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NOTES AND QUERIES: 



1 

A 



intnr*Cmnmuttftattott 



FOB 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLB. 



SECOND SERIES. VOLUME SECOND. 
JULY DECEMBER, 1856. 



LONDON: 

BELL & DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET. 

1856. 



AC, 



M.5L 



LIBRARY 

72805;? 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



2<* S. N 27., JULY 5. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 5, 1856. 



OUR NEW VOLUME. 

Although altogether unwilling to occupy with the 
expression of our own feelings the space which WE would 
more gladly see filled by the communications of our 
Friends, WE cannot resist availing ourselves of the op- 
portunity afforded us by the commencement of a Volume 
to express our gratification at tlie approval which has at- 
tended the step of beginning A NEW SERIES, and the no 
less general satisfaction with which the INDEX TO THE 
FIRST SERIES has been received. WE are glad, too, of 
the opportunity which it presents to us of thanking the 
numerous Friends and Contributors to " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," for their continued and valuable assistance. 



SUFFRAGAN BISHOPS. 

At the present time, when suffragan bishops 
are so urgently required to assist the overtasked 
bishops of England, the following li.st, taken from 
my complete, but unpublished "Book of the 
British Hierarchy," may prove interesting. Well 
would it he if bishops in bad health, or incapable 
of efficiently administering their dioceses from 
their magnitude, were supplied with coadjutors. 
Churches eminently adapted for being episcopal 
sees are in every diocese : Westminster for Lon* 
don, Southwell for Lincoln, St. Germains for 
Cornwall, Bath for Bath and Wells, Bristol for 
Gloucester and Bristol, St. Alban's for Rochester, 
Beverley for York, Middleham for Ripon, Co- 
ventry for Lichfield, Bury for Norwich, St. 
Neot's for Ely ; while it would be easy to suggest 
Romsey, Dorchester, Wrexham, Shoreham, Bre- 
con, Shrewsbury, &c., for the remaining sees. 

By 28 Henry VIII. c. 14. the following suffra- 
gan sejs were proposed to be erected : Cambridge, 
Hull, Berwick, St. Germains, Thetford, Ipswich, 
Grantham, Huntingdon. Southampton, GuiMford, 
Leicester, Nottingham, Shrewsbury, Penrith, Mol- 
ton, Bridgwater, Isle of Wight, Colchester, Lei- 
cester. The following five were suffragan sees 
for a time : Taunton, Shaftesbury, Marlborough, 
Dover, and Bedford. Gloucester, Bristol, Ox- 
ford, Peterborough, and Chester, were perma- 
nently erected. Westminster was a bishopric, 
1540-50. 

In the xxxvth Canon of 1603, suffragans are 
named as ministering Holy Orders. And in King 
Charles II.'s Declaration from Breda, he stated 
his intention to found suffragans in every diocese. 

Formerly suffrngans were consecrated" to serve 
in the absence of the diocesans on embassies, at 
court, or attendance on civil affairs. Sometimes 
they had no titles : they consecrated and recon- 



ciled churches, administered orders and confirma- 
tion. It appears from Strype, that in the Primate's 
Hall, they occupied an inferior place at table. 
An Act of Parliament was passed for consecrating 
coadjutors in Ireland, 1812, 52 Geo. III. c. 62. 

Gamaliel, Bishop of Sodor and Man, 1160. (Lin- 

coln.) 

Siward, Archbishop of Upsula. (Canterbury.) 
Ralph, consecrated to Orkney by the Archbishop 

and Bishops of Worcester and Lichfield. (York.) 
Ralph Howell, Bishop of Orkney. (York.) 
John, Bishop of Whitherne. (York.) 
Robert Gobson. (York.) 
Henrv of London, Archbishop of Dublin. (Lich- 

field.) 

Thomas, Bishop of Down, 1213 1237. (Ely.) 
Walter de Blakeley, Bishop of Ossory, 12321244. 

(Lincoln.) 
William Egmund, on Augustinian; Bishop of Pis- 

sinensis. (Lincoln.) 
John. (Canterbury.) 
Brendan, Bishop of Ardfert, 12371242. (Lich- 

field.) 
John de Cheam, Bishop of Glasgow. (Bath and 

Wells.) 
Reginald, Bishop of Cloyne, 12651274. (Lin- 

coln.) 

Peter, Archbishop of Lyons. (Lincoln.) 
Gilbert, Bishop of Aghadoe. (Worcester.) 
John, Bishop of Connor. (Canterbury.) 
Roland, Bishop of Angers. (Canterbury.) 
Stephen Segrave, Archbishop of Armagh. (Lich- 

field.) 

Robert le Petit, Chancellor of Exeter. (Exeter.) 
Peter, Bishop of Corbona, Hungary: died Jan. 19, 

1332 ; buried in the Franciscan Priory, London. 

(London.) 
Benedict, Augustine of Norwich, Archbishop of 

Smyrna. (Norwich.) 
Robert, Bishop of Lamburgh. (Bangor.) 
Hugh, Archbishop of (Damestensis). (York.) 
Thomas de Brackenbury, a Franciscan, Bishop of 

Leighlin, 1349 13<>3. (Ely.) 
John Pascal, Carmelite of Ipswich ; Bishop of Scu- 

tari ; translated to Llandaff. (Norwich.) 
Robert Hyntlesham, Bishop of (Sanascopolis). 

(Norwich.) 

William, Bishop of Tusculum. (Bath and Wells.) 
Thomas Bedingfield, Archbishop of Nazareth. 

(Norwich.) 
William Bottlesham, Bishop of Bethlehem ; titular 

of Raab, in Hungary; translated to Rochester. 

(Canterbury.) 

Simon, Bishop of Achonry. (Ely, Winton.) 
Richard Fitzralph, Archbishop of Armagh. (Lich- 

field.) 

Robert Calder, Bishop of Dunkeld. (Winton.) 
Richard Messing, Bishop of Dromore, 1408-10 ; a 

Carthusian. (York.) 
John, Bishop of Dromore, 141019: died 1420. 

(York.) 
John, Rector of Threxton, 1400; Chancellor of 

Norwich, 1399 ; Archbishop of Smyrna. (Nor- 

wich.) 

John Francis, Archbishop of Bourdeanx. (Lincoln.) 
Oswald, Bishop of Whitherne. (Durham.) 
John, Bishop of Narenta in Dalmatia. [Ste- 

phanensis.3 (Ely.) 

John Camere, Bishop of Aghadoe. (Worcester.) 
April 1. Robert, Bishop of Emly. (Norwich.) 



1043. 
1074. 

1138. 
1191. 

1213. 

1213. 
1237. 



1240. 
1253. 

1259. 
1273. 

1292. 
1306. 
1312. 
1323. 
1324. 

1325. 
1331. 



1348. 
1340. 



1353. 
1355. 

1382. 



1387. 
1397. 

1400. 
1408. 



1411. 
1416. 

14-22. 

1422. 
1424 



2 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2nd s. NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



1426, Dec. 22. Robert, Bishop of Aghadoe [Gladensis]. 
(Norwich.) 

1428. Nicholas Wartre, a Franciscan, Bishop of Dromore, 
14191427. (York.) 

1441, Sept. 10. Thomas Radclyffe, Bishop"of Dromore, 

14401489. (Durham.) 

David Cbirbury, a Carthusian, Bishop of Dromore, 
14271434. (St. David's.) 

1449. Thomas Barret, Bishop of Aghadoe. (Lincoln.) 

1452. John, Bishop of Philippi. (Durham.) 

1449. Thomas Scrope Bolton, Bishop of Down or Dro- 
more. (Norwich.) 

John Clederowe, translated to Bangor, 1425. (Can- 
terbury.) 

1478. Edmund Conisburgh, Archbishop of Armagh, 1477, 
which he resigned 1480. (Ely.) 

1489. William Egremont, Bishop of Dromore, 1500 

1504. (York.) 

1490. Thomas Vivian, Prior of Bodmin, Bishop of Me- 

gara ; buried at Bodmin. Arms, Or, between 3 
leopards' faces, gules ; on a chevron, az. 3 annu- 
lets, or : on a chief of the 2nd, 3 martlets of the 
3rd. (Exeter.) 

1491. Thomas Cornish, Provost of Oriel College, Oxford, 

1493 ; Rector of St. Cuthbert's, Wells ; Axbridge, 
April 3, 1489 ; Wokey ; Chew, Oct. 8, 1505 ; 
Banwell ; Clevesham, March 15, 1502, Master of 
St. John's Hospital ; Canon, Oct. 8, 1494, Chan- 
cellor, April 21, 1499, Precentor, Sept. 4, 1502, of 
Wells; he died July 3, 1513; buried at Wells. 
He was Bishop of Tinia in Dalmatia. Arms, 
Sable, between 3 roses gu. a chervon arg. (Bath 
and Wells.) 

James Blakedon, Bishop of Achomy, 1452 ; trans- 
lated to Bangor. (Bath and Wells.) 

1491. John Bell, Bishop of Mayo [Merionensis]. (Can- 
terbury.) 

Richard, educated at Oxford ; Dominican of War- 
wick ; died 1502; buried in Blackfriars, Wor- 
cester; Bishop of (Olevensis) in Mauritania. 
(Worcester.) 

Philip Pynson, a Grey Friar; educated at Oxford; 
Archbishop of Tuam, Dec. 15031506. (Here- 
ford.) 

1498. Richard Martin, Warden of Grey Friars ; Rector of 
Lydde ; and Ickham. (Canterbury.) 

1500. Francis, Archbishop of Constantinople. (Bath and 
Wells.) 

1513. John Young, D.D., consecrated July 3, in St. Tho- 
mas D'acre Hospital, London, by the Bishop of 
London ; born at Newton Longueville ; educated 
at Winchester; Fellow. 1482; Warden, April 13, 
1521, of New College, Oxford ; Rector of Carfax ; 
St. Christopher Stock, Jan. 22, 1513, St. Magnus, 
London Bridge, March 30, 1514 ; Master of St. 
Thomas' Hospital, Aug. 12, 1510; Archdeacon 
of London, March 18, 1514; Dean of Chichester ; 
Judge of the Prerogative Court, 1517 ; Master of 
the Rolls; he died March 28, 1526, and was 
buried in New College Chapel. He was Bishop 
of Calliopolis in Thrace. (London.) 

1513. Thomas Woolf, consecrated Sept. 13, to Lacedae- 
mon; Vicar of East Ham, May 2, 1514. (Lon- 
don.) 

1516. John Hatton, of York ; educated at Oxford ; Canon 
of York, Oct. 24, 1504; Southwell, Feb. 15, 1506 ; 
Archdeacon of Nottingham, Sept. 1506; Bishop 
of Negropont; died April 25, 1516; buried at 
York. (York.) 

1518. Richard Wylson, Prior of Drax ; Bishop of Meath, 

152330 ; buried at Bingley, York. (York.) 
John Tynmouth, D.D., a Minorite of Lynn ; edu- 



cated at Oxford ; Rector of Ludgershall ; Bishop 
of Argos : died 1524 ; buried at Boston, of which 
he was vicar. (Lincoln.) 

John Underwood, son of William, a goldsmith, and 
Alice, of St. Andrew's, Norwich; Rector of North 
Creeke, 1505, and Eccles; he degraded John 
Bilney : bishop of Chalcedon. (Norwich.) 

William Gilberd, Abbat of Bruton ; Bishop of Me- 
gara. (Bath and Wells.) 

Thomas Chard, a Benedictine ; Vicar of Welling- 
ton, June, 1512 ; Synterhull, Aug. 1521 ; Abbat 
of Montacute, 151532; Bishop of (Solubri- 
ensis); died Nov. 1541. (Exeter.) 

John Draper, Prior of Christchurch, Hants ; Bishop 
of Naples. (Winton.) 

Thomas Swillington, Bishop of Philadelphia. (Can- 
terbury.) 

Thomas Hallam, Bishop of Philadelphia. (Canter- 
bury.) 
1519. Thomas, Bishop of (Pannadensis) in the archdiocese 

of Mayence. (Lichfield.) 

1536. Thomas Mannyng, consecrated March 19, at Lam- 
beth by the Primate and Bishops of Salisbury 
and Rochester to Ipswich ; Prior of Butleigh ; 
Rector of Heigham, Somerset, Oct. 2, 1499; 
Master of Metingham College, Nov. 12, 1539. 
(Norwich.) 

1536. John Salisbury, consecrated March 19, at Lambeth, 
by the Primate and Bishop of Salisbury and 
Rochester to Thetford ; translated to Sodor, April 
7, 1570. (Norwich.) 

1536. William More, B.C.L., consecrated Oct. 20, by the 
Primate and Bishops of St. Asaph and Sidon, in 
the Dominican Church, to Colchester. He was a 
Master in Chancery ; Abbat of Walden ; Rector 
of Bradwell, April 20 ; West Tilbury, Oct. 5, 1534 ; 
Prebendary of Lincoln ; York, March 11, 1538 ; 
Archdeacon of Leicester. (Ely.) 

1536. Thomas Sparke, consecrated to" Berwick ; he was 

B.D. of Durham College, Oxford ; Canon of Dur- 
ham, May 12, 1521; Master of Holy Island; 
Warden of Gretham Hospital. He died 1572, and 
was buried at Gretham. (Durham.) 

1537. Lewis Thomas, consecrated June 24, at Lambeth, 

by the Primate and Bishops of Rochester and St. 
Asaph to Shrewsbury. He was Rector of Llan- 
turse, and abbat of Keymes. (St. Asaph.) 
1537. John Hodgskin, consecrated Dec. 9, in St. Paul's, 
to Bedford; he was a Dominican, 1531; Rector 
of Lyndon, July 23, 1544 ; Vicar of Walden ; St. 
Peter's Cornhill, April 2, 1555 ; Prebendaiy of St. 
Paul's, Nov. 26, 1548 ; he died July, 1560. (Lin- 
coln.) 

1539. John Bradley, Abbat of Milton ; consecrated March 
23, by the Bishops of Hippo, Marlborough, and 
Bangor, to Shaftesbury, in St. John's Church, 
Southampton. (Salisbury.) 

Andrew Whitmay, of Gloucester; educated at Ox- 
ford ; Bishop of (Chrysopolis) ; died 1546. (St. 
Asaph and Worcester.) 

John Stonywell, D.D., born at Longdon ; a Bene- 
dictine ; Prior of Gloucester Hall, Oxford ; Ab- 
bat of Pershore, Oct. 16, 1527; Bishop of Pulati; 
he died 1552, and was buried at Longdon. (Wor- 
cester.) 

Robert Sylvester, Prebendary of York, May 2, 
1541 ; Archdeacon of Nottingham, Jan. 31, 1549 ; 
Bishop of Hull ; he died 1552. (York.) 

Thomas Wellys, Prior of St. Gregory's ; Chaplain 
to Archbishop Warham ; Bishop of Sidon. (Can- 
terbury.) 
1558. March 2. Thomas Chetham, Rector of Bishops- 



2nd S . NO 27., JULY 5. '56,] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



bourne, March 21 ; Canon of St. Paul's, Oct. 10, 
1553; Wrotham, March 22, 1558; Bishop of 
Sidon ; died at Greenwich, 1558. (Canterbury.) 
1558. March 8. Licensed to officiate ; Christopher, Bishop 
of Sidon. (Canterbury.) 

John, Bishop of Hippo. (Canterbury.) 

William Favell, of Collumpton ; Prior of St. Nicho- 
las, Exeter; Archdeacon of Totness, Aug. 10, 
1549; Bishop of Hippo; died July 24, 1537. 
' (Exeter.) 

Matthew Makerel, Abbat of Burlings; Bishop of 
Chalcedon. (Canterbury.) 

Thomas Beie, an Austin Canon ; Vicar of Wi- 
tham, Jan. 28, 1528 ; Prebendary of St. Paul's, 
Nov. 11, 1521 ; Prior of St. Mary Spital, London ; 
Ranton ; Abbat of Dorchester ; Bishop of Lydda ; 
died Aug. 12, 1540, and was buried at Bury St. 
Edmunds. (London.) 

1537. John Byrd, consecrated June 24, to Penrith, by the 
Primate and Bishops of Rochester and St. Asaph ; 
translated to Bangor, 1539 ; and Chester, Aug. 5, 
1541. (Llandaff.) 

1537. Thomas Morley, Abbat of Stanley; consecrated 
Nov. 4, by the Primate and Bishops of Lincoln 
and Rochester to Marlborough. (Salisbury.) 

1537. Richard Yngworth, consecrated Dec. 9, by the 

Primate and Bishops of Rochester and St. Asaph 
to Dover ; Rector of Chidingstone, May 10, 1539 ; 
Chart, May 28, 1541 ; Wrotham, April 3, 1546 ; 
Prior of Langley Regis. (Canterbury.) 

1538. Henry Holbeche, consecrated March 24, by the 

Bishops of London, Worcester, and St. Asaph, 
in Rochester Place, at Lambeth, to Bristol; 
translated to Lincoln. (Worcester.) 

1538. William Finch, consecrated April 7, in the Do- 

minican Church, London, by the Bishops of Ro- 
chester, St. Asaph, and Colchester, to Taunton; 
he was Prior of Braemar ; Rector of West Carn- 
mell, May 8, 1554 ; Prebendary of Wells, Jan. 6, 
1557. (Bath and Wells.) 

1539. Robert King, consecrated to Roan, near Athens, 

translated to Osney and Oxford. (Lincoln.) 

1539. John Thornden, D.D., Master of Canterbury Hall, 
Oxford; Commissary of Oxford, 15061514; 
Prior of Dover, 1508 ; Rector of High Hardys, 
Dec. 23, 1505 ; Newington, Aug. 6, 1506 ; Har- 
bledown, Aug. 30,1507; Aldington, June 21, 
1512; Illogh Monachorum, Nov. 2, 1514; con- 
secrated to Sirmium (Szerem) in Hungary. 
(Canterbury.) 

..Richard Thornden le Stede, Monk of Canterbury ; 
Rector of Chidingstone, May 10, 1539 ; Chart, 
May 28, 1541 ; Wrotham, April 3 ; Tentwarden, 
April 19, 1546; Adisham, 1554; Bishopsbourne, 
June 14, 1554 ; Lydde ; Proctor in Convocation, 
1541; Prebendary of Canterbury, April 18, 
1542 ; Vice-dean, May 17, 1556. Consecrated to 
(Syrinensis) and Dover : he proved false to his 
patron Cranmer, and was a great persecutor : he 
died 1558, and was buried at Bishopsbourne. 
(Canterbury.) 

1553. Robert Pursglove, born at Tideswell ; educated at 
St. Paul's School, and Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford ; Prior of Gisborne ; Provost of Rother- 

ham ; Archdeacon of Nottingham, 1553, ; 

founder of Gisborne School ; Bishop of Hull : he 
died May 2, 1579, and was buried at Tideswell. 
(York.) 

1567. Richard Barnes, consecrated April 5, at York, to 
Nottingham; translated to Carlisle, July 23, 
1570 ; and to Durham, May 9, 1575. (Lincoln.) 

1569. Richard Rogers, S.T.B., consecrated May 15, at 



Lambeth, by the Primate and Bishops of London 
and Rochester to Dover : he was born at Sutton 
Valence; educated at Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge ; Rector of Llanarmon ; Dudley, 1549 ; 
Dunmow, Feb. 11, 1560 ; Canfield ; Chart, Jan. 19, 
1567 ; Prebendary of St. Paul's, Oct. 25, 1566 ; 

Archdeacon of St. Asaph, 1559 ; Master of 

Eastbridge Hospital, 1594 ; Dean of Canterbury, 
Sept. 16, 1584 : he died May 19, 1597, and was 
buried in Canterbury Cathedral. (Canterbury.) 

1592. John Sterne, consecrated Nov. 12, at Fulham, by 
the Primate and Bishops of London, Bristol, and 
Rochester, to Colchester ; he was Vicar of Rick- 
mansworth, 1584 ; Witham, March 7, 1587 : he 
died Feb. , 1607. (London.) 

1848. G. T. Spencer, Bishop of Madras (Commissary). 
(Bath and Wells.) 

1856. Reginald Courtney, Bishop of Kingston; Arch- 
deacon of Jamaica. (Jamaica.) 

What has become of Dr. Walker s noble pro- 
posal to endow a See of Cornwall, acknowledged 
in Parliament and by both Houses of Convo- 
cation ? MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 



ETYMOLOGIES. 

" Merry England." This expression, I appre- 
hend, conveys an erroneous idea to the minds of 
persons in general. It is usually supposed to 
refer to the gay, joyous character of the English 
people of the olden time ; whereas, as I hope I 
shall be able to show, it is like " La Belle France," 
and such terms indicative of the nature and ap- 
pearance of the country, not of the character of 
the people. 

The origin of our word merry is the Anglo- 
Saxon mijiig, a word seemingly peculiar to that 
language, for I have not met any term resembling 
it in any of the cognate dialects. Its proper 
meaning seems to be pleasant, cheerful, agreeable. 
Thus in the Canterbury Tales, the Persone says : 

" I wol yow telle a mery tale in prose ; " 
and this tale is a grave " Treatise on Penitence," 
to which merry, in its present acceptation, could 
never be applied. In like manner it is said of 
Chaunticlere the cock : 

" His vois was merier than the mery orgon," 
which is not merry in our sense of the word. But 
merry is also used of places : 
" Of erbe yve that groweth in our yerd that mery is." 
" That made hem in a cite for to tarie, 
That stood full mery upon a haven syde." 

Lincoln is termed merry in the ballad of " Hugh 
of Lincoln;" we also meet with Merry Carlisle 
and Maryland Town, in which the reference is 
plainly to the site, &c., of the place, rather than to 
the character of the inhabitants. Merry England 
is then, we may say, England that abounds in 
comforts, and is pleasant to live in. 

I cannot help thinking that merry in its original 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s . N 27., JULY 5. '56. 



sense would, in some cases, pretty accurately ex- 
press the peculiar Portuguese term saudoso. The 
Liisitanian lexicographers define the substantive 
saudade, "grief arising from the absence of the 
beloved object, accompanied by the desire of see- 
ing it again ; " which is something like desidefium. 
But we find saudoso in connections where this is 
not the exact sense. Thus we meet with olhos 
saudosos, " mery eyen," and Camoens says : 

" Nos saUdosos campos do Mondego," 
in both of which places it is the pleasure of pre- 
sence, rather than the pain of absence, that is in- 
dicated. As I am on the subject of etymology I 
will jiive the origin of saudade, saudoso, of which 
I have seen no derivation. As then an older 
form is so'idade, so'idoso, 1 would say, having in 
view the syncopating character of the Portuguese 
language, that the root of them, as of the French 
souci, is solicitus. I may add that souci and 
saudade are names of the same flower. 

" Good Cheer" I have given cheerful as a 
sense of merry, and it is curious to mark the pro- 
gress of the word cheer. There can, I think, be 
hardly a doubt that the origin is itdpa, " head ; " 
retained by the Spaniards in cara, and changed by 
the Italians to cera, ciera, and by the French to 
chere, all signifying " face." Hence our cheer 
usually denotes aspect, countenance; then it was 
applied to the mind, as in " Be of good cheer ; " 
and finally, indicative, some might say, of the 
English character, good cheer came to signify good 
eating and drinking! There were also the verbs 
to cheer and to cheer up, the last contracted to 
chirp, as in 

" He takes his chirping pint and cracks his jokes." 

" Lechery." This word is usually derived from 
the French lecher, to lick ; but this is evidently 
incorrect, for both it and licorous must come from 
luxuria, which is exactly the same with it in sense. 

THOS. KEIGHTJLEY. 



DUKE THE POET. 

It may perhaps be doubted whether Richard 
Duke deserved the honour of being immortalised 
by the pen of our great moralist ; but, since the 
tiling lias been done, it seems only a proper mark 
of respect to Johnson to make a note of anything 
that may assist in filling up his sketches, and 
carrying out his purpose. This is especially the 
case when the biographer was at a loss for mate- 
rials ; and I believe that of all the Lives of the 
Poets that of Duke is the shortest and most 
superficial. In my copy it does not occupy so 
much as one full page ; and what little there is 
quite accords with the opening words " Of Mr. 
Richard Duke I can find few memorials." More 
of his circumstances and personal history may, I 



think, be learned from a document which I lately 
found, while searching for something else, among 
some family deeds and papers in my possession. 
How it, and several other documents to which 
Duke was a party, came to be where they are, I 
cannot tell; but I think that (if room can be made 
for it) this one is worth printing as it stands; for 
it seems as if it could not be materially abridged 
without losing some part of the character or in- 
formation. It is written on parchment, and en- 
dorsed "A Coppie of Mr. Richard Duke his 
Discharge to his ifathers Executors, 1679 :" 

"KNOW all men by these presents that I, Richard 
Duke, Batchelor of Art, eldest sonne and heire of 
Richard Duke, late Citizen and Scrivener of Lon- 
don, deceased, and now of the full age of one and 
twenty yeares, doe hereby acknowledge, and de- 
clare, that I have received and had, at and before 
thensealeing and delivery hereof, of and from 
Robert Cliilcott, Citizen and Merchantaylor of 
London, George Dashwood of London, esquire, 
and Thomas Goodwin, Citizen and Scrivener of 
London, executors of the last will and testament 
of the said Richard Duke my said late father, de- 
ceased, my share, and the better share to my 
owne content, of all my said fathers printed 
books, which he, in and by the said will, did will 
and appoynt should be devided betweene his two 
sonnes (namely), mee the said Richard Duke, and 
my brother Robert Duke; and that I should have 
the better share. And that I have also received 
and had, of and from them the said executors, in 
severall boxes and otherwise, all the deeds, evi- 
dences, and writeings, which upon, or after, the de- 
cease of my said late father came to, and have 
rernayned in the hands, or custody, of them the 
said executors, or some or one of them, which do 
concern or relate unto the messuage, tenement, or 
inne, commonly called, or known, by the name, or 
signe, of the White Beare, scituate and being in 
West Smithfeild, in the parish of St. Sepulchre's 
without Newgate, London. And also all those 
which doe concerne, or relate, unto a messuage 
or tenement scituate and being in Charterhouse 
Lane, on the west side of the said lane, in the 
county of Middlesex, and in the parish of St. 
Sepulchre's without Newgate, London, aforesaid 
(and commonly called, and knowne, by the name, 
or signe, of the Woll Sack or Wooll Pack), the 
which said inne, and tenement, my said late father, 
by his said last will and testament, did give, de- 
vise, and bequeath, unto his said executors, and 
to the survivors, and survivor, of them, and the 
executors, and administrators, of the survivors of 
them, dureing, and until!, I the said Richard Duke 
should have attayned unto my full age of one and 
twenty yeares, upon the trust and to the intents 
and purposes in the same his last will and testa- 
ment expressed, declared, and conteyned. And 



2nd s. NO 27., JULY 5. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



from, and after, I the said Richard Duke should 
have fully attained that my said full age of one 
and twenty yeares (if I should so long live) then 
he gave, devised, and bequeathed the said mes- 
suages or tenements unto me the said Richard 
Duke, my heires and assigns for ever : subject, 
nevertheless, to the provisoes and conditions con- 
teyned, and appearing, in the said will and testa- 
ment of my said late father. As for touching and 
concerning which my said share of bookes, and 
the deeds, evidences, and wrireings aforesaid, and 
all trust, clayme, and pretence, whatsoever con- 
cerning them, or any of them, I the said Richard 
Duke doe hereby, for me, my heires, executors, 
administrators, and assigns, fully, cleerly, and ab- 
solutely remisH, release, and for ever discharge, 
them the said Robert Chilcott, George Dash wood, 
and Thomas Goodwin, their heires, executors, and 
administrators, and every of them. AND know 
ye farther that I the said Richard Duke, in con- 
formity and obedience to the expresse will, order, 
and appointment of my said late father, declared 
in and by his said last will and testament, HAVE 
remised, released, and for ever quitt claymed, 
and by these presents doe remise, release, and for 
ever quitt claym, unto the said Robert Chilcott, 
George Dashwood, and Thomas Goodwill, and 
every of them, their, and every of their heires, 
executors, and administrators, all or any chills 
part, or customary part or share, which I the said 
Richard Duke can or may clayme, or demande, 
out of any part or share of the estate whatsoever 
of my said late father, by force or virtue of the 
custom of the city of London, or otherwise how- 
soever (except only such perticular legacyes as 
should be, and are, given or shall fall to mee, by 
and according to the true intent, and meanein<r, of 
the same last will and testament of my said late 
father). 

" IN WITNES whereof I the said Richard Duke 
have hereunto set my hand and scale. Dated the 
sixth day of September, Anno Dni 1679, and in 
the one and thirtieth yeare of the reigne of our 
sovereigne Lord Charles the Second, by the grace 
of God of England, Scotland, * ranee, and Ire- 
land, King, Defender of the Faith, &c. 

"RICHARD DUKE, 

" Sealed and delivered in the presence of John 
Sherley, Wm. Antrobus, Scr.-, and Sam. Bradley." 

The truth of the copy is attested by Wm. An- 
trobus and John Dann. 

I should like to add one or two remarks, as well 
as some further particulars, which may be gleaned 
from some of the other documents ; but this one 
will occupy so much space that it would be un- 
reasonable to ask for more at present. Allow 
me, however, to add a Query. Johnson states 
that the poet is said to have been tutor to the 
Duke of Richmond; and this seems not impro- 



bable. The duke must have been about seven 
years old when the poet came of age and gave 
this discharge. I shall be much obliged to any 
one who will tell me, either through " N. & Q." 
or directly, where I may find the particulars of 
the young Duke of Richmond's conversion to 
Popery, and re-conversion to Protestantism. 

S. R. MAITLAND. 
Gloucester. 



FORGED ROMAN " WAXEN TABLETS." 

In the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiqui- 
ties, edited by William Smith, LL.D. second edit., 
1848, I may be permitted to notice an error 
which ought not to exist in a work of any au- 
thority, tinder the head of " Tabula?," the writer 
of that article has referred to certain " ancient 
waxen tablets," said to have been discovered in 
one of the gold mines near the village of Abrud- 
bianya, in Hungary, and which were described by 
M. Massmann of Munich in his Libellus Aurarins t 
sive Tabulce cerata, et Autiquissimce et unicce Ro- 
mance, Leipsic, 1840, 4to. The date assigned to 
these tablets is A. D. 167, and, supposing them to be 
genuine, they would afford us the earliest, existing 
sperimens of cursive minuscule Roman writing; 
but the fact is, that they have been long proved 
to be fictitious by the continental scholars and 
palaeographers; and a statement to that effect was 
published by Silvestre in the Paleographie Uni- 
verselle, published in 1839-1841, and, more re- 
cently, repeated in the English translation of that 
work, 1850, vol. i. p. 255. I may add, from my 
own testimony, that these very tablets, or similar 
ones, were offered to me for purchase several 
years ago, but were rejected at once as palpable 
forgeries. F. MADDEN. 

British Museum. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACAULAT. 

[The general satisfaction with which this series of 
Papers has been received, has determined us to con- 
tinue it in the present volume : and We shall be greatly 
obliged by the communication of Inedited Letters, 
Ballads, or other Documents, which may serve to 
throw light upon the eventful period treated of by Mr. 
Macaulay. ] 

Jack Ketch (2 nd S. i. 72.) 

" The Apologie of John Ketch, Esq., the Executioner of 

London, in vindication of himself as to the Execution of 

the late Lord Russel, on July 21, 1683. 

"It is an old saying and a true one, that one story's 

good till another's heard, but it is one of the most difficult 

things imaginable to dispossess the world of any censure 

or prejudice, that is once fixt or hath taken root in the 

harts of the People. However, since it is not fit that so 

publick a Person as the Executioner of Justice and the 

Law's Sentence upon Criminals and Malefactors should 

lye under the scandal of untrue Reports, and be unjustly 



6 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



expos'd to popular Clamour, I thought it a matter of 
highest importance to me to> clear and vindicate myself as 
to the manner of my Lord Russel's Execution, and the 
hard usage he is said to have had in the Severing of his 
Head from his Body. 

" As to the several reports that have been rais'd, as it 
hath been always a common Custom in the Worlcf, not 
only to magnifie" and misrepresent the truth, but to forgo 
things that never were, the falsity of them will appear to 
judicious Persons as well by the improbability of them 
as by testimony of those that know the Contrary ; As 
namely that I had been drinking all the foregoing Night 
and was in Drink when I came upon the Scaffold, when 
as all my Neighbours can testifie that I went orderlie to 
Bed that Night and wholly undisguis'd in Drink. That 
I had 20 Guinnies the Night before. That after the First 
blow mv Lord should say, You Dog did I give you 10 
Guinnies to use me so inhumanly? 'Tis true I receav'd 
10 Guenies but not till after having dispos'd of his Coat, 
Hat, and Periwig ; I took the boldness to give him a 
small remembrance of the Civilities customary on the like 
occasion, as to the report of my striking my Lord into the 
Shoulder, how false it is I appeal to those that were the 
nearest Spectatours of the Execution ; and for my being 
committed Prisoner to Newgate, it is so Easie a matter 
to disprove the truth thereof, that I need not trouble my- 
self any farther about it. 

"But my grand business is to acquit myself and come 
off as fairly as I can, as to those grievous Obloquies and 
Invectives that have been thrown upon me for not Sever- 
ing my Lords Head from his Body at one blow, and in- 
deed had I given my Lord more Blows then one out of 
design to put him to more then ordinary Pain, as I have 
been Taxt, I might justly be exclaim'd on as Guilty of 
grater Inhumanity then can be imputed even to one of 
my Profession, or had it been occasioned by a Bungling 
and Supine Negligence, I had been much to blame. But 
there are circumstances enow to clear me in this par- 
ticular, and to make it plainly appear that my Lord him- 
self was the real obstruct that he had not a quicker dis- 
patch out of this World ; since if I may speak it of a 
Person of his Quality? He died with more Galantry 
then Discresion, and did not dispose him for receiving of 
the fatal Stroke in such a posture as was most suitable, 
for whereas he should have put his hands before his 
Breast, or else behind him, he spread them out before 
him, nor would he be persuaded to give any Signal or 
pull his Cap over his eyes, which might possibly be the 
Occasion that discovering the Blow, he somewhat heav'd 
his Body. Moreover after having receiv'd the Guinnies, 
and according to my duty ask't his Lordships Pardon, I 
receav'd some Interruption just as I was taking Aim, and 
going to give the Blow. Thus have I trnely and faith- 
fully expos'd to the Publick all that can be said in this 
matter, and hope, whatever prejudice the undiscerning 
Multitude may retain, to have given sufficient satisfaction 
to all rational judicious Persons." 

No. 2627. of the Collection of Proclamations, 
Sfc., presented to the Chetham Library, Man- 
chester, by James O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



Prince of Orange (2 nd S. i. 370.) 

" Even that court seems to have had some sense of 
shame; for the sentence of confiscation and banishment 
against the Ruart did not state the crime for which it 
was passed." 

The sentence is fully set out in a pamphlet en- 
titled : 



' Sententia van den generalen hove van Nederland 
tegens Mr. C. de Wit en Mr. Jan de Witt, 's Gravenhaa<r. 
1672," 



which is in the British Museum, VVW 2 ^ ex ~ 
plicitly states that the Ruart suborned Tichelaer 
to assassinate the Prince of Orange. P. H. 



MARRIOT THE GREAT EATER. 

In that amusing and really instructive work, 
John Duntons Life and Errors, may be found the 
following paragraph : 

" The air of New England was sharper than at London, 
which, with the temptation of fresh provisions, made me 
eat like a second Mariot of Gray's Inn." 

Upon which Dunton's editor, Mr. J. B. Nichols, 
has this note : 

" Of this celebrated eater no other record, it is probable, 
now remains." 

Not so. In Smith's Obituary, edited for the 
Camden Society by Sir Plenry Ellis, I find the 
following entry : 

25 Nov. 1653, Old Marriot of Gray's Inn (y e great 
eater) buried." 

Sir Henry Ellis is silent about this Gray's Inn 
worthy. 

Not so Charles Cotton, Walton's associate in 
The Complete Angler, who, in his Poems on Seve- 
ral Occasions, 1689, has two copies of verses on 
the Gray's Inn cormorant ; one (p. 349.) called 
" On the Great Eater of Gray's Inn," the other 
(p. 417.) " On Marriot." From the former we 
learn that he was spare and thin : 

" Approaching famine in thy physnomy." 
The other has this line : 

" Mariot the eater of Gray's Inn is dead." 

The readers of John Dunton and Charles Cotton 

will probably make a note of this communication. 

PETER CUNNINGHAM. 

Kensington. 



THE LASS OF RICHMOND HILL. 

In the Memoirs of Mrs. Fitzherbert, by the 
Hon. Charles Langdale, lately published, there is 
the following quotation from the above song : 

" I'd crowns resign 
To call thee mine, 
Sweet lass of Richmond Hill ! " 

And it is stated, upon the authority of the late 
Lord Stourton, that the song was written to cele- 
brate the charms of the above lady. With all due 
deference to his lordship's opinion, I consider this 
to be a mistake, and I beg to enumerate two or 
three other individual ladies, for whom it has been 
asserted it was compiled. A Miss Smith, who 
resided on the Hill near the Terrace, at the period 



2nd s. NO 27., JULY 5. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



when the song first appeared, had the general re- 
putation of being the person for whom it was de- 
signed. The Rev. Thomas Maurice published 
Richmond Hill, a poem, in which, under the name 
of Mira, he introduces a Miss Cropp as the Lass 
of Richmond Hill, who committed suicide for her 
lover on the 22nd April, 1782 ; but this has been 
regarded merely as poetic fiction with regard to 
the song. Another account we have, in Personal 
Sketches of his own Times, by Sir Jonah Barring- 
ton, vol. ii. pp. 47 52. ; in this it is stated Mr. 
Leonard MacNally wrote the song on a Miss 
Janson, daughter of Mr. Janson, a rich attorney 
of Bedford Row, Bloomsbury, who had a country- 
house on Richmond Hill. There were great ob- 
stacles to his marrying her, but perhaps from 
making the lady the theme of his poetry, and 
being also the author of Robin Hood, a comic 
opera of great merit, he ultimately obtained her 
hand. But. notwithstanding all these authorities, 
I am inclined to think the song was not intended 
for any particular person, but written by Mr. 
Wm. Upton, author of Poems on several Oc- 
casions, 8vo., 1788, and A Collection of Songs 
sung at Vauxhall, and who was the poet of Vaux- 
hall Gardens 17881789. I believe it first ap- 
peared in the Public Advertiser of Monday, Aug. 3, 
1789, where it is stated to be a favourite song 
sung by Mr. Incledon at Vauxhall, and composed 
by^ Mr. Jas. Hook (the father of Theodore). It is 
said Incledon sang the song in such a fascinating 
manner, that it led to a superior and permanent 
engagement at Covent Garden Theatre, as, after 
the season of 1789, he never again appeared at 
Vauxhall. *. 

Richmond. 



" GRENVILLE PAPERS : GEORGE III. S LETTER TO 
LORD TEMPLE, CORRECTION OF. 

In the Grenville Memoirs of the Cabinets of 
George III. is a remarkable letter from the king 
to Lord Temple, written on the occasion of his 
"surrender" to the coalition ministry of Fox and 
Lord North ; which, like everything else of his 
private correspondence published, is highly cha- 
racteristic of the firm unaffected character of the 
man, and of that remarkable power of letter- 
writing in a pure English unpretending style, 
which completely refutes the aspersions thrown by 
adverse or disappointed politicians upon his un- 
derstanding and education. 

In this letter there is, however, one trace of 
that haste in writing, which the king notoriously 
had in speaking, and which sometimes made it 
difficult for those he addressed to follow or under- 
stand him. The editor of the Grenville Papers 
undertakes to correct the obscurity, but has done 
so, as I think, clumsily, and without effect. 



The sentence, as printed verbatim from the 
original, is this : 

" The seven cabinet councillors named by the Coalition 
shall kiss hands tomorrow ; and then ftn*m their arrange 
ments ; as the former negotiation they did not condescend to 
open to many of their intentions." 

The obscurity is in the clause printed in Italics, 
and the editor, in a foot-note, corrects it thus : 

" As (in) the former negociation they did not conde- 
scend to open to(o) many of their intentions." 

It appears to me that this emendation is partly 
incorrect ; I would re-write the sentence thus : 

" As (in) the former negociation, they did not conde- 
scend to open to m(e) any of their intentions." 

This would reduce the king's mistake to the 
omission of an in, and the running of me, any, 
into many ; while it is at once more intelligible, 
and more expressive of that sense of offended 
dignity at the treatment he experienced at the 
hands of the Coalition, which pervades every line 
of the letter. 

This indignation has, as seems to me, in another 
sentence led the king into a form of expression 
which rather oversteps the bounds of correctness ; 
he calls his " besiegers " 

" The most unprincipled coalition the annals of this or 
any other nation can equal." 

I may be wrong in my criticism, and should bow 
to correction, but this sentence seems somewhat 
to conform (as I humbly submit) to that mode of 
expressing intensity, in which Sir Boyle Roche, in 
the Irish parliament on some occasion of national 
calamity, affirmed that, 

" Single misfortunes never come alone, and the greatest 
of all possible misfortunes is generally followed by a much* 
greater." 

A. B. R. 

Belmont. 



Papering Rooms. Herman Schinkel, M.A., 
citizen and printer of Delft, belonging to the 
Reformed Religion, was apprehended, A.D. 1568, 
on a charge of printing and publishing books ini- 
mical to the Catholic faith ; for which he was 
sentenced to death, and suffered in July following. 
In his examination (as detailed by him in his last 
and farewell letter to his wife), being interrogated 
as to certain ballads alleged by his accusers to 
have been printed at his press, he said they were 
printed by his servant in his absence. And 

" Want ick quam t'huys, eer dat sy gelevert waren, ende 
doe en woude ick niet gedoogen, dat mense leveren sonde, 
maarick schichtese in een Noeck, om roosen en stricken 
op d'andere zijde te drucken, daer men Solders mede 
bekleet," &c. 

" When he came home, and found they were not de- 
livered, he refused to deliver them, and threw them into 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd S. N 27., JULY 5. '56. 



a corner, intending to print roses and stripes on the other 
side, to paper attics with," &c. 

Is there any earlier mention of papering rooms 
than this ? JAMES KNOWJ.ES. 

Cock-fighting, its Origin. 

Themistocles, marching against the Persians, beheld 
two of these determined warriors in the heat of battle, 
and thereupon pointed out to his Athenian soldiery their 
indomitable courage. The Athenians were victorious; 
and Themistooles gave order that an annual cock-fight 
should be held in commemoration of the encounter they 
had witnessed. No record, however, of the sport occurs 
in this country (England) before the year 1191." Free- 
masons' Q. M., July 1853, ^ 

Malta. 

Epitaph on a Sell-ringer. The following 
epitaph, from the churchyard of Leeds, Kent, is 
interesting, as recording, probably, the only in- 
stance of the complete changes on eight bells 
having been rung : 

" In memory of James Barham, of this parish, who 
departed this 'life Jan. 14, 1818, aged 93 years. Who, 
from the year 1744 to the year 1804, rung in Kent and 
elsewhere, 112 peals; not less than 5040 changes in each 
peal, and called Robs, &c., for most of the peals. And 
Anril the 7th and 8th, 1761, assisted in ringing 40,320 
Bob major in 27 hours." 

C. W. M. 

The New Era : a Prophecy. Adam Czar- 
torvski, once the minister and favourite of Alex- 
ander T. of Russia, but later one of the leaders of 
the Polish Revolution of 1831 (now eighty four 
years of nue!), uttered the following enigmatic 
words at the List meeting of the Polish Historical 
Society of Paris, April, 1856 : 

" It seems to me, at times, as if a curtain had fallen on 
that concluded scene ( !), of which we were witnesses and 
partly actor", and that now a new spectacle ( Widoivisko) 
ill begin, tb prologue of which even, has not yet been 
played off. Thus, resigned but active, let us await the 
rising of the curtain." 

Strangelv, the same fine thought was uttered 
by Walter Scott in his concluding remarks on the 
French Revolution (Life of Napoleon} : "But the 
hand of fate was on the curtain, about to bring 
the scene to light." J. LOTSKY, Panslave. 

15. Gower Street, London. 

Old Notice of " Seven Dials" London. 

" East of that is a deal of pleasnnt planting (the author 
is describing the policies of Sir John Maxwell of Nether 
Pollock in Renfrewshire) ; at your first entering there is 
a cross avenue ; one of the avenues of the cross leads east 
to another cross, from whence six avenues branches off 
almost l ; ke the Seven Dials, London, where seven streets 
branches off, viz 1. Great Karl, 2. Little Earl Streets; 
3. Great St. Andrew's, 4. Little St. Andrew's Streets; 
5. Great White Lion, fi. Little White Lion Streets; 7. and 
last, Queen Street. The long cross stone which stood in 
the middle centre was seven (feet) square at the top, and 
a dial on each square ; which stone I saw standing in the 



year 1770, but was down in the year 1777." A History 
of the Shire of Renfrew, part ii. p. 190., by George Craw- 
furd and William Semple. Paisley, 1782. 

G.N. 

Flambeaux. The extinguishers for the links 
carried by the attendants on the chairs of the 
wealthy diners-out still remain in Grosvenor 
Square, Probably they were last used for the 
Dowager-Marchioness of Salisbury, who was 
buried at Hatfleld in 1835. She 

" Always went to court in a sedan chair, and at night 
her carriage was known by the flambeaux of the foot- 
men," Raikes'g Diary* ii. 276. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A, 



SHAKSPEAHE AND BARNFIELD. 

Being at present busily engaged in the prepa- 
ration and printing of my new edition of Shak- 
speare' s Plays and Poems, with a revisal of the 
text and notes of my former impression of 1843 
nnd 1S44, I am very desirous of obtaining all the 
information I can procure regarding Richard 
Barnfield, who has had the honour, as it now ap- 
penrs, not of having poerns by him imputed to 
Shakspeare, but of having poems by Shakspeare 
imputed to him. The general belief, for about 
the last century, has been, that certain produc- 
tions in verse, really by Barnfield, and published 
by him in 1598, had been falsely attributed to our 
great dramatist ; but not long since I wrote a 
letter to The Athenceum, the effect of which, I 
apprehend, would be to deprive Barnfield of the 
pieces in question (inserted in The Passionate 
Pilgrim, 1599), and to restore them to their 
actual author, Shakspeare. 

The matter now seems to lie in a nutshell : 
They were printed as Barnfield's in 1598 ; they 
were printed as Shakspeare' s in 1599 ; and when 
Barnfield reprinted his productions in 1605, he 
excluded those which had been printed in 1599 as 
Shakspeare's. The inference seems to me in- 
evitable, that they were by Shakspeare and not 
by Barnfield. I formerly thought that Barnfield 
had, in a manner, reclaimed his property in 1605 ; 
but the very reverse is the fact. : and those poems 
in The Passionate Pilgrim, whi< h are there as- 
signed to Shakspeare, but which were formerly 
supposed to be Harnfield's, may now, without 
much hesitation, be taken from Barnfield and 
given to Shakspeare. Hence we may perhaps 
conclude that W. Jaggnrd, the publisher of The 
Passionate Pilgrim, was not quite as much of a 
rogue as was formerly imagined. 

It then becomes a question how Shakspeare's 
poems, in The Passionate Pilgrim of 1599, came 
to be published as Barnfield's in 1598. Barn- 



S. N 27., JULY 5. '56. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



field's Encomion of Lady Pecimia was " printed 
by G. S. for John Jaggard" in that year. Al- 
though a thin tract, it is divided into four parts, 
and every part has a separate title-page and im- 
print, but, the first only bears the name of the 
author, "Richard Barnfeild, graduate in Oxford:" 
neither does the first title-page mention any of 
the three other distinct portions of the volume. 
It is to be observed also (a circumstance that 
escaped my notice when I wrote to The Athen&uni), 
that after " The Encomion of Lady Pecunia," 
forming the first portion of the volume, and which 
alone has the name of Barnfield upon the title- 
page, a new set of signatures at the bottom of the 
page begins. "The Encomion of Lady Pecunia" 
begins on A 2 (A 1 having formed the fly-leaf), 
and ends on C 4. Then we arrive at a new title- 
page, " The Complaint of Poetrie, for the Death 
of Liberalise," which begins on sig. A 1, and ends 
on sig. C 2. The title-page of the third division 
of the work, " The Combat betweene Conscience 
and Covetousnesse in the Minde of Man" is upon 
sig. C 3, and it goes on as far as sig. D 4. The 
fourth division of the work, " Poems in Divers 
Humors," has its separate title-page on sig. E 1 ; 
and on sig. E 4 the whole ends. The imprint 
upon the four title-pages is precisely in the same 
words and figures, viz., " London, printed by G. 
S. for lohn laggard ; and are to be solde at his 
shoppe neere Temple-barre, at the Signe of the 
Hand and starre, 1598." The poems, formerly 
in dispute between Shakspeare and Barnfield, are 
in the fourth division of the volume, " Poems in 
divers humors." 

My mistaken notion, twelve years ago, was, that 
Barnfield, in 1605, had republished the whole of 
what had first appeared in 1598. This is not so. 
In 1605 he prefixed a general title-page, men- 
tioning only three of the four divisions of his 
original work, viz. 1. "Lady Pecunia, or The 
Praise of Money." 2. " A Combat betwixt Con- 
science and Covetousnesse;" and 3. " The Com- 
plaint of Poetry, or the Death of Liberality." He 
says not one word about what had been his fourth 
division in 1508, "Poems in divers humors;" but 
still, on the very last leaf of the impression of 
1605, Barnfield places "A Remembrance of some 
English Poets," which had appeared as one of the 
"Poems in divers humors," in 1598. All the rest 
he seems purposely to have excluded, as if they 
were not his. 

As I have the necessary books upon my table, 
I will subjoin an enumeration of the contents of 
" Pi ems in divers humors," including, of course, 
those which I now buppose Shakspeare to have 
written, and which are mixed up with other 
pieces, some of them of a personal nature. 

1. Six lines, at the back of the title, "To the 
learned and accomplisht Gentleman, Maister Ni- 



cholas Blackleech of Grayes Inne," without any 
signature. 

2. " Sonnet to his friend Maister R. L. in 
praise of Musique and Poetrie :' this is No. VIII. 
in The Passionate Pilgrim (see my edit., vol. viii. 
p. 566.)- 

3. " Sonnet against the Dispraysers of Poetrie :" 
it mentions Chaucer, Gower, Lord Surrey, Sir P. 
Sidney, Gascoigne, and the King of Scots. 

4. " A Remembrance of some English Poets," 
in eighteen lines: it speaks of Spenser, Daniel, 
Drayton, and Shakspeare. 

5. " An Ode," beginning " An it fell upon a 
day:" it is inserted in The Passionate Pilgrim, 
No. XXI. (see my edit., vol. viii. p. 577.). The 
poem beginning " Whilst as fickle fortune smilde," 
which I treated as a separate production, is here 
united with that which precedes it. 

6. Some lines thus headed " Written at the 
request of a Gentleman under a Gentlewoman's 
Picture :" it consists of six fourteen-syllable lines. 

7. "An Epitaph upon the Death of Sir Philip 
Sidney, Knight, Lord-governour of Vlissing :" it 
is in ten long lines in couplets. 

8. " An Epitaph upon the Death of his Aunt, 
Mistresse Elizabeth Skrymsher :" it is in twenty- 
four long lines, in couplets. 

"A Comparison of the Life of Man :" it is a 
seven-line stanza, followed by the word " Finis." 
This, as well as " A Remembrance of some En- 
glish Poets," is reprinted in Barnfield's edition of 
1605. 

The two impressions of "Lady Pecunia," in 
1598 and in 1605, I have before me. 1 have also 
copies of Barnfield's Affectionate Shepheard, 1594 
(Ritson, by mistake, dates it 1516); and of his 
Cynthia, with certaine Sonnets, 1595. In the ad- 
dress " to the courteous gentleman Readers," be" 
fore the last, Barnfield repudiates "two books," 
which had been untruly imputed to him : he pro- 
bably means Greene's Funerals, 1594, and Or* 
pheus his Journey to Hell, 1595, both of which 
were put forth with his initials. Therefore, in 
1598, it would have been no novelty to him to 
have other men's productions printed as his, since 
the practice had begun i'n 1594, and he had com- 
plained of it in 1595. 

In reference to " As it fell upon a day," it may 
be noticed, that though published as Barnfield's 
in 1598, and as Sbakspeare's in 1599, the real 
authorship of it was so little ascertained in 1600, 
that it was printed in that year in England's 
Helicon, under the signature of Ignoto. If any of 
your readers can throw light upon this subject, 
or add to the list of Barnfield's performances, 
whether in print or in manuscript, they will con- 
fer a favour upon J. PAYNE COLLIER. 

Maidenhead. 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



Monson Township in Massachusetts. Among 
the intelligent contributors on the other side of 
the Atlantic to "N. & Q," some one may be able 
to explain whence originated the name of Monson 
Township in Massachusetts. Some members of 
a younger (Catholic) branch of the Monson family 
are befieved to have emigrated to the United 
States about 160 years ago, and the name is said 
to be not uncommon there. Are any particulars 
known of their early colonial lineage, or could 
they be obtained from provincial histories or any 
documents like parochial registers ? MONSON. 

Gatton Park. 

Germination of Seeds long buried. It has been 
stated that botanists have discovered new varieties, 
and even new plants, in railway cuttings, from 
seeds which had long been buried having ger- 
minated on exposure to the air and light. Where 
can an account of such plants be seen ? And 
what plants have been noticed ? E. M. 

Oxford. 

Allow. What is the meaning of this word in 
the Baptismal Service *' and nothing doubting 
but that He favourably alloweth this charitable 
work of ours," &c. 

The Church does not teach that infant baptism 
is merely a thing allowed or permitted, but that 
it is commanded. In Romans vii. 15. ou yivd!>ffK(a 
is rendered by the authorized version, " I allow 
not," and by Moses Stuart, " I disapprove." Again 
in Luke xi. 48., awtvdticeiTe is rendered, "ye allow." 
Many instances might be brought to show that 
allow formerly had the meaning approve, or ap- 
plaud. Two occur closely together in Latimer's 
Sermons (ed. Parker Society), p. 176. : " Ezekias 
did not follow the steps of his father Ahaz, and 
was well allowed in it." And again, p. 177. 
" Much less we Englishmen, if there be any such 
in England, may be ashamed. I wonder with 
what conscience folk can hear such things and 
allow it." Of course in this sense the word is de- 
rived from ad, and laudare. E. Gr. R. 

Butler Possessions in Wiltshire, Bedfordshire, 
and Essex. In 13 Hen. IV. Sir William Butler, 
on his son's marriage with his wife Isabella, 
settled a moiety of East and West Grafton and 
Woolton, in Wiltshire ; a moiety of the manor of 
Stoppesley (near Luton), called Halynges, in 
Bedfordshire ; a moiety of the manor of Chalk- 
well in Essex ; and a messuage called Houghton's, 
and one hundred acres of land, and twenty acres 
of pasture, with the appurtenances, in Berdfield 
in the same county. These possessions occur in 
family deeds of the Butlers in 9th, 19th, and 31st 
Hen. VI., 20 Edw. IV., and 14 Hen. VII. All of 
them, except perhaps Stoppesley, appear to have 



been originally a portion of the possessions of the 
great family of Clare ; and the Butlers, who held 
them as mesne lords, probably acquired them by 
the marriage of some co-heiress. Any of your 
readers acquainted with county history will confer 
a favour by stating how and when the Butlers 
acquired the above properties. B. 

Corsican Brothers : Nicholas and Andrew Tre- 
maine. In the Church of Lamerton, near Tavi- 
stock, are the effigies of Nicholas and Andrew 
Tremaine, twin brothers, born in that parish, of 
whom it is related that not only were they so 
alike in person that their familiar acquaintances 
could not always distinguish them apart, but that 
an extraordinary sympathy existed between them, 
for even when at a distance from each other they 
performed the same functions, had the same appe- 
tites and desires, and suffered the same pains and 
anxieties at the same time. They were killed to- 
gether at Newhaven in 1663.* 

Can any of your correspondents authenticate 
these, or furnish any further particulars relating 
to these individuals ? Under what circumstances 
did they die ? R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Reginald Bligh, of Queen's College, Cambridge 
(B.A. 1779), was an unsuccessful candidate for a 
Fellowship in that College, and published a 
pamphlet on the subject. Information is re- 
quested as to his subsequent career. 

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

Rev. Charles Hotham, originally of Christ's 
College, Cambridge, and afterwards Fellow of 
Peterhouse, published various works between 
1648 and 1655. We shall be glad of further par- 
ticulars respecting him, especially the date of his 
death, and the place of his sepulture. 

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

Thomas Hood, M.D., sometime Fellow of Tri- 
nity College in Cambridge, and afterwards teacher 
of the mathematics in London, published various 
works in and previously to 1598. Is the date of 
his death known ? C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 
Cambridge. 

Lawn Billiards. In my young days, when this 
game was introduced, it was called Troco. To 
what country does this name belong ? Not to 
Morocco, where the game is played, with some 
deviation in the form of the stick or cue. 

F. C. B. 

Diss. 

]** These twins are noticed in our I 1 * S. xi. 84., but the 
date of their deaths is there given as in 1562. To avoid 
recapitulations, we would recommend our correspondents 
to consult the General Index to our First Series previously 
to forwarding their communications.] 



2"* s. N 27., JULY 5. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



Quotation. Where are the following lines to 
be found ? 

" Sleep, thou hast oft been called the friend of woe, 
But 'tis the happy who have called thee so." 

ERICA. 

The Gipsies. Can you, or any of your readers, 
furnish me with any authorities on gipsy manners 
and customs besides Grellman, through Raper's 
translation, Marsden (for the language), and 
Hoyland ? I am pretty well off for historical 
accounts of these people, but what I desire is in- 
formation concerning their rites and ceremonies. 

WM. A. BURRETT. 

Tale wanted. Can any of your correspondents 
tell me in what tale a character is introduced who 
had been branded for some crime ? He moves in 
respectable society, and is noted only for a like- 
ness to the criminal. When suspicions are at 
length aroused, he affects to consider it beneath 
him to do anything to remove them. The scene 
is, I think, laid in Germany. a. j8. 

Lord Charles Paulett. Sir John Huband, 
Bart., of losley, married Jane, dau. of Lord 
Charles PauTett, of Dowlas, Hants, and died in 
1710. Can you tell me, 1. Who was the father 
of this Lord Charles Paulett ? 2. Who was the 
wife by whom he had this daughter Jane ? 

Sir John Huband was the first baronet of that 
family, and the record of his marriage may be 
found in Burke's Landed Gentry, under the head 
of " Huband of Ipsley." G. W. 

New York. 

Edinburgh Plays. Is anything known re- 
garding the authors of the following plays, per- 
formed at Edinburgh ? 1. Lawyers and their 
Clients, or Love's Suitors, a comic sketch in three 
acts. This comedy (which was said to be the first 
dramatic attempt of a gentleman of Edinburgh) 
was performed several times in the early part of 
1815. 2. The Stepmother, or Fraternal Love, a 
new tragedy, written by a gentleman of Edin- 
burgh ; acted at Edinburgh in January, 1815. 

3. The Wild Indian Girl, a comedy, acted at 
Edinburgh, 1815. The part of Zelie in this co- 
medy was performed by Mrs. H. Siddons. 

4. Scotch Marriage Laws, or the Deacon and Her 
Deputy, a new farce, for the benefit of Mr. Jones, 
announced for performance on April 26, 1823 : 
said to be written by an inhabitant of Edinburgh. 

5. Love s Machinations, a new melodrama, by a 
gentleman of Edinburgh, acted at the Caledonian 
Theatre, Feb. 14, 1825. 6. The Phrenologist, a 
comic drama, written by a literary character of 
Edinburgh, acted in 1825. 7. The Mason's 
Daughter, a masonic interlude, by a Brother of the 
Craft, announced for performance at the Cale- 
donian Theatre, May, 1825. 8. The Recluse, or 



Elshie of the Moor, a melodrama in two acts, by 
a gentleman of Edinburgh, to be performed for 
the benefit of Mr. Denham, 1825. 9. The Or- 
phan Boy, or the Bridge of the Alps, announced 
for performance in December, 1825 : said to be 
written by a gentleman of Edinburgh. R. J. 

" Present for an Apprentice" Is there any 
evidence as to the author of A Present for an 
Apprentice, or a sure Guide to gain both Esteem 
and an Estate, by a late Lord Mayor of London. 

The copy before me is called the Second Edi- 
tion, with a great variety of improvements. Taken 
from a " correct copy found among the author's 
papers since the publication of the first." London, 
1740, 8vo. J. M. (2.) 

" The Peers, a Satire" I have a poem of no 
great value entitled The Peers, a Satire, by Hum- 
phrey Hedghog, Junior, London, no date, but I 
think from the matter about 1816. The names 
are never fully printed, and the notes are rather 
copious than explanatory. Perhaps some of your 
readers may assist me to the meaning of the blanks 
in the following passage, and say whence is taken 
the strange Latin of which it is an imitation : 

" Elate to soar ahove a silent vote 
Upsprings the D e to speak what H wrote, 
But horrors unexpected check his speed, 
He fumbles at his hat, but cannot read. 
On E 's brows hang violence and fear, 
In G y's cold eye he reads a polished sneer; 
His garden nymphs in silence mourn his state, 
And caperous [sic] L dares not strive with fate. 
A panic terror o'er his senses comes, 
Loosens his knees and sets his twitching thumbs, 
He sinks into his place, then quits the peers, 
And swells the gutter with spontaneous tears." 

A note refers to the following quotation, but 
does not say whence it is taken : 

" Non Boream immemorem reliquit Nympha?, 
Sed ipsi nullus auxiliatus est. Amor autem non 

coercuit fata. 
Undique autem adcumulati male obvio fluctus im- 

petu 

Impulsus ferebatur, pedum autem ei defecit vigor, 
Et vis fuit immobilis inquietarum manuum, 
Multa autem spontanea effusio aquas fluebat in 

guttur." 

I shall be obliged by reference to the original 
of this strange Latin, which cannot be verse, 
though printed like it. R. H. SEED. 

Irish Church, anno 1695. A gentleman high 
in office in Ireland, writing from Dublin in April 
of the above year, to Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury, 
makes use of the following language, which the 
context no way throws light on : 

" Since of my knowlege a resident clergy is not to be 
brought about in this place, for y e next 3 yeares to com 6 , 
I thought I might according to y e custom of y e country 
take (but w th y r leave) a temporary curatt for my one 
Son, till yee had persuaded those for y r many Sons, to 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



d S. NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



become perpetuall, w ch I feare is not to be hoped for in y r 
days nor mine; yet since y'Lpps. are so afraid of an ill 
precedent, I would there were more of y r mind, for tho* 
1 might not as now find my Convenience in such severity, 
yet my safety I should bothe in Church and State." 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." say whether at 
the time in question there was any restriction on 
incumbents in Ireland employing temporary cu- 
rates ? One would think from the foregoing, that 
all curates engaged were to be retain* d for a 
term, or for the duration of the incumbency. 

Where can a list of Irish incumbents, anno 1695, 
be seen ? If this should meet the eye of MB. 
D'ALTON, he no doubt could and would assist me. 

L. M. 

P.S. I should also be glad to be informed 
where I could meet with the best account of the 
career of the Lords Justices of Ireland 1693 to 
1695? 

English Translation of Aristotle s " Organon" 
Will some of your correspondents refer me to a 
good English translation of the prior posterior 
Analytics of the Stagirite ? The more speedy the 
reply, the more welcome. 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBT. 

Releat. What is the derivation of this word, 
which I heard at Walton-on-the-Naze used thus : 
" When you come to the three releats" &c., a 
spot where three roads meet ? F. C. B. 

Temple the Regicide. By the act of the Com- 
mons of England for the trying and judging of 
Charles Stuart, King of England, as set out in 
the State Trials, I find, named amongst the com- 
missioners, three of the name of Temple, viz. Sir 
Peter Temple. Knight Baronet, James Temple 
and Peter Temple, Esquires. Sir Peter Temple 
was no doubt the second baronet of that name, 
the eldest son of Sir Thomas Temple, created in 
16M, the progenitor of the Buckingham family. 
Sir Peter seems to have shrunk from sitting under 
this commission, for I do not find his name 
amongst those who attended at the various meet- 
ings which took place during the trial ; but the 
other two, James and Peter Temple, seem to have 
been men of different pith, and not to have been 
ashamed or afraid of acting under a commission 
which declared its bold purpose, " To the end no 
chief officer or magistrate whatsoever may here- 
after presume traiterouly or maliciously to- 
imagine or contrive the enslaving or destroying of 
the English Nation, and to expect impunity for so 
doing;" for I find their two names recorded at 
nearly every meeting of the commissioners, and 
also signed to the death warrant. Can I be in- 
formed through your columns of what branch of 
the Temple family these bold patriots were ? 
Were they related to Sir Peter the timid, and 
bow ? What became of them at the Restoration ? 



and whether any of their descendants can still be 
traced? and where I should be likely to obtain 
information ? Sir Thomas, the first baronet, is 
said to have had thirteen children, but he would 
scarcely have two sons named Peter ? 

R. G. TEMPLE. 
The Lache, Chester. 



tihinrferf toft!) flnrftotrrf. 

Montis u Death of Basseville." In Forsytes 
Remark* on Antiquities, Arts, and Letters, during 
an Excursion in Italy, it is said, with relation to 
Vincenzo Monti, author of several tragedies, that 
" his Death of Basseville made him a public man." 
Can you afford any information respecting the 
subject of the latter work, or otherwise illustra- 
tive of the passage quoted from Forsyth. T. H. 

[Hugo Basseville, the hero of Monti's most celebrated 
performance, was born at Abbeville about 1755. In com- 
pliance with the paternal wish he entered on the study 
of theology, but from the natural bent of his own mind 
devoted himself to literary pursuits, and repaired to 
Paris in quest of fame and fortune. Visiting Berlin he 
became acquainted with the elder Mirabewi, which gave 
rise to an intimate friendship with that celebrated indi- 
vidual. From Berlin he proceeded to Holland, where he 
wrote several works, tainted with that impious licence 
of profane wit exercised by Voltaire with such a deso- 
lating and fatal effect. At the commencement of the 
Revolution Basseville adhered with commendable fidelity 
to the royal cause, and conducted a daily journal, the 
Mercure National, which had for its motto, " II faut un 
Roi aux Francais." At this time none of his friends sus- 
pected any inclination in him towards that excess of 
democratic fanaticism to which, whether impelled by 
poverty, or by a guilty ambition, he presently abandoned 
himself. In 1792 he was nominated Secretary of Lega- 
tion at the Court of Naples. In the following year a few 
of his countrymen, more reckless than himself, were too 
successful in urging him to the rash experiment of which 
his life was the forfeit. This event occurred on Jan. 14, 
1793, when it appears that, with a view of obtaining a 
demonstration of the public feeling, Basseville appeared 
in the streets of Rome wearing the badge of revolutionary 
principles, the tricolored cockade. This dangerous step 
excited the populace to a pitch of phrenzy, and the envoy 
was stabbed in the stomach by a person of the lowest 
class. How bitterly he repented his folly may be inferred 
from the words that escaped his lips almost with his 
latest breath, "Je meurs la victime d'un fou." The 
poem, The Death of Basseville, is the production of Monti 
on which his fame chiefly rests in his own country, where 
it is familiarly styled the Bassevilliad, and often cited as 
the masterpiece of the author, and of later Italian poetry. 
The poem had an astonishing success; eighteen editions 
of it appeared in the course of six months. An English 
translation was published anonymously in 1845, but at- 
tributed to Adam Lodge, Esq.,* M.A., which contains a 
biographical sketch of Hugo Basseville, and some charac- 
teristic notices* of the poetical genius of Monti.] 

Palavacini. : There are some well-known lines 
about Baron Palavacini, but they have escaped 
my memory, and as I do not know where to find 
them, I shall feel obliged if any of your readers 



2" S. N 27., JULY 5. 56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



will tell me in what book I can see a copy of 
them. 

I shall be glad also of any particulars about 
Baron Palavacini and his descendants. No me- 
morial of them remains at Babraham, near Cam- 
bridge, where he once lived, nor is there any 
monument to the family in the church. 

HENRY KENSINGTON. 

[Sir Horatio Palavacini, a Genoese, was one of the col- 
lectors of the Pope's dues in the reign of Queen Mary, 
which, having sacrilegiously pocketed in the time of Queen 
Elizabeth, enabled him to purchase two estates, one at 
Babraham (formerly spelt Baberham), and the other at 
Shelford, which came to his two sons, who were knighted 
by Klizaheth and James I. (Morant's Essex, i. 8. 26.) 
Sir Horatio was naturalised by patent in 1586, and is 
mentioned in the first edition of Walpole's Anecdotes of 
Painting, vol. i. p. 160., as an "arras-painter;" in the 
second edition of that work is the following epitaph, 
quoted from a MS. of Sir John Crew of Uthington: 
" Here lies Horatio Palavazene, 

Who robb'd the Pope to lend the Queene. 

He was a thief. A thief ! Thou lyest ; 

For whie? he robb'd but Antichrist. 

Him Death wyth besome swept from Babram, 

Into the bosom of oulde Abraham. 

But then came Hercules with his club, 

And struck him down to Beelzebub." 
Sir Horatio died July 6, 1600, and on July 7, 1601, his 
widow married Sir Oliver Cromwell, the Protector's uncle. 
(See Noble's Memoirs of the Cromwells, vol. ii. p 178., and 
Burke's Landed Gentry, art. CROMWELL.) Palavacini was 
one of the commanders against the Spanish Armada in 
1588, and his portrait is preserved amongst those heroes 
in the borders of the tapestry in the House of Lords, en- 
graved by Pine. He was also employed by Queen Eliza- 
beth in his negotiations with the German princes. Consult 
Lysons's Cambridgeshire, vol. ii. p. 82., and Gough's Cam- 
den, vol. ii. p. 139.'] 

II Tantnm Ergo" During the present month 
(June, 185ft) at a dedication of a Roman Catholic 
chapel in Rathmines, near Dublin, the following 
psalms were chaunted by the choir; " Miserere" 
(51st, 56th, or 57th), " Fundamentaejus " (87th), 
" Levavi oculos " (120th), " Lsefatus sum" 
(122nd), and " Tantum ergo." Is " Tantum ergo," 
a psalm, and if not, where shall I find these words 
in the Latin version of the sacred Scriptures ? 

EIN FRAG KB. 

[We take this to be the hymn sung at the celebration 
of the Sacrament : 

" Tantum ergo Sacramentum 

Veneremur cernui," &c. 
See The Ordinary of the Holy Mass.~\ 

tfarp in the Arms of Ireland (2 nd S. i. 480.) 
Will your correspondent say where the observa- 
tions of the Rev. Richard Butler of Trim are to 
be found ? (See Answer to this Query, 1 st S. xii. 

G. 

[The Rev. R. Butler's observations will be found in the 
Numismatic Journal, vol. ii. p. 70. See also Dr. Aquilla 
Smith's paper, "On the Irish Coins of Edward the 
fourth, ' in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 
vol. xix,, Dublin, 1843.] 



THE ARMS OF GLASGOW. 

(2 nd S. i. 468.) 

The salmon holding a gold ring in its month, 
which forms a conspicuous figure in the armorial 
bearings of the Church of Glasgow, is a comme- 
moration of an incident related in Jocelin's Life 
of St. Kentigern, cap. xxxvi. p. 273^ ap. Vitas 
antiqua* SS. Scoto- Britannice, Lond. 1789, pub- 
lished by Pinkerton. This saint is commonly 
called St. Mungo. 

The recovery of a lost ring, or other small ob- 
ject, in this manner is attested by many ancient, 
and even modern stories by history, by legends, 
by observation, and perhaps I might add without 
any irreverence, by the account of the miracu- 
lously found tribute money recorded bv St. Mat- 
thew and by St. Mark. The classical reader will 
at once remember what Herodotus has related of 
the ring of Polycrates. The ancient Indian drama 
of Sacontala has a similar incident. 

In the Life of St. Kenny, Abbot of Aghaboe, 
who lived in the same age with St. Kentigern, 
there is a similar narrative. St. Kenny is related 
to have fettered the feet of one of his disciples 
(" alligavit pedes ejus compede ne vagus esset, et 
clavern compedis ejus, S. Cainnicus project t in 
mare"), and then to have thrown the key of the 
feiter into the sea, between Ireland and Britain. 
The legend then proceeds to tell how the disciple 
remained thus fettered for seven years, and that 
then St. Kenny, knowing what was to happen, 
ordered him to depart from Wales, and to return 
to Ireland, and there to make his abode in what- 
ever place he should find the key of his fetter. 
He accordingly went his way, and having arrived 
in Leinster, and having met some fishermen on 
the banks of the LifFey, he obtained from them a 
large fish, within which he found the key of his 
fetter. This I quote from the privately printed 
Vita S. Cainnici, Dublin, 1851, cap. xv. The 
editor in a note has adduced various incidents of 
the same kind from several sources. Among them 
are those of the ring of Polycrates; the miracle of 
the tribute money; Sacontala's ring; the legend 
of St. Kentigern ; the legend of St. Nennidh, re- 
lated by Ariimchadh, one of the biographers of 
St. Bridget (Colg. Trins, p. 559.) ; and the similar 
story of St. Maughold, Bishop of Man, which is 
told by Jocelin in the Life of St. Patrick, cap* 
clii. (Colg. TV., p. 98.) But perhaps more in- 
teresting are the facts which are enumerated from 
modern history, such as the loss and recovery of 
Sir Francis Anderson's ring, related by Brand in 
his History of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, a valuable 
topographical work, which the editor of the Life 
of St. Kenny complains that he could not find in 
any of the libraries of Dublin. He adds several 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a s. NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



other well-authenticated recent cases, among which 
is one of a small pewfer flask, which had been 
dropped accidentally overboard on the south-west 
coast of Ireland, and having been subsequently 
recovered in the stomach of a fish, was displayed 
at a meeting of the Dublin Natural History So- 
ciety, and subsequently presented to an inspector 
of fisheries well known for his attention to ichthy- 
ological studies. I should give the entire of the 
annotation, which I could readily augment by 
some more recent cases, only that the editor has 
announced his intention to reprint the book for 
publication in a series of similar hitherto unpub- 
lished legends. 

Besides this Dublin edition of the Vita S. Cain- 
nici, there is another, but also privately printed, 
the cost of which was entirely defrayed by the 
late Marquis of Ormond, who munificently pre- 
sented the copies to the Kilkenny Archaeological 
Society. ARTERUS. 

Dublin. 

The fish and the ring in these arms refer to an 
old legend in connection with St. Mungo, or 
Kentigern, the founder of the see. A lady lost 
her ring while crossing the Clyde, and her hus- 
band thinking she had bestowed it upon some 
favoured lover, became very jealous and angry. 
In this dilemma she sought the advice of St. 
Kentigern, who, after fervent devotions, asked 
one who was fishing to bring him the first fish 
he caught ; this was done, and in the mouth of the 
fish was found the lady's lost ring, which being 
restored to her husband, he was convinced of the 
injustice of his suspicions. This device appears 
on the seal of Bishop Wishart, of Glasgow, as 
early as the reign of Edward II. 

This legend of the fish and the ring, like many 
others, is to be found in most countries : it is re- 
lated in the pages of Herodotus and Pliny, and 
occurs in the Koran ; one instance of it is re- 
corded at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and another 
carved on a monument in Stepney Church. 
Moule's beautiful and interesting volume on the 
Heraldry of Fish notices the subject at length. 

NORRIS DECK. 

Cambridge. 

A tradition given by Archbishop Spottiswoode 
professes to explain the fish and the ring in these 
arms : 

" In the days of St. Kentigern, a lad}' having lost her 
wedding-ring, it stirred up her husband's jealousy, to 
allay which she applied to St. Kentigern, imploring his 
help for the safety of her honour. Not long after, as St. 
Kentigern walked by the river, he desired a person that 
was fishing to bring him the first fish he could catch, 
which was accordingly done, and from its mouth was 
taken the lady's ring, which he immediately sent to her 
to remove her husband's suspicion." 



In confirmation of this Bishop Wishart's official 
seal, as seen from the chartulary of Glasgow, in 
1279, has been noticed. One compartment showed 
the bishop seated, while before him knelt a person 
holding a fish with a ring in its mouth. In the 
middle division stood the king with a drawn sword 
in his right hand, and on his left the queen 
crowned, and having in her right hand a ring. The 
bishop in his robes knelt praying, in the lower 
compartment. The legend circumscribed was 
" Rex furit, haec plorat, patet aurum dum sacer 
orat." 

If the Glaswegians of a former day had been 
famous for their imaginative faculties, the follow- 
ing lines by Dr. Main, once professor of the 
theory and practice of physic in our University, 
might be taken as expressive of the thoughts 
which led them to fix on the present armorial 
bearings : 

" Salmo maris, terrseque arbor, avis aeris, urbi, 
Promittunt, quicquid trina elementa ferunt: 

Et campana, frequens celebret quod numinis aras * 
Urbs, superesse Polo non peritura docet : 

Neve quis dubitet sociari aeterna caducis, 
Annulis id pignus conjugiale notat." 

" As symboled here, the sea, the earth, the air, 
Promise unto our town whate'er they bear. 
To worship at the shrine the bell doth call, 
Our queenly town, thus guarded shall ne'er fall. 
Let no one 'doubt that thus are linked to heaven 
The things of earth : the union pledge is given." 

The derivation most generally accepted of the 
word Glasgow is the Gaelic clais-ghu, a black or 
dark ravine ; this name being given, it is supposed, 
originally to a glen, on a little stream east of the 
cathedral, in which St. Mungo set up his abode. 
Another etymology is Eaglais-dhu, the black 
church, i.e. church of Blackfriars; while Glas's 
dhu, grey and black, points to a period also of 
monkish rule. UNIVERSITATJS ALUMNUS. 

Glasgow. 

I have a copper coin or penny-token with these 
arms on one side, and the motto "Let Glasgow 
Flourish " around it. On the other side a river- 
god, with "Clyde" inscribed on his urn, from which 
a stream issues, and "Nunquam arescere MDCCXCI" 
as motto ; but the remarkable point is that around 
the edge, instead of milling, are the words " Cam- 
bridge, Bedford, and Huntingdon x.x.x." 

How can the occurrence of these words on a 
Glasgow token be explained ? I took the coin as 
change in a village shop in -Norfolk. E. G. R. 



MUSICAL NOTATION. 

(2 nd S. i. 470.) 

I have long intended to point out that in a case 
of distress for want of musical type, it is perfectly 



N 27., JULYS. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



possible to contrive a system by which a composi- 
tor who is used to mathematical printing may set 
up any quantity of music in common letter. Has 
no such thing ever been proposed ? At the end 
of this Note will be found an opening movement 
which the musician will easily recognise, taken 

Treble G A B C 

Bass GABCDEFGABCDEFga be 

Here G in the treble means the G below the 
lines, the lowest note of the violin ; equivalent to 
g in the bass, the highest space between the lines. 

Let ' " '", written below the note-letter, indi- 
cate crotchet, quaver, semiquaver, and demi-semi- 
raver : but the crotchet sign, when standing 
ne, may be omitted. Thus, A or A is a 
crotchet ; A, a quaver, A x/ a semiquaver, &c. : 
A / x/ is a note as long as a crotchet, quaver, and 
semiquaver put together, represented in common 
music by a crotchet followed by two dots. Let a 
minim be denoted by two letters written close to- 
gether, a semibreve by four. Thus GG GG would 

Adagio. 



from the first book of arrangements for the piano 
forte that came to hand. 

Let the notes be represented by their letters, as 
follows, the equivalent notes of treble and bass 
being written under one another i 



DEFoABCDEFgabcdefpaftceZe/ 
d e fgabcdef. 

represent two minims sounded consecutively. Also 
GOO and G G might be used to denote a minim, 
when convenient. 

Let a rest be denoted by I, or i, or i, as con- 
venient, with the proper mark of time suffixed. 

Let the sharp, flat, and natural be denoted by 
a:, Z>, and n prefixed at the top : thus, a C is C sharp. 
The double sharp may be denoted by xx, &c. 

Let slurred notes be denoted by a line drawn 
over them, and let the staccato sign be a dot above 
or below the letter. 

Let a pause be represented by a circumflex over 
the note. 



T 


E 

3c 


F 
C *F C C b, 




D E / y/ //y D y/y D F F y/ E y; D yy K yy DD *D 


B 
T 


E 

// J 


A I I C F F g 
F F C C 1> 
J 

a i i 6 a a a g y 

A *A A A G 

B,,,,,,g,,,go, F, 
C C B 
G G G 


" /// ^ G C B C 7 /y /y/ B /y/ C B D D /y O y/ B y/ C y/ BB B 

G GG EGG G G G GG G G 0y G o y G y 
sf pp 

g 


G y/y GG o c d e y y/ /yy d y/y c T f e c! 0y 
!/> /// G y/y GG C E g c y H , g //( E x G d c go, g, g, g, 


C C B 
G G G 
fa PP 


E a g yy F yy E yy D yy 

c c B y a y g y F y E ' j i s " * F s " F " g " a " b " 
cres. /> 


B 


C 

g E d 
cE g 


C 
g Ed 
C Eg 


F y 

c , *c y d y f y e *f jr y a y g y F y E g , D y 

C Fo y F y go , "F y E y D y C Eo y G y 


T 
B 


c' I/ J 


// G", -F yy G,', if G" A'' 


6E C 

b yy c y c a "EE F y yy //y D y// 

B yy C y A / A b K CO D y yy //y B //y 

jQf/ p Attacca Sub. 

E / 
c y I y *FF' g y 
A y ^FF o y c /y //y e yyy g t g y g y g y 


E / // /// g,/, go , D 
C / // /// E /,/ E O / G 



Various minor matters might be supplied : but 
this is enough to show the practicability of giving, 
in ordinary type, a representation from which a 
translation info common musical notation might, 
easily be made. Should any of your musical 
readers find any passages which they think cannot 
be printed in this way, I shall be obliged by their 
transmitting them to you in ordinary style. 

For vocal music in parts I feel pretty sure that 
this notation would do to sing from : a hundred 
glees might be sold for sixpence, words and all, if 
the demand were sufficient. A. DE MORGAN. 



QUERIES ON A TOUR. 

(2 nd S. i. 470.) 

1 . Gatta Melata. Le grand Diet. Geo. et Crit. 
(pub. a la Haye, 1736), par La Martiniere, speak- 
ing of Narni (which lies seven French leagues 
south-west of Spoleto and fifteen north-east of 
Rome), says : 

" Narni (petite ville d'ltalie dans la terre des Sabins, 
Province de 1'Ktat Eccle'siastique, sur la Riviere de Nera) 
qui resista a toute la puissance d'Annibal, dans le tems 
qu'il ravageoit 1'Italie." 



16 



KOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd S. NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



Further : 

"Narni n'est pas feconde settlement en noblesse, elle 
1'est encore en savans, et en grand capitaines. Sans comp- 
ter 1'Empereur Nerva, elle a eu il n'y-a pas longtems, 
le fameux Gattamelata, Central des Armies des Venitiens, 
qui les cnnduisit avec tant de sagesse, de bravoure. et d* bon- 
htur, qu'apres avoir rcmporte une infinite de victoires, ces 
suptrbfs Republiguains lui firent elever une status de bronze 
dans PadouS, cette ville celebre qu'il avoit prise, et unie au 
Domaine de la Kepublique. Galeoto, Maxime Arcano, 
Michel Ange Arrono, et une infinite d'autres, qui ont ho- 
nore la re'publique des Lettres dans les 16 e et 17 e siecles 
tftoient de Narni." References are given to Labal, Voy. 
d 1 Italic, torn. vii. p. 8fi., and Topograp. des Saints, p. 334. ; 
but see also Zedler, Univ. Lex., Leipz. 1740. 

2. Serraglia. Albert! says : 

" Se'rail, palais qn'habitent les Empereurs des Turcs, et 
la partie du Palais du Grand Seigneur, nomrae le Harem, 
ou les femmes sont renfertnees. II se dit encore de toutes 
les femmes qui sont dans le serail, et de leur suite. Sera- 
glio abusivement, une maison, ou quelqu'un tient des 
femmes de plaisir unebasse cnur, ou Con enferme des betes 
furoitches."The Dlz. della Ling. Ital, Bolog. 1824. (IVth 
sign.) 

" Serraglio, diciamo ancora al Luogo murato, dove si 
tengono serrata le fiere, e gli animali venuti da' paesi 
strani. Lat., vivarium ; Gr., <oorpo<|>eioi'." 

The Italians have evidently manufactured the 
word seraglio from the Turk. J^, saray, the 

primary signification of which is a house, hotel; 
2, a palace. The Pers. has the same word for a 
palace or inn. ' It also occurs in the Turk, and 
Pers., ^y*5 ^\}J*-> karwdn-sardy, caravansary, a 

place appointed for receiving and loading cara- 
vans ; a kind of inn, where the caravans rest at 
night, being a large square building, with a spacious 
court in the middle. The primitive signification, 
therefore, of saray is an oriental inn, which is 
made up of four square walls, round which are 
the rooms for travellers, the centre forming a 
courtyard, and the sky the roof. Or it may be 
thus : 1. a square building for travellers, an inn ; 
2. a palace built, in such a form ; 3. that part of a 
palace where the females are kept; 4. a house 
where women are shut up ; 5. a building where 
beasts are caged like women in a seraglio. But, 
query, may not serraglia, serraglio, be from ser- 
rdre, to shut up, hide, conceal, from Lat. serare, 
to lock, shut. 

3. St. Richard. Chalmers (Biog. Diet., Lond. 
1816) mentions a Richard (called sometimes Ar- 
machanus and Fits-Ralph), Archbishop of Ar- 
magh in the fourteenth century, whose opinions 
so displeased the friars that they procured him to 
be cited before Pope Innocent VI. at Avignon. 
The age was not prepared to listen to him, and 
the Pope decided in favour of the friars. He 
died at Avignon, not without suspicion of poison, 
1360. See also Fox's Book of Martyrs. 

6. The Hoe. The derivation given is pro- 



bably correct. The word is also found spelt 
hogh. Richardson derives it from Anglo-Saxon 
heuh, and gives the following : 

" That well can witnesse yet vnto this day 
The westerne hoyh. 

Spenser, F. Queene, b. 11. c. 10. 
" AU doubtful to which party the victory would go, 
Upon that lofty place at Plymouth called the Hoe 
Those mighty wrestlers met." 

Dray ton, Poly-OMon, 5. 1. 

R. S. CHARNOCK. 



St. Richard (2 nd S. i. 470.) Richard (de 
Wyche) was born at Droitwich, in Worcester- 
shire. Having pursued a course of studies at 
Oxford, Paris, and Bologna, and so perfected him- 
self in the canon law, he was appointed by Ed- 
mund, Archbishop of Canterbury, his chancellor, 
and was also appointed Chancellor of the Univer- 
sity of Oxford. In 1245, he was elected (by the 
chapter) Bishop of Chiche.ster, in opposition to an 
unfit nominee of Henry III. And Richard's 
election was confirmed, as it had been promoted, 
by Pope Innocent. The Bishop died in 1253, at 
Dover, in his fifty-seventh year, and was after- 
wards canonised by Pope Urban IV., A.D. 1261. 
MR. BOASB may find a brief account of " Bishop 
Richard " in Parker's Calendar of the Anglican 
Church, in Brady's Clavis Calendaria, in Cosin's 
Notes on the Book of Common Prayer, or in Mant, 
Wheatly, or any other annotator on the English 
Calendar, wider the third of April, on which day 
he died. J. SANSOM. 



St. Richard was Bishop of Chichester, and died 
at Dover, April 3, 1253, on which day he is still 
commemorated in the English Calendar. He was 
appointed bishop in opposition to the nominee of 
Henry III., and it was only by the interference of 
the pope that he was allowed, after two years' de- 
privation, to take possession of his see, which he 
presided over more than five years, dying at the 
age of fifty-seven. His emblems, in reference to 
various legends connected with him, too long for 
insertion here, are a plough and a chalice. 

NORRIS DECK. 
Cambridge. 



There is an account of a S. Richardus, rex apud 
Anglo-Saxones in Britannia, to be found in torn, ii, 
Febr. p. 69. of the Acta Sanctorum of Bollundus, 
I should think that he is most probably the Saint 
Richard mentioned by your correspondent MR. 
BOASE.* 'AAjeuj. 

Dublin. 



[* For notices of St. Richard of the West Saxons, see 
our l*t S. iv. 475. ; v. 418.] 



2nd g. NO 27., JULY 6. >56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17 



WILLIAM CLAPPERTON. 

(2 nd S. i. 181.) 

In a former number I was able to furnish some 
particulars relative to this gentleman. I now 
propose to make an addition to my previous com- 
munication. 

The late John Ring, Esq., surgeon, in London, 
was jm excellent scholar and an enthusiastic ;id- 
mirer of Virgil. Dissati.-fied with the previous trans- 
lations, he published in 2 vols., 8vo., London, 1820, 
a mosaic edition, partly original and partly altered 
from the text of Dryden and Pitt. This having 
fallen into Mr. Clapperton's hands, was anxiously 
perused and greatly admired by him; so much so, 
that he was induced to write to Mr. Ring. This 
led to a correspondence, in the course of which 
numerous faulty lines were pointed out and 
amended by Clapperton. Ring felt much grati- 
fied by the praise and assistance, of his correspon- 
dent, and learning that his circumstances were 
far from opulent, intimated a wish to recompense 
him ; this the poet would not listen to, but agreed 
to accept a portrait of his new friend, which was 
sent without delay, in a handsome frame, and was 
duly received by Mr. Clapperton, who placed the 
honoured portrait in the most conspicuous place 
in his apartment. 

Mr. Ring died in Dec., 1821, an event which 
retarded the projected new edition. Clapperton 
nevertheless went on with his translations and 
emendations, and in 1835 published, by subscrip- 
tion, the ^Eneid, in two small volumes, 12mo. 
There were copies, few in number, on large paper: 
these are now very scarce. The Georgics were 
not included in this edition, Mr. Clapperton being 
of opinion that they required very little emenda- 
tion, and in truth caring nothing about them. 

I had forgotten the greater part of the above 
legend, when my memory was refreshed by seeing 
poor Clapperton's highly prized portrait of Ring 
amongst various paintings exposed for sale by 
Mr. Nisbet, in his far famed sale rooms in Edin- 
burgh. For "Auld lang syne," and out of re- 
spect to the memory of Ring and Clapperton, both 
of whom were most excellent and worthy persons, 
I^became, for a small consideration, the purchaser. 
The painting is an excellent one, and I have no 
doubt is very like Mr. Ring. It is not improbable 
that some person connected with the deceased 
gentleman can tell me who the painter was, or put 
me in the way of obtaining that knowledge. 

j!M. (2) 



PHOT&GRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Photographic Portraits. The Art of Photography is 
it length taking its place beside that of engraving in the 
publication of Portraits. We have several specimens 
now before us. Dr. Diamond has been induced to issue 



some of his Portraits of the Men of the Time ; and we 
doubt not many an old King's College man will be glad 
to have the opportunity of securing the admirable like- 
ness which Dr. Diamond has produced of the Rev. Dr. 
Major, the learned and excellent Master of King's Col- 
lege School ; while the many friends who appreciate the 
literary acquirements and social character of the Author 
of The Handbook of London, will be no less delighted 
with the genial and characteristic likeness of Mr. Peter 
Cunningham, which Dr. Diamond has succeeded in 
catching. These are separate publications But Messrs. 
Maull & Polyblank have commenced a work of greater 
pretension. It is entitled Photographic Portraits of Living 
Celebrities; and appears monthly, each portrait being 
accompanied by a Biographical" Memoir. The First 
Number contains Professor Owen, and a more charac- 
teristic portrait of the " Newton of Natural History " 
cannot well be imagined. The Second Number furnishes 
us with a portrait of Mr. Macdblay. The likeness is 
satisfactory, thoughtful, and characteristic. As a por- 
trait of the great historian silent, it is indeed admirable 
bu* is deficient in that animation which, when talking, 
lights up the whole countenance of one who talks so well. 

Hardwick's Photographic Chemistry. This little vo- 
lume, indispensable to every photographer, has been 
thoroughly revised, and now appears in a third edition. 
Everything has been omitted from it which does not 
possess practical as well aa scientific interest. The 
chapters on Photographic Printing have been entirely re- 
written, and include the whole of the author's i-uportant 
investigations on this subject. Lastly, Mr. Hardwick 
has endeavoured as far as possible to recommend the em- 
ployment of chemical agents which are used in medicine, 
and vended by all druggists. How useful this may prove 
can only be judged by those who have suffered from 
practising photography in remote localities, far from tlie 
reach of purely photographic chemicals. 



to #Unor 

Bishop J3utts (2 nd S. i. 34.) I observe in your 
number for Jan. 12, an answer to the Query of 
K. H. S. respecting Dr. Butts. This bishop was 
not the only prelate slandered by Cole. Passing 
by his calumnies, I inform K. H. S. that Bishop 
Butts was the seventh child of Rev. W. Butts, 
formerly rector of Hartest, Suffolk : that he was 
not quite destitute of merit, as Cole asserts, may 
be inferred from his brother clergymen having 
elected him as their Convocation Proctor in 1727, 
he being then rector of Chedburgh ; he was also 
rector of Ickworth, lecturer of St. Mary's, Bury 
St. Edmunds, and chaplain to George II. ; and 
successively Dean of Norwich, Bishop of Nor- 
wich, and Bishop of Ely. His first wife was not 
a daughter of Dr. Eyton, but of Rev. A. Pycher, 
formerly rector of Hawstead ; and he died, aged 
sixty-three ; about which age Cole makes him 
marry a second wife, which he certainly did, but 
at a much earlier age. He was descended of an 
ancient family, inheriting a property descending 
through many generations from before the time of 
Edward II. to James II., situated at Shouldham 
Thorp, Norfolk, in the church of which place 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



are many monuments of the family. K. H. S. 
may have any farther, particulars from 

E. D. IB. 
I enclose my address. 

Henley-on-Thames (2 nd S. i.454.) J. S.URN 
has given so short a list of books which he has at 
hand for a history of Henley, omitting some of 
general information, that I would first refer him 
to Hastings Past and Present, Lond. 1855, Append, 
pp. i. Ixii., the last work I am acquainted with, as 
giving a long list of works which have reference 
to the locality it treats of. They cannot of course 
be transferred at once to a Henley Past and Pre- 
sent, but they will indicate sources of information 
which he must have recourse to, more or less, if he 
would do his work well. 

For Henley in particular there may be men- 
tioned, 

Turner, Captain Samuel, A true Relation of a 
late Skirmish at Henley-on-Thames, wherein a 
great Defeat was given to the Redding Cavaliers, 
4to., Lond. 1643. (There is a copy in the Bod- 
leian.) 

Gough's Sepulchral Monuments of Great Britain, 
vol. i. plate 4. fig. 8., engraving of a cross. 

The Gentleman s Magazine, vol. Iv. p. 931., and 
vol. Ivi. pp. 45. 363., an account of Gainsborough, 
brother to the painter, with his epitaph ; vol. Ixiii. 
p. 716., and vol. Ixxxiii. part i. p. 716., church 
notes ; vol. Ixxvii. p. 79., presentation of cup, &c., 
to T. Chapman for rescuing a child from drown- 
ing; vol. Ixxxiii. part n. p. 183., discovery of mi- 
neral spring. (The general index does not ex- 
tend to the recent volumes.) 

Henley Guide, earlier than 1827. (See Skel- 
ton's Oxfordshire.") 

Skelton, J., Engraved Illustrations of the Paro- 
chial Antiquities of Oxfordshire, 4to., Oxford. 
1823-7. There is a view of Henley Church, and 
an interesting account of the town. 

Ecclesiastical Antiquities of England, arranged 
in Dioceses : Oxford, 8vo., J. H. and J. Parker, 
Oxford. E. M. 

Oxford. 

In a note to the Coucher Book of Whalley, edited 
for the Chetham Society by W. A. Hulton (p. 979.), 
it is stated that Robert de Holland, elsewhere said 
to have been first the secretary, and afterwards the 
betrayer, of Thomas Earl of Lancaster, was be- 
headed at Henley-on-Thames in 1328 ; and Dods- 
worth, who alludes to the circumstance, says that 
he owed his death to the hatred which his 
treachery had excited against him, and that the 
mob, who found him concealed in a wood near to 
Henley-on-Thames, conducted him to that place, 
and there put him to death. ANON. 

Special Report from Committee of House of 
Commons (2 nd S. i. 461.) The Committee of the 



House of Commons referred to by '"N. E. was ap- 
pointed Feb. 22, 1719 (House of Commons Journal, 
p. 274. b.). The Committee reported March 18 
(Id. p. 305. a.), and the House resolved that several 
informations given before the Committee tending 
to accuse the Attorney-General " of corrupt and 
evil practices are malicious, false, scandalous, and 
utterly groundless," the report and other papers 
to be printed, and that Mr. Speaker do appoint 
the printing of the said report (Id. 310. b.). 

The Committee again reported April 27 (Journal, 
p. 341.), and the House came to a resolution that 
the subscribers having acted as corporate bodies 
without legal authority, " and thereby drawn in 
several unwary persons into unwarrantable under- 
takings, the said practices manifestly tend to the 
prejudice of the publick trade and commerce of 
the kingdom ; " and a Bill was ordered " to re- 
strain the extravagant and unwarrantable practice 
of raising money by voluntary subscriptions for 
carrying on projects dangerous to the trade and 
subjects of this kingdom." And Mr. Secretary 
Craggs, Mr. Walpole, Mr. Comptroller, Mr. Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, do prepare and bring in 
the same (Id. 351. a.). Mr. Lowndes was added 
May 2 (Id. 353. b.). Parliament was prorogued 
June 11. 

The Reports are printed in the House of Com- 
mons Journals. See Index to House of Commons 
Journals, under " Projects." J. H. P. 

There is a copy of this Report in the library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, from which I shall have 
pleasure in copying any extracts desired by N. E. 

'AAteu. 

Dublin. 

Writers bribed to Silence (2 nd S. i. 471.) -In- 
formation has lately been sought in " N. & Q." for 
any information respecting writers who may have 
been bribed to silence. It would be equally 
curious and interesting to trace the extent of 
bribery in modifying or altogether changing a 
journal's politics. 

In 1816, the Journal de V Empire, an influential 
French newspaper, published the following : 

" We are assured the English Journal called The Courier, 
has received 500,000 francs from the bankers of M. de 
Blacas to write against France. At first 10,000 Louis 
were offered to the Journalist ; but was seriously angry, 
and protested that he was not a man to allow himself to 
be corrupted for such a trifle." 

William Mudford, author of half a dozen novels 
now forgotten, and of several miscellaneous works, 
including the greater part of the Border Antiqui- 
ties of Scotland, generally regarded as the^sole off- 
spring of Sir Walter Scott's brain, edited the 
Courier at this period, and replied : 

" Five hundred thousand francs, nearly 21,0007. sterling ! 
The Paris Editor, at least, shows by the magnitude of 
the sum of what importance he thinks our support of any 



S. NO 27., JULY. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



cause is. So far we are obliged to him, and we shall be 
farther obliged to him to add, in the next journal he pub- 
lishes after the receipt of our paper of to-day, that there 
was not one word of truth in his assertion." 

This contradiction was not regarded as conclu- 
sive or satisfactory by many of the contemporary 
prints. The Antigallican said : 

" It is no easy matter to discover whether the charge 
or reply be the more correct, but thus much we have 
had an "opportunity of knowing, that the Governments of 
France have had "English Journalists in their pay since 
the Revolution. Indeed those persons who were in the 
habit of reading the Courier last summer, must have seen 
that that paper was not very friendly to the Bourbons ; 
now, however, it is suddenly changed, as if touched with 
a magic wand. 

" Not long since a charge of a similar kind was pre- 
ferred against a Morning Paper, viz. of 10,000/. having 
been received by its proprietor from Blacas." 

It would be curious to elicit accurate informa- 
tion on this subject. 

WILLIAM JOHN FITZ-PATRICK. 

The Silver Greyhound (2 nd S. i. 493.) About 
seventy years ago the king's messengers always 
wore this badge when on duty, and it is one of 
these officers whom Sir Walter Scott, in his tale 
of " Aunt Margaret's Mirror," calls the man with 
the silver greyhound on his sleeve. J. DE W. 

Sir Edward Coke (1 st S. iv. passim.) The cor- 
rect spelling of the surname of this great lawyer 
is to be found in an " Epistle Dedicatorie " to him 
of,- 

"A Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchcraft, so 
farre forth as it is revealed in the Scriptures, and manifest 
by true experience. Framed and Delivered by Mr. 
William Perkins, in his ordinarie course of Preaching, 
&c. Printed by Cantrell Legge, Printer to the Univer- 
sitie of Cambridge, 1613," 

namely, 

" To the Right Honourable Sir Edward Cooke, Knight, 
Lord Chief Justice of his Majesties Court of Common 
Pleas, Grace and Peace,'' &c. 

The author discusses the subject of witchcraft 
with considerable ingenuity, as it prevailed in 
England at that date; and with a zealous sincerity, 
in A Resolution to the Countryman, proving it 
utterly unlawfull to buie or use our yearely Prog- 
nostications, he endeavours to put down what had 
been the almanacks in circulation. G. N. 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem (2 nd S. i. 197. 
264. 461.) To W. W., who informs me that " all 
masonic degrees are separate and distinct," I beg 
to reply that I am quite aware of this ; but they 
are occasionally united in the same services, and 
under the same laws and regulations. I gave two 
instances, the latter being from a book of Laws 
and Regulations, of which the first article provides 

that the five orders of masonic knighthood in 

be united under one general administration, and 



subject to one code of laws. I need not repeat 
the names of these five orders, having specified 
them in a former communication. F. C. H. 

Poniatowski Gems (2 nd S. i. 471.) About ten 
or twelve years ago these gems were in the pos- 
session of a gentleman named Tyrrell, then re- 
siding in Craven Street, Strand, and he employed 
an Irish scholar named Pendergast to compile a 
Catalogue Eaisonnee of his treasure. At Mr. 
Tyrrell's house I saw, I think, the whole work, 
but certainly a part, in print. If it was completed, 
and was published, otherwise than privately, I 
need not, tell MR. GANTILLON that it will be found 
at the British Museum. If it is not there on 
either the one ground or the other, I think I 
could possibly ascertain Mr. Tyrrell's address for 
MR. GANTILLON. JAMES KNOWLES. 

[We cannot find a copy of this Catalogue Eaisonnee in 
the British Museum.] 

The Image of Diana at Ephesus Aerolite 
Worship (2 nd S. i. 410.) I recollect once hear- 
ing an eminent classic and D.D. of this University 
assert as his opinion, that this image was formed 
of a meteoric stone or aerolite. There is no 
doubt that aerolite worship was common in the 
East ; and that it is so still may be seen by the 
following extracts from Lieut. Burton's Pilgri- 
mage to El Medinah and Meccah : 

" At Jagannath they worship a pyramidal black stone, 
fabled to have fallen from heaven, or miraculously to 
have presented itself on the place where the temple now 
stands." Vol. iii. p. 159. 

" While kissing it (the celebrated black stone at 
Meccah), and rubbing forehead and hands upon it, I nar- 
rowly observed it, and came away persuaded that it is a 
big aerolite." - Vol. iii. p. 210. 

This would seem to favour the idea that the 
image of the great Diana was composed of a 
similar substance. I may add, that I have jn my 
possession a perforated bead, probably Druidical, 
evidently formed out of a meteoric stone. 

NORRIS DECK. 

Cambridge. 

Black Letter (2 nd S. i. 472.) Though the 
Query of A. L. B. is addressed to another tran- 
scriber of black letter books, I may be permitted, 
as one who has had much practice in that way, to 
inform him that I find the best kind of pen for the 
purpose to be one made from a swan's quill, with 
a short slit and a very broad nib. There are 
metal pens sold for the purpose, but they have the 
great disadvantage of getting soon clogged up 
with the fine powder which they scratch up from 
the vellum. F. C. H. 

Burning of Books (2 nd S. i. 397.) The greatest 
Vandalism perpetrated in more modern times is 
that of the Austrian Government, which, after the 
battle of the Weisse Berg, 1621, sent a number of 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NO 27., JULY 5. '56. 



commissioners (Jesuits) through the breadth and 
length of Czechia, who, found, in almost every vil- 
lage, piles of books, 'obnoxious to tyrannic and 
bigoted rule, and had them consumed by fire. 
Considering what flight Czechian literature had 
taken shortly after the spreading of the Reforma- 
tion, Petrarca's Poewz.v, for instance, being first 
translated into Czechian, this atrocity struck a 
fierce blow at the nascent literature of the great 
Panslavic race. I saw once a copy of a huge 
volume in fol. max. in the Czechian language, in 
one of the villages of that country, printed also at 
that period. I think it related to some geographi- 
cal subject. As I do not believe that any book so 
large had been then printed in any other part of 
Europe, I would wi^h to learn the title. It must 
especially have excited the attention of those 
Jesuitic incendiaries. J. LOTSKY, Panslave. 

15. Gower Street, London. 

Medieval Parchment (1 st S. vii. 155. 317.) 
I am desirous, with F. M., of knowing some means 
of preventing parchment from crumpling when 
moistened by the application of colour ; but, as I 
cannot refer to the MSS. mentioned by E. G. B., 
I shall be much obliged to any one who will, 
either through these columns or by letter, give 
me the information I seek. JOHN P. STILWELL. 

Dorking. 

Isle of Man (2 nd S. i. 454.) To assist in de- 
ciding this question I contribute a mite of informa- 
tion culled from the pages of Heylin, Hearne's 
Curious Discoveries, Mono, Antiqua restaurata, and 
Campbell's Survey. 

This island by Ptolemy is called Monceda, or the 
further Mona, to distinguish it from that which 
we call Anglesey or Mona. By Pliny it is called 
Monabia or Monapia ; by Orosius and Beda Me- 
navia ?> and by Gildas, an old British writer, Eu- 
fionia. Mona, the name by which it w&s generally 
known to the Romans (Campbell says), is evidently 
no more than the softening of the British appella- 
tion Mon, or Tir Mon, "the furthest land," the 
ancient Britons calling it Manaiu Menaw, or more 
properly main au, " the little island," the inhabit- 
ants mailing and the English man. 

It had a second name also, derived from its 
being almost covered with wood : this was Inis 
Touil, or as the moderns write it, Ynys Dywylh, 
" the shady island ; " and from the Druids having 
taken shelter there, a third, Ynys y Cedeirn, or 
the " Land of Heroes." R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Blood which will not wash out (2 nd S. i. 374.) 
Has MR. COWPEB ever visited Holyrood, where 
the stains of Rizzio's blood are shown on the floor 
in the passage near the hack stairs, leading from 
Queen Mary's room ? The legend runs that they 
cannot be removed by soap, water, and a scrub- 



bing brush. I am sufficient of an infidel to be- 
lieve that no effort has ever been made to remove 
them, and that, on the contrary, the stains have 
been from time to time carefully renewed by 
blood procured from some of the slaughter-houses 
in " Auld Reekie." Apropos of this suVvject, was 
it ever known that any two of the guides at Holy- 
rood Palace could be found to agree as to the 
exact number of stabs inflicted on Rizzio before 
life was extinct ? I trow not. SCEPTIC. 

Cow and Snuffers (2 nd S. i. 372.) Your cor- 
respondent E. E. BYNG will find the " Cow and 
Snuffers" mentioned in the Irish song of " Looney 
MTwolter," introduced in an old farce, whose 
author has escaped my memory : 

" Judy's my darling, my kisses she suffers, 

She's an heiress, that's clear, 

For her father sells beer, 
Och ! he keeps the sign of the Cow and the Snuffers, 

Oh ! she's so smart, 

From my heart 

I can't bolt her; 
Oh ! Whack ! Judy O'Flanagan, 
She's the girl for Looney M'Twolter." 

JUVERNA. 

Punishment of dishonest Bakers (2nd S. i. 332.) 
Queen Elizabeth, by a charter in the forty-first 
year of her reign, granted (inter alia) to the cor- 
poration of Andover, Hants, power to make and 
have, within their borough and hundred, the 
assize and assay of bread, wine, and ale, and 
other victuals, and to punish bakers and others 
breaking the said assize ; " that is to say, to draw 
such bakers and others offending against the said 
assize upon hurdles through the streets of the 
borough or town and hundred aforesaid, and to 
otherwise chastise them in manner as in our city 
of London is accustomed concerning such bakers 
and other such like offenders." W. H. W. T. 

Somerset House. 



fiatice* ta 

Owing to the number of articles of interest waiting for insertion we 
have this week been compelled to omit our usual NOTES ON BOOKS. 

A. Mi. Received. Many thanks. 

D. B. Has. we think, not copied quite accurately some of the words. If 

tie would entrust us wiHt the original document we should doubtless be 
enabled to answer his question. 

INDEX TO THE FIRST SERIES. As this is now published, and the im- 
pression is a limited one, such of our readers as desire copies wold do 
well to intimate their wish to their respective booksellers ithout delay. 
Our publishers, MKSSRS. BBLL & DALDV, ivill forward copies by post on 
receipt of a Post Office Order for Five Shillings. 

"NOTES AID QUERIFS" is published at noon on Friday, so that tJie 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

"NOTFS AND QPERIES" is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resident in the country or abroad, who may be desirous of receiving the 
weekly Numbrrx, may have stainred copies forwarded direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of " Nos AND 
QtiERtEs " (including a very copious Index} is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for sixjngnths, which may be paid by Post i 



favour of the Publisher, MR. GEORGK 



2nd g. N 28., JULY 12. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 12, 1856. 



POPIANA. 

Colley Cibler turned out of the House of Lords. 
Can any reader of " N. & Q." throw light upon the 
incidents referred to in the following lines? They are 
printed as a broadside on a single leaf, with the half- 
penny stamp impressed upon it. 
" Upon, the Poet Laureafs being expelled the House 
of Lords. 

C r (the wonder of a brazen Age), 

Always a Hero, off or on the stage, 
The other day, in courtesy, affords 
His lovely Phyz to grace the House of Lords ; 
Quite free from pride, he humbly condescends 
To treat the very smallest Peers, as Friends : 
With sneer or grin approves each grave debate, 
And smiles when Brother Dukes support the 
State : 

On the learn'd Bishops Bench, looks kind 

enough, 

And offers good Lord King a Pinch of Snuff. 
Whilst thus he rains his Favours on the Crowd, 
An old rough Earl his swift destruction vow'd ; 
Regardless of th' Imperial Crown he wore, 
Regardless of the Bays and Brains he bore, 
A Voice as hoarse as Sutherland's gave Law, 
And made the King, the Fop, The Bard with- 
draw. 

O C r, in revenge your wrath forbear, 

This once your stupid, stingless satire spare 
And with dull panegyrick daub each Peer : 
Like rhyming Bellman's Ghost haunt their 

abodes, 
And frighten them with Birth or New Year 

Odes. 
If banished thence, you still may shine at 

There P rs and Scoundrels equally resort ; 

Unmatched in all, Superiors never fear ; 

But since you'r Peerless scorn the name of Peer. 

" London : Printed for J. Jenkins, near Ludgate. 
Price (on stamped paper) 2^." 

Is the incident on which this satire turns recorded by 
any contemporary writer ? or is there any mention of it 
in the Journals of the House of Lords ? C. L. S. 



Portrait of Swift. Faulkener printed an 
edition of Dean Swift's Works in 1734. To the 
volume which completes the set is prefixed a full~ 
length portrait of the Dean seated in a chair, 
about to be crowned with laurels ; at his feet, in 
supplicating attitudes, the daughters and children 
of Ireland, and a table spread with coin, which 
may be understood to be "Wood's Halfpence." 
At the bottom there is the motto, 

" Exegi Monumentum ^Ere perennius." Hor. 



The plate seems to be a good likeness of the 
Dean, and altogether a well executed subject. 
No engraver's name appears on it. Query, Can 
any of your correspondents inform me who he 
was? 

It has often struck me that the following, ex- 
tracted from a Collection of Jests, printed at 
Edinburgh by R. Fleming, 1753, may have some 
relation to the plate, but I have never been able 
to connect the two. 

" On George Faulkener's promising to have the Dean of 
St. Patrick's Effigies prefixed to the New Edition of his 
Works, from a Copperplate done by Mr. Vertue. 

" In a little dark room, at the back of his shop, 
Where poets and criticks have din'd on a chop, 
Poor Faulkner sat musing alone thus of late, 
' Two volumes are done it is time for the plate ; 
Yes, time to be sure. But on whom shall I call 
To express the great Swift in a compass so small ? 
Faith, Vertue shall do it I'm pleas'd at the thought, 
Be the cost what it will, the copper is bought.' 
Apollo o'erheard, who, as some people guess, 
Had a hand in the work, and corrected the press, 
And pleas'd he replied, Honest George, you are right, 
This thought was my OAVII, howsoe'er you came b.v't ; 
For tho' both the wit and the style is my gift, 
'Tis Vertue alone can design us a Swift.' " 

G.N. 

Curll and the Westminster Scholars. The fol- 
lowing additional illustration of the satirical print 
which forms the subject of a Query by GRIFFIN 
(1 st S. v. 585.), and which is rightly described by 
S. WMSON (1 st S. vi. 348.) as referring to an affair 
between Curll and the boys of Westminster School, 
seems worth making a note of. It is from The 
Grub Street Journal, vol. i. p. 128. : 

" The following Copy of verses is taken from the Carmina 
Quadragesimalia ( vol. i. p, 118.), to which a transla- 
tion is subjoined : 

" An causae sint sibi invicem Causa? ? Aff r . 

" Authore invito, tenues mandare libellos, 

Furtivis solitus Bibliopola typis, 
Ultores pueros deceptus fraude maligna 

Sensit ab excesso missus in Astra sago : 
Nee satis hoc ; mensa late porrectus acerna 

Supplicium rigidae fert puerile schola? : 
Jam virgae impatiens pueris convitia fundit ; 

Vicinique crepat jurgia nota fori. 
Flagra minas misero extorquent repetita ; minasque 

Quo magis ingeminat, vapulat ille magis. 

" Whether Causes can be mutual ? Aff. 
" Much had piratic Mun by pamphlets got, 
For print he would, if authors would or not. 
By vengeful boys decoyed, he takes ten flights 
From blanket, loftier than from Grub Street Rights. 
Nay more : stretch'd out at length on maple board, 
Feels boyish pains in rigid schools abhorred, 
Impatient of the rod, Ye dogs uncivil,' 

He cries, 'by I'll sue you to the devil.' 

Lashes loud threats extort : in greater store, 
The threats flie out, the wretch is lashed the more. 
" Mr. Bavius objected against the impropriety of trans- 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 28., JULY 12. '56. 



lating late porrectus,' by < stretched out at length.' But 
Mr. Maevius vindicated it by saying, that one of the 
agents had assured birf that the patient was stretched 
out at length, as well as in breadth ; and therefore the 
translator, as well as the author, might chuse which he 
pleased." 

Let me add a Query : Where did Curll 
" . . . th' oration print 
Imperfect with false Latin in't?" 

the offence for which it is stated he was subjected 
to such dishonourable treatment. M. N. S. 

Warburton. Among the books formerly be- 
longing to Samuel Rogers, and now on sale by 
AVillis and Sotheran, is a copy of Dr. Johnson's 
Table Talk, 1785, " with the following severe verse 
on Warburton written by Mr. Rogers on the fly- 
leaf-." 

" He is so proud that should he meet 
The twelve Apostles in the street, 
He'd turn his nose up at them all, 
And thrust our Saviour from the wall." 

Are these verses by Rogers, or merely copied 
by him from some contemporary satire ? S. W. 



DOUCE S MS. NOTES. 

The following notes by this learned antiquary 
are in a copy of R. Gaguin's Grandes Croniques, 
fol., Par. 1514, which formerly belonged to him, 
and is now in the Douce Collection in the Bod- 
leian Library, Oxford. 

" Gaguin's Gestes Romaines, printed by Verara, with- 
out date, in folio. This is not the Gesta Romanorum, as 
somewhere stated, but a compilation of the Roman history 
down to the time of . At the end of his pro- 

logue he speaks of the tournaments and 'joustes a, ou 
trance' that he had seen in England and in the court of 
Burgundy. The work begins with Hasanibal's being 
made emperor of the Cai'thaginians, and ends with Scipio's 
triumph at Rome. Then follow various matters on he- 
raldry, as the origin of Montjoye king-at-arms, manner 
of electing an emperor, duke, viscount, &c., observations 
on war, &c. ; account of justs in England and Burgundy, 
&c." 

"At the end of the Roman history is a large cut, 
copied, I think, from some fine illumination of which I 
have a drawing (from Rive's work, in outline). On the 
left a Gothic chapel, on the outside arms of France on a 
shield, inside a bishop anointing a kneeling and naked 
person. This in front. Behind, a bishop baptizing a 
child. On the right hand of the print, King Clovis put- 
ting a Roman army to flight, CLOVIS ROY on his horse- 
trappings. Behind, a hermit bringing a new shield with 
three fleurs-de-lis, instead of the old arms on the king's 
breast, viz. three * * * (?) On a hill the hermit 
receives this shield from an angel, a bird attending with 
the ampoulle in his mouth. In the back-ground pillars 
with images on them (as in a large painting at Somerset 
House of H. P. and Sowers) (?), and a king and queen 
standing near them." 

" On Kniyht Bannerets. 

" Where a tenant has served long in war, and has land 
enough to maintain fifty gentlemen, he may lawfully 



raise his banner, and on the first battle he may bring a 
pennon of his arms, and require of the constable or mar- 
shal to be made banneret, which if granted, the trumpets 
are to announce it, and then the tails of the pennon are to 
be cut, in order to be carried with those of others either 
above or below barons." 

" Mode of ordering a Battle * par eschelles,' i. e. squadrons. 

" The ceremony at the combat at lists is very curious. 
The regulations "themselves, made by Thomas, Duke of 
Gloucester, High Constable for Rich. II., are given: 
' Et si la dicte bataille est cause de traison, celluy qui est 
vaincu et descomfit sera desarme dedans les lices, et par 
le comandement du conestable sera mis en un cornet, et 
en reprehencion de luy sera traisne hors avec chevaulx 
du lieu mesme ou il est ainsi desarmi parmy les lices 
jusques au lieu de justice ou sera decole ou pendu selon 
lusaige des pays, la quelle chose appartient au mareschal 
voir par fournir par son office et le mettre a execution.' 

" N.B. The hanging and beheading was confined to 
cases of treason ; in a simple affair of arms the disabled 
party was only disarmed and led out of lists. 

" ; Ci finist les gestes romaines et les statuts et ordoi> 
nances des heraulx darmes, translate de latin en francois 
par maistre Robert Guaguin general de lordre des Ma- 
turins.' No date, but pr. by Ant. Verard in folio,, Brit. 
Mus." 

" Gaguin died at Paris in 1501. His history extends 
to 1499. 

" Gaguin entreprit un ouvrage qui dans onze livres 
comprend 1'histoire de douze siecles. Rien ne manqua a 
Gaguin que le genie pour etre un bon historien ; car ses 
frequentes ambassades et les livres de la bibliothe'que de 
Louis XII. lui procuroient tous les secours qui pouvoient 
lui etre necessaires." Carlencas, Hist, des Belles Lettres t 
p. 326." 

" See an excellent character of Gaguin in the Recreations 
Historigues, tome ii. p. 184." 

" See in Chevillier, Origine de Vimprimerie de Paris, 
p. 157., an account of the dissatisfaction expressed by 
Gaguin at the inaccuracy of the first edition of his work." 

" See Meusel, Bill. Hist., torn. vii. p. 9." 

" Gaguin was librarian to Louis XL, Charles VIII., 
and Louis XII." 

W. D. M. 



GENERAL LITERARY INDEX : ALLEGIANCE, ETC. 

(Continued from 2 nd S. i. 487.) 

" The Controversial Letters, or the Grand Controversie 
concerning the Pope's Temporal Authority between two 
English Gentlemen ; the one of the Church of England, 
the other of Rome. 4to. London. 1673-75." 

" History and Vindication of the Irish Remonstrance, 
&c. 1661. Reprinted, fol. Lond., 1674. 

" A Letter to the Catholics of England, &c. &c. &c. 
By Father Peter Walsh. 8vo. Lond., 1674." 

" England's Independency upon the Papal Power his- 
torically and judicially stated, out of the Reports of Sir 
John Davis and Sir Edw. Coke. By Sir John Pettus. 
4to. Lond., 1674." 

" Some Considerations of Present Concernment ; how 
far Romanists may be trusted by Princes of another Per- 
suasion. By Henry Dodwell. 8vo. 1675." 

" A Seasonable Question, and an Useful Answer ; con- 
tained in an Exchange of a Letter between a Parliament 
Man in Cornwall and a Bencher of the Temple, London, 
Lond., 167G." 

" The Jesuits' Loyalty, in Three Tracts, written by 



2** S. N 28., JULY 12. '56.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



them against the Oath of Allegiance, with the Reasons 
of Penal Laws. 1677 ( ?)." 

" Answer to Three Treatises published under the Title 
of ' The Jesuits' Loyalty.' 4to. Lond., 1678." 

" An Account of the Growth of Popery, and Arbitrary 
Government in England ; more particularly from the 
long Prorogation of Parliament of Nov. 1675, ending 
the 15th Feb. 1676, till the last Meeting of Parliament, 
the 16th of July, 1677. Fol. Lond., 1678. Reprinted 
in 'State Tracts 'in 1689." 

" Popery, or the Principles and Positions approved by 
the Church of Rome (when really believed and practised), 
are very dangerous to all, and to Protestant Kings and 
Supreme Powers more especially pernicious and incon- 
sistent with that Loyalty which (by the Law of Nature 
and Scripture) is indispensably due to Supreme Powers. 
By Thomas Barlow, Bishop of Lincoln. 4to. Lond., 
1679." 

