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix.Auo.i3,i92i. 



Great College Street, Westminster, where 
she died in 1797, survived by her son' 
Benjamin and her daughter Ann. One of! 
her bequests is to Thos. Holt, apothecary. 
Will, 583 Exeter. J. C. WHITEBBOOK. 

24, Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, W.C.2. 

BAPTISM OP INFANT ON ITS MOTHER'S 
COFFIN (12 S. vii. 490). This custom still 
obtains in Sutherland. The wife of my 
gamekeeper died there shortly after the , 
birth of her child, and her husband told me 
that the baby was to be baptized on the ' 
coffin or that the bowl for baptism was to 
be placed on the coffin ; 1 am not quite sure 
which, and, in the mournful circumstances, 
did not like to make any inquiries savouring 
of curiosity of the bereaved husband. 

A. R. 

EMERSON'S 'ENGLISH TRAITS' (12 S. 
v. 234 ; vi. 9). No. 4, at the first reference. 
Alfieri thought Italy and England the only 
countries worth living in. This, as MR. 
FLETCHER suggests, was taken from the 
Autobiography. Emerson's acknowledged 
^preference for English translations makes it 
probable that he used C. Edwards Lester's, 
published at New York in 1845. See 
' Period Third,' chap. vi. : 

In fact, after much travelling and observation, 
the only two European countries I have left with 
a desire to see again are England and Italy. In 
the former, art has conquered and transformed 
nature ; in the latter nature has always robustly 
struggled in a thousand different ways to take 
vengeance on her often unhappy, and always in- 
operative governments. 
He writes in the same chapter : 

From that time I felt a desire to live always in 
England. Not that I liked Englishmen indivi- 
dually very much (although decidedly more than 
Frenchmen, being better men), but the situation 
of the country, its simple customs, its beautiful 
and modest women and girls, and, above all, its 
liberty made me entirely forget the unpleasantness 
of the climate, the melancholy that always hoops 
you up there, and the outrageous cost of living. 
Earlier in the same chapter, after speaking 
of the prosperity of England, he had said : 

All these substantial and solid advantages, so 
peculiar to that free and happy country, en- 
raptured my mind at first sight, and during two 
subsequent visits I never had occasion to change 
my opinion. 

But in the description of the visit which he 
made to London with the Countess of Albany 
in the spring of 1791 (' Period Fourth," 
chap, xxi.) his praise has become decidedly 
fainter : 

I had still some admiration for the government, 
but the climate and the artificial manner of life I 



found more intolerable than ever always at the 
table out of bed till two or three in the morning 
a life at war with letters, genius, and health. I 
began to feel once more twinges of the gout, which 
in that blessed Island is absolutely indigenous, and 
when the first novelty was over the Countess was 
anxious to quit the country. 

No. 8, at the second reference. MR. 
FLETCHER asks whether Romilly ever sug- 
gested, as an expedient for clearing the 
arrears of ^business in Chancery, the Chan- 
cellor's staying away entirely from his Court. 
Emerson, apparently, was thinking of a 
passage in Sir Samuel Romilly's ' Memoirs/ 
1840, vol. ii., p. 421, where he writes in the 
Diary of his Parliamentary Life, under 
Nov. 28, 1811 : 

The Lord Chancellor has, in the course of this 
Michaelmas Term, been prevented from attending 
the Court for above a week by ill health. His 
place was supplied as usual by the Master of the 
Bolls, who heard so many causes and made such 
progress in the Chancellor's paper, that . . . 
he discontinued his sitting, in order to give the 
parties in the remaining causes time enough to 
prepare themselves to have their causes heard. If. 
among the expedients which have been thought of 
for clearing the present arrear of business, one 
should suggest that of the Chancellor's staying 
away entirely from his Court, it would be con- 
sidered as a jest. The truth, however, is that this 
would be so effectual an expedient, that, if the 
Lord Chancellor were only confined to his room 
by illness for two successive terms, there is no 
doubt that all the arrear of business, except the 
Bankrupt and Lunatic Petitions, and the Appeals 
(which the Master of the Bolls cannot hear), would 
be entirely got rid of. 

In another place, when mentioning Mr. 
M. A. Taylor's motion in the House of Com- 
mons for the 'appointment of a committee 
to inquire into the state of the appeals in the 
House of Lords, and of causes in the Court 
of Chancery, he notes : 

I said of the Chancellor all the good that can 
be said of him, and I only hinted at his defects. 
I observed of him, that, in point of learning in 
every part of his profession, and in talents, he had 
hardly been surpassed by any of his predecessors ; 
and that, in anxiety to do justice to the suitors of 
his Court, he had perhaps never been equalled ; 
that he carried this merit to an excess, and that 
his fault Was over anxiety to do justice in each 
particular case, without * considering how many 
other causes are waiting to be decided. 
The Chancellor was Lord Eldon. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

PRINCESS ELIZABETH, " REFINED INTRI- 
GANTE " (12 S. ix. 51). One version~of this 
lady's story is given by J. H. Castera in his 
' Histoire de Catherine II.,' livre sixieme, 
vol. ii., pp. 79-90, in the 1808 (Paris) edition. 
See also the section ' La Princesse Russe,* 



12 s. ix. AUG. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



pp. 161-172 in vol. iii. of Joseph Gorani's 
' Memoires secrets et critiques des Cours, 
des Gouvernements, et des Mceurs des prin- 
cipaux Etats de 1'Italie,' Paris, 1793. Fur- 
ther references are given in the ' Npuvelle \ 
Biographie Generate,' under ' Elisabeth 
Tarakanof (1755-1777). But she is prob- 1 
ably familiar to English readers from the 
account in Sir N. W. Wraxall's ' Historical ; 
Memoirs.' See 'Part the First,' pp. 112-' 
118, in the edition of 1904. Wraxall had , 
discussed her story with Sir John Dick, j 
British Consul at Leghorn, at the time when j 
the supposed Princess was kidnapped by 
Alexius Orlov. 

The popular form of the story made Eliza- 
beth one of three children of the Russian j 
Empress Elizabeth by Razumovsky. She | 
was brought up in Russia under the namej 
of the Princess Tarakhanov. When twelve j 
years of age she was seized by Prince 
Charles Radziwill and carried to Rome, j 
Radziwill, exasperated by the Empress 
Catherine's treatment of Poland, conceived 1 
the design of putting forward the girl as a 
claimant to the throne. Alexius Orlov was ' 
commissioned by Catherine to kidnap Eliza- 
beth and bring her to St. Petersburg. He 
effected his purpose by an unscrupulous ' 
process of deceit, including a sham marriage. I 
He took Elizabeth to Leghorn, where she; 
visited a Russian squadron, was put in 
chains and conveyed to St. Petersburg, and 
died there after some years of imprisonment; 
being beaten to death according to one ver- 
sion, according to another drowned in her 
dungeon by the rising of the Neva. Sir 
John and Lady Dick were accused of heart- 
less cruelty in assisting Orlov in his design. 
Several romances, says the ' Nouvelle Bio- 
graphie Generale,' were written about her. 
But, alas! Mr. R. Nisbet Bain in his Life of 
the Empress Elizabeth (' The Daughter of 
Peter the Great ') tells us that though the 
Empress was probably married to Razu- 
movsky, " there were no children of the 
marriage," and that " the mythical Tara- 
khanovs are an invention of credulous gossip - 
mongers " ; and Sir John Dick had assured 
Wraxall that the " Princess " was merely 
Radziwill's mistress. EDWARD BENSLY. 

Much Hadham, Herts. 

" A FROG HE WOULD A-WOOING GO " (12 S. 
ix. 51, 95). What is the authority for the 
statement that " King Charles [the Second] 
was always called ' Old Rowley ' because 
of his likeness to a frog" ? I had supposed 



the orthodox explanation of the nickname 
to be that in the ' Richardsoniana ' : 

There was an old goat that used to roam about 
the privy-garden to which they had given this 
name ; a rank lecherous devil, that everybody 
knew and used to stroke, because he was good- 
humoured and familiar ; and so they applied this 
name to Charles. 

See p. 180 of Peter Cunningham's ' Nell 
Gwyn,' edited by Gordon Goodwin. The 
name has also been derived from " an ill- 
favoured but famous horse in the Royal 
Mews," p. 84 of the same work. The King's 
remark to Riley, who had painted his por- 
trait, is well known : "Is that like me ? 
Then, odds fish ! I am an ugly fellow." But 
could Charles's particular style of ugliness 
be called that of a frog ? 

The writer of the first of the two letters 
reprinted from ' N. & Q.,' IS. ii. 74, could 
hardly be confusing Charles II. with Charles I. 
But it is difficult to see how the son's name 
of " Old Rowley " can be an argument for 
the ballad's being occasioned by Charles the 
First's Spanisi adventure. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

ROBERT JOHNSON, GOVERNOR OF SOUTH 
CAROLINA (12 S. viii. 449, 514). In a single 
copy I possess of The South Carolina His- 
torical and Genealogical Magazine for 
October, 1911 (published quarterly by the 
South Carolina Historical Society, Charles- 
ton, S.C.), is a list of " Carolina Wills proved 
in the P.C.C., recorded in Somerset House, 
London, of testators belonging to Carolina " ; 
and amongst them is, "1735, 172 Ducie, 
Robt. Johnson, Govr. of S.C." I regret 
that I cannot assist G.F.R.B. further in the 
matter, but if he will write to the Secre- 
tary of the above-mentioned society he 
will obtain all the information he is in search 
of. The address is " care of Walker, Evans 
and Cogswell Co., Publishers, Charleston, 
South Carolina, U.S.A." D. K. T. 

ORMISTON OF ORMISTON, HADDINGTON- 
SHIRE (12 S. ix. 50). The arms of Ormiston 
(of that ilk, Co. Haddington), as given in 
Burke' s ' General Armoury,' are : Argent 
three p3licans vulning themselves, gules. 
I think, therefoie, probably the pedigree 
has been registered at the Lj on Office, Edin- 
burgh, or the Heralds' College, London, and 
would no doubt be mentioned in books 
relating to the county. 

LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix.AuG.i3,i92i. 



VERSES WANTED : CONJUGAL SQUABBLES 
(12 S. ix. 53). This story in verse will be 
found in No. 2 of The Taller, April 14, 1709. 

DIEGO. 

AGRICULTURAL AND HORTICULTURAL 
WRITERS : BIOGRAPHICAL DETAILS WANTED 
(12 S. ix. 52, 96). Henry Dethick, Arch- 
deacon of Carlisle, was collated in October, 
1588, and resigned in 1597. He had been ap- 
pointed Chancellor, Vicar General and Official 
Principal in February, 1586, but had resigned 
these offices in 1588, on being appointed 
Archdeacon. On resigning the archdeaconry, 
in 1597, he was again appointed Chancellor, 
and held the office as late as 1606. This 
information is condensed from an article 
by the late Chancellor Prescott in the Trans- 
actions of the Cumberland and Westmor- 
land Antiquarian and Archaeological Society, 
vol. xi., new series. 

According to Anthony Wood, he was 
M.A. and LL.B. (the titles given him by 
Chancellor Prescott), but Wood says that, 
although in 1581 Dethick supplicated for 
the degree of Doctor of Law, he could not 
find evidence of his being admitted. 

I do not know whether he was the man 
who signed the dedication of the work 
named by your correspondent. DIEGO. 

2. Evelyn writes in his Diary under June 9, 
1698: 

To Deptford, to see how miserably the Czar 
had left my house, after three months making it 
his Court. I got Sir Christopher Wren, the King's 
Surveyor, and Mr. London, his gardener, to go 
and estimate the repairs, for which they allowed 
150 in their report] to the Lords of the Treasury. 
A note of Mr. Austin Dobson's identifies 
this Mr. London with George London, and 
refers to Evelyn's entry under April 24, 
1694, where he carries an acquaintance 
to see Brompton Park, where he was in admira- 
tion of the store of rare plants, and the method he 
found in that noble nursery, and how well it was 
cultivated. 

Mr. Dobson notes on Brompton Park, 
" Between Knightsbridge and Kensington," 
but now built over. It belonged to Henry 
Wise, 1653-78, afterwards gardener to Queen 
Anne and George I., and one of the firms of 
London and Wise, the nursery gardeners 
mentioned in No. 5 of The Spectator. 
Evelyn refers to them in his ' Advertisement ' 
to La Quintinye's ' Compleat Gardener,' 
1693. 

No. 5 of The Spectator is one in which 
Addison ridicules the Italian opera: 

I hear there is a treaty on foot between London 



and Wise (who will be appointed gardeners of the 
playhouse) to furnish the opera of Binaldo and 
Armida with an orange grove ; and that the next 
time it is acted, the singing-birds will be personated 
by torn-tits. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

AMERICAN ENGLISH (12 S. viii. 449 ; ix. 
97). Your correspondent H. C N is pro- 
bably not aware that in the United States it 
is incorrect to use the plural number in speak- 
ing of the United States as a nation, as was 
the case in President Har ding's Address to 
Congress. Had he said the " United States 
mean," it would have denoted the intention 
of each individual State. He was speaking 
for the nation as a whole, and consequently 
used the singular number. The question 
as to whether the singular or plural number 
should be used after the words " United 
States " was thrashed out years ago, and 
decided that, when speaking of the States 
as a nation, the singular number was cor- 
rect. 

The use of the adverb " illy " is in fre- 
quent, if not common, use in the United 
States. WILLIAM F. CRAFTS. 

6, Cypress Street, Brookline, Mass., U.S.A. 

In regard to the use of the word " illy," 
this extract from a letter of a distinguished 
member of our United States Senate may 
be of interest : 

" Illy " is not to me a good word. I should 
not use it myself as an adverb, but should use the 
word " ill " in that capacity. It is, however, an 
old and entirely legitimate word. I see on glanc- 
ing at the dictionary that they quote its use in 
Strype's ' Memorials ' and also from an Eliza- 
bethan writer, in Arber's ' English Garner,' also 
they quote Southey, who is comparatively recent 
and who certainly knew how to write. He says, 
" I have illy spared ..." Nevertheless I do 
not admire it, but I think it is entirely correct. 

C. E. S. 

GLEANING BY THE POOR (12 S. ix. 70. 
112). I think MR. WALLACE wants Rex v- 
Price (4 Burrow's Reports, 1925), in 1766, and 
Steel v. Houghton (1 Henry Blackstone's 
Reports, 51), in 1788. H. C N. 

TANTARY BOBTTS (12 S. ix. 71). This 
word is a provincialism in Somerset, Devon- 
shire, and Cornwall. It appears in the 
following forms : Tantarabolus, Tankera- 
bogus, Tantarabobs, Tanterabolus, Tantra- 
bobus and Tantrumbolus, and represents a 
name for the devil ; a bogy. I have, how- 
ever, met with another variant of the word, 
" tanterboming." meaning crooked ; out of 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



place. A correspondent to the ' Devon- 
shire Association Proceedings ' in May, 1899, 
says : 

This word was used by an old man at Church- 
stanton, who became shy when questioned about 
it, but he admits that the word is in common 
use in Churchstanton and the neighbourhood. I 
first heard it from his son, who was in my employ, 
about six or seven years since. He had fixed a 
stone in my garden, and I made him alter it, 
after which he said that " it did not look so 
tanterboming," meaning that it was not so much 
awry. 

The word is also seen to have been in 
common use among the middle and lower 
class in the Tiverton district. It is applied 
to anything which happens to be faulty, 
or in any way not as it should be. Now, 
in my native county, Somerset, " Tantry 
Boamer " was used in the Wincanton neigh- 
bourhood in the following connexion : A 
would say to B, "I know how long I shall 
live." B would ask A, " How long is that ? " 
To which A would reply, " As long as Tantry 
Boamer, who lived till he died." Elworthy, 
in his ' Dialect of West Somerset,' under 
the heading " Taiitarabobus," says : " Name 
for the devil usually preceded by ' old ' 
(very common)." 

W. G. WILLIS WATSON. 
Pinhoe. 

See Wright's ' English Dialect Dictionary,' 
where the meanings given are (1) the devil, 
(2) a bogy, (3) a noisy, playful child. It 
appears to be of west-country origin. 

V. B. C.-B. 

[See also ' N. & Q.,' 3 S. vi. 5, 59, 331 ; 8 S. 
xii. 268, 332; 10 S. ii. 480.] 

BUTT WOMAN (12 S. ,x. 72). Butt is one 
of the several names we have for a hassock, 
and the 'E.D.D.,' which defines butt-woman 
;i- "a sextoness, female verger or pew- 
opener," has a quotation that states she 
is sometimes spoken of as the butty-woman, ' 
and that one of her duties is to beat the 
dust out of the butts. ' N. & Q.' bears 
testimony to the same effect (7 S. x. 146). 
I doubt the correctness of the etymology 
which is suggested. ST. SWITHIN. 

In the west country a straw hassock 
UM'<1 to be called a "butt." In the Church- 
wardens' Accounts for St. Columb Minor, 
Cornwall (1701), is the entry, "Paid for 
butts for ye church, 3s." Probably these 
buttlike hassocks were for the parson or 
the clerk. Later in the eighteenth century 
tlu- word disappears and we find the word 



" tutt." Presumably a " butt woman " was 
one who cleaned the church, and not a 
sexton. W. J. S. 

Newquay, Cornwall. 

The woman who attended to the hassocks 
(formerly called " butts " in the West of 
England), cleaned the church, and assisted 
the verger or pew-opener. See 'N.E.D.' 
under Butt, sb. w. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

See Wright's 'English Dialect Dic- 
tionary ' : 

Butt = A kneeling cushion or hassock used in 
churches. 

Butt- woman =-= a sextoness, female verger, or 
pew-opener. 

V. B. C.-B. 

BOOK BORROWERS (12 S. viii, 208, 253. 
278, 296, 314, 334, 350, 377, 394, 417, 456, 
477). The following lines are from Messrs. 
Christie's catalogue of July 25, 1921 : 
COOK (CAPT. JAMES, circumnavigator) ARITH- 
METICAL TRIGONOMETRY ARITHMETICAL 
DIALLING : ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPT, very 
carefully written on 97 pp. (13 by 8 inches). 
within ruled borders, in red and black ink. 
with elaborate and beautifully drawn dia- 
grams ; folio, in old broicn paper icrappers 

1763 

The first page of this interesting MS. 
contains the writer's name and date 1763 
within an ornamental panel, above and 
below which are the following verses : 
" If you by chance do find this Book 
Which in the same you now do Look. 
I pray return it unto me 
Whose name is underneath you see. 
" This Book my name shall ever have 
When I am dead and in my grave 
And greedy worms my body eate 
Still hear you read my name compleate. 
November 10th, 1763." 

ANDREW OLIVER. 
Royal Societies Club, St. James's Street, S.W. 

"MARK RUTHERFORD " (12 S. viii. 231, 
278). It might be useful to MR. A. K. 
CHIGNELL to know that the collection of 
books of W. Hale White were included in 
Sotheby's sale on Jan. 14, 1914, and a 
perusal of the catalogue would no doubt be 
illuminating concerning the literary inclina- 
tions of "Mark Rutherford" ; e.g., he had 
many of the works of Spinoza, including the 
1674 edition of the ' Tractatus Theologico- 
Politicus. ' In this sale there was also included , 
in Lot 255, W. H. W.'s translation of Spinoza's 
' Ethic,' proof of a third edition with MS. 
corrections bv the author. A word should 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. f 12 a ix. A, is, 1921. 



also be mentioned here of the sale (Sotheby's, 
Xov. 27, 1913) of W. H. W.'s Autograph 
Letters and MSS., comprising Browning, 
Swinburne, Ruskin and others of that 
cycle. In conclusion, there is Ruskin' s 
* Dilecta ' (Parts I. and II. ), which was pub- 
lished by George Allen in 1886 (Orpington, 
Kent), " illustrating Prseterita," as the 
title page has it, in which W. H. W. has 
from his place of privilege at the Admiralty 
given some data on Turner's ' Temeraire.' 

W. WILLS CLINTON. 
126, Inchmery Road, Catford, S.E.6. 

OLD SONG WANTED (12 S. viii. 250, 
299, 315, 374, 455). This is to be found 
in * The Jubilee Singers,' 1873, p. 200. 
There are three verses that quoted by 
J. W. F. being the third and a chorus. 
The first English edition of ' The Jubilee 
Singers ' was that of 1873, and, besides the 
words and music, it comprises a full nar- 
ration of the institution of Fisk University, 
and personal histories of the several freed 
slaves who formed the ' Jubilee Singers.' It 
should be noted that their first visit to England 
was in May, 1873, and that the record of 
their singing before Queen Victoria, the 
Prince of Wales (the late Edward the Peace- 
maker), Mr. W. E. Gladstone, and other august 
persons in Willis's Rooms and elsewhere 
is one of the happiest episodes any imagina- 
tion could fancy. At the risk of the editor 
cutting it out for paucity of space I will 
give a meagre outline : 

On Her Majesty's arrival at the Rooms the 
Duke of Argyll informed the Singers that Her 
Majesty would be pleased to see them in an ad- 
joining room, and at his request they first sang 
' Steal away to Jesus,' ' The Lord's Prayer,' and 
' Go down, Moses.' 

On another memorable occasion Mr. and Mrs. 
Gladstone were giving a lunch at their residence, 
Carlton House Terrace, to their Royal Highnesses 
the Prince and Princess of Wales and other 
members of the Royal Family. The Singers 
were present to entertain the gu'ests with Jubilee 
songs, and it is related how H.R.H. The Prince 
of Wales, looking over the book of songs, called 
for ' Xo more auction-block for me.' 
(Thus the 1897 edition, Hodder and 
Stoughton.) 

In conclusion, should J. W. F. desire 
the words and music of the principal songs 
(including 'He arose'), they are obtain- 
able, I believe, still from the present Mayor 
of Bromley, Kent, W. J. Gibbs, Esq., from 
whom I obtained a copy in 1914 to add 
to my copies of various editions. This 
edition contains 140 pieces, but not the 



narrative and history of the movement ; 
in the edition of Hodder and Stoughton 
just mentioned the history alone occupies 
156 pages, and the pieces carry the book 
to its conclusion at p. 311. 

W. WILLS CLINTON. 
126, Inchmery Road, Catford, S.E.6. 

SMALLEST PIG or A LITTER (12 S. viii. 331, 
376, 395, 417, 435, 453, 473, 497 ; ix. 15, 94). 
The language seems to lack a noun for 
deficiency in size or development, and the 
origin of local makeshifts would be a study in 
itself. They seem to be marvellous in num- 
ber and unlikeness one to the other. J. T. F., 
however, who quotes " reckling," may be 

j interested in the Scottish " wreg," an expres- 
sion in common use (at least in Fifeshire 
fifty years ago) for a variety of abnormal 
objects, pigs included. To show its plenitude, 
Scotch had also an adjective, " mizety," 
meaning pined or diminutive, which ad- 
heres to the rule of non-resemblance among 
such words. At the same time I see in 
Cleishbotham's Handbook " wregh " for a 
niggard. Unlike " wreg," this is probably 
guttural in sound. In signification the 
Sw. " vrak," trash, given in the ' Century 
Dictionary' s.v. "wreck," is the closest 

| parallel. Compare " wrack and ruin." 
" Back," a little rabbit, may point to 

i separate etymology for "wreg" and "reck- 
ling." J. K. 

South Africa. 

LONG MARRIED LIFE (12 S. ix. 95). 
The enclosed paragraph appeared in Lloyd's 
Weekly News (Edward Lloyd, Ltd., 12, 
Salisbury Square, Fleet Street, E.G.), about 



When Humboldt was at Lima, he saw the 
funeral of an Indian, one Hilario Pari, who was 
born 143 years earlier, and whose wife had died 
at 117, after 90 years of wedlock. 

See my article re ' Extraordinary Married 
Couples ' (7 S. xi. 144) just thirty years 
ago. F. L. TAVARE. 

Manchester. 

DE VALERA (12 S. ix. 72, 99). MR. AN- 
DREW DE TERNANT'S answer to this query, 
however interesting, is somewhat too vague 
for the purpose. Most of what he gives us 
can be found and a great deal more in 
books of reference. 

Could MR. DE TERNANT give us proof of 
his assertion : " The founder of the noble 
branch, of which the present-day Mr. de 
Valera is a descendant, was Don Diego de 



12 s. ix. AUG. is, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



139 



Valera, born at Cuenca, 1412 ; d. about 
1482 " ? 

That would be to the purpose. 

The proved line of descent and the names 
and occupations of his near progenitors 
are what is needed to clinch the matter. 
From the middle of the fifteenth century 
to the present day leaves a long gap. 

It is this gap that I am endeavouring to 
bridge. W. DEL COURT. 

47, Blenheim Cresent, W.ll. 

WAR PORTENTS (12 S. yiii. 329, 375). 
As the Germans are said to do with 
the silk -tails, so the Chinese believed 
anciently in the Pallas sand-grouse (Syrraptes 
paradoxus Pallas), foretelling by their 
southerly arrival in multitudes the irrup- 
tion of the Tuh-Kiueh horde, whence its 
names " Tuh-Kiueh-tsioh " (literally, Turk's 
sparrow) and " Kau-chi " (literally, Intruder's 
pheasant (Li Shi-Chin, ' System of Materia 
Medica,' 1578, xlviii.). It is figured in 
Yule's ' The Book of Ser Marco Polo,' 1871, 
vol. i., p. 240, and the ' Cambridge Natural 
History,' 1909, vol. ix., p. 323. Several 
instances of its irruptions into Europe, 
Great Britain and Ireland included, are 
given in the latter work. 

KUMAGUSU MlNAKATA. 
Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 

EPITAPHS DESIRED (12 S. viii. 211 ; ix. 
59). In the churchyard of Bolsover, Derby- 
shire, is an epitaph which is an abbreviated 
version of that to Geo. Routleigh : 
Here lies in a horizontal position 
the outside case of 

THOMAS HINDE 
Clock and Watchmaker 
who departed this life 

Wound up in hope 
of being taken in hand 

by his Maker 

and being thoroughly cleaned 
Repaired and set agoing 

in the World to come 

on the 15th of Aug. 1830 

in the 19th year of his age. 

V. B. CROWTHER-BEYNON. 



on 



A History of Pisa : Eleventh and Twelfth Cen- 

turies. By William Heywood. (Cambridge 

University Press, 21s. net.) 

IN William Heywood, who died just over two 

years ago, the world nas lost a fine scholar and an 

extraordinary man. E. H., in a biographical 

note prefixed to this, his posthumous work, gives 

a few particulars of his varied life as lawyer, 



cow-puncher, magistrate, and historian. And 
those who know his previous w T orks on medieval 
Italy ' A Pictorial Chronicle of Siena,' ' Palio 
andPonte,' and the ' History of Perugia'- will be 
aware how well he combined the patience and 
minuteness of the investigator with full-blooded, 
almost romantic, love of the beauty, natural 
and artistic, of the Italy where he passed the last 
years of his eventful and enterprising life. 

As historian, his special gift, perhaps, was his 
power of taking his course clearly through a 
tangle of facts and influences. And no gift is 
more valuable to a historian of medieval Italy. 
The story of Pisa, from the very early days 
(before the Trojan War 1) when she was founded 
on the seashore, is fairly plain sailing through 
the eleventh and twelfth centuries, when her 
chief task was the harrying of the Paynims, and 
their removal, step by step, from Sardinia, from 
Sicily and from the Balearic Isles. Quarrels 
with Genoa and other Italian centres were not 
wanting in those early days ; but with Mr. Hey- 
wood's eighth chapter we are plunged " into the 
vortex " of Italian strife, and very soon, with the 
advent of the struggle between Guelf and Ghibel- 
line, political trouble joins with old commercial 
rivalry to complicate the history of all Italian 
states, and that of Pisa no less than the others. 
Mr. Heywood carries the history down to 1406, 
when this gallant, sea-loving, independent people 
fell into the hands of Florence. " She regained 
her independence," writes Mr. Heywood, " in 
1494, and, between 1499 and 1505, withstood three 
sieges and repulsed three attacking armies. Of 
these things I hope to write hereafter, if I shall 
so long live." Students of medieval Italy and 
all who care for the welfare of the science and art 
of history must regret that death should have 

Prevented the fulfilment of that task by the man 
est equipped of all living historians both in 
learning and in literary power to do it well. 

The book is beautifully illustrated with photo- 
graphs of pertinent pictures and other works of 
art in Pisa (the Campanile, of course, is not 
forgotten) ; and there is a useful map of Pisa 
and Tuscany and a good bibliographical appendix. 

Epilegomena to the Study of Greek Religion. By 
Jane Ellen Harrison. (Cambridge University 
Press, 3s. Qd. net.) 

THIS very interesting little book winds up, for 
the present, those studies in Greek religion which 
began with Miss Harrison's ' Prolegomena ' and 
went on in ' Themis.' Headers of those books, 
who are many, will know that Miss Harrison 
studies Greek religion in the light of ethnology 
and folk-lore, and also in the light thrown on the 
human mind by recent studies in psychology. 
The special object of the new book is to sum up, 
to begin with, the primitive ritual by which men 
tried to ensure fertility in man, beast and field, 
and to lead us on through stages of religious 
development until we come to religion as we know 
it to-day. In the section on Primitive Ritual 
there are four headings : one explaining totem, 
tabu and exogamy; the second dealing with 
initiation ceremonies ; the third with the Medicine- 
Man and the King-God ; and the fourth with the 
fertility play or Year-drama. Of the four, the 
weakest is that concerning the Medicine-Man 



140 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.IX.A. 13,1921. 



and the King- God not that Miss Harrison's 
argument is there weaker than elsewhere (she 
argues well, though her conclusions are sure 
to find opponents among other students of the 
subject), but because for some reason she has 
set it out a little scantily and perfunctorily. 
The last section of the book, which leads us up 
to her " philosophy of religion," so to call it, 
owes some good points to the psychology of the 
psycho-analysts and to the writings of a Russian 
philosopher, Soloviov. It presents its case clearly, 
and no religious differences of opinion can obscure 
the fact that the theory, in the end, makes for 
righteousness. 

Ann Button: A Life and Bibliography. By 
J. C. Whitebrook. 

THE earlier volumes of our present Series contain 
many references to the career and the publica- 
tions of this worthy but strange woman. One's 
understanding of a religious leader or movement 
remains superficial so long as it lacks some definite 
acquaintance with the disciples acted upon, 
and the student of English Dissent especially 
if Wesley and Whitefield particularly engage him 
will find some attention to Ann Dutton worth 
while. The psychologist whose interest lies 
somewhere near the borders of religious mania 
may also find his account here. Mr. Whitebrook 
is entitled to the gratitude of both, for he has 
collected all there is to collect about his subject, 
put it together in about a score of readable 
pages, and contrived, by his pleasant humour, 
to give Mrs. Ann Dutton such an amount of 
individuality and distinctness as gives her value 
in her place in the background of the picture 
to which she belongs. She seems to have been 
a pretty young woman, and for some years the 
happy and more or less ordinary wife of an ordi- 
nary man ; and as an old woman she is spoken of 
as ' ' singularly patient and well-living. " Her poeti- 
cal " Narration " ran into a sixth edition, and, 
judging of it from the specimens Mr. Whitebrook 
gives us, throws a mournful light on the literary 
quality of Supra-lapsarian Calvinism in those 
days. Fifty-three items compose the Biblio- 
graphy, which it must have been a laborious 
task to compile a work, however, sure to be 
appreciated by the curious. 

The pamphlet may be obtained from Messrs. 
A. W. Cannon and Co., 16, Market Place, Oxford 
Circus. W., for the sum of one shilling post free. 



bttuarp. 

WILLIAM JACKSON PIGOTT. 

WE are sorry to have to announce the death of 
our old and valued correspondent, William 
Jackson Pigott, only son of the late William and 
Mary Pigott, of Tincurry, Co. Tipperary, and for- 
merly of Dellbropk, Co. Dublin. He died on 
July 26 last, and is interred in Kilmegan Church- 
yard. 

He possessed a fund of out-of-the-way genealo- 
gical and biographical knowledge, and while he 
used our columns for his own researches, he also 



enjoyed supplying fellow- workers with informa- 
tion through them. We are sure that many of 
our correspondents feel some personal share in 
our regret upon hearing of his death. 



We have to thank Messrs. Bernaw and Bernaw 
for the following extract from The South African 
Motorist of last July. Some of our correspondents 
may be glad to have our founder and his well- 
known rhyme recalled to their minds in a some- 
what fresh connexion : 

" An 1826 edition [of ' Izaak Walton and Charles 
Cotton '] has been kindly shown us by Mr. Theo. 
Secretan, of Belgravia, Johannesburg, with whom 
(and with Mr. Claude Wright and the late Mr. E. 
A. Halliwell) we had happy fishing days on the 
Klip River, near Meyerton, as far back as 1904, 
1905, and 1906. Mr. Secretan's copy is slightly 
larger (same publisher). It was a gift to him 
by his grandfather in the seventies, the old 
gentleman remarking that the book was worth 
5 then. The grandfather's name was Mr. 
William J. Thorns, and a photograph of him 
appears as a book-plate on the inside cover. 
He was Deputy-Librarian of the House of Lords, 
and he indited four lines which in later years 
he added to the book-plate, with his photo : 

" If you would fain know more 

Of him whose photo here is : 
He coined the word ' Folk Lore,' 
And started Notes and Queries." 



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CORRIGENDA. 12 S. viii. 429, col. ii., 1. 10 
from bottom, for " Suh-kai-kinen-yih-Sian " 
read Suh-kai-kiuen-yih-siau ; 1. 6 from bottom, 
for "Gung" read Sung. 



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141 



LONDON. AUGUST 20, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 175. 

NOTES : Dr. William Aglionby, F.R.S., 141 Principal 
London Coffee-houses in the Eighteenth Century, 143 
Aldeburgh Chamberlains' Accounts, 145 Tournay Font 
at Boulge, 147 Thomas Chatterton The Queen in 
Eastern Games of Chess Welsh Rabbit, 148. 

QUERIES : The Marney Tombs at Layer Marney The 
" Chalk-Farm Pistoleer " Qualifications of Grand Jurors 
in Fifteenth Century Greenhouse, 149 " Lacticinia " 
Mrs. (Mary Ann) Grant of Croydon Elizabeth Fry 
" Dreamthorp " Piavonius ' The Tynesfde Observer ' 
Dowse Heraldic Query The Dance of Salome 
Runnymede, 150 Metcalfe Morell Thomas Mailie 
Dickson Family Stocker Tomohrit : Avatar " Toff," 
151. 

REPLIES : " Cuckoo Pen " and " Cuckoo Pound," 151 
Domesday and the Geld Inquests Hockley of Hamp- 
shire, 152 The Ivory Gate of Virgil Source of Anecdote 
Wanted Domenick Angelo's Burial-place ' Daily Ad- 
vertiser ' " Floreat Etona ! " 153 Sussex and Surrey 
Dialect Words and Phrases Baron Ricasoli Dr. John 
Misaubin Hearth Tax, 154 Apple Christening 
Cateaton Street, London Warrington Gang, 155 
" Tenant in Capite," 156 Sicco Pede ' Miss Croker,' 
by Sir T. Lawrence Gleaning by the Poor, 157 Milton 
and Elzevier The ' Ingoldsby Legends ' A. Bryant, 
158 The Knave of Clubs Cream-coloured Horses 
Title of Book Wanted Cigarette Smoking Authors 
Wanted, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Calendar of State Papers. Foreign 
Series. Elizabeth.' Vol. xx. ' Original Sources of English 
History ' The Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



DR. WILLIAM AGLIONBY, F.R.S. 

THE biographical dictionaries have not done 
justice to Dr. William Aglionby, a diplo- 
matist and author from the time of Charles II. 
to that of Queen Anne.* His parentage 
and the date of his birth are obscure : in a 
work of no great authority, written about 
1705, he is said to be " turned of sixty years 
old " and to be the son of a clergyman in 
Cumberland. t Aglionby is a good Cumber- 
land name, but he does not appear to belong 

* Chalmers's 'Biographical Dictionary' (1794) 
adds an unsatisfactory account of him to the 
notice of John Aglionby, Principal of St. Edmund 
Hall, Oxford. For attempts to supplement this, 
see Gentleman's Magazine. Ixiv. 686, 798 ; Ixv. 
368. 

t ' Memoirs of the Secret Service ' of John 
Macky, pp. 153-4. 



to the landed Aglionbys whose genealogies 
are printed. In dedicating a book to William, 
fourth Earl of Devon, he writes of his par- 
ticular obligations to that nobleman's 
family, obligations laid on him " not only 
in my infancy, but even some days after 
my birth ; and so generously contrived that 
they are like to last as long as I live."* 
What these were it seems useless to 
conjecture, nor can much be said about 
Aglionby's youth and education. In a book 
published in 1669, and almost certainly 
written by him, there is a phrase (" within 
this twenty-five years I do not remember 
any ill accident but this "f) which seems to 
imply that his recollections of the United 
Provinces go back to the early forties, but 
he may be speaking only of what he has 
heard from others. 

The first firm ground in his life is reached 
in 1667, when, on the proposal of Sir Anthony 
Morgan, he is elected to the Royal Society. % 
On that occasion he is described as " M.D.," 
and it appears that he had taken this degree 
at Bordeaux : ten years later the Duke of 
Ormonde, as Chancellor of the University of 
Oxford, asks for a grace for him to take the 
same degree there and refers to " his diplo- 
ma " from Bordeaux. In the summer 
of 1678 he appears as secretary to Sir William 
Temple, then Ambassador in Holland- !l At 
some date before 1688 he was given an 
appointment in the Post Office, which he kept 
after the Revolution of that year,^[ and this 
is no doubt the reason why, in his later work 
as a diplomatist, he was frequently in charge 
of postal negotiations. In the first year 
of William and Mary he was again at The 
Hague as secretary to Lord Dursley, the 



1 ' Painting Illustrated ' (1685), dedication. 
t * The Present State of the Low Countries,' 
p. 363. 

% Birch, ' History of the Royal Society,' ii. 
203, 207-8. Aglionby served on the council in 
1683-4 and 1686-7 (ibid., iv. 231, 237, 505). 

Hist. MSS. Comm., Ormonde MSS. at 
Kilkenny, New Series, iv. 618. This seems to 
disprove the statement of Macky (loc. cit.), 
that Aglionby was " bred to the civil law." 
Ormonde says that he was highly recommended 
by Lord Longford. Mr. R. L. Poole, the Keeper 
of the Archives of the University of Oxford, 
kindly informs me that the Register of Convoca- 
tion contains no record of the matter. 

|| His dispatches, July 2 6- August 5, are in the 
Public Record Office, State Papers, For., 
Holland, 207. 

1f Macky (loc. cit.) ; receipt for 20 granted 
by the King for service in the Post Office, May 24, 
1689 (Bodleian MS. Rawlinson, H. 306, fo. 8). 



142 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.ix. AUG. 20, 



new Envoy Extraordinary.* Here, besides 
the regular work of a secretary, he took 
charge of one special piece of business, the 
attempt to induce the Dutch to stop their 
postal service to Spain and Italy through 
France, and to use the new packet-boats 
which Major Wildman, the English Post- 
master-General, had set running between 
Falmouth and Corunna. The Dutch were 
not to be persuaded, in spite of the good 
reasons set out by Aglionby in an anonymous 
pamphlet : ' Quelques considerations sur la 
necessite d'interdire le commerce des lettres 
avec la France.' He stayed little more than 
a year in The Hague : in November, 1690, he 
returned to England and was succeeded by 
Matthew Prior, whose poem, ' The Secretary ,' 
describes so pleasantly the amenities of the 
position, f 

In January, 1691/2, Aglionby embarked for 
Spain with the special mission of per- 
suading the Spaniards to make the postal 
restrictions which the Dutch had refused. J 
The negotiations lasted from March to 
November, but the Spaniards refused to 
favour the sea route by closing any other. In 
the autumn of 1693 Aglionby left Barcelona 
on his way to Italy, having been appointed 
Envoy Extraordinary to the Duke of Savoy .$ 
His ship was wrecked on the coast of Corsica 
and he was robbed of all his money, but he 
arrived at Turin early in 1694. The dignity 
of a Minister abroad was apt to be greater 
than his emoluments, and Prior wrote to 
Dorset, the Lord Chamberlain: "Some 
people flatter me that I may not be forgot 
in tnis great harvest with few labourers, since 
Aglionby, Cresset, and Stepney, who are 
already working, are journeymen as I am, 
have about the same estates at home, and 
are sent to preach politics as the Apostles 
were on a better errand, without purse or 
scrip. "|| Aglionby was miserably em 
barrassed for money and did little business. 



