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ser. 12 
v. 10 
c. 1 

Notes and Querks, July 29. 1922. 


i a , v/ to 

Jlebtum of Sntercommuntcatton 



"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 






Kotes and Queries, July 2:>, 1922. 






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CONTENTS. No. 195. 

NOTES : Thomas Chippendale, 1 The so-called Spanish 
Architecture of Arras, 3 The Sotto Piombi, or the Piombi, 
Venice, 6 English Army Slang as used in the Great War 
Early Ball Games Privileges granted by 'the Lord of the 
Manor Fieldingiana, 7 Mrs. Joanna Stephens, 8. 

QUERIES .Disraeli Queries" Sunt oculos clari qui cernis 
~ sidera tanquam " Vangoyen, a Dutch Painter Psalm 
Ixxxiii., 8 Erghum of Erghum, Yorkshire John Wesley's 
First Publication Index Ecclesiasticus The H6tel Vouille- 
mont Pio Nono Thirlwall and Bunsen Biographical De- 
tails of Artists so ught The " Abyssinian " Cross, 9 
Nathaniel Eaton William George Eveleigh 'Not So Bad As 
We Seem ' : Charles Knight " Moliere " : an Anagram 
Authors wanted, 10. 

REPLIES :Mary Wollstonecraft : Lady Mary King, 10 
'Anything for a Quiet Life 'The Fifth Petition in the 
Lord's Prayer, 11 " Sapiens dominabitur astris," 12 
George Trappe The Gender of " Ship " Principal London 
Coffee-houses of the Eighteenth Century Vice- Admiral Sir 
Christopher Mings, 13 ' The Beggar's Opera ' in Dickens- 
William Spry of Exeter Verlaine at Stickney Hatchments, 
14 Egg Folk-lore: Good Friday and Christmas " Hop- 
scotch " : Derivation of Word Early Standards Title of 
Anno Quinto Edwardi III. Verbalized Surnames Pharaoh 
as Surname The House of Harcourt, 15 Thomas Edwards, 
LL.D. Moses Griffiths, Copperplate Engraver The Chim- 
ney-sweeper's Climbing Boys Bombers in Charles II.'s 
Navy, 16 Dominoes Turner Family, 17 Authors wanted, 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' A New English Dictionary ' ' Eng- 
lish Organ-Cases.' 
Notices to Correspondents. 


(See 11 S. xi. 10.) 

AT the above reference I contributed to 
your pages a somewhat long article on the 
" Master Cabinet-maker of St. Martin's 
Lane " as he has been aptly described by a 
modern writer and his more immediate 
family, by way of supplementing Colonel 
ChippindalPs interesting account of the 
Chippendale family that had appeared in 
your columns, and I included references to 
one or two other modern authorities. 

It was generally supposed at that time that 
there were three Thomas Chippendales son, 
father, and grandfather in more or less the 
same way of business, the greatest of 
the three, of course, being Thomas Chip- 
pendale No. II. One of the authorities I 
had laid considerable stress upon Was Miss 

Constance Simon, who, in her charming book 
on ' English Furniture Designers of the 
Eighteenth Century' (1905), gives an excel- 
tent account of the Chippendale family as 
then known in London, and whose conclusions 
I had generally followed. She states (p. 24) 
that Thomas Chippendale the second Was 
born and spent a part of his early life at 
Worcester (though she gives no authority for 
that statement) and that both father and 
son were settled in London before 1727. 

In Colonel Chippindall's reference (US. 
vi. 407) which of course preceded mine 
he stated that the Chippendale family came 
from Otley, in Yorkshire, and that if Thomas 
Chippendale came from Worcestershire it 
was only as part of his route to London. I, 
however, cited Erdeswick's ' Survey of 
Staffordshire' (1844), as showing that 
the name must also have had a Midland 
habitat, if it were true, as stated by that 
author (p. 468), that the family of Chip- 
pendale once owned the estate of Blakenhall 
in that county. I also gave other authorities 
upon old furniture of that period and its 
makers (Mr. Litchfield, Mr. K. Warren 
Clouston, and Mrs. R. S. Clouston) for 
believing that our Thomas Chippendale was 
a native of Worcestershire, though the date 
of his birth was quite uncertain. 

No further discussion upon the subject 
seems to have taken place since my article 
appeared in 1913 ; but now, owing to the 
further labours of Colonel Chippindall and 
of my friend, Mr. A. W. Chippindale (to whom 
Colonel Chippindall would appear to have 
communicated the result of his later dis- 
coveries, though neither of these gentlemen, 
I believe, claims any relationship to the great 
cabinet-maker), a great deal has been learnt 
that sets at rest many vexed questions on 
the subject, and which I have my friend's 
permission to make use of in ' N. & Q.' if 
the editor should so desire. 

In the first place, a fairly complete pedi- 
gree has now been compiled showing the 
immediate direct ancestors of our great 
Thomas Chippendale, hitherto generally 
believed to be Thomas Chippendale No. II. 
This dates from the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century, and discloses a John Chip- 
pindale of Farnley, in the parish of Otley, 
Co. York, as the grandfather of " our " Chip- 
pendale, whose own father's name was also 
John, and not Thomas (No. I.) as hitherto 
supposed. This John Chippindale, junior, 
married, at Otley, Mary, the daughter of 
, Thomas Drake, a mason of Otley, whose son 


[12S. X.JAN. 7, 1922. 

Thomas (the first of the name) was the 
great cabinet-maker, and whose Christian 
name ended with the death of his eldest 
son Thomas, who was baptized at St. 
Paul's, Covent Garden, April 23, 1749, and 

died s.p. circa 1820. This will be made, no 
doubt, clearer to your readers if the editor 
will kindly allow me to insert the following 
short and direct pedigree, omitting all col- 
lateral descendants : 

John Ghippindale 
of Farnley, Otley ; bur. at 
Otley, Aug. 8, 1708. 


of Farnley, carpenter ; bap. at 
Otley, Jan. 30, 1658/9; bur. at 
Otley, Oct. 11, 1727 (will dated 
June 17, 1727). 


of Otley, joiner: bap. at 
Otley, Mar, 7, 1690/1 (called 
"eldest son " in his father's 

Margaret . . . 
bur. at Otley, Jan. 26, 1668/9. 

Rebeeca Shave, 

mar. at Guiseley, Feb. 2, 1685/6; bur. at Otley, 
Feb. 1, 1746/7. 

Mary Drake, 

dau. of Thomas Drake, of Otley, mason; mar. 
at Otley, July 3, 1715; bur. at Otley, Feb. 28, 


of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 
cabinet-maker ; bap. at Otley, 
June 5, 17J8; died intestate; 
administration granted, Dec. 1 6, 
1779; bur. at St. Martin's, 
Nov. 13, 1779. 

(i.) Catherine Redshaw 
of St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields ; mar. at St. 
George's Chapel, Hyde 
Park, May 19, 1748; 
bur. at St. Martin's, 
Sept. 7, 1772. 

(ii.) Elizabeth (late Davis), 
mar. at Fulham, Axig. 5, 
1777 (named as "the 
relict" in intestacy pro- 


of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields ; 
bap. at St. Paul's, Covent 
Garden, April 23, 1749 (lived 
at 69, Haymarket in 1817); 
died c. 1820 s.p. 

Ann Whitehead, 
mar. at St. Martin's, July 16, 1793. 

From this we learn that there are no 
longer, as we supposed, three Thomas Chip- 
pendales to be considered, and that it is 
the first of- this name, not the second, that 
was in reality the subject of my previous 
article, being in all probability named after 
his maternal grandfather, Thomas Drake, 
as that Christian name appears nowhere 
else in this Chippendale pedigree that 
Colonel Chippindall has compiled. 

From Colonel Chippindall's and Mr. A. 
W. Chippindale's later researches we also 
learn that the name now accepted as Chip- 
pendale admitted of an immense variety. 
From a list the latter has kindly lent me 
I note that over eighty varieties of the 
spelling occur, mostly from Lancashire, 
Yorkshire, and neighbouring localities, and 
ranging down the centuries from Chipindale, 
1307 ; Chepyngdale-, 1379 (this occurs 
again in 1535); Chipindall, 1597; Chipen- 
*dell, 1637; Chipindayll, 1703; whilst, 
strange to say, one of the most ancient 

(1258) and the most modern are the same 

This strange coincidence is repeated 
again in the place-names, which, though 
naturally not so numerous, show much the 
same variety of spelling. Chipinden and 
Chippenden occur in Domesday Book ( 1085) ; 
and Chippendale in 1102; Cepndel, 1102; 
Chepyngdale, 1230 ; Chippendal and Chipin- 
dale, 1258 ; Chippingdale, 1296 ; Chypyn- 
dale, 1352 ; Chippyndale and Chippingdon, 
temp. Elizabeth. 

The name would seem to have originated 
in the little valley of Chippingdale, a place- 
name which is mentioned in the earliest 
Pipe Roll relating to Lancashire, in the reign 
of Henry I. In the thirteenth century 
the name began to be used as a surname, 
as in a charter, without date but between 
1230-1256, Robert signs as "persona de 
Chippingdale " (see Cheetham Society's 
N.S., vol. xxvi., pp. 165-6), and in 1246-7 

12 S. X. jAJf. 7, 1922.] 


Lancashire Assize Rolls, 30-31 Henry III., 
we find Dyke de Chypendale as a surety 
for a defendant's appearance. The earliest 
church registers of Chipping are in 1559, 
but there are no Chippiiidales in them. 

Another very strong proof that the 
cabinet -maker's family was of Yorkshire 
extraction is afforded by these researches, 
in which is mentioned an Indenture of 
Lease and Release of April 30, 1770, now 
in the West Riding Registry at Leeds, 
in which the name of " Thomas Chippindale 
(sic) of St. Martin's Lane, London, cabinet- 
maker," appears, together with those of 
three of has uncles, William, Benjamin, 
and Joseph. These documents are in re- 
spect of a messuage, gardens, orchards, 
&c., in Broughgate, in Otley. 

May I conclude on a more personal note ? 
There had been some doubt expressed as to 
what was the age of Thomas Chippendale 
when he died. Mr. Percy Macquoid, in his 
great work on the ' History of English 
Furniture' (1906, vol. iii., p. 134, 'Age of 

Mahogany '), says that " facts go to prove 
that he died at the age of about 70." Miss 
Simon claims to be the first to give the actual 
date of his burial as Nov. 13, 1779, 
and that he was buried at St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields. But no age was stated. Her 
statement is confirmed by a personal in- 
spection I made a short while ago of the 
clearly written parchment transcript of the 
burial entries of the parish, and there, 
under date Nov. 13, 1779, appears the 
name " Thomas Chippendale. M.," plainly 
enough. But there is no entry of age. 
Of course this can now be arrived at by his 
baptismal entry at Otley on June 5, 1718, 
as shown in the before -mentioned pedigree. 
And further, it is confirmed by the copy 
which Mr. A. W. Chippindale has made of 
the Account Book of Funeral Expenses 
belonging to the parish (which was not 
accessible when I was at the church), and 
which he has shown me, in which the age 
is given as "62 yrs " ; and further, pre- 
sumably, the cause of his death " Consp." 
This undoubtedly means " consumption," 
as it often occurs, whilst others are given 
as " dropsy," " fever," and " S. P." for small- 

His body was probably amongst those 
removed to the burial-ground belonging to 
St. Martin's, near the almshouses at Camden 
Town, when the mother church was re- 
stored some 80 years ago. Those also 
in the spacious crypt were removed, but, 

| apparently, most of the principal monuments 
| and tombstones are still preserved there or 
relaid as a flooring. It should be remem- 
bered that the site of the present National 
Gallery once formed part of the churchyard 
of old St. Martin's. 

I may say that there are a couple of old, 
j large, square-backed, wide-seated arm-chairs, 
! covered in dark red plush velvet, preserved 
! in the royal pew at the eastern end of the 
south gallery by the chancel. The wooden 
part of the arms ends in a lion's face or 
mask ; the same on the knee of the cabriole- 
leg, which itself is supported on a lion's- 
claw-fobt. The legs at the back are simi- 
larly designed. The wood is probably 
mahogany, but covered by a thick coating 
of varnish or some other disfiguring sub- 
stance. Whether the chairs were pre- 
sented, as has been suggested, by the great 
cabinet-maker himself when he was a neigh- 
bouring parishioner, there is no evidence to 
show ; but, to my mind, though they may 
be of the " Chippendale period," they seem 
to disclose a heavier and more foreign 
character possibly Dutch than is usually 
associated with Engish " Chippendale "" 
furniture. With scarcely an exception the 
interior of the church is devoid of monu- 

Ajud now, in conclusion, let me say that 
having once formed the opinion that there 
were three Thomas Chippendales in succes- 
sion and, worse still, having recorded it 
in ' N. & Q.' now that I have very good 
reason to believe that it is not the case, 
it only remains for me to make my humble 
amende in the same pages, and so prevent 
your readers in future from falling into that 
error to which, I am afraid, I may have led 
some of them in the past. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 


IT is at last being recognized by writers on 
Arras that the architecture of the Grande 
and Petite Places in that town is not in 
the " Spanish style " but is of purely local 
origin. It is, therefore, disappointing to 
find in the ' Blue Guide to Belgium and the 
Western Front ' a statement to the effect 

both squares were enclosed by seventeenth- 
century houses built in a quaint uniform style 
during the Spanish domination (p. 80). 

It is true that nothing here is said as to 
the architecture being Spanish, but to the 


[12S. X. JAN. 7, 1922. 

general reader that would probably be the j 
inference, supported as it is by local guide- ! 
books and popular belief. The statement j 
as it stands, however, is not even true his- j 
torically, for both squares took their present j 
(or pre-war) aspect in the latter half of the j 
seventeenth century, after the Spanish i 
domination had come to an end. 

Joanne (' Northern France,' 1914) has no 
mention of Spanish architecture at Arras, j 
and the ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' ( 1 1 th ed. ) 
is also silent on the subject. The latter 
correctly states : 

The lofty houses which border the spacious 
squares known as the Grande and Petite Places 
are in the Flemish style. They are built with 
their upper storeys projecting over the footway 
and supported on columns so as to form arcades. 

Yet well-informed writers like M. Le 
Gentil (1877), M. Ardouin-Dumazet (1898), 
the Abbe Drimille (1913), and M. Andre 
de Poncheville (1920) have repeated and 
so perpetuated the common belief that these 
purely Flemish buildings are in the Spanish, 
or Hispano-Flemish, style. 

M. Le Gentil, after speaking of the " en- 
semble sans exemple " of the two squares, 
goes on to say : 

Les Flandres en effet ainsi que 1'Espagne 
n'ont conserve rien qui puisse lui etre compare. 
Toutes les maisons hispano-flamandes, de cet en- 
semble, avec leurs pignons droits d -^coupes . . . 
frappent d'etonnement et d'admiration qui- 
conque les voit pour la premiere fois (' Le vieil 
Arras,' p. 501). 

M. Ardoiun-Dumazet, in his ' Voyage en 
France/ speaks also of " les hautes maisons 
de style hispano-flamand " of the squares, 
and the Abbe Drimille, in his ' Guide his- 
torique et archeologique,' writes; 

Voici la Grand' Place et son musee de vieilles 
maisons hispano-flamandes. Elles forment un 
ensemble sans egal : ni les Flandres ni 1'Espagne 
n'ont rien de semblable (p. 31). 

The houses of the Petite Place also, he 
states, are built in the same style " le style 
hispano-flamand : presque toutes sont du 
XVIIe siecle." 

More surprising is it to find M. Andre de 
Poncheville endorsing the popular belief : 

Les places completaient 1'hotel de ville et son 
beffroi. Leurs maisons hispano-flamandes a 
pignons denteles avaient eu leur expression totale 
dans la Maison Commune (' Arras et 1'Artois 
devastes,' p. 93). 

This would almost seem to imply that 
the Hotel de Ville itself was Hispano- 
Flemish in style, and such a belief un- 
doubtedly exists though not finding definite 
. expression in the guide-books. The Hotel 

de Ville, it is true, was built between the 
years 1501 and 1517, and chronologically 
therefore might claim to be " Spanish." 
But the design of this " Gothic palace," 
as it is styled by M. Camille Enlart, was 
inspired by the Town Hall at St. Quentin 
and owed nothing to Spain. The upper 
part of the belfry,* which originally dated 
from 1551-73, was the work of an artist 
born near Bapaume. The later Renaissance 
wing (1572) was also from the design of a 
local man and was Flemish in character. 

What is known as the " Spanish domina- 
tion " in Arras is usually defined as the 
period 1493-1640. But from the time of 
Maximilian of Austria to the abdication 
of Charles V. in 1555 it would be more 
correct, perhaps, to speak of the Habs- 
burg or Austrian domination. Charles V., 
indeed, had in some respects more in common 
with the land of his birth than with his 
mother's country, Spain, and until his 
disappearance from the stage direct Spanish 
influence .in Artois and Flanders counted 
for very little. Even with the coming of 
Spanish statesmen and soldiers under 
Philip II. the domestic life of the ordinary 
citizen went on pretty much as before, 
and Spanish influence in Arras hardly 
extended to matters of art at any rate not 
to architecture. The Flemish tradition 
continued unimpaired throughout the reigns 
of the three Philips until the restoration 
of Arras to France, and well into the reign 
of Louis XIV. 

The period of the real Spanish domina- 
tion in Arras is thus reduced to something 
less than a century, for although the town 
,was not definitely assigned to France till 
1659, it had been in French possession 
since its capture in 1640 by the armies 
of Louis XIII. During the siege of that 
yea^, and again in 1654, when the Spaniards 
made an attempt to regain possession, the 
houses in both squares were badly damaged, 
a fact referred to by the well-informed 
writer of the ' Michelin Guide ' (1920) : 

The bombardments of 1640 and 1654 demolished 
or seriouslv damaged a large number of the 
houses. Their facades were rebuilt in stone, not, 
as is commonlv believed, in the Spanish, but in 
the Flemish, style (p. 30). 

But this rebuilding did not take place 
immediately. Down to this time most of 
the houses in both squares had been of 

* The belfrv was beerun in 1463, thirtv vears 
before the *' Spanish domination," and finished 
in its original form in 1499. 

12 S. X. JAN. 7. ] 922.1 


timber, but the further erection of wooden 
dwellings had been forbidden in 1574. 
Some houses of stone no doubt existed 
before this time, and one, partly of 
thirteenth- century date, still stands un- 
damaged on the north side of the Grande 
Place. But neither square during the period 
of the Spanish domination bore the appear- 
ance that has since become familiar. Both 
probably presented what M. Drimille calls 
a " pele-mele des maisons en bois et en 
pierre," at once irregular and picturesque, 
without any attempts at order or uniformity. 
It was not till the time of the French 
intendant Chauvelin, in 1670, that the 
alinement of the houses in the squares and 
in the connecting Rue de la Taillerie was 
regulated and fixed, thus converting the 
' ; pele-mele " into a unified yet artistic 
whole. These new houses were faced with 
brick and stone and were of varying design 
and size, but uniform in style. Some few 
of the dwellings erected during the Spanish 
period may have been preserved, and one 
such, at least, belonging to the first decade 
of the seventeenth century, still stands in 
the Rue de la Taillerie. But the majority 
are or were subsequent to 1670 ; one 
still standing in the Petite Place is dated 

M. Camille Enlart's description of these 
houses is worth quoting : 

C'etaient des maisons de briques avec chain- 
ages et encadrements de pierre blanche, et au 
rez-de-chaussee un etroit portique de gres, forme 
d'arcs en anse de panier et de minces colonnes 
doriques. Les maisons avaient chacune deux 
etages superieurs et un pignon ondule, compose 
d'un fronton cintre raccorde a deux grandes 
consoles renversees. Presque toutes ces maisons 
gardaient leurs enseignes de pierre, reproduisant 
celles, bien anterieures, des demeures qu'elles 
avaienfc remplacees (' Arras avant la-Guerre,' p. 14). 

M. Enlart, writing in 1916, uses -the past 
tense, as if everything had been destroyed. 
But the reality, though bad, is not so bad 
as that. There are many houses in the 
Grande Place, especially on the east side, 
that have survived the war, some damaged, 
others intact. Too many, however, have 
disappeared. But all will be rebuilt accord- 
ing to the old design, and where possible 
with the old materials. Already the re- 
construction of the squares is making rapid 

Regarding the architecture of the Grande 
and Petite Places, M. Enlart has this to 

De 1493 a 1640 Arras appartint & 1'Espagne, 
et 1'opinion populaire, qui prend si souvent le 

change, attribuait a 1'art espagnol 1 'architecture 
de ses places. En realite, elles etaient presque 
totalement anterieures ou posterieures a la 
domination de 1'Espagne : la partie visible des 
maisons datant de la seconde moitie du XVIIe 
siecle et leurs caves des Xlle, XHIe, et XI Ve. 
. . . C'est a 1'art des Pays-Bays qu'il fallait 
assimiler toutes les pittoresques facades a 
j pignons des places. Nulle trace dans tout cela 
d'art espagnol." 

Yet so persistent is the " tradition " that 

curious tourists have been known to find 

evidence of Spanish influence in a malformed 

semicircular arch in one of the now exposed 

j cellars of the Petite Place, seeing in it, 

I no doubt, some supposed resemblance to 

j the work of the Moors in Spain ! When 

I once this train of thought is set going it 

I may lead far. So one is not altogether 

' surprised to find in a printed lecture, 

I published by the National Council of the 

I Young Men's Christian Associations, this 

j amazing statement concerning Arras : 

The visitor with architectural interests will 
j find much here to hold his attention for a long 
j time, notably the Moorish Square, &c. 

At what period the belief in the Spanish 
i origin of the seventeenth- century buildings 
in Arras first arose nobody seems to know. 
Victor Hugo, in 1837, speaks of 

deux places curieuses a pignons en volutes dans 
le style flamand-espagnol du temps de Louis XIII., 

but he may only have been repeating what 
he had heard. His reference to the time 
of Louis XIII. is to be remarked. But 
only three years elapsed between the loss 
of Arras by Spain and the death of 
Louis XIII. , and, as we have seen, the houses 
in the squares are generally some thirty 
or forty years later in date. Paul Verlaine, 
whose mother came from Fampoux, a 
village near Arras, speaks of 

la ville aux toits follets 
Poignardant, espagnols, les ciels epars de Flandre 

Taking this as his text M. Henri Potez, in 
a little book on Arras belonging to a series 
called ' Villes meurtries de la France ' 
(1918), writes : 

[Verlaine] repetait avec ingenuite ce qu'il avait 
oui dire. Pour nos peres des ages romantiques 
tout etait espagnol en Artois et dans les Flandres. 
C'est qu'a leur appetit^rien n'6tait beau qui ne 
vtnt de loin, rien ne meritait consideration qui 
ne d^celat une origine exotique. A leurs yeux, le 
clair de lune lui-meme 6tait allemand ! 

This would seem to imply thet, in the 
opinion of M. Potez, the " Spanish tradition " 
in Arras dates only from the time of the 
Romantic movement. It may be so. It 
may be that this popular belief is a gift 



[12 S. X. JAN. 7, 1922. 

to us, with ' Hernani,' from the imaginative 
fancy of the Victor of Romance. 

The newer guide-books, however, are 
discarding the old belief. The *Michelin 
Guide,' as we have seen, throws it over 
altogether. The popular ' Guide Davrinche ' 
seeks a compromise : 

Maisons espagnoles diseiit les uns, hispano- 
flamandes affirment d'autres ; c'est juste, si 
Ton entend par la que les premieres des ces 
maisons datent de la domination espagnole ; 
mais que Ton ne pretende pas y voir une importa- 
tion etrangere : elles sont filles du genie frangais 
et de 1'art artesien. 

But the better course is to say quite 
frankly with M. Enlart, " No trace here of 
Spanish art." F. H. CHEETHAM. 


IN The Times of Dec. 14, 1921, p. 9, c. 5, 

4 Modern Use for Venice Prisons ' is an 
editorial note in which it is stated that 
" The prisons underneath the leaden roof 
of the Doges' Palace, known as the Piombi, 
were destroyed in 1797." 

As to these prisons guide-books are not 
agreed : 

Prom the landing-place from which the Ducal 
apartments are entered, stairs lead to the famous 
Sotto Piombi at the top of the building as their 
name denotes, " under the leads." They were 
formerly used as prisons. . . . Jacopo [sic] 
Casanova was shut up in them in 1775 [true date 
1755-56]. Silvio Pellico was not confined here as 
so often stated. ... A few have been recently 
converted into dwelling apartments ; the others 
are used for lumber rooms. (Murray's * Handbook, 
Northern Italy,' 1874, p. 3-15.) 

The Piombi, or prisons under the leaden roof 
of the Palace, were destroyed in 1797, but have 
'recently again been made accessible. (Baedeker's 
Northern Italy,' 1886, p. 252.) 

From the Anticollegio a staircase leads to the 
famous Piombi, the "Prisons under the leads" 
(not shown) of the suffering in which Jacopo 
'[sic] Casanova, who was imprisoned there in 
1755, has left such a dramatic description. 
Describing his imprisonment in the Piombi, Silvio 
Pellico says . . . [Here follows a quotation (trans- 
lated) from ' Le Mie Prigioni.'] (Augustus J. C. 
Hade's ' Venice,' 1896, p. 52.) 

From the Hall of the Ten . . . there was a 
narrow staircase leading out, by which one could 
go up to the Piombi. . + . Originally there were 
four of them ; but during the revolution in 1797 
three were destroyed and only one preserved 
to act as a reminder. In these prisons Giordano 
Bruno before being handed over to the Inquisi- 
tion was kept ; and later on, Silvio Pellico was 
detained there by the Austrian Government 
before being sent to Spielberg. (' "Venice and 
Neighbourhood,' A. Scrocchi, Editor, Milan, 
Venice, p. 77.) 

Being in Venice in 1889, after one day 
visiting the Pozzi, having heard that the 
Sotto Piombi had been restored, I told one 
of the attendants, or guards, that I wanted 
to visit them. He replied that they had 
been destroyed, and did not exist. The 
same reply from a second man. I made 
my request to a third. A similar reply. 
I answered " But they have been restored." 
He then told me that I should have to get 
leave from the director of the Palace. r'A 
few days later I called at the director's 
office. He at once gave me leave, and 
sent for a man to conduct me. 

Meanwhile, this very polite director told 
me that Casanova's prison room was to 
be seen, also that lately there had been 
found many papers about him, which would 
be published in France. I was taken up 
many flights of stairs by one of the guards. 
I find in my diary : 

I don't think that he [the guard] knew much 
about the t place. However, he showed me the 
prison room of Jacques Casanova. Like most 
of the rest of the Sotto Piombi it appears to be 
quite a restoration. Still, there is a little 
room. ... At the window side it is about 
12 feet [the gther end is smaller]. The window 
is very strongly barred, and looks into the build- 
ing, being some feet away from the outside roof 
wall. The door is undoubtedly old very low 
and very thick, about 6 or 7 inches. It has a 
round hole through it, about 7 inches in diameter, 
and a heavy lock bar on the outside. There is 
not much else to be seen in the way of dun- 
geons. The guard showed me a place which 
he said had been the torture chamber. There 
is a big sort of block (pulley block) in the roof. 

The rough outline in my diary makes 
the window end of the Casanova room 
about 12 feet wide, the opposite end about 
10, the door side about 14, and side oppo- 
site about 13. 

If this room is a reproduction of one occu- 
pied by Casanova, it is probably his second 
cachot, that from which he escaped. 

The assertion in Murray's ' Handbook,' 
that Silvio Pellico was not confined in the 
Sotto Piombi, "as so often stated," is a 
contradiction of what Pellico writes in 
chaps. 22, 39, 44, 47, 49, where he says 
that he was imprisoned there before his 
removal to the prison of San Michele, 
whence, after being sentenced to fifteen 
years imprisonment, he was taken to Spiel- 
berg in Moravia. I am referring to * Mes 
Prisons,' 1838, an abbreviated translation 
of * Le Mie Prigioni.' 


12 S. X. JAN. 7, 1922.] 



(See 12 S. ix. 341, 378, 383, 415. 423, 455, ; 
465, 499, 502, 53*.) 

WE are indebted to MB. E. LONSDALE DEIGH- 

TON for the following more or less travestied ', 

Russian words which were adopted by the ! 

troops serving in Russia and used there as i 

were ''sanfaryan" and "napoo" on the: 

Western Front. 

BARISHNYA (tiapuouu). Strictly an unmarried i 
lady. To Tommy, any " bird." 

Do SVIDANYA ! (40 CBHjaHba). Good-bye ! The I 
Russian expression meaning Au revoir I 

PEANNY (nwawM). Drunk. 

POZHALYSTA (noHjajyiicia). Please. 

SPASSEBA (coacndo). Thanks. 

STARES CHELEVEK (ciapwii Me.iOB'feKi). An old j 
man. A term applied to the C.O., or! 
any other person in authority. 

XAROSHEB (xopouim). (Pronounce " x " as Scottish j 
" eh-") An expression .of satisfaction. | 
Equivalent to Tres bien and as much j 
mutilated in pronunciation. 

YAH NB PANEMIYU (a He noRHMaro). " I dont j 
understand." An expression most fre- 
quently used by Tommy in making love : 
to his barishnya. 

" ZDRASTVTTYE ! " (Contracted very often into 
" Zdrast ! ") The Russian form of greeting 
is " 34pacTByfiie," meaning " Be healthy 1 " 
Adopted by the troops it became the general 
form of greeting among themselves. 
[No English Army Slang will appear in the 

next three numbers of * N. & Q.'] 

EARLY BALL GAMES. In The Daily Mail , 
of Dec. 22, 1921, there appears a reproduc- 
tion of an illustration from a ' Book of ; 
Hours ' (c. 1500) in the British Museum 
representing what looks extraordinarily | 
like a game of golf. This reminded me of a \ 
passage in A. Abram's ' English Life and 
Manners in the Later Middle Ages ' (p. 235), 
as follows : " Other statutes and procla- j 
mations include among unlawful games 
[temp. Rich. II.] . . . cambuc, probably 
a kind of golf, the ball being hit with a i 
curved bat called a bandy." This again | 
reminds me of a game in vogue in the Isle j 
of Man from days of yore locally called j 
cammug. Both the game itself and the ( 
stout curved stick, preferably of gorse, are | 
named cammug. The two names cambuc \ 
and cammug are virtually identical, the j 
labial letter " b " of the one having been j 
softened into the nasal labial " m " of the 
other. If I am not mistaken, cammug j 
differed from both golf and hockey, con- ' 
. sisting, I think, of a trial of strength as to ] 

who should drive the object struck to the 
greatest distance. But I am not sure of 
this, though I am sure there were no holes 
to negotiate as in golf. But certainly there 
is a cousinship between all these various 
games golf, hockey, the game depicted in 
the ' Book of Hours,' cambuc and cammug. 

THE MANOR. An interesting sidelight on 
the social life of the time of James I., and 
incidentally on the comprehensive nature 
of the privileges which it was in the power 
of the lord of the manor to give, is shown 
by the following copy of a paper in my 
possession. It seems extraordinary that 
the amenities of even a small country 
village should be so disregarded as to 
permit such rights to any one person, how- 
ever important he might be locally. John 
Smyth was the steward of the Hundred 
of Berkeley and the writer of the ' Lives of 
the Berkeleys.' 

Wee Sr William Cooke and Sr Thomas Estcourt 
knights executors of the last will and Testament 
of the Bight Honble Henry lord Berkley de- 
ceased, doe hereby, as farre as in us lyeth, grant, 
and give leave unto John Smyth of Nibly in the 
County of Glouc gent, for the better compostinge, 
soylinge, and refreshinge of the arrable lands 
of the said John in Nibly aforesaid, to bringe 
and cast strawe into the streets and highwayes 
their, And the same afterwards to shovell togeather 
on heapes and cary into the arrable grounds of 
the said John, fforbiddinge all others to enter- 
medle in the like in any the streets and high- 
wayes in Nibly aforesaid, without the leave of 
the said John. Witnes our hands, this p'sent 
ixth of May. 1614. THO : ESTCOURT. 



FIELDINGIANA. Leslie Stephen, in his 
essay on Fielding, says : 

Though I do not think that he [i.e. Taine] is at 
his best in discussing the " amiable buftalo," 
Fielding, he makes a criticisir, which may help 
us to a further judgment. 

I do not wish to be hypercritical, but 
I may point out that Taine does not call 
Fielding " an amiable buffalo." He is 
apostrophizing Fielding, and he says, 
" L'homme tel que vous le concevez, est 
un bon buffle." It is also, I should think, 
an open question whether " amiable buffalo " 
is a correct translation of bon buffle. A 
certain elan des sens, a certain bouillonne- 
ment du sang, are included in Taine's 
conception of a good buffalo, as is clearly 
shown by the context. 




[12 S. X.JAN. 7, 1922 1 , 


2. When were first published Benjamin 

biography is not given in the ' D.N.B.' She Disraeli's editions of the following works 
published, on June 16, 1739, a receipt for I by Isaac Disraeli : ' Quarrels of Authors,' 
the cure of the stone and gravel, which I ' Calamities of Authors,' ' Amenities of 
raised considerable dust among the medical j Literature,' and the other works of Isaac 
faculty in this country and abroad judging included in the Routledge seven-volume 
by the 13 entries in the British Museum edition of 1858, with the exception of the 
Catalogue. Parliament, we are told by j ' Curiosities of Literature ' and the ' Com- 
herself, paid her 5,000 to make the receipt j mentaries? on the Reign of Charles I.,' the 
public for the use and benefit of mankind, j first publication dates of which were 1849 
Her medicines were a powder, a decoction j and 1851 respectively? M. T. H. ' S. 

and pills, the powder consisting of egg-shells 
and snails both calcined : while the deqoction 


was made by boiling some herbs (together ! TANQUAM." In The Linguist; or Weekly 
with a ball which consisted of soap, swine's j Instructions in the French and German Lan- 
guages, of April 9, 1825, p. 33, the author 

crosses burnt to a blackness, and honey) in 
water. The ingredients of the pills were also 
snails calcined, with wild-carrot seeds, 
burdock seeds, ashen keys, hips and haws, 
all burnt to blackness, soap and honey. The 
preparation of all three nostrums is described 
in detail, and minute directions are given 
as to how to administer them to the patient. 
The receipt was published on two leaves 
which the binder was directed to place after 
the Tables of Contents at the beginning of a 
12mo book, the title page of which is missing 
in both^ copies I have seen. The title page 

writes : 

The ablest Latin scholar on seeing for the first 
time the well-known puzzling line, " Sunt oculos 
clari qui cernis sidera tanquam," is obliged to give 
it a moment's consideration to arrange the words 
in their logical order, and this operation, which is 
rapidly performed whenever the grammatical 
rules and inflexions of a language are known, 
would be rather impeded than assisted by the 
English, "are eyes bright which thou seest stars 
as," underneath the line. 

Who wrote this " well-known puzzling 
line " 1 The Linguist, in two volumes, 

in the British Museum copy is given in MS. be g an March 26, 1825, and ended March 18, 
as follows : ' The Complete Family Piece I 1826 - The compiler or author was, accord - 
and Country Gentleman's and Farmer's | *ng to a former owner of my copy, and certain 
Guide,' which repeats the sub-titles of the | internal evidence, Daniel Boileau, author of 
three parts or divisions of the little book, [ ' French Homonymes,^&c. ^ 
which was printed in London and sold by 
T. Longman at the Ship in Pater-noster 
Row, 1736 (according to the MS. title, but 


three years before the date of the lady's ! an yne kindly tell me when this painter 
signature at the end of the receipt). At the ! " flourished," and anything about him? 
end of my copy there is a long list of books I M ^ famil y have a painting on wood done by 

sold by J. Clark, the first and last pages of 

It is obviously old, and is entitled 

b. 21). 

L. L. K. 

correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

which are also missing (press mark, 1147! ' View in Holland with Boats and Figures' 

such, at least, is the inscription printed 
on a piece of paper affixed to the back of the 

We have another painting on wood, ap- 
i parently by a Dutchman, of about the period 
| 1640-1690. It depicts a number of figures 
of men and women grouped in various atti- 
tudes around a dog and a well-dressed dwarf. 
It is said by family tradition to represent the 
meeting of some secret or masonic society. 
But there is nothing about the picture by 
which to identify either author or subject. 

21, Park Crescent, Oxford. 

PSALM LXXXIII. Has the extraordinary 
mistake regarding the heading of this psalm 
in the Common Prayer Book been remarked 

DISRAELI QUERIES. 1. ' Ixion in Heaven ' 
and ' The Infernal Marriage.' Were these 
short pieces published in book form prior to 
1853 ? They were published in The New 
Monthly in the early thirties, and in Sep- 
tember, 1853, a letter from Disraeli in 
Monypenny's ' Life ' shows that they had 
recently been issued as a book. 

12 S. X.JAN. 7, 1922.] 



before in * K. & Q.' ? The Latin heading 
of all the other psalms is a translation, i 
roughly, of the opening words. But in the j 
case of the 83rd Psalm the heading, Deus, 
quis similis, has nothing in common with i 
the opening words, " Hold not thy tongue." 
Verse 9 of the 89th Psalm contains the 
words, " Who is like unto thee ? " 


any reader tell me where I can find any [ 
account of this family, of whom Sir William 
de Erghum of Erghum (buried in St. Mary's, j 
Bridlington, in 1347) left by his wife Sybil 
(d. and h. of Sir Henry FitzAucher) three 
sons, William, Ralph and Aucher. 

Is there any pedigree or other account of 
them in any county or local history ? Have 
they been long extinct, and, if so, are they 
represented in the female line ? Burke' s j 
* Armory ' does not mention the name. 


In the account of John Wesley in the 
'D.N.B.' it is stated that the first book j 
he published was a translation of ' The j 
Imitation of Christ,' but no bibliographical 
details are given. In the writer's possession i 
is a leather-bound volume (4f by 2), with I 
the following title page : 

The | Christian's | Pattern : | or, a | Treatise | j 
of the. | Imitation of Christ | Translated from the \ 
Latin of \ Thomas a Kempis. | Compared with 
the Original, and | corrected throughout by j 
John Wesley, M.A., Fellow of Line. Coll. Oxon. \ \ 
London : | Printed for C. Rivington, | at the \ 
Bible and Crown in St. Paul's Church- | Yard. 


A plate faces the title page with a steel 
engraving of Our Lord on the Cross, and 
underneath in italics : 

Christ also suffered, leaving us ' an Example 
yt we should follow his steps. 1st St. Pet. 2., c. 2 I. 

It would be interesting to know if there 
was any earlier edition of this work. 


was published by Joseph Foster a volume of 
' List of Clergy and their Benefices,' embracing 
the years 1800 to 1840 (Oxford, Parker ; 
Cambridge, Macmillan and Bowes). From 
pp. vii. and viii. of the Preface to that 
work, it is evident that the MS. for the 
preceding years, 1540 to 1800, was ready, i 
but I suppose was never printed. 

Wanted to know, the whereabouts of that 
MS. now and the terms on which it may be 
consulted. G. W. 

reader give me the approximate date on 
which the Hotel Vouillemont (now in the 
Rue Boissv cl'Anglas) was opened in Paris ? 

G. F. 

Pio NONO. Will some reader kindly let 
me have the date of the election of Pope 
Pius IX. and the date of his death ? G. F. 

[Pius IX. (Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti) 
was elected June 16, 1846, and crowned June 21. 
He died Feb. 7, 1878.] 

in the relations of Christian Bunsen, Prus- 
sian Ambassador to England 1840-54, to 
various English scholars. I would like^to 
know whether the correspondence of Connop 
Thirlwall is accessible, also that of Christian 

J. J. Perowne, in his Preface to his edition 
of ' Letters of Bishop Thirlwall,' says : "I 
have selected and arranged those I thought 
most likely to be of general interest." I 
am wondering whether he did not omit 
letters exchanged between Thirlwall and 
Bunsen. R. D. OWEN. 


SOUGHT. Information is sought as to bio- 
graphical details of the following water- 
colour artists, samples of whose work occur 
in my collection : 

1. Bernard Evans (landscape). 

2. Ernest Griset (caricature). 

3. J. D. Harding (landscape). 

4. H. A. Harper (landscape). 

5. G. J. Knox (shipping). 

6. R. T. Landells (sea subjects). 

7. Paul Marny (street architecture). 

8. R. H. Nibbs (boats). 

9. C. Pearson (landscape). 

10. E. Pugh (architecture). 

11. N. Pocock (sea subjects). 

12. T. S. Robbins (landscape). 

13. H. R. Rose (figure subjects). 

14. F. P. Searle (landscape). 

15. Marianne Smallpiece (landscape). 

16. J. T. Serres (ships). 

17. E. Tucker (landscape). 

18. B. B. Wadham (landscape). 



one tell me the history of the " Abyssinian " 
cross that was carried in procession at 
Westminster Abbey on Armistice Day ? 

M. A. P. 



[12S. X.JAN. 7, 1922. 

NATHANIEL EATON, President designate 
of Harvard College, was the sixth son of 
the Rev. Richard Eaton, vicar of Budworth, 
Cheshire. What was his mother's maiden 
name ? He is said to have been twice 
married, one of his wives being a daughter 
of Thomas Graves of Virginia. I should 
be glad to obtain the dates and further 
particulars of these two marriages. The 
' D.N.B.,' xvi. 337, does not throw any 
light on these points. G. F. R. B. 

son of the Rev. William Eveleigh, vicar of 
Aylesford, Kent, graduated B.A. at Oxford 
University from Brasenose in 1832. The 
date and place of his death are required. 

G. F. R. B. 

KNIGHT. Who was the Charles Knight j 
mentioned as one of the performers in 1851 ! 
Was he by any chance Charles Parsons | 
Knight, the landscape painter, son of Canon 
William Knight of Bristol ? 


: AN ANAGRAM. Has the 
word " Moliere " ever been explained as an 
anagram similar to " Voltaire " ? 


AUTHORS WANTED. 1. Will anyone kindly en- 
lighten me as to the authorship of the following : 
" He crossed the flood at such a narrow point as 
scarcely to feel the chill," obviously referring to a 
last passage ? Is the quotation verbally correct ? 


2. Can any of your readers kindly oblige with the 
author of the following lines : 

" A heart at leisure from itself 
To soothe and sympathise." 

C. L. H. 

[From a poem by Anna Laetitia Waring, 

" Father, I know that all my life 

Is portioned out for me," 

which may be found in several collections e.g., 
* Poems of the Inner Life " (Sampson Low).] 

3. Some years ago, when in the British Museum, 
in perusing a volume of poems there was one that 
Appealed to me. The theme was faithfulness 
After loss of the loved one, and each stanza ended 
with the word " Instead," in the sense that none 
other would do instead. I think the writer was 
of the Victorian period, but as I mislaid my note 
about the poem and am without the name or the 
first line, I am unable to find it by knowledge of 
the last word in a sense contrary to the literal 

If any of your readers can guide me to this 
poem by furnishing name and author I will be 
very much obliged. FITZ-MINSTRELLE. 



(12 S. ix. 490.) 

THE lady referred to in The European Maga- 
zine was Lady Mary Elizabeth King, third 
daughter of the second Earl of Kingston. 
Two accounts of the tragedy referred to are 
known to me, one in the ' Memoirs of the 
Comtesse de Boigne ' (vol. i., p. 119), 
the other in a modern compilation, * Love 
Romances of the Aristocracy,' by Thornton 
Hall, barrister -at -law. It is also cautiously 
referred to by Sir Jonah Barrington in his 
' Personal Sketches ' (vol. i., p. 196). The 
Comtesse's account is that of a contempo- 
rary and she was a personal friend and 
claims deep affection for Lady Mary King. 
At the same time her recollections were 
written down without notes and there are 
obvious omissions in her account of the 
tragedy. Briefly, she tells us that Lady 
Mary at the age of about 18 eloped with 
Colonel Fitzgerald, who was the natural 
son of her mother's brother and therefore 
her cousin in blood. Fitzgerald was a 
colonel in the Guards, tall, handsome, and 
popular. He was about 30, was married, 
and had been Mary's playfellow since she 
was a child. This fatal infatuation seized 
these two otherwise excellent persons and 
they were found at a house in Kennington, 
where Mary, dressed in boy's clothes, was 
waiting to embark for America with her 
lover. There was an inconclusive duel 
in Hyde Park between Colonel Fitzgerald 
and Colonel King, Mary's brother. She 
was enceinte, and her family hurried her off 
to a lonely house belonging to her father, 
on the shores of the Atlantic in the west of 
Ireland. According to the Comtesse, Mary 
feared for the life of the child she was about 
to bring into the world, and she induced 
the woman who was in charge of her to agree 
to send a letter to Colonel Fitzgerald begging 
him to send a reliable agent to the nearest 
village to take away the child. The woman 
gave up the letter to her father, then Vis- 
count Kingsborough, and he used it as a 
means to entrap Fitzgerald. The letter was 
allowed to go to him, for the father suspected 
that Fitzgerald would come for the child him- 
self. He did, alone, and disguised. He 
was murdered by Mary's father and 
brothers, and the letter and Mary's minia- 
ture found on him were brought to her 

12S. X.JAN. 7, 1922.] 




covered with his blood. She was delivered 
of a stillborn child and went raving mad, 
so that it was necessary to place her under 
forcible restraint. 

Mr. Thornton Hall's version is more 
favourable to the unhappy girl's family. 
According to him Co'onel Fitzgerald followed 
her to Mitchelstown Castle, the family seat 
in County Cork, not to receive the child, but 
to car y out a second elopement. Lord 
Kingsborough and his son heard of his pre- 
sence in disguise, went to his hotel and burst 
in the door of his room, on which a desperate 
struggle took place. Fitzgerald had pointed 
a pistol at Colonel King's head and was about 
to fire when Lord Kingsborough shot him 
dead. Lady Mary was not insane, but was j 
sent to the family of a Welsh clergyman, 
where she lived under an assumed name. 
.She recovered her old health and gaiety 
and married the clergyman, who was a 

Colonel Fitzgerald's wife demanded ven- 
geance for his death, but the family were 
too strong for vengeance to reach them. 
Colonel King was tried at Cork Assizes in 
April, 1798, but acquitted, as no one came 
forward to prosecute. A month later his 
father, who had in the interval succeeded 
to the Earldom of Kingston, was brought 
to trial by his peers, but found " Not 
guilty," as no one appeared to prosecute. 
Mr. Thornton Hall describes this trial as 
taking place at Westminster, but it is clear 
from Sir Jonah Barrington's narrative that it 
took place in the chamber of the Irish House 
of Commons on College Green. The Com- 
tesse de Boigne declares that the Earl and 
his son aroused " great indignation " and 
" general opprobrium " by their action. Sir 
Jonah Barrington says that he had a " high 
regard " for the Earl, and Mr. Thornton 
Hall says that he was welcomed by con- 
gratulating friends. 

As to Lady Mary King's fate, it is clear 
that the Comtesse's story is inaccurate, and 
that Mr. Hall's is nearer the truth if not 
exactly correct. Burke records that Lady 
Mary Elizabeth King married, in April, 1805 
(about eight years after the death of Fitz- 
gerald), George G. Meares, Esq. (whose ad- 
dress is given in Debrett as Richmond 
Place, Clifton, Co. Gloucester). She died in 
1819, leaving three sons and three daughters. 
Apparently the Gloucestershire layman has 
been metamorphosed into the Welsh clergy - 
man - R. S. PENGELLY. 

12, Poynders Road, Clapham Park. 

181, 202, 225). It may interest MB. DUG- 
DALE SYKES and perhaps others if I quote 
from an entry made in one of my note- 
books on Elizabethan dramatic subjects, 
the entry having been made not later than 
1918, probably in 1917 : 

Anything for a Quiet Life Middleton and 
Webster. Middleton II., III., IV. 2, 3, V. la (to 
George's entry), 3; Webster I., IV. 1, V. lb, 2. 
The Webster in I. from. Knavesby's entrance and 
in V. 2, and IV. 1, is very characteristic. I have 
much more doubt in considering the other author 
Middleton. The work does not bear many of 
his marks ; but I think it is his nevertheless. 

It will be seen that I divided the final 
act into three scenes, whereas Mr. Sykes, 
doubtless following Dyce, divides it into 
two only. As I have not the play by me, 
I cannot say to what extent I differ from 
him in regard to that Act. As for the 
rest of the play, he gives no reason for his 
belief that the earlier part of IV. ii. is 
Webster's ; but I am very ready to admit 
that he has made out a good case for adding 
II. i. amd III. i., or at least a share in them, 
to the scenes which so long ago I credited 
to Webster. 

In reference to Mr. Sykes' s remark regard- 
ing * Appius and Virginia,' another memo 
in my notebook, dating probably about 
1914, sets down my idea of the authorship 
as " Webster and (?) Heywood." This 
was before I had seen any attribution of the 
play to Heywood. Another entry which I 
find in my notebook, attributing ' The 
Bloody Banquet' to Middleton and (?) 
Dekker, indue 3S me to suggest that Mr. 
Sykes should turn his undoubted enthusiasm 
and energy to that play. I pointed out 
years ago in an article in Modern Philology 
(Jan., 1911) that external evidence favoured 
Dekker' s authorship, and the discovery of 
Anthony a Wood's play-list (Mod. Lang. 
Rev., Oct., 1918) has confirmed that view. 
One scene is really like him ; but so much 
of the rest of the play as is not Middleton's 
is not very characteristic. I am not aware 
that, except for any unpublished effort, 
any attempt has been made to solve the 
authorship of this play. 


PBAYEB (12 S. ix. 508 ). -" Debt" is defined 
in the ' N.E.D.' as " That which is owed 
or due"; "Obligation to do something, 
duty." " Trespass " is the same as trans- 
gression, a going beyond the limits of duty 
to God or man, hence its use as denoting 



[12 S. X. JAX. 7, 1922. 

violation of duty. The word in the Prayer 
Book has been adopted from the primers that 
were familiar to all in the sixteenth century, 
primers into which it was doubtless taken 
from the older English versions of St. 
Matthew vi. 64, e.g., Wyclif, 1382; Tyndale, 

There are seven old English versions of I 
the Lord's Prayer in Blunt's ' Annotated 
Prayer Book' (1866), vol. i., pp. 30, 31. 
The first in which " trespasses " occurs is 
taken from the primer of 1538. A French j 
Bible (S.P.C.K., 1906) has " nos offenses." 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

In the first edition of the English Prayer ! 
Book, that of 1549, the Lord's Prayer | 
corresponds exactly with the version in our 
present Liturgy, except that there is no 
doxology. The names of the compilers, 
headed by that of Archbishop Cranmer, i 
may be seen at the beginning of Jeremy ! 
Taylor's ' Apology for Authorized and Set | 
Forms of Liturgy.' Mullinger, in his ' His- 1 
tory of the University of Cambridge,' 
ii. 102, says that of the thirteen (Taylor! 
names twelve) all but one had been edu- 
cated at Cambridge. 

But the " trespass " form of the fifth 
petition occurs already in Tyndale's ' Newe 
Testamente,' 1526, where, in St. Matthew 
vi., we have " And forgeve vs oure treas- 
pases, even as we forgeve them which 
treaspas vs." 

The revisers of the New Testament were 
justified in their rendering "as we also 
have ^forgiven," since they were translating 
not aJHtftev but d<f>r)Kafj,v. See the text . of 
St. Matthew vi. 12, in Tischendorf or 
Westcott and Hort. EDWARD BENSLY. 

The English version of the 'Paternoster, 
which appeared in ' A Necessary Doctrine 
and Erudition for any Christian Man,' 
commonly called ' The King's Book,' in 
1543, and in the editions of ' The Book of 
Common Prayer ' of 1549 and 1552, seems 
to have been based on Tyndale's translation 
of the New Testament, which was published 
in 1525. This English version is still used 
by English-speaking Roman Catholics, with 
two slight modifications, viz., " which ari>" 
has been modernized into " who art " and 
"in earth" into "on earth" (the fifth 
petition remaining unchanged). It owed its 
general acceptance by the nation, as Fr. 
Tburston has pointed out in the ' Catholic 

Encyclopedia,' to an ordinance of 1541, 
according to which 

his Grace perceiving now the great diversity of 
the translations [of the Pater noster, etc.] hath 
willed them all to be taken up, and instead of 
them hath caused an uniform translation of the 
said Pater noster, Are, Creed, etc., to be set 
forth, willing all his loving subjects to learn and 
use the same and straitly commanding all parsons, 
vicars and curates to read and teach the same 
to their parishioners. 

From this it appears that no change, so- 
far as the fifth petition is concerned, has 
ever been made " in the Liturgy of the 
Church of England." In its present form 
it has been in the Prayer Book from the 

509). This highly popular quotation is to- 
be seen in a book published in the 
year before the first issue of John Owen's 
' Epigrammata,' namely, in Bacon's ' Ad- 
vancement of Learning ' (1605), Book II. 
xxiii. 12. But it can be traced back to a 
much earlier date. It is clearly referred 
to in Cornelius Agrippa's ' De Vanitate 
Scientiarum,' cap. xxxi., ' De Astro logia 
judiciaria ' : 

Mendacium mendacio tegunt, inquientes : Sapi- 
entem dominari astris, cum reyera nee astra 
sapient i, nee sapiens astris, sed utrisque dominetur 

The words an found a few years earlier in 
Giovanni Nevizzano's ' Sylva Nuptialis,' 
Lib. ii., sect. 97 : 

Dicit tamen Bal. in c. j. ut lite pend. quod 
sapiens dominabitur astris. 

I have not Baldus's commentaries by me, 
but if the phrase is quoted by him this takes 
us back to the fourteenth century. The 
Latin saying, however, has a Greek original. 
Aldis Wright's note on the passage referred 
to .above in the ' Advancement of Learning ' 
(ed. 1873) is : 

Mr. Ellis [ = B. L. Ellis, co-editor of Bacon's 
Works] says, " This sentence is ascribed to Ptolemy 
by Cognatus." Compare ' Albumazar,' i. 7. 

There is no need to rummage in Ptolemy. 
Jeremy Taylor gives the words we want in. 
the margin of his ' Life of Jesus Christ,' 
Part III., sect. xiii. 24 : 

Avvarai 6 eVio-nfyzo);/ TroAXd? dwoa-Tpe^at 
fvepyeias TU>V dcrrepwv. Ptolem. 

Taylor's annotator, C. P. Eden, vol. ii., 
p. 588, adds the reference, Carp. 5, p. 55. 
The edition which Eden used was the 
Niirnberg one, 1535, of Te7-pai/3Aoy and 

With respect to the metrical nature of the 

12 S. X. JAX. 7. 1922.1 


Latin version, is it certain that it is taken j 
from a Latin poem ? Even if occurring in I 
such, may not the proverbial phrase have 
been independently couched in a metrical 
form ? One finds so many Latin mottoes, 
which are presumably not quotations, 
shaped like parts of hexameters. The 
future tense domindbitur, apart from its 
metrical convenience, could be explained 
as an example of the same tendency which \ 
we get in " Love will find out a way," and 
which has perhaps been at work in- pro- j 
ducing the misquotation " Magna est veri- j 
tas et praevalebit," though some other j 
possible reasons for this change were j 
suggested at 11. S. x. 494. 

Much Hadham, Herts. EDWARD BENSLY. 

GEORGE TRAPPE (12 S. ix. 354). 
C.A.F.H.A.R.I.N. should be CATHARIN, as j 
the " Kayserinn " is Catharine II. of Russia, j 
Shortly after the incorporation in the j 
Russian Empire of the Government of ; 
Taurida, which includes the Crimean penin- 
sula, a number of Mennonites from Priissia 
were settled in the new territory. The sect : 
of Mennonites was derived from the Ana- 
baptists under the influence of the Frisian 
reformer Menno Simonis (Menno, Simon's 
son), who was born in 1496. 


THE GENDER OF " SHIP " (12 S. ix. 511). 
In the same way many other things without 
life are regarded as feminine. Ringers call : 
a church bell " she " and " her." Cooks I 
an oven, as in the riddle, " When is an oven 
not an oven ? When she's agate " (a-going, ' 
baking). A football ("chuck her up "), j 
a ladder, a pianoforte, anything that one ! 
makes use of and regards with affection. 

It is the same in Hebrew, in which many 
things used by men are denoted by nouns 
feminine. It was suggested in the earlier ; 
editions of * Davidson's Grammar ' that this i 
might be " with reference to woman as the 
serviceable inferior sex." This explanation 
does not appear in the later editions, but j 
while it stood, one of my pupils gallantly 
asked me whether the feminine gender j 
might not rather denote " affectionate 

Cities, countries, &c., are often feminine, 
and may be regarded as mothers of their 

Names of things productive, unseen ' 
essences, &c., are feminine in Hebrew, as I 
sun, earth, fire, soul. J. T. F. 

WinUTttm. Lines. 

1. Fountain (12 S. vi. 61 ; vii. 465 ; ix. 474). 
I beg to thank MR. McMuRRAY for his cor- 
rections, which are noted. On turning to 
the revised MS. lists I find no entry such 
as appeared at the second reference, having 
reason apparently to doubt its accuracy. 

2. Mourning Bush (12 S. vi. 61 ; ix. 474). 
I am likewise obliged to MR. McMuRRAY for 
pointing out that this house stood in Alders - 
gate ; I discovered the mistake shortly after 
passing the proof. 

3. Pie Tavern (12 S. ix. 386, 499). The 
authority for this entry is an item in a book- 
seller's catalogue offering a " unique collec- 
tion of 10 old Water-colour Drawings of Old 
Inns and Taverns in the North of London." 
The detailed list ends with the note, " At 
the back of the drawing of The Cock is a 
letter, addressed to the gentleman for whom 
the drawings were made, dated from 
'Hackney, 26th day of August, 1762,' and 
signed H. R." I delayed answering MR. 
POWER in the hope of being able to make an 
inquiry respecting the possible whereabouts 
of this collection, but it has been impracti- 
cable to give the necessary time. If Mr. 
Power cares to send me his address I should 
be pleased to let him have the excerpt from 
the catalogue to institute his own in- 

4. Cannon Coffee-house (12 S. ix. 517). 
I thank MR. BLEACKLEY for his information ; 
this house was " listed " at 12 S. vi. 59. 

5. Philazers' Coffee-house (12 S. vi. 126). 
The sole authority I can find for this house is 
G. A. Sala's ' W T illiam Hogarth ? (1866, at 
p. 128), where says the author : 

I delight to fancy that the successful party 
[in the litigation] straightway adjourned to the 
Philazers' Coffee-house, in Old Palace Yard, and 
there, after a slight refection of hung beef and 
Burton ale, betook themselves to steady potations 
of Lisbon wine in magnums. 
What further authority is there for the 
existence of this house ? I should be obliged 
for any assistance ; having never met with it 
in any " coffee-house literature," I am 
wondering whether I have been the dupe of 
a gifted writer who possessed a remakably 
fertile imagination. 


(12 S. ix. 461, 513). The funeral of Sir 
Christopher Mings forms the subject of a 
brilliant little sketch by Colonel Drury, 
' A Deputation from the Lower Deck,' 



[12S. X.JAN. 7, 1922. 

published in his ' Men-at-Arms ' (Chapman 
a,na Hall, Ltd., 1906). Colonel Drury 
writes with justifiable warmth : 

Oliver Cromwell had buried Admiral Blake with 
splendour in Westminster Abbey : Nelson, in a 
later age, was accorded a national funeral in 
St. Paul's. Let it be remembered to Charles II. 's 
lasting shame that he permitted the gallant 
Myngs to be borne to the tomb with as little 
ceremony as an obscure pauper. 

Neglected at his death, the gallant sailor 
has long been forgotten. England has 
produced so many great men that some are 
forgotten who would rank amongst the 
honoured heroes of a nation not blessed 
with the genius of the Anglo-Saxon, and 
one is tempted to wish for a society which 
would devote itself to rescuing great but 
forgotten Englishmen from oblivion. 

23, Weighton Road, Anerley. 

(12 S. ix. 309). I cannot altogether agree 
with C. W B. that literary allusions and 
quotations are not numerous in the Works 
of Dickens. It seems to me he was rather 
fond of a certain humorous type of character 
who is continually larding his speech with 
fragmentary quotations from songs, plays 
and other light literature. This type is 
at least as old as Beaumont and Fletcher's 
' Knight of the Burning Pestle.' Examples 
in Dickens are Jingle in ' Pickwick ' ; 
Vincent Crummies in ' Nicholas Nickleby ' ; 
Dick Swiveller in ' The Old Curiosity Shop,' 
and Silas Wegg in ; Our Mutual Friend.' 
The two last named both quote trom ' The 
Beggar's Opera.' In 'The Old Curiosity 
Shop,' chap. Ixv., Dick Swiveller exclaims : 

" Speak, sister, speak, pretty Polly say." 
and in the following chapter : 

"Since laws were made for every degree, to 
curb vice in others as well as in me and so forth, 
you know doesn't it strike you in that light ? " 

In ' Our Mutual Friend,' Book III., 
chap, xiv., Silas Wegg addresses Mr. Venus : 

" For, as the song says subject to your cor- 
rection, sir 

When 'the heart of a man is depressed with cares, 
The mist is dispelled if Venus appears. 

Like the notes of a fiddle you sweetly, sir, sweetly, 
.Raises our spirits and charms our ears." 


^WILLIAM SPRY OP EXETER (12 S. ix. 511). 
Several members of the Harston family 
had Spry as a Christian name. This might 
-assist C. H. S. CECIL CLARKE. 

Junior Athenaeum Club. 

472, 518). MR. T. PERCY ARMSTRONG says : 
" No doubt in a vagabond life like Verlaine's 
there is an opening for literary discovery." 
It may be news to many readers of Ver- 
laine's works that the author's, so-called 
" vagabond life " has been very much 
exaggerated by all his biographers. Verlaine 
was a good actor on and off the literary 
stage, and, as Gustave Vapereau justly 
remarked, his great ambition was to be 
advertised and widely known as a nine- 
teenth-century Villon, without making any 
allowances for the distance of time. In 
fact, Verlaine intended at one time to write 
a "biographical study" of the old French 
" vagabond " poet. 

Paul Verlaine in reality heartily detested 
a long residence in a country district. The 
fields and meadows were all very well in 
the summer, he said, but the long winter 
months in such places were only suitable 
for natives of the soil. His principal object 
in coming -to England was to secure a 
French literature lectureship at an im- 
portant educational institution in London. 
He made applications for positions at King's 
College, University College, and a ladies' 
college near Cavendish Square, but having 
no influence all his efforts were fruitless. 
He even afterwards wrote to W. E. Glad- 
stone with reference to a position in the 
British Museum library, and to Thomas 
Carlyle about the London Library, but 
received no replies. 

Paul Verlaine is sometimes credited with 
having contributed numerous anti-English 
articles to Parisian newspapers, but he told 
my uncle and brother that this information 
was without foundation. He had no personal 
ill-feeling against the English, and the 
few essays on England he wrote were 
published with his own name. 


36, Sornerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

HATCHMENTS (12 S. ix. 310, 337, 377, 397, 
433, 476, 497). Sixty years since there were 
many of these hanging above the arches in 
the Galilee, Durham. I have a photograph 
which shows them. And they have left 
their marks on the walls. They were cer- 
tainly not all peers' coats of arms. 

Some years ago I asked the sub-verger, 
Mr. Thos. Atkinson, what had become of 
the hatchments. He said, " They are in the 
triforium like a vast else." 

About the year 1857 I remember a hatch- 
ment over the door of a house in the Bailey, 

12S. X. JAX. 7. 19-22.] 



Durham, which belonged to the Shipperdson 
family of the Hermitage, near Durham 
a county family but not a peer's. Also, | 
I think, on one of the houses in the College, j 
Durham. M. E. A. P. 


CHRISTMAS (12 S. ix. 489). M. Thiers, in | 
his ' Traite aes Superstitions, 1 i. 316, j 
says that he has known people who pre- i 
serve all the year such eggs as are laid on 
Good Friday, "which they think are good! 
to extingiush fires in which they may be 

Brand, in 'Popular Artiquities ' (1849), 
i. 174, says, " Lebrun, in his ' Superstitions et modern es,' says that some 
people keep eggs laid on Good Friday all 
the year round." ROBERT GOWER. 

(12 S. ix. 470). The following may interest; 
MR. MACDONALD. In ' Poor Robin's Alma- ! 
nack' for 1677, on the back of the title page ! 
the Star-Gazer professes to show " the [ 
time when schoolboys should play at i 

The following also appears in the same j 
publication for 1707 :- 

Lawyers and physitians have little to do this 
month, therefore they may (if they will) play at i 

Again in 1740 : 

The fifth house tells yo ... when it is the 
most convenient time for an old man to play at i 
Scotch-hoppers amongst the boys. 


EARLY STANDARDS (12 S. ix. 388). In I 
Ingledew's ' History of Northallerton ' 
(1858), facing p. 12, is a plate with figures 
of the standard used at the Battle of the , 
Standard from Aelred's ' Historia de bello i 
Standardi,' taken from Twysden's ' Decem ! 
Scriptores.' WILLIAM BROWN. 

(12 S. ix. 353). In a ' Collection of Sundry 
Statutes, frequent in use, edited by Francis j 
Pulton of Lincolnes Inne, Esquire, and 
printed at London in 1636,' cap. x. is 
headed : " The punishment of a Juror 
that is ambidexter, and taketh money." 

432, 474). Classical scholars can doubtless 
give instances even earlier than this : 

The exaggerations of Antiphanes, a Thracian 

born at Berge in that region, were so notorious, 
and the fame of his character for trumping up 
fables and incredible narratives so widespread, 
that things of that kind came to be spoken of as 
" Bergean " stories ; and the word Bergaizein 
was coined to express the habit of " drawing the 
long bow." ('Some Physiological Phantasies of 
Third Century Repute ' (B. G. Corney), Pro- 
ceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1913- 
1914, vii., Section of the History of Medicine, at 
p. 226.) 

As to the second half of query : Eponyms 
form a rich mine into which a series of 
shafts has been started by Sir D'Arcy 
Power in The British Journal of Surgery r 
1921, ix. ; the first two (Colles) July, 
pp. 4-6 ; (Baker) October, pp. 200-203 
have already brought much original ore 
to the siirface. ROCKINGHAM. ^ 

Boston, Mass. 

PHARAOH AS SURNAME (12 S. ix. 407, 
454, 537). Your correspondent of the 
issue of Nov. 19 (p. 407) who refers to 
" Pharaoh " as a surname reminds me that 
" Ptolemy " is a surname familiar to the 
County of Grey, Ontario, Canada ; and I 
remember, also, some years ago, hearing at 
an assize court in the same district the name 
of " Julius Caesar " called out as a juror, 
whereupon an amused spectator exclaimed 
audibly (much to the scandal of the court),. 
" Why, I thought he died about 1,800 years 
ago ! " A. T. W, 

THE HOUSE OF HARCOURT (12 S. ix. 409, 
453, 495, 514). Your correspondent should 
consult La Roque's 'Histoire de la Maison 
de Harcourt.' It is a colossal work and he 
will find it in the British Museum Library. 

Udney Hall, Teddington. 

In the ' Histoire des Expeditions mari- 
times des Normands,' by Deeping, " ouvrage 
couionne par PAcademie," there is a long 
detailed account of the adventurous career 
of Rollon or Hollo. Deeping says that there 
is no manner of doubt that he was a Nor- 
wegian. His father was Rognevald, the 
Jarl of Mcere, one of the most powerful of 
the Norwegian nobles, who was directly 
descended through his grandmother from 
the oldest kings of Norway. His pedigree 
is given in * Histoire de Norvege,' by Schcen- 
ing. He died and was buried at Rouen in 

Bouillet, in his ' Dictionnaire universelle,' 
states : 

Harcourt, maison noble de France, remonte au 
neuvieme siecle et reconnait pour fondateur 



| }-2 S. X. .IAX. 7, 1922. 

Bernard le Danois qui etait parent du chef 
Normand Rollo, et qui recut de lui la terre 
xl'Harcourt en recompense des services qu'il lui 
avait rendus dans ses guerres centre les Anglais 
et les Neustriens (876). 

Bernard died 955. He married Sprothe 
or Sprota, a daughter of Hubert, Comte de 
;Senlis ; and William, the son of Rollo, 
married another daughter. Rollo is the 
hero in Wace's ' Roman, de Rou.' 

William the Conqueror was aware of the 
Norwegian origin of his family, and this is 
^alluded to in Houard's ' Traite sur les 
Coutumes anglo-normandes ' (tome L). 


Swallowfield Park, Reading.' 

THOMAS EDWARDS, LL.D. (12S. ix. 511). 
* Croydon in the Past,' by Jessie W. Ward 
(1883), mentions two persons of this name to 
whom memorials are erected : 

1. Thomas Edwards, d. May 4, 1824, aged 32, 
and two children ; in St. John's churchyard. 

2. Thomas Edwards, late of Llanfyllion, 
Montgomeryshire, d. Oct. 22, 1881, aged 78; 
in the cemetery, on the Nonconformist burial- 

Lempriere's ' Biographical Dictionary ' 
(1808) gives three Thomas Edwards, all of 
them writers. 

Probably the one of whom information 
is sought is Thomas Edwards, poet and 
critic cf eminence, b. 1699, d. Jan. 3, 1757. 
He purchased Turrick ( ? Terrick) in Bucks, 
where he usually resided. His poetry, 
specimens of which will be found in 
Dodsley's and Nichols's collections, is 
said to be simple, elegant and pathetic ; 
his criticisms exact, acute and temperate. 
His ' Canons of Criticism ' were first printed 
in 1747 under the title of " A Supplement 
to Dr. Warburton's Shakspeare ' and 
did him great credit both as a critic and 
scholar. He died on a visit to his friend 
Richardson, at Parsons Green, on th3 date 
before mentioned. L. H. CHAMBERS. 


[A pleasant essay on Thomas Edwards, the 
critic, will be found in Austin Dobson's last 
book, 'Later Essays,' reviewed at 12 S. viii. 199.] 

GRAVER (12 S. i. 287, 417). The original 
drawings by Moses Griffith for Plates vi., 
viii. s,nd xxi. of ' Flora Scotica ' (Light- 
foot, 1777) are now in the Botanical Library, 
British Museum (Natural History). The 
last- mentioned one is on vellum, was not 
reversed as weie the others, and differs 
slightly from the engraving. 


(12S.iii. 347,462; iv. 28, 143).The follow- 
ing appeared in The Daily Chronicle, Dec. 16, 
1921 : 

George Panter, who has just died at Leighton 
Buzzard, carried to his grave the scars of burns 
received as a chimney-boy. He was apprenticed 
to chimney sweeping when nine years old, and 
had a strict master who drove him up hot chimneys 
with a stick. 

" Oliver Twist " nearly became a " climb- 
ing boy." J. ARDAGH. 

vi. 271 ; vii. 18 ; ix. 293). Perhaps some 
further particulars may be added respecting 
Admiral Duquesne, by far the greatest 
name in French naval history, whose 
achievements are but little known to 
Englishmen, even Clowes dismissing him 
as " an able and experienced seaman, but 
a quarrelsome man." Charnock, however, 
does full justice to his honesty and talents. 
I can remember a life-size statue cast of 
him in full uniform which stood formerly 
in the central nave of the Crystal Palace 
among the celebrities of different epochs. 

The formation of a first-class Navy by 
Louis XIV. and the construction of the 
arsenal at Toulon in 1680 took place about 
the date of Duquesne' s three battles with 
the Dutch. On Jan. 8, 1676, he worsted, off 
the Li pari Isles, De Ruyter,*the commander 
who had proved himself so formidable an 
adversary of the English general -admirals, 
Duke of York, Prince Rupert, Monck, 
Sandwich, Spragge even Blake began ser- 
vice in the Army, though he of course 
belongs to the Commonwealth period 
and though the issue was indecisive, it 
enabled Duquesne to enter Messina, which 
was then block ded by a Spanish force. 
After refitting, he sailed out and convoyed 
a squadron of supply ships to the be- 
leaguered city, and then on April 22 fought 
a closely contested battle with De Ruyter 
off Etna, in which the latter was so severely 
wounded that he died the following week. 
On June 2 following, Duquesne signally 
defeated the Dutch and Spanish fleets off 
Palermo ; but for these invaluable services 
all that he received from Louis XIV. was 
the empty title of Marquis and a sword of 
honour, a marshal's baton being refused 
him because he would not abjure the 

* The De of this name is not French " of," but 
the Dutch " the " (German derj ; the admiral's 
patronymic, therefore, signified '" The Freebooter," 
or " The Bid( r." 

12 S. X. JAN. 7. 1922.] 



Protestant faith. Though he was excepted 
from banishment under the Revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes, his sons had to resign 
their commissions in the Army and Navy. 
After his death his body was refused 
honourable sepulture, but his son Henri 
erected a statue to his memory at Geneva 
(see Charnock, ' History of Naval Archi- 
tecture,' vo ! . ii., pp. 311-13). 

For copious biographies of Duquesne and | 
Renau see Larousse ; and for a description j 
of the " hell-burner," or infernal machine j 
invented by the Italian, Giambelli, and 
used to destroy the Duke of Parma's bridge 
over the Scheldt during the siege of Ant- 
werp, see Motley, ' History of the United I 
Netherlands,' vol. i., pp. 190-97. 

The bomb -ketch must have been intro- j 
duced into the British Navy between 1684 \ 
and 1688, as it is not noticed in the enumera- j 
tion of vessels given by Charnock, vo 1 . ii., 
pp. 422-25. Boats of this description took 
part in the battle of Copenhagen (1801), 
where they were placed in a row behind the 
line of warships and fired their mortars 
over them into the town and fortifications. 
They were also used ineffectively by Nelson j 
in his unsuccessful attack on the Boulogne j 
flotilla of invasion in August of the same 
year ; but in the bombardment of Sve iborg 
in 1855 they did excellent service ; for 
these occasions see the volumes of Clowes. 

Berkeley, Cal. 

N. W. 1 HILL. 

DOMINOES (12 S. ix. 447). As to the 
material of which Napier's " bones " were 
composed, the following may be quoted 
from The Standard newspaper of Oct. 5, 

The first calculating machine ever invented 
is to be put on the market shortly by Messrs. 
Sotheby. The parent of the modern slide-rule 
is known as " Napier's Bones." It was the 
device of John Napier, Baron of Merchiston, who 
invented the present notation of decimal fractions 
and the canon of logarithms. . . . " Napier's 
Bones " are wooden and metal numbering rods, 
and by manipulating them in conjunction with 
some numbered metal plates a calculator was able 
to add, subtract, divide, and multiply large 
numbers with much greater speed than the un- 
assisted brain allowed. 

In William Lilly's ' History of his Life 
and Times,' he says, " Lord Merchiston 
was a great lover of astrology " ; and the 
edition ol 1822 contains a portrait of Napier 
in the act of manipulating his invention 
4 ' from a rare print by Delaram." 

W. B. H. 

TURNER FAMILY (12 S. v. 94, 249 ; viii. 
238, 299). Notwithstanding the notes at 
the above references, and searches that have 
been made, I have not yet been able to 
connect the family of Turner of Martholme 
and Altham with that of Manchester and 
Wilmslow, and as I feel convinced that the 
information required can only be supplied 
from private records, I again appeal to 
readers of ' N. & Q.' who may have any 
genealogical data regarding Turner families 
to help me if they can. 

The first of the family of whom I have 
record Was Robert Turner of Martholme, 
in 1687. He was buried at Great Harwood 
Church, Dec. 2, 1727. The name of his 
wife is not known, but he left, with other 
issue, a son, Thomas Turner of Martholme, 
a trustee of township charities in 1743 and 
1759. He married and had issue : - 

1. Margaret Turner, born 1723, died 1790. 
She married, firstly, Giles Hoyle of Altham 
Hall; secondly, Thomas Royston of Great 

2. William Turner of Martholme, of whom 
presently (I.). 

3. Thomas Turner of Altham Hall; 
bpt. at Great Harwood, Aug. 13, 1731 ; 
died April 10, 1812 (II.). 

4. Robert Turner of Blackburn ; died Oct. 
17, 1811 (III.). 

5. Jennet Turner ; bpt. at Great Har- 
wood, Nov. 1, 1738. 

6. John Turner, M.D. , of Hobstones, Colne. 
William, Thomas and Robert built up 

a large business in calico-printing in the 
vicinity of Blackburn. 

I. William Turner, of Martholme, born 
1727, married Jane, daughter of William 
Mitchell, or Robinson, of Hoarstones, in 
Pendle Forest, on Jan. 3, 1753. He died 
May 22, 1782, aged 55, having had issue : 

1. Thomas Turner, born 1755, died 1781. 

2. Robinson Turner, born 1757, died 1761. 

3. William Turner, born 1758, died 1796 
(of Mart holme). 

4. James Turner, born 1759, of Carter 
Place, Haslingden. He married Mary, dau. 
of Ralph Ellison, gentleman, of Accriiigton, 
and died May 30, 1822. 

5. John Turner ; bpt. at Great Harwood, 
Sept. 21, 1761. 

6. Edward Turner ; bpt. at Great Har- 
wood, Feb. 4, 1766 ; of Woodlands, near 
Manchester. He married Alice 

He died May 26, 1833, and was buried at 
St. Mark's, Cheetham Hill. She died 
March 26, 1830. 



[12S. X. JAN. 7, 1922. 

7. Robinson Turner ; bpt. at Great Har- 
wood, July 13, 1769 ; died Nov. 14, 1814 ; 
buried at St. Luke's Church, City Road, 

8. Jennet Turner ; bpt. at Great Harwood, 
July 13, 1769. 

9. Jane Turner ; bpt. at Great Harwood ; 
married her cousin, William Turner, M.P. 
for Blackburn, of Shrigley Hall, Co. Chester, 
and had a daughter, Ellen Turner, who was 
married, Jan. 14, 1829, to Thomas Legh, 
Esq., LL.D. and F.A.S., of Lyme Park, Co. 
Chester, and Haydock Lodge and Golborne 
Park, Co. Lancaster, and was the mother of 
Ellen Jane Legh, who in 1847 became the 
wife of Brabazon Lowther, fourth son of 
Gorges Lowther, of Hampton Hall, Co. Somer- 
set, representative of a younger branch of the 
family of Lowther, raised to the peerage in 
1696 under the title of Lonsdale. 

II. Thomas Turner of Altham Hall ; bpt. 
Aug. 13, 1731, at Great Harwood; married, 
May 31, 1770, Ellen, dau. of James Aspinall 
of Westwell, at Whalley, and had issue : 

1. Thomas Turner. 

2. James Turner. 

3. Robert Turner, born 1790, of Shuttle- 
worth Hall, Hopton ; married Sarah, dau. 
of Roger Green of Whalley Abbey, and had 
issue : 

i. Thomas Turner. 

ii. Roger Turner. 

iii. Robert Turner of Shuttleworth Hall. 

iv. James Turner. 

III. Robert Turner of Blackburn; bpt. 
1734, married Ellen ... He died Oct. 
17, 1811, and was buried at St. John's, 
Blackburn. She died Feb. 5, 1808, aged 72. 
They had issue : 

1. Thomas Turner of Stokes ; died 1825. 

2. Robert Turner of Mill Hill and 
Manchester; born 1770, died March, 1842, 
at his residence in Piccadilly, Manchester. 

3. John Turner ; died 1825. 

4. William Turner, born 1777; M.P. for 
Blackburn; of Shrigley Hall, Cheshire; 
married his cousin, as mentioned above, 
and died at Mill Hill, July 17, 1842. 

I am anxious to trace the connexion be- 
tween this family and William Turner of 
Wilmslow, born 1782, who married Ellen 
Wilson, and had issue : 

1. John, born 1811 ; died at Brooklyn 
House, Ruabon, Jan. 20, 1893 ; buried at 
Overton, Ellesmere, Salop. He married 
Mary . . . and had issue : 

Elizabeth Hardman Turner of " Thorn- 
ton," Ruabon. She died Sept. 17, 1916. 

. 2. Solomon. 

3. Samuel. 

4. James; died Oct. 16, 1866, aged 51; 
buried at Wilmslow. 

5. William. 

6. Emanuel, born 1825 ; assistant comp- 
troller, cashier and committee clerk to the 
Manchester Corporation from 1842 to 1857 ; 
married Hannah Boumphrey of Liverpool ; 
died 1878. 

7. Oswald, born 1827, died Nov., 1905; 
buried at Wilmslow, Cheshire. 

8. Elizabeth. 

9. Jane. 

10. Ellen, born 1820 ; married to James 
Bligh. She died March 14, 1877 ; and he died 
Feb. 22, 1876. Both buried at Wilmslow. 

11. Hannah ; married to Christopher Batty. 
Mr. William Turner of Wilmslow died 

Sept. 28, 1865, and was buried at Wilmslow. 
His wife, who died Sept. 29, 1863, aged 75, 
was also buried at Wilmslow. The place of 
his birth is unknown and I have not been 
able to trace any record of a will. 

If any reader can prove the connexion 
with the first -named family I shall be very 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. ix. 470). 
4. " Time with, a gift of tears, 

Grief with a glass that ran." 

It has been humorously suggested that Swin- 
burne meant to write, 

" Grief with a gift of tears, 

Time with a glass that ran," 

or, at any rate, ought so to have written ; and 
certainly the meaning of his verses would in 
that case have been more obvious. What, 
exactly, do they mean as they stand ? 

C. C. B. 


A Neic English Dictionary on Historical Prin- 
ciples. Vol. x. W Wash. By Henry Brad- 
ley. (Clarendon Press. 10s. net.) 
A LARGE proportion of the most interesting English 
words belong to this section, which contains no- 
derivatives from Greek and Latin. Old French 
words, of which there are many, are referable ix> 
the Teutonic element of that language which 
appears, slightly disguised, under an initial g (u), 
in such words as guetter, guerre, gaufre, for example, 
of which we have made " wait," " war " and 
" wafer." It is singular, as the dictionary tells 
us, that no Germanic nation in early historic 
times had a current word for " war " in its proper 
sense. French and English developed a word 
from that stem which is found in the German 
venvorren and in our " worse " ; but other Teu- 
tonic languages adopted other words. The 

12 S. X.JAN. 7, 1922.] 



articles on " wait," whether considered from the) 
historical point of view or from that of their 
structure and their illustrations, are admirable, i 
One small criticism we may make, because it j 
seems to indicate that the makers of the great j 
dictionary sometimes forget how monumental a j 
work they are achieving. Under " wait and see " 
we read : " Recently often used with allusion to | 
Mr. H. H. Asquith's repeated reply . . . to a j 
succession of questions in Parliament." In fifty | 
years' time this will appear but a futile account, j 
while the precise particulars will be tiresome to | 
find. A similar want of precision may be observed ; 
in the definition of " warm-blooded." Probably j 
few people realize that the first uses of " waft " 
have somewhat the meaning of " whiff " a taste j 
or flavour, th^n a scent carried in the air. Its nauti- | 
cal use for a flag or ensign goes back to the early j 
seventeenth century. As a verb " waft " covers 
two origins first, a back-formation from " wafter," i 
(cf. L.G. wachter) a convoy, and, secondly, waff, a ' 
form used in Scotland and Northern England for 
our " wave " or " waive." The two meanings 
have in use become considerably confused. The 
obsolete word " waghalter " (a " gallows-bird ") 
is thought to survive, in jocose use, in the sub- 
stantive " wag." It is curious how dignified this 
verb once was and how it has declined in modern ! 
speech. " Waggon " the Dutch wagen which 
has a thoroughly native English sound, is in fact a 
sixteenth century importation, coming from the 
wars and used first of military transport. As a , 
mining term it is used for a measure of weight I 
24 cwt. " Waif " and " waive " come from the j 
Norman O.F. gaif, are probably of Scandinavian I 
origin, and appear first as legal terms. " Waive," ! 
however, covers also the root signifying to move 
or swing. The articles on " walk " may be noted 
for their great historical interest and for the 
abundance of idioms and phrases they contain. 
Most of these are familiar but the old " walks " 
of the Royal Exchange, a " walk " of snipes and 
even a " walk-clerk " (a modern term) may serve 
as examples of senses which will be new to many 
students. The origin of the word is O.E. wealcan, 
to roll or toss. Under " wall," we noticed that 
the dictionary does not commit itself to any 
explanation of the origin of the phrase "to go to 
the wall." " Waist," it seems, is to be connected 
with " wax," to grow, and the modern spelling 
was rare till Johnson fixed it in his dictionary. 
Another interesting Dutch word is " wainscot "- 
introduced in the fourteenth century of which 
the original sense is all but lost. Urquhart, in 
1652, could still say that " a wedge of wainscot is 
fittest and most proper for cleaving of an oaken 
tree." Wainscot was a superior foreign oak 
brought from Russia, Germany or Holland. Its 
etymology remains obscure. 

The articles on " -ward " and " -wards," both 
as to derivation and as to development of use, 
are among the most valuable of the section, or, 
as offering fresh discussion on an important suffix, 
of the whole dictionary. We had marked a large 
number of other words, and details in the account 
of words, for mention, but can hardly, in a short 
review, cope with such an embarras de richesses. 
It should, however, be said that the derivations 
in this section are of quite special interest. The 
section contains 2,559 words and 14,787 quota- 

English Organ-Cases. By Andrew Freeman. 

(London : G. A. Mate and Son.) 
THE subject of organ-cases has the rare distinction 
of being comparatively fresh. It sometimes 
happens that a neglected subject is brought into 
prominence by an incompetent enthusiast. Such 
a person stimulates rather than informs, functions 
as a door-keeper rather than a guide. This is 
by no means Mr. Freeman's case. He is equipped 
with solid and extensive information. He knows 
thoroughly well the organs and organ-cases 
throughout the length and breadth of England, 
the history of the making and use of these in- 
struments, and the principles by which the 
successful construction of a good organ in its 
place in a building is determined. His knowledge 
of English organ-cases is illuminated by his study 
of foreign examples as well as by an evident 
competence in architecture. His book is illustrated 
by a large number of excellent photographs, 
of which the great majority were taken by him- 
self, and he makes dexterous use of the illustra- 
tions in his text. 

The introduction of organs into England goes 
back to the end of the seventh century. At 
first rare, owing to their cost and also to the 
difficulty of finding a man to play them, organs 
had become tolerably common by the middle 
of the fifteenth century. At the Reformation 
and during the Great Rebellion many were 
destroyed by the zeal of iconoclasts a destruction 
greatly to be regretted because, in the old 
examples, the case was treated as an important 
addition to the adornment of the church, and 
had lavished on it the same skill, care and feeling 
for beauty as the medieval craftsman brought 
to the fashioning of sedilia or rood-screen. The 
musical development of the instrument was 
slow, and up to the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury most English organs were of small size. 
For hundreds of years English organ-building 
was done by monks, a fact which will largely 
explain the traditions which grew up for the 
design and decoration of pipes and case. The 
custom of gilding is mentioned by St. Aldhelm. 

We have in England twelve organ-cases be- 
longing to the pre-Restoration period, of which 
the earliest is that at St. Stephen's, Old Radnor 
(c. 1500), and the latest an organ-case at Blair 
Atholl Castle (1650). Of these an exceedingly 
interesting example is that at St. Nicholas, 
Stanford-on-Avon, Northants, which is said to 
have come from Whitehall and is conjectured 
by our author to have contained that organ 
which Samuel Pepys heard played on a July 
Sunday the first time he remembered " to have 
heard the organs and singing-men in surplices." 
The most magnificent is at King's College, 
Cambridge a case built in 1605-6 by Chapman 
and Hartop for an organ of Thomas Dallam's ; 
and another, worth mentioning for its attractive- 
ness, is that at Hatfield, also probably for an 
organ by DalJam. 

From 1660 to 1790 English organ-building 
produced the most numerous and famous of 
the older works of the art. The Dallams, the 
Harrises and Father Smith designed cases which, 
if details may be objected to as alien from their 
purpose when erected in churches, were yet 
conceived upon plans of noble and graceful 
proportion, and carried out with great success. 



[12 S. X. JAN. 7, 1922. 

Their work is here most carefully and critically 
discussed. On the period of debasement which j 
closed the eighteenth and began the nineteenth j 
century Mr. Freeman writes with vigour, but j 
also with discrimination ; on the revival and ; 
on modern examples and tendencies he is ap- 
preciative but also ready with suggestive and 
helpful criticism. He advises a return to the 
use of shutters which would both be useful 
to enclose the organ at cleaning times and add 
a signal opportunity for decoration ; and he j 
says all that should be said about the enormity j 
of letting the tops of pipes appear above the 
wood-work of the case. 

We have not discovered upon what principle | 
the illustrations are arranged, and there is no | 
index of persons. Moreover, so good a book j 
might, we think, have been more attractively j 
printed. Otherwise we have nothing but praise I 
for a sound and careful piece of work. 


THE movement for the restoration of Ratcliffe 
Cross and Stairs to public memory and honour 
as the rendezvous and sailing-place of many of the 
first oversea adventurers of England (whose little 
ship-crews were mainly recruited in the maritime j 
parts of Old Stepney), would appear to have 
originated some sixty years ago at the instance of 
the teaching corps of the two most conspicuous 
Foundation schools in the locality, supported by 
the authorities of the Mother Church of St. Dun- 
stan, Stepney. And of late years it has enjoyed 
attention in the most exalted quarters with in- 
timate Naval associations, in connexion with the 
designing of the King Edward Memorial Park, at 
the adjacent Shad well, in the same reach of the 

Long before the reign of the Tudors when 
men-at-arms and archers were for ever passing to 
and from the French heritages, fiefs and acquisi- ' 
tions of English kings the shipwrights of Rat- 
cliffe were building vessels for what was to be, 
practically, the King's Navy in the making ; and 
the ancient Stepney Vestry had scarcely settled to 
its functions ere resident Masters, Captains, 
Brethren, Mariners of the Trinity Guild are found 
serving actively on the body, wi^h brewers, arti- 
ficers, craftsmen, gunmakers, powdermakers, 
cannon-founders, ropemakers, sailmakers, riggers, 
blockmakers, shipwrights, carpenters, sawyers, 
shipsmiths, fleshers, victuallers, salters, coopers, 
&c., upbuilding the Port of London. 

In the report of the Records and Museums Com- 
mittee submitted at the last meeting of the Lon- 
don County Council, it was recalled that, in May, 
1914, the Committee had under consideration a I 
proposal made by Sir John Benn, Bt., that a 
memorial to Elizabethan explorers and navigators I 
should be erected at the place " formerly known as 
Ratcliffe Cross." It was proposed that a bronze 
tablet with a suitable inscription and a design in ! 
enamel of a ship of the Tudor period in full sail j 
should be affixed to the wall of the Ratcliffe en- 1 
trance of the Rotherhithe Tunnel (which is the 
actual site of the historic Ratcliffe Cross). The 
project was estimated to cost 270. It was, how- 
ever, postponed until after the war, and now it 

would be about 650. In present circumstances 
the committee were not prepared to advise ex- 
penditure of so large a sum for this purpose, but 
proposed a tablet of similar design, although 
executed in painted tile panels instead of in 
bronze and enamel, which can be provided at a 
comparatively small cost. The committee pro- 
posed that the inscription placed on the tablet be 
in the following terms : 

" This Tablet is in memory of Sir Hugh Wil- 
loughby, Stephen Borough, William Borough, 
Sir Martin Frobisher, and other navigators, who, 
in the latter half of the Sixteenth Century, set sail 
from this Reach of the River Thames near Rat- 
cliffe Cross to explore the Northern Seas. 

" Erected by the London County Council, 1922." 

As regards the position for the tablet, the com- 
mittee expressed the opinion that it should be 
erected on a stone to be placed in the King Edward 
Memorial Park. With the concurrence of the 
Parks Committee a site had been selected for the 
purpose. In this position the memorial will be 
close to the river and will be well under observa- 
tion and thus less liable to damage than if placed 
on the Ratcliffe tunnel entrance in the open street. 
Moreover, it will probably be seen by more people. 
An offer to present and fix a suitable stone has 
been made 'by Mr. E. C. Hannen, of the firm of 
Messrs. Holland and Hannen, and the total cost 
of providing and fixing the panel will, it is esti- 
mated, not exceed 60. 

The London County Council adopted this re- 
port, none dissenting, and the Records Committee 
were empowered to take all the necessary steps in 
the matter. Me. 


1. ANCIENT BRITISH DYE (12 S. ix. 491, 531). 
In my communication at the last reference, for 
" Cambridge " read Corbridge, and for " will 
not," read would. J. T. F. 

2. At 12 S. ix. 527, col. 1, 1. 12, for " 1541 " 
read 1542. JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. 

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LONDON, JANUARY 14, 1922. 

CONTENTS. No. 196. 

NOTES : The Troutbeck Pedigree, 21 Needham's Point 
Naval and Military Cemetery, Barbados, 23 Principal 
London Coffee-houses in the Eighteenth Century, 26 A 

* Parliamentary Election in the Seventeenth Century, 27 
Provincial Booksellers, A.D., 1714, 28 Edward Fitz- 
Gerald: E. F. G. Apprentices to and from Overseas- 
Inequality of Postal Rates, 29 " Dear Clifford's Seat " 
Sussex Pronunciation of Place-names Caen Wood A 
Singular Request, 30. 

QUERIES : Dr. Gideon A. Mantell, F.R.S. Baron Grant 
Beauchamp : Moseley : Woodham (Wodham) Song-book 
by Tobias Hume St. John the Almoner Launching of 
Ships, 31 Rabbits in Australia Cipher on St. James's 
Palace The Brighton Athenaeum Pedigrees wanted 
Adah Isaac Menken's ' Infelicia ' The English " h " : 
Celtic, Latin and German Influences James Hales 
Thoresby Hardres Welsh Map sought, 32 ' The Ingoldsby 
Legends ' Inscriptions on an ' Icon, 33 Proverb : Origin 
wanted Matthew Arnold : Reference sought Author's 
Name wanted, 34. 

REPLIES :" Mata Hari's " Youth, 34 Vice- Admiral Sir 
Christopher Mings, 35 Title of " K.H." Sir Richard 
Woolfe Cotton family of Warbleton (Warblington), 36 
The House of Harcourt, 37 Plugenet " Journey " 
Snokers' Folk-lore, 38 Edward Lamplugh Molesworth 
Author of Poem wanted, 39. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Ancient Tales from Many Lands ' 
' Essays and Studies by Members of the English Associa- 
tion ' ' Pedigrees of some East Anglian Dennys ' ' Memoir 
of Colonel William Denny, Lieutenant- Governor of Pennsyl- 

Notices to Correspondents. 


INTEREST in this family arises perhaps for 
the most part only at its extinction in the 
main line, when an heiress carried Al- 
brighton to the Talbots of Grafton accord- 
ing to the usual accounts. At that point 
we read John Talbot was already married 
to Margaret Troutbeck, daughter of Adam, 
and heiress of Adam's elder brother William, 
she being then 16 years of age, namely, 
at William's death in 2 Henry VIII. or 
about 1510. Such are the statements 
advanced by Helsby, in his ' Ormerod's 
Cheshire ' (ii. 42), using a version evidently 
derived mainly from a draft by Beamont. 
It seems difficult to believe that the facts 
quite agreed ; and Beamont's Introduction 
to the * Amicia Tracts ' controversy does 

^not indicate him a peculiarly sagacious 

1 genealogist. 

The above Adam is called a second son ; 
and as his heir, his , daughter Margaret 
becomes also heir, no doubt, to his elder 
brother William, if it were possible to 
accept the statement of the pedigree that 
William " ob. s.p." This, however, appears 
to be entirely erroneous : the fact is that 
William says he executed certain deeds 
passing lands to his. " children " ; in his 
will (P.C.C., 35 Bennett) he recites that 
the deeds were dated May 1 (1508), 23 
Henry VII., whence it may seem plian 
he had no issue born after that date. 
Since upwards of two years before his death 
these children are alive, he certainly had 
issue, whether surviving him or not. 

. This William is stated to have been 
15 years of age in 4 Edward IV., whence 
he was born about 1449. His father had 
died 2 Edward IV., and in the two years' 
interval he had been ward first of the King 
and then of Sir John Butler of Bewsey. 
The quoted pedigree presents that by 
2 Edward IV. (1462) he had been married 
to a Joan or Jane, daughter of Sir John 
Botiller, doubtless the guardian : it may 
be the date should read 4 Edward IV., 
namely, the year of the inquisition upon 
his father's death. Passing that, he is at 
least married by 1464, and then some 
15 years of age : but there is a further 
statement that he was divorced from 
Joan, "July 31, 1491," they "being within 
the fourth degree." He was by then aged 
about 42, and had been her husband for 
27 years or more; the "children" of 
whom he speaks in his alleged deeds of 
1508 when he is near 60 might thus 
include some issue of. Joan. By 1508, the 
youngest of such issue, if any, must be 
nearing their majority ; some of them may 
be parents of issue already growing up. 
Possibly there are none, however ; that 
might have stimulated a respect for the 
asserted canonical scruples of two decades 

In any case William marries again, and 
to a wife capable of bringing him an heir. 
She was "Margaret, daughter of Richard 
Hough of Leighton esq. married in or 
ante 18 Henry VII." (1502-1503), namely, 
at least 5 years, and maybe over 15 years, 
before the date of these deeds. That will 
suggest that he has relatively young issue 
in his own word, children born of Margaret. 
She is stated to have remarried William 
Poole of Poole, by 4 Henry VIII. (1512) ; 
to him she bore several children, including 


NOTES AND QUERIES. 1 12 s.x. JAN. 14,1922. 

a son, Ralph, born, too previously (ibid., 
p. 423) ; and she was dead by 1531. In his 
will, however, William does not say that 
any of his children are by either wife. 

" William Troutbeck, knight : to bury in 
my chapel of S. Mary of the Hill, in 
Chester : wife Margaret and Thomas Hoghe 
ex'ors : my lord of Ely * overseer : twenty- 
four servants to have black gowns to 
accompany testator's body to burial : twelve 
poor men to have white gowns and to bear 
twelve torches, t As touching lands : By 
deeds, &c., of May 1, 23 Henry VII. : 
Thomas Hoghe and William Frodsham 
feoffees, &c., by recovery, &c., of all my 
lands in Cheshire, to grant certain manors 
to Margaret my wife for her life for jointure : 
also to sons and daughters of testator for 
term of their lives, &c., remainder to right 
heirs : children named in the deeds. 

" Dated 9 September, 1510 ; proved 
3 December, 1510, by the ex'ors." 

Though the children were named in the 
deeds, none are named in the will ; therefore 
it is manifest they were all born by 1508, 
and it might follow also that none of them 
had died by 1510. Since the executors 
are the relict and her agnate Thomas 
Hoghe, the interests of her issue might 
seem to be safeguarded, and presumably 
the Bishop of Ely will be able to supervise. 
But what became of these children ; what 
were the manors and all the lands in 
Cheshire ; and by what date does the 
remainder to right heirs convey anything 
to Margaret, the wife of John Talbot, or to 
her representative ? Moreover, that is not 
quite the last question. 

At the death of her -uncle William in 1510, 
the last-named Margaret is said to be aged 
16 and already Talbot' s wife; therefore the 
statement is that she was born about 1494. 
Her mother, Adam's wife, was another 
Margaret, expressly called daughter of " Sir 
John Butler of Bewsey," namely, the guar- 
dian, as above, of William the heir, Adam's 
elder brother. When John Talbot of Grafton 
died in 3 Edward VI., Sept. 10, 1549, he left a 
will (P.C.C.,.40 Populwell) whereof he 
appoints as overseer " Richard Trutbek my 

* James Stanley, 1506-1515 : testator's mother 
is called Margaret Stanley, sister of Thomas, 
first Earl of Derby, father of the bishop. 

t The distinction in status and garb was 
apparently a well-recognized custom, and the 
fee of the " poor men " at one period seems to 
1iave been generally half-a-crown apiece, whence 
the occasional description " halfcrownsmen." 

father in law." He made his wife executrix, 
without mentioning her name. By the 
visitations apparently in error, however 
she was Elizabeth, daughter of Walter 
Wrottesley, knight ; she is said to have died 
May 10, 1559, Walter having died, as it 
seems, in 1502. Whatever the facts so far, 
it was not till April 2, 1580, that letters of 
administration de bonis non after the death of 
the executor (i.e., this second wife and relict) 
issued to John Talbot nepcti ex filio, namely, 
to the testator's grandson, who was father of 
George, ninth Earl of Shrewsbury. That 
suggests that the executrix lived till about 
1580 ; which is no proof that she was not 
born by 1502. 

The immediate question, however, is in 
what sense does Talbot call Richard Trutbek 
his father-in-law ? The description was 
often used with much laxity it may at any 
time cover a stepfather here it can only 
mean the father of the testator's wife or her 
stepfather or his own stepfather. Pre- 
sumably it cannot mean a husband of the 
testator's mother, if she had married first 
Barton, second Talbot, and third Richard 
Gardiner, Lord Mayor of London in 1478, 
who was dead in 1488/9, thus leaving it quite 
improbable that either she or any final hus- 
band could be still alive 60 years later, in 
1549. If, then, that lady was really this 
Talbot' s mother, and Richard consequently 
no husband of hers, he must be in some 
sense the father of the testator's wife, namely, 
of one of his wives. In that case is it to be 
another wife, in between the Margaret of his 
youth and the executrix cf his will, or is 
Elizabeth " Wrottesley " daughter of some 
Richard Trutbek : or is that Richard to re- 
present the father of the first wife ? Under 
that superficial explanation, the testator 
contradicts the juries at the inquisitions, 
whose authority is liable to be quite as good 
as his own. The further possibility that 
Richard may be no more than stepfather to 
one of the wives is apparently even more 

As a simple alternative, perhaps, the pedi- 
grees are a little wrong somewhere both of 
them. The hints that a generation of Talbot 
has been dropped out are plain enough, if 
misleading. Equally obvious is the indica- 
tion that Richard will be one of the children 
of William Troutbeck ; but, if so, by which 
marriage ? Was he born by " 1491 " and 
therefore now nearing or past 60 ? Mani- 
festly he is not born after that year if it is to 
be his daughter who was born about 1494, as 

-_' S. X. TAX. 14, 1922.] 



above. Clearly Richard is no alias for Adam tombstones and crosses shattered and 
if Adam was dead during William's lifetime, i overturned, while the brick graves showed 
namely, 40 years before. Plainly there is unmistakable evidence of having been 
wild confusion somewhere ; the record \ rifled of some of their contents, 
evidence at the two ends of this artless tale jt seemed lamentable that whilst the 
can by no means be reconciled with the imperial Graves Commission was devoting 
pedigree professing to connect them. suc h loving care to the graves of our gallant 
Richard, of course, could explain, but un- so ldiers who fell in France and Flanders, 
fortunately one has not elsewhere met with ; this o i d ^aval and Military Cemetery in 
Richard in any capacity. Neither has one j the West indies should be so sadly neglected, 
been able to find any person able to bear the | Sir John Butch Bart K . c>> M<P ^ 
description ^ 'father-in-law -in 1549. Who,! ^^ took the matter ftt 

then, was this Richard, at the first mention | p ^ g j rtl after return ^ rom ^ 

appointed overseer, and later on described , ^ ^ ^ asked ' y a question in the 
only by his relationship 111 the bequest to Houge Q Commons on June ^ 2 1920< 

^J^iL^l^S?^^!! As a result, the Colonial Office has 

It seems that Richard's daughter must be | 
the unnamed executrix, viz., the last wife of 

obtained from the various West Indian 

1/JJLV7 LAJ.JJ.JLCAfilJ,t7^4. V? .A V> \s LA V i A -A . VJ./J.. L'AJ.V> ACUO U W J. *.*-> v/J. _. { , 1- 

the testator : it would be no surprise to find i Governments a series of reports regarding 
Richard himself and Margaret, the daughter I the cemeteries containing naval and military 
of Adam, much about of an age, the while he graves. From these it would appear that 

looks so like one of the " children," and a son 
of Margaret Hough. If that were so, he 
would be one of the beneficiaries under the 

while in several colonies care has been 
taken to maintain the graveyards, in others 
nothing has been done in this direction for 

YYV^LAAVJ. k^f VAl.H-' VfJ. UMJK7 M\J L J-V AiVACDJ. L V>O LJ.IJLVA\-/J- VAJLW -~ _ w _ . - - 

alleged deeds ; but those are described to 3 ars ' * e reas n P^aps ^mg that the 
cover only Cheshire lands, thus leaving it War Office under wiiose contTol some of 
still open to discussion how or if Margaret j ^hem are, has lost touch with the West 
the daughter of Adam brought the Salop Indies since the garrisons were withdrawn 
property of Albrighton to this John Talbot, I 106. It is very satisfactory, therefore to 
who in his will calls himself "of Graf ton," krxow th J M th resi l lt * the representa- 
and says nothing about Albrighton. tlons ma . de * them in this connexion, a 

The search for Richard, obviously the first very active body of ladies in Barbados 
line of inquiry, has not been wholly fruitless : known as the Civic Circle, of which 
there was one Richard Trowtbecke who left I If d Y Cai J er , ls the President and Mrs. I 
a will, registered at Lichfield under the date Browne the hon. secretary, has very kindly 

undertaken to put the cemetery at Need- 
ham's Point in order, the Government 

1552 (series iii. 49). Hitherto opportunity 
has not offered to consult that record. If 
any inquirer can furnish an abstract of it, 
it will be possible to see whether that testator 

having consented to provide; the necessary 
funds for the purpose. When I last heard 

says anything about the several sons and fr om Mrs. Browne the work of clearing up 
daughters of John, who may have been the cemetery was to be started and the 



Richard's grandchildren, since 
clearly children of the executrix. 


Chaff ord. 

cemetery was to be enclosed. 

The " Civic Circle " has sent me a list of 
interments as far as they have been able 
to decipher the names on the shattered 
tombstones, and they would, I know, 
greatly appreciate its publication in 
? N. & Q.,' which might enable them 
to get into touch with some of the 
DURING a visit to Barbados in 1920, ! relatives of the officers, non-commissioned 



I was shocked to notice the aeplorable | officers and. men and sailors and members 
condition of the old Naval and Military : of their families who are buried at Needham's 
Ometery on Needham's Point, the sandy j Point. The list is as follows : 
promontory or the south-east side of Laura Amelia, wife of Sergt. ANDERSON, 
Carlisle Bay. Though the latest inter- M.B.C., died June 9th, 1897, aged 39 years. 
inert took place there as recently as 1914, 6 - R BABEONE, died 1878. 

the cemetery had been allowed to go 
to rack and ruin. The railings which 

; , 

L. BAILY, wife of Thomas Baily, died 

'siuTounded it were broken down, and the 


Corp. T. BABRICK, died 1877. 



Hercules Webster BAULD, Landsman, U.S. 
Navy; born March 18th, 1878; died December 
5th, 1899. Erected by his shipmates of the 
U.S. ship " Lancaster." 

Alfred Geo. BEER, Stoker of H.M.S. " Intrepid," 
died at the Hospital, Barbados, 19th August, 1898, 
aged 31. 

Sergt. T. BENTON, 98th Regiment, died 1875. 

Robert BLOMBERO, Seaman, U.S. Navy, born 
in Finland, March 19th, 1861 ; died February 
26th, 1902, at Bridgetown, Barbados. Erected 
by his shipmates on board the U.S.F.S. " Hart- 

George BOLTON, Stoker, H.M.S. " Tourmaline," 
died at sea, Nov. 16th, 1879, aged 25 years. 

Sydney, child of F. BOSHELL, Royal Berks 
Regiment, died 1898. 

Miles H. BRAITHWAITE, late Py. Ms. Sergt. 
2nd W.I. Regt.,died June 1st, , aged 45 years. 

John Graham BRANSCOMBE, deputy Assist. 
Supt. of Stores, eldest son of John Branscombe 
of London, died 28th November, 1867, aged 33. 


Ellen Sedney, Emily Kate, children of Band- 
Sergt. G. A. BRYDEN, 2nd D. of W. Regiment. 

Lieu. Col. R. BULLEN, Royal Engineers, died 
in Barbados, 30th June, 1883. 

No. 4890 Pte. C. CALLIS, 2nd Batt. Leinster 
Regiment, Royal Canadians, died April 29th, 
1900, aged 23 years. 

Mary Elizabeth, the wife of Sergeant CAR- 
MICHAEL, C.M.L., died 10th January, 1885, 
aged 34. 

George G. CARR. 

Sergeant Benjamin CLARKE, 2nd West India 
Regiment, died December 20th, 1885, aged 
41 years, 

Peter J. COCHING, 35th Regiment. (No date.) 

John COLEMAN, Pte. in H.M. 97th, who died 
4th July, 1874, aged 44. 

John COLLINGS, 98th Regiment, died 1874. 

Thomas W. COOK, R.N., Boatswain, H.M.S. 
" Northampton," killed accidentally, 1882. 

Eleanor Radley, died 19th October, 1886 ; 
Cicely Radley, died 10th October, 1886; twin 
daughters of Capt. Jas. COULTON, D.A.C.G. ; 
born 4th June, 1886. 

Herbert T. COUSINS, D.A.C.O., Commissariat 
Staff, who died of yellow fever eight days after 
landing, August 8th, 1881, aged 25. 

Martha CRADDOCK, died 1878 V 

John CUMMINS, Stoker, died 24th September, 

E. A. DARCEY, son of E. Darcey, 2nd W.I. 
Regiment, died 1875. 

Edward James DIXON, able seaman, H.M.S. 
*' Canada " ; born at Dover, England ; died 29th 
Mav, 1892. 

Ellen Louisa DOGGETT, died 10th April, 1876, 
aged 3 years and 5 months ; Alice Rebecca 
DOGGETT, died 6th August, aged 2 years ; the 
daughters of W. and E. Doggett, 35th R.S. Reg. 

Pte. G. DOUGLAS, 35th Regiment. 

Louisa DRUCE, the wife of James Druce, military 

William A. DUNLOP, Stoker, H.M.S. " Magi- 
cienne," drowned at Barbados, 2nd June, 1893, 
aged 24. 

Col. Sidney Baynton FARRELL, commanding 
Royal Engineers, who died at Barbados 7th Sept., 
1879, aged 50. 

Gr. Dennis FARRELL, 6/1 C.P.D., R.A., died 
October, 1885, aged 38 years. 

Susanna FORSYTH, died 1880. 

Col. Donald Alexander FRAZER, Royal En- 
gineers, died August 5th, 1881, aged 52 years ; 
also to Annie, only daughter of late Capt. Nassau 
STEPHENS, 94tH Regt., and step-daughter of Mrs. 
D. A. Frazer, died August 2nd, 1881, aged 37 years. 

Carl GALLE. 

James GIBBONS, Military Store Department, 
died 27th July, 1883, aged 60 years ; also his wife, 
Catherine GIBBONS, died 2nd August, 1904. 

Joseph Fitzherbert GITTENS, Royal Artillery, 
son of Francis Gittens. 

Hector, son of J. E. and Bandmaster A. GRAY, 
born 5th May, '86, died llth August, '91. 

Edward GREVES. 

Lance-Corporal J. HALL, died 1883; Band, 1st 
Bat. Royal Scots. 

Cecil, son of M. E. and Sergeant R. I. HALL, died 
February 15th, 1893, aged 17 days ; also their son 
Walter Henry, died 22nd February, 1893, aged 
1 year and 5 months. 

Edward HAMILTON, Stoker, H.M.S. " Pallas," 
died 7th March, 1897, 24 years. 