" Brutum Fulmen, or the Bull of Pius V. against Q. 
Elizabeth, with Observations and Animadversions. By 
the Same. 4to. Lond., 1681." 

" The King- Killing Doctrine of the Jesuits, translated 
from the French. By Peter Bellon. 4to. Lond., 1679." 

" The Jesuits' Catechism according to St. Ignatius 
Loyola for the Instructing and Strengthening of all those 
which are weake in that Faith. Wherein the Impiety of 
their Principles, Pernitiousness of their Doctrines, and 
Iniquitv of their Practises are declared. 4to. Lond., 
1679." " 

"The Jesuits Unmasked; or Politick Observations 
upon the Ambitious Pretensions and Subtle Intreagues of 
that Cunning Society. Presented to all High Powers 
as a Seasonable Discourse at this Time. 4to. Lond., 
1679." 

" Christian Loyalty ; or a Dyscourse, wherein is asserted 
that just Royal Authority and Eminency, which in this 
Church and Realm of England, is yielded to the King. 
Especially concerning Supremacy in Causes Ecclesiastical. 
Together with the Disclaiming all Foreign Jurisdiction ; 
and the Unlawfulness of Subjects Taking Armes against 
the King. By William Falkner. 8vo. Lond., 1679." 

" An Exact Discovery of the Mystery of Iniquity as it 
is now in practice among the Jesuits and other their 
Emissaries. With a particular Account of their Anti- 
christian and Devillish Policy. 4to. 1679." 

" The Case put concerning the Succession of the D. of 
York. With some Observations upon the Political Cate- 
chism, the Appeal, &c., and Three or Four other Libels. 
2nd edit, enlarged. [By Sir Roger L'Estrange.] Lond., 
1679." 

" Seasonable Advice to all true Protestants in England 
in this present Posture of Affairs. Discerning the pre- 
sent Designs of the Papists, with other remarkable Things, 
tending to the Peace of the Church, and the Security of 
the Protestant Religion. By a Sincere Lover of his King 
and Country. 4to. Lond., 1679." 

" A Seasonable Memorial in some Historical Notes 
upon the Liberties of the Press and Pulpit, with the 
Effects of Popular Petitions, Tumults, Associations, Im- 
postures, and disaffected Common Councils. To all good 
Subjects and true Protestants. 4to. Lond., 1680." [By 
Sir Roger L'Estrange, partly in favour of the succession of 
the Duke of York] 

" Three Great Questions concerning the Succession, 
and the Danger of Popery. Fully examined in a Letter 
to a Member of the present Parliament. 4to. 1680." 

" The True Protestant Subject, or the Nature and 
Rights of Sovereignty discussed and stated. Addressed 
to the Good People of England. 4to. Lond., 1680." 

" A Seasonable Address to both Houses of Parliament 
concerning the Succession, the Fears of Popery, and Ar- 
bitrary Government. 4to. 1681." 



" A Conference about the next Succession to the Crown 
of England. By R. Doleman. Reprinted, 1681." 

" The Case of Protestants in England under a Popish 
Prince, if any shall happen to wear the Imperial Crown. 
4to. 1681." 

" Loyalty asserted, in Vindication of the Oath of Al- 
legiance. 8vo. 1681." 

" A Dialogue between the Pope and a Phanatic con- 
cerning Affairs in England. By a Hearty Lover of his 
Prince and Country. 4to. Lond., 1681."' 

" Ursa Major et Minor, shewing that there is no such 
Fear as is factiously pretended of Popery and Arbitrary 
Power. Lond., 1681." 

" No Protestant Plot, or the present pretended Con- 
spiracy of Protestants against the King and Government 
discovered to be a Conspiracy of the Papists against the 
King and his Protestant Subjects. (By Antony Ashley 
Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury.) 4to. Lond., 1681." 

" A Letter to a Friend containing certain Observations 
upon some Passages which have been published in a late 
Libel, intituled, The Third Part of No Protestant Plot ; 
and which do relate to the Kingdom of Ireland. 4to. 
Lond., 1682." 

" Last Efforts of Afflicted Innocence ; being an Account 
of the Persecution of the Protestants of France, and a 
Vindication of the Reformed Religion from the Aspersions 
of Disloyalty and Rebellion charged on it by the Papists, 
translated from the French by W. Vaughan. 1682." 

" The Loyalty of Popish Principles examined in answer 
to a late Book entitled ' Stafford's Memoirs.' By Robert 
Hancock. 4to. Lond., 1682." 

" The Judgment of an Anonymous Writer concerning 
these following particulars : 1. A Law for Disabling a 
Papist to Inherit, the Crown, &c. &c. The second edition, 
4to. Lond. 1684." 

This was first published in 1674 under a dif- 
ferent title : see Biographia Britannica, Suppl., 
p. 95., n. D. Dr. Geo. Hickes was the writer. 

" The Royal Apology, or Answer to the Rebel's Plea, 
wherein the anti-monarchical Tenents, first published by 
Doleman the Jesuit, to promote a Bill of Exclusion against 
King James. Secondly, practised by Bradshaw and the 
Regicides in the actual Murder of King Charles the 1st. 
Thirdly, republished by Sidney and the Associators to 
Depose and Murder his Present Majesty, are distinctly 
considered. With a Parallel between Doleman, Brad- 
shaw, Sidney, and other of the True Protestant Party. 
4to. Lond., 1684." 

Watt ascribes this work to Sir R. L'Estrange as 
well as to Assheton. 

" The Apostate Protestant. A Letter to a Friend, oc- 
casioned by the late reprinting of a Jesuit's Book about 
Succession to the Crown of England, pretended to have 
been written by R. Doleman. By Edw. Pelling. 4to. 
Lond., 1685." 

The first edition was published in 1682. As- 
cribed by Watt to Sir R. L'Estrange also. 

" Remarks upon the reflections of the Author of Popery 
misrepresented, &c., on his Answerer ; particular!}' as to 
the deposing Doctrine, &c. &c. By Mr. Abednego Seller. 
4to. 1086." 

" Poperv anatomized ; or the Papists cleared from the 
false Imputations of Idolatry and Rebellion. 4to. 1686." 

"An Answer of a Minister of the Church of England to 
a Seasonable and Important Question proposed to him by 
a loyal and religious Member of the present House of 
Commons, viz., What Respect ought the true Sons of the 
Church of England in point of Conscience and Christian 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



O* S. N 28., JULY 12. '56. 



Prudence to hear to the Religion of that Church, whereof 
the King is a Member. 4to. Lond., 1687." 

" How the Members 6f the Church of England ought 
to behave themselves under a Roman Catholic King, with 
reference to the Test and Penal Laws. By a Member of 
the same-Church. 12mo. Lond., 1687." 

" The True Test of the Jesuits, or the Spirit of that 
Society disloyal to God, their King, and Neighbour. 4to. 
Amsterdam, 1688." 

" The Jesuits' Reasons Unreasonable. Or Doubts pro- 
posed to the Jesuits upon their Paper presented to Seven 
Persons of Honour for Non-Exception from the common 
favour voted to Catholics. 4to. 1688." 

" The True Spirit of Popery, or the treachery and 
cruelty of the Papists exercised against Protestants in all. 
ages and countries when Popery hath the upper hand. 
4to. 1688." 

" An Impartial Query for Protestants, viz. Can Good 
come out of Galilee, or can a Popish Ruler propagate the 
Reformed Religion. 4to. 1688." 

" The Obligation resulting from the Oath of Supremacy 
to assist and defend the Prerogative of the Dispensative 
Power belonging- to the King. Fol. 1688." 

"Allen's (Will, alias Col. Titus) Killing no Murder, 
proving it lawful to kill a Tyrant. 4to. 1689." 

" Ascham's (Anthony) Seasonable Discourse of what is 
lawful during the Confusions and Revolutions of Go- 
vernment. 4to. 1689." 

First published in 1649. 

"Brutus (Junius) Vindiciae contra Tyrannos; or, a 
Defence of Liberty against Tyrants, or of the Prince over 
the People, and of the People over the Prince, translated. 
4to. 1689." 

The translation was first published in 1648. 
The original is by some ascribed to Hubert Lan- 
guet, by others to Theodore Beza. It was trans- 
lated by Walker, the presumed executioner of 
Charles I. 

" Sidney Redivivus, or the Opinion of the late Colonel 
Sidney as to Civil Government. 4to. 1689." 

See tracts relative to the Revolution in 1688. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



SERJEANTS' RINGS: MR. JUSTICE PRICE. 

I was in hopes this subject would have been 
continued (vide 1 st S. v. 563.), and that as correct 
a list as could possibly be obtained from your nu- 
merous correspondents would have appeared in 
your valuable columns long ere this. As a small 
contribution towards so desirable an object, I beg 
to hand you the following motto selected by Robert 
Price, Esq., of Foxley, co. Hereford, for his pre- 
sentation rings on being made serjeant-at-law in 
1702: 

" Regina et Lege gaudet Britannia." 

As a note to the foregoing, the following par- 
ticulars of this excellent judge may not prove un- 
interesting. He was made attorney-general for 
South Wales in 1682, and elected an alderman of 
the city of Hereford. Sat in the remarkable par- 
liament of the same year when the Act of Exclu- 



sion was brought in, against which he voted. In 
1683, Recorder of Radnor. After the death of 
Charles II., in 1684, was steward to her majesty 
Catherine, the queen-dowager. Elected town 
clerk for the city of Gloucester in 1685. King's 
counsel at Ludlow, under James II., in 1686. In 
1695, he strenuously and successfully opposed the 
exorbitant grant which the king, William III., 
proposed to confer on his favourite, the Earl of 
Portland. In 1702, was made one of the Barons 
of the Exchequer ; in which Court he presided 
nearly a quarter of a century. And on the death 
of Mr. Justice Dormer in 1726, he succeeded him 
in the Court of Common Pleas, where he presided 
till his death, which took place at Kensington on 
Feb. 2, 1732, in his seventy-ninth year. He was 
buried at Yazor, in the county of Hereford. 

What relation was he to the present Sir Robert 
Price, Bart,, of Foxley in that county ? 

J. B. WHITBORNE. 



PLAT BY ST. PAUL'S BOYS AT GREENWICH, 1527. 

In his recently-published History of England, 
Mr, Froude makes an extract from an old MS., 
which he introduces in a manner that would lead 
to the belief that it had never before been pub- 
lished. 

It had been used by Mr. Collier in the Amdls 
of the Stage, and connected by him with the same 
passage from Hall. With those unacquainted with 
the fact, Mr. Froude's language might deprive 
Mr. Collier of some of the praise that belongs 
to him for the compilation of his extraordinary 
book, which, while it is the evidence of his wonder- 
ful industry, is also its best monument. 

His History of England bears unmistakeable 
evidence of truthfulness, but unfriendly critics 
might say that in this case Mr, Froude has shown 
a want of candour. 

As I cannot think it such, I would place the 
coincidence on record in " N. & Q.," that a future 
misunderstanding may be avoided. 

At p. 62. vol. i., Mr. Froude says : 

<i As I desire in this chapter not only to relate what 
were the habits of the people, but to illustrate them also, 
within such compass as I can allow myself, I shall tran- 
scribe out of Hall a description of a play which was acted 
by the boys of St. Paul's School in 1527, at Greenwich, 
adding some particulars, not mentioned by Hall, from 
another source.* . . . 

Here follows the passage from Hall, at the con- 
clusion of which Mr. Froude continues : 

" So far Hall relates the scene, but there was more in 
the play than he remembered, or cared to notice, and / 
am able to complete this curious picture of a pageant once 

* The Personages, Dresses, and Properties of a Mystery 
Play, acted at Greenwich, by Command of Henry VIII. 
Rolls House MS. 



S. NO 28., JULY 12. J 56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



really and truly a living spectacle in the old Palace at 
Greenwich, by an inventory of the dresses worn by the 
boys, and a list of the dramatis persona. 

" The schoolboys of St. Paul's were taken down the 
river with the master in six boats, at the cost of a shilling 
a boat ; the cost of the dresses and the other expenses 
amounting in all to sixty-one shillings. The characters 
were, 

" An orator in apparel of cloth of gold. 

" Religio, Ecclesia, Veritas, like three widows, in gar- 
ments of silk, and suits of lawn and cypress. 

" Heresy and False Interpretation, like sisters of Bo- 
hemia, apparelled in silk of divers colours. 

" The heretic Luther, like a party friar in russet da- 
mask and black taffety. 

" Luther's wife, like a frow of Spiers in Almayn, m red 
silk," &c. 

At p. 107. vol. i. of the Annals of the Stage, 
published five-and-twenty years ago, Mr. Collier 
thus introduces the same passage : 

"The original account by Richard Gibson, in his own 
writing, giving a variety of' details regarding this extra- 
ordinary exhibition, is now in my hands* ; and although 
he was evidently an illiterate man, and wrote a bad hand, 
and although the paper is considerably worm-eaten, the 
whole is legible and intelligible We after- 
wards arrive at the following enumeration and description 
of the singular characters in this remarkable interlude : 

" The kyng's plessyer was that at the sayd revells by 
clerks in the latyn long schoulld be playd in hys hy 
presens a play, where of insewethe the naames. First a 
Orratur in apparell of golld : a Poyed (Poet) in apparell 
of cloothe of golld : Relygyun, Ecclesia, Verritas, lyke iij 
nowessys (novices) in garments of syllke, and vayells of 
laun and sypers (cypress) : Errysy (Heresy) Falls-inter- 
prytacyun, Corupcyoscryptoriis, lyke ladys of Beem (Bo- 
hemia ?) inperelld in garments of syllke of dyvers kolours : 
the erry tyke Lewter (Luther) lyke a party freer (friar) in 
russet damaske and blake taffata : Lewter's wyef (wife) 
like a frow of Spyers in Allmayn, in red syllke, &c. &c. . 

" It. payd by me Rychard Gybson, for vj boots (boats) 
lo karry the Master of Powlls Skooll and the chyldyrn as 
well hoom as to the Kourt to every boot I2d. ; so payd 
for frayght for the chyldyrn 6s." 

C.M. 

Leicester. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACAULAY. 

Unpublished Letter of Judge Jeffryes. The 
publication of Macaulay's History of England has 
drawn much attention to the actors in the events 
of the era of the Revolution. The following let- 
ter was sent by this judge of infamous memory to 
the Mayor of Preston, on the subject of the sur- 
render of the municipal charter of that ancient 
borough in the latter portion of the reign of 
Charles II. The charter was regranted. It 
would appear that the judge was an adept in the 
" soft sawder " Line : 

* The official copy of it, made out from Gibson's rough 
draught, and signed by Sir Henry Guildford (as Comp* 
troller of the Household) and by Gibson, is in the 
Chapter-House, Westminster. 



" I rec d yours with an accompt of yo r comunicating my 
last to yo r Brethren, and I am shure nothing I sayd 
therein could be more pleasing to any of you then my 
being in condicon to doe you any act of Service or ffriend- 
ship is to me and as a Testimony of my Sincerity therein 
I shall for y e pnt and as long as I live give you y best 
assistance I am capable off nor shall yo r Corporation be 
any wayes Injured in any of your priviledges if I can 
prevent. In my last I hinted to you y e most pper time 
for your attendance upon his Sacred Ma tie and shall 
hasten y e Confirmation of your Chart 1 with as much ease 
both of Charge and Trouble as possible can be. His 
Ma tie has again cdmanded me to take an especiall Care on 
your behalf, and y* you may find y e efferts of his Gratious 
acceptance of yo r unanimous and loyall submission to his 
Royall pleasure by his bounty in yo* r next Chart 1 , and so 
I wish you and all your Brethren all happiness, and 
remain, " 

S r , 
Your most ffaithful ffriend and 

" Oblidged serv*, 

GEO. JEFFRYES. 

London, Sept 29th, 84." 

The superscription is, 

"For 
James Ashton, Esq., Mayor 

of Preston att Preston in 

Lancashere." 

PRESTONIENS18. 



The Crystal Palace and the Monuments of the 
Templars and Freemasons of the Middle Ages. 
At a time when the very sinews of nations are 
strained to erect buildings amongst heaps of 
ledgers, cash-books, &c., we forget that those far 
superior Minsters of the Middle Ages are owing 
to a secret association, the Lodges and Bauhiitten 
of whom had nothing at their command but en- 
thusiasm and self-devotion to a great cause. Their 
archives and banners (rouge, blanc, bleu !) vanished 
with the men who possessed them ; still, they left 
their mystical emblems on the stupendous edifices 
of their creation. It was also the Knights Templars 
who extorted from John Plantaganet the Magna 
Charta a possession far exceeding anything ob- 
tained during the six hundred years following. 
Such an order of men, and its imprints and monu- 
ments, deserve a place in any art or architectural 
collection, which lays claim to even comparative 
completeness. There exists in a not large but 
charming Templar church at Schdngrabern 
(Grave-beauty !) in Austria, a series of alto- 
relievos representing the very rites and mysteries 
of the old Knights Templars, which Hammer has 
figured in his Mines cT Orient. They are perfectly 
well preserved, as the building lying somewhat 
aside the high road escaped the ravages of bigoted 
Vandalism. Models of these most curious rites 
and mysteries, together with similar representa- 
tions, probably existing on some ancient buildings 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



o 28., JULY 12. '56. 



of France, England, &c., would form an interest- 
ing series, illustrating the history of those builders 
and artists, whose works all our boasted but jejune 
and formal skill has not yet surpassed. 

P. S. The name of the sculptor under Goethe's 
jouth-bust in the Crystal Palace ought to be*Trip- 
pel and not Frippel. J. LOTSKY, Panslave. 

Inscription. In the Harl, MS. 6894. (p. 91.), 
occurs the following ungallant couplet : 

" On the atchievement of a marriect'Lady deceased at 
Stanmore Magna, Middlesex : 

" Satis mihi propitius est Deus, 
Quod ego adhuc superstes sum." 

" God has to me sufficiently been kind, 
To take my wife, and leave me here behind." 

J. Y. 
Concert for Horses. 

" The eccentric Lord Holland of the reign of William 
III. used to give his horses a weekly concert in a covered 
gallery specially erected for the purpose. He maintained 
that it cheered their hearts, and improved their temper, 
and an eye-witness says that ' they seemed to be greatly 
delighted therewith.' " Stray Leaves from the Book of 
Nature. 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Funeral Expenses. Funeral expenses, 100 
years ago, were very different from what they are 
now. I give you two accounts of some Quaker 
ancestors of mine, buried at that time : 

The funeral expenses of Edward Halsey, June 
9, 1751, his wife executrix, as per bill, cost 37/. 
He died in London, and buried at Wandsworth. 
Twelve glass-coaches and six hackney coaches 
followed. 

The funeral expenses of John Smith, Esq., of 
Stock well House, Surrey, July 23, 1757, cost 
17/. 11*. Five glass-coaches followed, his son, 
Daniel Smith, executor. 

Mourning coaches were not allowed by Quakers, 
neither black habiliments, but everything new was 
put on at that time. JULIA R. BOCKETT. 

Southcote Lodge. 

" To call a spade a spade" Some of your cor- 
respondents are doubtless able to trace this ex- 
pression, if not to its origin, to a much earlier 
period than I am in the following writers.* Baxter, 
in his Narrative of the most Memorable Passages 
of his Life and Times, 1696, thus introduces it: 

" I have a strong natural inclination to speak of every 
subject just as it is, and to call a spade a spade, and verba 
rebus optare, so as that the thing spoken of may befulliest 
known by the words, which methinks is part of our 
speaking truly. But I unfeignedly confess that it is 
fault}', because imprudent." 

This is the pnssage referred to by Mr. Blunt in 
his posthumous work, Duties of the Parish Priest. 

[* See our 1 st S. iv. 274. 456.-, for some earlier instances 
of the use of this saying.] 



A later writer of a very different school to 
Baxter Dr. Arbuthnot in his Dissertations 
upon the Art of Selling Bargains, says : 

" In the native region of our itinerant salesman, there 
is an immemorial prescription for calling a spade a spade ; 
they are not over curious in using circumlocutions or 
other figurative modes of speech, but choose rather to ex- 
press themselves in the most plain and proper words of 
their Mother-Tongue." 

Swift is quoted as using this expression, but I 
have no reference to the particular passage in his 
writings where it may be found. 

Ray has given this amongst his Proverbial 
Phrases, but without a comment. J. H. M. 



Inscriptions on Houses. In the village of Ax 
mouth, Devon, the houses are for the most part 
built of small stone or of cob ; but the chimney- 
stacks are carefully constructed of cut stone, and 
form the most elaborate and ornamented portion 
of the edifice. 

A few minutes' leisure enabled me to copy the 
following inscriptions carved on the chimney tops, 
and from a glance at the character of the farm- 
houses visible from the road, I have no doubt 
but that such records are characteristic of the dis- 
trict. Any of your correspondents who may love 
the secluded nooks where beauty nestles and an- 
tiquity lingers, may find occupation here. 

On a house whose windows are deeply embayed 
in flourishing myrtle, is the following : 

"ANNO BRITANNICO 
ILLO 

MlRABILIS, 

1641." 
On another at the entrance of the village : 






1570. 

GOD GIVETH ALL." 



S. R. PATTISON. 



1. Lincoln's Inn Fields. 



Toledo Blades. I send the marks and inscrip- 
tions upon the few examples I possess of these 
blades. On a flamboyant dagger of the seven- 
teenth century : 

f + + + EN TOLEDO + + 

On faulchion of the sixteenth century : 

\ ' IVAN \ ' MARTINES * EN TOLEDO \ 
\ IN TE DOMINE _' ESPERAVI \ . 

On flamboyant rapier : 

X EN TOLEDO X 

and the figure of a heart. 
On rapier : on one side 

EE *NT#O*L*E#D*O*** 

on the other 

* 

T#V*N*O*D*E#* 
* 

I have used Roman capitals, as it is not to be 



S. NO 28., JULY 12. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



expected that "N". & Q." could reproduce the 
semi-gothic forms of the original characters. 

W. J. BEKNHARD SMITH. 
Temple. 



BAWSONS OF FRYSTON, YORKSHIRE, LONDON AND 
ESSEX; ALURED OR AVEREY AS A CHRISTIAN 
NAME ; SIR JOHN RAWSON PRIOR OF KILMAIN- 
HAM AND AFTERWARDS VISCOUNT CLONTARFF. 

(2 nd S. i. 452.) 

Since writing these Notes and Queries I have 
found or been furnished with answers to some of 
the latter, but first I must correct an error in my 
Notes. The family name of Isabella, wife of 
Richard Rawson, the sheriff of London in 1476, 
was not Trafford, but Craford. 

One of her sons, John, mentioned in her will 
as a knight of Rhodes, bore two coats quarterly : 
the first is, parted per fess undee, sa. and az. a 
castle with 4 towers arg. (Rawson) ; the second 
is, Or, on a chevron, vert, 3 ravens heads erased, 
arg. (Craford), ensigned all over with a chief 
gules, and thereon a cross of the third. (Gwillhn's 
Display of Heraldry, p. 435.) 

This Sir John Rawson was elected Prior of 
Kilmainham in 1511, and by order of King Henry 
VIII. was sworn of the Privy Council of Ireland. 
In 1517 he was Lord Treasurer of that kingdom. 
In 1526, on the request of King Henry VIII. to 
the Grand Master, he was appointed Turcopolier 
of the Order of Knights of St. John, which office 
he exchanged with Sir John Babington for the dig- 
nity of Prior of Ireland, and in 33rd Henry VIII. 
he surrendered the Priory of Kilmainham to the 
king, obtaining a pension of 500 marks out of the 
estates of the hospital, and as he had sate in the 
Irish House of Lords as Prior of Kilmainham, he 
exchanged his spiritual dignity for a temporal 
peerage, being created Viscount Clontarff. (Query 
if for life only.) 

This title became extinct in 1560; I presume 
upon his death : but he is said to have left a 
daughter, Catherine, married to Rowland Whyte, 
second Baron of the Exchequer. (Notices of 
Babingtons, Knts. of St. John, Gentleman's Mag. 
for June, 1856, p. 564. Archdall's Monasticon 
Hibernicum, title Kilmainham.) 

The names of Alured and Averey are identical. 
See "Charters of Marrigg Abbey" (Collectanea 
Topographica et Genealogica, vol. v. p. 246. et 
seq.) as to Alvered or Averye Uvedale. 

Mr. Hunter in his History of the Deanery of 
Doncaster, gives a pedigree of the Rawson s of 
Bessacar Grange, from the Visitations of 1563, 
1585, and ]612, wherein Henry Rawson of Bes- 
sacar Grange, Averey Rawson, and Christopher 
Rawson, appear to have been sons of James Raw- 



son of Fryston ; and he says that Henry Rawson, 
in his will, dated May 12, 1500, mentions his 
brothers, Averey and Christopher Rawson, mer- 
chants in London ; but Averey and Christopher 
Rawson were undoubtedly sons of Richard Raw- 
son, the sheriff, as appears from the wills of their 
father and mother, and that of Christopher ; and, 
therefore, unless there were two Avereys and two 
Christophers merchants in London at the same 
time, there must be an error in the pedigree; 
and it is probable that Henry Rawson of Bessacar, 
and his brothers, Averey and Christopher, sons of 
Richard Rawson, were not sons, but nephews or 
grandsons of James Rawson, of Fryston. 
I am still desirous of knowing 

1. In what part of Essex the Crafords (not 
Traffords) were seated. 

2. The place of interment of Dr. Richard Raw- 
son, Archdeacon of Essex, and Dean of Windsor, 
ob. 1543, if any monument remains of him, and a 
reference to his will. 

3. The like as to Sir John Rawson, Prior of 
Kilmainham, and afterwards Viscount Clontarff, 
ob. (as I presume) 1560. 

4. Any further particulars of him or his de- 
scendants, through his daughter, Catherine, wife 
of Rowland Whyte. 

5. Was that Rowland Whyte the Sir Rowland 
Whytt, mentioned in Mr. Winthrop's List of 
Knights of St. John (A 1528), in " N. & Q." 
(1 st S. viii. 192.) ; and Sir Rowland Whyte, men- 
tioned in Gentleman's Magazine, June, 1856, 
p. 569., as having been appointed, with Sir James 
Babington to the commandery of Swinfield, Kent. 
The arms of Sir John Rawson as given by Gwil- 
lim, i.e. Rawson and Craford quarterly, ensigned 
over with the Cross of the Order of St. John, 
were in one of the windows of Swingfield church. 
(Hasted's Kent, vol. viii. (8vo.) p. 125.) Was he 
buried there ? 

6. The connexion between the present fami- 
lies of Rawsons in Yorkshire and Lancashire, and 
those of Fryston, Bessacar, London, and Essex 
before mentioned, through the Rawsons of Shipley 
or otherwise. G. R. C. 



SMITHS "HISTORY OF KERRY. 

I have two copies of this work, now a rare 
book : one being so beautifully clean, and in such 
good condition, that I was tempted to secure it 
either for myself or some friend. I have said 
" copies," but they are not strictly so, the title 
of my old, but fine copy, being : 

" The Antient and Present State of the County of 
Kerry. Being a Natural, Civil, Ecclesiastical, Historical, 
and Topographical Description thereof. Illustrated with 
Remarks made on the Baronies, Parishes, Towns, Vil- 
lages, Seats, Mountains, Rivers, Harbours, Bays, Roads, 
Medicinal Waters, Fossils, Animals, and Vegetables; 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2d S. NO 28., JULY 12. '56. 



with useful Notes and Observations, on the further Im- 
provement of this part of Ireland. Embellished with a 
large Map of the Countv from an actual Survey ; a Per- 
spective View of the Lake of Killarney, and other Plates. 
Undertaken with the Approbation of the Physico-His- 
torical Society. By Charles Smith, Author of the Natural 
and Civil Histories of the Counties of Cork and Water- 
ford." Then a Latin motto from Pliny, which it is not 
here necessary to give, followed by " Dublin: printed 
for the Author, and sold by Messrs. Ewing, Faulkner, 
Wilson, and Exshaw, MDCCLVI." 

The title of my later purchase is 
" The Ancient and Present State of the County of 
Kerry. Containing a Natural, Civil, Ecclesiastical, His- 
torical and Topographical Description thereof. By Charles 
Smith, M.D., Author of the Natural and Civil Histories 
of the Counties of Cork and Waterford " Then the same 
quotation from Pliny as- on the other title-page, after 
which a vignette of the Irish harp, between two branches, 
followed by " Dublin : printed for the Author." 

Facing this latter title is a portrait of " C. Smith, 
M.D.," the author. The books are in all other 
respects the same, except that the " contents' " 
leaf is placed before the "dedication" in the copy 
lately obtained ; but the paging settles this. 

I have seen several copies of Smith's Kerry, 
and I do not remember that any of them had the 
portrait except two my own and one other. 
Can any one explain for me, why the title-pages 
of my two copies are different ? and why one has 
the portrait, which the other has not ? Has the 
second title, above given (without date, as will 
have been observed), been substituted for the 
original one, and the portrait added by some 
bookseller after the first publication of the work ? 

R.H. 



BIBCHS "LIVES. 

Wishing to ascertain the relative value and 
estimation of a particular edition of Birch's 
Lives of Illustrious Men, with portraits by Hou- 
braken and Vertue, I have consulted such biblio- 
graphical works on the subject as were within my 
reach, and am surprised to find them generally so 
unsatisfactory. 

Lowndes mentions the edit. Lond. 1743, 52 pi., 
two vols., saying that two hundred copies were 
struck off on large paper, viz. one hundred before, 
and one hundred after the small paper copies. 
Also, that an edition, with retouched impressions 
of the plates, appeared in 1813, on small and large 
paper. 

Dibdin, in his Library Companion, says that in 
1743 came forth in one magnificent folio volume 
Dr. Birch's Heads of Illustrious Persons, but does 
not mention the second volume in 1752. In a 
subsequent note he describes the edition of 1756 ; 
he doubts as to there being three sorts of paper, 
small, royal, and imperial, as noticed by Brunet. 

Dr. Kippis, Biogr. Brit^ article " Birch," says 
the first volume of this work, which came out in 



numbers, was completed in 1747, and the second 
in 1752. 

Brunet gives the edition 1743-52, two torn, in 
one. He calls the edition of 1756 the second 
edition, in which the plates are generally chiffres, 
which those of the first edition are not. 

De Bure gives only the edition of London, 
1756. 

Now this appears a loose and imperfect account 
of this celebrated publication, since none of these 
bibliographers, except Dr. Kippis, appear to men- 
tion the edition which I have before me, viz. 
Lond. 1747, two Vols. in one, and which may 
properly be considered as the second edition as 
far as relates to the letter-press for that, no 
doubt, as Dibdin mentions, was several times re- 
printed, but the plates in my copy are, I conceive, 
of the first impression. 

I should be glad to receive a more precise and 
full account of the several editions of this work, 
and to learn whether there is any material differ- 
ence between them in the estimation of book col* 
lectors. E. G. 



Jffitturr 

Admission of Foreigners to Corporation Honours. 
A CITIZEN or EDINBURGH desires information on 
the point as to whether a foreigner not natu- 
ralised by Act of Parliament, or otherwise, can 
receive the freedom of a city or other munici- 
pality in this country. The question is suggested 
by tne fact of the freedom of the city of Edin- 
burgh having been conferred on Dr. D'Aubigne, 
the historian of the Reformation, during a visit 
made to Scotland recently by that distinguished 
and estimable man. 

Crests and Mottoes. The subjoined extract, 
from the National Index to the Harl. Mis. (vol. ii. 
p. 43.), suggests a question not undeserving the 
attention of your correspondents versed in he* 
raldry : 

" Num. 1422., art. 16. Arms (mostly without crests) 
given in the time of Henry 5 ; and since, in the reigns of 
Henry 6^, Edward 4 th , Richard 3 rd , Henry 7, and Henry 
8s &c. &c," 

Without assuming or denying the fact, that 
occasionally arms were granted during the period 
of those reigns without crests, it is but a reason- 
able question to ask why many coats do not pos- 
sess the usual, and frequently the most significant 
additions of a crest ? 

The same Query may be extended to the motto, 
or rather the omission of a cherished sentence or 
abbreviated allusion to some event sought to be 
recorded, and interesting to the bearer's family. 

The omission, in both instances, is not to be 
doubted ; but, whether station in society, merit, 
services, or pecuniary considerations bad any in- 



2nd g. NO 28., JULY 12. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



fluence on the matter, is the question to which an 
explanatory reply is requested. 

HENRY DAVENEY. 

Christian Names. What is the meaning of the 
practice which prevails in the United States, of 
inserting between a man's Christian name and 
surname a letter of the alphabet ? ^ Is this part of 
his baptismal name, and the initial of a second 
Christian name, or the name itself? It seems 
that in our own country a letter may be, and 
sometimes is, a good name of baptism. In the 
case of The Queen v. Dale, 17 Queen's Bench 
Reports^ p. 66., Lord Campbell, C. J., said, with 
reference to an objection that the name of a 
person mentioned in a declaration was not stated 
in full : 

I do not see that there is any reason for supposing 
that the magistrate's actual name is not ' J. H. Harper.' 
There is no doubt that a vowel may be a good Christian 
name ; why not a consonant ? I have been informed by 
a gentleman of the bar, sitting here, on whose accuracy 
we can rely, that he knows a lady who was baptized by 
the name of ' D.' Why may not a gentleman as well be 
baptized by a consonant? " 

F 

Medal of Charles I. and Henrietta Maria. I 
have in my possession an oval silver medal, with 
the head of Charles I. on one side, and on the 
other that of Henrietta his queen. This medal is 
said to have been made from the plate melted up 
by the nobility and gentry for the king's service, 
and to have been worn as a badge of loyalty. It 
has a small ring at each end, as if to sew it on to 
the hat or coat. Can any of the readers of " N. 
& Q." give me any information respecting it ? 

G. H. C. (A Subscriber.) 

Passports. In the case of the present dis- 
turbed state of feeling betwixt this country and 
the United States, the word passports occurs. It 
may be worth while to inquire what this means, 
and whether it is not a mere meaningless term, 
borrowed from another and different domestic 
policy than obtains in the one case and the other. 
In Russia of France, for example, a passport is 
necessary in order that one may be entitled to 
enter the country, and I assume the same autho- 
risation is necessary in leaving. But in the United 
Kingdom and in the States, locomotion is free to 
everybody whatever, not detained in a regular 
way as a criminal or debtor. What is free to a 
private party is certainly no less the right of an 
ambassador. Still, as the word passports is used, 
I would be glad if some of your correspondents 
would explain what it means in the specific case 
indicated. SCOTUS. 

Greek and Queen Elizabeth. Hallam (citing 
Peck's Desiderata Curiosa, p. 270.) notes it as a 
mark of the revival of the English Universities, 
that at Cambridge an address was delivered to 



Elizabeth in Greek verse, to which she returned 
an answer in the same language. This was in 
1564. Is this account a mistaken tradition of the 
following, or are we to say that two Greek ad- 
dresses are on record ? 

To a small edition (London, 1669, 12mo.) of 
the Parcenesis of Isocrates is appended (without 
date) a speech in Greek made to Queen Elizabeth 
at Trinity College by Doddington, the Greek 
Professor. It is added that there might not be 
too many fly- leaves ; as appears by the heading, 
" Ne post terminum immodica esset vacatio, en tibi" 
The speech follows, in Greek and Latin ; after 
which comes a Latin address, informing the Queen 
that her humble servants are ready to repeat in 
Latin what had just been said in Greek. To this 
she answered : " Ego intelligo, non est opus, 'Aw- 
yiv&ffKoi V/J.WV T)\V efootavi " unless indeed the Latin 
be the editor's translation of the Queen's Greek, 
in which case she must be supposed to have spoken 
very satirically of their kind offer to translate. 

JM. 

Norfolk Clergymen suspended. It is commonly 
believed in various parts of Norfolk that some 
years ago, in that county, a clergyman was sus- 
pended from exercising the functions of his office 
for having in the pulpit offered to bet upon a 
certain black dog which had unluckily and pro- 
fanely selected the holy edifice for a ring in which 
to fijjht a pitched battle with another of the canine 
species of some other colour. The tale is exceed- 
ingly improbable, and is rendered more so by 
the fact, that to my knowledge at least a dozen 
clergymen in different parishes have received the 
benefit of having this profane act attributed to 
them ; but as I have not unfrequently come in 
contact with persons who declare that the circum- 
stance came under their own personal observation, 
I should be glad if some of your Norfolk corre- 
spondents would inform me whether there is any 
small moiety of truth in the report, or whether it 
is an entire fabrication belonging to the domain 
of myths, being, to use a Norfolk expression, 
" made out of whole stuff." 

G. SEXTON, M.D., F.R.G.S. 

Kennington Cross. 

Remote Traditions through few Links. 

" In the fifteenth century King James I. (of Scotland) 
met with an old lady who remembered Wallace and 
Bruce, and he inquired eagerly about their personal ap- 
pearance. She told him that Bruce was a man of noble, 
admirable appearance, and that no man of his day could 
compete with him in strength. But she added, that so 
far as Bruce excelled all the other men of his time, so far 
did Wallace excel Bruce in strength." 

The preceding extract is from a speech by Sheriff 
Bell at a meeting at Stirling for a monument to 
the memory of Sir W. Wallace, reported in The 
Times, June 30, 1856. 
Probably some of your correspondents will be 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. r>i s. NO 28., JULY 12. '56. 



able to give Sheriff Bell's authority for the state- 
ment, as well as the " old lady's " name, age, and 
history. I do not remember her being quoted in 
your interesting collection of remote traditions 
through few intermediate links. R C. 

Davis the Almanac Maker. In my wander- 
ings among the churches and churchyards of our 
merry England, in the autumn of last year, I paid 
a short visit to the parish of Priors Marston, in 
the county of Warwick, where the village school- 
master was my. cicerone ; and, finding I was in 
search of the curious, he called my attention to 
an inscription on a flat stone between the high 
pews in a side aisle, which, from the darkness of 
the place, would have escaped my observation ; 
but here it is : 

"In Memory of 
MR. RICHARD DAVIS, 

An Eminent Scholar*, 

Could make Almanacks, 
Who died 10* Ocf, 1793, 

Aged 85 years. 

The stone-mason appears to have committed a 
most grievous error in cutting the inscription, by 
the omission of that which was evidently the most 
important portion of it ; for the line " * Could 
make Almanacks" is cut at the foot of the stone, 
with an asterisk at the end of " Scholar" pointing 
thereto, which omission, if not duly corrected, 
would probably have consigned the reputation of 
the deceased in this curious art to oblivion. As 
it is not so long since this venerable gentleman 
was gathered to his fathers, it may be hoped that 
some of your correspondents may be able to give 
us an account of his life, and whether he really 
was the maker of any of the Almanacs of the 
period in which he lived. J. B. WHITBORNE. 

"Chimara" Can nny of your readers name 
the author of a short poem, in four stanzas, called 
" The ChiniEera," the first stanza of which I sub- 
join ? It was copied, several years ago, from a 
novel, the title of which was not preserved : 
" I dreamed one morn a waking dream, 

Brighter than slumbers are, 
Of wandering where the planets gleam, 

Like an unsphered star. 
Round a Chimaera's yielding neck 
With grasping hands I clung ; 
No need of spur, no fear of check, 
Those fields of air among." 

STYLITES. 

" Rebukes for Sin" 

" Rebukes for Sin by God's Burning Anger : by the 
Burning of London : by the Burning of the World : by 
the Burning of the Wicked in Hell -Fire. To which is 
added, A Short Discourse of Heart-Fixedness, as a Means 
against Perplexing Fears in Times of Danger : occasioned 
by the General Distractions of the Present Times. By 
T. D. London : printed, and are to be sold by Dorman 
Newman, at the Chyrurgeons' Arms in Little Britain, 
67." 



near the Hospital, 1C 

Who was T. D. ? 



ANON. 



dhtertetf font!) 

John Hollybush. I shall be much obliged by 
any one informing me, through your pages, who 
was Jhon Hollybush. I have a folio, bound up 
with my Turner's Herbal and Battles in England, 
bearing this title : 

" A most Excellent and Perfecte Homish Apothecarye, 
or homely Physicke Booke, for all the Grefes and Disea'ses 
of the Bodye. Translated out of the Almaine Speche in 
English, by Jhon Hollybush. Imprinted at Collen, bv 
Arnold Birckman, in the yeare of our Lord 1561." 

Miles Coverdale translated the New Testament 
out of the Latin, and it was published in 1538 
(2nd edit.), and its title-page states it is " fayth- 
fullye translated by Johan Hollybushe." Had 
Coverdale anything to do with translating the 
Homish Apothecarye ? G. W. J. 

[John Hollybushe was an assistant of James Nichol- 
son, printer in Southwark, who seems afterwards to have 
settled at Cologne. Tt is quite certain that Coverdale had 
nothing to do with the publication of the Homish Apothe- 
carye. The history of the edition of the New Testament 
bearing the name of Hollybushe is somewhat curious. In 
the early part of 1538 Nicholson proposed to print Cover- 
dale's translation and the Vulgate in parallel columns ; 
and previously to the bishop setting off for Paris, he had 
written a dedication to Henry VIII., trusting to Nichol- 
son's care for the correcting of the press. When the book 
came out it was so incorrectly executed that the bishop 
immediately disowned it, and brought out at Paris, in 
December, 1538, a more correct edition. In his dedi- 
cation to Lord Cromwell he says, "Truth it is that this 
last Lent I did, with all humbleness, direct an epistle 
unto the King's most noble Grace, trusting that the book, 
whereunto it was prefixed, should afterwards have been 
as well correct as other books be. And because I could 
not be present myself, by the reason of sundry notable 
impediments, therefore inasmuch as the New Testament, 
which I had set forth in English before, doth so agree 
with the Latin, I was heartily well content that the Latin 
and it should be together: Provided alway that the cor- 
rector should follow the true copy of the Latin in any 
wise, and to keep the true and right English of the same. 
And so doing, I was content to set my name to it: and 
even so I did ; trusting that though I were absent and out 
of the land, yet all should be well. And, as God is my 
record, I knew none other, till this last July, that it was 
my chance here in these parts, at a stranger's hand, to 
come by a copy of the said print : which, when I had 
perused, I found that as it was disagreeable to my former 
translation in English, so was not the true copy of the 
Latin observed, neither the English so correspondent to 
the same as it ought to be : but in manv places both base, 
insensible, and clean contrary, not only to the phrase of 
our language, but also from the understanding of the text 
in Latin." (Gov. State Papers, vol. i. p. 591.) Nichol- 
son the printer, wishing in some way to cover the loss he 
had incurred, printed another edition, which was stated 
in the title to be "Faythfullye translated by Jhon Holly- 
bushe," to distinguish it from the previous edition. See 
the Rev. Henry Walter's First Letter to the Bishop of 
Peterborough, p. 31.; and Anderson's Annals of the En- 
glish Bible, vol. ii. p. 36.] 

Murdiston v. Millar. In an article on dogs in 
Chambers's Miscellany, vol. i., and also in Sir 
Walter Scott's notes to St. Jlonans Well, men- 



2<i S. N 28., JULY 12. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



tion is made of a Scotch cause or trial, under the 
name of " Murdiston v. Millar, in which a witness 
gives some interesting evidence respecting the in- 
stincts of animals, particularly of sheep. Is this 
trial published ? and where can it be obtained ? 

STYLITES. 

[A lengthened notice of the, celebrated case of Murdis- 
ton and Millar is given in BlackwoocTs Magazine, vol. ii. 
p. 83., but without any intimation where the trial itself 
is to be found.] 

Grace Cups. Wb&t is the origin of "Grace 
Cups ?" and where is any account to be found of 
the one formerly possessed by Thomas a Becket ? 

H. L. K. 

[The pncuhnn charitatis, wassail-bowl, and grace-cup, 
for promoting brotherly love, may be traced to the classi- 
cal cup of the Greeks and Romans, called ayaflov Saifxovo?, 
or boni genii, each of whom at their feasts invoked this 
supposed deity at the time of drinking. The custom of 
wassailing, or drinking healths, however, seems to have 
been of German origin, and introduced into this country by 
our Saxon ancestors ( Verstegan's Restitution of Decayed 
Intelligence}. William of Malmesbury, describing the cus- 
toms of Glastonbury soon after the Conquest, says, that 
on particular days the monks had " Medonem in justis et 
vinum in charitatem," Mead in their cans, and wine in 
the grace-cup. The ivory cup, set in gold, popularly 
called "The Grace-cup of St. Thomas k Becket," was for- 
merly in the Arundelian Collection, and is now possessed 
by Henry Howard, Esq.. of Corby Castle, to whom it was 
presented by Bernard Edward, Duke of Norfolk. The in- 
scription round the cup is "VINUM TUUM BIBTC CUM 
GAUDIO," Drink thy wine with joy; but round the lid, 
deeply engraved, is" the restraining injunction, " SOBRII 
ESTOTE," with the initials " T. B." interlaced with a mitre. 
Round the neck of the top is the name " GOD * FERARE." 
It is engraved in the Antiquarian Repertory, vol. iii. 
p. 179., and in Antiquarian Gleanings, by W. B. Scott, of 
Newcastle. Mr John Gough Nichols (Pilgrimages to 
Saint .Mary of Walsingham, p. 229.) says, that " this cup 
was attributed to Becket from its bearing the initials 
T. B. under a mitre ; but modern skill in archaeological 
chronology has reduced it to a very different aera, for it 
is really of the early part of the sixteenth century." See 
also"N. &Q."l 8t S. i. 142.] 

" How Commentators," frc. Whence is the quo- 
tation : 

" How commentators each dark passage shun, 
And hold their farthing candles to the sun." 

D. 
[See Dr. Edward Young's Poems, Satire vn. line 97.] 

Quotation wanted : " Knowledge and Wisdom" 
I should be greatly obliged to any of your corre- 
spondents who would inform me where the fol- 
lowing passage is to be found ? 

" Knowledge and Wisdom, far from being one, 
Have oft times no connection : 
The curious hand of Knowledge doth but pick 
Bare simples. Wisdom pounds them for the sick. 
In my affliction, Knowledge apprehends 
Who is the author, what the cause and ends ; 
To rest contented here is but to bring 
Clouds without rain, and summer without spring," &c. 

J. R. W. 

[The first two lines are from Cowper's Task, book vi. 



Francis Quarles is a claimant for what fol- 



lines 88, 
lows.] 



MARRIOT THE GREAT EATEB. 
(2 nd S. ii. 6.) 

The readers of John Dunton's Life who have 
made a note of MR. CUNNINGHAM'S communication 
will, no doubt, think it worth while to add the 
following particulars. 

I have before me a copy of a little tract en- 
titled : 

The Grays Inn Greedy- Gut, or the surprising 
Adventures of Mr. Marriott, the famous ^glutton, 
with his receipts for many choice dishes. Glasgow : 
Printed by William Duncan, and sold at his shop 
at Gibson's Land, Mercat Cross, 1750. 

This is little better than a chap-book, and its 
contents are derived entirely from a 4to. tract of 
forty or fifty closely-printed pages, a copy of which 
is in the (old) Collection of King's Pamphlets in 
the British Museum. Marriot having again be- 
come a character of interest, I give the title at full 
length : 

The Great Eater of Grayes Inne, or the life 
of Mr. Marriot the cormorant. Wherein is set 
forth, all the Exploits and Actions by him per- 
formed ; with many pleasant Stories of his Travells 
into Kent and other places. Also, a rare physicall 
dispensatory, being the manner how he makes his 
Cordiatt Broaths, Pills, Purgations, Julips, and 
Vomits, to keep his Body in temper, and free from 
Surfeits. By G. F. Gent. London: W. Rey- 
boulde, 1652. 

This consists of a number,, of chapters devoted 
to stories of his surprising feats of eating. It 
is evidently written by some enemy of the Gray's 
Inn Lawyer, for most of the anecdotes related 
are not by any means flattering. In addition to 
the sin of gormandising, we learn that Marriot 
was apt to entertain himself rather at the ex- 
pense of an unhappy friend or client than at 
his own ; and if G. F. were not a slanderer, his 
hero even at times carried his meanness to the 
pitch of secreting some portions of the feast in his 
sleeve, or in a bag which he carried with him. 
In the " character " addressed to the reader the 
author says : 

" He loves Cook and Kitchin not so much for their law 
as for their names' sake, and at Bacon his mouth waters." 

And we have the following sketch of his exterior : 

" He walks the street like Pontius Pilate in robes of 
purple, but not like Dives in fine linen, for he holds shirts 
unnecessary, and his cloaths are so ornamented with 
patches, that many are buried alive in them," 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[24 S. NO 28., JULY 12. '56. 



The Gray's Inn Glutton may be well supposed 
to have been annoyed by this publication, but 
about the same time appeared, probably by the 
same hand, another 4to. tract, entitled : 

The English Mountebank : or, a Physical Dis- 
pensatory, wherein is prescribed, many strange and 
Excellent Receits of Mr. Marriot, the Great Eater 
of Grays Inn, 6fc. With sundry Directions, 1. How 
to make his Cordial Broath. 2. His pills to appease 
hunger. 3. His strange Purgation ; never before 
practised by any Doctor in England. 4. The 
manner and reason why he swallows bullets and 
stones. 5. How he orders his Baked Meat, or rare 
Dish on Sundays. 6. How to make his new fashion 
Fish-Broath. 7. How to make his Sallet for cool- 
ing of the Blond. 8. How to make his new Dish, 
called a Frigazee ; the operation whereof expels all 
Sadness and Melancholy. By J. Marriot, of Grays 
Inn, Gent. London: G. Norton, 1652. 

Prefixed to this we have a full-length portrait 
of Marriot, holding in one hand a large substance 
of pumpkin shape, which I take, from the text> 
to represent one of his "pills;" while on his arm 
hang three sheep's heads, and Seven large hearts 
of some animal no doubt his usual dinner al- 
lowance. Out of his mouth issue the words, 
"Behold the wonder of the age!" From the 
spirit of this tract it is evident that the author's 
motive was not honestly the advancement of the 
culinary art : for old Marriot, whose name he im- 
pudently affixes to it, figures in it in a manner 
still farther calculated to irritate him. Let us 
take as a specimen : 

" How to make his pills to appease hunger, ordinarily car* 
ried about him ; 

" Take of rye meal 9 pound, of Chandler's graves 
3 pound, of the Skimmings of honey one pound ; warm 
water as much as will make it into Paste; then roll them 
up into a dozen balls ; then put them into some boiling 
broath, till they be thorough boiled; then set them to 
cool : but beware that the dogs do not deceive you of 
them, as they have done him oftentimes. The chief use 
of these pills is for travelling ; for Mr. Marriot carried 
always a dozen to Westminster in the Term time for 
fear of fasting. His ordinary place for eating them was 
in the dark place neer the Common Pleas Treasury ; 
Avhere one might see him swallow these pills, as easily as 
an ordinary man would do a gilt pill in the pap of an 
apple." 

How many of these characteristics of old Mar- 
riot, the great eater, were really true, or how far 
they were the invention of G. F. Gent, for the 
gratification of private animosity, the world will 
now probably never know. These attacks were 
not, howevef , allowed to pass unnoticed. Your bon 
vivant, rascal or not, is rarely without some friends 
who think him a "good fellow ;" and it is therefore 
not surprising that an answer to G. F. appeared 
about two months afterwards (if I can trust the 
manuscript notes on the copies before me) in a 
tract bearing the following title : 



A Letter to Mr. Marriot from a friend of his : 
wherein His Name is redeemed from that Detrac- 
tion G. F. Gent, hath indeavoured to fasten upon 
him, by a Scandalous and Defamatory Libett, in- 
tituled " The Great Eater of Grayes Inn, or, The 
Life of Mr. Marriot the Cormorant," Sec. London : 
Printed for the Friends of Mr. Marriot^ 1652 

CftJ 

To this we have another full-length portrait of 
old Marriot, besides a picture of G. F., Gent., on 
his knees, and performing an act of homage and 
apology towards the unbreeched and injured law- 
yer, not to be described in the pages of " N. & Q." 
It is only fair to the memory of our hero to hear 
what his friend can say in his favour. He ad- 
dresses him thus : 

" Had I not known you myself, as well as by the 
report of your neighbours, a common easiness of credulity 
might have carried me on to believe a late publisht pam- 
phlet, pretended to be the True History of your Life, for 
the author assures the Reader he set down "nothing, but 
what hath truly been acted by you ; whereas indeed 'tis 
nothing else but a mere libell of his scandal and defama- 
tion, spun out to a great length without one syllable of 
wit or honesty, whereof he sufficiently accuses himself by 
shrouding his name under the covert of two letters, and 
thereby securing his person from that punishment the 
law hath provided for him ; the injury of fastening upon, 
your name so vile a detraction, and presenting you a 
derision to posterity, is of so high a nature that it exceeds 
any satisfaction such an abject vermin can give, neither 
can I find out a better expedient for your reparation than 
by letting the world know what you are indeed: and 
this I shall do as an equal friend to you and the truth. 

" That you are a gown-man and a most ancient member 
of the Honourable Society of Grayes Inne now resident, 
the Book of Entrance can witness, having been a Student 
and Professor of the Law above 47 years. For your 
abilities and knowledge of the law, and for your easy fees, 
your Clients do very much commend you. For your 
private way of life, you have given it a Geometrical pro- 
portion, squaring your mind and fortune with equal lines 
to a fit subserviency of Nature's requisites in food and 
rayment. For your Society you have made choice of 
honest men, not despising the meanest, whereby you have 
stood firm in these Nationall Hurricanes, which have 
blown down the lofty and ambitious, and for your general 
deportment it hath been so fair and clear, that I never 
yet heard you had wronged any man." 

Mr. Marriot's friend goes on to predict that the 
slanderous G. F. will have his due reward, and 
concludes thus : 

" In the interim let him stand to the publike view in 
that becoming posture the frontispiece presents him, as 
destined by charity to repentance." 

Can all this be true ; and can it be that the al- 
lusion of John Dunton, and the verses of Cotton, 
and the republication a hundred years after by the 
Glasgow bookseller, are all acts of injustice done to 
the memory of an upright and temperate lawyer, 
who was driven out of the world in twelve months 
by the unrelenting persecution of G. F. ? Such 
a case of "giving a bad name" would probably be 
not without parallel in the memory of any thought- 



2 nd S. NO 28., JULY 12. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



ful investigator of the historian's materials. Had 
Harriot lived in Pope's days, I fear that fifty 
" Letters from a friend of his " would not have 
saved him from infamy ; and " Darty and his ham 
pie," an allusion in some obscure pamphlet, might 
only have remained to puzzle Mr. J. B. Nichols 
or his commentators. W. MOT THOMAS, 

In the last edition of Granger's Biographical 
History, four portraits of Marriot are mentioned 
with a brief notice of him taken from the follow- 
ing, which is contained in Gaulfield's Remarkable 
Persons, vol. iii. p. 225. : 

" Harriot was a lawyer of Gray's Tnn, who piqued him- 
self upon the brutal qualifications of a voracious appetite, 
and a powerful digestive faculty, and deserves to be 
placed no higher in the scale of beings than a cormorant 
or an ostrich. He increased his natural capacity for food 
by art and application ; and had as much vanity in eating 
to excess, as any monk had in starving himself. See two 
copies of verses upon him among the works of Charles 
Cotton, Esq. Great eaters are common in all ages, but 
the greatest eater on record is described by Taj'lor the 
water-poet, in his works, under the title of ' The Great 
Eater, or Part of the admirable Teeth and Stomach Ex- 
ploits of Nicholas Wood* of Harrisom, in the County of 
Kent ; his excessive manner of eating without Manners, 
in strange and true Manner described, by John Tailor." - 
Works, edit. 1630, page 142, 

JOHN I. DREDGE. 



COOPER'S PORTRAIT OF CROMWELL. 

(1 st S. xii. 205., &c.) 

I beg to subjoin a few extracts and remarks 
relating to Samuel Cooper's miniature of Crom- 
well, and other relevant matters ; which may not 
be devoid of interest to your correspondent CES-, 
TRIENSIS, and perhaps enable him to infer the pre- 
sent locus in quo of one or more of the portraits 
of which he is in search. I transcribe the fol- 
lowing passage from a well-compiled book of 
anecdote : 

" Robert Walker, a portrait painter, contemporary 
with Vandyke, was most remarkable for being the prin- 
cipal painter employed by Cromwell, whose picture he 
drew more than once. One of those portraits represented 
him with a gold chain about his neck, to which was ap- 
pended a gold medal with three crowns, the arms of 
Sweden and a pearl, sent to him by Christina in return 
for his picture by Cooper, on which Milton wrote a Latin 
Epigram. This head by Walker is in possession of 
Lord Mountford at Horseth, in Cambridgeshire, and was 
given to a former lord by Mr. Commissary Greaves, who 
found it in an inn in that county. Another piece con- 
tained Cromwell and Lambert together ; this was in Lord 
Bradford's collection. A third was purchased for the 
great Duke, whose agent having orders to procure one, 
and meeting with this in the hands of a female relation 
of the Protector, offered to purchase it ; but being refused, 
and continuing his solicitation, to put him off, she asked 
500/., and was paid it." The Arts and Artists, &cc., by 
James Elmes, vol. i. p. 41. 

Mr. Sarsfield Taylor, in his Origin, Progress, 



grc., of the Fine Arts in Or eat Britain and Ire- 
land (2 vols. 8vo., 1841), omits to mention Cooper, 
but speaks of Walker as being the principal artist 
during the Protectorate : 

" He became eventually Cromwell's chief artist, and 
painted his portrait several times. Cromwell made pre- 
sents of these heads : one was sent to Christina, Queen of 
Sweden, in return for a gold chain and medal sent to 
Oliver by that extraordinary woman ; others he gave to 
Col. Cooke, to Speaker Lenthall, &c. Walker was a 
clever portrait painter, with original feeling ; his colour- 
ing was very good, and his pencil, though free, was 
careful." Vol. i. p. 352. 

Walpole, speaking of Cooper's portrait, appa- 
rently from actual observation, says : 

" This fine head is in the possession of Lady Frankland, 
widow of Sir Thomas, a descendant of Cromwell. The 
body is unfinished. Vertue engraved it, as he did an- 
other in profile, in the collection of the Duke of Devon- 
shire." Anec. of Painting, Straw. Hill edit., vol. iii. p. 61. 

Cooper was a miniature painter, and probably 
painted more than one head of the Protector. I 
think it probable that it was one of these, rather 
than a portrait by Walker, which was transmitted 
to Christina, not only on account of its greater 
portability and fitness for a present, but because 
Cooper himself (according to some, or his elder 
brother Alexander, according to Barry, see his 
edition of Pilkingtons Dictionary, 4to., 1798), had 
at one time held the appointment of miniature 
painter to Christina. 

Cooper also painted a portrait of Milton ; and 
this, Bryan informs us, was recently discovered, 
and is now in the possession of the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh. 

For this portrait of Cromwell, Cooper was 
offered 150/. by the French king ; which offer he 
refused (Cunningham's Pilkingtori). 

Voltaire speaks of the transmission of a por- 
trait to Christina ; without, however, mentioning 
the name of the artist. In an article on Crom- 
well, in the Diet. Philosophique, he says : 

" Lorsqu'il eut outrage tous les rois en fesant couper 
la tete & son roi le'gitime, et qu'il commenca lui-meme k 
re'gner, il envoya son portrait & une tete couronne'e; 
c'e'tait a la reine de Suede, Christine. Marvell, farneux 
poete anglais, qui fesait fort bien des vers latins, accom- 
pagna ce portrait de six vers oil il fait parler Cromwell 
lui-menie. Cromwell corrigea les deux derniers, qui 
voici : 

" * At tibi submittit frontem reverentior umbra, 
Non sunt hi vultus, regibus usque truces/ 

" Le sens hardi de ce six vers peut se rendre ainsi : 

" ' Les armes a la main j'ai deTendu les lois ; 
D'un peuple audacieux j'ai venge' la querelle. 
Regardez sans fremir cette image fidele ; 
Mon front n'est pas toujours Tepouvante des rois.' " 

It will be observed that Voltaire ascribes this 
epigram to Marvell. Newton and Birch attri- 
bute it to Milton ; but Dr. Warton, in his edition 
of Milton's Minor Poems (8vo., London, 1791, 
which only wants an index to render it one of the 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



28., JuLtl2. '56. 



most valuable, as it is one of the most interesting 
books in the language), though including it in the 
Epigrammatum Liber, inclines to the belief that it 
is the production of Marvell ; in the various edi- 
tions of whose works it is to be found, preceded 
by a distich, apparently written before the ulti- 
mate destination of the portrait was known. 
While upon the subject, I may as well transcribe 
each : 

" In Effigiem Oliveri Cromwell. 
" Haec est quae toties INIMICOS Umbra fugavit, 
At sub qua GIVES Otia lenta terunt." 

u In eandem, Regince Suecias transmissam. 
u Bellipotens virgo, Septem Regina Trionum, 

Christina, Arctoi lucida Stella Poli ! 
Cernis, quas merui dura sub Casside Rugas, 

Sicque Senex Armis impiger Ora tero : 
Invia fatorum dum per Vestigia nitor, 
Exequor et Populi fortia jussa manu. 
Ast tibi submittit frontem reverentior Umbra: 

Nee sunt hi Vultus regibus usque truces." 
I may add to these desultory remarks, that I 
have in my possession a plaster mask, purporting 
to be that of Cromwell's face after death. I was 
informed moreover that the mould from which 
it was made was taken surreptitiously from a cast 
preserved in the Tower of London. Is there such 
a relic ? WILLIAM BATES. 



CALVARY. 



(2 nd S. i. 374. 440.) 

There is nothing said in Scripture about any 
Mount Calvary. " The present church, the keys 
of which have been the cause, ex concesso^ of 
enormous blood-shedding the last two years," has 
not the shadow of a foundation for its claim. It 
could not have been the place of the Crucifixion. 

Paul the apostle says, Heb. xiii. 12., "Where- 
fore Jesus also suffered without the gate: " but the 
site at present pointed out is not without the ancient 
fortifications of Jerusalem ; it could not therefore 
have been the place of our Lord's death. 

Some writers, retaining the erroneous idea that 
the place must have been on a hill-top, have fixed 
on the w Hill of Evil Counsel " as the probable 
scene of the Crucifixion, but no satisfactory rea- 
sons are assigned. The apostle in the verse pre- 
vious to that I have quoted says, " For the bodies 
of those beasts, whose blood is brought into the 
sanctuary by the high priest for sin, are burned 
without the camp. Wherefore Jesus also," &c. 
Reference to the following passages will show the 
ground for the declaration that the sin offerings 
were burned outside of the camp, Exod. xxix. 14.; 
Lev. i. 11., iv. 12. 21., vi. II., and viii. 17. 

Doubtless when the Temple service was es- 
tablished at Jerusalem, the sin offerings were 
burned in some one particular spot outside the 
city. In that place would be found many uncon- 



sumed remains of the larger bones of the sacrifices, 
especially of the skulls of the victims. Hence the 
place would most appropriately be called Golgotha 
Calvary The place of a skull. Now it is a fair 
inference from the apostle's writing, that where 
the typical sin offerings were consumed, in that 
identical place the great antitype himself expired. 

It only remains to inquire if Scripture indicates 
the precise quarter of the compass in which the 
burnt sacrifice was to be slain. This has hitherto 
been most unaccountably overlooked : but in Le- 
viticus, chap. i. v. 11., we read, " And he shall kill 
it on the side of the altar northward before the 
Lord." Who will doubt but that our Blessed Lord 
suffered on the north side of Jerusalem ? If he did 
not, then in this particular, and in this only, did 
he fail to fulfil to the letter all that was shadowed 
forth in Jewish rites and ceremonies. It is clear, 
too, that the place must have been convenient for 
a large concourse of persons, and that it must 
have been close to a high road. Matt, xxvii. 39., 
" And they that passed by reviled him, wagging 
their heads." 

The scene of the Crucifixion, then, must have 
been on the north side of Jerusalem, by the side 
of the road leading to Shechem, or Sychar, now 
Nablous ; a road, then as now, the one great high- 
way leading to the Holy City. 

The sacred spot was probably in a shallow valley 
on the road to Nablous, a short distance beyond 
the Tombs of the Kings. 

The Royal ^viour thus in His death lay very 
near to David, his kingly ancestor. 

I think it will be found that my argument 
throws some light on that difficult conclusion of 
Ezekiel, as in chap. xl. 44., xli. 11., xlii. 1., xlvi. 
19., &c. &c. 

I will not apologise for a paper of such a nature 
as the present ; for if unacceptable, you would not 
have introduced the Query which gave rise to it. 
I do fear, however, that I have somewhat exceeded 
the proper limit, and my excuse shall be that I 
have discussed the most important and interesting 
subject which topography affords. S. EVEESHBD. 

Brighton. 



THE OLD HUNDREDTH, BY WHOM COMPOSED. 

(2 nd S. i. 494.) 

Mr. Latrobe, in his Introduction to the last 
edition of that valuable collection of chorales, the 
Moravian Tune Book (Mallalieu, Hatton Garden, 

1854), says : 

"That the so-called 'Old Hundredth' was really com- 
posed by Claude Goudimel, and was probably unknown 
to Luther and his immediate contemporaries, seems now 
to be generally admitted. Fine as it is, and deservedly a 
favourite, especially in this country, it will not be less 
valued by British Protestants when they are informed 
that the author was one of the victims of Popish persecu- 



2* S. NO 28., JULY 12. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



tion, having perished at Lyons in the Massacre of St. 
Bartholomew, in the year 1572." P. 13. 

And it is added, in a note in p. 14. : 

" The Rev. W. Havergal, in his Old Church Psalmody, 
states that it was first published in England in Day's 
Psalter, A.D. 1563. Handel's belief, to which he alludes, 
that Luther composed the tune, is not a little singular ; 
inasmuch as it is found in none of the collections published 
by that great Reformer, and, in point of fact, the melody 
is to this day but little known or used in the Lutheran 
Churches." 

These two facts seem to render the notion that 
Luther composed it quite untenable. 

Goudimel was music-director at Lyons, and 
appears to have been a musical co-adjutor of 
Theodore Beza and Clement Marot in the adap- 
tation of the Psalms to congregational use. The 
tune in question was originally composed, and is 
to this day sung in the Reformed Churches of 
France and Switzerland, not to the 100th, but 
to the 134th psalm (Latrobe's Introd., p. 31.). 

A corrupt version of the latter part of the 
melody is getting into very general use. Assum- 
ing the key to be G, the last strain is often given 
thus : D B G A B C A G : but it ought to be, 
DEGA.CSAG. The latter is the form in 
most, if not in all, of the old collections of psalmody 
in common use^ and is adopted in the Moravian 
book. Mr. Latrobe says it " is evidently the 
original one " (Introd., p. 31.). I can produce as 
authorities two ancient copies : one from the 
Psalms of the Reformed Churches of France, and 
the other from an old copy of Sternhold and 
Hopkins, in both of which this is the reading found. 

There is another matter connected with the 
tune, to which perhaps I may be allowed to call 
attention, and that is the funereal pace at which it 
is usually sung. The psalms to which it has been 
specially appropriated, the 100th and 134th, are 
not penitential, but joyful and jubilant ; and 
assuming either that it was, as Mr. Latrobe says, 
first composed to the latter psalm, or that the 
appropriation was in accordance with some early 
tradition, we may infer that the composer did not 
intend the tune to be sung in a heavy, drawling, 
and doleful manner, as we often hear it now. It 
evidently was not regarded as a mournful or even 
as a grave tune in the time of Tate and Brady : for 
in the " Directions" annexed to their version, it 
is said that psalms of what we now call long 
metre, " if psalms of praise or cheerfulness^ may 
properly be sung as the old 100th psalm." 

J. W. PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

^ This tune is not of Lutheran, but Huguenot ori- 
gin; it has been ascribed to Luther, and this mistake 
arose from the circumstance that one of Luther's 
tunes commences with the same phrase as that of the 
Old Hundredth. Whoever might have composed 



the Old Hundredth, it is manifest he made it from 
this tune of Luther ; but it was not the work of 
any German, because the tune does not appear 
in the early editions of Luther's Chorals, nor do 
the Germans themselves ascribe it to Luther. 
Luther's first book appeared in 1519, and I ima- 
gine (I am writing from recollection only) that 
the Old Hundredth did not appear in Germany 
for nearly forty years after this period. The 
earliest printed copy we know appears with the 
harmony of Goudimel, and in the French rhythm, 
thus: 

Iv^^wwl I 

Such rhythm is adverse to the supposition of a 
Lutheran origin. Those of your readers who 
may wish to compare Luther's tune with the Old 
Hundredth will find both in Bach's Choralge- 
sange (Becker's edition), the former to the hymn 
"Nun lob mein Seel den Herren," in pp. 8. 13. 
67. 155. and 171. ; the latter to the hymn " Herr 
Gott dich loben alle wir," in pp. 164. and 191. 
The Old Hundredth does not appear in the 
earliest editions of the Psalter by Sternhold and 
Hopkins. The tunes that therein appear are all 
of foreign manufacture. The tunes which subse- 
quently enlarged that collection, and of English 
manufacture, bear the name of some cathedral 
city, or some English town of importance. The 
Old Hundredth, having no English name, is 
clearly a foreign importation, and not the com- 
position of any Anglican organist. It has been 
ascribed to Dowland, but Dowland was only the 
author of the four-part harmony. The Tudor 
harmonists affixed their names to the " common 
tunes," as they were called, as an announcement 
that they composed the choir harmonies, but they 
intended no more by such application of the name. 
We exceedingly dislike the tune, and it never would 
have attained its popularity in England had it not 
been constantly used to the psalm sung at the 
Holy Eucharist ; its application to the Hundredth 
Psalm was a remove, and hence its more general 
adoption as the metrical Jubilate of the Pro- 
testants in this country. As a jubilate, however, 
it is the most melancholy of all joyful ditties. 

H. J. G. 

Michael Este in his collection published 1592, 
ascribes this psalm tune to his contemporary, 
John Dowland ; so that if there is any truth in 
its French origin, Dowland must have borrowed 
it. J. C. J. 



NOTES ON REGIMENTS. 

(2 nd S. i. 422.) 



The skull and cross bones on the Lancers' caps is a 
species of rather indifferent rebus. MR. MACKEN- 
ZIE WALCOTT will find that over the device in ques- 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. N 28., JULY 12. '5G. 



tion, which is to be read " Death," are the words 
" Victory or." 1 have seen a still more clumsy 
design engraved on the brass traps in gun-stocks 
of a Volunteer Rifle corps of the last century, viz. 
the skull and cross bones followed by the words 
" comes swiftly." W. J. BBRNHARD SMITH. 

Temple. 

I am told that the 57th regiment, from its 
courage at Albuera, earned the name of " Die 
Hards ; " and the 28th, from their conduct in 
Egypt, received the privilege of wearing the regi- 
mental plate before and behind the shako ; being 
hard pressed by the enemy they presented a double 
face, the word having been given " Rear rank, 
right about face ! " The 9th were called in the 
Peninsula ' 'The Holy Boys," from a sale of 
Bibles which they held. The Duke of Athol's 
Highlanders carry the significant motto " Firth, 
forth, and fill the fetters ! " (in Gaelic.) 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 



"The 28th" is the regiment who wear the 
plate in front and at the back of their shako. 
I think that in Egypt this corps, drawn up 
" two deep," were charged in front and rear 
by the French cavalry ; and the colonel of the 
gallant 28th gave the word " Rear rank, right 
about face ! " " fire a volley ! " which sent the 
enemy flying. Upon the Queen's birthday, in- 
spection, and other gala days, "the 22nd" wear 
in their caps a sprig of oak, and a branch of the 
same is tied on the colours. The tradition in the 
corps is, that in the retreat after the battle of 
Dettingen, George II. was rescued from imminent 
danger by a company of the regiment. In " The 
23rd Royal Welsh Fusileers," the officers wear a 
black silk bag with three tails at the back of their 
coats. This is still the custom of the corps, and 
I suppose that the origin is derived from some 
sort of wig. 

I have heard somewhere of "The 5th Fusi- 
leers," whose plumes are tipped with red, and who 
were called " The Bloody Fifth," that this sobri- 
quet was given in consequence of the men dipping 
their worsted plumes in the enemy's blood at one 
of the Peninsular battles. 

"The 69th" are very proud of their facings, 
which are the true Lincoln green in colour. 

CENTURION. 

" Springers " is the name given to the 62nd re- 
giment. When at the battle of New Orleans a 
regiment considered themselves to be ill-supported, 
the men exclaimed, "This would not have been 
if the Springers had been here with us." This 
was told me by a serjeant, who also added, " We 
did not like the American war : it seemed a cruel 



thin to be killing men speaking our own lan- 
guage." T. F. 

In the Army and Militia Almanac for 1856, 
edited by J. Stocqueler, Esq., published by Web- 
ster, 60. Piccadilly, a tabular list is given of the 
badges, mottoes, facings, &c., together with other 
useful particulars of the cavalry and foot regi- 
ments. C. (J.) 



Eaton Stannard Barrett : " Lines on Woman " 
(1 st S. viii. 292.) In Vol. via. of "N. & Q," 
several communications were elicited relative to 
the then, as now, almost forgotten Eaton Stan- 
nard Barrett, author of some exquisite " Lines on 
Woman," the heading of all the letters which 
appeared in " N. & Q." on the subject. Of these, 
the most interesting was one from MR. ROBERT 
BELL, author of the History of Russia and Ladder 
of Gold; but in regard to the time of Barrett's 
death, no more satisfactory information was elicited 
than that it occurred " many years^ ago." Al- 
though the present communication is somewhat 
behind date, yet, to perfect what h^s already ap- 
peared, and to carry out the main object of " N. & 
Q.," the following cutting from a newspaper of 
the year 1821 may be with propriety annexed. 
Is the book in existence which was nearly finished 
at the time of Eaton Stannard Barrett's death, 
and what is the nature of it ? 

" Died, on the 20th of March, in Glamorganshire, of a 
rapid decline, occasioned by the bursting of a blood vessel, 
Eaton Stannard Barrett, Esq., so well known to the lite- 
rary and political world, as the author of All the Talents, 
The Heroine, &c. &c. There were few gentlemen whose 
private worth gained more esteem, or whose manners 
possessed greater attractions. Ardently pursuing his 
favourite occupations, he had nearly completed a Work, 
of which his unexpected death has deprived the world, 
and which might long since have been finished, had not 
another study divided his time and thoughts." * 

His brother, Richard Barrett, whom MR. BELL 
referred to as living in 1853, editor of the Dublin 
Pilot, and a fellow-prisoner of O'Connell's, died at 
Dalkey, about eighteen months ago. 

WILLIAM JOHN FITZ-PATRICK. 

Miss Edgeworth (2 Dd S. i. 383.) W. J. FITZ- 
PATRICK is in error in stating that Miss Edge- 
worth was the daughter of Honora Sneyd : that 
distinguished writer was the child of Mr. Edge- 
worth by his former wife, Miss Elers (see Quart. 
Rev., xxiii. 528.). 

Spelling of Names (2 nd S. i. 372.) The spell- 
ing of names sometimes varies in the present day. 

[* Eaton Stannard Barrett's death is also noticed in the 
Gent. Mag. for April, 1820, p. 377.] , 



O 28., JULY 12. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



I was acquainted, many years ago, with an old 
clergyman, the Rev. Warren Brooks, of great re- 
spectability, In the later part of his life he emi- 
grated to Van Diemen's Land ; and there I have 
understood that the old gentleman was in the 
habit of writing himself Brook. a. /3. 

Major General Stanwix (2 nd S. i. 511.) Gene- 
ral Stanwix, about whom the MESSRS. COOPER 
have put a Query, is surely the person the cir- 
cumstances of whose death gave rise to a remark- 
able case on the question of survivorship. The 
case is reported in the first volume of Sir Wm. 
Blackstone's Reports, p. 640., and is thus noticed 
by Mr Best, in his book on Presumptions of Law 
and Fact : 

" General Stanwix, in October, 1766, together with his 
second wife and a daughter by a former marriage, set 
sail in the same vessel from Dublin to England. The 
ship was lost at sea, and no account of the manner of her 
perishing ever received. Upon this, the maternal uncle 
and next of kin of the daughter claimed the effects of the 
general, on the principle of the civil law, that, where 
parent and child perish together, and the manner of their 
death is unknown, the child must be supposed to have 
survived the parent. Similar claims were, however, put 
forward by the nephew and next of kin of General Stan- 
wix, who moved the King's Bench for a mandamus to 
compel the Prerogative Court to grant administration to 
him. The rule for that purpose was, after argument, 
made absolute, on the ground that the question of sur- 
vivorship sought to be established could only arise under 
the Statute of Distributions, and that the nephew, being 
next of kin, was entitled to the administration of the 
goods of the deceased. This case is clearly no decision as 
to the presumption of survivorship, and the suit is said to 
have been compromised, upon the recommendation of 
Lord Mansfield, who said he knew of no legal principle 
on which he could decide it." 

D. B. 

6. Pump Court, Temple. 

Translation of Camoens (2 nd S. i. 510.) I can 
tell R. J. that the " Island" was a translation by 
a now-forgotten author of the name of Thomas 
Wa4e, many years subsequently known as the 
author of one or two not very successful plays 
produced at Covent Garden Theatre ; of a volume 
of poems (published by Miller, of Henrietta 
Street), with the out-of-the-way title of Mundi e( 
Cordis Carmina ; of a poem called Prathanasia, 
with Moxon's name as publisher ; and whose last 
publication, as far as I have seen, was an essay or 
"lecture," entitled What does Hamlet mean? a 
notice of which I remember having read in The 
Athenceum. I have no recollection of the merits 
of his translation from Camoens, referred to by 
R. J., although I certainly perused it on its ap- 
pearance in the pages of the European Magazine. 

M. F, Z. 

J. Larking : Paper-mark (2 nd S. i. 433.) Your 
correspondent CHARTOPHYLAX has not correctly 
fixed the date of this paper-mark. J. Larking's 
paper-mill is situated in this parish, and was built 



by him between the years 1785 and 1790. It has 
long since passed into other hands ; but I can 
assert positively, from information which I pos- 
sess, that no mill of the kind existed here previous 
to that period, nor did J. Larking possess any 
here or elsewhere at any time antecedent to the 
year 1785. If it be material, I can obtain for you 
the date of the exact year in which the mill was 
built ; but the information given above will pro- 
bably be sufficient for your purpose. A. 
East Mailing, Kent. 

The Rev. Robert Montgomery (2 nd S. i. 521.) 
I for one am obliged to G. for the information 
concerning the name of the father of the gentle- 
man above indicated. Can G., or will Mr. CAT- 
LING, be good enough to inform me where he was 
christened? I am, of course, aware that Weston 
has been mentioned ; but which Weston ? for there 
are at least a score places so named in the Clerical 
Directory. D. 

York Service Books. As York books are of 
great rarity, I beg to send you the following note 
as an addition to A. MT.'S Note in 2 nd S. i. 489. 
I have a York Horce B. Virg., which, as far as I 
can make out, is unique. The Museum has one 
also, but it does not contain any of the distinctive 
services for York Saints, and consequently not 
the following : 

" De Sancto Ricardo Scrupe Mar. et Conf." 
" Alme Ricarde Dei martyr nostri miserere. 
" Ut placeamus ei : fac nos peccata cavere," 
" V. Intercede pro nobis Ricarde Beate, ut quae salu- 
briter petimus consequamur a te." 

Deus qui beatum et electum Martirem tuum Ri- 
cardum praeclarae patientiae titulis in ipso sua? mortis arti- 
culo singulariter illustrasti : da nobis famulis tuis ejus 
piis rneritis et amore sic in praesenti vivere, ut ad aterna 
valeamus gaudia pervenire, per Christum." 

There was a good stained glass portrait of him 
in York Minster, but J fancy it was destroyer} 
by the fire : of this I am not certajnP* J. C, J, 

Longevity (2 nd S. i, 452.) The following sta- 
tistics are worth adding to the series of Notes that 
have appeared on longevity : 

" In 1851 there were in Lower Canada, over 100 years 
of age, 38 persons; between 90 and 100 years, 417; be- 
tween 80 and 90, 3030; between 70 and 80, 11,084; be- 
tween 60 and 70, 24.095. 

" In Upper Canada in the same year, there were, over 
100 years of age, 20 persons; between 70 and 80, 7156; 
between 60 and 70, 20,267." Canada and Her Resources, 
two Prize Essays, by J. Sheridan Hogan and Alexander 
Morris, p. 114. 

K. P. D. E. 

Lees of Alt Hill, Family of (1 st S, xii. 265.) 
The name is " Lees," and not " Lee," and the 
" heiress " was Alice, daughter of John Lees and 
Alice Bardsley his wife. 

The word "heiress" would induce the sup- 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 28., JULY 12. *5C. 



position that she was the only child, but such was 
not the fact, as she iiad a brother, James, who 
succeeded to his father's property, as Alice did to 
her mother's, the Bardsleys. 

The family of Leese, or Lees, have been t resi- 
dent at Alt since 1422, when Thomas de Leghes, 
Adam de Leghes and John de Leghes held lands 
under Sir John Assheton, Bart., at Alt, Nether 
Leghes, and Palden Leghes, Palden being consi- 
dered an abbreviation of Palm Densata, a fen or 
morass. 

I have this information from a carefully-com- 
piled pedigree made by a lineal descendant of the 
family, a physician here; but there does not appear 
to be any connection with the family of Lee of 
Cheshire. 

Jonathan Pickford, Esq., of Macclesfield, was 
the lineal ancestor of Sir Joseph Radcliffe, Bart., 
of Milnes Bridge. K. E. 

Ashton-under-Lyne. 

Geranium (2 nd S. i. 494.) I have extracted 
from The Language of Flowers, the following 
significations of the different kinds of geranium 
for the benefit of W. H. P. : 

" Scarlet Geranium - - Comforting.' 
Ivy, ditto --..-< Bridal Favour.' 
Nutmeg, ditto ' Expected Meeting.' 

Rose-scented, ditto - - ' Preference.' 
Silver-leaved, ditto - - ' Recall.' " 

CLERICUS. 

Common Place-Books (1 st S. xii. 478. ; 2 nd S. i. 
486.) When, in the first of the above pages, I 
explained an improvement upon Locke's method 
of keeping a common-place book, I did not refer 
to the plan which BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. sup- 
poses. I mentioned that the method to which I 
referred first appeared about thirty -five years 
ago ; but I should have said upwards of forty, for 
one of my common-place books was kept upon 
this improv^ plan forty-three years ago. What 
I had in my mind was published as a common- 
place book with a ruled and lettered index, and a 
page or two of directions, explaining also the su- 
perior advantages of this new method. It was 
new at the time; and if your correspondent will 
turn again to my former communication, he will 
see th.it I did not refer to any of the works which 
he mentions, but described a plan very different. 

F.C.H. 

Popular Names of Live-stock (2 nd S. i. 416.) 
The very interesting paper, under the above title, 
does not make mention of ever as a name for the 
boar-pig. I have heard it used by the lower 
classes in Sussex, but very rarely and usually 
pronounced heaver. The word is evidently de- 
rived from the German or Saxon eber, a boar; 
the b and v being interchangeable. 

Till I made this discovery, I was much puzzled 
respecting the etymology of a not unusual surname 



in Sussex, pronounced in our towns Ever-shed, but 
by the country people Ever-sed : it was undoubt- 
edly originally Evers-hed, that is, boar's-head. 

SAMUEL. 
Brighton. 

Glycerine for Naturalists (2 nd S. i. 412.) I too 
have been disappointed in glycerine. But if 
I. M. 4. wishes to be successful, let him get the 
article direct from Price's Candle Company, Vaux- 
hall. Much that is sold under the name is not 
glycerine at all. EBER. 

Brighton. 

The Ducking Stool (2 nd S. i. 490.) With re- 
ference to the inquiry as to the use of the duck- 
ing stool since 1738, as a punishment for women, 
I beg to refer to Mr. Brooke's recent work on 
Liverpool from 1775 to 1800, in which evidence 
will be found of the use of it in 1779, and perhaps 
still later, by the authority of the magistrates, in 
the House of Correction, which formerly stood 
upon Mount Pleasant in Liverpool. 

There is yet preserved in the parish church of 
Leominster, in Herefordshire, a moveable ducking 
stool (upon wheels) for women, and the last time 
that it was used was about seventy years ago, to a 
woman of the town named Jane Corran, but often 
called Jenny Pipes. J. R. H. 

Birkenhead, Cheshire. 

Crooked Naves (2 nd S. i. 499.) It is some- 
where said, that before our pious ancestors com- 
menced the construction of a church, the first ray 
of the rising sun was sedulously watched, and the 
east end was then so planned as to catch, through 
future ages, the first dawn of that light which 
blessed and guided their early labours. 

This rule, if not fabulous or universal, may 
have had some influence on the builders, and oc- 
casioned that varying now sought to be explained 
by your correspondents. 

Few of the ancient churches vary more from 
the apparently established custom than the noble 
cathedral of Antwerp ; but there, for some reason 
probably unexplained, a brazen meridian line is 
drawn along the pavement : showing at once the 
cardinal points, and the deviation of the building 
from east to west. 

If such a custom as the one above named ever 
existed, it must have been alike applicable to the 
enlargement, reconstruction, or the reparation of 
churches ; and from this probability, through the 
numerous alterations at the east end, Norwich 
cathedral is by no means exempt. 

HENRY DAVENEY. 

Jacob Behmen (1 st S. viii. 13. 246.; ix. 151.; 
2 nd S. i. 395. 513.) Wliile I am as grateful as 
any other of your correspondents can be for au- 
thentic information relative to the Teutonic 
theosopher and his remarkable writings, I am as 



S . N 28, JULY 12. '56.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



indignant as I well can be at the sneer in which 
your correspondent ANON, has been pleased to in- 
dulge at the expense of our own great Newton. 
After an allusion to Malebranche, in which he is 
said to have drawn his all " from one small rivulet " 
of Behmen, ANON, tells us, " Of how many other 
originals (the Italics are his) also may this be 
truly said, from Newton, if not Harvey, to Hah- 
nemann." Let poor Hahnemann's reputation be 
left to the care of those who think it worth de- 
fending. I do not. But, I cannot hold my peace 
when 1 find an anonymous mystic assailing the 
fame of Newton. Newton a borrower from Beh- 
men ? The thing is supremely ridiculous. I 
agree with ANON, in saying that " a magic under- 
standing is needful " for the comprehension of 
Behmen. Newton had no magic about his under- 
standing. His was the strong vigorous English 
common sense, and practical as well as theoretical 
English genius. Some evidence, at least, will be 
necessary to convince me that he drew any of his 
Principia from the vapours of the great mystic 
something more than the ipse dixit of ANON. Let 
that correspondent either make good or retract : 
let him cite from Behmen a statement of the law 
of universal gravitation, or let him sit on the 
stool of repentance for having without evidence 
uttered a sneer at the originality of Newton. 
There is no middle course for a lover of truth. 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBT. 
Birmingham. 

Mayor of London in 1335 (2 nd S. i. 353. 483.) 
In Stow's Survey of London, edited by Strype, 
1720, Reginald at Conduit is stated to have been 
mayor in 1334, and a note by Strype in the margin 
of the entry says : 

" He served two years and impaired his estate thereby. 
King Edward III. gave him a yearly rent of houses in 
London. J. S." 

W. H. W. T. 

Somerset House. 

Parochial Libraries (2 nd S. i. 459.) In ad- 
dition to those you have noticed you may insert 

Parish of Crundal, Kent. (I do not know the 
date.) 

Parish of Elham, Kent, founded by Lee Warly, 
Esq., in 1808. EDWARD Foss. 

Numerous Families (2 nd S. i. 469.) I have not 
access to Thoresby's History of Leeds, and cannot 
therefore ascertain whether he mentions the fol- 
lowing particulars respecting the wife of Mr. 
William Greenhill, cited by MR. HACKWOOD. 

In a family paper, which must be about 100 
years old, I find Mrs. Greenhill noticed as having 
had thirty-nine children by one husband, all born 
alive and baptized, and all single births, save one. 
The last child was born after his father's death, 
and lived to be a surgeon, practising in King 



Street, Bloomsbury, and author of a work on 
Embalming Human Bodies. The family took for 
their crest, in commemoration of this singular fer- 
tility, a gryphon with thirty-nine stars on its wings. 

STTLITES. 

The following is a verbatim extract from the 
Register of Burials belonging to the parish of St. 
Mary the Pure Virgin, at Marlborough : 

" John Jones (had 31 children born and baptized) 
buried 29 March, 1743." 

PATONCE. 

Melrose Abbey (2 nd S. i. 510.) I have reason 
to think that no estimate was ever given for the 
restoration of the Abbey of Melrose. A few years 
since, the Duke of Buccleuch being anxious to 
promote the erection of a church for the Episco- 
palians of the neighbourhood, I considered whether 
it might not be possible to restore one of the aisles 
of the abbey church instead. The scheme was 
however wisely abandoned, and I designed the 
present small church, which was erected by sub- 
scription, his grace contributing largely, as well 
as giving the ground. BENJ. FIRRET. 

English Translation of Aristotle's " Organon " 
(2 nd S. ii. 12.) The only translation of Aris- 
totle's Organon (excepting Taylor's, which is 
worthless) is published in Bohn's Classical Library. 
The translator, Mr. O. F. Owen, is said to have 
done his work well ; and by his illustrations from 
Whately and other logicians, has rendered the 
book interesting, even to those who do not want 
to " take it up." B. S. W. 

The Tune the Cow died of (2 nd S. i. 375. 500.) 
I see no casus mortis in either of the versions 
given ; but the following, which is as common as 
either, would explain the catastrophe well enough : 

" There was an old man, and he had an old cow, 

And he had no fodder to give her, 
So he took up his fiddle, and played her this tune, 

' Consider, good cow, consider, 
This isn't the time for grass to grow, 

Consider, good cow, consider.' " 

Probably by " the tune the cow died of" was ori- 
ginally meant a satirical reference to a good 
reason being no sufficient substitute for a good 
dinner. M. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Although the words " Printed for P ivate Circulation 
only " on a title-page may well serve to protect from un- 
friendly criticism the work so inscribed, they surely may, 
without impropriety, be passed over unnoticed when they 
appear in front of a volume of unquestionable value and 
importance. Such is the goodly quarto, for a copy of 
which we are indebted to the courtesy of the distin- 
guished nobleman under whose auspices it has been pro- 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 28., JULY 12. '56. 



duced, entitled Descriptive Catalogue of a Cabinet of 
Roman family Coins belonging to His Grace the Duke of 
Northumberland, K. G., t>y Rear-Admiral William Henry 
Smyth, K.S.F., D.G.L., F.R.S., &c. There are few socie- 
ties for the advancement of archaeology which cannot bear 
witness to the good taste and liberality with which the 
Duke of Northumberland promotes that important Htudy : 
and no one who knows the Duke can doubt the readiness 
with which he accepted the suggestion made by Admiral 
Smyth, that the several cabinets of coins and medals 
which had been in the possession of the Northumberland 
family for many years should be carefully examined and 
arranged by him. But the gallant Admiral has done 
more than this. He has not only carefully examined, 
classified, and arranged the Northumberland Collection ; 
but he has given in the work which has called forth 
these remarks and which is a Catalogue of the Roman 
Consular and Family Coins in the Collection a volume 
replete with learning not only full of elucidation of 
history, chronology, and geography generally, but par- 
ticularly illustrative of the constitutional divisions of the 
Roman people. Of the 160 families here treated of, 14 
were pure patricians, 26 patrician with plebeian branches, 
7 equestrian, 91 plebeian, and 22 whose order and rank 
are uncertain. Those who know how various are the 
acquirements of Admiral Smyth, and the fund of humour 
with which his learning is seasoned and set off, will 
readily understand that this Catalogue is amusing as well 
as instructive; and as readily believe that we are not 
guilty of any exaggeration Avhen we pronounce this 
handsome, volume to be alike creditable to the scholar- 
ship of Admiral Smyth and the liberality of the Duke of 
Northumberland. 

We have good news for the lovers of gossip. A new 
edition of the Letters of Horace Walpole is announced, in 
which the various letters of the different collections, 
which now occupy fourteen volumes, are to be incor- 
porated into one series in eight. Now, therefore, is 
the time for those who have Notes to make, or Queries 
which they wish solved, with reference to the men, 
manners, or events touched upon by this Prince of Letter 
Writers, to let us have them. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, with which the name of 
Nichols has been so long and so honourably connected, 
has passed into other hands, the "great age of the one, 
and the want of health of the other proprietor," being the 
cause of the change. It is now published by Mr. Parker 
of Oxford; and we can scarcely doubt that, under his 
management, its character as an antiquarian and his- 
torical Magazine will be fully sustained. The opening 
number is certainly a very good one. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. The Herd-Boy. A Fairy Tale 
for Christmas Tyde. From the Swedish of Upland. This 
pleasant versification of. a Swedish Legend has, in addi- 
tion to its own interests, the merit of being so told as to 
make the young persons for whom it has been written fa- 
miliar with some of the good old English words and 
phrases which are to be found in the language of our 
Prayer Book and Psalter, the authorised version of the 
Bible, &c. ; and, with this view, notes have been added 
in the hopes of awakening in them a desire to understand 
thoroughly the English language. 

The English Bible, containing the Old and New Testa- 
ments according to the Authorised Version, newly divided 
into Paragraphs. Part X., S. Mark iii. to S. Luke xii. 
We have so often spoken favourably of this new arrange- 
ment of our noble Authorised Version, that we may con- 
tent ourselves with simply recording the publication of 
this further portion of it. 

The Dramatic Works of William Shakspeare. The 
Text carefully revised, with Notes by Samuel Weller Singer, 



F.S.A., Sf C . t Vol. VII. This new volume of Mr. Singer's 
valuable edition contains King Henry VIII., Troilus and 
Gressida, and Coriolanus. 

The Boundaries of Man's Knowledge. A Lecture de- 
livered to the Literary Institutions of Bedford and Woburn 
by William White, Principal Door-Keeper of the House of 
Commons. A very sensible well-written Lecture, showing 
considerable reading and much reflection. 

History of the Parliamentary Representation of Preston 
during the last Hundred Years. By William Dobson, 
This narrative, originally prepared for publication in the 
Preston Chronicle, is very creditable to the compiler. It 
would be well if the history of every constituency were 
produced in the same form. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

STRYPB'S CRANMER. Vol. III. 

THE PRAYER BOOK ACCORDING TO THE TEXT OF THE SEALED BOOKS. 

Vol. III. 
FIELD ON THE CHURCH. The last Vol. These three published by the 

Ecclesiastical History Society. 
GOODHUOH'S GENTLEMAN'S LIBRARY MANUAL. 

**# Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be 
sent to MESSRS. BKLL & DALDY, Publishers of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose namea and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

BP. WILSON'S WORKS. Vol. IV. 8vo. 
COLERIDGE'S BIOGRAPHIA. Vol. I. Pt. 2. 
COLERIDGE'S LECTURES ON DRAMATISTS. Vol. I. 
SHAKSPEARE. (.Diamond.) Vol. V. 
FRIENDSHIP'S OFFERING. 1837. 
CARRINGTON'S POEMS. 2 Vols. 
NAPIER'S PENINSULAR WAR. Vol. VI. 
PEACOCK'S INTEGRAL CALCULUS. 2 Vols. 
KUFFMAN'S DICTIONARY OF MERCHANDIZE. 
AKLISS' POCKET MAG. Vols. III. & IV. 

Wanted by Thomas Millard, Bookseller, 70. Newgate Street. 



HORATII OPERA. Vol.11. Lond.,PLne. 1733. 8vo. Boards. 
RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW. Nos. 13. 25. and all after. 

Wanted by Thomas G. Stevenson, Bookseller, 87. Princes Street, 
Edinburgh. 



SHAKSPEARE. By Steevens. Trade Edition. 10 Vols. 18mo. I arge 

paper. Vol.1. 1823. 
SATURDAY MAGAZINE, IN PARTS. 
GRILLPARZER'S SAPPHO, IN THE ORIGINAL. 

Wanted by Charles F. Blackburn, Bookseller, Leamington, 



to 

We have been compelled by want of space to postpone until next week 
many articles of considerable interest. 

INDEX TO FIRST VOL. OF SECOND SERIES. This is at press, and ivill le 
published on Saturday next. 

PRESTER JOHN. Has our Correspondent, C. MANSFIELD INOLEBY, cow- 



. 

t S. vii. 502. ; x. 186. 

Callandas," read "Cal- 



. , 

suited the two articles on this subject in our 

ERRATA 2nd S. i. 518. col. 2. 1. 33, f 
lander." 

INDEX TO THE FIRST SERIES. As this is now published, and the im- 

jin >.:/<>n in (t !iiuit<d one, such of our readers as desire copies would do 
well to intimate their wish to their respective booksellers ir.ithout delay. 
Our publishers, MESSRS. BELL & DALDV, ivill forward copies by post on 
receipt of a Post Office Order for Five Shillings. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resident in the country or abroad, who may be desirous of receiving the 
ir, ,/.-(// Numbers, may have stamped copies forwarded .direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of *' NOTES AND 
QUERIES " (including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post Office Order, drawn in 



pence for six months, which may be 
favour of the Publisher, MK. GEORGB 



Post Office Order, d . 
-. 186. Fleet Street. 



2 d S. ti 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 19, 1856. 



NOTES ON THE FLEUR-DE-LIS. 

(Concluded from 2 nd S. i. 410.) 

In "N. & Q..," 1 st S. ix. 35. 84. 113. 225., are 
several notes from your correspondents on the 
subject of the F.-d.-L. ; and names of families, not 
included in the above lists, are cited in connection 
with this charge. Such are the five bishops named 
by MACKENZIE WALCOTT. According to Heylin, 
Trilleck, Bishop of Hereford (1275), founder of 
Trilleck Inn, now called New Inn Hall, Oxford, 
is alone entitled to this distinction, as bearing the 
arms of his see, derived from S. Thomas de Can- 
telupe, the 44th bishop, Chancellor of England 
and Oxford, son of William Lord Cantiloupe, for 
whom see the third crusade under Richard I. 
Other names are, France of Bostock Hall, Chesh- 
ire, Saunders, Warwyke, Presterfield, Kempton, 
Velland, Rothfeld, and references are made to the 
heraldic dictionaries of Berry, Burke, Edmonson, 
Robson, Glover's Ordinary, &c. I am well aware 
that there may be many families so distinguished 
which are not included in the " formidable array " 
which my lists supply from the four sources al- 
ready described ; but as I have already trespassed 
too long on your pages, and on the patience of 
your readers, I shall for the present confine my- 
self to a few remarks suggested by the preceding 
Notes ; and leave to such of your heraldic cor- 
respondents as may have a knowledge I do not 
possess, or a facility of consulting many important 
authorities not within my reach, the task of sup- 
plying all deficiencies. Of such additional sources 
of information it may be sufficient to name here 
the valuable Armorial General de la France, par 
d'Hozier, Paris, 1736, in ten folio volumes ; and, to 
save time, many French and English works on this 
Subject, collected in the fifth volume of Brunet's 
Manuel du Libraire, p. 625., edit. 1844, under 
Div. VI., Hist, de la Chevalerie et de la Noblesse, 
avec VHistoire Heraldique et Genealogique. 

It may be remarked that an undoubted French 
origin in families gives no title to the distinction 
of the F.-d.-L. This appears from numerous in- 
stances in which the charge is not borne. Such, 
among others, are the names, Butler, descended 
from the ancient Counts of Brien in Normandy ; 
St. Leger, of French extraction, coming in with 
the Conqueror ; St. John (Jean), also Norman ; 
De Brodrick, the same, under William II. ; Eg- 
mont, descended from the Dues de Bretagne ; 
Moore, of French extraction, soon after the Con- 
quest ; Fortescue, from the Norman Sir Richard 
le Forte ; Hervey, coming from France with Wil- 
liam the Conqueror, descended from the younger 
son of Henri, Duke of Orleans ; Harcourt, also 



from Normandy, besides many others. It may be 
said that most of these were of Norman descent, 
and that the arms of Normandy were G, 2 L. P. 
G. or. But it cannot be strictly ascertained 
whether all these families were exclusively Norman ; 
and among the Norman Crusaders (1096 1269) 
are many bearing the F.-d.-L. Such is also the 
case with the names Bellasyse, St. Maur, Disney, 
&c. In the above category are also many names 
which, though strictly French, have correspondent 
names in English, and are now absorbed in our 
genealogical catalogues as part and parcel of 
our native patronymics. I may hereafter give a 
curious list of these correspondences, which have 
been noted, for amusement, in the course of a pro- 
gress through ancient French history. 

In perusing the above lists, it is obvious that, 
saving the unquestionable claim -from royal de- 
scent or alliance, very few indications appear of 
the grounds on which this royal charge is assumed 
in so many British shields. The true Norman 
race bore, as above stated, G. 2 L. P. G. or ; the 
Saxon line, G. 3 L. P. G. or ; and in 1326, Ed- 
ward III. assumed quarterly France and England, 
giving the first place to France : thus (1. and 4.), 
az. seme de Lis (3. 2. 3.), and (2. 3.), gu. 3 L. 
P. G. or. On this ground, I formerly ventured 
to object to the accuracy of Heylin's blazon of 
the arms of Henry I., Beauclerc. This objection, 
however, rested on a mistaken appropriation of 
the arms, pi. iii. f. 20. ; which, though placed so 
early as p. 16., had, in fact, a reference to p. 150., 
and to Charles Beauclerk, E. of Burford, created 
D. of St. Albans, 35 Chas. II., 1684. 

It has appeared that, though they are recorded 
as an ornament of the crown of previous sove- 
reigns, no Fs.-d.-L. were borne by Henry II. and 
Richard I. ; though, in 1190-2, the latter sove- 
reign bestowed on Richard Plowden the augmen- 
tation of 2 Fs>d.-L. for gallantry at the siege of 
Acre (p. 350.). In the same third crusade, as we 
have seen, John de Cantelupe, or Cantiloupe, bore 
3 leopards' heads jessant Fs.-d.-L.; of which 
bearing no further account is given than that it 
descended to the bishopric of Hereford. 

In the second crusade (1146), under Louis VI., 
and in the fourth, fifth, and sixth crusades, no 
English subjects appear to have borne the charge. 
In the years 1286-93, Rauf Sandwich, Ld. M. 
of London, first bore gu. a F.-d.-L. or ; and from 
those years to the year 1754, the last recorded by 
Heylin, twenty-five successive Lords Mayor bore 
the F.-d-L., or R. T. Of this number, nine bore 
one alone, others from three to seme d. L. No 
authority is given for the assumption of this 
charge by the Lords Mayor. In 1297 (25 Edw. I.) 
the name of Lennard is connected (1. and 4.) with 
3 Fs.-d.-L. In 1307, John Barrett Lennard was 
created Lord Dacre by Edw. II. But when, or 
on what ground, the above charge was granted, is 



42 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2*S. NO 29., JULY 19. '56. 



not stated. So again, in 1298, (27 Edw. I.,) the 
same doubt exists as to George Townshend (see 
Heylin above), who' quartered France and Eng- 
land. In 1328, J. Holland, E. of Huntington 
(afterwards created D. of Exeter by Richard II.), 
whose mother was Joan, widow of the* Black 
Prince, and who married Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter to John of Gaunt, D. of Lancaster, 
brother to the Black Prince, bore a border of 
France, 13 Fs.-d.-L. 

Of the great dignity attached, upon all occa- 
sions, to the royal charge of the F.-d.-L., frequent 
proofs may be supplied from the preceding notes. 
In many eminent instances of the grant being 
conferred at the hands of the sovereign, a single 
F.-d.-L., or two, are the only concession made ; 
so as, in all appearance, to avoid a trespass upon 
privileges strictly royal. Thus, under Richard I., 
the grant to Plowderi extended only to 2 Fs.-d.-L. : 
that to the family of Leycester, under Richard II., 
whose descendant, in 1544, a general officer, re- 
ceived the honour of knighthood, was 2 Fs.-d.-L. 
Under Edward IV., that to Kellett was a single 
F.-d.-L. Under Henry VIII., that to Clerke was 
two ; that to Thomas Manners, E. of Rutland, 
though of royal descent from Edward IV., was 
limited to two. We have seen that Charles II. 
restricted the bearing of the F.-d.-L. in their 
coronets to the royal dukes. His grant to Stephen 
Fox admitted only a single F.-d.-L. Queen 
Anne's grant to Shovel was of 2 Fs.-d.-L. Wol- 
cott (of Knowle), of Norman extraction, received 
as an augmentation of honour, 1 F.-d.-L., " for 
good service unto the king (quere, which ?) in 
his wars," though the honourable augmentation 
to the D. of Marlborough consisted of three. 
Neverthess, in looking at the lists of the Landed 
Gentry, we find, in many instances, that the grant 
extended to 3 Fs.-d-L. ; though the ground of 
such peculiar extension is not published. Thus, 
the family of Disney bear three. Their ancestors, 
from D'Isigny, D'Isneux, D'Eisney, near Bayeux, 
Normandy, were a knightly race of the first sta- 
tion and influence, who came in at the Conquest. 
The family of Leathes also bear three. They, too, 
came in at the Conquest, and are descended from 
Mussenden (Missenden), who was Grand Admiral 
of England under Henry I. 

The family of Lenigan, which dates from before 
Hen. II., bear three. That of Hawkins, de- 
scended from the ancient Norman family ,of Ny- 
col, temp. Hen. II. and Edw. III., bear, 5 Fs.-d- 
L. The family of Halford, of great antiquity, and 
dating from Hen. III., but whose documents were 
lost at the Revolution, bear 3 Fs.-d-L. That of 
Birch (of whom more hereafter), under Edw. III., 
bear three. Gilbert of Cantley received a grant 
of three under Q. Elizabeth. The same of Hill, 
1560, and of Hutton, 1584. 

Under George III., Curtis, Admiral of Red, 



created a baronet, in 1794, for heroic achieve- 
ments under Lord Howe, who had also been 
knighted, in 1782, for the same at the siege of 
Gibraltar, received as an augmentation of honour 
in chief the Rock of Gibraltar, and in base 3 
Fs-d.-L. 

These are the only, or the principal names, to 
which the honourable distinction is assigned of a 
privilege to bear this charge, in the authorities to 
which my labours have extended. I have before 
hinted that it would be of great historical interest 
to learn from the numerous bearers of the F.-d.-L. 
the grounds on which such charge was originally 
adopted. By favour of the Rev. Joseph Birch, 
M.A., of Brighouse, Yorkshire, I have been sup- 
plied with a copy of the honourable grant made 
to his ancestor (above named) by Edward III., for 
services under the Black Prince, and it has a 
peculiar interest, as the only instance of the con- 
cession of the charge by the first monarch who 
assumed the royal arms of France : 

"Lieutenant General Field Marshall John Birch, Ge- 
neral in Chief of the armies of his late Majesty Edward 
III. of glorious memory, who, in his glorious campaign in 
the Kingdom of France, took three Kings of France 
prisoners, in consideration whereof his said Majesty 
granted unto his said gallant commander, and his heirs 
lineal, and in default of these heirs collateral, in his 
right as King of France, the privilege of wearing their 
Fleurs-de- Lis, in token of the bravery of the one, and 
the generosity of the other. In Testimonium Veritatis, 
&c. S-c." 

The words which follow are 

fLi. Li. I 1 

|Ly. Ly.j 

and remain a mystery. 

Here, then, I conclude a series which has de- 
veloped itself to a much greater length and im- 
portance than I could have expected when, in 
Paris, last year, I originated the inquiry as to the 
descent and bearings of the Hillier family (2 nd S. 
i. 53.), in both of which questions I am personally 
interested. 

An inquiry conducted upon the same plan in 
regard to the various crosses, and especially the 
cross crosslet fitchy, would be an instructive 
sequel to this on the F.-d.-L. Crosses were al- 
ways considered among the honourable ordinaries, 
and their first use, as an heraldic bearing, is said 
to have been in the expeditions to the Holy Land 
in the year 1096. They are now common in 
British shields, and are borne, it must be pre- 
sumed, by those whose ancestors were engaged in 
one or other of those wars which disturbed Europe 
for 178 years, from 1095 to 1273. C. H. P. 

Brighton. 



2d s. NO 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACAULAT. 

Jacobite Song. I copy the accompanying Jaco- 
bite effusion from a contemporary MS. Should it 
not have been printed, it may probably suit you 
as a Macaulay illustration. J. 0. 

I. 

" Lay by yr reason, 

Truely out of season ; 
Rebellion now is Loyalty, and loyalty is Treason : 

Now forty one, S r , 

Is quite undone, S r ; 
A Subject then depos'd his king, but now it is his Son, S r ; 

The nations Salvation, 

From male Administration, 
Was then pretended by ye saints, but now his abdication. 

II. 
" Besides ye case, S r , 

Bears another face, S r ; 

Billy had a mind to reign, and Jemmy must give place, S r ; 
Rais'd Insurrections, 
With base reflections ; 

And labour tooth and naile to perfect his projections ; 
Rebellion in fashion, 
Declar'd throughout ye nation ; 

Then turn'd his ffather out of doors, and call'd it abdica- 
tion. 

III. 
" A declaration, 

For self preservation, 

Was spread abroad wherein was prov'd a father no rela- 
tion; 

Monarchy halters, 
And abdicators, 

Did swear themselves into a league with dutchmen, and 
with traytors ; 

They enter, Indenture, 
Both soul and body venture, 

Whilst att Royal Jimmy's head their malice still did 
center. 

IV. 
" What have we gained ? 

Grievances retained ; 

The Government is still ye same, ye king is only changed ; 
Was ever such a bargain, 
What boots it a farthing, 

Whether ffather Petre rule, Benting, or Carmarthen ; 
Oppressed, distressed, 
With Empty Purse Carressed, 

We still remain In Statu quo, their'a nothing yett re- 
dressed. 

V. 
" Baile for Treason, 

Now is out of Season ; 

And judges must bee Courtiers still against all right and 
reason ; 

Nay, more, I'll mention, 
Ye Senate hath a pension, 

Which overthrowes the contracts made with ye Select 
Convention ; 

Thus wee, S r , you see, S r , 
Come off by ye bee, S r ; 
Wee give our money to bee Slaves, Instead of being free, 

VI. 

" Never was Beetle, 

Blind as this people ; 

To think that God will own a Church with a Socinian 
Steeple j 



By Priests deceived, 

That have brought themselves into that pass ne'er more 
to be believed ; 

They leer, S r , for fear, S r , 

Ould Jemmy should come here, S r , 

And then they'll all repent that ere they took ye swear, 

VII. 

",Alas ! what is Conscience, 
In Sherlock's own Sense : 

When Interest lyes att stake, an w oath with him is non- 
sense ; 

The Temple Master, 
Fears no disaster ; 

He can take ten thousand oaths, and ne'er bee bound the 
faster, 

And all theyr Cause Intangle ; ' 
Yet nought can hold ye wretch but ye old Triangle. 

VIII. 

"For holy Cause, S r , 

You may break all lawes, S r ; 

For perjury, nor treason, then do signify two strawes, S r , 
So bad our Case is, 
We'd better far bee papist ; 

For now Socinians rule the Church, and they'r rul'd by 
an Athiest : 

The nations damnation, 
Was their last reformation ; 

Either you must take ye Swear, or starving, leave yr 
Station. 



GREAT EVENTS FROM LITTLE CAUSES SPRING. 

Blaise Pascal says, with a Rabelaistic humour 
that is not his wont, " si le nez de Cleopatre eut 
ete plus court, toute la face de la terre aurait 
change." And copious are the instances that 
might be cited in exemplification. The subjoined, 
as pertaining to our English history, curiously 
illustrate this truth of the momentous flowing 
from the trivial, the great from the minute, and 
offer us a field of speculation on the proximate 
and impelling motives influencing that single will 
which, electing one scale, thus made the balance 
kick the beam with consequences so signal to 
future generations. Perchance, even the slightest 
dyspepsia or neuralgia may, in the chain of 
causes, account for that single vote, or that " mis- 
take," which gave us the ferial observance of our 
Anglican calendar a statute, the safeguard of 
British freedom, and the blessings of stability in 
the firm yet mild sway of the line of Brunswick : 

1. " Bishop Burnet stated that the Habeas Corpus Act 
passed by a mere mistake ; that one peer was counted for 
ten, and that made a majority for the measure." Earl 
Stanhope's Speech before the House of Peers, on the Abju- 
ration Bill, June 24, 1856. 

2. " The authority upon which the Saints' days stood 
in our Calendar ought to be considered. At the begin- 
ning of the reign of Elizabeth, when the Protestant re- 
ligion was restored, the question whether there should be 
Saints' days in the Calendar was considered by Convoca- 
tion, and sharply and fully debated. The Saints' days 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 2 nd s. N 29., JULY 19, '56. 



were carried only by a single vote; for 59 members voted 
for Saints' days, 58 for omitting them." Literary Re- 
mains of H. Fynes Clinton. 

3. Many years ago, I was informed by a well- 
read man, my tutor, that the question of the suc- 
cession of the house of Brunswick in these realms, 
was only decided by one vote. 

I shall gladly receive any circumstances relative 
to the latter case, if it be confirmed ; also any 
other remarkable instances of similar character. 

F. S. 

Churchdown. 



NOVEL EXPLANATION OF THE USE OF THE IRISH 
ROUND TOWERS. 

The origin of the Irish round tower is involved 
in as profound obscurity as that of the Egyptian 
pyramids ; and if the latter extraordinary monu- 
ments excite our curiosity in a country where the 
same gigantic taste pervaded every work of sculp- 
ture as well as architecture, how much more im- 
pressive is this solitary remain, that stands 

" Sublime and sad 
Bearing the weight of years ! " 

Beside these buildings, of which more than fifty 
are at present standing, the date of whose form- 
ation is not known, none others in Ireland de- 
serve notice as works of art. On the round tower, 
therefore, rests the only proof of the skill and 
knowledge of the early inhabitants of Ireland ; 
ponderous masses of uncouth stones, tumuli and 
mounds, being works equally common to the rude 
state of other nations. 

The conjectures offered as to the use of the 
round tower are numerous as well as satisfactory. 
By some they are supposed to have been the 
abodes of solitary anchorites ; by others, to have 
contained the sacred fire worshipped before the 
Christian era; some, again, maintain that they 
were places of temporary penance, and others state 
them to have been belfries ; nor does any pecu- 
liarity of situation, except in the vicinity of a 
church, assist the antiquary in his inquiry. 

I find the following novel purpose of their erec- 
tion in one of Mr. Crofton Croker's amusing works 
on the reliques of Ireland, as replete with anti- 
quarian lore as with those quaint repartees so 
characteristic of the lower class of the Irish pea- 
santry : 

" Mr. W , of the Ordnance, whilst on an official 

tour of inspection in Ireland, seeing a labourer near one 
of the martello towers on the coast, carelessly asked him 
if he knew for what purpose it was built ? 'To be sure 
I do your honour,' replied he archly ; ' for the same pur- 
pose as our ould round towers.' ' And pray what may 

that have been ? ' inquired Mr. W , in the belief of 

receiving some traditional information. ' Why, your 
worship,' returned Pat, ' the only use in them that I can 
Bee is just to bother posterity.' " 



Some extracts from the opinions of Vallancey, 
Tanner, Betham, Dr. Petrie, and other Irish his- 
torians would be acceptable to many of the readers 
of "N. & Q.," as well as a subject worthy of dis- 
cussion in its pages. J. M. G. 

Worcester. 



SHAKSPEARIANA, 

" All the world's a stage :" Shdkspeare and 
Erasmus, The following passage is from a book 
Shakspeare must have read. Challoner's Transla- 
tion of Erasmus's "Praise of Folie" has, I think, 
been overlooked by over-read commentators : 

" So likewise all this life of mortall men, what is it els 
but a certaine kynde of stage plaie? Whereas men come 
foorthe disguised one in one arraie, an other in an other, 
eche plaiying his parte, till at last the maker of the 
plaie or bokebearer, causeth them to avoyde the skaf- 
folde, and yet sometyme maketh one man come in, two 
or three tymes, with sundrie partes and apparaile, as 
who before represented a kynge, beying clothed all in 
purple, havyng no more but shyfted hym self a little, 
shoulde shew hym selfe againe lyke* an woobegon- 
myser." The Praise of Folie. Moriae Encomium : a 
booke made in latine by that great Clerke Erasmus Ro- 
terodame. Englished by Sir Thomas Chaloner, knight, 
Anno MDXLIX. (1549). P. 43. 

As a proof of Shakspeare's knowing the book, 
I select the following additional extract : 

" Seying all Doctours take it commenly for theyr pri- 
velege to nede out leaven (that is to saie) holy writ like 
a cheverell skin." 

Who does not remember the Fool's saying : 
" A sentence is but a cheveril glove to a good wit." 

The following passage from Erasmus seems to 
well illustrate the behaviour of Hamlet when 
lying at Ophelia's feet : 

" Post hsec prandium, a prandio stationes, nugae face- 
tiaeque, sparsim procumbent puellaa, in harum gremium se 
conjicient viri. Quae neminem repellit maxime laudatur 
a civilitate." Erasmus, Christiani Matrimonii Insti- 
tutio. Fol. Lugd. Pp. 716, 717. 

G. W. T. 

"Racke" or " Wreck" Shakspeare, Tempest" 
Act IV. Sc. 1. (2 nd S. i. 425.) Sometimes we 
may justly exclaim, " plague on critics !" who will 
puzzle us with their logomachies, and who will 
not be satisfied to obey the old admonition, " let 
well alone." While I read the article of your 
correspondent, I accidentally take a peep from 
my window ; and over the top of the lofty Ben- 
lomond, I see dense masses of dark clouds which 
have gathered, and are pouring out their watery 
treasures shortly a speck of blue cloud becomes 
visible this gradually more and more expands 
the horizon is again clear and not a rack or 
vestige remains of the former aspects. 

Now, I cannot help thinking that Shakspeare 



2 n * S. N" 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



had been, " once on a time," among the mountains 
of Scotland, and had witnessed the many beauti- 
ful phenomena which their tops often put on in 
their misty " cloud-capp'd towers" and " gorgeous 
palaces" that he had carefully watched their 
rolling storms the dispersing of the vapours 
absolutely reduced to a film, leaving " not a rack 
behind" all of which had conveyed to his highly 
sensitive imagination one of the most sublime 
images with which our poetry is graced. I have 
also a kind of idea that the poet had heard the 
people of the northern country, in a morning like 
this (June 4), alternating with sunshine and 
showers, using an expression at this moment fa- 
miliar, that " the day would rack up ;" or, in other 
words, that the weather would soon be settled and 
dry, and nowhere any traces exist of the frowning 
atmosphere, the force of his simile upon a 
native ear reminding one of that which would be 
communicated to an Asiatic in the ornate language 
of " the Song of Solomon :" 

" For lo the winter is past, the rain is over and gone, 
the flowers appear on the earth, the time of the singing 
of birds is come, and the voice of the turtle (dove) is 
heard in our land," &c. 

I have no doubt but that rack was the true 
word employed by Shakspeare ; and that his com- 
mentators, however learned and ingenious they 
may be, do him infinite injustice by such emend- 
ations as "track,*' "wrack," "reek," &c. The 
lines of the Earl of Stirling, who could write 
(1603) 

" Those stately courts, those sky- encountering walls, 
Evanish like the vapours of the air," 

perfectly explain Shakspeare's metaphor, that 
nobleman having been, before his creation by 
James I., Sir William Alexander of Menstrie (a 
village situated at the base of the Ochil Hills), 
and to whose eyes the appearances he describes 
must have been of common occurrence. G. N. 

Allow me to add a little in confirmation of Q.'s 
argument, by subjoining to it the two following 
quotations from the same play, The Tempest, in 
which the disputed reading occurs : 

" Alon. If thou beast Prospero 
Giue us particulars of thy preservation, 
How thou hast met us heere, whom three howres since 
Were wrackt vpon this shore." 

Tempest, Act V. Sc. 1. 
" Pros. Know for certain 

That I am Prospero, and that very Duke 
Which was thrust forth of Millaine, who most strangely 
Vpon this shore (where you were wrackt} was landed 
To be the Lord on't." 

Id. ib. 

R. 

Passage in Atfs Well that Ends Weir (2 nd S. 
i. 494.) A sense may be found in the quoted 
lines, although not a very poetical one. John- 



son and Malone (see their notes) are wrong, 
and so is Mr. Singer, in their personification of 
" hate." They consider " sleeping hate " and 
"dreadful, revengeful, ruthless hate" as being 
synonymous, and so their meaning must be, that, 
if hate had not slept, the mischief would not have 
been done ; but that is an error in calculo : "hate," 
of course, can only be active when awake; sleep- 
ing, he is like Anteus lifted up from his mother 
earth without force, and so is "love."* "Hate" 
and " love," directed towards the same object, can 
not be awake at the same time. 

What I have found in the two lines is this : 
" Love " fell asleep, and by this fact, and in the 
same moment, " hate " was awaking, and did mis- 
chief, profiting by " love's " sleep. Too late, after 
" hate " being tired, " love " awakes, and u cries 
to see what's done," while, at the same time, 
" shameful hate " like a gourmand, surfeited by a 
luxurious repast, " sleeps out the afternoon.'* 

If that is not poesy, at least it is sense. 

F. A. LEO. 

Berlin. 

Kneller' s Portrait of Shakspeare. In Dry den's 
Poem to Sir Godfrey Kneller, printed in the 4th 
volume of the Miscellany Poems, the poet speaks 
of a portrait of Shakspeare painted by and given 
to him by Kneller : 

" Shakspeare thy Gift, I place before my sight ; 
W T ith Awe, I ask his blessing e're I write ; 
With Reverence look on his Majestick Face ; 
Proud to be less ; but of his Godlike Race. 
His Soul inspires me while thy Praise I write, 
And I like Teucer, under Ajax fight ; 
Bids thee, through me, be bold ; with dauntless breast, 
Contemn the bad, and emulate the best," &c. 

And a side note on the first words refers to 

" Shakspeare's Picture, drawn by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
and given to the author." 

Is anything known of this picture at the present 
time ? From what did Kneller make his copy ? 
as it is not likely he would have taken the trouble 
to copy a picture without being first satisfied 
that it was a genuine portrait. K. P. S. 