* His dispatches are in State Papers, For., 
Holland, 221. At first they were addressed to 
Vernon, but, from June 20/30, 1690, by order of 
Lord Nottingham, Secretary of State, to Warre. 

t Prior's dispatch of November 14, 1690, in 
State Papers, For., Holland, 221. 

t Luttrell, ' Brief Historical Relation,' ii. 333. 
Aglionby' s Spanish dispatches are in State Papers, 
For., Spain, 75. 

His dispatches for this mission are in State 
Papers, For. , Savoy and Sardinia, 26. On Decem- 
ber 19, 1693, he appointed R. Powis, gentleman 
to act for him at the receipt of the Exchequer 
(Calendar of Treasury Papers, 1557-1696, p. 332). 

H Hist. MSS. Comm., Longleat Papers, iii. 15. 



The arrival of Ruvigny, Marquis of Galway, 
as General and Envoy Extraordinary made 
his presence in Turin superfluous and his 
mission ended in the summer of 1694.* 

After the Treaty of Ryswick it was 
necessary to make new postal arrangements 
with the French, and Aglionby took charge 
of the work at Calais, where he treated with 
Payot, the Farmer -General of the French 
posts. f In December, 1698, he was -back in 
London. J In February, 1700/1, he ar- 
rived again in Spain, with no diplomatic 
character, but carrying a letter of the King 
of Englan'd, and he continued there until 
the summer, his mission causing suspicion 
amongst the opponents of the new Bourbon 
King of Spain. On the appointment of 
Lord Nottingham as Secretary of State, 
Aglionby and Warre got employment in 
the Secretary's office. || In the autumn of 
the same year he went to Switzerland as 
Envoy Extraordinary.^ In 1704 Notting- 
ham resigned and the new Secretary, Sir 
Charles Hedges, sent Aglionby notice of 
his recall.** His successor, Abraham 
Stanyan, was not appointed until the next 
year, ff and Aglionby's career was not 
entirely ended by the change of Ministers 
at home. On his way back to England in 
May, 1705, he received orders to stop at 
Frankfort for further instructions. Jt 
These, however, if he got them, did not 



* Dispatches of March 24/April 3, July 14/24, 
1694. 

t Longleat Papers, iii. 200, 201, 203, 207. 

% Ibid., iii. 301. 

Luttrell, v. 21. His dispatches, in State 
Papers, For., Spain, 75, run from March 13/23 
to July 14/24, 1701. See also Gaedeke, 'Die 
Politik Oesterreichs inder Span. Erbfolgefrage,' ii. 
107-8; Archives de la Maison d' Orange-Nassau, 
3rd Ser., iii. 336. 

|| Warre's letter of May 24/June 3, 1702, to 
Lord Cutts. (Hist. MSS. Comm., Chequers 
Court Papers, p. 107). 

Tf Luttrell, v. 213-4. His dispatches are in 
State Papers, For., Switzerland, 10, together with 
a report on his mission and on the condition of 
the Swiss cantons, written after his return, but 
without date and apparently incomplete. The 
date, July 6, 1705, on the title page of the volume 
is probably the date of this report. His cor- 
respondence with his " old friend " Hill during 
this mission is in ' The Diplomatic Correspondence 
of the Bight Hon. Richard Hill,' ed. Blackley, 
to which is prefixed a facsimile of Aglionby's 
signature. 

** Hist. MSS. Comm., First Report, Appendix, 
Hatton Collection, p. 15. 

ft Luttrell, v. 547. 

ii Ibid., 553. 






i2S.ix.Aoa.2o.mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



delay him long ; Lord Godolphin wrote on 
September 3/14 to Robert Harley : " I 
have left off expecting the foreign letters. 
Mr. Aglionby, who was here yesterday, told 
me he stayed at the Brill forty days for a 
wind."* With this reference to postal 
services the life of Aglionby appropriately 
ends. He died on November 28/December 7, 
1705-t 

Besides the pamphlet of 1690 which has 
been mentioned, his literary works were 
three : ( 1) ' The Present State of the United 
Provinces of the Low Countries,' in three 
books, by W. A., Fellow of the Royal Society 
(1669, second edition 1670) : a work much 
inferior to the famous * Observations ' of Sir 
William Temple, which superseded it in 
1673. (2) 'Painting Illustrated in Three 
Dialogues, containing Observations upon 



* Longleat Papers, i. 74. 

f 'New State of Europe' November, 1705; 
Boyer, ' History of the Reign of Queen Anne,' 
Appendix, p. 40. 



the Art, together with the Lives of the Most 
Eminent Painters ' (1686, reprinted in 1719 
with the title ' Choice Observations upon 
the Art of Painting, &c.'). The Lives are 
translated from Vasari and the dialogues 
are intended " to make painting familiar 
to the nobility and gentry of the nation!" 
(3) * The Opinion of Padre Paolo given to 
the Lords the Inquisitors of State, in what 
manner the Republic of Venice ought to 
govern themselves, &c.' (1689). 

The personal description of Aglionby in 
the ' Characters ' attributed to John Macky 
is this : " He hath abundance of wit, and 
understands most of the foreign languages 
well, knows how to tell a story to the best 
advantage ; but has an affected manner^of 
conversation ; is thin, splenetick and tawny 
complexioned, turned of sixty years old."* 
Swift adds, " He had been a papist. "f 
G. N. CLARK. 

* Macky, pp. 153-4. 

t Works, ed. Scott (1814), x. 315. 



PRINCIPAL LONDON COFFEE-HOUSES, TAVERNS, AND INNS IN THE 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 
(See 12 S. vii. 485; ix. 85, 105.) 

( An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public-house 
in many cases rebuilt.) 



Cow and Calves 
* Craven's Head 



Cross Keys . . 
Cross Keys . . 
* Cross Keys . . 



Cross Keys . . 



Cross Keys Bagnio 
Crown 



Crown 

Crown 
Crown 



Crown 
*0town 



Blackland's Lane, GLelsea 

Common 
Opposite the " Cock and 

pie " in Drury Lane 



Mag- 



Barbican, north side 

Pish Street Hill 

St. John's Street, close to Old 
Hicks' Hall 

Wood Street, west of Honey 
Lane Market, Cheapside 

Little Russell Street, Drury lane 
Holborn, east side of Purnival's 
Inn 

Cripplegate 

Bow Lane, Cheapside 
Basing Lane 



" Over against King Edward's 
Stairs, Wapping " 

Silver Street (now Beak Street), 
Golden Square 



1769 Beaver's ' Memorials of Old Chelsea.' 

1892, p. 341. 
1754 Simpson's ' London Taverns and 

Masonry ' ; Lane's * Handy Book,' 

p. 189. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1724 The Daily Po.-rf, Oct. 9. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 383. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey ' ; Hare i. 199. 
1732 4 Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 

p. 383. 

1745 Rocque's 'Survey.' 
1768 Hickey, i. 104. 
1732 Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 

p. 382. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey/ 
1723 Lane's ' Handy Book/ p. 167. 
1749 I.evander, A.Q.O., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1753 Levander, A.Q.O., vol. xxix., 191. 
1730 ' Lor don Topographical Record/ 

1907, iv. 90 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 

p. 384. 

1719 Daily Covrartt, June 19. 
1723 Lane's ' Handy Book/ p. 167 ; Hare, 

i. 216. 
1769 Lane's 'Masonic Records,' 1886, 

p. 105. 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. A. 20, 1921. 



Crown 

Crown 
Crown 

Crown and Anchor 
Crown and Anchor 
Crown and Cushion 
Crown and Cushion 
(also called " Cat 
and Bagpipes ") 
Crown and Magpie 
Crown and Sugar Loaf 
Daniel's 
Dark House 

Devonshire Arms . . 

Dice and Key 

Dicks 

Dobyns 

Dog 

Dog * 

Dog 



Margaret's Hill 

Higbgate 

Acton 

Lombard Street, White friars 

King Street, Seven Dialls 

New Bond Street 

Dorwning Street, Westminster 



Dog 



Dog 

Dog (afterwards 

" Talbot " 
Dog (afterwards 

" Queen's Head ") 



Dog and Bear 

Dolphin 

Dolphin 

Dolphin 



Aldgate Hill Street 

Fleet Street 

Lombard Street 
Billingsgate 

Sherrard Street, Golden Square 

Billingsgate 

Gravel Street, Hatton Garden . . 

Conduit Street 

Drury Lane 

New Palace Yard 

Thames Street, north side, be- 
tween St. Mary's Hill and St. 
Dunstan's Hill 

Ludgate Hill, near Ave Maria 
Lane 

Near St. Martin's Lane 
Richmond 

Now two private residences, 
" Coldharbour " and " Der- 
went Lodge," High Road, 
Whetstone, N.20 

Southwark 

Cock Lane, Snow Hill 

Mark Lane 

Bishopsgate Street Without ; 
between Devonshire Street 
and Houndsditch 



1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London, 

p. 388. 

Thornbury, v. 414. 
1723 Lane's 'Handy Book,' p. 167. 

Levander, A.Q.O., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1753 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1727 Wheatley's 'Bond Street,' p. 23. 

Humphreys's ' Memoirs,' p. 208. 
Thornbury, iii. 392. 
Demolished 1828. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 



1789 
1731 
1732 

1787 
1742 
1730 
1744 



1720 
1745 



Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 181. 

'. Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 385. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix. 1916. 
' N. & Q.' Mar. 5, 1921, p. 196. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 179. 
General Advertiser, Mar. 19. 
Sydney's ' XVIIItb Century,' i. 197. 
Marquess of Bath MSS., iii. 387. 
Daily Post, Nov. 19. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 



Dolphin Alehouse . . Great Eastcheap, south side . . 

Bdgware 

Cumberland Place, Oxford Street 
New End, Hampstead 



Duke of Chandois . . 
Duke of Cumberland 
Duke of Hamilton. . 

Duke of Marl- 
borough's Head 

Duke's Head (kept 
by Topham) 

Duke's Head 

Dun Cow 
Eagle 
East India 
Edinburgh Castle . . 

Elford's 
Equestrian 
Earthing Pie House 

(later " Green 

Man ") 
Feathers 



Shoe Lane, Fleet Street 

Upper Street, Corner of Gad's 
Row, Islington 

Frognal, Hampstead 

Hammersmith Road 

A little west of Somerset House 

Leadenhall Street 

Cornhill 

George Yard, Lombard Street . . 
Southwark 

Near site of Great Portland 
Street Railway Station 

Old Fish Street . , 



'London Topographical Record,' 

1903, ii. 87. 

'N. & Q.', July 31, 1920, p. 97. 
1700 Midd. and Herts 'N. & Q.', 1897, 

iii. 119. 
1739 Simpson's ' Suburban Taverns,' p. 47. 

Existing title-deeds. 



Thornbury, vi. 79. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 5. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 
p. 395. 

1745 Rocque's * Survey.' 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 
p. 42. 

1723 Lane's * Handy Book,' p. 167. 

Thornbury, iv. 407. 

1778 Copy of the Court Rolls of the Manor 
of Hampstead. Rebuilt 1870. 

Chancellor's ' Fleet Street,' p. 28. 
Larwood, p. 59. 

1741 Larwood, p. 59. 

Timbs's ' Clubs ' p. 463. 

D.N.B., art T. Topham. 
1766 Copy of Court Rolls of the Manor 

of Hampstead. 
1790 Public Advertiser, Jan. 2. 

Chancellor's ' Strand,' p. 329. 
1780 Public Advertiser, Jan. 1. 

1774 Simpson's ' City Taverns and 

Masonry.' 

1719 Daily Courant, June 16. 
1782 Humphreys's * Memoirs,' p. 137. 

1724 Clinch, p. 47. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

Thornbury, iv. 432 ; v. 256. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 
p. 123. 



12 s. ix. AUG. 20, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 145 



Feathers 

Feathers 

Feathers 

Flask 

Fleece 

Fountain 



Fountain 
Fountain 

Fountain 



Fountain 

Fountain 
Fountain 



Fountain 

*Fox 

Fox 

Fox's . . ! 

Fox-under-the-Hill 
Fox-un der -the-H ill 
Franks 



Grosvenor Street West (now Rylands. A.Q.C., vol. iii. 1890. 

Hobart Place) Thornbury, v. 8. 

Larwood, p. 124. 

Court, 1702 Portland MSS., Harley Papers, ii. 34. 



Near the Prerogative 
Doctors' Commons 

At the rear of King Street, Rich- 
mond 

Ebury Street 



1770 Simpson's ' Suburban Taverns.' 



1765 



Suburban Taverns,' p. 



York Street, Covent Garden . . 



Stocks Market 



Fleet Street, at No. 17 
Bucklersbury 

Katherine Street, Strand 



Ludgate Hill 



Cheapside 

On site of 
Strand 



1705 
1749 



.724 



1744 



1710 



Record,' 
Record,' 



Clare Street, Clare Market 
Brewer Street 
Castle Street, Southwark 
Bow Street 

Strand, south side, at No. 75 

Denmark Hill 

Mitre Court, Fleet Street 



Simpson's 

51. 

Thornbury, iii. 285. 
Gomme's G.M.L., part xv., p. 171. 
London Topographical Record, 1907, 

iy. 110. 
Heiron's ; Ancient Freemasonry,' 

1921. 
Chancellor's ' Fleet Street,' p. 33. 

London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 108. 
Simpson's ' Ixmdon Taverns and 

Masonry,' p. 31. 
Shelley's ' Inns,' p. 246. 
Larwood, p. 494-6. 
Public Advertiser, May 8. 

* London Topographical 

1903, p. 76. 
' London Topographical 

1907, iv. 41. 
Capt. J. F. Bagot's MSS. (Hist. 

MSS. Com.), p. 338. 
Ld. Godolphin to R. Harley : Bath 

MSS., 1904, i. 64. 
Sir Richard Steel to Prue, Oct. 22. 
Simpson's ' London Taverns and 

Masonry, p. 32. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 167. 
Walpole to Mann, Feb. 18. 
Basil Williams's ' Life of Chatham,' 

1915, i. 87. 

Timbs's ' Clubs,' p. 421. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1778-80 Annual Feast of the Society of 

Artists. 

Thornbury, iii. 97 and 101. 
Thornbury, vi. 284. 
1720 Daily Courant, Sept. 27. 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 

(To be continued.) 



Simpson's " in the 1704 
1704 

1707 
1715 



1723 
1742 



1745 
1753 
1753 



ALDEBURGH. 

EXTRACTS FROM CHAMBERLAINS' 
ACCOUNT-BOOK. 

1625-1649. 

12 S. viii. 506, and references there 
given ; ix. 26. ) 

Order Book " containing the orders 
made by the Bailiffs and Burgesses from 
1549, 3 Edw. VI., to 1631, is still in the 
possession of the Corporation. The orders 
refer to many matters concerning the 
government of the town and of the fishery, 
elections, straying of swine, lambs, geese 



THE 



and ducks, trading and residence of non- 
freeman, &c. 

Under date 1631/2, 17 Jan. Bailiffs not 
to be absent on election day, nor at any 
other time by the space of a month together, 
under a penalty of 10. (In the case of 
James Burwood the mitigated fine of 2s. 
was imposed.) 

Under the same date for the better 
decent order and habit of the Bailiffs and 
Chief Burgesses, and that they in their 
several offices may be known and distin- 
guished from other free burgesses, and for 
the more credit of the town, it is ordered 
that the said Bailiffs and Burgesses shall 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12S .ix. Auo.io.mi. 



every of them before the feast day of 
Easter next " make him a comelie and 
decent gown of blacke cloth or black stuff, 
faced with furre, and guarded about with 
velvett or ballimente lace, the sleeves 
thereof to be laid with the same lace " to 
be worn upon " the Saboth dayes or 
Soundayes " at the Church, and at all 
times of meeting at the Hall ; under penalty 
of five shillings for every offence. 

Having regard to the late coal strike 
and the present parched condition of the 
country, the following order is almost 
up-to-date : 

1643, 29 Sept. "Whereas heretofore our 
usuall Fewell and Firinge in this Towne 
have bin sea coales and wood, and now 
by reason of restraynte of trading to and 
from Newcastle that Fewell of coales cannot 
be had, in liew whereof many of the in- 
habitants of this Towne buy and burne 
Flagg and Heath, the ashes whereof being 
verye dangerous to this Towne yf they 
should bee cast into the streete, muckell, 
or any other place amongst or neere any 
howses or other materialls which are subject 
to take fyer ... it is now ordered and 
decreed by the now Bailyffes and greater 
part of the Capitall Burgesses " that no 
one shall henceforth cast any flagg or heath 
or ember into any street, muckhill, or 
other place, but that all shall be carried to 
the seaside and cast into the sea, under 
penalty of 3s. 4d." 

Mr. Sweyne is the godly man men- 
tioned by William Dowsing in his Journal. 
Unfortunately it does not mention in the 
" Paymentes " whether the mulled " beere 
and fyre " were supplied by Mistress 
Howldine before or after the lecture so we 
do not know if his persuasive powers were 
assisted by the calming potion; but poor 
Mr. Topcliff , the vicar, was in great disfavour 
at this time on account of his Romish 
practices, and probably Mr. Sweyne was 
responsible " for levelling the Ascents " in 
the chancel " and other worke." 

16 FYNES & DEFAULTES 41 
Becvd : of Mr Henry Cheney for a fyne for 

not wearinge his gowne accordinge to an 

order made - . . 05 00 

Becvd of John Booth for a fine for his free- 

dome brought on by Mr Bailife John 

Bence by his place . . 
Becvd : of James Burwood for his default 

in appeerance upon Michaelmes 



RENTES. 

Becvd : of Bichard Usher for half a yeeres 
fearme for the North Mill and Close due 
March 25th, 1641 05 00 00 

Of Bobt Fowler for a yeeres fearme for 
the shopp he useth due march 25th 
1641 . . . . . . . . . . 00 06 OS 

Of John Hills for a yeeres fearme for the 
howse he dwell in' due at St. Michaell 
1641 01 04 00 

Bd of Alexander woodrofe for Bent for the 
Ferry for one whole yeere diie at St 
Michaell 1641 . . ' . . . . 02 00 00 

Becvd of Everard woode for rent for the 
North Marsh for two yeeres and a half due 
at St Michaell 1641 * . . . . 40 00 00 

Of Bichard Usher for half a yeeres fearme 
the north mill and close due at St Michaell 
1641 . . . . . . . . 04 00 00 

Becvd : of Henry Lawrence for usinge the 
Towne ground for one yeere due at St 
Michaell 1641 00 08 00 

Of Thomas Midowe for rent for the lyme kell 
for one yeere due then . . . . 00 16 00 

Of Mris : Beomond widd. for a yeeres fearme 
for the shopps she useth due then . . 01 06 08 

Of Margaret Thompson widd : for a yeeres 
fearme for the Towne howse due March 
25th 1641 01 00 00 

VICTUALLERS. 

Becvd : Of Margaret Garrard widd : 

fyne for victualline 
Of Henry Titfall for the like 
Of Ann Arnold 
Of Bichard Lilborne 
Of Aslack Browne 
Of Anthonie Palmer 
Of Peter Jessup 
Of Samuell Dowrie 
Of Thomas Wyard 
Of Bose Dymar 
Of William Baldwine 
Of Bichard Boone 



^ 



Becvd : of George Leace for his fyne to be 
xcused for servinge in son for Cham- 



for a 
13 00 
11 00 
02 06 
05 00 
11 00 
05 00 
07 00 
05 00 
08 00 
05 00 
13 00 
13 00 



RECETFTES. 
Becvd : for /breaking the ground for the - 

buriall of the bodie of Edmond Bixbie in 

theJChurch 

Becvd: for breaking the ground in the 

Church for the buriall of John Hunt 06 08 
Rp-rvd of Mr: John Blowers for one yeeres 

use of 401i due at Ste Michaell 1641 .. 2 16 00 
Becvd: of Mr: Edward Cockett for one 

veeres use of 40ii . . 
Recvd : of Boger Gall for a bull sould^ ^ 

him 

16 PAYMENTES. 41 
Paid Mr Willm Baker his quarters wags 

mL b lt40 e T ^^ * ^ofoo 00 

pdTohn Conington and his ptners for draw- 
ing the ptable ditche betwixt the Towne 
Marsh and Crosse for 82 rodd at thre pence 
the rodd paid for the Townespte 00 10 

pd Thomas Smith for carrying the sub- 
sidie rolls to Snape two sevall tymee & 



berlen 



inn- '-- * . , , 

2 00 00 } staying .there onejiignt 



i2S.ix.ArG.2o,i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



to Robt Fowler to enter an ac.-;n for Thomas 
Coopers horse . . . . . . 00 00 

pd John Knights for horse hyre to ride to 
yoxford Court when he was one of the 
quest men 00 04 

More to him (Willm Baldwine) for Comunion 
wyne for 32 quarts of sack at xvid the 
quart . . . . . . . . 02 02 

Pd Richard Boone for wyne for the Comunion 
taken sevall tymes as p booke ap- 
peere 02 02 

pd Richard Boone for chargs at his house in 
wyne and dyett the Lord of warrick his 
sonne being there . . . . . . 00 13 

pd Mris : Howldine for coyne beere and fyre 
on Saturday Xovemb : 27th Mr : Sweyne 
did preach then .. .. .. 00 10 

More to her on the Munday after when the 
agreement was made wh Mr Sweyne for 
lecturer heere . . . . . . 01 00 

pd John Beale for levelling the Ascents in 
the Chauncell and other worke and for 
lyme 00 08 

pd John Dowe for trimyng the Towne Mus- 
ketts . . 00 09 

To willm Constance for a drum heade 00 02 

pd for Can vis for catteridgs for the Ord- 
nance . . . . . . . . 00 01 

pd for 4 collers of bandoleers for the Townes 
use 00 06 

16 PAYMENTS. 42 

More toliim (Robert Fowler) for Ringine the 

eight of clock bell 00 14 

pd Thomas Aldres for 3 yards and di a qr of 

black broad cloath at 13s. 4d. p yard for a 

coffine cloath . . . . * . . 02 01 

More to Mr : Pootey for entertainment of Mr 

Sweyne at his house at his agreement with 

the Towne 02 00 

Paid to Mr: Henry Cheney money laid out 

for the Towne viz : For 3 Halbards 01 07 

For 3 other halbards .. 00 18 

For 6 swords . . . . 01 13 

For 6 bills . . . . 00 15 

For 6 collers of bandaleers 00 07 

For 2 darke lanthorns 00 05 

pd willm Baldwine for diett wine beere and 

tobacco and fyringe when Mr : Mosse the 

Steward of the Lords Court was in Towne 

to keepe Court in January 1641 the son e 

of 01 15 

pd Mr : John wall for two cuple of lyngs for 
Sr Thomas Glemham being pte of the com- 
posicon for the fynes and amciaments for 
one yeere the some of . . . . 00 10 

pd Mr : Borrett for the said composicon in 
stead jDf fowre cuple of lyngs for two 
veers ' . . . . . . 00 09 

pd unto 4 men for watchine one night at the 
Towne howse when women were pxit into 

prisson July 00 02 

Pd Mr : Edwards Collector for the taxe upon 
the Towne land rated at 5011 p. ann at 5d. 
p. li the some of . . 01 00 

pd Everard woode that he paid for the taxe 
. to the kinge for the north marshe ... 00 04 
pd Thomas Faken for looking to children play- 
ing in the Church for a qr of a yeere dxie 
at St Michaell 00 05 



for pap on the Towne hall when the plate and 
02 money for the piiament was reed : 00 00 04 
(Heavy expenses incurred " about the plat- 
formes " for the guns) 
06 pd for the Coquett for the plate and money 

sent to the piiament . . . . 00 03 05 

pd Peter Jessup for carryinge the watchowses 
08 from the south side to the north side of the 

towne 00 00 08 

16 KECEIPTES. 43 
Recvd : that Sr willm Constable paid because 
one of his soldiers burnt the service book, 
for to buy an other if thought fitt . . 05 00 



04 
04 
00 
00 

02 

06 
00 

06 
00 

00 

08 

00 

00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 

09 
00 



00 



00 
00 



00 



16 PAYMENTES. 43 

Paid John Beale for worke and stuff to 
mend the tyles on the Towne howse as p 
bill appeereth . . . . . . 00 09 

pd Thomas wyard for making of his Cloake for 
fyring on the hall candle and broomes 03 07 

More to him for attending to prissoners in 
the Gaile prest for the King's service 00 06 00 

pd Mr : Willm Thompson Junr Collector for 
the monethly taxe for 3 moneth^ asessed 
for the Towne 15 

to Richard Lilborne for shoulvine up muck 
in the street . . . . . . 01 

pd James Burwood Collector for the taxe 
for the Towne lands assessed for the mein- 
teynance of the Soldiers for the Countie 
of Stiff and the other fowre Counties 
Asociated . . 06 

pd John Beale for worke and stuff to mende 
the floare in the Chauncell . . . . 01 06 

More to him for worke and stuff for one of 
the Almeshowses viz : for trimyng the 
chemney the hearth and the stock for his 
worke brick and lyme . . . . 06 00 

pd John Button for a pound of twyne for the 
townes use . . . . * . . 01 00 

pd Thomas Aldus for a Cloake that Mr : Arthur 
Blowers took for his serjeant viz : 3| yards 
of broad cloath at 12s. the yard . . 2 02 00 

more for 2 yards of bayes a button & loope 
and silke* .. .' 05 08 

for filing a discharge for the money sent up 
to the pliant : upon the Cockett . . 00 06 

Paid John Beale the remaynder of the money 
for setting the stones in the lane leading 

to Church 1 04 00 

ARTHUR T. WINN. 
Aldeburgh, Suffolk. 

(To be continued.) 



TOURNAY FONT AT BOULGE. My atten- 
00 tion has been directed by the Rev. R. 

Fetzer Taylor of Grundisbiirgh House, 

Suffolk, to tbe font in tbe cburch at 
08 Boulge, in tbe same county. Tbis font, 

hitherto undescribed, so far as I know, 
20 appears to me to belong to tbe small group 

of fonts called " Tournay fonts," from tbe 
02 black marble of which they are made 

having been quarried at Tournay, \*here, 
00 probably, tbe fonts were made, and whence 



148 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. AUG. 20, 1921. 



the English examples are supposed to have 
come. That in Winchester Cathedral may 
be regarded as the type. There is a similar 
one in Lincoln Minster, and another at 
Thornton Curtis in Lincolnshire. The others 
occur mostly in Hampshire ; as may be 
expected, they are found also in the neigh- 
bourhood of Tournay. All are within easy 
distances of seaports or navigable rivers. 
The bowls are externally square, resting on 
central pillars, "with smaller pillars under 
the four angles. Dean Kitchin described 
all that were then known in the Journal 
of the British Archaeological Association, 
i. 1. They are sculptured on the four sides 
with historical or symbolical representations, 
all of which have been carefully chipped 
off the Boulge font, having doubtless been 
objected to as superstitious or otherwise 
unsuitable. This font, though large enough, 
is much smaller than any others of the 
kind that I have seen. I do not remember 
whether it has had corner pillars or not, but 
there are some remains of foliage still to be 
seen. As it is now unpolished, it presents 
a grey appearance quite different from the 
polished black surface of other fonts which 
it resembles in general character. 

J. T. F. 
Winterton, Lines. 



THOMAS CHATTEBTON. At 12. S. viii. 
108, I made a suggestion that a memorial 
tablet should be placed on No. 39, Brooke 
Street, Holborn, which now occupies the 
site of the house in which Chatterton died. 
I have discovered since that in * N. &. Q.,' 10 S. 
vii. 506, of June 29, 1907, MB. FBEDEBICK T. 
HIBGAME anticipated me in this suggestion. 
May I say that although MB. H IB GAME'S re- 
commendation was not acted upon by the 
authorities, I should not have repeated it 
as my original idea had I been aware at the 
time that lie had been before me. I hope 
this note will catch the eye of MB. HIBGAME. 

At 12 S. viii. 114, W. B. H. (answering 
my query at 12 S. viii. 31) writes that 
Hewitt's account of Chatterton corroborates 
the statement of the ' D.N.B.' to the effect 
that Chatterton " was greatly overworked." 
The ' D.N.B.,' however unfortunately for 
W. B. H.'s assertion states the exact con- 
trary, in the following words : " His duties 
. . . engaged him on an average no more 
than two hours every day." That Sir 
Sidney Lee's charge against Lambert of 
having " greatly overworked " Chatterton 
is chimerical, can be proved by the following 



< facts : Chattertojvs sister Mary, in her 
1 letter to Sir Herbert Croft dated Sept. 22, 
j 1778, writes : 

He had little of his master's business to do, 
j sometimes not two hours in a day, which gave 
I him an opportunity to pursue his genius. 

In a letter to his mother written from 
i London on May 14, 1770, Chatterton 
j says : " . . . as an apprentice, none had 
I greater liberties.'' 

This is first-hand evidence. If more 
were needed, it could be found in his large 
literary output during his apprenticeship 
with Lambert. G. W. WBIGHT. 

Brixton. 

THE QUEEX IN EASTERN GAMES OF 
j CHESS. MB. J. SHAKESPEAB tells us (12 S- 
, ix. 95) that in the Manipuri game of 
i chess the piece corresponding to our queen 
I is called " Senapati," that is, " Commander - 
in-Chief." This reminds me that some 
i years ago I had to act as go-between 
1 and keeper of the peace- while two 
I Yankees were playing chess with members 
i of the suite of the late Sultan of Lahedj. 
The Arabs called the queen " vizier " and 
explained that Mahomedans would not 
tolerate a woman on the chess board and 
would certainly not give her powers in 
excess of those of the Shah. The Arabs 
and the Yankees played the game accord- 
ing to oxu* rules except that the Orientals 
for a long time would not accept the double 
| move of a pawn when starting from the, 
! home position. L. L. K. 

WELSH RABBIT. MB. WALLACE, in his 
query about Shakespeare's cheese-loving 
Welshman (12 S. ix. 110), writes : " Toasted 
cheese was a rare bit in Wales now indicated 
by the degenerated term a ' Welsh rabbit.' " 

I may perhaps draw attention to what 
the late' Professor Skeat wrote in his diction- 
ary s.r. Welsh : 

Welsh-rabbit, a Welsh dainty, i.e., not a rabbit, 
but toasted cheese ; this is a mild joke, just as a 
Norfolk-capon is not a capon at all, but a red- 
herring (Halliwell). Those who cannot see the joke 
pretend that rabbit is a corruption of rare bit, 
which is as pointless and stupid as it is incapable 
of proof. Hi 

This is put in Skeat 's well-known style. 

See 7 S. x. 9 ; 9 S. xii. 469 ; 10 S. i. 70. At 
the last reference is a quotation from Annan- 
dale's ' Imperial Dictionary,' which says 
that " Welsh rabbit is a genuine slang term." 

There are many words like " Welsh 
rabbit," e.g.. Farmer and Henley, in ' Slang 



12 s. ix. AUG. 20, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



and its Analogues,' give, s.v. " Glasgow 
magistrate" ( = herring), many synonyms, 
among which are " Cornish duck ; Digby 
chicken ; Dunbar wethor ; Gourock ham ; 
Billingsgate pheasant ; Taunt on turkey ; 
Yarmouth capon." They also quote Strang's 
Glasgow and its City Clubs ' : 

This club . . . better known by the title of 
the Tinkler's Club, particularly when the brother- 
hood changed the hour of meeting . . . and 
when the steak was exchanged for a Welsh 
rabbit or Glasgow magistrate. 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 



uerte*. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



THE MARNEY TOMBS AT LAYER MARNEY 
CHURCH, ESSEX. On the altar tomb at 
Layer Maroey Church of Henry, first Lord 
Marney, is a shield, several times repeated, 
which bears, on the dexter side, the rampant 
guardant lion, of Marney, and, on the sinister 
side, a coat which reads, " paly wavy of 6 
argent and gules, 2 bars paly wavy counter- 
changed of the field. ' ' There can be no doubt 
of the paly wavy character of the field, for 
the pales are sharply carved and are raised 
nearly a quarter of an inch above the field, 
and there are distinct remains of red paly 
wavy colouring, both on the field and on the 
bars. 

The suggestion which has been made 
that the pales are merely a form of diaper- 
ing is quite untenable, and may be dismissed 
as fantastic. 

Another idea, that the sinister coat is only 
a fancy of a foreign sculptor seems too far- 
fetched. 

No doubt this sinister coat bears some 
resemblance to the arms of Venables azure 
2 bars argent a Marney quartering which 
appears in painted glass in. three sixteenth- 
century panels now in the east window of 
the Xorth Chapel at Layer Marney, and is 
impaled, wrongly, with Marney on tjie tomb 
of John, second Lord Marney, also at Layer 
Marney. 

The wavy pales on the first lord's tomb 
are, however, too clear to enable us to 
identify these two coats as one. 

This sinister coat ought to belong to a 
wife of Henry, Lord Marney. Now he is 



known to have been married twice first to an 
Arundell, and secondly to Bridget \\alde- 
grave, who survived him and whose brass is 
in Little Horkesley Church. The paly wavy 
coat does not pertain to either of these 
ladies. For whom is it meant ? Can. any- 
one cast light on the puzzle ? 

F. SYDNEY EDEN. 

THE " CHALK FARM PISTOLEER." In 
Carlyle's essay on Boswell's ' Life of John- 
son ' (1832) there is a reference to someone 
whom he describes as a " Chalk Farm 
Pistoleer " committing suicide, and he con- 
trasts the cowardice of suicide with the 
courage of those who elect to live under 
unhappy conditions. Can any one of your 
readers inform me if any particularly 
notorious episode occurred at Chalk Farm 
in 1832 ? I rather think it was the haunt 
of duellists. CLEMENT SHORTER. 

QUALIFICATIONS OF GRAND JURORS in 
THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY. By Statute of 
Westminster the 2nd, 13 Edward. I., no one 
should " be put on assise or juries, though 
they ought to be taken in their own county, 
who hold a tenement of less value than 
205. yearly. And if such assises or juries 
ought to be taken out of the county, none 
to be placed in them who have a tenement 
worth less than 40s. yearly." 

Did any statutes of the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries alter these qualifications 
in any way ? M. H. DODDS. 

GREENHOUSE. How did a greenhouse 
come to be so called ? The * N.E.D.' does 
not explain. It notes the use of the 
term in 1664. Exotic plants at this period 
were generally spoken of as " greens," and 
the structure for their winter shelter came to 
be called " greenhouse." The N.E.D.' quotes 
" Myrtles, Laurels and other curious greens " 
in 1664. The earliest quotation in the 
' N.E.D.' for " greens " as applied to certain 
vegetables that are boiled for the table is 
1725. In a description of London and 
Wise's Brompton Park Nursery, written in 
1692, it is stated " it has a large greenhouse, 
the front of glass and board, the north side 
brick. Here the King's greens, which were 
in summer at Kensington, are placed." 
Professor Weekley, in his ' Etymological Dic- 
tionary of Modern English,' does not give us 
the origin of "greenhouses" that are always 
painted white. R. HEDGER WALLACE. 



150 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [wart A. 20, mi. 



" LACTICINIA." In 4 Letters and Papers, 
Foreign and Domestic*' there is entered a 
commission June, 1511 for " butter and 
milk products (lacticinia)." What milk 
products are meant by lacticinia ? In 
December, 1511, another commission was 
given for " butter and all milk products." 
It is presumed that cheese would be one 
of the milk products ; what others were 
recognized in the early years of the six- 
teenth century ? 

R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 

MBS. (MABY ANN) GRANT OP CBOYDON. 
I have a copy of this writer's ' Sketches of 
Life and Manners,' &c., of which the second 
edition appeared, in two volumes, 12mo, 
in ! 1811. The work is dedicated to the Prin- 
cess of Wales, whose name heads a long list 
of subscribers, who reside in the West End 
of London and in many parts of Scotland. 
The work is in the form of letters and, in 
many ways, reminds one of the ' Letters 
from the Mountains ' of Mrs. Anne (with 
an e) Grant of Laggan. For instance, both 
have letters describing the Falls of Fyers in 
Inverness-shire. What, if any, is the 
relation between these contemporaneous 
writers. < ' The ascription " of Croydon " to 
Mrs. Mary Ann Grant appears only in Alli- 
bone's ' Dictionary cf English Literature.' 
I cannot find her works (she also wrote ' Tales 
founded on Facts ' ) in the British Museum 
Catalogue ; and only Mrs. Anne Grant of 
Laggan appears in the ' D.N.B.' Can any 
one throw any more light on the history of 
* Mrs. Grant of Croydon ' ? 

H. M. CHARTERS MACPHERSON. 

ELIZABETH FRY. In a summary of 
events in a volume entitled ' Worcestershire 
in the Nineteeth Century,' I find the entries 
below : 

1824. March 6, James Jones and John Brown 
were publicly whipped in front of the county 
gaol (in addition to three months' imprisonment) 
for stealing an old tea-kettle. 

1824. March 17, Mrs. Fry attended a quarterly 
meeting of the Friends in Worcester and addressed 
a congregation who were assembled at the Meeting 
House. She afterwards visited the City and 
County prisons with Samuel Gurney and at 
the latter addressed the prisoners in plain and 
forcible language. 

Can anyone say if the visit of Mrs. Fry 
to Worcester prison had anything to do 
with the sentence passed on the two men, 
and whether Mrs. Fry addressed the 
" prisoners," or the " justices " in the lan- 
guage attributed to her. G. T. H. 



" DREAMTHORP."- Has this place been 
identified as of real existence, or was it 
merely a fancy picture by Alexander Smith ? 
If it has not been actually recognized, is 
there any pJace suggested as the prototype, 
and if so, which ? RUSTICTTS. 



PIAVONIUS. In the year 1879 a 
milestone dedicated to the Emperor Marcus 
Piavonius Victorimis was unearthed at 
Lincoln. The second name appears thereon 
as " Piavonio." Another spelling is " Piav- 
vonius." Has any English scholar explained 
the Latinity of this curious word ? 

ALFRED ANSCOMBE. 

' THE TYNESIDE OBSERVER.' I have long 
been hunting for a copy of The Tyneside 
Observer, of J arrow, a paper now extinct. 

In 1865 (April or May), it contained an 
article upon Abraham Lincoln, written by 
the late Wm. T. Stead. I want a copy of 
that issue or of the article. No doubt some- 
one, somewhere, has one, for which I will be 
glad to pay a good price. All efforts 
through the book trade, advertising, &c., 
having failed, I hope success may come of 
this last effort. W. BURDOCK. 

Tarrytown, N.Y. 

DOWSE. The Gentleman 's Magazine says, 
under date 1734: April, died Thomas 
Dowse, Esq., at Preston, aged 106, who was 
Captain at Colchester in 1648. Can any 
reader of ' N. & Q.' give me any further 
information about this man, as to his 
parentage, &c. .? E. C. DOWSE. 



HEBALDIC QTJEBY. What families bear 
as their crest a demi-lion holding with both 
I paws a rose with two leaves, one on each 
| side of the blossom above the dexter paw 
I of the lion ? LEONABD C. PBICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

THE DANCE OF SALOME. I should be 
grateful for a list of representations of this 
in art, whether sculpture or painting, and 
especially for notes of the examples where 
Salome is depicted with the body arched 
backwards so that the head nearly touches 
the ground. E. R. 

RUNNYMEDE. Who and how many were 

i the barons who witnessed Magna Charts ? 

i I have heard it stated that not a single 

descendant of them now exists. Can this 

be a fact ? CURIOUS. 



12 s. ix. AVO. 20, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



METCALFE. Philip and Thomas Metcalfe 
were admitted to Westminster School in 
June, 1785. I should be glad to obtain any 
information about their parentage and 
their respective careers. C4. F. R. B. 

MORELL. John Morell was admitted to 
Westminster School in April, 1740, aged 8, 
and William Morell in April, 1770. Any 
information about these two Morells is 
desired. G. F. R. B. 

THOMAS MAILIE was admitted to West- 
minster School April 29, 1771. Any in- 
formation about his parentage and career 
is desired. G. F. R. B. 

