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BQUKD 






NOTES AND QUERIES: 

c2 \j. M- 



of Intn^Commum'catfwt 



FOR 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



SECOND SERIES. VOLUME FOURTH. 
JULY DECEMBER, 1857. 



LONDON: 

BELL & DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET. 

1857. 



AG 



LIBRARY 

728056 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



2nd g. x 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



1 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 4, 1857. 



WILKES AND THE "ESSAY ON WOMAN." 

The following is the account of this Essay and 
of the writer given by Earl Stanhope in his His- 
tory of England, vol. v. p. 66. : 

" It appears that Wilkes had several years before, and in 
some of his looser hours, composed a parody of Pope's ' Essay 
on Man.' In this undertaking, which, according to his 
own account {Examination of Michael Curry at the Bar of 
the House of Lords, Nov. 15, 1763), cost him a great deal 
of pains and time, he was, it is said, assisted by Thomas 
Potter, second son of the late Archbishop of Canterbury, 
who had been secretary of Frederick Prince of Wales, and 
had since shown ability and gained office in the House of 
Commons, but was (as well became one of Wilkes's friends) 
of lax morals in his private life. The result of their joint 
authorship, however, has little wit or talent to make any 
amends for the blasphemy and lewdness with which it 
abounds. As the original had been inscribed by Pope to 
Lord Bolingbroke, so was the parody by Wilkes to Lord 
Sandwich; thus it began, ' Awake, my Sandwich!' instead 
of 'Awake, my St. John !' Thus also, in ridicule of War- 
burton's well-known Commentary, some burlesque notes 
were appended in the name of the Right Reverend the Bishop 
of Gloucester. 

" This worthless poem had remained in manuscript, and 
lain in Wilkes's desk, until in the previous spring he had 
occasion to set up a press at his own house, and was 
tempted to print fourteen copies only as presents to his 
boon companions." 

It is obvious, from the critical opinion here of- 
fered, and the positive assertion as to the inscrip- 
tion, that Lord Stanhope spoke, or believed that 
he spoke, after an examination of the work ; the 
more certainly as The Alhenceum, in its review, 
hinted a doubt on this subject, notwithstanding 
which the statement was repeated verbatim in the 
second edition. It struck me as strange and I 
still think it strange that Lord Stanhope was 
not startled to find that the parody to which he 
referred a parody on Pope's Essay on MAN, in- 
scribed to a man St. John, was an Essay on 
WOMAN, not inscribed to a woman, but to Sand- 
wich. This indeed was only sufficient to raise a 
suspicion, for there may have been such blunder- 
ing parodists and I shall show that there were 
but they were not the writers of the Essay for 
which Wilkes was prosecuted, and on which Lord 
Stanhope passed judgment, for that is inscribed 
to a woman, and begins " Awake, my Fanny." 
This fact was actually set forth in the indictment, 
which describes the work as a libel " entitled An 
Essay on Woman, and purporting to be inscribed 
to Miss Fanny Murray" 

An anecdote often told by the great Lord Chan- 
cellor Hardwicke (Life, vol. iii. p. 159 ) may plea- 
santly illustrate who this Fanny was; and it is 
curious in itself, seeing the relationship of the 
parties. One day, soon after the Chancellor had 
purchased Wimpole, and when riding round the 



neighbourhood, he was so much struck with the 
taste and elegance of a house that he asked per- 
mission to see the inside of it. The request was 
politely complied with, and the owner, who it 
subsequently appeared was the brother of Lord 
Sandwich, conducted him through the apartments, 
dwelling with especial emphasis on the merits of 
his pictures. The subject, I suppose, was caviare 
to the Chancellor ; for at length Mr. Montagu 
said, pointing to "two female figures, beautifully 
painted, in all their native, naked charms," "These 
ladies you must certainly know, for they are most 
striking likenesses." The Chancellor again ac- 
knowledged his ignorance. " Why, where have 
you led your life, or what company have you 
kept?" said Mr. Montagu, "not to know Fanny 
Murray and Kitty Fisher." This was the "Fanny " 
to whom the Essay, which Lord Stanhope has not 
seen, was inscribed. 

I believed, and believe, that not more than a 
single copy of so much of the Essay on Woman as 
was printed at Wilkes's press is in existence ; and 
as to the existence of that single copy I have great 
doubts. We know, on the oath of Curry the thief, 
that only twelve copies were printed for Wilkes, 
and a thirteenth surreptitiously by Curry for him- 
self Lord Stanhope says fourteen, a difference 
of no consequence, but I believe a mistake ; that 
the work was never completed that so far as 
printed every copy was kept under lock and key 
that the few other pages submitted by Lord 
Sandwich to the House of Lords were a proof, 
or a revise with manuscript corrections, which 
another of the printers had stolen ; and I believe 
that the copies in Wilkes's possession were sub- 
sequently destroyed. I have, however, been as- 
sured by a gentleman that he many years since 
saw a copy of the original edition. With all 
respect for my informant I doubt it. The only 
proof that I could make out was, that the copy 
he saw was printed in red letters, and so far an- 
swered the description given by Curry the thief. 
But another description, by a contemporary, is 
somewhat more particular : 

" Tis printed 

In letters red, on paper fine, 
On copper curiously engraved 
The title of the work ;" 

and so says the indictment, " a frontispiece or 
sculpture prefixed." 

I thought it possible, however, that the stolen 
proof or the stolen copy might be in exist- 
ence ; but all I could discover from the indexes 
to the Journals of the House of Lords was, 
that the copy laid on the table by Lord Sand- 
wich had been delivered to Webb, the solicitor 
to the Treasury, to enable him to carry on the 
prosecution that it was returned then rede- 
livered and not returned. It is possible, there- 
fore, that Webb, who was au antiquary a 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2~S. N 79., JULY 4. '57, 



curiosity collector may have retained this unique 
copy, and it may have .been sold with his collec- 
tion, and be still in existence. 

That other copies of the poem were at the time, 
or soon after, in existence, is beyond question ; and 
the scoundrels who bribed the poor journeyman 
to betray and rob his employer, were very likely 
persons to take a copy before they delivered the 
original to Lord Sandwich ; or copies may have 
been taken, as Wilkes said, after Sandwich, hav- 
ing blazoned forth his indignation, laid the poem 
on" the table that the clerks and others of the 
House might take copies. 

It is more to my purpose to show, what is 
equally indisputable, that there were spurious 
copies soon after sold as genuine some with a 
few genuine passages, probably copied from the 
Bill of Indictment, worked into them, and others 
without one genuine line. Some of these are in our 
public libraries ; but as they are more vile than 
the original, I need not specifically refer to them. 
Enough for me to show that it was one of these 
to which probably my informant referred, cer- 
tainly one without a genuine line in it, which Lord 
Stanhope has mistaken for the original. 

I will now proceed to proof; and for this proof 
I am indebted to "N. & Q." An intelligent, cor- 
respondent referred, some time since (2 nd S. iii. 
308.), to works in his possession printed in red 
letters, and mentioned incidentally the Essay on 
Woman. Under very proper conditions, I was 
permitted to see this unique volume ; and it, 
turned out to be the very copy, or a copy of the 
very edition, seen and commented on by Lord 
Stanhope, inscribed to Lord Sandwich, and be- 
ginning, "Awake, my Sandwich." 

How, it may be asked, under the circumstances 
I have stated, can I be sure that this red-letter 
copy is not genuine ? For many reasons. It 
does not even pretend to be genuine. Instead of 
being the work printed at Wilkes's press, and laid 
on the table of the House of Lords in 1763, it is 
declared on the title-page to be "Printed for 
George Richards, MDCCLXXII. ;" and it declares 
this in type, whereas the genuine title-page was 
"on copper curiously engraved." Again, there is 
not one single note throughout, whereas, as the Par- 
liamentary History shows, and my Lord Stanhope 
admits, " burlesque notes were appended " to the 
genuine edition "in the name of the Right Reve- 
rend the Bishop of Gloucester." Farther and 
conclusive, the indictment sets forth copious ex- 
tracts both from the poem and the notes, and not 
one line of these numerous paragraphs is to be 
found in the copy printed for George Richards 
and commented on by the historian. 

I will hereafter, with your permission, consider 
the evidence as to Wilkes having "composed" or 
written the poem. D. 

{To be continued.') 



THE FIRST SANSCRIT BOOK. 

I have often reflected on the circumstance 
which prompts me to write this note. A lan- 
guage which boasts of vast antiquity a lan- 
guage which, as affirms M. Eichhoff, "contient le 
germe de toutes les langues et de toutes les litte- 
ratures de 1'Europe" was first made patent 
through the medium of the press at the close of 
the eighteenth century. 

The work chosen on that memorable occasion 
must be noticed in our best biographical and other 
collections, and preserved in many public libraries : 
such, at least, are the fair inferences. Inquiry 
proves the reverse. 

The Seasons of Calidas, as edited in Sanscrit by 
sir William Jones, are not noticed in the Nouveau 
dictionnaire historique, nor in the Biographic uni- 
verselle, nor in the General biographical dictionary. 
The same censure applies to the Cyclopaedia of 
Rees, to the Edinburgh cyclopaedia, to the Ency- 
clopaedia Americana, to the Penny cyclopaedia, to 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and to the National 
cyclopaedia ; also, to the bibliographical works of 
Watt, and Lowndes, and Ebert, and Brunet. 

The precious volume is not in the British Mu- 
seum, nor in the Bibliotheca Marsdeniana, nor in 
the Bodleian Library, nor in the Bibliotheque 
Irnperiale at Paris ; nor does it appear to have 
been in the private collections of Langles, De 
Chezy, Haughton, Silvestre de Sacy, or Bournouf. 

I shall now describe it from a copy which came 
into my possession on the sale of the library of sir 
William Jones in 1831. It is entitled 

" The= SEASONS : a descriptive poem, by CALIDAS, 
in the original Sanscrit. CALCUTTA : M.DCC.XCII." 

The volume is in royal octavo, and consists of 
thirty-four leaves of wove paper of very firm 
texture. An anonymous advertisement occupies 
the recto of the second leaf, and bears the auto- 
graph initials of the illustrious sir William Jones. 
The text, as professor Horace Hayman Wilson 
assures us, is in the Bengali character. The type- 
founder is not named, nor even the printer. The 
paper has the water-mark J. WHATMAN, and is in 
spotless condition. 

The advertisement, though reprinted in the 
works of its author, must not be omitted on this 
occasion. - 

" ADVERTISEMENT. 

THIS book is the first ever printed in Sanscrit; and it 
is by the press alone, that the ancient literature of India 
carTlong be preserved : a learner of that most interesting 
language, who had carefully perused one of the popular 
grammars, could hardly begin his course of study with an, 
easier or more elegant work than the Ititusanhdra, or 
Assemblage of seasons. Every line composed by CALID^S 
is exquisitely polished, and every couplet in the following 
poem exhibits an Indian landscape, always beautiful, 
sometimes highly coloured, but never beyond nature: 
four copies of it have been diligently collated; and, 



N 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



where they differed, the clearest and most natural reading 
has constantly had the preference." 

W: J: [Autograph.] 

I do not mean to insinuate that the above- 
described volume is inaccessible, or unrecorded. 
There is a copy, as appears by the printed cata- 
logue, in the library of the India-House ; arid the 
publication is noticed by professor Wilson in the 
Calcutta edition of Megha duta, and by F. von 
Adelung in his Historical sketch of Sanscrit litera- 
ture. It is also noticed in the Encyclopedic des 
gens du monde, in the Nouvelle biographie generale, 
etc. 

But in every instance which has come under my 
observation the title of the volume is misreported ; 
or the place or date of its impression, or its size, 
is omitted ; and, except in the advertisement, I 
Lave nowhere seen it designated as the first San- 
scrit book. BOLTON CORNEY. 

Fontainebleau, 
(Rue de France, No. 16.) 



SHAKSPEARE'S " PERICLES," AND WILKINS'S NOVEL 
FOUNDED UPON IT. 

The readers of " N. & Q." are already ac- 
quainted with the fact of the reprint in Olden- 
burg of an English tract, bearing the title of The 
Painful Adventures of Pericles, Prince of Tyre. 
They are aware that it is a novel founded upon 
Shakspeare's Pericles, and not a novel upon which 
Shakspeare's Pericles was founded. It was a 
theory of mine, entertained and broached about 
twenty years ago, that this novel, printed in 1608, 
contains passages which are not found in the play, 
printed in 1609 ; and that those passages must 
have formed part of the original drama as it was 
acted at the Globe Theatre, in 1607, or, more pro- 
bably, in 1608. 

They are given as mere prose, and in a nar- 
rative form, in the novel; but sometimes, with 
the omission of two or three particles, and some- 
times without the omission, or even change of a 
syllable, they run into such excellent and Shak- 
spearian blank- verse, as to form of themselves a 
strong confirmation of my opinion, that by means 
of such passages we recover a genuine and lost 
portion of Pericles, as it was first acted, and as 
our great dramatist wrote it. In support of this 
notion, I published, in 1839, fifty copies of a small 
tract, called Farther Particulars regarding Shah- 
speare and his Works, in which I may here say 
(since comparatively few have had an opportunity 
of seeing it), that I endeavoured to establish three 
points, then entirely new. 1. That the novel was 
founded upon Shakspeare's Pericles. 2. That it 
contained portions written by Shakspeare, but not 
found in his play, as it has come down to us. 3. 
That it furnishes some most useful and valuable 



verbal emendations. This little production of 
mine attracted so little notice at the time, that 
when Rodd, the publisher (if publication it can 
be called), died, he was in possession of a num- 
ber of unsold copies of it. When I printed the 
first edition of my Shakspeare in 1843, I used a 
part of my Farther Particulars, Sfc. t in the " In- 
troduction" to Pericles. 

I apprehended that the copy of The Painful 
Adventures of Pericles, lent to me by the late Mr. 
Heber, was unique and complete. I soon dis- 
covered that it was not the sole existing exemplar, 
and a fragment, without commencement or con- 
clusion, devolved into my hands ; but it was not 
until within these last few months that I learned 
that Mr. Heber' s book was incomplete : it wanted 
the dedication, which was the more important, 
because at the end of it was the name of the com- 
piler of the narrative, George Wilkins, the author, 
as I then presumed, of a play entitled The Mise- 
ries of Enforced Marriage, first printed in 1607. 
I have now good reason to believe that they were 
different men with the same names. The dis- 
covery of a copy of The Painful Adventures of 
Pericles, in a public library of Switzerland, en- 
abled Professor Mommsen, of Oldenburg, to re- 
print the tract in Germany, in its entire state; 
and as he favoured me with some copies of it, in 
return for a brief and imperfect sort of preface, 
with which, really at an hour's notice, I furnished 
him, I have been enabled to go over every line 
and letter it contains, with a view to the reprint 
I am now making of my Shakspeare of 1843. 

The result has been the discovery of much new 
matter connected with the three points I urged in 
my Farther Particulars of 1839. I think that I 
have now established them all beyond the possi- 
bility of dispute ; but my object is not at present 
to advert to the first and third, but to the second, 
which I hold to be the most important of all, viz. 
that Wilkins's novel, founded upon Pericles, and 
probably derived from short-hand notes taken at 
the Globe Theatre during the representation, in- 
cludes not a few passages, originally recited by 
the actors, but not contained in the very imper- 
fect first edition of the play in 1609, from which 
all the subsequent reprints were made. I subjoin 
a few proofs. 

Simonides, pretending wrath at the lov.e his 
daughter Thaisa has declared for Pericles, calls 
him, in Wilkins's novel : 

" A stragling Theseus, borne we know not where, one 
that hath neither bloud, nor merite, for thee to hope for, 
or himselfe to challenge even the least allowance of thy 
perfections." 

How easily this passage, as it were, turns itself 
into blank-verse, will at once be seen : 
" A straggling Theseus, born wee know not where, 
One that hath neither blood, nor merit, for thee 
Ever to hope for, or himself to challenge 
The least allowance of thy perfections." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



No 79., JULY 4. '57. 



Can we reasonably doubt that these were, and 
are, Shakspeare's lines? Not only are the par- 
ticles omitted of no value, but how likely it is that 
they were inserted by Wilkins in the speedy pro- 
cess of transcribing his notes for the printer, who 
was, perhaps, actually waiting for them. If the 
passage had not been delivered on the stage, very 
nearly in the form we have given it, how would it 
have been possible for Wilkins, or for any other 
person, anxious to bring out the novel with all 
haste, for the purpose of gratifying public cu- 
riosity, to have deliberately composed such lines 
as those above-inserted ? What is Thaisa's reply 
to them ? Exactly in the same form and spirit : 

" And what, most royal father, with my pen 
I have in secret written unto you, 
With my tongue now I openly confirm ; 
Which is, I have no life but in his love, 
Nor being, but th' enjoyment of his Avorth." 

These are, as nearly as possible, the very words 
in Wilkins' s novel, with no omission of the slightest 
importance : moreover, the blank-verse is quite 
regular, which cannot be said of hundreds of lines I 
in the play, as printed in 1609. I am convinced 
that the play was made up from notes, in many 
instances much more imperfect than those which ! 
Wilkins employed for his novel that the two j 
short-hand writers were, as it were, running a ! 
race for priority that Wilkins was first ready j 
with his prose narrative ; and consequently that I 
it came out in 1608, while the play was not corn- j 
pleted for publication until some time afterwards. 
I do not alter, or omit, a single syllable of what 
Wilkins gives us as the speech of Simonides in 
answer to his daughter : I only divide it into 
lines : 

" Equals to equals, good to good is join'd : 
This not being so, the bavin of your mind, 
In rashness kindled, must again be quench'd, 
Or purchase our displeasure." 

I do not complain of Mr. Singer, or of any body 
else, for using the extracts I formerly gave from 
this publication, without the slightest acknow- 
ledgment that I was the first to direct attention 
to it : all I am anxious about is, that the value of 
the novel, not of the discovery, should be ad- 
mitted. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 

Maidenhead, June 22, 1857. 



AN OLD AUTHOR'S MUSICAL ADVICE. 

The following interesting chapter is taken from 
a rare little volume entitled, 

" The Rules of Civility ; or, certain ways of Deport- 
ment observed amongst all Persons of Quality upon 
several Occasions. Newly revised and enlarged London : 
Printed for R. Chiswell, T. Sawbridge, G. Wells, and R. 
Bentley, 1685. 12mo." 



It illustrates a passage in Shakspeare's As You 
Like It, Act V. So. 3. : 

" Shall we clap into't roundly, without hawking or 
spitting ; which are the only prologues to a bad voice ; " 

and shows how correct the great poet was in his 
observance of little things. 

" Chap. XV. If we have a faculty in singing, playing 
upon the Musick, fyc., how we are to demean. 

" If you have a talent -in singing, musick, or making 
of verses, you must never discover it by any vanity of 
your own. If it be known any other way, and you be 
importun'd by a person of quality to show him your 
skill, you may modestly excuse yourself. If that will not 
satisfie, 'tis but civil to gratifie him readily, and the 
promptitude of your compliance atones for any miscar- 
riage; whereas a sullen and obstinate denial faVours too 
much of the mercenan', and either shows that you would 
be paid for what you do, or that you think hinTun worthy 
of your skill ; and this unwillingness and difficulty to 
sing, &c., does many times dispose people to censure, and 
make them cry out to his face sometimes, ' Is this all he 
can do ? This is not worth the trouble he put us to to 
intreat him.' 

" When you begin to sing, or play upon the Theorbo, 
Lute, or Guitar, you must not hawk, nor spit, nor cough 
(before those that attend) to clear up your voice. 
Neither must you be too long in tuning your'instrument. 

" You must have a care of seeming to applaud A'ourself 
by any affected or fantastical gesture, nor by any ex- 
pression that may signifie how much we are delighted 
ourselves : as to say, * Now observe this note ; this is well ; 
this excellent ; take notice of this cadence,' &c. 

" You must observe likewise not to sing or play so long 
as to tire the company ; you must end therefore so dis- 
creetly as to leave them with a relish, and opinion of your 
faculty, that they may be tempted to invite you another 
time ; otherwise you will be in danger of being told, ' It 
is enough,' which on his side (if the person who sings be 
a gentleman) is as much rudeness as to talk to him and 
interrupt him." 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 



INEDITED VERSES BY COWPER. 

If the following lines have not already appeared 
in print, they may be interesting to some of the 
readers of " N. & Q." T. 

Worcester. 

" Lines addressed by Cowper to Mary Unwin, on her 

becoming Blind. 

" Mary, oft my mind recals thee, 

Resting on the Arm Divine ! 

Happy, whatsoe'er befals thee, 

Faith, the Christian's anchor, thine. 
" Though in outward darkness journeying, 

Glorious light for thee is sown ; 
Israel's pillar brightly burning, 

Guides thee on to Mercy's throne. 
"Worldly pomps no more attracting, 

Half the Christian's conflicts cease, 
Worldly lights no more distracting, 

Thou canst trim thy lamp in peace. 
" Though the World may little heed thee, 

Thou hast joys it knows not of, 

For the Lord thy God doth lead thee 

To the fount of peace and love. 



2"<i S. NO 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



! Mary ! think what lies before thee ! 

Think \vhatfirst thine eyes shall see, 
Christ, the Lord of life and glory, 

Crying 'Ephatha! ' to thee. 

' Think how blessed thy condition, 

Think what dawn shall chase thy night; 

Faith shall end in brightest vision, 
Christ himself shall be thy light." 



OXFORD AND DR. JOHNSON. 

From the reverence entertained by Dr. John- 
son for the University of Oxford, and the honours 
it conferred upon him while living, it would seem 
natural and becoming that after his death the Uni- 
versity should seek to perpetuate the memory and 
the fame of so great a man by a statue worthy 
both of him and of its own renown. For such a 
memorial, however, I have looked in vain; and 
would now, after the lapse of so many years, seek 
to revive the interest of the present age and of 
future generations in all that was truly great and 
noble in the character of one of England's 
worthiest sons, by proposing that a statue should 
be erected to him in the centre of the Bodleian 
quadrangle, a spot above all others, next to the 
House of God, where his spirit would hover with 
the greatest complacency. In such a situation he 
would be seen by foreigners of all nations, as well 
as by his own countrymen; while all would re- 
joice to see the University embodying, in ever- 
lasting granite, the massive form of the giant of 
English literature.* BOSWELL, JUN. 



Minor 

Gloves given on Reversal of Outlawry in 1464. 

One Sir John Bell having been outlawed on 
an indictment for murder, the outlawry was re- 
versed on error brought, 

" And he paid the fees of gloves to the Court, two 
dozen for the officers of the Court (for these in all four 
shillings), and in addition three pairs of furred gloves for 
the three judges there, to wit, Markham, Chief Justice, 
Yelverton and Bingham, and so the prisoner went to 
God," &c. Year Book, 4 Edward IV. 10. pi. 14. 

In the original the words are " ala a Dieu," &c., 
a not uncommon termination to the reports of 
acquittals in those days. I note them here to con- 
trast them with the concluding words of another 
case which occurred almost a hundred years earlier 

in 1369. In that case, which is reported in the 
Year Booh, 43 Edward III. 34. pi. 43., the king 

* A subscription of 5s. from each of the 900 heads 
fellows, and scholars of the University, not to speak of the 
commoners, who are probably twice" as numerous, would 
probably accomplish the object in a worthy manner; 
but if the sum thus raised should be inadequate, there 
must be many individuals throughout the British Empire 
who would feel honoured by assisting to erect the statue. 



sought to recover an advowson from the Bishop 
of Chester (as the Bishop of Lichfield was then 
sometimes called) upon a very flimsy pretext, and 
judgment was given for the bishop. The report 
concludes, " and you bishop go to the very great 
devil without day," " au tres graund deable sans 
jour." Is this the fun of the court, or of the re- 
porter, or of some subsequent copyist ? A. S. J. 

Abbreviation wanted. The word Professor will 
not get itself properly shortened. It is an awful 
prefix ; especially for a trisyllabic surname. It 
has as many letters in it as Mr., Dr., M.A., and 
Esq., put together.. If N. & Q. had been in ex- 
istence when I corrected the proofs of my evi- 
dence before the Museum Commissioners, I should 
have made my protest earlier. The constant oc- 
currence of " Professor Augustus De Morgan " in 
the head margin of page alter page made me feel 
that " thrice to thine " and " thrice to mine " were 
bad enough, but that " thrice again to make up 
nine" was an enormity. Some journals usually 
cut it down into Prof., which is ambiguous : it 
may mean proficient, profitable, or profound ; but 
it may mean profuse, profane, or profligate. Now 
in like manner as Mister becomes Mr., and Doctor 
becomes Dr., why should not Pr. take the place 
of Professor : this need no more stand for Prosy 
than Dr. for Drony. Surely N. & Q., or * ?, so 
fortunate in its own abbreviations, should set a 
good example, save its pwn space (the word takes 
half an inch in capitals), and cease to make a 
certain class of contributors feel as if they were 
being looked at through a microscope. 

A. DE MORGAN. 

General Todtleben. In Hardwicke's Annual 
Biography for 1856, p. 313., there is a long obitu- 
ary notice of the above-named officer, in which it 
is stated that 

" In the death of General Todtleben, Sebastopol has 
lost its greatest hero, and the loss of this Russian General 
of Engineers, from the effect of a wound received on June 
18, is an event of no mean importance to the Russians." 

This singular error should be corrected, and it 
cannot be more readily done than by giving the 
following quotation from the United Service Ga- 
zette, of May 23, 1857: 

" General Todtleben. This distinguished Russian en- 

f'neer has fixed the first week in September for visiting 
ngland and attending the banquet to be given to him 
in London by the officers of the Royal Engineers." 

w.w. 

Malta. 

Bristol Artillery Company. In the beginning 
of the year 1679 an artillery company was esta- 
blished here. The Marquis of Worcester, Lord 
Lieutenant of the city and county of Bristol, as 
well as of the counties of Gloucester, Hereford, 
and Monmouth, on March 6, 1678-9, communi- 
cated to the mayor, Sir John Lloyd, his majesty's 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. N 79., JULY 4. '57, 



approbation ; and on the 12th of December fol- 
lowing, certain articles and orders were agreed on 
" to be observed and performed by every person 
that shall be admitted into the friendly Society of 
the Exercisers of Armes within the Citty of 
Bristoll." No person was to be admitted into the 
society until he had produced a certificate under 
the hands of two of his majesty's justices of the 
peace, purporting " that such person had before 
them taken the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, 
and the Declaration in the statute." The mar- 
quis, on the 1st of March, 1679-80, appointed his 
u dear Son, Charles Lord Herbert, to be Captain 
and Leader of the said Artillery Company." 
Their other officers were a lieutenant and ensign, 
appointed probably by the same authority, with a 
drum-beater, marshal, and armourer. The In- 
stitution was probably intended as a royalist or 
high-party association. They met every Friday 
for exercise, and on the first Friday in every 
month they were 

" to appear in the habits, and to be provided asfolloweth : 
Every Pikemau habitted in a gray cloth coat lined with 
scarlet, a scarlet pair of breeches and stockings, and a 
white hat, a shoulder buff belt, a silk crimson scarf with 
a good pike, and a sword or rapier; every Musketteer 
with a gray cloth coat lined with scarlet, a scarlet pair of 
breeches and stockings, and a Avhite hat, buff collar of 
bandeliers, buff girdle and frog, with a good muskett and 
four and twenty charges of powder, and a good hanger or 
cutting sword." 

These particulars were extracted from the 
original paper (signed by 101 members) by the 
late Rev. Samuel Seyer of Bristol. ANON. 

Epitaph. I was glad to see the suggestion by 
J. G. N. (2 nd S. iii. 424.), as to recording in the 
pages of " N". & Q." anything of interest which 
may be found in manuscript on the fly-leaves of 
old books. Many curious old epitaphs have ap- 
peared from time to time ; the following may add 
another to the number of them. It is written at 
the end of a copy of Trapp's Commentary on the 
Epistles and Revelation, 1647, small 4to. : 

" Epitaphium super Puerulos meos dilectos, Samuel 

et Sarah Moon. 

" My Children Dear, whom God to me did give ; 
God here alloted you few days to live. 
Unerring Wisdom see it best for you ; 
And we your Parents ought to think so too: 
For God, whose word's infallible and true, 
Hath promised unto all Believers true, 
That he unto their infant Seed will be 
A Covenant God, as we in Scripture See.* 
No matter then, what, though you Lived not long: 
If fit for God and Christ, it is all one, 
As if a hundred years or more you'd Seen ; 
Death's the Conclusion of the longest Scene. 
And though your Bodies unto dust resolve; 
Being united unto Christ your head, 
The Grave shall not for ever them involve, 
lou with his Saints at Last being gathered." f 



* Gen. xvii. 7. ; Acts ii. 39. 



t Ps. 1. 



If the above is deemed worthy of insertion in 
" N. & Q.," I shall be induced to send you several 
other extracts from fly-leaves of old books in my 
possession worth making " a note of." J. N. 

Bangor, N. Wales. 

Uffington Family. I have in my possession an 
old Bible, "imprinted at London by Robert 
Barker, 1610." This must have belonged to a re- 
spectable family : there are many of the names and 
birth-dates of the family of Uffingtons of Wood- 
ford, co. of Northon, I suppose Northamptonshire. 
It is a very curious book, with a great number of 
plates. If this should meet the eye of any of the 
family, they may communicate to you if they wish 
to possess it. GEORGE SEARLE. 

18. Lower Baggot Street, Dublin. 



PORTRAITS OF MARY STUART. 

Amongst the numerous and valuable portraits 
of Queen Mary now on view at the apartments of 
the Archaeological Institute, 26. Suffolk Street, 
there is none equal in singularity of design to 
that noticed in the Hawthornden MSS., to which 
Mr. Peter Cunningham has kindly called my at- 
tention : 

" Queen Marie having sent upon ane brode the portrait 
of her Husband Henry and her owne, w l the portraits of 
David Kicci in prospective, to the Cardinall of Lorraine 
her Uncle, he praised much the workmanship and cun- 
ning of the Painter; but having asked what he was that 
was drawen by them, and hearing it was her Secretarye, 
' Je voudrois (said he) qu'on oistoit ce petit Vilain de fa ! 
Qu'a il a faire d'estre si pres?' After the slaughter of 
Ricci, one told him that the Scots had done what he de- 
sired : ' Car ils avoyent oste' le petit Vilain aupres de la 
Royne.' " 

Can any of your readers supply a clue to this 
singular " brode," signifying, of course, a painting 
on panel ? ALBERT WAT. 

Reigate. 



George Washington an Englishman. An ar- 
ticle, under the above heading, appeared a short 
time since in the correspondence of the Morning 
Post, in which the writer, after alluding to a 
statement in Stars or Stripes, or American Im- 
pressions, that " General W ashington never went 
to England," proceeds to show that he had good 
grounds for " wishing to do so, because he was 
born in England," viz. " at Cookham in Berkshire, 
nineteen miles from Windsor," where, he says, 
" he was assured that the books of the parish have 
been destroyed by Americans" He further adds, 
" The case was slightly mentioned at the time of 
the election of Mr. Washington to the Presidency, 



2d s. NO 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QtJEEIES. 



but the general enthusiasm to the great man 
stopped the rumour." 

Is there any truth in this remarkable story ? * 
HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 

Southampton. 

Lord Chesterfield's Characters of Eminent Per- 
sonages of his Own Time. I have a thin 12mo. 
volume entitled Characters of Eminent Persons 
of his Own Time, written by the late Earl of Ches- 
terfield, and never before published. The Second 
Edition. London, printed for William Flexney, Hoi- 
born, 1777. It contains characters of George I., 
Queen Caroline, Sir Robert Walpole, Mr. Pul- 
teney, Lord Hardwicke, Mr. Fox, and Mr. Pitt. 
The character of Mr. Henry Fox is drawn with 
so much bitterness that the editor of the volume 
has deemed it right, in his preface, to correct 
some of the statements. My Query is, is this 
work genuine ? and, if so, under what circum- 
stances was it published, and by whom was it 
edited? C. C. 

Ocean Telegraph. In the London Literary 
Gazette of March 10, 1849, the following notice 
appeared : 

" A telegraph across the Atlantic has been mentioned or 
proposed in the Congress at Washington, which we have 
no doubt will be executed as soon as there is gold enough 
from California to make the wires. Meantime the 
packets, it is thought, will sail to and fro as usual." 

Might I ask if this is the earliest notice of an 
ocean telegraph, and by whom was it first pro- 
posed ? W. W. 

Malta. 

Dixons of co. Kildare, Ireland. A supposed 
offshoot of the Yorkshire family of Dixon, who 
bear for arms, " Sable, a fleur-de-lis, or, and chief 
ermine," went to Ireland temp. Henry VIIL, gave 
a bishop to the see of Cork temp. Eliz., and a 
lord mayor to the city of Dublin in 1632 ; and by 
marriage with the family of Borrowes, Barts., who 
now represent them, became allied to the Earls of 
Cork and Kildare. Is there any Yorkshire cor- 
respondent of " N. & Q." who can trace the con- 
nexion between the two families bearing the same 
name and arms ? The Rev. Erasmus Dixon Bor- 
rowes, Bart., has obligingly communicated to me 
the above information, but we are both unable to 
supply the necessary proof of connexion. I hope 
some kind and valued contributor will assist, and 
by doing so, greatly oblige RT. WM. DIXON. 

Seaton-Carew, co. Durham. 

Compound Manual. In 1471 (11 Edw. IV.) a 
question arose in the King's Bench, whether St. 
Edmund's Day in the 5th year of Edward IV.'s 



[* A Query respecting Washington's birth-place ap- 
peared in our 1* S. x. 85. 176., which never received a 
reply. ED.] 



reign fell upon Tuesday or Wednesday ; and the 
judges said that they would ascertain how the 
fact was from some one who knew the "Com- 
pound Manual." Query, What was this ? an 
almanac or some table, like those now prefixed to 
Books of Common Prayer ? My note is taken 
from the Year Books, 11 Edw. IV. 10. pi. 4., edi- 
tion of 1680. A. S. J. 

"Patois." Information is requested from "N. 
& Q." with regard to the derivation of the French 
word patois. The "Patavinitas" which Quintilian 
relates to have been discovered by Asinius Pollio 
in the writings of Livy has been proposed. Is 
this with any foundation ? M. 

Kirhpatrichs and Lindsays. When in 1306 
Sir Roger Kirkpatrick, ancestor of the Empress 
Eugenie, accompanied his cousin, Robert Bruce, 
on his escape from England to the Grey Friars, 
Dumfries, to meet the Regent "Gumming, whom 
he there despatched with his dagger, James 
Lindsay was one of Kirkpatrick's companions. 

Fifty years afterwards Lindsay's son, then a 
guest of Kirkpatrick's son at Caerlaveroc Castle, 
for some cause not handed down, stabbed his host 
in his bed and fled ; but losing his way in the 
dark was taken towards morning by Kirkpatrick's 
men, and dealt with according to the prompt law 
of Border feud. 

Many years afterwards the murderer's grandson 
meeting Margaret Kirkpatrick at Holyrood, the 
young people forgot the feudal duty of eternal 
hatred. On her return home young Lindsay, 
prowling about Caerlaveroc, was seized by Kirk- 
patrick's men and thrown into the castle dungeon, 
from which in the night he was duly released by 
Margaret, who, while refusing to flee with Lindsay 
from the roof of her stern father, was betrayed 
into vows which after a time she was permitted 
to perform, her dutiful affection having melted the 
old man's feudal heart. 

Upon this love tale Mrs. Erskine Norton 
founded a pretty ballad called "The Earl'a 
Daughter," commencing : 

" Up rose Caerlaveroc's grim Earl, 
Right joyful shouted he, 
My hated foe for ever now 
My prisoner shall be. 

What brought the Gallant near my towers, 
Scarce armed and all alone ; 
'Twas the hand of Heaven that gave him up, 
His father's crime to atone." 

This ballad appeared in the Literary Gazette 
about twenty years since. Can any of your 
readers refer the querist to the number of the 
Literary Gazette, or to any other publication in 
which the ballad has appeared. K. K. K. 

" Sweeping, vehemently sweeping." Is this from 
Wordsworth ? If so, from what "poem ? and what 
is the ancient legend to which he refers, jn which 



8 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. No 79., JULY 4. '57. 



"sweeping" is metaphorically applied to the per- 
secution of some individual or family by an evil 
demon ? 2. 

Ballad of " Pair Mary Lee" The gifted 
authoress oif Shirley alludes to the above as being 
of uncertain origin, " written," she says, " I 
know not in what generation or by what hand." 
Are these inferences correct, or is anything known 
of the writer ? The burden of the song or lament 
seems an imprecation of " Black Robin a Ree" 
who, from the digest given of it in the work above 
quoted, had worked woe and desolation in poor 
Mary's lot ; one verse only is given as a specimen : 

" Oh ance I lived happily by yon bonny burn, 

The warld was in love wi' me ; 
But now I maun sit 'neath the cauld drift and mourn, 

And curse Black Robin a Ree." 

" She recalls every image of horror, the yellow wymed 
ask,' . . . . ' the ghaist at e'en,' ' the sour bullister,' 
' the milk on the taeds back,' as objects of intense hatred, 
but * waur she hates Robin a Ree.' " 

I apprehend if the above had been of easy re- 
ference, its origin would at least have been hinted 
at. Perhaps some of the readers of " N. & Q." 
may be able to supply the deficiency. Some ex- 
planation also of the "images of horror," as given 
above, and others to be found in the volume, 
would be acceptable. HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 

Southampton. 

William Collins, Ord. Freed. A book with the 
following title is in the library of Trinity College, 
Dublin : 

"Missa Triumphans, or, The Triumph of the Mass; 
wherein all the sophistical and wily Arguments of Mr. 
de Rodon against that thrice Venerable Sacrifice, in his 
funestuous Tract, by him called, ' The Funeral of the 
Mass,' are fully, formally, and clearly Answered. To- 
gether with an Appendix bv way of Answer to the 
Translator's Preface. By F. P. M. 0. P. Hib. Lovain, 
1675. 8vo." 

In a dedicatory epistle "to the Queen's most 
excellent Majesty," subscribed by "your Ma- 
iestie's most Loyal and Devoted Beadsman, W. 
C.," the dedicator speaks of the book as his own 
production. All this, however, may be known to 
any one who has access to a copy of the book. 
But what renders this particular copy interesting 
is the following passage, probably in the hand- 
writing of the author, on a fly-leaf: 

" This is the very same booke which the author dedi- 
cated to the Queene, and presented into her hands, which 
being accidentally returned unto him, he sends as a me- 
moriall to the convent of Bornhem, whereof he was for- 
merly a son, fr. William Collins, Ord" Praad. S. T. Mgr." 

Can any of your readers give me information 
respecting this William Collins ? 'A\ievs. 

Dublin. 

J. C. Frommann. Any information that you 
or any of your numerous correspondents could 



give me respecting the following work would 
much oblige. R. C. 

Cork. 

" Tractatus de Fascinatione novus et singularis in quo 
Fascinatio vulgaris profligatur, naturalis confirmatur, et 
magica examinatur ; hoc est, nee visu, nee voce fieri posse 
Fascinationem probatur, etc. Auctore, Johanne Christiano 
Frommann, D., Medico Provinciali Saxo Coburgico et 
PP. Norimberg. Sumptibus Wolfgangi Mauritii Endteri 
et Johannis Andreas Endteri Hasredum, 167$." 

Early Harvests. As this promises to be an 
early year, perhaps some of .your correspondents 
residing in different parts of England can say the 
date of the month and year in which they recollect 
the earliest wheat rick to have been put up. A 
neighbour of mine, who farms 2000 acres, informs 
me that in 1828 he had a wheat rick set up on July 
1 8, and finished harvest, with the exception of beans, 
on the 28th of the same month. The yield was not 
heavy, but it was of excellent quality. H. T. 

Essex, 

Quotation wanted : " Second thoughts not always 
best" Can any correspondent refer me to a pas- 
sage I think, somewhere in Bishop Butler's 
works, to the effect that, in moral questions, a 
man's first and third thoughts (which usually 
aaree together) are more to be depended on for 
his guidance than his second thoughts ? ACHE. 

PichersgilVs " Three Brothers" A literary 
friend of mine in the country, who is a perfect 
helluo librorum, but who really digests his mental 
food with the power of a hippopotamus, in spite 
of its quantity, asks me if 1 remember a strange 
romance called The Three Brothers, which he 
thinks " I must have read when a boy" (I have a 
glimmering recollection of the book), " and which 
Lord Byron studied. The author was a lad, 
Joshua Pickersgill, Jun.,* if I remember right, 
much under age. I thought this was a fictitious 
name, but it was a real one ; and the author en- 
tered the East India Company's service, was 
Adjut.-Gen. in Gen. Ochterlony's army in the 
Nepaul war, and died soon after. 

" I want to know something more about him, 
and if he ever wrote anything else ? The book 
itself is full of faults and deformities, but showed 
much talent and great imagination in so young a 
man. Lord Byron's Deformed Transformed is 
founded on the story." 

Was the author of the family of Pickersgill the 
distinguished portrait painter ? 

G. HUNTLY GORDON. 

John Lake, Bishop of Chichester. I should 
feel obliged to any of your correspondents who 
could afford me information respecting the family 
connexions of Bishop Lake, one of the seven pro? 



* I find in Watt's Bib. Br., " The Three Brothers, by 
Joshua Pickersgill, Esq., 4 vols. 12mo., 1803," 



s. NO 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



testing bishops in the reign of James II. His will 
was proved at Doctors' Commons in Aug. 1689, 
from which it seems he had two sons, James Lake, 
citizen and haberdasher ; and William Lake, Fel- 
low of St. John's Coll., Cambridge. He died 
seised of lands in Pontefract, in Yorkshire. Ju- 
dith Lake, his widow, was his executrix. What 
was her maiden name ? JOHN BOOKER. 

Prestwich. 

Moravian Query. Walpole, in his Memoirs of 
the Reign of George II. (vol. iii. p. 97.), speaking 
of the year 1758, says : 

" There were no religious combustibles in the temper 
of the times. . . . Lurzemlorffe plied his Moravians with 
nudities, yet made few enthusiasts." 

What scandal does Walpole allude to ? M. N. 

Kitchenham Family. Wanted any information 
respecting the Kitchenham family, one of the 
ancestors of which (Baron Kitchenham of Wad- 
hurst) obtained a grant from the Crown (temp. 
Edw. IV.) for military services at Leeds Castle, 
in Kent. Any information as to the pedigree and 
descendants of Baron Kitchenham would be very 
acceptable, especially with reference to the above- 
named grant, as to where the original may be 
seen, or a copy of the same obtained. G. P. 

Nathaniel Mist. Nathaniel Mist, the pub- 
lisher, died at Boulogne. What took him there? 
Had he fled from a prosecution ? WISSOCQ. 

Dutch Protestant Congregations. The descen- 
dants of the Dutch Protestant refugees, who set- 
tled in the city of Norwich to avoid the 6erce and 
bloody persecutions of the Duke of Alva, retain 
to this day estates bequeathed to the Dutch con- 
gregation in that city, and have the choir of the 
Black Friars' Conventual Church assigned to them 
for their use. 

Service is performed only once a year : the 
sermon being preached first in Dutch, and after- 
wards in English, by the Rev. H. Gehle, D.D., 
chaplain to the Netherlands ambassador, and 
minister of the Dutch Church, Austin Friars, 
London. It is always held on a Sunday near 
Midsummer Day ; and this year took place on 
Sunday, June 28. 

The congregation possess a series of valuable 
registers and old books, including a large folio 
Bible in Dutch for the use of the minister, printed 
at Leyden by Louys and Daniel Elzevier, and 
bearing the following imprint : " Tot Leyden. By 
de Weduwe ende Erffgenamen van Johan. Elze- 
vier, Boeckdruckers van de Academic, 1663." 
^ Does a similar congregation exist, and is a 
similar service held at the present time in any 
other part of the United Kingdom P 

THOMAS ROBINSON TALLACK. 

St. Andrew's, Norwich. 



- (Suerfcg foritf) 

John Rule, A.M. There was published a work, 
entitled The English and French Letter Writer, by 
the Rev. John Rule, A.M., Master of the Academy 
at Islington, 12mo., Lond. 1766. Can you oblige 
me with some biographical notices of the author? 

R. INGLIS. 

[More seems to be known of the celebrated dramatic 
recitations of Mr. Rule's pupils than of his own personal 
history. A comedy called The Agreeable Surprise, trans- 
lated from the French of De Mariveux, was published in 
a volume entitled Poetical Blossoms, or the Sports of 
Genius; being a Collection of Poems upon several Sub- 
jects, by the Young Gentlemen of Mr. Rule's Academy at 
Islington, 12mo , 1776. In the Public Advertiser of Dec. 
30, 1766, appeared the following notice: "On the 10th, 
llth, and 12th December, a Lecture of Heads, with seve- 
ral poetical pieces, were delivered by the Young Gentle- 
men of Mr. Rule's Academy, Islington, and a Comedy 
presented, called The Agreeable Surprise, followed by the 
entertainments of the Lying Valet and the Miller of 
Mansfield, with the Prologues and Epilogues suited to 
the occasion, in presence of a numerous, polite, and gen- 
teel company." Again in the same paper of Dec. 20, 
1769. " We hear the Young Gentlemen of Mr. Rule's 
Academy, Islington, acted the tragedy of Cato with suit- 
able entertainments, prologues, &c., on Wednesday and 
Thursday last, at Sadler's Wells, to the entire satisfaction 
of a numerous and polite audience." Mr. Rule's academy 
was in Colebrooke Row, on the banks of the New River, 
and memorable as the residence of William Woodfall, the 
friend of Garrick, Goldsmith, and Savage. Here lived 
and died, too, Colley Gibber, poet-laureate to George II. ; 
James Burgh, author of Dignity of Human Nature; Poli- 
tical Disquisitions, &c. ; and the Rev. George Burder, 
author of Village Sermons. &c. Charles Lamb, in a letter 
to Bernard Barton, dated Sept. 2, 18^3, thus graphically 
describes his residence in this locality : " When you come 
London ward, you will find me no longer in Covent Gar- 
den : I have a cottage in Colebrooke Row, Islington a 
cottage, for it is detached ; a white house, with six good 
rooms in it; the New River (rather elderly by this time) 
runs (if a moderate walking pace can be so termed) close 
to the foot of the house ; and behind is a spacious garden, 
with vines (I assure you), pears, strawberries, parsneps, 
leeks, carrots, cabbages, to delight the heart of old Alci- 
nous. You enter without passage into a cheerful dining 
room, all studded over and rough with old books; and 
above is a lightsome drawing-room full of choice prints. 
I feel like a great lord, never having had a house before." 
Poor Charles Lamb's cottage was subsequently occupied 
by Master John Webb, of soda-water celebrity! Sie 
transit gloria mundi /] 

Rev. JR. W. Mayow. There was published in 
1821, Sermons, by the Rev. R. W. Mayow, of 
Exeter College, Oxford, who died in 1817, to 
which is prefixed an account of the author. Could 
you oblige me by giving a short biographical no- 
tice of Mr. Mayow ? R. INGLTS. 

[Robert Wynell Mayow was born at Saltash, Devon, 
Oct. 8, 1777. * His parents had early instilled into him so 
strong a love of truth, and such a sense of the constant 
presence of God, that it was said of him, when at the 
Grammar School of Liskeard, that " Mayow never could 
be brought to tell a lie." He was designed for the law, 
and in 1794 was articled as clerk to an attorney at Bath ; 
but the perusal of Law's Serious Calif and his practical 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 79., JULY 4. '57. 



Treatise upon Christian Perfection, indisposed him to re- 
lish the profession selected by his parents. ^ Being per- 
mitted to follow the bent of his own inclinations, he was 
sent to Oxford, where he was entered at Exeter College 
in June, 1797. In May, 1801, he was ordained deacon by 
the Bishop of Winchester, and entered on the curacy of 
Weston, near Bath. After serving several curacies he 
finally settled at Colerne, near the above-named city. 
He married, in 1805, his cousin Elizabeth, daughter of 
W. Harding, Esq., of Liverpool. At Colerne Mr. Mayow 
resided for four years ; thence removed to Rosthern, and 
afterwards, for the space of five years, officiated in the 
chapel of E. B. Wilbraham, Esq., of Lathom, Lancashire, 
and at length, three months previous to his death, he re- 
moved' to St. Thomas's Chapel, Ardwick, near Manches- 
ter, where he died Jan. 8, 1817, at. 39.] 

Colonel John Howard Payne, Author of " Home, 
sweet Home" I trust you will permit me to 
record in the pages of " N. & Q." that the remains 
of my late deceased friend, the well-known author 
of Home, sweet Home, lie interred in the cemetery 
of St. George at Tunis ; a ground supported by 
contributions from the English, American, and 
other Protestant countries. I would also add 
that over the spot wliich marks the place of his 
burial, the government of the United States have 
very recently erected a monument, which bears 
the following inscription : 

" In Memory 

of 
Colonel John Howard Payne, 

Twice Consul of 
The United States of America, 

For 

The City and Kingdom of Tunis, 
This stone is here placed, 

By a grateful Country. 
He died at the American Consulate 
In this City after a tedious illness, 

April 1st, 1852. 
He was born at the City of Boston, 

State of Massachusetts. 

His fame as a Poet and Dramatist 

Is well known wherever the English language 

is understood, through his celebrated Ballad of 

'Home, Sweet Home,' 

And his popular tragedy of ' Brutus,' and other similar 
productions." 

I remember to have read in a London publica- 
tion a complimentary notice of Colonel Payne, 
shortly .after his decease. I think it appeared in 
the Literary Gazette, and although I have re- 
ferred to several volumes of this work 'for the 
purpose of finding it, still I have failed in my 
search, there being no index to guide me. 

Can I be favoured with this reference, as also 
with the date of Colonel Payne's birth, the writer 
of his epitaph having left a blank on the marble 
for its insertion, so soon as it shall be correctly 
known. W. W. 

Malta. 

[According to the Memoirs of John Howard Payne, the 
American Roscins, compiled from Authentic Documents, 
London, 1815, this celebrated dramatist was born in the 
city of New York, on June 9, 1792, and was soon after, 



while yet an infant, removed with his family to Boston. 
A complimentary notice of him appeared in The Literary 
Gazette of 1852, p. 517 ; but a more extended sketch 
appeared in the New York Literary World, which was 
copied into the Gentleman's Magazine of July, 1852, 
p. 104. " Home, Sweet Home," first appeared in his 
Clan, the Maid of Milan. ] 



JAMES HO WELL AND THE " EPISTOL^E HO-ELIAN^.'* 

(2 nd S. iii. 167. 212. 315. 410. 489.) 

I should feel greatly obliged if some of your 
correspondents would furnish a list of his works 
and the dates of their publication, with any further 
particulars of his life ; for it is very evident from 
the letters themselves, that he was very intimate 
with the royalists. Query, When was he ap- 
pointed as one of the Clerks of the Council ? to 
which he alludes, September 7, 1641 (No. 46., 
sect. 6.) : 

" To the Honorable Sir P. M. 

"Now that Sir Edward Nicholas is made Secretary of 
State, I am put in fair hopes, or rather assurance, to suc- 
ceed him in the Clerkship of the Council." 

With regard to the cause of his imprisonment, it 
is equally evident that it was political ; as where 
he relates the manner of his arrest, he says, that 
upon being brought before the Close Committee, 
he was ordered to be forthcoming till his papers 
were perused, and that Mr. Corbet was appointed 
to examine them. Again, at the commencement 
of the second volume, after the dedication (to 
which I shall allude), comes, 

" The Stationer to the Reader. 

" It pleased the Author to send me these ensuing letters 
as a supplement to the greater Volume of Epistolce Ho- 
Eliana:. where they could not be inserted then, because 
most of his papers, whence divers of these letters are de- 
rived, were under sequestration. And thus much I had 
in commission to deliver. 

" HUMPHREY MOSELEY." 

With regard to the time of his imprisonment, 
he alludes to it in the Epistle Dedicatory to the 
same volume, which is as follows : 

" To His Highness James Duke of York, a Star of the 
greatest Magnitude in the Constellation of CHARLES- 
WAYN. ' 



" This Book was engendred in a Cloud, born a Captive, 
and bred in the dark shades of Melancholy ; He is a true 
Benoni, the son of sorrow, nay, which is a thing of won- 
derment, He was begot in the Grave by one who hath 
been buried quick any time these five and fifty months. 
Such is the hard condition of the Authour, wherein he is 
like to continue untill some good Angell roll off the stone, 
and raise him up, for Prisoners are capable of a double 
Resurrection : m}- Faith ascertains me of owe, but my fears 
make me doubtfull of the other, for, as far as I see 
yet, I may be made to moulder away so long among these 



2<i S. N 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



walls, till I be carried hence with my feet forward. Wel- 
com be the will of God, and the Decrees of Heaven. 

" Your Highnesses most humble and most obedient 
Servitor, 

" JAMES HOWELL. 
From the Prison of the Fleet 
this May-fay, 1647." 

Five-and-fifty months takes us back to De- 
cember, 1642. During the year 1641 and 1642 
there are only three letters, one only of which (the 
one above alluded to of Sept. 7, 1641) alludes to 
political matters ; he therefore could not or would 
not print any of his correspondence of those years ; 
the first most probably being the case, from the 
fact of his papers being under the control of su- 
perior power. 

As my copy is considerably earlier than those 
alluded to by your correspondents, I may, perhaps, 
be permitted to describe its contents. It consists 
of four volumes bound in one : the title-page of 
the first is missing. It is dedicated to his Ma- 
jesty, but there is no date to the dedication. The 
letters are in six sections, sect. i. contains 44, 
sect. ii. 25, sect. iii. 38, sect. iv. 28, sect. v. 43, and 
sect. vi. 60. The title-page of the second volume 
is " A New Volume of Familiar Letters, $c. The 
Third Edition with Additions, 1655." The dedi- 
cation, as above stated, May-day, 1647. I find one 
letter dated Aug. 5, 1648, and another Feb. 3, 
1649. I suppose these are the " Additions." It 
contains eighty letters: the last letter is (dated 
Jan. 3, 1641) to Sir K. D., and relates to a poem, 
a copy of which accompanied the letter : after the 
index to the volume follows a poem which, I sup- 
pose, is the one alluded to (dated Calendis Ja- 
nuarii, 1641) ; it extends to eight pages, not 
numbered, entitled " The Vote; or, a Poem-Royal 
presented to His Majesty for a New Year's Gift by 
way of Discourse twixt the Poet and his Muse." 
The next volume is entitled " A Third Volume of 
Familiar Letters of a fresher Date, 8fc. Never 
Published before, 1655," and contains twenty-six 
letters. The last volume is entitled " A Fourth 
Volume of Familiar Letters upon Various Emergent 
Occasions, Sfc. By James Hovvell, Esq., Clerk of 
the Councell to his late Majestie. Never pub- 
lished before, 1655." It contains fifty letters ; 
there is no year stated to any of these letters (ex- 
cept two, Nos. 5. and 10.), only the month and 
the day of the month. The latest date is Feb. 18. 
(1654-5 ?) ; the Epistle Dedicatory, to Thomas 
Earl of Southampton, is dated March 12th ; in the 
dedication the year is mentioned as follows : " the 
year sixteen hundred fifty-five (which begins but 
now, about the Vernal Equinoctial)." 

I would suggest to your correspondents and 
others the much better practice of citing (in such 
works as the one above), instead of the page, the 
number of the letter or the date, and the person 
to whom it is addressed, as where a book has gone 



through several editions, it very rarely happens 
that the same page answers to the same matter.* 

JAMES BLADON. 

[It may not be generally known that Howell's scat- 
tered poems were collected into a volume, and published 
by Payne Fisher. It bears the following title : Poems on 
several Choice and Various Subjects, occasionally composed 
by an Eminent Author. Collected and published by Ser- 
geant-Major P. F., Lond. 1663. See Censura Literaria, 
iii. 259 267. ED.] 



CHATTERTON S PORTRAIT. 

(2 Dd S. iii. 492.) 

MR. FULCHER'S courteous notice of my com- 
munication on this subject demands an early reply, 
particularly as MR. FULCHER has now obtained 
from Mr. Naylor a more copious description of 
the portrait. I am more convinced than before 
that it is not a portrait of Chatterton painted by 
Gainsborough. I wish I could think that it was : 
for every admirer of the talents of the wonderful 
boy would be glad to study the lineaments of his 
countenance. Mr. Nay lor describes him as dressed 
" in a green, apparently a charity coat." And MR. 
FULCHER says, that such a dress " is noteworthy, 
for it is well-known that Chatterton was placed at 
Colston's charity school, and that he remained 
there till July 1, 1767." This period is three 
years, within a month, before he committed sui- 
cide, and when Chatterton was in his fourteenth 
year. In reply, I may be allowed to say, that the 
dress of the boys at Colston's school is similar to 
that of the boys at Christ's Hospital, blue, and not 
green. Further, it was not until Chatterton was 
clerk to Mr. Lambert, that any event had oc- 
curred in his life to attract public attention to his 
superior talents ; for it was not until Sept. 1768, 
that he sent to Felix Farley s Bristol Journal his 
account of the opening of Bristol Bridge, which 
first brought him into notice. Was it probable, 
therefore, that Gainsborough had any inducement, 
until Chattel-ton's name had acquired celebrity, to 
have taken his portrait? Again, was it probable, 
after it was taken, that it would not have been 
presented to his mother, or to one of his family ? 
But there is no allusion in any life of Chatterton, 
or in any letter that has been preserved, that any 
portrait was taken of him. I may add, that there 
is another charity school in Bristol, where the 
dress of the boys is green. May not Mr. Naylor's 
portrait represent one of them ? Mr. Naylor says, 
" that several persons from Bristol have seen the 

[* Our correspondent's suggestion respecting citations 
from Howell's Letters would only increase the difficulty 
of verifying passages, as the earlier editions are with- 
out dates, and in the later ones the numberings have 
been altered, e.g. the letter quoted in the first paragraph 
of this article as No. 46. is No. 54. of the first edition, 
1645, and undated. ED.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 ud S. N" 79., JULY 4. '57. 



portrait, and all declare it to be Chatterton //" I 
would ask upon what grounds ? I am afraid I 
must apply to such admirers of the boy the 
adage : " Qui vult decipi, decipiatur." J. M. G. 
Worcester. 



ANNE A MALE NAME. 

(2 nd S. iii. 508.) 

The great soldier, Anne de Montmorency, was 
so named after his godmother, the good Anne de 
Bretagne. Then, there was the fourth son of the 
first Earl Poulett, who was named Anne in honour 
of his godmother, Queen Anne. He was born in 
1711 and died in 1785. J. G. N. will find a 
notice of him in Wraxall's Memoirs of his Own 
Times. Several of Queen Anne's godsons bore 
her Christian name. With regard to Lord Anne 
Hamilton, there is a tradition respecting the cause 
of his having the Queen for a sponsor, which may 
lead to a knowledge of the year of his birth. 
After the union, Anne created the Duke of Hamil- 
ton Duke of Brandon in England ; but the House 
of Lords resolved (in Dec. 1711) that "no peer 
of Scotland could, after the union, be created a 
peer of England." This resolution remained in 
force till 1782. The tradition is, that the Queen 
stood godmother to Lord Anne, as some compen- 
sation for the Duke losing his seat ns an English 
peer. If this be true, the christening could not 
have taken place earlier than the close of 1711. 
The Duke himself fell in the famous duel with 
Lord Mohun, in Hyde Park, 1712. The Duchess 
of Marlborough ridiculed the custom of giving the 
Queen's name to her godsons, by proposing once, 
at the christening of a girl, to follow the example 
of confusion, by calling the little lady " George." 
That name, it will be remembered, was one of the 
baptismal appellations of the celebrated actress, 
George Anne Bellamy, who was born on St. 
George's Day, 1733. 

In Roman Catholic countries it is not unusual 
for a boy to have the appellation of a female 
saint among his names, particularly Mary, as it 
ensures for the wearer of the name the protection 
of the saint. So with women : I have known a 
Mary George. When the old Trappist Abbey 
was flourishing, every new member abandoned 
his worldly, and took up a new name. Sometimes 
the recluse took a Pagan name : Achilles is an 
instance ; but some, carrying their singularity in 
another direction, adopted a female name ; for 
instance, Francis Garret (1685), John Colas 
(1690), and John de Vitry (1693), surrendered 
their baptismal and family names ; and each was 
known during his sojourn in the monastery by the 
appellation of Brother Dorothy ! Why they did 
not prefer to be called "Theodore" (the male 
form of "Dorothee"), is not explained by the 



author of Relations de la Vie et de la Mart de quel- 
ques Religieux de VAbbaye de la Trappe. 

No Pope, I think, ever adopted a female name 
on assuming the tiara. Pagan names were some- 
times given at baptism, and changed at confirma- 
tion. Thus, the two sons of Henry II. of France 
were originally Alexander and Hercules. At their 
confirmation they became Henry and Francis. 
Our own bishops still possess the right of changing 
at confirmation improper names conferred at bap- 
tism. The prelates no longer address each can- 
didate by name, and therefore do not exercise, 
but they are in legal possession of the right. 
Montaigne, in his essay, Sur la Force de I' Imagina- 
tion, has a story apt to this subject, showing how, 
and why, a bishop changed a girl's name into that 
of a boy : 

" Passant a Vitry le Francois, je pus voir un homine 
que PEveque de Soissons avait nomme Germain en con- 
firmation ; lequel tous les habitants de la ont connu et 
vue fille, jusqu'a 1'age de 22 ans, nominee Marie. II 
e'toit a cette heure la fort barbu, et vieil, et point marie'. 
Faisant, dit-il, quelques efforts en sautant, ses membres 
virils se produisirent ; et est encore en usage entre les 
filles de la une chanson, par laquelle elles s'entre-aver- 
tissent de ne faire point de grandes enjambees de peur de 
devenir garcon comme Marie Germain." 

Can this have been more than a satirical legend 
levelled at a boyish-girl or a girlish-boy who bore 
names belonging to both sexes ? J. DOKAN. 



It is not unusual to give the name of a patron 
Saint to a child, and without reference to sex. 
Thus, Carl Maria Weber, Jean Marie Farina, 
names appearing at this time in numberless shop 
windows in the metropolis. I have a litile girl 
bearing the name of St. John, and if Lord Anne 
Hamilton were born on St. Anne's Day there is a 
reason for his having her name. 

H. J. GAUNTLETT. 



The fourth son of the first Earl Poulett was 
named Anne. The Hon. Anne Poulett was born 
July 11, 1711 (Barlow's Peerage, i. 419.), and was 
member for Bridgewater from 1774 till his death 
in July, 1785 {Companion to the Royal Kalendar 
for 1788, p. 11.). J. W. PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

Besides Lord Anne Hamilton, the late Lord 
Rancliffe, of Bunney Park, Notts., was named 
George Augustus Henry Anne : born June 10, 
1785. 

The title is extinct. Debrett, edit. 1838, gives 
his pedigree, &c. 

I have heard that a gentleman named Beau- 
mont, in Yorkshire or Durham, named all his 
latter born children " Jam?," in consequence of a 
family will which bequeathed certain property to 
Jane, the child of ...... When the will was 



2"d g. N" 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



13 



made, he had a daughter Jane, who died ; he 
therefore renewed the name that there might be 
no loss for an heir, male or female. P R y. 



PORTRAITS OP MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. 

(2 nd S. iii. 448. 511.) 

In the list of portraits of Mary Queen of Scots 
given by your correspondent. EDWARD F. RIM- 
BAULT, p. 511., he has omitted one of at least 
local celebrity. In the absence of a copy of the 
inscription, the following translation from an acr 
complished author must suffice to explain the 
little that is known of this portrait. From re- 
peated inspection there can be no hesitation in 
characterising the picture as a pretty and well- 
painted likeness of a beautiful woman. Edmond 
Le Poittevin de la Croix, in his Histoire, Physique, 
et Monumentale de la Ville DAnvers, speaking of 
the monument and portrait in the church of St. 
Andre, at p. 498., says : 

"Le monument le plus interessant que possede cette 
e'glise est le mausolee en niarbre eleve a la memoire de 
deux dames d'honneur de Marie Stuart, Reine d'E'eosse. 
Le portrait de cette infortunee princesse lequel surmonte 
1'epitaphe. est d'une bonne ressemblance ; il est du au 
pinceau de Porbus et peint dans le style de Van Dyck. 

" Le monument funeraire est decore des statuettes de 
Ste Barbe et de Ste Elizabeth et porte deux inscriptions 
latines en lettres d'or, sur uu fond de marbre noir. En. 
voici la traduction : 

" 'Marie Stuart, Reine D'E'cosse et de France, mere de 
Jacques I., Roi de la Grande-Bretagne, chercha en 1568 
un asile en Angleterre, ou, par la parfidie de la Reine Eli- 
zabeth, sa parente et 1'inimitie d'un Parlement heretique, 
elle fut decapitee apres une captivitede 19 anne'es, et y 
souffrit le martyre, en 1587, la quarante-cinquieme annee 
de son regne et de son age. 

" ' E'tranger, tu vois ici le monument ou reposent en at- 
tendant la resurrection des justes, les restes mortels de 
deux nobles dames Anglaises, dont 1'attachement & la re- 
ligion orthodoxe leur fit abandonner leur patrie, pour 
venir se placer sous la protection de Sa Majestic Catho- 
lique. 

" ' La premiere, Barbara Maubray, fille du Baron John 
Maubraj% Dame d'honneur de Sa Gracieuse Majeste, Marie 
Stuart, Reine d'E'cosse, epousa Gilbert Curie, qui, pen- 
dant plus de vingtans, fut Secretaire du Roi. Us vecurent 
ensemble pendant 24 ans dans 1'union la plus parfaite, et 
elle^donna le jour a- huit enfans, dont six ont deja ete ap- 
peles au Seigneur. Les deux fils qui ont survecu furent 
eleve's dans la carriere des lettres ; Jacques, 1'aine, entra 
dans la Socie'te' de Je'sus k Madrid. Hyppolite, le cadet, 
devint e'galement membre de la niilice du Christ en se 
fais;mt membre de la meme Societe' dans la province de 
la Gaule Belgique. 

"'Ce dernier, pleurant la perte de le meilleure des 
meres, qui quitta cette existence terrestre pour une vie 
e'ternelle, le 31 Juillet, 1616, age'e 57 ans, a fait clever ce 
monument. 

" La seconde, Elizabeth Curie, descendant de la meme 
illustre famille de Curie, etait aussi Dame d'honneur de la 
Reine Marie Stuart, et, apres avoir e'te' pendant huit ans 
sa campagne fidele dans la captivite', ce fut elle qui peu 
d'instants avant 1'execution de la Reiue recut son dernier 
baiser. 



" ' C'est egalement en 1'honneur et a la me'moire de cette 
Dame, sa tante, que Hyppolite Curie, fils de son frere, a 
e'rige' ce monument, comme un temoignage de sa pie'te et 
de sa reconnaissance. 

" ' Elle quitta cette vie le 29 Mai, 1620, age'e de 60 ans. 
" ' Qu'elles reposent en paix ! " 

HENRY D'AVENEY. 



In one of the churches of Antwerp, I believe 
St. Jaques, there is a portrait of Mary Queen of 
Scots, painted on stone and placed over the me- 
morial tablet of one of her maids of honour. The 
tablet, so far as I remember, is near the south- 
west corner of the transept arch of the church, 
and the portrait is well known to the Swiss. 

W. B. 

Warrington. 



TO BE WORTH A PLUM. 

(2 nd S. iii. 389.) 

I respectfully submit for consideration, to your 
learned correspondent who hails from Leather- 
head, an explanation of this phrase, which is not 
of great antiquity, though it has now passed into 
disuse. The expression is Spanish, and was pro- 
bably borrowed by our London merchants from 
those of Spain. 

Pluma, which in Spanish signifies plumage, bears 
also in that language the metaphorical and col- 
loquial signification of wealth. The Spaniards, 
speaking of a man who has acquired riches, and 
of whom we should say that he had " feathered 
his nest," use the expression " tiene pluma " (he 
has got plumage). Hence our English expression, 
he has got a plum. 

The case, however, is one of those, many of 
which will occur to the experienced etymologist, in 
which a phrase, adopted from without, adjusts 
itself the more readily to our vernacular, because 
it falls in with some native term or form of speech. 
Plume, in old English, stands for the prize of a 
struggle or contest, the emblem of success. Thus 
Milton speaks of winning a plume. We may sup- 
pose, then, that from this English use of the word 
plume, as well as from the Spanish phrase, the 
London merchant who by honourable enterprise 
had realised 100,000^., the prize of mercantile 
success being set at that amount, was said to have 
got a plume, or plum j while the man who had 
realised 50,000/. was said to be worth half a plum. 

But here the question may be asked, " What, 
after all, has the term plum to do with 100,000, 
more than with any other amount ? " 

To this we might reply that few, perhaps none, 
of the cant terms for money, adopted in our lan- 
guage, originally signify the exact sum for which 
we employ them. Thus, neither a. pony (which is 
properly a deposit or the guardian of a deposit, 
for a stakeholder is also sometimes called a pony), 



14 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



[2nd g. jfo 79., JULY 4. '57. 



nor a tanner (Ital. danaro, small change), nor a 
bob (baubee), nor a bull (bulla, a great leaden 
seal), strictly expresses the amount for which the 
term passes current in our elegant vernacular. 
And therefore rauch as a bull (or a hog) stands 
arbitrarily for a five-shilling-piece, half a bull for 
half-a-crown, a bob for a shilling, a tanner for 
sixpence, &c., with equal propriety might a plum 
stand for 100,000/. A fortune of this amount, 
acquired in trade, was considered say at the 
beginning of the last century a great success. 
Hence the phrase, " Such an one has got a plum," 
when adopted into our language from the Spanish 
"Fulano tiene pluma," would gradually attach 
itself to the sum acquired in trade to that amount. 

This, then, we might answer. But before we 
quite abandon the inquiry, ought we not to look 
a little closer at the word " plum," and to ascer- 
tain, if possible, whether there exist not some 
specific reason for connecting it with 100,OOOZ. ? 

The letters of the word plum express that 
amount. P stands for pounds. U is the old 
Gothic form for double I. And therefore " plum " 
is 100,000/. literally expressed. Thus : 

Plum = P. lum. 

= Pounds lum. 

= Pounds liim 

= Pounds 1 X ii X m 

= Pounds 50 X 2 X 1000. 

= 100,0007. 

THOMAS BOYS. 

LETHREDIENSIS does not seem to have been 
aware that Richardson in his convenient manual 
the 8vo. edition of his Dictionary first published 
in the year 1844, and lately reprinted, says that 
Plum is perhaps plump or plumper, and, referring 
to Plump, there tells us that to " Plim is still a pro- 
vincialism : to swell, to increase in bulk." I have 
frequently heard the word so used by Cornish 
friends. Taking this for the origin of the word, 
a plum may be considered to be (consequentially) 
a sum swelled or increased to any given bulk, e.g. 
that of 100,0007., the largest expected or looked 
upon as attainable in the days of the writers 
quoted as using it. The explanation sought by 
your correspondent seems to be satisfactorily ar- 
rived at. 

It is difficult to say what would be deemed a 
plum by our monied men of the present day, when 
we hear a man called a millionaire without being 
startled. Q. 

Bloomsbury. 



MUSICAL ACOUSTICS (2 nd S. Hi. 507.) : GREEK 
GEOMETERS (2 nd S. iii. 518.) 

These two matters having both relation to 
music, I answer both in one. 



MR. HEWETT'S Queries are matter for a volume. 
If the mention of my name be an invitation to me 
to reply, I can only say that I am sure music has 
science in it, and also art which pretends to be 
science. As I wrote the articles Acoustics, Cord, 
Pipe, Scale, Tuning, in \hzPenny Cyclopaedia, I may 
refer to them as containing very nearly or exactly 
my present opinions on the subject. 

Y. B. N. J. is wrong in supposing that I either 
said, or seemed to say, that only three of the 
authors proposed by Bernard have been printed 
at the University press. I said, and I was right, 
that only three of the volumes of Bernard's pro- 
posed series have been published. Wallis's edition 
of Ptolemy, a very well-known work, was not in 
that series, for two reasons. First, it was in another 
series. Meibomius published his two-volume col- 
lection of musical authors as well known as 
Wallis's Ptolemy, but not so easily procured in 
1652 ; it did not contain either Ptolemy or Bryen- 
nius, which were intended for a third volume. 
Wallis, learning that insufficiency of means pre- 
vented Meibomius from proceeding, published the 
Ptolemy in 1682, and again in the third volume 
(folio, 1699) of his collected works. In this last 
folio also appeared, for the first time, Bryennius, 
and Porphyry's commentary on Ptolemy. 

Secondly, Wallis's Ptolemy was published in 
1682 ; Bernard's series was first thought of, at the 
instigation of Bishop Fell, about 1673. (T. Smith, 
Vita Bernardi, 1704, p. 23.) The synopsis, which 
sets forth the matter and the volumes, was not 
completed till many years after, and was never 
published till 1704, as an appendix to the life just 
cited. This synopsis settles the manuscripts which 
were to be used, a work of long time and great 
labour. It is very unlikely that its fourteenth 
and last volume could have been settled until long 
after Wallis's publication ; and there is nothing 
to show that Wallis was even cognizant of the 
existence of any written programme of Bernard's 
plan. 

Those who have Meibomius's two volumes and 
Wallis's Ptolemy should consider them as three 
volumes of one set, in spite of a little difference of 
size. A. DE MORGAN. 



BECKFORD'S LETTERS. 
(2 nd S. iii. 487.) 

I am indebted to the Query of C. S. for the 
pleasure of renewing my acquaintance with those 
charming volumes, Letters from Italy, Spain, and 
Portugal, by the author of Vathek ; and, in turn- 
ing over a few of the earlier pages, rich beyond 
measure with thoughts of rare beauty, clothed in 
language of the most marvellous felicity, I soon 
found that, without noticing mere ordinary coin- 
cidences of thought, I should meet with enough to 



S. NO 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



justify Mr. Beckford's quiet remark, that " some 
justly-admired authors had condescended to glean 
a few stray thoughts from his letters." 

The following extracts will show that Moore at 
least did not disdain to appropriate one of the 
most striking thoughts in the MS., lent him, I 
believe, by the author ; a privilege also extended, 
and it will be seen with similar results, to Mr. 
Samuel Rogers : 

" I left them to walk on the beach, and was so charmed 
with the vast azure expanse of ocean, which opened sud- 
denly upon me, that I remained there a fall half hour. 
More than two hundred vessels of different sizes were in 
sight, the fast sunbeam purpling their sails, and casting a 
path of innumerable brilliants athwart the waves, What would 
I not have given to follow this shining track ! It might have 
conducted me straight to those fortunate western climates, 
those happy isles which you are so fond of painting, and I 
of dreaming about." Beckford, Letter II. [1780.] 

" How dear to me the hour when daylight dies, 

And sunbeams melt along the silent sea ; 
For then sweet dreams of other days arise, 

And memory breathes her vesper sigh to thee. 
" And, as I watch the line of light, that plays 
Along the smooth wave to the burning west, 
I long to tread that golden path of rays, 

And think 'ttvould lead to some bright isle of rest." 
Moore, Irish Melody. 

A few pages farther on I find the following in a 
letter from Venice (Aug. 1, 1780) : 

" Our prow struck foaming against the walls of the 
Carthusian garden before I recollected where I was, or 
could look attentively around me. Permission being ob- 
tained, I entered this cool retirement, and putting aside 
with my hands the boughs of figs and pomegranates, got 
under an antient bay-tree on the summit of a little knoll, 
near which several tall pines lift themselves up to the 
breezes. I listened to the conversation they held with a 
wind just flown from Greece, and charged, as well as I 
could understand this airy language, with many affec- 
tionate remembrances from their relations on Mount Ida." 

Again, Letter from Venice, No. VI. : 

"An aromatic plant, which the people justly dignify 
with the title of marine incense, clothes the margin of the 
waters. It proved very serviceable in subduing a musky 
odour which attacked us the moment we landed, and 
which proceeds from serpents that lurk in the hedges." 

Now turn we to Rogers's Italy, p. 66., ed. 1830: 

" Adventurer-like I launched 

Into the deep, ere long discovering 

Isles such as cluster in the southern seas, 

All verdure. Everywhere, from bush and brake, 

The musky odour of the serpents came .... 

Dreaming of Greece, whither the waves were gliding, 

J listened to the venerable pines 

Then in close converse, and, if right I guessed, 

Delivering many a message to the winds 

In secret, for their kindred on Mount Ida." 

There is, in the third Letter from Venice, an- 
other passage that Rogers has copied nearly 
verbatim, but I cannot find at this moment my 
reference to his poems. A glance forwards over 
the remaining Letters has shown me several re- 
markable coincidences with Moore, Rogers, and 



Byron, which I have not time to verify. I leave 
them for the discovery of any of your readers who 
may be disposed to engage in the (to me) not 
very agreeable employment of hunting after pla- 
giarisms. W. L. N. 
Bath. 



" DURST. 

(2 nd S. iii. 486.) 

This word is the original preterite of the verb 
to dare. Ang.-Saxon Dearan or Durron; Ger- 
man Durfen. 

Present. Past. 

Ang.-Sax. - ic dear - ic durste. 

German - ich darf - ich durfte. 

The preterite dared is of quite modern intro- 
duction. The word is not found in our autho- 
rised version of the Scriptures. Durst, therefore, 
in reply to ANON'S first Query is a thoroughly 
English word. 

In reply to his second Query, " whether durst 
is related to dare in the same way as must seems 
to be to may," there appears here a slight con- 
fusion of ideas. Properly speaking must has no 
more relation to may than there exists between 
any other two verbs in the language. May is the 
present, and might the past tense of the Ang.- 
Saxon verb Magan, German Mdgen, always used 
in the sense of expressing ability. The Ang.- 
Saxon verb most is defective, only existing in a 
single tense, the present or indefinite. The 
modern English must, which is its lineal de- 
scendant, labours under the same defect. It is 
always used to express the idea of necessity or 
obligation. The German equivalent verb, Mussen, 
is not subject to the same deficiency, forming its 
preterite in the same manner as other verbs. 

Such phrases as " / durst n't" " / could rit," " I 
should n't," are in the conditional mood, and are 
really auxiliaries to a verb understood, implying a 
hypothetical state of things irrespective of time. 
Our mother tongue, the Anglo-Saxon, possessed 
no inflections to mark the difference between the 
simple expression of past time and the statement 
of a possibility whether past or future, nor is its 
congener, the German, much better off. In this 
respect the classical tongues have much the ad- 
vantage. The verb must only existing in a single 
tense, is frequently the cause of ambiguity and 
circumlocution. We can say for instance, "I can 
do this to-day, I could have done it yesterday," 
but we cannot say, " I must do this to-day ; I 
must have done it yesterday." We say, " I was 
obliged to do it yesterday ; " the phrase " I must 
have done it," conveying not the statement of a 
fact, but the expression of what would have taken 
place under given circumstances. J. A. P. 

Liverpool. 



16 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd g. NO 79., J ULY 4t > 57 . 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Chloride of Strontium in Pfiotography. Having found 
it difficult to obtain sufficient intensity with an iodide of 
cadmium collodion, after some experiments, I overcame 
it by the following process : Making a solution of chlo- 
ride" of strontium, 10 grains to the ounce in alcohol, I 
added 1 part of this to 7 parts of plain collodion. I then 
prepared a nearly saturated solution of ferro-cyanide of 
potassium in mythelated spirit : of this solution 2 'o part by 
measure to the iodized collodion, and then ^ part of the 
chloridised collodion. The exact proportions do not seem 
to be important ; an excess, however, produces too great 
opacity in the lights, and absence of middle tints. The 
time for exposure seems rather accelerated than other- 
wise. The collodion may be used colourless, and should 
give a creamy film. Should it show a tendency to mis- 
tiness in the shadows, the addition of a slight extra 
quantity of acid in the developer will correct it. I ima- 
gine that other chlorides, soluble in alcohol, may be sub- 
stituted for strontium, and perhaps with advantage. 

W. J. MlERS. 

Red Lion Square, June 23, 1857. 

Photographic Copy of the Ulfilas. Most of our readers 
are aware of the great philological and literary value of 
the Gothic version of the Gospels by Ulfilas, preserved in 
the well-known Codex Argenteus at Upsala so called 
because it is written on purple vellum in letters of silver. 
This remarkable version, the MS. of which is supposed 
to be of the sixth century, has long exercised the learn- 
ing and ingenuity of scholars, while the want of accurate 
copies of it has a'dded to the difficulties of their labours. 
This want is now about to be supplied. The aid of Pho- 
tography ha-; been called in, and arrangements have been 
made for the publication of photographic copies of the 
original, with illustrative notes by Dr. F. A. Leo. The 
undertaking, which has the special commendation of 
Jacob Grimm and Pertz, deserves to be encouraged by 
the heads of all great libraries ; and we shall be glad to 
hear that it has in England received due patronage. 
The work, the cost of which is 85 thalers, will be issued 
by Hertz of Berlin. 

Sutfon on the Positive Collodion Process. The admirers 
of this process, unquestionably one of the most delicate 
and beautiful in its results, are under great obligations to 
Mr. Sutton for the little Treatise on the subject which he 
has just put forth. The instructions are very minute and 
distinct, and the work abounds in small hints, having for 
their object to make the pupil produce not only a good 
photograph, but a good artistic picture. 



tfl 

Cromwell at Pembroke (2 nd S. iii. 467.) The 
tradition which I have always heard respecting 
the surrender of Pembroke Castle, and the one 
which is generally current in the town and neigh- 
bourhood, is to the following effect : On May 1, 
1648, the Parliament, alarmed by the increase of 
strength on the part of Major-General Laugharne 
and Colonel Poyer, who had possessed themselves 
of Pembroke and Tenby, and held them on behalf 
of the King, came to a resolution of sending Lieut.- 
General Cromwell to South Wales with an ad- 
ditional force, for the purpose of routing the 
Royalists out of that part of the kingdom. After 



the great defeat of General Laugharne on Colby 
Moor by Colonel Thomas Horton, Poyer and 
Laugharne threw themselves into Pembroke Cas- 
tle, the garrison being reinforced by troops witb> 
drawn from Carmarthen, of which place Cromwell 
had taken possession on his way down. (Fenton's 
Pembrokeshire.) Although suffering from gout, 
and short of ammunition (being compelled to send 
to Carmarthen for the purpose of having cannon 
balls cast, and while these were getting ready 
being driven to use round stones), Cromwell pro- 
secuted the siege of Pembroke Castle with great 
vigour, but without success ; until a man of the 
name of Edmonds showed him the position of a 
staircase leading into a cellar in one of the bas- 
tions, in which was placed the well from whence 
the garrison derived their principal supply of 
water. This staircase, being commanded by 
Cromwell's artillery, was speedily battered down, 
and the supply cut off. The garrison then took 
possession of the castle keep, which they defended 
with incredible valour for several days. At length, 
worn out and exhausted, they were compelled to 
capitulate ; and it is said, that when Cromwell 
took possession of the castle, he ordered Edmonds 
to be hanged as the fitting reward of his treachery. 
The family of the "traitor," as he was called, lay 
under a ban ever after ; and a friend of mine, 
now resident in Pembroke, remembers a man of 
the same name as, and supposed to be a descend- 
ant of, the "traitor," who always went by the 
sobriquet of "Cromwell." I do not know whe- 
ther any of the family are still alive. 

JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 
Haverfordwest. 

George Herberts Portrait (1 st S. xii. 471.) 
J. C. C. asks if a portrait of George Herbert can 
be found ? I beg to say that recently I met with 
a portrait, beautifully painted, with arch nose, 
full grey eye, dark hair and dress, with a collar 
and tassel tie ; on panel, split in the background, 
and marked at the back " Mr. Herbert," dated 
1642 or 5,* without, I believe, the Christian name. 
It is in the country, and at present have not pur- 
sued its authenticity, as the painting alone is 
sufficient recommendation to me. 

GEORGE P. MARICOTE. 
37. Devonshire Street, Queen Square, Bloomsbury. 

London Directory (2 nd S. Hi. 270. 342. 431.) 
There is a collection of directories at the Post 
Office Directory Office, 19. and 20. Old Bos well 
Court, W.C. 

Holden's Triennial Directory is deficient of four 
pages in the copies in the British Museum, and 
Post Office Directory, and in my copy. 

I have seen lists of carriers of the seventeenth 
century bound up with a London Guide. 

{* George Herbert died on March 1, 1632.] 



2nd s. N 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



17 



Materials for reference as to the seventeenth 
century and part of the sixteenth are to be found 
in various lists, which have been published, of city 
officers, printers, serjeants-at-law and barristers, 
physicians, tradesmen issuing tokens, &c. The 
records of the city companies contain copious ma- 
terials for what may be called the "Directorial" 
matter of the chief trades. I have in my col 
lection a very copious MS. list of watchmakers 
of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 

A class of books, of which no complete col- 
lection exists, and which are condemned to de- 
struction, consists of the little pamphlets issued 
yearly by the several city companies, containing 
lists of their liverymen, and in some cases of the 
freemen. 

During the subsistence of the Levant Company 
as a trading company, lists of the members were 
yearly published, and I presume there are lists of 
the Russia Company. 

The administration of the city companies having 
been very strict during the sixteenth, seventeenth, 
and eighteenth centuries, their records and lists 
furnish complete directories of nearly every trade 
then subsisting. As some of the companies are 
nearly extinct, it is very desirable their records 
should be acquired for Guildhall, and that the 
Library Committee of the Common Council should 
see to the preservation of documents relating to 
the trades of the City of London. 

All that has been said as to the preservation of 
London directorial matter applies likewise to pro- 
vincial directories, of which the remains in the 
British Museum are very small. HYDE CLARKE. 

Old Painting (2 nd S. iii. 487.) The " old paint- 
ing " here described is a Madonna del Rosario : 
the male kneeling figure probably S. Dominic, of 
whom the lilies are emblematical, and the female 
an abbess of the same order. 

The rosary, or chaplet of beads, was re-arranged 
by S. Dominic during his stay in Languedoc, and 
dedicated by him to the Virgin. F. C. B. 

The Wiccamical Chaplet (2 nd S. iii. 404.) I 
see that a copy of verses in this work " On the 
amphibious N. Elliot, of Oxford, shoemaker and 
poet," p. 221., is ascribed ("probably") to T. 
Warton. 

In the year 1793, when I was a lad, I boarded 
for a few days in the house of Elliot, who was a 
great oddity. And I remember going by water 
to Godstowe with two members of his family, in 
company with the then University Orator, Crowe, 
who also was an oddity ; and to whom fifteen out 
of the twenty- eight pieces are attributed. 1ST. El- 
liot was lively, facetious, and fond of quoting 
Shakspeare ; one of whose passages he adapted in 
a playful reply to his aged wife, who had shaken 
her head at him reprovingly for one of his double 
entendre* at dinner thus : " Shake nob thy 



hoary locks at me." He wrote the Prophecies of 
Merlin, but I long ago mislaid the copy he gave 
me. "The amphibious N. Elliot" was much 
more than a "shoemaker and poet," as appears 
from some doggrel verses written by one of his 
schoolboys, which were in circulation at Oxford, 
and some years afterwards were repeated to me 
by a clergyman who had been a student there at 
the time as follows : 

Nathaniel Elliot liveth here, 
A poet, coroner, and Auctioneer; 
He teacheth boys to read and spell; 
And mendeth old shoes very well." 

I have not seen a copy of the " Chaplet," but 
though the above cannot be the verses written by 
T. Warton, they may yet be acceptable to the 
readers of " N. & Q., as relating, to one whom it 
is supposed that Warton "delighted to honour" 
with his satirical notice. P. H. F. 

America and Caricatures (2 nd S. iii. 427.) 
C. ROBERTS has certainly not afforded a true 
theory for the absence or deficiency of works of 
caricature in the States. Incompetency for poli- 
tical caricature is a characteristic of enslaved and 
not of free countries. Nowhere in Europe has 
caricature flourished as in England ; but though 
caricature has not flourished in the States, it has 
not been for want of idiosyncracy, but for want of 
artists. In time of war and excitement, carica- 
tures have been produced in the States ; and the 
very fact to which he alludes, that various carica- 
ture publications have been started, is an indica- 
tion of the disposition to enjoy them, though the 
artistic talent has been wanting in a new country to 
produce works such as the American public would 
receive. The Americans show no want of appre- 
ciation of Punch ; and with regard to the strange 
assertion of MR. ROBERTS, that it is a national 
singularity that holding up public men to ridi- 
cule, as is done in Punch, would not be tole- 
rated in New York or Washington, I can only 
say that he must be forgetful of the vituperation 
to which every statesman has been subjected by 
press and people, and of the execution in effigy of 
many an eminent character. When our brethren 
have their own Rowlandson, Gillray, H. B., Cruik- 
shank, Doyle, and Leech, they will have a school 
of caricature, and enjoy it. HYDE CLARKE. 

William Corker, M.A. (2 nd S. iii. 509.) We 
can add but little to Knight's account of William 
Corker. He was one of the Proctors of the Uni- 
versity, 1674 ; and has verses in the University 
collection on the death of the Duke of Albemarle, 
1670. A ludicrous mistranslation of Mr. Corker's 
epitaph occurs in Carter's Hist, of Univ. of Camb.. 
338. 

A list of Cambridge Doctors from 1500 to 
[about 1575] is appended to' Drake's edition of 
Abp. Parker's Antiquitates Ecclesice Britanniccs. 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 2 nd S . No 79., JULY 4. '57; 



Generally speaking, the surnames only are given. 
With this exception, there is not any printed 
register of Cambridge degrees before 1659. 

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 
Cambridge. 

"Raining Cats and Dogs" (2 nd S. iii. 328. 519.) 
It were needless to dwell further on this phrase, 
already discussed and elucidated by two of your 
learned correspondents, were it not that the words 
have a civic significance, and throw light on the 
"sanitary" condition of our metropolis at the 
commencement of the last century. 

By Swift's " Description of a City Shower " 
(1710), we are made acquainted with certain con- 
comitants of a rain-storm in the city as he knew 
it, and became cognisant of a state of things 
which might very naturally lead the observer to 
exclaim, when caught in a London shower, "It 
rains cats and dogs ! " dead, however, not living 
dogs and cats. 

The poet with his usual felicity describes how, 
on the falling of a heavy shower, torrents of water 
form and unite, carrying along with them the re- 
fuse of the streets, 'specially from Smithfield and 
" St. Pulchre's," down Snow Hill to Holborn 
bridge : 

" Now from all parts the swelling kennels flow, 
And bear their trophies with them as they go." 

The enumeration of these "trophies," for the 
sake of your readers, we may as well omit. Let 
the last two lines suffice : 

" Drown 'd puppies, stinking sprats, all drench'd in mud, 
Dead cats, and turnip -tops, come tumbling down the 
flood." 

Viewing the " drown'd puppies " and " dead 
cats " as they tumble on in the torrent caused by 
the shower, observant childhood asks an explana- 
tion of the phenomenon, and receives the very 
satisfactory, though marvellous reply, " It is rain- 
ing cats and dogs ! " THOMAS BOYS. 

Passage in Hegel (2 nd S. iii. 487.) 

" Le nombre des etoiles- fixes n'a pas plus d'importance 
que le nombre de pustules qu'offre une eruption de la 
peau." 

This is ascribed to Hegel by Bartholmess, in 
his Histoire Critique des Doctrines Religieuses de 
la Philosophic Moderne, ii. 284. Perhaps some 
one better read in Hegel than myself will help 
us to the German. There is a similarity in the 
style of thinking ; each thought may be original ; 
and we can say to both, " Et vitula tu dignus et 
hie." H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Bell Gables (2 nd S. iii. 339.) Gosforth Church, 
Cumberland, is another example of a three -bell 



Aboue. H. 



t Blwe. H. 



turret at the west end. This arrangement, how- 
ever, is modern, as in " Jefferson's Allerdale- 
above-Derwent " it is described as carrying only 
two bells. R. L. 

Raphaels "Madonna della Sedia" (2 nd S. iii. 
483.) MR. CUTHBERT BEDE might have added 
to his notice of this beautiful and well known 
work, a curious illustration of what strange things 
there are in the history of Aft. Raphael was 
so pleased with his original circular picture, 
which is still preserved in .the Pitti Palace at 
Florence (see Eastlake's Italian Schools, ii. 375.), 
that he afterwards painted it of a larger size with 
some few alterations. This larger picture is lost ; 
but a fine copy of it in Gobelin Tapestry is in the 
possession of Lord Brougham, and forms one of 
the Art Treasures at Brougham. From this copy 
of Raphael it is that Baxter has produced that 
very excellent specimen of his colour-printing 
which is no doubt familiar to most of the readers 
of " N. & Q." T. 

Tall Men and Women (2 nd S. iii. 347. 436.) 
A remarkable instance of unusual stature, if not 
of gigantic height, was to have been found in the 
family of a gentleman residing in this county some 
years ago. The family consisted of father, mother, 
and nine children six sons and three daughters ; 
and their aggregate height was sixty-eight feet. 
The father and mother measured respectively, 6 ft. 
and 5 ft. 11 in. The height of the eldest son was 
6 ft. 8 in. ; that of the second, 6 ft. 5 in. ; that of 
the third, 6 ft. 4 in. ; that of the fourth, 6 ft. 6 in. ; 
that of the fifth, 6 ft. 5 in. ; the other was not so 
tall. The eldest son is still living, and is the 
finest and most symmetrically proportioned man 
I ever beheld. JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

"Dramatic Poems "(1 st S. xii. 264.) The 
author of the volume entitled, Dramatic Poems, 
published 1801, was Dr. R. Chenevix. He also 
wrote two plays, published in 1812, but is perhaps 
best known for his attainments in the science of 
chemistry. I believe he was a student at the 
University of Glasgow about 1785-6 ; although 
that circumstance is not mentioned in the sketch 
of his life given in the Gentleman's Magazine, 
June, 1830. 

During a great part of his life he resided in 
France, in which country he died (at Paris), on 
April 5, 1830. 

The dramas in the volume are, " Leonora," a 
tragedy, and "Etha and Aidallo," a dramatic 
pastoral. In a paragraph at the end of the work 
the author says : 

" If the circumstances were known under which the 
dramatic pastoral of ' Etha and Aidallo ' was written, 
they would plead in excuse of its many imperfections. 
It was wholly composed in a French prison, under the 
government of Robespierre, early in July, 1794, in that 



2 nd S. Xo 79., JULY 4. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



19 



very month the 28th day of which terminated his ex- 
istence and saved the lives of millions. I was confined 
with fifty-three innocent individuals (whose fate I was to 
share), doomed to suffer on a scaffold, and expected every 
hour the mandate of that tribunal which was at once the 
accuser, the judge, and I may add, the executioner; 
which assumed the forms of justice; but to be acquitted 
by which was more degrading than to die, in such a mo- 
ment, had been painful." 

R. INGLIS. 

Archbishop Abbot (1 st S. xii. 74.) I believe 
the Rev. Win. Gilpin, vicar of Boldre, had some- 
thing to do with the authorship of the work in- 
quired after by your correspondent G., viz. Three 
Dialogues on the Amusements of Clergymen, 2nd 
edition, 1797. R. IKGLIS. 

Translation of Gessners Works (1 st S. xii. 
383.) The translation of Gessner's Works, pub- 
lished at Liverpool in 1802, was by Mrs. Law- 
rence, author of Recollections of Mrs. Hemans 
and other works. Mrs. Lawrence is the sister of 
the late General Sir Charles D'Aguilar, and, I 
think, is still living. R. INGLIS. 

Portrait of George III. (2 nd S. iii. 447.) I am 
much obliged by C. L.'s communication. The 
portrait in oil, which he saw at Hamburg, is evi- 
dently the original (or a copy of the) portrait 
from which the engraving in my possession was 
taken. The blindness and mental alienation con- 
stitute the " other peculiarities" which I hinted 
at in my query. I ought to have mentioned that 
the print is lOf X 8 inches. It is strange that 
such a portrait should be the work of an inferior 
hand. The engraving is not so ; and I may add 
that, notwithstanding the physical infirmities de- 
lineated with such apparent truthfulness, the old 
King is represented as having a finer head and 
nobler features than, in any other portrait of him 
that I have seen. W. W. W. 

Tiverton. 

"My dog and I" (2 nd S. iii. 509.) These 
verses are taken from an ancient song in the 
Gloucestershire dialect, which is still sung at the 
anniversary dinners of the Gloucestershire Society 
in London. The entire song, in extenso, is given in 
the Hon. Grantley Berkeley's Historical Novel, 
Berkeley Castle, vol. iii. p. 160. The novelist, with 
what may be not unfairly called poetical license, 
gives this song as sung before a baronial battle be- 
tween the retainers of the Marquis of Berkeley and 
those of Lord Lisle, in which the latter was killed, 
in 1469. This song, however, though ancient, 
cannot, if all the verses were written at the same 
time, be of so early a date as 1469, as the verse 
which follows " My dog and I ".begins, 

" When I ha' dree sixpences under my thumb." 

Now, I believe that there were no sixpences 
before those of 1551, issued by King Edward VI. 



The song was probably written in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, in whose reign sixpences were 
common, as is quite manifest from the number -of 
her sixpences met with now. F. A. CARRINGTON. 

Ogbourne St. George. 

" Think what a woman should be she teas that" 
(2 nd S. iii. 507.) In the Venus and Adonis of 
Shakspeare is this verse, which has a line some- 
what parallel or coinciding to the above : 

" Round hoof'd, short jointed, fetlocks shag and long, 
Broad chest, full eye, small head, and nostril wide, 

High crest, short ears, straight legs, and passing strong, 
Thin mane, thick tail, broad buttock, tender hide : 

Look what a horse should have, he did not lack, 

Save a proud rider on so proud a back." 

H. J. GAUNTLETT. 

Banks and his wonderful Horse (2 nd S. iii. 391.) 
Your correspondent H. T. RILEY will, I think, 
inquire in vain for any particulars of the " trial 
and execution " of either of the above culprits ; 
although, as the affair is stated to have taken 
place at Rome, one would think that " the archives 
of the Roman see," so lightly spoken of, would, 
supposing them attainable, be the best possible 
authority. The accuracy of the statement has 
always been doubted, and Mr. Halliwell has now 
set the question at rest. If your correspondent 
will refer to that gentleman's noble folio edition 
of Shakspeare (in the notes to Love's Labours Lost) 
he will find that Banks was a thriving vintner in 
the city of London many years after the date of 
the supposed burning at Rome. L. A. B. W. 

Colour (2 nd S. iii. 513.) Would MR. E. S. 
TAYLOR be so good as to say whether Weale, in 
his Papers, gives any authority of ancient date 
for his assertion that " colours were very early 
adopted as symbols." I should be especially 
thankful for references. Of course I know all 
Durandus has said. As to there being any " con- 
ventional " adoption of certain colours by mediaeval 
artists and painters, I totally deny it : the very 
contrary is, in my opinion, an undoubted fact. 
(Vide Ecclesiologist, Nos. 117, 118, and 119.) 

J. C. J. 

m Orts (1 st S. xii. 55.) Besides the remains of 
victuals, this word is used in Forfarshire to de- 
signate the light corn blown aside by the thrash- 
ing and winnowing machines. STUFHUHN. 

Trailing Pikes (2 nd S. iii. 448.) In the "Illus- 
trations of the Pikeman's Exercise," of the time of 
the civil wars, given by Capt. Grose in his Mil. 
Ant. (vol. i. p. 356. pi. 4. fig. 29.), the pikeman 
trayles his pike ; he holds it with his right hand 
just below the blade, resting the hand on his right 
hip ; the residue of the pike being straight behind 
him, with the butt on the ground. Capt. Grose 
gives, in the same volume, engravings of the ex- 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. NO 79., JULY 4. >57 



ercise of the matcblock musket and rest, and of 
the pistol for cavalry of the same period. 

F. A. CARRINGTON. 

Ogbourne St. George. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

So great has been the interest excited by the exhibition 
of the extraordinary collection of portraits of Mary Queen 
of Scots now assembled in the rooms of the Archaeological 
Institute, Suffolk Street, Pall Mall, and which was to 
have closed this day, that we believe it will be kept open 
for a few days longer. We had hoped by this time to 
have been able to lay before our readers some details of 
this very interesting historical collection, in which are to 
be found, not only some hundreds of portraits, paintings, 
and engravings of the unfortunate Mary, but also many 
personal reliques of the highest interest such as the 
enamelled rosary formerly belonging to her, and now the 

Eroperty of Mr. Flo ward of Corby and the veil said to 
ave been worn by her on the morning of her execution. 
Acting under the belief that the history of enslaved 
Greece is one well deserving the attention of the states- 
man and the political economist since Greece under 
the government of the Byzantine emperors affords an in- 
structive example of the" great power that scientific ad- 
ministrative arrangements exert on the political existence 
and material prosperity of a nation, even when the go- 
vernment is neither supported by popular sympathies, 
nor invigorated by the impulse of national sympathies, 
Mr. Finlay has devoted himself to the long" and arduous 
task of narrating such history. The success which has re- 
warded his labours is shown'in the fact that we have now 
before us a second edition of the first of the five volumes 
which he has devoted to this subject. Greece under the 
Romans; a Historical View of the Condition of the Greek 
Nation from its Conquest by the Romans until the Extinction 
of the Roman Power in the East, B.C. CXLVI. to A.D. DCCXVI., 
as it is entitled, well deserves the attention of the his- 
torical student who is desirous of knowing what has been 
the political condition of this great nation under its 
different masters. 

It was the boast of Falstaff that he was not only witty 
himself, but the cause of wit in others. Did the fat 
knight make this boast in a prophetic spirit, anticipating 
that there would appear in the nineteenth century The 
Life, of Sir John Falstaff, illustrated by George Cruik- 
shank, with a Biography of the Knight from Authentic 
Sources by Robert B. B rough, Esq. This question the 
reader may solve for himself: we must content ourselves 
with chronicling the appearance of the first two Parts of 
this illustrated Biography, and declaring that George 
Cruikshank was never more Cruikshanhish than in the 
work before us. Can we say more. 

Mr. Pettigrew has just published, in Baku's Antiquarian 
Library, a volume which will interest many readers. It 
is entitled Chronicles of the Tombs; a Select Collection of 
Epitaphs, preceded by an Essay on Epitaphs and other 
Monumental Inscriptions, with Incidental Observations on 
Sepulchral Antiquities, by T. J. Pettigrew, F.R.S., F.S.A. 
Mr. Pettigrew well observes that "though Time cor- 
rodes our Epitaphs, and buries our very Tombstones" 
the number remaining is so numerous as to make the task 
of selection a difficult one. Equally difficult is the task 
of arrangement; but the book, in which the reader will 
find much gossiping information pleasantly interspersed, 
is made particularly useful by an Index of the names of 
those whose epitaphs are recorded in it. 



We have for some time intended to call attention to a 
clever and most praiseworthy attempt to make our friends 
on the other side of the Channel acquainted with the 
poetic talents of Geoffrey Chaucer. To the Chevalier de 
Chatelain, the translator into French of Gay's Fables, is 
due the credit of being the first to translate into " French 
of Paris " any of the writings of that quaint humourist and 
true poet. His first Essay was La Fleur et La Feuille, Poeme, 
avec le Texts Anglais en regard, traduit en Vers Francais 
de Geoffrey Chaucer : and the success which has attended 
this short work has tempted him to the bolder task of 
translating the Canterbury Tales; and we have now be- 
fore us Contes de Cantorbery, Traduits en Vers Francais de 
Geoffrey Chaucer, par Le Chevalier de Chatelain, Vol. I. 
The work, as a mere literary curiosity, is deserving of 
some attention ; but it has also in the skill exhibited by 
the translator yet higher claims to notice. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

DIVINE INVERSION, OR A VIEW OF THE CHARACTER OF GOD AS IN ALL RE- 
SPECTS OPPOSED TO THE CHARACTER OP MAN. By David Thorn, now 
D.D. 8vo. 1842. Three copies. 

T. BOSTON'S MEMOIRS. 

RICCAI/TOUN'S RKPLY TO SANDEMAN. 1759, or 1761. 

D. S. WYLIK'S ESSAY ON THE KINGDOM OF CHRIST. Paisley, 1797. 

BURNEY'S HISTORY OP ANCIENT Music. 

*** Letters, statin? particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be 
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Wanted by Rev. J. B. Sellwood, Collumpton, Devon. 



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Wanted by Charles Wylie, Esq., 50. Devonshire Street, Portland 
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Wanted by Rev. G. Eayldon, Cowling, Cross-Hills, Yorkshire. 



ta 

We are compelled to postpone until our next No. many articles of great 
interest which arc in type. 

PAUL PRY'S QIERY would, if published, we fear do what the writer 
does not intend, give offence. We shall probably be able to answer it. 

The INDEX TO THE VOLUME JUST COMPLETED is at press, and will be 
ready for delivery on Saturday the \Sth instant. 

BARHAM, wlw has sent us a Note and a Query about Cobham has, we 
hope, bi/ thi* time regretted the palpable and wilful misstatement which 
forms the subject of his communication. 

EXCELSIOR, who writes rejecting Bank of England Notes of a million 
sterling, is referred to our 1st S. xii. 325. 366. 392. 

R. SWANZCKY. The Historic of Xenophon, by John Bingham, is priced 
in Lowndes at 5s. and 12s. 

G. D. S. For some notices of Uriel, see Milton's Paradise Lost, book 
iii. 1. 618. 651. 690. ; iv. 125. 555. 577. 589. ; vi. 363. ; ix. t>0. 

R. INGLIS. See any biographical dictionary for an account of Sir Ed- 
ward Sherburne, the poet ; also Johnson and Chalmers's English Poets, 
and Gent. Mag., vol. Ixvi.-A notice of William Cockm is given in the 
Gent. Mag. for June, 1801, p. 575. ; there is also a biographical sketch, of 
him prefixed to his Rural Sabbath, and other Poems, 12mo. 1805. 

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2d s. N 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 11, 1857. 



WILKES AND THE "ESSAY ON WOMAN." 

I come now (ante, p. 1.) to the further statement 
of Lord Stanhope that Wilkes, " several years be- 
fore [1763], and in some of his looser hours, com- 
posed a parody of Pope's Essay on Man" which, 
" according to his own account, had cost him a great 
deal of pains and time ; " and that the " poem had 
remained in manuscript, and lain in Wilkes's desk, 
until in the previous spring [1763] . . he was 
tempted to print fourteen copies only as presents 
to his boon companions." 

For this circumstantial narrative I know not 
the authority. As, however, if I succeed in my 
general argument, and raise a doubt as to whether 
Wilkes was the writer of the poem, the whole 
will, of itself, vanish into thin air, or be weakened 
according to the force of that doubt it will be 
enough, for the present, if I draw attention to the 
assertion that Wilkes acknowledged himself to be 
the writer; for the allegation as to "pains and 
time " means that or means nothing. Now, vo- 
luble as was the tongue, facile the pen of Wilkes, 
and constant his reference to the subject, I do 
not think that either word or letter of his can be 
produced to justify this statement. It is true that 
Wilkes often talked and wrote enigmatically, it 
was in his nature not to deny anything when 
charged with it as criminal all parties, indeed, 
talked enigmatically, for no one cared to fix the 
authorship on a dead man. It is true that Mi- 
chael Curry, the compositor who stole the copy, 
and who subsequently declared on oath that he 
had received " instructions " from the Solicitor of 
the Treasury as to " what he should say," did de- 
pose to that effect ; and the question and answer 
will show how well all parties were " instructed ; " 
for no man would have asked so absurd and irre- 
levant a question who did not foreknow the 
answer. 

" Did Mr. Wilkes say anything to you about what 
number of years he was in composing the work? He in- 
formed me that it took him a great deal of pains and 
time to compose it." 

If we are to believe with unquestioning faith 
the deposition of this single government witness, 
what are we to say of all the patriots, as we call 
them, who were convicted on the evidence of two 
or more witnesses, and after a searching cross- 
examination ? Yet here is one only a servant 
who had avowedly robbed his master a man 
with a handsome provision promised for life if he 
established the case, which was only to damage 
the moral character of the master he had robbed, 
not to hang him, about which the witness might 
have had some scruple a thief not condemned 
because in law phrase taken with the mainour, 



but holding up the mainour as if it were a testi- 
monial to his character a witness deposing what 
he pleased to a confiding and rejoicing audience, 
and without fear of a cross-examination yet the 
historian records this deposition as if it were an ac- 
knowledgment of guilt by the accused ! 

What authority there may be for the statement 
that the poem " had remained in manuscript and 
lain in Wilkes's desk until the previous spring," 
that is, until it was delivered to Curry to be 
printed, I cannot conjecture. The evidence leads 
me to a different conclusion. Of course it would 
greatly damage Wilkes if the government could 
create and circulate an opinion which many of 
the ministers assumed and believed which the 
king believed, and he we now know was the real 
prosecutor, and prosecuted against the judgment 
of George Grenville, then minister that Wilkes 
was the author. The prosecuting attorney em- 
ployed by the Solicitor of the Treasury had no 
doubt, and prepared his case accordingly. I have 
a copy of his bill before me, and it contains some 
curious items ; amongst others, for attending with 
copies of the depositions at Mr. Grenville's and at 
St. James's. But the following is more immedi- 
ately to my purpose : 

s. d. 