Pte. Timothy HAMILTON, D Coy., 2nd Bat., 
Leinster Regt., died August 8th, 1899, aged 27 

Mary Elizabeth, wife of Sergeant S. E. HAYNES, 
2nd W. I. Regiment, died 1875. 

Harriet Jane Victoria, wife of Major HOBBS. 

Sergeant T. HOLDER, died 1878. 

Angelina HOWARD, died 1914. 


John Henry JAMES, Stoker, died 27th August, 
1899, buried at sea ; H.S.M. " Tribute." 

Jane JOHNSTON, wife of Corp. R. Johnston, 1st 
W.I. Regt., died 1878. 

Maud Lizette Marian JONES, died 1885; 
Henrietta Louise Lemoon JONES, died 1879. 

Colour-Sergt. Robert JONES, 29th Regiment, 
died 1872. 

Arthur Staveley Clive JUSTICE, died July 12th, 
1881, aged 4J months. 

John KELLY, R.A., died 22nd February, 1905, 
aged 70 years. 

Gerald Pearson King Harman, infant son of 
Major Waldron E. R. KELLY, Assistant Military 
Secretary, died 22nd June, 1888. 

Colour-Sergeant M. KINSEALA, 98th Regiment, 
died 15th June, 1814 (?), aged 44 years. 

John KNELLER, died 1875. 

Janie, dearly loved child of Major G. C. 
KNOCKER, D.A.A.G., born 2nd June, 1890, died 
22nd March, 1896. 

Captain E. LAWLESS, A.P. Depart., died 
August 16th, 1881, aged 42. 

Lieutenant T. E. LE BLANC, 1st Bat. The King's 
Own Royal Lancaster Regiment, who died of yellow 
fever at St. Anns, Barbados, on the 28th July, 1881, 
aged 26 years.. 

In memory of the men of the IST BAT. LETCES- 
TERS IRE REGIMENT, who died while stationed at 
Barbados during the years 1893-94-95. . . . Erected 
by Capt. Barnardiston, Officers and Ship's Com- 
pany of H.M.S. " Rover." 

Pte. R. LENOIR, died 1879. 

George LIER and his wife, died 1879. 

No. 3568, Pte. Bernard LYONS, 2nd Bat. 
Leinster Regiment, died July 4th, 1899, aged 25 

12 S. X. JAN. 14, 1922.] 



Pte. William MANNING, 53rd Regt., died 1870, 
January 10th, aged 26 years. 

Elizabeth J. MANNS, daughter of B. D. N. J. 

Walter H. MARSH, Warder, M.P.D., died 28th 
November, 1899, aged 38. 

Ethel, daughter of Warder W. H. MARSH, 
M.P.D., died 1887. 

Pte. J. MATHEWSON, died 1878. 

W. H. MAUSER, Bugler, R.M.L.I., H.M.S. 
" Volage," died January 27th, 1888, aged 16 years. 

Annie Emma MAYERS. 

Pte. John McEvoY, 35th Regiment, died 1876. 

Alison Jamieson, wife of Bandmaster A. I. 
McGiLL, died 9th June, 1888, aged 24 years. 

Archibald MCNEIL, Seaman, H.M.S. " Tour- 
maline," died in hospital at Barbados, 17th May, 
1894, aged 19. 

Stephen MEARS, Band, 98th Regt., died 10th 
April, 1874, aged 15. 

Lilian, daughter of Warder A. B. MOPFAT, 
M.R.D., and his wife Margaret Ann, died November 
1st, 1895, aged 5 years and 7 months. 

Pte. Patrick MULL ANY, 35th Regt., died 1877. 

C. NASH, Canteen Manager, 3rd Lane. Fusiliers, 
died 16th March, 1902, aged 53. Formerly 
served as Officers' Mess Colour-Sergeant in the 
Rifle Brigade. 

Harriet Maria, beloved wife of Col. NICOLLS, 
R.A., and daughter of Rev. C. Y. Crawley, rector 
of Taynton, Gloucester, born 5th December, 1840, 
died 26th July, 1881 ; also Georgina Harriet, 
dear child of above, born 30th March, 1876, died 
28th July, 1881. 

No. 5814, Lance-Corporal Henry NORTON, 
E Company, 4th Worcester Regt., died 13th 
October, 1904, aged 24. 

George PACKHAM, Ordy. Seaman, H.M.S. 
" Canada," died 1st November, 1893, aged 18 
years and 9 months. 

In memory of John L. PARRETT, A.B., died at 
Barbados, 8th July, 1900, aged 22 years ; also of 
Alfred WALKER, A.B., drowned at sea, October 
29th, 1898, aged 23 years, both of H.M.S. " Pro- 
serpine." Erected by their shipmates. 

Seymour Blanshard PEMBERTON, Lieut., 2nd 
West India Regiment, who died of yellow fever, 
7th October, 1881, aged 25 years. 

Staff Sergt. W. G. PETTIFER, died 1880. 

Fred POWER, Private, 2nd Duke of Welling- 
ton's Regiment, died 22nd August, 1891, aged 20. 

Frank QUINN, Qr. -Master Sergeant, 2nd Bat. 
Leinster Regiment, died 6th September, 1901, 
aged 34 years. 

William Henry RICHARD (child), died 1876. 

Pte. G. RICHARDS, died 1879. 

Surgn. James RONAYNE, A.M.D., died of 
yellow fever, 10th Aug., 1881, aged 25 years. 

The Officers, N.C.O.'s and men of No. 17 Batt., 
Western Division, ROYAL ARTILLERY, to the 
memory of Gr. F. Soden ; Gr. R. Waters ; Sergt. W. 
Scotney ; Gr. D. Hyde ; Gr. F. Sandell ; Gr. J. 
Bridger, who died at Barbados, 1885-1890. 



Bandsman W. J. SEIMONDS, 2nd Batt. Prince 
of Wales Leinster Regiment, died March 14th, 

Corpl. John SHEEKY, 2nd Batt. Leinster 
Regiment, Royal Canadians, died March 21st, 
4899, aged 26 years. 

James SIMS, Naval School Master of H.M.S. 
" Bacchante," died 1880. 

William SMITHSON, Bandsman, 1st Batt. 
Yorkshire Regiment, died December 4th, 1887, 
aged 27 years. 


George William SPENCER, Engine Room Arti- 
ficer, H.M.S. " Magicienne," died at Barbados, 
22nd March, 1893, aged 40. 


Lance- Sergt. John STEVENS, 53rd Regiment, 
who died at Barbados, 1870, 4th January, aged 
25 years. 

Henry Fritz STOCHELL, died March 30th, 
1872, aged 42. 

James Abbott SUGMUR. 

James TAIT, died 1885. 

Jane, beloved wife of S. Qr. Mr. Sergt. H. 
TAYLOR, A.S.C., died Sept. 12th, 1890/aged 56 years. 

W. F. TEGG, A.B., H.M.S. "Pallas," died 
2nd May, 1896, aged 22 years. 

William THOMAS, aged 24 years, of Norwich, 
England, Dr., H.M.S. " Immortalite," went 
home May 7th, 1871. 

George THOMPSON, Private, R.M.L.I., died 
June 1st, 1906, 34 years. Erected by officers of 
the H.M.S. " Indefatigable." 

Private M. TOY, No. 5854, F. Company, 4th 
Worcester Regiment, died 20th May, 1904. 

Charles W. TUMNER (of Deal, England), 
Seaman, H.M.S. " Tourmaline." 

Private Richard TYRELL, 53rd Regiment, who 
died at Barbados, 1870, 6th January, aged 28 years. 

Emma Cecilia, widow of Major James UNIACK, 
R.M., of Arraglyn, Co. Cork., died at Shot Hall, 
Jan. 12th, 1881, aged 78 years. 

Alfred WALKER. (See PARRETT.) 

Corp. Sergt. James WALLACE, died 1878. 

Private Thomas WALTON, 1st East Yorkshire 
Regiment, died 12th August, 1887, aged 21 
years. Erected by the officers and men of his 

William WARD, Capt's. Steward, H.M.S. 
" Canada," died 24th May, 1862. 

Mary Elinor WARD (ne'e Reede), died llth 
August, 1881, and of her husband Surgeon- 
Major Espirie WARD, F.R.C.S.I., died 22nd 
August, 1881. This stone is erected by Thos. 
Picton Reede, father of former, and by Dr. M. A. 
Ward, brother of the latter. 


Julia, daughter of Sergt. -Major W. A. WEBB, 
1st E.Y. Regiment, died 1888. 

Frank, died August 3rd, 1901, aged 6 weeks, 
and Florence Miriam, died Aug. 4th, 1902, 
children of Albert and Miriam M. WELL, Royal 
Army Medical Corps. 

David WHEATLEY, Sergeant of 18th Company, 
W.D., R.A., died 14th August, 1892, age 35. 

Thomas Charles Lane WHEATLEY, son of 
Major C. R. S. Wheatley, 18/7 R.A., who died 
of yellow fever, 14th Aug., 1881, aged 3 years. 

Joseph John William WHIN AM, died 1885. 

Joseph John Fox WHIN AM, died 1888. 

Sarah Elizabeth, wife of Sergt. W. H. WILSON, 
H.M. 97th Regiment. 

Pte. J. WILSON, died 1879. 

Lottie WORRISON, William Eric WORRISON 
Gordon Mackay WORRISON, children, died 1885. 



[12S. X. TAX. 14, 1922. 



(See 12 S. vii. 485 ; ix. 85, 105, 143, 186, 226, 286, 306, 385, 426, 504, 525.) 

(An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public -house 
in many cases rebuilt.) 


Swan . . 


Swan . * 

Swan (White Swan) 




*Swan ..^ 




Swan . , ' 



Swan and Hoop 

Xew Street, Fetter Lane 

Whitecross Street 
Borough . ,. 

Norton Folgate, east side 
Holborn Bridge, opposite Fleet 

Long Lane, near Aldersgate 


Arundel Street, Strand 
Strand, near St. Martin's Lane 
Ludgate Street 


Bays water 

Knightsbridge (now 4 

Sloane Street) . . 


Cornhill . 

Swan with Two Necks Opposite Hick's Hall, St. John's 
Street, Clerkenwell 

*Swan and Two Necks Whetstone. N.20 

1753 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxx., 1916. 

1757 Daily Advertiser, May G. " To be 
sold, a very good single horse 
chaise made new last July and 
very little used. To' be seen at 
Mr. Grumry's, the Swan Inn, 

1763 Hale, A.Q.C., vol. xx., 1907. 

1780 Public Advertiser, Sept. 14. 

1708 'A New View of London,' i. 81. 

1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London Sur- 
vey' d.' 

1708 'A New View of London,' i. 80. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,, 
p. 382. 

1734 T. Shaw to Sir Hans Sloane, Nov. 29. 
Brit. Mus. 

1745 Bocque's ' Survey/ 

1708 'A New View of London,' i. 80. 

Larwood, p. 213. 

1708 ' A New View of London,' i. 80. 
. 1723 Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 169. 

Parker's ' Variegated Characters/ 
1749 Heiron's ' Ancient Freemasonry,' 

1793 London Museum : drawing by P. 

Sandy (A6904). 

and 5, Old house pulled down, 1788, 
Larwood, p. 215. 

London Museum : sketch by J. T. 

Wilson, (A22049). 

London Museum : sketch by J. T. 

Wilson (A22050). 

Larwood, p. 213. 
1740 Thornbury, vi. 523. 

.. Larwood, p. 213. 
. . 1720 Daily Post, Oct. 7. 

1733 Daily Post, Aug. 6. "... Whereas 
sundry goods have been fraudu- 
lently'taken out of the East India 
Company's Warehouses to the 
great prejudice of the right 
owners, in order to prevent the 
like practice for the future you 
are desired to meet at the Swan 
and Hoop Tavern in Cornhill on 
Wednesday the 8th inst. at 11 in 
the forenoon." 

1708 ' A New View of London,' i. 81. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 
p. 389. 

1745 Bocque's ' Survey,' 

1725 Mist's Weekly Journal, Dec. 25. 
" A fire broke out some days ago 
at the Swan and Two Necks at 
Whetstone through the careless- 
ness of a servant, but after burning 
the upper part of the house in 
which it began, it was happily 

i2S.x.jAx.i4,i922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Sword Blade 

Svnaonds Inn 

Corner of Exchange Alley and 
Birchiii Lane 

Chancery Lane . . 



Strand, south side, between 1677 
Surrey Street and Naked Boy 
Court. 1708 


Talbot . . . . Whitechapel, south side, be- 
tween the " White Swan " and 
the" Bed Cow " 

Temple Eating House Near Temple Bar 

1718 Larwood, p. 324. 

1720 Daily Courant, Sept. 28; Oct. 31. 

1748 Plan of Great Fire, B.E.A.C. 

' N. & Q.,' Dec. 9, 1916, p. 461. 
Kept by Newington. 

1757 Daily Advertiser, May 6. " Wanted, 
a journeyman apothecary, who 
hath been used to serve in a retail 
shop. As he will breakfast, dine 
and sup with his master, none need 
apply but sober genteel men, and 
such as can bear confinement. 
Enquire at Symond's Inn Coffee 
House, Chancery Lane." 
Daily Advertiser, June 2l. 
Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London 

Survey 'd.' 

' A New View of London.' i. 81. 
Daily Courant, July 2. "At the 
Talbot Inn, the corner of Surrey 
Street, near the Maypole in the 
Strand, is a pair of able coach 
mares, a coach and chariot, to be 
sold, a penniworth, belonging to a 

fentleman lately deceased. Either 
he innkeeper or Michael the 
coachman will shew them." 

1732 Parish Clerks' Bemarks of London,' 
p. 382. 

1745 Bocque's ' Survey.' 

1759 Public Advertiser, Mar. 

1777 Daily Advertiser, June 21. 

1789 ' Life's Painter of Variegated Charac- 

1745 Bocque's ' Survey.' 

(To be continued.) 

Sadler's ' Masonic Facts 
Fictions,' 1887, p. 82. 




THE following account of a by-election 
at Southwark for the Long Parliament on 
March 15, 1666, was written to John Smyth 
of Nibley, Glos., by his son Edward Smyth, 
a bencher of the Middle Temple, one of 
His Majesty's judges for the circuit of 
South Wales and High Steward of the 
Borough of Southwark. From it one 
may gather that the open poll offered 
certain advantages, as Edward Smyth was 
able to estimate the number of his sup- 
porters and judge it expedient probably 
on the score of expense among other con- 
siderations to offer the seat to his opponent, 
Sir Thomas Clarges, a politician who achieved 
some reputation in his time. 


I have at last determined my troublesome 
busines to the satisfaction of my friends and I 
think not to my owne disadvantage. On Tuesday, 
\he bayliffe at 10H charge divided the Artilery 

ground in horsey downe intending to make the 
election there ye day following, wch the same 
night soe soone as ye pale was well up, was counter- 
manded by a letter from my lord Generall. The 
next morning two companies of foot were sent 
over, the one possessed the Hall ; where the 
writt was to be read, the other the Artilery 

f round 011 Horsey downe ; about 8 in ye morning 
r Tho Clarges had gotten a party about him by 
rideing from Horsey downe All up ye streetes 
to St Margaretts hill ; wch being added to that 
vast multitude wch he had amassed together 
from Newington, Lambeth, Westm &c were 
guessed at about 2000 : of wch about 500 were 
allowed by ye spectators to be inhabitants & 
able to passe ye poll : with these he possessed 
St Margaretts Hill soe full, that noe roome could 
be left for my friends ; about 9 of ye clock I 
gott on Horseback at ye further end of All the 
liberty below ye Tower, & rode up ye streets 
All the way to St Margaretts Hill : when ye 
writt was to be read : At ye meat market, 
I placed two sober men, to tell what number I 
had ; ye place being streight, & my company 
marching orderly 4 in a ranke, who agreed 1530 
and some odd : and that when ye other party 
! were garbled of All their unpollable men, I must 
! necessarily carry it by great odds : when I came 



[12 S. X. JAX. 14, 1922. 

to ye hill, I made a shift to gett up to the scaffold 
where ye writ was read, wch was filld by my 
lord Craven Sr Ph Howard & many others of 
ye Court, soe that my lord maifor] who came 
downe to countenance ye selection agaynst 
me, was forced to stand in ye street in ye 
crowd : The writt being read, & the cry loud, 
on both sides ; I demanded the poll, and an 
adjornement to a convenient place to take it, 
wch my Lord mai required should be St Georges 
fields, but I insisted that Horsey Downe was 
the fittest place. To wch the bayliffe presently 
adjorned till two of the clock ; My lord mai j 
offended hereat went streight to ye councell, 
and complained of the disobedience of his officer, 
and prayed an order of ye counsell requiring the 
bayliffe to adjorne to St Georges fields wch he 
obteyned & sent it over to us in the evening. 
At two of ye clock, in ye afternoone on Wednesday, 
I came up to ye place appoynted for ye poll, 
wch my friends had so fully possessed that Sr 
Tho Clarges could not come near, and designed 
to have polld of as many as I could that evening : ' 
as the bayliffe was beginning the poll, I receved j 
a message from Sr Th Clarges to speake with me, 
wch with difficulty enough I obeyed, and came i 
to him when he objected to ye streightnes < 
of ye place and that he had noe friends up ! 
nor any clerke wch he could trust, & desired j 
me to consent to meet him at 6 in ye evening, 
with five of a side & noe more where we would 
agree of a regular proceeding on both sides, and 
fitt or selves for ye poll the next morning and soe 
we adjorned till 8 of yfc clock acordingly : When 
we were mett with 5 of a side, at 6 of ye clock 
according to or agreement, the bayliffe was served 
with an order from ye counsell, Requiring him ! 
to take the poll in St Georges fields and ' not ' 
elsewhere at his perill. When now I saw the j 
elction to be soe much under a force And the j 
place for ye poll soe much to my disadvantage, I 
I calld about 20 of my cheifest supporters to 
me and prayed their advice what to doe, 18 : 
whereof were positive, not to lay it downe. The j 
next morning acording to their advice I tooke j 
horse agayne and rode All along from my lodging I 
to horsey Downe where ye adjornemt was to be j 
made, and soe back agayne through ye street to 
St Georges fields ; And now I found my Numbers ! 
grow thiner soe that when I came into ye field i 
I called about 30 of ye most substantiall men I i 
had, who had well observed All these proceedings, I 
& desired their advice, professing to them that I 
as I first undertooke to stand at their request, 
and had conducted it hitherto by their advice, 
soe would I keepe my word with them, & not 
give it up without their consents and they upon 
consideration of All circumstances now advised 
that if it myght be kindly taken it would be fitt 
to give it up without polling one man. After I 
had taken this advice I went to Sr Tho Clarges, 
& profered him the election, if he thought it 
worthy his acceptance, and that if he thought 
it not a courtisye I did not doubt but notwth- 
standing my thiuer apearance I could well | 
maintein the poll till Saterday night. He told i 
me he did take it as a great respect done him, j 
after wch we both came together to ye place ! 
appoynted to take ye poll, where in a short 
speech to ye people I recommended Sr Tho 
Clarges to them and perswaded my friends to { 

vote for him, wch was done to the good content 
of All : Sr Tho Clarges & I raising 20 of each 
of ye partyes, to seal the Indentures, and soe or 
busines ended : Whether the difference between 
ye bayliffe and my lord mai may end soe well 
or noe I cannot say, but I find ye Aldermen 
willing to defend him & my selfe bound in All 
honesty to stick to him for he hath done nothing 
unworthy his place : I have gien you this long 
relation of the busines to prevent all mistakes 
about it, and whatsoever you may hear of it 
you may assure yor selfe this is ye truth. I 
shall now make what haste I can out of towne 
when I have seen All my scores payd wch have 
run higher than ever I would imagine, though in 
noe proportion to ye other side, Sr Tho Clarges 
his bills amounting to above 700H as I am in- 
formed and after All this I hope you will excuse 
me if I add noe more than that I am 
Yor most observt sone 



Saterd March 17th 



AJX 1714. 

THE following names are extracted from 
the Lists of Subscribers to Jeremy Collier's 
' Ecclesiastical History,' vol. ii., and Walker's 
' Sufferings of the Clergy,' both pub- 
lished at the close of Queen Anne's reign. 
A few names are duplicated, among them 
that of the father of Dr. Johnson. 

Bury Ralph Watson. 

C Mr. Jeffreys. 
Cambridge . . . . | Ml , Thurl e bame ^ 

Chippenham . . Roger Warne. 

Dublin .. .. Mr. Hide. 

(Abraham Ashwortfa. 
Durham .. ^William Freeman. 

Hull Thomas Ryles. 

Leeds . . . . John Swall (Swale), 

Litchfield . . . . Michael Johnson. 
Manchester . . .- . William Clayton. 

( Joseph Button. 
Newcastle . . . . | Rich ^ rcL Banda i]. 

Northampton . . John Fowle(r). 

Norwich . . . Mr. Goddard. 

fMr. Clements. 
Oxori . . . . < Mr. Piesly. 

(Mr. Wilmot. 

Plymouth . . . . Benjamin Smithurst. 
Sheffeild . . . . Nevil Simonds. 
Witchurch . . . . Jonathan Taylor. 
Wolverhampton . . George Unite. 
Worcester . . . . John Montforci. 
Yarmouth . . . . Mr. Gray. 
York Mr. Billiard. (25) 

Canterbury . . 
Chippenham . . 


. . T. Webster. 

Edward Burgess. 
. . Mr. Webb. 

Mr. Warne. 

1-2 S. X.JAN. 14, 1922.] 



Colchester . . . . James Blithe. 

Dorchester . . . . Robert Gaylavd. 
Dublin . . . . Richard Gunne. 

Durham . . . . Mr. Freeman. 

Evesham . . . . Mr. Loveday. 

C Philip Bishop. 
Exon . . . . < John Marsh. 

(.Edward Score. 
Hereford . . . . James Wilde. 

Hull Thomas Ryles. 

Leeds . . . . John Swale. 

T eicester Mr - Heartshorn. 

' { Simon Marten. 

Lichfield . . . . Michael Johnson. 
Lincoln . . . . Mr. Knight. 

Manchester . . . . Mr. Clayton. 
Newcastle . . . . Rich. Randall. 
Northampton . . John Fowler. 

Nottingham . . . . Will. Ward. 

("H. Clements, senior. 
Oxford . . . . ] Anth. Peisly. 

(J. Wilmot. 

Peterborough . . Mr. Bouchier. 
Plymouth . . . . Mr. Smithurst. 
St. Edmundsbury . . Ralph Watson, ]un. 
Sher bourne . . . . John Cook. 
Whitchurch . . . . Mr. Taylor. 
Wolverhamptoii . . George Unite. 
Worcester . . . . J. Montford. 
York Francis Hildyard. 

John Walker (1674-1747) appears to have 
belonged entirely to Devon. But he must 
have had friends in Essex, for about fifty of 
his subscribers lived in Colchester. It is 
worth notice that no Bristol bookseller is 
mentioned in the foregoing lists. Richard 
Brickdale of Bristol, grocer, did subscribe 
for Walker's ' Sufferings.' Manchester, on 
the other hand, was almost a village in the 
time of Queen Anne, yet it had a book- 

who claim to know most about the transla- 
tor of Omar Khayyam have told us that 
it is wrong to write " Fitzgerald " with a 
small " g," as the abbreviation " E. F-G. " 
suggests. Lately, however, a Cambridge 
friend who comes from Woodbridge showed 
me a series of FitzGerald's signed notes 
extending over several years, and they do not 
support the assumption that he never wrote 
" Fitzgerald." Indeed, that form seems 
his latest choice in the way of spelling. In 
1879 he wrote his name with a big " G " in 
the middle of it. In the later autographs the 
*' G," so far as I and my friend can discern, is 
a small one. Similarly he wrote " Little- 
grange " the name of his house in his 
last years as one word continuously with a 
small " g," whereas he had written it 
earlier as "Little Grange." The first 

mention of the house in his ' Letters to 
Fanny Kemble ' is in 1874, p. 43 ; and on 
the same page is a reference to " such a 
delicious bit " of Spedding's in ' N. & Q.' 

The notes I have seen show that the 
writer's fondness for capital letters was not 
confined to his published works. V. R. 

The Apprentice Books recently discovered 
in the vaults of Somerset House should 
prove of great interest to all Americans 
anxious to trace their connexion with the 
Old Country. In a search extending over 
some months many American names have 
been noticed : Taft, Washington, Garfield, 
Francklin, House, Baxter, Lincoln, Page, &c. 

These records also give particulars of 
American boys apprenticed in England, as 
instance : 

5 June 1717. Leon Augustus son of Leon Augus- 
tus Carter, late of York River in Gloucester County 
in ye Province of Virginia, Planter, apprenticed 
to James Debraufree, Citizen and Clockmaker. 
Consideration 25. (Inland Revenue 1/6-136.) 

English boys apprenticed to Americans are 
also to be found : 

22 Aug. 1728. James son of Thomas Penn of 
Chipping Wycomb, Bucks, apprenticed to John 
Harding of ye Province of Pensilvania, Miller. 
(Inland Revenue 1/6-81.) 

It may be as well to state that these 
registers of apprenticeships are a record of 
the tax levied on indentures at the rate of 
sixpence in the pound for sums under 50, 
and one shilling for sums over 50, the 
period covered being from 1710-1810, 
parentage being given in most cases down 
to 1752. Scotland and Wales are included 
in this return, but not Ireland. 

The genealogical value of this record is 
immense, as it forms a central register of 
parentage for a large proportion of our 
population, many years before the birth 
records at Somerset House commence. 

It only remains to say that the Society 

of Genealogists of London is making an 

alphabetical digest of these apprenticeship 

lists, and has already reached the year 1716. 


11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth, S.W.U. 

are less curious facts than this recorded 
for the information of posterity : At 
Christmastide, 1921, it was possible to 
send a printed card to Uganda for a half- 
penny, whereas if you addressed a like 
communication to your next-door neigh- 
bour, Government would not carry it to 
him for less than a penny. ST. SWITHIN. 

30 NOTES AND QUERIES. f 12 S.X.JAN. 14,1922. 

CAEN WOOD. The pending sale and hoped- 
for purchase for public use of Caen Wood 
calls for some further notice in these columns. 
The house, the very beautiful grounds and 
their associations will be familiar to many, 
because they have by constant allusion 
become as well known as the Palace of 
Hampton Court. This should ensure its 
preservation, and will if the matter is dealt 

"DEAR CLIFFORD'S SEAT." At a village 
near Stratford-on-Avon, called in * Poly- 
olbion ' 

dear Clifford's seat (the place of health and sport), 
Which many a time hath been the Muse's quiet 


I believe that a record has recently been 
established, proving that Drayton was 

correct in calling this picturesque spot .._,_ __. 

" the place of health." In 1887 the church | w ith by a thoroughly representative corn- 
was restored, and when the work was com- ! rnittee. 

pleted a new team of ringers was appointed. I F rom its bibliography I would select for 
These same men rang many changes on the \ mention the late Mr. J. H. Lloyd's ' Caen 
bells without a change among themselves j Wood and its Associations,' originally a 
until 1919, 32 years, when the conductor lecture delivered on March 15, 1892, and 
died, and his brother, not wishing to con- , printed by request of the members of some 
tmue after this loss, resigned. Their names j i oca i institution before whom it was de- 
were George Lynes (conductor), James j ii ver ed. Its iconography is also abundant, 
Lynes, William Liveley, John Liveley, Enoch j an d possibly the most interesting thing in this 
Liveley, John Bettridge and John Salmon. ; is a colour-aquatint after F. W. Stockdale, 
John Liveley has been clerk since 1887, ! published in oblong 8vo early in the nine- 
ha yPS tne succeeded his father, who had , teenth century. Of MSS. there are many, 
held the office for 27 years. i apparently unpublished, in a local private 

In the same village the staff of eight men j collection, and generally there is no lack of 
working at tlie mill m 1919 had lengths of | ma terial illustrating the very interesting 
service ranging from 30 years to upwards ; rec ord of the house and its estate, yet the 

JjJ* ! diligent journalists have dragged, into their 

? S t T S Were commumcated to me by descriptive appeals an allusion to Pope 
Mr. John James, churchwarden, who an- having visited the old Earl here (!). Cole- 
nually at Christmas invites the ringers to a ' r i<j g e was originally responsible for this error 
feast, where good fare, song and story fill (Qentlemaris Magazine, cited by Lloyd, p. 
up a pleasant evening. F. C. MORGAN. 49). The first Lord Mansfield was not in 

SUSSEX PRONUNCIATION OF PLACE-NAMES. ! Pf sess j* to entertain Pope until 1755, 
The late Canon Isaac Taylor, in < Words ! when that critic-poet had been dead eleven 
and Places,' traces the suffix "ham" to | V' ^ The , secon ^ Lord Mansfield was 
two distinct sources: first, ham, or home evidently responsible for laying out and 
(cf. German heim] ; and, secondly, Mm, an Panting the grounds, and some years ago I 
enclosure, a place hemmed in. In Sussex ! ^SU n th ?r Se P?p s a , ! f !f r A fron L ^00 
this distinction appears still to be observed! ? ff William Hamilton dated Aug. 29, 1793, 
in the pronunciation of place-names. Some I m wmch occurs the f ^owmg allusion :- 
20 or 30 years ago, when walking in West! * u le *[ **** a T Forfcni g h t we shall return to 
_ T J - A ' f c i iT Kenwood, where I am carrying on very extensive 

Sussex, I inquired of a party of labourers works . offlces now abso iutely necessary, and as 
the way to Pallmgham. I was at once 
corrected : " Pallingham," said one of 
them, who almost in the same sentence 
mentioned Stopham, which he pronounced 

The accentuation of the final syllable is, 
however, a Sussex peculiarity, e.g., Etching- 
ham, Withyham, Ardingly, Seaforcl, &c. 
A rather amusing instance of this came to 
my notice when walking near Haywards ! 

Lord M-i had so frequently recommended to me 
the Embellishment of Kenwood I resolved that 
they should be upon a handsome plan. This 
draws on an addition to the House, &c. I had 
naturally an aversion to Brick and mortar, but 
I doubt I am engaged now for life. The Improve- 
ments out of Doors I shall delight in, as that is a 
subject that in a degree at least I understand. 


Heath a few years ago. My map showed a Jan. 10, 1921 (p. 10), records that a Mr. 
footpath near a farm marked Sidney Farm, | S. Radges, who had recently died in the 
and I inquired whether one could go that I United States, paid for a twenty-year sub- 
way. " Yes," was the reply ; " we call it j scription to his local newspaper, directing 
Sidnye here." F. ALBAN BARRATTD. j that a copy of it should be delivered daily at 

* 67, Tooley Street, S.E.I. the vault in which he is interred. R. B. 

12 S. X. JAN. 14, 1922.] 




WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to attix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

portrait of this distinguished geologist, by 
Masquerier, hangs in the rooms of the 
Royal Society, but I cannot trace a bust of 
him by Edward M. Richardson, exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1855, three years 
after Dr. Mantell's death. It is desired to 
place a profile portrait plaque on the house 
in Lewes in which he lived whilst making his 
remarkable discoveries in the Sussex Weald, 
and for this the bust is essential. 

Richardson exhibited 45 pieces of sculp- 
ture between 1829 and 1866 28 of them in 

4, Portland Place, W.I. 

BARON GRANT. When and where did the 
lines about Baron Grant originally appear ? 
In * The Romance of Madame Tussaud's ' 
they are given as follows : 

Kings can titles give, but honour can't, 

So title without honour's but a barren Grant. 

I have heard them quoted differently : - 
Honours a King can give, honour he can't, 
Honours without honour are a Baron Grant. 

Can anyone give the correct version ? 

G. L. 

HAM).' Can any reader give me a description 
of the arms of these three families ? 

An heiress of a Beauchamp in Essex 
married a Dawnay in King Stephen's reign. 
A Moseley heiress of Co. York manied a 
Dawnay in or about the year 1644, and 
heiresses of the Whitworth family, quartering 
Woodham or Wodham of Durham, married 
a Legard, an heiress of which family also 
married a Dawnay. 

Society of Antiquaries, Burlington House. 

reader locate a book of songs entitled 
* First Part of Ayres French Polish and 
Others,' composed by Tobias Hume, and 
published in London by John Windet in 
1605 ? I am doing a piece of graduate 
work at the University of Pennsylvania on 
the Life and Works of Tobias Hume, and this 
book would be of vast service to me. I 
should be perfectly willing to buy the book 
.if I could only procure it. 


i kindly give me more information of this 
\ saint than is already contained in Mackey's 
| 'Lexicon of Freemasonry.' He has been 
canonized by both the Greek and Roman 
Churches bis festival among the former 
occurring on Nov. 11 and among the latter 
on Jan. 23. He was a son of the King of 
Cyprus in the sixth century. He gave up 
all chances to the throne to go to Jerusalem 
in order to assist the knights and pilgrims 
visiting the Holy Sepulchre. He does not 
appear to be recognized as a saint by the 
I English Church. ROY GARART.. 

Royal Artillery Mess, Kowloon, Hong-Kong. 

[The account quoted by our correspondent 
j hardly seems correct. The* father of St. John 
j the Almoner was Epiphanius, Governor (not 
I King) of Cyprus. John was born at Amathus, 
| in Cyprus, c. 550, and died there 616. As a 
young man he married and had children ; having 
lost his wife and children he entered the religious 
life. His course was determined by a vision of 
his youth in which he saw an olive -crowned 
i maiden who told him that she was Compassion, 
| eldest daughter of the Great King. He therefore 
| gave himself to works of benevolence, and when, 
! at the request of the Alexandrians, he was made 
| Patriarch of Alexandria by the Emperor Heraclius, 
| he used all the powers and opportunities of his 
position for the relief of the unfortunate. Many 
stories are told of his indefatigable charity. 
He reorganized the system of weights and 
j measures in the interests of the poor, and 
| set himself strenuously against official corrup- 
! tion. When the Persians sacked Jerusalem in 
! 614, John sent supplies to the Christian refugees. 
The Persians occupied Alexandria, whereupon 
j the Patriarch was forced to flee to his native 
! city, where he died. His body was taken suc- 
I cessively to Constantinople, Ofen, Toll and Pres- 
' burg Cathedral, where it now lies. The authorities 
i for his Life are Simeon Metaphrastes and Leontius, 
Bishop of Neapolis in Cyprus. Leontius's work 
professes to be merely supplementary to a Life of 
St. John (now lost) by Joannes and Sophronius. 
We have it in the Latin translation made by 
Anastasius the Librarian. As to St. John the 
Almoner having been the original patron of the 
Knights Hospitallers, this seems to be a mistake 
grounded upon the erection of an altar to him 
in the Hospital at Jerusalem, the patron of the 
Order being St. John Baptist. 

Our correspondent may be interested to know 
that a thirteenth-century MS. at Trinity College, 
Cambridge given to the College by Thomas 
Neville (Master 1592; d. 1614) contains a trans- 
lation of Leontius's Life of St. John the Almoner 
into French verse.] 

LAUNCHING OF SHIPS. Is this done stern 
foremost for mechanical reasons, or is there 
any tradition or custom to account for it ? 


Royal Artillery Mess, Kowloon, Hong-Kong. 

32 NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.X.JAN-. 14,1922. 

RABBITS IN AUSTRALIA. Can any of the , moreover, a tendency to emphasize guttur- 
correspondents of ' N. & Q.' tell me when this : ally the vowel sounds following consonants, 
species was introduced to Australia ? Any | As a result the consonant values are 
authoritative figures as to its subsequent | weakened. Times =t-himes, paper =p -haper, 
increase and its present numbers would be I prayer = pr-hayer, Macarthy = Mac-Harthy, 
of interest. HUGH S. GLADSTONE. j and so on. In Spanish there seems to be a 

Capenoch, Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. similar tendency. The English tendency 

I is quite other. Consonant sounds are 

CIPHER ON ST. JAMES'S PALACE. On j stressed very clearly and distinctly (if 
some lead gutter-heads in the Friary Court somewhat thinly), which makes for the 
of St. James's Palace is the date 1696, ac- weakening of the vowel and half-vowel 
companied by the cipher A.R. Can any values, the dropping of the h. 
explanation be given of this curious col- j Might not the so-called Cockney lack 
location ? G. W. WALLACE. j o f control of the h be traced back to the 

I root factor, namely, the struggle for power 

THE BRIGHTON ATHEN^UM According ! over the aspirate between the Latin and 
to Toones Chr. Hist,, 11. 775, on Aug. | Teutonic influences in the E nglish 1 anguage ? 
30, 1833, during a very violent storm, | In correct French the so-called aspirated h 
" ^ e . dom ?, *, th ? 1 P. righ . t ? n Athenaeum, ife now as mute as the h in whatf why and 
or Oriental Garden, fell in with a tremendous i where of modern English. But in Switzer- 
crash ; it was larger than the dome of St. land and m those parts of F rance nearer 
Peter s, at Rome, by 8,000 feet, and com- to German influences the aspirate is still very 
posed of between 400 and 500 tons of iron, guttural. This is also noticeable in the 
which broke into a thousand pieces; on beautiful French spoken by cultured Poles 
removing the scaffold, the immense weight and Russians 

was too much for the side supports." Where' fc it that ' the Celtic and Teutonic in- 

was this building ? fluences in English make for the main- 

JOHNB.WAINEWRIGHT. tenance of the aspiration, the Latin for 

PEDIGREES WANTED. Can any reader its elimination? Doxies apart, what is 
send me the pedigree of the families of the philologic law at work here ? I have 
(1) Dallas of Cantray, before 1745 ; (2) Rose inquired elsewhere with no satisfactory 
of Kilravock, before 1600; or supply any result. VALENTINE J. O'HARA. 

information about Caleb and William Authors' Club, London. 
Greville, who witnessed the marriage of 

Charles Egleton to Ann Edwards at St. JAMES HALES, the eldest son of Sir John 
George's, Hanover Square, on Aug. 3, 1790 ? Hales, Bart., by his second wife Helen, 
I should be glad to have communications daughter of Dudley Bagnal of Newry, 
sent direct. NORMAN SHAW. Ireland, is said to have been an officer in 

Custom House, Swatow, China. tne Emperor's service, and to have been 

killed in Italy in 1735. Further particulars 

ADAH ISAAC MENKEN'S ' INFELICIA.' of his career are desired, as well as the 
This small pocket volume of poems having place and full date of his death, 
a portrait frontispiece has acceptance of 
dedication by Charles Dickens in his neat 

calligraphy reproduced in facsimile, but bears THORESBY HARDRES, son of Sir Richard 
no printer's imprint, only the blank intima- Hardres, Bart., of Upper Hardres, Kent, 
tion, London, Paris, New York. i by Anne, daughter of Thomas Godfrey of 

Is there any means of ascertaining who Lydd, was at Westminster School in 1660. 
designed the exquisite head- and tail- pieces The dates of his birth and death and par- 
adorning the volume, likewise the vignette ticulars of his marriage are required, 
on the title page ? ANETJRIN WILLIAMS. G. F. K. B. 

Menai View, North Road, Carnarvon. 

WELSH MAP SOUGHT. I should be glad 

THE ENGLISH " H " : CELTIC, LATIN AND to know the name, date and publishers of 
GERMAN INFLUENCES. Some of your lin- the map or maps of Wales upon which 
guists might throw light on this matter, appear engravings of the following " Houses 
In the Irish pronunciation of English full without Chimnies," namely, Wynnstay, 
credit is given to the aspirate. There is, seat of the Wynnes ; Erddig, of the Yorks ;. 

!: S. X. JAN. 14, 



Emral, of the Pulestons ; Giler. of the 
Prices ; and Marie of the . 

I should a so be glad of the titles of any 
works giving an account of Giler, Denbigh- 
shire, beyond the article in The Antiquary 
of December, 1883, by the Rev. T. Morgan 
Owen, M.A., rector of Pentre Voelas. 
Any information Would be gratefully re- 
ceived. LEONARD C. PRICE. 

Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

last wrote you I became fascinated with 
the idea of annotating the book, so I 
bought a second-hand copy of the small 
octavo complete edition published by 
Richard Bentley in 1860. I think it is 
the second edition. I cut it up, interleaved 
it and rebound it in three volumes according 
to the three series. During this Christmas 
I have amused myself by finding chapter 
and verse for nearly one thousar^d refer- 
ences, but not all. 

The following, whilst they baffle me, 
may be known to some readers of ' N. & Q.' 

Will any lover of ' Ingoldsby ' help me 
with the following as a commencement ? 

' Ghost.' (p. 64) What was the " British 
Forum " and where did it stand ? 

' Old Woman Clothed in Grey.' (p. 388) 
Who was " Dullman," Cardinal Wiseman's 
publisher ? Who were Jemmy Wood (p. 
392), Jem Bland (p. 395), Jacobus de 
Chusa (p. 397), and John Wright (p. 401) ? 

' Spectre of Tappington.' (p. 13) Was 
Horsley Curties a real person ? (p. 27) 
What was a " Bridgewater Prize" ? 

' Penance.' (p. 293 note) Who were the 
" foreigneering Bishop " who frequented 
the Garrick Club, and Mr. Muntz (p. 295) ? 

'Aunt Fanny.' (p. 317) What is the 
joke about the Lord Mayor's coal and a 
slate ? What Lord Mayor was a coal- 
merchant in the thirties ? 

'Black Mousquetaire.' (p. 229) Who 
were Stickney the Great and General 
Widdicombe ? (p. 226 note) Pennalosa ? 
(p. 239 note) " Tompions, I presume" ? 
Why Farquhar ? (p. 240) Squire Hayne ? 

' Wedding Day.' (p. 438) Who were 
Mr. Taylor of Lombard Street and (p. 435 
note) Baron Duberly ? 

' Rupert the Fearless.' (p. 247) Who 
were Mr. Myers and (p. 249) Howard and 
Gibbs ? 

' Leech of Folkestone.' (p. 94) Who was 
De Vffle ? 

'Misadventures at Margate.' (p. 324) 
Who was Mr. Withair ? 

' Smuggler's Leap.' (p. 329) I remember 
Nock's name as Gunmaker. When and 
where did he live ? (p. 328) Was Mr. Day 
| a real person ? 

' Babes in the Wood.' (p. 346) Who was 
1 Cotton ? 

' Dead Drummer.' (p. 348) Who were 
Charles Wetherall and (p. 350) Poole ? 

' Row in Omnibus (Box).' (p. 358) When 
did this occur ? What was Doldrum's real 
! name ? 

' St. Aloys.' (p. 381) Who was Jones 
of the Strand and what was his " Pyro- 
geneion " ? 

' Lord of Toulouse.' (p. 420) Does Morel's 
| still exist ? 

' Blasphemer's Warning.' (p. 442) Who 
was Honest John Capgrave, and (p. 459) 
! where can I find the legend of Curina ? 

' Hermann.' (p. 513) Who is Sir John 
| Nicholl ? 

'My Letters.' (p. 525) Where was 
Pearsal's ? 

'Hand of Glory.' (p. 29) Who was 
petit Albert and (p. 30) what was a Double- 
Joe ? 

' Patty Morgan.' (p. 39) Who was 
j Griffith ap Conan ? 

' Cynotaph.' (p. 74) Who was Sydney 
Taylor ? 

' Witches' Frolic.' (p. 109) Cummers ? 
' Bagman's Dog.' (p. 212) Libs ? 
' Nell Cook.' (p. 309) Old Tom Wright ? 
Whose are the two shields on the frontis- 
piece ? 

Who were " the rival editors " of Shake- 
speare mentioned in the note on page vi. of 
the Preface to the second edition ? 

I shall be glad if anyone will write to me 
direct and shall be happy to reciprocate, 
! now that my references are all written out. 

Carlton Club. 
[Libs (Lips) : the west-south-west wind.] 

! bought an icon of our Lord, holding a book. 
i Within the halo on the left-hand side of the 
| head is an Omega, and above it a T with 
I the stem half as long as it ought to be. 
I Above the top of the head is what appears 
i to be an O (Omicron ?), and on the right 
of the head a letter that somewhat resembles 
! a capital Eta. The ornamental line that 
I is parallel with the frame is broken at the 
i bottom of the icon to admit of the inscrip- 
I tion in Slavonic of " Where is the Almighty ? " 
The thumb and first finger and two of the 
other fingers are curiously twisted. 



as.x. .TAX. u, 1022. 

What is meant by the inscription, by the 
letters round the head, and by the inter- 
lacing of the fingers ? 


The Authors' Club, Whitehall, S.W. 

date and origin of the words " East or West, 
name's best " ? 

I possess a very fine old oak sideboard, which 
has the date 1646 inscribed upon it, and I am 
anxious to learn whether the above quotation, 
which also appears in carved letters on the 
furniture, ante- dates or 

the influences of masterful minds in the 
enemy's service. Born in Leeuwarden, the 
capital of the province of Friesland, intended 
to become a teacher, but married to and 
later divorced by an officer in the Dutch 
East Indian Army, then introduced to the 
gay world of Paris by an operatic star of 
international fame, she adopted for her 
performances of quasi-Oriental dances, some 
of them more or less modelled on the terpsi- 
chorean art of Java, the stage name of 
Mata Hari, Eye (of the) Day, equivalent 
of sun in the Malay language. Apart from 
the absolutely fantastic in the literature 

reference a contributor mentions that it is to be 
found in Bay's ' Collection of Proverbs ' (1670), 
and expresses the opinion that it is one of those 

fuThor7hip f I^etnd Writer ^es^German 
4 Ost und West, daheim das Best.' But is that 
form correct ?] 


death, there is a book written or inspired 
by her father and published in Holland. 
The most dispassionately authentic data 
concerning her youth and subsequent career 
are > however, to be found, as far as the 
present writer's knowledge of the subject 
goes, in*an article which appeared on May 3, 

AUTHOR WANTED. I should be grateful if any 
reader could inform me where some stirring lines, 
entitled ' The Lay of the old Sikh Chief,' can be 
found. They were, I think, attributed to the late 
Sir Lepel Griffin, and began : 

" Here, in my fathers' castle, 
I sit from day to day." 

AUTHOR'S NAME WANTED. In 1883 Richard 
Bentley published ' Two Months in New Orleans 

Merchant - 0nfedCTate ^^ * 7 " An Engli8h 
I do not find the book mentioned in Halket 
and Laing's ' Dictionary of Anonymous Publi- 
cations.' What was the author's name ? 



(12S. ix.527.) 

NOTWITHSTANDING the wildly extravagant 
stories of journalists and novelists who 
found and still find their profit in catering 
to the morbid taste of a public eager for 
sensational stuff, the facts of the origin 
and youth of Mata Hari, the Dutch dancer, 
shot as a spy at Vincennes, Oct.. 15, 1917, 
ought to be well known by this time. 
There is nothing obscure or mysterious in 
the early life of this ''infamous woman," 
as PROFESSOR PITOLLET calls her, whose fate 
can be directly traced to a high-strung, 
hysterical temperament, unable to resist 

Scotland Yard and the courage she displayed 
i i n f ace of the firing squad, Sir Basil Thorn- 
| >,, < Mmnnrip** ' Th* Time* "NTov 14- 1 Q21 
j S 6S ' * M * imes > * ^ ' 14 ' fl* 1 ' 


The " mysterious English novel " which 

i PROFESSOR C. PiTOLLET is anxious to discover 

j ig poss i bly < Tne L if e g t ory of Madame 

Zelle, the World's Most Beautiful Spy,' 

told by Henry de Halsalle, published by 

\ Messrs. Skeffington and Sons, Ltd., 

! London, at Is. 9rf. (n.d., ? 1917). The 

i coloured wrapper in which this book was 

issued gives the author s name as Henry 

, Dubois. 

M a t a Hari is referred to on pp. 90-93 in 
Sidney Theodore Felstead's ' German Spies 
t Bay,' published by Messrs. Hutchinson 
an d Co., London, at 8s. 6d., 1920. 

1 haVG CO P ie * ot both these books in my 

44 Spy Library> " aud sha ]l be happy to 
lerd both, or either, to Professor Pitollet 

if he \vill send me his addra s. 

Capenoch, Thornhill, Dumfriesshire, 

PROFESSOR C. PITOLLET, in his interesting 

note regarding the famous spy, mentions 

that her name is said to be of Hindustani 

origin and to mean " morning bird." This 

is not Hindustani, neither is it Hindi nor 

i Urdu. The name appears to be Sanscritic, 

! in which language " Hari " is one of the 

names of God. It may again be Cingalese, 

but I seem to remember having seen that] 



the spy spent some years of her life in Java 
or Sumatra. Can the nom de guerre there- 
fore be Javanese ? 


Is PROFESSOR PITOLLET s informant correct 
in stating that Mata Hari is Hindustani 
and means morning bird ? I am aware 
of ten woras m that language signifying 
" morn, morning, dawn, and nearly double 
the number used for ' bird," but neither 
mata DOT han appears in the list, 

One newspaper pronounced the sobriquet 
to be Japanese. The real source must be 
looked for in Malay. That lingua franca 
of the East is sometimes delightfully poetic. 
Witness the use of the words in question 
"" " " 

never come across a member of it whose 
name is spelled without a " g." 

In the ' Calendar of Canterbury Wills,' 
1396-1558, issued in 1920 by the British 
Record Society, are some nine wills of a 

< family name d Menys, Mens, Mense, Menesse, 
MennVsse, Menewes, or Mynvs, principally 
of Deal and Sandwich. These wills range 
in date from 1416 to 1558) and it is probab l e 
the origin of the name Minnes mav be found 

i from this sourc e, especially as' Sir John 
was of a Sandwich familv. ' 

h * , 

' P OUS 

> as Mr. Hulburd 



literallv "the eve of the rlav 
up " ^nd " the Tye of t*e da ! 
eoins down " 

D As 8 stated'emte, there has been a mass of 
contradictions published in the Paris , 
journals about Truda Zelle, but if it be ! 
true that she was once the wife of a Dutch 
officer and afterwards the mistress of 
other Dutchmen she may have lived for 
a time in one or more of the eastern pos- 
sessions of Holland, which would explain 
her choice of a Malay nom de guerre. 

Cora Laparcerie has, I read, produced at 
the Renaissance Theatre a play called 
'La Danseuse Rouge,' which is written 
round the spy's life 

Interest in this amazing woman, who is 
said to have been of Jewish origin, seems 
to have revived lately, and many would 
join Professor Pitollet in welcoming au- 
thentic details of her youth. These, how- 
ever, are at present not forthcoming, though 
Colonel Boucabeille, an ex-militar| attache 
at The Hague, is stated to have had a 
complete dossier of - Mata Hari." 


Church Fields, SaJfcburv. 

(12 S. ix. 461, 513; x. 13). The note on 
this subject by MR. PERCY HULBURD 
opens up an interesting topic as to a possible 
family connexion between Vice-Admirals 
Sir John Minnes and Sir Christopher Mings, 
having regard to the somewhat similarity 
in the names. There may be such a 
connexion at present undiscovered, but 1 
am disposed to think the names are distinct 
and not variants. At any rate, among my 
many notes of the Minge family I have 

, ' T '' 

Duke), mentions lands in Loughton, 

jh% Woodnesborough 
ms ne P hew > Francis Hammon, and 
! *.' Elizabeth Hammon, son and daughter 
er Mary ' hls meces Jane 

r rt 

Heath 5 Lady Heath s daughter, Margaret 

^ d , his ' c ousm f Ca P tam . Jo ^ Ca ^ on of 
^^f bo f l p ugh ' .There is also a bequest 
of 50 for the repairs of Sandwich church. 

^ to the Mynge and Hamon connexion, 
a len f e ^ as issuec * at Canterbury Feb. 6 
r the Carriage of John Mynge of 

.? m ? ey -' ?" ** ^^ Hamon ' of 
Awkndge (Acrise), v. Daniel Mynge of New 

R ? mne ^. y eoma ^' b f n g a bond. Ad- 
nimistration of the estate of John Minge 
of ew Komney was granted at the 
V*' Canterbury, on Jan 23 
Judith rehct. The will of Judith 
Mynge of Canterbury, widow already alluded 
*? ma ^ es ^ferences to "my brothers, 
Ra j P ^ r f amOI iv Sir Th m ?f Hamon, Knt. r 
a ^ Wl " ia ^ Hamon of Canterbury^ ; my 
^ters Martha Brewer, Jane Gibbons, and 
Bennett Hamon, this latter being really 
s her s f ^-in-law. These brothers and sisters 
: are a " mentioned m the \isitation of Kent 

[ Or 1619 m S^ 2 ^ 00 P^ 1 ^ 66 ' m 
however, Judith Mynge does not ap 

doubtless because she was then dead. I 
have ^ ot so far v** 1 able to trace any 
connexion between the Hamon family 
of Acrise and the T. Hammond who,. 
according to the Minnes pedigree in Boys' 
'History of Sandwich,' married Maria,. 
sister of sir f ohn - Minnes, about 1631. 
There is no pedigree of the Acrise family in 
the 1663-1668 Visitation, so no help can 
be derived from that source. 

The real point I wish to clear up is whether 
John Myngs, in 1623 of the parish of St. 



[12S. X.JAN. 14, 1922, 

Katharine in the City of London (father of 
Sir Christopher Mings), said to have been a 
shoemaker, is identical with John Minge, 
in 1622 of the Precincts of St. Katharine, 
citizen and cordwainer of London, 1626, 
1631, 1640. Would the parish register of 
St. Katharine's help, and would the Acting 
Master of St. Katharine's in the Regent's 
Park and Warden of the Royal Chapel 
kindly give us the benefit of any informa- 
tion on the subject which may be at his 
disposal ? GEORGE S. FRY. 

15, Walsingham Road, Hove. 

TITLE OF "K.H." (12 S. ix. 529). The 
following extract from the Introduction 
(p. xxxvi.) to Dr. Wm. A. Shaw's ' Knights 
of England,' answers the query : 

The question as to whether the membership 
of this Order [Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order] 
entitled the holder thereof to the title of " Sir " 
and to the rank of a knight bachelor of Great 
Britain is concisely stated by Nicolas in his 
general remarks on the Order. Neither George IV. 
nor William IV. supposed that such title or 
precedence would attach to the members. Re- 
garding the Order as strictly a foreign one, both 
those kings always knighted those members of 
the Order whom they meant to make knights 
bachelors of Great Britain. Further than this, 
William IV. expressly intimated his opinion to 
that effect after having taken the advice of the Lord 
Chancellor on the subject. A paper having been 
laid before the King in October, 1831, containing 
reasons for the contention that all the knights 
of the Order of the Guelphs became ipso facto 
knights bachelors, the King saw so much objection 
to the principle (that the acceptance of any 
foreign Order should confer on the individual 
the honour of knighthood without his being 
knighted by the Sovereign) that he asked it to 
be referred to the lord chancellor. The lord 
chancellor's opinion was understood to be de- 
cidedly against any such right, and the king 
afterwards appointed several hundred British 
subjects to the Order, being assured that they 
would not thereby become knights bachelors of 

The members of the Order occupy over 
thirty pages, dating 1815-1837. 

There were three classes, viz., Knights 
Grand Cross (G.C.H.), Knights Commanders 
(K.C.H.), and Knights (K.H.). By the 
statutes, which though issued from Carlton 
House were only published in German, the 
Grand-Mastership of the Order was to be 
for ever annexed to the Crown of Hanover. 
(Ibid. p. xxxv.) 

It is remarkable that there is no complete 
list of the Order extant, an order instituted 
in 1815. Dr. Shaw tells us (Preface, p. vii.) 
that he has been unable to find one, and that 
tne lists which he gives " have been drawn 

entirely from the annual ' Koniglich gross- 
britannisch-hannoverscher Staatskalendar,' 
known later as the ' Hof-und Staats 
Handbuch fiir das Konigreich Hannover. ' 

SIR RICHARD WOOLFE (12 S. ix. 528). 
In ' The Present State of Great Britain,' 
1755, published under the name of John 
Chamberlayne, who died in 1723, p. 281 of 
' the General List, Number C, gives " The 
Names of the Officers in the Court of the 
Dutchy-Chamber of Lancaster." I extract 

Mr. Richard Wolfe, Deputy Clerk and Register 

of his Majesty's Court of the Dutchy-Chamber of 

Lancaster. Richard Wolfe, Esq : Secretary to 

i the Chancellor. [Richard, Lord Edgcumbe was 

the Chancellor.] 

There can be little doubt that Mr. Richard 
Wolfe and Richard Wolfe, Esq : were one 
and the same person. 

* The Court and City Kalendar ' for 1759, 
I the nearest which I have to 1755, p. 173, gives 
i in its list of the ' Dutchy Court of Lan- 
caster,' " Dep. and Sec. to Council, R. 
Wolfe." (The Chancellor then was the 
Earl of Kinnoul.) " Dep." evidently means 
Deputy-Clerk of the Council. The former 
book (ibid., p. 286) in the list of ' Offices 
! belonging to the Court of Exchequer,' 
I says : 

The Court of the Dutchy of Lancaster is kept 
i near the lower Exchequer, in Westminster-Hall. 
The Offices belonging to that Court are kept in 
I the old Buildings, in the first Court in Gray's-Inn. 

' The Court and City Kalendar ' has 
| " Dutchy Court of Lancaster (Gray's Inn)." 
In neither of these books does the name 
[ Wolfe or Woolfe appear in the list of officers 
| of the Dutchy of Cornwall. There is no 
j R. or Richard Wolfe or Woolfe in the Index 
j of Shaw's ' Knights of England,' but this does 
j not prove the negative, as the lists are imper- 
fect. See Dr. Shaw's Introduction, especially 
p. xlix. et seq. ROBERT PIERPOINT. 

BLINGTON), HANTS (12 S. ix. 488). The 
Cotton family were of Warblington, near 
Havant, Co. Hants. Warbleton is in Sussex. 
Warblington Castle is supposed to have been 
erected by, and for some years the residence 
of, the ill-fated Magaret Pole, Countess of 
Salisbury, who was executed in 1541. The 
manor was granted to Sir Richard Cotton 
in 1551. The Castle was practically de- 
stroyed during the Civil War, but the 
manor remained in possession of the family 
until the death of William Cotton in 1736. 

12 S. X. JAN. 14, 1922.] 



Sir George Cotton, a younger grandson of 
Sir Richard, was a coronation knight 
one of the 400 persons in 1603 who, being 
possessed of a rental of 40 per annum 
were compelled to be dubbed knights or to 
pay a fine at the coronation of James I. 
At the coronation of Charles I. some 200 
persons preferred to be fined the fines 
ranging from 10 to 40. 

Sir George Cotton married Cassandra, 
the youngest but one of the five sisters of 
Henry Mackwilliam, of Stambourne, Co. 
Essex, who was killed in a duel in 1599. 
The eldest sister, Margaret, married Sir John 
Stanhope, Lord Harrington ; the third 
sister, Ambrosia, was the wife of Sir William 
Kingswell of Shalden, Hants, in whose 
will, dated 1613, reference is made to Cas- 
sandra, daughter of Sir George and Dame 
Cassandra Cotton ; and the youngest sister, 
Cicely, sometime maid of honour to Queen 
Elizabeth, married Sir Thomas Ridgway, 
Treasurer of Ireland, afterwards Earl of 

Sir George Cotton was first cousin to 
Henry, Earl of Kent, his aunt Susan having 
married Charles Grey, who succeeded to 
the earldom on the death of his brother 
in 1615. John Selden was steward and legal 
adviser to the Earl of Kent, and is said to 
have married the Countess after the Earl's 
death in 1639. Possibly the Cottons became 
friendly with Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards 
Lord Clarendon, and other notable people 
of the period, through Selden. 

In Wotton's ' Baronetage ' (i. 300) it is 
stated that Charles Cotton (the poet) was 
" son and heir of Charles, son of Sir George 
Cotton, knight " ; and in ' Staffordshire 
Pedigrees ' (Harl. Soc., p. 59) he is called 
" Charles Cotton of Beresford esquire (grand- 
son of Sir George, a younger son of 
Cotton of Warblinton and Bedhampton in 

Charles Cotton the elder married Olive, 
only d. and h. of Sir John Stanhope of 
Elvaston, Co. Derby. Anne Stanhope, 
sister of Sir John, married Thomas Cokayne, 
and was mother of Sir Aston Cokayne, 
the poet. Another sister, Catherine Stan- 
hope, married Sir Thomas Hutchinson, 
and their daughter Isabel was the first 
wife of Charles Cotton the younger. By 
her he had issue : Beresford, b. 1657/6 
(in 1694 Captain in Sir Richard Atkins's 
Regiment of Foot) ; Wingfield and Charles, 
who both died young ; Olive, who married, 
in January, 1690, Dr. George Stanhope, 

Dean of Canterbury, and died in June, 
1707 ; Catherine (d. June, 1740), the wife 
of Sir Berkeley Lucy, Bart. ; Jane and 
Mary. Col. John Hutchinson, the regicide, 
was brother of Isabel Cotton. 

The poet's second wife was Mary, daughter 
of Sir William Russell, widow of Wingfield 
Cromwell, Earl of Ardglass, by whom he 
had no issue. ALFRED T. EVERITT. 

Admiralty Road, Portsmouth. 

THE HOUSE OF HARCOURT (12 S. ix. 409, 
453, 495, 514 ; x. 15). I am greatly obliged 
to your correspondent, MR. G. H. WHITE, 
for the trouble he has taken in answering 
my queries, but it leaves me with the 
impression that I ought to regard the 
works of Burke, Cleveland, Freeman and 
others as composed largely of fiction. 
However, I am not competent to judge 
in the matter, as I haven't access to any 
original sources of information, so am com- 
pelled to use my own judgment what to 
accept and what to reject in regard to the 
early history of this family. I should much 
like to know, however, what Dan le Noir 
says about it in his work, ' Preuves 
genealogiques et historiques de la Maison 
de Harcourt ' (Paris, 1907). 

Mr. White says that Wace is the only 
authority for a Harcourt being present 
at the Battle of Hastings. How about 
M. Leopold Delisle, stated to be " the 
greatest antiquarian authority in France," 
who was responsible for the insertion of 
Robert de Harcourt in the " Dives Roll " ? 
He professed to give no name that is not 
vouched for by some deed or document 
of the period. What was his authority ? 
Mr. White also states that the family " has 
become extinct in the male line " (in Eng- 
land), whereas Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' 
vol. i., 1898, states that the Harcourts 
of Ankerwyke are lineal descendants in 
the male line. Which is correct ? The 
numerous Harcourts who are descended 
from Edward Vernon, Archbishop of York, 
are, of course, only descended in the female 
line from this family. 

Is there a record of any grant of land 
to any Harcourt when it was parcelled 
out to the companions of William the 
Conqueror ; the presence of a Harcourt 
in the Pipe Roll as early as 1130 is in support 
of this supposition ? 


Is it quite certain that MR. WHITE is right 
in stating that this family is extinct in the 



[12 s.x.. TAX. if. 1022. 

male line ? About the beginning of this 
century I was acquainted with a Mr. 
Griffith Harcourt, the proprietor of a paper- 
mill at Hurcott, near Kidderminster. He j 
was a younger brother of the then Harcourt | 
of Ankerwyke, and he certainly informed j 
me that he himself had a son. 

The Harcourts of Raunton who entered \ 
pedigrees in the 1614 and 1663/4 Visitations i 
of Staffordshire were of illegitimate descent, I 
but the 1583 Visitation shows six male i 
Harcourts of the legitimate Raunton line 
then apparently living, and also at least 
five males of the Staunton and Ellenhall 
family who were either then living or, if 
dead, were not stated to have died without 

I have myself been acquainted with 
two Harcourt families in the district round 
Birmingham, and I don't doubt that there j 
are others. 

Probably a little research would establish | 
the existence of more than one legitimate j 
Harcourt family in the Midlands. 


PLUGENET (12 S. ix. 489). Otherwise] 
Plokenet, Plukenet or Plogenet. Andrew: 
de la Bere is said (by G. E. C.) to have 
been the husband of Alicia Walerand. ! 
They had issue two sons, Sir Richard de la | 
Bere being the elder and Alan de Plugenet j 
the younger. This Alan became a promi- 1 
nent personage during the reign of Edward | 
I., and his uncle, Robert Walerand, having 
bequeathed him the lordship and castle of 
Kilpeck, he had summons to Parliament. 
He married Johanna, daughter of Andrew; 
Wake of Tangley, Co. Hants, and died in 
1299, leaving issue by her a son and a! 
daughter. The son, Alan de Plugenet, ; 
died without issue in 1319, and his sister 
inherited she was then known as Joanna 
de Bohun, Lady of Kilpeck (widow of Sir 
Henry de Bohun). On her death without 
issue in 1326/7 her cousin, Richard de la 
Bere, grandson of her uncle Sir Richard de 
la Bere, was found to be her heir. An 
inquiry in 1353 relating to the Plugenet 
property elicited that Thomas, son ofj 
Richard de la Bere, was cousin and heir 
to Alan de Plugenet, and that Alan de , 
Plugenet the elder was born in Dorset at j 
Thornton, of Andrew de la Bere and Alice j 
his wife, sister of William Walerand and| 
Robert his brother. A pedigree and ac- 1 
count of the family is given in Liveing's j 
-.' Records of Romsey Abbey.' 

Banks, in his ' Dormant and Extinct 

Baronage,' states there was a Hugh de 
Plugenet of Lambourne, Co. Berks, in the 
reign of Henry II. (1154-89), that he married 
Sibil, d. and coh. of Josceus de Dinant, 
and had issue two sons, Alan and Josceus. 
The latter inherited Lambourne, and it 
continued in possession of his descendants 
for some 150 years. He does not state 
what became of Alan. The De Dinants 
came from Brittany, and possibly the De 
Plugenets also. No connexion can be traced 
between the Plugenet and the Plunkett 
families the latter, according to Burke r 
were settled in the County of Meath, in Ire- 
land, in the eleventh century. 

Admiralty Road, Portsmouth. 

Alan Plugenet, or Plukenet, married Alice ^ 
one of the three sisters and coheiresses of 
Robert Waleran. A good deal of informa- 
tion on this family is to be found at the 
following references : John Batten's ' His- 
torical Notes of South Somerset,' p. 96 ; 
Collinson's ' History of Somerset,' vols. iL 
and iii. ; The Topographer and Genealogist, 
vol. i., p. 30 ; Banks' s ' Dormant and Extinct 

There are several inquisitiones post mortem 
of members of this family, and frequent re- 
ferences to them in the Feet of Fines for 
Somerset and Dorset and probably other 
counties, in the Close Rolls and Patent 
Rolls and in the Transactions of the Somer- 
set (and other counties) Archaeological 
Societies. E. A. FRY. 

Sunnyside, Gerrards Cross. 

" JOURNEY " (12 S. ix. 527). J. R. H. 
is quite right. A "journey " of trams is a 
"train" ("rake," "set") of "tubs" 
("corves," "trams," "hutches") in the 
underground roads of a mine, usually 
hauled by ponies or by being attached with 
a clip to a moving rope or cable. The annual 
reports by H.M. Inspectors of Mines fre- 
quently contain the phrase. Taking at 
random the year 1897, one finds "run 
into by the full journey of tubs " (Liverpool 
district) ; " run over by the journey " (do.) ; 
" a journey of six tubs was being drawn up " 
(North Staffs) ; " taking out a journey of 
trams " (S.W. district, Glos). 


SMOKERS' FOLK-LORE (12 S. ix. 528). 
This is a very old superstition, akin to the 
dislike of having three lights in a room, 
and is probably founded on the custom 

12 S.X. JAN. 14, 1922.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of laying out a corpse with two candles at j 
the head and one at the foot, three lights | 
being, therefore, supposed to be unlucky. 
As regards smoking, it was a popular super- 1 
stition during the Boer War, 1899-1902, j 
and no doubt earlier examples than this 
could be obtained. F. M. M. 

I fancy that most superstitions are | 
connected with ideas concerning the con- 
tinuance or transmission of life. A match 
which has afforded vitality to set two 
cigarettes going may be supposed to be 
enfeebled when called into requisition for j 
a third and to be symbolic of the decadence j 
of the man who receives its service. 1 1 
do not suppose that soldiers have thought 
this out, but the idea that flame is life 
seems to have become inherent, and the j 
dislike to the expiring match inherent. 
In most things " three for luck " is looked 
for ; but if you want life and good fortune 
have nothing to do with expiring flames. 
I hope I have not said this before in 
' N. & Q.,' but I have said so much there 
in the course of time that it is not as easy to 
remember as it is to forget. ST. S WITHIN. 

EDWARD LAMPLUGH (12 S. ix. 491, 533). I 
-Faulkner (' Kensington,' p. 355) records 
the baptism on Jan. 17, 1692, of " Mary, j 
d. of Thomas Lamplugh, clerk, son of j 
the Archbiship of York deceased at his! 
house in the Square." 

On Aug. 23, 1703, administration to the j 
goods of Thomas Lamplugh, late of | 
Kensington, S.T.D. was granted to Mary I 
the widow (P.C.C.). 

On March 1, 1719/20, a further grant de \ 
bonis non issued to Edward Lamplugh I 
(P.C.C.). Foster, ' Al. Oxon.,' states that 
Thomas Lamplugh, the Archbishop's son, I 
became rector of St. Andrew-Undershaft 
in 1701, and the ' Novum Repertorium ' ; 
states that the rector of this name died in j 
July, 1703, without, however, identifying 
him as the son of the archbishop. 

It seems clear, putting all the evidence ! 
together, that Edward was the grandson j 
of the archbishop, and that Burke, ' L.G.,' is 
wrong in calling the archbishop's son's wife j 
Margaret. J. B. WHITMORE. 

MOLESWORTH (12 S. ix. 491). As James; 
Molesw'orth who was elected into College 
in 1733 is stated in Phillimore's ' Alumni 
Westmonasterienses ' to be the son of 
Walter Molesworth of Westminster, it seems j 
probable that the James and George 

Molesworth inquired for are James and St. 
George Molesworth, sons of the Hon. 
(Hamilton) Walter Molesworth of Walton- 
on-Thames and St. Margaret's, West- 
minster, who were admitted to Lincoln's 
Inn in 1736 and 1749 respectively. Both 
died before their father, who died in 1773. 
There was a Bt.-Col. James Molesworth, 
Lt.-Col. 2nd Foot, who died Lt. -Governor 
of Cork, Feb. 28, 1765, who might well be 
the James inquired for. The probability 
of the identification is increased by the 
fact that the fourth and fifth viscounts, first 
cousins of James and St. George, were also 
at Westminster. J. B. WHITMORE. 

AUTHOR OF POEM WANTED (12 S. ix. 529). 
The poem ' Harry ' was written by Mrs. Fanny 
(Wheeler) Hart, wife of the Rev. Dudley Hart, 
rector of Stretford. She also wrote ' Freda : 
a Novel,' ' Mrs. Jerningham's Journal ' (in 
verse), ' Try and you will,' ' The Runaway,' and 
several others. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 


Ancient Tales from Many Lands : A Collection 
of Folk Stories. By R. M. Fleming. (London: 
Benn Brothers, 10s. Qd. net.) 

IP we consider this merely as a collection of stories 
told for their own sake, it deserves nothing but 
praise. Obviously the writer has practised the 
art of story -telling with much thought and with 
success. Crisp and clear with every bit of 
colour, light, humour, grotesque form or inci- 
dent, and hint of character set out to full yet not 
disproportionate advantage these narratives 
might be given as models to teachers. Where 
pathos or tragedy appears the success, given the 
limits of the work, is hardly less complete, and to 
every other merit is added that of an easy un- 
affected diction which draws no attention to 
itself. The stories are taken from all over the 
world, and range from the rude folk-lore of West 
Africa or Polynesia to well-known Greek legends, 
and even to an account of Hammurabi, which 
hardly belongs to the category of "ancient tales." 
A little more work would have made the book 
first rate for its purpose ; as it is we suspect it 
will only half fulfil this. It is meant for children, 
and for teachers who have made no special study of 
mythology. We gather from the Appendix that 
it forms part of a plan for the teaching of history 
and geography. But in view of its being used 
for more than amusement the tales should have 
been classified ; their sources should have been 
indicated, and those which belong to important 
cycles of myth, forming part of the religious be- 
liefs of ancient civilized peoples such as the 
story of Rama or which belong to the irain 
literary tradition of Western Europe such as 
the story of lo (incorrectly set out here) should 
not have been placed side by side with crude 
savage myths the importance and interest of 
which are great but of a different kind. 



[12S. X.JAN. 14, 1922. 

Jamieson. Mr. Percy Simpson's essay on the 
1604 text of Marlowe's ' Doctor Faustus is a 


In the Appendix, where Miss Fleming gives her 
views as to the educational use that may be made 

of folk-stories, we find JBible -stories ir entk>ned I good example of acute and sympathetic 
along with ancient national legends as if, for j criticism. 
European children, they were on the sancre level. 
Have the educationists sufficiently considered 
unless children are themselves taught 

that unless children are themselves taught a 
group of tales as " sacred '' they will have no more 
than a verbal knowledge of what a " sacred " 
tale is ? And, if the Bible stories have i.ot, for 
European children, that particular value, they 
must forgo the possession of anything of th^ kind, 
for i.o others can now be so presented to them. 
But what is " sacred " must be kept apart. 

The advice in the Appendix is, in general, 
rather too facile and sweeping, though it may 
here and there hold useful suggestion for a 
teacher who has accumulated a tolerable know- 
ledge of folk-tales and is at a loss to get the most 
out of them. The illustrations, chosen " to 
illustrate the culture of the people " who told the 
stories, are most interesting, but want more than 
a child's or inexperienced person's knowledge to 
correlate with the text. What has a faience 
relief from Knossos in Crete to do with Io ? 

Essays and Studies by Members of the English 

Association. Vol. vii. Collected by John 

Bailey. (Clarendon Press, 7s. 6d.) 
THIS volume counts among the best in this 
delightful series. The lover of Donne must 
certainly not miss it. Here is an account, by 
Mr. John Sampson, of a copy of the 1639 edition 
of * Poems, by J. D., with Elegies on the Author's 
Death,' annotated ' by its first owner, whose 
initials G. O., the nature of the notes, and a com- 
parison of the handwriting with that in the parish 
registers of Bourton-on-the-Hill, point to Giles 
Oldisworth, the Royalist divine. Oldisworth, 
besides other interesting matter his annotations 
are most copious solves the puzzle of R. B., 
author of the last elegy, who has been variously 
conjectured to be Richard Braithwaite, or Broome, 
or Ralph Brideoak. None of these it is Richard 
Busby, the famous headmaster. He also gives 
" L. Cary " as the name of the person for whom 
Donne wrote the ' Elegie on the L.C.,' which 
would make the letters " L.C." indicate the j 

Lord Chamberlain. These two interesting identi- j EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
fixations are mentioned as examples of the good to " The Editor of ' Notes and Queries ' " Adver- 

Pedigrees of some East Anglian Denny s. By 

H. L. L. Denny. (Reprinted from The 

Memoir of Colonel William Denny, Lieutenant - 

Governor of Pennsylvania. By H. L. L. Denny. 

(The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and 

Biography, vol. xliv., No. 2.) 
THE subject of the memoir was the son of a 
Hertfordshire rector belonging to a family of 
East Anglia which had borne a good part in the 
foundation of the English colonies in America. 
He was born in 1709, matriculated at Oriel College, 
Oxford, in 1726, and took his degree in 1730, 
and is next heard of as an original member of 
the Society of Dilettanti. By 1744 he had entered 
the Army ; in 1756 he was appointed Lieutenant- 
Go vernor of Pennsylvania ; in 1759 he was re- 
called, and he died "in 1765, after occupying him- 
self again with the affairs of the Dilettanti. 
There can be little doubt that his position as 
Governor was difficult. The most interesting 
pages in this account of him are those containing 
the full report of his situation addressed to 
Thomas Penn from Philadelphia in April, 1757,* 
which, together with one or two others, has been 
extracted from the " Perm Papers " in the MS. 
Division of the Historical Society of Penn- 

The pedigrees are those of the Dennys of 
Cheshunt, Herts, and Howe Hall, Norfolk ; and 
of Beccles in Suffolk. Neither line seems to have 
male descendants. Needless to say, all the as- 
certainable particulars of each member of the 
two families are here set out with the greatest 
care, and the relative abundance of the informa- 
tion testifies to the exhaustive research under- 
taken to obtain it. 

to Corresponbent*. 

details upon which Mr. Sampson has lighted by 
his purchase of a " dogeared, worn and ink- 
stained " copy which the bibliophile might easily 
have passed by with disdain. Mr. de Selincourt's 
' Rhyme in English Poetry ' is a very delicate 
study of a topic of vital importance for English 
letters, rounded out by illuminating reference 

tisements and Business Letters to " The Pub- 
lishers " at the Office, Printing House Square, 
London, E.G. 4 ; corrected proofs to The Editor, 
' N. & Q.,' Printing House Square, London, E.C.4. 
ALL communications intended for insertion in 
our columns should bear the name and address of 
the sender not necessarily for publication, but as 

to and comparison with French use of rhyme. , a guaran tee of good faith. 

Mu\ic F ?nSo^ WE cannot undertake to answer queries 

in style, which is good, but also in matter, which P n y a teiy. 

is much better. WHEN answering a query, or referring to an 

Mr. A. H. Cruickshank gives a very charming ac- i article which has already appeared, correspondents 
count of Thomas Parnell, to which is attached a are requested to give within parentheses -fm- 
pleasant and suggestive though not very deep- mediately after the exact headingthe numbers 
going series of criticisms of the eighteenth century. ! of the series, volume, and page at which the con- 
Mr. Geo. Neilson deals with a bundle of MS. | contribution in question is to be found. 
Ballads, printing an " abbreviate " of the whole A. ROGERS. The query on a translation of 

collection with notes of identification and, after 
*a careful discussion, showing that the collector 
of these transcripts is no other than Robert 

stanzas from Omar Khayyam appeared at 
12 S. ix. 272 (Oct. 1, 1921), and was answered 
at 12 S. ix. 317 (Oct. 15). 

12 S.X.JAN. 14, 1922.] 



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i2S.x.jAN.2i f i922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


LONDON. JANUARY 21, 1922. 

CONTENTS. No. 197. 

NOTES : Annamaboe, 41 The Royal Society and Free- 
masonry, 42 Oliver Starkey, 43 Glass-painters of York : 
the Hodgson Family, 44 Byron and Campbell : a Parallel, 
45 Needham's Point Cemetery : James Sims, 46 A 
New Criticism of Casanova's ' Memoires ' Schoolmasters 
in 1714 and 1759 ' Castle Daly ' and GaJway, 47. 

QUERIES : Ruvigny's Plantagenet Roll ' British Melo- 
dies ' Portrait of Nelson by H. Edridge Land Measure- 
ment Terms Henshaw of Uttoxeter and Cheshunt : Weake 
of Norfolk Armstrong, 48 J. M. W. Turner and Haddon 
Hall King Famiy Book-plates ' The Running Horse,' 
Piccadilly George Henry Harlow Sir Robert Hesilrigge, 
Bart. Dalstons of Acornbank Turner Family Final 
" den " in Kentish Place-names Authors wanted, 49 
Translators wanted, 50. 

REPLIES : ' Anything for a Quies Life 'Jacob Tonson as 
a Spy on Prior, 50 Fieldingiana Gervase de Cornhill 
' Not So Bad As We Seem ' : Charles Knight, 51 Psalm 
Ixxxiii. The Fifth Petition in the Lord's Prayer Col. 
Chester's Extracts from Parish Registers " Sunt oculos 
clari c.ui cernis sidera tanquam," 52 " A Walking Dic- 
tionary "Cardinal Newman and Wales Vangoyen, a 
Dutch Painter " ' Heads ' as the pieman says " G. E. J. 
Powell, 53 " Artemus Ward " " Time with a gift of tears," 
54 Erghum of Erghum, Yorkshire St. Peter the Proud, 
London Fullolove Surname Villebois, Painter Blessed 
Oliver Plunkett Disraeli Queries Freedom of a City, 55 
The Arms of Leeds Dante's Beard Gentleman of the 
Poultry Nicholas Grimald Rudge Family School 
Holidays The Aby&sinian Cross, 56 British Settlers in 
America Biographical Details of Artists sought Meiler 
Magrath, Archibishop of Cashel Brothers of the Same 
Christian Name The Rev. J. de Kewer Williams Norris 
and Eyre Families Mulberries ' A Newcastle Apothe- 
cary,' 59. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Authors' and Printers' Dictionary ' 
' A Dictionary of English Phrases 'The Quarterly Review. 

Notices to Correspondents. 



CAPE Coast Castle was settled by the 
Portuguese in 1610, but soon fell to the 

It was demolished by Admiral Holmes 
in 1661, but all the British Settlements, 
factories and shipping along the coast 
were destroyed by the Dutch Admiral 
De Ruyter in 1665. 

In 1667 this Cape was confirmed to the 
English by the Treaty of Breda. 

Anamabu is a town and fort in the 
Gold Coast Colony, and had a population 
of 5,000 in 1899. 
T.l/343,p. 134. 


Your favour of yesterday, we received 
this morning, and thank you for the promise 

of assistance in protecting the privilidges of the 
British Subjects Trading to this place, too rriuch 
invaded by the French and too little protected 
from Home ; But at this time shall have no occa- 
sion to trouble you, The French Ship having sailed 
hence before we received your Letter we are 

Your most humble Serts 

Polly in Annamaboe 
Road 20 March 1750 

[Addressed on the back] 
To the Honble The President and Council 

for Transacting the Affairs of the Royal 
African Compy of England 

Cape Coast Castle 

A Letter of thanks from Sundry 
English Captains at Annamaboe. 
T.l/343 fo. 146: 


May. 28th 1750 

We the underwriters desire you will 
supply us with some shot of several sorts, vizt : 
41i 3 ditto 2 ditto if you can spare 4 sixpounders 
gunns ; according to your promise to us all, 
when at Cape Coast ; we Intend to keep Anna- 
maboe Road clear of the French as we have 
made a beginning all ready so that we may 
be well prepared with shot, we have a great 
quantity yet but we Can't tell what may happen 
we have Gunn'd & man'd 4 Vessels fltt for 
the purpose so we are determin'd to keep the 
road Clear for they allways bid above us we 
will protect the British right or sink, we remain 

Your most humble Servts 


Gentlemen, ALEX GRAHAM 


DixCove I lent you 40 CHRISTOPHER BENNETT 

shot I should take it MICHAEL BARSTOW 

a favour if you would POLLIPUS HAMMOND 

send me them in 3 lb Ri> JENKINS 

shot by the Bearer SAML ROWLES 


I am yr most He St 



To The Honourable ye Presedent and 
Councill Residing at 

Cape Coast Castle. 
S.P.Dom., Naval, 133. 

An account of the French Officers going on 
Shore at Annamaboe with Proposals to the 
Fanteens ; and the Answer they received from 
them [sic] People, vizt : 

The French Officers, in form, yesterday" went 
on Shore, and was in form met by all the Caboceers 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. JAN. 21, 1922. 

of Annamaboe ; and being seated in Curantee's 
house, They thus began ; The King of France, 
our Master have sent Us here to protect Our 
Merchant Ships in their Trade upon this Coast, 
which the King have heard have been much 
molested on it by the^Subjects of the King of 
England, under the Pretence of the Town of 
Annamaboe as well as the Best of the Country 
of Fanteen being their Property ; and therefore 
they desired to know whether it was true that 
the Country of Fanteen and Town of Annamaboe 
did belong to the King of England or not , And 
also That their Master the King of France wanted 
to know if he was to send and build in the 
Fanteen Country a Fort or Castle whether they 
would consent or agree to let it be done. To 
which John Currantee in the behalf of himself 
and the Rest assembled, made him this Answer, 
That the Town and Country of Fanteen did 
belong to the English, and has done so ever since 
more than he can remember ; his great Grand- 
father and all his Family down to himself were 
servants to the English ; 'Twas (said he) the 
English made our Town so considerable as it is, 
and I myself have been protected and brought 
up by the English, from my Infancy to this time 
that you see me an Old Man ; and therefore 
they will continue in their Allegiance to their 
Old Masters, and not serve any other ; That the 
French King had no right to ask any such 
questions of them, &c. &c. [sic]. And as to the 
driving the French Ships off, or building a Fort 
at Annamaboe, if they intended any such thing, 
They must first send a Letter to the King of 
England, and if he consented to give up his 
Right to the Fanteen Country to the French 
King, and granted him Permission to build in 
Annamboe ; then the King of England should 
write a Letter to the Gentlemen of Cape Coast 
Castle, and they signifying to Us, That that was 
the English King's desire, then We may hearken 
to what You have to say upon that Subject : 
But for the present We know You not. After 
this he gave them a genteel Dinner, and sent 
them off. 

All which the French Officers put down in 
Writing, and carried on board. They further 
told John, That they would stay in Annamaboe 
until they were relieved by two other French 
Ships of War, to protect their Trade. Aye, 
said John, That is only on Condition our Master 
the King of England, don't hear of your being 
here, and send others to drive you out. 
Honble Sirs, 

The above Relation is as particular, and 
strictly true as the Difference in the Language 
will admit, according to the Information received 
by our Messengers present at Annamaboe, during 
the Frenchmens Stay there. 

I am with respect 
Your Honrs most Obedt & Dutiful Servant 

Cape Coast Castle 
5th April 1751 

The above is a true Copy, taken from the 
Original lately received by the Royal African 
Company of England. 

African House, Watling Street, Sept 26th 1751. 




THE events leading up to the foundation of 
he Royal Society almost synchronize with 
the ascertainable facts of the early history 
of Freemasonry in England, while the most 
active agent in the organization of the 
Dormer and its first president was Sir Robert 
Moray, who, according to an established 
record, still extant, was the first known 
candidate to be initiated into Freemasonry 
on English soil. This ceremony took place 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne on May 20, 1641, 
at a meeting of the Lodge of Edinburgh 
leld when the Scottish army, in which Sir 
Robert Moray was an officer, was stationed 

The origin of the Royal Society can be 
braced to the weekly meetings, held first 
in London and afterwards at Oxford, of 
men eminent in science, arts, and letters, 
when questions affecting science and philo- 
sophy Were freely discussed, but questions 
relating to theology and politics were 
rigorously excluded, this also being the rule 
in the craft of Freemasonry. 

The foundation of the Royal Society 
was first mooted on Nov. 28, 1660, when at 
the close of a lecture given by Mr. (after- 
Wards Sir) Christopher Wren, at Gresham 
College, the lecturer, together with Lord 
Brouncker, the Hon. Robert Boyle, Mr. 
Bruce, Sir Robert Moray, Sir Paul Neile, 
Dr. Wilkins, Dr. Goddard, Dr. Petty, Mr. 
Balle and Mr. Hill " withdrew for mutual 
conversation into the professor's apartment, 
where, amongst other matters, they dis- 
cussed the proposed foundation of a college 
or society for the physico -mathematical 
experimental teaching." A week later on 
Dec. 5, 1660 after Mr, Wren's next lecture, 
" Sir Robert Moray brought them the 
welcome news that the King had been ac- 
quainted with the design of the meeting, 
that he well approved of it, and would be 
ready to give it every encouragement." 

Bishop Sprat, the historian of the Royal 
Society, sets out a statement of the objects 
of the Royal Society, which is applicable 
equally to the objects of the craft of Free- 
masonry. He says : 

As for what belongs to the members themselves, 
that are to constitute the Society, it is to be 
noted that they have freely admitted men of 
different religions, countries, and professions 
of life. This they were obliged to do, or else they 
would come far short of the largeness of their own 
declarations. For they openly profess not to 
lay the foundation of an English, Scotch, Irish, 

.12 S. X. JAN. 21. 1922.] 



Popish, or Protestant philosophy but a philo- ; 
sophy of mankind. 

It is a notable fact that many of the ! 
characters prominent in the early annals 
of Freemasonry in England were also j 
conspicuous in the discussions and organiza- 
tion of the Royal Society. In addition to 
Sir Robert Moray, already mentioned, j 
another well-known Freemason, Elias Ash- 1 
mole, the founder of the Ashmolean Museum ' 
at Oxford, initiated into Freemasonry at ! 
Warrington in October, 1646, was one of 
the first members of the Royal Society. 
The Grand Lodge of England was consti- 
tuted in 1717, and many of its prominent 
officers in the early days of its history 
figure also as assiduous workers in the Royal 
Society. Eight of the Grand Masters in! 
the first thirty years of its history were j 
entitled to write " F.R.S." after their j 
names, to wit : John Theophilus Desagu- 1 
liers, D.C.L. (Grand Master, 1719), John, I 
Duke of Montague (1721), Francis Scott, 
Earl of Dalkeith (1723), James Hamilton, 
Lord Paisley (1725), Henry Hare, Lord 
Coleraine (1727), James Lyon, Earl of 
Strathmore (1733), John Lindsay, Earl of 
Crawfurd (1734), and James Douglas, 
Earl of Morton (1741, Grand Master of 
Scotland 1739), in addition to Francis 
Drake, who was Grand Master of the rival 
Grand Lodge of All England at York. 
Among the Deputy Grand Masters are to be 
found the names of Martin Folkes (1724), 
William Graeme, M.D. (1739-40), Martin 
Clare (1741), E. Hody, M.D. (1745-6), 
and the Hon. Charles Dillon, twelfth Vis- 
count Dillon (1768-74). Mention must also 
be made of Sir J. Thornhill, Senior Grand 
Warden in 1728 ; Richard Rawlinson, 
D.C.L. , who bequeathed the famous Raw- 1 
linson Collection to the Bodleian Library, I 
Grand Steward in 1734 ; the following 
Grand Stewards : John Faber (1740), 
Mark Adston (1753), Samuel Spencer 
<1754), the Rev. J. Entick (1755), and 
Jonathan Scott (1758-9) ; while among the 
rank and file were Sir Christopher Wren 
(sometimes claimed as a Grand Master 
before the formation of Grand Lodge), 
Dr. William Stukeley, the Duke of Lor- 
raine, and the Chevalier Ramsay. 

Owing to the fact that there are very few 
records extant relating to Freemasonry 
in England in the seventeenth and early 
eighteenth centuries it is difficult to trace 
membership of the craft except in instances 
where office was held. It is known that 
Thomas Strong took with him to London 

from Oxford a " Lodge of Masons " to assist 
in the erection of St. Paul's Cathedral, 
under the superintendence of Sir Christopher 
Wren, and that the father of Thomas Strong , 
Valentine Strong, buried in Fairford Church- 
yard in November, 1662, is described as 
a " Free Mason," and it may well be assumed 
that among the members of the Masonic 
craft in the latter half of the seventeenth 
and the first half of the eighteenth cen- 
turies were members of the Royal Society 
other than those whose names are mentioned 



SPEAKING of the first year of Queen Mary, 
T. Warton, in his ' History of English Poetry ' 
(1870 ed.), at p. 833 says : 

Nearly the same period, a translation of Eccle- 
siastes into rhyme by Oliver Starkey occurs in 
bishop Tanner's library, if I recollect right, 
together with his Translation of Sallust's two 

Was this translator Oliver Starkey, 
Knight of St. John, natural son of Hugh 
Starkey of Oulton Lowe, Cheshire ? This 
Oliver Starkey, when the Venerable Tongue 
of England was restored in the Kingdom of 
England by Philip and Mary by letters patent 
April 2, 1557, and the Priorate of England, 
at St. John's, Clerk enwell, with nine of the 
old commanderies, May 5, 1557, obtained 
the Commandery of Quenington, near Fairfax, 
Gloucestershire. On Queen Elizabeth's 
accession he withdrew to Malta. On Nov. 
2, 1558, the Tongue appointed 

Sir James Shelley knight commander of Temple 
combe and Sir Olyver Starkey knight com- 
mandre of Quenyngton for to make drawe and 
devyse the rowle belonging to the same reverend 

On the last day of February, 1560, the 
Tongue elected, and the Grand Master con- 
firmed, Sir Oliver as Lieutenant Turcopolier. 
On July 11, 1561, Sir Oliver appealed to the 
Council against Sir Pedro Felizes de la Nu$a, 
whom Philip and Mary had appointed 
Bailiff of Eagle, for the residue of a bequest 
of 62 pounds sterling and five pence by 
Cardinal Pole to the Tongue, of which bequest 
the Bailiff had only paid 50 crowns " at 
xii terynes to the crowne." On Dec. 22, 
1561, he took a house at Birgu on lease to 
serve as an alberge for the Tongue. In 1563 
Sir John James Sandilands had a violent 
dispute with the Lieutenant Turcopolier in 
the Magisterial Palace. Felizes de la Nuca 
was killed in action in 1565 during the defence 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t i 2S .x. ^.21,1922. 

of Fort St. Michael, and on Dec. 15, 1565, decision. It would appear, then, that Starkey 
Starkey, who became Bailiff of Eagle in his ! had died before this last date, though not 
stead, petitioned on behalf of the Tongue long before, as when Romegas died in 1581 

the baliage of Eagle was still occupied by 
Starkey, who opposed Gonzales de Mendoa's 
succession to the Priory of Ireland. Perhaps 
before he died Starkey had become Turco- 
polier, for Canon Mifsud writes : 

As a link of the English knights with La Valette 
[i.e., Jean Parisot de La Valette, the Grand Master, 
who died in 1568], the hero of the siege of 1565, a 
slab was placed, after the British occupation, in 
the Grand Masters' crypt in St. John's, to the 
memory of Sir Oliver Starkey, the last English 
Turcopolier of the Tongue of England. 

Who put up this slab and what is the in- 
scription thereon ? Ormerod says that Sir 
Oliver Starkey became Grand Prior of Eng- 
land, but it is probable that this is a mistake. 
See, as to Sir Oliver Starkey, Mifsud, ' The 
English Knights Hospitallers in Malta ' 
(Malta, 1914), passim ; Calendar of State 
Papers, Foreign, 1564, p. 330 ; Ormerod, 
' Cheshire,' ii. 188 ; and as to the office of Tins 
copolerius, 1 1 S. ii. 247, 336, 371 ; iii. 12. 

for certain articles belonging to him. It 

was reported by spies that Starkey would 

be willing to conform to Protestantism if 

allowed to return to England. 

On May 17, 1561, Sir Oliver Starkey and 

Sir James Shelley had been placed by the 

Order " on a par with the other knights of 

their standing in the matter of lodging, 

board, and raiment." 
Canon Mifsud says : 
Under the title of " alberge, table and soldea," 

they received pensions adequate to their rank, 

which allowed of each one of them having a house 

of his own. . . . From Starkey's application 

presented to, and passed by, the Chapter General 

held in Malta on 5th December, 1569, it appears 

that he was in receipt of a pension from the 

Common Treasury of 102 scudi and 6 tari, besides 

the " gaggi " or allowances usually paid to the 

Lieutenant Turcopolier, table and soldea, allow- 
ances for the cook, porter, and butler, and the 
rents of the houses belonging to the Tongue. 
From that date he was granted an increase of 

15 scudi to the allowances of the Lieutenancy, 
to make up the 60 scudi which were paid yearly to 
the other Conventual Bailiffs. Later on, on the 

21st June, 1571, Starkey was authorized to re- 
ceive a penson of 400 scudi from any priory what- 
soever, and James Shelley, after having been 
granted by the Common Treasury (20th May, 

1573) an additional pension of 50 scudi, obtained 
permission from the Council to draw from the 
Treasury up to 300 scudi (22nd November, 1574). 
At that sitting the Bailiff of St. Stephen, Antonio 
Bologna, gave Shelley 50 scudi out of the rents of 
his own baliage. | teenth century the brothers 

It appears that Sir Richard Shelley, at his I and Thomas Hodgson carried on 
own request, vacated the office of Turcopolier | business of plumbers and glaziers 
for that of Grand Prior of England, Sept. 20, 

1561 ; but I cannot find who became Turco- 
polier in his room. On July 13, 1559, Sir 
George Dudley obtained leave of absence 
from Malta, after having secured the rever- 
sion of the Turcopoliership/ but it does not 

seem that he ever became Turcopolier. 

Possibly the office remained vacant until 
it appeared certain that no reconciliation 
between England and the Catholic Church 
was possible. Two foreigners were ap- 
pointed by briefs of Gregory XIII. ; first 
Mathurin d'Aux de Lescout, called Romegas, 
and then Pedro Gonzales de Mendoca. The 
latter renounced the post April 15, 1578, 
which was eventually annexed to the Grand 
Mastership by brief dated June 9, 1582. 
The military duties of the office were at the 
same time permanently vested in the 
Grand Master's Seneschal. James Shelley 
had been refused (Dec. 14, 1581) the Lieu- 
tenancy of the Turcopoliership pending such 


(See ante, 12 S. viii. 127, 323, 364, 406, 442, 
485; ix. 21, 61, 103, 163, 204, 245, 268, 
323, 363, 404, 442, 483, 523.) 


DURING the second quarter of the nine- 

No. 25, Stonegate, which had been estab- 
lished since the end of the seventeenth 
century. At the same period, Jean Baptiste 
Capronnier, the famous glass -painter of 
Brussels, was rapidly acquiring a world-wide 
reputation. He had succeeded to the 
business founded by his father Fran9ois, the 
Belgian reviver of the art, who, after having 
been for some time at the porcelain manu- 
factory at Sevres, turned his attention to 
glass -painting, and in 1830 founded a 
studio for the purpose. J. B. Capronnier 
executed very many windows for churches in 
England and employed William and Thomas 
Hodgson to fix them. At that time there 
was no firm of glass -painters in York, the 
Barnett firm having been broken up in 1853 
and the several members of the family dis- 
persed in various directions. These con- 
siderations evidently induced the Hodgsons 
to start as glass -painters on their own 
account, and they induced Mark Barnett, 

12 S.X.JAN. 21, 1922. ; 



who had gone to Newcastle and entered the | 
studio of Wailes, to return to York and set | 
them up in the business. Several agree- 
ments between Mark Barnett and the firm 
still exist. One of these, probably the 
latest, which is dated Oct. 2, 1860, was an 
agreement for three years at 2 per week, on 
the expiration of which two promissory notes ! 
of 10 and 20 for sums of money advanced 
to Barnett from time to time by Ms employers 
were to be made void. During the time 
Barnett was with them, Messrs. Hodgson 
executed windows for St. Michael-le-Belfrey 
Church in 1855, for St. Mary's Bishophill 
Junior, the east window of Heslington 
Church, and windows for many other places. 
About the year 1863, Mark Barnett, who was 
of unsteady habits, finally left York and 
eventually died in poverty in Manchester. 

The glass -painting was afterwards carried 
on by Richard Lambert, who had been an 
apprentice and who now became manager, 
and by two apprentices, Charles Hardgrave 
and Harry Dickson. However, Mr. T. G. 
Hodgson, the present proprietor, on succeed- 
ing his uncle and father in the ownership and 
management of the business, closed the 
stained-glass department as he found it did 
not pay. Richard Lambert, the manager, 
went up to London to try to enter one of the 
studios there. He had, however, been 
trained under Mark Barnett to work in the 
manner of the early revivers, with colours 
mixed with oil of spike, and the difficult 
water-colour technique adopted by the Lon- 
doners frightened him so much that he aban- 
doned glass -painting and went to the 

The two apprentices, Harry Dickson 
and Charles Hardgrave, had long and 
useful careers before them. Harry Dickson, 
who," happily, is still* alive, was born 
in 1848 and began glass -painting at Hodg- 
son's when he was 1 6 years of age. Two or 
three years later he left them and went to 
London, where he worked for some of the 
principal studios, including Messrs. Clayton 
and Bell, Messrs. Ward and Hughes, Messrs. 
Bell and Almond and others. He eventually 
returned to York and was for over 14 years 
in the studio of the writer's father. He sub- 
sequently went to the North Eastern Rail- 
way Company's carriage works to carry out 
glass -painting and heraldic and decorative 
work, where he has been ever since. His son, 
George Dickson, entered the studio of J. W. 
Knowles in 1889, and after being there for 
ome years joined his father at the North 

Eastern Railway Company, where he still 

The other apprentice, Charles Hardgrave, 
was bom in 1850, and was the son of Michael 
Hardgrave, coppersmith in Fossgate, York. 
In 1867, when he was 17 years of age, he won 
a scholarship at the National School of De- 
sign, South Kensington (now the Royal 
College of Art), with a design for a five -light 
window. In 1871 he entered the studios of 
Messrs. Powell of Whitefriars and supervised 
for them the mosaic in St. Paul's after 
Raphael's ' Disputation,' and the reredos of 
Clifton College Chapel after Holman Hunt's 
' Finding of the Saviour in the Temple,' 
whilst the mosaics in All Souls' Church, 
Hastings, were from his designs. He was a 
fine colourist and frequently exhibited at 
the Royal Academy designs for mosaics and 
glass. Probably his most successful windows 
were the great north transept windows in 
Bristol Cathedral, the east window of Rom- 
sey Abbey, and the east window of the church 
of St. Edmund King and Martyr, Lombard 
Street. He died in August, 1920. 

Mr. T. G. Hodgson still possesses a large 
number of cartoons and drawings, also 
numerous panels of glass done by Mark 
Barnett and others. On Nov. 5 last, a " pre- 
liminary announcement to the clergy and 
others interested," which appeared in The 
Yorkshire Herald, stated that at an early date 
there would be offered for sale by auction " a 
large quantity of valuable Old York Stained 
Glass, including six full lights, 20 panels of 
groups, and a large number of geometrical 
designs . . . the work of a well-known 
York artist, [which] were painted upwards 
of 70 years ago." 



IT is a Well-known fact that Byron, in 
his rather free appropriation of phrases and 
images from other authors, borrowed several 
times from Thomas Campbell.* Yet little 
notice has been taken of Campbell's debt 
to Byron ; partly, perhaps, because of the 
former's relative unimportance as a poet, 

* ' Works,' ed. of E. H. Coleridge, London, 
1899. The following parallels are pointed out : 
' Childe Harold,' Canto IX., st. i., and ' Battle 
of the Baltic,' ii., 11. 1-2 * Siege of Corinth,' 246, 
and ' Pleasures of Hope,' ii. 207 ' Childe Harold,' 
I. x. 6, and ' Gertrude of Wyoming,' II. viii. 1 
' Don Juan.' I. Ixxxviii., and ' Gertrude of 
Wyoming,' III. i. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.X.JAN. 21, 1922. 

and partly on account of the obscurity of 
his later works. 

Campbell's obligation is nowhere more j 
evident than in ' Lines on the View from i 
St. Leonards ' (1831), where diction, imagerj^, | 
thought and mood show the influence of j 
'Childe Harold,' Canto IV. A few! 
quotations from each poem make com- 
ment unnecessary : 

' C.H.' 

Thou glorious mirror, where the Almighty's form i 
Glasses itself in tempests. 

' St. L.' 

Hail to thy face and odours, glorious Sea ! 
It is the mirror of the stars, where all 
Their hosts within the concave firmament, 
Can see themselves at once. 

' C.H.' 
... upon the watery plain. 

' St. L.' 

Earth has not a plain 
So boundless and so beautiful as thine. 


There is society where none intrudes. 
By the deep Sea, and music in its roar. 

' St L.' 
Great beauteous Being ! . . . 

. . . How welcomer 
Thy murmurs than the murmurs of the world ! 

' C.H.' 
. . . thine azure brow. 

1 St. L.' 

With yonder sky thy mistress. From Tier brow '\ 
Thou tak'st thy moods. . . . 

' C.H.' 
Calm or convulsed, in breeze or gale or storm. 

' St. L.' 

Mighty Sea ! 
Chameleon-like thou changest. . . . 

' C.H.' 

Man marks the ea.rth with ruin, his control 
Stops with thy shore. 

' St. L.' 

Creations Common ! which no human power 
Can parcel or enclose. . . . 

And brook'st commandment from the Heavens 

' C.H.' * 
I have loved ihee. Ocean ! 

' St. L.' 

. . . and the natural human heart 
Fs therefore bound to thee with holy love. 

' C.H.' 

' St. L.' 
His darker hints. 

' C.H.' 

. . . boundless, endless, and sublime 
The image of the Eternity 
Tune writes no wrinkles on thine azure brow : 
Such as creation's dawn beheld, thou rollest now. i 

' St. L.' 

Old Ocean was 

Eternity of ages ere we breathed 
Existence, and he will be beautiful 
When all the living world that see him now 
Shall roll unconscious dust around the sun. 

Only a careful reading of the two poems,, 
however, can give an adequate idea of the- 
extent of Campbell's borrowing. It may be 
objected that there are only a few things to- 
gay about the ocean, and that these are 
common property of poets. But originality 
of conception and image and phrase are 
reasonably expected of a poet, and these 
Campbell can hardly be said to have given 
us in the ''Lines on the View from St. 

This is not the only instance of Campbell's 
too great dependence on Byron. The 
former's 'Last Man' (1823) was so much 
like Byron's 'Darkness' (published 1816) 
that the poet thought it best to justify 
himself by explaining in a letter to his 
frien.d Gray that the idea expressed in the 
two poems was originally his own.* Nor 
is it the first charge of plagiarism brought 
against him. For in 1825, in the columns 
of Blackwood's, one who signed himself 
" Detector " pointed out the fact that 
'To a Rainbow ' must have been written 
with Vaughan's poem on the same theme in 
mind.f In this case plso there is enough 
similarity of phrase and thought to warrant 
a note or annotation, but no edition of 
Campbell's poetry has a comment on the 

Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland, Ohio, TJJS.A. 

BADOS JAMES SIMS (see ante, p. 23). 
It will be noted that the list of the English 
dead who lie buried in this cemetery includes 
the name of James Sims, naval t-chool- 
master of H.M.S. Bacchante, which took 
Prince Albert Victor, and Prince George of 
Wales round the world in 1879-80. This 
young man died on Jan. 1, 1880, in hospital, 
to which he had been transferred from the 
ship on the preceding day, at the early age 
of 23. It is recorded in ' The Cruise of Her 
Majesty's Ship Bacchante ' (London, Mac- 
millan and Co., 1886) that he was buried at 
5.30 p.m. on the same day ki in the military 
cemetery by the edge of the sea," and that 
" George [now King George V.] happening to 
have that watch, marched as the midship- 
man in charge of the funeral party of 

* Seattle, ' Life and Letters of Thomas 
Campbell,' vol. ii., p. 243. Of. London Magazine 
and Review, 1825, new series, vii. 588. 

t ' Plagiarism by Mr. Thomas Campbell, 'Black- 
icood's, xviii. 13U 



bluejackets and marines under the first 
lieutenant." ALGERNON ASPINALL. 

[We regret that the above came too late to be 
Inserted as a footnote to the list contributed at 
the reference.] 

* MEMOIRES.' Students of the eighteenth 
century who are able to read German will be 
much interested in Gust a v Gugitz's new 
volume, 'Giacomo Casanova und sein Lebens- 
roman,' Verlag Ed. Strache Vienna, Prague 
and Leipzig. Herr Gugitz is an accomplished 
Vienne e scholar, with a prof o und knowledge 
of the period, and he has made a close study 
of the Memoirs of Casanova for many 
years. He appears to rate them far higher 
from a literary and psychological stand- 
point than from a historical one and is able 
to show that in some places they are un- 
reliable and even purely fictitious. This 
book is a most notable and scholarly con- 
tribution to the subject and deserves the 
careful attention of all students of the 
great autobiography. He devotes a long 
chapter to the relationship between the 
adventurer and the famous Madame 
Therese Cornelys, and is of the opinion that 
she treated Casanova far more generously 
than he acknowledges. Other chapters 
deal with Casanova's sojourn at Constan- 
tinople ; his connexion with Cardinal 
Bernis ; his mission to Holland ; and his 
celebrated escape from the prison " under 
the leads," &c. It is a most erudite book, 
with copious documentation and is illustrated 

following names are taken from the Lists 
of Subscribers to Walker's ' Sufferings of 
the Clergy ' and to Warner's ; Ecclesiastical 
History of Engfand ' :<* 

WALKER, 1714. 

Rev. Tho. Alleyn, Colchester. 

Robert Dawbie, Wolverhampton. 

Rev. Mr. Drake, Pocklington. 

Rev. Mr. Franklin, Earl's Colne, Essex. 

J. Marsh, Wolverhampton, writing-master. 

Rev. Tho. Parsell, Merchant Taylors' School. 

Humph. Pipe, M.A., Apleby, Leicester. 

Mr. Pledwell, Abingdon. 

Rev. Mr. Rayner, Tiverton. 

Rev. Mr. Rose, Pontefract. 

Richard Skirman, M.A., Henly. 

Rev. Mr. Treherne, Hereford. (12) 
WARNER, 1759. 

Rev. Mr. Ball, Chelmsford. 

Rev. Dr. Barnard, Eaton. 

Rev. Mr. Clark, Wakefield. 

Rev. Mr. Newling, Shrewsbury. 

Rev. Mr. Swainden, Greenwich. (5) 


events may perhaps induce some people 
to turn then- attention to this novel of 
Ireland at the time of the famine, by Annie 
Keary. The author's descriptions of Conne- 
mara scenery and Irish peasant life are 
very good, accurate and sympathetic, but 
in her account of a journey to Galway she 
has made two mistakes that show that 
! she was not as familiar with the " City of 
the Tribes " as with Connemara. 

She seems to have thought it possible 
for a rowing boat to float down from 
Lough Corrib straight into Galway Bay 
" by the narrow channel that connects 
the lake with the bay," and before the 
voyagers were out of this narrow channel 
(which I suppose is Friar's Cut, referred 
to shortly afterwards), " Galway harbour, 
with the Atlantic beyond," and at the 
same time " the waters of the lake stretched 
out far behind them," were visible (chap, 
xxxix.). Now my recollection is that this 
is impossible. Besides, Lough Corrib is 
separated from Galway Bay by the narrow 
and deep channel of Friar's Cut, opening 
out at the town end into a wider stretch 
of water held up by a weir and ideal for 
rowing and sailing boats, but also, below 
this, by a broad, rapid and shallow reach 
of river navigable only by salmon. From 
I this channel and backwater several canals 
I take off and traverse the town, and on one 
j of these, by negotiating a series of loughs, 
it might be possible for a boat to reach 
the docks and the bay. But of this I 
! am not certain. 

The other mistake is in the location 

I attributed to the house of James Lynch 

; FitzStephen, the fifteenth-century Mayor of 

! Galway, who from one of its windows hanged 

his own son. The author says : 

They were now walking down Castle Street, 
'and . . . stopped before the monument let into 
the wall of Lynch Castle, to mark the spot 
where the stern father executed his rebellious 
i son with his own hands, in the face of an exe- 
crating Celtic crowd, who could not appreciate 
] the immolation of live family love to dead 
law (chap. xl.). 

But the monument is not let into the 

j wall of Lynch Castle, which still exists 

I in Castle Street, a street that runs past 

' the south side of the old Collegiate Church 

! of St. Nicholas ; it is on the wall of a ruined 

house on the north side of St. Nicholas, 

i just below the window from which the 

mayor is supposed to have hanged his 

son. He executed him not so much because 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. JAN. 21, 1922. 

he was " rebellious " as because he had 
murdered his friend (a Spaniard), and no 
one else would do it. The name of the 
street which the house faces is Market 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

late Marquis of Ruvigny, for some time prior 
to his. death, was collecting materials for 
Part II. of his ' Mortimer-Gercy ' volume, 
Part I. of which was published in 1911. In 
whose hands are his MSS. ? Was the part 
at all near completion at his death ? It was 
his intention to bring out a series of volumes, 
embracing all the known descendants of 
King Edward III. a most formidable task. 
I know that the present high cost of printing 
was a barrier to the completion of his work. 