DICKSON FAMILY. I seek genealogical 
details of the ancestry and descendants of 
the following : 

1. Mr. Dickson, Curator of the Historical 
Department, H.M. General Register House, 
Edinburgh. 

2. Professor James Drckson of Edinburgh, 
born between 1820 and 1840. 

3. James Dickson, a Writer of Dumfries 
in 1745. 

4. James Dickson, Sheriff-Clerk at Dum- 
fries in 1750. 

5. James Dickson, who married Margaret 
Lennox. She died in 1792. 

6. Robert Dicksoun of Buchtrig (parish 
of Hownam, Roxburghshire), who married 
Agnes Edmonstoun, about 1610 to 1620. 

JAMES SETON- ANDERSON. 
39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

STOCKER. In 1492 a William Stocker was 
Mayor of Winchester, and the same year his 
son William, aged 11 years, is mentioned 
as a scholar of Winchester College. In 1513, 
and 1518 again, a John Stocker was Mayor of 
Poole in Dorsetshire. Was there any rela- 
tionship between these Mayors of Winchester 
and Poole ? Any references to either of them 
prior to 1492 are much desired, or suggestions 
as to where information could be obtained. 
C. J. S. STOCKER. 

TOMOHRIT (TOMERIT) : AVATAR. What is 
the correct pronunciation, local of the 
first, scholarly of the second, word ? 

1. Tennyson, " To E.L. on his travels in 
Greece," has : " Tomohrit, Athos, all things 
fair ..." (probably Tomohrit, as there is 
no other instance in the poem of trochee 
first foot). Byron, ' Childe Harold,' 2, 55 : 
" The sun had sunk behind vast Tomerit." 



The derivation (Tmaros, Tomarus) is no 
certain guide. 

2. Campbell, 'Pleasures of Hope,' i. 599 
(near end), has : " The tenth Avatar 
comes : at Heav'n's command " ; but 
Browning, ' Waring,' 11. 108, 262 (last) : 
" In Vishnu-land what Avatar ? " 

H. K. St. J. S. 

" TOFF." Can any reader tell me the 
origin of the word " toff " as describing a 
dandy or swell ? Is it purely slang ? 

RAVEN. 



'CUCKOO PEN" AND "CUCKOO 
POUND." 

(12 S. ix. 91.) . 

THIS name is given on an Ordnance Map, I 
think the 6in. map, to a circular bank 
of earth about 100 yards in diameter in the 
wood near Bagshot Park. The locality is in 
Berkshire and is about a mile and three- 
quarters to the south of Swinley Rails, where 
the deer for the Royal Hunt were formerly 
kept. It may consequently have been a 
pen for deer. 

I have noticed three similar circular banks 
near what was formerly the Bigshot Rails, 
now Ravenswood, also in old Windsor 
Forest, and in Berkshire. 

I am not clear as to the distinction between 
the Rails and the Parks in the Forest, but 
believe the Rails were more directly in the 
hands of the Crown than the Parks. 

HORACE W. MONCKTON. 

A copse in a field just outside our Park 
bears the name of " Cuckoo Pen " and has 
done so beyond the memory of any living 
man. I have never heard any reason given 
for the name and the copse has no pecu- 
liarities. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, near Reading. 

The story that villagers, in order to keep 
summer with them, endeavoured to pen in 
the cuckoo is found in very many parts of 
the country. It is told of the men of 
Gotham in Nottinghamshire, of the " carles 
of Austwick M in the West Riding of York- 
shire, of the people of Beaulieu in Hamp- 
shire, and of many "other localities ; and in 
| many places " cuckoo" pens " are pointed 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. AUG. 20, 1921. 



out as being the places where the attempts 
were made. 

Your correspondent is referred to * The 
Myth of the Pent Cuckoo ' by the Rev. John 
Edward Field (London, Elliot Stock, 1913). 
The author states that 
the district in which these cuckoo pens abound is 



MR. ROTTER has only to refer to the Pipe 
Rolls to see how many of the barons, on, whom 
the King could exercise authority most 
directly, were in arrears with their payments. 
They had to pay so much. They actually- 
paid so much. The balance was carried 
forward as an arrear, "' And he owes so 



along the west front of the Chiltern Hills of Oxford- much." 

shire and in the adjacent valley, while isolated B ut even if it were granted that arrears 

examples are known also in the more remote -r, ri i^ n ^ 

part of the same county, and in the neighbouring i * the GteldrcOl do not mean arrears in the 

counties of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire ; i ordinary sense, 1 do not see how this helps 

, not yet ^ ally a <* u r* f ? ry? 

i 

I sm a ller than (if they do not agree with) the 
totals we arrive at by adding up the Domesday 
the people of Somerset are ridiculed as the , pS jc rnP v l tQ Tn TvroHnpp norppniPTit we d 
" Cuckoo Penners " by their neighbours of Wilt- i assessments, lo produce agre 
shire, and they retaliate upon the Wiltshire | not wisn to reduce but to increase the totals 
folk as the " Moonrakers." | of the Geldroll hundreds ; or else to omit 

The author's theory is that the " cuckoo I estates from the Domesday hundreds as 
pens" and the legends relating to them not liable to assessment, let Domesday 
preserve reminiscences of the time when the ives us their assessment. How can we do 
invading English captured the villages, and thls ? OSWALD J. REICHEL. 

the Britons found their last places of re- : Lympstone, Devon. 
fuge on the ridges of the hills above. What- 1 

ever may be thought of the theory, the i HOCKLEY or HAMPSHIRE (12 S ix. 30). 
book contains a good deal of information | The Hockleys were a very old Winchester 
with reference to these cuckoo pens, and the ! family, many of whom filled the office of 
folk-lore connected with the cuckoo -penning Mayor John de Hockley, 1206 ; Ralph de 
stories. WM. SELF-WEEKS. Hockley, 1278 ; John de Hockley, 1306 ; 



Westwood, Clitheroe. 



DOMESDAY AND THE GELD INQUESTS ( 12 S. 



ix. 65). MR. RTJTTER has propounded 

theory that when the Geldroll states that 

tenant was in arrear, this does not mean that 

he was really owing money to the King, but 

that the Commissioners had not yet decided 

whether he had to pay at all or not. And 

he advances this theory to account for 

variations between the totals which the 

Geldroll names for each hundred and the ^ 

totals of the assessments obtained by adding ' Henry Hockley were joined to the Mayor 



John de Hockley, 1333 ; Robert Hockley, 
1436. 

Wavell records that in St. Bartholomew's. 
Hyde, was a stone inscribed : 
HIC JACET ISABELLA HOCLEY, MATER 
EDWARD! HOCLEY, ARTIUM MAGISTKI 
ET TUNC VICARII ISTIITS ECCLE QUE 
OBIIT VIII DIE MEXSIS FEBRUARII ANO 
DNI MILLE CCCCLXXXIII., CUJUS AXIMA 
PROPICIETUR DEUS. 

At the building of the old Hanoverian 
Guildhall in 1712, Messrs. Thomas Godwin, 
Richard Spearing, Nicholas Purdue and 



together the assessments of each manor 
in the same hundred. 



and Aldermen to carry out the work, to- 
wards which some elm-trees were cut down 



The theory is a little startling', and so far in Parchment Street. 

as I gather from his paper it is based upon | In an act for widening the roads 29 
another theory which is certainly new if it j George II., 1756 the trustees" names are 
is not quite as startling. " It is impossible," i Richard Gifford, George Hunt, John Hock- 
he says, " to believe that those men [the i ley, Norton Powlet, William Powlet, Charles 
villeins on the King's county lands] on whom ' Powlet, William Pescoed. 
the royal authority must have been exer- I In the will of Robert Forder, Esquire, of 
cised most directly could have been uni- I Pitt, in Hursley, Yeoman, dated July 31, 
versally withholding payment." Surely I 1670, reference is made " . . . to my grand- 
theory No. 2 is an unproven conjecture, sons, Moses and Richard Hockley 10 each ; 
and at best is not a proof of theory No. 1. and to my grandson William Hockley 20. 



12 s. ix. AUG. 20, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



To grandchild Joan Hockley 40, over and 
above the sum of 10 given unto her by her 
uncle John Forder. I give unto my two 
other grandchildren, Elizabeth and Christian 
Hockley, 40 apiece, to be paid them at the 
age of 21. I will that the money to the 
sons and daughters of Roger Hockley and 
William White shall be paid unto their 
fathers for their use six months after my 
decease, provided they give good security. 
To sons-in-law Roger Hockley and William 
White, 20 shillings apiece." 

G. T. WINDYER MORRIS. 

THE IVORY GATE or VIRGIL : ENGLISH 
MISCONCEPTION (12 S. ix. 84, 132). I am 
inclined to think, after reading V. R.'s note 
on this subject at the first reference, that 
modern pedants care even less than modern 
novelists about the accuracy of their allusions. 
The passage in ' Poor Relations ' to which 
V. R. alludes is as follows : 

This seemed to him in the easy optimism that 
prevails upon the borders of sleep an excellent 
joke, and he passed with a chuckle through the 
ivory gate. 

The context clearly implies that the gentle- i 
man's dreams were likely to be delusive. 
This is no post hoc, for in ' Sinister Street,' 
chapter vii. , book 4, is entitled ' The Gate 
of Ivory,' and 'refers to the mind of one who 
is the prey of false dreams, while chapter ix. ; 
is entitled " The Gate of Horn," and refers ! 
to the mind of one who has come beneath 
the influence of true dreams. 

If a modern novelist be allowed to trespass 
without a " procul, O procul este, profani " 
from V. R., may he suggest that the two! 
gates are used like the caskets of gold and 
lead in ' The Merchant of Venice ' ? As for I 
the reason why Aeneas and the Sibyl were 
dismissed through the Ivory Gate it seems to ; 
me that not being dreams either false or true j 
it did not matter which way they went out 
that Anchises, like a good host, chose the 
prettier gate, and that Virgil himself, like a i 
modern novelist, chose the prettier word and, i 
like a modern poet, the one that fitted best 
the need of his verse. 

COMPTON MACKENZIE. 

SOURCE OF ANECDOTE WANTED (12 S. ' 
vii. 72). In Augustinus, 'Opera,' Paris, 
1679, tome i., Epistolae 155, caput iv. 14, 
will be found the following : 

Homo sum ; humani nihil a me alienum puto. 
Cui sententiae ferunt etiam theatra tota, plena ! 
stultis indoctisque, applaussisse. 

A. J. VAN HUFFEL, JR. 

De Riemerstraat 154, The Hague. Holland. 



DOMENICK ANGELO'S BURIAL-PLACE (12 
S. viii. 491 ; ix. 33, 79). I am afraid that 
the authority cited by MR. SWYNNERTON as 
stating that Sophia Angelo was an Eton 
dame for nearly seventy years, namely, 
The Gentleman's Magazine, cannot be trusted 
in this particular. We have a list of dames 
given in The World newspaper for Sept. 
29, 1787, and it contains no mention of 
Miss Angelo. This is corroborated by the 
MS. school list of 1788 (printed in Etoniana 
Magazine, p. 245), which likewise sets out 
all the dames, but again without Miss 
Angelo's name ; further, in the list giving 
in some 300 cases the name of each boy's 
dame there is no mention of her name. 
These facts seem to prove fairly con- 
clusively that Miss Angelo could not have 
been a dame " in 1779 or soon after." 

With regard to George IV., I did not 
wish to deny the fact that he may have 
been influential in gaining Miss Angelo a 
dame's house, but merely that it was very 
unlikely that he could have done so as early 
as 1779. 

I do not think there are other names in 
the poem left to identify except the very 
obvious one of K t- for Keate. 

R. A. AUSTEN-LEIGH. 

'DAILY ADVERTISER' (12 S. ix. 91). 
Information as to some extant copies of 
this newspaper (which seems exceedingly 
rare) may possibly interest MR. BERNARD 
KETTLE, though not providing him with 
the copy he wants. No. 1953, April 29, 
1737, is'in the British Museum; No. 3063, 
Nov. 14, 1740, in my own collection ; 
and the issues for Oct. 27 and Dec. 31, 
1741, in the " Henry Sell " collection, 
belonging to Messrs. Sells, Ltd., Fleet 
Street. NORAH RICHARDSON. 

"FLOREAT ETONA ! " (12 S. ix. 111). 
The well-known picture by Lady Butler, 
engraved by John Comer Webb, is entitled 
* Floreat Etona ! (Battle of Laing's Neck).' 
An eyewitness of the attack on Laing's 
Neck thus describes the incident depicted : 

Poor Elwes fell among the 5th. He shouted to 
another Eton boy (adjutant of the 5th, whose 
horse had been shot) : " Come along Monck I 
Floreat Etona ! We must be in the front rank ! " 
and he was shot immediately. 

The above only answers part of MR. 
ESCOTT'S query, and I can only add that the 
Christian name of Elwes was Robert. 

HUGH S. GLADSTONE. 



154 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. AUG. 20, 1921. 



SUSSEX AND SUBBEY DIALECT WOBDS j 
AND PHBASES. (12 S. viii. 481 ; ix. 69). 
Your correspondent C. C. B. remarks that , 
the flower names of " lady's smock " and | 
"milkmaids" are both in the ' O.E.D.' j 
Perhaps he will kindly say if the botanical I 
names are appended, and, if so, whether j 
they are the same that I have given, viz., j 
Cardamine pratensis. 

Parish's ' Dictionary of the Sussex Dia- | 
lect ' gives the botanical names of both as | 
Convolvulus sepium, a species of bindweed. j 

Halliwell says lady's smock is Canterbury 
bell. Gordon and Bailey say lady's smock 
is a herb otherwise called cuckoo-flower, j 

* Kersey's Dictionary' (1708) says that 
lady's smock is a kind of water-cress. 
Neither of these authorities describes the 
plant Cardamine pratensis. 

STEPHEN ROWLAND. 

P.S. At p. 483, for " scruttie " read scruttic 
or scruttick. 



BABON RICASOLI (12 S. ix. 91). That | 
there are two portraits of the baron in The 
Illustrated Times may interest MB. GLENNY. 
The references are vol. x., p. 214, April 7, 
1860, and vol. xiii., p. 69, Aug. 3, 1861. 

They have the appearance of having been 
taken from photographs. 

Following his death at his castle of 
Broglio, Oct. 23, 1880, there are notices 
of him in The Times, Oct. 25, pp. 5 and 9 ; 
Oct. 26, p. 5 ; and of a funeral ceremony in 
the church of Santa Croce, Florence, The 
Times, Nov. 23, p. 5, the coffined body being 
represented by a catafalque. Presumably 
one of his family, two hundred and fifty 
years ago, gave his name to Point and Fort 
Ricasoli at the south side of the entrance to 
the Grand Harbour, Valetta, Malta. 

In 1670 the Commander Gio. Fran. Ricasoli ex- j 
pended 3,000 on the erection of the present 
fort, endowing it with all his property, to the j 
amount of 300 per annum. For this act of i 
generosity he was publicly thanked by the Grand 
Master and the Council, and it was ordered that 
the fort should in future bear his name. ('A 
Guide to the Maltese Island,' by the Rev. G. N. 
Godwin, chaplain to the Forces, 2nd ed., Malta, 
1890, p. 163.) 

ROBEBT PlEBPOINT. 



A good short sketch of Baron Bettino 
Ricasoli is given in an excellent book entitled 
Patriotti Italiani,' by Contessa Evelina 
Martinengo-Cesaresco, an English woman, 



married to an Italian, who has written many 
books on Italian history, notably on Italy's 
struggle for unity and independence from 
Austrian sway. 

GEBABD THABP, Lt.-Col. 



DB. JOHN MISAUBIN (12 S. viii. 511 ; ix. 
35, 90). I cannot tell G. F. R. B. when Dr. 
Misaubin 's son was murdered, but as he 
seems to be searching for information about 
the Misaubin family, the following advertise- 
ments from The London Evening Post of 1746 
may perhaps be of some use to him. The 
first appeared in the issue of April 24-26, 
the second in that of May 3-6 

1. ISAAC MISAUBIN. 

The only Nephew of the late Doctor John 
Misaubin continues to prepare. 

His Family Nostrum for the Venereal Disease 
& Scorbutic Disorders, which he administers in 
the same Method his late Uncle did. 

N.B. He is to be met with any Day, from 
Twelve to Two o'clock, at the Rainbow Coffee 
House in Lancaster Court in the Strand ; or \yill 
attend anyone who will be pleased to leave a Line 
for him at the Bar of the said Coffee House. 

2. This is to inform the Pxiblick 

That I Martha Misaubin, Widow of the late 
Dr. John Misaubin continues making & selling 
his famous Anti-Venereal Pills. As I am the only 
Person that prepar'd them during his Life & since 
his Death, nobody else having the Secret but 
myself ; have now taken in my House in St. 
Martin's Lane, near Slaughter's Coffee House, my 
Nephew Charles Angibaud, Surgeon, to attend ray 
Patients, & to whom I intend to leave my Secret 
& to nobody else. 

T. WHITLEY. 



HEABTH TAX (12 S. viii. 471, 518 ; ix. 
78). In ' Oxford City Documents, Finan- 
cial and Judicial, 1268-1665,' published by 
the Oxford Historical Society in 1891, there 
is the following : 

Hearth tax borrowed from French finance and 
was introduced after the Restoration to help to 
create a revenue for the King ; payable every six 
months 2 payments per annum, 2s. for every 
fireplace. Was repealed at the Revolution. 
Not imposed on houses below 20s. yearly value. 

I made the above extract nearly 30 years 
ago ; I think it is fairly correct. 

Was there a chimney tax at any time 
before 1665 ? 

The ' Exchequer Lay Subsidies ' give the 
names of inhabitant, or head of house, the 
number of hearths, and the amount of the 
half-yearly tax paid. 

HEBBEBT SOUTHAM. 



ias.ix.Aua.2o f i9ai.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



APPLE CHRISTENING (12 S. ix. 91). The 
29th May (Oak Apple Day) has nothing what- 
ever to "do with the christening of apples. 
Brand's ' Popular Antiquities ' (Ellis) states : 

There is an old saying that when it rains on St. 
Swithin's Day it is the Saint christening the 
apples. 

When I was a boy in the Isle of Wight chil- 
dren were always told that apples were not 
fit to eat till they had been christened, 
either by rain on St. Swithin's Day or by 
the first rain that occurred after that date. 
Hazlitt, in ' National Faiths and Popular 
Customs,' says : 

The belief in the impropriety of gathering the 
apples before they had been christened by St. 
Swithin is very general and is still strongly 
cherished. A servant of one of the editor's friends 
was horror-stricken very lately at the bare propo- 
sition to pick the fruit before the saint had per- 
formed the baptismal ceremony. The christening 
of apples is supposed to affect the flavour of the 
fruit. In Somersetshire and Wiltshire, or some 
parts of them, that day indeed is known as Apple 
Christening Day. 

In an article in The Preston Guardian on 
Oct. 27, 1888, it is stated : 

The " christening of the apples " is an event 
looked for by country folk ; but there seems to be 
considerable diversity of opinion as to the correct 
date for the " christening." To ensure a good crop 
the rain ought to fall upon them on St. James's 
Day. say some ; on St. Peter's Day, say others ; 
while a third party, regardless of the dreadful 
consequences of rain on such a day, say that St. 
Swithin's is the proper time. In the west there 
is a belief that on St. Swithin's Day the apples 
undergo a change ; that having been flavourless 
they then become fruity and pleasant to the taste 
and fit for use. 

It appears from Hazlitt (op. cit.) that in 
some parts of Wiltshire and Somersetshire 
apples are said to be christened on St. James's 
Da\-. The apple-christening day would 
therefore appear to vary in different districts, 
but I can find no authority whatever for the 
suggestion that it was anywhere considered 
to take place on Oak Apple Day. 

In the Manuale ad Usum Sarum there is 
a form Benedictio Pomorum in Die Sancti 
Jacobi. At the end of the prayer that " this 
fruit of new apples might be blessed," it 
states, " Deinde sacerdos aspergat ea aqua 
benedictd." 

St. James's Day is July 25, and when it 
rained on St. Swithin's Day the country 
people in the South of England, where St. 
Swithin's reputation as a saint was great, 
his shrine being at Winchester, may well 
have considered that he was blessing the 
apples for them, without their having to wait 



I for them to be sprinkled with holy water 
I on St. James's Day. W T M. SELF-WEEKS. 
Westwood, Clitheroe. 

Folklore prescribes that apple-trees are 

i to be encouraged in productiveness by certain 

| attentions on New Year's Eve, and teaches 

that when it rains on St. Swithin's Day their 

| fruit is being christened. The crop was of 

old ecclesiastically blessed on St. James 

the Great's festival, July 25 (see Brand's 

' Popular Antiquities,' vol. i. 9, 342, 346). 

I am not aware that the oak apples of May 

29 have relation to anything beyond the 

Restoration of King Charles II. 

ST. SWITHIX. 

Extract from Miss C. M. Yonge's ' History 
I of Christian Names ' : 

Swithun, Bishop of Winchester, tutor to King 
i Alfred, and endowed with many supposed miracles, 
the best known of which was the forty days' rain, 
! by which, like other honest English saints, he 
, testified his displeasure at having his bones 
! meddled with. It is curious that while Win- 
chester itself considers rain on his feast to forebode 
forty more wet days, most other parts of England 
prefer a shower to christen the apples. 

j Country children devour green apples un- 
reproved after this day, calling them good. 
Bredicot. AMY R. KINGSMILL. 

The saying undoubtedly refers to St. 

| Swithin's Day, July 15. I do not see what rele- 

I vanceit could have to Oak Apple Day, which 
does not occur at a particularly wet season. 
We used to be told as children that we must 

i not eat apples until they had been christened ; 

! the injunction always referred to St. Swithin's 
Day, and I fancy that even the appetite of 
a normal child for apples would hardly tempt 
him to eat them as early as May 29. No 
doubt the idea was to prevent our indulging 
the appetite until apples had attained some 
degree of wholesomeness. C. C. B. 

CATEATON STREET, LONDON ( 12 S. ix. 71). 
Edward Hatton, in ' A New View of 
London,' 1708, p. 15, says : 

Cateaton street, a considerable street between 
Lothbury E. and Lad Lane W. L. 240 yards. Stow 
calls it Catte street, but for what reason I know 
not. 

' Tallis's Illustrated London,' by William 
Gaspey (1851), vol. i., p. 208, mentions 
Gresham Street, formerly known as Lad 
\ Lane and Cateaton Street. Buildings were 
removed, and these two streets were widened. 
The entire line of street from Foster Lane 
to Lothbury was named after Sir Thomas 



156 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. AUG. 20, 1921. 



Gresham. Peter Cunningham, in his ' Hand - 
book of London,' 1850, s.v. ' Cateaton 
Street,' quotes Stow (Thoms's edition, 
1842, p. 102) : 

Catte street, corruptly called Catteten street, 
beginneth at the north end of Ironmonger lane, 
and runneth to the west end of St. Lawrence 
church. 

Cunningham adds, " In 1845 this street 
was most improperly renamed Gresham 
street." In Maitland's ' History of 
London,' vol. ii., 1754, facing pp. 880, 892, 
are plans of Cheap Ward and of Coleman 
Street and Bassishaw Wards in which the 
street is called Catt Eaton Street (in the 
former) and Cat Eaton (? Eaten) Street (in 
the latter). In the letterpress it is spelt 
Cateaton, p. 882. ROBERT PIEBPOINT. 

Catte Street (see Stow, p. 102), corruptly 
called Catteton Street, Cheapside, ran from 
the north end of Ironmonger Lane to the 
west end of St. Lawrence Church. In 
1845 it was renamed Gresham Street. 

There is, or was, a street of the same 
curious name in Manchester. 

WlLLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

Cateaton was a short street, forming the 
eastern portion of the present Gresham 
Street. It began at Basinghall Street and 
terminated at Aldermanbury, the Church 
of St. Lawrence Jewry being situated on 
its northern side. It was inhabited by 
merchants, and, owing to its proximity to 
Blackwell Hall, especially by those engaged 
in the woollen trade. 

Probably there are few parts of the City 
proper that have in modern times under- 
gone more alteration than the neighbour- 
hood of the Bank of England. Formerly 
Moorgate Street was non-existent, and the 
principal outlet to Moorfields and Finsbury 
in that direction was by way of Coleman 
Street. From the western end of Broad 
Street, Throgmorton Street and Lothbury 
formed one continuous line of street, Loth- 
bury ending and Cateaton Street com- 
mencing at Basinghall Street. At the 
western end of Cateaton Street, Milk Street 
and Aldermanbury again forming one con- 
tinuous street, the present line of Gresham 
Street terminated, and the way out to St. 
Martin's-le-Grand was through by -streets. 
Gresham College was erected at the corner 
of Basinghall Street in 1843, and about that 
time, I presume, the present Gresham Street 
was formed and named. F. A. RUSSELL. 

116, Arran Road, Catford, S.E.6. 



Stow has the following passage : " Now 
for the north wing of Cheape Ward have ye 
Catte Street, corruptly called Catteten 
Street, which beginneth at the north end of 
Ironmonger Lane and runneth to the we*t 
end of St. Lawrence Church. . . ." 

In 1845 Cateaton Street, together with 
its continuations westwards, Lad Lane and 
Maiden Lane, was widened and improved, 
and the throughfare re-named Gresham 
Street, which now extends from Prince's 
Street on the east to Aldersgate Street 
on the west. 

In Wheatley and Cunningham's ' London 
Past and Present,' vol. i., p. 339, we learn 
that there is a street in Manchester bearing 
a similar name, but I am ignorant of its 
etymology. G. KENNETH STRUGNELL. 

Dickens mentions the street in the ' Pick- 
wick Papers,' for the Bagman Tom Smart 
represented ' ; the great house of Bilson and 
Slum, Cateaton Street, City." 

T. W. TYRRELL. 

St. Elmo, Sidmouth. 

WARRINGTON GANG (12 S. ix. 71). 
A fairly full account of this affair will be 
found on p. 438 of the ' Chronicle of the 
Annual Register for 1806.' The trials took 
place at Lancaster, but the judge, Baron 
Graham, forbade any notes to be taken 
of them, or any young person to be present 
at the hearing. WILLOUGHBY MAYCOCK. 

" TENANT IN CAPITE " (12 S. viii. 429, 
472, 518). MR. GRIFFITH gives ample proof 
that this term was not confined to those hold- 
ing of the King ; but MR. FLETCHER main- 
tains that the narrower sense was the 
original one, and that caput is merely equiva- 
lent to " king." The last point may be met 
with the question why a term, which would 
thus be applicable to the lord only, should be 
invariably used only of the tenant. More- 
over the stock phrase " in capite de rege " 
would be tautological, and we should cer- 
tainly sometimes find " de capite," which 
we never do. 

That the wider sense is the older is ren- 
dered certain by the fact that on the Con- 
tinent in capite, en chef, in capo are found at 
least as early as with us, and there the nar- 
rower sense is unknown. Indeed, foreign 
jurists note with surprise that some English 
writers appear to restrict the meaning. The 
simple reason is that the great bulk of our 
records were purely fiscal, and from that 
point of view the only tenants in capite that 



12 s. ix. AUG. 20, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



157 



mattered were the tenants of the Crown. 
MB. GRIFFITH is clearly right in his main 
contention ; but so far as he attempts to 
explain the phrase he is less satisfying. 

What is the construction ? Why is the 
preposition ' ; in " used and in what sense ? 
It may be suggested that a frequent sense 
of '' in " is " by way of," " as." A main 
meaning of caput, chef, capo is " beginning" ; 
we see it in capo a" anno, da capo, " capital 
letters," with which we begin a sentence, and 
in the " capital " with which we " begin " 
business. A tenant-in-chief might thus be 
morely an " initial " or " primary " tenant, 
coming therefore next to the lord. 

Feudal tenure was pictured, aptly enough, 
as a chain, every link being, as we still say, 
'' dependent " on another. 

As mere renderings of the force of in 
capite the adjectives ;t direct " and " imme- 
diate " are never wrong ; but possibly 
" primary " adheres more closely to the 
original metaphor. 

It would not be without interest to trace 
the history of " commander-in-chief " and 
see whether it refers to supreme control of 
other soldiers (as every one now assumes) or 
to coming immediately under the Crown. 
Probably it is too modern for the feudal 
sense. OLD SARUM. 

Sicco PEDE (12 S. ix. 109). I suggest 
that when Linnaeus says " we pass over the 
dwarf birch, which is well known in the 
north of Europe, sicco pede" he means " cur- 
sorily, and without wading through what is 
already familiar." The Latin recalls Virgil's 
account of Camilla at the end of the seventh 
Aeneid, and Ovid's line, ' Met. ,' xiv. 50 : 

summaque decurrit pedibus super aequora siccis. 

B. B. 

Sicco pede transire or praeterire is a well- 
known piece of modern Latin for which, 
it seems, no classical authority can be pro- 
duced. The phrase is certainly not confined 
to Sweden. See J. P. Krebs, ' Antibarbarus 
der Lateinischen Sprache,' 7th ed., revised 
by J. H. Schmalz, Basel, 1907, vol. ii., p. 295, 
where it is suggested that the modern Latin 
levi pede aliquid transire and sicco pede 
aliquid transire may have been formed on 
the analogy of " obiurgare aliquem molli 
brachio," Cic., * Ep. ad Att.,' ii. 1, 6, " con- 
sules, qui illud levi brachio egissent," 
t6.,iv. 17, 3, and "levi manu quaerimus," 
Seneca, ' Quaest. nat.' vii. 32, 4. May not 
the figurative use of " sicco pede transire " 



; have been promoted by the employment of 

this or a similar expression to describe the 
I miraculous crossing of the sea dryshod ? 

For instance, Ovid, ' Metamorphoses,' 

xiv. 50, writes of Circe, " summaque de- 
j currit pedibus super aequora siccis," and, in 

the Vulgate of Judith, chap. v. 12, we 
! read of the passage of the Red Sea, " Ut . . . 
I pede sicco fundum maris perambulando 

transirent." EDWARD BENSLY. 

Much Hadham, Herts. 

' Miss CHOKER ' BY SIR THOMAS LAW- 
RENCE (12 S. ix. 90). This portrait, which 
j is in Lawrence's best style, was first exhibited 
I in 1827. The subject of it, Rosamund 
Hester Elizabeth Croker, was then 17. She 
was the adopted daughter of the Rt. Hon. 
John William Croker and his wife, who was 
I her aunt. Her father was William Pennell, 
j Consul-General in Brazil. Her portrait made 
! a great furore at the time of its exhibition. 
| In 1832 Miss Croker married Sir George 
; Barrow, Bart. She was living at Molesey 
in 1906. I cannot recall the exact date of 
her death. The Lawrence portrait is, I 
believe, in the Pierpont Morgan collection. 

W. COURTHOPE FORMAN. 

MR. T. C. RUSSELL PARSONS could pro- 
bably obtain full information about Miss 
Croker from Madame Aidan, a nun at the 
Convent of the Assumption, St. Lawrence- 
on-Sea, Thanet, who is, I believe, a grand- 
daughter. H. A. PIEHLER. 

GLEANING BY THE POOR (12 S. ix. 70, 
112, 136). What put an end to gleaning on 
large farms was not so much the decreased 
price of bread as the introduction of the 
horse-rake, which cleared the ground much 
more thoroughly than the old " bonny rake " 
(worked by hand) and left nothing worth 
gleaning. The loss of their old privilege was, 
as I well remember, much resented by the 
poor. In the Isle of Axholme, where small 
holdings abound and the hand-rake is largely 
used, gleaning still persists, or did so a very 
few years since. C. C. B. 

The admirable account of gleaning given 
on pp. 112 to 115 leaves few gaps to fill. 
The causes which have led to the decline in 
gleaning seem to be mechanical and 
economic rather than anything in the way 
of legal obstruction. The horse-rake re- 
duced the possible spoil of the most active 
gleaner to slender dimensions ; and the 
value of the grain salved makes a low appeal 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix. Aua.2o.i92i. 



to a generation more interested in the reward 
of labour than in its performance. At 
present a few thrifty women try to secure 
a few bags of grain for their fowls, but it is 
a common custom for the farmer to turn out 
his own fowls on the stubbles with a hen- 
house on wheels set down in the field ; 
these birds pick up the " shelled" corn, 
which in a hot season like the present is 
considerable. 

It would seem as though the farmer was 
formerly expected to be liberal towards the 
gleaners ; thus we have Thomson 
(' Autumn ') saying : 

The gleaners spread around, and here and there, 
Spike after spike, their scanty harvest pick. 
Be not too narrow, husbandmen ! but fling 
From the full sheaf, with charitable stealth, 
The liberal handful. Think, O grateful think ! 
How good the God of Harvest is to you, 
Who pours abundance o'er your flowing fields. 

While Bloomfield ('Farmer's Boy 
Summer '), actually says : 
No rake takes here what Heaven to all bestows ; 
Children of want, for you the bounty flows ! 
And every cottage from the plenteous store 
Receives a burden nightly at its door. 

Finally, Clare tells us (' Shepherd's Calen- 
dar August ') that the gleaner was 
actually at work before the stubbles were 
clear : 

The reapers leave their rest before the sun, 
And gleaners follow in the toils begun 
To pick the litter's ear the reaper leaves, 
And glean in open fields among the sheaves. 
VALE OF AYLESBURY. 

MILTON AND ELZEVIER (12 S. ix. 28, 116). 
I am grateful to PROFESSOR BENSLY for giving 
me all this information concerning Milton's 
letters. It incidentally shows up my ignor- 
ance, but then I had warned my readers 
that I practically knew nothing about him 
but his works. 

I came accidentally across that letter, 
unaware of the fact that it had already been 
published. It may interest PROFESSOR 
BENSLY, if he is not aware of it already, to 
learn that Elzevier had been introduced to 
Williamson by Temple, who writes to him 
on Feb. 20, 1635 : 

He is the son of that Elzevir of Leyden whose 
print hath run through ye world with so much 
approbation. Himselfe is both a printer and 
seller of books at Amsterdam and in very good 
credit there. 

Probably Elzevier had become wary of 
what he should print or not concerning Eng- 
lish affairs : Temple had put him on his 
guard. For in another sentence in this 
letter to Williamson he asserts that he has 



taken some pains in suppressing scandalous 
pamphlets " wherein ye honour of ye Royall 
Family was something interested.'' 

This letter of Temple's may suggest the 
reason why Elzevier declined to have any- 
thing to do with the publishing of Milton's 
letters. 

Temple's letter is to be found in P.R.O., 
S.P.F., Holland, 198. 

\V. DEL COURT. 

47, Blenheim Crescent, W. 11. 

THE ' INGOLDSBY LEGENDS' (12 S. viii. 
473; ix. 97).- -For " Mr. Munro," see letters 
in The Observer, July, 24, 1921. For, Mr. 
John Grosvenor of Oxford, surgeon : Thomas 
Gataker, Puritan divine : John Pye Smith, 
divine : Brigadier Sir George De Lacy 
Evans : Edw. Cocker : and very many 
others mentioned in the Legends, see the 
' D.N.B.' Hayden's dictionaries and Bayle's 
explain many other references. Interesting 
details are scattered through * N. & Q.,' and 
accounts of events referred to by ' Ingoldsby ' 
are not uncommon in the daily Press, e.g., 
Twining's, Telegraph, Feb. 22, 1910 ; St. 
Mary Roncevall, British Medical Journal, 
July, 1914, &c. 

For many years I have been annotating 
the Legends at my leisure, and I know the 
Ingoldsby country, especially Thanet, and 
find the work of annotation endless. One 
is astonished not only at the wit and humour, 
but at the extraordinary knowledge and 
fund of information, archaeological, sacred, 
profane and mundane. An " Ingoldsby 
Coterie " would find interesting and inform- 
ing occupation in the co-operative compila- 
tion of a companion to the Legends. 

W BRADBROOK 

A. BRYANT (12 S. ix. 111). He published 
his maps from his private residence, 27, 
Great Ormond Street, London. Nothing is 
known of him (vide Mr. T. Chalb, ' Maps of 
Somerset ') except what can be gathered 
from his publications. He was a rival of 
the Greenwoods and published the following 
maps of the counties of England : Bedford, 
1826 ; Bucks, 1825 ; Chester, 1831 ; Glouces- 
ter, 1824 ; Hereford, 1835 ; Hertford, 1822 ; 
Lincoln, 1828 ; Norfolk, 1826 ; Northamp- 
ton, 1827 ; Oxford, 1824 ; Suffolk, 1826 ; 
Surrey, 1823 ; Yorkshire (East Riding), 
1829. Apparently Greenwood and Bryant 
were surveying some of the counties at the 
same time. PRESCOTT Row. 

The Homeland Association, Ltd., 

37, Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, W.C.2. 



12 s. ix. AUG. 20, i92L] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



159 



THE KNAVE OF CLUBS (12 S..vi. 111). 
Many packs examined by me are as de- 
scribed, i.e., the Knave of Clubs and all 
court cards in spades face opposite to the 
suits. If, however, your correspondent will 
try a Cincinnati pack from Gibson, in Lead- 
enhall Street, he will find all mixed up. 
No order in them as above. J. KEY. 

CREAM-COLOURED HORSES (12 S. viii. 338, 
396). According to The Daily Chronicle of 
July 22, the stock of creams will not be j 
allowed to die out, and for the future they ' 
will be employed as cavalry drum horses. 
It also mentions that of the team of six, two 
are already acting in that capacity, one being 
attached to the 2nd Life Guards and the 
other to the 9th Lancers ; one had to be 
destroyed, and the three others will be 
drafted to different regiments as soon as 
possible. A. H. W. FYNMORE. 

Arundel. 

TITLE OF BOOK WANTED (12 S. ix. 111.). 
The book referred to is evidently ' The Merry 
Order of St. Bridget,' by Margaret Anson. 
York : Printed for the Author's Friends. 
MDCCCLVII. Reprinted 1891. 

I am not surprised it is not catalogued 
at the B.M., but I am that it was considered 
worth reprinting. But the edition is 
stated to be limited to 250. A. R. A. 

CIGARETTE SMOKING (12 S. viii. 432; ix. 
38). 'Effect of Tobacco on Men' (W. J. 
Gies and others in The New York Medical 
Journal, June 1, 1921, 809-811) is the latest 
article noticed, and it seems to conclude 
that moderate smoking is not harmful to 
most adults, and is helpful to some, and 
that the least harmful method of smoking 
tobacco is in cigarettes. The question 
here, however, is so worded that the answers 
are likely to be misleading, since " inhaling " 
is expressly excluded. No smoker myself, 
I have no doubt that inhaling smoke from 
cigarettes is injurious, not because it is 
from tobacco, but because it is from com- 
bustion with an insufficient supply of oxygen. 
Cigar smoke is too acrid to take way down 
into the lungs, but cigarette smoke can thus 
be inhaled ; it, in the depths of the lungs, 
comes into actual physical contact with the 
minutely divided blood, with result to be 
]>a railed in a test-tube by shaking therein 
Mood in contact with carbonic monoxide ; 
thereupon the chemical constitution of the 
blood is said to be visibly changed, what- 
ever the source of the poisonous gas. This 



experiment I have not tried and this ex- 
planation I have never seen in print, but 
I believe them both to be true. 

ROCKINGHAM. 
Boston, Mass. 

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. ix. 112). 

3. The correct form of MR. FREE'S third quo- 
tation is : 

" Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love, 

But why did you kick me downstairs ? " 
The source was given among the ' Notices to 
Correspondents,' at 9 S. iii. 460 : 

" These lines occur in ' The Pannel,' I. i., 
taken by J. P. Kemble from Bickerstaffe's ' Tis 
Well it's no Worse,' and produced at Drury 
Lane, Nov. 28, 1788. They are also found in 
Debrett's ' Asylum for Fugitive Pieces,' vol. i., 
p. 15." 

A second editorial note, at 10 S. vii. 460, 
refers to ' The Panel ' and to Mr. Gurney Benham's 
' Cassell's Book of Quotations.' 

7. " The law is a ass a idiot " were Mr. 
Bumble's words on a well-known occasion 
(' Oliver Twist,' chap. 51). 

8. " Bobus Higgins, Sausage-maker on the 
great scale," makes his first appearance, I think, 
in Carlyle's ' Past and Present,' Bk. i., chap. 5, 
' Aristocracy of Talent.' In the last chapter 
of Bk. iv. he is ' Bobus of Houndsditch.' We 
have him again in No. vii. of ' Latter-Day 
Pamphlets ' : " ' Bobus of Houndsditch ' . . . 
Sausage-maker on the great scale." 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

4. " Windows richly dight." Milton, ' II 
Penseroso.' 

10. " Ah ! when shall all men's good 

Be each man's rule ? " <fcc. 