" Nov. 4, 1763. Attending at Mr. Webb's in 

Queen Street all day taking examination 

as to Mr. Wilkes being the author, printer, 

and publisher of the Essay on Woman -220 

Paid coach hire for Mr. Kidgell, Mr. Fadan, 

and Curry, that day - - - 7 6 

Several attendances on Mr. Webb relating 
to this matter preparatory to the com- 
plaint intended in the House of Lords - 1 6 8 
12th. Attending all day at Mr. Webb's 
methodising the evidence and transcribing 
with my own hand a fair copy for Lord 
Sandwich, that the matter might be kept 
secret - - - - -220 

13th. Attending Mr. Webb and the wit- 
nesses all day preparatory to the motions 220 
14th. Attending all this day on the same - 2 2 
15th. Attending the House of Lords on the 
complaint made there against Mr. Wilkes 220" 

After all this training and methodising and 
the principal witness Curry "for several weeks 
lodged and boarded in Webb's house," and re- 
ceived instructions " what he should say " it 
must be quite evident that Lord Sandwich knew 
what to ask, and the witness what to answer. 
There was evidently some skill required in asking 
questions about authorship, as probably Sand- 
wich knew better than either the witness or the 
attorney still it was an important point it 
would barb the arrow and therefore there was 
to be an examination as to handwriting. The 
handwriting of what ? Of the poem ? No. Of 
" four words " corrections on the margin of a 
proof and the handwriting of " the copy of the 
frontispiece in which the name of Dr. Warburton 
is printed at length." 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2<i S. N 80., JULY 11. '57. 



The not asking a pertinent question by so 
skilful a questioner of so willing and so well in- 
structed a witness is, in itself, open to large in- 
ferences. The eager purpose of all parties was to 
create a belief that Wilkes was the author ; and 
the witness Curry, who could and did depose as to 
the handwriting on the copy of the frontispiece, 
could with more certainty have deposed to the 
handwriting of what is technically called the 
" copy " of the poem. The question was not asked, 
and therefore the reasonable inference must be, 
either that the copy of the poem delivered to 
Curry was not in manuscript, or that the manu- 
script was not in Wilkes's handwriting. 

Sandwich, Le Despencer, and a very few peers 
knew the fact as to authorship ; but the king, the 
majority of the peers, the ministers, and all 
persons down to the attorney who prepared the 
case, may have believed, and I think did believe, 
that Wilkes was the author ; and in this faith the 
Lords resolved to pray his majesty to order the 
immediate prosecution of " the author or authors : " 
to which his majesty replied that he would " give 
immediate directions accordingly" 

It is another and still more significant fact that 
after this formal declaration by the House of 
Peers, and formal promise by the king, Wilkes 
was not prosecuted as the author, but for having 
"printed and published, and caused to be printed 
and published : " and so far as I know, Wilkes not 
only never acknowledged himself to be the 
author, but though a man who would, and often 
did, take on himself any consequences if a threat 
were held out, he on important occasions drew a 
distinction between the author and what the law 
called the publisher maintaining, however, that 
he was prosecuted for publishing what was never 
published, except by Sandwich in the House of 
Lords, and the government in the Courts of Law. 
Wilkes was long after emphatic on this point in 
his reply to George Grenville, who had, without, 
I suppose, considering the exact distinction, said 
that Wilkes had been convicted as author. 

" There is, Sir, in almost every part of your speech a 
rancour and malevolence against Mr. Wilkes, which has 
betrayed you into a variety of gross mistakes, and pal- 
pable falsehoods. . . . You say in page 8. that ' he (Mr. 
Wilkes) was tried and convicted for being the author and 
publisher of the three obscene and impious Jibels,' &c. 
You repeat the accusation,. page 14., -with regard to the 
three obscene and impious libels, which were written by 
him.' I have examined your charge with an office copy 
of the second sentence passed on Mr. Wilkes, and I find it 
absolutely groundless. There is not a syllable of author 
or authorship in any part of it. The words are, ' being 
convicted of certain trespasses, contempts, and grand mis- 
demeanours, in printing and publishing an obscene and 
impious libel, entitled An Essay on Woman, and other 
impious libels in the information in that behalf specified, 
whereof he is impeached,' &c. I may now appeal to the 
impartial public, if truth is not here shamefully violated 
by you. Is this that justice which is due to every man, 
and -which we ought to be more particularly careful to 
preserve, in an instance where passion and prejudice may 



both concur in the violation of it'? page 8." Letter to 
G. Grenville, 1769. 

With one other paper on the evidence, as to 
authorship, I shall conclude. D. 



UNPUBLISHED LETTER OP REV. JAMES GRANGER. 

[The following letter from the Rev. James Granger, the 
author of that charming book The Biographical History of 
England, has, we believe, never before been printed. It is 
of considerable interest, as showing that at the time this 
letter was written, the book had,. "in money and market- 
able commodities, brought him in above 400/." We are 
indebted for the opportunity of publishing it to the kind- 
ness of the Earl of Harrowby, the grandson and repre- 
sentative of Granger's kind patron, the first Earl of 
Harrowby, the "Mr. Ryder" to whom it was addressed, 
and who at one time had a house at Shiplake.] 

"Shiplake, 28 Nov. 1771. 
"To Mr. Ryder. 

" Honoured Sir, 

" I received your letter of the 28th of October, 
and also the packet of Bank Notes ; among which 
was one that struck me with surprise at your great 
generosity, which was as far beyond my expecta- 
tion, as it was beyond my merit. I return you, 
Sir, my best, my sincerest thanks, for your noble 
present, intended as a gratification for what was 
itself a pleasure, and therefore its own reward. 
I really loved my little pupil, and from the most 
ready and pleasing of all motives, was ever willing 
to instruct him to the utmost of my power. I 
have often said since I have been vicar of this 
place, beyond which my wishes never aspired, 
that I had no expectation of being worth 100/. of 
my own acquiring. But I have Sir, by the help 
of your note, lately purchased 150 Stock, as a 
resource in case of sickness. I find upon a fair 
calculation, that my book hath, in money and 
marketable commodities, brought me in above 
400/. I am still what the generality of the bene- 
ficed clergy would call a poor vicar ; but am really 
"rich as content," and enjoy the golden mean. 
May every true enjoyment that earth and heaven 
can afford be the portion of you and yours, here and 
hereafter ! Mrs. Granger joins me in the sincerest 
Respects and good wishes to yourself, Mrs. Ryder, 
and your whole Family, including Miss Jennings 
as a part of it. We often drink your healths and 
oftener think of You. 
"I am Sir, 

" Your most obliged and truly grateful humble 
Servant, 

" JAMES GRANGER. 

" The 10 Guineas, &c. sent by J. W. we re- 
ceived. Thanks, Thanks. 
" Address. 

" A' Monsieur, 

" Monsieur Ryder, a la Poste 

restante a Aix chez Monseigneur 
Acheveque de Tuam, 
" en Provence." 



2nd s. NO 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKlES. 



CHATTERTON : WAS HIS BODY REMOVED FROM 
LONDON TO BRISTOL TOR INTERMENT. 

I have received so many applications from gen- 
tlemen personally unknown to me, requesting me 
to give my opinion in " N. & Q." upon the sup- 
posed removal of Chatterton's remains from 
London to Bristol, that I have been at some pains 
to draw up as succinct an account as I could from 
books and documents in my possession ; as from 
these communications it is obvious the public still 
feel an interest in the Chattertonian controversy. 

The gentleman who first gave currency to the 
supposition that Chatterton's body was removed 
from the parish bury ing-ground in Shoe Lane, 
London, to Redcliffe Churchyard, Bristol, for in- 
terment, was George Cumberland, Esq. It was 
in 1807-8 he collected evidence in relation thereto ; 
but it was not published until 1837, when it ap- 
peared in the appendix to Dix's Life of Chatter- 
ton. It was collected by Mr. Cumberland with 
much perseverance from persons then living, some 
of whom were acquainted with Chatterton's 
mother. ^ The removal of the body to Bristol is 
still credited by many Bristolians of the present 
day. Mr. Cumberland's narrative is too long for 
insertion in " N. & Q. ;" but as the greater part of 
it relates to Chatterton's personal character and 
his early course of life, extracts from it which 
relate only to the supposed removal of the body 
to Bristol, are all that is necessary for the object 
of this communication. 

It was in the year 1807 that Mr. Cumberland 
was informed by Sir Robert Wilrnot, that at a 
basket maker's in Bristol he had heard it positively 
stated that Chatterton was buried in the church- 
yard of St. Mary Redcliffe. Mr. Cumberland 
thereupon instituted inquiries to ascertain the fact, 
and at length traced Sir Robert Wilmot's inform- 
ation to Mrs. Stockwell, the wife of a basket- 
maker in Peter Street. On requesting her to 
repeat what she knew of the circumstance, she 
informed him that at ten years of age she was a 
scholar of Chatterton's mother ; that she remained 
with her until she was near twenty years of age ; 
that she slept with her, and found her kind and 
motherly ; insomuch that there were many things 
which in moments of affliction she communicated to 
her, that she would not wish to have been generally 
known ; and among others, she often repeated 
how happy she was, that her unfortunate son lay 
buried in Redcliffe, through the kind attention of 
a relation or friend in London, who, after the body 
had been cased in a parish shell, had it properly 
secured and sent to her by the waggon ; that when 
it arrived it was opened, and the corpse found to 
be black and half putrid, having burst with the 
motion of the carriage, or from some other cause, 
so that it became necessary to inter it speedily 
and that it was interred by Phillips, the sexton, 



who was of her family. Mrs. Stockwell also told 
Mr. Cumberland that Mrs. Chatterton said her 
son's grave was on the right-hand side of the lime 
tree in the middle paved walk in Redcliffe church- 
yard, about twenty feet from the father's grave ; 
which Mrs. Stockwell said was in the paved walk, 
where Mrs. Chatterton and Mrs. Newton, her 
daughter, lie. Thus much for Mrs. Stockwell's 
information. 

Mr. Cumberland was also referred to Mrs. Jane 
Phillips, of Rolls Alley, London, sister to Richard 
Phillips, sexton at Redcliffe in 1772. She remem- 
bered Chatterton having been at his father's 
school. Phillips liked Chatterton for his spirit, 
and there could be no doubt he would have risked 
the privately burying Chatterton on that account. 
That soon after Chatterton's death, her brother 
told her that poor Chatterton had killed himself; 
on which she said she would go to Madam Chat- 
terton to know the rights of it, but that he forbid 
her, and said if she did so he should be sorry he 
had told her. She did go, and asking if it was 
true that he was dead, Mrs. Chatterton began to 
weep bitterly, saying, " My son indeed is dead." 
And when she asked her where he was buried, she 
replied, " Ask me nothing, he is dead and buried." 

The last person with whom Mr. Cumberland 
had communication was Mrs. Edkins. Much 
stress has been laid upon this conversation ; but 
the only allusion to the burial of Chatterton is, 
that she had gone to see Mrs. Chatterton imme- 
diately after the news came of her son's death. 
On entering she found Mrs. Chatterton in a fit of 
hysterics. She said she had come to ask about 
her health. "Ay," said Mrs. Chatterton, "and 
about something else," on which she burst into 
tears, and they cried together, and " no more was 
said till they parted." 

The foregoing statements relative to Chatter- 
ton's burial in Redcliffe churchyard were, as 
before mentioned, collected in 1808, but not 
printed in Dix's Life until 1837. But the follow- 
ing slight corroboration having in 1854 been given 
in Mr. Price's Memorials of Canynge, from a 
letter written by Mr. Joseph Cottle, who with Mr. 
Sou they in 1807 published a Life of Chatterton 
for the benefit of his sister, great reliance has 
been placed upon the contents of this letter by the 
believers in Chatterton's body being removed from 
London to Bristol. 

'About forty years ago," says Mr. Cottle, "Mr. Cum- 
berland called upon me and said, I have ascertained one 
important fact about Chatterton.' What is it,' I said. 
' It is,' said he, ' that that marvellous boy was buried in 
Redcliffe churchyard.' He continued, '1 am just come 
from conversing with old Mrs. Edkins, a friend of Chat- 
terton's mother. She affirmed to me this fact with the 
following explanation. Mrs. Chatterton was passion- 
ately fond of her darling and only son, Thomas, and 
when she heard that he had destroyed himself, she imme- 
diately wrote to a relation of hers, the poet's uncle, then 
residing in London, a carpenter, urging him to send home 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. N' 80., JULY 11. '57. 



his body in a coffin or box. The box was accordingly 
sent down to Bristol ; and when I called on my friend 
Mrs. Chatterton to condole with her, she, as a very great 
secret, took me up stairs, and showed me the box ; and 
removing the lid, I saw the poor bo3 r , whilst his mother 
sobbed in silence. She told me that she should have him 
taken out in the middle of the night, and bury him in 
Eedcliffe churchyard. Afterwards, when I saw her, she 
said she had managed it very well, so that none but the 
sexton and his assistant knew anything about it. This 
secrecy was necessary, as he could not be buried in con- 
secrated ground." 

Commenting upon this last statement of Mrs. 
Edkins, Professor Masson makes the following 
remark : 

" There is some difference, it will be observed, between 
the account given in Mr. Cumberland's surviving memo- 
randa and that given by Mr. Cottle as his recollection of 
what Mr. Cumberland had told him. In the one Mrs. 
Edkins says nothing whatever about the private burial ; 
in the other she makes the detailed statement just quoted. 
Either, then, Mr. Cumberland had seen Mrs. Edkins a 
second time, and got from her particulars which she had 
not thought fit to communicate in 1808, or there was a 
confusion between Mrs. Edkins and Mrs. Stockwell in Mr. 
Qottle's memory." 

The preceding extracts contain, I think, an im- 
partial statement of all that has been published, 
and which has led to the belief that Chatterton's 
body was buried in Redcliffe churchyard. 

In contravention of this belief the following 
reasons are submitted. 

A friend of the writer's is still living near Pen- 
zance, the Rev. C. V. Le Grice, who in 1796, 
twenty-six years after Chatterton's suicide, visited 
the Shoe Lane burying-ground to verify, if he 
could, the place where his body lay ; and in Au- 
gust, 1838, will be found in the Gentleman 1 s Ma- 
gazine a long letter written by him, in which, after 
showing how much Chatterton was indebted to 
Bailey's Dictionary for his knowledge of the 
Saxon language and of heraldry, he concludes the 
article with these remarks : 

" The story of the remains of Chatterton's body being 
re-interred in Bristol is perfectly absurd. His remains 
were deposited in a pit, which admitted of many bodies, 
prepared for those who died in the workhouse of Saint 
Andrew's, Holborn. The admittance for the corpse was 
by a door like a horizontal cellar door ; so it was pointed 
out to me many years ago. I wished to stand on the 
grave, the precise spot. ' That,' said the sexton, ' cannot 
be marked.' " 

In the Gentleman 's Magazine for December in 
the same year, 1838, is a letter from Mr. Richard 
Smith, the nephew of the Rev. Mr. Catcott, who 
inherited from him several valuable manuscripts 
and relics of Chatterton, containing the following- 
paragraph. Mr. Smith was a zealous advocate in 
favour of Chatterton being the author of the 
Rowleian Poems : 

" The rumour respecting the removal of Chatterton's 
body I consider to be quite apocryphal : certainly there is 
no memorial in Redcliffe churchyard ; and it is unlikely 
that after incurring the expense of a removal, the parties 



should have neglected to mark the spot, or to write a 
notice in the newspapers of the day." 

In 1842 was published at Cambridge, by W. P. 
Grant, Esq., a new edition of Chatterton's poems, 
with notices of his life. Mr. Grant was materially 
assisted in the compilation by Mr. William Tyson, 
of Bristol, who had for many years, in connexion 
with Mr. Richard Smith, been engaged in col- 
lecting any new occurrence which could elucidate 
Chatterton's career ; and these gentlemen cor- 
rected many of the sheets in Mr. Grant's publi- 
cation. In allusion to Chatterton's suicide Mr. 
Grant writes as follows : 

"That a coroner's inquest was held on the body; a 
verdict of insanity returned {felo-de-se it should be), and 
the poet was buried among paupers in Shoe Lane, and 
this without a single question being asked, or any inquiry 
being instituted by his friends or patrons. Indeed, so 
long was it before his acquaintance heard of these cir- 
cumstances, that it was with the greatest difficulty that 
his identity could be established, or his history traced 
with any degree of probability." 

Let us now try the case between both parties 
by the rules of evidence, and we would ask if any 
judge would direct a jury to give a verdict in 
favour of the re-interment of Chatterton in Red- 
cliffe churchyard. Without casting a doubt upon 
Mr. Cumberland's veracity, and considering Mr. 
Cottle's conflicting statements, would not a judge 
state both to be mere hearsay or secondary evidence, 
and consider that of Messrs. Le Grice, Smith, 
Grant, and Masson, most to be relied upon ? 
How came it, too, that Southey and Cottle, when 
publishing Chatterton's Life, &c., for the benefit 
of his sister, and they were in constant commu- 
nication with her, that she was silent upon such 
an interesting subject ? The Shoe Lane burying- 
ground was consecrated, so that Chatterton was 
not buried in the usual revolting manner of 
suicides. Again, after the interment of the body 
in London, was it probable that Chatterton's uncle 
should, " after the body had been cased in a parish 
shell, have had it properly secured, and sent by 
waggon to Bristol ; that after it was opened the 
corpse was found to be black and half putrid, 
having burst with the motion of the carriage, so 
that it was necessary to inter it speedily ? " As 
Mr. Le Grice says, it is absurd to believe such a 
statement. As it occurred in the sultry month of 
August, the body must, even before its first inter- 
ment, have been in a rapid state of decomposition 
from the quantity of arsenic that Chatterton had 
swallowed. In those times it must have taken 
three or four days at the least to have taken it by 
waggon to Bristol. The expense also, must have 
been considerable, and Chatterton's relatives were 
not in affluent circumstances to bear the expenses 
of removal. Much more might be advanced to 
show the improbability of the removal and the 
evidence bearing upon it. But enough has been 
said to leave the verdict in the hands of a discern- 



2"* S. NO 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



25 



ing and impartial public. Would that it might 
be otherwise ! for everyone who is an admirer of 
the talents of Chatterton would rejoice to believe 
that he lies interred in Redcliffe churchyard with 
his mother and other relations. 

JOHN MATTHEW GUTCH. 



FOLK LORE. 

Scottish Superstitions. On an infant entering 
the first strange house, the person who carries it 
demands a piece of silver, an egg, and some bread 
for good luck to the child. This is a folk lore in 
Edinburgh : does it exist elsewhere ? 

2. When a pea-pod containing nine peas is found 
by a young woman while shelling pease, she places 
it above the outer door, and the first young man 
who enters the door thereafter is to be her future 
husband. 

3. There are fishermen in Forfarshire who, on 
a hare crossing their path while on their way to 
their boats, will not put to sea that day. 

4. In some parts of Scotland a horseshoe that 
has been found, when nailed to the mast of a fish- 
ing-boat, is a great means of ensuring the boat's 
safety in a storm. STUFHUHN. 

Charms. I have before me the manuscript 
account book of a deceased neighbour, a notable 
woman in her way. Besides her receipts and dis- 
bursements, it contains the pharmacopoeia by which 
she worked the wondrous cures which have spread 
her name through her own and the bordering 
parishes. Leaving the material nostrums (as " a 
cure for rumaticks," and a " drunch for a horse"), 
I select a few charms and superstitious remedies, 
and hope that this betrayal of her mysteries may 
not disturb the ghost of a once kind-hearted and 
very useful neighbour : 

" A Charm for the Bite of an Ader. 
" ' Bradgty, bradgty, bradgty, under the ashing leef,' 
to be repeted three times, and strike your hand with the 
growing of the hare. 'Badgty, bradgty, bradgty,' to be 
repated three times nine before eight, eight before seven, 
seven before six, six before five, five before four, four be- 
fore three, three before two, two before one, and one be- 
fore every one, three times for the bite of an ader." 

In the list of provincialisms, collected by Video 
(1 st S. x. 179.), Braggaty is said to mean " mottled, 
like an adder," &c. 

" For Seal. 

" There was three angels came from the West, 
The wan brought fier, and the other brought frost, 
And the other brought the book of Jesus Christ, 
In the name of the Father," &c. 

" For Stanching Blood. 

" Our Saveour was born in Bethleam of Judeah : as he 
passed by the rivour of Jorden, the waters \vaid ware all 
in one, the Lord rise up his holy hand, and bid the waters 
still to stand, and so shall thy blood. Three times." 



" For a Thorn. 

" Our Saveour was fastened to the Cross with nails and 
thorns, which neither rots nor rankels. No more shant 
thy finger. Three times." 

To cure Worts. 

" Take a nat (knot) of a reed, and strike the worts 
downward three times. Bury the reed." 

T. Q. C. 
Bodmin.. 

Letting'in the New Year. In the " Memora- 
bilia " of the Illustrated London News, for May 2, 
1857, a specimen of Lancashire and north of Eng- 
land folk-lore is given, " that it is extremely 
unlucky to admit a fair-complexioned person first 
across your threshold on the morning of New 
Year's Day." The correspondent states that 
" many wealthy and educated families firmly ad- 
here to this practice." 

I have met (in Shropshire) with a piece of folk- 
lore which was also adhered to by educated 
people, but which made the ill-luck to proceed 
from the sex, and not the complexion. The man 
brought the good luck, the woman the bad ; so 
that this is by no means a polite piece of folk-lore. 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 

Ash Wednesday Folk- Lore. If you eat pan- 
cakes on " Goody Tuesday " (Shrove Tuesday), 
and grey peas on Ash Wednesday, you will have 
money in your purse all the year. 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 

Doves unlucky. Perhaps some reader of " N". & 
Q." could explain the superstition apparently in- 
volved in the following story, for the actual occur- 
rence of which I can vouch : A month or two 
back a family, on leaving one of the Channel 
Islands, presented to a gardener (it is uncertain 
whether an inhabitant of the island or no) some 
pet doves, the conveyance of them to England 
being likely to prove troublesome. A few days 
afterwards the man brought them back, stating 
that he was engaged to be married, and the pos- 
session of the birds on his part might be (as he 
had been informed) an obstacle to the course of 
true love running smooth. The point on which 
I should desire information is as to the existence 
of any superstition with regard to the possession 
of doves by persons about to be married. M. 

The Devil and Runwell Man. I do not know 
if the enclosed legend of " Devil and Runwell 
Man " has ever appeared in print. I have taken 
it out of the Common-Place Book of an old cler- 
gyman, written some years ago. It seems curious, 
and may amuse your readers. 

"Devil and Runwell Man. The Devil wished the 
builder to build the church in a particular place ; but the 
builder would not consent ; and continued to erect it in 
another. The Devil and he fought a pitched battle on 
the occasion ; and the man beat him. The Devil asked 
by >vhat assistance he had vanquished him? He an- 



tfOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. $0 go., JULY 11. '57. 



swered, 'Through God and two spayed bitches.' A se- 
cond battle ensued soon after with the same success and 
interrogatories and answers. They afterwards fought a 
third battle, in which the man was again successful. On 
the Devil asking him who were the combatants, he an- 
swered, ' Himself and God.' The Devil finding he could 
not vanquish the man living, said he would have him at 
all events, when dead, whether buried in the church he 
was building or out of it. To elude this he ordered him- 
self to be buried half in the church and half out of it. 
His coffin, or rather the cup of it, is to bo seen of exceed- 
ing hard black stone." 

T. S. 

Old Rhyme. The following is a curious 
rhyme which I took down from the recitation of 
an old woman the other day. She remembers her 
father singing it to his children. I know not 
whether it is a novelty, or has previously ap- 
peared : 

" There was a wee ghaist, 
Nae mair than a midge at maist : 
Wha married the wee ghaist? 

Wha trow ye ? 

Wha but the Spanish flee? 
They had bairns them between ; 
Archus and the Elf-king ; 
King Cawn, Moose Skirlet mony mae. 

The wee ghaist was a settle, 

Staw falla, its ain whittle. 

Staw red an' dee-a milk-mug, 

An' a grey meer .... 

Whan ye see the wee ghaist come, 

Fy, cry-killy lay zum ; 

Fy, cry-blutter, blatter ; 

Fy, cast halla' water, 

Plunge in wi' glim, glam ; 

The cat jamp ower the mill-dam." 

I have marked where, from the rhyme, we may 
infer something to be lost. In those parts where 
the sense could not guide my spelling, I have kept 
as near to the sound as possible. The whole piece 
seems to be a political satire composed at the time 
when our throne had connexions with Spain. 

J. B. RUSSELL. 

Glasgow. 



LOFCOP. 



In The Times of May 27, 1857, p. 11. col. 4., is 
the report of a case touching the right of H. R. H. 
the Prince of Wales as Duke of Cornwall to 
*' lofcop," i. e. to one moiety of the charges on ex- 
ported grain, seeds, and corn, levied at a certain 
town upon the coast. The court inquired what 
was the proper meaning of the term " lofcop ? " 
Counsel could not tell. Is not this a case for 
"N. &Q.?"* 

Having never before met with the word, I can- 
not pretend to give such an explanation of it as : 
ought to satisfy the learned inquirer. Never- 



[* Some conjectures respecting the meaning of lofcop 
will be found in our lt S. i. 319. 371. ; iv. 411. ; viii. 245. 
-ED.] 



theless, some light may be thrown upon its com- 
ponent parts. 

In old and provincial English, "lof" apparently 
signifies to levy, to take ; and " cop " is a certain 
amount or measure of grain thus taken or levied. 
Formerly, in all probability, the lofcop was an 
excise in the strict sense of the word, that is, was 
taken in kind. 

1. With "lof" compare the old English word 
"laughe" (taken), which probably was pro- 
nounced like lof, or nearly so. This old term 
" laughe " appears to be a participle of the verb 
" lache," to catch, or to take (" to lache fische," to 
catch fish). 

" Lordes of Lorayne, and Lumbardye bothene 
Laughe [lof] was and lede ." 

Lofy then, may be viewed as " something taken," 
a levy, a toll. Compare u lef-silver," a composition 
formerly paid by tenants in the Weald of Kent. 

2. " Cop," as a certain quantity of grain, ap- 
pears in the phrase " a cop of peas " (15 or 16 
sheaves). In this sense, cop stands connected 
with "kype," " cipe," "coupe" (a basket). 

" Cop " does not, however, mean simply a 
certain amount of grain. It means also an amount 
levied as tollage. Conf. " cope," a tribute ; but, 
specially, a tribute paid to the lord of the manor ; 
for instance, when lead was smelted at his mill. 
Conf. also coupe (a piece cut off) ; and " a cup of 
sneeze," which is a pinch of snuff (une prise de 
tabac). 

Nearly all the terms here cited are to be found 
in Halliwell. 

The above remarks are merely offered in the 
way of suggestion, with the hope that, among the 
many able correspondents of " N". & Q.," some one 
will throw further light upon " lofcop." 

THOMAS Boys. 



THE "BULB or THE PAVEMENT." 

Why will some people insist on keeping the 
wall, though they have no right to it ? 

Is there not a "rule of the pavement" as well as 
a " rule of the road ? " 

Here are two questions, which, after the fashion 
of Parliamentary proceeding, I put to you or any 
of your readers, in order that, having observed the 
requisite forms, I may myself answer them. 

It is not always from a motive of impertinence 
that people do impertinent things, nor from a 
mere wish to annoy do they persevere in a course 
which must be productive of annoyance. Ig- 
norance is, as often as anything else, the cause of 
misconduct. Ladies are great offenders in this way. 
They are not over-fond of historical inquiries ; 
they adopt very readily any tradition of society, 
and assume as of course its continued duration. 
Even up to the days when Gay wrote his Trivia, 



g. x 80,, JULY 11. '57, ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



the miserable condition of London streets (matters 
had been much worse in foreign towns), the utter 
absence of pavement, and the consequent unpro- 
tected state of the foot passenger in many of our 
streets, made it a matter of honourable gallantry 
that a man should present himself to face the 
dangers of the way, and thus protect his fair and 
defenceless fellow pedestrians. This was very 
laudable, though, truth to say, it was, if not the 
origin, at least the companion of a not highly eu- 
logTstic phrase, " the weakest goes to the wall." 
But the fair sex, of course, willingly accepted the 
practical safety without inquiring into, or perhaps 
even being conscious of, the dislogistic proverb. 
It became in their minds a settled rule that a lady 
was entitled to take the wall, and that rule ap- 
peared to them established in virtue of a compli- 
mentary deference to their sex, and not through a 
sensible and manly desire to protect them from 
danger. To them, therefore, it still appears quite 
natural and proper that they should continue to 
keep the wall, and that everybody, under all cir- 
cumstances, should make way for them to enable 
them to do so. With the present crowded state of 
our streets this has come to be a real public incon- 
venience, but that is not all. Whenever a privilege 
is supposed to exist there will always be aspirants 
for its enjoyment. It matters not that the aspirant 
has not the smallest title to the privilege, he will 
nevertheless claim it. Imitation of those above 
them is not confined to such scenes as those 
enacted in High Life below Stairs. The ten- 
dencies there laughed at are in universal activity. 
So, because ladies are supposed entitled to keep 
the wall, every dirty cobbler's boy claims the 
same privilege, and insists on it to the great hin- 
drance of free movement, and the inconvenience 
and sometimes danger of the general passengers. 
It is hardly possible to expect a remedy for this 
evil except by an appeal to the good sense of the 
ladies. If they cease to claim a privilege, the ne- 
cessity for which no longer exists, (for our pave- 
ments supply the protection which individual 
gallantry formerly afforded,) they will do much to 
improve the freedom and ease of walking in the 
crowded streets of London ; and those who wrong- 
fully usurp what might be a graceful concession 
to the ladies, ceasing to think that a privilege 
existed, would cease to annoy others by claiming 
it. 

There does exist "a rule of the pavement" 
quite as clear as the " rule of the road ; " but, as 
the same danger and the same legal liability do 
not follow its infraction, it is treated with neglect. 
If you violate the " rule of the road," and a horse 
or a carriage is injured, a demand for damages 
follows ; if you perform the same misdeeds in 
walking, and tread on your neighbour's corns, or 
tear a lady's gown, an apology is the only penalty, 
and the graceless will walk off without even offer- 



ing that, no fear of an attorney's letter haunting 
their minds. Public convenience is forgotten, 
because the fear of actions and costs does not 
exist. Yet this disregard of public convenience 
is something that ought to come to an end. Our 
streets are not large enough for the increasing 
numbers that now crowd through them. We must 
walk according to rule if we do not desire to lose 
both time and labour. Each line of pedestrians 
must keep to its own side, the right-hand line 
keeping the wall, and in this way will the streets 
be found sufficient for the traffic of the town ; and 
people, instead of walking like crabs in angles, 
thus, Z, or moving like vessels tacking against the 
wind, like Commodore Trunnion and his wedding 
party, will walk like sensible men and women in a 
straight line, and with ease, facility, and comfort. 

CE. 



Cheshire Antiquities. The Archaeological In- 
stitute of Great Britain being about to hold its 
Annual Meeting at Chester, from the 21st to the 
29th of this present month, July, the Committee 
are most desirous to obtain, for their temporary 
Museum, the loan of any objects of Ancient Art 
and Manufactures, especially such as possess a 
local interest for Cheshire and the surrounding 
counties. As no doubt many readers of " N. & 
Q." have both the will and the way to assist us in 
this endeavour, I should feel particularly obliged 
by their communicating with me, immediately, at 
my address as under, in order that the necessary 
arrangements may be made for the safe conduct 
of the antiquities to and from the Museum. 

T. HUGHES. 

4. Paradise Row, Chester. 

Irish Justice. Among the 

" Statutes and ordinances made and established in a 
Parliament holden at the Naas the Friday next after the 
feast of All Saints, in the 35 th year of the reign of King 
Henry the sixth, before Thomas Fitz Maurice, Earl of 
Kildare, deputy to Richard Duke of York, the King's 
Lieutenant of his land of Ireland, Anno Dora. 1457," 

is the following enactment of the Irish Parliament, 
chap. ii. : 

" An act that every man shall answer for the offence of 
his sons as the offender ought to do, saving punishment of 
death" Rot. Parl, cap. vii. 

" Also, at the request of the Commons, that forasmuch 
as the sons of many men from day to other do rob, spoil 
and coygnye the King's poor liege people, and master- 
fully take their goods, without any pity taking of them : 
Wherefore, the premises considered, it is ordained and 
established by authority of the said Parliament, that 
every man shall answer for the offence and ill-doing of 
his son as he himself that did the trespass and offence 
ought to do; saving the punishment of death, which 
shall incur to the trespasser himself." 

F. A. CARRINGTON, 

Ogbourne St. George. 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2d g. x<> 80., JULY 11. '57. 



A shrewd Decision of Ali, Caliph of Bagdad. 
In the Preliminary Dissertation to Richardson's 
Arabic Dictionary, 2 vols. 4to., 1806, the follow- 
ing curious anecdote is recorded : 

" Two Arabians sat down to dinner : one had five 
loaves, the other three. A stranger passing by desired 
permission to eat with them, which they agreed to. The 
stranger dined, laid down eight pieces of money, and de- 
parted. The proprietor of the five loaves took up five 
pieces, and left three for the other, who objected, and in- 
sisted on having one-half. The cause came before Ali, 
who gave the following judgment : ' Let the owner of the 
five loaves have seven pieces of money, and the owner of 
the three loaves one ; for, if we divide the eight loaves 
by three, they make twenty-four parts ; of which he who 
laid down the five loaves had fifteen, whilst he who laid 
down three had only nine ; as all fared alike, and eight 
shares was each man's proportion, the stranger ate seven 
parts of the first man's property, and only one belonging 
to the other; the money, in justice, must be divided ac- 
cordingly.' " 

Vox. 

An early Mention of Snuff. In the quaint 
tract, Pappe with an Hatchet (for the benefit of 
Martin Mar-Prelate), ascribed to Tom Nash, an 
allusion is made to snuff; which, just now, when 
all are agitated respecting the " Tobacco Contro- 
versy," may not be uninteresting : 

" He beate all his wit to powder. What will the 
powder of Martin's wit be good for? Marie, blowe up a 
dram of it into the nostrils of a good Protestant, it will 
make him giddie; but if you minister it like Tobacco to 
a Puritane, it will make him as mad as a Martin." 

This tract was written in 1589 ; therefore the 
allusion to snuff must have been " quite new ; and 
very sharp." 

The story of Sir Walter Raleigh having a pail 
of water dashed over him while smoking, is well 
known ; but, in the excellent Handbook to Wilts, 
published by Mr. Murray, another anecdote is 
told of Sir Walter, not so well known. During 
his disgrace, Raleigh visited Corsley, near War- 
minster, and indulged there in the luxury of a 
pipe ; thereby causing the wretched landlord to 
take him for the Evil One, and refuse his money. 
In Sherborne Park " a stone seat is pointed out 
as the spot where Raleigh was in the habit of 
smoking. It has a lower stone for the pipe to rest 
on." J. VIRTUE WYNEN. 

Hackney. 

Eing John's House at Somerton. Dr. Doran 
has made a great mistake in his Monarchs retired 
from Business, in saying that King John of 
France was confined as a prisoner in the castle of 
Somerton in Lincolnshire. 

There is no such place in Lincolnshire. King. 
John's house in the town of Somerton, Somerset, 
was in existence twenty years ago. It was well 
known by that name. It was occupied at that 
period, if I mistake not, by an innkeeper. The 
building was at that time in good preservation. 

BALLIOL. 



Aphorisms respecting Christian Art, from the 
German of Reichensperger. The opposite of the 
genuine and right thing is scarcely so dangerous 
as its distortion. 

Our diseased times cannot, be cured with writ- 
ing-ink, or printing-ink ; DEEDS are wanted. 

Our philosophers abstract the flesh of things 
from their bones, and then throw the latter at one- 
another's heads. 

Everything noble loses its aroma as soon as 
men choose to restrict it to an unchangeable form. 

In art also (as in politics) everything depends 
upon bringing again into currency the true notion 
of freedom. 

Where fashion rules, art keeps away. None 
but an eminent man can be an eminent artist. 

Life and individuality are the first essentials 
for artistic training. In these days mechanical 
facility alone is produced, because training begins 
with the abstract, instead of the concrete. Imita- 
tion wears away all independent, creative power. 

A desire for the beautiful must be awakened 
before we proceed to satisfy it. Without hunger 
there is no digestion. The Laocoon and the 
Apollo Belvidere should come last in the series : 
let the characteristic, not the beautiful, be the 
first task. 

If from the first we only aim at producing 
something faultless, we shall never arrive at an 
individual development. 

One ought to give each stomach only what it 
can assimilate. Our method of training is based 
upon the supposition of a normal stomach. 

NOTSA. 



CURTAIN LECTURE. 

When and where did this phrase originate ? 
The idea probably may be ascribed to Juvenal, 
who in that ferocious invective against the fair 
sex, his Sixth Satire, treats the subject at full 
length. In lines 267-8. he says : 

" Semper habet lites, alternaque jurgia lectus, 
In quo nupta jacet : minimum dormitur in illo," eta 

And in lines 447-9. : 

"Non habeat matrona, tibi quae juncta recumbit, 
Dicendi genus, aut curtum sermone rotato 
Torqueat enthymema," &c. 

The first of these passages Sir R. Stapylton 
(whose translation was first published in 1647) 
renders thus : 

" Debates, alternate brawlings, ever were 
I' th' marriage bed ; there is no sleeping there." 

In the margin are the words " The Curtain Lec- 
ture" 
Dryden, in his translation of the same passage, 



JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



29 



(published in 1693) introduces the phrase into 
the text : 

" Besides, what endless Brawls by Wives are bred : 
The Curtain- Lecture makes a mournful Bed." 

So in The Spectator*, No. 243. (published in 
1710), Addison, describing a luckless wight un- 
dergoing the penalty of a nocturnal oration, says : 

" I could not but admire his exemplary patience, and 
discovered, by his whole behaviour, that he was then 
lying under the discipline of a curtain lecture." 

Is the facetious author of the famous "Mrs. 
Caudle's Curtain Lectures," then, in jest or 
earnest, when he appropriates to himself the 
merit of originating the idea? In his preface 
(see edition of 1856) he says : 

" It has happened to the writer that two, or three, or 
ten, or twenty gentlewomen have asked him . . . ' What 
could have made you think of Mrs. Caudle ? How could 
such a thing have entered any man's mind?' There are 
subjects that seem like rain-drops to fall upon a man's 
head, the head itself having nothing to do with the 
matter. . . . And this was, no doubt, the accidental cause 
of the literary sowing and expansion unfolding like a 
night-flower of MRS. CAUDLE. . . . The Avriter, still 
dreaming and musing, and still following no distinct line 
of thought, there struck upon him, like notes of sudden 
household music, these words CURTAIX LECTURES." 

I had scarcely penned the above remarks when 
I learnt that the talented author of the Curtain 
Lectures had passed away from our midst. With- 
out commenting then on this extract from his 
preface, I will merely ask, does an earlier example 
of the phrase " curtain lecture " occur than the 
one quoted, viz. Stapylton, 1647 ? Vox. 



J&iturr 

Lord Chief Justice Glynne. In Antony 
Wood's account of John Glynne, Cromwell's Chief 
Justice of the Upper Bench (edit. 1817, vol. iii. 
col. 754.), he says he has seen a book entitled 

"A True Accompt given of the Proceedings of the Right 
Honourable Lord Glynne, the Lord Chief Justice of Eng- 
land, and the Honourable Baron Roger Hill, one of the 
Barons of the Exchequer, in their Summer Circuit in the 
Counties of Berks, Oxon, &c. London, 1658, qu." 

He says that it. was " writ in drolling verse by 
one that called himself Joh. Lincall." As this 
book is not, I believe, in the library of the British 
Museum, I should feel obliged to any of your 
learned correspondents who will tell me where it is 
to be found, or give me some account of its object 
and contents. EDWARD Foss. 



Boswell. I should be glad of information re- 




[* The TMer? ED.] 



Golden Square." The plates are about eleven 
inches by ten. I have twenty. Is that the whole 
set ? Are they common ? Is there any history 
connected with them ? N. B. 

" Hark ! to old England's merry Bells." Who 
was the author of a short poem which appeared 
under the above title in or immediately pre- 
ceding the year 1841? It was given in one of 
the cheap publications of the day (of which just 
then there were several, published in opposition 
to the stamped newspapers), and was, I believe, 
published by Lloyd. I assume that there is no 
file of the publication to be seen. The first verse 
was as follows : 
" Hark to old England's merry bells, how musical they 

chime, 
And sing to-day the same glad song they sung in olden 

time ; 
They breathe a nation's loyalty, the blessings of the 

Queen, 
And glad the footsteps of the gay upon the sunny. 

green ; 
O'er hill and dale the echoes ring : past ages seem to 

swell, 

And join with nature in their soflg of merry ding dong 
dell." 

H. 

Leopold, King of Belgium, Duke of KendaL 
In some book lately, I found him mentioned as 
" Duke of Kendal in the English Peerage." This 
statement, I believe, is incorrect. Was it ever 
contemplated conferring on him this title? one 
that would not have been very complimentary, 
after being held by such a person as Erangard de 
Schulembefg, the ugly mistress of George I. 

HENRY T. RILEY. 

" Time and again." No doubt a true idioma- 
tical expression, as in the sentence "He was 
frightfully ill used, and time and again was or- 
dered," &c. But can anyone reduce it to gram- 
matical structure ? Y. B. N. J. 

University Hoods. In addition to the question 
already asked, may I inquire the origin of the 
present shape of university hoods ? 

A BACHELOR OF ARTS. 

Toronto, Canada. 

Rentals of London Houses. Dr. Doran makes 
the following statement (vol. i. p. 112., in his 
Monarchs retired from Business), as copied from 
the English newspapers of 1698 : 

" Count Tabard, Ambassador of France, has taken the 
house of the Duke of Ormond in St. James's Square, for 
three years, at the rate of 600J. a year." 

Was not this a very exorbitant rent for that 
period ? BALLIOL. 

Venetian Coin. I found the other day, amidst 
some old coins, a copper coin, in size between a 
half-crown and florin, but rather thinner, bearing 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2*as. N 80., JULY 11. '57. 



on one side a winged lion, with a glory round his 
head, and his paw resting on an open book, sur- 
rounded by the inscription : "O AHOS MAPKOS." 
Beneath the figure were marks which appeared to 
be the Roman numeral IIII. On the other side, 
round which ran the legend, " in AN KOPNHAIO2 o 
AOYE," were the words " TOPNE2IA EEIHNTA." I 
supposed the coin to be Venetian, but can find no 
mention of a Cornelius high in office in that state. 
Can any of your subscribers inform me what the 
coin is ? and when and where it was struck ? 

E. K. 
Oxford. 

Dark or Darke Family. I am curious to 
know the derivation and history of the surname 
Dark or Darke, which is common in Gloucester- 
shire and Worcestershire. 

It has occurred to me that perhaps it may be a 
corruption of D'arc, which (from a communication 
in your seventh volume, signed " W. SNEYD ") 
appears to have been a surname of some note in 
France. 

I should feel particularly obliged for any in- 
formation or hints, or for the mention of any 
work likely to assist me. A. D. 

" Which the world will not willingly let die." 
What is the origin of this very often-used expres- 
sion ? JAMES J. LAMB. 

Underwood Cottage, Paisley. 

Thomas Tngledew. Can any reader of " N. & 
Q." give an account of the family or birth-place 
of Thomas Ingledew, a clerk of the diocese of 
York, chaplain to William of Waynflete, Bishop 
of Winchester, who, in 1461, founded two Fellow- 
ships in Magdalen College, Oxford ? 

The statutes of Magdalen College given by the 
founder, William of Waynflete, in 1479, printed, 
by desire of her Majesty's Commissioners for In- 
quiring into the State of the University of Oxford, 
from a MS. in the Bodleian Library, contain the 
tenor of an ordinance, intituled " Compositio Ma- 
gistri Thomse Ingeldew," a clerk of the diocese 
of York, gave to Magdalen College a sum of 
money to be laid out in the purchase of land for 
founding two Fellowships. The two Fellows were 
to celebrate for the souls of Thomas Ingeldew and 
of John Bowyke and Eleanor Aske, and it was 
provided that Thomas Ingeldew's cousin, Richard 
Marshall, of University College, should hold one 
of the Fellowships. C. J. D. INGLEDEW. 

Northallerton. 

Henry Clements. Is anything known of this 
person ? In 2 nd S. iii. 496. it is stated that an 
edition of the Epistola Obscurorum Virorum was 
"printed in 1710, * impensis Hen. Clements, ad 
insigne Lunae falcatae in caemeterio aedis Divi 
Pauli.'" 

In the chained copy of Dean Comber on the 



Liturgy, at Great Malvern (v. 1 st S. viii. 206. 
273.), is a transcript of a letter (given at length in 
1 s * S.x. 174.) from " Henry Clements," and dated 
" Oxford, September 3, 1701." It long ago oc- 
curred to me that the writer of this letter (which 
commences " I am order'd by a person whose 
name I am obliged to conceale to direct Dr. 
Comber's workes to you," &c.) was probably a 
bookseller, who was commissioned to send the vo- 
lume direct to the Vicar of Great Malvern, in 
order that the donor's name might not transpire. 
Can it be shown to be probable that the Henry 
Clements who dates from Oxford in 1701, is the 
Hen. Clements of St. Paul's Churchyard, 1710 ? 

This Query reminds me that your own pages 
furnish a Reply to MB. NORRIS DECK'S inquiry 
(1* S. x. 174.), whether there is " any later in- 
stance than this of 1701, of books being chained 
in churches." In l t S. viii. 453., your corre- 
spondent P. P. had stated that " a Preservative 
against Popery, in 2 vols., dated 1738," is chained, 
together with Foxe and Jewell, in Leyland 
Church, Lancashire. ACHE. 

Thermometrical Query. Upon an old spirit 
thermometer I observed the other day a placed 
at No. 16. below of Reaumur, with the figures 
1776 immediately opposite. 

Query, does that infer that in the winter of the 
period alluded to we had a temperature of such 
severity ? R. F. 

Marshall's Collections for St. Pancras. The 
Rev. John Marshall, LL.B., who was Vicar of 
St. Pancras, Middlesex, about the years 1690 or 
1700, made and left a large collection in MSS., 
&c., for a History of St. Pancras. Can you, or 
any of your readers, inform me in whose possession 
it is now ? R. W. 

Rygges and Wharpooles. Grafton, in his 
Abridgement of the Chronicles of England, 8vo., 
Lond. 1571, in his notice of the year 1551, says : 

" This year were taken at Quinborough and Graves- 
end, and in divers other places, many monstrous and 
great Fishes, whereof some were called Dolphyns, some 
Rygges, and some Wharpooles" 

The dolphin is a fish described by Pennant in his 
Zoology : but where can any account be found of 
the fish here denominated Rygges and Whar- 
pooles f P. P. 

" Sis sus, sis Divus," Sfc. Perhaps some of 
your correspondents may be able to trace the 
hexameter quoted by Coleridge in his preface to 
his Aids to Reflection. It is this : 

" Sis sus sis Divus, svun caltha et non tibi spiro." 

I have hunted for it in vain in Riley's Dictionary 
of Quotations, and in the Indexes of Ovid, Martial, 
Juvenal, and Persius. ETC. 



2<* S. N 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



Jerusalem Letters. 

* If heaven should ever bless me with more children, 
said Mr. Fielding, I have determined to fix some indelible 
jnaik upon them, such as that of the Jerusalem Letters, 
that, in case of accident, I may be able to discover and 
ascertain my own offspring from all others." Brooke's 
Tod of Quality, chap. xi. 

What were these " Jerusalem Letters ? " 

C. FORBES. 

Temple. 

Matthew Weavers. Could you oblige me by 

f'ving some information of Matthew Weavers, 
sq., of Friern Watch School, author of Agrippa 
Posthumus, a Tragedy, and other Poems, pp. 142, 
12mo., 1831 ? Edited by W. Weavers, the author's 
brother. R. INGLIS. 

Bow and Arrow Castle, Portland, Dorset. In 
about the centre of the south-eastern side of the 
island of Portland are the ruins of an ancient 
castle. Nothing is left standing, save the walls of 
a single tower (apparently the keep), pentagonal 
in form, and full of small loop-holes, from which 
latter circumstance, says Mr. Hutchins, in his 
History of Dorset, it is vulgarly known as Bow 
and Arrow Castle. It is said to have been built 
by William II., and hence is sometimes called 
Rufus's Castle. I remember reading some few 
years since, I think in a county newspaper, a 
legend (temp. Will. II. ?) relating to this castle. 
Can any of your correspondents refer me to the 
paper, or any source where I may meet with the 
legend ? Any information about Bow and Arrow 
Castle will be very acceptable to me. 

MERCATOB, A.B. 

" Huntington Divertisement." Can you give 
me any information regarding the authorship of 
The Huntington Divertisement ; or, an Enterlude 
for the general Entertainment at the County Feast, 
held at Merchant Taylors' Hall, June 20, 1678, 
4to., by W. M. Dedicated to the nobility and 
gentry of the county. In the sale catalogue of 
Mr. Heber's library, the author's name is said to 
be L'Estrange. I presume this was Sir Roger 
L'Estrange, but I do not know what reason there 
is for supposing the piece written by him.* 

R. INGLIS. 



lift mm- tSiucrtfrf untlj 

Images set up in Moulton Church. A duo- 
decimo pamphlet of twenty-two pages has recently 
come into my hands bearing the following title : 

" The Case concerning setting up of Images or Paint- 
ing them in Churches, Writ by the Learned Dr. Thomas 
Barlow, late Bishop of Lincoln, upon his suffering such 
Images to be defaced in his Diocess. . . . Published upon 
occasion of a Painting set up in White-chappel Church. 



f* It was simply licensed on May 16, 1678, by Roger 
L/jEstrange, as stated, op the title-page.] 



London, Printed and Sold by James Roberts, at the Ox- 
ford Arms in Warwick Lane, 1714." 

It seems that this tract was written by Dr. 
Thomas Barlow in 1683-4, on the occasion of the 
" Setting up of Images in the Parish Church of 
Moulton," in the county of Lincoln. Unfortu- 
nately the doctor treats of the law and theology 
of the question, but gives no light as to the par- 
ticulars of the case. We are not told the names 
of the persons who caused the twelve apostles, 
S. Paul, Moses and Aaron, &c., to be painted, and 
the artist is only spoken of as "an ignorant 
painter." The case seems to have been a very 
strange one, for the legal authorities were by no 
means unanimous. The Deputy Chancellor of 
Lincoln approved and confirmed what had been 
done ; but at length the Chancellor himself re- 
versed the order. Many of the parishioners were 
in favour of the pictures. Thirty-seven of them 
protested against the "effigies," as they were 
called. 

I am anxious to know where a full account of 
these proceedings may be found. K. P. D. E. 

[In the year 1683, the parishioners of Moulton, when 
beautifying the church, and by virtue of an order from 
the Deputy Chancellor, set up the images of thirteen 
apostles (St. Paul being one), and the Holy Ghost in form 
of a dove over them. After this they petition Dr. Barlow, 
the bishop of the diocese, for his approbation. He denied 
their petition : hereupon the Chancellor annulled the order 
of his deputy, and the images were removed. Upon 
which the persons concerned appeal to the Prerogative 
Court ; the bishop was cited by the Dean of the Arches, to 
show cause why he suffered such images to be removed. 
On this occasion his lordship wrote a breviate of the case, 
as published in the work quoted by our correspondent. 
Upon reading this case the prosecution against the bishop 
was immediately stopped. Bishop Barlow's Case was 
particularly noticed when Dr. Welton set up his memo- 
rable painting in Whitechapel Church. (See " N. & Q.," 
1* S. ii. 355.), as well as the altar-piece introduced into 
the church of St. James's, Clerkenwell, in 1735. All that 
seems known of this case will be found in The Old Whigt 
Sept. 30, 1736, and Gentleman's Magazine, vi. 597.] 

Richard Clitheroe. In the New Monthly Ma- 
gazine, 1821 (vol. i. p. 123.), there is an article 
regarding Richard Clitheroe, an author of the 
time of James I. He was the author of plays 
printed in two vols. 4to. The names of the plays 
are Crichton (of which some specimens are given), 
Julius Cxsar, Fortunes Fool, The Unlucky Mar- 
riage, Julian the Apostate, and Virginia, or Ho- 
nour's Sacrifice. " To these tragedies is prefixed 
a history of the early part of the author's life, 
which is curious for the quaint simplicity with 
which it is written, and the interesting anecdotes 
which it contains of contemporary poets." Can 
any of your readers give me any information re- 
garding the author ? R. INGLIS. 

[The article in The New Monthly Magazine referred to 
by our correspondent seems to be a transparent hoax ; 
for not only are the plays and name of Richard Clitheroe 
unknown in the annals of dramatic literature ; but the 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2d g. NO 80., JULY 11. '57. 



quotations read more like the poetry of the nineteenth 
century, than of the era of Shakspeare, Ben Johson, and 
Donne. Besides, how is it that W. W., the writer, never 
printed, as he promised, some extracts from the curious 
memoir prefixed to this collection of plays?] 

Cox's Museum. Where can a catalogue of this 
be seen ? It will be remembered it is alluded to 
in Sheridan's Rivals : "And her one eye shall roll 
like the bull's in Cox's Museum." 

GEO. CAPE, Jun. 

[The British Museum contains three copies of Cox's 
Museum Catalogue, entitled " A Descriptive Inventory of 
the several exquisite and magnificent Pieces of Mechanism 
and Jewellery, comprised in the Schedule annexed to an 
Act of Parliament, made in the 13th George III., for en- 
abling Mr. James Cox, of the City of London, Jeweller, 
to dispose of his Museum by way of Lottery." Lond., 
4to., 1774. At p. 67. is a notice of The Curious Bull."] 



THE PORTRAIT (AND THE HEAD) OF MARY STUART 
AT ANTWERP. 

(2 nd S. iv. 13.) 

The story of Monsieur de la Croix does not 
altogether agree with that given by Mark Napier 
in his Memoirs of John Napier of Merchiston. 
According to the latter, while the queen, on the 
morning of her execution, was at prayer, two of 
her maids, Barbara Mowbray and Mdlle. de Beau- 
regard, affectionately complained to Mary's phy- 
sician, Bourgoin, that their mistress had forgotten 
to name them in her hastily drawn up will. Mary, 
hearing the complaint, repaired the omission, and 
acknowledged the fidelity of those two attendants 
by a written testimony on the blank leaf of her 
book of devotions. The work I have named then 
proceeds to say : 

" As for Barbara, it is a curious fact that some time in 
the last century a Flemish gentleman of talent and con- 
sideration in the Low Countries, possessed an ancient 
Flemish MS., which narrated that William Curie, accom- 
panied by two ladies of the same name, came over to 
Antwerp after the execution of the Queen of Scots, carry- 
ing with them a picture of that unhappy princess, and her 
head, which they contrived to abstract ; that in the little 
church of St. Andrew there, they buried this fearful relic 
at the foot of one of the pillars, where their own tombs 
were to be, upon which pillar they hung the picture of 
their Queen, and placed a marble "slab to her memory. 
Thus far the Flemish MS. Whoever visits this little 
church may still see upon the pillar that self-same picture 
of Man', Queen of Scots, and read the inscription which 
records her martyrdom. He will also find beneath it the 
tombs of Barbara Mowbray and Elizabeth Curie, and may 
peruse their story engraved upon the slabs that cover 
their dust." * 

According to the above, the portrait of Mary at 
Antwerp was carried over from England by her 
attendants, and would seem to have been one 
taken during the queen's lifetime. M. de la 



[* See some interesting notices of this tomb in "N". & 
Q.," I* S. v. 517. ; vi. 208. ; vii. 263.] 



Croix ascribes it to " Porbus ; " my guide-book to 
the church says it is " by Vandyck." Of the 
three painters named Pourbus, Peter " the Old " 
died in 1583, and Francis "the Elder" in 1580; 
either of these might have painted the picture for 
Barbara Mowbray and Elizabeth Curie, but cer- 
tainly not, as M. de la Croix says, " dans le style 
de Van Dyck," as the last was not born till March, 
1598-9. Francis Pourbus "the younger" was 
then in his thirtieth year, and as he died in 1622, 
when Vandyck was in his twenty-third year, 
Francis can scarcely be supposed to have painted 
after the manner of eo much younger an artist. 
There is certainly nothing of " the manner " of 
either painter, as far as I can recollect, in the 
portrait in question. After all this traditionary 
matter it is worth noticing that, according to the 
contemporary authorities quoted by Mignet, in 
his account of the death of Mary, the only women 
present at her execution were Jeart Kennedy and 
Elizabeth Curie, "being those of her waiting- 
women to whom she was most attached." 

J. DOR AN. 

There is a portrait of Queen Mary at Working- 
ton Hall, Cumberland, said to have been given by 
herself to the ancestor of the present Mr. Kirwan ; 
the portrait is in bad condition, and little valued 
by its possessor. The face is very beautiful, and 
the dress not like that of any other of her pictures ; 
she has a white veil and an open embroidered 
jacket. Queen Mary rested a night at Working- 
ton Hall when she left Scotland, at the treacherous 
instance of Queen Elizabeth, and it is said pre- 
sented her portrait to the family as an acknow- 
ledgment of the hospitality she had received 
from them on her fatal journey. L. M. M. R. 

I cannot give any clue to the place where the 
singular painting mentioned by my friend MR. 
ALBERT WAY is now deposited, should it be still 
in existence ; but those who may be curious to 
know the reason why le petit vilain, David Rizzio, 
is introduced into it, and why the Cardinal de Lor- 
raine expressed himself so strongly on the subject, 
may probably derive some information by con- 
sulting Sir Henry Ellis's Original Letters illus- 
trative of English History, 1st series, vol. ii. pages 
207., &c. W. 



UNIVERSITY MUSICAL DEGREES. 

(2 nd S.iii. 451.491.) 

The debate on the new title of A. A., in con- 
gregation at Oxford, on Friday, June 5, I had 
imagined would have put an end to further writ- 
ing on this matter. The Heads of Houses severally 
advanced the arguments I have used, and the 
wonder is that there should be found such an 



2nd g. No 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



33 



anomalous graduate as the Oxford Doctor in 
Music. The Provost of Oriel objected to the new 
title, as it might be considered equivalent to a de- 
gree, and thus break up the system by ichich residence 
for some years was deemed necessary for a degree. 
The Vice -Principal of Brazenose would not confer 
a title on those who did not go through the Univer- 
sity course. The Master of Balliol thought the 
new title in no way equivalent to a degree, and 
would ever keep up a distinction between the 
children and the clients of the University. The 
Master of Pembroke would not rob the Univer- 
sities of members, or diminish their privileges. 
The general opinion was, that the new title was 
no degree, that test and certificate were not edu- 
cation, and that Oxford is not Giessen nor Got- 
tingen. Indeed, in congregation, Thursday, May 
28, in a discussion on the medical course, Dr. 
Acland remarked, "the great thin^ was to put 
medical education in Oxford on a right footing." 
And in this congregation Mr. Gordon of Christ 
Church considered it doubtful whether Bachelors 
were graduates. 

I would fain believe steps have been taken to 
make the Oxford Musical Degree of some authority. 
The whole profession is at sixes and sevens as to 
the ordinary scale of music, and, of a consequence, 
no two Professors agree upon the chords of the 
scale. Science there is none : how few are there 
who compose with their own ideas, and who is there 
such a master of form as not to exhibit formal 
restraint ? In execution we are unrivalled : the 
playing of the band at the late Handel Festival 
has utterly destroyed the recollection of all 
antecedent, and for some time will cast a me- 
lancholy shade over all coming, performances. 
Since the creation of part music, there has been 
nothing approaching this marvellous body of Eng- 
lish instrumentalists, and their exquisite realisa- 
tion of so much grand music. If Doctor and 
Master were once convertible terms, why may not 
Oxford and Cambridge grant to the executant 
the degree of Master of his Instrument? The 
authority of the Professor is trustworthy in pro- 
portion as the results of his teaching, and the ap- 
propriation of the University distinctions meet 
the general approval of the learned and scientific. 
No person could grudge a degree of merit to very 
many artists in our orchestras ; but to grant de- 
grees upon scientific grounds where there is no 
science, no school, no process or education, ap- 
pears to me not the best way of fostering music 
in England. The science of music is most imper- 
fect ; let us hope it is advancing, and, if so, autho- 
rity will increase, erroneous opinions will pass 
away, and ascertained truths take their place. 
Controversy leads to progress ; and the publica- 
tion of class-books and examination papers will 
tend to form new points of general agreement. 

Is it not most remarkable that music, which is 



founded on the absolute property of numbers, 
should be a puzzle to our most distinguished 
mathematicians ? And why should this be so ? 
Just because these great scholars will not burn 
every book they have on the science, take a string 
of twelve feet in length, and work out of nature 
the wonders of nature and truth. I appeal to 
PROFESSOR DE MORGAN, and to all mathema- 
ticians in England, and request them to try the 
following divisions, i, , , 1, ^, T V, &-, and T V, 
and if the result does not show the absurdity of 
the pretended scientific teaching of music in this 
country, I will offer the most humble apology ; 
and, if possible, believe in Smith's Harmonics and 
Crotch's Elements of Composition. The Oxford 
degree is given, or ought to be given, for power 
and facility in the Alia Cappella school of composi- 
tion. To do this, a man must know the doctrine 
of proportions ; that is to say, the absolute vibra- 
tions of every sound in the gamut ; the law of 
rhythmic action, that is to say, the positivi chords, 
or chords in thesis, and the elativi chords, or 
chords in arsis* ; and, lastly, the mode of joining 
the scales in order, for the semitone makes music, 
and its proper change creates progress and form. 
In these days proportions are taught by intervals; 
joining the scales is called modulation, which means 
nothing, and the law of rhythmic action is not 
taught at all. 

I refer MR. JEBB to Ackermann, who describes 
the second dress of Doctors in Law and Physic to 
be " a habit of scarlet cloth faced with fur." 

H. J. GrAUNTLETT. 



THINGS STRANGLED AND BLOOD. 

(2 nd S. iii. 486.) 

This injunction (Acts xv. 29.) applied to the 
mixed Jewish and Gentile churches. The prin- 
ciples on which such injunction rested are ex- 
plained by St. Paul in Romans xiv. and 1 Corinth, 
viii. and x. The restrictions as to food were 
designed originally to keep the Jews separate 
from the Gentiles (Acts x. 28.) ; but when both 
Jews and Gentiles .became united as Christians, 
the restrictions as 'to food were partially removed 
in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia, where the Jews 
were numerous, and were wholly abolished at 
Rome and Corinth, where the number of the Jews 
was inconsiderable (Neander's Church Hist, by 
Rose, vol. ii. p. 5.; Stanley's Apostolic Age, 
p. 193.). This point is important as bearing on 
the conversion of the Jews ; and is illustrated in 
the circumcision of Timothy by St. Paul (Acts 
xv. 3.), notwithstanding his general declaration 

* I use the terms thesis and arsis in an opposite sense 
to Dr. Bentley : thesis is the stress, arsis the remission. 
The first is the putting down the foot, the second the 
raising it. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



80., JULY 11. '57. 



that circumcision was unavailing (1 Cor. vii. 19. ; 
Gal. v. 6., vi. 15.). The act of % circumcision 
bound Timothy to keep the Jewish law (Rom. ii. 
25.), and would add weight to his ministerial 
offices amongst the Jews. On the other hand, the 
apostles at Jerusalem, although " of the circumci- 
sion," did not compel Titus to be circumcised (Gal. 
ii. 3.). If the statement of St. Paul on this great 
controversy (Gal. ii. 11 21.) is considered, it will 
appear that the abstaining from flesh sold in the 
market, although previously offered to idols, as 
also from things strangled and from blood, is not 
generally enjoined on Christians of this age ; 
nevertheless circumstances may be conceived 
where such abstinence may be needed, or where 
some deference must be paid to the prejudices of 
others in seeking their conversion (1 Cor. viii. 13.). 
From Gal. ii. 12. 14., it may be inferred that 
St. Peter, who moved the injunctions (Acts xv. 7.) 
dispensed necessarily with some of them in eating 
with the Gentiles ; on which subject he had re- 
ceived a special communication (Acts x. 13.). 

The inference from Minucius Felix (Oct. 30) is 
negatived by the declaration of Tertullian that 
Christians had the same diet, &c. as the heathen 
amongst whom they lived (Apol. 42.). But 
Origen (Cels. vii. 6.) asserts the contrary. Both 
may be correct, in different times and places. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

It is asked during what century the precept of 
abstaining from things strangled and from blood 
began to be departed from. St. Augustin, in the 
fourth century, testifies that it was no longer ob- 
served in the churches of Africa (Adv. Faustum, 
1. 32. c. 13.). It was observed longer in the 
northern countries, where Christianity was intro- 
duced later, and local reasons seemed to require 
it. Thus it was in force in England in the time 
of Venerable Bede in the eighth century, and it 
still prevails among the Greeks and Ethiopians. 
But in the western church it went gradually into 
disuse, so that it is impossible to state the precise 
time, even within a century. F. C. H. 



CLOSHE OR CLOSSHYNG. 

(2 nd S. iii. 367. 517.) 

Allow me to submit the following particulars by 
way of reply to the inquiry of H. E. 
Bailey's English Dictionary, 1753 : 

" Closhe, the Game called Nine Pins. 0. S. Forbidden 
by Statute An. 17 Ed. IV." 

Statutes of the Realm (by Record Commission), 
vol. ii. p. 462., 17 Edw. IV. c. iii., A.D. 1477-8 : 

" For unlawful Games. Item, Whereas by the Laws 
of this land no person should use any unlawful Games, as 



Dice, Coits, Tennis, and such like Games, but that every 
person strong and able of body should use his Bow, be- 
cause that the defence of this land was much by Archers ; 
contrary to which Laws the Games aforesaid, and many 
new imagined Games, called Closh, Kailes, Half bowl, 
Hand in and hand out, and Queckboard, be daily used in 
divers parts of this land, as well by persons of good repu- 
tation as of small having, and such evil disposed persons 
that doubt not to offend God in not observing their holy- 
days, nor in breaking the laws of the land, to their own 
impoverishment, and by their ungracious procurement 
and encouraging do bring others to such Games till they 
be utterly undone and impoverished of their goods, to the 
pernicious example of divers of the King's liege people if 
such unprofitable Games should be suffered long to con- 
tinue, because that by the means thereof divers and many 
murders, robberies, and other heinous felonies be often- 
times committed and done in divers parts of this Realm 
to the great inquieting and trouble of many good and 
well disposed persons, and the importune loss of their 
goods ; which plays in their said offences be daily sup- 
ported and favoured by the Governors and Occupiers of 
divers Houses, Tenements, Gardens and other places, 
where they use and occupy their said incommendable 
Games. Our Sovereign Lord the King, in consideration 
of the premises, by the advice of the Lords Spiritual and 
Temporal and the Commons in the said Parliament as- 
sembled, and by the authority of the same hath Or- 
dained," &c. 

Then follow enactments to the effect that whoso- 
ever shall allow any of the said games in his house 
or other place shall be subject to three years' im- 
prisonment, and forfeit 20Z. And whosoever shall 
play at such games shall be imprisoned two years, 
and forfeit 10/. 

It will be observed that in this statute clash is 
one of several games which are called " new ima- 
gined games." Bailey furnishes no definition of 
any of the others, but kailes, in a subsequent sta- 
tute, is mentioned as skiffles. 

By statute 33 Henry VIII. c. ix., 1541-2, it is 
enacted, 

"That no manner of person of what degree, quality or 
condition soever he or they be, by himself, Factor, De- 



puty, Servant or other person, shall for his or their gain, 
lucre or living keep, have, hold, occupy, exercise, or 
maintain any Common house, Alley or Place of bowling, 



Coytinge, Cloyshe, Cayles, half-bowle, Tennys, Dysing 
table or Carding, or any other manner of Game prohibit 
by any Statute heretofore made," 

upon pain to forfeit 40s. per day. And also every 
person using and haunting any of the said houses 
and places, and there playing, to forfeit for every 
time so doing 6s. 8d. 

" And if anj r person sue for any Placard [licence] to 
have common Gaming in his house contrary to this 
Statute, that then it shall be contained in the same Pla- 
card what Game shall be used in the same House and 
what persons shall play thereat, and every Placard 
granted to the contrary to be void." 

The licence quoted by H. E. appears to be 

framed in accordance with this last-mentioned 

proviso of this statute. THOS. BREWER. 

Milk Street. 



s. NO 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



35 



to 

Antiquity of the Family of Bishop Suits. I 
have just been reading G. H. D. (2 nd S. iii. 75.) 
on the family of Butts, and as he seems to doubt 
"Mrs. Sherwood's tale of Poictiers," I must inform 
him that Sir AVilliam Butts, stated by Camden to 
have been one of the knights slain at Poictiers 
1356, when fighting in the van of the army with 
Lord Audeley, was not the Sir William Butts who 
fought 191 years afterwards at Musselburgh or 
Pintey, 1547, and there gained an honourable 
augmentation to the family arms. And further, 
that this Sir William Butts was not killed at 
Musselburgh, but lived many years afterwards, 
and was high sheriff for the counties of Norfolk 
and Suffolk in the year 1563. His tomb is in the 
parish church of Thomage, which the sexton told 
E. D. B., and probably still tells strangers, is 
the tomb of Lord But, " whose heart is in the 
tomb, but the body was left in Scotland." Such 
traditions often mislead the antiquary. E. D. B. 

Patois (2 nd S. iv. 7.) This word means sermo 
patrius, in contradistinction to the language of 
polite society. See Menage, Diet. Etymologique, 
tome i. p. 296. : 

" Dans certains lieux du Languedoc, Etes-vous Patois 
ou Patoise ? signifie : etes-vous de notre Province, ou du 
canton oil 1'on parle le meme patois que chez-nous. De 
Pater noster nous avons de meme fait pate-notre" 

It is a pity that this dictionary is not found in 
more libraries, for it is as cheap as it is useful. 

E. C. H. 

Was Dancing denounced by the Ancients? The 
Worship Dance (2 nd S. iii. 511.) The short 
forms of the Gregorian Chants which I think are 
oriental, and a portion of " The Lord's Song " al- 
luded to in the 137th Psalm, are all dance-tunes, 
and of this rhythm, | - ~ w j - - || - ^ ~ | - - ||. 
The allegretto movement in A minor in the sin- 
fonia No. 7. of Beethoven is a perfect illustration 
of this rhythm, and I presume intended by the 
composer to illustrate the Psalm Dance of the 
Israelites. The English Cathedral Chant is a 
march rhythm the Processional Psalm tune, and 

of this measure, |-wy[-|-Juv/^^| ||; 

a simple melody of four bars in alia Cappella time. 
To describe a chant of seven bars is sheer non- 
sense the folly of modern organists, who have 
forgotten the laws of rythmic action and the 
stately measure peculiar to the Church. There 
has been a very curious and amusing correspond- 
ence for these many months past in The English 
Churchman upon the right way of chanting the 
Venite exultemus. Had the writers known that 
the rhythm of the Cathedral Chant was the same 
as that of the March chorus in Handel's Judas, 
or the March in Mendelssohn's Athalie, much 
printer's ink and editorial space might have 



been spared. The Church Dance still exists in 
Spain, and may be seen on certain festival days 
in the cathedral at Seville. It was stopped in 
France about the eleventh century. For the He- 
brew dances consult Zeltner de Choreis veteribus 
Judeorum Dissert. 4to., Altorf, 1726. I think 
there is also a work by Renz, entitled De Reli- 
giosis Saltationibus Judeorum, and Herder quotes 
from the book De Saltationibus Ecclesice. 

H. J. GAUNTLETT. 

Oil of Egeseles (2 nd S. iii. 289. 519.) Is not 
this the " magistery of egg shells," a calx obtained 
by their precipitation ? See The Marrow of 
Chymical Physick, London, 1669. A. A. 

Colophony (2 nd S. iii. 289. 519.) A superior 
sort of resin, being the residuum, or caput mortuum, 
of the gum of the fir trees after the turpentine 
has been drawn over. (See Bailey, Universal Dic- 
tionary, vol. ii. 1731.) It is so called from Colo- 
phon in Asia Minor, whence the finest resins 
came. (See Pliny, Hist. Nat., 14. 20.) A. A. 

Dr. Moor and Grays Elegy (2 nd S. iii. 506.) 
Your correspondent, Y. B. N. J., is, I am afraid, 
much mistaken in ascribing to Prof. Moor the 
authorship of the critique on Gray's Elegy. It 
was the production of Prof. John Young, of Glas- 
gow, who died in 1820, in the forty-sixth year of 
his Greek professorship. It was published in 
1783, and reprinted in 1810, under the title of A 
Criticism on the Elegy written in a Country Church- 
yard; being a Continuation of Dr. Johnson's Criti- 
cism on the Poems of Gray. No doubt it was, 
and is still, considered to be one of the happiest 
attempts at the style of Johnson. T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 

Burial Place of Robert Bloomfield (2 ud S. iii. 
503.) The author of The Farmer's Boy was 
buried in the chancel of Campton church, Bedford- 
shire. The epitaph has been published in The 
Topographer and Genealogist, vol. iii. p. 133. 
(1836), as follows : 

" Here lie the remains of ROBERT BLOOMFIELD. He 
was born at Honington, in Suffolk, December 3, 1766 ; 
and died at Shefford, August 19, 1823. 

" Let his wild native wood-notes tell the rest." 
The gravestone was inscribed with these lines 
at the expense of the Ven. Henry Kaye Bonney, 
Archdeacon of Bedford. J. G. N. 

Old Prayer-Boohs (2 nd S. iii. 353.) The Notes 
and Queries inserted under this head have led me 
to search my library for editions of the Book of 
Common Prayer published previously to 1662. 
Of these I have discovered the following copies. 

(1.) 1615. Small 12mo. No title-page (with 
N. T. by Barker, 1613). It contains prayers in 
the Litany for Queen Anne, Prince Charles, 



36 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



. NO 80., JULY 11. '57. 



Frederick the Prince Elector Palatine, and the 
Lady Elizabeth his wife. 

(2.) 1616. Folio. Fine copy ruled with red 
lines. Printed by Robert Barker (with Bible of 
same date). Contains prayers for Queen Anne, 
Prince Charles, Frederick the Prince Elector 
Palatine, and the Lady Elizabeth his wife. Also 
the Psalms, by S. and H., 1612; with Form of 
Prayer to be used in Private Houses, &c. 

(3.) No title-page. Small 8vo. About 1628. 
With Greek Test., 1633. Contains the " Godly 
Prayers." 

(4.) No title-page. Folio. About 1629 (with 
Bible, 1629, printed by Thomas and John Buck; 
and Psalms, S. and H., 1629). Contains prayers 
for " Queen Mary, Frederick the Prince Elector 
Palatine, and the Lady Elizabeth his wife and 
their royal issue." 

(5.) 1630. 4to. Printed by Thomas and John 
Buck. Contains prayers for " Queen Mary, 
Prince Charles, and the rest of the royal progeny," 
and the " Godly Prayers" 

(6.) 1635. Small 8vo. Printed by Robert 
Barker and assignes of John Bill (with Greek 
Test., 1633). Contains Prayers for " Queen 
Mary, Prince Charles, and the rest of the royal 
progenie ; " also the " Godly Prayers" 

Hence it appears that the "Godly Prayers" 
were published as early as 1630, and probably as 
early as 1628 ; and they appear to have been dis- 
continued about 1674. 

Has no complete list been published of the edi- 
tions of the Prayer Book between 1604 and 1662 ? 

I have also a Prayer Book (folio, with the royal 
arms stamped on the outside) printed during the 
reign of Charles II., and during or after the year 
1674, which contains three state services, viz. for 
the 5th November, 30th January, and 29th May, 
quite different from those annexed to our present 
Prayer Books ; also two copies of the Prayer 
Book printed in 1712, with the Service at the 
Healing. 

I shall be happy to lend any of the above, or to 
supply any of your correspondents with any fur- 
ther extracts or particulars. C. J. ELLIOTT. 

Winkfield Vicarage. 

Almshouses recently founded (2 nd S. iii. 39.) 
Six almshouses for twelve poor widows in Little 
Bolton, Lancashire : erected in 1839 by Mrs. Linn. 

R. L. 

Susanna Lady Dormer (2 nd S. iii. 507.) Su- 
sanna, daughter and co-heir of Sir Richard Brawne, 
of Allscott, co. Gloucester, married John Dormer, 
of Lee Grange and Purston, co. Bucks, who was 
created a baronet in 1661. The difference of 
date between the publication of Welles' volume 
and the custom of the baronetcy is of no con- 
sequence ; as it was at that period the custom to 
make gifts of books, as well as of rings, in memory 



of departed friends. At the end of Woodward's 
Fair Warnings to a Careless World, there is, if I 
mistake not, a list of books suitable for that pur- 
pose. M. L. 
Lincoln's Inn. 

Old Painting (2^ d S. iii. 487.) - The subject of 
this old painting is probably not any legend or 
vision. The two figures appear to be St. Dominic 
and St. Catherine of Sienna, and they are receiv- 
ing rosaries from our Infant Saviour ; as St. 
Dominic is the acknowledged author of the devo- 
tion of the Rosary, and St. Catherine of Sienna is 
the female patroness of his Order. There is a 
picture by Sasso Ferrato, which represents St. 
Catherine of Sienna receiving from our Infant 
Saviour a rosary and a crown of thorns. 

F. C. H. 

Colour (2 nd S. iii. 513.) No colour can rightly 
be called peculiar to the B. V. M., because in a 
paper lately contributed to the Ecclesiologist, by 
J. C. J., it is stated that out of 209 miniatures of 
S. Mary, in Missals, Triptychs, &c., 174 are in 
various colours, and 35 in blue and red : nearly 
all these being Italian, 23 being in one book as 
late as A.D. 1525. She occurs in 20 different 
colours, viz. blue ; blue, green, and red ; blue, 
ermine, and pink ; blue and red ; blue and gold ; 
blue and slate ; red ; blue, green, and gold ; blue 
and brown ; blue and black ; white and blue ; 
blue and white ; blueish (nearly white) ; blueish 
and gold ; blue and green ; crimson and blue ; 
blue and violet ; slate ; gold and red ; black and 
violet. The colours blue and red are generally 
appropriated to Our Blessed Lord. NOTSA. 

University Hoods (2 nd S. iii. 308. 356. 435.) 
The following description of the hoods worn in 
the University of Toronto, one of the wealthiest 
universities in the British colonies, may not be 
uninteresting in the present discussion of the 
question. Some of the hoods, it will be seen, are 
copied from those worn at Oxford. All are of silk, 
and those of the bachelors of law, medicine, music, 
and arts, are fringed on the outside edge with 
white fur : 

B.A., black, fringed with white fur. 

M.A., black, lined with red. 

Mus. B., white, fringed with white fur. 

Mus. D., scarlet, lined with white. 

M.B., blue, fringed with white fur. 

M.D., scarlet, lined with blue. 

LL.B., pink, fringed with white fur. 

LL.D., scarlet, lined with pink. 

THOMAS HODGINS, B.A. 

Toronto, Canada. 

"Halloo!" (2 nd S. iii. 510.) In all cases 
where " halloo ! " irrespective of dogs and the 
chase, is simply employed as a shout, must we not 
connect it with the large family of kindred words 



2nd g. N 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



in Hebrew, Greek, and Latin ; for instance, with 
dAXa, the shout used by soldiers of ancient 

Greece ? Conf. aAaAafc, oAoAufc, n??*, &c. 

Your correspondent 'Otms, no doubt intended 
to derive "halloo" from au loupl (not au coup), 
This is a derivation well deserving attention in all 
cases where " halloo ! " is employed as a cry for 
setting on dogs. 

But there is a third use of the word " halloo ! " 
which is when we call a person at a distance, wish- 
ing him to come to us. This meaning is evidently 
connected with that first noticed ; but in old Eng- 
lish the word for calling was " holla ! " " Holla! " 
is Spanish, French, Portuguese. In the Portu- 
guese language, " ola " is " ho, there." In French, 
also, " hola " is an interjection used in calling. 
And in old Spanish " hola " stands in like manner 
for " holla ! " in calling to any one at a distance. 

For this word " Holla ! " common to so many 
languages, the German, always independent, and 
always original, has a phrase of its own, " he da ! " 
but still with the same signification, " Ho, 
there ! " THOMAS BOYS. 

Cannes Bible (2 nd S. iii. 487.) MR. GIBSON 
inquires in which edition the word " not " is 
omitted in John xvi. 26. This error is in those 
printed by the King's Printers in Edinburgh, 
Watkins, 1747, and Kincaid, 1766. Those pub- 
lished by Canne, who was a printer in Amsterdam 
in 1647 and 1662 ; republished in small and large 
type, 1682 ; in small type, 1684 and 1698 ; and in 
quarto, 1700 ; are all correct as to John xvi. 26. 
The account of Canne's useful Bibles should oc- 
cupy some interesting pages in a history of the 
English Bible. I hope that, should it be out of 
my power to publish the result of my extensive 
researches on this subject, the MS. may prove 
available to some successor. GEORGE OFFOR. 

In answer to your correspondent's inquiry as to 
Canne's Bible, I beg to state that in my duode- 
cimo edition of that Bible, " Edinburgh, printed 
by Alexander Kincaid, His Majesty's Printer, 
MDCCLXVI.," the word " not " is omitted in John 
xvi. 26. JOHN FENWICK. 

Deira Kings (2 nd S. iii. 466.) Not only MR. 
R. W. DIXON, but other readers of " N. & Q,," 
who delight in genealogical researches, may be 
glad to learn that it was King .ZEthelred II. whose 
daughter ^Eltgifu married Uhtred, Earl of Nor- 
thumberland, kinsman of King Harthacnut and 
father-in-law of Maldred, progenitor of the second 
dynasty of the family of Neville. It is a great 
pity that the error of Thoresby in the first edi- 
tion of the Ducatus (evidently a clerical one), 
escaped the quick eye and correcting hand of Dr. 
Whitaker in the second, as much time and labour 
might have been spared in efforts to trace a pedi- 
gree through a king (Ethelred III.) that never 



existed. I have received my information from 
Dr. Lappenberg, whose History of England under 
the Anglo-Saxon Kings, translated by Mr. B. 
Thorpe, is an invaluable addition to the literature 
of the nineteenth century. A. 

Ivory Carvers of Dieppe (2 nd S iii. 509.) In 
answer to this inquiry I cannot say when the 
trade was established there. I lived a few years 
in Dieppe, and was often in communication with 
ivory carvers of that place, and am led to suppose 
that no record was ever kept of any principal 
artists engaged in that profession. One of the 
most distinguished artists who learned his profes- 
sion at Dieppe, was a " Mr. Belletete," who esta- 
blished himself in Paris, and who had a very fine 
shop opposite the " Bourse," or " Exchange " of 
that city. I was often at his house, where I saw 
some very beautiful crucifixes and ships which he 
had worked. As well as I can remember, he died 
at his house in or about the year 1831. 

H. BASCHET. 

Waterford. 

John Sobieski and Charles Edward Stuart (2 nd 
S. iii. 449. 496.) Whatever credit is to be at- 
tached to the claims of these brothers, there is no 
foundation for the report heard by L. M. M. R., 
that Lord Lovat had examined their papers, and 
was convinced of the truth of their story. It so 
happened that just after reading the paragraph 
last indicated, I had an opportunity of showing it 
to Lord Lovat, who assured me that he had never 
seen one of their papers ; but during the whole 
time of their residence on an island on his estates, 
he had refrained from putting them any questions 
upon their history, being aware that they did not 
wish any allusion to the subject. F. C. H. 

Stone Shot (2 nd S. iii. 519.) When I was in 
Rome in 1844, I went over the Castle of St. Au- 
gelo, and remember seeing piles of cannon-shot 
upon the platforms : these shot were made out of 
marble, and the custode told us that many works 
of art had been demolished in their manufacture ; 
whether this is true, I do not pretend to say. 
Perhaps some of your numerous readers may have 
seen them at a later period. CENTURION. 

Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall. 

Abbreviation wanted (2 nd S. iv. 5.) PROFESSOR 
DE MORGAN appears to have an antipathy to his 
own title in full, and does not feel nattered by 
the commonly-received abbreviation, ' Prof.," for 
Professor. When, however, he suggests " Pr." as 
a better contraction, he forgets that both Priest 
and Presbyter have long been signified by those 
letters, and consequently.his suggestion comes too 
late. Why the usual "Prof." should be consi- 
dered " ambiguous " can only arise from an over- 
sensitiveness as to what can, or " may," be meant, 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 80., JULY 11. '57. 



but supposing the six words cited may be taken 
as the equivalents of " Prof.," might not " Pr." be 
equally understood to mean pragmatical, prince, 
prosy, prodigy, pretty, priggish, pretender, or any 
other of the multitude of words rejoicing in "Pr." 
for their commencing consonants ? If so, had we 
better not " leave well alone ? " M. C. 

MR. PR. A. DE MORGAN has certainly made a 
very sensible suggestion, and one easily carried 
out ; but would it not be preferable to drop the 
word "Professor" altogether, without incurring 
even a suspicion that it is done from want of re- 
spect ? 

It is not usual at Oxford to give the prefix on 
every occasion to those who hold such distin- 
guished appointments ; and as the word is now 
usurped by almost every settled and itinerant 
lecturer and teacher of this, that, and the other, 
and even piano-tuners, those who have an un- 
doubted claim to it can hardly desire to hear the 
incessant appellation. H. T. E. 

O'Neill Pedigree (2 nd S. iii. 117.) A few 
months ago a correspondent inquired where a full 
pedigree of the O'Neill family, formerly kings of 
Ulster, could be found, and another referred him 
to some letters on the subject published in the 
Belfast Commercial Chronicle. I beg to inform 
them that no letters on the subject appeared in 
the Chronicle, which is long since extinct ; but a 
series of articles, thirteen in number, I believe, 
appeared in the Belfast Daily Mercury, within 
the last two or three years, from the pen of Charles 
H. O'Neill, Esq., Barrister, Blessington Street, 
Dublin, headed "O'Neill of Clanaboy," which 
contained a large amount of family biography, 
and matter of pedigree. In one of those interest- 
ing papers, Mr. O'Neill announced that he was 
engaged in writing the History of the House of 
O'Neill. I understand he has several pedigrees 
and other rare documents connected with the 
O'Neill family. He is most accessible and obliging 
in giving information, as I observed in reference 
to inquiries from correspondents of the Mercury, 
and your correspondent in all probability will 
ascertain from him what he requires. The third 
part, recently published, of Sir Bernard Burke's 
valuable History of the Landed Gentry, also con- 
tains under the head " O'Neill of Shanescastle," 
a considerable amount of interesting information 
on the family pedigree of the O'Neills. 

J. MACKELL. 

Accidental Origin of Celebrated Pictures (2 nd S. 
iii. p. 482.) Admitting the truth of your talented 
correspondent's remarks, " that all authentic ac- 
counts relative to the production of famous pic- 
tures cannot fail to interest," I may observe, that 
the price stated to have been paid for Landseer's 
" Distinguished Member of the Humane Society," 



(SOL), is altogether erroneous, a sum much higher 
(but the precise amount of which I am not at 
liberty to mention), having been given for it. 
With regard to the future bequest of this picture 
to the National Gallery, I may state that such an 
intention has never, I believe, been expressed by 
the owner ; nor do I think it at all likely that 
gentlemen, knowing the degradation to which 
their paintings would be exposed in our national 
lumber-rooms, will be persuaded into such be- 
quests. 

It may be interesting to add, that the owner of 
this chef-d'oeuvre of Landseer's possesses also a 
picture by Haydon, the "Eucles," which was 
painted, like the " Mock Election," in prison, to 
raise a sum of 500Z. The picture was raffled for 
in fifty tickets. The three highest numbers fell 
to the Duke of Bedford, Mr. Strutt of Derby, and 
Mr. Newman Smith. They all three threw again, 
when the latter gained the prize. Haydon, after 
this, borrowed the picture to exhibit to some of 
his friends ; but during one of his frequent pecu- 
niary embarrassments, the painting was seized by 
his creditors, but restored to the rightful owner 
on a proper explanation being made. Connected 
with the painting of "Eucles," Mr. Newman 
Smith has several interesting letters of Haydon, 
which Mr. Tom Taylor might have inserted in 
either of the editions of the painter's Autobiogra- 
phy. TRIPOS. 

Archaisms and Provincialisms (2 nd S. iii. 382.) 
Kursmas teea. I cannot help thinking a good 
deal of ingenuity has been wasted over the ex- 

?lanations that have been offered of Kursmas teea. 
have had many opportunities of hearing the 
mode of speech common to that part of England, 
and my belief is that " teea " is simply " too," in 
the sense of also or moreover. The reading will 
then be simply " that they had a grand day when 
they went to beat the fire for a neighbour that 
was baking at Christmas, moreover, there were 
the maskers and on Christmas Day in the morn- 
ing they had," &c., &c. G. Y. GERSON, EBOB. 

Chattertorfs Portrait (2 nd S. iv. 11. et passim.) 
I am inclined to believe, with J. M. G., that Chat- 
terton never sat to Gainsborough for his portrait ; 
for had he done so, his vanity would certainly 
have led him to mention the fact in one of his 
letters to his mother or sister, supposing this 
great Master had taken it in London ; and had it 
been painted in Bristol, Cottle would have heard 
of it, and traced it out when publishing with 
Southey the "marvellous boy's" Works. 

Mr. Cottle possessed original drawings of 
Southey, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Lamb, and Hen- 
derson, and was accustomed to present intimate 
friends with printed impressions of them bound 
up together; he often expressed his regret that 
the absence of any authentic portrait of Chatter- 



2 d S. N 80., JULY 11. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



39 



ton prevented the chance of including his amongst 
them. 

J. M. G. says " there is another charity school 
in Bristol, where the dress of the boys is green :" 
what school is this ? I am not aware of any, and 
think it must be a mistake. 

Before entering Colston Hospital, Chatterton 
was at Pile Street School in the parish, and oppo- 
site to the church of St. Mary Redcliff: but there 
also the coat is blue. 

Whilst on this subject, may I refer your readers 
to the Gent. Mag. for 1784, Part I., where it is 
recorded that 

" A rustic monument has lately been erected to the me- 
mory of the unfortunate Chatterton in a very romantic 
spot belonging to Philip Thicknesse, Esq., about half a 
mile from Bath, a Gothic arch, over which is placed the 
profile in relief of the lamented youth." 

I understand the spot referred to is now called 
St. Catherine's Hermitage, near Somerset Place, 
Bath ; and the adjoining house was, and perhaps 
is now, a school. Query, does this " rustic monu- 
ment," with the profile of Chatterton, still exist ? 

BBISTOLIENSIS. 

George Washington an Englishman (2 nd S. iv. 
6.) If George Washington was baptized at 
Cookham, I should think that the fact could be 
easily ascertained. In the Penny Cycl., tit. 
Washington (George), it is stated that he was 
born in Westmorland county, in Virginia, on the 
22nd of February, 1732. 

The baptismal registers of Cookham are quite 
accessible, as the parish of Cookham adjoins the 
town of Maidenhead, indeed, a part of the town 
is in that parish ; and in published Population 
Tables of 1831, there is what is called the " Parish 
Register Abstract," from which it appears that 
the Cookham Register No. 2. contains the bap- 
tisms there from 1727 to 1808, and no mention is 
made of any mutilation. And it is highly probable 
that the annual duplicate of these registers, made 
under the Canons of 1603, will be found in the 
Bishop's Registry at Salisbury ; and from these 
any chasm made by the mutilation of the original 
registers might be filled up. 

F. A. CARRINGTON. 

Ogbourne St. George. 

Service for Consecration and Reconciliation of 
Churches (2 nd S. iii. 249.) At the end of The 
Book of Common Prayer and Administration of 
the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies of 
the Church, according to the use of the Church of 
Ireland, Dublin, 1721, there are services entitled 
" A Form of Consecration or Dedication of 
Churches and Chapels, according to the use of 
the Church of Ireland." Also " An Office to be 
used in the Restauration of a Church." (When 
the fabric of a church is ruined, and a new 
church is built upon the same foundation.) Also, 



" A Short Office for Expiation and Illustration of 
a Church desecrated or Prophan'd." 

I copy these titles from a Prayer Book which I 
found in the parish church of Winkfield, lettered 
on the two sides, 

" Winkfield Church, 
Diocess Sarum." 

C. J. ELLIOTT. 
Winkfield Vicarage. 

P. S. I shall be happy to make any extracts 
for the REV. E. S. TAYLOR or any other of your 
correspondents. 

Anne, a Male Name (2 nd S. iii. 508.) I thought 
I remembered an instance in the Keppel family ; 
and accordingly, on reference to the Peerage, I 
find that the second Earl of Albemarle was a god- 
son of Queen Anne, and out of compliment to his 
royal godmother received at his baptism the name 
of William- Anne. E. H. A. 

In reply to the Query of J. G. N. f the Constable 
of France in the reign of Francis I. was the cele- 
brated Anne de Montmorenqi. L. M. M. R. 

A Bishop to go to the very great Devil (2 nd S. 
Iv. 5.) A. S. T. asks: "Is this the fun of the 
court or of the reporter, or of some subsequent 
copyist ?" I would suggest that it was the fun of 
the court. A judgment for a defendant, "quod 
eat inde sine die" "that he go thereof without 
day," has continued to our own time. The 
Year Books were published from the notes of 
reporters authorised by the courts, from the reign 
of Edward I. to that of Henry VIII., both inclu- 
sive ; and this appears at the end of the judgment 
of the court as delivered by Mr. Justice Moubray 
(here printed Mombray), who was appointed a 
judge of the Court of Common Pleas, 33 Edw. III. 

The entire passage is as follows {Year Book, 
43 Edw. III., 34. pi. 43.) : 

" Mombray. Ex essensu sociorum, p. c. q. le Roy done 
Padvowson simplemt. al predec. 1'Evesq. et a ses succ. etc., 
et ou le chre. voet q. il poet amortiser a un chant, p. les 
almes les progenitors nre dit Snr. le Roy, c. ne fuit forsq. 
un licence en ley, per quel il n'est tenust de amortiser si 
non a sa volunt, et vous Evesq. ales au tres graund 
Deable sans jour."- 

Which may be thus translated : 

" Mr. Justice Mowbray (with the assent of his fellows). 
* For this that the King gives the advowson simply to 
the predecessor of the Bishop, and to his successors, &c., 
and where the Charter wills that he can amortise to a 
Chantry for the souls of the progenitors of our said Lord 
the King, this was not perhaps a licence in law, by which 
he is not held from amortising if not at his will, and you 
Bishop go to the very great Devil sine die." 

F. A. CARRINGTON. 

Antigropelos (2 nd S. iii. 488.) When an in- 
junction to restrain piracy of the alleged invention 
of the above article was applied for some years 
since to the late Sir L. Shadwell, it was stated, to 
the amusement of the classical Vice- Chancellor, 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2*S. N 80., JULY 11. '57. 



that the derivation was " aim vypbs 7n?\bs," " against 
wet mud." J. \V. L. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Professor Stephens of Copenhagen, the translator of 
Tegner's Frithiof, has just published a melodrama in five 
acts, founded on the old ballad The Count of Rome, and 
entitled Revenge, or Woman's Love. When we tell our 
readers that a few out of the precious hoard of our words 
vulgarly called " obsolete," and some references to Old 
Scandinavian and Old English Folk Lore and Customs, 
have been introduced as necessary to give a shade and 
tone in harmony with events of the tenth century and 
add that these matters are illustrated in the "After- 
words " and " Word Roll " appended to the play our 
readers will be prepared to look for a work of considerable 
originality. They will not be disappointed. The play 
exhibits both originality and poetic feeling. While as if 
to keep up its character for the former quality, it is ac- 
companied by Seventeen Songs, Chants, fc., nearly all 
composed by Professor Stephens, but harmonised for the 
pianoforte by B. Viltz Hallberg. 

The Rev. J. C. Wood has won for himself a name as a 
writer of popular books on natural history, and he cer- 
tainly has done something to increase his reputation by 
the little volume which he has just issued and most 
opportunely for the use of those who are abandoning 
the metropolis and its labours for some of the many pretty 
watering-places which surround our sea-girt country. 
The Common Objects of the Sea Shore, including Hints for 
an Aquarium, as this book is called, will occupy small 
space in the carpet bag, but add much to the enjoyment 
of a sojourn at the sea-side. 

VVe must bring under the notice of our readers, but for 
obvious reasons with very brief comment, several im- 
portant books which have just reached us. First we may 
mention, and its ample title-page will sufficiently describe 
its object, The Real Presence of the Body and Blood of 
Our Lord Jesus Christ the Doctrine of the English Church, 
with a Vindication of the Reception by the Wicked, and of 
the Adoration of Our Lord Jesus Christ truly present, by 
the Rev. E. B. Pusey, D.D., &c. The next is a work, 
very eloquent and very impassioned, on a subject of great 
importance, and to which public attention is at length 
awakened, The City, its Sins and Sorrows, being a Series 
of Sermons from Luke xix. 41. " He beheld the City, 
and wept over it," by Thomas Guthrie, D.D. Very dif- 
ferent in character, but equally excellent, is a little 
volume by the late excellent Bishop of Grahamstown, 
entitled Parochial Sermons. They are short, plain, prac- 
tical, and devotional ; and one cannot, therefore, be sur- 
prised to find that they have already reached a second 
edition. We must now content ourselves with acknow- 
ledging the receipt from the same publisher as the last 
work (Parker of Oxford) of the following tracts and 
small books : Questions on the Collects, Epistles, and 
Gospels throughout the Year, for the Use of Teachers 
in Sunday Schools, Part II., Easter to Twenty-fifth 
Sunday, by Rev. T. L. Claughton ; A Course of Lectures 
in Outline on Confirmation and Holy Communion by Rev. 
G. Arden ; The Rebuilding of the Temple, a Time of Re- 
vival Sermon on the Re-opening of Llandaff Cathedral, by 
The Bishop of Oxford; Notes on Confirmation, by A 
Priest ; Anomalies in the English Church no just Ground 
for Seceding, or the Abnormal Condition of the Church con- 
sidered with reference to the Analogy of Scripture and of 
History, by H. A. Woodgate, B.D. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

SWIFT'S LETTERS, 8vo., 1741. 

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be 

sent to MESSRS. BKLL & DALDY, Publishers of " NOTES AND 

QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 
WASHINGTON IRVING'S TALES OP A TRAVELLER. 8vo. Murray. 1824. 

Wanted by W. Weston, 11. New Square, Lincoln's Inn. 

LIFE or CHRISTOPHER LATER, A JACOBITE. Date not known. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 18, 1857. 



WILKES AND THE "ESSAY ON WOMAN. 

I mean now to conclude by adducing evidence, 
internal and external, tending to show that Wilkes 
was not the writer of the Essay. 

Lord Stanhope says, that in the writing of the 
poem Wilkes was assisted by Thomas Potter. I, 
however, have little doubt, after examination, that 
the poem was written by one person, and that 
whoever wrote the poem wrote the notes. Potter, 
continues Lord Stanhope, was the second son of 
the late Archbishop of Canterbury, who had been 
secretary to the Prince of Wales; a man of 
ability, but of lax morals, "as well became one of 
Wilkes's friends." This is not fair. Potter, what- 
ever his morals may have been, was the friend and 
associate of some of the highest, and some of the 
best, and most moral men in the kingdom : 
Lord Chatham described him as "one of the 
best friends I have in the world." Potter was un- 
doubtedly a man of great ability. His first speech 
in parliament is thus noticed by Lady Hervey : 
" Mr. Potter is a second Pitt I hear for fluency of 
words ; he spoke well and bitterly." But Potter 
not only spoke well, but wrote well pamphlets 
I and political squibs. 

Like all the fashionable men of the day, Potter 
was a frequent visitor at Bath. He was intimate 
with Ralph Allen ; indeed some of his letters are 
dated from Prior Park. This, of course, brought 
him into personal intercourse with Warburton, 
who married Allen's niece ; and though both had 
probably sufficient self-control to associate with 
decent civility, it was scarcely possible for two men 
more opposed in character to have been brought 
together under the same roof. Certainly, if we 
may believe contemporary publications and anec- 
dotes, Potter not only disliked, but squibbed the 
solemn dictatorial assumption of Warburton in 
flying paragraphs and epigrams ; and Warburton 
even in the House of Lords, according to some 
reports I have read, hinted his suspicions as to 
Potter being the writer. Disraeli tells us (Quar- 
rels of Authors, vol. i. p. 92.), that it was to a 
like meeting at Allen's, and to the dogmatical 
presumption of Warburton, that we owe the 
Canons of Criticism. Is there any evidence to 
show that Wilkes was ever on a visit at Prior 
Park was ever brought into personal communi- 
cation with Warburton ? If not, we find -that the 
possible animus in Potter was wanting in Wilkes. 
Let us now look to the poem itself, which 
Lord Stanhope says, and says truly, was written 
"several years before" 1763. There is not much 
that can be brought to bear on the subject ; and 
that little is indirect and inferential, but is worth 
something. 



In the "Advertisement" prefixed there is an 
attempt to raise a laugh at Hogarth at the " line 
of Mr. Hogarth's poor ideas of beauty." The 
reader must not confuse this reference with the 
publication of the Analysis in 1753 : for when 
Hogarth published his own portrait, he etched 
upon the palette a winding line, with this motto : 
" Line of Beauty and Grace : " and this print, 
according to Chalmers, was published in 1745. 
So Steevens (Nichols, vol. i.) tells us, " the lead- 
ing idea had been hieroglyphically thrown out in 
his works in 1745," and been " laughed at long be- 
fore the Analysis was published." The writer of 
this poem was certainly one of the laughers. Now 
Hogarth had some personal dislike to Potter, for, 
according to the biographers, it is Potter who 
figures in Hogarth's "Election," published in 
1755. 

Wilkes, in 1755, was the especial friend of Ho- 
garth actively kind towards him admired and 
praised his genius ; and even when they quarrelled 
(1762), their quarrel was political, not personal, 
and, as Wilkes said, "/or several years they 
had lived on terms of friendship and intimacy. 
Hogarth (in 1762) as he admitted "to stop a 
gap" in his income, determined to turn his pencil 
to political uses ; and the king's sergeant-painter 
resolved to attack those who were considered hos- 
tile to the king Chatham and Temple. Wilkes, 
in a private and friendly letter, pointed out the 
folly of giving up " to party what was meant for 
mankind," of dipping his pencil "in the dirt of 
faction," warned him of the certain consequences, 
and told him that he never would take notice of 
"reflections on himself; but, when his friends 
were attacked, he found himself wounded in the 
most sensible part, and would, as well as he could, 
revenge their cause." Hogarth persevered ; pub- 
lished his caricature, and Wilkes his comment 
and criticism. Even after this, Hogarth acknow- 
ledged that Wilkes had been his " friend and flat- 
terer," was a good-tempered fellow, but now 
" Pitt-bitten Pitt- mad." 

Another circumstance, tending I think to 
strengthen this conjecture as to the date when 
the poem was written, is the inscription. Fanny 
Murray was a Bath beauty the daughter of a 
musician at Bath, who subsequently married a Mr. 
Ross, and died in 1770. Such beauties are but 
ephemeral ; and this lady, according to incidental 
notices, must have been in her glory from before or 
about 1735 to 1745. She had been the mistress of 
the Hon. John Spencer better known as " Jack 
Spencer;" and was afterwards the mistress of 
Beau Nash. Spencer died in 1746, and in 1746 
Nash was seventy-one years of age. It must have 
been in 1740, or early in 1741, that Lord Hard- 
wicke saw her picture at Mr. Montagu's in Cam- 
bridgeshire ; for he bought Wimpole in 1740, and 
it is reasonably certain that Mr. Montagu would, 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* S. NO 81., JULY 18. '57. 



soon after his residence, have shown so distin- 
guished a man the neighbourly respect of a visit, 
and would, therefore, have been known to him 
after 1740 or 1741. The last mention of her that 
I have stumbled on is in 1746, in one of Horace 
Walpole's letters. Walpole, then on a visit at 
Mistley, forwarded to Conway a copy of his verses 
called " The Beauties." Rigby, he says, has " a 
set of beauties of his own, who he swears are 
handsomer," and proposed to change the names ; 
but allows them to remain in initials, because F. 
M., meant for Miss Fanny Macartney, may pass 
for his beauty, Fanny Murray. I think, therefore, 
all circumstances considered, that I cannot be far 
wrong if I assume that this lady had reached the 
culminating point as a celebrity in 1745-1746. 
Now if the poem was written in, or even about 
1746, it was written when Wilkes was a boy of 
nineteen, studying with a tutor at Leyden, and 
winning golden opinions from all sorts of men, 
and even a Dedication from the learned and vir- 
tuous Andrew Baxter. Wilkes did not even re- 
turn to England until 1749 ; and then with such 
a character, that it won the heart of Mrs. Mead, 
a rigid and formal Dissenter, as well as of her 
daughter, a lady of the mature age of thirty-two. 
Soon after his return, the unhappy marriage was 
brought about ; and youth and mature age, 
twenty-one and thirty-two, were united. After 
the marriage, Wilkes and his wife resided with 
her mother, in summer at Aylesbury, and in 
winter at Red Lion Court, Smithfield, where their 
(laughter was born in Aug., 1750. It was not till 
1751 that Wilkes took the house in Great George 
Street, and set up for a man of fashion, and be- 
came the associate of Lord Sandwich, Sir F. 
Dashwood, and Mr. Potter, to the horror of his 
wife, who returned to her mother in Red Lion 
Court. Such men, says her apologist, " could not 
fail to shock any lady of sensibility and delicacy ;" 
and of these Potter " was the worst, and indeed 
the ruin of Mr. Wilkes, who was not a bad man 
early or naturally. But Potter poisoned his 
morals." 

Here, then, we have the youth pursuing his 
studies on the Continent up to 1749, and the 
young man married, and living soberly with his 
mother-in-law, up to 1751. In 1751, when be- 
tween twenty-three and twenty-four, the parvenu 
had his head turned by king's ministers and high 
officials : and at the general election in 1754, 
Potter persuaded him not much persuasion re- 
quired to contest Berwick, which he did unsuc- 
cessfully at a cost of 4000/. In June, 1757, when 
Pitt, then in the height of his popularity, was in- 
vited and agreed to offer himself for Bath, it was 
arranged that Potter, just appointed one of the 
rice-treasurers of Ireland, should succeed him 
at Okehampton, and Wilkes succeed Potter at 
Aylesbury. Potter arranged these political move- 



ments, and Wilkes paid for all, at a further cost of 
7000Z. 

Churchill, from whom Wilkes had no secret, 
seems to confirm the conjecture that Potter was 
the writer. His "Dedication" to great Gloster 
arises out of the bishop's denunciations in the 
House of Lords : 

" When (to maintain God's honour, and his own), 
He called Blasphemers forth methinks I now 
See stern rebuke enthroned on his brow, 
And arm'd with tenfold terrors from his tongue, 
Where fiery zeal and Christian fur}' hung, 
Methinks I hear the deep-toned thunders roll, 
And chill with horror every sinner's soul, 
In vain they strive to fly flight cannot save, 
And Potter' trembles even in his grave." 

What is the meaning of this reference to Potter? 
Why should Potter tremble in his grave, at the 
bishop's denunciation, if Potter were not the 
writer ? 

Another contemporary, well informed as to all 
the undercurrents of literature, Capt. Thomson, in 
his Life of Paul Whitehead Whitehead, be it 
remembered, was secretary to the Medmenham 
Club one of the select dozen for whose use it was 
believed the Essay was printed distinctly states 
that the Essay was not Wilkes's "composition." 
I could produce endless evidence of a like cha- 
racter from contemporary publications : some even 
accuse Wilkes of affecting to be the writer, which 
it is well known he was not : and be it remem- 
bered, that whatever moral difference there might 
be, there was no legal difference, or difference in 
the legal consequences, between author and pub- 
lisher, and, therefore, the several writers were all 
contending for, or asserting an abstract fact. 
Thus one of the satirical ephemera of the time 
says Wilkes was sacrificed by Antinomious [Sand- 
wich], "for having in his possession" the "works 
of another person" which Antinomious himself 
had often read. 