' BRITISH MELODIES,' printed for the 
Editor (not for sale) by John Stacy, Norwich, 
post 8vo, n.d. An introductory essay called 
' The Pilgrimage of Living Poets to the 
Stream of Castaly ' is signed J. H. R. My 
copy has a pencil correction of H to L and 
" Joseph Ritson " almost illegibly written 
underneath. Can anyone confirm this as- 
cription or the date 1820 given in the British 
Museum Catalogue, and identify any of the 
" many original pieces never before pub- 
lished " in the volume ? 


Peppers, near Steyning. 

The ' D.N.B.' mentions a drawing (small 
full-length figure, facing the spectator) exe- 
cuted in 1802 and purchased by the Trustees 
of the National Portrait Gallery in 1891. 
I have a half-length oval engraving (stipple) 
by W. Evans of a drawing by H. Edridge, 
published May 12, 1798, by Molteno, and 
should be grateful for information as to the 
original portrait. 


Peppers, near Steyning. 

through some old East Yorkshire and Lin- 
colnshire terriers I have frequently come 
across the word " wylot," obviously as a 

term signifiying a certain measurement. 
For instance : 

Little Field (arable) the narrow Heudale 
North of Edmund Julian 1 3 Gad. Stutfold 
Meadow : A 2 gad at Short Gildam Ends. A 
wylot at Toft Balk End. A 2 gad in Littlefield 
Arcass Carr. A 3 gad at Stutfold End going to 
Black but side. 

The word " bidale " (more often spelled 
"bidle") also occurs frequently as a 
measurement of land. A " gad " repre- 
! sented a perch or 10ft., but what was a 
" wylot " and what a " bidle " and also a 
" gildam," which also occurs thus : " (1) 3 Gad 
gildam 3d of Toft Balk " ? 

I gather that the land had been " Com- 
mons " and had in 1796 (the date of the 
terriers) come into private ownership. 


Grove House, Norton-on-Tees. 

WEAKE OF NORFOLK. Can any reader 
give me any particulars regarding the 
Henshaws who came originally from Cam- 
bridge Hall, Uttoxeter ? In the reign of 
Charles I., the head of the family was 
Receiver -General of Taxes for the County 
of Derby. His son settled in London, and 
it was his son, Robert Henshaw, who lived 
at Cheshunt, who gained eminence as a 
" black-letter lawyer " ; he was a Commis- 
sioner of Bankruptcy and Governor of Guy's 
Hospital and Christ's Hospital. He mar- 
ried Elizabeth Weake, daughter of William 
Weake, said to be " Chief Clerk in the 
House of Commons." His family were 
related to Anne Boleyn, and Elizabeth 
Henshaw inherited the baby clothing of 
Queen Elizabeth, which passed to her 
daughter Henrietta, who married James 
Rattray of Arthurstone in 1774. Is there 
any account of these two families in any 
county or local history ? I should be 
glad to obtain any particulars concerning 
them. (MRS.) A. N. GAMBLE. 

Gorse Cottage, Hook Heath, Woking. 

ARMSTRONG. John Armstrong, a farmer 
of South Benfleet, in Essex, married Mary, 
daughter of Joseph Thorn of St. Osyth, 
and died in 1803. His son, the Rev. John 
Armstrong of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge (in 1806), afterwards married Eliza- 
beth Damont. Another son was a doctor 
in London. Information concerning the 
descent of this family, who by the name 
presumably came originally from the Border, 
is requested. ENQUIRER. 

12 ax. j.. ai, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

Did Turner paint Haddon Hall from the 
west bank of the River Wye or is there any 
engraving of same known, by Turner ? If 
so, where might either be seen ? H. S. 

two book-plates of the King family, namely, 
Thomas King and Captain William King, 
R.N. Arms : Gules a lion statant gardant 
argent, between three ducal coronets, two 
and one, or. Crest : On a wreath of the 
colours, a talbot's head erased, collared and 
ringed or. Also a book-plate of Mrs. William 
Heath (nee King), a lozenge with the same 
arms impaling Heath. To what family of 
King did they belong and where can a pedi- 
gree be seen ? Are the arms and crest regi- 
stered at the College of Arms ? Any informa- 
tion respecting the families of King and 
Heath would be much appreciated, 


Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

The Observer of the 1st inst. states that, in 
excavating for the new club for the R.A.F. in 
Piccadilly, pewter tankards of the eighteenth 
century bearing the inscription ' The Run- 
ning Horse ' were dug up. 

No such inn is named by Mr. de Castro in 
his list of eighteenth-century inns and taverns. 
Perhaps he will enlighten us. It may be 
' The Running Horse ' was not a place of 
public entertainment, though that seems 
unlikely. W. R. DAVIES. 

GEORGE HENRY HARLOW, the artist, was 
born in St. James Street, London, on June 10, 
1787, and is described in the ' D.N.B.,' xxiv. 
408, as the " posthumous son of a China 
merchant." I should be glad to learn fuller 
particulars of his parentage. 

G. F. R. B. 

ceeded as eighth baronet, April 23, 1763. He 
is said to have been disinherited by his i 
father and to have emigrated to America, j 
I should be glad to ascertain the date and j 
place of his death, as well as the date of his 
marriage with Sarah, daughter of Nathaniel 
Waller of Roxburgh, New England. 

G. F. R. B. 

Sowerby, Westmorland. This family re- 
ceived from Henry VIII. a grant of this 
estate formerly belonging to the Knights 
Templars. In 1601 or thereabouts some 

of the family emigrated to Ireland. Is a 
pedigree of the family in existence showing 
the names of the family which went to 
Ireland, and whether they changed their 
name on settling there, a? the name Dalston 
does not appear to be known there ? 


TURNER FAMILY.- I seek genealogical 
details of the ancestry and descendants of 
the following, whose wills were proved at 
Chester in the year mentioned after their 
names : 

Turner, Charles, of Liverpool, Mariner, 1799. 
William, of Rochdale, Weaver, 1799. 
William, of Manchester, Calender, 1797. 
John, of Manchester, Yeoman, 1713. 
James, of Manchester, Weaver, 1745. 
William, of Manchester, . . . 1803. 
Edmund, of Rochdale, Yeoman, 1801. 
James, of Rochdale, . . . 1806. 
Thomas, of Cark-in-Cartmell, 1727. 
Thomas, of Ulverston, . . . 1727. 

Also of the following Freemen of Chester : 

Turner, William, younger, Feltmaker. 
Samuel, ,, 

Edward, gentleman . . . 1783. 
John, son of William Turner of Chester, 

Robert, Tailor, of Chester, 1573. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

NAMES. Many Kentish place-names end 
in " den.' 1 From whence is this derived ? 

101, Piccadilly. 

AUTHORS WANTED. 1. Can any reader name 
the author of the following lines ? 

" When Spring's voice is heard 

In that minor third 
Which none but the cuckoo knows." 

A. G, 

2. * Margaret's Tomb.' I have in my possession 
an engraving called ' Margaret's Tomb,' by 
Bartolozzi after Bunbury. At the bottom of the 
engraving are some lines of which I enclose a copy. 
Can anyone tell me where the lines come from ? 
I have searched through a good many poets and 
have shown them to a good many friends without 


Her bloom was like the springy flower 

That sips the silver dew ; 
The rose was budded on her cheek 

Just opening to the view. 

But love had like a canker worm 

Consumed her early pride ; 
The rose grew pale and left her cheek ; 

Before her time she died. 

50 NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.X.JAN. 21, 1022. 

That face, alas, no more is fair, : the late A. H. Bullen, to whom, in 1915, 

Those lips no longer red; X submitted the MS. of my article on that 

And7very S ch e /rm^rfle C d S P la ^' subsequently sent to ' N. & Q.' " No 

T , competent reader," he wrote to me in a 

London published May 10, 1799, bv Thos. i , i , no in-in j I~A 

Macklin, Poet's Gallery, Fleet Street, ] tter dated June 28 > 1915 > can doubt 

C. BRIDGEWATER WILLIAMS. fch *J ^ u have shown Webster to be part 


3 * "^^SSS^S J ^^^ With regard to c A ppius and vir g inia >' 

HORACE BLEMJKLEY {i Would *? e im P ossible ' in a short note 
such as this, to set forth my reasons for 

TRANSLATORS WANTED. Who were the writers j disagreeing with those critics who believe 
of the following books ? that Heywood had " a main finger " in it. 

1. The Epistles of Ovid, translated into Bng- Their chief arguments are based on the 
lish prose as near the original o f the Latin t and j resemblances between its vocabulary and 
English languages as will allow, with the Latin ,-, r TT i i T.I 

text and order of construction oA the same page ; ! that of . Heywood s plays, resemblances m 
and critical, historical, geographical and classical i my opinion due to Heywood s influence 
notes in English from the best commentators, both ' on Webster. To me the style of the plav 
ancient and modern ; beside a very great number ! i s nowhere like Heywood's and shows 

^U^of^It^entl^ln he Tte mh^tion" ! abundant traces of Webster's workmanship. 

W"ll *7T> Ol ^>IlVdl/" gcIlLlt?IJJ.t?Il JL Jj.v5 mtn CQ.IL1OJ1* I - /"\l* 1 j.9 j_* 1 " 71 /T J 7~>X. 1 

London : printed for J. Nunn, Great-Queen-Street ;! Mr - Oliphant s article in Modern Fhil- 
R. Priestley, 143, High-Holborn ; R. Lea, Greek- 1 ology on Problems of Authorship in 
Street, Soho ; and J. Bodwell, New-Bond-Street. | Elizabethan Dramatic Literature ' is well 

*^i^', i known to me, and had already led me to 

2. The Annals and History of Tacitus. A new j t __ t mj^ Rlnnrlv "Rannnpf ' T HAA/P 
and literal English version. Oxford : D. A. Tal- 1 * as ^ . W Bloody Banquet. 

boys and 1 1 3, Fleet Street, London. MDCCCXXXIX. i J^ st tried jt a g am and find in it no flavour 

JOHN B. WAINEWRIGHT. ? f Dekken Nor do I find any evidence 

to support Mr. Oliphant s opinion that 

Middleton was concerned in it. Whether 

| by Thomas Drue or not (I have not yet 

seen his ' Duchess of Suffolk ' ), it seems 

lAcullCS ^ m a ^ ^y on hand. 



(12 S. ix. 181, 202, 225, 300 ; 12 S. x. 11.) JACOB TONSON AS A SPY ON PRIOR (12 S. 
I AM pleased to find that my attribution ; ix. 482). I had hoped that M. DOTTIN'S 
of a substantial part of this play to Webster i contribution would elicit correspondence 
is confirmed by so expert a critic as MR. i from scholars of the times of Queen Anne. 
OLIPHANT. His division of the text between i It is only because none has appeared that 
Middleton and Webster corresponds pretty ; I venture to express the hope that M. 
"closely 'with my own (see 12 S. ix. 300, i Dottin will give English people the further 
Where mistakes due to the MS. from which ' results of his studies, for he appears to have 
my article was printed are corrected), struck a rich vein in historical records. 
Though I think Mr. Oliphant has given j We now begin to dimly understand why 
Webster less than is due to him, I admit i Lady Mary Wortley Montagu called Boling- 
that it is possible that I have given him j broke "that vile man," and why Addison 
rather more, and that some scenes I have spoke of " cankered Bolingbroke," two 
allotted to Webster may be partly Middle- epithets that Mr. Sichel in his Life of 

Bolingbroke so strongly resents. It now 
becomes more intelligible why the second 
Lady Bolingbroke had to pay into Lady 
Yarmouth's private account 10,000 before 
any question of a pardon for her husband 
would be listened to ; a fact I think not 
stated by Mr. Sichel. M. Dottin will have 


My paper, although only recently pub- 
lished, was written in 1916, shortly after 
the sale of Swinburne's library in June of 
that year, when I was fortunate enough 
to secure the poet's copy of Dyce's ' Mid- 
dleton,' and so, for the first time, became 

able to study the play at leisure. j to proceed critically. The evidence of 

Perhaps I may add that my assignment spies is not untainted ; they are often 
to Webster of the part-authorship of ' The paid by " results." 
'Fair Maid of the Inn ' was endorsed by J. PAUL DE CASTRO. 

12 S. X.JAN. 21, 1922.] 



FlELDINGlANA (12 S. X. 7). W. E. 

Henley's observations on Taine's bon buffle 
are relevant, but they are not cited as 
controverting MB. ARMSTRONG'S criticism : 
Of all the definitions that ever were defined 
Taine's definition of Fielding as "a good 
buffalo " strikes one as one of the most absurd. 
But Taine, man of genius as he was born, and 
savant as he made himself, was at all times the 
prey of any theory that happened to commend 
itself to his imaginative yet very logical mind ; 
and either this, his theory of Harry Fielding, 
was one of the unluckiest he ever developed, or 
you can pay no man a higher compliment than 
to call him a Good Buffalo. For consider what, 
in Fielding's case, is comprehended in the term. 
. . . If to be a Good Buffalo be all that, 
why, then, I can't help wishing that the breed 
"were more prolific ; and even that M. Henri 
Taine had himself belonged to it. 


GERVASE DE CORNHTLL (12 S. viii. 229). 
Owing to above query, I have received so 
much information and direction that 1 be- 
lieve this complicated conundrum to be 
partly solved. 

Query A. Roger "nepos Huberti," whom 
Dr. Round showed us to be the father of 
Gervase de Cornhill, will prove, I think, to 
have been Roger de Villers, brother of that 
Hamo c e St. Clair who succeeded his uncle, 
Eudo Dapifer, in the lordship of Colchester. 
I must not cumber your columns with re- 
ferences or citations, but pp. 42 and 120 o f 
the Chartulary of St. John the Baptist ci 
Colchester (Roxburghe Club) give the basis 
of the proof. We find there that Roger de 
Villers (not to be confounded with Roger de 
Valognes, another " nepos Eudonis ") was 
brother of Hamo, and that the Hamo in ques- 
tion was undoubtedly Hamo de St. Clair. 
Further, just as the Manor of Chalk in Kent 
was granted to Gervase de Cornhill at the 
death of his father Roger (who had held it 
after Adam FitzHubert and Eudo Dapifer, 
his brother), so we here find Hamo, Roger's 
brother, making a grant of tithes in that 
same Chalk. Both Hamo and Roger were 
thus proprietors in Chalk, both " nepotes 
Eudonis/' " nepotes " also of Eudo's brother 
Hubert, Castellan of Norwich and " nepotes " 
(grandsons, not nephews in this case) of 
Hubert de Rie, which was to be demonstrated 
and which brings the De Cornhills of Kent 
into direct descent from that great forefather. 

Query B. As to Herbert, Chamberlain to 
Henry I., and Hubert, Chamberlain to King 
Stephen, Hasted makes these two father and 
.son. With due hesitation, I submit that 
Hasted is in error, and that if he founded his 

assertion on the entry in ' Magnus Rotulus 

I Scaccarii,' 31 Hen. I. (p. 37, Hunter's ed., 
1833), where Herbert " fil. Herberti Camer : " 
renders his dues for " terra patris sui," he 
had not necessarily found the right Cham- 
berlains, all Chamberlains not being " Ca- 
merarii Regis." The ' Catalogue of Ancient 
Deeds ' (Record Office), shows that Richard 
de Anesty was the son of Stephen's Hubertus 
Camerarius. The Chartulary of St. John 
confirms this indirectly, but certainly shows 
Hubertus himself to be what was to be 
anticipated from his close association W T ith 
Gervase de Cornhill the son of the afore- 
named Hamo de St. Clair. As Gervase was 
son of Hamo's brother Roger, he is tlms first 
cousin to Hubert, and they both are great- 
grandsons of Hubert de Rie (pp. 153, 154, 
158, 160, 164, compared with pp. 146 and 

j 163 of the Chartu 1 *ry as above, outline the 
i evidence). 

This ascendance cuts out Herbert, Cham- 
! berlain to Henry I., from several pleasing 
| pedigrees, unless he was a collateral, and we 
[ are still in want of evidence as to w r hether 
! Hamo a A Roger, " nepotes Eudonis et 
! Huberti," were sons of a brother or of a 
! sister of those great men. 

Since writing above I have re-read the 
! recently issued ' History of Norwich Castle,' 
j by Mr. Walter Rye. On p. 52 he appears to 
! hesitate as to accepting Hamo de St. Clair 
as Eudo's nephew, but does not contest the 
| weight of Mr. R. W. St. Clair of Chicago's 
i evidence that Roger de Villers was " nepos 
! Eudonis." As I owe to these two authorities 
i much kind guidance and valuable suggestion, 

I 1 am glad to see that, so long as either Hamo 
I or Roger, whom the Chartulary proves to be 
j brothers, can claim Eudo as uncle, my pedi- 

I gree, as above, stands. 

124, Inverness Terrace, W. 


I KNIGHT (12 S. x. 10). This was Charles 

I Knight, the author and publisher (1791- 

1873), a close friend of Dickens, and one of 

the " splendid strollers." He was originally 

asked to play the part of Hodge in the 

i Guild of Literature and Art performances of 

' Not So Bad As We Seem,' and in reference 

to that wrote : 

For myself, I should have been well contented 

! with " Hodge the merry servant." But my pro- 

| fessional tastes and consequent histrionic capacity 

for playing the part of a scheming publisher of 

the days of Sir Robert Walpole were considered, 

and I had to rehearse the part of Jacob Tonson, 

the bookseller. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. JAN. 21, 1922. 

Forster, in his ' Life of Charles Dickens,' 
says : 

Mr. Tonson was a small part in the comedy, 
entrusted with much appropriateness to Mr. 
Charles Knight, whose ' Autobiography ' has this 
allusion to the first performance, which, as 
Mr. Pepys says, is " pretty to observe." The 
actors and the audience were so close together j 
that as Mr. Jacob Tonson sat in Wills's Coffee- j 
house he could have touched with his clouded 
cane the Duke of Wellington." 


St. Elmo, Sidmouth. 

PSALM LXXXIII. (12 S. x. 8). The Vulgate, I 
following the Septuagint, begins this psalm I 
With the words " Deus, quis similis erit tibi," ; 
accordingly it so begins in the breviaries, | 
where the psalm occurs in Friday matins. ! 
Hence it was commonly known as the " Deus, | 
quis similis." But as these words do not 
occur in the Hebrew, they were rejected in the 
sixteenth century as " apocryphal," so do not 
appear in English in our Prayer Books and I 
Bibles. I can no longer consult the earlier ! 
English versions in primers and Bibles, but : 
some other correspondent may be able to; 
tell us how the verse stands in them. 

J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

The heading of this psalm in the Prayer j 
Book should not be called a mistake, as! 
these Latin words are not translations, rough ! 
or otherwise, of an English version, but i 
taken from the opening of the corresponding 
psalms in the Vulgate. In this case Psalm 
Ixxxii. in the Vulgate ( = Ixxxiii. in the Eng- 
lish) begins, " Deus, quis similis erit tibi ? 
ne taceas, neque compescaris Deus." 


Reference to the Vulgate affords some 
answer to this query. Psalm Ixxxiii. in our j 
English versions is the equivalent of Psalm I 
Ixxxii. in the Vulgate. Of this latter the 
first verse runs, " Deus, quis similis erit tibi ? 
ne taceas, neque compescaris Deus." 

Our Psalm Ixxxiii., alike in the Authorized 
Version and the Prayer Book, ignores the 
first interrogative clause found in the Vulgate 
and in the Septuagint, and begins our 
translations at " Ne taceas." K. S. 

The Rev. J. M. Neale, in his ' Commentary 
on the Psalms,' says, regarding verse 1, 
" The first clause of this verse runs, in most of 
the older translations (LXX. Vulg. Aethiop., ! 
.Syr., Arab.), 'O,God, who shall be like unto 
Thee ? ' 

In a psalterium I have (Antwerp, Plantin, 
1683) the first verse reads, " Deus, quis 
similis erit tibi ? ne taceas, neque com- 
pescaris Deus." 


PRAYER (12 S. ix. 508; x. 11). The ques- 
tion still remains, Why did Tyndale, or 
whoever first put the Lord's Prayer into 
English, use the word " trespasses " ? 
Reference to St. Luke xi. 4, seems to 
suggest the answer. The Greek word 
there is a/zaprms-, the Latin peccata. 

C. A. COOK. 

Sullingstead, Hascombe, Godalming. 

REGISTERS (11 S. vi. 90 ; 12 S. ix. 389, 473, 
517). G. E. C.'s set of these transcripts 
was distributed by one of his executors 
who cannot remember where they went, 
but I still believe that most of the volumes 
were presented to public libraries connected 
with the parishes mentioned. I under- 
stand that the other set is still complete 
in the College of Arms. C OF A 

TANQUAM" (12 S. x. 8). The answer to 
the query on the authorship of this line 
must be, I am afraid, " Anon., anon., sir. 2 * 
The puzzle is given among a batch of 
" Grammaticorum illae cruces vulgatae, 
ob constructionis dimcultatem, aut vocum 
ambiguitatem nobis quoque pueris agitatae 
in Scholis," in the * Sylvula Logogriphorum' 
at the end of the second part of Nicolas 
Reusner's ' Aenigmatographia ' (Frankfurt, 
1602), p. 159. As Reusner was born in 
1545, the line, to be known to him at 
school, must be as old as the middle of the 
sixteenth century. And to how many 
previous generations of schoolboys may it 
not have been familiar ! 

A few lines lower oji Reusner's page are 

Mea pater in sylvas, filium tuum lupus est, 

Filia sub tilia mea net subtilia filar, 
and, of course, the jingle with ' Cane 

In W. Binder's ' Flores Aenigmatum 
latinorum ' (Stuttgart, 1857), p. 94, the 
line " Sunt oculos clari," &c., has the 
following line attached to it : 
Dico grammaticum, versum qui construit istum. 

12 S.X.JAN. 21, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


527). There can be no doubt that the 
origin of such expressions as "a walking 
dictionary" and "a living dictionary" is to 
be found in a passage of Eunapius's ' Life 
of Porphyry,' in which he speaks of Longinus 
as " a living library and a walking museum 
(or, rather, university) " : B t /3Xto0?^7 ns r\v 
tfji\}/v^os KOI TrepnraTOvv [jLOV(reluv . With this has 

been compared the statement of the scholiast 
on Juvenal, iv. 77, that Pegasus, the 
jurisconsult, was commonly called a book, 
not a man. The phrase ' Living Library ' 
Was familiarized by the title of John Molle's 
translation of Philip Camerarius's ' Horae 
Subcisivae sive Meditationes Historicae,' 
which appeared in 1621 under the title of 
' The Living Librarie,' &c. It is curious 
that in one of the British Museum copies 
of this first edition (that in the Grenville 
Library) the title is printed as ' The Walking 
Librarie.' Robert Burton is referring to 
the same passage of Eunapius when he 
Writes, in the introduction to his ' Anatomy 
of Melancholy,' 

All those of whom we read such hyperbolical 
eulogiums, as of Aristotle, that he was wisdom 
itself in the abstract, a miracle of nature, breathing 
libraries, as Eunapius of Longinus. . . ." 

ix. 354, 438). In reply to his question 
whether Cardinal Newman and his brother 
F. W. Newman had family or other ties 
with Wales, MR. WILLIAMS may be referred 
to 11 S. vii. 385, where he will .find an 
extract from The Adelaide Advertiser com- 
municated by the late SIR J. LANGDON 
BONYTHON. An account is there given by 
" a minister now resident in Adelaide," 
based on a conversation that took place 
" in the seventies," of the visit of a Baptist 
minister to Llandudno, where the land- 
lady of his lodgings told him of a Mr. (Charles) 
Newman living in her house, and showed 
him letters written to her by his brothers 
F. W. and J. H. Newman. 


8). Jan van Goyen was born at Leyden 
in 1596 and died at The Hague in 1656. 
Except for a short period in his youth, 
spent in France, he dwelt all his life in his 
native country, and painted Dutch land- 
scapes and seascapes. Among the more 
eminent of his masters were Isack Claesz 
van Swanenburgh, who died in 1614, and 
Esaias van de Velde (c. 1590-1630). He 

was father-in-law of Jan Steen (1626-1679). 
He is represented by at least five works 
in the Louvre, and by many pictures in 
Holland, especially in the Kyks Museum 
at Amsterdam. Samuel Maunder 's ' Bio- 
| graphical Treasury ' quaintly observes : 

He possessed great facility and freedom ; his 
works are consequently more general throughout 
Europe than those of any other master, but such 
as are finished and remain undamaged are highly 


Van-Goyen (John), a landscape painter and 
| aqua tinta engraver, born at Leyden in 1596. 
i He was the disciple of William Geeritz and Isaiah 
Van den Velde. His compositions generally 
represent rivers with boats and fishing-barks, 
or peasants returning on the water from market, 
and in the back-ground villages or small towns. 
Some of his engravings from his own designs 
are very rare, and bear a high price. He died 
at The Hague in 1656. Biog Univ.' 
So writes Gorton in his ' General Bio- 
graphical Dictionary ' (London, 1833). A 
pleasing specimen of his painting, a copy 
of which hangs before me as I write, is to 
be found in the National Gallery at Dublin. 

xi. 449, 494, 536). I have a caricature, 
13in. by 9in., by T. Rowlandson, dated 1785, 
entitled ' Too many for a Jew.' The scene 
is a village green, under a tree. Half a 
dozen children stand round a Shylock- 
looking pieman who is looking upward at 
two coins which have been thrown into the 
air by a boy standing in front of him. Mean- 
while two other boys standing behind have 
each put a hand under the pieman's arms 
; and are helping themselves to pies from 
I the open basket suspended from the pie- 
! man's shoulder. This seems to carry back 
I the " toss-up " custom to pre -Pickwickian 

Portland Place, W. 

G. E. J. POWELL (12 S. ix. .529). George 
Ernest John Powell, born Feb. 10, 1842, 
was the only son of William Thomas Roland 
Powell, Esq., of Nant-Eos, Co. Cardigan, 
and Cheltenham, Co. Gloucester, J.P., and 
Edwyna, his wife, eldest daughter of 
William George Cherry, Esq., of Buckland, 
Co. Hereford. He was educated at Eton 
and at Brasenose College, Oxford. He 
matriculated at Oxford, May 23, 1861, and 
left in 1862. He was High Sheriff for 
Cardigan, and in 1881 married Dinah T. 
Harries of Goodwick, Co. Pembroke, and 
died without issue many years ago. 




[12 S. X.JAN. 21, 1922. 

The late Mr. , George E. J. Powell of ; 
Nant-Eos, near Aberystwyth, a Welsh squire j 
of literary and artistic tastes, and un- 
conventional character in other ways, was 
an intimate friend, and contemporary, of 
Swinburne's. He was a benefactor of the 
University College of Wales, to which he j 
gave books, pictures by Rossetti, Simeon 
Solomon, Leighton, and Herkomer, and a 
series of letters from Swinburne. He is, \ 
it may be presumed, the " M. Powel " 
sketched in Guy de Maupassant's amusing, 
if not always accurate, ' Notes sur Algernon 
Charles Swinburne,' which introduced Gab- 
riel Mourey's translation of ' Poems and 
Ballads ' (Paris, 1891). Maupassant was 
spending the summer of 1870 at Etretat 
-when Swinburne was staying there " chez 
un autre Anglais ... M. Powel, pro- 
prietaire d'un petit chalet qu'il avait baptise i 
' Chaumiere Dolmance.' ' The Frenchman i 
was a guest at this petit chalet on more than j 
one occasion and gives a vivacious account 
of his experiences. 

Pendant tout le dejeuner on paiia d'art, de 
litterature et d'humanite ; et les opinions de ces ' 
deux amis jetaient sur les choses une espece de 
lueur troublante, macabre, car ils avaient une 
maniere de voir et de comprendre qui me les 
montrait comnxe deux visionnaires malades, 
ivres de poesie perverse et magique. 

A few days later he was invited to feast 
on a roast monkey : 

L'odeur seule de ce r6bi quand j'entrai dans la 
maison me souleva le coeur d'inquietude, et la 
saveur affreuse de la bete m'enleva pour tou jours 
1'envie de recommencer un pareil repas. 

This time, 

ils me conterent des legendes islandaises traduites 

par M. Powel, d'une etrangete saisissante et 


We are told that 

<ie M. Powel etonnait le pays par une vie 
xtremement solitaire et bizarre aux yeux de 
bourgeois et de matelots peu accoutumes aux 
fantaisies et aux excentricites anglaises. 

He and his friend must certainly have set a 
high standard for future English visitors to 

"ABTEMUS WARD" (12 S. ix. 310, 375, 
477). Mr. Don C. Seitz, in his biography 
of Artemus Ward published in 1919 by 
Harper and Brothers, gives a different 
origin of Mr. Browne's pen-name from MR. 
MORGAN in your issue of December 10. Mr. 
Seitz says (pp. 24 and 25) : 

The nom de plume, though variously accounted 
for, in one instance as the misspelling of the 
cognomen of the Revolutionary general, Artemas 
Ward, was really a home product. Waterford, 

his native town, was a land-grant given to pay 
claims rising out of Sir William Phipps's expedi- 
tion against the French of Canada in 1690. The 
Province of Massachusetts Bay, having failed 
to collect enough from the spoil of the Acadians 
to pay the bills, gave away much land. Some 
of this lay in New Hampshire, and the grants 
were disallowed by that colony in 1739. Maine, 
being then part of the Bay State, was drawn 
upon to make good in 1774 to the heirs of past 
creditors, and Waterford was a slice given to 
Seth Rice, Stephen Maynard, and John Gardner, 
" and Artemus Ward is joined " reads the record. 
Jabez Brown, Artemus Ward's great-grandfather, 
surveyed the tract in 1783. His grandfather 
was agent for the Massachusetts owners of the 
unsettled lands. His father, a surveyor, had much 
to do with them, so of course their names were 
familiar to the family. It is easy to conclude, 
therefore, that in picking a pen-name the young 
Yankee, chuckling at his shaky work-table in 
The Plain Dealer office, by idle chance was moved 
to select that of the ancient Boston proprietor. 

C. E. S. 


' AUTHORS WANTED,' 12 S x. 18). The 
" humorous suggestion " mentioned by 
C. C. B. is a good example of the cvcoethesof 
trying to spoil poetry by reducing it to the 
lowest terms of the obvious and common- 
place. Of course Swinburne wrote the 
1 lines as they stand, and if he had not, " the 
less Swinburne he." " Time with a gift of 
tears," if it is too brutally analysed, expresses 
the melancholy fact that none can live long 
without experiencing sorrow ; " Grief with 
a glass that ran," that most human grief, how- 
ever apparently deep, is really short-lived. 
The first sentiment is melancholy, the second 
"cynical," and both suggest Montaigne. 

Again, putting this explanation aside 
entirely, I should credit a really educated 
poet like Swinburne with the intention to 
delight the fit reader (1) by the chiasmus 
of sense, and (2) by the slight thrill of 
surprise with which one hails a slap in the 
face at the obvious. 

Thirdly, to come closer still to Poetry, it 
: should be pointed out that the correct text 
' alliterates more subtly than the humorous 
! perversion would : t g t g g as compared 
I with g g t t g. This point might be turned 
against me, as Swinburne rather preferred 
| the hammer -stroke style of alliteration to 
J the pendulum : but I am sure it would not 
j have occurred to the humorist, so I make 
I him a present of it. 

A precisely similar instance in Shelley, 
j ' P.U.,' Act I. (Mercury to the Furies), 

. . . Back to your towers of iron, 
And gaash beside your streams of fire, and wail 
Your foodless teeth . . . 

12 S. X. JAN. 21, 1922.] 



will doubtless some clay incite, probably 
has already incited, some idiot to transpose 
" gnash " and " wail." 

H. K. ST. J. S. 

x. 9).- MR. BRUCE ANGIER will find a 
reference to some earlier members of this 
family in Poulson's ' History of Holdemess,' 
vol. i., p. 175 (1840). The spelling there 
given is Ergham, Argun or Arram, a hamlet 
and manor near Hornsea, E. Yorks. In 
my boyhood Arram Hall belonged to 
Thomas Bainton, Esq., who apparently is 
the same as the Thomas Bainton mentioned 
as a subscriber to the book named. Repre- 
sentatives of this latter family were resident 
in Bewholme, a neighbouring village, about 
20 years ago. A. G. GIBSON. 

ix. 509). JSTo such church appears to have 
existed in 1600 or at any other time. No 
Thomas Taylor appears to have been vicar 
or rector of any church dedicated to St. 
Peter in the City of London in that year. 
The rector of St. Peter-le-Poer from Dec. 
4, 1583, to his death in August, 1615, was 
Richard Judson. The entry in the parish 
register of Much Hormead would seem to 
mean that Thomas Taylor, the vicar of 
Much Hormead, married the two Brand 
sisters to their respective husbands in the 
church of St. Peter-le-Poer, and not to 
imply that he was vicar of St. Peter the 

FULLOLOVE SURNAME (12 S. vi. 68, 115, 
196). T. Warton, in his ' History of English 
Poetry,' alludes (1870 ed., pp. 100-02) 
to the French poem ' Roman d'Alexandre,' 
written about the year 1200, and remarks : 

It is voluminous ; and in the Bodleian library 
at Oxford is a vast folio MS. of it on vellum, 
which is of great antiquity, richly decorated, and 
in high preservation (MSS. Bodl., B. 264 fol.). 
... At the end we read this hexameter, which 
points out the name of the scribe : 

Nomen scriptoria est THOMAS PJ.ENUS AMORIS. 

Then follows the date of the year in which the 
transcript was completed, viz., 1338. 


VELLEBOIS, PAINTER (12 S. ix. 529). 
Some years ago, when acting as private 
secretary to Mr. R. Caton Woodville, the 
battle artist and illustrator, I frequently 
heard him called "Villebois" by his in- 
timates, and he was referred to by this 
name in. papers such as The Pink 'Un, 
The Pelican, &c. 

This may possibly throw a little light on 
I " T.'s "" query but he does not state the 
I subject of the picture. 


529). Luttrell, in his ' Brief Historical 
Relation of State Affairs,' gives an 
account under July 1, 1681, of the 
I execution of Mr. Plunket and Mr. 
Fitzharris, who were to be executed about 
nine in the morning. Oliver Plunket lay at 
Newgate. " They were both put in a sledge 
and drawn to Tyburn, where Plunket got 
into the cart and began a long harangue, 
excusing himself, &c. After a little time the 
executioner did his office, and theire quarters 
I were delivered to theire friends, according 
| to an order the sheriffs had for that purpose." 
! Wood's ' Athenae Oxoniensis ' says that 
i Plunket was hang'd, drawn, and quarter' d, 
| and his quarters only (not his head) were 
| buried in the yard of St. Giles's Church 
| in the fields near to London. You will 
; notice that neither of these accounts states 
! whether the disembowelling was done 
; before death had actually taken place. 


DISRAELI QUERIES (12 S. x. 8). 1. 
Allibone's ' Dictionary of English Litera- 
ture ' states that ' Ixion in Heaven ' was 
published in 1847. I am unable to trace 
the date when ' The Infernal Marriage ' 
was published in book form. The British 
Museum does not give either work separately. 
2. Benjamin Disraeli published editions 
of the following works by his father in 1881 
j according to the British Museum Catalogue, 
although no date is given on the title pages 
j of the books themselves : ' Calamities and 
j Quarrels of Authors,' * Amenities of Litera- 
ture,' ' Literary Character of Men of 

FREEDOM OF A CITY (12 S. ix. 489). 
The Honorary Freedom of Boroughs Act, 
1885, would, I think, be the origin which 
would allow a Borough Council from 
time to time to admit persons of 
distinction to be Honorary Freeman. The 
honour confers no benefit on the recipient. 
The Act (48, 49 Viet. ch. 29) states that 
" the admission of persons to be Fieeman 
shall not confer the right of voting for any 
Borough in Parliamentary or other elections, 
or of sharing in the benefit of any heridita- 
ments, common lands, or public stock of 
such borough, or the Council thereof, or 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. JAN. 21, 1922. 

of any property held in whole or in part 
for any charitable use or trust." 


THE ARMS OF LEEDS (12 S. ix. 507). 
I am sure everybody would be interested to 
hear of a case where a mayor in his private 
capacity uses the town's arms, with or 
without helmet and crest. Cases of cor- 
poration coats of arms with these appurte- 
nances are not uncommon from the 
fifteenth century onward. D. L. G. 

DANTE'S BEARD (12 S. ix. 271, 315, 378, 
436). It is not at all clear why St. Swithin 
assumes that Dante cut off the beard, which 
he had allowed to grow when he was mourn- 
ing for Beatrice. It has been inferred from 
the well-known passage in the ' Purgatorio ' 
that the poet had a beard some time between 
1310 and 1318. Now he died in 1321 ; why 
then should be have shaved if off ? Surely 
it is going a little far to suppose that Dante, 
when he was eating the salt food of exile 
and testing the steepness of another's stairs, 
was obedient to the frivolous dictates of in- 
constant Fashion. Villani says that he was 
indifferent to graces, and this remark may per- 
haps have referred to his personal appearance. 

Where there is so much obscurity it is 
justifiable to argue a little from general 
considerations. Now the beard has con- 
stantly been regarded as a sign of wisdom. 
Bacchus, wandering over the earth in a 
car drawn by tigers, and enamoured of 
Ariadne, is rightly represented with a 
smooth chin, but Dionysus, the cultivator 
of the vine, the lawgiver and the father of 
civilization, appears in Greek sculpture as 
a man with a beard. Is there any Byzantine 
or medieval artist who would have dared 
to represent the Creator of the universe as 
beardless ? The beard, then* is often an 
outward and visible sign of wisdom in the 
man who wears it, and a perception of this 
truth, as well as a certain artistic sense 
of what was right and fitting, may well 
have kept the encyclopaedic genius of the 
Middle Ages from cutting off the beard that 
adorned his face so appropriately. 


The Authors' Club, Whitehall, S.W. 

272). The office of King's Poulterer was 
hereditary in the family of Napier of Mer- 
chiston. Whether this continued on the 
accession of James VI. to the throne of 
England I do not know, but it might offer a 
clue to MR. BURY. ALEX. MORING. 

NICHOLAS GRIMALD (12 S. ix. 409, 498). 

! I understand that there is in the British 

' Museum Library a copy of the genealogy of 

the Grimaldi family from the time they 

quitted Genoa and settled in England to 

the year 1824, compiled by Stacey Grimaldi, 

! F.S.A., and edited by A. B. Grimaldi, 

i M.A., who, in 1907, resided at 27, Guernsey 

! Grove, Herne Hill, S.E. 

The work may give MR. L. R. MERRILL 
; the information he desires. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

RUDGE FAMILY (12 S. ix. 311, 395, 435). 
J The Rev. James Rudge, D.D., F.R.S., for 
j twenty-four years the esteemed and pious 
I rector of the parish of Ha\vkchurch, Dorset- 
| shire, died suddenly on July 1, 1852, in 
! his 69th year. He was the son of James 
I Rudge, of Heath End House, Cromhall, 
j and nephew of Thomas Rudge, Archdeacon 
of Gloucester. His family was a branch of 
the Rudges of Evesham, in Worcester- 
shire, but had been settled for some time 
in Gloucestershire. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

SCHOOL HOLIDAYS (12 S. ix. 528). 
Seventy years or more ago school boys and 
girls expected holidays of six weeks from 
about June 18, and of four or five from 
shortly before Christmas. Maundy Thurs- 
day sometimes released one for a few days 
if not for a whole week. It seems to me 
that holidays have greatly increased nowa- 
days, when people are always resting from 
Work that they have often shirked : but I 
am not here referring to schools. 


MR. R. E. THOMAS will find, I think, much 
to interest him in chap, xxxiv. of Mr. 
A. K. Cook's ' About Winchester College,' 
published by Macmillan and Co. in 1917, 
if he can get hold of the book. 


I am informed on good authority that this 
was presented to Westminster Abbey in 
1902 by Ras Makunan, Envoy from the 
King of Abyssinia at the Coronation of King 
Edward VII., as a votive offering for the 
recovery of the latter from his serious ill- 
ness in the summer. It was placed before 
the " Unknown Warrior's " grave, in which 
position a photograph of it may be obtained. 
It is now at the north side of the High 

i2ax.jAK.2i.i922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


ix. 462, 517, 521). May I enclose extract 
from the Public Records as to a member of | 
the lapp family. 

Mr. O. Tapp was proprietor of Post House, j 
Marlborough, ir Cromwell's days. He drove | 
to Red Lion, Fleet Street, London, every j 
week. Pepys stayed at this post-house. 
In the Public Record Office, London, 
Chancery Bills and Answers. 

B 93/34 Barber v. Tapp. 

17 Oct. 1639. The several answers of 

Edmund Tapp. 

Edmond Tapp, the defendant, was possessed j 
of a messuage and divers edifices, barnes, stables, ! 
outhouses, arable land, meadowe and pastures j 
lying and being in Bonington in ye County of ! 
Hert. This defendant sayth that he ivent and \ 
departed fro 1 England in Europa the last day of] 
May, 1637, with all his family and never hath I 
been there since, and he this defend*, ariveing in \ 
that place of America which now called New Eng- 
land the last day of July, 1637, and ther hath 
remained ever since. 

Sworn 7 day August, 1640, at Quinypyack in 
New England. 


SOUGHT (12 S. x. 9). 11. Nicholas Pocock, 
the son of a Bristol merchant, was 
born in 1740. As a youth he entered 
the Merchant Service and in 1780 
took up art as a profession, painting in 
Bristol regularly for some years. He died 
March 9, 1821. His portrait was painted 
by his son, Isaac (1782-1835), a pupil of 
Romney. An obituary notice of father 
and son is in The Gentleman's Magazine 
(1835), N.S. iv. 657-8. The pedigrees of 
his descendants are printed in Berry's 
* Pedigrees of Berkshire Families,' pp. 
116-22. Notices of him and his work are 
to be found in Owen's ' Two Centuries of 
Ceramic Art in Bristol,' pp. 49-52 ; Roget's 
'History of the Old Water Colour 
Society,' passim; ' D.N.B.,' xlvi. 5-6; 
and in ' N. & Q.,' 4 S. xi. 290, 331, 388; 
8 S. iv. 108, 197, 291-2 ; 10 S. iv. 468. 
A large collection of naval drawings and 
engravings by Pocock was sold in two 
parts in 1913 by Messrs. Hodgson, whose 
sale catalogues form an interesting record 
of his work. ROLAND AUSTIN. 


There are accounts of (3) James Duffield 
Harding (1798-1863), (6) Robert Thomas 
Landells (1833-1877), (11) Nicolas Pocock 
(1741 7-1821), and (16) John Thomas 
Serres (1759-1825) in the 'D.N.B.' There 
. are some pictures by (8) R. H. Nibbs in 

the Municipal Art Galleries, Brighton, and 
works by him often appear in Sussex picture- 
shops. He nourished during the Regency 
and in succeeding years. (1) Bernard 
Evans, R.I., had a picture reproduced in 
' Modern British Water-Colour Drawings,' 
a Special Summer Number of The Studio in 
1900. I think he is to be identified with 
Bernard Walter Evans, Esq., R.I., R.B.A., 
as to whom see ' Who's Who.' 


The following information has been 
gleaned from various sources : 

1. Bernard Evans, landscape painter, 
of London. Exhibited at the R.A., Surrey 
Street and New Water Colour Society 
during the years 1871-1893. 

2. Ernest Griset, animal painter, of 
London- Exhibited two pictures at Surrey 
Street in 1871. 

3. James Duffield Harding was born at 
Deptford in 1798. He had a few lessons 
from Samuel Prout, and worked with 
John Pye, the engraver. He painted land- 
scapes in oils and water-colours, was a 
member of the Old Water Colour Society, 
and was also a lithographer. He exhibited 
at the R.A., B.I., S.B.A., and O.W.C.S., 
&c., 1811-63. He died at Barnes in 1863. 

4. Henry Andrew Harper, landscape 
painter, of London. Exhibited a large 
number of pictures during the years 1858- 
1893 at the R.A., Surrey Street, and New 
Water Colour Society. 

5. G. J. Knox lived in London, and 
exhibited landscapes at the R.A., B.I., and 
Surrey Street from 1839-1859. 

6. Robert Thomas Landells was born in 
1833. Became a special artist on the staff 
of The Illustrated London News, for which 
he depicted the Crimean, Danish, Austro- 
Prussian, and Franco-German Wars. He 
died in 1877. 

7. Paul Marny, landscape painter, 
nourished at Birmingham. From 1866-90 
he exhibited landscapes at the R.A. and 
various other exhibitions. 

8. Richard Henry Nibbs, a popular 
painter of marine subjects. His first pic- 
ture, ' Lord Mayor's Day,' appeared at the 
Academy of 1841, but in 1842 he sent a 
sea-piece, and to that branch of art he 
afterwards remained constant. He died 
in 1893, aged 77. 

9. Cornelius Pearson was born at Boston, 
Lines, and later became apprenticed to 
an engraver in London- Many of his land- 
scapes were exhibited at the S.B.A., 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.x. JAN. 21, 1922. 

1843-91. He died in 1891, in his 83rd 

10. Edward Pugh, English miniature- 
painter and landscape draughtsman, was 
born in the second half of the eighteenth 
century. His works appeared at the 
Academy from 1793 to 1808. He illus- 
trated ' Modern London ' (1805) and ' Cam- 
bria Depicta ' (1816), and died at Ruthin 
in 1813. 

11. Nicholas Pocock was born about the 
year 1741, and was the son of a Bristol 
merchant. He became captain of a 
merchant vessel and spent his leisure time 
in sketching. He became an original 
member of the Old Water Colour Society 
and was encouraged in art by Reynolds. 
He painted landscapes and marine subjects, 
and exhibited at the R,A.,B.I.,and O.W.C.S., 

12. Thomas Sewell Robins (not Robbins) 
was born in 1814. He was a member of 
the New Water Colour Society, and one of 
the original members of the Institute of 
Painters in Water Colours. He exhibited 
at the R.A., B.I., S.B.A., &c., .1829-79, 
chiefly landscapes and marine subjects. 
He died in 1880. 

13. H. Randolph Rose specialized in 
figure subjects. He lived in London, and 
between 1880-93 exhibited at the R.A., 
Surrey Street and various other exhibitions. 

16. John Thomas Serres, son of Dominic 
Serres, R.A., was born in London in 1759. 
He was taught drawing at the Chelsea 
Naval School, and later became draughts- 
man to the Admiralty. He married Miss 
Willmot, the soi-disant Princess of Cum- 
berland, who ruined him. He was a painter 
of marine subjects, and exhibited at the 
R.A., B.I., and S.B.A. from 1780-1825. 
He died in 1825 and was buried at Mary- 

17. Edward Tucker of W olwicn ' 
painter of coast scenes. He exhibited at 
the R.A., B.I., and Surrey Street during 

18. B. B. Wadham of Liverpool. He 
exhibited landscapes at the R.A. and Surrey 
Street from 1871-1883. 


There are biographical notices of several 
of the painters about whom MR. T. CANN 

HUOHE^? inquires in the latest edition of 
Bryan's ' Dictionary of Painters and En- 
gravers.' These are as follows : 
- 3, J. D. Harding (1798-1863), vol. iii., 
p. 14. A very eminent and versatile artist, 

especially notable in water-colour. See also- 
the ' D.N.B.,' vol. viii., p. 1220. 

6. R. T. Landells (1833-1877), vol. iii.,. 
p. 169. 

8. R. H. Nibbs (c. 1815-1893), vol. iv., 
p. 17. 

9. Cornelius Pearson (c. 1808-1891), vol. 
iv., p. 84. 

11. N. Pocock (1741-1821), vol. iv., p. 137. 

16. J. T. Serres (1759-1825), vol. v., p. 69. 
As regards some other names mentioned 

1 1 note as follows : 

1. Bernard Evans, R.I. A very ac- 
complished landscapist who was an exhibitor 
in London and the provinces for many 
years. In 1875 he was resident in London ; 
in 1912 at Harrogate. If now living he 
must be a veteran. I suggest inquiry of 
the secretary of the Royal Institute of 
Painters in Water Colours. 

2. Ernest Griset. Flourished in the mid- 
I Victorian period as an illustrator. He had 
I an excellent knack, before the time of R. 

Caldecott,' in comical drawings of animals. 
.7. Paul Marny. From some drawings in 
gouache by this artist which "I have seen 1 
should place him about the middle of last 

10. E. Pugh. Ephraim Pugh was draw- 
| ing master at the Liverpool Mechanics' 
I Institution, which was opened in 1839. 

His pictures were not, I think, of high 

merit, but I have not seen any of them and 

; don't know any biographical particulars 

further than that he was an exhibitor 

1848-1876, and probably earlier and later. 

I If Mr. Hughes wishes to know more about 

I Pugh I shall be pleased to make inquiries. 

17. E. Tucker. Perhaps a member of 
! a family connected with the Lake District 
| which has produced several capable land- 
! scapists. An inquiry might be addressed 

| to Mr. Arthur Tucker, R.B.A., Ashleigh, 
j Windermere. 

18. B. B. Wadham. A Liverpool mid- 
Victorian painter of no great merit. He had 
two sons who were artists, one of whom 
exhibited under another name ; I think 

Mr. Hughes might usefully consult Mr. 
Algernon Graves' s ' Dictionary of the Royal 
Academy ' and the other analyses by that 
valuable antiquary. 

G4, Huskisson Street, Liverpool. 

The f ollowing details may be of interest : 

3. James Duffield Harding, born 1798, 
probably at Deptford, near London. He 

12 S.X.JAN. 21, 1922.] 



is remembered for his paintings in water- 
colours, in which he abandoned the exclusive 
use of transparent colours. His ' Sketches at 
Home and Abroad' (1836), dedicated to Louis 
Philippe of France, ' The Park and the 
Forest' (1841), and 'Picturesque Selec- 
tions (1861) attest his skill as a lithographer. 
He became known also by his textbooks, 
e.g., ' The Principles and Practice of Art' 
(1845). He died 1863. 

5. G. J. Knox. Was he the third son of 
the Right Hon. George Knox, P.C., M.P., 
D.C.L., fifth son of Thomas Knox, first 
Viscount Northland, father of the first Earl 
of Ranfurly ? 


39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

CASHEL (12 S. viii. 470). The following 
notes, though not giving the exact details 
asked for by G. F. R. B., may nevertheless 
be of some assistance. 

His wife, Anne O'Meara, appears to have 
been living in 1592 : see a letter apparently 
addressed to her in State Papers, Ireland, 
for that year. 

Five sons are mentioned in the State 
Papers under the following dates : 1600, 
Tirlogh (married to iCatherine Butler, 
sister of the Countess of Desmond), Red- 
mond; 1607, James, Marcus, Terence. 

Two of his sons were with him in England 
in November, 1599, where he writes from his 
chamber next the Falcon, in Tothill Street, 
Westminster, but he does not give their 
names. One of his sons was at Oxford in 1602, 
apparently as a member of the University, 
and known by the name of Gray : see 
' Historical MSS. Commn. Reports,' Mar- 
quess of Salisbury's MSS., Part XII. 

Foster, ' Al. Oxon,' records that Mark 
Graye and James Graye both subscribed 
on Oct. 31, 1601 ; the coincidence of 
names and dates makes it possible, if 
not probable, that these were two of the 
sons of the Archbishop. 

Unfortunately none of the references on 
which these notes are based gives any 
clue as to the order of birth of these sons, 
nor as to the existence or non-existence of 

I would add a warning that the indexing 
of Irish names in the volumes of the Irish 
State Papers of this period is somewhat 
erratic, and entries should be looked for 
under Cashels, Magrath, McCragh, Mag- 
raughe and Magrauffe. 


(12 S. ix. 230, 273, 312, 336, 376, 415, 436, 
454, 497). Here is an instance from the 
Basque country. At Sare, in the family 
Lorrondo-Saharrear in 1793 there were 
five brothers and sisters, and the two 
(younger) brothers bore the name of Gratien 
( Causeries sur le Pays Basque,' by Mme. 
Charles d'Abbadie d'Arrast, Paris, 1909). 
In Roman Catholic countries the practice 
might be explained if we could assume that 
both brothers were born on the same 
saint's day. H. A. ROSE. 

Milton House, La Haule, Jersey. 

ix. 450, 498, 531). He was in much request 
in the eighties for his lectures, which were 
full of humour. I well remember one 
entitled " Hats in general and some in 
particular." R. E. THOMAS. 

212). I have the complete pedigree of 
Eyre of Hassop, acquired at the recent 
dispersal of Haspop Hall. The daughters 
of Roland Eyre by Ann, daughter of Sir 
Francis Smyth, were as follows : 

Elizabeth married Pratt, Anne wife of Robert 
Dormer of Grove Park, Warwick. 

Prudence wife of John Berry of Berry Herbert, 
Co. Devon. Mary wife of William Blundel of 
Little Crosby, Lanes, and Ursula wife of Cherry 
Orton of ... Co. Lanr. 

I do not find any mention in the pedigree 
of the marriage with Norris. 



MULBEBBIES (12 S. ix. 337, 377, 519). 
Years ago, in the South Lambeth Road, 
not far from Vauxhall Station, the late 
Mr. Lionel Brough, the famous actor, lived 
in an old house called Percy Villa. In the 
garden was a fine mulberry tree, and Mr. 
Brough has told me that, in days gone by, 
when other good houses still stood in that 
street, every garden had its mulberry tree. 
I am under the impression that he said 
there had been an avenue of mulberry trees 
before houses were built. Perhaps some 
authority on old London could confirm my 
dim recollections. J. R. H. 

'A NEWCASTLE APOTHECARY ' (12 S. ix. 491). 
I have a humorous poem entitled ' The Newcastle 
Apothecary,' by Colrnan. It is included in a book 
entitled Principles of Elocution,' by Thomas 
Ewing of Edinburgh. My copy, a 22nd edition, 
is dated 1837, and was published at Edinburgh. 

Pinhoe, Devon. W. G. WILLIS WATSON. 

I am now able to give the full words of this 
recitation. The original appeared in Colman's 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.X.JAN. 21, 1022. 

' Broad Grins,' and its authorship is attributed 
to George Colman himself. 

' The Newcastle Reciter ' omitted the first part 
and partly altered the verse here and there. 


[The verses kindly written out have been for- 
warded to our correspondent.] 


Authors' and Printers' Dictionary. By F. Howard 

Collins. (Humphrey Milford, 3s. &d. net.) 
F. HOWARD COLLINS died in 1910 ; the fourth 
edition of this admirable little work (1912) was 
supervised by the late Horace Hart, Controller 
of the Oxford University Press. That edition 
seemed but little short of perfection however, 
here is a fifth, which shows a yet further im- 
provement, besides taking cognizance of words 
and dates and persons and other matters which 
time and the war have brought into the general 
current of thought and writing. We do a little 
regret that those who acquire this new edition 
will not have the compiler's original preface, 
a pleasant piece of writing and instructive withal. 
Comparing our own well-used copy with the 
new exemplar we find sundry traces of con- 
sideration for brethren weaker in the matter of 
spelling thus " accommodate " has been in- 
serted. Many now unnecessary names have 
been omitted and also several technical terms, 
which some pleasant fancy rather than their 
utility must have made the compiler insert 
such as " bewet, leather attaching bell to hawk, 
not -it.*' A few indications of pronunciation 
have been modified. Several new entries from 
foreign languages appear, and, naturally, a 
crop of new scientific and military terms. The 
publisher mentions his regret at not having been 
able to adopt any great proportion of the numerous 
suggestions he has received owing to the expense 
of altering the plates : it would therefore be 
futile to make any of our own. We have but to 
express anew our gratitude for a most useful 
compilation, and our satisfaction at having it 
thus brought "up to date." 

A Dictionary of English Phrases. (Routledge, 

12s. 6d. net.) 

WE dipped into these pages with great interest 
and some pleasant expectation. The amount of 
work and patience which went to the making 
of them entitles the compiler to considerable 
respect. The phrases include most of our modern 
catchwords and cliches, as well as the great mass 
of familiar locutions and, with these, an array 
of old or rare expressions which cannot be said 
to have maintained themselves in the general 
currency of the language. These last are often 
supported by references, but sometimes not so, 
and in cases where we should have welcomed a 
reminder. Thus " as inaccessible as Abaton " 
seems to want some justification, considered as 
an English phrase. Sometimes the origin of a 
well-known sentence or quotation is rather too 
imperfectly given as when we read on Delenda 
vst Carthago that this was " stated to have been 
uttered in the Senate by Cato after a visit to 

Carthage," or are referred for " Tweedledum and 
Tweedledee " to John Byrom, when the current 
use of these comic names is certainly derived 
from Alice ' Through the Looking-glass.' To 
have " Be sure your sin will find you out " 
referred to the Odyssey instead of Deuteronomy 
is curious, as is also the form given to the phrase. 
These instances are taken' at random and might 
be added to indefinitely. The chief use of this 
collection, in fact, might be to serve as a suggestive 
nucleus for a more correct and thorough work. 

THE new Quarterly Review is largely devoted 
to international politics and recent foreign 
history. The literary articles are not of special 
importance, though essays from the pens of 
Mr. Edmund Gosse and Mr. John Drinkwater 
must count for much on whatever subject these 
graceful writers discourse. Mr. Gosse 's theme 
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of Mr. C. R. Haines's ' Recent Shakespearean 
Research,' which sets out chiefly the present 
position of inquiry as to the doubtful plays. 
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LONDON. JANUARY 28, 1922. 

CONTENTS. No. 198. 

NOTES : Massinger and Dekker's ' The Virgin Martyr,' 61- 
St. Blaize Pallone, an Italian Game, 65 Principal London 
Coffee-houses, Taverns and Inns in the Eighteenth Century, 
66 Bluebeard : Origin and Early References Bagshot and 
Bawwaw, 68 Buskin : Geneva Letter found Apprentices 
to and from Overseas Stowe House, Sal e of Contents, 1847 
and 1921, 69. 

QUERIES : Cole, or Coale-rents Thornborough Battersea 
Enamel Works ' Allostree's Almanack,' 1680 V. de 
Veldte the Elder : Identification of Flag sought Quant 
Charms to be identified, 70 Spelling of " Champagne " 
" Water Measure," for Apples and Pears Family of Lee 
Andrew Barnard : Sir Frederick Augustus Barnard, K.C.H., 
71 De Kemplen's Automaton Chess-player Will-o'-the 
wisp Mulberry- trees Bears Rain and Fishing Kynaston 
J. C. F. Keppel Proverbs and Phrases Authors wanted, 

REPLIES : The Arms of Leeds, 72 Mrs. Joanna Stephens, 73 
' The Beggar's Opera ' in Dickens, 74 Title of " K.H." 
Baron Grant, 75 The Brighton Athenaeum (Antheum) 
Edward Lam plugh Launching of Ships Song-book by 
Tobias Hume, 76 Index Ecclesiasticus St. Christopher 
and the Christ Child The Troutbeck Pedigree The House 
of Harcourt, 77 Pharaoh as Surname Tavern Signs : 
" The Five Alls " The Maccabees, 78 Adah Isaacs Men- 
ken's ' Infelicia ' " Mata Hari's " Youth Wellington 
Testimonial Clock Tower Tha Abyssinian Cross " To 
burn one's boats " Author's Name wanted, 79. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The Old Deeside Road ' ' Selected 
Polish Tales ' ' The Complete Works of Sir Philip Sidney ' 
' The Elizabethans and the Empire.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



THE practice of collaboration in dramatic 
authorship, so prevalent in Elizabethan 
times, has seldom yielded a more happy 
result than in the case of Massinger and 
Dekker's ' The Virgin Martyr.' Massinger' s 
stately style and mastery of dramatic 
technique combined with Dekker's sincerity 
and high poetic gifts have given us as 
powerful and moving a tragedy as is to be 
found outside ohakespeare. No doubt from 
the point of view of the modern reader the 
" comic relief " afforded by those two base 
creatures Hircius and Spungius is a blot 
upon the play, but the introduction of these 
characters does not in any way affect its 
essential morality. Their conversation and 
behaviour, offensive though it is, is at least 
in keeping with their typical character, and 
the vices of lechery and drunkenness which 
they personify, far from being presented 

in an attractive light, are rendered as 
repulsive as possible. Their unutterable 
baseness at any rate serves as a most 
effective foil to the unassailable purity 
of the heroic Dorothea. 

Whether we have here a case of true 
collaboration, or rather as has been sup- 
posed the result of Massinger' s recasting 
of an early work of Dekker, is a question 
that it is scarcely possible to determine. 
It is, however, possible to distinguish, with 
a degree of certainty unusual where pro- 
blems of joint -author ship are concerned, 
the work of the two dramatists who com- 
posed it, for the writings of each possess 
clearly-marked characteristics. Not only 
has Massinger' s mature blank verse so 
distinctive a ring as to render it (in the 
longer speeches at least) easy of recognition, 
but he has also a habit of repeating images 
and sentiments to a degree not paralleled 
in the writings of any other dramatist. 
Many of his sentiments are to be met with, 
phrased in almost precisely the same way, 
in half a dozen or more of his plays. He has 
also a large number of mythological allusions 
drawn from a very limited stock and con- 
sequently frequently repeated. 

Dekker also has many characteristic 
words, phrases, allusions and tricks of 
speech. Some of the features most con- 
spicuous in his early plays e.g., his habit 
of repeating words two or three times in 
succession, of using volleys of adjectives, 
adverbs or synonyms are not, how r ever, 
particularly in evidence here, from which 
it is clear either that Dekker's work in the 
play is of a much later date than in such 
plays as ' Satiromastix,' ' The Shoemaker's 
Holiday ' and ' Westward Hoe,' or that 
Massinger has drastically revised Dekker's 
work throughout. On the whole, although 
some passages written by Dekker show 
signs of alteration by Massinger, the former 
conjecture seems to me the more probable. 
I incline to the opinion that the two authors 
worked upon the play together, and that 
' The Virgin Martyr ' is the result of collabo- 
ration in the true sense of the term. 

Hitherto those who have discussed its 
authorship have treated the shares of the 
two authors as if they were entirely inde- 
pendent allotting one scene to Massinger, 
another to Dekker, and so on.* The 

* I should except Professor Cruickshank, 
who, in Appendix X. of his ' Philip Massinger ' 
(published in 1920, after my analysis of the text 
was made) suggests that II. iii. and IV. i. are of 
composite authorship. 



association of the two authors was, as I 
hope to show, of a more intimate kind, 
several of the scenes revealing clear traces 
of both hands. 

Act I., scene i. 

This is wholly Massinger's. It is all in 
metre. Parallels are so numerous that it 
is only necessary to give here a selection of 
the more striking. I have left many 
characteristic turns of expression unnoted. 

1. Theophilus : 'Twas a benefit 
For which I ever owe you. 

Compare : 

'Tis a noble favour 
For which I ever owe you. 

(' The Bondman,' II. i.) 

2. Sapritius : . . . when we are merciful to 

We to ourselves are cruel. 
Compare : 

... in compassion to them, 
You to us prove cruel. 

(' Maid of Honour,' II. Hi.) 

3. Sempronius : You pour oil 
On fire that burns already at the height. 

Compare : 

Your words are but as oil pour'd on a fire, 
That flames already at the height. 

(' Unnatural Combat,' II. iii.) 
... in this you but pour oil on fire. 

(' Duke of Milan,' V. i.) 
Massinger has this in several other plays. 

4. Dioclesian : Had you borne yourselves 
Dejectedly, and base, no slavery 

Had been too easy for you : but such is 
The power of noble valour, that we love it 
Even in our enemies. 

Compare : 

Had he suffered poorly, 

It had calFd on my contempt ; but manly patience 
And all-commanding virtue, wins upon 
An enemy. (' Renegade,' IV. ii.) 

(Occurs again in ' The Duke of Milan,' 
III. i., ' Emperor of the East,' I. i., and 
elsewhere. ) 

5. Dioclesian : Queen of fate, 
Imperious Fortune mix some light disaster 
With my so many joys, to season them, 
And give them sweeter relish. 

Compare : 

Heaven be pleased 
To qualify this excess of happiness 
With some disaster, or I shall expire 
With a surfeit of felicity. (' Guardian,' II. iii.) 

6. Artemia : I make payment 
But of a debt, which I stand bound to tender. 

Compare : 

She comes to make a tender of that service 
Which she stands bound to pay. 

(' Great Duke of Florence,' II. iii.) 
(Also in ' A Very Woman,' II. i., and else- 

7. Antoninus : As I look on the temples, or the 

And with that reverence, lady, I behold you. 

Compare : 

As I behold the sun, the stars, the temples, 
I look on you. (' Bashful Lover,' I. i.) 

. . . when I came 

To see you, it was with that reverence 
As I beheld the altars of the gods. 

(' Bondman,' II. i.) 

8. Antoninus : Refuse what kings upon their 
knees would sue for ! 

Massinger repeats this over and over again 
with slight variations. Two parallels will 
suffice : 

... to court him to embrace 
A happiness which, on his knees, with joy 
He should have sued for. 

(' Great Duke of Florence,' V. ii.) 

... these bounties 

Which all our Eastern kings have kneel'd in vain 
for. (' Renegado,' II. iv.) 

9. Antoninus : Pardon, dread princess, that I 
made some scruple 

To leave a valley of security 

To mount up to the hill of majesty, 

On which,' the nearer Jove, the nearer lightning. 

Compare : 
I'll look on human frailty 
And curse the height of royal blood : since I 
In being born near Jove, am near his thunder. 
(' Maid of Honour,' III. i.) 

10. Antoninus : The fox, 
When he saw first the forest's king, the lion, 
Was almost dead with fear ; the second view 
Only a little daunted him ; the third, 

He durst salute him boldly. 

Compare : 

The fox, that would confer 

With a lion without fear, must see him often. 
(' Believe as you List,' III. ii.) 

Act II., scene i. 

Written by Dekker. Over one-third con- 
sists of prose dialogue between Hircius and 
Spungius. Then Angelo appears, speaking 
in verse, whilst Hircius and Spungius con- 
tinue to speak in prose ; finally Dorothea 
enters, speaking verse. 

Apart from the fact that Massinger 
rarely uses prose, the Hircius -Spungius 

| dialogue shows positive evidence of Dekker 's 
authorship in several of his characteristic 
words and expressions. The blank verse 

!is also his, showing no trace of Massinger's 
metrical style or vocabulary. Particular 
indications of Dekker's authorship to be 
noted are : 

1. Spungius : Bacchus . . . grand patron of 
rob-pots, upsy-freesy tipplers, &c. 

Dekker's plays are full of allusions to 
the Dutch and their habits. The expres- 
sion "to drink upsie-freese " (i.e., in the 

12 S.X.JAN. 28, 1922.] 



Dutch fashion) occurs several times in his 
works, e.g., ' Gull's Hornbook ' (Grosart, 
vol. i., p. 206), ' Northward Hoe,' II. i. 
It is not to be found in Massinger's plays. 

2. Hircius : Thy last shall serve my foot. 
References to the shoemaker's trade 
are noticeably frequent in Dekker. He 
again uses this expression in ' Westward 
Hoe,' II. iii. : 

That last shall serve all our feet. 
It must be rare, for I have found it in 
no other Elizabethan play. 

3. Spungius : . . . as I am a demi-pagan, 
I sold the victuals, &c. ; 

and twice again, a few lines below : 

Hircius : As I am a total pagan. 

Spungius : As I am a pagan, &c. 
Such phrases " as I am a gentleman," 
" as I'm a Christian," " as I'm a sinner," 
&c. are typical of Dekker. 

4. Spungius : The peaking chitface hit me in 
the teeth with it. 

The expression "to hit one in the teeth," 
although not generally common, is also 
one constantly used by Dekker. It is in 
* Satiromastix,' I. ii., " Westward Hoe,' 
III. iii., ' Gull's Hornbook ' (Grosart, i, 158), 
' Patient Grissil ' (Sh. Soc. Reprint, 37), 
'The Roaring Girl,' IV. ii. and V. i., &c. 
It is not used in any of Massinger's numerous 
independent plays. 

The speeches of Angelo and Dorothea 
are essentially Dekkerian in style and 
.spirit. Angelo's vigorous outburst on hear- 
ing that the money entrusted to Hircius 
for the relief of prisoners has been " paid 
away " : 

What way ? the devil's way, the way of sin, 
The way of hot damnation, way of lust ? 

is particularly characteristic, with its em- 
phatic repetitions. And for such lines as 
these : 

I could weary stars, 

And force the wakeful moon to lose her eyes, 
By my late watching. 

one might, as Mr. Arthur Symons has re- 
marked, search from end to end of Mas- 
singer's plays in vain. 

Scene ii. 

All in metre. The hands of both authors 
are apparent here. Metrical considerations 
.seem to point to Dekker as the principal 
author ; the scene Was probably written 
by him and afterwards touched up by 

Two clear indications of Dekker are to 
be noted. The first is in a speech of 
, Harpax : 

1. This Macrinus, 
The line is, upon which love-errands run 
'Twixt Antoninus and . . . Dorothea. 

The allusion here, to fireworks running 
upon lines, is indubitably Dekker's. It 
is to be found in ' The Whore of Babylon ' 
(Pearson, ii. 230), " Northward Hoe,' IV. 
iv., ' Jests to Make You Merrie ' (Grosart. 
ii. 343), and doubless elsewhere. Dekker 
again applies it figuratively, as in the text, 
to a person employed to carry messages from 
one person to another. Compare ' The 
Roaring Girl,' V. i. (one of Dekker's 
scenes) : 

A justice in this town . . . used that rogue 
like a firework, to run upon a line betwixt him 
and me. 

And again in The Honest Whore,' Pt. 2. 
II. i., we have : 

The fireworks that ran from me upon lines against 
my good old master, &c. 

The other is in Theophilus's speech at 
the end of the scene. 

2. I will not lose thee then, her to confound. 

I doubt if a single instance of an inver- 
sion of this kind is to be found in the whole 
collection of Massinger's plays, whereas 
there are several such in Dekker. So far 
as I have noticed, they occur always in 
tragic passages. The following may be 
given as examples : 
Have we not all it tasted ? 

(' Whore of Babylon,' Pearson, ii. 256.) 
Nothing but your mercy me can save. 

(Ibid., ii. 267). 
Mine own shame me confounds. 

(' Roaring Girl,' IV. ii.) 

Massinger's hand is to be recognized in 
the following passages : 

1. Theophilus : I'm turned a marble statue at 
thy language. 

Compare : 

almost turns me into a senseless statue. 

(' Emperor of the East,' V. i.) 
Are we all turned statues ? Have his strange 
words charmed us ? (' City Madam,' III. ii.) 

2. Antoninus 
Plays the Endymion to this pale-faced moon. 
This is part of the speech of Harpax 
containing the fireworks allusion to which 
reference is made above. For the allusion 
to Endymion, compare : 

. . . he's a man, 
For whose embraces, though Endymion 
Lay sleeping by, Cynthia would leave her orb. 

(' Guardian,' II. ii.) 

Though Dekker also has allusions to 
Endymion (see ' Match Me in London,' 
Pearson, iv. 211), "pale-faced moon" 
stamps this reference as Massinger's. We 



[12S. X. JAN. 28, 1922. 

find it again in ' The Emperor of the East,' 

II. i. : 

The pale-faced moon, that should 

Govern the night, usurps the rule of day, &c. 

The very words of greeting ("The sun, 
god of the day, guide thee, Macrinus ! ") 
with which the scene opens, to me suggest 
the hand of Massinger, as does the speech 
of Theophilus towards its close, " Have I 
invented tortures to tear Christians," &c. . 
One often notices in Massinger's plays a ' 
tendency to dwell upon, almost to gloat over, i 
the idea of torture. 

Scene iii. 

About two -thirds verse and one -third I 
prose. Although this scene, like the pre- i 
ceding, has hitherto been attributed entirely | 
to Dekker, it is also clearly of joint author- : 
ship. There are, indeed (except in the i 
prose at the end), more definite traces of 
Massinger than of Dekker. 


Macrinus : ... from his store 

He can enough lend to others ; yet, much taken 

from him, 

The want shall be as little as when seas 
Lend from their bounty, to fill up the poorness 
Of needy rivers. 

Though this sentiment cannot be exactly 
paralleled from Massinger's plays, he harps 
upon images in which the size of a river is 
compared with that of the ocean. The 
nearest parallel is in ' Believe as You List,' 
V. i. : 

Though I know 

The ocean of your apprehensions needs not 
The rivulet of my poor cautions. 

Still more conclusive of Massinger's 
collaboration is this passage, from the first 
speech addressed by Antoninus to Dorothea, 
after the entry " above " of Artemia : 

. . . glaze not thus your eyes 
With self-love of a vow'd virginity ; 
Make every man your glass, &c. 

This is one of the many changes rung by 

Massinger on one of the commonest of his I 

tags. See, for instance, ' The Maid of 

Honour,' V. ii. : 

You look upon your form in the false glass 

Of flattery and self-love. 

' New Way to pay Old Debts,' V. i. : 
. . . looking on my lowness 
Not in a glass of self-love, but of truth. 

' Bondman,' III. iv. : 
Though in the glass of self-love she behold 
Her best deserts. 

There are similar lines also in ' The 
Emperor of the East,' V. iii., ' The Bond- 
man,', III. iii., 'The Parliament of Love,' 

I. i., and in several of the Massinger- 
Fletcher plays. 

Equally unmistakable to the reader 
familiar with Massinger's habit of echoing 
passages from Shakespeare is the evidence 
of this speech of Dorothea's : 

That fear is base, 

Of death, when that death doth but life displace 
Out of her house of earth ; you only dread 
The stroke, and not what follows when you're dead ; 
There's the great fear, indeed. 

The indebtedness to Hamlet's famous 
soliloquy ("But that the fear of some- 
thing after death," &c.) is obvious. 

Massinger has another reminiscence of 
this soliloquy 

Tremble to think how terrible the dream is 
After this sleep of death. 

in the ' Roman Actor,' III. ii., and again 
in ' The Maid of Honour,' II. iv. : 
How willingly, like Cato, 
Could I tear out my bowels . . . 
But that religion, and the horrid dream 
To be suffer'd in the other world denies it ! 

Dekker does not imitate Shakespeare in 
this way. 

Another slight, but definite, indication of 
Massinger is to be found in one of An- 
toninus's speeches addressed to Dorothea : 

Your mocks are great ones. 
With this compare Aretmia's 
. . . they are fair ones, 
Exceeding fair ones, . 

in Act I., sc. i. " Ones " is frequently 
thus used by Massinger, never (I believe) 
by Dekker. 


Dekker was responsible for the prose 
(Hircius and Spungius). There is in Spun- 
gius's very first speech one of his favourite 
angling metaphors, of which almost am- 
work of his will afford examples : 
The fish you angle for is nibbling at the hook j 
and, in the next line, the playful association 
of the abstract and the concrete 
. . . untruss the codpiece-point of our re- 
\vard, no matter if the breeches of our conscience 

is characteristic of him. The same type 
of jest is also met with in the plays of Ford, 
who perhaps borrowed it from Dekker. 
So far as I have noticed, it is affected by 
no other Elizabethan dramatist. We find 
it again in the prose at the end of the 
scene : 

Spungius : The petticoat of her estate is unlac'd. 

Hircius : Yes, and the smock of her charity 
is all to piecos. 

If positive proof is needed of Dekker s 

12 S. X. JAN. 28, 1922.] 



participation in the verse, it should be 
sufficient to point to the jingle at the end 
of Artemia's final speech : 

. . . Rifle her estate ; 

Christians to begging brought grow desperate. 
Massinger was quite incapable of this. 
But there is no doubt that some of the 
best features of the verse are also Dekker's. 


(To be concluded.) 


ST. BLAIZE, who is commemorated on 
Feb. 3, is usually represented with an 
iron cornb in his right hand in reference to 
the manner of his torture, and from this is 
supposed to have arisen his becoming the 
patron saint of woolcombers. Alban Butler, 
however, says: 

No other reason than the great devotion of the 
people to this celebrated martyr of the Church 
seems to have given occasion to the woolcombers 
to choose him the titular patron of their profes- 
sion. On which account his festival is still kept 
by them with a solemn guild at Norwich. 

This is quoted in ' N. & Q.,' April 15, 
1854 (1 S. ix. 353), in reply to a 
question in which it is stated that " in 
Norwich every 50 years the festival of 
Bishop Blaize is observed with great cere- 
mony." Butler died in 1773. Baring- 
Gould, writing a century after Butler's 
death, says that the wool-manufacturers 
of Norwich *' still observe his (St. Blaize) 
day, or did so until lately." He also says 
that " at Bradford, Yorkshire, a festival is 
holden every five years in memory of St. 
Blaize " ; but according to Francis Bond 
('Dedications of English Churches') this 
festival was discontinued in 1825. An 
anonymous writer in The Illustrated London 
News of Feb. 14, 1880, states that " every 
seven years the woolcombers of our large 
manufacturing towns hold a festival in his 
(St. Blaize) honour." What is the truth 
as to the frequency of these festivals ? Did 
an annual celebration take place anywhere, 
or were the festivals held at intervals of 
five, seven, or even 50 years in different 
towns ? Are any held at the present time ? 
There is a story of St. Blaize that on his 
way to prison he extracted a fish-bone 
from a child's throat, and for this reason 
candles offered on his feast were said to be 
good for throat trouble and even for tooth- 
ache. St. Blaize, indeed, might almost be 
claimed as the patron saint of throat- 

specialists. The writer in The Illustrated 
London News quotes the words of a charm 
for extracting a bone out of the throat : 
"Blaize the Martyr and servant of Jesus Christ 
commands thee to pass up or down." This 
ch^rm, or something like it, may have been 
used by a certain French cure in 1757, 
whose story has been preserved in the 
registers of the church of Wemaers Cappel,. 
near Cassel (Nord). Within a glazed frame- 
on the wall of the south aisle is a fish-bone- 
mounted in silver, below which is set out 
its history in a certified transcript from the 
church register. The extract is in Flemish, 
but a translation into French is also given. 
In English it may be thus rendered : 

On the twenty-second of September, one 
thousand seven hundred and fifty -seven, the Rev. 
Roland Behaegel, cure of Hondeghem, made in 
gratitude to St. Blaize the offering of a large 
carp-bone, which, having stuck in his throat, 
caused him to fear for his life. He was miracu- 
lously delivered by invoquing the saint with the 
promise of a Mass to be said in his honour. 

Certified as true, 

H. BAUDEN, cure of Wemaers Cappel. 

Copy conformable to the registers of the Parish, 
A. BARBEY, cure, Wemaers Cappel r 
February 2, 1902. 

Hondeghem is a village about four miles 
to the south-east of Wemaers Cappel, and 
M. Behaegel was presumably on a visit 
to the latter place when he met with his 
misadventure over a dish of carp. The 
church of Wemaers Cappel was uninjured 
by the war, being just outside the fighting 
area. It is partly of twelfth-century date, 
but was largely reconstructed in brick, 
apparently in the seventeenth century. 
All the exterior work is of the later period, 
and the ancient round-headed clerestory 
windows are hidden by the newer roof. The 
above particulars, which are recalled by the 
approach of the feast of St. Blaize, were 
noted by me in April, 1918. 



IN 1867 (3 S. xi. 333), a correspondent 
asked, concerning a picture by Varrvitelli, 
" What is the game of Pallone ? " 

There was no reply, excepting a short 
editorial note referring to ' The Game of 
Pallone,' by Anthony L. Fisher, M.D., of 
which a review of less than eight lines had 
appeared (3 S. viii. 180). 

The game is fully described by the late 
William W. Story, the American sculptor, 
in his ' Roba di Roma,' 7th ed., 1875, p. 122. 



[12 S.X.JAN. 28, 1922. 

I may be allowed to give a few extracts 
from the account, which occupies nearly 
four pages. 

One of -the various kinds of the old Roman 
game of Pila still survives under the modern 
name of Pallone. It is played between two 
sides, each numbering from five to eight persons. 
Each of the players is armed with a bracciale, 
or gauntlet of wood, covering the hand and 
extending nearly up to the elbow, with which 
a heavy ball is beaten backwards and forwards, 
high into the air, from one side to the other. 
The object of the game is to keep the ball in 
constant flight, and whoever suffers it to fall dead 
within his bounds loses. It may, however, 
be struck in its first rebound, though the best 
strokes are before it touches the ground. The 
gauntlets are hollow tubes of wood, thickly 
studded outside with pointed bosses, projecting 
an inch and a half, and having inside, across the 
end, a transverse bar, which is grasped by the 
hand, so as to render them manageable to the 
wearer. The balls, which are of the size of a 
large cricket-ball, are made of leather, and so 
heavy, that, when well played, they are capable 
of breaking the arm unless properly received on 
the gauntlet. They are inflated with air, which 
is pumped into them with a long syringe, through 
a small aperture closed by a valve inside. The 
game is played on an oblong figure marked out 
on the ground, or designated by the wall around 
the* sunken platform on which it is played ; 
and across the centre is drawn a transverse line, 
dividing equally the two sides. Whenever a 
ball either falls outside the lateral boundary, 
or is not struck over the central line, it counts 
against the party playing it. When it flies over 
the extreme limits it is called a volata, and is 
reckoned the best stroke that can be made. 
At the end of the lists is a spring-board, on which 
the principal player stands. 

The points of the game are fifty, the first two 
strokes counting fifteen each, and the others ten 
each. When one side makes the fifty before the 

other has made anything, it is called a marcio, 
and counts double. When both parties count 
forty, the caller cries out " alle due," and the 
count is carried back on both sides to thirty. . . . 
As each point is made, it is shouted by the caller, 
who stands in the middle and keeps the count, 
and proclaims the bets of the spectators ; 
and after each game " si passa " or an " over " 
is taken, the two sides changing position. 

This game is as national to the Italians as 
cricket to the English ; it is not only, as it seems 
to me, much more interesting than the latter, 
but requires vastly more strength, agilty, and 
dexterity, to play it well. 

Story cites some of the places where it 
is' or now perhaps was- played : Rome, 
near the summit of the Quattro Fontane, 
in the Barberini grounds ; the Piazza di 
Termini ; the Tempio della Pace ; the 
Colosseo (at the first the strict game, 
apparently played by professionals ; the 
others a less strict game) Florence, outside 
the Porta a Pinti- Siena, under the for- 
tress wall. 

Story gives the inscription under the bust 
of a famous player in the walls of the amphi- 
theatre at Florence : 

Josephus Barnius, Petiolensis, vir in jactando 
repercutiendoque folle singularis, qui ob robur 
ingens maximamque artis peritiam, et collusores 
ubique deyictos, Terrsemotus formidabili cog- 
nomento dictus est. 

No date is given. The amphitheatre 
means, I believe, the court where Pallone 
is played. The season for the game appears 
to be or to have been after the middle of 
May, through the summer. 

Other games, described in the same 
chapter (vi.), are Morra, Pillotta, Bocce 
or Boccette, and Ruzzola. 



(See 12 S. vi. and vii. passim ; ix. 85, 105, 143, 186, 226, 286, 306, 385, 426, 504, 525 ; x. 26.) 

(An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public-house 
in many cases rebuilt.) 

Temple Punch House 
Thatched House . , 

Thatched House .. 
Thavies Inn Coffee 


Thistle and Crown . . 
Three Blackbirds . . 

Three Chairmen 
Three Chairs 

Three Colts 

Near Hare Court, Temple . . 1744 


Islington 1744 

Thavies Inn, Holborn 

Bridges Street, Covent Garden 1739 

Swallow Street .. .. .. 1755 

Low Leyton . . . . . . 

Hay Hill 

South-west corner of Russell 1711 
Street and of the Little Piazza 

Bevis Marks, south side . . 1708 

General Advertiser, March 15. 
London Museum : sketch by J. T. 

Wilson (A22123). 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Hogarth's ' Four Stages of Cruelty,' 

plate 2. 

Simpson's ' Suburban Taverns,' p. 46. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 190. 
London Museum : sketch by J. T. 

Wilson (A22038). 
Thornbury, iv. 333. 
Plan of Covent Garden published by 

J. T. Smith in 1809. 
Larwood, p. 358. 
New View of London,' i 82. 

12 S.X. JAN. 28, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Three^Compasses . . Oxford Street 

Three Compasses 
Three Cranes 

Three Crowns 
Three Crowns 
Three Crowns 

Three Cups . . 

Three Cups . . 
Three Cups . . 

Three Cups . . 

Three Horse Shoes . 
Three Johns 

Three Kings 

Three Kings 
Three Morrice 

Three Nuns 

Three Pigeons 
Three Punch-bowls 
Three Queens 
Three Tuns 
Three Tuns 


Poultry . . 
East Smithfield . 
Stoke Newington 






Pickax Street, Aldersgate 









.. 1708 

Three Tuns 

Old Street 

Bread Street, west side, south of 
Watling Street 

High Holborn, north side, be- 
tween the " Old Blue Boar " 
and the " New Inn " 

Goswell Street, east side 

Bennett Street, near 

Square, Westminster 

Crispian Street, Spittlefield . . 1731 

Orange Street, Bloomsbury . . 1792 
Old Change 

Whitechapel 1732 

Butcherhall Lane, Newgate .. 1788 

Charles Street, Long Acre . . 1735 
Charing Cross 

Brewer Street 1737 

At junction of Poor Jewry Lane 1720 
and High Street, Aldgate 

Billingsgate 1732 

Parker's ' Life's Painter of Varier 

gated Characters.' 
Thornbury, v. 430. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 167. 

* London Topographical Record/ 

1907, iv. 110. 

Sadler's ' Life of T. Dunckerley/ 
1891, p. 104. 

Larwood, p. 99. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

Lane's ' Handy Book,' pp. 177 and 

Daily Advertiser, June 24. " Richard 
Freeman from the Three Crowns, 
Stoke Newington, begs leave to 
inform the Publick in general that 
he has taken the Flask in Highgate 
opposite the hill from Kentish 
Town . . . and hopes to give 
the same satisfaction as at his 
former residence. 

Ogilvy and Morgan's * London Sur- 

A New View of London,' i. 82. 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 
p. 390. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

Parker's ' Life's Painter of Varie- 
gated Characters.' 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 
p. 386. 

Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London Sur- 

1 A New View of London,' i. 82. 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 
p. 383. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 

' London Topographical Record,' 
1907, iv. 102. 

' Calendar of MSS., Marquis of Bath, 
iii. 433. 

Daily Post, April 15. 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 

' A New View of London,' i. 82. 

The sign represented John Wilkes, 
the Rev. John Home Tooke, and 
Sir John Glynn, sergeant-at-law. 

Sadler's ' Masonic Facts and Fictions/ 
1887, p. 44. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

* London Topographical Record/ 

1907, iv. 95. 

Thornbury, i. 347. 

1709-1742, kept by John Rudd. 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 
p. 383. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

The Craftsman, Nov. 1. 

Macmichael's ' Charing Cross/ p. 67. 

Daily Gazetteer, Oct. 8. 

Applebee's Weekly Journal, Nov. 19. 
" The Annual Feast of the County 
and City of Oxford, will be held 
at Leathersellers' Hall in Bishops- 
gate Street on 24th inst. Tickets 
may be had at the 3 Tun Tavern 
within Aldgate." 

Rocque's ' Survey.' 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 
. 22. 



[12 S. X. JAN. 28, 1922. 

Three Tuns 
Three Tuns . . 
Three Tuns . . 

Three Tuns . . 
Three Tuns . . 

Three Tuns . . 

Three Tuns and 
Bull's Head 

Three Tuns and 


*Ticket Porter 


Old Bailey 
Ludgate Hill 

Bedford Street, at No. 61 
Clare Market 

High Street, Hampstead 





Cheapside, opposite Bow Church 1735 


Holborn Bridge 

Arthur Street West, E.C. 




Three Tun Court, St. Mar- 
garets Hill, Southwark 
Ludgate Hill .. .. .. 1715 

(To be continued.) 

Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 185. 
Heron's ' Ancient Freemasonry,' 

' London Topographical Record,' 

1903, ii. 98. 
' London Topographical Record,' 

1903, ii. 85. 

Chancellor's ' Strand,' p. 321. 
Simpson's ' London Taverns and 

Masonry,' p. 33. 
Hampstead and Highgate Express, 

Oct. 9, 1920. 

Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 184. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
' London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 62. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 

Larwood, p. 361. 

Whitehall Evening Post, Feb. 16-19. 
Demolished to make room for the 
new building of the Horse Guards. 

Daily Courant, June 16. 

' N. & Q.,' June 8, 1861. 
' London Topographical Record,' 
1903, ii. 85. 


TERENCES. The ' N.E.D.' describes Blue- ! 
beard as "a personage of popular mytho- i 
logy," and the first quotation it gives is I 
from De Quincey in 1822. I can see noth- I 
ing about the story in the books of folk- i 
lore I have consulted, and am curious to | 
know whether it is French or English in 
origin, or Oriental. I suppose that the 
' Histoire ou Contes du Temps Passe ' of 
Charles Perrault (1697), including 'Blue- 
beard ' among several famous fairy stories, 
is one main source of the legend, but the 
' N.E.D.' says nothing of a French origin. 

It looks like a satire on the matrimonial 
choices of Henry VIII. Brewer, ' Dic- 
tionary of Phrase and Fable,' writes : 
" HoKnshed calls Giles de Retz, Marquis de ! 
Laval, the original Bluebeard." But if j 
Holinshed had used the last word, I presume I 
that the ' N.E.D.' would not have missed ! 
it. References in English can surely be 
carried back further than De Quincey. 
Here is one from Boswell, ' Life of Johnson,' 
year $1772. In a discussion on friendship 
between those who disagree on a capital 
point, Goldsmith is reported as saying 
to Johnson : 

" But, Sir, when people live together who have 
something as to which they disagree, and which 
they want to shun, they will be in the situation 
mentioned in the story of Bluebeard : ' You may 
look into all the chambers but one.' " 

The ordinary idea is that the tale is 

Oriental, and this is supported by panto- 
mime presentations. I know no definite 
source for this. There is a " Blue King " 
of the Djinns in the ' Arabian Nights ' 
(Lane and Lane-Poole's ed., 1906, vol. iii., 
p. 319), but the story is not one of those 
generally familiar. The blue beard certainly 
looks foreign, and a leaning towards poly- 
gamy may have led to an Oriental ascription ; 
also the fact that the Turk has been for 
centuries a traditional villain, a survival 
in culture, I suppose, from the time of the 
Crusades. A dyed beard might be indi- 
cated. A course of dissipation made tho 
wife -killer's beard white, and he wished to 
simulate youth by making it black. Either 
the dye was blue -black or turned blue ; 
just a.s in a recent case in the courts an un- 
fortunate lady complained of hair which 
turned gold and green. Anyway, the blue 
beard seems to me odd, and might be a hint 
to someone who knows much more than I do. 

W. H. J. 

Coach and Mail in Days of Yore,' in quoting 
Taylor the Water Poet's account of a jour- 
ney by coach from London to Southampton 
in which the travellers pass Bagshot and 
Bawwaw, it says the latter place is not ex- 
plained by scrutiny of maps. The clue is in 
Harl. 6494, p. 129ff., 'A Journey into the 
West of England in 1637.' In this also, 
the travellers come to Bagshot and Bowow 

12 s.x. JAN. 28, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


and the narrator says, " Bowow is sepa- 
rated from Bagshot only by a stream 
the inhabitants are not proud of the name 
of their place." N. A. WEBB. 

In the Library edition of Raskin's Works 
is printed (vol. xxxiv., p. 493) a letter dated 
Geneva, Feb. 16, 1863, of which the first 
publication had not been traced. I find 
the letter first appeared in an obscure New 
York magazine, The New Path for May, 
1863 (vol. i., No. 1., p. 10), a file of which 
is owned by the New York Historical 

Graduate School, Columbia University. 

(see ante, p. 29). Since my former aiticle 
the following overseas apprentices have 
been found : 

John Beale, son of Richard Beale of Antegoa, 
W. Indies. App. to Thos. Herbert of Coventry, 
Apothecary. Dec. 3rd 1714. Consid. 53 15 0. 
(Inl. 1/44-10.) 

Thomas Owen, son of Richard Owen of Jamaica, 
Med. Dr. App. to Roger Bayly of Bristol, Haber- 
dasher of Hats. Oct. 7th 1714. Consid. 60. 
<Inl. 1/43-135.) 

Thomas Adams, son of William Adams of the 
Island of Barbadoes, Mercht. App. to Saml. 
Dunklyn, Cit. and Scrivener. Feb. 21st 1716. 
Consid. 100. (Inl. 1/5-96.) 

William Frere, son of Tobias Frere of Bar- 
badoes, dec'd. App. to Rich. Tilden, Cit. and 
Broiderer. May 12th 1718. Consid. 300. (Inl. 

Isaac Gale, son of Isaac Gale of Jamaica, 
Painter. App. to Richard Chapman of Bristol, 
Mercht. 23 Jan. 1718-9. Consid. 210. (Inl. 

John Barbot, son of James Barbot of Maryland 
in Virginia, Mercht. dec'd. App. to Pierre La 
Brasse of St. Anns Westminster, Silversmith. 
1717 Consid. 16. (Inl. 1/5-117.) 

John Brazil, son of John Brazil of Newfound- 
land, America, dec'd. App. to James Lippyeat 
Hooper & Eleanor his wife. 2 March 1714. 
Consid. 20. (Inl. 1/43-166.) 

Nathaniel Irish, son of William Irish of Mount 
Surat, in West Indies, Mercht. dec'd. App. to 
Isaac Waldoe, Cit. and Grocer. 7 Sept. 1716. 
Consid. 25. (Inl. 1/5-16.) 


11, Brussels Road, St. John's Hill, S.W.I 1. 

AND 1921. Last summer witnessed the 

I final dispersal of the contents of this princely 
mansion, and there has since been much 
discussion as to the adaptation of the 
house to other uses. Possibly this final sale 
will be fully recorded and analysed in a 
volume similar to that published by David 
Progue in 1848, which also provides an 

adequate history of the remarkable building. 
The valuable contents included specimens 
of special interest to compilers of works 
on china, glass, furniture, MSS. and the 
like thus James Marryatt, an authoritative 
writer on porcelain, seeks information 
respecting Etruscan cups, &c. But of most 
interest in some correspondence of the 
early nineteenth century is a letter from 
Stowe House dated Sept. 9, 1817, written 
by Father Charles O'Connor (1760-1828), 
then libiarian, to some unidentified corre- 
spondent. After a preliminary reference 
to some list of subscribers he pioceeds : 

I am very busily employed in preparing for 
publication the first volume of my Catalogue 
raisonne of this MS. room, where I had the 
pleasure of passing some very cheerful hours 
with you about a year ago. Since that tune 1 
have never heard from Mr. Petrie, and having 
lost his address, may I beg of you to say some- 
thing kind from me to him, and to assure him 
that I keep his Welch Chronicle untouched, and 
uncopied with the exception only of some few 
dates, which I think he gave me permission to 

Dimensions of Stowe Great Library above : 
Length 75 feet, breadth 25 feet. Number of 
books and books of Prints above stairs, 21,000. 
Below stairs, Gothic Room or MS. Room, 
Number of MSS., 2,000. 

The ebony chairs were purchased at Antwerp, 
they were Rubens' and are beautifully carved in 
festoons, wreaths of flowers, &c., &c. I cannot 
be more accurate ; who carved them I cannot 
discover, but the workmanship is worthy of 
such a professor as Rubens. 

My 2nd vol. will come out immediately 
after my catalogue is completed and an Irish 
map of the Middle Ages completed. 

At this date the Grenville Library, sub- 
sequently bequeathed to the British Mu- 
seum, was at Stowe House. The dispersals 
by Messrs. Sotheby ot the boojfcfc and MSS., 
and by Phillips of the prints '(1834), had 
not occurred or were even considered im- 
pending. The manuscript library was 
fitted in the Gothic style by Sir John 
Soane, who copied many of the ornaments 
in Hemy VII. 's Chapel at Westminster 
Abbey for the purpose. 

Dr. O'Connor was grandson of Charles 
O'Connor of Belangare, whose Irish MSS. 
had passed to this collection. His elaboiate 
work in four volumes, 'Reium Hiberni- 
carum Scriptores Veteres,' is now scarce. 
Ihe Catalogue raisonne of the MSS. was 
privately printed at Buckingham. 

The sale of last summer did not cause the 
popular furore of the earlier sale, 1847. 
The times were unpropitious, and such 
redistribution of collections not so un- 



[12 S. X.JAN. 28, 1922. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

explain the meaning of the above term, 
which recurs each year in some accounts 
relating to an estate near Buckingham, 
1661-1667 ? The receipts are grouped under 
the heading " Received out of Padbury 
for rents called coale-rents n ; but some- 
times the spelling is " cole." The amounts 
are very trifling, the highest being 6s. Sd. 
per annum, but they stand apart from the 
quit-rents, which are separately assembled. 
Typical examples are : 
Received of Edward Swannell for one 

yeares rent ending at Michas. 1661 . . Is 0<1 

Received of John King of Padbury for the 
like for Sammons house . , 


The usual works of reference, law lexicons 
and dialect dictionaries have been searched 
in vain, and a complete set of ' N. & Q.' 
failed to assist. At the P.R.O. it was 
suggested that the right to make charcoal 
was alluded to, but it is not a wooded 
district and there is no evidence to support 
this. Since the fifteenth century the lord- 
ship of the manor of Padbury has been 
vested in the Warden and Fellows of All 
Souls' College, Oxford, but neither the 
Estates Bursar not the Steward of the 
manors has ever heard of cole -rents. The 
oldest inhabitants know nothing of them, 
and numerous inquiries in many directions 
have elicited nothing but guesses. 


THOBNBOBOUGH. Edward Thornbrough, 
Commander, R.N., died at South Stoke, near 
Arundel, in May, 1784, leaving, with several 
daughters, a son, Edward, born at Plymouth 
Dock in 1754, who, following his father's 
prof ession,was distinguished by much active 
service and attained high honours. He died 
a G.C.B., an Admiral of the Red and Vice- 
Admiral of the United 'Kingdom, the chief 
post in the Navy, and is buried in Exeter 
Cathedral. His only surviving son, Admiral 
Edward Le Cras Thornbrough, died s.p. in 
1857. Among other relics of Sir Edward 
Thornbrough is a grant of arms made in 
1817, assigning to himself and also to his 
only sister then surviving (Elizabeth, widow 
of Henry Blaxton, Lieut., R.N.), the fret of 
Thornborough, with an honourable aug- 
mentation for his services, viz., On a chief 

azure an anchor erect with cable or. The 

patent states that Sir Edward claimed 

| descent from a branch of the family of John 

| Thornborough, who, in the year 1634, was 

Bishop of Worcester. (The bishop died at 

Hartlebury Palace in 1641 at a great- age.) 

Information giving the descent of Com- 

| mander Thornbrough from the family 

" seated at Salisbury, in the county of Wilts, 

and also in the counties of Worcester and 

Warwick," is asked. E. T. P. S. 

it possible to see the two catalogues of the 
auction sales of S. T. Janssen's Battersea 
enamels, (a) that of March 4, 1756, at St. 
Paul's Churchyard, and (b) that of 1762 at 
York House, Battersea ? Advertisements 
of these sales have been found. 

As S. T. Janssen was made bankrupt in 
1756, would it be possible to discover any 
of the trade books or wages sheets used at 
his enamel works at York House, Battersea? 
The Record Office possesses particulars of 
some part of his estate, but no mention of 
the stock of Battersea enamels sold in 1756. 

E. M. 

any reader of your valuable paper give 
any information with regard to an old 
almanack which I happen to possess a copy 
of for the year 1680 ? It is labelled ' Allos- 
tree's Almanack ' and contains a marvellous 
store of information. I am curious to know 
whether there are any other copies of the 
same now to be found. It was printed for 
the Stationers' Company. 


TION OF FLAG SOUGHT. In a picture 
which appears to depict H.M.S. Swiftsure, 
lost in action against the Dutch in 1666, the 
undermentioned flag flies at the stern : 
a St. George's cross on a white ground 
in first canton (top corner against flag-pole) 
fimbriated red and white ; the remainder 
of the flag is striped red and white and 
checkered red and white round all four 

Can any reader identify this flag ? J. M. 

Amongst scores of other manuscripts 
mainly seventeenth- and eighteenth- century 
Yorkshire diaries left to me by my late 
father (who spent his life collecting York- 
shire lore) is a most interesting book of 
strange occurrences in the Bedale and 

12 S. X.JAN. 28, 1922.] 



Wensleydale district towards the end of the 
eighteenth and beginning of the nineteenth 
century. This was the work of one Abe 
Braithwaite, who seems to have been at 
some pains to copy thereinto quaint entries 
from contemporary and earlier folios kept 
by those who were like-minded to himself. 
Amongst the entries made by Braithwaite 
is one "from Mistress Pickersgill's Bible 
fly-leaf, dated 1680 " (spelling I have 
modernized), which has the preface, " The 
following charm is powerfull to make brave. 
It must be writ small on skinne and worn 
over ye heart " : 
Thus spake Hagwolf to Elfreda : "I have driven 

my knife in the ash." 
To Garni he said : "I come from the oak, my axe 

struck deep." 
Then spake Harold and Arthur : " We twain have 

been on the 
Very top of the White Mountain, so we could not 

go so much 

As a grain of sand higher. 
There hid we in the shadow of the Moon ; 
Left we there a yackron (acorn) yet green in its 

Left we there a fir chatt upon the great stone which 

Thor threw, 
The fir branch tied we with thongs drawn from a 

bear we slew, 

The feather of an eagle which fell from its wing 
Yet it touched not the earth, for we twain did 

catch it," &c. 

The second "charm," which has interested 
me much, is headed " To save a chylde 
from the Devil and witchspell." 

The child was laid in Spence's cradle, the mother 
standing astride facing the head if a boy, the other 
way if a girl, with hands crossed and sed after 
Spence : 

Bilda ac studa 

Melchea ag schugg, 

Saga bis saagi 

Ephersi Epheisa 

Bin schtrugg 

Si Blatza, sin Bletzie 

Og strobus ac Agg 

Virgin mother ly numbus 
, Sweet Jesu by Tag 

When it was'lifted from the cradle by its mother, 
it was sprinkled with salt and water sprinkled on 
the face. 

Can any reader identify the first quotation 
as an old saga, and is the second merely 
gibberish, as were so many early charms ? 

Grove House, Xorton-on-Tees. 


old wine labels engraved " Champaign " and 

" Champaigne," and am desirous of finding 

out when these latter spellings gave way 

. t < the present form. C. J. P. 

PEARS. I am informed that prior to the 
reign of Queen Anne, apples and pears were 
customarily sold by water measure. It 
seems that no definitions of the quantities 
of this measure were legally laid down. 
Where can I find information as to what 
kind of vessel the seller employed during 
a transaction, whence the name arose, and 
how dissatisfaction came to be felt with 
their use during the reign of William III. 
which led to the legal definition of the 
measure in one of the earliest years of Queen 
Anne ? W. S. B. H. 

FAMILY OF LEE. Joseph Lee died in 
1751 and was buried with his wife, Frances, 
in Bread Street Church, E.C. He was a 
merchant and had property in Cairo, and 
they lived in Blackfriars. Robert Cooper 
Lee, son of above, was born in 1735 and died 
1794. He was Crown Solicitor of Jamaica 
in 1764, and married Priscilla Kelly, 
natural and adopted daughter of Chief 
Justice Dennis Kelly of that island. He 
returned to England, practised as a barrister 
and lived in Bedford Square. Of his six 
children only one left issue, viz., Fa veil 
Bourke Lee, who married David Bevan, a 
banker of Lombard Street, in 1798. 

Mary Lee, daughter of Joseph Lee, 
married a Mr. Morley, and her daughter 
Mary married Isaac Parminter and had a 
large family. 

Robert Cooper Lee and his children 
were very intimate with Lee Antonie, 
M.P., of Colwarth Park, Beds, whom hi' 
their letters, they address as " cousin," 
but no connexion can at present be 
traced. They are also believed in some 
way to have been related to Mrs. Fitz- 
herbert, and they were often in attendance 
on George IV. when Prince of Wales. 
Possibly some reader can help me in tracing 
out this pedigree. Particulars are also 
wanted of Joseph Lee's ancestors. 


Gorse Cottage, Hook Heath, Woking. 

librarians to King George III. The former 
was husband of the author of ' Auld Robin 
Gray,' Lady Anne Barnard, as to whom 
see the ' D.N.B.' The latter, a natural 
son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, died 
Jan. 27, 1830, aged 87. Where can I find 
any account of them ? 




[12 S. X. JAX. 28, 1922. 

This was exhibited at 8, Savile Row in 
1784, and the supposed mystery and its ex- 
posure were the subject of two pamphlets : 

1. ' Inanimate Reason ; or A Circum- 
stantial Account of that Astonishing Piece 
of Mechanism, M. de Kemplen's Chess | 
Player,' &c. This has a folding frontispiece 
and generally supports the " piece of j 
mechanism " delusion. 

2. ' The Speaking Figure and the Auto- 
maton Chess-Player Exposed and Detected,' 
&c. This is anti the " piece of mechanism " 
and pro the hidden " director of the game." j 

It may be inferred that many other 
pamphlets were issued in support of or 
opposed to the delusion, and a mechanical 
chess-player was, I believe, exhibited in 
Piccadilly about a century later. References 
to other pamphlets or adequate descriptions 
of the exhibition will be appreciated. 


WILL-O'-THE-WISP. The ' Encyclopaedia 
Britamiica ' says there is much difference 
of opinion as to the exact cause of will- 
o'-the-wisps (also known as "Jack-o'- 
la.nterns," " corpse candles," ignis fatuus). 
Is the cause now known ? 


MULBERRY-TREES. At what age do mul- 
berry-trees begin to bear ? 


BEARS. Are bears in reality very fero- 
cious compared with other wild animals ? 

RAIN AND FISHING. Does a shower of| 
rain, or a wet day, improve fishing ? If 
so, why ? ALFRED S. E. ACKERMANN. 

KYN ASTON. Thomas Southhouse Kynas- 
ton was admitted to Westminster School 
Sept. 10, 1782, and Edward Kynaston 
Jan. 12, 1829, aged 13. I should be glad 
to obtain any information about them. 

G. F. R. B. 

was admitted to Westminster School 
Jan. 1-9, 1775. I should be glad to obtain 
any information about his parentage and 
career. G. F. R. B. 

PROVERBS AND PHRASES. What is the origin 
of the following : 

1. "A tailor is only the ninth part of a man." 

2. " You must tell that to the marines." 


[The first of these was discussed at 4 S. ii. 437, 
587 ; iii. 84 ; viii. 36, under the form " Nine 
tailors make a man."] 

AUTHORS WANTED. 1. I recently came upon a 
small old marble statuette of a goat climbing 
a vine, with this verse on the base : 
" Eat, goat, and live ; 

The fruitful vine 

Will ever yield 

Enough of wine." 

but I have not been able to trace the source or 
author, and I am writing to inquire if you can 
assist in the matter ? E. HENDERSON. 

2. Who wrote : 

" I have seen the wings of Hermes glisten 

Seen him wave afar his golden wand (?) 
But to me the Herald would not listen 
As the Dead swept by at his command, 
Not with that pale crew 
Durst I venture too, 
Ever closed for me the Silent Land. 

" Day and night before that gloomy portal, 

Giant shapes, the Guards of Hades lie, 
None of heavenly kind, nor yet of mortal, 
May unchallenged pass those Warders by. 
None that way may go, 
Unless he can show 
His last passport to Eternity." 

" N. O. SELLAM." 

3. Whose is the saying : " All suffering flesh is 
Christ." E. R. 

(12 S. ix. 507; x. 56). 

WITH reference to MRS. COPE'S query under 
the above heading, I venture to think that 
there is more inaccuracy in The Morning 
Post's remarks than in the maligned arms. 
In ' The Book of Public Arms/ by A. C. 
Fox-Davies, the arms of Leeds are thus 
described : 

Azure a fleece or, on a chief sable three mullets 
argent. Recorded at the Visitation of the 
County of Yorkshire, 1662 [sic]. A crest, an 
owl argent, and supporters, on either side an 
owl argent ducally crowned or, are regularly used, 
but are of no authority. Motto, " Pro Rege et 
Lege." Burke in his ' General Armory gives 
the tinctures, azure a fleece or, on a chief of the 
last three mullets of the field, but the arms as 
given above are regularly used (p. 432). 