POLITICAL POEM. 



As the political squibs of the last century are thought 
worthy of being collected, I send you a copy of verses, 
the appearance of which bear witness to its having been 
written at the time when the subject it refers to was 
of recent occurrence. I am nqt aware whether it has 



* See as analogous : F. A. Leo, Beitrage und Verbesser- 
ungeu zu Shakespeares Dramen nach handschriftlichen 
Anderungen, &c. &c., 1853, Berlin, A. Asher & Co., page 
130, some remarks about the word " invisible.". 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. NO 29., JULT 19. '56, 



ever been published, but at least I suppose it in few 
hands. 

JONATHAN COUCH. 
Polperro. 

Now Phabus did y e world w th frowns swrvey, 
Dark wear y e Clouds, and dismal was y e day, 
When pensive Harley from y e Court returncf ; 
Slow by his Chariot mov'd, as that had mourn'd. 
Heavy the mules before y e statesman goe, 
As dragging an unusual weight of woe ; 
Sad was his aspect, and he waking dreams 
Of plots abortive and of rvin'd schemes : 
Like some sad youth, whose greifs alone survie, 
Mourns a dead mistress or a wife alive. 
Such looks would Russels Funeral Trump grace, 
So Notingham still looke, w th such a dismal face. 
To Kensington's high tower, bright Masham flyes, 
Thence she affar y e sad procession spyes ; 
Whear y e late statesman dos in sorrow ride, 
His Welsh supporter mourning by his side. 
At wich her boundless grief sad Cryes began, 
And thus lamenting thro the Court she ran : 
" Hither, yee wretched Toryes, hither Come, 
Behold y e Godlike Hero's fatal doom. 
If e're yee went with ravishing delight 
To hear his Banter and admire his Bite, 
Now to his sorrow yeild the last releif, 
Who once was all your hopes is now your grief. 
Had this Great Man his envy'd Post enjoy'd, 
Torys had rul'd and Whiggs had been destroy'd : 
Harcourt the mace to which he long aspir'd 
Had now possess'd, and Cowper had retir'd ; 
Sunderland had been forc'd his place to quitt, 
Which St. Johns had supplyd with sprightly witt ; 
Sage Hanmer passing Court employment by 
Had ruld the Coffers Toryes to supply. 
Gower had shin'd with rich Newcastle's seal, 
And Harley's self (to shew his humble zeale) 
Had been contented with that triffling wand 
Which now dos mischeif in Godolphin's hand : 
Our Fleets secure had been Rook's tender care, 
And Ormond had been sent to Head the warr, 
Bleinheim to Radnor had been forc'd to yeild, 
And Cardiff Cliffs obscur'd Ramellis' ffeild." 



Cheap Travelling on Cows. In an article on 
"Fashions," in Encyclopedia Britannica, 8th edit., 
Part II., vol. ix., the following illustration occurs : 

" We have never heard of any one who followed the 
fashion set and advocated by Asclepiades, who tried to 
bring cheap locomotion into general favour, and who 
travelled about the world on a cow, living on her milk 
by the way." 

Since I wrote that article, however, I have met 
with mention of a town in which this example 
was followed. In the Voyage of Italy, by Richard 
Lassels, Gent., a book which was printed in Paris 



in 1670, and the author of which had made the 
" voyage " five times as tutor to " several of the 
English nobility and gentry," the subjoined sin- 
gular instance may be met with : 

" I observed in this town (Piacenza)" a valuable piece 
of thriftiness used by the gentlewomen, who make no 
scruple to be carried to their country nouses near the 
town in coaches drawn by two cows yoked together. 
These will carry the Signora a pretty round trot unto her 
villa; they afford her also a dish of their milk, and, after 
collation, bring her home again at night, without spending 
a penny." 

J. DOBAN. 

An Advertisement. Whether this advertise- 
ment, which I have as a printed post-bill, was 
ever^ posted on the walls of Coleraine I know not, 
but it possesses sufficient peculiarities of phrase to 
be preserved in " N. & Q." as a curiosity. S. 

" To be Let, 
To an Oppidan, a Ruricolest, or a Cosmopolitan, and may 

be entered upon immediately, 

The House in STONE Row, lately possessed by CAPT. 
SIREE. To avoid Verbosity, the Proprietor with Com- 
pendiosity will give a Perfunctory description of the 
Premisses, in the Compagination of which he has Sedu- 
lously studied the convenience of the Occupant it is free 
from Opacity, Tenebrosity, Fumidity, and Injucundity, 
and no building can have greater Pellucidity or Trans- 
lucency in short its Diaphaneity even in the Crepuscle 
makes it like a Pharos, and without Laud, for its Agglu- 
timation and Amenity, it is a most Delectable Commo- 
rance ; and whoever lives in it will find that the Neigh- 
bours have none of the Truculence, the Immanity, the 
Torvity, the Spinosity, the Putidness, the Pugnacity 
nor the Fugacity observable in other parts of the town, 
their Propinquity and Consanguinity, occasions Jucundity 
and Pudicity from which and the Redolence of the 
place (even in the dog-days) they are remarkable for 
Longevity. For terms and particulars apply to JAMES 
HUTCHISON opposite the MARKET HOUSE." 
Colerain, 30th September, 1790." 

Cat Worship. The cat, which old ladies love 
and cherish with Egyptian fondness, but with just 
enough of romance in their affection to acquit 
them of idolatry, was one of the sacred animals 
before which that people bowed in worship to 
their sidereal deities. It seems to have owed its 
consecration and divine honours to a peculiar 
physical attribute, the contractibility and dilatability 
of the pupil of the eye, exhibiting so mysterious 
an illustration of, and (as a matter of course) 
relation to the moon's changes, as to give rise to 
the notion that the animal shared in some degree 
the influence of that luminary ! I do not know 
whether there was any correspondence in point of 
time in these supposed ocular demonstrations of 
the lunar phases, to give birth to so monstrous a 
superstition. F. PHILLOTT. 

Pronunciation of English Words ending in -il. 
There are very few words with this termination 
in English: five only occur to my recollection, 
peril, civil, council, evil, and devil. Of these the 



2nd s. N 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



three first, as derived from French words of the 
same termination, are always pronounced as if 
they ended in -ill. 

But until lately the two lasb were always pro- 
nounced as they would have been had they been 
written respectively evle and devle ; and I believe 
that they were rightly so pronounced, with re- 
ference to their etymologies. They are neither of 
them derived from foreign words which have i in 
the last syllable ; evil is the Saxon ypel, ^and devil 
the Saxon beopul, contracted beopl, and in the ad- 
jective form, beopho. So in the German the words 
are teufel and ubel, both ending in the same ob- 
scure sound which we give to le when those 
letters follow another consonant as a termination. 

Within a few years a change has taken place, 
but I never could hear any cause alleged for the 
change, except a desire to assimilate these two 
words with other English words ending in the 
same letters. 

To make the pronunciation, when long and rea- 
sonably established, yield to the letters, seems to 
me a very unphilological proceeding. Our 
American brothers, indeed, pronounce to as if it 
were written toe, and the last syllable of genuine 
as they do the word wine, &c. But knowing, as 
we do, how very inconsistent our orthography is 
with our certain and established pronunciation, it 
would surely be wiser (if we are to make changes) 
to accommodate our letters to our sounds, than to 
pervert our sounds for the sake of the letters. 

E. C. H. 

"Antiquites du Bosphore Cimmerien" Antiqui- 
ties of the Cimmerian Bosphorus, preserved in the 
Museum of the Hermitage ; published by order of 
the Emperor, St. Petersburg ; printed at the 
printing offices of the Academy of Sciences, 1854 
seq. y 3 vols., fol. (plates). 

This splendid work, containing the' representa- 
tions and description of some Crimean remnants of 
the goldsmith's art, &c., of the best Greek period, 
is intended as a present for princely personages, 
the public libraries, and art-institutions of Europe. 
I shall give a review of it in one of the art- 
journals here. DR. J. LOTSKY, Panslave. 

15. Gower Street, London. 

Stencilled Books. -A book on vellum was given 
to me some time back, which was described in the 
catalogue as " Missce falienses ex domu Chante- 
loup, a beautifully-written MS., 1751." Upon 
looking carefully into the book, I found it was 
not written but stencilled, and then carefully 
finished with a pen. I never ha /e seen a sten- 
cilled book except this, and so have made a note 
of it. There were other copies of this taken, for I 
met with one in a recent catalogue. Can any of 
your correspondents give other instances of this 
process, and explain the title of this book ? 

J. C. J. 



Jews' Bread. Dipping into the Plantarium of 
my favourite Cowley, I find it noted that " in old 
time the seed of the white poppy, parched, was 
served up as a dessert." By this I am reminded, 
that white poppy-seeds are eaten to this day upon 
bread made exclusively for Jews. The "twist" 
bread is generally so prepared, by brushing over 
the outside crust with egg, and sprinkling upon it 
the seed. JOHN TIMES. 

Sloane Street. 

Clandestine Opening of Letters in the last Cen- 
tury. Goethe, when discussing after the general 
peace of 1815, some political subjects with Luden, 
the historian, made to him the following rather 
uncomplimentary observation : " You must not 
suppose that any thing which you have broached 
to me has not before attracted my attention." 
That the clandestine opening of letters by some 
or other post offices was then well known, and 
guarded against, we perceive from the following 
letter written by the great German poet, dated 
Rome, February 16, 1788 : 

" Through the Prussian Courier (!) I 'received lately 
a letter from our Duke, as friendly, loving, good, and 
pleasing as possible. As he could write without appre- 
hension (!), he described to me the whole political posi- 
tion, his own, and so on." 

As the date of Goethe's letter refers to the latter 
years of the reign of Frederic II. of Prussia and 
Joseph II. of Austria, it is easy to conjecture 
which of the two powers then excited public ap- 
prehension. J. LOTSKY. 

15. Gower Street, London. 



FRANCIS FITTON. 

In the chancel of the church of Gawsworth, co. 
Chester, there is a monument with the recum- 
bent effigy of Francis Fitton, Esq., and round the 
edges of the tomb the following inscription : 

"Here lyeth Fraunces Fitton, Esquire, who married 
Katherine contes doager of Northumberlond, and third 
brother of Sir Edward Fitton, deceased, of Gawsworth, 
kt, lord president of Conough " (i. e. Connaught). 

On the arches supporting the tomb are shields 
of arms, and underneath them a headless skeleton 
lying in a robe. Can any of your learned readers 
inform me whether any thing is known concern- 
ing this Francis Fitton ? Does the headless 
skeleton indicate his having met with a violent 
death in some conflict in Ireland in those lawless 
days? 

There is also a full length portrait of this Fran- 
cis Fitton in the hall at Gawsworth, with this in- 
scription round the frame : 

" Francis Fyton, married w* Katberine countes of Nor - 
thu'br., dowger, a 1588, eldest of the dougbters and co- 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2*a S. N 29., JULY 19. '56. 



beires of Joh' Neville, kt, Lord Latynaer, being tbyrd 
sone of Edw. Fyton of Gaw,sworth, kt. (who maried Mary 
y e younger doughter and coheir of Sir Vigitt Harbutell, 
in Northu'br., kn., and Elenor, her elder sister, maried 
w* S r Tho. Percy, kn., afterward ataynted, being father by 
her to Tho. and Henry Percy, knts., and both in their 
tymes earles of Northu'br. and restored by Q. Mary), 
brother to Edward Fyton,kn., lord president of Conaghte 
and thresorer of Ireland, and sone and heyre to th' afore- 
said Edward, "which thresorer and his wife decessed in 
Irlonde, and lye both buried in St. Patric's church in 
Dublin." 

Ormerod, in his History of Cheshire, suggests 
that the skeleton has probably reference to the 
attainder of Sir Thomas Percy, but why ? Per- 
haps after all it is but an emblem of mortality. 
Local tradition asserts that Francis Fitton fell in 
battle, and only his body, from which the head had 
been severed, could be found. This ancient family 
became extinct in the direct line by the death of 
Sir Edward Fitton in 1643. OXONIENSIS. 



QUERIES RESPECTING THE GAMAGE FAMILY. 

1. What is the import or etymology of the name 
Gamage ? Is it of Saxon or of .Norman origin, or 
of neither ? 

2. What is the coat of arms of the family of 
Gamage, and whence its origin ? 

3. Can any traces of the family, the disposition 
of the family estates, titles, its origin, &c., be dis- 
covered ? If so, from what sources ? 

4. Is it possible from any records of emigration, 
shipping and naval lists, to ascertain what branch 
of the Gamage family emigrated to New England 
about 1700, or previously? and from what port 
they sailed, and where was their place of residence 
in England previous to their emigration ? We 
find from a parish record in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts, that one Joshua Gamage was there in 
1710, the date of his marriage to a Deborah 
Wyeth ; but when he came from England does 
not appear. 

5. Can anything be obtained, by way of family 
history, from monumental inscriptions, parish, 
church, and county, national and heraldic records, 
and records of knighthood, grants of land, and 
conveyances of estate, wills, &c., and where can 
these be found ? 

6. Is there any place named Royiode, or any- 
thing similar, in co. Hertford (or Hertfordshire), 
England ? and if so, could not some traces be 
found of the Gamage family, provided their re- 
sidence was there ; or any part of the coat armour 
derived from that place ? Royiode may not be 
the whole name of the place, but the last half of 
it. The old Saxon word royd, meaning clearing, 
is a frequent termination of the names of towns, 
and was sometimes used in connection with the 
name of a proprietor, as Monkroyd, Martinrode, 
and also Okenrode, Acroyd, Hoilinsrode, &c. 



7. Where is Clerkenshalls in Scotland, and what 
possible connection can that place have with the 
Gamage family or their coat armour ? When was 
Sir Thomas Gamage knighted; by whom, and 
what was the order of his knighthood ? 

The result of any investigations in relation to 
the Gamage family will oblige the inquirer. 

ANON, 



flatter fetf. 

" A daring Pilot in Adversity" From what 
author is the following quotation (made in the 
last page of vol. i. of Sir Robert Peel's Memoirs} 
taken : 



' . . . . When waves run high 
A daring pilot in adversity? " 



D. G. 



Aristotle's Proverbs. The Rev. Thomas Wil- 
son, in a lecture on the " Philosophy of Proverbs," 
in the Popular Lecturer, ^states that " Aristotle 
made a collection of them." Is this collection still 
existing ? I never heard of it, W. S. D. 

Ode by Lord Byron. In an excellent collec- 
tion of fugitive poetry of the nineteenth century, 
entitled The Laurel, published by Tilt in 1841, is 
an ode ascribed to Lord Byron. It consists of 
nine stanzas, is characterised by considerable 
merit, and is a vehement invective against the 
French people for their desertion and neglect of 
Napoleon when fortune no longer attended his 
arms. The first stanza is as follows : 

" Oh, shame to thee, land of the Gaul ! 

Oh, shame to thy children and thee ! 
Unwise in thy glory, and base in thy fall, 

How wretched thy portion shall be 1 
Derision shall strike thee forlorn, 

A mockery that never shall die ; 
The curses of hate, and the hisses of scorn, 

Shall burthen the winds of thy sky ; 
And proud o'er thy ruin, for ever be hurled 
The laughter of triumph, the jeers of the world." 

I should be glad to know by what authority this 
energetic ode is attributed to Lord Byron ; or to 
whom it may with greater truth be ascribed. 

WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

Presfar John. More information respecting 
this myth (if myth he is) is required than is to be 
found in 1 st S. vii. 502. ; x. 186. Why do writers 
cite the length of his foot, rather - t than any other 
characteristic he may possess ? ANON. 

Mr. Bathursfs Disappearance. Was anything 
certain ascertained relative to the fate of Mr. 
Bathurst, who disappeared mysteriously during a 
mission abroad in the course of our great war 
against Bonaparte ? I found, at an old book- 
seller's in Paris, some years ago, the MS. journal 
of Mrs. Bathurst, who was a sister of Sir G. P. 



2 nd s. NO 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



Call, Bart, and banker. It is very curious and 
interesting. I believe one of her daughters was 
drowned in the Tiber. Is the other still living ? 

A BOOKWORM. 

"Jokeby." Can you tell me who is the author 
of Jokeby, a burlesque imitation of Rokeby, pub- 
lished in or about 1812? The same author pub- 
lished, shortly afterwards, a volume called The 
Accepted Addresses. R. J. 

Fellow of Trinity. There is a letter from the 
Earl of Sandwich to Garrick (in the 2nd volume 
of the Garrick Correspondence, p. 329.) regarding 
a play written by a gentleman of Cambridge. In 
the earl's letter, which is dated Jan. 8, 1779, he 
says regarding the author : 

" I believe he has lost some emolument he had in 
Trinity College, of which he is a Fellow, on account of 
his attachment to me, which led him to oppose the 
Master upon some points in which I interfered," &c. 

Could any of your readers inform me who was 
the Fellow of Trinity College here alluded to ? 

R. J. 

Was Addison a Plagiarist? I read the other 
day, that the well-known paraphrase of Psalm xix., 

" The spacious firmament on high, 
With all the blue ethereal sky," &c. 

so generally ascribed to Addison, was composed 
by Andrew Marvel; and that Dr. Johnson re- 
peated it as his. 

I know it has been a fashion to lay other men's 
productions at Andrew's door ; but the object of 
my Query is to ascertain if there is any well-sup- 
ported charge of plagiarism against Addison on 
record. JOHN J. PENSTONE. 

Stanford-ia-the-Vale. 

Meaning of Hayne. What is the explanation 
of the word hayne, which forms the termination of 
the names of a great many places, chiefly farms, 
in my neighbourhood, such as WoodAa^we, Cown- 
hayne, Willhayne, and at least a dozen others. 

J.E. 

Temple at Baalbec. Who is supposed to have 
founded the Temple of the Sun at Baalbec, in 
Syria ? What ancient historians notice its origin 
or existence ? And what modern books are there 
on the subject ? HAWADJI. 

Fossil Human Skeleton. Is it true that a, fossil 
human skeleton was very lately found in a free- 
stone quarry near Fondel, in Scotland ? 

W. ELFE TATLER. 

" The Philistines" Who is the author of The 
Philistines, or The Scotch Tocsin sounded, a political 
drama, published in 1793 ? R. J. 

Weldons of Swanscombe, co. Kent. I am de- 
sirous of obtaining all the information possible 



regarding the family of Weldon, especially that 
branch of it which settled in the county of Kent. 
From Hasted's History I learn that the manor of 
Swanscombe was possessed by the Weldons from 
the thirty-sixth year of Henry VIII. down to 
1731. In that year died Walter Weldon, whose 
heirs conveyed their estate by sale to Thomas 
Blechynden, Esq. 

Can any of your readers supply me with the 
further history of the Swanscombe Weldons, and 
bring down their line to the present day ? One 
Colonel Weldon, said to be "of Swanscombe," 
was living in the year 1827, and bore the arms of 
the family, which are " Argent, a cinquefoil (or 
mullet) gules ; on a chief of the second, a demi- 
lion rampant, issuant of the field, armed and 
langued azure." H. E. W. 

York. 

Edward Stanley, B.A. Could any of your 
readers give me information regarding Edward 
Stanley, B.A., who is author of Elmira, a dra- 
matic poem, printed at Norwich in 1790 ? R. J. 

Punishment for Striking in the King's Court. 

" The Serjeant of the King's Wood-yard brings to the 
place of execution a square block, a beetle, staple, and 
cords to fasten the hands thereto; the yeoman of the 
scullery provides a great fire of coals by the block, where 
the searing-irons, brought by the chief farrier, are to be 
ready for the chief surgeon to use ; vinegar and cold 
water, brought by the groom of the saucery ; the chief 
officers also of the cellar and pantry are to be ready, one 
with a cup of red wine, and the other with a manchet, to 
offer the criminal. The serjeant of the ewry is to bring 
linen to wind about and wrap the arm ; the yeoman of 
the poultry a cock to lay to it ; the yeoman of the chan- 
dlery seared cloths; the master-cook a sharp dresser- 
knife, which at the place of execution is to be held 
upright by the serjeant of the larder, till execution be 
performed by an officer appointed thereunto. After all, 
the criminal shall be imprisoned during life, and fined 
and ransomed at the king's will." 

So far Chamberlain, in his Present State of Great 
Britain, 1741. Is there any case on record where 
such a sentence has been carried into execution 
with all its extraordinary formalities ? WX. 

Minatrost. A CORRESPONDENT begs to know 
the meaning of the word minatrost, which is men- 
tioned in Charles Auchester, vol. i. p. 42. (a novel). 



Minor ^aucrferf Suits 

" The Little Whig" Speaking of the theatre 
erected by Sir John Vanbrugh on the site of the 
present opera-house in the Haymarket, called the 
Queen's in honour of Queen Anne, and which has 
always retained the royal prefix, Cibber says : 

" Of this theatre I saw the first stone laid, on which was 
inscribed The Little Whig,' in honour to a lady of ex- 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 29., JULY 19. '56. 



traordinary beauty, then the celebrated toast and pride of 
that party." Apology, ed^. 1750, pp. 257, 258. 

Who was the lady referred to ? 

CHARLES WYLIE. 

[The "Little Whig" was Anne, Countess of Sunder- 
land, second daughter of the great Duke of Marlboro*ugh. 
This lady, who was rather petite in person, did not disdain 
the cognomen conferred upon her, at a time when every- 
thing bore the ensigns of party of one kind or other. Her 
death on April 15, 1716, is thus noticed in The Political 
State of that date : " On April 15, about two of the clock, 
Anne, Countess of Sunderland, daughter of John, Duke of 
Marlborough, died of a pleuritick fever ; a lady, who by 
her personal accomplishments outshined all the British 
court, being the general toast by the name of The Little 
Whig; who, for her excellent endowments of mind, good- 
nature, and affability, was justly lamented by all that 
knew her; and whose irreparable loss, in a particular 
manner, affected both her illustrious father and consort." 
Among the verses of the Earl of Halifax, given in 
Tonson's Miscellany, edited by Drj'den, are the following 
lines on the Countess of Sunderland, inscribed on the 
toasting-glasses of the Kit-Cat Club: 

" All Nature's charms in Sunderland appear, 
Bright as her eyes, and as her reason clear ; 
Yet still their force, to men not safely known," 
Seems undiscovered to herself alone." 

Dr. Arbuthnot in the following epigram seems to de- 
rive the name of this celebrated club from the custom of 
toasting ladies after dinner, rather than from the name 
of the renowned pastry-cook, Christopher Cat: 

" Whence deathless Kit Cat took its name 

Few critics can unriddle, 
Some say from Pastry-cook it came, 

And some from Cat and Fiddle. 
From no trim beaux its name it boasts, 

Grey statesmen or green wits ; 
But from its pell-mell pack of toasts 

Of old Cats and young Kits!"} 

Marston Moreton, co. Bucks [Beds f]. Sarah, 
Duchess of Marlborough, widow of the great 
duke, devised the manor and estate of Marston 
Moreton to the Hon. John Spencer, her grandson. 
Query, did he not subsequently change his name? 
On what account ? Whom did he marry ? And 
of his descendants? JAMES KNOWLES. 

[Marston-Moretaine is in Bedfordshire, and according 
to Lysons (Beds, vol. i. p. 114.) the Duchess of Marlbo- 
rough bequeathed this manor, with the rest of her Bed- 
fordshire estates, to her grandson, the Hon. John Spencer, 
who also became possessor of the manor of Dunton in 
Bucks by the will of the Duchess. The Hon. John 
Spencer, of Althorp, was the fourth and youngest son of 
Charles, third Earl of Sunderland, by Lady Anne 
Churchill, the "little Whig," noticed in the preceding 
article, and was born May 13, 1708; M.P. for Wood- 
stock, 1731-2; Bedford, 1734, 1741, and 1744; Ranger 
and Keeper of Windsor Green Park. Obit, at Wimbledon, 
June 20. 1746. He married Georgiana Caroline Carteret, 
third daughter of the first Earl Granville. Their son 
John was created, in 1761, Viscount and Baron Spencer 
of Althorp, and in 1766, Earl Spencer and Viscount Al- 
thorp. See any Peerage, as well as Lipscomb's Bucks, iii. 
342., for the pedigree of the Spencer family.] 

Port Jackson. Fordyce, in his History of 
Durham, sub verb, "Greatham," writing of Mr. 



Ralph Ward Jackson, the founder of West Hartle- 
pool, says : 

" In honour of Mr. Jackson, the last ship launched by 
Mr. John Pile at Sunderland was christened the ' Port 
Jackson.' It may be here stated that Captain Cook, the 
great circumnavigator, in order to perpetuate his grati- 
tude and friendship for Sir George Jackson, Bart., one of 
his earliest benefactors, gave the name of ' Port Jackson ' 
to the noble harbour he discovered near Botany Bay, in 
New South Wales, on the 6th May, 1770." 

In the Gazetteer of the World, edited by a 
Member of the Royal Geographical Society, sub 
verb. " Jackson " (Port), it is said : 

" This harbour, perhaps the finest in the world, pre- 
senting fifteen miles of deep water, completely protected, 
was overlooked by Cook, who laid it down in his chart as a 
mere boat-haven. Captain Philip first explored it in Ja- 
nuary, 1788, and bestowed on it the name of the man who 
was on the look-out when it was discovered" 

As both accounts cannot be correct, will the 
Editor of " N. & Q.," or a contributor, say which 
is f R. W. DIXON. 

Seaton Carew, co. Durham. 

[After reading these different accounts we are re- 
minded of Merrick's chameleon, for "both are right, and 
both are wrong," in some particulars. The facts, we be- 
lieve, are as follow : Captain Arthur Philip, on being ap- 
pointed Governor of Botany Bay, proceeded with three 
boats and some of his officers to examine what Captain 
Cook had termed Broken Bay, where the Hawkesbury 
disembogues ; but while proceeding thither, he resolved 
to examine an inlet, which, in Cook's chart, was marked 
as a boat harbour, but apparently so small as not to be 
worth investigating. Cook had therefore passed to the 
northward, and given the inlet the name of Port Jackson, 
which was that of the seaman at the mast-head, who first 
descried it while on the look-out. Capt. Philip entered 
between the lofty headlands to examine this " boat har- 
bour," and his astonishment may be more easily con- 
ceived than described, when he found, not a boat creek, 
but one of the safest havens in the world, where the 
whole of the British navy might securely ride at anchor. 
Consult R. Montgomery Martin's Colonial Library, 
vol. ii. p. 24.] 

Navigation by Steam. 

" Earl Stanhope's experiments for navigating vessels by 
the steam-engine, without masts or sails, have succeeded 
so much to his satisfaction on a small scale, that a vessel 
of 200 tons burden, on this principle, is now building 
under his direction. The expence of this vessel is to be 
paid by the Navy Board in the first instance, on condition 
that, if she do not answer after a fair trial, she shail be 
returned to Earl Stanhope, and all the expence made 
good by him." Historical Chronicle of the "Bee," for 
1792, pi 23. 

Is there any farther account of the result of the 
experiments and of the plans of this patriotic no- 
bleman ? G. 1ST. 

[A similar account of the earl's steam-vessel appeared 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for October, 1792 (p. 956.), 
where it is stated that it was then being built under his 
direction by Mr. Stalkart ; but we hear nothing more of 
it. About this time, Robert Fulton, an American, then 
living at Torbay in Devonshire, held some correspondence 
with Earl Stanhope on the subject of moving ships by a 



2 nd S. NO 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



steam-engine. In 1795, the Earl revived the project of 
Genevois, the pastor of Berne, to impel boats with duck- 
feet oars, but he could not cause his vessel to move at a 
higher rate than three miles an hour.] 



Kepltaf. 

CHARLES LENNOX, FIRST DUKE OF RICHMOND. 
(2 nd S. ii. 5.) 

The following account of the Duke of Rich- 
mond's reconversion to the English Church is pre- 
served in Bishop Kennett's Collections, vol. liv. 
p, 216. (Lansdown MS. 988.), and is entitled : 

" The Declaration of the Duke of Richmond, when he 
was restored to the Communion of the Church of England 
in Lambeth Palace, May loth, being Whit-Sunday, 1692." 

" Do you sincerely, in the presence of Almighty God, 
the Searcher of all hearts, and before this assembly, de- 
clare your hearty contrition and repentance for having 
publicly renounced and abjured the Reformed Religion 
professed in the Church of England, in which you were 
baptized and bred? And that you are truly sensible 
that in so doing you have grievously offended Almighty 
God, and given just cause of scandal to others, for which 
you beg forgiveness of God and men ? 

" Answer. All this I do declare from my heart. 

" Do you solemnly retract the said abjuration, and now 
sincerely renounce all the errors and corruptions of the 
Church of Rome; being convinced in your conscience, 
that in many of their doctrines and practices they have 
departed from the primitive Christianity: particularly, 
do 3'ou renounce all the new articles which Pope Pius IV. 
hath added to the Apostles' Creed, and which were esta- 
blished in the Council of Trent? 

" Ans. I do sincerely, as in the presence of God. 

" Do you solemnly promise before God and this con- 
gregation, that you will, by God's grace, continue steel- 
fast in the profession you have made to the end of your 
life? 

" Ans. I promise, by the grace of God, so to do. 

" Do you desire to be admitted to Confirmation accord- 
ing to the Order of the Church of England, to the Com- 
munion whereof you are now restored ? 

" Ans. It is my desire. 

" The Duke of Richmond's Declaration, subscribed with his 
hand, May 15, 1692. 

" I, Charles Duke of Richmond and Lenox, do sincerely 
in the presence of Almighty God, the Searcher of all 
hearts, and before this Assembly, declare my hearty con- 
trition and repentance for having publicly renounced and 
abjured the Reformed Religion professed in the Church of 
England, in which I was baptized and bred. And am 
truly sensible, that in so doing I have grievously offended 
Almighty God, and given just cause of scandal to others : 
for which I beg forgiveness of God and men. And I do 
solemnly retract the said abjuration, and do now sin- 
cerely renounce all the errors and corruptions of the 
Church of Rome, being convinced in my conscience that 
m many of their doctrines and practices they have de- 
parted from the primitive Christianity. Particularly, I 
do renounce all the new articles which Pope Pius IV. 
hath added to the Apostles' Creed, and which were esta- 
blished in the Council of Trent. And I do solemnly 
promise before God and this congregation, that I will by 
God s grace continue stedfast in the profession I have now 



made to the end of my life. And in testimony of this 
my unfeigned repentance and resolut lons > I do hereunto 
subscribe my name, the loth day of Mt/V 1692. 

RICHMOND. 



In the presence of Step. Fox, James C^adwick, Geo. 
Royse, Ra. Barker, A. Hill, Ralph Snow." 

J. .J/EOWELL. 



ROYAL REGIMENT OF ARTILLERY. 

(2 nd S. i. 278.) 

The following notice of the distinct forma tion 
of the Royal Fusileers and Royal Regiment of 
Artillery, will set the question of the identity of 
these corps at rest. I have inserted a quotation 
from Mr. Cannon's Records of the British Arm^ 
which may be interesting to your readers. 

R. R. A. will find a history of his regiment af 
Mr. J. W. Parker's establishment in the Strand ; 
also in Kane's History of the Royal Artillery t in 
the garrison library at Woolwich : 

" In 1664 King Charles II. raised a corps for sea- 
service, styled the Admiral's regiment. In 1678 each 
company of 100 men usually consisted of 30 pikemen, 
60 musketeers, and 10 men armed with light firelocks. 
In this year the King added a company of men armed 
with hand-grenades to each of the old British regiments, 
which was designated the grenadier company.' Daggers 
were so contrived as to fit in the muzzles of the muskets, 
and bayonets, similar to those at present in use, were 
adopted" about twenty years afterwards. 

" An Ordnance regiment was raised in 1685, by order 
of King James II., to guard the artillery, and was desig- 
nated the Royal Fusiliers (now 7th Foot). This corps, 
and the companies of grenadiers, did not carry pikes. 

" Queen Anne succeeded to the throne of England, 
March 8, 1702 ; and during her reign, the pikes hitherto 
in use were laid aside, and every infant^ soldier was 
armed with a musket, bayonet, and sword ; the grenadiers 
ceased, about the same period, to carry hand grenades: 
the corps of Royal Artillery was first added to the army 
in this reign." 

The first Colonel-commandant of the Royal 
Artillery was Albert Borgard, who was appointed 
April 14, 1705 ; and died in 1750, on March 8 of 
which year he was succeeded by Colonel William 
Belford. 

The occasion of raising the corps now known 
as the 7th Regiment, or Royal Fusileers, was as 
follows. The invention of gunpowder, in 1320, 
was followed in 1338 by the introduction of can- 
non ; but many years elapsed before a corps of 
artillery was added to the army. The guns were 
fired by men hired for the purpose : non-com- ' 
missioned officers and soldiers were frequently 
employed as gunners, and the care and protection 
of the guns were confided to particular corps. 

On the augmentation of the army during the 
rebellion of James Duke of Monmouth, in June 
1685, King James II. resolved that the first of 
the newly-raised infantry corps should be an 
ordnance regiment for the care and protection of 
the cannon, of which corps his majesty appointed 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nds. N 29., JULY 19. '56. 



George Lord Da' ..{.mouth (then Master-general of 
the Ordnance) f uO be, colonel, by commission dated 
June 11, lG85 y> At this period the regular regi- 
ments were composed of musketeers, armed with 
muskets a^d swords ;" of pikemen, armed with 
long pikfjs and swords; and of grenadiers,* armed 
with h< r j,nd -grenades, muskets, bayonets, swords, 
and sijaall hatchets ; but in the ordnance regiment 
every raa n carried a long musket called & fusil, 
with a sword and bayonet from which pecu- 
liarity the regiment obtained the name of the 
Royal Fusileers. Thus it will be seen that the 
Rf *yal Fusileers existed, as a regiment of the Line, 
twenty years previous to the formation of the 
F.oyal Regiment of Artillery, which never be- 
1 onged to the Line, but was always a separate 
'oranch of the army. G. L. S. 



PLANTS IN SLEEPING ROOMS. 

(2 nd S. i. 433.) 

There are two distinct and apparently opposite 
processes going on in the plant: I. The decom- 
position of carbonic acid the fixation of the car- 
bon for the purpose of building up its own tissues 
and the liberation of the oxygen. This con- 
stitutes vegetable nutrition : II. The exhaling 
carbonic acid, the result of the union of the oxygen 
of the atmosphere with the carbon of the vegetable 
tissues. This is analogous to respiration. The 
first of these processes is not only beneficial to 
animal life, but absolutely essential to its existence, 
for as the animal inhales oxygen and exhales car- 
bonic acid in the process of respiration, if some 
agency did not work out the reverse change, the 
whole of the oxygen in the atmosphere would be 
used up in a certain length of time (800,000 years 
according to Professor ""Dumas), and animal life 
consequently disappear. But as it is, animals and 
plants are thus mutually dependent upon each 
other; and this is the case, not merely with regard 
to carbonic acid, but also some other compounds, 
such as ammonia, water, &c., which are formed in 
animals and decomposed in plants. So far, then, it 
is healthy to have plants in rooms. But there is 
the second process a kind of decay, or by some 
looked upon as true respiration ; and as this is 
precisely what occurs in animals, it must of course 
add to the carbonic acid of the atmosphere, and 
thus produce an effect prejudicial to animal life. 
If both these processes were carried on to the 
same extent, the one would, as a matter of course, 
counteract the other, and neither would pro- 
duce either good or evil as to its effects upon the 
atmosphere. But as the former, under general 
circumstances, preponderates excessively over the 
latter, it is on the whole healthy to live amongst 
plants. There are circumstances, however, in 
which the respiratory process is active, and the 



nutritive at a stand-still, and here the influence of 

ihe vegetable upon the atmosphere will be in- 

urious to animal life. One of these circumstances 

s the absence of sunshine, or daylight (as these 

itimuli are necessary to the carrying on the process 

of nutrition in the plant). It is therefore in- 

urious, more or less, to Bleep in a room in which 

there are plants. GEO. SEXTON, M.D., F.R.G.S. 

Kennington Cross. 

In reply to C. T. B. I copy the following passage 
from The Handbook of Gardening, by Edward 
Kemp, p. 12. : 

' Plants convert the oxygen and carbon which they 
receive from the soil and "air into carbonic acid, which 
the}' exhale at night. This being a deadly and dangerous 
gas" to human beings, plants and flowers are not con- 
sidered healthy in a sitting or bed room during the night. 
In the day they give off oxygen, especially in the morn- 
ing, which is reputed to render the morning air so fresh 
and exhilarating. They are very useful in absorbing 
from the air the carbon which is so injurious to animal 
life ; and they purify stagnant water in the same way." 

Are the above statements correct ? Do plants 
perform by day and by night two contrary opera- 
tions ? 

In The Flower Garden, reprinted by Mr. Mur- 
ray, from the Quarterly Review, the fear of the 
exhalations from flowers at night is treated as a 
popular error. See the close of the treatise, p. 81. 

STYLITES. 



FLEMING'S "RISE AND TALL OF THE PAPACY." 
(2 nd S. i. 479.) 

In Fleming's Discourse on the Rise and Fall of 
Papacy (edit. 1792, at p. 43.), is the following 
observable foot-note by the " publisher : " 

" In calculating the difference betwixt the prophetic 
and sydereal year (see p. 13.), our author reckons the 
latter, according to the gross computation, to be only 
365 days ; not regarding, as he says, ' the smaller mea- 
sures of time.' But the fact is a complete annual revolu- 
tion of the sun exceeds that calculation by several hours 
and minutes, a sydereal year being 365 days, 6 hours, 
and about 10 minutes. In 1278 years, therefore, there 
will be a difference of about 3284 days, or nearly one 
whole year: so that the great event predicted by our 
author will fall out one year sooner than by his calcula- 
tion, viz. in the year 1793, which brings it still nearer to 
the present time." 

To the intelligent readers of your valuable 
periodical, it need not be more than mentioned 
that Louis XVI. suffered decapitation in the year 
1793 ; thus verifying, it may be said, almost to a 
day, the accuracy of the calculations of Fleming, 
as well as in being a literal description of the 
words of the latter (p. 43.) : 

" That whereas the present French king (1701) takes 
the sun for his emblem, and this for his motto, Nee plu- 
ribus impar, he may at length, or rather his successors 
and the monarchy itself (at least before the year 1794), 



2 nd S. NO 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



be forced to acknowledge that in respect to the neigh- 
bouring potentates he is even singulis impar" 

Fleming, in deducing his calculations as to the 
Papacy, says at p. 49. : 

This Judgment (fifth vial") will probably begin about 
the year 1794, and expire about A.c. 1848 : so that the 
duration of it, upon this supposition, will be for the space 
of 54 years. For I do not suppose that seeing the Pope 
received the title of Supreme Bishop no sooner than Ann. 
606, he cannot be supposed to have any vial poured upon 
his Seat immediately, so as to ruin his authority so sig- 
nally as this Judgment must be supposed to do until the 
year 1848, which is the date of 1260 years in prophetical 
account when they are reckoned from Ann. 606. But yet 
we are not to imagine that this vial will totally destroy 
the Papacy, tho' it will exceedingly weaken it; for we 
find this still in being and alive when the next vial is 
poured out." 

Now it is again not a little remarkable, that 
from 1848 to 1850 took place the revolution at 
Koine, the flight of the Pope to Gaeta, his resi- 
dence there, and his having been brought back to 
Rome only through the power of France. It 
cannot be said that the Pope's authority and the 
Papacy were "destroyed" by this revolution, 
though they were certainly at that time on the 
very brink of perdition ; but that they have been 
since "exceedingly weakened" by it, no one can 
doubt, seeing the troubles which are presently 
occurring from the disturbed and unsatisfactory 
position of Italian affairs both in Church and 
State. The events which likewise happened in 
the abdication of Louis Philippe, and the new suc- 
cession to the French throne (all of which cannot 
be dilated on) ; as also the humbled condition of 
the Pope when made prisoner by Napoleon Bona- 
parte during the period of the currency of the 
above-mentioned fifty-four years prior to 1848, 
and the inauguration of the emperor's son as King 
of Rome, with other historical points that might 
be stated, may in whole be regarded as proofs of 
the singular shrewdness of Fleming in scanning 
those mysterious books, in the study of which he 
had been successful beyond every commentator 
who had handled them. 

It appears to be the opinion of Fleming (p. 49.) 
that the "sixth vial will be poured out on the 
Mahometan Anti-Christ," and that the " seventh 
vial" more particularly relates to "Rome or mys- 
tical^ Baby Ion :" "these two vials as it were one 
continued, the first running into the second, and 
the second completeing the first" " only you may 
observe (p. 50.) that the first of these will proba- 
bly take up most of the time between the year 
1848 and the year 2000." " Supposing, then, 
that the Turkish monarchy should be totally de- 
stroyed (p. 51.) between 1848 and 1900, we may 
justly assign 70 or 80 years longer to the end of 
the 6th seal, and about 20 or 30 at most to the 
last." ^ Lately, the "sick man" only escaped de- 
struction from the paws of the Bear ; and though 



the invalid may have had a turn in his complaint, 
and be again looking better, it cannot be doubted 
that he carries within himself the seeds of his early 
dissolution. 

The author's reasonings on these topics are too 
long to be here followed out ; but if his discrimi- 
nation in arguing from the past be taken into 
account, it is probable he may yet be found one 
of the most judicious interpreters of the future. 
At the expiry of the " seventh vial," he considers 
that "the blessed millennium of Christ's spiritual 
reign on earth will begin" say, year 2000. 
Other students of prophecy, posterior to Fleming, 
have placed the commencement of this event re- 
spectively in 1866, 1947, 2300. It will be for 
those then alive carefully to watch these epochs 
and the signs of the times. Under the dominion 
of peace the diffusion of education, secular and 
religious, along with the rapid improvements 
making in art and science who can say what 
mighty things may not be effected to usher in this 
happy day for the human race ? G. N. 



BIOGRAPHICAL QUERIES. 

(2 nd S. i. 472.) 

Joseph Trapp, D.D. Born in 1679 ; in 1695 
he was entered a commoner of Wadham College, 
and, in 1696, was admitted a scholar of the same 
house. He proceeded B.A. 1699; M.A. 1702; 
D.D. by diploma, 1727. In 1704, he was chosen 
a Fellow; in 1708, he was appointed the first 
professor of poetry; and in 1711, chaplain to Sir 
Constantine Phipps, Lord Chancellor of Ireland. 
He died Nov. 22, 1747. A list of his publications, 
forty-eight in number, will be found in Chalmers's 
Biographical Dictionary. 

Philip Bisse, of New College, Oxford; B.A. 
1690; M.A. 1693; B. and D.D. 1705; conse- 
crated Bishop of St. David's, Nov. 19, 1710; 
translated to Hereford, Feb. 16, 1713. He died 
at Westminster, Sept. 6, 1724. He published A 
Sermon at the Anniversary of the Sons of the 
Clergy, Dec. 2, 1708 ; and A Fast Sermon preached 
before the House of Commons, London, 1710. 

Thomas Gore, born at Alderton, Wilts, 1631, 
became a commoner of Magdalen College, Oxford, 
in May 1647. After he had continued there more 
than three years, and had performed his exercise 
for the degree of B.A., he retired to Lincoln's Inn, 
and afterwards to his patrimony at Alderton ; 
where he died March 31, 1684. His publications 
were : 

1. A Table shewing how to Blazon a Coat ten several 
Ways, 1655 ; a single sheet, copied from Feme. 

2. Series Alphabetic^, Latino- Anglica, Nominum Gen- 
tilitiorum, sive Cognominum plurimarum Familiarum, 
qua3 multos per annos in Anglia floruere, Oxon., 1667, 8vo. 

3. Catalogus in certa Capita, seu Classes, plerorumque 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



{-2nd g. N 29., JULY 19. '56. 



omnium Authorum qui de re heraldica scripserunt, Oxon. 
1668. Reprinted, with enlargements, 1674. 

4. Nomenclator Geographicus, etc., Oxon., 1667, 8vo. 

5. Loyalty Displayed, and Falsehood Unmasked ; or a 
Just Vindication of Thos. Gore, Esq., High Sheriff of 
Wilts. London: 1681. 4to. 

For the above information, I am principally 
indebted to Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary ; 
Wood's Athena Oxon.; and Nichols's Literary 
Anecdotes. 'A\ievs. 

Dublin. 

Thos. Gore. He was born at Alderton, or 
Aldrington, in Wiltshire ; in 1631, commoner of 
.Magdalen Coll. ; and afterwards a member of the 
Society of Lincoln's Inn. He died at Alderton 
in March 1684, and was buried there. 

In 1655, he published A Table shewing how to 
.Blazon a Coat ten several Ways. In 1667 : 

" Series Alphabetica Latino- Anglica,Nominum Gentili- 
tiorum sive Cognominum plurimarum Familiarum, quse 
multos per annos in Anglia floruere : e libris qua manu- 
scriptis qua typis excusis, aliisque antiquioris aevi monu- 
mentis Latinis'collecta." 

In 1668 : 

" Catalogus in certa Capita, seu Classes, alphabetico 
ordine concinnatus, plerorumque omnium authorum (tarn 
antiquorum quam recentiorum) qui de re Heraldica, La- 
ine, Gallice, etc., scripserunt." 

This work was republished in 1674, with addi- 
tions. He was also the author of Nomenclator Geo- 
graphicus, published 1667 ; also of a MS. written 
jn 1662, entitled " Spicilegia Heraldica," and of 
JLoyalty displayed and Falsehood unmasked, 1681. 
He was sheriff of Wilts, 1680. 

.Joseph Trapp. ALFRED T. LEE will find a 
full account of Joseph Trapp in Biographia Bri- 
itannica, Nichols's Bowyer, Chalmers's Biographical 
Dictionary ', and Penny Cyclopaedia. 

Philip Bisse. Philip Bisse was of New Col- 
lege ; was M.A. Jan. 15, 1693, and B. and D.D. 
Jan. 29, 1705. He was made Bishop of Hereford 
1712, and died there Sept. 6, 1721. He and his 
wife Bridget were buried in Hereford Cathedral. 

T. P. 

Clifton. 



Gregory de Karwent. In the Index of Abp. 
Peckham's register, A.D. 1279 to 1292, in Harl. 
MS. 6062-3., by Dr. Ducarel, it is stated at vol. ii. 
p. 604., that Tetbury Church was vacant in 1279 
by the death of Gregory de Karwent, and that a 
successor must wait the approbation of the Pope. 
Tetbury at this period was in the diocese of 
Worcester. Y. 

[In the British Museum, among the Additional Char- 
ters, Nos, 5274 5279., will be found some charters re- 
lating to Tetbury vicarage, 2 Edw. II. ED.] 



EXTRAORDINARY FACT. 

(2 nd S. i. 354.) 

I cannot believe this fact to be correctly stated. 
A vessel from Tunis is said to have put into a 
port in the county of Antrim, in the north of Ire- 
land, through stress of weather, and the sailors 
walking through the country entered into con- 
versation with the Irish peasants at work in the 
fields, speaking the one the language used at 
Tunis, and the other Irish. What is this but to 
prove that the Phoenician still spoken at Tunis at 
the date assigned, the end of last century, and the 
Irish were the same tongue. The Phoenicians and 
Celts are now allowed to be different races, speak- 
ing different languages ; and a corrupt Arabic has 
been for a long time spoken at Tunis, to the ex- 
clusion of the languages used before the Arab 
conquest. A scene in The Pcenulus of the Roman 
comic writer Plautus, in the Punic tongue, was 
attempted to be explained by General Vallancey 
through the Irish, but the attempt has been pro- 
nounced chimerical. This leads me to another 
subject, which I have found of great interest. 
The Carthaginians were a colony of Tyre, a Phce- 
nician people, a part of the same people called 
Canaanites. The names of Canaanite and Phoe- 
nician are applied to the same race, the one name 
derived from Chua, or Canaan, a son of Ham, and 
the other taken from the reddish brown colour of 
the people, signified by the Greek word 4>otj/t|, as 
a darker shade is denoted by Ai&o\J/ for the Ethio- 
pian, supposed to belong to a dark people in the 
south of Phoenicia as well as in Africa. I see it 
noticed that the Greek Septuagint frequently 
renders Canaan and Canaanite in the Hebrew by 
Phoenicia and Phoenician. One of our Saviour's 
miracles was the casting a devil out of the child 
of a woman called by St. Matthew, xv. 22., a 
woman of Canaan, and by St. Mark, vii. 26., a 
Tyro-Phoenician woman ; and a coin of Laodicea, 
in Phoenicia, of the age of Antiochus Epiphanes, 
has the inscription, " Laodicea, mother of Canaan." 
St. Augustin, an African by birth, the Bishop of 
Hippo Regius, a little to the west of Carthage, 
who flourished in the fourth and fifth centuries 
after Christ, says, Ep. ad Rom. : 

" Interrogate rustic! nostri quid sint Punice respon- 
dentes Chanani corrupta? Scilicet voce sicut in talibus 
solet quod aliud respondent quam Chananaei." Quoted 
Kenrick's Phoenicia, p. 42., and Palestine, VUnivers Pit- 
tor esque, p. 81. 

The Carthaginians were called by Virgil " Tyrios 
Bilingues," from their being obliged, in addition 
to the Punic, to make use of another language, 
supposed by Prichard to be of the African abo- 
rigines, Berbers, whose tongue, different from the 
Hebrew, has still relations to it; and the people 
themselves belong to the Himyaritic, a more 
southern Arabian race, along with the Abyssinians, 



O 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



to whose old Gyz tongues the Berber language 
approaches more nearly. I should have expected 
the African peasantry to have retained rather 
their old tongue, the Berber, than the Punic ; but 
in the time of Leo Africanus, the sixteenth cen- 
tury, all the cities on the African coast spoke 
Arabic, and the use of this language has since ex- 
tended in the north of Africa. I say nothing of 
the inscription on the columns at the pillars of 
Hercules, mentioned by the Greek historian of the 
Vandal war, Procopius, and doubted by Gibbon, 
as its authenticity is not believed.* The Hebrew, 
or a dialect of it, is said to have been the lan- 
guage of the Jews, Phoenicians, and Philistines, 
and the Punic scene in Plautus's comedy is trans- 
lated or explained by Hebrew, as is a Carthaginian 
inscription of prices of victims for sacrifice, on a 
tablet found in 1845 at Marseilles, near the site of 
the Temple of Diana of Ephesus, the tutelar deity 
of the ancient Massilia ; and there are other in- 
scriptions at Athens, and in the Mediterranean 
Islands, all of which lead to the same conclusion, 
the identity of the Phoenician and Hebrew lan- 
guages. Had Hannibal (whose name contains the 
Canaanite Baal) prevailed over the Romans, the 
world might have been Canaanite, as it might 
afterwards have been Arabian, had not Charles 
Martel vanquished the Moors at the great battle 
contested so long and so obstinately between the 
Christian Franks and the Mahometan Moors, 
fought in A.D. 732, in the plains between Tours 
and Poictiers, in the south of France. This pecu- 
liarity is remarked, that the Canaanites descended 
of Ham spoke a language of the people descended 
of the elder brother Shem, the ancestor of the 
Asiatic nations. The Jews springing from the 
Chaldini or Chaldeans derive their origin from a 
Shemite source ; while the Philistines, in the south 
of Phoenicia, are said to be from Crete, or from 
the north of Arabia, and to be descended also 
from Ham, but differing from the northern Phoe- 
nicians, who along with the Jews and Egyptians 
practised circumcision, in not using that rite. 

I would wish to find the Celts in Asia. Pri- 
chard has published a volume supplementary to his 
great work of Researches into the Physical History 
of Mankind, to trace their Eastern Origin by com- 
parison of the Celtic Dialects with the Sanscrit, 
Greek, Latin, and Teutonic Languages ; but I do 
not know of any historical evidence, or of any 

* The inscription is, " We are those who fled from the 
face of the robber Joshua, the son of Nun." (Phoenicia, 
p. 67.) M. Munk, in Palestine, p. 81., remarks in a note, 
that the expression of the original Greek Englished from 
the face is Hebrew, but not Greek, and thence inferred 
that Procopius, a Pagan, did not forge the inscription, but 
in his narration translated a Phoenician expression. The 
existence of this fabulous tradition may also show a belief 
in the identity of the Phoenicians and Canaanites to have 
been entertained when Procopius wrote in the sixth cen- 
tury. 



archaeological antiquities out of Europe, that can 
be said to be exclusively Celtic. There are circles 
of stones in India, and other remains in Asia. De 
Saulay mentions a heap of stones at Hebron, and 
another monument at a place near the north end 
of the Dead Sea, both which appeared to re- 
semble Celtic remains, but he gives no drawing of 
either, and does not speak certainly. (Voyage 
autour de la Mer Morte, torn. ii. pp. 92. 168.) 
The European circles and underground buildings 
are not established to belong exclusively to the 
Celts, but are seen in the mist of a remote an- 
tiquity. Amedee Thierry, in his History of the 
Gauls from the earliest Period till their ultimate and 
entire Subjugation by the Romans, A.D. 79, during 
the Reign of the Emperor Vespasian, assigned 
them previous to their final subjection a seat and 
nation in Gaul of 1700 years, which would place 
them in their European residence at a date about 
600 years only from the confusion of languages at 
the building of the Tower of Babel, 2247 years 
before Christ according to received chronology. 
I am aware that Mr. Kenrick, in which he is fol- 
lowed by Prichard, objects to the chronology of 
the early ages, as not allowing sufficient time for 
the origin and development of races and nations. 
The Irish Celts I have understood to be Gallic of 
the earliest wave of the race, perhaps the most 
ancient Celts of the British Empire, and their an- 
tiquity may reasonably be supposed to be akin to 
that of the Gallic Celts in Gaul. Their connection 
with the Phoenicians or Berbers, or I may add, the 
Euskaldunes, the Basques, is not so readily to be 
conjectured or entertained. W. H. F. 

Kirkwall. 



NOTES ON REGIMENTS. 

(2 nd S. i. 516.) 

I am induced to make a few remarks on the 
article in your pages entitled " Notes on Regi- 
ments," in order that certain inaccuracies and 
misstatements therein mentioned may not pass 
uncontradicted. 

In those Notes the 80th regiment are called the 
" Connaught Rangers." The 80th are the " Staf- 
fordshire Volunteers." Any Army List would 
show that the above appellation applies alone to 
the gallant 88th, on whom it was conferred when 
they were first raised in that part of Ireland in 
1795, by Lord Clanricarde. 

The 56th are called Pompadours, not from 
their present (purple) facings, but from the fol- 
lowing circumstance, as related' to me by an old 
officer of the regiment nearly thirty years ago. 
In 1756, when this regiment was first raised, its 
facings were a crimson or puce colour, called ia 
those days "Pompadour," from the celebrated lady 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. No 29., JULY 19. '56. 



who patronised it ; and hence the name as applied 
to the regiment whose facings it formed. 

I may incidentally mention that on visiting a 
cotton mill near Oldham in Lancashire, in 1827, 
I was surprised to find the word " Pompadour " 
on a crimson cotton print, and on seeking ^for an 
explanation, I was told it was applied to that par- 
ticular shade of crimson. 

Like the gosling green facings as formerly worn 
by the 66th regiment, it was found too delicate a 
colour for such a purpose, and too apt to fade and 
change by exposure to the sun, and consequently 
was ordered to be done away with. The then 
colonel of the regiment wished it to be made 
royal, and substitute blue for the facings ; but 
not being able to effect this, he resorted to purple 
as the nearest approach to blue. 

The 4th regiment have no such motto as " Quis 
separabit." The 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards 
have it, in conjunction with the badge of the 
Order of St. Patrick, of which it is the motto. 
It was given as a national distinction to this, as 
also to two other Irish regiments, the 86th county 
Down, and 88th Connaught Rangers. 

For the same reason (that of national distinc- 
tion) the badge of the Order of the Thistle, and 
its accompanying motto, "Nemo me impune la- 
cessit," has been permitted to be worn by the fol- 
lowing Scotch regiments : the Scots Greys, the 
21st North British Fusileers, and 42nd Royal 
Highlanders. 

The 42nd Royal Highlanders were originally 
formed from six independent companies of High- 
landers that, had been raised in 1730 for the pro- 
tection of Edinburgh, and for police and other 
local purposes, and from being dressed in black, 
blue, and green tartans, presented a very sombre 
appearance, which procured for them the name of 
" Freicudan Dhu," or Black Watch. These inde- 
pendent companies were, in 1739, amalgamated 
into a regular regiment, unde'r the title of the 
Highland Regiment, and in 1751 was numbered 
as the 42nd. 

Should this communication meet with approval, 
I shall have great pleasure in again reverting to 
the subject. MILES. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Photographic Exhibition at Brussels. We last week 
received a letter from our excellent contemporary, the 
Editor of La Lumiere, to which, from circumstances, we 
were unavoidably prevented calling attention in last 
Saturday's " N. & Q." The purport of M. LACAN'S com- 
munication was to announce that, at the public Ex- 
hibition at Brussels, which is about to take place under 
the superintendence and management of the Association 
for the Encouragement of fche Industrial Arts in Belgium, 
Photography will be one of the leading features. The 
French photographers will contribute largely; and as 
the Exhibition will not be considered complete unless 
the English Photographers are fairly represented, it is 



hoped that they will entrust specimens of their produc- 
tions to the manager of the present Exhibition. Com- 
munications on the subject are to be addressed to M. E. 
Romberg, 58. Rue Roy ale a Bruxelles ; and Photographs, 
Photographic Instruments, &c., (which will be received 
until the 1st of August,) are to be sent to M. le President 
de I' Association pour I' Encouragement des Arts industriels 
en Belgique, a I 'Entrepot de Bruxelles. Though the notice 
is short, we hope our photographic friends will avail 
themselves of this opportunity of showing the Belgian 
Photographers what England can produce in this new, 
but most important, branch of Art. 



tfl 

The Hoe (2 nd S. i. 471 .) MR. JOHN BOASE, 
Penzance, says, " This is a Note, not a Query." 
But he, at the same time, re-makes it a Query by 
writing "Elbe Hohe," " Alster Hohe." We write 
Hohe, or Hoehe, which is then pronounced as a 
diphthong, the h aspirated. The origin of Hoe 
may be German (Saxon), but it is one of those 
words which have suffered many metamorphoses 
in sound during the lapse of time. DR. J. L. 

15. Gower Street. 

Holly, the only indigenous English Evergreen 
(2 nd S. i. 399. 443. 502.) I have only been able 
to see the Gentleman s Magazine for 1787, though 
I have applied at two libraries to which I sub- 
scribe. 

Hooker and Arnott (British Flora, edit. 1850, 
pp. 369. 408.) omit the asterisk (*) with which, 
at p. xii., they explain that they have branded 
"the many" plants "that have been or are daily 
becoming naturalised among us." 

The editor of the Gardeners' Chronicle (Dr. 
Lindley), G. C. 1856, p. 440. c., writes, "The yew 
is certainly indigenous ; and we never heard the 
box -tree suspected of being a foreigner." 

Selby (British Forest Trees, 1842, p. 363.) 
writes, " The yew is indigenous to Britain." I 
maintain, therefore, that ALGERNON HOLT WHITE 
was wrong " in calling the holly our only indigen- 
ous evergreen, to the exclusion especially of the 
yew and box;" and there are with me, on the 
trial of this issue, Hooker, Arnott, Lindley, and 
Selby. GEO. E. FRERE. 

Royden Hall, Diss. 

Will MR. WHITE consider the opinions of Ge- 
rard, Parkinson, Phillips, London, and Withering 
as of some value in deciding the question, whether 
the yew-tree and box are indigenous evergreens? 
Phillips, in his Sylvia Florifera, remarks, " The 
box was formerly much more plentiful in England 
than now, and gave names to several places, such 
as Boxhill and Boxley, &c." Evelyn also speaks 
of it as growing wild, and forming " rare natural 
bowers." The other authorities speak with the 
same certainty, with the exception of Loudon, 
who throws a doubt over box being indigenous, be- 



2nd s. N 29., JULY 19. '56. J 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



57 



cause it is not often found wild at the present day ; 
but there is no doubt with any of these writers 
respecting the yew, which grows wild in lanes in 
Staffordshire, in many of the dales in Derbyshire, 
being particularly luxuriant in Dovedale, in many 
parts of Wales, on the hills round Windermere, 
on rocks in Borrowdale, and indeed generally 
throughout the English Lake district. I do not 
take authority for this, having had the satisfaction 
of seeing it in the places mentioned. H. J. 

Wands worth. 

Hobson's Choice (2 nd S. i. 472.) The usual 
explanation of this saying held good in Steele's 
time, for he gives it in No. 509. of the Spectator, 
thus prefaced : 

" I shall conclude this discourse with an explanation 
of a proverb, which by vulgar error is taken and used 
when a man is reduced* to an" extremity, whereas the pro- 
priety of the maxim is to use it when you would say there 
is plenty, but you must make such a choice as not to hurt 
another who is to come after you." 

In the same paper it is said : 

" This memorable man stands drawn in fresco at an Inn 
(which he used) in Bishopsgate Street, with an hundred- 
pound bag under his arm, with this inscription upon the 
said bag : 

' The fruitful mother of a hundred more.' " 

What inn is here referred to, and is the portrait 
still in existence ? 

The inscription reminds me of a Hampshire 
farmer's definition of a clever man : 

" I calls he a clever chap as can rub one fi-pun note 
agen another and make another on un." 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

" Magdalen College, Oxford (2 nd S. i. 334,) 
The " trusty and well-beloved " John Huddleston, 
the first person mentioned in King James's war- 
rant to the president, to be admitted a demy of 
the said college, was probably the Roman Catholic 
priest who administered the sacrament to King 
Charles II. on his death-bed. W. H. W. T. 

Somerset House. 

Horsetalk (2 nd S. i. 335.) In Italy and the 
South of France, a driver cries " ee " to his horse, 
when he wants him to go on. This is doubtless 
**i," the imperative of eo, pronounced in the con- 
tinental fashion ; and has probably descended un- 
changed from the time of Romulus. STTLITES. 

Song by Old Doctor Wilde " Hallow my 
Fancie (2 nd S. i. 511.) S. S. S. inquires whe- 
ther there is, "in reality, such an old song" as 
that quoted by the author of " Bond and Free," 
in a late number of Household Words ? There is 
such a song, and it may be found in a very com- 
mon source of information, Chambers's Cyclopedia 
of English Literature, vol. i. p. 395., where the 
editor states it to be taken " from a collection of 



poems entitled Her Boreale, by R. Wild, D.D., 
1668." S. S. S. will find this song of Dr. Wild's 
preceded by " Hallo my Fancy," which Mr. 
Chambers assigns to that prolific author Mr. 
"Anonymous." CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

Felo-de-se > (2 nd S. i. 313.) Queen Elizabeth, 
by a charter in the forty-first year of her reign, 
granted (inter alia) to the corporation of the 
borough of Andover, Hants (to whom the manor 
of Andover had belonged for centuries), the 
goods and chattels of felons, fugitives, and out- 
laws, and of persons put in exigent, and of felons 
of themselves, and goods, chattels, waived estrays, 
deodands, found or forfeited, arising within the 
manor or borough of Andover aforesaid. 

The rights have been exercised by the corpo- 
ration when occasions have occurred. 

W. H. W. T. 

Somerset House. 

Comic Song on the Income Tax (2 nd S. i. 472.) 
In looking over some songs amongst which I 
thought I had a copy of the one sought for by 
E. H. D. D., I found the following, which as it 
bears on the same subject he may perhaps like to 
possess a copy of. 

I need hardly say that the parody is on Moore's 
song " Those Evening Bells : " 

" That Income Tax ! that Income Tax, 
How every clause my poor brain racks, 
How dear was that sweet time to me, 
Ere first I heard of Schedule B. 

"Those untaxed joys are passed away, 
And many a heart that then was gay 
Is sleeping 'neath the turf in packs, 
And cares not for the Income Tax. 

"And so 'twill be when I am gone, 
That Candid ' Peel will still tax on, 
And other bards shall sadly ax 
* Why not repeal the Income Tax ? ' " 

R. W, HACKWOOD. 

Blood which will not wash out (2 nd S. i. 461.) 
Your valuable correspondent MR. PEACOCK says : 
" I have been informed that the blood of the 
priests who were martyred at the Convent of the 
Cannes at Paris during the French Revolution is 
yet visible on the pavement. This is a fact that 
some of your correspondents can no doubt verify." 
While at Paris, last October, I went to the Carmes, 
and there saw on the walls and floor of the chapel 
those spots of blood about which ME, PEACOCK 
speaks. They look quite fresh in places, and there 
are many of them. 

Though the chapel is private, and used only, I 
believe, by the inmates of that now educational 
establishment, sure am I that the abbe Cruice, 
who so ably presides over it, will, with his usual 
courtesy, allow any English traveller to see that 
oratory and its walls stained with the blood of 
more than eighty churchmen, whose_only imputed 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 29., JULY 19. '56. 



crime was their priesthood, and among whom, if I 
remember well, there was one bishop. D. ROCK. 
Newick, Uckfield. 

Sir Edward Coke (2 nd S. ii. 19.) The great 
lawyer's autograph will, I presume, be deemed a 
better authority for the correct mode of spelling 
his name than the " Epistle Dedicatorie " cited by 
your correspondent G. N. I have in my posses- 
sion a case for counsel's opinion referred to Sir 
Edward, who subscribes it thus : 

"I am of opinion the 
retorne is good. 

EDW. COKE." 

This surely is decisive on the question at issue. 

L. B. L. 

Martin the French Peasant- Prophet, fyc. (2 nd S. 
i. 490.) The most authentic and complete ac- 
count of the extraordinary mission of Thomas 
Martin to the French King Louis XVIII., is con- 
tained in a work, entitled Le Passe et L'Avenir, 
published at Paris in 1832, and containing a 
Declaration signed by Martin, that the events are 
faithfully related in this book, and that it contains 
the only correct account. In relating Martin's 
interview with the king, the following is the ac- 
count given of the point on which W. H. particu- 
larly requests information. Martin says : 

" Apres cela, je lui dis : Prenez garde de vous faire 
sacrer ; car si vous le tentiez, vous seriez frappe de mort 
dans la ceremonie du sacre." 

Upon this the editor makes the following note : 

" Toutes les personnes attachees alors a la cour, tant 
soit peu, au courant des choses peuvent attester comme 
un fait notoire que Ton avait deja fait, par ordre du roi, de 
grands preparatifs pour son sacre, avant son entrevue 
avec Martin, et qu'apres cette entrevue, le roi contre- 
manda tous ses (ces) preparatifs." 

This work not only gives the fullest details of 
the extraordinary mission of Martin ; but enters 
calmly into the proofs of its supernatural cha- 
racter; and afterwards devotes a chapter to an- 
swering objections against it. It was published in 
1832 ; and continues the history of Martin, and 
his subsequent revelations, to the year before the 
publication. One very curious prophecy con- 
tained in a note deserves attention at the present 
time. The note does not refer to Martin, but to 
certain predictions of several religious persons 
whose names are given, and who all 'agreed upon 
the two following points : 1st, That France was 
threatened with great calamities ; and 2ndly, the 
unexpected appearance of a great monarch who 
should restore order, and under whose reign Reli- 
gion and France shoidd again see days of pros- 
perity. I copy this from a work which I have 
had in my own possession since 1833. Certainly 
the present state of France verifies this prediction 
to the letter. F. C. H. 



Germination of Seeds long buried (2 nd S. ii. 10.) 

As one instance, where plants have been no- 
ticed to grow from seeds that had been long 
buried, I may mention, for the information of 
your correspondent E. M., Oxford, that some 
years ago I observed upon the slopes of a deep 
embankment of the Ulster Railway, near Lambeg, 
within a mile of the town of Lisburn, a large 
number of turnip plants that had sprung from 
seed that had long been buried in a bank of gravel, 
sand, and boulder stones, which had been removed 
to fill up a deep hollow in the ground, and which 
formed the embankment referred to. I was 
present when the navvies were removing the 
gravel bank, and next year I saw the plants grow- 
ing on the slopes of the embankment as described ; 
and again, on revisiting the place last year (1855), 
I still observed a number of turnip plants growing 
at the same place. The plants were of the true 
turnip, having large expanded leaves, covered on 
their upper surface with minute speculas. The 
roots were long and strong, but exhibited no ten- 
dency to enlarge into bulb, like the cultivated 
turnip. The turnip being a rare plant in that 
part of the country at that time, its appearance 
under the circumstances was regarded by the 
work-people as a remarkable phenomenon. 

HENRY STEPHENS. 

Morgan O'Doherty (1 st S. x. 96.) Since^none 
of your correspondents have fixed the identity of 
Morgan O'Doherty, I presume I may still say, as 
I said before, that it was Captain Hamilton. No 
doubt he received assistance from Maginn and 
others, as mentioned by R. P. (1 st S. x. 150.), but 
that he was the originator of the character there 
can be no doubt, and he must have been its con- 
tinuator also, since he lived years after the with- 
drawal of Morgan's name from the pages of Maga. 
North received assistance in his Nodes from Lock- 
hart and others, but it is a curious thing that 
Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, himself could never 
write a Noctes that was acceptable or was ac- 
cepted. S. 

Person referred to by Pascal (2 nd S.^i. 412. 500.) 

However ingenious the interpretation of C. H. 
S., I cannot help thinking but that Pascal had 
some definite person in his view when he brought 
forward the instance in question. His words in 
the original 

" Qui aurait eu 1'amitie' du Roi d'Angleterre, du Roi de 
Pologne, et de la Reine de Suede, aurait-il cm pouvoir 
manquer de retraite et d'asile au monde ? " 

may be well enough translated of some person who 
might have had the friendship of the three kingly 
powers, but to his disappointment found ^himself 
so far reduced as to be unable to obtain even 
common shelter. The circumstances of the con- 
temporary sovereigns mentioned were certainly 



2nd s. NO 29., JULY 19. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



disastrous, yet it is difficult to see what object 
Pascal could have had in illustrating his case in 
the enigmatical form alluded to. In my opinion 
the Edinburgh English translator of 1751 took 
the plain common sense view of the passage, and 
that we have yet the historical personage to dis- 
cover whom Pascal had in his eye. G. N. 

Poniatowski Gems (2 nd S. i. 471.; ii. 19.) 
The Explanatory Catalogue of the Proof -Impres- 
sions of the Antique Gems possessed by the late 
Prince Poniatowski, and afterwards in the possession 
of John Tyrrell, Esq., was published, in 4to., by 
Graves and Co., Pall Mall, in 1841. The volume 
is dedicated by Mr. Tyrrell to Prince Albert, and 
is "accompanied with Descriptions and Poetical 
Illustrations of the subjects, and preceded by an 
Essay on Ancient Gems and Gem Engraving, by 
James Prendeville, A.B., editor of Liny, Paradise 
Lost, &c." There is also Catalogue des Pierres 
Gravies Antiques de S. A. le Prince Stanislas Po- 
niatowski, privately printed by the Prince, at Flo- 
rence, in 4to., and upon this the English catalogue 
was founded. My copy of the French catalogue 
has no date. 

Further information may be obtained from a 
pamphlet entitled Remarks exposing the unworthy 
Motives and fallacious Opinions of the Writer of 
the Critiques on the Poniatowski Collection of Gems, 
contained in " The British and Foreign Review " 
and " The Spectator" published by Graves & Co., 
and Smith, Elder, & Co., 1842. S. W. Rix. 

Beccles. 

Posies on simple heavy Gold Rings (1 st S. xii. 
113., &c.) 

" God did decree, this unitie." 

Where hearts agree, there God will be." 

" I have obtained, whom God ordained." 

Copied from originals. S. R. P. 

Sleep the Friend of Woe (2 nd S. ii. 11.). The 
lines which ERICA asks for are from Southey's 
Curse of Kehama, canto xv., the city of Baly, 
stanza 11. It begins, 

" Be of good heart, and let thy sleep be sweet." 
Laduvlad said, 

"Alas! that cannot be," &c. &c. 
And then comes 

" Thou hast been called, Sleep, the friend of woe ; 
But 'tis the happy who have called thee so." 

J. C. J. 

Medal of Charles I. (2 nd S. ii. 28.) There are 
several medals of various sizes which have the 
head of Charles I. on one side, and that of his 
queen on the other. They were all probably 



We are also indebted to MR. DE LA PRYME and 



C* We are also indebted to MR. DE 
other correspondents for similar replies.] 



worn as badges of loyalty by his friends and par- 
tisans, but I am not aware of any one of the va- 
rieties said to have been made out of the plate 
melted up for the king's service. It is probable 
that none were made of such materials, as melted 
plate would be applied to money of necessity, not 
to medals of comparative luxury. Rings, or 
rather holes, are at the sides and ends of many of 
these medals, from whence to suspend small orna- 
ments. It would not be convenient to sew upon 
a coat or hat a medal having a device on both 
sides ; these medals were suspended from a ribbon 
or chain. I have one with the silver chain still 
attached to it. EDW. HAWKINS. 

Major- General (?) Thomas Stanwix (2 nd S. i. 
511.) This officer died March 14, 1725, Colonel 
of the present 12th regiment of infantry. He 
never attained the rank of major-general, and was 
appointed colonel of the 12th regiment, August 25, 
1717, about the time of the royal visit to Cam- 
bridge. He was appointed colonel of the 30th 
regiment, previously Willis's Marines, July 17, 
1737, but was transferred to the 12th regiment in 
the following month, as above stated. G. L. S. 

Conservative Club. 

" Tantum Ergo" the Eucharistic Hymn (2 nd S. 
ii. 13.) Will you kindly allow me to give a 
somewhat fuller answer to your correspondent 
EIN FRAGER than you have done ? " Tantum 
ergo " is not a psalm at all, and could riot have 
been chanted as such at Rathmines. It is a hymn 
of the Holy Roman Church, and is appointed to be 
sung after the mass on Maundy Thursday, and is 
ordinarily used at Benediction of the Most Holy 
Sacrament, and also in Processions of the Most 
Holy. As I think accuracy most important in all 
matters of this nature, I trust you will give in- 
sertion to this communication. CATHOLICUS. 

Kennington, near Oxford. 

Bottles filled, &c. (2 nd S. i. 493.) I. have 
several times seen this experiment tried, and, if 
my memory serve me right, invariably with the 
same results. 

The bottle being tightly corked, a strong piece 
of sail-cloth was placed as a cap over the cork, 
and this was firmly secured by a lashing round 
the neck. I do not remember the depth to which 
it was sunk, but on being drawn up the bottle was 
always filled, and still corked ; the cork, however, 
was reversed, the small end being uppermost. 

A. C. M. 

Exeter. 

Leverets with a White Star (1 st S. xi. 41. 111.) 
I have always understood that the white star 
in the forehead indicated the male sex, the buck 
of the leveret, and that it disappears in the course 
of the first year. HENRY STEPHENS. 



60 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



|_2nd g. N 29., JULY 19. '56. 



Passports (2 nd S. ii. 29.) Your correspondent 
SCOTUS'S inquiry relating to passports induces me 
to forward to you fhe copy of a passport for 
Doctor Pates, when sent ambassador to the 
Emperor from Henry VIII. in 1540. 

It is preserved in the Cottonian Manuscript, 
Calig. B. x. fol. 108. b., and is entirely in the hand- 
writing of Lord Cromwell himself: 

" After mv right herty comraendacons Thise shalbe 
tadvertise you that whereas the Kings Ma tie hath ap- 
poincted his Trusty conseiller Mr. Doctor Pates archedea- 
con of Lincoln to be his Grac's ambassader resident with 
Themperur, His Higlmes sending him over for that pur- 
pose with diligence so that he shall leave a grete part of 
his trahyn behynd. hath willed me to signifie vnto you 
his graciouse pleasur and comaundement that ye shal 
permitte and suffre the said Doctor Pates to departe oute 
of this his Grac's Realm, towne and Marches of Calais, 
and to passe in the parties of beyond the see with his ser- 
vaunts money baggs baggages utensils and necessaries at 
his liberte wlthoute any maner your let, serche, trouble, 
or interruption to the contrary e. And further that ye 
shal see him with all diligence and celerite furnished with 
convenient passage and all other necessaries accordingly. 
Thus (Fare ye right hertely well. From London this ix th 
of Aprill the xxxj tu yere of his Graces most noble Regne. 
" Your louyng ffreend, 

" THOMS CRUMWELL,." 
H. E. 

" The cow and the snuffers" (2 nd S. ii. 20.) 
The song in which allusion is made to this sign, 
was introduced in the farce of The Irishman in 
London, or the Happy African. The farce was an 
adaptation of an old piece, by the present Mr. 
Macready's father. It was first produced for 
Jack Johnstone's benefit at Covent Garden, on 
April 21, 1792 ; the elder Macready playing Col- 
loony, and Johnstone Murtoch Delany. Macready 
was a great hand at changing old pieces into new. 
As he made this mutation of the Intriguing Foot- 
man into the Irishman in London, so again, to serve 
Johnstone, in May 1795, he adapted Taverner's 
Artful Husband, and made of it a poor comedy 
called The Bank Note. The adapter played Selby, 
and Johnstone Killeavy. J. DORAN. 



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ta 

We are compelled to postpone until next week many articles of great 
interest, amongst which we may mention some Inedited Papers respecting 
the Earl of Essex, and also our usual NOTES ON BOOKS. 

_ PAPER MARK. In the article thus headed in our Jast Wo. p. 37. col. i., 
is a most curious and annoying misprint, by w^ich the word " not ". is 
substituted for " most," an ' CHARTFHYLAX is represented as having 
" not " correctly fixed the date of this paper mark ; whereas X wrote that 
he had done so " most " correctly. 

A. A. D. who asks respecting the origin of the air of God Save the 
King is informed that in the first edition of Mr. Chappett's valuable Col- 
lection ot National Airs, pp. 83., fyc., and 193. he ascribes the words and 
music without hesitation to Henry Carey, and we have no reason to be- 
lieve that >ub*equent researches have induced him to change his views of 
their authorship. 

QUEEN ELIZABPTH'S LETTER TO EDMUND PLOWDFN. The Query on 
this subject forwarded byF.J. B. has already appeared. See 2nd S. i. 12. 

PHOEBE ARDEN. What is the object of this communication Are the 
MSS. referred to for sale? 

M. The inscription on the Venetian coin (2nd S. i. 513.) is not correctly 
given. It should read " Dio Premtera La Costanza," God will reward 
the Constant. 

J. H. M. A copy of the alphabet in the old black letter, of different 
sizes, may be obtained from the spec ; men book'' issued by the various <ype- 
founders, and which may be found in the counting-houses of any respect- 
able printer. 

J. L. P. Newspapers of a milch older date than those possessed by our 
correspotident may be had in the metropolis for a very trifling sum. 

R. W. The subject of " Beech- trees struck wi'h lightning''' has been 
discussed in our 1st S. vi. 129. 231. ; vii. 25. ; x. 513. 

C. W. B. The celebrated Letter to a Dissenter, noticed in the second 
vol. ofMacaulay's History is reprinted in Somers's Tracts, by Scott, vol. 
ix. p. 51., w'>ere it makes seven closely printed quarto pages, which, we 



fear, would be too long a document for our 
ten by George Savile, Marquis of Halifax. 



J. O. Prison Amusements, by Paul Positive, 1797, is by James Mont- 
gomery, and is noticed by his biographers in his Memoirs, vol. i. p. 283. 

ERRATUM. 2nd S. i. 491. col. 1. 1. 43.,/or " Palmer " read " Martin." 

THE INDEX TO FIRST VOLUME OF SECOND SERIES, which we publish 
t/ii* liin/, has in compliance ivith the wishes of several subscribers been 
printed in the same type as the GENERAL INDEX TO THK TWELVE VOLUMES. 

INDEX TO THE FIRST SERIES. As this is now published, and the im- 
pression is a limited one, such of our readers as desire copies would do 
well to intimate their wish to their respective booksellers without delay. 
Our publishers, MESSRS. BELL & DALDY, will forward copies by post on 
receipt of a Post Office Order for Five Shillings. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. W Idle parties 
ri-siilcnt in the country or abroad, who may be desirous of receiving the 
7'vi /,/// Numbers, may have stamped copies forwarded direct from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES " (including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post Office Order, drawn w 
favour of the Publisher, MB. GEORGE BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



. N 30., JULY 26. 5ft] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 2G, 1850. 



PRAYERS OFFERED UP IN CITY CHURCHES FOR 
THE EARL OP ESSEX IN 1599. 

The affectionate interest felt by the people of 
London in the welfare of Robert, Earl of Essex, 
was exhibited in several ways which were not at 
all agreeable to Queen Elizabeth. Amongst them 
it is known that, on the occasion of his serious 
illness in December 1599, he was prayed for in 
several of the city churches, and that a concourse 
of ministers watched round what was believed to 
be his dying bed. It has not been noticed, that 
those ministers were called before the council to 
answer for their conduct on this occasion, nor has 
it been explained in what way their public prayers 
were introduced into the service of the church. 
The first and second of the following papers 
(which have been kindly placed in our hands 
for publication by the gentleman to whom they 
belong) give information upon these subjects. 
They contain the explanations given by three of 
these ministers to the council. They were all the 
earl's chaplains. Two of them contented them- 
selves with praying simply for the earl in his con- 
dition of a sick man ; the third added a prayer for 
his restoration to the favour of his sovereign. 
The two former probably escaped censure ; of the 
last it is shortly recorded, "HE is COMMITTED." 
Facts like these tend to explain, on the one hand, 
how Essex was led to commit the wretched folly 
which conducted him to the scaffold ; and, on the 
other, how the government of Elizabeth came to 
the conclusion that nothing but his blood could 
satisfactorily atone for his wild and singular es- 
capade. 

The third paper relates to the same earl, but to 
an earlier period of his stormy career. It is 
chiefly remarkable as exhibiting the odd position 
in which he was placed by the queen's thriftiness 
and the shrewdness of the auditors of the United 
Provinces. Between them, the earl seems to have 
run considerable risk of losing his allowance as 
general of the queen's forces in the Low Coun- 
tries. 

I. 

30 Decemb., 1599. 

The forme of prayer conceived by George Downe- 
man, in the behalfe of the Earle of Essex, being 
visited w th sicknes, whose chaplen although the 
said party be, yet he hath refrayned to mention 
him in his prayer untill about a fourtnight since 
he understoode that he was daungerously sicke, 
and then, w th out mentioning either of his other 
troubles or his cause, or w th out having or being 
at any extraordinary assembly, he prayed thus, 
having in generall commended the destressed 
estate of the afflicted : 



" And more specially we commende unto [thee] 
the destressed estate of the Earle of Essex, whom 
it hath pleased thee to visit w th sicknesse, beseach- 
ing thee to looke downe upon him in pity and 
compassion, and in thy good time to release him 
from his greefe eyther by restoring him to his 
health (vv ch mercy we doe crave at thy handes, if 

it may stande w th thy glory and his good ),* 

or otherwese by receiving him to thy mercy, and 
in the meane season we beseech thee to support 
and strengthen him by the comfortable assistance 
of thy gracious Spirit, that he may meekely and 
thankfully beare thy holy hande, and by the same 
Spirit worke in him, we pray thee, thyne owne 
good worke of grace and sanctification, that when- 
soever he shalbe translated out of this life, he may 
be received into thyne everlasting tabernacles and 
crowned w th immortality." 
By me, George Downeman, 1 

parson of St. Margarets j- Decemb. 30, 1599. 

in Lothbury. j 

The Vicar of St. Brides, after his prayer for 
y e Q. Ma tie , giving her her stile, and for y e no- 
belity, remembers allso his honourable Lord y e 
Erie of Essex, praying for his good health, for y* 
he was his chaplen this 3 or 4 yeres past : and 
otherwise during this restraint hath not inter- 
medled w th any other publique prayers or assem- 
blies in any church for him. 

[Signed, in the same hand as the above.] 

Henry Holland, Vicar of St. Brides. 
[Endorsed] 

30 Deceml/, 1599. 

The answers of M r Downham, parson of S* 
Margarets, Lothberye ; and M r Holland, Vicar of 
S fc Brids, towching theyr prayers for the Earle of 
Essex. 

II. 

Ult' Decemb r , 1599. 

I, David Robertes, Bacheler of Dyvinitie, in my 
praier for the churche, her Majestie, and the 
state, used allso theise or the like wordes in 
effecte for the Earle of Essex my ho. good 
Lorde and master, upon Christmas ctaye laste f , 
in my pishe churche of Sainct Androes in the 
Wardrobe, London : 

" And as my particuler duetie more speciallie 
bindethe me, I humblie beseeche thee, deere 
ffather, to looke mercifullie w th thy gracious fa- 
voure uppon that noble BARAKE thy seryaunte 
the Earle of Essex, strengtheninge him in the 
inwarde man againste all his enemies. O Lorde, 
make his bedde in this his sickenes that soe thy 
gracious corrections nowe uppon him maie be 
easie and comfortable unto him as thy fatherlie 

* The paragraph is not completed in the original, 
t The last four words substituted for others erased^ 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 30., JULY 2G. '56. 



Instruccons, and in thy good tyme restore him 
unto his former healthe and gracious favoure of 
his and our most dreade Soveraigne, to thy glory, 
the good of this churche and kingedome, and the 
greeffe and discouragemente of all wicked EDOM- 
JTES that beare evill will to SIGN, and saie.to the 
walles of JERUSALEM, * There, there, downe with 
it ; downe with it to the grounde.' " 

(Signed) DAVID ROBERTES. 

[In another hand] 
He is comitted. 

[Endorsed] 

29.Decemb., 1599. 

Mr. Roberts, parson of St. Andrewes Wardrope, 
his prayers in his sermons for y e Earle of Essex. 

III. 

The Erie had authoritye by commission, undre 
y e great seale of Englande, to dispose of y e trea- 
sour secundum sanam discretionem suam. 

His discretion was for his own enterteignment 
of generall of her Ma tics forces, to take y e same 
allowaunce that y e Erie of Pembroke, Generall of 
Q. Maryes forces at St. Quinctynes had : viz. for 
him selfe and sondry officers, about 10 l 14 s by 
daye, that Erie being of no greater qualitye than 
he, nor his army of more numbers ; and y* by 
advise of M r Secretary Walsingham, who gave 
him a draught of y Erie of Pembrokes allowaunce 
for president. 

According to this president and rate he was 
allwayes paide ; the Q. Treasouro r , Musterm 1 and 
Audito 1 ' of y e campe never fynding fault whylcs 
he lyved. 

The Q. Ma tie , after 5 or G monethes (as I take 
it) of his being there, being desirous to be en- 
formed of y e estate of her expences, was accord- 
ingly advertised by her officers, and amongest the 
rest, of this allowance and rate, and there was not 
then any fault fownde w th it. 

Mr. Huddlestone, her Ma tks Treasouro', after 
the leaving of his office and before his deathe, 
joyning w th M r Audito 1 ' Hut, Audito r of y e campe, 
did make up w tu y e Erles officers a perfect reacon- 
ing and accompt for all Lowe Country matters of 
accompt betwene them, and therein did passe this 
allowance and rate w th out contradiction. 

The same M r Huddlestone passed his accompt 
of Treasouro r w th Audito rs appointed by y e Court 
of Excheaq 01 ' of Englande, and therein passed this 
allowance and rate w th out scruple and w th their 
allowaunce, and not as a matter of petition but 
authenticall. 

S r Tho. Sherley succeading M r Huddlestone in 
y e office of her Ma tics Treasouro 1 ", payde allwayes 
according to this rate and none other w th out any 
doubt made thereof, and at the last retourn of y e 
Erie to y e Lowe Countryes finished his accompt 
w th t}ie Erles officers accordingly. 



The estates of y c Lowe Countryes, being to re- 
paye her Ma ties expenses to her Ma tic , desired an 
accompt of y e whole after one year. Mr. Huddle- 
ston, then Treasouro 1 " to her Ma tic , by order from 
Englande, gave them an accompt of y e whole, and 
therein namely of this allowance and rate. They, 
in their censures and apostelies upon y* accompt, 
mislyking many other pointes, allow this by 
speciall wordes, and do make allowance of it to 
her Ma tie , so her Ma tie loseth nothing by it. 

The same Estates allowing to the Erie for his 
enterteignment of Gouverno 1 Generall (not of her 
Ma tics forces, but) of their Countryes, 10000 1 by 
yeare, saving so mutche to be cut of as her Ma tie 
alloweth him for his office of Generall of her 
forces : when they came to accompt w th y e Erie, 
did cut him of 10 1 14 s by daye after this rate, be- 
cause they sawe her Ma tie had allowed him so 
muche. N owe yf her Ma tie revoke this allowaunce 
from y e Erie and have taken according to it of y e 
Estates, her Ma tic for y* parte nowe to be des- 
allowed, shalbe double gayner, and y e Erie shall 
lose it utterly ; whereas her Ma tie disallowing it 
at y e firste, he mought have had it of y e Estates, 
w ch nowe, y e accompt beinge passed, he can not. 
[Endorsed] 

Concerning the Earl of Essex, temp. Qu. Eliz, 



THOMAS GARNE*, KING "DESIGNATE" OF BU- 
CHARIA. 

In Blacliwood 's Magazine for the present month 
(May), the writer of an article entitled " The Scot 
Abroad," quotes Sir Thomas Urquhart for the re- 
markable fact that a gigantic Scottish colonel, by 
name Thomas Game, in the service of the Mus- 
covites about the middle of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, had been formally invited to occupy the 
throne of Bucharia. The circumstance of itself 
is sufficiently singular; but the whole story be- 
comes doubly curious and interesting when 
coupled with the old Cromartie Baronet's de- 
scription of the physical and mental endowments 
of this model man of war, and I make no apology 
for presenting it to your readers in extenso. In 
enumerating the principal officers in General 
Leslie's Scottish legion in the Russian service, 
there was, Sir Thomas tells us : 

"Colonel Thomas Game, who for the height and 
grosseness of his person, being in his stature taller, and 
greater in his compass of body, then any within six 
kingdomes about him, was elected King of Bucharia, the 



* This name furnishes another example of the " uncer- 
tainty of spelling names ; " it is evidently the modern 
Garden, and older Gardyne, colloquially Game, Gairn, 
&c. In Burke's Landed Gentry, allusion is made to 
" Colonel Gardyne of the Russian service," who was, un- 
doubtedly, the hero of Sir Thomas's eulogy, and the ob- 
ject of the Buchariaus' affection. 



2 d S. N 30., JIILY26. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



inhabitants of that country being more inclined to tender 
their obedience to a man of a burly pitch like him, whose 
magnitude being every way proportionable in all its di- I 
mansions, and 'consisting rather in bones than flesh, was 
no load to the minde, nor hindrance to the activity ot his ( 
bodv, then to a lower sized man, because they would } 
shun equality, as near as they could, with him of whom j 
they should make choice to be their sovreign; they es- 
teeming nothing more disgraceful, nor of greater dispa- 
rafument to the reputation of that state, than that their 
king should through disadvantage of stature be looked 
down upon by any whose affaires of concernment perhaps 
for the weal of the crown, might occasion a mutual con- 
ference face to face. He had ambassadors sent to him to 
receive the crown, sceptre, sword, and all the other royal 
cognizances belonging to the supreme majesty of that 
nation ; but I heard him say, that the only reason he re- 
fused their splendid offers, and would not undergo the 
charge of that regal dignity, was because he had no sto- 
mach to be circumcised: however, this uncircumsised 
Game, agname the Sclavonian, and upright Gentile, for 
that he loves good fellowship, and is of a very gentile 
conversation, served as a colonel together with the fore- 
named five, and other unmentioned colonels of the Scot- 
tish nation in that service, against the Crim Tartar, under 
t he command of both his and their compatriot, Sir Alex. 
Leslie*, generalissimo of all the forces of the whole Em- 
pire of Russia ; which charge, the wars against the Tar- 
tarian beginning afresh, he hath re-obtained, and is in 
the plenary enjoyment thereof, as I believe, at the same 
instant time, and that with such approbation for fidelity 
and valour that never any hath been more faithfull in 
the discharge of his duty, nor of a better conduct in 
the infinite dangers through Avhich he hath past." 
EK2KYBAAAYPON : or the Discovery of a most Exquisite 
Jewel, &c. 8fc., serving in this Place to frontal a Vindication 
of the Honour of Scotland, Sfc. 'c.* London : Cottrell, 
1652. Reprinted in The Works of Sir T. U., Maitland 
Club, 4to., Edin. 1834. 

J. O. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACAULAY. 

THE. CAVALIER'S COMPLAINT. 

To the Tune of " lie tell thee, Dick" frc. 

Come Jack, let's drink a pot of Ale 
And I shall tell thee such a Tale, 

Will make thine eares to ring : 
My Coyne is spent, my time is lost 
And I this only fruit can boast 

That once I saw my King. 

But this doth most afflict my mind ; 
I went to Court in hope to find, 

Some of my friends in place : 
And walking there I had a sight, 
Of all the Crew, but by this light 

I hardly knew one face. 

S' life of so many Noble Sparkes, 
Who on their Bodies beare the markes 
Of their Integrity : 



* This old general seems to have become a Muscovite : 
for we find him living at Smolensko in his ninety -ninth 
year. Present State of Russia, 167i. 



And suflred ruine of Estate, 
It was niy base unhappy Fate 
That 1 not one could see. 

Not one upon my life among 
My old acquaintance all along, 

At Truro and before : 
And I suppose the place can shew, 
As few of those whom thou didst know, 

At Yorke or Marston Moore. 

But truly there are swarmes of those, 
Whose Chins are beardlesse, yet their Hose 

And backsides still weare Muffes : . 
Whilst the old rusty Cavaliers 
Retires or dares not once appeare, 

For want of Coyn and Cuffes. 

When none of those I could descry, 
Who better farre deserv'd then I, 

I calmely did reflect : 
Old Servants by rule of State, 
Like Almanacks grow out of date, 

What then can I expect ? 

Troth in contempt of Fortunes frowne 
Tie get me fairely out of Towne, 

And in a Cloyster pray : 
That since the Starres are yet unkind 
To Royalists, the King may find 

More faithfull Friends then they. 

AN ECHO TO THE CAVALIER* S COMPLAINT. 

I marvaile Dick, that having beene 
So long abroad, and having scene 

The World as thou hast done : 
Thou shouldst acquaint me with a Tale 
As old as Nestor, and as stale, 

As that of Priest and Nunne. 

Are we to learne what is a Court ? 
A Pageant made for Fortunes sport, 1 

Where merits scarce appeare : 
For bashfull merits only dwels 
In Camps, in Villages, and Cols, 

Alas it comes not there. 

Desert is nice in its addresse, 
And merit oft times doth oppresse, 

Beyond what guilt would doe : 
But they are sure of their Demands,' 
That come to Court with Golden hands, 

And brazen faces too. 

The King indeed doth still professe, 
To give his Party soone Redresse, 

And cherish Honesty : 
But his good wishes prove in vaine 
Whose service with his Servants gaine 

Not alwayes doth agree. 

All Princes be they ne're so wise 
Are faine to see with other eyes, 



64 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2nd S. NO 30., JULY 26. 5 56. 



But seldome heare at all : 
And Courtiers find their Interest 
In time to feather well their Nest, 

Providing for their Fall. 

Our comfort doth on time depend, 
Things when they are at worst will meed. 

And let us but reflect 
On our condition t'other day, 
When none but Tyrants bore the sway, 

What did we then expect ? 

Meanwhile a calme retreat is best 
But discontent if not supprest, 

Will breed Disloyalty : 
This is the constant note Tie sing, 
I have been faithfull to the King 

And so shall live and dye. 

No. 2641. of the Collection of Proclamations, 
&c., presented to the Chetham Library, Man- 
chester, by James O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. 

BlBLIOTHECAB. CHETHAM, 



Prince of Orange (2 nd S. i. 370. ; ii. 6.) Be- 
fore writing my note on the De Witts, I had exa- 
mined the pamphlet to which P. II. refers. It is 
not the sentence of a real court, but a " pasquil " 
made up of the charges in circulation against the 
brothers, put in the form of a judgment. The 
attesting witnesses are, " De Borgery van de 7 
Provincien, en alle Liefhebbers en voorstanders 
van Gods Kerck en het lieve Vaterlandt." 

I do not think that any sentence was passed on 
John De Witt. II. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



DISSECTION. 

" To be dissected and anatomized." Sentenceoit Murderers. 

11 Poor brother Tom had an accident this time twelve- 
month, and so clever made a fellow he was, that I could 
not save him from those flaying rascals the surgeons, and 
now, poor man, he is among the 'otomies at Surgeons' 
Hall." Mat of the Mint, Beggar's Opera. 

I am rather at a loss to account for the change 
in the law which took place a few years ago, by 
which the murderer was relieved of that part of 
his sentence which devoted his body to dissection, 
for the improvement of science. I have been the 
more inclined to doubt the policy of this measure 
from the perusal of several of the older volumes of 
the Annual Register, from which it appears, in a 
great many instances, that nothing has been so 
terrible, or made the most hardened culprit shud- 
der, as the judge pronouncing this part of the 
sentence. Not to trespass too much on your co- 
lumns, I will only quote two cases. 

Lord Ferrers on April 18, 1760, had sen- 
tence passed upon him, by which he was to be 
hanged by the neck till he was dead, after which 



his body was to be delivered to Surgeons' Hall to 
be dissected and anatomized: at this part of the 
sentence his lordship cried out, " God forbid ! " 
{Annual Register, 1760, pp. 38. 93.) 

Dumas the highwayman declared that he valued 
not death, but only the thoughts of being anato- 
mized. He was the favourite of the ladies, and 
while in prison was frequently visited by them, 
which gave rise to the song, 

" Certain JBettes to Dumas. 

" Joy to thee, lovely thief! that thou 

Hast 'scap'd the fatal string ; 
Let gallows groan with ugly rogues, 
Dumas must never swing," &c. 

This was made upon one of his acquittals. (An- 
nual Register, 1761, pp. 51. 88.) 

I am not for showing leniency to murderers, and 
would ask why the former sentence should not be 
re-enacted ? A. 



EPITAPHS AT WINCHESTER. 

(1 st S. xii. 424.) 

I transmit the following epitaph for insertion 
in "N. & Q.," where I wonder that it has not 
hitherto appeared. I copied it from an inscription 
on a tombstone in the churchyard of Winchester 
Cathedral, and a military friend then quartered 
there informed me that a statement once appeared 
in Frasers Magazine to the eifect that the qua- 
train commencing " Here sleeps in peace," was 
written by Dr. Benjamin Hoadley, sometime 
Bishop of Winchester. Now, as Bishop Hoadley 
died April 17, 1761, it is plain that he could not 
have written an epitaph on a person who survived 
him more than three years. 

I have divided the lines exactly as they appear 
on the tombstone, and beg to direct your attention 
to the ambiguity of " when hot," which might 
apply to the " beer " or to its victim ; also to the 
disembodiment of the North Hants Militia in 
April, 1802, being assignable (owing to the ob- 
scure language) to the destruction of the " ori- 
ginal stone," and not to the peace of Amiens, 
which was ratified in March, 1802. The inference 
drawn by the poet that the grenadier was killed 
by the smallness of the beer, and not by its want 
of caloric, is as original as it is, doubtless, correct. 

" In memory of 
THOMAS THETCHER, 
a Grenadier in the North Regiment 
of Hants Militia, who died of a 
violent fever contracted by drinking 
small beer when hot the 12th of May, 

1764, aged 26 years. 

In grateful remembrance of whose universal 
good-will towards his Comrades this Stone 
is placed here at their expense as a small 
testimony of their regard and concern. 



2 nd S. N 30., JULY 26. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



Here sleeps in peace a Hampshire Grenadier, 
Who caught his death by drinking cold small beer. 
Soldiers, be wise from his untimely fall, 
And, when ye 're hot, drink strong, or none at all. 

This Memorial being decayed was restor'd 

by the Officers of the Garrison, A.D. 1781. 
An honest soldier never is forgot, 
Whether he die by musket or by pot. 

This Stone was placed by the North Hants 

Militia when disembodied at Winchester 

on 2Qth April, 1802, in consequence of 

the original Stone being destroyed" 

I also send a transcript of an epitaph in the 
aisle of the cathedral. It is engraved on a black- 
ened piece of copper, and is affixed to one of the 
pillars in the vicinity of Bishop Hoadley's tomb. 
The lines in this epitaph are divided, and the 
capital letters allotted exactly as in the original 
inscription, to the spelling of which I have care- 
fully adhered. 

"A MEMORIALL 

For the renowned Martialist Richard Boles of y e 
Right Worshypfull family of the Bolles, in 
Linckhorne Sheire : Colonell of a Ridgment of Foot 
of 1300. who for his Gratious King Charles y e First 
did Wounders at the Battell of Edge Hill, his last 
Action ; to omit all Others was att Alton in the 
County of Southampton, was surprised by five or 
Six Thousand of the Rebells, who caught him there 
Quartered to fly to the Church, with neare fourescore 
of his men who there fought them six or seven 
Houers, and then the Rebells breaking in upon them 
he Slew with his Sword six or seven of them and 
then was Slayne himselfe, with sixty of his men aboute 
him, 

1641. 

His Gratious Sovereign hearing of his death, gave 
him his high Comendation in y s pationate expression, 
Bring me a Moorning Scarffe, i have Lost 
one of the best Commanders in this Kingdome. 
Alton will tell you of that famous tight 
which y man made and bade the World good Night 
His verteous Life fear'd not mortality 
His body must his Vertues cannot Die. 
Because his Bloud was there so nobly spent, 
This is his Tomb, that Church his Monument. 

Ricardus Boles in Art. Mag. 

Composuit, Posuitque, Dolens. 
An. Dm. 1689." 

This Richard Boles is plainly identical with the 
"Ri. Boles, M r Art, 1689," mentioned in " N. & 
Q.," 2 nd S. i. 429., who died Rector of Whitnash 
Church, Warwickshire, subsequently to 1689, in 
which year he completed his eighty-fourth year. 

G. L. S. 

Conservative Club. 



" Blawn-sheres" - This singular specimen of 
orthography is given by Mr. Froude : 

" They found the Great Quadrant" (of New College, 
Oxford) full of the leaves of Duns (Scotus), the wind 



blowing them into every corner ; and one Mr. Greastfield, 
a gentleman of Bucks, gathering up part of the same 
book leaves, as he said, to make him sewers or blawn- 
sheres, to keep the deer within his wood, thereby to have 
the better cry of his hounds." From a Letter to Crom- 
well contained in "The Suppression of Monasteries" 
(p. 71.), Froude's History of England, vol. ii. p. 418. 

It should have been written Haunsh-eres; as the 
word is no other than the Uanchers, or blenchars, 
of Sidney and Elyot, " to keep off deer, to feare 
birds," quoted in Richardson's Dictionary, sub. 
vv., BLANCH and BLENCH. But what are sewers ? 

Q. 

Bloomsbury. 

Haddon Hall, #c. In Thoi'nbury's Shak- 
spectre's England occur the following errors. Id. 
the first volume, p. 73., he says : 

"Amongst other noble Tudor erections we may also 
mention, for the very names call up a thousand associa- 
tions, Haddon Hall, Derbyshire (in ruins). . . South 
Wingfield, Derbyshire, dilapidated." 

And at p. 81. : 

" The following are a few of the palatial houses finished 
before 1600. . . . Hardwicke, Derby, Countess of 
Shrewsbury's, in ruins." 

Haddon Hall is nearly unfurnished, but is not in 
ruins. It was built at different periods, which are 
traced back to the time of Stephen, if not to that 
of the Conqueror. Part of it, the long gallery, 
was added about the time of Elizabeth. South 
Wingfield Manor is a complete and very beautiful 
ruin. 

Hardwick Hall, which was built by " Bess of 
Hardwick," is in a perfectly habitable state, and 
contains a great number of pictures of celebrated 
members of the family. 

The old hall in which the countess was born is 
a complete ruin, very near to the present building. 

Sheffield. 

John Till AUingham, the dramatic writer, is 
allowed a niche in Mr. Charles Knight's Cyclo- 
pcedia of Biography now issuing. But the editor 
says he is unacquainted with the time and place 
of his death. Mr. Cromwell, in his Walks through 
Islington, says he died at his father's house, Cole- 
brooke Terrace, February 28, 1812; while The 
Examiner newspaper, and another periodical I 
have referred to, give the date as March 8, 1812. 
He was buried at Bunhill Fields. 

Many of these notices are founded on those in 
the Penny Cyclopaedia, the errors of omission and 
commission of which I hope will be rectified. 
Books of fact and reference never can be too 
exact, and I have found several errors of date and 
place therein. For instance, the date of Wolfe's 
birth is wrong; and Lord Wellesley died at 
Kingston House, Knightsbridge, not the Kingston 
House there stated. H. G. D. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2'<*S. N 50., JULY 2 6. 



Parish Registers. The necessity of having all 
the parish registers transcribed and printed is 
universally admitted,, and several communications 
have been made to you on the subject; but lat- 
terly the matter appears to have dropped. Many 
clergymen would doubtless assist all in their 
power, but I think it would be an undertaking 
too gigantic for private enterprise ; and from its 
national importance, should be done at government 
expense. 

If some of your readers were to bring the mat- 
ter before Parliament, there is no doubt it would 
be sanctioned at once. The affair must not again 
be allowed to sleep ; as from the state of many of 
the registers, every week is of importance. 

I will not presume to sketch any plan for car- 
rying this into effect, as many of your correspon- 
dents are far better versed in such matters than I 
am. I only wish to urge the immediate necessity 
of having it done in some way. W. 

Bomba3 r . 

" The Pale" North Malvern. Near to Cowley 
Park, on the road to Leigh Sinton, there is 
a picturesque gabled house, bearing the date 
"MDCXXXI." this house is called "The Pale," 
and is so marked in the Ordnance Map ; but I do 
not find any mention of it in the county or local 
histories. Future writers, however, may be in- 
duced to notice it, and may possibly be led into 
error in explaining its etymology. I have acci- 
dentally been put into possession of the correct 
origin of the word, and I will therefore here make 
a Note of it. The house was built in 1631 by one 
who had acquired a large fortune as a baker. He 
was not ashamed of the trade, by the profits of 
which he had become a " prosperous gentleman," 
and he therefore resolved to call his newly-built 
residence by a name that should remind him and 
others of his former occupation. The name he 
selected was " The Pale," which is the title given 
to the long wooden shovel on which the bread is 
placed in order to be pushed into the oven. 

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

Curious Epigram. Referring to WM. M. 
W.'s inquiry after the author of the epigram, 
"Blessed be the Sabbath" ("N. & Q.," 1 st S. vi. 
507.), I beg to send you the following quotation 
from a singular book, Small's Roman Antiquities, 
Edinburgh, 1823, App. p. 5., verbatim, in the 
author's slovenly style : 

" Another curious anecdote is told of Cromwell when 
lying about Perth, when one of the principal contractors 
for his army, of the name of Monday or Mundy, by his 
affairs becoming embarrassed, had committed the rash 
act of suicide by hanging himself. Cromwell, it seems, 
had offered a premium to any one that would make the 
most appropriate lines of poetry on the occasion, however 
short or sententious. Many elaborate poetical essays, it 
is said, were given in by the various competitors on the 
subject; but, amongst others, a tailor, who lived at Kin- 



fauns, is said to have started as a competitor ; but unfor- 
tunately, his wife, when she understood that he was one, 
and learned also that he was about to set out for the 
trial, thought it so ridiculous in him to appear, that she 
locked up his clothes, and would not allow him a clean 
shirt to appear decent in. However, it seems the tailor 
had either found means to procure a clean shirt, or had 
gone wanting one, and delivered in his essay with the 
rest, consisting only of four simple lines, but which is said 
to have carried off the prize. 

" 'Bless'd be the Sunday, 

Cursed be worldly "pelf; 
Tuesday now begins the week, 
For Monday has hang'd himself.' 

This shows that Oliver, with all his apparent morosity, 
had not been insensible to humour." 

D.M. 
Arbroath. 

" Pence a piece" for a penny a piece. Query, 
as to the antiquity and locality of this mode of 
expression. Has any notice of it appeared in 
" N. & Q." ? As a market-phrase it was formerly 
employed in Herefordshire, but seems falling into 
disuse. An anecdote may serve to illustrate its 
application. 

In the parish of Llangarron, near Ross, in the 
above county, some years ago, a farmer's wife re- 
sided whose name was Wood. She had, upon one 
occasion, a flock of six geese and a gander, the 
former in very good order. One morning the 
geese were observed to be missing ; and the soli- 
tary gander made his appearance, with a label 
tied round his neck containing- a sixpence, and the 
following lines : 

" Mrs. Wood, your geese arc good, 

And we, your neighbours yonder, 
Have bought these geese at pence a piece, 
And sent it by the gander." 

The word yojider, pronounced, as it commonly 
is in the country, yander, produces the legitimate 
rhyme. W. (1.) 



LETTERS Or HORACE WALPOLE. 

I purpose, in the ensuing autumn (Nov. 1.) 
to commence the publication, in eight monthly 
volumes, of a new and revised edition of the 
Letters of Horace Walpole, of which MR. PETER 
CUNNINGHAM has accepted the editorship a 
guarantee that the edition will be carefully edited. 
I am the proprietor of all the published letters of 
Walpole, and shall be able to give additional value 
to this new edition from my own unpublished col- 
lection, as well as the contributions of friends. 
But, being extremely desirous to render the edi- 
tion as complete as possible, I venture to hope for 
the aid of those who may possess unpublished let- 
ters or papers of Walpole : for the use of which 
contributions, due acknowledgment will be made. 
The work will be published in 8vo., with very 



S. NO 30., JULY 20. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



numerous portraits and other illustrations, and 
printed with elegance. RICHARD BENTLEY. 

8. Now Burlington Street, July 18, 



FOREIGN REFORMED LITURGIES. 

In his Friendly Delate (part ii. p. 227., ed. 6. 
8vo., London 1684) Bishop Patrick makes use of 
the following statement : 

" I remember in the beginning of the late wars the 
Scottish Forms of Prayer were printed. And so were the 
French, and those of Geneva, and Gnernsea, and the 
Dutch, to name no more ; all translated into English." 

I beg to solicit the assistance of those readers of 
" N. & Q." who have made the obscure subject of 
foreign liturgical formularies their special study, 
towards verifying the accuracy of his remarks. 

1. There is no difficulty in identifying the 
" Scottish Forms " first referred to with the fol- 
lowing publication : 

" The Service, Discipline, and Forme of the Common 
Prayers, and Administration of the Sacraments, used in 
the 'English Church of Geneva ; as it was approved by 
that most reverend Divine, M. John Calvin, and the 
Church of Scotland. Humbly presented to the most High 
Court of Parliament, this present yeare, 1641. London : 
printed for William Cooke, at Furnefalls, June, 1641." 

The same compilation was reprinted, with a 
slightly different title, in 1643 ; and a third time 
in The Phcenix, vol. ii. pp. 204259. 

It is mainly identical with the form generally 
known as the book of Common Order adapted by 
Knox, Whittingham, Parry, and Lever, from the 
Genevan model of Calvin, with the addition of 
" some part taken forth of the English book 
(Church of England Book of Common Prayer), 
and other things put in as the state of the church 
required." (Troubles at Frankfort, in The Phoe- 
nix, vol. ii. p. 71.) It was printed at Geneva, 
with a preface dated Feb. 10, 1556, and seems to 
have been carried back by Knox to Scotland, 
where an act of the General Assembly ordered it 
to be universally adopted, in December, 1562. 

2. I cannot, however, meet with an English 
translation of the French ritual within thirty years 
after the date of Patrick's work. In the Lambeth 
Library is a small octavo volume, printed in 
London in 1699, entitled Forms of Prayer used in 
the Reformed Churches in France before their Per- 
secution and Destruction^ translated into English 
by J. T. It is true that the Book of Discipline of 
the Reformed Churches of France was put forth in 
English in 1642 ; but this includes only certain 
special offices, viz. those for baptism, burial, and 
excommunication. Is any translation of the whole 
liturgy extant prior to that I have referred to ? 

3. An English version of Calvin's Genevan 
Order was* in existence as early as the year 1554. 
(Troubles, frc., p. 63. ; M c Crie's Life of Knox, 
p. 425.) Another was printed in London by 



Waldegrave in 1584, which being prohibited by 
order of the Star Chamber in June, 1G85, was re- 
printed by Richard Schilders at Middleburgh in 
Zealand, in 1586. A third edition was issued in 
1587, and a fourth in 1602. This book was pre- 
sented by the Puritan party to Parliament in 1584, 
with the view of securing that legal confirmation 
for it in England which Knox's Liturgy (almost 
identical with it) had already obtained in Scot- 
land. The variations of these several editions are 
clearly exhibited in vols. i. and iii. of Reliquia Li- 
turgies, by the Rev. Peter Hall, M.A., and I have 
no further inquiry to institute under this head. 

4. With respect to the forms used by the re- 
formed congregations of Guernsey, I am at a loss 
to supply the author's reference, unless he may be 
held to allude to 

" The Order for Ecclesiastical Discipline, according to 
that which hath been practised since the Reformation of 
the Church in His Majesty's Dominions of the Isles of 
Garnse}', Gersey, Spark, and Alderney ; confirmed by the 
authoritie of the Synode of the aforesaid lies," 

which was drawn up in a conclave of the ministers 
and elders of the several reformed churches of the 
Channel Islands, held at the town of St. Peter's 
Port in Guernsey, June 28, 1576. A later im- 
pression of the same book appeared in 1642, the 
precise date to which Patrick's remarks are calcu- 
lated to apply. I am at the same time anxious to 
have the query resolved, whether any specific pub- 
lication of the Liturgy, properly so called, in an 
English dress has ever taken place. The Book of 
Discipline does not itself comprise the entire 
ritual, but merely the special forms of service for 
the ordination of elders and deacons. 

4. Has any English version of the Dutch Li- 
turgy ever appeared ? The form drawn up, ori- 
ginally in Latin, by Alasco for the use of the 
Dutch church in Austin Friars, was translated 
into Dutch by Martin Mikronius in 1550, and re- 
printed in 1560 into German by J. Mayer, 8vo. 
Heid. 1565, and into French by Giles Clematius, 
8vo., 1556, n.p. But I have not succeeded in 
finding any trace of an English translation.* 

Any information calculated to elucidate these 
questions, as well as the further point, what other 
foreign Forms of Prayer the author may be sup- 
posed to indicate, will be most acceptable to the 
present querist. A. TAYLOR, MA. 



" Antiquity, a Farce" Can you inform me 
who is the author of Antiquity, a farce, in two 
acts, 1808. It is said to have been written by a 
gentleman of the Inner Temple. R. J. 

[* Two interesting articles on Alasco's Liturgy will be 
found in The British Magazine, vol. xv. p. G12. : vol. xvi. 
p. 127, -En.] 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NO 30., JULY 26. '56. 



Ancient British Saints. In Sismondi's Fall of 
the Roman Empire (vol. i. ch. vii., English trans.), 
he says : 

" So long as the British heroes, such as Hoel, Alain, 
Judicael (to whom several churches were dedicated), re- 
tained the vigour of youth or manhood, they knftw no 
other passion than that for war .... but when their 
ferocity was tamed by age, and began to give place to the 
terrors of a future judgment, they shut themselves up in 
convents, and lived a life of the severest penance." 

This chapter is from A.D. 412 to 453. Do any 
of these churches still exist ? or what traditions 
are there of churches dedicated to these ancient 
saints of Britain ? E. E. BYNG. 

Masters of Arts ranking as Esquires. Can any 
of your readers inform me of any authority for 
Masters of Arts of the Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge being entitled to rank as esquires ? 

M.A. (Oxon). 

Archibald Steele. Can you give me any in- 
formation regarding Archibald Steele, author of 
The Shepherd's Wedding, a pastoral comedy, pub- 
lished in Scotland in 1789 ? R. J. 

" The Vine" a Parable. A copy of the beauti- 
ful parable called " The Vine," and commencing 
thus, " On the day of their creation, the trees 
boasted one to another," &c., is much desired. 

It was published in an old number of The 
Talisman. Is this monthly periodical still con- 
tinued ? ANITEEBOE. 

Edinburgh. 

David Morrison, There was a volume of 
poetry, published at Montrose in 1790, by David 
Morrison. Is anything known regarding the 
author ? R. J. 

Boxing-Day. The term boxing-day is used 
both in the theatres and in courts of law. What 
is the meaning of it in each case ? S. 

Sir John Cope. Wanted, particulars of the 
family descent, marriage, life, professional ser- 
vices, death, burial-place, and descendants of Sir 
John Cope, who commanded the royal troops in 
1745 at Preston Pans. Any references to pub- 
lished or accessible unpublished information will 
be acceptable. JAMES KNOWLES. 

" Hey, Johnnie Cope," frc. Who was the 
author of " Hey, Johnnie Cope are ye wakin yet ? " 
And whose music is that quaint stirring air ? DR. 
RIMBAULT could, no doubt, oblige me with an 
answer to the latter Query. JAMES KNOWLES. 

Human Leather, fyc. I have somewhere heard 
or read of two or three human skins having been 
prepared and tanned like leather, and of a pair of 
shoes or boots having been made of such leather. 
I think also there was mention made of another 



dressed as parchment. No doubt they form part 
of the contents of some museum. 

Can any of your readers give me any informa- 
tion respecting them ? R. W. HACKWOOD. 

" The Dissenters Dissected" Some twenty 
years ago, a poem of eighteen stanzas was sent to 
me by a friend, since deceased, called The Dis- 
senters Dissected, by a Lay Dissector, to which 
ten other stanzas were added. Has it ever been 
printed ? 

The first stanza is 

" The noblest tree of forest growth, 
And meanest shrub, engender both 

Within their vital juices, 
The germs of that, which soon or late 
Their own decay accelerate, 

Or earlier abuses." 

One of the added stanzas (the 26th) is - 

" No church rate that must never be, 
For all religion shall be free ; 

And surely it is hard 
That we, who know the letter way 
To Heaven, for their church path should pay, 

But give us their church yard ! ! " 

WM. COLLYNS, M.R.C.S. 
Chudleigh, Devon. 

Dismissal of Non- Communicants. In Cleaver's 
edition of Bishop Wilson On the Lord's Supper 
(London, 1851), there is a note on the subject of 
the dismissal of non-communicants. It is there 
stated that the benefits arising from the opposite 
practice have not escaped the notice of some of 
our most eminent divines ; and it is added, " See 
Bp. Jebb's Practical Theology." 

Can any of your correspondents supply the 
passage alluded to in Bishop Jebb's book ? 

This edition of Bishop Wilson's work was, I 
believe, prepared by the late Rev. W. Wright, 
A.M., of Trinity College, Dublin ; the " Notes, 
historical and explanatory," which accompany it 
are full of curious research, but they occupy a 
somewhat disproportionate space in a devotional 
work. 

The note which suggests my Query occurs at 
p. 169. There are some more remarks on the 
same subject at p. 255. A. A. D. 

P.S. What is supposed to be the proper posture 
for the people during the comfortable words, the 
Sursum corda and the Sanctus ? I have heard 
very contradictory opinions on the subject, and 
indeed it is one by no means free from difficulty, 
owing to the transpositions which have been made 
in the Liturgy. 

Prologues and Epilogues to the Westminster 
Plays. Has there ever been published a Collec- 
tion of the Prologues and Epilogues to the West- 
minster Plays ? If so, where ? C. J. DOUGLAS. 



S. N 30., JULY 26. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



Satellite. What is considered to be the de- 
rivation of the word satettes, a satellite ? A. A. D. 

Varnishing Old Books. I should feel greatly 
indebted to any reader of " N..& Q." who has had 
practical experience on the subject, for informa- 
tion as to the advantages and disadvantages (if 
any) of varnishing old books. That the appear- 
ance of volumes thus treated is for a time im- 
proved, will be generally admitted ; but the really 
important question is, are bindings thereby pre- 
served, and is commencing decay arrested ? 

The former series of " N. & Q." contains some 
receipts for book varnishes ; but the questions I 
have ventured to propose have not, as far as I 
remember, yet met with consideration in your 
pages. The subject is one of daily increasing 
importance ; and if fully treated by those com- 
petent to do so, will, I am sure, prove valuable 
and interesting to a large number of your readers. 
The rapid deterioration of bindings in some Lon- 
don libraries has been the subject of frequent 
and anxious remark. And the more general use 
of gas in dwelling-houses is already committing 
sad havoc on many private collections. W. M. 

Finsbury Place. 

The Country Parson's Honest Advice. I should 
be glad to know the author of the following 
verses : 
" The Country Parson's Ifonest Advice to that Judicious 

Lawyer and Worthy Minister of State My Lord 



" Be wise as Somerset, as Somer's brave, 
As Pembroke airy, and as Richmond grave, 
Humble as Oxford [Orford?] be, and Wharton's zeal, 
For Church and Loyalty, would fitt thee well ; 
Like Sarum I would have thee love the Church, 
He Scorns to leave his Mother in the Lurch. 
For the well governing your family, 
Let pious Haversham thy pattern be : 
And if it be thy fate again to marry, 

And S y r's daughter will thy year out tarry, 

May'st ttiou use her as Mohun did his tender wife, 
And may she lead his virtuous Lady's life. 
To Summ up all : Devonshire's chastity, 
Bolton's ineritt, Godolphin's probity, 
Halifax his modesty, Essex's sense, 
Montague's management, Culpepper's pence ; 
Tenison's learning, and Southampton's wit, 
Will make thee for an able statesman fit." 
I want to know the author and the person to 
whom it is addressed ? * I find it in a MS. (circa 
1690 or 1700), containing an account of the feasts 
and fasts of the Church, history of the black- 
letter Saints in our Calendar, and an exposition 
of the Church Catechism. J. C. J. 

Hospital Out-Patients. The governors of an 
hospital established in a town containing 31,000 



[* We have before us a printed copy of these lines, as 
a small folio broadside, circa 1733-4. They are addressed, 
we have not the least doubt, to Lord Chancellor Talbot, 
who received the Great Seal Nov. 29, 1733; ED.] 



inhabitants, and embracing a district, chiefly agri- 
cultural, of 104 square miles, have been called 
upon to decide as to the expediency of altering the 
days of attendance of the out-patients at the hos- 
pital. Out-patients are at present assisted with 
advice and medicine (but in no other respect are 
chargeable to the charity) on Mondays, Thurs- 
days, and Saturdays at eleven, A. M. It is pro- 
posed to alter the days to Tuesdays and Saturdays; 
thus requiring attendance twice a-week instead of 
thrice. 