Again, in a paper subsequently republished by 
Ahnon in Collection of "Letters, Sfc." together 
with "Pieces of Wit" $c. t by Mr. Wilkes and 
others, a work probably prepared under the di- 
rection of Wilkes, and which undoubtedly con- 
tained many papers written by Wilkes, there is 
reference to a sermon (preached by Kidgell, the 
informer,) against blasphemy, and, as said, full of 
abuse against (Wilkes) " an oppressed man, con- 
demning him unheard." The writer goes on to 
say : 

" But what a horrid aggravation must it be to the 
crimes of such a time-serving preacher, if he knew that 
the person he was for reward abusing, was absolutely in- 
nocent of the blasphemy ; that the work referred to was 
wrote by a son of the Church." 

So in A Letter to J. Kidgell (Williams, 1763), 
the writer says : 

" As to the Author, who one should understand is the 
execrable offender you mean, if the world is rightly in- 



2 nd S. N 81., JtJLY 18. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



formed concerning him, he has been dead some years ago. 
What proper measures could therefore be INFALLIBLY 
taken for his punishment? Was he to be raised from the 
dead ? " 

Again, in another letter to Kidgell, the writer 
observes : 

"You call the Essay on Woman a libel, while you 
yourself, reverend Sir, have incurred the guilt of a ma- 
licious and infamous libel, by charging the writer [writ' 
ing'] of this work on a man who did not write it . . . What 
adds to your offence is, that you know that this person was 
not the author, and that the poem was written by a worthy 
son of a worthy Archbishop of Canterbury." 

I shall now leave the question to the judgment 
of your readers. D. 



SHAKSPEARIANA. 

Passage in Hamlet: " A Suit of Sables" (2 nd S. iii. 
62.) It seems to me your correspondent's Query 
as to the construction of this sentence admits of only 
one answer, which must be in the negative, inas- 
much as the devil has been in all ages familiarly 
styled "the old gentleman in black;" how then 
could Hamlet appropriately exclaim, " Nay, then 
let the devil wear black 'fore (before) I'll have a 
suit of sables," the word before implying a colour 
contrary to that of his usual costume ? There 
might have been some reason in supposing the 
word " 'fore " was omitted had Hamlet used white 
instead of black ; for then his intention would have 
clearly conveyed the improbability of his ever 
donning the " sables," as we generally understand 
that terra to signify black. But I am convinced 
here is the mistake, and I would ask if STYMIES 
has ever seen the article by Mr. Wightwick in 
The Critic, which provoked much discussion at 
the time ; the arguments, pro and cow, being so 
evenly balanced that Mr. W. left the matter as 
a drawn game ? 

I think if sufficient space can be afforded for 
the following extract from it, it is well worthy of 
preservation in " N. & Q.," and may satisfy many 
a future querist, as it did myself. 

BRISTOLIENSIS, S.V.H. 

"We trust in being now enabled to afford the most 
important correction of a word (as it has heretofore been 
printed), in one of Hamlet's sentences in the play scene. 

" Ophelia having remarked on Hamlet's merriment, the 
dialogue proceeds as follows : 

"'Hamlet. What should a man do but be. merry? for, 
look you, how cheerfully my mother looks, and my father 
died within these two hours. 

" ' Ophelia. Nay, 'tis twice two months, my lord. 

"Hamlet. So long? Nay, then let the devil wear black, 
for ril have a suit of sables.' 

"The meaning of the word 'sables' has long been a 
speculation with the commentators. Warburton saj'S: 
' the senseless editors had written sables, the fur so 
called, for sable, black. The true reading is ' let the devil 
wear black 'fore I'll have a suit of sable : ' 'fore, I e. be- 
fore. As much as to say - ' Let the devil wear black for 
Hie ; I'll have none.' 



" The Oxford editor would read, ' for I'll have a suit of 
ermine.' 

" Dr. Johnson cannot find why Hamlet, when he laid 
aside his dress of mourning, in a country where it was 
bitter cold, and the air nipping and eager, should not have 
a suit of sables.' 

" Steevens says, ' a suit of sables was the richest dress 
that could be worn in Denmark.' 

" M alone conceives Hamlet to mean, 'Let the devil 
wear black. As for me, so far from wearing a mourning 
dress, I'll wear the most costly and magnificent suit that 
can be procured ; a suit trimmed with sables.' 

" Knight finds a ' latent irony in Hamlet's reply,' and 
gives a very far-fetched reason for his meaning *to say, 
' let the devil wear the real colours of grief, but I'll be 
magnificent in a garb that only has a facing of something 
like grief.' 

" Warburton is right in thinking the editors have sig- 
nified a material, when a colour only was intended ; but 
there we must leave him, as not less amenable to the 
charge of ' senselessness ' than those whom he abused. 

" Malone is correct in supposing that a costume of 
splendid gaiety was intended in opposition to the robe of 
mourning ; but he errs with others in imagining that the 
fur sables has anything to do with the matter. 

"It has ever been obvious to all simple-minded and 
common-sense readers that Shakspere intended Hamlet ' 
to mean thus : ' Na} 7 -, then, let the devil preserve to him- 
self his own black, which custom has adopted as the sign 
of mourning; I'll wear the colour, of all others, most op- 
pugnant to sorrow.' There was no making the word 
'sables ' confirm this meaning, so far as colour was con- 
cerned; and therefore it has been ingeniously supposed 
that the material the fur had reference to living 
pomp, as opposed to sepulchral gloom. 

" But a reference to the third number of the new Re- 
trospective Review for May 1853 will at once set this long- 
disputed matter perfectly, and most satisfactorily, at rest. 

" In an account of the writings of Henry Peacham (who 
was contemporary with Shakspere), an extract is made 
from the author's ' directions for painting or colouring of 
cuts and printed pictures;' and, in the list of colours 
('some of which,' says the reviewer, 'it would puzzle a 
modern R. A. to make out '), are the following : 

" ' Blanket-colour, i.e. a light watchet. Scarlet, i.e. 
crimson or stammel. Shammy, a smoakie or rain-colour. 
Turkie colour, i.e. Venice blue, or, as others will have it, 
red. Sabell colour, i.e. flame-colour, Sec.' 

" Hamlet, then, means to say, ' Let the devil wear 
black; I'll have a suit of sabell!' (i.e. of flame-colour.} 

" A mis-spelling has doubtless produced all the foregone 
confusion of the editors in respect to this passage ; and we 
may reasonablj r conclude that a different pronunciation 
distinguished the ' sable ' meaning dark or black, from 
the ' sabell ' meaning flame-colour. 

When, in another part of the play of Hamlet we find 
the words, ' He, whose sable arms, black as his purpose,' 
&c., the word is obviously used as signifying dark. In 
the description of the beard of Hamlet's father ' a sable- 
silvered ' it is likened to the fur sable, rendered grey 
by mixture with the white hairs of advancing age. In 
the same play we read that '3t>uth no less becomes the 
light and careless livery that it wears, than settled age 
his sables." In the latter case the word has no reference 
to splendour or gaiety ; but simply to comfort and gravity. 
In the first part of Henry the Fourth is the expression ' a 
hot wench in flame-coloured taffeta ; ' i.e. sabell taffeta. 
Hamlet unquestionably meant to contrast with the sober 
black which sorrow should wear, the flaunting garb of 
wantonness, a suit of flame-colour. 

" In the older editions of Shakspere, Sir Andrew Ague- 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. NO 81., JULY 18. '57. 



cheek (see Twelfth Night) is made to say his leg ' does 
indifferent well in a dam'd- coloured stock,' or stocking. 
Pope supposed ,/Zame-coloured might have been the original 
expression. Knight suggests, with perhaps equal plausi- 
bility, damask-coloured ; but, while the latter emendation 
is something nearer the old print ' dam'd,' the former has 
the advantage of being an expression positively used by 
Shakspere in another play, as especially referring to the 
gaudy attire in which vanity seems to have delighted in 
suiting itself. Thus there is fair reason for supposing that 
Sir Andrew Aguecheek, as well as Falstaff's ' hot wench,' 
had pride and pleasure in the showy exhibition of the 
flaming costume, to which we now know Hamlet refers in 
his expression, ' a suit of sabell.' 

" GEORGE WIGHTWICK." 



Cebes : Shakspeare. In the Cebetis Thebani 
Tabula (ch. vii.), the goddess Fortune is described 
as "TU</)Ar) Kal fjiaivofjifvii ns efrat So/coiVa, al eoTTj/cina 
tirl \i8ov nvbs ffrpoyyvXav," i. <?. as " seemingly blind 
and mad, and standing on a rolling stone." 

Shakspeare also (Henry V. Act III. Sc. 6.) 
similarly describes Fortune as 

. . . . That goddess blind, 
That stands upon the rolling restless stone." 

Is not this as striking a resemblance as that 
mentioned by J. W. FARRER, between a passage in 
Hamlet and one in the Clouds of Aristophanes ? 

T. H. PLOWMAN. 

Mumby. Alford. 



or "Hawk?" In Othello, Act III. 
Sc. 3., lago says, " To seel her father's eyes up, 
close as oak," and a note on this passage in my 
copy of Shakspeare explains it thus : " To seel a 
hawk is to sew up his eyelids." Surely, then, the 
term " oak " in the text should be " hawk," an 
alteration which gives significancy to a simile 
which has otherwise no meaning at all. D. 



Aristophanes: Shakspeare (2 nd S. iii. 365.) Cf. 
Bp. Jeremy Taylor, The Worthy Communicant : 

" So we sometimes espy a bright cloud formed into an 
irregular figure ; which, it is observed by unskilful and 
fantastic travellers, looks like a centaur to some, and as a 
castle to others. Some tell that they saw an army with 
banners, and it signifies war ; but another, wiser than his 
fellows, says it looks like a flock of sheep, and foretells 
plenty ; and all the while it is nothing but a shining 
cloud, by its own mobility and the activity of a wind cast 
into a contingent and artificial shape ; so it is in this great 
mystery of our religion [the Holy Eucharist], in which 
some espy strange things which GOD intended not ; and 
others see not what GOD has plainly told." 

S. T. Coleridge : Zapolya, Act IV. Sc. 1. : 

" Ld. Rud. See, the sky lowers ! the cross-winds way-- 

wardly 

Chase the fantastic masses of the clouds 
With a wild mockery of the coming hunt 1 

" Cas. Mark yonder mass ! I make it wear the shape 
Of a huge ram that butts with head depressed. 

" Ld. Rud. [smiling]. Belike, some stray sheep of the 

oozy flock, 
Which, if bards lie not, the sea-shepherds tend, 



Glaucus or Proteus. But my fancy shapes it 
A monster couchant on a rocky shelf. 

" Cas. Mark too the edges of the lurid mass 
Kestless, as if some idly-vexing sprite, 
On swift wing coasting by, with tetchy hand 
Pluck'd at the ringlets of the vaporous fleece. 
These are sure signs of conflict nigh at hand, 
And elemental war ! " 

Wordsworth has (where ?) : 

" Yon rampant cloud mimics a lion's shape ; 
And here combats a huge crocodile, agape 
A golden spear to swallow." 

ACHE. 

Shakspeare: Quarry (2 nd S. iii. 203.) Your 
correspondent appears to doubt whether the 
critics are borne out by the use of the language, 
in explaining QUARRY Coriolanus, Act I. sc. 1., 
as " a heap of dead game." 

The word is clearly so meant, in the elder 
Ballad of Chevy Chase : 

" The begane in Chyviat the hyls abone * 

Yerly on a monnyn day ; 
Be that it drewe to the oware off none 

A hondrith fat hartes ded ther lay. 
The blewe f a mot uppone the bent, 

The semblyd on sydis shear ; 
To the QUYRRY the Perse went 

To se the bryttlynge off the deare." 

As the earl goes to witness that crowning dis- 
play of our ancient woodcraft, the BREAKING as 
it was, also, called or artistic dismemberment 
of the deer ; the QUARRY must, here, have been 
the hundred slain deer, as they lay, gathered and 
ready for brytling, but, as yet, unb?*oken. 

The MOT not MORT, as Percy has too hastily 
altered the text, given him by Hearne, from the 
manuscript was the note blown for the pur- 
pose of collecting the straggled company : and the 
minstrel shows them obeying the jocund call. 

L. X. R. 



GENERAL WOLFE. 

I send a few additional Notes on this subject. 
They have not yet appeared in " N. & Q." 

At Mr. Meigh's sale of autographs, Feb. 23, 
1856, at Sotheby's, there were sold several letters. 
The catalogue enables me to give the following 
notice of them. They were all addressed to 
Major Wolfe, his uncle; the first is dated (I re- 
verse the auctioneer's order) from Blackheatb, 
Jan. 21st, 1757. Lot 50. : 

" The king has honoured me with the rank of a Bri- 
gadier in America, which I cannot but consider as a par- 
ticular mark of his Majesty's favour and confidence, and 
I intend to do my best to deserve it." 
This is described as a most interesting letter re- 
lating to his departure to America and to family 
matters. 

Lot 49. Blackheath, Oct. 18, 1757. "The 



Aboue. H. 



Blwe. H. 



2d S. N 81., JULY 18. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



season of the year, and nature of the enterprise, 
called for the quickest and most vigorous execu- 
tion, whereas our proceedings were quite other- 
wise." A very interesting and long letter. 

Lot 48. Halifax, May 19, 1758. Relating to 
the attack on Louisbourg. 

Lot 47. Camp before Louisbourg, July 27, 
1758. This letter also chiefly related to the 
operations at Louisbourg ; he complains of the 
want of vigour, and the ignorance of the engineers, 
&c. He also alludes to the Indians, who he de- 
clares are " the most contemptible canaille upon 
; earth ; " but adds, " those to the southward are 
much braver and better men." 

Lot 46. Blackheath, July 27, 1758. Had his 
uncle's answer copied on the blank pages, and 
mentioned meeting a squadron of homeward-bound 
French men-of-war, which they did their utmost 
to engage. 

Lot 45. London, Jan. 29, 1759. " If the siege 
of Louisbourg had been pushed with vigour, 
Quebeck would have fallen." " The backward- 
ness of older officers has in some measure forced 
the Government to come down so low." "I shall 
think myself a lucky man what happens after- 
wards is no great consequence." Prophetic words 
indeed ! 

Lot 44. Louisbourg, May 19, 1759. A long 
, letter of four folio pages, and a valuable one evi- 
dently. Referring to his father's death, his ina- 
bility " to remove his and his mother's pecuniary 
difficulties!" Full of detail also respecting the 
movements against Quebec ; " a very nice opera- 
tion" noted the general. 

Lot 52. Sir John Ligonier to Major Wolfe, 
Dec. 6, 1759. It announced the king's consent to 
a request made in consequence of the general's 
death. 

Is there no correspondence extant between 
Wolfe and Ligonier, or with Laurence, his early 
friend ? And where was Wolfe's London resi- 
dence ? 

t Wolfe was one of the court-martial in August, 
1756, who tried Lieut.-Gen. Fowke, late Go- 
vernor of Gibraltar, for disobeying orders in not 
having sent troops to Minorca. His secret in- 
structions for the conquest of Quebec are printed 
in Fraser's Magazine for August, 1832. 

H. G. D. 



HISTORY Or INVENTIONS. 

There is a scope for " N". & Q." which would do 
much good and enlist a new class of readers, and 
that is, to form a distinct head for the history of 
inventions. This is a department which it is no- 
torious enough has been much neglected, for there 
has been no record in the nature of Notes and 
Queries where the materials could be garnered 
up; and thus histories of arts dependent to a 



great degree on the accumulation of small facts 
are most imperfect, and yet when properly em- 
ployed how valuable and interesting do they be- 
come, as in Stewart's History of the Steam Engine 
for instance. As I found when writing the life of 
George Stephenson, that of Trevithick, and on 
other occasions, there is a great paucity of ma- 
terials, which, scattered in pamphlets and pe- 
riodicals, lude individual industry, and present 
themselves casually to observers. The history of 
the steam-engine, that of the railway, that of the 
electric telegraph, and the biography of many of 
our leading engineers, older or later, as Captain 
Perry for instance, and Richard Trevithick, are 
very obscure. The greater number of our pa- 
tentees, inventors, and engineers, the authors of 
our machinery, canals, and railways, have no 
biography. I recollect being forcibly struck some 
years ago, when compiling some biographical me- 
moranda for the Civil Engineers' Journal, with 
the number of engineers who had carried out 
works of importance, and of whom there is no 
published record. 

Of late years engineers, civil and mechanical, 
have acquired a recognised public standing and 
importance, but the history of themselves and 
their arts has yet to be cultivated ; nor can pro- 
fessional writers alone suffice, because, as I have 
observed, the facts are so widely and loosely scat- 
tered, that it requires the contributions of a large 
number of observers to collect them and make 
them available. Thus the pamphlets in the 
British Museum afford a large store of valuable 
facts, which come under the notice of the literary 
collector. Then, too, there are the observations 
and reminiscences of contemporaries of Smeaton, 
Watt, and Arkwright, now passing from among 
us. 

I end this by saying that such collections of 
facts are useful and interesting ; that " N. & Q." 
has a staff of contributors to begin such an enter- 
prise, and will soon enlist numerous coadjutors. 

HYDE CLARKE, 



BYGONE REMINISCENCES OF GREAT MEN. 

Few objects, I imagine, could be found more 
befitting the mission of "N. & Q.," or more con- 
genial to the literary tastes of its readers, than 
the rescuing from oblivion past memories of our 
poets and literary men : of whom, in a twofold 
sense it may be truly said, " the places that 
'knew' them once, 'shall know them again no 
more.' " I have been led to these considerations 
by a review of the changes that have taken place 
of late in this neighbourhood. Besides its con- 
tiguity to no less than three ruined abbeys, 
Southampton possesses remains of nearly every 
feature of antiquity, and " of almost every date, 
from the earliest Saxon to the age of James the 



46 



AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 81., JULY 18. '57. 



First." But not to the mere antiquary alone does 
it present a wide and interesting field of research : 
the memories of once-living men who moved and 
influenced their own and all succeeding genera- 
tions still live among us. The birth-place of the 
celebrated Dr. Watts, the lyric poet, is still pre- 
served and fondly cherished ; but more than one 
other spot existed till recently amongst us, whose 
records will in the next generation be only the 
theme of the historian. Northward from the 
town, and overlooking the site of the ancient 
"Clausentum," stands "Bevois Mount," * formerly 
the residence of 

" the great and polished E irl of Peterborough, who laid 
out the grounds, and enriched them with statuary 
brought from Rome. It was a favourite retreat of Pope, 
and was subsequently the residence of Sotheby." 

Entick furnishes a detailed description of its 
early glories, adding 

" The beauty of the improvements in every part can 
hardly be conceived : there are Statues, Grottoes, Alcoves, 
and at every bend of the walks something new and un- 
expected strikes the eye." 

The accomplished Sir Henry Englefield, more 
than half a century since, wrote of it in these 
glowing terms : 

"The name of Bevis-mount unites the recollection of 
an old, and perhaps fabulous, British hero with that of a 
man whose courage and adventures were scarcely less 
romantic than those of the most famous Paladins, and 
who to these high qualities added a refined taste for 
elegant Art and polite literature. What Englishman 
can look without respect on the shades where the Earl of 
Peterborough walked with Arbuthnot and Pope ! " f 

Mrs. Montague and Voltaire are also said to 
have visited this classic retreat, the romantic 
charm of which has now for ever been dispelled, 
it having, I regret to add, fallen a victim to the 
speculative enterprise of the day. The estate, 
after passing through various hands, has at length 
been parcelled out into building lots, the timber 
cut down, and, with the exception of a portion of 
the house, every feature of interest has been 
swept away, an arbour in the grounds known, 
I believe, as " Pope's Seat," having shared in the 
general wreck. 

Another sylvan retreat in this neighbourhood, 
described by a local historian a few years ago, as 

" Freemantle House, the elegant mansion of the late Sir 
George Hewett, Bart., a spot endeared to the lover of the 
fervid and moral muse of Cowper, who spent some of his 
early days here," 

has also, within these few years, been rased to the 
ground, the materials disposed of, and roads and 
buildings now occupy its site and the surround- 



* So called as being the reputed burial-place of the 
renowned " Sir Bevois of Hamptoune," the legend, or 
metrical romance recording whose exploits is doubtless 
known to all your readers. 

t Walk through Southampton, edit. 1805, p. 116. See 
also Walpole's Royal and Noble Authors. 



ing grounds, which were of great beauty, diver- 
sified by winding walks on the margin of an 
extensive lake surrounded by woods. The mar- 
ketable value of property being so much enhanced 
in this rising and influential port, and the change 
that has come over its character and prospects, 
from the quiet watering-place of yore to the busy 
sea-port of today, offer the only plausible ex- 
tenuation of these acts of wholesale spoliation. It 
is probable some of your correspondents may be 
able to produce similar charges of Vandalism, 
though probably not to the same extent, nor from 
similar causes ; but if the desire to rescue any 
hallowed spot from ruin and forgetfulness be 
awakened, I shall be satisfied in having thus ren- 
dered a tribute to the memory of departed worth, 
and to have served, though in so humble a degree, 
the sacred cause of literature. 

HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 
Southampton. 

N.B. Since writing the foregoing, I have been 
gratified to learn that the mansion on the Bevois 
Mount estate still stands entire, though narrowed 
in its appurtenances almost within its own limits, 
and otherwise shorn of its pristine grandeur, the 
interior having been dismantled, and the fittings 
sold, so as to comport with the more modest pre- 
tensions of a "genteel suburban villa," to which 
it has become reduced. In the grounds stood a 
gigantic oak, some idea of the dimensions of 
which may be formed from the fact that, when 
felled and lopped, it was computed to contain 
about sixty loads of timber. 



TOBACCO AND OUR REVOLUTION, 1688. 

I have been fortunate enough to obtain, by 
purchase, the original Parliamentary Grant of 
William III. and Queen Mary, appropriating the 
duties on tobacco, &c., to the States of Holland, 
in payment of money advanced ; and for the pay- 
ments of the servants of Charles II., on three 
sheets of parchment, with engraved borders and 
portrait of William III., dated "the Fifteenth 
Day of November, in the first year of Our Reigne," 
and signed " By Writt of Privy Scale, PIGOTT." 

The fact that the duties on tobacco even 
benignant Nicotiana should have at once paid 
the price of our glorious revolution, is one of the 
very many curious and note-worthy incidents of 
this eminently historical weed. It was. indeed 
befitting that she who fills and blesses the pipe of 
p eace in her own home under the shadow of 
the Red Mountain, where the Great Spirit sanc- 
tioned the Indian's holy pipe should honour the 
bill of that revolution " of all revolutions the 
least violent of all revolutions the most bene- 
ficent " in the consistent words of our popular 
historian, Mr. Macaulay. In one year tobacco 



2 nd S. NO 81., JULY 18. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



47 



paid the 600,OOOZ. which the Dutch charged us 
for our emancipation for the consumption of 
tobacco at that time was above eleven million of 
pounds' weight per annum from America alone 
according to my tables which paid a duty of 
one shilling per pound and 5 per cent, poundage 
in addition ; thus clearly covering the sum named, 
and leaving a surplus for the interesting 

" Servants of Charles II. ! though the duties on silks 
and sugar (also ceded in the Grant) were more appropriate 
for that class of pensioners. It may add to the interest 
of the fact to state that most of our most eminent divines 
and bishops at that time practically contributed to the 
payment of the revolutionary debt by their large con- 
sumption of tobacco. Dr. Barlow of Lincoln was as 
regular in smoking tobacco as at his meals : he had a 
very high opinion of its virtues, as had also Dr. Barrow, 
Dr. Aldrich, and other celebrated persons who flourished 
about this time, and gave much into that practice." 
Granger, vi. 90. note. 

Nor is this the only reflection suggested by this 
curious fact. Charles Lamb was forbidden to- 
bacco by some " sour physician," as he states ; 
and, in consequence, wrote his " Farewell to To- 
bacco " an eccentric poem, purposely irrational 
and absurd where he "abuses" the weed, but 
wonderfully lucid and reasonable where he sings 
the praise of the " Plant divine, of rarest virtue." 
Now, in this poem there is a verse of formidable 
import. He says : 

"None e'er prospered who defamed thee!" 

King James I. most vilely "defamed" this 
proud and time-honoured sacred plant for thou- 
sands of years venerated by the Ked Men of 
the West, whose most cherished virtue was the 
observance of treaties and promises sanctioned 
by the fuming pipe. King James vilified tobacco, 
and how soon did his House the House of 
Stuart vanish into smoke ! And why ? Be- 
cause his House was always remarkable for faith- 
lessness, fraud, and insincerity. I commend this 
verse of the poet to the inward digestion of all 
misocapnists 

"None e'er prospered who defamed thee! " 

ANDREW STEINMETZ. 



JOHN BRADSHAW. 

" Honest Bradshaw, the President." 

OLIVER CROMWELL. 

There has been preserved an ancient book con- 
cerning the affairs of the parish of Richmond, 
Surrey, which commences 12 James I. For a 
few years at the beginning it is not quite chrono- 
logically kept, but shortly afterwards the entries 
appear to have been regularly made: it is en- 
titled " A Booke containing the Actes and Pro- 
ceedings of y e Vestry of Richmond." Under date 



of May 14, 1649, there is an insertion that there 
was lying in the parish chest 

" A Bond bearing date the 2nd day of October, 1644, 
wherein John Bradshaw of Gray's-inn, Gentleman, 
standeth bound in the sum of One Hundred Pounds, to 
discharge the parish of Richmond of a female bastard 
Child, begotten and born of the body of Alice Trotter of 
Richmond." 

From some circumstances I am induced to 
think this John Bradshaw to have been the Pre- 
sident, and, in endeavouring to trace him, I find 
that John Bradshaw of Tattenhall, Chester, was 
admitted of Gray's Inn June 7, 1632; and the 
same person, I believe, to have been Ancient, 
June 23, 1645; Barrister, Nov. 24, 1645; and 
Bencher, May 19, 1647 ; though I do not adduce 
these gradations confidently. 

The President had considerable property in the 
neighbourhood of Richmond. The Parliament 
having confiscated Lord Cottington's estates at 
Hanworth, &c., gave them to him ; and on a va- 
cancy he presented Job Iggleton to the neigh- 
bouring vicarage of Feltharn, as appears by a 
survey made by order of Parliament in 1650. 
Bradshaw at his decease, Nov. 22, 1659, be- 
queathed 2501. to the poor of Feltham, and also 
the impropriation of the vicarage of Feltham " for 
the use of a proper minister to be established 
there." <j>. 

Richmond. 



Minor 

Royal Visits to Ireland. In Wilde's Beauties 
of the Boyne and Blachwater, p. 93., is the follow- 
ing paragraph, which I think worthy of a corner 
in "N. & Q.": 

" In 1210 King John arrived in Ireland, and spent the 
second and third days of July at Trim ; but although the 
present castle is called after him, it does not appear that 
he lodged at any castle at Trim, if there was one at that 
time fit for his reception ; and his writs are dated ' apud 
Pratum subtus Trim,' the field now called the King's 
Park. What a volume might be written on royal visits 
to Ireland; by whom made, under what circumstances, 
with what objects or inducements; what was the condi- 
tion of the country, what the mode of reception, what tho 
state of manners at the time of each ; from the days of 
Henry II. to those of Queen Victoria in this present year, 

ABHBA. 

Misprints. I cannot forbear, though the sub- 
ject is trite, quoting three misprints I have lately 
met with, which alter or modify in a most ludicrous 
manner the whole bearing of the context. The 
first is from the seventh edition of Archdeacon 
Welchman's Notes on the XXXIX. Articles, 
where the last clause of Article XXV. runs thus : 

" The Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be 
gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should 
daily use them. , . . ." 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



g. NO 81., JULY 18. '57. 



The printer must have been remarkably Anglo- 
Catholic to interpret "duly" by "daily !" 

In Arnold's History of Rome, vol. ii. p. 82. (4th 
edit.), his printer makes the author say, 

" I propose, therefore, to trace successfully the relations 
of Rome with the several neighbouring states, from 389 
to 412, beginning," &c. 

Mr. Stanley's Life scarcely bears out the prin- 
ter's notion, that self-laudation was one of the 
Doctor's characteristics: so let us read " succes- 
sively " for " successfully." 

In a communication sent by an Oxford Under- 
graduate to the Oxford Chronicle in Michaelmas 
Term, 1855, the sentiments of St. Paul are assi- 
milated to those of Joseph Smith by the simple 
ellipse of " t." The last stanza but one of these 
verses runs 

" Death is past, and all its sorrows 

Swallowed up in victory ; 
Endless joys in bliss await them, 
Life and IMMORALITY." 

Probably your correspondents could add many 
similar instances. T. T. JEFFCOCK. 

Cockney, Origin of the Word. A passage in 
Burton (jAnat. Mel., i. 2. 2. 3.) seems confirmatory 
of the supposition that this word is derived from 
Cocaigne, the "land of exquisite cookery." 

" Some draw this mischief on their heads by too cere- 
monious and strict diet, being over-precise, cockney-like, 
and curious in their observations of meats." 

HENRY T. RILEY. 

Curious Epitaph at Rouen. The following 
epitaph, copied from a tombstone in the south 
aisle of Rouen Cathedral, may possess some in- 
terest for your readers. The narrative which it 
relates has probably no parallel with which the 
English reader is familiar : 

" Par permission de messieurs de chapitre. 

" Cy gisent les corps de Jacques Turgis, Robert Tal- 
lebot, et Charles Lebrasseur, natifs de Rouen, executes a 
mort par jugement presidial d'Andely le xxv. jour d'Oc- 
tobre, mil DCXXV. pour un pretendu assassinat dont its 
furent faussement accuses et clepuys declares innocents du 
diet crime, par arrest du grand conseil, donne h Poitiers 
le dernier jour de decembre mil DCXXVII. suyvant lequel 
les corps deterres du dit lieu d'Andely, ont ete apportes 
en ce lieu proche ceste chappelle des martirs innocents le 
11 jour d'apuril mil DCXXVIII., en laquelle se dira tous 
les samedis & perpetuite une messe pour le repos de leurs 
ames, avecq ung obit tous les ans, le xxx jour d'octobre, 
jouxte la fondation qui en a este faicte ceans, suivant le 
diet arrest du conseil. Priez Dieu pour leurs ames ! " 

HENRY DAVENEY. 

Names of Slates. The whimsical names now 
in use, " Princesses, -Duchesses, Countesses, and 
Ladies," are said to have been given by General 
Warburton, the proprietor of some of the great 
quarries in North Wales about a century ago. 
Perhaps it is not generally known that before that 
time names still more whimsical were used. The 



following list is taken from that very extraordi- 
nary collection of curious information, a " portable 
library," as some former owner of my copy has 
called it, Handle Holme's Academy of Armory 
and Blazon. As Holme was a Cheshire man, we 
may be pretty sure that he gives us the names 
then used in the slate districts : 

" Names of Slates according to their several Lengths. 
" Short Haghattee. 

Long Haghattee. 

Farwells. 

Chitts. 

Warnetts. 

Shorts. 

Shorts save one, or Short so won. 

Short Backs. 

Long Backs. 

Batchlers. 

Wivetts. 

Short Twelves. 

Long Twelves. 

Jenny why Jettest thou. 

Rogue why Winkest thou. 

" The shortest Slate is about four Inches, all the rest ex- 
ceed an Inch, one in length from the other ; sometimes 
less or more, according as the Work-man pleaseth." 
Academy of Armory, &c., b. in. c. v. p. 265. 

According to this explanation the " Long 
Twelves " were about sixteen inches in length, 
or twelve inches longer than "Short Haghattees;" 
hence, probably, the name of "Long Twelves." 
The largest slates, "Rogues," must have been 
about eighteen inches long. There is nothing 
said about the breadth. The largest slates now 
used, " Princesses," I believe are about twenty- 
four inches long. J. W. PHILLIPS. 
Haverfordwest. 



extracted the 
preser- 



The Maid of Zaragoza. I have extra 
following from The Times of July 6, for 
vation in " K & Q, : " 

" The Spanish papers announce the death at Ceuta of 
Agostina Zaragoza, the heroine whose share in the de- 
fence of the city the name of which she bore, has been 
recorded in a glowing chapter of Southey's History of 
the Peninsular War, and immortalised by Byron's genius. 
According to a note to Childe Harold, she was in her 
22nd year when the siege occurred, so that she must have 
been about 70 at her death. The Spanish papers merely 
say that she was very young at the time of the siege. 
She held the rank of ensign in the Spanish army, and 
wore several decorations, the reward of her exploits in 
the War of Independence. She was buried at Ceuta with 
militaiy honours." 

R. W. C. 

Burhe's Syslasis of Crete." In Gunning's 
Reminiscences (i. 214.) it appears that Bishop 
Watson and the Cambridge scholars of that day 
were puzzled with Burke's phrase " Systasis of 
Crete." As his quotation from Burke is inac* 
curate, the following extract is supplied : 

" The municipal army [meaning the National Guard], 
which, according to their new policy, is to balance this 
national army, if considered in itself only, is of a consti- 



S. N 81., JULY 18. 57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



tntion much more simple, and in every respect less excep- 
tionable. It is a mere democratic body, unconnected with 
the crown or the kingdom. '. . . If, however, con- 
sidered in any relation to the crown, to the national 
assembly, &c." ... it seems a monster. ... It 
is a Avorse preservative of a general constitution, than the 
sy stasis of Crete, or the confederation of Poland, or any 
other ill-devised corrective which has yet been imagined, 
in the necessities produced by an ill-constructed system 
of government." French Rev., p. 328., 2nd ed. 1790. 

The word " systasis " now appears in some of 
our dictionaries, as Webster's and Hyde Clarke's, 
in the sense of " constitution," a synonym which 
Burke evidently wanted, as he had the word 
" constitution " twice in requisition just before he 
introduced the word " systasis." This exotic does 
not appear to have thriven in our political vo- 
cabulary. It was adopted by Burke doubtless 
from Polybius (lib. vi. ex. iii. ch. i.), who freely 
uses systasis in reference to Crete, meaning its 
political establishment, system, or constitution. 
Plato also uses it in the same sense (Rep. 546 A.) ; 
Demosthenes nearly so, as a political union or 
club (1122. 5.). But I cannot find that Aristotle 
ever uses this word, the nearest to it being 
(Twrfoas and av<n'faa.i (Pol. i. 2., iii. 13.). As the 
word ffv<rTa<ns means, like Graff is, " sedition," Ari- 
stotle found many other synonyms in the flexibility 
of the Greek tongue to answer his purpose better. 
He, indeed, approves parts of the polity of Crete. 
(Pol. ii. 9, 10.) Not so Polybius, who rhetorically 
adopts a term, already used in a bad sense, to 
condemn the " systasis " of Crete, together with 
Ephorus, Xenophon, Callisthenes, and Plato, its 
applauders, omitting, however, the name of Ari- 
stotle : corruption had doubtless crept in after 
their days and before Polybius wrote his history. 
The point to which Burke referred was that the 
Cretans had no private property, although the 
land was equally divided amongst them, the slaves 
being compelled to furnish all the products of their 
industry, part of which was allotted to their gods, 
and part to the public service of the state, the 
remainder being used for the maintenance of the 
people ; whilst the free men (citizens) were fed at 
common tables, and had no other occupation than 
the arts of politics and war. (Aristotle, Pol. ii. 10.) 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 



I , 



DR. JOHN DONNE. 

In a work published in 1652, entitled A Sheaf 
of Miscellany Epigrams, written in Latin by John 
Donne, and translated by J. Main, D.D., are 
several pieces which speak of the young poet as 
engaged in military operations in the army oi 
Prince Maurice, and as present at the battle oJ 
Duke's Wood. If these Epigrams are undoubt- 
edly Donne's, it is remarkable that Walton shoulc 



be silent on this eventful period of the Dean's 
ife, as this work was published between the first 
ind second editions of his Life of Donne. Epigram 
tf o. 56. is entitled, " A Panegyric on the Hol- 
anders being Lords of the Sea, occasioned by the 
Author being in this Army at Duke's Wood." 
No. 57. has the following title, " To Sleep, steal- 
ing upon him as he stood upon the Guard in a 
corner of a running trench, at the Siege of Duke's 
Wood." Then follows another epigram, " To his 
fellow Sentinels." This event must have taken 
place between the years 1587 and 1590, about the 
time when, according to Walton, Donne was 
studying at Cambridge," at Trinity College," adds 
Zouch. What makes it probable that Donne had 
enlisted in the auxiliaries against Spain, is Mar- 
shall's portrait of him at this time, inscribed, 
"Anno Dni, 1591, aetatis suaa 18," where he is re- 
presented in a dark coloured doublet, with a 
diamond cross pendant from his right ear ; his 
hand resting on the hilt of his sword. Can any 
one furnish additional particulars illustrative of 
this obscure portion of Donne's biography ? Ben 
Jonson, it will be remembered, had also about 
this time enlisted in the campaigns in the Low 
Countries, and with some elation of heart fre- 
quently referred to this incident of his life. Both 
Donne and Jonson were born in the same year, 
1573. J. Y. 



THE ENGLISH REGIUM DONUM ACHAN S GOLDEH 

WEDGE I POPE'S " OLD CATO." 

Some years ago an elderly gentleman related to 
me the following curious story as to the origin of 
the annual grant to the dissenting ministers, 
called the Regium Donum, about which there was 
so much controversy at the time. His account 
was somewhat as follows. During one of those 
long struggles between the dissenting interests 
and their opponents (which were afterwards ^par- 
tially put an end to by the Bills for Occasional 
Conformity), one of the principal ministers of the 
crown had expressed himself very strongly in 
favour of the former body. But when the contest 
came in Parliament he gave way, and left them to 
the mercy of their opponents. The principal 
ministers of the dissenting interests then waited 
on the statesman, expressing great indignation at 
his conduct, that he who had always professed 
himself so fast a friend should desert them, and 
threatened him with all the opposition that could 
be raised throughout their powerful bodies. The 
story went on to say that the statesman put on an 
hypocritical face, and said he was indeed grieved, 
but he had been overpowered in Parliament, and 
overruled by his colleagues ; he had done all he 
could, and was as fast a friend as ever. He then 
went on to say, that he was commanded by the 
King to express how grieved and disappointed his 



50 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. [2 s. NO si,, JULY is. '57, 



Majesty also felt : and that he was commanded by 
him to present each of the dissenting ministers 
there with the sum of five hundred pounds a-piece, 
as a token of his good-will, and as a little assist- 
ance to the cause. The statesman also intimated 
as long as he should remain in the Cabinet the 
same sums should be annually paid to the same 
parties out of the Privy Purse. The story went 
on to say, the dissenting ministers were wonder- 
fully softened by this conduct, pocketed the money, 
and never were troublesome personally to govern- 
ment again. Now, so far, this is a vague story, 
and might have been a mere " weak invention of 
the enemy ; " but it went on to say that after a 
payment or two had been made the secret leaked 
out, the sterner part of the Puritans were very 
indignant, and a pamphlet was published stigma- 
tising the whole proceeding in the strongest terms. 
This was entitled Acharis Golden Wedge allud- 
ing to the crime of the Israelite warrior who hid 
the Canaanite spoils in his tent, as is recorded in 
the seventh chapter of the Book of Joshua. This 
pamphlet it was said was instantly rigidly sup- 
pressed, and every copy destroyed that could be 
got hold of. The origin of the Regium Donum is, 
and always has been, involved in mystery. It 
was paid out of the Privy Purse for years, and 
afterwards, when some fresh arrangement of the 
Civil List had taken place, was the subject of an 
annual Parliamentary Grant. The system of 
slipping money into people's hands was common 
at that time. You will remember in Pope's 
Epistle to Lord Bathurst 

" Beneath the Patriot's cloak 

From the cracked bag, the dropping guineas spoke, 
And jingling down the back-stairs told the crew 
Old Cato is as great a rogue as you." 

C^n any readers of "N". & Q." inform me, 1st, 
Whether there is any truth in the story of the 
bribe ? 2nd. Whether any such pamphlet is in 
existence? 3rd. What is the true history of the 
Regiutn Donum, and with whom did it originate ? 
and 4th, though not directly connected with the 
subject, Who was Pope's " old Cato ? " A. A. 

Poet's Corner. 



Money, In a parliament holden at 
Trim, in the county of Meath, in the year 1447, 
an act was passed against clipped money, money 
called Cf Beyle's [O'lleilly's] money, and other un- 
lawful money, &c. What money was so called ? 
Dean Butler, in his Notices of the Castle and Ec- 
clesiastical Buildings of Trim, p. 77., says : 

" Several small unstamped pieces of billon, or rather of 
iron, have been found in Trim ; they are of the size of a 
sixpence, but very thin ; they may have been O'Reyle's 
money," 

ABHBA 



Heraldic Query. Can anyone inform me who 
was the bearer of the following arms ? 

Quarterly 1st and 4th. Gules, on a bend be- 
ween three garbs, or (or argent), as many crosses, 
Dattee, fichee of the field, 2nd and 3rd argent, two 
>ars, azure, between eight mallets, sable, 3, 2, 
and 3. 

They appear on a portrait of the time of 
Dharles I., and, I think, belong to families of the 
Midland Counties. J. E. 

Tea after Supper. 

" Le Pere Couplet supped with me ; he is a man of 
very good conversation. After supper we had tea, which 
le said was really as good as any he had drank in China. 
The Chinese who came over with him and Mr. Fraser 
supped likewise with us." Lord Clarendon's Diary % 
Feb. 10, 1688. 

E. H. A. 

Action for not flogging. Can anyone refer me 
to the particulars of a case which is said to have 
occurred about forty years ago, when a culprit 
who had been imprisoned by the chief magistrate 
of some town brought an action against the 
magistrate for not ordering him to be flogged, as 
the act under which he had been imprisoned and 
his offence required. GEORGE. 

Horses eaten in Spain. Burton says, Anat. 
Mel., part i. s. 2. m. 2. s. 1. : 

" Young foals are as commonly eaten in Spain, as red 
deer ; and, to furnish their navies, about Malaga espe- 
cially, often used." 

Does this practice still prevail in Spain ? 

HENRY T. RILET. 

Lines on Lord Fanny. In an old common-place 
book I find the following lines : 

" Vulpes ad Personam Tragicam. 
" A Strolling Fox once chanced to drop, 
Grand Connoisseur, in Rysbrack's shop. 
A noble bust he there beheld, 
Whose beauty all the rest excell'd. 
Much he admir'd the Carver's craft, 
The Sculptor prais'd, and praising laught; 
' A pretty figure I profess, 
This is Lord Fanny's head, I guess : 
How happy Rysbrack are thy pains - 
The Life, by G d it has no brains ! ' " 

My Queries are : Do these lines refer to Pope's 
Lord Fanny ? and, Who wrote them ? L. B. 

Cornish Prefixes: "Tre," "Pol," and "Pen." 
What is the meaning of these words prefixed to 
proper names ? They occur in " The Song of the 
Western Men : " 

"And shall they scorn Tre, Pol, and Pen ? " 

NOTSA. 

Dr. Alex. Holiday. In the Memoirs of the 
Earl of Charlemont, published in 1812, there are 
extracts from a number of his letters addressed to 
Dr. Alexander Haliday, of Belfast, Can any of 



s. N 81., JULY 18. '57,] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



your readers give me any information regarding 
ihis gentleman, who was, I believe, one of the 
most eminent physicians in the north of Ireland ? 
He died about the year 1802. R. INGLIS. 

Madison Agonistes. Who is the author of 
Madison Agonistes, $c., a fragment of a political 
burletta, 12mo., Cawthorne, London, 1814 ? 

R. INGLIS. 

" Corydon, Selemnus, and Sylvia." In a book- 
seller's catalogue of T. Arthur, Holywell Street, 
Strand, I found the title of the following work, 
Corydon, Selemnus, and Sylvia ; a Fragment from 
a Dramatic Pastoral Royal 8vo., no date. Pri- 
vately printed, by C. B. Deeble. Is anything 
known regarding the author ? R. INGLIS. 

Heineken Arms. Would MR. E. S. TAYLOR, 
or any other of your correspondents, oblige me by 
a reference to any work on foreign heraldry which 
contains the arms of " Heineken of Bremen," and 
" lt Heineken of Amsterdam," and also of Lubec. 

N. S. HEINEKEN. 

Sidmouth, Devon. 

"Keeping the wolf from the door." Although 
I have met with the expression many times 
in the course of my prelections, and am per- 
fectly well acquainted with what it means, I have 
never seen a distinct and satisfactory explanation 
of its derivation. In the event of you, or any of 
your correspondents, being enabled to favour me 
with the same, you will oblige K. 

" Memoirs of Dr. Burney by his Daughter, 
Madame D'Arblay" In the course of perusing 
this very delightful work (3 vols., Lond., 1832), 
two points occurred to me, the resolution of which 
(to borrow a musical term) appears to me attain- 
able only through the medium of "N. & Q." 
They are as follows : 

1. Repeated allusions (vol. i. pp. 117. 184. 221. 
341. ; vol. x ii. pp. 118. 134., &c.) are made to "cor- 
respondence" which one would expect to find 
collected at the end of the work (as the author says 
on p. 341. of vol. i., " which will be selected from 
the vast volume of letters that will be consigned to 
the flames"), but I look for it in vain : the only 
correspondence consisting of extracts scattered 
through the volumes to aid the progress of the 
narrative. 

2. A complete list of all the Doctor's Works is 
also mentioned as presented in another place, but 
the promise is not fulfilled ; greatly to the disap- 
pointment of the reader, who can but consider 
such a list an essential item in the biography of a 
musical and literary genius. 

Possibly these matters formed a corollary to the 
work, published separately afterwards. Can you 
inform me ? A- W, HAMMOND. 

Brixton, 



Hebrew Translation of the Lusiad. In the Life 
of Camoens, by Mr. Mickle, prefixed to his trans- 
lation of The Lusiad is the following statement : 

" It, i. e. The Lusiad, is translated also into Hebrew, 
with great elegance and spirit, by one Luzzetto, a learned 
and ingenious Jew author of several poems in that lan- 
guage; and who, about thirty years ago, died in the 
Holy Land." 

Is anything further known of this learned Jew, 
or of his translation of The Lusiad ? E. H. A. 

Weathercock. Will any of your correspon- 
dents give me a rule for setting a vane by the aid 
of the magnetic needle, for any given day ? 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
Birmingham. 

Salter the famous Angler. Can any one give 
me any biographical account of this gentleman, 
who wrote the celebrated book on angling about 
the year 1810. He resided for a long time at 
Clapton Place, Clapton Square, and was very 
much esteemed by all who knew him. A. A. 

Poet's Corner. 

Duncombes Marines. I shall be glad to know 
what the corps was, called "Buncombe's Ma- 
rines," which seems to have existed in the latter 
part of the last century ; and to be referred to 
any book, &c., for its history. W. E. 



Jeremy Bentham. Where is Jeremy Bentham 
buried ? I lately met a person who was quite 
positive that he was mummied, or in some way 
preserved : and he (my informant) believed in 
the possession of one of his most ardent admirers, 
and was occasionally exhibited to a party of select 
friends. Can there be any foundation of truth in 
this extraordinary story ? D. L. 

[It was a part of Jeremy Bentham's will, that his body 
should be devoted to the purpose of improving the science 
of anatomy, and in consequence it was laid on the table 
of the anatomical school in Webb Street, Borough. In 
compliance with Mr. Bentham's wish, Dr. Southwood 
Smith delivered a lecture on the occasion. After the 
usual anatomical demonstrations, a skeleton was made of 
the bones, which was stuffed out to fit Bentham's own 
clothes, and a wax likeness, made by a distinguished 
French artist, fitted to the trunk. This figure was seated 
on the chair which he usually occupied, with one hand 
holding the walking-stick, called Dapple, his constant 
companion whenever he went abroad. The whole was 
enclosed in a mahogany case with folding glass~doors, 
and may now be seen in University College, Gower 
Street.] 

Linnceus. In the cathedral at Upsal, in Lap- 
land, is a monument to the memory of that prince 
of naturalists, Linnaeus, surmounted with a me- 
dallion likeness of that eminent Swede. Is there 
any engraving of this monument ? and if so, is it 



52 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



N 81., JULY 18. '57. 



obtainable in this country ? If not, I should deem 
it a favour if any of your correspondents could 
furnish me with the inscription thereon ? 

J. B. WHITBORNE. 

[In Dr. Pulteney's Linnaeus, by Maton, 4to., 1805, 
p. 491., is the following notice of this monument: "Lin- 
naeus's monument was not completed until the year 1798. 
It is described as being executed with great simplicity 
and beauty, in the red porphyry of Elfsdahl. On the 
upper part* is a bronze medallion of Linnzeus, modelled by 
Sergell, with a wreath of laurel above ; and below, the 
following inscription in characters of gilt brass of ad- 
mirable elegance and workmanship, placed in high relief, 
on the polished surface of the porphyry, viz. : 

"CAROLO A LINNE 
Botanicorum 

Principi. 

Amici et Discipuli 
1798." 

The expense of this monument, plain and simple as it- 
is, amounted to 2000 rix-dollars (upwards of 460?. ster- 
ling-), of which sum 400 (93/.) were expended upon the 
letters alone. The reader will find an engraving of it 
fronting the title-page of the Allgemeine Liter atur-Zci- 
tung, of Jan., Feb., Mar., 1805."] 

" To Post and Pair" 

" January 1, Saturday (1687). The new year began 
with very fair weather. I went to church. It being a 
state day I dined in publick. My Lord Mayor and all 
the aldermen (of Dublin) dined with me; and according 
to the custom, when the cloth was taken away, they went to 
post and pair ; and after a very little time sitting, I went 
away and they all went into the cellar." Diary of Lord 
Clarendon. 

What is the custom to which the Lord Lieu- 
tenant here alludes ? What is meant by the 
mayor and aldermen going 7 to post and pair ? 

E. H. A. 

[Posf and pair was an old game played with three 
cards, wherein much depended on vying, or betting on 
the goodness of your own hand. A pair of royal aces was 
considered the best hand, and next any other three cards, 
according to their order : kings, queens, knaves, &c., de- 
scending. If there were no threes, the highest -pairs 
might win ; or also the highest game in three cards. It 
would in these points much resemble the modern game 
of commerce. This game was thus personified by Ben 
Jonsou, in a masque : 

" Post and pair, with a pair-royal of aces in his hat ; 
his garments all done over with pairs and purs; his 
squire carrying a box, cards, and counters." Christmas, 
a Masque. 

The author of The Compleat Gamester notices this game 
as " very much played in the West of England." See 
Dodsley's Old Plays, 1780, vii. 296. ; and Nares's Glos- 
sary, s. v.] 

Robert Burton. Can you inform me whether 
any life of Burton, the author of the Anatomy of 
Melancholy is published ? and if so, where it may 
be obtained ? IVY. 

North Wales. 

[There is a Life of Robert Burton prefixed to The 
Anatomy of Melancholy, edited by Du Bois, 2 vols. 8vo., 
1806, also to the one-volume edition, 8vo., 1845. A long 



Memoir of him is given in Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. iii. 
pt. i. p. 415., with a portrait. For many particulars re- 
specting him see the General Index to 1 st Ser. of " N. & 
Q." In vol. i. of the Works of Charles Lamb are some 
" curious fragments extracted from a common-place book 
which belonged to Robert Burton."] 

Dr. John Byrom. It is stated in the Introduc- 
tion to Molyneux's edition of Byrom' s Short Hand^ 
that in 1743, Byrom obtained an Act of Parlia- 
ment for his sj r stem. What was the nature, ex- 
tent, and duration of this protection ? ESSEX. 

[By 5 Geo, II. it was enacted, that as John Byroni 
cannot by the acts of 21 James I: and 8 Anne effectually 
secure to himself the benefit of his invention of Short 
Hand, which is liable to be divulged surreptitiously 
otherwise than by printing, he and his executors, after 
the 24th June, 1742, shall have the sole privilege of pub- 
lishing his work for the term of twenty- one years. Sin- 
gular as the act is, it is so in nothing more than the fact, 
that it seems to have been obtained without costs, even 
" the clerk of the House of Lords being with him again," 
not with a long bill of costs, but to learn his system of 
short-hand. The act is given in The Remains of John 
Byrom (Chetham Society), vol. ii. pt. i. p. 324.] 

A Collection of Offices, Sfc. I have a hand- 
some book entitled (in red and black), A Collec- 
tion of Offices, or Forms of Prayer in Cases 
Ordinary and Extraordinary. Taken only of the 
Scriptures and the Ancient Liturgies of several 
Churches, especially the Greek. Frontispiece, 
Our Saviour kneeling, with outstretched arms, 
8vo., Lond. Flesher, 1658, with a very long and 
interesting Preface in defence of Liturgies, par- 
ticularly that of the Church of England. Is the 
name of the compiler of my book known to the 
editor or any reader ? J. O. 

[This is one of Bishop Jeremy Taylor's anonymous 
works.]- 

" Legacy of an Etonian." Who is the author 
of The Legacy of an Etonian, edited by Robert 
Nolands, sole executor, 1846 ? R. INGLIS. 

[This work is attributed to the Rev. Robert William 
Essington, of King's College, Cambridge ; Seatonian 
prize, 1846; and now Vicar of Shenstone, in Stafford- 
shire.] 

Brookes " History of Ireland" In January, 
1744, Henry Brooke, author of Gustavus Vasa, SfC., 
proposed to publish, by subscription, The History 
of Ireland from the Earliest Ages, in 4 vols. 8vo. 
Was the whole, or any part, of his design com- 
pleted ? ABHBA. 

[This History does not appear to have been published, 
as it is not included in the list of Henry Brooke's Works 
prefixed to the edition of his collected Poetical Works, 
4 vols. 1792 ; nor is there any allusion to it in the Me- 
moir of the Author, by his daughter. It seems that at 
one period of his life he corresponded with some of the 
most eminent men of the day ; but unfortunately all these 
letters were consumed, with other valuable papers, by an 
accidental fire. " Two of them, from Alex. Pope, are par- 
ticularly to be lamented, wherein his character appeared 
in a light peculiarly amiable, In one of them Pope pro- 



s. NO 81., JUTVX- IB. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



53 



fessed himself in heart a Protestant ; but apologised for 
not publicly conforming, by alleging that it would render 
the eve of"his mothers life unhappy. In another very 
long one, Pope endeavoured to persuade Mr. Brooke to 
take orders, as being a profession better suited to his 
principles, his disposition, and his genius."] 



LORD CHESTERFIELD'S CHARACTERS or EMINENT 

PERSONS OF HIS OWN TIME. 

(2 nd S. iv. 7.) 

There is not the slightest doubt of the genuine- 
ness of these "characters." Flexney's edition 
would seem to be the first that appeared. They 
were also printed (in two forms) as an Appendix 
to the quarto edition of Chesterfield's Works 
(1777), and the octavo edition (1779), ^to which 
Dr. Maty prefixed a biographical memoir. I do 
not know if C. C. means to state that ^his copy 
contains only the characters named by him in his 
contribution to " N. & Q." The editions super- 
intended by Dr. Maty contained, besides those 
recorded by C. C., the following: George II., 
Lord Townshend, Pope, Lords Bolingbroke, Gran- 
ville, and Scarborough, the Dukes of Newcastle and 
Bedford, and Mr. Pelham. The most recent edi- 
tion (1845) of Chesterfield's Works (Lord Mahon's 
Stanhope), contains four additional characters : the 
first is massed as " The Mistresses of George II.," 
the others are Dr. Arbuthnot, Lady Suffolk, and 
" Lord Bute, with a Sketch of his Administration." 
Lord Mahon had acce.ss to the whole of Lord 
Chesterfield's MSS., in the possession of Mr. 
Evelyn Shirley. Among them the noble editor 
found, not only the originals of the characters be- 
fore published, but of the others which I have 
named above. 

In a letter of Walpole to Cole, October, 1778, 
we have evidence, if it were needed, that from 
the very first, the characters were accepted as 
genuine : 

" Lord Chesterfield," says Walpole, " one of my father's 
sharpest enemies, has not, -with all his prejudices, left a 
very unfavourable account of him, and it would alone be 
raised by a comparison of their two characters. Think 
of one who calls Sir Robert a corrupter of youth having 
a system of education to poison them from their nursery ! " 

Walpole adds, that Chesterfield, Pulteney, and 
Bolingbroke were " the three saints " who reviled 
his father ; and Chesterfield himself, in his " cha- 
racter " of Pulteney says : 

" Resentment made him engage in business. He had 
thought himself slighted by Sir Robert Walpole, to whom 
he publiclv vowed not only revenge, but utter destruc- 
tion." 

J. DORAN. 



LE CELEBRE BARRIOS. 

(2 nd S. ii. 468.) 

The only account of Barrios which I can find 
is, 

" Barrios ou Barios de (Daniel Led) appele aussi 
Michel, theologien et poe'te juif espagnol, vivait dans la 
seconde partie du dix-septieme siecle. II resida a Am- 
sterdam, se livra & la culte des lettres et de la poe'sie, et 
laissa en langue espagnole Le Triomphe du Gouverne- 
ment et de 1'Antiquite Beige,' ' Relation des Poe'tes et des 
Ecrivains espagnoles d'Origine juive;' 'Coro de las 
Musas ; ' ' L'Histoire Universelle des Juifs,' ' Casa de 
Jacob,' ou il est question de 1'etat actuel des Juifs." 
Nouvelle Biographie Universelle, iv. 583., Paris, 1854. 

High as the above-cited authority is, I think 
" Michel " was another writer, and not " appele 
aussi." I have a volume entitled, 

" Flor de Apolo por el capitan Don Miguel de Barrios 
en Bruselas, 1665, 4to., pp. 526." 

Bound with this are three comedies by the same 
author, printed with a different type, and on 
rather darker paper. Each is separately paged. 
Their titles are, "Pedir Favor al Contrario," 
"El canto junto al Eucanto," and "ElEspanol 
deOran." 

The " estilo culto " abounds, but I think Bar- 
rios has taken Quevedo rather than Gongora for 
his model. He writes more like an accomplished 
soldier and man of the world than one given up to 
literature ; and appears from his dedications on 
more familiar terms with people of rank, than 
would have been conceded by Spanish grandees to 
a Jew of the seventeenth century. One sonnet 
(p. 310.) is " a la Union de Don Diego de Rosa 
y de Dona Blanca de Pina, cunada del autor." 
Are these Jewish names ? 

In favour of his Judaism it may be urged that 
Barrios has several Old Testament subjects, such 
as the mourning of Jacob for Rachel, the victory 
of David, &c., and I have not found any direct 
admission of Christianity or celebration of catholic 
saints remarkable omissions in Spanish poetry 
of that age. 

Pedir Favor al Contrario is a tiresome comedy 
" de capa y espada," at p. 49. of which Don 
Basilic says : 

" Que no encuentre mi sana, 
Sen dudo que fugitive 
Su temor de mi la esconda 
pesia al Hado ! que empia 
Con la espada de sufuga 
Corta al mi venganqa el hilo." 

I have not found " 1'eau pour secher les plaies," 
but it is obviously Virgil's " vulnera siccabat 
lymphis," and very likely to be appropriated and 
exaggerated by Barrios. 

As a specimen of a writer so little known may 
be acceptable, I transcribe a sonnet. 

" Al Engano y Desengano de la Vida. 

" Triste del hombre que de Dios se olvida, 
Sin que del sueno de su error despierte, 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. N 8L, JULY 18. '57. 



Y en el mal que le espera nunca advierte 
Hasta que su peccado es su homicida. 
En su culpa obstinada, y no sentida, 
El incierto plazer que le divierte, 
Es amigo traydor que le da muerte 
Con el proprio deleyte de la vida. 

Dichoso el que justo se prohibe, 

Del mundo vano que injuriar le quiere, 
Adonde muerte en el vida recibe. 

Que & quien, por ser humilde, el siglo hiere 
No se puede dezir que entonces vive, 
Por que no tiene vida hasta que muerte." 

U. U. Club. 



H. B. C. 



SEPARATION OF SEXES IN CHURCHES. 

(2nd S. iii. 108. 178.) 

I have just received my volume of the Archceo- 
logia, which contains Mr. Ashpitel's paper in 
extenso, with notes. That gentleman cites the 
same passage in the Apostolical Constitutions as 
your correspondent F. C. H. ; but quotes from 
the Greek as given by Labbe (i. 226.), and not 
from a Latin version ; he considers them as ema- 
nating from the Eastern Church, and not older 
than circiter A.D. 250. He also cites the same 
passage from St. Chrysostom, alluded to by F. C. 
H., but does so at greater length. The conclud- 
ing paragraph, in fact, quite nullifies the dictum 
that the separation alluded to was of primitive 
origin : for the saint says, expressly, it was not so 
in former times, and speaks of men and women 
praying together in the upper chamber in the time 
of St. Paul. That it was rather an early practice 
in the Eastern Church to place women in a sepa- 
rate place, and even to draw curtains before them, 
is universally conceded. But was it so in the 
Latin or Western Church ? Mr. Ashpitel lays 
much stress on the silence of Stephen Durantus, 
and the still more celebrated ritualist, Durandus. 
Where Roman Catholics have been mingled with 
Protestants, they have often adopted many of their 
customs ; but it is certain that throughout the 
whole of Italy, and greater part of France, and 
Germany, no such custom has ever prevailed. As 
so much has been said on the subject lately, I 
should feel much obliged if any reader of " N. & 
Q." would inform me on the following points : 

1. Of what date are the Apostolical Canons and 
Constitutions, how much of them are genuine, and 
did they originate from the Eastern Church ? 

2. Does any Latin Father, or early ritualist, 
mention the practice of the separation of sexes in 
Western Churches ? 

3. Does any such practice exist in any Roman 
Catholic church, except where they are in fre- 
quent contact, or mixed with Protestants ? 

4. There is a tradition among the Roman 
Catholic cantons of Switzerland, that the practice 



originated at Geneva, under the sanction of Zuin- 
glius or Calvin : and this practice, which still 
obtains among the Protestant cantons, is urged 
against them as a modern innovation. Can any 
readers of " N. & Q." refer me to any passages of 
the writings of the Swiss Reformers which bear 
on the subject ? 

5. In several old English country churches, the 
sexes have formerly sate on separate sides. Can 
this practice be traced earlier than the Puritan 
times, or about the period of the general use of 



pews 



F. S. A. 



CHATTERTON'S INTERMENT IN ST. MARY BEDCLIFF 
CHURCHYARD, BRISTOL. 

(2 nd S. iv. 23.) 

It would, I fear, be trespassing too much upon 
the space in " N. & Q." were I to reply at length 
to all the arguments MR. GUTCH so ably sets 
forth against the above assumption : before al- 
luding to them, let me say my mind has never 
been satisfied that the poet was buried in Shoe 
Lane. MR. GUTCH takes it for granted that he 
was, and confines the question simply to the pos- 
sible re-interment. Now if he were, as it is al- 
leged, buried at Shoe Lane, was there at that time 
no register or official document, in which the fact 
would have been recorded ? or were the paupers' 
bodies all huddled together through this "hori- 
zontal cellar door" into the "pit," utterly unre- 
corded ? 

If such a register, let it be produced, and the 
point would be decided. If not, I should like to 
know upon what grounds we are implicitly to be- 
lieve Chatterton's body found a resting-place 
there ? 

As to the Redcliff interment, when I remember 
the characters of Mr. Cumberland and Mr. Cottle, 
how extremely cautious they were in receiving 
and imparting information, without first assuring 
themselves of, and the strongest belief in, its ac- 
curacy, and that whilst Messrs. Le Grice, Smith, 
and Grant dwell only upon probabilities, Cottle 
and Cumberland rely upon the testimony of two 
most respectable witnesses, I must say I rather 
incline to adopt the Redcliff story, based though 
it be on " hearsay or secondary evidence." It is 
true that Chatterton's relatives could not have 
well afforded the expense of removing the corpse 
from London to Bristol, much as a mother's love 
will do when put to such a test : but it must not 
be forgotten, that Barrett still lived, and was still 
intimate with the family : it is also well known he 
was exceedingly fond of the poor boy. Let me 
ask then, was it so very difficult a matter for this 
friendly surgeon a gentleman of some standing, 
wealth and influence to beg perhaps his brother 
professional, who had made the post mortem ex- 



S. NO 81., JULY 18. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



animation previous to the inquest, to entrust the 
body to a person in London, and have it conveyed 
at his charge in the way mentioned ? Indeed, it 
seems to me most unlikely that Barrett would 
have allowed the youth to whom he was so at- 
tached, and who had so materially added to his 
stock of Antiquities of Bristol, to have been laid 
or remained in this loathsome " pit," if money and 
influence could have rescued him from it. 

Again : MB. GUTCH says the stage waggon would 
have taken " at least three or four days," in those 
times, to have travelled from London to Bristol 
(a distance of 120 miles) ; but on inquiry, I have 
been told that goods by it, if dispatched, say on 
a Monday evening at seven o'clock, would have 
reached their destination here about the same 
hour on the following Wednesday, thus taking 
forty-eight hours only en route. And on arrival, 
I should suppose the appearance of the body would 
have been precisely as described. With regard to 
arsenic, is not MR. GUTCH wrong ? I have un- 
derstood it preserves, rather than rapidly decom- 
poses the dead: and MR. GUTCH cannot forget 
Mrs. Burdock's case in this city, some twenty 
years ago. 

Finally, I would remark it is very improbable 
any party would have mentioned the interment in 
Redcliff, much more unlikely have written " a 
notice of it in the newspapers of the day," because 
the consequence would have been the immediate 
exhumation of the body from its "consecrated 
ground " at the instance of the vicar and parochial 
authorities. Indeed, only a few years ago, the 
late vicar refused to permit the erection even of a 
monument to the unhappy youth within that por- 
tion of the churchyard. 

If I were then one of the "jury" to decide upon 
the whole question, my verdict would be, that 
while it is "not proven" Chatterton was interred 
in the Shoe Lane burying-ground, there is some 
evidence, and no improbability, that \nsfinal rest- 
ing-place was in St. Mary Redcliff churchyard, 
where we all should wish him to have been. 

Perhaps I may be permitted to add, a monu- 
ment is at last about to be immediately erected to 
the memory of this wonderful genius ; and any 
contributions from your readers would be most 
welcome if addressed to Mr. Geo. Gardiner, the 
senior churchwarden of St. Mary Redcliff, or his 
worthy colleague, Mr. C. T. Jefferies. 

BRISTOHENSIS. 



LIEUT. JOSHUA PICKERSGILL. 

(2 nd S. iv. 8.) 

Inquiry is made regarding the authorship of the 
novel called Three Brothers. Lieut. Pickersgill 
was an ensign in my regiment (his date of rank 
July 21, 1806). He was in H. M.'s 22nd foot as 



ensign ; and left that corps, and became an en- 
sign in my regiment. His brother William was a 
cadet of 1803, and died as captain in 1827. 
Joshua died of fever on March 8, 1818, at San- 
gar. He told me himself, in 1812, that he wrote 
the novel, Three Brothers, before he entered the 
army. He must have been born in 1780, and 
said he was nine years older .than myself (born 
1789). He was immediately above me in the 
regiment, which I joined at Delhi, in 1807. 

He was in the Quarter- Master-General's de- 
partment (Assistant Quarter-Master-General), 
and in the Nepal war, in 1816, led Gen. Sir D. 
Ochterlony's force up the Cheeria Ghatee Pass (a 
secret pass). He was thanked personally by Sir 
D. Ochterlony, who declined (ungraciously *) to 
mention him in the despatch he wrote of his suc- 
cess ! ! It was a night operation. Lieut. Pickers - 
gill had, while surveying the frontier, obtained 
good intelligence of the Pass. 

Thornton, (1843) History of British Empire 
in India (vol. iv. p. 536.), states, A.D. 1818, siege 
of Mundela : *' Lieut. Pickersgill, with great gal- 
lantry, proceeded to ascertain, by personal inspec- 
tion, the effect produced (by the batteries), 
mounting, with the assistance of his hircarrahsf, 
to the top of the breach ;" " he returned with so 
favourable a report, as induced Gen. Marshall to 
make immediate preparations for storming the 
works."| 

Had he lived, he would have been Quarter- 
Master-General. He was well-read and talented. 
Whether he was related to Mr. Pickersgill, the 
celebrated portrait painter, I know not. I know 
no better informed officer. He yearly had the 
best military works sent to him from England. 
He induced all the young officers (myself among 
them) to study ; and I owe to him, originally, the 
humble efforts I made in my professional publica- 
tions. W. HOUGH, Lieut.-Colonel, Bengal 
retired Officer (late of, first of 
24th Native Infantry, and last, 
of 48th Native Infantry.) 
Oriental Club, July 8, 1857. 



GALLON OF BREAD. 

(2 nd S. iii. 427. 517.) 

Previous to the passing of 3rd Geo. IV. c. 106., 
the standard for bread made for sale in England, 
was the peck loaf, weighing 17 Ibs. 6 oz., the gal- 
lon and quartern being respectively the half and a 
quarter of the same ; and the penny loaf varying 
in weight according to the assize for the time 

* Unless an officer be named in a despatch, verbal 
thanks are useless ! 

f Guides, &c. Lieut. Pickersgill was a rather heavy 
man, and required assistance. 

J The place was stormed and captured ! 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. NO 81., JULY 18. '57. 



being. By that act, which was limited in its 
operation to a circuit of ten miles from the Royal 
Exchange, it was enacted that bread, with the 
exception of French rolls and fancy bread, should 
be sold by weight only, but might be of any 
weight and size. There is, however, another re- 
markable exception. Sec. 6. enacts, that the peck 
loaf, or its subdivisions, shall not be made or sold 
for two years from the commencement of the act 
(Sept. 29, 1822), a provision which seems very 
fully to have effected the object of its framers ; or 
we should not, at the end of so brief a period as 
five-and-thirty years, have seen in your columns 
the query which has led to this reply. 

The assize of bread, however, was not done 
away with till 6 & 7 Wm. IV. c. 37., which came 
in force on Oct. 1, 1836. By this act the prin- 
cipal provisions of the former act were extended 
to Great Britain generally. I have not immediate 
access to the several acts connected with this sub- 
ject, passed since the 13 Geo. III. c. 62., and can- 
not therefore say whether any alteration in the 
rate of assize was made between that date and its 
abolition ; but a brief extract from a table framed 
in conformity with that act, which now lies before 
me, may serve to give an idea to those of your 
readers who have entered on mature life within 
the last twenty years, and perhaps can scarcely 
imagine that up to so recent a period such things 
were, what this assize was. The price of a bushel 
of wheat being five shillings, the weight of the 
penny loaf of standard wheaten bread was fixed 
at 12 oz. 1 dr. ; and the price at which the peck 
loaf was to be sold, at Is. lid., varying in propor- 
tion with every variation of 3d. in the bushel. 
Household bread, which I presume to have been 
of undressed wheaten meal, was to be one-third 
heavier in the former case, and three-fourths of 
the price in the latter. T. B. B. H. 



tfl ; 

Judge Bingham (2 nd S, iv. 5.) Is there any 
means of ascertaining the lineage, &c., of the 
Judge Bingham, mentioned in the Year Book, 
4 Edw. IV. ? I find Richard Bingham among 
the Puisne Justices of the King's Bench, in Beat- 
son's Index, under the date May 9, 1457; and 
again, Sir Richard Bingham, Knt., Oct. 9, 1471. 
This would probably be the same person ; and 
might he not be identical with the representative 
of the Binghams of Bingham's Melcombe, Richard 
Bingham, who appears, by their pedigree, in 
Hutchins's Dorset, to have died A.D. 1480 ? 

I should also be glad of any information respect- 
ing a certain Capt. John Bingham, translator and 
annotator of ^Elian's Tactics, two editions of which 
I now have before me. The first is dated " from 
my Garrison at Woudrichem in Holland, the 20th of 



September, 1616 ;" and is dedicated "to the High 
and Mighty Charles, only Sonne of his Majesty," 
&c. The second is printed A.D. 1629, with fur- 
ther notes, and an additional dedication " to the 
Right Worshipfull Sir Hugh Hamersley, Knight, 
one of the Aldermen and Colonels of the Honora- 
ble City of London," and othecs, " worthy Cap- 
taines and Gentlemen" of the Artillery Company. 
He here speaks of being about to " depart from 
them, and to journey into a farre Countrey." 

C. W. B. 

Quotation wanted : " Second thoughts not always 
lest" (2 nd S. iv. 8.) The passage in Bishop But- 
ler's Works to which ACHE alludes appears to be 
the following. It occurs in the Sermon upon the 
Character of Balaam : 

" In all common, ordinary cases we see intuitively at 
first view what is oiir duty, what is the honest part. This 
is the ground of the observation that the first thought is 
often the best. In these cases doubt and deliberation is 
itself dishonesty ; as it was in Balaam upon the second 
message. That which is called considering what is our 
duty in a particular case is very often nothing but en- 
deavouring to explain it away. Thus those courses which, 
if men -would fairly attend to the dictates of their own 
consciences, they would see to be corruption, excess, op- 
pression, uncharitableness ; these are refined upon - 
things were so and so circumstanced great difficulties 
are raised about fixing bounds and degrees: and thus 
every moral obligation whatever maybe evaded." Se- 
venth Sermon at the Rolls. 

J. W. PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

I think it will be found that this dictum was by 
Shenstone, not by his great contemporary Bishop 
Butler ; at all events your correspondent may see 
that it occurs twice in the poet's Detached Thoughts 
on Men and Manners : 

" Third thoughts often coincide with the first, and are 
generally the best grounded. We first relish nature and 
the country; then artificial amusements and the city; 
then become impatient to retire to the country again." 

" Second thoughts oftentimes are the very worst of all 
thoughts. First and third very often coincide. Second 
thoughts are too frequently formed by the love of novelty, 
and have consequently less of simplicity, and more of af- 
fectation. This, however, regards principally objects of 
taste and fancy. Third thoughts, at least, are here very 
proper mediators." See Shenstone's Essays on Men and 
Manners, with Aphorisms, fyc., Cooke's edition, London, 
1802, pp. 151. 167. 

Was it a defective memory, or what was it, that 
made Shenstone, in sundry instances, repeat his 
aphorisms ? C. FORBES. 

Temple. 

Seeing that the origin of this saying is wanted, 
I would suggest that it is wrongly quoted, and 
that the true saying is, "Second thoughts are 
somehow best;" and in support of my view I 
would adduce from the Hippolytus of Euripides, 
1. 438. : 



2 nd S. NO 81., JULY 18. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



57 



Also Cic., Philippic xn. 2. 

"Posteriores enim cogitationes (ut aiunt) sapientiores 
golent esse." 

Other confirmatory quotations may be added. 

J. B. S. 
Collumpton. 

William Collins, Ord. Prad. (2 nd S. iv. 8.) A 
short notice of this Dominican Father is given by 
the Rev. Dr. Oliver, in his valuable Collections 
illustrating the History of the Catholic Religion in 
the Counties of Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, 
Wilts, and Gloucester, lately published. At the 
end are some notices of the English Dominican 
Province, and there the learned and indefatigable 
author informs us that 

" William Collins, S. T. M., was third prior of Born- 
hem, from 1685 to 1688. Subsequently he was confessor 
to the Dominicanesses of Brussels" (now at Atherstone), 
"where he ended his days 17th of November, 1699." 

F. C. H. 

Harvest Dates (2 nd S. iv. 8.) The owner and 
occupier of a small farm in East Suffolk, four 
miles from the sea, made the following yearly 
notes of the days on which he " began harvest : " 



1813, August 3 



1814, 

1815, ;; 

1816, 

1817, 

1818, July 

1819, 

1820, August 14 

1821, 21 

1822, July 24 

1823, August 21 

1824, 20 

1825, 3 

1826, July 31 

1827, August 2 

Beccles. 



1828, August 1 



1829, 14 


1830, 


9 


1831, 


4 


1832, 


9 


1833, 


8 


1834, Julj 


25 


1835, Aug 


ust 7 


1836, 


11 


1837, 


21 


1838, 


18 


1839, 


15 


1840, 


8 


1841, 


18 



S. W. Rix. 



Men of the Merse (2 nd S. iii. 467.) If your 
correspondent signed " MENYANTHES " will apply 
to Mr. Edgar Farmer, Harcarse Hill, Berwick- 
shire, he will obtain a copy of the " Men of the 
Merse." M. E. F. 

Dunse. 

Venetian Coin /2 nd S. iv. 29.) John Corne- 
lius was Doge of Venice from about A.D. 1625 to 
1630. The coin described by E. K. was struck 
for currency in the islands of Corfu, Cephalonia, 
Zante, &c., on the coast of Greece, which at that 
period, and long after, were subject to the state of 
Venice. It is a coin of rather unusual occurrence. 

J. C. WlTTON. 

Bath. 

The Quadrature of the Circle (2 nd S. iii. 11. 
274.) When PR. DE MORGAN tells us that " by 
the geometrical quadrature is meant the deter- 
mination of a square equal to the circle, using 



only Euclid's allowance of means," are we to infer 
that the circle can be squared geometrically by 
other means? Can a geometrical square be found 
that is exactly equal to a given circle, by the em- 
ployment of any means ? If the learned PR. 
would answer this question, I for one should be 
much obliged. C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

" Robin a Hie " (2 nd S. iv. 8.) is a Galloway 
ballad, not a very old one. I have written it 
down, and think it is correct, but I have not got 
it with me, and am obliged to write from memory. 

" I dinna like the meg-o'mony-feet*, 

Nor the brawnet f Conocht-Worm 
Quoth Mary Lee, as she sat and did greet, 
Fechtin' wi' the Storm. 

" Neither like I the yellow-warned Ask 

'Neath the root o' the auld aik Tree ; 
Nor the yellow Lizards in the Fog % that bask, 

But waur I like Robin a Rie. 
" Hateful it is, to hear the Wut-throat Chark 

From aff the auld Feal-Dyke, 
And wha likes the e'ening-singing Lark, 
Or the auld Mune-bowing Tyke ? || 

" I hate them, and the ghaist at e'en 
That points at me, puir Mary Lee ; 
But muckle waur, hate I, I ween, 
That Vile Chield, Robin a Rie ! 

"Bitterer than the green Bullister[f 

Is the heart o' Robin a Rie ; 
The milk on the Taed's back I wad prefer 
To the poisons in his words that be. 

" Oh ance I lived happy by yon bonnie burn, 

The warld was in love wi' me, 
But noo I maun sit in the cauld drift and mourn, 
And curse black Robin a Rie ! 

" Oh whudder awa thou bitter, biting blast 
That soughs through the scrunty Tree ; 
And smoor me up in the snaw fu' fast, 
And never let the Sun me see. 

" And never melt awa, thou wreath o' snaw 

That's sae kind in graving me, 
But hide me aye frae the Scorn and the Guffaw ** 
0' Villains like Robin a Rie ! " 

L. M. M. K. 

Jerusalem Letters (2 nd S. iv. 31.) Your cor- 
respondent, C. FORBES, inquires what were the 
" Jerusalem Letters " alluded to in Brooke's Fool 
of Quality, as being so indelible that they might 
serve as marks whereby to fix the identity of a 
man's offspring. There exists at Jerusalem to 
the present day a class of artists who offer their 
services to visitors to the holy sepulchre, and 
tattoo on their arms, with a needle dipped in 
moistened gunpowder (as sailors do), the emblem 

* Meg-o-mony-Feet Wood Louse. 

Brawnet brown and brindled. 

Fog moss. 

Feal-Dyke turf wall. 

Tyke dog. 

Green Bullister unripe wild plum. 
""* Guffaw rude, mocking laughter. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2^ s. NO si., JULY la >57. 



of the cross, and the date of their visit. When I 
was a boy I was taken by my father to Jerusalem, 
and I bear on my arm the inscription impressed 
by one of these artists of the well-known Jeru- 
salem cross with the Arabic name of the city, 
Kuds el Sheriff, and the date 1844-, 

W. W. E. T. 
Warwick Square. 

Address "Par le Diable a la Fortune " (2 nd S. Hi. 

509. The lines are a translation of: 

" Has inter sedes Ditis pater extulit ora 
Bustorum flammis, et cana sparsa favillS, : 
Ac tali volucrem Fortunam voce lacessit. 
Sors, cui nulla placet nimium secura potestas, 
Quae nova semper araas, et mox possessa relinquis, 
Ecquid Romana sentis te pondere victam ? 
Nee posse ulterius perituram extollere molem ? 
Ipsa suas vires odit Romana juventus, 
Et, quas struxit opes, male sustinet. Adspice late 
Luxuriam spoliorum, et censum in damna furentem, 
./Edificant auro, sedesque ad sidera mittunt. 
Expelluntur aquae saxis, mare nascitur arvis, 
Et permutata rerum statione rebellant. 
En etiam mea regna petunt, perfossa dehiscit, 
Molibus insanis tellus; jam montibus haustis, 
Antra gemunt ; et dum varius lapis invenit usum, 
Inferni manes coelum sperare jubentur." 

Petronii Arbitri Satyricon, C. cxx. 
Ed. Burman, t. i. p. 736. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

" The Merry Bells of England" (2 nd S. iv. 29.) 
Mr. Cox of Poole claims the words in a newly 
published piece of music CPoole : Sydenham"; 
London : D'Almaine) to the following effect : 
" Hark ! o'er distant hills resounding, 

From the moss grown tow'rs sublime, 
Sweet the Sabbath bells of England 
Now are pealing forth their chime. 
" And through distant hamlets ringing 
O'er the wide-spread village plain, 
Saying to the weary pilgrims 
Come to worship once again , 

" Wand'rers waken : why now slumber ? 

Soon again shall peer the star ; 
Then the priests will cease to wrangle, 

And the people cease to war. 
" Loudly ring, ye bells of England, 

And the chimes will soon resound 
Echoing through the sandy desert, 
Over all the barren ground." 

SHOLTO MACDUFF. 

[This is not the poem inquired after by "H.," which is 
in a different measure, and longer.] 

Stone Shot (2 nd S. iv. 37.) At Sanjac Castle, 
on a commanding low point of land, at the entrance 
to the proper harbour of Smyrna, are two enormous 
cannon, which are placed behind the folding doors 
of their embrasures, and on the outside of each of 
them is a small pyramid of stone shot of a size 
proportionate to the cannon, and I should think 
they are quite twenty inches in diameter. If my 
memory does not betray me, there is a supply of 



smaller stone shot for some of the other pieces in 
this old fortress, now too malarious for occupation, 
and ungarrisoned in 1855-6. GIAOUR. 

Leopold, King of Belgium, Duke of Kendal 
(2 nd S. iv. 29.) The title was at least talked 
about, if not intended, in The Royal Courtship, or 
Chtte and Cgh, by Peter Pindar, Esq. ; p. 25., 
after some coarse allusions to the postponement of 
the marriage, the writer (? Thomas Agg) says : 

" Although these hopes have yet miscarried, 
And they're in consequence not married ; 
Though wedding-days have twice been named, 
Yet how can the poor prince be blamed ? 
Though bills have passed in both the Houses, 
As usual when a Prince espouses ; 
And though our R t great, to end all, 
Declares he shall be D e of K 1." 

The title-page has no date, but the lines at 
p. 26., 

" It is thy month, delightful May, 
That now will give the wedding day," 

fix it in the spring of 1816. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Wailing Street (2 nd S. iii. 390.) In the Cam- 
bridge Essays (1856) is one on "English Ethno- 
graphy." Dr. Donaldson, after noticing the 
Watling Street, the Foss, the Ickenild, and the 
Rickenild, alias the Erming Street, writes, 
" Originally, no doubt, these were all Roman 
roads." But in the " Commentary on the Iti- 
nerary," in the description of roads we find, 

" The British Ways were : 

1. The Watling Street. 

2. The Tknield Street. 

3. The Ryknield Street. 

4. The Ermyn Street. 

5. The Akeman Street. 

6. The Upper Salt Way. 

7. The Lower Salt Way. 

8. No name given." 

The Query I submit through you, Mr. Editor, 
is, were there any, and what, British roads, and 
what is the origin of the word Watling ? 

J. W. FABRER. 

Times prohibiting Marriage (1 st S. xii. p. 175.) 
On the fly-leaf of the parish register of Ever- 
ton, Notts : 

" Advent marriage doth deny, 
But Hilary gives thee liberty ; 
Septuagesima says thee nay, 
Eight days from' Easter says you may ; 
Rogation bids thee to contain, 
But Trinity sets thee free again." 

J. S. (3.) 

The Mazer Bowl (1 st S. iv. 211.) was so 
called from Maeser, the Dutch name for the maple, 
of which wood these bowls were usually made, 
though they were afterwards formed of various 
materials. Du Cange, however, gives a different 



S., NO 81., JULY 18. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



59 



account, deducing them from the Murrhine cup. 
For a particular account of these Mazer cups, 
with engravings of one of them, and figures of the 
mur-rhine and other drinking vessels, see W. H. 
Turner's Usages of the Middle Ages, Archeeol. 
Journal for Sept. 1845. CL. HOPPER. 

Anne, a Male Name (2 nd S. iii. 508.) Forty 
years ago or thereabout (that we may not minute 
out the time, as Camden says), at which time I was 
a chubby-faced laddy under the care at Aberdeen 
of a good old grandfather, a member of Mr. Prim- 
rose's Burgher Seceder Congregation, the care of 
my precious head of hair was entrusted by him to 
a fellow member of that congregation, a slight, 
prim, spruce, elderly little man, always dressed in 
a full suit of black ; the coat after the fashion of 
what is now called a court coat, small-clothes, silk 
stockings, shoes and buckles, who rejoiced in the 
name of Anne Frazer. At that time in Scotland 
the honourable prefix of Master (Mr.) was only 
given to the superior orders : respectable trades- 
men, and men something above that, were ad- 
dressed and spoken of simply by their Christian 
and sirnames, and I very well remember that my 
customary salutation on entering Frazer's little 
shop in the Guestrow was " Anne Frasher (sic 
loc.) ye'li cut my heed " (head). 

How the worthy tonsor got his feminine appel- 
lation remains to be told. His parents at his 
baptism had to present twins, a girl and a boy ; 
the boy, my friend, was by mistake held up for the 
girl, name Anne, and the girl got a boy's name ; 
but whether this latter was Simon or Solomon, or 
Paul or Peter, or what else, I never heard. 

KIRKTOWN SK.ENE. 

Dr. Moor, Prof. Young, and ' the Poet Gray 
(2 nd S. iii. 506.) Your correspondent, Y. B. N. 
J., is in error in ascribing the criticism upon 
Gray's Elegy to Dr. Moor. The pamphlet he 
alludes to is A Criticism on the Elegy written in 
a Country -Church-yard, being a Continuation of 
Dr. Johnsons Criticism on the Poem of Gray, 
2nd edit. 8vo. Edin. : Ballantyne, 1810, pp. xi., 
148. This is ascribed in the Brit. Mus. Cat. to 
John Young, Professor of Greek at Glasgow ; but 
unless Young's connexion with it can be traced 
twenty-seven years further back, I am prepared 
to show that the quiz upon Johnson is neither 
his nor his predecessor Moor's (who died in 
1797), as I possess the first edition, published 
at London by Wilkie, in 1783, which corresponds 
in every respect with the Edinburgh reprint, with 
the exception that Johnson's name is contracted 
in the original, and that it occupies but pp. xi. 
90., being a larger octavo than the 2nd edition. 
Believing this jeu cCesprit to be better known 
than your correspondent supposes, I content, my- 
self with adjusting its bibliography. The Edin- 
burgh reprint was probably put forth by Pr. 



Young, but it owes nothing more to him, and I 
may now ask who is the critic who dates his ad- 
vertisement from Lincoln's Inn, Jan. 15, 1783 ? 

J.O. 

Kirhpatrichs and Lindsays (2 nd S. vi. 7.) The 
ballad by Mrs. Erskine Norton, called " The Earl's 
Daughter," will be found in a work she published 
in 1852, under the title of The Gossip, vol. iii. 
p. 129. B, F. S. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The annual gathering of the Members and friends of 
the Archaeological Institute, which will be held this year 
at Chester, commences on Tuesday next. Lord Talbot de 
Malahide will preside, and the following announcements 
are made of the Presidents of Sections : History, The 
Bishop of Chester ; Antiquities, E. Guest, Esq., D.C.L., 
Master of Caius and Gonville College, Cambridge ; Archi- 
tecture, Sir Stephen R. Glynne, Bart. A General Pro- 
gramme of Proceedings states the particulars, with dates : 
Tuesday, July 21, The Reception Room will be at the 
Town Hall, Northgate Street; Opening Meeting at the 
Town Hall, at Twelve ; The Museum of the Institute will 
be opened at the King's School. Visits to objects of in- 
terest in Chester or the immediate vicinity the Cathe- 
dral, St. John's and the other Churches, the City Walls, the 
Museums of the Chester Archaeological Society and of 
the Mechanics' Institute, the Roman Wall, Hypocaust 
and other remains, Ancient Crypts and Houses, Stanley 
House, Watergate, " The Rows," &c. Evening Meeting. 
Wednesday, July 22, Meetings of the Sections (History, 
Antiquities, Architecture,) at the Town Hall, at Ten. 
Visits to objects of interest in or near Chester in the 
afternoon. The Annual Banquet of the Institute will 
take place on this day. Thursday, July 23, Visits to the 
extensive Collection of Art-Treasures of the United King- 
dom, at Manchester. Friday, July 24, Meetings of the 
Sections at the Town Hall, at Ten Examination of the 
Cathedral and adjoining buildings. Evening Meeting at 
the Music Hall. Saturday, June 25, Excursion to Liver- 
pool, by special invitation from the Historic Society of 
Lancashire and Cheshire. Visit to the extensive and 
valuable Museum of Antiquities and Art Examples, 
formed by Mr. Joseph Mayer. By the kind invitation 
of Mr. Watt, the Members of the Institute will be re- 
ceived at Speke Hall, a most interesting example of Do- 
mestic Architecture. Conversazione at St. George's Hall 
in the evening. Monday, July 27, Excursion by Special 
Train to Carnarvon and Conway Castles, with such ob- 
jects of interest as may be accessible, time permitting. 
Tuesday, July 28, Meetings of the Sections. A short 
Excursion to certain objects of special interest will be 
arranged for the afternoon. Conversazione at the Mu- 
seum of the Institute, in the Evening, at Eight. Wed- 
nesday, July 29, Annual Meeting of Members of the 
Institute, at the Town Hall, for Election of Members, and 
the business of the Society, at Nine. General Concluding 
Meeting at Twelve. 

A General Meeting of the London and Middlesex ArchcBO- 
logical Society will be held on Tuesday, July 21st, 1857, 
at the Tower of London, by permission of Field Marshal, 
the Right Honble. Viscount Combermere, G.C.B., &c. &c. 
On this occasion the White Tower, w,ith St. John's 
Chapel, &c., the various Towers, the Armories, &c., will 
be visited and examined, and brief descriptive Notices of 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 81., JULY VS. '57. 



the Historical Associations, the Fortifications, the Archi- 
tecture and the Armories of this celebrated Fortress will 
be given by A. Ashpitel, Esq., F.S.A., C. Bailey, Esq., 
F.S.A., Rev* C. Boutell, M.A., Hon. Sec. of the Society, 
F, W. Fairholt, Esq., F.S.A., Rev. Thos. Hugo, M.A., 
F.S.A., J. Whichcord, Esq., F.S.A., and A. White, Esq. 
The Members and Friends of the Society will assemble 
on the Tower Green at twelve o'clock precisely, and the 
Tower will be closed at four o'clock p.m. The Admission 
will be by Cards only, and Members and Visitors are re- 
quested not to give up their Cards until they leave the 
Tower. A series of Papers upon the Tower of London 
will be read at the next Evening Meeting of the Society. 
It is proposed to hold Meetings of the Society at West- 
minster Abbey, and at Hampton Court, early in the Au- 
tumn, of which due notice will be given. 

Albeit somewhat cramped this week for space to notice 
Books, we have received one of a character so identical 
with the object of the two Societies, whose proposed say- 
ings and doings we have just announced, that we feel 
compelled to call attention to it. It is the History of the 
Town and Parish of Tetbury in the County of Gloucester, 
compiled from original MS S, and other authentic Sources, 
by the Rev. Alfred T. Lee, M.A. Mr. Lee's name must 
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Appropriate to the present moment, when all who can 
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Tours made in Tyrol, Styria, Carinthia, and Salzkammer- 
(jut, during the Summer of 1852 and 1853. As a brief re- 
cord of personal experience, this little volume, which 
would occupy small space in a corner of the knapsack, 
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through the beautiful scenery to be found among the 
mountains and valleys of the Tyrol, 

In the present condition of the country few books are 
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formation respecting our colonies. The New Zealand 
Settler's Guide, by Capt. J. R. Cooper (Stanford), is just 
such a book. Captain Cooper is intimately acquainted 
with the country he describes, and he writes without pre- 
tence or affectation ; usefulness only has been his aim. 
He describes a very beautiful country rapidly rising in 
importance. Its claims upon the attention of persons de- 
sirous to emigrate are stated with great clearness and 
precision. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 25, 1857. 



ORDER OP KNIGHTHOOD AND SERJEANTS-AT-LAW. 

The readers of " N. & Q." who have no distaste for a 
little " quaint lore," may find some interest in the follow- 
ing discussion upon the subject of the preeminence of 
the Order of Knighthood before the degree of Serjeant- 
at-Law. The handwriting is that of Sir Richard St. 
George, Norroy in 1603, who died Clarenceux in 1635. 
It is one of several articles upon precedence, written at 
the commencement v of a folio MS. entitled St. George's 
"' Baronage, and has not appeared in print. X. Y. 

A Report of a familiar Conference between a 
Knight's eldest Son and a Student in the Law of 
the Realm concerning the Preeminence of the 
Order of Knighthood before the Degree of a Ser- 
jeant-at-Law. 

The eldest son of a Knight, a youth of good 
metal, having heard it bruited that of late the 
Serjeants-at-Law strove to take place of Knights, 
was desirous to inform himself therein, thereupon 
he got -the Book intituled Honor, Military and 
Civil, and that which is called the Glory of Gene- 
rosity, wherein many worthy things he found 
written of the honor of Knighthood, but finding 
very little of the degree of the Serjeant- at- Law, 
but not being satisfied therewith, he bethought 
him of an acquaintance, a good student in the law 
of the Realm, and cast about how he might get 
from him how the law of the Realm did account 
of Knighthood. After some friendly discourse be- 
tween them they fell to talk of the multitude of 
Knights lately made : " I doubt not," quoth the 
young gentleman, " it will breed a disgrace to the 
whole degree." " It may be so," quoth bis friend, 
"but seeing it hath pleased the King's Majesty to be 
bountiful therein at his first coming, why should 
the degree take any hurt thereby, for I can tell you 
in our realm they have been of great esteem ? " 
"Why," saith the young gentleman, "what hath 
the Law to do with them ?" "Yes," saith he, " I 
remember well that this word Miles in our Law 
hath been always taken to be Nomen dignitatis, so 
that a Knight might not sue nor be sued but by 
the name of Knight, though it were not so ne- 
cessary for Lords and other great Officers to have 
there title of their dignity added to their name in 
such like cases." " What should be the reason of 
that?" quoth the youth. " I am not ready," saith 
the Lawyer, " to yield you a good reason of a 
sudden, for I have applied my study to a more 
profitable end, and have thought of these things 
but obiter; yet in a short time I think I should be 
able to say somewhat to the matter, for our law 
is grounded upon exquisite reason ; but for the 
present I suppose verily that it tendeth to prove 
that the name of Knight was then in much re- 
putation." " I pray vou," auoth the vouth. " be- 



stow an hour or two for my sake, to look into 
the Abridgment, and gather me out of your cases 
concerning Knights, and when I come to my lands 
I will give you a double fee." " Give me time 
till to-morrow," saith his acquaintance, " and for 
your sake I will see what I can do." So for that 
time they parted. 

The next morning the young Esquire came 
again, and asked what he had done. "What," 
quoth the Student, " you are very hasty ; it re- 
quireth longer time yet, take here what I have 
found in so short a space : it is somewhat touched, 
quoth he, " in the Book Cases of A 40 E. & 
36., and A 7 H. 4. fol. 7., but more plainly A 11 
H. 4. fol. 40., where Thorning, Chief Justice of 
the Common Pleas, saith expressly that * if an 
Action be brought against a Knight, not naming 
him Knight, the Suit could not go forward, be- 
cause,' said he, ' the word Knight is a name of 
dignity ; and most fully a 7 H. 6. fol. 15., where 
Richard Hankford having begun a Suit against 
another about the presentation to a benefice, was 
during the Suit made a Knight. In that case 
Judgment was given that his Suit should go to 
the ground ; and in the handling thereof Paston, 
a gentlemanlike Serjeant, said that it was honor- 
able to the Realm to make Knights ; and Babing- 
ton, Chief Justice, said that if any mete man being 
sent for did refuse to take upon him that Order and 
honor, for so the words be, he was to be fined, and 
in a Case a 32 H. 6. fol. 29., it is affirmed by 
Prisot, a great learned Judge, that if an Esquire 
be made a Knight, the name of Esquire was gone, 
but if a Knight were made an Earl or Duke, the 
name of Knight remained ; and a 7 E. 4. fol. 23., 
at two several times divers of the Judges were of 
opinion that this word Knight was not only Nomen 
dignitatis, but parcel of his name also. Take 
this," quoth he, "for the present, and at more 
leisure I shall find more." 

" Well," saith the other, " I thank you for this, 
but tell me, I pray you, is the Law so still ? " 

" Yea, surely," answered the Student, " for any- 
thing I know, save that I remember there was a 
Statute made a 1 Edw. the VI., to remedy the 
overthrowing of the Suit, if the Plaintiff during 
the continuance thereof were made a Knight." 
" That hath good reason," replied the youth : " in 
my little skill, it is hard that a Suit well begun 
should be dashed by an addition of honor," and so 
bidding him farewell. Saith the Student unto 
him, " you are at good leisure : take here, I will 
lend you the Statute Book in English ; turn them 
over, perhaps you may find there of Knights for 
your purpose, for I remember somewhat, but it is 
not now ready with me." 

The young Esquire took the book home with 
him, and being sett on edge, began with the great 
Charter of restitution and confirmation of the An- 
cient Customs and Liberties of England granted by 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 a * S. NO 82., JULY 25. '57. 



King Henry the 3rd in the sixth year of his reign. 
In the XII. Chapter he found it ordained, That 
Assizes of novel dissesson and of mortchauncestor 
should not be taken any other where, but within 
the Counties where they happened, and that the 
King himself or his Chief Justice (if he were out 
of the realm) should send his Justices through 
every County once a year, who with the Knights 
of the same County should there take the Assizes: 
it encouraged him well to have so good luck at 
the first, and going on he found like credit given 
unto Knights in the Statute of Westminster the 
first in the 3rd year of Edward the 1st, the 30th 
Chapter, and in the Statute of anno 27 of Ed. 
the 1st, Capt. 3 et 4, whereby they were appointed 
to be associated to the Justices of ISTisi prius : also 
he found besides amongst the Statutes of West- 
minster the 1st, Capit 35, especial provision made 
that every tenant should pay to his landlord towards 
the making of his eldest son of his said landlord 
Knight, that pleased him also, and began to 
imagine it might be his own turn to have some 
benefit by that Statute hereafter ; but he observed 
moreover out of it that about that time it seemed 
to be a chargeable thing to be made a Knight, 
and going on amongst those Statutes, and out of 
the 42nd Chapter of Westminster the 2nd, a. 
13 E. 1. he gathered much plausible matter, for 
there he found that Earls and Barons long before 
that time had used to take the Order of Knight- 
hood upon them as an addition of honor; for 
there it was provided, because the Marshal began 
to exact over great Fees, that if he had taken a 
Palfrey at the doing of their homage, lie should 
not take another Palfrey when the King made 
them Knights, but should content himself with 
one Palfrey for both, or with the ancient price 
thereof, and this was long before there was any 
special order of Knighthood invented in England 
after the Conquest : yet he turned further and 
light upon the Statute of Carlile made a. 15 E. 2., 
by which it was enacted about acknowledging of 
Fines to be levied of Lands between party and 
party (a matter of great importance), if any of the 
parties could not appear in Court, that then one 
at the least of the Judges of the same Court with 
an Abbot, Prior, or Knight, should go to the 
party and take his acknowledgement and certify 
the same ; and turning to and fro he found another 
old ordinance concerning matters of Tournaments, 
in which noble exercise Knights were associates 
to Earls and Barons, and one law for them all. 
So thinking he had enough he gave over for the 
time. After a day or two he went with his col- 
lections to visit his Lawyer ; upon the meeting, 
" What," saith the Lawyer, "have you found any 
thing for your purpose ? " " Yea, that I have," 
answered the Youth ; " I hope I shall turn Lawyer 
also, I have so good luck;" and shewed him his 
labours. "It is well done in good faith," saith 



the Lawyer, " for a young beginner." The young 
gentleman thereupon fell in this speech : " But 
what say you to your Serjeants- at- Law, ought 
they to take place above Knights ? for so I hear 
say they begin to do." With this the Lawyer 
smilingly looking on him, " Why not," quoth he, 
" if they can get it ; the Common law, I tell you, 
is an honorable profession." " Hey, but good 
Sir," quoth the Youth, " do you think it well done 
indeed ? Have you amongst your own Book cases 
as much Warrant for the reputation of a Serjeant, 
as you have delivered me for a Knight ? I tell you 
true, I find nothing among the old Statutes for 
their credit." " Yes," saith he," " I can shew you 
an opinion of a late learned man that this word 
Serjaunt is a name of dignity as well as a Knight." 
"What," quoth the Youth, "and that a Suit 
brought by a Lawyer before he was Serjaunt 
should abate, he being made Serjeant?" " I can- 
not shew any precedent thereof," saith the other, 
" nor remember any book Cast thereupon ; but 
look into the Statute I told you on the last day 
concerning such matters, and you shall find that 
it stretched by express name into Serjeants as well 
as into Knights." " I beseech you let me see the 
Statute," saith the Youth, " for now I think I 
taste a Statute." Well, the Lawyer turned to the 
Statute, and there they found it so : " Indeed you 
have said sore to me," saith the Youth, " but yet 
I espy a difference ; the Knight is there placed be- 
fore the Serjeant; another thing I note that Barons 
be mentioned there also ; and yet ye told me the 
other day that Baro was not nomen dignitatis in 
your Law. Why, then, did they needlessly put 
them in amongst the rest ?" "I was not of coun- 
sel with the penning of the Act," quoth the Law- 
yer. " I cannot tell you readily." " Will you 
hear the wit of a young lad," quoth the Youth, 
" they found the Baron worthy of more than that, 
and the Serjeants themselves being most/ likely 
the penners or survitors of such a Law Act, put 
themselves in for their Credit : he is an ill cook, 
they say, that cannot lick his own fingers." The 
Lawyer laughed heartily at his reason. There 
sate by them at that time a Solicitor to a Noble- 
man ; " In good sooth," quoth he, " by your good 
favor, if you will give me leave to speak, I have 
much marvelled at one thing in reading over my 
Lord's ancient evidence: I find very many old 
Deeds, and many Knights Witnesses unto them, 
and most commonly in these words, 'hiis Testibus 
Dominis F. T. Militibus,' &c. ; and yet I know 
well these Witnesses were never Lords, and if he 
were a Lord and Knight also, yet was it all one ; 
and many Knights in their own Deeds did also 
write themselves ' Sciant quod ego Dominus E. F. 
Miles,' &c., and their Wives be called Ladies as 
long as they live." " You say somewhat for the 
estimation of Knights," saith the Youth, "for since 
I was at School I have learned, that Dominus in 



^ S. N" 82., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



Latin is Lord in English, and in French Sire, 
whereby you cause me to observe that unto this 
day Knights be commonly called S r F. E. or S r 
F. T." Thereupon the speech between them 
brake, for it seemed the other two had more mat- 
ter of earnest to confer upon. The Youth bade 
them farewell, and told the Lawyer he had forgot 
his Books, but he would bring them the next day 
with thanks. Having little to do when he came 
home, he fell to turn over the Book of the Statutes 
in the time of King Henry 8th, and, by mere 
chance, light upon a Statute concerning Apparel 
in the first year of his reign, Capt. 14. ; and being 
desirous to know what Apparel he himself might 
wear, he found there prohibited, amongst other 
things, that no man under the degree of a Knight, 
except Spiritual Men and Serjeants at the Law, 
should use any more Cloth in a long Gown than 
four broad yards. " Oh," saith he, " that I had 
the Lawyer here! I would put him down con- 
cerning his Serjeant. I understand English as 
well as the best of them." He turned further, 
and found the like Law word for word in effect, 
a 7 H. 3., Ca. 7. "What," quoth he, "if the 
Serjeant had been wrong in the first Statute to 
be put under the degree of a Knight, could he 
not right himself in the next ? I am verily per- 
suaded there was no question in those days but 
that the degree of a Serjeant was under the de- 
gree of a Knight." So he left it till the next day, 
when he carried home the Book. 

" I thank you for your book, Sir," quoth he; 
"in faith I have found here matter enough to 
persuade your Serjeants to content them with 
their due place, for I have heard the most of them 
to be grave and modest men." " What is that ? " 
quoth the Lawyer. So he shewed him the two 
{Statutes : when he had read them he paused 
awhile, and then with a good courage to the task, 
quoth he, " you are never a whit the nearer : both 
these Statutes be repealed." " Repealed," quoth 
the Youth, and with a second breath, "what 
though," quoth he, " I am sure I may nevertheless 
truly collect out of them what the opinion of the 
whole Parliament was then concerning the dif- 
ference of their degrees." "Well, well," saith 
the Lawyer, " there is a late Statute ; we will see 
how that Statute runneth." So he turned to the 
Statute of 24 H. 8. cap. 15., and read it over. 
"Hey," said the Student, "here is no such 
matter." " Marry, no mervaile," saith the other, 
" for that Clause of long Gowns wherein this dif- 
ference is set out, is wholly left out, but is there 
anything contrary to this in the former?" "I 
tell you truly, as little skill as I have I note one 
thing in it more than I knew before concerning 
the solemn state of a Knight ; it is here generally 
prohibited, that no man unless he be a Knight 
shall wear any Collar of S.S. ; indeed I have seen 
very few at this day but the Judges that be 



Knights use them." "You are very earnest in 
your father's behalf," saith the Lawyer. " Hey, 
but for the truth," quoth the other ; " but one 
thing more I would fain see and I have done : you 
told me of an Authority that this word Serjeant 
was Nomen dignitatis, let me see the place if you 
be a good fellow." So he took down his Brooke's 
Abridgment, and showed him the place where 
Brooke saith " dicitur alibi quod seruiens ad legem 
est nomen dignitatis." " Alibi," saith the young 
gentleman, " where is that Alibi ? Have you read 
it in any other Book of your Law ? " " Indeed," 
saith the other, " I do not remember it." " Well," 
quoth the other, " I doubt your book is misprinted, 
for alibi it should be nullibi." " You are very 
pleasant," quoth the Lawyer. " Nay," quoth he, 
" I have done. I love Lawyers well, and hope to 
be a Serjeant myself if I could once get through 
my Littleton, and I tell you true, in the Book of 
Heraldry that be published, Serjeants be ranked 
but amongst Squires. Farewell now my good 
Lawyer, and I may chance to have a turn or two 
about with an Herald in this matter, as well as I 
have had with you, if I may light of a man of 
judgment and skill in their profession, as I hear 
say some of them are at this time, and I will take 
a time to look over the Ancient Chronicle and 
History of our Nation what they report of Knight- 
hood, for I hope to find there recorded that Kings 
have honored their eldest sons and your greatest 
men, whom you call Peers, et magnates regni, with 
the order of Knighthood, as a great grace unto 
them. ADIEU." 



THE LIVERY COMPANIES OP LONDON. 

To all who entertain an intelligent curiosity to 
know how merry old England founded and built 
up her commercial constitution and prosperity, 
the history of our municipal corporations will af- 
ford the most direct and credible information. 
In the annals and records of the various worship- 
ful Companies may also be found much that is 
curious and interesting illustrative of the progress 
of society, its manners, commerce, and domestic 
arts. It is true we have some few particulars of 
what old Chaucer calls each "solempne and grete 
fraternyte " in the pages of Stow, Strype, and 
Maitland ; but it was Mr. J. B. Heath who, in 
1829, first set the example of printing in a sepa- 
rate form The History of the Grocers Company, 
and the biographies of its most distinguished 
members. Then followed Mr. Herbert's labo- 
rious and valuable work, The History of the 
Twelve Great Livery Companies, 1834-7. The 
subjoined list will farther exhibit at a glance 
what has since been attempted towards investi- 
gating the peculiar history of each Company ; and 
which it is hoped will lead others connected with 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. N 82., JULY 25. '57. 



those ancient guilds still unchronicled, to follow 
the example set them by these able antiquaries 
and historiographers. This list has been mostly 
compiled from the well-arranged Catalogues of the 
London Institution, and may possibly admit of ad- 
ditions : 

CARPENTERS' COMPANY. An Historical Account of the 
Worshipful Company of Carpenters of the City of London, 
compiled chiefly from Records in their possession. By 
Edward Basil Jupp. 8vo. 1848. 