It is not the fact that " soon after 
Charles I. ascended the throne Leeds added 
certain unauthorized embellishments to its 
shield," for prior to Charles the First's time 
Leeds was not a corporate borough ; and 
having no arms therefore could not "add 
embellishments " to what it did not possess. 
The real fact is that Leeds first assumed 
armorial bearings when Charles I. Was 
king. Leeds was incorporated by that 
sovereign in 1626, and the first corporate 
seal, with the legend SIGILLVM BVBGI DE 

i2s.x.jAx.28,io22.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 73 

USEDES 1626, shows a shield azure with a official purveyors. Let one example suffice 
fleece of gold, supported by two silver owls ; another Yorkshire city. From 1843 to 
crowned. The same arms also appear on 1875 Sheffield used, " without authority " 
an old "' Wait's Badge " of the seventeenth a simple but effective coat : Azure, a 
century figured in Warden's ' Municipal j bundle of arrows saltirewise, tied in the 
History of Leeds.' The fleece, of course, j middle between two pheons a punning 
was an allusion to the town's staple trade, allusion to its name and trade couched in 
and the owls were adopted from the Savile sufficiently heraldic form. In the latter 
.arms (silver with a bend sable and three year the Kings-of-Arms granted a new-made 
owls silver on the bend) as a delicate compli- coat (the blazon is from the grant, or 
ment to Sir John Savile of Howley Hall, rather a copy) : Per fess azure and vert, 
first Alderman of the town under the in chief eight arrows interlaced saltirewise 
charter of 1626, and subsequently created banded argent, and in base three garbs 
Baron Savile of Pontefract. The first seal fessewise or ; and for a crest, on a wreath 
was used until 1 662, when a new one Was of the colours a lion rampant argent, gorged 
prepared, the town having received a fresh ' with a collar and holding between the paws 
charter from Charles II. in 1661. The an antique shield azure, charged with eight 
new seal showed a shield of arms as now arrows as in the arms. The garos or 
borne, but without crest or supporters, i.e., sheaves are doubtless an annexation from 
with a chief sable and three silver mullets the well-known arms of the Sheffields, 
on the chief an adaptation from the arms baronets of Lincolnshire, and their pro- 
of Thomas Danby, the first Mayor under the j gemtors, the Lords Mulgrave, and 
new charter, who bore, Silver, three chevrons j Dukes of Buckingham and Normanby 
braced sable with a chief .-able and three ! a quite unnecessary addition as the Sheffields 
mullets silver on the chief. The borough do not appear to have had any connexion 
seems to have recorded these arms at with the town of their name. Surely it was 
Sir William Dugdale's Visitation of York- heavy wit on the part of the three Kings-of - 
shire, in 1665 (not 1662, pace Mr. Fox- I Arms who signed this grant to laboriously 
Da vies), as appears from a MS. note by perpetrate such armorial puns, with 
Ralph Thoresby, the eminent Leeds his- sheaves of corn and arrows, so many times 
torian (see Thoresby Society's publications, in one shield and crest. 

vol. xv. ' Miscellanea,' pp. 83-4). All the j In The Yorkshire Weekly Post of January 
old corporation seals are figured in Warden's i 14, 1922, I have discussed the question of 
work, and it is possible that from the dots i the Leeds arms and have argued that the 
shown on the chiefs of the arms in that \ city already possessed a good title to its 
book has arisen the misconception that the j armorial bearings by prescription and long 
chief in the Leeds arms was gold. It is j usage, and that the Corporation had no 
certainly not used by the Leeds Corpora- | need to apply to the College of Arms for a 

new grant. My article contains sketches 


The addition of a helmet to a civic 
achievement of arms may be nonsense, 

of the old and new coats. 


and yet such a decoration is borne by MRS JoANNA STEPHENS (12 S. x. .8). 
authority of the Heralds' College (so | The facts of Mrs . Stephens ' s c V ase are curious, 
much invoked by Mr. Fox-Davies in his and somewhat different to any other in 
various publications) by most of the eighte enth-centurv quackery. Mrs. Stephen. 
London and many provincial borough of | ^ d th e pubfiAhat she had discovered 
recent creation as testified by 'The Book , ft remedial me dicine f or stone in the bladder, 
of Public Arms. I cordially agree with &nd essed her w iiii ngness to part with 

Mrs Cope s remarks on the meptftude of | h f blic use f. 5 Q0( Dmm _ 

^Tw H T T^ Cia H heraldry ' Th ? l ate mond, the banker, opened an account for 

; f I' J hl \ a 9 >e '. no ean J ud e voluntary subscriptions, but 1,356 3*. only 

8 id\ \ m Archce h 9 1 1 J 1 > h -! being received, Mrs. Stephens used her 

94, that it must be allowed that thej mflu | nce with such of the legislators as 

townsfolk [of Leeds] devised for themselves ! she cou ] d approach, and in particular with 

a pretty and most appropriate shield of j Carteret, the Postmaster - General, who 

arms," and the champions of the heralds | had been her patient in 1735. Eventually, 

and their privileges can hardly maintain in 1739, an Act (12 Geo. II., c. 23) was 

.that better heraldry is produced by its ' passed " For providing a reward to Joanna 

74 NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2 S .x.jAx.2.,i9M. 

Stephens upon a proper discovery to be | By 1772 the medicine had become a 
made by her for the use of the publick of | standing joke. The Rev. Richard Graves, 
the medicines prepared by her for the cure) one of the keenest humorists of the eighteenth 
of the stone." On March 5, 1739/40, the ! century, thus refers to it in his ' Spiritual 
major portion of the trustees named in j Quixote ' (Book ix., ch. 14) : 
the Act met and signed a certificate stating i Slicer [a hypochondriac who was in the habit 
that they were " convinced by experiment j of sampling ail the quack remedies advertised] 
of the utility and efficacy " of the medicines , ^Jen bid the servant bring him Mrs. Stephens's 
^oi~o^ i? TV/T o-i-i v,~ nn, -> Medicine for the Stone and Gravel, which he 

disclosed by Mrs. Stephens Thereupon nev er omitted, he said, since it was first discovered, 
the Treasury paid out 5,000 to her. Writers what 1 are you afflicted with the stone and 
on the eighteenth century have condemned gravel then ? " says Mr. Selkirk. "Afflicted ! " says 
the whole transaction in the severest terms, ' Slicer, " no sir, God forbid ! nor ever was 
but it can scarcely be said that the Govern- l afflicted with it ; but I suppose I should have 
, , ill r\c j_i c\ct j. been afflicted with it betore this time it 1 had not 

ment acted recklessly. Of the 22 trustees ! taken ^ admirable medicine ; and, as every 
who signed the certificate, nine Were medical < one is subject more or less, to gravel and sabulous 
men of standing in their profession : T. I concretions, it is madness to neglect so easy a 
Pellet, president of the Royal College of i precaution as this noble lithonthriptic, which 

PVivsioians thpfonro^risorq of that TrtllpcrP Provldence has permitted to be discovered, 
:>ur censors ot tnat UOllege , and for wMch the Parliament has granted so 

Peter Shaw, who Was as eminent as a scienti- | handsome a reward." The servant having 
fie chemist as a physician ; Cheselden, brought the preparation, with a large bason of 
surgeon to Chelsea Hospital Csesar Haw- i veal broth, Slicer swallowed the nauseous pre- 
kins, surgeon to the Prince of Wales ; scription with alacrity ; though the virtues, or 
i o i 01 n > ' even the safety of that medicine have justly been 

and Samuel Sharpe surgeon to Guy s. i questi oned,. notwithstanding the decision of 
The Rev. Stephen Hales, the ablest scientific O ur wise legislators in its favour, 
chemist of his day, was also a signatory, i j p AUL DE C ASTRO. 

In the face of these names it cannot be said | 1? Essex Court? Tem pi e . 
that the Government failed to take expert j 
advice. The malady sought to be cured ; 

was, at that time, almost as direful as the j , o THE BEGGARS OPERA IN DICKENS 
small-pox, and no one would say that ( 12S - lx - 309 ; x - 14 )- Miss DODDS pulls me 
Jenner's discoveries would not have been U P about the paucity of literary allu- 
worth such a sum as was paid to Mrs. i sions m Dickens; but when wrote 
Stephens literary [ was contrasting him in my 

That 'Mrs. Stephens's remedies were a min <* with Fielding, Scott, and Thackeray, 
failure is not to be denied. A severe critic who abound in such quotations often 
of them was Dr. Mead, archiater and the i learned ; perhaps I should not have applied 
first opinion of his day. In 1751, in his i the word ' literary 'to The Beggars 
" Medical Precepts," chap. X., he wrote : P? ra "' wh f lch 1S rather dra ^ atlc or T musical 

Particular care should be taken not to put 

and erefore current and popular. Of 

the patient into a course of powerful diuretics | popular dramatic allusions there may be 
with a view of preventing the gravel from con- j many in Dickens ; I have just found 
creting in the kidneys : because, whatever great j another to add to Miss Dodds's list, also 
things may be said of this sort. of medicines by f rom 'David Copperfield.' The song from 

ignorant pretenders, they certainly injure the 
parts by their heat and acrimony. Nor can I 
avoid observing, though I am extremely sorry 

' The Beggar's Opera,' ' When the heart of 
a man,' which Mr. .Wegg sang, was also 

for the occasion, that some gentlemen of the j sung by Steerforth's friend Markham at the 
faculty a few years since acted a part much be- j disastrous supper party in chap. xxiv. 
neath their character, first, in suffering them- ! g uch references to the ' B.O.' are perhaps 

^^tr^^SiS^s^nsi ?? a level w ? h ^ am Y e rJ ler>s <?f ntio v f 

medicine at an exorbitant price ; by vouching | the once popular story of George Barnwell. 

that it was capable of breaking stone in the 
bladder, and bringing away the fragments . . . 
Mead proceeds to explain the manner 
in which the experimenters had misled 
themselves, and recommends a book by 
Dr. Parsons " in which both the mischief 
done by the medicine, and the artifices 

If I may add another word, we must 
distinguish between quotations proper and 
allusions, or hidden quotations without 
inverted commas in the text of authors. 
One of these was the passage I quoted 
from Miss Moucher. A recent reading of 
several of Scott's novels has shown me how 

.employed to bring it into vogue, are set many unacknowledged expressions from 
out in a clear light." Milton there are in his pages. For instance,. 

12 S. X. JAN. 28, 1922.] 



Jeanie Deans, after her interview with 
Queen Caroline, was " dazzled and sunk 
with colloquy divine.'" So Was Adam on one ! 
occasion in ' Paradise Lost,' bk. viii. 

C. W. B. 

TITLE OF " K.H." (12 S. ix. 529 ; x. 36). j 
Incidental confirmation could be given by 
information furnished by MB. ROBERT j 
PIERPOINT of the fact that a Knight j 
of the Royal Hanoverian Guelphic Order, j 
was not entitled, as such, to be called " Sir," I 
but it is not made clear whether a Knight j 
Commander of that Order was in the same 

The generally confirmatory information 
is to be found in Joseph Foster's ' Peerage, 
Baronetage, and Knightage of the British 
Empire' for 1881, (vol. i., p. 745). A list 
is given which " contains only the names 
of such Knights of the Order as are natives | 
of this country," it being noted that " the ! 
Guelphic Order has not been conferred by I 
the British Crown since the death of William j 
IV., when the British Sovereign ceased to be 
monarch of Hanover." There are named 
four Knights Grand Cross (the Duke of 
Cambridge, the Marquis of Donegal, Vis- 
count Falkland, and the Earl of Wilton), 
one Knight Commander (Sir Woodbine 
Parish), and fifteen Knights, the cautionary 
mark being prefixed to these last, " It 
is uncertain whether the beloW -named are 
all living " (Lieut. -Col. John Austen, Lieut. - 
Col. Alexander Barton, Lieut. -Col. William 
Beresford, Major James Briggs, Gen. Sir 
Richard England, Gen. Sir Abraham Josiah 
loe'te, Adm. George Thomas Gordon, Major 
John Salisbury Jones, Lieut. -Col. Donald 
Macpherson, Captain Moreau, Thomas 
William Nicholson, George Antoine Ramsay, 
Major Archibald Stewart, Gen. Pringle Taylor, 
.and Major Robert Henry Willcocks). 

Of these Sir Woodbine Parish, who was 
made K.C.H. in 1837 and died in 1882, 
does not appear to have had any other 
Order of Knighthood conferred upon him, 
and yet he was always styled " Sir " 

CD.N.B.,' vol. xini., P . 213). 

General Sir Abraham Cloe'te is given by 
Foster (vol. ii., p. 704) as " K.C.B., 1854, 
K.H., Knighted, 1854," but this omits the 
date of the conferment of the K.H., which, 
according to the ' D.N.B.' (vol. xi., p. 120), 
was 1836, being followed in 1854 by knight- 
hood ; and he died in 1886. General Sir 
Richard England (who died in 1883) is noted 
by Foster (vol. ii., p. 708) as " G.C.B,, 1855, 
K.H., 1855 " ; but the ' D.N.B.' (vol. xvii., 

p. 371) awards him the K.C.B. in 1843, with 
the G.C.B. subsequently won by his Crimean 
services, including the directiqji of the 
attack on the Redan. The latter does not 
specify the K.H., but that may have come 
from his activities as Brigadier-General 
during the Kaffir War, 1836 and 1837. 


BARON GRANT (12 S. x. 31). The 
distich inquired for appeared at the foot 
of a coloured caricature of Albrecht Gott- 
heimer (anglice Albert Grant) drawn by 
" Ape " (Carlo Pellegrini) and published in 
Vanity Fair in the earliest seventies. The 
second line ran : 

Wealth without honour is a barren grant. 


According to my memory the lines were : 
Title a king can give, honour he can't, 
Title without honour is a barren grant. 
There were two other lines, of which all 
that I remember is that one ended with 
(?) "dilemma " and the other with " Emma." 
The latter word was an allusion to the 
Emma mines, a speculative investment, 
promoted, I think, by Baron Grant. 


The couplet in question originated, I 
believe, in the Stock Exchange, as I have 
heard that it was affixed to the wall at one 
of the entries probably Capel Court 
where it remained but a very short period. 
The lines, as I remember them, ran. : 
A king can a title give : honour he can't, 
A title without honour's but a barren grant. 
2, Mecklenburgh Square, W.C.I. 

I find 
lines : 

I have two versions of these 

Titles the king can give ; honour he can't. 
Title without honour is a Baron Grant, 

The Queen makes Barons, 
Gentlemen she can't ; 
For barren honour 
Is a Baron Grant. 

but I do not know from whence I copied 

Of course you've heard the news that Baron 


To gain what most he seems to want, 
A good repute has promised to reclaim 
Wild Leicester Square, so long the West End's 


But will the world forget those flowers of Grants 
Are but the products of his City plants ? 
And who for shady walks would giye him praise 
For wealth thus spent when gained in shady ways ? 



[12 S. X. JAN. 28, 1922. 

Bank, titles, money can give, but honour can't. 
Rank without honour is but barren grant ; 
In short, what can he hope from this affair, 
Save to confiect his name with one thing square ? 

I was present at the opening ceremony 
in 1874, when thousands of printed circulars 
with above lines were sold by hawkers. 


62, Cheapside, E.C. 


(12 S. x. 32). The Brighton Antheum (not; 
Athenaeum), or Floral Hall, stood on the site } 
of what is now Palmeira Square. A descrip- 1 
tion of its erection and collapse, together with I 
a sketch, will be found in the late Mr. J. G. | 
Bishop's 'A Peep into the Past; or Brighton 
in the Olden Time,' p. 387 (1892 ed.). 

EDWARD LAMPLUGH (12 S. ix. 491, 533; 
x. 39). Edward Lamplugh was the second ! 
son of the Rev. Thomas Lamplugh, who i 
was the eldest son of Thomas Lamplugh, 
Archbishop of York. This Thomas was 
rector of St. Anclrew Undershaft ; his 
wife was Anne Boham. I take this from 
a MS. pedigree in, I think, probably 
Katherine Lamplugh' s Writing. She was 
a daughter of Thomas Lamplugh, a grand- 
daughter of the Archibshop, and niece of 
Edward Lamplugh ; also she was my great- 
great-grandmother. I possess the memo- 
randum of Thomas Lamplugh' s induction 
to the living of St. Andrew Undershaft. | 
It is in Latin on stamped and sealed paper, 
signed by the Bishop of London and six i 
witnesses, dated Dec. 24, 1701. 

I have also a wine merchant's bill : | 
" London anno 1702. The Revd D* Lamp- ' 
high, D r to W m Raphe for wine." (The 
wines are " White Callavella," " Red Anna- 
dea," "White Annadea," and " Canary.") 
" To wine sent from 12th- of February 
to ye 18th of August, 48. .01. .08." All 
details in full as to quantities, packing, 
credit on bottles, and hampers returned, ftc. 

I have, too, the Archbishop's case of 
silver -handled knives and forks ; the knives 
have on their ends the arms of the See of 
York impaling Lamplugh (Or, a cross 
fleury, sable) surmounted by a mitre, but 
without the modern, and incorrect, addition 
of a coronet. I have also the Archbishop's 
silver-mounted ebony walking-stick, with 
Lamplugh arms and crest on the end of 
the handle ; quantities of his MS. sermons, 
a few letters, one from Sancroft, and one 
.from the future rector of St. Andrew Under- 
shaft, in a childish hand, written from 

Eton when he was eleven years old ; and,, 
of rather more interest, the Earl Marshal's 
summons, signed by William III., to come 
to London, bringing his robes for the King's 
Coronation, Sancroft having declined to 
officiate. M. E. A. P. 


LAUNCHING OF SHIPS (12 S. x. 31). 
" Stern foremost " is not invariably fol- 
lowed, I think, save with the larger and 
more risky vessels. Common sense seems 
to indicate that the stern, being the heavier 
and bulkier end, will more readily induce 
" way," or motion, when the vessel is 
released and gliding down the slips, and 
this thicker part of the structure will also 
assist in retarding her motion, once launched. 
Most ships are built at right angles to more 
or less narrow 'rivers, and if motion was not 
quickly checked the ship would soon be 
ashore, or in collision with the opposite 
bank. W. JAGGARD, Capt. 

In offering to purchase this excessively 
rare book, it is to be feared Miss Lehmuth 
aims at the impossible. No copy came into 
book auctions for the last thirty years. Her 
best course will be to inquire at the British 
Museum, Bodleian, and at Trinity College, 
Cambridge, and if these three great collec- 
tions fail, a copy may exist in one of the 
college libraries at Oxford or Cambridge. 

A touch of humour is given to the title as 
printed, by lack of punctuation. Captain 
(afterward Colonel) Tobias Hume wrote 
three works, all with long titles. The first 
two, as described, are in folio, and the last in 
quarto. A copy of the first, required by Miss 
Lehmuth, Was sold in the Bright sale nearly 
a century ago for 4 12s. Qd., which indicates 
its then rarity. The titles, abbreviated, 
run thus : 

1. First part of ayres, Erench, Pollish [Polish], 
and others together, some in tabliture, and some 
in pricke-song. With pavines, galliards, and al- 
maines for the viole de gambo alone, and other 
musicall conceites for two base viols expressing 
five parts, with pleasant reportes one from the 
other, and for two leero viols, and also for the 
leero viole with two treble viols, or two with one 
treble. . . . Composed by Tobias Hume, 
gentleman. Ln : Printed by lohn Windet, 
dwelling at the signe of the Crosse Keyes at Powles 
Wharf e 1605.' Folio. Dedicated to William 
Alexander, Earl of Stirling. 

2. ' Captaine Hume's Poeticall musicke prin- 
cipally made for two basse-viols, yet so contrived 
that it may be plaied eight severall waies upon 
sundry instruments, with much facilitie. . . . 
Composed by Tobias Hume, gentleman. Ln : 

12 S. X. JAN. 28, 1922.] 



Printed by lohn Windet 1607.' Dedicated to 
Queen Anne, Consort of James VI. and I. (Brit. 
Museum has a copy.) 

3. ' True petition of Colonel Hume, as it was 
presented to the Lords assembled in the High 
Court of Parliament ; being then one of the poore 
brethren of that famous foundation of Charter 
House. Declaring . . . that if they would 
employ him for the businesse in Ireland, 
and let him have but six score or an hundred 
instruments of war, which he should give direction 
for to be made, he would ruin the rebels, all within 
three months, or else lose his head. Likewise, he 
will undertake within three months, if their Lord- 
ships would give credence to him, to bring in by 
sea, being furnished with a compleat navy, to 
H.M. and the Parliament twenty millions of 
money. Ln : John Giles, 1642.' Fcp. 4to ; four 
leaves only. 

W. JAGGABD, Capt. 


The first part of the MS. of this intended 
work, 1500 to 1800, comprising letters A 
and B, together over 14,000 names, was ad- 
vertised for sale in E. Menken's Catalogue 
164, in November, 1905, price 32s. Qd. 
Presumably the remainder of this projected 
Index was never compiled. 

In the same catalogue are a number of 
MS. volumes relating to Cambridge matricu- 
lations and graduates. Foster had intended 
to compile a list of Cambridge alumni in a 
similar style to his Oxford volumes, but 
never lived to commence the work. It 
would be interesting to know where these 
Cambridge MSS. are now deposited. 


Oxon Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

(12 S. ix. 371, 415, 436, 452, 536). As to 
MR. W. E. GAWTHORPE'S query respecting 
the brasses at Morley, I have asked the 
rector, the Rev. A. E. R. Bedford, as I 
have not inspected these brasses lately, and 
he informs me that the three representa- 
tions of St. Christopher exist (a) on the 
John Stathum brass on the floor of the 
north chapel ; (b) on the tomb of Sir 
Thomas Stathum in the south aisle ; (c) on 
the John Sacheverell memorial on the 
south Wall near the door. These are figured 
in the Rev. Samuel Fox's ' History and An- 
tiquities of the Church of St. Matthew, 
Morley,' Plates xin., xiv. and xv. The 
first figure is lOin., the second 8in., and 
the third 6in. A representation of the 
second is in Mr. H. W. Macklin's ' The 
Brasses of England' (2nd ed.). The second 
third are not now in their original 

positions. The head* of the Child on the 
Sacheverell brass unfortunately disappeared 
some years ago, before the Rev. A. E. R. 
Bedford's incumbency, otherwise the brasses- 
are in excellent condition. 


21). Mr. J. P. Earwaker, a reliable autho- 
rity, prints in full the will of Sir William 
Troutbeck, 1510, in his ' History of St. 
Mary-on-the-Hill, Chester,' p. 185. Where 
it refers to " my sons and daughters " and 
to " children " he has a footnote : 

This was a natural provision to provide for 
any children hfe then had or in case any children 
were born to him, but it is certain he died without 
surviving issue. 

While I agree that Richard Troutbeck 
as father-in-law of John Talbot requires 
explaining, the evidence of the inquisitions 
and other documents are hard to get over. 
It seems that in 1502/3 Sir William Trout- 
beck made a settlement of his Cheshire 
estates which were to be held by Robert 
Troutbeck, Thomas Hough and William 
Frodsham for Sir William and his heirs 
(39th Report Dep. Keeper, pp. 264-5). 
The inquisition of Dec. 17, 1512, two years 
after the death of Sir William, states that 
Margaret, wife of John Talbot, was the 
kinswoman and heir, namely, daughter of 
Adam, brother of Sir William ; that she 
was aged 16 at the death of Sir William 
(in 1510) and that she had been married 
to Talbot during Sir William's life. The 
same year, 1512, arrangements were made 
with Margaret, the widow of Sir William 
and then wife of Sir William Poole, by 
which she and her husband acknowledged 
the rights of Margaret Talbot as the heiress, 
and received a life interest and an annuity 
from the Cheshire estates. Margaret Poole 
died on May 2, 1531, when her husband 
was left with a son, Thomas, aged 17. At 
this date Margaret Talbot is stated in the 
writ of livery to have been aged 37 (39th 
Rep. D.K., 256), which agrees with the 
previous statement of her age. 


THE HOUSE OF HARCOURT (12 S. ix. 409 , 
453, 495, 514 ; x. 15, 37). In reply to MR. 
HARCOURT-BATH, when I wrote that Wace 
is the one authority for the presence of a 
Harcourt at Hastings, I was not referring 
to modern writers. Of these Delisle is 
undoubtedly the greatest on the French 
side, but Round pointed out long ago 



[12 S. X. JAN. 28, 1922. 

that his ' Dives Roll ' is by no means free 
from errors (Monthly Review, June, 1901, 
pp. 97-'98). I do not know Delisle's 
authority for including Robert de Harcourt 
amongst the companions of the Conqueror, 
but it seems very likely that he relied on 
Wace's reference to the Sieur de Harcourt, 
and added the Christian name from his 
own, knowledge of the pedigree, rejecting 
the alleged Errand de Harcourt as im- 

It is very probable that the Anschitel de 
Harcourt living in 1130 was the son or 
grandson of a companion of the Conqueror, 
but I fear it will be difficult to discover 
the missing links. In the article cited 
above, Round showed how few of our 
oldest families could bridge the "grievous 
gap" of 80 years between 1086 and 1166. 
A genuine male descent from 1130 ought 
to satisfy the most unreasonable person. 

It is a pleasure to learn that a younger 
branch of the family still survives, and I 
hasten to offer my apologies to the Harcourts 
of the Ankerwyke line for having treated 
them as extinct. As to MB. CARTER'S sug- 
gestion that a little research would unearth 
other cadet lines in the Midlands, it is to be 
hoped that he will be able to undertake the 
research himself, as any investigations 
carried out by him Would command general 
confidence. G. H. WHITE. 

23, Weighton Road, Anerley. 

I should be much obliged for any replies 
in elucidation of the following topographical 
enigmas : 

1. Which was the original town of Har- 
court in Normandy whence this family 
derives its name ? There is one in the Depart- 
ment of Eure, 10 miles north-east of 
Bernay, and another in Calvados, 15 miles 
north-west of Falaise. The latter is either 
prefixed or affixed by Thury, with a hyphen 
connecting it with Harcourt. (Thury, by 
the way, is derived from the Scandinavian 
cri de guerre " Tur die " by Thor's aid). 
In most works of reference it is stated that the 
Harcourt in the Department of Eure is the 
original. If so, it is probable that the Hare ourt 
in the Department of Calvados was named 
after the Harcourt who Was in possession 
at some subsequent date. The Duchess of 
Cleveland (' Battle Abbey Roll Call,' vol. ii., 
p. 149), however, seems to think that the 
latter was the original lordship which Was 
acquired by Bernard the Dane in 876. 

2. Where are Cailleville and Beauficiel, 
the lordships of which Bernard acquired 

at the same time, which information will 
probably be the means of solving the 
previous query, in some degree ? 

3. How many castles were in possession 
of the family in Normandy during feudal 
times, or, say, up to 1450, when the French 
finally recovered the Duchy ? I have 
indications of three at least, viz., one each 
at Harcourt and Thury-Harcourt, and 
another at St.-Sauveur-le-Vicomte, in La 
Manche, which was in possession of Geoffrey 
de Harcourt, who was one of the Marshals 
in the English Army at the Battle of Crecy. 
I also believe that there was another castle 
belonging to Jean d'Harcourt, Count of 
Aumale, at Aumale, c. 1400. 

4. Robert Baron de Harcourt, who is 
stated to have been present at the Battle 
of Hastings, is recorded to have built a 
castle at Harcourt in 1100. At which of 
the two towns of Harcourt Was this ? I 
presume that it Was the one near Bernay 
in the Department of Eure, which sur- 
rendered to Peter de Breze in 1449, when 
the English garrison were so alarmed at 
the first cannon-ball which went through 
the wall that they thereupon made terms 
to capitulate within eight days if not re- 
lieved by Talbot. 


PHARAOH AS SURNAME (12 S. ix. 407, 
454, 537 ; x. 15). There Was a dealer in 
milk at Oxford about twenty years ago 
named Pharaoh ; and much merriment 
there was in a certain law court on a certain 
occasion about " Pharaoh's lean kine " and 
the milk they produced. FAMA. 

ix. 145, 355.. 390). Even if no "Five 
Alls " inn existed in London the name 
must have been known and understood 
there, for Antony Wood records of 1662 
('Life of Wood,' ed. A. Clark, Oxf. Hist. 
Soc., i. 465), that " This year such a saying 
come up in London " (as a satire) : 

The Bishops get all, 

The Courtiers spend all, 

The Citizens pay for all, 

The King neglects all, 

4nd the Diviils take all. 


THE MACCABEES (12 S. ix. 370, 414, 436). 

MR. WAINEWRIGHT inquires who " Dr. 

Wells " was, who wrote on Jewish geo- 
graphy. No doubt it was Dr. Edward Wells, 
! whose 'Historical Geography of the Old 
and New Testaments' (Lond., 1711-18, 



&c.) is characterized in Bonn's 'Lowndes' 
as "a learned work, too well known to 
require commendation." FAMA. 

(12 S. x. 32). In my copy of ' Artemus Ward 
in London,' not dated, published by John 
Camden Hotten, in Hotten' s " Very im- 
portant new books. Special List for 1870," 
is the following last page of the list : 

' Infelicia. Poems by Adah Isaacs Menken- 
Illustrated with numerous gracefully pencilled 
designs drawn on wood, by Alfred Concanen. 
Dedicated, by permission to Charles Dickens, 
with photographic facsimile of his letter, and a 
very beautiful engraved portrait of the Authoress. 
In green and gold, 5s. 6d.' 

Many of the designs are signed with Con- 
canen' s initials. 

There is a small error in the query : " Isaac " 
should be " Isaacs." According to notes in 
The Referee of December 24, 1905, written, I 
think, by Mr. George R. Sims, 
she is buried in the Jewish portion of Pere 
Lachaise, and on her tomb are the words " Thou 
knowest." But she was not born a Jewess. Her 
maiden name was Adelaide McCord, and she was a 
native of New Orleans. Her second husband was 
Isaac Menken, a handsome man, a devout Jew, 
and an accomplished musician. She adopted his 
faith and put an " s " to his front name. 


This book was published by Hotten, and 
much may be learnt about it in Mr. Richard 
Northcott's brochure published last year. 
But he does not give the name of the artist 
of the head- and tail-pieces. They are 
nearly all signed A. C. 


"MATA HABI'S " YOUTH (12 S. ix. 527; 
x. 34). I heard it stated about the time 
of "Mata Hari's " execution at Vincennes, 
in October, 1917, that she was staying at a 
Russian Jewish hotel, near Stepney Green, 
during the winter of 1911-12. She seems 
to have appeared at several Jewish enter- 
tainments in East London, but her prin- 
cipal object in coming to England was to 
secure a more remunerative engagement in 
the West End. Like many natives of 
Friesland, she was by no means ignorant 
of the English language, and was anxious 
to appear in a ballet based on Shakespeare's 
' Antony and Cleopatra.' 


36, Somerleyton Road, Brixton, S.W. 

(12 S. ix. 230). I regret that I did not notice 
A. H. S.'s query at the time. This was 

removed from London to Swanage by ship 
in 1867, after it had been pulled down by 
the great contractor, the late Sir John Burt, 
and given by him to his friend Mr. Thomas 
Docwra, who, having so transferred it, re- 
erected it in the grounds of the Grove, 
then his property. It stands not on the 
quay but in the grounds of Rockleigh, 
a part of the old Grove, of which I now 
happen to be the owner. A. R. A. 

THE ABYSSINIAN CROSS (12 S. x. 9, 56). 
The Abyssiaian Cross is of native design 
and work ; a base was designed for it by 
Mr. Micklethwaite and the whole gilt, 
and it used to stand above the altar in the 
Lady Chapel. It was also fitted to a 
pole, in the way of many early crosses, to 
be used in processions. 


"To BURN ONE'S BOATS" (12 S. viii. 
210; ix. 177).!. The ' N.E.D.' gives 
nothing earlier than 1886 (and that only a 
provincial newspaper) for the metaphorical 
use of the above phrase. Surely there must be 
many and much earlier instances ? 

2. A few examples of the historical act 
are : Some exiles in Corcyra, 427 B.C. 
(Thuc. iii. 85); Agathocles in Africa ; 10 B.C. 
(Diod. Sic. xx. 7) ; the Emperor Julian, 
on the Tigris, A.D. 363 (Amm. Marc. 24, 7, 
3 ; c/. Gibbon, cap. xxiv.) ; Cortes in 1519, 
at Cempoalla (Prescott, Mexico, ii., chap. 8). 
The Athenians at Syracuse had intended to 
do it (from a different motive, Thuc. vii. 
60, 74). 

Brewer's ' Phrase and Fable ' vaguely 
i attributes the act to " Julius Caesar and 
other generals," with no references. 

H. K. ST. J. S. 

AUTHOR'S NAME WANTED (12 S. x. 34). 
' Two Months in the Confederate States, in- 
cluding a Visit to New Orleans,' was published 
in April, 1863 (not 1883 as stated by MR. ABBATT). 
The author of the work was a Mr. Corsom or 
Corson. The writer's sympathies were with the 
South. B. B. 


The Old Deeside Road. By G. M. Fraser. (Aber- 
deen University Press.) 

MR. FRASER is to be congratulated on a most 
useful piece of work in his monograph on the 
Old Deeside Road. He states in the opening 
chapter that he would sooner write the history 
of a nation than the history of a road, a state- 
ment that is at first surprising, but less so when 
it is "realized how little reliance is to be placed 
on many of the older maps and plans, and how 
much depends on personal research. The best, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. JAN. 28,1922. 

in fact the only trustworthy, method is to go 
over the road yard by yard, with a camera if 
possible, and to spare no pains in eliciting in- 
formation from local inhabitants. It is a laborious 
task ; for in this case the road is near 60 miles 
in length, though a mile or two shorter than the 
road which has displaced it, and it has taken the 
author rather more than five years to accomplish. 
But the result is worth the pains spent in the 
achievement, and Mr. Fraser is able to place 
before the reader a wealth of interesting in- 

Roads with their bearing on local trading 
and history have been sadly neglected by 
antiquaries. Local historians and readers in 
general are apt to look on a road as a fait accompli 
and tc inquire no further into its history. But 
diligent research would reveal many points of 
interest in development, and could not fail in 
many cases to throw a fresh light on problems 
of local industries. In a different way illustrated 
monographs on main roads would prove a boon 
to many who use them. What, in fact, would be 
more interesting than an illustrated and ex- 
panded Paterson ? Many of the early railway 
guides were designed to fill this want, but the 
idea was not developed. 

The book, which is one of the publications of 
the Aberdeen Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society, is a worthy product of the University 
Press. The photographs, all of which are well 
chosen and some beautiful, are a feature of the 
book. Altogether it is a satisfactory undertaking 
and reflects credit on author and publisher alike. 

Selected Polish Tales. Translated by Else C. M. 

Benecke and Marie Busch. (Clarendon Press.) 
THIS little volume, which belongs to that de- 
lightful series the World's Classics, should not 
be missed by those who are interested in the 
literature of Eastern Europe. It is true that 
some members of this selection demand a certain 
stretch of the word " classic " in order to be 
included. By the standard which admits ' P.P.C.,' 
nearly all the stories in, say, The Cornhill 
Magazine must be counted classics, and a good 
proportion of them even super-classics. The 
principal tale is ' The Outpost,' by Aleksander 
Glowacki, a writer whom his country deservedly 
admires. Like all in this collection it is a 
" realistic " study ; that is to say, it deals with 
people whose consciousness is entirely filled by 
the most elementary physical necessities ; whose 
relations with their fellows are thereby made 
almost unmitigatedly harsh, and who are nearly 
as defenceless as an animal against trouble or 
oppression of any kind. Pity, terror and disgust 
especially pity are evoked in all that poig- 
nancy which the Slavonic artist so well knows 
the secret of, and which more easily than any 
other effect wins for him the praise of power. 

The translation is of somewhat uneven merit. 

The Complete Works of Sir Philip Sidney. Vol. ii. 

Edited by Albert Feuillerat. (Cambridge 

University Press, 12s. 6d. net.) 
STUDENTS of Elizabethan literature will welcome 
this fresh instalment of the three-volume edition 
of the complete works of Sir Philip Sidney which 
Professor Albert Feuillerat is bringing out with 
the Cambridge University Press. It contains the 

last part of the ' Arcadia,' all the poems, and the 
masque of the ' Lady of May.' The text is that of 
the earliest edition with the exception only of 
the ' Two Pastorals ' and is given without any 
alterations whether of spelling or punctuation. 
Later editions alter words and in several poems 
insert new matter. Particulars of these will be 
found in the notes, as will be also the prefaces and 
other introductory matter to this part of the 
' Arcadia ' and to ' Astrophel and Stella.' 

Sir Philip Sidney's verse (except for two or three 
familiar sonnets and a few fine phrases) can hardly 
be said to make any instant, straightforward 
appeal to a lover of poetry. The first impression 
it produces is one of mingled intricacy and flat- 
ness ; the second, upon perseverance in reading 
him, is somewhat happier. Anyone who, whether 
from predilection or from some external motive, 
intends to make a thorough study of him, will do 
well to possess himself of this delightful edition. 

The Elizabethans and the Empire. By A. F. 

Pollard. (Humphrey Milford, for the British 

Academy, Is. 6d. net.) 

THE debt of the British Empire to the Eliza- 
bethans is real and of the first importance, but its 
exact nature has been somewhat obscured by the 
failure, during the Queen's reign, to acquire terri- 
tory beyond the borders of England. Professor 
Pollard, in the Raleigh lecture, shows how the 
position and policy of the Queen, the temper of the 
nation, and the relations between England and the 
rest of Europe determined this apparent failure. 
The Elizabethan contribution to the Empire is to 
be seen in the kindling of the spirit of adventure, 
especially of a love of the sea ; in the discovery of 
the true significance of ships ; and again, in the 
growth of that sense of national independence, 
confronting the Papacy on the one hand and the 
Holy Roman Empire on the other, which consti- 
tuted the first " imperialism." The lecture, given 
to us here in the form of a brochure, ranks high 
among its author's minor works. 


At ante, p. 1, col. 1, for "11 S. xi. 10," read 
11 S. vii. 1; at p. 2 (in pedigree), for " Rebecca 
Shave" read Rebecca Shawe; and at p. 3, col. 1, 
1. 11, for " Leeds " read Wakefield. 


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CONTENTS. No. 199. 

NOTES : Commonwealth Marriages and Burials in the 
Aldeburgh Register Book. 81 Massinger and Dekker s ' The 
Virgin Martyr,' 83 Glass-painters of York : John de Burgh 
88 Oxfordshire Masons Yorkshire Land Terms : " On 
stand." " Gairns." 89 A Tudor Fireplace at St. Albans. 90 

QUERIES : Evelyn Queries. 90 Eighteenth-century Poetry- 
Arab (or Eastern) Horses. 91 The Papal Triple Crown- 
Comic Natural History Hartgill Baron, 92 Mrs. Holt : 
' Isoult Barry of Wynscote ' Two Naval Pictures by Serres 
Derivation of Chinkwell Moon Folk-lore : Hair-cutting, 93 
Quotations in ' The Tatler ' ' De Imitatione Christi ' : 
Echoes of Virgil Holborn, Middle Row Sarah Siddons 
Theatre, Lynn James A dair. Historian Samuel Maunder 
Zachary Taylor Oakeley " Kangaroo Cook " Ewen : 
Coat of Arms William Harbord Author wanted, 94. 

REPLIES : Judith Cowper : Mrs. Madan " Anglica [or 
Rustica] gens." &c. ' N.E.D.' Dinner Dalstons of Acorn- 
bank, 95" The Running Horse," Piccadilly" Time with 
a gift of tears "Land Measurement Terms " The Swan 
Tavern." Chelsea. 96 Freedom of a City Adah Isaacs 
Menken's ' Infelicia ' The Troutbeck Pedigree, 97 Sir 
Thomas Dingley The House of Harcourt, 98 Beauchamp : 
Moseley : Woodham ' The Ingoldsby Legends ' Erghum 
Authors wanted, 99. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Prints of British Military Operations.' 
Notices to Correspondents. 



IN the ' Report of Manuscripts in Various 
Collections,' vol. iv. (Hist. MSS. Com.), 1907, 
under ' Records of the Corporation of 
Aldeburgh, in the County of Suffolk,' and 
referring to the " Chamberlains' Account - 
books,"' occurs the following : 

V. Folio volume, in parchment cover, marked 
F; leaves not numbered 1666-1687. On the 
first page are notes of the accounts for 1656, and 
at the end of the volume (reversed) is a very 
important Marriage Register for the years 1653- 
1656, kept by Henry Searle, M.A., the Minister, 
who was chosen Parish Registrar by vote of the 
inhabitants. " Births and Baptizings and Burialls " 
are also noted as being entered, but they are not 
contained in this volume. 

On going carefully through this volume, 
however, I found the " Burialls," but the 
" Baptizings " are certainly missing ; and 
on counting the leaves where p. 308 should 
appear, there is evidence that the" pages 

containing these entries have been removed. 
These Marriages and Burials are particularly 
valuable as being the only dates known in 
the middle of the seventeenth century. 
The Church Register containing the Baptisms, 
Marriages and Burials from 1600 to nearly 
1700 has been lost, and no Bishop's tran- 
script is known. A query inserted many 
years ago in ' N. & Q. 1 as to its fate pro- 
duced no information. 

The Register-Booke of the towne of 

Aldeburgh in the County of Suffolk ; in 

w * 1 the Marriages, Births, Baptizemys, 

and Burialls of people from 

the 29^ day of September 

Anno Domini 1653 ; 

are ingrossed 

i Marriages ^ ( pag : 1 

J Births & L S ee ) 

bor ) Baptizemys ( jpag: 154,* 308 

( Burialls " f pag : 308,* 154 

Memorandum, that upon the 25 th day of 
October 1653, M r Henry Searle Master 
of Arts and minister of the Gospell of 

Jesus Christ, was chosen Parish- 
Register by the vote of the Inhabitants of 
this towne of Aldeburgh, according to an 
Act of Parliament on that behalfe : And 

that the sayd M r Henry Searle was 
then alsoe sworne and approoved by 
a Justice of Peace of this Cor- 
poration ; Witnes his Hand 
" hereunto subscribed. 


PINNE & The purpose of marriage between 
CHENEY Mr. John Pin of Walderswick, & 
Joan Cheney of Aldeburgh both 
single persons was published on the thirty th 
day of October, as alsoe on the Sixth and on the 
thirteenth days of November 1653, together 
with the Names of their respective parents then 
alive ; viz., Mrs Bethia Pin of Walderswick 
aforesayd widdow Mother to the sayd John Pin ; 
Mr Thomas Cheney of Aldeburgh aforesayd and 
Mary Cheney his wife, parents to the sayd Joan 
Cheney. And the sayd John Pin and Joan 
Cheney were marryed on the fifteenth day of 
November by one of the Justices of Peace of 
this Corporation Wittnes his name here under- 


) Reg . 

HIGGINS & The purpose of marriage between 

JOHNSON John Higgins Batchelor, and 

Anne Johnson mayden both of 

this parish, was published on the sixth, thirteenth, 

and twenty'th days of November 1653 ; together 

* Altered to the following number. 



[12S. X. FEB. 4, 1922. 

with the Name of Robert Johnson the elder of this 
parish alsoe, father to the above named Anne 
Johnson. And the sayd John Higgins and Anne 
Johnson were marryed on the two & twenty 'th 
day of November by one of the Justices of Peace 
of this corporation : Wittnes his Name hereunto 

THO : ELLIOTT, eademq tester HEN : 
SEABLE Registr. 

HUNT & The purpose of marriage between 

BUNDISH Blowers Hunt Bachelr and Anne 

Bundish mayden was published 

on the sixth, thirteenth, and twenty'th days of 

November 1653 (they had noe parents, guardians 

or over seers then alive) And the sayd Blowers 

Hunt & Anne Bundish were marryed on the 

sixth day of December by one of the Justices 

of Peace of this Corporation. Wittnes his hand 

hereunto subscribed 

Jo BUBWOOD. eademq tester HEN : 
SEABLE Registr. 

POPE & The purpose of marriage betweene 

VALLANCE Thomas Pope Batchelr and Susan 

Vallance Widdow both of this 

parish was published on the seaven & twenty'th 

day of Novber and on the fourth, & eleventh days 

of December 1653. And the sayd Thomas Pope 

& Susan Vallance were marryed on the thirteenth 

day of December by one of the Justices of Peace 

of this Corporation ; 

Wittnes his hand hereunto subscribed 

Jo BUBWOOD. eademq tester HEN : 

MILES & The purpose of marriage betweene 
WiLLiAns Samuel Miles of Southold in 
Suffolk widdowcr, and Mary 
Williams of Aldeburgh widdow, was published 
on the twenty'th & seven and twenty'th days of 
November ; and on the fourth day of December 
1653 : And the sayd Samuel Miles & Mary 
WiHiams were marryed on the thirteenth day of 
December by one of the Justices of Peace of this 
Corporation, wittnes his hand hereunto sub- 


DANIEL & The purpose of marriage betweene 
HABTLEY Peter Daniel widdower, and 
Katherine Hartly mayden both 
of this parish, was published on the 13th, 20th, & 
27th days of November 1653 ; nee parents, 
guardians, or overseers being now alive to either 
of them. And the sayd Peter Daniel & Katherine 
Hartly were marryed on the fourteenth day of 
December by one of the Justices of Peace of this 
Corporation, wittnes his name hereunto sub- 

WILL : SHIPMAN, eaderaq testor HEN : 
SEABLE Registrarius 

BUBWOOD The purpose of marriage betweene 

& Ralph Burwood widdower and 

GENTBY Jane Gentry widdow both of this 

parish, was published on the 4th, 

llth, & 18th days of December; & the sayd 

Ralph and Jane were marryed on the twenty'th 

day of the same month by one of the Justices of 

Peace of this Corporation ; wittnes his rame 

hereunto subscribed. 

WILL : SHIPMAN eadmq testor HEN : 
SEABLE Registr. 


BOYSE & The purpose of marriage between 
YAXLEY William Boyse singleman and 
Anne Yaxley singlewoman both 
of this parish, was published on the 4th, llth, 
& 18th days of December 1653, together with 
the Names of Robert Boyse and Elizabeth his 
wife parents to the sayd William ; she the sayd 
Anne haveing neither parent, guardian, nor 
overseer now alive. And the aforesayd William 
Boyse and Anne Yaxley were marryed upon the 
sixe & twenty'th day of December, by one of 
the Justices of Peace of this Corporation ; wittnes 
his Name hereunto subscribed. 

THO : ELLIOTT, eademq testor HEN : 

HAYLE & The purpose of marriage between 
WAITS Thomas Hayle widdower, and 
Ailce Waits singlewoman both of 
this parish, was published on the llth, 18th, 
& 25th days of December 1653. And the sayd 
Thomas Hayle and Ailce Waits were marryed 
upon the seaven & twenty'th day of the same 
month by one of the Justices of Peace of this 
Corporation ; witnes his hand hereunto sub- 


HABVEY & The purpose of marriage between 
STEWABD Francis Harvey singleman & 
Susan Steward singlewoman 
both of this parish, was published on the 18th 
& 25th days of December, & on the first day 
of January 1653 ; together with the names of 
Jane Robson wife to Thomas Robspn of Aide- 
burgh, mother to the sayd Francis Harvey ; 
and Walter Steward of Saxmundham, Father 
to the sayd Susan Steward. And the above 
named Francis Harvey and Susan Steward were 
marryed upon the third day of the month of 
January aforesayd by one of the Justices of 
Peace of this Corporation, Witnes his Hand 
hereunto subscribed 

THO : ELLIOTT, eademq testor HEN : 
SEABLE Registrar 

RICHABDSON & The purpose of marriage 

RYOTT betweene John Richardson 

singleman, & Mary Ryott 

singlewoman both of this parish was published 
on the 1st, 8th, & 15th days of January ; 
together with the name and sirname of Mary 
Ryott of Aldeburgh widdow mother to the sayd 
Mary Ryott above mentioned. And the fore- 
named John & Mary were marryed upon the 
seaventeenth day of January by Mr John 
Burwood Justice of Peace in this Corporation. 
Ita testatur HEN : SEABLE Regist. 

LANGHAM The purpose of marriage betweene 
& GBIMEB John Langham singleman & 
Agnes Grimmer singlewoman both 
of this parish, was published on the 25th day 
of December, & on the 1st, and 8th days of 
Janvary 1653, together with the name & sir- 
name of Thomas Langham of Southhold father 
to the sayd John. And the forenamed John and 
Agnes were marryed upon the sixe & twentyeth 
day of January by Mr John Burwood Justice 
of Peace of this Corporation. 

Ita testor H. SEABLE Registrarius. 

li> S. X. FEI;. 1. 1922.] 



BOTTRICK fc The purpose of marriage be- 
RUSSELLS tweene Francis Bottrick & 
Anne Russells both single 
persons and of this parish was published on the 
8th, 15th, & 22th days of January 1653. And 
the sayd Francis & Anne were marryed on the 
three and twentyth of January by Mr John 
Burwood Justice of Peace in this Corporation 
Ita testor H. SEABLE Regist 

FAUSTER & The purpose of marriage be- 
COSSEY tweene William Fauster the 
younger singleman, and Anne 
Cossey singlewoman both of Aldeburgh, was 
published on three severall Lords days, viz on 
the 8th, 15th, & 22th days of Janvary 1653; 
together with the Names of William Fauster 
the Elder and Anne Fauster his wife parents 
to the sayd Will : Fauster the younger. And 
the forenamed William Fauster the younger and 
Anne Cossey were marryed upon the fourr & 
twenty'th day of Janvary by Mr John Burwood 
Justice of Peace of this Corporation 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registrarius 



The purpose of marriage 
betweene Robert Woollafer of 
this parish widdower, and 
Cisly Ollafer of Thorpe widdow, was published 
on three severall Lords days, viz on the 15th, 
22th, 29th days of Janvary 1653 ; And the said 
Robert & Cisly were marryed upon the thirtyeth 
day of Janvary by Mr John Burwood Justice 
of Peace of this Corporation 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

ROBSOK & The purpose of marriage be- 
PORTER tweene Richard Robson wid- 
dower and Elizabeth Porter 
widdow, both of this parish, was published on 
three severall Lords days, viz on the 15th, 22th, 
& 29th days of January 1653 : And the sayd 
Richard & Elizabeth were marryed on the thirtyeth 
day of January by Mr William Shipman Justice 
of Peace in this Corporation 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

CATMER & The purpose of marriage be- 
PEIRSE tween Robert Catmer, single- 
man & Ailce Peirse single- 
woman both of this parish, was published on j 
three severall Lords days viz on the 15th 22th, & 
29th days of January 1653 : and also the name 
&, sirname of Robert Catmer the elder living in 
this parish, who is Father to the sayd Robert 
Catmer before mentioned : and the sayd Robert 
and Ailce were marryed on the one & thirty'th 
day of January by Mr John Burwood Justice of 
Peace of this Corporation. 

Ita testor H. SEARLE Regist 

MUNSON & The purpose of marriage be- 
SMITH. tweene Robert Munson wid- 
dower and Frances Smith sin- 
glewoman, both of this parish, was published on 
three severall Lords days, viz on the 29th of 
January, & the 5th & 12th days of February 1653 
And the sayd Robert & Frances were rnarryed 
on the thirteenth day of February by Mr Will : 
Shipman one of the Justices of Peace of this 

Ita testor H SEARLE Regist 

PEACHE & The purpose of marriage be- 
RYOTT. tweene William Peache wid- 
dower and Mary Ryott widdovv 
both of this parish, was published on three 
severall Lords days, viz on the 5th, 12th, 19th days 
of February 1653. And the sayd William Peach*/ 
& Mary Ryott were marryed on the 28th day of 
February by Mr William Shipman Justice o 
Peace of this Corporation. 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registrarius 

MEDDOWS & The purpose of marriage be- 

BLAKY tween Thomas Meddows of 

Aldeburgh widdower, and 

Blanch Blaky of Melton in the County of Suffolke 

singlewoman, was published on three severall 

Lords days viz on the 5th 12th 19th days of 

February 1653, (as also the Name & Sirname 

of Blanch Blaky's mother yet alive) And the 

sayd Thomas & Blanch were marryed on the 

twenty eighth day of February at * by 

Mr William Goodwin one of the Justices of 
Peace for the County of Suffolke 

STYLES & The purpose of marriage be- 
IRELAND tween Alexander Styles wid- 
dower of this parish, and 
Frances Ireland of Benhall in the county of 
Suffolke singlewoman, was published on the 12th, 
19th & 26th days of February 1653 : And the sayd 
Alexander & Frances were marryed on the 28th 
day of Febru : at Layston in Suff by one Mr 
Lockington (as they say,) minister of the gospell but 

1653. 1654 

BROWNE & The purpose of marriage be- 

BERT 1653. tween John Browne widdower 

and Mary Bert widdow both of 

this parish, was published on three severall Lords 

days viz on the 19th 26th days of February, and 

on the 5th day of March 1653. And the sayd 

John & Mary were marryed on the 12th day of 

March by Mr William Shipman Justice of Peace 

of this Corporation 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registrarius 

(To be continued.) 


It is Mas- 


(See 12 S. x. 61.) 
Act III., scene i. 
THIS scene is all in metre, 
singer's. The following parallels may be 
noted : 

1. Thcophilus : The mandrake's shrieks, th? 

basilisk's killing eye, 

The dreadful lightning that does crush the bones 
And never singe the skin, shall not appear 
Less fatal to her than my zeal, &c. 
The mere reference to the shrieking of the 
mandrake and the deadly eye of the basilisk 
proves nothing, for such allusions were 
at this time common. But the general 

* Blank. 



[12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922. 

resemblance between this passage and 
the following (where they are again asso- 
ciated together and catalogued amongst the 
objects most fatal to mankind) is striking : 

The mandrake's shrieks, the aspic's deadly tooth, 
The tears of crocodiles, or the basilisk's eye 
Kill not so soon, nor with that violence 
As he who, &c. 

(' Believe as You List ; III. iii.) 

2. Calista : Our amity increasing with our years. 

Compare : 
My fondness still increasing with my years. 

-,' Great Duke of Florence,' V. iii.) 
Her excellence increasing with her years, too. 

(' Duke of Milan,' IV. iii.) 

3. Dorothea : Knows every trick and labyrinth 
of desires 

That are immodest. 

Compare : 

. . . since I wander'd 
In the forbidden labyrinth of lust. 

(' Fatal Dowry,' IV. iy.) 
To guide me through the labyrinth of wild passions. 

(' Great Duke of Florence,' II. i.) 
... of approved cunning 
In all the windings of lust's labyrinth. 

(' The Picture,' II. ii.) 
. . . wander in the wild maze of desire. 

(' Bondman,' II. i.) 

4. Dorothea : Or pleasures that do leave sharp 
stings behind them. 

Compare : 

Such embraces 
As leave no sting behind them. 

(' Parliament of Love,' III. ii.) 

Such delights 
As leave no sting behind them. 

(' The Guardian,' II. iii.) 

There are plenty of other marks of 
Massinger's vocabulary, such as the use of 
the word " apostata," " at the height " 
{Your pride being at the height ") and 
" registered " ("to be hereafter registered 
as a goddess "), all of which are constantly 
met with in his plays. 

Scene ii. 

This scene (all in metre) is also Mas- 
singer's. Note, almost at the beginning : 

1. (A shout within : loud music. 
A rtemia : What means this shout ? 

Sapritius : 'Tis seconded with music. 

Compare : 

(Shouts within : then a flourish of trumpets. 
Cleon : What shout's this ? 
Diphilus : 'Tis seconded with loud music. 

(' Bondman,' I. iii.) 

2. Theophilus : I am ravished 
With the excess of joy. 

Compare : 

. . . oh, I a,m overwhelmed 
With an excess of joy. 

(' Bashful Lover,' III. iii.) 

Impute it ... to the excess 
Of joy that overwhelm'd me. 

(' Picture,' III. ii.) 

3. Theopldlus : . . . as my feet were rooted 
hero, I find 

1 .have no motion. 

Compare : 

Stephana : How the Duke stands ! 
Tiberio : As he were rooted there, 

And had no motion. 

(' Duke of Milan,' III. iii.) 
he stands 
As if he wanted motion. 

(76 id., IV. iii.) 
You stand, madam, 
! As you were rooted. 

(' Guardian,' I. i.) 
. . . yet you stand 
As you were rooted. 

(' Bondman,' V. iii.) 

4. Theophilus : Do not blow 
The furnace of a wrath thrice hot already. 

I This is akin to " pouring oil on a fire burning 
already at the height " (see Act I., sc. i.) 
and is used by Massinger even more fre- 
quently. ' Three examples will suffice : 

'Tis far 

From me, sir, to add fuel to your anger, 
That, in your ill opinion of him, burns 
Too hot already. 

(' Maid of Honour,' II. i.) 
Do not fan 
A fire that burns already too hot in me. 

(' Guardian,' II. ii.) 
That will bring fuel 

To the jealous fires which burn too hot already 
In Lord Leosthenes. 

(' Bondman,' V. i.) 

5. Artcmia : We are not so near reconciled 
unto thee ; 

| Thou shalt not perish such an easy way. 

Compare : 

Who is not so far reconciled unto us 
As in one death to give a period 
To our calamities. 

(' Maid of Honour 1 , ' II. iv.) 
What will you do ? 

. . . Not kill thee, do not hope it : I am not 
So near to reconcilement. 

(' Guardian,' III. vi.) 

Scene iii. 

This scene presents no difficulty. It con- 
sists chiefly of prose dialogue between Hircius 
and Spungius. There is one speech of Angelo's 
in metre, and, after his departure, Harpax 
enters speaking in metre, while Hircius and 
Spungius continue to speak in prose. Both 
prose and verse are clearly Dekker's. The 
prose contains Dekker's hard- worked punning 
allusions to shoes and cobblers (" set many 
a woman upright," " trod'st thy shoe awry," 
" taking the length of my foot," &c.), and 
to " catchpoles," i.e., sheriff's officers, another 

12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922.] 



pet topic of his. The appearance of one of 
the most characteristic of his verbs amble | 
Hircius : . . . mine eyes . . . cry aloud, 
and curse my feet for not ambling up and down to 
feed colon. 

is another significant mark, as also the ob- 
servation of Harpax : 

... now that you see 
The bonfire of your lady's state burnt out. 
But though the whole scene is as unmis- 
takably Dekker's as any in the play, it is, of 
course, quite possible that Massinger may 
have added or altered a word here and there. 
This seems, indeed, to have happened in the 
very speech of Hircius from which I have 
just quoted. I do not recognize the ex- 
pression "to feed colon" ( = to satisfy my 
hunger) as Dekker's. It is very likely 
Massinger' s. Compare : 
But how shall I do, to satisfy colon. 

(' Unnatural Combat,' I. i.) 
Having no meat to pacify colon. 

(' Picture,' II. i.) 

Act IV., scene i. 

This scene (hitherto attributed entirely to 
Dekker) shows clear signs of Massinger' s 
collaboration. In fact, up to the stage- 1 
direction " Re-enter Sapritius, dragging in 
Dorothea by the hair," it is substantially 
Massinger' s. It is all in metre. 

The scene opens with " Antoninus on a 
couch asleep, with doctors about him," 
Sapritius making a rhetorical appeal to the 
doctors to use then* utmost endeavours to 
save his life. He addresses them thus : 
O you that are half-gods, lengthen that life 
Their deities lend us ; turn o'er all your volumes 
Of your mysterious ./Esculapian science, 
To increase the number of this young man's days, 
just after the fashion of Sforza's speech to 
- the doctors in ' The Duke of Milan,' V. ii. : 

O you earthly gods, 

You second natures, that from your great master, 
Who joined the limbs of torn Hippolytus, 

\iitl drew upon himself the Thunderer's envy, 
Arc taught those hidden secrets that restore 
To life death-wounded men, &c. 
The first doctor begins his reply to Sapritius 

]\'/tat art can do, we promise. 
Compare the surgeon's remark to his patient 
(Paulinus) in ' The Emperor of the East,' IV. 
iv. : - 

I hnve done as much as art can do to stop 
The violent course of your fit, &c. 
That Massinger' s influence in the early part 
of the scene (the conversation between Sapri- 
tius, Macrinus and the doctor) is paramount, 
" T ' n be obvious if we- compare Macrinus' s 


description of the behaviour of Antoninus in 

his illness with the Waiting Woman's de- 
scription of the distracted Almira in ' A Very 
Woman ' : 

Macrinus : ... Stand by his pillow 

Some little while, and, in his broken slumbers, 
Him you shall hear cry out on Dorothea ; 
And, when his arms fly open to catch her, 
Closing together, he falls fast asleep, 

. . . let him hear 

The voice of Dorothea, nay, but the name, 
He starts up with high colour in his face, &c. 
A moment later, Antoninus awakes, crying 
out : 

Thou kill'st me, Dorothea ; oh, Dorothea ! . 
In ' A Very Woman,' II. iii., Leonora asks 
one of the Waiting Women if Almira has 
slept, and the Waiting Woman answers : 

... If she slumber'd, straight, 
As if some dreadful vision had appear 'd, 
She started up, her hair unbound, and with 
Distracted looks staring about the chamber, 
She asks aloud, " Where is Martino ? " &c. 

Here is the same conception of mental dis- 
traction, the broken slumbers," starting up " 
in bed, and crying out the name of the lover. 
The doctor who has already spoken, first 
suggests that music would be beneficial, and 
then, when Antoninus receives this sugges- 
tion by rising from his bed with a curse, tells 
him to return to it, sleep being " a sovereign 
physic." " Thou stinking clyster -pipe," 
exclaims Antoninus, 

. . . where's the god of rest, 
Thy pills and base apothecary drugs 
Threatened to bring unto me ? Out, you im- 
postors ! 
Quacksalving, cheating mountebanks ! 

In ' A Very Woman,' II. ii., Paulo praises 
the two surgeons attending Antonio. They 
have not, he says, treated their patient's 
wound with oils or balsams 

. . . bought 
Of cheating quacksalvers, or mountebanks. 

So far only suggestions of Massinger' s pen 
have been noticed. The term " stinking 
clyster -pipe " applied to a doctor is, however, 
almost certainly Dekker's. He uses it (of 
Dr. Ropus) in ' The Whore of Babylon ' 
(Pearson, ii. 250) and again (" sweet Doctor 
Glister -pipe ") in 'Westward Hoe,' I. i. I 
know of no instance of its use thus elsewhere 
as early as these. The first example given in 
' N.E.D.,' is of 1661. It may also be re- 
marked that " stinking" is an adjective of 
extraordinarily frequent occurrence in Dek- 
ker ; and he has " stinking surgeon " in 
' Northward Hoe,' IV. i. 

After the stage -direction " Re-enter Sapri- 
tius," &(?., the scene is no doubt mainly of 
Dekker's writing, but even here a careful 



[12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922.. 

study of the text in the light of Massinger's 
independent plays unmistakably reveals not 
only the influence but traces of the language 
of Massinger. The interview between An- 
toninus and Dorothea, in particular, should 
be compared with that between Hortensio 
and Matilda in ' The Bashful Lover,' I. i. 
In the latter play, Ascanio's scorn of Hor- 
tensio' s bashful attitude towards Matilda is 
paralleled in Sapritius's scorn of the be- 
haviour of Antoninus, and there is a strong 
resemblance between the language used by 
Ascanio and that of Sapritius. Compare 
also Durazzo's annoyance at Adorio's tepid 
wooing of Calista in ' The Guardian,' I. i. 
And for a definite mark of Massinger's 
vocabulary one may without hesitation 
point to the passage in which Antoninus 
speaks of " tasting the fruit of that sweet 
virgin tree." Such language is typical of 
Massinger (compare " When first I tasted 
her virgin fruit," ' Duke of Milan,' I. iii.) and 
not to be found in Dekker. 
Scene ii. 

This is wholly Dekker' s. The prose 
speeches of Hircius and Spungius account 
for about one half of the scene, all the other 
characters (Harpax, Theophilus, Dorothea, 
Angelo and Sapritius) speaking in metre. 
The repetitions in Angel o's beautiful speech, 
" There fix thine eye still," and Dorothea's 
reply, " Ever, ever, ever," should be noted as 
typical of Dekker. 

Scene iii. 

Written by Massinger. Note : 

1. Second speech of Antoninus : 

Then with her dies 

The abstract of all sweetness that's in woman ! 
A favourite expression of Massinger's ; com- 
pare : 
The abstract of all goodness in mankind. 

('.Bondman,' V. iii.) 
. . . the abstract 

Of all that's rare, or to be wished in woman. 
(' Duke of Milan,' I. iii., and ' Picture,' I. ii.) 

2. Same speech : 

. . . she being gone, the glorious sun himself 
To me's Cimmerian darkness. 

Compare : 

. . . without her all is nothing ; 
The light that shines in court, Cimmerian darkness. 
(' Bashful Lover,' I. i.) 

3. Antoninus : ... our clue of life 
Was spun together. 

Compare : 

. . . our thread of life 
Was spun together. 

(* Custom of the Country (Mass, 
and Fletcher), III. iv-) 

4. Antoninus : By my hopes 
Of joys hereafter. 

Compare : 
Of joys hereafter. 

By my hopes 

(' Duke of Milan,' III. iii.) 

5. Antoninus : . . . deface the masterpiece- 
of nature. 

Compare : 

behold the figure of 
The masterpiece of nature. 

(' Roman Actor,' III. ii.) 
She is delivered ... to us by Contarino, 
For a masterpiece in nature. 

(' Great Duke of Florence,' I. ii.) 

6. Theophilus : Not all the riches of the sea> 

By violent shipwrecks, nor the unsearched mines 
(Mammon's unknown exchequer) shall redeem 

Compare : 

Think you all treasure 

Hid in the bowels of the earth, or shipwreck' d 
In Neptune's wat'ry kingdom, can hold weight 
When liberty and honour fill one scale ? 

(' Bondman,' I. iii.) 
a cabinet . . . whose least gem 
All treasure of the earth, or what is hid 
In Neptune's watery b som, cannot purchase. 

(' Parliament of Love,' III. ii.) 

7. Dorothea: . . . bury in 
Oblivion your feigned Hesperian orchards : 
The golden fruit, kept by the watchful dragon T 
Which did require a Hercules to get it, 
Compared with what grows in all plenty there 
Deserves not to be named. 

Compare : 

Those golden apples in the Hesperian orchards 
So strangely guarded by the watchful dragon 
As they required great Hercules to get them ; 

. . . when I look 
On this, cleserve no wonder. 

> v ' Emperor of the East,' IV. ii.) 

8. Theophilus : Hast thou aught else to say ? 
Dorothea : Nothing, but to blame 

Thy tardiness in sending me to rest ; 
. . . strike,^O ! strike quickly. 

Compare Eudocia's song in ' The Emperor 
of the East y ' V. iii. : 

But to me thou art cruel, 
If thou end not my tedious misery : 

Strike, and strike home, then ; pity unto me, 
In one short hour's delay, is tyranny. 

Act V. scene i. 
This scene (nearly all verse) is substan- 
tially Dekker's but has been revised by 
Massinger, who certainly remodelled some 
of the speeches of Theophilus. Towards the 
end of his opening speech,, the word " flea- 
bit ings "- 

Tush, all these tortures are but iillipings, 

is a favourite of Massinger's (' Bond- 
man ' IV. ii. ; ' City Madam,' IV. i. ; ' Duke 
of Milan,' I. iii. and III. ii.., &c,). Compare 

12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922.] 



slso (in the speech of Theophilus prompted | 
toy the laughter of the invisible Harpax) j 
" What is't the dog grins at so ? " with 
Caesar's " Dogs, do you grin ? " in ' Roman 
Actor,' III. ii. 

The style of the greater portion is, how- 
ever, eloquent of Dekker's authorship, and 
the metrical evidence is confirmed by the ! 
inversions " Some angel hath me fed " and i 
" Me hast thou lost," both in speeches of 

Scene ii. 

This (all verse) is Massinger's. Parallels 
re numerous : 

1. Maximinus : Were you deformed, 

Your gravity and discretion would o'erconie me ; 
And I should be more proud to be a prisoner 
To your fair virtues, &c. 

Compare : 
A\Vr- she deform'd, 

"The virtues of her mind would force a stoic 
To sue to be her servant. 

(' Bondman,' I. iii.) 
"Were she deform'd, 

Yet, being the duchess, I stand bound to serve her. 
(' Duke of Milan, I. ii.) 

2. Artemia : ... although he turned 
Apostata in death. 

Compare : 
Tn death to turn apostata ! 

(' Renegade, IV. iii.) 

3. Theophilus : And Dorothea but hereafter 

You will ... no more . . . remember 
What the canonized Spartan ladies were, 
Which lying Greece so boasts of. . . . 

. . . Gracchus' Cornelia, 
Paulina, that in death desired to follow 
Her husband Seneca, nor Brutus' Portia, 

Though all their several worths were given to one, 
With this is to be mentioned. 
Compare : 

. . . borrow of 

Times past, and let imagination help, 
Of those canonized ladies Sparta boasts of 
. . . yet still you must confess 
Tin- phcenix of perfection ne'er was seen, 
But in my fair Marcelia. 

(' Duke of Milan, I. iii.) 
. . . the mother 

Df the Gracchi, grave Cornelia, Rome still boasts of, 
The wise Pulcheria but named, must be 
Jso more remember' d. 

(' Emperor of the East,' I. i.) 
-4. Theophilus : With choice celestial music, 

equal to 
The motion of the spheres. 

Compare : 

With music more harmonious than the spheres 
Yield in their heavenly motion. 

(' Bondman,' IV. iii.) 

Theophilus: . . . belched out bias-, 
phemous words. 

Compare : 

. . . belch forth blasphemies. 

(' Believe As You List,' I. ii.) 
. . . belch' d out blasphemy. 

(' The False One ' (M. & F.), V. iii.) 

6. Diocletian : Thou twice a child ! for doting 
age so makes thee, 

Thou couldst not else, thy pilgrimage of life 
Being almost passed through, in the last moment 
Destroy whate'er thou hast done good or great 
Thy youth did promise much ; and, grown a man, 
Thou mad'st it good, and, with increase of years, 
Thy actions still bettered as the sun, 
Thou did'st rise gloriously, kept'st a constant 


In all thy journey ; and now, in the evening, 
When thou should 'st pass w r ith honour to thy rest, 
Wilt thou fall like a meteor ? 

Compare : 
An old man's twice a child. 

(' Bashful Lover,' III. i.) 
If doting age could let you but remember. 

(' Duke of Milan,' II. i.) 
But now I find you less than a man, 
Less than a common man, and end that race 
You have so long run strongly, like a child, 
For such a one old age or honour's surfeits 
Again have made you. 

(' Bamavelt,' I. i., Bullen,' Old Plays,' ii. 211.) 

I much grieve, 

After so many brave and high achievements, 
He should in one ill forfeit all the good 
He ever did his country. 

(' Unnatural Combat,' I. i.) 

I, that have stood 

The shock of fierce temptations. . . . 
To draw my bark of chastity (that with wonder 
Hath kept a constant and an honour'd course) 
Into the gulf of a deserved ill-fame 
Now fall unpitied ; and, in a moment, 
With mine own hands, dig up a grave to bury 
The monumental heap of all my years 
Employ'd in noble actions. 

(' Renegade,' II. i.) 
. .. . shall I then, 
Now in the sun-set of my day of honour, 
When I should pass with glory to my rest, &c. 
(' Barnavelt,' Bullen, ii. 210). 

7. Sapritius : Confess . . . that thy tongue 
and heart 

Had no agreement. 

Compare : 

But what assurance . . . may I demand 
That may secure me that your heart and tongue 
Join to make harmony ? 

(' Unnatural Combat,' III. iv.) 

8. Theophilus : In mine own house there are a 
thousand engines 

Of studied cruelty, which I did prepare 
For miserable Christians ; let me feel, 
As the Sicilian did his brazen bull, 
The horrid 'st you can find. 

"Studied cruelty" occurs again in 'The 
Bondman,' III. v., and compare " studied 
torments " (' Roman Actor,' I. ii. ; ' Duke 
of Milan,' III. iii.), and " studied tortures ' 



[12S. X. FEB. 4, 1922. 

('Roman Actor,' III. ii.). 'The Sicilian' 

is, of course, Phalaris. Compare : - 

Choose any torture, let the memory 

Of what thy father and thy brothers suffer' d. 

Make thee ingenious in it ; such a one, 

As Phalaris would wish to be call'd his. 

(' The Bashful Lover,' II. vii.) 

The torturing of Theophilus at the close 
of the scene should be compared with the 
torturing of Junius Rusticus and Palphurius 
Sura in ' The Roman Actor,' III. ii. In 
both plays the Roman emperor urges 
the application of still severer tortures to 
extort some manifestation of suffering from 
the tortured, but without success. Note 
particularly the exclamations of Sapritius 
and Dioclesian 

Sapritius : Xo sigh, nor groan, 
To witness he has feeling, 

Dioclesian : Harder, villains ! 

and compare ' The Roman Actor ' : 

CcBsar : Not a groan ! 

Is my rage lost ? search deeper, 

villains ! 

Compare also, in the torture scene (Mas- 
singer's) of ' The Double Marriage (Act I., 
so. ii.) : 

So brave ! I'll tame you yet, pluck hard , villains ; 
Is she insensible ? no sigh, nor groan ? 

There remains only the vision of 
Dorothea with the fine concluding speech! 
of Theophilus. Nowhere do we find any 1 
trace of Dekker. 

Generally, the result of my detailed in- 
vestigation is to confirm the conclusion at 
which most previous critics have arrived 
that Dekker is lesponsible for what is 
worst, and for a good deal of what is best 
in the play. The prose portions, the 
speeches of Hircius and Spungius, are cer- 
tainly almost entirely his, but he is also 
chiefly responsible for Dorothea and Angelo. 
Massinger's share in the play is, however, 
larger than has usually been supposed. All 
that is distinctively *' Roman " in the play 
is his, and he is entitled to some of the 
credit for several of the* best scenes hitherto 
attributed to Dekker alone. 

Of the many previous critics who have 
essayed to divide this play between its two \ 
authors, Messrs. Fleay and Boyle (if my| 
division be the right one) are the most 
accurate. Boyle's article on the subject ; 
will be found in the Transactions of the | 
New Shakespeare Society (1880-6, Part III., 
pp. 624-6). He differs from Fleay only in 
-attributing Act II., sc. ii., which Fleay 
assigns to Massinger, to Dekker. I subjoin ' 

a table comparing the results arrived at by 
these two critics with my own : 

Fleay and Boyle. SyJces. 

Act I. sc. i. Massinger Massinger 

Act II. sc. i. Dekker Dekker 

sc. ii. Massinger (Fleay) Dekker and 
Dekker (Boyle) Massinger 

sc. iii. Dekker Massinger 

and Dekker 

Act III. sc. i. Massinger Massinger 

sc. ii. Massinger Massinger 

sc. iii. Dekker Dekker 

Act IV. sc. i. Dekker Massinger 

and Dekker 

,, sc. ii. Dekker Dekker 

sc. iii. Massinger Massinger 

Act V. sc. i. Dekker Dekker and 

sc. ii. Massinger Massinger 



(See ante, 12 S. viii. 127, 323, 364, 406, 442, 
485; ix. 21, 61, 103, 163, 204, 245, 268, 
323, 363, 404, 442, 483, 523 ; x. 44.) 

FKEE of the city 1375 (* Freemen of York,' 
Surtees Soc.) as a " glasenwright." He was 
evidently a member of a considerable family 
of that name. In 1 399 William Burgh, prob- 
ably a brother, " filled the great window of 
Westminster Hall with flemished glass in 
the last year of Richard II." (Prof. W. R. 
Lethaby, ' Westminster Abbey and the 
King's Craftsmen,' p. 304). Several other 
members of the family were in orders, but at 
the same time seem to have been all more or 
less interested in glass. In 1391 John de 
Ednestow, chaplain of a chantry at the altar 
of St. Michael in St. Helen's Church, Stone- 
gate, the parish church of the glass -painters, 
bequeathed 10s. to Dom Simon de Burgh 
(Reg. Test. i. 45b). Simon Burgh, chaplain, 
evidently the same man, made his will in 
1423, desiring to be buried " outside the east 
end of the choir of the Minster of St. Peter at 
York over against the great window there 
and near to the wall of the said choir " (Reg. 
Test. i. 214d) that is, in the cemetery at 
the east end of the new choir and immediately 
underneath John Thornton's great east 
window, which had been completed some 
fifteen years previously. Another membet 
of the family, also called John de Burgh (but 
evidently distinct from the glass -painter, who 
was alive in 1419), made his will or 

1402, desiring 
parish church. 

on July 

to be buried in Halifax 
For making one window 

12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922.] 



in the chancel there, 10 marks " (6 13s. Ad.) 
(Reg. Test. Ebor., ui. 84b). 

John Burgh, in spite of the fact that he 
was not entrusted with the great east window, 
was evidently the principal York glass- 
painter of his time. During his time design 
in glass passed from pure Decorated through 
Transition into the fully developed Perpen- 
dicular style. His name first appears in 
connexion with the Minster glass in the 
Fabric Roll of 1399, when he was paid for 
repairs to the windows of the chapter house 
and nave carried out by him and his ser- 
vants ; and he is entered in almost every 
Roll until the year 1419, about which time, 
probably, he died, for, two years later, John 
"Chamber (no doubt the elder of the two 
brothers of that name and the one who died 
in 1437) is entered in connexion with the 
glass. John Burgh was, therefore, a con- 
temporary of, and working at the Minster at 
the same time as, John Thornton of Coventry. 
Though there are no windows definitely 
known to be the work of John Burgh, it can 
with some confidence be suggested that the 
windows of the aisles of the Lady Chapel 
the first portion of the new choir to be com- 
pleted are his work ; for they were evidently 
done before John Thornton of Coventry came 
to York in 1405 to execute the great east 
window. The three in the north aisle and 
those in the clerestory above seem to be all 
by one hand. It is possible that he was also 
responsible for the beautiful St. Edward 
Confessor window on the south side, which 
has canopies remarkably similar in design 
to those in New College, Oxford, and Alten- 
berg in Germany. The east window of St. 
Saviour's, York, which is also Transitional in 
style, is probably his work also. 

In 1400 John Burgh executed work for 
Thomas de Dalby, Archdeacon of Richmond, 
in whose will, made in 1400, the following 
appears : " J. Burgh vitriario pro diversis 
fenestris .vitreis pro aula de Thornton 
camera et capellis ibidem et pro clausura 
Ebor. 23s. 4d. (Test. Ebor., Surtees Soc., 
iii. 2). 

A shield, Archdeaconry of Richmond im- 
paling Dalby, which probably formed part 
of the above glass in the archdeacon's study, 
has been inserted in the upper quatrefoil of 
the tracery of the fourth window from east 
in the north aisle of the nave, instead of the 
original figure. 

John Burgh had several " servants " or 
workpeople. One of these, flamed Robert, 
probably the Robert Quarendon mentioned 

in the Fabric Roll of the Minster for the year 
1417, had evidently left Burgh's employ 
some time before the year 1400, as in the 
Roll of that year he is described as " lately 
a servant of the said John." Another work- 
man, " John the servant of the said John," 
whose name is recorded in the Roll of 1414, 
was probably the John Coverham mentioned 
in that of 1419, who was free of the city in 
1425 .and whose son Thomas was free in 1448. 

members of the lodge of Masons brought 
by Thomas Strong to London to assist in 
rebuilding St. Paul's Cathedral after the 
Great Fire ? (see MR. DUDLEY WRIGHT'S note 
at 12 S. x. 43). The names of several of the 
masons employed are given by the late 
Major J. M. W. Halley in the Journal of the 
R.I.B.A. (Dec. 5, 1914), the facts being taken 
from the original " Accounts." They were 
Joshua Marshall, Thomas Strong, Edward S., 
sen. and jun., Edward Pearce, Jasper 
Lathom, Thomas Wise, sen. and jun., 
Christopher Kempster, William K., Ephraim 
Beacham, Nathaniel Rawlins, John Thomp- 
son, Samuel Fulkes, Thomas Hill and Chris- 
topher Cass. The majority of these were 
members of the Masons' Company, and 
indeed held the office of Master at different 
times. The Strongs, Kempsters and 
Edward Beacham were Oxfordshire men, 
the Strongs owning Tainton quarry and the 
Kemptsers Upton quarry, Burford, from 
both of which stone was taken for the 
rebuilding. I have recently come across 
the will of Edward Beacham of Burford, 
dated Aug. 10, 1677, and proved in the 
Consistory Court of Oxford. From this it 
appears that Ephraim B. was his son, while 
his daughter Martha was the wife of Edward 
Strong, sen. Were any of the others 
connected with Oxfordshire ? Joshua Mar- 
shall apparently was not. He was the son 
of Edward M. of Fetter Lane (Master of the 
Masons' Company 1680). I find the name 
Nathaniel Rawlins in Hook Norton, Oxon, 
in the Lay Subsidy Roll for 1655. 


" GAIRNS." Recently I have been an- 
notating a number of old seventeenth 
and eighteenth century Yorkshire farmers' 
diaries, and have been struck with the 
number of remarkable land-terms these con- 
tain, regarding some of which I have had 



[12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922. 

interesting correspondence. For instance, , 
I have to thank Mr. John Wilson, late of , 
the Whitby district and now of Shepton 
Mallet, Somerset, for an interesting letter! 
regarding the word " onstand," which 1 1 
denned as meaning the balance of a sum j 
of money (corn or other payment in kind) j 
left after a certain portion had been paid j 
off by one or more instalments. The word i 
occurs in the old diary of Jackson of! 
Lackenby, which has been loaned to me, and 
is used in the following entry : " 1807, 
July 2nd, To cash paid Jackson Buckton on 
account of onstand, 40." Mr. Wilson, 
who has had extensive experience with the 
management of estates and with old deeds 
and records, writes : 

I am sending you an extract from a clause in a 
farm agreement in use in the North Riding of 
Yorks, touching upon the meaning of the word 
" onstand." I have never seen the word used 
anywhere else but in the Whitby district, nor in 
any farm agreement save the one from which 
the extract appended was taken. Some 12 or 
15 years ago a fresh form of agreement was pre- 
pared for use to take the place of an older form, 
and I am rather glad to-day that I had something 
to do with the retention of the old word " on- 
stand " and all that it meant to an ingoing 
tenant. The old custom, when carried out 
correctly, meant that the incoming tenant took as 
his share of the grain crop already sown one-third 
of the stocks in one case and half the number 
of stocks in the other (i.e., the land set apart). 
The actual sharing of the harvest in this manner 
is rarely done now, but that was what it meant 
in actual practice and as understood in the 
Yorkshire dales to-day. Here is an extract 
from the form of agreement mentioned : 

The tenant shall also be entitled on quitting 
to the following allowances, which shall be settled 
as hereinafter provided, and be paid by the land- 
lord when and as fixed by the valuers or their 
arbitrator, namely : For an away-going crop 
of corn one -half of the arable land sown in due 
course of husbandry, the valuation of the same 
to be made immediately before the harvest, 
but in suchl vauation, deductions shall be made 
of the expenses of weeding, reaping, harvesting, 
threshing and marketing the crop, also of one- 
third of the valuation for onstand if the crop be 
sown after fallow or turnips, or rape eaten on, 
and of one-half if it be sown after potatoes, or 
turnips pulled off (the straw not to be included 
in the valuation but to belong to the landlord or 
the incoming tenant without any payment of 
compensation being made for the same). 

Regarding the " gairs," gairns," and 
" gairing," a correspondent writes to me 
from Bainton, Driffield : 

We use the word in this district in a slightly 
different sense to that you suggest in connection 
with the extract from Dobson's diary for 1807, 
in which he speaks of sowing " eight lands and 
, one gairn with red superfine wheat from London." 
Hereabouts in starting to plough a lot of rigs (or 

marks) are set parallel with the straight est 
hedge or fence. The " garins " are the short 
rigs which are common in most fields when one 
end is wider than the other, or has a corner or 
triangular piece at one end. 

Grove House, Norton-on-Tees. 

The following extract from The Herts 
Advertiser of the 21st inst. seems worthy of 
a corner in ' N. & Q.' The premises in 
question are situated amongst a block of 
some other very old buildings in the market 
place : 

A discovery which will prove of great interest 
to archaeologists has been made in the course 
of the refitting of the new premises which have been* 
acquired by Messrs. Boots, Cash Chemists, St. 

Following the demolition of a modern fireplace 
in a front room of the first floor, there came to 
light a very fine specimen of a Tudor fireplace, 
of stone. It is in four pieces, and is in an ex- 
cellent state of preservation. The carving on the 
stone is in practically the same condition as it 
was when first placed there. 

The specimen has been viewed by Sir Edgar 
Wigram, Mr. C. H. Ashdown and Mr. Bullen, 
who are quite certain that it is a fine example 
of the work of the Tudor period. 

We understand that the fireplace is to be placed 
in the new library which the firm are having made. 

It is thought that the stone, which is of the soft 
variety, was quarried at Dunstable. 

W. H. 

GREAT WAR. We much regret that, owing 
to the indisposition of MR. FORBES SIEVE - 
KING, the next article on this subject has 
had to be postponed. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
In order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

EVELYN QUERIES. 1. Aug. 7, 1641. 
Evelyn refers to an " incomparable book, 
Hollandia Illustrate," which contains a 
picture of the wheel bridge used at the siege 
of Gennep. This cannot be Scriverius, as 
suggested by Dobson, whose book was pub- 
lished long before the siege. The title is 
probably due to the lettering on the book of 
Evelyn's bound copy. Can anyone direct 
me to the book or tell me its correct title ? 

2. Aug. 8. Who was Sir Robert Stone, 
whose wife was apparently present at 
a cavalry mess ? In Shaw's ' Knights ' 

12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922.] 



there is a Sir Richard Stone. Brereton 
mentions a Mr. Stone who was attached 
to the Court of the Queen of Bohemia, and 
I have found a reference to him in the 
Calendars of State Papers. 

3. Aug. 28. Who was the happy monk 
whom they claimed at Leyden to be the 
inventor of typography ? 

4. Sept. 8. Seedam. " This town has 
heretofore been much talked of for witches." 
Seedam is of course Schiedam. Does any- 
one know anything about the witches of 
Seedam or of Schiedam ? Evelyn's memoirs, 
as we have them, were written much later, 
and he often added to his notes facts found 
in books. 

5. Sept. 17. The heart of which Duke of 
Cleves is buried at Bois-le-Duc ? 

6. Oct. 2. Who was the Rhinegrave ? 

7. Oct. At Ghent, Evelyn supped with 
the Abbot of Audoyne. Who was he ? 


8. College Green, Gloucester. 

at present compiling an anthology of 
shorter poems of the eighteenth century, 
and I should be grateful if any reader could 
give me information on the following 
points : 

1 . Francis Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester. 
Nichols attributes the song ' Fair Sylvia, 
cease to blame my youth,' to him, on the 
strength of a copy being found in his writing 
among his papers after his death. Is there 
any other evidence as to the authorship ? 
A similar attribution to Atterbury by 
Nichols of " You say you love ; repeat 
again, Repeat the amazing sound " (by 
William King), is erroneous. 

2. William Colepeper. Is the date of 
liis birth known ? 

3. Anonymous poems in Steele's collec- 
tion. Is the authorship of ' A wretch long 
tortur'd with disdain,' ' How long will 
Cynthia own no flame,' ' Why will Florella, 
while I gaze, ' Gentle air, thou breath of 
lovers,' or of the epigram on some snow 
that melted in a lady's breast, known ? 

4. John Hughes, ' On Arqueanassa of 
Colophos.' This is apparently a translation 
from the Greek. Who wrote the original ? 
.">. Thomas Brerewood, author of ' Autumn ' 
and other poems. Died 1748. When was 
he born ? 

6. William Bedingfield. Flourished about 

1720. When was he born ? When did he 

-die ? Is he really the author of ' Beauty, 

'an Ode,' attributed to him in Hammond's 

'Miscellany' (1720)? The poem also 
appeared in John Hughes' s * Poems on 
Several Occasions,' published by Hughes's 
widow in 1735. 

.7. Simon Harcourt. Has the question 
as to whether Harcourt or Prior wrote 
' The Female Phaeton ' and ' The Judge- 
ment of Venus ' ever been settled ? I 
think I know the chief contributions to this 
controversy up to the date of Waller's 
edition of Prior. Is there any later evidence ? 
Otherwise the balance seems in favour of 

8. Henry Carey. When was he born ? 

9. George Sewell. When was he born ? 

10. Mrs. Mary Monk, nee Molesworth. 
When was she born ? 

11. "Clio" (Mrs. Sansom, nee Fowke). 
Was her Christian name Martha or Maria ? 
B.M. catalogue gives the latter. 

12. Samuel Wesley the younger. In the 
Preface to his ' Poems ' (4to, 1736) he says 
that some are not by him. Is it known to 
which poems this applies, and who were 
the real authors ? 

13. Has the possible attribution of the 
'Song to Winifreda ' ("Away, let nought 
to love displeasing"), first published in 
David Lewis's ' Miscellany,' to Lewis him- 
self been discussed, and, if so, where ? 

14. Richard Lely. Published a volume 
of poems in 1727. Is anything known of 
him ? 

15. Henrietta Knight, nee St. John, Lady 
Luxborough. Died 1756. When was she 
born ? 

16. Moses Mendez. When was he born ? 

17. Mary Masters. Died about 1759. Is 
the exact date known ? . When was she 
born ? 

I have not been able to find any of the 
information asked for in the ' D.N.B.* 

(To be continued.) 

Ridgeway in his work, ' The Origin and 
Influence of the Thoroughbred Horse ' 
(p. 381), states that: 

Charles II. sent his Master of the Horse, Sir 
John Fenwick, to the Levant, and he was there 
able to purchase brood mares as well as stallions, 
principally Barbs and Turks. 

It is to these mares, known as King's Mares, 
we must trace the real origin of our English 

It has always been a tradition that 
Charles II. sent to the Levant for Eastern 
horses, but as Sir John Fenwick would 



[12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922. 

have been in his 81st year in 1660, the date 
of the Restoration, and is said to have died 
in about 1658, it was certainly not he who j 

Is there any proof of the importation 
of these so-called Royal mares? If so,' 
who went for them, and how many did he j 
bring back with him ? 

If such a journey was undertaken, would ! 
not an account of the expenses be found in j 
the papers preserved in the Public Record I 
Office ? Can any reader give authority for 
Professor Ridgeway's statement ? 


the three crowns on the Papal mitre re- ; 
present ? The ' Encyclopaedia Britannica ' I 
(9th ed.) the only reference I have 
available is not much help, for under 
' Crown ' it states : 

The Papal crown is a lofty uncleft mitre en- 
circled by three coronets rising one above the 
other, surmounted by a ball and crown, and with 
ribbons at each side, similar to those of an Italian 
bishop. This form of crown was first assumed 
by Pope Benedict XII., 1344. 
But Pope Benedict had handed in the 
keys to the Virgin Mary in 1342 ! 

Again, under ' Heraldry,' it states : 

The Pope places three crowns over his mitre 
or tiara, said to have been severally assumed in 
1295, 1335, and 1411. 

Why were they assumed ? 


any of your readers can give me any in- 
formation about a ' Comic Natural His- 
tory ' of which' I only possess pp. 39-65 
and 95-121. This book was published in 
America, and the plates, some of which 
bear the imprint " lith. in colors by L. 
Rosenthal, Phila.," may be by Stephens 
or Stevens (? H. L.) 

There is no copy of this book in the 
British Museum, and it would appear to 
caricature well -known folk of the day on 
natural history lines. The portion which I 
have deals with (1) The Lark; (2) The 
Kingbird ( ? Henry Carey Baird, partner 
in the publishing house of H. C. Baird 
and Co.); (3) The Humbug (? Phineas 
T. Barnum) ; (4) The Widow Bird ; (5) 
The Butcher Bird ; (6) The " Florence " 
Humming Bird ( ? Thomas Birch Florence, 
statesman, 1812-1875, hatter by trade) ; 
(7) The Mackerel ; (8) One of the Rats ; 
(9) The Cuttle Fish (? William E. Burton, 

actor ; appeared as Captain Cuttle, c, 
1848); (10) The Gold Fish (? J. Gould). 
These ten articles are signed : W. A. -S. j 
C. ; W. A. S. ; C. W. W. ; C. ; C. F. E. ; 
W. A. S. ; W. A. S. ; V. ; and C., re- 

I shall be glad to receive any information 
concerning this book, and should particu- 
larly like to know where I could see a com- 
plete copy. HUGH S. GLADSTONE. 

Capenoch, Thornhill, Dumfriesshire. 

HARTGILL BARON. This soldier of for- 
tune lived in the reigns of Charles I. and 
Charles II. His family may have lived 
in Croydon and are believed to have come 
originally from Wiltshire, but nothing is 
known to me at present of his parentage 
or date of birth. In his youth he travelled 
in Turkey, but later was the faithful com- 
panion and secretary of Rupert, Prince 
Palatine of the Rhine, and attended him 
through the Dutch Wars, where he was 
disabled by a shot from a cannon-balL 
Oliver Cromwell published a proclamation 
and offered a 1,000 reward for the appre- 
hending of his person. A certain amount 
of information regarding Hartgill Baron 
is recorded in the State Papers (Domestic 
Series). There we read in 1661 he petitioned 
the King to settle a pension on him of 
200 a year for 31 years, granted him at 
Breda for hazardous secret service and 
especially for bringing the first news of the 
Restoration. This petition is marked " Fiat '* 
and granted. When employed in conveying 
correspondence between Charles II. (when 
in exile) and his adherents, he passed under 
the name of " John Jones." He was a 
friend of Pepys, and frequent mention of 
him is made in the famous ' Diary,' where he 
is referred to sometimes as " Mr. Baron '* 
and sometimes as " Lieut. - Col. Argel 
Baron." His daughter Agneta married 
William Johnson (afterwards Governor of 
Cape Coast Castle), son of Sir Henry Johnson 
of Blackwall Docks and Aldeburgh, and 
their son was Henry Johnson of Great 
Berkhampstead, a well-known traveller 
and antiquarian. He married Lsetitia Dow- 
ling, and their eldest daughter, Laetitia, 
married Sir William Proctor Beauchamp, 
first Bart., and their second daughter, Agneta, 
married the ill-fated Hon. Charles Yorke > 
Attorney-General, and son of Lord Chan- 
cellor Hardwicke. 

I am very anxious to find particulars of 
Hardgill Baron's parentage and family* 
On his handsome memorial tablet in Windsor 

12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922.] 



3-decker. Red ensign at ensign. 

parish church there are faint traces of a! Namur 
coloured coat of arms ; the memorial j staff. 
wording runs thus : Formidable ? (name uncertain, but it ap- 

Near unto this place lyeth buried ye body of | parently begins with "Form-"): 3-decker. 
Hartgill Baron Esq. late one of ye Clercks of His j Red ensign at ensign staff ; British admiral's 
p a - T ^ ea j e ' and Secretary to his Highness j fj a g w jth a square red and blue flag at the 

Windsor. UP He dyed ye lastly % November, and I main ; red fla at the fore ' 

was buried here the 4th day of December 1673. Two 2-deckers. Red ensign at ensigri 

Near him also lye buried Hartgill, Penelope & I staff. 

Lucy his children. Here also lyeth, Anne his One 2-decker. Red ensign at ensign staff : 
wife, daughter of Phillip Barret Esq. of Hamp- ! rfif j qnnnrfi flop- t thp fnrp and ft lar^P rprf 
sted in Middlesex, who dyed Feb. 22, 1687. square flag at tne tore, and a large red 

burgee at the main. 

The enemy ships are 11 vessels in the 
distance, each carrying a white flag at the 
ensign staff, and a white square flag with 
blue St. Andrew's cross at one or the other 

This picture is not signed, but is obviously 
by the same painter as the other. Both. 

5.) A. N. GAMBLE. 
Gorse Cottage, Hook Heath, Woking. 

COTE.' In the ' History of the Granville 
Family,' by Roger Granville (1895), there 
occurs the following passage : 

Sl*^,^u57dl3^m? ! y ears - The names P ab ve are painted 

has been written by Mrs. Holt from the Lisle j on tne sterns of the ships. 

Papers and other unpublished MSS. in the British | Can any reader identify the incidents re- 

Museum and State Paper Office. 

presented and give a reference to any pub- 

I shall be very much obliged for particu- lished records of them ? 
lars of this book. Has it ever been pub- ! 

G. M. M. 

lished ? 

Is it possible to procure a copy? 


parish of Newington next Sittingbourne 
j* 161 * is }^ R I 2 an , Burial-ground now 

possess two oil paintings by D. Serres, each ' ^^ n as . the Crockfield," so called from the* 
about 5ft. by 3ft. The first represents cer- > broken P iece ? j s ?P ulchral s which have 
tain French prizes being escorted into a been unearthed from time to time. Ad- 
harbour by British men-of-war. The har- 
bour suggests Plymouth Sound and there is 
in the background a breakwater, which I m 

th f eto and on th f uo * il \ s ^ ? f **"* 
Street is a wood called Chmkwell 

* ch hae been ^und Roman (or Saxon) 

might be Mount Batten, with vessels lying 
at anchor behind it. The ships are as 
follows : 

Ardent. A frigate flying the Union Jack 
together with a plain white flag at the ensign 

remains. Can anyone give the derivation 
of Chinkwell ? Is it possibly the same as- 
Chigwell, which may be derived from the 
Saxon Cingwell (vide ' Healing Wells of 
London,' Daily Telegraph, Oct. 9, 1913), 
and what does the Saxon word Cingwell 
mean ? Other places in the immediate- 
are named 

Formidable : 2-decker. White ensign at r 
ensign staff; British admiral's flag at the | y? 7 cin j y 
main ; square flag striped horizontally red, I Wardwell and Libbetwell from what are- 
white, blue, red, white, blue, at the peak. I these two latter derived * 

City of Paris: 3-decker. Union Jack and ' P - FITZGERALD HOGG (Capt.) 

a plain white flag at the ensign staff ; British ! 
admiral's flag and a white flag at the main. MOON FOLK-LOBE : HAITI-CUTTING. The- 

Hector : 2-decker. Union Jack and white ' following is an extract from the Diary of 

Nicholas Blundell of Crosby (Lancashire) : 
1717. Oct : 6th. It being near Full Moon, 

flag at ensign staff. 

A British 2-decker, bows on. Figure-head, 

a colossal man wearing a helmet and carrying j I cut my Wive's Hair off. 
in one hand a short staff. Red ensign at I know that there are numerous super- 
ensign staff. stitions concerning the moon, but I have not 
The picture is signed " D. Serres, 1782." i heard of anything in connexion with the- 
The second picture represents a general ! cutting of hair. Perhaps some of your cor- 
action out of sight of land. The British ! respondents may know, 
ships are : FBEDEBIC CROOKS. 



[12S. X. FEB. 4, 1922. 

of The Taller, attributed in the 1804 edition 
to Addison and Steele, has for heading : 
Dum tacent clamant. 

Their silence pleads aloud. 

What is the reference ? I have searched 
for it in vain in the ' Lexicon Ciceronianum 
Nizolii ' and other indexes. 

No. 153, attributed to Addison, is headed, 
Bombalio, clangor, stridor, taratantara, murmur. 

FARN. Rhet. 

Rend with tremendous sounds your ears asunder, 
With gun, drum, trumpet, blunderblus, and 


What are the references ? What are the 
meaning and derivation of " bombalio " ? 
Earn., I suppose, means Farnaby. 


VIRGIL. In the last paragraph of Book iii 
of the ' De Imitatione Christi ' occurs the 
phrase " inter tot discrimina vitae," which 
is obviously an echo of a line from a famous 
passage in the first ^Eneid : 

Per varies casus, per tot discrimina rerum. 
1 suppose this has been noted before, with 
;any other Virgilian echoes to be found in 
the ' Imitatio.' I should be glad to be 
referred to any notes on the subject. 

E. R. 

HOLBORN, MIDDLE Row. What was 
the date of the demolition of the Middle 
Row ? Whose property were the houses 
ind how were the inhabitants compensated 
for the loss of their homes ? 

(MRS.) F. L. PAINE. 

&> prompter's copy of ' Isabella ' with the 

Sarah Siddons 
Theatre, Lynn. 


on flyleaf, but have been told by an authority 
that there was no theatre of that name at 
King's Lynn, Norfolk, nor any record of 
Mrs. Siddons having acted at that town. 
Is there another town of Lynn with a 
theatre of that name ? 

The writing is in a feminine hand, but is 
not that of Mrs. Siddons ; moreover, the 
position of the comma makes it read more 
like the name of a theatre than of the owner 
of the book. G. A. ANDERSON. 

nationality of James Adair, a trader with the 
Indians and resident in America for 40 years, 
and author of ' History of the American 
Indians' (1775) ? A. 


SAMUEL MAUNDER. Would some reader 
| be kind enough to mention the birthplace 
j of Samuel Maunder (1785-1849), compiler of 
I educational dictionaries ? The * D.N.B.' 
I and Morchard Bishop registers have been 
consulted. M. 

ZACHARY TAYLOR, President of U.S.A., 
is said to have had relatives in. Durham, 
Northumberland, and Newcastle-oii-Tyne. 
Can any reader give proof of this ? 

W. N. C. 

OAKELEY. The Morris MS. says one of 
the murderers of Edward II. was an Oakley 
(Oakeley, Okeley). Is anything known 
about him ? E. F. OAKELEY. 

" KANGAROO COOK." What was the real 
name of this person, whom I find mentioned 
among the dandies during the " days of the 
Regency " ? BURDOCK. 

EWEN : COAT OF ARMS. Burke' s ' General 
Armory ' gives the arms for Ewen in 
Herne Church, Essex : Ermines, a bend 
cotised, or ; crest, On a mount vert, a stork 
statant proper. I cannot trace Herne in 
Essex and suppose the county to be Kent. 
Can any of your readers give me any informa- 
tion regarding this coat of arms ? 

C. L. EWEN. 

WILLIAM HARBORD. What was the an- 
! cestry of William Harbord, born in 1682, 
| and buried in 1744 in Stratton Strawless 
! churchyard ? Was he descended from Sir 
Charles Harbord, Surveyor - General to 
I Charles L, or, if not from Sir Charles, from 
! one of his brothers ? 

Can the Heralds' view be confirmed that 
the Harbords are descended from a natural 
son of one of the Herberts, Earls of Pem- 
broke (see Lord Sufneld's ' Memories,' 
Appendix II.). C. D. HARBORD. 

AUTHOR WAITED. Could any reader kindly 
inform me (1) who is the author of the poem of 
which the first stanza runs : 

" Lord ! for to-morrow and its needs 

I do not pray 
Keep me, my God, from stain of sin 

Just for to-day " ; 

and (2) which is the original and correct version 
of it, there being several versions about ? J 
believe it was included in a collection of poems 
entitled ' To-day and other Poems.' 


]_' S. X. FKB. 4. 1022.] 




(11 S. x. 27, 97.) 

IF not too late, I can enlighten MR. R. H. 
GRIFFITH, of the University of Texas, about 
the connexion of the poem ' Abelard to 
Eloisa ' with William Pattison. 

1. The poem ' Abelard to Eloisa,' ascribed | 
both to Judith Cowper and to William | 
Pattison, is undoubtedly by the former. 
It begins. 

In my dark cell, low prostrate on the Ground, 

Mourning my Crimes, thy Letter Entrance found ; 
and these words separate it from two poems | 
with the same title which were published j 
in 1725 and 1783, and which differ from! 
each other and from the present one. 

William Pattison, whose short life was to 
a large extent passed in penury and want, 
claimed the poem as his own as early as 
1726 (see the Memoir prefixed to his posthu- 
mous 'Works,' 1728, p. 42; he died in 
1727). There can be no doubt that he 
gave way to temptation ; and meeting this ! 
anonymous poem circulated in manuscript, ! 
ventured to assert that he was the author 
in order to gain credit for himself. It was 
accordingly printed in his ' Works ' and is 
identical with the one printed later as 
Judith's. But, as will be seen from MR. 
x. 97), the poem was written in 1720. At 
that time Pattison, a farmer's son, was at 
most 14 years old, and had not even entered 
Appleby school. By no stretch of 
imagination could he have written such a 
poem on this subject at that date. 

The poem, as Mr. Stewart says, is con- 
tained in Brit. Mus. MS. add. 28101, which 
is a collection made by Ashley Cowper, 
brother of Judith, a commonplace book (as it 
used to be called) of poems and prose 
pieces which he wished to set down for 
his own use in conversation or recital. 
Many pieces are by himself or by members 
of the Cowper family, and among them is 
this poem, ascribed to his sister and dated 
1720. Judith was born in 1702, well 
educated, a friend of Pope, accustomed to 
good society. Three other poems of hers 
are dated 1720, including her most ambitious 
effort, ' The Progress of Poetry.' She was 
of a modest and retiring nature and printed 
nothing which she wrote : in fact the 
' Abelard to Eloisa ' was never printed 
separately, but only in Collections in 1728 
and 1764 as by Pattison, and in 1755, 1757, 

1782, &c., as by "Mrs. Maclan," as she had 
then become. There can be no doubt at all 
that Mrs. Madan (nee Judith Cowper) 
wrote the poem. Mr. Griffith's other points- 
were answered by Mr. Stewart (see above). 


(10 S. ii. 405). If PROF. BENSLY is still 
interested in the matter, let me say that the 
form " Anglica [not Rustica] gens est 
optima flens, et pessima ridens " can be 
carried back from 1669 to at least 1558 r 
in which year died Robert Talbot of New 
College, Oxford, after making a collection of 
odd sayings out of old books. He gave the 
collection the name of Aurum ex stercore, 
and extracts, including the line given above, 
are printed in the Bodleian Quarterly Record, 
vol. ii., p. 145(1918). FAMA. 

' N.E.D.' DINNER (12 S. ix. 388). The 
dinner was on Tuesday, Oct. 12, 1897, not 
1899. It is described at considerable length 
in the Oxford papers of Saturday, Oct. 16 r 
such as Jackson's Oxford Journal and 
The Oxford Times. FAMA. 

In the tenth volume of the new series of the 
Transactions of the Cumberland and West- 
morland Antiquarian and Archaeological 
Society is a long (pp. 200-270) and careful 
pedigree of the family of Dalston. There is,, 
so far as I have discovered, no reference in it 
to any migration of any members of it to 
Ireland, but Dr. Haswell, the author, states 
at the outset of the paper that " considerable 
data are incomplete." In conjecturing, there- 
fore, which of the Dalstons mentioned in the 
pedigree may have been the founder of the 
Irish family, it should be remembered that any 
particular Dalston may have had sons not 
mentioned in Dr. Haswell's paper. Of those 
mentioned, if STEMMA'S date of 160J or there- 
abouts is correct, the most likely to have 
migrated is William, mentioned (p. 232) as 
under age at the time of the death of his 
father, Robert Dalston, son of Thomas of 
Dalston, at whose death the family divided 
into its three branches : ( 1 ) of Dalston, 
(2) of Thwaite in Greystoke parish, (3) of 
Acornbank. Robert Dalston of Thwaite 
died in 1 58 1 , and Dr. Haswell can find no trace 
of William's subsequent history. The same is 
true of Robert, son of Sir John and grand- 
son of the same Thomas Dalston ; but as he 
was not baptized till 1595, and may be the 
Robert who was buried in 1595 at Penrith 



[12S. X. FEB. 4, 1922. 

(ib., p. 218), he does not seem to me to have 
as good a claim as William. There does not 
appear to be any one in the Acornbank 
branch of the family who could have mi- 
grated to Ireland in or about 1601. 


S. x. 49). I am noting MR. W. R. DAVIES' s j 
information on this inn, as it helps to locate | 
with greater precision its proximity to Hyde | 
Park Corner. Mr. Davies will find that it j 
was duly entered by me at 12 S. vii. 145. It 
was one of a group of hostelries that, like the 
"Hercules Pillars " (12 S. vi. 85), served 
passengers alighting from West of England 
coaches. Larwood states that " The 
Running Horse " was a very common sign, 
but he fails to supply topographical ex- 
amples. Personally I have met with no 
other house of this name, which led me to 
suspect I trust I am not guilty of a flagrant ! 
anachronism that it was inspired by " The 
Running Footman " hard by (12 S. vi. 127). 
I feel sure that Mr. Davies will share with me 
the hope that one of the pewter tankards j 
bearing " The Running Horse " inscription, ' 
found in the Piccadilly excavations, will be j 
lodged in the London Museum, an institution j 
with so many weighty claims to public 
recognition and support. 


. I 

x. 18, 54). I add to the protest of youri 
correspondent at the last reference against | 
altering Swinburne's text direct evidence ! 
that it was written as it stands, and ! 
meant as it stands. Mr. James Douglas, ' 
in The Sunday Times of Jan. 22, records ! 
.a visit to Swinburne at the Pines, during 
which the great chorus, including the two 
lines in question, was recited by the poet | 
himself. Mr. Douglas writes as follows : 

At the end I masked my emotion by asking 
whether it was true that he originally had written 
Grief, with a gift of tears, 

Time, with a glass that ran, 

and afterwards had transposed "grief" and 
" time " in order to make an alliterative paradox. 

" No 1 " he thundered, " I never revise ! " He 
went on to explain that all his verses were com- 
pleted in his mind before he wrote a word, and 
that after he had written them he never altered 
a line, a word, or a comma. I do not think he 
ever altered a word. . . . What he had written, 
;he had written. 

Very diffidently I asked him whether his love 

of alliteration had led him to use " gift " in order 

. to alliterate with " glass." Again he thundered 

out a denial. There was no other conceivable 

-or imaginable word ! 

Aldis Wright left for future commentators 
this check on ingenuity : 

After a considerable experience I feel justified 
in saying that in most cases ignorance and con- 
ceit are the fruitful parents of conjectural emenda- 

V. R. 

In regard to the quotation from Shelley, 
' P.U.,' Act I., 11. 344-346, if H. K. ST. J. S. 
will insert a comma after " gnash," delete 
the comma after " fire " and place it after 
" wail" as in the " Oxford " Shelley, there 
will not be any incitement to some idiot 
to transpose " gnash " and " wail." 


32, Hotham Road, Putney, S.W. 

48). " Wylot " is probably the same as 
warlot or warnot, both well-known Lin- 
colnshire terms for " some kind of waste or 
common lands," perhaps connected with 
warland, " agricultural land held by a 
villein." Ware is " field produce, crop, vege- 
tables." Warlots, then, are apparently cul- 
tivated lands as distinct from pasture ; 
arable lands in the common field (see 
* N.E.D.' and Peacock's ' Glossary'). 

" Gad," among other things, is a measuring- 
rod for land, hence a division in an open 
pasture, in Lincolnshire usually 6Jft. 
wide ('N.E.D.' and Peacock). In " bi- 
land " or " byland," by may have its sense 
of " outside of," " beside," as in byland 
or biland, a peninsula (1577-1630) ('N.E.D.'). 
As an agricultural term, perhaps land in 
some way separate from the rest. 

" Gildam " is the accusative of gilda, a 
money payment or tribute, in this case 
Id. per gad. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

TAVERN," CHELSEA (12 S. vi. 144). These 
premises, the freehold of Christopher Kemp- 
ster of Chelsea, gentleman, a grandson of 
Christopher Kempster of Burford, Oxon, one 
of Wren's master masons, were,' by his will, 
proved Oct. 11, 1770 (P.C.C.), left to his 
three sons, John, Christopher and James. 
They were then in the occupation of Michael 
Tool. In the will of his son, James Kempster, 
proved April 4, 1794 (P.C.C.), the premises 
are referred to as " in Swan Walk, formerly 
called the Swan Tavern, and now in the 
occupation of Mr. Joseph Munday." I am 
informed that a toyshop at the corner of 
Church Street and Cheyne Walk stands 

12 S. X. FEE: 4, 1922.] 



on the site of the Swan Tavern ; certainly 
there is a signboard there depicting a swan, 
but Swan Walk is some little distance away. 

FREEDOM OF A CITY (12 S. ix. 489; 
x. 55). The grant of the freedom of a city 
gratis frequently occurred through a desire 
bo propitiate some great man by advancing 
>me protege or dependent of his. Examples 
taken from the ' York Freemen's Roll ' 
(Surtees Soc.) are: 

1627. William Barwick, innholder, my lo[rd] 
ji[ayor] gratis. [Evidently at the request of the 
Lord Mayor, who in that year, according to 
Drake ('Hist, of York') was Blias Micklethwaite.J 

1651. John Catlin, bricklayer, at Lord Fairefax 
request gratis. 

The honour was afterwards given to great 
men in their own persons, e.g., 

1658. John Hewley, esq. gratis. 
Similarly, in 1745, William, Duke of Cumber- 
land, received the honour, and William Pitt 
in 1757. 

Earlier examples than the above might be 
found by a careful search, but as the Roll 
between the years 1272 and 1760 contains 
over 36,500 names, this would prove a 
.somewhat formidable task. 

The freedom was also given without 
payment in cases where it was policy to 
encourage those to take up their residence 
who by their skill or talents would bring 
honour or profit to the city. Examples of 
this are : 

1667. Will Padget, musicon, gratis. 

1679. Nathan Harrison, musition, gratis* 

The freedom was also granted as a reward 
for presents made to the corporation or 
city, the giver evidently expecting the 
freedom again in return. In 1731, e.g., 
Henry Hindley, the clockmaker and friend 
of Smeaton, was presented with the freedom 
" in consideration of his making and 
presenting a very good and handsome 
eight days clock and case for the Lord 
Mayor's house, and another for the common 
hall, and taking care of the same for one 
year." Charles Mitley, the statuary and 
carver, having in 1739 carved a figure of 
George II. and presented it to the corpora- 
tion, was granted the freedom of the city 
gratis. ( Vide also ' Glass -painters of York,' 
William Peckitt, 12 S. ix. 323.) 