Tennyson. ' The Golden Year.' 

11. *' To fawne, to crowche, to waite, to ride, 
to ronne " [sic]. Spenser, ' Mother Hubbard's 
Tale ' i. 895. 

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 
Swallowfield Park, Reading. 



on 

Calendar of State Papers. Foreign Series. Eliza- 
beth. Vol. xx. September 1585-May 1586. 
Edited by Sophie Crawford Lomas. (H.M. 
Stationery Office, 1 2s. 6d. net.) 
THE winter to which the Papers in this volume 
belong lowered heavy with that menace which 
broke a year or two later in the attack on England 
by the Spanish Armada. In August, 1585, 
Elizabeth had decided to support the Netherlands 
against Philip. Accordingly she now sent out to 
them English companies to garrison the towns, 
with Leicester as governor of the expedition and 
Philip Sidney and Thomas Cecil to be governors 
respectively of Flushing and the Brill. To the 
general reader the best-known event in this 
enterprise is the death of Sidney at the Battle of 
Zutphen which lies, however, a little beyond 
our period. 

The policy of Elizabeth, as usual, hampered 
her servants by its tortuousness, its unexpected 



160 



NOTES AND QUERIES. t i 2 s.ix. AUG. 20, 1921. 



checks and refusals, and the obstacles it presented 
to continuous and straightforward action.' 
Between Elizabeth on the one hand and Parma 
on the other we have Walsingham and Burleigh, 
Davison and Heneage, Leicester himself, and 
Norreys, commander of the British forces in the 
Netherlands, coping with a situation difficult 
enough apart from caprices in policy. The 
history of these particular months, as detailed in 
these letters, has little that is of outstanding 
importance in it ; on the other hand, it is full of 
the miseries of starving garrisons and the un- 
easiness of a population under the occupation 
and movements of soldiery. There is also here 
material which will enable the student to 
straighten out the tangled question of the secret 
negotiations between Elizabeth and Parma. 

Mrs. Lomas provides a carefully-worked-out 
Preface in which the main threads of all the 
complicated intrigues are satisfactorily traced 
out and combined. The relations between 
England and France are scarcely less interesting 
than those between England and the Netherlands 
or Spain. The French Court is in the thick of 
the struggle with the King of Navarre, and 
anxious to prevent Elizabeth's grant of money 
for German reiters to come to his assistance. 
Stafford is Elizabeth's Ambassador at Paris and 
Chasteauneuf the French Ambassador in England. 
Among the matters with which Stafford has to 
concern himself is the affair of the Giffords. 

Pleasant detail of matters other than war and 
polities' may be found in the newsletters (of which 
this volume includes three or four) and in a fair 
proportion of the rest of the correspondence. 
Thus Lord Willoughby, writing from Copenhagen, 
tells about Tycho Brahe, his observatory and his 
discovery of a comet. 

The text, we learn, was ready for publication 
six years ago. We congratulate Mrs. Lomas on 
at last seeing before her the completed result of 
her labours. 

We are asked to state that copies are to be 
obtained at Imperial House, Kingsway, W.C.2. 

Original Sources of English History. By L. F. 

Salzmann. (Heffer, Cambridge.) 
THIS modest little volume is intended for the very 
beginner in historical study, and therefore takes 
in the most elementary facts and principles con- 
cerning " sources " and their use. Freshness, 
clearness, aptness in illustration, some care as 
to proportion, and good judgment as to inevitable 
omissions are the principal qualities besides the 
requisite knowledge on which the success of 
such a book as this will depend. They are 
present here, and make these pages excellent 
reading even for one to whom the matters dealt 
with are familiar. Much more should they prove 
so to readers who are as yet unacquainted with 
the subject. The importance of history cannot, 
we believe, be overrated ; and if it is found dull 
by many minds in comparison with science or 
poetry, the reason most often lies, as Mr. Salzmann 
suggests, in the dependence on wearisome and not 
seldom inaccurate text-books in the lack, that 
is, of some such general, living conception of 
the nature of history and the method of its 
growth as his book supplies. The chapter on 
Records illustrates especially well what we mean. 
There is a chapter headed ' Episodics ' and we 



confess to a dubious feeling about that word, which 
our author tells us is of his own invention. It 
is intended to denote poems such as ' The 
Vision of Piers Plowman ' or the ballad of ' Chevy 
Chase ' which deal with isolated incidents or 
special aspects of life. Perhaps some reader 
of our columns could suggest a better. 

THE Editor of The Bulletin of the John Rylands 
Library, Manchester, for July is much to be con- 
gratulated on an excellent number. He himself 
contributes an article on Dante dealing chiefly 
with the history of the poet's works and influence. 
Dr. Tout has an illuminating paper on the place 
in history of St. Thomas of Canterbury J; Dr. 
Vaughan has a subject of very great interest in 
Giamba Hista Vico ; Dr. Reiidel Harris imparts 
what, if it stands criticism, will prove an important 
discovery that of a considerable fragment of 
the work of Marcion ; and Dr. Powicke gives us 
the'first instalment of a study of Ailred of Rievaulx, 
the'joccasion for which was the acquisition by 
the * John Rylands Library of a manuscript of 
Walter Daniel's ' Centum Sententiae.' Mr. 
Buckle discusses, in the light of the Rylands 
Coptic MS., the history of the Forty Martyrs of 
Sebaste. There is a note by Mrs. Rose-Troup 
on Henry de Cicestria's Missal, and those of our 
readers who were interested in Mr. George Homer's 
query at 12 S. viii. 168, on the whereabouts of 
a Syriac MS. (a Harmony of the Life and Passion 
of our Lord), once in the possession of Dr. Adam 
Clarke, may be glad to know of the short note 
on the subject also from the pen of Dr. Rend el 
Harris which concludes this number. 

WE have received the Ninth Report of the 
Society of Genealogists. The manuscript acces- 
sions to the library are numerous and interesting, 
especially in regard to Kent and Warwickshire 
topics. It is clear from the Report that the 
activity of the Society has sustained itself 
throughout the past year, and we note an en- 
couraging increase in the number of members. 



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The Highways of 

SCOTLAND. 

A New Guide for the 
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161 



LONDON, AUGUST 27. 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 176. 

NOTES : A Journey to Scotland in 1730, 161 Glass- 
painters of York : Thompson, 163 A Lightfoot Branch, 
165 A Letter of William Hayley, 167 Strolling Flayers 
of the Eighteenth Century A "Quasi-Folk-Rhyme, 168 

QUERIES : Moorish Battle-axe as Crest William Hersee, 
168 The Pillow Club Theodore Goidon, Composer 
Maj.-Uen. J. G. R. Forlong Milk, Butter and Cheese 
Streets " Cheese Monday " " A Jew's Eye full of 
Buttermilk " Duke of Monmouth : Burial-place, 169 
Heraldic Query Trewthe Family Anger, Aungier, 
Angier The R^v. Charles Ashton Evans Charles II., 
" Coffin-faced " Theodore Price Beadon Valentine 
Green Rebecca Godsalve Punch and Judy Author 
Wanted, 170. 

REPLIES : Captain Jones Kinds of Bread, 171 Charles 
Dickens in Cap and Gown Nautical Song, 172 The 
Gror.t Rain A Translation of Khan Khan Sir Thomas 
Miller cf Chichester, 173 London Clubs : Bibliography 
-" Shuffle-wing " or " Shovel-wing " Shakespeare's 
Songs Samuel Matthews, 174 School Magazine! 
Willow Pattern China Epitaph in Benson Church, 
Oxfordshire Anderson Family, Baronets of Broughton 
The Royal Route to Weymout'h John Wilson, Bookseller 
Tne Sentry at Pompeii, 175 Vicars of Thirsk 
American Edition, Grav's ' Elegy ' Campbell Shield of 
Am: s Signs r.sel in Place of Signature, 170 " Burnt 
his Boats " Rice Proverbial Sayings Leif Ericson 
" Sweet Lavender " Oak SnulT-box from Foundation 
Pile, of London Bridge Runnymede, 177 De Brus Tomb 
at Harilepocl Epigrammatists Edward Corbould 
baptism of Infant on its Mother's Coffin Arms on Seal 
Handshaking Autaor's Wanted, 178 References Wanted, 
179 

NOTES ON BOOKS : The Ninth Volume of the Waljole 
Society ' English for the English ' * Readings in 
English Social History.' 

OBITUARY -George Dames Burtchaell. 



A JOURNEY TO SCOTLAND 
IN 1730. 

RICHARD YATES, the writer of the following 
letter, was the son of John Yates of Newby, 
Co. Westmorland. Born Sept. 14, 1701, he 
was educated at Bampton School in his 
nalive county and matriculated at Queen's 
r..ll(-(>, Oxford, July 5, 1716. He took his 
B.A. degree Feb. 13, 1721/2, arid his M.A. 
1730. In 1723 he was appointed Head 
M.istcr of Appleby Grammar School, a post 
which he held for 58 years until his death 
on Dec. 31, 1781. The present Provost of 
Queen's College, Dr. Magrath, who has 
kindly furnished me with some interesting 
fads from the College records, informs me 
that during his long tenure of office at 
Apploby School, Richard Yates sent up to 



his old College at Oxford quite half the 
members of the foundation at the time. A 
tablet to his memory in St. Lawrence's 
Church, Appleby, bears the following 
epitaph, composed by his friend, Archdeacon 
William Paley, then vicar of the church 
and author of ' Evidences of Christianity ' : 
To preserve the Remembrance 

of a long valuable life 

Spent in the most useful of all Employments 
This marble is inscribed with the name 

of 

Richard Yates, M.A. 

58 years Master of the Grammar School 

in this town 

whom 

an accurate knowledge of Roman Literature 

A just & most harmonius elocution 

unwearied diligence 

and 

a serious attention to the moral 
and religious Improvement of his pupils 

eminently qualified 

for the important Station which he held. 
He died December the 31st A.D. 1781 
and in the Eighty first year of his age. 

I am indebted to Mr. H. A. Counsell, the 
present Head Master of Appleby Grammar 
School, for kindly supplying me with the 
copy of this inscription. 

Richard Yates never took Holy Orders, 
though he appears to have been appointed 
a Surrogate for the Diocese of Carlisle. He 
married a Miss Hartley, of Kirkby Stephen, 
by whom he had two daughters, both sub- 
sequently married. 

Though the identity of the writer of this 
letter is beyond question, the MS. in my 
possession is apparently a more or less con- 
temporary copy of the original, and unfor- 
tunately contains several misreadings on 
the part of the somewhat incompetent tran- 
scriber. Some of these can be corrected 
with tolerable certainty, but here and there 
this has not been possible, though the general 
sense can usually be gathered. I have 
several letters of a later date written by 
Richard Yates to his first cousin, and my 
great -great -grandfather, Richard Button 
Yates, for many years Rector of Solihull, 
Co. Warwick. Richard Sutton Yates entered 
Queen's College in 1730 at the age of 18, and 
from a certain similarity in the writing of 
the MS. to other specimens in my possession, 
I think it possible that my ancestor was the 
copyist, though this cannot be stated as a 
fact. 

The letter appears to be addressed to a 
friend at Queen's College, but his name does 
not appear thereon. From certain passages 
in the epistle, one may guess him to have 



162 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.ix.AuQ.27.is2i. 



been a north -country neighbour. It would 
be interesting to know whether " Walles 
Cow-band " (assuming this to be a correct 
reading) is a known name for the jougs. 

Glasgow, June 4th, 1730. 2 o'cl. 
Dear Sr, 

I have got thus far on my progress thro' ye 
Lowlands of Scotland and intend to go by Sterling, 
Banockburn, Arther's Oven, Fawkirk, Lithgow, 
Ld Hoptoun's, Queen's-Ferry, Edenburgh, Muscle- 
burgh, Barwic, Whittingham [to see Tom Nevison] 
Rothbury [to see Dr. Sharp], and from thence 
thro' Morpeth to Newcastle against ye Races ; so 
by Durham and Darlington over Stainmore home. 
I have not seen enough of ys country to enter into 
a just character of it : but must needs say yt 
our Countrymen in Westm. and Cumbd are too 
much prejudic'd agst Scotland, and much more 
are ye nations of ye South. Their judgemt is 
form'd from Allison -bank, Annan, Graitney* or 
ye first house in Scotld where they just step over 
ye Sark| to drink French wine at 18d a bottle, 
and to say once in their lives they have been in 
Scotld. The Scots indeed may easily retort upon 
us, yt ye nearer their Land lies to England ye 
worse is their country ; for from ye Sark to Annan 
there's a face of meer Poverty and Nastiness, 
little or no land yt seems improvable, and very few 
appearances of Human industry, and for ye same 
reason very few houses. From Annan to Dum- 
fries ye country mends upon your hands, from 
thence to Drumlenric ye country grows better ; 
but as if all ye beauty of ye neighbourhood was 
drain' d to adorn yt one place, all ye country 
beyond for 1 5 miles to Dowglass Mill is shocking, 
Enterkin and Lead-Hills (where Ld Hoptoun has 
some rich mines) are as hideous as ye Fells abt ye 
Peak in Derbyshire or to compare it wth a Place 
better known to you and me, Hy trophead near Mur- 
ton Pike is only a little more frightful. Fm 
Dowgl. Mill to Hamilton ye country resembles ye 
Chalk Hills near Dunstable, and near Hamilton 
you see how diffusive ye spirit of yt Noble Family 
of Hamilton has once been ; for carry your eye 
round ye Town for 2 miles in a line and you see 
all ye Circle near 12 miles in Circumference 
beautified wth Lime. Walls, long Avenues and 
plantations, and all ys at ye expence of ye D. of 
Hamilton. The Stage from Hamilton to Glasgow 
entertained pur eye much more yn ye last from 
Dowglass Mill to wth in 2 miles of Hamilton. At 
ye end of a long Lane wth a fine spacious pavemt 
almost flat, adorn' d on each hand wth regular 
Plantations we came fm Hamilton to Beadle brigg, 
as 'tis pronounc'd ; and I imagin'd truly so 
pronounc'd wn we pd a beadle a piece for our 
Horses going over ; but ye true name is Bothwel] 
bridge famd, as I was told for a Beencounter yt 
happen'd there in Monmouth's time abt 81 (but it 
had it's name I think from Earl Bothwell 3d 
Husband to M. Qn of ye Scots). It brought us 
over ye Clydd into Clyddesdale, a fine vale where 
most of ye aples grow yt ye whole Kgdom of Scotland 
is supplied wth. The Bridge consists but of 2 
Arches but exceeding neat and strong, and indeed 
all along as we have come we have found their 



* I.e., Gretna. 
t Sark a small river which separates Cumber- 
land from Dumfriesshire, near Gretna. 



Bridges, their Town Pavemts, their Highways, 
and publick buildings exceed ye generality in 
ngland. The Bridge at Dumfries is a noble 
work, very broad ye Passage over it, and of ye 
9 arches it consists of, 3 where ye main wait of ye 
water flows wn ye Tide is gone, are very high and 
very wide. It lays over ye Nith on ye South west 
side of ye Town, tho Mackey in his Journey thro' 
Scotld places it on ye East side, as I remember 
and gives it 1 3 arches instead of 9. In ye place of 
ye Castle wch when Mackey saw it, stood at ye 
East end of ye Town, is now built at ye N.W. end 
a very beautifull Church, a fine piece of Modern 
Architecture wch wd appear at ye bottom of a fine 
long street if ye prospect were not intercepted by 
another publick building, their Town Hall, and 
nothing but its own fitness cd attone for its inter- 
cepting ye Church. The beauty of ys Church 
made us ample amends for ye mortifying appear- 
ance of yt at Annan, for there did we see a Church 
thatcht, and very ill thatched too. There did we 
see first a pr of Juggs fixd to ye Jambs of ye Kirk 
Door, (hi other places we found 'em fix'd to ye 
Market Cross). [?] Walles Cow-band or the Juggs 
are an instrumt of punisht answering in use to 
our Pillory ; they are no more yn 2 semi-circles of 
Iron turning upon a pliable loose joynt to receive 
ye neck of an offender, wth a hole at each end to 
put a hang-lock thro' : they depend from ye Wall 
by a Chain of 6 or 8 Links. If it had been our 
luck to have fallen in at Annan on a Sabath Day 
we might perhaps have seen ye Head of a Pilferer or 
Fornicator expos' d in such a place where genlly 
in England at lamb ing- time we see ye Heads of 
Ravens, Foumarts or Badgers dangling. We found 
sevll Gentlemn's and some Noblemn's Places all 
along fm Dumfries hither, wch beautify ye 
Scenes vastly, and in some parts shew Art very 
adventageously, where Nature in trowth wd 
but ha' had a vairy unco leuk. Drumlenrig 
particularly is as Sweet a Place as ever I desire to 
see. The carving in wood over ye Chimney pieces 
and Doors, richer and finer yn anything in our 
Chappel,* ye Pictures in ye Gallery and other 
apartments, ye curious prints yt adorn ye Stair- 
case, ye stately velvet Beds wth chairs and sofas of 
ye same, ye oak and cedar Wainscot, ye many rich 
pieces of Tapestry, and wt is most egregiously 
curious, ye Family of France in all its branches 
in Lewis ye XlVth's time, done wth needle-work 
in colours suiting hands, face and drapery, wch 
adorn ye fine Dutches of Queensbury's closet, speak 
all ye elegance of a modern taste ; and ye Building 
and Gardens with Plantations in Prospect are 
.monumts of yt extravagnt, ambition yt inspir'd 
ye 1st Dke of Queensburry in K Chles 2d's time 
to conquer Nature. For all ye Rock, on wch ye 
House and Gardens are laid out is cut into such 
forms as answer ye conveniences of either : and 
evergreens of all sorts planted on an iner Range 
of Hills along 3 quarters of ye space yt Invirons 
ye House quite intercept ye prospect of ye 
remoter back range of Mountains, 'bating where 
vistoes direct ye eye to such delightful [? hollows] 
as are pleasing enough at a distance : and if he has 
not skreen'd ye Mountains from our view on ye 
4th side, 'tis only because it was not in ye power 
of human Industry or wealth to effect it, for a 
descent from his house on yt side, with a wide 



* I.e., of Queen's College, Oxford. 



i 2 s. ix. AUG. 27. 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



163 



valley, runs so far, yt unless he had rais'd an 
artificial Mount of a Mile perpendicular height, and 
2 miles in length to have planted upon, 'twas not 
to be done ; for ye mountains beyond ye valley 
are too barren and ye soil too loose and Chiverry 
to bear anything. And I know not but, in ye 
humour he was in, he might have gone so far as | 
to have spent ye best part of his Estate upon such i 
a Mount, if his choice had not determin'd him | 
to leave yt side expos'd as a foil to ye other works, ! 
and to shew ye spectator from his Castle wt ; 
difficulties he had conquer'd. 'Tis very remark- 
able yt tho' ye House and Gardens cost ye Family 
60 thousand pds and more, none of 'em Lodg'd 
6 nights in ye House. 

June ye 4th, 9 in ye Evens. 

Glasgow is a neater Town yn any I ever saw or j 
heard describ'd in Engd. Ye streets spacious and j 
exceeding well pav'd ; ye 2 grand Streets cross j 
each other at right angles, and ye buildings yt fm ; 
ye 4 angles are very genteel, but not so exactly i 
regular as in Northampton : there's 2 Rows of ! 
Piazza's run parallel to each other for abt 250 
yards in one of ye streets ; but those are all that j 
are so much talked off. Not a Coach or a chair to i 
be seen abt ye Town. No waggons and very few 
wheel Carriages have been seen by us yet, either 
at Dumfries, Hamilton or ys Place : and 'tis 
reasonable to believe yt ye smoothness of their 
Pavemts is owing to ye disuse of wheel carriages ; 
at ye same time, that very smoothness renders 
wheel carriages useless ; Trail carts and sledges 
running easily along. 

The entrance to ye College yt fronts ye High 
Street has something more magnificent yn any of 
of ye old colleges in Oxon, excepting great Tom 
but each of ye 2 Quadrangles are but about ye 
size of Edmd Hall ; ye Building pretty regular, 
but not grand. They are building a 3d Quad- 
rangle yt will be as big as ye other two, 4 or 5 of ye 
Stair Cases are finish'd and have been inhabited 
a [? week] or two ; ye Buildings are very neat, 
somewt like our North Quadrangle on ye New 
Coll : side, and are to be solely appropriated to 
ye use of ye Professors and their familys, each 
family having a Stair case to itself consisting of 3 
stories with 3 sash windows on ye two upper 
floors, 5 on ye floor below. Their publick Hall 
is neater yn any of our old ones in Oxon, and wn 
ye Library, wch is above it is remov'd to another 
place, and ye floor thereof taken away, and ye 
height of it added to ye height of their Hall, wth 
a range of Attic windows above for an upper light ; 
and their Oratory (where they train ye [? Minis- 
ters] up to compositions of extempore Prayer and 
Sermons of two hours long) is taken away, and 
ye length of it added to ye length of their Hall, 
wth a neat Marble Chimneypiece at each end of 
ye Room and clean Oak wainscot carry' d quite 
round ye room, very like wt we have in our Hall,* 
wn all ys is done, wch they are going abt with 
all speed, 'twill be inferior to no Hall in Oxon for 
grandeur but ours and Ch. Ch. Their Library, we 
\vas told, containd abt 5 thousd vollumes of well 
collected Books. Our frd excus'd himself fm 
shewing it us on acct of ye disorder ye Books were 
in agst their removal, and it did not become us 
to press to see it. We were entertain'd wth a 



sight of about a Dozen stones wth Romn In- 
scriptions, presented to ye College by some of ye 
Scotch Nobility, dug out of Antonius's Wall, yt 
runs from ye Fyrth of ye Clydde to ye Fyrth of 
Forth, call'd in Gordon's Geography by ye vulgar 
name of Graham's Dike. The College had men 
at work at yt very tune digging out some more, 
and carts were dispatched yt day to convey some 
of 'em home : and all yt Gratis : For ye Anti- 
quarys of ye Coll : and neighbourhood have so 
far encourag'd in ye country an implicit faith in 
ye value of those stones, yt they assist wth as 
much readiness in conveying one of 'em to ye 
Coll : to be deposited by ye rest, as ye [? Papists] 
wd do in carrying ye thumb or arm of a St in 
procession to ye shrine where ye rest of ye Body 
lays. We read all ye Inscriptions carefully, but 
ye import of 'em was no more yn ys, yt such a 
company finished so many paces of ye wall for 
their share. The pleasure of leaving yt memoran- 
dum to posterity being ye only reward extraordi- 
nary allow' d to ye soldiers for ye mighty labour 
such work must have cost 'em. A Reward suffi- 
cient had they foreseen how fond ye prest age wd 
prove in admiring the awkward shape of an E or a 
U cut by an ignorant Romn Soldier yt was not 

scholar enough to make a F Mason ! But 

peace ! break thee off see there an Antiquary 
is just entering ye room, and good manners will' 
not allow me to continue writing wn our Frd is 
come to take a bottle wth us, especially in ridicule 
of ye most fashionable modern accomplisht of 
wch M r Symson is so much a master. 

V. B. CROWTHEK-BEYNON, F.S.A. 
(To be concluded.) 



* At Queen's College, Oxford. 



GLASS-PAINTERS OF YORK. 

(See 12 S. viii. 127, 323, 364, 406, 442, 485 ; 
ix. 21, 61, 103.) 

VIII. THE THOMPSON FAMILY. 
RICARDTJS THOMSON, glasyer. Free of 
the city 1492. The history of this family 
is very interesting, as the period during 
which they lived and worked (1492-1613) 
comprised that of the Reformation ; and 
they and their apprentices to whom they 
taught the business evidently played a 
prominent part in preserving and con- 
tinuing the art of glass-painting from 
medieval times until the period of the 
Renaissance was well advanced. Their 
work was carried on after them by the 
Gyles family, some of whom were contem- 
porary with them, as they themselves had 
previously been with the Pettys, and most 
probably their pupils also. Nothing is 
known of Richard Thompson with the 
exception of the date on which he was free 
of the city. William Thompson, glazier 
(free 1496, died 1539), and Nicholas Thomp- 
son (mentioned in William Thompson's 
will) were, probably his brothers ; and 



164 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.ix.A TO .27,i92i. 



Robert (free 1564, died 1620) and Roger \ and other artists of the first half of the 
Thompson (free 158C), his grandsons or fifteenth century. William Thompson was 
grandnephews. Chamberlain of the city in 1526 (Skaife 

Willelmus Thomson, glasier. Free of the j MS., Lord Mayors and Sheriffs, in York 
city 1496. Probably brother of Richard Public Library). He made his will (Reg. 
Thompson (free 1492). Wife, Agnes. In D. and C. Ebor. 2, fol. 184d) on April 11, 
his will' he 'mentions his brother " Nicoles," j 1539, desiring to be "buried in the West 



also his " brother " ( ? brother-in-law) Thomas 
Browne ; " William, the said Thomas Browne 



ende of the churche d'edycate in the memorie 
of Saint Michaell called Belframe." To his 



son," and Robert Browne, probably another j brother " Nicoles " and his brother ( ? brother- 
nephew. His workmen were Ambrose I in-law) Thomas Browne a gown or a jacket 
Dunwith (free of the city 1517), Laurence | each, and to his nephews, William and 
Spencer (free of the city 153,3), Thomas j Robert Browne xija each. " To Saynt 
Nicholson, and Thomas Lelemaia. Richard j JohnGilde may ntened with taillers iijs iiij d ." 
Pille (free 1510) was either his partner or To Richard Pille (free 1510), who, as 



another workman, but as Pille had a son, 



show j n above, was probably his partner 



Sir Thomas, in Holy Orders, and shortly j and whom he made supervisor of his will, 
before the year 1543* Was in business for his " boke of portitour," evidently a sketch 
himself, the former is the more likely. There book of details of figure and ornament 
can be little doubt that William Thompson | copied from the work of other artists ; or 
was the artist who executed the windows | figure and landscape sketches done as an 
of St. Michael-le-Belfrey Church, built in j aid in his work or for amusement. Parallel 
1528 and the two or three following years J examples to the above are to be found in 
* during the very period of the Reformation, | Valentin Bouch, glass-painter of Metz 
and said by Parker to be the last church! (died 1451), bequeathing to "his old 
erected in the Gothic style in England, j workman " Herman Foliq " twelve pieces 
Robert Petty, the last of that great family of portraiture of Italy or of Albert " (Le 
of glass-painters With whom Thompson most j Vieil, 'L' Art de la Peinture sur Verre,' 
probably learnt his trade, had die.d in 1528 \ p. 95), and Robert Preston the glass- 
whilst the church was being built and before j painter of York (vide ' N. & Q.,' 12 S. viii. 
it would be ready to receive its glass. Thomp- 1 486-487) leaving, in 1503, " to Robert Begge, 
son was not only the principal glass-painter ' my prentese (free 1504), all my bookes that 
of his day, but moreover lived in the parish | is fitte for one prentesse of his crafi'te to 
and desired to be buried in the church. ! lerne by." To Richard Pille, as well as 
The windows were evidently being painted | to his workmen Ambrose Dunwith, Law- 
between the years 1528 and 1536, when items j rence Spenser, Thomas Nicolson, and 
of payments for the white and coloured Bur- j Thomas Leleman, William Thompson be- 
gundy glass used appear in the Fabric Rolls ! queathed severally a complete outfit con- 
of the Minster; whilst one window, which | sisting of " one warke borde, a pare of moldes 
unfortunately no longer exists, was dated I (for casting lead calmes and strips of solder), 
1537; i.e., previous to the date of William I a pare of sheres and a pare of clawmes 
Thompson's death, in 1539. These win- 1 (clamps for fastening the two hinged sides 
dows, although they were actually being j of the casting-moulds together whilst the 
painted at the very time Galyon Hone and ! molten metal was being run in)." In addi- 
others were at work on those for King's tion to the above, Leleman was given a 
College, Cambridge, show hardly any traces "moller" for grinding the glass enamel 
of Renaissance feeling, except in the letters! and Nicolson " a gold moller." 



of the monograms of the different donors 
and the true-lovers' knots surrounding 
them. The technique of the painting is 
generally coarse and brutal, and shows 



This last, if not a mistake, is very remark- 
able as being a very early reference to the 
so-called " purple of Cassius," or gold precipi- 
tate, used in the production of a rose-coloured 



1 i /. ,1 i . . UCoUt7 LIOC'^A XIX UJLJ.U IJX V/V4. IAV-* UAV^AX Wi CW A \Jf3\-t ~\s \J* \S ^IJ. ^V-l 

as much degeneracy from the work attri- ename l and gold pink glass, the discovery of 
buted to the Pettys as their work .declined j which ig ge * nera {i y attributed to Andrew 
from the standard of that of the Chambers i Cassius Qr ^ son / who bore the same name, 
*In this year a lease was granted of " one | some time about the middle of the seven- 
(feeporia "t^ % 5 ! '-nth century. There is however a recipe 



tions pub. by'H.M. Stationery Office, ' N. & Q,' f r preparing it in a fifteenth- century- MS. 
11 S. xii., Dec. 11, 1915.) | in the library of the Convent of S. Salvatore 



12 s. ix. AUG. 27, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



165 



at Bologna (printed in Mrs. Merrifi eld's 
4 Original Treatises,' p. 334.) It is custom- 
ary amongst glass- painters at the present 
day to keep a muller specially for gold purple, 
in order to prevent this delicate colour from 
being soiled. 

" To S* Thomas Pille," evidently son of 
Richard Pille, his workman or partner, 
William Thompson bequeathed xx d , re- 
questing his prayers on his behalf, and to 
Rauf Beckwith, probably father of the " Mr. 
Beckwith n who supplied " 4 whyspe of Bur- 
goine glasse "to the minster in 1577 (York 
Minster Fabric Rolls, Surtees Soc.), he be- 
queathed his " battell axe." A William 
Beckwith, probably another member of the 
same family, paid for a window in St. 
Michael -le-Belfrey Church in 1530 (Drake, 
' Hist, of York,' large ed., p. 344). 

Mention of weapons of offence and defence 
similar to the above, which throws light upon 
the social position of the medieval glass- 
painter, is made in the will of William Inglish 
(free 1450, died 1480), where we read of 
" i jak, 1 salet, 1 ax, and gauntelettes." 
whilst Sir John Petty (free 1470, died 1508), 
probably because of his position as Lord 
Mayor of the city, possessed quite a small 
armoury, including "a white crose, a salet 
w* harnes for ye slevys, a fald of male, a 
gorget and a hawberd, a breist plait, sieves of 
male, wt a battil axe and a salett " ( Vide 
' X. & Q.,' ante, p. 63). 

William Thompson made Agnes his wife 
his sole executrix and residuary legatee, with 
Richard Pille as supervisor, who received 
" v* for his panes." Witnesses : Richard Pille, 
Ambrose Dun with, and four more who are 
mentioned by name " with other moo " who 
are not. Probate granted Feb. 20, 1539-40. 

John Thompson, glasier, 1564. Charge 
for scrutation. Act. Book, fol. 23, catalogued 
in Wills in the York Registry (Yorks. 
Archaeol. Soc., Record Series, vol. xi.). 
Evidently another member of the same 
family, but of whom nothing more is known. 

Robertus Thomson, glasyer. Free of the 
city 1564. Wife, Ann. Son, Robert, tapi- 
tour. Free 1598. Daughters, Margaret, 
Mary, and Ann. His brother Roger Thomson 
(free 1580 and who died some time before 
Robert Thomson's decease in 1620) was also 
a glass-painter. These two were probably 
the sons or grandsons of Nicholas Thomson, 
whom William Thomson (free 1496, died 
1539) mentions in his will, or of the Richard 
Thomson (free in 1492). Robert Thomson 
made his will June 19, 1620, desiring to be 



buried " near where my brother Roger 
Thompson (free 1580) and other of my friends 
have bene buried. 35 To his daughter Mar- 
garet " one silver bowle and two silver 
spoones." To his daughter Mary xl" and 
to Ann xx 8 . " To the poore within Bou- 
thome ward iij s iiijd." In his will he makes 
no mention of his son Robert, who, twenty- 
two years previously, viz., in 1598, had 
become free of the city as a tapitour, i.e., a 
maker of tapestries and coverlets, a trade 
which at one time flourished in York, and 
who had no doubt by that time become 
independent. He made his wife Ann his sole 
executrix of his will (Reg. D. and C. Ebor., 
v. 244) , which was witnessed by three persons, 
none of whom is known to have been a glass- 
painter, and was proved Feb. 5, 1620. 

Robert Thomson's business was evidently 
continued by his nephew, " Georgius Thomp- 
son, glasier, fil. Rogeri Thompson, glasier,' 1 
free of the city in 1613, and we can reason- 
ably suppose that, unless anything untoward 
happened, it would be still in existence 
thirty or more years after this date. The 
history of the Thomson firm thus well over- 
laps that of the Gyles family, which extended 
from the year 1578, when Nicholas Gyles was 
free of the city, until the death of his grand- 
son, Henry Gyles, in 1709. 

JOHN A. KNOWLES. 



A LIGHTFOOT BRANCH. 

THE earliest record I can find of the branch 
of the family with which this paper deals 
concerns one Richard Light foot , bom in 1562, 
who became rector of Stoke Bruerne, in North- 
amptonshire, in 1601, until his death in 1625. 
He married Jane Aske, daughter of Robert 
Aske, citizen and goldsmith of London, and 
a member of the ancient family of Aske, of 
Aught on, Yorkshire, who were leaders in 
the Pilgrimage of Grace. Richard was 
buried in his church, and a memorial tablet 
in it is inscribed *. 

Memoriae 

Bicardi Ldghtfoot hujus ecclesiae per 
xxin annos Rectoris, evangelii praeconis, 

J. L. Filius et heres suus posuit. 
Pascentem exemplo populum yerboque ciboque, 

Mors suggressa levi est non inopina pede 
Vita brevis nam longa fuit meditatio mortis, 
Sic alios docuit vivere, seq : mori. 

Dom 1625. 
Obiit Anno 

Aet suae 63. 

The above is on a small brass in a freestone 
slab, and represents a priest kneeling at an 



166 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 a ix. A. 27, mi. 



altar with, dexter, arms, Barry of six or 
et gu. on a band sa., three escallops of the 
first ; sinister, Lightfoot impaling arms or 
(?) az;. 

Two sons of his are known, John and 
Richard. The first, John, evidently he 
who caused the above memorial to be 
erected, was born about 1598, and was 
entered at Gray's Inn in 1617. He married 
about 1625 Elizabeth Phelips, a daughter of 
Francis Phelips, one of the auditors of the 
Exchequer, by whom he had 13 children, 
eight being sons and five daughters, namely, 

1. John 7. Philip 

2. Francis 8. Robert 

3. George 9. Elizabeth 

4. William 10. Mary 

5. Richard 11. Anne 

6. Edmund 12. Jane 

13. Elizabeth. 

The first son, John, seems to have taken up 
a naval career, and there is little doubt but 
that he was the Captain John Lightfoot who 
commanded the Speedwell in 1665, and 
subsequently the Elizabeth, of 40 guns, 
losing the latter ship to the Dutch in the 
Chesapeake, for which he was tried by court- 
martial and sentenced to 12 months' im- 
prisonment in the Marshalsea, and not to be 
further employed In the inquiry it was 
stated, on the affidavit of the owner of the 
Handmaid, " a ship lately returned from 
Virginia " that 

Capt. Lightfoot had a day's notice of four Dutch 
ships coining into James River, and had he gone to 
the assistance of Capt. Conway, who fought for six 
hours, the enemy ships might have been taken, but 
instead he went to a wedding with a wench he 
brought out from England. 

The Elizabeth only fired one gun, whea?. 
she was captured and burnt. 

John Lightfoot married Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Taylor, of Maidstone, Kent, but had 
no issue. It is believed he continued a sea- 
faring life after his imprisonment, trading 
on his own account, possibly with Antigua, 
and died at sea off Surinam about 1682. 

Francis, the second son, lived at Rye, 
Sussex, and married Lucy Fuller, daughter 
of Davee Fuller, Esq., of Chamberhouse, 
Berks, and left two sons and two daughters. 

George, the third son, died young. 

William, the fourth son, born about 1632, 
entered Gray's Inn, 1653, and became one 
of the Attorneys in the Lord Mayor's Court, 
and Registrar of the Charterhouse, then 
Button's Hospital. He married Catharine, 
daughter of Robert and Bethia Abbott, of 



St. Anne's, Blackfriars, and had three sons 
and one daughter. A handsome mural 
tablet to her memory was placed in the 
Guildhall Chapel, and on the demolition of 
this was transferred to the west wall of the 
Church of St. Lawrence, Old Jewry, where 
it now is and bears the inscription : 

Pise Memoriae 

Catharinae Lightfoot 

Filiae Robert Abbott Gen. 

Praecharissimae Conjugis 

William Lightfoot. 
Unius e quatuor clericis in curia 

Dni Majoris hujus civitatis 

Femina exemplaris virtutis et prudentiae 

Vixit in sanctissimo matrimonio xi annos 

Et obiit in flore aetatis 

Casibus puerperii. 

XVii die February A.D. 1677. 

et hinc juxta est sita expectans felicem 

resurrectionem per Jesum Christum. Amen. 

William died in 1699, and t his request 
was buried near his father in the Guildhall 
Chapel. His tombstone has not apparently 
been preserved, but Hetton's ' View of 
London ' describes it as a grey marble slab 
near the entrance, and inscribed with the 
words : 

Hie jacet Gu. Lightfoot Gen. 
quondam unius e quatuor Attorn, in curia Dom. 
Majoris infra hanc civitatem nuper Registrant 
Hospitii Tho. Button. Ar. qui obiit 2 die Jan 1699. 

Etat suae 67. Resurgam. 

Richard, the fifth son, became an Ex- 
chequer auditor, married Elizabeth Hatt, 
daughter of John Hatt, Bar. -at -Law, and 
had a son, Richard, born 1675. It would be 
interesting to know if this Richard wes the 
ancestor of the Lightfoots of Antigua 
mentioned in Miss Pendered's ' Hannah 
Lightfoot,' there being some reason to 
suppose he was. 

Edmund, the next son, became a merchant 
tailor of London, marrying Elizabeth 
Gawdren, daughter of Edward Gawdren, 
a clothworker of London, and they had a 
son, John, born 1672. 

Philip, the seventh son, was one of the 
early emigrants to Virginia, and was cer- 
tainly in Gloucester Co. in 1670, but history 
seems to have erred in stating that he was 
there with his brother John. Crozier's 
' Virginia Heraldica ' is responsible for 
this, and goes on to give the names of the 
wife and children of this John, who became 
Audit or- General of Virginia and Commander- 
in-Chief of New Kent Co., dying in 1707. 
He was obviously not the naval captain 
who died in 1682. Philip became Justice 
of the Peace for the Upper District of James 






12 s. ix. AUG. 27, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



167 



River. He married Alice Cor bin, daughter j 
of Henry Corbin of H?ll End, Warwick- 
shire, and died at Sandy Point, Teddington, 
Charles City, where he was buried, his 
tomb bearing his arms impaled with the 
arms of Corbin. 

Who was the John Lightfoot known as 
Colonel John Lightfoot, the Auditor- 
General, I have not been able to discover, 
but the appointment was very shortly after 
revoked, and at all events he cannot have 
been the son of the Gray's Inn barrister, 
although he may have been a relative. 

Robert, the youngest son, became apothe- 
cary to the Queen Dowager, and married 
Hannah Port man, daughter of John Port- 
man, goldsmith of the City of London, and 
had a son, also a John, born in 1678. 

Of the daughters, Mary married Edward 
Leigh of St. Bartholomew's Close , Anne 
married William Webb of Hatton Garden ; 
Jane married John Crozier of Ickenham ; 
and Elizabeth meiried John Turner, also 
of Ickenham. 

The children of William, the fourth son, 
were William, John, Robert and Elizabeth. 

William, born 1664, was a barrister, 
became Judge of the Sheriff's Court, and 
was known as Judge Lightfoot of Hatton 
Garden ; he died unmarried in 1727. 

John, born in 1665, became a member of 
the Chartered Company of Merchant Ad- 
venturers, and apparently made e consider- 
able fortune, trading also, it is believed, with 
Antigup. In his \vill he made bequests to 
many London charities, among them to the 
workhouse, Bishopsga.te Street ; the poor 
of St. Michael's Bassishaw ; the Charity 
School, Tower Street ; the poor of Bartho- 
lomew's, Christ Church, Brides wall, St. j 
Thomas, St. Margaret's, and the Society l 
for the Propagation ol the Gospel. 