CLOTHWORKERS' COMPANY. The Record of a Visit of 
the Right Hon. Sir Robert Peel and Her Majesty's Minis- 
ters to the Clothworkers' Company, on the 8th of August, 
1844. Privately printed. 8vo. *1844. 

COOPERS' COMPANY. Historical Memoranda, Charters, 
Documents, and Extracts, from the Records of the Cor- 
poration and the Books of the Company, 13961848. 
By James Francis Firth. Privately printed. 8vo. 1848. 

DRAPERS' COMPANY. Reports of Deputations who 
visited the Estates of the Company in the County of Lon- 
donderry in Ireland, in the years 1817, 1818, 1819, 1820, 
1827, 18*32, and 1839; in pursuance of Resolutions of the 
Court of Assistants of the Company of Drapers. Ordered 
to be printed for the use of the Members. 8vo. 1841. 

A Copy of the Will of Mr. Francis Bancroft, deceased, 
late Citizen and Draper of London. Printed for the 
Company. With an Account of the Salaries, Duties, and 
Emoluments of the Officers and Servants of his School at 
Mile-End ; together with the Rules and Orders for the 
general Conduct of that Institution. 8vo. 1840. 

FISHMONGERS' COMPANY. The Fishmongers' Pageant 
on Lord Mayor's Day, 1616. Chrysanakia, the Golden 
Fishing: devised by Anthony Munday, Citizen and 
Draper, represented "in Twelve Plates by Henry Shaw, 
F.S.A., from contemporary Drawings in possession of the 
Worshipful Company of Fishmongers: accompanied with 
various illustrative 'documents and an historical Intro- 
duction by John Gough Nichols, F.S.A. Privately 
printed for the Company. Folio, 1844. 

GROCERS' COMPANY. Some account of the Worship- 
ful Company of Grocers of the City of London. By John 
Benjamin Heath. Not published. 8vo. 1829. The Se- 
cond Edition, greatly enlarged. 8vo. 1854. 

IRONMONGERS' COMPANY. Some Account of the 
Worshipful Company of Ironmongers. Compiled from 
their own Records and other authentic sources of informa- 
tion, by John Nicholl, F.S.A. Privately printed. Royal 
8vo. 1851. 

A Glance at the Pictures in the Hall of the Worshipful 
Company of Ironmongers, in Fenchurch Street, London. 
By Lcapidge Smith. Privately printed. 4to. 1847. 

SAL.TEKS' COMPANY. Some Account of the Worshipful 
Company of Suiters, its Members and Benefactors, from 
the earliest known period of its history until the opening 
of the New Hall on the 23rd of May, 1827. Compiled 
from various sources by an old Salter "[Thomas Gillespy], 

. A Narrative containing the Observations and Remarks 
of a Member of the Sailors' Company [Francis Kemblel, 
on a lour through the Manor of Sal, and other parts of 
Londonderry in Ireland, in the month of August, 1830. 
ovo. 1 830. 

The Narrative of a Tour made by Two Members of the 
Sailers Company [T. Gillespy and W. Hicks] in the 
month of July, 1838. 8vo. 1838. 

Short Particulars of the Manor of Sal, being the pro- 



fortion of the Worshipful Company of Salters of the 
rish Plantation of Ulster. 8vo. 1838. 

[To this volume are attached Five Maps and Plans : 
namely, Ireland, South and North ; a Survey of the 
Salters' Buildings at Mahary-Felt, and Salters' Town ; 
the Estates of the Company of Salters situate in the 
County of Londonderry, 1837 ; and a Plan of the Town 
of Magherafelt, situate on the Estate of the Company.] 
The Narrative of a Visit of Two Members of the Court 

of the Salters' Company to the Manor of Sal in 1841 [by 

T. Gillespy and W. Hicks]. 8vo. 1841. 

Some Account of the Town of Magherafelt and the 
Manor of Sal in Ireland, belonging principally to the 
Worshipful Company of Salters. By the Father of that 
Company [T. Gillespy]. 8vo. 1842, 

J. YEOWELL. 



GREEK FIRE. 

In treating of fire balls this famous projectile 
should not be forgotten. Gibbon (chap. 52.) has 
given a long account of the Greek fire, and its 
effects at the two sieges of Constantinople, A.D. 668 
675, and A.D. 716 718. He has quoted almost 
every author on the subject, but has overlooked 
the fact that JBaptista Porta, Magia Naturalis, 
lib. xii. cap. 2., has stated that it is made by boil- 
ing willow charcoal, salt, ardent aqua vitse, sul- 
phur, pitch, frankincense, threads of soft Ethiopian 
wool, and camphor together. In his fourth 
chapter, Porta gives directions for making "tubes 
ejaculating fire a long way." 

" Let a piece of wood three feet long be rounded, and 
hollowed out with a lathe, the inner diameter a palm 
[qy. width of the hand or four fingers], the wood a finger 
in thickness, let it be guarded [strengthened] within by 
an iron plate, and without by iron hoops, at the mouth, 
the middle, and the end [heel], then let the remainder be 
bound with iron wire lest it should burst and hurt your 
own friends. You shall fill the hollow Avith this mixture. 
Three parts gunpowder [tormentarii pulveris], colophony 
[see "N. & Q.," 2 nd S.iv. 35.], tutty, sulphur [qy. each] 
half a part ; you must pound the sulphur and colophony 
thoroughly, sprinkle them with oil and work them well 
with your hands then stop the mouth with linen cloth, 
wax and pitch, so that the powder shall not fall out, 
make a hole in this, put a match to it." 

This last, however, cannot be the Greek fire, 
unless we suppose the use of gunpowder was 
known in the seventh century. The probability 
is, however, that the Ignis Greecus, or Feu Gre- 
geois was a sort of Congreve rocket, for Joinville 
(History of St. Louis) says, 

" It came through the air flying like a winged long- 
tailed dragon, about the thickness of a hogshead, with a 
noise like thunder, and as swift as lightning." 

We know that fireworks of various kinds were 
made by the Chinese long before gunpowder was 
known in Europe. Is it not probable that the 
Greek Emperor obtained the secret through some 
travellers, or by the assistance of the Arabs ? 

Any light the readers of " 1ST. &. Q." could throw 
on the subject would be very acceptable. A, A. 



2 nd S. N 82., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



CHURCHWARDENS ACCOUNTS. 

The Churchwardens' Account Book of ray littl 
parish commences A.D. 1690, and a recent exa- 
mination of its contents assures me that there is 
little to be gleaned from them of general interes 
even to an antiquary. The single subject which 
seems to me worthy of a note relates to the de- 
struction of vermin. In the accounts of the firsl 
year, 1690, we find the following item: 

4 Polcatt's heads - Is. 4d." 

This appears to have been the invariable price 
till 1788, when we find one charged Qd. Fox's 
heads were always valued at 1*. each ; as also 
those of martens, cats, and badgers (the latter 
animal being probably entered as a grey in 1744) 
Stoats' heads also, which only appear once, seem 
to have been valued at 4d. 

In 1763, the following notice occurs : 

" At our usual Meeting at Easter we y e Parisnors has 
agreed to pay : 

Sixpence per Duzen for Rats. 
For Foxes one Shiling. 
For a Eager one Shilling. 
For Marton one Shilling. 
For Polcatt four pence. 
For Sparows three halpence per duzen." 
The consequences of this declaration of war, in 
which rats and sparrows were first pronounced to 
be public enemies, fell very unequally upon them. 
It apparently produced only two dozen spar- 
rows in all : but payments were made, in the 
course of the year, for no less than some 115 
dozen of rats ! After this period the sum total of 
payments for rats and " other varmints " sank to 
a general average of only some 30s. per annum ; 
and the only animal afterwards particularised is 
an occasional polecat. 

In 1699 payment was made for no less than 
seventeen foxes. In another year for fifteen ; in 
others for eleven. The badger and marten were 
of much less common occurrence. 

In seventy-two years, i. e. from 1690 to 1762, 
we find that a destruction took place of 
180 polecats, 
179 foxes, 
13 badgers, 
19 martens, and 
4 stoats ; 
besides a few undistinguished victims. 

Another payment also may be worth mention- 
ing, which begins in 1760 and continues for some 
years : 

"P d James Stickland for kiping [keeping] 

the Dogs out of Church - - - 5s. Od. 



Bingham's Melcombe, Dorchester. 



C. W. BlNGHAM. 



Richmond Parish Register. Extracts from "A 
Booke containing the Actes and Proceedings of 
y e Vestry of Kichmond. 1 ' 



" May 12. 1624 (22 Jas. I.). The Parish petition the 
Prince of Wales (postea Chas. I.) to assist in providing a 
Bell. 

"Oct. 11. 1630 (6 Chas. I.). Five* bells were to be 
hung up ; Sir Robert Douglas promising he would get 
one Bell of the King, and the Vestry would contribute 
one also. 

" Oct. 9. 1637 (13 Chas. I.) Simon Hughes is to be 
paid 4d. every Lord's- day, for the quieting of the Chil- 
dren in Divine Service, and the whipping out of the Dogs. 
The said 4eZ. to be paid by the Churchwardens. 

$ 
Richmond, Surrey. 



WEST-COUNTRY " COB." 

In that very interesting and well-conducted 
work, Chamberss Journal, a question is raised 
(No. 183., July 4, 1857,) which demands the 
prompt attention of all earnest etymologists. It 
appears that in certain villages of Devonshire, it 
is the custom to build the walls of cottages with a 
mixture of loamy earth and straw beaten up to- 
gether, and that this mixture goes by the pro- 
vincial name of " cob." 

The writer remarks : 

" The etymology of cob has long puzzled the lexicogra- 
phers. Nor do the Devonshire philologists throw any 
important light on the derivation. Chappie has struck 
out the most ingenious theory." 

The meaning of "cob" and "cob-walls" has 
been repeatedly discussed in "N". & Q." (!* S. 
viii. 279., &c.) ; but the subject is thus reopened. 

The theory of Chappie (see his Review, 1785, 
p. 50.) is, that cob is u possibly from the British 
chawp (Ictus), a Gr. KOTTT^S, contmus, because the 
earth and straw ought to be well beaten, trod, or 
pounded together." 

This etymology well accords with the meaning 
of our English verb, to cob, already cited in " N. 
& Q.," i. e. to bruise or beat. It also corresponds 
;o that of the old French verb, cobbir (said to be 
3orrowed from the nautical English), to bruise, 
Dump, or break into pieces. 

But here is another derivation. 

The practice of building walls of earth or loam is 

astern, and has passed into western Europe from 

;he East. I have witnessed the process in the 

Spanish Peninsula, where, in building the earthen 

walls of a cottage, the custom is to form first a 

ort of matrix for the prepared earth with pa- 

allei boards set on edge, with a vacant space be- 

ween them. In this matrix the earth is placed, 

well beaten down, and left to settle. When the 

jarth has become hard and dry, the boards on 

ach side of it are raised, fresh earth is added, and 

n this manner the wall is gradually built. 

Thus, in the process of building, the earth, by 

means of the boards, is held together, supported, 

nd shored up. That is, in old Spanish, the earth 

j " acobado" (a-coi-ado), propped and sustained 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



N 82., JULY 25. '57. 



for that is what acobado means. And as, in times 
long past, there doubtless was an intercourse be- 
tween N. W. Spain and S. W. England, we may 
infer that Devonshire owes not only the loamy 
walls of its cottages to the similar structures of 
the Spanish Peninsula, but the much-agitated 
term cob to the old Spanish verb, acobar. 

There are other derivations of cob, which might 
be plausibly suggested. But, on a general view 
of the subject, the Spanish derivation appears on 
the whole the most probable. 

I can give no account of the old Spanish " aco- 
bar " (to prop, to shore up), except that it appears 
to be connected with the mediaeval term " acoys " 
(a prop or support). 

The above suggestions are offered in the hope 
that the subject will receive further illustration in 



the pages of " N. & Q." 



THOMAS Bors. 



GENERAL LITERARY INDEX : ABSTINENCE. 

From Things strangled and Blood as practised 
by Christians condemned (2 nd S. iii. 486.) See 
Andrewes's Opuscula, ad calc. He refers to Ter- 
tullian, who lived in the second century ; to 
Sozomen, lib. i. c. xi. ; to Augustine against 
Faustus ; to the Council of Gangra, within two or 
three years as ancient as the first Council of Nice, 
Canon ii. ; and the General Council of Chalcedon. 
See also Wagenseil, Tela Ignca Satance, p. 553. 
Gent. Mag., 1736, p. 126. 

The same approved, Curcell&i Opera Theolo- 
gica, Amstelodami, 1755, fol., pp. 943-81. Boone's 
Book of Churches and Sects (Acts xv.) enume- 
rates those which consider the law of abstinence 
still binding upon them. The injunctions in 
Acts xv. 29. are the so-called precepts of Noah. 

Abstinence or Fasting. Leo Allatius de Con- 
sensione, fyc. Suiceri Thesaur. (Nrjo-reia), Du Cange 
(Jejuniuni). Hoffmann, Lex. Univ. (Castimonia). 
See Fasts and Festivals. 

Popish Abstinence revived from Pagan. Gale's 
Court of the Gentiles, Part in. 

Monastic Abstinence, v. Cassiani Opera, fol., 
Atrebati, 1628, pp. 103-45. Climaci Scala Para- 
disi (Bibl. Patr., 1624, pp. 230-2.). Bernard! 
Opp. See also Asceticism, Monachism, Passions. 
Abstinence of the Therapeutic or Contemplative 
Essenes. Prideaux's Connexion, and the authori- 
ties given in Fabricii Evangelii Lux Saint. Of 
the Ebionites, Marcionitea, Tatians and Encra- 
tites, Kpiphanius, Moshcim, with Murdoch's notes. 
Pythagorean Abstinence. Porphyrius de Ab- 
stinentia ub <>sn Animalium (in Epidcti Enchiridio, 
Cantab., 1655), the only work referred to by 
Watt of those here enumerated. Windet, de Statu 
Vita Functorum ; Hierocles in Pyth., Aurea Car- 
minu, 67, 68, 69. Of the Gymnosophists, ancient 
and modern, Iloffrnann, s, v., In Casto. Of the G. 



of India, v. Palladius, de Gentibus India et Brag- 
manibus. S. Ambrosius, de Moribus Brachma- 
norum. Anonymus, de Bragmanibus. Fol. Lou- 
dim, 1665. BlBLIOTHECAE. CHETHAM. 



iHmor 

Brahminical Prophecy concerning British Rule 
in India. The following extract from an interest- 
ing letter (published in the British Banner news- 
paper, July 16), addressed to the Rev. Secretary 
of the London Missionary Society, from the Ilev. 
A. F. Lacroix, one of the Society's missionaries in 
India, is worth inserting in " N. & Q." The letter 
is dated Calcutta, June 3, 1857 : 

" We are passing through a most critical period, such 
as I have never seen during my thirty-six years' residence 
in India, and which I believe has not been witnessed 
before. It is strange that it should happen just a century 
after the taking of Bengal by the British under Lord 
Clive ; the battle of Plassy, which decided the fate of the 
country, having been fought on the 23rd June, 1757. 
There has been for many years a Brahminical prediction, 
current among the natives, and which I have often heard 
referred to, viz., that the British rule in India would last 
just one hundred years ; and I should not be surprised 
that this pseudo-prophecy may have had some influence 
in inducing the Sepoys to revolt at the present time." 

I have seen, I think, all the Indian news which 
has appeared lately in The Times and other 
papers, but do not remember having previously 
met with any reference to such a prophecy. 

MERCATOR, A.B. 

" Du sublime au ridicule il rfy a qtiun pas." 
This aphorism of Napoleon, though never more 
applicable than to his own case, has been often 
anticipated. In reading to-day a MS. Common- 
Place Book of Edward Lord Oxford (circa 1725) 
I find this quotation : 

" Le magnifique et le ridicule sont si voisins qu'ils 
! touchent." 

There is nothing to indicate whence it was 
! made. C. 

Instrument of Torture. The author of the 
Waverley Anecdotes informs us that there existed 
anciently in Scotland a contrivance for torturing 
the fingers ; but no such instrument is in existence, 
nor does tradition inform us of its description : 
therefore it is quite lost. 

Being some time ago at Nettlecote Hall, the 

many-gabled seat of the Pophams, I there saw an 

! instrument for torturing the fingers. Supported 

! at each end by a leg was a beam of wood about 

I four inches square, split down the middle, with a 

hinge on the left-hand side, and on the right a 

staple and contrivance for a padlock. I observed 

along the edge a number of hollows, in which a 

finger could be introduced without inconvenience, 

I but raising the upper half of the beam there are: 



2"d g. NO 82., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



holes to receive the first joint of the finger in the 
lower half: the upper half being now let down 
presses the knuckles flat, producing great pain, 
and complet^y imprisoning the sufferer. Pre- 
suming that the account of this instrument of 
torture may be interesting to some of your 
Scottish readers, I submit it to your approval. 

JOHX CREMESTRA. 

Hull. 

" Saving one's Bacon." I know not whether 
the origin of this phrase has ever been discussed 
in " N. & Q. : " * if so, I am induced to reopen the 
subject. A few days since I was talking to an 
elderly friend, and saying that I purposed inviting 
your aid to solve the mystery, when he volunteered 
the following solution. In the time of the last 
French war evil-disposed persons would for a 
freak alarm the county (Devon) by firing the 
signal beacons ; on this a crier was ordered to pro- 
claim the punishment awarded by law to such 
offenders : instead of using the words " firing the 
beacon," he is reported to have distorted it into 
" frying any bacon." Hence, so my friend informs 
me, arose the expression " Saving one's bacon." 
Can any of your numerous readers give a better 
solution ? J. B. S. 

Collumpton. 

Queen Katherine Parr: Poly dor e Virgil. From 
a copy of Joannes Ball's Catalogus Scriptorum 
Illustrium, abounding with marginal MS. notes of 
the end of the sixteenth or beginning of the seven- 
teenth centuries, I extract the following, which 
may not have appeared in print : 

" Catherine, Latimera vel Parra. Shee was told by an 
astrologer that did calculate her nativitie that she was 
borne to sett in the highest state of impiall majestic: 
which became most true. Shee hadd all the eminent 
starrs and planetts in her house : this did worke suche 
a loftie conceite in her that her mother cowld never make 
her sewe or doe any small worke, sayinge her handes were 
ordayned to touch crownea and scepters, not needles and 
thymbles." 

" Polydorus Vergilius, that most rascall dogge knave 
of the worlde, an Englishe man by byrth, but he had 
Italian parents: he had the randsackinge of all the 
Englishe lybraryes, and when he had extracted what he 
pleased he burnt those famous velome manuscripts, and 
made himself father to other men's workes felony in the 
highest degree ; he deserved not heaven, for that was to 
good for him, neither will I be so uncharitable as to judge 
him to hell, yet I thinke that he deserved to be hanged 
between both." 

CL. HOPPER. 



SONG ON PUGIN'S IDEA THAT THERE WAS NO 
CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE BUT GOTHIC. 

The following little jeu d'esprit was written 
about the time of the publication of A. W. 



[* See 1 st S. ii. 424. 499.] 



Pugin's Contrasts. It was privately circulated, 
and made some little noise : can any of your 
readers give me an idea who was its author, or 
any information about him ? 

" Oh ! have you seen the work just out 

By Pugin the great Builder? 
'Architectural Contrasts' he's made out 
Poor Protistants to bewilder. 

" The Catholic Church, she never knew 

Till Mr. Pugin taught her, 
That Orthodoxy had to do 
At all with bricks and mortar. 

" But now, 'tis clear to me and all, 
Since he's published his lecture, 
No church is Catholic at all 
Without Gothic Architecture ! 

" In fact he quite turns up his nose 

At any style that's racent ; 
The Gracian, too, he plainly shows 
Is wicked, and undacent. 

" There's not a bit of pious taste 
Iver since the Reformation; 
'Twas Harry th' eighth, the nasty baste, 
That introduced the Gracian. 

" When they denied the Truth outright 

Of Papal Domination ; 
They threw in the 'Composite ' 
That great Abomination. 

" Next thing their friends to build 'dozing pens ' * 

In the most systematic way go : 
They'd be kilt, they say, the other way, 
W^ith rheumatics, or lumbago. 

" Some raise a front up to the street, 

Like ould Westminster Abbey ; 
But thin they think the Lord to cheat,, 
And build the back part shabby. 

" For stuccoed bricks, and sich-like tricks, 

At present all the rage is : 
They took no one in, those fine ould min 1 ! 
In the ' pious ' middle ages ! ! ! " 

> F.S.A. 



jftfturr 

Description of our Saviour. I find on a 
blank leaf pasted into an old Bible, a quaint de- 
scription of the person of Jesus Christ. It is en- 
titled : 

" The excellent Epistle of Publius Lentukis, the Roman 
Proconsul : In which the Person of our blessed Saviour is 
most accurately described ; the very words being faith- 
fully interpreted, which he sent to the Senate and People 
of Rome, during his abode in Jerusalem: according to 
JSutropius." 

Another MS. I have gives a different transla- 
tion of the Epistle, but the substance of it is 
nearly the same. It is headed : 

" A description of our blessed Saviour's Person, now in 
the French King's Library ; sent by Publius Lentulus; 
President of Judea, to the Senate at Rome, when the fame 
of Jesus began to spread abroad in the World." 

In a Catalogue of MSS. sold by Messrs. Sotheby 
* Pews. 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. No 82., JULY 25. '57. 



and Wilkinson a few weeks since, " Lot 68." is de- 
scribed as follows : 

"BoNAVENTURA de Regimine Conscientise. Passio 
sanctarum Virginum Euphemite, Dorotheas, Theclae et 
Erasmze. Temporibus Octaviani Caesaris Lentulus in 
partibus Judea Herodis scripsit Senatoribus Romae sic. 
MS. of the XV. Century, upon Vellum, original oak bind- 
ing, 12/no. 

"%* An interesting volume, with the celebrated 
Epistle containing the description of our Saviour's person, 
which has excited so much curiosity." 

Queries. As this subject has " excited so much 
curiosity," may I ask. 1. Has it been referred to 
or discussed in " N. & Q." ? I find no references 
to it in the indices. 2. Where can I find a 
printed account of this epistle ? I have looked 
through Bohn's edition of Eutropius, but see no 
allusion to it. 3. What "French king^" is re- 
ferred to in the title transcribed ? Any informa- 
tion as to these points will be acceptable. Vox. 

" Remarkable Satires" Can any of your corre- 
spondents supply the literary history of a small 
volume now before me, entitled, 

" Remarkable Satires. The Causidicade. The Trium- 
virade. The Porcupinade. The Processionade. The 
'Piscopade. The Scandalizade ; and The Pasquinade. 
With Notes Variorum. London : Printed for Mrs. New- 
comb, the Corner of Fountain Court, nearly opposite 
Exeter Exchange in the Strand. 1760. Price 3s. Gd., 
sewed." 

The copy before me commences with the bastard 
title (on first page of sheet B) of The Triumviro.de, 
or Broad Bottomry, a Panegyri-Satiri-Serio- 
Comi- Dramatical Poem. By Porcupinus Pelagius, 
Author of the Causidicade. The "Causidicade" is 
not in the book, although mentioned in the title- 
page. Any information as to the authorship of 
the several satires in question, or to contemporary 
notices of the volume, will be very acceptable to 

R. S. 

Quotation hi Burton. 

" J)eux ace non possunt, et sex cinque solvere nolunt : 
Omnibus est notum quatre tre solvere totum." 

Burton quotes these lines, as meaning that 
fiscal burdens fall most heavily, not on the highest 
or lowest classes, but on the middle class. Is it 
known who was the author of them ? 

HENRY T. RILEY, 

The Chisholm, Sfc. Will any of your corre- 
spondents be kind enough to explain the origin 
and precedence relative to more ordinary titles of 
the Chisholm (a Scottish), of the O'Connor Don, 
the Knight of Kerry, &c. in Ireland ? An enu- 
meration of the existing designations of this kind, 
and whether attached to certain territorial posses- 
sions, or descendible in families, would oblige 

Y. B. N. J. 

Wife of Lord High Chancellor Wriothesley. 
Who did Thomas Wriothesley, Lord High Chan- 



cellor, Earl of Southampton, who died in 1550, 
marry? Her name was "Jane;" and from his 
will, it would appear that she was sister to the 
Earl of Sussex of that day. A. 

"The triple Plea:' Who was the author of 
these satirical verses, which I might judge, by the 
quaintness and raciness of their style, were written 
at least two centuries ago ? They are probably 
too well known to the readers of " BT. & Q." to 
require republication. The " plea " runs thus : 

" Law, Physick, and Divinity, 
Being in dispute, cou'd not agree 
To settle which among them three. 
Should have the superiority." 

And ending : 

" But if men Fools and Knaves will be, 
They'll be asse-ridden by all three." 

Mine is a printed copy, pasted into a scrap- 
book, but I do not know from whence it came. 

M. (2.) 

Translations of Bishops. What were the cir-* 
cumstances" attending the first translation of a 
bishop ? It was that of Formosus, Bishop of 
Porto, 891. Where can I find the fullest account 
of these translations ? G. L. 

"The Buried Bride:' Who is the author of 
The Buried Bride, and other Poems, 8vo., 1839 ? 

R. INGLIS. 

The Drury Lane Journal. I have before me 
what professes to be the first number of a new 
periodical published in 1752. It is called Have at 
You All, or The Drury Lane Journal. By Ma- 
dam Roxana Termagant. Addressed to Sir Alex- 
ander Draivcansir, Author of the Covent Garden 
Journal. Continued every Thursday. 

My question is. Was this really a periodical 
publication? and if so, how long did it last? 

J. O. D. 

Rev. John Stirling. There was a translation 
of Terence, Latin and English, by John Stirling, 
published in 1739. The translator, I believe, was 
Vicar of Great Gaddesden, Herts, from 1740 to 
1777. Can you give me any further information 
regarding him ? Is the name to be found in the 
catalogue of Cambridge graduates ? R. INGLIS. 

Thomas Draper, Citizen and Brewer. Thomas 
Draper died before 1653; he is thought to have 
been a brewer by trade, as well as by company. 
If this surmise is correct, is his brewery now re- 
presented by any of the London firms, and which ? 

JAMES KNOWLES. 

Cranmer Family. Samuel Cranmer, Alder- 
man of the Ward of Cripplegate (ob. Sept, 1640), 
was a brewer of London. Does any one, and 
which, of the modern London breweries, represent 
his brewery ? 

Who was Lady Cranmer, who in 1692 was one 



2 nd S. N2., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



of the dressers of the Queen-Do wager Catharine, 
relict of Charles II. ? 

How far has any descent from the Archbishop, 
or from his brother John, .been satisfactorily 
traced ? JAMES KNOWLES. 

Meaning of Warlow. Can any of the corre- 
spondents of " N. & Q." learned in the European 
tongues, afford me the etymology of the Flemish 
name Warlow? Has it any connexion with 
Warlock, through the softening of the final letters 
of the latter word ? Or is it probable that Farlof 
was now near the original form ? Though this is 
a Query of interest but to few, I trust it will be 
allowed a corner in " N. & Q." 

VARLOY At HARRY. 

Under -Graduates are Esquires. There are, 
perhaps, few who know that under-graduates at 
the Universities are entitled to have Esquire 
affixed to their naines. See Custance on the 
Constitution. 

Can the title be retained by those graduates 
who have not taken holy orders ? J. M. B. 

Manchester. , 

Tarts and Pies. Will you kindly step in with 
your censer, and stay the plague ? 

The philological sensitiveness of a young ma- 
tron is daily being harrowed by what she calls 
the improper use of the word " pie." 

" It is a tart, my dear," says the lady when her 
lord offers fruit pasty under the name of " goose- 
berry-pie." " Pie," reiterates her spouse "I 
like English : Tarte or tourte are not English ; 
besides in my earliest education, on high authority, 
I learned that A represented apple-joze; now 
quote in reply." Here the lady fails : but in de- 
i'ence starts an etymological disquisition : " Pie, 
from pica, from pix, signifies mottled or spotted 
as by pitch ; party- coloured or speckled, not 
homogeneous or simple. Applied to a bird, it 
gives the distinguishing name to the mag-pie 
(pied or speckled bird that chatters ' mag,' 
being ' chatter,' not the abbreviation of ' Mar- 
garet '). Applied to a horse it means one marked 
with two or more patches of colour ; to a buffoon, 
one dressed in motley. The word indicates a 
variety of component parts. We hear of venison 
pasty, the dish of the nobles at the high tables ; 
but of the humble-j^e, the dish of the serfs. The 
former used to consist of the flesh alone ; the 
latter was made up of the entrails, heart, tripe, 
&c., called humbles and hence termed pie. 
The word pie might be used of any heterogeneous 
compound, a pasty of conglomerated orts. The 
word is inapplicable to a dish having but one 
main ingredient. Tart, however, when applied to 
a pasty, betokens a viand of such succulent vege- 
tables as possess trist juices, and offer some gus- 
tatory acerbity tart fruits. You may employ 



the word ' pie ' when addressing the vulgar in the 
place of ' tart,' as conveying the most approximate 
idea of the intended article to the minds of the 
unlettered : but such language is only pardonable 
then." Thus the lady. The gentleman distrust- 
ing the confessions of a tortured etymology again 
asks for quotations, and declines the engagement 
on other grounds. 

The malady is becoming chronic : 

" Quid struat his coeptis ? " 

wherefore I beseech you raise your " placid head." 

IGNORAMUS. 

Branding of Criminals. Will any of your 
learned readers inform me for what offences 
criminals were formerly branded in the hand ? 
When this punishment was discontinued ? What 
was the nature of the brand ? and if any such 
case has occurred of late years in any foreign 
country ? A. B. E. 

Consuls in the Barlary States. - Where can I 
find the names of the gentlemen who filled the 
office of Consul in the Barbary States, i.e. Tunis, 
Tripoli, Algiers, between the years 1740 and 1780? 
If any reader of " N. &. Q." could give the names 
it would enhance the favour, as possibly I might 
not have access to the source of information. 

AN ENQUIRER. 

"Pedigree" What is the derivation of pedi- 
gree f Dr. Richardson, in his Dictionary, tells us 
it is " from the French Gres, or Degres des Peres, 
i. e. gradus patrum, or a petendo gradus ; and de- 
fines pedigree as the degree or rank of forefathers ; 
or the genealogy or lineage of forefathers." 

Now, with all my respect for the Dr.'s opinion 
and the value of that opinion I estimate very 
highly I do not think this satisfactory. Can, 
therefore, any of your correspondents help me to 
a better derivation of the word ? KASCAL. 

Quotation Wanted : " Rose" coloured clouds" 
Could you inform me where the following frag- 
ments of quotations are taken from ? 

" Rose-coloured clouds that rise at morn, 
By noon may turn to thunder, 

; MR--, *: i . . silver lilies under." 
Also : 

" . . . As Angels love good men." 
If so, you will greatly oblige, W. H. H. 

" The Great Douglas Cause." Is there any 
printed report extant of this very extraordinary 
case, which came on for judgment in the Court of 
Session in Scotland, on July 7, 1767, and occu- 
pied the fifteen judges eight days in delivering 
their opinions. It referred, as many readers of 
" N. & Q." will be aware, to the identity, or legi- 
timacy, of Mr. Archibald Stewart or Douglas, 
claiming to be son of Lady Jane Douglas, wile of 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd s. N 82., JULY 25. '57. 



Mr. John Steward of Grandtully, and heir to the 
estates of her brother, the Duke of Douglas, who 
died, without issue, in 1761. L. F. B. 

An Ordination Query. Can any clergyman or 
lawyer inform me if one can be ordained a few 
days before one's twenty-third birthday ? It so 
happens that mine falls just after the Sunday on 
which I wish to be ordained. The rubrick says 
no person to be admitted a Deacon under twenty- 
three years of age, unless he have a faculty. Is 
that a dispensing power belonging to every bishop? 

Alnwick. 

Monuments in Churches. Previous ^ to the 
erection of a monument in a church, is it rjeces- 
sary, or is it customary, to have a faculty from the 
bishop of the diocese ? ABHBA. 



caucrte* fiottl) 
Bishop Godwin, De Prasulibus. Of this valu- 
able work I have the edition, folio, Cantab. 1743, 
with the Continuation by Richardson : and I am 
nlso aware of the existence of three previous edi- 
tions; two in English, 4to. London, 1601, and 4to. 
London, 1615, and one in Latin, 4to. London, 1616. 
I wish to learn if there are any other editions be- 
sides these which I have enumerated ; and, parti- 
cularly, if there is any published supplement or 
appendix bringing the subject down more nearly 
to our own day. I have constructed a list of 
bishops (a mere list, without any biographical or 
other details) from 1743 to the present time ; but 
I believe the list to be very imperfect. It was 
compiled mainly from Mr. Perceval's Apology for 
Apostolical Succession, 8vo. London, 1839 ; but as 
the materials there were collected with a different 
end in view, it was not very easy to form an ac- 
curate catalogue. If there be no list published or 
announced, perhaps you would not object to open 
your columns for the formation of a correct cata- 
logue? I should only propose (what it is the 
fashion now to call) a "nominal list," with the 
dates of consecration or translation ; and I would 
very willingly send you transcripts of my lists for 
the several dioceses of England, which could then 
be corrected and amended by your correspondents; 
many of whom, as is evident from their contri- 
butions to " N. & Q.," are full of information on 
this very point. I need hardly add, what every 
historical student knows, that an accurate cata- 
logue of bishops is very often extremely useful, 
even if it does not exceed the mere nominal list 
which I suggest, if the dates be but accurate. If 
you will allow me to print, as a specimen of what 
I mean, my supplementary list for the metropoli- 
tical see, it may serve to illustrate my meaning : 
and if you think it desirable, I will gladly send 
you the rest of my matter in such portions as you 



may be able conveniently to admit into the neces- 
sarily limited space which you could afford. 

CANTERBURY. 
1737. John Potter. 
1747. Thomas Herring, transl from York and Bangor. 

1757. Matthew Hutton. 

1758. Thomas Seeker, from Bristol. 

1768. Frederick Cornwallis, from Lichfield. 
1783. John Moore, from Bangor. 
1805. Charles Manners Sutton, from Norwich. 
1828. William Howley, from London. 
1848. John Bird Sumner, from Chester. 

Where a consecration occurs, I have generally 
noted in my list the day of the month, as well as 
the year. - W. SPARROW SIMPSON. 

[Bishop Godwin's work, De Prcesulibus, is certainly one 
of great research and distinguished merit, and if trans- 
lated and revised, and brought down to the present time, 
would be a valuable addition to our ecclesiastical lite- 
rature ; but the nominal list suggested by our correspon- 
dent has already been compiled by different writers. In 
1812, Rivingtons published a pamphlet of 32 pages of A 
Catalogue of Bishops of Canterbury and York from 1688 to 
1812, edited by John Samuel Browne. A complete list to 
1814 is also given in Storer's History and Antiquities of 
the Cathedral Churches of Britain, 4 vols. 4to. 1814-19. 
Mr. T. Sepping's list, in hi useful work The Sees of Eng- 
land, Wales, Ireland, and the Colonies, 12mo. 1835, in- 
cludes the prelates between 1750 and 1835. Haydn, in 
The Book of Dignities, continued Beatson's list to the year 
1851. But the most accurate list of bishops since the 
Reformation is that by the Hon. and Rev. A. P. Perceval, 
which was carefully compiled from the Lambeth regis- 
ters, and from personal applications to many of the right 
reverend prelates. Collections for a Fasti Ecchsice Anali- 
cancK, by the late Rev. Thomas Stone, M.A., 4 vols. folio, 
are preserved in the British Museum, Addit. MSS. 18767 
18770. ; and our correspondent the REV. MACKENZIE 
WALCOTT has also prepared for publication A History of 
the English Episcopate.] 

" Mala capta" Stow speaks of a tax called 
the Mala capta, levied on the merchants of the 
Wool Staple at Calais in the time of Edward III. 
Can any of your readers tell me what this tax 
was ? NEWTON CROSLAND. 

Hyde Vale, Greenwich. 

[Stow, in his Survey, says "The King (Edw. III.) or- 
dained at Calais two mayors, one for the town, and one 
for the staple ; and he took for male capta, commonly 
called Maltorlh, twenty shillings, and of the said mer- 
chants guardians of the town forty pence, upon every 
sack of wool." This Maltorth, or Maltolte, in the reign of 
Edward I. was forty shillings for every sack of wool. 
Spelman, s. v. MALETOLTE, says, " Venit Angliam sub 
anno 29 Edw. I. cum idem Rex 40 solidos 6 quolibet 
sacco lanse decoqueret." Cowel also says, " Maletent, or 
Maletolte, Malum vel indebitum telonium, in the statute 
called ' The Confirmation of the Liberties,' &c. 25 Edw. I. 
cap. 7., is interpreted to be a toll of forty shillings for 
every sack of wool. See also the Statute de Tallagio non 
concedendo, anno 35 Edw. I." The word maile was 
formerly a general term for any kind of money. See 
CowePs* Interpreter, under Maile, and Blackmaile.~\ 

Powell ofFostitt (Forest Hill?} The Rev. J. 
Hannah, in his preface to his edition of the Poems 



2^ s. N 82., JOLY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



71 



and Psalms of Dr. Henry King, Bishop of Chi- 
chester, annis 1641-73, gives a letter under date 
Dec. 13, 1639, addressed by the Bishop to his 
" Noble and much esteemed Friend, Mr. Powell at 
Fostill." 

This Mr. Powell the editor believes to have 
been Richard Powell, of Forest Hill, near Ox- 
ford ; and Fostill he considers to have been only 
a following of a corruption of common parlance, 
thus, Fo(rre)st-Qi)ill 

The writer speaks of Mr. Powell in this letter as 
a friend of his deceased brother John, who was 
Public Orator, Oxon ; Prebendary of Christ 
Church there, and of St. Paul's, London ; Canon 
of Windsor, and Rector of Remenham, co. Berks., 
ob. Jan. 2, 1638-9. 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." give me any in- 
formation or references by which to identify this 
Mr. Powell ? JAMES KNOWLKS. 

[In the Life of Anthony a Wood, edit. 1848, p. 127., it 
is stated that " A. W. was born at Sandford neare Oxon, 
in the house of John Powell, gent., which was a house 
and precept ory somtimes belonging to the Knights Tem- 
plars." To this passage Dr. Bliss has added the following 
particulars of the Powell family : " The Powells were a 
very ancient family long settled at, and possessing the 
manor of, Sandford ; and the name will be regarded with 
the greater interest from the certainty that it is the same 
family with which Milton afterwards became connected 
by marriage ; although the poet's father-in-law lived, it 
is said, at Forest hill. I suspect there were two families, 
nearly connected, but residing, the one at Sandford, the 
other at Forest hill. I find in the Matriculation Regis- 
ter, marked PP., the following entries; the two latter 
brothers-in-law of Milton : 

" 1628 Maij 23. Aul. Alb. Gul. Powell Oxon. fil. Ed- 
mundi Powell de Sanford in com. p'd. gen. an. nat. 12. 

" ' 1636. Mar. 10. JMes Christi. Thomas Powell, Oxon. 
fil. l us . Rich'i Powell de Fforest hill in com. p'd. arm. an. 
nat. 14. 

" < 1640. Maii 18. Jacob. Powell, Oxon. fil. Rich'i Powell 
de Fforest hill in com. Oxon. arm. an. nat. 14.'"] 

Lucas who visited Gizeh in 1699. Of what 
family was the Lucas who visited and described 
the Pyramids of Gizeh in the year 1699, and what 
is the title of the work in which that description is 
given ? A NORTH COUNTRYMAN. 

[Paul Lucas, a French traveller, was the son of a mer- 
chant at Rouen, and born there in 1664. He first tra- 
velled in the Levant as a jeweller, after which he en- 
tered the Venetian service against the Turks. In 1699 
he went to Egypt, and ascended the Nile as far as the 
cataracts. He returned to Paris in 1703, and published 
the narrative of his journey, entitled Voyage au Levant en 
1699 ; contenant la Description de la haute et basse Egypte ; 
avec une Carte du Nile, 2 vols. 12mo., Have, 1705, 1709; 
Paris, 1714, 1731, which is frequently enlive'ned with a 
dash of the marvellous. His works were edited by Bau- 
delot Dairval, Fourmont, and Barrier. Lucas died in 
Spain in 1737, whilst examining the antiquities of that 
country.] 

" Fitting to a T." In Boswell's Life of Dr. 
Johnson, the latter, after quoting a certain couplet, 
is reported to have added, " You see they'd have 



fitted him [i. e. Warburton] to a T." What was 
the Doctor's meaning ? L. E. W. 

[The phrase has reference to the T, or Tee square, an 
instrument used in drawing and mechanics, and so named 
from its resemblance to a capital T.] 

Anonymous Poems. Can you give me any in- 
formation regarding the authorship of the follow- 
ing work ? Jubal, a poem in six cantos, by M. E. 
M. J., author of Waldenburg, published 1839. 

R. INGLIS. 

[By Margaret Elizabeth Mary Jones. Waldenburg, 
which was written when the lady was "only in her four- 
teenth year," has been dramatised under a different title.] 

Hebrew Work. Can any of your readers say 
if the printed book described below is valuable for 
its rarity ? It bears date of the Jewish era 200, 
A.D. 1440. In Home's Introduction, vol. v., it is 
stated that the first Hebrew work ever printed 
bears date 1477, thirty-seven years after this one. 

The volume contains the Pentateuch in Hebrew 
and Chaldee, with points ; the five books of Can- 
ticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and 
Esther, besides the Haphtorah from the prophets. 
The Keri and Chethib are marked in the margin. 
At the back of the title-page given below are the 
arms of some Jewish family. The title-page is as 
follows : 

i"nin 



ID QD 



ny 



npm 
Dinnn 

uipnyn ini3 nan K? vy 
D03 iniNi 'DTijn^ ppnD j 



131 



nin 



nnn Nin 
nV n3i!?ip feouia 
n-ovj infen Turn p^pn rv33 
in 



A translation of the above would oblige, and a 
notice where any other copy of the same edition 
can be seen. C. E. S. 

[We are indebted to the kindness of the Rev. Dr. 
McCaul, of King's College, for the following transla- 
tion of the Hebrew: "The five fifths of the Law cor- 
rected accurately with all might and strength. We have 
placed their signs, the signs of the chapters and the Kri 
and Kthiv : with the Targum. So that eye has never 
seen the like. We have transcribed it from a very old 
book, purified seven times. Sons have seen it and have 
blessed it. Sages and prudent and have praised it. And 
of it we have seen, and have thus rendered letter for letter, 
word for word, according to its points and accents, so that 
it may be depended upon. And the beginning of our 



72 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



S, NO 82., JULY 25. '57. 



work was here in Sabioneta, which is under the Govern- 
ment of the Lord Vespizian Gonzaga Colonna, may his 
Majesty he exalted. In the house of the Prince and the 
noble, the glory of the Lord Rabbi Tobia Foa. May his 
Rock and Redeemer preserve him. In the year 317=? 1557." 
The book is in the British Museum,] 



KING JOHN'S HOUSE AT SOMERTON. 

(2 nd S. iv. 28.) 

I offer mv best thanks to BALLIOL for his good 
intentions in correcting a supposed "great mis- 
take" in my Monarchs retired from Business, 
wherein I say that the French King John was 
confined at Somerton, in Lincolnshire. To show 
that I am correct, I refer your correspondent to 
the Journal of the King's Expenses, published by 
M. Douet d'Arcq, which refers to the last year of 
his captivity ; and also to the article contributed 
to the Philo-Bibliori Society's volume last year, by 
the Due d'Aumale. The "journal" was printed 
by the Societe de 1'Histoire de France. From 
three sources I took my authority for asserting 
that John was confined in Lincolnshire ; and at 
Somerton I copied from the original French, 
"Somerton dans le Comte de Lincoln." In a 
transcript of the passage, the same words will be 
found in one of the July numbers of the Courrier 
de r Europe, 1856. Here are authorities enough 
to demonstrate that I spoke " by the card ; " and 
they who look into the Due d'Aumale' s paper 
must be satisfied that the French King John was 
never a prisoner at " Somerton in Somersetshire." 
The memoir by the Due d'Aumale, founded on 
papers discovered by His Royal Highness among 
the archives of the House of Conde, was translated 
in the Gentleman s Magazine for October, 1856. 
Therein the original passage referring to one of 
the localities of the king's captivity is thus trans- 
lated : " In December, 1358, steps were taken to 
remove the King of France to the castle of So- 
merton, in Lincolnshire." That John was con- 
fined in Lincolnshire is further proved by two 
circumstances. In the book of expenses above 
referred to, there is an entry for the hiring of a 
house at Lincoln for the autumnal quarter, in- 
cluding expenses for work done, 16s. ; and, more- 
over, when the king's furniture, &c., was sold, on 
his leaving " Somerton," one William Spain, of 
Lincoln, got " the king's bench" for nothing. 

jMy own belief is, that " Somerton" is simply a 
mistake on the part of the original book-keeper, 
and should be " Somercot," in Lincolnshire. And 
this emendation I intend tt> make in a new edi- 
tion of Monarchs retired from Business, which 
Mr. Bentley informs me is now required, and for 
which I beg to present to an indulgent public the 
acknowledgments of their grateful servant, 

J. DORAN. 



I think it will appear that the great mistake 
has not been made by DE, DORAN, but by your 
correspondent BALLIOL. I have never been in 
Lincolnshire, yet I venture to say that there is a 
Somerton Castle in that county. Some account 
of it, with engravings, may be seen in Hudson 
Turner's English Domestic Architecture, \. 172, 
173. I venture further to state that there is most 
conclusive evidence that King John of France 
was there confined. See liymer's Fcedera, vi. 
113. 130, 131. 157159. 161. 164. 167, 174, 175. 

The above cited records are not inconsistent 
with his also having been confined at Somerton in 
Somersetshire, but I imagine that BALLIOL will 
find it rather difficult to establish the fact by sub- 
stantial evidence. THOMPSON COOPER. 
Cambridge. 

Not knowing on what authority DR. DORAN 
may have asserted that King John of France was 
confined at one time in the castle of Somerton, in 
Lincolnshire, I cannot pretend to say whether 
your correspondent BALLIOL is right or not, in 
calling the assertion a great mistake. But BAL- 
LIOL himself has committed a great mistake, in 
saying " There is no such place in Lincolnshire." 
He may see a brief account of Somerton castle ; 
that its builder was Anthony Bee, Bishop of Dur- 
ham ; that the river Witharn passes near it, iri 
Camden's Britannia, description of Lincolnshire. 
And in Barth. Howlett's Selection of Views in the 
County of Lincoln, published by Miller in 1801, 
he may see an engraving of what remains of 
Somerton Castle, and the ancient mansion attached 
to its south-east tower ; and a vignette of the re- 
mains of the north-east tower, with a letter-press 
description filling a page and a half, in which its 
distance from Lincoln is said to be eight miles 
along the Grantham road. H. W. 



PORTRAIT (PROFILE) OF MARY STUART. 
(2 nd S. iv. 13. 32.) 

Although, I believe, the Exhibition has closed, 
the discussion of this unsatisfactory and baffling 
subject still goes on. In Taifs Magazine, in 
1847, I published a notice of the engravings of 
Mary collected by Mr. W. F. Watson, of Princes 
Street, Edinburgh ; and in a more recent publica- 
tion the following remarks regarding a profile of 
Mary, the electrotype of which was given me by 
an artist now deceased, of whom Canova declared 
him to be the finest master of las-relief in the 
world the late John Henning, the restorer of 
the Elgin Marbles of Phygaleian and Parathe- 
naic friezes : 

" The most recent discoveries made in the course of 
digging in Old Church Street [no matter where] were, a 
small but extremely rare old coin of Queen Mary, which 



2 n * S. N 82., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



73 



the possessor presumes to mean Mary Queen of Scots, and 
if so, it is historical \y valuable for a variety of reasons, 
chiefly as determining the disputed point of her likeness, 
This point arose from the confusion engendered by the 
rage at one period prevalent amongst the French, and 
subsequently the Scotch ladies, for being painted a la 
Marie Stuart, a circumstance that produced so many 
' originals,' that it is now nearly impossible to tell what 
Mary Queen of Scots was like. Two authentic portraits 
alone are pointed out ; one is in the hall of the Douay 
College in France, and another in possession of that 
eminent antiquary, Lord James Stuart, at Moray House, 
Fifeshire. Supposing that when Henry VIII. hanged 
Nicholas Heath, the last of the priors, high as Haman 
over the archway of his own abbey at Lenton, the rage of 
the English Reformation stimulated at the same time the 
destruction of the monastery, we should be at a loss to ac- 
count for a coin of his daughter Mary turning up amidst 
the ruins, her coins bearing, moreover, the double like- 
nesses of ' Philip and Mary.' But long as this English 
Mary's unfortunate cousin was detained in that vicinity 
under the husband of Bess of Hardwicke, Countess of Sa- 
lisbury, it is by no means so improbable that her friends, 
visitors, or secret supporters, may have had some of her 
coins in their possession. Blended also as the neigh- 
bourhood is with associations relating to the Babingtons 
(whose arms remained in Thoroton's time impaled in a 
chamber window of an old house at Chilwell), could this 
coin, it may be inquired, have had any relation to the 
Babington conspiracy? On that head, as well as on the 
subject of Mary's veritable profile, we happen to possess a 
curious electrotyped cast of THE FORGED MEDAL produced 
against the imprisoned Queen at her trial for participating 
in Babington's conspiracy. It affects to bear the bastard 
Latin inscription, MARIA STOVVAR REGI SCOTI ANGLI, 
with a large bust of Mary, which it is supposed must of 
necessity have been like, in order to render plausible the 
forgery which made her thus appear to pretend a right to 
Elizabeth's throne. The coin is very-email, rude, and not 
intrinsically valuable, being composed of a silver alloy." 

You will see that the reason assumed for consi- 
dering this likeness a good one, was very likely to 
occasion its exclusion from the recent e'xhibition ; 
and I do not in fact know whether it was included 
in it, not having the catalogue by me. 

SHOLTO MAcDurr. 



JAMES HOWELL AND THE " EPISTOLJE H 

(2 nd S. iv. 10.) 

The following extract, from Lloyd's Biblioiheca 
Biographia, will, I think, afford satisfaction to 
some of your correspondents as respects the dates 
and the most important events in Mr. Howeli's 
life : 

" Mr. Jas. Howell was born at Abernant, in Carmais 
thenshire, where his father was minister in 1594. After 
he was educated in grammar learning in the Free School 
of Hereford, he was sent in 1610 to Jesus College, where 
he took a degree in Arts. He then travelled for three 
years into several countries, where he improved himself 
in various languages. After his return, the reputation of 
his parts was so great, that he was made choice of to be 
sent into Spain to recover of the Spanish monarch a rich 
English ship seized by the Viceroy of Sardinia for his 
master's service, upon some pretence of prohibited goods 
being found in it. During his absence, he was elected 



Fellow of Jesus College (1623). And upon his return, 
being patronized by Emmanuel, Lord Scroop, Lord Presi- 
dent of the North, was made by him his Secretary. And 
while he resided in York, he was chosen by the Mayor 
and Aldermen of Richmond a Burgess for their corpora- 
tion to sit in the Parliament which began in 1627. Four 
years after which he went Secretary to Robert, Earl of 
Leicester, Embassader Extraordinary from England to 
the King of Denmark, before whom he made several 
Latin speeches, shewing the occasion of the embassy, viz. 
to condole on the death of Sophia, Queen Dowager of 
Denmark, grandmother to Charles I., King of England. 

" Mr. Howell enjoyed many beneficial employments, 
and at length was made one of the Clerks of the Council. 
But when the King and the Parliament quarrelled, and 
the royal interest declined, Mr. Howell was arrested by 
order of one of the Parliaments Committees, and carried 
to the Fleet, where, having nothing to depend on but his 
wits, he was obliged to write and translate Books for his 
subsistence. He is one of the first persons who may be 
said to have made a trade of authorship, having written 
no less than forty-nine books on different subjects. 

"At the Restoration, Mr. Howell was made King's 
Historiographer, and is said to have been the first in 
England who bore that title. 

" He had a great knowledge in modern Histories, espe- 
cially in those of the countries in which he had travelled ; 
and he seems by his writings to have been no contempti- 
ble politician. His poetry also was smoother and more 
harmonious than was very common with the bards of his 
time. He died in 1666, and was buried on the north side 
of the Temple Church." 

Amongst the works Mr. Howell published 
was 

" Finetti Philoxenis ; some Choice Observations of Sir 
John Finett, Knight, and Master of the Ceremonies to 
the two last Kings, touching the Reception and Prece- 
dence, the Treatment and Audience, the Punctilios and 
Contests of Foreign Ambassadors in England. ' Legati 
ligunt mundnm.' 1656." 

Mr. Howell also published the Diary of Sir 
John Finett, a most curious volume, quite pre- 
Raphaelite in its exactness, and throwing a very 
considerable light upon the events of the period. 

Of Mr. Howeli's royalist tendencies there is no 
doubt : he took up the pen at an early period in 
the disputes between the King and his Parliament, 
and in one of the several pamphlets which he 
wrote, entitled The Land of Ire, he says : 

" I pray that these grand refiners of Religion prove not 
quack salvers at last, that these upstart politicians prove 
not imperious tyrants. 1 have heard of some things 
which they have done, that if Machiavel himself were 
alive he would be reputed a Saint in comparison of them. 
The Roman ten, and the Athenian thirty tyrants, were 
mere babies to them } nay, the Spanish Inquisition, and 
the Council of Blood which the Duke d'Alva erected in 
Flanders, when he said that he would drown the Hol- 
landers in their butter-tubs, was nothing to this, when I 
consider the prodigious power they have assumed to 
themselves, and its daily exercise over the bodies, the 
estates, and the souls of men." 

There are some curious things to be found in 
Howeli's Instructions and Directions for Foreign 
Travel, 1650. In this book he relates that, about 
a century before, a race of savage men were dis- 
covered in central Spain Pythagorean, Troglo- 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



. NO 82., JULY 25. '57 



speaking an unintelligible language, and 
ignorant of Christianity ; and then he goes on to 
say, " they were reduced to Christianity, but are 
to this day discernible from other Spaniards." Is 
there any reference to this in other works on 
Spain ? VAELOV AP HARRY. 



SEPARATION OF SEXES IN CHURCHES. 

(2 nd S. iii. 108. 178.; iv. 54.) 
To answer briefly some of the Queries of F. S. 
A., I would observe, 

1. That the Apostolic Constitutions are un- 
doubtedly genuine and authentic, so far as they 
really contain what was held in the second and 
third centuries to have been established by the 
Apostles. These Canons or Constitutions are well 
known to have existed before the Council of Nice, 
which followed and conformed to them. They are 
also cited as apostolical by St. Epiphanius : 'AAAa 
Kat of 'ATr6<TTO\oi (t>a<riv tv rrj Atard^et TTJ KaXov^vri ' K. 
T. A. (Hares. XLV.) They probably originated in 
the East, but were equally valued and followed in 
the West. 

2. I am not aware that any of the Latin Fa- 
thers make mention of the separation of the sexes 
in churches. 

3. I strongly suspect, though. I cannot prove, 
that this practice does prevail in several Koman 
Catholic churches, without any reference to their 
vicinity to Protestants. I know of several in 
England, where I am certain that the practice is 
followed, in accordance with the spirit and custom 
of the primitive Church, and without the slightest 
reference to what may prevail in other commu- 
nions. I may here mention that St. John Chry- 
sostom merely testifies what no one contests, that 
at first the sexes were not separated. Still we 
have sufficient evidence that this practice pre- 
vailed very early. It is well known that the kiss 
of peace was given by the men to the men only, 
and by the women to the women ; for which the 
sexes must have been placed separately. Fleury, 
in his Manners of the Christians, describing the 
arrangement of the faithful in the church, informs 
us, that the "Hearers were seated in order; the 
men on one side, and the women on the other ; 
and to be more separated, the women went up in 
the high galleries, if there were any " ($ XL.). 
The historian Socrates moreover records of the 
holy Empress Helen, that she always prayed in 
the part appropriated to the women : Iv T$ ywai- 
n<av rdyfjiari (lib. i. cap. 17.). 

5. In all, or most of our old English country 
churches, there is the women's door on the north 
side, by which they entered and quitted the 
church, and the men's door in like manner on the 
south side. In these churches the old benches 
are often met with, much more ancient than the 



pews which disfigure the upper portions of them ; 
and it is evident that the women always took their 
places on the north side, which in many old 
churches they still do : and this must have been 
the practice long before the change of religion, 
and the abomination of pews. F. C. H. 



t0 Minat 

Col. Macerone (1 st S. x. 153.; xi. 35.) Read- 
ing in the British Museum, I was startled to see 
my own name in " N. & Q ," and still more when 
I found that the tendency of the passage was to 
deny to my father's brother (Colonel Maceroni) 
the privilege of existence. Will you allow me to 
establish the first step for any future researches 
with regard to him by assuring you that he was 
no fiction. He was born in England of an Italian 
father and English mother. He lived in England 
till about thirteen ; in Italy from that to about 
thirty, and in England for the rest of his life. 
He negociated between the Allies and Paris at the 
Capitulation, and about that time it was that he 
returned to England, as his Italian fortunes had 
been bound up with those of Marshal Murat (I 
have no papers by me and am writing from me- 
mory). He died July 25, 1846. It is necessary, 
perhaps, in order that my signature may not ap- 
pear to deny my relationship, to explain that my 
great-grandfather, in consequence of a family 
disagreement, changed the spelling of his name 
from Maceroni to Macirone, and that when my 
uncle went to Italy and found that nearly all his 
Italian relations spelt their name Maceroni, he 
returned to the old way, while his brother, my 
father, remaining in England, still continued to 
spell his name as his father and grandfather had 
done before him. GEORGE AUGUSTUS MACIRONE. 

Thomas Potter (2 nd S. iv. 41.) There can be 
no doubt, I think, that your well-informed cor- 
respondent, D., has successfully vindicated Wilkes 
from the authorship of The Essay on Woman. He 
has not, however, taken notice of Walpole's state- 
ment (Memoirs of Reign of George III., i. 310.), 
that Wilkes and Potter " had formerly composed 
this indecent patchwork in some of their baccha- 
nalian hours : " but after reading D.'s evidence as 
to the date of its composition, I think every unpre- 
judiced mind must be satisfied of Wilkes' entire 
freedom from any participation in its authorship. 
The object of my present note is, however, to di- 
rect your correspondent's attention to a statement 
(probably a slander of Walpole's) of which he has 
taken no notice, but which is certainly curjous 
with reference to Potter's claim to the authorship 
and Warburton's conduct in the House of Lords : 

" Bishop Warburton," says Walpole (i. 312.), " who had 
not the luck, like Lord Lyttelton, to have his conversion 



2 nd S. N" 82., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



believed by any one, foamed with the violence of a Saint 
Dominic ; "vaunted that he had combated infidelity and 
laid it under his feet ; and said the blackest fiends in hell 
would not keep company with Wilkes, and then begged 
Satan's pardon for comparing them together." 

And shortly afterwards he proceeded to make a 
statement, on which D., from his obvious acquaint- 
ance with the secret history of the time, may per- 
haps be able to throw some light. " Warburtqn's 
part was only ridiculous, and was heightened by 
its being known that Potter, his wife's gallant, 
had had the chief hand in the composition of the 
verses." In short, my query is does there 
exist any other statement than Walpole's as to 
the suspicion of an improper intimacy existing 
between Potter and Mrs. Warburton ? W. P. 

Rule of the Pavement (2 nd S. iv. 26.) Is there 
any rule laid down by the Commissioners of Po- 
lice, that policemen shall " take the wall ? " The 
metropolitan police do so continually, without 
paying any attention to the "rule of the pave- 
ment." Surely those in authority ought to set a 
good example to others. I hope that the Com- 
missioners have seen No. 80. of " N". Q. ; " and 
that they have given, or will give, their men in- 
structions to observe the " rule of the pavement." 

I.J. 

For the information of C. E., I may tell him 
that at Dresden, and many other towns in Ger- 
many, on crossing a bridge it is essential to take 
your right hand, a "trottoir" being given up, one 
on each side, for passengers crossing. I was once 
angrily spoken to by a German, having ignorantly 
taken the left hand side of the bridge. M. W. C. 

Alnwick. 

General Wolfe (2 nd S. iv. 44.) As you have 
been occupied lately regarding the heroic con- 
queror of Canada, of whom so little unfortunately 
is known, you may perhaps interest your readers 
by inserting the following inscription *(if it be not 
already in the " K & Q.") to him, and to his gal- 
lant opposer the Marquis de Montcalm. It is 
placed upon a monument erected to their memory 
at Quebec, I believe on the " Plains of Abra- 
ham : " 

" Mortem Virtus communem, 

Famam Historia, 
Monumentum Posteritas dedit." 

I knew an old gentleman, who died about the 
year 1832, at the age of ninety-six or ninety-seven, 
Colonel Dalrymple, who was in Wolfe's regiment, 
the 20th Foot, and had seen him ; he also stood 
very near Admiral Byng during his trial on board 
the "Monarch" at Portsmouth. R. 

Kensington. 

O'Neill Pedigree (2 nd S. iv. 38.) Your cor- 
respondent, J. MACKELL, is quite wrong in alleg- 
ing that " no letters " on this subject ever appeared 



in the Belfast Commercial Chronicle. These 
letters not only appeared in that paper (about 
1838), long ere the Belfast Daily Mercury was in 
existence, but being from the pen of Mr. Mont- 
gomery, a solicitor in Belfast, were republished 
in a separate volume as The Montgomery MSS. 
The volume, which came into my possession as 
part of the chain of evidence connected with a 
case or claim to the Stirling peerage (not Hum- 
phrey's), remained with me up till a few months 
ago, when I gave it away, as I was moving my 
books. SHOLTO MACDUFF. 

Cox's Museum (2 nd S. iv. 32.) I have in my 
possession, bound up with other pamphlets, 

"A descriptive Catalogue of the several superb and 
magnificent pieces of Mechanism and Jewellery exhibited 
in the Museum at Spring Gardens, Charing Cross. 
Tickets a Quarter- Guinea each. 1773." 

Although the catalogue describes the action of 
the several parts of the mechanism, and two or 
rather " pieces " have bulls occupying a prominent 
position in them, no reference is made to their 
eyes as, like the poet's, " rolling." 

VARLOV AP HARRY. 

George Washington an Englishman (2 nd S. iv. 
39.) The Penny Cyclopaedia is right. By re- 
ference to Jared Sparks' Life of Washington, it 
will be seen that he was born Feb. 22, 1732-3, in 
Westmoreland County, Virginia; no doubt at 
Bridge's Creek on the Potomac river. A pe- 
digree of his family is given in Baker's Northamp- 
tonshire, vol. i. p. 514. In the date of his birth, 
Feb. 11. is there put for Feb. 22. L. (1.) 

" Which the world will not willingly let die" (2 nd 
S. iii. 30.) I trace the origin of the phrase to 
Milton : let those who can go further do so. In 
" The Reason of Church Government urg'd against 
Prelacy,'^ Works, Pickering, 1851, vol. iii. p. 144., 
after stating the success of his early education in 
England (" it was found that whether ought was 
impos'd me by them that had the overlooking, or 
betak'n to of mine own choice in English, or other 
tongue, prosing or versing, but chiefly this latter, 
the stile by certain vital signes it had was likely 
to live "), and that he had afterwards resorted to 
the private academies of Italy, where he had re- 
ceived " written Encomiums which the Italian is 
not forward to bestow on men of this side the 
Alps," he adds : 

" I began thus farre to assent both to them and divers 
of my friends here at home, and not less to an inward 
prompting which now grew daily upon me, that by 
labour and intent study (which I take to be my portion 
in this life), joyn'd with the strong propensity of nature, 
I might perhaps leave something so written to" after times, 
as they should not Avillingly let it die." 

For thus speaking of himself Milton, in graceful 
terms, craves " to have courteous pardon : " 
"For although a Poet soaring in the high region of his 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. NO 82., JULY 25. '57. 



fancies, with his garland and singing robes about him, 
might without apology speak more of himself than I 
mean to do, yet for me sitting here below in the cool 
element of prose, a mortal thing among many readers of 
no Empyreall conceit, to venture and divulge unusual 
things of myselfe, I shall petition to the gentler sort, it 
may not be envy to me." 

J. D. 
Paisley. 

Kitchenham Family (2 nd S. iv. 9.) William 
Kitchenham, who died in 1676, left by will (as is 
presumed) the yearly sum of 10s. for ever to the 
"ancientest poor" of this parish (Wadhurst, 
Sussex). This money has been always paid out 
of a farm called Foxes, and one field in it has 
always been known as Kitchenham Fields. It is 
distributed by the vicar on Ascension Day to ten 
of his most aged parishioners. There is a further 
sum of 105. paid yearly from the same estate, 
under the same bequest, to the minister of the 
parish for the time being, for preaching a sermon 
on Ascension Day. The present owner and oc- 
cupier of Foxes Farm is Aylmer Haly, Esq. 
(Commissioners' Reports on Charities, vol. xxx. 
(Nov. 26, 1836), fo. 746. 

In Berry's Sussex Genealogies, at fol. 334. there 
is a pedigree of Gardner, of the Visitation 1634, 
which declares Loora, daughter and sole heir of 
John Kitchingham of Ashburnham, in co. Sussex, 
to have been married to John Gardner of Ruspar, 
co. Sussex, whose great-grandson and heir was 
aged nine years at the date of the Visitation, in 
which the arms of Kitchingham quartered with 
Gardner are given as, " Argent on a chevron 
quarterly, Gules and Sable between three Eagles 
displayed of the last, as many bezants." 

In the Catalogue of Cambridge Graduates, 1787, 
at p. 228., are the following : 

" Kitchingham, Robert, of Cains College, A.B. 16GO, A.M. 

1664. 

John, do. A.M. 1663. 
Bryan, Sidney, A.B. 1G97, A.M. 

1701. 
Richard, do. A.B. 1741, A.M. 

1745. 

Robert, do. LL.B. 1744. 

Henry, Clare Hall A.B. 1777, A.M. 

1780.* 

" Sept. 6, 1739. Joseph Knight of Ashburton, Devon- 
shire, married to Miss Kitchingham, with 7000/., and lOOi. 
per arm." Gentleman s Magazine, ix. 495. 

" May, 1778. *Preferred, the Rev. Henry Kitchingham, 
to the Vicarage of Kirby-on-the-Moor, Yorkshire." 
Ibid,, xlviii. 238. 

D.B. 

Regent Square. 

The Braose Family (2 nd S. iii. 330. 412. 476.) 
Attention has lately been called in " N. & Q." 
to the family of Braose. Allow me a little space 
for some corrections in their early history. Dug- 
dale's errors hold to the present time. In Ba- 
ronage, i. 414., ho states that William de Braose 



(temp. William the Conqueror) married the daugh- 
ter of Judhel of Totenais ; that his son Philip mar- 
ried Berta, daughter of Milo, Earl of Hereford ; 
that William, his son, was the same who died in 
exile in 1212. Making the two Williams one per- 
son created a difficulty as to their wives. The 
younger married Maud St. Waleric. What should 
be done with Berta, the wife of the elder ? Dug- 
dale transfers her to Philip. What should be done 
with Philip's wife ? Transfer her to William, his 
father ; and suppose that, when William, his son, 
called Judhel de Totenais " avus," he must have 
meant great grandfather. These mistakes may be 
corrected from Dugdale himself. (See Mon., 1st 
edit., i. 319. Ex Bibl Cott. Jul. D., xi. fol. 26.) 

We find the name of Philip's wife in a charter 
to Sele Priory (Mon. i. 581.) " Hanc confirma- 
tionem Philippi concessit uxor ejus Aanor et 
Wiiius fil s suus," &c. Aanor was doubtless the 
daughter of Judhel. 

In another charter to Sele (Mon., ib.} William, 
Philip's son, says, "Ad hoc testes idoneos adhib'eo 
Bertam conjugem me am, Philippumfratrem meum" 
so that Berta was wife of William ; and he had a 
brother Philip, which Philip is mentioned in 2 Job. 
(Rot. Obi, p. 94.) as uncle to the William who 
died in 1212, and must have been then more than 
eighty years of age, if his was the charter to Sele, 
one of the witnesses to which was Seffrid, Bishop 
of Chichester, 1125 to 1148. Agreeing with what 
I have written is a pedigree by Roger Dodsworth 
in the Bodleian Library, iii. 12. 



William de Braose=. 



Philip=Aanor, daughter of Judhel de Totenais. 
I 

Willus=Berta, daughter of Milo, Earl of Hereford. 
_J 

Willus, died in exile, 1212=Maud St. Waleric. 
Willus, starved in Windsor Castle, 1210. 

F. L. 

Rudhalls, the Bell-founders, SfC. (2 nd S. iii. 76.) 
Although the copy of the Catalogue of the 
Rudhalls' Bells, respecting which S. M. H. O. 
inquires, does not appear to occupy that place on 
the walls of the Bodleian Library to which his 
memory assigns it, another exemplar may be 
found in that library among the Browne Willis 
MSS. (folio, vol. xliii. 25.), the title of which I 
subjoin : 

" A Catalogue of bells cast by the Rudhalls of Glou- 
cester from 1648 to Lady-Day, 1751, for sixteen cities in 
forty-four several counties, the whole number being 2972, 
to the entire satisfaction of judges of bells." 

Printed at Gloucester, on a large sheet. The 
same volume contains also the following lists : 

1. " A catalogue of peals of bells, and of bells in and 
for peals, cast by Henry Bagley of Chalcombe, in the 
county of Northampton, Bell-founder, who now lives at 
Witney in Oxfordshire j who had not published th,9 fol- 



2"d s. No 82., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



77 



lowing account of those he can remember, had he not 
been requested thereto by several persons of judgment in 
bells and ringing. Printed by Leonard Lichfield, near 
East-Gate, Oxford, 1732. 

2. " Thomas Lester, Bell-founder, at the Three Bells 
in White Chappie, London, successor to y c late ingenious 
M r . Rich d . Phelps, hath cast y e following bell and peals, 
&c., from August, 1738." 

The bell referred to is the tenor bell of Bow 
Church, Cheapside ; weight, 53 cwt. 

W. D. MACEAY. 

Curtain Lecture (2 nd S. iv. 28.) I have before 
me a small, but rare, volume ; some account of 
which may be interesting to Vox. Here is the 
title : 

" A Curtaine Lecture : as it is read by a Countrey Far- 
mer's Wife to her Good Man ; by a Country Gentle- 
woman or Lad}' to her Esquire or Knight ; by a Soul- 
dier's Wife to her Captain or Lievtenant ; by a Citizen's 
or Tradesman's Wife to her Husband ; by a Court Lady 
to her Lord. Concluding with an imitable (sic) Lecture, 
read by a Queene to her Soveraigne Lord and King. 
London : printed for John Aston, and are to be sold at 
his Shop, at the signe of the Bull's Head in Cateaton- 
street. 1638." 

Then follows the dedication : 

" To the generous Reader, but especially to Bachelours and 
Virgins. 

" This Age affording more Poets than Patrons (for nine 
Muses may trauel long 'ere they can find one Mecaenas) 
made me at a stand to whom I might commend the dedi- 
cation of this small Tractate, especially bearing this 
Title. To any Matron I durst not, though never so 
modest ; lest her conscience might alledge unto her shee 
had been guilty of reading the like Lectures. To a Mar- 
ried man I feared to do it, lest having been often terrified 
with his Curtaine clamours, I might rather adde to his 
affliction, than insinuate into his affection. Therefore to 
you, single Batchelours, and singular Virgins, I reconi" 
mend both the patronage and perusal of these papers; 
and the rather, because in you it can neither breed dis- 
trust, nor beget distaste ; the Maides not coming yet to 
read, nor the Young men to be Auditors. But howsoever 
I proclaime this work free from all offence, either to the 
single or the double. 

" Marriage is honourable, and therefore I say unto thee, 
Marry; feare nothing, Audacesfortunajuvat: for it may 
be suspected, if there were fewer Batchelours, there would 
be more honest wives ; therefore, I say again, Marry at 
all adventure. If thou hast children, think them thine 
owne, though they be not ; thou art sure to have a wife 
of thine owne, though the issue be another man's. Be 
valiant, feare not words, they are but wind, and you live 
at land, and not at sea : with which admonishment, and 
encouragement withall, I bid you generously farewell. 

" T. H." 

It is possible that the term "Curtain Lectures" 
has not been much circulated by the title of this 
work, as it appears to be scarce, Lowndes only 
having seen one copy, which is in the British 
Museum.* H. B., F.R.C.S. 

Tobacco and Wounds (2 nd S. iii. 385.) From 
Salmon's Ars Chirurgica (1697), it appears that 
tobacco was quite noted for its healing properties. 

[* The British Museum copy is that of 1637.] 



As an ingredient in recipes for plaisters, poultices 
(emplasters, cataplasters), and ointments, it oc- 
curs at least twenty times. I extract the follow- 
ing : book iv. c. 9. xciv. : 

" The Medicines also which you apply to such poisoned 
wounds must be of a thin or liquid substance, that it may 
the more easily pass to the -bottom of the wound; and 
they must be of a drying and digestive quality, to resolve 
or draw out the virulency or poison of the matter. Such 
are ointment of tobacco, made thin with oil of tobacco," 
&c. 

Ointment. Book iv. c. 19. xc. : "Ipc Ung. Ni- 
cotiansB ^iii., pouder of Tobacco, 5u> Gum Elerni, 
^fs. ; mix, and make an ointment." 

Emplaster. An emplaster for binding wounds 
is composed of different proportions of " Juices of 
Tobacco and Melitot, Frankincense, Fir-Rosin, 
Bees'wax, Sheep's suet, Turpentine, Powder of 
Virginia Tobacco." C. D. H. 

" Tre," P<' and "Pen" (2 nd S. iv. 50.) 
These prefixes, together with many others, such 
as Lau, Caer, Ros, Sfc., are very common in Corn- 
wall ; they are thought to be relics of the Picts, 
who were driven to the west by the Saxons and 
Angles. For several centuries the Picts con- 
tinued with the Gaels of Cornwall : and these pre- 
fixes are evidently memorials of them, and also of 
the Cimbric people, who were agriculturists of 
Cornwall. The Rev. W. Beal, who has written 
an instructive little work on Britain and the Gael, 
thinks that the meaning of Tre is mansion, town, 
or little village. Pol means pool, or head ; and 
that Pen, means head, end, and ruler. These 
being prefixed to words to which meanings are 
given, the names of many places will have a de- 
finite meaning : for example, hane means old or 
ancestors ; TVehane would mean, the old mansion, 
or the mansion of one's ancestors. Many others 
might be noticed, but space will not allow. E. N. 
Launceston. 

By Tre, Pol, and Pen, you may know Cornish men." 

The above are words of the old Cornish lan- 
guage, which was a dialect of the Celtic. The 
word Cornish, means a reaping-hook ; and the 
county was so called from its resemblance to that 
article, a hook leading into the sea. 

Tre, means a country ; Pol, a hole or mine ; 
and Pen, a high land, or a mountain, the primi- 
tive word is Sen, but, when the letter B has a 
point over it, it is pronounced as P. These words 
are still in use in the Celtic, and have the same 
meaning as the Gaelic, still spoken in Ireland and 
the Highlands of Scotland. 

The Cornish people are descendants of the old 
Celtic stock ; and most of the places in that county 
bear still their old names. Many of the churches 
were dedicated to Celtic saints. J. M. C. 

Ivory Carvers at Dieppe (2 nd S. iii. 509. ; iv. 
37.) I am obliged by the information respecting 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[>d s. tf 82., JULY 25. '57. 



my inquiry that appeared under the signature of 
H. BASCHET ; but what I want particularly to 
know is, whether, about the year 1620, there was 
at Dieppe an artist of any eminence of the name 
of Pierre Simon ? I should be glad of any clue 
by which to direct my researches. MELETES. 

Grant's Edition of Chatterton (2 nd S. iv. 24.) 
Mr. Grant was merely the publisher of the edition 
of Chattertori's Poetical Works printed at Cain- 
bridge in 1842. The author of the life prefixed 
was an Undergraduate of this University, who, I 
believe, is still living. THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

Old Sermon Books (2 nd S. iii. 466.) In reply to 
ABHBA'S inquiry respecting the Sermon Books 
used by the clergy 150 or 200 years ago, I beg to 
state that I am in possession of one that belonged 
to a member of my family, about that time, simi- 
lar to the one he describes. It is 7 in. long, 5 in. 
broad, and 1 in. thick ; containing about 200 
leaves, bound in dark brown or black, with nar- 
row gilt lines on the cover and back. Each page 
contains 39 or 40 lines, written in a very small 
and illegible hand. It contains (as fur as it goes) 
seven or eight sermons, varying in length, as 19, 
20, 17, and 18 pages. The latter sermon is di- 
vided into two parts (18 and 16 pages) : the first 
of which, the writer finishes by saying, " I shall 
reserve the 2 d part for your entertainement the next 
Lord's day." The word " entertainement " does 
not seem used as meaning amusement ; but as the 
French use their word entretenir, entretien. In 
the inside of the cover is written in a modern 
hand the following notice : 

" This book of Sermons belonged to Francis Raynev, 
Clerk, M.A., of Tyers-hill, near Durfield, Yorkshire, 
Curate of VVoolley, near Waken" eld, 6 th of Jan r y, 1682. 
Bap d 21* August, 1G51 ; died, unmarried, Nov br 28 th , 1697, 
and buried there." 

The first five pages of the book contain prayers 
for before and after the sermon, and the long 
prayer for the Universities and Clergy, &c. A. 

Oeorge Ridlers Oven (2 nd S. iii. 509.; iv. 19.) 
A copy of this song, with an explanation, suf- 
ficiently far-fetched, of its apparent nonsense- 
verses, is given in The Critic for Oct. 15 and 
Nov. 1, 1856, pp. 501. 524. It is there described 
as being a Royalist song, written probably at the 
time of the first foundation of the Gloucestershire 
Society, viz. in the year 1657. The account is 
taken, in an abridged form, from the report of that 
society for 1855. W. D. MACRAY. 

"ToOo-Ho!" (2 nd S..iii. 415. 517.) Some 
derive this expression from Tyahillaut, or Thia 
Hillaud, but Query meaning thereof. Urquhart 
(Spain and Morocco, 1848) says: " f Talla-ha, the 
rallying cry of the Arabs ; Tally-ho was doubtless 



brought by the Crusaders." " Hoix " is said to 
be from Haut-icy or Haut-iccy ; " Hark Forward" 
from Forluer or Fort-buer, "a qui-forbuer ; " 
" Halloo " from Hah ! Le Loup, or Au Loup, 
wolves being found formerly in England as well as 
in France. 

" This word served as a shout to set the dogs on a pur- 
suit, which expression continues in use to this day, though 
no wolves be found in England at present." Gent. Mag., 
vol. lix. p. 784. 

Also Athen. (6 Ap. 1850), and La Venerie de 
Jacques du Fouilleux, Paris, 1573. 

R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

" My Dog and I" (2 nd S. iii. 509.) 

" And when I die as needs must lap, 
Then bury me under the good ale-tap." 

The same idea in 

" Wenn ich einst sterbe, so lasst mich begraben 
Nicht unter den Kirchhof, nicht iiber den Schragen; 
Ilinunter in den Keller, wohl unter das Fass, 
Lieg' gar nit gern trocken, lieg' allweil gern nass." 

Schtvabischer Trinklied, 1829. 

J. H. L. 

Judge Bingham (2 nd S. iv. 56.) C. W. B. will 
find in Foss's Judges of England, vol. iv. p. 419., 
that Sir Richard Bingham was a Judge of the 
King's Bench from 1447, 25 Henry VI., to 1471, 
11 Edward IV., and that he died in 1476, and 
was buried at Middleton in Warwickshire, where 
there is a monument representing him in his 
official robes. He belonged to a family established 
at Carcolston, in the hundred of Bingham in Not- 
tinghamshire ; and by his wife Margaret, the 
daughter of Sir Baldwin Frevill of Middleton, 
and widow of Sir Hugh Willoughby of Wollaton, 
Notts, he had a son named Richard, who married 
Margaret, the daughter of Sir Thomas Rempston, 
who was uncle by the half-blood to Sir William 
Plumpton. R* C. H. 

Derivation of the Word "Cotton" (2 nd S. iii. 
306. 416.) Cotoncum, a quince, may be merely 
another orthography of Cydonium, a quince 
(Cydonia mala, apples from KuSowa, a town of 
Crete, famous for abounding with this fruit), 
whence both Quiddany and Quince may be easily 
traced ; the former perhaps thus : KuSow'a, nvSwviov, 
Cydonium, Cydonio, Cydoni, Cyduni, Quidani, 
Quidany, Quiddany. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

Anne a Male Name (2" d S. iii. 508.) The 
names of the late Lord Rancliffe were George 
Augustus Henry Anne Parkyns. 

1 beg to mention to J. G. N. that Anne is the 
surname of an old family in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire, so that there may possibly be instances 
of males bearing that Christian name without its 
being necessarily derived from a female. C. J. 



x 82., JULY 25. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



John Bradshaw (2 nd S. iv. 47.) Without dis- 
puting the incontinency of John Bradshaw, I 
would suggest to <f>. that in giving the dates of his 
admission to Gray's Inn as 1632, and of his call 
to the bar as 1645, he has confounded him with 
some person of the same name and county ; and 
I believe the Bradshaws formed a very numerous 
family. 

As far as ray investigations extend, the Lord 
President was a younger son of Henry Bradshaw, 
of Marple Hall, near Stockport, in Cheshire, and 
was admitted into the Society of Gray's Inn on 
March 15, 1620, and called to the bar on April 23, 
1627. It is certain that he was elected Judge of 
the Sheriffs' Court of the City of London in 1643, 
and that he was assigned in 1644 as one of the 
counsel against Lord Macquire for the rebellion in 
Ireland (Whitelock's Memorials, p. 106.) ; both 
sufficient to prove that he was not called to the 
bar in 1645, as $. suggests. 

If Bradshaw had considerable property in the 
neighbourhood of Richmond in 1644, the date of 
the entry in the Richmond Registry, as <I>. would 
lead us to infer, he could not have acquired it 
from Lord Cottington's confiscated estates, for the 
grant of 20001. a-year out of them was not made 
to him till August, 1649, as a reward for his ser- 
vices on the king's trial. (Whitelocke, 415. 420.) 

EDWARD Foss. 

Buncombes Marines (2 nd S. iv. 51.) John 
Duncombe was a captain and lieut.-col. in the 1st 
Foot Guards up to March 10, 1743, on which day 
he was commissioned as colonel of a regiment of 
Marines. This information may possibly tend to 
lead W. E. to a conclusion : if he arrives at one, 
I should be glad to be made acquainted with it. 
I do not know whether his interest is in Col. Dun- 
combe, or in his corps of Marines ; but if in the 
former, I can supply him with further information. 
Will W. E. have the kindness to say when and 
where he finds " Buncombe's Marines" men- 
tioned ? and can he, or any other reader of " N. 
& Q.," inform me who Col. Duncombe was ? I 
have reason to believe that Duncombe was not 
his patronymic, but was assumed on some occa- 
sion for some purpose. JAMES KNOWLES. 

Thomas Goddard (2 nd S. iii. 467.) Amongst 
the MSS. in Corpus Christi College Library, Ox- 
ford, there is one (No. cccvii.) described in the 
Catalogue^ as a "Biographical Notice of Thomas 
Goddard," which may, perhaps, be the person 
about whom C. B. desires information. J. E. J. 

Sow and Arrow Castle (2nd S. iv. 31.) Your 
correspondent, MERCATOR, A.B., would probably 
find his legend of William Rufus in the Dorset 
County Chronicle., of which the Mayor of Dor- 
chester (Mr. Enser) is, I think, possessed of a 
complete file. SHOLTO MACDUFF. 



Lines on Lord Fanny (2 nd S. iv. 50.) I doubt 
whether the epigram quoted by L. B. has any po- 
litical or personal significance, or whether it has 
any reference to Pope's Lord Fanny. It is merely 
a bad translation of La Fontaine's fable of Le Re- 
nard et le Buste : 

" C'etoit un buste creux, et plus grand qne nature 
Le renard, en louant 1'effort de la sculpture; 
Belle tete, dit-il; mats, de cervelle point !" 

The sarcasm is still more ancient than La Fon- 
taine, who probably imitated it from Phasdrus's 
Vulpis ad Personam Tragicam : 

" Personam tragicam forte vulpis viderat : 
Oh quanta species, inquit, cerebrum non habet ! M 

J. EMERSON TENNENT. 

Coch-and-Bull Story (1 st S. ix. 209.) As the 
origin of this expression appears to be left an open 
question in the 1 st S. of " N". & Q.," I beg leave 
to offer what I have long considered an obvious 
solution. It seems proper, however, to premise 
that the explanations suggested by some of your 
correspondents, even if they have not been deemed 
wholly satisfactory, surely possess great value as 
illustrating the phrase : and as a kindred illus- 
tration I would cite the French expression " coq- 
a-l'ane," which stands for any unconnected discourse 
or rambling talk. This comes very near to a 
"cock-and-bull story." But what is the origin 
of our English phrase ? 

May we not trace it to those Pontifical letters 
which are commonly termed "Bulls?" The 
" Bull," I need not say, is so called from having 
attached to it, by a riband, the pontifical seal or 
bulla. This bulla bears on one side the name of 
the pope with the year of his pontificate, and on 
the other the images of St. Peter and St. Paul. 
The image of St. Peter is of course suggestive of 
the cock ; and thus we have the two things 
brought together, the " cock " and the " bull." 

When our forefathers rejected the papal su- 
premacy, they ceased to regard the Pope's bulls 
with either dread or veneration. And it was pro- 
bably with reference to these once potent missives 
that the practice then arose of designating any 
discourse or tale that passed unheeded, as a " cock- 
and-bull story." 

This conclusion is not in any way disturbed by 
the near affinity of the French phrase, " coq-a- 
1'ane," which also appears to claim an ecclesiastical 
origin. But a few days before Peter was warned 
to repent by the crowing of a cock, a Greater 
than Peter entered Jerusalem riding on an ass. 
Some preacher, discoursing on the fall of Peter, 
suddenly passes, by an abrupt transition, to the 
ass from the cock. Hence, we may suppose, the 
expression " sauter du coq a 1'asne " (Cotgrave, 
1650) would naturally become vernacular, for 
any unconnected and rambling discourse. Hence, 
also, the phrase " coq-a-1'ane." THOMAS BOYS. 



80 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



N 82., JULY 25. '57. 



"Time and again" (2 nd S. iv. 29.) Time 
and again" appears to have signified originally 
" once and again," and thence to have acquired the 
meaning of " again and again." Grammatical or 
ungrammatical, the phrase has some countenance 
both in French, Latin, Scotch, and German. 

" A time," in some parts of Scotland, is the act 
of once furrowing between two ploughings. If 
two furrowings intervene, it is " a double time ; " 
if four, "a double double time" (Jamieson, Sup- 
plement) . 

In German, " once " is einmal (einmahl, " one 
time "). 

" A time," in the sense of " once," exactly cor- 
responds to the French " une fois." With " time 
and again " compare also the French phrase, " de 
fois a autre." 

" Fois " is a slight modification of the Latin 
"vice." Like the Spanish "una vez" and the 
Portuguese " huma vez," the French " une fois " 
conies from the (not classical) Latin, " una vice." 
Indeed, our own " once," with its various ante- 
cedents in old English, claims the same origin, 
thus : una vice, zw(a \i)ce, once. 

THOMAS BOYS. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Councils of the Church, from the Council of Jeru- 
salem, A.D. 51., to the Council of Constantinople, A.D. 381., 
chiefly as to their Constitution, but also as to their Object 
and History, by the Rev. E. B. Pusey, D.D., is a fragment 
of a large work begun in 1850 ; for the preparation of 
which the learned author studied the Councils of 1000 
years. Circumstances have, however, compelled Dr. Pusey 
to publish a part of the Councils of the first most im- 
portant period. The work was undertaken with the view 
of showing that the only authority of the State which 
the Church of England has ever formally recognised, had 
been recognised in times long antecedent to the Reforma- 
tion ; times, with whose precedent the minds for whom he 
was writing would be satisfied; and of exhibiting the 
evidences furnished by the earliest period of the Church, 
that matters of doctrine were always exclusively decided 
or attested by those whom the Apostles left to succeed to 
suciXftortion of their office as uninspired men could 
discharge the Bishops of the Universal Church; but 
though limited in its object, the Reverend writer ex- 
presses his trust, that in this volume " he has given an 
intelligible history of the Councils of the Church down 
to the close of the second General Council of Constan- 
tinople, before which Arianism finally fell." 

From the publishers of the preceding volume, Messrs. 
Parker of Oxford, we have also received Sequel to the 
Argument against immediately repealing the Laws which 
treat the Nuptial Bond as Indissoluble, by the Rev. John 
Keble, M.A. : The Pastor in his Closet, or a Help to the 
Devotions of the Clergy, by fAeRev. John Armstrong, D.D., 
late Lord Bishop of Grahamstown ; Constitutional Loyalty, 
a Sermon preached before the University of Oxford on 
Saturday, June 20th, 1857, being the Day on which Her 
Majesty began Her happy Reign', by the Rev. Drummond 
Percy Chase ; and the new part of Parker's Oxford Pocket 
Classics, containing Xenophontis Expeditio Cyri. 



Messrs. Routledge being desirous of producing a popular 
Percy's Reliqttes in one volume, entrusted the revision and 
editing of it to the Rev. Robert Aris Willmott ; and well 
has he justified the selection. The mere antiquary will 
of course not be satisfied with a Percy which has been at 
all abridged; but the lover of the old poetry, for the 
poetry's sake, will be delighted with this little volume, 
which contains not only all that is really good and beau- 
tiful in the original work, but a graceful sketch of the 
life of Thomas Percy, " a name musical to all lovers of 
poetry," and an enlarged and improved Glossary. 

If Madame de Stael was the first to tell the rest of 
Europe that Germany had a literature, to Thomas Car- 
lyle is mainly due the credit of telling England of what 
that literature consisted. In the Edinburgh Review, and 
the short-lived Foreign Review, he gave to the world the 
first critical notices of the writings of men whose names 
were only beginning to be heard in England ; and so told 
of their merits and their short-comings their originality 
their genius their eccentricities, that he sent thought- 
ful men to their works to read and judge for themselves. 
These Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, Collected and re- 
published by Thomas Carlyle, will be a welcome book to 
many a thoughtful reader. The first volume only has 
appeared, but how rich that first is will appear when we 
say that it contains Carlyle's Essays on Richter, Werner, 
Goethe, Heyne on German Literature, German play- 
wrights, German Romance, and Robert Burns. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

MILTON'S LETTKRS OF STATE. 1694. 

THR BKE,OR UNIVERSAL WEEKLY PAMPHLET. 9Vols. 8VO. London 
1733-4. 

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to be 
sent to MESSRS. BELL & DALDY, Publishers of " NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

GROSS'S ANTIQUITIES OP ENGLAND. Last Edition, with Plates. 

Wanted by Charles John Bailey, The Strand, East Street, South- 
ampton. 

HIOOINS' ANACALYPSIS. 
MOORE'S HINDOO PANTHEON. 
AORIPPA'S OCCULT PHILOSOPHY. 

Wanted by Thomas Millard, Bookseller, Newgate Street, London. 



MALONE'S SHAKSPEARE, 21 Vols. 

RUSKIN'S STONES OP VENICE. Second-hand. 

QOAIN'S ANATOMICAL PLATES. 

Wanted by Cornish Brothers, 37. New Street, Birmingham. 



ta 

ALFRED T. LEE. For notices of Dr. Drake and 7iis condemned work, 
see our 1st S. viii. 272. 346. 

II. S. G K. D. Francisci Baronii ac Manfredis, De Majestate Panor- 
mitana, fol., 1630, is rare; but has been reprinted in Gnevii Thesaurus 
Antiquitatum Italisc, vol. xiii. fol. 1725. An account of the author and 
of his other ivorks will be found in Jocher Gelehrten-Lexicon, theil i. 
col. 1447. 

Answers to Correspondents in our next. 

TOBACCO AND OUR REVOLUTION, 1688. In this article, 2nd S. iv. 47., the 
paragraph beginning with" Servants of Charles^ II." should form part 
of the text. The Quotation from Granger begins with the words " Z)r. 
Barlow.' 1 '' 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Half- 
yearly INDEX) is Us. id., which may be paid by Post Office Order in 
favour or MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET, E.C.; to whom 
also all COMMUNICATIONS FOH THE EDITOR should be addressed. 



n * S. NO 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



81 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST I, 1857. 

PROPOSALS FOR A COMPLETE DICTIONARY OF THE 
ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

The subject of the following circular is one calculated 
to interest so many of the readers of " N. &. Q." one 
which so many may be able and willing to promote 
that we think it due to all parties to print it entire. 

PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

(AT THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, SOMERSET 

HOUSE, LONDON). 

July, 1857. 
Dear Sir, 

We ask your serious consideration of the following Pro- 
posal, and invite your cooperation in carrying it into 
effect. 

We have the honour to be, 

Your very obedient Servants, 

R. CHENEVIX TRENCH. 
F. J. FURNIVALL. 
HERBERT COLERIDGE. 
To .... 

PROPOSAL. 

At a recent Meeting of the Philological Society, a dis- 
cussion took place with reference to the present state of 
English Lexicography, in the course of which several ob- 
servations were made upon the deficiencies of the two 
standard Dictionaries of Johnson and Richardson, both as 
vocabularies of the language and as philological guides. 
It was admitted, that neither of these works had any 
claims to be considered as a Lexicon totius Anglicitatis, 
and it was suggested by some of the Members present, 
that the collection of materials towards the completion of 
this truly national work would be an object Avell worthy 
of the energies of the Society, and, if undertaken by 
several persons, acting in concert on a fixed and uniform 
system, could hardly fail to produce most valuable results. 
The proposal subsequently underwent discussion, in 
Council on the evening of the Society's last Meeting 
previous to the long vacation, and it was then unani- 
mously agreed that a Special Committee should be formed 
for the purpose of collecting words and idioms hitherto 
unregistered, to consist of three Members, who should 
invite help in all promising quarters, should get together 
such materials as they could during the vacation, and 
should report to the Society upon the whole subject at 
the first meeting after the long vacation, which will take 
place on November the 5th. The Members of Council 
named to act upon such Committee were, the Very Rev. 
the Dean of Westminster, F. J. Furnivall, Esq., and Her- 
bert Coleridge, Esq., Secretary to the Committee. 

The Committee have accordingly met to consider the 
matters proposed for their deliberation, and the con- 
clusions at which they have arrived are embodied in the 
following Resolutions : 

1. That the proposed search for unregistered words and 
idioms shall be primarily directed to the less-read authors 
of the 16th and 17th centuries, some of whom are, by way 
of example and suggestion, enumerated in the last page 
of these Proposals. The older writers, such as Chaucer, 
Robert of Gloucester, &c., and the still earlier or contem- 
porary ballads and romances, have been already so far 
dealt with in the works of Richardson, Wright, Halliwell, 
not to mention other more special glossaries, as to leave 
little probability that the labour of investigating their 
peculiarities would be compensated by adequate results. 
On the contrary, the vast number of genuine English 



words and phrases, scattered over such worts as the 
Translations of Philemon Holland, Henry More's Works, 
Hacket's Life of Williams, &c., which have not hitherto 
found their way into our Dictionaries, but which may be 
collected with "a little care and patience, would probably 
pass the belief of most persons who have never been en- 
gaged in the perusal of these old works, or have never 
tested the incompleteness of our Dictionaries by their 
aid. 

2. That when once an author, or any work of an author, 
shall be admitted to the rank of a Dictionary authority, 
all unregistered words, without exception, used by that 
author, or in that work, ought to be registered in the 
proposed collection. 

3. That in order to facilitate the proposed search, it will 
be proper to invite and the Committee hereby invite 
the cooperation, not only of Members of the Society, but 
also of all other persons who may be able and willing to 
devote some portion of time and trouble to the task. 

4. That all collectors be requested to adhere to certain 
general rules and directions, which have been agreed to 
by the Committee for the purpose of securing uniformity 
in the results. These rules and directions will be found 
below. 

With regard to the particular mode in which the col- 
lections formed will ultimately be made public, it is ob- 
viously impossible at present to speak with any certainty. 
Much will of course depend upon the amount of encourage- 
ment with which the present appeal may be attended. 
The Committee are, however, empowered to state, that 
the subject will receive the earnest attention of the Council, 
as soon as the collections are sufficiently advanced to 
furnish adequate data for arriving at a decision. 

It is also particularly requested that all persons who 
may feel disposed to become collectors, will be kind 
eno'ugh to signify their intention to the Secretary of the 
Committee, and at the same time to mention the name or 
title of the work or works they may select for investiga- 
tion, so that two persons may not be engaged in tra- 
versing the same ground. Also, that all collectors, who 
may be in a position to do so, will forward to the Secretary 
such contributions as they may have ready on or before 
the First of November, in order that the Committee may 
be able to report to the Society upon the probable result 
as early as possible. 

All communications are to be addressed to the Secretary 
of the Committee, Mr. Herbert Coleridge, at his residence, 
No. 10. Chester Place, Regent's Park, London, N.W. 

Rules and Directions for Collectors, as agreed upon by the 

Committee. 

I. That only such words be registered as fall under one of 
the following classes : 

(a.) Words not to be found either in the latest edition of 
Todd's Johnson, or in Richardson. 

()3.) Words given in one or both of those Dictionaries, 
but for which no authorities at all are there 
cited. 

(y.) Words given in one or both of those Dictionaries, 
but for which only later authorities are there 
cited. 

(5.) Words used in a different sense from those given in 
the Dictionaries mentioned. 

(e.) Words now obsolete for which a later authority than 
any given in Johnson or Richardson can be 
cited. 

(.) Forms of a word which mark its still imperfect 
naturalization (as for instance extasis and spec- 
trum instead of extasy and spectre, in Burton's 
Anat. of Mel.), where they have not hitherto 
been noticed. 

II. That all idiomatic phrases and constructions which 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



g. NO 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



have been passed over by Johnson and Richardson be 
carefully noticed and recorded, the collector adding, if 
possible, one parallel instance from every other language 
in which he knows the idiom to exist. This rule is not 
intended to apply to mere grammatical or syntactical 
idioms. 

III. That any quotation specially illustrative of the 
etymology or first introduction or meaning of a -word shall 
be cited. 

IV. That in every case the passage in which the par- 
ticular word or idiom is found shall be cited, and where 
any clauses are for brevity rvecessarily omitted, such 
omissions shall be designated by dots. 

V. That the edition made use of shall be stated and 
throughout adhered to, and that, in the references, page, 
chapter and section, and verse, where existing, shall be 
given. 

VI. That the words registered shall be written only 
on one side of the paper (ordinary small quarto letter 
paper), and with sufficient space between each to alloAV 
of their being cut apart for sorting. N.B. It is particu- 
larly requested that this rule may be strictly observed. 

The following examples, illustrative of the preceding 
Rules, are submitted as specimens of the manner and 
form in which the Committee are desirous that the col- 
lections should be made. 

Rule I. a. Umstroke = circumference. 

" Such towns as stand (one may say) on tiptoe, on the 
verv umstroke, or on any part of the utmost line of 
any map .... are not to be presumed placed ac- 
cording to exactness, but only signify them there or 
thereabouts." Fuller, A Pisgah Sight of Palestine, 
London, 1650, Part I. b. i. c. 14. p. 46. 
Rule I. |8. Fashionist. 

" We may conceive many of these ornaments were only 
temporary, as used by the fashionists of that age." 
Fuller, A Pisgah Sight of Palestine, Part II. p. 113. 
The word is given in Todd's Johnson and in Richard- 
son, but without an example in either. 
Rule I. y. Yacht. 

" I sailed this morning with his Majesty in one of his 
Yachts (or pleasure boats), vessels not known among 
us till the Dutch East India Company presented that 
curious piece to the King, being very excellent sail- 
ing vessels." Evelyn's Diary, Oct. 1, 1661. The 
earliest example given in Johnson or Richardson is 
from Cook's Voyages. 

Rule I. 8. Baby -- an engraving or picture in a book. 
(Common in the North at the present day.) 
" We gaze but on the babies and the cover, 
The gaud} 7 flowers and edges painted over, 
And never further for our lesson look 
Within the volume of this various book." 
Sylvester's Dubartas, ed. London, 1621, fol. p. 5. 
Ilalliwell mentions this sense, but gives no authority. 
Rule I. e. Unease. 

" What an unease it was to be troubled with the hum- 
ming of so manv gnats!" llacket, Life of Abp. 
Williams, Part II. p. 88. Not found in Todd's John- 
son. The latest, indeed only, example in Richardson 
is from Chaucer. 
Rule I. . Interstice. 

" Besides there was an interstitium or distance of 
seventy years between the destruction of Solomon's 
and the erection of Zorobabel's temple." Fuller, A 
Pisgah Sight of Palestine, Part I. b. iii. c. 6. p. 421. 

Rule II. Phrases. Gross. At the next grass = at the 
next summer. (Common in the North at the pre- 
sent clay.) 
" Whom seven years old at the next grass he guest " 



(speaking of a horse). Sylvester's Dubartas, p. 228. 
Compare Johnson's later quotation from Swift. 

Constructions. Satisfy in = of or as to. 

" I was lately satisfied in what I heard of before .... 
that the mystery of annealing glass is now quite lost 
in England." Fuller, Mixt Contemplations on these 
Times in Fuller's Good Thoughts, Pickering, 1841, 
p. 221. 

[The Rev. J. J. S. Perowne, in a paper contained in the 
Philological Transactions for 1856, " On some English 
Idioms," quotes (p. 148.) Latimer's 'not to flatter ivith 
anybody,' and Roger Ascham's ' changing a good, 
word with a worse.'] 

Bass, in music. 

" Lend me your hands, lift me above Parnassus 
With your loud trebles, help my lowly bassus." 

Sylvester's Dubartas, p. 73. 

Rule III. Fanatic. 

" There is a new word coined within a few months (of 
May, 1660,) called fanatics, which by the close stick- 
ling thereof seemeth well cut out and proportioned 
to signify what is meant thereby, even the sectaries 
of our age. Some (most forcedly) will have it 
Hebrew, derived from the word ' to see ' or ' face 
one,' importing such whose piety consisteth chiefly 
in visage looks and outward shows; others will have 

it Greek, from $ai'o/xou, to show and appear 

But most certainly the work is Latin, from fanwn 
a temple, and fanatici were such who, living in or 
attending thereabouts, were frighted with spectra or 
apparitions which they either saw or fancied them- 
selves to have seen." Fuller, Mixt Contemplations in 
Better Times, L. p. 212., ed. 1841. 

Sack. " They were well provided with that kind of 
Spanish wine which is called 'scA,' though the true 
name of it be Xeque, from the province whence it 
comes." Mandelsho, Travels into the Indies, London, 
1669, p. 5. 

Damson. " Modern Damascus is a beautiful city. The 
first Damask rose had it's root here and it's name 
hence. So all Damask silk, linen, poulder, and 
plumbes called Damascenes." Fuller, A Pisgah 
Sight of Palestine, Part II. b. iv. c. 1. p. 9. 

The following works and authors are suggested for 
examination, though it is not by any means intended to 
limit the discretion of collectors in this respect. A mul- 
titude of other books quite as good might easily be named. 
Those marked with an asterisk have been already under- 
taken. 

*Andrews's Works. (By Mr. Brodribb.) 
*Roger Ascham. (By Mr. A. Valentine.) 

Barrow's Works. 

*Becon's Works. (By Mr. J. Furnivnll.) 
'Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy. (By Mr. Coleridge.) 
*Fuller's Works. (By Mr. Perowne.) 

Fenton's Historic of Guicciardin. 

*Hacket's Life of Archbishop Williams. (By the Rev. 
J. Davies.) 

Holland's Translation of Livy. 

Plutarch. " 

Ammianus Marcellinus. 

* Pliny. (By Mr. Kennedy.) 

Suetonius. 

* The Cyropasdia. (By the Dean of 

Westminster.) 

Gabriel Harvey's Works. 

Henry More's Works. 

Adam Harsnet's Works. 

Pilkington's Works. 
^Urquhart's Translation of Rabelais," 

Lodge's Translation of Seneca. 



S. N 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



*Sylvester's Dubartas. (By Mr. Coleridge.) 

Phaier's Virgil. 

Golding ? s Ovid's Metamorphoses. 

Golding and Sidney's Philip Mornay's Treatise on the 
Truth of the Christian Religion. 

William Paynter's Boccaccio, or Palace of Pleasure. 

Sheltoii's Don Quixote. 

Grimeston's Polybius. 
*Watson's Polybius. (By Mr. Coleridge.) 

Stephens's Statius. 

Stapylton's Juvenal. 

Ogylby's Virgil. 

QuarleVs Works. (By A Lady.) 
*Gascoigne's Jocasta. (By Mr. C. Clarke.) 
*Cotton's Translation of Montaigne's Essays. (By the 

Ptev. J. Davies.) 

North's Plutarch. (By Mr. Furnivall.) 
*Allen's (Cardinal) Admonition. (By Mr. Furnivall.) 
*Coryat's Crudities. (By Mr. W. Valentine.) 
Marlowe's Ovid. (By Mr. W. Valentine.) 

rende's Q. Curtius. 

Arthur Hall's Ten Books of Homer. 

Philip Stubbes's Anatomic of Abuses. 

Florio's Montaigne's Essays. 

Langley's Polydore Vergil. 

Chapman's Hymns, &c., of Homer. 

Georgics of Hesiod. 

Greenewey's Tacitus. 

Hackluyt's Voyages and Travels. 

North's" Examen. 

Our readers will, we are sure, agree with us that this is 
a great, important, yet withal, a very practical scheme. 
It is one which certainly deserves, one which we believe 
may command, success. 

It is, therefore, in a spirit of entire friendliness that we 
suggest one or two points for consideration. 

First. Would it not be well to extend it in one very 
obvious direction, namely, that whereas the present pro- 
posal embraces only "words and idioms," it should be so 
far extended as to include old " Proverbs and Proverbial 
Phrases ? " This would add very little to the trouble of 
the gentleman who should undertake the collation of any 
particular author, but would very materially enhance the 
value of his labours. By this means not only would the 
researches of Johnson and Richardson be completed 
but that very valuable supplement to the Dictionaries of 
those learned lexicographers, Nares's Glossary, Avould be 
rendered doubly valuable. As an instance of how much 
is to be gathered from a careful examination of any 
writer whose works have not as yet been searched for 
the discovery of unregistered words and phrases, we sub- 
join a few notes made many years since, during the perusal, 
for another purpose, of Harsnet's Declaration of Egregious 
Popish Impostures, 4to. 1603, which Notes, by an odd 
coincidence, we accidentally met with, just after the re- 
ceipt of the Philological Society's Prospectus. 

Pp. 15. 17. Urchins, in the sense of Hobgoblins. 
P. 19. " Sworne true to the Pantofle." 
Pp. 21. 138. "A pinch of Tom Spanner." 
P. 24. If shejleere and laugh in a man's face. 
P. 26. " Where meeting with the common badger, or 
kiddier for devils." 

Pp. 26. 87. Wringing out a bucke of clothes. 

Pp. 33. 116. Hynch, pynch and laugh not; Coal under 



candle- sticke; Frier Rush; and Wo-penny hoe. Names 
of games. 

P. 34. " All must be mum : Clum, quoth the Carpenter, 
Clum quoth the Carpenter's Wife, and Clum quoth the 
Friar." 

Pp. 38. 158. To frame themselves jumpe and fit unto 
the priests humors, to mop, mow, jest, rail, roar, &c. 

P. 49. And their dog with a fiddle. 

" Hey, Jolly Jeukin, I see a knave a drinking," 

&c. 

P. 50. " For all were there tag, and ragge, cut and 
long-tayle." 

P. 53. She begins to speake bugs words. 

P. 56. Miracles ascribed to Ignatius. 

P. 57. The great skar-buggs of old time, as Hercules 
and the rest. 

Mercuric prince of Fairies. 

Pp. 55. 82. Campion's Girdle. 

P. 60. " As the Juglers use to carry a Bee in a box." 

P. 61. Gotham and the posteritie oif them that drowned 
the Eele. 

Pp. 61. 138. Oh that Will Sommer, &c. 

P. 62. There was a pad in the straw. 

P. 63. In such muses conny-berries and holes. 

P. 71. The little children were never so afrayd of hell 
mouth in the old plaies, painted with great gang teeth, 
flaring eyes, and a foule bottle nose. 

P. 73. Did ever the God-gastring Giants, whom Jupiter 
overwhelmed. 

P. 78. Brian's bones, S. Barbara. 

P. 81. Devil in the Stocking. 

Pp. 87. 158. As the last service to the Devil's Nun- 
chion. 

P. 89. " And tell us jumpe as much." 

P. 103. Goodman Button's boy of Waltham. 

P. 104. Wades mill. 

P. 107. A black sanctus. 

P. 114. The picture of a vice in a play. 

Ditto. 