It is expected that the alteration will be better, 
not only for the medical men, but also for the out- 
patients. 

That a waste of drugs will be prevented, as it 
is alleged that the patients cannot possibly con- 
sume the medicine in the interval between Thurs- 
day and Saturday. 

And it is asserted that no hospital in the king- 
dom receives its out-patients more than twice a- 
week. 

I shall be much obliged to any of your corre- 
spondents who will kindly tell me whether the 
last assertion is correct, naming at the same time 
the town, or stating its numerical population, 
from which their experience is drawn. And also 
whether their experience would lead them to 
hope for the benefits which are said to be ex- 
pected from the change. REMIGIUS. 

Robert Sansum or Sampson. B. S. I. would 
feel obliged for information respecting Robert 
Sansum (or Sampson), Commander of the Reso- 
lution, and Rear. Admiral of the White, who fell 
at Lowestoft on June 3, 1665. * 

Where was he born ? Where buried ? What 
arms did he bear ? Was he related to a Colonel 
Sampson, whose name appears in the list of pro- 
posed Knights of the Royal Oak ? 

Coffer. What is the exact meaning of this 
word in the following passage ? It occurs in the 
deposition of a witness in a suit in the Ecclesias- 
tical Court of Durham about the state of the 
church of Lesbury in Northumberland, in 1630-1. 
The witness says, " He doth well remember that 
ther were divers coffer jeastes of oak above the 
vestrye." Socius DUNELM. 

Responsibility of Animals to Man. I met lately 
an interesting account of the process by which, 
during the Middle Ages, animals and insects (flies, 
rats, and others), were cited to appear in the 
courts, and to show cause why they should not be 
destroyed as a nuisance ? And on their failure to 
appear, their extermination was decreed in due 
form of law. I shall feel greatly obliged to any 
of your correspondents who can refer me to the 
work (I think a recent periodical) in which the 
narrative occurs ? J. E. T. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. X" 30., JULY 26. '5G. 



Minor cauert'eg tottfc 

" Marry? What is the exact meaning of the 
adverbial exclamations " Marry," " Marry trap," 
" Marry and Amen, " Marry, Heaven forbid," 
"Marry come up," so common in these and vari- 
ous other forms in our earlier writers ? In Twiss's 
valuable Index to Shakspeare (1805) I find "above 
250 instances of its occurrence in this our great 
dramatist. With most of the writers of his age, 
the " Great Lord Digby " too, in his Elvira, em- 
ploys this term ; as thus : 

" So one displeased to find his crawfishes 
Shrivel'd within and empty, said to his cook, 
(who laid the fault upon the wane o' th' moon), 
' What has the moon to do with crawfishes ? ' 
' Marry ! she has, 'tis she that governs shellfish.' " 

So in Monsieur Thomas, Beaumont and Fletcher : 

" Marry ! thou hast taught him, like an arrant rascal, 
First," to read perfectly ; which, on my blessing, 
I warn'd him from ; for I knew if he read once, 
He was a lost man." 

The more modern use of " Marry come up " is 
found in Pericles, Act IV. Sc. 6. ; Romeo and Ju- 
liet, Act II. Sc. 5. Are these corruptions of St. 
Mary ? or whence derived ? C. H. P. 

[Halli well's explanation, " Marry," as an interjection 
equivalent to " Indeed," has been already noticed in our 
1 st S. viii. 9. ; but Nares is of opinion that in many in- 
stances it is a corruption of Marie, as an asseveration 
confirmed by the name of the Virgin Mary. Thus Coles 
says, "Many (oath) per Mariam." SuclTis the origin of 
Marry come up, originally Marry guep, gip, or gup. "I 
suspect," says Nares, " that guep is a corruption of go up, 
which it seems was contemptuous. Thus, the children 
said to Elisha, Go up, thou bald-head, go up !' "] 

Ancient Oaths. If a collection of the very 
curious and interesting oaths that have been in 
use has not been made in the pages of "1ST. & Q.," 
may I be allowed to make a beginning, hoping 
that other contributors to its pages will follow, 
and build up such a collection on my foundation ? 
Old Chaucer's " Host," in the Canterbury Tales, 
strengthens an assertion " By Seinte Poules bell." 

Peter the apprentice, in Henry VI., holds up 
his hands, and accusing Homer says, 

"By these ten lones, my Lords, he did speak them to 
me, in the garret one night, as we were scouring my Lord 
of York's armour." Henry VI., Pt. II. Act 1. Sc. 4. 

T. II. P. 

[The habit of profane swearing in former times by the I 
English has been noticed in our 1 st S. iv. 37. ; vi. 299. 
306. 471.; but we need scarcely add, it is only oaths that 
are "curious and interesting" that should be included 
in the collection, as many of them in our early writers j 
are peculiarly impious and irreverent. Even in Chaucer 
it is advisable to make a selection, such as the following : [ 

The Host swears " By my father's soul." 

Sir Thopas~"By ale and bread." 

Arcite " By my pan [head]." 

Theseus " By mighty Mars the rede." 

The Carpenter's wife " By Saint Thomas of Kent. 



The Marcliaunt "By Saint Thomas of Inde." 
The Cambridge scholar " By my father's kinne."] 

Thomas Knaggs, of St. Giles's Church, pub- 
lished a funeral sermon on Prince George of Den- 
mark, 1708. Who was he? Did he publish 
aught else ? and was he ever minister of Trinity 
Chapel, Knightsbridge ? H. G. D. 

[The Rev. Thomas Knaggs was lecturer at St. Giles- 
m-the-Fields for twenty years. He published thirty-one 
single sermons between the years 1691 and 1722. See a 
list of them in Watt's .Bibliotheca. His successor, Mr. 
Riddle, was elected lecturer, May 16. 1724.] 

Colman's "Iron Chest" I possess a copy of 
this play, of which the following is the title-page : 
"The Iron Chest, a Play in Three Acts, written by 
George Colman the Younger. With a Preface. First 
represented at the Theatre Royal Drury Lane, on Satur- 
day, 12th March, 1796. < The principal Characters ' by 
Mr. Kemble, &c. (Drury Lane Play-Bill.) < I had as 
lievethe town-crier had spoke my lines.' Shakespeare. 

This copy contains Colman's original preface, 
which I believe to be excessively rare. Is this 
preface worthy of being inserted in-" N. & Q." ? 

JUVERNA. 

[Colman's Preface to the Iron Chest is certainly a racy 
production, but Time has robbed it of its interest. Col- 
man attributes the condemnation of his play to Mr. Kem- 
ble, owing to the rehearsal being imperfect, and from Mr. 
Kemble acting " Sir Edward Mortimer " whilst under the 
effects of opium pills. No doubt the Thespjfin fraternity 
look upon this Preface as a dramatic literary curiosity, 
and Jones (Biograph. Dramatical) says that 30s. and even 
40s. have been paid for a copy of it. But it makes twenty 
pages of 8vo., and would occupy ten in our larger, or 
six in the smaller type ; it is therefore obvious that we 
have no alternative but to decline JUVERNA'S kind offer 
with many thanks.] 

Penrith Castle. Where is there any account 
of Penrith Castle, now in ruins ? A. 

[For descriptive notices of Penrith Castle, consult 
Hutchinson's History of Cumberland, vol. i. p. 317 ; and 
Nicolson and Burn's Cumberland, vol. ii. p. 404. Views, 
with short notices, of this castle, are inserted in Buck's 
Antiquities, vol. i. pi. 48., and in Grose's Antiquities, vol. i. 

The Old Hundredth (2 nd S. ii. 34.) H. J. G. 
says this tune has no English name. He is mis- 
taken, as all, or nearly all the tune books I have 
seen give it as " Savoy, or the Old Hundredth." 

II. G. D. 

[Savoy is not an English name, and, being a second 
name applied to a tune first known as the 134th Psalm, 
and then as the 100th, cannot afford an argument for 
taking the tune out of the list of the Old Psalter tunes. 
It was not called Savoy for at least fifty years after its 
creation. But the application of this name to the tune, 
showing its common use with the Germans in the Savoy 
Church, may have led to the popular delusion that the 
tune was made by Luther.] 



S. N 30., JITLY 2G. '56.1 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



71 



MERCATOB (NOT THE) AUTHOR OF THE POUND 
AND MIL SCHEME. 

(2 d S. i. 491.) 

Your correspondent MR. JAMES YATES, whose 
zealous advocacy of the introduction into the United 
Kingdom of the French system of money, weights, 
and measures, is so well "known, has accompanied 
his question as to " who was Mercator ? " with 
some observations intended to show that Mercator 
was the author, and published the first idea of, the 
pound and mil scheme. 

I venture to submit to your readers that, except 
we are disposed to attach much importance to 
Mercator' s suggestion that the thousandth part of a 
pound should be called a mil, MR. YATES'S theory 
that Mercator set up a scheme which has been 
merely taken up by scientific men, by the Decimal 
Association and by parliamentary majorities, will 
not hold good. 

It appears to me that the proposed decimalisa- 
tion of the pound sterling into florin, cent, and 
mil, is not only preferable in every respect to 
MR. YATES'S plan for the conversion of the pound 
sterling into twenty-five ten-pences, or Briiish 
francs ; but that, moreover, it is no new scheme, 
and has been before the European world of science 
as long as decimal fractions have been known. 

The illustrious Simon Stevin, writing (or rather 
publishing) in 1585, whilst advocating the deci- 
malisation of money, weights, and measures, took 
care to dissuade his readers from abandoning the 
accustomed chief units, which are appropriately 
enough termed commencements. 

In Article vi. of Stevin's Appendix to La 
Disme, it is stated : 

" Afin de dire en brief et en general, la sorame et con- 
tenu de cest article, faut S9avoir qu'on partira toutes 
mesures, comme Longue, Humide, Seiche, Argent, &c., 
par la precedente dixiesme progression et chasque fameuse 
espece d'icelles se nommera commencement ; comme 
Marc, commencement des pois par lesquels se poise Tor et 
1'argent ; Livre, commencement des autres pois communs ; 
Livre de gros en Flandres, Livre Esterlain en Angleterre, 
Ducat en Hispaigne, &c., commencement de monnoye" 

It happens that in, England we shall not be the 
first country which has had to change from a 
vigesimal and duodecimal to a decimal scale of 
account. 

Cuthbert Tonstall, when Bishop Elect of Lon- 
don, printed, in 1522, his learned and elegant 
treatise on arithmetic, which contains many such 
suggestions as would lead to a complete decimal sys- 
tem, and he remarked upon the then widely spread 
custom of keeping accounts in twenties and twelves 
as subdivisions of the nominal pound and shilling. 
It will be seen, however, from the following ex- 
tract, that the bishop saw a point or two of dif- 
ference between international coins of account 



and international coins of circulation, which it will 
be well to observe even at this time : 

"Xunc artate nostra apud siugulas penfe nationes auroi 
pro regum aut principum avbitrio .varium habent pve- 
cium : sic libra?, sic solidi, ut nunc sunt vocabula : mat';- 
nam pro regionibus diversitatem habent. Carter iim 
illud mirum videtur: quomodo in tanta librarum et soli- 
dorum aestimationis differentia, pro suo cuiusque region is 
more, mnltae tamen nationes consentiunt ; ut vulgar! 
lingua solidum vocent: quod denanolos duodecim \ul- 
gares complectitur, libram quod solidos viginti." 
Page 271 of edition of 1529. 

When Stevin wrote upon the same subject he 
advocated decimal subdivision, but with careful 
adherence, as far as possible, to accustomed unit?. 

" que joignant les vulgaires partitions qu'il y a 
maintenant des Mesures, Pois et Argent (demeurant 
chasque capitale mesure, Pois et Argent, en tous lieux 
immuable) Ton ordonnast encore legitimement par les 
Superieurs, la susdicte dixiesme partition, a fin que 
chascun qui voudroit la pourroit user. 

" II avanceroit aussi la chose si les valeurs d'argent, 
principalement de ce qui se forge de nouveau, fussent 
valuez sur quelques Primes, Secondes, Tierces, &c. Mais 
si tout cecy ne fust pas mis en ceuvre, si tost comme nous 
le pourrions souhaiter, ii nous contentera premierement, 
qu'il fera du bien a nos successeurs, car il est certain que 
si les homines futurs, sont de telle nature comme ont este 
les precedens, qu'ils ne seront pas tousiours negligens en 
lenr si grand avantage." 

The preceding extract only requires one ex- 
planation, viz. that by Primes, Secondes et Tierce?, 
words in the decimal system suggested probably 
by the works of Purbach and Muller, Stevin mean t 
tenths, hundredths and thousandths; and altering 
these words (as applied to coins) to florins, cents, 
and mils, we have the system which is in process 
and progress of introduction at the present time. 

It is particularly worthy of note, that pre- 
viously to the introduction of the decimal metrical 
system into France, accounts were kept in livres, 
sols, and deniers : twenty sols making one livre 
tournois, and twelve deniers one penny. This 
vigesimal and duodecimal system had prevailed 
from remote antiquity in France, as it had done 
in England. The two nations (as the remarks of 
Bishop Tonstall illustrate) had the same system 
of account; but then the highest French unit, the 
livre tournois, was so very much less in value in 
comparison with the highest English unit, the 
pound sterling, that when the livre tournois, sol, 
and denier, came to be decimalised, although the 
French substantially retained their highest unit, as 
we ought to retain ours, the pound sterling, they 
could only coin into francs (nearly equal to the 
livre tournois), and into primes and secondes (i. e. 
ten centimes, and one centime) ; whilst we can 
coin our units, of account and of circulation, into 
livres, primes, secondes, and tierces (pounds, florins, 
cents, and mils). 

Surely, with these inherent advantages in our 
system, "we need not be apprehensive of any in- 
superable difficulty in carrying out now, what the; 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



1.2"* s. NO 30., JULY 26. '56. 



French carried out two generations ago ; but let 
us not have recourse to their little units in pre- 
ference to our great units. Let those who like to 
keep their accounts *ih ten-pences do so ; but the 
pound sterling, and its decimal subdivisions, is the 
right thing in the right place. FEED, HENDKIKS. 



NOTES ON TREES AND FLOWERS (1 st S. i. 173. 

457. ; xi. 460. ; xii. 71. 211.) : GREEN ROSE (1 s * 

S. xii. 143. 234. 371. 481.) 

When the Isiac veil thrown over ancient re- 
ligion by genealogies, fables, and etymologies, 
shall be withdrawn, it will be evident that the 
spirit of Nature has been impressed on all the 
female deities. These personages are not mere 
maids of honour, and she only the queen, but 
through all the disguises under which she is 
masked she breaks forth, O Dea certe, whether 
represented by the moon or by the earth, by the 
polyonymous Isis, or by the myrianthous Venus : 

"All the Graces," says Thryllitius *, "in producing the 
rose appear anxiously to have endeavoured the utmost 
they could effect ; wherefore it is no wonder that such a 
multitude of fables was created respecting the flower de- 
dicated to Venus. Having diligently examined," con- 
tinues our author, " the legends of Anacreon and others, 
I am persuaded that it is so named avn TOV poOov TO poSov, 
and having considered the legends, according to which 
the rose originated either with Venus, or from the blood 
of Venus, or from the gore of Adonis, or from the nectar 
spilt by Cupid's negligence, or lastly, from the influx of 
the star Venus, I could not refrain from suspecting some- 
thing of this kind. On all sides is discovered an abun- 
dant flow of love, a manifest power of nature, productive 
of vegetation. Moreover, the leaves of the flower afford 
a most elegant spectacle, winding in the manner of little 
waves around their ungues, and in their first spontaneous 
budding, effected by the law of the Almighty Creator, all 
plants appear to be evolved by the same undulating 
motion formed by an inherent force of nature, the know- 
ledge of which antiquity perhaps intended to preserve by 
the name given to this 'king of flowers. I shall therefore 
be pleased to declare that in all those fables there is no- 
thing involved but the general history of the production 
of all plants, intended by the example of the rose." 

He then explains, according to Bayle's theory, 
the generation of plants, now nourished by the 
constant influence of dew and showers, from juices 
adapted to them, and evolved by the moisture 
prepared by Divine Omnipotence in the bowels of 
the earth. He shows that the first founders of 
these fables seem not to have been strangers to 
this opinion, and explains how in the fable of 
Cassianus Bassus physical properties may be alle- 
gorized by Mars, Adonis, and Venus. 

The same writer enumerates the varieties of 
roses, one of which is derived from the colour of 
the flower, since in some it is found white, in 
others purple, in others flesh colour, in others 

* Plantarum Historia Fabularis, 4to., Vitembergse, 1713. 



p^ale, in others yellow, in others mixed, in others 
light green, if, according to Costaeus, it is en- 
grafted on Agrifolii arbuscula. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



Can you find room among the fresh leaves of 
" N". & Q." for a newly blown rose ? It was ob- 
tained from a " cutting " which I enclose (from a 
Chester newspaper, June 25), and will be best 
propagated by being transferred to your columns. 

" Mr. W. H. Osborne, of Perry Pont House, Perry Bar, 
Staffordshire, has a perfectly green rose in flower in his 
new rose-house. The rose, called Rosa Verdlflora, is of a 
full rich green. The tree was procured from a French 
nurseryman." 

F. PHILLOTT. 



MUSICAL NOTATION. 

On Music ; and suggestions for improvement in its symbols, 
or nomenclature of sounds : to the end that there may be a 
clearer demonstration of the ratios of sounds, and, by con- 
sequence, a more extended knowledge of the fundus of this 
art, that is the poetry or measured relation of its forms. 

The readers of " 1ST. & Q." (2 nd S. ii. 14.) must 
have been much pleased in perusing the article on 
" Musical Notation," by so distinguished a writer 
as PROFESSOR DE MORGAN. For myself, as a 
musician, I consider every exercise of the mathe- 
matician on the subject matter of music as a step 
to that which eventually must take place the 
union of the mathematician with the musician : 
that which PROFESSOR DE MORGAN has made out 
as a case of distress I have long felt to be a case of 
necessity. The symbols and terms now. used in 
the grammar of music render any clear explana- 
tion of music as poetry most difficult. 

The modern definition of music declares it to 
be " the art of continuing tunable sounds in a 
manner agreeable to the ear ; " but the old Pagan 
theorist declares music to be " the art of finding 
beauty in sounds by means of their ratios or 
measure" And this is true ; for from the begin- 
ning of the world all music has been made upon 
one principle, that is to say, the doctrine of the 
proportions of the scale. Music is caused by un- 
dulations in the atmosphere which gather them- 
selves together into a series of geometrical figures 
in the ether. Although the hearing is in our 
bodily frame, the causation of the hearing is the 
geometric figure in motion. The sound is the 
affection ; the aerial pulsation the cause of the 
affection. It exists to us as an affection of the 
nervous and muscular organism ; but when we 
seek to deal with it as centrical, relative, a whole, 
or an aliquot part of some whole, we must know 
something more of it than a mere sensible proper, 
or bare sensation. Effects are facts, but causes 
are anterior facts. The existence in nature of the 



2 n<1 S. N' 30., JULY 26. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



relations or proportions of the scale is one fact ; 
the knowledge of these relations, and the practical 
power of applying them, is another. Great music 
hath ever been lying in the lap of nature ready j 
for man's use and enjoyment whensoever man had ; 
his head, his heart, and his hand, prepared to take 
it from her. The perfection of nature and the 
mechanism of man are things widely asunder : 
until the laws of musical science are clearly esta- 
blished every man will make his own sense or 
perception of music that is to say, his individual 
taste a law to others as well as to himself; whereas 
it is manifest such a standard can only be a law 
unto himself. Your taste will not necessarily be 
my taste, unless it be one common to humanity, 
and to make it common to humanity it must be 
founded upon the first laws of nature, and received 
without prejudice and without guile. There^is a 
vast quantity of acquired sensation and received 
suggestion with respect to music in the ears and 
heads of persons fond of music, and who even 
make the art and science their profession, or of 
amateur study ; and this stock of musical percep- 
tion and recollection enables many a one to talk 
of, and write about, and even compose music : still 
from these, and such as these, the true causes of 
music are altogether concealed and remain un- 
observed and unknown ; for the facts in music are 
overlooked by them, and in their place has arisen 
a mass of symbols but ill representing the realities. 
The rudimentary language of the art is a compila- 
tion of fictions. The vibration which runs through 
our nervous fluid the result of the figure in the 
ether, when communicated to our bodily frame 
we describe as a note. We begin the study of 
music by learning our notes. What are notes? 
They are symbols for sounds ; but who entertains 
the idea of one sound as a whole, or centre, and 
other sounds as relations of or analogous parts of 
a whole, or that a scale is the genealogical tree of 
any given sound the centre and its family rela- 
tions the orange divided into so many aliquot 
parts, and subject to so many modes of apposi- 
tion and arrangement ? H. J. GAUNTLETT. 
8. Powys Place, Queen Square. 

(To be continued.) 



REVIVAL AFTER EXECUTION. 

(2 nd S. i. 490.) 

There is really very little to be surprised at in 
most of the cases we see brought forward of re- 
vival after execution ; and accounts of such cases 
are of trifling value unless they are accompanied 
by a statement of the circumstances under which 
the execution took place, and more especially of 
the length of time during which the body was siis- 
pended. Before the new drop placed on an 



elevated spot was adopted, executions were 
very often managed in such a way that justice 
was very easily evaded. Hangmen were un- 
questionably often tampered with, and they had 
every facility for evading detection, more par- 
ticularly as the friends of the culprit, the gal- 
lows being generally on the ground and in an 
open space, could easily crowd around, and 
thus prevent observation, and also assist the exe- 
cutioner in carrying out the deception which he 
had been well paid to effect. Criminals, it is true, 
were sentenced to be " hung by the neck until 
they were dead" but the deciding when a man was 
dead was often left entirely to the discretion of 
the hangman, who thus was at liberty to "cut 
down " some culprits much sooner than he did 
others. Hence, what with feeing the hangman to 
give his victim " a short fall " to tie and place 
the rope in a particular way and to cut the 
body down quickly ; and what with the friends of 
the culprit crowding round close to the gallows 
and interfering with what was going on, execu- 
tions were frequently conducted in such a manner 
as to render the subsequent revival of the person 
a matter of very little surprise or difficulty. The 
known cases are not a few, and if those which are 
unknown, on account of the secret having been 
well kept, were made public, the list, I believe, 
would contain some scores of names. At one 
time, indeed, it was the regular practice for the 
friends of a victim of the law to make every pos- 
sible preparation for his semi-hanging and his sub- 
sequent resuscitation. When Deacon Brodie was 
hung at Edinburgh in 1788, for robbing the Ex- 
cise Office, the hangman was bribed to give him 
" a short fall," and as soon as he was cut down, a 
spring cart was at hand, which quickly deposited 
his body at a place where doctors were in readi- 
ness with every adjunct for his revival. The ex- 
periment failed in this case, it is true ; but this was 
solely because the hangman killed Brodie without 
intending it, by tying a knot which slipped at the 
critical moment, and gave the deacon a fall of 
about treble the length he had contracted for, and 
the case therefore is not the less valid a proof of 
the practice I have referred to. The new drop, 
however, by the publicity it ensures, and by the 
efficacy of its operation, has put an end to decep- 
tion on the part of the hangman, and to interfer- 
ence on the part of the crowd ; and I therefore think 
you will agree with me that cases of revival after 
execution contain nothing in them that is extra- 
ordinary, unless they can be shown to have oc- 
curred after the employment of the new drop, and 
unless they are accompanied with reasonable proofs 
that the culprit was fairly hung and suspended 
for the full legal hour. HENRY KENSINGTON. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



N" 30., 



2G. *5P. 



REMOTE TRADITIONS THROUGH FEW LINKS. 

(2 nd S. ii. 29.) 

The following extract from Carrick's Life of 
Sir William Wallace (Whittaker, 1840, p. 29.') 
gives the information sought for by E. C. : 

" Having said thus much of the dress and equipment 
of Wallace, the following anecdote respecting his strength 
and personal appearance may not be unacceptable to the 
reader; it is translated from Hector Boe'ce by the learned 
editor of Morrison's edition of Blind Harry, who thus 
introduces it: 'Though this author fBoece) in general 
is not much to be credited, yet it would be bard not to 
believe him in an instance which happened near his own 
time, and in which, if he had spoken falsely, he could 
immediately have been detected. The anecdote in an- 
other respect is curious, as it affords an example of lon- 
gevity, not unsimilar to that of the Irish Countess 'of 
Desmond, who attained a still more advanced age. 

" The date is the year 1430. At that time James I. 
was in Perth ; and perhaps having heard Henry the 
Minstrel* recite some of Wallace's exploits, found his 
curiosity excited to visit a noble lady of great age, who 
was able to inform him of many ancient matters. She 
lived in the castle of Kinnoul, on the opposite side of the 
river ; and was probably a widow of one of the Lords of 
Erskine, a branch of whose family continued to be de- 
nominated from the barony of Kinnoul till about the 
year 1440. It was Boece's manner to relate an event as 
circumstantially as if he had been one of the parties, and 
engaged in it. I shall, therefore, give the anecdote in his 
own manner, by translating his words : 

" ' In consequence of her extreme old age, she had lost 
her sight, but all her other senses were entire ; and her 
body was yet firm and lively. She had seen William 
Wallace and Robert Bruce, and frequently told parti- 
culars concerning them. The King, who entertained a 
love and veneration of greatness, resolved to visit the 
old lady, that he might hear her describe the manners 
and strength of the two heroes, who were admired in his 
time, as they now are in ours. He, therefore, sent a 
message, acquainting her that he was to come to her 
next day. She received the message gratefully; and 

thing for his reception in the best manner, particularly 
that they should display her pieces of tapestry ; some of 
which were uncommonly rich and beautiful. All her ser- 
vants became busily employed, for their work was in some 
degree unusual, as she had not for a long time been ac- 
customed to receive princely visitors. The next day, when 
told the King was approaching, she went down into the 
hall of her castle, dressed with as much elegance and finery 
as her old age and the fashion of the time would permit; 
attended by a train of matrons, many of whom were her 
own descendants, of which number some appeared more 
altered and disfigured by age than she herself was. One 
of her matrons having Informed her that the King was 
entering the hall, she arose from her seat, and advanced 
to meet him so easily and gracefully, that he doubted of 

* "According to Pinkerton, and other authorities, 
Henry did not finish his work till 1470. It is, therefore, 
more probable that the curiosity of James Avas excited by 
the original narrative of Blair; a book which, from his 
long captivity in England, he had perhaps heard little 
about, till his return to Scotland. The rehearsal, there- 
fore, of the heroic achievements of his illustrious country- 
man may have produced all the excitement which the 
editor of the Perth edition supposes, though not made by 
the Minstrel," 



her being wholly blind. At his desire, she embraced and 
kissed him. Her attendant assured him that she was 
wholly blind ; but that, from long custom, she had ac- 
quired these easy movements. He took her by the hand 
and sat down, desiring her to sit on the same seat next 
to him. And then, in a long conference, he interrogated 
her respecting ancient matters. He was much delighted 
with her conversation. Among other things, he asked 
her to tell him what sort of a man William Wallace was? 
What was his personal figure ? What his courage ? .\nd 
with what degree of strength he was endowed? He put 
the same questions to her concerning Bruce. Robert, she 
said, was a man beautiful, and of a fine appearance. His 
strength was so great, that he could easily have over- 
come any mortal man of his time ; but in so far as he 
excelled other men, he was excelled by Wallace, both in 
stature and in bodily strength ; for, in wrestling, Wallace 
could have overthrown two such men as Robert was. 

" ' The King made some inquiries concerning his own 
immediate parents, and his other ancestors ; and having 
heard her relate many things, returned to Perth well 
pleased with the visit he had made.'" Boe'th. Hist., 
i. xvii, 

JOHN I. DREDGE. 



ONE GIFFORD, A CLERGYMAN. 

(2 nd S. i. 492.) 

" Verse sweetens toil, however rude the sound, 
All at her work the village maiden sings : 
Nor while she turns the giddy wheel around, 
Revolves the sad vicissitude of things." 

These lines are quoted by Dr. Samuel Johnson 
in his Dictionary i under the word " vicissitude ; " 
they occur in a short poem entitled Contempla- 
tion*, which was printed in 1753, and its author 
was Richard Gifford, B.A., of Baliol College, Ox- 
ford ; Vicar of Duffield, co. Derby; Rector of 
North Ockendon, co. Essex ; and Chaplain to 
John and George, fourth and sixth Marquises of 
Tweeddale, to whose family he was related. Ri- 
chard Gilford was the only surviving son of John 
Gifford of Tester in Scotland, M.A. of the Uni- 
versity of Edinburgh, Rector of Mainstone, co. 
Salop, and chaplain to Charles, third Marquis of 
Tweeddale. His mother was Elizabeth Wollaston, 
sister of Richard Wollaston, Receiver-General of 
Taxes for the county of Salop. She belonged to 
a branch of the ancient family of Wollaston of 
Wollaston in Staffordshire. In 1748 the Rev. 
Richard Gifford published his Remarks on Mr. 
Kemricott's Dissertation on the Tree of Life in 
Paradise. In 1751 appeared his Dissertation on 
the Song of Solomon, with the original Text, di- 
vided according to the Metre, and a Poetical Ver- 
sion. (See Lowndes's British Librarian, p. 174. 
art. 393.) His Outlines of an Answer to Dr. 
Priestley's Disquisition relating to Matter and 
Spirit followed in 1781. Mr. Gifford took upon 
himself the labour of translating, for Nichols's 

* See vol. v. p. 182. of Nichols's Literary Anecdotes of 
the Eighteenth Century, 



S. N 30., JbLY 26. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



History of Leicestershire, so much of Domesday 
Book as related to the history of that county ; an 
arduous task, which he performed ably and 
promptly. His translations of Lycophron and Ni- 
cander into English verse were never published, 
but he left behind him a mass of inedited manu- 
scripts, evidences of the unwearied and recondite 
sludies of his long life. Some specimens of his 
polished verse arc to be found in Dodsley's col- 
lection, and to a few of his articles in the Gentle- 
mans Magazine the signature of " R. Duff" is 
placed. This rare old scholar was tutor, for a 
short time, to the late well-known sportsman 
Hugo Meynell, of Hoar Cross ; but hia private 
ibrtuno was ample, and it seems that tuition did 
not suit his taste, for when John, eighth Earl of 
Kothes, requested him to become " tutor and 
manager " of his eldest son, he declined the pro- 
posal, though it was accompanied by the promise 
of future preferment. By a letter addressed to 
Mr. Gifford from George, sixth Marquis of Tweed- 
dale (dated Newhall, Dec. 26, 1772), it appears 
that he had also refused to undertake the same 
duties, attended by the same prospective advan- 
tages, in the family of that nobleman's elder 
brother. The Rev. Richard Gifford married in 
1763 Elizabeth Woodhouse, cousin and devisee of 
the Rev. Thomas Alley ne, M. A., Rector of Lough- 
borough, co. Leicester. The subject of this notice 
died in 1807, aged eighty-two, leaving an only 
child, Euphemia, who died unmarried, Dec. 6, 
1853, in her eighty-ninth year. Mr. Gifford bore 
the arms of the Giffords of Tester, and his crest 
was a goat's head. 
A RELATIVE or " ONE GIFFORD, A CLERGYMAN." 



tn ftlfuar 

Lines quoted by Sir Robert Peel (2 nd S. ii. 48.) 
They are Dryden's of Shaftesbury in Absolom and 
AchitophcL C. 

" When waves run high, 
A daring pilot in extremity." 

The right version is, 

" A daring pilot in extremity, 
Pleased with the danger when the waves ran high." 
Absolom and Achitophel, 160. 

X.H. 

Tale wcaited (2 nd S. i. 11.) I beg to refer a. 0. 
to a tale entitled "The Table d'Hote," in the 
New Monthly Magazine (vol. Ixxi. p. 495.), of 
which the following is a summary of the chief in- 
cidents : An English tourist, at Interlacken, 
finds himself placed at the dinner- table vis-a-vis 
to a beautiful woman, whose features seem not 
altogether unfamiliar to him. His memory and 
conversational powers stimulated by his host's 
champagne, ho finds himself, by the time the ladies 



have withdrawn, in a position to impart to an 
Italian signor by his side his conviction that their 
beautiful convive was the identical person whom 
he had chanced to see exposed in the pillory, and 
branded as a thief, a year or two ago at Brussells. 
The Italian, who has become excited during the 
progress of the story, quits the dinner-table, and 
the communicative Englishman takes a digestive 
stroll. In the evening he is summoned by the 
waiter into the Italian's room ; where he learns, 
to his horror, that the person whom he has made 
the confidant of his reminiscences is the husband 
of their heroine ! A recantation is demanded, 
and a duel across the table proposed as an alter- 
native : the Italian proceeding, as a minor pre- 
liminary, to falsify the Englishman's statement by 
causing his wife, who is an agonised spectator of 
the interview, to bare her shoulders. She accom- 
plishes the process, and the fatal scar is seen. A 
yell, that bursts from the husband's lips, "pro- 
claims at once his conviction and his agony." 
Voices are now heard at the door ; and the Italian, 
finding that there is no time to lose, proceeds to 
business : his first pistol wounds his wife, the 
second puts a stop to his own career. The En- 
glishman shouts in desperation to those outside to 
force the door, and the curtain falls on the tableau. 

This outline of the story may either save or 
stimulate reference to the volume which I have 
indicated. WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 

Striking in the King's Court (2 nd S. ii. 49.) 
The first Duke of Devonshire, when Lord Caven- 
dish, having struck Colonel Culpepper within the 
verge of the court, was acrimoniously prosecuted 
for the offence ; and was glad to escape the am- 
putation by a fine of 30,000/., which was, I think, 
remitted at the Revolution which soon after fol- 
lowed. C. 

Lawn Billiards (2 nd S. ii. 10.) Troco, or 
TrochOy which F. C. B. brings forward as another 
name for the above, is most likely a word adopted 
from the Greek by the inventor OP restorer of 
the game. Tpox^s (vide Donnegan's Lex.) means 
" any thing of a circular or globular form, a ball 
or globe." Instances of a similar application of 
the ancient languages to modern inventions will 
be familiar to most of your readers, e. q. Rhypo- 
phagon, Kamptulicon, Antigropelos ; and in my 
time, at Cambridge, a certain slate billiard table 
was designated on the owner's sign-board as 
"patent petrosian" (from TreVpoy, "a stone," no 
doubt). J. EASTWOOD. 

Eckington. 

Credence Table (2 nd S. i. 154.) I saw it stated 
in one of our quarterly periodicals in 1852, that 
"credence table" was derived from an obsolete 
German verb, Kredenzen, to taste, owing to the 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 30., JULY 26. '56. 



elements being placed on the credence table ; with 
a view to their being publicly tasted (before con- 
secration) by a person appointed for that purpose, 
whenever the monarch was about to communicate, 
lest poison intended to destroy the monarch 
should be mixed with the bread or wine. 

JUVEBNA. 

Benjamin Franklin (2 d S. i. 305.) Some 
curious particulars connected with the life of the 
philosopher are given in 

" History of a French Louse, or the Spy of a New 
Species in France and England, &c. A Key to the chief 
Events of the Year 1779, and those which are to happen 
in 1780. London : printed for T. Becket, Adelphi, Strand, 
1779." 

Franklin had been, at this time, the minister- 
plenipotentiary from the American Congress to 
the Court of London, and had not escaped the 
satire of the English pamphleteers. From the 
rather scurrilous nature of the publication, what 
is stated may be expected to be a little over- 
charged, yet not inconsistent with the information 
we have through other channels of the Doctor's 
habits. One extract as a specimen of his economy 
may suffice : 

" He then quitted his master, and lived privately, sub- 
sisting for many years upon fourpence a-day. I cannot 
conceive how he did it : to me it seems impossible. And 
yet nothing is more eas} 7 ; it requires only resolution : his 
method was to purchase for three pence a quantity of 
potatoes, which served him for bread and meat both, and 
of which there was sufficient to subsist on a Avhole week. 
A baker roasted them for a halfpenny; and he bought 
from a milk-woman, daily, a halfpenny worth of milk ; 
all this amounted to no more than sevenpence a week. 
He gave a penny a day for his lodgings in a garret, be- 
cause be liked neatness and convenience, otherwise he 
might have accommodated himself at a cheaper rate. He 
drank small beer mixed with water, and this cost him 
twopence a week. The remainder he laid by for dress and 
pocket -money : for he employed nobody to wash for him, 
or to mend his linen and stockings. Now let us calculate, 
and you will be convinced that it is not impossible to live 
upon this sum. Fourpence a day makes twenty-eight 
pence a week : 

His potatoes, the dressing of them, and his milk, 
cost him every week ----- 7d 

His lodging - - - - - - -7 

And his beer ---..--- 2 



Total 



- 16 



Thus, out of eight-and-twenty pence a week, there re- 
mained twelve to make a figure with." 

In the Universal Asylum and Columbian Maga- 
zine for April 1790, printed at " Philadelphia by 
William Young" (who emigrated from Paisley), 
will be found a very interesting notice of " the 
order of procession" at the Doctor's funeral ; and 
a " short account of his last illness by his attend- 
ing physician." G. N. 

Umbrella or Parasol (2 nd S. i. 503.) Jos. G. 
says, " If it be an umbrella, it certainly is a some- 



what ancient discovery." Why not ? When, for 
aught we know, the Chinese, Burmese, and natives 
of India, have used umbrellas from time imme- 
morial. The umbrellas referred to in the Nine- 
vite sculptures are facsimiles of the " chattas " 
still in use among the Burmese and Indians. 

E. E. BYNG. 

Surnames (2 nd S. i. 213. 396. 522.) It may 
further establish the fact, that Rand is a local 
name, if I mention that the eighth Abbat of 
Bardney, who was deposed in 1214, bore the name 
of Half de Rand. See Leland's Collectanea, vi. 
216., Lond., 1770, 8vo. J. SANSOM. 

Hengist and Horsa (2 nd S. i. 439.) J. M. K. 



" There is no reason to believe the Frisian heroes 
Hengist and Horsa to be a .bit more genuine than Cad- 
mus or Romulus ; they merely adumbrate in the usual 
way the historical fact that Kent was peopled by Frisian 
tribes." 

If they are but myths, how is their descent 
actually registered in the old chronicles quoted 
by Mac Cabe in his Catholic History of England? 
A.t p. 96., he says : " They were the sons of Wicht- 
gisius, the son of Wecta, whose father was 
Woden." For this genealogy he gives Beda as 
his authority. Then (p. 97.) he transcribes from 
Roger de Wendover and Geoffry of Monmouth a 
conversation between Hengist and the British 
king Vortigern. In a note (p. 98.), he quotes 
from Sir F. Palgrave's Rise and Progress of the 
English Commonwealth, and says : 

" The learned author remarks, as to Hengist and Horsa, 
that, 'the names bestowed upon the sons of Wightgils 
seem to be poetical epithets, rather than real denomina- 
tions; both have the same meaning, and both only de- 
signate the snow-white steed, from whom their ancestors 
sought the omen before they entered the conflict, and 
whose form, still constituting the heraldry of Kent, 
adorned the standard which led them forth to victory.' " 

At p. 101., he mentions "the daughter of Hen- 
gist," quoting William of Malmesbury and Poly- 
dore Vergil. By Geoffry of Monmouth she is called 
" Eonwen ;" and by Nennius, " Romwena." The 
same authorities describe the death of Horsa, and 
his being succeeded by Hengist. In a note 
(p. 108.), Mac Cabe says : "Horsa is believed to 
have been buried at Horstead in Kent ;" adding, 
in inverted commas, " Monumentum suo nomine 
insigne." In the note following the above, he 
quotes from the Saxon Chronicle, A. D. 455 : 
"And aefter tham feng Hengest to rice." The 
return of Hengist to England in 461 is there re- 
lated (p. 111.), with his subsequent acts, till his 
sentence by Eldad, Bishop of Gloucester, in the 
Council of Conisborough, to be beheaded. Geof. 
Mon., Rog. de Wend., and Matt. Westni., all agree 
in this account of his death. 

Could so many facts have been recorded of two 
heroes who had no personal existence whatever ? 



2 nd S. NO 30., JULY 26. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



when William of Malmesbury even gives a per- 
sonal character of Hengist : 

" Vir qui successus suos non minus fraudibus quam 
viribus urgens, inultum geuuinse sicvitiai indulgens, 
omnia cruentius quam civilius agere mallet." Gest. Her. 
Any., lib. i. sec. 8. 

This quoted by Mac Cabe in a note, p. 127. 

E. E. BYKG. 

Morning Dreams (2 nd S. i. 392.) Your corre- 
spondent SARTOR has, I think, misquoted a line 
from Samuel Lover's songs of The Superstitions 
of the Irish Peasantry, which begins with these 
lines : 

" The eye of weeping 

Had closed in sleeping, 
And I dreamed a sweet dream yesternight." 

The concluding line of the song is, 

" For I knew that the morning dream was true." 
The superstition is as old as Horace, who writes 
(1st Book of Satires, 10th Satire, 31st line) : 

" Atqui ego, cum Graecos facerem, natus mare citra, 
Versiculos, vetuit tali me voce Quirinus, 
Post mediam noctem visus, quum somnia vera." 

Tibullus also, in the fourth Elegy of his third 
book, writes : 

" Dii meliora ferant, ne sint insomnia vera, 
Quse tulit extrema proxima nocte quies." 

And Ovid (Epist. Heroides) : 

" Namque sub Aurora, jam dormitante lucerna, 
Tempore quo cerni somnia vera solent." 

See the Delphin Horace, p. 423. 

JUVERNA, M.A. 

Dreams true after Midnight. Orellius, com- 
menting on Horace, Sat. i. 10. 33. (" Quirinus 
post mediam noctem visus, quum somnia vera), 
cites Moschus, 2. 2. : 

" NUKTOS ore rpirarov \axs i'tTTarai, eyyvOi 8' %<*>$ 
EVTC Kal a.Tpe/ce'wf TroiuaiVerac tOvos bvfipuv." 

A. A.D. 

Thomas Simon (1 st S. xii. 27. ; 2 nd S. i. 477.) 
As Simon was a citizen and goldsmith, his father's 
name and his own age will be found in the record 
of his apprenticeship and admission to the freedom 
in the books of the Goldsmiths' Company, and 
most likely other particulars. The officials of the 
Company would doubtless willingly contribute to 
the fame of a member so eminent. The same 
books will show whether his sons were admitted 
to the freedom by patrimony. HYDE CLARKE. 

Whitsunday (2 nd S. i. 521.) In enumerating 
the Feasts, on which churches were decked with 
flowers, MR. MACKENZIE WALCOTT having men- 
tioned that of Pentecost, calls the English name 
Whiteson-Day, and considers that name a cor- 
ruption of the German pingsten, fiftieth. But 
surely here is a twofold mistake. The word 
should be Pfingsten, which has no apparent con- 



nection with the German word for fiftieth, which 
is funfzigste. Still less conceivable is it that our 
word Whiteson-Day, or Whitsunday, can have 
been a corruption of Pfingsten, by any process 
however ingenious. The received origin of the 
name Whitsunday is from the appearance of the 
neophytes on that Sunday and during the octave, 
in the church, in the white garments which they 
had received at their solemn baptism on the pre- 
ceding Saturday, called Whitsun Eve. F. C. H. 

Odments (2 nd S. i. 433.) This word is still in 
common use in various parts of the north of Eng- 
land, particularly in the Deanery of Craven, in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire. Your corre- 
spondent CENTURION will find it in both Brocket's 
Glossary, and an anonymous one of the Craven 
dialect. Q 

Bloomsbury. 

The Weather (2 nd S. i. 431.) The observation 
of N. H. L. R. relative to a change in the prevail- 
ing winds, corresponds with my own experience 
on the same subject ; and this change is especially 
remarkable in the west of England, where for- 
merly the S.W. almost amounted to a " trade." 

A few years ago, being at Dover, I learned 
from the pilots that the S.W., which used to be 
the prevalent wind, was no longer so, easterly 
winds now predominating ; as might be seen by a 
reference to the book kept in the harbour-master's 
office. 

I never made the reference, therefore cannot 
vouch for the truth of the assertion. Perhaps 
your correspondent may have an opportunity of 
so doing. A. C. M. 

Exeter. 

Burning of Boohs (2 nd S. ii. 19.) At the time 
of the late Duke of York's connexion with Mrs. 
Mary Anne Clarke, in the years 1808-9, I re- 
member, an amusing caricature by Rowlandson, 
called " The Burning of the Books." It repre- 
sented Mrs. Clarke ordering piles of books to be 
burnt, which were brought on the shoulders of 
several men, and flung into a large fire. The 
books were lettered Memoirs of Mrs. C., of Col. 
Wardle, the D. of York, &c.. and Mrs. Clarke was 
represented saying ; " Burn away ! I would burn 
the universe for the money. Not a single vestige 
in print or manuscript shall be preserved, except 
copies for Dr. O'Meara, and a few private friends." 

F.C.H. 

Port Jackson (2 nd S. ii. 50.) I think there can 
be no doubt that Port Jackson was so named 
after Sir George Jackson, then second secretary 
of the Admiralty. The claim of the " man at the 
mast head" is negatived by the statement that 
produces it ; for how could the " man, at the mast 
head" have had any share in discovering a 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 30., JULS: 26. '56. 



harbour, so wholly invisible from seaward that 
when the captain, taking to his boat, found out an 
entrance, he was filfed with "astonishment more 
easily conceived than described." C. 

Jewish Persuasion (2 nd S. i. 492.) CENT^JUION 
proposes what seems to me a very odd question. 
Persuasion is a very common synonyme for reli- 
gious belief. It means (not that a man has been 
persuaded by any one to adopt a creed, but) that 
he is what he is by conviction. An instance of the 
use of the term occurs in Goldsmith's History of 
England, where one motive which induced Percy 
to write his mysterious letter to Lord Monteagle 
is said to be because the latter " was of the same 
persuasion as himself." C. H. S. (Clk.) 

Rev. R. Montgomery (2 nd S. i. 293. 321. 400. 
521.) G. professes to write "for the sake of 
accuracy," and endorses D.'s communication as 
" correct." Now D. said that the evidence of a 
baptismal register had never been adduced. JAMES 
DARLING, however, showed that this had been ad- 
duced. And yet says G., D.'s communication is 
" correct ! " What would convince G. ? A bap- 
tismal register is evidence in a court of law; and 
therefore G. must prove that Mr. Montgomery 
sent a forged certificate to the Quarterly, or else 
must submit to be deemed inaccurate. A Bath 
Directory is of no weight against a baptismal 
register. (3. 7 . 5. 

Meaning qf"haync" (2 nd S. ii. 49.) J. E. should 
have stated which his "neighbourhood" is. It is 
not a frequent termination in any district that I 
remember. It may possibly be the plural of hay, 
a hedge. C. 

Parochial Libraries (2 nd S. i. 459.) There 
was one attached to the parish church of Wester- 
ham, Kent : 

"One Charles West gave the parish by will in 1765, 
together with TOO/, stock for the use of the poor, a library 
of books consisting of several hundred volumes, many of 
them curious and rare. The catalogue of these books is 
carefully preserved in the parish chest, but the books 
themselves are nowhere to be found." George's Wester- 
ham Journal, April 1, 1844. 

Westerham church has unfortunately often fallen 
into bad hands : its library has gone, many of its 
brasses have been removed, in some instances by 
those who should have protected them. A writer 
in the Gent's Mag., 1807, complains of seeing 
one acting as fender to the clerk's fire-place! 
There are several excellent specimens still exist- 
ing, one of which has been recently engraved by 
Mr. Dunkin in his History of Kent; but if not re- 
moved to some other part of the church, or affixed 
to the wall near, it will (being just within the 
porch) be worn to a level with the paving. But 
all has been " low and slow:" a fine roof lath and 
plastered over, pews like sheep pens, windows cut 



about, and everything done to deface and to spoil 
what otherwise would have been an imposing, 
though not handsome, structure. 

I believe, however, that a different spirit in 
some measure has been awakened, and that there 
are those now who would prevent any further 
devastation. H. G. D. 

Validity of English Orders &"* S.'i. 476.) 
No one doubts that the practice in the church of 
Rome is, and long has been, to deny the validity 
of English orders ; but it is a curious point of 
history that this practice was by no means uniform 
at the time of the Reformation. Thus Latimer 
was taken for no true bishop, and not degraded 
from the episcopal order, while several others 
who had been consecrated exactly as Latimer was, 
but conformed under Queen Mary, were at once 
acknowledged bishops, without re-consecration. 

/3. 7. 5. 

Religious Play before Henri/ VIII. at Green- 
wich in 1527 (2 nd S. ii. 24.) C. M. has failed to 
remark the errors made by Mr. Froude in his mo- 
dernised version of the old account respecting 
this play. They are of more importance than the 
question whether Mr. Froude copied from Mr. 
Collier, or not; whilst they pretty clearly show 
that he did not copy from the Annals of the Stage, 
as docs the circumstance of Mr. Froude quoting 
from the Rolls House, where the MS. is now de- 
posited, instead of the Chapter House, where it was 
when Mr. Collier wrote. Mr. Froude has omitted 
two of the dramatis persons, the Poet, and one of 
the ladies of Bohemia, named Corruption of Scrip- 
ture ; the three orthodox characters, Religio, 
Ecclesia, and Veritas, he has converted into 
widows instead of novices, and their veils into 
" suits" of lawn and cypress. Neither Mr. Froude 
nor. Mr. Collier explain how Luther was "lyke a 
party freer;" but I imagine the term applies to. 
his costume : he was " in russet damaske and blahe 
taffata," a sort of party or mongrel friar, some- 
thing like a wet Quaker. Neither is it explained 
how it was that the children of Paul's required so 
many as six boats for their conveyance to court : 
but I have little doubt that the six boats were, as 
six cabs might be now, employed at six different 
times, either at six several visits to the court (for 
the rehearsals as well as the performance), or for 
three visits, one boat on each occasion being hired 
for going to Greenwich, and the other for re- 
turning. J- G- NICHOLS. 

Numerous Families (2 nd S. ii. 39.) In the 
church of St. Nicolas, at Ghent, there is a tablet 
to the memory of Oliver Minjau and Amalberga 
Slangen, his wife, who were the parents of thirty- 
one children, twenty-one boys and ten girls. Old 
Oliver appeared at the head of his twenty-one 
sons, all in uniform, when Charles V. made his 



NO 30., JULY 26. T>6.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



79 



entry into Ghent as Count of Flanders. Charles 
was so pleased at the fact of a simple artisan 
bringing up and educating such a family, that he 
conferred on Oliver a modest pension. The re- 
nowned Count of Abensberg, when the Emperor 
Henry IT. visited his German provinces, presented 
his thirty-two children as the most acceptable 
offering he could make to his sovereign. The 
Count was happier with them than poor Minjau 
and his wife Amalberga with theirs. The thirty- 
one children of this Ghent couple were carried off 
together, in 1526, by the suette, which we have no 
difficulty (as it is called the newly imported En- 
glish disease) in recognising as the black sweat of 
England. Minjau and his wife died within a few 
weeks after the loss of all their children, among 
whom they lie interred. Their monument is the 
most affecting of the many memorials of the dead 
raised in populous Ghent. J. DORAN. 

Irish Round Towers (2 nd S. ii. 44.) In reply 
to J. M. G., I beg leave to express my dissent 
from his statement, that the origin of these towers 
is a profound mystery. I have myself visited and 
examined a majority of them ; and have read, I 
believe, all that has been published about them, 
and have not the slightest doubt that they were 
belfries^ as their ancient, as well as present native, 
denomination imports, clochas. I cannot but think 
that it would be a sad waste of your space to re- 
produce the absurd theories with which this really 
very simple question has been perplexed. C. 

The best theory that I have heard, as to the 
origin of the round towers, was one current in the 
famine years, when all kinds of useless labour 
were devised for the employment of the poor. It 
was simply this there was a Board of Works in 
those days. X. II. 

Showing the White Feather (1 st S. v. 274. 309.) 
In Andrew Borde's Bohe of the Introduction of 
Knowledge, 1542, I find, under the head Navarre : 

" The chiefc towne is Pampilona, and there is another 
towne called Saynte Domyngo, in the whyche towne there 
is a church, in the whiche is kept a white cocke and a 
hene. And euery pilgrime that goeth or commyth y* 
way to Saynt James in Compostel hath a whit feder to 
set on his hat." 

Borde then proceeds to tell a marvellous tale 
about this cock and hen ; which, however, do not 
appear to be connected with the pilgrim's white 
feather, otherwise than in his inexplicit language. 

J. P. 

Birmingham. 

The Ten Commandments (2 nd S. i. 503.) For 
the sake of information and not controversy, will 
F. C. H. be so good as to give the editions, dates, 
&c., of "the [Roman-Catholic] catechisms used 
by authority in this country " in which the Com- 



mandments are taught at length? Dr. M c Caul 
in a tract published a few years ago stated that 
he could find only one or two such in the world. 

0. y. 8. 

Jacobite Song (2 nd S. ii. 43.) There is a mis- 
print in this song which is worth correcting : 
" Monarchy halters " should be " Monarchy 
haters" 

In the "Political Poem," in p. 46., " trump" 
is obviously a mistake for "triumph" C. 

Kneller's Portrait of Shahsptare (2 nd S. 55. 45.) 
The following note from Sir Walter Scott's 
Dry den (vol. xi. p. 87.) will furnish your corre- 
spondent with the information of which he is in 
search : 

" The portrait was copied from one in the possession of 
Mr. Betterton, and afterwards in that of the Chandos 
family. Twelve engravings were executed from this 
painting, which, however, the ingenious Mr. Stevens 
[Steevens?], and other commentators on Shakspeare, 
pronounced a forgery. The copy presented by Kneller to 
Dryden is in the collection of Earl Fitzwilliam at Went- 
worth House ; and may claim that veneration, from 
having been the object of our author's respect and en- 
thusiasm, which has been denied to its original, as a 
genuine portrait of Shakspeare. It is not, however, an 
admitted point that the Chandos picture is a forgery: 
the contrary has been keenly maintained ; and Mr. 
Malone's opinion has given weight to those who have 
espoused its defence." - 

J. Y. 

Crooked Naves (2 nd S. i. 432.) An instance 
of a crooked choir occurs in Christ Church, Dub- 
lin. The building takes a very decided bend to 
the north. It is remarkable that the east window 
of this cathedral is placed much nearer to one side 
(the south, I think,) than the other. It looks as if 
intended to compensate for the bend in the choir. 

C. H. S. (Clk.) 

"Swung," "Wong" " Wang" (2 nd S. i. 471. 
522.) At Tickhill, co. York, are lands, all or 
mostly meadow, called the North Wongs, South 
Wongs, Saffron Wongs, and Church Wongs. 

C. J. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

" Southey's Letters show his true character," is the 
motto, from one who knew him well, quoted on the title- 
page of the Selections from Ihe Letters of Robert Southey, 
of which the third and fourth volumes, edited by his son- 
in-law, the Rev. John Wood Warter, are now before us. 
We think this motto might be amended, and that to get 
Southey's true character, we should have all his letters, 
and not a selection, from which to form our judgment. 
On the appearance of the former volumes we spoke 
warmly in their favour ; and if our notice of those which 
are now published is more tempered, it is because we feel 
that justice to Sou they hjwself, asvreU as to. nianvpthers, 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2i g. N o 30., J ULY 2G. '56. 



of whom, under the influence of supposed wrong, he writes 
angrily, not to say unjustly, should have dictated many 
omissions. There is no more delicate task than that of 
selecting from the papers of those who have died full of 
fame and honours those which may most fairly and 
justly be given to the world. In his love and reverence 
for the name of Robert Southey, and his belief that 
Southey could do no wrong, his editor has not matle those 
suppressions which we are sure Southey himself would 
have insisted on. Such omissions would have added 
greatly to the charm of a book which will still be read 
with interest by all the admirers of the Laureate. 

The new number of The Quarterly Review opens with a 
well written article, on that historical and religious 
mystery, Savonarola : this is followed by one on the new 
volumes of Grote, which are highly praised by the writer ; 
and a graphic and picturesque article on The Causes of 
the Civil War, completes the list of historical papers. 
The political articles treat on The Papal Government and 
The Dispute with America; and the gossiping article, 
always a good one in The Quarterly, is that entitled The 
Police and the Thieves. 

How much of'its present popularity Walton's Angler owes 
to the piscatorial tendencies of our publishers is a pretty 
matter for speculation. To that cause we are certainly 
indebted for the beautiful editions of Bagster, John Major, 
and Pickering ; and to this list we have now to add one 
brought out by Bohn, of great beauty and marvellous 
cheapness, iinder the editorship and supervision of Mr. 
Jesse, but with large contributions from his own pen. When 
we say that this edition contains upwards of two hundred 
woodcuts, and six-and-twenty engravings on steel, our 
readers will readily admit that this 7s. Gd. volume of 
Bohn's Illustrated Library offers to eve lover of dear 



ner, with proof impressions of plates of his father and 
of the companion of his travels, Nicolas Revett. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

POEMS. One copy of each of the different editions. 



lowest 



rice, carriage, free, to be 

AND 



old Izaak an opportunity of securing a handsome copy of 
this quaint, delightful, and Avorld-renowned book. 

Much as we prize Croker's Doswcll in one volume, a I 
most useful, indeed, indispensable companion to the 
writing table of all literary men, we are well pleased to 
hear that a new edition of it, in four volumes, is pre- 
paring for publication in Murray's Series of British 
Classics. It will be a most valuable addition to this 
cheap and handsome Series ; especially as the editor will 
of course take advantage of all that has been lately pro- 
duced upon the subject, to make it, not a mere reprint, 
but a new edition. 

We cannot resist calling the attention of the admirers 
of the poet Cowper to the fact, that no less than forty- 
four of his letters (twenty-one of which are unpublished) 
are to be sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson in the Col- 
lection of Autographs belonging to the late Mr. Lambe, 
announced for sale by them next week. 

Who has not heard of the celebrated ATHENIAN 
STUART, perhaps better known to the last than to the 
present generation ; but still revered by all true lovers of 
the Fine Arts for the splendid work bearing his honoured 
name The Antiquities of Athens. The notices of his 
death in 1788 inform us, that the worthy artist and 
architect survived but a short time the death of his dar- 
ling boy, the "very image and superscription " of himself 
both in body and mind, who manifested a most astonish- 
ing turn for drawing even before he was three years of 
age, and would imitate with pen and pencil everything 
lying on his father's table. Another son Avas living at 
the time of his death, "a fine boj'," then at Mr. Barney's 
boarding-school at Hammersmith. Many an octogena- 
rian will be glad to learn, that this "fine bov" (now 
Lieut. James Stuart, R.N.), the worthy son of a worthy 
father, might have been seen a few days since at the 
Architectural Library in High Holborn, where he was 
presented by Mr. John Weale, in a most handsome man- 



Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

HANNAMAN'S DICTIONARY OF MERCHANDISE. Johnston. 1799. 
HARWJCK'S MARINE DICTIONARY. 
CLARET'S FREEMASONRY. 

Wanted by Thomas Milkird, Bookseller, 70. Newgate Street. 

SONG op MARY THE MOTHER OP GOD. 

LOK (Henry) [or Locke] ECCLESIASTES ; OTHERWISE CALLED THE PREACHER, 
&c. Dilated into English Poesie. Whereunto are annexed sundrie 
Sonnets of Christian Passions, &c. 4to. Lond., K. Field. 1597. (A 
good price will be paid for this.) 

WADSWORTH'* SPANISH PILGRIM ; OR A DISCOVERY OF SPANISH POPERY 
AND JESUITICAL STRATAGEMS, &c. 4to. Lond., 1G30. 

PITTS' (Moses) ACCOUNT OF ONE ANN JKFIKRIES, NOW LIVINO IN THB 
COUNTY OF CORNWALL, WHO WAS FED FOR Six MONTHS BY A SMALL 
SORT OP AIRY PEOPLE CALLED FAIRIBS. 12mo. 1696. 

PRYSK LOVEDEN rersux RAYMOND BARKER, TRIAL. 8vo. (About) 1807. 

VANELLA. By Vane. 4 to. 

PARNALL'S POEMS. 12mo. Pickering's Edition. 

GOLDSMITFI'S POEMS. 12mo. Pickering's Edition. 

ULLATHORNE'S SERMONS. 8vo. 1842. 

HOLLAND'S RECORDS OF THE PSALMISTS OF BRITAIN. 2 Vols. 8vo. 
Wanted by John C. Ilotten, Bookseller, 101 n, Piccadilly, London. 

ARCHBISHOP WHITGIFT'S WORKS. Vol. II. Published by the Parker 
Society in 1852. 

Wanted by Geo. W. Xapier, 11. Birchin Lane, Manchester. 



ORIGINAL FAMILY SERMONS. Small 8vo. J. W. Parker. Vol. II. to 

end. 
JONOT'S (DUCHESS OF ABRANTES) COURT AND FAMILY OF NAPOLEON. 

2 Vols. Svo. Portraits. Bentley. 
MANZONI, PUOMESSI SPOSI. 2 Vols. Small 8vo. Baudry. 1831. Vol.1. 

Sewed. 

Wanted by Charles F. Blackburn, Bookseller, Leamington. 

MRS. JAMESON'S CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN. 
ANY ESSAYS OR CRITIQUES UPON SHAKSPEARF.'S HAMLET. 
DUPORT'S ESSAIS LITTERAIRES SUR SHAKSPEARF. 2 Vols. Svo. Paris, 
1828, or later. 

Wanted by Z. A. If., Post Office, Dartmouth Row, Blackheath. 



ta 

J. II. P. will find much illustration of " God tempers the wind," <? c., 
which perhaps utct-x its popularity to Sterne's Sentimental Journey, in our 
1st Series, Vol. i. and Vol. vii. 

BEHM. will find A. E. B.'s article on the passage in Hamlet, " my 
tables, mi/ tables meet it is I set it down" in our 5th Vol. p. 241. 

Z. A. II. There, are no English translations ofTieck.'s Alt-Englisches 
Theater inid Shakeperes Vorschule ; we have therefore, omitted them 
from his list of looks. They arc themselves chiefly translations from the 
English. 

Answers to otlier Correspondents in our next. 

INDEX TO THE FIRST SERIES. As this is now published, and the. im- 
pression is a limited one, such of our readers as desire copies u-oidd do 
veil l/> intimate their wish to their respective booksellers ir it/tout delai/. 
Our publishers, MESSRS. BELL & DALDY, will forward copies b>j post on 
receipt of a 1'ost Office Order for fire Shillings. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, so that the 
(.am/try Jlooksi'Ui'rs man receive. Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the con- 
ri-iii, in; 1,1 t/inse ir/io may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
*l<ni>l ;,/./?/ \ umbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resident in the count)-;/ or abroad, who men/ be desirous of receiving the 
a-:, 1:1 ii jYiim/icrs, mat/ have stamped copies forwarded direct from the 
J'libhshcr. The subscription for the. stumped edition of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES" (including a rcrif copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which mat/ be. paid by Post Office Order, drawn in 
favour ofttie Publisher, MR. GEO'RGB BELL,' No. 186. Fleet Street. 



d s. N 31., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



81 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 2, 1856. 



MEANS OP READING THE LOGIC OF ARISTOTLE. 

Some years ago it would have been difficult to 
find the Greek text of the Organon (as the mo- 
derns call it) in a separate form. Beginners, who 
have not acquired the profligate habits of book 
collectors, would never think of buying the five 
volumes of Buhle (Strasburg, 1791, &c., 8vo.), or 
the four volumes of Bekker (Berlin, 1831, &c., 
4to.), or even the large single volume of Weise 
(Leipsic, 1843, 4to.), for the Organon only. In 
our day the best plan would be to get the first 
volume of Didot's Aristotle (Paris, 1848, large 
octavo), which is sold separately, and contains the 
Organon, the Rhetoric, the Poetics, and the Po- 
litics. The Latin runs by the side of the Greek, 
and the type is beautiful. The greatest defect is 
that the Rhetoric begins on the over leaf or verso, 
as the learned say of the end of the Organon ; 
so that any one who would like to have a separate 
interleaved copy of the first, must spoil the se- 
cond. It is a pity that publishers do not think of 
such things. But it must be owned that it is not 
uncommon to find a case the rhetoric of which 
would never have a beginning if its logic were 
but allowed to go on to its proper end. 

For those who would rather not read the Or- 
ganon in Greek or Latin, but would nevertheless 
like to get a taste of the Greek, whether for use 
or show, there is the small work of F. A. Trende- 
lenberg, Elementa Logices Aristotelica, Berlin, 
1842, 8vo., 2nd edition. This work contains (Gr. 
Lat. with notes) such selected passages as give an 
outline of the system, and especially of its phrase- 
ology. These passages, translated into English, 
form the article " Organon " in the Supplement of 
the Penny Cyclopedia. 

I am not aware of any Latin Organon, without 
Greek, which can be easily got at. But never 
having met with any Latin translations of Greek 
philosophy which were intelligible without the 
Greek to explain them, I should probably not 
venture to recommend such a thing, if I had found 
it. 

In French there are two works of the highest 
character : both by M. Barthelemy St. Hilaire. 
The first, La Logique d'Aristote, Paris, 1838, two 
vols. 8vo., containing a complete account and 
analysis of the Organon, with all the Greek terms 
added, as they occur, in parentheses. The second, 
Logique d'Aristote, a complete translation, Paris, 
1844, 1839, 1842, 1843, four vols. 8vo., with the 
plan of each book prefixed. This is the first 
French translation. 

The first English translation of the Organon 
was made by Thomas Taylor, called the Platonist, 
a very remarkable man, of whom the fullest ac- 



count is in the Penny Cyclopaedia. He spent his 
life in reviving Greek philosophy, and it is said 
that, by his enthusiasm, he induced patrons who 
had money to print his translations to the amount 
of ten thousand pounds. The Organon was trans- 
lated by Taylor for a wealthy retired tradesman, 
named Meredith, who had read Plato in Taylor's 
translation, and desired to read Aristotle. Taylor 
undertook the task, on condition that Meredith 
should print it ; but the number of copies was very 
small. It was published in quarto, in 1807, with 
the title, The Organon, or Logical Treatises of 
Aristotle . . . with copious Elucidations from 
the Commentaries of Ammonius and Simplicius. I 
suppose this very volume afterwards formed part 
of Taylor's complete translation of Aristotle, pub- 
lished in nine volumes quarto, in 1812. 

Taylor's curious Platonism, and his desire to 
revive even the very mythology of the Greeks, in 
some sense or other, caused him to be regarded as 
a kind of madman ; and this opinion has been pre- 
judicial to a fair judgment of his works. His 
translations are difficult, because they are so 
Greek ; but they have a merit which begins to be 
acknowledged. Mr. Owen, presently mentioned, 
calls him " my solitary predecessor in this labo- 
rious undertaking, whose strict integrity in en- 
deavouring to give the meaning of the text de- 
serves the highest commendation." But the work 
is so very scarce that it is needless to discuss it as 
a means by which any one who chooses may know 
Aristotle. I suspect that what a distinguished 
living writer said of Cousin, " The reader must be 
mindful to judge of Plato by M. Cousin's trans- 
lations of the dialogues, and not by M. Cousin's 
prefaces to them," will also apply to Taylor. 
Still, the opinion of the man who lived and moved 
and had his being in Greek philosophy must 
always be worthy of attention. 

The second, and as yet the best, English trans- 
lation of the Organon is published in Bohn's 
Classical Library : The Organon, or Logical Trea- 
tises of Aristotle, London, 1853, two vols. small 
8vo., translated bjr the Rev. O. F. Owen. This 
translation has copious notes, and is a very great 
boon to the student. Not that it is easy : in fact, 
a translation of Aristotle, to be easy, must be, 
not Aristotle, but only a presentation of the trans- 
lator's idea of Aristotle. Taylor and Owen do 
not read like English, nor does Barthelemy St. 
Hilaire read like French ; there is a certain 
Greekishness about them all. Had it been other- 
wise, we should have had less of a translation, and 
more of a paraphrase. 

A small, portion of the Organon, the " Posterior 
Analytics," has been translated by E. Poste, A.M., 
of Oriel College, under the name of the Logic of 
Science,. Oxford, 1850, 8vo., with notes and an 
introductory sketch of the Organon. This is 
more English, and therefore more intelligible, than 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 31., AUG. 2. '56. 



the other translations ; but it is therefore more of 
a paraphrase, and less of a translation. 

Perhaps others may be able to give information 
of some things of the same kind with which I am 
unacquainted. A. DE MORGAN. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACAULAY. 

The Country Party and a Standing Army. 
Mr. Macaulay, vol. ii. p. 23., represents the coun- 
try party as strongly opposing the demand made 
in the Speech from the Throne, Nov. 9, 1685, for 
a supply to maintain a standing army. 

u He tells us that Sir William Twysden, member 
for the county of Kent, spoke on the same side 
with great keenness and loud applause." 

This Sir William was son and heir of the learned 
Sir Roger, and was himself no mean scholar. 
Among the papers from Roydon Hall, now in my 
possession, is his autograph note of two speeches 
which he made on this occasion. The first was in 
the debate on 12th November, in a Committee of 
the whole House to consider the Speech from the 
Throne, as follows : 

" The case seems to mee to bee of great weight ; 
wee may call it what we will, it is the settling a 
standing army by law, and charging the king-dome 
with a taxe for the maintaining it, things quite 
contrary to all the maximes our ancestors have 
gone by, who have alwayes endeavoured the sub- 
ject should stand in awe of officers of justice, but 
not of officers of warr. I am as much as any man 
for the king's having good guards ; I think it 
agreeable to the majesty of a king, to the security 
of bis person ; but I think the kingdome best 
guarded by lawe. I remember in the one-and- 
twentyeth of Edward the Third (Rot. Par., 21 E. 3. 
n. 70.), the king asked advice of his parliament, 
how the peace of his kingdome should best bee 
kept ; they did not advise him to a standing army 
for the keeping it ; they advised him to send com- 
missioners into the several countyes to punish the 
breakers of it. Wee are now in a perfaict quiet 
peace ; all heads of party es and of factions taken of; 
there seemes now to bee as little need of an army 
as can bee at any time ; and truly, when it is not 
wanted, I think the kingdome as safe without it 
as it can bee by it. The truth is, armyes have so 
often done more hurt to governments then good, 
and do so generally, where they are, take a most 
uncontrouleable authority in the managing of it, 
that men are justly afraid of them. It is said the 
case of the late Duke of Monmouth seemes to 
shew the necessity of a standing army ; and it is 
pressed, truely with great force, not onely by the 
king in his speech, but by those noble lords there 
at the barr. To my apprehension, the argument 
will hardly beare the weight is layd on it. Wee 



all know how much that man was the favourite of 
a faction ; that hee landed in a part of England of 
all other the most inclined to him. Yet, with all 
this, no one gentleman, no one man of any quality, 
joyned themselves to him ; nay, quite contrary, 
did their duty in opposing him : and that rabble 
that he had gathered together, though headed by 
officers that himselfe brought with him, were in 
plaine fighting beaten by eighteen hundred men. 
Sir, if the consequence of this bee the necessity of 
a standing army, it is a strange thing wee have 
lived so long without one ; for most certain it is, 
there have been very few raignes since the Con- 
quest, in which there have not been more consider- 
able disturbances than this can amount to. I will 
not disturbe you long ; that therefore which I 
shall humbly move is, that wee may first consider 
whether a standing army bee necessary, before 
wee do of a supply for the maintaining it." 

" This was spoken by mee November 12, 
1685, as neer as I can remember it." 

The other speech was in a Committee of Supply, 
16th Nov., as follows : 

" It hath generally been the prudence of this 
house, that in cases that are new and are of great 
importance, to make their first acts temporary, 
and of probation onely. This that is before us, is 
perfaictly new. An establishment for the main- 
taining a standing force (I do not say a standing 
army, for that wee have all declared ourselves 
against) is what our ancestors were never ac- 
quainted with. Let us, therefore, see how the 
subject will like it ; whether it will sitt easy upon 
him, before wee conclude him for too long a time. 
It is of mighty importance ; wee cannot foresee 
the consequences of it. Let us not, therefore, 
conclude ourselves neither, so as to leave no 
roome for a succeeding parliament, or Sessions of 
Parliament, to alter or amend what by experience 
may bee found necessary. That, therefore, which 
I shall humbly move is, that wee may proportion 
our gift, so as that the establishment may not 
exceed two yeers, which foure hundred thousand 
pounds will fully do." 

" This was spoken by mee November 16, 
1685, as near as I can recollect it." 

The substance of the first of these speeches is 
given correctly (though condensed into eight 
lines) in The several Debates of the House of 
Commons, pro et contra, relating to the Establish- 
ment of a Militia, fyc., 8fc.; begining 9th No- 
vember, 1685, and ending the 20th day of the same 
Month, Sec. fyc. Sfc. London. 8vo. 1689. 

In the debate in the Committee of Supply, Nov. 
16, Sir William's speech is in that work totally 
misrepresented. L. B. L. 



. NO 31., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



M. DE CALONNE, " HIS ANGLO-FRENCH VIEWS, AND 
EULOGIUM ON THE ENGLISH NATION." 

The following article, which occurs in the 
' Political Magazine, reports an interesting extract 

from M. de Calonne's reply to M. Necker, the 

French Minister of Finance. As the prayer of 
1 an eminent statesman of the last century, it will 

not perhaps be denied a little space in the columns 

of "ST. &Q.": 

" An Address to the English and French Nations. 

u M. de Calonne, after saying that he wishes to be able 

to preserve in future an eternal silence, and that he shall 

wait tranquilly, and with resignation, the events which 

fortune has in store for him, being desirous to devote his 

| attention to science, to letters, and the arts ; and after 
declaring that he shall never cease to remember the con- 
fidence reposed in him by his king, or lose the regrets 
which naturally belong to his native country, concludes 

i as follows : 

" Shall it be a crime, in the mean time, to enjoy the 
consolation I feel in the reception of a nation, which 
every day makes me experience its kindness, and more 
acquainted with its virtues; of a free and considerate 
nation, where their thoughts rise above conditions, 
where disgrace is no stain, and where honourable senti- 

j ments have more credit than an appearance of being in 
favour. I am seen with indulgence, anticipated with 
affability, and even treated with more distinction than I 
desire. I find well-informed men of every description ; 

i I may make useful observations on the arts, on industry, 
and on commerce, which I can communicate again 
without violating the laws of hospitality: I can even 

I hope for true friends. Let this eulogium, frank as the 
country is in which I write, occasion neither surprise nor 
offence. Having never dissimulated, shall I now stifle a 

i truth connected with gratitude ? This sentiment exists, 

! and always will exist, without displacing from my bosom 
those which my birth, my duty, and the indelible love of 

1 my country, have engraved there. Why should not 
these feelings sympathise? Oh! that their accord may 
become more natural by the most desirable of unions : by 
the accomplishment of that wish, which, according to 
some historians, was formed by the most beloved monarch ; 
that wish, which humanity dictates, and which an intel- 
ligent policy seems equally to suggest to two nations, the 
most worthy of each other's regard, and the least in- 
terested to injure each other. Must a fatal rivalship 
always disunite, and too often arm against each other, 
two people, whose natural position offers no subject of 
dispute ; and who, owing to their reciprocal advantages, 
have nothing for which to envy each other ? As their 
division is the support of the hostilities of others, their 
alliance would be the seal of universal peace. They alone 
are in a condition to furnish the expences of a long war ; 
and when discord springs up, by the quarrels of the other 
princes, they alone, if they are dupes enough to take 
part, sacrifice commerce, treasure, and prosperity. O 
nations, without contradiction the most enlightened of 
all upon the globe, be better acquainted with your true 
interests ! As enemies, you can only mutually exhaust 
your strength, and vainly drench the earth with your 
blood ; as friends, you can impose on the earth the mild con- 
dition of general tranquillity. When can there be a more 
favourable conjuncture for forming the hope of seeing 
you partaking in, or rather exercising together, this truly 
divine function, than when each has the happiness to be 
governed by a moderate, pacific, and virtuous king? " 

F. PHLLLOTT. 



FOLK LORE. 



Stag Beetle. The late Mr. George Samouelle, 
of the British Museum, used to relate a story con- 
cerning the above insect, of which I should like 
to know if it obtains in many parts of England. 
During one of his excursions to or in the New 
Forest, he saw a number of countrymen assembled 
at the foot of a tree stoning something to death. 
On approaching he found a poor stag-beetle the 
subject of attack. Causing them to desist, he 
picked up the poor thing > and put it into a box, 
asking at the same time why it was to be stoned 
to death. He was told it was the devil's imp, 
and was sent to do some evil to the corn, which 
I have forgotten. Whether Mr. S. was considered 
the identical gentleman-in-black or not it is im- 
possible to say ; but I know he used to laugh at 
the stupid staring wonder of the countrymen, and 
the trouble he had to elicit a reply to his own 
ignorance. AVON LEA. 

Railway Custom. While passing from Ghent 
to Antwerp, in 1855, through the Pays de Waes, I 
observed a singular custom, of which I could not 
obtain any explanation. When the railway train 
was in motion, the labourers, both men and wo- 
men, engaged in the fields, joined hands, formed 
themselves in line ; and either turning their backs 
on the carriages, or at right angles with them, 
bent, and in some cases knelt down, preserving 
this attitude until the. train had passed. It is 
worth noting, that only such as were engaged on 
a piece of ground where there were crops growing 
acted in this way ; those standing ondie road, or 
on ploughed land, taking no notice ofphe train at 
all, nor indeed did any do so save while it was 
actually moving. I have never seen or heard of 
this custom elsewhere. R. F. L. 

Dublin. 

Fairies. While on the subject of folk-lore I 
may mention the following from the same county 
(Hertfordshire). Near St. Alban's (my grand- 
father used to relate) lived a farmer who was 
beloved by fairies. It mattered not how bad his 
crop of wheat was in the autumn, he always had 
corn in his barn as long as there was any in the 
district. Of this his neighbours were jealous; in- 
deed, so much so, that some of them inwardly 
believed he augmented his corn while they were 
asleep ; but though they often set a watch he was 
never caught in the act. One night his dogs were 
uneasy, and he, arising, saw a man creeping away 
from the homestead. He peeped into his barn to 
see if all were safe, when what should he behold 
but the fairies at work augmenting his stores. 
There was a loud buzz in the place, and hearing a 
little fairy say to another, " How I do tweat ! " 
he answered " Ye must sweat most darnably with 
one ear." Immediately the whole company took 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



O* S. NO 31., AUG. 2. '56. 



flight, and the result was there was a line of straws 
from the farmer's barn to one of his neighbour's, 
which remained till the morning, when the neigh- 
bour brought an accusation against the farmer for 
theft. The evidence of the man who was lurking 
about the homestead on his o^vn account was 
brought against him ; the line of straws was cir- 
cumstantial evidence, as well as the suspicion of 
the neighbourhood ; but as the neighbour had had 
a man watching in his own barn, who had not 
seen the farmer enter, -he was acquitted. The 
watchman of the neighbour had been sent to sleep 
by the fairies, but this part of the evidence had 
been withheld. However, from that day forth 
the young farmer was thought not too honest, and 
the neighbours' suspicions were confirmed by his 
barn ever after becoming empty at its proper 
period. AVON LEA. 



BULL OF ADRIAN THE FOURTH. 

Question as to the authenticity of the Bull of 
Adrian IV. (Pope), conferring the dominion of 
Ireland on Henry II. of England, from the Pro- 
pugnaculum Catholicce Veritatis, by Anthony Bru- 
odin, Prague, 1669, whose family were, the author 
states, hereditary chronologers of the O'Briens of 
Thomond. F. 

" Authores varii dicunt, quod Adrianus 4 natione An- 
glus, qui sedem Petri conscenderat Anno circa 1154 domi- 
nium liegni Hibernia?, sedi Apostolicae a Rege Donate 
6 Brien quondam oblatuni, cesserat Henrico 2 do Angloruin 
Kegi. 

" Hos sequitur Baronius Tom. 12. Annalium, ubi di- 
ploma recitatHlujus concessionis. 

" Ego (ut, quod sentio dicam) non parum de veritate 
hujus Hiatoria? dubito; nam, vivente Adriano Papa 
(qui obiit Anno salutis 1159 nee latum pedem in Hibernia 
habuit Henricus 2 dus , aut alius ullus extraneus, pra?ter 
Ostmannos : unde manifesto convicitur errore Sanderus in 
Schismatc Anglicano, fol. 196., qui dicit, quod postquam 
Henricus 2 dus nonnulla Insulo? loca sui, ac suorum (verba 
sunt Sanderi) hoc est Roberti Fitz Stephani et Richardi 
Comitis arrnis acquisita? tenebat, Clerus Hibernicus, simul 
cum multis Proeeribus suppliciter rogarunt, Adrianuni 4 
sumiuum Pontiiicem, ut ad tollendas sediLiones, Contro- 
versias, et nuiltas alias inconvenientias, totius Hibernian 
dominium Henrico 2 concedere vellet, &c. &c. 

" Quis oro non videt, quam crasse Sanderus in hac nar- 
ratioue erret. Adrianus Papa conscendit Petri Cathedram 
Anno 1154, sed itque annis tantum 4 et mensibus 8 et 
consequenter obiit Anno 1159 Kobertus autem Fitz Ste- 
phan, cum Geraldino in Hiberniam primo venit in succur- 
sum Dermitii Logenia? Principis circa Anno salutis 1172, 
viginti nimirum duobus annis postquam Adrianus fuit 
mortuus, quomodo ergo posset esse verum, quod ' Clerus, 
et populus supplicarunt Adriano Pontifici, ut Regi Hen- 
rico, postquam jam nonnulla loca in Insula occupavit, 
dominium liegi concedere vellet?' Adde motiva conces- 
sionis Dominii Hibernia;, in diplomats Adriani (si ipsius 
esset) posita, nimirum luce: ut'lapsam fidem Catholicam 
rcstauraret, virtutes plantaret, &c. esse falsa, et conse- 
quenter ipsum diploma esse subrepticium et falsum : nam 
fides Catholica in Hibernia floruit, vivente Adriano, tarn 
bene ac in Anglia, vel Italia, ut patet ex uberrima ilia 



sanctorum in Hibernia per tot continua sa?cula serie, ac 
caanobiorurn, etiam illo ipso tempore quo Angli Regionem 
subjugarunt, fundationibus : quomodo ergo per Anglos 
fides esset restauranda ? 

" Eodern argumento exploditur Sto, qui inter alia fig- 
ment*, in sua Chronica dicit quod Adrianus Papa, Henrico 
2 do anno primo sui Regni, hoc est Anno 1155, dominium 
Regni Hiberniae donavit. Exploditur inquam, nam Papa 
Adrianus fatiscessit antequam Henricus fuisset Rex,ut ex 
utriusque vita? Historia colligitur: ergo non est verum 
quod Henrico 2 do dominium Hiberniae cesserat. Ueinde 
nullum jus habuit unquam Papa in Hiberniam quod non 
habuit in Angliam, vel Franciam ; quomodo ergo potuis- 
set transferre dominium rei non sua? in alium ? si dicas 
quod a Rege Donato 6 Brien, jus simul cum Regni corona, 
Roraanus acceperat Pontifex, nihil dicis pro te: nam non 
habuit Donatus jus transferendi dominium Regni in Pa~ 
pam : et hoc hide patet quod post Donatum regnarunt 
pacifice in Hibernia 4 Reges : sub quibus duo nobilissima 
celebrata sunt Concilia Nationalia, et tamen illis regnan- 
tibus, nunquam fuit auditum, quod Papa Romanus esset 
Rex, aut Dominus Hibernia : quo dubio procul ipsius le- 
gati et maxime Cardinalis Joannes Papironius, non sileret, 
si de tali Domino aliquid scivisset. 

"Concludo igitur primo Papam Adrianum nunquam 
fuisse Dominum Hibernia;, magis quam Anglia?, et con- 
sequenter nunquam cessisse dominium Hiberniae Regi 
Anglia?. Secundo Henricum 2 um non fuisse Regem An- 
glia?, aut saltern non fuisse possessionatum in Hibernia, 
vivente Papa Adriano in Papatu ; et consequenter Hen- 
ricum Regem nullum accepisse ab Adriano jus in Hiber- 
niam. Tertio, Henricum devictis armis Hibernis, Anno 
1172 Petri sedem regnante Alexandro 3 extorto consensu 
omnium Regni Procerum obtinuisse dominium Hibernia?, 
et sic, successu temporis, Reges Angliae in legitimos eva- 
sisse Hibernia? Dominos: sicut defacto legitimi sunt Reges 
(utinam et Catholici) ac Domini Hibernia?. Successores 
etiam tot nobilium Familiarum, qua? illo regnante in Hi- 
berniam venerunt veri sunt Hiberni et legitimi possessores 
bonss fidei dominiorum qua? possident defacto (utinam 
paterna possiderent omnia bona) quamvis antecessores 
illorum tune nou justo magis titulo invaserunt Regnum 
alienum, quam Milesiani quondam illud rapuerunt Dea- 
dedinis." 

Cap. 47. lib. 5. 



PRETENDED DAUPHINS. 

In N. & Q.," 1 st S. vi. 318., is inaccurate in- 
formation relative to the man Naundorff, who 
styled himself Duke of Normandy, and the dau- 
phin son of Louis XVI. I knew him intimately 
during several years, and studied thoroughly the 
question of his pretensions. A full account of his 
life and death is contained in a work entitled /w- 
trigues Devoilees, par M. Gruau de la Barre, 
three vols., Rotterdam, 1847-8. I have a copy 
quite at the service of MR. W. H. HART, of 
Hatcham, or any other of your correspondents. 

Opposite facts will be found in M. de Beau- 
chesne's Memoirs of the Dauphin Son of Louis 
X VI., published in Paris three or four years ago, 
and of which a translation lately appeared in 
London. The soi-disant Baron de Eichemont 
was a different pretender from Naundorff, with 
whom you confound him in the reply to MR. 
HART ; as is also the monomaniac Meeves, re- 



2 nd S. N 31., AUG. 2. '56.1 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



ferred to in "1ST. & Q.," 1 st S. iv. 195., who is stil 
living. 

The most noted pretender to be the dauphin 
was one Hervagault, who died in prison under th 
Consulate. Another, Mathurin Bruneau, appeared 
shortly after the restoration of the Bourbons ir 
1815. I have no doubt all were impostors, who 
by making out specious cases obtained more or 
less credence, and duped many honourable anc 
well-meaning persons. Perkin Warbeck, the 
false Don Sebastians of Portugal, Martin Guerre 
and others, have had equal celebrity and success 
at various times in history. A BOOKWORM 



Handel out of tune ! Concordia discors. 

" This celebrated composer, though of a very robust 
and uncouth appearance, yet had such a remarkable irri- 
tability of nerves, that he could not bear to hear the 
tuning of instruments, and therefore this was always done 
before Handel arrived. A musical wag, who knew how 
to extract some mirth from his irascibility of temper, stole 
into the orchestra on a night when the late Prince of 
Wales * was to be present at the performance of a new 
oratorio, and untuned all the instruments, some half a 
note, others a whole note lower than the organ. As soon 
as the prince arrived, Handel gave the signal of begin- 
ning Con Spirito; but such was the horrible discord, that 
the enraged musician started up from his seat, and having 
overturned a double-bass which stood in his way, he seized 
a kettle-drum, which he threw with such violence at the 
head of the leader of the band, that he lost his full- 
bottomed wig by the effort. Without waiting to replace 
it, he advanced fearheaded to the front of the orchestra, 
breathing vengeance, but so much choaked with passion, 
that utterance was denied him. In this ridiculous ak- 
titude he stood staring and stamping for some moments 
amidst a convulsion of laughter; nor could he be pre- 
vailed upon to resume his seat, till the prince went per- 
sonally to appease his wrath, which he with great difficulty 
accomplished." Political Magazine, 1786. 

The first royal personage who ever succeeded 
in composing Handel. F. PHILLOTT. 

The Journal des Debats, M. Villemain, and M. 
Querard. In the number of the Journal des 
Debats for July 11, there is a review, by the cele- 
brated Villemain, of Prince Albert de Broglie's 
new publication L'Eglise et V Empire Romain au 
4 eme Siecle. In mentioning some English authors 
who have written on the truth of Christianity, M. 
Villemain has fallen into an error in ascribing to 
Lord Erskine a small volume on the Christian 
Evidences by Mr. Thomas Erskine, an advocate 
at Edinburgh. M. Villemain may have been led 
into this mistake by the bibliographer Querard, 
who in his otherwise valuable work, which is a 
source of such frequent reference La France 
LtUeraire kw classed all the French transla- 

* Frederic, father of George III. 



tions of Mr. Thomas Erskine's works under the 
name of Lord Erskine. As M. Querard is con- 
stantly anxious to profit by every hint for the 
improvement of his most useful work, he probably 
will not fail to free it from this blunder in any 
subsequent edition. JOHN MACRAY. 

Oxford. 

Viners " Abridgment" The following extract 
will probably both interest and amuse your 
readers of the legal profession : it is from 

i " Bibliotheca Legum : or a new and compleat List of 
all the Common and Statute Law Books of this Realm, 
and some others relating thereunto, from their first Pub- 
lication to the Year 1746 ; giving an Account of their 
several Editions, Dates, and Prices, and wherein they 
differ. The Sixth Edition with Improvements, Com- 
pil'd by John Worrall. Sm. 8vo. London, 1746. 

" Viner's (Cha.) General Abridgment of Law and 
Equity, beginning were Mr. D'Anver's Abridgment Ends, 
viz. with letter F., title Factor, and goes to the End of 
the Alphabet. 10 Vols. fo. 

" As an Apology why I have not fix'd the Price, I beg 
leave to acquaint the Reader that Mr. Viner prints his 
Abridgment at his own Expence, at his dwelling House 
at Aldershott, near Farnham in Hampshire, and sells 
them at his Chambers in the King's Bench Walks, allow- 
ing those Booksellers who sell his Books the Advantage 
of bringing Customers to their Shop for their profit ; and 
if a Bookseller is not pleased with this, he is thought an 
Enemy to the Work, and may disoblige either his Cus- 
tomer or Mr. Viner." 

JAMES KNOWLES. 

Now and Then. The following is a cutting 
from a late number of the Birmingham Journal. 
It (hapjply) reads in striking contrast to the re- 
cent accounts of the execution of a poisoner : 

" Execution of a Poisoner in 1765. Ivelchester, May 9, 
1765. Yesterday, Mary Norwood, for poisoning her 
husband, Joseph Norwood, of Uxbridge, in this county 
(Somersetshire), was burnt here pursuant to her sentence. 
She was brought out of the prison about three o'clock in 
the afternoon, barefoot. She was covered with a tarred 
:loth, made like a shift, a tarred bonnet on her head, and 
her legs, feet, and arms had also tar on them. The heat 
of the weather melting the tar on her bonnet it ran over 
aer face, so that she made a most shocking appearance. 
She was put on a hurdle, and drawn on a sledge to the 
place of execution, which was very near the gallows. 
After spending some time in prayer and singing a hymn, 
;he executioner placed her on a tar barrel, about three 
*eet high. A rope, which ran in a pulley through the 
stake, was fixed about her neck, she herself placing it 
iroperly with her hands. The rope being drawn ex- 
;remely tight with the pulley, the tar barrel was pushed 
away, and three irons were fastened round her body to 
confine it to the stake, that it might not drop when the 
rope should be burnt. As soon as this was done the fire 
was kindled, but in all probability she was quite dead 
Before the fire reached her, as the executioner pulled the 
)ody several times whilst the irons were being fixed, 
.vhich took about five minutes. There being a great 
[uantity of tar, and the wood on the pile being quite dry, 
he fire burnt with amazing fury ; notwithstanding which 
great part of her could be plainly discerned for near half 
in hour. Nothing could be more affecting than to be- 
xold, after her bowels fell out, the fire flaming between 
her ribs, and issuing out at her mouth, ears, eyeholes, &c. 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2nd s. KO 31., AUG. 2. '56. 



In short, it was so terrible a sight that great numbers 
turned their backs and screamed put, not being able to 
look at the horrible seen* Birmingham Register, 1765." 
G. 

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

" Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography," 
edited by William Smith, LL.D. As this work 
will be the standard book of reference for ancient 
geography, and it is to be expected that among 
such a mass of information a few errors will 
creep in, it is right for them to be corrected 
when discovered. In the third section of the 
article "Megara" (vol. ii. p. 313. col. 2.), where 
the topography of the city and its port town is 
described, the writer says (quoting fromPausanias, 
Attica, 1. 41. sect. 4.), that there were temples of 
*' Isis, Apollo Agraeus, and Artemis Agrotera ; " 
clearly showing, both from the punctuation and 
construction of the sentence, that there were 
separate temples of Apollo Agraeus and Artemis 
Agrotera. Now, if your readers will turn to the 
passage in Pausanias, they will find that the ori- 
ginal Greek is 

Ou Troppw Se roO "YXAov /^.vijjaaTOS *I<rtSos vabs Kal nap avrov 
eari Kal ' 



" And not far from the monument of Hyllus is a temple 
of Isis, and beyond it one of Apollo and Artemis." 

But the passage that more distinctly affirms that 
there was but one temple, occurs at the end of the 
section : 

"Aia TauTa 'A.X.KaQovv TOV IleAoTros eTri^eipijcraJTa rip (hjptqi 
icpar^crat re, Kal ios e0a.criA.ev ere, TO Jepbv Troojo-ai TOUTO, 'Aypo- 
Tepav "Apre/aty Kal 'ATroAAwfa 'Aypaioi/ eTroyo/Aaaai/Ta." 

" For this reason Alcathus the son of Pelopsiifcttacked 
the wild beast and overcame it, and after he became king 
founded this temple, dedicating it to Artemis Agrotera 
and Apollo Agraeus." 

From this passage there can be no doubt that 
there was but one temple. TAU. 

Receipt for Making one of the Fair Sex. The 
following is taken from a MS. of the time of 
Charles I. : 

" Ingredients of a Woman. Joyn to a slender shape 
a syren's head, the two eyes of a basilisk, the dazzling of 
the sun, and the moon's inconstancy ; add to this odd 
compound a smooth skin and a fair complexion, and you 
will make a perfect woman." 

Z. z. 

Origin of the Epithet " Turncoat" 

" This opprobrious term of turncoat took its rise from 
one of the first dukes of Savoy, whose dominions lying 
open to the incursions of the two contending houses of 
Spain and France, he was obliged to temporize and fall 
in with that power that was most likely to distress him, 
according to the success of their arms against one another. 
So being frequently obliged to change sides, he humor- 
ously got a coat made that was blue on one side, and 
white on the other, and might be indifferently worn 
either side out. While on the Spanish interest he wore 
the blue side out, and the white side was the badge for the 
French. From hence he was called Emmanuel surnamed 
the Turncoat, by way of distinguishing him from other 



princes of the same name of that house." Scots Maga- 
zine for Oct. 1747, p. 4778. 

G. N. 



LITTLE BURGUNDY. 

We have in London, Little Britain, Petty 
France, and Petty Wales, to which I can now add 
Little Burgundy. 

It was situate on the south side of St. Olave's, 
now Tooley Street, opposite to the Bridge House, 
now Cotton's Wharf, and between Glean Alley 
and Joiner Street (on the old maps). The site is 
now occupied by the London Bridge Railway 
Station. 

In the Accounts of the Churchwardens of the 
parish of St. Olave, Southwark, A.D. 1582, there 
is " a list, conteyning the names of those godley 
disposed parishyoners, that of their owne free 
will, were contrybutors to the erecting of the 
New Chureyarde upon Horseydowne " (now called 
"The Old Churchyard"). The names are ar- 
ranged according to the residences of the sub- 
scribers, and among the then names of places in 
the parish, I find " The Borgyney," in the locality 
I have mentioned. 

I guessed that the Borgyney meant the Bur- 
gundy, and I have recently confirmed that con- 
jecture by the particulars for a grant by King 
Henry VIII. to Robert Curson, in the thirty- 
sixth year of his reign, of divers tenements (late 
belonging to the Priory of St. Mary Overey) 
situate in 

" Petty Burgen, in the Parish of Saint Olave, in the 
Borough of Southwark, viz. Two Tenements in tenure of 
Lambert Deane, for a term of years, at the rent of Ixvj 8 
viij d ; a tenement in the tenure of William Throw, at will 
of the lord, rent xxvj 8 viij d ; a tenement in tenure of 
Thomas Boland, at will of the lord, rent xxvj 8 viij d ; a 
tenement in tenure of Dominick Hermon, at will of the 
lord, rent xxiij 8 iiij d ; a tenement in tenure of Robert 
Bull, at will of the lord, rent vj 9 viij d ; and seven cot- 
tages in tenure of John Harward, at will of the lord, rent 
xxx 8 viij d . The premises were very ruynous and sore in 
decay, and were sold to Robert Curson for 100 marks." 

I shall be very glad of information respecting 
this place and its name of Petty Burgundy, which 
must be attributed to an earlier period than that 
of King Henry VIII., probably to the reign of 
King Edward IV., when the Burgundian envoys 
may have had their residence in this place. 

In 1435 the Duke of Burgundy's heralds had 
been treated with great indignity in London, and 
lodged at a shoemaker's. Query where ? 

G. R. C. 



HAD QUEEN ANNE AN IRISH FOSTER-FATHER ? 

In a voluminous manuscript pedigree of the 
Blennerhassetts of the county of Kerry in Ireland, 



2 nd S. NO 31., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



compiled by a member of the family between 
1720 and 1735, I find mention of " Edmond Fitz- 
David Barry, of Rahaniskey in the ; county of 
Corke, foster-father of the late Queen Anne." 
The person referred to represented a once power- 
ful branch of the Barry family in the county of 
Cork, possessed of several strong castles, viz. Ro- 
bertstown, Rahaniskey, Ballymore in the Great 
Island, Ballydolohery,"&c., all of which, with the 
fertile lands attached, were forfeited^ to the crown 
in consequence of his adherence to King James II., 
and were sold by auction to various purchasers at 
Chichester House in the year 1703 ; reserving a 
jointure to " Susannah," wife of the forfeiting 
person, in case she survived him, of 1501. per an- 
num. His eldest brother was also an adherent 
of the Stuart family, being described in King 
Charles IL's letter as " Lieutenant Richard Barry 
of Robertstown, who served in the regiment of our 
Deare Brother the Duke of York in Flanders, 
where he acquitted himself with much reputation 
to himself and country, with constant loyalty and 
faithfulness to us." Edmond, the person referred 
to in the Blennerhassett manuscript, was the third 
brother, but succeeded to his family estates on the 
death of his elder brothers Richard and David 
without issue; he had a younger brother John. 
Although the public records contain much matter 
relating to the history of this family for many 

f2nerations, I have not been able to ascertain who 
usannah, the supposed foster-mother of the 
queen, was, whether English, Irish, or a foreigner. 
The foregoing shows the connection with the 
Stuarts, and although the allegations of the queen's 
fosterage is only supported by Mr. Blennerhas- 
sett's statement, which he makes apparently as 
being within his own personal knowledge (which 
it might well be, as he was an old man at the 
time he compiled the pedigree), yet it deserves 
some credence from the known respectability of 
the writer. Perhaps the question with which I 
have headed this paper may be an inducement to 
some of your numerous readers to search for the 
truth of a circumstance of historical interest never 
alluded to, as far as I can ascertain, by any writer 
of history. C. M. B. 

Dublin. 



Winter Assizes. Can any of your correspon- 
dents oblige me by giving the date of a third or 
winter assize being first appointed in England, 
and whether there is an instance of the same 
having been held on the Western Circuit? Mr. 
James is a clever novelist, and his plots are ably 
conceived ; but I consider him apt to commit mis- 
takes in carrying out details. In his novel of 
Delaware, for instance, be fixes a trial to take 



place at Christmas in " the small neat country 
(query county ?) town of" Dorchester ; for such 
is evidently the place intended, being described 
as near the western coast of England, and the 
period is early in the present century, being prior 
to the death of the Bow Street officer, Ruthven, 
who is made an agent in the story, and who came, 
as we all know, to an unfortunate end in the 
Cato Street Conspiracy. N". L. T. 

Shakspeare at Paddington. There is a tradi- 
tion mentioned in Ollier's romance of Ferrers, 
and by Mr. Robins in his Paddington, Past and 
Present, p. 182., that our great poet visited or 
played at the old Red Lion Inn, in the Edgeware 
Road, near the Harrow Road, taken down a few 
years since for the present one to be erected. 
What is the real tradition, and its history, &c. ? 
And is there any print of the old inn in existence ? 

H. G. D. 

" Alfred, or the Magic of Nature" Can any 
of your readers inform me who is the author of 
Alfred, or the Magic of Nature, a tragedy, pub- 
lished at Edinburgh in 1820 ? R. J. 

David Lindsay. Can you give me any in- 
formation regarding David Lindsay, who was 
author of Dramas of the Ancient World, published 
at Edinburgh about 1822 ? I think one or two of 
the dramas had previously appeared in Black- 
wood's Magazine. R. J. 

Lightning Conductors to Ships. When were 
conductors first attached to the masts of vessels 
to prevent them from being struck by lightning ? 

L. C. 

Figure of the Horse in Hieroglyphics. What 
is the meaning of the figure of the horse in the 
Egyptian hieroglyphics ? Amongst the number 
of such hieroglyphics which cover, both internally 
and externally, the sarcophagus of the queen of 
Amasis II. in the British Museum, it occurs only 
once; or perhaps I should say:, on examination 
I could only find it once, either thereon or else- 
where engraven. At all events, its rarity causes 
it to be the subject of this inquiry. 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Poem about a Mummy. Can any correspon- 
dent direct me where to look for some droll lines 
which I remember to have read, in which a 
mummy just unrolled gives the conceited nine- 
teenth century an account "how much better 
they did things " in his day ? A. A. D. 

A Noble Cook. 

Tis said, that by the death of a Scots nobleman, who 
died lately a Roman Catholick priest, the title descends 
to a man cook that lived with a general officer in Eng- 
land, who, in regard to his cook's present dignity, could 
not think of employing him any longer in that station, 
but very generously raised a subscription for his support; \ 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31., AUG. 2. '56, 



and that on the affair being represented to his majesty, 
he had ordered him a pension of 200*. per annum."- 
Annual Register for 1761/p. 63. 

Who is the " Scots nobleman" above referred 
to ? C. J. DOUGLAS. 

Olovensis, Bishoprick of . In the list of suf- 
fra^an bishops contributed by ME. MACKENZIE 
WALCOTT (" N. & Q.," 2 nd &. ii. 13.) occurs 
below the date 1491, 

" Richard, educated at Oxford, Dominican of Warwick, 
died in 1502, buried in Blackfriars, Worcester. Bishop of 
[Olevensis?] in Mauritania (Worcester)." 

I have reason to believe this bishop's surname 
was Wycherley. I once found in a patent ^ of 
Henry VIII., which cited an inquisition referring 
to transactions apparently of the year 1495 or 
1496, casual mention of " Ricardus Wycherley 
tune Episcopus ElenenT Either misreading the 
title, or supposing it a slight clerical error, I took 
him at the time to be Bishop of Ely ; but a re- 
ference to Beatson's Political Index corrected my 
mistake. A friend of mine looked up the inqui- 
sition, and told me he found the name there 
written " Clonensis." This sent me to Ireland, 
where I hesitated between Cloyne and Clonmac- 
noise, but could not find a resting-place in 
either. I therefore again consulted the inquisi- 
tion, and found the word to be " Olonensis " in 
that document. I presume that " Olevensis " 
was the proper title. Query, what is the name of 
the place ? JAMES GAIRDNEB. 

Johannes F. Crivellus.I should be very much 
obliged, if you could inform me, whether anything 
is known of Johannes Franciscus Crivellus, a 
painter, about 1480, of considerable merit (some- 
thing in the style of Perugino), corresponding, in 
fact, with the account usually given of Carlo 
Crivelli. Was Carlo this painter's real name, or 
onlv, as is sometimes the case, a nickname ? 

J. C. J. 

Grain Crops. Can any of your readers supply 
a copy of the pamphlet, published at York, up- 
wards of fifty years ago, by John Tuke, a land 
surveyor in extensive practice, and steward to 
several estates of importance in that locality. Its 
short title was, On the Advantages of cutting Grain 
Crops early ; and Mr. Tuke's theory was, that 
corn, after becoming ripe at the root, would ripen 
in the ear to greater advantage being cut than 
remaining on its root. This practice is partially 
observed among farmers, but is not generally 
adopted. One great benefit was, I remember, 
that in case of rain the ear would be less liable 
to sprout, while the process of ripening in the 
evaporation of sap in the blade would go on 
to better advantage both to the straw and the 
berry. A notice of this subject might have its 
utility at the present season. F. R. MAXOK. 



Walpole, and Whittington and his Cat. In 
Walpole's " Letter to Cole," dated Jan. 8, 1773, 
in which he shows himself very angry with The 
Society of Antiquaries, clearly for their publica- 
tion, in the Archceologia, of Masters' Reply to his 
Historic Doubts, he says : " for the Antiquarian 
Society, I shall leave them in peace with Whit- 
tington and his Cat." In a previous Letter, viz. 
July 28, 1772, he had stated : 

" I choose to be at liberty to say what I think of the 
learned Society; and, therefore, I have taken leave of 
them, having so good an occasion presented as their 
council on Whittington and his Cat, and the ridicule 
that Foote has thrown on them," &c. 

To what paper or discussion on Whittington 
and his Cat does Walpole allude ? W. W. (2.) 

Special Service omitted from the Prayer Book 
of the Church of England. When was the 
"Service for the Twenty-third Day of October" 
omitted from the (Irish) Prayer Book ? It was 
appointed by Act of Parliament in the 14th & 
15th year of King Charles II. (1662-63) ; and was 
ordered to be retained by King George I., by a 
warrant issued at St. James's Palace, Nov. 3, 1715. 
In the list of special-service days for the month 
of October, in Grierson's folio Prayer Book, 
Dublin (1750), no mention is made of Oct. 23. 
being a remarkable day, and yet this service is to 
be found in that edition of the Prayer-Book. On 
the accession of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, a 
royal warrant was issued, dated June 21, 1837, 
in which no mention is made of this special ser- 
vice ; and yet, in the quarto Prayer-Book pub- 
lished by Grierson (state printer), Dublin (1846), 
a reference is made in the month of October to 
the "Irish Rebellion" of 1641. ISTo special ser- 
vice appears in this edition. 

The rubric prefixed to the " Service for the 
Fifth of November " orders that 

" After Morning Prayer, or Preaching, upon the said 
Fifth Day of November, the Minister of every Parish 
shall read publicly, distinctly, and plainly, the Act of 
Parliament made in the third year of King James the 
First, for the observance of it." 

The rubric preceding the office for the Twenty- 
ninth day of May orders that 

" The Act of Parliament made in the Twelfth, and con- 
firmed in the Thirteenth year of King Charles the Second 
for the observation of the 29th day of May, j'early, as a 
day of public thanksgiving is to be read publicly in all 
Churches at Morning Prayer, immediately after the 
Nicene Creed, on the Lord's" Day next before every such 
29th of May." 

I have never heard these Acts of Parliament 
read, although I have attended services on those 
special days in every part of the United Kingdom. 

JUVERNA, M.A. 

Samuel Rolle, Fellow of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge. What can be ascertained of the history 



si., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



of Samuel Rolle, or Rolls, D.D., formerly Fellow 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, a non-conformist 
divine, who wrote, under the name of Philagathus, 
A Sober Answer to Bishop Patrick's Friendly 
Debate f Among other writings he is stated to 
have taken part with some others in composing a 
book entitled Physical Contemplations on Fire, de- 
dicated to Dr. George Bate, in 1667. What is this 
book, and who were the other authors ? 

A. TAYLOR, M.A. 

Quotation wanted : " Love and Sorrow." Where 
can I find two stanzas, commencing with the 

lines 

" Love and sorrow twins were born, 
On a shining, showery morn ? " 

I fancy they are Blacklock's, but I have not this 
author at hand. K. H. D. 

Irish Tithes. Have the tithes in Ireland been 
commuted similar to those in England ? and if so, 
where will the commutation awards be found ? 

SCRIPSIT. 

Siege of Lille, A. D. 1708. Where can I find 
an authentic list of the British officers in this siege, 
and of those wounded ; or can any of your readers 
refer me to any mention of the Hon. John Spencer, 
or the Hon. John Duncombe, assisting at that 
siege, in what capacity, and whether wounded ? 

JAMES KNOWLES. 

Deans, Canons, and Prebendaries of Cathedrals. 
Will some kind reader of " N. & Q." point out 
where the names of the various stalls, and their 
emoluments, are to be found ? I have some recol- 
lection of a parliamentary return stating these 
facts, but cannot trace it in either of the three 
Reports of the Cathedral Commissioners. 

SCRIPSIT. 

" Adding Sunshine to Daylight" Whose is 
the phrase " Adding sunshine to daylight," to ex- 
press the pleasures as distinguished from the 
necessaries of life ? . X. H. 

Rural Deaneries. Is there any parliamentary 
or other authoritative book which will describe 
the extent and jurisdiction of the various rural 
deaneries ? SCRIPSIT. 

Device of a Star (qy. Sun f) above a Crescent on 
Ecclesiastical Seals. All seal collectors are aware 
of the common occurrence of this device on early 
ecclesiastical seals. Does it typify Christ (the sun), 
and his church (the moon) dependent on him for 
light. It would be well to obtain a list of all 
examples ; and as a contribution I append : 

.The ancient seal of the Dean and Chapter of 
Waterford, of which the matrix is still in use. 

The ancient seal of the Dean and Chapter of 
Lichfield (Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of 
Archaeology, &c., vol. ii. p. 225). 



The seal of the Dean and Chapter of Ossory 
bears the crescent, but not the star (sun ?). The 
ancient matrix is still in use. 

1ST. B. The same device is well known as oc- 
curring on some of the coins of King John. 

JAMES GRAVES, Clerk. 
Kilkenny. 

Water-Spouts. Camoens in the 'fifth book of 
the Lusiad has a graphic description of the forma- 
tion and descent of a water-spout in the Indian 
Ocean, which he closes with an exclamation of 
surprise that the water which he had seen drawn 
up salt from the ocean should, a few minutes after, 
fall fresh from the cloud which attracted it: 

" But say, ye sages, who can weigh the cause 
And trace the secret springs of Nature's laAvs, 
Say, -why the wave, of bitter brine ere while, 
Should to the bosom of the deep recoil 
Robbed of its salt, and from the cloud distill, 
Sweet as the waters of 'the limpid rill." 

Mickle's Transl 

Will any of your correspondents who has tested 
the phenomenon at sea, say whether this be cor- 
rectly stated by the poet ? 

J. EMERSON 



Hieroglyphic Bible. I possess a small octavo 
work, the title-page of which is as follows : 

" A curious Hieroglyphick Bible, or Select Passages in 
the Old and New Testaments, represented with Emble- 
matical Figures, for the Amusement of Youth ; designed 
chiefly to familiarize tender Age, in a pleasing and 
diverting Manner, with early Ideas of the Holy Scrip- 
tures. To which are subjoined, a short Account of the 
Lives of the Evangelists, and other Pieces, illustrated 
with Cuts. The Fourth Edition; with Additions, and 
other great Improvements. Dublin: printed by B. 
Dugdale, N 150, Capel Street. MDCCLXXXIX." 

This work was published anonymously, and is 
not mentioned by Home in his editions of the 
Bible enumerated in his Introduction to the Cri- 
tical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. 
What is known of its authorship ? EIN FRAGER. 



iHfnar dlucrtc^ foftfj 

Mrs. Siddons. In Tymm's Family Topo- 
grapher (vol. iv. p. 292.) is the following passage : 

" At Lower Swinford a thatched cottage is shown as 
the birth-place of the actress Mrs. Siddons, who is said to 
have made her ' very first' debut in a barn at Bell Lane, 
at the coronation of George III." 

This barn is still remaining ; it is situate at the 
back of the Bell Inn, in the town of Stourbridge, 
in the parish of Oldswinford, and county of Wor- 
cester ; and, I believe, portions of the scenery 
used on this and other occasions are still in exist- 
ence. I must, however, confess myself ignorant 
of the whereabouts of the thatched cottage men- 
tioned in the quotation, and rather doubt the 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(_2nd g. 



(j AUG. 2. '56. 



truth of it. Can any correspondent tell me the 
real place of her birtb ? C. J. DOUGLAS. 



place was Brecon, or Brecknon, in South Wales. A friend 
has obligingly written to me as follows, respecting the 
house in which Mrs. Siddons was born : ' It is a public- 
house in the high street of this town, which still retains 
~its appellation, " The Shoulder of Mutton," though now 
entirely altered from its pristine appearance. I send you 
a drawing of the house [this is a wood engraving], not 
as it is at present, but as I perfectly well remember seeing 
it stand, with its gable front, projecting upper floors, and 
a rich well-fed shoulder of mutton painted over the door, 
offering an irresistible temptation to the sharpened appe- 
tites of the Welsh farmers, who frequented the adjoining 
market-place; especially as within doors the same, or 
some similar object in a more substantial shape, was 
always, at the accustomed hour, seen roasting at the 
kitchen fire, on a spit turned by a dog in a wheel, the 
invariable mode in all the Breconian kitchens. In addi- 
tion to which noontide entertainment for country guests, 
there was abundance of Welsh ale of the rarest quality ; 
and, as the "Shoulder of Mutton" was situated in the 
centre of Brecon, it was much resorted to by the neigh- 
bouring inhabitants of the borough. If I am rightly in- 
formed, old Kemble [Mrs. Siddons's father] was neither 
an unwilling nor an unwelcome member of their jolly 
associations.' "] 

" Book of Knowledge." I have a small book in 
three parts, of which the title-page is wanting. 
The pages of the first part are headed, " The Book 
of Knowledge ;" the second part is the " Husband- 
man's Practise, or Prognostication for ever;" the 
third part, " The Shepherd's Prognostication for 
the Weather." The book is black-letter, and 
printed for AV. Thackeray at "The Angel" in 
Duck Lane, 1691. A small picture "by which 
this book may be distinguished from some coun- 
terfeit ' copies, 1 has the letters ' I. S.' " The con- 
tents, as the title signifies, are most miscellaneous, 
and extend from a notice of " good days for blood- 
letting," an A. B. C. to know what planet every 
man is born under, his fortunes and time of death, 
to " ' Pithagoras' Wheele,' by which ye may know 
most things that you can demand," and much 
other useful information. 

AVhat is the title of the book, and who was the 
author ? CHARLES WYLIE. 

[The first edition of this work, without date, was 
printed by Robert Wyer, about 1 540. It is entitled " The 
Boke of Knowledge of Thy nges Vnknowen apperteynynge 
to Astronomye, with certayne necessarye Rules, and cer- 
tayne Sphere contaynyng herein. Compyled by God- 
f rid us super Palladium de Agricultura Anglicatum." 
Colophon, " Imprynted by me Robert Wyer in S. Mar- 
tyns Parysshe, besyde Charynge Crosse." " Prefixed is a 
cut of an astronomer, half length, with four stars. On 
the back of the title a cut of Ptholomeus and his wife, 
and under it : " ^f This is vnknowen to many men, though 
they be knowen to some men." Another edition appeared 
in 1585, "Imprinted at London, in Fleete-streete, be- 
neath the Oomluite, at the Signe of S. John Euangelist, 
by M. lackson." This only extends as far as chap, xv., 



"The Change of Man twelve times, according to the 
Months." Another edition enlarged appeared in 1688, 
with the following title: "The Knowledge of Things 
Unknown. Shewing the Effects of the Planets, and 
other Astronomical Constellations. With the strange 
Events that befal Men, Women, and Children born under 
them. Compiled by Godfridus super Palladium de Agri- 
cultura Anglicatum. Together with the Husband-Man's 
Practice : or Prognostication for ever : as teacheth Albert, 
Alkind, Haly, and Ptolomy. With the Shepherd's Prog- 
nostication for the Weather, and Pythagoras his Wheel 
of Fortune. Printed by J. M. for W. Thackeray, at the 
Angel in Duck Lane." The cuts are the same as in 
Wyer's edition. Our correspondent's copy of 1691 seems 
to be a reprint of that of 1688.] 



MUSICAL NOTATION. 

On Music ; and suggestions for improvement in its symbols, 
or nomenclature of sounds : to the end that there may be a 
clearer demonstration of the ratios of sounds, and, by con- 
sequence, a more extended knowledge of the fund us of this 
art, that is the poetry or measured relation of its forms. 

(Continued from p. 73.) 

Mr. Frank Howard, in his Treatise on the Art 
of Making a Picture, declares " there is no work, 
elementary or scientific, which teaches the praxis 
of pictorial effect, or that of making a picture." 
As with painting, so it is with music : indeed, 
Dr. Marx, the latest writer on the theory, assures 
his readers there exists " no work on harmony or 
thorough base that can possibly fulfil the promises 
held out to the student in musical composition." 
In this remark, Dr. Marx may include his own 
work. There is at present no written law for the 
composition of music, and composers have care- 
fully eschewed talking or writing upon the sub- 
ject. Haydn, who taught when in this country, 
after giving a certain number of lessons, was in 
the habit of dismissing the student in these 
words : " I have taught you all the known rules : 
there are others, but these I do not teach." 
Mozart, when applied to by Weigl, a well-known 
composer, to teach his mode of composing, replied 
in the brief and decided sentence : " No : find 
out, as I had to find out." On a recent occasion, 
when visiting a musical friend, he produced rather 
a long and ambitious composition, which, after 
listening to, I remarked : " The first eight bars 
are right, and the remainder all wrong." After 
some pause, he said : " What makes you say the 
first eight bars are right, and the others wrong ? 
for I am certain there is not an error according 
to Cherubini." " That may be," was my reply, 
" but no man can write music from studying 
Cherubini." After some time, he confessed the 
first eight bars were borrowed from Beethoven ; 
but he had so mystified the passage as to escape 
recognition of the plagiary. I am certain no one 
will ever write music by the aid of any work now 



2 nd S. N 31., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



before the public. The great theorists of the 
present day are too wise to publish, and most of 
them bind their pupils not to divulge their teach- 
ing until after their deaths. 

I have made the remark, that the pupil is 
taught notes, not sounds. He is afterwards taught 
scales or gamuts. The modern scales are the 
standard, the natural, the transposed, the major, 
the minor, the pathetic, the augmented, the chro- 
matic, and the enharmonic. Should he desire to 
go back some centuries, he must learn the dorian, 
hypodorian, phrygian, hypop^hrygian, lydian, hypo- 
lydian, mixolydian, hypomixolydian ; and if the 
origin of these, he must study the tetrachords, 
the tetrachordon-hypaton, meson, dies-eugmenon, 
hyperboleon, proslambanomenos, hypate-hypaton, 
par-hypate-hypaton ; together with the paranese, 
and all other parts and portions of the Greek 
scales. " The semitone makes music,'" was the 
adage of the old composers ; and all this barbaric 
jargon has been retained to mark the place of the 
semitone in the scale. The knowledge of the 
varieties and relations of the scale has had a slow, 
but certain progress. The three principles which 
govern musical composition, that is to say : 

1. Sounds, which are the matter or subject, 

2. Rhythms, which make figure or movement, 

3. Heart (or spirit), which gives life, feeling, 
and individuality, 

are seen as strongly in the earliest music as in the 
music of the present day. From these principles, 
we have gained the music called the Gregorian, the 
Glarean, the Alia Cappella, the Italian, Neapolitan, 
French, German, Anglican, and all other national 
schools. These schools represent certain states of 
knowledge with respect to the analogies of sounds, 
certain motions or figures governed by the then 
prevailing state of language and the national 
dance, and certain states of emotion or feeling 
belonging to the master-spirits who were enabled 
to leave such records in their compositions. Every 
student in music should know every scale in 
music that has existed, and that does exist ; but 
in place of all this monstrous confusion of terms, 
why not describe the semitone and its situation in 
plain and unmistakeable language ? 

We read of intervals as if they were sounds ; 
whereas the interval is the distance or ratio be- 
tween one sound and another. Again, chords are 
called harmonies ; whereas harmonia is the pro- 
portion between one chord and another chord. 
A chord is not an analogy until it is placed by 
the side of some other chord. 

The student is taught the theory of dischords. 
How few are there who know what takes place in 
nature, when the so-called resolution of the 
seventh is made ! In olden language, it is the 
dislocation of the lychanos-meson (or meson-dia- 
tonos) when conjoined with the proslambanomenos. 



In these days it is the art of resolving the seventh. 
Is not the one term quite as absurd as the other ? 
How much could be gained if students were 
taught, that having arrived at the two extremes 
of the mean (G. C. F.), it is necessary to return 
to the centre proportion, or to its equivalent? 
The whole mystery of free sevenths, fettered 
sevenths, and every other sort of seventh, then 
becomes intelligible, and when the equivalents of 
the centre are known, every possible remove is 
laid bare and at instant command. 

H. J. GAUNTLETT. 

8. Powys Place, Queen Square. 

(To be continued.) 



SUFFRAGAN BISHOPS. 

(2 nd S. ii. 1.) 

I have extracted from The Wiltshire Institutions, 
privately printed by Sir Thomas Phillipps in 1 825, 
a list of preferments enjoyed in that county by 
suffragan bishops, as follows : 

" ' Robertus, Imelacensis Epus,' was instituted to the 
vicarage of Littleton Drew in A.D. 1441. 

"'Jacobus, Dei gratia Akardensis Episcopus,' was in- 
stituted to the Rectory of Stockton in 1447 ; William My- 
chell was instituted to the same benefice in 1454. 

" * Simon, Connerensis Episcopus,' was instituted to the 
Rectory of Paulsholt in 1459. ' Simon Conneren ' ex- 
changed Pawlesholt with Roger Newton, for the Vicarage 
of Aldeborne in 1462. 