The third son, Robert, entered Trinity I 
College, Cambridge, 1686-7, took Holy 
orders, and was rector of Deal from 1716j 
to 1726, when he died. It is believed he! 
had a son William and a daughter Kitty. ! 
The latter may have been a lady well known ! 
in her day, for The Gentleman's Magazine\ 
of 1731 mentions the death of Kitty Light- j 
foot, niece of Judge Lightfoot of Hatton 
Garden. 

Descendants of Philip Lightfoot are, I 
believe, living in many parts of Virginia j 
and the United States to-day, and possibly 
there may be some in Antigua. 

In ' The History of the Island of Antigua,' 
by V. L. Oliver, there is given a pedigree of 



Lightfoots from a Richard of East Grin- 
stead, who married a Jane Warner, widow 
of Thomas Warner, V.C. If these letters, 
V.C., stand for Virginia City it certainly 
points to a connexion between the Light- 
foots of London and those of Antigua. 

In or before 1749 there existed a firm of 
bankers behind the Royal Exchange by 
name Colbrooke, Ruck, and John Light- 
foot, the latter being Vestryman to the 
Parish of St. Benetfink and Freeman of 
the Company of Mercers. 

He died unmarried, but appointed trustees 
to educate and bring up a John, son of his 
late cousin William, and to apprentice him 
to any trade he might choose. Are there 
any descendants of this John living ? 

T. W. L. 

Hove. 



A LETTER OF WILLIAM HAYLEY. Some 
weeks ago I purchased a letter (autograph), 
which, so far as I know, has never been pub- 
lished. It is by William Hayley, 1745-1820, 
the patron of William Blake, who wrote the 
biographies of Cowper and Romney (the 
latter of which brought out a recriminatory 
volume from Romney's son and also a great 
quantity of futile verse) and whose principal 
claim to present memory lies in the ' Ballads ' 
which Blake so charmingly illustrated, and 
in his still enjoyable and curious ' Essay on 
Old Maids.* 



Sir, 



Oct. 24, 1808. 



I yesterday received three Copies of the little 
Book which you have done me the Honor of dedi- 
cating to me tho I most sincerely recommended to 
you for a Patron those worthy of yr praise & better 
situated to render you service your poems & 
your Letter have raised in me various Emotions of 
pleasure & of pain pleasure from the simplicity 
nature & pathos in yr poetry ; & pain from hear- 
ing that a young man whose Feelings appear to me 
so strong & so tender has such difficulties to 
struggle against & to use yr own words no means of 
procuring Subsistence but by his Pen a very pre- 
carious Assistant as I know by long experience of 
my own & of others with whose literary Hopes & 
Disappointments I have been familiar. 

I should esteem myself fortunate if Time & 
Chance shall afford me any opportunity of recom- 
mending you to a Situation that might secure a 
certain and decent maintenance for the tender Ob- 
jects of yr Delight yr Anxiety but I must be so 
sincere with you as to add that however I may 
hope I have very little reason to expect such an 
Opportunity. 

I will not however forget to seek for it by the 
best Means in my power & I entreat you to accept 
the Trifle of 3 Chichester Notes of 1 which I have 
sealed up directed to you and sent to the carejof 



168 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. ix. A. 27, 1921. 



Mr Mason Printer in Chichester to be left till called 
for Pray receive this as a proof of the very limited 
powers & the benevolent inclination of 
your obliged & sincere Welhvisher 

W. HAYLEY. 
To Mr. William Hersee, 
Ooldwaltham, 
near Petworth. 

C. W. CLARK DUB ANT. 

STROLLING PLAYERS OF THE EIGHTEENTH j 
CENTURY. -Inasmuch as I had occasion! 
some time ago to make a slight study of this i 
subject and experienced much trouble in! 
collecting reliable data, it seems that some 
others might appreciate a brief list of con- ! 
venient books which assisted me, and might 
assist them, in learning more about this in- 
teresting phase of English theatrical life. 

MEMOIRS. 

The Wandering Patentee, by Tate Wilkinson. 

Memoirs of His Own Life, by Tate Wilkinson. 

Life of Mrs. Siddons, by T. Campbell. 

Life of Charles Macklin, by E. A. Parry. 

Memoirs of the Life of Charles Macklin, by 
Jas. T. Kirkman. 

Memoirs of the Life of John Philip Kemble, 
by Jas. Boaden. 

Life of Edmund Kean, by F. W. Hawkins. 

Memoirs of Elizabeth Inchbald, by Jas. 
Boaden. 

Memoirs of John Bannister, Comedian, by 
John Adolphus. 

The Itinerant, or Memoirs! of an Actor, by 
S. W. Byley. ^ 

Memoirs of Thomas Holcroft, continued . by 
William Hazlitt. 

ESSAYS. 

Romance of the Stage, by Percy Fitzgerald 
(chapters on the strolling player and on Tate 
Wilkinson). 

The English Stage, by William Hazlitt (pas- 
sages on minor theatres and strolling players). 

Book of the Play, by Button Cook (chapter on 
strolling players). 

Our Old Actors, by Henry Barton Baker 
(chapter on Kemble's company of strollers). 

Memoirs of Charlotte Clark (chapter on the 
hardships of strollers). 

The Theatric Tourist, London, 1805. 

William Godwin : His Friends and Contem- 
poraries, by C. Kegan Paul (concerning Thomas 
A. Cooper, i. 35-46; and concerning a strolling 
company, i. 258-259). 

Strolling Players in the Eighteenth Century, 
N. & Q.,' Bee. 11, 1915, 11 S. xii. 454-457 
(Containing records of receipts and performances 
of one company, based on British Museum Add. 
MSS., 33, 488, fol. 3-5). 

CONTEMPORANEOUS COMMENTS. 
Alwyn, or The Gentleman Comedian, by 
Thomas Holcroft. 



The Borough, by George Crabbe (one ' Book *' 
on the subject). 

Wild Oats ; or The Strolling Gentlemen, by 
J. O'Keefe (comedy). 

The Apprentice, by Arthur Murphy (farce). 

Imitation ; or The Female Fortune Hunters 
(Anon, comedy, 1783). 

Bissertation of the Country Stage, a letter to 
the editor, The European Magazine, September, 
1792, xxii. 230. 

Epilogue at the End of the Season, for a com- 
pany of Strollers in a Barn belonging to the Shears 
Inn, near Chelmsford, London Magazine, Sep- 
tember, 1773, xlii. 458. 

Epilogue, spoken at Midnight by a young man, 
who having committed some imprudences in the 
early part of his life has been abandoned by his 
relatives, and with a wife and four or five children^ 
been obliged to join a company of strolling players. 
European Magazine, November, 1785, viii. '389. 
ELBRIDGE COLBY. 
Captain of Infantry, U.S. Army. 

Camp Benning, Georgia, U.S.A. 

A QUASI - FOLK - RHYME. During the 
present tampering with time the old bit of 
weather-saying 

Rain before seven, 

Fine before eleven 

no longer serves. The substitution is sug- 
gested of 

Rain before eight 

By noon will abate. 

ST. SWITHIN. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



MOORISH BATTLE-AXE AS CREST. Among 
the heraldic seals at the B.M. there is 
one which displays a crest described in 
the official catalogue as a Moorish battle- 
axe pelette. The date is 1315. On another 
! seal, not in the B.M., dated 1308, the 
crest is the same. Has this crest any 
meaning or any historical reference ? Why 
should an English knight in 1308 wear oa 
his helmet a Moorish battle-axe ? 

ROBERT FITZAELEN. 

WILLIAM HERSEE. I should like to ask 
i correspondents of ' N. & Q.' to favour Jme 
| with any biographical facts regarding "the 



12 s. ix. AUG. 27, 1021.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



169 



young author William Hersee, who dedi- 
cated and presented to Hayley a volume 
of poems. (See Hayley's letter of acknow- 
ledgment, ante, p. 167). I should also be 
glad to learn the title of the book and 
the name of the publisher. 

C. W. CLARK DURANT. 



streets, roads or lanes, &c., named after the 
I very common articles of commerce, milk, 
butter and cheese. 

Are there any towns in the United King- 
dom, other than those already named, 
which have " milk," " butter " and " cheese" 
in their street nomenclature ? 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 



THE PILLOW CLUB. Is anything known 

of this club, which existed in London in the ! " CHEESE MONDAY." Sir J. G. Frazer, 
early part of the seventeenth century. | in his ' Golden Bough,' notes that the 
John Scattergood, East India Merchant, i Bulgarians have a festival called " Cheese 
v/riting from Canton in 1719, remarks as \ Monday." Did we ever have in the United 



follows : 

There's a Club in England called the Pillow 
Club of which I was a member, and did promise 
to send them some Patna Bice and some mangoes 
but never had any opportunity to send any yet, 



my name. Please to direct them to Captain 

Richard Rawlins in London for the use of the Aug. 12 : 

BERNARD P. SCATTERGOOD. 



| Kingdom a similar " cheese " day ? 

R. HEDGER WALLACE. 



A JEW'S EYE FULL OF BUTTERMILK." 
following paragraph is cut from the 
London Letter of The Guardian of 



A correspondent writes : " Can you tell me 
the origin or derivation of the expression one 
frequently hears in country districts of Yorkshire, 
i ' You are worth a Jew's eye full of buttermilk ' ? 

THEODORE GORDON, COMPOSER. In the It is usually said to children who have rendered 
sixties and seventies of last century, Theo- - some trifling service. Does it come within the 
dore Gordon composed several popular f ame cate g rv { a s those parental obliqua dicta, 
sons icludin o 



songs, including on on the 

with " according to fable "the expression 

cover of ' Sweet Soft Blue Eyes,' 1866, as " Worth a Jew's eye " came from the custom of 
"Walter" Gordon, but inside as " " orn s n lantaet time n order to 

Gordon. Who was he ? J. M. BULLOCH 
_ n -,. " L * 

37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. 



he sang himself. His name is given on the with " according to fable"" the expression 
)ver of ' Sweet Soft Blue Eyes,' 1866, as " Worth a Jew's eye " came from the custom of 
Walter" Gordon, but inside as " T." torturing Jews in Plantagenet times in order to 

j extort money from them. He then relates the 
story of a Bristol Jew who, by order of King 
i John, had a tooth pulled out every day until he 
i produced the ten thousand marks demanded of 

AT r< T n T-> -n I him. The Jew capitulated on the seventh day, 

MAJ.-UEN. J. G. R. FORLONG. When : whereupon King John remarked, " A Jew's eye 

did this learned writer die ? What relation, ! may be a quick ransom, but Jews' teeth give the 

if any, was he to William Forlong of Erins ' richer harvest." This scarcely answers my 

(d. 1876) and to Gordon Forlong, writer I correspondent's question. " Full of buttermilk " 

nf roli'm^i ,. suggests that the name Jews eye mav have 

f religious tracts who was at one time : be l given to a small local measure, since the 

in VA amganui, N.Z. ? Who edited his use of the phrase suggests a small reward for a 

cyclopedia on ' Faiths of Man,' 1906 ? i small service. 

J. M. BULLOCH. Can any ' N. & Q.' expert explain the 

37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. | saying ? To be " worth a Jew's eye "meant, 

j in my young days, to be of signal value, or 

MILK, BUTTER AND CHEESE STREETS. i a * k* 8 * J S u . nderstood {t - J n c f ver heard 
The directories of our large towns on ex- I of the buttermilk. ST. SWITHIN. 

animation yield the following information : 

London has a Milk Street, off which runs DUKE OF MONMOUTH : BURIAL-PLACE. 
?y Lane, but it has not a Butter Street Can anyone tell me where James, Duke of 
Cheese Street. Bristol has a Cheese Monmouth, was buried ? One guide-book 
Lane, a Cheese Market and a Milk Street, g ive s it that he was secretly interred in the 
"ATMI c5 ~? i r ^ et ' 1 , Birmin g hai n church at Boldre, Hampshire, but there is 
w a Milk Street, also a Cheddar Road, but no record there, and not even a tradition 
10 Butter or Cheese Streets Sheffield has O n the subject. What is the authority for 
only a Milk Street, and Manchester, Glasgow, that statement ? E. E. COPE. 

Edinburgh, Leeds and Liverpool have no Vicars Hill, Boldre. 



170 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



HERALDIC QUERY. ^Can anyone give me I am awa re that H.M.S. Prince George 

a coat of arms with three swans collared was burnt in 1758 in the Bay of Biscay 

and chained on a blue field ? E. E. COPE. with a loss of 485 lives, but Robert Beadon's 

name was not on the muster roll of that 

TREWTHE FAMILY. Particulars of this ship, 
family desired. Burke gives no name like 
it. Is it Cornish ? E. E. COPE. 



ANGER, AUNGIER, ANGIER. William 
Anger married Sarah Peak, May 30, 1683, 
at St. Mary's Church, Whittlesea, Cambs. 
Any readers able to supply any other details, 
antecedents, family relationships, &c., of 
either of above parties would greatly oblige 

W. B. AINGER. 

96, Sloane Street, London, S.W. 

THE REV. CHARLES ASHTON, DJD., Master 
of Jesus College, Cambridge. Who were 
his parents ? Where did he die in March, 
1752 ? Was he ever married ? The 
'D.N.B.,' ii. 175, does not supply the 
desired information. G. F. R. B. 

EVANS. Andrew Fitzherbert Evans was 
admitted to Westminster School in June, 
1779 ; John Evans in July, 1729, aged 10; 
Thomas Evans in September, 1777 ; and 
Yeoman Evans in June, 1730, aged 12. Any 
information about their respective careers 
would be useful. G. F. R. B. 



H. C. BARNARD. 
The Grey House, Yatton, Somerset. 



CHARLES II., " COFFIN-FACED." In < that town. 
Masson's ' Milton,' vol. vi. (book ii., ch. i.), 
p. 346, the author calls Charles II., at the 
time of the Restoration, " coffin-faced." 
What is the meaning of this epithet ? 

LANGEL. 



VALENTINE GREEN. I am anxious to find 
out who were the parents and grand- 
parents of Valentine Green the mezzotinter. 
Has anyone gone into this question ? There 
was a Valentine Green in Sheffield in 1687. 
Is it probable he was grandfather of the 

CHARLES DRURY. 

REBECCA GODSALVE. In vol. xxxiii. of 
the British Record Society, ' Marriage 
| Licences kept at the Faculty Office, London,' 
the following entry occurs : 

1689, December. William George and Rebecca 
I Godsalve (widow). 

Can anyone say what was the maiden 
! name of Mrs. Rebecca Godsalve and at 
what church or place the licence of the 
marriage of Wm. George and Rebecca God- 
salve was to be operative ? 

Mrs. Rebecca George surviving her hus- 
band (Wm. George) afterwards married 
Thomas Powell of Cirencester, and was a 
great benefactress to the Yellow School in 



T. C. TOMBS. 



THEODORE PRICE. Who was Theodore 
Price, whose whole-length portrait was 
painted by John James Masquerier and 
engraved in mezzotint by Charles Turner 
in 1829 reproduced in The Connoisseur, 
August, 1921 ? Any information respecting 
him will be gratefully received. 

LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

BEADON. In the supplement to Burke's 
'Landed Gentry' (1853) it is stated that 
Robert Beadon (brother of Richard Beadon, 
Bishop of Bath and Wells) " perished on 
board the Prince George packet which was 
burnt in Plymouth Sound." I shall be 
grateful if any reader of ' N. & Q.' can give 
me the date and further particulars of this 
disaster ? 



PUNCH AND JUDY. Having heard that 
the names Punch and Judy are a corruption 
of Pontius Pilate and Judas Iscariot, and 
are derived from a medieval mystery play, 
1 should be glad to know the legend and 
the names of books dealing with the subject. 
I have found books on the medieval legends 
of Judas Iscariot, but not in any way con- 
necting him with Punch and Judy. 

SHEELAH READE. 

[The following references to ' Punch and Judy ' 
in our columns may be of use to our correspon- 
dent : IS. v. 610; vi. 43, 1842 S. ii. 430, 
495 3 S. ii. 387, 476 (chap-books) 4 S. iv. 532 
(etymology of "Punch") 5 S. vi. 296, 333, 354; 
vii. 37; x. 347, 394, 476, 525 7 S. xi. 3 9 S. 
v. 51310 S. xi. 371, 497 11 S. v. 289, 376, 
477.] 

AUTHOR WANTED. Who wrote the following 
lines ? 

Would you could make of me a saint, 
Or I of you a sinner. 

J. LANDFEAR LUCAS. 



12 s. ix. AUG. 27, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



171 



fceplte*. 

CAPTAIN JONES. 

(12 S. ix. 90.) 

Is not the reference to David Lloyd's bur- 
lesque, ' The Legend ot Captaine Jones,' the 
first part of which appeared in 1631 ? There 
is a Life of the author (1597-1663) in the 
' D.N.B.' He was a Fellow of All Souls and 
Canon of Chester. Messrs. Pickering and 
Chatto's large 'Illustrated Catalogue' (4to, 
pp.712), issued, I think, about fifteen years 
ago, devotes half a page to a description of 
this work, No. 2626, and gives, in addition, a 
reproduction of Marshall's engraved frontis- 
piece to the edition of 1648, the first to 
contain both parts : 

The legend or ballad, which opens with 

' I sing thy arms (Bellona) and the man's 
Whose mighty deeds outdid great Tamerlan's," 

is a genial, if somewhat coarse burlesque upon 
the extravagant adventures of a sea-rover named 
Jones, who, says Wood, " lived in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, and was in great renown for 
his exploits." The poem relates how with his 
good sword, Kyl-za-dog, Jones slew the mighty 
giant Asdriasdust ; how eleven fierce kings 
made a brave but futile attempt to stay his trium- 
phant progress ; and, how, at last, he was captured 
by the Spanish King at the expense of six thousand 
warriors, but at once ransomed by his country- 
men, anxious to recover him on any terms. Else- 
where Wood says that the " Legend " was a 
burlesque upon a Welsh poem entitled ' Awdl 
Richard John Greulon,' but the view that Jones 
was not an altogether mythical person seems to 
derive support from the fact that in his ' Rehearsal 
Transprosed,' Andrew Marvell says, a propos of 
the " Legend," " I have heard that there was 
indeed such a captain, an honest, brave fellow ; 
but a wag that had a mind to be merry with him, 
hath quite spoiled his history." 

To the above may be added that there 
are references to " Captain Jones" in Edmund 
Gayton's ' Festivous Notes upon Don 
Quixot ' (1654): 

* P. 21 : Captaine Jones, the only unparallell 
Romancy, and fit to be the Legend of all Countries, 
and to be translated by forreign Nations. 

P. 276 : 

And Captaine Jones in all his dreadfulle dresse, 
Had ne'r been known i' th' crowd, but for the 
Presse. 

In the laudatory verses at the beginning 
of Gayton's book, signed '' Chirosophus " 
( ? == John Bulwer, author of ' Anthropo- 
metamorphosis ') there is this couplet : 

O that some pleasant Beames would shine like 
these 

Upon her Co/en, the Welsh Hercules ! 



To this last expression is the marginal 
note, " Cap. Jones." EDWARD BENSLY. 
Much Hadham, Herts. 



KINDS OF BREAD (12 S. ix. 70, 117). In 
Holinshed's * Chronicles,' vol. ii., 1568 
(reprint 1807, p. 287), is given the assise of 
bread proclaimed by King John c. 1203. 
Mention is made of manchet and cheat, 
e.g., " When wheat is sold for foure shillings, 
manchet shall wey 36 shillings, and cheat 
46 shillings." 

In ; The Customs of London, otherwise 
called Arnold's Chronicle ' (c. 1521), re- 
print 1811, pp. 49-56, is 'The Ordinaunce 
for the Assise and Weight of Bred in the 
Cite of London.' No date is given. The 
Assise begins with wheat at 3 shillings 
a quarter, and advancing by 6 pence ends 
with 20 shillings a quarter. 

The sorts of bread given are " symnell,' 
; ' white loff coket," "white loff," " whete 
loff," " lof of all graeynis." 

Example : 

The q't' whete at iiij. s. yi. d'. 
The q' symnell xi. vuncis q't' and ij. d'. 

the q' whyt loof coket xiij. vuncis di. and iij. 



the ob' white loff 
the ob' whete loof 
the peny whete loff 



q't'. 

xxvij. vuncis and half, 
xli. vuncis and a q't'. 
Ixxxij. vuncis and half. 



ye ob' loof of all graeynis Iv. vuncis. 

The word " poise " which appears in the 
first list is understood before each weight. 
There are various spellings, such as "loof," 
" loff," " greynes," " graeynis," " grenys." 
There is the following note at the end : 

Item the half peny loffe whyte of Stratford 
muste weye ij. vuncis more thane the half peny 
whit lof of Londo. 

Item the half peny whete loff of Stratford 
muste weye iij. vuncis more thanne the half peny 
whete loof of London. Item the peny whete 
lof of Stratford muste weye vi. vuncis more thane 
ye peny whete loof of London. 

Item iij. half peny white lofes of Stratford muste 
wey as myche as the peny whete loof. 

Item the loof of all greynes that is to saye, 
the whete loof muste wey as miche as the peny 
whete loof. And the half peny whyte looffe. 

The last item is, I think, unintelligible. 
The " loof of all greynes " appears to be 
confused with the " whete loof." Probably 
the full stop before " And " is an error. 

In William Harrison's ' Description of 
England' (Holinshed's 'Chronicles,' 1807-8 
reprint, vol. i., p. 283) the qualities of bread 
are in the following order : 

Mainchet, the first and most excellent, which 
we commonlie call white bread. 



172 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix A. 27,1921. 



Cheat or wheaton bread, so named bicause 
the colour thereof resembleth the graie or yellowish 
wheat. 

Baueled or raueled cheat is a kind of cheat bread, 
but it reteineth more of the grosse and lesse of j 
the pure substance of the wheat. 

Browne bread, of two sorts, one baked up j 
as it cometh from the mill, so that neither the j 
bran nor the floure are anie whit diminished. I 
The other hath little or no floure left therein I 
at all. 

Miscelin, bread made of mingled corne, albeit | 
that diuerse doo sow or mingle wheat & rie of set , 
purpose at the mill, or before it come there, and 
sell the same at the markets vnder the afore- j 
said name. 

In the preceding paragraph Harrison ! 
writes : 

Their [the gentilitie's] household and poore 
neighbours in some shires are inforced to content , 
themselves with rie, or barleie, yea and in time of 
dearth manie with bread made either of beans, 
peason, or otes, or of altogither and some acornes 
among. . . . The artificer and poore laboring 
man ... is driuen to content himselfe with horsse- 
corne, I meane, beanes, peason, otes, tares and 
lintels. 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

i 

ST. SWITHIN is not dreaming. In my boy- 
hood " penny bread " that is, bread in little | 
penny loaves was quite common. The 
loaves were baked in tins of the usual shape, | 
and the bread was of a superior quality. 

C. C. B. 



CHARLES DICKENS IN CAP AND GOWN 
(12 S. ix. 112). This inquiry appears to 
refer to the silhouette a reproduction of 
which was published in The Connoisseur of 
December, 1910, representing a youth in cap 
and gown facing to the right, with " Charles 
Dickens " written below the likeness. A 
reproduction- of the same portrait appeared 
in The Graphic, July 29, 1911, together j 
with another more than doubtful portrait of j 
" Dickens " as a boy. 

Some few years after the piiblication ofj 
these I had a parcel of silhouettes handed 
to me for examination and identification of 
any interesting portraits it might contain. 
Among them was one identical with the 
likeness in The Connoisseur. The silhouette 
was painted on the card, not cut out of 
paper, and there was no signature below it, 
and nothing to show whose portrait it was. 

The form of the letters in the signature 
in The Connoisseur does not correspond 
with the writing of Dickens at any period 
of his life ; he was never at college, and I 
have no hesitation in considering the 
portrait spurious. 



I have in my collection practically every 
known portrait of Dickens, and the features 
of the youth in the silhouette are quite un- 
like those in any authentic likeness of the 
novelist. 

There is a reprehensible tendency, of late 
years, to label the portrait of any unknown 
,boy, or youth, especially if in Early Vic- 
torian dress, "Charles Dickens." There 
are dozens of such traps laid for unwary 
collectors ; even The Graphic seems to have 
fallen into one of them, for the other por- 
trait I referred to as appearing with the 
silhouette in that paper * is an obvious 
reproduction of a photograph, and the 
surly -looking boy called " Charles Dickens ; " 
is about fifteen years old. Dickens was 
fifteen in 1827, some years before the first 
photographic portrait was taken ! 

If your correspondent would care to 
compare his silhouette with a photograph 
of the original I mentioned above, I shall 
be pleased to show him a print if he will 
communicate with me direct. 

T. W. TYRRELL. 

St. Elmo, Sidmouth, Devon. 

NAUTICAL SONG (12 S. ix. 112). The lines 
quoted are, very nearly, the words as I re- 
member them of the chorus of a song which 
I recollect being commonly sung in the 
Navy over 40 years ago. The stanzas 
were a skit on the ships" officers (com- 
missioned and warrant) and made fun of 
each individual's attainment or rather 
lack of attainment. I never saw the song 
in print and do not know what it was 
called. The only verse which I can remem- 
ber in its entirety is the one relating to the 
chaplain, and this with the chorus ran as 
follows : 
The Parson's both holy and Godly, 

And sets us for Heaven agog, 
But to my mind it sounds rather oddly 

When he's swearin' and drinkin' of grog. 
When he took on his knee Betsy Bouncer, 

And spoke of her beauty and charms, 
Says I, " What's the way to Heaven now, Sir ? " 

Says he, " Why, you dog ! in her arms ! " 

CHORUS. 
Then it's pull away, haul away, jolly boys, 

In search of our fortune we go, 
And if we miss it why, damme ! what folly, boys, 

To be downhearted you know. 

In the last verse the poet explains that 
he has written only in fun, and that if neces- 
sary he would be prepared to defend any one 
of the officers, for he says of anyone attempt- 
ing to assail them : 

Why, damme ! I'd tickle his ribs. 



12 s. ix. AUG. 27, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



173 



For the reputation of the chaplain, per- 
haps it is just as well that he does explain 
that the text is not to be taken seriously. 

I should think there must be some naval 
officers still in existence who could give 
your correspondent the words of the song. 

H. X. B. 



THE GREAT RAIN (12 S. ix. 127). Thej 
following contemporary references to the i 
continued wet which prevailed from mid- j 
June, 1763, to mid-February, 1764, will fur- 
nish COLONEL SOUTHAM with the confirma | 
t'on for which he asks : 

July 23, 1763, Stamford. " It has rained per- 
petually till to-day." H. Walpole to G. Montagu. 

July 26, London. " I found Mr. Johnson alone. 
It was a very wet day, and I again complained of 
the disagreeable effects of such weather. John- 
son : ' Sir, this is all imagination.' " Boswell. 

August 10, Strawberry Hill. " It has rained . 
such deluges, that I had some thoughts of turning 
my gallery into an ark." rH. Walpole to the Earl i 
of Strafford. 

August 15, Strawberry Hill. " We are in per- 
fection of beauty ; verdure itself was never green j 
till this summer, thanks to the deluges of rain." 
H. Walpole to G. Montagu. 

September 12, Boulogne. "I used to have] 
great pleasure in driving between the fields of 
wheat, oats and barley ; but the crop has been 
entirely ruined by the rain, and nothing is now to 
be seen on the ground but the tarnished straw, 
and the rotten spoils of the husbandmen's labour." I 
Tobias Smollett. 

October 10, Pembroke Hall, Cambridge. " Is , 
this the fine autumn you promised me ? Oh ! I I 
hear you (not curse, you must not, but) . . . 
this untoward climate." T. Gray to the Rev. W. 
Robinson. 

November 6, Montpellier, France. " It began : 
to rain with a southerly wind, and continued ] 
without ceasing the best part of a week, leaving j 
the air so loaded with vapours, that there was \ 
no walking after sunset, without being wetted by 
the dew almost to the skin." Tobias Smollett. 

December 20, Essex. " I have had great deliver- 
ance- from the general calamity so many poor 
creatures are involved in by the late dreadful 
storm." Robert Biddulph to the Earl of Dart- 
mouth. 

January 6, 1764, Aston, near Sheffield. " The ! 
bad weather has confined me a fortnight longer in j 
this place than I intended." H. Walpole to the 
Rev. W. Mason. 

January 31, Bishopscourt, Isle of Man. " Is 
not that Manks weather ? The glass below 
' much rain ' from ' fair ' in less than 24 hours." I 
-Bishop Hildesley. 

February 3, Isle of Man. " Very formidable 
weather still." Bishop Hildesley to Rev. Philip 
Moore. 

February 13, Isle of Man.-r-" These dreadful; 
Storms; so quick upon each other, give us but too 
much cause for fears. ... I was yesterday to per- j 
form at Ballough to prevent Sunday travelling by 
a Judge of the Court ; and if I had not, he could i 
not have gone yesterday. It is well I was boxed 



up in my return, for so high a storm of wind with 
rain I never saw." Bishop Hildesley. 

February 21, Cambridge. " What has become 
of you in these inundations that have drowned us 
all, and in this hot and unseasonable winter." - 
T. Gray to Dr. Wharton. . 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 

1, Essex Court, Temple. 

Gilbert White, in a letter dated Selborne, 
Jan. 2, 1769, to Thomas Pennant, Esq., 
writes : 

The vast rains ceased with us much about the 
same time as with you, and since then we have 
had delicate weather. Mr. Barker, who has 
measured the rain for more than thirty years. 
says, in a late letter, that more has fallen this 
year than in any he ever attended to ; though 
from July, 1763, to January, 1764, more fell than 
in any seven months of this year. 

A. H. W. FYNMORE. 

Arundel. 

A TRANSLATION OF KHAFI KHAN (12 S. 
ix. 128).' It was not Captain William 
Gordon who translated portions of Khafi 
Khan's history, but Captain Alexander 
Gordon, Madras European Regiment, and, 
in 1821, First Assistant to the Political Resi- 
dent at Nagpur (Richard Jenkins). See Grant 
Duff's 'History of the Mahrattas ' (1826), 
i. 118, and Elliot's 'History of India,' vii. 
210. STEPHEN WHEELER. 

Oriental Club, Hanover Square. 

SIR THOMAS MILLER OF CHICHESTER 
(12 S. ix. 92). Sir Thomas Miller, 1st 
Bt., was knighted at Whitehall, Dec. 23, 
1689. Le Neve says he was " of no family, 
but a kinsman left him a great estate which 
he had covetiously heapt together " (sic). 
Kimber says it was his uncle that left him a 
large fortune. He also says in his Baronet- 
age, " whom Sir Thomas married I do not 
find." CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

According to ' The Knights of England,' by 
Wm. A. Shaw, Litt.D., 1906, vol. ii!, p. 265, 
he was knighted at Whitehall, Dec. 23, 1689. 
1 The English Baronetage ' (by Tho. Wotton), 
1741, vol. iv., p. 123, gives v the Chichester 
Cathedral inscription in which " Dame 
Hannah, his Wife," is mentioned, but the 
author says, " whom he married I dont find." 
The date of the creation of the baronetcy is 
given as Oct. 29, 1705. Debrett's ' Baronet- 
age of England,' 1808. vol. i., p. 512, says 
that Sir Thomas " married Hannah, 

daughter of This is repeated in 

G. E. C/s ' Complete Baronetage.' 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 



174 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i SS .ix.Aw,.K.i03i. 



LONDON CLUBS: BIBLIOGRAPHY (12 S. 
ix. 41, 89). Anent MB. DE V. PA YEN- 
PAYNE'S note, readers of ' N. & Q. ' may like 
to be reminded of references made in its 
pages (see 9 S. v. 354, 493 ; vi. 248) to the 
Queen's Concert, or, as better known, Han- 
over Square Booms, which became the 
home of the Hanover Square Club, " subse- 
quently called the St. George's Club, much 
frequented by colonials. It' was a pro- 
prietary club run by a Mr. Russell. In 
the summer of 1900 came the demolition of 
this historic building, when the present 
block of " flats " was erected. 

As some slight addition to the proposed 
complete list of London " Clubs and 
Coteries," I may mention the names of three 
other small clubs which existed about forty 
years ago, viz., the New Travellers in George 
Street, Hanover Square, the Arts and 
Letters in Albemarle Street, and the Gridiron 
in Graf ton Street. I think they have all 
vanished. I happen to have been a member 
of the first two named, as well as of the 
St. George's Club and its predecessor. 

CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

" SHUFFLE- WING " OR " SHOVEL- WING " 
(12 S. ix. 129). I recognize this word as a 
provincial name for the hedge-sparrow 
(Accentor modularis), but it must be very 
local, for during many years' wanderings in 
most of our English counties I have never 
heard it mentioned. Macgillivray in 1840, 
in his ' Manual of British Ornithology,' 
includes " shufflewing " amongst the local 
names for this bird, and explains it with the 
remark that " at all seasons it has a peculiar 
shake of the wings which during the breeding 
period increases to a kind of flutter." This 
I have often observed as the bird moves 
from branch to branch. Presumably Mac- 
gillivray 's observation of this habit was 
made in Scotland, but there is some 
evidence of the use of the name " shuffle - 
wing " in Yorkshire and in Gloucestershire. 
In the former county it is known in Craven 
and Cleveland (see Nelson's ' Birds of 
Yorkshire ' ), and for Gloucestershire we have 
the authority of J. L. Knapp, who in 1829 
published anonymously his ' Journal of a 
Naturalist.' He resided in the west of 
Gloucestershire upon the ridge road near 
Thornbury, and was an excellent observer. 
Tinder the local name " shuffle -wing " he 
remarks of the hedge-sparrow that " in the 
spring it has a low and plaintive chirp, and 



a peculiar shake of the wing which at all 
times marks this bird, more especially at the 
approach of the breeding season." The 
name ** hedge-sparrow " is really a misnomer, 
for the bird is no relation to the house - 
sparrow (Passer domesticus), which has a 
finch-like beak, while that of the hedge- 
sparrow is weak and slender like that of the 
warblers. In fact so long ago as 1802 
it was named " hedge -warbler " by that 
good observer Col. Montagu, who lived at 
Knowle, near Kingsbridge. Although he 
was in the habit of noting the provincial 
names of the birds which he described in 
his ' Ornithological Dictionary,' he was 
unable to include " shuffle-wing " as a 
local name in Devonshire. It was probably 
never in general use, and is now almost 
obsolete. J. E. HARTING. 

Mr. H. Kirke Swann, in his ' Dictionary 
of English and Folk-names of British 
Birds ' (1913), p. 215, writes : 

Shuffle-wing : the HEDGE-SPARROW, so called 
from its peculiar shake or fluttering of the wings ; 

and he indicates that this name is in use in 
the Craven district of Yorkshire. 

HUGH S. GLADSTONE. 

t 

SHAKESPEARE'S SONGS (12 S. viii. 471 
514). Your correspondent should procure 
Sir F. Bridge's ' Songs from Shakespeare,' 
published by Novello. These are the oldest 
settings. One of them, ' It was a lover,' 
has been arranged for two treble voices and 
can also be procured from Novello. Dr. 
Naylor's two books, mentioned by CAPTAIN 
JAGGARD, are most useful. 

Chester. JOSEPH C. BRIDGE. 

SAMUEL MATTHEWS (12 S. ix. 90). West, 
in his ' Cathedral Organists,' under the 
heading of * Trinity College,' says : 

Samuel Matthews, Mus.B. Cantab, 1828. Born 
1769. Chorister in Westminster Abbey. Lay- 
Clerk of Winchester Cathedral. Organist of 
Trinity and St. John's Colleges, Cambridge, 1821. 
Died December 9, 1832. Buried in St. Botolph's 
Churchyard, Cambridge. Composer of a service 
in D. Arranged and published four anthems 
from the works of Haydn, Mozart, and others. 
Under the heading of * S. John's College,' 
West puts his appointment as " 1821 (or 22)." 
It seems, therefore, that he was over 50 
years of age when appointed to these two 
positions, and probably his voice had begun 
to fail. This would make him serve as a lay 
clerk somewhere between 1790 and 1820. 
JOSEPH C. BRIDGE. 



12 s. ix. AUG. 27,1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



175 



SCHOOL MAGAZINES (12 S. viii. 325 ; 
ix. 54, 96). Leamington. College, which was 
closed some years ago, had a magazine 
called The Red Tassel. I do not know 
when it ^commenced, but it ^was going strong . 
during the time I was at the school, 1873-6. ' 
I think it was carried on until the school 
ceased to exist. HERBERT SOUTHAM. 



T VTTT __. -p. _,_,,-, nxxTxr* no Q 

PATTERN CHINA (12 B. vm. 

496 ; ix. 78). About 1873 I was taken to 
see a very pretty play called ' Old China,' 
or some similar title, which was presented 
ai St Gpnrfrp'q TTall "Rpapnt Strppf T 
think that cSne Grair S Kate 4hop 



THE ROYAL ROUTE TO WBYMOUTH (12 S, 
ix. 109). The following extracts regarding 
King George III. may be of interest : 

The Edinburgh Advertiser : 

^t. 11, 1789. - Their Majesties and the 
Princesses continue in perfect health at Wey- 
mouth. On Sunday His Majesty bathed in the 
sea, and afterwards, with the Queen and 
Princesses, went on board, the " Magnificent " 
of 74 guns, and heard divine service performed 
by t he Rev. Mr. Clifton, Chaplain of the ship. 

Sept . 18 , 1789. On Monday His Majesty and 
the Royal Family left Weymouth amidst the 
acclamations of a loyal people, on their return to 
London. . . . The sea bathing has been of great 

"' ^ wi " ' " s 



% a man was 
examining an old china tea-pot, upon 
which was the customary design, when he 
fell asleep and dreamt the origin. This 
was then presented if my memory is 
correct with a transparent screen between 
the actors and the audience^ either the 
whole or part of the time. 

There was a song, " This is the tea-pot, 
the tea-pot, the tea-pot, This is the tea- 
pot, the tea-pot of my sire," or something 
to this effect, which was sung to the air 
of " This is the sabre," &c., &c. 

HERBERT SOUTHAM. 

EPITAPH IN BENSON CHURCH, OXFORD- 
SHIRE (12 S. viii. 409). The Quelche 
epitaph is given in Silvester Tissington's 
' Collection of Epitaphs,' 1857, p. 245. 

Besides some differences in spelling the 
wife's name, Jane, is omitted, but the year 
of her death, 1619, and her age, 59, are in ! 
the seventh line and the figure 1 appears 
after " together in " thus, 

together in 1 j^ed^ 

At the end is " Ano Dmi 16 ." 

If Tissington's copy is correct the tw r o i 
figures following 16 have presumably 
perished. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

ANDERSON FAMILY, BARONETS OF BROUGH- 
TON (12 S. viii. 268). According to 
XVotton's ' English Baronetage,' 1741, vol. 
iii., p. 192, and Debrett's ' Baronetage of 
England,' 1808, vol. i., p. 334, Stephen, 
seventh son of the 1st baronet, died without 
issue. Neither of these books gives the 
dates of his birth and marriage. G. E. C.'s 
* Complete Baronetage ' deals only with the 
baronets not with their brothers. 

ROBERT PIERPOINT. 



** " <***. Sept, 19, 1789 :- 
Tottenham Park, Sept, 17. Their Majesties, 



i as t at nine o'clock, and at six in the evening 
arrived at Longleat, the seat of the Marquis 
of Bath ' from whence they departed yesterday 



Windsor, Sept, 18. Their Majesties and their 
Royal Highnesses the Princess Royal, Princess 
Augusta, and Princess Elizabeth, set out from 
Tottenham Park at ten <y clock this morning, and 
here at three thls afternoon, in perfect 



JAMES SETON-ANDERSON. 
39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

JOHN WILSON, BOOKSELLER (12 S. v. 
297). At the above reference, CAPTAIN JAG- 
GARD, after mentioning that he supplied to 
Alexander Ireland the quotation, "' O for 
a booke and a shadie nooke," added that he 
was under the impression he had been told 
by his antiquarian friend, the late Thomas 
Simmons, that he (Simmons) obtained the 
quotation from a fragment of an Elizabethan 
book of verse ; and promised, when he had 
access to his collection, to give the exact 
year Simmons first published the verses. 

May I be allowed to express the hope that 
CAPTAIN JAGGARD can now throw some 
further light on this interesting problem. 