P. 116. As Preston's dog. 

Christmas games : Laugh, and lie down ; My sow 

has pigged. 

P. 117. Colli-mollie. 

Pp. 118. 216. Saints Cottam, Brian, Campian. 

P. 119. The dreadful kilcowes. 

P. 121. Best strength and verd. 

P. 132. His wit being deep woaded. 

P. 135. " To be haunted with lights, owles, and poakers ; 
and with these they adrad, and gaster sencelesse old 
women, witlesse children, and melancholike dottrels, out 
of their wits." 

P. 136. Sparrow-blasting. 

Pax, max, fax, lor a spel. 

P. 137. Owl-blasted. 

Mopp the Devil. 

Pp. 146. Punic urchin spirits. 

Pp. 147. 152. Our Lady called Saffron-bag. 

P. 148. To play at bo peepe. 

P. 149. It is the fashion of vagabond players, &c. 

P. 156. Maudelen-drunk. 

P. 166. Dan-ell's wife, Moore's minion. 

P. 179. A Chrisome (description of). 

These Notes, which of course were not made according 
to the well-considered rules laid down by the Philolo- 
gical Society, may, we think, serve to show the good 
results likely to flow from the present scheme. 

Another suggestion we would venture to make is this : 
that, as the Philological Society is not at present in a 
condition to specify " the particular mode in which the 
Collection formed will ultimately be made public," and 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. NO 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



when we consider the expenses attending such publica- 
tion, the Society may well pause before pledging itself 
upon that point yet, as a security that the labour be- 
stowed shall not be thrown away, or the accumulated 
materials be wasted, it would be well that, the Society 
should declare that, in the event of its not being found 
practicable to print the results of this inquiry, the MSS. 
should be deposited in some place where they might be 
safely preserved and hereafter made use of; and it is 
obvious, that the British Museum is the fitting place for 
that purpose. 

We had intended to have thrown out some few other 
suggestions, especially on the subject of works to be 
examined, but the space we have occupied warns us to 
bring these remarks to a close. We will therefore con- 
tent ourselves, for the present, with hinting that old 
Caxton will repay perusal ; that in the early Statutes 
will be found many words, and names of articles, not to 
be met with elsewhere; and that Drayton, the fellow 
county-man of Shakspeare, has not as yet, we believe, 
been thoroughly examined for his language. 

We have made these suggestions in the most friendly 
spirit. We believe the work proposed may readily be 
accomplished; and we hope ere long to be able to re- 
port that it is progressing to the satisfaction of the 
Societv, as well as of all who are interested in our noble 
Mother Tongue. 



HENRY TITZ-ALAN EARL OF ARTJNDEL, AND 
THOMAS VAUTROLLIER. 

It may be an interesting fact to the lovers of j 
biography if it can be proved that Henry Fitz- 
Alan earl of Arundel was the earliest patron of the 
learned and skilful printer Thomas Vautrollier. 
It must be a novel fact to the majority, for the 
proof exists only in the dedication of a volume 
which cannot be otherwise than RARE. It escaped 
the researches of Ames ; and Herbert refers only | 
to one copy, which was in the curious collection j 
of Mr. Alexander Dalrymple. 

The volume is entitled A booke containing divers j 
sortcs of hands, as well the English as French \ 
sccreturie, etc. It was the first work printed by | 
Vautrollier, and bears date anno 1570. The de- 
dication is as follows : 

"ILLVSTRISSIMO COMITI 
DOMINO AROXDELIO, DOMINO 

suo obseruantissimo Thomas Vatro- 
lerus Typographus 

S. D. 

PAKATA mine primum apud me in hac florentissima ciui- 
tate Londinensi quadam typographia typis nouis, quas 
bonorum iudicio vtilissima Reipub. futura est, non video 
cu \ P ar , s .' 1 ems P" m >tias potissimum consecrare, quam 
tibi. Enimuero tu mini, iam hide ex quo in hoc amplis- 
simum Regnum relic ta patria migraui, multos annos cle- 
meiis fuisti dominus : tu mihi patronus es. Tibi igitur 



iure optimo primos operis huius mei fructus offero, quos 
vt tua innata animo humanitate accipias, & me in clien- 
telam semel admissum vsque retineas, humillime rogo. 
Vale, Londini, in nostra typographia apud Carmelitas, 
quarto Kalendas lanuarias, Anno a partu Virginis, 1569. 
" Tuas celsitudinis humillimus servus 

" THOMAS VATKOLERUS. 

Relying on memory, I venture to add that Dug- 
dale gives no information on the above-named in- 
stance of judicious patronage, and that Lodge 
fails to remedy the deficiency. I have therefore 
transcribed the document, from a copy of the 
work in my own possession, for the instruction of 
kings of arms, heralds, and poursuivants, and the 
patient chroniclers of English typographers and 
their productions. BOLTON CORNET. 

Fontainebleau. 



WELLS ELECTIONS IN THE OLDEN TIMES. 

The following letters from the Sheriff of Somerset, and 
Queen Elizabeth's Privy Council, to the Mayor and 
Burgesses of Wells (Somerset), which are preserved in 
the Corporation records, contain advice which even in 
our own time would not be inapplicable to many of the 
smaller constituencies. It will moreover furnish a plea- 
sant supplement to the amusing article on the subject 
of Elections in the new Number of The Quarterly Ee- 
view.~\ 

Litter a Missa p r Hugow Powlett. After my 
harty comendacons I sende you herein inclos'd a 
transcript of the Queen's Mag ts Councell's Letter 
directed unto me and Syr Morres Barkeley, now 
being owt of the Country, for sume consernes to 
bee had with yow amongst wothers, touchinge 
the election of meete and discreete Burgesses to 
serve at this Parliament for youre Burrowe of 
Welles, wherein my advyce and earnest request 
unto youe in Her Hignes' name shal bee to take 
suche goode regard thereunto as the Burgesses 
soe to be nowe chosen by youe bee men soe well 
qualyfyed to all respects appertayninge as maye 
satisfye the expectacon of Her Mag tie att your 
hands in thys sayde behalfe ; Wherefore I doe 
advyse and admonyshe youe herebye, as well to 
my discharge as for youre avoydinge of suche 
dyspleasure as may othervvyse growe towardes 
youe. And soe fare youe well. Wry ten on the 
iij d of March, 1570. 

Your lovinge freende, 

HUGH POWLETT. 
The Queen's Councils Letter. 
After our harty comendacons, whereas the 
Queene's Mag tie hath determyned for dyvers ne- 
cessarye greate Causes concerninge the state of 
the Realme, to have a Parliament holden att 
Westmin* thys nexte Aprill, And for that pur- 
pose her Maje tie writtes are directed to the She- 
rife of everye Shere, to cause .pclamacon thereof to 
be made, soe as there maye be Knyghtes chosen 
in every Shere, and Cityzens and Burgesses in 
everye Cittye and Burroughe, accordynge to the 



g. XD 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



good lawes and customes of the Realme. Upon 
sume delyberae5 had by her Mag tie with us, con- 
cerninge the dew execucon hereof, her Mag tie hath 
called to her remembrance, which also we thinke 
to be trewe, that though the gretter number of 
Knyghtes and Cityzens and Burgesses for the 
more parte are dewlye and orderlye chosen, yett 
in many places such consideracon is not usually 
had herein as reason wolde, that is to chewse 
persons lyable to give good informacon and^ ad- 
vyce for the places for which theye are noiated, 
And to treate and consul te discratelye upon suche 
matters as are to be ppounded to them in theyre 
assembles, but contraryewyse that manye in late 
Parliaments (as her Mag tie thinkes) have beene 
named some for private respectes and favour 
uppon theire owne seutes -^ some to^enjoye imuni- 
ties from arrestes upon actions duringe the tyme 
of the pliaments, and some others to sett^forthe 
private causes by senester labour and frivolous 
talkes and argumentes, to the plongation of 
tyme withoute juste cause, and withoute regarde 
to the publique benefitt and weale of the Realme ; 
And therefore Her Mag tie , beynge verye desirous 
to have redresse herein, hath charged us to devyse^ 
some spedy good wayes for reformacon thereof 
at thys tyme, soe as all the persons be asembled in 
this next pliament for the Sheres, Cityes, and 
Burroughes maye be founde as neere as maye be 
descrete, wyse, and well disposed, accordinge to 
the intention of theyre chewsen oughte to be. 
And therefore we have thoughte meete to geve 
knowledge hereof to suche as we thinke, both for 
theire wisdome, discrecons and auctoritie in sun- 
drye Counties of the Realme can and will take 
advantage hereof. Soe have wee for the purpose 
made special! choyse of you, requiringe youe in 
Her Mag ties name to consider well of these pre- 
misses, and to conferr with the Sherife of that 
Shere of Som et , by all suche goode measures as 
you shall thinke meete, and with such speciall 
men of lyveliod and worshipp of the said Countie 
as have interest herein, and in lyke mailer wyth 
the hedd officers of Cities and Boroughes, soe as 
byyoure good advice and discrecon the persons to 
be chewsen maye be well qualyfyed with know- 
ledge, discretion, and modestye mete for these 
places, And in soe doeinge ye shall geve just 
occasion to have her Majestye herein well satis- 
fy'd, the Realme well served, and the tyme of the 
Asemblie (which cariot be but chargeable with 
longe continuance) to be both pfytable and spe- 
dilye passed over and ended, and finalye the 
Counteys, Cityes, and Burroughes well pvyded 
for. And soe we bydde youe hartilye farewell. 
From Westm r , the vij of Februarye, 1570. 
Youre lovinge Frendes, 

N. BACON. C. CLINTON. 

H. NORTH. W. HOWARD. 

T. SUSSEX. JAMES CBOJTTE. 

R. LEICESTER. W. CECULL. 



The writ for the election being soon after re- 
ceived, the citizens made choice of John Ayle- 
worth, Esq., and Henry Newton, Esq. INA. 

Wells. 



BYGONE REMINISCENCES OF GREAT MEN. 

Robert Boyle at Stalbridge. 

Another classic spot is Stalbridge, in Dorset- 
shire, delightfully situated on an eminence over- 
looking the fertile and extensive " Vale of Black- 
more." Here lived the truly illustrious philosopher 
and Christian, the Hon. Robert Boyle; and, till 
within the last thirty years or so, the mansion in 
the "Park" was said to contain the room where 
he studied, and where the first of his experiments 
in natural philosophy and chemistry were made.* 
The manor still retains its park-like character, 
being surrounded by a stone wall some five miles 
in circumference, but every trace of the mansion 
is now removed: a portion only of the offices 
being retained, which has since been converted 
into a farm-house. A pair of massive stone pil- 
lars, surmounted by two admirably carved lions, 
flanking the entrance to what was once a noble 
avenue of elms, alone remain to testify to the 
former prosperity and grandeur of the place. t 
After some vicissitudes, it passed into the hands 
of the "Paget" family, one of whom (the late 
Earl of Uxbridge), in 1802, entertained King 
George III. here, after having honoured Lord 
Dorchester with a similar visit at his seat at Mil- 
ton Abbey, near Blandford. Subsequently, the 
mansion was pulled down, and the materials dis- 
posed of; and in the cellar (of the mansion) is 
stated to have been discovered a curious kind of 
pump, which may have some connexion with the 
early experiments of the philosopher on the air- 
pump. It would, certainly, be a fitting tribute to 
the memory of so great and good a man, that some 
memento of him should be preserved on the spot 
where he first laboured in the cause of science so 
indefatigably, and with such great and lasting 
results. The present noble owner, the Marquis of 
Westminster, has it in contemplation, I believe, to 
erect another mansion (though not on the same 
site) ; and it would, assuredly, form no small at- 
traction to the " park," in addition to the natural 
beauties it already possesses, to contain within it 

* " In March, 1646, he retired to his manor at Sal- 
bridge, where he resided for the most part till May, 1650. 
.... During his retirement at Stalbridge, he applied 
himself with incredible industry to studies of various 
kinds, natural philosophy and chemistry in particular." 
Vide Encycl Brit, art. BOYLE. See also Hutchins's 
Dorset, and auctores ejus, vol. ii. pp. 244, 245. Moule's 
English Counties (in loco). 

f Coker (quoted by Hutchins, ut supra,) says, "Mer- 
viue, Earl of Castlehaven, latelie built a goodly fair house 
here." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. N 83., Aim. 1. '57. 



some permanent record of the life and labours of 
so eminent a man, whose early efforts in the for- 
mation of the "Royal Society" are not the least 
of the claims he has on the gratitude of admiring 
posterity. 

Besides the charm of association with the name 
and memory of Boyle, this favoured spot boasts 
connexion with another great name : for within 
the limits of the parish, and about a mile from the 
"Park," still stands Thornhill House, the resi- 
dence of Sir James Thornhill, F.R.S., and " chief 
of our English painters," whose efforts to regain 
this the ancient seat of his family are well known.* 
The property has since been alienated, and is now 
possessed by the Rev. Henry Boucher. In the 
grounds may still be seen the obelisk (though not 
entire) erected by Sir James Thornhill in honour 
of his patron King George I. There is a well- 
executed portrait of Sir James extant by Faber, 
after a painting by Highmore, bearing the date 
"1732, set. 56." 

In the adjoining parish of Marnhull is Nash 
Court, the residence of Giles Hussey, the portrait 
painter; and at no great distance, Sherborne Castle, 
the residence of " the great and unfortunate Sir 
Walter Raleigh," of which Mr. Hutchins says,f 

" The ruins of the (old) Castle, Sir Walter Rawleigh's 
grove, the seat of Lord Digby, a grove planted by Mr. 
Pope, and a noble serpentine body of water, with a fine 
stone bridge of several arches over it, made by (the late) 
Lord Digby, conspired to make this seat one of the most 
venerable and beautiful in England." 

HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 



ETYMOLOGIES. 



Shank's Nag. A proverbial expression for 
going on foot is ride on Shank's nag, or Shank's 
mare, as it is expressed in Ireland. The meaning 
seems obvious enough, but still the phrase has not 
the air of an original. Now the corresponding 
expression in Spain is, ride on St. Francis mule, 
alluding to the barefoot Franciscans, who always 
went on foot ; and I suspect that before the Re- 
formation the phrase was common in England too, 
but, as mules were little used there for riding, nag 
took the place of mule. After the Reformation it 
may have become Frank's nag, and thence, by an 
easy transition, Shank's nag. 

I take this opportunity of giving a farther proof 
of the correctness of my explanation of Finding a 
mare's nest in a former number. In Swift's Polite 
Conversation, I have met with, " What! you have 
found a mare's nest, and laugh at the eggs ! " 

Clamour. There can be no doubt of this word 

* See a pedigree, and many interesting particulars of 
the family, in Hutchins (above quoted), under Wolland, 
the subsequent residence of the Thornhills. Vol. ii. 
450. 1. ; also, Vol. i. 410., under Melcombe Kegis. 

t Vol. ii. p. 390. 



as a noun, the Latin clamor ; but was there a verb 
(a misspelt one of course), as in clamor your 
tongues ( Winters Tale, Act IV. Sc. 3.) ? I have 
already given my opinion that there was, and I 
am confirmed in it by the following passage in 
Mr. Singer's note on that place: "Mr. Hunter has 
cited a passage from Taylor the Water Poet, in 
which the word is thus again perverted : 

" Clamour the promulgation of your tongue.' " 
Mr. Singer's word is chamour, chaumer, or 
chaumbre (of which last he gives a single ex- 
ample from Udall), whichj he says, comes from 
the French chomer, to refrain (not its exact sense, 
by the way). Taylor, I believe, printed his own 
poems, and such a " perversion " could hardly 
have escaped his eye ; and I think that both he 
and Shakspeare used a verb pronounced like 
clamour, but which should be spelt clammer, and 
signified to press or squeeze ; so that clammer 
your tongue is the same as hold your tongue. It 
is true clammer is not in use, but clem (i. q. clam) 
is. I myself have heard a peasant in Hants say 
" his stomach was clemmed with fasting," i. e. 
squeezed, pressed together ; and Massinger uses 
it exactly in the same sense : 

" When my entrails 

Were clemmed with keeping a perpetual fast." 

Roman Actor, II. 1. 

where Coxeter and M. Mason read clammed, as it 
is in the passage from Antonio and Mellida quoted 
in Mr. Wright's Dictionary, s. v. CLAM. Surely 
such a word as clammer was more appropriate in 
the mouth of a clown than Mr. Singer's chaumer 
or chaumbre. As to the substitution of charm, first 
proposed by Grey, and since found in Mr. Col- 
lier's corrector, I utterly reject it, for it occurs 
nowhere except in the mouths of persons of sta- 
tion and education ; for Tranio, in the Taming of 
the Shrew, is such for the nonce. I may add that 
Mr. Richardson is inclined to regard clamor, in 
the Winter's Tale, as connected with clam. In 
confirmation of this it may be observed that there 
seems to have been a verb clomsen, also akin to 
clam : 

" Other when thou clomsest for hunger, other clyngest 
for drouth." 

Vision of Piers Plowman. 

Cling. This verb, as we may see, is connected 
in sense, and perhaps also in origin, with clem. 
Somner derives it from clinjan, A.-S., a verb 
which, as far as I can ascertain, does not occur in 
any extant Anglo-Saxon MS. ; and indeed I have 
often wondered where Soniner, who cites no au- 
thorities, got many of his words. I, however, do 
not want to call his honesty in question. Cling is 
used by Lord Surrey in the following verse of his 
paraphrase of Ecclesiastes (v. 18, 19.): 

" Clings not his guts with niggish fare, to heap his 

chest withal," 
in a manner which illustrates " Till famine cling 



2* S. N' 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



thee," in Macbeth, better than most of the pas- 
sages adduced for that purpose. I may add that 
klim, the Dutch for ivy, seems to be another mem- 
ber of this family. One of the same noble lord's 
poems, by the way, commences thus : 
" Although I had a check, 
To give the mate is hard, 
For I have found a neck 
To keep my men in guard." 

Here it is really amusing to see the perplexity 
of Dr. Nott and Mr. Bell in their efforts to make 
any sense of neck, which is simply kneck, i.e. knack. 

Bottle. This word seems peculiar to the French 
language, whence we got it ; its remote origin is 
probably iriflos, whence, perhaps, pot. From it 
comes the verb bottle, of which, as far as my know- 
ledge extends, the sole meaning is, to put into a 
bottle. In what sense, then, is it that in Richard 
II L Gloster is called " a bottled spider ?" Ritson 
says this is " a large, bloated, glossy spider, sup- 
posed to contain venom proportionate to its size;" 
but as he gives no authority for this sense of bot- 
tled, and as all the other commentators are silent, 
I venture to think that the poet wrote " bloated 
spider," the very phrase of that accurate observer 
Cowper (Task, v. 422.), and meaning a spider sur- 
charged with venom. Bottle, in a "bottle of hay 
or straw," is apparently a mere corruption of 
bundle. THOS, KEIGHTLEY. 



THE COMET AND ITS EFFECTS IN DIFFEKENT 
COUNTRIES. 

For the information of those persons who may 
be living when the comet does make its appearance, 
as it is supposed will be the case in the course 
of ten years, the following notices which have 
recently appeared in different European and 
American journals may claim a remembrance in 
" N. & Q. : " 

" The Comet. A maid servant at Shields got a holi- 
day, a few days ago, for the 13th of June, that she 
might be drowned by the comet beside her mother ! ' 
A thoughtful inhabitant of Cleadon made a large chest 
of oak, in which to shut himself up, in order to be safe 
from the comet. A sly Liverpool tradesman, whose 
stores are 'under the office where everybody goes to get 
his weights stamped,' wrote an essay in the advertising 
columns of the local papers, demonstrating the danger 
of the ' Milky Way ' from the comet, and advising the 
public to lay in a stock of his butter ' before the source is 
dried up.' A woman actually committed suicide in 
Prussia from terror of the comet. A Mormon preacher 
at Southampton said in his sermon a Sunday or two ago : 
* Shall I tell you, my brethren, when the comet shall come 
and strike this earth ? When Brigham Young chooses 
to say the word, then will the comet come and strike the 
earth.' Accounts from Galicia state that disturbances 
have lately taken place on the Russian frontier for 
which we are likewise indebted to the comet. The pea- 
sants, believing that the world was about to come to an 
end, gave way to numerous excesses, and were guilty of 



encroachments on other people's property'. The authori- 
ties were compelled to send to Lemberg for troops to put 
an end to the outbreak." 

" The story that the eminent French savant, M. Babi- 
net, of the Institute, had expressed a belief that the 
world would be burnt up by contact with a comet about 
these days, is entirely without foundation. On the con- 
trary, he says, over his own signature : 

" ' If in passing the comet should come in contact with 
the earth its imperceptible substance could not penetrate 
through our atmosphere, and this meeting would be en- 
tirely unperceived by the inhabitants of this planet.' 
He also says, very justly, 'Nothing is more ridiculous 
than this rage for trembling, this fever of fear, this epi- 
demic panic which has seized people from time to time in 
the midst of the lights of science and of astronomical 
sentinels who cry out " every thing is tranquil." ' : 

"Some of the wise ones of a continental city notice that 
the Man in the Moon has already flattened and scorched 
his nose considerably by coming into contact with the 
comet, while swinging round our earth, which circum- 
stance irrefragably proves that the fiery mass must al- 
ready be near us." 

"Bets on the Comet. We ought to have published 
long ago the propositions of the Urbana (111.) Constitu- 
tion concerning the comet. They have been extensively 
quoted and credited to a paper which stole them from the 
Constitution, and, late as it is. we'll do what we can to 
set the matter right. Zimmerman, after observing ' the 
critter' carefully with the instruments of the Urbana 
Brass Band, comes to the conclusion : 

" 1st. The comet will not strike the earth ; but 

" 2nd. If it does strike, it will never do it a second 
time. 

" In case, however, any gentleman holds opinions dif- 
ferent from the above and is willing to back his views to 
a limited extent, in order to arrive at the truth in this 
momentous matter, we hereby make the following 
" Propositions. 

" 1st. We will wager 20,000 dollars, more or less, that 
if the comet offers to strike, we will dodge before it does 
it ; in other words, that it can't be brought to the scratch. 

" 2nd. A like sum that, if it does strike, it will be 
knocked higher nor a kite. 

" 3rd. Twenty-five times the above amounts that, in 
case the comet strikes, it won't budge the earth six 
inches by actual measurement. 

"4th. "A like amount that after the comet strikes its 
tail drops. 

" 5th. An optional sum that the earth can knock the 
comet farther than the comet can knock the earth, nine 
times out of eleven. 

"6. That after the comet gets through striking the 
earth it will never want to strike anybody else. 

" These propositions are intended to cover the case of 
any gentleman on this globe, or on the comet, or else- 
where. 

" Money to be deposited in the Banks of Newfoundland. 

" Time of striking and other arrangements to be fixed 
by the parties. 

" Applicants for bets have a right to select any comet 
they choose." 

w. w. 

Malta. 



Mina* 

The Original Locomotive Engine. Perhaps 
the following account of the ceremony of inau- 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2d s. N 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



guratingtlie " first" steam engine of the "first" 
railway in England may be considered accept- 
able. I therefore send it, having copied it from 
the Morning Post of a few weeks since : 

The Stockton and Darlington railway, which is con- 
sidered to be the oldest in the world, is still in possession 
of its "No. 1." engine. . . . The Father of the railway, 
Mr. Edw. Pease, a venerable gentleman far advanced in 
his fifth score of years still continues a connexion with 
the line, and lives in Darlington, and advantage was 
taken of the circumstance to inaugurate a pedestal on 
which the locomotive is to be placed." 

After a description of the peculiarities of this 
"odd piece of mechanism," the account states 
that festivities were given in honour of the occa- 
sion by Mr. H. Pease, M.P., at his residence, Pier- 
remount, and a photograph of the old engineman, 
who also survives, was taken in commemoration 
of the event. HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 

Quotation by St. Paul from Aristotle. Menan- 
der (1 Cor. xv. 23.), Aratus (Acts xvii. 28.), and 
Epimenides (Tit. i. 12.) are the three authors 
usually mentioned as quoted by St. Paul ; but he 
has also adopted the phraseology of Aristotle in 
Galatians v. 23. and Romans ii. 2., where he says, 
" Against such there is no law," and " they are a 
law unto themselves." For, Aristotle (Pol. iii. 13.), 
speaking of men " supereminent in virtue (8ia<pe- 
ptav KO.T aperTJs i>7repoA^f)," says, " Kara 5e roov roiov- 
TWV OVK eari vo/uos ' avrol yap fieri VO/ULOQ." And St. 
Paul, enumerating the spiritual fruits of righteous- 
ness, says in the same words, " Kara ruv roiovraw 
OVK fan v6/ji.os ;" as also, when speaking of Gentiles, 
who, not having the law of Moses, do by nature 
the things contained in that law : these, says St. 
Paul, in the words of Aristotle, " lauroTs et<n vo/j-os, 
are a law unto themselves." The only difference 
in the phraseology is the omission by St. Paul of 
the particles 8e and yap, and the substitution of 
laurels for avroL Both are treating on the same 
subject, although each contemplates it from very 
different points of view. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Porters or Trotmaris Anchor. This was 
patented a few years ago. The flukes are at- 
tached to the shank by a pin, in which they move, 
so that when one bill catches the ground, the 
other is brought over so as to touch the bend of 
the shank, which gives better holding in the 
ground, and prevents the vessel settling on the 
fluke of her own anchor in a tideway. I was 
much surprised the other day to find exactly such 
an anchor delineated in the celebrated Polipholo, 
printed by the Aldus in 1499, d. vij, recto. It 
was considered a new and very valuable invention 
at the time of the patent. A. A. 

The Plough, Carey Street, Lincoln's Inn Fields. 
As a small contribution to the street topo- 
graphy of London, I may mention that Browne 



Willis, writing from " Donstable, April 27, 1748, 
Wednesday Night," to "John Buncombe, Esq., 
att His Seat at Barley End, neer Ivinghoe, Buck- 
ingham County," says, " If you will send me any 
papers to London at the Plough Inne, Carey 
Street," &c. 

I quote from the autograph letter before me ; 
the Plough Inne, Carey Street, however respect- 
able it may be in its present way, must have been 
a very different place when Browne Willis, Esq., 
of Whaddon Hall, co. Bucks, thus hailed from it. 

JAMES KNOWLES. 

Inscription on Clerhenwell Pump, A.D. 1800. 

" William Bound. ) ^ , ,, r 
Joseph Bird, ' j Church Wardens. 

"For the better accommodation of the Neighbourhood 
this Pump was removed to the spot where it now stands. 
The Spring by which it is supplied is situate 4 feet East- 
ward, and round it, as History informs us, the Parish 
Clerks of London in remote ages annually performed 
sacred Plays ; that custom caused it to be denominated 
Clerks Well, from which this Parish derived its name. 
The Water was greatly esteemed by the Prior and 
Brethren of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem and the 
Benedictine Nuns in the Neighbourhood." * 

The above may be worth preserving. 

E. S. CHARNOCK. 
Gray's Inn. 



LONDON " LOW LIFE," AND LONDON " DENS." 

A thin octavo, consisting of little better than a 
hundred pages, purporting to be addressed to "Mr. 
Hogarth," but not dated, has this title : Low-Life ; 
or one Half of the World knows not how the other 
Half Lives, 8fc., and said to be "printed for. the 
Author," but whose name is not given. 

The copy before me is the second edition, 
" with very large additions of near half the work," 
and has this motto, from the Duke of Bucking- 
ham, " Let your Fancy tell the rest." The book 
is of real value as far as its subject goes, being a 
description of the various methods of spending 
Sunday in London upwards of a century ago. 
The statement commences at twelve o'clock on the 
Saturday night, and follows on to the same hour 
on the Sunday night ; each running out of the 
time-glass getting a chapter to itself, and thus the 
whole forms twenty-four divisions. The time of 
year chosen by the narrator is June, and a portion 
of the details from ten to eleven o'clock is thus set 
forth : 

"Link-boys who have been asking charity all the 
preceding day, and have just money sufficient to buy 
a torch, taking their stands at Temple Bar, London 
Bridge, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Smithfield, the City Gates, 
and other publick places, to light, knock down, and rob 

[* This inscription is not strictly correct. See Crom- 
well's History of Clerkemuell, p. 263.] 



2nd g. NO 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



people who are walking about their business. Common 
beggars, gypsies, and strollers, who are quite destitute of 
friends and money, creeping into the farmers' grounds, 
about the suburbs of London, to find sleeping-places 
under haystacks." 

And subsequently, in the same chapter : 

" The gaming-tables at Charing Cross, Covent Garden, 
Holboun, and the Strand, begin to fill with men of des- 
perate fortunes, bullies, fools, and gamesters. Termagant 
Avomen in back-yards, alleys, and courts, who have got 
drunk with Geneva at the adjacent publick-houses, are 
making their several neighbourhoods ring with the 
schrillness of their ungovernable tongues. Lumberers 
taking a survey of the streets and markets, and preparing 
to mount bulks instead of beds, to sleep away the re- 
maining part of the night upon. ... A great quan- 
tity of scandal published by people of the first quality, at 
their drums and routes. Merchants', drapers', and book- 
sellers' apprentices begin to be merry at taverns and 
noted publick-houses, at the expense of their friends and 
mothers." 

This last sentence concludes the " hour ; " 
while, indeed, the whole relation is no more com- 
plimentary of the purer morality of the "good 
old times" than of our own, and is evidently 
written by one who was well acquainted with his 
subject. 

Who, then, was the writer ? This I should be 
happy to learn from any of the numerous intelli- 
gent readers of " N. & Q." And further, to know 
also the name of the individual who, in 1835, had 
printed a small volume of almost identical cha- 
racter, called The Dens of London Exposed, con- 
sisting of an inside view of one of the most famous 
of the cadgers' lodging-houses of the period, as the 
writer beheld the scenes himself during his stay in 
the place from the Saturday night to the succeed- 
ing Monday morning. 

I suspect the work to be one of the first literary 
trials of the "basket-maker" author, Thomas 
Miller ; nor ought he, as I conceive, to be ashamed 
of its paternity, the purpose being as useful, as 
much of the writing is graphic. J. D. D. 



Minat 

Pope and Gay : " Welcome from Greece" 
Can any of your correspondents afford a clue to 
the precise when and where of the appearance of 
this interesting little poem ? There is abundant 
external and internal evidence that it must have 
been written between April and November, 1720 ; 
it would probably have very soon got abroad, but 
I have not been able to discover when or where it 
first appeared^ None of the editors of Pope, 
though they print the poem, assign it a date. C. 

Ancient Casket. An old inlaid ebony casket 
which I possess, and which evidently belonged 
either to a Grand Master or Knight of Malta, has 
two coats of arms on it. Can you tell me to whom 
they belonged ? On the lid is a shield with six 



pellets ; the one at the top has five fleurs-de- 
lis engraved on it. The shield has the Maltese 
cross behind it, the ends of which project, and is 
surmounted by a jewelled coronet. On the front 
and back is a shield, with five crosses and two 
dolphins back to back. J. C. J. 

Prebendaries of Ripon. I should 'be obliged 
for any information respecting the following 
clergymen, who held prebends in the collegiate 
church of Ripon during the periods comprised 
within the dates affixed to their names, notices of 
parentage, education, preferment, works of litera- 
ture, public gifts or bequests, dates of death or 
burial, would be acceptable : 

Thomas Astell, 1639 ; dispossessed : died before the Re- 
storation. 

William Barker, 16041616. 

William Bewe, 16041613. 

John Blower, 16911722. Sub-Dean, 17221723 ; also 
a Prebendary in York, 17021723. 

William Cleyburne, 1616 ; dispossessed : died before the 
Restoration ? 

William Crashaw, 16041626. Prebendary in York, 
16171626. 

William Ellis, 16261637 ; said to have been Vicar of 
St. Mary's, Beverley. 

John Forster, 17331742. 

William Forster. 16371639. 

George BLilley, 1696 1708 (his parentage ?). 

John Littleton, 16611681. 

Henry Lodge, 17141718. 

Christopher Lyndall, 16041623. 

Edward Morris, 16901720. 

Richard Moyle, or Moyel, 1637; dispossessed: died after 
1644, but before the'liestoration. 

Tobias Swynden, 16601661. Prebendary in York, 1660 
1661. " There were two other persons of his names, 
perhaps son and grandson : the one of Jesus Coll. Cam- 
bridge, B.A., 1678 ; the other of Queen's Coll. in the 
same University, B.A., 1717. 

Peter Vivian, 16601667. 

Thomas Walker, 1625; dispossessed; died during the re- 
bellion. 

Edward Wright, 16131615. 

JOHN WARD. 
Wath Rectory, Ripon. 

Eobert Churchman. In a pamphlet entitled 
Fanatics Exposed, London, 1706, Robert Church- 
man is thus mentioned : 

"The Burgezites are the sons of the Brownists, to 
whom no sign shall be given but the sign of Robert 
Churchman." 

And in an address to Barclay the Quaker : 

" No more from post to pillar driven, 
But guided by the voice divine, 
Sweet and convincing as the sign 
For thee to Robert Churchman given." 

Who was Robert Churchman ? R. 

Special Licence for Marriage. Besides the 
payment of certain fees, what entitles a member 
of the United Church of England and Ireland to 
be "married by special licence" ? ABHBA. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. NO 83., AUG. 1. 'o?. 



William de Flanders. Could you assist me to 
the following evidence ; the detail of relationship 
between William de Flanders, father of Lady 
Mortimer, and Queen Eleanor, consort of King 
Edward I. WILLIAM D'OYLY BAY LEY. 

Thomas Vavasor. Thomas Vavasor took the 
decree of B. A. at Cambridge, 1536-7. He was 
D.D. in or before 1549, and in prison at Hull for 
adhering to the Roman Catholic faith, 1574, having 
been brought to Hull from York, where he had 
resided. Further information respecting him will 
be acceptable. We especially desire to know 
when and where he took the degree of D.D., and 
when he died. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

Charles Coleman. Charles Coleman was 
created Doctor of Music at Cambridge on the 
especial recommendation of the committee for 
reformation of that university, June 26, 1651. 
He is noticed by Sir John Hawkins, who states 
that his death occurred in Fetter Lane. We hope 
to be able through your columns to obtain the 
date of his death. *" C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

French Protestants in London. What congre- 
gations of French Protestants were there in 
London in the reign of Charles I. ? What form 
of prayer did they use ? What were the names of 
their ministers ? MELETES. 

Oliver, Earl of Tyrconnel. In Archdall's 
edition of Lodge's Peerage of Ireland, vol. iv. 
p. 318., it is stated that the Earl of Tyrconnel, 

" Lies buried under a handsome tomb of black marble, in 
the chapel of the family's foundation in Donnybrooke 
Church [near Dublin], with this inscription; over which 
are the arms of Fitzwilliam, and the coronet, but no crest 
or supporters : 

"'Here lyeth the Body of the Right Honourable and 
most Noble Lord Oliver, Earl of Tyrconnel, Lord Viscount 
Fitz-Williams of Meryonge [Merrion], Baron of Thorn- 
castle [otherwise Merrion], who died at his House in 
Meryonge, April llth, 16G7, and was Buried the 12th day 
of the same month.' " 

W T here may I learn particulars of the chapel 
founded at Donnybruok by the Fitzwilliam family, 
of which the Right Hon. Sidney Herbert is the 
present representative ? As I can testify from my 
own observation, the church, chapel, and this and 
many other tombs (Archbishop King's included) 
have disappeared ; but when and how I cannot 
tell. Richard, sixth Viscount Fitzwilliam, who 
died in 1776, and other members of the family, 
have been interred in the same place, a Richard 
Fitzwilliam having been living at Donnybrook in 
1432. ABHBA. 

Smith's " History of Kerry." In one of Mil- 
liken and Son's Catalogues, published in Dublin 



about thirty years since, are the following par- 
ticulars : 

" 325. Smith's Ancient and Present State of the County 
of Kerry, cartooned on strong writing-paper in large 4to., 
in 2 vols., with considerable alterations and additions in, 
manuscript. The undoubted autograph of the author, 
and originally intended by him for a republication of the 
work. In the title of this perfectly unique copy appears 
the following MS. note: 'N.B. This manuscript was not 
that from which my history was printed, but from an. 
abridgment of this, as far as to page 483., many parts of 
this being thrown into the notes, particularly the chapter 
on Counties Palatine, p. 120., &c. My chief reason for 
abridging this was want of encouragement to print it 
entire. CH. SMITH.' " 

Can you inform me of the habitat of this in- 
teresting copy of a valuable work, or whether any 
of the author's " considerable alterations and ad- 
ditions " have appeared in print ? ABHBA. 

Henry Wharton. Birch, in his Life of Tillot- 
son, cites the MS. Diary of Henry Wharton, 
written in Latin, and then in the possession of the 
Rev. Mr. Calamy. Is this Diary still in existence, 
or has it ever been printed ? E. H. A. 

" The Secret History of Europe. Can any 
reader of "N. & Q." refer me to any critical 
notice of a work in three volumes, entitled The 
Secret History of Europe. It was published by 
Curll and Pemberton in 1715. There is no edi- 
tor's name ; neither is there any direct authority 
avowed for many of the articles contained in the 
four parts of which the work consists. Yet it 
contains so many curious particulars of the secret 
history of England more especially during the 
reigns of Charles II. and James II., and in con- 
nexion with the glorious Revolution of 1688, of 
which the compiler is a strenuous admirer that 
I should be glad to know something of its history 
and its compiler. P. C. 

English Latin. I presume it is generally ad- 
mitted that the English pronunciation of Latin is 
corrupt, and that no other country has adopted 
our mode of utterance. Considering that our an- 
cient records were written in Latin, that our cor- 
respondence with the Papal court was carried on 
in that language, and that in the discussions with 
its ministers it was generally spoken, it has often 
puzzled me to determine at what period the 
present mode of pronouncing it was first intro- 
duced among our countrymen, it being apparent 
that an Englishman in speaking Latin would 
scarcely be intelligible to a foreigner. Perhaps 
some learned correspondent will enlighten me. 

JUVENIS SEPTUAGENARITJS. 

Steer and Leetham Families. I would feel 
obliged if any of your readers could give any in- 
formation respecting the antecedents of the family 
of Steer, of the Manor Hall, Darnall, near Shef- 
field ? where they sprung from ? what arms they 



2d S. N 83., AUG. 1. '57.3 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



bore ? and whether at any time they were higher 
in rank than mere yeomen ? 

2. Any knowledge of the family of Leetham of 
Yorkshire or Lincolnshire, with the arms of that 
family ? 

In conclusion, perhaps some gentleman who 
may see this may take the trouble to say whether 
any gentleman, marrying a widow, is justified in 
impaling, along with her arms, those of her former 
husband, and what position they ought to occupy 
in the shield ? 

The above is sought for genealogical purposes. 
BLACKETT LEETHAM STEER. 

Sheffield. 



&u*rt*4 

Way- Goose. Many of your readers must 
have noticed the assembling of printers recently 
tit the Crystal Palace, Richmond, and other 
places, holding their annual festival, which they 
call the Way-goose. Can you enlighten me as to 
the origin of the phrase ? CL. HOPPER. 

[The derivation of the term way-goose is from the old 
English word wayz, stubble. Bailey informs us that 
" Wayz-goose, or stubble -goose, is an entertainment given 
to journeymen at the beginning of winter." Hence a 
wayz-goose was the head dish at the annual feast of the 
forefathers of the typographic fraternity, and is not alto- 
gether unknown as a dainty dish in our days. Formerly, 
however, this festival was holden in autumn, on com- 
mencing work by candle-light : 

" September, when by custom, right divine, 
Geese are ordain'd to bleed at Michael's shrine." 

Churchill 

Moxon, in his Mechanick Exercises, 1683, tells us, that 
" it is customary for all the journeymen to make every 
year new paper windows, whether the old will serve 
again or no; because that day they make them the 
master -printer gives them a way -goose; that is, he makes 
them a good feast, and not only entertains them at his 
own house, but besides, gives them money to spend at 
the ale-house or tavern at night ; and to this feast they 
invite the corrector [now -called the reader], founder, 
smith, joiner, and ink-maker, who all of them severally 
(except the corrector in his own civility) open their 
purse-strings, and add their benevolence '(which work- 
men account their duty, because they generally choose 
these workmen) to the master-printer's; but from the 
corrector they expect nothing, because the master-printer 
choosing him, the workmen can do him no kindness. 
These way-gooses are always kept about Bartholomew- 
tide; and till the master-printer has given this way- 
goose, the journeymen do not use to work by candle- 
light." The same custom was also formerly peculiar to 
Coventry, where it was usual in the large manufactories 
of ribbons and watches, as well as among the silk dyers, 
when they commenced the use of candles, to have their 
annual way-goose."] 

Circumstantial Evidence. I have reason to be- 
lieve that there has been published, within the last 
thirty years, a work which gives a detailed account 
of the trials of persons who have been put to death 
in this country for murder, and have afterwards 



been proved to have been the victims of perjury 
or mistake. I am unable to ascertain the title of 
this work. Will some one help me to it ? 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 
The Manor Farm, Bottesford, Brigg. 

[The work inquired after by our correspondent is pro- 
bably the following : An Essay on the Rationale of Cir- 
cumstantial Evidence, illustrated by numerous Cases, by 
William Wills, Attorney-at-law, London, 8vo., 1838. See 
also an article in Chambers's Miscellany, No. 82., entitled 
" Cases of Circumstantial Evidence."] 

Mrs. Clerhe's Case: Thomas Rawlinson. I have 
an old volume of pamphlets in my possession, the 
first one of which is entitled 

The true Case of Mrs. Clerke set forth by her Brothers 
Sir Edward and Mr. Arthur Tumor. London, printed 
for John Morphew near Stationers' Hall." 

And in ink the date 1719. On this title-page 
is written in a neat hand : 

" Suum cuiq; Tho. Hearne, ex dono amicissimi viri 
Thomae Rawlinsoni, armigeri, 17 18 , Feb. 3." 

Who was Thomas Rawlinson ? and what made 
Mrs. Clerke's case so celebrated ? A. T. L. 

[Our correspondent's pamphlet is a reply to one en- 
titled, Mrs. Clark's Case, 8vo. 1718, pp. 12.," from which 
it appears that this lady was unjustifiably treated as a 
lunatic by her relations and four physicians. Her case 
having been twice heard in a court of law, she was 
eventually set at liberty her house and goods restored, 
and her relatives severely reprimanded. The writer of 
her Case has favoured his readers with the following tit- 
bit of Folk Lore: "Why," says he, "were not gentle 
methods prescribed by the doctors at first to reduce this 
pretended lunatick, before they came to extremity ? 
Why did they not direct ass's milk and crabs' claws, so 
much in fashion, not only in the greatest chronical dis- 
tempers, but in all inflammatory and malignant fevers? 
I do not know whether these powerful remedies have been 
yet directed in apoplexies, and for prevention of sudden 
death ; but I am informed there is a Dissertation ready 
for the press, in which they are recommended to be used 
in clysters, instead of cow's milk and sugar, for the cure 
of the most inveterate and obstinate diseases : whence it 
appears that the milk of the ass and the claws of the 
crab are endowed with as great variety of wonder-work- 
ing virtues, as the prayer addressed to the Virgin Mary 
for women in labour, which was formed and printed some 
years ago in France, to which as a postscript was added, 
And this Prayer is likewise good for fevers and thunder.' 
Now why, I say, were not these easy, generous and 
pleasant medicines first tried, before those acts of force 
and cruelty were insisted on?" THOMAS RAWLINSON 
was a distinguished book -collector, satirised in The Tatler 
under the appellation of Tom Folio. His Catalogues, 
published separately in parts, are rarely to be met with 
complete. He died in 1725. See Reliquiae Hearniance, 
passim.'} 

English Dictionaries. What Reviews have 
reviewed Dr. Richardson's and Dr. Webster's 
English Dictionaries, and Dr. Latham's English 
Language f *t\o^0^s. 

[Dr. Webster's Dictionary was reviewed by Professor 
Kingsley in The North American Review, vol. xxviii. 
p. 433. ; Westminster Review, vol. xiv. p, 56. ; and Ame- 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. N 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



rican Whig Review, 2nd Ser. vol. i. p. 301. Dr. Latham's 
English Language was reviewed by Henry Rogers in the 
Edinburgh Review, vol. xcii. p. 293. On application to 
our publishers, a prospectus may be obtained of Dr. 
Richardson's Dictionary, containing the opinions of the 
press.] 

Warping. There is a process, known by the 
name of warping, by which many acres of bog and 
other waste land on the banks of the Humber, 
Ouse, and Trent have been raised to a higher 
level and made fruitful. Where shall I find a 
detailed account of this process ? 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 
The Manor Farm, Bottesford. 

[A complete detail of the different operations in the 
process of warping is given in the Agricultural Survey of 
the West Ridinq of Yorkshire, edited by Robert Brown, 
Edinb., 8vo., 1799, pp. 163-177. Consult also London's 
Encyclopedia of Agriculture, edit. 1831, p. 732.; Morton's 
Cyclopaedia of Agriculture ; Johnson's Farmers' Encyclo- 
paedia, art. WARPING ; Encyclopaedia Metropolitan^ vi. 
32. ; Encyclopaedia Britannica, 8th edit. vol. ii. p. 363. ; 
and Penny Cyclopaedia, art. WARPING. Although the 
practice of warping is comparatively new in Britain, it 
has long been in use on the continent of Europe, particu- 
larly in Italy, as described by Mr. Cadell, in his Journey 
in Carniola, Italy, and France, in the Years 1817, 1818. 
2 vols. Svo., Ediab. 1820.] 

BusHs Plays. In 1837 appeared two volumes 
of Plays and Poems, by Mrs. Win. Busk. Could 
you give me the names of the plays ? X. 

\_The Druids, a tragedy of Five Acts. The Judicial 
Combats, or the Force of Conscience, a tragedy of Five 
Acts. Marry, or Forfeit, a Comedy of Five Acts.] 

Mary Powell, 8fC. Can you inform me what 
is the name of the authoress of Mary Powell; The 
Old Chelsea Sun-House, &c. ? X. 

[Miss Eliza Manning.] 



Xtepltaf. 

CHATTERTON : THE PLACE OF HIS INTERMENT. 

(2 nd S. iv. 23. 54.) 

Amongst the questions which remain unsettled 
regarding Chattcrton is that which heads this 
article. Tn my Memorials of the Canynges 
Family and their Times, Sfc., I stated my belief 
that the body of Chatterton was certainly removed 
from Shoe Lane burial-ground to Redcliffe 
churchyard, and there reinterred ; and I did so 
upon the authority of a letter, the correctness of 
the statements in which I could not doubt. Since 
then Professor Masson's Essays have appeared, in 
which mention is made of "a young man, an 
attorney, to whom Chatterton's niece was about to 
be married." This so-called young attorney, now 
far advanced in life, has been known to me per- 
sonally for many years ; but it was not until re- 
cently, and that in consequence of Mr. Masson's 



statement, that I sought his acquaintance. My 
object in doing so was to obtain answers to certain 
interrogatories relating to Chatterton ; the most 
important in relation to the subject before us I 
subjoin, having his permission to make what use 
I please of them. 

Query. "Did you ever hear, during your ac- 
quaintance with the Chatterton family, that the 
poet's body was removed from Shoe Lane burial- 
ground, and reinterred in HedclifFe churchyard, 
in the grave of his parents ? If you think it pro- 
bable, please state why." 

Ans. " I was intimate with Miss Newton, the 
niece of Chatterton, during the two years pre- 
ceding her death, which took place in September, 
1807. The whole of this time I had almost daily 
intercourse with her. It sometimes occurred that 
her uncle was the subject of conversation, not for 
any particular object, but in consequence of some 
accidental remark having been made with respect 
to him : as no report of the removal of his body had 
then been circulated, it could not form a matter 
for discussion ; but I am sure from her whole 
manner that she had no idea of such a thing, but 
believed it to be then lying in London, where it 
had been buried. I therefore believe that no 
removal had taken place. 

" If it be established that the body had not been 
removed from Shoe Lane, it must follow that it 
could not have been placed in RedclifFe churchyard : 
it is consequently unnecessary to attempt to prove 
that fact ; nevertheless the inquiry may be useful 
to show the real character of the evidence upon 
which the whole story rests. I attended as a 
mourner the funeral of Miss Newton (the niece of 
Chatterton) ; she was buried in the grave where 
her father and mother, also her grandfather and 
her grandmother Chatterton, had been placed. 

u If Mrs. Chatterton had caused her son's bones 
to be brought to Bristol, it could have been for no 
other object than that they should lie in the same 
tomb in which those of his father then lay, and 
which was soon to become the receptacle of her 
own and those of the remainder of her family. 
The box said to contain the bones of Chatterton 
was not there. Many persons attended the fu- 
neral as spectators ; it was the last of the Chatter- 
tons going to be buried ; this brought more than 
is usually seen at a common interment. The 
report of the removal of the body was not even 
then in existence, as far as I know, and therefore 
nothing was thought about it ; yet as we were 
looking into the grave it could not have escaped 
our observation if it had been there. 

" It appears that the persons who gave Mr. 
Cumberland information say that the body was 
not buried in the grave of the Chattertons, but in 
a new grave made for the purpose of its reception, 
about twenty feet distant from that grave ; and 
'that this grave had been filled up by other bodies 



2*a S. N 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



having been placed therein by the permission of 
Mrs, Chatterton. The whole of this statement I 
believe to have been made without the slightest 
foundation in truth. Mr. Cumberland was not 
sufficiently careful in examining the veracity of 
the evidence which he procured. Mr. Masson, in 
his Essay on Chatterton, lately published, states 
that from information received by Mr. Cumber- 
land in Bristol, the money produced by the sale of 
Chatterton's Works came, after her mother's death, 
to Miss Newton ; this girl, he says, who had been 
in the service of Miss Hannah More, left 100Z. to a 
young man, an attorney, to whom she was about 
to be married. Miss Newton became known to 
me about one year after her mother's death ; she 
told me that soon after that event Miss Hannah 
More had invited her to spend a few weeks at her 
residence, Barleywood, near Wrington. She was 
there during this short time as a visitor, and not 
as a servant. 

" I am the person referred to as ' the young 
man, an attorney.' I neither am nor was an at- 
torney, but was employed at that time, and be- 
tween nine and ten years previously, in the same 
business, and in the same premises, in which I am 
now engaged." 

Query. " What account did Chatterton give to 
his sister, Mrs. Newton, as to the manuscripts 
said to have been found by him, and the use he 
made of them ? And what did Chatterton's mo- 
ther do with his papers on hearing of his untimely 
death?" 

Answer. " The account which Miss Newton 
gave me of the works ascribed to Rowley was, 
that Chatterton had told her mother that he had 
found the subject, and had versified it. She also 
told me that on the arrival of the news of 
Chatterton's death, her mother said that Mrs. 
Chatterton had become so distressed, that she 
burnt lapsfull of his papers, in order to remove 
what might bring him to her remembrance." 

The above is a verbatim copy of the answers 
given in writing to my inquiries, and of which I 
intended to make use through another channel ; 
but the publicity given to the subject through 
"N. & Q.," induces me to forward the above for 
publication through the columns of that periodical. 
The writer of the replies is a highly respectable 
manufacturer in this city ; having many years ago 
succeeded to the business in which he was engaged 
when acquainted with Chatterton's niece. My 
reason for concealing his name is because I feel it 
would be an act of unkindness in me to mention it 
here, as in all probability he would be inundated 
wjth letters from the merely inquisitive, which, at 
his advanced age, would be a source of great an- 
noyance to him. To any gentleman, however, 
who desires to know his name and address for 
purposes of authorship, I should feel myself justi- 
fied in disclosing it, by private communication, on 



his assuring me that for that purpose alone he 
requests it. GEORGE PRYCE. 

City Librarj% Bristol. 

P.S. Your correspondent BRISTOLIENSIS, who is 
unknown to me by that signature, says that Chat- 
terton "materially added to his (Barrett's) stock 
of Antiquities of Bristol." If BRISTOLIENSIS had 
said that the poor youth by his additions to Bar- 
rett's stock of Antiquities of Bristol had made it 
one of the most useless local histories in Great 
Britain, he would not have been very far from the 
truth. 

I most heartily concur with MR. GUTCH, in his 
letter in your late number (2 nd S. iv. 23.), on the 
removal of Chatterton's body. The story is ab- 
surd. When I visited the Shoe Lane Burial- 
ground, sixty-five years ago, the sexton showed 
me quite acquiescently the part of the ground 
where his body was interred with others in a pit, 
and his sister, whom I called upon at Bristol, 
heard my account of my attention without any 
hint of any removal, but was pleased with my ac- 
count. Her eyes were fine grey eyes, which an 
admirer would call " blue." I thank MR. GUTCH 
for the trouble which he has taken relative to the 
absurd story. G, VAL. LE GRICE. 

Trereife. 

I was not sorry to see the Reply of BRIS- 
TOLIENSIS to my reasons for believing that Chat- 
terton's body was not removed from Shoe Lane 
burial-ground to Bristol. The subject has, I 
think, been fairly and temperately stated on both 
sides ; I therefore leave the verdict to the de- 
cision of a discerning public. J. M. G. 

Worcester. 



With respect to the discussion that has been 
going on in your pages for some time past, touch- 
ing the burial-place of the boy-poet Chatterton, 
the following extract, taken from The Churches of 
London, by George Godwin, vol. ii., may pro- 
bably set the matter at rest. He was interred in 
the burial-ground of Shoe Lane Workhouse. 

" In the register of burials under the date, August the 
28th, 1770, appears the following entry: ' William Chat- 
terton, Brooke Street,' to which, has been added, probably 
by an after incumbent, ' The Poet,' signed ' J. Mill.' The 
addition is perfectly correct, notwithstanding that his 
Christian name was Thomas, not William; and this 
slight memorial is the only record in the church of the 
burial of one of the most wonderfully gifted boys (for he 
was not eighteen years old when he died) that he world 
has ever known." St. Andrew's, Holborn, p. 10. 

Mr. Godwin adds, by way of note on the mis- 
quoted Christian name, that 

" All entries of this kind are now made at once from the 
dictation of the family. At that time names and dates 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



N 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



were often committed to scraps of paper pro tempore, which 



were occasionally lost." 



A READER. 



WHEN DID THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND SANCTION 
THE COPERNICAN SYSTEM OF ASTRONOMY? 

(2 nd S. ii. 248.) 

I have been waiting, with no ordinary interest, 
for a reply from some of your contributors to 
your correspondent's Query on this subject. In 
the absence of such reply, I offer two small bits of 
information, in the hope that they will lead to 
more. It is known that the great Pole, Koper- 
nick (whom Berlin writers call a Prussian, be- 
cause his native city, Thorn, now belongs to 
Prussia,) was excommunicated by the church of 
Rome for his re-establishment, with certain im- 
provements, of the solar system of Pythagoras ; 
according to which the sun, and not the earth, is 
the centre of that system. That excommunica- 
tion was taken off, or revoked, in the year 1821 : 
and, consequently, from that year we may date 
the acceptance of the Pythagorean or Copernican 
theory by the Pope. 

What I wish to know, in common with your 
correspondent, is this : When did the Church of 
England authorise a belief in the Copernican 
theory ? The latter was only beginning to be 
popular in England in the seventeenth century. 
But, at that time, Sir Thomas Browne had no 
faith in the theory. That the earth moved seemed 
to him a contemptible and laughable proposition. 
lie says there are many things which he could be- 
lieve, but which he will not accept because his 
church disavowed them. For this reason, he per- 
haps delivered the following modified opinion on 
the subject ; in which, although he affected to 
hold the Copernican system in scorn, ho lets us 
obtain a view of, at least, his own uncertainty 
thereon : 

" And, therefore, if any affirm the earth doth move, 
and will not believe with us, it standeth still, because he 
hath probable reasons for it, arid / no infallible sense, nor 
reason against it, I will not quarrel Avitli his assertion." 
Works, vol. i. p. 35. (Bohn). 

Dr. 'Christopher Wren, the father of the archi- 
tect, and Dean of Windsor, a contemporary of 
Browne, stoutly opposed the Copernican system, 
and upheld the one which seemed to him to be in 
more strict accordance with Scripture. We may 
believe, therefore, that though the Ptolemaic 
system was falling from general favour in the 
middle of the seventeenth century, the Church 
still supported it, as far as it was adopted by 
Tycho Brahe, as consonant with holy writ, and 
that a " Copernican," in that century, had some- 
thing of the character of an innovator and dis- 
senter. I should be glad, however, to learn some- 



thing more on this subject from correspondents 
better qualified to treat of it than myself. 

J. DORAN. 



REMARKABLE SATIRES. 

(2 nd S. iv. 7. 68.) 

I have a copy of Mrs. Newcomb's edition of 
these Satires, and have seen others, all wanting 
"The Causidicade;"* this I have, however, in 
Poems [Satirical] on Various. Subjects, Glasgow, 
printed by Sawney M c Pherson, 8vo. 1756. In the 
British Museum copy of the first the missing piece 
is supplied from this last, and the whole lettered 
Morgans Satires, upon the authority of the Eu- 
ropean Mag., vol. xxiii. p. 253., where, in Notes 
appended to a Memoir of Lord Mansfield, R. S. 
will find the following : 

" On this occasion [the appointment of Murray as Soli- 
citor-General in place of Sir G. Strange, Nov. 1742"] a 
doggrel poem was published by one Morgan, a person 
then at the bar, entitled The Causidicade, in which all 
the principal lawyers were supposed to urge their respec- 
tive claims to the post. At the conclusion it is said : 

" Then M y prepar'd with a fine Panegyrick 

In Praise of himself would have spoke it like Garrick; 
But the President stopping him, said, 'As in Truth 
Your worth and your Praise is in ev'ry one's mouth, 
Tis needless to urge what's notoriously known, 
The Office, by Merit, is your's all must own ; 
The Voice of the Publick approves of the Thing, 
Concurring with that of the Court and the K g.'" 

We may take it for granted that it was the 
same hand who again attacked the rising lawyer 
in The Processiona.de, published in 1746. There 
the satirist would swell the outcry by branding 
Murray as a Jacobite : 

" The new-fangl'd Scot, who was brought up at Home, 
In the very same School as his Brother at Rome, 
Kneel'd conscious, as tho' his old comrades might urge, 
He had formerly drank to the King before George." 

Admitting that Porcupinus Pelagius, the author 
of these Satires, was one Morgan, I think we may 
safely draw a little closer and fix them upon Mac- 
namara Morgan, an Irishman, and a member of 
Lincoln's Inn at the period, who, by virtue of 
some dramatic essays, has found a niche in the 
Biographia Dramatica. Morgan, according to 
this last authority, was full of national zeal, and 
no doubt fell in with the humour that these North 
Britons were getting more than their fair share of 
the loaves and fishes. He died in I762,f J. O. 



* The C., a Panegyri-Satiri-Serio-Comic-Dramatical 
Poem, on the Strange Resignation, and Stranger-Pro- 
motion. 

t [The last Satire in R. S.'s volume, The Pasquinade, is 
attributed to Dr. William Kenrick in the British Museum 
Catalogue, and by Watt. ED.] 



g. x 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



JOHN SOBIESKI AND CHARLES EDWARD STUART. 

(2 nd S. iii. 449.) 

I presume that L. M. M. R.'s version of the 
story of these gentlemen is derived from them- 
selves, as it tallies with the account I have from 
an informant who was accustomed to meet them 
in Edinburgh society, not very many years ago. 
I find, however, that their claims to legitimate de- 
scent from the Royal Stuarts were treated in such 
society quite as a joke, though the claimants were 
feted and lionised, as might be expected in such 
a case, in fashionable circles. They usually ap- 
peared in full Highland costume, in Royal Tartan. 
The likeness to the Stuart family, I am told, was 
striking, and may have been, without improving 
their claim a whit. JSTo doubt, many of your 
readers may remember how numerous were the 
young ladies thought striking likenesses of our 
beloved Queen on her accession : and who made 
a point of dressing their hair, and otherwise adorn- 
ing themselves, to make the resemblance more 
obvious. If the two claimants have no better 
foundation to rest on, their case is but weak ; for 
it is obvious there may be likeness without legiti- 
mate descent ; and I fancy, if the real history is 
gone into, that is the point to be decided here. 

L. M. M. R.'s version rests on the simple state- 
ment that the young Pretender (Prince Charles 
Edward Stuart) had a son by his wife (Louisa of 
Stolberg). If that statement is false, as I believe 
it to be, the whole story falls to the ground. 
There is no reason to doubt that his wife had a 
son. She may have had a dozen, but the import- 
ant Query in this case is, Was this son her hus- 
band's f The late case of the Townshend peerage 
may serve to show how spurious claims of this sort 
may have a show of foundation given them. 

If I am rightly informed, the unhappy young 
Pretender ruined his constitution by intemperate 
and profligate habits ; and there was no child .of 
his marriage, and no probability of any. His 
wife's abandoned character was notorious. The 
inference to be drawn need only be hinted at. 
The question is not of any importance as a matter 
of state. The succession to the English crown is 
secured by Parliament, and is not affected by a 
descent from the young Pretender ; but as an his- 
torical fact, it is desirable that the truth of the 
story set afloat by these two gentlemen should be 
settled at once and for ever. M. H. R. 



STONE SHOT. 



(2 nd S. iv. 58.) 

As stone shot will soon be numbered with the 
things that were, the record of their use becomes 
more important for the information of future 
generations, as illustrative of a detail in ancient 



military architecture necessary for their appli- 
cation, and which is likely, from the solid con- 
struction required, long to survive the missile for 
which they were originally designed. 

Your correspondent, GIAOUR, has sought his 
information in foreign countries ; following this 
example, these elucidatory remarks are suggested 
by the destruction of the Porte d'Eau at Malines, 
in Belgium. Portions of this beautiful piece of 
castellated architecture, built in 1381, originally 
spanned the dyke ; but the bridge, and probably 
the sluices, had long been removed, leaving only the 
Porte, formed of three towers closely huddled toge- 
ther, and protecting the guard-room over the public 
way. This remain, consigned to destruction in 
1846, possessed all the requirements for disputing 
the passage of the river, as well as the conveni- 
ences necessary for a " sally port." A portcullis 
guarded the narrow outlet, and the requisite aper- 
tures were protected by triple-iron casements. 
In the interior was an " oubliette : " the very per- 
fection of these correctly termed receptacles for 
human victims precisely formed after the shape 
of an egg a little flattened at the bottom was 
the only indulgence vouchsafed to the prisoner ; 
the small circular entrance and only aperture at 
the top was similarly formed ; and through which 
the prisoner was suspended, and conveyed by 
cordage to the limited flooring beneath. 

The long loop-holes for the use of the bowmen 
were divided by circular apertures, which were 
repeated at the head, and again at the base ; 
from the latter projected "shoots," which slant- 
ing served to shield the bowmen from the assail- 
ants' missiles ; and as troughs, along which the 
stone balls impelled by the slope traversed and 
fell with frightful effect on the assailants, and, 
if on the river, staving their boats. 

On removing this old and lofty pile, the stone 
was applied to the restoration of the justly cele- 
brated tower and cathedral of St. Rombaud ; and 
the numerous stone balls found in the river were, 
by order of the government, conveyed to Brussels, 
and are now piled with others in front of the well- 
known "Porte d'Hal," a noble fragment of the 
city walls, commenced in 1381, and one of the 
strongest defences, which served also as a granary 
for the public service. Afterwards it became a 
military prison, then a depository for the Bur- 
gundian MSS., and now is the well-selected re- 
ceptacle of mediaeval treasures in arts and armour. 

HENRY D'AVENEY. 



There are some stone shot of a large size in 
one of the forts at Malta, said to have been used 
by the Turks. They are of white marble, chipped 
round, but not polished. J. C. J. 



96 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd g. NO 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



SEPARATION OF THE SEXES IN CHURCHES. 

(2 nd S. iii. 108. 178. ; iv. 54.) 

The separation of women from men in public 
worship, is rather a result of the social position or 
status of women in a given country or community, 
than of religious discipline. The first tabernacle, 
and the temples of Solomon and Zerubbabel, as 
also the specification of a temple in Ezekiel, did 
not provide, as far as can be now ascertained, any 
separate accommodation for the women. But in 
the temple of Herod, " a court of Hebrew women " 
was provided between the court of the Israelites 
and that of the Gentiles ; so that they could see 
the men, whilst remaining themselves unseen, ( Jos. 
Ant, xv. 11.5.; Wars, v. 5. 2. ; Lightfoot, ix. 302., 
x. 62.). Amongst the early Christians, the men 
and women assembled together ; and women held 
offices in the church, as in the tabernacle and 
sanctuary (see Numbers, iv. 23. ; Romans, xvi. 1. ; 
Lightfoot, ii. 163.). Amongst the Mahometans, 
although women were not forbidden by the Pro- 
phet to attend public prayers in a mosque, but 
advised rather to pray in private, they are placed 
apart from the men, and behind the latter in some 
countries ; whilst in Cairo, neither females nor 
young boys are allowed to pray with the congre- 
gation in the mosque (Lane's Mod. Egypt., i. 
117.). In our own churches, the official attend- 
ance of men in authority, and corporate bodies, 
requiring the appropriation of pews for themselves, 
renders a corresponding provision necessary for 
their wives and daughters ; the men taking the 
south side as the more honourable, and the women 
the north side ; whilst in other parts of the church 
men and women sit together in the pews, likewise 
assigned them by the ordinary. 

The authorities given by Bingham (viii. c. v. 
s. 6.) for the separation of women from men, re- 
ferring to periods subsequent to the third century, 
are Cyril (in Catech. 8.), Augustine {Civ. Dei, 
ii. c. 28., xxiii. c. 8.), Paulinus (Ambros., p. 3.), 
Socrates (i. c. 17.), Chrysostom (Horn. 74. in 
Matt.), and Eusebius (ii. c. 17.). Bingham also 
quotes, in proof, the Apostolical Constitutions 
(ii. c. 57., viii. c. 20. 28.) ; but the authenticity of 
this portion is doubtful. (Bunsen's Hippolytus, ii. 
318.). Bunsen has critically discussed the ques- 
tion of the genuineness of the Apostolical Con- 
stitutions (Hipp., ii. 220.). The Coptic Church 
required "the women to stand praying in a place 
in the church, apart by themselves, whether the 
faithful women, or the women catechumens" (Id. 
ii. 317.). Upon the whole, it may be inferred, 
that this separation of the sexes is not sanctioned 
by Scripture, nor by the practice of the first three 
centuries ; and that it has been adopted by the 
oriental churches and religions on moral or con- 
ventional grounds, without the express authority 
of their respective founders. T. J. BUCKTON. 



Iteglta! t0 f&inav 

Beau Wilson. In some earlier numbers (1 st S. 
xii. 495.; 2 nd S. ii. 400.) there is reference to Beau 
Wilson, killed in a duel by the subsequently fa- 
mous financier Law. Your correspondents seem 
to refer to Mrs. Manley as the author or original 
propagator of the romantic story about the mys- 
terious sources of Wilson's wealth. That such a 
story was current while Wilson was living is evi- 
dent from a note in Luttrell's Diary (iii. 291.), 
under date of 

" 10 April, 1G94. A duel was yesterday fought between 
one Mr. Lawes and Mr. Wilson in Bloomsbury Square ; 
the latter was killed upon the spot, and the other is sent 
to Newgate ; 'tis that Mr. Wilson who for some years past 
hath made a great figure, living at the rate of 4000Z. per 
annum, without any visible estate ; and the several gen- 
tlemen who kept him company, and endeavoured to find 
out his way of living, could never effect it." 

B.W. 

Warlmrton, Johnson, and " Fitting to a T " 
(2 nd S. iv. 71.) Our EDITOR'S explanation of the 
general phrase is, I presume, the right one ; but 
it does not answer L. E. W.'s Query, or, at least, 
the Query which I should make on the passage in 
Boswell (p. 760., Oct. edit.). What was ike point 
of what Johnson seems to have meant as a plea- 
santry turning specially on the letter T ? What 
more than if he had said " fitted him exactly" or 
any general expression of that meaning ? C. 

Action for not Flogging (2 nd S. iv. 50.) 

"Thursday Aug. 1st, 1816. The Lord Mayor having 
lately committed to the House of Correction a working 
sugar-baker for having left his employment in conse- 
quence of a dispute respecting wages, and not having 
during his confinement received any personal correction, 
conformably to the statute, in consequence of no order to 
that effect being specified in the warrant of committal ; 
he actually brought an action against the Lord Mayor in 
the Court of Common Pleas for non-conformity to the 
law, as he had received no whipping during his confine- 
ment. The Jury were obliged to give a farthing damages, 
but the point of law was reserved." Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, vol. Ixxxvi. pt. ii. p. 175. 

ZEUS. 

Field Marshal Robertson of the House of Stroivan 
(2 nd S. iii. 448.) According to Douglas's Peer- 
age, by Wood, ii. 371., Sir Alex. Robertson of 
Strowan was created a baronet of England, Fe- 
bruary 20, 1677. His eldest son, Sir David Col- 
year, came over into England with the Prince of 
Orange at the Revolution, and on June 1, 1699, 
was created a peer of Scotland by the title of 
Lord Portmore and Blackness. J. Y. 

Godly Prayers (2 nd S. iii. 353.; iv. 35.) These 
Prayers were placed at the end of the Prayer- 
Book long before 1628. They occur in a copy I 
have of 1615 (Barker), and also of 1591. These 
begin with " A Prayer, containing the duetie of 
every true Xtian ; " then come " Prayers for 



. N 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



Sundrie Times;" and then the " Godly Prayers" 
for sundry purposes. These last were, I believe, 
first added to the Psalter in 1552 (Whitchurch). 

J. C. J. 

MR. ELLIOTT, after enumerating several edi- 
tions of the Common Prayer-Book, says : " Hence 
it appears that the ' Godly Prayers ' were pub- 
lished as early as 1630, and probably as early as 
1628," &c. I beg to inform that gentleman that 
I have a portion of the Common Prayer-Book, 
4to,, with the "Godly Prayers," imprinted by 
Bonham Norton and John Bill, 1623. It is 
bound with the Bible, by the same printers, of the 
date 1622, and Sternhold and Hopkins' Psalms, 
printed for the Company of Stationers, 1619. B. 

" The Drury Lane Journal" (2 nd S. iv. 68.) 
I have eleven numbers of the above periodical, 
bound in a volume paged continuously to 263. 
No. 11. is dated 26th March, 1752. Inside the 
cover some one has written, " Collated and perfect, 
J. M., very rare." In another hand, " Written by 
Bonnel Thornton." JOHN HAWKINS. 

Order of Knighthood and Serjeants-at-Law (2 nd 
S. iv. 61.) Much learning might doubtless be 
displayed in discussing the antiquity and relative 
dignity of these two Orders ; and in a contest for 
precedence it is most probable that those who 
owed their honours to their intellect would be 
glad to avoid coming into collision with those who 
had gained them by the strength of their arms ; 
unless, indeed, they had Sir Geoffrey le Scrope, 
or some others who distinguished themselves as 
well in the field as in the courts, for their cham- 
pion. 

But when knighthood became a matter of re- 
venue, and did little more than testify the extent 
of the possessions or the length of the purse of the 
party dubbed, when all persons who had the pre- 
scribed quantity of land were visited with a pe- 
cuniary penalty if they did not take the order, 
when in short they were merely " knights of the 
carpet," then, indeed, the question might arise 
whether it was any longer an honourable dis- 
tinction; and Serjeants might justly doubt whether 
it would be any addition to their dignity. 

There is an instance in the reign of Henry VI. 
of a Serjeant, Thomas Rolfe, who, when sum- 
moned in 1431, pleaded his privilege of exemption, 
as bound to attend the Court of Common Pleas 
and not elsewhere ; and was thereupon excused. 
Whether this resistance was prompted by his 
anxiety ^ to save his pocket, or from any other 
motive, it is certain that it was not till a hundred 
years afterwards that the Serjeants changed their 
opinion. In 1534 Thomas Willoughby and John 
Baldwin were the first Serjeants who received the 
honour of knighthood, the Act of 1 Henry VIII. 
having apparently invested it with a superiority 



in rank. Since that time it has been very com- 
monly conferred on men of law as an honorary 
distinction. Queen Elizabeth was, however, very 
chary in its distribution, scarcely ever distinguish- 
ing more of her judges than the chiefs of the 
Courts with the title : and when it was " prosti- 
tuted " on all around him by James I., Bacon, 
though he accepted it in order to gratify his in- 
tended wife, felt it necessary to apologise to his 
cousin, Cecil, for making the request. 

The Society of the Inner Temple in 1605, and 
the other Inns of Court afterwards, decided the 
question of precedency as it regards men of the 
law members of their Houses, by ordering that 
any Knight, "notwithstanding his dignity of 
knighthood, should take place at the Bench 
Table according to his seniority in the House, and 
no otherwise." But we are not furnished with 
King James's decision on a petition of the Ser- 
jeants on the same subject. EDWARD Foss. 

Wife of Lord High Chancellor Wriothesley (2 nd 
S. iv. 68.) Dugdale, in his Baronage, vol. ii. 
p. 383., says that Lord Wriothesley married Jane, 
the daughter of William Cheney, and that one of 
their daughters became the wife of the Earl of 
Sussex. . EDWARD Foss. 

Times prohibiting Marriage (2 nd S. iv. 58.) 
Bishops and archdeacons in the seventeenth cen- 
tury appear to have been in the habit of inquiring 
at their Visitations whether any have been mar- 
ried in the times wherein marriage is by law re- 
strained without lawful licence. Vide Andrewes' 
Articles, Diocese of Winchester, 1619 and 1625; 
Cosin's Articles, Archdeaconry of the East Riding, 
1627 ; Montague's Articles, Diocese of Norwich, 
1638. E. H. A. 

" Lofcop " (2 nd S. iv. 26.) ~ On turning to the 
passages in the 1 st S., referred to in the 2 nd S. iv. 
26., I found it stated by a correspondent (I st S. 
iv. 411.) that "lakcop" (doubtless akin to " lof- 
cop ") is explained in Thorpe's Ancient Laws and 
Institutes of England, vol. i. p. 294. note. 

As the note in question throws considerable 
light on the whole subject, and, so far as I can 
find, has never yet appeared in "N. & Q.," a 
summary of its contents may not be unacceptable 
in your columns. 

The note is on " Ian-cop," and states that " the 
books interpret this term, redemptio privilegiorum 
que per utlagationem fuerint amissa." Also, " In 
the old Sleswic Law the term is found : ' Sciendum 
est autem quod rex habet quoddam speciale de- 
bitum in Slaeswick quod dicitur Lseghkop, quo 
redimitur ibi hereditas morientium, non tamen 
omnium." Afterwards, in the same extract, the 
term is spelt " Lagh-kop." 

So far, then, the general meaning given both to 
" lof " and to " cop" at p. 26, appears to be con- 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



firmed. It seems that " Iali-c6p " (the redemp- 
tion of privileges forfeited by outlawry), "lagh- 
kop" and " laeghkb'p " (the duty on an inherit- 
ance), and " lofcop " (a levy on grain), all have 
a common origin and a kindred meaning. The 
general idea is that of levying a payment, toll, or 
duty, with a particular reference to grain in the 
case considered, 2 nd S. iv. 26. THOMAS BOYS. 

Branding of Criminals (2 nd S. iv. 69.) In olden 
times, every one who could read was accounted 
very learned, and was called a clerk or clericus, 
and though he had not the halitum et tonsuram 
clericalem, was allowed the benefit of clerkship. 
In later times, however, when learning, by means 
of printing and other causes, came to be more 
general, reading was no longer a 

" Competent proof of clerkship, or being in holy orders : 
it was found that as many laymen as divines were ad- 
mitted to the privileglwn clericale; and therefore, by Stat. 
4 Hen. 7. c. 13., a distinction was once more drawn be- 
tween mere lay scholars, and clerks that were really in 
orders. And, though it was thought reasonable still to 
mitigate the severity of the law with regard to the former, 
yet they were not put upon the same footing with actual 
clergy; being subjected to a slight degree of punishment, 
and not allowed to claim the clerical privilege more than 
once. Accordingly the Stat. directs that no person, once 
admitted to the 'benefit of clergy, shall be admitted 
thereto a second time, unless he produces his orders; and 
in order to distinguish their persons, all laymen who are 
allowed this privilege shall be burnt with a hot iron in the 
brawn of the left thumb. This distinction between learned 
laymen and real clerks in orders was abolished for a 
time by Stats. 28 Hen. 8. c. 1., and 32 Hen. 8. cap. 3., but 
it is held to have been virtually restored by Stat. 1 Edio. 
6. c. 12., which statute also enacts that lords of Parlia- 
ment and peers of the realm, having pjace and voice in 
parliament, may have the benefit of their peerage, equiva- 
lent to that of clergy, for the first offence (although they 
cannot read, and without being burnt in the hand), for 
all offences then clergyable to commoners : and also for 
the crimes of house-breaking, highway-robbery, horse- 
stealing, and robbing of churches." 

By stat. 21 Jac. 1. c. 6., women convicted of 
simple larcenies under the value of 10,9. were to 
be " burned in the hand, whipped, put in the 
stocks, or imprisoned for any time not exceeding a 
year." "The punishment of burning in the hand 
was changed by stat. 10 & 11 W. 3. c. 23. into 
burning in the left cheek near the nose." This 
was again repealed in Anne's reign, and burnino- 
in the hand for thefts, &c., restored, and it wall 
continued certainly up to 19 Geo. 3., possibly 
later, but I have not means of satisfactorily ascer- 
taining. 1 trust the above will partly answer 
A. B. E.'s Query. HENRI. 

Nortliwick Motto (2 nd S. ii. 189. 239. 336.) 
None of your correspondents, I perceive, have 
yet suggested the true solution of this apparently 
abstruse motto, which has reference, solely, to the 
number of lions in the Nortliwick shield of arms, 
as the following quotation from one of the earlier 
editions of Debrett will show, a work so easily 



accessible that I am much astonished so grave an 
authority as Burke should have overlooked it : 

" The family of y Eonalts (as their names are gene- 
rail}' spelt) possessed large estates in Picardy and Nor- 
mandy, and were related to the Dukes of Normandy; 
before the Conquest they bore the same arms as the three 
first kings of that race. Henry II., in right of his wife, 
enjoyed large possessions in France; among the rest, the 
Duchies of Aquitaine and Poitou, and added a third lion, 
as the arms of those provinces, to the arms of England, 
on which account the family of Ronalt assumed the 
present motto, ' Par ternis suppar ; ' ' The two are equal 
in antiquity to the three.' " 

In allusion to their royal descent the supporters 
granted to Lord Nortliwick (two angels) are 
" habited, seuree of fleurs-de-lis, and mullets, gold" 
In a recent number of Chambers s Journal ap- 
peared a humorous article on " Peerage Mottoes," 
which, with some few misapprehensions, con- 
tained some amusing expositions of aristocratic 
philosophy. HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 

Peacocks and Adders (2 nd S. iii. p. 488.) MR. 
RILEY did well to doubt the story. Peacocks are 
kept in Westmoreland for ornament, and for the 
table, and, moreover, destroy adders as their cus- 
tom is in Westmoreland, as in other places. They 
are, however, reputed to destroy young game and 
poultry (I never knew an instance of it) : they 
certainly eat one's fruit greedily, and sometimes 
take a fancy to nip the heads off flowers. More- 
over they require a good deal of food in winter, 
and trample a meadow or a cornfield, so as to do 
mischief. Where there is range enough, and the 
hens are not disturbed, they soon multiply. Some 
people like to leap to a conclusion, and perhaps a 
townsman, surprised to see a score or half a score 
of peafowl about a country house, and being told 
they killed snakes, might infer they were kept ex- 
pressly lor the purpose. It is curious that the 
habits of so common a bird should be so little 
known. I have been gravely told they could not 
fly, because their tails were so heavy. But the 
drollest and least pardonable misstatement about 
peacocks, is to be found in Couch's Illustrations of 
Instinct (Van Voorst, p. 75.), where we are told 
that 

" If surprised by a foe, the peacock erects his gorgeous 
feathers, and the enemy beholds a creature . . . whose 
bulk he estimates by the circumference of the glittering 
circle, his attention at the same time being distracted by 
a hundred alarming eyes . . . accompanied by a hiss 
from the serpent- like head in the centre," &c. 

I cannot occupy your space by giving this non- 
sense at full length ; but from an author, publish- 
ing at Van Voorst's, it is not what one expected. 
The peacock closes his tail at once the moment 
he is alarmed, and flies off with a scream, instead 
of stopping to hiss. He will not spread his tail at 
all if under fear ; and when he does spread it, it 
is either out of rivalry with the males, or to at- 
tract the females. P. P. 



2nd S. NO 83., AUG. 1. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



" Worth a plum' (2 nd S. iii. 389. ; iv. 33.) In 
tracing the expression, "he has got a plum," to 
the Spanish phrase, "tiene pluma" (he has got 
plumage, or, he has got a plume, -spoken of a man 
who had " feathered his nest," or acquired wealth), 
an attempt was made (2 nd S. iv. 13.) to assign 
some specific reason why the expression more par- 
ticularly applied to the person who had gained in 
trade the sum of 100,OOOZ. 

Perhaps you will now permit me to mention a 
fact which throws additional light upon this ques- 
tion, and tends to confirm the conclusion already 
suggested. 

A favourite expression amongst the merchants 
of the Continent in former days was " a ton of 
gold." 

JSTow this expression, " a ton of gold," was in- 
definite. But it always meant 100,000 pieces of 
coin, whatever their value. 

Thus, in French, the " tonne d'or " was a " cer- 
taine somme d' argent, dont la valeur varie suivant 
les pays. La tonne d'or est de 100,000 florins en 
Hollande, et de cent mille thalers en Allemagne." 
Hence the expression, " donner une tonne d'or en 
manage a sa fille." 

Hence also it is stated in Multz's Curieuses 
Muntz-Lexicon (one of the most curious little 
books I ever set eyes on), that a " tonne goldes," 
or "tonne d'or," was a sum of 100,000 dollars, 
gilders, marks, pounds sterling, fyc., according to 
the currency of the respective countries. Thus a 
ton of gold was in German currency 100,000 rix- 
dollars ; in English, 100,000 pounds sterling; in 
Dutch, 100,000 Dutch gilders ; in Polish, 100,000 
Polish gilders, &c. 

This expression then, "a ton of gold," having, 
so far as we are concerned, been connected by 
foreign merchants with the sum of 100,000 
pounds sterling, may it not serve further to ex- 
plain why, in saying of a successful merchant that 
he was worth a plum, the particular amount 
selected by our forefathers was this " ton of gold," 
or 100,000/. ? THOMAS BOYS. 

Gravestones and Church Repairs (2 nd S. iii. 366.) 
A curious confirmation of the sanction some- 
times given by church authorities to the desecra- 
tion of memorials of the dead, is brought to light 
in Mr. Beal's recently published work on "St. 
Thomas's Church, Newport, and the Princess 
Elizabeth," where, speaking of the discovery of 
her remains in 1793, and the placing a fresh tablet 
over the vault, he says : 

" Perhaps to save expense, perhaps to get rid of a dis- 
agreeable protest, the tablet was supplied by one taken 
from the churchyard wall, and reading thus : ' Here 
lyeth the body of Master G e orge (sfc) Shergold, late 
minister of New Port, who, during sixteen years in dis- 
charge of his office strictly observed the true discipline of 
the Church of England, and disliking y* dead bodies should 
IK buried in God's House, appointed to be interred in this 
place. [He died universally lamented and esteemed, 



January xxiii, 1707.' This being reversed with the inscrip- 
tion dowmvards afforded surface whereon to memorialise 
a more illustrious decease." 

Both coffin-plate and tablet are now in posses- 
sion of the churchwardens of St. Thomas' Church 
there, to which the statue of the princess by 
Marochetti, the gift of the Queen, forms no in- 
considerable addition to the attractions of the 
place. HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The third volume of Mr. Peter Cunningham's edition of 
The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, now first 
chronologically arranged, has just been issued. As Wai- 
pole was a letter-writer who, great as was his gifts, 
improved by practice so the present volume exceeds in 
interest and amusement its predecessors. The letters in- 
cluded in it extend from 1756 to 1762, and as that period 
embraces the death of George II., and the accession, mar- 
riage, and coronation of George III., and all the political 
intrigues so rife at those periods, our readers may well 
judge what an amusing volume it is. It contains more- 
over a good many letters not hitherto included in any Col- 
lection of Walpole's Letters, and besides these Portraits of 
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, George Montagu, Esq., 
Maria Countess of Waldegrave, and of George Selwyn, 
Dicky Edgecumbe, and Gilly Williams, from Sir Joshua's 
well-known picture, now in the possession of Mr. La- 
bouchere. 

The new number of The Quarterly partakes somewhat 
of the serious nature of the present times. It is, contrary 
to its wont, rather more grave than gay. The articles on 
The French Constitutionalists ; Ireland Past and Present ; 
The Internal Decoration of Churches; and The Divorce 
Hill, form the solid part of the feast. The lighter dishes 
are, an article which will, we think, be much relished by 
classical students, Homeric Characters in and out of 
Homer ; a capital article on Recent Travels in China, 
founded chiefly on Mr. Fortune's Residence among the 
Chinese ; a very amusing chapter on Electioneering ; and 
an agreeable critical paper on The Manchester Exhibition. 

The mention of the Manchester Exhibition reminds us 
to hint to intending visitors, (and the reports of competent 
judges who have visited it are such as to tempt all those 
who have not, to take the first opportunity of doing so,) 
that Dr. Waagen has just issued an indispensable little 
guide to it. It is entitled, The Manchester Exhibition : 
What to Observe; a Walkthrough the Art- Treasures Exhi- 
bition under the Guidance of Dr. Waagen. It is issued as 
a companion to the Official Catalogue, and will be found 
an amusing and instructive one. 

Our readers will be glad to hear that the Second Divi- 
sion of Mr. Darling's Cyclopedia Bibliographica is about 
to appear. It Will be entirely uniform with the Cyclo- 
paedia Bibliographica Authors, recently published, and of 
Avhich we made, so frequent mention in well- deserved 
terms of praise, and to which work it will form a neces- 
sary sequel. "Both volumes will be mutually connected 
and illustrative of each other: the one, under an alpha- 
betical List of Authors, exhibiting the Subjects on which 
they have written by an analytical List of their Works, 
with some Account "of their Lives ; and the other (that 
now about to be published), under a scientific arrange- 
ment of heads or common-places, pointing out the Authors 
who have written on each Subject. By this method, and 
also by a distinct alphabetical Arrangement of Subjects, 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NO 83., AUG. 1. '57. 



a ready reference will be obtained to Books, Treatises, 
Sermons, and Dissertations whether published as dis- 
tinct woi-ks, or forming parts of volumes and collected 
works on nearly all heads of Divinity ; the Books, Chap- 
ters, and Verses" of Scripture; Doctrinal, Practical, and 
Polemical Divinity ; and useful topics in Literature, Phi- 
losophy, and History, on a more complete system than 
has yet been attempted in any Language ; forming an 
Index to the contents of Libraries, both public and pri- 
vate, and a Cyclopaedia of the Sources of Information and 
Discussion in Theology, as well as in most branches of 
Knowledge." Such is Mr. Darling's present scheme, and 
that he will carry it out well and ably, his execution of 
the volume already published gives the best assurance. 



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2nd s. NO 84., AUG. 8. '57,] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUSTS, 1857. 



SOTITHEY'S EDITION or COWPER. 

The revived interest in this work, growing out 
of a copy of Bonn's reprint lately coming into my 
possession, led to the sifting with somewhat more 
than ordinary care both that re-issue and the 
original edition. The result of this pains-taking 
is to leave behind a problem altogether too diffi- 
cult for me to solve. 

Twenty years and more had elapsed from the 
publication by Mr. Hayley of his friend's letters 
and poetry, when an additional volume of the 
former appeared, from the hands of the Rev. John 
Johnson (1824) ; that nephew whom Cowper used 
to address, then quite a youth, in terms of collo- 
quial and even childish endearment. The new 
series presented within itself the most curious con- 
trast. One set of letters rather too painfully in- 
teresting, breathed out, one might think, from the 
very abyss, written in the forlornest and gloomiest 
mood of the writer's soul, had been set aside by 
Hayley (as some critics at the time suggested) 
from fear of the bearing they were likely to have 
on the vexed question of the exact relation be- 
tween Cowper's insanity and his religious faith. 
Almost, if not quite, as many were in his usual 
vein ; and than several of these, none are more 
engaging that came from his pen. To this John- 
son collection, the publishers of a rival and simul- 
taneous edition to that now under notice laid 
claim as property. Their New York agent here 
confidently called it, on this score, the only com- 
plete edition of Cowper, which the agent on the 
other side freely admitted, while deeming the ad- 
vantage offsetted to his own article, by " numerous 
letters of C. unpublished till now." How this 
copyright was derived, it is foreign to our purpose 
to inquire; but in such ambiguous phrase does 
Mr. Southey in his preface now concede and now 
scout the pretension in question, that he could 
hardly have taken, it would seem, a more unwise 
course, or one less fitted to do away the suspicions 
of the reader. 

He, in the first place, asserts the poor success 
and heavy sale of the Johnson collection, "a 
thousand copies remaining in the publisher's ware- 
house " at the time his work was projected ; and 
Mr. Bohn, who echoes this story in the advertise- 
ment to his late reprint, intimates that these " were 
sold to him for little more than waste paper." The 
reader almost inevitably infers it was expressly 
meant that he so should that the letters them- 
selves justified this public neglect. It may chance 
however, on the other hand, that some sagacious 
heads may think of the ancient fable, and surmise 
that, it-being impossible to clutch them, the grapes 
were sour. If the alleged fact is to be received, it 



presents certainly an enigma beyond solution : the 
solution of Mr. Southey will satisfy nobody. It is 
not easy to light upon a sentence or a clause even, 
favouring this disparaging estimate in either of the 
five reviews * of Dr. Johnson's volume which my 
diligence has hunted out ; a coincidence among so 
many judges not very easily disposed of. Two of 
these notices coming from Reginald Heber and 
Henry Wane, Jun., may well assert some title to 
respect ; and, better than all, such an authority as 
Robert Hall (can we go to an higher court of ap- 
peal ?), after expressing his admiration of Cowper 
as a letter-writer, writes to Dr. Johnson, " These 
appear to me of a superior description to the 
former." Let me not forget to add, there were 
both Boston and Philadelphia reprints of the vo- 
lume in debate, and it will be news to most of us 
to learn that they turned out to either firm little 
better than waste paper. 

Again, in the spirit of his insinuation, Mr. 
Southey's preface contains statements, which for a 
veteran editor, than whom no man better knew 
what the office demands, sound very odd and 
startling. " He has made such use of the letters 
in Dr. Johnson's collection as he had an unques- 
tionable right to do ; he has extracted (!) from them 
as largely as suited his purpose, and brought into 
his narrative the whole of the information they 
contain." But an author who, like Cowper, has 
been consecrated as a classic of the language, may 
expect in any issue, so strongly styled as that of 
his Works, to be made literally complete, his 
readers will not fail to expect it, and will, of all 
things, eschew " extracts," as any compensation 
for the want of it ; and what will those literary 
exquisites say to such a course, who run this prin- 
ciple of " completeness " under ground, who are 
jealous of every omission, on moral pleas even, 
of which Swift, unexpurgated yet, may serve as 
a standing monument down to this day. Mr. 
Southey (as before said), after admitting in his 
preface the copyright bar as to the Johnson series 
of letters, in the warmth of defiance towards his 
rivals, half unsays it before he concludes. Be- 
yond all dispute, he virtually undoes it in the con- 
tents of his volumes. For one, my mind was not 
at ease until some patient collating was made (it 
exercised that virtue a little) of this despised vo- 
lume with the original Southey. This was done, 
by way of specimen, only for the period down to 
the close of 1782, within which, from 1765, 
eighty-three (out of two hundred and twenty) of 
the Johnson letters date. The development 
brings at once to our lips the query, What can the 
law of copyright amount to in England ? Will it 
be believed, that the edition which confesses to 
these same letters being out of its reach, and pro- 

* The London Quarterly, Westminster, Christian Ob- 
server, Gentleman's Magazine, and our own North Ame- 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd S. NO 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



fesses also to hold them so cheaply (cannot have 
them if it would, and would not if it could *), has 
yet pounced upon nearly four-fifths of the above- 
specified eighty-three, including some half dozen 
which Mr. Southey has woven into the memoir 
itself. What fruits might recompense the search 
through the remaining twelve years of corre- 
spondence remains to be seen. How much better, 
then, gentle reader, is the editor than his word, 
much as he makes us wonder ; and- why, we needs 
must ask, why give himself out as barbarously 
garbling his author, only to the prejudice of his 
own editorial credit ? 

The association of subject brings to mind that 
some thirty years ago a Philadelphia bookseller, 
of note in his day, sent forth in compact (8vo.) 
reprints several of the most popular English 
writers. When their respective bulk admitted 
or even recommended such conjunction, two 
authors, occasionally indeed three, were brought 
within the same covers at times sadly ill-assorted, 
as for example, Coleridge, Shelley and Keats; 
Cowper and Thomson were in this way combined. 
But they were always vauntingly styled COMPLETE ; 
a regular stereotyped part of the title-page. Over- 
sights there were, little to the credit of any pub- 
lishing house, in the minor poetry of the former ; 
but of the Johnson collection of letters not a shred 
or vestige icas to be found. The world must re- 
main in the dark for ever whether John Grigg 
only proclaimed herein his consummate ignorance ; 
or whether so competent a critic thus scornfully 
led the way, in which Mr. Southey was not too 
proud to follow. At any rate, one of the two 
American impressions, and then hardly three 
years old perhaps, had been issued from the very 
city of the bibliopole just named. 

In conclusion, a word with Mr. Bohn himself. 
He calls his edition a complete and bonufide re- 
print of that of 1837. We ask him then to point 
out to us (what we have sought for in vain) Mr. 
Southey's advertisement, four pages in length, 
which opens the fifteenth volume. It distributes 
his acknowledgements, refers to some things which 
had been dropped from his original scheme, ad- 
verts to the number of letters now first given to 
the world, and finally exhibits in full the brief 
will of Cowper, whom both Hayley and Grim- 
shawe had represented as dying intestate. Did 
Mr. Bohn count these four pnges as nothing ? As 
to those hitherto unpublished letters, the present 

* Mr. Bolin (the copyright having by this time ex- 
pired, one infers) graciously gives them refuge only be- 
cause " they could not well be omitted in a complete 
edition": strictly speaking, he thus admits them, with' 
the proviso, "so far as they are of value!" What he 
means by " supplementary volume " is an utter puzzle. 
Thai is the position in the edition of 1837 of the large 
number, before named, as detected by me. There is no 
such volume in Mr. Bonn's edition, -where the whole are 
found in their chronological order. 



writer, by the nicest calculation he can make, 
supposes them to be about an hundred and thirty. 
This, however, he learns only by counting the 
total result as found- in Mr. Bonn's edition, and 
subtracting therefrom the aggregate number 
which Hayley and Johnson had already severally 
published. Some forty are to be allowed for 
which are sprinkled through the memoir, and not 
again repeated. Why has neither Mr. Southey 
nor the recent publisher seen fit to designate, by 
asterisk or otherwise, these, new letters, now only 
to be derived by a tedious collating with the vo- 
lumes of his predecessors ? HARVARDIENSIS. 



RICHARD III. AT LEICESTER. 

The following anecdote is probably familiar to most of 
the readers of " N". & Q.," but I do not remember to have 
ever seen it so circumstantially detailed and attested as 
it is in the following extract from one of Sir Roger Twys- 
den's Common-Place Books. We have here a satisfactory 
confirmation of the story from the lips of a living witness, 
for whose credibility Sir Roger vouches ; and, in this new 
and more interesting form, it will, I hope, be acceptable 
to your readers. LAMBERT B. LARKING. 

" I have beene informed by S r Basil Brooke, a 
very honest gentleman, and by M rs Cumber, a 
Citizen of London, who was bread up at Lecester, 
'that Richard y e third, beefore he fought at Bos- 
worth, lay in an house that was then, or after- 
wards, an inne, and called the blue boar, in which 
house, after hys defeat at Bos worth, 1485, there 
remayned a great cumbersom woodden beadstead, 
in which hymself lay beefore y e fight, guilded, and 
with planks or boords at y e bottom, not, as y e 
use now is, with courds, which beadstead, after y e 
battle, the bedding and what else of worth bee- 
ing taken away, remayned, as a neglected peece, 
to y e Inne, in which dwelt on M r Clark, in her 
tyme, from whom I had y e relation, whose wife 
going one day to make up a bed they had placed 
in it, in styrring of it, found a peece of gold to 
drop from it, and then, upon search, perceived 
the Beadstead to have a double bottom, all which 
space betweene y e two bottoms was fylled with 
gold and treasure, all coyned beefore Richard y e 
3 cls tyme, or by hym, from whense this Clark 
reaped an incredyble masse of wealth (but had 
wit enough not to discover y e same) but beecame 
of a poore man very ritch, was Mayor, and this, 
in y e end, was by hys servants discovered. The 
sayd Clark in y e end dying left hys wife very 
ritch, who styll kept on y e Inne at y e blue bore in 
Leicester, tyll, in the end, some guests coming to 
lodge with her, she was by them robd, who car- 
ryed away seven hors load of treasure, and yet 
left great storre scatterd about the howse of gold 
and silver, M rs Cleark herself beeing in this action 
made away by a mayd servant, who stopt her 
breath by thrusting her finger into her throat, she 



NO 84., AUG. 8. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



beeing a very fat person; for which fact M rs 
Cumber saw her burnt as the seven men were 
hanged. 

"This was I first told by S r Basill Brooke, 
which was since confirmed to me by M Cumber, 
who hath lived there, saw y e woeman and y e Bead- 
stead, and knewe y e relation to bee true, and says 
it was about some forty years since these persons 
were executed for it. This she affirmed unto me 
this 29. August 1653. and I dare say was trewe, 
for they were, both S r Basill Brooke, and M 
Cumber, very good, trewe, and worthy persons. 
" ROGER TWYSDEN." 



BONS MOTS OF CELEBRATED PERSONS. 

" N". & Q." being now justly regarded as one of 
the fittest depositories for interesting notices of 
men and things, I think it would be well if those 
of your correspondents who^are possessed of un- 
published good sayings of celebrated persons 
would occasionally communicate them under the 
above head ; taking care, however, to have, and 
even to give, as far as may be, assurance of their 
authenticity, originality, &c. I send you the fol- 
lowing, by way of a beginning. 

Gibbon, the Historian. My old friend, C. O. 
Cambridge, Esq., who lately died at Whitminster 
House, Gloucestershire, aged ninety-four, was a 
son of the late R. O. Cambridge, of Twickenham 
Meadows, of well-known celebrity as a writer and 
wit of the time of Johnson, Gibbon, Garrick, 
Walpole, &c. He told me that Gibbon being one 
of a party assembled in his father's library before 
dinner, he, my friend, then a young man, came in 
from hunting, and was giving to Gibbon, with 
juvenile satisfaction, an account of the chase, 
which he described as an almost continued gallop, 
during which he stood up in his stirrups for a con- 
siderable time. On this, Gibbon (whose horse- 
manship was bad, and whose heavy person made 
his riding a very quiet and slow affair), said to 
my friend, "I thought, Mr. Cambridge, until 
now, that riding was a sedentary occupation : " 
and, tapping his snuff-box, he took a pinch of 
snuff, as was his wont, when he let off any smart 
saying. I may remark, that this usual action of 
Gibbon is well represented in the curious and 
characteristic full-length silouette figure of him 
which forms the frontispiece of the 4to. edition 
of his Miscellaneous Works, London, 1796. 

Dr. Richard Willis, Bishop of Gloucester, 1714 
21. This prelate, whilst labouring under a 
fit of the gout, was waited on by a clergyman of 
his diocese, who having remarked that the gout 
removed and kept off all other maladies, proceeded 
to congratulate his lordship on having taken a new 
lease of his life. On which the bishop replied to 
his flatterer " Have I taken a new lease of my 



life? Then I can assure you, Sir, it is a lease at 
rack rent." This was communicated to me by the 
late G. W. Counsell, who wrote the History of 
Gloucester, &c., arid was possessed of much curious 
information about Gloucester and its celebrities. 

Dr. Walcot (Peter Pindar). In the evening 
of the day, in 1801, on which the news arrived in 
London that the Emperor Paul of Russia had been 
strangled, I was in company with this then cele- 
brated man ; when, the news being talked of, he 
remarked "I suppose all the crowned heads in 
Europe will get up tomorrow morning with cricks 
in their necks. 1 ' P. H. I. 



UNPUBLISHED LETTER OP THE LATE B. R. HAYDON. 

" London, June 16, 1837. 
" Sir, 

" I have to apologise most truly, but surely 
without imputing blame to so worthy a man as 

Mr. P . What he said justified my writing at 

once. Your kindness in excusing it is a favor ; 
and so is your order, accept my sincere thanks. 

" I will also for 51. 5s. paint a little Scripture 
picture for him under, I cannot do it : a pretty 
little thing, and I'll let you know as soon as done. 

" I remember Sir Edw. : and, if you will au- 
thorize me to go to him for you, something may 
come of it for both our goods ; though, God 
knows, I should be sorry if all your debts were in 
this jeopardy. 

" I shall be most happy to see you, or any 
of your connections. After 32 years' hard work, 
and opposing monopolizing power, I have nothing 
left on Earth but the clothes on my back : had 
any man of business regulated my affairs in 1823, 
[or 1833?], with 5000Z. of property in the House, 
I will venture to say it might have been all ar- 
ranged, my credit even untainted, my debts ba- 
lanced, and everybody would have forborne ; but 
from mistaken pride, I borrowed at hideous in- 
terest to keep up my character got into Law, 
and have never got out till now. 

" Would you believe that when I was hurried 
again in 1836 into a Prison money-lenders 
THEN offered the amount directly of my debts 
12202. 10*. if I'd take it at their terms ! Would 
you believe men live then Prisoners, and make a 
handsome thing ! ! 

" You are innocent the other side of London 
the iniquity that has passed under my eye, look- 
ing on as a Philosopher, will make you stare when 
I am dead. There is one thing I can say to the 
young I have talked to Villains as a matter of 
observation, and found, invariably, Parental disobe- 
dience the beginning of all Vice. 

" B. R. HAYDON." 

The above letter was addressed to the father of 
the transcriber, in whose collection of MSS. it is 
now preserved, and a copy is sent to " N. & Q. ;" 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. N o 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



where the EDITOR may perhaps think a letter so 
characteristic of the writer is worthy of a place. 

BRISTOLIENSIS. 



DERIVATION OF JERKIN. 

Derivation of " Jerkin:' Our etymologists de- 
rive jerkin from the Saxon Cyrtelkin. Kirtle is 
doubtless from Cyrtel. But, not feeling altogether 
satisfied with the above derivation of jerkin, I 
venture to propose another, suggested by analogy. 

The dress of a schoolboy is in Portugal often 
called josezinho, that is, "Little Joseph," or 
" Little Joey," the term being facetiously trans- 
ferred from the wearer to his coat. 

In like manner we have in our own language 
/<?&?/= "Little John," or "Little Jacky." So in 
French we find jaquette, which is fern, of the un- 
used form jaquet (dimin. from jaque) t i. e. " Le 
petit Jacques," "Little James," or "Little 
Jemmy." 

May not jerkin, in like manner, be " Little 
Jerry?" In that case, Person's well-known cate- 
nary derivation, terminating in cucumber, has 
more in it than meets the eye. 

The termination -kin is diminutive, as in spil- 
likins. Thus : spiel (German), a game ; spielchen, 
a little game ; spillikins. 

With the English jacket and French jaquette 
compare the German jackclien. Perhaps one of 
your correspondents will be able to give us some 
account of the military term shako, which appears 
to come originally from the old Spanish xaco, 
though adopted into our language with an altered 
meaning. Xaco is a modification of jaco (short 
for Jacobus or James, and, like xaco, signifying a 
jacket) . 

With regard to the old French word jaque, 
which is still used in the phrase jaque de mailles, 
it is notorious that the mediaeval S. Jacques (of 
Compostella) was a true knight ; and he may still 
be seen in Roman Catholic countries occupying 
many a niche with sword in hand, and armed da 
capo a piedi. May we not then suppose that to 
him is due the French phrase jaque de mailles, as 
well as our own English expression jack-loots, 
which properly stands for boots worn as armour ? 
And may not jaquette still point, as we have sup- 
posed, through jaquet to "Little James," as well 
as our English jacket to " Little John," josezinko 
to "Little Joseph," and jerkin to "Little Jerry ?" 

THOMAS BOYS. 



TRANSIT OF VENUS IN 1769 : MOOE AND THOM. 

Impromptu by Professor Moor on the visit of 
the beautiful Duchess of Hamilton (afterwards 
Duchess of ArgyU and grandmother to the present 



Duke) to view the transit of Venus in 1769, at 
the University of Glasgow : 

" They tell me Venus is in the Sun, 

But I say that's a story 
Venus is not in the Sun, 
She's in the Observatory." 

This memorable incident of the presence of 
the Duchess is more particularly noticed by the 
facetious Rev. William Thorn, A.M. minister of 
Govan, near Glasgow, when satirising Dr. Trail 
(then Professor of Divinity), under the name of 
Dr. Tail (Vindication, Glasgow, 1770, p. xviii.), 
in the following remarks : 

" I did not know till lately that the Doctor was an 
astronomer but the instance I have in view is too 
memorable to allow me any longer to doubt of it. A cer- 
tain learned Society (the University Professors), of which 
the Doctor is a member, had made suitable preparation 
for observing the late transit of Venus. One great dif- 
ficulty Avhick these gentlemen foresaw they would meet 
with in the course of their experiments o"n this subject 
was, how they might know her when they saw her. To 
aid them in this, they requested her Grace the D ch ss 
of H m 1 t n, who had been accustomed to look at 
Venus from her infancy, to be present at the observations. 
Her Grace according!}'-, with great good nature, conde- 
scended to assist on the occasion; and as soon as the 
planet made its appearance she gave notice to the society, 
as had been agreed upon. The Doctor who was the 
observer next to her Grace did not indeed at first seem 
to assent to the observation, and even, it must be confessed, 
denied it pretty peremptorily; but he was in a little time 
convinced that her Grace was right, and acknowledged 
his own mistake with a modesty and candour which will 
do him infinite honour with all ingenious minds and 
true lovers of astronomy." 

It is now impossible to ascertain whether the 
Govan laird was afterwards equally frank in ac- 
knowledging his mistake to Mr. Thorn, as related 
in a traditional anecdote of the witty divine, as 
follows. At a forenoon's Sunday worship in the 
parish church a proprietor on the Saturday night 
previous had slipped a pack of cards into the skirt 
pocket of his coat, and had forgot to take them 
out. He occupied a front pew in the gallery, and 
rising up at the commencement of the prayer, and 
drawing out his pocket handkerchief, the whole 
pack flew among the people in the area below. 
Mr. Thorn delayed for a few moments till com- 
posure was restored, and looking fixedly at him 
addressed him thus, " Ah man, but your Bible has 
been ill bun' (bound)." G. 1ST. 



Lord Stowell. Allow me to suggest that it might 
possibly, if not probably, be worth some lawyer's 
while to edit a volume which should contain 
selections or choice extracts from the judgments 
and decisions of that accomplished civilian, Lord 
Stowell, better known perhaps as Sir Wnv Scott, 
whose reputation stands so high, not only in his 



2nd s. NO 84., AUG. 8. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



own country, but on the continent also, and in 
America. From our earliest youth we have been 
taught to regard these compositions as master- 
pieces and models of excellence, combining the 
soundest reasoning with all the charms of an ele- 
gant and graceful style. These treasures, how- 
ever, it is almost, needless to observe are now 
altogether out of the reach of the ordinary reader. 
One does occasionally see an extract (as there is 
one in Dr. Wordsworth's learned and admirable 
discourse upon the divorce question), which only 
whets our appetite for a better acquaintance with 
them. If I might venture to hazard an opinion, 
I should say that such a volume as I have sug- 
gested would afford useful matter for the students 
for honours in the new school of Law and Modern 
History at the University of which, in his lifetime, 
Lord Stowell was so distinguished an ornament. 

E. H. A. 

The first Paper-mill erected, and first Books of 
Music published in America. Notices having 
appeared in " N. & Q.," 1 st S. ii. 473. 522. ; v. 83. 
255., of the first paper-mill in England, it may be 
noted, that the first in America 

" Was built at Elizabetlitown, New Jersey, which Wil- 
liam Bradstreet, Royal Printer of New York, New Jersey, 
and Pennsylvania, purchased in 1728. In 1730, the 
second went into operation at Boston, the legislature of 
Massachusetts having granted aid for its erection." 