The above examples are all of the full 
freedom, as opposed to the honorary title 
only, being conferred. This entitled the 
recipient to a vote at all elections, to the 
right to his sons becoming themselves 
*free on attaining twenty-one years of age, 

j to joint ownership in the strays around the 
city and free pasturage thereon for his 
horses and cattle, and to his share in the 
proceeds derived from the rents paid by 
non -freemen for pasturing their flocks and 
herds, the sale of hay and hire of land for 
race-meetings, &c. The amount received 
by the freemen of the different wards 
therefore varied according to the greater 
or lesser value of the land they owned 

I and the several purposes for which it was 

x. 32, 79). Alfred Concanen was Adah 
Menken's illustrator. He was an admirable 
artist and did other work for Hotten, the 
publisher, as well as for Hotten's successors, 
j Chatto and Windus. Concanen re-drew 
I the designs in Artemus Ward's panorama 
for the illustrated edition of the lecture, and 
made designs for novels by Wilkie Collins 
1 and various stories published among Chatto's 
I Piccadilly Novels. Concanen afterwards 
i joined a man named Lee, and established 
! with him the lithographic firm of Concanen 
and Lee. They specialized in drawing and 
j printing the covers of songs and dances. 
j Amongst Concanen' s work of this kind is 
I the cover of Gwyllym Crowe's ' See Saw ' 
i waltz, but I have seen nothing by Concanen 
| which equalled the designs for Menken's 
I * Infelicia.' Concanen was subject to fits, 
and was picked up insensible one night by a 
constable. * Supposed to be drunk, he was 
put in a police cell and was found in the 
morning to be dead. I knew Lee and he told 
me of Concanen's end. He showed me a 
i paragraph which had appeared in The London 
Figaro on the matter. This was in 1897 or 
1898, so it is probable that Concanen had 
not then been dead more than a year or two. 
The portrait of Menken in ' Infelicia ' was 
probably engraved from a photograph which 
is reproduced in H. G. Hibbert's ' A Play- 
goer's Memories' (1920). The photograph 
and engraving, however, differ somewhat. 
The engraver may have been C. Jeens, as he 
did similar work for the frontispieces of Mac- 
millan's Golden Treasury Series. Jeens and 
Finden were amongst the best steel engravers 
of the time. J. H. M. 

77). DR. HAMILTON HALL'S special pleading 
will not avail in face of the clear statement 
in the Cheshire inquisition taken in 1512, 
after Sir William Troutbeck's death, that his 
heir was Margaret, wife of John Talbot and 



[12 8. X. FEB. 4, 1022. 

daughter of Sir William's brother Adam j 
Trout beck. The " children " who were 
"named" in the deeds referred to in Sir | 
William's will were no doubt prospective ; 
children, for the deeds were dated at the 1 
time of the marriage ; i.e., they were ! 
" named " as " children " merely. Had Sir ! 
William left any children they would have 
been the heirs to his extensive estates. But | 
there was 110 dispute and the Talbots had 

The main line of the Troutbeck descent is ! 
perfectly clear. William Troutbeck, Cham- 1 
berlain of Chester, died about December, 
1444. His son and heir . John Troutbeck, I 
also Chamberlain, died in August, 1458. ! 
His son and heir, Sir William Troutbeck, was 
killed at Blore Heath on Sept. 23, 1459. The 
Sir William named above, then about ten , 
years old, was his son and heir. He fought ! 
for Henry VII. at Bosworth and was made a 
knight at Stoke in 1487. He died Sept, 8, ; 
1510, and his heir was his niece Margaret i 
Talbot, as the inquisition states. 

Some old pedigrees give the first William's ! 
father as Adam Troutbeck ; and one of this ; 
name was known in Cheshire, being plaintiff j 
in 1366 (Chester Plea Roll 69, m. 31). But j 
evidence of the descent is lacking. 


SIB THOMAS DINGLEY (US. ix. 6). To the ! 
account given at the above reference of this ! 
Knight of Malta should be added the follow- 
ing from Mgr. Canon A. Mifstid's ' The j 
English Knights Hospitallers in Malta,' ; 
at p. 202 : 

He had been received into the Order on the 
2nd May 1526, and his proofs of nobility were 
approved on 24th September 1528. He had 
come to Malta with the Order on the galleys, in : 
which he was described as a caravanist, as i 
appears from the list furnished by the Tongue ; 
on 30th March 1530. He was *the first procura- i 
tor of his Alberge in Malta. On the 9th January ! 
1531 he obtained the Commandery of Baddisley ! 
and Maine. On the 20th February of the same : 
year he was allowed to proceed to England to ; 
reside on his Commandery. On the 1 6th April 
1534 he was again in the Alberge in Malta, seeking 
confirmation in the benefice of Stonesgate con- i 
ferred on him by the Provincial Chapter of the j 
Tongue, and he left for England in December 1535. 
Arrived in London he obtained the Commandery i 
of the Hospital of Shingay, to which Sir | 
Ambrose Cave laid claim in Malta on 20th I 
February 1537. 

At p. 44 Mgr. Mifsud writes : 

The manor of Hampton Court with other lands 
forming part of the Grand Prior's estate, were \ 
[sic] exchanged in 1532 with the monastery of ; 
Stanesgate and its dependencies, and the manor 
and lands at Franckford were exchanged with 

Kilburn Priory, when the lesser monasteries 
were suppressed, and Cardinal Wolseley founded 
Oxford College, afterwards named Christ 
College. The deer park between Paddington 
and Hampstead received by the Prior with 
Kilburn retains to this day the name of St. John's 

The Cluniac monastery at Stanesgate 
or Stangate was a cell of the great Priory 
of Lewis and was situated in a hamlet in 
Essex- five miles south-east of Maldon. 
It was suppressed by Cardinal Wolsey not, 
it is clear, in order to found Cardinal College, 
afterwards named Christ Church, but in order 
to build himself the Palace of Hampton 
Court. The Benedictine nunnery of Kilburn 
was suppressed by Act of Parliament in 1536, 
and not by Cardinal Wolsey. As the Order 
of the Knights of St. John was suppressed 
in England on May 7, 1540, it would seem not 
very likely that St. John's Wood is so called 
because it belonged to the Grand Prior 
between some time in 1536 and May, 1540. 

In the reign of Queen Elizabeth the deer 
park in question was known as Marybone 
Park, and it is recorded that 
on the third of February, 1600, the ambassa- 
dors from the Emperor of Russia, and other 
Muscovites, rode through the city of London to 
Marybone Park, and there hunted at their plea- 
sure, and shortly after returned homeward. 

When is St. John's Wood first mentioned 
by this name ? Where were the lands at 
" Franckford " that were exchanged for 
Kilburn ? 

It may be mentioned that Sir Roger 
Boy dell, who was Sir Thomas Dingley's 
predecessor in the united preceptories of 
Baddesley and Friars' Mayne, was elected 
Turcopolier Feb. 25, 1533, on the depriva- 
tion of Sir Clement West, and died in Malta 
before Feb. 15, 1535, when Sir John Rawson 
was appointed Turcopolier. 

Sir Thomas Dingley's mother was a sister 
of Sir William Weston. Is it known who 
his father was ? 


409, 453, 495, 514 ; x. 15, 37, 77). It may 
be critically assumed that Dudo stated 
accurately the belief of the Normans of his 
day, say ^996- 1026, that their grandfathers 
or great-grandfathers came from Denmark 
and were Danes. This he states directly 
and indirectly many times, for example, of 
William I. he speaks, " gloriosissimus dux, 
comes Willelmus. . . ex prosapia insigne, 
patre Daco, scilicet Rollone " (' De Moribus 
. . . ducumNorm.,' Bk. n.,c. xxxvi.). Again, 

12 S. X. FEB. 4, 1922.] 



he states Hollo's marriage to Poppa, Franci- 
gena, to have been celebrated " more danico." 
As to Bernard the Dane, nowhere stated 
to be a kinsman of the Dukes of Normandy 
(id., c. xl.), " Willelmus dux Dacorum 
. . . convocavit principes Northmannorum 
. . . quidam Bernardus secretorum Willehni 
ducis conscius Bothoque domus princeps 
. . . dixerunt : Cum patre tuo Rollone olim 
Dacia exterminati . . ." ; and inc. xlv. of the 
same book : 

Dixit [Willelmus] ad Bernardum Dacigenam 
militem : " Ibo ad Bernardum Silvaneclenseru 
avunculum meum." Tune Dacigena Bernardus 
%-espondet : " Navigio Daciam nostrae nativitatis 
terrain . . ." 


(12 S. x. 31). There was a Sir John Beau- 
champ of Fyfield, Essex (E. II. Roll), who 
bore, Argent a lion rampant sable, crowned 
gules. See ' Some Feudal Coats of Arms 
and Pedigrees ' (Foster). 

The arms of several others of this name 
are also given in this work, but the above- 
mentioned Sir John is the only one de- 
scribed therein as being of Essex. 


33).' Spectre of Tappington ' (p. 27) 
Bridgewater Prize. This may be a 
reference to money left by Francis, Duke 
of Bridgewater, about 1829, to reward 
essayists chosen by the President of the 
Royal Society to write dissertations On sub- 
jects which display the power, wisdom 
and goodness of God. 

' Wedding Day ' (p. 435 note). Baron 
Duberly is a clownish fellow who bears 
a title in ' The Heir at Law,' by George 
Colman the younger. 

' Blasphemer's Warning ' (p. 442). 
" Honest John Capgrave " earned his 
character between 1393 and 1464. He is 
well known to historical students and the 
footnote attached to the mention of him by 
" Ingoldsby " gives some information about 
him. I think the question SIR WILLIAM 
BULL putsas to " Curina " is also answered 
at the bottom of p. 459. ST. SWITHIN. 

' Old Woman Clothed in Grey ' Jem 
Bland. " Sylvanus," writing of Doncaster 
in 1832, says : " Then Jemmy Bland, an 
atrocious ' leg ' of the ancient top-booted 
semi-highwayman school, and old Crockey 
got set by the ears like two worn- out mas- 
' tiffs," &c. John Wright. probably the 

political bookseller in Piccadilly ; died, 
1844. See 'D.N.B.' 

' Spectre of Tappington ' Bridgewater 
Prize. Francis, Earl of Bridgewater, died 
in 1829, and left 8,000 to be paid to the 
authors of eight essays setting forth the 
power, &c., of God in Creation. 

' Penance.' Mr. Muntz, M.P., reformer, 
died 1857. See ' D.N.B. 

' Black Mousquetaire.' John E. Widdi- 
combe, ring-master at Astley's. Thomas 
Tompion oied 1713. Father of English 
watchmaking. See ' D.N.B.' Squire 

Hayne was known as " pea-green Hayne." 
Maria Foote, the actress, recovered damages 
from him for breach of promise and secured 
much popular sympathy. Mr. Hayne (or 
Haynes) was patron and backer of Edward 
Baldwin (d. 1831), the heavyweight pugilist 
called " white-headed Bob." See ' Pugi- 

' Babes in the Wood.' Cotton prob- 
ably refers to the antiquary, Sir R. B. 
Cotton, d. 1631. See 'D.N.B.' 

' Dead Drummer.' Charles Wetherall. 
Sir Charles Wetherall, M.P., recorder of 
Bristol, d. 1846. See 'D.N.B.' In Gre- 
ville's ' Memoirs ' mention is made of him 
speaking in the House when his only lucid 
interval was that which appeared between 
his waistcoat and trousers ! 

' Row in Omnibus (Box).' The Tam- 
burini Row was in April, 1840. " Doldrum " 
was Pierre Francois Laporte, director of 
the Italian Opera. 

' Blasphemer's Warning.' John Capgrave, 
d. 1464. See ' D.N.B.' 

' Hermann.' Sir John Nicholl, d. 1838 ; 
a judge. See ' D.N.B. 

' Witches' Frolic.' Cummers, also 
Kimmers (Scotch), a familiar term for a 
female gossip. 

Nell Cook.' Thomas Wright, " Old ? " 
antiquary, d. 1877. See ' D.N.B.' 



ERGHUM (12 S. x. 9, 55). There are many 
references to this family in the ' Chartulary 
of the Priory of Bridlington,' by the late 
W. T. Lancaster, F.S.A. G. D. LUMB. 

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. x. 49). 2. ' Margaret's 
Tomb.' This is made up of three verses (the 
fourth, fifth and twelfth) of ' William and 
Margaret,' by David Malloch or Mallet (1705 ?- 
1765). All three verses are slightly altered. 
' William and Margaret ' was written about 
1723, and first published anonymously in black 
letter (see, according to the ' D.N.B.,' ' N. & Q.,' 
7 S. ii. 411). The poem contains a fragment of a 



("12S. X. FEB. 4, 1022. 

real old ballad, which is quoted in Beaumont and 
Fletcher's ' Knight of the Burning Pestle.' 



(12 S. x. 50.) 

"So he kept his spirits up 

By pouring spirits down." 

It is recorded in chap. iii. of Part II. of ' The 
Further Adventures of Mr. Verdant Green, the 
Oxford Freshman,' that Mr. Bouncer whispered 
this couplet to Charles Larkyns, but I hesitate 
to assert that it originated with him. It savours 
of Hood, but I cannot trace it in his works. 


JJote* on 

Prints of British Military Operations. A Cata- 
logue Raisonne, with Historical Descriptions 
covering the Period from the Norman Conquest 
to the Campaign in Abyssinia. By C. de W. 
Crookshank. (London : Adlard and Son 
and West Newman, 22 s. ; with Portfolio, 
10 10s.) 

THE appearance of this fine work, of which the 
King has accepted a copy, coincides very happily 
with a strong revival of interest in military 
history and antiquities. Lieut. -Colonel Crook- 
shank is secure of full appreciation, not only of 
the beauty and value of the finished book but 
also of the lavish care, the enthusiasm, and we 
may say the enjoyment which obviously went 
to the making of it. 

The only medieval illustrations of British 
military operations belonging to that period are 
those taken from fifteenth-century illuminated 
MSS. of which plates have been inserted in the 
1844 edition of Froissart. These are described 
in the Catalogue . The next in tune which approach 
to being contemporary with the events delineated 
are three prints of Henry VIII. 's Boulogne Expedi- 
tion, from drawings made by S. H. Grimm in 
1786, after old paintings at Cowdray, which 
perished in the fire there. The first action of 
which an illustration is here reproduced is the 
fight at Carberry Hill, from Vertue's engraving 
in Kensington Palace. The siege of Grave 
by Count Maurice in 1602, a contemporary 
French etching being a combined plan and 
sketch of operations is of *unusual interest. 
Colonel Crookshank has fifteen entries relating to 
the Civil War ; and reproduces Dupuis' engrav- 
ing of ParrocePs ' Battle of Naisby.' As he 
truly says, it is much to be regretted that this 
important chapter in the military history of 
Britain is so poorly represented in contemporary 
art and the more so because Prince Rupert 
himself was of no mean skill as a draughtsman and 
engraver. With the end of the seventeenth 
century we come to more numerous contemporary 
pictures of battles, and likewise to the amusing 
development of " fakes." A telling example of 
this is given almost at the outset in a ' Siege 
of Athlone ' made by altering the background 
and changing the numbered references of de Hooge's 
plate of ' Londonderri.' A very interesting 
plate is that of four playing-cards, by Spofforth, 
representing the attack on Vigo, the taking of 
Bonn, Maryborough's march into Germany, and the 
taking of Gibraltar. Coloureed plates, admirably 

reproduced, give us The Battle of Dettingen ' 
(contemporary, Pano after Daremberg) ; ' The 
Landing of the Cape Breton Expedition at Louis - 
bourg ' (contemporary, Brooks after J. Stevens) ; 
and ' The Taking of Quebec ' (Laurie and Whittle). 
' The Conquest of Buenos Ayres,' a scarce contem- 
porary wood-cut (G. Thompson) will delight both 
the print-collector and the military historian. 
Under the heading ' Napoleonic Wars ' 166 prints 
and series of prints are catalogued, and of the 
Waterloo Campaign between 60 and 70. The 
last of the plates in the book is by A. Concanen, 
of whom an account will be found at ante, 

;p. 79, 97 a lithograph, from a sketch by a Staff 
nicer, of the Storming of Magdala. 
The sixteen reproductions in the portfolio, 
ranging from Blenheim to Sevastopol are & 
delightful as they are instructive. Here is a 
charming view (by Clark and Hamble, after Craig) 
of the Cape of Good Hope, as it originally appeared, 
with a panel in bistre below depicting the battle 
of 1806. One of the most effective plates is that 
of the storming of Monte Video a moonlight 
scene by Clark and Dubourg, after Lt.- General 
Robinson. Another gives a most curious por- 
trait of Wellington, followed by his staff and 
principal officers and riding towards a bird's-eye 
view of Waterloo by Fry and Sutherland, after 
Heath. Colonel Crookshank has also included the 
fine pair of plates, each with its key, by Moses 
and Lewis, after Wright, of the battles of Vittoria 
and the Pyrenees, and a most interesting ' Battle 
of Chillianwalah,' engraved from a drawing by 
Charles Becher Young, and originally published 
in Calcutta. 

Those who have made any study of the subject 
will know how much such a collection will yield 
in the matter of what we may call regimental 
interest in spite of the caution with which 
these data have necessarily to be used. It is, 
then, not only the print-collector but also the 
military historian who has reason to be grateful 
to Colonel Crookshank for the extreme nicety with 
which the reproductions have been carried out. 
The operations dealt with number fifty-two, and 
a short summary of the history appertaining to 
each is prefixed to the several sections of the 

JJottce* to Correspondents?, 

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CONTENTS. No. 200. 

NOTES : Sir Kichard Willys. Traitor, 101 Principal London 
Coffee-houses, Taverns and Inns of the Eighteenth Century, 
102 Commonwealth Marriages and Burials in the Aldeburgh 
^Register Book, 104 The Twenty-four Hour Clock Ap- 
prentices to and from Overseas, 106 East London Coffee- 
houses, 107. 

UERtES : ' La Santa Parentela,' 107 Eighteenth- century 
Poets Colonel Charles Whitefoord, 108 White of Sel- 
borne : Portrait wanted Ornithologists Early Irish Volun- 
teers Regimental Chaplains. H.M. 65th Regiment Anglo- 
Saxon Riddle, ' The Cuckoo ' De Haryngy Armageddon 
Chapel, Clifton Lady Guildford, 109 Croft of Barforth : 
Leedes of North Milford Samuel Hartlib Chevalier Schaub 
The H6tel Vouillemont James Conway Edward Capern 
Heraldic Mottoes Pirnlico Huguenot Bible Lord Bea- 
consfleld and Ude the Cook Joseph Auterac, 110 Sir 
Richard Blackmore Mayhew Great Public Schools- 
King and Ormiston Families Authors wanted, 111. 

REPLIES : The Troutbeck Pedigree. Ill Meiler Magrath, 
Archbishop of Cashel Launching of Ships, 112 Blue 
Beard De Kemplen's Automaton Chess-player Cole- or 
Coale-rents Charm of St. Colme Bears, 113 British 
Settlers hi America Brewers' Company Pictures in the 
Hermitage at Petrograd, 114 Surnames as Christian 
Names The Arms of Leeds Dante's Beard Baron Grant 
Adah Isaacs Menken's ' Infelicia ' John Wesley's First 
Publication ' British Melodies Welsh Map sought " To 
burn one's boats," 115 Final " den " in Kentish Place- 
names Translation of Motto required Smokers' Folk-lore 
Spelling of " Champagne " Ceremonial Vestments of the 
Judiciary The English " h " : Celtic, Latin and German 
Influences, 116 Vice-Admiral Sir Christopher Mings 
Prime Minister Inscriptions on an Icon, 117 The Papal 
Triple Crown Freedom of a City Authors wanted, 118 
Matthew Arnold : Reference sought, 119. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Life of Henry, Third Earl of South- 
ampton ' ' Calendar of Entries in Papal Registers ' 
4 Hampshire.' 



THE last volume of the ' Nicholas Papers,' 
recently published, has thrown some addi- 
tional light upon the treachery of Sir Richard 
Willys of the " Sealed Knot," and sets out 
the notice posted upon the Exchange by 
George Paule in 1659 denouncing Willys as 
a traitor. And as Sir Samuel Morland's 
" Narrative" of Willys's treason was printed 
in 1913 in the Rev. Dr. John Willcock's 
* Life of Sir Henry Vane the younger,' at 
last we are getting to the bottom of a 
curious and little understood story, about 
which all the older writers are more or less 
in error. 

Two questions, however, remain to be 
settled ; and the first is one of very great 
historical importance. The first is, when 
did Sir Richard Willys first commence be- 
traying the Royalists into Cromwell's hands ? 
Mr. Firth, in his 'Last Years of the Protecto- 
ftite ' (i. p. 30), states that Willys's treason 

did not begin before 1656, but hardly 
gives direct evidence in support of this 

The second question is, what defence did 
Willys offer when the inquiry into his con- 
duct was held in 1660. On May 15, 1660, 
Willys was condemned, but was pardoned on 
condition that he never again came into the 
King's presence or entered into the " verge 
of the Court." 

The first question is answered to some 
extent by Willys's petition to Cromwell in 
1654, and the second by his signed defence 
read at the inquiry in 1660. Both docu- 
ments are to be found in the State Papers. 

The editress of the Calendar of Domestic 
State Papers for 1654 made no reference 
whatever to the petition in her index to the 
Calendar, either under the name " Willis " 
(by which she persistently misdescribes 
Sir Richard) or under the name " Willys," 
as he himself wrote it. So that, in the first 
place, I must point out that, nevertheless, 
she prints her version of the petition on p. 
293 of the Calendar for 1654 under the date 
of " Aug. 10." I quote this before setting 
out the document itself : 

Aug. 10. Petition of Rich. Willis [sic] prisoner 
in the Tower, to the protector. I have been close 
prisoner since 26 May last, but neither loss of 
liberty nor friends so burdens me as the fear pi 
having fallen into your displeasure. I hope in 
your compassion that you will accept sufficient 
bail to my enlargement, and I will express my 
gratitude by obedience. Also I still beg a licence 
to transport some Irishmen to serve the Vene- 
tians against the Turks, engaging for the faithful 
performance of my propositions. With refer- 
ence thereon to Council [1 page]. 

There are some more references in the 
same Calendar to Sir Richard Willys. 

On p. 436, under the date of June 2, 
a warrant to Serj. Dendy for Sir Richard's 
arrest and committal to the Tower is en- 
tered. Yet in both petition and defence 
he asserts that he was arrested in. May. 
Where and why had he been kept prisoner 
I before his final committal to the Tower on 
June 2 ? 

And on p. 354, apparently under the 
date of Sept. 1, there is Cromwell'^ Council's 
report. Yet it was not acted upon. 

Sir Richard Willys's petition runs as 
follows : 

To his highness the lord protector of England, 
Scotland and Ireland. 

The humble petition of Richard Willis now 
prisoner hi ye Tower. Sheweth 

That though your petitioner hath been close 
prisoner since the 26th of May last ; yet, neither 
the loss of his liberty, which was all, his wealth, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. t s.xito.ii,iM. 

nor ye raisse of his friends, nor ye unhappinesse 
of his necessitous condition are halfe so burden- 
some to him as ye apprehension of having fallen 
into your highness displeasure. 

Which would discourage your petitioner from 
humbly beseeching your highness to accept of 
sufficient baile for his inlargement if he had not 
a hope that your highness' great compassion and 
generosity will extend it selfe to your petitioner, 
whose gratitude and inocensie shall ever be ex- 
pressed in ye returne of his obedience and harty 
wishes for your highness prosperitie. And 
further sheweth that >our petitioner is still an 
humble suitor to your highness, as he formerly 
hath beene, that your highness would be graci- 
ously pleased to grant him licence to transport 
a competent number of Irish men for ye service 
of ye Venetians against ye Turkes, he ingaging 
himselfe for ye faithfull performance of such pro- 
positions as he hopes will prove as acceptable 
to your highness as they shall be humbly offered 
by him. Who shall ever pray etc., 


August the Tenth 1654. His Highness' plea- 
sure is hereby to referre the consideration of this 
petition to the Councill. Lisle. Long. 

[Marginal note in a third handwriting] Richard 
Willys Prisoner in ye Tower. Reed. 18 Aug. 54. 

Why this reference to " proposals " ? Had 
they anything to do with the transport of 
Irishmen ? And why was Willys arrested 
at all, if not to squeeze him into a compliant 
frame of mind ? 

After this we get some curious entries 
in Cromwell's Council's Order Books. 

Under the date Dec. 18 in the Calendar 
for 1655 there is the following : 

Order on petition of Sir Richard Willis, prisoner 
at Lyme, that he have leave to go beyond seas, 
on security not to return without licence. 

Willys did not go beyond seas. 

And on p. 16 of the Calendar for 1658- 
1659, under the date of May 11 (1658) the 
Council advised Cromwell to order for trial 
for " treason " by the tribunal called a 
" High Court of Justice " a number of per- 
sons, amongst whom was Sir Richard Willys. 
He was not tried. 

Evidently Cromwell's Council was not in 
the secret. J. G. M. 

(To be continued.) 



(See 12 S. vi. and vii. passim; ix. 85, 105, 143, 186, 226, 286, 306, 385, 426, 504, 525; 

x. 26, 66.) 

(An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public-house 

many cases rebuilt.) 


Spring Garden, Charing Cross . . 1711 

Toy .. 

Hampton Court 

Triumphal Chariot . . Near the present Hamilton Place 


St. Paul's Churchyard 


,. ... Strand 

Daily Courant, Feb. 21. " Lost 
on Sunday last from a lady's side 
at St. James' Church a plain gold 
watch. Whoever brings it to 
Tom's Coffee House in Spring 
Garden, Charing Cross, shall have 
two guineas reward and no ques- 
tions asked." 

1725 Daily Post, Feb. " Masquerade 
habits to be let, at five shillings 
per habit, being very curious and 
comick, at Tom's Coffee House, next 
door to Young Man's Coffee House, 
Charing Cross." 

1735 London Daily Post, July 30. 
1785 Sadler's ' Life of T. Dunckerley, 

1891, p. 126. 
Larwood, p. 505. 
Hickey, i. 100. 

Dasert's ' Piccadilly in Three Cen- 
turies,' 1920, p. 266. 
1713 Swift's 'Author upon Himself.' 

" At Child's or Truby's never once 

had been : 
Where town and country vicars 

flock in tribes, 
Secured by numbers from the 

layman's gibes, 
And deal in vices of the graver 

Tobacco, censure, coffee, pride 

and port." 
1739 London Evening Post, Nov. 17. 

12 S. X FEB. 11, 1922.] 




Turk's Head 

Turk's Head 

(Locus unknown) 

Bell Savage Yard, Ludgate Hill 

Corner of Greek Street and 
Compton Street 




Turk's Head 
Turk's Head Bagnio 

York Street, Covent Garden . 
Bow Street, Covent Garden . 


Turk's Head Bagnio James Street, Golden Square . . 

Twelve Bells 
Twigger's Coffee and 

Punch House 
Two Black Boys . . 
Two Black Posts . . 

Two Blue Bells 
Two Blue Posts 
Two Brewers 
Two Brewers 

*Two Chairmen 
Two Moons . . 

Two Swans . . 



Unicorn Beerhouse 

St. Bride's Lane 
Bishopsgate Street Without . 

Near Katherine Street, Strand. 
Maiden Lane 


Cockpit Alley, Drury Lane 
Long Ditch, Westminster 
Ponders End 

Wardour Street (No. Ill) 
Southwark . . . . 

Bishopsgate Without 

Tooley Street 

Corner of Henrietta Street, 
Covent Garden 

South-west corner of the Hay- 

HighHolborn, south side, oppo- 
site Red Lyon Street 








Howell's ' State Trials,' vol. 20, 

col. 595. 

Pearce's ' Amazing Duchess,' ii. 256. 
Applebee's Weekly Journal, June 20. 
' London Topographical Record,' 

1903, ii. 85. 

Post Boy, Oct. 9. "At Andlaby's 
Coffee House, the Turk's Head, in 
Greek Street, near Soho Square is 
an exact and true account of all 
the Blanks and Prizes that are 
drawn of the million and a half 
Lottery being brought from the 
Guildhall every hour of the day." 
Sadler's ' Masonic Facts and Fic- 
tions,' 1887, p. 70. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 187. 
Macmichael's ' Charing Cross,' p. 183. 
Heiron's ' Ancient Freemasonry/ 


Thornbury, iii. 178. 
La? wood, p. 428. 
' N. & Q.,' Dec. 22, 1849. 
Simpson's ' London Taverns and 

Masonry,' p. 40. 
Thornbury, iii. 285. 
Jacobs, p. 163. 
Daily Advertiser, Jan. 24. 
Dobson's ' Hogarth,' p. 80. 
Kept by Mrs. Earle. 
Dobson's ' Hogarth,' p. 80. 
Kept by Alice Neal. 
Chancellor's ' Fleet Street,' p. 63. 
The County Journal, or The Craftsman, 

Nov. 1. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916 
Hammond, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., pp. 

o- 1 8 

Sadler's ' Masonic Facts and Fic- 
tions,' 1887, p. 116. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Lane's ' Handy Book,' p. 190. 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Tristram's ' Coaching Days and 

Coaching Ways,' 1893, p. 287. 
Rumbolt's ' Soho,' p. 199. 
' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London/ 

p. 388. 

Rocque's * Survey.' 
London Museum : pewter tankard. 
Kept by J. Keys. 

Parker's ' Life's Painter of Varie- 
gated Characters. ' 
Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Wheatley's ' Bond Street,' plate 1. 
Larwood p. 388. 

Dasert's ' Piccadilly in Three Cen- 
turies,' 1920, p. 21. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1720 Daily Courant, Oct. 4. 

1733 Daily Journal, Oct. 9. " Tickets in 
Lottery, 1733, bought and sold by 
Richard Shergold, broker, at his 
office by the Union Coffee House, 
over against Jonathan's in Ex- 
change Alley." 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.X.FHB. 11,1922. 


Temple Bar 


Union . . . . Piccadilly. . 

Union Flag and Punch High Street, Wapping .. 

(Locus unknown) 



Vine .. 

Bishopsgate Street Within, 1677 
west side, north of the Four 
Swans 1732 

Mile End . . 

Near the "George and Vul- 1720 
ture," Cornhill 

(To be continued.) 

General Advertiser, Nov. 10. " One 
who has a place under the Govern- 
ment of about 100 p. a. wants 
50 for one year, for which he 
will give good interest and insure 
his life if required. Direct t 
H. J., at the bar of the Union 
Coffee House, without Temple 

Levander, A.Q.C.. vol. xxix., 1916. 

Larwood, p. 388. 

Calendar of MSS. of Marquis of 

Bath, iii. 285.. 
Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London 

' Parish Clerks' Remarks of 

London,' p. 393. 
Rocque's ' Survey.' 
Public Advertiser, Sept. 15. 
Harwood's ' Map of London.' 
London Museum : water-colour 

drawing by Dr. Philip Norman. 
Applebee's Weekly Journal, 

Nov. 19. 





(See 12 S. x. 81.) 

MANY of the names in this list are extant in 
Aldeburgh but the old name of Catmore or 
Catmer is now extinct in the place. Jinnings 
and Micheli have also disappeared, but perhaps 
this is not to be wondered at in the case of 
Jinnings ! 

ANNO 1654. 

HINDS & The purpose of marriage be- 

BROWNE tween John Hinds widdower 

1653. 1654 and Margaret Browne widdow 

both of this parish was published on three severall 

Lords days, viz on the 12th, 19th, 26th days of 

March 1653. And the sayd John Hinds, and 

Margaret Browne were marryed on the 27th day of 

March 1654, by Mr John Biirwood Justice of 

Peace of this Corporation 

Ita tester H SEARLE Regist 

CARTER & The purpose of marriage be- 
ELMY 1654. tween John Carter singleman 
and Elizabeth Elmy single- 
woman both of this parish, was pub'ished on three 
severall Lords days, viz on the 19th & 26th days 
of March 1653 & 1654; and on the second day 
of April 1654 : And the sayd John & Elizabeth 
were marryed on the fourth day of April 1654, 
by Mr John Burwood Justice of peace of this Cor- 

Ita tester H SEARLE Registrarius 

DAWSON & The purpose of marriage be- 
BURWOOD. tween George Dawson wid- 
dower and Mary Burwood 
widdow both of this parish, was published on 
three severall Lords days, viz, on the 26th day of 

March, & on the 2d and 9th days of April 1654 ; 
and they were marryed (as they say) On the 
24th day of April 1654, at the Collegiat Church of 
St. Katherines by the Tower London by Rob : 
Chamberian minister of the gospell. 

PYE & The purpose of marriage between 
WILLS. Timothy Pye widdower and 
Katherine Wills widdow both of 
this parish was published on three severall 
Lords days viz on the 9th 16th & 231 days of 
April 1654 : and the sayd Timothy & Katherine 
were marryed on the first day of May 1654, by 
M? John Burwood Justice of Peace of this Cor- 

Ita tester H SEARLE Regist 

STAFFORD & The purpose of marriage between 

Dow. Richard Stafford widdower and 

Emme Dow widdow both of this 

parish was published on three severall Lords 

days, viz on the 19th & 26th days of February, & 

on the 5th day of March 1653 ; and the sayd 

Richard and Emme were marryed on the 28th day 

of April 1654 by Mr John Burwood Justice of 

Peace of this Corporation 

Ita tester H SEARLE Registr 

DYMER & The purpose of marriage be- 

WOODRUFF tween Robert Dymer wid- 

1654 dower and E'izabeth Woodruff 

widdow both of this parish, was published on 

three severall Lords days, viz on the 16, 23, 30th 

days of April 1654 ; and the sayd Robert and 

Elizabeth were marryed on the 9th day of May 

1654, by Mr Alexander Bence Justice of peace 

of 'this Corporation. 

Ita tester H SEARLE Registr 

KNTGHTS & The purpose of marriage be- 
PITT. 1654 tween John Knights wid- 
dower, and Katherine Pitts 
widdow both of this parish was published on three 
severall Lords days, viz the 30th day of April, & 

12 S. X. FEB. 11, 1922.] 



the 7th & Uth days of May 1654 : and the sayd 
John & Katherine were marryed on the 16th day 
of May 1654 by Mr Alexander Bence Justice of 
peace of this Corporation 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr. 

PALMER & The purpose of marriage between 
JARMY 1654 John Palmer of this parish 
singleman, & Jane Jarrny of 
Fryston singlewoman was published on three 
severall Lords days, viz the 7th, 14th, 21th days 
of May 1654 (together with the names & sir- 
names of John Palmer of Easton father to the 
sayd John & George Jarmy of Knoddishall 
father to the sayd Jane) And the sayd John & 
Jane were marryed at Ipswich (as they say) on 
the 27th day of May 1654, by Mr John Brandlyng 
Justice of peace 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registrarius 

MANLING & The purpose of marriage between 
JORDAN Gilbert Manling widdower, and 
Rose Jordane singlewoman both 
of^this parish was published on three severall 
Lords days viz the 30th of April & the 7th & 14th 
days of May 1654 ; and the sayd Gilbert and Rose 
were marryed on the 17th day of September, by 
Mr John Burwood Justice of peace of this Cor- 

Ita testor H. SEARLE Registr 

October 1654 by Mr Edward Cocket Justice of 
Peace of this Corporation. 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr. 

ANNO 1654 

OULDRING & The purpose of marriage be- 
HARMAN. tween Nicolas Ouldring wid- 
dower, and Anne Harman single- 
woman, both of this parish, was published 3 
severall Lords days, viz on the 19th & 26th days 
of March 1653, 1654 ; and on the 2d day of Aprill 
1654 (together with the name & sirname of Anne 
Harman widdow mother to the aforesayd Anne) 
And the sayd Nicolas & Anne were marryed on 
the 13th day of November 1654, by Mr Edward 
Cocket Justice of Peace of this Corporation. 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 


BRIGGS & The purpose of marriage between 
BURLEY John Briggs of Uffoard widdower, 
and Joan Burley of this parish 
widdow, was published on three severall Lords 
days viz on the 3J, 10th, & 17th days of September 
1654, and the sayd John & Joan were marryed at 
Orford on the 19th day of September 1654, by this County 
Mr Thomas Hastings Justice of Peace of that j CATTMER & 

The purpose of marriage between 
Joseph Trundler widdower and 
Anne Dyer single-woman both of 
this parish, was published 3 severall Lords days, viz 
on the 29th day of October, & on the 5th & 12th days 
of November 1654 ; And the sayd Joseph & Anne 
were marryed on the 14th day of November 1654, 
by Mr Edward Cocket Justice of Peace of this 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr. 

ARNOLD & The purpose of marriage between 
WELLS. John Arnold widdower & Susan 
Wills widdow both of this parish, 
was published on 3 severall Lords days, viz on 
the 29th day of October, & on the 5th & 12th days 
of November 1654 ; And the sayd John & Susan 
were marryed on the 14th day of November 1654, 
at Ash by Mr * Shepherd Justice of Peace of 


Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

EADE AND The purpose of Marriage between 
NICOLSON Edmund Eade widdower, and 
Ailce Nicolson widdow both of 
this parish, was published on three severall Lords 
days, viz on the 10th, 17th, 24th days of Septem- 
ber ; and the sayd Edmund and Ailce were mar- 
ryed on the 26th day of the same month 1654, by 
Mr Tho : Cheney Justice of Peace of this Cor- 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr. 


The purpose of marriage between 

Nicolas Stroger singleman, and 
Elizabeth Baldwin singlewoman 
both of this parish, was published on three 
severall Lords days, viz on the 10th, 17th, 24th 
days of September 1654: And the sayd Nicolas 
& Elizabeth were marryed at Halesworth on the 
-Mltli day of the same month, by Mr Samuel 
Fawether Justice of Peace of this County of 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

BURWOOD & The purpose of marriage be- 
WOODS tween Thomas Burwood wid- 
dower of this parish, & Eliza- 
beth Woods of Thorpe widdow, was published on 
three severall Lords days, viz on the 3d, 10th & 17th 
days of September 1654 ; and the sayd Thomas 
& Elizabeth were marryed on the 5th day of 

The purpose of marriage between 
BATCHELOR John Cattmer singleman, and 

Mary Batchelor singlewoman both 
of this parish, was published on 3 severall Lords 
days, viz on the 29th day of October, & on the 
5th & 12th days of November 1654, And the sayd 
John & Mary were marryed on the 23 day of 
January 1654, by Mr Tho : Cheney Justice of 
Peace in this Corporation. 

ROGERS & The purpose of marriage between 
DAVIES Robert Rogers singleman (son of 
Robert Rogers the elder of this 
parish) and Mary Davies singlewoman, both of 
this parish, was published on the 5th 12th & 19th 
days of November 1654 : And the sayd Robert 
and Mary were marryed on the 7th dav of Decem- 
ber by Mr Edward Cocket, Justice of Peace of this 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

BLOWERS & The purpose of marringe bet weene 
BURWOOD Arthur Blowers singleman & 
Mary Burwood singlewoman 
(daughter of Mr John Burwood of * this parish) 
was published on the 19th & 26th davs of Novem- 
ber, & on the 31 day of December 1654 ; And the 
sayd Arthur & Mary (being both of this parish) 
were marryed ^ bv Mr Thomas Chenev Justice 
of Peace of this Corporation on the 12th day of 

December 1654. 

Ifca testor H SEARLE Registr 




[12 S. X. FEB. 11, 1922, 

DYMER & The purpose of marriage betweene 
USHER Robert Dymer widdower, & Eliza- 
beth Usher widow both of this 
parish, was published on the 26th day of Novem- 
ber, & on the 3d & 10th davs of December 1654 ; 
and the sayd Robert & Elizabeth were marryed 
on the 12th day of December 1654, by Mr Tho : 
Cheney Justice of Peace of this Corporation 

Ita tester H SEARLE Registr 

LANDAMEB & The purpose of marriage be- 
FISK tween Nicolas Landamer wid- 

dower and Anne Fisk widdow 
both of this parish, was published on the 19th 
& 26th days of November & on the 3d day of 
December 1654; And the sayd Nicolas & Anne 
were marryed on the 12th day of December 1654 
by Mr Tho : Cheney Justice of Peace of this 

Ita tester H SEARLE Registr 

ANNO 1654. 

Dux & The purpose of marriage between 

LONG Edward Dux singleman and Anne 

Long singlewoman both of this parish, 

was published 3 severall Lords days, viz on the 

3d, 10th, & 17th days of December (together with 

the name & sirname of Anne Dux of Snape widdow 

mother to the sayd Edward) And the sayd 

Edward & Anne were married on the first day 

of January 1654 by Mr Tho : Cheney Justice of 

peace of this Corporation 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

HARBIN & The purpose of Marriage between 
MOYSE Mr Alexander Harbin of Bennet 
Grace-church London, single- 
man (sonn to Mr Andrew Harbin of Lawrence 
Pountney London) and Mrs Dorothy Moyse of 
Aldeburgh in Suff singlewoman (daughter to Mr 
Henry Moyse of Kerby in Norfolk) was published 
3 severall Lords days, viz on the 17, 24 & 31 days 
of December 1654 ; And the sayd Alexander & 
Dorothy were marryed on the sixteenth day of 
January 1654, by Justice Thomas Atkins Alder- 
man of London at his house in Ledden Hall street 
London in the parish of Andrew undershaft. 

H SEARLE Registr 

HUNT & The purpose of marriage between 

DAWSON John Hunt singleman, and Emme 

Dawson widdowboth of this parish 

was published 3 severall Lords days, viz on the 

24 & 31 days of December, and on the 7th day 

of January. And the sayd John & Emm were 

marryed on the 23 dav of January 1654 by Mr 

Tho : Cheney Justice of Peace of this Corporation. 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

JINNINGS & The purpose of marriage be- 
MICHELL tween Tho : Jinnings singleman 
and Susan Mitchell singlewoman 
both of this parish, was published on 3 severall 
Lords days, viz on the 12, 19, 26 davs of Decem- 
ber : but the sayd John forsooke the sayd Susan 
& did not marry her. 

GROOME & The purpose of marriage between 

SIMPSON Matthew Groome sinerleman and 

Margaret Simpson si a<?lewoman 

both of this parish, was published 3 severall Lords 

days viz on the 19, 26, days of November and on 
the 3d day of December : and the sayd Matthew 
& Susan were marryed on the 25th day of January 
1654, by Mr Tho : Cheney Justice of 'peace of this 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 

COCKETT & The purpose of marriage between 
HOLDING Richard Cocket widdower & 
Katherine Holding singlewoman 
both of this parish, was published 3 severall Lords 
days, viz on the 14, 21, & 28th days of January 
1654. And the sayd Richard & Katherine were 
marryed on the 29th of January 1654 by Mr 
Tho : Cheney Justice of Peace of 
noe this Corporation without a certificate 

certificat from the Register touching the pub- 
lication of their intended marriage 
Ita testor HEN : SEARLE Reg : 

JOHNSON & The purpose of marriage between 

CROSMAN Robert Johnson singleman (son 

of Robert Johnson the elder of 

Aldeburgh) & Amy Crossman widdow both of 

Aldeburgh, was published 3 severall Lords days, 

viz on the 14th, 21, & 28th days of January 1654, 

and the sayd Robert and Amy were marryed on 

the 6th day of February 1654, by Mr Edward 

Cocket Justice of peace of this Corporation 

Ita testor H SEARLE Registr 


(To be continued.) 

the following early reference to a twenty- 
four hour clock been noted ? 

The Latyns or the Italians, the Lomberdes 
and the Veneciens, wyth other prouynces anexed 
to the same, doth vary in dyuers numbringe- 
or rekanynge of theyr clokes. At mydnyght 
they doth begyn, and do reken vnto xxiii. a 
cloke, and than it is mydnyght ; and at one a 
cloke thei do begyn agayne. (A. Boorde's ' In- 
troduction of Knowledge,' c. 1547, ed. Furnivall 
(E.E.T.S. extra series, No. 10), 1870, pp. 178, 179.) 

(see ante pp. 29, 69).- The following names 
may be added to those which appear at the 
above references : 

Brinsden, William, son of John Brinsden of 
Barbadoes, Merchant, dec'd. App. to Samuel 
Pye of Bristol, Barber Surgeon. Consid. 50. 
11 July 1711. (Inl. 1/41-129.) 

Thomas, Samuel, son of George Thomas of 
Antegoa, Planter, dec'd. App. to Thomas Hodges 
of London, Mariner. Consid. 52 10s. 5 Feb. 

1717. (Inl. 1/6-29.) 

Browne, Conrade, son of Jos. Browne, of 
Island of Barbadoes. App. to Alex Inglis 
Chelsea College. Surgeon. Consid. 100. 31 Oct. 

1718. (Inl. 1/6-135.) 

Onge, Tim., son of Abel Onge of Dublin, Mer- 
chant. App. to Ebenezer Wentworth of Boston, 

12 s.x. FEB. ii, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


New England, Mariner. 
1719. (Inl. 1/6-198.) 

Consid. 52 19s. 

Epsom, Apothecary. Consid. 50. 
(Inl. 1/7-43.) 

11, Brussels Road, New Wandsworth, S.W. 11. 

Readers who ask for more intimate par- 
ticulars of the old " coffee-houses " without 
the eastward gate of the City of London 
in late Stuart and early Georgian times 
should remember that these places of 
common assembly for business or pleasure 
or play were not so numerous in the Port of 
London as in more fashionable quarters of 
the metropolis. " Town " habits were not 
possible much beyond Whitechapel Bars 
and Spitalfields Church, or, along shore, 
beyond Wapping ; and " coffee-houses " 
the incipient clubs were not frequented by 
the classes -- wits, poets, pamphleteers, 
politicians and gamesters who made the 
" coffee-houses " of St. James's famous in 
English social and literary history. The 
" coffee - houses " of Wapping, Goodman's 
Fields, the Minories, Aldgate and Spital- 
fields were the meeting-places of merchants, 
brokers, lottery agents, money-lenders, ship- 
owners, seamen, soldiers, bravoes, cheats 
and thieves, with a very large admixture 

25 Mar. j perhaps, a job picked up. The Danish, 
i Swedish, Norwegian, Hanoverian, Prussian, 
j | Dutch and, later, American captains and 
6 Oct. 1719. ! factors in London Port gradually set up 
rialtos, places of exchange and conference 
on the model of the English " coffee-houses " 
near to the dwellings of the respective 
agents or ambassadors of their national 
governments. These, changing with the 
times, existed to a period within living 
memory- as witness America Square 
and their names and situation are preserved 
in place-names in the locality. Me. 


WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of oniy private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

' LA SANTA PARENTELA.' In the Jews' 
market in Rome, on the Wednesday before 
Christmas last, I picked up an interesting 
little miniature of the above painted on 
ivory. It represents what were supposed 
to be the relations of the Virgin Mary. 
During the period 1480 to 1520, when the 
legend of the three marriages of St. Anne 
was current, some few pictures and minia- 


of the several sorts of not always dubious tures of the subject were painted, 
adventurers who lurked in London's Port I ^ these pictures are referred to by 
during the brief intervals in the long wars on I Jameson in her ' Legends of the Madonna, 
sea and land ; and practically none of these \ and two of the Flemish school are in the 
were, by nature or by early training, re- 1 Cologne Museum. Such a picture usually 
Borders. They needed such as Daniel Defoe ! consists of seven figures of women within 
to piece out their stories, and probably he : a screen, with whom are eight or nine 
knew much more about " coffee-houses " j children ; and, behind the screen, 
by the stairs to the river than he ever told, ! men, who, in one of the pictures in 

though he made great use of the " characters 

of both sexes he found in them. So when, | respective wives, 

in the process of a century, the great historic ! course, of one. 

" coffee -houses " of St. James's and the 

City became segregated into specific and 

exclusive coteries, and were turned into 


Cologne Museum, each point towards their 
with the exception, of 

political, social, racing or 
the humble " coffee-houses " 

gaming clubs, 
of East London 

According to the legend Anne is supposed 
to have married, first, Cleophas, by whom 
she had a daughter, Mary, married to 

faded away and were either closed or were 
converted into inns and taverns, but few j she had 
of which exist in any form to the present Zebedee, 
time. For the rest, there is now no record 
recoverable, and it is only certain that 

Alpheus, whose children were Judas Thad- 
deus, James the Minor and Joseph Justus. 

their conduct and management were similar 
to the institutions in St. James's, where for 
a few penceworth of " coffee " the company 
of one's fellows could be enjoyed without 
reference to rank, station or means, and, 

Anne married, secondly, Salome, by whom 
a daughter, Mary, married to 
whose children were James the 
Major and John the Evangelist. Anne 
married, thirdly, Joachim, by whom she 

had Mary the Virgin. Beside these there 
appear in the picture Zacharias and Eliza- 
beth, the parents of John the Baptist ; 
and amongst the children is Simon Zelotes. 
The men, therefore,_are Joseph, Joachim, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [iz S .X.F BB . 11,1922. 

Zacharias, Salome, Cleophas, Alpheus, 
Zebedee and three others. The women 
are the Virgin Mary, Mary Cleophas, Mary 
Salome, Anne, Elizabeth and two others ; | 
and the children are Jesus, John the Baptist, \ 
John the Evangelist, James Major, James 
Minor, Judas Thaddeus, Joseph Justus, j 
Simon Zelotes and perhaps one other. 
Who were these others ? 


p. 91). 18. I. H. Browne's 'A Pipe of 
Tobacco.' Who was the " ingenious friend " 
who contributed the parody of Ambrose 
Philips ? 

19. John Straight. When was he born ? 
It must have been about the sixteen - 

20. ' Who has e'er been at Baldock 
must needs know the mill.' This poem was | 
printed in 'Clio and Euterpe' (1759). Is! 
the author known ? 

21. Anonymous poems in Dodsley's collec- j 
tion, ' The Plaything Changed ' (" Kitty's | 
charming voice and face") and 'True wit 
is like the brilliant stone.' Is the author! 
of either known ? 

22. Anonymous poem in Aikin's collec- ! 
tion, ' Ye little Loves that round her wait.' | 
Is the author known ? 

23. Anonymous poem in Ritson's collec- 1 
tion, ' Love's no irregular desire.' Is the ; 
author known ? 

24. Anonymous poems in Dalrymple's ! 
collection, ' Ah ! dear Belinda hither fly ' j 
and 'The Fan' ("For various purpose 1 
serves the fan "). Is the author of either 
known ? 

25. Mary Jones. When was she born 
and when did she die ? She was a friend 
of Dr. Johnson's and published ' Miscel- 
lanies in Prose and Verse ' at Oxford in 

26. John Sharp, D.D. Died 1772. When 
was he bom ? 

27. Samuel Boyce (not Boyse). Died! 
1775. Published 'Poems on Several Occa- \ 
sions ' in 1757. When was he born ? 

28. Mary Whately. Published 'Poems 
on, Several Occasions ' in 1764. Is anything 
known of her ? 

29. Mrs. Greville, author of the ' Prayer 
for Indifference.' When was she born and 
when did she die ? Am I right in supposing 
her to have been the mother of Mrs. Crewe ? 
Was her Christian name Frances ? 

30. William Kendall. Published ' Poems ' 

(8vo, Exeter, 1793). Is anything known of 
him ? 

I apologize for sending such a long list of 
queries. I have not been able to find any 
of the information asked for in the ' D.N.B.* 


10, Mulberry Walk, S.W.3. 

any reader furnish me with any details re- 
garding the wife, and the place and date 
of the marriage, of Colonel Charles White- 
foord, third son of Sir Adam Whitefoord, 
Bart., of Blaquahan, Ayrshire, a descendant 
of the family of Whitefoord of that ilk. 

Charles Whitefoord entered the Navy in 
1718 ; transferring to the Army, he was 
gazetted Ensign in 1728 in Lord John Kerr's 
Regiment of Foot (31st Foot). He served 
in Minorca, 1738-40, as Captain in the Royal 
Irish Regiment, and in 1740 served in the 
West India Expedition as Major and A.D.C. 
to his uncle, Charles, 8th Baron Cathcart. 

In 1745-46 Chas. Whitefoord, then Lt.- 
Col. 5th Marines, served under Sir John 
Cope at Preston Pans, and later was present 
at Culloden. He compiled a defence of Sir 
John Cope, and his conduct at Preston 
Pans and his chivalrous relations with 
Alexander Stewart of Inverhayle form the 
basis of the relations between Colonel Talbot 
and Baron Bradwardine in Sir Walter 
Scott's ' Waverley.' 

Charles Whitefoord died at Galway on 
Jan. 2, 1753, as Colonel of the 5th (Irwin's) 
Regiment of Foot. 

Charles Whitefoord's wife is stated to 
have been a daughter or niece of the Earl 
of Morton ; she had probably died by 1738. 

Colonel Chas. Whitefoord had two 
children : 

1. Caleb Whitefoord, F.R.S., F.S.A., born 
at Edinburgh in 1734, was educated at 
James MundelTs school and entered Edin- 
burgh University in 1748. In 1782-3 he 
was secretary of the " Commission for 
Treating of Peace with America " at Ver- 
sailles. Caleb Whitefoord was a well-known 
wit, dilettante and litterateur in London in 
the latter part of the eighteenth century, 
the friend of Dr. Johnson, Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, David Garrick and Oliver Gold- 
smith ; he was the subject of a long notice 
in Goldsmith's ' Retaliation,' ending _with 
the following lines : 
Merry Whitefoord, farewell, for thy sake I'll 

That a Scot may have humour, I'd almost said 




2. A daughter, Charlotta, married to a 
Mr. Smith ; her son was Charles Smith, 
Painter to the Great Mogul. 


WANTED. Can any reader tell me of a 
portrait of Gilbert White of Selborne ? 
There is none in the National Portrait 
Gallery, and no London printseller that I 
have asked can supply one. 


ORNITHOLOGISTS. Who were the two 
ornithologists of whom the story is told that 
one day they were looking at an owl in a 
taxidermist's window and were discussing 
how unnaturally the bird was set-up when 
it suddenly winked its eye ? H. S. G. 

Can anyone furnish such data as will irre- 
fragably determine the question of the 
birthplace of Brigadier -General John Nichol- 
son, who fell at Delhi in '57, since the 
accounts of the same conflict as regards 
both locality and year. On the morning 
of the 19th inat., whan an arresting statue 
of that immortal Anglo-Indian was un- 
veiled at Lisburn, Co. Antrim, The 
Belfast News-Letter stated that he was born 
in that cathedral town on Dec. 11, 1822 
a statement which Field -Marshal Sir Henry ' 
Wilson repeated in his address at the un- ! 
veiling ceremony. On the other hand, a j 
contributor to vol. xli. of the ' D.N.B.' | 
asserts that Nicholson was born in Dublin ; 
on Dec. 11, 1821, and that after his father's | 
death in 1830 the family moved to Lisburn, 
the biographer adding with engaging naivete \ 
that Lisburn . is in Co. Wicklow ! 
Another high authority whose reputation j 
for accuracy is seldom impugned, * The j 
Century Dictionary and Cyclopaedia of i 
Names,' likewise gives Dublin as the ' 
general's birthplace ; and a similar pro- 
nouncement is made by ' Nelson's Ency- 
clopaedia.' R. HART MAZE. 

known of the following corps of Irish Volun- 
teers ? 

Aughnacloy Volunteers (existed in 1782). 

Ballina and Ardnaree Volunteers (existed 

Ballymascanlon Rangers of Loyal Louth. 

Ballyroom Cavalry. 

When and fo what purpose were they 
raised and by whom were they commanded ? 

i MENT. The following meagre particulars 
I of the chaplains to this regiment are known. 
Can any reader supply information as to the 
date and place of birth, education and 
careers before appointment to and after 
leaving the regiment ? 

John Arrow, May 23, 1758 ; chaplain, 
50th Foot, March 18, 1760, to Dec. 3, 1760. 
Peter Platell, March 29, 1760, to 1761. 
George Farren, March 4, 1761, to 1785. 
John Manning, July 13, 1785 ; retired 1796. 
Samuel Turner, June 4, 1796, to 1797. 

Where can I find a modern English version 
of the Anglo - Saxon riddt", No. II. ( ' The 
Cuckoo '), in Sweet's ' Anglo-Saxon Reader ' ? 


DE HARYNGY. In three fourteenth- cen- 
tury records of almost identical date the 
following names occur : 

1316. Bernard Domini Haringi de Pullicis 
(Close Roll, p. 328). 

1316. Bernard de Haryngy (Pat. Roll, p. 609). 

1317. Bernard Haryngi (Pat. Roll, p. 631). 
The references are obviously to the same 

person, who is described as of Florence in 
the first and second of these records, but his 
connexion with England is clear from the 
fact that the second roll refers to a Suffolk 
deed, and the third mentions that he was a 
citizen of London. How may the surname 
and its variations be accounted for ? Can 
the name as a place-name be identified ? 

69, Oakfield Road, Stroud Green, N.4. 

Thackeray's ' Pendennis,' chap, ii., Arma- 
geddon Chapel is spoken of as being in 
Clifton. Can any reader say if this is still 
in existence, and, if so, by what name is it 
now known ? 

I am a visitor to Clifton and should feel 
interested in any information. 


60, Alma Road, Clifton, Bristol. 

LADY GUILDFORD. Was the lady of this 
name, who had a priest arrested at her 
London house, April 4, 1574, Dame Eliza- 
beth Guildford, daughter of John Shelley 
Esq., of Michelgrove, Clapham, Sussex, 
and Mary, his wife, daughter of Sir William 
Fitzwilliam, Knt., of Gaynes Park, Co. 
Essex, as suggested ft 12 S. ix. 422 ? This 
Dame Elizabeth was the wife of Sir Thomas 



[12 S. X. FEB. 11, 1922. 

Guildford, Knt., son, by his first wife, of 
Sir John Guildford, Knt., of Benenden, Co. 

Or was she perhaps Dame Mary Guild - 
ford, the above-mentioned John Shelley's 
widow, who was the second wife of the 
above-mentioned Sir John Guildford, and 
Dame Elizabeth's mother, as well as her 
stepmother-in-law ? 

For both these ladies see MB. EVEBITT'S 
interesting communication at 10 S. iv. 55. 

MILFORD (TADCASTER). Are there any 
direct representatives of these two old 
Yorkshire families at the present day ? 

They lived at the above places at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century. 

P. E. G. 

SAMUEL HARTLIB (1600-1662). Can any- 
one tell me where this friend of Milton re- 
sided in England and where he is buried ? 
His mother is said to have been English, but 
I should be glad of information on this point 

142, Kinfauns Road, Goodmayes, Essex. 

CHEVALIEB SCHAUB. -When King Stanis- 
law of Poland came to London in 1754 he 
stayed with Chevalier Schaub, a naturalized 
Swiss. I should be glad of information re- 
garding this latter gentleman and whether 
it is known where he resided. 


142, Kinfauns Road, Goodmayes, 

tell me when what is now the Hotel Vouille- 
mont, in the Rue Boissy d'Anglas, Paris, 
ceased to be a private residence and became 
a hotel, and if any records exist of the 
Vouillemont family ? G. F. W. 

JAMES CONWAY, sometimes called " The 
Policeman Poet," author of ' St. Godric 
and other Poems ' and ' Home Lyrics,' a 
resident of Liverpool in the eighties. Can 
any reader give biographical details of him 
or say when and where he died ? 

W. N. C. 

EDWABD CAPEBN, the "Robert Burns" 
of Devon, friend of Harrison Weir, and 
quondam resident of Braunton. When 
and where did he die ? W. N. C. 

HEBALDIC MOTTOES. I shall be much 
obliged for any answers which describe a 
book or books containing lists of heraldic 

mottoes. A book which gives, in addition* 
some brief account of the circumstances 
(where known) under which the mottoes were 
acquired will be still more useful for my pur- 
pose my purpose being that of illustration in 
preaching and teaching. T. H. SOULBY. 
Kestor Gien, Chagford, South Devon. 

PIMLICO. Can any reader tell me the 
origin of the name " Pimlico " ? Why was 
that part of London so called ? H. E. 

[This subject has often been discussed in our 
columns and the following references might be 
consulted : 1 S. i. 383, 474 ; ii. 13 ; v. 260 5 S. viii. 
1686 S. ix. 148, 253, 295, 357, 418 ; xi. 68, 176 
10 S. iii. 182, 254 ; x. 401, 457, 514 ; xi. 75, 133, 
194, 310, 414 11 S. xii. 364.] 

HUGUENOT BIBLE. Can any reader con- 
versant with various editions of the Bible 
throw any light at all on the particular issue 
as described on the title page as follows ? 

La Bible ] qui est | Toute la | Sancte Escri- 
toire du vieil et Nouveau Testament Autrement | 
L'Ancienne et la Nouvelle Alliance. Le tout 
revev confer^ sur les Textes Hebriaux et Grecs | 
A Sedan | Par Jean Jannon [ Imprimeur de 1' Aca- 
demie | M.D.C.XXXHI. 

The edition in question is 12mo bound in 
calf gilt, and the cover scoriated with neat 
ornamentative quavering. There also ap- 
pears an oval cut on the title page. 


Menai View, North Road, Carnarvon. 


COOK. In Lord Beaconsfield's ' Letters,' 
edited by Ralph Disraeli (1887 ed., 
p. 146), under date of February, 1839, there 
is the following : 

There has been a row at Crockford's and Ude 
dismissed. He told the Committee he was worth 
10,000 a year. ... He told Wombwell that in 
spite of his 10,000 a year he was miserable in 

In vol. ii. of Lord Beaconsfield's 'Life,' 
by Monypenny, pp. 39 and 40, the same 
incident is referred to, thus : 

13 Oct. 1838. He told the Committee he was 
worth 4,000 a year. ... He told Wombwell in 
spite of his 4,000 a year, &c. 

Can anyone suggest any explanation for 
this discrepancy in the figures ? 

I should also be glad to know the date 
and place of Tide's death. 


JOSEPH AUTEBAC was admitted to West- 
minster School in June, 1774. I should be 
slad to obtain any information about him. 

G. F. R. B. 

12 S. X. FEB. 11, 1922.] 



and whom did he marry ? The ' D.N.B.,' 
v. 129, merely states that there is a 
monument in the church at Boxted to the 
memory of Sir Richard and his wife, Dame 
Mary Blackmore. G. F. R. B. 

MAYHEW. I am anxious to find out 
;about the Mayhews. My maternal grand- 
mother was a Miss Ellen Mayhew before 
her marriage to John Meeson Parsons, and 
was a daughter of Jane Mayhew (nee \ 
Gilding) and " John Mayhew the Younger," j 
about whom I know nothing. 

E. F. OAKELEY (Major). 

The Gables, Eynsham, Oxon. 

twelve " Great Public Schools " in order of | 
importance and seniority ? F. J. H. 

.anyone having access to the pedigree of 
the Ormiston of Ormiston family give me 
particulars of any marriage between mem- 
bers of these families ? The Kings belonged ' 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

AUTHORS WANTED. 1. Can any of your readers 
tell me where the following quotation comes 
from : 

" Behind our life the Weaver stands, 

And works His wondrous will. 
We leave it in His all- wise hands, 
And trust His perfect will. 

Should mystery enshroud His plan, 

And our short sight be dim, 
We will not try the whole to scan, 

But leave each thread to Him." 


2. " The people take the thing of course, 

They marvel not to see 
This strange, unnatural divorce 

Bi-twixt delight and me.V A. E. H. 

3. I should be grateful to know where the follow- 
ing verses are to be found, or whether or not the 
last line but two is correctly rendered with 
41 loveliness " : 

11 What silences we keep year after year 

With those who are most near to us and dear. 
We live beside each other day by day 
And speak of myriad things, but seldom say 
The full sweet words that lie just in our reach 
Beneath the common-place of common speech. 
Then out of sight and out of reach they go, 
These dear familiar friends who loved us so ; 
And sitting in the shadow they have left, 
Alone with loveliness [? loneliness] and sore 


We think with vain regret of some kind word 

That once we might have said and they have 

heard." G. C. 


(12 S. x. 21, 77, 97.) 

THIS family (of which an account appeared 
in 4 S. iv. 276) is one in which I am 
much interested. I have been for some 
time trying to compile a complete and 
accurate pedigree, but I have found it a 
task of great difficulty. The following are 
a few extracts from my Troutbeck notes 
which bear upon the points raised by DR. 

Sir William Troutbek died 8 Sept.. 2 
Henry VIII. ; Margaret, wife of John Talbot, Esq., 
and daughter of Adam Troutbek, brother of Sir 
William, aged sixteen, is his next heir (Inquisi- 
tions, Chester, 3/00, No. 7, May 7, 4 HenryVIII.). 

Livery of the lands of Sir William Troutbeke, 
in Herefordshire, Wilts, Salop, the town of Glou- 
cester, Devon, Wales, and Calais, to Margaret, wife 
of John Talbot, arid daughter of Adam Troutbeke, 
Sir William's brother (Letters and Papers, 
Henry VIII., May 5, 1512). 

Dec., 4 Henry VIII. [1512] : John Talbot and 
Margaret, his wife, v. William Pole and Margaret, 
his wife (widow of Sir William Troutbeck), re 
Manor of Brynstath, &c. (Chester Fines, file 38). 

Sir John Talbot and Margery, his wife, v. Sir 
John Husy, re three messuages, &c., in Oxi Richard 
and Watford, Herts. The following pedigree is 
alleged : John Troutbeck, temp. Henry VI., by 
Margery, his wife, had issue (besides John, the 
uncle, who died s.p.) William, his son and heir, 
who had issue William, who died s.p., and Adam, 
whose daughter Margery married John Talbot, 
the plaintiff (De Banco Roll, Trinity, 17 Henry 
VIII. [15251 Plantagenet Harrison's Notes). 

Richard Troutbeck, gent., was a trustee of the 
marriage settlement of Thomas Pole and Mary, 
daughter of Sir John Talbot of Grafton. 

Richard Troutbeke v. Joan Troutbeke, widow ; 
Fine premises in Elton (Chester Plea Rolls, 33 
Henry VIII., pt. 1, m. 5). [Not examined.] 

16 Aug., 4/5 Philip and Mary [1557] : an inden- 
ture mentioned, by Margaret Chorlton, widow, 
sometime wife of Richard Troutbeck, late of New- 
port, Salop, gent., concerning land in Troughford 
[Trafford], which the said Richard on 8 April, 1 
Edward VI. [15471 had demised to William 
Leche (Harl. MSS., 2079, f. 51, 82). 

My in'erest in the Trou' beaks centres 
chiefly at present in the following : 

1. Agnes, cousin of John Troutbeck, Chamber- 
lain of Chester, and perhaps daughter (? and 
heiress) of Thomas Troutbeck, one of the Cheshire 
archers at Agincourt, probably a brother of 
William (John's father), who camo from the 
place of his name in Westmorland and founded 
the family in Cheshire! She married, first, John 
de Dedwode of Chester, Deputy Chamberlain of 
that city to William and John Troutbeck, who 
died in 1445 and by whom she had dower in 
Chester, which was the subject of various actions. 
She married, secondly, about 1440-7, William 



12 S. X. FEB. 11, 1922. 

Denny, Esq., of London, by whom she was mother 
of Sir Edmund Denny, Baron of the Exchequer, ^ c. 
2. Robert Troutbeck of Trafford, Cheshire, dead 
by 1508. He is said to have been the third son of 
Sir William Troutbeck of Durham (son and heir of 
John) by Margaret Stanley, his wife, and brother 
of Sir William and Adam. But he may in reality 
have been the son of Miles Troutbeck of Astbury, 
who was probably a brother of the first William 
(the founder). In the Visitations, &c., Robert Trout- 
beck is said to have had a daughter and co-heiress, 
Mary, who married (as second wife) Sir Edmund . 
Denny, above named, and was the mother by i 
him of the Right Hon. Sir Anthony Denny and 
many other children. 

I shou'd be very glad to obtain any 
further information concerning Agnes and 
Robert Troutbeck. 

I have, however, recently obtained | 
evidence which tends to sLow that Mary, ! 
wife of Sir Edmund Denny, may have been j 
the daughter of John Coke of Newbury, 
Beds, and not a Troutbeck, in which case 
the Troutbeck coat, differenced with a 
mullet, which was quartered by Sir An h< >ny 
Denny, would no doubt have been brought 
in by the above-named Agnes. 

The Troutbeck pedigrees in the Harleian 
MSS. are very unsatisfactory. The best 
printed pedigrees are those in The Warrington 
Guardian for June, &c., 1878 (by W. Beamont), 
and in Earwaker's c St. Mary's, Chester.' 

If the Troutbeck documents which are, 
I understand, in the possession of the Earl 
of Shrewsbury could be properly examined 
they would, no doubt, throw much light 
on this subject. (REV.) H. L. L. DENNY. 
St. Mark's Vicarage, 60, Myddelton Square, 

CASHEL (12 S. viii, 470 ; x. 59). The following 
is a copy from ' Some Funeral Entries of 
Ireland,' published in vol. xi.,No. 3, Part II., 
of the Association for the Preservation of the 
Memorials of the Dead in Ireland, 1909, 
p. 106 : 

(257) The Bt. Reverd. Father in God Mil- , 
erius Magrath Lod. Archbishopp of Chashell, 
died 9br the 14th 1622. He had to wife Amy | 
Daughter of John o Mare of Lysiriusga in Co. j 
Tipperary, by whom he had issue Tirlough, Red- j 
mond, Brien, Markes, James, Mary, Cicely, Ann 
<fc Ellis. He is buried in the Cathedll. Church | 
Chashell, call'd St. Patricks. 

The following are notes from the writer's 
pedigree of the family : 

1. Tirlough, married Catherine, daughter of 
Edmund Butler, 1st Baron Dunboyne, and ! 
was ancestor of the Magraths, Baronets cf Ard- ! 
mollane, Co. Tipperary, created June 5, 1629. 

2. Redmond, of Ballyniore, Co. Tipperary, 
was- ancestor of the family which was trans- , 

planted to Lecarrow, in the Co. Clare. He was 
living hi 166J, and was then 90 years old. 

3. Bryan, or Barnaby, of Bleane, Co. Tip- 
perary, married Mary, daughter of Phillip- 
O'Dwyer of Kilnamanagh, Co. Tipporary, and wa"s 
ancestor of the family of Bleane. Ho died in 1 629 .. 

4. Marcus, married Catherine, daughter of 
Thomas Butler of Ardmayle, and also Frances, 
daughter of Thomas Stracye of Ardbally, Co, 
Kerry. He had issue and died April 14, 1639. 

5. James, had a grant of lands, 1610. 
i. Mary, married Malcolm Hamilton. 

ii. Cicely, or Giles, married, first, John Butler 
of Ardiinnian,Co. Tipperary, and, secondly, John 
O'Dwyer of Dundrum, Co. Tipperary. 

iii. Ann, married James Butler of Kilmoyler,. 
Co. Tipperary. 

iv. Ellis, married Sir John Bowen, Knt., of 

The writer knows nothing of Meiler's 
second wife, but has a good deal of informa- 
tion about the descendants of his sons. 
He is much interested in the genealogy of 
the family, and will be glad to give any 
further information in his possession to- 
G. F. R. 'B. and to receive some from him, 
or from MR. J. B. WHITMORE, who writes at 
the second reference. 


49, Stanhope Gardens, S.W.7. 

LAUNCHING OF SKIPS (12 S. x. 31, 76). 
Yes, ships are launched stern first for mecha- 
nical reasons. The greatest depth, beam, 
and weight are aft, and when the stern is 
waterborne in launching it keeps the vessel 
on an even keel. If launched bow first, the 
vessel would go right under, owing to the 
sharp bow and paucity of beam. In a few 
instances determined by local considerations- 
vessels are built broadside to the water, and 
are so launched. F. J. H. 

Your correspondent CAPT. W. JAGGARD 
gives incorrect reasons for launching a ship 
stern first. Motion is obtained by the de- 
clivity of ways, and bow or stern first makes 
no difference to the momentum. A number 
of technical details point to stern first being 
the most suitable method. Consideration 
should be given to the following : De- 
clivity of building berth ; declivity of launch- 
ing ways ; difference in draught forward and 
aft ; on leaving the ways prevention of 
" tipping " by a preponderance in buoyancy 
moment ; the shape of the bow with 
regard to clearing the end of the berth as. 
the vessel becomes waterborne. 

Vessels are launched sideways when the 
canal or river is too narrow for a launch iit 
the usual way. A. M. I. N. A. 

ias.x.FHB.11,1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


BLUE BEARD (12 S. x. 68). I remember 
when living in the Peshawar Valley (1877- 
1883) becoming well acquainted with Sher 
Khan, the old blind Khan of Hazro, some 
miles from Attock in the Chach Plain. 
When I was first introduced to him by my 
friend Thos. Lambert Barlow, of the Salt 
Revenue Department, a man intensely 
beloved and respected by all the natives 
of those parts, I was amazed to see that 
he had a dark blue beard. Mussulmans of 
the Upper Punjab do not like grey beards. 
They dye them first red, a practice, if I 
remember rightly, noted by Arrian, and 
over the red they wash in an indigo b ue. 
Sher Khan, a fine old gentleman and hand- 
some, was by no means the only Blue 
Beard whom I now remember. 


PLAYER (12 S. x. 72). I should greatly 
like to see the explanation of the working 
of the above, as from MR. ALECK ABRAHAMS'S 
description of it, it appears to be similar to 
the one which I saw on the stage in South 
Africa some 35 years ago. Speaking from 
memory, the player was in the form of a 
dummy boy dressed as a Turk, and sitting 
cross-legged as a tailor on a base perhaps 
2ft. Gin. square and a couple of inches thick. 
The base was supported on a hollow cylinder 
of plain transparent glass about 1ft in 
diameter and 18in. high ; this in turn was 
supported on another wooden base on four 
legs. The size of the dummy boy was about 
that of a boy of eight years of age. I have 
no recollection of the hands of the dummy 
moving the pieces, but seem to recollect 
that there was a semicircular frame in front 
of one of the hands, and this frame may 
have contained a series of cards by combina- 
tions of which the movements could be 
indicated, in the well-known way in which 
chess problems are recorded. I have a 
recollection of the hand describing a semi- 
circle in a horizontal plane. It was a com- 
plete puzzle to me at the time, and I have 
no idea how the mechanism was directed 
or worked. A. S. E. ACKERMANN. 

Has MR. ABRAHAMS consulted the British 
Museum catalogue under " Kempelen," which 
is the correct spelling of the name ? I do 
not remember whether the few entries given 
there include a reference to Edgar Allan Poe, 
who has also attempted to solve the mystery 
of the automaton. His paper on this 
.subject is included in his Collected Works. 

i The automaton eventually found its w r ay 

, to the United States and perished there in 

I a conflagration. Full details of the inci- 

i dent, &c., were published in an American 

chess annual in comparatively recent times r 

but unfortunately I am unable to give the 

reference. L. L. K. 

COLE- OR COALE-RENTS (12 S. x. 70). 
|The period named, 1661-67, suggests at 

once the time of the hearth tax, and, 
! though I have not hitherto heard that 
I unpopular tax so described, it is perhaps 
; worth investigation. I have an original 
| official manuscript relating to a neigh - 
i bouring district, entitled ' Accompt of all 

ye Fyer -hearths in ye countle of Bedford,' 
| 1663, showing the parishes, constables^, 
i hearth-holders and taxes levied. The 

original tax was one shilling per hearth, 
i which coincides with Edward Swannell's 
j payment, but 1661 does not agree with 
I 1663, the first year of this hated impost. 
'Afterwards the rate was increased to two 
j shillings per fireplace, and finally abolished 
| in 1689. W. JAGGARD (Capt.). 

In the adjoining parish of Kingstone 
j Seamore there are some fields called 
I Colefree Land" about which there wa& 
jmuch litigation in 1702 (vide Collinson's 
i ' History of Somerset ' ). The meaning of the 
, name has never been explained in spite of 
(frequent inquiry. The fields in question. 
i are in the flat land not far from the Bristol 
i Channel. H. C. BARNARD. 

The Grey House, Yatton, Somerset. 

CHARM or ST. COLME (12. S. ix. 330, 376). 

jDr. Lauchlan M. Watt of Edinburgh tells 

| me, with regard to " St. Bride and her brat," 

that in West Highland legend Bride is 

' the foster-mother of Christ, her " brat " or 

garment a symbol of purity. He gives 

several quotations from the Gaelic in 

which the words " brat " and " brot " 

refer to the garments of holy persons as- 

a protection against evil. 

As to " St. Colme and his cat " he writes : 

St. John's wort was holy to St. Columba he 

is said to have carried it on his person it is called 

| Caod cJialnim chelle = the hail of Columba.. 

This might be the orgin of the word cat in tho 

charm. .~3 


BEARS (12 S. x. 72). In reply to MR. 
ACKERMANN, I think the three most dan- 
gerous animals, under normal conditions, are 
buffalo, bear, lion in the order named- 



[12 S. X. FED. 11, 10: 

The danger in regard to bears is mainly 
attributable to their extraordinarily un- 
certain temper. FLEETWOOD WILSON. 

462, 517, 521; x. 57). I am indebted to 
MRS. MAUD M. MORRIS for her correction 
(at 12 S. ix. 517) of the name of the 
Governor of New York. The pedigree 
of the Brockholls or Brockholes (of Claugh- 
ton) family in ' Burke's Landed Gentry ' 
does not show Governor Anthony Brock- 
holes as being a member of that family, 
and I should be glad if any reader could 
supply the missing link. 

As mentioned (at 12 S. ix. 463), Frederic 
Philippse married Joanna, daughter of 
Governor Brockholes, and had, with other 
issue, Susan, who was married to Col. Beverley 
Robinson, who died at Bath, April 9, 1792. 
Col. Beverley Robinson's fourth son was 
General Sir Frederick Philippse Robinson, 
G.C.B., a venerable and very gallant officer 
who, at his death in Brighton, Jan. 1, 1852, 
was the oldest soldier in the British Army. 
He entered the service as an Ensign in 
February, 1777, and rising through the 
various grades became a General in 1841. 
The military career of Philippse Robinson 
was long and glorious, extending over a 
period of seventy-five years, and passing 
amidst some of the brightest achievements 
of his country. For five years he was in 
the first American War, and was present in 
the several battles fought during that 
period. Subsequently, in 1794, he went 
to the West Indies and shared in the cap- 
ture of Martinique, St. Lucia, and Guade- 
loupe ; he was also at the storming of 
Fleur d'Epee and the Heights of Palmiste. 
In 1812, Philippse Robinson joined the 
army in, the Peninsula. At the battle of 
Vittoria he commanded the 'brigade which 
carried the village of . Gamozza Mayo without 
firing one shot. He also was present at the 
first and second assaults on San Sebastian, 
being severely wounded at the second attack. 
He took part in the passage of the Bidassoa, 
the grand reconnaissance before Bayonne ; 
the battle of the Nive, being there again 
severely wounded ; in the blockade of 
Bayonne, and in the repulse of the sortie 
from that place, w r hen he succeeded to the 
command of the 5th Division of the Army. 
In June, 1814, Ma j or -General Robinson 
went to North America in command of a 
brigade, and he led the forces intended for 
-the attack of Plattsburg, but received 
orders to retire after having forced the 

passage of the Saranac. Soon afterwards 
he was named Commander-in-Chief and 
Provisional Governor of the Upper Provinces, 
which appointment he held until June, 1816. 
He had received the gold medal with two 
clasps for Vittoria, San Sebastian and the 

In 1838 Sir Frederick Philippse Robinson 
was made a G.C.B., and in 1840 he got the 
colonelcy of the 39th Regiment. Sir 
Frederick married, first, the daughter of 
Thomas Bowles, Esq., of Charleville ; and, 
secondly, Miss Fanshaugh. He died in 
his 88th year. 

Sir Frederick's grandfather was John 
Robinson, President of the Council of 
Virginia. The latter married Catherine, 
daughter of Robert Beverley, formerly of 
Beverley in Yorkshire. 

The Beverley's claim descent from John 
of Beverley, who was born at Harpham, on 
the wolds of Yorkshire, about the year 640. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

BREWERS' COMPANY (12 S. ix. 431, 478, 
517). It may be added to the general in- 
formation supplied that the interesting 
buildings at 18, Addle Street, the courtyard, 
arcade, hall, screens, court-room, &c., well 
repay inspection. The buildings date from 
1667. As a special item dealing with this 
Company it should be stated that it possessed 
a notable clerk, Mr. Alexander Whitchurch, 
attorney. His portrait was painted (which 
was not at all uncommon), and it was also 
honoured with a good mezzotint plate 
6 Jin. X Sin. , showing a dignified yet cheerful 
gentleman in wig and ruffles, holding a roll 
of papers, and leaning on a book of minutes 
for 1776. The engraver is not known. The 
Company has a rather indifferent impression, 
one is in the British Museum, and I possess 
a good impression. The minutes of the 
Company show that Mr. Whitchurch was 
elected clerk on July 8, 1757, and at the 
court held on April 12, 1782, his death was 
reported. The Company does not possess 
the original portrait, and it would be in- 
teresting to know where it is. 


GRAD (12 S. ix. 528). To two people, both of 
them likely to be well informed, I have put 
the question, " Where are the pictures that 
were once in the Hermitage ? " and both 
made the same reply, " They are in the 
Hermitage." T. PERCY ARMSTRONG. 

12 s.x. PEC 11,1022.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 115 

SURNAMES AS CHRISTIAN NAMES (12 S. Menken's body was laid in a temporary 
ix. 370, 437, 474, 511). According to the j grave in Pere Lachaise when she died in 
Granville Pedigree (Roger Granville, * History | Paris in August, 1868, but it was removed, at 
of the Granville Family,' 1895), Sir Thomas ; the instance, I believe, of one of the Roth- 
Granville (d. 1513) married the daughter schild family, to the Jewish portion of the 
of Sir Otes Gilbert, and Sir Thomas's daughter cemetery of Montparnasse on April 21, 
Joan was married to Wymond Raleigh im- 1869, where it now rests. 
mediately after her father's death. Various misstatements about her burial - 

M. H. DODDS. place were fully exposed by me in a letter 

THF- A* OF T H5> 5 iv ^07 Y : which appeared in The Referee of June 27, 


56, 72). I am curious to know what kind 
of helmet has been granted to Leeds. Does 

it figure as a noble, a baronet or knight, or JoHN WESLEY s FIRST PUBLICATION 
as a mere esquire ? ST. SWITHIN. (* 2 S. x. 9). According to the Catalogue 

of Manuscripts, Relics . . . Books, &c., 

DANTE'S BEARD (12 S. ix. 271, 315, 378, I belonging to the Wesleyan Methodist Con- 
436 ; x. 56). I do not think the idea of the^e ference,' published a few weeks ago, the 
being any connexion between the smoothness ; edition of John Wesley's work, ' The Chris - 
or the roughness of Dante's chin and his tian's Pattern,' published in 1735 (and 
mourning for Beatrice ever occurred to me, which your correspondent possesses) t is 
and I must have expressed myself very badly mentioned specifically as being the first 
for MR. T. PERCY ARMSTRONG to find such a edition. Later editions were issued in 
theory in my unimportant remarks. ! 1763 and 1815. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

I may as well take this opportunity of 

saying that, without believing Dante to be a ' BRITISH MELODIES ' (12 S. x. 48). In 
man of fashion, I thought it possible that the late Mr. Bertram Dobell's ' Catalogue 
some habit of the day in which he lived j o f Books printed for Private Circulation * 
might have had an influence on his use or dis- ! (London, 1906), this book is offered for sale 
use of the razor. I think the Greek sym- a t 4s. Qd. In a footnote Mr. Dobell says that 
bohsm, to which Mr. Armstrong refers, would though ' British Meolodies ' bears no date it 
hardly affect the artists who tried to portray ma y be pretty confidently ascribed to 1816 or 
the living human Dante. ST. SWITHIN. 1817, as it is printed on paper water -marked 

1815. The pieces are well selected, only a 

BARON GRANT (12 S. x. 31, 75) SIR few of inferior merit being included. The 
ALFRED ROBBINS is not accurate in what he largest contributors are Byron, Wordsworth, 
says at the last reference. Carlo Pelle- j Scott> and M oore. I have looked in vain for 
gpinis cartoon of Albert Grant appeared the many orig inal pieces" the title page 
in Vanity Fair of Feb. 21 1874, but so ; promises . ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 

far as the distich is concerned it was neither 


that was printed under the cartoon was i reply to the latter part of MR L.C. PRICE'S 
simply the words Leicester Square." It ! q^there appeared an article in Archceo- 
is regrettable that contributors to 'N. & Q.,' W Cambrensis, vol. I860, signed J. E., 

' t r Hosiallr 

. ., 

whoe readers naturally look for reliable ' ^M ty ^ ; r ' ^ Hospitallers in 

information, should not be at more pains , which gives information on the 

to verify the accuracy of what purport J* house *?&* h , 1C ,'1 ? * he -' 

to be categorical statements of fact, instead i The . own * r j ^ ^ te ^ olone f 1 Salusburv Mam- 
of trusting to their memories. i waring dilated in its antiquarian features 

w MAVPOPTT when Cambrian archaeologists visited the 

>CK - | place in 1911 (see Arch. Camb., 1912). 


(12 S. x. 32, 79, 97). I am sorry to see that j 

MR. ROBERT PIERPOINT at the second " To BURN ONE'S BOATS " (12 S. viii. 210 ; 
reference perpetuates an inaccuracy by ix. 177 ; x. 79). Robert Guiscard, before the 
quoting a statement by Mr. G. R. Sim 5 * in j battle of Durazzo, October, 1081, proposes 
The Referee of Dec. 24, 1905, to the effect this measure : whether it was carried out 
that Adah Menken " is buried in the Jewish is not very clear (Gibbon, * D. & F. R. E./ 
portion of Pere Lachaise." leap. Ivi.). S. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s.x. FEB. 11,1922. 

<12 S. x. 49). The final "den" in Kentish j 
place-names is taken from the " dens," | 
"dennes" or " denberse "of the Weald 
from the Saxon " dene, signifying valley, i 
low-enclosed place, or den." These dens, j 
according to Spelman, " were of no deter- 
minate bigness nor extent." They appear 
to have contained in places a few hundred | 
acres or less ; in other places they extended 
several miles. With the exception of Otter- j 
den, near Faversham, and Heronden, near ! 
Sandwich, the termination " den " is not ! 
found in Kent outside the Weald. These 
" dennes " were the first settlements in the \ 
Great Wood, and at first were but clearings 
in the forests for the " pannage of hogs," and, j 
later, for the feeding of cattle. After the i 
Conquest they were mostly appended by i 
royal grants to circumadjacent and even! 
to far distant manors ; it is from the latter | 
circumstance that, as noted above, one or j 
two final "dens" appear in other parts of 
Kent, e.g., the Heronden, near Sandwich, ! 
from Heronden in Tenterden in the Weald, ; 
though this particular instance happened | 
partly from a " family removal." 

The old names, such as Mapulisinden, | 
Biddenden, Benenden, Pettenden and| 
Rouvenden or Rolvenden, &c., are interest- ! 
ing to philologists, as the " en " or " in " 
of the penultimate syllable is that genitive j 
form to which Mr. Allen Mawer, in his i 
* Place-names of Northumberland,' draws j 
attention, I think, in dealing with names in I 
" ing " ; it marked the " den " of the | 
Mapules family, of the Bidds or Budds, l 
of the Petts, of Rolf or of Rollo ; it was not ! 
a reference to Rolf " in the den." Human j 
beings lived, colloquially, " on the den," j 
hogs, &c., in it. PERCY HULBURD. 

ix. 331, 397). Perhaps the source of this 
motto should be recorded. The words 
" Alterum alterius auxilio eget " (not egit) 
are taken from Sallust's ' Catilina,' cap. i. 
The historian, speaking of war, declares that 
deliberation before action and prompt 
action after deliberation are required to 
supplement one another. 


SMOKERS' FOLK LORE (12 S. ix. 528 ; x. 
38). The reference to the dislike to having 
three lights in a room prompts one to men- 
tion the history of the Hyksos or Shepherd 
, Kings of ancient North Egypt, who, it is 
Alleged, were wont daily to sacrifice three 

men ; but when Amasis expelled these Shep- 
herd Bangs, he abolished the human offerings 
and ordered that in their place three candles 
should be burned daily on the altar. This 
allows opportunity to view the " three- 
light " superstition from a happier stand- 
point. The Rev. S. Baring-Gould quotes the 
foregoing in his ; Strange Survivals.' 


SPELLING or " CHAMPAGNE " (12 S. x. 71). 
According to the * N.E.D.' the earliest use 
of champagne, as now generally spelt, occurs 
in ' Freethinker,' 1718 (attributed to 
Addison and others), " Sprightly young 
fellows, who drink champagne " (Essay 107). 
If your inquirer wishes to pursue the deri- 
vation he should consult Elyot, Stephens 
and Cooper, * Latin English Dictionary,' 
1584 (under ' Campus'); Cotgrave, 'French 
Dictionarie,' 1611; Minsheu, 'Guide into 
Tongues,' 1617 (under ' Champion '). 

W. JAGGARD (Capt.). 

JUDICIARY (12 S. ix. 529). This query 
recalls a newspaper account of approxi- 
mately fifteen years since, when Mr. Justice 
(now Lord) Phillimore, then sitting at 
York Assizes, paid a visit to a girls' school 
in or near that city, and for the edification 
of the scholars donned the robes of a " red 
judge," explaining in much detail the use 
or significance of each portion of the judicial 
equipment. W. B. H. 

great deal of interesting information about 
the letter h is to be found in ' The Latin 
Language,' by W. M. Lindsay. The author 
writes that 

We have no reason to doubt that the sound 
was dropped in Vulgar Latin as early as the 
middle of the third century B.C., for we have not 
a trace of initial or medial " h " in any Romance 
languages, not even the oldest ; and one of the 
earlest tasks of grammarians at Rome was to 
draw up rules for the correct use. 

and also that 

St. Augustine playfully remarks that the drop- 
ping of the " h " was generally regarded as a 
more heinous sin than an offence against the law 
of Christian charity (' Conf.' i. 18). 

It is a most fascinating subject, and I hope 
further information and theories will be 
forthcoming. Why do the so-called Cock- 
neys and the natives of the Midlands drop 
the h while the true natives of Essex 
and East Anglia do not ? A. M. C. 



VICE-ADMIRAL SIR CHRISTOPHER MINGS j affixes to the paragraphs dealing with each 
{12 S. ix. 461, 513 ; x. 13, 35). In Meadows' event. The most striking passages in the 
CJowper's ' Canterbury Marriage Licences ' j course of his argument with the Duke of 
is the following : I Ormonde, who was pressing him to become 

Thomas Hamon of Acrise, esq., widr, and Mary ! Prime Minister, are as follows : 
Mennes of Woodnesborough, about 27, whose | ... that the English Nation would sooner submit 
mother consents at Woodnesborough. Feb. 16 to the Government of Cromwell, than to any 

[or 26] 1630. 

other Subject who should be thought to govern 

This settles the question of a marriage { the King. That England would not bear a 
connexion between the families of Mennes Favourite, nor any one Man, who should out of 

SfaTs! t 

of Sandwich and Mynge of New Romney. 


PRIME MINISTER (12 S. ix. 446). I have 
read with much interest the note on the 
earliest use of the title of Prime Minister 
which appeared at the above reference 
there said to have been applied to the Duke 


Whereas, if He gave over that Administration 
[i.e., the Chancellorship] and had Nothing to 
rely upon for the Support of himself and Family, 
but an extraordinary Pension out of the Ex- 
chequer, under no other Title or Pretense but 
of being First Minister (a title so newly translated 

of Buckingham in 1667. I have also read 

the numerous contributions to ' N & Q.' at ! woul 

previous dates on this subject. 

out of French into English, that it was not 

enough understood to be liked, and every man 
would detest it for that Burden it was attended 
with) ; the King himself, who was not by 
Nature immoderately inclined to give, would 
It appears to have escaped the notice I quickly weary of so chargeable an Officer, and 

of previous contributors to the store of | be very willing to be freed from the Reproach 

knowledge on this question that Lord i of being governed by any (the very Suspicion 

Clarendon actually uses the term Prime w reof _ He _. doth exceedingly abhor) at the 

Minister when giving an account of the 

sequence of events affecting his life in 1660, 

' The Continuation of the Life of Edward 

Earl of Clarendon, Lord High Chancellor 

of England, &c. -Being a Continuation of 

His History of the Grand Rebellion, from 

the Restoration to his Banishment in 1667. 

Written by Himself ' (see pp. 85-92). 

For the convenience of readers I abstract 

Price and Charge of the Man, who had been 
raised by him to that inconvenient Height above 
other Men. 

86, Lansdowne Road, Holland Park, W.ll. 

1. The letters on the nimbus are evidently 
those which are usual on the Divine nimbus, 

1 viz., O UN (see Jer. x. 6, Apoc. i. 8, &c.), 
the most important references. In passing i th ' ,, < ter , . . '.. P aiavoni ' fon 

it should be observed that these follow on 

being in its Slavonic 
(H), and the mark over the 12 the breathing, 

his extraordinary account of the marriage , Qr th breathi and accent perhaps con . 
of his daughter with the Duke of York, j vent i O nalized. 
Commenting on the view taken by his 

contemporaries, that as a result of this 2 The . Ascription at the bottom has 
marriage his "greatness and power" had !j ;PParently been misread and is not 
been firmly established, he observes: Y^? 1S .**"> Almighty ? but what 

I say, to all Men but to himself, who was not &* ** mistaken for it, especially if the 
the least Degree exalted with it. He knew well Slavonic lettering is not quite clear " The 
upon how slippery Ground He stood, and how Lord God Almighty " (Apoc. xix. 6). 
naturally averse the Nation was from approving 3. The "twisting" of the fingers repre- 
ja exorbitant Power m any Subject. gents the Eaatem a ? ti tude of episcopal bene- 

Thereupon follows an account of the various diction, corresponding to, but contrasted 
honours which he managed to evade " He i with the f ami i iar Western attitude, the third 
refused a considerable offer of Crown fi bei bent over and the thumb 

Lands He declined being made Knight , tou chin g it or crossed over it (see Smith and 

the Garter. Hejejusedjo be madean j Cheefcham) 'Dictionary of Christian Anti- 
quities,' a.v. ' Benedictions,' i. p. 199). 

F. E. B. 

These few notes may be of help to MB. 
PER Y ARMSTRONG. Without close inspec- 
tion of his icon it is difficult to answer 

sented." " He was strongly urged to resign 
his Office of Chancellor." " And to assume 
the Character of Prime Minister." " Which 
would be more beneficial to him." " But 
this He absolutely refused." These are the 

various marginal headings Lord Clarendon I off-hand his queries as to ( 1 ) the three letters 


NOTES AND QUERIES. f i2ax.E.n.m*. 

in the nimbus, (2} the inscription ajb the 
base, and (3) the " twisted " fingers. 

1. I should think that, if he carefully 
examines the three letters, " Omega," 
" Omicron " and " Eta " as he calls them, 
he will find that peculiar dash like the top 
of a T not only over the " Omega " but also 
over the " Eta." In the latter case, how- 
ever, there would be no truncated T stem. 
The " Omicron " very probably has a 
slight dash carried on directly from its 
apex. This being so, we evidently have 
before us letters from the Cyrillic form of 
the old Slavonic alphabet (i.e., the Greek 
liturgical uncial form adopted by the 
Russian Orthodox Church). The " Eta " 
must be an N in the Russian form H. The 
dashes denote contraction. The " Omi- 
cron " as I read it would be in reality a 
Gamma and Delta combined and would 
stand for Gospod = the Lord. The " Omega " 
would stand for Otietz = ihe Father. The 
H would stand for nash = our. The whole 
would mean " The Lord our Father." 

2. The inscription at the base of the 
icon cannot mean " Where is the 
Almighty ? " Such an inscription would 
be inadmissible in a Russian icon. That 
first word is again, I should think, a con- 
tracted form of Gospod, an accent being 
added as generally after consonants. It 
is not gdie, meaning where. " The Lord 
Almighty " would then be the reading. 

3. The Orthodox sign of the cross is 
made on the forehead with the thumb (God), 
the first finger (Son) and the second (Holy 
Ghost) joined together. The followers of 
the Old Rite make this sign with the thumb 
and third finger joined together, the first 
two more or less rigid, and the fourth bent. 

National Liberal Club, London. 

GENERAL LAMBARDE will find practically all 
the evidence available .on this subject sum- 
marized in the article ' Tiara,' in the 
' Catholic Encyclopedia,' which article is 
from the pen of the Rev. Joseph Braun, S. J. 
The tiara took its rise in a head-dress of 
white stuff shaped like a helmet and called 
the camdaucum. This was worn by the 
Pope as early as the beginning of the eighth 
century, as appears from the biography of 
Pope Constantino I. (708-15), in the ' Liber 
Pontificalis.' This camelaucum or phrygium 
probably received the first crown 
.at the time when the mitre developed from the 
tiara, perhaps in the tenth century, in order to 

distinguish the mitre and tiara from each other ; 

j in any case, the latter was provided with a circlet 

j about 1130. During the pontificate of Boniface 

j VIII. (1294-1303), a second crown was added to 

I the former one. . . . What led Boniface VIII. 

to make this change, whether merely love of 

pomp, or whether he desired to express by the 

tiara with two crowns his opinions concerning the 

! double papal authority, cannot be determined. 

His effigy above his tomb in the crypt of 
i St. Peter's wears a sugar-loaf -shaped camelau- 
surrounded by two crowns. 
The first notice of three crowns is con- 
| tained in an inventory of the papal treasure 
of the year 1315 or 1316. The tomb of the 
successor of Boniface, Blessed Benedict XL 
(1303-4), at Perugia shows a tiara with one 
1 crown only. The tomb of John XXII. 
(1316-1334) at Avignon shows a tiara with 
two crowns : but his successor, Benedict XII. 
i (1334-1342), had an effigy with three crowns, 
I the remains of which are preserved in the 
j museum at Avignon. 

The addition of the third crown is often 
! erroneously attributed to Blessed Urban V. 
(1362-1370). No reason for the assumption 
of the third crown has been forthcoming ; 
and in fact some subsequent Popes down to 
the close of the fifteenth century are re- 
presented with two crowns only. 


FREEDOM OF A CITY (12 S. ix. 489; x. 55, 
97). My grandfather's great-grandfather, 
John Wainewright, at the beginning of 1751 
lent the mayor and burgesses of the Borough 
of Nottingham the sum of 400 at 4 per cent., 
and on Sept. 19, 1752, he was made a burgess 
j of that town gratis (' Records of the Borough 
I of Nottingham.' vol. vi., pp. 239, 247, 348). 

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. x. 72). 1. The lines 
on the statuette of a goat climbing a vine, 
" Eat, goat, and live ; 
The fruitful vine 
Will ever yield 
Enough of wine," 

would certainly seem to have been suggested by 
the couplet in the ' Fasti,' i. 357-8, 
" Rode, caper, vitem : tamen hinc cum stabis 

ad aram, 

In tua quod spargi cornua possit erit," 
or by one or other of the two epigrams in the 
' Palatine Anthology,' to one of which Ovid 
appears to have been indebted in the lines just 
quoted : 

rl pifav, #ucos ert 
u <rol, rpdye, 6vouevcf. 
(' Anth. Pal.,' ix. 75), by Evenus of Ascalon, 
and Ep. 99 of the same book, by Leonidas of Taren- 

12 S. X. FEB. 11, 1922.] 



1. This looks like an adaptation of the epigram 
by Evenus in the Greek anthology (' Anth. Pal.,' 
ix. 75), which in 1895 I translated thus ('Para- 
phrases,' p. 30) : 

" Tho' thou eat'st me to the root, 
I shall bear enough of fruit 
To be poured, O goat, on thee 
When thy sacrifice shall be." 


2. The stanzas beginning " I have seen the 
robes [not wings] of Hermes glisten " are the 15th 
and 16th of W. E. Aytoun's poem ' Hermotimus.' 

A. E. H. 
(12 S. x. 94.) 

' To-day and other Poems ' was an anonymous 
work published many years ago by Mr. R. J. 
Masters. It contained the poem sought, which, 
set to music by Mr. F. G. Ladds, forms Hymn No. 
90 in ' The Union Mission Hymnal ' of the Baptist 
Union of Great Britain and Ireland. In Mr. E. C. 
Stedman's ' Victorian Anthology ' the poem is 
attributed to Samuel Wilberforce (1805-1873), 
bishop successively of Oxford and Winchester. 


(12 S. x. 49.) 
1. The right words are : 

* We shall have the word 

In that minor third 
There is none but the cuckoo knows " 
(or " a irinor third " in a later printing). From 
B. Browning's 'A Lover's Quarrel,' stanza 18. 


(]2 S. x. 34). The words " the huge Mississippi 
of falsehood called history " are in the essay on 
' The Literary Influence of Academies, in 
Matthew Arnold's ' Essays in Criticism ' (1st ed., 
1865), p. 75. A. E. H. 

on IBooks. 

The Life of Henry, Third Earl of Southampton, 
Shakespeare's Patron. By Charlotte Car- 
michael Stopes. (Cambridge University Press, 
2 2s.) 

EACH successive generation may find new subject 
for enjoyment in the study of the Elizabethan 
age. The Maiden Queen who could bid the 
English House of Commons " not to meddle 
with any matters of state " presents a fascinating 
theme for reflection at the present time, and the 
excitement provided for members of her Court 
during her 45 years of rule was sufficient to satisfy 
the most ardent of sensation-hunters in the 
twentieth century. For those who were admitted 
to her intimacy must gamble and the stakes 
might mean a man's whole fortune, possibly his 
life. The Queen could impose indefinite imprison- 
ment if she were so minded, and her expression 
of displeasure was as effective as the Papal 
interdict of earlier tunes in isolating the culprit 
from his fellows. When she smiled, the hopes of 
those around her soared to heights not visible 
to subjects under normal rule. And these rapid 
alternations were so disturbing to the balance of 
a man's judgment that only a few maintained com- 
posure. Among these must be reckoned that 

mysterious being Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, 
also the Cecils, father and son, but the spirit of 
patriotism that spread more and more widely 
as the years of the great reign drew on did not 
engender prudence. 

Mrs. Stopes has given us a full and detailed 
record of the career of Henry Wriothesley, Third 
Earl of Southampton, who first saw the light in 
October, 1573, and as we follow his experiences we 
may catch a glimmering impression of some of the 
perils that encompassed a youth who was promi- 
nent by right of birth. Southampton succeeded 
to his father's earldom at the age of eight and 
became ward to Lord Burleigh. He gave early 
proof of the possession of a vigorous will. The 
marriage which his guardian arranged did not 
please him, and at ruinous cost to himself he 
evaded it. When he reached manhood, society 
was already divided by the Cecil and Essex 
factions. He had had opportunity to discover 
that Burleigh's example stood for wisdom and 
prudent calculation, but his heart drew him to 
Essex, and then and always he went where his 
heart led him regardless of consequences. Alike 
in love and in friendship his choice made havoc 
of his fortunes. He roused the wrath of the 
Queen by a secret marriage with her maid of 
honour, he fanned it by his insistence on his 
right to serve her in some conspicuous position. 
In the tragedy which ended Elizabeth's last 
romance Southampton narrowly escaped the 
penalty paid by his leader and hero. The bonds 
of that friendship were very close. " You whom 
I account another myself," Essex had written to 
him in 1598, but their union of hearts was not close 
enough to reconcile Southampton to sharing the 
fate of his friend : the youth in him clamoured 
desperately for life. From his confession and his 
petition to the council we can form some estimate 
of the mental suffering implied even for one 
who faced death readily on the battlefield -by 
confinement in the Tower. He remained there 
for more than two years in constant peril. Release 
came only by the death of the Queen. 

No one had more reason than Southampton to 
welcome the new order, but full and secure pros- 
perity never fell to his lot. He was not skilful 
in the craft of courts, and as Buckingham became 
more and more fixed hi favour thwarted am- 
bition turned to bitterness. A conspicuous 
figure until he met his death (when serving with 
the King's armies in Flanders), Southampton 
made no definite mark on history. TTis life as 
presented by Mrs. Stopes is of extreme interest, 
none the less, and it should appeal to ordinary 
readers as well as to students of the period. 
It is based on documents that are not easily 
accessible, it is carefully arranged and contains 
excellent portraits. Unfortunately where so 
much is admirable there are serious blemishes. 
Mrs. Stopes takes far too much for granted in 
dealing with her readers. She has long been 
distinguished for her vehement support of the 
theory (first propounded more than a century 
ago) that Shakespeare's sonnets were inspired 
by his friendship with Southampton. Now this 
question has been fully treated in her Other 
books and must, unless fresh evidence should 
come to light, remain an open one ; she admits 
that her recent investigations have not resulted 
in any new discovery. To assume that an un- 



proved theory is a fact and build an estimate 
of character on that foundation is not the safest 
method of writing history. Moreover, Mrs. 
Stopes has permitted herself to make some 
astonishing excursions in the regions of " the 
might have been." The contemporaries of 
Southampton failed, by elegy or otherwise, to 
commemorate his connexion with Shakespeare. 
She has supplied the deficiency with a sonnet 
and an epitaph of her own composition. She has 
also, in chaps, ii. and xxi., sustained her 
narrative by the introduction of conversations 
imagined by herself. The book is so rich in 
interest that these eccentricities of treatment 
are the more to be deplored. 

Calendar of Entries in the Papal Registers relating 
to Great Britain and Ireland. Papal Letters. 
Vol. XI. 1455-1464. Prepared by J. A. Twem- 
low. (His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1 5s. 

THIS volume may be noted as one of the richest 
of its kind in material for the antiquary. The 
topics dealt with cover, more or less abundantly, 
the general administration of local ecclesiastical 
affairs, and include, as usual, copious detail con- 
cerning individuals. The nine years embrace 
the pontificates of Calixtus III. and of Pius II. 
The Scotch sees occupy many pages ; perhaps 
London and Oxford are the two English cities 
most in evidence. The documents concerning 
Reginald Peacock, the Bishop of Chichester, 
who was tried for heresy, may be cited as an 
example of the biographical illustration afforded, 
and those concerning the foundation of Eton 
College as an example of a group illustrating the 
history of an institution. Disputes among ecclesi- 
astics (there are <>ne or two cases of homicide by a 
clerk), indults and dispensations, and the applica- 
tion of different forms of discipline, as usual, open 
up vivid glimpses of situations and characters. 
The general effect, as in most registers of Papal 
Letters, is an impression of the fatherliness of the 
Papacy, even when exercised by Popes such as 
these two, who were not like Innocent III., for 
instance of a specially paternal character. In 
the tragi -comedy of everyday life it appears as 
a pleasant factor, and presents a far more 
attractive aspect of the Papacy than the political 
aspect to which most history is devoted. 

An inhibition of Pius II. 's gives a picture of 
the sufferings of the " Isle of'Scilly" under the 
incursions of pirates. Indulgences of Calixtus III. 
make mention of miracles wrought among the 
faithful who flock to the Chapel of St. Mary de 
Key in the cemetery of the Chapel of Liverpool ; 
and also of miracles wrought in the church of 
the Augustinian priory at Mottisfont, in which are 
many precious relics, and among them " the finger 
of St. John Baptist with which he pointed to the 
Saviour of the human race." Other relics men- 
tioned are those of St. Gilbert in the church of 
Caithness a place much worried by " lawless- 
ness and ambushes by savages," in behalf of which 
Pius II. hurls an excommunication ; and those of 
St. Osmund of Salisbury, which, in a mandate 
dated the day after his canonization, are ordered 
to be solemnly translated to a worthy place in 
the church of Salisbury. 

Among the mention of objects of art and handi- 
craft we have a " tapestry worked in gold and 

silver sold to the Pope [Pius II.] for 1,250 florins 
by Peter and John de Medicis." 

Hampshire. By Telford Varley. (Cambridge 

University Press. 4s. 6d. net.) 
THIS is yet another member of the useful series of 
Cam bridge County Handbooks. It gives a careful 
account of the natural features, the towns, the 
industries, history, and antiquities of Hampshire, 
according to the plan made familiar to us by 
the earlier handbooks. The information given 
and also the illustrations are very satisfactory. 
The writer's English style is poor enough to be 
often irritating. One short sentence " Hamp- 
shire is identified in a remarkable degree with 
hymn writers "will perhaps convey what it is 
we complain of. However, writing of this sort 
need be no bar to utility. 

MB. P. D. MUNDY (Burley, New Forest), 
writes : I should be glad to hear from the 
owners of any manuscripts, letters, portraits or 
drawings of, or connected with, my great-uncle, 
Henry William Herbert (" Prank Forester "), 
poet, novelist, and writer on American sport, 
who died in 1858. He was the son of the Very 
Rev. the Hon. W. Herbert, Dean of Manchester, 
who was himself a well-known writer on botanical 

This request is made in contemplation of a 
biography of Henry William Herbert. 


At ante, p. 79, col. 1, for " Africa ; 10 B.C." 
read Africa, 310 B.C. 


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CONTENTS. No. 201. 

NOTES :John Charles Williams, a Buckinghamshire Parson 
121 Sir Richard Willys, Traitor, 123 Commonwealth 
Marriages and Burials in the Aldeburgh Register Book 
124 Philip de Harcourt, Bishop of Bayeux, 126 In 
ference as to Date of Birth, 127 Blake in America Foun- 
tains Abbey Parchments Gilbert Iinlay and Henry Lee 

QUERIES : " Firdor "Scarlet Hunting Coat Pseudo- 
titles for " Dummy " Books Graves of Polish Exiles in 
Britain Regimental Chaplains, H.M. 84th Regiment, 129 
" Satan reproving sin "Unidentified Anns The Mont- 
forts of Farleigh Surname Lackland Fiddlers' Green 
J. Richards : Identification of Church sought St. Michael's, 
Guernsey " Love " in Place-names, 130 Savery Family 
Bookplates Nevin Family Emra Holmes Bloxam 
Boulger Brindley and Bradbury General Clement Ed- 
wardsOffice of Mayor : Place of Worship, 131 Highgate 
-' Viva Pio, Papa, Re 'Poem of the Sixties wanted 
Author wanted, 132. 

REPLIES : Edward More, Warden of Winchester College, 
132 Adah Isaacs Meuken, 133 Kimmeridge Coal Money, 
135" The Five Alls " " The Swan Tavern," Chelsea 
" Time with a gift of tears " Erghum, 136 Baron Grant 
Eighteenth-century Poetry, 137 Evelyn Queries Arab 
(or Eastern) Horses Oxfordshire Masons Two Naval 
Pictures by Serres, 138 Mrs. Holt : ' Isoult Barry of Wyns- 
cote,' 139. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Jacques Be"nigne Bossuet.' 
Notices to Correspondents. 




WHEN one is collecting material for a family 
history one comes across many details con- 
cerning collaterals, and in the course of put- 
ting together my family papers and pedigree 

have amassed some interesting facts, 
which I think worthy of record, concerning the 
family of the late Rev. John Charles Williams, 
M.A., who during the early part of the last 
century flourished in several parishes in 
Buckinghamshire. Unless these items get 
into print they are apt to be lost, so I ven- 
ture to appeal to the hospitality of ' N. & Q.' 
with a view to their appearing in its columns 
as a permanent memento of a somewhat 
remarkable man. 

To add to the interest I have placed the 
letters 'D.N.B.' after everyone mentioned 

whose name appears in the ' Dictionary of 
National Biography.' 

First let me explain how he was connected 
with my family. My grandfather, Henry 
William Bull (1792-1872), solicitor, married 
Charlotte Susannah Swales, from the vicar- 
age, at the parish church of High Wycombe, 
on Dec. 27, 1826. His brother-in-law, the 
Rev. John Charles Williams, M.A., F R.G.S., 
married them. Williams was curate-in- 
charge of that parish from 1824 to 1843 and 
had married Mrs. Bull's eldest sister, Cathe- 
rine, at St. Clement Danes in the Strand 
on Aug. 15, 1812. These were the days of 
pluralities and the Rev. James Price, B.A., 
was the nominal vicar having been pre- 
sented to the living on March 25, 1788, by 
William, Earl of Shelburne and was a 
regular absentee. 

The curate's grandfather, a certain John 
Williams (1727-1816) was an architect and 
surveyor of some note who flourished in the 
town of Shrewsbury in the middle of the 
eighteenth century. 