J. R. H. 

THE SENTRY AT POMPEII ( 12 S. viii. 131,177, 
258). At the second reference PROFESSOR 
BENSLY writes : " The ill-informed are still 
called on at times to believe that the town 
was overwhelmed by a stream of lava." 

I read on p. 176 of * Books in General ' 
(3rd Series) by " Solomon Eagle," in an 
article called ' The Lost Classics,' the follow- 
ing : 

All that is necessary (said a writer in the 
Classical Eevien- a few years ago), in order to 



176 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.ix.Aua.27.i92i. 



bring about discoveries greater than those of 
Poggio, is for the Italian Government ... to 
dig up Herculaneum, where countless papyri may 
still be preserved by the friendly mud which 
enveloped the town before it was overwhelmed 
by the torrents of lava on which the squalid 
suburb of Resina now rests. 

Would PROFESSOR BENSLY kindly ex- 
plain, for the benefit of one of the ill-informed, 
what actually did overwhelm Pompeii and 
Herculaneum ? J. R. H. 

VICARS OF THIRSK (12 S. ix. 130). From 
The History of Thirsk,' by J. B. Jefferson, 
1821, I make this extract : 

The following are the names of the Ministers 
of Thirsk, so far as can be ascertained from the 
Register : 
About the beginning of the year 

1600 Revd. Thomas? Todd. 

1632 T. Gilleys. 

Matthew Hill. 

1704 Joseph Midgley, died. 

1746 Mr. Williamson, died. 

1746 A. Routh, made Curate (re- 

signed about the year 1762). 

1762 D. Addison. 

1783 T. Barker. 

1798 J. Holmes, the present Minister. 

A footnote, giving some particulars of 
Matthew Hill, M.A., says that he was ejected 
from the church by the Act of Uniformity 
in 1662, and that he was of Magdalen 
College, Cambridge, and a man of consider- 
able talents and learning. 

JOHN LIVESEY. 

AMERICAN EDITION OF GRAY'S ' ELEGY ' 
(12 S. viii. 509). I regard the copy as noted 
herewith as the first American edition : 

The | Grave | a | Poem | By Robert Blair | 
To which is added | An | Elegy | written in a 
Country | Church-yard. | By Mr. Gray. | Phila- 
delphia : | Printed and Sold by R. Aitkin Book- 
Seller | and Stationer, Opposite the London 
Coffee House | in Front Street. MDCCLXXIII. 

It is a small book of thirty -one pages in 
paper cover. STEVENSON H. WALSH. 

CAMPBELL SHIELD OF ARMS (12 S. ix. 111). 
Reference to the second quartering. Accord- 
ing to ' Burke's Peerage,' the Duke of Mont- 
rose bears as second and third quarterings : 
Arg. ; three roses, gu., barbed and seeded 
proper. The arms of the Wedderburn 
family of Co. Perth are : Arg. ; a chevron, 
between three roses, gu., barbed, vert. 
Several Lancashire families also bore for 
arms three heraldic roses, as, for instance, 
three roses on a bend were borne by two 
branches of the Crook family of Lan- 
cashire, viz., by the Crooks of Crook 



Hall, Whittle - le - Woods, and by those 
of Abram Hall, near Wigan. Somewhat 
similar arms were also borne by one or more 
families of the Claytons of this county (see 
' Fifteenth Century Arms,' ' The Ancestor,' 
vol. iv., p. 244). 

I do not think that there was any con- 
nexion between these latter families and 
those named by your correspondent. One 
of the two families first named above would 
appear to be more probable. 

FREDERIC CROOKS. 

The motto " I beare in minde " is that of 
the Campbells of Suffolk, and "Ex se ipso 
renascens " is the motto of Fraser of Inch- 
culter. The second son of Hugh Fraser of 
Dunballoch bore arms " azure, 3 cinquefoils 
within a bordure, or," with the latter motto 
and a phoenix in flames ppr. for crest. 
May not this be the correct form of the 
second quarter described by D. K. T. ? 

WALTER E. GAWTHORP. 

SIGNS USED IN PLACE OF SIGNATURES. 
(12 S. ix. 51, 95). W. C. J. writes respecting 
merchants' marks that he has not seen them, 
except at Burford, " on shields of a pattern 
usually employed to display arms." The 
Rev. Herbert Macklin wrote in his book on 
' Brasses ' that the " merchant was hardly 
less proud of his mark than the knight of 
his armorial bearings," and also that 
merchants' marks " like heraldic arms were 
hereditary." 

For examples see the following brasses 
all bearing merchants' marks on shields : 

W. Grevel, 1401, Chipping Campden. 

I. Pergett, 1484, Chipping Norton. 

T. Pownder, 1525, Ipswich. 

Compare also the brass in St. Olave's, 
Hart Street, London, having shields en- 
graved with the arms of the Staple of 
Calais and of the Mercers' Company, used as 
trade marks. 

WALTER E. GAWTHORP. 

16, Long Acre, W.C.2. 

Perhaps the classic instance of merchants' 
marks, used as quasi-armorial bearings, 
is in the dice -work on the plinth of the 
magnificent tower of Lavenham Church in 
Suffolk, where a series of shields bear alter- 
nately the arms of John de Vere, 13th Earl 
of Oxford, and the merchant's mark of 
Thomas Spring (d. 1486). He was a rich 
wool- stapler and ancestor of the family 
of Spring Rice (whose head is Lord Mont- 
eagle). His son Thomas continued the 



12 s. ix. AUG. 27, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



177 



building of the (still unfinished) tower 
which his father had helped to begin, being 
granted arms : these appear at the top. 
Thomas the younger also built the S. chapel, 
where the Spring arms again appear. 

UVEDALE LAMBERT. 

" BURNT HIS BOATS " (12 S. viii. 210). 
According to the ' Chun-tsiu-tso-shi-chuen,' 
usually attributed to Tso Kiu-Ming, a con- 
temporary of Confucius : 

[In the year 624 B.C.] Miu-Kung, the Earl of 
Tsin, invaded the marquisate of Tsin : after cross- 
ing the river he burnt his boats, took the castle ; 
of Wang-Kwan, and even approached its capital. 
. . . Thus he made himself the overlord of all 
the western territories. 

Here " burnt his boats " is explained i 
by Tu Yii (A.D. 222-284) as thus to have 
shown his determination never to return 
without a victory, whence the phrase is often 
used in that sense to this day. 

KUMAGUSU MlNAKATA. 
Tauabe, Kii, Japan. 

RICE (12 S. viii. 391, 437). In China the; 
Kang-mi, or common non-glutinous rice, ' 
is believed to make one's complexion 
fresh (Li Shi-Chin, ' System of Materia ' 
Medica,' 1578, torn. xxii.). In this part of j 
Japan it is popularly held that there occur i 
not infrequently the pregnant women be- 1 
coming habituated to eat raw rice, which' 
never fails to endow their children with ' 
fair skin. KUMAGUSU MINAKATA. 

Tanabe, Kii, Japan. 
p 

PROVERBIAL SAYINGS (12 S. ix. 90). 
1. That must refer to a story told by 
David Hume. A princess of France had been 
married by proxy to a king of Spain, and i 
as she was being conducted to her husband ' 
through the country the people in the ] . 
towns and villages presented to her speci- j 
mens of their manufactures. At one j 
place articles of hosiery were offered, but J 
the high Spanish official in charge frowned, 
shook his head, and declined the gifts, 
saying, " The queen of Spain has no legs." 
Philip II. of Spain never laughed so much 
as when he heard that story told. 

W. DOUGLAS. 

31, Sandwich Street/W.C.l. 

2. This is a common phrase, but I cannot 
trace it in any bock. Only the other 
day a clergyman friend of mine used it 
during conversation with me, saying that ! 
Manchester was a big, dismal place, full of 
warehouses, and dreary when it is raining, 



which is often and " drink is the shortest 
way out of Manchester." I do not know 
who first used the phrase, or whether the 
foregoing is any explanation. 

ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

LEIF ERICSON (12 S. ix. 50). A book 
on this subject is reviewed in The Times 
Literary Supplement of July 14, 1921, 
where the question of the spot on which 
the Icelandic explorers landed is discussed. 

M. H. DODDS. 

' SWEET LAVENDER" (12 S. ix. 126.)- 
MR. CLARKE asks whether the production of 
lavender is on the wane. In the Hit chin 
neighbourhood the acreage now devoted to 
this crop is much less, I am told, than it used 
to be, and I believe there has been a similar 
diminution at Mitcham. At all events, it 
was reported in a trade journal on July 16 
that the acreage left for distilling when the 
usual " bunching " was over would be " very 
small." The " bunching ?} was then about 
to begin, but nothing was said as to the 
amount to be thus disposed of. I have only 
once heard the cry " Sweet lavender " in 
London this year. C. C. B. 

OAK SNUFF-BOX FROM FOUNDATION PILE 
OF OLD LONDON BRIDGE (12 S. ix. 31, 76, 
98). These boxes are not, I think, mir 
common. I possess one : it has a small 
silver plate engraved with the arms of the 
City. It belonged to a former alderman ; 
it is labelled to the same effect as that 
described at the reference. 1 always under- 
stood these boxes were presentations to 
prominent members of the Corporation. 
W. H. QUARRELL. 

It may interest your correspondents to 
know that I have a piece of oak made into 
the shape of a book and lettered on the 
back " Oak of Old London Bridge." This 
was formerly in the collection of antiquities 
of the late " Mr. Lucas of Fenny Bentley 
Hall, Derbyshire. CHARLES DRURY. 

RUNNYMBDE (12 S. ix. 150). The barons 
who witnessed the signature of Magna 
Charta numbered 25. A living descen- 
dant of one of them is Lord Saye and 
Sele (18th Baron) who is 22nd in descent 
from Geoffrey de Saye, Lord Saye, one of the 
signatories. The House of Lords being the 
most ancient and historic legislative assem- 
bly in the world, probably other peers also 
descend from these barons. M. H. D. 



178 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.ix.Aua.27.i92i. 



DE BBUS TOMB AT HABTLEPOOL (12 S. ix. 
30, 78). It may be of assistance to the 
inquirer to know that there is an Arch- 1 
bishop de Brus buried in the Church of Notre I 
Dame in Paris. Facing the altar, the tomb | 
is on one's right hand. J. WILDINS. 

EPIGRAMMATISTS (12 S. viii. 371, 414). i 
Raphael Macentinus. The latter word is 
a misprint in Wright's book for Placentinus : 
see Grater, * Delitiae Italorum Poet arum,' ' 
1608, ii., p. 247; also Bottari. The dates 
of this writer I have been unable to find. : 
Wright's errors, " Macentinus " and " Roe- 
grius," are both reproduced in Dodd's 
' Epigrammatists ' (Bohn's Library). 

F. P. BABNABD. 

EDWABD COBBOULD (12 S. ix. 72). 
Edward Corbould, R.I., born 1815, died 
1905. He exhibited at various exhibitions 
from 1835 to 1880. He was the son of 
Henry Corbould the artist, and grandson of 
Richard Corbould. E. E. LEGGATT. 

For an account of the family, by Henry j 
Ottlej', see the supplement to Bryan's j 
* Dictionary of Painters and Engravers,' 1877, ! 
published by George Bell and Sons. 

LEONABD C. PBICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

BAPTISM OF INFANT ON ITS MOTHEB'S | 
COFFIN (12 S. vii. 490; ix. 134). A news- 1 
paper cutting in my possession, taken from ! 
a Sussex journal of 1864, records the funeral 
at Udimore of a married daughter of the \ 
village schoolmaster, simultaneously with 
the baptism of her newly -born infant. 

The funeral took place on Sunday afternoon , 
last after divine service. The Vicar having read j 
the 39th Psalm, and that magnificent portion : 
of Scripture, which no heathen pen ever wrote ! 
or could write, and which in such sublimity un- 
folds to us, and which is the golden key which 
unlocks, the mysteries of the immortality of the 
soul, he passed from the desk amidst a crowded 
congregation to admit the sleeping infant near 
to the coffin of its mother, into communion with 
the Church, " a member of Christ, a child of God, ' 
and an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven." 
The little Christian then accompanied, the mourners 
to the grave, borne in the arms of the mother of the 
departed one. 

FB^D R. GALE. 

Selbv. Gerrards Cross. 

ABMS ON SEAL (12 S. ix. 111). The 
first and fourth quarters of this shield are 
probably the arms of Blackwell of Sprous- 
ton Hall, Norfolk, extinct baronets, which 
are : Paly of six argent and azure, on a chief 



gules a lion passant guardant or, all within 
a bordure ermine. The attitude of the lion 
in the second and third quarters is not 
stated, but they may be the arms of Johns : 
Azure a lion rampant or, on a chief of the 
last three crosses pa tee of the first. I 
have not been able to trace a connexion 
between these two families. 

H. J. B. CLEMENTS. 

HANDSHAKING (12 S. viii. 451, 495; ix. 
19). In Charlotte Bronte's ' Professor,' 
chap, i., near the end, where William Crims- 
worth first meets his sister-in-law, we read : 

Perceiving me, she begged my pardon for not 
noticing me before, and then shook hands with 
me as ladies do when a flow of good-humour 
disposes them to be cheerful to all, even the most 
indifferent of their acquaintance. 
' The Professor ' was written c. 1847. The 
passage seems to describe an action not un- 
common, yet not quite to be taken for 
granted. PEBEGBINUS. 

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. ix. 130). 1. " By the 
clock of my belly 'tis the dinner hour." The 
earliest extant passage where this thought is 
expressed is in a fragment of the fc Boeotia ' of 
Aquilius, a play which Varro, we are told, be- 
lieved to be one of Plautus's. See the ' Noctes 
Atticae' of Aulus Gellius, iii. 3, 4. A hungry 
parasite curses the inventor of sundials, and says 
that when he was a boy one's belly was the only 
sundial. 

"Namunum me puero venter erat solarium." 
The text is given thus in Ribbeck's ' Comicorum 
Romanorum Fragmenta' (18.08), where the 
editor quotes what Ammianus Marcellinus says 
of the Persians, xxiii. 6, 77, "venter unicuique 
velut solarium est." 

The 'Boeotia' was probably an adaptation of 
a Greek original. 

There is a similar thought in Matthew Prior's 
' Alma,' canto iii. 272 sqq. : 

" So, if unprejudic'd you scan 
The goings of this clock-work, man, 
You find a hundred movements made 
By fine devices in his head ; 
But 'tis the stomach's solid stroke 
That tells his being, what's o'clock. 

EDWARD BENSLT. 

3 (d). The line is, if my memory does not play me 
false : " TCach seemed than each more soft, and 
each than other smoother." 'Britain's Ida,' by 
Edm. Spenser. N. POWLETT, Colonel. 

AUTHOR WANTED ( 12 S. ix. 92). The book con- 
taining the lines "At last she raised her hands 
appalled," &c., is ' The Infant Moralist,' by Lady 
Helena Carnegie and Mrs. Arthur Jacob. Publishers, 
R, Grant and Son, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 
The book, which came out in 1903, has been long 
out of print. H. M. C. 



12 s.. ix. AUG. 27, mi.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



179 



REFERENCES WANTED (12 S. ix. 130). (a) This 
phrase of Ben Jonson is found in ' Underwoods,' 
Ixxxviii., ' A Pindaric Ode on the Death of Sir 
H. Morison ' : 

"As, though his age imperfect might appear, 
His life was of humanity the sphere. " 

11. 51, 52. 
EDWARD BENSLY. 



on 

The Ninth Volume of the Walpole Society. Edited 

by A. J. Finberg. 

TITS principal study in this volume a volume 
upon which the Walpole Society is much to be 
congratulated is Mrs. Finberg's Canaletto in 
England.' In the middle of the eighteenth 
century Antonio Canal, the Venetian painter of 
views who went by the name of Canaletto, was 
well known among English lovers of art, and his 
work had its influence on the development of 
landscape painting in England. A strange oblivion 
has, however, so obscured his name that he will 
not be found mentioned in most books of reference 
relating to art in England. He stayed here for 
some eight years working for patrons to whom he 
had become known while in Venice through the 
good offices of Owen McSwiny and of Joseph Smith 
of the British Consulate in that city. Mrs. Fin- 
berg is compelled to address herself to dissipating 
doubts about the reality of this visit. These were 
started by Mr. Reginald Home in an article in 
The Magazine of Art in 1899, being grounded upon 
a note of Vertue's which mentions " something 
obscure or strange " about the painter then in 
England, " a reservedness and shyness in being 
seen at work," and the rise of a " conjecture that 
he is not the veritable Canelletti of Venice . . . 
or that privately he has some unknown assistant. 
. . ." Mrs. Finberg has no difficulty in dis- 
posing of the said conjecture not only from the 
evidence of contemporary Italian writers, and by 
showing that when in England he was in the 
company of persons who could not have been 
deceived as to his identity, but also from Vertue's 
own later notes. It is a useful feature of this 
study that it contains, in chronological order, all 
the notices of Canaletto by Vertue. 

Not much of Canaletto's work is very easily 
accessible, the best English examples being in 
private collections. We may be the more grateful 
for the numerous well-chosen and well-executed 
plates with which this monograph is illustrated. 
While much of the quality of the original is in- 
evitably lost, these pictures at least convey the 
clearness, spaciousness and grace of Canaletto's 
art, and the fine proportion of parts, especially the 
proportion of earth to sky, which makes the 
larger views exhilarating. Mrs. Finberg gives us 
careful notes both of the subjects and history of 
the different works, and of Canaletto's relations 
with his patrons ; an interesting detail in this 
regard is Canaletto's work for Hollis. Antonio 
Canal was in Venice again in 1756, and his later 
life is unknown. He died at the age of 70 in 1768. 
The Catalogue raisonne" of his English views which 
concludes this article should be noted. 

Marcus Gheeraerts's picture of Queen Elizabeth 
being borne in procession in a litter on the 



shoulders of gentlemen has already been much 
discussed. It is to be found in two versions : the 
one at Melbury, belonging to the Earl of Ilchester, 
the other at Sherborne Castle, belonging to Major 
Wingfield-Digby. That Elizabeth is proceeding 
to Blackfriars to the wedding of Henry Herbert 
with Anne Russell seems now satisfactorily estab- 
lished. Lord Ilchester, in the article before us, 
goes on further to establish the identity of the 
several figures in the procession. In most of 
them we consider him to be more than probably 
successful. 

The number contains an interesting note on 
the affairs of Joseph Goupy in 1738, by Mr. C. 
Reginald Grundy, and a discussion by Mr. A. J. 
Finberg of Robert Peake's portrait of Prince 
Charles (Charles I.) in the University Library, 
Cambridge. Mr. Finberg invites students of 
Jacobean portraiture to study afresh, in the light 
thrown by the Cambridge ' Prince Charles,' about 
a score of portraits which were, tentatively, 
assigned by Dr. Lionel Gust, in the third volume 
of The Walpole Society, to Marcus Gheeraerts the 
younger. The most important of these, from the 
present point of view, is that of the Earl of Sussex, 
of whicn Dr. Cust had remarked that it has 
"more the look of an English painter of the 
period." 

English for the English : A Chapter on National 
Education. By George Sampson. (Cambridge 
University Press. 5s. net.) 

WE find ourselves, on the whole, in sympathy with 
the plea contained in this book. It is true that 
Mr. Sampson's witty and vehement criticism 
of past and present blunders contains little or 
nothing that is new, and a good deal, in our 
opinion, that is exaggerated and even mistaken. 
Thus, we agree that the elementary schools have, 
in fifty years, failed to bring real education to 
the mass of the English people : we deplore that 
what has been so laboriously taught and learned 
in them is usually forgotten almost as soon as 
school is left ; and we would admit that several 
things are taught, or attempted to be taught, 
to children top early. But, with all this, we are 
sure it is a mistake not to aim at giving children 
information : that a care for language which 
is expression is unsound if there works not 
with it part passu a care for knowledge ; and that 
if, for any reason, a choice had to be made between 
the two, knowledge of facts would have to come 
before training in power of expression. Neverthe- 
less, the power of expression has been so much 
neglected, and English has been so foolishly dis- 
dained and clumsily handled, that the over- 
emphasis of its claim by an enthusiast is even 
desirable. Mr. Sampson speaks his mind at 
great length, and draws his illustrations from ail 
the world. We think his advice sometimes 
fanciful as when he wishes older boys to be given 
Plato to read. But there is one suggestion which 
we would heartily support that of giving " bright 
top-class children " in the elementary schools a 
taste of logic. His reason for believing that logic 
would attract boys that there is a touch of 
rigmarole in it, which has possibilities of fun we 
are inclined to believe would prove good, while as 
part of a general preparation for life and the use 
of one's mind logic has some obvious advantages 
over, say, grammar and geometry. 



180 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2s.ix.Aua.27.i92i. 



Readings in English Social History. Vol. iii., 
1485-1603. Edited by R. B. Morgan. (Cam- 
bridge University Press. 4s. net.) 
OUT of the immense wealth of records belonging to 
Tudor England Mr. Morgan has made a happy 
selection illustrating the ordinary life of the nation, 
throughout all its classes, during that period. It 
has not fallen within his scope to give the original 
accounts of the greater events ; yet he has included 
Raleigh's description of the last fight of the 
Revenge, and an amusing passage from Sir James 
Melvil's Report of interviews with Elizabeth when, 
in 1564, he was sent on a mission to her by Mary, 
Queen of Scots. It is the England of Elizabeth 
which chiefly occupies us almost too little space, 
we think, having been allotted to the earlier Tudors, 
Perhaps a decision to avoid what is already 
fairly well known accounts for the absence from 
these pages of Sir Thomas More and of the figures 
connected with the revival of learning. Cavendish 
is drawn upon for descriptions of Wolsey's mag- 
nificence ; Harrison for the general description of 
Elizabethan England, and Wild Darrell for domestic 
expenses. From Perlin, and from an Italian 
' Relation ' about the year 1500 are extracted 
opinions of England and the English entertained 
by foreigners. Aspects of the dissolution of the 
monasteries are set out from contemporary letters ; 
and, at the end of the period, we have from the 
Order of the Privy Council regulations regarding 
stage plays. 

Anyone who will read this little volume through 
with attention, and look carefully at the well- 
chosen illustrations provided, will certainly 
build up in his mind a lively picture of sixteenth- 
century England, so vigorous alike in soul and 
body. And there must be few who could read 
these pages without, according to the editor's 
desire, being tempted to explore the sources 
further. 



GEORGE DAMES BURTCHA / ELL. 

THE tragic and sudden death of Georg% Dames 
Burtchaell has removed yet another old friend of 
' N. & Q.' He died in the Royal City of Dublin 
Hospital on the 18th inst. as the result of a street 
accident on the 16th. 

Born in 1853, Mr. Burtchaell, after taking his 
degrees at Trinity College, Dublin, was called to 
the Irish Bar in 1879, taking silk in 1918. His 
great interest in antiquarian and genealogical 
subjects made him especially in request in cases 
connected with peerages and genealogy generally. 
Athlone Pursuivant (1908) and Registrar in the 
Irish Office of Arms, and, since 1915, Deputy 
Ulster King of Arms, he was the author of numer- 
ous articles on heraldry, genealogy and kindred 
papers in many periodicals, and also brought out 
in 1888 ' Genealogical Memoirs of the Members of 
Parliament for Kilkenny,' and in 1906 ' A Com- 
plete List of Knights Bachelor dubbed in Ireland/ 
The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland is 
indebted to him for services in different offices 
over a considerable term of years ; and from 1899 
to 1903 he was Inspector of Historical MSS. 



Our readers who make a study of his subjects 
will miss both the information he had to impart 
and his criticism of tentative or inaccurate theories. 



WE have received the following from MR. E. G. 
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I am preparing a monograph upon Alfred 
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of Doctors' Commons, London, and Everton, near 
Liverpool, at which latter place he died. 

It will very much oblige me if you will allow 
me to mention that if any of your correspondents 
and readers who happen to possess letters from, 
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me by letter to the address below, and will lend 
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serviceable, I shall feel greatly indebted. 

Documents will be returned to the owners wilh 
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Yours faithfully, 

E. G. CLAYTON. 

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Aug. 23, 1921. 



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181 



LONDON. SEPTEMBER'^, 1921. 



CONTENTS. No. 177. 

NOTES : A Webster-Middleton Play : ' Anything for a 
Quiet Life,' 181 A Journey to Scotland in 1730, 183 
Principal London Coffee-houses in the Eighteenth Century, 
186 A Beneficent Prayer Book Quotations on Cheese 
" Arcing," 188 Double Flowers in Japan Snuff-box : 
Relic of the Victory " A bold peasantry, their country's 
pride," 189. 

QUERIES : Naming of Public Rooms in Inns Sir James 
Hackett " Swerd of the Hoope " Blackstone : Refer- 
ence wanted Loraine, 189 Welsh " Mixed Train " 
English Cheeses Varieties of Scotch Cheese House Bells 
The Swan's Dying Song Carols, 190 Arms : Identifica- 
tion sought " Royal East India Volunteers " A Token : 
Identification sought Alun ' Reuben Manasseh ' : 
" Alastor " Moneacht Beeleigh Abbey Bromley 
Stukeley Christopher Saxton Author Wanted, 191. 

REPLIES : Domesday and the Geld Inquests Heraldic (a 
Caution), 192 Arms of the See of Brechin, 193 Epitaphs 
desired, 194 Runnymede, 195 The " Chalk Farm Pisto- 
leer " Emerson's ' English Traits ' James I. and a 
Widow Bookseller of Bristol Shakespeare's Cheese-loving 
Welshman, 196 " Dreamthorp " English Railings in 
America Dance of Salome Petty France* 197 Welsh 
Rabbit Thomas Chatterton " Toff " Hockley of Hamp. 
shire Ormiston of Ormiston, 198 Elizabeth Fry Sussex 
and Surrey Dialect Words Christ's Hospital, 199. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Court Rolls of the Borough of Col- 
chester ' ' A Little Ark of Seventeenth Century Verse.' 
Notices to Correspondents. 



A WEBSTER-MIDDLETON PLAY: 
'ANYTHING FOR A QUIET LIFE.' 

IN a paper written for ' N. & Q.' some 
years ago* I endeavoured to show that 
' The Fair Maid of the Inn ' (one of the 
plays included in the Beaumont and Fletcher 
folio of 1647) was written by Massinger and 
Webster. This is not the only " Beaumont 
and Fletcher " play in which Webster 
had a hand. There are three others 
that are partly his ' The Honest Man's 
Fortune,' 'Thierry and Theodoret' and 
' Love's Cure.' The dramatists with whom 
he was associated were, in ' The Honest 
Man's Fortune ' Massinger, Fletcher and 
another (possibly Field) ; in * Thierry and 
Theodoret ' Massinger - and Fletcher ; and 
in ' Love's Cure ' Massinger and Dekker. 
Webster's hand is most obvious in the last- 
named play, especially in the final scene, 



* 11 S. xii. 134, 155, 175, 196. 



which" should be compared with the last 
scene of ' The Devil's Law Case.' 

It is, however, not these plays but yet 
another in which I am convinced Webster 
had a share, that I propose now to discuss 
the comedy ' Anything for a Quiet Life,' 
published by Kirkman as Middleton's in 
1662, thirty-five years after that dramatist's 
death. 

That this play is partly Middleton's there 
is no reason to doubt, but most of it is 
Webster's. Webster's is the main action 
of the play, which is concerned with two 
independent themes Lady Cressingham's 
device to cure her husband's extravagance 
by temporarily divesting him of the owner- 
ship of his property, and the lawyer Knaves- 
by's unsuccessful attempt to secure advance- 
ment at the cost of his wife's honour. The 
chief characters, Sir Francis and Lady 
Cressingham, Lord Beaufort, Knavesby 
and his wife, are his. The subsidiary action 
involving George Cressingham, Franklin 
junior, Water-Camlet, his wife and his 
apprentices, and Sweetball, the barber- 
surgeon, is Middleton's. Until the final 
scene is reached the shares of the tw r o 
authors are quite distinct. Webster wrote 
(I think) practically the whole of Act I., 
Act II., sc. i., Act III., sc. ii., and Act V., 
sc. i., and collaborated with Wobotor in the 
final scene, V. ii. +*-^ 3t 

To me the evidence of Webster's author- 
ship is conclusive.. In the parts of the 
play that I attribute to him I find 
clear traces of his style and vocabulary 
as well as mfmerous passages bearing a 
close resemblance to passages in his acknow- 
ledged plays. And to put the matter be- 
yond doubt, this play like ' The Duchess 
of Malfy,' ' The Devil's Law Case,' ' A 
Cure for a Cuckold ' and ' The Fair Maid 
of the Inn ' contains borrowings both 
from Sidney's * Arcadia ' and from Over- 
bury's ' Characters,' or rather from the 
additions to these ' Characters ' published 
in 1615.* 

The more palpable marks of Webster's 
hand are here noticed in the order in which 
they occur in the play. I have included 
connexions between this play and ' The 
Fair Maid of the Inn,' since they are not 
without interest in themselves and are 



* It seems probable that some of these addi- 
tional Characters ' were written by Webster him- 
self. On this subject see the papers b*y Baron 
Bourgeois and the present writer, 11 S. x. 3, 233, 
and 11 S. xi. 313, 335, 355, 374. 



182 



NOTES AND QUERIES. ti 2 s.ix. 8^.3,1021. 



of some (if slight) value as corroborative 
evidence of Webster's authorship of both 
plays. References are to the pages of 
vol. iv. of Dyce's edition of Middleton's 
works. 

Act I., sc. i. 

p. 419. Lord Beaufort reproves Sir Francis 
Cressingham for marrying again only a 
month after the death of his first wife, whom 
he describes as : 

. . . one that, to speak the truth, 

Had all those excellencies which our books 

Have only feign' d to make a complete wife 

Most exactly in her practice. 

In this vague reference to " our books " 
I suspect an allusion to Sir Thomas Over- 
bury 's poem ' A Wife.' Webster borrows a 
line from this poem* both in his preface to 
' The Duchess of Malfy ' and in ' The Devil's 
Law Case,'f &nd many a passage in his 
plays reveals his familiarity with the 
' Characters ' published with it. 

p. 419. A sentiment from the ' Characters ' 
will be found in the concluding lines of this 
very speech. Lord Beaufort warns his 
friend that he is likely to regret his marriage 
with the new Lady Cressingham, who is 
only 15 years of age and has been " bred 
up i' the Court," adding : 

. . . you shall make too dear a proof of it 

I fear, that in the election of a wife 

As in a project of war, to err but once 

Is to be undone for ever. 

Of ' A Worthy Commander in the Warres ' 
we read : 

He understands in warre there is no mean to 
erre twice ; the first and least fa^lt being sufficient 
to ruin an army. 

It is to be noted that other aphorisms 
from this character of ' A Worthy Com- 
mander ' (one of the 1615 additions to 
Overbury's ' Characters ') reappear in 
Webster's ' Devil's Law Case ' and ' Monu- 
mental Column.' 

p. 420. Speaking of Lady Cressingham, 
Lord Beaufort observes : 

She was not made to wither and go out 

By painted fires that yield her no more heat 

Than to be lodg'd in some bleak banqueting 
house 

I' the dead of winter. 

A similar allusion to " painted fires " will 
be found in ' The Devil's Law Case,' IV. ii. 
(Hazlitt's ' Webster,' vol. iii. 84) : 

As void of true heat as are all painted fires. 



* " Gentry is but a relique of time past.' 
Webster has slightly altered the phrasing. 

t Act I., sc. i. (Hazlitt's ' Webster,' vol iii., 
p. 10). 



p. 420. Sir Francis Cressingham's praise 
of his wife : 

I confess she was bred at Court, 
But so retiredly, that, as still the best 
In some place is to be learnt there, so her life 
Did rectify itself more by the court-chapel 
Than by th' office of the revels, 
recalls several passages in Webster's works, 
and particularly Icihus's description of 
Virginia in * Appius and Virginia,' I. ii. 
(III. 135), as: 

. . . one whose mind 
Appears more like a ceremonious chapel 
Full of sweet music, than a thronging presence, 

. . . her port, 
Being simple virtue, beautifies the court. 

p. 420. Sir F. Cressingham continues : 
. . . best of all virtues 

Are to be found at court ; and where you meet 

With writings contrary to this known truth, 

They're fram'd by men that never were so happy. 

To be planted there to know it. 

That this was Webster's opinion we may 
gather from a remark attiibuted to Romelio 
in ' The Devil's Law Case,' III. iii. (III. 60) : 

Indeed the court to well-composed nature 

Adds much to perfection. 

p. 421. The entry of Water-Camlet brings 
us to a patch of prose. Water-Camlet 
speaks of his wife making his collection of 
silkworms (then no doubt somewhat of a 
novelty) an excuse for introducing gallants 
into his house : 

Lord Beaufort : . . . how thrives your new 
plantation of silk-worms ? those I saw last 
summer at your garden. 

W'-Cam. : They are removed, sir. 

L. Beau. : Whither ? 

W.-Cam. : This winter my wife has removed 
them home to a fair chamber, where divers 
courtiers use to come and see them, and my wife 
carries them up. 

This allusion will be found again in 
Webster's part of ' The Fair Maid of the 
Inn,' II. i. : 

... in England you have several adamants to 
draw in spurs- and rapiers : one keeps silk-worms 
in a gallery ; a milliner has choice of monkeys 
and paraquitos, &c. 

p. 422. Water-Camlet twits Sir Francis 
Cressingham with his fantastic projects, 
amongst which he mentions : 

Your devising new water-mills for recovery of 
drowned land. 

a palpable reference to the scheme of the 
projector Meercraft in Jonson's play, ' The 
Devil is an Ass.' This play evidently made 
a great impression upon Webster, for he 
twice borrows from it in ' The Devil's Law 
Case.'* 

*" See my note on The Date of " The Devil's 
Law Case," 'US. vii. 106. 



12 s. ix. SEPT. s, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



183 



p. 424. Water-Camlet has married a 
shrew, who keeps a strict watch over all 
his actions : 

She has a book, which I may truly nominate 

Her Black Book, for she remembers in it 

In short items, all my misdemeanours. 

We are here reminded of the Cardinal, 

Honticelso, in ' The White Devil,' III. iii. 

(II. 76), who also keeps a " black book " : 

Francisco : It is reported you possess a book 

Wherein you have quoted, by intelligence, 

The names of all notorious offenders 

Lurking about the city. 

Monticelso : Sir, I do ; 

And some there are which call it my black book, 

Well may the title hold, &c. 

p. 426. Franklin junior tells Lord Beau- 
fort that he has been encouraged by the 
Duke of Florence 

To do him some small service 'gainst the Turk. 
In the same speech also there is a 
reference to the trade with the East 
Indies. Both these allusions are continu- 
ally cropping up in Webster, especially 
allusions to service "'gainst the Turk." 
Thus in ' The White Devil,' IV. iv. (II. 99), 
Brachiano says to the disguised Francisco : 
We have heard at full 

Your honourable service 'gainst the Turk, 
and in ' The Devil's Law Case,' I. ii. (III. 20), 
Leonora says of Ercole : 

. . . his intents are aim'd 
For an expedition 'gainst the Turk. 

Cf. also ' W.D.,' IV. iv. (II. 103), ' D.L.C.,' 
IV. ii. and V. vi. (III. 102, 121). 

p. 427. When Knavesby, the lawyer, 
enters, George Cressingham (Sir Francis's 
son) asks what he is, and Franklin junior 
replies : 

a very knave and rascal, 

That goes a-hunting with the penal statutes. 
Compare the description of ' A Meere 
Pettyfogger ' (Overbury's ' Characters,' 
1615): 

... in a long vacation his sport is to goe 
a-ftshing with the penal statutes. 

Knavesby, says Cressingham, is a " scurvy 
informer " : 

. . . has more cozenage 
In him than is in five travelling lotteries. 

Webster again alludes to " cozening " by 
means of lotteries in ' A Cure for a Cuckold,' 
III. i. (IV. 45) : 

But, when it came to the proof, my gentlemen 

Appear' d to me as promising and failing 

As cozening lotteries. 

and ^ once more in 'The Fair Maid of the 
Inn,' II. i., \vhere the reference is specifi- 
cally to travelling lotteries. Here the 



mountebank Forobosco, speaking to the 
Clown, observes that their cheating does 
not prosper as it used to do, and the Clown 
replies : 

No sure, why in England we could cozen 'em 
as familiarly as if we had travell'd with a Brief 
or a Lottery. 

Franklin junior has been cast adrift by 
his patron Lord Beaufort and George 
Cressingham has fallen out with his father. 
Franklin asks George what is to become of 
them : 

G. Cres : Faith- I'm resolved to set up my rest 
For the Low Countries. 

Frank, jun. : To serve there ? 

G. Cres : Yes, certain. 

Frank, jun. : There's thin commons ; 
Besides, they've added one day more to the week 
Than was in the creation. 

The Pedant who appears in Webster's 
part of ' The Fair Maid of the Inn ' (IV. 
ii. ) makes the .same resolution to settle in 
the Low Countries, and he wishes Foro- 
bosco (a professed magician) to add yet 
another day to the week there : 

Pedant : ... I mean 
To leave Italy and bury myself in those nether 

parts 
Of the Low Countries. 

Forobosco : What's that, sir ? 

Pedant : Marry, I would fain make nine days 
to the week for the more ample benefit ofj the 
captain. 

In this Act there are four conspicuous 
instances of the omission of the relative 
pronoun in the nominative. Such omis- 
sions are frequent in Webster's plays. 

H. DUGDALE SYKES. 
Enfield. 

(To be continued.) 



A JOURNEY TO SCOTLAND 

IN 1730. 
(See 12 S. ix. 161.) 

June 22d 1730 Appleby. 

At Glasgow I was taken so ill wth a -violent cold 
catch' d upon Enterkin and sate up so late wth ye 
worthy honest antiquary, yt I never recover' d it 
all ye while I staid in Scotld : nor had I leisure or 
inclination to go on wth my acct till I got home 
where you find we now tho' I have forty ways to 
go before Monday ye 28th wn I .shall be to be 
spoke wth at my warehouse amongst my customers, 
haberdashing Nouns and Pronouns, till ye 4th of 
Decemr ; wn please God I be well, and ye weather 
seasonable, I may perhaps wait upon my Frds at 
Queen's and detail such particulars of my Scotch 
Expedition, as my memory may retain till yn, 
and wd be tedious to insert in a Lr. 

The Antiquary I spoke of, who shew'd us ye 
College in ye afternoon was M r Symson, Professor 



184 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. SEPT. 3,1921. 



of Mathematicks, nephew of ye Heterodox Profr | 
of Divinity who still continues suspended ab \ 
offitio. We had his company till 3 the next j 
morning : and if Mr Hutchison (Passion and i 
Idea Hutchison) had not been busy making ready 
for a trip to Dublin ys vacation we had been j 
favoured wth his company also, and those two | 
in ye esteem of ye Town, I found wd have been J 
instar omnium in ye College in point of conversa- , 
tion : tho' ye rest of their Professors, by ye accts \ 
we had of 'em from other hands as well as fm ye i 
two gentlemen nam'd are very clever men in 
their respective ways, but being not so much 
Universaliists, and having not seen so much of 
Mankind in various scenes and shapes as ye other 
two, are stiff and pendantick in Conversation. 
We had but an hour's Conversation wth Mr Hut- i 
cbison hi a Bookseller's Shop. Upon ye Death of 
M r Carmichael, Hutchison was invited over abt ! 
2 years agoe from Dublin to Glasgow to be Pro- j 
fessor of Humanity. He's going to publish a new j 
correct Edition of Tully's Offices, Paradoxes, &c., i 
without any maner of notes, for ye Benefit of his I 
own Class, ye corhon editions without notes being 
too faulty, and those wth notes or var. Lectns i 
being too dear. M r Hutchison "was educated at] 
Glasgow, went over from thence to Dublin where j 
he had ye benefit of ye Coll. Library, but mar- ! 
ried and was never a member of ye College, and 
is not in Orders. A Presbyterian he must be, or j 
no Professor in Glasgow : but both he and Symson | 
seem very moderate. 'Tis a pitty in truth there \ 
were not proper encouragemt for two such men in ! 
our Community. And as I am upon ys, let me take 
notice to you yt I was told wth strong assurance 
yt if it were not for ye obstinacy of ye Episcopal 
party Episcopacy and ye English Liturgy might 
be received and established in Scotland to- 
morrow. But ye misfortune is ys ; ye Episco- ! 
palians are all obstinate Conjurors, that dis- j 
qualifies 'em from being Provosts or Magistrates 
in Corporations or Towns and in short from 
having any share in ye Civil administration : 
whereas wd they bat conform to ye prest Govermt 
they might be elected into those places of autho- 
rity, in w c h w they shd come to be back'd by 
their own party (wh is very numerous all Scot- 
land over) and join'd by ye more rational part 
of the Kirk (who I understand are well inclin'd 
to own it but dare not shew it at prest as matters 
stand) they wd be able to overbear all ye opposi- 
tion of ye Kirk's mob, who wd find y m selves 
diserted by ye most considerable men amgst ym, 
yt wd be glad to become Patrons to Episcopacy 
and y e Liturgy wi they were sure of numbers 
to stand by ym. But now ye Episcopal men 
having neither Title to bear an office nor to give a 
vote ye 01 iro\\ot of Scotld being zealous for ye 
Kirk and ye Covenant, take care to choose none 
into any office of Trust but such as they are 
pretty well assur'd hate BPS, and admire long 
sermons and extempore prayer. 'Tis a pitty 
a Brotherly Frdly address were not made to 
those Scotch Nonjurors to perswade 'em to 
lay aside their prejudices agst ye Govermt. Such 
an address I dare say wd be more welcome to 
ytn from Oxford. 