" ' Johannes, Tinensis Epus,' was instituted to the Rec- 
tory of St. John's, Devizes, in 1479 ' per resig' Johannis, 
Episcopi RoifenV St. John's was vacated in 1480 ' per 
mort' Ven' Patris Johannis, Tinensis Episcopi,' who was 
succeeded by Henry Boost, Provost of Eton College. 

" ' Augustinus Church, Liden' Epus,' was instituted to 
the Rectory of Boscombe in 1498. Boscombe was vacated 
in 1499 ' per resig' Augustini, Lidensis Epi.' 

" ' Joh nes , Mayonensis Epus,' was instituted to the Vi- 
carage of Coseham in 1504. 

" ' Ecc' Ebbysborn et Succentoria.' Francis May was 
instituted in 1509 to these preferments 'per dim' Gul mi 
Barton, facti Epi Salon'.' 

" ' Johannes, Syenensis Epus,' was instituted to the 
Vicarage of Inglesham in 1518. 'Johannes Pynriock, 
Syenensis Episcopus ' resigned Inglesham in 1520. He 
seems to have resigned the same benefice again, in the 
year 1524, and to the same person. The first resignation 
may not have been completed. 

" The Rectory of Colern was vacated in 1526 ' per mort' 
Johannis, Calipolens' Episcopi.' 

" Thomas Morley was instituted to the Rectory of 
Blounesdon, B. S. Andrea?, in 1487, and John Abendon 
was instituted to the same benefice in 1489. 

"'Thomas Morley, sedis Merlebergen' Episcopus suf- 
fraganeus,' was instituted to the Vicarage of Bradford, 
co. Wilts, and to the Rectory of Fittleton in 1540, both 
void ' per attincturam Willielmi Byrde, de alta prodi- 
tione ; ' which William ' Brydde ' had been presented to 
Bradford in 1491 by the Abbess of Shaston, and to Fittle- 
ton in 1511 by Sir Edward Darel. Fittleton was vacated 
* per mortem Thomae Morley ' in 1554." 

The last bishop in MB. WALCOTT'S list should 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



3L, AUG. 2. '56. 



have been printed " Eeginald Courtenay." He is, 
I believe, second son pf the late Rt. Hon. Thomas 
Peregrine Courtenaf , next brother to the present 
Earl of Devon. PATONCE. 



JACOB BEHMEN. 

(2 nd S. i. 513.) 

ANON'S note, with the word originals in Italics, 
seems to imply that he charges Newton, Hahne- 
niann, and others, with being indebted to Jacob 
Behmen, without having had the candour to ac- 
knowledge the fact; a very serious charge, which 
induces me to mention, as an experience of my 
own, that a theosopher will make such a charge 
without knowing very much of the man impugned. 
Some years ago, when beginning to study Beh- 
men, I was told by an ardent theosopher (I 
rather think ANON, himself) that Emanuel Swe* 
denborg had been indebted to Behmen. I had read 
much of Swedenborg, and besides the internal 
evidence to the contrary, I knew that Sweden- 
borg, in one of his letters, had expressly said (the 
question having been asked) that he had not read 
Jacob Behmen, for which he also gave a reason. 
I naturally inquired of this gentleman, " What do 
you know of Swedenborg ? " when he produced a 
small volume called The Beauties of Swedenborg, 
a most unhappy piece of garbling. This was all 
he knew of the author of several works, in which, 
as with Behmen also, the internal state of the author 
is given by himself. 

It struck me that this indisposition, in a theoso- 
pher, to believe that another man, as well as his 
special Master, might be original, in the proper 
sense of the word, was highly unphilosophical, to 
say nothing of the impropriety of lightly attributing 
mean conduct to eminent men. 

It would be easy to show that the very extraor- 
dinary and profound writings of Jacob Behmen 
would afford no countenance to this particular 
shortcoming in his pupil. ALFRED KorrE. 

Somers Town. 



THE ARMS OF GLASGOW. 

(2 nd S. ii. 13, 14.) 

In the various remarks of correspondents on the 
arms of Glasgow, they appear to have omitted the 
motto surrounding them, which also betokens an 
early ecclesiastical origin. So far as I am aware 
there is no very ancient copy of it : the most au- 
thoritative which I have seen is that used by 
Robert Sanders, printer to the city and uni- 
versity, anno 1675, reading "Lord, let Glasgow 
Flourish through the Preaching of thy Word." At 
what period it was clipped down to its present 
unmeaning dimensions, " Let Glasgow Flourish," 



seems uncertain. In the "Dedication" of the 
work of John MIJre in 1736 (Glasgow's first his- 
torian) to the magistrates, " wishing them all hap- 
piness and prosperity, and according to your own 
motto, may ever flourish through the preaching of 
God's word" it had likely then been considerably 
tampered with, or only employed at full length on 
state occasions. The piety of the sentiment, and 
its continued appropriateness to Glasgow as a 
city, ought to form a reason for the civic autho- 
rities restoring it to its original. 

Dr. Cleland, in the Annals of Glasgow, 1816, 
vol. i. p. 42., says : 

" The armorial bearing of the city is on a field parti, p. 
fess argent and gules, an oak tree surmounted with a bird 
in chief, a salmon with a gold stoned ring in its mouth in. 
base, and on a branch on the sinister side a bell langued 
or, all proper. . . . Prior to the Reformation St. 
Mungo, or Kentigern, mitred, appeared on the dexter side 
of the shield, which had two salmons for supporters." 

Respecting obscure matters of- this kind there 
will of course be always much to exercise the 
fancy, and hence many theories to explain the 
various insignia of the arms have from time to 
time been published, leaving us in the same state 
of conjecture. Dr. Main, an eminent professor of 
physic in the University of Glasgow, who died in 
1646, had his Latin verses, " Salmo maris," &c., 
Englished in rather a homely strain by J. B. in 
1685, as follows : 

" The salmon which is a fish of the sea, 
The oak which springs from earth that loftie tree, 
The bird on it which in the air doth flee, 
O Glasgow does presage all things to thee 
To which the sea, or air, or fertile earth, 
Do either give their nourishment or birth ; 
The bell that doth to public worship call 
Sayes heaven will give most lasting things of all ; 
The ring the token of the marriage is, 
Of things in heaven and earth both thee to bless." 

Similar are extant, from the learned professor 
downwards to those of the schoolboy who usually 
had at his finger ends a rhyme now nearly obso- 
lete, and who cut the knot he could not untie : 

" This is the tree that never grew, 
This is the bird that never flew, 
This is the bell that never rang, 
This is the fish that never swam, 
This is the drunken salmon." 

Without pretending to be as skilly as those who 
have tried their hand at interpretation, it has often 
occurred to me that the different religious em- 
blems, as in the bird, may have been intended to 
figure the dove, or Holy Spirit ; or perhaps in re- 
ference to the meeting at Glasgow of St. Mungo 
with St. Columba the "Dove" the ring as re- 
presenting the sacrament of marriage and the 
episcopal see : and the bell, baptized and blessed, 
to which the greatest sanctity was attached, as 
typical of the cathedral. There was the fine local 
situation of Glasgow, adorned by a magnificent 



2 nd S. N 31., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



river, abounding with fisheries, on whose banks 
grew the spreading oaks and fertile orchards, all 
of which objects, ecclesiastical and civil, came so 
far to be interwoven in her arms, denoting the 
importance of her status among the nations. 

An excellent Gaelic scholar, now deceased, in- 
formed me that the name Kentigern should be 
rendered Ceantigh Tighearna, the head, or go- 
vernor, or father, or chief, or ruler of the Lord's 
House ; Columba, or Colum-cille, Colum of the 
Cells, from his having founded so many churches 
and monasteries ; Glasgow, Glas agus Dhu, grey 
and black Glas's Dhu, grey and black Baile 
Glas's Dhu, the town of grey and black (monks). 
The most of her historians 'respectively consider 

I the appellation as signifying a grey smith, from a 
supposed well-qualified craftsman in iron having 
taken up his abode in the place ; as a dark glen 
in allusion to a deep mass of trees where the cell 
of St. Kentigern stood ; and among the latest as 
derived from glas (Brit.), meaning "green," and 
coed, wood ; thus glas- coed, the green wood, 
thought to be corroborated from the unquestion- 
able early existence of a forest, subsequently de- 
nominated the " bishop's." A brook in a deep 
ravine at the east end of the cathedral, known as 
the Molendinar Burn, still continues to flow, which 
in the days of St. Mungo was no doubt covered 
with woods, and which it is not improbable led 
him to select the spot for a cathedral to plant the 
Christian faith on the ruins of some Druidical 
groves. G. N. 



BEPRIEVE FOR NINETY-NINE YEARS. 

(2 nd S. i. 465. 523.) 

Your correspondent A. was misinformed as to 
the officer alluded to having received the grace of 
a suspension of his sentence of death " for ninety- 
nine years." The facts of the case were as fol- 
lows : Several depots of regiments serving on 
the West Indian and North American stations 
were quartered together in the spacious barracks 
at Winchester in 1813. Amongst the officers 
thus thrown into each others' society were Lieut. 
*- Blundell, Lieut. Anthony Dillon, and En- 
sign Daniel O'Brien, all of the late 101st, or Duke 
of York's Irish Regiment (a corps of duellists) ; 
and Ensigns Edward Maguire and James Peddie 
Gilchrist, both of the late 6th West India Regi- 
ment. Between Lieut. Blundell and Ensign 
Maguire a trivial difference arose, which was 
fomented into a quarrel by Lieut. Dillon and En- 
signs Gilchrist and O'Brien; until a fatal duel 
was fought July 9, 1813, in which Lieut. Blundell 
lost his life. Lieut. Dillon, Ensigns Gilchrist, 
Maguire, and O'Brien were tried by civil law at 
Winchester, were found guilty of murder, and 
were sentenced to death, whereupon a royal par- 



don was granted to them by the Prince Regent ; 
mark, not a respite, or even a reprieve substi- 
tuting " transportation" for " death" as a punish- 
ment, but a free and unconditional pardon. The 
four officers were removed from the service on 
Sept. 8, 1813, without the formality of a court 
martial. Mr. Gilchrist was only two months an 
ensign at the time of this unfortunate duel, and 
there may have been extenuating circumstances 
in his case : for he was appointed ensign, 67th 
Regiment, without purchase, in November 1820 ; 
was transferred to a veteran battalion in February 
1821, and thence, in June following, to 60th regi- 
ment; from which he was placed on half-pay in 
August, by the reduction of several junior officers 
in each rank. He was appointed in January 
1831 to 86th regiment, and obtained about the 
same time the situation of Garrison Quarter- 
master at Gibraltar, which he retained until June 
1834, when he was ordered to join the depot at 
home ; he was promoted lieutenant in October 
1834, and joined the regiment at Demerara in 
summer 1835. The regiment returned home in 
May 1837, and Lieut. Gilchrist was re-appointed 
in June 1837 Garrison Quartermaster at Gibral- 
tar ; which situation he again held until April 
1841, when he retired on half-pay, and resigned 
his staff appointment. He died on Christmas 
Eve, 1849. G. L. S. 

Conservative Club. 



EATON S SERMON. 

(2 nd S. i. 516.) 

MR. ASPLAND states truly that the name of 
Samuel Eaton is not mentioned "in Hanbury's 
three bulky volumes of Historical Memorials re- 
lating to the Independents ; " and he is solicitous to 
obtain references illustrative of Eaton's life and 
writings. That I was not ignorant respecting 
Eaton's character and writings when I " professed 
to write the history of Independency in England 
and its literature," MR. ASPLAND may see in the 
subjoined extract from my Historical Research 
concerning the most ancient Congregational Church 
in England, 1820, 8vo., pp. 54. : 

"That the claim of Mr. Jacob's church to priority has 
been questioned, is evident from what is said in Edwards's 
Gangrcena, pt. iii. 1646 ; but, as will presently appear, that 
writer is not sufficient authority. He says, in p. 164., 
' There is a godly minister of Cheshire, who was lately in 
London, that related with a great deal of confidence the 
following story, as a most certain truth known to many 
of that county; that this last summer, the church of 
Duckingfield (of which Master Eaton and Master Taylor 
are pastor and teacher) being met in their chapel, to the 
performing of their worship and service, as Master Eaton 
was preaching, there was heard the perfect sound as of a 
man beating a march on a drum,' . . . 'insomuch 
that it terrified Master Eaton and the people, caused him 
to give over preaching/ &c. And he adds, in p. 165., 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. N 31., AUG. 2. '56. 



4 This church of Duckingfield is the first Independent 
church, visible and franed, that was set up in England, 
being before the Apologists came from Holland, and so 
before their setting up their churches here in London.' 
That Edwards's account is not quite correct, the follow- 
ing titles of works will show : A. Defence of sundry Po- 
sitions and Scriptures, alledqed tojustifie the Congregationall- 
way, by Samuel Eaton, 'Teacher, and Timothy Taylor, 
Pastor, of the Church in Duckenfield, in Cheshire, 1645, 
4to. ; The Defence of sundry Positions and Scriptures for 
the Congregational-way justified, by Sam. Eaton and Tim. 
Taylor, 1646, 4to. In Calamy's Nonconformists' Memorial, 
Palmer's ed. 1775, vol. ii. p. 91., under the head 'Ducken- 
field, Lancashire,' is an account of Mr. Samuel Eaton ; 
whence we find, that having been puritanically educated, 
he dissented in some particulars from the Church of 
England, and withdrew to New England [in 1637] ; but 
returned and gathered a congregational church at Duck- 
enfield. He died Jan. 9, 1664, aged sixty-eight. This 
account completely confutes Edwards's, for at the time Mr. 
Jacob instituted his church, Mr. Eaton was but twenty 
years old ! " Hist. Res., p. 6. 

BENJAMIN HANBUBY. 
Gloucester Villas, Brixton. 



COMMON-PLACE BOOKS (1 st S. xii. 366. 478. ; 2 nd 

S. i. 486., ii. 38.) : MOTTO TOR INDEX (2 nd S. i. 
413. 481.) 

To convince your correspondent F. C. H. that 
the method he describes of a common- place book, 
dividing the page into compartments, A, E, i, o, u, 
Y, and facilitating the use of Locke's New Method 
of a Common-Place Book and Numerical Index, 
was adopted at the period I have mentioned, viz. 
1792, the only difference being the omission of 
the vowel Y, I beg to furnish a specimen from the 
work before referred to, Asiatic Researches, vol. iii. 
p. 249. et seq., from which he will see that although 
he did not refer to any of the works which I men- 
tion, he described a plan precisely the same, and 
which was consequently not, as he supposes, new 
forty years ago. 



A 


Fol. 


E 


Fol. 


I 


Fol. 


O 


Fol. 


U 


Fol. 


Arabia 


256 


Ahremen 


256 


Ahilya 


255 


Afoca 


251 


Aguru 


256 


The words Arabia, &c., are given by way of 
example. 

Common-Place Book, 256. : 



" Arabia : In this celebrated peninsula the richest and 
most beautiful of languages was brought to per- 
fection : the Arabick dictionary by Golius is the most 
elegant, the most convenient, and, in one word, the 
best, that was ever compiled in any language." 

The directions and explanation of the superior ad- 
vantages of this new method occupy four pages. 
Perhaps MR. CHADWICK will not be dissatisfied 



with the trite motto, " Festina Lente," for his 
Index. In the Golden Remains of the " ever me- 
morable" Hales of Eton, London, 1688, he thus 
exhibits the progressive unity of an index, which 
methodically arranges excerptions though thrown 
together " in most admired disorder : " 

" In your reading excerpe, and note in your books such 
things as you like, going on continually without any re- 
spect unto order ; and for the avoiding of confusion it 
shall be very profitable to allot some time to the reading 
again of your own notes, which do as much and as oft as 
you can. For by this means your notes shall be better 
fixt in your memory, and your memory will easily supply 
you with things of the like nature, if by chance you have 
dispersedly noted them, that so you may bring them to- 
gether by marginal references. But because your notes 
in time must needs arise in some bulk, that it may be too 

freat a task, and too great loss of time to review them, 
o thus : cause a large index to be fram'd according to 
alphabetical order, and register in it your heads, as they 
shall offer themselves in the course of your reading, every 
head under his proper letter. For thus though your notes 
lie confused in your papers, yet are they digested in your 
index, and to draw them together when you are to make 
use of them will be nothing so great pains as it would be 
to have ranged them under their several heads at their 
first gathering. A little experience of this course will 
show you the profit of it, especially if you did compare it 
with some others that are in use." Page 234. 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



PUNISHMENT FOR REFUSING TO PLEAD. 

(2 nd S. i. 411.) 

The punishment of death was formerly most 
barbarously inflicted upon persons who refused to 
plead to an indictment preferred against them. 
I am enabled to give you the exact terms of the 
sentence. The prisoner being called upon to 
plead, and remaining mute, the judgment or- 
dained by law was as follows : 

"That the prisoner shall be sent to the prison from 
whence he came, and put into a mean room, stopped from 
the light, and shall be laid on the bare ground, without 
any litter, straw, or other covering, and without any gar- 
ment about him (except something to hide his privy 
members). He shall lie upon his back, his head shall be 
covered, but his feet shall be bare. One of his arms shall 
be drawn by a cord to one side of the room, and the other 
arm to the other side, and his legs shall be served in like 
manner. Then there shall be laid upon his body as much 
iron or stone as he can bear, and more. And the first day 
after he shall have three morsels of barley bread, without 
any drink ; and the second day he shall be allowed to 
drink as much as he can at three times of the water that 
is next the pi'ison door, except running water, without 
any bread; and this shall be his diet till he dies. And 
he against whom this judgment shall be given forfeits 
his goods to the king." 

This sentence once pronounced, it remained at 
the discretion of the court to allow the prisoner to 
return and plead if he desired. By an act passed 
in 1772 this statute was repealed, and persons re- 
fusing to plead were deemed guilty as if tried by 



2 nd S. NO 31., Aua. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



a jury. This was called at the time a merciful 
alteration : but the present law on this subject is 
much more in accordance with the spirit of justice 
and humanity ; for if a prisoner refuses to plead, 
he is tried as he would be had he pleaded " not 
guilty " to the charge. The old law of pressing to 
death never became obsolete, but was enforced 
almost up to the very year of its repeal. 

JOHN BAWTREE HARVEY. 
Colchester. 



MR. BATHURST'S DISAPPEARANCE. 
(2 nd S. ii. 48.) 

The following account is from the Biographic 
Universelle, Ancienne et Moderne, Supplement, 
tome 57 feme , Paris, 1834 : 

"BATHURST (Lord Benjamin?), ne en 1784 & Londres, 
d'une famille illustre (voy. BATHURST, iii. 516.), re$ut 
une brillante education, et'fut des sa jeuhesse destine a la 
diplomatic. Une mission lui ayant ete confiee aupres de 
la Cour de Vienne, en 1809, il revenait de cette capitale 
avec des de'peches d'une grande importance, lorsqu'il dis- 
parut tout & coup, a son passage pres de Hambourg, an 
moment ou il allait s'embarquer pour 1'Angleterre. Tout 
annonce qu'il fut assassine par suite d'un crime k peu 
pres semblable a celui dont le Major Sinclair avait e'te' 
victime. On ne trouva d'autres traces de sa disparution 

?'une partie de ses vetements restee sur les bords de 
Elbe. Cette perte causa en Angleterre de tres-vifs re- 
grets, et Ton & fait long-temps d'inutiles recherches pour 
connaitre les auteurs du crime. Lorsqu'en 1815 1'ex- 
ministre de la police iniperiale, Savary, tomba dans les 
mains des Anglais, il lui fut addresse sur cette evenement, 
par le ministre Bathurst, beaucoup de questions qui 
n'eurent point de re'sultat." 

From this it would appear that nothing certain, 
up to 1834, had been ascertained on this distress- 
ing subject. The Major Sinclair alluded to in 
the above extract was an officer in the Swedish 
service, who had been sent, in 1739, to negociate 
a treaty at Constantinople, and was assassinated 
on his return, near Naumburgh, in Silesia. The 
Biog. Univ. (tome 42.) says that the evident ob- 
ject of this crime was to obtain possession of his 
dispatches, the secret of which could only interest 
Russia. J. MACRAY. 

Oxford. 

Nothing certain is known of Mr. Bathurst's fate. 
In the life of his father, the late Bishop of Nor- 
wich, by Mrs. Thistelthwaite, any person inter- 
ested in this strange story may see all that is 
known. His eldest daughter was drowned in the 
Tiber, the other is living. Mrs. Bathurst was a 
sister of Sir W. P. Call, Bart., and a cousin of my 
mother's. She died at an advanced age, in Italy, 
about a year since. 

Would A BOOKWORM be so kind as to let me 
see Mrs. Bathurst's MS. journal ? 

A. HOLT WHITE. 

Southend, Essex. 



I think your correspondent A BOOKWORM is 
under a mistake in saying Mrs. Benjamin Bathurst 
was a sister of Sir G. P. Call's ; she was sister to 
Lord Aylmer. Her surviving daughter is Dow- 
ager Countess of Castle Stuart. BOOKWORM 
would find the information he seeks in the Life of 
Bishop Bathurst, written by his son the late Arch- 
deacon Bathurst. 

A READER OF " NOTES AND QUERIES " FROM 
ITS COMMENCEMENT. 



SONGS ON TOBACCO. 

(2 nd S. i. 182. 258.) 

I have a version of the old song " Think of that, 
when you smoke tobacco," differing in words 
from the versions inserted in "N. & Q.," but 
similar in sentiment and metre, for which reason 
I shall not ask you to insert it. I send, however, 
one which is headed "'a translation " in my note- 
book, and which differs in metre from those that 
have been embalmed in the classic pages of your 
invaluable journal. 

" The leaves of tobacco which come from afar, 

For better or worse to the smoker, 
Their colour so green in the morn seems to be, 

In the evening they 're livid they wither ; 
This constantly shews to us pilgrims on earth 
That we are but strangers on this stage, from birth, 
In worldly enjoyments there 's always a dearth ; 

These morals at once touch the smoker. 

" The pipe, through this habit, it blackens in time, 
The ashes and smoke make it blacken ; 

Before it be cleansed, or whiten'd, 'tis put 
In the fire, when it turns to its colour. 

So we are, all of us, without and within, 

Uncleanly and full of dire hatred and sin, 

Before he is purified, grace must begin 
To work on the mind of the smoker. 

" The white chalky pipe has the colour of them 

Whom we call our fair maidens and beauties ; 
When once it is broken, it is put aside, 
And wholly dispensed with its uses ; 
And thus we are, all of us, seemingly strong, 
But a light stroke of Fate may cast us along 
The stream of adversity both th' old and the young 
Should muse as the smoke them infuses. 

" The ashes or dross in the pipe they remain, 

It must be remember'd with wonder ; 
But the smoke it ascends to the regions above, 

Most surely, as on it we ponder : 
From this earth to that earth we soon must return, 
From ashes to ashes though the thought we may 

spurn ; 

Our life it decays, as tobacco doth burn, 
Consider thy exit, then, Smoker." 

JUVERNA, M.A. 

Pemb. Coll., Oxon. 



Your correspondent DR. RIMBAULT remarks on 
the old phrase, " drinking tobacco." May I add a 
parallel case of the natives of India, who call it 



96 



NOTES AND QUEETES. 



O* S. NO 31., AUG. 2. '56. 



" hooka peue," to drink the hooka ; and who like- 
wise swallow the smoke, and breathe it out 
through the nostrils. E. E. BYNG. 



to 

Portraits of Surift (2 nd S. ii. 21.) I am not able 
to say (writing from the country) whether, as 
G. N. states, Faulkner (not Faulkener) printed 
an edition of Swift in 1734 ; but I have his edi- 
tion of 1735, which makes no allusion to a former 
edition. My edition contains, in the 4th volume, 
the print that G. N. seems to allude to, but it 
differs from his description : first, in having Vert 
for Vertue, the engraver's name ; and secondly, in 
being, in my opinion, a very poor performance, 
and a peculiarly bad likeness of Swift, which is 
the more apparent because the first volume has an 
admirable portrait of the Dean engraved by " G. 
Vertue," and in his very best style. If G. N. be 
accurate in his statements, I would guess that 
Faulkner published his first volumes in 1734, 
without Vertue's fine portrait, and republished 
them in 1735 with that plate and a new date. 
The plate in the 4th volume, described by G. N., 
and marked in my copy as by " Vert," was, I am 
satisfied, not by Vertue ; but by some very in- 
ferior artist, who was not impudent enough to 
give Vertue's name at full length. C. 

" God save the King" (2 nd S. ii. 60.) A. A. D. 
has been misinformed. No doubt can exist that 
Dr. John Bull was the composer of this tune. It 
stands in the volume of MS. music by Bull, 
formerly the property of Dr. Pepusch, now of 
Mr. Richard Clark. Mr. William Chappeli is not 
a professional musician ; and his statements upon 
music, as abstract music, should be received only 
so far as supported by the strongest evidence. 
Even musicians have made great mistakes in the 
origin and chronology of melody. Dr. Crotch, 
who chose to fix upon one chronological date as 
the rise of pure church-music, and another chro- 
nological date as the period of its decline, has 
made a ludicrous mistake in exemplifying his un- 
tenable theory. As an example of the church 
school in its perfection, he quotes a chant in 
D minor, imagining it was the composition of 
Thomas Moiiey of 1585, whereas it was made by 
William Morley of 1740, a period in which, ac- 
cording to Dr. Crotch's notion, all true church- 
music was defunct. H, J. GAUNTLETT. 

Approach of Vessels (2 nd S. i. 315. 418.) In the 
Nautical Magazine for March, 1834, will be found 
a very interesting account of Nauscopie, or the 
art of ascertaining the approach of vessels at a 
great distance, by M. Bottineau. He says : 

" This knowledge neither results from the undulation 



of the waves, nor from quick sight, nor from a particular 
sensation; but simply from observing the horizon, which 
bears upon it certain signs indicative of the approach of 
vessels or land. When a vessel approaches land, or 
another vessel, a meteor appears in the atmosphere of a 
particular nature, visible to every eye, without any difficult 
effort : it is not by the effect of a fortuitous occurrence 
that this meteor makes its appearance under such cir- 
cumstances ; it is, on the contrary, the necessary result of 
one vessel towards another or towards land." 

R. THORBURN. 

Bottineau is the name of the person who prac- 
tised the very curious art of foretelling the ap- 
proach of vessels to land. He held a situation 
under the French government, in the Mauritius, 
towards the end of the last century, and appears 
to have made repeated and vain efforts to gain the 
patronage of his native government for his art, 
but having failed to sell it to advantage, permitted 
it to expire with him. He died in obscurity about 
the time of the Revolution ; and it does not appear 
that any offer of his services was ever made by 
him to the English government, or that he derived 
any pension from it. The Nautical Magazine for 
March, 1834, contains a series of documents re- 
specting this strange art; and in No. 115. of the 
first series of Chambers' s Journal will be found an 
interesting paper upon the subject, under the 
fanciful title of " Nautical Second- Sight." 

WILLIAM BLOOD. 

Dublin. 

Lines on Warburton (2 nd S. ii. 22.) If S. W. 

will refer to Churchill's Works, vol. ii. pp. 43, 44., 
1844, edited by W. Tooke, he will find the verses 
on Warburton he quotes, as written by S. Rogers 
in Johnson's Table- Talk : 

" The first entitled to the place 

Of Honour both by gown and grace, 

Who never let occasion slip 

To take right hand of fellowship ; 

And was so proud, that should he meet 

The Twelve Apostles in the street, 

He'd turn his nose up at them all, 

And shove his Saviour from the wall." 
Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, and D 'Israeli's 
Quarrels of Authors, and the notes of Mr. Tooke, 
may be usefully consulted in relation to Warbur- 
ton and Churchill's satire. 

A good life of Warburton, embracing the lite- 
rary history of the period, in relation to him and 
to his immediate contemporaries, is much to be 
desired. SPENCER HALL. 

Rawson (2 nd S. i. 452.) G. R. C. will see a 
pedigree of Rawson, of Bessacarr, in par. Cantley, 
co. York, stated to be descended from the Raw- 
sons of Frystone, in Hunter's South Yo?*kshire 
(vol. i. p. 85.). Also, at p. 321. of the same work, 
another Rawson of Pickburn, or Pigburn, in par. 
Brodsworth. Accounts of other families of the 
same name are to be found in Hunter's Hallam- 
shire (pp. 224. 267.) C. J. 



2 nd S. N 31., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



Allow (2 nd S. ii. 10.) The meaning of this 
word in the Baptismal Service most likely will 
be the meaning usually attached to it by the 
writers of the age in which the service was drawn 
up. In the English version of the New Testa- 
ment the word occurs five times, to express what 
in the original are four different words : 

Luke xi. 48. er 
Acts xxiv. 15. 
Rom. vii. 15. y 
Eom. xiv. 22. 



, ; also 1 Thess. ii. 4. 
In this last sense of " approving after trial," it 
is used in the Prayer-Book version of Psalm xi. 
6., where the authorised version has " trieth," and 
the original |niP ; but the most usual meaning 
seems to have been " approve, be well pleased 
with, take pleasure in." Cf. King Lear, Act III. 
So. 4. : 

" If your sweet sway 
Allow obedience." 

There seems to be no objection to this meaning 
in the passage referred to by E. G. R. ; for though 
your pages are not the place to discuss the ques- 
tion of infant baptism, I think that God nowhere 
expressly commands it, though the Church in her 
27th Article says it " is in anywise to be retained, 
. as most agreeable with the institution of Christ," a 
phrase which seems exactly to correspond to the 
" favourably alloweth " of the Baptismal Service. 
J. EASTWOOD, M.A. 

Ecldngton. 

e Calvary (2 nd S. i. 374. 440. ; ii. 34.) Without 
disputing the statement in Hebrews xiii. 12., or 
the interpretation put upon it, I must call atten- 
tion to the reading of John xix. 20., which, on 
the authority of the best MSS., declares that " the 
part of the city where Jesus was crucified was 
nigh." "'E77US 1\v 6 r6iros rijs 7rJA.es, forou <rrav- 
pd>9r] 6 'ITJO-OUS." This is the adopted reading of 
Scholz and Tischendorff. Consequently Golgotha 
or Calvary was within, and not without the city. 
The present walls of Jerusalem were erected A.D. 
1542 ; the previous walls, extending farther to 
the north than these, were erected under Clau- 
dius, forty-one years after Christ (Joseph. War, 
v. 4. 2. Comp. Tacit. Hist., v. 12.). But in the 
time of Christ there were two walls (neither coin- 
ciding with the above). Of the outer one Scholz 
found traces; the inner one probably excluded 
Calvary, which, if situated betwixt these two 
walls, was not only, according to St. John, " part 
of the city," but also " without the gate," accord- 
ing to the Epistle to the Hebrews, which, how- 
ever, does not say it was without the gate of the 
'city, but might, for the allegorical purpose of the 
writer^ be without the gate of the Temple ("Tern- 
plum in modum arcis propriique muri," Tacit. 

* C T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 



The House of Brunswich and the Casting Vote 
(2 nd S. ii. 44.). Sir Arthur Owen, Bart., of 
Orielton, in the county of Pembroke, is the in- 
dividual who is asserted to have given the casting 
vote which placed the Brunswick dynasty upon 
the throne of England. A lady now residing in 
Haverfordwest remembers her grandmother, who 
was staying at Orielton at the time when Sir 
Arthur Owen rode to London on horseback, for 
the purpose of recording his vote. He had relays 
of horses at the different posting houses, and ac- 
complished the journey in an incredibly short 
space of time ; arriving at the precise juncture 
when his single vote caused the scale to pre- 
ponderate in favour of the descendants of the 
Electress Sophia. JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

Cast of Oliver Cromwell (2 nd S. ii. 34.) I do 
not know of any cast of Oliver Cromwell being 
preserved in the Tower. The original one, taken 
after death, is, I believe, in the possession of 
Henry W. Field, Esq., of H. M. Mint, a descen- 
dant of the Lord Protector. MERCATOB, A.B. 

Reginald Bligh, A.B. (2 nd S. ii. 10.) was 
presented to the rectory of Romaldkirk in the 
North Riding of Yorkshire, April 7, 1787. I 
have every reason to believe that he died and was 
buried at Romaldkirk, but I am sure that the 
present rector will give MESSRS. C. H. & T. COO- 
PER all the information about him that they 
require. Mr. Bligh was related to the Captain 
Bligh whose name has become famous from his 
connection with the mutiny of the Bounty. 

ANON. 

Rand (2 nd S. i. 213. 396. 522.) Between a 
place called Trumfleet Marsh and the north bank 
of the river Don, near Kirk-Bramwith, about six 
miles N.N.E. of Doncaster, is a portion of land 
bearing the name of " The Rands." On the oppo- 
site, or south bank, is Fishlake ; to the school of 
which parish the Rev. Richard Rands alias Crab- 
tree (so he writes himself) was a benefactor circa 
1640. He mentions Fishlake as being " the place 
of his nativity." C. J. 

Blood which will not wash out (2 nd S. i. 461 ; 
ii. 57.) It is forty years, exactly, since I visited 
the chapel of the Carmelites at Paris, alluded to 
in the above pages. At that time the blood was 
left in quantities all over the pavement and 
benches, and on the walls. I was told, on the 
spot, that the number of clergy massacred in this 
small chapel was 102 ! Others were shut up and 
murdered in the beautiful church of the convent ; 
and the whole number thus sacrificed was 500 ! 
With reference, however, to the original Query- 
as to the blood not washing out, my impression is 
that in this case no attempt has been made to 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. NO 31., AUG. 2. '56, 



wash it out. It is regarded with the greatest 
veneration ; and when I was there, it was pre- 
served most carefully by never sweeping over it, 
except with a bunch of feathers. At the time of 
my visit, the convent was occupied by about 
thirty-six Carmelite nuns. I had just before paid 
a visit to the good old Abbe Barruel, who had 
then lost the sight of one eye, and was declining, 
but very cheerful. He spoke very highly of 
Bishop Milner, and expressed a wish to possess 
his Letters to a Prebendary, to which he said he 
should give a more honourable place in his library 
than to Bossuet's Variations. F. C. H. 

The Doleman (2 ad S. i. 375.) Dollman (some- 
times Dowman) is not a very uncommon name : 
the family appears to be originally from Yorkshire, 
but there are branches in Herts, Berks, and Cam- 
bridgeshire. J. K. does not say to which town 
he alludes, or the name might possibly be traced 
in the neighbourhood. There are several pedi- 
grees of the name in Brit. Mus. (see Sims's Index). 
Shaw gives the arms of a branch settled in Staf- 
fordshire (vol. ii. p. 101.) LX. 

Gamage Family (2 nd S. ii. 48.) The place 
ANONYMOUS writes " Royiode," is perhaps Coyty, 
near Bridgend, in Glamorganshire. The castle of 
Coyty was formerly the chief possession of the 
family of Gamage ; and, among persons in a hum- 
ble condition of life, in that county, the name still 
exists. T. F. 

"Aneroid" (2 nd S. i. 114.) This word, as 
applied to the vacuum barometer, is a modern 
coinage ; and is compounded of a, privative, and 
the obsolete adjective vnpbs, " humidus." The 
motion of the index on the dial-plate of the in- 
strument is produced by the pressure of the at- 
mosphere upon a corrugated iron box, from which 
the air has been exhausted. There being no fluid 
used in the construction of the barometer, it is, 
therefore, not inaptly designated " Aneroid," i. e. 
moistureless. JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

The Ducking Stool (2 nd S. ii. 38.) In a recent 
number of " N. & Q." a correspondent from Birk- 
enhead has mentioned the use of the ducking stool 
as a punishment for women, in Liverpool, in 1779, 
and perhaps much later, and has referred, as his 
authority, to my historical work on Liverpool. 
The fact certainly was as he has stated. That 
barbarous and unfeeling punishment was inflicted 
in the old House of Correction in Liverpool, at 
least as lately as in 1779 ; and its constant inflic- 
tion there is mentioned in Howard's Appendix to 
the State of the Prisons in England and Wales, 
p. 258. See also the allusion to it by Mr. James 
Nield, the philanthropist, in the Gentleman's 
Magazine of 1803, vol. Ixxiii. part 2. p. 1104. 



I may be allowed to add, that there is yet a 
portable ducking stool, on wheels, preserved in 
the church at Leominster, in Herefordshire, as 
your correspondent states. I have repeatedly 
seen it, and the last time was only in May last ; 
and I have been informed by the worthy vicar, 
who kindly accompanied me and pointed it out to 
me, that about seventy years ago, it was used for 
the ducking of a notoriously bad woman named 
Jane Curran, but called by many " Jenny Pipes." 

RICHARD BROOKE. 

Canning Street, Liverpool. 

"Hallow, my Fancie" (2 nd S. i. 511. ; ii. 57.)' 
This old song is to be found in The Cabinet, a 
(now somewhat rare) collection of tales, &c. In 
a note is added 

" From Watson's Choice Collection of Comic and Serious 
Scots Poems, both Ancient and Modern, 1706, a volume of 
uncommon rarity, where it is prefaced by the following : 

" ' Nota. It was thought fit to insert these verses, 
because the one half of them (viz. from this mark * * * to 
the end) were writ by Lieutenant-Colonel Clealand, of 
my Lord Angus's Regiment, when he was a Student in 
the College of Edinburgh, and 18 Years of Age.' " 

The mark is at the verse beginning, " In con- 
ceit like Phaeton," and ascribes the last nine of 
seventeen stanzas to Col. Clealand. 

C. H. S. (Clk.) 

Dissection (2 nd S. ii. 64.) The object of the 
statute, 2 & 3 Will. IV. c. 75., which enacts that 
the bodies of murderers shall not be dissected, 
but buried in the prison, was obviously to remove 
the prejudice against dissection, and to induce 
persons to give their own or their relatives' bodies 
for dissection; for the act, after reciting that 
there is an insufficient supply of bodies for scien- 
tific purposes, authorises the executor, or other 
party having lawful possession of the body of any 
deceased person, to permit the body to undergo 
anatomical examination;" and also makes it im- 
perative on such party to permit dissection, if the 
deceased had expressed a wish to that effect, 
unless the surviving relatives object. 

Prior to that act, it was unlawful to have pos- 
session of a body for anatomical purposes ; and, 
therefore, no person could authorise the dissection 
of his body. It was argued, when the act was 
proposed, that the legalisation of dissection, and 
the removal of the infamy, would induce many 
persons, for the sake of science, to give bodies for 
dissection. Except as to paupers, the act has 
probably failed of the object proposed ; and it 
might be expedient again to legalise the dissection 
of murderers. EDEN WARWICK. 

Birmingham. 

Ancient Oaths (2 nd S. ii. 70.) The collection 
suggested by T. H. P. to be valuable should cer- 
tainly be complete ; but such a collection would 
surely be too shocking and profane for admission 



2 nd S. N 31., AUG. 2. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



into the pages of " N. & Q." One inestimable 
blessing which we owe to the Reformation, is the 
freedom from the awful oaths in use up to that 
time ; and it can serve no good purpose even to 
know the precise forms of blasphemy by which an 
incarnate Saviour was appealed to by '* the faith- 
ful." On this subject, see an article in the last 
Christian Remembrancer on the "Religious and 
Social State of England before the Reformation." 

X. Y. Z. 

Whitsunday (2 nd S. i. 521. ; ii. 77.) Although 
F. C. H. seems satisfied with "the received origin 
of the name Whitsunday," I confess that the de- 
rivation has always appeared to me the most un- 
satisfactory and fanciful that could have been 
chosen. Did neophytes always wear white gar- 
ments on this day ? If they did, were they so 
specially worn on that day only, as to make it 
likely that they should give a name to this day? 
Dissenting equally from MR. MACKENZIE WAL- 
COTT and from F. C. H., I can find no more likely 
origin of the word than that which Hearne gives 
in the glossary to his edition of Robert of Gloucester, 
s. v. " Wyttesonetyd." His words are : 

" There are many opinions about the original of the 
name, all which I forbear noticing, unless it be one not 
taken notice of by common etymologists, but occurs in 
folio liiij a. of a very rare book printed by Wynken de 
Worde. . . . the words to our purpose are these : 

" ' ^[ In die pentecostes. 

" ' Good men and wymmen this day is called Wytson- 
day bycause the Holy'Ghost brought wytte and wysdom 
into Cristis disciples, and so by her prechyng after in to 
all cristendom. Thenne maye ye understande that many 
hath wytte, but not wysdom. For there ben many that 
hath wytte to preche well, but there ben few that have 
wysdom to live well. There be many wyse prechers and 
techers, but her lyvyng in no maner thyng after her 
prechynge. Also there be many that labour to have 
wytte and connyng, but there ben few travaylleth to 
come to good lyvynge.' " 

Would some of your philological readers give 
the name of this feast in the various languages of 
Europe, as this might enable us to decide upon 
the derivation of the word in our own language. 

WM. DENTON. 

Anonymous Works (1 st S. x. 306.) I have 
heard that Violet, or The Danseuse, was written 
by Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton, Bart. ; and that 
Nights at Mess, originally published in Black- 
wood's Magazine, were not written by the late 
Dr. Maginn, but by the Rev. James White, 
M. A., subsequently residing in Norfolk or 
Somerset. WAHRHEIT. 

"Pence a piece," for a penny a piece (2 nd S. ii. 
66.) This phrase may sometimes be heard in 
Pembrokeshire. I have often been struck with 
the manifest inaccuracy of the expression in its 
popular sense ; for, if it means anything, it must 
mean two pence a piece at least, to satisfy the 



grammatical construction ; just as a lease for years, 
without saying how many, is a lease for two years. 
" Verba ex captu vulgi imponuntur," and we have 
here a sample of the loose way in which the captus 
vulgi often works. J. W. PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

Gypsum, Bones, Guano (2 nd S. i. 374.) The 
use of gypsum, as a manure, was very partially 
known until Mayer, a clergyman of Kupferzell, 
in the principality of Hohenlohe, in Germany, 
noticed it about the middle of the last century in 
a correspondence with Count Von der Schulen- 
berg, at Hehlen, in the electorate of Hanover, as 
having been long in use in the neighbourhood of 
Gottingen as a top-dressing for young clover. 
Tscheffeli, the zealous Swiss agriculturist, soon 
after tried experiments with it, and his success 
introduced it very generally into Switzerland, 
where it continues to maintain its first reputation. 

In the Dumfries and Galloway Courier for 
March, 1837, it is stated that around Hull, and in 
other parts of England, bones have been used as 
a manure for a period of nearly thirty years ; and 
it is added, as a curious fact, that while the Scots 
have the reputation of being the best farmers in the 
world, almost all our great improvements are im- 
ported from the sister country. From Hull the 
practice travelled to East Lothian, and was for 
years so stationary that not a single bushel of the 
new manure was seen in the south of Scotland till 
1825. 

Guano is supposed to have been used as a ma- 
nure probably for ages before Peru was visited by 
the Spaniards. It is spoken of by Herrera in a 
work published at Madrid in 1601 ; in another 
work published at Lisbon in 1609. In the time 
of the Incas there was so much vigilance in guard- 
ing the sea fowl, that during the rearing season 
no person was allowed to visit the islands which 
they frequented, under pain of death, in order 
that they might not be frightened and driven 
away from their nests. About the commencement 
of 1843, guano was discovered on the island of 
Ichaboe, about two miles and a half from the 
mainland of Africa. The place soon attracted 
notice, and by the end of 1844, nearly the whole 
of the guano had been carried away. 

WILLIAM BLOOD. 

Dublin. 

"Rebukes for Sin" (2 nd S. ii. 30.) This book 
was written by the celebrated Nonconformist 
Thomas Doolittle. JOHN I. DREDGE. 

Memorials of former Greatness (2 nd S. i. 405.) 
In the parish church of Alnwick, there are also 
many banners, gloves, and (I think) spears or 
swords, hung up. Also some gloves and wreaths 
in the private chapel at Hill Hall, in Essex. 

E. E. BYNG. 



100 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd s. NO 31., AUG. 2. '56. 



Rev. Charles Hofham (2 nd S. ii. 10.) was a 
son of Sir John Hotham, the celebrated governor 
of Hull who was beheaded on Tower Hill, by his 
second wife, Anne, daughter of Ralph Rokeby, 
Esq., of York. He was rector of Wigan, Lan- 
cashire, and married Eliz., daughter of Stephen 
Thompson of Hambleton, Esq., and from Mm the 
present family of Hotham descends. 

Socius DUNELM. 

"Paraph" (2 nd S. i. 373. 420. 481. 521.) 
All the correspondents with " 1ST. & Q." who have 
written in answer to my inquiries, as to the diplo- 
matic usages of this word, have passed unnoticed 
this question. 

" As the King of France had his particular paraph, said 
to have been a grate, are we to presume that each state 
had its own ? " 

Vossius on Catullus (quoted by Menage) intro- 
duces us to a very different custom, under the 
same name, from any that has yet been noticed : 

" Qui minio, cocco, et rubrica, libros exornabant, 
etiam illi irapaypdfaiv dicebantur. Et hinc est, quod ju- 
risconsultorum rubricos PARAGRAPIII aclpellantur." 

Q. 

Bloomsburv. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

It was well said by Sir Joshua Reynolds, a few months 
after the death of Gainsborough, that, " if ever this 
nation should produce genius sufficient to acquire to us 
the honourable distinction of an English School, the name 
of Gainsborough will be transmitted to posterity, in the 
history of the Art, among the very first of that rising 
name : " yet, high as is the reputation which Gainsborpugh 
now enjoys as one of the best as well as earliest masters 
of the English School, no biography worthy of his great 
tnlents has appeared of him until the present moment. 
A small volume, compiled with great care and attention, 
at length furnishes the admirers of Thomas Gainsborough 
with the particulars of his early strivings after art his 
progress, and ultimate triumph. The Life of Thomas 
Gainsborough, ly the fate George William Fulcher, edited 
lij his Son, was commenced by one who esteemed it a 
privilege to have been born in the same town, educated 
at the same school, and loved the same scenes as Thomas 
Gainsborough ; he availed himself to the fullest of these 
advantages, and, although not spared to complete the 
labours which he had so zealously commenced, the 
volume has perhaps gained somewhat in interest by 
the fact that it is itself a tribute of filial affection. It 
does not, however, require this adventitious help to repu- 
tation : it has been industriously and honestly worked at, 
and we have no doubt will, from its completeness, take a 
permanent place among English Art Biographies. 

Rogers tells a story, in proof of Robertson's good nature, 
of the great historian spreading out a great map of Scot- 
land on the floor, and sprawling on his hands and knees 
to show him the best routes through the country. There 
was then no Black's Picturesque Tourist of Scotland, with 
its numerous maps, views, &c. We live in better clays. 
The railroad carries us to the North in a few hours, a'nd 
when there, thanks to the worthy M.P. for Edinburgh, 
we are at no loss to know what is best worth seeing, or 



how it may best be seen. No wonder that this year's 
edition of this most useful guide should bear on its'title- 
page the recognition of its merits implied bv the words, 
Twelfth Edition." 

The new number of The North British Review is a very 
pleasant one. The articles on the Ottoman Empire, the 
Crimean Campaign (a series of corrections of the French 
mis-statements), and on the Annexation of Oude, will 
interest the politician. The religious reader will peruse 
with interest those on Christian Missions, and the Martyrs 
and Heroes of Holland. There is a good article on the 
Microscope for the scientific, while the literary papers 
on the life of Perthes, the Literary Tendencies of 
France, and the Life and Times of Samuel Rogers, give 
an agreeable variety to the number. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

SOME REMARKS ON HAMLET, PRINCE OP DENMARK. 8vo. London, 

1736. 
MISCELLANEOUS OBSERVATIONS ON THB TRAGEDY OP HAMLET. 8vo. 

London, 1752. 
AN ESSAY ON THE LEARNING OP SHAKSPEARE. By Dr. Fanner. 1821. 

AN E-SAY ON THE CHARACTER OP HAMLET AS PERFORMED BY MR. 

HKNDERSON. 8vo. No date. 
A PHILOSOPHICAL ANALYSIS AND ILLUSTRATION OP SOME OF SHAKSPEARE'S 

DRAMATIC CHARACTERS. [By Win. Richardson.] Latest Edition. 
ESSAYS ON RICHARD III., &c. By Wm. Richardson. 12mo. London, 

ESSAY ON THE CHARACTER OF HAMLET. By the Rev. T. Robertson. 

4to. London, 1788. 
OnsKRVATioNs ON HAMLET. By James Plumtre. 8vo. Cambridge, 

1796, and the Appendix. 8vo. London, 1797. 
ULRICI'S SHAKSPEARE'S DRAMATIC ART. English Translation. 
W. S. LANDOR'S WORK ON SHAKSPEARK (?) 
HAZLITT'S CHARACTERS OF SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. 1838. 

Wanted by Z. A. If., Post Office, Dartmouth Row, Blackheath. 



ENGLAND'S FORGOTTEN WORTHIES. 

Wanted by J. W. //., Islington Literary Society. 



LADY JANE GREY. 
FAIR ROSAMOND. 
ROYSTON GOWEH. 
RURAL SKETCHES. 

All by Thos. Miller, Basket-Maker. 
Also Vols. VIII. and X. of ELIZA COOK'S JOURNAL. 

Wanted by Tkos. Riley, Bookseller, 2. Old Millgatc, Manchester. 



ta 

Amoiirj other valuable communications which we are compelled to post- 
/tone until ni-.rt ircek is an, iitcdited letter bi/ Gustavus AdolphlU in favour 
of Patrick Ruthven, and a most admirable Oxford Jeu d'iisprii of the 
beginning of the last century. 

We are reminded of an inaccuracy in the account of the family of 

Athenian Stuart in our faif number. The "jine boi/ " at Jfr. Barney's 
i,<,art/i,t!i-scli<>o( wax John, (ieonje Jlardimje Stuart, n://o ir<(ssub.<c//uently 
a tnidsliipma n. in the lional .\'ar//, and died, of the yellow fever, at Mar- 
tini</iie, in the. ll'est Indies, in the //ear 1800. Lieut. James Stuart, It. JV., 
nmv lirin;/, was a i>ost/nim<j!>* child, born April 13. 1783, shortly after the 
death of /its father. 

Answers to other Correspondents in our next. 

INDEX TO THE FIRST SERIES. As this is now published, and the im- 
pr< -ssion.is a limited one, such of our readers as desire copies would do 
veil to intimate, their icish to their 'respective booksellers without delay. 
Our publishers, Mrssiis. BELL & DALDY, will forward copies by post on 
receipt of a Post Office Order for Fire Shillings. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, so that tJie 
Cm/ ni n/ Hook-sellers man recc.ire Copies in. that night's parcels, and 
deliver' them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the, con- 
venience of those irho may either hare. a. difficulty in. procuring the un- 
stainjicd. weekhi X umbers, or prefer receiving it monthly. While parties 
resident in the country or abroad, u-lio maybe desirous of receiving the 
veek/i/ Ximibers, may have stanived copies forwarded direct from the 
1'nliljshc.r. The. subscription for the. stamped edition of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES " (inclvding a very coj//<is Jnde.r) is i-leren shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which inai/ be paid by Post Office Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publisher, MR. GEO'ROB BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



. N 32., AUG. 9. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 9, 185G. 



INEDITED LETTER OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS IN 
BEHALF OF PATRICK RUTHVEN. 

Such of our readers as are Fellows of the So- 
ciety of Antiquaries remember, we have no doubt, 
the valuable illustrations of the History of the 
Knthven Family contributed by Mr. Bruce to the 
Archceologia, vol. xxxiv., founded on documents 
tvhich had been unearthed from our various Re- 
cord Offices by the persevering and well-directed 
zeal of Colonel Stepney Cowell, a present repre- 
sentative of the last male descendant of that most 
unhappy family. 

To the kindness of Colonel Cowell we are now 
indebted for the opportunity of bringing before 
them a document recently discovered by him in 
the State Paper Office, which document will be 
read with great interest, recording as it does the 
friendly intercession of Gustavus Adolphus with 
Charles I. in behalf of Patrick Ruthven ; and we 
shall be well pleased indeed, if its publication in 
these columns should be the means of bringing to 
light any evidence as to the results of the exertions 
so earnestly made by the Swedish monarch, that 
Patrick Ruthven "might obtain the splendour of 
his ancient house, and maintain the place and 
dignity of his ancestors." 

u Gustavus Adolphus, by the Grace of God King 
of Sweeden." 

"Most excellent and most mightie Prince, 
Our most deare brother, Cousin and friend. 

" Your Mag* hath giuen us just occasion to re- 
joyce at, your frendship, hauing upon Our inter- 
cession made by Our Counseller and Ambass r 
Gabriel Oxenstern some Two years agoe, in. the 
behalf of your subict Partrig Ruthuen, promised 
for our sake to restore him to his former condi- 
tion. Therefore understanding that y* Ma e being 
mindful of that intercession, hath not only ad- 
mitted the said jftuthuen into Your presence, but 
also permitted him to kisse you r kinglie hand, and 
giuen him further hope withall, to obtaine his 
former hereditarie hono, We could not but giue 
you many thanks. 

"Now for as much as he hath his hope upon 
the mutuall frendship and good correspondence 
as passet.h betweine You r Maj e an Us, thereby to 
attaine You r full grace, and to obtaine the spleri- 
do r of his auncient house, and to maintaine the 
place and dignitie of his Ancesto", We againe 
entreat You r Ma e most kindly to vouchsaf, as he 
has allready felt a good foundation by the pre- 
mices of our request, so also that now he may 
perceiue, upon this our reiterated intercession, 
such an encrease of Yo r grace, that at the last he 
may be bound unto Yo r Ma e for ever for an ac- 



complishm*, and as it were for a new Life, by 
Yo r munificence bestowed on his familie. And 
we assure You r Ma e that whatsoever he shall re- 
ceiue hereupon of grace and fau r , That We will 
so accept of, that We ourselves will endau r upon 
each occasion to deserue it. And he and his 
Whole familie shall without doubt for euer ac- 
knowledge Yo r grace by all thankfulnes, praise, 
obedience, and service, &c. Giuen in our Camp 
at Worrndit, 1 Octob. 1627. 

" The King of Sweeden unto his most exc. 
Ma e in the behalf of Pardrig Ruthen, 
that he may enjoy the former lion" 
and dighitie of his predecess 8 , & Oc- 
tober, 1627." 
(Charles 1 st , Rex.) 



AN OXFORD SQUIB. 

In rummaging the old family papers of a neigh- 
bouring "Country Squire," I lately found a large 
collection of literary MSS., in quantity and quality 
amply sufficient to vindicate the ancestry of my 
friend from the charge of ignorance and boorish 
habits brought by a brilliant writer against the 
country squires of a former age. During my 
search the following pasquinade turned up. As 
you have invited contributions of university 
squibs, I do not hesitate to send it you; for nei- 
ther in classical Latinity nor racy humour is it 
inferior to any that have yet appeared in your 
columns. There are evidently many sly and 
happy hits at personal character and history to 
which we need the key, though they almost tell 
their own tale. All Souls, as usual in more mo- 
dern days, comes in for its full share of envious 
satire. It will be seen that the squib is in the 
form of a letter, assumed to be written by Ma- 
thew Hole, rector of Exeter College, a divine of 
some eminence, to Sir Hans Sloane, with an ac- 
count of the reception given by the university to 
a Norwegian owl presented to them by the great 
naturalist. 

As to its date. Sir Hans Sloane was elected 
President of the College of Physicians in 1719; 
Bernard Gardiner was Warden of All Souls from 
1702 to 1726. Between 1719 and 1726, then, this 
effusion was put forth. 

I send it literatim as I find it ; though there are 
a few palpable clerical errors, whixjh I have been 
almost tempted to correct. L. B. L. 

Viro insignissimo necnon Patrono ae Benefactori immifi- 
centissimo Domino Hans Sloane, Eguiti aurato Collegii 
medicorum inter Londinenses Praesidi, &fc. 
" Domine, 

"Bubonern Norvegensem, pignus amoris tui, avem 
perraram perpulchramque, in quam tota stupet Academia, 
laeti accepimus incolumem ac sanam. Per me igitur 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 32., AUG. 9. '56, 



gratias quam maximas rependit Venerabilis Domus Con- 
vocationis, quae mihi in mandata dedit ut gratias hasce 
celeriter et sine mora rependerem, ne ingrati animi nota 
inureretur nobis, neve ignorare videamur quanti pretii 
tarn insigne beneficium aastimari debet. 

" Edwardus Whistler, legatus academicus, mihique con- 
sanguineus (utpote uxor illius eandem matrem, lijet di- 
versum patrem, cum mea uxore jactat) jussu meo ad 
vicum rusticum, vulgo vocatum Wheatly, fecit iter, ut 
ibi praestolaretur adventum Bubonis, eamque ad Oxoniam 
deduceret prima nocte, sine ullo tubarum aut Tympa- 
norum strepitu, et, si fieri potuit, private fallentique 
modo: Cavere enim necesse esse duxi, ut nullam moles- 
tiam facesserent Reginae avium vel lascivi Juvenes vel 
profanum Vulgus ; utque nihil accideret per quod fieret 
publicae perturbatio pacis, pulsante Thoma Clusio, ipse 
cum caeteris Collegiorum praefectis primum salutavimus 
Bubonem in hospitio meo. Avem discumbere fecimus 
super mollem lecticam juxta focillum, in eodem lecto 
quotidie requiescit, somno ac cibo potuque parum indi- 
gene, et vitam agens vere collegialem. 

Postero die quam Bubo est in gremium Almae Matris 
Academiss recepta, convenerunt apud Golgotha singuli 
Collegiorum ac Aularum praefectus, ut novo hospiti hos- 
pitium assignarent, deliberarentque qualem victum cul- 
tumque prsestare ei par esset. 

"In hoc venerabili concessu ipse pro more primus surrexi 
et sequentia verba feci. 

" Insignissimi Doctores, Vosque egregii Procuratores. 

" Est mihi placens uxor, sunt etiam quamplurima mu- 
nera a me volente, nolente, obeunda, quaa atram caliginem 
obducunt diei, quaa noctes insomnes reddunt. Quando- 
quidem ita se res habet, etiam atque etiam a vobis, 
Fratres fraterrimi, rogo, ut Bubo, quge mihi sollicitaa 
jucunda oblivia vitae ' suppeditabit, quaeque curis domes- 
ticis gravatae innocuum movebit risum, et, me absente, 
meas vices gerat, ut haac optatissima Bubo, inquam, 
inter domesticos meos adsciscatur, mihique perpetuus fiat 
hospes; Verumenimvero si huic venerando Coetui secus 
statuere in hac re visum fuerit, tamen sorte meS, con- 
tentus abibo, memet paratum praestabo publicaa voci 
assentiri, atque viris parere quorum sententia nunquam 
sort.ilegis discrepuit Delphi's. 

"Sic fatus resedebatn, et protinus 'D s D r Delaune, 
reverendus Sancti Johannis Baptiste prases surrexit, 
dixitque. 

" Insignissirne Vice Cancellarie. 

"De via recta devius aberras : non ea mens, non id 
propositum fuit a Domino H. Sloane, ut Bubo senesceret 
ad instar fratris nostri Matthei Hole, intra Collegii pa- 
rietes, donee procumberet a Lethi jactu ictus ; sed data 
est avis ut enecaretur, coquereturque, nobisque exquisi- 
tissimas praeberet dapes. Mihi enim credite (vel si fides 
mihi parum sit adhibenda) credite Plinio, qui in Natural 
sua historia aperte profitetur carnem Bubonis esse sapore 
praastantissimum, et omni alii cibo longe anteponendum. 

" Crastino igitur die iterum conveniamus apud hospitia 
Domini Vice Cancellarii, ibique assata bubone epulemur 
et saluti Domini Hans Sloane propinemus Gallicurr 
Vinum eo modo quo par est, vel potius sine ullo modo ve 
mensura. 

" Domino Doctori Delaune respondit Dominus Docto: 
Dobson Collegii Trinitatis Prases laudatissimus, et se 
quentem orationem habuit. 

" Non assentior tibi Domine Doctor ; est enim adagium 
satis notum, ' si me ames, ama etiam canem meum ; ' 
quod si canis est magistri gratia amandus, ita debe; 
ratiocinari. Si colis Dominum H. Sloane colenda est 
etiam Bubo ejus; jam vero si pectore homicidali avem 
mactemus et devoremus, ipse Dominus Hans Sloane me 



uat ne eadem sors ei contingat, si quando intra limites 
icademiae fuerit deprehensus. Quocirck ab hoc sanguino- 
ento proposito vestras cohibete manus, et aliquod melius 
nter nos ineamus Consilium. 

" Relapso in sedem suam Dominus Doctor Dobson, sese 
ad eloquendum accinxit D" D r Holland Collegii Merton- 
nsis Gustos, atque ita est exorsus. 

" Si quid est in me ingenii, Judices, quod vos scntitis 
quam sit exiguum, aut si quae exercitatio dicendi in qua 
me non inficior mediocriter esse versatum, earum rerum 
omnium vel in primis haec Bubo fructum a me repetere 
prope suo jure debet. In medium igitur proferam quod 
mens in pectoribus suadet in hoc solenni negotio esse 
faciendum, quodque et vobis et toti academies (cui Deus 
sit semper propitius) maxime in Glorias et Laudis pereni- 
tatem cedat. Hortum Botannicum supereminent aedes in 
hospitium Professoris nostri Botannici exstructse, quae 
amaenum hunc Hortum, omni genere leguminis olerisque 
consitum, grato et ridenti aspectant vultu. In hisce 
aedibus cohabitet Bubo, una cum Botannico Professore, 
qui ave (quod absit) aegrotante, ei opem praesentem ferat, 
reducatque ad integram sanitatem arte sua vere Apol- 
linea. Ne vero Professor ipse, qui Bubonis curae nullo non 
tempore totus vacabit, damnum vel minimum sentiat in 
praxi medicinali, solvatur ei obolus quadransve a singulis 
qui Bubonem visendi causa Botannicum frequentabunt 
hortum. Huic larga excrescent emolumenta quaa egregii 
Professoris fidelitatem et curam abunde remunerabunt 
suppeditabuntque non solum et illi et Buboni victum 
competentem, verum etiam quicquid horum animantium 
desiderat Vita. 

" Hanc orationem vix peroraverat D 8 D r Holland, cum 
D' D r Gardner Collegii Omnium Animarum Gustos emi- 
nentissimus valde mutatus de sede prosiluit, et hasce 
iratas voces contra Hollandum projecit. 

"Tace Circuliuncule, tace inquam, Ego assatam Bu- 
bonem comedere cum D. Delaune mallem, vel crudam et 
plumatam avem protinus deglutire quam cum fatuo Doc- 
tore Holland suffragari ut Bubo apud Hortum Botannicum 
asservetur ibique publicum spectaculum fiat ; Nemo enim 
nescit socios meos ea esse ignava atque nugaci indole 
proaditos, ut si perpetuus ingressus pateret, perpetui eva- 
derent Buboni Comites. In sacello ita, nee non in Biblio- 
theca ac in toto Collegio meo foret infrequentia summa, 
rueret Disciplina, ruerent Exercitia, ruerent Artes; at 
tales minas avertat Ccclum, aut haec mea avertet Dextra. 
" Sic fatus anhelans recumbit surrexitque D 9 D r Gibson 
Collegii Regalis Praepositus acutissimus qui haec enea. w 

poevra. irpoa-evSa. 

" D' D r Gardner ! 

"Quare tarn iracundus, tarn ferox, et tarn contumeliosus 
es in bonum nostrum fratrem D r Hollandum? profecto 
tuus vultus magis rabidus et magis truculentus apparet, 
quam caput apri illius quern pauper puer de meo collegio 
trucidavit decollavitque unico armatus Aristotelis libro 
Dico autem tibi, quod ni tu malus esses Gubernator, 
nullam causam haberes trepidandi de sociis tuis. Sis tu 
igitur mihi similis, et tui socii erunt similes meis, quos 
libere permittam Bubonem visere toties quoties volunt. 

" Ad haec verba raptim surrexit Dominus Doctor Gard- 
ner, etlaevamanu prehenso Domini Doctoris Gibson jugulo, 
dextra comminuisset eum, ni Bedellus Theologiae eo in- 
stanti intrasset, narrassetque Bubonem ita male se habere, 
ut respueret Escam e manibus uxoris mese. Hoc audito 
singuli Praefectus festinantes domum se receperunt ut 
quisque a Collegio suo ablegaret medicum qui aegrotae 
Buboni opem pro viribus ferret. Ipse vero, monitu Doc- 
toris Skippen, aequm esse censui ad te de rebus hodie inter 
nos gestis scriptitare, simulque humiliter petere ut nobis 
quamprimum praacipias quid in hisce arduis negotiis 
agendum sit. Hoc igitur in praecordiis persuasum habe 



2"d S. NO 32., AUG. 9. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



me paratissimum esse tua exequi mandata, et memet 
prastare nullo non tempore cum omni cultu et grati- 
tudine. Tuum servum fidelissinaum humillimum." 



PREMATURE INTERMENTS, ETC. 

The twenty-three years' experience of the 
worthy gravedigger of Bath (see "N. & Q.," 
1 st S. viii. 6. 205.), to the effect thatjin the course 
of decomposition the face of every individual turns 
to the earth, proves too much for the supposition, 
which, had the instances been less universal, 
might have been held sufficiently explanatory, 
that premature interments, the result of undue 
haste and culpable carelessness or ignorance as to 
the true signs of fleath, had been the cause of the 
phenomenon. Newspaper paragraphs, headed 
"Buried alive!" appear at intervals sufficiently 
brief to keep the frightful possibility of such an 
occurrence vivid in the imagination ; and the his- 
toric cases in proof are too numerous and well- 
authenticated to need citation or inquiry. The 
ancients, as is well known, instituted their con- 
clamatio, and other precautions to prevent this 
most horrible of fates, and all tourists are aware 
of the careful provisions made at the present day 
in the cemeteries of Germany to avoid the possi- 
bility of premature interment. The tender Juliet 
soliloquises : 

How, if when I am laid into the tomb 
I wake ..... 
. there's a fearful point ! " 

and how prevalent is such a fear we may gather 
from the number of the instances in which men 
have requested, that, before the last offices are 
done for them, such wounds or mutilations should 
be inflicted upon their bodies, as should effectually 
prevent the possibility of an awakening in the 
tomb. So in the case of a well-known antiquary 
and lover of books : 

" The late Francis Douce requested in his will, that. Sir 
Anthony Carlisle, the surgeon, should sever his head from 
his body, or take out his heart, to prevent the return of 
vitality. His old friend, and co-residuary legatee, Mr. 
Kerrick, had also requested the same operation to be per- 
formed in the presence of his son." T. F. Dibdin's Lit. 
Hem., vol. ii. p. 777. 

In France especially, premature interments 
seem to have been formerly startlingly numerous, 
and the subject has at times excited great in- 
terest. Bruhier has collected and classified no 
less than 180 cases, many of which were doubtless 
attributable to hospital negligence. Twenty years 
ago M. Manni, Professor in the University at 
Rome, placed the sum of 1500 francs at the dis- 
posal of the Academy of Sciences, for the best 
treatise on the signs of death, and the means to 
prevent premature interment. This premium was 
not adjudicated till 1846, when the following me- 
moir was considered to merit its bestowal : 



"Traite' des Signes de la Mort, et des Moyens de 
prevenir les Enterrements prematures. Par E. Bouchut. 
Paris : Bailliere, 1849." 

This is the best treatise we have on the subject. 
A well written little book has more recently ap- 
peared : 

" The Medical Aspects of Death : and the Medical As- 
pects of the Human Mind. By James Bower Harrison, 
&c. London : 12mo., 1852." ' 

For the behoof of those who may take an in- 
terest in this horrible subject, and wish to investi- 
gate it for themselves, I append the titles of a few 
volumes in my collection : 

" Garmanni (L. C. F.) de Miraculis Mortuorum, lib. iii. 
quibus praemissa Dissertatio de Cadavere et Miraculis in 
Genere, Opus physico-medicum. 4to. Dresden, 1709." 

"The Uncertainty of the Signs of Death, and the 
Danger of Precipitate Interments and Dissections De- 
monstrated, &c. 2nd ed. London, 12mo., 1751." 

"Observations on Apparent Death from Drowning, 
Hanging, Suffocation by Noxious Vapours, Fainting Fits, 
Intoxication, Lightning, Exposure to Cold, &c. By 
James Curry, M.D., &c. London, Svo., 1815." 

" The Danger of Premature Interment proved from 
many remarkable Instances of Persons who have recovered 
after being laid out for Dead. By Joseph Taylor. 12mo. 
1816." 

"The Thesaurus of Horror; or the Charnel-House Ex- 
plored ! ! Being an Historical and Philanthropical In- 
quisition made for the quondam Blood of its Inhabitants ! 
By a contemplative descent into the untimely grave! 
Shewing, by a number of awful facts that have transpired, 
as well as from philosophical inquiry, the reanimating 
power of Fresh Earth in cases of Syncope, &c., and the 
extreme criminality of hasty Funerals : with the surest 
method of escaping the ineffable horrors of Premature In- 
terment ! ! The frightful Mysteries of the A Dark Ages 
laid open, &c. By John Smart, $tAai'0pw7ros. London : 
8vo. 1817." 

Reference may also be made to the following : 

" Encyclopaedia Londinensis : sub voc. ' Mausoleum,' 
and ' Reanimation.' " 

"Diet, de Medicine et de Chirurgie. Art. 'Inhuma- 
tions precipitees.' " 

" Reports of the Royal Humane Society for 1787-8-9, 
p. 77." 

" Collet's Relics of Literature, p. 186." 

" Granger's Biog. Hist, of England, vol. i. p. 330." 

I cannot more appropriately conclude than by 
the transcription, from a magazine cutting, of a 
story, cognate in horror and mystery with that 
alluded to at the commencement of the present 
paper ; soliciting the elucidatory remarks of the 
readers of " N. & Q." thereto. 

" Horrible Phenomena. It is not generally known, 
that in Barbadoes there is a mysterious vault, in which 
no one now dares to deposit the dead : it is in a church- 
yard near the sea-side. In 1807, the first coffin that was 
deposited in it was that of a Mrs.Goddard; in 1808, a 
Miss A. M. Chase was placed in it ; and in 1812, Miss D. 
Chase. In the end of 1812, the vault was opened for the 
body of the Hon. T. Chase ; but the three first coffins 
were found in a confused state, having been apparently 
tossed from their places. Again was the vault opened to 
receive the body of an infant, and the four coffins, all of 



104 



NOTES ANP QUEBIES. 



N 32., AUG. 9. '56 4 



Jead. and very heavy, were found much disturbed. In 
1816, a Mr. Brewster's body was placed jn the vault, and 
again great disorder was apparent among the coffins^ In 
1819, a Mr. Clarke was placet in the vault; and, as be- 
fore, the cpffins were in confusion. Each time that the 
vault was opened, the coffins were replaced in their proper 
situations : that is, three on the ground, side by sid^e, and 
the others laid on them. The vault was then regularly 
closed ; the door (a massive stone, which required six or 
seven men to move) was cemented by masons ; and 
though the floor was of sand, there were no marks of 
footsteps or water. Again the vault was ppened ir) 1819. 
Lord Combermere was then'present; and the coffins were 
found thrown confusedly about the vault spme with 
the heads down, and others up. What could have occa- 
sioned this phenomenon? In no other vault in the island 
has this ever occurred. Was it an earthquake which oc- 
casioned it, or the effects of an inundatjon in the vault ? ' 
These were the questions asked by a Barbadoes journal at 
the time, and no one could afford a solution. 

" The matter gradually died away, until the present 
year, whep, on the 16th qf February, the vault was again 
opened, and all the coffins were found thrown about as 
confusedly as before. A strict investigation took place, 
and no cause could be discovered. Was it, after all, that 
the sudden bursting forth of noxious gas from one of the 
coffins could have produced the phenomena? If so, it is 
against all former experience. The vault has been her- 
metically sealed again when to be re-opened we cannot 
tell. 

" In England there was a parallel occurrence tp this, 
some years ago, at Haunton in Suffolk. It is stated, that 
on opening a vault there, several leaden coffins, with 
wooden cases, which had been fixed on biers, were found 
displaced, to the great consternation of the villagers. The 
coffins were again placed as beforehand the vault properly 
closed, when again another of the family dying, they 
were a second time found displaced ; and two years after 
that, they were not only found all off their biers, but one 
coffin (so heavy as to require eight men tp raise it) was 
found on the fourth step which led down to the vaults, 
and it seemed perfectly certain that no human hand had 
done this." 



Birmingham. 



WILLIAM BATES. 



QTJISQUILIN^ L1TERARO3 LONDINENSES. 

Under this name, an unique and extraordinary 
collection has been here J.ately formed. Its ra- 
tionale was the following : Since the year 1838, 
England has gone through a number of political 
and societary revulsions, which in some eases 
assumed an important character for instance, the 
storming of the soldiers' station at Monmouth ; the 
extempore, procession of 40,000 London proletaires 
in the night of June 29, 1848. These and similar 
facts implied an analogous motion and convulsion 
of the public mind : this again became typified 
and pourtrayed in a number of flying leaves, pam- 
phlets, and journals, all of the same ephemeral 
character as the deecls to which they led hitherto. 
Still, they all also form 

" The very age and body of the time, his form and 
pressure." 

Hence, therefore, it had seemed advisable tp 
collect these strange mementos of the time, otker- 



wise irretrievably lost. Even the titles of some of 
them are remarkable : The Atheist and Republican ! 
a penny periodical, the few numbers of which 
were probably published by some deluded journey- 
man who thought that he had discovered these 
mystic words of history. The late W. Hethering- 
ton (formerly of the Strand) delighted in such 
deep issues, by which also he became a bankrupt. 
The number of Social (Owenite) and Chartist pub- 
licatiops and leaves is legion all which seemed 
to be built on sand. To say at least 100,0007. 
must have been, spent in 1839 seqq. in journals like 
The Working Mans Friend, The Charter, frc. ; 
some of wb/ich, like The London Dispatch, were 
large weeklies, in folio, f he late line of policy of 
not prosecuting such publications has done them 
a deal of harm and some of them contain pas- 
sages which we would not venture to reprint here. 
On an equally untenable foundation rest the anti- 
religious, atheistic publications of that period 
The Oracles of Reason which only establish the 
fact, that in a huge community every creed and 
sentiment will have its abettors, and therefore 
organs. The collection also contains specimens 
of all sorts of exploded journals and periodicals, a 
great many in numbers (!) ; data, however, for 
the history of the periodical press of England at 
that time. Although I have given to the collection 
a bad name, yet the QuisquilincB Liieraria Lqn- 
dinenses will be a fertile source for the searchers 
into the mind of the English and London people 
at the period referred to ; in fine, whatever might 
have been right in those exertions, will expand in 
future, according to the axiom of the younger 
Coleridge : 

" Whatever is to be fa" 

DR. J. LQTSKY. 
15. Gower Street, London. 

P.S. A collection of the Vienna Revolution 
prints of 1848 and 1849, containing some very 
scarce street lampoons, has been purchased by the 
Berlin Library. 



WILL OF RICHARP LINGARP. 

The following will may probably be interesting 
to some of the renders of "N. & Q." The tes- 
tator was a man of learning and reputation, and 
his testament is an extremely curious document. 
It was proved in the Registry at York. 

" Testawentupt Richardi Lingard nuper tfe Ristnore in 
regno Jlibernice. 

!' The plate and furniture of the Chamber, and six score 
poupds jn money, as jtt becomes due, J bequeath tp my 
sister; and the remnant of that I bequeath to myselfe. 
For the recovery of my right I appoint Captaine Nicholas, 
Sir Francis Brewster. I desire to be buried where the 
parish of St. Andrewe's shall appoint. I desire the hun- 
dred pounds lyeing in the hands of Sir Francis Brewster 
to be left in th<? hands of the executors pf whpme he,e 



2i S. N 32., Alia. 9. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



is one. I desire that the senior fellowes of the Colledge 
shall have nipurneing rings. Mr. Clarke of Clarindon 
House, my Lord of Ormond's servant, to have twenty 
pounds as a legacy, and what I owe him to be paid. 
Fifty pound I leave Mr. Roberts. I recommend my ser- 
vant Arthur to tlie Deane of Corke's desjgnes. I desire 
ihy Lord Chancellor for the recovery of those arreares. 
I desire that twenty of my choicest bookes may be given 
to the library. The rest I desire my executors to dis- 
pose, but that my cozen John Pinsent shall chuse a 
third part. My watch and thirty pounds to be given 
to Mr. Story. To my servant Arthur twenty pounds 
and mourning ; and to Patrick tenn pounds and mourn- 
ing. I desire that Mr. Ward may be joined with Mr. 
Styles in the disposeing of my bookes. I desire that 
Mr. Crookes be paid, and to have a mourneing ring. I 
forgive Patricke Sheridan and William Sheridan, the 
Deanes pf Dome (Deny or Dromore?) and Corke, if ever 
I did them any injury. 

" The Goods. A rent due to mee in Cumberland 
(vizt.) a tenement in the Island sold to George William- 
son, the whole summe of one hundred and seaventy five ; 
of which I received forty five. I beleive some money is 
due to mee in Cornett D'eanes hand. I desire my notes to 
be perused by Dr. Styles, and not above six of my 
sermons to be used, the rest to be burned. I bequeath to 
the Provest twenty pounds, as a symbole of my love. 
Twenty pounds to his Lady. I trust my man Arthur in 
the setting downe pf these partipulers, and I allow this to 
be my hasty will. 

" Hi. LIKGARD, November the 10th, 1670." 

The extraordinary character of this document 
may be, perhaps, accounted for by $he fpUqwing 
memorandum which, is appended to the will : 

" Memorandum, that Mr. Joice Scale and Arthur Brinan, 
wittnesses produced, swprne, and examined, in a cause 
depending in his Majesties Court pf Prerogative concern- 
ing the profe of the last will and testament of Dr. Richard 
Lingard, in speciall forme of law did depose that Dr. 
Henry Stiles was nominated by the said Dr. Richard Lin- 
gard one of his executors, but his name was not inserted 
in the said will by reason of the hast and negligence p.f 
the said Arthur Brinan whoe did write the said will." 

SOCIUS DUNELM. 



The @reat Comet of 1556. The great comet 
of 1556, the probable return of which in the 
course of the present summer, had been predicted 
by Paul Fabricius, and more recently by Hel- 
ler, the N'urnberg astronomer, as shown by DR. 
LOTSKY in the last volume of " N. & Q." (2 nd S. 
i. 272. 391.) would seem by The Times of Aug. 5, 
to have made its re-appearance. In the paper of 
that day is a long extract from the Limerick Ob- 
server of the preceding Saturday, from which the 
following extract seems to me to deserve trans- 
ferring to your columns : 

" A gentleman qf the highest respectability has just 
informed us that he saw lasf, night, for the third time, 
what appears from his description to be the long-ex- 
pected comet of 1556, the re-appearance of which this 
year has been so long foretold; astronomers, however, 
guarding their calculations by the proviso that a differ- 
ence of three years might possibly occur, although there 



was every reason to expect that the great comet, which 
takes three centuries to complete its orbit, would be 
visible about the month of August 18">6. Our informant 
thus describes the object which attracted his attention for 
the first time last Wednesday night : He was standing 
near the salmon- weir, on the platform before the mills of 
Corbally, about half past 10 o'clock, whe.n his attention 
was attracted by what appeared to be a fire rising on the 
top of Keeper mountain, due east of his position. He 
remarked the object to a gentleman who was with him, 
but, as the fire rose and cleared the top of the mountain, 
his friend suggested that it must be a lantern suspended 
to a kite. It had then the appearance of a globe of fire 
as large as a good-sized orange, with a broad tail of light 
extending about 18 inches from the body. The two 
gentlemen watched it for an hour, and the watchman on 
the weir observed it also. Qn Thursday night they all 
saw it again. It rose a few moments later, presenting 
the same appearances, and was high in the heavens at 
half-past 1J. o'clock, when, they went home. At that 
hour one of the gentlemen pointed it out to his sister. 
Last night, from the same place, the same persons again 
saw it rise about 20 minutes before 11 o'clock, and then it 
first occurred to one of them (our informant) that it 
might be a comet. He ceased to watch it about midnight, 
but the watchman observed it up to half-past 1 o'clock 
this morning. It did not seem so large as on the previpus 
nights, but still far exceeded the most brilliant form in 
which the planet Jupiter has ever been beheld. As the 
greatest comet on record is really due about this time, 
and as the extreme sultriness of the weather would seem 
to warrant the belief that such a celestial visitor is near 
at hand, we shall be glad to hear if any other persons 
have observed the appearance which/ has thrice risen 
upon our astonished friends." 

R. R. S. 

" Deep-mp.ufyed" I have heard many profane 
readers of f)a,n Juan despant with rapture on the 
beauty o^the lines (pantq 1, y. J23.) : 

<? ? Tis sweet to hear the watch- dog's honest bark, 
Bay deep-mouthed welcome as we draw near home." 

The epithet deep-mouthed, as applied to the 
watch-dog's bark of welcome, being especially 
designated as " fine." And fine it is ; but Pyron 
found it in Shakspeare and in Goldsmith, and I 
dare say in many places else : 

# And couple Clowder with the deep-mouthed brach." 
Taming of the Shrew, Introduction, Sc. 1. 

" The laborers of the day -were all retired to rest: the 
lights were out in every cottage 5 no sounds were heard 
but of the shrilling cock, and the deep-rmouthed watch- 
dog at hollow distance." Vicar of Wakefald, ch. :xxj|. 

A JpEsufTQRT READER. 



Last Words of the Great. A collection of the 
last words of great and famous men would, I ven- 
ture to suggest, be interesting, and not unfit for 
the pages of ' N. & Q." I beg to annex a few 
such dying speeches, each eminently characteristic, 
it will be seen, of the several men i 

" Head of the army." (Napoleon.) 

<f I must sleep now." (Byron.) 

" Let the light enter." (Goethe.) 

1 thank God I have done my duty." (Nelson.) 



106 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



NO 32., AUG. 9. '56. 



It is well." (Washington.) 
" Valete et Plaudite ! " (Augustus.) 
" Give Dayrolles a cha*rJ" (Chesterfield.) 
" It matters little how the head lieth." (Raleigh.) 
" I'm shot if I don't believe I'm dying." (Thurlow.) 
" God preserve the Emperor ! " (Haydn.) 
"Be serious." (Grotius.) .' 'fT* 

" The artery ceases to beat." (Haller.) 
" What, is there no bribing Death ? " (Cardinal Beau- 
fort.) 
"I have loved God, my father, and liberty." (De 

Stael.) 
" I pray you, see me safe up, and for my coming down, 

let me shift for myself." (Sir Thomas More.) 
"Don't let that awkward squad fire over my grave." 

(Burns.) 

" A dying man can do nothing easy." (Franklin.) 
" Let me die to the sounds of delicious music." (Mira- 

beau.) 

" We are all going to heaven, and Vandyke is of the 
company." (Gainsborough.) 

Some of your correspondents, I have no doubt, 
could greatly enlarge this collection. H. E. W. 
York. 

A Real " Skimpole" The tales of Charles 
Dickens are distinguished for queer characters 
with queer names. Some of his critics have said 
that such names and such characters never ex- 
isted. However, in a former number of " N". & 
Q.," * an attempt was made to trace the cogno- 
mina of some of the Pickwickians to a book of a 
very different kind, the Annual Register. 

If it be true that the novelist borrows his proper 
names from books, may he not be indebted to the 
same sources for at least the elements of his 
characters ? In reading Marmontel's Memoirs, 
I have stumbled upon what seems to me the very 
prototype of Harold Skimpole in Bleak House. 
The biographer is describing a pair of worthies 
called Galet and Panard. Of the latter he says : 

" Le bon homme Panard, aussi insouciant que son ami, 
aussi oublieux du passe et negligent de 1'avenir, avoit 
plutot dans son infortune la tranquillite d'un enfant, que 
1'indifFerence d'un philosophe. Le soin de se nourrir, de 
se loger, de se vetir, ne le regardoit point : c'etoit Paffaire 
de ses amis, et il en avoit d'assez bons pour meriter cette 
contiance," &c. Memoires de Marmontel, livre vi. 

'All he (Skimpole) asked of society was to let him live. 
That wasn't much. His wants were few. Give him the 
papers, conversation, music, mutton, coffee, landscape, 
fruit in the season, a few sheets of Bristol-board, and a 
little claret, and he asked no more. He was a mere child 
in the world, but he did not cry for the moon. He said 
to the world, ' go your several ways in peace, .... only 
let Harold Skimpole live ! ' 

" All this, and a great deal more, he told us with a 
certain vivacious candour, speaking of himself as if it were 
not at all his own affair," &c. Bleak House, pp. 49, 50. 

F. 

Passage in " The Widkirk Miracles" In The 
History of Dramatic Poetry, Mr. Collier quotes 
that remarkable farce which forms the twelfth 

* 1" S. xi. 443. 



pageant of the Widkirk Series of Miracles at con- 
siderable length, and helps the reader by eluci- 
datory notes. In the course of the play the 
following passage occurs : 

" Whilk catell bot this 

Tame nor wylde 
None, as have I blys, 
As lowde as hesmylde." 

To which Mr. Collier appends this note : 

" This is one of the expressions I am unable to inter- 
pret. Possibly we should read as lewde as he smelde,' 
i. e. as wicked as he smelt.' " 

May not the following provincialism throw some 
light on this obscure phrase ? Something more 
than a month ago, I overheard part of a conver- 
sation in a street of a midland town. The inter- 
locutors were labourers; and their subject, the 
one theme of the day, Palmer's trial. The one 
having dwelt upon the difficulties of conviction, 
the other replied: "I'll never believe he's not 
guilty; his life stinks aloud of murder." I at 
once thought of this passage, and made a note for 
reference, having never before heard the phrase 
used in this manner ; although " aloud" is the ad- 
verb generally used by the uneducated of this 
district to strengthen very emphatically the verb 
" to stink." 

I suppose the line quoted to be correct as it 
stands, "lowde" being the true reading. And in 
accordance with the first use of the words, the 
passage would mean " strong as were the suspi- 
cions attending Mak's conduct, he does not appear 
to be guilty." Or accepting the more common, 
and less metaphorical use of the phrase, " though 
the smell of slaughtered meat in Mak's cottage 
was very strong," we can't find any. C. M. 

Leicester. 

Dr. Forster on Periodical Meteors. Can you 
find space for the following extract from The 
Times of Tuesday the 5th ? It forms a part of a 
letter calling the attention of astronomers and 
meteorologists to the probability that Sunday 
next, the 10th August, will be marked by an un- 
usual number of those remarkable meteors wLich 
caused that day to be called " dies meteorosa " in 
the old calendars ; and records the writer's cor- 
rection of what he believes an erroneous opinion 
formerly advanced by him as to their origin. 

"As I was the first person who called the attention of 
astronomers to the apparently planetoid and periodical 
nature of the meteors of the 10th of August and 13th of 
November, in a paper in the Philosophical Magazine, as 
long ago as 1824, I think it right and honest now to de- 
clare that I was wrong in then supposing that these 
bodies might have revolving periods. I am convinced by 
all my subsequent observations that they are either mere 
electrical phenomena, as Pliny and Aratus thought, and 
indicate only the autumnal fall of temperature, or else 
that they are columns of inflammable vapour set on fire 
in the higher regions of the air, as M. De Luc used to 



2 U(l S. N 32., AUG. 9. '56. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



think, and which he has illustrated in his works on < M6- 
te'orologie.' The question may be solved if meteorologists 
will take the trouble of making accurate observations on 
Saturday, Sunday, and Monday next, when, judging from 
former experience, these meteors may be expected in 
great numbers. With this view, I hope your valuable 
journal will be the means of calling the attention of ob- 
servers to this approaching phenomenon all over the 
W0 rld. " T. FOKSTEE. 

Brussels, August 3." 

By-the-bye, is not the writer, Dr. Forster, the 
author of the curious Floral Works described in 
" N. & Q ," 1 st S. ix. 569., x. 108., and by some of 
your contributors supposed to be dead ? 

R. R. S. 



MB. PATEICK O'KELLY, THE IRISH BARD. 

I have just made a careful examination of four 
different editions of the poems published under 
the name of this individual. First : 

" Killarney, a descriptive Poem, by Pat, O'Kelly. 'Ah ! 
sure no Pencil canjlike Nature paint.' Tompson. Dublin : 
printed for the author by P. Hoey, No. 33. Upper Ormond 
Quay, 1791." Pp. 136. 

In this collection we have " Killarney, and Po- 
etical Miscellanies.' Second : The edition of 
1824, pp. 110 (the copy I saw had no title-page), 
which contains "The Ronian Kaliedoscope, the 
Eidophusicon, the Manoscope, the Eidouranium, 
the Deodad," &c. &c. Third : 

" The Hippacrene ; a collection of Poems by Patrick 
O'Kelly, Esq. * Exegi monumentum sere perennius.' 

' E'en Magerton himself shall pass away, 
Ere the production of the Muse decay.' 

Dublin: F. and T. Courtney, Printers, 18. Whitefriars 
Street, 1831." Pp. 128. 

In this we find several of his old pieces repub- 
lished, with some novelties. Among the last the 
" Lines to a Plagiarist, or the Daw deplumed," 
deserves particular attention. We quote the 
opening lines : 

" Hail Mickey Carty ! ! Prince of Pirates hail ! 
Hail pedant poetaster of Kinsale ; 
Hail poacher pedagogue ! and once more hail 
Prime peerless plagiarist of poor Kinsale ! ! 
Proud, perking Daw, the peacock's painted tail 
Lent plumes to deck the chatt'rer of Kinsale ! ! 
Poor purblind, putid pseudo-poet tell 
Do Giants' garbs suit puny pigmies well ? " &c. &c. 

Third. A part of a compilation of some of the 
old poems with additional matter, no date, which 
begins at page 105, and ends with page 132. 
From the character of the type used in this edi- 
tion I should suppose it was published subsequent, 
or at all events but a very few years previous, to 
the edition of 1831 just noticed. 

To return to the edition of 1824. In this we 
find the following poem (page 45) : 



The Simile, 

Written on the beautiful beach of Lehinch, in the county 
of Clare : this romantic spot, so long admired by many, is 
the property of Andrew Stackpool, Esquire. 

"This erudite gentleman is admired by a numerous 
circle of friends, and caressed by a grateful tenantry, 
being one of the most lenient landlords in this land of 
aristocratic peculation." 

" My life is like the Summer Rose 
That opens to the morning sky, 
But ere the shade of evening close 
Is scatter'd on the ground to die. 

" But on the Rose's humble bed 
The sweetest dews of night are shed : 
As if she wept such waste to see, 
But who ? alas ! shall weep for me ? 

" My life is like the autumn leaf 
That trembles in the noon's pale ray; 
Its hold is frail its date is brief, 
Restless, and soon to pass away : 

" Yet ere that leaf shall fall and fade 
The parent tree shall mourn its shade ! 
The winds bewail the leafless tree ; 
But who shall then bewail for me ? 

" My life is like the print which feet 
Have left on Lehinch desert strand : 
'-' . Soon as the rising tide shall beat, 

The track shall vanish from the sand : 

" Yet, as if grievous to efface 
The vestige of the human race ! 
On that fond shore loud roars the sea ; 
Who, but the Nine, shall roar for me? " 

This poem also appears in the edition without 
date, page 118, with sundry corrections and im- 
provements. 

Now this poem, taken either as it originally ap- 
peared, or as it afterwards was corrected, I have 
good reasons to suppose, was pilfered by O'Kelly 
from another. The following lines were published 
in Philadelphia in 1815 or 16 (perhaps some of 
your Philadelphia correspondents may help me to 
the title and exact date of the paper in which they 
first appeared), with the name of my late father, 
the Hon. Richard Henry Wilde, attached as the 
author of them : 

" My life is like the summer rose 
That opens to the morning sky, 
And ere the shades of evening close 
Is scattered on the ground to die. 
Yet on that rose's humble bed 
The softest dews of night are shed, 
As if she wept such waste to see 
But none shall drop one tear for me ! 

" My life is like the autumn leaf 
That trembles in the moon's pale ray ; 
It's hold is frail it's date is brief, 
Restless, and soon to pass away ; 
Yet when that leaf shall fall and fade 
The parent tree will mourn its shade, 
The wind bewail the leafless tree, 
But none shall breathe a sigh for me ! 

My life is like the print, which feet 
Have left on Sampa's desert strand, 
Soon as the rising tide shall beat, 
Their track will vanish from the sand j 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 82., AUG. 9. '56. 



Yet as if grieving to efface 

All vestige of tne human race, 

On that lone shore loud moans the sea; 

But none shall thus lament for me ! " 

I have been furnished with the character of 
Mr. O'Kelly by my friend R. Shelton Mackenzie, 
Esq., of New York, who knew him. If anything 
is wanting to this, I have it in the poet's edition 
of his works, without date, page 131, where I find 
a poem entitled " The Tear," precisely similar 
(excepting some fefr corrections necessary in 
making the appropriation) to a piece of the same 
name written by the late Tom Moore. To this 
poem O'Kelly has had the impudence to affix a 
date 1768 twelve years before Moore was born! 

Mr. Crofton Croker in his Popular Songs of 
Ireland, p. 184.$ mentions two editions of O'Kelly's 
poems between 1791 and 1824; An edition of 
1808, entitled- 

" Poems on the Giant's Causeway and Killarney, with 
other Miscellanies " 

and an edition of 1812, which contained " The 
Eudoxologist, or an tthicographical Survey of the 
West Parts of Ireland." In the first of these edi- 
tions appeared that elegant effusion, " The Litany 
of Doneraile," which o l find is repeated in the 
edition without date,' page 116. I quote the 
opening of this piece : 

"Alas! how dismal is my tale, 
I lost my watch in Doneraile ; 
My Dublin watch, my chain and seal, 
Pilfer'd at once in Doneraile. 
Mav Fire and Brimstone never fail 
To fall in show'rs on Doneraile ; 
May all the leading fiends assail 
The thieving town of Doneraile," &c. &c. 

Now the object of this Note is to ascertain when 
O'Kelly first published the poem entitled " The 
Simile" as his own. I have not been able to trace 
it in his works beyond 1824. Will some of your 
correspondents who have the editions mentioned 
by Mr. Croker, or other editions of O'Kelly's 
Works, be good enough to inform me on this sub- 
ject ? WILLIAM GUMMING WILDE. 

New Orleans, June 28. 



NEW ENGLAND QUERIES. 

A person engaged in the s.tudy of the history of 
New England in America would be greatly 
obliged by information relating to the following 
matters. 

A copy of the Records of the Virginia Company, 
established in 1606 by letters patent of James I., 
was in the hands of Stith, the historian of Vir- 
ginia. It was perhaps the same copy which is 
mentioned in the Life of Nicholas Ferrar. Is the 
original, or a copy of those records, to be found in 
England ? 



Is anything known of the early history of Ed- 
ward Randolph, employed by the British govern- 
ment from 1675 to 1684 in an agency for vacating 
the charters of Massachusetts, and afterwards as 
secretary and collector in that colony ? He had, 
perhaps, been previously a clerk in one of the 
public offices in London. 

Where are the papers (if extant) of Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges, Governor of Plymouth about 1620, 
described as " Sir Ferdinahdo Gorges, of Ashton 
Phillips, in Somerset ? " 

Does the will of John Cabot, the voyager to 
North America, exist in the Will Office at Wor- 
cester, or elsewhere ? 

Are there any unpublished materials of a nature 
to illustrate the connexion of Sir Henry Rogwell, 
of Ford Abbey, with the Massachusetts Com- 
pany ? 

During the first sixty or 'seventy years of the 
New England settlements, many conspicuous 
Englishmen must have held large correspondence 
with the leading men of those colonies, the dis- 
covery of which would be of the highest historical 
value. Has any such correspondence survived ? 
The following names immediately occur iri con- 
nexion with this question, viz. Richard, Earl of 
Warwick, Lord Say and Sele, Lord Brooke, Sir 
George Downing, Sir Henry Vane, Hugh Peters. 

[In the British Museum will be found the following 
MSS. relating to Sir Ferdinando Gorges : " His Declara- 
tion, A.D. 1600-1," Birch and Sloane MS. 4128; "An 
Answer to certain Imputations against Sir Ferd. Gorges, 
as if he had practised the Ruin of the Earl of Essex, 
written in the Gatehouse," Cotton MS. Julitts, F. VI. art. 
183 ; " Warrants to him frorh the Earl of Essex, Jan. 
1597," Addit. MS. 5752, if. 104-110 ; " Letter to T. Har- 
riott," Ibid, 6789 ; " Letter to Sir J. Davis, concerning 
his Confession," A.D. 1603, Ibid, 6177, p. 387. Also, 
" Papers relating to the Virginia Company, Jac. I.," and 
" Notes by Sir J. Csesar of the Patents granted to the said 
Company," Ib. 12,496. " Forms of Patents, Grants, &c., 
by the Virginian Companv," Ib. 14,285. " William, 
Strachey ; The History of Travaile into Virginia Britan- 
nica, expressing the Cosmography and Commodities of the 
Country, together with the Manners and Customs of the 
People, with several figures coloured," Birch and Sloane 
MS. 1622. " Answer to Capt. Nath. Butler's unmasked 
face of Virginia, as it was in the winter of 1622," Ibid, 
1039. ' The Declaration of the People of Virginia against 
Sir William Berkeley and others," Ibid, 4159.] 



Husbands authorised to beat their Wives. There 
exists what I conceive to be a popular errotj 
namely, a belief that a husband is by the common 
law of Erigland authorised to chastise his wife ; 
and Judge Buller is often quoted; as having given 
it as his judgment that the husband is justified in 
administering personal chastisement to his better 
half, provided he uses a Stick no thicker than his 
little finger, or, as 86rfie seterer disciplinarians 



s . NO 32, AUG. 9. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



say, his thumb. Is there any foundation for 
either of these statements ? HENPECKED. 

Dr. Brays Libraries in America, frc.^ The 
inquiry made through your pages respecting pa- 
rochial libraries in England, having met with 
much attention from many valuable correspond- 
ents, permit me to extend the Query originally 
made in " N. & Q." from England to America, 
where, we are informed*, Dr. Bray "begun and 
advanced libraries more or less in all the pro- 
vinces on the Continent (of America), as also in 
the factories in Africa." Some of your American 
correspondents will no doubt be happy to reply to 
an inquiry which will show the present state of 
these libraries, and their good efivct.s in promoting 
religion and learning. I find the following places 
mentioned as having had libraries established in 
them by the care and exertions of Dr. Bray, who 
received thanks on account of them ; Maryland, 
Boston, Baintree, Newfoundland, Rhode Island, 
New York, Philadelphia, North Carolina, Ber- 
mudas, Annapolis, the Factories in Africa. 

J. M. 

Oxford. 

" Antonio Foscarini." Who is the author of 
Antonio Foscarini, a historical drama, published in 
1836 ? R. J. 

James Stringer. Could any of your Cambridge 
readers give me information regarding James 
Stringer, author of A Cantab' s Leisure, prose and 
verse, published at London in 1829 ? I think the 
author was of Emmanuel College. R. J. 

Queen Charlotte's Drinking Glass. Can any of 
your readers authenticate the following? It is 
extracted froiri a letter from one Jdmes Heming, 
containing an account of George Ill.'s coronation : 

" Our friend Harry, who was upon the scaffold, at the 
return of the procession, closed In with- the rear ; at the 
expence of half a guinea was admitted into the hall ; got 
brimfull of his majesty's claret, and in the universal 
plunder, brought off the glass her majesty drank in, which 
is placed in the beaufet as a valuable curiosity." 

C. J. DOUGLAS. 

Inscription for a Watch. 

" Could biit our tempers move like this machine, 
Not nrg'd by passion nor delay'd b't spleen 1 ; 
And true to nature's regulating power; 
By virtuous acts distinguish every hour: 
Then health and joy would follow, as they ought, 
The laws of motion and the laws of thought; 
Sweet health to pass the present moments o'er, 
And everlasting joy, when time shall be nti more." 
Scots' Magazine, Oct. 1747. 

Who 1 is likely to be the author of these fine 
verses ? G. N. 

' "Think of me* Who is the author of the 
lines "Think of me," given in Sir Roland Ashton, 

* Blog. Britan. 



and where were they originally published? I 
give the first stanza : 

" Go where the water glideth gently ever, 

Glideth by meadows that the greenest be; 
Go forth beside our own beloved river 
And think of me." 

X.ft. 

'Charles Verral. Could any of your readers 
give me any information regarding Charles Verral, 
author (besides other works) of a poem called The 
Pleasures of Possession, published in 1810 ? R. J. 

Early Memoirs of Dr. Johnson. Is it known 
who was the author of a small 12mo. volume, pub- 
lished within a few months of Johnson's death, 
under the title of 

Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the late Dr. Sa- 
muel Johnson, containing many valuable original Letters, 
and several interesting Anecdotes both 6f his Literary and 
Social Connexions. The whole authenticated by living 
Evidence. London, 1785." 

J. E. M. 

Prayer for Unity. Is it known who wrote the 
touching " Prayer for Unity," which appears in 
our present office for the 20th of June, being the 
day oil which Her Majesty began her happy reign ? 
It is not contained in the form of 1704, as, printed 
in Reeling's Liturgies Britannicce. A. A. D. 

Dream-Boohs. Dr. Mackay tells us, in his 
Popular Delusions, that the maxims of the pseudo- 
science of oheirology have been so imperfectly re- 
membered, that at the present day they differ in 
different countries^ and the same dream which 
delights the peasant in England terrifies him in 
France or Switzerland. Cati your readers put 
me in the way of obtaining a few of the dream- 
books in circulation among the credulous on the 
Continent ? 

Notes are desired on the bibliography of dream- 
books during the last two centuries, to link the 
works of Arternidorus, Astampsychus, and Ach- 
met, with the Seven Dials' publications of the 
present day. 

Communications through the medium of " N. & 
Q-," or privately to the care of the editor^ will 
oblige R. T. SCOTT. 

Instrument of Torture. 

" Late heavy rains at Jamaica have exposed an instru- 
ment of torture made! of iron hoops, with screws, and so 
constructed as to fit the largest or smallest person ; at- 
tached to it are manacles for the Hahds. The inside of 
the kriee-bars, and thfe resting-place for the soles of the 
ffeet, dre studded with sp'ikes. When found, the perfect 
skeleton of A negress was enclosed in the instrument." 

The above statement coining from a reliable 
source, it itify be asked If at arij' tJm'e in the En- 
glish West India Isla'hds? ins'trtiiiieh'ts of torture 
w^re appllfed (6 ttates ? And If so, for what 
crimes ? W. W. 

Malta. 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. NO 32., AUG. 9. '56. 



Merthyr Tydvil What is known of the his- 
tory of Merthyr Tydfil prior to 1740 ? Was it 
an insignificant village immediately before Bacon 
commenced iron-making there ? A friend in- 
forms me that a hundred years ago letters^were 
brought to Merthyr by an old woman *from 
Brecon. Can any correspondent of " N.^& Q." 
give the old mail routes, naming the principal 
post towns at that period, 170'0 to 1740 ? 

KARL. 

Author of the " Voice of the Rod." Can any 
of the readers of " N. & Q." favour me with the 
full reading of the initials " L. N." of the following 
work : 

" The Voice of the Rod, or God's Controversie pleaded 
with Man, being a plain and brief Discourse on Mich. vi. 
9., by L. N. t philomaths*. London : printed for Walter 
Dight, Bookseller in Exeter, 1668. 12mo., pp. 288." 

There are prefixed a " Dedication to the In- 
finite, Eternal, and All wise God," &c., and an 
"Address to the Readers," dated " Ab Eremis 
meis, Aug. 28, 1666." 

The discourse is a very serious one, and appears 
to have reference to the Plague in London, 1665, 
and to the Fire, 1666. By these dreadful ca- 
lamities the progress of the author's work in some 
of its departments had been impeded, as at the 
end of it, he adds a " Postscript to the Readers : " 

" Sirs, If anything in these sheets seem to be born 
out of due time, know that they have had a hard Travail. 
They were at first prepared for 1665, but through the as- 
tonishing difficulty of our late Junctures, the Author's 
unbefriended Obscurity, and want of those Minerval 
powers which are now become essentially requisite in such 
cases, they have lingered hitherto," &c. 

Hogarth's Folly. Hogarth, about the time of 
his marriage, painted a very spirited representa- 
tion of " Folly." 

The subject, says Hinckley, " was composed of 
twelve figures : six of males, and a like number 
of females. The landscape gorgeous." 

Is anything known of this painting, or has it 
been engraved ? PETO. 

The Elms. 

Arnold of Westmmster, In 1680, July 17, 
one John Giles was convicted, the government 
having offered a reward of 100Z. for his apprehen- 
sion, of assaulting and wounding dangerously on 
the previous April 17, in Bell Yard, Temple Bar, 
John Arnold, Esq. In 1688, one Arnold, the 
king's brewer, was of the jury on the trial of the 
bishops ; and in one of the Letters of the Herbert 
Family, he is called Captain Arnold ; and is said 
to have a considerable party to support him in 
his wish to represent Westminster in parliament. 

In 1692, John Arnold, Esq., was member for 
Southwark ; and Nicholas Arnold was a gentle- 
man pensioner. 



In 1708, Nehemia Arnold was paymaster of 
malt tickets. In, or previously, and perhaps sub- 
sequently to 1722, Nehemia Arnold, Esq., was 
living in Westminster. 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." inform me if any 
and what family connexions exist amongst these 
Arnolds, or give me any particulars of any of 
them ? N. N. 

New York Murder Congrelaticosualists. 
Permit me to ask, if you or any of your readers 
can satisfy my curiosity on either of the two fol- 
lowing points ? 

1. You are probably acquainted with the Tales 
of Mystery and Imagination, by the late American 
poet, Edgar Allan Poe. In one of these, entitled 
" The Mystery of Marie Roget," the author, under 
pretence of describing the murder of a Parisian 
grisette, analyses the particulars of the murder 
of a New York cigar girl. It is stated in a note 
that the subsequent confessions of two people con- 
nected with the New York murder completely 
verified the conclusion to which Poe, by analysis, 
had come. 

Can anybody tell me where I can find an ac- 
count of the New York murder ; or tell me the 
real names, dates, and fate of the murderers? 
The murder was committed before November 
1842, as that is the date of Poe's tale in Marie 
Roget. 

2. Secondly, you will find in one of Sydney 
Smith's Essays on America (p. 240. of the 8vo. 
edition, in one volume), in a list of the places of 
worship in Philadelphia, one mentioned as belong- 
ing to a sect called " the Congrelaticosualists'' 
I have never met with this word anywhere else. 
It is not to be found in any dictionary. Nor can 
I conceive what its derivation can be, or from the 
words of what language it can be compounded, if 
it be a compound. The best scholars with whom 
I have had the opportunity of conversing can 
give me no information. If the meaning or de- 
rivation be not known, can any one give me in- 
formation as to the peculiar tenets, &c., of the 
sect ? T. H. D. 

The Kalends or Calends at Bromyard. In a 
short visit to Herefordshire I was struck with the 
name which the inhabitants of Bromyard gave to 
a long narrow footpath enclosed with high walls, 
and leading to the churchyard ; they called it the 
Kalends or Calends. I could not find out the 
precise spelling of the word, and no one seemed to 
know much about it. Can any of your readers 
enlighten me on the subject, or as to the origin of 
the word? Perhaps it is a mere provincialism, 
but it struck me there might be some connection 
between this singular name and the Calendar (or 
Kalandar) ; in what way I would not, however, 
presume to say. R. PATTISOF. 

Torrington Square, 



2nd S. NO 32., AUG. 9. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



Letter of Charles II. to the Queen of Bohemia 
I have in my possession a letter in the auto- 
graph of Charles II., of which the following is a 

copy : 

" Paris, Aprill 16. 
" Madame, 

"I could not lett this bearer ray Ld. Wentworth goe, 
without giueing your Ma tie the trouble of a letter, and to 
left your Ma tie know that I send him to the K. of Den- 
marke to desire his assistance, and recommendation to the 
States on my behalfe, I will not say any more at present, 
because I haue commanded the bearer to giue your Ma tie 
an account of all that's a doeing heere, only to desire 
your Ma tie to giue credite to him, and to me that I am, 
" Madame, 

" Your Ma ties most humble 

and most affectionate 
nephew and seruant, 

" CHARLES R." 

The letter bears a small seal, and is endorsed, 
" For the Queene of Bohemia my Deare Aunt." 

Queries. Can any of your readers determine 
or conjecture the year in which this letter was 
written ? Is there any account of Charles apply- 
ing to the " K. of Denmarke, to desire his as- 
sistance ? " Who is meant by " the bearer my 
Ld. Wentworth ? " An early answer would be 
very acceptable. Vox. 

Were Charles I. and Oliver Cromwell distant 
Cousins f What authority has the writer of the 
amusinor and interesting article on the " Causes of 
the Civil War," in the newly published number of 
the Quarterly Review, p. 109., for the assertion of 
the relationship which forms the subject of this 
Query, and is declared in the following passage ? 

" In addition to Sir Oliver the Golden Knight ' (Sir 
Henry Cromwell) left five sons and five daughters. It is 
a singular circumstance that from his children should 
have sprung the two most famous leaders in the great 
rebellion, for his second daughter was the mother of 
Hampden, as his second son Robert was the father of the 
Protector. Another curious circumstance is that Robert 
married a widow, Mrs. Lynne, whose maiden name was 
Steward, and who came of the royal race. The fact is 
now established beyond question that Charles I. and 
Oliver Cromwell were distant cousins. The Protector 
certainly did not exaggerate his descent when he said in 
a speech to his first Parliament, * I was by birth a gen- 
tleman ; living neither in any considerable height, nor 
yet in obscurity." 

C. 0. C. 

" Obnoxious. 1 " What is the meaning of the 
word obnoxious? Walker says "liable." Why 
then do almost all modern authors, including 
Macaulay and, I think, Dickens, use it in the 
sense of " disagreeable" or " disgusting ?" * S. B. 

Belper. 

" Titan's GoUet." Will you, or some one of 
your readers, oblige me with the locus in quo I can 
find anything relative to the "Titan's goblet?" 

[* The various senses in which obnoxious is used has 
been incidentally noticed in our 1* S, viii. 439.] 



I am possessor of a remarkable picture of this 
title and subject, painted by the late Thomas 
Cole, whose classic reading may have furnished 
the subject, but whose own poetic capacity was so 
large, that he (artistically speaking) invented his 
own subjects and painted them, epic, fanciful, and 
dramatic. 

Should this Query find answer I will gladly 
send you a Note of the treatment of the subject. 

J. M. F. 

New York. 

William the Conqueror's Joculator. In Speci- 
mens of early English Metrical Romances, chiefly 
written during the early part of the 14th Century, 
by George Ellis, Esq., speaking of the minstrels, 
he says : 

" They were obliged to adopt various modes of amusing, 
and to unite the mimic and the juggler, as a compensation 
for the defects of the musician and poet. Their rewards 
were in some cases enormous, and prove the esteem in 
which they were held ; though this may be partly as- 
cribed to the general thirst after amusement, and the 
difficulty of the great in dissipating the tediousness of 
life." 

He then states that William the Conqueror as- 
signed three parishes in Gloucestershire as a gift 
for the support of his Joculator, and adds : 

" This may, perhaps, be a less accurate measure of the 
minstrel's accomplishments than of the monarch's power, 
and of the insipidity of his court." Ellis, vol. i. p. 19., 
&c. 

"Three parishes in Gloucestershire" must at 
any time have been an immense donation for 
almost any services one can imagine ; and I should 
be much obliged to any reader of " 1ST. & Q." to 
point out which were these three parishes, and the 
name of the fortun&iQ joculator, if it has descended 
to posterity. A. 

" Wheel for the Borough of Milborn Port? I 
have a small old print, of which the following is a 
description. 

The figure of a wheel, about three inches in 
diameter, round the edge of which is the follow- 
ing : " (ix) Antient (viii) Wheel (vu) for (vi) 
the (v) Borrough (mi) of (m) Milborn (u) 
Port (i)." Nine names, representing the spokes 
of the wheel, commence opposite the numerals, 
each meeting in the centre, and each divided by 
a wave line. The names, commencing with No. 1., 
are, " William Carent, William Raymond, Robert 
Gerrard, William Caldecut, John Huddy, James 
Hannam, Roger Saunders, George Millborn." 

Milborn Port (Somerset), to which this figure 
probably refers, was formerly one of the principal 
towns in the southern part of the county, and for 
a very long period sent two members to parlia- 
ment. It was one of the "rotten boroughs" 
swept away by the Reform Bill. 

Queries. What is the meaning of this "as 



il* 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 32., AUG. 9. '5 6. 



tient wheel," and Jias it any reference to the 
election of officer! for the borough ? From the 
appearance of this curious figure, it seems to have 
been printed about the close of the seventeenth 
century. Perhaps one of your Somersetshire 
readers can throw light on the subject, and also 
state whether any of the above-named persons 
hare descendants notv living in Milborn Port ? 

Vox. 



Apostle Spoons. What is their origin and 
history ? W. T. 

Oxford. 

[We believe the earliest notice of the apostle spoons 
occurs in an entry on the books of the Stationers' Com- 
pany in the year 1500, " A spoyne of the gyfte of Master 
Reginold Wolfe, all gylte with the pycture of St. John." 
Mr. Pegge in his Preface to A 'Forme of Cury, a Roll of 
Ancient Cookery, has offered the following conjecture as 
to the origin of this baptismal present. He observes, 
that " the general mode of eating must either have been 
with the spoon or the fingers ; and this, perhaps, may 
have been the reason that spoons became the usual present 
from gossips, to their god-children at christenings." The 
practice of sponsors giving spoons at christenings seems 
to have been first observed in the reign of Elizabeth; 
previously it was the mode to present gifts of a different 
kind. Hall, who has written a minute account of the 
baptism of Elizabeth, 1558, informs us that the gifts pre- 
sented by the sponsors were a standing cup of gold, and 
six gilt bowls, with covers. But in the first year of 
Queen Elizabeth, Howes, the continuator of Stow's Chro- 
nicle, says that " at this time, and for many }'eeres before, 
it was not the use and custome, as now it is [1631] for 
godfathers and godmothers generally to give plate at the 
baptism of children (as spnones, cups, and such like), but 
only to give christening shirts, with little hands and cuffs 
wrought either with silk or blue thread; the best of 
them for chief persons weare edged with a small lace of 
blaoke silke and golde; the highest price of which' for 
great men's children were seldom above a noble, and the 
common sort two, three, or four and five shillings a-piece." 
An allusion to apostle spoons occilrs in a collection of 
anecdotes, entitled " Merry Passages and Jeasts," quoted 
by Malone from Harl. MS. 6395: " Shakspeare was god- 
father to one of Ben Jonson's children, and after the 
christening, being in deepe study, Jonson came to cheer 
him up, and ask'd him why he was so melancholy. 'No 
'faith, Ben,' says he, ' not I ; but I have been considering 
a great while what should be the fittest gift for me to 
bestow upon my godchild, and I have resolv'd at last.' 
' I pr'ythee, what? ' says he. ' Pfaith, Ben, I'll give him 
a douzen good Latten. [Latin] spoons^ and thou shalt 
translate them.'"] 

Clergy buried with Face towards the Wett. 
The other day, on visiting the chapel of St. Ed- 
mund Hall, Oxford, I observed that the lozenge- 
shaped stones, on which were inscribed the names 
of Former principals, were placed facing the west, 
iristead of towards the east, the lisUal custom. 

A friend tells trie that it is by no means an tin- 
usual practice in the North of England to bury 
the clergy with the face towards the west, in the 



manner above-mentioned, in order that they 
may meet their flocks on the morning of the great 
day, and conduct them to the tribunal. Is this! a 
custom peculiar to the North of England? 

OXONIENSIS. 

[This custom has been noticed in our !* S. ii. 408. 
452., where our correspondent will find that it is not pe- 
culiar to the North of England; bttt has been observed in> 
various parts of Christendom since the seventeenth cen- 
tury.] 

St. Pancras. Can you inform me in what 
church in Exeter there is a brass of St. Pancras? 
Also, in what church in Lewes, Sussex, there is a 
painted window of St. Pancras ? What church in 
France contains a brass of this saint ? Is there am 
engraving of any of them ? The Rev. Edward 
White, M.A., of St. Paul's Chapel, Kentish Town,, 
gave a lecture, " The Life and Times of St. Pan- 
cras, the Boy Martyr under Diocletian." I want 
to procure an engraving of that saint ? R.j 

[ Perhaps the' best representation of St. Pancras is inj 
the magnificent brass of Prior Nelond, in the church flj* 
Cowfold in the neighbourhood of West Grinstead, of whicbj 
a lithographic drawing is given in Horsfield's History af\ 
Lewes, vol. i. p. 239. St. Pancras, the patron saint of the! 
Lewes priory, is represented standing upori A pinnacle! 
with a palm branch in his right hand, a book in his '"* 
and treading on a warrior with his drawri sword.] 

Arms in Severn Stoke Church. To what 
mily does the following coat of arms belong 
Gules, a fess between six cross crosslets, or. They 
are from an old painted window in the parisbj 
church of Severn Stoke, Worcestershire. This! 
church has what I think must be a very ran 
thing, an original stone altar as used before thj 
time of the Reformation. CERVUS 

[The above coat of arms belongs to the Beaucharrtp's^ 
Earls of Warwick. In Atkyns's Gloucestershire we title* 
that Richard de Beauchamp married for his first \Htf 
Elizabeth, heiress of Thomas Lord Berkeley. He die* 
17th Henry VI., 1439, and was buried in the Collegiati 
Church of 'Warwick. The cross crosslets are the arms o! 
Berkeley, whu-h he added to his own. The same arhi<j 
are in a window of Kingsbury Church, Warwickshire! 
See Dugdale's Warwickshire, pp. 391. and 1061., editH 
1730.] 



POUND AND MIL SCHEME. 
(2 nd S. i. 491.) 

I have taken it for granted, upon tne authority 
of more writers than one, that what is now calle< 
the pound and mil scheme was originated by th i 
anonvmous Mercator, in The Pamphleteer fo^ 
I8l4. I had never seen this work; but, learning 
from MB. YATES'S communication, tp. you thai 
Mr. Slater nad reprinted Mercator in his Inquiry 
&c., I examined the reprint, and I found tha 
Mercator's scheme is not what is now advocate* 



. N 82., AUG. 0. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUEBIES, 



113 



by the great majority of those who are trying to 
decimalise our coinage, It is true that Mercator 
has a pound in his system, and a mil for its thou- 
sandth part. But his pound is not our pound. 
Now if there be any one character of the current 
pound and mil scheme which is more its distinc- 
tive constituent than another, it is the doctrine 
that the present sovereign is to be unaltered in 
value. Consequently, it' Mercator advocated a 
sovereign or pound of anything but twenty parts 
out of twenty-one of the guinea current in his 
time, he did not propose'our present pound and 
mil scheme. Now without any arithmetic at all, 
except an eye to see which is the greater and 
which the less of two sums, it can be made ap- 
parent that Mercator proposed a smaller pound 
than we now have. His ounce troy is the common 
one ; and his proposition is to coin this ounce troy 
intb pounds at the rate of 4Z. Is. 4^d. to the ounce. 
Now we coin the ounce into 31. 17s. 10|e?. Con- 
sequently, Mercator gives a lighter Sovereign than 
that we now have. But it has also more alloy in it. 
Our standard gold has one twelfth part of alloy : 
and his has one tenth. In both ways, then, he de- 
preciated the pound. And not only did he do 
this, but he gave a reason for it, as follows : 

" There are various other points and arguments, poli- 
tical as well as commercial, on this subject, which are 
hot; however, necessary to be discussed at present ; suf- 
fice it, to say that they are all in favour of the proposed 
standard, &c. &c., which, indeed, must of necessity take 
place to enable government to resume the coinage, and 
also because our coin hi its present proportions and re- 
Ilitive values of Mint prices with those of the Continent 
will be constantly drained as soon as issued. Therefore 
the absolute necessity of a new standard, &c., to restore 
the permanency of circulating medium in the legal coin 
of the realm." 

Mercator, then, is a writer whose etceteras are 
very significant. They include nothing less than 
a depreciation of the gold coin, and an alteration 
in the relative Mint prices of gold and silver. 
But your readers should remember that the Creed 
of the present advocates of poUnd-and-iiiil decimali- 
sation is; There is no pound but the po',und, and 
the mil is its thousandth part. A. DE MORGAN. 



HOLLY, TtiE ONLY INDIGENOUS EVERGREEN TREE. 

(2 nd S. i. 399. 443. 502. ; ii. 56.) 
MR. FRERE and H. J. have brought forward a 
host of authorities to back their opinions' ; but if 
they are satisfied, with all due deference^ I am 
ndt. Let me for the present confine my case' to 
the box alone. I will, if necessary, orl atibther 
occasion defend my p'dsition a's to (he yew. I give 
a long extract from ohe of my grandfather's 
papers iii the Gent. Mag. (p. 666.), in the year 
87. As MR. FRERE says he has been able to 
see this volume, I am at a loss to understand how 



it is he so easily puts aside the authorities that 
satisfied my grandfather, and that years since con- 
vinced me, that the box is nbt an indigenous tree. 
Dr. Lindley, also, will nofr, I hope, know that 
the box has ere this " been suspected of being a 
foreigner." I have great respect for the modern 
authorities quoted ; but in this case, not less is 
my respect for the older ones here produced by 
my grandfather. Omitting some remarks on the 
box not relevant to this question, he says : 

" Asserius Menevensis observes, in his Life of Alfred, 
that ' Berrocscire (Berkshire) taliter vocatur a Berroc 
silva ubi Buxus abuudantissime nascitur.' This writer, 
perhaps, remembered the Hebrew word Berosch, which is 
the name of a tree often mentioned in the Bible, but it is 
of very doubtful signification. It hath been by some 
translated a box-tree; by others, an ash or larch; and 
the Septiiagint, in their vague manner, render it, in 
various places, by no less than six differerit kinds of trees 
(Hillerii Hierophyticon.de Arbor, cap. 39.) f We strongly 
Suspect this wood of box-trees in Berkshire to be ima- 
ginary ; for we have not hitherto been able to discover this 
tree in any place where there was the least doubt of its hot 
being. planted ; probably one reason why it is not so much 
dispersed as the yew is, because the seeds are not eaten 
and disseminated by birds. A remarkable instance of its 
confined state appears at the extensive plantation of this 
tree at Box Hill, in Surrey, where not a plant is to be seen, 
in any of the adjoining fields; and after close inspection, 
we could scarcely find a young seedling, but the succes- 
sion supports itself, when cut, by rising again from the 
old steins, like a coppice. Tradition attributes this noble 
work to an Earl of Arundel. How few possessors of such 
useless wastes have' left behind them so valuable an ex- 
ample of their patribtic pursuits. . 