"The first books of music published in America were 
issued in 1714 and 1721 ; the former by the Rev. John 
Tufts, of Newberry, Massachusetts, and the latter by the 
Rev. Thomas Walter, of Roxburg, in the same state." 

w. w. 

Malta. 

Irish Dramatic Talent. Difference of taste 
makes it difficult, if not impossible, to say which 
is the best comedy in the English language. 
Many, however, are of opinion that there are 
three which more particularly dispute the palm, 
namely, She Stoops to Conquer, The School for 
Scandal, and The Heiress; and it is remarkable 
that the authors of these productions were Irish- 
men, Goldsmith, Sheridan, and Murphy. 

ABHBA. 

The First Proposer of an Atlantic Electric Te- 
legrapK. ThQ following letter appears in the 
National Intelligencer of May 15, 1857 : 

" To the Editors. 

Dundee, 12. South Union Street, April 27, 1857. 
" Gentlemen, I find you have done me the honour to 
publish some of my early letters on the Electric Tele- 
graph, and I beg here to make some explanations. I 
believe I was the first that proposed communication with 
America by means of submerged wires. This was in 
1845, being twelve years ago. I only mentioned one 
wire, but my plan required two, both uninsulated. All 
my previous experiments were by means of two unin- 
sulated wires. At that time gutta-percha was only 
beginning to be known : and I do not think I had heard 
of its being proposed as an insulator. Even yet I am of 



opinion that the simple wires are preferable. The coat- 
ing might be destroyed by the bite of a fish, or by the 
abrasion of stones. . I would put the wires a mile or two 
miles apart in order to prevent their coming in contact. 
From the west point of Ireland to the banks of New- 
foundland, they would be in deep sea, and perhaps could 
not be raised if required ; but on these banks they would 
be accessible for five or six hundred miles. A few years 
ago, I made a series of experiments in order to transmit 
intelligence through water without wires across. This I 
found practicable by a proper adjustment of the wires on 
each side : and in this way I succeeded with all the dis- 
tances tried, the greatest distance being half a mile. 
" I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

" J. B. LINDSAY." 

w.w. 

Malta. 

A Dedication. In a volume of Italian songs 
(now in the Gresham Library), I met with a set 
of six songs ; composed for, and sung by Signer 
Tenducci at various theatres in Italy ; and pub- 
lished in London, with a dedication (in English, 
and engraved upon copper), from Tenducci to 
Queen Marie Antoinette. In case the tragical 
history of that queen should be thought to give 
some interest to this little document, I now tran- 
scribe it : 

"To 

"Her most excellent and sacred Majesty 
" The Queen of France. 

" May it please your Majesty, 

" The approbation your Majesty was pleased to bestow 
on some of the following Songs when I had the honor to 
sing them at Versailles, has determined me to present 
them at the celebrated Concert of Messrs. Bach and Abel 
in London, during the present Season, where I could have 
little doubt that their intrinsic merit would secure them 
success from so polite and judicious an Audience; but 
when it is known they have already received the sanction 
of your Majesty's judgment, their success is made certain 
the refinement of your Majesty's Taste being as well 
known in this Country as the superior elegance of your 
Person and incomparable affability of your manners, are 
to all those that have been permitted to approach you. 

" Deign, therefore, Royal Madam, to pardon my pre- 
fixing your sacred Name to so poor an Offering, and per- 
mit me with the greatest humility to lay the same at 
your Feet as an humble instance of the gratitude of 
" Royal Madam, 
" Your Majesty's most Obedient, 

" Humble, and most devoted Servant, 
" G. F. TENDUCCI." 
Febr 1, 1778. 

A. ROFFJE. 

Epitaph from Geneva. 

" My sins without number, and great was my pride, 
As deep as the Ocean, as strong as the Tide, 
But more strong than the Tide, more deep than the 

Sea, 
Was the Love of my Saviour, who sorrowed for me." 

BRISTOLIENSIS, 
Longevity. 

" Ex his autem qui tune cum Sancti Confessoris (Cuth* 
berti) corpore in hunc locum (Dunhelmum) convenerant, 
erat quidam vocabulo Riggulfus, quiomne tempus vitce SUCK 
cc. et x. annos haluerat, quorum xi. in monachico liabitu 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 84., AIXJ. 8. '67. 



ante mortem duxerat." 
edition, p. 142. 



of Durham, Bedford's 
E. H. A. 



ENIGMATICAL PICTUEES. 

The paradoxical epitaph, of which we are to 
seek the explanation in Horace Walpole's tragedy, 
The Mysterious Mother, is inscribed, Bryan tells 
us in his Dictionary of Painters, on a tomb in a 
landscape by J. B. Weeninx, in the gallery of the 
Duke of Sutherland : 

" Cy git le pere, cy git la mere, 
Cy git la sceur, cy git le frere, 
Cy git la femrne, et le mari, 
Et il n'y a que deux corps ici." 

1651. Giovan Battista Weeninx. 

I should be glad to receive an explanation of 
some equally puzzling lines which accompany a 
curious allegorical picture of the time of James I. 
A female is represented seated in a chair, nursing 
an old man who is asleep in her lap. Three 
younger men are seen descending a hill, and a 
fourth, approaching, asks the lady the following 
question : 

" Madam, be pleased to tell who that may be 
So sweetly resting there upon your knee ; 
And to resolve me who are yonder three 
That come down from the castle, as you see? " 

To which she answers : 

" The first my brother is, by father's side ; 
The next, by mother's, not to be denyde ; 
The next my own sonn is, by marriage right, 
And all sonns by my husband, this same knight." 

WILLIAM BATES. 

Birmingham. 



William Penn. In one of the News- letters 
published in the Ellis Correspondence (ii. 211.), 
and dated Sept. 22, 1688, it is said : 

" Another of their shams is that Mr. Penne is made 
Comptroller of Excise arising from tea and coffee ; which 
is also false." 

True or false the passage is worth quoting, be- 
cause Mr. Dixon, in his able defence of Penn, 
mentions, incidentally, that he had never seen the 
Quaker's name spelt with a final e. But was the 
report false, or is the news-writer quibbling? 
Luttrell, in his Brief Relation (i. 461.) records in 
Sept. 1688, 

" Mr. Penn is made Supervisor of the revenue of the 
excise and hearthmoney." 

This may have been another version of the 
"sham" but it may not. Luttreli also tells 
us 

" The Corporations of Warwick and the City of Nor- 
wich are dissolved* for refusing to take into their bodies 
Penn and Lobb, and such fellowes." 



Now is this a fact or a sham ? If a fact it would 
materially influence the judgment as to the pro- 
babilities of Penn's feelings and conduct in relation 
to the Fellows of Magdalen College. G. 

" The Unmaskynge of Johannes Horner" A 
paper so entitled appeared in a Magazine pub- 
lished about the middle of the last century. It is 
supposed to have given rise to Little Jack, and 
to have been somehow connected with Glaston- 
bury Abbey and its surrender. Can any reader 
of " N". & Q." give a precise reference to the Ma- 
gazine in question ? T. B. 

Pomfrefs Choice. When" and in what form 
was The Choice first published ? I cannot learn 
either from Watt, or Chalmers, or Johnson. 

N.O. 

General Wolfe's Family. Are there any mem- 
bers or representatives of the family of General 
Wolfe now living ? MERCATOB, A.B. 

Irish Almanacs. What is the date of the earliest 
Irish Almanac ? and in what year did the Dublin 
Directory make its first appearance ? I have at 
this moment before me one for the year 1777 ; 
but it had many predecessors. It is worth while 
to compare, as I have done, Watson's Gentlemen s 
and Citizen' s Almanac for 1757 with Thorn's Irish 
Almanac and Official Directory for the present 
year. ABHBA. 

" Proxies and Exhibits. 1 " What the origin and 
meaning of "proxies and exhibits," for which 
certain fees are charged to the clergy who appear 
in person at the visitation (for example) of His 
Grace the Archbishop of Dublin ? ABHBA. 

The Channel Steamers. In these days of me- 
morials, it has occurred to me to inquire the name 
of the man who first navigated a sea-going steamer 
down either of our channels, and thus led the way 
in that grand career which has carried our naval 
and mercantile marine to such an astonishing pitch 
of power. The name of the man and of the 
vessel ought not, methinks, to be forgotten. 

I hope some one of your correspondents will be 
able to satisfy this inquiry. EXPLORATOR. 

The first known Tragedy, Comedy, and Al- 
manac in the English Language. It is recorded 
that the first tragedy was published in 1561, and 
with the title of Gortuduc, or Ferrex Porrex. 
The first comedy in 1566, known by the title of 
Supposes. And that the first almanac made its 
appearance from the Oxford press in 1673. 

w.w. 

Malta. 

Picture of Achilles. I am desirous of discover - 
ng where a picture by " N. Vheughels " of the 
dipping of Achilles in the Styx is. My object is 



2nd g. X 84., AUG. 8. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



to ascertain whether that in my possession be the 
original or not. For at least twenty-five years 
my family has possessed a picture of the above 
subject, but until yesterday, when I stumbled 
upon an exact engraving thereof, we have never 
known by whom it might have been painted. 

The engraving is French line, and by " E. 
Jeurat, 1719." W. P. L. 

Greenwich. 

John Willis, educated in Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge, took the degrees of B.A., 1592-3 ; M.A., 
1596 ; B.D., 1603. On June 12, 1601, he was 
admitted to the rectory of St. Mary, Bothan, 
London ; which he resigned in 1606, on being ap- 
pointed rector of Bentley Parva, Essex. He is 
author of a work on the art of memory, and of 
the first treatise on alphabetical short-hand. 

Can any of your correspondents give further 
information respecting him ? 

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

John Carter, F.S.A., Author of the "Pursuits of 
Architectural Innovation." The late Mr. John 
Britton, F.S.A., was informed by Sir John Soane 
that some of the adventures and peculiarities of 
John Carter were described and satirised in a 
pamphlet entitled The Life of John Ramble, Artist 
(a " draftsman ") : the copies of which are said to 
have been bought up and destroyed by Carter. 
Does a copy exist in Sir John Soane's library ? in 
that of the Institution of British Architects, or 
elsewhere ? J. G. N. 

Captain Roger Harvie. Frequent and honour- 
able mention is made of the above-named officer 
in Pacata Hibernia; or, a History of the Wars in 
Ireland, during the Reign of Queen Elizabeth. To 
what family did he belong ? and are any members 
of it still resident in Ireland, where there are 
many of the name ? His death is thus described 
in vol. ii. p. 645. (edit. Dublin, 1810) : 

" But the present service received no small prejudice 
by meanes of the untimely departure of Captaine Roger 
Harvie, whose heart being overwhelmed with an inunda- 
tion of sorrowes, and discontentments taken, (though in 
my conscience not willingly given,) by one that had 
beene his honourable friend, as his heart blowen like a 
bladder (as the surgeons reported), was no longer able to 
minister heate to the vitall parts, and therefore yeelded 
to that irresistable fate, which at last overtaketh all 
mortall creatures. The untimely death of this young 
gentleman was no small occasion of griefe to the Lord 
President, not onely that nature had conjoyned them in 
the neerest degrees of consanguinitie, but because his 
timely beginnings gave apparent demonstration, that his 
continuall proceedings would have given comfort to his 
friends, profit to his countrey, and a deserved advance- 
ment of his owne fortunes." 

ABHBA. 

" Felix culpa" frc. What is the remaining 
part of the Latin proverb which begins : " Felix 
culpa"? X.Y. 



Francis Rouse and the Birkheads. Francis 
Rouse, in his will, published in "N. & Q." (1 st S. 
ix. 440.), is shown to have remembered the poor 
of Knightsbridge ; and in the registers of Trinity 
Chapel, there are frequent mentions of the name. 
Among the Christian names are Thomas, Anthony, 
and Richard, names also found in the above-men- 
tioned will ; and John likewise, a name mentioned 
in Noble. Thomas Rouse, in April, 1687, mar- 
ried Hester Birkhead, of whose family I inquired 
about in 2 nd S. i. 374. From the entries relating 
to this latter family, I have reason to think they 
were connected with St. Botolph's, Bishopsgate, 
and Dr. Littleton, the author of the Latin Dic- 
tionary, was acquainted with them. I should be 
greatly obliged, if answers can be given to the 
following questions concerning these families : 

1. Was Francis Rouse connected with Knights- 
bridge in any way, or related to a family in its 
locality? There are "Rouse's Buildings" in 
Chelsea still. 

2. Was he related to, or connected with, the 
Birkheads ? 

3. Can any information of the Birkheads, with 
these additional clues, be given me ? H. Gr. D. 

Tomb of Queen Katharine Parr. The tomb of 
this Queen is now about to be restored : can any 
of your correspondents inform me where there is 
any drawing or engraving of it, or furnish me 
with any particulars relating to her funeral, be- 
yond those narrated in the ninth volume of the 
ArchcBologia ? 

I should also be extremely obliged for an ac- 
count of any relics or authenticated portraits, 
which may have come under the notice of some 
of your readers, or any historical facts which have 
not already been referred to in Miss Strickland's 
Life of Katharine Parr. J. D. A. 

"Lover" a Term applied to a Woman. Is 
there any instance where such is the case, of a 
more recent date than is to be met with in Smol- 
lett's Count Fathom (vol. i. chap. 10.), published 
in London in 1754 : 

" These were alarming symptoms to a lover of her 
delicacy and pride." 

W. W. 
Malta. 

Coffin Plates in Churches. In passing through 
Rhudland, N. Wales, a short time ago, I was look- 
ing through the churchyard at a gravestone which 
has been noticed in " N. & Q.," and on looking 
inside the church I was surprised to see a number 
of coffin plates nailed up to the walls, particularly 
on the south side. I found at the time of inter- 
ment the plate with name, age, &c., was taken off 
the coffin, and brought into the church and placed 
as I found it until it rusted away. On inquiring 
from 9 dissenting minister who was acquainted 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2*a s. NO 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



with the neighbourhood, he said the same custom 
existed in one or two places in Montgomeryshire 
Query, Can any of your correspondents say 
whether such a custom exists in any other church ? 

G. R. G 

Alex. Fyfe. Information required of an author 
of the reign of Queen Anne, named Alexande 
Fyfe. He published a play, The Royal Martyr 
or King Charles the First, 4to. 1709. X 

Secular Canons. Reference is requested to 
any work illustrating the rules of life adopted (if 
any) by the secular clergy of the Middle Ages. 

.rii 

" Won golden opinions" Sfc. What is the ori 
gin of the phrase " Won golden opinions from all 
sorts of men?" I find it used by Dr. Samuel 
Johnson as a quotation. 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Birmingham. 

Occupations of the Irish. Could any of your 
contributors inform me, through the medium of 
your columns, whether any return exists of the 
occupations of the Irish people ? In the census 
for England and Wales (1851), this information is 
supplied in regard to the English ; but in the 
Irish census (1851) I am unable to find the in- 
formation which I require. D. H. S. 
York. 

Monkish Latin. What works furnish a Dic- 
tionary, Grammar, or Phrase-book of the Latin in 
use in the monasteries ? DJ$ 

Anonymous Poems. Where do the following 
lines occur, "Sweet Innocence," and "Dove-eyed 
Truth " ? I think in Sir William Jones' Poems, 
but cannot find them. Who is the author of a 
poem written " On seeing a Beautiful Idiot " ? 



Anonymous Plays. Is anything known regard- 
ing the authorship of the two following pieces 
published in The Court of Session Garland? 1st. 
" La Festa D'Overgroghi," an Operetta seria co- 
mica. 2nd. " Scene from the Jury court opera." 

X. 



Minat dhterteg tuttl) 

Willoughby Mynors. 

"On Sunday, June 10th, 1716, one Reverend Wil- 
loughby Mynors, M.A. Preached a Seditious Sermon, his 
Text being the 10th verse of the 30th Chapter of Isaiah, 
to a great and rude Multitude at Saint Pancras Church, 
Middlesex ; the Sermon has been since Published, but is 
thought by some who heard it to differ much from that he 
Preached on Friday, June 22nd. Mr. Smith, one of his 
Majesty's Messengers, apprehended the Rev. W. Mynors 
for the Sermon he Preached at Pancras in which he was 
thought to reflect on the present Government, and also 



the Printer, Mr. John Morphew, and both were taken 
up." The Weekly Journal, June 30, 1716. 

Who was Willoughby Mynors ? R. 

[Willoughby Mynors was Curate of St. Leonard, Shore- 
ditch, but refusing to take the oaths, he subsequently 
officiated at a Nonjuring oratory in Spitalfields. He was 
the author of three Sermons, " Comfort under Affliction," 
Psalm Ixxiii. 12, 13. 8vo. 1716 ; " True Loyalty ; or, 
Non-resistance the only Support of Monarchy," Isa. xxx. 
10., 8vo. 1716 ; and a Sermon on May 29th, Ezra ix. 13, 
14., 8vo. 1717. Most of the Nonjurors at this time were 
severely molested by the government, and from the fol- 
lowing notices in that violent partizan paper, The Weekly 
Journal, it appears that Mynors did not eseape. "A 
curate living not far from Shoreditch, having the inso- 
lence to disturb the Peace of His Majesty's good subjects, 
by keeping a Nonjuring meeting-house in Spitalfields, it 
is hoped that all persons loyally affected to King George, 
will timely suppress the dfabolical societj', as they have 
done the like seditious assemblies in the Savoy, Scroop's 
Court in Holborn, and in Aldersgate Street." ( Weekly 
Journal, Oct. 27, 171.6.) "On Sunday, Oct. 28, 1716, a 
Jacobite assembly was held at a house in Spital-Yard, 
Spital Fields, said to be the dwelling of Mr. Mynors, a 
Nonjuring clergyman, and late curate of St. Leonard, 
Shoreditch, which occasioned a great tumult ; but the 
tide seems so far turned, that the mob, contrary to their 
former proceedings, were for venting their spleen against 
this gentleman, and those who compose his congregation. 
The other Jacobite assemblies in town appear quite 
dispirited and out of countenance." (/&., Nov. 3, 1716.) 
" On Monday, Nov. 19, 1716, the grand inquest for the 
County of Middlesex met at Westminster, when it was 
particularly referred to the constables of the liberty of 
Shoreditch to enquire into the behaviour and conduct of 
Mynors the Nonjuror, who is- represented to keep a Non- 
juring conventicle, and to make a report of their enquiry." 
Ib., Nov. 24, 1716.] 

Lucy B. Westwood. There was published in 
1850, a volume entitled, Memoir and Poetical 
Remains of Lucy B. Westwood. Could you give 
me some account of the authoress ? X. 

[Lucv Bell Westwood was born at Seaweed Cottage, 
Ventnof, in the Isle of Wight, on July 14, 1832. In 1842, 
she was sent to a school at Croydon belonging to the 
Society of Friends, of which community she was by birth 
a member. In 1844 symptoms of her long-protracted 
malady appeared, which induced her friends in the fol- 
lowing year to procure her admission into the Orthopocdic 
Institution in London. In March, 1850, whilst residing 
at Huntingdon, she was attacked with hooping-cough, 
which producing inflammation on the chest, she died on 
the 19th of that month.] 

Mews. What is the derivation of the word 
mews, as applied to stables ? J. B. S. 

[Richardson derives this word from the "Fr. miter; 
L,at. mutare, to change ; to change the feathers, to moult ; 
\nd as mue, the noun, was applied not merely to the 
:hange, but to the place of change (sc. the cage or coop 
where hawks changed or moulted their feathers), to mue 
jecame consequentially to encage, to coop up, to confine." 
Hence Pennant in his London, p. 151., tells us, that " on 
he north side of Charing Cross stand the royal stables," 
:alled from the original use of the buildings on their site,- 
he mews ; having been used for keeping the king's fal- 
:ons, at least from the time of Richard III," See also 
<N. &Q."ltS. iv. 20.] 



2" (1 S. N 84., AUG. 8. '.57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



DESCRIPTION OF OUR SAVIOUR. 

(2 nd S. iv. 67.) 

A correspondent, Vox, makes inquiry as to 
the "Epistle of Publius Lentulus, the Roman 
Proconsul, in which the person of our Saviour is 
said to be accurately described, and of which he 
very naturally says that he has been unable to 
find any trace in Eutropius, on whose authority 
the story has been propagated. Many years ago 
I had occasion to look into the history of this sup- 
posed letter of Lentulus, and the following note 
may perhaps satisfy the curiosity of your corre- 
spondent. As to the Epistle itself, it is thus 
printed in the second, volume of the Orthodoxo- 
grapha of Basle : 

" Lentulus Hierosolymitanorum Presses S. P. Q. Romano. 

" Adparuit nostris temporibus et adhuc est homo magnge 
virtutis nominatus Christus Jesus, qui dicitur & gentibus 
propheta veritatis, qnem ejus discipuli vocant tilium Dei, 
suscitans mortuos et sanans languores. Homo quidem 
staturae procerae, spectabilis, vultum babens venerabilem, 
qucm intuentes possunt et diligere et formidare : capillos 
vero circinos et crispos aliquantum cceruliores et fulgen- 
tiores ab humeris volitantes ; discrimen habens in medio 
capitis, juxta morem Nazarenorum : frontem planam et 
serenissimam, cum facie sine ruga ac macula aliqua, quam 
rubor moderatus venustat: nasi et ovis nulla prorsus est 
reprehensio, barbam habens copiosam et rubram, capillo- 
rum colore, non longam sed bifurcatam : oculis variis et 
claris exsistentibus. In increpatione terribilis, in admoni- 
tione placidus ac amabilis, hilaris, servata gravitate, qui 
nunquam visus est ridere, flere autem ssepe. Sic in statura 
corporis propagatus, manus habens et membra visu delec- 
tabilia, in eloquio gravis, rarus et modestus speciosus 
inter filios hominum." 

Besides numerous versions of this singular 
Epistle in German, French, and Italian, two 
others in Latin are particularly remarkable, viz. 
that of Xaverius, a Spanish Jesuit, who introduces 
it in his Historia Christi (Pars iv. p. 533.), a 
work abounding with monkish fictions, written in 
Persian, at the request, as the author informs us, 
of Acbar the Magnificent, Emperor of Hindostan. 
It has been rendered into Latin by Le Dieu, and 
from his translation Fabricius has transcribed the 
version of Lentulus's letter which is inserted in 
his Codex Apocryphus Novi Te&tamenti (vol. i. 
p. 302.). The other is preserved in a MS. in the 
library of Jena, which bears date, A.D. 1502, and 
is preceded by the following title : 

" Temporibus Octaviani Caasaris, Publius Lentulus, Pro- 
consul in partibus et Judaeae et Herodis Regis Senatori- 
bus Romanis hanc Epistolam scripsisse fertur, qua3 postea 
ab Eutropio reperta est in Annalibus Romanorum." 

It is needless to say that Eutropius offers no 
authority for such an assertion ; that it is still 
doubtful whether he (Eutropius) was a Pagan or 
a Christian, and that the passages in the lives of 
Augustus and Tiberius, relative to Jesus Christ, 
are more than suspected by Vossius and others to 



be amongst the numerous interpolations made in 
this historian by Paulus Diaconus in the ninth 
century. The several copies of the Letter of 
Lentulus differ in many particulars from each 
other, but the discrepancies are in general non- 
essential. The authenticity of all has been at- 
tacked and supported by numerous ecclesiastics 
and antiquaries ; but as the assertions of the for- 
mer have been merely assailed by the conjectures 
of the latter, and neither party can adduce his- 
torical evidence in support of their arguments, 
the decision is -still unsatisfactory, though de- 
cidedly the sceptics have by far the most popular 
and probable side of the question. 

Molanus, ChifSetius and Huarte (see Bayie, 
Diet. Hist., art. Huarte) have each asserted the 
reality of the letter ; whilst it has been denied on. 
numerous grounds, but chiefly i'rom the internal 
evidence of its corrupted idiom and the silence of 
all the early Fathers down to the eighth century ; 
by Laurentius Valla in his Declamation against 
the Donation of Constantine to Sylvester ; by John 
Raynoldes, Professor of Divinity of Oxford under 
Queen Elizabeth (see his treatise De Romance 
Eccles. Idolatria, 1. ii. c. iii. p. 394.) ; by Gerhard, 
a commentator on Hugo Grot i us ; and by a long 
list of other names of equal authority. A sum- 
mary of these will be found in Fabricius, Codex 
Apoc. Nov. Test, vol. i. p. 302. ; lleiskin's Exer- 
citationes de Imag. Christi, ex. vii. c. i. p. 149.; 
and in Le Dieu's Annotations to Xaverius 1 Histor. 
Christ, p. 636. Of one point we are at least 
certain, that in the early ages of the church the 
Christians were totally unaware of the existence 
of this or any similar document. 

J. EMERSON TENNK 



DR. DOBAN AND SOMERTON CASTLE. 

(2 nd S. iv. 72.) 

DR. DORAN is perfectly right throughout (if ho 
will but remain so) in placing in Lincolnshire the 
castle where the French king (John) was con- 
fined. There is no contradicting the authority of 
Rymer's Fcedera (p. 131.), which gives the very 
deed between Edward III. and William D'Eyn- 
court, by which he was committed to the custody 
of that knight, to be conveyed to the Castle of 
Somerton, in the county of Lincoln ; and the 
whole account which DR. DORAN has given of the 
French monarch's journey to and residence at 
Somerton, from the Due d'Aumale's work, is per- 
fectly confirmatory of the above deed. Somerton 
Castle, as I well know, is under the Cliff in the 
parish of Boothby Graffoe, and about eight miles 
from Lincoln. It is stated that John had lodgings 
at Lincoln for the winter months, which is likely 
enough; and that at the sale of his effects one 
Wm. Spain of Lincoln got "the King's Bench" 



no 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



for nothing. Any Lincolnshire man will tell you 
that the curate of Boby means Bootiiby, Boby 
being the ancient name of this place (see Valor 
Ecclesiasticus and other ancient records) ; and 
that the " Damoselle do Namby " is no doubt 
Nawnby, as Navenby, which is within a mile of 
Boothby, is always called. 

As for BAIXIOI/S assertion, that there is no 
such place as Somerton Castle in Lincolnshire, it 
is a profound mistake, as he will learn if he will 
inquire of any Lincolnshire fox-hunter, or come 
down and see ; and its history is correctly stated 
by H. W. in his remarks. 

Like your correspondent T. COOPER, I cannot 
discover that John was ever confined at Somerton 
in Somersetshire, I am aware it is so stated in 
a variety of publications during the last eighty 

S?ars, such as Burlington's British Traveller, 
ightingale's Beauties of England and Wales, 
and many other more recent works, which seem 
to have followed one another in propagating what 
is now proved to be an error. 

DR. DORAN, I trust, will not alter the word to 
11 Somerset," as announced in his letter to you 
(p. 72.) ; if he does, I beg to assure him, through 
you, he will make a mistake. It is Somerton 
Castle, Lincolnshire, and no other, which the Due 
d'Aumale's work refers to. J. P. K. 

Grantham. 



THE GREAT DOUGLAS CAUSE. 

(2 nd S. iv. 69.) 

L. F. B. will find no difficulty in obtaining a 
printed report of this cause celebre. I have looked 
up from my own shelves the following, viz. : 1. 
The Speeches, Arguments, and Determinations, Sj c., 
in the cause before the Scottish Courts, "with an 
Introductory Preface, giving an impartial and dis- 
tinct Account of this Suit, by a Barrister- at-Law," 
8vo., Lond., Almon, 1767 ; again, Edin., small 
8vo., same date. 2. The Speeches and Judgment, 
ffc., before the same Court ; " by W. Anderson, 
Writer, in Edin.," 8vo., Edin., 1768. The first of 
these contains a neat abstract of the whole case, 
extending to 75 p;>ges. An appeal being carried to 
the House of Lords, the decision of the Scotch Court 
was reversed, and Archibald Douglas, the sup- 
posititious son of Lady Jane Douglas, or Stewart, 
according to the Lords of Session, was, by the 
first Estate, declared her true and lawful issue, 
and as such again reinstated in his right as the 
heir-at-law of his uncle, the Duke of Douglas. 
This adjudication of the highest Court in the 
kingdom was not, however, quietly acquiesced in 
by Mr. Andrew Stuart, one of the trustees of the 
Duke of Hamilton, to whom the large properties 
(the substantial point in dispute) would have 
fallen had the Scotch decision been confirmed by 



the Lords : for feeling himself aggrieved by some 
personal reflections cast upon him by the Lord 
Chancellor, he resorted to the unusual mode of 
repelling the attack, and arraigning the judgment 
of the Peers. L. F. B. should not, therefore, over- 
look the " Letters to the Rt. Hon. Lord Mansfield, 
from And. Stuart, Esq.," an unpublished book, 
having the Mansfield arms for a frontispiece, and 
a vignette of a pair of warrior-Cupids, bearing, 
probably, some satirical allusion to his so-called 
supposititious little heroes, Archibald and Shalto 
Douglas : 8vo., Lond., printed in the month of 
Jan. 1773, and highly praised in Censura Litera- 
ria, vol. v. p. 177. ; and what is more, commended, 
and under the circumstances justified, by Dr. 
Johnson, (see some characteristic talk between 
him and his biographer on the subject in Croker's 
edition, 1835, vol. iii. p. 272.). Boswell's father, 
Lord Auchinleck, one of the Lords of Session, 
upheld the legitimacy of Arch. Douglas, and, I 
rather think, the son had something to do in sup- 
porting the same side when before the Lords : at 
all events, the latter complains that he could 
never get Johnson to bring his great powers to 
bear upon the whole case, although he "urged 
upon his attention The Essence of the Douglas 
Cause, a pamphlet written by himself in favour of 
Mr. D." This reminds me that in my book first 
named, some one has written after " by a Bar- 
rister-at-Law," i. e. James Boswell (?). Johnson 
says, that in consequence of Stuart's Letters not 
being published, they attracted no attention. I 
may, however, remark that, besides the privately 
printed edition I have noted, they were produced 
in quarto ; and I have also an impression, in 
octavo, bearing the imprint : " Dublin printed in 
the month of March, 1775." J. O. 

It may assist the inquiry of L. B. F. to be in- 
formed that I have long ago seen exposed for sale 
two or three quarto sized volumes of what were 
called the " Douglas Papers," and which, I think, 
contained a verbatim report of the evidence in this 
toughly litigated cause. They may, however, have 
been only some lawyer's loose papers bound up, 
embracing a part of the subject the length of 
time having nearly erased the circumstance from 
my memory, so that I am unable to communicate 
further particulars. The proofs of each party 
amounted to above a thousand quarto pages in 
print. I am in possession of a 12mo. vol. (pp. 216 ) 
which to ordinary readers will convey the pith of 
the whole question, entitled, 

" A Summary of the Speeches, Arguments, and Deter- 
minations of the Right Honourable the Lords of Council 
and Session in Scotland upon that important Cause 
wherein His Grace the Duke of Hamilton and Others 
were Plaintiffs, and Archibald Douglas of Douglas, Esq., 
Defendant ; with an Introductory Preface giving an Im- 
partial and Distinct Account of this Suit. By a Barrister 
at Law, Edinburgh, 1767." 



S. N 84, AUG. 8. >57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



Another condensed account of the Cause is to 
be found in note E, appended to a work, Literary 
Gleanings, by Robert Malcom, Esq., of Glasgow, 
some years since deceased, who was bred a lawyer, 
and a critic of acute intellect. The edition of the 
Gleanings having been limited in circulation, the 
book is now rarely to be met with. 

The decision come to in this case by the House 
of Lords (if the traditionary opinions of the people 
of the West of Scotland are of any weight) was 
received generally with much dissatisfaction. 
Among many on dits then current, the judgment 
of Lord Mansfield was considered to have been 
based on a political motive, to prevent the too 
great influence of the House of Hamilton in the 
country by a union of the estates of both Houses. 
Less pure motives are alleged against the learned 
Lord (noticed by Mr. Malcom), such as 

" That the Peers came to a different conclusion (from 
that of the Court of Session) is wholly to be ascribed to 
their being led away by the eloquence of that celebrated 
Lord Chief Justice whose talents were as transcendent as 
his integrity was doubtful. He pleaded the cause of the 
Defendant with all the earnestness and zeal of a hired ad- 
vocate, and he did so, not only in disregard of the evi- 
dence of facts, but in defiance of established law as often 
laid down by himself in other causes. That such a man 
should have pursued such a course was long the subject of 
wonder and astonishment to professional men both in 
England and Scotland, till at length, after many dark 
hints conve3 r ed to the public at various intervals of time, 
the damning fact was broadly promulgated even in the 
House of Commons that, in this celebrated cause, the 
ermine of justice had been stained indelibly by his Lord- 
ship's acceptance of an enormous bribe not less, it is said, 
than a Hundred Thousand Pounds. This unexampled 
instance of corruption in an English Judge was repeatedly 
alluded to in the Speeches of the celebrated Sir Philip 
Francis, a man of great talents and high honour, who 
would certainly never have made such a charge had he 
not been thoroughly satisfied of its truth. The last notice 
taken of it by Sir Philip was in 1817, in reply to a member 
of the House of Commons who had made an attack on the 
character of the famous John Wilkes, and at the same 
time had eulogised Lord Mansfield 'Never while you 
live, Sir,' exclaimed Sir Philip indignantly, ' say a word 
in favour of that corrupt judge. It was only the eloquence 
of his judgment in Wilkes's case that was praised. But 
the rule is never to praise a bad man for anything. Re- 
member Jack Lee's golden rule and be always abstemious 
of praise to an enemy. Lord Mansfield was sold in the 
Douglas Cause, and the parties are known through whom 
the money was paid. As for Wilkes, whatever may be 
laid to his charge, joining to run him down is joining an 
enemy to hurt a friend.' " 

Mr. Malcom farther notices other topics too 
long for quotation, concluding with a reference to 
Lord Brougham's sketch of the great Chief Jus- 
tice : 

" as toto coelo a brilliant panegyric. He dwells with affec- 
tionate delight on the great powers, natural and acquired, 
possessed by the subject of his sketch : he vindicates him 
with anxious and painful elaboration against the bitter 
charges of the implacable Junius, but not one word has 
he said in vindication of the Chief Justice against the far 
more serious, and perhaps not less caustic charges con- 



tained in Andrew Steuart's celebrated Letters on the 
Douglas Cause. The silence of Lord Brougham on this 
remarkable point, so painful to every admirer of great 
talents, may very justly be held to be conclusive as to the 
guilt of Lord Mansfield." 

G.N. 

The speeches and judgments of the Lords of 
Session in disposing of the Cause in Scotland were 
printed at Edinburgh, in 1 vol. 8vo., and there 
are several other printed volumes upon the same 
subject. X. Y 



POLITICAL ROMANCES OF THE TIME OF LOUIS XIII. 
AND LOUIS XIV. 

(2 nd S. iii. 268.) 

.Mylord Courtenay, on les premieres Amours 
tfE'lizabeih, Heine d? Angleterre, par M. le Noble, 
12mo. pp. 317., Paris, 1697. An ordinary histo- 
rical novel, in which Mary and Elizabeth are 
rivals for Lord Courtenay. M. Noble keeps 
pretty near to the leading facts, but makes Eli- 
zabeth beautiful, and Lord Courtenay really in 
love with her. There may be political matter 
bearing on later times, but I have not discovered 
it. The following sketch of Philip of Spain is a 
favourable specimen : 

" Au lieu que Courtenay n'avoit rien que ne fut capa- 
ble de charmer, et de forcer le coeur le plus austere a 
prendre d'amour, Philippe n'avoit rien en sa personne 
qui fut capable d'en inspirer le moindre sentiment. II 
avoit la taille mediocre, 1'air embarasse, le front d'une 
grandeur prodigieuse, les yeux petits, les levres grosses et 
entr'ouvertes, le teint blanc mais pale, le menton quarre", 
la demarche arrogante, et le corps imployable ; pour 1'es- 
prit il 1'avoit fin, profond, artificieux, dissimule, ambi- 
tieux, aimant peu la guerre, avare, cruel, ingrat, et dont 
la politique se trompoit souvent pour vouloir trop raffiner." 
P. 119. 

22 Cappuccino Scozzese, di Monsig. Gio. Battista 
Rinuccini, Arcivesc. e Prencipe di Freruco. In 
Macerata, 1655, pp. 227. I have not seen Le 
Capucin E'cossais, but it is probably a translation 
of the above. I find no politics. The story is 
that of the eldest son of a noble Scotch house 
being sent for education to Paris, and converted 
from Calvinism to the Romish faith while a boy. 
He goes to Scotland in disguise, and converts his 
mother and brothers; who are turned out of their 
house and reduced to extreme poverty for chang- 
ing their religion. The author speaks of him as 
a real person, who went back a second time to 
Scotland, and was reported dead at his convent, 
and of whom he thus regrets that he can learn no 
more: 

" Come potro' creder gia mai d' haner proposto a i Re- 
ligiosi un' essempio, una norma a i Catolici, una mara- 
viglia ad ogn' uno, se nel piu bello del corso s' oscura il 
Polo alia nave, e nella calma medesima si perde di vista 
ogni porto ? Ho trascorso un pelago di luce, e senza aba- 
gliarmi resto smarrito fra le tenebre. Piango con lagrime 



112 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



NO 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



sfortunate 1' ingratitudine del silentio. E come v' inari- 
distc b inchiostri di Scotia nelle attioni di Fr. Arcangelo ? 
dunque i rigori d' Arturo fanno ancora gelare gl' ingegni, 
ne si trovb che dicessi, che con brevi notitie havereste 
scritto ad ogni modo per 1' eternita. Infelice Aberdone, 
esilio piu tosto, e non putria. Godi pure fra le ribellioni 
del Cielo, de i disprezzi d' un figlio. L' eretica oscurita 
non sa scliiarirsi, che al falso, c solamente s' ottenebra a i 
lampi della verita." P. 225. 

There is a description of a " vescovo Eretico, 
che accompagnato da nobile comitiva, se n' andava 
alia visita," who meets Fr. Arcangelo, and sends 
twenty-five followers to catch him ; but they only 
steal his portmanteau and a beautiful chalice. 
Bishops so attended were scarce in Scotland te/i 
years before the Restoration, but I do not find 
any thin<r else at variance with the then state of 
things. The journey from London to Aberdeen 
is twenty-two days (p. 114.), and the Calvinistic 
chaplain of Arcangelo's mother has " 300 scude " 
a-year. 

Lysandre et Calisto. In Uphain and Beet's 
Catalogue for last June is 

" Tragi-comical History of our Times, under the bor- 
rowed names of Lysander and Calista, small folio. 1627." 

A full account of Argenis and the supposed key 
is given by Bayle, and repeated with additions in 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

I cannot find any notice of Le cochon Militaire. 
May it be Le cochon Mitre ? for which, and much 
interesting matter on the libels of the end of the 
seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth 
centuries, see Le Noveau Siecle de Louis XIV., 
Paris, 1857. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



AN ORDINATION QUERY (2 nd S. iv. 70.) ! SPECIAL 
LICENCE FOR MARRIAGE (2 nd S. IV. 89.). 

Although neither a clergyman nor a lawyer, to 
whom M. W. C. addresses his Query, I may, on 
the authority of Cripps's Practical Treatise on the 
Laws relating to the Church and the Clergy, state, 
in^reply, that as the age for the ordination of a 
priest (twenty-four years) is fixed not only by 
the canon, but also the statute law, there can be 
no dispensation with regard to this order of the 
clergy : 

" But," says Cripps, " with regard to Deacon's orders, 
the regulation being by the canon law only, the qualifi- 
cations of age might possibly be dispensed with, and by 
virtue of a faculty or dispensation from the Abp. of Can- 
terbury, allowed sometimes to persons of extraordinary 
abilities, a person might be admitted to Deacon's orders 
sooner." 

This appears very explicit, but is really worth 
little : for Cripps, after stating, as above, that the 
regulation, with respect to nge for the ordination 
of Deacons, is made by the canon law only, im- 
mediately adds, at some length, that there is a 
statute law also, dating from 1804, which declares 



the ordination of Deacons, before the age of 
twenty-three, to be utterly void in law. While 
on the subject of ecclesiastical and statute law, 
allow me to answer ABHBA, as to title to be mar- 
ried by special licence, that Abp. Seeker, who 
held the primacy from 1758 to 1768, and who was 
the friend of Watts, Doddridge, and Dissenters 
generally, was the author of the arrangement of 
special licences which dispensed with both time 
and place. It is curious that this primate, who 
was of humble birth, like many other Abps. of 
Canterbury, adopted the regulation for the sake 
of the aristocracy. As the old common licence was 
only granted to " persons of quality," so now Seeker 
confined the special licence to peers, peeresses 
in their own right, dowager peeresses, members 
of the privy-council, the judges, baronets, knights, 
and members of parliament. The Abp. of Can- 
terbury is, of course, empowered to grant favours- 
beyond the limits implied above. (See 4 Geo. IV. 
c.'76., Cripps, citante.} This author says that a 
special licence dispensing with the particular 
parish, or with the canonical hours, required by 
the act, is sometimes granted, on a particular ap- 
plication, to persons of inferior rank. J. DORAN. 

The present Rubric is very clear that "none 
shall be admitted a Deacon, except he be twenty- 
three years of age, unless he have a Faculty." 

These words, unless he have a Faculty, were 
added in the last review. 

In " The Form and Manner of Making and. 
Consecrating Bishops, Priests, and Deacons," of 
1552, it says : 

"None shall be admitted a Deacon, except lie be 
Twenty-one years of age at the least." 

According to Stephens, in his Notes on the Book 
of Common Prayer, 

" A faculty or dispensation is allowed for persons of 
extraordinary abilities to be admitted Deacons sooner. 
Which faculty must be obtained from the Archbishop of 
Canterbury." 

By statute 44 George III. c. 43. s. 1. : 

" No person shall be admitted a Deacon before he shall 
have attained the age of three and twenty years com- 
plete." 

And by section 2., nothing therein contained 

" Shall extend, or be construed to extend, to take away 
any right of granting faculties heretofore lawfully exer- 
cised, and which now be lawfully exercised by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury or the Archbishop of Armagh." 

M. W. C. should therefore apply to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury for a Faculty. In Dr. 
Hook's Church Dictionary, under the head of 
" Faculty Court," he says, the " Faculty Court 
belongs to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and his 
officer is called * The Master of the Faculties.' " 
Although I am neither a "clergyman nor a lawyer," 
yet I have ventured to answer the query. 

G. W. N. 

Alderley Edge, 



2 d S. NO 84., AUG. 8. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIE& 



113 



WARPING. 

(2 nd S. iv. 92.) 

The most ancient example of warping carried 
on upon a large scale is that of Egypt, which has 
been under scientific control for ages, and is now 
directed by a French engineer. (Warburton's 
Crescent and Cross.) There is, I believe, little or 
no warping artificially carried on from the Trent 
or Humber, but it is a most important means of 
raising and fertilising the low and waste land on 
both sides of the Ouse, towards its junction with 
the Humber. The Trent is almost free from de- 
posit, whilst the Ouse is occasionally so muddy 
that, to use an expression of the boatmen who 
navigate it, " you may almost cut it with a knife." 
A like phenomenon is observed in the Missouri 
and Mississippi, the one river bright and clear, 
being free from impurity, the other clouded with 
the elements of fertility. The excessive quantity 
of deposit brought by the Ouse has supplied land 
to the Earl of Yarborough's estate (respecting 
which there is a curious case in the law books), 
and to Sunk Island, within the Humber, besides 
almost blocking up that wide estuary itself (ex- 
cept by the forcing of a deep and varying chan- 
nel), so as to render it nearly unnavigable for 
large vessels, with the exception of an interval of 
three or four hours, during the rising and falling 
tide. The soil formed in the basin of the Ouse by 
warping is sown with flax, the most exhausting of 
crops, and it produces some of the best potatoes 
with which the London market is supplied. In 
addition to the references already given (2 nd S. iv. 
92.), add Arthur Young's Farmers' Calendar, 

g, 394. ; British Husbandry, U. K. S,, i. p. 467. 
y this process, land near the Ouse has been 
raised from six to sixteen inches in one summer ; 
and land purchased at 111. per acre, warped at a 
cost of 12J. the acre, has been raised to 70Z. per 
acre in value. An eminent engineer once in- 
formed me that the deposits on land warped from 
the Thames speedily lost its fertility. The land 
warped near the Ouse requires management to 
preserve its productive energies. It spontaneously 
produces clover. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 



ta $ltn0r ^ttsrfej*. 

Thorn of St. Albans (2 nd S. iii. 509.) -Your 
correspondent, who inquires as to these arms, will 
find at p. 47 b., vol. 1041, Harl. MS., that they 
were borne by Robert Thome, whose will was 
proved 32nd Hen. VI., A.D. 1458. There is a long 
pedigree attached : it is an old Saxon name ! 

M.D. 

Ludlow the Regicide (2 nd S..iii. 146. 236. 435.) 
I have at last had an opportunity, and with 
some little difficulty have copied the following in- 



scription on the slab referred to by me before, as 
belonging to the Ludlow family : 

" Here lieth the body 
of ANN LUDLOWE 

the Daughter of 

THOMAS LUDLOWE 

Esq re who died 

the 2 nd of Dec 1 " 

Anno Dom. 16 ." 

The stone is a very soft sandstone, I lliink of 
the Bath kind, and as it lies close in front of the 
entrance within the communion-rails, from the 
frequent passing, many of the words are much 
worn away ; so that I was obliged to use my 
fingers to trace them. The date of the year has 
only the figure 1 visible, but I fancied I could 
trace a 6 as the next ; and the village clerk tells 
me, when the slab was replaced at the restoration 
of the church, about, ten or twelve years a^o, that 
it bore the date 1667. There is a vault which was 
formerly used by the Ludlows under the com- 
munion-table. I have searched the register of 
burials, but can only find one of a Ludlow in 
1667, viz. " Mary, y e Daughter of Francis Lud- 
low, Gent., was buried June 16 th , 16.67." I think 
the other is of more recent date. HENRI. 

The "Essay on Woman" (2 nd S. iv. 21.) 
The printer who stole the copy of this work was 
in the employ of Horace Wai pole, and did a 
similar service for him. See Walpoliana, vol. i. 
p. 124. The London Chronicle, August 14, 1778, 
announces the worthy's death : 

"Lately died at his lodgings in Norwich, aged 56, 
Michael Curry, printer, well known for his information 
against the printer and publisher of the Essay on Woman" 

H. G. D. 

Dark or Darke Family (2 nd S. iv. 30.) The 
following is the article on this family name in my 
forthcoming "Dictionary of Surnames :" 

" DARKE or DARK. This name, which is not uncom- 
mon in the W. of England, is probably identical with the 
De Arcis of Domesday Book. William d'Arques, or De 
Arcis, was lord of Folkestone, co. Kent, temp. William I., 
having settled in England after the Norman Conquest. 
His ancestors were vicomtes of Arques, now a bourg and 
castle, four or five miles from Dieppe in Normandy. Sta- 
pleton on the Barony of Wm. of Arques, in Canterbury 
Report of Brit. Archasolog. Association, p. 166." 

MARK ANTONY LOWER. 

Lewes. 

West Country Col (2 nd S. iv. 65.) This mode 
of building is very general throughout Devon, but 
it is not confined to that county. 

In 1832, I drew up an article on the subject 
for Mr. London's Encyclopedia of Cottage Archi- 
tecture; and in the Quarterly, for April, 1837, is 
a most clever and amusing paper about it. I 
have neither at hand, but I suspect MR. BOYS will 
find much there to interest him. 

II. T. ELLACOMBE. 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



H 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



Red Winds. In reply to T. H. K. (2 nd S. iii. 

229.) regarding " red winds," I beg to say, that 

there is no sojourner in the Mediterranean for 

any length of time, who has not seen the red wind, 

as well as felt its oppressive influence. It blows 

from the deserts of Africa, and derives its name 

from the particles of red sand with which it is 

charged. The worst I have known in this island 

came from the S.S.W., called " libaccio" by the 

Italians, from "Libya." Should rain descend 

while this wind prevails, the sand becomes mud ; 

and thence arise the " mud showers," of which 

your correspondent may have heard. In its dry 

state, it is more oppressive by far than any other 

wind known to the Mediterranean, not excepting 

the black " sirrocco ;" and is truly well-calculated 

to blast the "goodliest trees" in a garden, and 

vegetation of every kind. Its effects in other 

ways are remarkable. The sand, of excessive 

fineness, enters between your eyelids and your 

eyes, and produces ophthalmia; it gets up your 

nostrils, and down your throat, and makes you 

sneeze and cough ; it penetrates into the cells of 

your ears ; it adheres to your skin, and causes you 

to scratch ; it works itself into your watch, and 

damages its movement ; it increases the annoyance 

of musquitoes, and adds to the venom of their 

attacks ; it is so dry that, as you write or read, 

the paper curls up as if exposed to fire-heat. 

Tables and chairs of seasoned wood, and of old 

manufacture, crack with a report almost like a 

pistol-shot ; and no quantity of drink has much 

effect on your raging thirst. All this time your 

skin is hard and dry, and without the relieving 

influence of perspiration. PAUL PIPECLAY. 

The Milk on the Taed's Back (2 nd S. iv. 57.) 
In the Galloway ballad of " Robin a Hie " occur 
these lines : 

" The milk on the Taed's back I wad prefer 
To the poisons in his words that be." 

^ Can any correspondent give additional informa- 
tion of this milk ? I have seen a remarkable in- 
stance of it, which I described in a long article on 
the " Running Toad" in the Literary Gazette for 
pec. 16, 1854. I kept one of these curious toads 
in my parlour. One day, as it was out on the 
carpet, the door was suddenly opened and passed 
over the poor reptile, so as to crush it almost flat. 
There was a wound in its back, and a milky secre- 
tion immediately appeared " on the taed's back " 
from the wound. This milk had an odour quite 
sui generis. It was not exactly fetid, but of a sickly, 
disgusting, and overpowering character; such as 
I never experienced, and cannot describe. It 
seemed to affect the head, and cause giddiness, as 
I bent over it, so that I could not bear to come 
near it. Whether this milk is really poisonous, I 
cannot say ; perhaps some one has made experi- 
ments with it, My toad, though severely crushed, 



its back-bone broken, and one foreleg also, re- 
covered in a wonderfully short time. He was able 
to crawl about a little in about two hours ; and as 
he recovered, and the wound in his back closed, 
the milk disappeared. The accident occurred in 
the evening, and by the next morning it was all 
gone. From many experiments on different toads, 
and long familiarity with their habits from keep- 
ing them as pets, I am perfectly satisfied that they 
are not venomous ; but whether this milky secre- 
tion is of a poisonous character seems doubtful, 
and I shall be glad of any. information on the 
subject, F. C. H. 

Watling Street (2 n * S. iii. 390. ; iv. 58.) Thisf 
was one of the four principal Roman Vice strata, 
or paved ways, hence called Streets, and extended 
from the southern shore of Kent to Caernarvon, 
Cardigan, or Chester, for the authorities severally 
fix its point of termination at each of these three 
localities. Its course is thus described by Le- 
land (Itin., vi. 120., edit, Oxon. 1744) : 

" Secunda via principalis dicitur Watelingstreate tendens 
ab euro-austro in Zephyrum septentrionalem. Incipit 
enim a Dovaria, tendens per medium Cantiae, juxta 
London, per S. Albanum, Dunstaplum, Stratfordiam/Tow- 
cestriain, Littlebourne, per montem Gilberti juxta Sa- 
lopiam, deinde per Stratton, et per medium Wallise, usque 
Cardigan." 

Roger de Hoveden (Annales, Pars prior, 432., 
edit. Savile) notices this road in the following 
terms : 

" WeBthlinga- Street (Sax.). Strata quam filii Wethle 
regis, ab oriental! mari usque ad occidentale, per Angliam 
strav er unt." 

Thus the name assigned to this ancient public 
way had apparently the signification of " The 
Street of the Sons of Wsethla." It is more pro- 
bable, however, that the term Wcetlinga- Street was 
simply the Anglo-Saxon form of the British Gwyd- 
delinsari), which meant " The Road of the Gael," 
although it has been suggested that it was by cor- 
ruption only called Vitellin or Watling Street 
from the name of Vitellianus. Antiquaries, how- 
ever, generally concur in opinion that this was 
originally a British way, as were also the Ryknield, 
the Iknield, the Ermyn, and the Akeman Streets, 
a concurrence which does not exist in reference to 
the three additional ways, to which attention is 
drawn by your correspondent. WM. MATTHEWS. 
Cowgill. 

It seems to me that the best derivation yet given, 
is that in 2 nd S. ii. 272. of your Journal. 

R. S. CHAENOCK. 
Gray's Inn. 

Inedited Verses ly Cowper (2 nd S. iv. 4.) It 
will require something more than the bare as- 
sumption of T., to convince me that the lines he 
quotes were really written by Cowper. Sowing 



S. N 84., AUG. 8. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



light is rather a strange expression; and "jour- 
neying" and "burning," "of" and "love," "be- 
fore thee" and " glory/' are hardly such rhymes 
as the fine-eared poet was in the habit of using. 

JAYDEE. 

English- Latin (2 nd S. iv. 90.) Is it universally 
admitted that our pronunciation is corrupt ? It 
is certainly different from that of the rest of the 
world, because we pronounce our vowels diffe- 
rently ; but where all are wrong, and there is 
really no data upon which to argue, who is to call 
another corrupt? A German, Frenchman, and 
Italian, pronounce Latin each in his own way, and 
so does an Englishman ; but as the last differs 
most in his pronunciation of vowels, he is in a 
minority of one, and so is called a corrupt pro- 
nouncer ; this, I believe, is the real English of the 
matter. There is not, and cannot be, any really 
correct mode of pronouncing Latin, inasmuch as 
it is dead ; if we were to knock under, and pro- 
nounce it like Italian, it would only be a sacrifice 
to expediency, because then more foreigners could 
understand us. J. C. J. 

"Keeping the wolf from the door" (2 nd S. iv. 
51.) "The wolf" is hunger ; and the expression 
" keeping the wolf from the door " is used of per- 
sons in humble circumstances who are barely able 
to preserve themselves from utter destitution, 
"famem a foribus pellere." 

We say of a ravenous eater that " he has got a 
wolf" in his stomach, or more briefly, that "he has 
got a wolf." The French use the expression, "man- 
ger comme un loup." In Germany " wolfsmagen " 
(the maw of a wolf) is a hungry, voracious appe- 
tite ; and, similarly, " wolfhunger," "wolfshun- 
ger" (wolf's hunger), is in that language a hunger 
inordinately keen and rabid. Of this wolfish 
hunger, with which pleasing acquaintance may 
be made either, 1. at Cintra; 2. on board ship ; 
or, above all, 3. in campaigning, some account 
may be found in Blackwood's Magazine, June, 
1850, p. 666, &c., and July, 1850, p. 23, &c^ 

While, in these days of progress, education is 
working its way downwards, destitution, alas ! is 
working its way upwards. And, it is to be feared, 
there are now many cultivated, highly cultivated, 
households, that find considerable difficulty in 
" keeping the wolf from the door." 

THOMAS BOYS. 

Shank's Nag (2 nd S. iv. 86.) A derivation of 
this proverbial expression brought from Spain, in 
the phrase ride on St. Francis* mule, seems to me 
to be unnecessarily far-fetched, especially as the 
meaning of the English term is, as MR. KEIGHT- 
I/EY acknowledges, " obvious enough." Many of 
your readers will no doubt have heard the equi- 
valent saying, to ride in the marrow-bone stage 
(a ludicrous corruption of Mary-le-bone), as ex- 
pressing the same mode of travelling. MR. 



KEIGHTLEY says that mules were little used for 
riding in England. Is he not aware that the 
Judges used to proceed to Westminster on the 
first day of Term mounted on mules ; and that 
Mr. Justice Whyddon, in the reign of Queen 
Mary, excited the surprise of the lawyers by 
riding on a horse, being the first time that that 
noble animal had appeared in the judicial proces- 
sion? EDWARD Foss. 

Rudhalls, the Bell-founders, &c. (2 nd S. iii. 76. ; 
i Vt 76.) Seeing the name of " y e late ingenious 
M r E,ich d Phelps" mentioned in MR. MACRAY'S 
notice on the above, I am reminded that amongst 
our peal of five bells at Maiden Bradley Church, 
two have the initials R. P., and between the letters 
a small bell. But I will give a list of the bells, 
and perhaps some correspondent of " N. & Q." 
may, from the initials on each, be able to tell the 
founders : 

No. 1. " Give Alms. A.D. 1614. J. W." 

No. 2. " A.D. 1656. J. L." (John Ludlow? Did he give 

it?) 
No. 3. On this bell is the Prince of Wales' coat of arms, 

with C. P. in it. " A.D. 1619. R. [bell] P." 
No. 4. "A.D. 1619. R. [bell] P." 
No. 5. (The largest.) " Fear God, Love thy Nabor. A.D. 

1613. J.W." 

The inscription on the last seems to show that 
the feeling against royalty was at that date rife, or 
why was not " Honour the King" used instead of 
" Love thy Nabor ?" Any further information on 



the above will much oblige 



HENRI. 



Inscriptions on Sells (passim). At St. Mary's 
Bexhill the old peal was thus designated : 

1. "Edmund Giles, bell founder. Thomas Perscie and 

John Smith, Churchwardens, Bexhill. 1595." 

2. "Maria." 

3. " Habeo nomen Michaelis missi de coelis." 

4. Post Te, Clarior aethere, trahe devotos Tibi. J. A." 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

P.S. At SS. Mary's and Peter's, Pett, is this 
inscription on a brass : 

" ^Edibus his moriens campanam sponte dedisti, 

Laudes pulsandae sunt, Theobalde, tuas." 
" Here lies George Theobald, a lover of bells, 
And of this House, as that epitaph tells ; 
He gave a bell freely to grace the new steeple, 
Bring out his prayse, therefore, ye good people." 
"Obiit 10 Martii, A Dom. 1641. 

Brickwork, its Bond (2 nd S. iii. 149. 199. 236. 
318.) There is an inquiry respecting brickwork, 
the manner of laying same, &c., which has not been 
answered satisfactorily. I have ventured to give 
you an explanation. The same kind of work was 
formerly in use in Manchester and the neighbour- 
hood about the middle of last century, as may be 
seen by examination of dates attached to old 
buildings in Marsden Square, St. James's Square, 
Cannon Street, opposite St. Mary's Church, &c. 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 2 nd g. N 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



It is formed by laying the first course with whole 
bricks ; the next course the bricks are cut across 
for the outside brick, and the remainder filled with 
bricks laid at random. The third course as first, 
and so on. The walls are generally three to four 
bricks in breadth thick. G. R. G. 

I do not know whether it is customary in Eng- 
land to build walls, &c., brick-on-edge, but in the 
south of Spain, Italy, and Portugal, it is very cus- 
tomary to make partitions in rooms by a wall so 
built; the bricks are one inch thick, and being 
plastered on both sides with good mortar, make a 
very firm and substantial partition. If two bricks 
are used with mortar between it becomes a very 
solid wall. J.B. 

Churchwardens' Accounts (2 nd S. iv. 65.) In 
No. 82. of " N. & Q." there is a very curious 
account of the slaughter, in the gross, of many 
animals coining under the denomination of vermin : 
among which are particularised abundance of 
foxes. Perhaps it was not contra regulam in the 
seventeenth century to annihilate, if possible, the 
species, but in the present day it would be re- 
garded as little short of murder to destroy them, 
otherwise than in the chase. In the History of 
the Town of Tetbury, j ust published by the Kev. 
Alfred T. Lee, at p. 143., there are entries of a 
similar description copied from the churchwardens' 
accounts of Tetbury, for killing vermin in the 
seventeenth century, viz : 

s. d. 

" 1G73. Payd for killing of 5 Heclghoggs 00 00 OG 
1078. Payd for killinge a ffoxe - - 00 01 00 
1680. Payd for 4 ffoxes heades - - 00 04 00 
1G84. for a ffoxes head, 19 hedghoggs, 

and 4 joyes (Jays) - - - 00 03 01 
1C85. For 22 ffoxes heads - - - 01 02 00 
1G87. Payd for ftbur ffoxes heads to Mr. 
Huntley's man, and 12 to the 
L>uke of Beaufort's man - - 00 16 00." 

I cannot conclude these remarks without ob- 
serving that it would be to defame the noble 
house of Beaufort to suppose, even for one mo- 
ment, that in the present century they would 
countenance the destruction of a fox, there not 
being within the memory of any one living more 
orthodox and thorough-bred sportsmen than the 
whole Somerset family. DELTA. 

"Staw" "stawed" (2 nd S. Hi. 470, 471.) I am 
inclined to believe that staw and stawed are con- 
tractions of stall and stalled, as they are pro- 
nounced and spelt in W. Yorkshire, with the 
same signification as staw and stawed in Lanca- 
shire and Scotland. It is well known that the 
tendency in the last mentioned places is to omit 
/ after the broad a : e. g. 

" The spot they ca'd it Lincumdoddie." BURNS. 

A horse is said to be stalled when placed in the 
stall or stand with a sufficiency of food. When 



a child has had sufficient food, or one kind of food 
frequently, he says he is stalled. And so to be 
stalled of any thing, just means to be satiated with 
it, or weary of it. In the Glossary to Burns' 
Works, stawed = surfeited. C. D. H. 

Pedigree (2 nd S. iv. 69.) Skinner says from 
per and degre. I am told that Thierry, in one of 
his works (perhaps Norm. Conq.}, derives it from 
pied de grue. Faire le pied de grue is " attend re 
long temps sur ses pas." K. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

I have a notion upon this point, but unsup- 
ported by anv authority beyond the reason I shall 
assign. It is this : as many ancient pedigrees 
were made to ascend from the body of a pro- 

Sinitor, like the Jesse window at Dorchester, co. 
xon, and others of that kind, the scheme pre- 
sented to the spectator was one ofapede gradus 
steps upward from the foot or root of the genea- 
logy. J. G. N. 

May not this word be derived from pes and 
gradus ? HENRI. 

"Durst" (2 nd S. iii. 486.) Surely your querist 
is a Southern. He would be disgusted to know 
how meal-mouthed and poor the "he dare not do 
it," " he darne not do it," sounds in a North-of- 
Trent ear, when misused for the good old correct 
scriptural " he durst" or " he durst not." To say 
he dare not, instead of he durst not, is ungram- 
matical. Dare is the present tense. P. P. 

University Hoods (2 nd S. iv. 29.) The M.A. 
" university hood," in its " present shape," is an 
interesting and very graphic tradition of those 
good old times when hoods were worn to cover 
the head, and when the hood was not of necessity 
a separate article of dress, but might be, and 
usually was, attached to the cape of the coat or 
cloak. 

This may still be seen in the monk's cowl. It 
is also visible in the be?*nous or bournous (adopted 
from the Arabs by the French), which is a " man- 
teau a capuchon," i.e. a hooded cloak. 

Hold your M.A. hood suspended by the loop, 
so that it may drop into its natural shape as when 
worn, and you will soon detect the manteau & 
capuchon. The part which hangs down like a 
bag is the hood proper, or cowl. The two pendent 
lappets, or tails, are the sleeves of the cloak or 
coat. 

My recollections of the B.A. hood are so remote 
that I cannot say whether it may not be the cowl 
alone, without the manteau. THOMAS BOYS. 

Fashions (2 nd S. iii. passim,.) Charles James 
Fox astonished his countrymen on his return 
from France by the foppery of red-heeled shoes 
and a feather in his hat. A friend now advanced 



2 nd s. N 81, AUG. 8. '57. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



in years says, that in bis youth lie remembers 
that officers on furlough or half-pay wore a blue 
frock coat with scarlet collar, and a cocked hat, in 
the streets. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M. A. 

Monuments in Churches (2 lld S. iv. 70.) It is 
not " customary " to have a faculty from the Bi- 
shop's Court. Though a faculty is strictly re- 
quired, it is in practice generally dispensed with, 
under the confidence placed in the minister, but 
either his consent or the ordinary's is absolutely 
necessary. The Querist had better consult the 
clergyman of the parish. See Prideaux, Burn, 
&c. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Bishop Godwin de Prcesulilus Anglice (2 nd S. iv. 
70.) The succession suggested by the writer 
seems fully carried out by Mr. Hardy in his ad- 
mirable edition ofZe Neve's Fasti Ecclesia Angli- 
cance, published by the University of Oxford, a 
work (3 vols. 8vo.) which has not perhaps been 
seen by your correspondent. X. Y. 

The Mazer Bowl (I 8t S. iv. 211.; 2 n * S. iv.58.) 
^Whitaker (Hist. Craven, 35.), describing a 
drinking horn of the Lister family, says : 

" Wine in England was first drunk out of the mazer 
bowl ; afterwards out of the Bugle Horn (Chaucer). 
Silver Bowls were next introduced, and about the end of 
Elizabeth's reign were superseded, as wine grew dearer, 
or men grew temperate, by glasses." 

The Gent. Mag. (p. 180.) reporting proceedings 
of Brit. Arch. Association, held Aug. 1845, gives 
the following : 

" Mr. Evelyn P. Shirle}', M. P., exhibited a remarkably 
perfect bowl of the time of Richard II. (1377 to 1399). 
The bowl is formed of some light and mottled wood, 
highly polished, probably maple, with a broad rim of silver 
gilt, round the exterior of which, on a hatched ground, is 
the following legend : 

' In the Name of Trinite, 
Fill the Kup, and drink to me.'" 

Mazer is, without doubt, from the Dutch; but 
the Germ, has also maser, wood with veins ; ma~ 
serle, maple ; maserholz, veined wood. 

R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

^ Cornish Prefixes (2 nd S. iv. 50.) Camden, in 
his Remains, gives six prefixes to Cornish names, 
as he had heard, he says, in this rythm : 
" By Tre, Ros, Pol, Llan, Caer and Pen, 

You may know the most Cornish men," 
which signifies," he adds, " a Town, a Heath, a Poole, 
a Church, a Castle, or City, and a Foreland or Promon- 
tory." See Remayies concerning Britaine, p. 98. 

S. D. 

Colour (2 nd S. iv. 36.) NOTSA, in quoting 
me, makes a slight mistake in saying that " blue 
and red " are usually appropriated to our Blessed 
Lord. My position is that there is no appropria- 
tion whatever. Blue and red together was a fa- 



vourite combination, and so used often for our 
Lord and the Blessed Virgin, but not more fre- 
quently than several other colours. J. C. J. 

Translations of Bishops (2 nd S. iv. 68.) To 
guard against ambition and avarice, it was forbid- 
den by the councils of Nice, Antioch, Sardica, &c., 
for bishops to be translated from the churches 
which they had first undertaken. Nevertheless, 
this rule was departed from in cases where neces- 
sity or great utility required it, and this from 
very early times. G. L. is mistaken in supposing 
that the first translation of a bishop was that of 
Forrnosus of Porto, in 891. There had been many 
instances of translations of bishops several centu- 
ries before. The first on record is that of St. 
Alexander of Jerusalem, translated to that See 
in 212. The historian Socrates mentions many 
bishops who had been translated, on account of 
the necessities of various churches : ob interveni- 
entes subinde Ecclesice necessitates. He instances 
Perigenes, St. Gregory Nazianzen,St. Meletius, 
Dositheus, Reverentius, John of Proconnesus, 
Palladius, Alexander, Theophilus, &c. (Socrates, 
lib. vii. cap. 36.). Sozomen relates that even in 
the Council of Nice, Eustathius, Bishop of Bersea, 
was translated to the See of Antioch. (Sozomen, 
lib. i. cap. 2.). The intention of the church was 
to forbid avaricious and ambitious translations, 
but not such as necessity or utility required. On 
which Pope Pelagius II. has well expressed him- 
self: 

" Non mutat sedem, qui non mutat mentem, id est, qui 
non caussa avaritia?, aut dominationis, aut proprias volun- 
tatis, vel suae delectationis migrat de civitate in civitatem, 
sed caussa necessitatis, vel utilitatis mutatur." 

F. C. H. 

The Peacock. As you have permitted the in- 
sertion (2 nd S. iv. 98.) of an article by P. P. on 
the habits of the peacock, in which a statement 
and opinion of mine regarding that bird are pro- 
nounced both false and ridiculous, I will trust to 
your love of fair dealing to give a place in an 
early number of your publication to the following 
reply : How far P. P. is a trustworthy observer 
of facts in natural history, I have not the means 
of judging ; but it implies no small share of self- 
confidence to affirm, that what he has not himself 
seen cannot be true, as well as that an explana- 
tion different from his own must necessarily be, 
not only false but silly. The facts referred to in 
my work, I have myself witnessed in numerous 
instances. The advance towards it of a dog, a 
pig, or a man in a somewhat threatening attitude, 
have been seen repeatedly to cause the male bird 
to erect its plumes into a circle, incline them for- 
ward over the head, and then to make a slight 
advance, as if to daunt the supposed enemy. A 
nearer approach of the dreaded object will, of 
course, subdue the affected boldness of the bird ; 
but the circumstance of its subsequent flight is 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



not to be regarded as a proof that its first efforts 
were not to deter the approach of a supposed 
enemy. As for the rivalry of other males, re- 
garded as a motive for the display of its orna- 
mented dorsal plumage, I have seen it exhibited, 
with a great show of excited feeling, when no 
other male was to be found within the distance of 
several miles. JONATHAN COUCH. 

Instruments of Torture (2 nd S. iv. 66.)- I trust 
MR. CBEMESTRA will pardon me for setting him 
right in one or two particulars. The instrument 
of torture used in Scotland and elsewhere, called 
the thumbikin, or thumb screw, is well known, 
and many examples still exist. I have seen one 
at Abbotsford ; another in the museum of the 
Society of Antiquaries at Edinburgh ; a third at 
Taymouth ; Lord Londesborough has one ; there 
is a specimen in the Tower of London, and also I 
think at Goodrich Court. Darwin, in his Natu- 
ralist's Voyage, writing in 1836, says : 

" Near Rio de Janeiro I lived opposite to an old lady, 
who kept screws to crush the fingers of her female 
slaves." 

With regard to the wooden engine preserved 
at Littleoote, not Nettlecote Hall, which I de- 
scribed in the 1 st S. of "N. & Q.," under the 
article " Finger Stocks," I think it will be found 
to be simply an instrument of confinement, not 
one of torture, like the thumbikin, which was 
powerful enough to crush and splinter the bones 
between its plates, which were sometimes roughed 
like the jaws of a pair of nut-crackers. 

W. J. BERNHARD SMITH. 

Temple. 

Posies on Wedding Rings (2 nd S. ii. 219.) 
Lady Cathcart, on marrying her fourth husband, 
Hugh Macguire, in 1713, had the following posy 
inscribed on her wedding-ring : 

" If I survive, 

I will have five." 
(Vide Burke's Anecdotes of the Aristocracy.} 

A. C. MOORE. 

Kitchenham Family (2 nd S. iv. 9.) The Sussex 
family of Kitchingham appear to me to have 
taken their surname from the estate of Kitching- 
ham, in 'the parish of Ashburnham, co. Sussex, 
in which parish they were living up to the time of 
the extinction of the elder line, about the end of 
Elizabeth. G. P. must have been misinformed as 
to any member of this family having been ele- 
vated to the peerage. If any of the Kitchinghams 
ever resided at Wadhurst, information respecting 
them could doubtless be supplied by W. Court- 
hope, Esq., Somerset Herald, who has large MS. 
collections concerning that parish. 

MARK ANTONY LOWER. 
Lewes. 



NOTES ON RECENT BOOK SALES. 

MESSRS. SOTHEBT & WILKINSON, on July 20, 1857, 
and three following days, sold the following rare and 
choice books and manuscripts : 

44. Beauvalet de Saint- Victor (Chevalier) Prieres et 
Offices. Autograph Manuscript of this distinguished 
artist, exquisitely written on vellum paper, each page 
surrounded by a border of most elegant design, composed 
of birds, flowers, nondescripts, &c., and painted in gold 
and colours, a beautiful specimen of art, in blue morocco, 
gilt edges, with very tasteful silver clasps (forming cru- 
cifixes) in case. 1854. 1L 7s. 

A MS. note at the commencement informs us " Ce livre 
compose' de cent soixante feuillets a ete entierement 
dessine, peint et e'crit par le Chevalier Beauvalet de 
Saint-Victor ne & Paris en 1780, Peintre Mineralo- 
giste brevete h Rome de SS. Gregoire XVI.," &c. 
60. Bible (Holy), engraved title, ruled with red lines. 
Field's small Edition, printed during the Interregnum, 
and known as "Cromwell's Pocket Edition," from the 
soldiers of his army carrying it with them, in their vari- 
ous journeys, the" True" Edition, having the four first 
Psalms printed on a single page, velvet, with clasps. 
1655. 41. 4s. 

88. Burnet (Gilbert, Bishop of Salisbury), History of 

his own Times, from the Restoration of Charles II. (in 

1660) to the Peace of Utrecht, in the Reign of Queen 

Anne (in 1713), 4 vols. bound in 9. Large imperial 

paper, with a set of titles written expressly for this copy, 

within ornamental borders, drawn with Indian ink, at a 

cost of one guinea and a half each. Russia. 231. 

Profusely illustrated with upwards of One Thousand 

Portraits, Engravings, and Drawings ; many of the 

Heads representing Royal, Noble, and Illustrious 

Persons, noticed in the "work, and the Engravings, 

their Actions and the Events of the most interesting 

period to which the history relates. Many of the 

Drawings consist of Likenesses of noted Personages, 

copied in colours from original Paintings in various 

noble Collections, executed by G. P. Harding and 

other eminent artists. 

93. Camoes (Luis de) Os Lusiadas, agora de iiovo im- 
presso, com alguas Annotacoes de diversos Autores. Fine 
copy of a very rare edition (vide "Bibl. Grenvilliana," 
unseen by Souza Botelho, and unknown to M. Mablin), 
green morocco extra, insides lined with morocco, gilt 
edges, by C. Lewis. Em Lisboa. 1584. 41. 

134. Acuna (Christoval de) Nuevo Descubrimiento del 
Gran Rio de las Amazonas. Morocco super extra, joints 
inside, gilt after a pattern of Roger Payne's by C. Lewis. 
Madrid. 1641. 12/. 12s. 

An exceedingly fine copy of an extremely rare volume, 
which the Spaniards most diligently suppressed at 
its first appearance, to prevent the information con- 
tained in its pages becoming of use to the Portu- 
guese, their maritime rivals. 

211. Beauvalet de Saint Victor (Chevalier) Vases Grecs 
et Etrusques, tant en Bronze qu'en Couleur de Terre, 
peints d'apres sa nouvelle Decouverte Metallique, avec 
une Notice sur les Vases. A Collection of 96 superb 
Drawings, painted by the Artist himself in gold and 
colours for His Majesty King Louis Philippe (who had 
agreed to pay 4000 francs for the volume, but was pre- 
vented by the Revolution in 1848) with a printed title- 
page and notice of the vases. Unique, no other copy 
having been executed, although ordered by several mo- 
narchs, on account of the expense, morocco super extra, 
gilt edges, with case. Paris. 1837-48. 60/. 



S. NO 84., AUG. 8. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



221. Bible (Holy). 2 vols., with vignettes. Fine copy 
of " The Vinegar Bible," in Old English, blue morocco, 
gilt edges. Oxford. J. Baskett. 1717. ol. 

222. Bible (La), qui est toute la Sainte escripture, 
translated en Francoys (par P. Robert Olivetan, aide de 
J. Calvin). Black-letter, First Protestant Version in 
French, very rare, fine copy in old French red morocco, 

gilt edges. Neufchatel. Par Pierre de Wingle, diet Pirot 
icard. 1535. 6Z. 10s. 

406. Charles I. The True Effigies of our most Illus- 
trious Soveraigne Lord, King Charles, Queen Mary, with 
the rest of the Royall Progenie, also a Compendium or 
Abstract of their most famous Genealogies and Pedi- 
grees, expressed in Prose and Verse. An excessively 
rare volume to find perfect, with title, &c. The portraits, 
some of which are whole lengths, are engraved by S. Pass, 
W. Hollar, R. Vaughan, &c., green morocco, gilt edges. 
Sold by Jenner & John Sweeting. 1641. 10Z. 10s. 

407. Charles I. The Bloody Court or the Fatal Tri- 
bunall, being a brief History and true Narrative of the 
strange Designs, wicked Plots, and Bloody Conspiracies 
in these late yeares of Oppressions, Tyranny, Martyrdome, 
and Persecutions, curiously printed in red, to symbolize 
the execution of the King, eight leaves, printed for G. 
Hopton, and published by a Royal pen, for general satis- 
faction, without date Treason discovered, or the Black- 
book opened, Avherein is set forth A discovery and de- 
scription of the Grand Traytors, Rebels, Blood Suckers, 
&c., a List of the several Sums of Money which they 
divided among themselves, &c., &c., whole length figure 
of the King standing on Usurpation and Rebellion, with 
six small oval portraits of Cromwell, Bradshaw, Ireton, 
and others, printed for Charles Gustavus, 1660, four 
leaves, both pieces neatly inlaid. A portrait of the King 
kneeling, engraved by Gay wood? and a head of that 
Monarch, enclosed in an oval ornament, composed of the 
words, " Beati Pacifici," very curiously worked with the 
King's own hair ! ! ! are attached to the volume. 21. 15s. 

429. Evelyn (The learned John) Memoirs, with his 
Diary, from"l641 to 1705-6, and a Selection of his Fami- 
liar Letters, also his Private Correspondence, 1641 to 
1647. Edited by Wm. Bray, Esq. 2 vol. divided into 
5 vol., second edition, 1819; to which is added a volume 
of his Miscellaneous Writings, edited by Upcott, general 
title wanting, together 6 vol. russia, borders of gold. 
Profusely illustrated with nearly One Thousand English 
and foreign Portraits, Prints, and Drawings, exhibit- 
ing the features of the most prominent persons of 
the period over which the Memoirs spread ; also re- 
presentations of their distinguished mansions and 
other places of residence ; pictorial representations 
of the country at and during the time specified ; his- 
torical prints, representing remarkable matters re- 
ferred to or seen by the author, at home or abroad, 
during his several journeys and visits. 
Many of the heads are scarce and interesting, while 
the miscellaneous plates offer a large variety of very 
curious and rare pieces, and among the number of 
drawings are several for which the late proprietor 
paid from one guinea to two guineas and a half. 19Z. 
441. Grammont (Count) Memoirs, during the time of 
Charles Ilnd., with Accounts of his Favourites, Mistresses, 
and Persons belonging to the Court, by Anthony Hamil- 
ton, translated from the French, 2 vol. divided into 3, 64 
portraits engraved by Scriven. Large paper, proofs, 
further illustrated with nearly Four Hundred additional 
Heads, Views, Historical Prints, Masquerade and other 
Scenes, also Drawings of Eminent Persons noticed in the 
work, of whom no engraved likenesses exist, russia, gilt 
edges, binding broken. Miller, 1811. 17Z. 5s. 

Many rare and curious Proof Portraits and Prints occur 
in these very interesting and amusing volumes ; the 



illustrating of which afforded the late proprietor vast 
pleasure, but at a very considerable outlay. Among 
other Portraits may be noticed Jacob Hall, the Rope- 
Dancer; a unique impression from the Strawberry 
Hill Collection T. Killigrew, Groom of the Bed- 
chamber to Charles 1st, by Faithorne The Hampton 
Court Beauties Proofs, &c. &c. 
679. Lysons (Rev. D.) Environs of London ; or an His- 
torical Account of the Towns, Villages, and Hamlets, 
within Twelve Miles of that Capital, with Biographical 
Anecdotes, second edition, 1811 ; with Supplementary 
Volume, containing Account of those Parishes of the 
County of Middlesex not described in the Environs, 1800, 
5 vol. enlarged into 7 very stout volumes. Very exten- 
sively illustrated with rare Portraits by early Engravers, 
curious engraved Representations of Houses and Tho- 
roughfares, now no longer existing, in the County, Monu- 
ments of deceased Worthies, Views of the Landscape 
Scenery, &c., &c., nearly Fourteen Hundred separate 
Plates, &c. Bound in russia, with border of gold. 18 LI. 
19J. 

773. Rapin (Paul) History of England to the Revolu- 
tion, 2 vol., portraits and monuments by Vertue, 1732 
Tindal, Continuation of the same to the Accession of 
George Ilnd., with Summary and Medallic History of 
various Reigns, 3 vol., plates of coins, maps, portraits, &c. 
1747. Most extensively illustrated with rare and curious 
Portraits, Historical Engravings, Monuments, Maps, 
Landscapes, Views of Ancient Dwellings, and others of 
great interest, in number upwards of Eight Hundred. 
Together 5 vol. in 6, russia. 1732-47. 24Z. 

923. Pepys (Samuel, Secretary to the Admiralty, temp. 
Charles II. and James II.) Memoirs, with his Diary, 1659 
to 1669, and a Selection from his Private Correspondence, 
edited by Lord Braybrooke, 2 vol. bound in 3, portraits of 
the Author, and facsimiles. Original edition, 4to., russia, 
the binding broken. 13Z. 

This extremely amusing and interesting work is very 
extensively illustrated with rare engraved portraits 
(many in proof state), of nearly all the celebrated 
persons of the period, from the monarch to the pea- 
sant ; for Pepys mixed with both high and low, re- 
cording anecdotes of either in the most enchanting 
and delightful gossiping style. Of the eminent 
persons, of whom no engraved portrait exists, draw- 
ings have been taken from original paintings in the 
Collections of the several families expressly for this 
copy, and of those engraved several are executed by 
various well-known artists, as Faithorne, Bullfinch, 
&c. The miscellaneous engravings comprise curious 
historical prints, views of remarkable houses, land- 
scapes, maps, &c. &c., in number upwards of Six 
Hundred and Sixty. 

934. Psalter. The whole Psalter, translated into Eng- 
lish Metre (in three quinquagenes), which contayneth 
an hundred and fifty Psalmes. Black letter, an exceed- 
ingly pure copy of an excessively rare volume, purple 
morocco, joints inside, gilt edges, by C. Lewis, after a 
pattern of Roger Payne's. John Daye, dwelling over 
Aldersgate, n. d. 43Z, 

A very elegant metrical version of the Psalter, which, 
although set forth anonymously, there is every reason 
to ascribe to Archbishop Parker, and to believe that 
it was privately printed at his expense. Bishop 
Kennett possessed a copy (afterwards James West's), 
in which he had written a note, remarking that the 
Archbishop permitted his wife, Dame Margaret, to 
present the volume to some of the nobility. That 
the copy in the Lambeth Library was so given is 
attested by the following note in it : " To the right 
vertuous and Hon. Ladye the Countesse of Shrews- 
burie, from your loving friende, Margaret Parker." 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



N 84., AUG. 8. '57. 



It is presumed the volume was printed about 1557-8 ; 

the present copy has the dates of 1549 and 1577 

marked on the end page ; to the latter year it cannot 

be assigned, as Mrs. Parker died in 1570. 

935. Rituale Ecclesiasticum. Printed on vellum and 

paper, mixed, in a very rude missal type, very similar to 

that employed by Gutenberg and Fust for the Mazarine 

Bible, supposed to have been printed between 1450-55 

with the exception of folios d i, ii, vii, and viii (without 

signatures, with 19 lines to the page), which are in a 

character much resembling that used by Albert Pfister of 

Bamberg in 14G1. From signature a to d inclusive, the 

Rubrics are printed in red, and from e to the end in 

black. Extremely rare and probably unique, sine ulla 

nota, circa 1460. SQL 

This excessively rare and curious volume consists of 66 
leaves (42 on vellum and 24 on paper) with 18 lines 
to a full page, and is evidently one of the earliest at- 
tempts in typography. The signatures run from a to 
h iiii, those from a to b ii being printed in red and the 
rest in black. Of these / has 12, g 10, and h 4 leaves ; 
all the others have 8 leaves to the gathering. The 
work commences at the top of signature a in red and 
black, with " Bndictio sails et aque. Adiutoriiinrm," 
and ends on the recto of h iiii with the words, " Laus 
deo," which form the 12th line. The watermarks on 
the paper are the letter P and a Crown with a Tre- 
foil. The entire Rituale contains the Benedictio 
Sails et Aquae, the Ordo baptizandi, Ordo visitandi 
injinnos, concluding with the Service for the Dead, 
Ordo Matrimonii, Exorcisms and various Benedic- 
tions. No copy appears to have been sold by auction, 
and the work has hitherto not been described by any 
bibliographer. 

945. Scott (Sir Walter), Peveril of the Peak. The 
original Manuscript in the autograph of the author. 
4 vol. in 2, green morocco, gilt edges. In case. 50Z. 
These most interesting volumes were purchased at the 
memorable auction of various of the author's produc- 
tions in his autograph, some years since, by the late 
Mr. Utterson, at the sale of whose library they 



passed into the hands of the late proprietor at the 
sum of 44:1. One of the most extraordinary circum- 
stances connected with the autograph copies is the 
very few corrections made in them, thus establishing 
(as observed in a note from Lord Spencer, accom- 
panying the volume) "a proof of the facility with 
which Sir Walter sketched out the production of his 
most entertaining and lively imagination." 



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in. 12s. Gd. 

Ditto ditto - - - 10s. Gd. 

Ariadne, a splendid model - - 10s. Gd. 

Ditto, Stereoscopic - 2s. Gd. 

Photographed by O. G. REJLANDER, ESQ. 
The above, and all the beautiful Photographs 
of this eminent Artist, can be had wholesale 
from the Publishers, 

BECKINGHAM & CO., Birmingham. 



2** S. NO 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 15, 1857. 



NOTES Or SIR KOGEB TWtfSDEN ON THE HJSTOEY 
OF THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. 

In Sir Roger Twysden's MS. journal of the 
persecutions to which he was subjected by the 
parliament, he states that one of the principal 
crimes laid to his charge was his " holding corre- 
spondency by letters intercepted both to Priests 
in my owne County, and strangers abroad of ill 
consequence." He proves how frivolous the charge 
was, by telling us that he had been for many years 
anxiously endeavouring to obtain a genuine history 
of the Council of Trent ; and for this purpose had 
entered into a correspondence with Fulgentio, the 
friend, disciple, and ultimately the biographer of 
Sarpi, to whom he had obtained an introduction 
through their mutual friend the accomplished 
Biondi. It would appear indeed, from several en- 
tries in his Common-Place Books, that Sir Roger 
had at one time the intention of writing a biography 
of Father Paul. He sent his brother William to 
Paris, Geneva, and Rome, to collect materials for 
it, and to obtain a true elucidation of the circum- 
stances attending the smuggling into England of 
Sarpi's History of the Council, and to investigate 
the truth as to certain alleged tamperings with 
the text of that work. If acceptable to you I 
will, from time to time, furnish you with extracts 
from his brother's letters on these subjects ; and 
others from Sir Roger's Diaries and Common- 
place Books, illustrative of these proceedings. 

With reference to the frivolous charges of the 
parliament, Sir Roger says : 

"As soone as I came sensible of the differences 
in religion, I did conceive many poynts in dispute 
w th the Church of Rome, backt by no auntient 
Councell, and, indeede, not many of them made 
good (as they are now held) by other then y e late 
assembly at Trent. I observed Manutius, in hys 
epistle at Rome, 1564, beefore y e acts of it, bade 
us dayly expect the History of y* Councell, yet it 
appeared not. I found by Cardinall Perron 
(Epist. Eomce, 11 Julii, 1606, au Roy Hen. 4.) 
the entyre acts and disputes of it, w th all the His- 
tory and proceedings in y e same, to bee extant at 
Rome, but shewed hym with so great a charge of 
secresy as S r Edwine Sandis (his relation of Re- 
ligion in the West, "Speculum Europce") might 
not unfitly write it, to have been guided w th such 
infinite guile and craft, w th out any sincerity, up- 
right dealing, or truth, as themselves will even 
smile in the triumph of their wits, when they hear 
it mentioned as a master stratagem, that they did 
not, in their late Coimcells (Condi. Gen. Romce, 
1608, to. 4, 1612) set more of y e causes of sum- 
moning of it, then in y e Papall letters indicting it, 
not prefixing any history as of others. 



"By all which, I concluded it would trouble 
any man at Rome, to write a true discourse how 
things past in it, especially when, after 50 years, 
nothing of that nature appeared thense. Ney, 
when one did come from Italy, though apparently 
writ by one of the Roman Communion, yet no 
approver of the abuses in that Court, it was pro- 
hibyted by the Inquisition there (Decreto, 22 
Novembris, 1619) ; although it appeared to me 
writ with so great moderation, learning, and wis- 
dome, as it might deserve a place amongst the 
most exactest peeces of ecclesiastick story any age 
hath produced. 

"But, it beeing given out, an History of y fc 
Councell was in hand at Rome (Lit. dat. Romce, 
26 November, 1633), composed by one Terentio 
Alicati, a Jesuite, though it seemes he hath not 
hitherto finisht y e worke ; I writ to a friend of 
myne, then in travel, to get it me as soone as it 
came out; and, in my letter, spake somewhat of 
y e Geneva edition of that allready printed, w ch I 
took not so well done as y e English, and gave 
some reasons of my opinion. 

" I know not by what fate that I thus writ to a 
private friend came after it to Padre Fulgentio's 
eare or eye ; and I, having recovered from beyond 
seas y e life of Padre Paolo MSS., many years 
beefore it was printed; and by it, finding y* 
learned man to have writ divers peeces not scene 
publiquely, I did (by a noble friend of myne, S r 
Francis Biondi) some tymes write to Padre Ful- 
gentio. The subject was, eyther an Inquisition of 
some particular I was not so wel satisfyed w th in 
y e History of that Councell, or else, what means I 
might use to get those other peeces of Padre 
Paolo's. To the first, I doe not remember what 
Answer he returned ; to y e second, w ch was y e most 
considerable, this of the 21 April, 1638, * Daver 
alcune cose, frc.,' that he had some things, w ch beefore 
hys death, he would place in y e hands of some who 
might render them useful; but, not trusting any 
Italian, he must have a stranger for y e scribe ; yet 
one of supreame fydelyty, exquisite knowledge in 
y e Italian toung ; w th out w ch conditions he would, 
admit of none to undertake it. 

" Upon this, I writ to a friend of myne in Italy, 
to treat \v th hym; and if hee would part with 
these peeces, I would eyther give hym mony for 
y e originalls, upon his assurance of their beeing 
Padre Paolo's, or find means to have them tran- 
scribed. Upon w ch he writ unto me in effect, the 
15 th October, 1638, that, having treated with 
Padre Fulgentio, he did not perceive I was likely 
to have eyther copy or originall ; hys propositions 
carrying allmost impossibilities of beeing per- 
formed ; w ch he attributed to y c many eies were 
over hys actions ; that some others beefore me had 
treated for y e same, yet w th no better successe. 

" I had likewise correspondence w th some 
French, as \v th Mon sr de Cordes, &c. &c." 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. NO 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



In the above extracts I have transcribed from 
S r Koger's vindication of himself all that seems to 
bear directly upon the publication of the History 
of the Council of Trent. I will now proceed to 
transcribe from one of his Common-Place Books, 
in the order in which they occur, the notes that 
he has jotted down of the transactions connected 
with that publication. The first entry is as fol- 
lows : 

" Neither will I heere omitt what Mr. Natha- 
niell Brent*, Doctor of the cyvill Law, did tell 
me y e 2 of October, 1627, meeting him in Lon- 
don. That King James, having intelligence of 
this History f, y* it was finished, hee y e said Doc- 
tor Brent was sent over to Venice for y e copy : 
where arryving hee was two monthes beefore hee 
could gette acquaintance with P. Paulo ; though 
he were well acquainted with Fulgentio, a fryer 
of y e same order and a kind of discyple of y e 
forenamed Paulo, and likewise a merchant very 
familiar with him ; both which told him he might 
trust his book to y c said Doctor; yet the fryar 
(knowing as it seems the worth of his own child, 
and y e hatred y e Pope bare him) would not for all 
doe any thing till (as M r D r Brent to me sayd) 
hee had herd out of England from some friend 
heere, that hee might safely trust him with it. 
After hee knewe him throughly, hee found mar- 
vylous much worth and courtsey in y e man, who 
sufferd him to write out y c History as hee did, 
and sent it over to England in fourteen severall 
pacquetts. Farther, speaking with him of y e 
truth, and y e Papists denying or confuting this 
book, hee told me there was one alive could shew 
it all in their owne Records, and, as longe as hee 
lived, there was none of them durst deny any ma- 
teriall thing in it. I think he ment by this man 
Fulgentio aforenamed, who (as I have herd) suc- 
ceeded in part of the trust y c state had formerly 
reposde in him. This D r Brent had in a chamber 
at Merton Collcdg the pictures of both Paulo and 
Fulgentio. | 



* " Hee translated y c story into English." 

t " By y c Ambassador of Venice." 

j Fulgentio indeed relates, with regard to portraits of 
Sarpi, that, though many sovereigns had asked him for 
his picture, 3 r et he never could be brought to sit, or suffer 
it to be drawn : " Un particolare," says he, " anco si non 
si pub tacere in tal proposito, cio e la forma risolutione di 
non lasciar cosa, b di sua mano, b d' altri, che lo facesse 
nominare, come di lasciarsi mai ritrarre del naturale, con 
tutto che e da Re e da Principi grandi ne sia stato recer- 
cato. E se bene vanno attorno suoi ritratti da naturale, 
tutti sono copie d' uno, che si dice esser nella galeria d' un 
gran lie, che gli fu tolto centra sua voglia, e con bel stra- 
tagema. Ma quanto a se, se 1' abborisse, ne fa fede ch' 
havendolo ne gP ultimi anni pregato P Illustrissimo e 
Excel lentissimo Domenico Molini, e fatto supplicare per 
Maestro Fulgentio, mai pote ottenir di lasciare ch' un 
pittore famoso che s' offeriva non occuparlo piu d' un bora, 
lo ritrasse. E pure qucl Signore, lo ricerco in virtu dell' 
amicitia, e con modi cotanto significanti, che per la re- 



" He told me likewise at another time, viz. 3 d of 
October, 1630, beeing then S r Nathanyell Brent, 
and offycyall to the Bishop of Canterbury at Can- 
terbury, y e my lorde of Canterbury spake first to 
him to get somebody to goe to Venice about a 
specyall busynesse, but told him not what, and, 
on his nomynating of divers which he mislyked, 
y e Bishop asked him if he would not goe himself, 
which, after some small excuse, he assented to 
doe, and then the Bishop told him y e cause of 
sending, and y* it would bee a thing y e King 
would take very well. When he came to Venice, 
Padre Paulo refused any treaty with him at all if 
he lodged not in y e house, eyther one .... or one 
.... which he at last obteyned. 

" Likewise another Dyvine* that had long lived 
at Venice, told me he was General of y e Order of 
y e Servi ; y * Fulgentio (with whom he left all his 
papers at his death) told him Cardinall Bellarmine 
writ to him y e said Padre Paolo a letter (which 
Fulgentio had) to know his opinyon of publishing 
either all or some part of his Controversies, y* 
Padre Paulo would say of them, ' Opus est una 
litura,' as not approeving them. That he well 
knew Cardinall Bellarmine at Rome is manifest 
by his Apologief for Gerson against that- Cardi- 
nall, page 2. ; and Fulgentio, in his defence of 
Padre Paulo's considerations upon y e Bull of 



pulsa datagli piu di quindeci di continuati, che trattene il 
pittore, venne in offesa col Padre, e stette alcuni mesi 
senza parlargi." In Burnet's Life of Bedell, p. 194., is a 
letter from Sir Henry VVotton to Dr. Collins, Regius Pro- 
fessor of Divinity in Cambridge, in which there occurs 
this passage: "And now, Sir, having a fit messenger, 
and being not long after the time, when love-tokens use 
to pass between freinds, let me be bold to send you for a 
New Year's Gift a certain memorial not altogether un- 
worthy of some entertainment under your Roof, namely, 
a true picture of Padre Paolo, the Servite, which was first 
taken by a painter whom I sent unto him from my house, 
then neighbouring his monastery. I have newly added 
thereunto a Title of mine own conception (" Concil. Tri- 
dent, eviscerator "), and had sent the frame withal, if it 
were portable, which is but of plain Deal coloured black, 
like the habit of his order." 

There were formerly at Roydon Hall portraits of both 
Sarpi and Fulgentius, sent to Sir Roger from Venice by 
his brother William, who, in the letter which accom- 
panied them, declares them to be admirable likenesses ; 
and he asserts, on the authority of Fulgentius himself, 
that that of Sarpi was the best and most correct likeness 
of his master which he had ever seen. 

Some thirty years ago or more, I consigned these tem- 
porarily to the care of a young artist in London who was 
residing in furnished lodgings. The landlord suffered an 
execution in his house ; the officers of the sheriff carried 
off these two pictures, and I did not hear of the event till 
it was too late to recover them. From that hour to this 
I have never been able to trace them. Perhaps this no- 
tice of the circumstance in " N. & Q." may lead to their 
discovery. Their value, in whosesoever hands they are, 
must be greatly enhanced by this testimony of Fulgentius 
to their merit. L. B. L. 

* "Mr. Styles, chaplaine to S r Isaak Wake at Venice." 

f "Printed at Venice, 1606." 



NO 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



Paolo V., page 420. : both which bookes were 
printed at Venice, 1606, by Ruberto Meietti. 

"By this w ch hath beene sayde, it appeares 
Spalato* was not the sole cause of y* bookes f 
impressyon. I will adde one thing more w ch S r 
Nathanyel Brent gave once to me a little notice 
of, and Mr. Bill, y e printer of y c booke, the full 
story of. King James having an intent to have 
this booke printed, bid Spalato to send it to y e 
presse, which Bill, fearing y e sale of it in England, 
was unwilling to doe in Italyan, and Spalato mak- 
ing relatyon of that to y e King, Bill was sent for 
to his Ma tie , and, after speech w th y e King, who 
promised he should have y e book both in Latine 
and English (by w ch he might gayn, if he lost by 
y e Italyan), he undertook y e worke, and beegun 
some sheetes, w ch Spalato sent him ; but w th words 
in divers places put in and put out, so as he could 
hardly read it to print. Now, y e Archbishop of 
Canterbury, whose indeed y e Italyan Copy was, 
and had (as Bill told me) lent it to Spalato, heer- 
ing y l there was such a book in y e presse, sent to 
Bill to come to him, and asked him by what au- 
thoryty he printed y* booke ; who aunswered, ' y e 
King's,' and y* he had y e Copy from Spalato, w ch 
was so defaced he could hardly read it ; y e Arch- 
bishop heering that, byd him desist from farther 
printing till himself could speak w th y e King, to 
whom he would give satisfaction, and take order 
for y e printing, as he did, having all y* was donne 
to bee cast away, and y e printer to beegin anewe, 
and print it, not according to y* Spalato had sub- 
stituted in, but to print those words he had put 
out, and leave the rest, so y* wee have now a true 
copy, just as it came from Venice. This Bill told 
me anno 1627. S r Nathanyell Brent told me one 
alteratyon (w ch seemes not materyall) was, where 
the author beginns, * II proponimento mio e,' 
Spalato altered it to 'ho deliberate,' as beeing 
better Italian." 

[Out of a letter from my brother Will, dated 
at Geneva, July y e 25 th , 1632, stilo veteri, there 
is this passage following.] 

" M r Deodaty heere hath promysed to let me see 
a letter he had from Padre Paolo, touching y e 
leaving out y e Epistle beefore y e Council of Trent, 
as allso y* M r Depuis told me at Paris, that M r 
de Thou never wrote more of his story then is 
printed at Geneva, and y* to make an end of that, 
he wrote somewhat in his deathbed, not above 
3 dayes beefore he dyed. 

" That M r Depuis, as by other letters from him, 
I understood was M r de Thou's kinsman, to whose 
care y e custody of his library was committed by 
him, as appeeres likewise by M r de Thou's will 
prefixed beefore his first booke of his story." 

* I.e. Antonio de Dominis, Archbishop of Spalato. L. 
t " The History of y Council of Trent." 



[Out of another letter from my sayd brother 
Will, dated at Venice, November 26, stilo novo, 
1632.] 

" I have now spake w th P. Fulgentio, but find 
y* those things w ch you wrote to me to aske him 
are things now much out of his head by reason of 
other buysynesse, and therefore not fitte to aske 
him. 

" He told me the Geneva edition of y e Counsel 
of Trent is y c best, but that there were some 
faults in it, though he had not had leasure to 
reade it over, and therefore had not observed 
them. I shewed him some of them you wrote to 
me of, w ch he acknowledged to bee faults : he told 
me y* Padre Paolo had an intentyon to have con- 
tynwed the story unto our times towching the 
actyons of y e Popes, and divers other things that 
I shall write of heereafter, as I come to know 
them, that doe make his losse inestymable." 

" In y e History of y e Council of Trent, y e Ital. 
edition printed at London, 1619, page 538., II 
di 11. Agosto, y e Ital. edit, of Geneva, prynted 
1629, Addi undici Agosto, lib. 6., speaking 
of Laynes, y e generall of y e Jesuites, arryving at 
Trent, and hys place in Councell, he sayth, bee- 
cause of y e difference of y e precedence w th other 
Generalls, he was not named in y e Catalogues of 
those who were there present. Now in all y e Cata- 
logues I have yet seene, he is eyther the last 
amongst y e Generalls or y e last but one; but of 
this, see what Mons r de Cordes, a lerned French 
gentleman, hath writ to my brother Will, whom 
I shewed it to, and writ to about it, y e passage 
followeth, dated : 

" * De Paris ce 6 Fevrier 1635, selon nostre 
Stil. 

" ' Pource que quand vous esties icy vous me 
dictes que vous trouvies estranger qu'en 1'histoire 
du Concile on eust escrit que dans le Catalogue 
de ceux qui avoient assiste au Concile le General 
des Jesuites ny avoit este mis, a cause de la pre- 
seance, et neantmoins il se trouvoit dans les Cata- 
logues imprimez. Surquoy je vous diray que 
dans un vieil Catalogue que j'ay, imprime a Paris 
1'an 1563, qui fut le mesme que le Concile finit, il 
n'y est poinct, et pource que ce Catalogue est le 
plus ancien que j'aye veu, Pautheur de 1'histoire du 
Concil a eu quelque raison de parler ainsi qu'il a 
faict, et quand j'eus rencontre ce Catalogue je fus 
en vostre logis pour le vous dire, mais vous estes 
dejia parti le mesme jour, de quoy j'ay bien voulu 
vous en donner advis," &c., &e. [of another 
matter.] 

" * Subscribed * vre tres humble serviteur, 

" t JEH. DE CORDES.' " 

[Copied out of y e originall 
by me Roger Twysden.] 

My next communication on this subject, if ac- 
ceptable to your readers, shall be extracts from 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2d s. NO 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



the letters of William Twysden to his brother Sir 
Roger, while employed on his commission in Italy 
or elsewhere. LAMBERT B. LARKING, 



JONATHAN SWIFT, DEAN OF ST. PATRICK'S. 

Everything relating to the early life, to the re- 
lations, friends, and probable associates of a great 
man, are of interest. Swift himself was not very 
communicative on this subject, and for what little 
we know we are principally indebted to his re- 
lation and biographer, Deane Swift. 

Swift himself has indeed told us that his family 
were originally from Yorkshire, and that the 
greater part of that branch from which he de- 
scended removed to and settled in Ireland ; five 
sons, certainly, of that fine old cavalier Thomas of 
Goodrich Godwin, Dry den, William, Jonathan, 
and Adam, lived and died there. Godwin, it 
appears, married a relation of the old Marchioness 
of Ormonde ; and on that account, and the loyalty 
and sufferings of his father, the Duke of Ormonde 
appointed him Attorney-General in the Palatinate 
of Tipperary. Consequent, I suppose, on the 
success of Godwin, the other brothers followed 
him to Ireland. Though Swift was under great 
obligations to Godwin, he was especially attached 
to his uncle William, whom he described as " the 
best of his relations." Beyond these naked facts, 
we know little of the family up to 1713, when 
Jonathan took possession of his Deanery ; and 
when, as his relation and biographer states, there 
were living many of his cousins-german, the chil- 
dren of Godwin, and one daughter, the child of 
uncle William, and two daughters, children of 
uncle Adam. I mention these especially, be- 
cause what little I have to add relates to them 
especially. 

This family, it will be seen, descendants of 
Thomas of Goodrich, and the patronised of the 
Ormondes, was of a high Tory breed ; and it is a 
curious fact, never, I believe, before noticed, that 
in 1692 a "pardon" was granted to " AVilliam 
Swift." Who this William Swift may have been 
I shall leave, as a subject for speculation, to your 
better informed readers ; but from date, circum- 
stances, and antecedents, I think it not impro- 
bable that it was Swift's favourite uncle, and that 
the blood of old Thomas had been stirring when 
King James fought for his last stake in Ireland. 
It is strange, and not explained or adverted to by 
the biographers, that, contrary to all probability, 
our Jonathan, when he first appears, comes forth 
.a Whig, under the patronage of Temple, and con- 
tinued a Whig for many years. 

My especial purpose, however, is not to specu- 
late, but draw attention to some notices of the 
uncles William and Adam to be found in A List 
of the Claims as they are entred with the Trustees 



at Chichester- House on College- Green, Dublin, on 
or before the Tenth of August, 1700. I have a 
copy of the work with MS. notes, setting forth the 
decisions of the Commissioners. Brief and barren 
as these notices may be, they are not without in- 
terest ; they show at least that these uncles were 
living in 1700, and they may be suggestive to 
others who are better informed. 

William Swift, of the city of Dublin, Gent., 
appears as claimant for an estate for sixty years, 
to commence from Christmas, 1679, held by lease 
dated the 26th of December^ 1679, being lands 
situated on the south side of a lane in St. Francis 
Street, called my Lord of Howth's land in 
Dublin; Michael Chamberlain, late proprietor. 
This claim appears to have been allowed. 

Another claim put in is by 

" William Swift, Gent., in behalf of himself and his 
daughter Elizabeth Swift, a Minor, Claimant for an 
Estate in fee, one-third to William, and to the remainder 
during life as Tenant by the Courtesy, situated at Berry- 
more, als. Berryes and Ballinlow, in the County of Ros- 
common, held under Lease and Release dated the 29th 
and 30th of Novemb., 1680, from John Campbell and 
Priscilla his Wife. Witness, Jos. Deane, and al. late pro- 
prietor, Laughlin Flinn, Alderman Terence McDermott, 
and Christopher Dillon. Also for an Estate in fee to 
Elizabeth, to the remainder of two parts after William's 
Death, held by the Will of Claimant Elizabeth's mother 
in the year 1684." 

It may, perhaps, be inferred from the above 
that William Swift married the daughter of John 
and Priscilla Campbell. 

In the following, Adam Swift appears as exe- 
cutor : 

"John Coyne and Adam Swift, Executors of John 
Coyne the elder, Alderman of Dublin, claimant for the 
residue of 21 years, com. 1 May after the Lease of the Poll 
of Legwey, and three half-pottles of Killedune, in the 
County of Cavan, held by Lease from James Dease to 
Connor Reilly, dated the 19th of March, 1693. Late 
Proprietor, James Dease. Also for the residue of 21 years 
com. May after Lease of Pole of land of Callenagh, held 
by Lease dated the 29th October, 1694, from the said 
Dease to John Coyne. Also for Remainder of 41 years 
comm. from the date of the Lease of a Wast plott of 
ground in Oxmantown, Dublin, with 4 Tenements built 
on part of the Plott, held by Lease from Christopher 
Fagan, Esq., to Edmond Tipper, dat. the 1 of November, 
1663. Late Proprietor Richard Fagan. Allowed." 

" Also for Remainder of 21 years com. the 1 Nov. after 
the Lease of Cravertareen, and 8 more Poles of Land in 
B. Clomonghan, co. Cavan, held by Lease dated the 20th 
of June, 1692, from Sir Kryan O'Neile, and Dame Mary, 
his Wife. Late Proprietor, Kryan O'Neale." 

We have also claims by Ellinor Swift, and by 
Ellinor Swift, widow and guardian, both deeds 
witnessed by Godwin Swift : 

" Ellinor Swift, claimant for 4G07., penalty on the whole 
Estate of Sir Edward Tyrrell, late proprietor, under a 
Bond dated the 19th of April, 1687. Allowed and re- 
ferred to the Master." 

"Walter Nangle, a Minor, by his Guardian Ellinor 
Swift, Widow, Claimant for a Remainder in Tail of Kil- 
dalkey, Neilstown, and other lands, in C. Meatb, held by 



2nd s. N 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



Deeds dated 2d and 3d of June, 1679. Witn. Godwin 
Swift and others. Recovery suffered pursuant to said 
Deeds in Trin. Term in 3i K. Ch. II. Late Proprietor, 
Walter Nangle. Allowed according to the Deed, and 
George Nangle to be examined." 

"Marg. Nangle, claimant for a Joynture on Manor of 
Kildalkey and other lands in co. Heath. By Deeds of 
Lease and Release dated 2nd and 3rd of June, 1679. 
Wit. GodAvyn Swift, &c. Late Proprietor, Walter Nangle. 
Allowed." 