But I grow tedious to you, and I'm tir'd my- 
self wth writing, for I have not yet got quit of ye 
listlessness resulting from an ague yt ye Damn'd 
Scotch roads gave me in passing over Enterkin 



and Lead Hills from Drumlenric to Glasgow, 
where w we came on ye 4th W e found ye men 
muffi'd up in their great coats or cloaks, and ye 
women in their Plaids, wh last we found after- 
wards was no absolute sign of cold weather, 
it being ye fashion of ye Ldys to wear ym ye 
Hottest Day in sumer. The Plaid gives ym a 
mighty stiff reserv'd air, but take 'em out of their 
Plaids (I have no waggish meaning) wjthn 
Doors, at a Tea table or so, and they are as easy 
and as free at ye first interview as if your ac- 
quaintance were of 7 years standing. At Dum- 
fries we saw some very pretty women, a few at 
Glasgow, but whole Constellations of Beauty's 
at Edenburgh ; and a Grubaean Astronomer 
wd not scruple to fancy a range of bright eyes and 
fine faces looking down fm ye Eight story in ye 
High Street or Parliament Close in an Evening, 
bore a great resemblance to ye fix'd stars beyond 
ye ?th sphere. But view these faces and you 
need view no more, for every female face beside 
appears exceeding coarse and I thought o' my 
conscience I never shd have seen such numbers 
of ill-favoured women as ye generallity of those 
we saw in Scotld were : for their bare feet and 
their bare faces are a most unco sight : 
'tis weel yt a yt lays between is hid. -But I want 
to finish my Tour. 

From Glasgow we travell'd eighteen miles to 
Sterling, over a deal of coarse Moorish way re- 
sembling Orton Scar pretty much ; but fateagues 
of yt stage were well recompens'd by good level 
roads and an extraordinary sweet Country all 
ye way down ye Forth from Sterling to Edinburgh. 
Sterling is a pretty town enough ; I allow y e 
more to it because it resembles Appleby in its 
size and Situation : only ye Town is rather 
larger and ye ascent to ye castle somewt steeper ; 
but ye Forth quite out does Eden ; ye Serpen- 
tine windings of it $& Sterling Bridge to Alloway 
have something so curious in 'em as art cd hardly 
mend : f m y e top of ye Castle we had a fair view 
of all ye Circular and Triangular Peninsulas it 
makes in ye Compass w c h is but 4 miles by land 
and ( wd you believe it ?) is 4 and twenty by water : 
from ye same Castle, turning Northward, we 
saw a black plain abt 4 miles over ye bridge, 
w ch W e were told was Sheriff moor : Dumblain 
lay on t'other side ye moor t we cd not see it : 
and had we gone to ye place we shd have seen 
nothing but a black heathy moor they told us." 
So we took horse for Fawkifk after we had taken 
a view of ye Castle wch is pretty strong, ye rock 
to ye north, west and South on w^h it stands being 
very abrupt and abt 50 yards high and ye side 
next ye Town to ye East being secur'd by three 
walls.* Ther's but a small garrison of Invalids 
there now. In our way to Fawkirk we came 
over ye plain of Banockburn so fatal to y e 
English An. Dom. 1314 but had our minds re- 
freshed yt very evening wth ye sight of Fawkirk 
field, where ye English had made much havock 
of ye Scots sometime before. There are no 
Tumuli of ye slain to be seen in either place 
at y s distance of time, for both y e plains have 
; severall times been plow'd up. And y e only 
monumt that's left at Ban. is a round blew 
i stone abt a yard diameter, wth a hole in ye midst 
; as in a millstone, wch you are directed to look 
; at as you ride along ye highway : 'twas in ye stone, 
I they tell you, that ye K& of Scotld fix'd h'-s 



12 s. ix. SEPT. s, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



185 



standard. And in Fawkirk Church yard is to 
be seen an Horizontal Monumt built over ye 
grave to rxin in favour ot Scotld so far as to 
impute ye loss of their 40,000 men and more, 
not to want of courage but to ye squabble yt 
happened abt y e comand in yt action : for 
whilst Graham and Wallace and* ye Steward of 
Bute did each for ymselves set up for ye comand 
yt day Graham carried it agst 'em both, but 
they were so ill natur'd as to carry off out of ye 
Lines of Battle all yt depended on y m , and had 
a cruel revenge on Graham by seeing him and 
all his men overpower'd by ye numbers of ye 
English, whilst they, instead of coming to his 
relief f m y e Hill above ye Town, took opportunity 
to slip off before ye Rout began. I may call ye 
through* three stories high for as ye inscription 
of ye 1st stone grew unlegible a 2nd was laid 
over it and over yt a 3d w c h is very legible, ye 
Inscription being but lately renew'd. Had it 
been Scots 'tw'd have been unintelligible 1 fancy 
in 431 years time but it is Standard Roman, 
consists of abt 6 or 8 long and stout verses and 
amongst other comon things yt one wd expect 
upon ye occasion he's call'd a Vallae fidus Achates 
but without any hint of a reflection on Wallace 
for deserting him : so whether ye tradition 
above mention' d be true or not I know not. 
Abt a mile before we came to Fawkirk we alighted 
to take ye Diameter of Arther's Oven as ye 
country people call it from ye resemblance it 
bears to an overgrown oven (but why Arther's 
I cd not learn). 'Tis not a Pyramid, as Gordon 
calls it, but in ye shape of a Cupola wth its base 
upon ye ground, and very much resembles w* 
Architects call a Rotonda : it has but one door 
and is open a top. Ye Diameter of ye Circle 
taken at ye base is abt 6 yards wthin y e Wall and 
ye Wall for abt 2 yards fm ye Base continues 
about a yard thick and grows thiner as ye Arch 
or Alcove is to be form'd ; all ye stones are 
through-stones (as our masons call 'em) smooth 
ashler and laid one upon another wthout any 
cement so nicely hewn yt you canot see thro' 
betwixt 'em any where. It seem'd to be between 
7 and 8 yards high (perpendicular), no ornamt 
is supposed to have ever stood on y e Top : 
a Gentlemn in y e neighbourhood has a strong 
Iron gate (bars crossing at right angles) 
just now in bis possession, yt came off ye 
Top of it and was laid over ye round hole : 
some have taken ys rotonda for a Temple of 
Terminus because 'twas near Antonius's wall 
but I think it should have stood nearer yn 1,000 
paces to ye wall, if not in ye wall itself, if 'twas 
design'd for yt. And a Clergyman not far 
fm it, is for publishing a piece wherein he'll prove 
it to be one of ye Druid's Courts of Judicature 
however no Roman building : there being several 
of ye same sort in ye Highlands, where 'tis 
evident ye Romans never came. 

Wt occurr'd after our leaving Falkirk I must 
defer till another opportunity, for my LT swells 
to such an immoderate size yt I must omit ye 
acct of Ld Hoptoun's fine House and Gardens 
bt-twixt Lithgow and Edingburgh, and of Eding- 
burgh, and all we saw there, and shall draw towards 
a conclusion wth a remark on Scotch Vanity. A 

* Through, a flat tombstone. Vide Wright's 
' English Dialect Dictionary.' 



i Spirit of Ostentation seems to be ye charac- 

i teristic of ye whole people : several instances 

| might be given of it, but in pity to my reader 

I I shall give but a Dozen. The first and best 

j known is ye pompous appellation of Laird given 

I to any man tho' so inconsiderably descended 

j provided he have but an estate of 40 shilling 

! (40 pund Scots) a year he can call his own. The 

, next is their preposterous affectation of grandeur 

; in their appearance : for tho' we did not see 

; ye servt riding on ye same horse wth his Master 

; (a sight I suppose, only to be seen in private 

| roads betwixt a Laird's Place and a great town) 

yt he might attend wth a Cloak wn his Master 

I made his publick appearance in a Town, yet we 

met several wth Sword and Pistols before and a 

Cranky Cloak-bag behind ; and one fellow 

I particularly wth a sword and Tye Wig coming 

j fm ye market wth a wallet under him and a 

! Scotch Halter ty'd to ye ring of his saddle. A 

further specimen of their vanity is their way of 

rating an estate : for enquiring ye value of 

|Sr Thomas Maxwell's Estate a little South of 

j Drumlanrig I was told it was abt 2 thousd a year, 

I and wondering yt there was not a better house 

upon it ask'd how far it extended ; ye man I 

ask'd off shew'd me ye extent of it pray yn says 

I wt do you compute by ? by marks Sr co' he and 

'twas wth some reluctance yt he own'd ye mark 

to be but 13d and (their mark keeping ye same 

proportion to their 20 peny pund as ours does 

to ye pound sterling). The High road is either 

ye King's Highway or ye Coach road, tho' perhaps 

a coach has not been seen on it since he yt calls 

it so can remember. Shd I impute ye great 

Civility of ye People of all conditions to ye same 

spirit of ostentation and a desire of purchasing 

esteem you wd call me ungratefull ; since yt 

civility yt prov'd so very usefull to us ought 

by us to be imputed to a better principle. But 

j I fancy their being conscious how low ye character 

I of their Country is in ye esteem of ye rest of 

Europe, makes ym labour in ye minutest as well 

as most important instances to retrieve their 

Characters. The very appearance my Apothe- 

i cary made at Edinburgh was only less yn Dr. 

I Burton's us't to be in Oxford, and it was matter 

| of concern to me, wn Gold run low, to find ye 

| man I sent for to consult abt an ounce of Bark 

j dress'd out in a genteel Tye-wig, a silk stocking 

j wth a bold point, a clouded Kane, and a silver 

i buckle of ye neetest cut, and attended by a 

! footman : but my concern lessen'd wn I found it 

! was no more yn an Apothecary, who was no 

| Licentiate attended by his Apprentice, who 

j undoubtedly learns more by hearing questions 

put and cases stated, yn ours do in Engld by 

beating of Mortars and making up rects behind 

i ye counter only. And Dr Congleton seem'd 

very well pleas' d to have ye price of his Bark 

I and a Bolus wch came up to | a Crown, dubl'd 

j for his waiting on me 3 times. 

I had not dwelt so long upon ys but for ye sake 
of bringing in ye case of ye apprentice, to give 
ye Scots worthy praise for their method of Educa- 
tion in that particular : and I will take ye liberty 
to say, wthout apprehension of affronting Oxford 
or Cambridge, who need not be conscious to 
'emselves of any defect in theirs, yt I believe ye 
method of education as to all their particulars 
in ye College at Glasgow to be as just and as 



186 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



rational as yt of ye Apothecary's Prentice at 
Edinburgh and had they but a Foundation, 
Exhibitions or any such incouragement to invite 
young men to stay long enough wth ym they wd 
send 'em forth very compleat Scholars. You'll 
easily believe ye specimen I have given of my 
indefatigableness in scribbling yt I cd a long 
time dwell on ys subject, but T dare not proceed 
lest you shd think me so much byass'd in favour 
of Scotld and it's University as to forget my 
affection for Engd and my own Alma Mater : 
but to convince you I have not, I fully intend to 
pay my Duty to her e'er long upon ye conditions 
above mention' d and to heighten my complimt 
shall wait upon her in ye winter till wch time I 
shall reserve ye remainder of my narrative and 
furnish out ye long winter evenings wth a hantle * 
of unco thengs ye like of whilk ye never heard 
on ava at Queen's College in Oxford ; for aw 
you were maist o you born wthin less yn a 
hundred meiles o' ye bonny bra' Toun of Edin- 
burgh. 

P.S. I have dwelt so much upon Intellectual 
Entertainments yt Passion o' me I have run on, 
wn eating shd be thought on, and drinking too 
wthall : Linnen and Bedding where I lay and 



* HantU, a handful. Vide ' E.D.D.' 



for my Horse ye Corn and Hay, His Litter and 
his Stall.* 

In truth I must needs say yt better Hay, Corn 
and Stabling is not met wth in Engld yn we met 
wth there. Our Beds and Linen very good. 
Scotch wine and brandy you'll not dispute : but 
their small Fi'penny as they call it, wch is ye 
only malt drink they have in their publick houses, 
tasted abominably to our English Palates, so 
that we were forc'd to drink french wine (for 
there's no port to be got) at [?] 20d 2s or 2 and 6 
pence a Bottle wth our victuals, and yt went deep 
in our Cash (4 16 and odd did I spend in ye 
9 days I was in Scotld). As for their eatables 
they are very well dress'd, and wd they but put 
more salt in their Butter, everything wd be very 
palatable, cd we have perswaded ye maid, wn 
she brought it in, to have put on her stockings at 
least. 

I am your affect. Friend 
and humble servt 

Ri : YATES. 

V. B. CROWTHER-BEYNON, F.S.A. 



* The passage " eating . . . Stall " appears 
to be a verse ; but whether original, a quotation, 
or a parody, I know not. 



PRINCIPAL LONDON COFFEE-HOUSES, TAVERNS, AND INNS IN THE 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

(See 12 S. vii. 485; ix. 85, 105, 143.) 

(An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public-house 
in many cases rebuilt.) 



Garrard's Hall 



Garrick's Head 
Garter 

Genoa Arms 
Gentleman and 

Porter 
* George (" New 

George Inn ") 
George (St. George 

and Dragon) 
George 

George 
George 
George 



George 

George (George and 
White Hart) 



Basing Lane 

Bow Street 

Behind Royal Exchange 

Hayes Court 

Fleet Street, near Temple Bar 

Leather Lane, west side Holborn 

Charing Cross 

Upper End of Haymarket 

Coleman Street, west side 

Butcher Bow 

Whitechapel, south side ; east of 

St. Mary's Church and north 

of Mulberry Gardens 
Grub Street 
Aldersgate Street, east side 



1732 ' Parish Clerks' Bemarks of London,' 

p. 393. 

1746 Rocque's ' Sitrvey.' 
1784 Gomme's G.M.L., part xv., p. 270. 

' N. & Q.' Aug. 23, 1879, p. 253. 
1786 Annual Feast of the Society of 

Artists. 

1720 Daily Courant, Oct. 18. 
1739 London Daily Post, Nov. 16. 

Bimbault's * Soho,' p. 189. 
1754 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1910. 

1720 Daily Courant, Nov. 23. 

1745 Bocque's ' Survey.' 

1723 Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 167. 

1752 Humphreys's ' Memoirs,' p. 46. 

Garrards, p. 24. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1731 Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 181. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 



1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1720 Daily Courant, Sept. 26. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 385. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1745 Daily Advertiser, Jan. 9. 



12 s. ix. SEPT. 3,i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



187 



George 



George 



George 
George 
George 



George 

George and Dragon 



German 
Giles's 



Globe 
Globe 



Globe 

Globe 

Globe and Spectre . . 



Gloucestershire 

Glove 

Golden Anchor 

Golden Boar's Head 

Golden Griffin 

Golden Key 
Golden Lion 
Golden Lyon 
Golden Lyon 
Golden Lyon 



* Grave Maurice 
Great Holland 

Green's 
Green Dragon 
Green Man . 



Green Man 
Green Man 
Green Man 
Green Man 
Green Man 

Green Man 
Green Man 



Snow Hill 



Little Drury Lane 



Great Tower Hill 

Chancery Lane 

West Smithfleld, between the 

Greyhound and White Swan 

Inns 

Church Lane, Kensington 
Ironmonger Lane 



St. James's Street 
Pall Mall 



Bridges Street 

Queen Street, Cheapside 



Next to the Three Crowns in 

the Strand 
Borough 
Old Jewrv > . 



Well Court, Queen Street, 

Cheapside 
Pall Mall . . 

Clare Street, Clare Market 
Gracechurch Street 

Fulwood Rents, Holborn 

Cock Lane 

High Street, Fulham . . 

Fetter Lane, Fleet Street 

Gravel Lane, Southwark 

St. John's Street, Clerkenwell 



Whitechapel Road 
" Over against the Meuse Gate 
at Charing Cross " 

Portugal Street 

Whitechapel 

Dark House Lane, Billingsgate 

Blacknian Street, Southwark . . 
Stroud Green, Islington. . 

Blackheath 

Harrow Road 
Dulwich 

Finchley Common 
Well Walk, Hampstead 



1732 
1732 

1744 
1745 
1720 
1732 



1789 
1760 
1732 

1745 
1744 
1705 

1750 
1765 

1735 
1733 



1725 
1720 
1721 



1752 
1733 
1736 

1719 

1786 
1745 
1700 

1720 
1754 

1744 
1745 
1732 

1745 
1720 



1745 
1732 



1745 
1754 



Diary of Viscount Percival, i. 302, 

306, 378, 391, 427, 471. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 384. 

General Advertiser, April 10. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 
Daily Courant, Sept. 29. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 392. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Public Ledger, April 1. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 386. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 
General Advertiser, April 9. 
* London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 92. 
Heiron's ' Ancient Freemasonry,' 

1921. 
Simpson's ' City Taverns and 

Masonry.' 

The Craftsman, June 21. 
G. L. Tessier, M.D., to Sir Hans 

Sloane, Jan. 19. 

Addison's Spectator, Nos. 402, 481. 
Timbs's Clubs,' p. 299. 
Resort of Frenchmen. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 171. 
Applebee's Weekly Journal, Dec. 31. 
' London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 106. 
See Messrs. Coutts and Co.'s cheques. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

Daily Journal, Dec. 12. 

' London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 92. 
Whitehall Evening Post, Mar. 10. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Reports of the House of Lords 

MSS., 1908, vol. iv. 
Larwood, p. 145. 
Thornbury, ii. 536. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Thornbury, vi., 514. 
General Advertiser, Mar. 21. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 391. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 
Timbs's ' Clubs,' p. 402. 
Daily Post, Dec. 29. 

Cyrus Jay's ' The Law,' 1868, p. 159. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 390. 

Thornbury, vi. 89. 
Larwood, p. 368. 
Thornbury, vi. 229. 
Sydney's ' XVIIIth Century,' i. 186. 
Larwood, p. 368. 
Thornbury, vi. 293. 
Larwood, p. 449. 
Copy of Court Roll of Manor of 

Hampstead. 
Demolished c. 1850. 
Now " The Wells " Tavern. 



188 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s.ix. 3^.3,1021. 



Green Park 
Greyhound 



Greyhound 

Greyhound 

Griffin 

Griffin 

Griffin 

Grigsby's 



Grove House Tavern 
Guildhall Punch 
House 



Piccadilly. . 

Between West Smithfield 
Cow Lane 

Southwark 



and 



Dulwich 
Newgate Street 
Holborn 

Half Moon Street, Piccadilly . . 

Throgmorton Street, south side, 

near the Royal Exchange . . 



Caniberwell 

King Street, Guildhall 



1757 
1732 

1745 
1732 



1723 
1744 
1788 
1720 
1732 

1744 

1788 
1744 



London,' 



(To be continued.) 



Daily Advertiser, May 6. 
* Parish Clerks' Remarks of 

p. 391. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 391. 

Thornbury, vi. 296. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 167. 
London Daily Post, Feb. 10. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Daily Courant, Oct. 19. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 39. 

London Daily Post, Feb. 4, Apr. 18. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
London Daily Post, Jan. 21, Feb. 4; 

'London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 90. 

J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 



A BENEFICENT PBAYEB BOOK. The fol- 
lowing information given in The Morning 
Post, Aug. 20, 1921, is new to me and may be 
equally fresh to other members of the goodly 
fellowship of ' N. & Q.' : 

A Scottish family, the Hamiltons, possess a 
Prayer Book, the use of which is considered to be 
the prelude to such good fortune and happiness 
that it has been used at nearly every Royal wed- 
ding from that of George III. in 1761 to that of 
George V. in 1893. So great is its repute, indeed, 
that the book was taken to Petrograd by Dean 
Stanley for the marriage of the Duke of Edin- 
burgh with the Grand Duchess Marie. 

ST. SwiTHIN. 

QUOTATIONS ON CHEESE. There are no 
doubt a number of maxims, proverbs, 
epigrams, &c., which refer to cheese, but are 
not generally known. The following are to 
be found in reference works, and a record of 
others with references will be of service : 

Caseus est nequam quia concoquit omnia secum. 

Caseus est sanus quern dat avara manus. 

Ego de caseo loquor, tu de creta respondes. 

Cheese and bread make the cheeks red. 

Cheese is gold in the morning, silver at noon and 
lead at night. 

Cheese from the ewe, milk from the goat, butter 
from the cow. 

They are no more like, than chalk is to cheese. 

As alyke to compare in taste chalk and cheese. 

Or thinke, that the moone is made of greene 
cheese. 

I had rather live 

With cheese and garlic in a windmill, far. 

Proud of her teeth and proud of her talk, 

Proud of " knowing cheese from chalk " 
On a very slight inspection. 

Folks want their doctors mouldy, like their 
cheese. 

May give a mite to him who wants a cheese ! 

Who mite by mite would beg a cheese ! 

Like a man made after supper of a cheeseparing ! 
Cheese it is a peevish elf, 
It digests all things but itself. 



After cheese conies nothing. 

Flatterers make cream Cheese of chalk. 

Make good cheese if you make little. 

Hunger will break through stone walls, or any- 
thing except Suffolk cheese. 

Toasted cheese hath no master. 

Bread with eyes and cheese without eyes. 

As demure as if butter would not melt in his 
mouth, and yet cheese will not choke him. 

A windy year, an apple year ; a rainy Easter, 
a cheese year. 

If you wid have a good cheese, and hav'n old 
You must turn'n seven times before he is old. 

The cheese-mites asked how the cheese got 
there, 

And warmly debated the matter ; 
The Orthodox said it came from the air, 

And the Heretics said from the platter. 

| Ten cooks (quoth he) in Wales one wedding sees : 
True, quoth the other, each man toasts his cheese. 

The way to make a Welshman thirst for bliss 
And say his prayers daily on his knees, 
Is to persuade him that most certain 'tis, 
The moon is made of nothing but green cheese ; 
And he'll desire of God no greater boon, 
But place in heav'n to feed upon the moon. 

He does not allow the cheese to be taken from 
his bread. 

R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 



" AECING." This is probably the only 
I word in English in which the c is pronounced 
as k before an i. It is used by electricians to 
denote the forming of an arc by the electric 
current. In the case of the word " zinking " 
the difficulty of the c is got over by turning it 
into a fc ; but this expedient is objected to 
by some people in the case of " arciftg," 
because " arking " may have something to 
do with the ark. Travelling by char-a-banc 
I have seen spelt facetiously of course as 
I " charabaiiging," but " char-a-banking n 
could be used seriously. L. L. K. 



12 S. IX. SEPT. 3, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



189 



DOUBLE FLOWERS IN JAPAN. To the list 
given at 12 S. vi. 310, allow me again to 
add the name of Deutzea scabra. 

KUMAGUSU MlNAKATA. 
Tanabe Kii, Japan. 

SNUFF-BOX : RELIC OF THE VICTORY. 
Amongst the regalia of a Lancashire con- 
vivial club formed in Preston in 1771, and 
existing for 70 years under the name of " The 
Oyster and Parched Pea Club," was a silver 
snuff-box in the lid of which was set a piece 
o f oak, part of the quarter-deck of Nelson's 
ship Victory. 

We know that this box was in regular use 
at the club, as we find that the Master of 
the Jewels was fined a bottle of port wine for 
omitting to refill the box with snuff. If there 
is anything more known of this relic I should 
be placed to hear of it. 

R. D. WHITTENBTJRY-KAYE. 

Newchurch, Culcheth. 

"A BOLD PEASANTRY, THEIR- COUNTRY'S 

PRIDE." A burlesque by G. A. Sala, en- 
titled ' Wat Tyler, M.P.,' produced in 1869, 
contained a humorous election speech, de- 
livered by J. L. Toole in the character of 
Wat Tyler, in which these lines occurred : 

Here's what you shall see : 

Wealth, splendour, carriages and four, that's what. 
The strongest ale a halfpenny a pot, 
Taxes abolished, grievances amended, 
And all the theatres' free-lists ne'er suspended. 

Then a bold peasantry, their country's pride 
Shall live on eggs and bacon neatly fried. 
The workhouse poor shall live on buttered crum- 
pets, 

And eat roast mutton to the sound of trumpets. 
The beggar smoke the best Bengal cheroots, 
And have another man to clean his boots. 

It may be of some interest to note that 
the line, "But a bold peasantry, their 
country's pride," occurs in Edward Fitz- 
gerald's ' Polonius : A Collection of Wise 
Saws and Modern Instances,' included in 
vol. i. of the Works of Fitzgerald, published 
in 1887 in New York and Boston by Hough- 
ton and Mifflin, and in London by Bernard 
Quaritch. I quote from p. 364 : 

On a rock-side in one of Bewick's vignettes we 
see inscribed what should never be erased from 
any Englishman's heart : 
" Princes and lords may flourish or may fade, 
A breath may make thgm, as a breath has made ; 
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride, 
. When once destroyed, can never be supplied." 

Is this coincidence, or did Sala " lift " the 
line from Bewick ? J. R. H. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 



NAMING OF PUBLIC ROOMS IN INNS. 
Can anyone say whether there was a custom 
at any time in England, in observance of 
which innkeepers called their public room 
or rooms by distinctive names ? In ' The 
Pickwick Papers,' the host of the inn at 
Towcester, when he finds that the rain- 
drowned party will stop at his house, calls 
out to his servant : " Lights in the Sun, 
John." H. MAXWELL PRIDEAUT. 

Oreston, Plymouth. 

SIR JAMES HACKET was Lieut enant- 
Colonel in Dumbarton's Regiment (Royal 
Regiment of Foot) in 1684. To what 
family did he belong ? Is anything known 
of his history ? 

A James Hacket, jr., of Pitfirrin, is given 
in W. A. Shaw's ' The Knights of England,' 
vol. i., p. Ixii., as having been knighted in 
June, 1633. Is this the same person ? 

J. H. LESLIE. 

" SWERD or THE HooPE," Calendar of 
Close Rolls, 5 Richard II., May 22, 1382. 
Richard Waldegrave states that on May 8 
he came to the house of Thomas Taillour 
" hostiler," dwelling at the " Swerd of the 
Hoope" in Fletestrete. What is the mean- 
ing of this tavern sign ? J. H. LESLIE. 

BLACKSTONE : REFERENCE W T ANTED. I 
shall be most grateful to any reader who 
can help me to find the passage in the 
writings of Blackstone, in which he states 
that, when a young man, he attended a 
number of churches in London, but was 
not able to distinguish the teaching in the 
sermons from that of Cicero or Mahomet. 
This statement is quoted by Ryle ('Chris- 
tian Leaders'), Balleine ('History of the 
Evangelical Party '), and a number of writers, 
but I have not been able to trace it. 

ALFRED LEEDES HUNT. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 

LORAINE. Information is desired about 
the parentage of William Loraine, of the 
firm of Loraine and Broderick, shipwrights, 
of South Shields, who died in that place in 
1833, aged 92 years. A. G. 



190 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.IX.SHPT. 3,1921. 



WELSH. Information is desired on. the 
life of Louise Welsh, the daughter of John 
Welsh, Minister of Ayr, 1600-1605. She is 
mentioned in her mother's will of 1625. 

A. G. 

r_" MIXED TRAIN." In Wilkie Collins's 
novel ' No Name ' the following sentence 
occurs in scene i. ch. 2, para. 6 : 

I'll give your mother written warning and go back 
tojmy friends by the mixed train at twelve-forty. 

I should like to find out of whut a 
" mixed " train in 1847 consisted. Does 
the word refer to one half goods, half passen- 
ger ? Or did some trains consist of one 
class of carriage only, instead of three 
classes ? (Miss) W. D. BEAL. 

ENGLISH CHEESES. In Thorold Rodgers's 
'^History of Agriculture and Prices ' the 
following cheeses are noted : 

Cream, selling at Is. each in 1686. 

Cheshire, valued in 1655 at 6<Z. per lb., 3%d. 
in 1705 and l$d. in 1793. 

Cosley, Wilts, at 2Jd. per lb. in 1761. 

Essex, at 2d. per lb. in 1594. 

Gloucester, at 2$d. per lb. in 1594 and 3d. per 
lb. in 1714. 

Double Gloucester, at 6cZ. per lb. in 1774-76. 

Gruyere, at 10s. 10d.(? per lb. or stone) in 1791. 

HaU, at 2fd. per lb. in 1705. 

Hants, at 2\d. per lb. in 1761. 

Holland, at 4d. per lb. in 1608. 

Morning's Milk, at 2Jd. per lb. in 1636. 

New Milk, at 5d. per lb. hi 1768. 

Old Milk, at 3|d. per lb. in 1774. 

Lansdown, at 2|d. per lb. in 1761. 

Newbury, at 2$d. per lb. in 1707. 

Norfolk, at 2Jd. per lb. in 1712. 

Parmesan, at 12s. 9d. (? per lb. or stone) in 1791. 

Suffolk, at 4eL per ib. in 1655. 

Stilton, at Is. 2d. per lb. in 1771. 

Warwick, at 2d. per lb. in 1709. 

Are there any references which will pro- 
vide further information as to the Cosley, 
Hall, Hants, Lansdown, Newbury, Nor- 
folk and Warwick varieties of cheese ? 

R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 

VARIETIES OF SCOTCH CHEESE. In the 
Preface to vol. i. of ' The Easchequer Rolls of 
Scotland, 1264-1359,' it is stated that : 

The dairy was an object of attention in For- 
farshire, where much of the crown rents 
was paid in cheese. The demesne lands of For- 
far, Glammis, and Kingaltewyn together re- 
turned about 1,600 stone of cheese annually, 
cheese generally selling at sixpence the stone, 
but the superior quality of the cheese of Cule 
insuring it a higher price. 

These Exchequer Rolls show that cheese 
rents were also obtained from Kilmarnock, 
Galloway, Brechin, Methven, Kinross, 



Kincardine, Tarbet and Crail, to name a 
few points. 

What was the kind of cheese made at 
these various places ? What were their 
sizes and weights ? Were they hard 
cheeses ? The entry in the Rolls is simply 
" Caseo." Curiously enough the first ap- 
pearance of " Butiro " in the Rolls is in 
1384. 

It is stated that when in the summer of 
1263 the Scotch King and Queen spent 29 
weeks at the Castle of Forfar, sixty stone 
of cheese were consumed. These Scotch thir- 
teenth-century cheeses would not be similar 
to the only Scotch variety now known the 
Dunlop as according to a tombstone at 
Dunlop these sweet milk cheeses were first 
made in the time of Charles II. by Barbara 
Gilmour, who learnt how to make such 
cheeses in Ireland. 

R. HEDGEB WALLACE. 

HOUSE BELLS. The ' Memoirs ' of the Due 
de Saint-Simon referring to the early life of 
Mme. de Maintenon (or Mme. Scarron as 
she then was) say : 

She was completely at the beck and call of her 
hosts ; now to ask for fire- Wood ; now if a meal 
were ready . . . and so on, with a thousand 
little commissions which the use of bells, a long time 
afterwards, differently disposed of. 

When were bells introduced into houses 
in England and in France ? What form of 
mechanism was used to operate these early 
bells ? Were bells at front doors introduced 
prior to or after the introduction of bells 
inside the house ? Where can one obtain 
further information on this matter ? 

J. M. O. 

THE SWAN'S DYING SONG. What is the 
origin of this belief, and what basis of fact 
does it possess ? Erasmus, in his * Adagia ' 
(1120), explains and disposes of it thus : 

Cygnea Cantio. Id est, Cygnea Cantilena. Con- 
venit in eos, qui supremo vitae tempore facunde 
disserunt. Porro Cygnos instante morte mirandos 
quosdam cantus edere, tarn omnium literis est 
celebratum, quam nulli vel compertum vel credi- 
tum. Dulcia defecta modulator carmina lingua, 
Cantator Cygnus funeris ipse sui. 

J. B. McGOVEBN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 

CABOLS. I should be glad to knowsome* 
thing of this subject. What books would 
help me ? I refer to carols, not to the 
sugary stuff we too often hear at Christmas. 

JOHN NEWTON. 

84, Southgate, Bury St. Edmunds. 



12 S. IX. SEPT. 3, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



191 



AEMS : IDENTIFICATION SOUGHT. On my 
copy of Petra-Sancta's ' Tesserae Gentilitiae ' 
(Rome, 1638) is stamped the following coat : 
Quarterly : 1 and 4, A plain cross charged 
in the centre with a crescent ; 2, France- 
modern within an engrailed bordure quarter- 1 
ing three roundels [a Medici coat?]; 3,| 
Two pales. In pretence an inescutcheon | 
charged with a lion rampant ensigned with ! 
a cross patriarchal. Supporters Two lions j 
rampant standing upon a flowery mount, j 
The whole ensigned with the coronet of a 
Count of France or Italy- 
Can anyone tell me whose arms these 
are ? The stamp appears to be of seven- 
teenth-century date. SLEUTH-HOUND. 

" ROYAL EAST INDIA VOLUNTEERS." 
What was this corps, and when was it 
raised ? An old house at Maidenhead 
Thicket, known locally as " Dick Turpin's 
Cottage," waa recently being renovated 
and in the interstices of the flooring were 
found, besides several pennies of George III., 
a brass button having embossed on it a lion 
rampant and regardant, holding in the 
sinister paw a royal crown. The inscription 
round it reads " Royal East India Vol^." 

PENRY LEWIS. 

A TOKEN : IDENTIFICATION SOUGHT. 
There was found in repairing an old house at 
Maidenhead Thicket, known as " Dick Tur- 
pin's Cottage," a copper token of oval shape, 
inscribed, " o. w. WARRANTED DEC. 1790 28." 

Can any correspondent explain what 
these initials and words signify ? The 
other side is blank. PENRY LEWIS. 

ALUN : "AXawos. In his review of Pro- 
fessor Mawer's work on Northumbrian place- 
names (English Historical Review, April, 1921, 
p. 296), Dr. Henry Bradley remarked : 

Ptolemy's name for the Alne, "AAouvos, is 
etymologically obscure, but it is of some interest 
to know that it is, by phonetic law, the antecedent 
of the modern Welsh river-name Alun. 

It would be very interesting, in view of 
the number of times Alauna appears in 
Ravennas, if an authority on old Welsh 
phonology would give a few instances of 
modern Welsh u representing the sound 
that is indicated by Greek and Latin au. 
ALFRED ANSCOMBE. 

' REUBEN MANASSEH ' : " ALASTOR."' 
Can anyone give me information about a 
tragedy entitled ' Reuben Manasseh,' which 
mav have been written some time between 



1813 and 1843. The author is said to have 
been " Alastor " in that case, who was 
" Alastor " ? By whom and when was the 
tragedy published ? Is the original MS. 
still in existence ? Is it a five-act play ? 

E. E. R. 

MONEACHT. David Edie of Moneacht, or 
Moneaght, bore the following arms : Argent, 
three cross -crosslets fitche gules ; crest, a 
cross -crosslet and a skene saltireways, with 
the motto Crux mihi grata quies. See 
Nisbet's 'Heraldry,' i. 129 (Edin., 1816); 
also 'An Ordinary of Scottish Arms,' by 
Sir J. Balfour Paul, Lyon King at Arms 
(Edin. 1903). Where is Moneacht ? The 
arms are now borne by Adam of Blair Adam. 

T. F. D. 

BEELEIGH ABBEY. The records of Bee- 
leigh Abbey are being assembled for publica- 
tion. I should be grateful for any informa- 
tion about the Abbey from original docii- 
ments, not yet recorded. Are the where- 
abouts of the antiphoners removed at the 
dissolution of the Monastery known ? 

R. E. THOMAS. 

Beeleigh Abbey, Maldon, Essex. 

BROMLEY. John Bromley married 
Abigail - , 1733/4, in Lancashire or a 
neighbouring county. Wife's surname 
wanted. 

Possessing much information on the sub- 
ject of the Bromley family,.! should be glad 
to correspond with others for mutual benefit. 

JOHN BROMLEY. 
30, Manchester Street, London, W.I. 

STUKELEY. Information is requested con- 
cerning Thomas Stukeley, who married Ann, 
granddaughter and heiress of Sir Thomas 
Curteis, Lord Mayor of London, 1557. 

W. HAYTHORNE. 

83, Abbey Road Mansions, N.W.8. 

CHRISTOPHER SAXTON, Elizabethan map- 
maker. Can anyone tell me where he is 
buried ? He was educated at Cambridge, 
and died c. 1596. PRESCOTT Row, 

The Old House, Waddon, Surrey. 

AUTHOR WAFTED. Who [is the [author of a 
small poem, ' Give us men ! such [men/ 
or beginning (or ending) with these words: 
" Give us men ! such men." 

GEO. BUCKLEY. 



192 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.IX.SBPT. 3,1921. 



DOMESDAY AND THE GELD 
INQUESTS. 

(12 S. ix. 65, 152.) 

FBOM MR. BEICHEL'S reply to my note, 
I fear I did not express myself clearly. I 
certainly did not expect my theory to 
" accoiint for the variations in the totals " 
of Hundreds. On the contrary, if accepted, 
the theory would deprive us of one solu- 
tion of the problem, viz., that which 
supposes certain manors to have been 
outside the scope of the Geld Rolls. 

Nor did I think that nobody could ever 
be in arrear with his taxes in those happy 
days. I only suggested that some of the 
entries which for want of a better t'erm I 
styled " defaults " represented disputed 
claims. Those entries comprised other 
cases than insolvency, e.g., payments made 
in another Hundred (Dorset). 

When I spoke of the villeins " universally 
withholding payment," I confined my 
"universe" to the known field. So far as 
I am aware we have no means of ascertain- 
ing how matters stood in the greater part 
of England. But in the five western shires 
for which the Geld Rolls have been pre- 
served we find a uniformity of non-payment 
which can hardly be treated as accidental. 
To suppose that all the villeins on comital 
manors were simultaneously unable to pay 
their tax would be extravagant. There 
must have been some common ground for 
non-payment other than poverty or dis- 
honesty. As I understand the earliest 
Pipe Roll to belong to the end of Henry I.'s 
reign, no light can be obtained here on the 
conditions of the Conqueror's time. 

The theory that certain royal manors 
were ignored in the Geld Rolls has on the 
surface a very convenient plausibility. 
But it leads to results more " surprising " 
than my suggestion. Take the single case 
of the Hundred of Bampton in Devon. 

In the Geld Roll the King's exemption 
among demesne lands is three hides. In 
the Hundred the King has the manor of 
Morebatha, which had belonged to Harold. 
In Domesday it was assessed at three hides, of 
which was one in demesne. On my theory 
this accounts for the exemption as repre- 
senting (1) the King's demesne ; (2) villein 
land. 

But in the Transactions of the Devon 
Association (xxx. 448), MB. REICHEL has a 



very different solution. The King's exemp- 
tion " was probably in respect of Holecome, 
an estate in the hands of Baldwin the 
Sheriff." Now Holecome was assessed at 
nine hides, four of which were in demesne. It 
is not easy to find here an agreement with the 
King's exemption of three hides. Nor is .it 
evident why this, of all Baldwin's manors, 
should be supposed to be only his in trust 
for the King, or to have been granted since 
1084. In King Edward's time it was not 
royal property, but belonged to Seward. 
And, lastly, it was subinfeuded to Rogo, 
which would account for no exemption 
being claimed on Baldwin's behalf. 