" Our oldest botanists agree with us in supposing this 
tree not to be a native. ' Ther groweth,' says Turner, ' in 
the mountains in Germany great plenty of boxe wild, 
without any setting, but in England it groweth not alone 
by itself in any place that I know.' " Herbal, 1586. 

" Boxe delighteth to grow upon high cold mountains, 
as upon the hils and deserts of Switzerland* and Savoye, 
and other like places, where it groweth plentifully. Ifi 
this countrie they plant both kinds in some gardens." Lyte's 
Herball, 1586. 

" Gerard would have done well to have specified those 
* sundry waste and barren hils in Englartd? on which he 
asserts it grew in his time, Evelyh affirms, ' that these 
trees rise naturally at Boxley, in Kent, in abundance ; ' and 
succeeding writers have too hastily followed him : for in 
a tour thro' that county, we called at this village, and, 
on examination of the neighbouring woods, arid strictest 
enquiry of those who were best acquainted with therii, 
we were thoroughly convinced that his assertion was 
totally grourldless.* To say the truth, we .were not 
greatly disappointed, as we recollected what Lambarde 
had said long before Evelyn's time : 'Boxley may take the 
name of the Saxon word' Boxeleage, for trie, sibre of box- 
trees that peradventure sometime grew there' Peramb'ula- 
ttohofKent, 1376." 

My grandfather Concludes with an afgurrient 
that I think is a sound one, namely, that ail 
trees and shrubs whose names' are derived from 
the Latin are not with us indigenous, because 

* The harries of places beginriing with box may full as 
probably be derived from' the Saxon 6oq or boccet a be'ech 
tree; or from btic, a buck/ as from the box tree; 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. NO 32., AUG. 9. '56. 



the others, which are undoubted natives, still 
keep their Teutonic or Saxon names ; as the oak, 
ash, beech, maple, hazel, birch, holly, &c. The 
trees probably brought from Italy, he says, are 
the box (Buxus), the elm ( Ulmus} ; the indige- 
nous having a Saxon name, Wych hazel ; service 
(Sorbus), poplar (Populus), &c. 

I hope I have now given good reasons for my 
first assertion, that the box, at any rate, is in all 
probability not indigenous. A. HOLT WHITE. 



BOTTLES FILLED BY PRESSURE OF THE SEA. 

(2 nd S. i. 493.) 

Your correspondent JOHN HUSBAND, who 
wishes for information respecting the statements 
of the Rev. John Campbell in his Travels in South 
Africa in 1815, and also the account given by 
Captain S. Spowart of the " Wilberforce," of ^ex- 
periments made by him in 1855, will find allusions 
to the phenomenon by various writers ; among 
others I beg to refer him to vol. i. Bridge-water 
Treatises, page 345, where Dr. Buckland, treating 
of the pressure at different depths of the sea, says 
that 

"Captain Smyth, R.N., found on two trials that the 
cylindrical copper air-tube under the vane attached to 
Massev's log collapsed and was crushed quite flat under 
the pressure of about 300 fathoms (1800 feet). A claret 
bottle filled with air and well corked was burst before it 
descended 400 fathoms. He also found that a bottle 
filled with fresh water and corked had the cork forced in 
at about 180 fathoms." 

He also refers to a personal statement made to 
him by Sir Francis Beaufort, who had often made 
the experiment with corked bottles, some of them 
being empty, and others containing some fluid. 
But the result was various : 

" The empty bottles were sometimes crushed, at others 
the cork was forced in, and the fluid exchanged for sea 
water. The cork was always returned to the neck of the 
bottle ; sometimes, but not always, in an inverted posi- 
tion." 

Let me also refer your correspondent to that 
magnificent book, The Geological Observer, by 
Sir Henry de la Beche, where he will find obser- 
vations respecting differences of pressure at dif- 
ferent depths of the sea, which will satisfy him 
that the statements respecting the bottles are not 
at all incredible. Sir Henry computes the pres- 
sure at a depth of 100 feet to be 60 pounds to 
the square inch, including that of the atmosphere, 
while at 4000 feet the pressure would be about 
1830 pounds to the square inch. 

Speaking of animals which inhabit very deep 
seas he says : 

" It has been observed that the air or gas in the swim- 
ming bladders of those brought up from a depth of about 
3300 feet (under a pressure of about 100 atmospheres), in- 
creased so considerably in volume as to force the swim- 



ming bladder, stomach, and other adjoining parts, outside 
the throat in a balloon-formed mass." 

Thus we see that the claret bottle collapses in 
the deep sea, while the air-bottle of the deep sea 
fish expands until it bursts when it reaches the 
upper regions. 

The author of the Geological Observer refers to 
Pouillet, Elemens de Physique Experimental, 
vol. i. p. 188. confirmatory of the above fact, and 
adds that Dr. Scoresby in his Arctic Regions, 
vol. ii. p. 193., relates that in a whaling expedition 
on one occasion a boat was pulled down to a con- 
siderable depth by a whale, after which the wood 
became too heavy to float, the sea water having 
forced itself into the pores. He then refers to the 
Reports of the British Association, vol. xii., in 
which the researches of Professor E. Forbes are 
recorded. Before concluding, let me add that 
some have supposed the porousness of the glass 
would sufficiently account for the phenomenon of 
the empty bottle becoming filled with water and 
yet the cork remaining in the same position, and 
even the wax which covered it unbroken. But 
it seems to me more probable that the pressure, 
when not sufficient to break the bottle, might yet 
be enough to reduce by compression the size of 
the cork and the covering of wax, thus giving 
space for the water to enter, which would readily 
under such pressure rush through the minutest 
inlet : the wine would keep the cork in its original 
position, and, on being drawn up, expansion to its 
former bulk would be instantaneous. But this is 
only a guess. E. FLOOD WOODMAN. 

London. 



TEMPLE AT BAALBEC. 

(2 nd S. ii. 49.) 

The origin of this temple is involved in ob- 
scurity ; the present structural remains are of 
the Corinthian Order chiefly, including probably 
the church erected by Constantino (Eusebius, 
Const., iii. 58.*; Eusebius, Oral, Const, c. 18.; 
Sozomen, v. 10., vii. 15. ; Greg., Abulpharagii 
Hist. Compend. Dynast., p. 85.). There is no 
evidence of its erection by Solomon, as ** the 
house of the forest of Lebanon " (1 Kings, vii. 2.) 
or Baalhamon (Sol. Song, viii. 11.). "When we 
consider," says Volney (v. ii. c. 29.), " the extra- 
ordinary magnificence of the Temple of Balbek, 
we cannot but be astonished at the silence of the 
Greek and Roman authors." John of Antioch 
(Malala) says that " .ZElius Antoninus Pius built 
a great temple to Jupiter at Heliopolis, near Li- 
banus in Phrenicia, which was one of the wonders 
of the world " (Hist. Chron., lib. xi.). 



* Otitov evKTTJpiov eKKAijo-tas re /neyiarov nal irapa TOI 
caTa/3aXXo|U,evos- w? TO ^TJ ex TOV vavrfa rrov aiwvos 0x077 -y 
o-6ev vOf TOVTO irpurov epyov rvx^v" 



2 nd S. N 32., AtiG/9. '56.]. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



Here is the tomb of Saladin (Nugent, ii. 197.). 
It is mentioned by Pliny (Nat. Hist., v. 20.), by 
Ptolemy (Geog., pp. 106. 139.), and in the Itine- 
rary of Antoninus, as Diospolis and Heliopolis. 
Notices are to be found also in Pococke's Travels 
in Syria, Maundrell's Journey, De la Roque's 
Travels, Rennell's Geog. W. Asia, Wood and 
Dawkins' Ruins of Balbec, Wilson's Lands of 
the Bible, and Herbelot's Bibliotheque Orientale. 
From the last it appears that the evidence of 
coins is in favour of the constitution of Heliopolis 
into a colony by Julius Caesar. 

The name of the place, Baalbec, means " the 
Lord's, or Governor's, city." The worship of Baal 
is repeatedly referred to in Scripture. Baal forms 
a constituent of the words Ithobal, Jerubaal, Han- 
nibal, Hasdrubal, Baal-berith, Beelzebub, Baal- 
Peor, Beelsamen, &c. Freytag's explanation of 
the word "Baal" is 

" Maritus et Uxor. Omne id quod datur propter pal- 
marum rigationem ; Palma mas ; Onus, res gravis ; Terra 
elatior a pluvia semel anni spatio irrigata, opposita iis 
regionibus quse arte tantum irrigantur. Nomen idoli. 
Item dialect. Arabics felicis Dominus, herus, possessor." 

This etymology brings Baalbec into connection 
with Tadmor or Palmyra in reference to the 
palm tree, from which Phoenicia and the fabulous 
Phcenix also derived their names. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 



THOMAS SIMON, THE MEDALLIST. 

(2 nd S. i. 477.) 

I feel much obliged to Jos. G. of the Inner 
Temple for pointing out to my attention the three 
articles in the Numismatic Chronicle on this sub- 
ject ; and I also take this opportunity of thanking 
an anonymous correspondent, who communicated 
the same information to me by letter, shortly 
after my first inquiry in " N. & Q." 

If Jos. G. will refer to that article, he will find 
that the complaint against Peter de Beauvoir, 
bailiff of Guernsey, is supposed by me to have 
been written about the year 1655, not " 1665," 
as quoted by Jos. G. The exact date I am at 
present unable to give, as the original document 
bears none; but on reference to the records of 
the Royal Court of this island, I find that Thomas 
Simon had a lawsuit in that year (1655) with 
John Fautrart, Jun., his wife's uncle, arising out 
of a claim which she made to a share of the per- 
sonal estate of her grandfather, John Fautrart, 
Sen. In January and February, 1653-4, Thomas 
Simon, in the right of his wife, was party con- 
jointly with the other co-heirs in actions against 
John Fautrart, Jun., concerning the division of the 
real property of John Fautrart, Sen., deceased, in 
the islands of Guernsey and Serk. The parties 



are thus described in the preamble to the sen- 
tences rendered by the Court : 

" Monsieur Jan Fautrart, aisne de feu Monsieur Jan 
Fautrart, son pere, amercy vers Monsieur Pierre Careye, 
procureur du Sieur Thomas Simon, a cause de sa femme, 
fille et seule heritiere de feu le Sieur Cardin Fautrart, et 
les Sieurs Thomas de Sausmarez, principal heritier de 
feue Dame Bertranne Fautrart, sa mere, et Jan Renouf, 
procureur d'Isaac Gibault, Jun r , aisne de feue Dame Jane 
Fautrart, sa mere, les dits Cardin, Bertranne et Jane 
Fautrart, enfants du dit feu Sieur Fautrart, leur pere." 

It is rather singular that none of these docu- 
ments gives us the Christian name of Thomas 
Simon's wife ; but this is supplied by a contract 
registered in the Greffe or Record Office of the 
island, on Feb. 10, 1635-6, by which John Fau- 
trart, Jun., as guardian of his niece Elizabeth, 
daughter of Cardin Fautrart, buys in her name a 
field and certain wheat-rents. 

Since my first communication to " N. & Q.," a 
careful search among the records of the Royal 
Court of Guernsey has put it into my power to 
explain how Thomas Simon and Peter de Beauvoir 
stood to each other in the relationship of cousins - 
german, and has also revealed the facts that 
Simon's mother was a Guernsey woman, and his 
father a native of London. 

On October 5, 1613, " Monsieur Pierre Simon, 
fils Pierre, natif de la cite de Londres, au droit de 
sa femme, fille de feu Gilles Germain" sells certain 
wheat-rents. Another contract of the same date 
gives the Christian name of his wife, which was 
Anne; and we also gather from it that Gilles 
Germain had five other daughters. One of these 
was Judith, wife of James de Beauvoir; another 
was Marie, wife of Peter Careye ; and another 
Marguerite, who died unmarried. The names of 
the other two are as yet unknown to me. The 
following pedigree will make the relationship be- 
tween Thomas Simon and Peter de Beauvoir 
clear : 

Gilles Germain. 
! 



Judith, 
wife of James de Beauvoir. 

Peter de Beauvoir. 



Anne, 
wife of Peter Simon. 

Thomas Simon. 



Whether Peter Simon belonged to any branch 
of the Guernsey family of that name may be still 
considered doubtful. He may have been de- 
scended from some French refugee ; but I think 
that the fact of his being styled in the contract 
above referred to, " son of Peter," in addition to 
" native of the city of London," affords a strong 
presumption that his father was known in Guern- 
sey, and very probably belonged to the island. 
In legal documents of that date strangers are 
usually described in general terms as " natif des 
parties d'Angleterre," or " de JSTormandie," as the 
case may be. 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NO 32., AUG. 9. '56. 



As to Thomas Simon's silence in his will as to 
any property in Guernsey or claim thereto, it is 
easily explained by the fact that at that time the 
law of the island did not permit of bequests of 
real property to children, and the claim to the 
personal property of John Fautrart, Sen,, had 
been settled long before. 

Is the date qi Abraham Simon's death known ? 
May nqt Pegge have confounded him with his 
brother Thomas? especially as he also was a 
modeller and engraver. ANON. 



THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 

(2 nd S. ii. 79.) 

I am requested by 0. 7. 5. to give the editiqns, 
dates, &c., pf the Catholic catechisms used by au- 
thority in this country, in which the Command- 
ments are taught at length. There are only two 
authorised catechisms in use in England. These 
are the abridged Douay Catechism, and the 
Abridgment of Christian Doctrine, usually called 
the First or the Little Catechism. The original 
Douay Catechism indeed bore the title of An 
Abridgment of Christian Doctrine, and was printed 
early in the seventeenth century. I have a copy 
of the third edition, printed in the reign of James 
II., by " Henry Hills, Printer to the King's most 
excellent majesty, for his household and chapel ; 
and are to be sold at his Printing-House on the 
Ditchsidc, in Blach-fryers." But as this was too 
long for children to learn, there was published, 
with approbation, An Abstract of the Douay Cate- 
chism. Of this I have an edition : " London : 
Printed in the year 1782;" but without any 
printer's name. It was printed, however, by 
J. Marmuduke, in Great Wild Street, near Queen 
Street, Lincoln s Inn Fields. This is the Douay 
Catechism in general use among Catholics all 
over England and Wales, often designated as the 
Second Catechism, because it is usually learned 
after the First or Little Catechism. The editions 
of it are innumerable; but in 1827, the four 
Vicars Apostolic approved and sanctioned a cor- 
rected edition, and required that all future edi- 
tions should be conformable to it ; which has been 
carefully adhered to ever since. 

The First, or Little Catechism, entitled An 
Abridgment of Christian Doctrine, was compiled 
more than a century ago by Bishop Challoner. 
It has in like manner passed through countless 
editions ; but a standard edition was approved in 
1826, by the four Vicars Apostolic, and all sub- 
sequent editions have been required to be con- 
formable to the one so authorised. This catechism, 
being shorter and more simple, is usually learnt 
before the Douay Catechism. But these two are 
the only catechisms used by authority among 



Catholics in this country. In all editions of both 
these, the First Commandment is given at full 
length, including what by Protestants is called 
the Second, and in the Douay Catechism the 
reasons for this arrangement are given in answer 
to the Q. Why put you all this in one command- 
ment ? F. C. H. 



Mollerus (2 nd S. i. 133.) I cannot say where 
the entire poem of Mollerus is now to be found, 
but a large sample of it is in Herbinius de Cata- 
ractis, Amstelod., 1678. On p. 224. is a vignette 
of Hatto's Tower, apparently as it was three years 
ago. The bishop is on the rock, watching the 
rats which are crossing the Rhine. Herbinius 
having described the rapids, adds : 

" Sequitur jam ligata etiam oratione, ' Historia de 
Tragico Hattonis Episcopi Moguntinensis fato ; ' quam 
Bernhardus Mollerus Monasteriensis, in sua Rheni De- 
scriptione, Coloniae Agrippinae, MDXCVI., carmine csetera 
egregio tradit. Quia enim Ubellus iste, prceterquam in 
Blbliothecd Serenissimi Holsati<$ Duds, vix uspiqm alibi 
reperitur, apponolibens versus istos i}i gratiam lectoris." 

Then follows the story of Hatto in 162 very 
tedious and antimetrical lines. That the original 
contained many more may be inferred from 
several " &c."s at the close of the pentameters. If 
Southey did rob Mollerus, he must have had 
access to the original : for in this extract there is 
nothing differing from the ordinary version of the 
story, which is dressed up in tawdry rhetoric. 
Compare the opening of each : 

" The summer and autumn had been so wet 
That in winter the corn was growing yet: 
'Twas a piteous sight to see all around 
The grain lie rotting on the ground. 
And every day the starving poor 
Crowded around Bishop Hatto's door," &c. 

" Messis erat raro segetum dotata favore, 

Paupere nil potuit vilius esse viro. 
Paupere paupertas languescit frigida lino, 

Verminat esuriens paupere moesta penu. 
Auget egestatem morbu.s, contempta movetur 

Pauperies: pmni cassa favore perit. 
In rigidis passim miseri jacuere plateis 

Quos misere letho vovit acredo famis. 
Vita quibus restat, vitam mutare volentes, 

Sanguinea fatum pra?ripuere manu. 
Est dolor in vita truculens, in funere terror : 

Conditio sortis nulla placere valet, 
Qujs stadium vita? letho mutare peroptet? 

Cum miser haud poterit vivere, fata cupit," &c. 

The " &c." leaves us in uncertainty as to the 
amount of common-place expended before reach- 
ing Hatto. 

Though Mollerus may not be a poet, any in- 
formation as to so scarce a book as his Rheni 
Descriptio will be acceptable. H. 5- 0. 

U. U. Club. 



2 nd s. NO 32., Aua. 9. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



Walpcle and Whittington (2 nd S. ii. 88.) Nq 
account of the discussion respecting Whittington 
-and his Cnt is given in the Archceologia ; but we 
have the following notice of it in a letter from 
Richard Gough to Michael Tyson, dated Dec. 27, 
1771, preserved in Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, 
vol. viii. p. 575. : 

" Mr. Pegge gave us next the History of Whittington, 
but could rqaUe nothing at all of his cat, though she is 
his constant companion in all statues and pictures : and 
I firmly believe, if not a rebus for some ship which made 
his fortune, she was the companion of his arm-chair, like 
Montaigne's." 

Cole, in his unpublished letters to Walpole, 
designates the members of the Society of Anti- 
quaries " Whittingtonian Antiquaries." Foote, 
in his comedy of The Nabob, makes Sir Matthew 
Mite, with much humour, thus address the Society 
of Antiquaries : 

" The point I mean to clear up, is an error crept into 
the life of that illustrious magistrate, the great Whit- 
tington, and his no less eminent cat: and in this disqui- 
sition four material points are in question : 1st. Did 
Whittington ever exist? 2nd. f^as Whittington Lord 
Mayor of London ? 3d. Was he really possessed of a Cat ? 
4th. Was that Cat the source of his wealth ? That Whit- 
tington lived, no doubt can be made; that he was Lord 
Mayor of London, is equally true ; but as to his Cat, that, 
gentlemen, is the Gorclian knot to untie. And here, gen- 
tlemen, be it permitted me to define what a Cat is. A 
Cat is a domestic, whiskered, four-footed animal, whose 
employment is catching of mice ; but let puss have been 
ever so subtle, let puss have been ever so successful, to 
what could puss's captures amount? No tanner can 
currv the skin of a mouse, no family make a meal of the 
meat ; consequently, no Cat could give Whittington his 
wealth. Frojn whence then does this error proceed? Be 
that my care to point out. The commerce this worthy 
merchant carried on was' chiefly confined to our coasts : 
for this purpose he constructed a vessel, which, for its 
agility and lightness, he aptly christened a Cat. Nay, to 
this our day, gentlemen, all our coals from Newcastle are 
imported in nothing but Cats. From thence it appears, 
that it was not the whiskered, four-footed, mouse-killing 
Cat, that was the source of the magistrate's wealth ; but 
the coasting, sailing, coal-carrying Cat: th^t, gentlemen, 
was Whittington's Cat." 

J.Y. 

Germination of Seeds (2? d S. ii. 1Q. 58.) 
E. M. notices the above in those seeds long buried. 
Perhaps the following may interest him and other 
botanical readers : ' 

Some years ago, a portion of the park at 
Hampton Court was ploughed up ; and to the 
surprise of every one a quantity of flowers made 
their appearance. An account of this went the 
"round of the papers" some years tjack, I forget 
the date : upon inquiry being instituted, it was 
found that thai identical spot ha4 been the flower- 
garden in King Charles I.'s time. 

One of the most remarkable cases of the vitality, 
and therefore the germination of the seeds, oc- 
curred tp Jkjr. Martin F. Tupper, tjje well-known 
author ; a friend of his gave him twelve grains of 



wheat taken out of a vase in a mummy pit at 
Thebes. Mr. Tupper planted these in garden- 
pots ; and four of the seeds grew, and brought 
forth fruit. A most interesting account of this 
wonder was published in The Gardeners' Chronicle, 
Saturday, November 11, 1843; together with a 
woodcut of the ear of wheat produced from one 
of these grains. One of my intimate friends saw 
these four plants growing, and there can be no 
"doubt of their genuine authenticity. CENTURION. 
Athenaeum. 

Under the head of "Spontaneous Plants," I 
have the following note from a paper of the 
date : 

" On boring for water lately [June 1832], at Kingston- 
upon-Thames, some earth was brought up from a depth 
of 360 feet ; this earth was carefully covered over with a 
hand-glass, to prevent the possibility of any other seed 
being deposited on it : yet, in a short time, plants vegetated 
from it. If quick-lime be put upon land which from 
time immemorial has produced nothing but heather, the 
heather will be killed, and white clover spring up in its 
place." 

Is this latter assertion a fact ? 
The following on the same subject is given in 
the Magazine of Science, 1839 : 

" After the great fire of London, 1666, the entire sur~ 
face of the destroyed city was covered with such a vast 
profusion of a cruciferous plant, the Sisymbrium irio of 
Linnaeus, that it was calculated that the whole of the 
rest of Europe could not contain so many plants of it. It 
is also known, that if a spring of salt water makes its 
appearance in a spot, even at a great distance from the 
sea, the neighbourhood is soon covered with plants pecu- 
liar to a maritime locality, which plants have previously 
been quite strangers to the country. 

" In a work upon the Useful Mosses, by M. de Brebis- 
son, this botanist states that a pond, in the neighbour- 
hood of Falain, having been rendered dry during many 
weeks in the height of summer, the mud, ip drying, was 
immediately covered, to the extent of many square yards, 
by a minute, compact green leaf, formed by an almost 
imperceptible moss (the Phaseum axil/are), the stalks of 
which were so close to each other, that upon a square 
inch of this new soil might be counted more than five 
thousand individuals of this minute plant, which had 
never previously been observed in the country." 

As slightly connected with this subject, may I 
ask if there is any foundation for the following, 
quoted from St. Pierre, by Sir R. Phillips ? 

" Barley, in rainy years, degenerates into oats ; and 
oats, in drv seasons, changes into barley. These facts, 
related by Pliny, Galen, and Mathiola, have been con- 
firmed by the experiments of naturalists." 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Coffer (2 nd S. ii. 69.) In the glossary of Ar- 
chitecture, vol. i., I find the Jojjqwjng explanation 
of this word : " Coffer, a deep panel in a ceding ; 
the same as a pampw." Caisson was a term 
adopted frqin tj^e French, for tb.e small panels of. 
flat and ahed ceilings,. F. M. 

Ellastone, Staffordshire."! 



118 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2*S. #032., Aua. 9. '56. 



Aristotle's Logic (2 nd S. ii. 81, 82.) There is 
an edition of Aristotle's Organon in two volumes 
by Theod. Waitz, Ph. Dr., Lipsiae, Hahnii, 1844 
46. It contains the Greek Testament, with 
various readings at the foot of the page ; and at 
the end of each treatise are some Latin note*. 

H. A. C. 

Aristotle's Proverbs (2 nd S. ii. 48.) '.Diogenes 
Laertius, in his Catalogue of Aristotle's writings, 
mentions a Book of Proverbs. ZEUS. 

Benjamin Franklin (2 nd S. ii. 76.) For the 
sake of accuracy I may be permitted through the 
editor's indulgence to correct an error into which 
I have fallen by trusting too much to memory, in 
stating Franklin to have been " the minister pleni- 
potentiary from the American Congress to the 
court of London," in 1779, instead of to the 
court of France ; and to atone for this mistake I 
shall give an amusing extract from the French 
Louse (formerly quoted), depicting the philosopher 
at this important time of his political career : 

"In order better to observe him (says the Louse, p. 19.) 
I fastened upon a flower which adorned my mistress's 
hair. By good fortune I found myself placed directly 
opposite to monsieur ambassador, "and here I must ac- 
knowledge that I was not able to forbear laughing heartily 
when I contemplated the grotesque figure of this original, 
who with a vulgar person and a mean appearance affected 
the air and gestures of a fop. A sun burnt complexion, 
a wrinkled forehead, warts in many places which might 
be said to be as graceful in him as the moles that dis- 
tinguished the sweet face of the Countess of Barry. With 
these he had the advantage of a double chin, to which 
was added a great bulk of nose, and teeth which might 
have been taken for cloves had they not been set fast in a 
thick ja\v. This, or something very like this, is the true 
picture of his excellency. As for his eyes I could not 
distinguish them because of the situation I was in, and 
besides a large pair of spectacles hid two-thirds of his 
face." 

A portrait of Franklin (said to be an original) 
which may be seen in the Glasgow Athenceum 
Reading Room corroborates in several of its details 
the above description. G. ]\T. 

Parish Registers (2 nd S. ii. 66.) It will be 
very necessary for any Member who brings before 
Parliament a project for printing parish registers 
to be able to give some idea of the expense. I 
suggest, therefore, that only registers prior to 
1700 should be printed, and that they should be 
printed verbatim. If one of your correspondents 
would have the register of a small parish printed, 
and keep an^ account of the expense, it would 
assist the object very much ; he might dispose of 
copies to many of your subscribers to reimburse 
himself. 

I possess several printed pamphlets containing 
" extracts " from registers, but I believe that the 
only entire register printed verbatim is that printed 
by me .in 1831 (the Livre des Anglois a Geneve, 



pp. 18.), from a copy examined with the original 
by the late Sir Egerton Brydges. 

The greatest difficulty in effecting this im- 
portant object will be the copy for the printer, as 
many of the early registers are only legible by 
those accustomed to the character and abbrevia- 
tions of the sixteenth century. It was only last 
month that I was requested by a rural dean to 
pay him a visit and decipher some early registers 
in his deanery. As the parishes must have a 
period of two or three years to carry out the 
measure, should it pass into a law, it will afford 
time for the incumbents, where necessary, to pro- 
cure the assistance of some antiquarian friend to 
collate the obscure portions of their register. 

J. S. BURN. 

Grove House, Henley. 

"Pence a piece" (2 nd S. ii. 66.) I can in- 
form your correspondent W. (1.) that this form 
of expression is not confined to Herefordshire, 
but is in constant use here, as in other parts of 
Ireland, to the entire exclusion of the legitimate 
" penny a piece." As to its etymology I cannot 
give him any certain information, but it seems to 
me probable that it is a modification of two, three, 
four, pence, &c., the numeral being omitted in the 
case of a single penny. H. DRAPER. 

Dublin. 

In answer to the Query of W., as to the an- 
tiquity and locality of this mode of expression, I 
have to observe that it prevails in Staffordshire, 
where fifty years ago I remember a familiar ex- 
pression of a woman who sold gingerbread, fruit, 
&c., and being asked the price of some of her com- 
modities, used to answer, " They are halfpence a 
piece." F. C. H. 

In answer to the Query as to the locality of the 
phrase " Pence-a-piece," I can give my mite of 
information, that a similar expression, " Pennies- 
a-piece," is common in Scotland. E. E. BYNG. 

Plunketts "Light to the Blind" (1 st S. vi. 341.) 
This MS. is in the possession of the 'Earl of 
Fingall, and is the work of a zealous Roman 
Catholic and a mortal enemy of England. The 
date on the title-page is 1711. Large extracts 
from it are among the Mackintosh MSS. ; and 
it is frequently referred to by Mr. Macaulay. 

ABHBA. 

Rubrical Query (1 st S. x. 127.) Looking over 
the past numbers of " N. & Q.," I met with the 
following Query by the REV. WM. ERASER : 

" The rubric to the versicles that precede the three 
collects at Morning and Evening Prayer states, ' Then 
the priest standing up, shall say,' &c. After this rubric, 
on what authority does the priest kneel down again ? " 

This question is at once disposed of by refer- 
ence to the following rubric which intervenes be- 



2 d S. NO 32., AUG. 9. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



tween the versicles above-named and the " Second 
Collect, for Peace," in the Morning Service : 

" Then shall follow three collects ; the first of the day, 
which shall be the same that is appointed at the Com- 
munion ; the second for Peace ; the third for Grace to 
live well. And the two last collects shall never alter, 
but daily be said at Morning Prayer throughout all the 
year, as followeth ; all kneeling" 

The corresponding rubric in The Order for 
Evening Prayer runs thus : 

- Then shall follow" three Collects ; the first of the 
Dav ; the second for Peace ; the third for Aid against all 
Perils, as hereafter followeth; which two last collects 
shall be daily said at Evening Prayer without alteration." 

It was unnecessary to repeat in the rubric pre- 
fixed to the collects in the Evening Service 
what had been explicitly stated in the correspond- 
ing rubric in the Morning Service, namely, that 
the collects should be said, all kneeling. M. A. 

Galilee (2 nd S. i. 131. 197. 243.) In the In- 
dex to the First Vol. of the New Series of " N". & 
Q." the word "Galilee" is set down as being 
synonymous with " porch." According to Mabil- 
lon it is synonymous with " nave," as the following 
extract will testify : 

" Idem Willelmus eodem anno, ordinationis sue secundo, 
teloneum in fluvio Ligeris ad castrum Langey recuperasse 
dicitur: cujus rei charta primaria facta est in Galilcea 
monasterii, id est navi Ecchsice, et transcripta in libro 
notitiarum." Mabillon, Annales Benedictini, a. 1105. 
100. vol. v. p. 477. Paris, 1713. 

W. B. MACCABE. 

Device of Crescent and Star on Ecclesiastical 
Seals (2 nd S. ii. 89.) The seal of the Dean 
and Chapter of Water-ford referred to by the 
REV. JAMES GRAVES, has been engraved by Mr. 
Rich. Caulfield, in his Sigilla Ecclesia Hibernicce 
Illustrata, Part u. pi. 3., and described at p. 18. In 
an explanation of the Crescent and Star, he refers 
to p. 8., where it says that the " Star is the symbol 
of the Epiphany, and that the Crescent signifies 
the increase of the Gospel." Z. 

English Words terminating in " il " (2 nd S. ii. 
47.) Your correspondent E. C. H. remarks on 
the small number of English words having the 
termination z7, and gives the five words peril, civil, 
council, evil, devil, as the only ones occurring to 
him at the time. He may wish to be reminded of 
the fifteen following words in addition, all having 
the termination il: codicil, pencil, lentil, until, 
cavil, stencil, pistil, tendril, tumbril, tranquil, tonsil, 
vigil, basil, jonquil, nostril. T. J. E. 

Human Leather (2 nd S. ii. 68.) The human 
leather nailed on some of our old church-doors is 
lid to have been originally the skins, or portions 
of the skins, of Danes. The old Bohemian leader, 
Ziska, ordered that his body should be flayed 
after his decease, and the skin be converted into 



the head of a drum. These instances, however, 
of making leather or parchment of human skin 
are well known. With respect to specimens of 
skin in museums, I know of only one example. In 
the museum of the Philosophical Institution at 
Reading, there was, some years ago, and perhaps 
there still is, a small portion of the skin of Jeremy 
Bentham. I remember that it bore a close re- 
semblance to a yellow and shrivelled piece of 
parchment. J. DORAN. 

Ornamental Hermits. Some of your earlier 
volumes (1 st S. v. vi.) contained Queries on this 
subject. Is this note worth adding? 

"Archibald Hamilton, afterwards Duke of Hamilton 
(as his daughter, Lady Dunmore, told me), advertised for 
' a hermit ' as an ornament to his pleasure grounds ; and 
it was stipulated that the said hermit should have his 
beard shaved but once a year, and that only partially." 
Rogers' s Table-Talk, p. 77. 

A. A. D. 

Fairies (2 nd S. i. 393.) It may interest some 
to know, that the July number of the Spiritual 
Herald contains an account of the fairy- seership 
of an educated lady of our own time, not less re- 
markable than that mentioned in "N". & Q." of 
an untaught Cornish girl of 200 years ago. I 
transcribe a few lines relating the commencement 
of this fairy- seership, and also a curious mention 
of Shakspeare : 

" I used to spend a great deal of my time alone in our 
garden, and I think it must have been soon after my 
brother's death, that I first saw (or perhaps recollect 
seeing) fairies. I happened one day to break (with a 
little whip I had) the flower of a buttercup; a little 
while after, as I was resting on the grass, I heard a tiny, 
but most beautiful voice, saying, 'Buttercup, who has 
broken your house ? ' Then another voice replied, ' That 
little girl that is lying close by you.' I listened in great 
wonder, and looked about me, until I saw a daisy, in 
which stood a little figure not larger, certainly, than one 
of its petals. 

" When I was between three and four years old, we 
removed to London, and I pined sadly for my country 
home and my fairy friends. I saw none of them for a 
long time ; I think because I was discontented ; I did not 
try to make myself happy. At last I found a copy of 
Shakespeare in my father's study, which delighted me so 
much (though I don't suppose I understood much of it), 
that I soon forgot we were living where I could not see 
a tree or a flower. I used to take the book, and my little 
chair, and sit in a paved yard we had (I could see the 
sky there). One day, as I was reading the Midsummer 
Night's Dream, I happened to look up, and saw before 
me a patch of soft, green grass, with the fairy ring upon 
it ; whilst I was wondering how it came, my old friends 
appeared, and acted the whole play (I suppose to amuse 
me). After this, they often came, and did the same with 
some of the other plavs." 

A.R. 

Council of Lima (2 nd S. i. 510.) CLERICUS 
(D.) will find some account of the decrees of the 
Council of Lima in the Continuation of Fleury's 
Hist. Eccles., vol. xxiv. 1. 176. ch. 72. F. C. H. 



120 

, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 32., AUG. 9. '56. 



Mrs. Siddons (2 nd S. ii. 89.) With regard to 
Mrs. Siddons making her first appearance on the 
stage at Stourbridg, I have heard from an old 
relation who knew the circumstances, that the 
occasion was for the benefit of the company, which 
was but indifferent in their profession, and very 
poor. Some attractions they doubtless had, and 
the officers of a regiment stationed in the town' 
volunteered their assistance. Mrs. Siddons, then 
a lively girl of fifteen years of age, enacted the 
heroine of the piece, and having to faint in the 
hero's arms, she burst out laughing, and ran off 
the stage to the great annoyance of the officer, 
who afterwards declared he felt " so provoked that 
he could almost have stabbed her." I think the 
play was the Grecian Daughter, but of this I am 
not quite sure, as I do not know that play. 

E. S. W. 

Norwich. 

Wolves (2 nd S. i. 96. 282.) The following par- 
ticulars, which form a note to Macaulay's History 
of England, vol. iii. p. 136., are interesting : 

"In a very full account of the British isles published at 
Nuremberg in 1690, Kerry is described as ' an vielen 
Orten umvegsam und voller Walder und Gebiirge.' 
Wolves still infested Ireland. 'Kein schadlich Thier 1st 
da, ausserhalb Wolff und Fiichse.' So late as the year 
1710 money was levied on presentments of the Grand 
Jury of Kerry [ ?] for the destruction of wolves in that 
county. See' Smith's Ancient and Modern State of the 
County of Kerry, 1756. [p. 173.] I do not know that I 
have ever met with a better book of the kind and of the 
size. In a poem published as late as 1719, and entitled 
Macdermot, or the Irish Fortune Hunter, in six cantos, 
wolf-hunting and wolf-spearing are represented as common 
sports in Minister. In William's reign Ireland was some- 
times called by the nickname of Wolfland. Thus in a 
poem on the battle of La Hogue, called Advice to a 
Painter, the terror of the Irish army is thus described : 

' A chilling damp, 
' And Wolfland howl runs thro' the rising camp.' " 

ABHBA. 

Medal of Charles I. (2 nd S. ii. 29.) It may 
interest G. H. C. to know that I have a comme- 
morative medal of Charles I. It is of bronze, two 
inches in diameter. On the obverse is the profile 
of that ill-fated sovereign, with the inscription, 

" Carol. D. G. M. B. F. ET. H. BEX. ET. GLOR. MEM." 

On the reverse a landscape, a naked arm issuant 
from the clouds, and extending a martyral crown, 
with the legend, " VIRTVTEM. EX. ME. FORTVNAM. 
EX. ALIIS." I should like to compare " notes " with 
your trinitial Querist G. H. C. on our Carolinian 
relics. E. L. S. 

Deans, Canons, and Prebendaries of Cathedrals 
(2 nd S. ii. 89.) SCRIPSIT will find the sought-for 
information in Report of the Commissioners ap- 
pointed by King William the Fourth to inquire into 
the Ecclesiastical Revenues of England and Wales, 
(dated June 16, 1835) ; presented to loth Houses 



of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. Vide 
Hansard's sale list of Parliamentary Papers, from 
Session 1836 to 1853, title, "Papers presented by 
Command," year 1836-(67). Ecclesiastical He- 
venues, England and Wales, Report of Commis- 
sioners, 11$. HENRY EDWARDS. 

? In Mr. Hardy's edition of Le Neve's Fasti, and in 
the Clergy List, the names of the prebendal stalls 
are given. In the Clergy List will also be found 
the various parishes forming rural deaneries. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

" To call a spade a spade" (2 nd S. ii. 26.) In 
1 st S. iv. 456. a note of Scaliger is cited, in which 
this saying is traced to Aristophanes. The verse 
in question appears from the quotation of Lucian, 
Quom. Hist, sit conscrib., to have been 

" Ta crvKa crvna., -ri]v <TKo.$-f\v VKO-^V Aeytov." 

See also Lucian, Jov. Trag , 32. Other references 
to this verse, which is nowhere ascribed by name 
to Aristophanes, are given in the note of C. F. 
Hermann, in his edition of the former treatise, 
p. 248. The proverb is inserted in the Adagia of 
Erasmus, under the head of " Libertas, Veritas." 

L. 



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NO 33,, AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 16, 1856. 



ANCIENT PARISH BOOKS AT EAST BERGHOLT, 
SUFFOLK. 

In the church at this place there is a massive 
oak chest, apparently at least three hundred years 
old, which contains various books relative to pa- 
rochial affairs, in pretty good preservation, and 
from which the following particulars have been 
selected : 

" Anno D ui 1579 et in Anno Regni Dne y re xxi Elisa- 
beth.ee Dei Gratia Anglie Fraucie et Hibernie regine, 
&c." 

" A Boke intituled the boke of accounte for the store 
housse ffor the provissione for the pore, withe the entries 
of recorde of the givers of all suche somes of monye as to 
the same to belonge, and the order appoynted for the 
same, with a remembrance of the Charters and Libertie of 
this towne of East Bergholt, arid the coppies of the store 
housse and other hotisses belonging to the pore, wh are 
kept in a cheste in the belfrye, under the locke, whereof 
the one kye remayneth withe the churchwardens, one 
other withe the minister, and the other with the provider 
ffor the pore ffor the tyme beinge, and wretten the sea- 
venthe daie of November and in the year above said. 

"Memorand. whereas these giftes hereafter recyted, 
and all such as hereafter shall be geven and wreten in 
this boke which somes and evry p.cell thereof ys geven 
to the intente and purpose that the same shoulde be 
yerely and every yere imployed and bestowed uppon 
corhe, chese, buttef, and other necessarie vittales to be 
boughte ffor ready monye, or the same monye or such p te 
thereof to be laide oute aforhande by the disscresions of 
the p.vider for the tyme beinge. To the intente to buye 
the same come and other vittales at the reasonablest 
pryce that the same maie be hadd, and the same to be 
soullde agayne by the saide p.vider for the tyme beinge 
to such pore ffo'lke as shall be yerely named by the 
p.viders disscression that shall take the same ffor the 
yere then to come, and the p.vider whiche. shall geve 
upp his accounte for the yere past, withe the consent of 
two, three, or ffower of the chefest of the p.rish, that ys 
or then shall be at suche reasonable pryses as the same 
maye convenientlye be afforded at the disscression of the 
saide p.vider for the tyme beinge. So as the saides whole 
stocke may be reserved and kept whole with some in- 
crease of the saide stocke, yf the same maye conveniently 
be taken ffor the better performance of and goeinge for- 
ward in this good intente and purpose, yt is agreed by 
consent of the moste of the chefest of the inhabitants of 
this towne of East Bergholt whose names are here under 
wreten, that there shall be chosen and named yerely and 
every yere, on Easter mundaye or tuesdaye, by the con- 
sent of the churchwardens for the tyme beinge, and ten, 
aight, six, or ffour, or three at the leaste of the chefest of 
the towne, one of the inhabitants of the saide towne to be 
named the p.vider for the pore for the yere then next to 
come, and to begynne his yere at the ffeaste of Pentecost, 
which saide p.vider withe the churchwardens then beinge 
and the other townsmen, aight, six, four or three, the 
saide p.vider for the yere then ended shall geve upp his 
account, and deliver such monye as he shall have re- 
cevyed of the same stocke, with the come and vittales 
whiche shall then remayne, yf any be, beinge good, 
sweete, and merchantable, such as shall be accepted by 



the newe p.vider. The churchwardens, and ten, aight, 
sixe, ffouer or three other at the leaste shall like of to be 
worthe the same pryce as he shall rate the same at, or 
ells to make whole the saide stocke which he shall have 
recyved, and the same p.sentlye to delyver to the p.vider 
then newlye chosen. 

" Item, yt is agreed by oure consente whose names are 
hereunder wreten, that the p.vider ffor the tyme and yere 
to come shall enter bonde to the .churchwardens then 
beinge, in tenn pounde of good and lawful monye, more 
than the some which he shall recyve, to make a trewe 
account of the saide stocke, or to paye the saide stocke to 
the saide newe p.vider, churchwardens, and other of the 
townsmen, and the same bonde to be made, sealled, and 
delivered accordinge to such effecte as new p.vider hathe 
alredye begonne. The whole Bonde shall be and re- 
mayne in the sayed cheste provided for these causes. 
Allso yt is agreed by the saide p.ties whose names are 
hereunder wreten, that yf it happen anye of the saide 
p.ties who maye be chosen and named to be p.vider for 
anye yere to come shall refuse to doo the same, and to 
accomplishe this good order in every poynte accordinge 
to the good intente begonne, then the said p.tie so refus- 
inge shall loose and paye twenty shillings of lawful 
monye for his discharge of that yere onlye, to be and re- 
mayne to the increase of this stocke. And there shall be 
chosen one other by the like consente as for the same 
cause ys p.vided and appoynted. Itm., yf it shall happen 
that this good order and purpose be not observed and 
kept, but that the same stocke lye deade by the space of 
one whole yere and be not imployed, bestowed, and or- 
dered according to the trewe meanyinges of the sayd 
givers of the same, as in the saide severall giftes are re- 
ersed, that then the same stocke shall be and remayne 
unto the same persons againe their executors or assigns, 
or the executors of suche as by Will have geven the 
same or suche p.tye as ys by them geven, to be and re- 
mayne as in their fformer estate at the tyme of the deli- 
verye of the same p te of the sayed stocke." 
[Here follow the signatures.] 

" Here followeth a trewe rehersall or declaration of all 
such several somes of mortye as hathe been geven by 
certen of the inhabitants of this towne by theire owne 
hands, or willed by there last wills, to be geven for the 
increasinge of a stocke of monye to be used and imployed 
to the buyenge of come and other victualls for the benefite 
of the pore, with the names of all suche as hath geven or 
willed the saide^severall somes of money to be geven. 

"1608. An extreme sharpe frost, wh n so moch foulk 
and fysh dyed by the frost. 

" 1637. Collected the 5 th of June of the inhabitants of 
East Bergholt for arid towards a vollentary gift for the 
releife of the poore of Hadlygh, which was vissited with 
the plague, and was payed to Mr. T. Bretton of Hitcham. 
The some of monye so collected was twentie pounds, 
eygtheen shillirigs and twopence. 

"The sixteenth day of September, 1650, att the house 
of Abraham Newton then mett, itt was agreed as follows. 
That Captaine Goff doe speake unto the Churchwardens 
to repaire the church speedily, and that Goodman James 
Hayward specke unto Goodman Turner to ringe the ser- 
mon bell a longer distance of time than usually he hath 
done before the little bell, and a longer season to ringe it 
Out, that the inhabitants afarr off may well heare it. v lhe 
19th of May, 1651. Imprimis, it is agreed that there shall 
be but foure houses licensed for drawinge of beere, two 
in the Streete, one at Gaston's End, and the other at 
Baker's End. Anthony Bunn to sell beere without doores 
at Baker's End. Also it is ordered that Goodman Pim- 
merton be asked to go to a Justice and renew a warrant 



122 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



S. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56. 



for preventing a shoemaker from making a settlement in 
our towne. 

" April 4 th , 1659, beinjf Easter Monday. It is agreed y* 
the neighbours of the towne set about looking what mis- 
orders be in the said towne, and take care for the pre- 
venting and punishing them, as of Inmates, Unlicensed 
Ale houses, strangers roming into the towne, and all other 
misdemeanours, llth November, 1660. Imprimis, agreed 
y* not any of the poore but such as take Collection, and 
are very poore besides, shall have any coals measured 
and att nine pence a bushel to be sold. The 2 nd day of 
September, 1661.* Ordered as followeth: Imprimis, y* the 
officers and some otber of the townsmen do goe and take 
notice of what disorders are in the Alehouses, and of what 
inmates and strangers are in the towne, as alsoe to exe- 
cute the warrants against offenders that are already 
taken out. Memorand. July 3 rd , 1670. Collected by the 
Churchwardens of East Bergholt, by vertue of his Ma- 
jesty's letters patent for the redemption of several ma- 
rine"rs out of slavery in the galleys, the juste sum of three 
shillings and eight pence. 1671. The monye that hath 
been gathered for y e slavery in Turkey is 6. 12. 2^. 
1681. Feby 27. Imp 3 . It is ordered that all inmates shall 
have kindly notis by the churchwardens and overseers to 
clean their houses before our Ladj 7 day next insuing, or 
els they will be prosecuted and proceeded against accord- 
ing to law. March y e 2 nd , 1684. It is ordered and agreed 
yt i{ \\ ye weights, scales, and measures belonging to y e 
alefounders, alias ale-tasters, be sufficiently repaired and 
amended fitting for their use, and the charges thereof to 
be disbursed by y c present treasurer for y e town lands and 
stock, and if y e said alefounders at present or y succeed- 
ing ones shall neglect to execute their office according to 
their oaths, that then y c said treasurer M r W m Ellis pre- 
sent or indite them at y c next assizes w ch seem most 
convenient to him. April 20 th , 1685. It is ordered and 
agreed that if any person lets a house to a foreigner, y e 
tenant of which proves a charge to y e town, that then y e 
landlord shall be double rated. Item, it ordered that M r 
Rich d Michell and M r Edward Clark fetch a warrant for 
any person or persons that shall set up any stall or booth 
for the pretended fair this present year. May 3 rd , 1686. 
Collected \)y the Minister and Churchwardens by vertue 
of his Majesty's letters pattent for the releif of the French 
Protestants, 08. 17. 6. May 24^, 1686. Imprimis. That 
whereas M r Ray, Chirurgeon, did cure y e hand of Henry 
Newman, it is left to the discretion of y e present overseers 
to pay y c same. 1690. Collected for the Irish Protest- 
ants, 05. 03. 07. 1692, June 26 th . Collected towards 
the redemption of 500 Christians in Turkish slaverv, 
04 12. 02. 1693. Grace Granger, a vagabond sent to 
Maidstone in Kent, 5 th April, hath a child w th her, al- 
lowed 40 daies to pass. Dec r 13 th . P d for 2 bottles of 
sack to heel the women, 14 s 00 d . 1694. Whereas com- 
plaint was made, July 14, against the Churchwardens 
and overseers of the Parish of East Bergholt in Suffolk, 
before the Right Worshipfull Edmund Bohun, Esq., Jus- 
tice of the Peace for the s d County, by John Clarke, La- 
bourer, that bee the s d John was lame and aged, and stood 
in need of greater maintenance than was allowed him by 
the s' 1 Officers, and before the s d Justice Bohun did averr 
that himselfe, the s d John Clarke, was sixty six years of 
age and unable to earn his living, and that bee had like- 
wise two children unable to earn their liveing, and that 
the s d officers have allowed him the s d John only seven 
shillings in ten weeks past for and towards maintenance 

* After this date is the following: " 1663, It is agreed 
that y e next towne meetinge be at Mr. John Clarke's, on 
Whitsun munday next, and that every man bring his 
wife along with him." 



for himself and family : Wee the inhabitants of the s d 
Parish have met together and made diligent search into 
the truth of this complaint, and find by the register the 
s d John Clarke is about 58 years of age ; that he have 
two children is acknowledged, both of them daughters, 
but the eldest is soe old that she is adjudged marriage- 
able, the youngest daily work and earn more, as we verily 
beleive, than will and doe maintaine a poor child of like 
age in another family. As to that part of the complaint 
stating that he have been allowed but seven shillings for 
ten weeks past: Wee the s d officers have given the s d 
John twelve shillings in nine weeks past. The s d John 
now lives in a town house and pay no rent ; and that the 
s d John and his family eat and drinke as well and wear 
as good habit as 'many of the eminent inhabitants that 
pay very considerably to the poor of our s d parish. And 
the s d John Clarke by himselfe or his wife doe boastingly 
affirm that hee or shee have lent to a certain clothier, 
who at their house put out spinning worke, and doe com- 
monly soe doe (if need require) lend him the s d clothier 
three" pounds, sometimes less, to pay the spinners. And 
wee have testimony ready to be made that the wife of 
the s d John did vauntingly speak amongst some of her 
poor neighbours in his hearing, that she would in a quar- 
ter of an hour produce thirty pounds ; and in the begin- 
ning of March last past the s d John Clarke and his wife 
made complaint before the Right Worshipful Sir Adam 
Holton, by whom they were not credited. The present 
officer sent Clarke's wife eighteen pence to buy salve to 
cure his legg, of which legg hee complain hee is so lame. 
But his s d wife have often declared that for six pence she 
can cure the legg, and if she please make the" same leg 
very sore and frightful, to move the Justice to whom she 
complains on behalf of her husband, and so move him to 
pity and procure an order for larger maintenance than 
they doe stand in need of. Pursuant to the advice of 
the s d Justice Bohun we have caused this defence to be 
written in the toun book, and the names of the chief in- 
habitants to be subscribed, and humbly pray that the s d 
John Clarke may not be credited against us in such fal- 
lacys, wee being willing to allow him and them what 
maintenance wee judge needful, upon just application 
being made. July 18 th , 1694. I am fully satisfied with 
this certificate, and discharge the complaint as causeless. 

EDMUND BOHUN. 

" 1709. Mem d . Mr. Thomas Cleer was nominated to 
be overseer, he preferring to be excused on account of his 
infirmities, and agreeing to give five pounds to find cloth- 
ing for the poor, he is unanimously excused from being 
overseer for the present year. 1711, Dec r . Paid for 3 
horses journeys to Justice Thurston's for a warrant for y e 
2 tailors and 2 shoemakers, and journey to Stoke, 3 s O d . 
1714, July 18th. For beer and wine, and for a dinner att 
y e cutting out of y e cloth for y e poor, Ol 1 12 s 00 d . But I 
only charge 15 s for beer, wine, and y e dinner. 1719, 
Jan. 27. Imprimis. Whenever any person belonging to 
the parish shall come to ask relief, before any is given 
the officer to go and inventory the s d persons goods. 
1720, Nov r 30 th . Ordered that the churchwardens or 
overseers do directly get a warrant to take up several 
straggling wenches, &c. that keep about our town. 1721, 
Dec r 27. Ordered that the Churchwardens and Overseers 
do take up all the young fellows and wenches that are at 
their own hand, and make them shew cause before a Jus- 
tice why they dont go to service. 1724. Ordered that y c 
overseers get a warrant for those young women that wont 
go to service. 1730, April 15. Ordered that the Church- 
wardens for the time being do pay for every old fox or 
badger, five shillings, and for every young one that is a 
runner half a crown, excepting for a litter, and for them 
twelve pence a piece. Ordered, May 28 th , that Mr. Gul- 



2 nd S. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



lifer the present churchwarden pay John Howgego 2 s 6 d 
each for 2 foxes killed by him since our order dated 
April 15 th last, for which Sam. Cooper y e late church- 
warden paid him but 2 s 6 d a piece. Whereas it hath been 
an antient custom in the parish of East Bergholt, in the 
County of Suffolk, for the Chief Inhabitants to meet once 
a month or thereabouts at each others houses, there in a 
friendly manner to consult and advise and order about 
the poor, and the school, and other affairs of the s d parish, 
which custom has of late been laid aside, to the detriment 
of the poor and hindrance of parish business, and lessen- 
ing that love and unity which should be among pa- 
rishioners and neighbours : In order, therefore, to revive 
the s d laudable custom, for the good ends intended by it, 
The chief inhabitants of the s d parish have agreed to 
revive these neighbourly meetings at each others houses 
as heretofore, upon due notice given in the church on the 
Sunday before the s d meeting, and so to continue succes- 
sively each one in his turn. 1722, Sept r . 19 th . Ordered 
that an enquiry be made into y e cause of Abraham Rey- 
nold's sory death, and to know y e reason why the Coroner 
exacted so much money. Sept r 24 th . Ordered that the 
Coroner be prosecuted "according to law at the next 



It appears from the above that this coroner 
carried out " Crowner's quest law " in a manner 
that was disapproved of by the parishioners. 
How he passed through his ordeal at the assizes 
is not stated. 

1738, Oct r 28. Agreed at a vestry that John Perri- 
man shall be allowed 2 1 12 s to keep the boy Murgen a 
year from the date hereof, he to provide wearing apparel 
for the s d boy, and leave him in good repair at the end of 
the year. 1740, Jany 7 th . Agreed at a vestry that Mr. 
J no Cook have the boy J no Cook from this date to Mich 8 
1742, he to find the said boy with meat, drink, washing, 
and lodging, with apparele, and at the expiration of y e 
said terme to leave him in as good repair as he found him, 
which is very good. 1748, June 1 st . Ordered that no 
parish officer shall be allowed to pay any carpenter, 
Mason, Plumber, and Glazier more than two pence a day 
for lowance for a man, half an hour allowed at breakfast 
and one hour at dinner. 

" 1748, Oct r 5 th . Samuel Folkerd hath agreed to take 
the girl Rose Cook and maintain her with meat, drink, 
washing, and lodging, in sickness and in health, till 
Mich 8 next, the parishions agreeing to put her in neces- 
sary repair fit to go into his house, and the said Samuel 
Folkerd has promised to leave her in as good repair as he 
took her. 1749, May 3' d . Agreed that Tho Hills's boy 
shall go to D r Tanner's to have his head looked after. 
1752, March 30 th . It is agreed with James Vincent that 
if he get the boy Hill's head cured by next Easter, we 
will pay him for that cure fifteen shillings, besides what 
we pay him for his board. 1753. M r John Lewis to take 
Jos h Rose for a year, M r Rashbrooke the boy Sam. Wool- 
lard for ye year. The parish to find both those boys with 
ware and tare, and if any broken limbs, then the parish 
to pay all expenses.*' 

These extracts were made by Mr. James Tay- 
ler, the present respected churchwarden of the 
above parish. At my request he kindly allowed 
me to transcribe them from his note-book, and 
offer them for insertion in " N. & Q." Here it 
may be observed that there are many items of 
interest to antiquaries and others to be found in 
old parish books, if those who have access to them 



would in a leisure hour look them over and 
make extracts therefrom. G. BLENCOWE. 

Manningtree. 



GOETHE ON THE " ANTIGONE OF SOPHOCLES. 

In the conversation reported by Eckermann 
(March 28, 1827) on this subject, Goethe objects 
to the expressions of Antigone (v. 911.), where 
the Greek is thus represented : " I cannot have 
another brother ; for since my mother and father 
are dead, there is no one to beget one." (Oxen- 
ford's Trans., i. 372.) This is certainly putting 
the case strongly against a tragedy of Sophocles. 
But Goethe was either ignorant or unmindful of 
the history and the moral principle (jlvos vd^ov) 
expressly referred to by Antigone. This is found 
in Herodotus (iii. c. 119.), where Darius granting 
the life of one prisoner to the wife of Intaphernes, 
she selects, not her husband or children much to 
the surprise of Darius but says, after some de- 
liberation (j8ouA.6uo-a^i/7?), " If indeed the king will 
grant me only one life, I select my brother before 
all." Darius inquires her reason for preferring 
her brother to her husband and children. She 
replies, " If fortune (Sai^wi/) permit, I may have 
another husband and other children ; but as my 
father and mother are no longer living, I can 
never have another brother ; therefore I neces- 
sarily select him." (rainy Trj yv&ur) xpew/uej/?? eA.ecc 
raCro.) Darius was so pleased with this answer, 
that he spared the life of her eldest son as well as 
her brother. 

If we object with Goethe to the Greek stand- 
point as respects this 7^*7, we must also reject 
the motive of the whole tragedy, which involves 
the necessity of covering the dead corpse with 
three handfuls of earth to ensure the entrance of 
its spirit into Hades. But as Goethe did not ob- 
ject to this, the greater absurdity to the moderns, 
neither ought he to object to the minor absurdit}', 
both being equally true in Greek tragic art. So- 
phocles wrote for the Athenian stage : had he 
written for Weimar, Paris, or London, he would 
not have been guilty of either of these absurdities. 
Therefore, Goethe's wish that some apt philologist 
might prove this verse to be interpolated or 
spurious is nugatory. 

To counteract the low prose of Eckermann, I 
add Dr. Thos. Francklin's translation of the pas- 
sage referred to by Goethe : 

" Another husband and another child 
Might sooth affliction ; but, my parents dead, 
A. brother's loss could never be repaired, 
And therefore did I dare the venturous deed, 
And therefore die by Creon's dread command." 

But as Goethe, who had read largely in Greek, 
appears surprised at this passage in the Antigone, 
others may entertain the like opinion, and partly 



124 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56. 



from deference to his judgment. It is therefore 
necessary to bear in mind that, whilst in modern 
Europe the marriage ^tie is generally held to be of 
a religious character' it was deemed in ancient 
Greece little more than a mercantile bargain ; for 
there the married women were not so much the 
companions of their husbands, as slaves inia su- 
perior grade. The Jietarce were almost the only 
accomplished women of the time, and they were 
immoral ; nevertheless, Greeks of distinction, and 
even men proud of their ethics, visited these 
women. (Xenoph. J\^emor^ jii. 11.) With respect 
to affection for their offspring, the Scriptores 
erotici Grceci make the exposure of infants, from 
comparatively slight causes, a turning incident in 
their novels. A view of the ancient Greek, in his 
domestic aspect, will explain very clearly the com- 
paratively loose hold which the husband and 
child had, in fact, on the affection of wife and 
mother. The cause of the strong affection sub- 
sisting between brothers and sisters is explained 
by Aristotle. (De Moribus, viii. 12. 14.; Polit., 
vii. 7.) T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 



REV. MR. THOMAS CRANE, M.A. 

The Puritans of England holding a distinguished 
place in the annals of her liberties, their writings 
and memories ought to be specially cherished. In 
their works will often be found an account of those 
feelings and incidents that animated them, which 
convey to the mind a much more striking portrait 
of their characters than what may be gathered 
from the illustrations of modern commentators. 
I dare say some of the thick massive venerable 
tomes, with their strong rude strapped bindings, 
which were in those days issued from the press, 
and greedily bought up for spiritual consolation 
and remembrance of the dearly beloved pastor, 
may now be considered by not a few persons as 
repulsive, and the subjects as heavy, elaborately 
treated, and quaint in style, and which, when com- 
pared with the present flimsy religious literature, 
must be admitted as true ; yet I cannot help 
thinking that in general a patient reading of those 
old-fashioned records will be adequately recom- 
pensed by a valuable addition to our knowledge. 
I might adduce many examples of such, were it 
necessary; in the meantime I may mention one 
book, the perusal of which has lately given me 
both pleasure and instruction ; in size it is but a 
child (8vo. pp. 544.) to some of the giants belong- 
ing to the same school of divinity, and I suppose 
has now become rather a rarity : 

" Tsagoge ad Dei Providentiam ; or, a Prospect of Di- 
vine Providence. By T. C., M.A. London : printed by 
A. Maxwell for Edward Brewster, at the Sign of the 
Crane in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1G72." 

Having been pleased with an author, we are 



naturally inclined to know as much of his history 
as we can obtain, and disappointed at any obstacle 
in exploring it. It may be remarked as not a 
little curious the practice that then prevailed of so 
many of the Puritan divines burying their names 
in their publications under initials, while their 
printers and booksellers displayed themselves and 
their addresses on the title-pages at full length. 
From " T. C." we might have conjectured long 
enough to whom we were indebted for this mas- 
terly exposition of God's Providence. The benefit 
of Captain Cuttle's advice in " making a Note," 
may here be instanced. A contemporary of 
Crane's, and who had likely been himself one of 
the persecuted brethren, takes up fhe volume be- 
fore me, and probably as a niemorial of friendship 
inscribes on it the following, wjiich at once eluci- 
dates the point : 

" The Rev. Mr. Thomas Crane, M.A. (the Author of 
this Book) was Ejected from Rampisham in Dorsetshire. 
He had his Education in y e University of Oxford, had 
been assistant to the Rev. Mr. Richard Allein. Hje was a 
learned good man, and a great observer of the steps of 
Divine Providence towards himself and others. He was 
a hard Student, and had a penetrating Genius, and his 
Composures were remarkably Judicious. He was a good 
Textuary and an excellent Casuist. After his Eject- 
ment he settled at Bedminster, where he was a constant 
Preacher, at which place he Died in the year 1714, aged 
84 years." 

Feeling anxious to be acquainted with a few 
more particulars respecting this divine, I have 
consulted ISTeal and other sources, but can find no 
traces of him, and I am disposed to think he has 
been omitted among the Puritan worthies. The 
editor's kind insertion of this may elicit further 
notices from correspondents, and if not, he will at 
least be better preserved in the pages of " N. & 
Q." than by a fragile piece of manuscript in a 
worm-eaten volume, till some future historian 
enrol him in his lists. G. N. 



TOBACCO. 

According to the Chronicle of the Quiche 
tribes of Guatemala, when Jepeu, the Creator, be- 
gan the creation of living animals, after an un- 
successful attempt to make the animals bow to 
the deities, they were destroyed; wooden men 
were tried, with no better success, and also de- 
stroyed. Various other attempts at creation were 
made, but always unsuccessfully. 

" The destruction of several ' Criadores,' arrogantly 
mutinying against the sun and moon, though, properly 
speaking, neither of the two were in existence, is nar- 
rated at some length. The destruction planned for these 
demi-gods is of various kinds. Two of them are enticed 
into the infernal regions, where they are treated with cigars 
by the Princes of Hell (senores del infierno). At all 
events, the smoking of tobacco must be a very old inven- 
tion, if the Central Americans considered it to have been 
indulged in at the time of the creation of man." 



2 nd S. N 33., AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



This note is extracted from a letter by Nicolaus 
Triibner on Central American archeology, in The 
AthencRum of Saturday, May 31, 1856 (p. 684,). 
The Quiche migrated to Guatemala, and founded 
their state about the twelfth century; if they 
came from Mexico, it is likely this legend came 
thence. The holy city of Tula, in Mexico, was 
founded 558 A.D. If this is the farthest back 
point ascertainable, then we may suppose that at 
the beginning of the Christian era the custom of 
smoking tobacco, and using it in the shape of the 
cigar, was common ; and had been perhaps known 
and used time immemorial. If this be too great 
.an assumption, at the building of Mexico in 1141 
A.D. this was true ; and it certainly was so in 1200 
A.D., when the Quiche founded their empire. In 
any case, this, even the last date, is the farthest 
back- period to which this custom can be traced 
as yet. And this note is well worth preservation, 
as an addition to the existing stock in "N. & Q." 
Mr. Triibner says of the Chronicle, that the 
legends are the work of Indian priests ; and are, 
upon the whole, to be looked upon as genuine. 
If the mixture of astronomy with the Brahmanical 
religion, and of the compass with that of China, 
be considered the most undeniable proofs of the 
very remote period at which the study of astro- 
nomy was first begun in India, and of that at 
which the polarity of the magnetic needle was 
first discovered in China, the existence of this 
tobacco-legend in the sacred books of the Central 
American Indians must impress on us the very 
remote period at which this "Indian weed" was 
first gathered and consumed by the American 
tribes. C. D. L. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACAULAY. 

Prince of Orange's Circular. The following 

are extracted from the Wells Records, and may 

prove of some interest to the readers of " N". & 

Q.," in further illustration of Macaulay. ' INA. 

" Wells Civitas sive Jturgus. 

" Convocaco. generalii tent' undecimo die Januarii, 
1G88. 

" Mr. Nicholas Paynter, Mayor. 
Mr. Coward, Recorder. 
Mr. Salmon, Justice, 
Mr. Jn Davis. 
Mr. Rob'tus Thomas. 
Mr. Watts. 
Mr. Merefield. 
Mr. Broadbeard. 
Mr. Jeale. 
Mr. Hole. 
Mr. Cooke. 

Mr. Baron. L ' , 

Mr. Phil. Evans. 
Mr. Cupper. 
Mr. Hill. 

Mr. Nich 3 Thomas. 
Mr. Brown, 
Mr. Hippisley , 



" This day Mr. Mayor produced a letter by him re- 
ceived from His Royal Highness the Prince of Orange, 
directing the choosing (according to antient custom) two 
sufficient Burgesses of the City to represent the same at 
the general Convocation to be held at Westminster the 
22nd instant (which letter being publiquely read), This 
Convocation in obedience thereto proceeded to an elec- 
tion, and accordingly elected Edward Berkeley and 
Thomas Wyndham, Esquires, two of the discreetest Bur- 
gesses of this said City, to represent this City at the said 
Convocation. 

" A. true Coppy of the Circular Letter from the Prince 
of Orange. 

"Whereas the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, the 
Knights, Citizens, and Burgesses heretofore Members of 
the Commons House of Parliament during the reigne of 
King Charles the Second, residing in and about the Citty 
of London, together with the Aldermen and divers of the 
Comon Councill of the said Citty, at this extraordinary 
juncture, at our request severally assembled to advise Us 
the best manner how to attain the ends of our Declaration 
in calling a free Parliament for the preservation of the 
Protestant religion, and restoring the rights and liberties 
of the Kingdom, and settling the same, that they may 
not be in danger of being again subverted; Have ad- 
vised and desired us to cause our letters to be written 
and directed for the Counties, to the Coroners of the re- 
spective Counties or any one of them, And in default of 
the Coroners, to any one of the Clerks of the Peace of the 
respective Counties; And for the Universities, to the 
respective Vice-Chancellors ; And for the Citties, Bo- 
roughs, and Cinque Ports, to the chief Magistrate of such 
Citty, Borough, or Cinque Port, conteyninge directions 
for the- choosing, in all such Counties, Citties, Universi- 
ties, Boroughs, and Cinque Ports within ten days after 
the said respective Letters, such a number of persons to 
represent them as from every such place is or are of right 
to be sent to Parliament, of which election, and the time 
and place thereof, the respective officers shall give notice : 
The Notice for the intended election for the Counties to 
be published in the Markett Towns within the respective 
Counties by the space : of five days at the least before the 
said election ; And for the Universities, Citties, Boroughs, 
and Cinque Ports, in every of them respectively, by the 
space of three days at the least before the said election : 
The said letters and the execution thereof to be returned 
by such officer or officers who shall execute the same to 
the Clerk of the Crown in the Court of Chancery, so as 
the person so to be chosen may meet and sit at Westmin- 
ster on the 22nd day of January next. 

" We, heartily desiring the performance of what we 
have in our said Declaration represented, in pursuance of 
the said advice and desire have caused this our Letter to 
be written to you, to the intent that you truly and right- 
fully, without favour or affection to any person or indirect 
practice or proceeding, do and execute what of your part 
ought to be done, according to the said advice, for the 
due execution thereof; The elections to be made by 
such persons only as, according to the antient laws and 
customs, of right ought to choose Members for Parliament. 
And that you cause a Return to be made by Certificate 
under your seal of the names of the persons elected, an- 
nexed to this our Letter, to the said Clerk of the Crown 
before the 22nd day of January. 

"Given at St. James's, the 29th day of December, 1688- 
" WILL* ORANGE. 

To the Chief Magistrate or such others 
of the Citty of Wells, in the County of 
Somerset, who have right to make re- 
turns of Members to serve in Parlia- 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 2 nd s. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56. 



ment, according to the antient usage of 
the said Citt'y before the surrender of 
Charters made in thertime of King 
Charles the Second." 

Copy of the return : 

" Wells Civit. slve Burgus in Coin. Somersett. * 

" We, the Mayor, Masters, and Burgesses of the said 
City or Borough do hereby humbty Certify, That in per- 
formance and obedience to the Letter hereunto annexed 
from His Highness the Prince of Orange, this llth day of 
January, 1688, have truly and rightfully, without favour 
or affection to any person, or indirect practice or proceed- 
ing, elected and chosen Edward Berkeley and Thomas 
Wyndham, Esquires, two of the discreetest and fittest of 
the Burgesses of the City aforesaid to represent us in the 
Convencon appointed to be held at Westminster the two 
and twentieth day of this instant January, the said Elec- 
tion being made according to the antient usage and cus- 
tome for elections for Parliament within the said City, 
and after due notice of the time and place of such election 
given to all parties therein concerned." 



VAUGHAN AND ROGERS. 

The exquisite little poem called The Retreate 
has ever been my favourite among Henry 
Vaughan's compositions. I was sorry, therefore, 
the other day to find one of the most beautiful 
ideas in it contradicted by the alleged experience 
of another poet, Samuel Rogers. 

" The Retreate. 

" Happy those early dayes when I 
Shined in my angell-infancy ! 
Before I understood this place 
Appointed for my second race, 
Or taught my soul to fancy ought 
But a white, celestiall thought ; 
When yet I had not walked above 
A mile or two from my first love, 
And looking back, at that short space 
Could see a glimpse of His bright face; 
When on some gilded cloud or flowre 
My gazing soul would dwell an houre, 
And in those weaker glories spy 
Some shadows of eternity ! 

Oh ! how I long to travel back 
And tread again that ancient track I 
That I might once more reach that plaine 
Where first I left my glorious traine ; 
From whence the Inlightened Spirit sees 
That shady City of Palme trees ! " 

" Table- Talk of Samuel Rogers. 

" One afternoon, at court, I was standing beside two 
intimate acquaintances of mine, an old nobleman and a 
middle-aged lady of rank, when the former remarked to 
the latter that he thought a certain young lady near us 
very beautiful. The middle-aged lady replied, ' I cannot 
see any particular beauty in her.' ' Ah, madam,' he re- 
joined, ' to us old men youth always appeal's beautiful ! ' 
a speech with which Wordsworth, when I repeated it to 
him, was greatly struck. The fact is, till we are about to 
leave the world we do not perceive how much it contains 
to excite our interest and admiration ; the sunsets appear 



to me far lovelier now than they were in other years ; and the 
bee upon the flower is now an object of curiosity to me, which 
it was not in my early days." P. 138. 

Both Vaughan's and Rogers's sentiments here 
are so striking one hardly knows which to be- 
lieve. Perhaps both are true, old age being se- 
cond childhood. Wordsworth is here mentioned 
by Rogers, and this reminds me to notice the 
strong parallel between The Retreate and his Ode 
to Infancy. Is it known if Wordsworth admired 
Vaughan ? A. A. D. 



COACH MISERIES. 

There being persons who seriously lament the 
good old time of coaches, when they could travel 
leisurely and securely, see the country and con- 
verse with the natives, it may be well to register 
some of the miseries before they are altogether 
effaced from the memory. Antony remarks 
that 

" The evil that men do lives after them ; 
The good is oft interred with their bones." 

It is certainly not desirable that the good of 
coaches should be interred with their bones : 
neither is it by any means to be wished that the 
evil should entirely cease to live after them, so as to 
render us indifferent, and thankless, and insensible 
to the superior advantages of modern locomotion. 

First Misery. Although your place has been 
contingently secured days before, and you have 
risen with the lark, yet you see the ponderous 
vehicle arrive full full full. And this, not 
unlikely, more than once. 

2. At the end of a stage, beholding the four 
panting, reeking, foamy animals, which have 
dragged you twelve miles : and the stiff, galled, 
scraggy relay crawling and limping out of the 
yard. 

3. Being politely requested, at the foot of a 
tremendous hill, to ease the horses. Mackintoshes, 
vulcanised Indian rubber, gutta percha, and gos- 
samer dust-coats, then unknown. 

4. An outside passenger resolving to endure no 
longer " the pelting of the pitiless storm," takes 
refuge, to your consternation, within with drip- 
ping hat, saturated cloak, and soaked umbrella. 

5. Set down with a promiscuous party to a 
meal bearing no resemblance to that of a good 
hotel, except in the charge: and no time to enjoy it. 

6. Closely packed in a box, " cabin'd, crib'd, 
confined, bound in," with five companions morally 
or physically obnoxious, for two or three com- 
fortless nights and days. 

7. During a halt overhearing the coarse lan- 
guage of the ostlers and tipplers at the road -side 
pot-house : and besieged by beggars exposing their 
mutilations. 

8. Roused from your nocturnal slumber by the 



2 d S. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



horn or bugle, the lashing and cracking of whip, 
turnpike gates, a search for parcels under your 
seat, and solicitous drivers. 

9. Discovering at a diverging point in your 
journey that the "Tally ho" runs only every other 
day or so, or has finally stopped. 

10. Clambering from the wheel by various iron 
projections to your elevated seat. 

11. After threading the narrowest streets of an 
ancient town, entering the inn yard by^ a low 
gateway, to the imminent risk of decapitation. 

12. Seeing the luggage piled " Olympus high," 
so as to occasion an alarming oscillation. 

13. Having the reins and whip placed in your 
unpractised hands while coachee indulges in a 
glass and a chat. 

14. When dangling at the extremity of a seat 
overcome with drowsiness. 

15. Exposed -to piercing draughts, owing to a 
refractory glass; or, vice versa, being in a mi- 
nority, you are compelled, for the sake of ventila- 
tion, to thrust your umbrella accidentally through 
a pane. 

16. At various seasons, suffocated with dust, 
and broiled by a powerful sun ; orcowering under 
an umbrella in a drenching rain or petrified 
with cold or torn by fierce winds or struggling 
through snow or wending your way through 
perilous floods. 

17. Perceiving that a young squire is receiving 
an initiatory practical lesson in the art of driving, 
or that a jibbing horse, or a race with an opposi- 
tion, is endangering your existence. 

18. Losing the enjoyment or employment of 
much precious time, not only on the road, but 
also from consequent fatigue. 

19. Interrupted before the termination of your 
hurried meal by your two rough- coated, big- 
buttoned, many-caped friends, the coachman and 
guard who hope you will remember them. Al- 
though the gratuity has been repeatedly calcu- 
lated in anticipation, you fail in making the mutual 
remembrances agreeable. C. T. 



Bolingbroke's Letter to Pope. In the Illustrated 
London News, a few weeks since, appeared an 
original letter from Lord Bolingbroke to Pope, 
supposed to have been never before published, 
the authenticity of which was doubted by The 
Athenceum. As " N. & Q." is an authority in any- 
thing relating to Pope, perhaps I may be allowed 
to record in its columns that this letter was first 
published more than ninety years ago, viz. in the 
Annual Register for 1763, p. 196. No authority 
is there given for its authenticity, and it is un- 
dated. I may add, that in the Register for the 
year 1764, p. 222., is another letter, stated to be 



" original," from Pope to the Duchess of Hamilton, 
which is not printed in any edition of Pope's 
Letters. C. J. DOUGLAS. 

[The last letter noticed by our correspondent is printed 
in Roscoe's edition of Pope's Works, vol. viii. p. 332. The 
words prefixed to it, " The writer drunk," are omitted bv 
Roscoe.] 

A Military Dinner-parly. As banquets to our 
brave soldiers are now in vogue, and it is proposed 
to give a grand dinner to the Guards, on their re- 
turn to the Metropolis, the readers of " N. & Q." 
may be glad to learn that the greatest dinner ever 
known in England was that given by Lord Rom- 
ney to the Kent volunteers on August 1, 1799, 
when George III. reviewed them near Maidstone. 
The tables, amounting to ninety-one in number, 
were seven miles and a half long, and the boards 
for the tables cost 1500Z. The entertainment, to 
which 6500 persons sat down, consisted of 60 
lambs in quarters, 200 dishes of roast beef, 700 
fowls (3 in a dish), 220 meat pies, 300 hams, 300 
tongues, 220 fruit pies, 220 dishes of boiled beef, 
220 joints of roast veal. Seven pipes of port were 
bottled off, and sixteen butts of ale, and as much 
small beer was also placed in large vessels, to 
supply the company. After dinner his Majesty's 
health was given in a bumper by the volunteers, 
all standing uncovered, with three times three, 
accompanied by the music of all the bands. 

J. YEOWELL. 

Shakspeare and his Printers. In the April 
number (No. 210.) of the Edinburgh Review, is 
an article on the " Correctors and Corrections of 
Shakspeare;" in the course of which the vil- 
lanous typographical blundering of the Heminge 
and Condell folio is the subject of strong repre- 
hension. But qualis ab incfsptu with the me- 
chanical men of type. In that same Edinburgh, 
in a subsequent article, on " Body and Mind," the 
reviewer has occasion to quote the dagger-soli- 
loquy from Macbeth ; and the quotation, in a 
small way, is worthy of the old folio men : ivork 
being printed for worth, the for thy, and eye for 
eyes ! " Physician, heal thyself ! " 

A DESULTORY READER. 
Jersey. 

A Mission of the Press. In a Times' leader of 
June 30, the writer indulges in some pertinent 
remarks upon the little that powerful engine, the 
Press, has yet effected towards breaking down the 
legal abominations of crabbed MS. and cumbrous 
parchments, by substituting readable print and 
tractable paper for deeds and other registered 
documents, to the great relief of the purses and 
brains of the lieges popularly supposed to read 
and understand the former. 

Warming with his subject, the writer predicts 
the time when the country squire, deprived of his 
out-of-door recreation by a rainy day, will over- 



128 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a S. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56, 



look the Quarterly Review and County Chronicle, 
and betake himself foi Amusement to the morocco 
gilt volume whick contains the now intelligible 
title deeds of his estate. 

As all men will, doubtless, welcome any indica- 
tion of the advent of this mission of the Pre'ss, it 
may be worth while recording in the pages of 
"K & Q." that the initiative in this movement 
has already been taken in a very appropriate 
quarter ; for there now lies before me a very 
handsome, thin royal 8vo., entitled Glenormiston, 
1849-50, which contains the history of the acqui- 
sition of that estate, with plans, title deeds, and a 
variety of useful information thereanent, expressly 
compiled and printed "with a view to the con- 
venient preservation and reference" of the pro- 
prietor, Mr. William Chambers. J. O. 

Family of Pendrell. The following brief addi- 
tions to the notices of this loyal family, which are 
collected by Mr. Hughes in his edition of the 
Boscobel Tracts (1830), may not be unacceptable 
to your readers : 

" Frances Jones ~\ 

& [-Daughters of Wm. Pendrel. 

Anne Lloyd J 

" At the court at Windsor, 27^ June, 1680. 

" His Majesty is graciously pleased to refer this peti- 
tion to the right hon ble Lords Com 1 " 8 of the Treasury to 
take such course as they shall judge most ready and 
expedient for the Pet" relief." 

Notes of Petitions, in Bodl. MS. Rawl., c. 421. 
fol. 182. 

" Yesterday the Commons in a Committee received a 
clause to oblige all papists and non jurors in Great Brit- 
tain to register their names and estates ; alsoe a clause to 
exempt the familyes of the Pendrells in Staffordshire, 
who are papists, from being taxed by this bill, on account 
of their eminent services to the crown by saving King 
Charles the 2, in the Royal Oak." 

News-Letter of 9 May, 1723. Rawl. MS. C., 151. 
fol. 98. 

W. D. MACRAT. 

Superstition of the present Day. The following 
cutting, from The Tablet of July 26, is worth 
the attention of the readers of "N. & Q." as a 
specimen of the worse than heathenish supersti- 
tion of many of our people : 

" Will it be credited that thousands of people have, 
during the past week, crowded a certain road in the vil- 
lage of Melling, near Ormskirk, to inspect a sycamore 
tree which has burst its bark, and the sap protrudes in a 
shape resembling a man's head ? Rumour spread abroad 
that it was the re-appearance of Palmer, who ' had come 
again, because he was buried without a coffin ! " Some 
inns in the neighbourhood of this singular tree reaped a 
rich harvest." 

K. P. D. E. 

Mortgaging' the Dead! If a literal be also a 
legitimate use, in its present application, of the 
word wior/gage (a dead pledge), we have classical 
authority for stating that mortgaging the dead 



was a legalised mode, among the Egyptians, of 
giving security for money borrowed : a poor in- 
demnity to the creditor in case of nonpayment. 
The embalmed body of the deceased relative ac- 
companied a guest to the feast, where, if money 
was required, the sacred possession was deposited 
by the borrower in pledge it was a strictly legal 
transaction. For wow-redemption there was a 
severe penalty, which one might imagine the pe- 
culiar doctrine engrafted on that of the soul's 
immortality would rarely allow an Egyptian to 
incur. The parties not redeeming were denied 
the right of interment themselves, and the privi- 
lege of giving their relatives and friends burial. 
In such cases the coffin-less body was carefully 
preserved at home, without burial; but the de- 
scendants of the deceased and excluded debtor 
might honourably bury, provided compensation 
was first made for the crime (if such had been 
committed), or the debt refunded. It has been 
conjectured, and with great probability, respect- 
ing this law, mentioned by Herodotus (lib. ii. 
s. 136.), that its object was to discourage the bor- 
rowing of money ; rendering it peculiarly infa- 
mous by entailing on those who practised it a 
revolting traffic, and forfeiture of what the debtor 
was accustomed to regard as his dearest and most 
sacred treasure. F. PHILLOTT. 

The kings Health. 

" Here's a health unto his Majesty, with a fa, la, la. 
Conversion to his enemies, with a fa, la, la. 
And he that will not pledge his health, 
I wish him neither wit nor wealth, 
Nor yet a rope to hang himself. 
With a fa, la, la, la, 
With a fa, la, la," &c. 

Mr. Peter Cunningham, in his charming Story of 
Nell Gwyn, quotes the above lines from Forbes's 
Songs and Fancies, Aberdeen, 1682. When the 
volume is printed again, which it must be ere 
long, the author should alter his reference to 
Catch that Catch Can ; or the Musical Companion : 
containing Catches and Bounds for Three and Four 
Voyces, tifc., 4to. 1667, in which work the song or 
glee in question first appeared. Forbes misprints 
the composer's name John Savile ; it ought to be 
Jeremiah Savile, as in Catch that Catch Can. 
Nothing is known of the composer, farther than 
that he wrote the music of " His Majestie's 
Health," and "The Waits." The latter is well 
known to all lovers of social harmony. 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 



"The Brute Chronicles" Being engaged in 
preparing for publication the French Prose Chro- 
nicles of England called the Brute, for which 
purpose I am now collating the various texts, I 



2 nd S. N 33., AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



should be glad to know whether there are in 
existence any other copies besides those specified 
by SIR F. MADDEN, in an article on the subject 
of these Chronicles, " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. i. 1 . 

WILLIAM HENRY HART. 
Albert Terrace, New Cross. 

Agricultural Suicides. Was it an ordinary 
event in the days of Elizabeth for farmers who 
had hoarded corn, to hang themselves because the 
season in which they had expected to realise their 
profits was one of plentiful crops ? One would 
think so from the copious allusions to the practice 
in works of fiction of the time : 

" Here's a farmer that hanged himself on the expecta- 
tion of plenty." Macbeth, Act II. Sc. 3. 

" And hang'd himself when corn grows cheap again." 
Hall's Satires, Book iv. Satire 6. 

Again in Every Man out of his Humour (Act 
III. Sc. 2.), Sordido hangs himself because the 
prognostication of foul weather, on the strength of 
which he had hoarded his grain, proved delusive. 

Any explanation of these allusions, by the ad- 
duction of recorded facts, will be acceptable to 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

Old House at Poplar. I am desirous of obtain- 
ing some further particulars regarding an old 
house and property in the parish of Poplar than 
can be obtained from Stow ; the date of the house 
is 1612, and the property is a ship-yard, generally 
believed to be the oldest in England. I know it 
to have been in existence before the house, and 
am anxious, if possible, to discover its date and 
subsequent history ; also when the dry docks were 
built, &c. ? Perhaps MR. W. H. HART, or some 
other of your correspondents, can afford me some 
help, by doing which they will much oblige 

R. SINISTER. 

Blackwall. 

Secondary Punishments wgzt> in force. Can any 
of your readers courteously inform me whether 
there exists any work of this year, or any trust- 
worthy article of review, which- gives a synopsis 
of the various secondary punishments now (1856) 
in force in England ? There have been so many 
modifications lately, that a treatise one or two 
years old is hardly reliable. VINDEX. 

Money enclosed in Seal of legal Documents. 
On a deed of sale of a quit-rent at Alnwick, in 
Northumberland, in the year 1655, is the follow- 
ing execution, viz. : 

" Signed, sealled, and delivered with one single two- 
pence lawfull money of England put into the seale in 
the token of the possession, livery, and seizen of the out- 
rent or white-rent of five shillings by yeare within 
named, in presence of these witnesses," &c. 

On breaking the seal, I found in it a silver two- 



pence, with the rose on one side, and the thistle 
on the other. 

Query, was the enclosing a piece of money in 
the seal ever a common custom, or legally neces- 
sary ? W. C. TREVELYAN. 

Wellington. 

^ "Punjab." I have heard that this is a compo- 
site word formed from Punj, five, and ab, waters : 
viz., the Indus, Jhelum (or Jeylum),Chenab, Eavee, 
and Sutlej. I am not acquainted with Hindus- 
tani, and shall feel obliged to any of your corre- 
spondents who will translate the foregoing proper 
names. Chenab seems to be a composite word, 
like Punjab. G. L. S. 

" When you go to Rome, do as Rome does." 
Among the many derivations of proverbs regis- 
tered in " N. & Q.," I have not seen *he above 
noticed ; and this to me is the more remarkable, 
as it has been attributed to no less a personage 
than St. Ambrose of Milan. Some time ago, in 
turning over the leaves of a copy of Tracts for the 
Times, a fragment of paper dropped out, a cut- 
ting from some book which I did not know, and 
on it the following : 

" In the time of St. Augustin, this question respecting 
Saturday being in its infancy, that great theologist was 
in 'the habit of dining upon Saturday as upon Sunday ; 
but his mother, Monica, being puzzled with the different 
practices then prevailing (for they had begun to fast at 
Rome on Saturday), applied to her son for a solution of 
the difficulty. He in return actually went to Milan on 
purpose to consult St. Ambrose on the subject. Now, at 
Milan, they did not fast on Saturday, and the answer of 
the Milan saint to the Hippo saint was this : When I go 
to Rome I fast on the Saturday as they do .at Rome, but 
when I am here I do not ; ' an advice that is current 
amongst us to this day 'When you go to Rome, do as 
the people of Rome do.' " 

Not being "up" in the works of St. Augustine 
or? St. Ambrose, perhaps some of the readers of 
"'N. & Q." will favour me with stating where 
such t passage can be found in either of the 
Fathers referred to ? M. C. 

William Dunlap. I wish very much to ascer- 
tain whether an American author, of the name of 
William Dunlap, is still living ; or (if not living) 
the date of his death. He is author (besides many 
other works) of the Life of Charles Brochden 
Brown. He was also a painter of some eminence. 
The information I desire is likely to be found in a 
work recently published, Duycink's Cyclopaedia of 
American Literature. R. J. 

"The Sisters 1 Tragedy" I would be greatly 
obliged if any of your readers could inform me 
who wrote a play called The Sisters' Tragedy, 
printed by W. Nicol, Pall Mall, in 1834 ? The 
scene of the play is laid in Granada ; and the 
author appear^ to have been indebted to Tenny- 
son's Ballad of the Sisters for the groundwork of 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. N 33., AUG. 16. '56. 



the plot. There are some prefatory lines, dated 
Hampstead, Aug. 18^ by J. B. (Joanna Baillie). 

R. J. 

Colonel Forrester. Speaking ^ of Jack Ellis 
and his extraordinary social qualities, whichmade 
him familiar at once with the great and lowly, 
Boswell says : 

"The brilliant Colonel Forrester, the author of the 
Polite Philosopher (first published at Edinburgh, 1734) 
was amongst the former." 

Where can any particulars be obtained regard- 
ing this Scottish Chesterfield? J. O. 

Quotation wanted : " Where is thy land" Will 
any of your readers oblige me by saying where 
are to be found the lines 
" Where is thy land? 'tis where the woods are waving 

In their dark richness to the summer air; 
Where the blue streams a thousand flower-banks laving, 
Lead down the hills in veins of light 'tis there." 

The style and phraseology point to Mrs. He- 
mans, but I have not been able to find the lines 
in her works. T. J. E. 

Device and Motto. I shall feel obliged if any 
of the correspondents of " N. & Q." can tell me 
the meaning of the following device and motto 
engraved on an old seal. The device consists of 
a bird with a branch in its mouth seated on a 
sheaf of corn ; on one side of which is a lion, and 
on the other a serpent, with the motto " IN OUTE." 
The device is not difficult to understand ; but I 
can make nothing at all of the motto. J. J. 

" Carmina Quadragesimalia." Is any record 
kept at Christ Church of the authors of the beau- 
tiful Latin poems called Carmina Quadragesi- 
malia? As far as regards elegant and correct 
Latinity, they are worthy to be ranked with the 
poetry of the Augustan age. Can any of your 
classical readers inform me whether any more 
than two volumes have been printed ? They bear 
date 1723 and 1748 respectively, and are both 
dedicated to students of Christ Church, the former 
volume by Charles Este, the latter by Antony 
Parsons. OXONIENSIS. 

Aspasids Wart. A reviewer in a recent number 
of The Athenceum tells how Aspasia was advised in a 
dream to apply rose leaves to an ugly wart on her 
face. What is his authority ? R. T. SCOTT. 

Pictures by Haffaelle in England, and in what 
Collections? I should feel thankful for an ac- 
curate list of the finished original pictures now in 
this country by Raffaelle : stating in what collec- 
tions they are, and, if possible, when they were 
first brought here. Such list, of course, only to 
comprehend well-known and undoubted works ; 
of which, it is to be feared, there are not half-a- 
dozen to be met with in England, besides the 



cartoons at Hampton Court, and the four in our 
National Gallery. JOHN J. PENSTONE. 

Stanford- in-the- Vale, Berks. 

Bibliographical Queries. 

1. Can any of your readers give me some ac- 
count of the subject of an old work, entitled Dac- 
tyliotheca Smythiana, which was published at Venice 
in the seventeenth century ? 

2. Has there ever been any cheap reprint of 
the Bohe of St. Albarfs ? 

3. Is the True Spirit and Practice of Chivalry, 
by Digby, considered a standard work ? and has it 
been favourably received by critics ? 

SIGMA THETA. 

" Judith Culpeper." I have a curious old 
letter with the above signature, of which the fol- 
lowing is a copy : 

" March the 22 nd , 1675. 
" May itt please y r Grace, 

" Upon the receipt of a letter from my Lord privy Seal 
importinge that the draught of a conveyance. . . sealed to 
mee by my Brother was the full effect of y r Lopps mediation 
for mee I have accordingly sealed itt. And though I 
must needs say I hoped for somewhat better conditions, 
yet y r Lopps pleasure commanded my sorrowful sub- 
scription, Especially for the purchasinge of property ( ?) 
between soe neere relations. My Brother hath given mee 
many and great assurances of his future Justice to mee in 
performing this Agreem*. Butt as my confidence in y p 
Lopps wisedome was the principall motive of my compli- 
ance, soe the continuance of y r favour to me is still my 
best security. . . I therefore humbly implore y r grace 
in compassion of my weaknesse to afford mee . ye com- 
pleatinge y r mediation. Nott doubtinge butt God will 
abundantly requite v r Goodnesse to mee. 
" My Lord, 

" Y r Graces most obliged serv*, 

" JUDITH CULPEPER." 

Can any of your sagacious readers inform me 
who was this " Judith Culpeper " and her bro- 
ther ? As the letter came from a Kent collection, 
it was probably written by a relation of Sir 
Thomas Culpeper (or Colepeper, or Culpepper) of 
Hollingbourne, who died about the close of the 
seventeenth century. Many monuments of the 
family are erected in Hollingbourne church, and 
doubtless a good county history contains a list of 
them. Can any conjecture be made as to the 
personage to whom the letter was addressed ? 
Was it not probably to Sheldon, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, to which see the manor of Holling- 
borne belongs? The letter is endorsed on the 
back " Anthony Horsmonden." Vox. 

Was Henry IV. nursed by an Irishwoman ? 
In the Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of 
the Irish Chancery, vol. i. (all published) p. 179., 
the Calendar of the Roll. Pat. 6 Henry IV., 
l a Pars commences : at article 2, a number of 
letters of protection are given ; and amongst them 
we find the remarkable entry, " Et Marg' Taaf, 
nutrix Kegis, Dublin, 18 Mali." This would seem 



2 nd S. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



to settle the point conclusively. Query, has this 
fact been ere now noticed ? JAMES GRAVES, Clk. 
Kilkenny. 

The Great Heat. I am told that twenty years 
ago there was a similar drought in the country to 
the present. The heat was, as it now is, intense ; 
farmers suffered considerably ; the corn stalk was 
but a foot high, and, instead of being cut, was 
plucked. 

Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." give a 
more detailed account of the above facts ? KARL. 

Rev. Mr. Simmons. Is anything known of the 
Rev. Mr. Simmons, to whom the witty sermon in 
the Cripplegate Morning Exercises, " How may 
we get rid of Spiritual Sloth," is attributed. Ca- 
lamy inserts his name in the list of those ministers 
who preached occasionally when the Act of Uni- 
formity passed. W. G. L. 

Westbourne Grove. 

George Liddell. Can any Scottish poetical 
antiquary furnish a Note about " George Liddell 
of Edinburgh," who wrote The Swans Song, or 
Pleasant Meditations on the Way, the tenth edition 
corrected ; Lond., printed for the Author, and sold 
by Lillias Liddell in Edin. 1710, 12mo. pp. 48 ? 

Mr. Liddell seems to have been the poet of the 
religious million ; and besides this piece of dog- 
grel, our illustrious obscure announces " These 
books following, by the same author, are sold by 
him and his daughter Lillias Liddell, in Edin.," 
viz. 1. A Garden of Spiritual Flowers ; 2. The 
Traveller s Song ; 3. Good Company ; 4. Manna 
Gathered; 5. Canaan's Grapes; 6. Apples of 
Gold ; and 7. The Honey Comb. Presuming these 
to be also in verse, and judging from the popu- 
larity of the Swarfs Song, Mr. Liddell would ap- 
pear to have obtained some notoriety as a small 
poet. J. O. 

Rubens' Pictures : Antwerp Cathedral. With 
reference to the celebrated " Descent from the 
Cross," which, as every one knows, consists of five 
pictures, can any of your readers say whether the 
painting at the back of one of the doors, repre- 
senting, according to Murray, a hermit with a 
lantern, is not, in fact, intended as a fifth repre- 
sentation of St. Christopher, under the form of a 
priest carrying the viaticum ? The presumption 
is in favour of this hypothesis, since the four re- 
maining pictures all symbolise St. Christopher in 
some form or other, and it is well-known that they 
were painted for the Guild of Cross-bowmen, of 
whom that saint is the patron. The idea that such 
was Rubens' intention is suggested by the author 
of a recently-published work entitled Flemish In- 
teriors, and seems to me a very appropriate one. 

My attention has been further drawn to the 
subject by a smart correspondence carried on for 



the last three weeks in the Weekly Register, 
giving expression to contending opinions on the 
passage in question of the above-mentioned vo- 
lume. QU.3BRENS. 

" Round about our Coal Fire, or Christmas En- 
tertainments.'" What is the date of the earliest 
edition of an interesting pamphlet so called ? 
Halliwell, in his Catalogue of Chap- Books, p. 148., 
mentions an edition in 12mo., 1796, which he calls 
" A very curious tract, composed at the end of 
the seventeenth, or very early in the following 
century." My own copy, dated 1734, is called 
" The Fourth Edition, with great Additions." It 
is dedicated u To the Worshipful Mr. Lun, Com- 
pleat Witch-maker of England, and Conjurer- 
General of the Universe, at his Great House in 
Covent-garden." EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Corn Measures. I am desirous of obtaining 
correct information as to the difference between 
the proportions of the Winchester bushel and the 
imperial bushel (established by the " Act of 
Uniformity," which took effect from Jan. 1, 1826) ; 
this last contains 22181 cubic inches," and I have 
one table stating the Winchester bushel to have 
contained 2178 cubic inches, and another that it 
was j y part larger than the imperial. WM. M, 

Tring. 



tot'tij 

" Bishop Burners Solution of Two Cases of 
Conscience." Miss Strickland affirms that two 
treatises under the above title, one on " Poly- 
gamy," and the other on " Divorce," were " ex- 
punged " from Bishop Burnet's works. May I beg 
the favour of a reference, if any correspondent 
can give one, to any edition of Burnet's works 
containing these treatises ; or any good grounds 
for supposing that he ever wrote them ? As to 
Miss Strickland's testimony, she must write in a 
more unbiassed spirit before her evidence reckons 
for anything more than Jacobite gossip. A. B. R. 

Belmont. 

[These two Treatises are noticed by Bevil Higgons in 
his Historical and Critical Remarks on Bishop Burnet's 
History of his Own Time, 2nd edit. 1727, p. 158., who has 
given the whole of the bishop's resolution to the second 
question, " Is polygamy in any case lawful under the 
Gospel?" His reason for omitting the bishop's resolu- 
tion on Barrenness was owing to some expressions in it 
so indecent as would offend the fair sex. John Macky, 
however, has not been so delicately sensitive : for, as an 
admirer of the bishop, he has inserted both papers in the 
Appendix to his Memoirs of the Secret Services, edit. 1733, 
pp. xxiv. to xxxiii., and reproaches the bishop's son for 
suppressing them. " These papers," says Macky, " Bur- 
net put into the hands of Lord Lauderdale and others, 
with an intent to farther the design of divorcing His 
Majesty, and thereby of providing, by a re-marriage, 
heirs to the crown, and excluding the Duke of York. 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a S. NO 33'., AUG. 16. '56. 



Why these very curious anecdotes are denied a place in 
our prelate's remarkably 'history, I cannot assign the 
cause; but this I know, that he himself had inserted 
them. The late Archdeacon Echard assured me, that he 
had read them in his Lordship's manuscript; and as I 
have obtained exact copies of them, I think jnyself 
obliged, both in justice to the bishop's memory, as well as 
the republic of letters, to preserve them for the informa^ 
tion and benefit, not only of the present, but of all suc- 
ceeding times." The original, in Burnet's handwriting, 
was copied at Ham in 1680, with the Duke of Lauder- 
dale's permission, by Paterson, Archbishop of Glasgow, 
testified under his episcopal seal, it being then in the 
Duke's possession. 

Unfortunately for the bishop, his troublesome opponent, 
Dr. Hickes, had been favoured with a sight of these Trea- 
tises, and notices them in his work, Some Discourses upon 
Dr. Burnet and Dr. filiation, 4t(x, 1695, p. 20., which 
elicited from Burnet the following explanation : 

" He charges me with a Paper, stating the Lawfulness 
of Divorce in case of Barrenness, with relation to King 
Charles the Second's Marriage ; which he says was a Pro- 
ject of the Earl of Shaftsbury's, and his Party, to put by 
the Duke of York. I cannot reflect on this Author's way 
of writing, without remembring an Italian Proverb, that 
has indeed more of Sense than of Religion in it ; God 
preserve me from my Friends, I will preserve myself from 
my Enemies. .What the Earl of Shaftsbury's Designs in 
that matter were, I do not know ; for he never Once 
spoke of them to me. But I remember well that the 
Duke (then Earl of) Lauderdale moved it to me. He was 
the first that ever discovered to me the Secret of King 
James's Religion ; and when he saw me struck with 
great apprehensions upon it, he fell upon the Head of 
Divorce, and told me many Particulars that I think fit 
to suppress. I afterwards knew that the Matter of Fact 
was falsely stated to me. I Avas then but Seven and 
twenty, and was pretty full of the Civil Law ; which had 
been my first Study. So I told him several things out of 
the Digests, Code, and Novels, upon that Head ; and in 
a great variety of Discourse we went through many parts 
of it : He seemed surprized at many things that I told 
him ; and he desired me to state the matter in Paper. I 
very frankly did it ; yet I told him I spoke of the sudden ; 
but when I went home among my Books, I would con- 
sider it more severely. The following Winter I writ to 
him, and retracted that whole Paper; I answered the 
most material Things in it ; and I put a Confutation of 
my first and looser Thoughts, in a Book that I writ that 
Winter, which I can shew to any that desires it. . The 
Duke of Lauderdale was too wise to publish any thing 
of this kind, tho in his passion he might have shewed it 
to this Author. He knew that he had pressed me to talk 
upon this Subject to the King himself; which I had re- 
fused to do. A great deal more belongs to this Matter, 
which I think fit to suppress : None but such a Person as 
this Author is, would have published so much." Reflec- 
tions upon a Pamphlet, entitled " Some Discourses 'upon 
Dr. Burnet and Dr. Tillatson," 8vo., 1696, pp. 76-78.] 

Commentary on " Proverbs'' 1 Who is the au- 
thor of A Cornmentarie upon the whole JBooke of 
the Proverbes of Solomon, London, 1596. In an 
appendix to this book, consisting of " An Expo- 
sition of certain choyse and excellent Proverbes 
set downe scatteringly here and there in the 
Scriptures," the following rendering is given of 
Jeremiah, ch. xiii. v. 23. : " Can the blackamoore 
chaunge his skinne, or leopard his blew spots." 



Does any version of the English Bible contain this 
translation ? Whence the idea that the spots of 
the leopard were blue ? W. G. L. 

Westbourne Grove. 

[This work is by Peter Muffet, and was first printed in 
1592, by Richard Field for R. Dexter, 8vo., and dedicated 
to Edward Earle of Bedford. P. Muffet was also author 
of " The Excellencie of the Mistery of Christ Jesus de- 
clared in an Exposition vpon 1 Tim. iii. 16.," 1590. Seei 
Herbert's Ames, pp. 1236. 1254. 1358.] 

Author of " A Remedy against Superstition" 
Who was the author of A Remedy against Super- 
stition, or a Pastor's Farewel to a beloved Flock, 
privately printed in the year 1667. The epistle 
dedicatory is addressed " To his truly honoured 
friends of the county of Devon." A copy in my 
possession contains an addendum in MS. for which 
it is hard to account, unless it be from the pen of 
the author, as .there is no list of errata in the 
book. W. G. L. 

Westbourne Grove. 

[This work is by William Crompton, minister of Col- 
lumpton in Devonshire, but ejected at the Restoration for 
nonconformity. " He lived at Collumpton and sometimes 
at Exeter," says Wood, " carrying on at those places and 
elsewhere a constant course (if not hindred) of preaching 
in conventicles, especially in 1678-9, when the popish 
plot broke out, and the faction endeavoured to obtain 
their designs by it, when then he preached in despight of 
authority, as also when king James II. and William III. 
reigned." See Wood's Athence, by Bliss, vol. iv. 626., 
for a list of his works. In a copy of his Remedy against 
Superstition before us, the Errata is printed on a separate 
slip, and pasted on the last leaf,] 

Duntoiis " Summer Ramble." Dunton, in his 
Dublin Scuffle, frequently alludes to his intended 
publication, which he calls his Summer Ramble [in 
Ireland]. Query, was it ever published, and if 
so, in what year ? JAMES GRAVES, Clerk. 

Kilkenny. 

[This Ramble, so frequently referred to in Dunton's 
Conversation in Ireland, and The Dublin Scuffle, was pre- 
pared for the press, but has never yet been printed. The 
MS. is in the Rawlinson Collection in the Bodleian,- 

No. 71.] 

The Minerva of Sanctius. Sir William Ha- 
milton says in a note, in his Discussions on Phito~ 
sophy 

" To master the Minerva of Sanctius and his commen- 
tators is a far more profitable exercise of mind than to 
conquer the Principia of Newton." 

Who is the Minerva of Sanctius ? who are his 
commentators ? where is it to be got ? and what 
is it about ? ENQUIRER. 

[Francisco Sanchez (Lat. Sanctius Brocensis), was an 
eminent Spanish grammarian, born in 1523, and died in 
1601. The work which gained him most reputation was 
his Minerva, seu de Causis Linguae Latins Commentarius, 
Salamanca, 1587, 8vo. This was often reprinted during 
the sixteenth century, and in more modern tinies at Am- 
sterdam, 1754, 1761, 8vo., with remarks by Scioppius, 



2 nd S. N 33., AUG. 10. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



133 



and annotations by Perizonius. Another edition was 
published at Utrecht, 1795, with the additions of Everard 
Scheid; and a third at Leipsic in 17931804, with the 
notes of Perizonius, and those of Charles Lewis Bauer. 
See a notice of him in Rose's Biog. Dictionary.'] 

" The Shepherd of Banbury" I am most 
anxious to ascertain where I can find any account 
of " The Shepherd of Banbury." It is a book or 
personage learned on the subject of the weather, 
and he or it is quoted as a first authority on the 
point by many in the midland districts. 

MURPHY. 

[This work is entitled The Shepherd of Baribury's 
Rules to judge of the Changes of Weather, grounded on 
Forty Years' Experience, fyc. By John Clariclge, Shep- 
herd, 8vo., 1744 ; and reprinted in 1827. It is a work of 
great popularity among the poor, and is attributed to 
Dr. John Campbell, author of A Political Survey of 
Britain. It is mostly a compilation from A Rational 
Account of the Weather, by John Pointer, Rector of Slap- 
ton, in Northamptonshire.] 

Names of the Days of the Week. Ancient 
deeds are frequently dated the day of the week on 
which they were executed, e.g. Die Jovis, Die 
Mercurii, &c. Will you, or any of your corre- 
spondents, be so good as to give me the name of 
heathen deity, &c., to which each day was dedi- 
cated ? B. 

[The following are the names of the heathen deities : 

Dies Solis - Sunday. 

Dies Lunae - Monday. 

Dies Martis - - Tuesday. 

Dies Mercurii - - Wednesday. 

Dies Jovis '.'''.? ; - Thursday. 

Dies Veneris - - Friday. ' 

Dies Saturni - - Saturday. 

In some ancient deeds we find the equivalent terms Dies 
Dominica for Sunday, and Dies Sabbati for Saturday.] 



THE LATE REV. ROBERT MONTGOMERY. 

(2 nd S. i. 293. 321. 400. 521 ; ii. 78.) 

The question respecting the name of this gen- 
tleman still remains a quibble. There is no doubt 
that he was christened " Montgomery," and I ap- 
prehend that the Weston where he was christened 
is the pretty little village of that name, now al- 
most forming part of Bath, which was the sceiie 
of annual poetic fetes in the Johnsonian and 
flourishing days of Aqua Solis. But the point 
sought is, whether or not his father bore the said 
surname*. I knew, and well, both Kobert and his 
father. He, Robert, was the natural son of Mr. 
Gomery, the clown, a most gentlemanly and very 
well-informed man, and, decidedly, homme a 
bonnes fortunes, by a lady who kept a school at 
Bath, and who, subsequently, removed from that 



city and married a respectable schoolmaster. One 
of the best traits in Robert was his affection for 
this mother, and amply she deserved it of him ; 
she gave him an excellent education, and brought 
him up carefully and religiously. Now, I have a 
suspicion (rather, an impression that I once saw 
him perform under the name) that Mr. Gomery 
occasionally in his career prefixed to his name the 
aristocratic "Mont." He was exceedingly am- 
bitious to sink the clown in the actor ; and, when 
engaged .solely in the latter capacity, became, I 
suspect, Montgomery. I have little doubt, more- 
over, that when in his younger days recommend- 
ing himself to " a gentle belle," he would hint that 
such was his name of right. Still, it may be 
that, as Robert assured me soon after his father 
had introduced him to me as, to use his own 
words, a would-be Byron, his father was son or 
grandson of the General Montgomery of the Ame- 
rican war ; he may have been a legal, may have 
been a natural, descendant of the general. 

Were Grimaldi alive, he could most likely have 
settled the question. As it is, not improbably Mr. 
T. Matthews, the leading clown of our more imme- 
diate day, may be able to cut the Gordian knot. 
Should there be surviving any sons or daughters 
(there is, I fancy, a daughter, Mrs. J. Bennett, 
living in Exeter, at least there was three years 
since) of the late Mr. Richard Hughes, proprietor 
of Sadler's Wells Theatre in the days of Evelina, 
they would be the parties most likely to know the 
truth ; since Mr. Gomery was in boyhood a com- 
panion of Grimaldi, who, according to Mr. Dick- 
ens's biography of the modern Momus, came out 
at the Wells under Mr. Hughes's management, 
when about six years old, and, I fancy, first ap- 
peared there himself. Like our great pantomim- 
ist, Mr. Gomery was an ardent entomologist ; and 
I have known him make long excursions and 
" watch o' nights," not to rob the king's exchequer, 
but to surprise Tiger-moth, or Queen Imperial, 
or Sphynx, et id genus omne. 

Mr. Gomery, as I have remarked, was a well- 
informed man ; indeed from his tact, good-breed- 
ing, and general knowledge, he might not only 
have passed muster in any society, but from his 
entertaining and aptly-applied fund of anecdote 
would have been esteemed a most desirable and 
entertaining companion. And he deserves a pass- 
ing word in "N. & Q." by way of hint to the 
future historian of the stage. His^ clown was sui 
generis, a thing of art ; not clown in the Grimaldi 
sense of the word, the broadly humorous ; or 
in the Bradbury, i. e. the acrobatic and neck- 
venturing, but a blending of English clown and 
Gallic Pierrot quaint, easy, and presenting a 
something which I must term the oriental element, 
combining a sort of pictorial diablerie with the 
farcical : for want of a better term to express his 
pantomime, he was, indeed, ordinarily known 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



'[2 nd S. N 33., AUG. 16. '56. 



among 'his stage-brethren as the " gentleman- 
clown." 

A word more, as still appertaining to " N. & 
Q." He married, as one of your correspondents 
states, a Mrs. Power, who had a very handsome 
house at Lambridge, Bath, and who, previously to 
this marriage, was mother of a family of ten or 
twelve children by Sir Andrew Bayntum, with 
whom she lived for many years, and conducted 
herself as a wife, and by whom the house and a 
good income were bequeathed her. There were 
several Morlands which came to. her with the 
house. I should like to know where they have 
winged their way ; but, still more, what may have 
become of a Diary, kept either by Sir Andrew or 
his father, I forget which, and which, though it 
might not be worth publishing in extenso, would 
certainly, unless I egregiously err, afford many 
valuable pickings, particularly as regards courtly 
gossip in the elder Georges' days, to " N. & Q." 

DELTA. 



Your correspondent j3. y. 5. (p. 78.) should Jiave 
read my communication. He needlessly asks, 
" What would convince G. ?" And says, "A Bath 
Directory is of no weight against a baptismal 
register." I beg to remind him that my affirma.- 
tion was, that the statement given by D. (2 nd S. 
i. 293.), as to the name of Robert Montgomery's 
father, was correct; and I have shown that he 
lived, was married, and died by the name of 
Gomery, a fact well known to the inhabitants 
of Bath. As to the baptismal register, to which I 
did not happen to refer, I have only to say that 
if it is producible, and is worth anything, I do not 
see why it should be withheld. No man's repu- 
tation can be promoted by attempts to mystify 
either his parentage or baptism. Your corre- 
spondent D. (2 nd S. ii. 37.), who inquires at what 
"Weston" Robert Montgomery may have been 
christened ? should try " Weston, near Bath," the 
worthy vicar of which" is the Rev. John Bond. G. 



SATELLITE. 

(2 nd S. ii. 69.) 
Vossius says : 

" Non a satagendo, ut Perottns putabat : sed a Syriaco 
satel, id est latus, quia latus stipat, ut idem sit ac antiqua 
lingua erat latro : quern Varro similiter sic dici credidit, 
quia latus cingeret. Servius in xn. Jn. Varro dicit hoc 
nomen posse habere etiam Latinam etymologiam ut latrones 
dicti sint, quasi laterones, quia circa latera regum sunt, 
quos nunc satellites vacant" 

Salmon (Stemmata Latinitatis, London, 1796) 

says : 

" SateUes I have marked as coming 'from the Greek, 
because it seems to me to come from o-a for Sia (see note 
on sapio) and rcAAw or Te'AAo/mai, I make or execute, arise, 



bid, or order, send ; whence reXAt?, -cw s , part, the whole, 
order ; whence also re'Xos, end, duty, or tax (on entering 
or going out), expense, magistracy, magistrate, troop, 
legions, squadron, &c. : fiiare'AAw is not found, but may 
have been used, as well as Sio/reAew, I go through, perse- 
vere, last; since we find evreXXa) or evre\\ofiai., I enjoin or 
command, I commission or charge. And what is a satel- 
lite but one (of a troop) always near his master, exe- 
cuting, or ready to execute, his orders ? " 

Lemon (Eng. Etym., London, 1783) sayp : 

Satellites. A.a#o> Dor. for A^flw, latus, quia lateat con- 
daturque sub axillis ; & latus fit Satelles, quod circa la- 
tera regum sint; id quod antiquitus latro, quasi latero; 
a life guardsman, who antiently waited at the sides of 
princes ; also used in astronomy to signify," &c. 

Diderot (Ency.} says : 

"Chez les empereurs d'orient, ce mot satellite signifioit 
la dignite' ou Toffice de capitaine des gardes du corps. Ce 
terme fut ensuite applique aux rapaux des seigneurs, et 
enfin & tous ceux qui tenoient les fiefs, appelles Sergen- 
terie. Ce terme ne se prend plus aujourd'hui qu'en mau- 
vaise part. On dit les gardes d'un roi et les satellites d'un 
tyran." 

But see also Du Cange (Gloss.), Gesner (Thes. 
Ling. Lat.}, and Dufresne (Gloss. Med. et Inf. 
Lat.) 

Satila, satal, to follow. . I do not know of any 
European words derived from Arabic verbs^ but 
there are many (particularly Spanish) derived 
from Arabic nouns, not now to be found either in 
Meninski, Golius, or in any Lexicon that I have 
seen. R. S. CHARNOCK. 



WATCHFULNESS OF THE GOOSE. 

(2 nd S. i. 473. 495.) 

The historical credit of the received story re- 
specting the preservation of the Capitol by the 
geese, set forth in a former Note, depends in great 
measure upon the vigilant habits of this bird, and 
of its superiority to the dog as a guardian. Having 
consulted Professor Owen upon this point of 
natural history, I received from that distinguished 
naturalist an answer, which, with his permission, I 
lay before the readers of " N. & Q.," in illustra- 
tion of my former remarks, The alertness and 
watchfulness of the wild goose, which have made 
its chase proverbially difficult, appear, from this 
decisive testimony, to be characteristic of the bird 
in its domesticated state. The establishment of 
this fact unquestionably confirms the traditionary 
account of their preservation of the Capitol. The 
following is Professor Owen's letter. The cottage 
where he resides is in Richmond Park. 

" Opposite the cottage where I live is a pond, which is 
frequented during the- summer by two brood-flocks of 
geese belonging to the keepers. These geese take up 
their quarters for the night along the margin of the pond, 
into which they are ready to plunge at a moment's notice. 
Several times when I have been up late, or wakeful, I 
have heard the old gander sound the alarm, which is 



2 nd S. NO 33., AuSt 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



immediately taken up, and has been sometimes followed 
by a simultaneous plunge of the flocks into the pool. 
On mentioning this to the keeper, he, quite aware of the 
characteristic readiness of the geese to sound an alarm in 
the night, attributed it to the visit of a foumart, or other 
predatory vermin. On other occasions, the cackling has 
seemed to be caused by a deer stalking near the flock. 
But often has the old Roman anecdote occurred to me 
when I have been awoke by the midnight alarm-notes of 
my anserine neighbours; and more than once I have 
noticed, when the cause of alarm has been such as to 
excite the dogs of the next-door keeper, that the geese 
were beforehand in giving loud warning of the strange 
steps. 

" I have never had the smallest sympathy with the 
sceptics as to Livy's statement : it is not a likely one to be 
feigned ; it is in exact accordance with the characteristic 
acuteness of sight and hearing, watchfulness, and power 
and instinct to utter alarm-cries, of the goose." 

L. 



"HEY, JOHNNIE COPE. 
(2 nd S. ii. 68.) 

The original song, beginning, 

" Cope sent a challenge frae Dunbar," 
was written by Adam Skirving, farmer of Garle- 
ton, near Haddington ; who, says Allan Cunning- 
ham, " besides his gift of song-making, which was 
considerable, was one of the wittiest and most 
whimsical of mankind." Adam Skirving was born 
in 1719, and died in 1803. He is called "Mr. 
Skirvm" by Ritson, "Mr. Skirven" by Sten- 
house, and "Alexander Skirving" by Cunning- 
ham. He was a remarkably handsome man, free 
and outspoken in his manners, and being very 
saving in money-matters, he left a considerable 
fortune to his surviving children. He was twice 
married. His eldest son by his first marriage, 
Archibald Skirving, the portrait painter, who re- 
sembled him in person and disposition, was well 
known in Edinburgh. The second son, Captain 
Robert Skirving, also inherited his father's poet- 
ical genius. After many years' service in the 
East Indies, he returned home in the year 1806, 
and was living in 1838 at Croys, near Castle 
Douglas. A letter, containing some curious par- 
ticulars of his father, was addressed by the Cap- 
tain to the last editor of Johnson's Scots Musical 
Museum, 1839, vol. ii. p. 190*. 

The authority for attributing this song to Adam 
Skirving rests upon the late Mr. Stenhouse (notes 
to Musical Museum, vol. iii. p. 220.) ; but, as the 
writer of the "Additional Illustrations" to the 
same work remarks, "Notwithstanding his son's 
silence^ respecting the authorship of this song, 
there is no reason for calling in question Mr. 
Stenhouse's assertion, as the local character of the 
verses, and their caustic spirit and resemblance 
to his 'Trament Muir,' would place this point, I 
think, beyond all reasonable doubt." 



Hogg, in the Second Series of his Jacobite 
Relics, 1821, p. 308., says : 

" This song, so generally a favourite throughout Scot- 
land, is certainly more indebted for its popularity to the 
composer of the air, than the poet who wrote the verses, 
The tune is really excellent, but the verses, take which 
set we will, are commonplace enough. Yet I scarcely 
know a song that so many people are fond of. For my 
part I love it, and ever will, because it was a chief fa- 
vourite with my late indulgent and lamented master and 
friend, the Duke of Buccleugh, whom I have often heard 
sing it with great glee." 

"Johnnie Cope" is still a universal favourite in 
Scotland, and no song, perhaps, has so many dif- 
ferent " sets." Allan Cunningham mentions that 
he once heard a peasant boast, among other ac- 
quirements, that he could sing " Johnnie Cope," 
with all the nineteen variations ! 

Copies of the various sets may be seen in Hogg's 
Jacobite Relics; Allan Cunningham's Songs of Scot- 
land; Gilchrist's Ancient and Modern Scottish Sal- 
lads ; Jacobite Minstrelsy, 18 mo., Glasgow, 1829 ; 
Ritson's Scottish Songs ; Johnson's Scots Musical 
Museum, &c. 

The old air of "Johnnie Cope" originally con- 
sisted of one strain, the author of which is un- 
known. The earliest copies appear in Oswald's 
Caledonian Pocket Companion, and in Johnson's 
Scots Musical Museum. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 



Upon a reference to Chevalier Johnstone's Me- 
moirs of the Rebellion, 1745, your correspondent 
MR. KNOWLES will find much interesting matter 
relative to Sir John Cope. The best edition of 
the work is the one published in 1822, 8vo. The 
author of the song, " Hey, Johnnie Cope," &c., was 
Adam Skirving, farmer, Haddington ; full parti- 
culars of whom, and his various songs, will be found 
in Stenhouse's Illustrations of the Lyric Poetry and 
Music of Scotland, by Laing and Sharpe, 8vo., 
1853. ' T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 



GAMAGE FAMILY. 

(2 nd S. ii. 48.) 

Amongst notes collected by the writer from 
various sources relating to Gloucestershire fa- 
milies are the following : 

Gamage of Gamage. William Gamage was 
Sheriff of Gloucestershire with another in 1325. 