His eldest son, father of our curate, was 
also named John (1767-1827). A solicitor 
by profession, he was appointed one of the 
six clerks of the Court of Exchequer and 
subsequently became a partner in the firm 
of Price and Williams of Bedford Row. He 
lived in Rodney Street, Pentonville Hill, and 
married a Miss Ball of Welshpool, who was 
born in 1777, died on June 26, 1837, and 
was buried in St. James's churchyard, 

This John Williams was an intimate 
Friend of the Rev. John Newton (1725-1807 ; 
' D.N.B. ') another curate-in-charge, by the 
way, for Moses Brown (1704- 1781 ; 'D.N.B.'), 
the absentee vicar of Olney, Bucks and 
friend of the poet Cowper (1731-1800; 
D.N.B.'). I have in my family records 
some A.L.S. written by Newton when his 
wife, whom " he loved with an almost 
dolatrous love/' died on Dec. 15, 1790. 

John Williams's third daughter married a 

man named Randall, whose son, John 

Williams Randall, was a partner in the firm 

of Brundrett, Randall and Govett of King's 

Bench Walk. Jonathan Brundrett was 

one of the founders of the Law Society. He 

acted for Queen Caroline (1768-1821; 

D.N.B.') and briefed Lord Brougham 

1778-1868; ' D.N.B.') for the defence in 


The fifth daughter married another 
solicitor, well known in his day, named 
Alfred Umney, who resided at a beautiful 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2ax.ito.i8.nM. 

stone house on the road to Epsom, called 
Stone Cot Hill, Button. The Umneys had 
an only daughter, who married George 
Nelson, a solicitor of Buckingham, whose 
son, George Alfred Nelson, in 1916 left his 
estate at Sherington, Co. Bucks, to Col. 
Owen Williams, of whom presently. 

We now come to the subject of these 
notes. John Charles Williams, eldest son 
of John Williams, was born April 16, 1789, 
and also became a solicitor. He does not 
seem to have cared for ordinary practice, 
for in 1814 he was Judge's Associate on the 
Oxford circuit. I have a charming little 
diary of those days in his copper-plate 
handwriting giving a detailed account of a 
circuit journey on horseback from London 
via Windsor, Oxford, Worcester, Stafford, 
Shrewsbury, to Leominster and home again. 

He married Catherine Swales at St. Clement 
Danes in the Strand on Aug. 15, 1812, at the 
age of 23. The Swales came from Suffolk. 
His father-in-law was Christopher William 
Swales, who married Charlotte Spencer, 
daughter of JEEugh Spencer. She was born 
in 1761 and baptized at St. James's, Bury 
St. Edmunds. She died at the town house 
of her other son-in-law, my grandfather, 
Henry William Bull, at 12, Wilton Crescent, 
Belgrave Square, in June, 1845, at the age 
of 84. C. W. Swales had died in January, 
1831, at Lay ham in Suffolk, and was buried at 
Polstead. Catherine Swales, afterwards Mrs. 
J. C. Williams, the elder daughter of this 
couple, was born on Sept. 29, 1789, and was 
baptized at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields on 
Oct. 27, 1789. 

Mrs. Swales was in the entourage of the 
Duchess of York (1767-1820; 'D.N.B.'). 
Catherine's godmother was that Mrs. Bun- 
bury, the devoted friend of the Duchess, who 
requested that she (Mrs. Bunbury) might 
be buried beside her in Weybridge church- 
yard, which was done. They also knew Lady 
Charlotte Bury (1775-1861 ; 'D.N.B.'), the 
novelist. Both the Misses Swales although 
petite were very beautiful. They were 
known as the " Brace of Partridges " when 
they used to attend the garden parties at 
Chiswick. It was through the influence of 
the Duke of York (1763-1827; 'D.N.B.'), 
who was patron of the institution, that John 
Charles Williams obtained his next ap- 
pointment, viz., that of secretary of the 
Lying-in Hospital in York Road, Lambeth, 
which he held from Nov. 18, 1815, until he 
resigned on Jan. 17, 1820. He then re- 
turned to his practice as a solicitor, which he 

eventually sold soon after to Messrs. Hi! Hard 
and Hastings, for he " felt a call to the minis- 
try," and, although married, went up to Cam- 
bridge and graduated at St. Catherine's Hall. 
He gathered round him a circle of friends, 
many of whom became famous. These in- 
cluded Charles Simeon (1759- 1836; 'D.N.B.'); 
Fairish (whom I cannot identify) ; Thomas 
Turton (1780-1864; 'D.N.B.'), afterwards 
Bishop of Ely ; and Oliphant, afterwards 
Bishop of Llandaff. He knew both 
the Corries, Daniel, LL.D. (1777-1837 ; 
'D.N.B.'), and George Elwes (1793-1885; 
'D.N.B.'), the Master of Jesus; Pro- 
fessor John Lee (1783-1866; 'D.N.B.') 
of Hartwell in Bucks ; and James Schole- 
field (1789-1853; 'D.N.B.'), Regius Pro- 
fessor of Greek. He corresponded with all 
these men during the whole of his life. 
In due course he was ordained by letters 
dimissory by Sparkes, Bishop of Ely. I 
cannot find where he fitted it in, but he also 
sold about this time the practice, which 
he inherited, of his maternal uncle, Charles 
Ball, solicitor. 

Henry Bathurst (1744-1837 ; ' D.N.B.'), 
Bishop of Norwich, " the only Liberal 
Bishop in the Lords," next appointed him 
successively to the curacies of Stapleford 
and Pampisford in Cambridgeshire. In 
1823 he held the curacy of Wooburn Green, 
Bucks, for six months and then was ap- 
pointed curate -in -charge of High Wy combe, 
where he resided for nearly twenty years, 
viz., from 1824 to 1843. Here the last 
seven of his fifteen children were born, 
most of them being brought into the world 
by Dr. William Rose (1876-1864), his life- 
long friend, and the father of Disraeli's 
solicitor, Sir Philip Rose, Bt. (1816-1883), 
of Rayners, Perm, Bucks. 

During the later years of Williams's resi- 
dence at High Wycombe, he was presented 
to the living of Farthingstone in Northamp- 
tonshire, by his friend John Kaye (1783- 
1853 ; ' D.N.B.'), Bishop of Lincoln who, 
by the way, was born on Dec. 27, 1783, in 
Angel Row, in my own Borough of Hammer- 
smith. The son of a little draper, he lived 
to direct the education of Queen Victoria 
(1819-1901; 'D.N.B.' supp.). 

After one year's occupation of Farthing- 
stone, Williams was appointed by Kaye to 
the rectory of Sherington, near Newport 
Pagnell, which he held until his death on 
Nov. 30, 1848. 

John Charles Williams, as I have said 
must have been a very industrious man 

\-2 S. X. FEB. 18, 1922.] 



for he not only adequately looked after his 
own parish but found time to found and 
carry on a preparatory school for young 
boys destined for Eton, Harrow and Rugby. 
My father, his nephew, Henry Bull, solicitor 
(1829-1878), went there from a dame's school 
at Dumpton in Kent in 1837, aged eight, 
and remained there until he went to Rugby 
in 1842, a term or two before Arnold (1795- 
1842 ; 'D.N.B.') died. 

A great many of Williams' s sermons, in 
his neat handwriting, are in existence, and 
I possess some preached two or three times, 
over long intervals, on certain Sundays in 
Wycombe church. He also wrote some 
hymns of merit and became an active 
member of the Royal Geographical Society, 
of which he was a Fellow. 

He had very little means that I can dis- 
cover. He had only 200 a year from the 
living in High Wycombe and yet he was 
able to bring up and educate a large family 
putting several of his sons into the learned 
professions and educating some of his 
daughters at Campden House, Netting Hill, 
then the most expensive and fashionable 
school in London. (Burnt down Mar. 23, 

Amongst his scholars were Charles 
Wycliffe Goodwin (1817-1878; 'D.N.B.'), 
the Egyptologist, and Harvey Goodwin 
(1818-1891 ; 'D.N.B.'), Bishop of Carlisle. 

(To be concluded.) 

(See ante, p. 101.) 


SIB Richard Willys's defence is summarized 
on p. 232 of the Calendar of Domestic State 
Papers for 1661-1662, where it is asserted 
to have been " annexed " to a petition 
in which he prays for leave to come within 
" the verge of the Court " in order to 
defend several suits at law. But the 
defence is not annexed to the petition and 
has nothing whatever to do with it. The 
summary of the defence is not a satisfactory 
one, but as it is rather long I omit it and 
transcribe the original document instead : 
May 1660. In the year 1652 about the i 
middle of the summer Sir Richard Willys returned | 
into England from Italy, and retir'd to his 
brothers in Cambridgeshire where he remaymd 
for the most part till ye end of 1653. In 1654 
about ye moneth of May he was taken prisoner 
and sent to ye Tower from wch he was released 

towards winter upon Bond of 5000. In 1655,. 
14 June, he was again taken prisoner and caryed 
to Lyme where he remayn'd with ye rest of ye 
Prisoners till ye 12th of October and then was 
by special orders here detayn'd prisoner alone 
till the end of February following and then 
released, upon Bond of Ten thousand pounds. 
Thence he return'd home to his brothers and in. 
all this while had never seen with Oliver Cromwell, 
nor Thurloe, nor ever heard of Moorland. In- 
the end of this year 1656, or in the beginning 
of 1657 it hapn'd that Thurloe had intercepted 
some letters of Mr. Brodericks and others. Which 
he supposing to be Sir Richard, Thurloe imme- 
diately sent on purpose for him, and strictly 
examining him to this effect, What he knew of 
those letters and the persons and matters con- 
teyn'd in them. It being visible that one of 
ye feighned names often therein specified could 
meane no other person but himself e. So having 
thus shown him the danger of his condition,, 
and spread his nett over him. He began to say 
Miat his intention was not to destroy him, if he 
would be instrumentall for his reconciliation with 
the king, when time should serve, and that he 
would absolutely engage not to discover anything 
without his preacquaintance and leave, and that 
in the meantime the Royal party should speed 
the better for him, Which he is very confident 
has been effected by his management in pre- 
serving many of them (and that the most eminent) 
both in their lifes and fortunes, preventing many 
from, and delivering others out of, restraint. In 
this same year 1657, in the depth of winter^ 
Thurloe hearing that the Marquis of Ormond 
was landed in England, sent for Sir Richard W. 
and offered 1000 in ready gold, or what he 
would aske to discover him. Which Moorland 
violently and very often urged him to doe r 
telling him it would be his utter ruyne if he did 
not doe it, adding this, that it was in his power 
to oblige the Protector for ever. Prom this 
importunity he had not rest till he defy'd them 
by detesting and abhorring so perfidious an 
action. And from that tyme they absolutely 
desseyn'd his ruyne. For 1658, upon Good 
Friday [April 9] he was again taken prisoner, 
and sent to the Tower with more severity and 
close imprisonment than ever, and all the wayes 
imaginable us'd to take away his life by violent 
meanes, and promises us'd to one Mr Cooke of 
Suff. to accuse him. But when nothing could 
be made out against him he was releas'd [illegible} 
upon Bond and so continued till 1659 ; and in 
May or thereabouts Thurloe sent for him againe, 
telling him that now he visibly saw that the 
King could no longer be kept out and that now 
was the time, he must be beholding to him in 
the making of his peace, and that at this meeting 
Moorland was present where they combyne to 
post him, which was done on June 3. Having 
suspected that Sir Rich W. had a reall intention 
to be in the then present Rysing, which they 
resolve to hinder by throwing a suspicion amongst 
the party. Nor, did their Malice and revenge 
end there, but contryv'd an Act of Banishment 
out of England of all those that had not com- 
pounded, which Moorland confess'd to Sir Rich W. 
was particularly contriv'd for his sake and 
hindrance. And whereas they allege that his 
bonds the last summer were of his own pro- 



[12 S. X. FEB. IS, 

curemt. Let the world judge when, they were | 
such as never impos'd upon any person whatso- 
ever. Being to appear from day to day upon 
sumons without end. And besides a guard of a I 
whole squadron of horse dayly attending the : 
bowse the whole summer long. 

And further to show of what perfidious prin- j 
ciples this Moorland is, and how he hath pro- ! 
fitted under Whitlock, Bradshaw, Cromwell, ; 
Thurloes and Scott's employments, He told Sir | 
Rich, by way of ostentation that himself and one 
Mrs Russell poyson'd old Noll with a jjossett, and ' 
laughing said that Thurloe had had a lick too 
though he miss'd of the effect, yet it laid him up I 
a great while at Mr. Lambe's in Stx Bartholp- 1 
mews.* Also at another time he received 150 in j 
gold of an embassador for the copy of a paper j 
lying in Thurloes studdy and then also said to 
Sir Rich, to what purpose was it to serve the King 
when these embassadors would give as much at 
one time for a service done as theKing had to live on. 
Neavertheless he must find some way to appease 
the King for an unpardonable epistle he haekj 
printed to his books of his journey into Piedmont, 
slighting the King and his family and advancing 
that of Cromwells, and withall said that however 
he would not trust the king who was. revengeful 
and of a temper not to forgett injuryes, and this he 
said to Sir Rich, about a month agone. And that 
he had already ship't his goods to Diepe and 
written to his father in law in France to procure 
a protection from that king for Thurloe to live 
in Normandy, who was resolv'd to trust the king 
as little as he, For, he said, though the King should 
pardon Thurloe, yet that the bloud of Penrud- 
dock, Sir Henry Slingsby and Doctor Hewett, 
whose deaths with many others he had contriv'd 
would never be forgotten nor forgiven, but that he 
would be pistolled one time or other. Likewise 
Sir Rich, was continually importun'd by Moor- 
land, pretending he had it in order and instructions 
soe to do that he would begin a treaty and that 
purpose, lay a designe to introduce, and invite 
a party of the Kings from abroad or from home 
to a suppos'd surprise of a port, which should be 
a trapp to catch and destroy the undertakers. 
As they have effected upon him. And what vil- 
lainous use they have made of a cypher taken from 
him above two yeares since (and pretended by 
them to be lost) as to forging of letters and names 
and emptying upon him the whole synke of their 
intelligence, God knowes. Moorland having told 
him very lately at London that several persons 
that were concern'd as he call'd it, came to him 
to know whether it was true that Thurloe was j 
printing a particuler of all his intelligencers. 

Lastly whereas it is said that the said Sir Rich. 
W. was to have by way of contract 1200 a year 
from them for giving intelligence ; there is nothing 
more false then that ever there was any such offer 
made him. Which together with the rest afore- 
mentioned, he offers freely to make good either by 
oath or any other way shall be proposed to him. 
And is ready to give a further account of all perti- 
<mlars from the beginning to the ending of this 
unhappy negotiation. And if the said Moorland 

who, in this condition (as he supposeth) is as 
little to be credited as himself, can by any valid 
witnesses, make appear that Sir Rich, talk't with 
either Oliver or Richard Cromwell in all his life, he 
is ready to own all the accusation that is made 
against him. 

Note. Sir R. Willys was condemned for treason 
on May 15, 1660 (Historical Manuscripts Com- 
mission's Fifth Report, Appendix, p. 208). 

J. G. M. 

* " It's undoubted that he was ' velenato,' and 
Jo. Thurlo the secretary, had a lick of it. Credo 
che quel Thurlo lo disse al Cavalier Rico. Willys " 
(Diary of Richard Symonds, Harl. MS. 991). 




(See 12 S. x. 81, 104.) 

ANNO 1654. 1655. 

BAWKY & The purpose of marriage between 
BUSTIAN Mellis Bawky singleman, son 
of Erne Bawky widdow and 
Ailce Bustian singlewoman daughter of Anne 
the wife of John Waters, all this parish, was pub- 
lished three severall Lords days in the parish 
Church of Aldeburgh after the morning exercise 
was done viz, on the 21, & 28 days of January, 
& on the 4th day of February 1654 : And the sayd 
Mellis & Ailce were marryed on the 13th day of 
March 1654, by Mr Tho : Cheney Justice of Peace 
of this Corporation. 

BENNET & The purpose of marriage betweeiie 
MILBUBNE John Bennet singleman of this 
parish sonne of Marian Bennet 
of Kelshall widdow ; and Anne Lilburne* of this 
parish widdow ; was published 3 severall Lords 
days, in this parish Church after the morning 
exercise was done ; viz on the 21 & 28 day of 
January, and on the 4th of February 1654; 
and the John & Anne were marryed on the 22<1 
day of February 1654, by Mr Tho : Cheney 
Justice of peace 'in this Corporation. 

BAWKY & The purpose of marriage between 
WEST. James Bawky widdower & Eliza- 

noe certif. beth West widdow, both of this 
parish, was published 3 severall 
Lords days, viz on the 21 & 28 days of January, 
and on the 4th day of February 1654, in the 
parish Church of Aldeburgh after the morninj 
Sermon was done ; and the sayd James ant 
Elizabeth were marryed on the 4th day of 
February without a certificat from the Register, 
by Mr Tho : Cheney Justice of Peace in this 

TELFORD & The purpose of marriage between 

PULHAM. Edmund Telford widdower and 

Mary Pulham widdow both of 

this parish was published 3 severall Lords days 

in this parish Church after the morneing sermon 

was done, viz on the 11, 18, & 25th days of 

February 1654 ; and the sayd Edmund and Mary 

were marryed on the 27th day of February 1654, 

by Mr Edward Cocket Justice of peace in this 


* So appears and probably correct, being a 
well-known name in Aldeburgh. 

12 8. X. FKB. 18, 1922.] 



SADLER & The purpose of marriage betweene exercise was done viz, on the 24 of June, and on 
SHANK Thomas Sadler singleman and the 1st and 8th days of July 1655 ; and the 

Ailce Shank singlewoman both of I sayd Thomas & Margaret were marryed on the 
this parish, was published 3 severall Lords days ! 10th day of July after, by Mr Edward Cockett 

after the morning sermon was done in this parish 
Church, viz on the 25 of February, & on the 4th 
& llth days of March, 1654. And the sayd 
Thomas & Ailce were marry ed on the 20th day 
of March 1654, by Mr Edward Cocket Justice 
of peace in this Corporation. 


Justice of Peace of this Corporation. 

SHERWOOD & The purpose of marriage be- 
MITCHELL tweene John Sherwood single- 
man of this parish (son of 
Robert Sherwood of Mendham in Suffolk) and 
Susan Mitchell singlewoman of this parish 
(daughter to Anne the wife of Samuel Eccleston 
of this parish alsoe) was published 3 severall 
Mary Daniel widdow both of this Lords days after the morneing sermon was done, 

The purpose of marriage between 
Robert Rogers widdower, and 

parish was published 3 severall Lords days in 
this parish Church after the morneing sermon 
was done viz on the 18 & 25 days of February, 
<fc on the 4th day of March 1654 ; And the sayd 
Robert & Mary were marryed at Aldeburgh on 
the 22th day of March 1654, by Mr Thomas 
Cheney Justice of peace in this Corporation. 

ANNO 1655. 

The purpose of marriage between 
George Ellis singleman & Elizabeth 

viz on the 29th of July, & the 5th & 12th days of 
August 1655. And the sayd John & Susan were 
marryed on the fourth day of September 1655 by 
Mr Edward Cocket Justice of Peace of this 

HEWETT & The purpose of marriage between 
BUNDISH Benson Hewitt of this parish 
singleman (sonne to Anne Hewitt 
of St George's parish London, widdow) and 
Margaret Bundish of this parish widdow, was 


FAUSTER vjreurge _cjiiis siiigicmaii O6 Jiiii/.aiUt;i/xi i , , 

Fauster singlewoman (daughter to Polished 3 severall Lords days viz on the 2, 9 & 
Philip Key of Dunwich widdow) both of this ! 1 6th ^^ of September 1655, after the_mornemg 

parish was published three severall Lords days 


in this parish church after the morneing sermon 

Sermon was done: And the sayd Benson & 
Margaret were marryed the llth day of October 

^^r^orti^rrd^Tf^eS^, ^.^ ***** T su * ** ? arnab ^ ****** 

1 Esquire one of the Justices of peace for this 
county : as appeares by a certificate under his 
hand & seale the day & yeare aforesayd. 

& on the 4th day of March 1654 : And the sayd 
George & Elizabeth were marryed on the 16th 
day of April 1655, at Dunwich, by Mr Will: 
Farrow Justice of Peace of that Corporation 

The truth of all which particulars con- 
tained in this Page is testifyed by mee 
HEN : SEARLE Register. 

ANNO 1654, 1655. 

SCRUTTON & The purpose of marriage be- 
TARVAR tween William Scrutton single- 

man & Mary Tarvar single- 
woman both of this parish was published 3 
severall Lords days in this parish Church after 
the morning exercise was done, viz, on the 4th, 
llth, & 18th days of March 1654 ; and the sayd 
William & Mary were marryed on the 17th day 
of April 1655, by Mr Edward Cocket Justice of 
peace in this Corporation. 

. CHENEY & The purpose of marriage between 
BROWNE Capt : Thomas Cheney widdower, 
of this parish, and Mary Browne 
daughter to Mr Thomas Browne of Rendham, 
singlewoman, was published three severall Lords 
days in this parish Church after the morning 
exercise was done; viz on the 15th, 22th, & 
29th days of April 1655; and the sayd Thomas 
& Mary were marryed at Ash on the first day of 
May 1655 by Mr Robert Lane Justice of Peace 
in the County of Suffolk, as is Reported 

WHITE & The purpose of marriage between 
REYNOLDS John White of Knodishall wid- 
dower and Anne Reynolds of this 
parish widdow, was published on the 22 & 29 
lays of Aprill, & on the 6th day of May 1655 ; but 
they relinquished each other & were never marryed. 

BUCK & The purpose of marriage between 

CRACKNELL Margaret Cracknell widdow and 

Thomas Buck widdower both of 

this parish, was published in this parish Church 

on 3 severall Lords days after the morning 

CROSWELL & The purpose of marriage be- 
PARKER tween Thomas Croswell Single- 

man and Martha Parker widdow 
both of this parish ; was published 3 severall 
Lords days, viz on the 14, 21 & 28th days of 
October after the morneing Sermon was done : 

sayd Thomas & Martha were marryed. 
truth of all the particulars contained in 

By mee HENRY SEARLE Registr 

ANNO 1655. 1656. 

DICKERSON & The purpose of marriage be- 
BOWTELL tween John Dickerson of Thorpe 
widdower and Christian Bow- 
tell of this parish widdow, was published on the 
25th day of November, & on the 2d & 9th days of 
December in this parish-church after the morn- 
ing Sermon was done 1655 : and the sayd John & 
Christian were marryed. 

HOLDING & The purpose of marriage be- 
CHITTLEBOROW tweene Edmund Holding wid- 
dpwer, and Sara Chittleborow 
widow, both of this parish, was published in our 
parish church the 2nd, 9th & 16th days of Decem- 
ber 1655, after the morning exercise was done. 
And the sayd Edmund & Sara were marryed. 

PEACOCK & The purpose of marriage be- 
TRUNDLE tweene William Peacock Single- 
man, the sonne of Simon Peacok 
of Saxmundham, & Mary Trundle singlewoman 
both of this parish, was published on the 9th, 
16th and 23d days of december 1655 after the 
morning exercise was done in our parish church 
of Aldeburgh : and the sayd William & Mary were 
marryed at Aldeburgh on the first day of January 
1655 by Mr Thomas Cheney Justice' of Peace of 
this Corporation. 



[12S. X. FEB. 18, 1922. 

BOBSON & The purpose of marriage between 

WILE Richard Bobson Widdower^ and 

Elizabeth Wile widdow both of this 

parish was published on the 23d & 30th days of 

December, & on the 6th day of January 1655, in pur 

parish church of Aldeburgh after the morneing 

Sermon was done. And the sayd Bichard & 

Elizabeth say they were marryed on the 14th day 

of February att Dunwich by Mr - * Daverson 

Bailyffe of that Corporation, 1655. 

SKEA & The purpose of marriage between 

BOOKE John Skea widdower, and Elizabeth 

Booke widdow both of this parish 

was published on the 23d & 30th days of December 

& on the 6th day of January 1655, in our parish 

church of Aldeburgh after the morneing Sermon 

was done. And the sayd John & Elizabeth say 

that they were marryed on the 7th day of Jan- 

uary by Mr Thomas Cheney Justice of peace in 

this Corporation. 

& The purpose of marriage be- 
FAYREHEAD tweene Henry Downeing of 
Subborne singleman. (sonne to 
Mary Downeing of Blacksill widdow) And 
Anne Fayrehead of Subborne alsoe, singlewoman ; 
was published on the 8th, 15th & 22d days of 
March in the open market place at Aldeburgh 
1655. And the sayd Henry and Anne were 

ANDREWS & The purpose of marriage be- 

ISACK tween Bobert Andrews widdower 

1655, 1656. and Jane Isack widdow both of 

Snape in the county of Suffolk, 

was published on the 22th & 29th o f March 1655, 

and on the 5th of April 1656 in the open markett 

at Aldeburgh. And the sayd Bobert <fc Jane were 

marryed on the 7th day of April 1656 by Mr 

Tho : Cheney Justice of Peace of this corporation. 

(To be continued.) 


THE recent discussion on the Harcourt 
pedigree in * N. & Q.' has suggested this 
note on Stephen's second Chancellor. 

Philip, who is said to have been son of 
Robert de Harcourt, Sieur de Harcourt, 
became Chancellor in succession to Roger 
the Poor, who was arrested with his father, 
the great Bishop Roger of Salisbury,! in 
June, 1139 ; and he is found attesting 
several documents as "P. cancellarius " 
(Round, ' Geoffrey de Mandeville,' pp. 
46, 47). But he held the Great Seal less 
than a year, being appointed to the bishopric 

* Blank. 

t It is quite possible that his mother, Maud of 
Bamsbury, was the bishop's lawful wife, and that 
it was only in deference to Bomish prejudices 
that the younger Boger was known as the bishop's 
" nephew." 

I of Salisbury in 1140. According to the 

! ' Annals ' of Waverley, the King gave him 

| the bishopric at a mid-Lent council in 

London, but Bishop Henry of Winchester, 

! who was Legate, did not consent ( ' Ann. 

I Mon,' ii. 228). John of Worcester states 

j that Stephen gave the bishopric to Philip 

! at Winchester, by the advice of his barons - r 

and a later note, of uncertain date, adds 

| that Philip was not accepted by the Legate 

and the Chapter (a clero) (' Cont. Flor. 

Wig.,' ii. 124). Orderic, from whom we 

learn that Philip was archdeacon of Evreux, 

gives the cause of the Legate's hostility. 

He wanted the vacant see for his nephew., 

Henry de Sulli * ; but Waleran, Count of 

Meulan,| had selected (elegerat) Philip de 

Harcourt, who was supported by the 

majority of the Council ; and when the King 

assented, the Legate withdrew in anger 

from the court (Ord., 'Vit.,' v. 123). The 

Waverley ' Annals ' add that Philip appealed 

to Rome, but in vain. So he failed to- 

secure his bishopric. 

Philip must have surrendered the Great 
Seal immediately on his appointment, in 
accordance with the regular practice (c/. 
Farrer, ' An Outline Itinerary of King 
Henry I.,' p. 3) ; for his successor, Robert 
de Gant, appears in office in 1140-41 (Hew- 
lett, ' Introduction to Gesta Stephani/ 
p. xxvii., and note on Robert de Torigny, 
p. 145). So Haskins must be wrong in 
writing as if Philip were still Chancellor 
when he received the see of Bayeux (Eng. 
Hist. Review, xxvii. 422). Apparently he 
received the deanery of Lincoln as temporary 
consolation, for according to Eyton he was 
dean of Lincoln when he was promoted to 
Bayeux ('Court, Household and Itinerary 
of Henry II.,' p. 21). 

Philip was given the bishopric of Bayeux, 
apparently in 1142, although the MSS. of 
Robert de Torigny seem to be in a muddle 
between 1142 and 1143 (cf. Hewlett's note 
on Robert de Torigny, p. 145). Modern 
authorities, however, are divided between 

1141 and 1142, the earlier date being given 
by Eyton (u.s.) and Delisle (^Recueil des 
Actes de Henri II.,' Introd., p. 415), whilst 

1142 has the support of Hewlett (u.s.}, Le 
Prevost (Ord., ' Vit.,' v. 123, note 3), Gams 
(' Series Episcoporum '), and Haskins (Eng. 

* Henry was a son of the Legate's eldest- 
brother William (disinherited) by the heiress of 
Sulli. He was consoled with the Abbey of 

t For Waleran see the ' D.N.B,' sub. Beaumont. 

12 s.x. FEB. is, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 127 

Hist. Review, u.s.) ; also Round (to judge de Torigny, cites Gams without expressing 
from the date limits assigned to No. 502 an opinion of his own. G. H. WHITE. 

and others in his ' Calendar of Documents 23, Weighton Road, Anerley. 
Preserved in France '). 

Apparently Philip had revenged himself 

on the unappreciative Chapter of Salisbury | INFERENCE AS TO DATE OF BIRTH. For 
by^carrying off some of their relics ; for a pedigrees earlier than the nineteenth cen- 
letter from the Archbishop of Rouen to the tury researchers often have to infer the date 
English prelates (1142-1153) announces the of birth from statements of age at certain 
settlement of a dispute between the Bishops ! epochs, such as entering school or univer- 
of Bayeux and Salisbury as to what had ' sity, or at death. The data are usually 
been carried off from the treasury of Salis- ; a statement of age in years (only), and a 
bury Cathedral : Philip has restored an more precise date, with month and day, 
arm * covered with plates of gold and of the epoch. But the calculation is tricky 
adorned with precious stones, and has also and difficult, and often that ambiguous 
given 10 marcs of silver ('Gal. Docts. ; expression comes in, ** cet. 70" or so. That 
France,' No. 1438). It would be interesting should mean anno cetatis suce septuagesimo, 
to know to whom the arm was supposed i &c., but is often taken to mean <: aged " 
to belong ! so-and-so : the man referred to is of course 

As Bishop of Bayeux, Philip was also sixty-nine years old and in his seventieth 
Dean of the house of Holy Trinity of Beau- \ year. And two minor pitfalls gape in front 
mont until it was granted to Bee (Round, ! of us : the ambiguity (until 1752 inclusive) 
"Commune of London,' p. 116); and he i of the period between Jan. 1 and March 
attested the charter by which Count Waleran | 24, both inclusive (for Feb. 3, 1643/4, 
of Meulan made the grant in question. A called at the time sometimes 1643 and some- 
clause, which is evidently a later addition, ; times 1644, is for us always 1644) ; and 
gives the date as "1142 [sic] 6 Idus leap year (for Feb. 29 must always be 
Decembris" (' Cal. Docts. France,' No. 370.) j counted as Feb. 28 in years which are not 

We are told that the bishop fuit vir I leap year, for purposes of calculation). 
prudens et astutus in augmentandis et re- \ For these and other reasons many mistakes 
vocandis rebus illius ecclesiae (Robert de i are made by unskilled persons in inferences 
Torigny, p. 217). For his activities in re- I from the data mentioned above, and it 
covering the property of the see, cf. Haskins, \ seems worth while to state precisely what 
Eng. Hist. Review, xxvii. 437, 439 ; and in can properly be inferred in the three follow - 
1154 we find that Geoffrey de Clinton has ing cases. The results are of considerable 
mortgaged his land at Douvres to the. bishop ' use when parish registers have to be searched, 
(' Cal. Docts. France,' No. 1441). MS well as for precision in dates. 

A charter of Henry II. (1156-59) shows When age at a certain date is given, what 
Philip presiding, jointly with Robert de j can be inferred about the date of birth ? 
Neufbourg the Chief Justiciar of Nor- \ L Given year onl and Subtract 

f^w y ^^Q^ u-^ mg S co ! u> * a * u Rouen | the age from the date. Then the birth was 
(ibid., No. 132), which suggests that he was | 6 at ear i iest on Jan . 2 in the year before 

acting as Joint Justiciar at the time ; but | the resu ltant year 

Vernon Harcourt considers that the evi- at Utest on Dec> 31 in tne resultant ear . 

dence is not conclusive (' His Grace the 
Steward,' pp. 47-48). 

The bishop intended to become a monk before ' Then the birth was 

at Bee, to which he had presented 140 
books, but died before he could fulfil his 

2. Given year and month. Subtract as 

at earliest on the second day of that 
month, in the year before the 

intention, in February, 1163 (Robert de 

Torigny, p. 217). This date is accepted I ^ .^ on the last day of that month, 

by Eyton (op. cit., p. 84) and Delisle (u.s.}, m the res ltant year. 

but Le Prevost and Gams give the year 3 - Glven 2/w month and day. Subtract 

as 1164 ; and Howlett, in a note on Robert as before. Then the birth was 

at earliest on the next day in that 

in the before the 


may remember Beetle's hazardous translation lesultailt year ; 

(in ' A Diversity of Creatures ') of " Consemiit atf latest on the resultant year, month 

socerortim in arm is." and day. 



[12 S. X. FEB. 18, 1922. 

Thus, to take an actual case, if a man 
was (1) admitted to Westminster School 
in 1736, aged 11, (2) matriculated at Oxford 
from Christ Church in February, 1743, aged 
17, and (3) died on May 2, 1790, aged 64, we 
may infer thus much : 

1. That he was born between Jan. 2, 

1724, and Dec. 31, 1725. 

2. That he was born between Feb. 2, 

1725, and Feb. 28, 1726. 

3. That he was born between May 3, 
1725, and May 2, 1726. 

Therefore his birth was between May 3 
and Dec. 31, 1725. FAMA. 


BLAKE IN AMERICA. Students of Blake 
may be interested to learn of an early 
American publication of some of his poems. 
In The Harbinger, vol. vii., No. 10, p. 73 
(New York, July 8, 1848), under the heading 
' Poetry ' are printed ' Selections from 
Blake's Poems,' consisting of five poems 
from the Poetical Sketches ' To the 
Evening Star,' ' To Morning,' and three 
songs, beginning respectively " How sweet 
I roamed," " My silks and fine array," 
and " Love and harmony combine." These 
items were discovered too late to be in- 
cluded in Dr. Geoffrey Keynes's new 


Graduate School, Columbia University, 
New York. 

tervals I have been examining the library 
and valuable manuscripts and parchments 
left by my late father, who all his life 
was zealously (if not very systematically) 
collecting. I have recently found amongst 
a number of other old books in a box in 
the cellar of this house 'The History of 
the Holy Warre,' by Thomas Fuller, second 
edition, printed at Cambridge in 1640. 
The book itself, with its beautifully illu- 
minated initial letters, is curious, but what 
interested me still more was the discovery 
therein of two parchments emanating from 
Fountains Abbey and dated 1339. Now, 
though my father makes a note in the old 
volume that he bought it at a sale at Ripon 
in 1874, it is possible, if not probable, that 
he never read the book or knew of the 
existence of the parchments, otherwise he 
would have removed them. At some pre- 
vious date the book had been the property 
of James Aitcheson, who may have come 
across the parchments and placed them there. 

We know that it was not uncommon for 
amulets and charms to be written on 
skin and sold at monasteries to the pious 
or superstitious, but these were usually 
of a different character to those which have 
now come to light by accident. One, signed 
by Robert Copgrove (abbot of Fountains 
from 1336 to his death in 1346, sometimes 
described as Copegyrie) has on the full 
length of the left margin a coloured figure 
with hideous features (painted violet). The 
figure is kneeling, is wearing a rochet with 
gold points and showing the scarlet of a 
full-length cassock beneath. A scarlet 
girdle is seen immediately above the golden 
points of the rochet, which has a pointed 
amice or collar and has a golden stole pro- 
ceeding from under it. The following is the 
perfectly legible prayer : 

Our fader whiche arth in heofnai halowid be 
thi name. Thi kyngdome come to be thi willd 

don in earth as in h n [illegible] geve us 

thiss day our breed odir substannce. And f orgeve 
us ovr dettes as we forgeven ovre detvrres & lyde 
vs nott irito tymptatacion bvt delyver vs from 
yvel for thi sonnes sake. Amen. 


Fontains, A.M. 1339. 

There is no illumination on the second 
parchment, which is in the same calligraphy 
and has inscribed upon it : 

Ave holie & grete fader in hevine Do wee aske 
grete meercyes from thi hand and unto [us] 
geve all thynges whyche in thi bountyfull gude- 
ness thi hand may seem fytt to bewtowe upon 
oure wycked and bad selves and wovld wee ask 
of the O grete and powerfull God not to benumbe 
ovre hearyng and seeing those thyngs of whiche 
and by whiche we through thi deer sonne Jesu.s 
may come to the throne of grace and thyre 
obtayne forgyvness for all our syrines and suche 
falts as may have been commitiyed by us and 
we would aske thi blessyng to fall upon ovre 
Kynge Henrie and all ye people of thys natcion 
and all rude and wcykedness whatsoevere. 


Grove House, Norton-on-Tees. 

12 S. ix. 488). I am mortified to find that 
I gave the wrong Henry Lee as the re- 
cipient of Gilbert Imlay's letter of Sept. 2, 
1784. As a penance for this mistake I 
have looked through various authorities 
for the right Henry Lee, and in doing so 
ran across an interesting reference to Keats, 
which I append in its appropriate place. 

The Henry Lee whom Imlay wrote to 
was born in Prince William County, Va., in 
1757. He went to Bourbon Co., Kentucky, 
then a part of Virginia, in 1779, as a sur- 
veyor. In 1785 he founded Lee Station, 

12 S. X. FEB. 18. 1922.] 



and soon after was one of the founders! The map itself is of great interest but com - 
of the two adjoining towns, Washington , ment on it must be left to Mr. John E. 
and Maysville. Pritchard, F.S.A., who has been the means 

Of this town of Washington, Collins, in his of the discovery of a very fine copy. 
' History of Kentucky,' has this interesting j ROLAND AUSTIN. 

" pink " ? Search in various works of refer- 

ence fails to reveal an explanation. 


Many years ago there appeared in ' N & Q.' 
lists of sham titles, adapted for the backs of 
dummy books, laid upon sham shelves, 
masking doors in libraries. ' Extinct 
Titles' was one, 'Thoughts upon Wood' 
was another. For a row of folios at the 
bottom I remember s Auctorum ignotorum 
omnia quae non supersunt.' Can any old 

lists ? 

give the references to these 

note : 

The most celebrated school in the west at the 
time was in Washington, 1807-12 ; that of Mrs. 
Louisa Caroline Warburton Fitzherbert Keats, 
sister of Sir George Fitzherbert of St. James's 
Square, London, and wife of Rev. Mr. Keats, a 
deaf and uninteresting old gentleman, relative 
of the great English poet, George (sic) Keats. 

Henry Lee was appointed Captain of 
Militia in 1786 by Patrick Henry, Governor 
of Virginia; in 1787-8 he represented 
Bourbon Co. (now Mason Co.) in the Virginia 
Legislature, and in the latter year cast one 
of the 168 votes which ratified the Constitu- 
tion of the United States by the narrow 
majority of 10. He was surveyor of Mason 
Co. in 1789 ; was appointed, 1792, Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel by Governor Isaac Shelby, the 
first Governor of Kentucky ; and in the 
same year (in which Kentucky was made 
a separate State), Lee was one of the Com- 
missioners who selected Frankfort as the 
State capital. 

In November, 1 794, he was pla ced bv Presi- 

dent Washington in command of an army ! are many scattered about the country, 
raised to suppress an insurrection in the I LAURANCE M. WULCKO. 

western counties of Pennsylvania, and in 
1798 was made Brigadier - General by 

Governor James Garrard He died at , MENT ._ T he following meagre paiticulars of 
Maysville, Mason Co., Kentucky, Oct. 24, the chap i ains to the regiment aie known. 

Can any reader supply information as to 
the date and place of birth, education, and 
careers before appointment to and after 
leaving the regiment ? 

I should be glad to hear of any graves 
or memorials in the British Isles of Polish 
exiles. The only ones I know are those 
of Ostrowski, Nowosielski, Darasz, and 
Worcell in Highgate cemetery, and that of 
Stolzman at Haverigg, but no doubt there 

142, Kinfauns Road, Goodmayes, Essex. 

1845, in his 89th year. 



WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
;a order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

" FIRDOR." In Arber's ' Term Cata- 

William Parry, Jan. 9, 1759, to Dec. 25, 
1764 ; joined the Bengal Establishment 
Nov. 4, 1762 ; died in Calcutta, April 13, 1769. 

John Bethune, June 14, 1775, to 1783 ; 
died 1817. It is probable that he was 
domiciled in America both before and after 

logues,' i. 135 (1), is the following entry : this service 

In exact Map) or Delineation, of the City of Thomas Beamish, Nov. 2, 1793 
Bristol and Suburbs thereof. In Pour Sheets,! Thomas Beaumont, March 1, 1794, to 
encompassed with a large Firdor shewing most of 1797. 
the principal Buildings therein contained. . . . Second Battalion, 84th Regiment. Alex- 

What is the meaning of " firdor "? Isthejander Mackenzie, July 12, 1777; trans- 
word met with elsewhere? The meaning j f erred to 77th Foot, 1782. 
which suggests itself is " border," but search j William Duncan, Aug. 1, 1782 (v. 
in dictionaries old and new is without re- j McKenzie transferred), to 1783. 
suit. Dr. Henry Bradley has kindly veri- ! (Both the above probably were domiciled 
fied " Arber " with the original and finds in America.) 

the spelling is correct so far as that is con- 1 John Mason, Nov. 15, 1794, to full 
cerned. Is it possible that the printer of the j pay, 1795 ; died on service in the Red 
original ' Term Catalogue ' made a mistake ? Sea, 1799. MAZINGABBE. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. FEB. is, 1922. 

330, I find that the source of this phrase was 
risked, but no replies appear to have been ; 
received. The librarian of Guildhall as- 
sisted me by a reference to Lean's ' Collec- 
tanea,' vol. iv. (1904), p. 91, where Lean 
quotes James Kelly's ' Scottish Proverbs,' | 
(1721). Another hint was received from a 
Scotsman, who pointed to ' The Fortunes 
of Nigel,' vol. ii. (1879), p. 311, where George ! 
Heriot says, " I am afraid I might have ! 
thought of the old proverb of Satan re- 
proving sin." Can any present-day reader 
assist further ? C. W. WHITAKER. 

12, Warwick Lane, B.C. 4. 

UNIDENTIFIED ARMS. Can anyone kindly 
identify the following arms ? " Argent, a 
chevron sable between three bulls' heads 
erased sable." Kindly reply direct. 


21, Park Crescent, Oxford. 

guide to Farleigh Hungerford, the Rev. 
J. E. Jackson gives a pedigree of the Mont- 
forts of Farleigh Montfort, as it was at 
one time called. He writes : "In the 
reign of William Rufus, it had been granted 
to the family of Montfort, from whom it 
obtained the name of Farleigh Montfort. 
They were lords also of Wellow and Half 
a, manor of Nunney. . . ." The first 
Montfort he refers to in his pedigree is 
one Henry de Montfoit, A.D. 1200. They 
would appear to have belonged to the family 
of Montfort -sur-Hisle. 

Could any reader of ' N. & Q.' throw any 
light upon their history before 1200 ? 


SURNAME LACKLAND. Is it known if any 
of the illegitimate sons of Kirig John assumed 
the nickname of Lackland as a surname ? 
I have consulted many histories of England 
and other works, including Miss Norgate's 
* John Lackland,' but I can find no informa- 
tion on this point. 

I think I am right in saying that at this 
early period nicknames applied almost 
entirely to the individual alone, and that 
only in rare instances did the nickname 
become an hereditary surname. Of these 
exceptions at this period there are instances 
in such old names as Scrope, Pauncefote, 
Beauclerk, Grosvenor and Lackland, all of 
which still exist as very uncommon surnames 

FIDDLERS' GREEN.- " He won't go to 
heaven : he'll go to Fiddlers' Green, two 
and a half miles beyond hell ! " 

" I shan't go to heaven : I shall get off 
at Fiddlers' Green, twenty -five miles this 
side of heU ! " 

These sayings, reported by different indi- 
viduals, the first by a sexagenarian, the 
second by an octogenarian, seem to point 
to a piece of English folk-lore about the 
status of fiddlers hereafter. 


CHURCH SOUGHT. Can anyone identify the 
name and location of the church painted by 
J. Richards, engraved by " T. Hearne, 
. . . Pupil to Mr. Woollett," and in- 
scribed, " Engraved after an Original Pic- 
ture of Mr. J. Richards. Published by T. 
Bradford, No. 132 Fleet Street." 

The church is situated on a hill sur- 
rounded by a wooden fence. At the east 
end of the church there are a farmhouse 
and barn*; a man on horseback with trees 
and cattle in the foreground. In the dis- 
tance to the west are depicted several 
houses and a windmill. The size of the 
engraving is 11 by 14 in. 



' History of Hampshire,' vol. iii., p. 54, 
there is given an account of the opening of 
the above church, A.D. 1117, and one of 
those attending the ceremony was Rem. 
(Remont ?) de Tombe. Is it known whether 
this Remont belonged to the ancient family 
who bore the arms of "three tombstones " 
which are shown upon a sundial at New- 
church, Isle of Wight, and are said to be 
quartered with those of the members of the 
Dillington family ? Can anyone say if 
these arms are still borne by any family other 
than Sir John Tomes (the late) and his 
descendants and those connected with 
Long Marston, Gloucestershire ? 


60, Harrow View, Harrow. 

" LOVE " in PLACE-NAMES. What is the 
derivation and signification of the generic 
place -word love preceded by atte or de as 
in the following examples of the early part of 
the fourteenth century: Love (Cambs), 
Luef (Hants), Louf (Suss, and Wilts), 
Loof (Suff.) ? It seems to be also an ele- 
ment in some compound place-names such 
as Loveridge, Loufford, Lovegrove, Love 

12 s.x. FBB . i8 ? i922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Hill, Love Green, Lovehurst, Lovecott, &c., 
i.e., where the oldest forms do not indicate 
the personal name. The word is not 
mentioned in the ; N.E.D.' or in any other 
work of reference known to me. E. G. T. 

be glad to know of any bookplates of the 
Savery family of Devon, whose arms are 
Gules, a fess vair between three unicorns' 
heads couped, or Crest, a heron's head 
erased argent between two wings displayed 
sable, holding in the beak an olive branch 
vert (sometimes an eagle's head] and gene- 
rally quartering the arms of Servington 
of Devon, viz., Ermine on a chevron 
azure three bucks' heads cabossed or, the 
co-heiress having married Stephen Savery 
of Great Totnes, Devon. I possess one of 
Charles Savery of Bristol quartering Ser- 
vington and impaling Butler of Caerleon, 
Monmouthshire, viz., 1st and 4th, Or a chief 
indented azure ; 2nd and 3rd, gules, three 
covered cups or. Also one of the Webster 
family, On a lozenge argent, a cross flory 
between four mullets sable with an es- 
cutcheon of pretence for Savery quartering 
Butler. Were the Butlers of Irish descent 
and to what family of Webster did the 
bookplates belong ? Any information would 
be gratefully received. 


Essex Lodge, Ewell. 

NEVIN FAMILY. I would like to know the 
ancestry of Hugh Nevin, who was appointed 
vicar of Donaghadee, Co. Down, in December, 
1634. He was the grandfather of Thomas 
Nevin, born at Kilwinning, Ayrshire, in 
1686. Thomas was educated at^ Glasgow 
College, where he matriculated Feb.* 25, 1703. 
He was ordained Minister of Downpatrick 
by the Down Presbytery, Nov. 20,1711. He 
died March, 1744, and was succeeded by his 
son William in 1746. William died Nov. 13, 
1780, and was succeeded by his second son, 
also William, as minister at Downpatrick, 
1785-9. This William afterwards became 
an M.D. Thomas Nevin married a daughter 
of James Fleming, minister of Lurgan. 

Did any member of this family emigrate 
to America, and when ? 

Andrew Nevin married a sister of Lady 
Montgomery of the Ards ; was he of the 
above family ? What was the maiden name 
of his wife ? 

I will appreciate any information in 
regard to the above family. 


EMRA HOLMES, Collector of Customs 
at Woodbridge, Suffolk, (1876), author of 
Tales, Poems, &c , 1879 and 1881, 'Annabel 
Vaughan,' ' Mildred, an Autumn Romance,' 
| &c., sub-editor of ' The Universal Masonic 
Calendar ' and a quondam contributor to 
The Freemason. Where and when did he die ? 

W. N. C. 

BLOXAM. Charles Henry Bloxam. was 

admitted to Westminster School in January, 

1824, aged 11 ; Fraser Houston Bloxam 

in January, 1819, aged 8; and George 

Frederick Bloxam in January, 1834, aged 

{ 10. Can correspondents of ' N. & Q.' give 

! me any information about these Bloxam s ? 

G. F. R. B. 

BOULGER. John Boulger, son of John 
I Boulger of St. Martin's parish, Chester, 
I graduated M.A. at Oxford, from Ch. Ch. in 
! 1816, and William Boulger, eldest son of 
William Boulger of Bradfield, Berkshire, 
matriculated at the same university from 
Queen's College in 1825. Further par- 
Iticulars of their careers are desired. 

G. F. R. B. 


! Susannah Brindley, the parents of James 

! Brindley the celebrated engineer of the 

I Bridgewater Canal, were living at Spinner 

Bottom, Hayfield, Derbyshire, in 1723 and 

1726, when the baptisms of their sons, 

| Henry and John, were recorded in the 

i Hayfield Registers. What was the maiden 

name of Susannah Brindley ? Can she 

have been the Susannah, daughter of 

i Mr. John Bradbury of Spinner Bottom, 

baptized at Hayfield, 1691. It is worth 

noting that Samuel, son of Richard Brinsley 

j of Spinner Bottom, was baptized April 7, 

! 1716, at Hayfield. F. BRADBURY. 


glad if any reader can give me any particulars 
concerning the pedigree, career and de- 
scendants of General Clement Edwards, 
C.B., formerly Colonel-in-Chief of the 18th 
Royal Irish Regiment and Adjutant -General 
during Cardwell's time. Was he the 
originator of the short service system, or 
was he responsible for the abolition of 
i purchase in the Army (or both) ? 



Is there any definite rule as to the place 

of worship which a mayor and corporation 

I should attend on the first and last Sundays 

i of office ? W. P. T. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. FEB. 18,1022. 

HK4HGATE. How many places are known 
to bear this name, and what is the earliest 
date of its occurrence in each case ? When 
does the name appear first as a personal 
name, and with what variation in spelling 
does it recur through the centuries ? Is 
the origin to be sought in High-gate, or 
in Hey-ga,te ? Do the topographical 
features of the places bearing this name 
throw any light on the subject ? Norden's 
view is, of course, well known. 


69, Oakfield Road, Stroud Green, N.4. 

'ViVA Pio, PAPA, BE. About 1874 a song 
was published in Kensington (?) entitled, 'Viva 
Pio, Papa, Re,' words by Count Vincent Ferrero, 
music by Catalani. I should be truly thankful 
to any reader for the name of the publisher. 

I cannot trace it in the British Museum cata- 
logue. W. H. G. 

was published in the early sixties describing the 
adventures of two little orphan boys named Chris 
and John. It had a tremendous sale and ran 
into several editions. Can any reader supply the 
title ? The opening lines were : 

" The yellow fog lay thick and dim 
O'er London city far and wide." 

W. H. G. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Who wrote the poem 
beginning " In the hour of death, after this 
life's whim," which appears as No. 883 in the 
' Oxford Book of English Verse ' under the title 
' Dominus Illuminatio Mea.' It seems very 
modern to be really anonymous. R. AITKEN. 

[This is by R. D. Blackmore ; but where did it 
first appear ?] 


(12 S. ix. 406.) 

WARDEN MORE was certainly not the " Dr. 
Edwardus Morus, Anglus," who matricu- 
lated at Wittenberg in April, 1539, nor was 
he the Englishman (name now unknown) 
who stayed at Wittenberg as Luther's guest 
in November, 1538, and the following months. 
The point is settled by the College account 
roll of 1538-9, which runs from Sept. 14, 
30 Hen. VIII., to Sept 12, 31 Hen. VIII. 
Here is a translation of some of the entries 
under " Custus necessarii cum donis " : 

For expenses of sir Warden and sir Rythe and 
others with them riding to London in the month 
of November [1538], as in food, drink, botage and 
other necessaries, as appears by book, 4 Os 2cl. 
. . . For expenses of sir Warden and sir 
Rythe and others with them riding to London in 

the month of February [1538-9] on business of the 
College, as appears by bill, 7 Os 5d. . . . For 
expenses of [Thomas] Elyatt [the College swine- 
herd, " custos porcorum "] riding to sir Warden 
at Durrington [Wilts, where the College had pro- 
perty], 5d. And for expenses of sir Warden arid 
sir Rythe and others with them riding to Parlia- 
ment [which had been summoned to meet at 
Westminster on April 28, 1539] in the Easter pro- 
gress, as in food, drink, provender for horses and 
other necessaries, as appears by book, 6 9s 3d. 
... In expenses of sir Warden in the time of 
Parliament for a moiety of his commons from 21 
May to 8 June, 37s 8d. 

It appears, by the " allowances for com- 
mons " served in the College hall, which are 
set out week by week in the account roll, that 
in that year the following were the only 
weeks throughout which More was absent 
from the College : 1st quarter, 4th and llth 
weeks ; 2nd quarter, 7th and 8th weeks ; 
3rd quarter, 7th to 12th week (inclusive). 
These absences are explained by the entries 
quoted above, and it is clear that he did not 
go to Wittenberg. It may be added that 
he never had a doctor's degree (he was only 
a bachelor of divinity), and that he was 
bound by the statutory oath of a warden 
not to absent himself from the. College, ex- 
cept on College business, for more than two 
months (either continuously or diseontinu- 
ously) in any one year. 

John Rythe, who accompanied him on 
his journeys from Winchester, was a Fellow 
of the College. In Kirby's ' Scholars,' p. 8. 
he figures among the Fellows as " William 
Rythe." In the Register of Fellows in our 
' Liber Albus ' his Christian name w r as first 
entered as " Willelmus " and then corrected 
| by the same hand to " Johannes." This 
I part of the register is not contemporaneous, 
but was written up from 1532 onwards by 
Thomas* Larke (Fellow, 1560-82), who, as 
our accounts and other records show, omitted 
several names and sometimes gave wrong 
dates to admissions. Rythe, the Fellow, 
was identical with "Johannes Ryth," a 
scholar elected in 1522, to whose name in our 
Register of Scholars there is the marginal 
note (probably Larke's), " vicarius Gilling- 
ham : socius Winton." He was instituted 
vicar of Gillingham, Dorset, on Feb. 9, 1541-2, 
upon the death of Warden More, for More 
had been holding this living since April, 
1527, and had been presented to it by 
another Wykehamist, Dr. William Flesh- 
j monger, Dean of Chichester (see Hutchins's 
i ' Dorset,' iii. (1868), 646). The date of More's 
death is stated in our ' Liber Albus ' with 
I great precision: " obiit 1541 penultimo 
Decembris hora a prandio 2* subitanea 

1:2 S. X. FEB. 18, 1922.] 



morte sed senectute bona, intestatus : 
sepelitur in choro." The " intestatus " 
tersely expresses disappointment at the lack 
of benefactions under a will. 

Kirby (' Annals,' p. 229) stated that More 
gave the College its " Election Cup," an 
error which was unfortunately repeated in 
Sir Charles Jackson's ' Historv of English 
Plate' (1911), ii. 653. It was really the 
gift of Dr. John White, who resigned the 
wardenship on Oct. 1, 1554, after his 
appointment as Bishop of Lincoln. A copy 
of White's letter accompanying the gift, 
dated from " Bugdeaiie " (Buckden, Hunts) 
Aug. 20 (1555), and signed "Jo. Lincolni- 
ensis," occurs in our " Register G," f. 2336. 

The word " botagium," which I trans- 
lated above merely as " botage," is said in 
D'Arms's * Lexicon ' (1890) to signify " prse- 
statio pro vino quod in botis seu vasis vinariis 
distrahitur," which apparently means "pay- 
ment for (or duty on) wine sold in butts or 
wine-jars," but it seems to me just possible 
that the word, as used in the above passage 
and elsewhere in our accounts, is equivalent 
to " batillagium," and means " boatage or 
boat-hire." The Warden and his party rode 
from Winchester to Brentford, and frequently 
went thence by boat to Queenhithe, to put 
up at " Trumper's Inn," a house which the 
College owned in Little Trinity Lane. 

The Easter progress (" progressus Pasche ") 
was one of two progresses which the Warden 
used to make annually, to visit the College 
estates. It generally took him to Har- 
inondsworth in Middlesex, where the manor 
then belonged to the College, and it was 
perhaps from that neighbourhood that More 
" rode to Parliament " towards the end of 
April or early in May, 1539, and attended 
Convocation as Archdeacon of Lewes, to 
give his opinion or vote on " the Six 
Articles " (see ' Letters and Papers 
(Hen. VIII.),' vol. xiv., Pt. I., Nos. 860 and 
1065(4) ). These documents (to which MB. 
WAINE WRIGHT referred) prove that More 
was then still Archdeacon of Lewes. In 
that capacity he had been summoned to 
Convocation in November, 1529 (' L. & P.,' 
vol. iv., Pt. III., No. 6047, p. 2700) ; in 
1534-5 he was named as Archdeacon of 
Lewes in ' Valor Ecclesiasticus ' (i. 300) ; 
and he apparently continued to hold the 
office until his death, when his successor 
from 1542 to 1551 was John Sherry or 
Shirry (see ' D.N.B./ Hi. 99). It has been 
stated that Robert Buckenham was the 
Archdeacon in 1531 (' Le Neve's Fasti,' by 

Hardy, i. 263) and in 1547 (Dallaway's 
' Sussex,' under ' Chichester,' p. 109), but 
these dates cannot be correct, as I pointed 
out at 9 S. ix. 425. In the ' D.N.B.' 
(vii. 199) there is an account of Robert 
Buckenham (D.D., 1531) which ignores his 
connexion, if any, with the Archdeaconry 
of Lewes. In 1529, while Prior of 
the Black Friars, Cambridge, Buckenham 

g reached against Latimer. By June, 1534, 
e had found it expedient to leave England 
on account of his adherence to Rome 
('L. & P.,' vol. vii., Nos. 805, 807), and 
next year, while abroad, he was helping 
Henry Phillips in the proceedings against 
William Tyndale, which ended in Tyndale 1 s 
horrible death at Vilvorde. Though the 
fact is not mentioned in the ' D.N.B.,' 
Buckenham and Phillips were attainted for 
treason by our Parliament of 1539 (* L. & P.,' 
vol. xiv., Pt. L, No. 867, p. 402), but I cannot 
say whether either of them, being caught in 
this country, suffered the penalties of 

Dallaway (p. 143) said : 

The entrance to Chichester-house, from the 
South-street, leads through Canon-gate, which 
was greatly repaired by Edward Moore, Warden 
of Winton College. . . . 

Footnote : " Arms carved in stone, affixed. 
1. Wykeham. 2. A fess dancette between 3 
estoiles, Moore, Warden of Winton College." 

In 1912, when it was decided that the 
shields of our Wardens should form part 
of the decoration of the College Chapel, I 
was unaware of the above passage. An 
authority at Heralds' College was consulted 
about Warden More's arms, and as he re- 
ported them to be " Azure, on a cross argent 
five martlets sable, in dexter chief an 
annulet or," that shield was used. I 
should be glad now of further information 
about the arms at Chichester. More is 
described in our Register of Scholars (1492) 
as of Havant, son of a College tenant, but 
I do not know his parentage. H. C. 

Winchester College. 

ADAH ISAACS MENKEN (12 S. ix. 273, 313, 

| 374, 477, 519; x. 32, 79, 97, 115). With 


I her only well-based biographies are those 

in T. Allston Brown's ' History of the 

American Stage ' (1870), and by her friend 

Edwin James (about 1882, with new facts 

and maybe one fib from herself). Adding 

a few sound items from elsewhere, the story 

is briefly this : 

The merchant James McCord's daughter 
Adelaide was born at Chartrain (now Milne- 


NOTES AND QUERIES. riss.x.n.i8,i.M. 

burg), La., near New Orleans, June 15, ! 
1835, having a younger brother and sister. | 
McCord died in 1842, and the widow married | 
(n.d.) Dr. James Campbell, an Army sur- 1 

eon at the barracks in Baton Rouge, the j 
tate capital, who died in 1855, leaving! 
the family in poverty. The brother was | 
or became a compositor in Cincinnati ; the ; 
sisters (already fine dancers) ballet girls ! 
at the French Opera House in New Orleans, j 
A year later, Adelaide, as " Bertha Theo- i 
dore," joined a troupe travelling in Cuba, ! 
Mexico, and Texas. At Galveston in 1856 | 
she met and married a Jewish musician, 
Alexander Isaacs Menken, turning and i 
remaining a nominal Jewess, adding " Adah " 
to her stage name for colour, and reverting i 
to his last two as her permanent one 
all which did not prevent her finding it j 
" tiresome " to " keep looking at " him. ' 
She was literary and ambitious (had trans- 
lated the Iliad), and now had a reputation 
as " Queen of the Plaza " and some money. 
She returned to New Orleans, wrote 
a volume of poems ( ' Memories ' ) as by j 
*' Indigina," studied Spanish, French and i 
German, and trained as a tragedienne, \ 
Her debut was at the Varieties in New j 
Orleans, as Bianca in ' Fazio,' in the spring ] 
of 1858. She then went to Cincinnati and] 
Louisville ; was divorced from Menken in 
Nashville ; as leading lady for W. H. 
Crisp toured the south ; again left the 
stage ; studied sculpture ; plunged ardently j 
into newspaper controversy and wrote in i 
Cincinnati for The Israelite, the chief 
American Jewish organ an article in 
support of Baron L. N. Rothschild's sitting I 
in Parliament being circulated through 
Europe. But she could never keep money, 
and publicity was her life ; she went on 
the stage again, came to New York in the \ 
winter of 1858-9, fell wildly in love with! 
John C. Heenan, the " Benicia Boy," and 
married him on April 3. (James incredibly j 
says she met Menken in 1858, married him \ 
in 1859, and Heenan April 3 !) Shortly j 
after the birth of a boy they quarrelled ! 
and parted ; the baby died and she had a \ 
serious illness. In June she had first gone 
on the New York stage, at the National. ' 
The same year, apparently, she did her first ! 
Mazeppa at the Albany (N.Y.) Theatre, j 
for J. B. Smith, a speculating bill-poster. ! 
It had always been played by men, with a j 
dummy for the steep runs, and Smith was ; 
unwilling to have her risk it ; but after one i 
bad crash and a narrow escape she did it ; 
regularly. Again, at New York, she played ! 

at the Old Bowery two engagements, March 
and April, 1860, as Mrs. John C. Heenan, to 
Heenan's great disgust : his fight with 
Sayers came off April 17. After this she 
starred in the south and west under that 
name, and made a sensation by putting 
Confederate flags in her room and talking 
hotly secessionist, for which she was arrested 
in Baltimore. Coming back to another 
engagement with the Bowery, her poems 
had attracted Robert H. Newell, at heart a 
romantic dreamer and hero -worshipper ; 
and he took her moods for solidities. She 
married him either in October, 1861, still 
undivorced (Brown and others), or in 1863 
divorced (James) ; anyway, an Indiana 
court freed her in 1862. Newell stipulated 
that she keep off the stage : she sailed with 
him to California in July, 1863, and promptly 
broke the pledge the money offers from the 
stageless miners and her own cravings were 
too tempting, and she set them wild with 
' Mazeppa ' and ' The French Spy.' In 
the spring of 1864 she and her husband 
sailed on a Liverpool boat via the Isthmus ; 
whence he returned to New York to brood 
for life, and she kept on ; a close companion 
was Capt. James Barclay, a rich Californian. 
In the fall of 1865 she returned to America, 
got another Indiana divorce, this time from 
Newell (I wrote carelessly on this), played 
in New York and the west, married Bar- 
clay in 1866, shortly quarrelled with him 
and went back to Europe, where she re- 
mained ; dying in Paris, Aug. 10, 1868, 
penniless and almost alone after earning 
and squandering a huge fortune and with 
her name on the lips of millions. She 
was buried as a Jewess in the strangers' 
quarter of Pere Lachaise ; the next year 
James, as agent for friends, removed her 
to Montparnasse and put up a monument 
to her. 

Where the " Dolores Teurtos " (evidently 
the same as the " Fuertes " and " Fuertos " 
elsewhere) came from is a mystery. I 
hazard the guess that the virtual strangers 
who saw to her burial and knew nothing of 
her antecedents found some poem in her 
effects whose signature they took to be 
her own name. The marriage and desertion 
at seventeen are pretty certainly fiction : they 
were nothing to lie about, and she would 
have told James and others. 

It would be unfair to close .this and not 
say that despite her craze for excitement 
and novelty and self-display, some of her 
closest companions held her a great-hearted 
and most generous woman ; lavish to 

12 s.x. FEB. is, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 135 

fellow-professionals and the poor and i " With these statements before us," he 
charitable institutions, and without greed or \ says, " we may attribute the origin of the 
guile. And she was quite incapable of j * coal money ' to the Romans," and pro- 
selling herself : her husbands were real ! ceeds to meet and reply to the universal 
husbands while they lasted, and her reten- \ question, what is the " coal money," 
tion of not only her first lover's name but j what was its origin, what was its use ? 
his religion, not in any way hers, seems to | by characterizing the various theories 
show that that romance never quite died. j advanced by some antiquaries as un- 
FORBEST MORGAN. 1 satisfactory ; whilst those who are better 

Hartford, Conn. j acquainted with the use of the lathe have 

i determined that they are simply the refuse 

KIMMERIDGE COAL MONEY (12 8. ix. 450, j of the turners, and enters into a discussion 
495). May I, in addition to the editorial i upon t h es e conclusions. 

note at the earlier reference refer MR. j Mr Augten WQuld seem to have read &n 
ARDAGH to the article by the Rev J H .. | additional paper on the subject in October, 
Austen at p. 82 of the Papers of the Purbeck Ig59 and a ^ ai ft shorter J supplementar y 
Society a journal running intermittent y , Qne in the ^ and Qnl nu ^ er f ^ 
irom 1852 to 1869 whilst aggregating only !gecond volum6) pub i ishe d in 1869f in 

) f n 

one volume and the first number of a second, ; ^ h he stateg ^ he finds st lv 
of which complete copies are practically , confirmatory evidence of his theory that a 
impossible to obtain? This Society w as attached to Kimme- 

the precursor of the present flourishing 

ridge coal and analogous substances. 

- r - v . --r- i TT * T A . XAVltiW 1>VPU CVUVt C*AAC*.LV^tiV7LiO D U.JLFO l/CbUX/X/Oc 

Dorset .Natural History and Antiquarian . . , _ T . _ , .... _ 

Field Club inaugurated in 1875, and of ', _ At the la *f ref erenc , e . m N. & Q MB. V* . 
which I am one of the very few surviving . HABCOUBT-BATH mentions an article on the 
original members. i f^f of Kimmeridge " coal money" by the 

In this article Mr. Austen (who was the ! ate Mr ' / C - Mansel-Pleydell to be found 
secretary and one of the principal founders ! m one of the early volumes of the Dorset 
of the Purbeck Society) gives a long, ! Batumi History and Antiquarian Field 
interesting and well-illustrated account of g^ c : 189( ?' Mr Mansel-Pleydell was 
this "old antiquarian puzzle," as the ! the first president of this Society at its 
editorial note not inaptly calls it. But as ! inauguration m 1875 and remained so until 
it is extremely unKkefy to be within the i hls death m May 1902-a man with a 
reach of your correspondent, may I be i m ost gifted mind and charming personality, 
allowed to give a few short extracts from T kn w ^ m welL) u H |> contributed two 
the paper, which was read in Purbeck in 22? artl ^ es m u . th ? P ( ro ^^ of this 
November, 1856, and may prove of interest ! S 1 oc 1 iet > r on the subfct of the Kimmeridge 
and value to him. The author prefaces his ! shal P7 e ~? n on th ? ,, c t! mone y ( vo f : 
remarks by saying : P- 178 ( 1892 ) ) and the other on the geological 

I have in my possession specimens of everv formation and the commercial and economic 

variety which has been discovered, and still I 
am forced to confess that the more I search, the 
more I inquire, the more conflicting becomes ths 
evidence obtained. . . . 

The material of which thev are formed is a 

value of the shale (vol. xv., p. 172 (1894)). 
The earlier of these papers is no doubt that 
to which Mr. Harcourt-Bath refers. 

These papers, though not so difficult of; incvu-i. AC*J. v/j. VTUavu v**^ y cti^ iv/i iii^u. 10 c* -. . 1 ^-^ -. i N A. 

bituminous shale called Kimmeridge Coal, of access as those of the Purbeck Society, may 
which there are extensive beds on that immediate j not be readily available to Mr. Ardagh, so 
part of the coast. It is still used by the inhabi- ma y I again be allowed to transcribe for his 
tants of _ the neighbourhood _ as fuel. _ burns benen t a short extract or two from Mr. 

, with a white ash and slaty residue, and 

Mansel-Pley dell's article ? In this paper 

emita a disagreeable bituminous odour. A few * i-*w i 
> cai s since it was extensively worked for the \ I can find no reference to the earlier ones 
purpose of making naptha [sic]. on the same subject by Mr. Austen (but his 

name is mentioned) though of their exist- 
ence, one would think, Mr. Mansel-Pleydell 
could scarcely have been unaware at one 
time, as he was vice-president of the 
Purbeck Society when the first of these 
articles was written so many years before. 

these forms, and criticizes the opinions which The long space of time, however, and the 
had been published respecting these relics. common knowledge of the subject which 

The difference in the varieties of the " Coal 
money " arises from two causes ; first, the 
different kinds of chucks of the lathe used, and 
secondly, the number of rings cut off one piece ; 
the usual form supplying only one, whilst from 
that of a conical two or more have been taken." 

Mr. Austen gives several instances of 



[12 S. X. FEB. 18, 1922. 

both writers possessed in so great a 
might easily account for this omission. 

Mr. Mansel-Pley dell's valuable article 
was well illustrated by some photographic 
objects of Kimmeridge "shale, including 
several discs or "coal money" and he 
begins his remarks on these interesting 
relics by saying: 

It is now generally accepted that instead of 
having been expressly made for money or any 
other purpose it is merely the refuse or waste 
piece from the lathe. 

This so-called Kimmeridge coal money is 
made from a bituminous shale extensively 
developed at the little village of Kimmeridge, 
which has the honour of giving the name to this 
section of the upper Portland series. It resembles 
jet, but differs in being inorganic. 
And again (p. 187) : 

From the evidence adduced above there is 
no proof that coal money and other objects made 
of Kimmeridge shale were extant before the 
Roman period. The barrows, which are de- 
cidedly British, yield nothing manufactured from 
the Kimmeridge shale, although unworked pieces 
often occur for reasons to be accounted for ; . . . 
there is no doubt that the coal money is merely 
the refuse or core from the lathe. 

J. S. UDAL, F.S.A. 

(12 S. ix. 45, 355, 390; x. 78). At the 
second reference K. S. remarks that this 
sign is "to be found in Wiltshire at the 
towns of Chippenham and Marlboro ugh." 
It was at one time to be found at Devizes j 
also, as may be learnt from the ' Journals I 
and Letters ' of Samuel Curwen, Judge of 
the American Admiralty Court, whose j 
diaries of his stay in England from 1775 
to 1783 so greatly interested Charles Dickens | 
(Household Words, May and June, 1853). 
Curwen set out from Bath for London on ! 
Aug. 4, 1780, and the following few lines 
are taken from his account of the journey : 

At eleven o'clock we alighted at the Black | 
Lion in Devizes, where, after taking refreshment. 
I walked forth to ramble, and espied a sign for 
quaintness of its device here noted. On the sign 
were painted five men, well known by the name 
of the " five alls " ; the first in order, according 
to the present mode of arrangement of Church 
before King, stands the parson in his sacer- 
dotalibus ; he prays for all : second, the lawyer, 
in his gown, band and tie-wig ; he pleads for all : 
third, the soldier in uniform, with a fierce counte- 
nance ; he fights for all : fourth is a physician, 
with great wig and solemn phiz and boluses and 
juleps in his hand ; he kills or cures all : the fifth 
and last is the farmer, with his settled, thoughtful 
countenance ; he pays for all. 

In this form the sign is clearly intended 
as a compliment to " the country interest," 
and would scarcely be displayed in London, 

the seat of " the court interest." Curwen's 
next stopping-place was in fact Marlborough, 
but he does not appear to have noted a 
repetition of this sign, due perhaps to his 
giving his whole attention to the grounds 
and gardens of the famous Castle Inn, 
which he describes in some detail. 


TAVERN," CHELSEA (12 S. vi. 144; x. 96). 
The solution to the apparent discrepancy re- 
marked by MR. ST. JOHN BROOKS in the devises 
of Oct. 11, 1770, and April 4, 1794, lies in the 
fact that meanwhile, in 1780, the original 
Old Swan Tavern, which had stood at the 
southern end of Swan Walk 011 the eastern 
side of Sir Hans Sloane's Physic Garden was 
converted into a brewery," and that the 
second or White Swan Tavern was built on 
the western side of the garden, which would 
bring it almost within Cheyne Walk. There 
are people still alive who remember the 
newer " Old Swan." 

It does not appear to be generally known 
that Tobias Smollett frequented the older 
house. Writing to Alexander Reid, surgeon, 
on Aug. 3, 1763, he begs to be remembered 
to his old friends at the Swan. 



18, 54, 96). This passage is not the only, or 
even the first, occasion on which Swinburne 
used the figure (whatever it is called) of 
transposing the attributes of a pair of en- 
tities. I remember, when ' Atalanta in 
Calydon ' was first published, John Coning - 
ton, who was then Professor of Latin at 
Oxford, instancing as an earlier -example of 
this literary waywardness two lines of an 
earlier tour de force composed by Swinburne, 
called " The Woodlouse," which ran - 

I remember all the future 

I prefigure all the past. 


ERGHUM (12 S. x. 9, 55, 99). A canon 
of Lincoln described as Magister Radulphus 
de Ergum, Erghom, Yergom, is frequently 
mentioned in the capitular Acta in the 
fourteenth century. He was cited as 
canon in May, 1331, was appointed custos 
choristarum April 8, 1352, and occurs fre- 
quently as witnessing to proceedings in 
chapter from 1337 to 1355. He is not 
mentioned in Hardy's ' Le Neve,' nor is there 
anything in the Acta to show which prebend 
he held, so far as I have noted. J. T. F. 

Winterton, Lines. 

12 S. X. FEB. 18, 1922.] 



BARON GRANT (12 S. x. 31, 75, 115). The 
lines in question were written by my father, 
the late Mr. John Hill (who was a member 
of the Stock Exchange), on the morning 
on which the daily papers announced that 
the King of Italy had conferred the title of 
Baron upon Grant. There were two lines 
only : 

Kings can a title give, but honour can't. 

Rank without honour is a barren grant. 

He handed them to a friend (Mr. John 
Renton) in " the House " and in an hour or 
two they were all over London. 

I have received the following version of 
the Leicester Square lines : 
What ! Flowers in Leicester Square ? These 

flowers of Grant's 

Are but the products of his City plants. 
The shade by which he hopes to gain our praise 
Reveals, alas, the donor's shady ways. 
What can he hope to gain from this affair 
Save to connect his name with something square ? 

I think these were taken from ' House 
Scraps,' by Geo. D. Atkin (1887) the 
" House " in question being the Stock 
Exchange. LEONARD HILL. 

*91). The following information may be 
useful : 

6. William Bedingfield. Was not the 
poem ' Beauty ' attributed to this poet 
written by Anderson ? 

8. Henry Carey, born 1690, died 1743. 
He is believed to have been the illegitimate 
son of George Savile, Marquis of Halifax 
< 1633-95), who was the chief opponent 
of the Bill excluding the Duke of York from 
the succession, and was made Marquis and 
Lord Privy Seal (1682-5). Carey's first 
volume of poems appeared in 1713 ; others 
In 1720 and 1729. He wrote farces, bur- 
lesques and dramatic pieces, frequently 
with the accompanying music. His best- 
known poem is ' Sally in our Alley.' It 
was once claimed for him that he was the 
author and composer of ' God Save the 

10. The Hon. Mary Molesworth, daughter 
of Robert, first Viscount Molesworth, by 
Letitia, third daughter of Richard Coote, 
Lord Colooney, married George, eldest son 
of Henry Monck by his wife Sarah, daughter 
and heir of Sir Thomas Stanley of Grange 
Gorman, near Dublin. The dates of birth 
and marriage are not given in Burke. 

14. Richard Lely. Was he the Richard 
Lely of Greetwell Hall, Co. Lincoln, de- 
scribed in his epitaph in Greetwell Church 

as " Petri Lely, Car. II., Pictoris, Nepos 
Natu-maximus," who died in. 1735 without 
surviving issue. 

39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

15. Henrietta Knight, nee St. John, Lady 
Luxborough. She was born on "St. 
Swithin's Day," July 15, 1699, and died 
March 26, 1756. In confirmation, see 
' Letters written by the late Right 
Honourable Lady Luxborough to William 
Shenstone, Esq.,' published in 1775. Letter 
Ixx., dated Barrells, Wednesday, July 10, 
1751, gives : 

Why should you not come and celebrate St. 
Swithin's Day with me ? Your company will 
make me regard the day which gave me birth 
with much more pleasure than the circumstance 
of its having first shewn me the light : for what 
is light, or any other blessing, without social 
friends ? 

And ' Notices of the Churches of Warwick- 
shire, Deanery of Warwick,' vol. i., p. 144 
(Ullenhall) : 

On the south side of the east window is a tablet. 
Arms, Knight impaling St. John, with the fol- 
lowing inscription : " In the vault of this chancel 
lie the remains of Baroness Luxborough, B. 
15th July, 1699, D. 26th March, 1756." 



16. Moses Mendez. The date of this 
minor poet's birth does not seem to be 
known, as it is not given in an exhaustive 
paper on Mendez by Mr. J. P. Simpson, 
published in Ars Quatuor Coronatorum, 
vol. xviii. 104-109 (1905), and describing 
a volume containing poems, translations 
and letters of Mendez, of whom it is re- 
marked that if h3 had been a poorer man 
he might have been a greater poet. 

W. B. H. 

17. Mary Masters. At 10 S. iii. 404, 
405, the late W. P. COURTNEY con- 
tributed a column and three-quarters on 
Mary Masters. He there pointed out that 
Croker's statement in a note to Boswell's 
' Johnson ' (under the year 1752), " She is 
supposed to have died about 1759," was 
probably based on a notice in The Gentle- 
man's Magazine for that year of the death 
of a Mrs. Masters at Brook, in Kent, on 
Sept. 27. MR. COURTNEY refers to Samuel 
Pegge's ' Anonymiana,' 1818 ed., cent, 
ix. 89, where Mrs. Masters, the poetess, is 
said to have died in June, 1771. She had 
lived at Pegge's Rectory, Whittington, 
Derbyshire, from 1755 to April, 1757, " when, 



[12 S. X. FEB. 18, 1922. 

as he judged, she was about sixty-three 
years of age." 

On p. 474 in the same volume of ' N. & Q.' 
a correspondent suggested that the " Mrs. 
Masters " who died at Brook, in Kent, 
Sept. 27, 1759, was Elizabeth, widow of 
Streynsham Master (sic) of Brook, in the 
parish of Wingham, Kent, who died on 
June 22, 1724, aged 43. This Elizabeth 
Master was the only daughter of Richard 
Oxenden, fifth son of Sir Henry Oxenden, 
Bt., of Dean, or Dene, in Wingham. 


EVELYN QUERIES (12 S. x. 91). I note; 
that Wheatley's edition, i. 36, says Andoyne j 
not Awdoyne. 

Audoyne might well be for St. Ouen I 
(Audoenus), the Benedictine Abbey of St. j 
Ouen at Rouen, of which Guillaume de j 
Montaigne was abbot from 1639-42 (see 
' Gallia Christiana,' xi., col. 155, ed. of ! 
1759). D. R. WEBSTER. 

ARAB (OR EASTERN) HORSES (12 S. x. 91). j 
ARAB'S inquiry raises an interesting and j 
difficult problem. Not only Professor j 
Ridgeway, but many other writers in stan- 
dard works on the thoroughbred horse make 
the same statement, viz., that Charles II. , 
sent Sir John Fenwick to the Levant to pur- ! 
chase Barbs and Turks for the royal stud. 

It is obvious that, so far as Charles II. is 
concerned, he could, as King, not have dis- 
patched the Sir John Fenwick who died two 
years before the Restoration on this mission. 
Mr. Robert Black, in his ' Horse Racing in 
England,' states that Sir John Fenwick had 
been stud-master both to Charles I. and 
Charles II., but I venture to doubt the 
accuracy of this assertion. If according to 
tradition Charles II. did, in fact, dispatch 
Sir John Fenwick to the Levant to purchase 
horses and mares, it must have been the Sir 
John Fenwick who was born c. 1645, and 
beheaded for conspiracy in 1697. Now, 
although there is an extensive account of 
this worthy in the ' D.N.B.,' no mention 
occurs of his having held office as " master of 
the horse " or " stud-master." Macaulay, 
however, in alluding to the state of England 
in 1685, writes : 

The importance of improving our studs by an 
infusion of new blood was strongly felt ; and with 
this view a considerable number of barbs had 
lately been brought into the country. Two men, 
whose authority on such subjects was held in 
great esteem, the Duke of Newcastle and Sir John 
Fenwick, pronounced that the meanest hack ever 
imported from Tangier would produce a finer 

progeny than could be expected from the best sire 
of our native breed. 

I doubt there being any record extant of 
the number or sex of the Ajrabs and Barbs im- 
ported in the reign of the " Merry Monarch." 


OXFORDSHIRE MASONS (12 S. x. 89). Sir 
R. Bigland's ' History of Gloucestershire,' 
under Barrington Parva, gives this inscrip- 
tion on a gravestone : 

In Memory of Joseph Beauchamp 

and Ursuly his wife 

They were buried February 28th 1726 

He aged 71 years and she 73 years. 

Taynton (Oxon) is near to Little Barring - 
ton, and Edward Strong, jun., married one 
Mary Beauchamp. Can anyone say if this 
Mary Beauchamp was a daughter or sister 
of the above-mentioned Joseph Beauchamp , 
and whether Edward and Ephraim Beacham 
(or Beauchamp) belonged to the same 
family ? I have been trying to trace the 
origin of one Jacob Beacham who carried on 
a builder's business at West Molesey, Surrey, 
during the earlier part of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, but without success, and if any reader 
can furnish me with some particulars I 
should much appreciate them. 


60, Harrow View, Harrow. 

x. 93). As to the first picture, may I suggest 
that the harbour in question is not Plymouth, 
but Port Royal, Jamaica, which has a long 
spit of land protecting the anchorage. 

Sir George Rodney defeated the French 
fleet on April 12, 1782, off Dominica and 
captured the Ville de Paris (104), Glorieux 
(74), Cesar (burnt), Hectar (74) and Ardent 
(64). After refitting he retired with his 
fleet to Jamaica, where he was on July 10, 
when he was superseded. On July 25 Rear- 
Admiral Graves sailed from Jamaica for 
England with a squadron convoying the 
French prizes and 100 sail of merchantmen. 
He encountered a hurricane, and the 
Ramillies, Centaur, Ville de Paris, Glorieux 
and Hectar foundered. 

The second picture probably represents 
one of the preliminary actions. The For- 
midable (98) was Rodney's flagship and the 
Namur (90) was also in the battle. 

The previous Jan. 16, 1780, off Cape 

St. Vincent, Rodney attacked a Spanish 

squadron of eleven ships of the line, and of 

nine engaged only two escaped and Gibraltar 

;was relieved. On April 17, 1780, off 

12 S. X. FEB. 18, 1922.] 



Martinique, he fought actions with the 
French fleet. 

Serres early in life was master of a vessel j 
trading to Havana, so that he probably ! 
knew Port Royal. 

My West Indian books not being here, 
my only authorities are an article on hurri- 
canes from The Nautical Magazine for 1848, 
Gust's ' Naval Prints ' and the ' D.N.B.' 


These seem to represent the " Battle 
of the Saints " fought between Dominica | 
and -the lies des Saintes, April 12, 
1782, and the subsequent bringing of the 
prizes to Plymouth. The Formidable was ! 
Rodney's flagship, and the Ville de Paris was i 
Grasse's flagship. See Mahan, ' Influence of | 
Sea Power,' pp. 480-500 ; Hannay, ' Rodney,' 
pp. 179-213 ; and Hood's ' Letters,' pp. 101- 
21, 123-30 ; Mundy, ' Life of Rodney,' ii. 222- 
50 ; Annual Register for 1782, 252-7. 


COTE' (12 S. x. 93). This book was first 
published in 1871, and again in 1873 and 
1880, and probably since, as it is a fairly 
well-known book appearing in many public 
library catalogues of juvenile books, but none 
of Mrs. Holt's many works seem to be now 
in print. I should think the nearest public 
library may have a copy, if not, I shall be 
glad to lend it to your correspondent on 
application. ARCHIBALD SPARKE. 


Jacques Beniyne Bossuet. A Study. By E. K. 

Sanders. (S.P.C.K. 15s.) 

BOSSUET has never come into his own in England. 
Pascal, Corneille, Fenelon, are familiar enough 
figures to us, but the Bishop of Meaux, if he is 
more than a name to most Englishmen, is known 
as a panegyrist, the author of the ' Oraisons 
Funebres,' which we seldom read, but are quite 
prepared to take on trust. This is a strong 
statement, but a glance at the careful biblio- 
graphy which completes the present work will 
prove it to be well founded. Until now, in fact, 
we have had no biography of Bossuet in English. 
Yet to Frenchmen he stands as one of the greatest 
figures of the literature of France or of the 
world. So careful a critic as Brunetiere places 
him as an orator above Chrysostom and Augustine, 
and Miss Sanders assures us that " Shakespeare 
alone of English writers holds with us a position 
akin to that which he occupies among his country- 

The present careful study should remove much 
<>f t he reproach, and we may congratulate ourselves 
that a task which presents certain special diffi- 
cult it-s should have been taken up by a writer 

possessed of special aptitudes to meet them. 
Miss Sanders's competence as a scholar and an 
authority on seventeenth-century France has 
been fully established by her earlier books : and 
these have displayed also a detached, yet pene- 
trating and sympathetic, insight into the ideals, 
the temperament and the experiences of success 
or failure to be observed in people who have 
dedicated themselves to religion. All biography 
moves between an account of its subject as he 
appears to his own consciousness and an account 
of his relations with the external world. In the 
former lurks implicitly, with or without bio- 
graphical consequence, his relation (or want of 
relation, if the expression may be permitted us) 
with God. This may, as it does in the case of 
Religious, dominate the whole biography, forcing 
all the rest into a second place : and may also 
be so slight, or so deeply latent, that the bio- 
grapher hardly at any moment seizes it, and 
virtually omits it from his portrait. The diffi- 
culty in drawing the portrait of a great ecclesiastic 
is that this relation can neither be ignored nor 
yet suffered to occupy the whole study. An 
ecclesiastic is a person who has undertaken to 
stand out as a representative or agent of the 
supernatural in the midst of the natural life of 
men. He may bungle over this business, he 
may come to despise it, despair over it, detest it, 
refuse it, forget it. None the less that under- 
taking remains the clou to his life, its first 
differentiating factor, and a biography which 
has no grasp of how this problem appeared to 
the man himself, and what were his resources for 
solving it or his reasons for virtually giving it up, 
will certainly, as so many ecclesiastical biographies 
do, lack vitality. It is not enough to chronicle 
the priest's or bishop's external actions : nor 
enough to draw a picture of his personal piety or 
his good thoughts and aspirations, however 
edifying these may be. Just how he tackled 
or failed to tackle his unique job is the question 
wherein lies the secret of making the portrait 
live a question seldom squarely taken, and 
often, it would seem, but vaguely present to the 
biographer's mind. The signal and rare merit 
of the study before us is its direct seizure of this 
central problem ; and the reward of that true 
centrality is seen in the distinctness with which 
Bossuet, in these pages, lives. Fundamentally, 
he has been understood : and the world he 
lived in understood in its relation to him. The 
sense that this is so adds the pleasure of confi- 
dence to the reader's enjoyment. 

Miss Sanders is Well served by a firm and 
delicate English style, and also by a remarkable 
gift for translation. Readers who know the 
French of Bossuet's letters, and especially any 
who have made attempts at putting them into 
English, will regard her rendering of the extracts 
in this book with much respect. 

Our author does not follow her hero year by 
year throughout his long and laborious life, 
but gives full-length portraits of him in his various 
aspects and in the various stages of his develop- 
ment. Thus he is presented to us as a brilliant 
student ; as Archdeacon of Metz ; as preacher 
at Paris ; as Court ecclesiastic ; as tutor to the 
Dauphin ; as controversialist ; and finally as 
Bishop of Meaux. In each case his reaction to 
the burning questions of the day is brought out by 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. FEB. 18,1022. 

means of remarkably well-balanced and impartial 
discussion of these, which strikes the reader 
the more happily from its being obviously com- 
posed by selection from an abundant store of 
knowledge. The chapters on the Gallican Con- 
troversy and on Quietism especially should re- 
cieve the attention of students. There is a 
specious attractiveness about the doctrine of 
Disinterested Love which masks its dangers : 
just as on the other hand the rancour displayed 
by Bossuet to which our author bears impartial 
witness may easily, to uninformed eyes, disguise 
his true character as the champion of the un- 
privileged. The Gallican controversy, which is 
perhaps hardly well enough understood in 
England, should be of considerable interest 
to the Church historian. 

Another question which deeply engaged the 
mind of Bossuet was that of the reunion of the 
Church. This is found in the forefront of his mind 
from the time when, as Archdeacon of Metz, he 
was brought into contact with considerable 
numbers of Jews and Huguenots. He had a 
hunger for saving souls which never deserted him, 
whether the soul was that of a peasant or of a 
La Valliere. Hence it is not surprising to find 
that much of his life was spent in controversy 
with Protestants. But it may surprise us to 
find how little trace of the odium theologicum 
appears in his methods. Towards Ferry he 
showed warm sympathy and magnanimity in 
an age when religious polemics were distinguished 
only by their virulence. But though a courteous 
opponent he may be said to have failed to seize 
the Protestant point of view. Thus Leibniz, 
with whom he had a lengthy and friendly corre- 
spondence, was quite prepared to admit the varia- 
tions of doctrine in the various Protestant 
churches, but was no less prepared to defend the 
desirability of these variations, a position which 
was quite incomprehensible to Bossuet. On 
the other hand, the massiveness of his intellect 
and his honesty made him despise the subtleties 
of a Bellarmin and the Jesuits. The latter did 
not fail to accuse him of watering down the faith 
to suit Protestant palates, and it may be admitted 
that some of his writing lends colour to the 

The question of controversial methods has 
as a corollary the general question of religious 
tolerance ; this is dealt with m a most impartial 
manner by Miss Sanders. It may be said at once 
that Bossuet is open to serious criticism in this 
respect. Though a kindly and charitable anta- 
gonist, the Bishop had a strain of intolerance 
in his nature. It cannot be doubted that he 
approved the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, 
and, while discouraging violence in his own see 
of Meaux, he displayed no disapproval of a resort 
to dragonnades when argument had failed. But 
the influence of political considerations must not 
be forgotten. The Huguenots were a dangerously 
disruptive factor in the State. Primarily, no 
doubt, Protestantism was a sin against God him- 
self ; but secondarily it was also a crime 
against the monarch, who was regarded by every 
true Catholic as the representative of God on 
earth. Politically persecution was logical, and, 
more than that, might plausibly be justified as 

If Bossuet's religious intolerance may thus be 

not inadequately explained away, it is much more 
difficult to condone his acceptance of Montausier's 
treatment of the Dauphin. The governor, a 
Huguenot by birth and training, a Catholic by 
policy rather than conviction, seems to have found 
an outlet for the sternness of his discarded reli- 
gion in making savage assaults upon his sullen 
pupil. Once, we are told, the unfortunate lad 
missed a word in saying the Lord's Prayer. His 
governor fell upon him and beat him brutally 
with his fists. Frequently he was crippled by 
flogging. The cruelty was notorious and must 
have been well known to Bossuet. But there 
is no record of intervention, and his passivity 
must be reckoned a blot upon his character. 

Of the " human " side of the Bishop this study 
has less to say. Frankly we could have wished 
for more ; for the sketches of Ranee and others 
reveal brilliant powers of characterization. 
That his personal character was beyond reproach 
is evident. In a Court where profligacy was a 
pleasant pastime, a director of fashionable con- 
sciences must have been singularly exposed to 
temptation. But M. de Condom moved unsullied 
in this moral slough. He is portrayed to us as a 
born priest, as one whose vocation was never in 
doubt, less other-worldly, perhaps, than M de 
Cambray, not himself an ascetic, though deeply in 
sympathy with La.Trappe, inclined to compromise 
but if necessary prepared to pursue his course 
to the bitter end. It is clear, too, that he was 
not without some love of pomp and dignity, 
though there is no proof that he ever lived the 
luxurious life of a Court bishop. 

The production of the book leaves nothing to 
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The bibliography is in itself a valuable piece of 
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CONTENTS. No. 202. 

NOTES : Commonwealth Keglsters, 141 Commonwealth 
Marriages and Burials in the Aldeburgh Register Book 
142 Sir Richard Willys, Traitor, 145 John Charles 
Williams, a Buckinghamshire Parson. 146 "Earthland" 
Cumulative Stories Privileges of the Dean and Canons of 
Windsor Portraits of Coleridge and Dickens, 148 
" Scooter," 149. 

QUERIES :" Mayor " as a Woman's Title Aucher: 
Depedene Sir Ralph and Sir Edward Bashe : Anne Scot 
(nte Bashe), 149 Latin Proverb : Origin sought Thomas 
Lovall Jellyman Family : Register of All Saints' Church, 
Oxford Pilate's Wife Unidentified Portrait on Wood 
Panel Portraits by Vandyck " Once aboard the lugger " 
Catherine, Duchess of Gordon Granger's ' Biographical 
History,' 150 The Cap of Maintenance John Filmer 
Emmett Lazenki Palace, Warsaw : Latin Inscriptions 
' The Tale of Two Cities ' : the Drugging of Darnay Chalk 
in Kent and its Owners : Rye, Cornhill. Vilers, St. Clair, 
151 Poem wanted Reference wanted Authors wanted, 

REPLIES : White of Selborne : Portrait wanted, 152 
Colonel Charles Whitefoord. 153 Arab (or Eastern) 
Horses Pallone, an Italian Game American Humorists : 
Capt. G. H. Derby, 154 Prime Minister De Kemplen's 
Automaton Chess-player, 155 The Arms of Leeds Land 
Measurement Terms The " Chevalier Schaub " Kangaroo 
Cooke Heraldic Mottoes, 156 ' La Santa Parantela ' 
Derivation of Chinkwell Samuel Hartlib, 157 Mrs. Gordon, 
Novelist General Nicholson's Birthplace Ewen: Coat of 
Arms Quotations in The Tatter Thomas Edwards, LL.D., 
158 Mangles Authors wanted, 159. 

NOTES ON BOOKS: 'The Grey Friars of Chester' 'A 
New English Dictionary on Historical Principles,' X 
ZYXT ' A Manual of French.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


MR. ARTHUR T. WINN'S contribution in 
the ' Commonwealth Marriages and Burials 
in the Aldeburgh Register Book ' (ante, 
pp. 81, 104, 124) suggests a wider field of 
historical inquiry. That would be as to 
how far Parish Registers in Civil War and 
Commonwealth times contain any special 
reference to the period, or show signs of 
being affected by it. I am induced to make 
this suggestion by the results of a thorough 
search I made close upon forty years ago 
of the registers of my native parish, St. 
Mary Magdalene, Launceston. 

The volume covering the period under 
examination is described on the title page 
as 'A true Register of all Marriages 
Baptisms and Burialls within ye parish of 
Mary Magdalen in Launceston, from ye 
yeere of our Lord god 1559 Truely copyed 
out accordinge to the old Register this 
it yeere 1601. Written by John 

Harbert, 1601.' This applies only to the 
entries from 1559 to 1601 posted up from 
earlier notes ; but the contents of the volume 
cover the years from 1559 to 1671. Up to 
May, i610, when some of the records were 
lost, each child was stated to be 
" christened " ; but after the regular re- 
sumption of registration in 1620, though 
the heading of each page continued to be 
" Christenings " the word used in all the 
entries was " baptised." This was invariable 
until 1651-52, in the entries of which years 
there were instances of the use of " borne," 
though these were evidently written in 
later. But after July, 1653, the heading was 
" Birthes," and " borne " was used in each 
entry except three, two in a later hand, 
this practice continuing until March, 1657, 
when the heading became " Birthes and 
Baptismes," the date of christening as well 
as of birth being affixed in many cases 
after August of that year. The more strictly 
Puritan rule was thus breaking down ; and 
in July, 1660, and only a few weeks after 
the Restoration, the heading was changed 
once more to the single word " Baptismes," 
and so remained to the end of the volume. 

It is concerning the marriages of the 
Commonwealth period that the St. Maiy 
Magdalene Register affords the most striking 
indications of ecclesiastical dispute. In 
August, 1653, Parliament adopted an Act 
for solemnizing marriages by justices of 
the peace ; and two months afterwards, 
according to the Register, 
Thomas Reese being before this tyme duly chosen 
to bee Parish Register within this borrough in 
obedience and according to the late act of this 
present Parliament in yt behalf e made & pro- 
vided was this present day [October 11] approved 
allowed of and also sworne before mee Richard 
Grills gentn. maior of this Borrough and one of 
ye Justices assigned. 

Yet it was apparently not for two years 
after that statute was in operation that 
justices of the peace actually solemnized 
marriages at Launceston. The wedding 
entries from 1653 to the closing days of 
1655 appear in their customary form ; but, 
after one of November 27, 1655, and in a 
blank space at the bottom of a page, there 
is written in a bold hand " Hereafter follow 
marriages by Laymen, according to ye 
prophanes and giddynes of ye times, 
without precedent or example in any 
Christian Kingdom or Comonwealth from 
the Birth of Christ unto this very year 

The first of these lay-made marriages, 



[12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922. 

which opens literally and figuratively a 
fresh page, was celebrated on Dec. 20, 
1655, when there 

were marled by Mr. Joseph Hull minister of this 
towne in the presents of Mr. Thomas Gewen and 
John Lampon Esquire and Philippe Pearse gent, 
and maior of this towne and divers other wit- 
nesses Thomas Mill of the psh of St. Gennis and 
Joan Biam of the same psh having their bannes 
published Three severall lords dayes in the said 
psh as aforesaid by a Certificate from John Goutsoe 
Register of the said psh. The said parties afore 
said were married the same time also by Thomas 
Gewen Esqre and Justice of the Peace and 
pronounced by him to be man & wife according to 
the acte of pliment nowe in force. 

The entries of subsequent marriages under 
this system are not so full, but in each case 
it is stated that the banns were called 
" without contradiction." In January, 1656, 
" Philipp Pearse gentleman and Maior of 
this towne " again officiated, it being noted 
that the banns had been published " in the 
Congregation," but the last three words 
were subsequently struck out. In the 
March the banns appear to have been called 
by his orders " on three severall markett 
days," but Sundays were named in every 
other instance during the remainder of this 
mayoralty, in the course of which fifteen 
marriages were celebrated. In October, 
John Hicks was chosen mayor ; and in his 
year of office he celebrated nine marriages, 
the banns for only one of which were pro- 
claimed on market days, and, as is specially 
noted, "in the Markett Place at Launces- 
ton," the others being on Sundays, and, as 
frequently mentioned, " in the Church of 
lanceston." In the next mayoralty 
(October, 1657 October, 1658) that of 
Nicholas Comins, seven weddings were cele- 
brated by the mayor, for one of which the 
banns were " published in the markett 
Place of Lanceston Three severall markett 
days three weekes following without con- 

Signs that the purely lay marriage 
system was breaking down now begin to 
show themselves in the Register. In 
January, 1658, a couple were married by 
Comins and " also by Mr. William Oliver 
Minister of this Towne " ; and in the fol- 
lowing month the mayor was assisted by 
" Thomas Seamor Minister of Luffingcott 
in Devon." On March 4, Colonel Robert 
Bennett, a local landowner who had repre- 
sented Launceston in more than one Par- 
liament and had been a member of Crom- 
well's first Council of State, celebrated a 
marriage ; but twelve days later a wedding 

is entered as having been performed "by 
Mr. Oliver," no layman being mentioned, 
while in April, when the bride was a 
" daughter of Nicholas Comins of this 
Towne gentn. deceased," no celebrant was 
named. Richard Grylls, who filled the 
vacancy caused by Comins' s death, and now 
for the second time elected mayor, officiated 
at only one marriage ; and Henry Bennett, 
who for the second time became mayor in 
October, 1659, is not mentioned as having 
celebrated any. It may not be without 
significance that it was in the year of his 
mayoralty that Bennett himself was married ; 
but it was after Charles II. and the Church of 
England had both come into their old place 
again that we find it recorded that on 
Sep. 17, 1660, there were wed " Henry 
Bennett, gent, mayor, and Johan, daughter 
of Mr. JohnBewes." It is interesting to note 
that the previous June 29 had been kept 
in Launceston as a thanksgiving day for 
the Restoration, while on an unnamed day 
" when the Kinge was proclaimed " the 
Corporation, of which Bennett was the 
head, gave away " 2 hogsheads of beere 
and syder " and " six seames of wood 
for bunfires." ALFRED ROBBINS. 




(See 12 S. x. 81, 104, 124.) 

ALDEBURGH was certainly suffering from 
some epidemic during the years 1653 and 
1654, as the number of deaths is almost 
three times the average of the last years of 
Queen Elizabeth's reign, and the population 
had not increased during the seventeenth 
century but exact figures cannot be given 
owing to the loss of the second Register. 
There were several serious outbreaks of 
smallpox and perhaps the authorities 
were responsible to some extent, for we find 
the following : 

Friday April 9th 1733 at a Stop Meeting 
we whose names are hereunto set do agree that 
Wm Groom & bis children shall be Inoculated 
Imediately and that the Parish Officers Imploy 
the Cheapest Doctor that can be found. 

The Elizabethan Register (1558-1600) is 
a transcript of the original paper book, 
transcribed on parchment according to the 
order of Oct. 25, 1597. It is beautifully 
Written, practically in one hand, and in 
very good state of preservation. It has 
been transcribed, and hopes are entertained 

12 s.x. FEB. 25, 1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


of its eventual publication. There are many 
interesting entries, and some curious ones, 
amongst them : 

July 9, 1568. John Arnold & Agnes Arnold 
were marred the 9th of July the said Agnes 
beinge his wyfe befor. 

John had probably been taken prisoner 
on the sea (as many other Aldeburgh 
men), came home to find his wife had 
consoled herself with another partner, 
and considered re -marriage (and not jacti- 
tation) the easiest way of solving the diffi- 

Thomas Pinocke (childe) & Phillis his wife 
was buried and not Buried the twentithe daie of 
October 1583. 

John Clarcke the sonne of Robert Clarcke 
and Alice his wife was baptized and not Baptized 
the Fourtentbe Daie of Apprill 1598. 

Does the former entry imply that the 
child was unbaptized and buried in the 
" north " end of the churchyard, and the 
latter entry that the child was baptized 
privately at home, and not again publicly ? 

Amongst the many curious Christian 
names in the Elizabethan Register the 
following appear : Athanasius, Manasses, 
Archilaus (several times), Cassander, Ry- 
neske, Finatt and Bene. 

Margaret Grimer widdow buryed the 30th day 
of Septber 1653. 

Joan Jessup widdow buryed the 1st day of 
October 1653. 

Mary Martin widdow buryed the same day. 

Anne the wife of Robert Woollafer buryed the 
2d day of October 1653. 

Dinah the wife of Richard Dugdell buryed the 
3d day of October 1653. 

Thomas Bardwell buryed the same day. 

Margaret the wife of Nicolas Goodwin buryed 
the 4th day of October 1653. 

John Bert a child Son of Mary Bert widdow 
buryed the 6th of oct : 1653. 

Thomas Tarvar buryed the same day. 

Robert Browne buryed the 7th day of October 

Anne Reeder a child, the daughter of John 
Reeder buryed the 12th day of Oct : 1653. 

Rose the wife of John Browne buryed the 14th 
of October 1653. 

Ellen Wackerson widdow buryed the same 

Joan Simpson a rnayd, buryed the 17th day of 
Octber 1653. 

Anne the wife of Matthew Smith buryed the 
18th of octber 1653. 

Joan Cobb widow buryed the 24th day of October 

Anne Woollafer a child daughter of Robert 
Woollafer buvyrd (he 28th of Oct. 1653. 

Martin Tarvar a Ladd, buryed the 29th day of 
October 1653. 

Thomas Lease a Lad, the Son of William Lease 
buryed the 30th day of oct : 1653. 

Mary Robinson a Mayd buryed the 3rd day of 
Novber 1653. 

Frances the wife of James Bawkey buryed the 
same day. 

Gregory Pulhain buryed the 5th day of November 

Robert the son of William Covell buryed the 
same day. 

Robert Harper buryed the 6th day of November 

Anne Hunt widdow buryed the 9th day of 
November 1653. 

William the infant of John Goodman Junior 
buryed the same day. 

Mary Simly widdow buryed the same day. 

Richard Dugdell buryed November the 10th 

Elizabeth Breeze widdow buryed the 12th of 
Novber 1653. 

Anne -the daughter of William Harvey, buryed 
Novber 13th 1653. 

Margaret Fisher widdow buryed Novber 14th 1653. 

An infant (nameless) the son of John Mordock 
buryed Novber 16th 1653. 

Margaret the wife of Edmund Eade buryed 
Novber 17th 1653. 

John Harman, servant to Mr Aiex : Blowers 
buryed Novber 18th 1653. 

Edmund Firrman a young man buryed 
November the 22d 1653. 

William Tompson gentleman buryed Novber 
23d 1653. 

Henry Cheney a youth son to Capt : Thomas 
Cheney buryed the same day. 

Joan the wife of Robert Munson buryed the 
25th of November 1653. 

Alice Meares widdow, buryed the same day. 

Anne Cooper widdow, buryed the 27th of 
November 1653. 

Emme Easter widdow, buryed the same day. 

Anne the wife of John Brightwell buryed the 
28th day of November 1653. 

Philip Capon a child, the son of Philip Capon 
buryed the same day. 

Frances Hart a mayd buryed November the 
29th 1653. 

Frances Salturne the daughter of John Salturne 
buryed Novber 30th 1653. 

Margery the wife of Robert Todd buryed 
Decberthe 1st 1653. 

Susan Peterson widdow, buryed Decber the 3d 

Alice Heckfer a mayd, buryed the same day. 

Robert Bundish buryed December the 4th 

Mary Brightwell a mayd, buryed the same 

Richard son of Anne Chapman widdow, buryed 
the same day. 

Anne Hurrin widdow, buryed December the 
5th 1653. 

William Youngs buryed December the 8th 

Rose, an infant, daughter of Nicolas Pasmer 
buryed December the 13th 1653. 

John, an infant, son of Nicolas Bottrick buryed 
December the 15th 1653. 

John Ryatt buryed the 17th day of December 

Mary the wife of Capt : Thomas Cheney 
buryed the 21st day of December 1653. 



[12S. X. FEB. 25, 1922. 

John the son of John Barker buryed December 
the 26th 1653. 

Robert Baxter buryed December the 27tb 

John the son of John Cooke buryed December 
the 28th 1653. 

Anne Peirson widdow buryed December the 
31st 1653. 

Elizabeth the wife of Alexander Styles buryed 
the same day. 

Anne the wife of William Peachee buryed 
January the 2d 1653. 

Margery Ollaf er widdow, buryed the same day. 

Susan the daughter of William Lease buryed 
January the 4th 1653. 

Mary Robinson Widdow buryed January the 
5th 1653. 

Henry Steele buryed January the 6th 1653. 

Elizabeth, an infant daughter of Alex : Styles 
buryed January the 7th 1653. 

Thomas Holdin, a singleman, buryed January 
the lOtb 1653. 

Thomas the son of Thomas Bucke, buryed 
January the 16th 1653. 

William, a child, son of Francis Neave, buryed 
January the 17th 1653. 

Alice, a cmld, daughter of Henry Balls, buryed 
the same day. 

Margery Granger widdow, buryed January the 
30th 1653. 

BTJRIALLS 1653. 1654. 

Mary a child daughter of John Martin was 
buryed February the 3d 1653. 

Francis, a child, son of John Martin, buryed the 
5th day of February 1653. 

Priscilla the wife of John Knights buryed 
Febr : the 16th 1653. 

Mary the wife of Thomas Burwood, buryed 
Febr: 18th 1653. 

Thomas, a child, son of Philip Capon, buryed 
Febr : 20th 1653. 

Thomas, an infant son of Thomas Read, buryed 
March the 10th 1653. 

Sara the wife of Richard Cocket, buryed the 
llth day of March 1653. 

Emme, a child, daughter of Thomas Beales 
buryed the 12th day of March 1653. 

Emme the wife of Joseph Trundle, buryed the 
17th day of March 1653. 

Robert, an infant son of Samuel Fowlar, buryed 
the 1 8th day of March 1653. . 

Anne Burwood a mayd, buryed the 20th day of 
March 1653. 


ANNO 1654. 

Elizabeth the wife of Nicolas Landamer 
buryed March the 27th. 

Rose Atkerson a mayd buryed March the 29th. 

Sarah a child the daughter of Thomas Fowler 
was buryed April the second. 

Ailce an infant daughter of Robert Foreman 
was buryed April the 5th. 

Mary infant daughter of Francis Woodrow 
buryed April the 19th. 

Thomas a child the son of Francis Neve buryed 
April the 24th. 

Mary the wife of Richard Wall was buryed 
April the 27th. 

Richard a child son of Tho : Holding, buryed 
April the 29th. 

Mary infant daughter of George Moore was 
buryed May the 3d. 

John Hefker a youth servant to Will : Daniel 
was buryed May the 6th. 

John Reeder was buryed May the 7th. 

Base-borne Samuel the son of Anne Knights 
singlewoman buryed May the 1 3th. 

Mary Russell singlewoman was buryed May 
the 15th. 

Richard an infant son of Richard Youngs was 
buryed May the 1 8th. 

John Fisk a marreyd ma.n, buryed May the 1 9tb. 

Joan an infant daughter of Patrick Manlin, was 
buryed May the 29th. 

Robert a child son of Ranee Knights was 
buryed June the 3d. 

Elizabeth an infant daughter of John Hester 
was buryed June the 4th. 

Simon an infant son of Simon Peacock was 
buryed June the 16th. 

William Simpson a widdower was buryed June 
the 20th. 

Elizabeth the wife of Robert Dymer was 
buryed June the 23d. 

Nicolas a child son of Nicolas Palmer buryed 
June the 30th. 

James Ladly a stranger & marryner buryed 
July the 1st. 

John a* child son of Henry Gurling buryed 
July the 4th. 

Hester Youngs widdow was buryed July the 


Richard a child son of Robert Robson was 
buryed July the 27th. 

Mary a child daughter of Frances Scutton was 
buryed July the 29th. 