J. S. D. 



" PURCHASE." 

Having recently met this word, bearing a mean- 
ing manifestly at variance with its common ac- 
ceptation, I have been induced to make inquiry 
into its original signification. My Note on the 
subject I now submit, and I will be glad to have, 
in confirmation or correction of my opinions, those 
of more experienced philologists. I suspect that 
the word was at one time a member of that 
copious vocabulary used by the followers of the 
" gentle craft of venery," and that all captures in 
the chase were purchases. It subsequently be- 
came a law term, and as such (see Blackstone) had 
for its signification the acquisition of property by 
any means but those of descent ; whatever was 
obtained by fraud, by force, or by contract, was a 
purchase. In this sense conquest was its equiva- 
lent. The title Conqueror given to the Norman 
William did not imply that he obtained the crown 
of England by victory had no direct reference 
to the battle of Hastings, or indeed to any battle. 
It simply signified that he did not possess the 
crown by descent. He was the first of his family 
to enjoy it, and therefore he was said to have suc- 
ceeded to the throne by conquest or purchase. 
" What we call purchase" says Blackstone, " the 
feudists called conquest" 

I give one passage from Shakspeare, in which 
the distinction here noted is observed. Antony 
and Cleopatra, Act I. Sc. 4. : 

"His faults, in him, seem as the spots of heaven 
More fiery, by night's blackness hereditary 
Rather than purchased." 

Many instances may be supplied from Shak- 
speare, showing the use of purchase, in the sense 
of prize or capture. Let one suffice, Richard HI., 
Act III. Sc. 7.: 

" A beauty-waning, and distressed widow 

Made prize and purchase of his wanton eye." 
^ That the word was used in reference to acqui- 
sitions made by fraud or force is manifest from 
passages in many early writers. In Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Coxcomb, Dorothy, meditating a 
theft, exclaims, "I'll be hang'd before I stir, with- 
out some purchase." In Ben Jonson's Fox, also, 
the swindling Volpone thus speaks of his gains de- 
ceitfully obtained : " I glory more in the cunning 
purchase of my wealth, than in the glad posses'- 



sion." And when he artfully secures Corvino's 
gifts, he speaks of the transaction as "A good 
morning's purchase, better than robbing churches." 
I give one more quotation, not only because it 
serves my general purpose, but also because it 
illustrates an obscure passage in Ford. Dr. 
Martin, in his description of the Isles of Scotland 
(as quoted by Toland in his History of the Druids}, 
tells of a couple of eagles, in a small island near 
Lewes, that never killed sheep or lamb in their 
own island, but made their purchases in distant 
places. This gives a very significant meaning to 
a passage in Ford's Fancies Chaste and Noble, 
Act I. Sc. 3., where Livio, speaking against mar- 
riage, says : 

" To draw 

In yokes is chargeable, and will require 
A double maintenance why I can live 
Without a wife and purchase." 

It is, moreover, deserving of remark, that the 
words conquest and purchase (as also conqueror and 
purchaser} have not only departed from their 
original significations, but having been once syno- 
nymous, and etymologically very nearly related, 
have greatly diverged in meaning from each other. 
Conquest comes through the old French, from the 
Latin conquisitio ; and purchase from perquisitio; 
the common root of both being qucero. J. P. 

Dominica. 



JEKYLLIANA. 

As there are no Jehylliana published, I think 
you may preserve the following funny lines of his 
in your mausoleum, now another minister has 
gone to Pekin. W. COLLYNS. 

" A free translation of a letter written by the Emperor of 
China, and presented with his Imperial Hands to Lord 
Macartney, Minister Plenipotentiary from the Court of 
Great Britain to Pekin, at his Lordship's audience of 
Leave, three days after his Reception at the Court of 
China : 

" When a King or a Queen 

Send a great Mandarin, 
And our footstool he humbly approaches, 

He must come with prostration, 

Or taste flagellation, 
And must give us some whiskeys and coaches. 

" These etiquettes settled, 

We're very much nettled 
If he does not present some Repeaters, 

Magic Lanterns, or Clocks, 

And in tiffany smocks, 
Ten ladies with exquisite features. 

" Mandarin, you bow'd low, 

As Ambassadors do, 
And you made us some very fine Speeches ; 

So great Mandarin, 

We've sent you Nankin, 
For its novelty, made into Breeches : 

" Now the great Chinka Ti 
Has looked in the Sky, 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd g. N o 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



And he thinks 'twill be very wet weather ; 
So my friends and good fellows, 
As you've brought no Umbrellas, 

You had" best get home dry altogether. 
" For, great Mandarin, 
Were you wet to the skin. 

As you look very sallow and sickly, 
Our Physician Chit Quong 
Thinks you would not live long, 

So advises a change of air quickly. 

" This hint we confess 

We had rather suppress, 
As strictly 'tis not diplomatic ; 

But then you'll remember 

Your Month of November, 
Which we call ' Hum Jung,' is rheumatic. 

" The request of your Traders, 
Those scurvy Invaders, 

Was impudent, and we refuse it; 
To the King of the Isles 
We dismiss you with smiles, 

And as for the Joke, we'll excuse it." 



J. J. 



Lawrence Sterne. The following characteristic 
letter from the author of Tri&iram Shandy may 
not be unwelcome to your readers : 

" Coxwould, Sept. 3. '67. 
" Dear Sir, 

" I shall take it as a favour if you will send a porter 
with the Inclosed to the Direction, when it comes to y r 
hand. 

" I don't see when I shall have any Occasion for money, 
so it may lay safe where it is, till I do. But I sh d be 
obliged to you, if you will settle the little Ace* betwixt 
us from the time the last was ballanced and I will draw 
for that Summ, to leave all straight betwixt us, to the 
300 p ds w h I hope I shall want riot much of till Winter. 
My SentimentalJourney goes on well and some Geniuss 
in the North declare it an Original work, and likely to 
take in all Kinds of Readers the proof of the pudding 
is in the eating. 

I am faithfully Y", 
"L. STERNE. 

" Do not forget to send the letter to day." 

The letter was addressed to Mr. Becket shortly 
before the publication of the Sentimental Journey, 
and little more than six months before the author's 
death. EDWARD Foss. 

Damage caused to Books of Plates by the Tissue 
Paper. Having noticed many years since, and 
again lately, the injury caused to magnificent 
books of plates by the ilimsy wire-marked tissue 
paper used, I beg, through " N. & Q.," to make 
the same known. The books I remember to have 
seen injured are The Musee Napoleon, Egypt, and 
other large works of the Empire ; also, I think, 
some English books of the period, for instance, the 
Stafford Gallery, the plates becoming spotted 
from some chemical action from the silver paper 
and slight damp, resembling iron-mould. Such 
paper ought to be removed. The best plate- 



paper to place between type and engravings 
ought to be highly " milled," and not too thin ; 
being able to stand in the volume without falling 
into the back, rumpling, or protruding at the fore- 
edge. If tissue paper be not of the best quality, 
a volume is better without it, after the ink is 
once dry. LUKE LIMNER, F.S.A. 

Manchester. 

A. Grandmother at twenty-nine years of age. 
A paragraph with the above heading appeared 
some short time since in a morning contemporary, 
which I beg to offer for insertion as a " memento " 
of the same in "N. & Q. : " 

"A woman was recently brought before the magis- 
trates at Wigan for assault, which affords a striking in- 
stance of recklessly early marriages. She was married 
before she was 14 years old, and was mother at 14 years 
and 7 months. Since then she has had 11 other children. 
The eldest girl (15 years old) is mother of 2 children, 
the eldest of whom is nearly 2 years old, having married 
earlier in life than her mother, who is therefore, at 29 
years of age, mother of 12 and grandmother of 2 chil- 
dren." 

HENRY W. S. TAYLOR. 

The first printed Book and printing Press in 
America. The title was the Bay Psalm Booh, 
and printed at Cambridge, Massachusetts, the 
same town in which the first printing press was 
set up and "worked" in 1629. W. W. 

Malta. 

Door Inscription, 8fc. On the gates of Ban- 
don : 

" Jew, Turk, or Atheist 
May enter here, but not a Papist." 

On Standard-hill House, near Ninfield, Sussex : 

" God's providence is my inheritance. 
Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vain 

that build it. 
Here we have [1659] no abidence." 

On the East Well, Hastings : 

" Waste not, want not." 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Bevision of the Book o/ Common Prayer. A 
correction should be made in ascribing the prayer, 
which concludes the Morning and Evening Service, 
to St. Basil, instead of Chrysostom. The latter 
adopted the liturgy of St. Basil as the basis of his 
own, and, with much other matter, appropriated 
also that "nobilissima oratio" (Bunsen's Hippoly- 
tas, vol. iv. p. 389.). Should any doubt now exist 
as to the author of this prayer, the arena of " N. 
& Q." would afford verge enough to settle the 
point. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Old Recipes. The following receipt for the 
"Morpheus" (a cutaneous eruption), copied from 
a manuscript in the handwriting of the time of 



2 nd S. N 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



Henry VIII., may be of interest to some of the 
readers of "N. & Q." 

" For the Morfeuse. Thake an once of fyne verde- 
gresse, an vnce of sulphur, and make them both in smale 
powder, and take ii fate shepes heddes and fla them and 
cleve them and cast away theyr brenys, and syth the 
hedes tender, and than lett them stand tyll they be coler, 
and then take the fatt and blend the for sayd powder and 
the fate togeder, but beware it come nere no fyre after ye 
myxt it, but eui' ceip it coler, and a noynt the seke ther 
w* a gaj'nst the fyre at eve'yng, and in the mornyng 
washe it away w* new vynagar." 

" Take wate of borage and water of fumatorie and med- 
dell the' togeder, and let the seke drynke evy' and morne 
tyll the be wole." 

Written in the fly-leaf of a copy of the Dyaloge 
of Sir Thos. More, printed by Rastell in 1529, in 
the library of the Dean and Chapter of Rochester. 

ROYALIST. 



Ferry Limits. I should feel much obliged if 
any of your legal or antiquarian readers could 
throw any light on the question of ferry limits, 
particularly as to those on the river Thames above 
the metropolis. How far the monopoly or pri- 
vileges extend on each side right and left of the 
ferry line ? LEX. 

Francis Lafhom. Can any of your readers 
give me any account of Francis Lathom, who was 
well known as the author of a number of novels 
and romances, published in the beginning of the 
present century ? I have not been able to dis- 
cover the date of his death, but he published a 
romance in 4 vols. in 1830. Probably this was his 
last work. He resided, I think, in Norwich. 

X. 

Hamlet Quartos. I should be much obliged to 
any of your Shakspearian correspondents who 
would kindly give me information on the follow- 
ing points : 

1. Where can I see a copy of the 4to. edition of 
Hamlet, 1604 ? How many copies of it are known 
to exist ? What is their condition ? 

2. Halliwell catalogues a 4to. of Hamlet, printed 
"for John Simthwicke (not Smethwicke), 1609." 
Was there an edition published in that year ? Mr. 
Collier does not mention it, either in his edition, 
or in the " Shakspeare Society's Papers." 

3. 1 have a 4to. of Hamlet, " London, printed 
by Andr. Clark, for J. Martyn and H. Herring- 
man, 1676." This edition is not mentioned in the 
Catalogues. Is it scarce ? 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
Birmingham. 

" Teed? " Tidd." What is the origin of this 
surname ? MARK ANTONY LOWER. 

Lewes. 



Dr. John Donne. Has the will of Dr. Donne, 
Dean of St. Paul's, been printed in extenso in any 
work ? W. L. 

Letter by George Lord Carew : a Watery Planet. 
In examining some MSS. in the State Paper 
Office, a few days ago, I found the following cu- 
rious passage in a letter addressed by George 
Lord Carew, afterwards Earl of Totnes, to Sir 
Thomas Roe, at that time (1615) ambassador at 
the court of the Great Mogul : 

" I will now tell you. a wonder, the strangnesse of itt 
will hardlye induce you to believe itt, but yett (as I do) 
bestow an historical faythe vppon itt. I had itt of the 
L. Threasurer, and, as neare as I can, I will faythfully 
report itt. There was here, in London, a marchant called 
M r Havers, who was a great assurer of goodes (a Coition 
trade in the Cittie), and thereby he was growne vnto a 
good Estate and esteemed to be worth 30 or 40,000 1 . 
About Michellmas last, sittinge in his Comptinge house, 
he was stroken w th a waterye plannet, and findinge him- 
sellfe to be presently e mortal lye sicke, in his cash, or day 
booke (writinge downe the day of the monethe) this day 
(sayed he), I was stroken w th a waterye planet. Lord 
have mercye vppon me. W ch done, goinge towardes his 
chamber (his face and brest beinge all wett), beinge de- 
manded how he did, I am (sayed he) stroken w th a 
waterye plannet. Lord have mercye vppon me, and, 
lyinge nott past three dayes sicke, he died. This, in my 
opinion, is one of the strangest thinges thatt I ever heard 
of, he beinge the first man that 1 ever heard of to dye by 
a waterye planet ; and what this moyst plannet meaneth 
I am meerelye ignorant." 

Can your readers afford any information re- 
specting this disease ? The term has never fallen 
under my notice before. I imagine that it could 
not be the " sweating sickness," as that was a 
disease then, and long before, well known. 

JOHN MACLEAN. 

Hammersmith. 

An Optical Query. Whether Friar Bacon or 
Baptista Porta invented the telescope I do not 
stop to inquire. As a marine instrument it was 
not in use generally before about the middle of 
the reign of James I. I conclude with some 
Queries, after mention of the plundered merchant 
who informed Sir Edward Howard that Sir An- 
drew Barton the pirate was the offender. Hunt 
was desired to show where the pirate was, and the 
skilful and brave man volunteered " to set a 
glass," in which the pirate's ship would be re- 
flected, be it day or night. This duty was cheer- 
fully assigned to him : 

" The merchant set my lord a glass, 

So well apparent in his sight ; 
And on the morrow by nine o'clock, 
He showed him Sir Andrew Barton, Knight." 

Percy Ballads. 

This reflector is praised for its effectiveness, 
and the setter for his skill in setting this glass. 
Was this really useful, or only fancied to be so ? 
Is there mention of " setting a glass " to be found 
elsewhere? Does any nation use anything si- 



128 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2 nd S, N 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



milar now-a-days ? Has any one, whose attention 
has been called to this subject, believed that the 
" set glass " was at all useful ? The ballad makes 
Sir Edward Howard to be pleased with the result, 
i. e. the seeing the pirate's ship in the glass : 



"Now, l>v my faith, Lord Howard says 
This is a gallant sight to see." 



G. R. L. 



"Flash:" "Argot" In. Dr. Aiken's De- 
scription of the Country round Manchester, I lately 
met with the following passages, which I think 
would be appropriate to your columns, as illus- 
trating the otherwise obscure etymology of a 
popular word : 

" In the wild country between Broxton Leek and Mac- 
clesfield, called ' The Flash,' from a chapel of that name, 
lived a set of pedestrian Chapmen, who hawked about 
buttons, together with ribbons and ferreting, made at 
Leek, and handkerchiefs with small wares from Man- 
chester; these pedlars were known on the roads they 
travelled by the appellation of Flashmen, and frequented 
farm-houses and fairs, using a sort of slang or cant 
dialect," &c. 

The account, which is lengthy, goes on to de- 
scribe their dishonest practices, showing that they 
were, to use an appropriate vulgar phrase, " as 
fash as the knocker of Newgate," originating the 
thimble-rig, or, if not originating it, largely prac- 
tising it. A Query arises out of this, how came 
the district to obtain the singular name of " The 
Flash ? " What does flash primarily and uncon- 
ventionally signify as the name of a place ? 

Argot in French answers to our modern ac- 
ceptation of Flash in English, as applied to a cant 
dialect. What is the etymology of Argot f The 
Dictionary of the French Academy has, lc Argot, 
s. m. certain langage des gueux et des filoux, qui 
n'est intelligible qu'entre eux." And "Argot, 
terme de jardinage. II se dit Du bois qui est au- 
dessus de I'oeil." There can be little doubt that 
the cant term has some figurative relation to the 
latter legitimate term (the etymology of which, 
however, is not, to me, attainable, although I 
think I can see a Celtic root in it) : 

" Alfana vient d'equus sans doute ; 
Mais il faut avouer aussi, 
Qu'en venant de la jusq'ici 
II a fait bien de route." 

Will some of the many readers of "N. & Q." 
versed in etymology cast a flash of light on Flash 
and Argot? JAMES KNOWLES. 

The Surname Deadman. It was long before I 
could assign any origin to this family name. A 
friend suggests that it may be a provincial word 
for sexton. Can any reader of " N. & Q." con- 
firm this supposition ? MARK ANTONY LOWER. 

Lewes. 

Styrirtgs Family. Some account of the gene- 
.alogy, arms (if any), or other general information 



relative to the family of " Styrings," will be gladly 
received. The name is supposed to have ori- 
ginated at Rotherham or Sheffield, in Yorkshire. 

J. S. 

Blue Coat Boys at Aldermen's Funerals. In 
D'Urfey's Comical History of Don Quixote, 
Part I. Act II. Sc. 1., the following passage 
occurs (I quote from the original quarto edition, 
of 1694). The scene is laid at the inn, which the 
heated imagination of the Don has converted into 
a castle : 

" Sancho. Odsbodikins! if ever 'you'll see a fine sight 
as long as you live, come away quickly to the Inn door. 

"Don Q. What sight is this thou hast seen at the 
Castle Gate? 

" Sancho. Why at the Castle Gate then, since you will 
have it so, there's a dead man walked by in more state 
and with greater noise after him than a London Alder- 
man, whose soul is gone to Hell for usury, than he has, I 
say, when his son and heir hires a whole troop of Blue 
Coat Boys to sing Psalms, and try if they can sing it out 
again." 

Was it ever a custom for the Blue Coat Boys 
to attend the funerals of aldermen in the capacity 
of choristers, or is the allusion to any, and if so 
what, particular funeral ? The mention of usury 
might lead one to suppose the latter, but on the 
other hand it must be remembered that the alder- 
men are ex-officio Governors of Christ's Hospital. 
Any information on the subject will be acceptable. 

W. H. HUSK. 

" Time is precious" fyc. Who is the author of 
the piece commencing 

" Time is precious, time is greater 

Than the wealth of kings can give?" 

GEORGE MASSIE. 

Claudius Gilbert, D.D. Some information re- 
specting Dr. Gilbert, who was Vice-Provost of 
Trinity College, Dublin, 1716-35, and a very 
liberal benefactor to its noble library, is desired. 
He died in October, 1743, having been appointed 
to the parish of Ardstraw in 1735 ; and his exe- 
cutors were the Rev. Dr. Hodson, of Omagh ; 
Richard Warburton, Esq., of Donnecarney, near 
Dublin ; and Dr. Thomas Kingsbury, of Anglesea 
Street, in that city. ABHBA. 

Jeremiah JoVs Definition of a Bishop. In A 
Letter to the Rev. Dr. Tatham on Academical 
Studies, London, 1 795, is the following : 

" Many who laugh at Jeremiah Job's definition of A 
BISHOP are unable to appreciate a higher." 

Who was Jeremiah Job, and what was his de- 
finition ? S. H. J. 
Ashow. 

Arms of Cortes. Can you, or any of your 
readers, oblige me with the proper blazoning of 
the armorial bearings of Hernando Cortes, the 



85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



129 



conqueror of Mexico ? They were granted to him 
by letters patent of the Emperor Charles V., dated 
March 7, 1525. RESUPINUS. 

"Sword of Peace" Who is the author of The 
Siaord of Peace, a Comedy, 8vo. 1789 ? It was 
acted at the Haymarket, and is said to have been 
written by a lady. X. 

Was Examination by Torture ever lawful ? 
This question is usually answered in the negative. 
The following passage, however, tells in the af- 
firmative. In A Discourse of Witchcraft, by W. 
Perkins, ch. vii. 2., two kinds of examination 
are named, viz., either by "simple question" or 
by " torture " : 

" Torture, when besides the enquiry by words, the Ma- 
gistrate useth the Rack, or some other violent meanes to 
urge Confession, may be lawfully used, howbeit not in. 
every case, but onely upon strong and great presump- 
tions, and when the party is obstinate." 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 
Birmingham. 

The " winged Burgonet" at the Tower of London. 
In a report of the recent meeting of the Mid- 
dlesex Archaeological Society at the Tower of 
London, published in The Builder of August 1, 
is the following passage : 

"If it be true, as we have heard it whispered, that the 
celebrated ' winged burgonet,' of theatrical memory, was 
sent down by the Tower authorities for exhibition at 
Manchester with other things, and that it was quietly 
put into a box there and nailed down by Mr. Planche, to 
prevent scandal, the want of some directing mind with 
knowledge of the subject must be sufficiently evident." 

Without meddling with this censure on "the 
Tower authorities," who will probably speak in 
their own defence, may I ask, what is the origin 
and history of this " winged burgonet ?" On the 
stage of what theatre has it appeared ? and where 
has its fame been celebrated ? N. 

Thornton Family. John Thornton, of Clapham, 
to whose memory Cowper has a poem, was, I be- 
lieve, great-great-grandson of Robert Thornton, 
rector of Birkin, Yorkshire, who was deprived in 
the civil wars (u. Walker's Sufferings, 1714, part 
ii. fol. 335.) The arms used by the Clapham 
family were the same as those of Thornton of East 
Newton, Yorkshire, [viz. arg., a chevron, sa. be- 
tween 3 thorn-trees eradicated, ppr.], and to which 
latter family belonged Robert Thornton, the com- 
piler of the Thornton MS. at Lincoln, from which 
Mr. Halliwell edited The Thornton Romances for 
the Camden Society, 1844. Who were the im- 
mediate ancestors of the above rector of Birkin, 
and can his connexion with the East-Newton 
family be traced ? 

Walker \uli sup. part n. fol. 127.] says that 
Thornton was deprived of a postmastership at 
Merton ; and was, with nine other postmasters, 



" voted to be expelled, because they were chosen 
contrary to the orders of the Parliament." Qu. 
Was this one of the same family ? Possibly he 
might have been Robert, son of the above ejected 
rector ; and who, after his father's re-instateuient 
at Birkin, and death in 1665, succeeded him iu 
that rectory, and was there buried, Feb. 2, 1697. 

ACHE. 

Value of Money. I am anxious to ascertain 
what values in the present day respectively the 
penny, the shitting, and the mark, between the dates 
1370 and 1415, A.D. represent. Also upon what 
data calculations of this kind are founded, and if 
the bushel of wheat be the criterion, what would 
be the relative values of that measure at the period 
above mentioned and in the present year ? ZETA. 

Armand, a Tragedy. Who is the author of 
the above-named play, in the fourth act and second 
scene of which the following lines occur ? 

" Marry ! call's t thou that marriage, which but joins 
Two hands with iron bands? which yokes, but not 
Unites, two hearts whose pulses never beat 
In unison ? The legal crime that mocks, 
Profanes, destroj's, its inner holiness ? 
No? 'tis the spirit that alone can wed, 
When with spontaneous joy it seeks and finds, 
And with its kindred spirit blends itself ! 
My liege, there is no other marriage tie ! " 

E. S. 

Quotation. 

" Life is a comedy to those who think, a tragedy to 
those who feel." 



Whence ? 



MERCATOR, A.B. 



Colours for Glass. What kinds of colours are 
the best for painting on glass, in the manner, of 
magic lantern slides ? What is the best substance 
for mixing them up ? Is any kind of drying sub- 
stance used, and what is the best for the purpose ? 
Information on these subjects will greatly oblige 
the writer. C. L. H. 



The Grave of Lord Howe. A Massachusetts 
monument in Westminster Abbey : 

" We believe it is a tradition rather than a matter of 
record (says the Albany Argus) that the remains of a, 
British nobleman, which were buried under the chancel 
of the old English Church when it stood in the middle of 
State Street, were taken up and re- interred under the 
present church when it was built in 1804. The tradition, 
moreover, asserts that his name was Lord Howe, and 
that he was killed at the time of Burgoyne's surrender at 
Saratoga. There is no monument, mural tablet, grave- 
stone, or even a pavement inscription, to mark the spot 
or to attest the fact. We are indebted to an antiquarian 
friend for the following more authentic version of the 
story, by which it appears that Lord Howe fell, not at 
Saratoga, but at Ticonderoga, and not during the Revo- 
lution, but in the French war : 

" < George, Lord Viscount Howe, eldest son of Sir E. 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



Scrope, second Lord Viscount Howe, in the peerage of 
Ireland, was born in 1725, and succeeded to the title on 
the death of his father in 1735. In the forepart of 1757 
he was ordered to America, being then colonel command- 
ing the Sixtieth or Royal Americans, and arrived at Hali- 
fax in July following." On the 28th of September, 1757, 
he was appointed colonel of the Fifty- fifth Foot, and on 
the 29th of December brigadier general in America. In 
the next year, when Abercrombie was chosen to proceed 
against Ticonderoga, Pitt selected Lord Howe to be the 
soul of the enterprise. On the 8th of July he landed with 
the army at Howe's Point, at the outlet" of Lake George, 
and commenced his march along the west road for Ti- 
conderoga, in command of the right centre. They had 
proceeded about two miles, and an advanced party of 
rangers under Lord Howe was near Frontbrook, when 
they suddenly came upon a party of Frenchmen who 
had lost their way. A skirmish ensued, in which his 
lordship "foremost fighting fell," and expired immedi- 
ately. In him, says Mante, " the soul of the army seemed 
to expire." By his military talents and many virtues he 
had acquired esteem and affection. Howe's corpse was 
escorted to Albany for interment by Philip Schuyler, a 
young hero of native growth, afterwards general in the 
devolution, and was buried in St. Peter's Church. Mas- 
sachusetts erected a monument to his memory in West- 
minster Abbey, at the expense of 250Z. Lord Howe was 
a member of Parliament for Nottingham at the time of 
his decease.' " 

It would interest the citizens of Massachusetts 
to be informed if the monument erected by their 
State is still remaining in Westminster Abbey, 
what inscription it bears, and its present state of 
preservation. W. W. 

Malta. 

[The monument of Brigadier-General Viscount Howe, 
which is raised against the window in the nave, was de- 
signed bv J. Stuart, and sculptured by P. Scheemakers. 
It is principally of white marble, and consists of an im- 
mense tablet (.supported by lions' heads on a plinth), 
having a regular cornice surmounted by a female figure, 
representing the Genius of Massachusetts Bay sitting 
mourn fullv at the foot of an obelisk, behind which is a 
troplry of military ensigns ; and in front the arms and 
crest of the deceased. Arms, sculp. : A fess between three 
wolves' heads, couped ; Howe. Crest :& lion's gamb, 
erased. The inscription is as follows : 

"The Province of Massachusetts Bay, in New England, 
by an order of the Great and General Court, bearing date 
Feb. 1, 1759, caused this monument to be erected to the 
memory of GEORGE AUGUSTUS, LORD VISCOUNT HOWE, 
Brigadier-General of His Majesty's forces in America, 
who was slain July 6, 1758, on the march to Ticonderoga, 
in the thirty-fourth year of his age : in testimony of the 
sense they had of his services and military virtues, and of 
the affection their officers and soldiers bore to his com- 
mand. He lived respected and beloved : the publick re- 
gretted his loss : to his family it is irreparable." Neale's 
Westminster Abbey, ii. 237.] 

Oliver Carter of Richmondshire, B.A., 1559, 
was admitted a fellow of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge, March 18, 1562-3; commenced M.A., 
1563, was admitted a senior fellow, April 28, 1564, 
and a college preacher April 25, 1565. Pie pro- 
ceeded B D., 15G9, and was author of An Answer 
made, unto ce?*tain Popish Questions and Demaundes, 
London, 8vo., 1579. This work, not mentioned 



in Herbert's Ames, was printed by Thomas Daw- 
son for George Bishop, and is dedicated to Henry 
Earl of Derby. Any further particulars as to 
Oliver Carter will be acceptable to 

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

[Hibbert, in his History of Foundations in Manchester, 
i. 89., gives the following quotation respecting Oliver 
Carter from Hollingworth's MS. Mancuniensis : " Olivet- 
Carter the third fellow on Queen Elizabeth's new founda- 
tion of Manchester College (who had been a fellow on 
Queen Mary's foundation ) Avas a learned man, who wrote 
a booke in answer to Bristow's motives. He preached 
solidly and succinctly." Mr. Hollingworth adds, " This 
Mr. Carter's sons did walk in the godly ways of their fa- 
ther. One of them was preferred to a bishoprick in Ireland, 
and a more frequent preacher and baptizer than other bi- 
shops of his time." Hollingworth also states that " Oliver 
Carter, one of the fellows nominated on the foundation of 
Elizabeth, being indisposed in the pulpit while preaching 
on the goodness of God in providing a succession of godly 
ministers, Mr. W. Bourne went up immediately into the 
pulpit, and (God assisting him) preached on the same 
text ; a visible and present proof (he adds) of Mr. Carter's 
doctrine." (Hibbert's Manchester, i. 120., see also pp. 
107, 108.) Carter is also noticed in Strype's Annals, 
edit. 1824, vol. ii. pt. ii. 546. 548. 710., as a preacher at 
Manchester, a moderator in certain exercises called pro- 
phesyings: he and William Fulke answered Rishton's 
Challenge. The Manchester Collegiate Register of Burials 
states, that " Mr. Oliver Carter, one off the ffellowes of y 
Colledg of Manch* was buried March 20, 1604-5."] 

John Charles Brooke, F.S.A., Somerset Herald. 
Particulars are requested concerning him, or 
references to available sources of information. 
His mother was Alice, eldest daughter and co- 
heir of William Mawhood of Doncaster, Esq. In 
Comber's Life of Dean Comber, App. p. 424., she 
is stated to have been " of an ancient family (and 
doubly related on her mother's side to the cele- 
brated Alexander Pope)." Qu. In what ways ? 

ACHE. 

[Biographical notices of John Charles Brooke will be 
found in Noble's College of Arms, pp. 426 434. ; and in 
Gentleman's Mag., Ixiv. 187. 275. ; Ixvii. 5. See also Ni- 
chols's Literary Anecdotes, i. 681. 684. ; iii. 263. ; vi. 142. 
254. 303. William Cole has recorded the following gos- 
siping note respecting him (Addit. MS. 5864. f. 313. Brit. 
Mus.): "Dr. Lort coming from Lambeth last night, 
and dining with me this Sunday, July 30, 1780, told me, 
that Mr. Brooke, who had called upon me some four or 
five years ago, with Mr. Gough, had been detected in cut- 
ting out some leaves, &c. in a manuscript in the British 
Museum, the consequence of which was, that he was dis- 
charged from -ever coming there again, and made his 
company avoided by other people. It had been agreed 
at a meeting of the Antiquaries' Society, that some of the 
members should be deputed to visit St. Faith's Church 
under St. Paul's Cathedral, to see what discoveries could 
be there made. Dr. Lort was one of them, to whom Mr. 
Gough wrote, desiring to know whether he might bring 
Mr. Brooke with him, to whom an answer was sent in 
the negative. He is now at Brussels, whither he lately 
went with a Roman Catholic gentleman, to enter his 
daughter at the Dames Angloises Augustines, from 
whence he wrote very lately to Mr. Gough, desiring him 
to direct to Monsieur le Chevalier Brooke & Brusselles. 



2 nd S. NO 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



If Mr. Gough complies with his request, I think he will be 
an accomplice, and answerable in some degree for any im- 
posture or knavery he may be guilty of under that title. 
He is a Yorkshire or Northern man, as I think he told 
me, thin and well-shaped, pert, and a coxcomb, and has 
a thing or two in the Archceologia." It will be remem- 
bered that Mr. Brooke was suffocated on Feb. 3, 1794, 
with fourteen other persons, in attempting to get into the 
pit of the Haymarket Theatre.] 

Sutlers "Hudibras" 1732. I have in my 
possession a 12mo. edition of Hudibras. The title 
runs thus : 

" Hudibras, in three parts. Written in the time of the 
late wars. Corrected and amended with Additions. To 
which are added, Annotations, with an exact Index to 
the whole. Adorn'd with a new set of Cuts. Designed 
and engraved by Mr. Hogarth. London : Printed for 
B. Moote, at the Middle temple Gate in Fleet Street, 
1732. 

There is a portrait of Butler as a frontispiece, 
and nine other plates, illustrating the poem, some 
of them double page width. The plates have at 
the bottom, W. Hogarth, Invt. et Sculpt. The 
book throughout is in excellent condition. There 
are copious notes written in the margin in a very 
neat handwriting explaining the meaning of some 
intricate passages, and in some instances a short 
description of the character, &c. of the person 
referred to. Can any of your readers oblige me 
with answers to the following. 1. Are those 
plates bond fide those engraved by William Ho- 
garth, engraver of the Kake's Progress, c. ? 
They are much in his style. 2. Is the book 
scarce ? and its probable value ? I have every 
reason to think that it is an unique copy. DEVA. 

[We have examined an edition of Hudibras, 12mo., 
1732, in the British Museum, and find that some of the 
plates have the name of Hogarth, in others it is omitted. 
Those with the name are the same as in the edition of 
1726, but the impressions are much inferior, as if the 
plates had already done good service ; those without his 
name seem to have been re-engraved. Owing to a dif- 
ference of the pagination in Part 11. of the two editions, 
Hogarth's plates are misplaced in that portion of the 
edition of 1732. We suspect this edition is somewhat 
rare ; Lowndes mentions an edition of 1732, in 8vo., 
without plates.] 

Jane Wenham, the famous Witch of Hertford. 
Any information respecting the above personage, 
her parentage, birth, doings, and death, would be 
very acceptable. I believe Dr. Jonathan Swift 
published her life. Is this work to be had, and 
where, price, &c. ? C. B. 

Hertford. 

[Jane Wenham, a poor woman residing in the village 
of Walkern, was accused of having practised sorcery and 
witchcraft upon the body of Ann Thorn, and committed 
to Hertford Goal. She was tried at the assizes, March 4, 
1711-12, before Mr. Justice Powell, and being found 
guilty received sentence of death. The Queen, however, 
granted her a pardon. She subsequently resided in the 
village of Hertingfordbury, supported by the charity of 
Col. Plumer, and after his death, by that of the Earl 
and Countess Cowper. She died June 11, 1730, and was 



buried at Hertingfordbury on the Sunday following, when 
her funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. Mr. Squire, 
then Curate. (Clutterbuck's Hertfordshire, ii. 461.) Her 
case occasioned the publication of the following pamphlets : 
An Account of the Tryal, Examination, and Condemna- 
tion of Jane Wenham, 1 sheet fol., 1712. A Full and Im- 
partial Account of the Discovery of Sorcery and Witchcraft, 
practised by Jane Wenham, also her Tryal. Curll, 8vo. 
1712. Witchcraft Farther Displayed. Curll, 8vo. 1712. 
A Full Confutation of Witchcraft, more particularly of the 
Depositions against Jane Wenham, 8vo. 1712. The Case 
of the Hertfordshire Witchcraft Considered, 8vo. 1712. 
The Impossibility of Witchcraft, in which the Depositions 
against Jane Wenham are Confuted and Exposed, 8vo. 
1712. All these pieces are in the British Museum.] 

" A feather in his cap" I find the following 
in my note book : 

" In the British Museum are two MSS. descriptive of 
Hungary in 1598, in which the writer says of the in- 
habitants, ' It hath been an antient custom among them, 
that none should weare a fether but he who had killed a 
Turk, to whome onlie y* was lawful to shew the number 
of his slaine enemys by the number of fethers in his 
cappe.' " 

I do not now remember whence the above was 
copied. Can any of your readers supply me with 
the reference to the MSS. referred to ? 

T. LAMPRAY. 

[The passage will be found in Lansdowne MS. 775, 
fol. 149, in " A Description of Hungary written to a 
nobleman of this land, anno 1599." At the end of the 
article it states that it was " Written bv Richard Han- 
sard."] 



ROBERT CHURCHMAN. 

(2 nd S. iv. 89.) 

" A story of the marvellous condition of one Robert 
Churchman of Balsham, some six or seven miles from 
Cambridge, when he was inveigled in Quakerism ; how 
strangely he was possessed lay a spirit that spoke within 
him, and used his organs in despight of him when he was 
in his fits. And how lie was regained from his error by 
the devotions and diligence of Dr. J. Templar, still min- 
ister of that place, as it is set down in a letter to a friend, 
which is as follows." 

The above is the heading of Relation VI., in 
Dr. Henry More's Continuation of Relations, 
printed at the end of Glanvil's Saducismus Tri- 
umphatus. The letter, dated Jan. 1, 1682, is by 
Dr. Templar, whose trustworthiness is certified 
by Dr. More. 

Churchman and his wife were persons of good 
life and plentiful estate. They had leanings to- 
wards Quakerism, and Dr. Templar feared that 
their example might cause others to leave the 
church : so he tended them with great care. They 
were intimate with a Quaker family, but Robert 
Churchman had become reserved, because he 
found that the Quakers " did not acknowledge 
scripture for their rule." 

"Not long after this the wife of the forementioned 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



NO 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



Quaker coming to his house to visit his wife, he met her 
at the door, and told her she should not come in, inti- 
mating that her visit would make division betwixt them. 
After some parley the Quaker's wife spoke to him in these 
words, 'Thou wilt not believe unless thou see a sign, and 
thou mayest see some such.' Within a few nights after, 
Robert Churchman had a violent storm upon the room 
where he lay, when it was very calm in all other parts of 
the town, and a voice within him, as he was in bed, spoke 
lo him and bid him ' Sing praises, sing praises,' telling him 
he should see the glory of the New Jerusalem, about 
which time a glimmering light appeared ; 11 about the 
room. Toward the morning the voice commanded him 
to go out of his bed naked with his wife and children. 
They all standing upon the floor, and the spirit making 
use of his tongue, bid them to put their mouths in the 
dust, which they did accordingly. It likewise com- 
manded him to go and call his brother and sister, that 
they might see the New Jerusalem, to whom he went 
naked about half a mile." 

Churchman did many strange things under the 
impulsion of this spirit, but they did not agree, 
and parted on bad terms. He then had a good 
spirit within him, which spoke very orthodoxly. 
After that the evil one returned and tried to pass 
himself off for the good one : 

" One night that week, among many arguments which 
it used to that purpose, it told him if he would not be- 
lieve without a sign he might have what sign he Avould. 
Upon that Robert Churchman desired, if it was a good 
spirit, that a wire-candlestick which stood upon the cup- 
board might be turned into brass. Which the spirit said 
he would do. Presently there was a very unsavoury smell 
in the room, like that of a candle newly put out ; but nothing 
else was done towards the fulfilling of the promise." 
Glanvil's Saducismus Triumphatus, Lond. 1726. 

I presume the latter is the "sign sweet and 
convincing." As Mr. Templar says, "Nothing 
else was done towards fulfilling the promise," are 
we to believe that he thought making an unsavoury 
smell a step, though a small one, in the right 
direction ? HOPKINS, JUN. 

Garrick Club. 



" SAVING ONE'S BACON." 
(l jt S. ii. 424. 499. ; 2 ud S. iv. G7.) 

Without cavilling at the explanations of this 
idiom already offered by your correspondents, it 
may be permitted to state a different view, formed 
iu ignorance of their's. 

With regard to the import of the phrase there 
can be no difficulty. It applies to a narrow escape, 
whether from loss or damage. We say that a man 
has "just saved his bacon," meaning that he has 
barely escaped ; he has got off, and that is all. 

We may remark then, in the first place, that 
the term bacon appears here to mean the fortunate 
individual himself, the party who has thus nar- 
rowly escaped. So in the kindred phrase, " Oh ! 
spare my bacon," the supplicant asks to be spared 
in his own person. The term bacon is thus applied 
to humans by Falstaff, where he says to the luck- 



less " travellers" at Gadshill (1 Hen. IV., Act II. 
Sc. 2.), " on, bacons, on," (a phrase, by the bye, 
which merits more attention than the commenta- 
tors have bestowed upon it). 

The next remark to be made is, that the phrase, 
"saving one's bacon," may be viewed as carrying 
us back to (hose times when imputed heresy was 
expiated at the stake ; and that the man was said 
to have "just saved his bacon," (i. e. from frying, 
as we shall see presently,) who had himself nar- 
rowly escaped the penalty of being burnt alive. 

One of your correspondents very naturally asks 
why, in the case of a narrow escape, bacon should 
be specified as the article "saved" (1 st S. ii. 424.). 
Let us endeavour at once to answer this question, 
and to connect the phrase with its original 
meaning. 

When a pig is killed, it is the custom, in some 
of the southern countries of Europe, as well as in 
many parts of England, to remove the bristles 
from the dead pig's hide, not by scalding, but by 
singeing. This is an operation of^some nicety; 
for too much singeing would spoil the bacon. But 
practice makes perfect ; and by the aid of ignited 
stubble, straw, or paper, the object is effected. 
The bristles are all singed off, and the bacon re- 
mains intact. 

This operation of singeing is in Portugal called 
" chamuscar,!' from chama or chamma, a flame or 
blaze. " Chamuscar, to singe, as pigs, to take off 
the hair" (Moraes). 

Hence the noun " chamusco," which is the smell 
of any thing that has been singed. Hence also 
the phrase, "cheira a chamusco" (he smells of 
singeing). 

This last phrase, however, " cheira a chamusco," 
was specially applied to any suspected heretic : 
" o que merece ser queimado, e faz per onde o seja, 
o que diziao por afronta aos Judeos encobertos." 
That is, " he who deserved to be burnt, and acted 
in a way that was very likely to lead to it," was 
said to smell of singeing (" cheirar a chamusco "), 
i. e. to smell of the fire. Consequently, "the 
phrase was contumeliously addressed to any one 
who was secretly a Jew" (Moraes). 

Thus the persecuted Israelite, who steadfastly 
adhered to his forefathers' creed, and lived in 
daily peril of the stake, was allusively but threat- 
eningly and insultingly compared to the abhorred 
carcass which, though not yet roasted, boiled, or 
fried, had already the smell of fire. If, after all, 
he was actually burnt alive, the same allusion was 
carried out to the end ; for he was then said 
"morrer frito," to be fried to death, (literally, 
" to die fried.") But even if not burnt, he still 
had the "chamusco," or smell of fire ; that is, he 
had only "just saved his bacon." 

THOMAS BOYS. 



* S. N' 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



J. BIOGRAPHICAL DICTION ABIES. II. THE BRO- 
TH KKS HUGH JAMES AND HENRY JOHN HOSE. 

(2 nd S. i. 517.) 

MR. A. HUSSEY kindly undertakes to enlighten 
me as to the full names, honours, and titles of the 
above brothers, whom, he says, I " have confounded," 
and nobody has yet appeared to set me right. This 
is his oversight. In the very next issue after my 
original article, the EDITOR (fancying the same 
mistake to have been made) says, in his "Notices," 
&c., that " his attention has been called to it," and 
wonders it could have escaped him at the time of 
the article. But despite this repeated concern for 
HARVARDTENSIS'S blunder, his friends on the other 
side the water will learn, perhaps with surprise, 
that he has not in anywise thus confounded per- 
sons. Still their inference to the contrary is ex- 
cusable enough, and can be easily solved. HAR- 
VARDIENSIS did indeed write, and even print (1 st 
S. xi. 431., first col.), "the Dictionary ostensibly 
in the name of Henry J. Rose," &c. ; surely, 
however, in some strange absence of mind, to 
which "Henry" being the prevailing Christian 
name under that initial, and the other somewhat 
unusual, might contribute. His supposed error is 
based wholly upon this. But had he have written 
out the second name, it would not have been 
"John :" and good reason why, as will forthwith 
appear. Since that "ostensible" name in ques- 
tion was that of Hugh James R., and his only, 
how could anything but a lapsus pennce have sub- 
stituted another ? And further, since the name 
of Henry John R. is hunted for utterly in vain, 
from the first page to the last of this twelve- 
volumed series : stronger than all, since the name 
of this surviving brother was utterly unknown to 
the writer at the date of his article, and was first 
pointed out to him in the Boston Athenaeum, 
months after, in the title-page of some learned 
Cyclopadia, which had (it would seem) the united 
aid of both brothers, must it not be a singularly 
ingenious process which could make it out that 
he had "confounded" them? Were it not for 
the drawbacks, obvious enough (for they are 
other than those of distance merely), which damp 
the ardour of a transatlantic correspondent, he 
should not have waited for this second correction 
of his imaginary mistake. 

What concern ARTHUR HUSSEY may have had 
with the Biographical Collection of the Roses, 
HARVARDIENSIS, of course, knows not ; but it seems 
to be taken rather in dudgeon, that he does not 
conceive of that work, as making a much nearer 
approach for us than before, to that exceeding, 
and not at all Utopian, desideratum, a truly tho- 
rough, scholarly, and comprehensive Dictionary of 
Biography. He certainly counts it no " impossi- 
bility," nor admits the hope of seeing it realised 
to be something like that of " bridging over the 



Atlantic." How idle to say that no such work 
can be made perfect ! It is not a whit more true 
than of every other work, covering a broad field 
of inquiry, or a vast multiplicity of details. We 
are content, if it approximate that perfection, and 
if competent judges, rising from a severe critical 
scrutiny of its contents, can complacently say, 
" that it leaves little more to be desired ;" not an 
every- day eulogium, it is most sure, yet a decree 
which, every now and then, an aspirant mounts 
up most worthily to claim. What forbids this 
being uttered over a Gazetteer, a Dictionary (of 
words), or Cyclopsedias of various name ? But 
where is the "Universal Biography" that may 
venture to come and put in pretensions to praise 
like this? We confidently answer nowhere. 
There has been nothing assuming that name, for 
the last seventy years, that has not been a 
mockery and affront to an educated public. If 
ARTHUR HUSSEY is curious to know the judg- 
ment held by some of us of the latest candidate 
for so easy a prize to wit, that issued from Glas- 
gow in 1853 or 1854, under the auspices of some 
twenty Scottish luminaries we commend to his 
notice a recent number of our North American 
Review (Oct. 1856). Still to demand something 
better than it has yet been our good fortune to 
see, can hardly entail upon us the charge of cap- 
tious or caviller, or it is one, at least, that can be 
very comfortably borne. 

There is a random and most vague sort of talk, 
very common to hear, of the endless varieties of 
opinion, as to who have or have not a right to be 
found in such a collection ; as if all guide to any 
just decision in the casje were wanting; and as if, 
should the notes of all be taken, not much less than 
that same all would see themselves there on some 
authority good, bad, or indifferent. This might 
indeed be something like " bridging the Atlantic." 
But happily all the world are not the court to 
decide the question, nor would any public desire 
that they should be. There is a basis upon which 
eminence, or notoriety even (since both must come 
into account), may obtain something like a fixed 
standard, though, from the language of the class 
of persons just referred to, it would never be 
suspected. But to form any such basis implies 
that the subject has been well considered and 
turned over, so as to present all its bearings ; and 
the reviewer of Gorton, and his fellow -compilers, 
does not shrink from the vanity, be it more or 
less, of believing that from few beside himself has 
it of late received more minute, patient, deliberate 
study. He is quite sure that the existing wants in 
this department are not outside of the line of 
computation ; that they can, in fact, be set down 
with some tolerable precision in figures. What 
limits, therefore, comprehensive justice to so mul- 
tifarious a subject prescribes, let such a process be 
pursued : that would occasion no wide difference of 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd S. NO 85., Aua. 15. '57. 



opinion between two competent judges. The 
present writer cannot reach any other conclusion. 
Every rightful claimant to be recorded, from an- 
cient and modern times, might find himself within 
Gorton's (the best book as a ground-work after 
all objections) three volumes, expanded to some 
little more than a thousand pages. Three volumes 
are named as being the form of the edition of 
1833, of about twenty-four hundred pages in the 
aggregate. The present writer cannot bring him- 
self to refer at all to the more recent issue of 1850, 
where, the three volumes attenuated into four, 
cannot disguise that the entire new matter is but 
small, whether looked at in the quantity or qua- 
lity. Had ARTHUR HUSSEY read, not a single 
sentence, but the preceding portion of HARVAR- 
DIENSIS'S article, and noted its numerical items, it 
might have prompted some doubt whether the 
latter, in his talk upon this subject, had not chart 
and compass for his guide. When he by and bye 
sees^what has been seen among us for six weeks 
or more, the "third" edition of the American 
Biographical Dictionary (by Win. Allen), which 
began in 1809 with 900 names, re-appeared in 
1832 with 1950, and now professes (aye, boasts) to 
contain nearly 7000, he will then think, no doubt, 
that his grand image of " bridging over the At- 
lantic," was parted with too easily, and ought by 
all means to have been kept in reserve till now. 
It is the suggestion of some that this work, having 
got forward so far, should have " gone on to per- 
fection ;" which means, of course, universality. 
But, as the captive Mustapha is made to say, in 
the pleasant satirical papers of Salmagundi, just 
half a century ago : " Upon what a prodigious 
great scale is everything done in this country !" 

One parting word upon Hose's Dictionary, trust- 
ing that it will not entice me into the semblance 
of a review. Its radical misfortune seems to have 
been, that its progress having been interrupted 
midway by death, it fell into less earnest hands, 
and was completed with an haste that was all un- 
just to the latter half of the alphabet. Two pre- 
ceding works of the kind, it is curious to observe, 
have, in like manner, tapered away with ominous 
swiftness as they tended to their end, to wit, 
that of Tooke Co. (1798), of fifteen volumes 
8vo. ; and that, whose date must have been nearly 
coincident with Gorton's (3 vols. 8vo.), passing 
under the impenetrable cognomen of William a 
Becket. This last collector, for example, affords 
us but three Smiths, instead of fifteen times that 
number. There is no other or equal resource 
with those for the more modern names, except in- 
deed Maunder ; though one is posed exceedingly 
to discover how some special celebrities whose 
death-date is found far behind the date of the 
original work (1841), have been ingenious enough i 
to secure themselves places 'in it, as under 1842 
and 1844, and, later than all (1845), Sydney 



Smith ; while many persons as notable within the 
six or eight previous years are vainly sought for. 
But without reference to period, the list of omis- 
sions by Rose, and that too of names found almost 
everywhere else, is certainly singular. The faulty 
cause of much of this would seem to be the de- 
pending for its supply so much upon the French 
Dictionary ; a book praised without measure, and, 
as must be feared, by very many through whose 
mouths praise passes by rote. * HARVARDIENSIS. 



UNDERGRADUATES, NOT ESQUIRES. 

(2 nd S. iv. 69.) 

J. M. B. says : " There are, perhaps, few who 
know that undergraduates at the Universities are 
entitled to bear esquire affixed to their names." 

I hope there are very many who well know the 
contrary. So far from its being the case that an 
undergraduate (as such) is an esquire, I beg to 
inform J. M. B. that it is not until a University 
man has taken his M.A. degree that he becomes 
entitled to the inferior rank of gentleman. The 
only academic degree which corresponds with 
esquireship in point of dignity is that of Doctor. 

Sir John Feme's Blazon of Gentry is my au- 
thority for this assertion. The lowest and last in 
the scale of gentlemen is, " he that hauing re- 
ceaued any degree of Schooles, or borne any office 
in a City : so that by statutes of the one, or the 
custome in the other, he is saluted Master" 
(Blazon of Gentrie, 1586, p. 90.) A pretty anti- 
climax this : Undergraduate = Esquire, Master of 
Arts = Gentleman ! 

Of course, the majority of undergraduates are 
gentlemen, as the old heraldrists would term it, 
"of blood and of coat-armour;" all should be 
gentlemen in the modern conventional sense of 
the word ; but no one not possessing the quali- 
fication referred to can claim that honourable 
distinction, according to the laws of heraldry, 
until such time as he has proceeded M.A. 

MARK ANTONY LOWER. 
Lewes. 



The remark of J. M. B., that undergraduates 
are entitled to have esquire affixed to their names, 
astonished me ; but, on looking to Custance on the 



* Whenever a true reform is made in Biographical 
Dictionaries, one of the first steps towards it will be the 
curtailment of royal articles, and articles upon those who 
are of the blood-royaL Death, which has brought them, 
to the common level, would seem to leave to them in these 
pages all their former ascendancy. There are few ex- 
amples of this, where it is not to be resolved into the 
compiler's making himself the historiographer of the reign, 
instead of giving, with severe precision, the personal life. 
Almost every article of the kind in Gorton, upon British 
princes especially, will bear material reduction. 



S. NO 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



Constitution (p. 245.), I find it stated that students 
at the Universities are entitled to the rank of 
gentlemen, not to that of esquire. It is well known 
to those who know anything about such matters, 
that very few persons indeed have any right to 
be called esquire, perhaps hardly one in fifty of 
those who go to the University. 

Your correspondents should really be a little 
more careful. They often ask things which they 
ought to know, but seldom state the exact oppo- 
site to the fact, as in this case. C. 0. B. 



WORKMEN S TERMS. 

(2 nd S. iii. 166. 393.) 

In continuation of my notes on the trade terms 
of printers, their derivation and meaning, I beg 
to add the following : 

Prima. The compositor who has the copy 
for the first portion of a sheet, holds what is called 
the "prima." 

Indention. If a line begin further in than its 
fellows (like the first line in every paragraph in 
" 1ST. & Q.") it is said to be " indented." 

To make up is when a sufficient quantity of 
type has been composed, the compositor divides 
the matter into pages of a fixed length. 

Imposition is placing the made-up pages in their 
proper relative position on the imposing- stone, and 
surrounding them with an iron chase, which must 
then be " dressed." 

To dress a chase is to place furniture, or pieces 
of wood or metal, made for the purpose, between 
the pages to keep them in their places ; quoins, or 
little wedges of hard wood, are then inserted be- 
tween the chase and the furniture ; a form is the 
term now applied to the whole, requiring only a 
planer, which is a smooth flat piece of hard wood 
used to press down any letters that may be 
standing higher than the others, and a mallet and 
shooting-stick with which to tighten the quoins, to 
make it quite ready for the pressman. 

Tympan. A part of the printing-press : the 
parchment which is stretched over an iron frame, 
ready to receive the sheet of paper which is to be 
printed. The word at one time included the 
frame, but is now generally only applied to the 
skin covering it. 

Register (registrum, any thing kept according to 
rule).- When the printing on both sides the 
paper is kept so even that every page, line for 
line, exactly backs its fellow, the sheet is said to 
be " in register." To effect this is often by no 
means an easy matter, and when we consider the 
rudeness of the tools with which our first typo- 
graphers worked (and Caxton tells us how his 
presses were made, viz. three printing-presses out 
of one wine-press), we cannot help greatly ad- 



miring the perfection they attained in the registra- 
tion of their work. 

Reiteration. The pressman having worked oflf 
a form on one side of the paper, the operation is 
repeated with another form on the other side. 
This second form is commonly called the " reiter- 
ation," or for short the " ret." 

JBenvenue (bien venue) was originally applied 
to the fee or fine paid by a workman to the father 
for the good of the chapel on his admission to that 
body, but was afterwards levied on occasions too 
numerous to mention. Of late years these fines 
have happily for the most part fallen into disuse, 
so that the term is now but seldom heard. 

Solace. The fine for breaking any of the 
various rules of the chapel was so called ; but, like 
the last mentioned term, this word has almost be- 
come obsolete. 

Most of the above terms show at once their 
etymology; but the derivation of the words quoin, 
furniture, chase, form, and tympan, as used by 
printers, does not seem quote so plain. Also the 
word stick, as applied in the following terms to 
four things entirely distinct in their appearance 
and uses, is a puzzle to me : composing-stick, shoot' 
ing-stick, side-stick, and foot-stick. The last two, 
I should explain, are the pieces of wood placed 
respectively at the side and foot of the pages next 
the chase. Can any of your correspondents throw 
any light on their etymology ? 

When we consider that Caxton spent thirty 
years of the prime of his life in Flanders (as he 
tells us in his prologue to the Recuyell of the His- 
tory es of Troye) that printing was first brought 
to perfection at Mayence that upon the disper- 
sion of the workmen there, Caxton learnt the art 
from some of them at Cologne (see his own ac- 
count at the end of the above-named book), that 
the first workmen in England were without ex- 
ception (as their names show) foreigners, and 
most probably from the same city Cologne, we 
might reasonably expect to find at least some 
trade terms in use among English printers de- 
rivable from the Dutch or German. The reverse 
of this, however, is the case : for while continental 
printers have very few words in use not to be 
found in any of their dictionaries, the English 
printers seem to have chosen the majority of 
their terms from the Latin or ecclesiastical vo- 
cabulary. This feature in English typographical 
nomenclature is further noticeable, as on the Con- 
tinent, even more than in England, the early 
printers were men of standing, and had in the 
same manner to look to ecclesiastical and noble 
patronage as the road to success. The only 
terms in which perhaps the English printer may 
trace a connecting link between himself and his 
brethren of the Lowlands are the two following: 

Galley. A piece of smooth flat board with a 
Vaised ledge all round it, used to place the lines 



136 



NOTES AND 



S. NO 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



on when a compositor empties his stick. The 
German word for this is, and I presume always 
was, schiffe, as the word galley was in the fifteenth 
century a literal translation of it. 

To set (setzen). This is used in the same 
sense as " to compose," but we never use the noun 
(ein setzer) as they do in Germany, the word com- 
positor being its only equivalent. The whole 
subject, I feel, if properly elucidated, would be to 
the philologist one of great interest ; but, such as 
they are, I trust these Notes will be deemed not 
altogether unworthy a place in the valuable co- 
lumns of " N. & Q." EM QUAD. 



PARISH REGISTERS. 

(2 nd S. iii. 321.) 

The laudable attempt of your correspondent W. 
H.W.T. to suggest some means for the preservation 
from further mutilation of the inestimable records 
usually known as the "Parish registers," merits the 
hearty thanks of all. To rescue them from their 
present perilous depositories, often more whimsical 
than secure, deserves thanks and encourage- 
ment from every grade. It is certainly unneces- 
sary to swell the catalogue of wanton and even 
mischievous means that have been taken to lead 
to their destruction, but it is certain unscrupulous 
and often successful efforts have been made to 
thwart their important evidence. 

The following singular example falling under 
my own observation is too important to suppress, ; 
while attempting to prove the carelessness, to 
use no harsher term, of those to whose custody they ! 
have been confided. On visiting the village school j 
of Colton it was discovered that the " Psalters " j 
of the children were covered with the leaves of 
the parish register ; some of these were recovered | 
and replaced in the church chest, but many were j 
totally obliterated and put away. This discovery ' 
led to further investigation, which brought to 
light a practice of the parish clerk and school- I 
master ^ of the day, who to certain favoured 
" goodies" of the village gave the parchment 
leaves for hutkins for their knitting pins, being 
more convenient and durable than those of brown 
paper. 

Your correspondent, K. (2 nd S. iii. p. 366.), has 
enlarged upon this subject by his remarks on | 
the mutilations, or to say the least of it, the I 
misapplication of the grave and tombstones to I 
purposes perfectly irrelevant to the design con- ! 
templated by those who in pious grief raised them 
at considerable cost to the memories of their de- 
parted friends or relations, thus furthering the 
common ^destiny of all things. To your corre- 
spondent's suggestions let me ask, why are not the 
children in the parish schools employed to collect - 
the inscriptions in every depository of the dead ? 



Sure such exercises would instruct at once morally 
and religiously, and be the means of guiding the 
youthful mind to veneration for things and per- 
sons that are passed away, and a most lamentable 
vacuum in the peasant's mind would be filled with 
a patriot's ardour. The rector or his curate 
could not deem the time mis-spent he might devote 
to correct the juvenile efforts to decipher those 
moss-eaten and time-worn inscriptions by the 
common process : to record those in the dead 
language would certainly be. congenial to his taste. 
The figuring of the floors in Tuscan borders 
with encaustic tiles is undoubtedly pretty, but the 
old gray tombstone, even with the denuded ma- 
trix, are the " mute and awful heralds of a future 
state," very far more befitting the sacred edifice, 
and convey a moral the Tuscans never knew. 
Such things have been done. Your readers will 
find in the Library of Great Yarmouth some in- 
estimable volumes collected by a private indi- 
vidual, and more recently augmented with later 
inscriptions ; these were collected at some cost, 
but by the plan proposed priceless volumes would 
be obtained free from every charge. 

HENRY D'AVENEY. 



Enigmatical Pictures (2 nd S. iv. 106.) An 
enigmatical picture, similar to the second men- 
tioned by MR. WILLIAM BATES, is preserved at 
the Grove, near Watford, and is described in Lady 
Theresa Lewis's Lives from the Clarendon Gallery, 
vol. iii. p. 286. The two inscriptions, of which 
modernised versions are given by MR. BATES, 
appear in this picture in the following form : 

Above the standing Figure. 
" My fair lady, I pray you tell me, 
What and of whence be yonder three, 
That cometh out of the castle in such degree, 
And of their descent and nativity." 

Beneath the sitting Lady. 
" Sir, the one is my brother, of my father's side, the 

truth you to show, 

The other by my mother's side is my brother also ; 
The third is my own son lawfully begot, 
And all be sons to my husband that sleeps here in my 

lap. 

Without hurt of lineage in any degree, 
Show me by reason how that may be." 

Lady Theresa subjoins these remarks : 

" The lady's two half brothers must have married the 
daughters of her husband by a former marriage, which 
made them sons (i. e. sons-in-law) to her husband, and 
brothers to the son of their sister. 

" A picture on the same subject was formerly at an inn 
at Epping Place. The tradition there was that the 
strange relationship described in the riddle had occurred 
in the house of Copt Hall, situated in that neighbour- 
hood." 

MR. BATES does not mention the place where 



2 d S. N 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



the picture described by him is preserved, or his 
reason for referring it to the time of James I. The 
Grove picture belongs to the previous reign. It 
is dedicated to Sir Wm. Cecil, who was created 
Lord Burleigh in 1571. L. 

Mr. Justice Port. I inserted a Query about 
this gentleman in your 1 st S. vii. 572. As I have 
recently met with some particulars concerning 
him in a volume of MS. Cheshire pedigrees of the 
sixteenth century, I think it my duty to place 
them at your service. They may, moreover, be of 
use to MR. Foss. 

Henry Port, of the city of Chester, merchant, 
had two sons, the elder, Richard, being the father 
of John Port of Ham, co. Stafford, and of Richard 
Port, Rector of Thorp, in Derbyshire. The se- 
cond son, Henry Port, Mayor of Chester in 1486, 
married Anne, daughter of Robert Barrow, of 
Chester, and had issue an only son, Sir John Port, 
Knight, of Etwall, Justice of the King's Bench. 
Mr. Justice Port married, according to my pedi- 
gree, Jane, daughter and coheir to John Fitz- 
herbert, of Etwall, and had issue one son, Sir 
John, and three daughters. The latter Sir John, 
who is confounded with his father by Burke and 
other genealogists, married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Sir Thomas Gifford, Knt., of Chillington, co. Staf- 
ford, and left three daughters his coheiresses, who 
married respectively into the Gerrard, Hastings, 
and Stanhope families. T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 

Bell-founders (2 nd S. iv. 115.) J. W. may be 
the initials of John Warren or John Wallis, who 
were founders circa 1614. 

J. L. was a founder from 1635 to 1661. His 
habitat is not, I believe, known. He may have been 
an itinerant, as many of the craft were. 

R. P. stands for Richard Perdue. Several of 
this name were founders at Sarum. 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

" Won golden opinions," frc. (2 nd S. iv. 108.) 
The origin of this phrase may be yet to seek; but 
in explanation of Dr. Johnson's use of it as a 
quotation, MR. INGLEBY, who has shown himself in 
your pages to be a diligent student of Shakspeare, 
need only refer to Macbeth, Act I. Sc. 7. : 

" I have bought 

Golden opinions from all sorts of people, 
Which would be worn now in their newest gloss." 

Cf. As You Like It, Act I. Sc. 1. : 

"My brother Jaques he keeps at school, and report 
speaks goldenly of his profit." 

Cf. Sophoc. Antigone, 699. : 

" Oix *?Se xpucryjs af c'a TI/OMJS Xaxetv." 

ACHE. 

Captain Roger Harvie (2 nd S. iii. 107.) This 
gentleman was, I believe, the grandson of Sir 
Nicholas Harvey, Knt., whose daughter Anne 



married Dr. George Carew of Upon Hillion, co. 
Devon. The issue of this marriage was Sir Peter 
Carew the younger, who in 1580 was slain in the 
recesses of Glenmalure, and Sir George Carew, 
afterwards Earl of Totnes. In consequence of 
their connexion with the Carews, the Harveys 
were introduced into Ireland, and we find them 
frequently mentioned in the historical MSS. of 
the latter end of the sixteenth century. George 
Harvey, brother of Roger, was implicated with 
George Carew in the assassination of Owen Ona- 
sye in 1583, and was included in the verdict of 
wilful murder returned, on that occasion, at ^ the 
coroner's inquest. Sir George Carew was Lieu- 
tenant of the Ordnance in England from 1591, and 
when he was absent from this country, e. g. during 
his government of Munster, his cousin, George 
Harvey, acted as his deputy. I have many Notes 
relating to the Harveys, but am now writing from 
memory, not having my papers at hand. 

JOHN MACLEAN. 
Hammersmith. 

John Carter, F.S>A> (2 nd S. iv. 107.) In an- 
swer to the Query of J. G. N., relative to the 
existence, in the library of Sir John Soane's Mu- 
seum, of a pamphlet entitled The Life of John 
Ramble, Artist (a Draftsman), I can state with 
certainty that no such pamphlet is in the collec- 
tion. G. B. 

Sir John Soane's Museum. 

Moravian Query (2 nd S. iv. 9.) Perhaps Dr. 
Maclaine's note at p. 507. vol. ii. of his edition of 
Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History (Tegg, 1838), 
may offer some explanation of the u scandal " al- 
luded to by Walpole. WM. MATTHEWS. 

Cowgill. 

The Chisholm (2 nd S. iv. 68.) Y. B. K J. 
will find some explanation with regard to his 
Query respecting the origin of such titles as " The 
Chisholm" in a note to the 2nd vol. of Lays of 
the Deer Forest, p. 245. I may mention that this 
book, the notes to which are highly interesting, 
was published by John Sobieski and Charles Ed- 
ward Stuart, in 1848. JOHN MACLEAN. 

Hammersmith. 

Pedigree (2 nd S. iv. 69.) As Dr. Richardson 
derives pedigree " from the French Gres, or De- 
gres des peres," while Dr. Webster's derivation 
is " probably from the Lat. pes, pedis" perhaps 
by taking a hint from each of these derivations 
we may fix the etymology of the word in question. 

The Lat. pes signifies not only a foot, but the 
stem of a tree. So also do its derivatives, Port. 
pe, Sp. pie, It. pic and piede, Fr. pied. 

The Lat. gradus is in like manner followed by 
a numerous progeny, gre, grao, grado, degre, 
&c., in sometimes signifying a genealogical degree, 
a degree of relationship. 



138 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd g. NO 85,, AUG. 15. '57. 



Pedigree, then, is equivalent to pied-de-gres, a 
stem of degrees, that is, a stem of consanguinity, 
or, a stem of lineage. Thus pedigree carries us 
back to the days when the heraldic tree, em- 
blazoned on parchment, hung high on the an- 
cestral walls. 

With regard to the word gres, for which we 
have the authority of Dr. Richardson, equivalents 
will be found in the Scottish gre, gree, and grie, 
the Port, grao, and the old Sp. grau, all from the 
Lat. gradus. We have an old English inkling of 
the same word in ''grace to go up at, a staiyre." 

Pied-de-gres would in Portuguese be pe~de- 
grdos, which also comes very nigh our pedigree. 

With pedigree, too, we may compare the Ger- 
man equivalent, stammbaum, literally stem-tree. 
This compound word, stammbaum, graphically and 
briefly, after the German manner, expresses the 
very form and image of the old- fashioned pedi- 
gree ; namely (1.) a stem, containing the direct 
lineage, and (2.) branches, after the manner of a 
tree, showing the family offshoots. 

The word stammbaum also refers allusively to 
the secondary meaning of stamm or stem, race or 
genealogy (Lat. stemma). THOMAS Bors. 

Rule of the Pavement (2 nd S. iv. 26. 75.) The 
only places that I recollect on the Continent 
where there is a rule of the road for pedestrians 
are in Denmark : as to such a rule over German 
bridges, that is common enough, but exceptional 
to the bridges only, on account of their narrow- 
ness, and never applies to the towns, and is of the 
same character and origin as the queue created by 
the police at the entrance of French theatres. At 
Copenhagen there is a regular rule of the road, by 
which a pedestrian of the trottoirs passes on the 
right those coining from the opposite direction ; 
and our rule of the road and the Danish may be 
co-original. J. D. GARDNER. 

Chatteris. 

Hebrew Dates (2 nd S. iv. 71.) I beg to thank 
DR. McCAUL for kindly translating the title-page. 
I would further ask how he comes to make the 
date 317 = 1557. I had understood that in Hebrew 
dates the letters of a word which are marked, and 
those only, should be taken. Hence, since in 
IfcOpS the word given for the date, 1 only is 
marked, which stands for 200, is not the date of 
the book 200=1440 A.D. ? To take another ex- 
ample, which will make the case plain. In a 
Hebrew Bible printed a few years ago I find the 
date given p^t, Q^Q p 3D -p^ 7111 nha JW3 
the numerical value of the letters marked is, I 
believe, 596=1836. But if the value of all the 
letters of the words was taken, the sum would be 
1397=2637 of our era, a year which of course has 
not yet come. I would ask then, why, if in the 
latter case we are to take only the value of the 



letters marked, to ascertain the date, the same 
rule should not be followed in the former ? Per- 
haps some one will explain this. ' C. C. S. 

[C. C. S. is informed that the marking of the letters is 
very arbitrary. In some cases it is altogether omitted, 
and the reader is left to conjecture which letters point 
out the date. Sometimes the numeral letters are printed 
in a larger type for the sake of distinction. The earliest 
Hebrew printed book mentioned by De Rossi, is Rashi's 
Commentary on the Pentateuch, printed at Reggio (Cala- 
bria), 1475, 4to. This volume is supposed to be unique, 
and the colophon states it to have been completed in the 
month of Aolar, i.e. about March i There is, however, in 
the British Museum, the fourth volume of R. Jacob, ben 
Asher, "Arba Turim," which is dated on the month 
Thammuz (i. e. about June or July 1475), and printed at 
Pieve di Sacco. The printing of the preceding volumes 
of this folio was doubtless commenced at an earlier period 
of the year than the small quarto Commentary of Rashi, 
although the latter was finished in March or thereabouts: 
and thus, notwithstanding the fact that the entire work 
of R. Jacob was completed later in the year 1475, a por- 
tion of it may reasonably be supposed "to have been in 
type before the printing of the Rashi had been begun. 
C. C. S. will see that the date 1440 is altogether inad- 
missible. The description of the above-mentioned works 
will be found in De Rossi's Annales, Parma}, 1799, Pars 
prima, p. 3., etc.] 

" To slaw" (2 nd S. iii. 383. 470, 471.; iv. 116.) 
To staw, as used in Scotland, is, according to 
the interpretation of Jarnieson, to surfeit, and 
a staw is a surfeit. He quotes from Burns these 
verses : 

" Is there that o'er his-French ragout, 
Or olio that would staw a sou, 
Looks down wi' sneering, scornfu' view, 
On sic a dinner ! " 

Now from surfeit the sense of fatigue, which 
this word bears in Northumberland and in Lin- 
colnshire, is easily derived. Metaphorically, we 
may give a man or a horse a surfeit of work as 
well as of food ; and by this excess, beyond his 
power of endurance, he may be fatigued as well 
as satiated. In both cases there is physical ex- 
haustion. 

With regard to the etymology of the word, 
Jamieson erroneously traces it to the Dutch 
staan, to stand ; citing as a proof the Scottish 
phrase, "My heart stands at it," i. e. It is dis- 
gustful to my stomach. To staw, as your corre- 
spondent C. D. H. points out, is evidently a dia- 
lectical variety of to stall, which bears the sense 
of surfeiting in the north country dialect. Wright, 
in his Provincial Dictionary, explains " to stall," 
as signifying " to choke, to satiate," in Northum- 
berland. C. D. H. states that "to stall" bears 
the same meaning in Yorkshire. This accepta- 
tion of the word has been rightly considered a 
metaphor drawn from horses or cattle placed in a 
stall with a sufficiency of food. Compare Prov. 
xv. 17. : 

" Better is a dinner of herbs where love is, than a 
stalled ox and hatred therewith." 



* S. N 85., AUG. 15. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



139 



Skinner says of " to stall" 11 Vox agro Lincol- 
niensi usitatissima pro exsaturare." He derives 
it from stall, "metaphora a jumento in stabulo 
saturo ducta." See also Richardson in stall. Dr. 
Evans, in his Leicestershire Words, Phrases, and 
Proverbs (London, 1848), explains "to stall" as 
* to founder, to come to a stand, in dirt or mud ;" 
citing as an example, "The roads were at one 
time so bad in the park that a waggon was welly 
stalled" This last sense is a further link in the 
chain of derivative meanings : a horse which is 
fatigued may come to a stand-still, and thus " to 
stall" may acquire the last-mentioned significa- 
tion. We have thus the four following steps for 
the word stalled : 1. Fed to satiety. 2. Surfeited. 
3. Fatigued. 4. Brought to a stand-still. L. 

Family of Lord Chancellor Wriothesley (2 nd S. 
iv. 97.): Old Use of the Term "Brother:" 
What was a " Suckling ? " The will of the Earl 
of Southampton (once Lord Chancellor Wrio- 
thesley), recently published in the Trevelyan 
Papers, confirms Dugdale's statement that his 
wife's name was Jane, whom he left his widow 
and principal executor. It also mentions his 
daughter Elizabeth, then married to Thomas, 
Lord FitzWalter, afterwards Earl of Sussex. He 
left, besides, four other daughters, 2. Mary, and 
3. Katharine, for whose marriages he had " bought 
heires apparante ; " 4. Anne, for whose marriage 
he had made covenant with Mr. Wallop ; and 5. 
Mabell, " for whome I have yet entryd with no 
man into covenaunte." Besides these remarkable 
allusions to the old-world arrangements in matri- 
monial matters, this will affords an example of the 
term brother as employed by the parents of a 
married couple. The Earl of Sussex's son having 
married the Earl of Southampton's daughter, 
the two fathers were thenceforth " brothers : " 
" to my good lord and brother th' erle of Sussex 
a cupp of like value of .tenne poundes." The 
Earl of Southampton left only one son, " Henry, 
Lord Wriothesley," his successor. He names his 
sister Breton, his sister Pound, and his sister 
Laurence; and Anne, his wife's sister. But there 
is one passage in this will that requires an ex- 
planation, and which I transcribe literatim : 

" Item, I gyve to my Poticarie, and to every of the 
sucldinges, tenne poundes a-peece, besydes my former 
ligacyes." 

The editor has affixed to the word "sucklinges" 
as a note the remark sic. But what was a suck- 
ling ? and has the designation been met with else- 
where ? J. G. N. 

Darkness at Mid-Day (2 nd S. iii. 366.) A 
total darkness at about noon which lasted for 
hours occurred many years back, but within the 
recollection of people now living, in the city of 
Amsterdam, the capital of Holland. As I have 
often been told by trustworthy people, it took 



place in the summer, on a fine bright day; the air 
was calm, and there were no indications of fog. 
The people in the streets, frightened at such an 
unusual occurrence, hastened indoors, but the 
darkness came on so suddenly that many of them 
lost their lives through walking into the different 
channels by which the city is divided. I never 
heard of a similar occurrence in any other place 
in Holland, nor any explanation as to the alleged 
cause of it. J. H. 

J. C. Frommann's " Tractatus de Fascinatione " 
(2 nd S. iv. 8.) Not knowing exactly what in- 
formation your correspondent R. C. (CorA) is 
desirous of possessing as to this author and his 
singularly curious and highly interesting work, I 
beg leave to acquaint him that two copies have 
appeared lately for sale ; one in a Catalogue of 
Mr. Kerslake, of Bristol, in vellum, at 30s., and 
the other in that of Mr. Stevenson, of Edinburgh, 
in calf, at 125. It is understood to be rather a 
s.carce work in the book market. T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 

Anne a Male Name (2 nd S. iii. 508. ; iv. 12. 39. 
59. 78.) The following paragraph, which is 
copied from the Bristol Mirror of July 25, 1857, 
and which shows the word Ann in use as a sur- 
name, may perhaps be inserted as a rider to the 
many replies which have appeared in the pages of 
" N. & Q." with reference to this subject : 

" The Tockington band, which has existed for seventy 
years, held its seventieth anniversary on Monday last, at 
the house of Mr. Mark Ann, at Alveston, when the ac- 
counts were duly audited and passed." 

JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Death has this week removed from the world of letters 
one who occupied no unimportant position, both iu that 
and in the political world The RIGHT HON. JOHN WIL- 
SON CHOICER, who died at St. Alban's Bank, Hampton, 
on Monday last, in the 77th year of his age. This dis- 
tinguished gentleman was one of the earliest, as well as 
most frequent and valued contributors to "N. & Q." In 
our 6th Number (Dec. 8th, 1849,) he first appears as a 
Querist, under the signature C., which he continued to 
emplo3* ; and in " N. & Q." of the 1st of the present 
month, is an inquiry from him respecting Pope and Gay. 
MR. CROKER was indeed busied upon his forthcoming 
edition of Pope's Works up to the very time of his death. 
On Monday last, we had the pleasure of receiving from 
him a private note, asking for some information con- 
nected with that subject before that day had closed, 
he had ceased from his labours and was at rest. Our 
readers will, we are sure, readily enter into the feelings 
under which we announce MR. CROKER'S death : and as 
readily believe with what sincerity we record our admira- 
tion for the talents, our regret for the loss, and our gra- 
titude for the kindnesses of JOHN WILSON CROKER. 

The readers of " N. & Q." who share the interest we 
take in the new project of the PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY', 



140 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



d g. NO 85., AUG. 15. '57. 



will, we are sure, join in the satisfaction with which we 
learn that our suggestion as to the collection of Pro- 
verbial Phrases will find a place in the new Prospectus ; 
and that the committee, while they have little doubt of 
being enabled to print their collections, readily accede to 
the proposal of depositing them, if not printed, in the 
Library of the British Museum. We avail ourselves of 
this opportunity of reproducing two lists communicated 
to The Athenaeum of Saturday last by Mr. Coleridge, the 
Secretary : " one of works already undertaken, the other 
of works still unoccupied and particularly recommended 
to collectors;" and shall be very glad if this notice 
should prove the means of inducing any of our readers to 
transfer some of the Avorks in List B. into List A. 

List A. Works already undertaken : Andrewe's 



Donne's Poems; Sir T. Elyot's Boke of the Governor; 
Caxlon's Chronicle of Englonde, Boke of Tulle of Old 
Age and Friendship; Watson's Polybius; Sylvester's 
Dubartas; Burton's Anatomy; Holland's Pliny; H. 
More's Works; Chapman's Homer, Hymns of Homer, 
Georgics of Virgil; Ilacket's Life of Williams; Cotton's 
Montaigne's Essays; Elorio's Montaigne's Essays; Ur- 
quhart's Rabelais ; Large Declaration of the King con- 
cerning the Tumults in Scotland; Greene's Tracts; 
Nash's Tracts ; Marlowe's Ovid ; Coryat's Crudities ; As- 
cham's Works; Hackluyt's Voyages; Shelton's Don 
Quixote; Hoccleve's Poems; Shakspeare's Plays ; Wark- 
worth's Chronicle; Capgrave's Chronicle; Bradford's 
Works; Tillotson's Works. 

List B. Works specially recommended to Contributors: 
Holinshed's Chronicles; Hall's Chronicles; State 
Papers of the Time of Henry the Eighth, lately published 
by Government ; Queen Elizabeth's Progresses, and King 
James the First's Progresses, published by Nichols; 
King James the First's Works ; King Charles the First's 
Works; State Trials of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Centuries in Howell ; Barton's Debates of the Long Par- 
liament; Strafford Papers; Evelyn's Diary; Pepys' 
Diary; Fenn's Paston Letters; Martin Mar-prelate 
Tracts ; Dekker's Works ; John Heywood's Works ; 
Fabian Withers's Works ; Walter Lynne's Works ; 
Greene's Works ; Marlowe's Plays ; Sir T. Elyot's Works ; 
Frith's Works; Sir J. Mandevile's Travels; Fitzherbert 
on Husbandry; Browne's Pastorals ; Overbury's Works ; 
Marston's Satires; Jackson's Works; Samuel Daniel's 
Poems and Histories; Lodge's Novels; Farringdon's 
Sermons ; The Early Reformers in the Parker Society's 
Publications (N.B. Cranmer, Pilkington, Bradford, Becon, 
and Jewel, are undertaken) ; Lambarde's Kent ; Norden's 
Surveys; L'Estrange's Josephus; Heylyn's Works; 
Shad well's Plays ; Tusser's Works ; Purchas's Pilgrims ; 
George Peele's Works ; all the English publications of the 
Roxburghe, Percy, Camden, Shakspeare, and Hakluyt 
Societies ; any translations of the Classic Authors printed 
in the Sixteenth Century. 

The new edition of the Lord Chief Justice's Biography 
of the Men of the Robe who have held the Seals is rapidly 
drawing towards completion. We have now before us 
vols. vii. and viii. of Lord Campbell's Lives of the Chan- 
cellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of England, which 
embrace the lives of Lord Camden, Lord Chancellor 
Yorke, Lord Chancellor Bathurst, Lord Thurlow, Lord 
Loughborough, and Lord Erskine. As there is no doubt 
that the later biographies, in which Lord Campbell has 
had access to original and family papers, are the most 
valuable portions of his book, so also, as they treat of 
men with whom the reader feels greater sympathy from 
greater familiarity with their names, they are unquestion- 
ably the most amusing. 



He who publishes a good Catalogue of Books does 
good service to literature, and great kindness to men of 
letters. Mr. Nutt is entitled to this praise, for he has 
just issued a Catalogue of Foreign Books, occupying up<- 
wards of 700 pages, and containing a list of upwards of 
7000 different works, " including The Sacred Writings ; 
Fathers, Doctors of the Church, Schoolmen, and Ecclesi- 
astical Historians, to the death of Boniface VIII., A.D. 
1303 ; Jewish and Rabbinical Commentators; Works of 
the Reformers, and of more recent Divines, Ascetical, Dog- 
matical, Polemical, and Exegetical ; Liturgies, Rituals 
and Liturgical Literature; Councils, Synods, and Con- 
fessions of Faith ; Monastic History and Rule ; Canon 
and Ecclesiastical Law ; Church Polity and Discipline ; 
Hebrew and Syriac Literature, &c. &c. 

George Cruikshank's quaint and most fanciful of 
gravers proceeds with its pleasant task of showing us 
The Life of Sir John Falstaff, while Mr. Brough as plea- 
santly narrates it. The third and fourth parts, which are 
now before us, give us most Cruikshankish pictures, and 
most Brough- like description, of Sir John's ragged regi- 
ment, of his share in the Gadshill robbery, his arrest at 
the suit of Mrs. Quickly, and his most valorous, because 
most discreet, conduct at the celebrated Battle of Shrews- 
bury. 

Now that all the world is hurrying for train or steamer 
that our watering-places are full to overflowing 
some readers may be glad to be reminded how much of 
beauty, and how much of historical interest, are to be 
found in some of our midland counties, and may thank us 
for reminding them of Warwickshire and its varied at- 
tractions. If any such desire to visit Warwickshire, we 
would advise them to make Black's Picturesque Guide to 
Warwickshire, with Map of the County, and numerous Il- 
lustrations, their companion. They will find much useful 
information in a very small compass. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

THE BEE, on UNIVERSAL WEEKLY PAMPHLET. 9 Vols. 8vo. London. 

1733 4. Or any odd Volumes. 
THE TATLER. Published by Lintot and others, 1737. Vol. I. To com- 

plete a set. 

LOUD HERVEY'S MEMOIRS OF GEORGE II. 2 Vols. 8vo. 1818. 
*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage ft 
sent to MESSRS. BELL & DALDY, Publishers of " NOT 
QUERIES," 180. Fleet Street. 



Cto be 
>TES' AND 



, 
the gentlemen by whom they are req 



and whose names and ad- 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 

uired, 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

CABLYLE'S CRITICAL AND MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS. Vola . II. & V. 
Wanted by Professor Martin, Aberdeen. 



ta 

VARLOV AP HARRY. Is not The Diary of Sir John Finett the same 
work as Finetti Philoxenis, noticed ante p. 73. If not, wliat is the date 
of the former work? 



HENRI. On the authorship of The Pursuits of Literature, see our 1st 
S. vols. i. iii. xii. The quotation," A local habitat/on and a name," is 
from tihakitpeare's Midsummer Night's Dream, Act I. Sc. 1. 

C. C. The Society for Burning the Dead is noticed in our 1st S. ix. 76. 
287. 

G. L. S. Violet : or the Danseiise is attributed to Sir E. Sulwer 
Lytton. See "N. & Q.," 2nd S. ii. 99. 

ERRATCJM. The signature to the article, Bon Mots of celebrated Men, 
in our last number, p. 103. should be " P. H. F." 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
bix Hontits forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Italf- 
i/rarli/ INDEX) is 11s. 4rf., which may be paid by Post Office Order in 
favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET, E.G.; to wltom 
also all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed. 



2nd g. NO 86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



141 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 22, 1857. 



" GOD AND THE KING." 

The High Church axiom, that the divine right 
of kings and princes is, under no circumstances, to 
be disturbed, has often furnished a theme for well- 
meaning men, who, thinking they find it based 
upon sacred authority, have laboured to prove its 
eternal obligation upon subjects. 

Such an attempt is that put forth in the little 
work before me, entitled, Cesar s Dialogue, or 
a Familiar Communication, containing the first 
Institution of a Subject in Allegiance to his Soite- 
raigne. Lond. 1601. The author, E. N., was 
most probably a clergyman of the High Church 
stamp, and in a homily of 131 pages upon "The 
foure cables which bind the subiects in allegiance 
to their Soueraigne," convincingly makes out to 
the junior (for it is a dialogue between father and 
son) that his allegiance is due without any re- 
servation, as well to the ungodly, as to the godly 
prince, founded upon the text of " Rendering unto 
Caesar the things which are Caesar's," &c. 

Our book seems to have been licensed in 1593 ; 
on the back of the title to my impression is a fine 
full length of Queen Elizabeth, in regal costume, 
in a chair of state, surrounded by her Divine 
Charters in the shape of texts from the Old and 
New Testaments, and I doubt not the book was 
acceptable " to ^all sound members of that bodie, 
whereof her Sacred Maiestie is supreme head," 
to whom it is addressed. 

Passing on we find that in a year or two there- 
after the good queen was gathered to her fathers, 
and her place occupied by King James, whose 
accession was the signal for increased turbulence 
on the part of the disappointed Papists, which 
calling for some check, the Oath of Allegiance, as 
we now have it, was imposed in 1606 ; and here 
again we find a zealous subject at hand to incul- 
cate obedience to the higher powers, but this time 
in the more peremptory tone of God and the King ; 
or a Dialogue shewing that our Soveraign Lord 
King James being immediate under God within his 
Dominions doth rightfully claim whatsoever is re- 
quired by the Oath of Allegiance, 12mo. London, 
Imprinted by his Maiesties special privilege and 
command, 1615. A copy of this curiosity be- 
longed to Mr. Geo. Chalmers, who has written 
upon the title " By Dr. Mockett, as Dr. Twiss 
says ; " it came out at the same time in Latin, and 
was also published in one or both at Edinburgh, 
1617. Dr. Richard Moket is noticed by Wood 
and Nicolson as the author of De Politia Ec- 
clesice Anglican, 8vo. London, 1616, which, al- 
though the latter characterises as a learried and 
useful system, reprinted in 1683, was so little ap- 



preciated by his contemporaries that it was im- 
mediately condemned to the flames and burnt : 
some said for raising the ecclesiastical above the 
temporal power ; others that in omitting the first 
clauses of the 20th article he leaned too much to 
the errors of Calvin's platform. God and the 
King is not ascribed to Mocket by either of the 
last named writers ; and taking this with the 
charge that he maintained the superiority of the 
Church over the State, Dr. Twiss' ascription of 
the book to Mocket seems to require confirma- 
tion. God and the King, if not a piece of his 
Majesty's own kingcraft, was no doubt an accept- 
able presen,t to the royal pedant, and we are told 
that it was frequently reprinted both in Latin and 
English, and by Royal Proclamation recommended 
" for the instruction of His Majesties Subjects." 
Following the plan of its predecessor, the book is 
in the form of a dialogue between Theodidactus 
and Philalethes, and taking the recently imposed 
Oath of Allegiance for its text maintains the same 
blind passive obedience to princes. The work is, 
however, more particularly aimed at the Ro- 
manists, and is introduced by a short abstract of 
the plottings and treasons, past and present, set 
on foot by the Pope and his emissaries, which 
rendered this oath test imperative : the end in 
view is, in short, to assure good patriots that as 
King James holds his crown from God direct, and 
not by virtue of the Popish triangle God, the 
Pope, and the King, no earthly power can absolve 
his subjects from their natural allegiance, nor can 
the bulls and curses of Rome relieve such subjects 
from the consequences of treasons against his 
majesty's person, dominion, and dignity, and that 
therefore "God and the King" should be the 
only watchword of true Englishmen. 

In the English edition (1615) of the work under 
consideration, we have an engraved frontispiece 
in keeping with the subject : in the foreground 
King James in state ; on one side the royal plat- 
form, a man weeding; and on the other a man 
watering, typical of his royal determination to 
root out the factions, and to nurture the loyal 
subject; above all Hebrew characters rays 
emanating therefrom, and on a scroll below, " By 
mee Kings Raigne" I suspect the several mem- 
bers of the Stuart family reminded their subjects 
of their duty by reproducing this their charter at 
convenient seasons ; at all events it came with 
solemn significance from his Sacred Majesty 
Charles II., imprinted by special authority, in 
quarto, 1663, with the portrait of the Merry 
Monarch, and the aforesaid scroll setting forth 
his divine appointment. 

Another edition of God and the King is that 
published in 1727, by Nathaniel Booth, Esq., of 
Gray's Inn ; this time, however, it does not ad- 
vocate the divine right of the Stuarts, but that 
of their successful adversaries, the Hanoverians. 



142 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



. NO 86., AUG. 22. '57. 



The gentle Jamie neveif perhaps'.' dreamt" that his 
favourite book might act as a double-edged tool, 
but so it has ; and the book which by royal pro- 
clamation almost deified the Stuarts, is now made 
to serve the ends of George I., who, with his suc- 
cessors, and armed with this authority prepared 
to their hands, finally put down_ the claims of the 
family so divinely set up by ai Dr. Mocket, or 
whoever wrote the book. J. O. 



JUDGE JEFFREYS'S HOUSE IN DUKE STREET. 

One of the objects of "N. & Q." being to pre- 
serve any literary waifs and strays which a reader 
may come across, I send for insertion in its co- 
lumns the following curious history of the building 
of the house in Duke Street, Westminster, which 
was formerly occupied by Lord Chancellor Jef- 
freys. It is contained in a little 12mo. volume, 
devoted to the history of the sufferings of prisoners 
for debt, which bears the title of, 

" The Cry of the Oppressed, being a True and Tragical 
Account of the UnparalhVd Sufferings of Multitudes of 
poor Imprisoned Debtors, in most of the Gaols in England, 
under the Tyranny of the Gaolers, and other Oppressors, 
lately discovered upon the occasion of this present Act of 
Grace, For the Release of Poor Prisoners for Debt, or Da- 
mages ; some of them being not only Iron'd, and Lodged with 
Hogs, Felons, and Condemned Persons, but have had their 
Bones broke ; others Poisoned and Starved to Death ; others 
denied the Common Blessings of Nature, as Water to Drink, 
or Straw to Lodq on ; others their Wives and Daughters at- 
tempted to be Ravish'd ; with other Barbarous Cruelties, not to 
be parallel 'd in any History, or Nation ; All which is made 
out by undeniable Evidence. Together with the Case of the 
Publisher. London : Printed for Moses Pitt, and sold by 
the Booksellers of London and Westminster, 1691." 

The copy from which I quote is an imperfect 
one, not having any pictures (which I believe 
ought to be in it, though the announcement of 
them on the title-page is defaced), and concluding 
abruptly at p. 148. 

The quotation from it which I enclose is from 
The Case of Moses Pitt, Bookseller, which forms 
the second part of the work, and I venture to 
forward it, believing it will be of interest to the 
future historian of Westminster, and to Mr. Foss 
or any future biographer of Jeffreys. Ts. 

"Among several Houses I built, both in King- street, 
and Duke-street, Westminster, I built a great House in 
Duke-street, just against the Bird-Cages in St. Jame's- 
Park, which just as I was a finishing I Lett to the Lord 
Chancellor Jefferies, with Stables and Coach-Houses to it, 
for 300Z. per Annum. After which, when he the said 
Chancellor came to see the House, (Alderman Duncomb 
the great Banker being Avith. him,) and looking about 
him, saw between the House and St. James'-Park an idle 
piece of Ground : he told me, he would have a Cause- 
Room built on it. I told him, that the Ground was the 
King's. He told me, that he knew it was, but he would 
Beg the Ground of the King, and give it me ; he also bid 
me make my own Demands, and give it him in Writing, 



the which I did, and unto which he did agree, and com- 
manded me immediately to pull down the Park-Wall, 
and to build as fast as I could, for he much wanted the 
said Cause-Room. My Agreement with him was, That 
fie should Beg of King James all the Ground without the 
Park- Wall, between Webbs and Storeys inclusive ; which 
said Ground is Twenty Five Foot in bredth, and near 
Seven Hundred Foot in length, (to the best of my Me- 
mory,) for Ninety Nine Years, at a Pepper- Corn per An- 
num, which he the said Lord Chancellor was to make over 
the said King's Grant to me for the said Number of Years, 
without any Alterations, with liberty to pull down, or Build 
on the King's Wall, and to make a Way and Lights into 
the King's Park, according as I pleased. In Consideration 
of my Building on the said Ground of the King's, and the 
said Lord Chancellor's Enjoyment of it, during his Occu- 
pation of the said House. All which the Lord Chancellor 
Agreed to. For that purpose sent for Sir Christopher 
Wren, Their Majesties Surveyor, and myself, and Ordered 
Sir Christopher to take care to have the said Ground 
Measured, and a Plat-form taken of it, and that Writings 
and Deeds be prepared for to pass the Great Seal. Sir 
Christopher Ask'd the said Lord Chancellor, in whose 
Name the Grant was to pass, whether in his Lordship's, 
or Mr. Pitt? The Chancellor Reply'd, That the King 
had Granted him the Ground for Ninety Nine Years, at a 
Pepper-Corn per annum, and that he was to make over 
the said Grant to his Landlord Pitt for the same Term of 
Years, without any Alteration, in consideration of his 
said Landlord Pitt Building him a Cause Room, &c., and 
his the said Lord Chancellor's Enjoying the same, during 
his living in the said Pitt's House; and withal urg'd him 
the said Pitt immediately to take down the King's Park- 
Wall, and to Build with all Expedition, for he much 
Avanted the Cause-Room, and that I should not doubt 
him, for he would certainly be as good as his Agreement 
Avith me. My Witnesses are Sir Christopher Wren, Their 
Majesties Surveyor, Mr. Fisher deceased, Avho belong'd 
to Sir C. Harbord, Their Majesties Land-Surveyor, Mr. 
Joseph Avis my Builder, Mr. Thomas Bludworth, Mr. 
John Arnold, both Gentlemen belonging to the said Lord 
Chancellor, and several others ; upon which I had a War- 
rant from Mr. Cook, out of the Secretary of State's Office, 
in the Lord Chancellor's Name, with King James Hand 
and Seal, to pluck doAvn the King's Wall, and make a 
Door and Steps, Lights, &c., into the Park, at Discres- 
sion ; which said Warrant Cost me 6/. 5s. Upon which, 
in about Three or Four Months time I Built the Two 
Wings of that Great House which is opposite to the Bird- 
Cages, with the Stairs, and Tarrass, &c., which said 
Building Cost me about Four Thousand Pounds, with all 
the inside -Avork ; my Work-Men being imploy'd by the 
said Lord Chancellor to fit up the said House, and also 
Offices, and Cause-Room, for his Use ; for all which he 
never paid me one Farthing. 

" When I had finished the said Building, I demanded 
of him several times my Grant of the said Ground from 
the King ; he often promis'd me, that I should certainly 
have it; but I being very uneasie for want of my said 
Grant, I wrote several times to him, and often waited to 
speak with him, to have it done ; but at last I found I 
could have no Access to him, and that 1 spent much time 
in waiting to speak with him, altho' I Liv'd just against 
his Door; and also I considered, that he could not be 
long Lord Chancellor of England, King William being 
just come, I got into the Parlour where he Avas, many 
Tradesmen being with him that he had sent for, I told 
him, that I did not so earnestly demand my Rent of him, 
which was near half a Year due, but I demanded of him 
my Grant from King James of the Ground Ave had agreed 
for, in consideration of my Building. He told me, That 
he would leave my House, and that he should not carry 



2^ S. N 86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



143 



away the Ground and Building with him ; which was all 
the Answer I could have from him. And the very next 
Day he went into White-hall, and had the Jesuit Petre's 
Lodging, where he lay till that Tuesday Morning King 
James first Abdicated, and went away with Sir Edward 
Hales : the said Lord Chancellor should have gone with 
them, but they drop'd him, so that Morning finding them 
to be gone, he was fain to shift for himself, and to fly with 
a Servant, or at most Two, with him, and soon after taken 
and sent to the Tower, where he since Died. 

" But when I first began their to Build, I found that 
idle piece of Ground in the possession of Mr. John Webb 
his Majesties Fowl-Keeper, and he told me, he had a 
Grant of it from King Charles the Second during his 
Life ; whereupon I took a great part of that Ground of 
him, and paid him my Agreement, (till Sir Edward 
Hales got it of the King, and refus'd payment,) with an 
intention, that it should be Garden-Ground, not only to 
my House, but to the Houses adjoining, and I did Lett it 
to the several Houses accordingly; to the Right Honour- 
able the Countess Dowager of Plymouth the Ground that 
joind to the back part of her House for Ten Pounds per 
Annum, (witness her Steward Mr. Bladen,) which she 
paid me justty, till I was cast into Prison by Adiel Mill. 
The Right Honourable the Earl of Scarsdale would not 
come into his House, till I had my Rent of his Landlord, 
one Mr. Banks a Carpenter, for the Garden-Ground ad- 
joining to his House, for which the said Banks paid me 
to the time his Honour came into the said House at the 
Rate of Ten Pounds per Annum. I also Agreed with his 
Honour for Ten Pounds per annum; my Witnesses are 
John Hales, Esq., of the Temple, the said Banks, and his 
Lordship's Attorney, whose Name I have forgot; his 
Lordship has had quiet possession, but he never paid me 
Rent, for what reason his Honour best knows. Unto the 
said Sir Edward Hales that went away with King James, 
I Lett the Ground that join'd to the back part of his 
House for Ten Pounds per Annum; Witness Obediah 
Walker, then Master of University- College, Oxon, and 
Adiel Mill, (of whom I shall have cause anon to speak) : 
the said Sir Edward Hales paid me one half Year's Rent, 
and would pay me no more, tho' they all took the Ground 
of me for the full time that they Liv'd in their Houses, 
provided they had no disturbance, the which they had 
not. 

This Sir Edward Hales hearing that the Chancellor 
had a promise from King James of this Ground, and that 
he was to Grant it me, he Acquaints King James, that 
the Chancellor Beg'd that Ground of him, not for himself, 
but his Landlord, and that it would be an Injury to the 
said Hales his House, being on the said rearing of Build- 
ings, prevail'd with the King, he being a greater Fa- 
vourite than the Chancellor, to break his Promise with 
the Chancellor, and to give him the said Sir Edward 
Hales the Ground, not only on the back side of his 
House, but the next House also ; which the King did. 
Upon which he fell a Building up against his Neighbour's 
House, and in part spoil'd that, to the great prejudice of 
his Neighbour. The Chancellor by this broke his Agree- 
ment with me, and although upon my taking of the said 
Ground of the said Webb aforesaid, and had divided the 
said Garden-Ground, by Building Brick-walls, to each 
House, they do so Enjoy it, yet the said Sir Edward 
Hales, and some others, never paid me one Farthing for 
it; I do confess, the Countess Dowager of Plymouth 
Built her own Wall ; I also Built that new Wall adjoin- 
ing to Storey's House, on the back side of Princes-Court, 
and also took care to fill up all low Grounds in that part 
of St. James's-Park, behveen the Bird -Cages and that 
Range of Buildings in Duke -street, whose Back-Front is 
towards the said Park, where the Water in Moist- weather 
Stagnated, and was the cause of Fogs and Mists, with 



Garden-Mould, and Sowd it with Hay-Seed, so that 
thereby that part of the Park is as clear from Fogs, and 
as Healthy, as any other part of the said Park, for all 
which I was not paid one Farthing. I also at my own 
Cost Cleans'd a great part of the Common-Shoars, not 
only about the said Park,l;but Westminster also, and 
Rais'd low Grounds, and Laid out about Twelve Thousand 
Pounds in Buildings, whereby 1 have made Westminster 
as Healthy a place, as any other parts about London, and 
as Commodious for Gentry to Live in, which has brought 
a Considerable Trade to that part of the Town. Among 
other Buildings, I Built Stables for about Three Hundred 
Horses, and Coach-Houses, the best about Town ; and 
although Prince George's Pads, &c., were on the Ground, 
yet when His Majesty King William came first to Lon- 
don, which was in December, 1688, all his Coaches and 
Horses were brought into my Stables and Coach-Houses, 
and His Grooms and their Wives and Children had Lodg- 
ings, and other Conveniences, till King James' Horses and 
Coaches were remov'd from the Muse, which was about 
April following; about which time I Lett that great 
House, in which the late Lord Chancellor Jefieries Liv'd, 
to the Three Dutch Embassadors which came out of 
Holland to Congratulate Their Majesties Happy Acces- 
sion to the Crown, after the Rate of Seven Hundred and 
Twenty Pound per Annum. The Agreement I made, 
was with one Mr. John Arnold, a Dutch-Man, their 
Secretary. Witness to the said Agreement were Mr. 
Ridgley, (in whose House in the Pall- Mall the said Em- 
bassadors Lay Incognito,) and into whose hands, after our 
Signing and Sealing, we intrusted the said Contract to be 
kept on the behalf of us both ; as it can be Testified by 
on Mr. Johnson a Coach-Man in Hedge-Lane near the 
Muse, who was the other Witness to it. But this said 
Ridgley, after my being thrown into Prison by Adiel 
Mill, did break his Trust, and deliver up into the Hands 
of my Adversary'Mill this my Contract, to the Ruin of 
me and my Family. What the said Ridgley, and Arnold, 
had of my Adversary Mill for this Breach of Trust, be- 
sides Fish -Dinners, they best know, I leave the World to 
judg. I am satisfied in my Conscience that Mills gave 
them Guineas, a considerable quantity, besides a Present 
of Dr. Vossius Letters, Printed by him, to .... I am 
inform'd, that the Embassador's Porter had Ten Guineas, 
besides Bottles of Wine, and Neats Tongues, for his good 
will in delivering the Keys of the said House to the said 
Mill, whilst the said Embassadors were in the said House, 
and the said Mill kept the said Keys one Night, and sent 
them to the said Porter next Day, with some more Bottles 
of Wine, that so he might have Friendship with the said 
Porter, who was Angry with the said Mill for carrying 
away the Keys. The Porter and Mill's Man, (whom he 
had left in the House that Night, expecting the Embas- 
sadors would have been gone the next Morning, which 
they did not,) had Fought a severe Battle." 



FOLK LORE. 

" Riding the Hatchr A countryman, retailing 
some bit of scandal about an unco guid neighbour, 
a member of a church remarkable for the austerity 
of its professions, remarks, " He ought to be made 
to ride the hatch." To which his companion sar- 
castically replies, " If the whole boiling of 'em 
were made to ride the hatch, I'll wage that more 
would fall outwards than inwards." 

The mode of punishment referred to, which is 
not to be confounded with the popular exposure 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 86., Auo. 22. '57. 



of connubial infidelity, called " a riding," seems to 
partake of the nature of ordeal, as well as of pe- 
nance. All that survives of the practice is the 
very common phrase which I have placed at the 
head of this Note. Can you illustrate this bit of 
folk lore ? T. Q. C. 

Cornwall. 

Charm for the Stomach Ache. When I was 
a schoolboy, the following charm was considered 
by my companions and myself as a sovereign spe- 
cific against a complaint very prevalent among 
boys during the fruit season. Faith in the charm 
may have had something to do with its efficacy, 
but I know that we implicitly believed in it : 

"Petrus sedebat super sedem marmoreum juxta aadem 
Jerusalem, et dolebat. Jesus veniebat, efc rogabat, ' Petre, 
quid doles ? ' * Doleo vento ventre,' ait : ' Surge Peter, 
et sanus esto.' Et quicunque base verba, non scripta, 
sed memoria tradita, recitat, nunquani dolebit vento 
ventre." 

JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

The Bicker-rade. This is a very strange and 
indecent custom, practised by reapers in the 
harvest time, chiefly, I believe, in Berwickshire. 
I can say nothing as to its origin, or for how long 
it has maintained its place among the customs of 
our rural population, but I can remember of its 
observance among my father's reapers, in the 
parish of Bunlde, more than fifty years ago. The 
dinner of a Merse reaper consists of a choppin of 
beer, and a loaf of wheaten or baker's bread. 
Each band-wun consisting of six shearers and a 
bandster, had the use of a bicker (a small round 
wooden vessel, composed of staves or staps, and 
neatly bound with willow girths or girds} ; some- 
times more than one bicker was used by the band- 
wun. In an ordinary boun or band of shearers, 
consisting of three or four band-wuns, there might 
be half-a-dozen of bickers used. After the dinner 
repast was finished, any of the men of the boun who 
felt disposed to inflict on any female the bicker- 
radc, extended her upon her back on the ground, 
and reclining upon her commenced a series of 
operations which are too indelicate to be minutely 
described ; and those bickers which we have just 
mentioned, being put into the long basket which 
had contained the bread, were ruttled backward 
and forward upon the man's back by one of the 
bystanders. After continuing this process for a 
minute or two, another female was used in the 
same way, either by the same man or by one of his 
companions, and so on till all the women, young 
and old, in the boun were so served. The custom 
was attended with no little noise and fun ; and if 
any of the females, either from a sense of its in- 
decency, or from a reluctance to be so roughly 
handled, showed any signs of resistance, they were 
forced into compliance, and used without cere- 
mony. In the custom of giving " up in the air," 



recently described in " N. & Q." by MB. H. STE- 
PHENS, some serious injuries have been inflicted, 
and from the bicker-rade bruises of a no less dan- 
gerous character received; and I know of one 
female at least, who was confined more than 
twenty years to bed, in consequence of a severe 
injury received by the latter custom. So that 
the late Rev. Mr. Sked, of Abbey St. Bothans, 
had a substantial reason for his annual admoni- 
tions though referring to the gross immorality 
which was likely to result from the affair when 
he warned his flock agaitist indulging in "that 
wicked practice called the Bicker-rade, for, take 
care," said he, " that it does not turn out the 
sicker-rade." We believe that this immodest 
practice is now nearly obsolete. It was time. 

MENYANTHES. 
Chirnside. 

Deerness. In a foot note to the " Harpers' 
Song " (page 257), in the Fairy Family, published 
by Longmans, it is stated that there is a tradition 
that " the district of Deerness in the island of 
Pomona was once covered by a splendid forest 
abounding with deer, and that in one night it 
was submerged and laid waste by an inundation 
of the sea." 

I would be glad if the author of this work or 
any readers of " N. & Q." would inform me where 
I could meet with any account of this (supposed) 
event. RUSTICUS. 

Eric the Saxon. Sir E. L. B. Lytton says in his 
dedication of Harold, to the Rt. Hon. Mr. D'Eyn- 
court, " There is a legend attached to my friend's 
house, that, on certain nights in the year, Eric the 
Saxon winds his horn at the door, and in forma 
spectri serves his notice of ejectment" (on the 
ghostly father, the Bishop of Bayeux). 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M. A. 

The Devil and Church Building. In the 
course of a day's ramble in Jersey, I stumbled on 
St. Brelade's Church, which is reputed to be about 
1 LOO years old the oldest in the island, and oc- 
cupies a very remarkable situation, close to the 
tide mark in the beautiful little bay. The clergy- 
man of the parish turned up whilst I was con- 
templating this plain yet strange ecclesiastical 
relic, and ^volunteered a legend concerning it, re- 
markably like that of " The Devil and Runwell 
Man," in " N. & Q." (2 nd S. iv. 25.) He said that 
it had been intended to build the church on the 
spot now occupied by a Methodist chapel, over- 
looking St. Peter's Valley from the summit ground 
of the island ; but that, after the materials for 
the purpose had been laid down at night, they 
were found removed to the spot on which it was 
eventually thought better to build the church, 
next morning ; and this, I think, occurred more 
than once. SUOLTO MACi>urr. 