There is a place called Gamage Hall in Dymock 
(co. Glou.). 

Mune was anciently a manor within the manor 
of Dymock. It was granted to William de Ga- 
mage, 1 John ; and Jeffry, his son and heir, died 
seised of it, and of 10Z. rent in Dymock, in 
37 Hen. III. 

Elizabeth, daughter and sole heiress of the lastr 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. 1^33., AUG. 16. '56. 



named, married John Pembrugg, into whose 
family she conveyed i. 

The arms, as given by Sir Robt. AUcyns, are as 
follows : Arg. nine fusils in bend, gules, on a chief 
azure three escallops, or. 

In Berry's Dictionary of Heraldry the aAtis of 
Gamage (of Coyte and Royiade, Hertfordshire) 
are substantially the same, viz. Arg. five fusils in 
bend gules, on a chief az. three escallops, or, 
Crest, a griffin segreant, or. 

In Dr. Strong's Heraldry of Herefordshire is 
mentioned a Godfrey Gamage, of Manseli Ga- 
mage, Herefordshire, temp. Edw. III., bearing 
the same arms. Manseli Gamage was one of the 
chief possessions of the ancient family of Pem- 
bruge long after this period. COOPER HILL. 

Gloucester. 



The following Notes may assist the researches 
of ANON. : ' . 

" GAMAGE (Coyte and Royiade, co. Hertford). Ar. five 
fusils in bend gu. on a chief az. three escallops or. Crest, 
a griffin segreant, or. 

"GAMACK (Clerkenshalls, Scotland). Gu. a bend en- 
grailed ar." Burke's General Armory. 

There are seven other entries in that book to the 
name of Gamacli or Gamage, Gamadge or Ga- 
, and Gamage, with similar arms. 

In the account of " The Winning of the Lord- 
ship of Glamorgan or Morgannwe out of the 
Wdshmens Hands," said to be written by Sir 
Edward Stradling, of St. Douat's Castle, Glamor- 
ganshire, there is some information respecting the 
Gamage family, their connections and estates. 
It is prefixed to Wynne's edition of Powell's 
translation of The History of Wales, by Caradoc 
of Llancarvan, p. xxiii. ed. 1774. 

In p. xxxiv. one Paine Gamage is mentioned as 
" Lord of the Manor of Rogiade in the county of 
Hfonmouth" 

There is now a parish in Monmouthshire called 
Roggiet, " in the hundred of Caldicott, GA miles 
S.W. from Chepstow." See Lewis's Topograph. 
Diet, of England. 

I accidentally stumbled upon these particulars 
a day or two a<ro : they may, perhaps, help your 
anonymous querist. J. W. PHILLIPS. 

Haverfbrdwest. 



The Liber Niger of Christ Church Cathedral, 
Dublin, which contains copies of ancient charters 
and various other documents relating to the archbi- 
shopric, states that Andrew Gamage was sergeant 
to Archbishop Luke [1228 to about 1251], in his 
manor of Bally more. He was one of the feoffees 
by charter, and held in that manor to himself and 
his heirs half a carucate of land for 12s. Qd. a-year. 
His name also occurs as a juror to prove the 
customs and liberties of Ballymore. The great 



roll of the Pipe in the Record Tower of Dublin 
Castle contains the account of Master Thomas de 
Chaddisworth, as custodee of the temporalities of 
the see, during its vacancy from 1251 to 1257. 
In his " discharge '* of the profits of the manor of 
Ballimore, he paid "to Walter Gamage for a 
horse for the King's use, U." The Liber Niger 
contains a list of the jurors empanelled to try the 
extent of the manor in 1325 ; in it are the names 
of Richard and Robert Gamage. E. D. B. 

Portarlington. 

ANON, is informed that about seventy years ago 
an ancient maiden lady, named Gamage, died in 
the Sidbury, Worcester, where she had long re- 
sided. She was very intimate with my family, 
which had in 1760 removed from Herefordshire, 
and settled in Worcester. OGDO. 



t0 Minor 

Suffragan Bishops (2 nd S. ii. 91.) I can give 
you some information respecting two or three of 
the bishops named in the extract from Sir Thos. 
Phillipps's Wiltshire Institutions, given by your 
correspondent PATONCE : 

1. " Robertus Imelacensis Episcopus." This 
was a Franciscan friar, an Englishman, who was 
appointed Bishop of Emly, in Ireland, by the 
Pope's provision, Feb. 1, 1429. His name was 
Robert Portland, or Poetlan (Wadding, Annalcs 
Minorum, torn. v. p. 203., ad an. 1429 ; Regist. 
Pontif., Ibid., p. 173. It does not appear that he 
ever took possession of the see. Another (or per- 
haps the same) Robert of England, also a Fran- 
ciscan, is mentioned as appointed to the same 
bishopric in 1444, by provision of Pope Eugene 
IV. (Wadding, Ibid, p. 456., ad an. 1444.) 

2. " Jacobus Dei gratia Akardensis episcopus." 
This was James Blakedon, or Blackden, a Domi- 
nican friar, and Doctor of Divinity, who was 
appointed Achadensis episcopus, i. e. Bishop of 
Achonry, in Ireland, by provision of Pope Eugene 
IV., Oct. 15, 1442. See De Burgo, Hibernia 
Dominicana, p. 473. 

This bishop was translated to Bangor in North 
Wales, in 1452 ; and died there, Oct. 24, 1464. 
See Goodwin, de Prcesulibus Anglm. 

3. " Simon, Connerensis Episcopus," was a Do- 
minican friar, who was appointed Bishop of Con- 
nor, in Ireland, by provision of Pope Pius II., 
Feb. 12, 1459. See De Burgo, Hib. Dominicana, 
p. 475. 

4. "Johannes Mayonensis episcopus." This 
was John Bell, a Franciscan, who was made 
Bishop of Mayo, in Ireland, Nov. 5, 1493 (Wad- 
ding, Annal. Minorum, torn. vii. p. 314). 

JAMES II. TODD. 
Trin. Coll., Dublin. ' 



2 nd S. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



Poem about a Mummy (2 nd S. ii. 87.) Proba- 
bly the poem your correspondent, A. A. D. in- 
quires for is The Answer of the Egyptian Mummy, 
in reply to the Address to an Egyptian Mummy, a 
poem written at the unrolling of a mummy some 
years ago. The Address, which is a poem of con- 
siderable merit, and of no little interest, was at- 
tributed to Mr. Eoscoe, and has been several times 
reprinted. 

The Answer was, what your correspondent calls 
it, droll, and describes the mummies' " ex- 
periences " of three thousand years ago. It was 
printed in the Saturday Magazine of the Christian 
Knowledge Society for April 26, 1834, to which I 
beg to refer A. A. D. I may just name as well 
that the Address itself was also reprinted in the 
same magazine for February 22, in the same year. 
LLEWELLYNN JEWITT, F.S.A. 
Derby. 

I think that your correspondent^. A. D. must 
refer to an " Address to the Mummy in Belzoni's 
Exhibition," written by Horace Smith, and origin- 
ally published in the "New Monthly Magazine. 
Perhaps the quotation of one of the stanzas may 
refresh A. A. D.'s memory. 

" I need not askfthee if that hand, now calmed, 

Has any Roman soldier mauled and knuckled, 
For thou wert dead, and buried, and embalmed, 

Ere Romulus and Remus had been suckled: 
Antiquity appears to have begun 
Long after thy primeval race was run." 

JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

In a work upon the Plurality of Worlds, by 
Alex. Copland, Advocate, 8vo., Lond. and Edin., 
1834, there is a poem entitled " The Mummy 
Awake," which may be what A. A. D. wants. 

J.O. 

There is a story by Edgar Poe, among his 
Tales of Mystery, &c., entitled " Some Words with 
a Mummy," which pretty nearly answers the 
description given by A. A. D., except that it is in 
prose. It may be found in vol. i. pp. 212. 599., 
in an edition published by Vizetelly in 1852, 
among the series of " Readable Books." 

H. A. C. 

Mr. Bathurst's Disappearance (2 nd S. ii. 48. 95.) 
Has there not been a story going the rounds of 
the English and foreign papers, since the publica- 
tion of Bishop Bathurst's Life by his son, the late 
archdeacon, to the effect that some human bones 
had been found in making alterations in the 
>' Post House at (I think) Perleberg," where the 
disappearance took place, which were supposed to 
be those of Mr. Bathurst. Probably it is a 
" canard." If I am right in fixing on Perleberg 
as the locus in quo, it is hardly " pres de Ham- 
bourg?" I once heard the subject discussed in 



a German diligence. The opinion expressed was, 
that he had committed suicide ; throwing himself 
into some tributary of the Elbe, then swollen by 
rains, whilst his horses were being fed at the post. 
The loss of his dispatches was the reason assigned 
for the commission of this rash act of desperation. 
How these dispatches were lost was a disputed 
point ; but the opinion of the diligence was, that 
either Russia, or our ally Austria, and not France, 
had a hand in their disappearance. J. H. L. 

To settle divers errors, let me state, as a rela- 
tive of the wife of Mr. Benjamin Bathurst, that 
she was the eldest daughter of Sir John Call of 
Whiteford House, Cornwall, and sister to the late 
Sir William Call. Lady Aylmer, who is alive, 
is her sister. Mrs. Bathurst's only surviving 
daughter is the Countess of Castle Stuart, not the 
Dowager Countess. A. HOLT WHITE. 

A Noble Cook (2 nd S. ii. 87.) I have heard 
this extract alluded to the Lord Aston of that 
day. The title is now, I believe, extinct. The 
last lord was in holy orders. In a statement of 
the case of the soi-disant Earl of Stirling (no very 
good authority), with a view of showing that 
other Scotch claimants of peerages had not com- 
plied with the orders of the House of Lords, it is 
alleged 

" The Lord Aston, whose name does not even stand on 
the Roll of Scotch Peers, has still been allowed to keep 
his title, and to be denominated as Lord Aston in the 
Commission of the Peace for the County of Worcester." 

I presume this lord was a descendant of the 
cook. J. H. L. 

" God save the King " (2 nd S. ii. 96.) DR. 
GAUNTLETT, in his note upon this tune, has gone 
out of the way to point out an error of the late 
Dr. Crotch's. In so doing he has made a " ludi- 
crous mistake " himself. The author of the chant 
in D minor was not " William Morley of 1740," 
but William Morley, Gent., of the .Chapel Royal, 
whose death is recorded in the cheque book of 
that establishment to have taken place Oct. 29, 
1721. The correct date is of some value in DR. 
GAUNTLETT' s argument. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Order of St. John of Jerusalem (2 nd S. i. 460.) 
Does not E. H. A. confound two different 
orders ? The order of the ^emple was surely 
quite different from that of St. John of Jerusalem 
or the Knights Hospitallers, and the one body, if 
my memory does not' fail me, was generally in 
rivalry, not .to say hostility, to ,the other. /3. y. 5. 

" Blawn-sheres " (2 nd S. ii. 65.) The word to 
which G. refers is sewells, not sewers. It is ex- 
plained by MR. HALLIWELL as a " scarecrow " 
made of feathers, to scare deer from breaking the 
fences. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 33., AUG. 16. '56. 



Eaton's Sermon (2 nd S. i. 516.; ii. 93.) In 
that singular book, Cotton Mather's Magnolia 
Christi Americana (Lond. 1702, fol.), is a notice 
of Mr. Samuel Eaton. As the work is rare, I 
have transcribed the passage for MR. ASPLAND : 

" He was the Son of Mr. Richard Eaton, the Vicar of 
Great Burdworth in Cheshire, and the Brother of Mr. 
Theophilus Eaton, the Renowned Govenour of New-Haven. 
His Education was at the University of Oxford: And 
because it will douhtless recommend to find such a Pen, 
as that which wrote the Athence Oxoniensls thus Charac- 
terising of him, Reader, thou shalt have the very Words 
of that Writer, concerning him : After he had left the 
University, he entred into the Sacred Function, took Orders 
according to the Church of England, and was Beneficed in 
his Country : But having been puritanically Educated, he 
did dissent in some Particulars thereof. Whereupon finding 
his Place too tvarm for him, he Revolted, and went into New- 
England, and Preached among the Brethren there. But 
let us have no more of this Wood! Mr. Eaton was a 
verv Holy Man, and a Person of great Learning and 
Judgment, and a most Incomparable Preacher. But upon 
his Dissent from Mr. Davenport, about the Narrow Terms, 
and Forms of Civil Government, by Mr. Davenport, then 
forced upon that Infant-Colony, his Brother advised him 
to a Removal : And calling at Boston by the way, when 
he was on his Removal, the Church there were so highly 
affected with his Labours, thus occasionally enjoyed 
among them, that they would fain have engaged him 
unto a Settlement in that Place. But the Lord Jesus 
Christ had more Service for him in Old-England, than he 
could have done in New; and therefore arriving in Eng- 
land, he became the Pastor of a Church at Duckenfield, 
in the Parish of Stockfort, in Cheshire, and afterwards at 
Stockport; and a Person of Eminent Note and Use, not 
only in that, but also in the Neighbour-County. 

" After the Restoration of K. Charles II. he underwent 
first Silencing, and then much other Suffering, from the 
Persecution, which yet calls for a National Repentance. 
He was the author of manv Bonks, and especially of some 
in Defence of the Christian Faith, about the God- Head 
of Christ, against the Socinian Blasphemies : And his Help 
was joined unto Mr. Timothy Tailors, in writing some 
Treatises entituled, The Congregational Way Justified. 
By these he Out-lives his Death, which fell out at Denton, 
in the Parish of Manchester in Lancashire, (where says 
our Friend Rabshakeh Wood, he had sheltered himself 
among the Brethren after his Ejection) on the Ninth Day 
of January, 1664, and he was Buried in the Chapel 
there." Book iii. p. 213.* 

See also Wood's Athena Oxoniensis, by Bliss, 
iii. 672. 382. ; iv. 4. ; Calamy's Ejected Ministers, 
1713, p. 412. ; Continuation, 1727, p. 566. 

JOHN I. DREDGE. 

" Rand" (2 nd S. i. 213. 396. 522. ; ii. 97.) Does 
not the modern German word rand such as meeres- 
rand, sea-shore ; flussesrand, river's bank suggest, 
as this language I have so frequently found to do, 
some old Saxon word of the same meaning ? The 
locality mentioned by C. J. "between Trumfleet 
Marsh and the north bank of the river Don," 
seems to me to point to some such derivation for 
the space between the edge of the marsh and the 
bank of the river, being called the " rands," or 



* The Capitals and Italics in the above are Mather's. 
-J.I.D. 



4 shores." It hardly appears as probable that the 
benefactor of Fishlake, on the south side of the 
river, should have had his name given to ground 
on the north side, which may probably belong to 
a different parish. E. E. BYNG. 

See Johnson's Dictionary, " RAND, n. s. (rand, 
Dut.), border, seam, as the rand of a woman's 
shoe." In Scotland the selvage or border of a 
web of cloth " list," a marginal border, is called a 
rund, pronounced roond. J. Ss. 

Song ly Old Dr. Wilde (2 nd S. ii. 57.) This 
song occupies pp. 51 to 53 in Iter Boreale, &c., 
1670, being a parody on the older song of " Hallow 
my fancie, whither wilt thou go ? " the burden 
being " Alas, poor scholar, whither wilt thou go ? " 
and the concluding verse is very characteristic of 
the times : 

" Ho, ho, ho, I have hit it, 

Peace goodman fool ; 
Thou hast a trade will fit it ; 

Draw thy indenture, 

Be bound at adventure, 
An apprentice to a free school ; 

There thou mayest command 
By William Lilly e's charter ; 

There thou mayest whip, strip, 
And hang, and draw, and quarter, 

And commit to the red rod 
Both Tom, Will, and Arthur. 
I, I, 'tis thither, thither will I go." 

More than twenty years have passed since I 
cut several columns from Felix Farley's Bristol 
Journal, headed " The Garland of Withered Ro- 
ses." They were sent to that paper by your old 
correspondent J. M. G., of Worcester. No. 1. 
contained Cleland's beautiful ode of " Hallow my 
fancie," with an introductory notice. The original 
poem, as it appeared in the first edition of his 
Poems, 1658, is blended with the additions made 
in the second, 1697 ; it extends consequently to 
sixteen stanzas, and, beautiful as it is, therefore it 
is too long for your pages. These papers were 
continued only to six numbers, but each contained 
some gem of ancient poetry. Would J. M. G. 
contribute them for preservation to your pages ? 
The introductory remarks are in each notice too 
good to be lost. G. D. 

Henley-on- Thames (2"* S. i. 454. ; ii. 18.) In 
addition to what I have already sent, I would ob- 
serve that there are two separate notices of 
Henley in the Rawlinson Collection of MSS. hi 
the Bodleian, consisting of copies of inscriptions 
on tombstones principally. It may be of use to 
persons interested in topographical studies to 
mention that there are notices of a similar kind of 
many other places in the same collection. Some 
for Sussex were made use of in Hastings Past and 
Present, published last year. E. M. 

Oxford. 



2* S. N 33., AUG. 16. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



139 



Portraits of Swift (2 nd S. ii. 21. 96.) I possess 
Faulkner's edition of my ancestor Dean Swift's 
Works, published, not in 1734, but in 1738, with 
this general title, "The Works of J. S. D. D. D. 
S. P. D. in Six Volumes." It was the Dean's 
own copy, was bought at the sale of his library in 
1745-6, and bears the book-plate of "Edward 
Synge." I acquired it at the auction of the late 
Sir E. Synge's books by Sotheby in 1843. Not 
any one of its volumes has the Dean's autograph : 
but the ffth is marked by himself and I well 
know his handwriting "read thorow." The 
first volume has his portrait in a plain oval frame, 
with the inscription, " The Reverend Dr. J. Swift, 
D.S.P.D.," and the engraver's name, " G. Vertue." 
The second volume (dated 1737) has his medallion 
portrait, surrounded with sunbeams, emblematic 
female figures, the half- concealed bust of I-know- 
not-whom, books, and a scroll with " The Poetical 
Works of the Rev. D. S. * * D. S. P. D. 1734," 
the motto " Quis speret idem ? Hor." and the 
engraver's name, " P. Simms, Sc." The fourth 
volume has a frontispiece, differing from that de- 
scribed by your correspondent G. N. in the table 
having books, peris and ink, &c., while the coins 
are spread on the lower step before his Deanship's 
chair. The engraver's name, whereof G. N. pro- 
pounds a Query, is legible enough, " G. Vertue." 

It is hardly worth explanation that, valuing the 
antiquity of my family beyond its incidental dis- 
tinction of the Dean (unto whom our only obliga- 
tions are his hindrance of my grandfather's ad- 
vancement and the loss of a large portion of my 
paternal estate), I have long resumed our early 
signature, EDMUND LEKTHAL SWIFTE. 

Worthing. 

" It " (1 st S. passim.') In some parts of Ireland, 
the word it is used in the genitive case, instead of 
ifs. A man said to me to-day, pointing to an old 
gate, "That gate, Sir, has done it duty," for "it's 
duty." And this is the common language of the 
country : " The horse fell and broke it knees." 

Is this an old English idiom ? The neuter it 
is not found, I believe, in the genitive form ifs, in 
the English Bible or in Shakspeare. I suspect, 
therefore, that the peculiarity I have noticed (like 
many other phrases common in Ireland) is a rem- 
nant of the English of the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, when we Irish learned that language 
for the first time. S. N. D. 

Dublin. 

"Allow" (2 nd S. ii. 10.) In the north of Ire- 
land this word is used in the sense of command, 
order, direct. Being on a visit with a friend near 
Armagh, some years ago, 1 found a labourer in 
the act of cutting down a laurel. I said to him, 
"Why do you cut that tree ?" His answer was, 
"The master allowed me:" meaning the master 



ordered me to do so. On another occasion, I was 
on a visit with a clergyman still farther north. 
One of his parishioners, a very poor man, came to 
him one day when I was by, and informed him 
that he wished to be married to Biddy O'Neill. 
" Paddy," said the clergyman, " are you in your 
senses ? Both you yourself and Biddy O'Neill 
are every winter in the greatest distress, coming 
to me and others for support. How are you to 
live if you marry, and how are you to maintain 
your family ?" " O, please your reverence," said 
the man, " may be the Lord would allow that we 
should have no childer." S. N. D. 

Dublin. 

The Weather (2 nd S. i. 431.) In addition to 
the observations as to the change in the prevailing 
winds in this country, I have a further fact to 
communicate, as to the extraordinary decrease of 
force in the trade winds in late years. Two nau- 
tical men have made the same observation to me, 
that ever since their boyhood the difference was 
most remarkable. Can any cause be discovered 
for this ? E. E. BYNG. 

Apostle Spoons (2 nd S. ii. 112.) W. T. is re- 
ferred to Hone's Every-Day Book, vol. i. p. 175., 
and to The Table Book, p. 817., for a sketch of 
" a set of Apostle Spoons," and for the history 
thereof. EVERARD HOME COLEMAN. 

79. Wood Street, Cheapside. 

Samuel Rolls (2 nd S. ii. 88.) See Darling's 
Cyclo. Bibliographica, col. 2584. ; Calamy's Ac- 
count, p. 108.; Continuation, p. 144.; Palmer's 
Nonconformists' Memorial, 1802, vol. i. p. 298. ; 
Dr. Owen's Works, by Goold, 1851, vol. ii. p. 276. ; 
Orme's Life of Owen, 1820, p. 380.; Wood's 
Athence Oxon., by Bliss, vol. iv. 106. 108. 203. 

JOHN I. DREDGE. 

Olovensis, Bishopric of (2 nd S. ii. 88.) The 
see in question was probably Olena, and the 
bishop styled Olenensis. Olena is a see in par~ 
tibm, and was the title of Dr. Griffiths, the late 
Vicar Apostolic of the London district. It is now 
called Caminizza, and is in the Morea, easily mis- 
taken for Mauritania. It formed one of the four 
suffragan sees of the metropolitan of Patras. 

F. C.H. 

Aristotle s " Organon" (2 nd S. ii. 81.) It is 
singular that PROFESSOR DE MORGAN, in his ar- 
ticle on the " Logic of Aristotle," should not 
mention Waitz's edition of the Organon, which is 
by far the best that has been hitherto published. 
Nor has he mentioned the Prologomena Logica of 
Mr. Mansel, nor his new edition of Aldrich, works 
which have thrown immense light on the logical 
treatises of the Stagyrite. Indeed it is very doubt- 
ful, now that Sir W. Hamilton is dead, it there is 
anybody in this country that understands Aris- 



140 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd S. N 33., AUG. 16. '56. 



totle's Organon better than Mr. Mansel, late Fel 
low and Tutor of St. John's, Oxford. 

EVAN JONES. 
Lampeter, Cardiganshire. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The University of Cambridge having adopted the 
course recommended by the Pitt Press Syndicate, and 
determined upon the formation of a more elaborate Cata- 
logue of the Manuscripts belonging to the University 
than that prepared by Nasmith, instructions for carrying 
such object into effect were issued in 1851, since which 
time a party of cataloguers have at intervals been en- 
gaged upon the work. The Catalogue has been divided 
into eight divisions, and the following Members of the 
Senate have contributed to the first volume: I. Anglo- 
Saxon, Anglo-Norman, and Early English Literature, 
Mr. C. Hardwick, St. Catherine's Hall, editor. 2. Clas- 
sical, Mr. Churchill Babington, St. John's College. 3. 
Heraldic, Sec., Mr. Charles C. Babington, St. John's Col- 
lege. 4. Historical, Mr. W. R. Collett, Gonville and Cams 
College. 5. Legal, Professor Abdy, Trinity Hall. 6. 
Musical, Mr. \V. H. Hutt, Gonville and Gains College. 1. 
Scientific, Medical, 8fc., Dr. Webster, Jesus College, and 
Mr. J. Glover, Trinity College. And lastly, 8. Theological, 
Mr. H. R. Luard and Mr. C. B. Scott, Trinity College, 
who have been assisted by Mr. J. E. Cooper of St. 
Johns College, Mr. W. H. Howard of Sidney Sussex Col- 
lege, and Mr. F. J. A. Hort of Trinity College. At the 
conclusion of the work, a set of copious Indices will be 
appended for the purpose of facilitating reference to the 
Catalogue, together with a Table denoting, as far as pos- 
sible, the last owner from whom each MS. had passed into 
the hands of the University. We are glad to have the 
opportunity of bringing under the notice of our readers 
this first volume of A Catalogue of the Manuscripts preserved 
in the Library of the University of Cambridge, edited for 
the Syndics of the University Press, and of bearing our 
testimony to the great pains which have been bestowed 
upon it by the gentlemen selected for its preparation. 
The work is one which, when completed, will be most 
useful to scholars, as well as most creditable to the com- 
pilers and to the University of Cambridge. Would that 
it might be followed by a Second Series furnishing 
Catalogues of the MSS. in the Libraries of the different 
Colleges and Halls like the admirable Oxford Cata- 
logue prepared by Mr. Coxe. 

Clearly arranged, with a full and well-engraved tra- 
velling map, and a carefully compiled index, Murray's 
Handbook for Travellers in Wiltshire, Dorsetshire, and 
Somersetshire, will be found a trusty guide and a pleasant, 
nay, an indispensable travelling companion to all future 
tourists through those lovely counties. Mr. Murray is, 
bv the publication of these Home Guides, doing good 
service to those who are inclined to take the advice of 
The Times, and spend their holidays in our own healthful 
ami beautiful islands. 

By-tlie-bye, the mention of The Times reminds us of 
the "proper tone in which that and other influential 
journals are qicaking out on the subject of some recent 
operatic and dramatic representations based upon clever 
but disgusting French novels. The press may do much 
to check this growing evil ; but let the women of Eng- 
laud do justice to that purity of mind for which they are 
\vorld-renowned, and refuse to be present when such 
dramas are performed, and they will put an effectual 



check to this endeavour to familiarise the English public 
with the most objectionable productions of the novelists 
and dramatists of France. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Dictionary of Greek and Roman 
Geography by Various Writers, edited by William Smith, 
LL.D., Part XVI., SatassiSinuessa. This, the last part 
but one of this valuable contribution to our knowledge of 
ancient geography, contains, among other important 
articles, those on Sardinia, Scythia, Sicilia, &c. 

Chappell's Popular Music of the Olden Time. Part VII. 
That this new number of Mr. Chappell's most interesting 
illustrations of the National Music of England is not one 
jot inferior to any that have preceded it, our readers will 
feel sure when we mention that in the present number the 
Editor gives us the history of Sobbing Joan, Yon Gentle- 
men of England, The Queen, Old Courtier, Since first 1 saw 
your Face, Hunting the Hare, Tom a Bedlam, and many 
other popular airs. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

COXE'S BALLADS. J. H. Parker. 

PYLE'S PARAPHRASE OF THE EPISTLES OP THE NEW TESTAMENT. 5th 

Edition. Vol. I. (Vol. II. is dated 1765.) 
ROBY'S TRADITIONS OP LANCASHIRE. Large Paper Edition. 
TEMPER. 3*. (id. Seeley. 
MILL ON THE TEMPTATION OF CHRIST. 
WIGAN, DIVARICATION BETWEEN THE WORD OP GOD AND THE WOKD op 

MAN. 

Wanted by Charles F. Blackburn, Bookseller, Leamington. 



MR. FRERE'S TRANSLATION OF ARISTOPHANES. 4to. Pickering. 
W anted by Rev. John C. Jackson, 17. Sutton Place, Hackney. 



LAUDENSIUM AOTOCATACRYSTS, OR THE SELF-CONDEMNATION OK LAUD 
AND HIS ADHERENTS. Anonymous, but ascribed to Principal Baillie. 
1610. 

Wanted by Dr. Thorn, 23. Erskine Street, Liverpool. 



to 

JFe are compelled to postpone until next week a continuation of the 
valuable General Literary Index by our Correspondent BIBMOTHECAK. 
CHETHAM., and several other valuable papers. 

A. K. (Broughton, near Chester.) It is impossible to give anything 

like <n> estimate of the mine of such pictures us //on describe without see- 
ing them. The probability is about 21, or 3Z. each, but the more modern 
one might be valuable as a work of art. 

W. S. (Gresham House) will rind the Nine of Diamonds the Curse of 
Scotland illustrated in our 1st S. i. 61. 90. ; iii. 22. 253. 423. 483. ; v. 619. 

AKFINIS, (R. G.) Thanks for your suggestion. The practice is, how- 
ever, carried out by us to a very great extent, 

V. F. S. iv ill find the derivation and meaning of " Jfammet " noticed 
in our 1st S. viii. 515. ; ix. 43. 82. Consult also Nares's Glossary. 

ERRATUM. -2nd S. 113. col. 1. 1. !., for "Greek Testament " read 
" Greek text." 

IVDEX TO THE FIRST SERIES. As this is now published, and the im- 
pression is a limited one, such of our readers as desire copies would do 
well to intimate their wish to their respective bookseller* n-ithout delay. 
Our publishers, MKSSKS. BKLL & D\LDY, will forward copies by post on 
recent of a 2'ost Office Order for Five Shillings. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, so that the A 
Country Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and m 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stamped weekly Numbers', or prefer receiving it monthly, ll'/u'le parties 
resident in the country or abroad, ivho maybe desirous of receiving the 
weekly Numbers, may hare stamped copies fonvarded <tlr- n from the 
Publisher. The subscription for the stamped edition of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES" (including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six tn<iiit/is, which m<n/ be paid by Post Office Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publisher, MR. GEO'RQB BELL, No. 186. Fleet Street. 



34., AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



141 



j LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 23, 1856. 



AYTOUN'S " BOTHWELL : " BOTHWELL'S LAST 

PLACE OF CONFINEMENT. 

Mr. Aytoun states in his preface, " The scene 
of this poem, which is in the form of a monologue, 
is laid in the fortress of Malmoe, where Bothwell 
was confined." And in one of his notes, after giv- 
ing a translation of the order for Bothwell's im- 
prisonment in that fortress, and noticing his efforts 
to obtain his freedom, Mr. Aytoun remarks : 

"No answer seems to have been made to these memo- 
rials, and the unhappy man never quitted the prison in 
which he had been immured." 

Now it happens to be a recently well ascer- 
tained fact that Bothwell did quit his dungeon in 
the fortress of Malmoe, and that, for the last five 
years of his life, he was confined in the castle of 
Drachsholm, where he terminated his miserable 
existence. 

This fact does not affect the action or interest 
of Mr. Aytoun's poem, but for the sake of his- 
torical accuracy it is commended to his attention 
in his notes to his next edition. 

We are enabled to assign the castle of Drachs- 
holm as the place of Bothwell's confinement during 
the last five years of his life, by a reference to The 
Traveller's Handbook to Copenhagen and its En- 
virons, by Anglicanus (Copenhagen, Steen & Son ; 
London, J. B,. Smith, 1853), from which the fol- 
lowing quotation is taken : 

"Drachsholm. Although this castle cannot be in- 
cluded in the environs of Copenhagen, yet it is within 
tolerable distance, and so connected with an epoch in 
Scottish history as must render it a place of interest to 
every subject of Great Britain. It is a remarkable fact 
that' every English historian, to the very last, has made 
Malmoe, in Sweden, the death-place of the turbulent 
rl of Bothwell. But Mr. Thorleifr Gudmundson Repp, 
learned Icelander (and a thorough Englishman at 
rt), has, acting under the commands of Queen Caroline 
Lmalie of Denmark, daughter of the sister of George III., 
ved from documents found by him in the Royal Privy 
irchives of Copenhagen, that Earl Bothwell was removed 
rom Malmoe, then included in the Danish kingdom, at 
the urgent request of the Scottish government (as, being 
a sea-port, it afforded the earl too much liberty and in- 
tercourse with the Scottish gentlemen and officers who 
used to visit that town), to Drachsholm, a sequestered 
castle on the west coast of Zealand, which at that time 
belonged to the crown, but is now a baronial residence, 
called Adlersborg. Here it was that the turbulent and 
ibitious Earl of Bothwell passed, in great seclusion, the 
it years of his chequered life." P. 1.76. 

A very interesting "short summary of Mr. 
Lepp's work " is then given, but as the Handbook 
so accessible, it is unnecessary to repeat it here, 
to do more than draw attention to it. Suffice 
it to say that Bothwell appears to have been de- 
tained in Malmoe from 1568 till 1573 ; that he was 



then removed to the castle of Drachsholm ; that 
after this his history is so involved in obscurity 
that even contemporary accounts vary as to the 
date of his decease ; that the Danish authorities 
countenanced the report that he died in 1575, 
wearied by the conflicting entreaties of Scotland 
and France ; but that the best authorities establish 
it as a fact that he died on the 14th of April, 
1578, at the castle of Drachsholm, and that his 
remains were consigned to a vault of the parish 
church of Faareveile. 

The author of the Handbook, in conclusion, 
communicates the following interesting informa- 
tion : 

" Mr. Repp has, in his book, collected about thirty do- 
cuments, never before published, consisting of diplomatic 
despatches and letters in Latin, French, German, and 
Danish, in a high degree interesting, and characteristic 
of the times in which they were written. On them the 
learned Icelander has founded a memoir illustrative of the 
history of the north of Europe in the latter half of the 
sixteenth century, more particularly in respect to the 
Protestant cause at that period ; illustrative of the Bar- 
tholomew massacre, and of its real authors ; illustrative 
of Danish politics in relation to the Isles of Orkney and 
Shetland, at that time held as a pawn by the Scottish 
Court. Not a few historical views now generally current 
are likely to receive correction from these documents, 
when they become known to the literary world." 

J.D. 

Paisley. 



GENERAL LITERARY INDEX : PENAL LAWS : TEST 
LAWS : TOLERATION. 

The following are not found in Watt's Biblio~ 
theca Britannica, under these, their respective 
heads : 

" Toleration discussed. 8vo. London, 1670." 

" The Advocate of Conscience-Liberty, or an Apology 
for Toleration. 8vo. 1673." 

" Two Dialogues in English, between a Doctor of 
Divinity and a Student in the Laws of England, on the 
Grounds of the said Laws of Conscience. 8vo. 1673." 

" Six Papers, containing, 1. Reasons against the Re- 
pealing the Acts of Parliament concerning the Test. 
Humbly offer'd to the consideration of the Members of 
both Houses at their next meeting. 2. Reflections on 
His Majesties Proclamation for a Toleration in Scotland, 
together with the said Proclamation. 3. Reflections on 
His Majesties Declaration for Liberty of Conscience. 
Dated the Fourth of April, 1687. 4. An Answer to a 
Paper Printed with Allowance, entitled A New Test of 
the Church of England's Loyalty. 5. Remarks on the 
Two Papers writ by His late Majesty King Charles II. 
concerning Religion. 6. The Citation, together with 
Three Letters to the Earl of Midleton. By Gilbert 
Burnet, D.D. 1687." 

"The Burnt Child dreads the Fire; or, an Examin- 
ation of the Merits of the Papists relating to England, 
mostly from their own Pens. In Justification of the late 
Act o"f Parliament for preventing Dangers which may 
happen from Popish Recusants. And further shewing 
that, whatsoever their merits have been, no thanks to 
their Religion, and therefore ought not to be gratified in 



142 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



S. N 34., AUG. 23. '56. 



their Religion by Toleration thereof. By Will. Denton. 
4to. London, 1675." 

" The Established Test in order to theiSecurity of His 
Majesty's sacred Person and Government and the. Pro- 
testant Religion. 4to. 1679." 

" The Dissenter's usual Pleas for Toleration Discuss'd. 
8vo. London, 1680." 

" A Discourse concerning the Laws of the Church of 
Rome made against Hereticks, &c. &c. 1682. (Repr. 8vo. 
Dublin, 1723.)" 

" Toleration proved Impossible. 4to. London, 1685." 

" A short Discourse upon the Reasonableness of Men's 
having a Religion or Worship of God, by the Duke of 
Buckingham. London, 1685." 

" A Short Answer to His Grace the Duke of Bucking- 
ham's Paper concerning Religion, Toleration, and Liberty 
of Conscience. 4to. London, 1685." 

" The Duke of Buckingham his Grace's Letter to the 
unknown Author of a Paper entitled ' A Short Answer,' 
&c. London, 1685." 

" A Reply to the Answer of the Man of no Name to the 
Duke of Buckingham's Paper. 4to. London, 1685." 

"A Defence of the Duke of Buckingham's Book of Re- 
ligion and Worship from the Exceptions of a nameless 
Author. By the Pensylvanian. 4to. London, 1685." 

" The Danger and Unreasonableness of Toleration. 
1685." 

" Considerations moving to Toleration and Liberty of 
Conscience. 4to. London, 1685." 

" The Vanity of all Pretensions for Toleration. 1685." 

" The good old Test revived and Recommended to all 
sincere Christians. 4to. 1687. 

"The true Interest of the legal English Protestants ; 
stated in a Letter to a present Member of the House of ! 
Commons. Fol. 1687." 

" Reasons for the Repeal of the Tests. 4to. (a single \ 
sheet). 1687." 

"A Letter concerning the Test and Persecution for 
Conscience Sake, to a Member of the House of Lords. 
4to. 1687." 

" Remarks on the several Sanguinary and Penal Laws 
made in Parliament against Roman Catholics. 4to. 
1687." 

" How the Members of the Church of England ought 
to behave themselves under a Roman Catholic King, with 
reference to the Test and Penal Laws. In a Letter to a 
Friend, by a Member of the same Church. 8vo. London, 
1687." 

" Advice to Freeholders and other Electors of Members 
to serve in Parliament, in relation to the Penal Laws and 
the Test. 4to. 1687." 

" A new Test of the Church of England's Loyalty. 4to. 
1687." 

" The new Test of the Church of England's Loyalty ex 
amined by the old Test of Truth and Honesty. 4to. 
1687." 

" Mr. James's Vindication of the Church of England in 
answer to a Pamphlet entitled, A new Test of the Church 
of England's Loyalty. 4to. 16b7." 

"An instance of the Church of England's Loyalty. 
4to. 1687." 

"A Letter from a Gentleman in the Country to his 
Friend in London on the subject of the Penal Laws and 
Tests. 4to. 1687." 

" A second Letter, &c. 1687." 

" A third Letter. 1687." 

"A Letter in answer to a City Friend, shewing how 
agreeable Liberty of Conscience is to the Church of Eng- 
land. 4to. London : 1687." 

" A Discourse for taking off the Test and Penal Laws 
about Religion. 4to. 1G87." 



" The Reasonableness of Toleration and the Unreason- 
ableness of Penal Laws and Tests. 4to. 1687." 

"The Judgment and Doctrine of the Clergy of the 
Church of England concerning the King's Prerogative in 
dispensing with Penal Laws. 1687 ? " 

" An Answer to a late Pamphlet entitled, The Judg- 
ment and Doctrine of the Clergy, &c., shewing that this 
is not asserted by the Archbishops Bancroft, Laud, and 
Usher, Bp. Sanderson, the Doctors Heylin, Barrow, Sher- 
lock, Hickes, Nalson, Puller, so far as appears from their 
Words cited in this Pamphlet. In a Letter to a Friend. 
4to. 1687." 

" Reflections upon the new Test and the Reply thereto ; 
with a Letter of Sir Francis Walsingham's concerning 
the Penal Laws made in the Reign of Q. Elizabeth. 1687. 
4to." 

" A Letter to a Dissenter from his Friend at the Hague 
concerning the Penal Laws and Test ; shewing that the 
popular Plea for Liberty of Conscience is not concerned in 
that question. 4to., a single sheet. Hague. 1688." 

" Old Popery as good as new ; or the Unreasonableness 
of the Church of England in some of her Doctrines and 
Practices, and the Reasonableness of Liberty of Conscience. 
4to. 1688." 

" The great and popular Objection against the Repeal of 
the Penal Laws and Test briefly stated and considered, 
and which may serve for answer to several late Pamphlets 
upon the Subject. By William Pen, the Quaker. 1688. 
4to." 

" An Answer to the Bp. of Oxford's Reasons for abro- 
gating the Test, by a Person of Quality. London : 1688. 
4to." 

" Their Highness the Prince and Princess of Orange's 
Opinion about a general Liberty of Conscience, &c., being 
a Collection of four select Papers, viz. 1. Mijn Heer 
Fagel's First Letter to Mr. Stewart. 2. Reflections on 
Mons. Fagel's Letter, and Fagel's Second Letter to Mr. 
SteAvart. 4. Some Extracts out of Mr. Stewart's Letters, 
which were communicated to Mijn Heer Fagel, together 
with some References to Mr. Stewart's printed Letter. 
1689. 4to." 

" Animadversions upon Mijn Heer Fagel's Letter con- 
cerning our Penal Laws and Tests ; with Remarks upon 
that Subject occasioned by the publishing of that Letter. 
1688. 4to." 

"Jus Regium Coronas; or the King's supreme Power 
in dispensing with Penal Statutes ; more particularly as it 
relates to the two Test Acts, in Two Parts. By John 
Wilson. 1688. 4to." 

"A seasonable Discourse, showing the necessity of 
Union among Protestants, in opposition to Popery, as the 
only means under God to preserve the Reformed Religion. 
Also the charge of Persecution lately maintained against 
the Established Religion by W. P[en], H. C[are], and 
other insignificant Scribblers detected, proving it to be 
the Ministers of State, and not the Church, that prose- 
cuted the Penal Laws on Protestant Dissenters. 1688. 
4to." 

" Hora3 Subsecivaa ; or a Treatise showing the original 
Grounds, Reason, and Provocations necessitating our 
sanguinary Laws against Papists made in the Days of 
Q,. Eliz., and the Gradations by which they ascended into 
that severity, and showing that no Papist hath been exe- 
cuted in England on the single account of his Religion, in 
the Daies of Edwd. VI., Q. Eliz., James, Car. I. or 
Car. II., though multitudes of Protestants were in tha 
Daies of Hen. VIII. and Q. Mary. 4to. 1688? " 

" A Collection of several Treatises concerning the 
Reasons and Occasions of the Penal Laws: 1. The Exe- 
cution of Justice in England, not for Religion but for 
Treason, Dec. 17, 1583. [By Win. Cecil Lord Burleigh.] 



S. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56. j 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



2. Important Considerations by the Secular Priests. By 
William Watson, 1681. 3. The Jesuits' Reasons Unrea- 
sonable, or Doubts proposed to the Jesuits upon their 
Paper presented to Seven Persons of Honour for Non- 
Exception from the common favour voted to Catholics. 
1688. 4to. Second edition corrected." 

" Some Considerations about the new Test of the Church 
of England's Loyalty in a Letter to a Country Gentleman 
on the occasion of the present Invasion. 4to. 1688." 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CflETHAM. 

(To be continued.) 



THE GYPSIES AND THEIR NAME, " KOMEES. 

It appears that the gypsies, though they receive 
in various countries various names according to the 
ideas which people may entertain regarding them, 
yet apply to themselves one and the same name 
everywhere. They call themselves Romees, or 
the Romino people ; and the meaning of the term 
has been quite puzzling enough. Some philo- 
logists have supposed it to be derived from the 
Sanskrit rham, a husband, but the sound of the 
word is not much alike, and besides, husbands is 
not a happy term to apply to young and old alike, 
to both the married and unmarried. Neither can 
Romee and Romino be well derived from the 
Arabic word which signifies Greece or the Greeks, 
as no one has ever imagined that the gypsies have 
either come from Greece, or are in any degree 
allied to the inhabitants of that land. 

It were, perhaps, a satisfactory solution of the 
difficulty if it could be admitted that Romees is 
the ancient Egyptian word which signifies men 
men or human beings as distinguished from the 
deities. This name the Egyptians adopted, con- 
sidering themselves as eminently the men of the 
great and foremost nation of the world. That 
Romees bore this meaning can be learned from 
the works of Champollion le jeune and others, 
who have written on these subjects. The classical 
scholar will not forget the curious blunder into 
which Herodotus fell about the meaning of this 
very word. The historian had pointed out to him 
in a spacious temple the statues of the high priests, 
and he was told that each of the persons whom 
they commemorated had been ' a pi-romis, the son 
of a pi-romis," that is, a man the son of a man 
(not of a god). Herodotus quite misapprehended 
the information communicated to him, and instead 
of taking pi-romis son of a pi-romis to be a man 
the son of a man, he thought it meant /coAbs /cal 
oya0by, " beautiful and good ! " (Vide Euterpe, 
cap. 143.) It may be worth reminding the reader 
that the pi of the pi-romis is the article attached 
to the noun. 

If the name Romees, which the gypsies apply 
to themselves, means men, that is, the men of 
Egypt, some additional light may be thrown on 



the obscure question of the origin of the race. 
Certainly, for the last four hundred years they 
have declared themselves to be Egyptians (the 
English name gypsies is a corruption of Egyptians), 
and at this day were anyone to enter their tents 
and dispute their right to call themselves the de- 
scendants of the great nation of the olden world, 
it is likely he would be kicked out without any 
ceremony. " We are Romees," say the gypsies 
everywhere, " and Egypt was our fatherland." 

ROMINO RYE. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACATJLAT. 

Passive Obedience, Sfc. I enclose these two 
sets of lines, which are written in a copy of the 
History of Passive Obedience since the Reformation, 
Amst., 1689, now in my possession. J. B. 

An Epitaph 

Upon Passive Obedience 

for High Treason against our 

Sovereign Lords y* People, 

by virtue of a warrant fro 

y e Bishops and most of the 

Inferiour Clergy. 

Here 

Certain and sure beneath this stone, 
In hopes of Resurrection, 
Passive obedience lyes interred, ~| 
By Church of England men averred, > 
As long as for 't they were preferred. J 

She was not long since in great favour 
As any doctrine of our Saviour, 
With Burnet, Tillotson, and Patrick. 
Tho' some will tell you 'twas but a trick 
To curry favour w th y e Town *, 
And make preferments all their own. 
Fforf when she brought the into danger 
They all, w th one consent, cryd hang her. 
And being thenj arraigned and tryd, 
Condemn' d and sentenc'd, Thus she dy'd : 
Beware ye Christian doctrines all, 
And set before your eyes my fall. 
Beware, I say, how ye contest 
With y 4 Supreme Grate Interest ; 
Ffor my || great crime upon my ^[ Trial 
Was Antichristian Self-denial. 

f Dom. Xti I 

Ob. Ano 4 et }- 1688. 
I, JEtat. suse J 

On the Church of E. 

Stay, ffreind, and see 

A miracle of villany. 

This sacred urn contains 

A Matrons Reverend remains. 



* Crown. 
Her. 



But. 
Her. 



J Wherefore she was. 
f Her.; 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2148. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56. 



Unnoted let y e Place appear, 

Least impious Hands insult Her There. 

Who by strong Paradox, 'tis said, 

"Was dead when Living, and now Lives when dead. 

But what's most impious and incredible, 

By her Defender deserted, 

By her fFathers persecuted, 

By her Children murthered. 
She, who had long withstood y e Gates of Hell, 
A victim to ffanatick numbers fell. 

Say, wouldst thou know 

The scene of so much woe ? 

Behold these Plains 

Whose Monarch by Republick Counsels Reigns, 
Whose Perjur'd Clergy quit y e Churches cause, 
Whose Legislators violate y e Laws. 
She fell ill Nov. 5, 1688. 
Dyed Dec. 6. 1705. W n Ch. out of Danger. 



ETYMOLOGIES. 



Marigold. Shakspeare has (Cymb,, Act II. 
Sc. 3.) : 

" And winking Mary-buds begin 
To ope their golden eyes." 

From this we may conclude that the original 
name was Mary-bud, or Mary-flower, synonymous 
terms. But why was it so called ? Johnson, in a 
careless sort of way, says these may have a refer- 
ence to the Virgin Mary. I think, on the contrary, 
that it was with Mary Magdalen that this flower 
was connected. This Mary is always represented 
as a mourner grieving for her sins, and in con- 
stant attendance on our Lord, the Sun of righte- 
ousness ; and the marigold, we see, was connected 
with the sun, in whose absence it was closed. We 
may further observe, that its name in French is 
souci, in Portuguese saudade, terms expressive of 
mourning and regret. I would recommend the 
subject to those who are better qualified than I 
am to pursue it. A curious article might be 
written on the connection of the names of plants, 
flowers, &c., with those of persons. I must, in 
fine, add my protest to those of scholars in general 
against the shameful manner in which the cha- 
racter of this most respectable woman has been 
taken away, in making her, without even the 
shadow of a proof, and against all evidence, to 
have been a woman of loose life. Unfortunate 
women are called Magdalens ; we have Magdalen 
asylums, and even the adjective Maudlin, to de- 
note the lacrymosity of drunkards, and such like. 
Bud. I have hinted above that this word was 
nearly synonymous with flower. It is evidently 
so in the place there quoted, and in Loves Labour 
Lost (Act V. Sc. 2.), along with daisies, violets, 
and lady-smocks, we have " cuckoo-buds of yellow 
hue ;" and in ISonnet 99. 

" And buds of marjoram had stolen thy hair." 



But I believe the original sense of the word was 
that which it still retains in rose-bud. In Shak- 
speare I find it almost always used of flowers 
alone, and I have not examined other writers. 
The derivation I take to be bout (Fr.), "end," 
&c. f noting the termination of the stalk. It is 
true I have met with no instance of the employ- 
ment of bout in this sense, but it may have been 
so employed in the middle ages. At all events, 
the diminutive bouton has this sense, and it may 
have been clipped, like some other words, by the 
English. 

Wormwood. This is an instance of the prac- 
tice, to which I have more than once adverted, of 
giving foreign and other words a form which has 
a meaning, though literally a wrong one. The 
Anglo-Saxon term, still to be found in Wicklyff, 
is wermod (from pepi&, weary, depressed, and 
mob, mind), i. e. melancholy, answering to its 
German name wermuth, which may be i. q. schwer- 
mutli. 

Titmouse. It seems strange that a bird, and 
if not a bat, should be called a mouse. The reason 
I take to be as follows : Among our ancestors, 
mouse was a term of endearment. In the Knight 
of the Burning Pestle, the favourite term for his 
wife with the Citizen is mouse, and Hamlet says 
to his mother (Act III. Sc. 4 ) : 

" Let the bloat king tempt you again to bed ; 
Pinch wanton on your cheek ; call you his mouse." 

Now the Parus, or titmouse, is a little bird very 
" familiar to man," and fond of keeping about his 
dwelling, and so becoming a kind of favourite, he 
was called mouse ; and, on account of his size, tit, 
(which is only another form of little, tittle, in fact, 
being little') ; and then (by the alliteration which 
gave robin-redbreast, willy-wagtail, jack-daw), 
torn-titmouse, and so, finally, tomtit. We have, by 
the way, tit again in titlark and tit- warbler. I pre- 
sume that tittlebat is merely a corruption of stickle- 
back. We have also tit, a little horse, and then a 
young girl ; and a "tit bit" is a nice small delicate 
portion of food. THOS. KEIGHTLEY. 



ST. MARGARET S AND ST. MARTIN S, WESTMINSTER. 

The following document strikes me as curious, 
not only on account of its purport, but also for 
the circumstances which it incidentally mentions. 
Henry VIII., it appears, had recently enclosed 
some lands in the parish of St. Martin-in-the- 
Fields, and made them into a royal park. A por- 
tion of the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster, 
at that time lay on the north side of the king's 
palace, apparently stretching along the Strand to 
St. Clement's church ; and this circumstance oc- 
casioned considerable inconvenience to the Court, 
as the bodies of those who died in the northern 



2d S. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



145 



part of the parish had to be conveyed past the 
palace to be buried in St. Margaret's churchyard. 
The fear of infection from dead bodies made it 
desirable that this practice should be put an end 
to; and the king, partly to remove the cause of 
apprehension, and partly to compensate the parish 
of St. Martin's for the loss of tithes it had sus- 
tained by the enclosure, annexed to it all that 
part of the parish of St. Margaret which lay be- 
tween the palace and St. Clement's church. 
Such are the facts made known to us by the 
document which I transcribe. 

Patent 33 Henry V1IL p. 6. m. (11.) 

" Pro ecclesia paroehiali Sancti Martini in Campis, 

de concessione. 

" Rex omnibus ad quos, &c. Salutem. Seiatis 
quod nos, in recompensationem decimarum et ali- 
orum jurium ecclesiasticorum quae parochialis 
ecclesia Sancti Martini in Campis prope Charing- 
crosse, Westmonasterii diocesis, ex imparcatione 
quorundam praediorum et aliorum locorum decim- 
abilium in parochia illius ecclesiae consistentium, 
et nunc pro sustentatione et conservatione dama- 
rum et aliarum ferarum nostrarum ibidem impar- 
catorum *, perpetuo amisit ; Atque ad evitandum 
periculum infectionis quod Aularibus nostris ex 
delatione corporum mortuorum per palatium nos- 
trum regium ad ecclesiam Sanctae Margarets 
Civitatis nostrae Westmonasterii sepeliendorum in- 
venire possit ; Volumus, concedimus et ordinamus, 
quod omnes illae aedes sive domus ac alia loca de- 
cimabilia quae inter ecclesiam parochialem Sancti 
Clementis extra Barras Novi Templi London' et 
palatium nostrum regale Westmonasterii existunt 
et usque, dum in et de parochia dictae ecclesiae 
Sancta3 Margaretae consistebant, unacum incolis et 
habitatoribus eorundem, abhinc sint et esse cen- 
seantur de et in parochia Sancti Martini in 
Campis; Ita quod bene licebit vicario perpetuo 
ipsius ecclesiae Sancti Martini qui pro tempore 
fuerit, incolas et habitatores antedi<!tos ad eccle- 
siam Sancti Martini praedictam pro divinis au- 
diendis ac sacramentis et sacramentalibus par- 
ticipandis recipere et admittere, ac decimas et 
oblationes et caetera jura ecclesiastica ab ipsis 
Deo et ecclesiae eorum parochiaa offerri debita et 
consueta percipere et habere, absque impedimento 
nostro vel haeredum nostrorum aut aliorum quo- 
rumcunque : Eo quod expressa mencio, etc. In 
cujus rei, etc. Teste Rege apud Westmonaste- 
rium, xxj die Marcij. 

" Per breve de privato Sigillo et de data, &c." 

JAMES GAIRDNER. 



Imparcatarum " in orig. 



Salisbury Court Theatre. In a letter from 
Sir George Gresley to Sir Thomas Puckering, 
dated Essex House, Oct. 24, 1629, is the following 
notice of the origin of this theatre : 

" My Lord of Dorset is become a great husband ; for he 
hath let his house in Salisbury Court unto the queen for 
the Ambassador Leiger of France, which is daily ex- 
pected to come over, to lie in, and giveth for it 3501. by 
the year, and for the rest of his stables and outhouses 
towards the water side, he hath let for 1000Z. fine and 
100/. by the year rent, unto the master of the revels, to 
make a playhouse for the children of the revels." 

The late Mr. Thomas Rodd had in his possession 
some interesting'MS. documents concerning this 
old theatre, a list of which I subjoin. 

1. "Indenture between John Herne of Lin- 
coln's Inn, Esq., and the Earl of Dorset, relating 
to the Play- House in Dorset Gardens, 1629, 
signed by the Earl" 

2. " Grant of permission to Andrew Rayne and 
others, the qualities of Playing as well in their 
present Theatre, Salisbury Court, as elsewhere, 
1631." 

3. " Richard Heton's Instructions for his Pa- 
tent." 

4. " Instructions touching Salisbury Court 
Playhouse, 1639." 

5. " Assignment of the Playhouse and Premises 
in Salisbury Court, Lord Dorset and J. Herne to 
W. Beeston, 1648." 

6. " Mr. Birde's Counterpart concerning the 
Playhouse in Salisbury Court, 1652." 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Identity of Morgan O'Doherty. I have not 
the early numbers of " N". & Q." to refer to, and 
may therefore be repeating something already 
stated on this point. In conversation with the 
late Dr. Maginn, some seventeen years ago, I 
happened to quote one of the " Maxims of Ensign 
O'Doherty," published in Blackwood, I think as 
early as 1825 ; and the Doctor claimed it and them 
as his own. This, at least, proves Dr. Maginn's 
adoption of the nom de plume in question. R. W. 

Reading. 

Superstition at Constantina. 

" Whilst great inundations have taken place in France, 
Africa has been suffering from drought. At Constantina 
the natives last week had recourse to what they consider 
an infallible means of obtaining rain the ceremony of 
ducking, with religious forms, in the nearest river the 
half-witted creatures called marabouts. Five or six of 
these men were conveyed in procession to the Roumel, 
and there plunged several times in succession into the 
water, the persons composing the procession at the same 
time singing and shouting. One of them, who was un- 
willing to be ducked, was thrown into the river by force, 
and when he came out he declared in a passion that no 
rain should fall for a year. The next day, however, to the 
great delight of the natives, clouds covered the aky, and, 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56. 



after awhile, abundant rain fell. Of course they ascribed 
this result to the ducking of the marabouts. Galignani." 
From T/ifJUorning Star, May 22, 1856. 

K. P. D. E. 

Print of Felton the Assassin. The following 
passage in Dr. Heylin's Extraneus Vapulans, or 
the Observator Rescued, *c., 8vo., 1656, p. 306., is 
curious, as showing that a portrait of Felton, the 
murderer of the Duke of Buckingham, must at 
one period have been common : 

" The man [Felton] might possibly be set on, and his 
discontents made use of to this barbarous murder, by 
some of those who wished well to the remonstrance ; and 
it may be believed the rather, because the pictures of the 
wretch being cut in brass, and exposed to sale, were caught 
up greedily by that party; and being (because) the 
copies of these letters were printed in the bottom of it, it 
is more probable that our author might have them 
thence." 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Dancing over a Husband's Grave prevented. 
The following entry, bearing date May 20, 1736, 
occurs in the parish register of Lymington, 
Hants : 

" Samuel Baldwyn, Esq., sojourner in this parish, was 
immersed without the Needles, in Scratcher's Bay, sans 
ceremonie. " 

It is said that he ordered his remains to be thus 
deposited, to prevent his wife from executing a 
threat of dancing over his grave. I hope, for 
Mrs. Baldwyn's sake, this was not the case. 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Raphael as a Phcenix. It is evident to me, 
notwithstanding the glosses of Newton and Pearce, 
that Milton (Paradise Lost, book v.) intended 
the angel Raphael to assume the appearance of a 
phoenix. The description 

" . . . . to all the fowls he seems 
A phoenix, gaz'd by all, as that sole bird," &c., 

does not appear to have been understood by any of 
the commentators. It is evidently an allusion to 
Tacitus (Annals, book vi. chap. 28.) : " Multo 
ceterarum volucrum comitatu, novam faciem 
mirantium." C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

Farinelli. It is related (I know not upon what 
authority) that for several years Farinelli sang the 
same two songs every night to the King of Spain, 
and in Mr. Bunn's work concerning the stage is 
a letter, in which the writer speaks of possessing, 
what he supposes to be a rarity, a copy (MS.) of 
one of these very songs, " Pallido il Sole." The 
writer had no idea that it was printed. Both that 
and the other, " Per questo dolce amplesso," are 
to be found in Walsh's Le Delizie deW Opere, 
vol. i. From Mr. Bunn's remarks upon the letter 
which was addressed to him on the occasion of 
his bringing out Mr. J. Barnett's opera of Fari* 



nelli, we find that Mr. Barnett also was not aware 
of the existence in print of the two airs in ques- 
tion. We have the Curiosities of Literature, and 
these airs might find a place in the " Curiosities of 
Music." A. ROFFE. 

Somers Town. 

A Tailor reduced to Zero. You are welcome 
to the following if you think it worth embalming 
in " N". & Q." I found it in Raihess Journal : it 
appeared originally in the Chronique de Paris, 
1835, and is founded on the sayings : "a cat has 
nine lives," " nine tailors make a man : " 

1 cat =9 living men, 
1 man = 9 living tailors, 
If { 9 cats = 9 X 9 or 81 men, 

9 men = 9 X 9 or 81 tailors, 
,9 cats = 81 x 81 or 6561 tailors. 
According to this calculation, the value of a tailor 
seems mathematically reduced to zero. 

HENRY KENSINGTON. 

Note from a Fly-leaf. On the fly-leaf of an 
old Prayer Book, I lately found the following 
memorandum : 

" Lines attached to the Door of St. Mary's Church on the 
Day of Thanksgiving for Lord Duncan's Victory. 

" Ye wicked people, are these your pranks, 
To murther men and give God thanks ? 
O pray leave off, and go no further, 
For God requires no thanks for murther." 

I am unable to fix the locality, but am of 
opinion that the place indicated is Chester : the 
owner of the book having resided there about that 
period. HUGH OWEN. 



ETON MONTEM. 

If this should meet the eye of any gentleman 
who walked in either of the Montem processions 
of 1790 or 1793, and who remembers having 
afterwards sat for his portrait in a picture of the 
ceremony, he will very much oblige me if he will 
be so kind as to communicate his name and address, 
as I have recently become possessed of the very 
curious picture, and am endeavouring to identify 
the personages. There are about eighty portraits 
of Etonians, and about twenty of spectators, gen- 
tlemen and ladies. J. W. CROKER. 

Alverbank, Gosport, Aug. 18, 1856. 



KNOWLEDGE OF EUROPEAN HISTORY AMONG BAR- 
BAROUS NATIONS. 

Niebuhr, in his Lectures on Ancient History, 
calculates that Herodotus composed his historical 
work sixty years after the expedition of Xerxes, 



34., AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



and seventy years after the battle of Marathon. 
He proceeds to make the following remarks : 

f before Herodotus no important historical work Avas 
v a upon those events, pray consider what changes, 
/.uring so long a period, may have taken place in a tra- 
dition which was not fixed by writing, and how many 
fabulous additions may have been made to it. It is well 
known that the account of Napoleon's expedition ^ to 
Egypt has already assumed, in the mouth of the Egyptian 
Arabs, such a fabulous appearance that it might seem to 
have required a century to develop it ; and instances of 
the same kind occur frequently. At a time when an oc- 
currence engrosses the mind of everybody, the account of 
it undergoes incredible changes: events are transposed 
from an earlier to a later time, and vice versa ; we can 
scarcely form an idea of this vivacity and elasticity of 
traditions, because in our days everything is immediately 
put upon record." Vol. i. p. 320. ed. Schmitz. 

In another part of the same work, the following 
observations occur during an examination of Livy's 
belief that the name of Alexander the Great was 
not known to the contemporary Romans : 

"Maritime communications in antiquity were very 
active and extensive, and the notions commonly enter- 
tained on this subject are quite erroneous : after the ex- 
pulsion of the kings, Roman ships sailed as far as Spain, 
as we see from the treaty with Carthage. The Romans 
therefore might very well know about Alexander. At 
the present time reports of European occurrences reach 
the interior of Africa, Persia, and China, with inconceiv- 
able rapidity. Thus the French revolution was known 
in the distant East at an early period, but in a peculiar 
manner ; but the people in Persia and on the coast of 
Arabia could not understand it. I have heard strange 
things from those who had travelled in those countries ; 
even in China it was very soon known. The present in- 
surrection of the Greeks was known in the interior of 
Africa ; in the year 1823, the attention of everybody in 
Sacatoo and Borneo was occupied with it ; it was imagined 
to be a general war between Christians and Mahometans. 
As nations little more than half savages knew of these 
things, why should not the highly civilised nations of an- 
cient Italy have heard of Alexander's progress and con- 
quests ? Whoever could tell of these things was no doubt 
listened to by thousands. During the Seven Years' war, 
my father met in Yemen the minister Fati Achmed, who 
knew about the war, and by the many questions he asked 
about the relations between England and France, he 
showed that he took great interest in them. He had maps 
of countries of which he could not read the names, but he 
nevertheless formed some notions from them. In Japan, 
there exists a complete European atlas in Japanese cha- 
racters ; and from it the geography of Europe has been 
learned for the last forty years, although the Japanese 
exclude Europeans. Ib. vol. ii. p. 418." 

As the barbarous and semi-barbarous nations 
of Asia and Africa have in general no newspapers, 
or books relating to recent history ; as they have 
not even a letter-post, and the art of writing is 
confined to a small number of persons ; their 
knowledge of contemporary occurrences must be 
derived almost exclusively from oral information. 
The oral reports which are thus passed on, with- 
out verification by reference to any written source, 
cannot fail to undergo extensive alterations in their 
progress ; especially as the notions entertained re- 



specting foreign countries by a people who possess 
no maps or books of geography, must be in the 
highest degree confused and imperfect. Such re- 
ports are moreover likely to be modified by the 
peculiar ideas current among the nations which 
receives the account. Thus the Kaffirs in Southern 
Afric% are said to have heard of the hostilities in 
the Crimea ; but to have believed that the English 
had been fighting against the spirits of their 
countrymen who had been killed in the late 
Kaffir wars. In the passages above cited, Niebuhr 
alludes to the peculiar form in which the accounts 
of the French Revolution penetrated into the 
heart of Asia ; and to the modifications which 
Napoleon's expedition to Egypt underwent in the 
mouths of the Egyptian Arabs. Can any of your 
correspondents throw light upon this subject, and 
give examples, either from his own experience or 
from books, of the ideas entertained by Oriental 
and African "nations as to the recent events of 
European history, such as those mentioned by 
Niebuhr ? L. 



ittituir 

Prince Charles Edward's Stay in Manchester in 
1745. In the next Part of Byrom's Remains 
(vol. ii. Part n.) will be given a very curious and 
interesting detailed account of the prince's arrival 
and stay in Manchester in 1745, which has never 
before been printed. If any of your correspon- 
dents are in possession of any unpublished letters, 
or other MSS. or broadsides, illustrative of that 
event, and would entrust them to the care of the 
Editor, it would greatly oblige him, as it is his 
wish to make the account as complete as possible. 

R. PARKINSON. 

St. Bees. 

Egyptian Locks. The ancient Egyptian wooden 
locks, having moveable pins dropping into and 
securing the bolts, are still commonly used in 
Egypt. From some sculptures on the temple at 
Karnac, M. Denon infers that the invention is 
four thousand years old. Locks identical in con- 
struction are used in the Faroe Islands ; and I 
have one from Shanghai similar in principle, but 
improved in its details. Can any of your readers 
inform me whether the Egyptian lock is to be 
found in use elsewhere ? J. CHUBB. 

57. St. Paul's. 



Zooks. Derivation ? 



A.A.D. 



Death at Will. We all die in good time, in 
the natural course of events, and most of us ex- 
pect to find that "good time" come quite soon 
enough ; but it appears that there have been in- 
dividuals who, to oblige their friends, have died 
somehow, and to please themselves have come to 



143 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* S. NO 34, AUG. 23. '56. 



life again also somehow many times before 
finally " throwing offHhis mortal coil." 

The following is a case of this kind, given in 
the Night Side of Nature. And, as many of your 
readers may be better acquainted with its facts 
than myself, I shall be obliged if they can furnish 
me with, or refer me to any additional particulars 
respecting it, or if they will note any similar 
cases which are known to have occurred. 

Speaking of voluntary trance, Mrs. Crowe says : 

" He [Colonel Townshend] could, to all appearance, 
die whenever he pleased ; his heart ceased to beat, there 
was no perceptible respiration, and his whole frame be- 
came cold and rigid as death itself: the features being 
shrunk and colourless, and the eyes glazed and ghastly. 
He would continue in this state for several hours, and 
then gradually revive; but the revival does not appear 
to have been an effort of will, or rather we are not in- 
formed whether it was so or not I find, from the 

account of Dr. Cheyne, who attended him, that Colonel 
To\vnshend's own Avay of describing the phenomenon to 
which he was subject, was, that he could 'die or expire 
when he pleased;' and yet, by an effort, or somehow, he 
could come to life again. He performed the experiment 
in the presence of three medical men ; one of whom kept 
his hand on his heart, another held his wrist, and the 
third placed a looking-glass before his lips: and they 
found that all traces of respiration and pulsation gra- 
dually ceased, insomuch that, after consulting about his 
condition for some time, they were leaving the room 
persuaded that he was really dead, when signs of life 
appeared, and he slowly revived. He did not die whilst 
repeating the experiment, as has been sometimes as- 
serted." 

What " account of Dr. Cheyne" is referred to ? 
R. W. HACKWOOD. 

11 De Rayo" Who is the author of De Rayo, 
or the Haunted Priory, a dramatic romance, pub- 
lished at London in 1833 ? R. J. 

Modern Judaism. In what work shall I find 
the fullest details of the present belief and cere- 
monial practices of the Jews ? 

Are Jews landholders in any nation ? if so, how 
do they regulate themselves with regard to the 
year of Jubilee ? Do they interpret the ordi- 
nance of restoration to the owner, as applicable 
solely to the Promised Land ? 

Supposing that, by political arrangement, Pa- 
lestine were restored to the Jews, would they 
resume the sacrifices of the Temple ? 

How far as respects the creed, conduct, and 
habits of the Jews themselves has Christianity, 
philosophy, or the general progress of knowledge, 
operated ? 

Is Palestine so valuable to the Moslem, that 
there is no chance of inducing him to resign its 
possession for "a consideration?" and could not 
that consideration be easily furnished by the scat- 
tered but wealthy remnant of Israel ? DELTA. 

Gerard Malynes. This old commercial writer 
was, according to Chalmers, an authority in high 



repute upon matters of trade in the reigns of 
Elizabeth and James, and much consulted by 
their governments. I am aware of slight allu- 
sions to my subject in Censura Literaria, and in 
Dr. Smith's Memoirs of Wool, as well as Oldys* 
notice of one of his books ; but these being meagre 
and unsatisfactory, perhaps through " N". & Q." 
I may be helped to something more substantial 
touching this " Belgicke Pismire," which, in allu- 
sion to his foreign origin, his contemporary and 
rival Misselden sneeringly styles him. J. O. 

Ancient Drum at Durham Castle. In the prin- 
cipal room at Durham Castle, and right over the 
door, is a large drum affixed to the wall. I am 
informed that it is a trophy which was captured 
at some celebrated battle. Will MR. DIXON, or 
some other Durham correspondent, kindly afford 
information on this subject through your valuable 
journal ? EIN FRAGEE. 

Daily Service. What has been the history of 
the daily prayers in our parish churches since the 
Reformation ? Would it not seem from Canons 
14. and 15. of the Synod of 1603, that daily 
service was not then in general use ? By the first 
the prescript form of divine service is enjoined to 
be used on Sundays, holy days, and their eves ; 
by the second the Litany is ordered to be used on 
Wednesdays and Fridays weekly. The Litany, it 
must be remembered, was not then so closely con- 
nected as now to Morning Prayer ; the words to 
be said or sung " after Morning Prayer" not being 
inserted till 1662. 

Yet the plain rule at the end of the Preface 
Concerning the Service of the Church, " All 
Priests and Deacons shall be bound to say Daily 
the Morning and Evening Prayer. . . . And 
the Curate that ministereth in every Parish Church 
or Chapel . . . shall say the same in the 
Parish Church or Chapel where he ministereth, 
&c.," stood in its present place all the while, ever 
since the Book of 1552. How are these apparent 
contradictions to be reconciled ? Of course now 
the Rubric is more binding than the Canon (in 
every way), as in the parallel case respecting the 
time of public catechising. A. A. D. 

" There's a gude time coming." Is this say- 
ing, the burden of a popular song by Dr. Mackay, 
an old expression in Scotland ? I find the fol- 
lowing in Rob Roy : * 

" ' It is long since we met, Mr. Campbell,' said the 
Duke. 

" ' It is so, my Lord Duke ; I could have wished it had 
been ' (looking at the fastening on his arms) ' when I could 
have better paid the compliments I owe to your Grace. 
But there's a gude time coming' " 

PRESTONIENSIS. 



* Waverley Edition, vol. vi. p. 334., Ed. 1822. 



2 nd S. N 34., AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



Old Painting of Siege of Namur. I lately saw 
at the house of a friend an old painting of the 
capture of the castle and city of Namur in 1695. 
King William on horseback is a prominent figure. 
I have in my possession an engraving of the same, 
taken from a painting "once King William's, and 
now in the hands of the Bishop of Kildare, 1743." 
I wish to know whether the above is the original 
painting, or whether copies of it were taken. 

CLERICUS. (D.) 

Village of Ringsend. What is the origin of 
the name of Ringsend, a village in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Dublin ? And has the same 
name been given to any other locality ? 

ABHBA. 

Presentiments of Death. Having been several 
months in the Crimea during the severest period 
of the bombardment, I can state that many cases 
of presentiments were fulfilled ; as, also, that some 
were falsified. There were also many deaths 
without any accompanying presentiment having 
been made known. A sergeant in the Light Di- 
vision, who was in the second boat which reached 
the shore before the Alma, and went through all 
the severest work up to the final storming, fre- 
quently, in his letters home, remarked, " Some- 
thing tells me I shall escape ; " but, poor fellow, 
he was hit severely in two places at the Redan. 
In one of his letters he stated : " Many of our 
men knew when they would fall, and prepared 
accordingly by packing up letters and papers, and 
leaving instructions as to sending and writing to 
friends ; sure enough they did fall." 

Query, Can any of the numerous Dreaders of 
" N. & Q." add to the remarkable instances of 
presentiments which have been fulfilled or falsi- 
fied. Both sides should be given. R. 

Family of Hogarth. I am very anxious to 
obtain a pedigree of the Border family of Hogarth. 
About a century ago, this name was very common 
on the Scotch side of the Border ; but it is now 
comparatively scarce. Dr. Burn, in his History 
of Westmoreland and Cumberland, mentioning 
Hogarth the painter, says that the name originated 
in Westmoreland. 

This I am inclined to question, because the 
tradition on the borders is, that the Hogarths were 
always a Scotch family ; and I have met with the 
name in Berwickshire, early in the seventeenth 
century. 

The Hogarths were a numerous and influential 
race ; and as the Border genealogies have been so 
well investigated, I am in hopes that some of 
your readers will be able to afford me some in^ 
formation from the numerous learned works on 
Border antiquities which have been published. 
I am curious to know if the Hogarths are classed 
by Monnipenny, in his Scots Chronicle^ amongst 



the plundering Border clans. Burke, in his En- 
cyclopedia of Heraldry, spells the name Howgart, 
or Hogarth. An early example of the former 
spelling will be very acceptable. I am also very 
anxious to find out some record of the intermar- 
riages of the Hogarths with the Pringles and 
Riddles, the dates of which I have been unable to 
discover. Any information on the above, how- 
ever slight, will be most acceptable. 

SIGMA THETA. 

Langhorne Family. A niece of mine, whose 
great-grandfather was the &ev. Wm. Langhorne, 
who assisted his brother, the Doctor, in the trans- 
lation of Plutarch, wishes to learn some parti" 
culars of this family. What relation to the 
Langhornes was William Wordsworth f Was not 
Mr. Robinson, ranger of Windsor Park or Forest, 
a relation of the Langhornes, and did not his 
daughter marry Lord Abergavenny ? Indeed, any 
information will be gratifying to the lady who 
asks for it through R. W. DIXON. 

Seaton Carew, co. Durham. 

Near-sightedness. Can any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." inform me of the reason, if there is 
one, of the extreme rarity of near-sightedness 
among the lower classes ? The higher the po- 
sition in society, the more frequent are the cases 
of near-sight ; and though many (for what reason 
I never could determine) often affect the defect, 
though they have it not, still genuine cases are 
very common among the higher classes, and I do 
not remember having met with a single case 
among the lower ones. " BELLISARIUS. 

M c Turk and Williams (qy. of Flint}, Families of. 
Is there any published or accessible MS. ge- 
nealogy of these families ? The inquiry has more 
immediate reference to a lady of the name of 
M c Turk, living circa 17301800, it is supposed at 
Chester (Pepper Street), and presumed to have 
been connected with the family of Ashton Wil- 
liams (qy. of Flint), and that of Walmsley of 
Coldcoates and Eaves within Wiswall, co. Lan- 
cashire, and of Bashall, co. York ; as also, pro- 
bably, with that of Smith Kelsall, Esq., Cheshire. 

INVESTIGATOR. 

The Fifth Crusade. Can any of your readers 
inform me as to the date and circumstances of the 
fifth Crusade ? M. E. J. 

Climate of Hastings. Can any of your readers 
tell me where I can find any printed meteorolo- 
gical tables or observations relating to Hastings or 
the immediate neighbourhood, besides those con- 
tained in the following works : 

1. Harwood on The Curative Influence of the 
Southern Coast of England, 1828. 

2. Britton's Descriptive Sketches of Turibridge 
Wells, 1832, 



150 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2* S. N 34, Aua. 23. '56. 



3. Clark on Th e Sanative Influence of Climate, 
3rd ed., 1841 ; 4th ecL,,'1846. 

4. Cresy's Report to the General Board of 
Health, 1850. 

5. Mack ness on Hastings considered as a Resort 
for Invalids, 1st ed. 1842, 2nd ed. 1850. * 

M. D. 

Gillet, alias Candler or Chandler. A fa- 
mily of these names is described in Burke's Ar- 
moury as of Ipswich, co. Suffolk. I believe that 
one of them was head master of Woodbridge 
Grammar School in the latter part of the seven- 
teenth century; and another, the Rev. Philip 
Candler, according to Blomefield's History of 
Norfolk, was Rector of Blofield, Norfolk, in 1735. 
Any information respecting them, or communica- 
tion from their descendants, if any, would oblige 

E. G. R. 

Dover Castle. I have lately heard a story 
that the road up the hill to Dover Castle was 
made in the space of two hours by four thousand 
men. Can any of your readers confirm or refute 
this statement ? M. D. 

Pagan Philosopher: Author of Sir Simon League : 
Edbiger. The following passages are from An 
Enquiry into the Influence of Art upon Religion, 
Brussels, 1834, pp. 164. : 

" A more elevated tone is perceptible in the last of the 
pagan philosophers, who asks: ' Why should man, him- 
self the maker of idols, trust to them who are lifeless, and 
whose harmony is external only? Perishable things, 
too, and of short duration. Is truth and reality in them ? 
Nothing absolutely pure and true can spring from human 
art." P. 29. 

" I went over the cathedral at Upsale with my gifted 
friend the author of Sir Simon League, who fully shared 
my opinion that though here, as at Utrecht, much had 
been done to give to these vast edifices the air of Pro- 
testant churches, the spirit of Rome pervaded the walls, 
influencing the worship, and even the music. These re- 
sults in Protestant Germany are fully shown by Eabiger." 
P. 102. 

On this I beg to ask, who is the pagan philo- 
sopher, and where is the original of the above 
passage ? Who are " the author of Sir Simon 
League " and Rabiger ? E. J. 

Paris. 



" Dyalogues of Creatures Moralyzed" I shall 
be much obliged if any one will tell me the author 
in Latin, the translator into English, the publisher, 
and the date, of the following work : the title- 
page of which stands thus 

" The Dialoges of Creatures Moralysed. Applyably 
and edlficatyfly to euery mery and iocounde mater, of late 
translated out of Latyn into our Englysshe tonge, right 
profitable to the gouernauuce of man. ^[And they be to 
sell, vpo Powlys churche yarde." 



The remainder of the title-page is filled up 
with a rude woodcut of two monsters a male 
and a female half man, half ox. 

The volume is quite perfect and whole, but it 
gives none of the usual information on any of the 
points I have specified above. It is in very clear 
type, similar to that used by Caxton in his later 
works, and is profusely illustrated with a great 
number of rude 'woodcuts. 

I shall also be glad to be informed whether or 
not it has ever been reprinted, wholly or in part ; 
or much quoted from ? 

I have looked through Dibdin, but if he men- 
tions it, I have missed it. In the printed cata- 
logue of the Bodleian, there is this entry 

" Creature Dyalogus creaturarum optime morali- 
gatus, omni materie morali jocondo modo applicabilis, 
fol. Gouda, per Gerardum Leeu, 1482, title wanting" 

and "in English, 4to." In Watt's Bibliotheca, 
there is 

" Creature 1481, Dialogus Creaturarum Moralizatus ; 
cum figuris, Paris, fol. A most uncommonly scarce 
work." 

The copy now before me has the title-page. 
Gerard Leeu was a printer at Antwerp, circa 
1490. Any information about this volume will 
much oblige HENRY KENSINGTON. 

[ The Dialogues of Creatures has been frequently pub- 
lished in other languages. In the Latin and Dutch alone 
there were not less than fifteen editions before 1511. It 
was first published under the title of Dyalogus Creaturarum 
Moralizatus, by Gerard Leeu, Gouda, fol., 1480. In 1511, 
under the title of Destructorium Vitiorum ex similitudinum 
Creaturarum exemplorum appropriations per modum Dia- 
loqi, &c., by Claude Nourry, at Lyons, small fol. The 
edition printed in English, without date, was probably 
produced at a foreign press. Herbert, in a manuscript 
note, says, " Although mention is made that this book is 
to be sold in St. Paul's Church-yard, both in the title and 
colophon, yet I am inclined to think it was printed in 
France, by the type and blooming letters ; the former 
being much like Thelman Kerver's, and of the latter 
some are very uncommon." In 1816, a beautiful reprint, 
edited by Joseph Haslewood, was published by Robert 
Triphook in 4to., of which ninety-eight copies were 
printed, all of which, excepting forty-two, were de- 
stroyed by fire. This edition contains a valuable biblio- 
graphical" account of the work. Mr. Haslewood states, 
that " all particulars of the author and of the origin of 
the work have hitherto escaped research : no ancient 
manuscript of it is known, and it is doubtful if there is a 
quotation from it in any old authority."] 

Lord Chancellor Cowper and Mr. Justice Spencer 
Cowper. Sir Walter Scott, in a note to his edi- 
tion of the Works of Swift, says : 

" Lord Chancellor Cowper was branded with bigamy, 
because he had written a work on the plurality of wives, 
and had, adds Voltaire, actually two Ladies Cowper in his 
domestic regime. His brother the judge had previously 
been tried for the murder of a young woman, one Sarah 
Stout, whom he had deluded by a feigned marriage while he 
had a wife alive," &c. 

Is there any authority for the assertion, that 



2 d S, N 34,, Aua 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



the Chancellor had two Ladies Cowper on his 
establishment ; or for the other assertion, that 
Spencer Cowper had deluded Sarah Stout by a 
feigned marriage ? I find no mention of any such 
charge against the judge in the accounts of his 
trial which I have read. They merely state that 
she was his mistress. S. S. 

[This Query may, perhaps, receive some light from the 
following passage in the English Traveller, vol. ii. p. 315 : 
" Hertingfordbury, by some esteemed one of the plea- 
santest villages in England. The seat of the Earl Cow- 
per here, called Hertingfordbury Park, was the estate of 
Mrs. Elizabeth Culling, who lies buried in the church- 
yard. This lady, having two natural children by that 
Lord, a son and a daughter, the former dying soon after 
he came of age, the young lady, his sister, sold the estate, 
in the year 1720, to her father's brother, the late Judge 
[Spencer] Cowper, for fifty years' purchase at least, and 
he again disposed of it to his' brother, the late great Lord 
Cowper, Lord High Chancellor of England." It has been 
said, that in the early part of his life a pretended mar- 
riage, without the forms of law, took place between Mr. 
Cowper, afterwards the Chancellor, and the lady here 
mentioned, Mrs. Elizabeth Culling; and hence probably 
originated the story of the Chancellor having two wives, 
and the name given him by Swift in The Examiner of 
" Will Bigamy." " But," as Lord Campbell remarks, 
" there is no foundation whatever for the assertion that 
he had married Miss Elizabeth Culling ; and, notwith- 
standing the calumnies of Swift and Mrs. Manley, and 
the statement with which Voltaire amused Europe, that 
the Lord Chancellor of England practised and defended 
polygamy, he had dropped all correspondence with this 
lady before he was introduced to either of the two wives 
whom he successively led to the altar." Lives of the 
Lord Chancellors, vol. iv. p. 261. 

The following passage from No. 23., folio edition, of 
The Examiner thus notices the work on Plurality of 
Wives attributed to the Chancellor : " This gentleman 
[Will Bigamy] knowing that marriage fees were a con- 
siderable perquisite to the clergy, found out a way of im- 
proving them cent, by cent, for the good of the Church. 
His invention was to marry a second wife while the first 
was alive, convincing her of the lawfulness by such argu- 
ments as he did not doubt would make others follow the 
same example. These he had drawn up in writing, with 
intention to publish for the general good ; and it is hoped 
he may now have leisure to finish them." The statement 
that Spencer Cowper had deluded Sarah Stout by a 
feigned marriage originated most probably from the 
malevolent turn given to the affair of the trial by Mrs. 
Manley in the New Atalantis, in her story of " Mosco and 
Zara," in which she made very free with the characters 
of many high and distinguished personages.] 

Simon Senhouse. When did Simon Senhouse, 
prior of Carlisle, die ? J. P. SENHOUSE. 

[In Burn's Cumberland we read that Simon Senhouse, 
of the House of Seascales in Cumberland, was chosen 
prior of Carlisle in 1507 ; and it is added, in the last edi- 
tion of Dugdale's Monasticon, that he was alive in 1519.] 

Cornelius Kilianus Dufflceus. Where can an 
account of this lexicographer be found ? and why 
is he always quoted as " Kilian ? " though my copy 
of his work is lettered on the back, " Dufflaei 
Diet. Teut.-Latinum." And both in the " Epistle 
to the Reader," and in the commendatory verses 



by him, prefixed to Verstegan's Restitution of De- 
cayed Intelligence, $-c., he uses the three names as 
above. The Penny Cyclopedia says that he cor- 
rected the press for Christopher Plantin. I sup- 
pose his " Teut." is the dialect of Brabant. 

E. G. R. 

[Cornelius Kilian was a native of Duffel, in Brabant ; 
hence the affix to his name. Besides his Etyrnologicon 
Linguae Teutonic^ he published some Latin Poems, and 
An Apology for Correctors of the Press against Authors ; 
and translated into Flemish the Memoirs of Philip de Co~ 
mines. He died in 1607.] 

Synodals. " Verses, vain repetitions, com- 
memorations, and synodals" (Preface to the 
Prayer-Book, Concerning the Service of the 
Church.) What are synodals f A. A. D. 

[These were the publication or recital of the provincial 
constitutions in the parish churches. For after the con- 
clusion of every provincial synod, the canons thereof were 
to be read in the churches, and the tenor of them to be 
declared and made known to the people; and some of 
them to be annually repeated on certain Sundays in the 
year. Dr. Nichols on Preface concerning the Service of the 
Church.] 

Horace on Architecture. Where is it that, ac- 
cording to Byron, 

" Horace has expressed 
Shortly and sweetly the masonic folly 
Of those, forgetting the great place of rest, 
Who give themselves to architecture wholly." 

Don Juan. 

Perhaps some classic contributor will kindly 
point me the Latin poet's line. PALLADIO. 

[The following lines of the Roman Lyric bard, descrip- 
tive of the folly of those who build mansions, " forgetting 
the great place of rest," are unquestionably the passage to 
which Byron alludes : a 

" Tu secanda marmora 
Locas, sed ipsum fun us, et sepulchri 
Immemor, struis domos." 

Hor. Od., lib. n. xviii. v. 17-19. 

"You are buying marble for building, when on the 
verge of the grave, and, unmindful of the tomb, you 
begin to build houses."] 



PARISH REGISTERS. 



(2 nd S. ii. 66.) 

Your correspondent W., of Bombay, has done 
well in drawing attention to the subject of parish 
registers. The best course to pursue would be, 
as he suggests, to have them all printed ; but the 
expense would be so very great, that I despair of 
ever seeing the project put in execution. If 
manuscript copies were taken, and deposited in 
the General Register Office, a great point would 
be gained ; but really some immediate provision 
should be made for the safe custody of the origi- 
nals. No doubt much better care is taken to 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 34, AUG. 23. '56. 



preserve them now than fifty years ago ; but they 
are yet very much exposed to decay, wanton 
mutilation, and loss. I could point out more than 
one parish in this county where they have, of 
late years, suffered much from damp ; and jnany 
where the clerk has the key of the box in which 
they are kept, and will show them to any well- 
dressed stranger who will give him a shilling. A 
pamphlet by William Downing Bruce, Esq., F.S.A., 
on the condition of parish registers *, contains an 
accumulation of facts bearing on this point, suffi- 
cient to convince any one that they are now fre- 
quently not in safe custody. For instance, the 
writer states, that in 1845 he made copious ex- 
tracts from the register of Andover, in Hampshire, 
" but, that on visiting that place for the purpose 
of a supplementary search, I found that these 
books were no longer in existence; and those 
which remained were kept in the rectory-house, 
in a damp place under the staircase, and in a 
shameful state of dilapidation." A few lines 
farther on, we read of a register book discovered 
" in a tattered state behind some old drawers in 
the curate's back-kitchen." Of another rescued 
by an antiquary from " among a quantity of waste 
paper in a cheesemonger's shop." And of a parish 
clerk who used all the registers of South Otter- 
ington, preceding the eighteenth century, con- 
taining entries of the families., of Talbot, Herbert, 
and Falconberg, for waste paper : a considerable 
portion going " to singe a goose." 

If some means were taken for binding and re- 
storing those that are torn and decayed, many 
would be preserved. I have more than once sug- 
gested, when examining a torn, coverless document 
of this kind, that it should be well bound, and other- 
wise carefully mended ; but have almost always 
been met by the objection, that it ought not to go 
out of the possession of the minister of the parish. 
In one case where that difficulty had been re- 
moved, the churchwardens refused to pay the 
necessary expense. 

It is, I suppose, generally known that transcripts 
of parish registers exist, or ought to exist, in the 
various 'episcopal registries. I have never had 
occasion to consult any excepting such as relate 
to this county. Those preserved at Lincoln, I 
found very badly kept. When I made a search 
there in 1854, some of the early ones were ar- 
ranged in years : the later ones, written on the 
printed forms, were thrown about in bundles on 
the floor. No return whatever could then be 
found for the parish of Kirton-in-Lindsey, al- 
though I have certain proofs that returns had 
been made. I asked the clerk, who was assisting 
me, what was contained in a large deal chest or 



* A Letter to R. Monckion Milnes, Esq., M.P., on the 
Condition and Unsafe State of Ancient Parochial Registers 
in England and the Colonies, 1850. London : Ridgway. 



packing-box, then standing in the room we were 
in. He did not know, he assured me. However, 
I had had some experience of the place before, 
and thought it might very possibly contain the 
transcripts I wanted; so I looked within, and 
found it nearly full of copies of parish registers 
(many of them very old) in such a state of dis- 
order, dirt, and decay, as I am loath to describe. 
On my remarking to the clerk that, of course, now 
that these things were discovered, the registrar 
would take care to have them cleaned and ar- 
ranged, he said : " No, it is not likely he will 
spend any money on them now, as the court will 
soon be abolished. I am sure he will not meddle 
with them." 

These copies are, I believe, legal evidence, and 
are the more valuable, as they will almost always 
supply the vacancies caused by the loss or injury 
of the originals in the parish churches. It is to 
be hoped that when the wills, and aU other testa- 
mentary documents, are removed to the proposed 
new offices (see the Solicitor General's Wills and 
Administration Bill), these records will not be 
permitted to remain in their present custody, but 
be deposited with the Registrar General ; in whose 
hands they will be well cared for, and easily 
accessible. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Manor Farm, Bottesford, Brigg. 



GREAT EVENTS FROM SMALL CAUSES. 

(2 nd S. ii. 43.) 

Your correspondent F. S. says truly that co- 
pious instances might be cited in illustration of 
the truth that " great events from little causes 
spring." One pregnant with mightier results 
could not perhaps be quoted than that which I am 
about to mention, and which is doubtless familiar 
to most of your readers. 

When many Puritans emigrated or were about 
to emigrate to America in 1637, Cromwell, either 
despairing of his fortunes at home, or indignant at 
the rule of government which prevailed, resolved 
to quit his native country, in search of those civil 
and religious privileges of which he could freely 
partake in the New World. 

Eight ships were lying in the Thames, ready to 
sail ; in one of them, says Hume (quoting Mather 
and other authorities), were embarked Hazelrig, 
Hampden, Pym, and Cromwell. A proclamation, 
was issued, and the vessels were detained by Order 
in Council. The king had indeed cause to rue 
this exercise of his authority. In the same year 
Hampden's memorable trial the great case of 
Ship Money occurred. What events rapidly 
followed ! 

In the last Number of the Quarterly Review 
(197), upon Guizot's works on the civil war, the con- 



2 nd S. N 34, AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



duct of the king and the government is adverted to. 
The harsh proceedings of the Court were defended 
on the ground that the Puritans " took liberty to 
nourish their factious and schismatical humours in 
those remote wilds : " but oppressed as they were 
at home by the civil and ecclesiastical authorities, 
it does not appear that they profited in the school 
of adversity ; as the reviewer tells us that they 
( ' set up a tyranny of their own in America, infi- 
nitely more cruel and intrusive than the system 
from which they indignantly fled." (P. 121.) 

J. H. M. 



THE HOUSE OF BRUNSWICK AND THE CASTING 

VOTE. 

(2 nd S. ii. 44. 97.) 

Since I replied to the Query of F. S. on this 
subject, I have had my attention called to De- 
brett's Baronetage for 1824; in which a some- 
what different version of the transaction is given. 
As the matter is curious, and will be widely cir- 
culated if admitted into the pages of "N. & Q.," 
perhaps you may not consider it too lengthy for 
insertion. Debrett says : 

" On the memorable day that the Hanoverian* succes- 
sion bill passed the house of commons, in the beginning 
of Queen Anne's reign, Sir Arthur Owen, Bart., member 
for Pembrokeshire, and Griffith Rice, Esq., member for 
Carmarthenshire, prevented the friends of the present 
royal family from being left in a minority. If it had not 
been for these two gentlemen, there is little doubt but 
the Tory party in parliament, by the influence of the then 
Tory ministry, would have soon carried it for the Pre- 
tender to succeed his sister Queen Anne ! 

" The particulars, known now but to few, as related by 
the posterity of these families, are : 

" Sir Arthur Owen and Mr. Rice on that day met ac- 
cidentally in the lobby, when the Tory administration 
were stealing the question through the house at an early 
hour; when a majority of their friends attended by de- 
sign, and when many of the Whigs were absent, not think- 
ing it would come on until the usual hour. 

" When the house was about to divide, one of the Whig 
members, seeing a seeming majority in favour of the 
house of Stuart, exclaimed that the whole was an infa- 
mous proceeding. He immediately ran out of the house, 
almost frantic, in search of some of his partizans, to give 
a turn to the question in favour of the Elector of Hanover. 

" Perceiving Sir Arthur and Mr. Rice, as he came out, 
walking earnestly about the lobby, he addressed them 
thus with much vehemence, ' What do you mean, gen- 
tlemen! staying here when the Hanoverian succession 
bill is going to be thrown out of the house? ' 'When I 
heard that,' Sir Arthur used often to relate, I made but 
one step into the house, and my voice made the number 
equal for the bill, 117, and the 'Tories had no more. Mr. 
Rice, with great gravity, coming after me, had the honour 
of giving the casting vote in favour of the Hanoverian 
succession ! Had it not (added Sir Arthur) been for the 
warmth of my zeal, being then a young man, this honour 
would have been mine ; for as Mr. Rice was my senior, I 
might have followed him into the house.' " 

This account, which is most probably the cor- 
rect version, takes the casting vote from Sir 



Arthur Owen, and gives it to Mr. Rice ; but is in 
no way inconsistent with the tradition of my lady 
informant respecting Sir Arthur's rapid journey 
to London, which may have been taken with the 
intention of being present at the important debate. 
Thus he actually made the balance even, and his 
friend turned the scale. JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 
Haverfordwest. 



WHITSUNDAY. 

(2 nd S. ii. 77.) 

Your valuable correspondent F. C. H., after 
clearly showing that our English word for Pente- 
cost cannot be derived from the German Pfingsten^ 

says : 

" The received origin of the name Whitsunday is from 
the appearance of the neophytes on that Sunday and 
during the octave, in the church, in the ivhite garments 
which they had received at their solemn baptism on the 
preceding Saturday, called Whitsun Eve." 

Unless I be much mistaken F. C. H. is far astray 
from the mark. 1. To my thinking, we ought 
not to write "Whitsunday" but Witsonday. That 
this was the old spelling is certain ; Wyeliffe so 
wrote the word in his translation of the New Tes- 
tament, 1 Cor. xvi., and such is the spelling of it 
in the Paston Letters, let. xv. 2. The English 
word Witsonday, miscalled Whitsunday, drew its 
origin from nothing whatever connected with the 
term white, but from wit mind, understanding. 
That in the early ages of the Church all jieo- 
phytes, who were then as often grown-up jMple 
as children, used to wear, for the whole week fol- 
lowing, the white garment in which they were 
robed as emblematic of spotless regeneration, im- 
mediately they had been baptized, is undeniable ; 
and as public baptism was always given with much 
solemnity in those ages, on the eve of Easter 
and Pentecost Sundays, this white garment was 
thrown off on the Saturday following. Easter 
eve, however, was the time more especially chosen 
for the public administration of this sacrament ; 
and hence it is that even now, though the usage 
of wearing the white baptismal garment for the 
week has not been followed for many ages, the 
Sunday next after Easter is yet called Dominica 
in Albis, the word " depositis " being understood : 
in the Ambrosial Missal it is named " Dominica 
in albis depositis." In some churches, the whole 
of Easter week was called u in albis," because the 
newly-baptized went, wearing their white gar- 
ment, to church, and partook of the holy commu- 
nion ; and Low Sunday is termed " Dominica 
post albas," because the white garment had been 
laid aside the eve before (Ordo Ojficiorum Ecc. 
Senensis, p. 191 ; and Lib. Sacramentorum, S. 
Gregorii, ed. Menardo, p. 149.). Though this 
ceremony of the white garment at the Easter bap- 



154 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



[2 1 * S. N 34., AUG. 23. '56. 



tism is so well marked in all the oldest rituals, and 
even yet is remembered in the rubrics of the 
Roman Missal, no such particular mention is made 
of it for the baptism at Pentecost, nor do the 
rubrics for that season preserve a record of it. 

3. Our Anglo-Saxon forefathers had no word 
like Witsonday or Witsontide ; but called the 
Sunday and its octave by the term Pentecostes ; 
Mid it is likely that among them, as among the 
other nations of the Church, the ceremony of 
wearing a white robe for a week after baptism had 
grown obsolete many years before the coming of 
the Normans. Witsontide is an English word, and 
did not, as it seems, get into use earlier than the 
twelfth or thirteenth century. This, however, is 
certain, that its introduction was 'long after the 
custom had ceased of neophytes wearing a white 
robe for eight days after their baptism. The 
meaning of the term among our forefathers who 
originated it, we learn from the Liber Festivalis, 
where John Mirk, canon regular of Lilleshull, its 
writer, says : 

" Good men and wimmen this day (Dies Penthecostes) 
is called Wytsonday by cause the hoty ghoost brought 
\vytte and wysdom in "to Crestis dyscyples and so by her 
pfechyng after in to all cristendom (Et repleti sunt 
omnes spiritu sancto) and fylled hem full of ghostly 
tvytte." Fol. xlvi. b. 

Thus we find that the root of the word is not 
" white," nor had anything to do with white gar- 
ments, but "wit" mind, understanding, and 
Pentecost was so called to signify the enlighten- 
ment by the Holy Ghost of the soul the under- 
stating the " wit " of man. D. ROCK. 



MR. DENTON'S suggestion that the corresponding 
names of Whitsunday in foreign languages should 
be given in " N. & Q.," I gladly comply with, as 
I think the comparison will tend to show that the 
origin, to which I alluded, is correct. 

French. Le jour de la Pentecote. 
Italian, II giorno della Pentecoste. 
Saxon. Pentecostenes masssedosg. 
German. Pfingstonn tag. 

Dutch. Der Pingster dag. 
Spanish. Dia de Pentecostes. 

In each of these cases the compound is of Pente- 
cost and day. The English adjective is Whitson, 
as in the terms 

' morrice-dance. 

farthings. 

tide. 

lord. 

week. 

ale, &c. 

The feast, certainly, is not White-Sunday, what- 
ever meaning White might be supposed to bear ; 
but specially the Whitson-day, as Easter-day, 



Whitson- 



Christmas-day, or Ascension-day. The White- 
Sunday would be the Dominica in Albis, not 
Pentecost, which is the word used in the list of 
holy days more than once in the Book of Common 
Prayer, for this feast, as it was till about the 
twelfth century. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Whitsunday : .Pilate. In a Note on the deriva- 
tion of "Whitsunday" (2 nd S. ii. 99.), MR. DENTON 
gives a quotation by Hearne from a " very rare 
book printed by Wynkyn de Worde." Now this 
" very rare book " is none other than the Liber 
Festivalis, which was printed by Wynkyn de 
Worde, and also two editions by Caxton. Hav- 
ing access to a copy of it, I turned to it to collate 
Hearne's quotation, which is quite correct, and in 
so doing, I stumbled on the following derivation 
of another word, which I now forward fo you, as 
I think it will tend to show MR. DENTON that the 
derivations in this work are not worth much, as 
they are evidently founded on a mere similarity of 
sound. One of Caxton's editions was in 1483 ; 
that by Wynkyn de Worde in 1493 : 

"This Pylate was a knyghtes sone that was called 
Tyrus, that he gate hym on a woma that hyght Pyle, 
and this womans fader hyght Ate. So whan this chylde 
was borne they sette his moders name and the grande 
fader after, and so by bothe names called hym Pylate." 
HENRY KENSINGTON. 



QUEEN ANNE'S FOSTER FATHER, WAS HE IRISH? 
(2 nd S. ii. 86.) 

In reference to the Query in your last, signed 
C. M. B., I had my attention directed to this sub- 
ject by a letter, probably from the Querist, to a 
friend, some time since, but could find nothing 
particularly satisfactory. The individual inci- 
dentally mentioned in the Blennerhassett pedigree 
is set down as son of " David Barry of Rahamska, 
and Elinor, 4th daughter of Sir Thomas Hurly of 
Knocklong." A brief note mentions him as " the 
late Queen Anne's foster father," and that is all. 

Looking over Miss Strickland's gossiping Me- 
moirs of the Queens of England lately, I find 
some particulars which may serve as a clue to 
further inquiries on this subject. That lady, in 
her life of Queen Mary II., uses largely, and gives 
frequent references to, the Diary of Dr. Lake, 
the tutor to the Duke of York's daughters. And 
under the date of November 1677, at the mar- 
riage of William of Orange and the Princess 
Mary, we find the diarist noting that her sister 
Anne was ill of the small-pox, and his own trouble 
at not being allowed to go to her chamber to 
read prayers to her : 

" This troubled me," he says, " the more, because the 
nurse of the Lady Anne was a very busy zealous Roman 



S. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



Catholic, and would probably discompose Her Highness 
if she had an opportunity." 

So far the probability of her foster parents being 
Irish is confirmed. Further on in the Diary, we 
find the following, under date of Nov. 1 1 : 

" I read prayers to Her Highness Lady Anne ; she was 
somewhat giddy, and very much disordered. She re- 
quested me not to leave her, and recommended to me the 
care of her foster-sister's instruction in the Protestant re- 
ligion. At night I christened her nurse's child Mary." 

" This," as Miss Strickland observes, " was the 
daughter of the Roman Catholic nurse. How she 
came to permit the Church of England chaplain 
to christen her baby is not explained." 

So far for Lake's Diary, which must be yet in 
existence, if not in print.* Miss Strickland ac- 
knowledges her obligations to Messrs. Elliot and 
Merrivale for facilitating her access to its con- 
tents. Probably farther examination might give 
the name of the nurse in question. 

But there is a farther notice in the same life, 
which rather perplexes the question. At the 
Revolution, when, on Nov. 26, 1688, the Princess 
Anne fled from Whitehall at night, to join the 
Prince of Orange, among the proofs of the real or 
pretended consternation of her household when 
she was missed next morning, it is mentioned 
that " old Mrs. Buss, the nurse of the princess, 
immediately cried out that the princess had been 
murdered by the queen's priests," and rushed into 
the queen's presence, rudely demanding her of 
her majesty. Miss Strickland, recollecting Dr. 
Lake's notes about her nurse's zealous papistry, 
seems sensible how oddly this would sound in her 
mouth, and suggests that she had " perhaps been 
converted." The name Buss, too, suggests a diffi- 
culty ; but it is so written in King James's 
Memoirs, although another MS. has it written 
Butt. Either is far enough in spelling or sound 
from "Barry;" and yet in the loose and inaccu- 
rate spelling of the time, or in the giving familiar 
or pet names, which Queen Anne was we know 
in the habit of using for favourites (vid. Mrs. 
Morley and Freeman), there is no impossibility in 
Mrs. Buss having been Mrs. Barry. And know- 
ing as I do thoroughly the genealogical record to 
which C. M. B. refers, I can vouch for its general 
accuracy in anything it asserts. A. B. R. 

Belmont. 



tfl 

"Nolo episcopari" (1 st S. iv. 346.) A corre- 
spondent inquires why this phrase is applied to a 
feigned reluctance in accepting an offer ; and you, 
in an editorial answer, quote Christian's note on 
Blackstone's Commentaries, stating that it is a 

[* The Diary of Dr. Edward Lake, edited by George 
Percy Elliott, Esq., is published in the Camden Miscellany, 
vol. i. 1847.] 



vulgar error that every bishop, before he accepts 
his bishoprick, uses the expression ; that the 
writer has not been able to discover its origin; 
and that certainly bishops give no such refusal at 
present, nor, he thinks, ever did in this country. 

In the trial of Colonel Fiennes for surrender- 
ing the city of Bristol, Prynne, the prosecutor, 
speaking of a man's modest excuse of his own in- 
sufficiency for a place which he perchance desires, 
assimilates it to 

" our bishops' usual answer, nolo, nolo, to vis episcopari ? 
NOW used as a formality, for fashion sake only, even 
when they come to be consecrated ; when in truth they 
make all the friends and means they can to compass that 
bishoprick, which (for fashion sake, out of a dissembling 
modesty), they pretend, and twice together answer 
solemnly (when demanded openly before the congregation) 
that they desire by no means to accept of." State Trials, 
iv. 212. 

Surely Prynne, who is an earlier, perhaps a 
better, authority than Professor Christian, would 
not have made this allusion unless it were founded 
in fact. The question therefore is, whether this 
form of denial, if not adopted now, was or was 
not in use in the Reformed Church before the 
Great Rebellion, in the consecration of bishops ? 

The reply in your same volume, p. 456., does 
not touch this question. EDWARD Foss. 

The Irish Round Towers (2 nd S. ii. 79.) Al- 
though your correspondent C. states he has not 
the slightest doubt that the round towers of Ire- 
land were belfries, (an opinion in which he could 
not know that I might not coincide,) I should not 
have noticed his remarks had they been accom- 
panied with the usual courtesy which generally 
pervades the language of your correspondents, in- 
stead of the following curt rebuke, " that it would 
be a sad waste of your space to reproduce the 
absurd theories with which this question has been 
perplexed." When the origin and use of these 
very ancient'structures have engaged the attention 
of such eminent antiquaries as Tanner, Vallancey, 
Petrie, and others, this ipse dixit of an anonymous 
writer partakes rather too strongly of the authori- 
tative dictum of an imperial dictator. It was not 
the office of your correspondent to decide whether 
the opinions of the above writers might or might 
not be acceptable to your readers. You were the 
proper judge. J. M. G. 

Worcester. 

Varnishing Old Boohs (2 nd S. ii. 69.) Re- 
garding the varnishing of old volumes, I think 
that little can be effected by such compositions to 
preserve leathers : in some cases varnish applied 
to new bindings may tend somewhat to repel the 
action of the atmosphere and deleterious gases, 
but is also likely to harden the leather at the 
joints, the parts where the greatest action takes 
place in opening a book. 



156 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd s. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56. 



There is no doubt that old bindings, if in sound 
condition, may be furbished up (as bookbinders 
say) by the applicatidh of shell varnish ; though 
the thing most wanting to render the leather 
supple is an oil or fatty matter to replace the 
unction dried out of the skin by the action of 
time. A composition to render old hides soft and 
pliable, without staining or injuring, would be a 
desideratum. 

Much harm is done to leather from the want of 
ventilation ; books require use and air, as may be 
seen by the condition of the bindings in many 
large libraries where there are no readers, or 
where there are readers and but little air. The 
library of the Athenaeum was affected so seriously 
some years since from this latter cause (gas and 
heat), that the backs of calf bindings fell away, 
and the leather crumbled upon touching. 

The library ought to have the same attention as 
the green-house ; light, air, and equal moisture, 
ought to be imparted to the leaves in either case. 
Light without injury to colour, moisture without 
mildew, and air without soot, are as necessary to 
the librarian's as to the gardener's charge. 

LUKE LIMNER, F.S.A. 

Eegent's Park. 

Francis's Horace (l st |S. xii. 218. 311.) Allow 
me to add to my reply on this subject in your 
Number for Oct. 20, 1855. I then stated my 
belief that the edition of Francis's Horace printed 
by Woodfall in 1746, was the first edition; and 
I still think it may have been the first edition of 
the entire Translation. But a portion had been 
published in Dublin as early as 1742, for I have 
now before me two handsome 8vo. volumes thus 
entitled : 

" The Odes, Epodes and Carmen Seculare of Horace, in 
Latin and JEngli.sk, with Critical Notes collected from the 
best Latin and French Commentators. 

Musa deditfidibus divos, puerosque Deorum, 
Et pugilem victorem, et equum certamine primum, 
Etjuvenum cur as, et liber a vina reforre. 

Arte Poetica. 

By the Rev. Mr. Philip Francis. Dublin: Printed by 
S. Powell, and Sold by T. Moore, at Erasmus' Head, in 
Dame Street. M.DCCXLII." 

After the title-page of the first volume follows 
" The Names of the Subscribers." A goodly list, 
occupying six pages in double columns, including 
the names of many most eminent persons, and 
headed by those of 

" His Excellency Robert Jocelyn, Esq., Lord High 
Chancellor of Ireland." 

" His Excellency Henry Boyle, Esq., Speaker of the 
Honourable House of Commons." 

Both of whom subscribed for copies on " Royal 
Paper." 

I hope this information will be useful to your 
Querist. M. N. S. 



Hospital Out-Patients (2 nd S. ii. 69.) The 
days of attendance for out-patients at the Bolton 
Dispensary are Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday. 
The greater the number of days the more con- 
venient it must be for the poor, whose time is not 
always their own. It is not expected that the 
patient shall attend except when ordered to do so 
by the surgeon. The population of Bolton at the 
last census was upwards of sixty thousand. 

G. (1.) 

John Ker Strother (2 nd S. i. 211.) That 
there was such a person as John Strother Ker, 
Esq., is most certain, and here are a few notes of 
his descent, copied for the information of HERAL- 
DICUS from my History of North Durham, p. 318.: 

" William Strother of Kirknewton, in Northumberland, 
was father of Lancelot, father of John, father of William, 
of Grindon Ridge, in the parish of Norham in North 
Durham, father of another William who left an only 
daughter married to Walter Ker, Esq. John Strother 
Ker, Esq., their son, baptized at Norham, 28th Sep., 1704, 
married the Hon. Jean Lady Ramsey. (.From Law 
Papers.} The Register of Norham contains the following 
entries: Baptized 25 May, 1679, William, son of Mr. 
William Strother (then a captain in the army), of Grin- 
don Ridge. Jan. 16, 1681-2, Margaret, his dau., bap. 
June 25, 1690, Jane, a dau., bap. Aug. 20, 1770, buried, 
George Strother of Wheeler Street, London." 

JAMES RAINE. 

Lord George Gordon" s Riots (2 nd S. i. 287. 518.) 
In reference to the subject of Lord George 
Gordon's riots, W. W. states that " he can find no 
mention made of any females being left for exe- 
cution ; " but upon referring to the Westminster 
Magazine for July, 1780, I find a list of the 
rioters, among whom are several females : two, 
Mary Roberts and Charlotte Gardner, were ac- 
tually executed on Tower Hill, July 11, 1780. 

FREDERICK DANBY PAJLMER. 

Great Yarmouth. 

George Manners (2 nd S. i. 314.) In answer 
to your correspondent X. (1.) I will state that 
George Manners died in Coburg, Canada West, 
February 18, 1853, aged seventy-five years. He 
was British Consul in Massachusetts, resident in 
Boston, from 1819 to 1839. He was the author 
of several dramas of merit, and other poetical 
works. J. P. 

Boston, U. S. A. 

"Hayne" or Haining" (2 nd S. ii. 49.78.), a 
place reserved; not cultivated or pastured. A 
word in common use in the North of England and 
South of Scotland. In sheep-farms, hained ground 
means, that which is reserved for a particular 
purpose, such as to pasture the lambs upon 
after they are weaned, or for the purpose of 
making hay from. It also, in some of the old 
Scotch acts of parliament, is used for land en- 
closed by a hedge or other fence. Its derivation 



2 d s. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



157 



is probably from the Saxon heg-en, to keep ; 
German, hain, septum. The French word haie, a 
hedge, seems probably to have the same origin : 
as also the English word hay, fodder, being the 
produce of hained pasture. See Jamieson's Dic- 
tionary and Supplement. 

Near the town of Selkirk is a considerable 
estate with a large and ancient mansion, which 
has, time out of mind, been called " The Haining." 

J. Ss. 

In Gloucestershire and Somersetshire the pas- 
ture fields when kept unstocked with cattle for 
mowing, or for future feed, are said to be 
" hayned." GEO. E. FRERE. 

Hoyden Hall, Diss. 

Halliwell (Prov. Diet.} explains this as " an in- 
closure, a park," probably one enclosed by hays 
or hedges. The word hay in this sense is still in 
use in Norfolk, though growing obsolete. 

E. G. R. 

Human Leather (2 nd S. ii. 68.) A portion of 
the skin of a murderer named Charles Smith, who 
was executed at Newcastle-on-Tyne, Dec. 3, 1817, 
underwent the process of tanning, and a piece of 
it was sold so recently as May, 1855. This oc- 
curred at the sale of a part of the library of a well- 
known local collector. The catalogue of the sale 
is before me, and the lot is thus described : 

"Lot 10. A most curious and unique Book, being the 
particulars of the Trial and Execution of Charles Smith, 
who was hanged at Newcastle for Murder, containing a 
piece of his skin tanned into leather for the purpose." 

ROBERT S. SALMON. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

The tanned skin of a man's arm was exhibited 
in Preston by a gentleman named Howitt, in a 
temporary museum got up for a charitable pur- 
pose in the year 1840. It was the colour of a 
new saddle, and much resembled the "basil" so 
much used in leather work. P. P. 

MR. HACKWOOD may find much, if not all, that 
he wants on this subject, in an interesting paper 
by Mr. Way, in the Archaeological Journal, torn. v. 
p. 185. D. ROCK. 

At the public library at Bury St. Edmunds is 
exhibited a book bound in a tanned piece of the 
skin of Corder the murderer. E. G. R. 

" The Tune the old Cow died o/" (2 nd S. i. 375. 
500. ; ii. 39.) Your correspondents are quite on 
a wrong scent on this head. One quotes the old 
nursery rhyme, " Willie Wily had a Cow," which 
is sung to any tune a nurse pleases ; and another 
brings forward the Scotch words, " There was a 
Piper had a Cow," &c., which go to the popular air 
known as " The Corn Rigs are bonny." The cow 
died of no air in particular, still less a popular 



one : " the tune the old cow died of" being merely 
a proverbial or slang way of expressing "the music 
is insufferably bad." P. P. 

Guano (2 nd S. i. 374.) The late Col. Thomas 
Sutcliffe of Burnley, author of Sixteen Years in 
Chili and Peru (published by Fisher, 1841), be- 
lieved himself to have introduced guano into 
modern English husbandry. He had spoken or 
written its praises in terms which appeared so 
exaggerated, that the Earl of Derby (then Lord 
Stanley) had held up him and his fertiliser to 
ridicule at a (I believe) Liverpool Agricultural 
Meeting. Sutcliffe writhed under the satire, and, 
about the year 1839 or 1840, when agriculturists 
were raving about the new manure, and Lord S. 
himself recommending it, he attended several of 
the Lancashire meetings with the intention of 
letting off a speech at his lordship, and inquiring 
who was the fool now ? Whether his friends 
thought it wiser for him to keep quiet, or whether 
the leading men would not tolerate aa angry dis- 
cussion, I cannot say ; but somehow he was always 
deprived of his opportunity, and consequently 
thought himself an ill-used man, who had intro- 
duced an improvement, borne the ridicule, and 
was not allowed to reap the praise. P. P. 

Siege of Lille (2 nd S. ii. 89.) The names of the 
officers killed and wounded at this siege are not 
given in Cannon's Historical Eecords of the British 
Army, and your correspondent had better consult 
the London Gazettes of 1708. Lisle was invested 
August 13 of that year, and Marshal Boufflers capi- 
tulated October 25. Beatson's Military Memoirs 
only commence with the year 1727. John Dun- 
combe served as ensign in the Coldstream Guards 
from April 14, 1702, until his promotion to lieu- 
tenant in the 1st Foot Guards in 1703. Richard 
Spencer served in the Coldstream Guards from 
May 11, 1704, as captain, to July 1712, when he 
died. These officers are not designated in Mac- 
kinnon's History of the Coldstream Guards as the 
sons of Peers. JUVERNA. 

Count Boruwlaski (2 nd S. i. 358.) The monu- 
ment in memory of Count Boruwlaski, of which 
the inscription is correctly printed in the page of 
" N. & Q." above referred to, is placed, not in 
Durham Cathedral, but in the church of St. Mary 
in the South Bailey; near which parish, in an 
extra-parochial cottage between the city wall and 
the river, the count lived for nearly the last 
thirty years of his life with the Misses Ebdon, 
daughters of the organist of that name; who, 
along with Archdeacon Bowyer and others, had 
interested himself in raising by subscription a 
sum of money wherewith to purchase an annuity 
for the little wanderer, and had afforded him an 
asylum in his family. The inscription is not upon 
brass, but upon Derbyshire marble ; and is sur- 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 2 nd g. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56. 



rounded by an architectural framework of ele- 
gant design by Mr. ^Cory, the architect. The 
monument was intended for the cathedral, but an 
objection having been made by the Dean and 
Chapter to the inscription, written by the Rev. 
Thos. Ebdon, minor canon, and nephew of the 
organist, it was by my permission placed in its 
present situation. Let me correct another mis- 
take. The count was buried, not by the side of 
Mr. Stephen Kemble, in the Nine Altars, but 
near the remains of another of his kind friends, 
Mr. John Ley bourne, Deputy- receiver of the 
Dean and Chapter, in the west end of the cathe- 
dral, near the doorway leading into the northern 
tower. His grave is marked by the letters J. B., 
the initials of his name. J. R. 

Sir Ferdinando Gorges (2 nd S. ii. 108.) There 
is a Query, under the title of " New England 
Queries," in the number for Aug. 9. : 

" Where are the papers (if extant) of Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, Governor of Plymouth, about 1620? " 

Connected as I am by marriage with the family, 
and much as I have endeavoured to investigate 
its history, I doubt whether any original papers 
of Sir Ferdinando are now extant. 

But I possess a very curious and rare volume, 
entitled 

" America painted to the Life, written by Sir Ferdi- 
nando Gorges, Knt., Governor of Plimouth, in Devon- 
shire, one of the First and Chiefest Promoters of the 
Plantations. Publisht since his Decease by his Grandson, 
Ferdinando Gorges, Esquire, who hath much enlarged it, 
and added several accurate Descriptions of his own. 4to. 
London, 1658." 

This volume appears to contain a full account 
of every transaction relating to the settlement of 
the Province of Maine and Massachusetts, as far 
as the family of Gorges was concerned. 

I have also lately met with an Historical Dis- 
course by Mr. George Folsom, read before some 
Society in Maine or Massachusetts, which em- 
bodies the information contained in these tracts 
of the Gorges, and seems to contain everything 
which can now be gleaned on the subject. 

The MSS. in the British Museum appear to re- 
late chiefly to the conduct of Sir Ferdinando in 
the affair of the Earl of Essex, which was some 
years previous to his great exertions in the colo- 
nisation of America. Armas. 

"Aneroid" (2 nd S. ii. 98.) MR. PHILLIPS says 
that aneroid means moistureless ; Dr. Mayne (in 
his Expository Lexicon) calls it " a faulty term 
intended to signify airless." I will not ask an 
etymological question, viz., what different persons 
think the word ought to mean according to the 
supposed derivation ; but I will ask the following 
simple historical questions relating to a plain 
matter of fact. 



1. In what work does this "faulty term" first 
occur ? 

2. Who invented the term ? 

3. What is the explanation or derivation of the 
;erm given by the inventor ? M. D. 

Portraits of Swift (2 nd S. ii. 21. 96.) Thank- 
ng C. for his information on this subject, I feel 
sorry I cannot supply him with further details of 
importance as to the edition of Swift's Works 
alluded to by me, being in possession of only one 
volume, the main title-page of which is defective, 
but from some of the inside title-pages to par- 
ticular tracts I find it to be " vol. iv.," and " Printed 
in the year MDCCXXXIV." An " Advertisement " 
to the volume, amongst other things, commences 
by stating : 

' The ensuing volume which compleats the Set contains 
all such Writings imputed to the Author as relate to Ire- 
land ; whereof the principal are called The Drapiers 
Letters, and to these we have added two which were 
never printed before. They were procured from a Friend 
of the Author's in the original Manuscript as we are as- 
sured and have good Reason to believe : those who are 
better judges will soon determine whether they are genuine 
or no." 

The edition I cannot say positively to be from 
the press of Faulkner, though usually considered 
so. The plate bears no name of "Vert," or 
' Vertue," nor of any engraver's marks whatever. 
It is possible that the work may have been alto- 
gether brought out clandestinely. G. N. 

Crooked Naves (2 nd S. i. 432. 499., &c.) The 
nave of St. Mary's church, at Bungay, is built in 
a different line from the chancel ; the divergence 
is almost ten degrees, as I judge by the eye. The 
chancel is the oldest part, being early Decorated, 
or late Early English, whilst the nave is early Per- 
pendicular. The pews, however, it is very re- 
markable, are of the same age as the chancel, and 
have plainly been worked up in the late rebuild- 
ing of the nave. The chancel is now in ruins, 
only the other part of the church being used for 
divine service. B. B. WOODWARD. 