John an infant son of John Duxe was buryed 
August the 1st. 

Sarah a girle daughter of John Robberson 
buryed August the 3d. 

Susan an infant daughter of Tho : Thonger 
buryed August the 15th. 

Thomas a youth son of Capt : Tho : Elliott 
buryed September the 1 3th. 

Mary a child daughter of William Taylor was 
buryed September the 1 9th. 

Peter a stranger an old man buryed October 
the 8th. 

Daniel an infant son of Tho : Beale buryed 
October the 9th. 

John West a marryed man buryed October the 

Mary an infant daughter of Mrs Tompson 
widdow was buryed November 1st. 

Benjamin Wheeler a marryed man buryed 
November the 2d. 

Alexander a child the son of William Milburn 
buryed November the 9th. 

Elizabeth an infant daughter of Blowers Hunt 
buryed the same day. 

Ranee the infant son of William Cooper was 
buryed November the 1 3th. 

John an infant son of John Telford buryed 
November the 19th. 

Ailce a child daughter of Gilbert Manlin 
buryed November the 26th. 

Mr Arthur Blowers one of our Capitall Bur- 
gesses was buryed Decber 4th. 

John Parker a marryed man was buryed the 
same day. 

12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



Frances an infant daughter of Rich : Reynolds 
buryed the same day. 

Elizabeth the wife of John Jessup buryed 
Dec ember the 16th. 

Emme the wife of John Skea was buryed 
December the 19th. 

John an infant son of John Jessup buryed \ 
December the 25th. 

Anne an infant daughter of John Langham 
buryed December 26th. 

Margery an infant daughter of John Jessup , 
buryed December the 30th. 

Joan the wife of Thomas Buck was buryed j 
January the 15th. 

Mary the wife of Edmund Telford buryed ! 
January the 26th. 

John the son of Tho : Hewlett was buryed the i 
ame day. 

John the infant son of Roger Peck was buryed | 
January the 25. 

Ailce a child daughter of Edward Cockett was | 
fcuryedjFebruary the 23d. 



(See ante, pp. 101, 123.) 

IN "addition to the ' Narrative ' printed by 
the Rev. Dr. John Willcock, and the long 
letter by Sir Samuel Morland to Secretary 
Nicholas, dated Nov. 14, 1660, and printed 
in the fourth volume of the ' Nicholas 
Papers,' by Sir G. F. Warner, there is 
another account by Morland in the British 
Museum which should also be taken into 
account (Add. MSS., 28094, ff. 9 and 10). 
This completes the tale, with a few additional 

I should point out that Major Thomas 
Henshaw, who carried Morland's letter to 
Charles II., is confused, in the ' D.N.B.,' 
with his cousin, Thomas Henshaw of Ken- 
sington (see Historical MSS. Commission's 
"Sixth Report, Appendix, p. 367b). 

The following narrative has no date, but 
states that it was written seventeen years 
later on. 

The King appears to have revised his | 
opinion of the value of Morland's services, ' 
when he found out that Morland was 
Thurloe's intemediary in dealing with the 
twelve traitors who had divulged the plans 
of the Royalists, and Clarendon obtained 
the return of the letter in which His Majesty 
had rashly promised Morland the Garter. 

A brief narrative of ye services done to ye Crown by 
Sr. S. Morland. 

Immediately upon Thurloe's trepanning Dr. 
Hewet to ye death, S. Morland resolved to do 
ye King what service he could, detesting ye 

cruelties acted by Cromwell, and did so above a 
year and a half before he durst discover himself. 

At last hee did discover himself and sent ye 
King a letter by Major Henshaw, discovering Sr 
Rich. Willis and about 12 gentlemen more who 
were in salary with Cromwell for betraying ye 
King, some residing in England and others at 
Bruxels. Besides that hee kept weekly corre- 
spondence with the King and for above a year 
together never went to bed without a just fear 
of being taken out before ye morning and having 
his flesh pulled from his bones with hot pincers. 

When Richard Cr. was turned out, it was hee 
alone who made such jealousy between Lambert 
and Scott that Scott was getting an order to send 
Lambert to ye Tower, and Lambert having 
timely notice of it by my Ld Marsham (who then 
held correspondence with Morland) gott on horse- 
back and turned out ye Rump ; [i.e., in October, 
1659] which, under God, was the first true means 
of bringing in ye King, and without which hee 
might probably have been kept out till this day. 

When Lambert went down to ye North in 
triumph with that famous body of horse (with an 
intention to have destroyed Munk) it was M. 
alone who raysed such jealousies between Lambert 
and ye councel of officers at Wallingford House, 
that hee was ordered not to march one day, but 
by new orders sent by an express from Walling- 
ford House, which broke his army and dispersed 

In ye business of Sir George Booth, Sir Rich. 
Willis had hired a house in Kent on purpose to 
have given up ye person of ye King to Sir H. 
Vane and Mr Scott, where the King had been 
immediately murthered. And the King and 
Duke was ready to come over, when Morland 
gave him timely notice of it, and so prevented 
ye murther both of King and Duke. 

After all was done and over, instead of psr- 
forming any of those great promises, hee has 
now for 17 years gone up and down as a man of 
another world and no solid provision made for 
his family, and exposed to scorn and byword 
of Sir Richard Willis and others, who say ye king 
does not trust him. And what hee now beggs 
for is about 500 in some certain estate 
in long leases of 99 years as may amount to that 
value that so when hee dyes (not knowing how 
soon it may bee) his family may not bee exposed 
to want and beggery. 

(Indorsed) Sir Samuel Morlands papers. 

Copy of the Kings lettr to Mr Morland sent him 
from Brussels by Majr Henshaw. Dated 
7 July, 1659. 

I have received yours of ye 15th of ye last 
and ye rest J. H. sent mee from you, and I de- 
spatched ye person sent by him ye next day, in 
ye manner you advised and fully to his satisfac- 
tion. So that I hope God Almighty will despose 
that affayr to Our wish and that ye Fleet will 
not bee gone out of ye Sound before my letter 
bee delivered, wherein I have offered all that 
may move. If the misfortune should be such 
that he should be come away you will find some 
way to assure him of all that he can wish from me. 
But if he go once on shore I cannot imagine he 
ever will be restored to ye same power again. 
For your self your merit is, and will bee so great 


NOTES AND QUERIES.. [i- 2 a x. FEB. 25, 1022, 

towards mee, that you may be sure that it shall 
be only want of power if I do not gratify you to 
your heart's desire. And I will not only give 
you your Garter but somewhat else likewise that 
will make you wear it with more delight. I do 
rely upon your dexterity and credit to improve 
my interest in all places, and what shall be 
undertaken by you or your friends in my behalf, 
with those who can eminently merit from mee I 
will performe. Let mee understand how any 
treaty advances between those in present power 
and Spayn or France or any other neighbours. 
And I know you will do what you can to obstruct 
all things of that kind and do me and my friends 
all the good offices you can. And in all things 
you may depend upon mee as 

Your very affectionate friend 


Copie of another from Bruxels. Dated 10 Aug. 

I have yours by H. and cannot but bee abun- 
dantly satisf yed with the great services you have 
done me, how melancholy soever the knowledge 
of one truth hath made mee, and if your dexterity 
do not prevent it, there is mo mischief may not 
befall me and my friends. I would finish my 
intentions towards yourself but there is some- 
what of form that cannot consist with ye secrecy 
that is necessary for you, and which I have 
observed inviolably and you may be most con- 
fidant I will perform and punctually more then 
I have promised so soon as you can own ye 
receiving of it. I must again conjure you to be 
careful of my friends and believe me to bee very 

Your affectionate friend 

J. G. M. 




(See ante, p. 121.) 

WE may now see how some of the de- 
scendants of our parson fared. 

His eldest very pretty daughter, Char- 
lotte Spencer Williams (1813-1889), married 
(through the influence of her aunt and my 
grandmother, Charlotte Susannah Bull, 
nee Swales, of 25, Ely Place, Holborn) 
Charles Meeking of Richings Park, Coin- 
brook, near Slough, whose great-grand- 
daughter, Finola Meeking, has recently 
married Lord Somers. Like the Swales, 
Meeking came of Suffolk stock. When I 
used to stay at Richings as a boy, I was fond 
of browsing over the library, and among 
the records there is a detailed family paper 
showing that the origin of the name was 
De Meschines, a well-known Norman 
family. R. H. Barham (1788-1845 ; ' D.N.B.') 

mentions its founder in the ' Lay of St- 
Cuthbert ' in the ' Ingoldsby Legends ' : 
In short the whole country declared through his 


The Abbey of Bolton exhibited fresh scenes 
From any displayed since Sir William De- 


And Cecily Roumeli came to this nation 
With William the Norman, and laid its founda- 

There is a detailed legend in the family 
that Disraeli, as a youth, at Bradenham,. 
proposed to Charlotte and. was refused.. 
It is clear that he remained a faithful friend 
to the end of his life. 

Williams' s eldest son was articled to my 
grandfather and became a solicitor ; his- 
eldest grandson, John Charles Williams,. 
No. 3 of the I.C.S., was a Deputy Com- 
missioner of Barabanki in Oudh in 1873,. 
and Assistant Magistrate and Collector of 
Sharanpur in the North -West Provinces in 

The second son, William White Williams; 
(1815-1863), became a doctor, and accom- 
panied Rajah Brook (1803-1868 : 'D.N.B.') 
of Sarawak to Borneo as surgeon to the 
expedition. He was a great authority on 
Shakespeare and wrote many articles for 
The Athenceum. The eldest son of W. W_ 
Williams was named Robert (1842-1886). 
He was B.A., Fellow of Merton 1864, and 
lecturer- student of Christ Church, and 
translated the 'Nicomachean Ethics' of 
Aristotle. Barrister, novelist, journalist r 
and playwright, he became a brilliant 
leader-writer on The Times, Daily Tele- 
graph, Standard and Observer. He suc- 
ceeded Mr. Justice Wright (1839-1904 ; 
' D.N.B.') as coach for " Greats," and amongst 
his pupils were the present Lords Rosebery 
and Lansdowne. He was probably the- 
most successful " Greats " tutor ever known 
at Oxford. My friend Sir Courtenay 
Ilbert, the late Clerk of the House of 
Commons, who was a contemporary of his, 
was telling me only the other day several 
stories illustrating the brilliant scholarship 
of " Student Williams." He was also in- 
terested in the lighter side of life, and on the 
staff of The Sporting Times wrote under the 
name of " Bobos." 

One of Robert Williams's grandchildren is 
Pamela Bianco, the wonderful child artist 
whose pictures have recently attracted so 
much attention. 

His sister Frances married the Baron de 
Parravicini, another classical scholar, who- 
died on June 29, 1920, in his 77th year. 

12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



also showed literary talent and wrote a 
history of Balliol College. 

Owen Williams, second son of W. W. W., 
^became Colonel of the Suffolk Regiment after 
serving with distinction in the Afghan War, 
1879-1880 (medal), and with the Hazara 
Expedition in 1888 (medal, clasp and men- 
tioned in dispatches). He married Eva 
Marian Waddington of Cavenham Park, 
Bury St. Edmunds, Suffolk, in 1887. 

A third son of W. W. W. was the Rev. 
Oerard Williams, sometime vicar of Lulworth. 

His elder son, Gerard, a mining engineer, 
married Doris Swire Sowler, the daughter of 
the late Tom Sowler, M.P. for N.W. Man- 
chester, and granddaughter of the late Sir 
Tom Sowler, editor and proprietor of The 
Manchester Courier, also M.P. for N.W. 
Manchester. Gerard and his brother 
Geoffrey, an architect, fought with the 
iutmost gallantry all through the late war. 

To get back to John Charles Williams, his 
second daughter, Kate (1819-1916), married 
Peter Samuel Fry. Peter Samuel Fry was 
articled to my grandfather he afterwards 
became a partner in the firm of Fry, Loxley 
and Fry now Elam and Gardner, of 80, 
Cheapside (Charles Gardner being the uncle 
of Dr. Francis Tidcombe of Bognor, whom 
my sister Alice married). The senior part- 
ner in the firm at that time was Peter Wickens 
Fry, who married successively tw T o daughters 
of his partner, Thomas Arnold Loxley. His 
brother (Peter Samuel's father) was the Rev. 
Thomas Fry, vicar of Eniberton, both 
toeing sons of Peter Fry of Compton House, 
Oxbridge, County Treasurer of Somerset, 
who married three times. His first wife was 
a Cresswell of Bibery, Glos, heiress of the 
Woottons of Ashburton, Devon, who died 
childless. His second was Margaret Hen- 
rietta Middleton, orphan protegee of the 
great Wilberforce (1759-1833; ' D.N.B.'), 
married from his house in Kensington Gore 
afterwards Lady Blessington's (1799-1849 ; 
'D.N.B.'). His third wife was Mrs. Mary 
Ann Foster, nee Bagshawe, of The Oaks, 

Edward Haycock Williams (1823-1853), 
J. C. Williams' s fourth son, was a midshipman 
on H.M.S. Medusa and was captured in the 
Chinese War and killed in India. 

Henry Headly Williams, the fifth son 
< 1824-1888), fought at Sobraon, Ferozepur, 
and at the storming of Lahore (medal) under 
Sir Hugh Gough (1779-1869; 'D.N.B.'). 
He helped the late Lord Carrington (1794- 
1868) to found the Bucks Volunteers and 

became a brilliant rifle shot. He was cap- 
tain of the English eight and the English 
twenty, and once, I think, came in second 
for the Queen's Prize at Wimbledon ; re- 
tired as a Colonel of Volunteers and de- 
corated with the Order of Christ by the King 
of Portugal, 1878. 

His only child, Marie Constance, married, 
first, in 1895, Gordon Robert Rogers (d. 1902), 
son of the Hon. Alexander Rogers, senior 
member of the Council of Bombay, a dis- 
tinguished Indian Civil Servant anof Oriental 
scholar, who translated the ' Shah-Namah ' 
of Firdusi from the original Persian into 
English couplets. They had an only daugh- 
ter, Joan. She (M.C.) married, secondly, in 
1919, Alfred W. Winterbottom of Shiplake, 

Thomas Middleton Williams, the seventh 
son (1829-1866), became a doctor at Work- 
sop, Notts. He married Emma Maria Major, 
the daughter of the late Dr. J. R. Major, 
D.D., principal of King's College, London. 
One of her granddaughters, Agnes Ethel 
Wilding, married Major Hector Fitzroy 
Maclean of the Scots Guards, the son and 
heir of Sir Fitzroy Maclean, tenth baronet, 
head of the Clan Maclean. 

J. C. Williams's sixth daughter married 
the Rev. Leigh Spencer, vicar of Renhold, 

One of her sons, Oliph Leigh Spencer, 
raised a body of men known as Spencer's 
Light Horse, who did good work in the 
Louis Riel (1844-1885; ' D.N.B.') Rebellion 
in Canada in 1885. His daughter, Maud 
Leigh Spencer, married the Rev. Arthur W. 
Mozley in 1886. He was related to Cardinal 
Newman (1801-1890; 'D.N.B.') and to 
Professor Thomas Mozley of Oxford (1806- 
1893; 'D.N.B.'). 

The seventh daughter of J. C. W. married, 
in 1863, Francis Ellis, who was agent and 
land steward to Viscount Dillon and Sir 
Humphrey de Trafford of. Trafford Park, 

It is obvious that I have omitted to men- 
tion a great many other of the descendants 
of the curate-in-charge, but I think I have 
shown that he was founder of a family who 
have served the State manfully in various 
ways and have thus done credit to the old 
vicarage at the back of the parish church of 
High Wycombe. 

Here is his epitaph in Highgate cemetery 
redolent of the time but not, I think, un- 
pleasing : 

Beneath this stone are deposited the mortal 
remains of the Rev. John Charles Williams, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. FEB. 25, 1922. 

Rector of Sherington, Bucks, who departed this 
life Nov. 30th, 1848, in the 60th year of his life. 

A life of ceaseless occupation clouded, but could 
not obscure, those high and rare endowments with 
which he was abundantly gifted. He was esteemed 
rather for what he was, than for what he did. 
Warm, generous and sincere in hearty in mind 
and manners spotless and uncorrupt, his office as 
a Christian priest was adorned by his character as 
a man. Of a loving and truthful nature he ever 
was the regard of the good ; of tried and unshaken 
principle he will not be forgotten by the wise. 
By those "who enjoyed his friendship and knew his 
worth, his memory will be preserved in that en- 
during regret in which grief disguises itself as the 
fpnd remembrance of the excellence it laments. 


" EARTHLAND." One of the first explana- 
tions given to the young student of English 
charters and rolls is that he must assume 
that terra, or its English equivalent land, 
means " arable land," other cultivated 
land being described as pratum, " meadow," 
&c., while pastura, boscus, &c., described 
the occupation of the other enclosed land. 

To one so instructed the word earthland * 
is therefore a surprise. ' O.E.D.' gives 
instances of 826 (Charter of Ecgberht in 
Cod. Dipl., v. 84), c. 1000 (we. in Wr.- 
Wiilcker, 279), and 1885 (Archceological \ 
Journal, xlii. 271 : this relates to the I 
Thames estuary). 

I contribute a quotation that does j 
something towards completing the history I 
of the word, and copy rather fully since (by ; 
some misunderstanding) the word appears | 
in the article yardland of the ' O.E.D.' It j 
is obviously impossible for an editor to look j 
up the context of every quotation that | 
reaches him. If what follows had been 
before him, he would not have inserted it 
as an instance of a word which, I am in- 
formed, was not used in Scotland. 

On 19 June 1496, the King confirmed in 
mortmain a charter of Elizabeth Massun, relict 
of the late John Skrimgeoure, called " Jak," 
burgess of Dundee, dated 1 Mar. 1495 by 
which she granted to the chaplain of St. Bartholo- 
mew the apostle at the altar of Corpus Christi in 
the parish church of St. Mary of Dundee 

Unam peciam terre in dicto burgo infra tenemen- 
tum quondam Nicholai Skrimgeour ex parte aus- 
trali vici fori, extendendo a gabulo aule nuncupate 
le Erie Dauid Huntlintoune Haw versus boream 
usque ad terrain anteriorem dicti tenement!, 
cum occidentali parte clausure seu venelle eidem 
pecie terre correspondent!, et aliam peciam terre 
prope australem partem dicti tenement! inter 
le yertland ejusdem et terram quondam dicti 
Nicholai, unacum parte dicte venelle eidem pecie 

* From EARTH sb.z [" The action of plough- 
ing "] + LAND=Arable land (' O.E.D.'). 

terre correspondent! (' Begistrum Magni SigilH 
Begum Scotorum I. (18), 491, 492). 

Q. V. 

CUMULATIVE STORIES. Many cumulative' 
stories have appeared in ' N. & Q.' e.g., 
see 7 S. viii. 321 ; ix. 163, 461 ; xi. 161, 
29410 S. ii. 50212 S. iv. 183. Probably 
these references are not exhaustive. There 
is a cumulative story in Hubert Pernot's 
' Anthologie populaire de la Grece Modernej' 
Paris, Mercure de France, 1910, p. 180. 

The Greek songs, &c., are given only in 
French prose. 

The story begins, " Chante, coq, eveille 
le vieux." In English it runs : 
Crow, cock, wake the old man, who wa a guarding 

the garden and its little roses. 
There came a fox, that ate the cock, that waked 

the old man, &c. 

Then follow seven more stages : 
There came a dog, that ate the fox, that, &e. 
There fell a log, that killed the dog, that, &c. 
The oven was lighted, that burnt the log, that, &cv 
There came a river, and it put out the oven, 

that, &c. 
There came an ox, that drank up the river,. 

that, &c. 

There came a wolf, that ate the ox, that, &c. 
There came a gun, that killed the wolf, that, &c. 

The story is taken by Pernot from 
' Recueil de chants populaires epirotes,' 
collected by Aravantinos, Athens, 1880,. 
p. 139, No. 200. I may point out that 
there is an interesting chapter on cumulative 
stories in ' Popular Tales and Fictions, their 
Migrations and Transformations,' by W. A.. 
Clouston, 1887, vol. i., pp. 289-313. 


OF WINDSOR. Some of the terms expressing 
these are curious. The Dean and Chapter 
are free from payment of Ward penny, Aver 
penny, Tithing penny, and Hundred penny, 
and are discharged from Grithbrech, Forstall,. 
Homesoken, Blod-wite, Ward-wite, Heng-wite, 
Fight-wite, Leyr-wite, Lastage, &c. (quoted 
by Pote in 'Antiquities of Windsor'). 
Some of the terms in the latter list deserved 
a footnote in Mr. Pote's work. R. B. 

It may be of interest to note that in the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts there is a 
portrait of Coleridge by Washington Allston. 
The ' D.N.B.' mentions Allston's portrait 
of Coleridge in the National Portrait 
Gallery, but the writer (Leslie Stephen) 
doubts the existence of another one. Artist 
and sitter were in Rome in 1806, and in 

12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



London in 1811 and later years. The 
Boston portrait having been left in an 
unfinished state, it may perhaps have been 
painted in Rome, because Coleridge's stay 
in that city ended somewhat abruptly. 

In the same Gallery there is a portrait of 
Dickens by Francis Alexander. The record 
of this picture is clear, for it was painted in 
1842 at the Tremont House on Dickens' s 
first visit to Boston. It is reproduced in 
W. Glyde Wilkins's ' Charles Dickens in 
America,' but with a loss of the strong 
character of the features. 


10, Humboldt Street, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

" SCOOTER." Everyone now knows this 
toy, which, however, is not mentioned as 
such in the ' N.E.D.' or in the * Concise 
Oxford Dictionary.' This latter authority 
has : 

Scoot, v.i. (slang). Bun, dart, make off [var. of 

Possibly, however, the noun may be con- 
nected with scout, not shoot. Prior, in 
'An Epistle to Fleetwood Shepherd, Esq.,' 
wrote : 

For as young children, who are tried in 
Go-carts, to keep their steps from sliding, 
When members knit, and legs go stronger, 
Make use of such machine no longer ; 
But leap pro libitu, and scout 
On horse called hobby, or without ; &c. 
I am not a philologist so write with diffidence. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers may be sent to them direct. 

the head or chief officer of the municipal 
corporation of a city or borough is a woman, 
what is her correct title ? She is usually 
styled "the Mayor" and "Her Worship 
the Mayor." Is this correct ? The ' N.E.D., 
defines the word " mayoress " as " the wife 
of a mayor," but gives as a nonce-word 
" a woman holding the office of a mayor." 
The reference, however, is American, the 
word occurring in The North American 
Review of September, 1895 : " When women 
shall have become . . . mayoresses or 
alderwomen." Now that women have at- 
tained to those positions, is there any record 
of a woman holding the office of a mayor 

being styled " Mayoress." If not, and if 
the common use of the word " mayor " for 
a woman is right, why not " king " for a 
woman ruler ? The Princess Mary is 
reported to have addressed the " Lady 
Mayor " (so styled in the Press) of Chelten- 
ham as " Mr. Mayor " when receiving a 
deputation on Feb. 10, 1922. F. H. C. 

AUCHEB : DEPEDENE. Can any reader 
tell me if the following genealogical particu- 
lars are correct, or add to them in any way ? 

Richard de Depedene, temp. Edw. II. and 
III., held half a knight's fee of the Auchers of 
High Laver and Copt Hall, Essex ; Fisherton 
Anger, Wilts, &c. 

This Richard probably came from Depden 
in Suffolk ( Burke' s ' Armory ' names it 
as their county), and his s. and h., John de 
Depedene, Knight of the Shire for Essex 
(1352), married Elizabeth FitzAucher, one of 
the daughters of Sir Aucher FitzAucher, who 
had been summoned to Parliament, 1309, as 
Lord FitzHenry. 

John de Depedene subsequently acquired 
High Laver and all the Yorkshire estates, 
including Tibthorpe, Eastburn, and Torpe 
Arches, from his brother-in-law, Sir Henry 
FitzAucher, and assumed the Aucher arms. 

The s. and h. of the aforesaid marriage, 
Sir John Depedene, married Elizabeth, dau. 
and h. (widow of Sir William Nevill) of Sir 
Stephen Walleys, himself s. and h. of Lord 

The s. and h. of this marriage, another Sir 
John Depedene (whose seal quartering 
Walleys with Aucher is extant ; see Yorks. 
Arch. Journal, vol. xiii.), died s.p. 1402. 
These arms, with the additional quartering 
of Loring, were subsequently quartered by 
the Lords Wharton of Wharton, probably 
through descent from a sister and heir or 
coh. of the last Sir John Depedene. Can any 
reader give me particulars of Sir John's 
heirs and say how the Whartons came to 
quarter Aucher and Walleys ? 


ANNE SCOT (nee BASHE). Sir Ralph was one 
of the Knights of the Bath at Charles II. 's 
Coronation, and Sir Edward was knighted in 
1691. The former married Anne, sister of 
Sir Thomas Skipwith, Bt., of Gosberton, 
Lincoln, and Sir Edward Bashe married 
Anne Wade. One of them was the mother 
of Anne Bashe (third wife of Thomas Scot the 
regicide), concerning whom and her children 
I am anxious for any information. Anne 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.x.F B B.25,i922. 

Scot was married after 1645 and became a 
widow in 1660. CONSTANCE RUSSELL. 

Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

[Our correspondent may like to be reminded 
that Grace (ne'e Mauleverer), second wife of the 
regicide, Thomas Scot, to whom there is a tablet in 
the chapel of St. John the Evangelist at West- 
minster Abbey (" Hee that will give my Grace 
but what is hers," &c.), died in 1646.] 

any reader tell me the origin of the Latin 
proverb " Nescit sanus quid sentiat aeger 
aut plenus quid patiatur jejunus " ? It is 
quoted as vulgare proverbium by St. Bernard 
(' De Gradibus Humilitatis,' &c., cap. iii.), 
but I have not been able to find it in any 
dictionary of quotations. 


THOMAS LOVELL. Will some contributor 
who is familiar with materials for Lincoln- 
shire history be so good as to tell me whether 
the private Act, 1 James I., c. xxxv., ' For 
the Releife of Thomas Lovell,' has been 
printed ? It seems probable that a number 
of words occurring in Stat. 16 and 17 
Charles II., c. 11, may be usefully extracted 
for ' O.E.D.' Q. V. 

SAINTS' CHURCH, OXFORD. When searching 
the parish registers of All Saints (All 
Hallows), Oxford, last September, I ob- 
served in one register, c. 1663, a 
note, I think written about that date, that 
the register 1653 to 1662 is "in the hands of 

It must be presumed that no one tried, 
to obtain it from him in order to put it in 
its proper place. In the register of Bloxham, 
Co. Oxon, I noted the family name of 
Jellyman about the end of the eighteenth 

Probably there may be several entries of 
this name in the registers. 

Is anything known concerning the lost 
register of All Saints ? 


PILATE'S WIFE. Have we any authority 
for naming Pilate's wife Claudia Procula ? 
Is it true that in the reign of the Emperor 
Augustus a provincial Roman Governor 
could not be accompanied by his wife, 
and that in the reign of his successor, 
Tiberius, the law was amended, so that a 
Governor's wife could share her husband's 
foreign home after taking an oath that she 
would not interfere in matters of State ? 

If so, would the penalty for breaking this 
I oath involve the husband's recall and the 
! wife's death ? T. H. SOULBY. 

Kestor Glen, Chagford, South Devon. 

I have had for some 40 years a painting 
| on wood panel of a lady with a large silk 
j frill or ruff and pearls. I do not know the 
j subject or the painter, but in the right-hand 
j upper corner is painted 


Perhaps some reader may be able to let 
me know something about the lady, for I 
cannot ascertain anything about her. 

A. O'C. 

trait of the *" Two Young Cavaliers ' re- 
cently acquired for the National Gallery 
ever been engraved ? If so, what is the 
description of the engraving (if any) given 
beneath it ? 

Has the portrait (whole length) of Jane 
Goodwyri, daughter of Arthur Goodwyn of 
Winchendon, Bucks, and second wife of 
Philip, fourth Lord Wharton, in the collec- 
tion of the Duke of Devonshire, ever been 
engraved, and, if so, what is the description 
given beneath it ? I am acquainted with 
an engraving of a lady in a white satin 
dress from a painting by Vandyck, entitled 
) ' Jane Goodwyn,' but it does not appear 
| to be the same lady as portrayed in the 
I picture at Chatsworth, who is in black velvet. 
Where is the original painting by Vandyck 
of this lady in white satin, described on 
the engraving as ' Jane Goodwyn ' ? 


aboard .the lugger and the girl is mine." 
What is the source of this well-known quo- 
tation ? C. N. R. 

in his ' Life of William Alexander, Earl of 
Stirling ' (New Jersey, 1847), states, p. 13, 
that the Duchess accompanied her second 
husband, Gen. Staats Long Morris, to 
America on a visit to his relation. She 
was " long remembered in New York for 
her masculine habits, blunt manners, frank 
conversation and good heart." Is there any 
contemporary reference to her in American 
literature ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. 

The * D.N.B.' (xxii. 373) states that two fine 


12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



extra-illustrated copies of this work were 
offered for sale in 1856. I shall be glad if 
information can be given as to their present 
location. ROLAND AUSTIN. 

reader tell me the origin of this symbol, which 
is used in all royal ceremonies ? Authorities 
appear to differ. The general impression 
seems to be that the real object of the cap 
is lost in the mists of antiquity. 


[" The sense of maintenance," says the ' N.E.D.' 
on this subject, " here is obscure." In the first 
quotation, c. 1485, the expression is hat of main- 
tenance. The cap of maintenance is mentioned I 
as having been sent by the Pope to Henry VII. 
and Henry VIII. ; and in 1551, along with the 
crown or diadem as one of the insignia of a prince. 
The question of its origin has been discussed 
in our columns at 9 S. vii. 192 8 S. v. 268, 415 
4 S. ii. 560 ; viii. 399, 5201 S. vi. 324. Nothing 
was elicited as to its origin, though many par- 
ticulars as to its use were supplied.] 

JOHN FILMER EMMETT graduated B.A. at 
Cambridge University from Trinity College 
in 1827. I should be glad to obtain parti- 
culars of his parentage and career. He was 
born Oct. 31, 1805. When and where did he 
die ? G. F. R. B. 

SCRIPTIONS. I should feel much obliged for 
information on the following points. Over 
the entrance door of the Lazenki Palace, 
Warsaw, there is (or was before the Great 
War) an inscription running thus : 




A little lower to right and left of the 
portal are medallions, two in number, one 
symbolizing the Genius habitantis, the other 
the Genius loci. That of the habitans has 
inscribed within : FRONS SERENA vox 
SINCERA. That of the locus : MENTI * QUIES (and 
two more words I cannot remember). The 
notes I had made on the spot of these in- 
scriptions and of the symbolic medallions have 
been mislaid. I have tried in vain for refer- 
ences in usual works. The first inscription 
is a quaint concetto when read in proper 
collocation. Are there many similar ones 
to be found ? I have forgotten the exact 
symbolic figures in the medallions. 

The Lazenki was the summer palace of 
the last King of Poland, Stanislas Augustus. 

Obviously optat. 

The monogram SA stands out among the 
above inscriptions, which reflect un naturel 
charmant. VALENTINE J. O'HARA. 

Authors' Club, London. 

DRUGGING OF DARN AY. How was Charles 
Darnay drugged ? Has the exact nature 
of this drug been ascertained ? According 
to chap. xiii. of the novel, Darnay noticed 
that a curious vapour was present in 
the cell just before Sydney Carton ren- 
dered him unconscious. This seems to 
suggest chloroform (discovered in 1831). 
In chap. xi. it is stated to be a mixture 
and probably also a poison. Perhaps the 
lack of details is due to the fact that Dickens 
was guilty of a daring anachronism. What 
was the date of the article in The British 
Medical Journal on * The Medical Accuracy 
of Dickens ' ? J. ARDAGH. 

the Cartulary of the Monastery of St. John 
the Baptist at Colchester (Roxburgh Club, 
London : 1897), there are the following 
references : 
Page Date 

43 1120c. Roger de Vilers gave half a hide 
in Chich, Hamo his brother two 
parts tenths of Walchra and all 
the mill. 

156 IHOc. Hamon de St. Clair grants the mill 
of Walchra to St. Mary Walchra 
in perpetual alms. 

42 1198. Charter of King Richard refers to 
gifts of Roger de Vilers and 
Hamon his brother, Hamon de 
St. Clair, Wm. de St. Clair, 
Eudes le Seneschal (Eudo Dapi- 
fer), &c. 

120 (1226-35). Henry, bishop of Rochester, 
narrates inspection of -confirma- 
tion by Pope Alexander to the 
above monastery of certain gifts 
including that from Hamon de 
St. Clair of all tenths in the 
village of Chalcra. 

In another work (' Sinclairs of England,' 
pp. 216/7) the following charters are said 
to be in the Harleian collection at the 
British Museum : 

1145c. Charter of Hubert de St. Clair to the 
church of the Holy Trinity of Norwich, 
about the church of Chalke, and land 
and an annual return in the same 

1180e. Charter of William de Lanvaley con- 
firming the donation of Hubert de 
St. Clair, his grandfather, as above ; 
" particularly various matters between 
the prior of Bermondsey and the prior 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s. x. FEB. 25, 1 922. 

of the church of Holy Trinity, Norwich, 
concerning the advowson of the church 
of Chalke. 

Do the above references in the Latin to 
"Walchra" and "St. Mary Walchra" 
mean " Chalk " ? If so, much light will 
be thrown on the relationship of various 
personages in feudal times. 

Roger de Vilers is described as nepos 
suus to Eudes de Ryes, in a grant by the 
latter to the Abbey of St. Amand, Rouen. 

Is not Hamon, brother to Roger de 
Vilers, identical with Hamon de St. Clair 
mentioned in the Colchester Cartulary ? 

Hamon and William de St. Clair were | 
brothers ; they and their father before ! 
them owned the property of Vilers (after- j 
wards known as Vilers -Fossart) in the canton ; 
of St. Clair, near St. L6, chief town St. | 
Clair-sur-1'Elle. They also owned the barony j 
of Thaon in Normandy, the chapel of which ' 
is still extant. The querist has moulages \ 
of the seals of Wm. de St. Clair, his son! 
Geoffrey and grandson Thomas. 

If Hamon de St. Clair was brother to j 
Roger de Vilers then he also was nepos \ 
Eudonis, which will explain his succession 
to Eudes de Ryes. 

Roger de Vilers, I am inclined to think, 
may be identical with Roger nepos Huberti, 
who obtained a Crown grant of the manor 
of Chalk and was succeeded by his son 
Gervase de Cornhill, sheriff of Kent, Surrey, j 
and London. See 31st Report of the Public j 
Records, 1868-69, and the article 'Pedigree; 
of Gervase de Cornhill,' pp. 304-12, in j 
'Geoffrey de Mandeville,' by J. Horace! 
Round, where the grants of the manor of j 
Chalk to Roger and Gervase respective!/ 1 
are cited as in Duchy of Lancaster Royal 
Charters Nos. 3 and 6 ; in respect of the 
latter see also Pipe Roll Society, 'Ancient 
Charters,' p. 66. 

May St. Mary Walker mean St. Mary 
Walcher ? Walcher fils Osbern, a nephew 
of Eudes de Ryes, was buried on the same 
day and in the same tomb as the celebrated 
Eudes. May Walcher be one of the brothers 
of the two St. Clairs mentioned in their 
charters as buried in the grounds of the 
monastery ? Walcher was a son of Osbern 
fils Walter, tenant-in-chief of Bichelswade 
hundred in Bereforde in Bedford. Osborn 
fils Walcher, apparently his son, appears 
in the Colchester Cartulary as of Leiham, 
and there is notice of his sons. Osbern 
fils Walter was married to Muriel, sister 
of Eudes de Ryes, and there is an appearance 
of liis son Walcher as early as 1086. The 

St. Clairs may have been sons of Muriel by 
a second marriage. 

There are many notices in the Colchester 
Cartulary of persons of the family of Hamley 
(de Amblia, Normandy) in close connexion 
with the St. Clairs, one of whom is Eudes 
de Hamley and probably the same as 
Eudes nepos Huberti appearing therein. 
May this Eudes be brother to Roger nepos 
Huberti, grantee of Chalk ? 

I take the surname Lanvaley to be in 
reality " Langvale," dervied from the place 
in Kent held in 1087 by Adam fils Hubert,, 
brother of Eudes de Ryes. For some un- 
known reason the family of that name is 
stated to come from Brittany and the name 
is generally spelt " Lanvallei." 


POEM WANTED.- Two or three years ago there 
appeared in The Daily News a poem by " Gertrude 
S. Ford " supposed to be addressed by a wife to 
a husband. The Daily News people cannot trace 
the date of publication. Can any reader help ? 


REFERENCE WANTED. " The Count de Maistre 
said a century ago or more, ' History as it is- 
written is one great conspiracy against the 
truth.' " In which book does the above appear ? 

AUTHOBS WANTED. 1. In the Echo de Paris of 
Feb. 11, 1922, there is a reference to " Les Etats- 
Unis qui avaient proclame que ' tout homme a 
deux patries : la sienne et la France.'" Who 
was the author of this saying ? I have seen it 
attributed to Benjamin Franklin, but also to 
Henri de Bornier, the French Academician who 
died in 1901. Usually the version is " Tout 
homme a deux patries : la sienne et puis la 
France." If the saying is Franklin's, what was 
the exact form of the English original ? 

F. H. C. 

2. Can any reader oblige me with the name of 
the author of the line : 

" And morning brings its daylight and its woe." 

A. T. 



(12 S. x. 109.) 

me his address, I shall be pleased to send 
him a photogravure copy, from my private 
plate, of a small pen-and-ink sketch, probably 
by an amateur friend, of Gilbert White of 
Selborne. The original sketch, in one of 

1 his books, is now in the British Museum. 

I It is perfectly well known in his family, of" 

12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



whom I am the present head, that the 
naturalist never sat for his picture to a 
portrait artist. 


inquiry with regard to a portrait of Gilbert 
White, I may say that his family has always 
been of opinion that no picture of him was 
ever painted. The figure in the frontispiece 
to the first edition of ' The Natural History 
of Selborne,' at one time supposed to re- 
present its author, has been shown to be 
someone else. 

A picture labelled ' The Rev. Gilbert 
White,' picked up for a few shillings in the 
Caledonian Market and stated to show every 
sign of having been painted in Gilbert 
White's time, was engraved by Mr. John 
Glen, of 3, Bennett Street, S.W.I. A re- 
production of this portrait appeared in The 
Selborne Magazine for 1913, on p. 64. 

Another painting of a much younger man, 
also labelled ' Gilbert White,' at Knebworth, 
is in the collection of the Earl of Lytton, by 
whose courtesy it was reproduced in The 
Selborne Magazine for 1913, on p. 143. 

A few years ago a copy of Homer's 
Iliad, by Pope, and presented by him to 
Gilbert White, when the latter took his 
degree, was discovered in Hampshire, and in 
it is a sketch labelled " ' G. W. ' penned by 
* F. C.,' " together with a chess-score, in j 
which the names of Gilbert White and F. j 
Chapman occur. This and another sketch | 
with no title were reproduced in The Set- \ 
borne Magazine for 1914, on p. 128. 

This last portrait is crude, but one cannot 
help being struck by the resemblance between 
it and the painting in the posfe*sion of Lord 

In reply to the inquiry of MB. COUBTHOPE 
FOBMAN, I beg to say tnat I possess the only 
known portrait of Gilbert White, which I 
shall be pleased to show him if he will call 
on me. 

I have had the picture engraved. 


3, Bennett Street, St. James's, S.W.I. 

query, there is a portrait of Gilbert White 
of Selborne (1720-1793), naturalist, in The 
Bookbuyer (1901), xxii. 476. 

There is also a portrait of Gilbert White 
of Selborne, vicar, grandfather of the 
above, in ' The Life and Letters of Gilbert 
White of Selborne,' written and edited 

by his great-grandnephew, Rashleigh Holt- 
White, with pedigree, portraits and illus- 
trations. (In two volumes. London, John 
Murray, 1901. 8vo.) 

Library, Constitutional Club, W.C. 

108). If this query could be answered hx 
the form in which it is put, the baronetcy 
of Whitefoord of Blaquhan would not be 
extinct. But your correspondent should, 
consult a note by S. S. (Mr. Shaw Stewart) 
in The Genealogist of July, 1880, in which, 
the writer takes a very broad view of 
Scottish marriages. 

Of the celebrated Caleb Whitefoord (1734- 
1810), there are several memoirs accessible 
and portraits, one by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
of which the engravings are scarce. He 
did not marry until very late in life. His 
son, the late Rev. Caleb Whitefoord, rector 
of Burford, was born in 1806. In 1887, more 
than 150 years after the birth of his father, 
he was kind enough to allow me to peruse 
his collection of family papers, including 
a letter from Sir Walter Scott, which is 
worth quoting. When the 1829 edition of 
' Waverley ' was published, the origin of the 
story of the mutual good offices of Col. 
Talbot, Waverley, and Bradwardine was 
told in the Introduction, but with some 
slight inaccuracies, such as Allan for Charles 
and one " o " in Whitefoord. . Young Caleb, 
then at Queen's College, Oxford, had the 
temerity, as he expressed it, to write to the 
author, pointing this out, and pleading the 
love of his family for the old name. Sir 
Walter replied : " Dear Sir, Dearly as I 
am myself particular in the spelling of my 
name to a ' t ' I had no right to treat your 
' o ' as a cypher," and promising that in 
the next edition the emendation should be 
made. This was done, as will be seen in 
the paragraph now printed in the Appendix. 

The Rev. Charles Blaquhan Whitefoord, 
R.C. Chaplain to the Forces, grandson of 
the rector of Burford, died of wounds in 
France, May 29, 1918. Of this gallant 
descendant and namesake of the Waverley- 
colonel an officer wrote : 

One incident will show the spirit in which he 
worked among us. He was in a ruined village 
about a thousand yards from the fighting. Shells 
were falling, glass and bricks were flying about. 
Father Whitefoord found a man who had lost his 
steel helmet. In an instant he handed his own to- 
the soldier, and then carried on excellent work in. 
succouring the wounded. 

A. T. M. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s.x. FEB. 25, 1922. 

ARAB (OB EASTERN) HORSES (12 S. x. lout all the inaccuracies of the article; the 
'91, 138). When compiling the history of ! principal points are that the sides are 
the old Newcastle-on-Tyne Race Meeting i invariably composed of four players and 
I spent a good deal of time in research j that the scoring is identical with that of 
regarding the Fenwick family and their | lawn tennis, even to "advantage" and 
connexion with bloodstock. The date of " deuce." 

the following letter (1610) will reconcile) I agree with the American narrator that 
the dates mentioned by ARAB with the j it is a game requiring much agility and 
death of Sir John Fenwick. The writer j strength, but to rank it above cricket is 
was Robert Delaval, who, to the Earl of i silly in the extreme and worthy only of one 
Northumberland, communicated the follow- to whom the niceties of the greatest athletic 

game the world has ever known are a closed 
book. Still, with some amplification of the 


I have seen a very fine paseinge [pacing] mare 
that is black and of middle size, which I can 
fouy for your lordship, and hath so good a fore- 
hand and head as I know not where the like is 
to be had in these parts. The colt that 

rules, it might be worth while giving it a 

trial in England. 

S. H. Du PARC. 


fir John Fenwick gave the King that was ; held j DEBBY (12 S. x. 353, 394, 491, 535). My 
to be the swiftest horse in England, which was : f ^., '- ,, ' Q' ;KJk 

given to the Duke of Ulster, is full brother by this C( W of the first &Waon of the bquibob 
horse to this mare. She hath this year a very I Papers' in my library being mislaid, I cannot 
fair horse colt that is some five weeks old, gotten j now refer to it, so accept X. T. R.'s autho- 
with a horse that paceth of Sir Ralph Graye's | r it y for his statement. It must be noted, 
that will not be sold for 100 and the gent, that hhrtri. fViat Pm-it T^rHv diprl in 1861 
owns her will not sell his mare and colt under 20, j j X I ! < P >l iT D Y > 
and if- 1 dislike the colt he will abate me twenty and that the Squibob Papers were first 
nobles of the 20. The mare is this year covered I published in 1865. The notes, therefore, 

again with a marvellous fair Grey Turk that paceth 
little but very excellent good shape. 

may have been those of the editor. 

" Squibob " was another nom de plume of 

Sir John Fenwick a staunch Royalist Capt. Derby, and many of, the letters in 
as stud-master both to Charles I. and j ' Phoenixiana ' (1856) are signed "Squibob." 
Charles II., and did much to lay the f ounda- j A representation in gilt of "Squibob" is 
tion of the thoroughbred as we know it I on the front cover of the book, and the 
.to-day. J. FAIRFAX-BLAKEBOROUGH. 'frontispiece is a portrait of "Yours re- 

Grove House, Norton-on-Tees. \ spectf ully John P. Squibob " (John Phoenix 

i Squibob). I find no reference in articles 

With reference to the article under the 
above heading, I am not aware if this 
description of the game therein contained 
as given by an American sculptor still 
stands good for Rome, but I can say that, 
a,s regards the game as played in Piedmont 
.and Tuscany, the description is very incorrect. 
The game has always been* more essentially 

in 'Phrenixiafina ' connecting " Squibob " 
with George Wshingfcon. 

I was a member of the publication, com- 
mittee of the Caxton Club, Chicago, under 
whose supervision the 1897 edition of 
' Phcenixiana ' was published. This issue 
was edited by John Vance Cheney, at that 
time head Librarian of the Newbury Library, 
and a member of the committee. Mr. Cheney 

a Piedmontese and Tuscan one than Roman, was acquainted with the family of Capt. 
As played in Piedmont (where it may truly | Derby, and the facts incorporated in his 
be called the national game) there are two | Introduction were obtained from them, 
chief varieties ; one being played with a j Mrs. Derby and her son, Capt. George 
soft india-rubber ball slightly larger than | McClennan Derby, placed at the disposal 
& cricket ball, the ball being struck with ' of our committee an album of the original 
the hand, round which is wound a handker- i sketches of Capt. Derby. Mr. Cheney, in 
chief ; and the other variety played with a j his Introduction, refers to the portrait of 
ihard ball as described. The gauntlets of j " Squibob " (referring to vol. ii. of +- 1 ""* 
wood with the projecting bosses resemble Caxton Club edition) as follows : 
nothing so much as pineapples, and cover 
the hand as far as the wrist only, not to the 

I do not imagine that the subject is suffi- 
ciently interesting to English readers to 
merit taking up much of your space to point 


The portrait of " Squibob," frontispiece to 
vol. ii., drawn by Derby, over his own photo- 
graph as the groundwork, is from the original 
cut used in the Appleton edition of ' Phoenixiana,' 


Highland Park, 111., U.S.A. 

12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



PRIME MINISTER (12 S. ix. 446; x. 117). j 
MR. JOHN BERESFORD is to be congratu- ! 
lated greatly on his discovery of this title ; 
in the margin of Clarendon's ' Continuation, ! 
&c.,' under 1661. This date now becomes the 
earliest of which the phrase is used. But 
I still think that the earliest to write it 
was Reresby in 1667 (p. 14 of the 1734 
the first edition). For his ' Memoirs ' are ; 
in the nature (and almost the form) of a 
diary, as anyone can see at a glance, andj 
the entry I cited must have been written | 
in or about 1667. 

Now I assume (though I do not know) j 
that the marginal notes of the ' Continua- > 
tion ' were written by Clarendon. The ; 
' Continuation ' was first published in 1 759 ' 
(Oxford). (In the 1827 edition, Oxford, the 
marginal note is on p. 416, vol. i.). We 
know (v. 'D.N.B.,' article by Prof. Firth) 
how the * Life ' was written, and the ' Con- 
tinuation ' is actually dated " Moulins, 
June 8, 1672." Clarendon died in 1674. 
It seems pretty certain that the words 
" prime minister " were inserted after 1672. 

Anson, whom I cited, quotes Swift's 
" Inquiry into the Behaviour of the Queen's 
last Ministry,' xvi. 19. I cannot find the 
phrase in the Edinburgh edition, vol. v.,! 
p. 264 (1824), nor when it was first published, ! 
but it is of little importance, for in the ; 
title it is said, " Written in June, 1715." j 
Anson' s other reference to Swift is " Pre- ' 
face to the History of the last four years! 
of Queen Anne [xvi.], p. 38." The words | 
are " the conduct of those who are now j 
called prime ministers " (Edinb. edition, | 
1824, vol. v., p. 16). But Swift begins thej 
Preface by saying that it was written (as; 
the title implies) about 1713 : it was not 
published till 1758 (' D.N.B.'). 

The net result seems to be that the 
earliest year of which the term is used is 
1661 (Clarendon), that the earliest writer 
to employ it is Reresby in 1667, and that 
the earliest to recognize its coming into 
common use is Swift (1713). 

If anyone discovers a literary reference 
to the title earlier than 1661-7 it is greatly 
to be hoped that he will publish it. 

H. C N. 

PLAYER (12 S. x. 72, 113). There is a full 
account of this invention, with diagrams 
showing how the living player was con- 
cealed, in chap. vi. of Tomlinson's ' Chess,' 
published 1845. G. A. ANDERSON. 

I remember years ago reading an account of 
this automaton playing chess with Napoleon, 
who, to test its knowledge of the game, made 
three false moves. On the first occasion the 
figure replaced the piece wrongly moved 
and made, its own move ; on the second it 
removed .the offending piece from the board ; 
and on the third it swept off the pieces 
and refused to continue the game. I am 
sorry that I cannot recall the source of thi& 
amusing story, still less express any opinion 
as to its truth. I rather think but cannot 
be at all certain that it was in a magazine 
for boys in the mid-seventies. 

I certainly saw an automaton chess-player 
at the Crystal Palace a little before the date 
mentioned by your correspondent. It was 
a figure of a Turk sitting on a large ottoman, 
smoking a " hookah," the cord of which 
looked as if it might have been the means of 
electric communication. As far as I know 
the secret was never discovered. But one 
thing that I saw tended to support the 
" hidden director " theory. The figure 
nodded twice for " check " and three times 
for " mate." I saw it give check and nod 
twice. While its opponent was considering 
his move, a bystander remarked " It is- 
mate " as it was. The figure at once 
nodded a third time ! 


I thank your correspondents for interesting 
replies and gladly adopt L. L. K.'s correct 
spelling of the name. The B.M. catalogue 
does not advance the study of the subject, 
but two illuminating notes by C. Babbage 
occur in a copy of a French edition of No. 1 
of 'Inanimate Reason,' published at Basle 
" chez I'Editeur," 1783. 

March 6, 1819. I went this evening to Spring 
Gardens to see the automaton play chess. He won 
the game. The movement of his hand and arm 
is not elegant and not so good as many of Merlin's 
figures. The interior appears large enough for a 
boy and is lined with green baize. The man who 
exhibits it stands close to it, sometimes on one 
sometimes on the other side. Very near behind 
was a tent containing the figure of a trumpeter who 

Slayed two marches after the chess-player had 
nished. The automaton played very well and 
had a very excellent game in the opening. He 
gave check-mate by Phi liter's legacy. 

Feb. 12, -atdy, 1820. Played with the auto- 
maton in St. James Street. He gave pawn and 
the move. Automaton won in about an hour. 
He played very cautiously ^a trap door in the 
floor of the room was very evident just behind the 

These notes are written on pp. 1 and 3 of 
an inserted piece of paper, on p. 2 of which 
is recorded one o the games played.. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2S .x. FEB. 25,1922. 

presumably at the first date. A handbill of 
this exhibition at No. 4, Spring Gardens, 
advertises the automaton chess-player and 
" The Automaton Trumpeter of John Maelzel 
of Vienna." This handbill is c. 1819/20. 
Your correspondent MB. A. S. E. ACKEB- 
MANN can be assured that this is the 
earliest example ; its later replicas had a con- 
cealed boy or dwarf as skilled player and 
were not entirely automata as they professed 

THE ABMS OF LEEDS (12 S. ix. 507 ; x. 56. 
72, 115).' Although Leeds is honoured by 
having & Duke and a Lord Mayor, an 
esquire's helmet only adorns its coat of arms. 
The Kings-of-Arms have confirmed and 
assigned the supporters and crest as fol- 
lows : 

On a wreath of the colours or and, azure an owl 
proper as the same is in the margin hereof more 
plainly depicted. 

On either side, an owl proper crowned or, as the 
same are in the margin hereof also more plainly 
depicted, the whole to be borne and used for ever 
hereafter by the Lord Mayor, Aldermen and 
Citizens of the City of Leeds and their successors, 
in their corporate capacity, on seals, shields or 
otherwise, according to the Laws of Arms. 

The helm and shield are only depicted in 
the blazon in the margin. The silver S a vile 
owls have been changed to their natural 
colour and the Danby rowels have been 
changed to unpierced mullets, quite un- 
necessarily, and have lost their historic 

What are the laws of arms ? If the con- 
firmation and assignment are not in accor- 
dance with them, are they valid and effec- 
tual ? Would not the crest be more properly 
described as a badge ? 

The Yorkshire Weekly Post of Jan. 14 con- 
tains a photographic reproduction of the 
arms. . G. D. LUMB. 


96). I suggest that bidale or bidle is a 
modification of pightle. I have heard this 
word pronounced " piddle." Halliwell gives 
for it : "A small meadow ; any small enclosed 
piece of land." I have heard it suggested 
that its derivation is " pittike." A. D. T. 

THE " CHEVALIEB SCHAUB " (12 S. x. 110) 
with whom King Stanislaus stayed in 1754 
was probably Sir Luke Schaub, whose wife (a 
Frenchwoman) when saying with Lady 
'Cobham at the Mansion" House in Stoke 
Pogis in 1750 paid a call on the poet Gray, 
-which led to his writing the ' Long Story.' 

Mr. Tovey, in annotating the poem, says that 
Sir Luke Schaub is described by Cunning- 
ham as " a kind of Will Chiffinch (see Scott's 
' Peveril of the Peak,' passim] to George I. 
and much in the favour of George II. He 
had several pensions from both kings for 
confidential services abroad and at home." 
Mr. Tovey adds that Sir Luke died in 1758. 

KANGABOO COOKE (12 S. x. 94). BUR- 
DOCK omits the final " e " in his name. He 
was Major- General Henry Frederick Cooke, 
C.B. and K.C.H., commonly called " Kang- 
Cooke," and a portrait of him under that 
sobriquet is to be found in Dighton's carica- 
tures. About the year 1812 he was a Cap- 
tain and Lieut. -Colonel in the Coldstreams 
and A.D.C. to the Duke of York. Various 
rumours were in circulation as to the genesis 
of his nom de plume, Kangaroo. One was 
that he let loose a cageful of these animals 
at Pidcock's menagerie ; another, that on 
being asked by the Duke of York how he 
fared in the Peninsula, he replied that he 
could " get nothing to eat but kangaroo." 
He died at Harefield Park on March 10, 1837. 
He was the last surviving brother of Lieut. - 
General Sir George Cooke, K.C.B., who lost 
an arm at Waterloo, where he commanded a 

In some verses written by Lord Brskine to 
commemorate a dinner he gave at Oatlands, 
and his guests, on Dec. 31, 1812, he thus 
alludes to Cooke : 
Next to Lewis there sat, would you wish to know 

who ? 

I will tell you my worthy good friend Kangaroo. 
He who goes by a name by parents not given 
Depend on't 'tis one highly favoured by Heaven ; 
The friend whom we love we mould at our pleasure 
And count on his temper the best of all treasure ; 
Since in spite of the misanthrope's sullen pretence, 
Good nature is still the Companion of Sense. 
Thus take the world o'er, you will find very few 
Who have more of sound brains than this same 

Kangaroo ; 

And as for his person, his breeding, and taste, 
They speak for themselves so I pass on in haste. 


HEBALDIC MOTTOES (12 S. x. 110).- 
' Historic Devices, Badges and War-cries,' 
by the late Mrs. Bury Palliser (pub. Sampson 
Low, Fleet Street, 1870), which is fully 
illustrated, will meet with all your corre- 
spondent's requirements. 


Swallowfield Park, Reading. 

MB. SOULBY will find ' A Hand -Book of 
Mottoes,' by C. H. Elvin (1860), answers 

12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



liis query. This could be much enlarged 
were a new edition published. Another 
Jhelpful book is ' Dictionary of Foreign 
Phrases and Classical Quotations,' by H. P. 
Jones (1913). R. E. THOMAS. 

The following two books will be found 
useful: 'A Hand-Book of Mottoes,' by 
. N. Elvin, M.A. (Bell and Daldy, 1860) ; 
' Morals of Mottoes ' by Samuel B. James, 
M.A., Vicar of Northampton (Religious 
'Tract Society, n.d., but about 1874). 


'LA SANTA PARENTELA ' (12 S. x. 107). 
There are many mutually destructive 
legends relating to St. Anne ; but according 
to John Eck (1483-1543), professor in the 
University of Ingoldstadt, her first marriage 
was to St. Joachim, by whom she became 
mother of Our Lady ; her second to Cleophas, 
by whom she became mother of Mary 
Cleophae (wife of Alphaeus and mother of 
the Apostles James the Less, Simon and 
Jude, and of Joseph the Just) ; and the third 
to Salomas, to whom she bore Mary Salomae 
(wife of Zebedee and mother of the Apostles 
John and James the Greater). 

Others identify Alphaeus and Cleophas ; I 
Hegesippus says that Clopas was a ' 
brother of St. Joseph. Myself, and probably 
other correspondents to ' N. & Q.,' would 
be obliged if GENERAL LAMBARDE would give 
us a fuller account of his miniature and of the 
two pictures of the Flemish school in the 
Cologne Museum, of which Baedeker's 
* Rhine ' gives no notice. Baedeker does, 
however, cell attention to a triptych by the 
' Master of the Holy Relationship.' 

The various Biblical dictionaries do not 
help much. Some of the legends relating to 
St. Anne give the names of her father and 
mother, and also of St. Joachim's father and 
mother, but these vary. Probably, however, 
the grandparents of Our Lord were included 
La Santa Parentela.' 



Probably this was Chingwell, like Ching- 
ford, the g being changed to k, forming a 
better-known word, like " Inkpen," which 
-was no doubt ' ' Ingpen. ' ' In Domesday Book 
there are mentioned some 30 " Chings " 
or " Cings," besides various " Ings." 
Most of the " Ings " and " Chings," &c., 
were near Roman roads, and probably 
tribes or families settled at these places in 
Roman times. A. M. C. 

Your correspondent, in suggesting that 
Chinkwell may be "the same as Chigwell," 
may have remembered that Chingford 
is within three or four miles of the 
latter. And whet about Chignall St. James 
and Chignall Smealy and Chignal Hall 
(the variation of spelling is Bartholomew's), 
six or seven miles north-west, of Chehruford ? 

My people have a "breeches Bible," with 
many entries of Chignells (who occasionally 
spelt themselves with a "w") who were 
born and married and buried in end ebout 
Colchester between three and two hundred 
years ago. They were Huguenots, and my 
old father in, ists that they came from 
Chuignolles, a little way south of Bray (but 
I half suspect he invented this while dili- 
gently studying the map round about Albert 
while the war was on !). 

These similarities may not help to solve 
the query about Chinkwell, or deserve 
further discussion in your columns ; but if 
any of your correspondents can tell me more 
about any of these names I shall be grateful 
if I may hear from them. 


Charterhouse, Hull, E. Yorks. 

SAMUEL HABTLIB (12 S. x. 110). The 
latest and fullest account is found in Dr. 
TurnbulTs pamphlet ' Samuel Hartlib ' (Ox- 
ford, 1920). From this we learn that 1628 
was probably the year of Hartlib's arrival 
in England. A letter dated Sept. 1 of that 
year is addressed to him at "a merchant 
neere Dukes place [Aldgate] in London " ; 
another dated Dec. 13 "at his lodginge in 
Christchurch lane." He was married at 
St. Dionis Backchurch on Jan. 20, 1629 
(n.s.), and a letter dated May 1 (presumably 
1629) is addressed to him " at Dalston neere 
Kingsland " (pp. 7, 8) : 

When he left this house is not certain, but it 
seems that he was settled in a house in Duke's 
Place, London, as early as June 18th, 1638. 
The date of his removal to " Charing Cross, over 
against Angel Court," is also uncertain, but he 
was already there on May 2nd, 1651. Thence be 
removed to a house in Axe Yard, Westminster, 
apparently in 1658, for a letter to Boyle of 
December 16th of that year mentions his new 
house, and subsequent letters bear the address 
" Axe-yard." Here he remained in all probability 
until his death in 1662 (p. 42). 

Hartlib died on Monday, March 10, and 
was buried at the church of St. Martin-in- 
the-Fields (p. 72). DAVID SALMON. 


MB. LAURANCE M. WULCKO would find a 
good deal of information about Hartlib in Mr. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [i 2 s.x.F E B. 2 5,i922. 

Donald McDonald's fine book, ' Agricultural 
Writers from Sir Walter of Henley to Artjiur 
Young ' (published in 1908 at the offices of 
The Field, Windsor House, Bream's Build- 
ings, E.G. 4). Mr. McDonald studies his 
works rather than his life history, but a 
certain amount of biographical detail 
emerges, as also the fact that ' ' ' A Bio- 
graphical Memoir of Samuel Hart lib,' 
written by Mr. Henry Dircks of Blackheath, 
was published in London by Russell Smith " 
in 1865. Apparently, however, neither the 
place nor date of Hartlib's death is known. 
St. Michaels, Eynsham, Oxon. 

MRS. GOBDON, NOVELIST (12 S. vi. 38, 
93). Some light is thrown on the puzzling 
identity of this lady by the dedication of 
' Castles near Kreuznach,' written by Janet 
Robertson, and published by Williams and 
Norgate, 1856: 

To Mrs. Gordon, author of ' King's Connell,' 
&c., to whom these sketches were originally, 
addressed, this little work, in which they are 
collected, is inscribed by her attached relative, 
the author. 

Miss Robertson wrote ' Affinities of 
Foreigners' in 1850 and ' Lights and Shades 
on a Traveller's Path ' in 1851. Some 
reader may be able to identify her. 


37, Bedford Square, W.C. 

109.) Nicholson's father was a Dublin physi- 
cian of note, who at the time of his son's 
birth, December, 1821, lived in Moore Street, 
Dublin. When the father died in 1829 the 
widow and her children went to reside in 
Lisburn. It is somewhere stated that John 
Nicholson was born at Vergemount in the 
parish of Donnybrook. I am interested in 
old Donnybrook worthies and should be 
obliged for any information. - 

Unfortunately the Parish Register for that 
period has been missing for half a century. 

St. Mary's, Donnybrook. 

EWEN : COAT OF ARMS (12 S. x. 94). 
MR. C. L. EWEN may be interested to 
know that though Herne, Essex, is appa- 
rently too small to appear even in the ' Post 
Office Guide,' it is mentioned in Sir Henry 
Spelman's ' Villare Anglicum,' 2nd ed., 
1678, " Hern, Essex, Barnstable h[un- 
dred]," and in Stephen Whatley's ' Eng- 
land's Gazetteer,' vol. iii., 1751, " Herne, 
Essex, late Sir J. Tyrrel's seat, near Billeri- 
*cay." The manor of Billericay had been 

sold to this family by Edward VI. Mr. 
Ewen is advised to communicate with the 
vicar of Billericay with regard to Herne 
church and any souvenirs there may still 
remain of the Ewen family and arms. 


94). " Cum tacent, clamant " is from 
Cicero's First Speech against Catiline, 8, 2L 

In the line which is apparently quoted from 
Farnaby's ' Index Rhetoricus ' Bombalio 
should be Bambalio ( = Stutterer ; cf. the 
Greek /3a/z/3aXeti/), the name given 
" propter haesitantiam linguae stuporemque 
cordis " (Cicero, ' Phil.' iii. 6, 16) to the- 
M. Fulvius whose daughter was the wife of 
Clodius and afterwards of Mark Antony. 
The line seems to have been constructed 
by a grammarian to display words of 
onomatopoetic origin. Pope's couplet, 
offered as an English equivalent in sound in 
later editions of The Tatler, is taken from his 
Imitation of the First Satire of Horace's 
Second Book, lines 25, 26. 


THOMAS EDWARDS, LL.D. (12 S. ix. 511 ; 
x. 16). Although I have been unable to give 
the place and the exact date of this person's 
birth, I find that he was brought from 
Parsons Green to Ellesborough, Bucks, to be 
interred. On the south side of Ellesborough 
churchyard is a large stone slab, upwards of 
two yards in length and about one in width, 
close to the south porch, which has on it the 
following inscription : 

Under this stone are deposited | the Remains 
of Thomas Edwards Esquire | of Turrick in this 
Parish | where he spent the last XVII years | of 
a studious and usefull life. | He was sincere and 
constant in the Profession | and Practice of 
Christianity | without Narrowness or Super- 
stition, | steadily attached to the cause of Liberty, f 
nor less an enemy | to Licentiousness and Fac- 
tion ; | in his Poetry simple, elegant, pathetic ; | 
in his Criticism exact, acute, temperate ; | affec- 
tionate to his Relations, | cordial to his Friends, [ 
in the general Commerce of life obliging and 
entertaining, j He bore a tedious and painfull 
distemper | with a Patience, which could only 
arise | from a habit of Virtue and Piety ; | and 
quitted this life | with the decent unconcern of 
one | whose hopes are firmly fixed on a better. [ 
He dyd on the III of lanuary MDCCLVII aged 
LVIII | and this stone is inscribed to his memory, I 
with the truest concern and gratitude, | by his 
two Nephews and Heirs, | Nathanael Mason and 
loseph Paice. | 

The * D.N.B.' states that both his father 
and grandfather were barristers. 



12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 



MANGLES (12 S. ix. 354). On Sept. 14, 
1789, the Rev. George Mangles was ap- 
pointed one of the Chaplains -in -Ordinary 
to his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. 
He may have been the father of one of the 
boys referred to as having been admitted 
to Westminster School in 1787 and 1810 


39, Carlisle Road, Hove, Sussex. 

AUTHORS WANTED (12 S. x. ill). 3. My copy 
of the lines beginning " What silences we keep 
year after year" was cut out of a newspaper 
about 20 years ago. There is no author's name 
attached. The title is ' Too Late ! ' and in the 
tenth line the word is " loneliness." There are 
also other six lines : 
" This is the cruel cross of life to be 
Full visioned only when the ministry 
Of death has been fulfilled, and in the place 
Of some dear presence is but empty space. 
What recollected services can then 
Give consolation for the ' might have been ' ? " 

Ha wick. 

(12 S. x. 94.) 

The late Sister Xavier (of the Convent, Liver- 
pool ?) was the author of ' Just for to-day,' 
the correct version of which will be found in 
the * Westminster Hymnal ' and other collec- 
tions of Catholic hymns. Other versions have 
been adapted by other denominations, who have, 
in some cases, taken great liberties with the 
hymn altering the teaching and missing out 
the verses dealing with purgatory, supreme 
unction and sacramental teaching. 


Grove House, Norton-on-Tees. 

JSote* on JSoofe*. 

The Grey Friars of Chester. By J. H. E. Bennett. 

From the Chester Archaeological Society's 


THE Grey Friars came to Chester in the reign of 
Henry III. The Black Friars had preceded them 
and seem to have seen their arrival with un- 
favourable eyes. Alexander de Stavensby, bishop 
of Coventry and Licb field, to whose diocese 
Chester then belonged, received from Robert 
Grosseteste, always the friend of Franciscans, a 
letter of remonstrance and appeal on their behalf, 
which yet remains to us. In 1240 Henry sent an 
injunction to the " Custodes " of Chester to be 
serviceable to the Friars Minors in the building 
of a house in Chester, and from that date their 
permanent establishment in the city was assured. 
Three grants in the years 1245 and 1246 show us 
that the settlement was not yet complete : they 
wanted the removal of a lane which disturbed 
their peace ; and stone from the fosse of Chester 
Castle for their building, and a door pierced for 
them in Chester wall to enable them the more 

conveniently to bring in stone and wood. The 
site allotted to them was close under the city wall 
by the Water Gate, north of Watergate Street, 
and west of Linen Hall Street. For three hundred 
years they lived there, and departed at the Disso- 
lution, leaving little trace behind them. What 
we know of their history is very largely comprised 
in the record of gifts and bequests made to them. 
In 1331 the King gave them permission to grind 
their own corn and malt. In 1 392 two of the friars 
were imprisoned for having too briskly taken 
possession of gold and silver goods, probably left 
them as a legacy, when the testator's estate was 
indebted to the Crown. Richard II. pardoned 
them. The Franciscans, it may be noted, were 
staunch friends to Richard. Later on, they 
took the Yorkist side. When the Dissolution came 
this Chester house was in no very flourishing 
state. But seven brethren were dwelling there 
and the plea of poverty, with which the surrender 
of a religious house was usually bound up, came 
here not very far from the truth, as may be seen 
by the inventory of their goods. William Wall, 
the Warden, who took his degree of Doctor of 
Divinity at Oxford in 1516 or 1518, had an 
interesting but not wholly admirable career 
after his expulsion from the convent. He became 
a prebendary of Chester Cathedral, and conformed 
and reconformed as religion in England changed. 
Just before the Dissolution he had been active 
in building a conduit at Boughton for conveying 
water from the springs in that neighbourhood to 
the city. When the Grey Friars were gone the 
site and the buildings they had occupied were 
delivered to one Richard Hough, a connexion 
of Cromwell's, and from him they passed succes- 
sively into the hands of Cocks, Dutton, War- 
burton and Stanley. The church was transformed 
into dwelling-houses. Towards the end of the 
eighteenth century a body of Irish linen mer- 
chants acquired the property and erected their 
Linen Hall upon it. 

A few relics, mostly in the shape of tiles and 
grotesque carvings, yet remain, together with 
an impression of the conventual seal attached 
to a deed granting part of the friary church to 
merchants and sailors of the city. Excavations 
have brought to light some part of the founda- 
tions of the church and other buildings : while 
the inventory taken at the Dissolution and a 
deposition taken in a dispute as to the right to 
bear certain arms supply some details as to the 

Mr. Bennett has collected and arranged his 
material with admirable care and skill. He has 
neglected no line of research, and puts his readers 
into complete possession of what he has found. 
The record is somewhat meagre, nor does it present 
unusual features : but it has its rightful place in 
the history of English Church life and, thanks 
to this monograph, fills that place in some suffi- 
cient clearness and relief. The undistinguished 
constitutes the most important part of history 
after all. 

A New English Dictionary on Historical Prin- 
ciples. Vol. x. (TI. Z) X ZYXT. By C. T. 
Onions. (Clarendon Press. 10s. net.) 
ALTHOUGH the Great Dictionary still lacks a few 
sections belonging to the later letters of the 
alphabet, the final section is now before us. It is 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.x.F BB .25,i922. 

difficult, looking at these pages, to refrain from 
a repetition of what has so often been said before 
and it will fall to be said again when, in fact, the 
work is complete about the magnitude of this 
undertaking and the varied merit of the achieve- 
ment. Perhaps it would hardly be rash to say 
that there has never been any one enterprise to 
which so vast a number of human beings has 
contributed that is, if we except the Great War. 
More than a thousand years speak to us from its 
columns, and so many decades have passed since 
the first volumes were published decades fairly 
rich in newly developed vocabulary that the 
question of supplements already arouses interest. 

The last word of the Dictionary is zyxt, an 
obsolete Kentish form for " seeest." The letter 
Z comprises a most interesting and varied voca- 
bulary drawn from many sources Greek (both 
directly and through the Latin), the Romance 
languages, Semitic languages, modern German, 
Slavonic, African and some others. The first 
use of zero to denote the point or line on a 
graduated scale whence the reckoning begins 
is referred to 1795 ; the military zero-hour 
denoting the hour at which an operation is timed 
to begin seems to be a mid-war invention : the 
expressions zero-mark and zero-post are illustrated 
by quotations, from The Times and The Daily 
Chronicle respectively, which appeared within 
eight days of one another and relate to the same 
subject Tyburn-gate. Are the words to be 
considered as established terms for the mark 
from which distances along a road are measured ? 
Zest has furnished a delightful article. The 
original meaning, according to Cotgrave, is 
" the thicke skin, or filme whereby the kernell of I 
a wall-nut is divided," and, with this, orange or ! 
lemon peel. All the instances of this first sense 
refer to lemons or oranges, and belong chiefly to 
the eighteenth century. It is interesting to find 
a modern writer, after a gap of over a hundred 
years, reviving the word and speaking of the 
" zest " of oranges. Under Zeuxis, the well-known 
story should surely have furnished one of the 
quotations. Zoological appears first in 1815 ; and 
the gardens of the society of that name in Regent's 
Park were first known colloquially as " the Zoo- 
logical " ; the first example of " the Zoo " is taken 
from Macaulay (1847). The words derived from 
o>irj and $ov, and the history and literature 
gathered, let us say, about Zamzummim, zecchin, 
zenith, Zeppelin, Zend-avesta, zephyr, zone, are more 
than enough to rebut Kent's hasty reproach to 
zed as being an " unnecessary letter." 

Y is not a letter which would stand high in a 
table of frequency, yet it comprises a goodly 
number of delightful old words still in ordinary 
use largely monosyllabic picturesque words be- 
longing to primary things and actions and onoma- 
topoeic words. The great mass of these is English, 
and with them must be taken the numerous com- 
pounds formed with the prefix y-, a great number 
of which have here been included among the 
main entries without perhaps quite sufficient 
reason. The articles on y- prefix and -y suffix 
are of the highest interest and excellently worked 
out. In fact the whole of this letter, which both 
in etymology and history presents material of a 
specially engaging character, has been dealt with 
as it deserves and may take rank with the best 
work in the Dictionary. As examples and these 

are taken at random from a larger number, other 
members of which would have served equally well 
we may mention ye, you, and your ; yield (was the 
classic example purposely omitted ?) ; yesterday ; 
yoke ; and yellow. 

The letter X calls for little comment. We 
should, though, have supposed that Xantippe was 
quite as generally familiar as xylonite. 

A Manual of French. By H. J. Chaytor. (Cam- 
bridge University Press. 4s. net.) 
WE have often thought that the hesitating be- 
ginner undergoes much unnecessary trepidation 
and sense of difficulty in acquiring a language ; 
and that this arises largely from his being occupied 
with learning grammar before he can read with 
any comfort. Generalizations in an absence of 
particulars elude the struggling memory as a 
wraith, visible to the eye, eludes the hand. Mr. 
Chaytor recognizes this. He has reduced grammar 
to a minimum ; but to a sufficient minimum ; and 
he makes the main body of his work out of extracts 
for translation, to which the English is supplied 
interlineally or at the bottom of the page 
except for a few passages at the end. The ex- 
tracts are striking passages from great writers 
some thirty of them each for its own sake w r ell 
worth thoroughly knowing. A few notes, ad- 
mirably brief, clear and well chosen, elucidate 
occasional peculiarities or difficulties. It is 
possible here and there to pick a hole in the trans- 
lation but only here and there. In general it 
gives the force of the French even surprisingly 
well considering that it is intended to be in some 
degree literal even in the more advanced pieces. 
Any one who has thoroughly mastered this book 
(and it is addressed to the beginner who knows 
nothing at all of French) will have won for himself 
a solid grasp of real French, and that by means of 
exceedingly pleasurable study. 

J?ottces to Corretfponfcenfcl 

EDITORIAL communications should be addressed 
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12 S. X. FEB. 25, 1922.] 


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LONDON, MARCH 4. 1922. 

CONTENTS. No. 203. 

NOTES : Josuah Sylvester and Southampton, 161 Casanova 
in England, 163 Principal London Coffee-houses. Taverns 
and Inns in the Eighteenth Century. 164 The Crown Inn, 
Shipton-under-Wychwood. Oxon Early Domestic Use of 
Electric Light John KendaE, 166 Emerson and Dr. John- 
son St. Dunstan'a, Regents Park, 167. 

QUERIES : Temporary Fords : " Sand " " Sowmoys." 167 
The " Hand and Pen " Nicholas Billiard " The ball 
and mouth " " The Parler within the Manor Place" " Self- 
Help " Addi son's ' Spectator ' Henry Siddons Francis 
Redfern Refusal to kotow Cadby. 168 Nigger Minstrelsy 
' The Marrying Man ' Col. Gordon, RE., in the Crimea 
" Eucephus " as a Christian Name W. G. A. Fltzbarding 
Descendants of Richard Penderell Historical Copper-plates 
The Expression " Up to," 169 Colonel Montresor of 
Belmont. Co. Kent Use of " at " or " in " with Place- 
names' The Compleat Collier 'Devonshire MSS. Bretel 
Epitaph in Tetbury Church. Glos. 1.000 in 1653 : 
Present-day Equivalent Author wanted. 170. 

REPLIES : De Kempelen's Automaton Chess-player, 170 
The English " h " : Celtic. Latin, and German Influences 
Erghum, 172 Inference as to Date of Birth General 
Nicholson's Birthplace Pseudo-titles for " Dummy " 
Books, 173 " Anglica [or Rustical gens " " Satan reproving 
Sin" House Bells, 174 The Pillow (Pilau) Club Com- 
monwealth Marriages and Burials Edward Capern The 
Royal Society and Freemasonry Pictures in the Hermitage 
at Petrograd. 175 Eighteenth- century Poets. 176 ' The 
Ingoldsby Legends.' 177 Naming of Public Rooms in Inns 
Nevin Family British Settlers in America Poem of the 
Sixties wanted. 178. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' Alumni Cantabrigienses ' ' Measure 
for Measure.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 


THE poet Josuah Sylvester (1563-1618), 
translator of Du Bartas's 'Deuine Wc-ekes 
and Workes,' and towards the end of his 
life one of the most popular poets of the 
day, was the son of Robert Sylvester, a 
clothier, who had married a daughter of 
John Plumbe of Eltham, in Kent. After 
the death of both his parents in his early 
childhood, Josuah was brought up by his 
mother's brother, William Plumbe, who 
also lived at Eltham. He was sent to the 
Free Grammar School of King Edward VI. 
at Southampton, of which the headmaster 
was at that time the distinguished scholar 
Adrian a Saravia, afterwards Prebendary 
of Canterbury and Westminster, and one 
of the translators of the authorized version 
of the Bible. Two references to his school- 
days under Saravia occur in Sylvester's 
works, one in the ' Funerall Elegie ' on the 

death of Mistress Margarite Hill (wife of 
Dr. Robert Hill and previously wife of 
Saravia), and the other in the later dedica- 
tion (to the Earl of Southampton) of the 
' Memorials of Mortalitie.' 

Most of these facts are stated in the 
' D.N.B.,' and also in Dr. Grosart's in- 
troductory memoir prefixed to his col- 
lected edition of Sylvester's works. They 
suggest a question to which they supply 
no answer why was the boy sent from 
Eltham to the Southampton school,? In 
my efforts to recall attention to the famous 
old boys of King Edward's School, South- 
ampton, of which I am headmaster, certain 
facts have come to light which furnish 
an explanation, and moreover are in- 
teresting as being concerned with persons 
referred to in the poems. I think that they 
are of sufficient importance to be preserved. 

William Plumbe died in 1593, and his 
will makes mention of his " good brother 
and freind M r James Parkynson." This 
cannot mean that Parkynson was a brother 
of William Plumbe's wife, for it is known 
that Plumbe married first Margaret South- 
well, widow of Sir Robert Southwell and 
daughter of Sir Thomas Nevil, and secondly 
Elizabeth Gresham, widow of John Gresham 
and daughter of Edward Dormer. Parkyn- 
son must therefore have married a sister 
of William Plumbe. 

In the latter part of the sixteenth century 
a Captain James Parkinson was Constable 
of the Castle of Southampton, and Captain 
of Calshot Castle. In the circumstances it 
would not be very rash to surmise that he 
was the James Parkinson who had married 
Miss Plumbe ; as we shall see, there are 
other pieces of evidence which place the 
matter beyond reasonable doubt. 

Though Josuah Sylvester dedicated most 
of his later poems to royal or noble patrons 
(or such as he hoped would become so), this 
was not the case with the earlier ones. His 
first poem was published in 1590-1, and in 
1592 he dedicated ' The Triumph of Faith ' 
to his uncle, W T illiam Plumbe. Mr. Plumbe 
died a few months later, and a subsequent 
edition of the poem bore an inscription 
stating that ft was " formerlie dedicated 
and now for ouer consecrated to the grate - 
full Memorie of the first kinde Fosterer of 
our tender Muses, my never-sufficiently- 
Honoured dear Uncle, W. Plumbe, Esq." 
Another well-known instance of his dedi- 
cations to relatives or connexions is the 
much later case of ' Auto-Machia,' which 



[12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922. 

was dedicated first to one and afterwards to 
another member of the Nevil family (to 
which the first Mrs. Plumbe belonged). 
But I do not think it has been observed 
that the earliest poem of all is another 
case of the same kind. The translation of 
Du Bartas's * Yvry ' (1590-1) was dedicated 
to " Maister James Parkinson and Maister 
John Caplin, Esquires, his well-beloved 
friends," and the former of these was, as we 
have seen, the poet's uncle. 

Now in this dedication Parkinson is 
associated with John Caplin, and the 
Capelins were one of the most prominent 
families in Southampton at this time. 
A John Capelin had been Mayor of South- 
ampton at the time King Edward VI. 
School was founded in 1553, and ten years 
later he was burgess of Parliament for the 
borough. He died in 1570, and his son, also 
called John Capelin, was admitted a burgess 
of the town in the same year. It must have 
been this younger John Capelin with whom 
James Parkinson was associated in the 
dedication of Sylvester's first published 

We can hardly stop at this point. If 
Sylvester dedicated any early poems to 
relatives, the first of all was scarcely likely 
to have been an exception. And if the first 
was dedicated to two men, of about the 
same age, of whom one, as we now know, 
was an uncle of the poet, it is very probable 
that the other was an uncle also. Other- 
wise, one imagines that his uncle Parkinson 
would have had the dedication to himself. 
Thus the association of the two names not 
only makes it impossible to doubt the identity 
of the James Parkynson of William Plumbe's 
will with the James Parkinson of South- 
ampton, but it further suggests the likeli- 
hood of John Capelin's wife having been 
another of the daughters of "John Plumbe. 
If that were so, we should have the fol- 
lowing tree : 

John Plumbe 


William a daughter a daughter a daughter 
Plumbe m. Bobert m. Capt. m. John 

Sylvester James Capelin 

| Parkinson 


The conjecture relating to John Capelin 
still waits to be confirmed. In the mean- 
time we have shown that the poet had at 
least one uncle living in Southampton, even 
if he had not two. 

It may be worth while to give a few more 

particulars which the study of the South- 
ampton records has elicited. In 1643 a 
Captain John Parkinson died by his own 
hand, and in consequence his estates became 
forfeit to the mayor and burgesses. Papers 
relating to the matter are preserved among 
the town muniments. One of them, ' Henry 
Capelin's Release to Mr. Parkinson of free 
Land and Garden,' is interesting as bringing 
together again the two names of Sylvester's 
dedication. It is dated Dec. 30, 1613, 
and in it John Parkinson is described as 
" brother and heir of James Parkinson gent 
deceased." Taking account of all the dates, 
it would seem that the two brothers John 
and James were sons of that James Par- 
kinson who married Miss Plumbe, and so 
were first cousins of Josuah Sylvester. A 
reference in another document to a sum of 
money " lent by M r Jo n Parkinson for 
y e payment of y e garrisson repayed . . . 
oute of y e Excise Office," suggests that the 
connexion with the Castle of Southampton 
had been .maintained. Among the many 
bonds forfeited to the corporation there 
are almost as many drawn in favour of 
Bridgett Parkinson as of John, so that 
Bridgett must have been his wife, though I 
found no document in which she was so 
described. She was evidently possessed 
of considerable property, and this agrees 
with the fact that in 1635 a certain Bridget 
Parkinson gave twenty pounds to the town 
of Southampton for the annual benefit of 
the poor, a gift- which was afterwards 
transferred to King Edward VI. School. 

I add a note on the two Nevils to whom 
Sylvester dedicated his ' Auto-Machia,' for 
it appears to me that the ' D.N.B.' is 
mistaken on one point. The dictionary 
states that the poem was first dedicated 
to Lady Mary Nevil, and afterwards to 
her sister Lady Cecily. I think that Cecily 
was the daughter, not the sister, of Mary. 
The dedications are as follows : 

In 1607, "To the right noble, vertuous 
and learned lady, the Lady Marie Nevil." 

In 1615, "To the truely-honorable Mistris 
Cecilie Nevil." 

The writer in the ' D.N.B.' appears to 
have misquoted the title in the second 
case ; and it is obvious that the descrip- 
tion Mistris Cecilie is not in favour of the 
sister -relationship, for Lady Mary Nevil 
was a daughter of the Earl of Dorset. 
On the other hand, a piece of positive 
evidence for the daughter -relationship arises 
out of Sylvester's inveterate habit of con- 

12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.] 



structing anagrams on the names of those 
to whom his poems were dedicated. The 
later dedication includes a eulogistic sonnet 
on the virtues of Cecilie Nevil, describing 
her as the richly endowed daughter of 
Minerva ; and the significance of the de- 
scription consists in the fact that in the 
earlier dedication Alia Minerva had been 
the anagram on the name Maria Nevila. 



(8 S. x. 171, 311 ; xi. 42, 24210 S. viii. 443, 
491 ;ix. 116;xi. 437 HS.ii. 386;iii.242; 
iv. 382, 461 ; v. 123, 48412 S. i. 121, 185, 
285, 467 ; ii. 505.) 

AMONG his English acquaintances Casanova 
speaks of "le chevalier Edgard, jeune Anglais, 
riche, et qui jouissait de la vie en caressant 
ses passions. J'avais fait sa connaissanco 
chez lord Pembroke" (Garnier ed., vi. 539). 
Other editions of the 'Memoires' (e.g., 
Laforgue's) describe him as Sir Edgar 
Each variation presents difficulties. The 

title of Sir Edgar , at this period, is 

an unfamiliar one, and the name Edgard is 

Herr Gustav Gugitz of Vienna, the editor- 
in-chief of the forthcoming edition of 
Casanova's ' Memoires ' basing his assump- 
tion on a letter formerly preserved in Count 
Walstein's library at Dux in Bohemia, written 
to Casanova while in England, dated Dec. 1, 
1763, and signed " W. E. Agar 
suggests that the previously unidentified 
Edgard or Sir Edgar is the writer of this 
letter. Unfortunately the letter itself con- 
tains no clue and I have not been able to 
obtain a facsimile. 

The most prominent W. E. Agar of the 
period was Welbore Ellis Agar, who was 
twenty-eight years old at the time of 
Casanova's visit to London. He was the 
son of Henry Agar, M.P., and Anne, only 
daughter of the Right Rev. Welbore Ellis, 
Bishop of Meath ; born in 1735 ; married 
October, 1762, Gertrude, daughter of Sir 
Charles Hotham, Bart, (who died at Margate, 
aged 50, on Aug. 14, 1780) ; appointed one 
of the Commissioners of the Customs in 
December, 1776 ; and died at his house in New 
Norfolk Street, aged 69, on Oct. 30, 1805. 
He was brother to the first Viscount Clifden. 

In 'The Hothams,' by Mrs. A. M. W. 
Sterling, ii. 333-4, it is stated that his 
marriage was an unhappy one. 

Until there is an opportunity of com- 

paring his handwriting with that of Casa- 
nova's correspondent of Dec. 1, 1763,itcannot 
be determined that they are identical, and 
even then there is no direct evidence to 
connect Edgard with Agar, but it is not im- 
probable that they were one and the same 

The " Canon," where Casanova dined (Gar- 
nier, vi. 540-41 ; vii. 60) appears to have been 
the famous Cannon Coffee-house in Cockspur 
Street, Charing Cross, the site of which is 
now occupied by the Union Club at the south- 
west corner of Trafalgar Square. In 1763 
it was owned by Patrick Cannon, and after 
his death in 1765 was carried on by his 
widow, Susannah Cannon. It was rated at 
48. In 1815 it was owned by one Hodges 
(vide ' Story of Charing Cross,' by J. Holden 
Carmichael, and the Westminster Rate 

The Star Tavern (Garnier, vi. 377, 
383) to which I have already referred at 
12 S. i. 122, may possibly have been the Star 
in the Strand, near Charing Cross, which is 
mentioned in MB. J. PAUL DE CASTRO'S ' List 
of London Coffee-houses and Taverns,' at 
12 S. ix. 525. Casanova, who patronized the 
Orange and the Cannon, which were close at 
hand, was familiar with this part of the town. 

Casanova says that Lady Harrington in- 
troduced him to her four daughters (Garnier, 
vi. 364). She had five daughters, but we 
cannot complain of Casanova's inaccuracy 
in this instance, as the youngest, Lady Anna 
Stanhope, afterwards Duchess of New- 
castle, was only three years old in 1763, and 
therefore it is quite probable that he did not 
see her. 

It is obvious that the story of the riot at 
Drury Lane Theatre (Garnier, vi. 369 ; cf. 
' N. & Q.,' 12 S. i. 185) and the story of the 
wager at White's Club (Garnier, vi. 461 ; 
cf. ' N. & Q.,' 11 S. iv. 383) were both related 
to Casanova by one of his friends, and that he 
repeated them in his ' Memoires ' as if he 
had actually been an eyewitness of the 

The file of The St. James's Chronicle for 
the year 1763 at the British Museum is 
complete, but although I have searched it 
twice I cannot discover any of the para- 
graphs which Casanova says appeared in 
this newspaper. 

" La pension ... a Harwich " 
(obviously a misprint for Hammersmith) 
where Sophie Cornelys was educated (Garnier, 
vi 474) consisted of three houses in the Broad- 
way, ' Hammersmith, yclept at the period 



[12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922. 

*' the rat-trap," and was conducted by the 
Sisters of the Institute of Mary. In 1763 
the Reverend Mother ("la directrice," vide 
Garnier, vi. 474) was Frances Gentil. Un- 
fortunately the list of pupils does not 
appear to have been preserved in the Catholic 
archives, but Casanova is corroborated by 
John Tay lor (vide ' Records of My Life,' i. 267), 
who states that Sophie Cornelys was placed 
in " a Roman Catholic seminary at Hammer- 

Casanova speaks of visiting a " laby- 
rinthe " in Richmond Park (Garnier, vi. 528). 
Probably this was the " labyrinth full of 
intricate mazes " which Queen Caroline, 
wife of George II., had constructed in the 
gardens of Richmond Lodge around a Gothic 
building called Merlin's Cave. 

" M. Leigh," banker, mentioned in Garnier, 
vii. 63, may have been Mr. Lee, a member 
of the firm of Brassy, Lee and Co., Lombard 



(See 12 S. vi. and vii. passim; ix. 85, 105, 143, 186, 226, 286, 306, 385, 426, 504, 525; 

x. 26, 66, 102.) 

(An asterisk denotes that the house still exists as a tavern, inn or public-house 
in many cases rebuilt.) 

Waghorn's . 


Welch Head 

Well and Beckett 
Welsh Trooper 

Pope's Head Alley, Cornhill 



Dyott Street, St. Giles . . 

Bethnal Green Road 
Hammersmith . 

Wenman's Punch- Near the Royal Exchange 


West India . . 

Behind Royal Exchange 
Fleet Market 

Wheatsheaf . 
Wheatsheaf . 
White Bear . 

Drury Lane .. ^H.... 
Upper Tooting 
Oxford Street 
Basinghall Street, east side 

White Bear 

*White Bear 

White Bear and 

Bear Garden, South wark 

New End, Hampstead . . 
The Mall, Chiswick .. 

1720 Daily Courant, July 8. 

1774 Dartmouth MSS., 1887, i. 372. 

Report of House of Lords MSS., 

1908, vol. iv. 
1782 * Lives of the British Physicians,' 

1830, p. 182. 
1711 Post Bag, Feb. 24. Proposals for 

the Joynt Adventure in the 

1,500,000 Lottery. 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Larwood, p. 8. 

Named after Saunders Welch, the 
High Constable of Holborn, and 
later a Justice of the Peace. 

Larwood, p. 374. 

1745 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
Also known as The Welsh Goat. 

1744 London Daily Post, Jan. 4. 

1749 General Advertiser, July 19. 

1776 J. T. Smith's 'Book for a Rainy 

Day,' 1905, p. 69. 

1789 'Life's Painter of Variegated 

London Museum : sketch by J. T. 

Wilson (A22048). 
1789 ' Life's Painter of Variegated 

1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London 


1708 ' A New View of London,' i. 5. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of 

London,' p. 383. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1799 Harwood's ' Map of London.' 
Harben, p. 58. 

London Museum : pewter tankards 

(A 2747 and 2751). 
Kept by Richard King and after- 
wards by Thomas Ward. 

1704 Baines's ' Hampstead,' p. 233. 

1766 Hampstead and Highgate Express, 
Oct. 9, 1920. 

Thornbury, vi. 557. 

12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.] 



White's Alley Eating 

White Hart. . 

"White Hart 

White Hart.. 
White Hart 
White Hart.. 
*White Hart 

White Hart 

White Hart 
White Hart . . 
White Hart . . 

White Hart.. 

White Hart Ale- 

White Hart and 
Three Tobacco 

White Horse 

White Horse 

White Horse 

White Horse 
White Horse 

White Horse 

White Horse 
White Horse 

White Horse 
* White Horse 

White Horse 

White Horse 
White Horse 

Chancery Lane 

Little Eastcheap, north side . . 

Abchurch Lane 

Foster Lane, Cheapside 
Without Cripplegate 
Butcher-hall Lane 
Corner of Warwick Court, 

St. John's Street, by Hick's Hall 

Warwick Street, Charing Cross 
Kennington Lane 
Newington Butts 

High Street, Hampstead 
Giltspur Street, Smithfield 

Whitechapel, south side, between 
Somerset Street and the 
White Swan 

Opposite Globe Lane, Mile End 

Whitechapel, west of Church 
Lane and north of Colchester 

London Wall, south side, oppo- 
site entrance to Bethlem 

Wood Street, east side, north 
of the " Castle " 

Coleman Street, west side 

Friday Street, west side, south 
of Watling Street 


leet Street 

Fleet Market, upper end, east 

Fetter Lane, at rear of Barnard's 
Inn (Law) 

Holborn Bars 

King Street, Golden Square 
Oxford Street, between Angel 
Hill and Great Chapel Street 

'Memoirs of Sir Thomas de Veil,' 

1748, p. 54. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of 

London,' p. 22. 
1738 Chevallier Correspondence, 'X.& Q.,' 

March 5, 1921, p. 196. 

Levander, A. Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1720 Daily Courant, Dec. 30. 

1780 London Evening Post, Sept. 1 2. 

1744 General Advertiser, April 9. 

1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London Sur- 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 391. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1708 ' A New View of London,' i. 301. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1756 Copy of the Court Rolls of the Manor. 

Demolished 1820.. 

1744 London Daily Post, Jan. 7. 

1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 
p. 393. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1745 Rocque's 'Survey.' 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 

1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London 

Survey 'd.' 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1799 Harwood's ' Map of London.' 
1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London 

Survey 'd.' 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London 

Survey 'd.' 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 382. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1799 Harwood's ' Map of London.' 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 382. 

1745 Rocque's 'Survey' (White Hart). 
1752 ' London Topographical Record,' 

1907, iv. 41. 
1677 Ogilvy and Morgan's ' London 

Survey 'd.' 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 382. 
1745 Chevallier Correspondence, ' N. & Q.,' 

March 5, 1921, p. 196. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 383. 

1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1677 Ogilvy. and Morgan's ' London 

Survey 'd. 
1732 ' Parish Clerks' Remarks of London,' 

p. 384. 

1774 London Daily Post, Feb. 7. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 
1752 Humphrey's ' Memoirs,' p. 218. 
1789' 'Life's Painter of Variegated Cha- 

1782 Levander, A.Q.C., vol. xxix., 1916. 
1745 Rocque's ' Survey.' 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [i2S.x.MA R . 4 , 1922. 

White Horse 
White Horse 

White Horse 
White Horse 

* White Horse 

White Horse 
White Horse 


At the south-west corner oi' 
White Horse Street, Picca- 

Islington Road, facing the Spaw 


Church Lane, Chelsea 

Corner of Welbeck 

Cavendish Square 
Peckham Bye . . 



1789 Life's Painter of Variegated 


Dasent's ' Piccadilly in Three Cen- 
turies,' pp. 104-5." 

1744 General Advertiser, March 26. 

Larwood, p. 172. 

Addison wrote several Spectators 

Pulled down c. 1825 and rebuilt as- 

the " Holland Arms." 
Thornbury, v. 90, 91. 
Faulkner's ' History of Chelsea/ 

1829, i. 167. 
Larwood, p. 172. 

(To be concluded.) 

' Life's Painter of Variegated 


WOOD, OXON. Little seems to be known of 
the history of this interesting old inn, which 
possesses a fine Perpendicular gateway. 
The following information from a Chancery 
suit in, the P.R.O. (Mitford, 316/107) throws 
a little light on its history in the seventeenth 
century. In 1685 it was conveyed by Arthur 
Ashfield and three others of Shipton and 
Milton to Sir Henry Unton of Bruern, Bt., 
Michael Ashfield and others of Shipton and 
Milton on trust to apply half the yearly 
revenue " to for and about the reparacon 
amending and maintenance of that part of 
Shipton Bridge under Whichwood which is 
from the middle of the great bow of Shipton 
bridge towards the west," and the other 
half to the repair, &c., of " Stoken Bridge in 
Milton." With 16 acres of arable and 6 
acres of meadow, &c., belonging to it, the 
value is given at 16 per annum. At that 
time it was in the occupation of Simon 
Chamberlain. From Simon C.'s will (proved 
at Oxford, July 9, 1597) and that of his 
wife Joane (proved Oxford, Nov. 19, 1597) 
it appears that the Rev. Bartholomew Cham- 
berlain, D.D., was their eldest son. Foster's 
' Alumni ' states that the latter entered 
Trinity College, Oxford, June 7, 1563, aged 
17. He held a number of livings, including 
that of Burford in his native county. Is 
anything further known of his history ? 


LIGHT. In The Times recently a claim 
Was made (by Messrs. Hampton and Sons) 
that No. 7, Kensington Park Gardens, was 
the first private house in London to have 

electric light in use. The apparatus to> 
supply it was arranged by the occupier^of 
the house the late Sir William Crookes, 
O.M. in, the early eighties, and it is curious 
to note 'that the conducting wires wero 
insulated in glass. R. B. 


JOHN KENDALL (d. about 1501). The 
account of this Knight of St. John in the 
' D.N.B.' states that he was appointed 
Turcopolier in 1477 and succeeded John 
Weston as prior of the English Hospitallers 
about 1491, and that he apparently died in 
November, 1501. About 12 years ago,, 
when reading A. H. Mathew's * very bad 
translation of the Diary of Joannes Burch- 
ardts, I remember coming across the name 
of John Kendall Virgil as Turcopolier in the 
pontificate of Innocent VIII. (1482-92). 
Presumably Virgil was his nickname. Is 
he known to have written poetry ? Ac- 
cording to Canon Mifsud's ' English Knights 
Hospitallers in Malta ' (p. 66 n . ), Kendall was 
appointed Grand Prior of England July 20, 
1485. In notes on pp. 44, 199 and 200, 
Canon Mifsud states that, as Prior, John 
Kendall, with the assent of the provincial 
chapter, let Hampton Court for 99 years at 
46 a year, but that the indenture of a long 
lease of Hampton Court at 59 a year, 
entered between the Prior, Sir Thomas 
Docwra and Cardinal Wolsey, 
who had obtained or purchased its cession at the 
death of the person to whom Prior Kendall had 
previously given it, is alluded to in a charter of the 
Grand Master, dated 14 August 1517 (vo 1 . 406, 
L.C., 1517, f. 163, P.R.M.), which may be seen in 
Porter's ' History of the Knights,' ed. London* 
1883, p. 571. 

12S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.] 



On p. 304, Canon Mifsud, after stating 
that " the Order became the statutory heir 
of the professed Knight of Malta in respect 
of that part of his estate of which he had not 
disposed before making his profession in 
religion," goes on thus : 

This was in virtue of the Canon Jaw Quidquid 
acquirit monachus, monasterio acquiril. The 
declaration of expropriation usually made by the 
Knights was not so much a testament as a state- 
ment of assets and liabilities to serve as guide in 
the framing and checking of their " spoils." 
Thus, the declaration of expropriation made by 
-Sir John Kendall, Grand Prior of England, in the 
deeds of Notary William Ylton, on the 14th of 
February 1501, was held by the Council of the 
Order at Ehodes on the 8th of February 1503 
to be null and void, inasmuch as Sir John had 
.acted against the statutes by appointing heirs and 
making bequests. 

In 1499 " Johannes Kendal prior sancti 
Johannis Jerusalem in Anglia " was on the 
panel at the trial of Edward, Earl of War- 
wick (see L. W. Vernon Harcourt, ' His 
Orace the Steward,' at p. 465). 


recently Dr. Johnson's description of a 
poet in ' Rasselas ' I was struck with the 
general resemblance that parts of it bear to 
Emerson's exposition of the duties of the 
scholar in his famous address on " the 
American Scholar " and in his ' Literary 
Ethics,' though there is, of course, an 
immense difference between the light, delicate, 
nervous style in which Emerson veils 
his ideas and the ponderous, unornamented 
pomposity of the Johnsonian phraseology. 
Johnson, like Emerson, is really laying down 
rules for the man who, with a high purpose, 
devotes his life to the pursuit of knowledge, 
and is not describing a poet in our narrower 
sense of the word. The following are the 
points of resemblance that I .noted : 

1. He must divest himself of the prejudices of 
his age and country (Johnson). 

He is one who raises himself from private 
oonsiderations and breathes and lives on public 
and illustrious thoughts (Emerson). 

2. He must know many languages and many 
sciences (Johnson). 

He must be be an university of knowledges 

3. He must disregard present law and opinions 
. . . content himself with the slow progress of 
his name, contemn the applause of his own time 

(He must) defer never to the popular cry . . . 
let him seek the shade and find wisdom in neglect 
... in the long period of his preparation he must 
betray often an ignorance and shiftlessness in 
popular arts, incurring the disdain of the able 
who shoulder him aside (Emerson). 

4. He must write as the interpreter of nature 

Bend to the persuasion which is flowing to you 
from every object in nature to be its tongue 
to the heart of men (Emerson). 

Emerson, I believe, also 1 went to Fichte 
for some of his ideas on this subject. 


The Authors' Club, Whitehall, S.W. 

not be generally known that the house used 
by the late Sir Arthur Pearson for his 
training institution for blind ex -service men 
was once the residence of a noted collector, 
the late Mr. Henry H. Gibbs. There is in 
existence his ' Catalogue of some printed 
Books and Manuscripts at St. Dunstan's, 
Regent's Park, and Aldenham House, 
Berks ' (roxburghe binding, 4to ; privately 
printed, 1888). A presentation copy, with 
photo and autograph letter (lot 3219) was 
in the Huth collection and sold at Sotheby's, 
June 6, 1913. ANDREW DE TERN ANT. 

36, Somerleyton-road, Brixton, S.W. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to then' queries 
in order that answers mav be sent to them direct. 

Inquisition, as to the Sewers of Lincolnshire 
of July 2, 25 Eliz., in the possession, in 
1851 (when it was printed : B.M., 8775, 
c. 73), of William Sowerby, Esq., of Messing - 
ham, Lines, is a provision (p. 12) : 

That the Township of Burringham in making 
their warthes or fordes over the aforesaid dytches 
do not cast in more sand then is needfull for 
passage of their cattell into the Northmoores. 

It seems unlikely that ordinary sand 
would be available for this purpose or 
would be effective. It is possible that some 
sort of gravel is meant ? Are there other 
instances of temporary fords ? How was 
the " sand " prevented from being washed 
away immediately ? Q. V. 

" SOWMOYS." By a deed of 1500, enrolled 
on the Roll of the Great Seal of Scotland 
of the same year (printed 1882, at p. 542), 
a grantor 

concessit annuum redditum 10 librarum de 
terris dominii de Cavertoun, vie. Roxburgh, et 
duo cotagia proximo adjacentia occidentalem 
partem pomarii ejusdem . . . et pratum vul- 



[12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922, 

gariter mmcupatum le Grymys Medow, cum 
communi pastura unius equi et 4 de le sowmoys 
in dicta villa de Cavertoun. 

What were these ? 

Q. V. 

THE " HAND AND PEN." In a collection 
of letters written to India in 1703 I have 
found one dated " London Bell Yard 
Gracechurch Street from the Hand and 
Pen llth March 1702/3." I do not see the 
" Hand and Pen " in either of MB. DE 
CASTRO'S lists of eighteenth-century inns and 
coffee-houses. Is anything known of it ? 


NICHOLAS HILLIABD. A few years ago 
an article appeared in one of the archaeo- 
logical journals or elsewhere showing that 
Nicholas Hilliard, the miniaturist, was finan- 
cially interested in a gold -mining venture in 
Scotland. I should be glad of the exact 
reference. B. S. L. 

"THE BALL AND MOUTH." In one of 
Byron's letters, just published, he describes 
the appearance of the superannuated " In- 
fant Roscius," in 1812. " His face like the 
ball and mouth on the panels of a heavy 
coach." What was this " ball and mouth," 
and does it shed any light on the question 
whether the old sign of the ** Bull and Mouth " 
was really a corruption of " Boulogne 
Mouth " ? I should be glad if any of your 
readers can enlighten me. 


PLACE." In a deed of 1535, Anthony Daston 
obtains from the Abbot of Pershore a lease 
of certain lands, including " the farm of all 
the houses, buildings, &c., belonging to the 
Manor of Broadway with the two Sheepcotes 
and with the Parler and the -Chamber to the 
same adjacent, in the house of the Manor 

In a large corpus of documents in the 
Public Record Office relating to a lawsuit in 
the year 1541 about this lease, " the Parler 
within the Manor place of Broadway and 
the Chamber thereunto adjoining " are again 

In the will of Anthony Daston, dated 1572, 
he devises to Thomas Porter " the house of 
the Parsonage of Hinton, the Parlef and 
adjacent Chamber excepted." 

The phrase " the Parler and Chamber ad- 
jacent " is somewhat puzzling. Were these, 
in pre-Reformation times, expressly reserved 
for the use of the priest ? E. A. B. B. 

" SELF-HELP." I am with all humility 
writing an addendum to Samuel Smiles's 
' Self -Help,' which I think I have practically 
completed with the exception of the Indus- 
trial section. 

Could any reader supply me with parti- 
culars of Englishmen that is Britishers 
who from humble beginnings have become 
"captains of industry"? I am anxious 
to get right up to date, including men 
who are still living. Also I should be 
glad of particulars as to existing biographies- 
or autobiographies, if any. 


ADDISON'S ' SPECTATOB.' There is an 
edition " printed for J. and R. Tonson 
and S. Draper " with frontispiece illustra- 
tions " F. Hayman delin." and " C. 
Grignion sculp." What is the date of this 
edition ? S. 

HENRY SIDDONS. I am told that Henry 
Siddons (1774-1815), son of the famous 
Sarah Siddons, wrote some poems. If so, 
were these embodied in his plays or issued 
separately ? Was he author of a poem 
entitled ' The Triumphs of Commerce r 
(about 1793) ? If so, does it contain any 
memorable or poetical passages ? 


FBANCIS REDFEBN. Can anyone give- 
biographical particulars of this historian 
of Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, dates of birth 
and death, &c. He wrote ' Dove Valley 
Rhymes/ 1875. Does this little book 
contain any poems of merit ? 


REFUSAL TO KOTOW. On two occasions 
I have come across an allusion to an ac- 
count of an English private who, being 
brought before- some Eastern potentate, 
I think the Emperor of China, was told 
to enter the presence in the local manner, 
refusal entailing dteath. The private re- 
fused and was killed. 

I would be much obEged by being referred 
to the original account of this episode. 

F. A. S. 

CADBY. A contemporary account of the 
International Exhibition of 1862 mentions 
among its features " Cadby's grand piano ' r 
and Distin's band. Distin's name survived 
to a later date, but who was Cadby, and 1 
was he maker of or player upon the grand 
piano ? Was his career connected with the- 
Hall of that name, now the headquarters 
of well-known caterers ? W. B. H. 

12S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.] 



Standard, under this heading in its issue 
of Dec. 14 last, states that the late Mr. 
Gladstone " became proficient on the banjo, 
and used to sing ' Darktown Races ' with 
its ' Doo-da-doo-da ' refrain." Surely the 
name of the song was ' Camptown Races,' 
or something similar ? I remember it well, 
nearly 60 years ago, and do not remember 
the suggested title. I think the song com- 
menced " Camptown race-course, three 
miles long . . ." (or Camdown ?) Some 
weeks before the appearance of the note 
in the above newspaper I had inquired 
as to the song, something having caused it 
to haunt me. HERBERT SOTJTHAM. 

' THE MARRYING MAN.' I recently picked 
up on a Farringdon Street twopenny barrow 
a volume * The Marrying Man : A Comedy 
in Three Acts,' by the author of ' Cousin 
Geoffrey ' (i.e., Mrs. Gordon Smythies) : 
printed for private circulation (and not in 
the British Museum). It was an adaptation 
from her novel of the same name, published 
in 1841 and dedicated to Theodore Hook. 
Was it ever performed ? It is not in 
Clarence's bibliography, ' The Stage Cyclo- 
paedia.' J. M. BULLOCH. 

37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. 

a * Series of Historical Portraits photo- 
graphed in the Crimea, 1855,' by Roger 
Fenton (it is not in the British Museum), 
there is said to be a portrait of "Col. 
Gordon, R.E." Is this Major-General 
Edward Charles Acheson Gordon, R.E. 
(1827-1909), and what is the size of the 
portrait ? J. M. BULLOCH. 

37, Bedford Square, W.C.I. 

I have just interviewed a man of sixty - 
seven Who gives his " full Christian name " 
as above. He produced his marriage cer- 
tificate of forty years ago (from a register 
office in Hull), and in that the name is so 
spelt. Is this a real name or a corruption 
(e.g., of " Josephus ") ? My man tells me 
that he was left an orphan when he was 
seven or eight years old, and that he 
had "no friends," and had to "do for 
himself." It seems as though he had to 
" do for himself " even in the matter of a 
Christian name. 


Charterhouse, Hull. 

[Is this not likely to be a corruption of Euse- 

ING, son of Augustus Fitzharding of London,. 
was admitted to Westminster School in 
September, 1823, aged 13, and placed on the 
foundation in 1825. Further particulars of 
his parentage and career are desired, and^also 
the date and place of his death. 

G. F. R. B. 

John Field of Lambeth Marsh (1743-1790) 
married as his second wife Sarah Burrows 
(1749-1797), who was said to be a descendant 
of Richard Penderell. On the strength of 
this descent the Fields added an oak tree 
to their coat of arms. 