Other instances might be cited but 
would encroach on your space. 

I do not profess to reconcile the total 
hidage of the Geld Rolls with the aggregate 
of Domesday figures. I doubt the possibility 
of doing so, and at most could only suggest 
some reasons for the discrepancy. At 
present I merely protest against one solution 
which seems to me inadequate. 

J. A. RUTTEB. 

HEBALDIC (A CAUTION) (12 S. ix. 104). 

I All lovers of heraldry must feel pleased, 

though perhaps a little shy, when a new 

" dictionary " of such a very old and exact 

| science as heraldry is foreshadowed. 

I note that your correspondent, MBS. 

COPE, contemplates one, and makes general 

| application to your correspondents for the 

! contribution of new material consisting of 

I coats of arms not recorded in the ordinary 

; books of reference which she mentions. I 

! presume that MBS. COPE does not intend, by 

i her having only mentioned a few recognized 

j authorities, to exclude those coats of arms 

recorded in * such works as, for instance, 

Glover's ' Ordinary,' contained in Edmond- 

son's 'Complete Body of Heraldry' (1780), 

a much older authority, of course, than 

those she mentions. 

I hope that I may be excused, as one of 
the oldest correspondents of ' N. & Q.' upon 
heraldic subjects, for expressing a wish that 
no armorial bearings will be accepted with- 
out some satisfactory authority for their use, 
or a reference to their source. Otherwise 
her work can have no real value for any 
| student of heraldry. 

I think it may fairly be said that there is 
much to be desired on this point even in 
some of the works already existing, and that 
at the present time an enormous amount of 
coat -arm our is borne by persons who have no 



1 2 s. ix. SEPT. 3, i92i.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



193 



legal right to it. The comparatively recent 
Act imposing licences to use armorial bear- 
ings silently recognizes this, and rather de- 
gradingly, I think, allows no distinction be- 
tween genuine and spurious armigeri to be 
made in this matter. 

Such a dictionary as MBS. COPE proposes, 
if properly carried out, is by no means an 
easy matter. No student or lover of heraldry 
still less the author herself would wish 
it to be a mere compendium of coats of arms. 
The time has scarcely yet come, I think, for 
an armorial " Who's Who,," compiled from 
information furnished mainly by the parties 
themselves or taken from other easily 
accessible references. 

A splendid harvest has undoubtedly been 
reaped in days gone by and it may be still 
by those vendors of coat -armour, or " arms- 
finders," who offered by advertisement to 
provide arms for practically all persons for a 
few shillings on the mere receipt of " name 
and county." Only very recently has a 
large heraldic library been disposed of by 
public auction, belonging to one of the oldest 
members of this class. A certain amount of 
heraldic knowledge and assiduity in research 
can do a great deal in this respect, but it can- 
not give the cachet traceable to an original 
grant or exemplification of arms which 
alone is so valuable to the heraldic or genea- 
logical student. We come across many 
*' disclaimers " in the old Heralds' ' Visita- 
tions,' but have any such been recorded 
against any modern applicants to these 
pseudo -heraldic authorities ? I doubt it. 
So long, rather, as these applicants bear the 
name of any armigerous family, especially 
in that of their own county, so long are arms 
likely to be found for them, differenced, it 
may be, to avoid certain or easy detection. 

Social position was once a recognized fac- 
tor in the applications for old grants of arms 
to the proper authorities. It is scarcely to 
be supposed that much inquiry can be de- 
voted to this point when the cost and the 
profits were but a few shillings in each case. 

It seems to me that the author or editor 
of any compendium of armorial bearings not 
recorded by our principal or recognized 
heraldic authorities must run a considerable 
risk of including those of many who are 
anxious to be brought under the aegis of some 
authority however modern which will take 
their arms under their protection. This 
may be good from a publisher's point of 
view, but can it be equally satisfactory for 
lovers of heraldry, or for those who in years 



to come % .may consult its pages as an 
authority ? 

That MBS. COPE'S " dictionary " may not 

become so I most sincerely desire ; and I feel 

j sure that she will pardon me for having, in 

| the interests of heraldry and of her own con- 

j templated work, ventured, with all respect, 

to give these few notes of warning. 

I do not quite gather from MBS. COPE'S 

I note whether her work is to consist entirely 
. of arms not recorded in the works she men- 
tions (and other similar ones), but I presume 
so ; for the work, if it does include those, 
would be so very voluminous, and would ren- 
der my caution so much the more necessary. 

If I may be allowed to speak now of heral- 
dic matters discussed generally in ' 1ST. & Q.,, 

I 1 will go so far as to say and I have ad- 
! vocated this before that before the editor 
! allows any ascription of coat -armour or any 
I description of arms to any particular name 

1 or family to be inserted in its columns, the 
correspondent should give the authority for 
such attribution. It is only by such means 
that the accuracy of his statement can be 
properly tested. The mere ipse dixit of a 
correspondent of even such an heraldic 
authority as ' N. & Q.' undoubtedly is, should 
not be allowed to have the same value as one 
of these old authorities, whose accuracy can 
often be made the subject of investigation. 
J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

ABMS OF THE SEE OF BBECHIN (12 S. 
viii. 430). MB. LOVIBOND asks what is the 
correct field for these arms, the tincture of 
the original coat (three piles in point) being 
or, whilst later authorities give it as argent, 
and suggests the possibility of this change 
j indicating bastardy. 

In Woodward's ' Ecclesiastical Heraldry ' 
(1894) a work rather later than Wood- 
I ward and Burnett's treatise referred to by 
j your correspondent the author shows how 
i the tincture of the field came to be changed 
to argent, which made the coat identical 
with that borne by the family of Wishart ; 
and explains (p. 223) how it was that the 
Lords of Brechinwere said to be the Wish- 
arts : " whereas none of that name ever 
were concerned with the Lordship of 
Brechin or ever used.. that title." 

Dr. Woodward further states that the 
late Bishop Forbes had informed him how 
he had himself been misled into this error, 
but that he had for a long time used argent 
on his episcopal seal and had caused it to 
be frequently blazoned on stained glass, 



194 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. SEP* 3,1921. 



&c., that "he was unwilling himself to 
revert to the correct blazon, but 'expressed 
his hope and belief that his successors 
would do so." 

And again, in his later work, ' Heraldry : 
British and Foreign ' (1896), at p. 157 of 
vol. i., Dr. Woodward states : 

Or, three piles in point gules, are the arms of 
the Lordship of Brechin. . . . This coat has 
often been erroneously tinctured, argent being 
substituted for the field or. The arms^have thus 
been made identical with those of the family of 
Wishart. The right tincture is the ancient one 
of or, whether it appears in the quarterings of 
the Maules, Lords Panmure, and Earls of Dal- 
housie ; or in the arms of the City ; or in those 
borne by custom for the See of Brechin. In all 
these cases the arms of the territorial Lords of 
Brechin are intended, and not those of the com- 
paratively insignificant family of Wishart. 

The suggestion of MB. LOVIBOND that the 
changed tincture in this case may possibly 
denote bastardy may, therefore, I think, 
fall to the ground. J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

EPITAPHS DESIBED (12 S. viii. 211, 260, 
335). William Billinge. At the last 
reference E. R. Suffling's ' Epitaphia ' is 
quoted. In the few words given the com- 
piler has three errors. The name is Billinge, 
not Billings ; he was born at Fawfield head, 
not at Fairfield ; his age was 112, according 
to his epitaph, not 102. I have submitted 
a copy of the epitaph, taken from ' Curious 
Epitaphs ' collected by William Andrews, 
1899, p. 49, to the vicar of Longnor, who has 
corrected it. Andrews's version is not quite 
without faults, e.g., he has " at Ramillies " 
instead of "at the ever Memorable Battle of 
Ramillies " ; in the verses at the end he 
gives " Billeted " instead of " Billited " ; 
he makes the second verse begin with " And 
when " instead of simply " When." There 
are a good many other trivial errors. The 
version given at 11 S. xi. 490, mentioned 
by MB. WAINEWBIGHT at the second refer- 
ence, is almost perfect. The little errors are 
scarcely worth noticing Cornfield for Corn 
Field ; Fawfieldhead for Fawfield head ; 
quartered for quarter 'd, &c. 

The earliest book in which I have found 
Billings for Billinge is ' A Collection of 
Epitaphs and Monumental Inscriptions,' 
1806. The anonymous compiler says that 
" Billings " was born in 1694 at Fairfield 
near Longnor, and died Jan. 28, 1791, aged 
102. He should have checked his figures. 
He does not give the epitaph, but supplies 
six fictitious verses containing a few words 
taken from the true version. Most of our 
modern epitaph books bristle with errors. 



Let one editor give a falsa reading, others will 
reproduce it. There is a short biography 
of William Billinge (spelt Billings) in The 
Penny Magazine, vol. iv. (1835), p. 114. 
The two verses are given with " Billeted ' r 
for " Billited " as well as the invented 
" And." Also Fairfield Head appears. 

Billinge " was literally born under a 
hedge in 1679," became a farmer's servant ; 
enlisted at Derby, 1702, in a regiment 
stationed there ; served with the regiment 
under Sir George Rooke in the siege of 
Gibraltar. Later he went with his regi- 
ment to Flanders, serving in the army of 
Prince Eugene and the Duke of Marlborough. 
At the battle of Ramillies, in 1706, the Duke 
was thrown from his horse in leaping a ditch, 
and was nearly surrounded by a detached 
party of Marshal Villeroi's army. Billinge 
immediately brought to his relief a few of 
his comrades, who succeeded in bringing 
the Duke off in safety. Billinge in the 
skirmish received a musket -ball " in the 
thick part of the thigh, which the surgeons 
were unable to extract." Some thirty 
years afterwards it " came out underneath 
his ham." This bullet, which he called this 
" French cherry," he kept for the rest of his 
life. He was at the siege of Ostend in 1706. 
He returned to England in 1712. In 1715 
he served against the rebels, and in 1745 he 
was at Preston Pans and Culloden. He 
spent about 75 years in the 'army, but got 
no promotion or pension. He was in his 
old age kept from destitution by his neigh- 
bours. " From his birth to his death, he 
never experienced a day's illness ; and his 
final passage from life was parfectly tran- 
quil." This biography gives his age as 
114 years. I offer this account for what 
it is worth perhaps very little. 

ROBEBT PlEBPOINT. 

In vol. i. Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. 
p. 193, there is given the following : 

Berkeley (Church). 

Here rt steth the body of Thomas Pearce who was 
five times Maior of this Towne, who deceased the 
25th of February, 1665, cetatis .77. 

Here lyeth Thomas Pierce whom no man taught 
Yet he in Iron, Brasse and Silver wrought ;: 
He, jacks and clocks and watches (with art) made, 
And mended too when others' work did fade. 
Of Berkeley five times Maior this artist was 
And yet this Major, this Artist was but grasse 
When his own watch was Down, on the last Day 
He that made Watches, had not made a Key 
To Winde it Vp but Vselesse it must lie 
Vntill he Rise A Gaine no more to die. 

T. C. TOMBS. 



1 2 s. ix. SEPT. s, 1921.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



195 



RUNNYMEDE (12 S. ix. 150, 177). There 
were 25 executors of the Great Charter. Of 
the north-country lords were Eustace de 
Vesci, William de Mowbray, Robert de 
Ros, John de Lacy, Richard de Percy. All 
these are well-known names in the north ; 
many of them appear in Domesday ; but, 
with the exception of Mowbray and Lacy, 
not among the greater tenants in chief at 
the time of the survey. Eustace de Vesci 
was closely connected by marriage with 
the King of Scots, and is said to have had 
-like Robert FitzWalter and William of 
Salisbury, the King's natural brother cruel 
wrongs to avenge upon the King. 

Of the Stamford confederates were the 
Earls of Hertford, Gloucester, Winchesster, 
Hereford, Norfolk, and Oxford ; Robert 
FitzWalter, William Marshall the younger, 
Gilbert de Clare, Hugh Bigod, William 
Mallet, John FitzRobert, Roger de Mum- 
bezon, Richard de Muntfitchet, William de 
Lanvalei, and William de Huntingfield. 
This second division embraced the more 
part of the remnant of the Conquest 
baronage, and the representatives of the 
families which had earned lands and dig- 
nities under Henry I. and Henry II. Among 
these the most prominent is Robert Fitz- 
Walter, a grandson of Richard de Lucy, 
and a descendant in the male line 
from the Norman house of Brionne. With 
him are Saer de Quenci, Earl of Winchester, 
possessor of half the inheritance of the 

f;*eat house of Leicester ; Henry Bohun, 
arl of Hereford, and Roger Bigod, Earl 
of Norfolk, who appear side by side as their 
descendants did when they defied Edward 
I., John's grandson; Richard de Clare, 
Earl of Hertford, the brother-in-law of the 
King's divorced wife ; William Marshall 
the younger, the son of the great earl whose 
adhesion was the main support of John ; 
William de Lanvalei, whose name recalls a 
justice of Henry II. 's curia ; Robert de 
Vere, Earl of Oxford, William Mallet, 
&c. 

Of the third class, which clung to John 
as long as he seemed to have any hope in 
resistance, William de Forz, titular Count 
of Aumale and Lord of Holderness, a feudal 
adventurer of the worst stamp, and William 
of Albini represent a body less hostile to 
John. Geoffrey de Say, who is found 
shortly after in arms against the King, 
and the Mayor of London complete the 
number. 

Matthew Paris (ii. 605) gives a further 



list of 38 barons who swore to obey the 
orders of the 25 : this list includes the Earls 
Marshal, Arundel, and Warenne, Hubert 
de Burgh, Warin FitzGerold, Philip of 
Albini and William Percy. 

The list of those counsellors by whose 
advice John declares that he issues the 
Great Charter is composed of the bishops 
with Stephen Langton, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and Pandulf, the Papal envoy, 
at their head and those earls and barons 
who only left the King after the adhesion 
of the Londoners : it contains none of the 
northern barons, none of the second list of 
confederates ; and the selection was per- 
haps made in the hope of binding the 
persons whom it includes to the continued 
support of . the hard-won liberties. See 
Bishop William Stubbs's , ' The Constitu- 
tional History of England' (1883), i., 
I pp. 580ff., and his < Select Charters ' (1884), 
! pp. 296-306. 

The statement that " not a single descen- 
dant of the executors of Ma.gua Charta now 
exists " is far too wide. The male heirs 
of their names and titles may not be found 
in the House of Lords ; but there must be 
many descendants of them extant in the 
female line. A. R. BAYLEY. 

The 25 executors of Magna, Charta 
were, in company with Stephen Langton 
and the Papal legate Pandulph, Eustace 
de Vesci, William de Mowbray, Robert 
de Ros, John de Lacy, Richard de 
Perci, the Earls of Hertford, Gloucester, 
Winchester, Hereford, Norfolk and Oxford, 
j Robert FitzWalter, William Marshall the 
younger, Gilbert de Clare, Hugh Bigod, 
William Mallet, John FitzRobert, Roger 
de Mumbezon, Richard de Muntfitchet, 
William de Huntingfield, William d' Aumale, 
William d' Albini and Geoffrey de Say. 

I have personal friends living now who 
are descendants of Geoffrey de Say, and in 
whose possession is a copy of the Charter, 
bearing his signature, and in John Burke' s 
' History of the Commoners,' 1836, appears 
the following : 

Beckford of Fonthill Abbey, Co. Wilts. 

Mr. Beckford is, paternally or maternally, 

descended from all the Barons of Magna Charta, 

i or the twenty-five conservators of the public 

J liberties, elected under the provisions of the 

great Charter, from whom there is any issue 

! surviving. 

This gentleman was, of course, the 
1 famous author of ' Vathek.' 

J. C. RUSSELL PARSONS. 



196 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s.ix. 81^.3,1021. 



THE " CHALK FARM PISTOLEEB " ( 12 S. ix. 
149). " ChalkFarm," a corruption of Chalcot 
Farm, Primrose Hill, was for many years a 
favourite spot for duels. One of the earliest 
which took place there was in 1790, and the 
last in 1818. The one arranged to take 
place between Tommy Moore, the poet, and 
Francis Jeffrey, the reviewer, came to an 
abrupt termination by the arrival of the 
police at the scene of action. A long account 
of this is given by Moore, and Byron also 
alluded to it. It was stated at the time 
that the pistols were only loaded with blank 
cartridges ! This was in 1806. 

CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 
Swallowfield Park, Heading. 

Freeling's 'Railway Companion' (1838) 
does not mention any particularly notorious 
episode there, but the account may be inter- 
esting. 

On the left, or westward, still looking forward, 
Primrose Hill cannot fail to be observed ; persons 
not familiar with the neighbourhood may as well 
be informed that the field at the base, a little more 
to the westward, is a sort of Champ de Mars, in 
which our honorable gentlemen let off their crackers 
(in general very harmlessly, though accidents will 
occasionally happen) ; this is called duelling. We 
merely mention the fact, being willing to afford our 
travelling Hotspurs every facility lor this diver- 
tissement which the railroad presents. We dare 
almost affirm, that its projectors did not take 
into their calculation the traffic which this 
announcement may occasion. 

A. H. W. FYNMOBE. 

Arundel. 

EMERSON'S ' ENGLISH TRAITS ' (12 S. v. 
234 ; vi. 9). No. 7, at the first reference : 
" Sir John Herschel said, ' London was the 
centre of the terrene globe.' " Herschel 
made tbe following statement in his ' Out- 
lines of Astronomy,' p. 172, section 284, in 
the fourth edition, 1851 : 

It is a fact, not a little interesting to English- 
men, and, combined with our insular station in 
that great highway of nations, the Atlantic, not 
a little explanatory of our commercial excellence, 
that London occupies nearly the centre of the 
terrestrial hemisphere. 

To the above Herschel has a footnote : 

More exactly, Falmouth. The central point of 
the hemisphere which contains the maximum of 
land falls very nearly upon this port. 

No. 15, at the second reference : " Even 
Lord Chesterfield . . . wjien he came to 
define a gentleman, declared that truth 
made his distinction." 

On more than one occasion in his Letters 
to his son Chesterfield inculcates the diitvof 



truthfulness. For example, on Sept. 21 
(O.S.), 1747 : 

I really know nothing more criminal, more 
mean, and more ridiculous, than lying. It is the 
production either of malice, cowardice, or vanity ; 
and generally misses of its aim in every one of these 
views ; for lies are always detected, sooner or 
later. . . . Equivocating, evading, shuffling, in 
order to remove a present danger or inconvenienc y, 
is something so mean, and betrays so much fear, 
that whoever practises them, always deserves to 
be, and often will be, kicked. . . . Remember then, 
as long as you live, that nothing but strict truth 
can carry you through the world, with either your 
conscience or your honour unwounded. 

Again, on Jan. 8 (O.S.), 1750, he writes : 

There is one of the vices above-mentioned, into 
which people of good education, and, in the main, 
of good principles, sometimes fall, from mistaken 
notions of skill, dexterity, and self-defence ; I. 
mean Lying : though it is inseparably attended 
with more infamy and loss than any other. . . . 
It is most certain, that the reputation of chastity 
is not so necessary for a woman, as that of veracity 
is for a man. . . . For God's sake, be scrupulously 
jealous of the purity of your moral character. 

No. 16, at the same reference: "Madame 
de Stael says, that the English irritated 
Napoleon, mainly, because they have found 
out how to unite success with honesty." 
See ' Ten Years Exile, or Memoirs of that 
interesting period of the Life of the Baroness 
de Stael-Holstein, written by herself . . . 
translated from the French,' London, 1821, 
chap, iii., p. 17 : 

The English particularly irritate him, as they 
have found the means of being honest, as well as 
successful, a thing which Bonaparte would have 
us regard as impossible. Tliis shining point of 
the world has dazzled his eyes from the very 
first days of his reign. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

JAMES 1. AND A WIDOW BOOKSELLER OF 
BRISTOL (12 S. ix. 130). With respect to 
the language of this extraordinary docu- 
ment it is worthy of note that it contains the 
words " proposal "' and " enslaved." The 
earliest example of " enslave " in the 
' N.E.D.' is from the year 1643, while of 
the word which Mrs. Gamp pronounced 
" propojal " the earliest record is in 1653. 
Nor are these the only peculiarities. 

EDWARD BENSLY. 

SHAKESPEARE'S CHEESE-LOVING WELSH- 
MAN ( 12 S. ix. 110). -In reply to the question, 
" What grounds were there for Welshmen 
and cheese to be coupled together ? " Robert 
Burton may be quoted, who writes in 1, 2, 2, 
3, of ' The Anatomy of Melancholy ' : 

In Wales, lacticiniis vescuntur, as Humfrey 
Llyud confesseth, a Cambro-Brittain himself, in 



12 s. ix. SEPT. 3, i92L] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



197 



his elegant Epistle to Abraham Ortelius, they live 
most on white meats. 

Fuller, 'Worthies,' vol. ii. (1811), p. 554,! 
in enumerating the manufactures of Wales, 
says of cheeses : 

Such as are made in this Country are very 
tender and palatable ; and once one merrily 
(without offence, I hope) thus derived the pedigree 
thereof : 
*' Adams iiawn. Cusson was her by her birth ; 

Ap Curds, ap Milk,ap Cow,ap Grasse,ap Earth." 
Foxes are said to be the best Tasters of the fine- 
ness of Flesh, Flies of the sweetest Grapes, and 
Mice of the tenderest Cheese ; and the last (when 
they could compass Choise in that kind) have 
given their Verdict for the goodness of the Welch. j 
What should be the reason that so many people 
should have such an Antipathic against Cheese 
(more then any one manner of meat) I leave to 
the skilfull in the Mysteries of Nature to decide. 
EDWARD BENSLY. 



of 'Dreamthorp' (1906): "Dreamthorp, 
with its old castle and its lake, is, of course, 
Linlithgow." All the same I cannot find 
that Alexander Smith ever resided there, 
though he must often have seen it. 

H. M. CHARTERS MACPHERSON. 

When I was a boy of thirteen, I used to sit 
in the same church in Glasgow as the author 
of ' Dreamthorp.' It was the opinion of 
those who knew him then, that Linlithgow, 
with its palace and lake, was the prototype of 
Dreamthorp. HENRY FAULDS. 

Editor of Dactylography. 

ENGLISH RAILINGS IN AMERICA (12 S. ix. 
50, 130). I examined these railings care- 
fully in 1901, having been told in New York 
that originally the top end of each was in 
the form of a crown, but that during the 
War of Independence these crowns had- been 
knocked off. There must be some hundreds 
of "rails," and the work of removing the 
crowns was thorough, for not one was left, 
but the process Would not be arduous as the 
fractures clearly show the material of the 
railings is cast iron. Thus a blow or two of 
a hammer or a large stone probably sufficed. 
ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

DANCE OF SALOME (12 S. ix. 150). 
According to Jusserand's ' English Way- 
faring Life,' pp. 214-215 (where also are two 
illustrations), at Clermont-Ferrand in stained 
glass in the cathedral (thirteenth century) 
Salome dances on knives which she holds 
with each hand, she also having her head 



downwards. At Verona she is represented 
on the most ancient of thfc bronze gates of 
St. Zeno (ninth century) bending backwards 
and touching her feet with her hands. She 
may be seen in the same posture in several 
MSS. in the British Museum (e.g., MS. Addit. 
29704, fol. 11 (fourteenth- century), and 
MS. 10 Ed. IV., where are minstrels playing 
on instruments and a professional dancing 
girl who performs head downwards balancing 
on the points of two swords). Salome is 
also shown dancing upside down before 
Herod in glass in the Chapter House at York, 
at St. Denys, and in the St. John Baptist 
window at Bourges. Mrs. Jameson's ' His- 
tory of Our Lord,' i. 299, states that the 
same subject is carved over one of the doors 
of Rouen Cathedral. 

JOHN A. KNOWLES. 



well remember making a careful examination, 
in 1872, of the thirteenth-century glass in 
the windows of the south transept of Lin- 
coln Cathedral. In one light was a group 
of two figures, described by the verger as 
Salome dancing before Herod. The lady 
was depicted as turning head-over-heels, 
but whether backward or forward I cannot 
remember. It may be said that the inter- 
pretation of such groups depends upon the 
taste and fancy of the verger, for in the same 
window is a group of three upright figures. 
Asked for an explanation of this group the 
verger candidly admitted that he could not 
give one, but added : " To visitors we 
describe it as Moses and Aaron before 
Pharaoh." K. S. 

PETTY FRANCE (12 S. viii. 407,452, 477; 
12 S. ix. 95). MR. W. R. DAVIES asks, 
" What are the facts ? " re the translation 
of " Petty France " to " York Street." In 
stating it was so called after Frederick, 
Duke of York, son of George the Second, I 
was quoting Besant's smaller ' Westminster.' 



th 



Fascination of London " series. 



Besant, in his turn, quoted, I believe. 
Mackenzie Walcott's ' Memorials of West- 
minster,' but at the moment I am unable 
to see this book. 

Wheatley and Cunningham ascribe the 
name to the fact tha* John Sharp, Arch- 
bishop of York, lived there in 1708. 

It seems to me quite possible that all 
these authorities are wrong. John Rocque's 
map, ' London in 1741-5,' gives the street 



198 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.IX.SHPP. 3,1921. 



as Petty France. The rate-books of West- 
minster continue to call it by its original 
name until 1844. Both in that year, and 
in 1845, it is entered as " Petty France or 
York Street"; in 1846 as "York Street." 
Cruchley's ' New Plan of London improved 
to 1835 ' enters it as York Street ; so it may 
be assumed that the change took place in 
the mid eighteen-thirties. At that date, is 
there not more likelihood that the " York " 
was due to the uncle of Queen Victoria ? 

When I suggested our thanks were due 
to the London County Council for the 
welcome restoration of the old title, Canon 
Westlake said they should rather be given 
to the Westminster City Council. West- 
minster's helpful and courteous officials 
inform me that although they can offer 
suggestions as to the re-naming of streets, 
the sole power and authority to do so is 
vested in the London County Council. 

M. E. W. 



to the elaboration of an extraordinary number 



of his pseudo-antique poems. 



The attorney 



burnt any manuscripts not on business, calling 
them " stuff." 

The * D.N.B.' also gives the not inconsider- 
able total of Chatterton's copying of pre- 
cedents and his prompt dismissal in April, 
1770, when his master found the " Last Will 
and Testament " conspicuously displayed 
on the apprentice's desk. 

MB. WRIGHT'S misapprehension for which 
he calls myself to account arises from his 
separating a few words from their context 
and ignoring the latter. It must be suffi- 
ciently clear that Chatterton was made to 
slave and suffer in general conditions, even 
though the actual occupation of his hands 
in his master's service left him time for 
other employment of his own, more or less 
surreptitious as concerned Lambert. 

W. B. H. 



WELSH RABBIT (12 S. ix. 110, 148). 
Is it worth while adding more fancy names 



"TOFF" (12 S. ix. 151). Barriere and 
Leland's ' Dictionary of Slang, Jargon, and 
Cant ' says : 

Toff, meaning a dandy, a swell, is derived from 

fnVfonTto MR"RER? PTERPOIN^S^ iter- I ^e Yiddish or Hebrew tof, tov, or *,,, literally 
for food to MR. KOI j goodj and uged in an extende d sense which 

esting list ? perfectly warrants its application to good or fine 

If so, here are a couple culled from abroad, appearance. Toff, good ; toffer, better ; toffest, 

In the Netherlands two fried eggs on toast best. A probable derivation is from to tiff, to 

since times immemorial have been dubbed deck oneself out, or toft, a dressy individual. Toff, 

pir e i * l h. a lt + ich rih nf b<W of ten applied to an over-dressed clerk or draper's 

Em Schotsche nba, bcottisn rib of beet. assistan F t F who ape s the swell. A ^ i*ff . nW 

A sandwich consisting of a thin slice of cheese ; beau> 
between equally thin slices of buttered 
white and black rye-bread is called a 
houtsni'D a holtsnipe, woodcock. 

Do these Ersatz Scottish ribs and from the tuft or tassel of gold which marked 



An old toff, an old 
ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 
It is fancied that this slang term came 



Welsh rabbits point to a scarcity of beef in 
Scotland and rabbits in Wales in days 
gone by ? I seem to hear " Billingsgate 
pheasant " shriek : " yea" ! 

W. DEL COURT. 
47 Blenheim Crescent, W.ll. 

THOMAS CHATTERTON (12 S. viii. 114; 
ix. 148). I ask to be permitted to quote 
from the late Mr. Charles Kent's article in 
the ' D.N.B.,' vol. x., p. 146 et seq (1887) : 
After stating Chatterton's apprenticeship to John 
Lambert, an attorney of Bristol, in 1767J Chatter- 
ton's office hours were worse even than his school 
hours, being from 7 a.m. to 8 p.m. all the year 
round. He was treated persistently as a mere 
office drudge, required to sleep with the office 
boy, and to take his meals in the kitchen. He 
was only onceupon a Christmas Eve known 



the mortar-boards of undergraduates who 
had the privilege of being Fellow-Com- 
moners. Those who ran after them were 
dubbed " tuft-hunters," and tuft became 
toff when it was adopted as a by-name for 
the ".golden lads," mostly titled, who were 
not subject to the same conditions as other 
men. ST. SWITHIN. 

HOCKLEY OF HAMPSHIRE (12 S. ix. 30, 
152). The Hockleys are mentioned in the 
' Victoria History of Hampshire,' to which 
work there is a full index. Like most names 
the spelling varied considerably Hockley, 
Oakley, Ockley, Ocle being the examples 
named in the above-mentioned work. 

FREDERIC CROOKS. 

ORMISTON OF ORMISTON, HADDINGTON- 



\Vcu5 UlllY JJlJUJc; - tlLH-MJ. cv vyxj.i. xo lAUJkufe? *- T t c\ t*> \ "XT* T~ J_ * 

to have exceeded the prescribed limit, till 10 p.m. SHIRE (12 S. ix. 50, 135). Nisbet gives 
. . . His duties, which were chiefly the copying i Qrmiston : Argent, three pelicans feeding 

" - 



of precedents, engaged him upon an average no 

more than two hours every day. ... The rest . ro 

of his time was given up to self-education and J 



young ones, gules adding 
-Vro ,? 



Work- 






12 S. IX. SEPT. 3, 1921.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



199 



ELIZABETH FRY ( 12 S. ix. 150). In writing 
about her visit to Worcester, Mrs. Fry does 
not allude to the case quoted. In her 
Diary of "Third month llth," she men- 
tions " the prospect of paying a religious 
visit to Friends of Worcester and Birming- 
ham with her sister Elizabeth," and adds 
that she " had obtained a certificate from 
our Monthly Meeting for that purpose." 
And in a letter to one of her daughters, dated 
" Third month 19th 1824," says : " When 
we arrived at Worcester I was faint but 
sti 1 ! went to the Meeting of Ministers and 
Elders." Two days later she " proceeded 
to the prison, and after going over it had all 
the prisoners collected in the chapel. Samuel 
[Mr. Gurney, ho-r brother] read the 15th 
of Luke and then I spoke to them. 
It finished in Prayer and was a solemn 
time. Much satisfaction was expressed." 
CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

SUSSEX AND SURREY DIALECT WORDS 
(12 S. viii. 481 ; ix. 69, 154). The entry in 
the ' O.E.D.' under ' Lady-smock ' is : 

Also lady's, ladies' smock. A common name 
for Cardamine pratensis. (Applied locally also to 
Convolvulus sepium.) 

Under ' Milkmaid ' : 

2. Local or book-name of several plants (see 
quots.). [Among the quotations is] " 1886. 
BRITTEN AND HOLLAND, Plant-n. 335 Milk Maid 
or Milk Maids (1) Cardamine pratensis." 

Gerard's account of the flower's names 
should interest MR. ROWLAND. He says : 

They are commonly called in Latine Flos 
citculi . . . and also some call them Nasturtium 
aquaticum minus, or lesser water-Cresse : of 
some Cardamine : ... in English Cuckow-flours : 
in Norfolk, Canturbury bels : at the Namptwich 
in Cheshire my native country, Lady-smockes ; 
which hath caused me to name it after their 
i'ashion. 

I have never heard this flower called 
" water-cress," with or without qualifica- 
tion, but " meadow -cress " is a not uncom- 
mon name for it. " Canterbury bells " 
seems an absurdity here, and 1 suspect a 
blunder on Gerard's part. The plant he 
figures is undoubtedly Cardamine pratensis, 
and has no resemblance to a bell. It is 
equally without doubt that this is Shake- 
speare's flower 

And lady-smocks all silver white 
Do paint the meadows with delight. 
Though not absolutely white it looks so 
from a distance, and blowing about in the 
grass it might by a nimble fancy be likened 
to linen laid down to bleach. C. C. B. 



CHRIST'S HOSPITAL AND THE NAVY (12 S. 
ix. 87). In connexion with the remarks 
concerning Christ's Hospital boys and the 
Navy, it may be of interest to note that 
among the India Office Records there is a 
letter (dated Sept. 22, 1676) extant entitled 
" His Majesty's letter touching the children 
of his Royal foundation " (' Court Minutes,' 
vol. 30, fol. 56). This relates to the boys 
who were specially educated for the service 
of the East India Company, to which they 
were apprenticed. Many interesting facts 
can be gleaned from the Records regarding 
the boys sent to India in the seventeenth 
century. Among them was John Nicks, 
who became secretary at Fort St. George 
and served the Company in many capacities. 
His wife, a " holy terror " as regards her 
tongue, has been immortalized by Mrs. 
Frank Penny in her novel, ' Diamonds.' 
Other Christ's Hospital boys who made 
names for themselves in the East were 
John Davis, John Thomas (an expert 
in Oriental tongues, but who became a 
lunatic and tried to murder his wife), and 
John Harvey, Governor of Karwar (Malabar 
Coast), who left a legacy to his old school. 

L. M. ANSTEY. 



on 



Court Rolls of the Borough of Colchester. Vol. i. 
(1310-1352). Translated and epitomized by 
Isaac Herbert Jeayes, with Introduction, 
Corrigenda, &c., by W. Gurney Benham. 
(Published by the authority of the Town 
Council of the Borough of Colchester.) 

WE congratulate the Colchester Town Council 
upon an enterprise as spirited as it is useful on 
the transcription, that is, and the translation 
and publication, of the Court Rolls of the Borough 
of Colchester, of which the volume before us is 
a first instalment. Colchester possesses two 
other important series of Records, ' The Red 
Paper Book ' and ' The Oath Book or Red Parch- 
ment Book,' besides its Borough Charters. All 
these are already available to students no 
mean glory to Colchester and it is natural as 
well as laudable that the authorities should now 
push on to their Court Rolls. These make a con- 
siderably larger undertaking, for their line, 
though the gaps are many, reaches from 1310 
to 1741, and many of the Rolls are more volu- 
minous than those here presented. It is certainly 
a good plan whether or no the later documents 
have to be curtailed or selected to give these 
earliest extant Rolls hi full. There are nine 
remaining for this period of 42 years, 33 being 
lost. Of the whole series 58 per cent, remain. 

Antiquaries and genealogists generally will 
find here many details though chiefly of the 



200 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.ix. 



nature of minutiae worth noting, and those 
who have a special interest in Essex will from 
these pages be able to add not a little to the pic- 
ture in their minds of Colchester in the fourteenth 
century. Clearly it held as quarrelsome a set of 
people as any town in the country, and was 
governed, too, by men who had some sympathy 
for litigiousness, for cases are adjourned for 
inquiry which seem hardly hi themselves to be 
worth "the time of the Court. 

A very pleasant feature of this edition of the 
Court Bolls has been furnished by Mr. Gurney 
Benham in what he has entitled * " Who's Who " 
of the Principal Personages.' He has extracted 
from the Bolls all the particulars relating to 
about a score of prominent persons, and set them 
out in short and lively biographies, which, though 
they necessarily consist for a great part of rather 
dry small matters, present character quite 
effectively. John Elianore, Member of Parlia- 
ment, many times Bailiff of Colchester, lawyer 
(as his frequent activities in the Courts testify) 
and engaged how precisely is not known " in 
the service of the King," appears as the most 
important of the Colchester townsmen ; he 
founded the wealthiest of the town's chantries, and 
liberally endowed the Grammar School, which 
still, we are told, despite diminutions, enjoys 
400 a year from his estates. Benedict de 
Cokefeud is a name that turns up once or twice. 
Is this a descendant of Bobert and Adam de 
Cokefeld whom we know in the pages of Joceline 
of Brakelond ? The Abbot of St. Edmunds 
twice occurs in Benedict's company as having, 
like him, failed to do suit at the Law Hundred. 

The Law Hundreds were held three tunes a 
year, and Mr. Benham is inclined to put the 
Hokeday session on the third rather than the 
second Monday after Easter. 

Benedict de Cokefeud cannot be followed up 
in these pages, but there is ample material for 
biographical notes of many personages beyond 
those Mr. Gurney Benham has dealt with, and we 
echo his hope that his example may incite others 
to trying their hands at disentangling the records 
in this way. No better plan could be found for 
winning a thorough familiarity with the Bolls, 
and an excellent index exists to lighten the work. 
The matters dealt with hi the Courts are those 
which meet us hi most similar records. Fore- 
stalling, the sale of bad fish and meat, assaults, 
thefts, disputes, vagrancy make up a great part 
of them. The objects by which defendants 
were distrained are now and again interesting ; 
and some of the offences diverting or unusual. 
The most extraordinary situation revealed is 
that where William de Hetha, chaplain, com- 
plains that Boger Cartar forcibly entered his 
house to look there for Peter de Astpn's wife 
a proceeding which, it seems, was justified by 
William's having agreed with Peter to support 
her at his table for a whole year for three marks. 
Peter de Aston, in the " Who's Who " biography, 
is treated on this matter somewhat jocosely, 
and the incident referred to as " a little scandal" 
but William's attitude seems rather that of a 
school from which a boarder is withdrawn with- 
out notice. Could Peter de Aston's wife who 
seems to have been a troublesome woman have 
been mad, or deemed to be bewitched, and 
therefore placed in William's care ? 



The Bolls record a full assembly of the Burgesses 
of Colchester on May 14, 1311, to discuss the 
Town's right to exact toll from the Bishop of 
London coming to the Borough or put distraint 
therefor upon him or his men and merchandise, , 
a dispute in which the Burgesses did not succeed 
in maintaining their liberty. We learn that the 
place-names which occur in these Bolls are to be 
examined in a subsequent volume ; the surnames 
have been dealt with in The Essex Review for 
April, 1921. 

A Little Ark containing Sundry Pieces of Seven- 
teenth-Century Verse. Collected and edited by 
G. Thorn-Drury. (P. J. and A. E. Dobell, 
7s. 6d. net.) 

To the student of seventeenth-century literature 
and biography, and to all lovers of the quaint 
and the rare this book will be a treasure. It 
consists of small pieces, between twenty and 
thirty in number, of which about one-third 
have never been printed before, and the re- 
mainder are practically unknown. Those first 
printed comprise a version of Ben Jonson's 
Praeludium to his Epode in ' Love's Martyr,' 
which differs entirely from that printed, except 
in the last line and a half ; some consolatory 
verses addressed to Massinger by Henerie Parker 
on the failure of two plays ; the prologue and 
so-called songs out of Walter Montague's strange 
pastoral, ' The Shepheard's Paradise ' ; some 
" characters " and other conceits by Bobert 
Davenport the dramatist, to which an interesting 
little piece of bibliographical history attaches ; 
some verses addressed to John Cleveland by 
Mildmay, Earl of Westmorland, which fill a tiny 
gap in literary biography ; and, last, a scurrilous 
poem by Edmund Waller on the marriage of 
old Sir John Denham the poet to young and 
too sprightly Miss Margaret Brooke. Among 
the pieces previously printed but so rare that 
perhaps only Mr. Thorn-Drury knew of them 
are a striking elegy on Nell Gwynn, which confirms 
the date of her death as Nov. 14, 1687 ; an elegy 
on Mrs. Behn, by ' A Young Lady of Quality,' 
which is full of interest and if we may say it- 
amusement ; a prologue and epilogue by that 
lively lady herself, poems by Shirley, and elegies 
on the actors Clun, Angel and Charles Hart. Mr. 
Thorn-Drury does not pretend that his " Ark " 
is full of good literature. Indeed, his very inform- 
ing and amusing notes show that no one could 
be more tickled than he at the quaintness of 
these rescued waifs. But the collection has its 
solid critical and scholarly value, besides being 
a rare morsel for curious palates. 



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