Bungay, Suffolk. 

Holly, the only indigenous English Evergreen 
(2 nd S. i. 399., &c.) In the limestone districts 
at the head of Morecombe Bay, about Silverdale, 
and in various parts of Furness, both the yew and 
juniper grow in profusion. The yew and holly 
attain a large size, and as they grow in juxta- 
position, amidst rocks never disturbed by the 
hand of man, it may naturally be supposed that 
the one is as much entitled to be styled " indi- 
genous" as the other. Has MR. WHITE ever 
visited that part of the kingdom ? G. (1.) 

Patrick O' Kelly, the Irish Bard (2 nd S. ii. 107.) 
I remember seeing this person when he was 
making a tour through the south of Ireland in 



2 d S. NO 34., AUG. 23. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



159 



182930, soliciting subscriptions for a forthcoming 
volume of poems. He was one of the most im- 
pudent men alive ; and it is recorded that when 
King George IV. visited Dublin in 1821, he was 
informed that O'Kelly was a remarkable character, 
and then in Dublin, on which his Majesty allowed 
the poet to be presented to him. O'Kelly, who 
was lame, was presented, and the king, anxious 
to put him at ease, remarked, " I regret to see 
that you are lame." " Yes, your Majesty," said 
O'Kelly, " we are all lame ; the three of us." 
" What? " asked the king, " three lame persons in 
one family ! A sad calamity indeed ! " " Yes," 
replied O'Kelly, " in the great family of the Poets ! 
O'Kelly, Scott, and Byron, we are all lame." 

JlJVERNA. 

Premature Interments (2 nd S. ii. 103.) With 
reference to the article on premature interments I 
may refer those of your readers who take an in- 
terest in the subject to an able and most interest- 
ing article in the Quarterly Review, vol. Ixxxv. 
p. 346., entitled " Fontenelle on the Signs of 
Death," the authorship of which has been ascribed 
to Dr. Fergusson. For the benefit of those who 
have not the volume at hand I may add that the 
learned author is an utter disbeliever in " pre- 
mature interments." M. A., Oxon. 

Oxford and Cambridge Club. 

Add to the list of books on this neglected sub- 
ject, one called The Disease of Death. I think it 
is by a deceased physician of the name of Graham, 
of Caius College, Cambridge. The author's pa- 
nacea is a bath of warm earth. 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

Blue and Buff (2 nd SL i. 269.) In Hudibras, 
the poet, speaking of his hero, says : 

" For he was of that stubborn crew, 
Hight Presbyterian true blue." 

This will carry the blue higher up than the reign 
of George I. The luff, I suspect, dates from the 
buff-coat. DELTA. 

John Knoxs Prophecy (2 nd * S. i. 270.) Ac- 
cording to the Scandalous Chronicle, the grand 
monarque was not the son of Louis XIII. : if so, 
the prophecy would hold good. DELTA. 

Running Footmen (2 nd S. i. passim.} There is a 
public-house in Charles Street, Berkeley Square, 
much used by the servants of the neighbouring 
gentry, which is called by the name, and has a 
painting of this functionary for its sign. It repre- 
sents a tall, thin, agile man, running at a steady, 
effortless pace on a country road. He is dressed 
in knee-breeches, confined round the waist by a 
silken scarf, white stockings, and black shoes ; a 
short jacket, a jockey cap, and a long stick with a 



metal ball on the top, complete his costume. Un- 
derneath is inscribed, " I am the only running 
footman." JOHN MILAND. 

Strabo on Ireland (2 nd S. i. 512.) The Editor, 
at p. 512. supra, questions the publication of this 
book for several reasons, amongst which he gives 
the following : " The publisher, I. Stone, is un- 
known." Now Mr. Silvester Redmond, of Liver- 
pool, who was the writer of the original reference 
in the columns of the Wexford Independent, gives 
the following proofs of his (Stone's) existence.* 

Mr. Redmond is not very complimentary to 
" N. & Q." in the remainder of his letter. With 
this I have nothing to do ; but it appears to me 
that the non-existence of the book in question is 
not by any means satisfactorily established. I 
trust, therefore, that some of the readers of " N. 
& Q." may keep the Query in mind, and commu- 
nicate to its readers the existence (if it can be 
proved) of a book which, if found, may serve to 
throw light on a much vexed question, the Round 
Towers of Ireland. JAMES GRAVES, Clerk. 

Kilkenny. 

Sir Edward Coke (2 nd S. ii. 58.) Amongst 

my collection of autographs is one occupying 

about half an inch square, on paper of that date, 

" Edward 

Cook," 

mounted carefully, secundem artem, with this in- 
scription : 

Autograph of Sir Edward Coke, 
Lord Chief Justice of England. 

1613." 
and this addition in a different handwriting : 

" Placed here to shew, what Gulls, 
Collectors are considered to be by Dealers ! " 

E. D. 

Welsh Custom (1 st S. xii. 427.)- The division 
of ships into twenty-four carats is recognised in 
Sardinia, Naples, Austria, and all the Italian 
states. COOPER HILL. 

Gloucester. 

Arms in Severn Stoke Church (2 nd S. ii. 112.) 
These arms are of frequent occurrence in the 
cathedral and neighbourhood of Gloucester, upon 
encaustic tiles ; but the cross crosslets in them 
cannot, I think, have any connection with the 
Berkeley coat, the crosses in the latter being 
patee. If you have any other authority than that 
of Sir Robert Atkyns for your statement, I shall 
be glad to be referred to it. COOPER HILL. 

Gloucester. 

[* We have omitted the list of works containing the 
name of I. Stone, as it is clear there was a bookseller of 
that name, although unchronicled by Nichols and Tim - 
perley. We hope Mr. Redmond will eventually be* able 
to dispose of our other reasons for doubting the existence 
of this work.] 



160 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 34., AUG. 23. '56. 



Arnold of Westminster (2 nd S. ii. 110.) Among 
the names of churchwardens of St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, occur those of 

1644-7. Michael Arnold. 

1665-8. Michael Arnold. 

1675-6. Nehemiah Arnold. 

1693. Tanner Arnold. 

There are monuments of some of the family in 
the church; and the parish registers would no 
doubt supply ample information. 

William Arnold died Aug. 23, 1734, aged 
twenty-five. Arms : gules, a chevron, ermine, 
between 3 pheons, or. 

Mary, wife of John Arnold, daughter of John 
and Mary Harvey, died Sept. 29, 1701, aged 
twenty-one. 1. As above. 2. Gules, on a bend 
arg., 3 trefoils slipped, vert. : or a canton or, a 
leopard's head of the first. 

Dr. Samuel Arnold, author of the Maid of the 
Mitt, died in Duke Street, Oct. 22, 1802. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

In the Report of Lord Stafford's trial, I find 
Mr. Arnold a member of the House of Commons, 
"standing up in his place" to testify to the good 
character of Edward Tubberville, one of the Plot 
witnesses. He seems, however, to have been a 
country gentleman, and an active man against the 
Papists. A. B. R. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Mr. Sims has just published a volume which promises 
to be of considerable utility to all who are engaged in in- 
vestigations of an antiquarian, historical, or genealogical 
nature. Its ample title-page describes its object. It is 
entitled A Manual for the Genealogist, Topographer, An- 
tiquary, and Legal Professor, consisting of Descriptions of 
Public Records, Parochial and other Registers, Wills, 
County and Family Histories, Heraldic Collections in Public 
Libraries, -c. The work is evidently the result of much 
well-directed labour, and is calculated to facilitate very 
considerably the researches of all persons who may be 
compelled by circumstances, or induced by a love of ge- 
nealogical studies, to prosecute inquiries which involve the 
examination of the early monuments of our national 
history. All such parties, whether engaged in the prose- 
cution of personal claims, or amusing themselves by 
archaeological speculations, will find in Mr. Sims's newly 
published volume a most useful assistant. When noticing 
his Handbook to the Library of the British Museum, we 
could not help expressing our hope that the trustees, 
whose desire it must be to facilitate the use of the Museum 
library, would avail themselves of the first opportunity of 
marking their approval of Mr. Sims's attempt to promote 
so important an object. We are sorry to find that we 
may now repeat that expression of our hope. For we 
understand notwithstanding that fitness for promotion 
which his published works show him to be in possession 
of Mr. Sims is still left in the very junior position in that 
Institution which he has occupied for so many years. 
Mr. Sims deserves better treatment at the hands of those 
who are responsible for the administration of the British 
Museum. 



Ferny Combes; a Ramble after Ferns in the Glens and 
Valleys of Devonshire, by Charlotte Chanter, written to 
"lead the youthful, and to cheer the weary spirit, by 
leading them with a woman's hand to the Ferny Combes 
and Dells of Devon." This pleasing little volume de- 
serves a place in the travelling bag of every one who wants 
to add a new charm to a ramble through the beautiful 
county of Devon. How much is the pleasure of a tour 
enhanced when some special object is mixed up with it, 
and what more pleasing than that of a study, as of Ferns, 
which may afterwards be pursued with interest by the 
domestic hearth. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

SEWEIL'S (W.) HAWKSTONE, A TALE OF AND FOR ENGLAND. 2 Vols. 

Fcap. 8vo. (Second-hand.) 

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be 
sent to MESSRS. BELL & DALDY, Publishers of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

THE CDRLIAD. A Hypercritic upon the Dunciad. London, 1729. 
NECK OR NOTHING. A Consolatory Letter from Mr. D nt n to Mr. 
C rll, &c. London, 1716. 

Wanted by William J. Thorns, Esq., 25. Holywell Street, Millbank, 
Westminster. 

SHAKSPEARE'S PLAYS. The First Two Volumes of the 8vo. 3 volume 
edition. Published by Johnson in 1745. 

Wanted by Mr. Crowther, East Dereham, Norfolk. 



10 

We hope next week to lay before our readers a further and very in- 
t, resting paper from the pen of PROFESSOR DE MORGAN on the subject of 
The Earl of Halifax and Mrs. Catherine Barton. 

G. R. C. is referred to " N. & Q.," 1st S. i. pp. 383. 419. 420. for much 
curious learning on the subject o/Moses being represented with Horns. 

W. THREI.KAD EDWARDS is thanked for his suggestion, which has been 
once adopted, but found not to answer. 

J. F. F. is thanked for The Monody. It is very well knoivn, and though 
we may be glad to print it hereafter, ice are sure J. F. F. will agree with 
us that this is not quite the time for doing so. 

VINDEX. The Criminal Statistics are annually printed, and laid be- 
fore Parliament. They may be purcli ased of MESSRS. SPOTTISWOODE, at 
the Office for Sale of Papers, House of Lords, or of MESSRS. HANSARD, 
Abingdon Street, Westminster. 

R. T. B., will find the subject of Collars of SS. very fully discussed in 
our 1st Series, Vols. ii., iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. and x. See General Index. 

EIN FRAGKR will find the beautiful song from Shirley's Contention of 
Ajax and Ulysses, beginning 

" The glories of our blood and state 

Are shadows, not substantial things 

reprinted in the third volume ofEHis's Specimens of the Early English. 
Poets. 

P. H. The striking couplet 

" The Soul's dark Cottage, battered and decayed, 
Lets in new light through chinks that time has made," 

is from Waller's Epilogue to his Poems of Divine Love. See " N. & Q.," 
1st S. iii. 154, 155. for several jiurallel passages. 

INDEX TO THE FIRST SERIES. As this is now published, and the im- 
pression is a limited one, such of our readers as desire copies would do 
well to intimate t/ietr u-ixh to their reaper/ ire booksellers without delay. 
Our publishers, MESSRS. BF.I,L & DALDV, !!/ forward copies by post on 
recent of a Post Office Order for Five Shillings. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published^ at noon on Friday, so that the 
Coi'iitry Booksellers may receive Copies in that night's parcels, and 
deliver them to their Subscribers on the Saturday. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is also issued in Monthly Parts, for the con- 
venience of those who may either have a difficulty in procuring the un- 
stonnietl wei'kli/ Xu tubers, or prefer receir/n;/ it monthly. White parties 
resident in tlie country or abroad, who maybe desirous of receiving the 
vet klii .Vumbcrs, may have stamped copies fonvarded direct from the 
1'i'liH'sher. The subscription for the stumped edition of "NOTES AND 
QUERIES" (including a very copious Index) is eleven shillings and four- 
pence for six months, which may be paid by Post Office Order, drawn in 
favour of the Publisher, MR. GEORGE BELL,' No. 186. Fleet Street. 



2 nd S. N 35., AUG. 30. '56.} 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



161 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 30, 1856. 



LORD HALIFAX AND MRS. CATHERINE BARTON. 

(1 st S. viii. 429.) 

Three years ago I collected all I could find re- 
lating to the connexion of Newton's niece with 
Lord Halifax. My conclusion and "all my 
conclusion " was that " a private marriage, ge- 
nerally understood among the friends of the parties, 
seems to me to make all the circumstances take an 
air of likelihood which no other hypothesis will 
give them." Sir David Brewster discussed ray 
arguments in his Life of Newton, published in 
1855 : and I made such reply as I then judged 
necessary in a review of his book which I wrote 
for the North British Review (No. 46, August, 
1855). Before proceeding to give two additional 
presumptions, I add some remarks to this review. 

Sir David Brewster neglects the character of my 
conclusion as to probability : and argues as if I 
affirmed that I had proved a marriage. He 
would have done better if he had discussed my 
opinion from my own words. / could con- 
tend, as well as himself, that all the facts alleged 
by me did not prove a marriage. The point on 
which I gave the opinion that reasonable evidence 
existed was an alternative, namely, that there 
was either a marriage or an irregular connexion. 
Again, Sir D. Brewster speaks thus (vol. ii. 
p. 277.) : 

" To infer a marriage, when the parties themselves have 
never acknowledged it, when no trace of a record can 
be found, and when no friend or relation has ever at- 
tempted even to make it the subject of conjecture, is to 
violate every principle of sound reasoning ; and we are 
disposed to think that Mr. De Morgan's respect for the 

lemory of Newton has led him to what he regards as the 

aly conclusion which is compatible with the character of 

i man so great and pure." 

First, I did not infer a marriage, except as the 
lore probable of two things, of which I held one 
the other sufficiently established. Secondly, I 
med towards, not simply a marriage, but a " pri- 
vate marriage, generally understood among the 
friends of the parties." Insert this, and see how 
ir D. Brewster' s sentence then reads. " To infer 
[private] marriage [generally understood among 
friends of the parties], when the parties them- 
slves have never acknowledged it, when no 
race of a record can be found, and when no 
riend or relation has ever attempted even to 
lake it the subject of conjecture, is to violate 
jyery principle of sound reasoning." I think it 
violates no principle: certainly not every prin- 
ciple : for instance, how does it violate the prin- 
ciple that a universal negative proposition is 
mvertible ? But when Sir D. Brewster repre- 
its as speaking simpliciter an opponent who is 



speaking secundum quid, he violates one principle 
of sound reasoning, and enables that opponent, as 
the fencers say, to beat down his guard. 

Again, Sir D. Brewster conjectures that my re- 
spect for the memory of Newton has led me to the 
only conclusion compatible with the character of 
a man so great ahd pure. When did I ever 
show any respect for the memory of Newton, in 
any sense in which respect for the memory of the 
dead means something different from respect for 
merit in the living ? Respect for memory, in 
the sense in which Sir D. Brewster appears to 
use the words, generally includes willingness to 
cast a veil over faults for the sake of excellences. 
Now, of all Englishmen living, I am the one who 
has most dwelt upon Newton's faults, and most 
strongly insisted that respect for his memory should 
not prevent the clearest and fullest exposition of 
them. I have always insisted that greatness, in- 
tellectual greatness, should be no cover whatever 
for delinquency of any kind. And I confidently 
appeal to those who have read any of my writings 
on the subject of Newton, whether they will not 
believe me when I make the assertion following. 
I say that if I had on close reflection seen reason to 
think Newton had connived at a dishonourable 
union between his friend and his niece, I would no 
more have been deterred from giving that opinion 
to the world by gravitation, fluxions, and optics, or 
by the world's worship of the discoverer, than I 
would have been deterred from giving evidence 
that a man had gone down into a coal-mine by my 
knowledge of his having at another time gone up 
to the top of St. Paul's. 

What I did do was this : I took the purity of 
Newton's private life (a fact as well established as 
any such fact can be) for presumptive evidence that, 
as there is reason to suppose he always countenanced 
his niece, the connexion of that niece with Halifax 
was honourable. This is altogether independent 
of respect: it would equally be my opinion, if I 
did not respect purity of life. Those who in their 
secret hearts think a man a fool who would not 
have connived, if he could have got or kept any- 
thing by it, may be more difficult to bring to a 
belief of Newton's character ; but, once brought 
to that belief, they would, in their own language, 
think Newton was that fool. The second clause 
of Sir D. Brewster's sentence ought to have run 
as follows : 

" Mr. De Morgan has distinctly asserted that his 
opinion of Newtoirs moral life and sentiments has helped 
in drawing him to what he regards as the only con- 
clusion compatible with the character of a nlan so pure." 

I now proceed to the additional presumptions 
above alluded to : 

A few days ago, my friend Mr. Libri showed me 
a letter, written by Newton, which he had bought 
at a sale (H. Belward Kay's sale, Lot 938.). The 
handwriting is indisputable. It appears to have 



162 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. NO 35^ AUG. 30. '5C. 



belonged to a collection of Newton papers bought 
by the late Mr. RodcLin 1847. The address is 
wanting ; but it, is written to some Sir John of 
Lincolnshire ; and the catalogue entry conjectures 
that it is written to Sir John Newton (of Gunwar- 
ley or Gunnerly, styled by Sir D. Brewster of 
Haiher), whom Newton acknowledged as a distant 
relation. This matter is of little consequence, 
and that little merely as follows : a distant relation 
is more likely than no relation at all to have been 
among the persons privy to the fact of the mar- 
riage, if marriage there were. The letter is as 
follows (I have put a few words in Italics) : 

" Leicester Fields, 23 May, 1715. 

" Sr John, I am concerned that I must send an 
excuse for not waiting upon you before your journey into 
Lincolnshire, The concern I am in for the loss of my 
Lord Halifax, and the circumstances in which I stand re- 
lated to his family will not suffer me to go abroad till his 
funeral is over. And therefore I can only send this 
letter to wish you and your Lady and family a good 
journey into Lincolnshire,' and all health and happiness 
during your stay there. And upon your first return to 
London I will wait upon you and endeavour by fre- 
quenter visits to make amends for the defect of them at 
p'resent. I am, Sir, your most humble * and most obedient 
servant, ISAAC NEWTON." 

Newton thus distinctly informs us, that circum- 
stances in which he stands related to Halifax's 
family are such as conspire to prevent him from 
paying visits till after the funeral : and that these 
circumstances are worthy of being named next to 
his concern for his oldest friend and political pa- 
tron. Newton's relation to Halifax was of no 
common kind. In 1680 they were working to- 
gether to establish a Philosophical Society at 
Cambridge. In 1688 they were jointly, and with 
better success, trying their hands at a great revo- 
lution, as members of the Convention. In 1696 
they were again associated in the difficult opera- 
tion of re-establishing the coinage. They had 
been warm friends and official connexions through 
the greater part of their working lives, and for 
thirty-five years. The loss of Halifax would have 
been very sufficient reason, and very notorious 
reason, for Newton to assign in explanation of his 
inability to pay visits before the funeral. But 
there was something more ; something worthy to 
be named after the first reason ; and something 
sufficiently notorious for Sir John Newton, or 
some other Sir John among Newton's visiting 
friends, to understand without farther allusion. 

Did any circumstances relate Newton to any 
other person of the blood of Charles Montague ? 

* A letter from Newton to Sir John Newton in the 
April following (Edleston, Correspondence, 8fc., p. 307.), 
begins " Sir John," and ends " Your affectionate kinsman 
and most humble servant." But the variety of the 
modes of address from one person to the same other 
person at the period in question, and down to the end of 
the century, must have been noticed by every one who 
has paid attention to correspondence. 



The married names of two of the sisters, according 
to the biographer, were Willmot and Cosby : of 
another, according to Halifax's will, Lawton. The 
index of Sir D. Brewster' s book says, as to Mon- 
tague, "see Halifax," and does not mention the 
other names. Newton was not an executor. He 
never received any patronage from any of Mon- 
tague's family : they had none to give. Halifax 
was himself the patron of his family, and had, not 
long before his death, resigned the rich place of 
Auditor of the Exchequer in favour of his nephew 
George Montague, who succeeded him in the 
barony. Other relatives, besides the successor and 
sole executor, as named in the will, are Christo- 
pher and James Montague, brothers ; Edward 
Montague and John Lawton, nephews ; Anne and 
Grace Montague, nieces. With all or some of 
these Newton was probably acquainted : but I am 
not aware of positive evidence even of so much as 
this. As to any circumstances relating Newton 
to any one of them, or any other of Montague's 
blood, there is not the smallest evidence of any 
such things. For myself, as may be supposed, I 
incline more strongly than before to the suppo- 
sition that Halifax's family, in the sense in which 
the word is here used, consisted of a widow, 
known as Catherine Barton, and Newton's niece. 
I see in the phrase "circumstances in which I 
stand related to his family," the cautious mode of 
writing which I suppose to have become familiar 
when allusion was made to the understood but 
unacknowledged marriage. 

I now state another of the many little circum- 
stances which all seem to converge to one point. 
The periods are roughly stated. Newton lived in 
London thirty years ; his niece must have finished 
her education not long after he came to London 
(1696). That she lived with him on leaving school 
seems pretty certain. In 1700 Newton wrote a 
letter (Brewster, ii. 213.) to her, then in the 
country for recovery from the small-pox, which 
has very much the air of a letter written to an 
inmate of his own house during casual removal. 
Sir D. Brewster puts it that she was (Do., 
ii. 279.) boarded in Oxfordshire, where she had 
the small-pox, and that she had not then ever 
been an inmate of Newton's house : but the com- 
mencement of the letter, in which Newton is 
glad the air agrees with her, makes it appear 
that she was removed there after the disorder : he 
is glad that " the remains of the small-pox are 
dropping off apace." And a little London cir- 
cumstance is mentioned : " Sir Joseph Tilley is 
leaving Mr. Toll's house, and it's probable I may 
succeed him." Would the niece of twenty, 
boarded till then in the country, be assumed by 
Newton (hypotheses non Jingo} to be up to the 
fact that Sir Joseph Tilley lived in Mr. Toll's 
house ; or would Newton have previously laid 
the foundation of this knowledge, apropos of no- 



2d s. NO 35., AUG. 30. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



163 



thing ? The letter is a plain proof that she had 
left his house, her usual home, for country air 
after the small -pox ; and I take it that she lived 
with him from the time of her leaving school. 
Now Conduitt informs us that his wife lived with 
her uncle nearly twenty years, before and after 
her marriage ; and, when * in town, the Conduitts 
lived with ft ewton up to his death. Now twenty 
from thirty leaves ten : there are, roughly, ten f 
years of Catherine Barton's life to be accounted 
for. From 1706 to 1715 we have about ten years. 
In 1706, as Sir David Brewster found from the 
Newton papers, the annuity trust was created by 
which Halifax held 200/. a-year in trust for Miss 
Barton : in 1706 also he made his first codicil in 
her favour. He died in 1715. The rough period, 
then, of which we must demand explanation, is of 
that length which intervenes between an annuity 
settled (by Halifax, I believe) and a bequest first 
made, at the one end, and the death of Halifax at 
the other. For Sir D. Brewster's very curious 
reason to show that the annuity was bought by 
Newton, a reason which puts little Kate, at six 
years old, in possession of the key of Newton's 
cupboard at Trinity College, where we can only 
hope she did not eat too much sugar, - see the 
article in the North British Review, cited above. 

Add to this explanation of the ten years the 
facts that Halifax's first codicil spoke of love 
and affection, but that the codicil of 1712 spoke 
of the sincere love he had long had for her person, 
and the pleasure and happiness he had had in her 
conversation. Remember also the statement pub- 
licly made in the Life of Halifax, written by a 
strong partisan, that Catherine Barton had been 
to Halifax the " superintendent of his domestic 
affairs," for which, though a " woman of strict 
honour and virtue," she had had passed upon her 
a "judgment which she no ways merited:" a 
statement never contradicted, though made public 
at the time when the death of Halifax must have 
turned all men's eyes upon the facts of his life. 

* Conduitt was, from and after his marriage, an officer 
of the Mint, as well as a member of Parliament. His 
usual residence must have been in London. That he had 
a country house, and sometimes occupied it, serves Sir D. 
Brewster (ii. 279.) with a pretext for cutting off some of 
the twenty years from the end of Newton's life. He pre- 
sumes that Mrs. Conduitt lived six years of her uncle's 
life with her husband, her uncle not living with them. 
It is not likely that she and her husband left their uncle 
in his extreme old age, and there is no evidence of it. 

f In my former paper I supposed it possible the con - 
nexion might have begun in 1700. With Couduitt's 
twenty years before me, I ought not to have done this. 
I was also not aware that Halifax's first wife, the Coun- 
tess Dowager of Manchester, only died in 1698. This 
lady was the daughter of Sir Christopher Yelverton, Bart. 
Her first husband, to whom she bore nine children, died 
in 1682 : she was married to Charles Montague (who was 
probably ten years younger than herself) a short time 
before the Revolution. 



Read these circumstances, and the others brought 
forward in my former paper, by the light of New- 
ton's statement that circumstances relating him to 
Halifax's family were, over and above his per- 
sonal concern, reasons for keeping the house till 
the funeral - and more than the strong suspicion 
of an unacknowledged marriage must, I think, 
result. I say unacknowledged, as distinct from 
private : known to the circle in which the parties 
lived, but not proclaimed to the world. 
One thing however is clear. If Catherine Bar- 
ton did live with Lord Halifax, it must be to her 
that Newton's allusion is made. And if to her, 
then to her as a wife, not as a mistress. It is 
utterly incredible, even on the supposition of a 
connivance at her dishonour, that Newton should 
have gravely propounded his relationship to his 
friend's mistress as a reason for secluding himself 
till after the funeral. It might in such a case have 
been one of the reasons for his course of conduct, 
but it never would have been an assigned second 
reason, while he had so good and so sufficient a 
first reason to allege. The alternative, then, to 
which other circumstances reduced the question, 
is destroyed. If Newton's niece lived with Lord 
Halifax, it was as his wife. 

Sir D. Brewster's work is one which merits the 
gratitude of all who take interest in Newton. 
And sincere thanks are due to Lord Portsmouth 
for having intrusted the papers to the biographer. 
But I, for one, cannot help hoping that yet further 
examination of them will be permitted. 

A. DE MORGAN. 

August 15, 1856. 



JUNIUS. 

Remark on Junius. The following remark on 
Junius is cited by a correspondent in " N. & Q." 
(2 nd S. i. 288.), and is attributed apparently to 
Archbishop Whately : 

" There are many leading articles in the newspapers 
and other periodicals of this day, as spirited and as viru- 
lent as Junius, and the authorship of which few know or 
care to inquire about. And if the authorship of Junius 
had been known at the time, or shortly after, the whole 
matter would probably have been totally lost sight of for 
more than half a century past. But men love guessing at 
a riddle. It is not the value of a fox, but the difficulty of 
the chase, that makes men eager fox-hunters." 

This explanation of the curiosity about the 
author of the Letters of Junius seems to me far 
from satisfactory. It is indeed certain that if the 
authorship of these letters had been known at or 
near the time of their publication, no efforts for 
its discovery would have been requisite. But can 
it be said that the curiosity existed simply be- 
cause the authorship was unknown ? Where are 
we to find the leading articles in newspapers and 
other periodicals of the day ' e as spirited and as 



164 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2** S. N 35., Aye. 30. '56. 



virulent as Junius ? " The newspapers of that 
day contained no articles such as are now called 
leading articles. Thfey published news, and oc- 
casionally inserted letters from correspondents, 
commenting on public events. But original com- 
positions, similar to the Letters of Junius^ were 
not regularly published by the newspapers till 
about the beginning of this century. Moreover, 
if these articles had appeared at the time, they 
would have been anonymous ; and if they had 
been written with the same force and pungency as 
the Letters of Junius, there would doubtless have 
been an equal curiosity to know their authors. 

The merits of the Letters of Junius are not of a 
high order, but they are precisely of that nature 
which rendered them effective as engines of party 
and personal attack. Partly from their style, 
partly from their boldness, and partly front the 
secret information which their author possessed, 
they produced a powerful influence at the time. 
They have ever since formed the model for the 
writers of our daily press, and the secret of their 
authorship has always continued to be an interest- 
ing question, not simply because it is a secret, but 
because it is a secret which, in the judgment of 
the public, is worth knowing. L. 

Francis, Junius. My attention was drawn to 
the following passage in reading Rogers's Table 
Talk. It may perhaps be worth preserving among 
your notes on this subject : 

" My own impression is that the Letters of Junius were 
written by Sir Philip Francis. In a speech which I once 
heard him deliver at the Mansion House, concerning the 
partition of Poland, I had a striking proof that Francis 
possessed no ordinary powers of eloquence." P. 272. 

Query, Could any of your correspondents inform 
me when this speech was delivered, and where, if 
at all, I can find it reported ? AN OLD PAULINE. 

Was Daniel Wray Junius 9 It is now gene- 
rally understood that the claims of Sir Philip 
Francis as the writer of the Letters of Junius 
have been disproved. I therefore desire to draw 
your attention to an ingenious work by a Mr. 
Falconer, called The Secret Revealed, published 
in 1830, at a time when no one would listen to 
him, because we were then all Franciscans. 

Who Mr. Falconer was I know not ; nor shall 
I trouble you with his speculations generally. 
His argument is to prove that Daniel Wray was 
Junius ; and he adduces one or two facts which 
are startling. What I want is, that some of your 
ingenious correspondents would show how the 
" marvellous coincidences," as he calls them, can 
be explained without admitting the " unity of au- 
thorship ? " 

It is stated in the " Preliminary Essay " to the 
edition of 1812, that the fifty-ninth letter is the 



one with which Junius had originally intended to 
conclude ; but that, as Junius himself says, Gar- 
rick's communication to the King, " has literally 
forced me to break my resolution of writing no 
more." (Vol. i. p. 238.) Qn this Mr. Falconer 
observes : 

Ou the 18th Nov. 1771, Wray thus writes to Lord 
Hardwicke : ' Had I persevered in that apparently wise 
resolution to write no more,' &c. This in itself amounts to 
little, but I request attention to what follows. 

" The communication made by Garrick to the King, 
announcing that Junius would write no more, carries with 
it still stronger evidence of Wray's being the architype of 
Junius. So strong, in,deed, as to exclude all doubt, it is 
presumed, of the fact : for Wray not only gives the same 
intimation to his correspondent, Lord Hardwicke, but 
actually assigns the very cause, and prefixes the precise 
day on which Junius designed to conclude his corre- 
spondence in that character, had he not been forced by 
Garrick, as he expresses himself, to break his resolution 
of writing no more. 

" The fifty-ninth letter of Junius, on what the author 
calls the unhappy differences which had arisen among the 
Friends of the People, is the one with which he had ori- 
ginally intended to conclude. . . That letter is dated 
October 5, 1771. Six days previously [Sept. 29, 1771] 
(mark that!), Wray writes to Lord Hardwicke as 
follows : 



Nash will carry his election, &c. &c. 

satisfy the good people of England 
for a month, accompanied by the finishing dose of Junius 
on Saturday.' In perfect accordance with this decided 
intimation, the intended finishing dose did appear. The 
5th of Oct., 1771, was on a Saturday." 

I agree with Mr. Falconer that the coincidence 
is startling, and I ask, how can it be explained ? 

AN ENQUIRER. 



ILLUSTRATIONS OF MACAULAT. 

" The Plotting Levite?' ' 

With a handful of Sorrow and Grief I ana drawn 
To tell you the truth of the Parsons at Land, 
And a new swearing brood not in Buff but in 

Lawn, 
The humble Devotants to Lewis le Grand ; 

Conscience, Conscience, nothing but Con- 
science 

Nothing but Conscjence made them forbear, 
Nothing but Conscience, nothing but Con- 
science 
Nothing but Conscience made them forswear. 

A Council of Six, all pious and good, 
Jure divino every one, 
For Popery, Plotting, Sedition and Blood ; 
And praying devoutly as right as a gun ; 

Conscience, Conscience, nothing but Con- 
science, 

Nothing but Conscience made them to plot, 

Nothing but Conscience, nothing but Con." 
science : 

Honour and Loyalty they had forgot. 



35., AUG. 30. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



165 



Like the Prophets of old, so they do anoint, 
Their sanctified Fingers are laid to the Work, 
With Jure Divino in every joynt, 
'Tis all one to them be he Christian or Turk ; 
Reason, Reason, nothing but Reason, 
Nothing but Reason they would be at, 
Nothing but Reason, nothing but Reason, 
Non-swearing Parsons would bubble the State. 

To bring in the French whom now they adore, 
Most piously they combin'd in a Plot 
To murder the King that sav'd them before, 
A Villany sure that will ne're be forgot ; 
Treason, Treason, nothing but Treason, 
Nothing but Treason up to the ears, 
Nothing but Treason, nothing but Treason, 
Passive Obedience in Colours appears. 

A few years ago it can't be forgot, 
Be certain Tie tell you no more than is true, 
'Twas a damnable sin to be found in a Plot, 
As then was observed by some of their Crew: 
Ely, Ely, Reverend Ely, 
Reverend Ely left us i' th' lurch, 
Reverend Ely and his grave Elders 
Want French Dragoons to settle the Church. 

Our grave Elder Brother, the worst of the Four, 
Lies close in his Den like a Boar in tfye Stye, 
The Blood of all Ireland lies at his Door, 
And from the Almighty for judgment doth cry : 
Ely, Ely, William and Ely, 
William and Ely, Franck and Tom, 
William and Ely, William and Ely, 
William and Ely, Francis and John. 

The Cut-throat Petitioners acted their part* 
And gravely kept time with the Plot and $he CreAV, 
They wanted a Mayor wjth a Jacobite heart 
To Murther the King when they found it wou!4 
do; 

Docjson, Dodson, Dingo and Dodson, 
Dingo and Dodson, Coward and Fool, 
Dingo and Dodson, Dingo and Dodson, 
To bring up the Rear, will serve for a Tool. 

No. 1155. of the Collection of Proclamations, 
&c., presented to the Chetham Library, Man- 
chester, by James O. Halliwell, Esq., F.R.S. 

BIBLIQTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



CURIOUS ACCIDENTAL CIRCUMSTANCE. 

The following anecdote may be considered 
worthy of being preserved in the pages of ** N. & 
Q." It was told me by an old gentleman many 
years since deceased, and occurred about eighty 
years ago. I am sorry for not having preserved 
the particulars more minutely, but the matter of 
fact may be depended on. 

The farm lease of a tenant in the parish of 
Cathcart (near Glasgow) was about expiring. 



By this he was thrown into difficulties as to work- 
ing his ground for the crops of the subsequent 
year, and also from his landlord being absent in 
London without any one knowing his address. 
The farmer, however, nothing daunted, took his 
staff in his hand, and in three weeks accomplished 
the distance entirely by a pedestrian journey. He 
arrived in the Metropolis on a Sunday morning, 
and was so struck with the magnitude of the city, 
and the seeming utter impossibility of discovering 
his landlord, that he gave himself up to a sort of 
despair. In this perplexity, finding himself near 
a church, he entered it during divine service, 
when, to his astonishment and joy, whom should 
he descry but his landlord in a pew of the front 
gallery. An appointment having been made for 
next day, the lease was talked over and renewed, 
the farmer immediately left the city, and in another 
three weeks was at his own ingle. 

The probability is, that on his travels, like the 
cattle drovers, he carried along with him as his 
chief subsistence his bag of oatmeal, which, mixed 
with cold water, composed the well-known mess 
of crowdie. In the course of his journey home 
he halted in a provincial town at the ordinary of 
a quakeress, who set before him for dinner a large 
roast of lamb, which soon wholly disappeared. On 
inquiring for his bill the landlady in amazement 
addressed him as follows : " Friend, thou hast 
surely not seen meat since thou hast been in Scot- 
land ; that piece of lamb cost me twenty-pence, 
but it is the rule of my house not to charge more 
than eight-pence for thy dinner;" and I have no 
doubt the canny Scot saw the propriety of not ex- 
ceeding the usual fare. G. N. 



THE NINE CHURCHES OF CHILCOMBE, NEAR 
WINCHESTER. 

Amongst the means which have been resorted 
to by some local historians for the purpose of en- 
hancing the glory of the former metropolis of 
England, in the times before the Reformation, 
none have met with so easy an acceptance as that 
of multiplying the number of churches which then 
beautified Winchester and its neighbourhood. 
Dr. Milner, in the Appendix to his History of 
Winchester, No. VI., after reckoning up ninety- 
two churches and chapels, all of which he places 
in the city and immediate suburbs, says in a note, 
that he believes "the number of churches and 
chapels was much greater than those here enu- 
merated, especially before the destructive civil 
war in King Stephen's reign ! " The city, it must 
be remembered, is about half a mile in length, and 
somewhat more than three furlongs in breadth ; 
whilst the suburbs the Soke and the Liberties 
r cannot have extended above a quarter of a mile 
beyond each gate ; and, consequently, the largest 



166 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. NO 35., AUG. 30. '56. 



area that can be assigned for this incredible 
number of religious edifices, with all their appur- 
tenances, is one poor square mile ! 

Perhaps we may gain a clue to the facts of the 
case by the following Note. Adjacent to Win- 
chester, on the south-east, lies the parish of HJhil- 
combe, anciently Ciltecumbe, occupying a sort of 
bay or basin between the downs, ending in St. 
Giles's and St. Catherine's Hills. Of this parish, 
Sir Henry Ellis, in his General Introduction to 
Domesday, vol. i. p. 190. n. 2 ., remarks : " It is sin- 
gular that it should be entered in the Survey as 
having nine churches " (torn. i. fol. 41.) ; and adds, 
" there is no accounting for this, without adverting 
to the probability that it must have formerly in- 
cluded a part of the suburb of Winchester." 
These nine churches make a great figure in all the 
local histories ; though others besides Sir Henry 
Ellis have been puzzled to account not only for 
the disappearance of eight of them without leaving 
" a wrack behind," but still more for the existence 
of so many in a place where, even in modern 
times, the one little Norman church amply suf- 
fices for the entire population of the parish. 

Turning to Domesday we read that the parish 
was estimated at one hide and sixty- eight caru- 
cates ; that in the domain were twelve carucates 
and thirty villeins, and a hundred and fifteen 
bordarii, with fifty-seven carucates. Then, it 
proceeds, are nine " aecclae," and twenty serfs, and 
four mills, &c. Now the insertion of churches 
between borderers and serfs is highly improbable ; 
but, instead of ecclesia, read, as Mr. C. Hook (a 
gentleman well known to all investigators in the 
reading-room of the British Museum) suggests to 
me, ancilla ; and not only are all the difficulties 
cleared away, but you obtain a truer picture of 
the condition of the parish, which does, to this 
day, as Sir Henry observes, " include a part of 
the suburb of Winchester." 

How much light this correction might throw 
upon some parts of the Survey, we need not say : 
but we should not employ it until its value has 
been canvassed, and the MSS. examined, so that 
we may proceed upon sure grounds to substitute 
female serfs for churches in those other passages in 
Domesday. B. B. WOODWARD. 

Bungay, Suffolk. 



HAYDON S NOTES ON WATERLOO, ETC. 

1 beg leave to send you the enclosed notes, written by 
poor Ilaydon, the painter, in the margin of the volume of 
Scott's Prose Works containing "Paul's Letters to his 
Kinsfolk." He came to this town on a lecturing mission, 
at the close of the year 1839, directly after his visit to 
VValmer Castle ; Avhere his enthusiastic feelings had been 
excited to the highest degree by a tolerably free inter- 
course with the Duke of Wellington. 

By means of the friend with whom he was staving, he 
procured the volume from the library, and he" left his 



mark upon it in the form of these characteristic notes 
The edition is that in 12mo. of 1834. 

ROBERT HARRISON. 
Leeds Library. 

To the note at p. 115., about Guardsman Shaw, Hay- 
don adds : 

" I gave Sir Walter this : Wilkie and I had up 
in my painting several Life-guards who were in 
the battle ; one Hodgins heard some one groaning 
in the yard of La Haye Sainte, where the wounded 
had been removed. He turned, and found Shaw. 
Shaw said, * I am dying ; ' the other swooned away ; 
but the pulling him into a spring cart, to take him 
to Brussels, at day-break, roused him. He turned 
to look for Shaw, who was dead, with his cheek 
lying on his hand. Shaw was a model of mine, 
and as strong as Hercules. I had 5 models in 
the battle : 3 were killed, all distinguished them- 
selves. I told the Duke this at Walnier, 1839 ; 
and he was much interested. 

" B. K. HAYDON. 
"Dec. 9, 1839, Leeds." 

To the Duke's remark at p. 125., " Never mind, we'll 
win this battle yet," Haydon annexes the following ob- 
servation : 

" This was the Austrian General Vincent, Mr. 
Arbuthnot told me. He said to the Duke, in the 
thick of the fight, 'You have got an infamous 
army.' ' I know it,' said the Duke, ' but we'll win 
the battle yet.' In his Dispatches he calls it 'the 
most infamous army I have ever commanded.' 
See Dispatches. H." 

The statement concerning the death of Lieut.-Col. 
Canning elicits the following, p. 126. : 

" Lord Fitzroy told me the orderly who carried 
the Duke's desk was killed. Canning picked it 
up, and said, ' What shall I do with it ? ' ' Keep 
it,' said Lord Fitzroy, ' for the Duke.' Shortly 
after, he was killed. The desk was found, rifled, 
the next day." 

" The friend of ours," who, at p. 128., is said to have 
had the courage to ask the Duke of Wellington whether 
he looked often to the woods from which the Prussians 
were expected to issue 

"Was," says Haydon, "Sir Walter himself, 
when at Paris. He told me so at his own table : 
and," he continues, " I dined at Lord Palmer- 
ston's 1833. On my right was Lord Hill. As he 
lived at Westbourne Green, and I in Edgeware 
Road, he set me down. While with him, as Sir 
Walter had told me what he asked the Duke, I 
determined not to let the moment slip, and said 
to Lord Hill : ' Was there any part of the day 
you despaired at Waterloo, my Lord ?' ' Never? 
said Lord Hill, ' there was no panic ; we were a 
little in advance, and I had never had for a 
moment a doubt of the result. 

" Thus, here is the opinion of the first and 
second in command. Commanders of Divisions 9 



S. N 35., AUG. 30. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



167 



Colonels and Captains, are never to be listened to. 
They can't see 3 feet before them : enveloped in 
smoke, blood, and wounded, they think it's all 
going to ruin, without seeing an inch of the field. 
" I ask pardon for taking these liberties with a 
book of a public library ; but having been inti- 
mate wjth Sir Walter, and known the Duke and 
Lord Hill, and having met them, heard them 
speak of the battle, it is a duty to add authentic 
facts for the sake of the Ladies and Gentlemen of 
Leeds. We are passing away (this generation) ; 
in a few years, the Duke and Lord Hill, and all 
will be gone. Sir Walter has left us, and then 
these little written additions, by one who lived at 
the time, may not be without interest. I apolo- 
gise for the liberty, but must be forgiven. 

"B. R. HAYDON." 

" The Duke heading the final attack with his hat in his 
hand" is corrected at p. 139. : 

" The Duke never took off his hat ; and in ad- 
vance, the Duke was in the rear. 

" From Col. Gurwood, in a letter whilst 
at Leeds, Dec. 12th, 1839. 

"B. R. H." 

General Cambrone's refusal of quarter with the words, 
" The Imperial Guard can die, but never surrender," is 
thus annotated, p. 144. : 

" I heard the Duke say, at the very time the 
French made Cambrone utter this fine bit of 
poetry, he was a prisoner at my quarters. The 
Duke said, 'I didn't let him sup with me he 
broke his honour to Louis and I bowed him and 
his companion into another room.'' At Walmer, 
Oct. 8th, 1839. 

"B. R. H." 



Alpaca. I enclose a cutting from the Hamp- 
shire Telegraph of September 29, 1855. Should 
this account of the introduction of alpaca wool 
into England be correct, it is very possible that 
at some future time all trace willbe lost of the 
facts : I therefore think that a corner in one of 
your columns cannot be thrown away in register- 
ing the manner of the first importation of this 
material into this country, and the name of the 
manufacturer who discovered how to apply it : 

" It is said that the first two cargoes of alpaca that 
reached Liverpool were brought over as ballast, and lay 
for some time unnoticed in the cellars of the broker to 
whom they were consigned, and who considered them 
worthless. A manufacturer named Titus Salt discovered 
them there, and took away a sample to experiment upon. 
Shortly he returned, and, to the astonishment of the 
broker, bought up all that he had, at Sd. per pound. 
Now see the result, in an import considerably above 
2,000,000 Ibs. annually, in an advance of from 10<. to 
2*. 6d. per pound, and in a branch of manufactures pro- 
ducing an immense variety of goods, new to the markets 
of the world, employing profitably the labour of thou- 



sands, and not only sustaining some of our largest fac- 
tories, but actually creating new towns." 

HAUGHMOND. 

Southampton. 

[Mr. William Walton gives a somewhat different ac- 
count of the introduction of the alpaca into England. 
He says, " The first person in this country who intro- 
duced a marketable fabric made from this material was 
Mr. Benjamin Outram, a scientific manufacturer of Greet- 
land, near Halifax, who about 1829 sold it at a very high 
price, in the form of ladies' carriage-shawls and cloak- 
ings, as curiosities. No quantity of the wool existing in 
England, he was obliged to procure a small supply from 
Peru, and gradually the articles manufactured with it 
came into notice. In 1832, Messrs. Hegan, Hall, & Co., 
spirited merchants in Liverpool, convinced from their 
superiority that these new manufactures would ere long 
come into fashion, directed their agents in Peru to pur- 
chase and ship over to them all the parcels of alpaca wool 
they could meet with, and thus was laid the foundation 
of that valuable and growing trade in this article which 
has since risen up The greatest share of the spin- 
ning and weaving of this article falls to Bradford, where 
great credit is due to Mr. Titus Salt, through whose in- 
telligence and perseverance the spinning of alpaca wool 
has been brought to perfection." The Alpaca, by W. 
Walton, 1844, p. 65.] 

A Drawing of the Lord Mayor's Show in 1453. 
Mr. Fairholt, in his Lord Mayors' Pageants, 
printed for the Percy Society, 1843 (parti, p. 8.), 
speaking of " Sir John Norman, the first Lord 
Mayor that was rowed in his barge to Westmin- 
ster, with silver oars at his owne cost and 
charges," has this note : 

" Gough, in his British Topography, vol. i. p. 675., says, 
< there is a drawing of his show on the river in the Pe- 
pysian Library.' " 

A drawing of the Lord Mayor's Show in 1453 
would certainly be a great curiosity, but I am in- 
clined to think that no such representation exists. 
Mr. Fairholt has misquoted Gough, whose words 
are, " there is a drawing of the show," not his 
show ; and do not refer to any show in particular. 
Gough's note is loosely written, but this is evi- 
dently his meaning. EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Anecdote of Prior. The following passage is 
copied from An Historical Guide to the Town of 
Wimborne Minster, DorsetsJiire, second edition, 
1853, p. 30. : 

" There is a fine copy of Sir Walter Raleigh's History 
of the World in this old library, and local tradition at- 
taches an interesting anecdote to this book. It is said 
the poet Prior used to read here often ; and once when 
poring over the book in question on a winter evening, he 
fell asleep, and the candle, falling from the tin sconce of 
the desk upon the middle of the open book, burned slowly 
a round hole through it, may be a hundred pages, rather 
more than less. The smoke of the smouldering paper 
aroused the weary student. A hand would have been 
sufficient to cover the damage and put out the fire ; and 
probably in this way it was extinguished. We may 
imagine, however, the dismay at the mischief done to a 
book costly even now, but then of a much higher mone- 
tary value. The pains taken to remedy the defects marks 



168 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. N 35., AUG. 30. '56. 



the value in which the book was held. Pieces of writing 
paper, about the size of half-a-crown, are very neatly 
pasted into the holes, an>d'the words needed to supply the 
sense are transcribed from the memory, and it is said, in 
the handwriting of Prior." 

This is an interesting anecdote of the poet, if 
true ; but the evidence is not greatly in its favour. 
The bibliographical readers of "K & Q." will 
smile at the writer's idea of the market value of a 
copy of Kaleigh's History of the World ! 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

Plagiarism ly Sir Walter Scott. In S. C. 
Hall's Book of British Ballads, Second Series, 
p. 416., we are told that " Sir Walter Scott added 
to the ballad of * Auld Robin Gray ' the following 
verse, in which it will be perceived that he has 
borrowed an idea from the 'Continuation'" (of 
the ballad) : 

" Nae langer she wept, her tears were a' spent, 
Despair it was come, and she thought it content ; 
She thought it content, but her cheek it grew pale, 
And she droop'd like a lily broke down by the hail." 

The lines in the " Continuation " are, 

"Though ne'er a word he said, his cheek said mair 

than a', 
It wasted like a brae o'er which the torrents fa'." 

The thought and words plagiarised by Sir 
Walter Scott are from Tickell's poem of Colin 
and Lucy, the third stanza, and run thus : 

" Oh ! have you seen a lily pale, 

When beating rains descend? 
So droop'd the slow-consuming maid, 
Her life now near its end." 

Your readers are doubtless familiar with the 
exquisite paraphrase of these lines by Vincent 
Bourne : 

" Vidistin' (quin saepe vides!) ut languida marcent 

Lilia, qu0e subitse prsegravat imber aquae? 
Lento sic periit tabo, sic palluit ilia, 
Ad finem extreme jam properante die." 

JUVERNA, M.A. 

Women's Entrances in Churches. In Brewer's 
Oxfordshire (p. 443.), the following occurs : 

" The principal entrance of the church [Stanton Har- 
court] is by a round-headed arch, on one side of which 
is a small stone receptacle for holy water. At a small 
distance is another door, used by the women only, as, 
from a custom of immemorial standing, they never pass 
through the same entrance with the men." 

The separation of the sexes in church is not 
uncommon ; but do any other examples of sepa- 
rate entrances for each sex exist ? 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Library at St. Mary's, Marlborough. The 
following is extracted from a terrier of the lands 
and profits of the above vicarage, taken in the 
year 1698: 

" Item. The Library of Mr. White, late Hector of Pusey, 
in the county of Berks, given to Cornelius Yeate and his 



successors, Vicars of St. Marie's in Marlborough, which 
Books are now in the possession of the said Mr. Yeat<T 
till a more convenient place can be assigned for them, 
and the Catalogues of the Books is in the Chest of the 
Mayor and Magistrates." 

^ This library is still preserved in excellent con- 
dition, and is lodged in the vicarage house. Mr. 
Yeate was instituted to the benefice in 1677, and 
resigned it in 1707, when he bad been for some 
time archdeacon of Wilts. PATONCE. 

Forensic Wit. Some years ago an action wafr 
brought, at Cardiff Assizes, by a rich plaintiff 
against a poor defendant, who was unable to pay 
a counsel, when Abraham Moore, Esq., of Exeter, 
a barrister, volunteered to defend him, and Jekyll 
wrote this : 

" Dives and Lazarus. 

" Dives, the Cardiff Bar retains, 

And counts their learned noses, 
Whilst the defendant Lazarus 
On Abraham's breast reposes ! " 

In a cause tried at Exeter Assizes, some years 
ago, Serjeant Pell kept cross- questioning an old 
woman, trying to elicit from her that a tender had 
been made for some premises in dispute ; when 
Jekyll threw a scrap of paper across the table, 
directed to him, containing tlrese lines : 

" Cease, Brother Pell, that tough old jade 
Will never prove a tender maid." 



W. COLLTNS, M.R.C.S, 



Chudleigh. 



GENEALOGICAL QUERIES. 

Family of Herbert. A branch of the Herbert 
family (bearing for their coat per pale az. and gu. 
3 lions ramp, with a mullet for difference, ar. and 
crest a wivern with wings displayed vert, holding 
in its mouth a sinister hand couped at the wrist, gu., 
on the neck a collar and chain, or) was settled in 
Warwickshire in the sixteenth century, at Stretton- 
on-Dunsmore, Astley, Princethorpe, and Chilvers- 
coton. The earliest will in the diocesan registry is 
that of Thomas Herbert of Chilverscoton, dated 
1574, at which date his son, John Heroert, pur- 
chased an estate at Stretton, now possessed by his 
descendants. He died in 1603, setat. eighty, and 
was buried at Stretton (vid. Dugdale), leaving by 
Agnes ? his wife, Thomas Herbert, who succeeded 

him, and died in 1642, leaving by his wife -? 

a first son, Thomas Herbert*, who married Ca- 
therine Jerinens, daughter of James Jentieris, and 
a second son, Captain William Herbert, who dying 
s. p. v. in 1694, by his will endowed the vicarage 
of Stretton, which was thereupon severed from 

* Whose brother, Richard Jentiens, w& Sigh. Sheriff 
of Berks ? His descendants, if any ? 



2d S. NO 35., AUG. 30. '56. ] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



169 



Wolston, and constituted a separate parish by Act 
of Parliament. The granddaughter of the last- 
named Thomas Herbert, the heiress of this family, 
married, in 1726, William Noyes, Esq., one of the 
Six Clerks in Chancery. It being premised that 
the inquirer has searched carefully both Fines and 
Subsidy Rolls, the Query is, can it be ascertained 
(from any source accessible to any contributor to 
" N. & Q.") at what period this branch of the 
great Herbert family derived from the parent 
stock in Monmouthshire, Salop, or Wilts? (for 
they also possessed an estate at Long Wittenham, 
in Berks and Wilts). Who were the wives of the 
first-named Thomas, John, and Thomas Herbert, 
and how were they related to the Chamberlaynes, 
lords of the manors of Chilverscoton and Prince- 
thorpe, to whom, as his cousins and executors, 
Captain William Herbert left the advowsoii of the 
church of Stretton ? 

Family of Noyes of Erchfont, Co. Wilts, and 
Andover, Co. Hants. Coat : Azure, 3 cross 
crosslets in bend. arg. Crest : on a cap of maint. 
a dove ppr. holding in the beak an olive branch, 
vert. The family tradition runs that this name was 
originally Noye, of Norman origin, and it bears 
the same arms as those of Noye in the Visitation 
of Cornwall. In the 14 & 15 Hen. VIII., Wil- 
liam Noyes of Erchfont was assessed for the sub- 
sidy at 80/., and paid 41. yearly. In 1540 he be- 
came possessed of the prebend of Erchfont with 
its dependencies, and died in 1557, leaving by his 
will, proved at Doctors' Commons in that year, 
considerable property among a numerous family^ 
of wtiom John was M. P. for Calne, A.D. 1600, 
and Robert, the eldest, who succeeded to the pre- 
bend, having purchased in 1574 for his eldest 
son, another Robert Noyes, the manor and estate 
of King's Hatherdene, in Weyhill, near Andover. 
His cousin "and executor, Peter Noyes, also of 
Weyhill and Andover, is the first of the family 
who is recorded in the Visitation of Berks, in 
which county his descendants possessed for many 
generations the estate of Trunkwell in the parish 
of Shinfield, acquired by a marriage with Agnes, 
daughter and heiress of John Noyes of that place, 
who ob. 1607. 

Query, 1. If this name was originally Noye, 
and of Norman origin, whence is it derived, and 
at what period did the family come over to Eng- 
land? 

2. Is there any trac6 of it in Court Rolls or 
other sources previous to 1524, the period of the 
first Subsidy Roll after the reign of Edward III. 
which gives the names of contributors ? 

3. It appears from letters and papers of John 
Noyes, M. P. for Calne, that he was a cousin of 
the Ducketts, an ancient Wilts family, now 
baronets, one of whom succeeded him in the re- 
presentation of Calne, and who, according to the 



obituary of the last baronet recently in the Illus- 
trated London News, are said to possess very an- 
cient family muniments. Query, What was the 
relationship, and are any of the matches of the 
Noyes of Erchfont traceable ? 

4. The manor of Blacksvvell in Chute and 
Chepenbury, &c., and very extensive estates in 
that neighbourhood, were purchased by a William 
Noyes in 1614, and it appears by the inquisitio 
post mortem of Joan, his widow, in 1631, that she 
died at Weyhill, leaving a son and heir, William, 
and that Peter Noyes delivered the inquisition into 
court. 

Query, What relation was this William Noyes 
and Joan his wife to Peter and Robert of Weyhill , 
and Erchfont ? 

5. Peter Noyes of Andover, the first-mentioned 
in the Visitation, who. was living in 1646, as ap- 
pears by the records of a chancery suit then in 
progress with the widow of his eldest son, had a 
second son, Richard, not named in the Visitation, 
but who wds married and had issue (wanted to 
trace his descendants, if any) : he had also a 
daughter, Joyce, married to the Rev. Robert 
Wilde, D.D., who was living in 1668. Query, 
Was this the great Presbyterian poet of the same 
name and period ? or if not, what is known of 
him and his descendants ? MEMOE. 



MISSING RECORDS : THE DISTRIBUTION BOOKS OF 
IRELAND. 

" No. 26. Lord Mountgarret, Tr. Pap., Part of Rameen 
duffe, 26 acres, granted to L d Mountgarret after reprise. 
Certificate dated Nov. 16, 1666. 

" No. 23. Cath. Archer alias Grace. Ir. Pap., Boot- 
stoun under Down Survey, profitable 236 acres, of which 
122 a IP were granted by certificate to Sir Francis Gore> 
May 11, 1666. Remainder 113 a 3? granted by certificate 
to Richard Coote, Oct. 8, 1666." 

The above are copies of extracts made about 
the year 1830 from one of the volumes mentioned 
at the head of this article, then in the evidence 
chamber of Kilkenny Castle. The books were 
large folio, and are supposed to have been the 
only copy existing in Ireland out of the Record 
Department, Custom House, Dublin (where the 
originals are preserved, extending I believe to 
eighteen or twenty volumes). The copy which 
had been in the possession of the Ormonde family 
has been lost; it is feared, stolen. Should any 
of the readers of " N. & Q." be able to identify 
the books as existing in any collection, public or 
private (it is supposed that the third and only 
other copy of those important records is in Paris, 
having been takefy along with the vessel that 
carried it, by a French privateer in transit to 
England), and be able to give such information, 
publicly or privately, as may lead to the know- 
ledge of their present place of existence, if not 



170 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. NO 35., AUG. 30. '56. 



their recovery, such informant will be entitled 
to thanks ; and, if so^desired, substantial marks of 
gratitude from the present representative of the 
Ormonde family, by whose desire these lines are 
inserted. JAMES GRAVES, Clk. 

Kilkenny. 



GAPS IN ENGLISH HISTORY. 

Fernando Colombo and Henry VII. It has 
not been generally adverted to, that amongst the 
several offers which the great world-discoverer 
made to the Repubjic of Genoa, to Spain, &c., the 
dispatching of his own brother to London on a 
similar errand is of much interest. Fernando 
stayed a long time here, (I think six months or 
more), during which many communications must 
have been made by him to the Court, Admiralty, 
&c., as the claims and demands of Christopher 
were not trifling, some of them puny. He con- 
stantly insisted on the admiralship (el Admiralasco) 
of the discovered lands to be granted to his family 
for ever ; although he might have known, even 
from the history of the kings of Rome, that there 
is no lease in perpetuity of the kind. However 
this may have been, the reasons adduced by the 
Colombos for the existence of the great western 
land must have been cogent. The Court stretched 
out the hand to conclude the bargain, but il etoit 
trop tardl In the meantime the mystical affair 
of Rabida had come to pass ; the New World be- 
longed for awhile to Old Spain, &c. There is a 
bit of immortality for any one who will search the 
State Paper Office or Trinity House archives for 
these surely yet existing documents. The private 
archives of the then high admiral would be also 
a very likely place to find them. 

The Parliament and Education (2 nd S. i. 470.) 
When in 1637 the tract on John Amos Comenius, 
Conatuum Comenianorum Prceludia, appeared in 
Oxford, this was really only a prcdudium of what 
happened afterwards. The following (scanty) 
passage, extracted from the great Cyclopsedia of 
Ersch and Gruber, may induce English searchers 
to go further into the matter, and to clear up a 
most important incident of English and European 
Culture-History : 

" Subsequently the English Parliament called upon 
him [Comenius] to undertake the arrangement (Ein- 
riclitung) of their schools (Schulwesen)ll Comenius 
obeyed the call. He arrived in 1641 in London, over- 
whelmed with demonstrations of respect. But internal 
commotions, Avhich placed mighty impediments in his 
way, induced him to leave England." 

But the publication of tracts and books lasted 
uninterruptedly up to 1659, and even in 1777 a 
book of Comenius has been printed here. Never 
before nor since had any foreigner connected 
his name with the history of England as Co- 



menius (alias Komensky) has done. We are but 
pigmies compared with such a man. 

J. LOTSKY, Panslave, 
15. Gower Street. 



DR. TIMOTHY THURSCROSSE. 

In the will and its codicils of Barnabas Oley, 
the worthy Vicar of Great Gransden in Hunting- 
donshire, we have the following notices of the Dr. 
Timothy Thurscrosse, respecting whom some few 
particulars were elicited in " 1ST. & Q.," 1 st S. ii. 
441. 484. ; iii. 44. : 

" Item. I give all those books that I took out of Dr. 
Timothy Thurscrosse his library to his kinsman, Mr. 
Marmaduke Flathers, Vicar of North Grimston, for his 
use during his life, provided he give security to the town 
to leave them safe for the use of his successors, Vicars of 
North Grimston in Yorkshire, and that every Vicar do so 
successively, or else forfeit the books to the Vicar of the 
poorest parish within five miles of North Grimston, to be 
taken by that poor Vicar, and recovered by course of law 
upon the same conditions that T gave them to the Vicar 
of North Grimston." 

In the second codicil these books are thus 
noticed : 

" By Dr. Thurscrosse his books mentioned in my Will, 
I mean and declare the same shall be known to be such 
books as after my death shall be found in my study 
marked or inscribed to have been his the said Doctor's, 
and none other. And I will and desire the said books 
shall be so settled and secured by articles to be made be- 
tween my executors and the Vicar and Churchwardens of 
North Grimston in Yorkshire, that the same may be 
placed in some convenient room or library for the use of 
the Vicars therein and their successors for ever, without 
power to remove or embezzle the same, in such manner 
as my executors shall in discretion think fit before the 
said books be parted with out of their possession." 

Again, in the third codicil we read : 

" I do humbly entreat both my honored friend William 
Thursby and any other the one or two that he shall chuse 
to assist him, to have a care of the books: those in my 
study upon the right hand here behind the door are the 
books which I took as a legacy given myself out of his 
library (I might have taken as many as I would) by his 
Will to dispose of where I would his Will, I mean the 
Will of Dr. Timothy Thurscrosse of blessed memory. 
These I have given to Mr. Thomas Langley, a worthy 
friend and an honest attorney of Furnivat's Inn in London 
to be preserved for the use of the present Vicar of North 
Grimston, and his successors for ever." 

Mr. Thursby, the executor, has added the fol- 
lowing note to the extract from the second codicil, 
" This I have performed." Query, Are these 
books at present in the custody of the Vicar of 
North Grimston ? J. YEOWELL. 



Cambridge Clods. Can any of your readers 
inform me where it is likely I can get a sight of 



s. NO 35., AUG. 30. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



171 



the " caricature prints " mentioned in the follow- 
ing extract from Caulfield's Remarkable Persons, 
1819? 

"About thirty years since two characters, equally 
singular in their way, resided in Cambridge; Paris, a 
well-known bookseller, and Jackson, a bookbinder, and 
principal bass singer at Trinity College Chapel in that 
University. These two gentlemen, who were both re- 
markably corpulent, were such small consumers in the 
article of bread, that their abstemiousness in that parti- 
cular was generally noticed ; but to make amends, they 
gave way to the greatest excess and indulgence of their 
appetites in meat, poultry, and fish, of almost every de- 
scription. And one day having taken an excursion, in 
walking a few miles from home, they were overtaken by 
Lunger, and on entering a public-house, the only pro- 
vision they could procure was a clod of beef, weighing 
near fourteen pounds, whic,h had been a day or two in 
salt, and this these two moderate bread consumers con- 
trived to manage between them broiled, assisted by a due 
proportion of buttered potatoes and pickles. The land- 
lord of the house having some knowledge of his guests, 
the story got into circulation, and the two worthies were 
ever after denominated the ' Cambridge Clods ! ' Several 
caricature prints made their appearance on the occasion ; 
but the best likeness of Mr. Jackson is from a drawing 
taken by Silvester Harding, representing him, when ad- 
vanced in years, seated in a large wicker chair." 

HENRY KENSINGTON. 

Miles the subject of^an Acrostic. Of what 
" Miles " was the following acrostic written, when, 
and by whom ? 

" Magnanimus in adversitate, 
Ingenuus in consanguinitate, 
Largifluus in honestate, 
Egregius in curialitate, et 
Strenuus in virili probitate." 

THEELKELD. 

George M. Hunter. Is anything known re- 
garding an author of the name of George M. 
Hunter, who published Louis and Antoinette, a 
tragedy, in 1794? R. J. 

" Earl Harold" Who is the author of Earl 
Harold, a tragedy, published by Fraser in 1837 ? 

R. J. 

Suffrages at End of Litany. Before the last 
two suffrages at the end of the Litany in Book of 
Common Prayer are prefixed respectively the 
words Priest and Answer. No such prefix occurs 
in the case of the other suffrages here. In the 
previous editions of the Litany Versicle and An- 
swer are similarly placed here, but not before the 
other suffrages. Why is this ? Was there ori- 
ginally any distinction in the manner of singing 
the words " O Lord, let Thy mercy be shewed 
upon us ; " " As we do put our trust in Thee," 
from that of the other versicles and responds in 
this place ? A. A. D. 

The Lord Dean of York. In a letter written 
by Rogers, suffragan of Dover, to Mr. Bois, the 
civilian, dated " Sothewark, the 7th of December," 



the year uncertain, but published by Strype (An- 
nals of Reformation, vol. iv. p. 432., Oxford, 1824), 
sub an. 1597, the year of Rogers's death, I find 
the following passage : 

" I could allege an old suffragan, Dean of York ; by 
whom the Dean of that church came to be first called 
Lord Dean ; whose leases of things appertaining to that 
deanery," &c. 

Upon this passage I should be glad to ask two 
questions, viz. : 

1. Who was the "old suffragan, Dean of 
York ? " 

2. For how long a period did the York Chapter 
decorate its dean with this borrowed plume ? 

Possibly the last edition of Strype may have a 
note at this place ; but in the country I have not 
access to that edition. 

Might it not be worth inquiry also, whether 
Rogers is correct in ascribing the origination of 
this honorary title to the bishop-dean in question ? 
Or whether it was not, in fact, a title assumed as 
early as when the primacy was a subject of dis- 
pute between the two archbishops, and when the 
Mayor of York first rivalled his brother of London 
in the like distinction ? J. SANS.OM. 

Fenton of Milneame, Perthshire. Looking 
over the pedigree of a Scotch family some time 
ago, I met with the name of this family. Can 
any of your readers inform me if this was a family 
of any standing or importance in Perthshire ? 
what arms they bore? or where I can find any 
account of them ? SIGMA THETA. 

Greek and English New Testament. Edward 
Nares, in the preface to his remarks on the Im- 
proved Version of the New Testament, says he 
had met with a Greek and English New Testa- 
ment, published in 1715 and 1718, the text of 
which he had collated more than once with what 
Griesbach afterwards published in his second 
edition, and found nothing but the most trivial 
differences. What edition does Nares mean ? 

M. 

Chattertoris Portrait. In the Life of Gains- 
borough, by G. W. Fulcher, it is related that 
during the interval between 1768 and 1773, when 
he declined sending specimens of his paintings to 
the Royal Academy, that wonderful youth Chat- 
terton, "the sleepless soul that perished in his 
pride," sat to Gainsborough for his portrait, and 
that it was a masterpiece. As I consider myself 
to have been a Bristolian of forty years' standing, 
and possessor of a very extensive collection of 
MSS. and books relative to the Chattertonian 
controversy, may I be allowed to inquire with 
some anxiety, whether any of the descendants of 
Gainsborough, or your correspondents, can give 
me any information into whose hands this portrait 
may have fallen ? There is an engraving of Chat- 



172 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 35., AUG. 30. '56. 



terton's portrait prefixed to Mr. t)ix's life of him, 
who states that the original painting is in the pos- 
session of the late Mr. Braikenridge, of Bristol. 
Happening to know the history of this presumed 
portrait, and that it was not p'ainted for Chatter- 
ton, but some youth in Bristol, name unknown, 
and that it was picked up at ah old clothes shop 

in the Pithay in that city, by (I wish not to 

mention the name), I feel myself compelled to dis- 
abuse the public mind that Dix's engraving is a 
portrait of Chatterton, and lament to say that 
such a collector of Bristol antiquities as Mr. 
Braikenridge was, was grossly imposed upon. 

J. M. G. 
Worcester. 

Bath Characters at the 'beginning of this Cen- 
tury. A few days since I accidentally met with 
an 8vo. volume entitled Bath Characters; or, 
Sketches from Life, by Peter Paul Pallet, the 
third edition, London, 1808, pp. about 200. 

The nobility, clergy, distinguished singers, 
dilettanti, gatiiblers, and in short all such persons 
as then frequented that, the most fashionable 
watering-place, as well as those resident in the 
place, are exhibited by the author, who is evi- 
dently a scholar ; and who, while he satirises the 
follies and different absurdities of the beau monde, 
does so judiciously, and without rancour or acri- 
mony. As the work must have created a sensation 
at the time, I should thank any reader of " N. & 
Q." who can inform me who was the author of it ? 
and also, if there should be a Key to the characters 
published, where I may find it ? A. 

Ibbetson and John Smith, Artists. In the 
Gamut, or Accidence of Painting in Oil, by Julius 
Ca3s;ir Ibbetson, published in 1803, the author, 
alluding to an account of his life, proceeds : 

" But I will not impose it on the world at 'present, it 
belonging more immediately to a work for which I have 
collected a prodigious quantity of materials, and which I 
have received great encouragement to bring forward. It 
is Anecdotes of Picture Dealers, Picture Dealing, and 
Pictures, and will be entitled Humbuggoloqia. Of which," 
observes- the artist in the conclusion, " at any rate, if I 
can get but the Hnmbuggologia, it will, among other sen- 
sations, excite laughter in no common degree, which is 
reckoned very wholesome." 

Now, can any one refer to any account of the 
artist, and particularly to the work in question ? 
which, if in existence, would probably furnish 
much rare and valuable information to the picture 
public. Many an anecdote and history of pictures 
might be expected from an artist of such varied 
experience and abilities as Ibbetson, whom Mr. 
West termed the English Berghem. 

He also promises the publication of his water- 
colour process, which, I fear, never made its ap- 
pearaneej although said to be in great forward- 
ness 



Ibbetson is said to have resided for many years 
at Masham in Yorkshire, to be out of the way of 
the picture- dealers, at which place he died. Are 
his pictures frequently met with in Yorkshire ? 

Is anything known of the artist and his draw- 
ings of whom Ibbetson says, " In tinted drawings 
no one, I believe, ever came so 1 near the tint of 
nature as Mr. John Smith ? " ART Cu&ius. 

Leeds. 

Wyld's Globe and LangtarcPs Georama. The 
publication of your General Index may have the 
effect of resuscitating some dormant subjects. In 
1 st S. v. 467. 488., a question Was discussedj 
Whether Wyld's Great Globe is a plagiarism from 
Molenax ? The evidence is insufficient to esta- 
blish the affirmative, as it does not appear that 
Molenax's globe differed from others except in 
size : but what are we to say to the following, 
which I cut out of a defunct periodical entitled, 
The Museum, and Register of Belles Lettres, $*c., 
No. 5.j Jan. 31. 1824.? 

" A Frenchman, of the name of Langlard, is at this 
moment busily engaged, in conjunction with the best 
geographers in Paris, in completing his invention of a 
Georama, which he is erecting at an immense expense on 
the Boulevards Italien, in a garden at the back of the 
Cafe de la Paix. The Georama is to consist of a globe of 
40 feet diameter ; in the inside of which will be repre- 
sented a complete map of the world, describing, on an. 
exact scale, the extent of every country, sea, river, and 
mountain in the Atlas, as well as the site of all the high 
roads, capitals, principal towns, and remarkable villages 
in the known world ; giving at one view the sinuosities 
of the routes of armies, public vehicles from one town to 
another, throughout Europe, &c. The Poles will serve 
as a point d'appui for circular stairs in the centre, from 
which the spectators will have the facility of making 
their observations." 

Is anything more known of Langlard and his 
Georama ? J. F. M. 

Mortuaries. Can any of your clerical or legal 
readers furnish me with the law or general custom 
respecting mortuaries in those parishes in which 
they are paid ? Especially on the point whether, 
on the death of a parishioner who is liable to pay 
the mortuary fee, it is to be paid to the incum- 
bent of the parish in which he dies, or to the in- 
cumbent of that in which he is buried ? If* h6 
dies in a parish in which mortuaries are not paid, 
but is buried in one in which they are paid, should 
his executors pay the mortuary or not ? 

WILLIAM FEASEB, B.C.L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

Sahagun Sword-Blades. Can any of your 
readers inform me when Sahagun was celebrated 
as a manufactory of swords? I recently became 
possessed of an apparently very old blade of ad- 
mirable temper, very narrow and long, something 
like a claymore. On the blade is engraved " SA- 
HAGVM," with several flourishes round it, and two 



2 nd S. N 35., AUG. 30. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



173 



or three stars. I believe Sahagun to be the an- 
cient Saguntum, where the first hostilities oc- 
curred between Hannibal and the Romans ; and 
more recently distinguished as being the scene of 
a cavalry engagement during the Peninsular War. 

CAC.ADORE. 

Can Fish le Tamed ? In Mr. Scale's Me- 
diaeval Preachers * there is an extract from the 
Sermon addressed by Yieyra to the fishes, " be- 
cause it was of no use to preach to the people of 
Maranhao." Vieyra says : 

"Aristotle, speaking of fishes, says that they alone 
among all animals can neither be tamed nor domesticated." 

Now it strikes one at once that this statement is 
at variance with one made by the Apostle James 
(iii. 7.) : 

" Every kind of beasts, and of birds, and of serpents, 
and of things in the sea, is tamed and hath been tamed of 
mankind." 

Of course it might be said that this latter is a 
mere figure of speech or hyperbole; but, as a 
matter of fact, is not the Apostle more accurate 
than the philosopher? Tame carp in ponds 
coming to be fed from the hand are by no means 
uncommon ; and perhaps your correspondents 
could mention other like cases. A. A. D. 

The Worm in Wood. Can any of your readers 
inform me of the cause of worm in wood ? In 
the house of a friend, who lives near me, the fur- 
niture more or less is all affected in this way. It 
seems to be worse in those tables and chairs that 
stand against the oldest wall of the castle (a por- 
tion of the house is quite modern) ; but though 
there is much of both ancient and modern furni- 
ture, the worm does not seem to infect the one 
more than tbe other. What is the remedy, if 
there is one ? MILLICENT EBSKINE WEMTSS. 

Bastards. It is often said that bastards can- 
not span their own wrist. Can any of your corre- 
spondents trace the history of this opinion ? 

A.A.D. 

John Duncurrib. George Duncumb, Esq., of the 
Inner Temple, and of Westdn in Albury, co. 
Surrey, at one time principal of Clifford's Inn, 
and a Court keeper in large practice, speaks in his 
will, anno 1646, of the fees of office of his son 
John. The office in question was no doubt con- 
nected with some of the law courts. Can any of 
your readers tell me what it was ? and how long, 
and the period John Duncumb held it ? 

JAMES KNOWLES. 

Singular Plant I have lately seen a plant 
which had remained for years apparently dried 
up, and curled up like a ball. It was put on a 

fr m * reVleW in the Literary 



plate full of water in the evening; and by the 
next morning its leaves had become of a fine 
olive-green, and lay gracefully round the plate, 
flat and fully expanded on every side. When the 4 
water was poured off, this curious plant began to 
curl up again, and gradually returned to its pre- 
vious state, appearing like a ball or a dry sponge. 
It was evidently some sea-weed, but I should be 
glad to know its name. F. C. H. 

Early Illustrated English Versions of Ariosto. 
Are there any old editions, in English verse, of 
Aristo's Orlando Furioso f and, if so, are any of 
them illustrated ? W. T. 



im'tfj 

Bisselius. Is anything known of Bisselius the 
Jesuit, author of Gestorum Sceculi X VII. Synopsis, 
as follows : 

" 1601. 

" Astronomum Primi rapit anni Parca Tychonem. 
ilex oritur Geltes. Wallachus ense cadit. 

" 1602. 

" Excipit hunc MOSES, Siculorunl ductor ; ut armis 
In Dacos, paribus ; sic quoque caede pari." 

These lines I find in a battered old volume of 
the above author, entitled Delicice JEstatis, and 
dated 1644. THRELKELD. 

[John Bissel, or Bisselius, was a German writer of the 
seventeenth century, born at Babenhausen in Swabia in 
1601. He early joined the Jesuits, and was professor of 
philosophy and rhetoric in the colleges at Dillengen, In- 
goldstadt, and Amberg, and died at the latter place in 
1677. In his native country he had the reputation of a 
good poet and elegant prose writer. For a list of his 
works see Jocher, Gelehrten- Lexicon, s. t?.] 

Medlars introduced into England. Can any of 
your readers inform me when the fruit called 
medlar was first introduced into this country ? 
It seems to have been known in, or soon after, the 
reign of Henry VIII. 

In Heywood's Works, 4to., 1566, First Hun- 
dred of Epigrams, 89. is one 

OfMedlers. 

" To feede of any frute at any feast, 
Of all kynds of medlers rneddell with the least ; 
Meddle not with-greate meddlers. Fdr no question 
Meddlyng with greate meddlers maketh yll digestion." 

*.s. 

[An earlier notice of the medlar occurs in Chaucer, 
The Romaunt of the Rose : 

a And many homely trees there were, 
That peaches, coines, and apples bere, 
Medlars, plummes." 

In factj the Me&pilus Germanica, the German or common 
medlar, is indigenous, as stated by Dr. W. A. Bromfield in 
London's Magazine of Natural History, vol. ix. p. 86. 
He says: "M. germanica is scattered over a very ex- 
tensive district, as about Hastings, and at the back of 



174 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. ^0 35., AUG. 30. '56. 



St. Leonard's in many places ; also about "Ashburnham, 
between Catfield and Ninfield, in some places quite a con- 
spicuous ornament to th hedgerows, which is not the 
only situation it affects, occurring apparently truly wild, 
though rarely, in the midst of natural woods near 
Hastings, as in those at the Old Road, Coghurst, &c., in 
which places I have found seedlings as well as trees of 
advanced growth springing up perfectly spontaneously, 
and very remote from habitations or cultivated ground. 
In Guernsey and Jersey I have often found it wild, so 
that its claim to be considered indigenous can hardly be 
questioned ; besides, I have never seen it in any garden, 
as a cultivated fruit tree, within many miles of this place 
(Hastings, Sussex)." The dwarf medlar was introduced 
in 1683. Consult also Loudon's Trees and Shrubs of 
Great Britain, vol. ii. pp. 877. 928.] 

Edition of Virgil. I shall be much obliged if 
you, or any of your correspondents, will inform 
me whether an edition of Virgil is a valuable one 
which has name of printer and date as follows ? 

" Leovardiae : Franciscus Halma, D.D., Ordinis Frisise 
Typographus, CIO,IOCC,XVTI." 

OXONIENSIS. 

[Mr. H. G. Bohn in his General Catalogue of the 
Classics, offers an edition of Virgil's works, of this place 
and date, "in 2 vols. 4to., plates by Picart, fine copy, in 
gilt prize vellum," for 11. lls. Qd.~\ 

Dr. Johnson and W. Davenport. Can any of 
your readers kindly supply any information re- 
lating to the W. Davenport, a protege of Dr. 
Johnson, who was placed by the Doctor with Mr. 
Strahan the printer, of Crane Court ? Davenport 
is said to have been a man of high attainments, 
and I am anxious to glean some particulars re- 
specting him. I. W. S. 

[A brief notice of William Davenport, who died at 
Chcshunt, Herts, on Jan. 2, 1792, will be found in Ni- 
chols's Leicestershire, vol. i. p. G09., and in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for January, 1792, p. 91.] 

Bow or Bay Windows. About what time was 
the bow or bay window introduced into our do- 
mestic architecture, and by whom and where ? 

JOHN SCRIBE. 

[Mr. Joseph Gwilt, in his Encyclopedia of Architecture, 
p. 185., states that " the bay window was invented about 
a century before the Tudor age. In a MS. at the He- 
ralds' College relating to an entertainment given at 
Richmond by Henry YIL, the following passage occurs, 
and may be taken as descriptive of one of the purposes to 
which it was applied : ' Agaynst that his grace had 
supped, the hall was dressed and goocllie to be seene, and 
a rich cupboord sett thereup in a baye window of ix or x 
stages and haunces of hight, furnissed and fulfilled with 
plate of gold, silvei-, and regilte.' Carved wainscotting 
in panels, generally of oak, lined the lower part of the 
halls Avith greater unity of design and execution than 
heretofore ; and it now found its way into parlours and 
presence-chambers with every variety of cyphers, cogni- 
zances, chimeras, and mottoes, which in the castles of 
France, about the age of Francis I., were called Boisseries. 
Of these some curious specimens still remain in the hall 
and chambers of the dilapidated mansion of the Lords de 
la Warre at Halnacre, in Suffolk." Consult also Glossary 
of Architecture, vol. i. p. 69.] 



MILITARY DINNERS. 

(2 nd S. ii. 127.) 

Amongst the mighty achievements which have 
been celebrated over the festive board none ever 
surpassed, in all its bearings, the banquet given 
upon the bridge at Calloo, thrown over the Scheldt 
to complete the investment of Antwerp, by the 
Duke of Parma in 1584. 

^ The wide and rapid river presented numerous 
difficulties to this gigantic scheme hard to be sur- 
mounted. In winter, huge masses of detached 
ice floated upon the surface, or, sinking with the 
weight of accumulated snow, rolled on with the 
currents beneath. But when the tide flowed, the 
foaming waves bore back the masses ; and meet- 
ing others in a downward course, they congealed, 
and accumulated to ponderous heaps, sinking or 
destroying whatever crossed their course. In 
summer the sandy sloughs offered but an insecure 
foundation for a structure destined to bear the 
transit of the heaviest ordnance and the muni- 
tions necessary for the siege. 

Over these difficulties the engineer the Marquis 
of Roubais, at once a traitor to his adopted cause 
and his country, found the means to triumph : he 
commenced his unparalleled work, and laboured 
like the unconscious insect at its own chrysalis. He 
saw all difficulties surmounted ; but while he was 
pursuing his work, the Italian Giambelli was ma- 
turing his plans for destroying the marvellous 
barrier. Ships without crews or rudders or masts 
were sent adrift from the beleaguered city, and left 
to the unstable guidance of the waves ; but they 
bore within their holds the "Antwerp fire." 
Some stranded on the way ; and the loitering 
soldiery hastened from the banks to board them, 
and learn the meaning of the floating logs ; others 
approached the bridge. De Roubais waited there 
the favoured but fatal moment, then leapt upon 
the deck, followed by companions daring as him- 
self. The bridge was crowded with wondering 
troops. The Duke of Parma was hurried from 
the scene, and to a moment saved. The explo- 
sions followed : the bridge was riven in twain. 
Thousands were scorched and killed, and Roubais 
died, to fill a traitor's grave. 

"The End of the War," as the scheme was 
called, was accomplished ; but the Prince of 
Orange had fallen, and none remained to grapple 
with the prostrate foe. 

The bridge was speedily repaired, and the brave 
St. Aldogond, driven to the last extremity by 
starvation, yielded Antwerp to the first general of 
the age. 

To gratify his soldiers' pride was the victor's 
first thought. To dine with them upon the bridge, 
the first great cause of his success, appeared the 
proudest triumph he or they could feel. The 



2 nd S. N 35., AUG. 30. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



175 



thought was happy. An unmeasured and deso- 
late plain a mighty river the distant towers of 
the fallen city the enfilading batteries with an 
hundred guns the wonder-working bridge itself, 
now made the scene of hilarity, joy, and triumph 
all united, with the flush of victory, to produce 
one common soul-inspiring ardour which has not 
had its like again. H. D'AVENEY. 



WILL OF RICHARD LINGARD. 

(2 nd S. ii. 104.) 

Allow me to offer a few observations which may 
throw some light upon the curious will of Richard 
Lingard, printed in your number of the 9th of 
this present month. 

Dr. Richard Lingard, probably an Englishman, 
went from the University of Cambridge to that of 
Dublin, where he became a Fellow of Trinity 
College, and Regius Professor of Divinity. In 
1666, after he had been more than forty years in 
holy orders, he was appointed Dean of Lismore 
[not Rismore]) but held that dignity only four 
years. 

His death must have taken place within a very 
short time after the signing of his will on Nov. 10, 
1670 : as on the 29th of that month a patent was 
granted to his successor in the deanery. 

The circumstance of his will being proved in 
the Court of York may be accounted for by his 
possessing property in Cumberland, which is 
within that province. It must also have been 
proved in Ireland, either at Dublin or Waterford. 

It is certainly a very curious document, and 
although it is too indistinct to enable us to under- 
stand all the particulars referred to, and probably 
is disfigured through the lack of scholarship in 
his man " Arthur Brinan whoe did write the said 
hasty will ; " yet it is such an one as we may well 
conceive a man dangerously ill and in great weak- 
ness, to have dictated to his servant at his bed- 
side, one clause following another without much 
connexion of subject or distinctness of expression, 
just as the several matters arose in his mind. 

From his desire " to be buried where the parish 
of St. Andrew shall appoint," I think it most 
likely that he resided, and died, within that parish. 
He was interred in Trinity College Chapel. 

With respect to some of the persons and places 
mentioned in the will, I may mention that 

" The College," means Trinity College, Dublin. 

" The Dean of Cork " was Dr. Thomas Vesey, 
afterwards Archbishop of Tuam. 

" The Library " means that of Trinity College. 

" The Provost " was Dr. Thomas Seele, Dean 
of St. Patrick's, Dublin. 

"Mr. (or Dr.) Styles" probably was the Rev. 
Henry Stiles, a prebendary of St. Patrick's. 

" Mr. Crookes " perhaps was Mr. John Crooke, 



an eminent printer and bookseller in Dublin at 
that time. 

" Patrick and William Sheridan" were brothers, 
the Deans of Down [not Derry or Dromore~\ and 
Connor [not Cork~\. 

It does not well appear, whether the poor man 
intended to ask forgiveness from them, or to im- 
part it to them. 

It would seem as if Dr. Lingard had been pre- 
paring some literary work some " notes " for 
publication ; and desired that a few not more 
than six of his sermons should be inserted. I 
am not aware whether this design was ever carried 
out. He himself had printed one sermon, in de- 
fence of the Liturgy of the Church of England 
and Ireland, which he had preached before King 
Charles II. 4to. London, 1668. And, two years 
afterwards, he published A Letter of Advice to a 
Young Gentleman leaving the University. 12mo. 
1670. These are the only fruits of his pen which 
I have heard of (see Fasti Ecclesicz Hibern., i. 
169.). H. COTTON. 

Thurles, Aug. 20. 



THE TEN COMMANDMENTS. 

(2 nd S. i. 440 J 

Professor Browne, as quoted by A. A. D., who 
bestows his approbation upon the statement 
by calling it " accurate," says : " The second 
commandment is joined with the first according 
to the reckoning of the Church of Rome." Here 
we have the first oversight in the " accurate 
statement " of the professor. Holy Writ, while 
it tells us that the words of the Law were ten 
(Deut. iv. 13.), nowhere lets us know the pre- 
cise way in which they were divided, nowhere 
defines for us which is the first, which the second, 
which is the ninth, which the tenth word or com- 
mandment. From St. Austin's days, that is, since 
the beginning of the fifth century, the Western 
Church has used the same division of the com- 
mandments as we Catholics now use. With re- 
gard to England's practice, Alcuin and .ZElfric 
show us that our Anglo-Saxon countrymen did as 
we still do (Alcuini Opp. ed. Frobenio, i. 340 ; 
^Elfric's Horns, ii. 199. 205.) ; and our national 
councils held one at Lambeth, A. D. 1281, another 
at Exeter, A.D. 1287 (Wilkins, Condi, ii. 55. 
162.), witness for the same usage at a later period ; 
not to mention such authorities as the Pupilla 
Oculi, fol. clxii., and the Coventry Mysteries, p. 60. 
The professor goes on to say : " It will be found 
so united in the Masoretic Bibles ; the Masoretic 
Jews dividing the tenth commandment (accord- 
ing to our reckoning) into two." By "our" is 
meant, of course, the present Protestant reckon- 
ing of England. Not only have even Protestants 



176 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



OA S. N' 35., AUG. 30. '56. 



divided, but there are some who still divide the 
Decalogue exactly as we Catholics do. Cranmer 
himself did so : in the A Catechismus, &c., set forth 
by the mooste reverence Father in God, Thomas 
Arch-Byshop of Canterbury," fyo., we read : 

" These are the holy commaundmentes of the Lortl our 
God. Thefirste. I am the Lord thy Qod, thou shalt have 
none other Goddes but me. The Seconde. Thou shalt not 
take the name," &c. 

Though this catechism was dedicated to Edr 
wartl VI., and " for the singular commoditie and 
prosper of childre and yong people," the whole of 
what, by Professor Browne's reckoning, js the 
second commandment, is left out. The division 
which Cramner followed in England, Luther fol- 
lowed in Germany, and the Lutherans even yet 
follow. In the Kirchenbuch fur Evangelische 
Christen, Berlin, 1854, p. 23, is given " D. Martin 
Luther's Kleiner Katechismus," and at the begin- 
ning, we have the Ten Commandments thus : 

" Das erste Gebot. Du sollst nicht andere Gotter haben. 
Das sweite Gebot. Du sollst den Namen Deines Gottes 
nicht unnuklich fuhren," &c. 

Professor Browne observes that : 

" What the Roman church deals unfairly in is, that she 
teaches the commandments popularly only in epitome ; 
and that, so having joined the first and the second to- 
gether, she virtually omits the second, recounting them 
in her catechisms, &c., thus: 1. Thou shalt have none 
other gods but Me. 2. Thou shalt not take the name of 
the Lord thy God in vain. 3. Remember," &c. 

If there be any force in this objurgation, it is as 
applicable to Cranmer and Luther of old, and to 
the Lutherans of the present day, quite as muck 
as to the " Roman Church." 

" By this method her children," continues the Pro- 
fessor, "and other less instructed members, are often 
ignorant of the existence in the decalogue of a prohibition 
against idolatry." 

Be it borne in mind that, like ourselves, the 
Lutherans set up images crucifixes in their 
churches, and what is said of the Catholic is re- 
ferable to the Lutheran wording of the command- 
ments. But Professor Browne is wrong upon 
more points than one respecting the teaching of 
the Church, in the present, as well as olden time, 
about the use of images, and the wording of the 
commandments. Now, for the latter of these 
subjects. The Abridgment of the Christian Doc- 
trine is a little book, or First Catechism, out of 
which every Catholic child, in this country, begins 
to learn the rudiments of its religion : it con- 
tains what, according to Catholic reckoning, is the 
first commandment that is the 6th, 7th, 8th, 
and the beginning of the 9th verse of the 5th 
chapter in Deuteronomy, at full length. To the 
question : " What is forbidden by the first com- 
mandment ? " the answer is : " The first com- 
mandment forbids us to worship false gods or 
idols, or to give to any creature whatsoever the 



honour which is due to God." To the question : 
" May we not pray to relics or images ? " the 
answer is : " No, by no means ; for they have 
no life nor sense to help us." This catechism has 
the bishop's imprimatur at the beginning, and is 
thus set forth by authority. Before the method 
qf instruction by catechisms was introduced, the 
people of this land were not less carefully and 
earnestly warned of " the existence in the deca- 
logue of a prohibition against idolatry." What, 
for instance, could be clearer or stronger than the 
following words on the subject : 

"Thyse bee y e x. tfcmimaundenientis of god The 
fyrst he commaundeth that thou have no god but him. 
Ne that thou wortshyp, serve, ne give thy trust to none 
other creature, ymage, ne thinge graven but only to him. 
In this is forboden mamettry," &c. Quatuor Sermones, at 
the end of the Liber Festivalis, sig, Y. ii., &c. DIVES 
says : " In the fyrste commaundement as I have lerned, 
god sayth thus: Thou shalte have none other strange 
goddes before me. Thou shalte make to the no graven 
thynge, no maumette, no lykenes that is in heven above, 
ne that is bynethe in erthe, ne of any thynge that is in 
the water under the erthe. Thou shalte not worshyp 
them with thy bodye outwarde, ne within thy harte in- 
ward." Among other things, PAUPEK says : " God for- 
byddeth not utterly the makynge of y mages, but he 
forbyddethe utterly for to make'ymages for to worshyppe 
them as goddis, and to set theyr fayth, theyr truste, their 
hope, their love, and their beleve in theym. For god 
wyll have mans harte hole knytte to hym alone, for in him 
is all our helpe and all our salvation." To an objection 
of DIVES'S that "on palme sondaye at procession the 
priest saith thrise : Ave rex noster, hayle be thou our 
kyng (before the rood), and so he worshippeth that image 
as king." PAUPER answers : " God forbede. He speketh 
not to the image, that the carpentar hath made, and the 
pointer peinted, but if the prest be a fole, for that stock 
or stone was never king, but he speakethe to hym that 
died on the crosse for us all, to hym that is kynge of 
all thynge." A compendious treatyse or dialoge, &c. 
The I. Command, chap. i. and chap. iv. 

Among the publications of the Caxton Society, 
there is a 

" Romance of englische of the begynnyng of the world, 
and of al that a lewed man has nede for to knawe for hele 
of soule. This romance (Chasteau d'Amour) turned a 
munk of Sallay out of French romance that sir Robert 
Bischop a lyncoln made, and eked mikel therto, as him 
thought spedeful to edeficacion and swettenes of devocioun 
and bering of leAved men." 

In this so-called " romance " we are told of the 
"ten commaundements " that 
" The first is to worschip on (one) god and no mo 
This biddyng sal be understanden so 
That it forbedes all mamettrie 
And also all maner of sorcerie 
Mammeutrie is to do creature that honour 
That thou suld do all onely to thi creator 
That is worschip for him self over all other thing 
A seint sal thou worschip for he is his dertyng 
Ymages in the kirk that thou on lokes 
Are to the as to the clerk are his gode bokes 
Thou sal not worschip thaim bot for thair sake 
That thei bringe to thi mynd thi prayer to make." 
Bishop Grossetete's Poems, now first edited by M. 
Cooke, for the Caxton Society, pp. 133. 136. 



2* S. N' 35., AUG. 30. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



177 



Whether the substance of the above lines stood 
part of the worthy bishop's original French, or 
these verses be some of that " mikei " which the 
Yorkshire Cistercian monk " eked therto " of his 
own, certain is it that, in this as well as in the other 
above-cited passages out of our old writers, we 
have proof that the Ten Commandments were 
then taught, not merely in epitome, but in full, 
and that the Catholic church, in olden as well as 
in these our days, instead of allowing " her chil- 
dren and other less instructed members to be often 
ignorant of the existence in the decalogue of a 
prohibition against idolatry," always taught, as she 
yet untiringly teaches, all her people, and more 
especially the " lewed," the unlearned among them, 
to keep themselves from " nmrnettrie," that is 
idolatry, under every shape. D. ROCK. 

Newick, Uckfield. 



JUDITH CULPEPER. 

(2 nd S. ii. 130.) 

The Judith Culpeper mentioned by your corre- 
spondent Vox was not of the Hollingbourne, but 
of the Wakeherst (co. Sussex) branch of the 
family. The enclosed extract from a pedigree 
in my possession will show her position in the 
family. Judith married, secondly, Christopher 
Mason, Captain, R.N. Sir William, her son, was 
buried at St. James's, Westminster, and at his 
death the title became extinct. 

Sir Edward Culpeper of Wakeherst, Sussex, Knt. 
Sir Wm. Culpeper, created Ba.rt. 



(iin Cul 



Sir Edward Culpeper, Bart. 



Sir Benjamin Culpeper, 
Bart., ob. 1671. 

I Benjamin Cul-=Judith, daughter of Win. 

John Gulpeper. peper, ob. vita Wilson of Eastbourne, co, 

patris. Sussex, Esq. 



Benjamin, o. s. p. 



Sir Wm. Culpeper, Bart., 
who about 1694-95 alienated Wakeherst to 
Dionysius Denys Lyddell, Esq., and died 
28th Mar. 1740, s. p. 

There was another Judith Culpeper of an earlier 
date. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Cul- 
peper of Hollingbourne, and became the second 
wife of Sir John Culpeper in 1681. This Sir 
John was created Baron Culpeper of Thoresway, 
by letters patent dated Oct. 21, 1644, and died in 
1660. 

Should your correspondent be willing to dis- 
pose of Judith's letter, I should be glad to acquire 
it, as I am anxious to collect all the relics I can 
find relating to the Culpeper family. My mother 
is the daughter of the late John Spencer Culpeper 
of Tenterden, co. Kent, and of Woodford Hall, 
co. Essex, Esq. ; and should your correspondent 
desire any farther information respecting this an- 
cient, noble, and once wide^ spreading family, I 
shall be most happy to communicate with him. 



Whilst I am on the subject, may I ask whether 
your correspondent, or any of your readers, can 
give me a clue to the recovery of a number of 
family papers (amongst which was the patent of 
peerage) deposited for safety many years since by 
my grandfather, J. S. Culpeper, Esq., with a Mr. 
Sarel, a solicitor, formerly of Arundel or Surrey 
Street, Strand. I have a list of these papers, but 
have sought for them in vain. 

WILLIAM H. MORLEY. 

15. Serle Street, Lincoln's Inn. 

The second wife of John Lord Colepeper, Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer and Master of the Rolls 
to Charles I., who died in the month of July after 
the Restoration, was Judith, daughter of Sir 
Thomas Colepeper of Hollingbourn, Knt. One 
of their daughters was also named Judith, who 
married a relative of the same name. 

The writer of the letter communicated by Vox 
is no doubt one of these : and if the former, as is 
most probable from the date, the brother referred 
to would be Sir William, the first baronet of 
Preston Hall. If the latter, the brother would be 
Thomas, the second Baron Colepeper. 

EDWARD Foss. 



ta 

Gardner E. Zillibridge (2 nd S. i. 74.) Into 
Jjittell's Living Age, which is a weekly magazine, 
containing 64 pages about the size of those of 
" N. & Q.," and which is made up principally of 
the choice articles of the English reviews, maga- 
zines, and journals, I occasionally copy articles 
from <* N". & Q.," among which was a Query about 
Mr. Lillibridge, which brings me the enclosed 
explanation, now duly forwarded to your pleasant 
journal. E. LITTELL. 

Boston, April 16, 1856. 

To the Editor of LittelVs Living Age. 

" Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, Ap. 12th, 1856. 
" MR. EDJTOR, 

" In the last number of your serial, you inquire for 
information in respect to Mr. Lillibridge ; and, as. it is in 
my power to impart some little, I herewith communicate 
it, in the shape of an original letter from the gentleman 
himself. You are at liberty to make such use of it as 
youjnay deem proper. The person to whom it was adr 
dreSed was, at that time, a prominent and influential 
member of this community, but died within the past year., 
The letter referred to, and which I enclose, fell into my 
hands in the course of my professional duties as the 
attorney of Mr. Seller's estate. 

" Respectfully, 

" A. J. HERB." ~ 
" Harrisburg, Feb. 10, 1827. 

" Pardon the liberty I take in presenting you, among 
other friends of the Drama, with a Copy of Tancred in its 
new though unpolished dress. I have to beg your indul- 
gence for the many errors that escaped my notice when 



178 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N" 35., AUG. 30. '56. 



the work was put to press, and which may be attributed 
to my infancy in Literature. It has never yet been re- 
presented on any stage, and I feel confident that Harris- 
burg will do me the honor of welcoming my maiden pro- 
duction to her boards, with no other commendation from 
me than the mere relation of a fact by way of anecdote 
and coincidence ; that their humble candidate for public 
favor first compiled, set the type, pressed and stitched the 
work, and he is now about to play the Hero of the piece 
at its first representation. Will you but smile upon my 
exertions, after you have perused my little offering, you 
may prompt me to attempt again at some future period. 

" I only regret that my claim for public favor is not 
greater. " I need not add, that the piece shall be got up 
in a style that must warrant it acceptable. 

" Due notice will be given when it shall.be bro't for- 
ward, which will be but for one night only, " 
Your Obt. Servt., 

" G. R. LlLLIBRIDGE." 

" Jacob Seiler, Esq. 

Money enclosed in Seal of Legal Documents 
(2 nd S. ii. 129.) In Miss Edgeworth's admirable 
tale of Patronage, at the 42nd chapter, an interest- 
ing account is given of a sixpence being placed 
under the seal affixed to an old deed, on which 
incident is made to depend one of the chief points 
of the story. N. L. T. 

Port Jackson (2 nd S. ii. 77.) The epitaph on 
Sir George Jackson's monument in Bishops Stort- 
ford Church, Herts, states that " Captain Cook, of 
whom he was a zealous friend and early patron, 
named after him Point Jackson in New Zealand, 
and Port Jackson in New South Wales." Sir 
George died Dec. 15, 1822, aged ninety-seven 
years. This testimony ought to be decisive on 
the subject. J. E. J. 

Colmans "Iron Chest" (2 nd S. ii. 70.) I also 
possess a copy of this play ; but it has this ad- 
vantage over the one mentioned by JTJVERNA, that 
besides the celebrated preface, it also contains the 
no less celebrated postscript, commencing " Inveni 
Portum," and written a few months afterwards, 
when the play had been produced at the Hay- 
market, and the principal character had been 
undertaken by Mr. Elliston. The year of pub- 
lication is the same (1796) ; but the edition is that 
of Messrs. Cadell and Davies, the printer being 
Mr. Woodfall. Sir Walter Scott, in his Life of 
Kemble, says : " The preface was so effectually 
cancelled, that the price of a copy in which it 
remains astounds the novice when it occurs in the 
sale-room." I question, however, whether Sir 
Walter was not quite as much misinformed as 
Mr. Jones (JBiograph. Dramatica), who says that 
30s. or even 40.s. have been paid for a copy of it. 
Mine is at the disposal of any of your correspond- 
ents for half the latter amount. N. L. T. 

English Words terminating in " -il" (2 nd S. ii. 
47. 119.) In addition to those words, for which 
I have to thank your correspondent T, J. E., five 



more have been suggested to me by a friend : 
anvil, daffodil, fossil, pastil, and weevil. My object, 
lowever, was not so much to prove " the small 
number" of English words of this termination, as 
:o remark on the erroneous modern pronunciation 
of two words so terminating. The additional 
words, which have been suggested to me, assist in 
confirming my argument. With the exception of 
weevil, which is generally pronounced weevle, all 
the others are formed from words bearing the 
same termination in the languages from which 
they are severally derived ; and they are therefore 
properly sounded as if they ended in -ill ; but the 
Teutonic Saxon origin and sound of devil, evil, 
and weevil, seem to prove the propriety of the 
established against the new pronunciation. If more 
English words can oe discovered with this termin- 
ation, which is by no means improbable, I feel no 
doubt of their giving additional force to my de- 
fence of the old way of speaking and reading. 

E. C. H. 

" When you go to Rome, do as Rome does " 
(2 nd S. ii. 129.) The fragment given by M. C. 
is inaccurate in representing St. Monica's doubt 
to have taken place in Rome, and that St. Au- 
gustin went to Milan to consult St. Ambrose, for 
all the parties were at Milan at the time. To save 
M. C. further trouble, I will transcribe St. Au- 
gustin's account of the matter, which occurs in his 
"Epistle XXXVI. to Casulanus : " 

" Indicabo tibi quid mihi de hoc requirenti respondent 
venerandus Ambrosius, a quo baptizatus sum, Mediola- 
nensis episcopus. Nam cum in eadem civitate mater mea 
mecum esset, et nobis adhuc catechumenis parum ista 
curantibus, ilia solicitudinem gereret utrum secundum 
morem nostrae civitatis (Tagaste) sibi esset Sabbato je- 
junandum, an ecclesiae Mediolanensis more prandendam, 
ut hac earn cunctatione liberarem, interrogavi hoc supra- 
dictum hominem Dei. At ille, . . . ' Quando hie 
sum, non jejuno Sabbato; quando Romae sum, jejuno 
Sabbato : et ad quamcumque ecclesiam veneritis,' inquit, 
'ejus morem servate, si pati scandalum non vultis aut 
facer e.' " 

Hence came the proverb, " Cum Romse fuerit, 
Romano vivito more." F. C. H. 



Did the Greek Surgeons extract Teeth ? (l t S. 
x. 256.) The above question has received some 
elucidation in the columns of " N. & Q." Having 
recently been consulted by a Russian gentleman, 
the conversation turned upon that splendid work 
on Crimean Antiquities, published by order of the 
Emperor of Russia, as alluded to in your columns 
by Dr. Lotsky. My informant tells me that on one 
of the ornaments found in the ancient buildings of 
the Crimea, is represented a surgeon drawing a 
tooth from the mouth of one of the barbarian 
royalties. This, I think, establishes the fact that 
there were then peripatetic, either Egyptian or 
Greek, dentists, who resorted to ^ those distant 
countries for the purpose of practising their art. 



2 nd S. N 35., AUG. 30. '56.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



179 



I believe this is the only representation .of a sur- 
gical operation to be met with on ancient sculp- 
ture, and hope some of our illustrated periodicals 
will reproduce copies of this, as well as other in- 
teresting subjects contained in the above work. 

GEORGE HAYES. 
Conduit Street. 

Mortgaging the Dead (2 nd S. ii. 128.) In the 
absence of any notice from your correspondents 
of the " conjecture " advanced in this article in 
reference to the object of the law therein alluded 
to, I am induced to ask on what authority such 
an opinion, contravening as it does, though with 
some plausibility, the statement of Herodotus, is 
supposed to be founded. I do not recollect if 
Mr. Pettigrew in his Egyptian Mummies, where 
appears an interesting account of this law of 'arrest, 
as it is termed, notices the irreconcileableness of 
the two opinions. As I am unable to refresh my 
memory by any immediate reference to that work, 
perhaps some of your correspondents, who may 
have it in their possession, would oblige me by 
giving me the benefit of their remarks on this ob- 
vious discrepancy. In Beloe's translation (lib. ii. 
c. 136.) appears the following foot-note on the 
passage referred to : 

" The laws of England allow the arrest of a person's 
dead body till his debts are paid: this mentioned by 
Herodotus is the first example perhaps on record of such 
a custom.' But see Burn's Justice of the Peace : ' A vulgar 
and erroneous notion once prevailed that a dead body 
might be arrested for debt, but such a proceeding is 
clearly illegal and indictable.' Lord Ellenborough said : 
' To seize a dead body upon any such pretence would 
be contra bonos mores, and an extortion on the relatives. 
It is contrary to every principle of law and moral feeling ; 
and such an act is revolting to humanity and illegal ' " 
Vol. i. p. 414. 

F. PHILLOTT. 

Viner's " Abridgment" (2 nd S. ii. 85.) A more 
extensive edition of Bibliotheca Legum Anglice 
was published "London, 1788," in two parts or 
volumes : the first " compiled by John Worrall," 
and the second " compiled by Edward Brooke." 
At p. 4. of 1st part, Miner's Abridgment (noticed 
by Mr. Knowles) is stated at 24 vols. fol., 1741- 
1751, 311. 10s. The work appears to have been 
completed by Mr. Viner in 1788 ; and, no doubt, 
arrangements had been made with the booksellers 
for its disposal, and all delicacy as to naming a 
price had melted away. 

Mr. Worrall subjoins the critical opinion of 
Mr. Hargrave on this " immense body of law and 
equity." I believe few out of the legal profession 
will be disposed to dip much into the profound 
abyss. A point or two mentioned by Mr. Worrall 
may here be added as rather special to Mr. Viner's 
folios : 

" It is observable that the learned and laborious com- 
piler of this Abridgment, not only had the work printed 
under his own inspection (by agreement with the law 



patentees) at his house at Aldershot in Hampshire, but that 
the paper was also manufactured under his direction, as 
appears by a peculiar water-mark describing the number 
of the volume, or the initials of C. V." 

These modes had probably been adopted by 
Mr. Viner to prevent fraud on his collection of 
legal treasure. A curious instance of an attempt 
at security in another form is to be seen in Le 
Monde Enchante of Balthasar Bekker, Doctor in 
Theology, and pastor at Amsterdam, 1694. In 
his Epitre, he says : 

" Je declare que je n'en reconnois point d'autres que 
ceux qui sont sousigne's de moi comme celui-ci, ou je 
vous assure de ma propre main que je suis," &c. 

and unmistakeably he appends his autograph to 
each of his four volumes. The patent medicine 
gentlemen seem now to be the only persons who 
attest their productions to the public after this 
fashion. G. X. 

MS. of (Thomas a Kempis, or rather of} the 
" De Imitatione " (2 nd S. i. 493.) The Codex de 
Advocatis is briefly noticed in the preface to an 
edition of the De Imitatione by Joannes Hrabi- 
eta, altera editio, Gera3 et Lipsise, 1847, p. ix., and 
to which I referred your readers at vol. ix. p. 87., 
1 st S. Of course the authorship of Thomas a 
Kempis is denied. The information in that preface 
seems to be taken from a work entitled : 

" Memoire sur le ve'ritable Auteur de PImitation de 
Jesus-Christ ; par G. de Gregory, Chevalier de la Legion 
d'Honneur, etc. Paris, 1827." 

If your correspondent QUIDAM consults that 
edition of the De Imitatione, which is one of the 
stereotyped editions in small quarto so common at 
all the book-stalls, he should be careful to distin- 
guish it from another edition very similar, and 
better in some respects, but with a different 



preface. 



H. P. 



"Baalbec" (2 nd S. ii. 114.) The derivation of 
Baalbec appears to me to be from the Phoenician 
Irish Baal-beact, i. e. "the sun circle :" as it was 
no doubt originally one of those vast circular 
earthen embankments with upright stones and 
an altar in the centre, such as the Phoenicians 
erected at Amesbury ; also at the Giant's Ring, 
near Belfast ; and at Greenan Mountain, co. Do- 
negal. The name of the latter particularly car- 
ries us back to remote antiquity : Griaji, i. e. 
Grynceus, and An, i. e. Ain, a circle. Thus we 
have a connecting link between these islands and 
Asia Minor from the most ancient times, when 
the Phosnicians penetrated to these shores through 
the pillars of Hercules. It is curious to note that 
to this day Baal is a name of the sun in Irish : 
as in Bel-ain, a year, i. e. " sun circle ; " and La 
Bal~tinne, Midsummer Day, i. e. " the day of the 
fire of Baal," from the huge bonfires that are to 
this day lighted on that anniversary. 

FBAS. CROSSLET. 



180 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 



., AUG. 30. '56. 



" A sunbeam passes through pollution unpolluted. 1 " 
(2 nd S. i. 114. 304. 442. 502.) Diogenes Laertius, 
in his Life of Diogenes the Cynic ( 63.), records 
the following saying of that philosopher : 

" Ilpbs rbf oi'eiSi'fovTa OTI ei? TOTTOVS aKa.Qa.pTOv; elffuH, Kit 
yap 6 rjA.10?, e(ij, els tovs airoriaTOvs, a\\' ov /onaiverac." 

ZEUS. 

Great Heat (2 nd S. 11. 131.) To us, in Scot- 
land, it is an extraordinary idea to compare the 
heat of 1856 to that of 1826, as your correspon- 
dent KARL seems inclined to do. Here rain has 
fallen almost daily all summer, and the air felt 
cold, the thermometer seldom exceeding 70. In 
1826 the air was dry and the heat intense for 
three months. The disastrous consequence to 
the crops was, that oats on light soils were pulled 
by hand, and barley was with difficulty mown 
with either sickle or scythe. The straw of the 
wheat was short, but was capable of being reaped 
and shocked. There was very little hay, and the 
pastures were burnt up, the cattle being half 
starved. And yet sheep never throve better than 
in that season, and wheat was of the finest quality, 
not a single grain being unfilled in the ear. No 
such state of crops has occurred since 1826. As 
to potatoes, they were scanty, but of fine quality, 
and at that time no dire disease had overtaken 
them. The turnips were small and hard. For 
want of straw and turnips the stock were with 
difficulty brought through the ensuing winter. 
Having some acres of rough boggy land in Forfar- 
shire, I had a considerable quantity of its coarse 
hay to support my stock upon, and they devoured 
it with avidity. " HENRY STEPHENS. 

Grain Crops (2 nd S. ii. 88.) There is no 
doubt that when the straw becomes ripe at the 
root, before the ear, that the crop may be cut 
down, with the advantages of securing it against 
shaking by the wind, and of ripening the ear in 
the shock. Such always occurs in early and fa- 
vourable seasons ; but in late seasons the ear 
ripens before any part of the straw, in which case 
early cutting would find the straw in too green a 
state. It will not, therefore, do to wait in all 
seasons for the ripening of the straw at the root. 
Whatever be the state of the straw, it is safest to 
reap grain crops before the maturing of the ear, 
and not run the risk of a wind-shake, which at 
times is very disastrous, especially in Scotland. 
No loss will arise from cutting straw in a greenish 
state. One year I cut down a ridge of potato 
oats, quite filled, it is true, but in a very fresh 
green state, to make a way for hay to be built 
into a stack in a convenient place. Both straw 
and grain ripened fully in the shock, and afforded 
the most beautiful sample of each I ever saw. 

HENRY STEPHENS. 

" Hey Johnny ^ Cope" (2 nd S. ii. 135.) The 
original air of this song was composed by Thomas 



Connallon, the Irish harper, in 1660, in honour of 
" Lady Iveagh." Thotoas Connallon was born at 
Cloonmahon, co. Sligo, in 1640 ; and in after life 
he settled at Edinburgh. He introduced into 
Scotland the fine aif of " Lochabar," which was 
composed by Miles O'Reilly, harper, of Killincarn, 
co. Cavan, as " a lament for the battle of Augh- 
rim." O'Reilly was born in 1635. I shall be 
happy to send DR. RIMBAULT the score of " Lady 
Iveagh," if he desires it. FRAS. CROSSLEY. 

Ancient British Saints (2 nd S> ii. 68.) Two of 
the saints of whom MB. BYNG speaks are noticed 
in A Memorial of Ancient British Piety, or a 
British Martyrology, London, 1761 ; and the third, 
" Judicael," whose feast-day is December 16, is 
enumerated in the - 

" Elenchus Sanctorum Beatorum et aliquot Venera- 
bilium quorum acta in persecutioue opens Bollandiani 
elucidanda videntuh" 

D. ROCK. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c. of the following Books to be sent direct to 
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THB VOLUME op NOTES TO HARGRAVE AND BUTLER'S COKE'S LITTLE- 
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Wanted by W. G. Banner, Slater Street, Liverpool. 

ESSAYS ON UNIVERSAL ANALOGV. Parti. .1. Lond., 1827. 
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Wanted by J fir., care of Messrs. Ponsonby, Booksellers, Grafton 
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to 

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that we have postponed until next week our usual NOTES ON BOOKS. Our 
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curious additions to our series O/POPIA'NA. 

MODERN JUDAISM. DELTA, whose Query on this subject appeared ai 
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2 nd S. N 36., SEPT. 6. '56. ] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



181 



LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1856. 



POPIANA. 

Popes Letters to Cromwell. A writer in The 
Athenaeum some two or three years since gave 
some curious specimens of the manner in which 
Pope doctored his published correspondence. I 
have just found another illustration of it, which 
furnishes at the same time what I think must be 
a satisfactory proof that the Familiar Letters to 
Henry Cromwell, Esq., by Mr. Pope, which are 
included by Pope and Warburton in the " Cata- 
logue of Surreptitious and Incorrect Editions of 
Mr. Pope's Letters," as published in 1727, were 
really published about that time, although it is 
understood that no copy of such an edition can be 
found either in the British Museum, the Bodleian, 
or in the library of any known collector of Pope's 
works. 

The proof I refer to is found in the Dedication 
to a Satirical Poem published in 1728, and the 
title of which I may as well give at length : " The 
Knight of the Kirk, or the Ecclesiastical Adven- 
tures of Sir John Presbyter : 

" French Eplques and Burlesque the Age adorn, 
And Ordination sounds the Church's horn." 

Incerti Auth. 

The Second Edition. London : Printed for M. 
Smith in Cornhill 1728. (Price Is. 6d.) " 

This Dedication is addressed " To Messieurs 
Courayer and Voltaire," and concludes with the 
following : 

" P. S. Alexander Pope, Esq., in his FAMILIAR LETTERS 
to Henry Cromwell, Esq., pag. 50. and 51., hath in Honour 
of the Church, made the following Comparison between 
Clergymen and Constables, viz. : 

" ' PRIESTS indeed in their Character, as they represent 
GOD, are sacred ; and so are CONSTABLES as they repre- 
sent the KING ; but you will own a great many of them 
are very odd Fellows, and the Devil a Bit of Likeness in 
'em. And so much for PRIESTS in general, now for TRAPP 
in particular, whose Translations from Ovid I have not so 
good an Opinion of as 3 r ou ; but as to the Psalm, he has 
paraphrased, I think David is much more beholden to 
him than Ovid, and as he treated the Roman like the Jew, 
so he has made the Jew speak like a Roman.' 

" THESE LETTERS of MR. POPE'S are in Two Volumes, 
Price but 5s., and ought to be read in all Christian Fa- 
milies. 

" SPEEDILY will be publish'd FAMILIAR LETTERS. The 
last Volume by Mr. POPE and Company. Price 2*. 6d." 

So stood most probably the passage in the original 
letter. But when it came to be revised for an 
authorised edition, Trapp's name was altogether 
omitted. For at p. 104. of The Works of Alex- 
ander Pope, Esq. Vol. V. Consisting of Letters 
wherein to those of the Author's own Edition, are 
added all that are genuine from the former Impres- 
sions, with some never before printed. London: 



Printed for J. Roberts, MDCCXXXVII. ; as also in 
Warburton's edition (1751), vol. vii. pp. 136 
137, the concluding passage reads as follows : 

" Yet I can assure you, I honour the good as much as 
I detest the bad, and I think, tHat in condemning these, 
we praise those. The translations from Ovid I have not 
so good an opinion of as you, because I think they have 
little of the main characteristic of this author, a graceful 
easiness. For let the sense be ever so exactly render'd, 
unless an author looks like himself, in his air, habit, and 
manner, 'tis a disguise, and not a translation. But as to 
the Psalm, I think David is much more beholden to the 
translator than Ovid ; and as he treated the Roman like 
a Jew, so he has made the Jew speak like a Roman." 

But it is also curious that while the letter itself 
is altogether omitted from Pope's acknowledged 
edition, the 4to. of 1735, it occurs in Curll's 
edition of Pope's Letters, published in that same 
year, 1735 (vol. i. pp. 299, 300.), and also in the 
edition "Printed and sold by the Booksellers of 
London and Westminster, MDCCXXXV." (pp. 150, 
151.), with another reading, making a third ver- 
sion of this same passage : 

" Yet I can assure you, I honor the good as much as I 
detest the bad, and I think, that in condemning these, 
we praise those. I am so far from esteeming even the 
worst unworthy of my protection, that I have defended 
their character (in Congreve's and Vanbrugh's Plays) 
even against their own Brethren. And so much for 
Priests in general, now for Trapp in particular, whose 
Translations from Ovid I have not so good an opinion of 
as you -, not (I will assure you) from any sort of prejudice 
to him as a Priest, but because I think he has little of the 
main characteristick of his Author, a graceful easiness. 
For let the sense be ever so exactly rendered, unless an 
Author looks like himself, in his air, habit, manner, 'tis a 
Disguise and not a Translation. But as to the Psalm, I 
think David is much more beholden to him than, Ovid; 
and as he treated the Roman like a Jew, so he has made 
the Jew speak like a Roman." 

If you agree with me in thinking this little fact 
deserves the attention of Pope's intending 
editors, you will perhaps give it a corner in " N". 
& Q." C. P. 



" Rape of the Lock? A correspondent (1 st S. 
iv. 315.), speaking of Upton Court, which be- 
longed to the Perkins' family, refers to a tradition 
" that Pope wrote the Rape of the Loch there :" 
and he wishes to know, " if any of your corre- 
spondents can confirm this fact from authentic 
evidence?" I think not. The poem was written 
and published, and remodelled and republished 
with a Dedication, before Arabella Fermor of 
Tusmore became Mrs. Perkins of Upton Court. 
I know of no circumstance that should lead us to 
infer that Pope even knew Mr. Perkins before the 
marriage; none that he visited him after the mar- 
riage. I doubt indeed whether Pope knew the 
lady when the poem was written ; and, though he 
had certain formal communications with her about 
the Dedication, I do not remember any circum- 
stances that should lead us to believe that he 



182 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. NO 36., SEPT. 6. '56. 



visited at Tusmore. The poem, as the poem itself 
certifies, was suggested by-Caryll, a friend to the 
parties, in the hope or reconciling them. It was 
struck off at a heat, as Pope told Spcnce. Pope 
certainly, at the time it was written, did not know 
Lord Petrie; and the presentation copies to both 
Lord Petrie and Mrs. Fermor were forwarded 
through Mr. Bedingfield. Bedingfield's letter to 
Pope on this subject is still preserved amongst the 
Homer MSS. in the British Museum. Here is 
an extract. The writer was suffering from the 
gout, and obliged to be brief: 

" Gray Inn, May 26tli, 1712. 

" S r , Last night I had \ favour of y rs of y c eleventh 
Instant, and, acc