Can anyone tell me where to find an ac- 
count of the Penderell family, so that I can 
see whether the Burrows tradition wa& 
correct 1 G. A. ANDERSON. 

bought a set of 12 copper-plates engraved 
by J. Harris, an engraver who worked at 
the end of the seventeenth and beginning of 
the eighteenth century. They appear to- 
be copies of old illuminated pictures. Can 
any reader tell me if they were ever published 
in a book and, if so, what was its title ? 
Size about 8 by 10 inches. The plates are- 
as under : 

1. Battle at Newcastle-on-Tyne of the King of 
Scotland and against the Queen of England. 

2. Coronation of Pope Boniface IX. 

3. Oliver d'Auterme retaliates upon the 
Mariners of Ghent for his Brother's Death. 

4. The Tilt field at St. Inglevere near Calais 
by three French Knights against all comers. 

5. The Earl of Derby takes leave of the King of 
France and goes to his Cousin the Duke of 

6. Battle of Roche Darien and Charles of Blois 
taken prisoner by the English. 

7. Richard pays a visit to his Uncle the Duke of 
Gloucester at his Castle of Fleshy. 

8. The Siege of Tunis. 

9. A Priest called John Ball stirs up great 
Commotions in England. 

10. Wat Tyler killed by Walworth. 

11. Isabella, daughter of the King of France^ 
given in marriage to King of England. 

1 2. King Edward 's first Expedition against the 


this disagreeable and ungrammatieal phrase 
come into vogue ? The wonder and the 
pity are that it has worked its way inta 
all classes of society, and it is surely high 
time that it was " up to " them to dis- 
continue it. J. B. McGovERN. 

St. Stephen's Rectory, C.-on-M., Manchester. 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 s. x. MAR. 4 , 1022. 

KENT. Colonel Montresor gave the bells 
to Throwley Church, Kent, in 1781, where 
he intended to be buried. He died, however, 
in Maidstone Gaol and was buried apparently 
in Maidstone Church, June 9, 1799. The 
Kentish Gazette states he was then " proved 
innocent," but does not say with what 
crime or misdemeanour he had been charged. 
What was his supposed offence ? Belmont 
was sold and the sheriff was in possession 
for 1800 and 1801. Why ? 


[The ' D.N.B.' states that he died about 1788.] 

NAMES. What governs the preposition " in " 
or " at " in reference to a city or town ? 
We always say " in London," never " at 
London." We say " at Leamington," not 
'* in Leamington." Where is the distinc- 
tion ? RAVEN. 

' THE COMPLEAT COLLIER.' Perhaps some 
Northumbrian reader could kindly help 
me to find 

* The Compleat Collier ; or, The whole art of 
sinking, getting, and working the Coal Mines 
&c., as is now used in the Northern Parts, es- 
pecially about Sunderland and Newcastle.' By 
F. C. Printed at London for G. Conyers, at the 
Ring in Little Brittain, 1708. 

A reprint was issued by M. A. Richardson, 
Newcastle, in 1846. I cannot find either 
the original or the reprint in the British 
Museum catalogue and suspect that the 

reierence is wrong. 

L. L. K. 

DEVONSHIRE MSS. I should feel obliged 
to any correspondent who could point out 
the present whereabouts of the original 
manuscripts of Risdon's ' History of Devon, ' 
Westcott's ' Survey of Devon,' ; Bishop 
Ward's Papers, and Dr. Plot's ' Natural 
History of Devon.' -W. S. B. H. 

BRETEL. What is the meaning of this 
forename ? There is a Bretel in Domesday 
Book, who has large and numerous holdings 
from the Count of Mortain, in Somerset, 
Devon and Dorset. One of his properties, 
Ash, in Somerset, is now known as Ash- 
brittle. The name appears again in the 
Pipe Roll of 1130, under " Bretellus de Am- 
berer," who has notices in Hampshire, 
Warwick and Devon. 

Does the name derive from Berthold or 
Bartholomew ? Surely it can hardly be a 
diminutive of " Brito." Solution of the 
origin of the name will be appreciated. 


Over one of the inner doors of this church 
is a large marble tablet with this inscription 
(it is quoted from memory, but is substan- 
tially accurate) : 

In this vault are interred several Saunderses 
of this parish. Particulars the last day will 
disclose. Amen. 

Is any story attached to this unusual 
epitaph ? M. N. O. 

1,000 IN 1653 : PRESENT - DAY EQUI- 
VALENT. Sir Marmaduke Constable had his 
whole estate sequestered for ten years, which, 
being put to sale, he was forced to purchase 
it of the Commonwealth for the sum of 1,000, 
April, 1653, 5 Car. II. 

What would be to-day's value ? 


68, St. Michaels Road, Aldershot, Hants. 

AUTHOR WANTED. Whence comes the follow- 
ing sentence, which appeared in the " In Memo- 
riam " list, The Times, Feb. 6 : 

" Sorrow is, then, a part of love, and love does 
not seek to throw it off." S. C. 


(12 S. x. 72, 113, 155.) 

VON KEMPELEN'S chess-player has been often 
described, with details of its working. Briefly, 
it depended on the skill of an expert chess- 
player concealed partly in the figure and 
partly in the large box on which the figure 
was seated. After its invention in 1 769 it had 
a great career in various ownerships until 
1838, when it was exhibited in public for the 
last time in Philadelphia, and in 1854 was 
destroyed in the fire which demolished the 
Chinese Museum of that city. An account 
of the figure will be found in Bogue's ' Boy's 
Own Book,' 1855, but the automaton possesses 
little interest now, as it has been entirely 
superseded by later and cleverer inventions. 
The figure which MR. ACKERMANN saw in 
South Africa 35 years ago, and which he 
so accurately remembers, was, no doubt, a 
copy of Mr. J. N. Maskelyne's whist -player 
" Psycho," and it is quite likely that I have 
handled some parts of this identical figure. 
About 1880 1 numbered amongst my friends a 
professional conjuror, Mr. Edward Le Mare 
of Manchester, who had a genius for mecha- 
nical construction and who was one of the 
very few makers of automata and appa- 
ratus for professional illusionists. Maske- 
lyne's ingeniously conceived whist -player 

' j 

12S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.] 



was first shown at the Egyptian Hall in 1875, 
^nd, as is usually the case, imitations of it 
began to appear after a few years had 
elapsed. I saw the original figure as a mem- 
ber of the public and afterwards handled the 
beautiful mechanism of the hand and arm 
of a similar figure that was being made in my 
friend's workshop for dispatch to the Cape. 

The full mechanical details would take too 
much space to describe here. Suffice to say 
it was really a mechanical device containing 
no human figure. A spring-driven clock- 
work provided the motive power. Of two 
separate trains of . mechanism, the first 
worked the sweep of the hand and head side- 
ways through a quarter circle, and the second 
train actuated, by a single cord, the closing 
of the thumb so as to grip one of the cards 
arranged in the quadrant spoken of by MB. 
ACKEBMANN, and, by still further tension on 
the cord, to raise the hand, wrist and fore -arm 
into such a position as showed the face of 
the card to the audience. The secret of 
the control of the apparatus lay in the fact 
that behind the stage an air-pump was used 
to raise or lower the pressure of air in a pipe 
which passed under the stage and up one 
leg of the lower wooden base. The green 
baize covering of this base allowed the 
variations of pressure to be conveyed to 
the inside of the upright glass cylinder and 
to the mechanism inside the figure where, 
I believe, a simple piston arrangement was 
raised or lowered by the high or low pressure, 
and switched the driving power of the clock- 
work on to either of the trains of gearing 
mentioned above, or stopped midway, when 
no motion took place. The man who played 
" Psycho's " cards controlled the air-pump 
unseen. The cards of the other players 
could be overlooked from behind the curtains 
at the sides of the stage, so that the chances 
of winning were well in favour of " Psycho." 

Full details of both Kempelen's and 
Maskelyne's machines, with illustrations of 
the mechanism, are given in ' The Old and 
New Magic," by Mr. Henry Ridgeley Evans, 
published by the Open Court Publishing 
Company, Chicago, 1906, and probably 
obtainable from Messrs. Kegan Paul, Trench 
and Co., London. ABTHUB BOWES. 

A full account and satisfactory explana- 
tion (presumably correct) of the automaton 
and its inventor, Wolffgang de Kempelen, 
a Hungarian, appears in a book by the well- 
known chess writer, George Walker, entitled 
' Chess and Chess-Players ' (1850) ; the article 
is headed ' The Chess Automaton,' and is the 

first in the book, occupying 37 pages. It 
was suggested to the author by finding on 
I his shelves a thick volume containing six or 
more tracts on the subject. The important 
parts are too lengthy to quote in full, 
but the following notes may be given. The 
invention appeared first at Vienna in 1770. 
Mr. Walker, in English, first quotes from 
a work by M. Windisch, ' Briefe iiber den 
Schachspieler des Herrn von Kempeleii,' &c. 
(Basle, 1783), giving a full description of the 
appearance of the automaton : 

The chest to which it is fixed is three feet and 
a half long, two feet wide, and two feet and a half 
high ; and is, by means of the aforesaid castors, 
moved ^ith facility from place to place. Behind 
this chest is seen a figure the size of life, dressed 
in the Turkish costume, seated upon a wooden 
chair fastened to the body of the Automaton, and 
which of course moves with it, when rolled about 
the apartment. The figure leans its .'ight arm 
on the table, holding a long Turkish pipe in his 
left hand, in the attitude of a person who ceases 
to smoke. It plays with its left hand ; which 
M. de Kempelen informed me was an oversight 
on his part. . . . When the lurk is about 
to play, M. de Kempelen, as pipe-bearer, takes the 
pipe from his hand. Before the Automaton is 
a chess-board, screwed on the table, or upper 
surface of the chest, on which the eyes of the figure 
appear to be constantly fixed. 

Then follows a description of the para- 
phernalia accompanying the figure and 
clockwork in the chest, and the doors to be 
opened to exhibit these, . before playing, 

I and a description of how the figure moves his 

| hands and head while playing. 

De Kempelen was a modest man and did 
not at first care for the notoriety of his 
" toy," and, pestered from all quarters to 
exhibit it, actually took it partly to pieces 
and stored it, giving out that it was damaged. 
But it was brought to light again by request 
when the Grand Duke Paul of Russia visited 
the Emperor Joseph II. at Vienna. De 
Kempelen now decided to reap the financial 
harvest promised by his invention, and it 
went to Paris in 1783 and was an instant 
success ; from Paris it proceeded to England. 
In 1785, Philip Thicknesse (1719-1792 this 
seems to have appeared anonymously in 
1784, see ' D.N.B.') printed a pamphlet der 
nouncing the chess-player as a hoax, and 
touching perilously near to the secret. 
After this the inventor was invited to go to 
Berlin ; eager to solve the mystery, Frederick 
the Great purchased the figure, and when 
he held the clue, banished it to " an obscure 
lumber room," where it remained for 30 
years, until the advent of Napoleon, when 
it once more set out on its travels and 



[12 S. X. MAR, 4, 1922. 

became the property of M. Maelzel, who sold 
the key to Prince Eugene for 30,000 francs, 
repurchasing it for the interest on the 
money ! Maelzel eventually arrived in 
London in 1819. Games played by the 
figure were taken down and published in a 
small volume by Mr. Hunneman in 1820. 
During this final visit to England several 
essays on the subject appeared, one by an 
Oxford graduate, ' Observations on the 
Automaton Chess -Player ' (1819), giving a 
full description of the figure and its mode of 
play. Robert Willis of Cambridge (1800- 
1875, see ' D.N.B.') brought out an interest- 
ing work on the subject in 1821, ' An 
Attempt to Analyse the Automaton Chess - 
Player,' and this proves that a man might 
be concealed in the contrivance. Dr. 
Brewster copied this account in his work on 
natural magic. Walker now tells us that 
" the man who really played the Chess - 
Automaton was concealed in the chest," and 
describes how this could be so that he could 
move about while the works were being ex- 
hibited with apparent candour, and how he 
controlled the movements of the figure after 
the moves of the game had been indicated on 
the underside of the chess-board, but the 
ingenious details must be perused in Mr. 
Walker's book, as they occupy some space. 
Mouret, a great chess-player, was the chief 
"jack-in-the-box," for Maelzel, and they 
appeared in Spring Gardens and St. James's 
Street. The automaton travelled over 
Europe and eventually arrived in America. 
The last Mr. Walker tells us of it is that 
" for some years the figure has lain in a state 
of inglorious repose in a warehouse at New 
Orleans," so the note by L. L. K. in 
' N. & Q.' that it perished in a conflagra- 
tion is of interest ; this may have occurred 
through the candle that was used when ex- 
hibiting the interior, or that "used by the 
enclosed player, after taking up his final 

GERMAN INFLUENCES (12 S. x. 32, 116). 
Dropping the h origin of " India." The 
Sanskrit word for the ocean, wide estuary, 
great river, was (and is) Sindhu ; root Syand, 
fluidity, seen in Syundu, the name of one of 
the three principal rivers in Kashmir, still 
called by ordinary Indians and Europeans 
the Sindh. In contemporary vernacular 
speech, the Sanskrit Sindhu became Sindh 
and Bind, and was applied specially to the 
great western river of Northern India, known 
to us now as the Indus, and also to the delta 

and country round it. Hence the modern. 
Indian province of Sindh or Sind. 

There is a well-known phonological law 
by which the sibilant breathing s becomes 
transferred lower down the mouth to the- 
breathing h. Hence very long ago the name 
Sind became Hind to the people west of 
modern India, who still say Hind for Sind, 
e.g., Persians and Arabs. Long ago, too 
very long ago the Greeks, with their love 
of fitting foreign words to their own tongue, 
adopted 'Ivios for the river, and 'lv ia 
for the country and land, with 'IvSoi for 
the people. These the Romans transformed 
again into " Indus," " India," without even 
the very light breathing indicated by the 
Greek spelling. 

There was a clear dropping of h here, as the- 
older form Hind is still in common use, as is 
seen in the term Qaisar-i-Hind (Caesar of 
Hind) for the title of the King of England as 
Emperor of India ; while in poetical par- 
lance Ind is still a common term. We still 
use the aspirated form in the very common 
terms Hindostan, Hindustani. 

In fact, by the ordinary use of the forms 
Sind, Hind and India, we are unconsciously 
still disclosing the history of " India " in our 
everyday speech. 

There is yet another very interesting form, 
Scinde, which was common until quite lately, 
and is still sometimes seen as the name of 
the province we now write as Sind. This was 
due to the general European influence, 
arising ultimately out of old Latin usage, 
which produced such words as scimitar, 
scion, scent and many others. I have often 
wondered whether educated people grasp 
that when our dear friends Tommy and his 
wife talk about " Hindia," they are 
etymologically right, as they are, by the way, 
When, in discussing the late war, they talk 
about " Wypers." 

The use of the word "India" for that 
portion only of the whole country which was 
known to the speaker or writer has been 
common through all history from the days of 
the Persians, Greeks and Romans to those 
of the Portuguese, English and other Euro- 
peans, to say nothing of the Mughals or 
Mongols. R. C. TEMPLE. 

EBGHUM (12 S. 9, 55, 99, 136). I now 
find that "Ralph de Urgham " occurs in 
Hardy's ' Le Neve ' as prebendary of Decem 
Libraru<m in Lincoln " some time between 
1306 and 1360." J- T. F. 

Winter ton, Lines. 



x. 127). Immediately after reading FAMA'S 
helpful directions I took a case, the working 
out of which exemplifies one of the pitfalls 
mentioned by him, and perhaps other points 
of interest. George Baker was admitted on 
the foundation at Eton, March 20, 1698, cet. \ 
10. He died, according to the most ex- 1 
panded notice, " on 28 January, 1772, in the 
eighty -sixth year of his age." But the j 
notices in The Gentleman's and London Maga- \ 
zines of 1772 have " cet. 85." To take " aged | 
10 " and " aged 85 " results in a contradic- 1 
tion, producing different latest possible 
dates. I then took " aged 10 " and " aged 
84," and found that he was born between! 
March 21, 1687, and Jan. 28, 1688. Thisj 
confirms the parish register, which records i 
his baptism on July 17, 1687. I say con- 1 
firms because the years in parish registers are 1 
not seldom misplaced, and in the case of two 
of George Baker's brothers, while Eton and 
Oxford agree, the parish register makes them 
each two years older. A. T. M. 

x. 109, 158). There is in the ' Life of 
John Nicholson,' by Capt. Lionel J. 
Trotter (2nd ed., 1898), p. 4, a distinct 
statement that the eldest boy of Dr. Nichol- 
son's family was born as Lisburn, where his 
wife's mother, Mrs. Hogg, lived ; and that j 
he was born on Dec. 11, 1822. 

In a footnote Capt. Trotter, referring to 
Kaye's ' Lives of Indian Officers,' vol. ii., 
says : "Kaye has given 1821 as the year of j 
John's birth : this is a manifest error, for i 
John's eldest sister was born in October of | 
that year." 

There is also much information bearing j 
on the date of Nicholson's birth in ' Memo- 
rials of the Life of Sir Herbert Edwardes,' by 
Lady Edwardes (1863) ; valuable because he 
was a contemporary in years and Indian 
service, and an intimate friend of Sir John 
Nicholson ; and also because he is responsible 
for the inscriptions on the tomb of Nichol- 
son at Delhi, and on the tablets in the church 
at Bunnoo (western border of the Punjab) 
and in the parish church at Lisburn, Co. 
Antrim, Ireland, where Nicholson's mother 
had lived " ever since she had been a i 

The inscription on the tomb at Delhi 
records that Nicholson died Sept. 23, 1857, ! 
aged 35 ; the inscrpition on the tablet in the j 
church at Bunnoo and also that in the church i 
at Lisburn records that "he died on the 23 
September 1857 aged only 34." 

Capt. Trotter, in mentioning the memorial 
in Bunnoo church, adds a footnote (p. 316), 
" On this memorial Nicholson's age is rightly 
given as 34, not as the tombstone gives it 
as 35." 

In the * Dictionary of Indian Biograph ' 
(C. E. Buckland, C.I.E.) the dates of birth 
and death are given, 1821-1857, the place 
of birth not being mentioned. 

W. M. CLAY. 

Alverstoke, Hants. 

(12 S. x. 129). I have always taken an 
interest in this subject and herewith I 
venture to enclose a list of dummy books 
I made many years ago for a door in my 
own library. 

They were chiefly compiled from a com- 
petition which was then going on in Truth. 
It will be observed that some of them are 
topical of the past. It would be interesting 
to collect specimens from some of the country 
houses of England. There was a good list 
at Ritchings, the home of the Meekings 
in Buckinghamshire. Viscount Long of 
Wraxhall has one at Rood Ashton, and I 
have somewhere a list compiled by Charles 
Dickens for the door in his library at Gads- 
hill. I recollect (when I stayed there 
with Major Austin Budden, the penultimate 
owner) there were ten thick volumes devoted 
to ' Five Minutes in China,* and some 
scathing sub -titles to an encyclopaedia called 
' The Wisdom of our Ancestors.' 

1. ' A New England Cat,' by M. B. W. 

2. ' Thoughts on my Bed,' Stead. 

3. ' The Rightful Heir : a Story of the Whigs.* 

4. ' A Brief Tale of a Manx Cat,' by Hall Caine. 

5. ' Open Sesame ! or Taken in.' 

6. ' The Strange Case of Ann Chovies,' by the 
Editor of Howe on Toast. 

7. ' The Bloodhounds of Bodega ; or Whines 
from the Wood.' 

8. ' Lost in the Wash,' by the author of ' Bache- 
lors' Buttons.' 

9. ' On a Japanese Bike,' by the author of 
' Cycle of Cathay." 

10. * Contents of a Library,' Wood. 

11. ' Appearances are Deceitful.' (Illustrated.) 

12. ' Carpenter's Works.' 

13. ' Cover Hunting,' by M. T. Ness. 

14. ' Bunyan on the Great Toe.' 

15. ' A Bolt from the Blue ; or the Deserting 

16. ' Master Wouldn't,' by Mrs. Wood. 

17. The Last Letter,' by Omega. 

1 8. ' Midnight Musings on the Itchen ' : a 
sequel to ' A Night at Margate.' 

19. ' Lays Ancient and Modern ; or Thirteen 
Eggs for a Shilling.' 

20. ' Deceived,' by Ascham Dawe. 

21. ' Backs et praeterea nihil,' by a Carpenter. 

22. ' (Euvres de la Porte.' 



[12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922. 

23. " Keep your Pecker up ; or Prometheus 
and the Vulture.' 

24. ' Outside the Pale,' by Handel. 

25. * The Fatal Blow,' by John Knox. 

26. * Tall Tales,' by a Kidder. 

27. ' The Air Apparent : a Tale of the London 

28. ' The Art of taking Notes,' by a Burglar. 

29. 'A Vocabulary of British Oaths ' : a 
sequel to ' Bradsbaw's Railway Guide.' 

30. ' The Window Smasher ; or the Man who 
saw Glasgow.' 

31. ' After Death,' Watt. 

32. ' The Disappointed Cabman ; or No 
Thoroughfare,' by Charles Dickens. 

33. The Successful Burglar ; or Self Help,' 
by S. Smiles. 

34. ' Infra Dig. ; or Ashamed to Beg.' 

35. * The Circular Saw ; or Who saw the Cir- 
cular ? ' 

36. Certain to Snore,' by the author of ' Per- 
chance to Dream.' 

37. ' The Last Watch,' by George Atten- 

38. ' Vestments,' by Bishops Westcott. 

39. ' What's in a Name ? ' Anon. 

40. ' Heavenly Twins,' by the author of The 
Double Event.' 

41. ' Exposed Cards,' by Miss Deal. 

42. ' Thoughts on a Future State ; or The 
Musings of a Faded Wall Flower.' 

43. ' The Garden of Sleep,' by a Collector of 
Church Sermons. 

44. ' A Staunch Whig ; or How to Hide Bald- 

45. ' La Chrymose,' by M. Thiere. 

46. ' Reminiscences of Waterloo ' (with Plans), 
by a Visitor to Richmond. 

47. ' Neck or Nothing,' by Walter Crane. 

48. ' All Round my Hat, Ma ! ' by Annie B.'s 

49. ' Let us Pray,' by a Company Promoter. 

50. ' Eavesdropping,' by Heard. 

51. ' Thrice Blessed : a Tale of the Queen's 

. 52. ' Garden Hoe,' by Ouida. 

53. ' A Life of Payne,' by Aikin. 

54. 'On Home Rule,' by Lilian Bull. 

55. ' Ann Chovey, or Toasts.' 

56. 'A Counter Attraction ; or the Pretty 

. 57. The Triple Alliance ; or Thrtee a Bigamist.' 

58. ' Who goes Home ? or the Martyrdom of 
St. Stephen's.' 

59. ' The Entrance Out,' by U. R. Greene. 

60. ' Cells,' by Warder. 

61. ' Brigands and their Haunts,' originally 
published as A Handy Guide to the Hotels of 

62. ' The Mother's Dilemma ; or Which 
Daughter ? ' by Watson. 

63. ' Tales of the Mint,' by Lamb. 

64. ' A History of the Scalds,' by Robert Burns. 

65. ' Boyle on the Neck.' 

66. ' False better than True : a Tale of the 
last Decade,' by a Dentist. 

67. * Punch, on the Head.' 

68. * Our Pet Tragedian ; or a Pop'lar Tree.' 
,.69. ' Hints on Golf,' by One of a Clique. 


An Editor's note to a query on the 
above in 11 S. iv. 230, says that a 
' List of Imitation Book Backs ' was made 
by Dickens for Mr. Eeles in 1851 and can be 
seen in the edition of his letters published 
by Messrs. Macmillan, 1893, or in the National 
edition of his works, vol. 37, pp. 279-80. A 
long list of ' Sham Book Titles,' by Hood, will 
be found at 8 S. i. 63, 229 and 301. For 
other lists see 9 S. viii. 212 ; ix. 384, 432. 

(10 S. ii. 405 ; 12 S. x. 95). Let me thank 
FAMA for this earlier example of the 
" Anglica " version of the line, which has 
now been shown to go back at least as far 
as 1558. But I can cap this with a much 
older specimen of the " Rustica " type. 

On p. 86 of Jakob Werner's ' Latein- 
ische Sprichworter und Sinnspriiche des 
Mittelalters aus Handschriften gesammelt,' 
Heidelberg, 1912, we find 
Rustica gens est optima flens, sed pessirna ridens. 

This is taken from a MS. in the University 

Library at Basel, which has been assigned 

to the fourteenth century, but which 

Werner judged to be of the early fifteenth. 


" SATAN REPROVING SIN " (12 S. x. 130). 
The earliest instance of this saying at the 
above reference was dated 1721. But " The 
Devil rebukes sin " is in John Ray's ' Col- 
lection of English Proverbs,' p. 126, 2nd 
ed., 1678. Ray appends the Latin equiva- 

Clodius accusat moechos. 
adapted from 

[si . . . ] Clodius accuset moechos. 

(Juvenal, Sat. ii. 27.) 

The passage in Juvenal beginning at 
line 24, 

Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditione querentes ? 
is certainly the locus classicus for the ex- 
pression in detail of the same thought as that 
in the English phrase. This latter could 
probably be traced to a much earlier date 
than Ray's. EDWARD BENSLY. 

HOUSE BELLS (12 S. ix. 190, 236). Mrs. 
Adams, on her arrival at the White House, 
Washington, in 1800, wrote : "' BeUs are 
wholly wanting, not one single one being 
hung through the whole house and promises 
are all you can obtain." See ' Walks about 
Washington,' by Francis E. Leupp and 
Lester Gr. Hornby (Boston : Little, Brown 
and Co., 1915). M. 

12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.] 



THE PILLOW (PILAU) CLUB (12 S. ix. 169, 
235). With reference to my query in regard 
to the above, and the reply kindly given by 
ST. SWITHIN, I have recently found another 
reference to the club which proves that ST. 
SWITHIN was right in his surmise that the 
word is pilau and that the club consisted of 
Anglo-Indians, of which Sir Robert Nightin- 
gale, one of the directors of the East India 
Company, was the president. The members 
met at the King's Head, Leadenhall 
Street. Among the letters written from 
England to John Scattergood, merchant, 
while in India, is one dated " From the Polow 
Club at the King's head Leaden Hall Strett 
Decemr. the 31st 1719." It is signed by 
Thomas Panuwell and Richard Rawlings, 
who acknowledge " by order of the President 
Sir Robt. Nightingale and the rest of the 
assembly," the gift of " a Punchin of Old 
Arack," which was " by some mistake con- 
verted into two caske, containing in all fivety 
three Gallons." 

I presume that the King's Arms where 
the club met was identical with the coaching 
inn which appears in MB. DE CASTRO'S list 
(12 S. viii. 85) for the year 1732. If so, it 
must have been in existence at least some 
fifteen years earlier. Is it known when this 
inn disappeared ? 


(12 S. x. 81, 104, 124, 142). An explanation 
of the form of the Aldeburgh registers 
will be found on consulting Scobell's 
' Acts and Ordinances of Parliament,' 
November, 1640, to September, 1656. Cap. 
vi. of the Ordinances of Barebone's Parlia- 
ment in 1653 directs how marriages shall be 
solemnized and registered after September 
29 in that year, and directs also births and 
deaths to be registered. I believe that a 
new edition of these Ordinances has been 
published recently. The provisions as to 
marriages are mentioned in Neal's ' Puri- 
tans,' ii., p. 603 of the 1837 edition. 

A. D. T. 

EDWARD CAPERN (12 S. x. 110). I enclose 
an extract from Boase which answers 
W. N. C.'s query. 

CAPERN, EDWARD (the child of a baker at 
Tiverton), born Tiverton, 21 July, 1819; worked 
in Derby lace factory, Barnstaple, 1827-47 ; 
rural postman at and near Bideford 1848-1868; 
granted a, Civil List pension of 40 a year 23rd 
Nov. 1857, raised to 60 24th Nov. 1865. Re- 
sided at Harborne, near Birmingham, 1868-84 ; 
lectured in the Midland Counties ; W. S. Landor 
pronounced him to be a noble poet and dedicated 

his poem ' Anthony and Octavius,' 1856, to him ; 
author of Poems, 1856, 3 ed. 1859; Ballads and 
Songs, 1858; Devonshire Melodist, 1862; Way- 
side Warbles, 1865 ; Sungleams and Shadows,. 
1881. Died, Braunton, near Barnstaple, N. 
Devon, 4th June, 1894. Buried Heanton Pun- 
chard on, near Braunton ; his postman's bell 
was let into his gravestone. His portrait, by 
E. Williams, hangs in Bideford public library. 

W. H. G.* 

The following is extracted from ' The Life 
and Letters of R. S. Hawker,' by C. E. Byle* 
(John Lane, 1905), p. 245 : 

Capern . . . was buried at Heanton Pvm- 
chardon, near Northam. . . . On his tomb- 
stone is the following inscription : 

Edward Capern 
The Postman Poet 
Born at Tiverton, 21 Jan. 1819 
Died at Braunton, 4 June 1694 
O Lark-like Poet : carol on, 
Lost in dim light, an unseen trill ! 
We, in the Heaven where you are gone, 
Find you no more, but hear you still. 

The Poet Laureate. 

Above the inscription is fixed the bell which 
Capern used to ring to announce his arrival when 
on his rounds. 


(12 S. x. 42).- The prevalence of Free- 
masonry amongst Fellows of the Royal 
Society was dealt with in Ars Quatuor 
Coronatorum, vol. xi. 116 (1898), by 
Mr. Edward Armitage, who, by comparing 
the list of Fellows in 1722 with contem- 
porary lists of Masonic lodges, found 
forty-seven names common to both, indi- 
cating that apparently nearly 25 per cent, 
of the F.R.S. were also members of the 
masonic craft. W. B. H. 

GRAD ( 12 S. ix. 528 ; x. 114). Perhaps I may 
be allowed to add something to what has 
already been said upon this subject. When 
trouble began in Russia, certain lovers of 
art banded themselves together to protect 
the museums and picture galleries. The 
authorities allowed them to do what they 
thought best, and they removed a few of 
the pictures from the Hermitage for the 
sake of greater safety, but left most of them 
in the Hermitage, where they may now be 
seen by visitors to Petrograd. At the 
beginning of the period of trouble there was 
a certain amount of pilfering, but not, I 
am informed, very much. 

The same truth holds good about the 
treasures in the churches in the great cities 
of Russia. The icons are still there, and so 



[12S. X. MAR. 4, 1922. 

are the diamonds that surround them 
and the precious stones that sparkle on the 
metal drapery of the saints. Here again 
there has been a little pilfering. But the 
ecclesiastical art treasures have been pre- 
served, partly owing to the attitude of the 
authorities of the Orthodox Church, who at 
once dissociated religion from politics, 
and partly owing to a great revival of reli- 
gious sentiment among the Russian pea- 
santry. Even the Bolshevist found it 
hopeless to interfere with the masses in 
this respect of their religious observances. 
The Authors' Club, Whitehall, S.W. 

108, 137). 4. John Hughes, ' On Arqueanassa 
of Colophos.' The lady's name and place of 
origin have been curiously perverted. The 
Greek elegiac quatrain addressed to Arche- 
anassa of Colophon is quoted by Diogenes 
Laertius, iii. 23, 31, and ascribed to Plato, 
whose mistress Archeanassa was said to 
have been. We get the lines again in 
Athenaeus, xiii. 589c, d, with the same 
-account of Plato's liaison and authorship. 
In the ' Palatine Anthology,' vii. 217, the 
writer's name is given as Asclepiades, and 
the ' Planudean Anthology ' has the same 
attribution. The versions in Diogenes and 
Athenaeus differ in several particulars 
from one another and from the Anthology 
version. Commentators refer to a French 
translation of the lines by Larcher. 

18. I. H. Browne's ' A Pipe of Tobacco.' 
See the late W. P. COURTNEY'S paper on 
'* Dodsley's Famous Collection of Poetry,' 
10 S. vii. 83. The parody of Ambrose 
Philips is there said, on the authority of 
'Gent. Mag., 1776, p. 165, to have been 
written by (Chancellor) John Hoadly. 

19. John Straight. See the account of 
the Rev. John Straight at 10 S. xi. 143, 
in another of W. P. COURTNEY'S articles on 
Dodsley's ' Collection.' Straight matricu- 
lated from Wadham College, Oxford, on 
March 28, 1705, aged 17. This gives an 
approximate date for his birth. COURTNEY'S 
interesting contributions to ' N. & Q.' on 
Dodsley were afterwards privately pub- 
lished in book form. 

29. Mrs. Greville, author of the ' Prayer 
for Indifference.' See a reply by the late 
COLONEL PRIDEAUX on ' Prayer for Indiffer- 
ence,' at 10 S. ii. 335. According to him, 
.Frances, daughter of James Macartney, mar- 
ried, in January, 1747, Fulke Greville, son of 

the Hon. Algernon Greville and grandson of 
Fulke Greville, fifth Lord Brooke, and died 
in 1789. In the ' Minerva Library ' edition of 
Locker -Lampson's ' Lyra Elegantiarum ' the 
date of Mrs. Greville's birth is given, with a 
query, as 1720. 

COLONEL PRIDEAUX notes that she had 
several children, the most celebrated of 
whom was Mrs. Crewe, the beautiful Whig 
hostess. EDWARD BENSLY. 

If I. A. WILLIAMS is including any 
eighteenth- century dialect poems, I have a 
good MS. collection of unpublished ' Rhymes 
of the Times ' of that period which I should 
be happy to place at his disposal. 


Grove House, Norton-on-Tees. 

8. Henry Carey's dates are given as 1693 ?- 
1743 in *' The Oxford Book of English 

10. Mrs. Mary Monk. W. H. K. Wright, 

in ' West Country Poets,' gives her dates as 

1680-1715, and says that Polwhele mentions 

| her as a Devonian, also information of her 


18. I. H. Browne's ' Pipe of Tobacco.' 

lAs regards the "ingenious friend" who 

! sent him the parody of Ambrose Philips, 

! Fairholt, in his ' Tobacco : its History and 

Associations,' states (on the authority of 

Ritson) that the author was Dr. John 

j Hoadley. 

28. Mary Whately. I believe there is 
I some account of her in ' Staffordshire 

Stories ' (1906), by Mr. F. W. Hackwood. She 

married the Rev. John Darwall (1731-89) in 

1766. Their daughter Elizabeth (1779- 1851) 

was author of ' The Storm and Other Poems ' 

! (1810). For further particulars of the 

I Darwalls see Simms's ' Bibliotheca Staff ordi- 

| ensis.' Four poems by Mrs. Darwall appear 

i in vol. iii. of ' A Collection of Poems, in Four 

Volumes, by Several Hands ' (G. Perch, 


29. Mrs. Greville. Frederic Rowton, in his 
' Female Poets of Great Britain,' gives the 
' Prayer for Indifference ' and the Countess of 
Carlisle's answer, but can give no particulars. 
Allibone's ' Dictionary of English and Ameri- 
can Authors ' gives " Mrs. Frances Greville," 
who, he says, was daughter of James 
Macartney, wife of Fulke Greville, and 
mother of the " celebrated beauty " Mrs. 
Crewe and of Captain William Fulke 
Greville, and wrote the ' Prayer ' about 
1753. No other dates given. 


12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.] 



30. William Kendall. Biographical notes 
on Wm. Kendall (1768-1832) may be found' 
in Trewman's Flying Post (Exeter), 1832, 
March 29, p. 2, col. 5 ; ditto, 1849, May 31, 
p. 6, col. 4 (being No. 24 of Geo. Oliver's 
' Biographies of Eminent Exonians') ; and 
Wm. H. K. Wright's 'West Country 
Poets.' Kendall was baptized at Exeter 
(St. Mary Major) on Dec. 3, 1768, and was 
drowned in the River Wrey at Bovey Tracy 
on March 26, 1832. He was buried at | 
Exeter (St. Lawrence). Kendall published a | 
volume of ' Poems ' in 1791, privately | 
printed (as to place of printing, see 9 S. iii. 
246) ; ' The Science of Legislation,' trans- 
lated from the Italian of Filangieri (pre- 
face dated in 1792) ; and ' Poems ' (Exeter, 
Trewman) in 1793. The poems of 1793 
include Elegiac Stanzas, Occasional 
Verses, Sonnets, Fairy Fantasies, and 
imitations of Catullus. M. 

30. William Kendall. The Exeter Public 
Library contains two copies of the 1793 
edition of Kendall's poems. 

We also have an edition published in 
1791 by "W. Kendall." The 1793 edition 
was published by R. Trewman of this city, 
but on the 1791 edition there is no imprint 
whatever. However, from internal evidence, 
such as type and ornaments used, there is 
no doubt that it came from Trewman's 

Many of the poems of the 1791 edition 
.are repeated in the 1793 edition in a revised 
or extended form. In the 1791 edition a 
footnote to the verses 'To Laura,' says, 
" Composed at a very early age, the writer's 
first production." 

Kendall also published at the age of 24 
& translation of ' An Analysis of the Science 
of Legislation,' from the Italian of Chevalier 
Filangieri, but I have never come across a 
-copy of this work. There is a copy of it in the 
British Museum, also of the two volumes 
of poems mentioned above. 


33, 99).' The Old Woman Clothed in Grey.' 
Dullman, " the worthy Jesuit's polemical 
publisher," = Charles Dolman (1807-1863), 
Roman Catholic publisher. See ' D.N.B.' 

'The Black Mousquetaire.' 'Tom- 
pion's I presume ? ' FABQUHAB." Barham 
is quoting from Farquhar's comedy, ' The 
Inconstant ; or, The Way to Win Him,' 
Act V., scenes ii. and iv., where Young 
Mirabel is trapped in Lamorce's lodgings, 

and rescued later by a party of soldiers. 
The words are used by Lamorce in scene ii. 
when she extorts Mirabel's watch from him, 
and by Mirabel himself in scene iv. when 
recovering it from her. 

' The Leech of Folkestone.' " One skull 
of such surpassing size and thickness as 
would have filled the soul of a Spurzheim 
or De Ville with wonderment." See 10 S. 
x. 91, 157, where Deville is described as 
a phrenologist " somewhere in the forties 
of last century." One correspondent 
quoted from ' A Woman of Mind ' : 

My wife is a woman of mind, 

And Deville, who examined her bumps, 

Vowed that never were found in a woman 
Such large intellectual lumps. 

At the second reference the late MB. 
RICHABD WEUFOBD gave some lines from 
Robert Montgomery's satire, ' The Age 
Reviewed,' in which " foggy Spurzheim," 
Combe, Gall, and " smug Deville " were 

' The Babes in the Wood.' " Split, and 
told the whole story to Cotton." I do not 
know whether Sir Robert Bruce Cotton, as 
suggested, ante, p. 99, was connected with 
the transmission of the legend. One is 
tempted to suggest that we have a reference 
to the Rev. Horace S. Cotton, D.D., who 
was Ordinary of Newgate at least as late 
as 1831. See 10 S. vii. 408, 454. 

' The Hand of Glory.' " The broad, 
Double- Joe from ayont the sea." A joe 
is said by Prof. Weekley, ' Etymological Diet, 
of Mod. English,' to be an archaic term for a 
Portuguese coin, after Joannes V. (f 1750). 

' Patty Morgan the Milkmaid's Story.' 
" Gryffith ap Conan." This is presumably 
Gruff ydd ab Cynan (1055 ?- 11 37). See the 
' D.N.B.' 

"Preface to the second edition" (Feb. 
2, 1843). " AH modern Shakespearian^, 
including the rival editors of the new and 
illustrated versions." One of these editors 
must be Charles Knight, whose ' Pictorial 
Shakspere ' was published 1838-41. Was 
J. Payne Collier's edition (1842-44) or B. W. 
Procter's (1839-43) or Thomas Campbell's 
(1838) illustrated ? EDWABD BENSLY. 

' Smuggler's Leap ' (p. 329). Nock. 
There were two famous gunsmiths of this 
name. The earlier, Henry Nock, in 1787 in- 
vented a breech-plug, known as the " patent 
breech," which was long used, and he also 
introduced the short flat piece on the top 
of gun-barrels still known as the " Nock 
form." There are several examples of his 



[12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922. 

work in, the Royal Collection, at Windsor, 
and from the date -letters on, the silver 
mountings of these weapons they can be 
accurately dated ; the years 1788, 1790, 
and 1792 occur, which seems to have been 
about the busiest time of his life. According 
to the Inventories of the Armour, &c., in, 
the Tower of London, his shop was at 180, 
Fleet Street. 

The other gunsmith of the name, Samuel 
Nock, appears as a gunsmith at the same 
address in 1812. He was probably the son 
of Henry Nock. 

Both the Nocks were good workmen, and 
made both sporting and military guns, 
besides pistols of many patterns. 

E. R. 

ix. 189 and passim)s Some of the numerous 
correspondents who answered this inquiry 
may possibly be interested in this record 
of the George Hotel, Winchester, which 
dates back to the fifteenth century, pos- 
sibly earlier : - 

Proprietor John Harris, 1655. 

The Swan. The Tuns. 

The Adam and Eve. The Marigold. 

The Nag's Head. The Crown. 

The Sun. The Lion. 

The Mermaid. The Bull. 

The Fleur-de-lis. The Rose. 

The Falcon. The Pomegranate. 

The Chequer. The Star. 

The Half-Moon. The Dolphin. 

The Cross Keys. The Squirrel. 

The Bell. The Dagger. 

The Talbot. The Green Dragon. 

The Shumeboard. The Greyhound. 


NEVIN FAMILY (12 S. x. 131). It is 
recorded in the pedigree of Irwin of Mount 
Irwin (Burke's ' Landed Gentry of Ireland,' 
1912) that " Robert Irwin of Mount Irwin, 
Co. Armagh, married the daughter of 

Nevin, and had issue, with three daughters, 
four sons." The second son, William 
Irwin, was born in 1769, so the marriage 
may be dated about 1760-1765. This 
lady may have been one of the family men- 
tioned in the query, perhaps a daughter of 
William Nevin, who succeeded to the 
Ministry of Downpatrick in 1746. A MS. 
pedigree of Black of Newry, Co. Down, in 
my possession, states that William Black, 
M.D., of Newry, married Jane, daughter of 
W. Irwin of Mount Irwin, Sheriff of Armagh, 
and their son, Thomas Black, M.D., was born 
in 1799. William Irwin married (according 
.to Burke) in 1809, Sarah, daughter of 
Samuel de la Cherois-Crommelin, so the 

parentage of Jane Black would appear to- 
be incorrectly stated in my pedigree. She 
might, however, have been a younger 
daughter of the Robert Irwin mentioned 
above. I should be glad of any information 
which would assist me in establishing her 
parentage. C. W. FIBEBBACE (Capt.). 

462, 517, 521 ; x. 57, 114). Marsh, Kinswomen 
Mary and Ann, daurs. of Joseph and Eliza- 
beth Marsh, late of Philadelphia, Pen., 
Glovers, mentioned in Will of John Andrews, 
1757. (250 Busby, P.C.C.) 

May, son Alexander, gone to Virginia, 
mentioned in Will of Alexander May of 
Clanfield, Co. Oxford. (Cons. Oxfd., vol. A, 
p. 400.) 

Davison, Hilkiah, of St. Mary's in Jamaica, 
born in Winchester, Co. Southton. Sworn 
9 Sep. 1744. (C. Reg. of Affadavits, 52-1033.) 

Pearce, Mathew, emigrated from Kings 
Langley, Herts, to New South Wales, 2 Jany. 
1832. (C.O., 206/33.) 


11, Brussels Road, St. John's Hill, 
New Wandsworth, S.W. 11. 

The little poem about the two poor boys was 

composed by Mary Sewell, 1797-1884. Its title 

is ' A Mother's Last Words.' The ballad was. 

published in 1860, and according to the * D.N.B.' 

1,088,000 copies were sold. 

Leeds Library. 


Alumni Cantabrigienses. A Biographical List 
of all known Students, Graduates and Holders 
of Office at the University of Cambridge from 
the earliest times to 1900. Compiled by John 
Venn and J. A. Venn. Part I. From the earliest 
times to 1751. Vol. i. Abbas Cutts. (Cam- 
bridge University Press, 7 10s. net.) 
To readers of ' N. & Q.' there is no need to labour 
the importance of the great work which, in the 
volume before us, begins to see the light. It is, 
in its kind, a classic, which, as time goes on, will 
gain in interest and value, which may be added 
to here and there, or corrected, but which can 
never be superseded. The compilers in their 
Preface anticipate one of the earliest impulses 
which must inevitably arise in the mind of any 
person who takes up this book for the first time- 
a comparison with the ' Alumni Oxonienses.' 
The first instalment of Foster's work was wel- 
comed in our columns at 7 S. iv. 379 (Nov. 5, 1887), 
by the pen of Joseph Knight, who addressed 
himself most zealously to showing its high utility, 
yet at a later date, upon reviewing a second 
instalment at 7 S. vii. 19 (Jan. 5, 1889), had to 
lament the slightness of the support it had met 
with. Already, it appears, he had received a 

12 S. X. MAR. 4,1922.] 



hint that the Cambridge registers might in their 
turn be published. 

It would be difficult to exaggerate our many- 
sided indebtedness to Foster and to Colonel 
Chester before him, but it must be conceded 
that the compilers of the Cambridge Register 
have both encountered greater difficulties and 
achieved more. The ' Alumni Oxonienses ' go 
back but to 1500 ; the first ' Alumni Canta- 
brigienses ' date from 1261. Yet again, Foster 
had the Oxford matriculation records in a com- 
plete transcript to form his basis : the Cambridge 
matriculation records from their inception in 
1544 had not been so prepared. Moreover, for 
the earlier years they are but scanty and the 
business of supplementing them brought a new 
complication to light. Students were found 
duly entered at a College who had never matricu- 
lated. It became clear that the matriculation 
records were far from representing the whole 
of the men who had passed through the university ; 
and further, that the men unrecorded in them 
tended to be specially youths of some social or 
political importance. Hence it was seen to be 
necessary to search the Admission Registers of 
all the Colleges, and no fewer than 3,000 addi- 
tional names were thereby obtained. It must be 
conceded that this suggests the desirability of 
making similar investigations at Oxford. The 
name of Oliver CromweU, as the Preface points 
out, is the monumental instance to this purpose. 
He appears on the Register of Sidney and resided 
for a year, but neither matriculated nor graduated. 

A most interesting section of the Preface is 
that describing the University Records. The 
dislike of writing things up seems ineradicable 
not to be overcome save by compulsion. The 
Registrary for 1590-1601 was, in that respect, a 
person of such negligence that he recorded no 
matriculations at all. This would not be possible 
at the present day, but was easy enough according 
to the old system, by which the boys' names, 
with other requisite particulars, were sent in to 
the Registrary by prelectores College officers in 
charge of the youth for him to copy into his 
book. These prelectors' lists have been kept, 
and recourse has been had to them to supplement 
and correct the errors and omissions of the official 
scribe ; and it is interesting to observe that these 
exemplify the not uncommon inverse proportion 
between the importance of a document and its 
legibility. The Grace Books form a continuous 
series from 1454 to the present day ; and in the 
Ordo Senioritatis Cambridge possesses a nearly 
unique " Honours list." A third list, that of the 
Supplicats, completes the records of Degrees. 
The Grace Books go furthest back ; for about two 
centuries of university history anterior to these 
search has to be made elsewhere. 

Four of the Colleges have published their 
records. The best of them is that of Gonville 
and Caius, but Trinity possesses, in the names of 
students of King's Hall, the earliest continuous 
list of scholars in existence. These " King's 
Scholars " were assisted by payments from the 
Exchequer, and the list has been extracted from 
the records of the Exchequer. Published or 
unpublished, all the College records have been 
worked through, but even so finality is not to 
be reached. Up to about the middle of the 
sixteenth century there abounded at Cambridge 

hostels or boarding-houses which were as populous 
as the Colleges, and frequented, it would appear, 
by the youths of higher social position. So far 
as is now known none of their books has been 
preserved, and it seems improbable that any of 
the lists of names belonging to them will now be 

For the most interesting names those of the 
earnest times, search had to be made in many 
quarters. Episcopal Registers naturally yielded 
a good deal : and the compilers point to one 
class of information contained in these which is 
of peculiar interest the occasional leave of 
absence from his parish granted by a bishop to 
a clerk to enable him to study for a certain 
length of time at a university. College Account- 
books ; Patent and Close Rolls, Papal Letters 
and other public records, as well as lists of 
ordinations and institutions to livings will present 
themselves to most readers' minds as sources to 
be investigated, and a consideration of the labour 
thereby involved will occur as a matter of course. 
It is greatly to be regretted that the compilers 
found their work obstructed in some quarters. 
It seems extraordinary that so heavy a fee as 
six shillings and eightpence an hour should be 
charged for examination of an Episcopal registry 
when the research was for a purely historical 

To turn from the Preface to the list itself 
this is arranged substantially on the plan of the 
* Alumni Oxonienses,' minor alterations in the 
spelling of well-known names being ignored in 
the alphabet. The biographical notices fre- 
quently contain points of curious interest. 
Those who make a study of names will discover 
instances worth noting while the systematic 
genealogist needs no recommendation to send 
him to a work for which he has been waiting. 
Those who possess the * D.N.B.' might usefully 
annotate one or two biographies from this list 
that of Walter Balcanqual, for example, which 
is astonishingly incorrect, or that of Henry 
BiUingsley. Among the names included in Part I. 
are those of more than a hundred Cambridge 
students who emigrated to New England before 
1650, biographies of whom have been supplied 
by Mr. J. Gardner Bartlett of Boston, Mass. 
The names contained in this first volume number 
some twenty thousand. 

Measure for Measure. (Cambridge University 

Press. 7s. net.) 

WE have here before us the fourth volume of that 
" New Shakespeare " which has already established 
itself as an authoritative interpretaton of the 
Plays. There is none among these like ' Measure 
for Measure ' for tantalizing an editor and pricking 
his ingenuity ; and none which more acutely vexes 
a lover of the poet by its incongruities and its 
steep descents from the height of beauty to depths 
of squalid futility. Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch in 
his Introduction first gives us Whetstone's sketch 
of the Italian story upon which the plot is founded, 
and then proceeds to search for the flaw whereby 
the play as. a whole must be acknowledged to 
miss fire. He discusses first its licentiousness, and 
since it has come to be regarded as the locus 
classicus for this quality in Shakespearian drama 
he takes occasion by it to deliver his main 
opinion on the subject as a whole. These sections, 



[12S. X. MAR. 4, 1022. 

in our opinion, express very happily, and with 
Sir Arthur's usual freshness and sureness of 
handling, the judgment formed by most plain 
readers who know and love Shakespeare well 
without being inspired or compelled to find some- 
thing new to say of him. Not, however, in these 
matters does he find the cause of failure, though 
he reminds us that the play belongs to the myste- 
riously troubled period of Shakespeare's life when 
his view of the relations between man and woman 
shows itself dark and bitter. 

Our critic agrees with Walter Pater in 
taking the idea of the play to be poetical 
justice ; but he urges that Pater reports aright 
not what Shakespeare succeeded in doing but 
only what he intended to do. A criticism of the 
character of Isabella leads him to the heart of the 
puzzle to the radical inconsistency which damns 
the play as unrealized. We think he bears too 
hardly on Isabella in the matter of Mariana, 
and makes too little of the pre-contract. After all a 
solemn betrothal could be annulled only by a papal 
dispensation, without which the parties were not 
free to marry elsewhere. Perhaps Sir Arthur 
" forgot to remember " the tedious business 
between John Paston and Anne Haute. The 
intervening century would count for little as 
regards stories. On the other hand, more emphasis 
might well have been laid on the inconsistency of 
Isabella's easy consent to marry the Duke. Her 
rebukes to Claudio, as they stand, are impossibly 
rough in wording, but at least they convey, in 
addition to the anger of an honest woman, detesta- 
tion of the suggested violation of her vows ; they 
carry on the note struck in the scene in the 
nunnery, that of the " thing enskied and sainted." 
The character in fact splits in two ; being, as we 
find her, so nobly a nun, the Isabella of the first 
part could not, without a struggle of some sort, 
have renounced her calling. In fact, in such a 
person, the breakdown of a vow would itself be 
matter for a play. Here it is treated with a. 
carelessness which, from the dramatic point of 
view, ruins the character. 

Who is to say what Shakespeare himself did or 
intended in ' Measure for Measure ' ? We have 
nothing but the folio text, in which appear plainly 
numerous inaccuracies to be imputed to careless 
transcribing, and also at least two processes, of 
abridgment and expansion, in a working over 
of the text. Mr. Dover Wilson, after discussing 
these processes makes an important contri- 
bution to the question of the date of the play, 
confirming the entry in the Account Books of the 
Revels Office, by which this is now accepted as 
Dec. 26, 1604. He points out that the " black 
Masques " which " proclaim an enshield beauty " 
are a compliment, in advance, to Ben Jonson and 
his " Masque of Blackness," which was given at 
Court on Twelfth Night, 1605. In this the 
masquers were placed in a great concave shell 
devised by Inigo Jones. The allusion falls 
in happily with those already noted by students 
to James I.'s dislike of crowds. The discussion 
of the copy used for the play as printed in 1623 
an excellent handling of an intricate matter 
works out to the conclusion that a prompt-copy was 
the basis of it, and that not a copy made from 
the original MS. but one from an abridgment 
made for the occasion in 1604, and existing 
largely as a set of players' parts. 

Mr. Child summarizes skilfully the stage-history 
of the play, which was brilliant enough during 
the eighteenth century and the period of the great 
actors and actresses. More even than most of 
Shakespeare's plays it depends for its true effect 
on being seen upon the boards, and its very 
faults serve as opportunities to the genius of the 

WE have received the following letter, which will 
be read with interest by all old readers of 
N. & Q.' : 

Mollington Vicarage, Banbury, Feb. 25, 1922. 
Dear Sir, O\ving to the death of my mother, 
I am having to dispose of the whole of MB. W. J. 
THOMS'S collection of papers on " Longevity," 
also a great many wonderful engravings of Cen- 
tenarians. They are to be sold by auction 
shortly by Messrs. Puttick and Simpson of Leicester 
Square. If you would kindly insert this letter 
in your next issue your readers would have the 
opportunity of seeing them before the sale. 

Yours faithfully, 

The library of the Rothamsted Experimental 
Station, Harpenden, has recently been enriched 
by a rare volume (believed to be the first printed 
book on agriculture in France), given by Lady 
Ludlow. It is entitled ' Le livre des prouffitz 
champestres et ruraulx,' and was printed by 
Pierre de Sainte-Lucie at Lyons in 1539. It is 
of special interest in view of the influence exerted 
by the French agricultural authors of a somewhat 
later period on the Elizabethan agricultural 
writers in this country, whose influence in turn 
lasted almost to Victorian times. 

J?ottce to Correspondents 

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ANEUBIN WILLIAMS. (1) Edward Ellerker 
Williams, son of John Williams, a captain in the 
East India Company's army; b. 1793; d. L822. 
A short life of him by Richard Garnett will be 
found in the D.N.B.' ( 2) Archdeacon Stephen 
Phillips, D.D. ; b. 1638; d. 1684. Married Mary 
Cook, daughter of his predecessor at Bampton. 
See article on his son in ' D.N.B.' 

12 S. X. MAR. 4, 1922.1 


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LONDON, MARCH 11. 1922. 

CONTENTS. No. 204. 

NOTES : ' The Assumption of the Virgin.' by Botticini (?). 
181 Lambert Family, 182 Glass-painters of York. 184 
Ancient Brass Engraving, 186r A Note on the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle. 187 A Latin Saying A " London Welsh " 
Family : Williams of Islington. 188. 

QUERIES : Stroud Green. 188 John Planta's Spinning- 
wheel Sir Charles Cox. M.P. ' Othello ' Non-juring 
Clergy : Baptismal Registers The House of Husbandry 
Bernasconi William Milburn Sir T. Phillips, 189 
" Gregor " of the Mosquito Coast William Meyler Richard 
Abbott Knaves Acre', Lambeth General Cyrus Trapaud : 
Reynolds Portrait Files of Old Newspapers wanted 
" Sorencys " Daniel Race Heather Family A Kensington 
Tapestry, 190 Jacobo d' Zsenaco Menardus Benjamin 
Havenc Sir Hans Fowler Burr-walnut Book-plate of D. 
Andrews de Swathling Henry Kendall Vine Tavern, Mile 
End Authors wanted German Books wanted, 191. 

REPLIES : Tercentenary Handlist of Newspapers, 191 
Oxfordshire Masons, 194 The Cap of Maintenance Chalk 
in Kent and its Owners, 195 Blue Beard Adah Isaacs 
Menken, 196 Regimental Chaplains, 65th Regiment 
Pseudo-titles for " Dummy Books " A very Aldworth 
Eighteenth-century Poetry St. Michael's, Guernsey, 197 
Arab (or Eastern) Horses " Once aboard the lugger " 
British Settlers in America Portraits of Coleridge and 
Dickens Land Measurement Terms, 198 Samuel Maunder 
Unidentified Arms Gezreel's Tower Author wanted, 199. 

NOTES ON BOOKS : ' The General Eyre ' ' A Volume of 
Oriental Studies.' 

Notices to Correspondents. 



UNDER this title there is a large and beau- 
tiful picture at the National Gallery, 
numbered 1126 in the catalogue of 1921, 
originally on wood, afterwards transferred 
to canvas, about which I venture to make 
the following remarks. First as to the 
painter. Vasari mentions it as being by 
Sandro Botticelli, or, as the learned call 
him, Filipepi, and it is so described in 
Bryan's * Dictionary ' (1898), in the abridged 
National Gallery catalogue, 1901, and in 
the catalogue of 1906, where, however, 
we are told that it "is now attributed by 
critics of the modern school to Botticini, 
of whose life little is known." The compiler 
quotes from Uhlmann as follows : 

It may well be that Botticelli had had from 
Palmieri the Commission for the picture of ' the 
Assumption,' and have designed only the com- 
position and left the working out to Botticini, 
with whom, haying probably known him at some 
t'ornu-r time in Verocchio's studio, he worked 

in the year 1470. The great affinity of the art 
of Botticelli with that of Botticini speaks for a 
close relation between the two. 
In the National Gallery catalogue of 1921 
we are given no choice, Botticini being 
named alone. Thus our cherished faith 
is shattered by the modern expert. 

To go back to the catalogue of 1906. 
It contains in a note a remarkable account 
of the painting, written, I think, originally 
by Sir Frederic Burton, director 1874-94, 
of which I will now give an abstract. * The 
Assumption '. was executed perhaps about 
1472 for Matteo Palmieri, and placed in 
the family chapel in S. Pietro Maggiore, 
Florence. That distinguished man, who 
rendered important services to the Republic, 
was also a profound theologian and an 
earnest student of Dante's works, who 
composed a poem somewhat on the model 
of the * Divina Commedia.' After his 
death and honourable burial, in or after 
1475, the poem, which had not previously 
been circulated, was thought by some in- 
vidious critics to contain unorthodox views 
as to the nature of angels. These were 
brought to the notice of the Church authori- 
ties, and pending inquisition, the picture, 
which was supposed to reflect in some way 
the surmised doctrine in the poem, was 
covered, and the chapel in which it stood 
closed to public worship. Finally, after 
some lapse of time, the book was declared 
innocuous and the chapel was re-opened. 
Meanwhile, however, the question of Pal- 
mieri's heresy had been so violently debated 
in Florence that the story spread through 
Europe, giving rise by degress to extravagant 
and inaccurate reports which were variously 
recounted by ecclesiastical writers, some of 
whom stated that Palmieri had been burnt 
alive for heresy, others that his dead body 
had been disinterred and burnt with his 
poem. Vasari says that the painter, no less 
than Palmieri, was included by the malevo- 
lent in the charge of heresy. The painting 
bears evidence of intentional injury, the 
face of the donor and that of his wife having 
been scored through ; an attempt to restore 
them was afterwards made. At some 
uncertain time it was removed to the Villa 
Palmieri (which had been bought by Matteo), 
near Florence. On the death of the last 
heir, within the nineteenth century, the 
picture fell into the hands of a Florentine 
dealer, and later became the property of the 
eleventh Duke of Hamilton. It was pur- 
chased from the Hamilton sale, June 24, 1882. 
The original draft of Palmieri's poem, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 S.X.MAB. 11,1022. 

entitled ' La Cicta (Citta) della Vita,' is 
in the Magliabecchian Library at Florence. 
A copy is, or was, in the Strozzi Library; 
the Ambrosian Library at Milan contains 
the only other known copy. 

In the National Gallery catalogue of 1921, 
p. 32, the compiler gives an accurate though 
concise account of the main portions of the 
picture, but in his reference to the " land- 
scape background showing the Arno and 
Florence left," he makes rather a serious 
error. In fact, the scene was described with 
much detail by that accomplished lady the 
late Miss Margaret Stokes, honorary member 
of the Royal Irish Academy and Associate 
of the Scottish Society of Antiquaries, 
whom I met in Florence many years ago. 
She had a photograph of the " landscape 
background " to the left of the group of 
apostles round the Virgin's tomb, armed 
with which she determined to find out the 
point of view of the great artist, whoever 
he may have been. The results of her search 
are described and illustrated in a volume 
entitled ' Six Months in the Apennines,' 
published 1892. Sbt tells us how, starting 
from Fiesole, she crossed the bridge over the 
Mugnone, a picturesque tributary of the 
Arno, and walked uphill towards the Villa 
Salviati. Then, standing among the ruined 
terraces of an. ancient garden, she saw at 
her feet the very scene depicted by the 
painter " the wide horizon reaching from 
San Domenico and the Apennines beyond 
Monte Moro, Scala, and Monte Maggio, 
round the whole Val d'Arno to San Lorenzo 
and the northern boundary of Florence." 
She traced out all the details, and in her 
volume the scene is reproduced from the 
picture, and also from her own drawing, 
made at the time of her visit. The two 
views are surprisingly alike. The Arno is 
not visible. The Mugnone, . nowing with 
devious course from the immediate fore- 
ground towards Florence, has been narrowed 
and straightened somewhat. In the picture 
it is crossed by a bridge of three arches, 
where there is now one of a single span. 
The old walls of the city have been swept 
away, but various delightful buildings re- 
main almost unchanged, and of these Miss 
Stokes gives a list. I will only refer to two 
of them. On high ground to the extreme 
left stands the Badia of Fiesole, its fa$ade 
unfinished as in the fifteenth century. The 
villa that rises amid tall cypress and olive 
trees on the height above the Mugnone 
Beyond the bridge, is the house of Matteo 

Palmieri, author of the poem which inspired 
this great painting, and here Botticelli 
may have been his guest. Boccaccio makes 
this the abode of the tellers of the stories 
in his ' Decamerone ' during the plague of 
1348. In 1892 it was the home of the 
widowed Lady Crawford and her daughters, 
and four years earlier it had been occupied 
for a short time by that illustrious personage 
her late Majesty Queen Victoria. 



AT 6 S. x. 436, a query appears as to the 
family of Ralph Lambert, Bishop of 
Meath. It does not appear to have been 
answered. Having made some research as 
to the kinsfolk of this bishop, I venture to 
send the result to ' N. & Q.' as a contribution 
to Irish genealogy, repeating the question 
of your correspondent of 38 years ago - 
who was Robert Lambert, otherwise Robert 
Lambert Tate, father of Lady Annesley ? 
His wife was a descendant of the Lambert 
family, as will appear below, but he himself 
is described as Robert Lambert Tate in his 
marriage entry in 1750. There does not 
appear to be any connexion between this 
family and that of the Earls of Cavan, whose 
name is spelled Lambart. As will be seen 
later on, several references to this family in 
published pedigrees are erroneous. 

A note was published in * N. & Q.' 
(2 S. viii. 10), regarding the first known 
ancester, who was : 

The Rev. THOMAS LAMBERT, ordained 
priest by Theophilus, Bishop of Llandaff, 
March 15, 1625; Chaplain in H.M.'s Army; 
Vicar of Dromiskin 1633-61, and Vicar of 
Dunany, both in Co. Louth ; died 1661. 
Prerogative will proved Feb. 1661-2, having 
had four children : 

I. James Lambert. 

II. George, of whom immediately. 

I. Anne Lambert, m. Matthew Geering. 

II. Lambert, m. John Brunker. 

The younger son : 

GEORGE LAMBERT of Dundalk, Co. Louth, 
m. Alice, sister of the Right Rev. William 
Smyth, Bishop of Kilmore, and dau. of 
Capt. Ralph Smyth of Ballymacash, near 

i Lisburn, Co. Antrim, High Sheriff Co. 

| Antrim 1680, by Elizabeth Hawkesworth 
his wife, and by her, who was buried at 

I Lisburn Cathedral, Aug. 16, 1715, had five 
sons and four daughters (order of age 

I uncertain) : 

I I. George Lambert of Downpatrick and 

1-2 S. X. MAK. 11, 1922.] 



Dunlady, Co. Down, High Sheriff Co. Down 
1720, m. Elizabeth, dau. of the Rev. Henry 
Jenny, D.D., Archdeacon of Dromore, 
and d., will dated July 27, 1723; proved 
Prerog. Feb. 18, 1723-4. 

II. RALPH, of whom presently. 

III. Hawkesworth Lambert, b. Dundalk ; \ 
entered Trin. Coll., Dublin, May 18, 1687, 
aged 16; scholar 1688. 

IV. William Lambert. 

V. Robert Lambert of Dunlady, Co. j 
Down ; will dated May 7, 1750 ; proved 
Prerog. Nov. 6, 1751 ; left a dau., Mary 

I. Elizabeth Lambert, m. William Bra- 
bazon of Rath House, Co. Meath, grandson 
of Sir Anthony Brabazon, son of the first Lord 
Ardee, and brother of the first Earl of Meath, 
and had issue. 

II. Alice Lambert, m. Thomas Dawson of 
Gilford, Co. Down, son of William Dawson 
of Lisveagh, Co. Armagh, and brother of 
Ralph Dawson of Dawson's Grove, Co. 
Armagh. By him, whose will, dated May 5, 
1729, was proved Prerog. May 26, 1729, she 
appears to have left no issue. 

III. Mary Lambert, m. at Lisburn Cathedral, 
Nov. 8, 1696, the Rev. William Skemngton, 
B.A., son of Richard Skeffington of Co. 
Armagh, and had at least two sons : 

i. George Skemngton, mentioned in will 
of George Lambert. 

ii. Lambert Skeffington, b. Co. Meath ; 
entered T.C.D. June 21, 1728, aged 17. 

IV. Anne Lambert, m. May 23, 1710, the 
Rev. John Vaughan, Rector of Dromore, 
Co. Down, son of the Rev. George Vaughan, 
Treasurer of Dromore, and had, with other 
issue, a son and a daughter : 

i. George Vaughan (Rev.), Rector of 
Dromore, ancestor of Vaughan of Quilly 
(see Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' which is 
incorrect in its reference to his sister, 
Mrs. Corry). 

i. Alice Vaughan, m. the Rev. John 
Corry of Rockcorry, Co. Monaghan, son of 
Isaiah Corry, High Sheriff Co. Monaghan 
1712, and died Nov. 23, 1791, having had, 
with other issue : 

(1) John Corry, of Sport Hall, Co. 
Monaghan, High Sheriff Co. Monaghan, 
1759, m. Feb. 26, 1762, Catherine Coote, 
sister of Charles, 1st Earl of Bellamont, 
and d.v.p. 1770, s.p.m. 

(2) Thomas Corry, of Rockcorry, High 
Sheriff Co. Monaghan 1782, m. Nov. 1780, 
Rebecca, only dau. of William Steuart of 
Bailieborough Castle, Co. Cavan, M.P. 

Co. Cavan, by Jane, dau. of Thomas Trotter, 
M.P., Judge of the Prerogative Court, and 
had issue. 

(3) Isaiah Corry of Ballytrain, Co. 
Monaghan, m., first, Catherine, widow of 
George Scott, of Legacorry, Co. Monaghan, 
and dau. of Lancelot Fisher ; and, secondly, 
Dec. 8, 1778, Barbara, dau. of the Rev. 
Andrew Nixon of Nixon Lodge, Co. Cavan, 
and had issue by both marriages. 

(4) James Corry of Shantonagh, Co. 
Monaghan, m. Mary, dau. of John Ruxton 
of Ardee, Co. Louth, M.P., and was ancestor 
of the Fitzherbert family. 

(1) Anne Corry, m., first, at St. Peter's, 
Dublin, June 30, 1750, Robert Lambert 
Tate of Dunlady, Co. Down, High Sheriff 
Co. Down 1762 (who d. April 25, 1783, 
aged 53) ; and, secondly, Robert McLeroth, 
High Sheriff Co. Down 1790, and by her first 
marriage had a dau., Anne Lambert, m .1771, 
Richard, second Earl Annesley. 

One of the sons of George Lambert and 
Alice Smyth was : 

of Dromore 1717-26, and of Meath 1726- 
31; born in Co. Louth; entered T.C.D. 
Aug. 13, 1681; Scholar 1683; B.A. 1686; 
M.A. 1696; B.D. and D.D. 1701 ; Rector of 
Kilskyre, diocese of Meath, 1703-9; Pre- 
centor of Down 1703-6 ; Vicar of Dundalk, 
diocese of Armagh, 1706-9 ; Dean of Down 
1709-17. His first wife, Sarah, died 1707, 
aged 40 ; tablet in Dundalk Church. (Burke's 
' Landed Gentry,' 1846, sub tit. ' Smyth 
of Gaybrook,' says she was the only dau. 
of Smythe Kelly, who was son of Capt. 
Kelly, by Judith, dau. of John Smyth, 
uncle of William, Bishop of Kilmore. ) 
Bishop Lambert m., secondly, Prerogative 
marriage licence, July 14, 1716, Elizabeth 
Rowley of Clonmethan. (He is said, 
erroneously, in the notes to p. 361 of the 
Montgomery MSS., to have been a brother 
of Mrs. Ann Hall of Strangford. He was 
her brother-in-law, as she had been Ann 
Rowley.) Ralph Lambert died Feb. 6, 
1731-2, and was buried at St. Michan's, 
Dublin, having had by his first wife two 
sons and three daughters : 

I. Thomas Lambert, b. Co. Down ; ent. 
T.C.D. April 24, 1716, aged 16; buried at 
Lisburn Aug. 14, 1718. 

II. MONTAGUE, of whom presently. 

I. Alice Lambert, m. Dublin, marr. lie. 
July 2, 1739, Nathaniel Preston of Swains- 
town, Co. Meath, M.P. for Navan 1713-60. 

II. Susanna Lambert, m. first, at St. 



Mary's, Dublin, June 18, 1730, the Rev. 
William Smyth, M.A., Dean of Ardfert and 
Archdeacon of Meath, eldest son of the Right 
Rev. Thomas Smyth, Bishop of Limerick. 
He died 1732, and she m., secondly, 
Prerog. marr. lie., 1738, Sheffield Austin. 
Her will, dated Oct. 23, 1778, was proved 
as that of Dame Susanna Austin in the 
Prerogative Court, March 14, 1780, leaving 
her property to her nephew, John Dillon 
of Lismullen. There seems to be no record 
of a baronet or knight named Sheffield 

III. Elizabeth Lambert, m. at St. Mary's, 
Dublin, June 11, 1730, Arthur Dillon, of 
Lismullen, Co. Meath (son of Sir John 
Dillon, Knt., M.P., of Lismullen), and had 
a son, Sir John Dillon, first baronet, of Lis- 
mullen ; M.P. Wicklow 1771-76, and Bles- 
sington 1776-83. 

The son : 

MONTAGUE LAMBERT of Dublin, Cornet 
1st Carabiniers (6th Dragoon Guards),* 
Feb. 20, 1721-2, commission renewed by 
George II. 1727, serving in 1730, Lieut., 
1st Carabiniers, in 1737, m.t Sarah, dau. of 
Samuel Waring of Waringstown, Co* Down, 
High Sheriff Co. Down 1690, M.P. for 
Hillsborough 1703-15, and died 1740, will 
dated Feb. 16, 1739-40, proved Prerogative, 
Apri 9, 1740, having had by her, who m., 
secondly, the Rev. Francis Hamilton, 
D.D.,J Treasurer of Armagh and Vicar of 
Dundalk, and died May 7, 1780, aged 77, 
buried at Dundalk, one son and four 
daus. : 

I. RALPH, of whom presently. 

I. Grace Lambert. 

II. Susanna Lambert. 

III. Sarah Lambert, m., first, -Bayly, 

The only son : 

RALPH LAMBERT, Second Examiner in 

Chancery, ent. T.C.D. Jan. 25, 1753, aged 
| 17, m. at Lisburn Cathedral, Sept. 22, 1760, 
! Harriett, eldest dau. of the Very Rev. 
! John Welsh, Dean of Connor and Rector 
| of Lisburn, by Mary, dau. of Edward Peers, 
I by Jane, sister of the Rev. Samuel Close, 
I Rector of Donaghenry, diocese of Armagh, 

and dau. of Richard Close. Ralph Lambert 

died Dec., 1761, or Jan., 1762, will dated 
I April 5, 1761, proved Prerog., Feb. 8, 1762, 
i and his widow m., secondly, the Very Rev. 
I Richard Dobbs, M.A., Dean of Connor, 
I eldest son of the Rev. Richard Dobbs, 
JD.D., Rector of Lisburn, by Mary, dau. 

of James Young, of Lismany, Co. Tyrone.* 
! She died March 25, 1784, aged 45. 


and, secondly, at St. Mary's, Dublin, June 11, 
1767, Robert Howard, Capt. 14th Light 
Dragoons, M.P. for St. Johnstown, 1776- 
83, LL.D., honoris causa, T.C.D. , brother 
of Ralph, first Viscount Wicklow, and 
youngest son of the Right Rev. Robert 
Howard, Bishop of Elphin. She was heiress 
of her brother, and had a son, Robert Howard 
of Castle Howard, Co. Wicklow. 

IV. Georgina Lambert, b. Feb. 26, 1737-8, 
bapt. at St. Peter's, Dublin, March 31, 1738. 

* Dalton's Army Lists, and his son's matricula- 
tion entry, where he is called Dux. 

t Burke's ' Landed Gentry,' under Waring, er- 
roneously calls him Ralph Lambert. 

J Burke, as above, erroneously calls him Rev. 
James Hamilton. 

(Se 12 S. viii. and ix. passim ; x. 45.) 



1 1 HAVE extracted this list chiefly from the 
I Freemen's Roll (Surtees Soc.), with addi- 
tional names from other available sources. 
The date, unless shown in brackets, is that 
of the year in which the freedom was taken 
up, generally at 21 years of age, excepting 
during times like that of the Black Death of 
1349 or subsequent visitations, such as that 
of 1362 ; or in the case of a man coming to 
the city from elsewhere, as, for example, 
John Thornton of Coventry (vide 12 S. vii. 

1313. Walterus le vemrar. 

1324. Robertus Ketelbarn, verrour. He was 
probably " one Robert " who in 1338 contracted to 
fill the Great West -window of the Minster with 
stained glass at a cost of sixpence a foot for white 
(i.e. grisaille) and twelve pence afoot for coloured 
glass (i.e., figure work) (Torre MS. in York 
Minster Library, fol. 3, from Reg. L y, fol. 69, now 
lost). The window was paid for by Archbishop 
Melton, who the same year gave 100 marks 
towards the cost of the work. The two windows 
at the west end of the aisles, contracted for at the 
same time at a cost of eleven marks each, were 
probably also Robert Ketelbarn's work. 

1329. Johannes de Holtby, verrour. Holtby 
is the name of a village a few miles from York 
on the road to Scarborough. The names of the 
places from which these glass-painters came show 
that they all. with few exceptions, came from small 
towns and villages in the- surroxinding district, e.g., 
Burton Agnes, Bishop Auckland, Selby, Eirkby 

* Burke'* ' Landed Gentry,' under Dobbs, states 
that the 'Rev. Richard Dobbs, senior, married 
Mrs. Lambert, but this is an error. 

iis.x.MAR.11,1922.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 


Overblow, Brotton Knayth, Darlington, &c. 
There is nothing to show a foreign origin of any 
of them. 

[died 1337.] John de Preston (vide 12 S. viii. 

[1341.] Richard le Ferrour was Chamberlain of 
the city in that year (Skaife MS., Lord Mayors i 
and Sheriffs ; York Public Library). 

1345. Will le ferrour de Bouthum. The! 
name ByOotham, now applied to a street, was that j 
of a vill or burgh belonging to the Abbot and ! 
Convent of St. Mary's, just outside the walls of 
the city, and the cause of frequent disputes ; 
between the Abbot and Mayor as to their respec- 
tive rights therein. 

1349. Robertus de Burton Aunays, ferrour. 
Burton Agnes, a village about four miles from 

1351. Henricus del Mure, verrour. It will be 
noticed that in this year three glass-painters were 
enrolled, no doubt in order to make up for losses 
amongst the craft by death during the Black 
Death. The average number of freemen enrolled | 
annually at York between the years 1339 and 
1348 was 60. In 1349, however, 208 new freemen ; 
were entered, and in 1363, 218. 

1351. Willelmus de Aukland, verrour. He i 
was doing work for the Minster in 1371 and was j 
Bailiff of the city in 1380 (Skaife MS., Lord 
Mayors and Sheriffs ; York Public Library). 

1351. Will de Preston, ouerour (vide 12 S. 
viii. 485). 

1353. Edmund Mott, ferrour. 

1359. Johannes de Selby, verrour. 

1360. Johannes Archer, verrour. 

1361. John de Preston, glasenwreght (vide 
12 S. viii. 485). It will be noticed that glass- 
painters who have hitherto been styled " verrours " 
are from now until 1385 termed '* glasenwrights " 
and after that " glasyers." 

1368. Joh. de Kyrkeby, glasenwright. 

1371. Will de Brotton, glasenwright. 

1375. Joh. de Broghton, glasenwright. There 
is a village of Broughton in the parish of Kirkby, 
near Stokesley, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, 
so it is probable that John and Will de Broghton, 
who were no doubt brothers, and John de Kyrkeby 
(free in 1 368,) all came from the same district. John 
de Broghton died in 1384, when administration of 
his goods was granted to John de Pynchbek, John 
de Knayth and Adam Sommoneur, " being within 
the jurisdiction of the Chapter of York " (Reg. 
Test. D. and C. Ebor., i. 78), so that they evidently 
lived within the cathedral close and not in the city. 
John de Knayth, like the deceased, was a glass- 
painter, being free of the city as a " glasenwright " 

end the proceeds of their unsavoury trade was 

1375. John de Burgh, glasenwright (vide 
12 S. x. 88). * 

1&78. Johannes Knayth, glasenwright (vide 
note to John de Broghton above). 

1381. Will de Bardenay, glasenwright. 

1385. Will de Bulnays, glasenwright. 

1387. Johannes Danyell, glasyer. This is the 
first instance in the Freemen's Roll of the use of the 
term " glasyer " to describe a glass-painter. 
Johannes Danyell, probably a son, was free in 

1387. Johannes de Bolton, ferrour. 

1391. Will Darthyngton, glasyer. 

1395. Andreas Barker, ferrour. 

1395. Petrus de Prestwyk, glasyer. 

1400. Joh. de la Chaumbre, glasyer (vide 128. 
viii. 127). 

1400. Thomas de Byngfeld. glasier (ibid.). 

1400. Robertus de Wakeffeld, glasyer (ibid.). 

1402. Johannes Danyell, glasyer. Probably 
son of the Johannes Danyell, free in 1387. 

1407. Willelmus Fournour, glacier. 

1409. Robertus Bedford, glacier. His son, 
" Johannes Bedford, cleric i;s, fil. Roberti Bedford, 
glasier," was free of the city in 1437. 

1410. Johannes Thornton, glacyer (vide 12 8. 
vii. 481). 

1412. Robertus Fournays, glacier. Probably 
an ancestor of Thomas Fourneys, glasyer, free 
1520, whose son, William Fornes, glasyer, was 
free in 1561. 

1414. Joh. Chambre, junior, glasier (vide 12 S. 
viii. 127). 

[1417]. Robert Quarendon, working at the 
i Minster in that year (vide Fabric Rolls, Surtees 
! Soc.). 

1418. Thomas Roos, glasyer. Very little is 
known about him. He made his will (Reg. Test. 
I Ebor., iii. 374) on Feb. 8, 1433, desiring to be buried 
| in St. Helen's Church, Stonegate. To his sister 
j Margaret, 20d., and the whole of the rest of his 
i property to his wife Katherine. He either died 
without issue or his son had taken over his business 
some time previous to his father's death. One 
Henry Ros is mentioned in the Rot. Kemp as 
follows : " To Henry Ros, glasier, working about 
the palace in glazing . . . panels with a figure of 
St. John, and other panels with (a representation of) 
the sun's rays and in mending the windows of the 
same ... at the west end of the same hall,. 
16s. 8d." (Fabric Rolls of York Minster, Glossary, 
p. 349). He was probably also the " Rose glasyer " 
who, in 1433-4, was paid seven shillings for 
glazing in the Chapel or Hall of the York Merchant 

in 1378. Adam Sommoneur was evidently 
renner up and down, With mandements for forni- 
catioun," and one of a class of whom, according 
to Chaucer, " may no good be said." The York 
Minster Fabric Roll for the year 1421 shows that 
through the activities of these gentry and " by 
the various Penitentiaries " their employers, no 
less a sum than 64 5s. l\d. (equal to 1,000 present 
value) was raised in one year (Browne, ' Hist. 
York Minster,' p. 221). A window in the nave 
represents the Penancers at work, in one light flagel- 
lating a man, and in another chastising a woman, 
whilst figures in the border pour money out of bags 
and masons carve stonework, showing to what 

Adventurers Company (' York Merchant Ad- 
venturers,' Surtees Soc.). 

1418. Johannes Neusom, glasyer. One of a 
family of at least three generations of journeymen 
glass-painters, none of whom seem to have risen 
to have a shop of his own. In 1437, John Newsom 
was one of the witnesses to the will of John 
Chamber the elder, who was probably his master. 
His son, John Newsom, was free in 1442 and 
worked for Thomas Shirley (vide 12 S. viii. 365), 
and his grandson, Thomas Newsom, was free in 
1470, and worked for Thomas Shirwyn (vide 
128. viii. 407). 

1419. Johannes Berford, ferrour. Probably 
; one of the same family as Robertus Bedford, 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [ 12 s.x. MAR. 11,1922. 

glacier, free 1409, and his son, Johannes Bedford, 
clericus, free 1437. 

1421. Willelmus Gent, glasyer. 

1425. Johannes Coverham, glasyer. He was 
evidently the " John, servant of John Burgh," 
who is mentioned in the Fabric Boll for the year 
1414, and later, in 1419, under his full name, which 
is coupled with that of John Burgh, who was 
presumably, therefore, his master. John Cover- 
ham's son Thomas was free in 1448. 

1426. Thomas Husthwayt, ferrour. Hus- 
thwaite is a village near Easingwold, in the East 
Biding of Yorkshire. 

1427. Bicardus Penbrygge, glasyer. He prob- 
ably came from Pembridge in Herefordshire. 

[1431]. William Bownas, glasyer. The only 
information we have of him is that contained in 
his will (Beg. Test. Ebpr., ii. 648), where he de- 
scribed himself as a " citizen and glazier of York, 
dwelling in the parish of St. Wilfrid," in the 
churchyard of which he was buried. All his goods 
he bequeathed to his wife Cecilia. Will proved 
April 22, 1431. 

1436. Willelmus Thwaytes, glasyer. 

1438. Willelmus Cartmell, glasier. William 
Cartmell and William Bownas (vide s.a. 1431, 
above) or their ancestors evidently came from the 
Lake District, Cartmel being the name of a village 
and Priory in Lancashire, and there are two 
villages named Bowness, one in Cumberland and 
the other on Lake Windermere. The work of the 
York glass-painters was as well known on the 
west as on the east coast, and many churches and 
abbeys in the Lake District sent to York to have 
their windows painted. Bobert Preston, the glass- 
painter, who died in 1503, left a sum of money to 
Wedrall Abbey, near Carlisle ; and Sir John Petty 
(d. 1508) bequeathed 13s. 4d. to Furness Abbey in 
Lancashire " be cause," as he said, " I have wroght 
mych wark there." In the little village church of 
Cartmel Fell, some few miles from the Priory of 
Cartmel, is some typical York canopy work. 
William Cartmell was probably the "William" 
mentioned in the Fabric Boll of 1443, and under 
his full name in those of 1444-1447, and again (or 
a, son of the same name) in 1471. It is presumed 
he was one of Thomas Shirley's workmen (vide 
12 S. viii. 365). 

1439. Thomas Shirlay, glasyer (vide 12 S. viii. 

1442. Johannes Neusom, glasier, fil. Johannis 
Neusom. Free of the city by patrimony. His 
father, John Newsom, was free in 1418. He 
evidently learnt his business or was in the employ 
of Thomas Shirley, who in his will, made in 1456, 
bequeathed " to John Newsom, if he be in my 
service at the time of my decease, 3s. 4d." (Beg. 
Test. Ebor.. ii. 380 d). John Newsom's son 
Thomas was free in 1442. 

1443. John Ley, glasier's son William Ley, 
parchemyner, was free of the city. 

1446. Thomas Mylet. Probably a partner of 
Matthew Petty (vide 12 S. ix. 21). In 1463-4, he 
was one of the glass-painters to whom new 
ordinances were granted. 

1447. Bicardus Chambre, glasier, fil Johannis 
Chaumbre, glasier (vide 12 S. viii. 128). 

[1447]. Matthew Petty (vide 12 S. ix. 21). 

1448. Thomas Coverham, glasier, fil Johannis 
Coverham, glasier. Son of John Coverhatn, free 
1425, and one of John Chamber the younger's 

workmen, who at his death in 1451 left him Is. 8d. 
(vide 12 S. viii. 128). In 1463-4, he was evidently 
a master, as his name appears amongst those to 
whom new ordinances were granted in that year. 
In 1471 he was doing work for the Minster 
(Fabric Bolls, s.a. 1471). 

1450. Will Inglysshe, als Bichardson, glasyer 
(vide 12 S. vii j . 323). 


(To be concluded.) 


SEEING that my note on the Stoke d'Abernon 
enamelled shield (12 S. viii. 428) has been 
received with considerable interest, it occurs 
to me that a few remarks upon the ancient 
method of engraving, and the kind of tools 
used for the purpose, may also be acceptable. 

I have a photograph of the British 
Museum MS. from which Haines illustrated 
his comments on the subject, and am in- 
clined to think that the sketch may refer 
to the engraving of a brass quite as much 
as to the incising of stone, for at least one 
of the artificers is apparently cutting length- 
wise with the lines of the effigy. This 
method of cutting can only be employed 
in the case of metal. Incisions in stone, 
whether long or short, must be cut by laying 
a wide flat tool along one edge of the line 
and driving the tool, by means of a mallet, 
into the stone towards the other edge of the 
line, and then repeating the process from 
the opposite side, so as to produce a V-shaped 
incision as long as the width of the tool. 
To attempt to make the chisel travel along 
a line in stone would break away both 
edges of the incision in flakes of various 
sizes. Thus the so-called V-cut letters are 
peculiar to stone and never found in ancient 
brass, save perhaps in the case of a fine 
stroke for which a single lengthwise cut will 
serve without any thickening up. There 
is little doubt that the earliest brass en- 
graving was conducted in exactly the same 
manner as in the present day, and with 
tools the points of which were like those of 
to-day. The only difference appears to 
be that, in olden times, the larger sunken 
spaces, such as those between the legs 
and sword of a knight (in late brasses such 
spaces not being perforated) or as in the 
field of a coat of arms, were cross-hatched 
with a V-pointed tool alone, whereas now a 
flat chisel may also be introduced. 

A very small fragment of brass in the 
stroke of a letter, the cutting away of which 
was accidentally omitted, has provided a 
certain proof that lettering was engraved 

12 S. X. MAI;. 11. 1 922.1 



then as now. In the Ac worth brass (1513) 
in Luton Church, recently raised from the 
floor and set up against the wall, there 
occurs in the marginal inscription the word 
Timor, of which the accompanying print 
is a faithful copy. In the letter " i " there 
will be seen the fragment of brass referred 
to. It has been suggested that this is but 
a scrap of pitch or dirt collected in the in- 
cision, but I have personally handled and 
examined it on two or three occasions, and can 
unhesitatingly assert that it is a piece of 
brass not cut away as it should have been. 
The importance of this discovery lies in the 
fact that it clearly demonstrates that in 
engraving the broad stroke of a letter, as, 
for instance, the "i " in question, the crafts- 
man cut an incision with a V-pointed tool 

down one side of the stroke and then another 
down the opposite side, thus producing 
two clean outside edges, but, owing to the 
narrow width of the graver, failing to clear 
away the slip of brass between, in the centre 
of the stroke. This had afterwards to be 
cut away with a third cut down the centre, 
vrhich is the precise process employed to-day. 
A general examination of lettering in many 
old brasses that have passed through my 
hands has confirmed my view of the early 
existence of this method of engraving. 

16, Long Acre, W.C.2. 


PREDATORY bands of Danes from East 
Anglia and Northumbria had been harassing 
Wessex and the south coast in their war- 
ships which they had built some years 
before. To counteract these attacks, King 
Alfred ordered the construction of long 
ships, of a type which he himself considered 
the most useful. They had sixty or more 
oars and were nearlv twice the size of the 

Danish ships, being of greater displacement, 
swifter, and steadier. 

Some time during 897, six Danish ships 

raided the south, doing great damage all 

along the coast, especially in Devonshire 

I and the Isle of Wight. Alfred ordered nine 

i of his ships to go and attack them, and the 

i English fleet discovered the Danish ships 

| in a harbour, and, by sealing up the entrance, 

blockaded them. Three of the Danish ships 

were cfrawn up on the shore, the crews being 

inland, and the other three ships attacked 

the English. In the ensuing fight two of 

the Danes were sunk, the third escaping 

with only five men left alive. 

At this time the English ships ran aground 
in a most inconvenient position. Three of 
them were stranded on the same side as 
the three Danish ships, the other six being 
! aground on the opposite side of the channel. 
As the tide ebbed many furlongs from the 
ships, the crews of the Danish ships attacked 
the three English ships on the same side, 
with the result that seventy-two of the 
allied English and Frisians and a hundred 
and twenty Danes were slain. 

When the tide again reached the ships, 

the Danes rowed away first, because the 

flood tide floated them before the English 

could push off (ascnfan), the greater size 

and consequent heavier displacement of 

the English ship& requiring more w T ater to 

j float them than the smaller and lighter 

Danish ships. The Danes were not able to 

j row round the coast of Sussex owing to 

I their damaged condition. Two of them 

i were driven on the shore, the crews being 

taken to the King at Winchester and 

hanged, while the remaining ship's crew, 

severely wounded, reached East Anglia. 

A certain amount of doubt has hitherto 
existed as to the exact location ^of this 
naval battle. Poole Harbour in Dorset and 
a haven in the Isle of Wight have been 
I put forward. It is suggested here that the 
| battle took place in Southampton Water. 
The Chronicle states that the ships were 
stranded on opposite sides of the channel. 
This could not be the case in an. open har- 
I bour. Southampton Water is approximately 
one and a half miles broad at full tide, and 
three-quarters of a mile broad at low water, 
the statement that the tide ebbed many 
furlongs being strictly true. The Danish 
ships must have been beached on the west 
side of the Water, because on this side 
the tide recedes fela furlanga. 

It must be remembered that there are 



four tides daily at Southampton. The Eng- 
lish fleet seems to have arrived about the 
time of high water, and their attention was 
so diverted owing to the fight in the mouth 
of the Water that the rapid ebb of the tide left 
them stranded on either side of the channel. 
While stranded, the Danes attacked the 
ships on their side, with the result that they 
were beaten. When the tide again reached 
the ships, at the most six hours later, the 
Danes were able to float their shipg first, 
owing to their less displacement, and so 

make their escape. 

Hat-field College, Durham. 


A LATIN SAYING. At 10 S. v. 88, PROF. 
Mo QBE SMITH asked for the source of the 

Quamvis cuncta notes, quae lustrat regna Bootes, 
Vix reperire potes quam sine labe notes, 
which are quoted in Abraham Fraunce's 
'Victoria,' 11. 2226-7 in the Professor's 
edition. The same couplet, with quern, 
not quam in the second line (Fraunce's 

(Mar. 25, 1823), he is described as " of the 
Lower Terrace, Lower Street, Islington, . . . 
Surveyor." He is also called a surveyor 
in The Builder (Sept. 4, 1884; obituary of 
Charles Lee). On March 11, 1794, William 
Williams married Rachel, daughter of 
John Lee of Islington (and sister of Joseph 
Lee, painter in enamels to the Princess 
Charlotte and the Duke of Sussex), but 
ob.s.p. June 10, 1833, and was buried at St. 
Mary's Church. A curious anecdote con- 
cerning him will be found in The Connoisseur, 
No. 170, vol. xliii., p. 94, while some account 
of his wife's relatives, more especially the 
enamel painter, was published in the same 
periodical, No. 197, vol. 1., p. 29 et seq. 
Mrs. Rachel Williams lived at Cloudesley 
Terrace, Liverpool Road, Islington. She was 
born on Oct. 29, 1775 ; was named as executrix 
of her maternal aunt's, " Betty " (Elizabeth) 
Oldroyd's, will (dated Aug. 20, 1820 ; proved 
May 20, 1823), and died June 7, 1840. 
Her body was buried in the churchyard of 
St. Mary's, Islington, but the headstone 
disappeared when the site was cleared for 

context required the feminine), is given ! laying out as a recreation ground. I have 
on p. 74 of Jakob Werner's ' Lateinische I been told that the tombstones were then 
Sprichworter und Sinnspruche des Mittelalters | mainly stacked in the vaults of the church, 
aus Handschriften gesammelt ' (Heidelberg, | Having no children of her own, Mrs. 
1912). It is there taken from a collection | Williams Was responsible for the upbringing 
of sayings in a MS. of the University Library , o f her nephew, Charles Lee (1804-1880), the 
at Basle, assigned by the editor to the first | well-known architect and surveyor, son of 
quarter of the fifteenth century. j James Lee (1772- 181 6), of Islington. Two of 

EDWARD BENSLY. ; Charles's sons bore the name of Williams 
j Charles Williams Lee (1840-1901) and my 

A LONDON WELSH FAMILY: WILLIAMS grandfather, Sydney Williams Lee (1841 -19 17). 
OP ISLINGTON. The following notes, com- 
piled from documents and memoranda in 
my possession, may interest Welsh genealo- 
gists : 

Benjamin Williams, born at Haverford- 
west (date unascertained), was a church- 
warden of St Mary's, Islington, in 1797 and 
1798. He died Nov. 4, 1-804, and was 
buried at the same church, leaving by his 
wife Sarah (nee Brindley; died Sept. 22, 
1800, aged 56), a son, William. Whether 
Mrs. Benjamin Williams was a connexion 
of James Brindley, the engineer, I cannot 
say ; but my maternal grandfather was 


Arts Club, Dover Street, W. 

WE must request correspondents desiring in- 
formation on family matters of only private interest 
to affix their names and addresses to their queries 
in order that answers mav be sent to them direct. 

STROUD GREEN. What justification is 
there for Sir Laurence Gomme's equation, 
" Stanestaple = Stroud Green," stated but 

in the habit of keeping an old newspaper unexplained in his ' Governance of London,' 
cutting concerning him, with certain other I p. 411 ? If there 

matter relating to the family. 

William Williams (son of Benjamin) was 
born on April 27, 1770, " at the house situate 
at the south-east corner of Britannia Row 
and Lower Road," Islington. In a lease 
dated Dec. 25, 1804, his vocation is given 

be no justification for 

this identity, where indeed was the Domes- 
day Estate, held by the Canons of St. Paul's ? 
When does the present name of " Stroud " 
Green first occur ? What evidence exists 
in support of Lysons's statement, given with- 
out reference of any sort and in a passage 

" Timber Dealer," but, in a later lease, in which he dismisses the " hamlet " in 

12 s.x. MAR. ii f 1922.3 NOTES AND QUERIES. 


exactly eight words, that the place was 
" formerly a seat of the Stapletons " (' En- 
virons of London,' ii., p. 421) ? From 
what part of the country did this family 
come, and when did the interest of its mem- 
bers in this district cease ? S. J. MADGE. 
69, Oakfleld Road, Stroud Green, N.4. 

Planta of Fulneck, near Leeds, at the end ; 
of the eighteenth century, made spinning- ! 
wheels in which a heart-cam is introduced '\ 
to distribute the thread over the bobbin | 
automatically instead of having to change j 
it by hand from one " heck " of the flyer j 
to another. A specimen of his wheel is 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum, South 

He did not patent this invention, but it 
would raise a point of some interest if it 
were known that he used the hear t- cam j 
for this purpose before 1775, when Ark-| 
wright embodied it in his " water-frame." j 
The specimen alluded to suggests that it is 
much later in date than this ; in fact the 
wheel is obviously intended for a drawing- 
room at a period when hand spinning had 
become merely an affectation of the well- 
to-do. Can anyone give dates ? 


SIR CHARLES Cox, M.P. for Southwark. 
What is known of his parentage and history ? 
Shaw's ' Knights of England ' states he was 
knighted Sept. 21, 1709 ; * Musgrave's 
' Obituary ' gives the date of his death as 
June 13, 1729, and states he was a brewer. 
Will dated May 16, 1729, proved June 25, 
1729 (162 Abbott), gives no information as 
to his family. I conjecture that he came 
from Shipton-under-Wychwood, Oxon, from 
the following record of apprenticeship 
indexed in the Society of Genealogists 
Collection : " Cox Brooks, son of Chamberlain 
B. of Shipton, Oxon, farmer, Mar. 11, 1715, 
to Sir Charles Cox, citizen and brewer ; 
In. Rev. 1/3-14. The families of Cox and 
Chamberlain of Shipton were related. 


' OTHELLO.' We are told that in the 
First Folio there are 160 lines not found in 
the Quarto. I have no copy of the plays 
that indicates these additions. Staunton 
marks the new lines in ' Richard III.' but 
not in ' Othello.' Can any reader indicate 
for me the most important additions in 
' Othello ' ? GEORGE HOOKHAM. 

Willersey, Glos. 

TERS. What became of the baptismal 
registers, if any, kept by the non-juring 
clergy ? In particular, are those of the 
chapel in Theobald's Road extant ? The 
congregation worshipping there was at one 
time under the pastoral care of Gordon, the 
last of the canonically ordained non-juring 
bishops. That dignitary is said by Dr. King 
( ' Political and Literary Anecdotes ' ) to 
have been sent for by Prince Charles Edward 
to baptize the first child he had by Miss 
Walkenshaw. The register in question might 
or might not confirm this statement. To 
Bishop Gordon's credit be it said that he 
was most strict in his observance of all 
canonical and rubrical directions, so Jie 
would be sure to keep a register of his 
baptisms. H. F. WILSON. 

66, Louis Street, Hull. 

been recently presented to the Shakespeare 
Birthplace, Stratford-on-Avon, a deed of 
1619, referring to the division of the Great 
Farm of Broadway, owned by Mistress Ann 
Daston. In it occurs the phrase " the 
House of Husbandry." I have not met with 
these words in any previous deed. Is this 
a common phrase, and may it be taken to 
refer to a farmhouse ? E. A. B. B. 

BERNASCONI. In the early years of the 
nineteenth century a great deal of work was 
done in English cathedrals by an Italian of 
this name, who was particularly skilful in 
the restoration of sculpture. He used a 
cement, the composition of which he kept 
a secret, and his work is to be found in, 
among other places, Westminster Abbey, 
(Dean Stanley was rather scathing about it), 
Southwell Minster and, I believe, Ripon 
and Beverley. What is known about 
Bernasconi and his work ? Y. Y. 

WILLIAM MILBURN. Can any reader give 
me information as to the identity of William 
Milburn, author of ' Oriental Commerce,' 
containing a geographical description of 
the principal places in the East Indies, 
with their produce ; in two volumes ; 
London, 1813 ? JOSEPH M. BEATTY, JR. 
Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland, U .S.A. 

SIR T. PHILLIPS. Was he a herald or 
did he only collect MSS. for his library ? 
Are his MSS. of value ? Where are they 
to be found ? Are they bound in volumes ? 



Can any reader give me information, or refer j SIR JOSHUA REYNOLDS. Can anyone tell me 
me to any book giving information, re- I in whose possession this picture is now ? It 

specting extensive frauds by one " Gregor " 
in connexion with territories exploited on 
the Mosquito Coast ? He called himself 
" Cazique of Poyais," and issued land 
grants, bank-notes, &c. I have one of the 
latter, engraved by an Edinburgh firm and 
dated " St. Joseph 182-," drawn on the 
"Bank of Poyais" by authority of "His 
Highness Gregor, Cazique of Poyais." 

was painted in 1760 and is mentioned in ' A 
History of the Works of Sir Jospha Rey- 
nolds, P.R.A.,' by Algernon Graves, F.R.S., 
and William Vine Cromi, vol. iii., p. 985. 
The portrait of his wife, Mrs. Catherine 
Trapaud, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, is also 
mentioned at p. 986 of the same book, 
and is at the Dublin National Picture 
Gallery. There is also an engraving of same 

The frauds therefore seem to have oc- i at tne British Museum by Fisher, 
curred between 1820 and 1830. I once saw ! General Cyrus Trapaud was an ensign 
them referred to in a Press article by the | a * tne Battle of Dettingen, 1743, where the 
late Geo. A. Sala. I believe England i horse of George II. ran away with him ; 
once had a colony on the Mosquito Coast, I fortunately Trapaud seized him by the bridle 
and a paper thereon, styled ' A Forgotten and thereby saved the King's life. He died 
Puritan Colony,' appeared in Blackwood ' Ma Y 3, 1 801 , aged 87, and is buried at Chelsea 
in 1898. A.C.WiLLis. 'Hospital. 


WILLIAM MEYLER, author of ' Monody i Hendon. 

on the Death of Garrick,' ' Poems,' &c. ! FILES OF OLD NEWSPAPERS WANTED. 
(London, 1779), and ' Poetical Amusements' ' Can any reader tell me where the files of The 

(Bath, 1806). Is he the Meyler of Bath who 
published Landor's rare and anonymous 
book of poems * Simonides,' and who, as a 
poet, won the prize for poems placed in the 
vase at Lady Miller's villa at Batheaston ? 
Dates and places of birth and death and 
particulars of his life would be valued. 


Evening Post between 1727 and 1740 (not 
London Evening Post) also of The Daily 
Advertiser between 1746 and 1760 (not 
London Daily Advertiser) may be seen for 
research ? They are not in the British 
Museum or Guildhall Library, London. 

W. A. WEBB. 

does this word 

" SORENCYS." -What 
mean ? Stow says, " I 


__, . , _. ___ mean : ouuw &a,ys, a. uttu. uone <* 

RICHARD ABBOTT, born at Burton, West- i serc har of antiquitis (whiche were devinite, 

phlAM. *-. 1Q1O n4***-*M ,/-*.4- * A^7*--M *-vx-3 A J-"L* . * v 

morland, iri 1818, author of ' War and other 
Poems ' (1876) and ' The Pen, the Press 
and the Sword' (1879), was a shepherd 

sorencys and poyetrye . . ."), about 
1564 (Kingsford's ' Stow,' vol. i., p. xlix.). 
Mr. Kingsford (ibid., p. ix.), says it is 


on the slopes of Ingleborough, and later 
managed the limestone quarries at Forcett, 
between Darlington and Richmond, where 
he was residing when a notice of his poetry | BANK OF ENGLAND. Where can I find the 
appeared in William Andrews's ' North I best account of this celebrity ? Where is 
Country Poets.' When did he die ? his portrait by Hickey, which was engraved 

RUSSELL MARKLAND. by J. Watson in 1733 ? S. R. 

'-.-.-.-.' i 

KNAVES ACRE, LAMBETH. In a letter to ' HEATHER FAMILY. Can any reader put 
Edward Moxon, belonging probably to the i me $e track of the Heather pedigree ? 
first week in April, 1832, Lamb says : i Marshall 's Genealogical Guide does not 
" There is a portion of land in Lambeth j include the name. 

parish called Knaves Acre." And in a A KENSINGTON TAPESTRY. In the hall 
footnote on p. 237 % vol. i., of Harper s | of the Victoria and Albert Museum, Kensing- 

Life of Wordsworth,' giving a list of books 
and pamphlets noticed in The Monfhly 
Review for October, 1793, occurs the title, 
" Knaves- Acre Association." 

I shall be glad to know where this land 
was situated and the reason for the name. 

ton, there are large tapestry maps hung, 
described as of, or attributed to, the Tudor 
or early Stuart periods. One of these 
(which was presented in 1831 by Arch- 
bishop Harcourt to the Yorkshire Philo- 
sophical Society) shows the valley of the 
Thames, with the City of London and 

12 S. X. MAR. 11, 1922.] 



various Surrey and Middlesex towns and 
villages on its eastern border. In the 
elevations of London, St. Paul's Cathedral 
is shown vrith dome, ball and cross. These 
features of the cathedral were erected 
between 1685 and 1697. It would be 
interesting to know the date of manufacture 
and provenance of the tapestry in question. 

epistle addressed to this person is bound 
up with a very old copy of the Vulgate, 
Who was he ? IGNORAMUS. 

BENJAMIN HAVENC. - According to 
Hasted's * Kent,' Benjamin Havenc pur- 
chased Foots Cray Place in 1772 and be- 
came High Sheriff of the county in 1777. 
Particulars of his parentage and career are 
wanted. When and whom did he marry ? 
When and where did he die ? 

G. F. R. B. 

SIB HANS FOWLEB (1714-1771) is said to 
have been sometime an officer in the Prussian 
Army. I should be glad to learn further 
information about his career abroad. He 
succeeded his nephew as fifth Baronet, Nov. 
25, 1760. G. F. R. B. 

BURR-WALNUT. I should be glad to know 
what exactly is meant by the term " bur- 
(or rr-) walnut." I have looked in the 
' N.E.LV and cannot find it, either under 
bur or burr. Bur-oak is given. 


SWATHLING. I possess the early Jacobean 
armorial book-plate of D. Andrews de 
Swathling. Arms, Azure, a cross ermine 
between four fleurs-de-lis or. Crest, a demi- 
lion holding some object in the dexter paw, 
which I am unable to identify. I should be 
glad to know what this is and also which 
county Swathling is in. 


Esses. Lodge, Ewell. 

HENBY KENDALL. Information is sought 
regarding Henry Kendall, who lived early 
in the eighteenth century. His daughter, 
Louisa Kendall, married Silvanus Bevan, 
banker, of Lombard Street, in 1773, and on 
their marriage certificate Henry Kendall is 
described also as a banker, but no further 
particulars regarding his parentage, &c., 
are known. (MBS.) A. N. GAMBLE. 

Gorse Cottage, Hook Heath, Woking. 

are desired of its history. It was built of 
timber with tiled roof and stood between 
the wide pavement and the wide road. It 

| was probably built before the middle of the 
eighteenth century, on the waste land at 
Mile End. There are two views of it (1887 
and 1903) in Norman's ' London Vanished 

I and Vanishing,' the second view being taken 
shortly before its demolition. 



1. " There is on earth a yet diviner thing 

Veiled though it be, than Parliament or King. ' ' 

2. " Yet to the remnants of thy splendour past 

Shall pilgrims pensive but unwearied throng." 

G. L. 

GERMAN BOOKS WANTED. Can any reader 
tell me of (1) a popular German book on psycho- 
analysis, 50,000 to 100,000 words, preferably 
dealing with the child-mind and not" indecent " ; 
(2) any good German pacifist plays ? Name of 
publisher would of course be welcome in each case. 

A. E. 



(12 S. viii. 38, 91, 118, 173, 252, 476.) 

THE astonishing number of references to 
periodicals in ' N. & Q.' induced me some 
time ago to prepare an index to titles where 
information of historical use is given, and 
on comparing this with the ' Tercentenary 
List ' some very considerable additions 
can be made. In the following list I have 
included only those periodicals which have 
been dated. (Among those omitted are 
the titles of 27 Regimental magazines given 
8 S. x. 214, but without dates.) It has 
been carefully checked with the indexes 
in the *T.L.' though the occasional erratic 
arrangement of these makes it difficult 
to be positive that a title has not been over- 
looked. The numerous additional titles 
of the years 1712 to 1731 are due to the lists 
printed in ' N. & Q.,' 3 S. ix., which were 
prepared by MR. WM. LEE mainly from 
the list in Nichols's ' Anecdotes,' iv. 33-97, 
though he added a number from his own 
knowledge. In many cases where I have 
omitted periodicals already in ' T.L.' there 
is useful information (earlier dates, &c.) 
given, but to have included this would have 
taken more space than might be allowed. 
The dates appear as they are found in 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [12 S.X.MAB. 11,1922. 

* N. & Q.,' though of the accuracy of some 
I am a little doubtful. 

1652. Diurnal of some Passages and Affairs. 

5 S. viii. 330. 
1680. Mercurius Librarius. April 16-29. 10 S. 

xii. 243. 
1697. Theosophical Transactions by the Phila- 

delphian Society. 6 nos. 1 S. vi. 437, 
1700. Affairs of the World. Oct. 1 S. xi. 186. 
1704. The Review (De Foe's). Feb. 19, 1704 

May, 1713. 1 S. x. 280. 
1709. Monthly Amusement. April. 7 S. x. 

249, 357. 

[Unless other references are given all titles from 
1712 to 1731 are taken from 3 S. ix. 73-5, 92-4.] 
1712. The Medley (Baker's). May 14. 
The Medley (Redpath's). Aug. 4. 
The Flying Post and Medley (Hurt's). 

July 27. 

The Flying Post (Ridpath's). 
The Flying Post (Tookey's). 
The Night Post. Jan. 1. 
The Poetical Entertainment. No. 2, 
Aug. 16. 

1714. The Waies of Literature. 

Dunton's Ghost, or the Hanover Courant. 

March 10. 
News from the Dead. Nov. 23. 

1715. The Instructor. 

The Bee. No. 2, Jan. 21. 

The Censor. April 11. 

The Penny Post. July 19. 

The Oracle. Aug. 

Weekly Remarks and Political Reflections 

upon the most Material News, foreign 

and domestick. Defc. 3. 
The Tea-Table. Dec. 17. 
The Occasional Paper. Dec. 21. 

1716. The Evening Weekly Pacquet. Jan. 6. 
The General Post. Jan. 15. (Later The 

Evening General Post). 
The Protestant Pacquet. Jan. 21. 
The Political Tatler. Jan. 26. 
Remarkable Occurrences. Feb. 19. 
Whitehall Courant. May 2. 
The Saturday's Post. Sept. 29. 
Jones's Evening News Letter. Oct. 29. 

1717. The Freeholder Extraordinary. Jan. 2. 
The Penny Post. March 1-3. 

The Weekly Review or Wednesday's Post. 

Aug. 14. 

The Protestant Medley. Aug. 17. 
St. James's Weekly Journal. Sept. 1. 
The Wednesday Journal. Sept. 25. 

1718. The Critic. Jan. 6. 

The Observator. Feb. 10. 

The Weekly Jamaica Courant. March 12. 

The Weekly Medley. July 26. 

The Doctor. Aug. 6. 

The Whigg. Sept. 3. 

The Honest Gentleman. Nov. 5. 

1719. The London Mercury. March 14. 
The Moderator. April 6. 

The Thursday's Journal. Aug. 6. 
The Manufacturer. Oct. 30. 
The Weaver. Nov. 23. 
The Spinster. Dec. 19. 

1720. The London Mercury. No. 15, dated 

Feb. 4-11, 1721 (apparently a different 

paper to one above). 8 S. vii. 198. 
The Commentator. Jan. 1. 
Merry Andrew, or British Harlequin. 

Jan. 11 

The Anti-Theatre. Feb. 15. 
Protestant Medley, or Weekly Courant. 

March 12. 

The Muses Gazette.