N 86., AUG. 22. '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



145 



Havering-at-Boiver. There are no nightingales 
at Havering- at-Bower, says the legend ; because 
St. Edward the Confessor, being interrupted there 
in his meditations, prayed that their intrusive song 
might never be heard again. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Domestic Incantations. A gentleman whose 
name is well known to the public, and who has 
gained a deservedly high reputation in the pho- 
tographic and artistic world, told me, that when 
in Finland he called with some friends at a road- 
side cottage, and desired to be accommodated with 
some boiled eggs, a portion of which were to be 
boiled hard. The damsel who superintended the 
boiling chanted a sing-song charm during the 
culinary process. This she repeated twice, and 
turned herself round six times ; the soft boiled 
eggs were then considered to be sufficiently done. 
She then repeated her verse for a third time, and 
turned herself round thrice ; when the hard 
boiled eggs were deemed to be ready for eating. 
They had no clock, dial, clepsydra, hour-glass, 
burning of tapers, or any other method of mea- 
suring the time necessary for the egg boiling, than 
this chanting of the song ; and a like kind of for- 
mula was repeated for similar domestic purposes, 
these " household words " being supposed to de- 
pend for their efficacy upon the full belief in the 
charm they were presumed to cause. The appli- 
cation of this to the incantations of witches over 
the concoction of some "hell-broth" is sufficiently 
obvious. CUTHBE&T BEDE, B.A. 

St. Leonard's Well Of St. Leonard's well at 
Winchelsea the good folks say that he who drinks 
will never rest till he returns to slake his thirst at 
its waters. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Swallowing live Frogs. More than forty years 
ago I recollect seeing one of my father's reapers, 
Mary Inglis by name, swallow several live frogs. 
It was done to cure herself of some stomach com- 
plaint (Pyrosis, or water-brush, I believe) under 
which she was suffering. When asked what she 
swallowed them for, she replied, that " there was 
naething better than a paddy for reddin' ane's 
puddins." When she administered her remedy 
she held the reptile by the two hinder feet, and 
bolted it over without any seeming repugnance ! 
Mary is^ still alive, nearly fourscore years of age, 
in the village of Auchencrow. Can any one say 
whether the swallowing of frogs was, to any 
extent, used as a remedy in former times ? The 
late eminent naturalist, Dr. George Johnston of 
Berwick, once told me that he knew individuals 
who had used this remedy. And an aged ac- 
quaintance has just told me that, when a girl, em- 
ployed in gleaning, she once saw a Highlandman 
swallow a young living frog. 

Chirusidc. 



SCOTTISH PROVINCIALISMS. 

The following is a list of words in common use 

in the South of Scotland, which are not found in 

the octavo abridgment of Jamieson's Etymological 

Dictionary ', published in 1818, which is understood 

to contain all the words of the four quarto vols. : 

A-lunt, in a blaze, on fire. 

Bais'd, abashed, confounded. 

Blush, water collected by making a dam of clay, or other 
material, in a kennel or small stream. When an open- 
ing is made in the dam the water gushes 'out, at first 
plentifully : hence, perhaps, " at the first blush." 

Book, to steep foul linen, &c. in lye. Buck, Shakspeare. 

Bude, behoved, impelled by feeling or principle. Exam- 
ple : " I biide to do it." 

Buist, a hospitable retreat ; also a box, a meal chest. Ex. 
" He's in a gude buist ; " " He is well off in the world." 

Chit, or Clyte, a fall, by slipping or stumbling. 

Codgbill, an earwig. 

Coomceiled, having a concave ceiling ; also any plastered 
ceiling, formerly a remarkable distinction in cottage 
architecture. Too many cottages have still no ceiling 
under the thatched roof. 

Cork, a master ; a term used by apprentices and work- 
men. 

Corp-house, a house in. which a dead body is laid out for 
burial. 

Crame, a stall on which goods are exposed for sale. Kram, 
German, kr'dmer, a shopkeeper. 

Dais' 'd, injured by dampness, begun to rot. 

Drack, to moisten flour, in order to make dough. 

Dung, depressed, sad, grieved. Ex. " He is sair dung," 
having lost his wife or child. 

Feel, soft and smooth, as fur, sleek. Unfeel, rough, rude, 
indecent. 

Flech, filch, very light or small ; also a./Zea. 

Fuffle, to handle carelessly ; to crease or disarrange linen 
or paper, &c. 

Gome, to heed, look upon, recognise. Ex. " He was so ill 
from sickness that he never gomed me." A.-S.; gyman ; 
Semi-Saxon semen. 

Grai, chastisement, reproof. Ex. "He has gotten his 
grai." He has been punished. 

Heather cow, a twig or stalk of heath. 

Hool, or Hi'de, a capsule, case, or husk. Ex. " To little 

Eeas." To shell, &c. " My heart out o' its hool was 
ke to loup." Ramsay's Gentle Shepherd. 

Kaif, domesticated, tame. 

Kent, a pole, used at the stern of a boat to impel it for- 
ward, having an iron bolt or spike inserted in its lower 
end. " A long staff used by shepherds for leaping over 
ditches or brooks." Jamieson. 

Kythe, to be seen. Ex. " He now kythes in his own co- 
lour." He now appears what he is in reality. A.-S. 
cythan. 

Kurr, to purr. Ex. " The cat purrs." Germ, kirren. 

Lainsh, to lounge^ to go about idly. A beggar lainshes for 
food to be given. 

Lether, to beat. A.-S. IrSeran. 

Lightlify, to depreciate, to speak disparagingly. 

Lozen, a pane or square of window-glass. 

Maunder, to talk tediously, digressively, incoherently. 

Pant, or Pant-well, a pump or well, common to a town or 
village. 

Pirnie, a worsted cap, usually red or striped, worn by 
mechanic workmen. 

Pook, to pluck at. 

Pyff er -> whyffer, to whine, whimper. 

Riisky, a straw bonnet worn by women, commonly by poor 
old women. 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 86., AUG. 22. '57. 



Saunted, vanished suddenly or imperceptibly. 

Scart, a Hermaphrodite. Scarcht. Jamieson. 

Scraggy, lean, scragged. 

Skory-homed, old and wrinkled, metaphorically, from the 

rings or marks on the horns of an old cow. 
Skive, a slice, as " a shive of bread." 
Slid, smooth, slippery, as " a slid stane." 
Spirlie, slender, wiry ; an unhealthy plant or shrub grows 

spirlie. 

Sybo, a green, half-grown onion. 
Tacket, a tack or small nail. 

Taircle, to catch a glimpse or sight of, to recognise quickly 
and unexpectedly. Ex. " I taircled upon him in the 
crowd, just as he was stepping out of the ship." 
Teemse, a scarce, sieve, boulter. 
Tew, to labour diligently and perseveringly. 
Tinkle tankle, an icicle. 

" Tinkle tankle, lang tail, 
Whan will the scule skail? 
The scule will skail at twal o'clock, 
I ken by the tinkle o't." 

Nursery Rhyme, Clydesdale. 

Toot, fit. Ex. " It's as toot you as me." 

Toots, tut, interjection. 

Tove, to steam, burn, or smoke briskly. 

Winlin, a sheaf or bottle of straw. Ex. " He starts at a 
strae, and lets a winlin gae." Prov. He is concerned 
about trifles, and neglects matters of importance. 

J.MN. 



RICHARD SAVAGE AND AARON HILL, 

That Savage was indebted for assistance to 
Aaron Hill none need be told who are acquainted 
with his works, or have read the account of his 
life. 

According to Dr. Johnson his obligations were : 

For giving publicity to Savage's story in The 
Plain Dealer, a periodical paper in which he was 
concerned with Mr. Bond, for the purpose of 
promoting the subscriptions to a " Miscellany of 
Poems," some of which (including the " Happy 
Man," which was published as a specimen) he 
furnished. 

For a prologue and epilogue to the tragedy of 
Sir Thomas Overbury. And for some corrections 
of that play, which seem, however, to have been 
only partially adopted. 

The services here recounted, though exhibiting 
much good feeling on the part of Hill, are very 
trifling in a literary point of view. 

In the Life of Aaron Hill, prefixed to his Dra- 
matic Works (2nd edit. 1763) it is stated : 

" The poem called ' The Bastard ' Mr. Hill wrote to 
serve Mr. Savage, and at the same time drew up a letter 
of dedication, both of which were sent to Sir Robert 
Walpole." 

Mention is then made of the " Miscellany of 
Poems" by subscription, after which the writer 
proceeds : 

*' And some years after, in hopes of raising for him a 
more excellent and powerful friend, he wrote a poem, call- 
ing it * The Volunteer Laureat.' " 



Then follows the poem on her Majesty's birth- 
day, 1731-2. 

" After some abridgement this was likewise presented 
to the Queen, and had so happy an effect upon her great 
humanity, that it procured Mr. Savage 50Z., with liberty 
of acquiring annually the same sum, by the same means." 

I do not imagine that the assertions here made 
will in any way affect the estimation (such as it 
is) in which Savage is held, but the fact that two 
of his pieces are unhesitatingly claimed for Aaron 
Hill may be worth recording. 

With regard to the birth-day ode, Savage, it 
will be remembered, speaks of himself as the 
author, in a letter to the Gentleman s Magazine, 
in which he gives an account of the origin of his 
title as Volunteer Laureat. 

While on this subject I beg leave to remind 
your readers of an outstanding Query from an- 
other correspondent (2 nd S. iii. 247.), namely, Was 
Savage really the son of the Countess of Maccles- 
field? 

The Life of Hill to which I have referred bears 
date 1759, and is subscribed with the initials I. K. 
Who was I. K. ? CHARLES WYLIE. 



The Curse of Minerva. 

" Look to the East, where Ganges' swarthy race 
Shall shake your tyrant empire to its base ; 
Lo ! there Rebellion rears her ghastly head, 
And glares the Nemesis of native dead ; 
Till Indus rolls a deep purpureal flood, 
And claims his long arrear of northern blood. 
So may ye perish ! Pallas, when she gave 
Your free-born rights, forbade ye to enslave." 

BYRON. 

The above effusion would be improperly intro- 
duced in any one of the ordinary political journals, 
as suggesting sympathy, or, at any rate, foregone 
conclusion, with the miserable occurrences of 
Bengal. But as a curious literary coincidence, 
" N. & Q," may publish it. ANON. 

Junius : Edition of 1772. I have not been 
able to find the following among the numerous 
editions of Junius registered in " N. & Q." : 

" JUNIUS. STAT NOMINIS UMBRA. Vol. I. Dublin : 
printed for John Milliken, College Green, and Caleb 
Jenkin, Dame Street. M.DCC.LXXII." 

The first volume, which is all I have seen, ap- 
pears to be a reprint of Woodfall's, and contains 
the "Dedication to the English Nation," the 
"Preface" of Junius, and 29 letters, 12mo., 
pp. xxiv. 149. If this Dublin piracy is unre- 
corded, your Junius correspondents will be obliged 
to you for inserting this note. B. H. C. 

News "The Coronet and the Cross."" The 
Rev. A. H. New has lately published rather an 
interesting work, entitled The Coronet and the 



d S. N 86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



Cross ; or, Memorials of Selina, Countess of Hunt- 
ingdon (London, 1857) ; but it contains some very 
strange inaccuracies. For example : he gives a 
droll reason why Sir Robert Shirley was created 
Viscount Tamworth and Earl Ferrars in 1711. 
" By reason of his grandfather's marriage with the 
youngest daughter of Robert Devereux, the un- 
fortunate Earl of Essex, and favourite of Queen 
Elizabeth!" He likewise tells us that to Lady 
Huntingdon " now [i. e. after her marriage in 
1728] might be applied the character which was 
afterwards written, under the name of Aspasia, in 
the 42nd number of the Tatler" Mr. New evi- 
dently supposes the Tatler to be something very 
modern : he seems indeed much afraid of anything 
old ; and, when he wants to stigmatise any practice 
or custom, he styles it " the relic of a by-gone 
age." ABHBA. 

Unicorns Horn. Permit me to call your at- 
tention to a mistake in natural history by the 
Athenaum Fine Arts Critic, in No. 1554, Aug. 8, 
1857, p. 1010. He says: 

" It is now known that the unicorn's horn of old mu- 
seums is the horn of the northern Narwhal fish ; they 
were sold at 6000 ducats, and were thought infallible 
proofs of poison, and specifics against its venom, just as 
Venetian glass and some sorts of jewels were. The 
Dukes of Burgundy kept pieces of horn in their wine- 
jugs, and used others to touch all the meat they tasted," 
&c. &c. 

Now, in the first place, the Narwhal has not a 
horn but a tooth ; and in the second, the sub- 
stance the " Critic " is talking about, is the horn 
of the rhinoceros, magnificent jewelled cups of 
which may be seen at Dresden and elsewhere. 

The old story of their being formed of the horns 
of animals killed by elephants in the Indian 
jungles is most likely true : for men before tin- 
headed bullets would have found it somewhat 
difficult to kill a rhinoceros. 

The narwhal was no such great rarity in the 
North, and could have been the subject of but few 
fables. 

India was the land of wonders from whence all 
wonders came. And every well-authenticated 
poison-cup that I have seen has been made of that 
beautiful substance rhinoceros horn. G. H. K. 

Half penny- Green, Bobbington. A queer com- 
bination of names ! but "Halfpenny- Green" is an 
important hamlet in the parish of Bobbington (on 
the borders of Staffordshire and Shropshire), and 
contains many houses of the better class ; and, 
moreover, finds its place and title upon the ord- 
nance-map. Whence did it derive its name? 
Local and county histories throw no light upon 
the subject ; and the latest historian (Mr. Eyton) 
is mute on this point. Nor could the parishioners 
help me to the origin of its name ; until, at length, 
a fortunate application to the oldest inhabitant 



resolved the difficulty. " Halfpenny- Green," then, 
was, " once upon a time," really a green, and not 
(as now) an enclosure ; and, in the centre of this 
green, there was a well ; and this well, being some 
sort of private property, the drawers of water 
therefrom had to pay a halfpenny per bucket for 
the water they subtracted from the well. Hence 
it was called " Halfpenny- Well, " and the green 
upon which it stood was named " Halfpenny 
Green." 

I only deem this local circumstance worthy of 
occupying space in " N. & Q." as an example of 
the vagaries of nomenclature ; and because it 
throws some light on the difficulties that beset 
those who endeavour to resolve by theory the 
puzzling problems of proper names. 

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

"Rule of Thumb" I am informed by a 
friend that the origin of this phrase, as applied to 
anything made or compounded without a precise 
formula, is to be found in Yorkshire ; where ale 
in which the temperature, and therefore the 
proper period for checking the fermentation, is 
ascertained by dipping the thumb in the wort, is 
distinguished by the epithet " Thumb Brewed." 

H. DRAPER. 
Dublin. 



WAS BISHOP DAVENANT MAKING USE OP BACONS 
PECULIAR PHRASEOLOGY AS EARLY AS 1627 ? 

Mr. Hallam has observed that the little taste 
which studious men had, under the first Stuarts, 
for any intellectual pursuits but theology, would 
tend to make them averse to the study of Bacon's 
inductive philosophy. (Lit. of Europe, vol. iii. ch. 
3.) I have no wish to dispute the general truth of 
this observation, but happening to have just met 
with two expressions in Davenant, Expos. Ep. 
Pauli ad Coloss., cap. i. v. 9., which seem de- 
cidedly Baconian, I should be glad to be informed 
by any of your readers who possess the Novum 
Organum, whether they are not to be found in its 
first book. I have searched the corresponding 
portion of Bacon, De Augm. Scient. (the fifth 
book), of which I happen to possess the earliest 
Paris edition, that of 1624, but have not found 
them there. The passage in Davenant is as fol- 
lows : 

"Est duplex plenitude cognitionis et cujuscunque 
gratise : plenitudo patrice et plenitudo vice. Plenitudo pa- 
trios est ilia maxima gratiae mensura, quam uniuscuj us- 
que mens capere potest ; hsec non habetur priusquam 
introducamur ad statum gloria?. Sed plenitudo vies est 
maxima ilia gratiae mensura, quam Deus unicuique electo- 
rum in hoc mundo impertire decrevit. Atque haec habetur 
ab omnibus electis antequam migrent ex hac vita." 

Bacon's peculiar predilection for the employ- 
ment of figurative terms, when wishing to give 



148 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* s. K so, Aua 22. 



precision to what he meant for definitions^ would 
be so exactly exemplified by such expressions as 
plenitudopatriaandplenitudo vice, that if Davenant 
was not actually transferring them from Bacon's 
pages to his own, he must have been ^imitating his 
wonderful contemporary. The edition of the 
Expos. Pauli ad Coloss., from which I copy, was 
printed at Cambridge in 1627, and the bishop 
announces this volume as the publication of lec- 
tures which he had delivered olim as Lady Mar- 
garet's Professor; but this will not necessarily 
mean that the language has not been revised and 
altered. In the same page (48.) he has said : 
" Non frigide, neque dicis causa, a Deo petere 
debemus beneficia," and dicis causa is such a very 
unusual form of expression, though to be found 
in Cicero, that I feel much disposed to suspect 
that Bacon had drawn it out of the "great Roman 
advocate's stores, and then the bishop from his. 

HENRY WALTER. 



CLIMACTERICS. 

I send you the rubbing of a brass in the 
church of Sidbury, adjoining Sidmouth. It is 
fixed against the wall on the south side of the 
chancel. In inches it measures 7 X 4. The 
inscription, in Roman capitals, has attracted at- 
tention, and has given rise to some speculation. 
It is this : 

1650. 

IIIC . IACET . IIENRICVS . ROBERT! . 
PARSON!! . FILIVS . QVI . EXIIT . ANNO . 

yETATIS . SV.E . OLIMACTERICO 
AETTE POO PIl'TIl ." 

" 1650. Hero lies Henry, tho son of Robert Parsonius, 
who died in the second-first climacteric year of his age." 

The question then arises, In what year did he 
die ? It may be inquired whether he died in the 
second year after having attained to his first cli- 
macteric, or in the year in which he attained to 
his second climacteric after the first climacteric ? 
The superstition respecting climacterics, or cri- 
tical periods of life, was very strong during the 
Middle Ages ; and even down to rather recent 
times the mystic numbers 7 and 9, so frequently 
occurring in the Bible, and the combinations of 
these numbers, have had their influence with 
many persons. It was believed that the con- 
stitution of man changed every seven years ; and 
that during every septime the whole of the solids 
and fluids of the body were periodically renewed 
the old cast off, and new matter formed. 
Periods of _ seven years were looked upon as steps 
or stages^ in life. At seven years of age a child 
had left infancy ; at twice seven, or fourteen, he 
had attained puberty; at three times seven, or 
twenty-one, he had reached manhood, and so on. 
But as people advanced in years the more critical 
points were approached, and the grand climac- 



teric was looked forward to with some anxiety. 
Combinations of the numbers 3, 7, and 9 were 
mostly employed, and 3x7 = 21, 7x7 = 49, 
7x9=63, and 9x9=81, were important periods. 
In the Thesaurus Lingua Romance et Britannicce , 
1578, we have 

" Climactericus annus, 
The perilous or dangerous yeare of one's lyfe. 

" Climactera. The perilous time of one's life, at euery vii 
yeres' ende ; or after other, at the end of 63 yeres ; at 
which tyme he is in some perill of body or minde." 

In Florio's Worlds of Wordes, London, 1598, 
we read : 

" Climacterico, the dangerous and perilous yeer of one's 
life : comonly the yeere 63. 

Johnson, in his Dictionary, refers to Cotgrave, 
who says : 

" Climactere ; every seventh, ninth, or the sixty-third 
years of a man's life : all very dangerous, but the last 
most." 

" Death might have taken such, her end deferr'd, 
Until the time she had been climacter'd, 
When she would have been three score years and three, 
Such as our best at three and twenty be." 

Dray ton, On the Death of Lady Clifton. 

In the 59th number of The Taller it is re- 
marked by a jocose old gentleman, that, having 
attained to sixty-four, he has passed his grand 
climacteric. Brown, in his Vulgar Errors, de- 
clares that there were two climacterics, 7 X 9 or 
63, and 9 X 9 or 81. If the writer of the inscrip- 
tion on the brass were impressed with these ideas, 
could he have used the word SeurepoTrp^ry to imply 
81 ? Lemon's Etymological Dictionary makes the 
grand climacteric to be eighty-one, though some of 
the other authorities speak of sixty-three as the 
great and momentous period of life. One of the 
early editions of the Encyclopedia Britannica 
(the 4th, 1810) speaks of two or more : 

"According to some," it says, "the climacteric is every 
seventh year ; but others allow only those years produced 
by multiplying 7 by the odd numbers 3, 5, 7, and 9 to be 
climacterical. These years, they say, bring Avith them 
some remarkable change with respect to health, life, or 
fortune. The grand climacteric is the 63rd year; but 
some, making two, add to this the 81st. The other re- 
markable climacterics are the 7th, 21st, 35th, 49th, and 
56th." 

This quotation rather involves than elucidates 
the point. In Kawlins's Latin Dictionary, 1693, 
we have 

" Numerus, qui ex novem novenariis resultat. Nempe, 
unitas ter sumpta conficit ternarium ; Ternarius in se 
ductus, novenarium ; Novenarius novies sumptus, unum 
et octoginta, qui est numerus climactericus." 

Foreign authorities are not more explicit. On 
turning over several French, Spanish, Italian, and 
Dutch writers, they all harp upon the numbers 7 
and 9 ; but have no clear ideas of the meaning of 
the word climacteric. 

But the word fevrepoTrpdry occurs in the first 



86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



149 



verse of the sixth chapter of St. Luke's Gospel : 

5 E7eVeTO Se eV ffaSSdrcaSevTepOTTp^T^diaTropeveffdai alr'bv 
5i Ttav (Tiropinav, &C. 

The authorised version renders it thus : " And 
it came to pass on the second Sabbath after the 
first, that he went through the corn-fields," &c. 
On this erroneous translation Whitby has some 
observations in his Commentary. "This," says he, 
" should have been rendered, In the first Sabbath 
after the second day of the Passover, &c. 

In applying this rendering to the inscription on 
the brass, the solution is still difficult. If Henry 
Parsonius died in the second year after his first 
climacteric, he died at eighty-three, if it were at 
eighty-one; or at sixty-five, if it were at sixty- 
three. Some will have it, that the first early cli- 
macteric in childhood was seven, and others that 
it was three, the number of the Trinity. If the 
first, he died at nine ; if the second, at five years 
old. 

These are my Notes : my Query is, How old 
was the defunct when he died ? P. O. H. 

Sid mouth. 



Bernard Lintot. I see it stated in The Drama, 
or Theatrical Pocket Magazine, vol. i. p. 133., 
1821, "that some portraits of the Lintot family 
hung lately on the staircase of an inn at Cuck- 
field." It would be worth inquiry what brought 
them there, and what has become of them (1849). 
The principal inns at Cuckfield are the " King's 
Head," " Talbot," " Ship," and " Rose and Crown." 

This celebrated bookseller, after having been 
the rival, for some years, of Jacob Tonson, retired 
about 1730 to the enjoyment of an easy fortune to 
Horsham, not far from Cuckfield. 

In November, 1735, he was appointed High 
Sheriff of the county, but died 3rd February fol- 
lowing, before he had actually entered on the 
duties of the office, to which his son Henry Lintot 
was appointed in his room, Feb. 5, 1735-6. 

He died 1758, his widow 1763, and their only 
daughter, Catharine, was married 1768, with a 
fortune of 45,000?., to Captain Henry Fletcher, 
afterwards Sir Henry Fletcher, Bart. 

G. CUBED. 

Museum Street. 

The Earl of Selkirk's Seat at St. Mary's Isle, N. 
B. Can any one point out to me an engraving, 
either separate, or comprised in any work, of 
St. Mary's Isle, the seat of the Earl of Selkirk, 
near Kirkcudbright, N. B. ? This noble mansion 
and demesnes had a visit a Timproviste from that 
daring incendiary and predatory navigator Paul 
Jones, on Thursday 23. April 1778, of whose ma- 
rauding attempts and exploits (the work of a few 
hours) the following is a brief outline : On the 



morning of April 23, alluded to, he landed from 
two boats, two hours before daylight, thirty armed 
men of the "Ranger" privateer, at Whitehaven 
(where he served his apprenticeship, and had been 
most kindly treated), who set fire to the shipping 
in the harbour, and then returned to their vessel ; 
but most miraculously, with great efforts, this in- 
fernal project was defeated. He after this sailed ; 
and in a few hours, of the same morning, landed 
at St. Mary's Isle, where he arrived just after the 
family had breakfasted, and took away as plunder 
the silver breakfast service, and all the plate be- 
sides in the house. The following day (Friday 
the 24th) he fell in with H. M. ship the " Drake," 
which was ill- manned and inadequately equipped, 
and after a slaughterous conflict she struck to 
him. Further accounts of this hero may be found 
in an interesting article in Colburn's United Ser- 
vice Magazine, for January 1843, pp. 58 71. 

LOYAL. 

Anonymous Plays. Could any of your New- 
castle correspondents give me any information re- 
garding the authors of the following plays ? 1st. 
Easter Monday, or the Humours of The Forth. 
This piece was published about 1781, and is said 
in the Biographia Dramatica to be written by a 
young gentleman of Newcastle. 2nd. Love in the 
Country, or the Vengeful Miller, a new Rustic 
Drama, written by a gentleman of Newcastle, 
and acted at the Newcastle Theatre, about April, 
]830. 3rd. Plumtree Park, a Farce, written by a 
gentleman in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, 
acted at the Newcastle Theatre, in November or 
December, 1856. X. 

St. Anne. Was St. Anne the patron saint of 
all wells ? Why are there so many wells called 
St. Anne's wells in different parts of the country ? 

C. E. S. 

Song. Can any of your readers tell me where 
the (Indian?) song is to be found, beginning 

" Bid me not tell who lit the flame, 
Lips may not breathe the maiden's name ; 
Musk in" her locks, sleep in her eyes, 
Who, without hope, looks on her dies." 

I have inquired in vain for it at most of the 
music shops in London, though I have often heard 
it sung. B. 

Carisbroke Castle. Who erected the tower of 
Carisbroke Castle ? It is attributed to Lord 
Holmes in a recent journal. BYBON SMYTH. 

Skater's "Public Gazetteer." I have in my 
possession a 4to. volume of Sleater's [Dublin] 
Public Gazetteer, pp. 404, commencing with No. I. 
published September 23rd, 1758, and ending with 
No. LII.j. published March 20th, 1759. It con- 
tains much curious information, both foreign and 
domestic ; and is, I believe, rather uncommon. 



150 



NOTES AND. QUERIES. 



S. N 86., AUG. 22. '57. 



Did any other numbers appear, and if so, Low 
many ? An Introduction, pp. 14, is prefixed to 



my copy. 



ABHBA. 



Rev. H. Hutton. Could any of your readers 
give me any information regarding the Rev. H. 
Hutton, formerly of Birmingham ? I think he 
was the author (besides other works) of a volume 
of Poetical Pieces, published at Chiswick in 1830. 

j\.i 

" Yend:"' " Vouch." What is the etymology 
of two words much used by the labouring classes 
in some parts of Devonshire ? They yend a stone 
instead of throwing it, and vouch on your corns 
instead of treading on them. D. S. 

Hew Hewson, the original of Smolletfs " Strap" 
I send you the following cutting from an old 
magazine respecting this worthy : 

"In the year 1819 was interred, in the burial-ground of 
St. Martin -in-the-Fields, the body of Hew Hewson, who 
died at the advanced age of eighty-five. He was a man 
of no mean celebrity, though no funeral escutcheons 
adorned his hearse, or heir apparent graced his obsequies. 
He was no less a personage than the identical Hugh 
Strap, whom Dr. Smollett has rendered so conspicuously 
interesting in his life and adventures of Roderick Random, 
and for upwards of forty years had kept a hairdresser's 
shop in the above parish. The deceased was a very intel- 
ligent man, and took delight in recounting the adventures 
of his early life. He spoke with pleasure of the time he 
passed in the service of the doctor, and it was his pride, 
as well as his boast, to say he had been educated at the 
same seminary with so learned and distinguished a cha- 
racter. His shop was hung round with Latin quotations, 
and he would frequently point out to his customers and 
acquaintances the several scenes in Roderick Random per- 
taining to himself, which had their foundation, not in the 
doctor's inventive fancy, but in truth and reality. 

" The meeting in a barber's shop at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, the subsequent mistake at the inn, their arrival to- 
gether in London, and the assistance they experienced 
from Strap's friend, were all of that description. He left 
behind him an interlined copy of Roderick Random, pointing 
out these facts, showing how far they were indebted to the 
genius of the doctor, and to what extent they were bottomed 
in reality. He could never succeed in gaining more than 
a respectable subsistence by his trade, but he possessed an 
independence of mind superior to his humble condition. 
Of late years he was employed as keeper of the prome- 
nade in Villier's Walk, Adelphi, and was much noticed 
and respected by the inhabitants who frequented that 
place."* 

I would now make two Queries. 1. Where was 
Hewson's shop ? 2. Is this interlined copy of 
Roderick Random in existence, and where ? 

G. CREED. 

List of Scottish Clergymen. I have long had 
a wish to make up a list or catalogue of our Scot- 
tish clergymen of every parish in Scotland, since 
the Reformation till the present time, giving their 
date of admission to office, time of their decease, 
&c. Does any complete list of our parochial mi- 



[* See tf. &Q." 1" S. iii. 123.; vii. 234.] 



nisters exist anywhere ? The records of Pres- 
byteries, Assemblies, Sessions, &c. are the only 
sources of information on this matter with which 
I am acquainted. Of the parishes of Berwickshire 
I have nearly a complete list ; but I find it would 
require a long and expensive research to finish 
such a work from the sources now open to me ; 
and I need regret this the less, as I have recently 
heard that a Scottish clergyman, Rev. Hen. Scott, 
is engaged in such a work ; and I trust that he 
will have due encouragement given him to publish 
it. MENYANTHES. 

Sir George Leman Tuthill of Caius College, 
Cambridge, B. A. 1794 ; M.A. 1809 ; M.L. 1813 ; 
M.D. 1816, died before 1834. We hope through 
your columns to ascertain the time and place of 
his death. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

Alderman Backwell. The alderman was one of 
the bankers robbed by Chas. II. on his shutting 
up the Exchequer. What bank of this day re- 
presents the alderman's ? Is it Childe's ? If so, 
when and why was the style changed ? How long 
was Backwell's bank current by his name, and 
who were his partners in his lifetime ? and who 
immediately succeeded to him in it after his flight 
to Holland ? Did he resume banking on his 
return ? J. K. 

Bishop of Rome. In the third volume of 
Raikes's Journal, p. 400, after describing the 
appearance of the Pope at a High Mass at the 
church of Sta. Maria del Popolo, the writer goes 
on to say : 

" In an opposite chair was another priest in a mitre 
also, who I found was the Bishop of Rome; he also 
officiated at the altar." 

Perhaps some one can inform me whether this 
distinction is a correct one ? and if so, how long 
the two dignities have been held separately ? 

W. H. WILLS. 

Bristol. 

Scallop Shells. The scallop is said to receive 
its name (Pecten Jacobced) from the shrine of St. 
James at Compostella; pilgrims returning from 
whence wore a scallop-shell in their hats. Can 
any of the contributors to " N. & Q." direct me 
to the story which connects this shell with St. 
James ? H. J. BUCKTON. 

Hull. 

"Rendered" of London. Information is re- 
quested regarding this family, circa 16 , sed q. if 
.Rendred is not a misprint of Pendered alias Pen- 
drith? In that case, what occurs under the 
heading of the latter name in the Lansdowne MSS., 
and the coat given to Pendrith of Kent, are known 
to the Querist, JAMES 



. NO 86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



Rev. Thos. Sparhe, D.D., Chaplain to Lord 
Jeffries, rector of Ewhurst, co. Sussex, and of 
Hog's Norton, co. Leicester, prebendary of Lich- 
field and of Rochester. Information is solicited 
respecting him beyond what is contained in the 
Athen. Oxon. ? His share in the Musce Anglicance 
is known to the Querist. JAMES KNOWLES. 

Rev. Alexander Lander. This clergyman was 
the minister of the parish of Mordington, near 
Berwick-upon-Tweed, in the early part of the last 
century, and published a volume entitled The 
Ancient Bishops Considered* It is, I understand, 
a very rare book, and I have never seen it, nor do 
I know its character. Could anyone inform me 
respecting the lineage of Mr. Lauder, the time of 
his admission to Mordington, the time of his de- 
cease, and whether he left any descendants, or 
wrote anything besides the above ? It is probable 
that he was a descendant of the Lauders of Bass 
and North Berwick, of which family the Lauders 
of Eddrington, in Mordington parish, was a 
branch. MENYANTHES. 

Chirnside. 

"Luther's Hymn" In the Tables of Contents 
to our various hymn-books I constantly find the 
name of Luther as the author of the well-known 
lines beginning 

" Great God ! what do I see and hear ! " 
Now, it is true that Luther composed the beau- 
tiful melody to which these lines are usually sung; 
but with the lines themselves he had nothing to 
do. The style of them and really they are sad 
stuff! most unsuitable for congregational singing 
is totally unlike the homely, rugged verses of 
the Reformer, as they may be seen in any edition 
of his Geistliche Lieder : for instance, in that by 
Wackernagel (Stutgardt, 1848). My Query is, 
Who wrote the lines " Great God ! " &c. ? I fancy 
they date from the last century, when created and 
seated made a good rhyme. JAYDEE. 

Trial of Warren Hastings. Having in my pos- 
session two tickets of admission to the trial of this 
extraordinary man, I should feel obliged if any of 
your correspondents could state if a series of them 
are in existence, as there appears to have been an 
issue for each day^, and each of a different cha- 
racter. On one is represented the interior of 
Westminster Hall, with Burke on his legs, with 
outstretched arm, thundering forth his anathemas 
against the unfortunate Governor of India; on the 
other is the arms of the then Deputy Great Cham- 
berlain. J. B. WHITBOBNE. 



[* This work is entitled The Ancient Bishops Consi- 
dered, both with respect to the extent of their Jurisdiction, 
and the Nature of their Power : in Answer to Mr. Chil- 
lingworth and others. By Alex. Lauder, Minister of the 
Gospel at Mordentoun. Edinb., Printed by James Wat- 
son in Craig's Closs. 1707. 8vo.] 



George Meriton. Can you or any of your cor- 
respondents favour me with an account of George 
Meriton, an attorney of North Allerton, author 
of Anglorum Gesta, Landlord 's Law, Nomenclatura 
Clericalis, $*c., who went to Ireland, and is said to 
have been made a judge ? C. J. D. INGLEDEW. 

Sir Thomas Sheridan. Where shall I be able 
to obtain any full account of Thomas Sheridan, 
sometimes called Sir Thomas Sheridan, who had 
been Secretary of State, and a Revenue Commis- 
sioner in Ireland during the Viceroy alty of Tyr- 
connel in the reign of James II., particularly of 
his subsequent career after his quarrel with Tyr- 
connel ? I presume there are more full and pre- 
cise accounts of this quarrel, than that given in 
the Full and Impartial Account of All the Secret 
Consults, S^c., of the Romish Party in Ireland, from 
1660 to this present Year 1689 : printed in London 
by Richard Baldwin, 1690. Was this Thomas 
Sheridan a relative of Sheridan who accompanied 
Prince Charles Edward Stuart in " 45 " ? and if 
so, how connected ? W. R. G. 

firing's List. What authority, as a work of 
historical reference, is the List of Compositions 
for their Estates paid by the Nobility, Gentry and 
others, published by T. Dring in 1655, at Lon- 
don ? * Are copies of the List scarce at the 
present time ? When, where, and by whom 
were the Compositions enforced ? and more espe- 
cially how were they regulated ? If they were 
assessed at a uniform rate, applicable to each and 
every case, then the List is valuable as showing 
the amount of property possessed at the time by 
those who were forced to compound ; but if the 
compositions were not assessed according to any 
fixed rule or uniform rate, then the List is valuable 
only as a schedule of those who had to pay. In 
short, any account of the Compositions and the 
List will be received with thanks by 

HENRY KENSINGTON. 

Richard Kelly, of Petworth, co. Sussex, gent., 
living June 10, 1700. Is anything known of him 
to any correspondent of " N. & Q. " ? 

JAMES KNOWLES. 



foriff) 

Heralds' Visitations for Cornwall. When was 
the last Heralds' visitation made for the county 
of Cornwall? and where may the record be 
found ? D. J. 

Launceston. 

[The last visitation of Cornwall was made in the year 
1620, by St. George and Lennard. Many copies are ex- 
tant, viz. five at the British Museum, two at the College 
of Arms, one at Caius College, Cambridge, and one in the 



[* Some particulars respecting Dring's List will be 
found in our 1 st S. v. 546.] 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. NO 86., Au. 22. '57. 



Bodleian Library at Oxford (vide Sims's Manual for the 
Genealogist, p. 163.). A list of the pedigrees and arms 
contained in the copies at the British Museum may be 
found in Sims's Index to the Heralds' Visitations, Lond. 
1849.] 

William Julius MicTile. I have lately discovered 
that Mickle, the poet, resided at Wheatley. I 
have been looking at his residence to-day, and 
walked to Forest Hill, where he was buried. I 
should like to know who wrote his epitaph : 

"William Julius Mickle, born 29th Sept. 1734. Died 
25th Oct. 1788. 

" Mickle, who bade the strong poetic tide 
Roll o'er Britannia's shores, in Lusitanian pride." 

Where shall I find the lest account of his life ? 
Is it not singular that both Milton and Mickle 
should have married their wives from the same 
house at Forest Hill, the village and neighbour- 
hood referred to in " L' Allegro." W. SANDERS. 

Chil worth Farm, Tetsworth. 

[The two lines quoted as an epitaph on Mickle are 
from the first book of The Pursuits of Literature, by T. J. 
Mathias, and form part of the following eulogium : 

" To worth untitled would your fanc} r turn ? 
The Muse all friendless wept o'er Mickle's urn : 
Mickle, who bade the strong poetic tide 
Roll o'er Britannia's shores in Lusitanian pride." 

Mr. Isaac Reed, who knew Mickle well, drew up the 
first published account of his life in the European Maga- 
zine for Sept. and Nov. 1789, pp. 155. 317., accompanied 
with a portrait. The best account, however, of this poet, 
is by his friend the Rev. John Sim, late of St. Alban 
Half, Oxford, prefixed to Mickle's Poetical Works, 12mo., 
1806.] 

Olaus Magnus. Is there an English trans- 
lation of Olaus Magnus f Who is the translator, 
if there is one ? and where may it be seen ? 

MBNYANTHES. 

Chirnside. 

[Cornelius Scribpnius Grapheus abridged the work of 
Olaus Magnus, which has been translated into English, 
and is entitled A Compendious History of the Goths, 
Swedes, Vandals, and other Northern Nations, bv J. S. ; 
London, printed by J. Streater, 1658, fol. Two copies of 
it are in the British Museum.] 

" Rule the roast" Is this phrase a corruption 
of " rule the roost" and analogous to the pro- 
verbial expression, "to be cock of the walk?" 

Will any of your correspondents explain the 
force of " ruling the roast" in the sense of being 
master ? 

Any one who has watched the interior of a hen- 
house at roosting time, and has witnessed the 
jealousy of the " cock of the walk," in not suffer- 
ing any of his subalterns to roost on the same 
perch as himself, will confess the force of " rule 
the roost." 

I want some illustrations to prove that " roast " 
is the correct word. X. X. X. 

[Webster informs us that, "In the phrase < to rule the 



roast,' the word roast is a corrupt pronunciation of the 
German, rath, counsel, Dan. raad, and Sw. rad." Richard- 
son offers the following explanation : " To rule the roast 
(sc.) as king of the feast, orderer, purveyor, president ; or 
may it not be to rule the roost, an expression of which 
every poultry-yard would supply an explanation ? 

" Geate you nowe vp into your pulpites like bragginge 
cockes on the rowst, fiappe your whinges, and crow out 
aloude." Jewell, Defence of the Apologie, p. 35. 

Cleland, in his Specimen of an Etymological Vocabulary, 
p. 7., has suggested the following as the origin of the 
phrase : " The Ridings of Yorkshire is a corruption from 
Radtings, governments. Radt signifies a subaltern ruler, 
or provincial minister. A counsellor of state was of old 
called a Raadt; the council was called the Raadst : thence 
whoever had the capital influence in council was said ' to 
rule the raadst,' or in the present pronunciation ' to rule 
the roast.' "] 

Who composed " Rule Britannia f" A para- 
graph has appeared in the papers purporting to 
be an extract from Handel : his Life personal and 
professional, by Mrs. Bray, in which it is said that 
" Rule Britannia, which is taken from Alfred, a 
Masque, by Dr. Arne, is in great part borrowed 
from the poor Occasional Oratorio. In reality it 
is by Handel ; for in the whole air there are only 
two bars which do not belong to him." 

Can any of your readers point out the passage 
or passages in the Occasional Oratorio to which 
Mrs. Bray alludes. J. W. PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

[The "celebrated Ode in Honour of Great Britain," 
was a song well known in 1740, and performed as part 
of Alfred, in that year, and in the Judgment of Paris in 
1741. Handel must therefore have stolen the melody 
from Arne, if it be in the Occasional Oratorio, for that was 
not composed for some years afterwards. No doubt Dr. 
Arne composed Rule Britannia, and without doubt also 
Handel in the song, "Prophetic visions strike my eye," 
at the words, " \Yar shall cease, welcome peace,*" pur- 
poseh r introduced the first phrase of Dr. Arne's tune, to 
please the people, and to show what he could do with it. 
But Arne's melody cannot be said to be bodily incor- 
porated in Handel's composition. Alfred was written by 
Mallet and Johnson, and played in 1740; but Mallet 
wrote the " celebrated ode," which Southey describes as 
"the political hymn of this country as long as she main- 
tains her political power." Alfred was altered by Mallet 
in 1751, and three stanzas of the ode were omitted and 
three others supplied by Lord Bolingbroke ; but the ori- 
ginal ode is that which has taken root, and now known 
as one of our national anthems. Consult Dinsdale's new 
edition of David Mallet's Ballads and Songs, pp. 292294. 
1857.] 



SOUTHEYS COWPEE. 
(2 nd S. iv. 101.) 

HARVABDIENSIS is not quite correct when he 
says that " an additional volume " of Cowper's 
letters " appeared from the hands of the Rev. 
John Johnson (1824)." The fact and it is one 
which fully accounts for " poor success and heavy 



gaa g. H 86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



sale " is, that the publisher thought fit to spread 
out what might, and should, have been one very 
moderate volume into two. I forget what the 
price was ; but as the two volumes of about 400 
pages each were handsomely printed in large type, 
on good paper, with ample margin, and engraved 
portraits of Cowper and Mrs. Unwin, I have no 
doubt that it was considerable. I scarcely recol- 
lect having seen a more barefaced and shameless 
specimen of book-making. It now lies before me ; 
and as far as I can judge from very slight calcu- 
lation, the Note of HARVARDIENSIS (occupying 
rather more thfin one page and a half of " N. & 
Q.") would, if printed in one of these volumes, 
have occupied rather more than eight pages. 
Since I wrote the foregoing sentence it has oc- 
curred to me that some excuse of making the 
work like Hay ley's Life of Cowper may have been 
pleaded ; but it is not surprising that, when pre- 
sented to them in such a form, men turned in dis- 
gust from volumes which, if they had read them, 
they might have found to be, on more than one 
ground, as it regards both style and sentiment, 
worthy of their serious study, and entitled to a 
place in the first and highest class of English lite- 
rature. It was a just retribution that left " a 
thousand copies remaining in the publisher's 
warehouse." Surely, however the volumes may 
have been picked over, and made use of, in more 
recent publications, there must be many persons 
who would gladly give more for them than the 
price of " waste paper." This, however, is not my 
business ; but perhaps I may be allowed to ex- 
press my satisfaction in finding that Cowper and 
his works are more highly appreciated in America 
than they seem to be in his own country. It is, 
indeed, lamentable that the work of biography and 
editing should have been undertaken or meddled 
with by men like Hayley and Southey book- 
makers who, whatever pretensions they might 
have to criticise the poet, were so void of sym- 
pathy with the man, that they could not be ex- 
pected to form a true opinion, or deliver a just 
view, of his thoughts, language, and circum- 
stances. To be told by such men that they have 
picked out all that is worth having, and pieced it, 
or kneaded it, into their own work, is a trial of 
one's temper. Perhaps others besides myself 
would be glad to see in " N. & Q." a brief notice 
(if only a mere list) of American editions of Cow- 
per, and works relating to him, if HARVARDIENSIS 
can furnish such a thing. S. R. MAITLAND. 

Gloucester. 



QUADRATURE OP THE CIRCLE. 

(2 nd S. iv. 57.) 

AVhen I say that by consent of geometers, the 
word geometrical is restricted to that which uses 



Euclid's allowance of means, of course I deny that 
the circle can be squared geometrically " by other 
means : " for other means constitute that which by 
definition is ungeometrical. But I apprehend that 
when the question asks whether the thing can be 
done geometrically by other means, the adverb 
signifies constructively, without recourse to calcu- 
lation. It may be used in two senses : either as 
implying perfect accuracy of result, if perfect ac- 
curacy of additional means be postulated ; or as 
implying graphical correctness, that is, practical 
drawing on paper, with as much accuracy as the 
best draughtsman requires. 

As to the first meaning, it is well known that if 
the reasoner be allowed an additional curve, be- 
sides the circle, of which, by postulate, he is 
granted the perfectly accurate construction, he 
can square a circle as accurately as Euclid squares 
a triangle ; the same kind of perfection existing in 
both cases. Give him the spiral of Archimedes, 
or the involute of the circle, or the cycloid, &c., 
&c., and the thing is done. But in each of these 
cases, the new assumption is at least of as difficult 
a character as the difficulty which it is to solve. 
This, however, is to be said, that there are many 
curves, any one of which, being admitted, will 
conquer, not merely the quadrature of the circle, 
but the rectification of any arc, and the division 
of the angle into any number of equal parts. Of 
all these curves the cycloid is perhaps the most 
simple. 

Many attempts have been made, and some very 
close ones, to give a sufficiently good graphical 
construction of the circumference of a circle, from 
which the square equal to the circle is readily 
found. Several of these are given in the twelfth 
edition of Hutton's Course, and in the Mechanics' 
Magazine for January, 1846. But the old sur- 
veyor's rule for finding an arc approximately 
would do very well. From three times the chord 
of half the arc, take away the third part of the 
sum of the chord of the arc and the chord of half 
the arc : the remainder is the length of the arc, 
very nearly. The smaller the arc chosen, the 
nearer to the truth is this rule. Apply it to an 
arc whose chord is the radius, and we have the 
sixth part of the circumference, not wrong by one 
part in seven thousand. A. DE MORGAN. 



RICHARD III. AT LEICESTER. 

(2 nd S. iv. 102.) 

In your publication of the 8th of August ap- 
pears an extract from a work by Sir Roger Twys- 
den, made by one of your correspondents, relating 
to the bedstead on which Richard III. slept while 
a guest at the Blue Boar Inn, Leicester, on the 
few nights immediately preceding the battle of 
Bosworth Field. 



154 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



NO 86., Auo. 22. '57. 



As the story is one of the legends of Leicester, 
and the extract adds information to the stock 
already known, I may be permitted to say a word 
or two on the subject. 

It is quite certain a bedstead has been ex- 
hibited in Leicester, for many years, as that on 
which Richard III. slept ; for in certain verses on 
" Penny Sights and Exhibitions in the reign of 
James the First," prefixed to Master Tom Co- 
ryate's Crudities, and published in 1611*, "King 
Richard's bed-sted in Leyster " is included in the 
catalogue. 

Whether the bedstead now or lately preserved 
at a mansion in the neighbourhood of Leicester, is 
that which was exhibited in the reign of James I., 
I cannot undertake to say ; nor whether the story 
about the discovery of the gold is true : but there 
can be no doubt about the murder of the landlady 
of the Blue Boar, Mrs. Clark, for in compiling the 
materials of a History of Leicester, published in 
the year 1849, I found among the town papers the 
manuscript depositions of the witnesses who bore 
testimony against the murderers, with all the par- 
ticulars of the affair. The details will be found 
in that history at pp. 327, 328, 329, and 330. It 
will prove a curious, and by no means uninstruc- 
tive, process, to compare the ancient tradition with 
the written record, in this instance ; as it will show 
the proverbial tendency of rumour and legend to 
exaggerate facts and circumstances. The murder 
was committed in the year 1605, not 1613 ; and 
one man was hanged, and one woman burned to 
death for the offence not one woman and seven 
men, as stated by Sir Roger Twysden. 

The question yet remains doubtful whether the 
bedstead on which Richard III. slept was ever 
exhibited, and also whether he ever concealed gold 
in any bedstead. That he lodged in the Blue 
Boar, which inn was taken down about twenty 
years ago, I think is sufficiently established ; but 
beyond this fact it does not appear to me safe to 
go on this head in the way of historical affirmation. 

JAMES THOMPSON. 
Chronicle Office, Leicester. 



RYGGES AND WHAKPOOLES. 
(2d S. iv. 30.) 

The word which is spelt " Wharpooles," in your 
correspondent's citation from Grafton's Abridge- 
ment (ed. 1571), respecting " great fishes " caught 
in the Thames, is " Whyrpooles " in the edition of 
1570, and " Whirpooles " in that of 1572. 

Foreign writers of the middle ages speak of the 
" Whirle-pool," the " Horlepoole," the " Whyrle- 
pole," the " Whorpoul," &c., as the English name 
of a great fish ; and some mention is to be found 

* See " N. & Q.," vol. viii. pp. 558, 559, 



in English writers of the same period. Wil- 
lughby, in his Hist. Piscium, edited by Ray, 1686, 
states that the Physeter of Rondelitius is a Whirle- 
pool (p. 41 .). Elyot writes in his Latin Dictionary, 
" Bala3na, a greatte fishe, which I suppose to be 
a Thurlepoll." Palsgrave, " Whirlpole, a fisshe, 
chaudron de mer." 

From foreign writers, the first passage that 
claims citation is that in Gesner (Icon. Animal. 
1560), because it apparently refers to the identical 
occurrence chronicled by Grafton, as cited in " N. 
& Q.," namely, the extraordinary capture of 
"great fishes" in the Thames (1551). Gesner 
writes : 

" Pistris aut Physeter horribile genus cetorum. Angli 
quidam eruditi Physeterem interpretantur a Whyrlepole, 
alii scribunt Whirlepoole, alii Horkpole. Non ita pridem 
tres hujus generis in Thamesi fluvio Angliae captos esse, 
Joan. Caius indicavit. Ego physeterem multo majorem 
puto, quam qui fluvios intrare possit, nisi prima setate 
forsan." P. 170. 

Dr. Caius addressed to Gesner a memoir on 
rare fishes, which is in print. But the above ap- 
pears to have been a private communication. So 
also does the following, which Gesner cites as 
coming from " Gulielmus Turnerus," in whose 
published works I can find nothing on the subject : 

" Physeterem nostri vocant a Whorpoul, qui, licet por- 
tentosaB magnitudinis, ad Balagna? tamen magnitudinem 
nunquam accedit. Hujus generis aliquando vidi." 
Gesner, Icon. Animal, p. 170. 

See also the Fischbuch, which is Gesner in a 
German dress (1563), and gives the English 
names Whyrlepole, Whirlepole, and Horlepole 
(p. 100. verso). And conf. Brisson, Regne Ani- 
mal, 1756, " Le Souffleur, Delphinus penna in 
dorso nulla, Physeter. Les Allemands 1'appellent 
Sprutzwal, Wetterwal ; les Anglais Whirle-pool" 
P. 374-5. 

With regard to the French term "Chaudron de 
mer," which Palsgrave gives for " Whirpole, a 
fisshe," hints may be found in Dufresne (voce 
cauderid), and in Bescherelle (voce calderon). 
But the expression does not appear to have ever 
been in general use among French writers. 

In the absence of any certain information re- 
specting the other class of " great fishes " called 
" Ryg es " it mav be allowable to hazard a con- 
jecture, that the Rygge was no other than the 
Monodon vulgaris (common Narwhal), or else the 
Monodon microcephalus. 

A cow in Scotland is called a riggie, if she have 
a stripe running along the back from the nape to 
the tail ; she is then said to be riggit or rigged, 
from rig, the back, in Swedish rygg, or rijgg. 
Now the M. vulgaris or Narwhal is described as 
rigged, that is, as having a prominent ridge on the 
back extending all the way from the tail to the 
blow-holes on the nape. So also is the M. micro- 
cephalus, which comes farther south, and therefore 
was all the more likely to find its way into the 



2d S. NO 86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



Thames. And as we learn from Crantz's Green- 
land (1770, i. 146.), that the " Jupiter-fisch " was 
called Gibbar, from a hump on its back, while 
Sir R. Sibbard, in his Phalcenologia Nova, informs 
us that some whales were called in Scotland pyked 
whales from having on the back a point or pyke, 
so it is not impossible that either the M. vulgaris 
or the M. microcephalus may have acquired 
among 'longshore people and fishermen, from its 
dorsal stripe, the name of Rygge. 

Rig, which with us has now become ridge, was 
once an English as well as a Scottish word, in the 
sense of a back (a pake at his rigge, a pack at his 
back). In like manner the old English word 
, brig, has become bridge. 
e German word corresponding to rig, a back, 
is rucken, which is used, like rig, in describing the 
backs of animals. Thus we find riicken-flosser, a 
fish having dorsal fins ; riicken-haar, the ridge or 
dorsal stripe of a beaver, or in some cases of a 
dog ; rucken-kamm, the dorsal crest of some 
lizards. May not a " great fyssche " then, as well 
as a cow, have acquired the name of Rygge from 
its dorsal stripe ? 

Of the two terms in question, Rygge and Whar- 
poole, neither appears to have been at any former 
time very generally adopted by our learned pro- 
genitors, who chronicled the marvels of the sea. 

THOMAS BOYS. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC CORRESPONDENCE. 

Photography Anticipated. I do not know whether 
your observation has ever been called to Kearsly's Pocket 
Ledger for the year 1775, which contains the following 
extract from Dr. Hooper's Rational Recreations in four 
volumes : 

" Writing on Glass by the Rays of the Sun. 

"Dissolve chalk in aqua fortis, to the consistence of 
milk, and add to that a strong dissolution of silver. Keep 
this liquor in a glass decanter, well stopped. Then cut 
out from a paper the letters you would have appear, and 
paste the paper on the decanter ; which you are to place 
in the sun, in such a manner that its rays may pass 
through the spaces cut out of the paper, and fall on the 
surface of the liquor. The part of the glass through 
which the rays pass will turn black, and that under the 
paper will remain white. You must observe not to move 
the bottle during the time of the operation." 

We see from this interesting record, that photography 
was discovered eighty years ago! Had it been duly 
followed up, how many striking pictures might we not 
have had of the tremendous scenes which took place 
during the great French Revolution, and consequent wars 
of Napoleon. C. NOEL WELMAN. 

Norton Manor, near Taunton. 

Mr. Crookes's Wax Paper Process. Mr. Crookes, 
whose opinion on every matter connected with photo- 
graphy is deserving of the best attention, is of opinion 
that the waxed paper process is " more particularly ap- 
plicable to the requirements of the tourist or amateur 
than any other process whatever;" and that, "though 



the various operations appear at first sight rather com- 
plex, they are easily reduced to practice, while average 
results can be obtained by it with a smaller share of ma- 
nipulative skill than is required in most other paper pro- 
cesses." Acting on this belief, Mr. Crookes has just 
published A. Hand-book to the Waxed Paper Process in 
Photography, in which he gives most minute and definite 
directions for the successful practice of this process ; and 
as Mr. Crookes is not a mere theorist, but has reduced 
his theory to practice in his photometeorographic regis- 
trations at the RatclifFe Observatory, the reader may feel 
assured that if he essays the waxed paper process under 
Mr. Crookes's directions and follows those directions 
strictly and carefully he need be under no apprehen- 
sions as to the result. 

Dr. Diamond's Portraits. Dr. Diamond has just added 
to his series of truthful and characteristic Portraits of 
Literary Men, a very striking photograph of Dr. Doran, 
whose pleasant anecdotical writings are just now so ex- 
tremely popular : and one of Dr. Richardson, the learned 
editor of the great Dictionary of our language which 
bears his name. But the work which will probably 
spread far and wide Dr. Diamond's reputation as a skilful 
photographer, is his series of four portraits of Douglas 
Jerrold, taken by him but a few weeks before the death 
of that extraordinary man. To those who knew Douglas 
Jerrold these portraits are invaluable as memorials of 
their lost friend ; while to those who had not that advan- 
tage, they give a most accurate notion of the personal 
characteristics of that brilliant genius. 



to M 

Channel Steamer (2 nd S. iv. 106.) In answer 
to EXPLORATOR'S inquiry respecting " Channel 
Steamers," I beg to state that I had the honour 
to command the first sea-going steamer that ever 
went down St. George's Channel into the Atlantic. 
She was called the " St. Patrick," of 300 tons, 
and 120 horse-power engines, and was built at 
Liverpool, under my superintendence, expressly 
to run between Liverpool, Dublin, and Bristol, 
and she made her first trip in May, 1822. The 
complete success which attended this undertaking 
led to the establishment of Her Majesty's mail 
steam packets between Liverpool and Dublin, one 
of which I commanded during a period of twenty 
years. I am aware that a small steamboat was 
taken from the Clyde to the Thames, by a Captain 
Dodd, as early as the year 1815, but this vessel 
was a mere river boat, not a " sea-going steamer," 
and that hap-hazard and tedious enterprise, oc- 
cupying upwards of three weeks, could not justly 
be called the inauguration of the sea steamer. 

JOHN P. PHILIPPS, Lieut., R.N. 

Leaving the main question to be settled by others, 
it is worthy of record that the first steamer esta- 
blished on the Mersey, for river traffic, was in 
1815 ; and that to the late Mr. George La French 
is due the honour of running the first steamboat 
between Birkenhead and Liverpool in 1821. 

T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 



156 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 86., AUG. 22. '57. 



Prof. Young and Gray's "Elegy" (2 nd S. iii. 
506. ; iv. 35. 59.) Till the mistake of Y. B. 1ST. J., 
in confounding Professor Moor with his successor 
in the Glasgow Greek chair, I never heard any 
doubt expressed as to the authorship of A Criti- 
cism on Gray's Elegy in a Country Churchyard, 
Boswell alludes to Professor Young as the author, 
and eulogises it as " the most perfect imitation of 
Johnson," although Croker characterises it as 
" one of the most insipid and unmeaning volumes 
ever published." A copy was sent to Dr. John- 
son, who, in a letter to Thrale, July 5, 1783, says 
he never cut the leaves. I have reason to know 
that the Professor acknowledged the work, though 
published anonymously ; and I recollect seeing a 
copy of it which he sent to a near relation of 
mine, to whom he was formerly tutor. J. O. 
seems puzzled by the advertisement in the first 
edition of 1783 being dated from Lincoln's Inn ; 
but did it not occur to him that a writer, wishing 
to preserve his incognito, would naturally fix on 
a locality remote from his own. Would he have 
had Mr. Young date hisjeu d' 'esprit from Glasgow 
College ? R. K. 

Johannes Homer (2 ad S. iv. 108.) There is 
a tradition in Somersetshire, that the Abbot of 
Glastonbury hearing that Henry VIII. had spoken 
with indignation of his building such a kitchen as 
the king could not burn down, being domed over 
with stone, sent up his steward. Jack Horner, to 
present the king with an acceptable dish, viz. a 
dish which, when the crust was lifted up, was 
found to contain deeds transferring twelve manors 
to his sovereign ; and that as Jack Horner tra- 
velled up to town, in the abbot's waggon, he lifted 
up the crust and stole out the gift of the manor 
of Wells, still possessed by his descendants, and 
when he returned, told the abbot that the king 
had given it to him, but was found, or suspected, 
to have imposed on his patron. Hence the satire 
vested under the nursery lines : 

" Little Jack Horner 

Sat in a corner [viz. that of the waggon], 
Eyeing his Christmas pye {i.e. looking at it till he 

coveted a portion] ; 
lie put in his thumb 
And pulled out a plumb [the deeds of the manor of 

And said, ' What a brave boy am I.' " 

A. B. C. 

" Felix culpa" frc. (2 nd S. iv. 107.) These words 
are not the beginning of a Latin proverb, but of 
a beautiful sentence in the form of Blessing the 
Paschal Candle, which is chanted by the deacon 
on Holy Saturday. It runs thus : " Ofelix culpa, 
qiicc tulem ac tautum meruit habere Redemptorem I " 
The form of Benediction in which these words 
occur has been attributed to various authors, as 
St. Ambrose, St. Augustin, Pope Zosimus, St. 
Leo, &c., but the author is absolutely unknown. 



Its use in the Church, however, is of remote an- 
tiquity. F. C. H. 

" Men of the Merse" I feel much indebted 
to M. E. F., (Dunse) for his obliging reply to my 
Query concerning the ballad of the " Men of the 
Merse " (2 nd S. iv. 57.) ; but I deeply regret that 
the source which he indicates has been recently 
closed by the death of the worthy individual (Mr. 
Thomas Edgar, farmer, Harcarse Hill, Berwick- 
shire), to whom I would have gladly applied, as 
he was not unknown to me, and I have no doubt 
would have readily furnished me with a copy of 
the ballad in question. Mr. Edgar died on the 
30th ultimo, aged seventy-four. But perhaps 
M. E. F. may be able to point out some other 
source, where I may yet obtain what I want. This 
instance shows, however, that individuals engaged 
in any kind of antiquarian research should lose 
no time in availing themselves of those sources of 
information open to them : as Death, the destroyer, 
is every day cutting oft' or lessening all such 
sources. MENYANTHES. 

Chirnside. 

Cups: Tobacco (2 nd S. iv. 117.) MR. CHAR- 
NOCK'S mention of an inscription on an ancient 
wooden bowl reminded me of Pauper Johannes. 
In the year 1743, there was in the buttery of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, a cup so named, 
which is immortalised in a poem written by Vin- 
cent Bourne, under the title of " Pauper Jo- 
hannes." The first six lines are : 

" Insignis fama scyphus est, et splendidus usu, 

Qui suum ab inscripto carmine nomen habet, 
Nocturnus studiis saspe ille adjutor, alumnus 

Cum solus fruitur se fruiturque libris. 
Nee comes ingratus, prctum cum leniter haurit, 

Et reh'cit sese lentus oclore tubi." 
The inscription referred to in the second line is, 
" Pauper Johannes, dictus cognomine Clarkson, 
Hunc Cyathum dono gratuitoque dedit." 

Does "Pauper Johannes" survive save in V. B.'s 
poem in 

"Versu, quern simplex, sed pia, Musa canit ? " 

J. W. FARRER. 

"Arsenal" (2 lU S. iii. 348. 437.) The origin 
of this word is involved in some obscurity, and 
many are the etymologies that have been sug- 
gested. Dufresne objects to a Turkish derivation, 
because, as he alleges, the armamentarium was 
called apcnjvdX-ris at Constantinople long before the 
Turks came there. If this objection be deemed 
valid, we seem constrained to fall back upon the 
old derivation from the Latin. 

No wonder, indeed, that the etymology, arsenal 
= arx iiavalis, should be deemed not " particularly 
satisfactory." But this is not precisely the form 
in which Dr. Richardson presents us with the de- 
rivation. He writes, " Junius conjectures that it," 
arsenal, " is contracted from the It. arce navale" 



2ni S. NO 86, AUG. 22. '57.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



157 



Now, ere this derivation is rejected, it should 
be borne in mind that Italian nouns derived from 
the Latin are very generally formed on the ob- 
lique cases, not on the nominatives. Thus the 
Latin words felix, atrox, velox, audax, pax, falx, 
become in Italian felice, atroce, veloce, audace, 
pace, falce. In like manner, the Latin arx, if 
employed in the formation of an Italian word, 
would become arce. And, therefore, though the 
derivation of arsenal from arx navalis, does look 
a little forced, yet surely arsenale, from arce 
navale, may pass muster as a fair conjecture ; 
especially as arce and navale were both mediaeval 
words, the former meaning a place of deposit or 
a depot, the latter a dockyard. 

In thus deriving arsenale from arce navale, 
should any objection be made to the contraction 
of navale into -nale, it may suffice to mention that 
this sort of contraction is strictly conformable to 
the genius of the Italian language ; as in the 
name of the illustrious Dante, which was originally 
Durante. If Durante became Dante, surely na- 
vale might become -nale. 

In one respect our own language, and the 
French also, formerly came nearer to arce navale 
than even the Italian did. For we occasionally 
find the word spelt both in French and in English, 
two centuries ago, with a c arcenal. 

Before the Turks took Constantinople, there 
was ample time, not only for the Italians to trans- 
mute arce navale into arsenale, but for the Orientals 
to reproduce arsenale under the form of apa"r)vd\T)s. 

THOMAS BOYS. 

The Peafowl (2 nd S. iv. 98.) I have often 
been asked if I could make a peacock spread his 
tail, by persons who had never seen it done. Will 
ME. CROUCH say that by frightening or surprising 
a bird he ever gratified a similar wish ? I am 
.truly sorry to have given him offence, and espe- 
cially because he signs his name like a man, which 
I do not. Peafowl have bred in my plantations, 
fed from my hand, and graced my board for well 
nigh fifty years. Being continually about my 
doors they have lost all fear of cows, pigs, dogs, 
and men, unless pursued. The peacock behaves 
as if he thought his train must be admired by 
everything, and when free from fear and in a 
strutting mood I have seen him show it off to all 
these creatures, and even to a guinea pig, with 
apparent vanity. But as soon as he is alarmed 
down go the feathers in a moment. Strangers 
who are not aware that they spread the tail chiefly 
in the spring, will often try to make them do it 
when not inclined by shouting, clapping hands, or 
other frightening gestures, but I never saw the 
effort prove successful. The long feathers fall 
in June, and are not fully grown until the winter. 
Thus he goes without protection half the year. I 
will not quote Bewick, White, and others on my 
side the question, .because we are each giving our 



own experience ; but many of your readers must 
have peafowl, and if they can frighten the cocks 
into putting up their feathers, it is only fair to 
MR. C., and a proper rebuke to me, that they 
should say so. P. P- 

The corrective Note of P. P. about peacocks is 
itself full of errors, and lacks information. 

I have seen a peahen destroy a brood of ten or a 
dozen chickens in as many minutes ; just in the same 
fashion as they peck the adders. Game is not so 
much in their way, or there is not the least doubt 
about it. Peacocks will erect their feathers when 
disturbed or approached by strangers, or on being 
fed by friendly hands, or when, indeed, there is no 
apparent cause of rivalry ; they do not commonly 
fly off. A little poetry may be pardonably be- 
stowed on such a beautiful bird as the peacock, 
and the quotation from Crouch's Illustrations 
combine with it facts which will ensure it a pass- 
port to future editions. I have had a peahen 
upwards of twenty years. Query, What age do 
peacocks attain ? J. J. 

The Sense of Pre-existence (2 nd S. ii. 517. ; iii. 
50. 132.) Permit me to contribute the following 
to the interesting Notes already collected on this 
subject ; first stating that I agree with one of 
your correspondents in objecting to the term of 
" pre-existence " as applied to these phenomena. 

A gentleman of high intellectual attainments, 
now deceased, once told me that he had dreamed 
of being in a strange city, so vividly that he re- 
membered the streets, houses, and public build- 
ings as distinctly as those of any place he ever 
visited. A few weeks afterwards he was induced 
to visit a panorama in Leicester Square, where he 
was startled by seeing the city of which he had 
dreamed. The likeness was perfect, except that 
one additional church appeared in the picture. 
He was so struck by the circumstance that he 
spoke to the exhibitor, assuming for his purpose 
the air of a traveller acquainted with the place. 
He was informed that the additional church was 
a recent erection. This circumstance can hardly 
be accounted for on the hypothesis of Dr. Wigan. 

I have myself more than once or twice felt the 
mysterious sense of having been surrounded, at 
some previous time, by precisely the same circum- 
stances, and taken a share in the same conversa- 
tions. Nor can I admit the hypothesis of Dr, 
Wigan in explanation of this phenomenon, though 
possibly it may account for other instances of a 
similar kind. It does not accord with my ex- 
perience, because my mind has been perfectly 
active at such times, and thoroughly self-conscious. 

The expressions of Sir Edward Bulwer Lytton 
(ante, ii. 51.) are worthy of note. He alludes to 
this feeling of reminiscence as " that strange kind 
of inner and spiritual memory." Whether he 
purposely chose the words to express his philo- 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. N 86., AUG. 22. '57. 



sophical belief may be doubted, but they do in 
fact express a philosophy of the consciousness. 
This inner state of consciousness has already a 
history of which clairvoyance is a part, and which 
commences with the Homeric ages, or even earlier. 

E. RICH. 

"Lathe," or "Lethe" (2 nd S. iii. 448.) Per- 
haps this word may not be peculiar to Kent ; for 
the steep hill leading down to Bransford Bridge, 
three miles from Worcester, is called " Lathe," or 
" Lethe " Hill ; though I am not aware if the 
word was ever applied to the hundred of the 
county in which the hill is situate, nor can I find 
any mention of the hill in any of my large collec- 
tion of Worcestershire books. The Worcester 
Herald of June 6, in its report of the monthly 
meeting of the turnpike trustees, says : 

"The tender of Messrs. Walford and Hayes for im- 
proving the road at Lathe Hill, on the Bransford district, 
for the sum of 495J. 5s. 6d was accepted." 

CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 

Francis Rons (2 nd S. iv. 107.) In reply to 
H. G. D., Richard, Anthony, and Thomas were first 
cousins of Thomas Rous, the Speaker. From 
Thomas I am directly descended ; and if querist 
will favour me with a letter per post, I may be 
able to assist him in his inquiries. His Thomas 
Rous of 1687, is another person ; and is the same, 
I think, who was under-sheriff of Middlesex in 
1684. 

Will H. G. D. favour me with the names he has 
met with in the register of Trinity Chapel ? 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Clyst St. George, Topsham, Aug. 7, 1857. 

Birkhead Family (2 nd S. i. 374. ; iv. 107.) - 
This was, originally, a Cheshire family, and has 
spelt its name, at different periods, Birket, Birk- 
head, and Birkenhead. Sir John Birkenhead, the 
political writer of the Cavalier period, author of 
The Assembly Man, and editor of the Mercurius 
Aulicus, was of this family. There are nume- 
rous references to the Birkheads among the MSS. 
in the British Museum, e. g. Birchett of Middle- 
sex, 1468, fol. 131 b. ; Birkhead of Crowton and 
Huxley, in Cheshire, 1535, fols. 10. 31 b, 78 b, 
111., &c. T. HUGHES. 

Chester. 

French Protestants in London (2 nd S. iv. 90.) 
MELETES is referred to Burn's History of the 
Foreign Refugees settled in England, Longman, 
1846. J. S. B. 

Coffin-plates in Churches (2 nd S. iv. 107.) At 
Dolgelley decorated coffin-plates are hung in re- 
markable profusion over the pillars of the church, 
and convey an idea of the votive offerings to saints 
in Catholic places of worship ; this is a usual prac- 
tice here. The plates are taken from a coffin when 



a person is buried, and hung up there. This is, 
no doubt, a relic of some Catholic superstition, and 
it has a most singular effect. The Falls, Lakes, 
and Mountains of North Wales, by Louisa Stuart 
Costello, p. 174. B. G. J. 

In reply to G. R. G. I beg to say that, during a 
tour in N. Wales lately, I noticed a number of coffin 
plates nailed up to the walls in the parish church 
of Efenechtyd, near Ruthin. Efenechtyd is in- 
teresting for an ancient font and roodloft in its 
interior ; and the neat graveyard adjoining is sin- 
gularly beautiful, on account of a very fine lofty 
fence of boxtree which surrounds it. N. L. T. 

Proxies and Exhibits (2 nd S. iv. 106.) 

" Proxies " or " Procurations " are " certain sums of 
money which Parish Priests pay yearly to the Bishops 
or Archdeacon, ratione visitationis ; formerly the visitor 
demanded a proportion of meat and drink for his refresh- 
ment, when he came abroad to do his dutj', and examine 
the state of the Church ; afterwards these were turned 
into annual payments of a certain sum, which is called a 
Procuration, being so much given to the visitor, ad pro- 
curandum cibum et potum" 

There are three kinds of Procurations, or 
Proxies, viz. " ratione visitationis" " consuetudinis" 
et "pacti"* 

Some of these procurations were so exorbitant, 
that frequent complaints were made, and they 
were forbidden "by councils and bulls." Pope 
Clement IV. issued a bull against them, in which 
mention is made of the Archdeacon of Richmond, 
who travelled with " 103 horses, 21 dogs, and 
3 hawks ; " a goodly retinue forsooth for an arch- 
deacon ! but more, I should say, Ratione vena- 
tionis, than " visitationis" 

" Exhibits," or, as they were sometimes called, 
" Exhibitions," I find to be allowances " for m.eat 
and drink such as was customary among the re- 
ligious appropriators of churches, who usually 
made it to the depending vicar." HENRI. 

The great Douglas Cause (2 nd S. iv. 69.) 
There is no printed Report of this curious and ex- 
traordinary case extant that I know of, but L. F. 
B. will find, on a reference to Lowndes' Biblio- 
graphers' Manual, tinder the head " Douglas 
Cause," a very good list of the most important 
works which have been printed and published on 
the subject. Bos well's preface to his Summary of 
the Speeches, $c., of the Judges, gives an impartial 
and distinct account of the suit. T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 

The Theodosian Code (2 nd S. iii. 291.) Your 
correspondent A. will find the information he re-' 
quires in the Penny Cyclopaedia, art. " Theodosian 
Code." RESUPINUS. 



* The former of these is of ecclesiastical cognizance ; 
the other two are to be tried at law. 



2* S. N 86., AUG. 22. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



159 



Mrs. Siddons (l rt S. xi. 424. ; 2 nd S. ii. 89. 120.) 
One of the great uses of " N. & Q." being to 
point out to the workers in the field of literature 
the places from which material for their work 
may be derived, I trust that my motives may not 
be misconstrued, when I direct attention to an 
article of my own ("SIDDONIANA") in the cur- 
rent number of Titan, as containing many facts, 
now first published, concerning Mrs. Siddons's 
early years, education, youthful performances, 
marriage, &c., which may be of use to the future 
biographer or compiler of her life. 

CTJTHBERT BBDE, B.A. 

Robin a Rie (2 nd S. iv. 57.) We believe that 
this song was first printed in The Gallovidian 
Encyclopedia, by John Mactaggart, one of the 
most curious books ever printed. In his commu- 
nication, L.M.M.R. explains the Meggy-mony-feet 
to be the wood-louse. We never heard this in- 
sect called the Meggy-mony-foot in Scotland ; but 
the lulus terrestris is so called, also the electric 
centipede (Scolopendra electrica), commonly found 
below stones in old ruinous walls. The connoch 
worm seems to be some destructive caterpillar. 
Jamieson explains connoch to mean anything that 
destroys. MENTANTHES. 

Chirnside. 

Pomfrefs Choice (2 nd S. iv. 106.) Granger 
says (vol. ii. 401.) : " There is a poem called * Hob- 
son's Choice " which I have seen printed in a folio 
pamphlet, together with the ' Choice ' by Pomfret." 

This was probably the form in which it was 
first published, and the mention of it may assist 
N. O. in his inquiry ; as to the date I can offer 
no suggestion. 

Dr. Johnson's remark that " Perhaps no com- 
position in our language has been oftener perused 
than 'Pomfrefs Choice' reads rather strangely 
now." CHARLES WYLIE. 

Colours for Glass (2 nd S. iv. 129.) The ordi- 
nary powder colours sold by the artists' colourmen 
are used for painting magic-lantern slides ; those 
of course only being available which are trans- 
parent. 

Canada balsam, diluted to the required thinness 
with turpentine, is employed for mixing them. 
When dry this forms a remarkably hard and 
transparent varnish. I believe it is the same as 
that known by the name of crystal varnish. 

T. GREENWOOD. 

Weymouth. 

Painting on Leather (2 nd S. iii. 229. 416.) The 
pictures in the Titian Gallery at Blenheim are 
painted upon leather. F. M. MIDDLETON. 

Stanton, near Ashbourne. 

Womanly Heels (2 nd S. iii. 307.) This is a 
strange expression, and apparently inapplicable 



to the Spanish proverb, for the chapin is without 
heels, being a slipper or clog to protect the shoe 
from dirt. With this use the Spanish proverb 
literally accords metaphorically : to raise one- 
self above one's deserts ; " s'elever au-dessus de 
son merite." 

This, like many other Spanish proverbs, al- 
though very expressive, is now seldom used. 

J. B. 

Second thoughts not always best^ (2 nd S. iv. 8.) 
In Hare's Guesses at Truth, I think I have seen a 
remark to this effect, that a wise man's answer to 
a question is first yes, then no, and lastly yes. 

Marrying a Widow (2 nd S. iv. 91.) A gentle- 
man who marries a widow may not use either the 
title, surname, or arms of her former husband. 

P.P. 

Mayors Re-elected (2 nd S. ii. 384. 477. ; iii. 19. 
99. 159.) Sir George Goodman, M.P., has been 
four times Mayor of Leeds. MERCATOR, A.B. 

The Chisholms, frc. (2 nd S. iv. 68.) The 
O'Conor Don, of Belenegare, co. Roscommon, and 
the O'Donoghue of the Glens, Kerry (M.P.), re- 
present the heads of the old Irish Septs of co. 
Kerry ; the first O'Conor " Don " (the dark} was 
Tirlagh, in the reign of Richard II. The Chis- 
holm (of Erchless Castle) is the translation of the 
vernacular " An Siosalach," by which the High- 
landers of the Clan designated their chief. The 
Knight of Kerry is the representative of the old 
branch of the Fitz Geralds ; the head of the 
O'Neils styled himself the O'Neil. John Francis 
Fitzgerald, of Glin Castle, is called the Knight of 
Glin. John of Callan in Kerry, the ancestor of 
the Fitzgeralds, was slain at Callan ; his eldest son 
Gibbon was the White Knight ; his second son, 
John, the Knight of Glin (the vale} ; and his 
third son, Maurice, was Knight of Kerry. 

ANON. 

"Lover," as applied to a Woman (2 nd S. iv. 
107.) A correspondent asks for instances of the 
use of the word " lover " in reference to a female. 
He will, I know, thank me for recalling to his 
memory the exquisitely musical lines into which 
Dryden has translated the Virgilian description of 
the death of Dido. Iris is despatched by the 
pitying Juno to give release to the poor queen : 

" Downward the various goddess took her flight, 
And drew a thousand colours from the light ; 
She stood beside the dying lover's head, 
And ' Thus I do devote thee to the dead, 
This offering to the infernal gods I bear,' 
And while she spoke, she cut the fatal hair, 
The struggling soul was loosed, and life dissolved in 
air." 

SHIRLEY BROOKS. 
Garrick Club. 



160 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd g. NO 86., AUG. 22. '57. 



John Charles Brooke, F.S.A., Somerset Herald 
(2 nd S. iv. 130.) Besides the reference to Ni- 
chols's Literary Anecdotes, another should have 
been made to the sixth volume of the Literary 
Illustrations, which contains the fullest memoir of 
Mr. Brooke hitherto published, followed by 135 
letters, being his correspondence with Mr. Gough 
and Mr. Nichols. Nor should any time be lost in 
contradicting the slander copied from Cole's MSS., 
for it was surely wholly unfounded, as Mr. Brooke 
continued to enjoy the esteem of a large circle of 
friends throughout the year 1780, and until his 
unfortunate death, nearly fourteen years after ; 
when his funeral was attended, not only by his 
brother heralds, but by the Earl Marshal (Duke 
of Norfolk), the Presidents of the Society of An- 
tiquaries and Royal Society (the Earl of Leicester 
and Sir Joseph Banks), by John Topham, Craven 
Ord, and Edmund Turner, Fellows of the Royal 
and Antiquarian Societies, the Rev. John Brand, 
Sec. Ant. S., John Caley, James Moore, and John 
Lambert, Fellows of the Society of Antiquaries 
most of them still very generally known for their 
eminence and high character. His epitaph, in St. 
Benet's, Paul's Wharf (which is printed, ibid. 

358.), was written by the late Norroy, Mr. 
odgc. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS. 

Butlers " Hudibras? 1732 (2 nd S. iy. 131.) A 
copy of Hudibras in my possession, 12mo. pp. 385, 
printed by S. Powell, Dublin, 1732, is " Adorn* d 
with a new Set of Cuts from the Designs of Mr. 
Hogarth. 1 " These cuts are sixteen in number 
(five of them folding plates), Phillip Simms, 
Sculpt, appearing on a few, the remainder without 
engraver's name ; also with a portrait of Butler 
fronting the title-page. It is probable that the 
plates of this Irish edition is a reproduction of the 
plates of the English editions of 1726 and 1732 
(the latter mentioned by " DEVA " as containing 
only nine plates), and that Hogarth may have 
provided additional new designs Tor the Irish 
printer. The plates are also misplaced (as in the 
English edition of 1732), corrected through an 
index. Some of them are in a much better style 
of engraving than others, but in design the whole 
do not belie the genius of the pictorial humourist. 

G. N. 

Oddities in Printing (2 ml S. iii. f*08.) I have 
copies of a 32ino. edition of the Book of Common- 
Prayer, printed by Whittingham in 1806. Some 
of them are printed with black ink on buff, and 
others oii pink paper. T. P. 

Tivcrton. 

Peter Pindar (2 nd S. iv. 103.) Your corre- 
spondent incorrectly spells the true name of this 
witty writer, as " Walcot : " it should be " Wol- 
cot," or " Y/olcott." He was a native of Kings- 
bridge, co. Devon (see Murray's Handbook for 



Devon, p. 59.), and there is a family of the name 
residing at Knowle House, which is of Norman ex- 
traction. Watt spells the name " Wolcott ; " the 
obituary notice in the Annual Register runs " Jan. 
1819. At Somers' town in his 81 st year, Dr. John 
Wdcot." A Roger Wolcott published some " Po- 
etical Meditations." The arms of the two families 
are essentially distinct. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Tympan (2 nd S. iv. 135.) The note there upon 

the word tympan, seems to throw light upon the 

following sentence of Horace Walpole. Speaking 

of Lady Pomfret at Oxford, he says : 

"Do but figure her, her dress had all the tawdry 
poverty and frippery, with which you remember her, and 
I dare swear her tympany, scarce covered with ticking, 
produced itself through the slit of her scowered damask 
robe." See the new edition of Horace Walpole's Letters, 
vol. iii. p. 25. 

F. B. 

Ordination Query (2 nd S. iv. 70.) Your cor- 
respondent M. W. D. may refer to Burns, sub 
voce Dispensation, vol. ii. p. 165., edit. 1842, In 
all probability he would be required to wait for 
the following Ordination ; though under peculiar 
circumstances his future diocesan might give him 
letters dimissory for some intermediate Ordina- 
tion to another bishop. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Kirltham Families (2 nd S. iii. 427.) There is 
and was no gentle Lancashire family of the name 
ofKirkham. P.P. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

SIR TOIUE MATTHEW'S COLLECTION OP LETTERS. 8VO. I860. 

*** Letters, statino; particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to he 
sent to MESSRS. HELL ft DALDY, Publishers of " .NOTES AND 
QUERIES," 180. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom tiiey are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

BIOGRAPHIZE BRITANNIC*:. 7 Vols. 17471766. Vols. VI. & VII. 
lluo's INTRODUCTION TO THE WRITINGS oc THE NEW TESTAMKNT. 
Translated by Fosdick, with Notes by Stuart. Andover, Massachu- 
setts, 1836. 
WYATT'S LACHRYMJK EccMssijB. 1814. Title-page. 

Ten shillings is offered for the loan of Huo's INTRODUCTION for a 'CW 
weeks. 

Wanted by Rev . J. Elcasdell, Byron Terrace, Macclesfield. 



to 

We have this iveek to apologise to several Correspondents for the pos 
ponement of articles of yreat interest, and we have also been compelled to 
omit our usual NOTES ox BOOKS. 

JOHN W. CLARK ; W. J. S. ; ROBERT S. SALMON 5 E. A. D. are thanked . 
They will see that their communications have been anticipated. 

MENVANTHES. Lcet, or Leat, according to Webster, is from the Ang- 
Sax. last, duxit, a trench to conduct water to or from a mill. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES " is published at noon on Friday, and is a7so 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
&ix Months forwarded direct from the Pul)lishers (including the Half- 
yearly INDEX) is 11s. 4<J., which may be paid by Post Office Order in 
favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET, B.C.; to whom 
also all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed. 



2d S. N 87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



161 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 29, 1857. 



PANCAKES. 

It was only last April* that the question of 
" Cross-Buns" led to a Tartar elucidation ; and it 
will be scarcely more surprising to find the subject 
of pancakes now affecting the destinies of India. 
That " there are more things between heaven and 
earth than are dreamed of in philosophy" is 
proved, and too fatally proved, by this fact. 

It seems that " from the Himalayas to Cape 
Comorin " there was not a single individual that 
anticipated the storm, though its cloudy precursor 
was even then sailing up against the wind in the 
open face of heaven ! For nearly a twelvemonth, 
we are told, the mystic cakes and flowers were 
passing everywhere from village to village, from 
regiment to regiment, from hand to hand ; and 
yet, so far as appears, not one functionary in India 
found it within his scope, one scholar within his 
knowledge, one native in bis duty, to explain the 
meaning of this direful symbol 

"ij nvpC 'Axcuois a\ye eOn]Ke" 

with the rest of the consequences too painfully 
appropriate, as " the will of Jove is being fulfilled." 

In England the notices, even in the precision of 
The Times, were so slight and inefficient that no 
clue was obtainable, till Mr. D'Israeli's speech of 
Monday fortnight too late revealed the details. 
If given in proper time to the world, one single 
hour had discovered the scheme, and saved Eng- 
land and India from this dread disruption. The 
lotus of my former Note has indeed had its 
mystery. 

This philological point, peculiarly within the 
province of " N. & Q.," developes an innocence of 
India, its history, prejudices, and feelings, that 
sanctifies the remark of Oxenstiern. As my last 
letter connected linguistics with religion, let your 
patriotism suffer politics to combine with them 
here. 

The mutiny in India is declared to be causeless, 
and this by one of the most amiable and admired 
soldiers of the day, whose high and merited po- 
sition near royalty gives a weight to his words 
even beyond their value ; for the frantic Sepoy, 
maddened to horrors the most detestable, pro aris 
etfocis, is yet human, and acting under impulses 
intelligible, though abhorrent, to humanity. But 
he has no representative here. 

Alas, then, for Hindostan if royalty be no better 
informed than this ! And yet how have we used 
our superior information and means there ? By 
trampling on usage, ignoring learning, upholding 
imposture, and consolidating superstition. The 
tree of evil has thus produced its fruit of injury, 
ignorance, and crime. " Wisdom crieth, but no 



[* "N. &Q.,"2"dS. iii.450.] 



man regardeth : " murder spoke aloud, but none 
could recognise the accents : natives, and scholars, 
and military, and functionaries, and supreme 
councils, and commanders-in-chief, and governors- 
general in India, merchants, and East India Com- 
pany, and directors, and boards of control, and 
presidents, and ministers, and cabinet councils 
here, could in all these twelvemonths throw 
no light on the subject, divine the symptoms, or 
reveal the treachery. From the catastrophe of 
Belshazzar to our own, " see with what wisdom 
the world is conducted ! " In both cases the 
identical ignorance produces the disastrous result : 
a grain of learning had anticipated all the evil. 

The system, its sources, forms, modes of opera- 
tion, ties, secrets, sympathies, aims, and ramifica- 
tions, are they all really inscrutable ? Certainly 
not. 

" Come then some beggar of the strolling crew, 
To do, what all those Princes could not do." 

How far such discovery can be carried it is not 
easy to determine ; but, once made, its use offers 
the sole security to the Asiatic empire and its 
European sister, and saves years and oceans of 
blood, and millions of treasure to England and 
humanity. R. G. POTE. 

P.S. Can anyone say whether the lotus flowers 
sent round to the regiments were of any particular 
colour, or of all indifferently ? The point is most; 
material to ascertain, 



KING CHARLES II. AND MR. BUDWAYES. 

[The following amusing and characteristic anecdote of 
the Merry Monarch is taken from a MS. (written circa 
1712) entitled Great Britain's Honeycombe.~\ 

There was a Gentleman whose name was Master 
Budwayes, whose Estate was very great ; he lived 
at Dotchet near Windsor, which had the Care 
of King Charles very much. Master Budwaies 
taking his opportunity one day when the King 
was hunting in Windsor Forrest, humbly be- 
seeched him that he would be pleased to honour 
him with his presence at his little Habitation at 
Dotchet, to take a glass of his wine. The King 
very readily told him that he would come one 
Morning or other and catch him Naping before 
he was stirringe. Mr. Budwaies returned him 
most humble thanks for kind condescention for his 
gratious promise. But with all told the King he 
must come early in the morning if he intended to 
catch him in bed, for he was an early riser. His 
Majesty replyed, lie warrant you, Budwaies, I will 
be as good as my word, rise as early as you will. 
Mr. Budwaies taking his leave of his Majesty for 
that time, and went home after killing a Buck. 
Now, some little time after it so happened out 
that the King one night could not sleep very well, 
being disturbed either with the heat of the 



162 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. N 87., AUG. 29. 57. 



weather, or the biting of the fleas : as he lay in 
Bed awake pondering with himself, at length it 
came into his head that he had promised Mr. Bud- 
waies to catch him naping one Morning, gits up 
very early, and so privately walks away from the 
Cas'tle to Budwaies Mantion house, which was but 
a small mile. But it so hapned that Mr. Budwaies 
had been drinking hard over night with some 
friends, which occasioned him to be abed longer 
the next morning than he used to do. The King 
knocking at the door, the maid went and opened 
the door : the King asked her if Budwaies was 
stirring ; the Maid staring him in the face, say- 
ing, What ! plaine Budwaies, have you nere an Mr. 
under your Girdle ? The King pleased with the 
blunt expression of the Maid, he forced his way 
forward ; the Maid letting him into the parlour, 
looked very gruff upon the King for want of an 
(M) for her Master, and told him her Master was 
not stirring ; so the King bid her goe up stairs 
and tell him there was one below was come to see 
him. So the Maid went up staires and told her 
Master that there was a blunt kind of a Gentle- 
man in the Parlour wanted to speak with him, and 
withall told her Master that when she had opned 
the door he asked her if Budwaies was stiring ; so 
I answered him againe, saying, What ! plaine Bud- 
waies, have you nere an (M) under your Girdle ? 
Her master asked her what manner of Gentleman 
he was. She told him he was a tall black man, 
and had a silver badge upon one side of his breast, 
saying, I believe he is some officer belonging to 
the Castle : with that Mr. Budwaies bethought 
with himselfe that it must be King Charles which 
promised to catch him naping one morning or 
other. With that he put on his Nightgown and 
breeches, and put on his slippers in great hast 
with much concerne, which made the Maid think 
something more than ordinary, and was resolved 
to watch her Master narrowly when he went into 
the parlour. Mr. Budwaies, when he came down 
stairs, went into the parlour and bowed one knee, 
beging the King's pardon that he should come so 
far and catch him in bed. The Maid peeping at 
the door, and seeing her Master on his bended 
knee, thought then who he was ; her Master 
calling her bid her wash a glass or two, and bring 
in a bottle of wine. 

In the meane time Mr. Budwaies humbly beged 
leave of the King to goe up and put on his Coat 
and stockings. The Maid, while her Master was 
gon up stairs, getts glasses on a silver salver, and 
a bottle of wine, and carryes it into the parlour. 
The Maid staring upon the King very eagerly, 
the King aeked her whether she knew him or no, 
because she stared so upon him. She replyed, 
saying, Yes, Sir, I know who you are now. Why, 
who am I ? said the King. The Maid replyed, 
Why you are my Master's^Godfather. The King 
burst out into a Laughture, saying, Why should 



you think so ? The Maid replyed, Because I did 
see my Master ask your blessing ; so that the 
Ignorance of the Maid pleased the King exceed- 
ingly. So the King and Mr. Budwaies took the 
bottle, telling him he had now paid his visit, and 
so marched up to the Castle againe without being 
missed. ANON. 



A FEW NOTES ON TOBACCO FROM BOOKS AND 
OBSERVATION. 

Tobacco for Wounds, Sfc. I believe that most 
bodies of people, from nations to country towns, 
have notions peculiarly their own with regard to 
efficacious cures and healing substances. Even in 
trades the rule holds good, and we see the shoe- 
maker binding a bit of wax on the cut finger of 
his child, while the carpenter glues on a shaving. 

In the Southern States of America nothing is 
more common than the application of tobacco leaf 
to a wound, whether the result of a cut, bruise, or 
bite. 

I have seen young negroes in Arkansas and 
Missouri running around with their fingers and 
toes tied up ; and from the numerous jagged ends 
of tobacco leaves projecting from their extremi- 
ties giving one the idea that some casting or 
peeling process was going on, and that they were 
gradually being skinned. 

I ence saw a negro at work, hoeing tobacco 
plants, with the lower portion of his legs encased 
in large sucker tobacco leaves, which he had tied 
on with string. Upon asking the overseer the 
fellow's reason for wearing such "leggins," he re- 
plied that many of the hands were troubled with 
scurvy, and they found more relief from tobacco 
than from Dr. Jeanes' or any of the other popular 
lotions. 

In the case of a snake bite nothing is so fre- 
quently applied as tobacco leaf or sweet oil. I 
remember the circumstance of a man who had 
been to the " timber " for a load of rails, and in 
returning home stopped to drink at a small spring 
a few rods off the main road, and upon rising was 
bitten in the leg by an old rattle-snake. The 
man's leg soon swelled enormously, and the pain 
increased ; but upon the application of some oil, 
which he procured at a cabin a mile or two on the 
road, and then a lot of " cut-and-dry " (the most 
trashy tobacco), well damped and bound round 
the swelling, all danger passed, and his leg was 
reduced to its natural size by the time he reached 
home, late in the night. Indeed the domestic 
medicine chest of the American backwoodsman 
may be said to contain but two specifics, calo- 
mel for the stomach, and tobacco for the skin. 

If an old negro finds his person too thickly set- 
tled with small settlers, his mode of ejectment is 
much more simple than that practised by the 



87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



163 



landlords in Ireland. He well soaks some strong 
tobacco and thoroughly washes himself. A few 
applications of this sort, and he is left quietly to 
himself. Nothing is more common along the Mis- 
sissippi or the Missouri than to see, in the twilight 
of a summer's evening, a large pan of tobacco 
burning and smoking away before the front door 
of the settler's cabin. The reason is that the mos- 
quitos are rather plaguy, and the tobacco smoke 
drives them away. 

Tobacco and Negroes. If tobacco was first 
grown and used after the present fashion in Ame- 
rica, it must have spread to and permeated the 
most remote countries with amazing rapidity. I 
have an old book before me which, for pious ear- 
nestness and equivocal morality, is not often to be 
equalled. It is entitled 

" The Sea-Surgeon, or the Guinea Man's Vade Mecura ; 
in which is laid down the Method of curing such Dis- 
eases as usually happen Abroad, especially on the Coast 
of Guinea; with the best way of treating Negroes, both 
in Health and in Sickness ; for the use of young Sea-Sur- 
geons, by T. Aubrey, M.D., who resided many years on 
the Coast of Guinea, 12ino., London, 1729." 

On page 132. the author mentions tobacco as a 
nationality among the negroes : 

" Some ships," says the author, " take in five or six 
hundred slaves, yet perhaps by such times as they arrive 
at the West Indies, or Virginia, they lose above three 
parts of them. Moreover, they are accustomed to divert 
themselves at home with dancing, and singing, and drink- 
ing, altho' in moderation, and are also not everlasting, but 
lasting smoakers, and therefore you must observe to order 
them now and then a glass of brandy, especially when 
you see them a little dull and melancholy ; and give them 
betwixt whiles tobacco and pipes ; for'as they are used to 
smoak from their infancy, it will be very pernicious to 
them to leave it; and seeing the owners allow both 
brandy and tobacco sufficiently for them (altho' it's 
very often embezzled away for other uses), you must 
speak boldly for it, and tell the commander such and 
such things are absolutely necessary." 

Aubrey appears to have resided on the African 
Coast as early as 1700, and, supposing some of 
the negroes to have been fifty years of age who 
had "smoaked from their infancy," this will throw 
the period of a general use of tobacco in Africa 
as far back as the year 1650. 

Perfumed Swiff in Italy in 1646. Jo. Ray- 
mond, gent., in 1648, gave to the world his Itine- 
rary, contayning a Voyage made through Italy in 
the years 1646 and 1647, illustrated with divers 
Figures of Antiquities, 12mo. At page 49. Ray- 
mond says, 

" The next morning we rode through a village Barba- 
rino, from whence the mighty stirring family of the 
Cardinalls tooke their originall. We din'd at Poggio 
Bond, a place noted for the perfumed tobacco composed 
there ; which the Italians through custome take in pow- 
der as profusely as we in England doe in the pipe." 

Tobacco and Scorpions. Raymond, in speaking 
of the Italians, says, 
"Amongst their medicinall plants, scarce knowne 



amongst us but in apothecaries shoppes, I tooke notice 
of one odoriferous hear be called Basilico, which hath this 
innate power, that if laid under a stone in some moyst 
place, in two dayes it produceth a scorpion ; this I can 
assert by experience, and to countenance this stoxy, there 
fell out a strange accident in my stay at Siena. A gen- 
tleman was so pleas'd with the smell of this Basilico, that 
he had some dry'd and beaten into powder, which he snift 
up ; imagining it of the same force with tobacco to cleare 
the head, but hee bought the experience at the price of 
his life, for hee dyed distracted. His skull being after- 
wards opened by the chyrurgion, a nest of scorpions were 
found feeding on his brame." 

JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN. 
Piccadilly. 



PROCLAMATION OF CHARLES II. 

I send you a copy of a document in my posses* 
sion, which, if it seems to you to have sufficient 
interest, you are most welcome to publish in your 
Notes. 

The original is on parchment, and the " C. R." 
is apparently an autograph of the Merry Monarch. 
This order was made to an ancestor of mine, Sir 
John Rogers of Edmundham, the last male de- 
scendant of the Brianstone family. . 

I believe it is not generally known that the 
fowling pieces had, at that period, so completely 
superseded the crossbow as an instrument for the 
destruction of game, that the latter is not even 
mentioned in the enumeration of sporting imple- 
ments. The spelling of the original is of course 
preserved, and the signature at bottom also ac- 
curately copied. WM. W. COKER. 

Parkstone, near Poole, Dorset. 

"CHARLES R. 

"Charles, by the grace of God King of England, Scot- 
land, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, etc. 
To our trusty and welbeloved Sir John Rogers, Kight, 
Greeting. Whereas, We are informed that our Game, 
Hare, Pheasant, Partridge, Heron and other wild fowle 
in and about our Counties of Dorset, Somerset, and Wilts 
is much destroyed by divers disorderly persons with 
Greyhounds, Mongrells, Setting dogs, guns, trammels, 
tunnells, netts and other Engines contrary to the Statuts 
of this our Realme in the case provided ; for the better 
prevention hereof, and that the game may be the better 
preserved for our Sport and recreation at such time as We 
shall resort into those parts, We doe hereby will and 
Command you to have a spciall care that no person or 
persons doe hereafter use any of the said unlawfull 
meanes or Engines for the destroying of our game within 
10 miles of your House at Ensom within our Countie of 
Dorset. And if any person after the signification of this 
our pleasure shall presume with Greyhounds, Mongrils, 
Setting dogs, gunns, tramels, netts or other Engines to 
hurt or kill our said game of Hare, Pheasant, Partridge, 
Heron or other wildfowle within the said distance, We 
do hereby give full power and Authority unto you and to 
your deputy or deputies to seize and take away all or any 
of the said Greyhounds, Mongrels, Setting dogs, tramills, 
tunnels, gunns, netts or other engines, and them to detain 
and Certify to us or our privy Councell, the names of any 
persons so offending, to the end such further order may 
be taken for their punishment, as shall be fitt in cases of 



164 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd g. NO 8 7>) AUG. 29. '57. 



such Misdemeanour and Contempt, and requiring all 
Maiors, Sheritfes, Justices of Peace, Bayliffes and other 
our officers and Ministers to be aiding and assisting to 
you and your deputies herein. And for so doing these 
our letters shall be unto you and your deputies sufficient 
warrant. Given at our Court at Whitehall the 15 day of 
August, 1664, in the sixteenth year of our Raigne. 
" By his Maj ties Command. 

" WILL. MORRICE." 



HAY LIFTS. 

A very old friend of mine has just been highly 
delighted, and I am sure I shall be forgiven for 
stating the circumstance : for what more agree- 
able to think about than the play of satisfied smile 
on a face which has already experienced upwards 
of eighty years of the cares of life ? And when I 
also state that the person to whom I am alluding 
is even now under the necessity of earning a bit 
of bread for himself and poor wife, by doing what 
he can yet do in the way of shoemaking, I am 
sure that his must be considered as having 
been a life of severe cures. Nevertheless, the 
jolly old man is always ready with a hearty laugh 
discovering the pleasurable countenance when- 
ever possible, and therefore his delight on the 
occasion to which I am now referring. 

"Here," said I, "look at this;" at the same 
time putting into his hand a copy of a late num- 
ber of the Illustrated London News. " Oh, yes," 
was the reply ; " you know I am always fond of 
pictures;" and then, wiping his spectacles, com- 
menced at once his inspection. I said nothing 
more, well knowing he would soon come to the 
particular part I intended for his notice ; and he 
did so that of an account, accompanied with an 
engraving, of how some hay had lately been lifted 
up from its comfortable quarters on the warm 
ground and drifted over various fields in scat- 
tered patches ; and this, too, at a time so remark- 
ably calm in its atmospheric conditions as the 
present summer season has altogether proved. 
While, stranger still, the hay is stated to have 
been carried off in quite a different direction to 
the blowing of such trifling wind as could be de- 
tected. 

Now, how is this ? And my old friend has long 
been asking himself exactly the same question in 
regard to a closely similar occurrence. In his 
childhood, aa he tells me, (and as he himself has 
written out the full story in connexion with a 
series of Irish Faery and other Legends*,) when 
about four years old that is, seventy-seven years 
ago he remembers seeing a considerable portion 
of hay clinging to parts of the roofage of the 
Exchange at Waterford. This every one in the 



* A section of these Tales was printed two or three 
j'ears ago, Mrs. S. C. Hall having written an Introduc- 
tion to the little book in favour of its aged author. 



town was marvelling at, and how the hay could 
become so posited ! Waterford is washed, as he 
says, by the noble river Suir, which is much wider 
there than the Thames is at London ; and on the 
opposite of the river is a village or hamlet called 
Portmore, consisting of but a sparce scattering of 
houses, backed by the open country. Here then, 
in the close vicinity of Portmore, were some lusty 
hay-makers at work, though not in scything down 
the long grass, but in forming the dried brown 
produce into those kind of piles called hay-cocks. 
And now what happens ? Why, one of these new 
up-buildings, even while two or three men are 
busy in its erection, is observed to become inter- 
nally disturbed, and actually moving in manner 
truly miraculous. When, lo ! in another instant, 
the whole bulk is forced upwards into the air, and, 
taking a most leisurely flight right across the 
river, still more and more widening at its base, 
the higher and further it got, but keeping in the 
main pretty well together ; and then progressing 
so far on its journey as Waterford itself, it still 
continued sailing forward, until, coming in unfor- 
tunate contact with the cupola, or other of the 
higher points of the building before mentioned, 
all further progress was arrested ; and there the 
results were to be seen, as my friend is still him- 
self alive to testify. 

Nor is this all. That were impossible among a 
people so imaginative as the Irish are : so, in time, 
that which remained for so long a period the sub- 
ject of everybody's talk became dovetailed into 
the legend, the version of the story being, that 
a large troop of freakish fairies, taking it into 
their heads to have a summer gambol, and at the 
same time to surprise the staid folk of the ancient 
city of Waterford, sallied boldly out from their 
clay-coverts, crept artfully under the said hay- 
cock, and, by either putting their very un- Atlas- 
like shoulders to the superincumbent burthen, or 
through some other agency only known to them- 
selves, so bore or impelled along the odoriferous 
gathering, as gently gliding through the air ; the 
narrator in all cases forgetting to explain how 
they, the " Good People," escaped from the peril 
of their position when their strange car or ship 
struck upon the Exchange, and all became a total 
wreck ! 

That, however, is not his business. Pleasingly 
deceived himself, he has no desire to undeceive 
others ; and so the fact and the falsehood come 
down to us almost inextricably mingled in most of 
these legends ; and who, on such subjects, would 
wish for a separation ? 

In conclusion, then, can any satisfactory reason 
be assigned for these hay-lifts, or flights? for, 
certainly, there seems to be much difference be- 
tween the presumed causatory power of carrying 
frogs about in showery batches, and snails, crabs, 
or herrings in like manner (as a statement of the 



2 nd S. X" 87., AUG. 29. '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



165 



latter kind has also been lately made known 
through our journals), and this careering through 
the air of the harvest of the hay-field, as has just 
occurred in Denbighshire, or as seventy-seven 
years ago the same sort of thing took place at 
Waterford. J. D. D. 



NEW GAMES AT ST. STEPHEN'S CHAPEL. 

The following poem I copied early in the pre- 
sent century from a collection of similar articles 
in the common-place book of a friend. Whether 
it has ever appeared in print I am unable to say, 
or even to hazard a guess ; but it seems to de- 
serve a mausoleum in the pages of " N. & Q." 

" New Games at St. Stephen's Chapel 

" While honest John Bull, 

With sorrow brimful, 
Lamented his trusty friend Pitt ; 

Some sharpers, we're told, 

In cheating grown old, 
Thus tried all the talents and wit. 

*' Let's invite him to play, 

John never says nay, 
So they ask'd him what game he approved; 

John talk'd of All Fours, 

Or Seat knave out of doors, 
The games of his youth which he loved. 

" Lord H w k spoke first $ 

' In those games I'm not vers'd, 
But they surely are old-fashion'd things ; 

The best game, entre nous, 

Is the good game of Loo, 

Where Knaves get the better of Kings.' 

" Sam Wh tb d rose next, 

By all court cards perplext, 
Since at his trade they reckon no score ; 

For at Cribbage, 'tis known, 

That with court cards alone 
You can't make fifteen two, fifteen four. 

/'Then Sh r d n rose, 

Saying, he should propose, 
Though at all times he play'd upon tick, 

The good old game of Whist, 

For if Honours he miss'd, 
He was sure to succeed by the Trick. 

" Now with blustering voice 
T rn y roars out, ' My boy a ! 

1 approve none of all your selections ; 
What I'll recommend 
To myself and my friend, 

Is to play well the game of Connections.' 

" By his master respected, 

But by both sides neglected, 
Telle est la fortune de la guerre, 

Once the minister's ombre, 

Now deserted and sombre, 
The good S dm h prefers Solitaire. 

"Next, with perquisites stored, 

Spoke T mpl 's good lord, 
All whose wants are supplied by the nation, 

1 From our memory blot 

Pique, Repique, and Capot, 
And let's practise, my friends, Speculation.' 



" Lord G nv 1 stood by, 
With considerate eye, 

Which forbore e'en his hopes to express, 
But W ndh m, less mute, 
Own'd each game in each suit 

He had play'd without any success. 

" ' Try again, Sir, your skill,' 

Says B rd t, ' at Quadrille, 
There seem none but your friends to ask leave ; 

As for calling a King, 

I shall do no such thing, 
But shall soon play alone, I believe.' 

" Braced with keen Yorkshire air, 
Young Lord M It n stood there, 

Who, improved in all talents of late, 
Said he fear'd not success 
At a bold game of Chess, 

And should soon give the King a check-mate. 

" ' Hush ! ' says Gr nv 11 ; ' young man, 
I'll whisper my plan ; 

While professing great zeal for the throne, 
We may leave in the lurch 
Both the King and the Church, 

By encouraging slily Pope Joan.' 

" In one hand a new dance, 
In the other Finance, 

To throw on each object new light, 
Young P tty appear'd, 
And begg'd he might be heard 

In settling the game of the night. 

" ' Casino,' he cries, 
' Sure of all games supplies 

Amusement unblended with strife ; 
For that black, gray, or fair, 
With their fellows should pair 

Must to all form the pleasures of life. 

" Without farther debate, 
Down to Cass then they sate ; 

But how strange is the game I record ; 
The Knaves are pair'd off, 
Of all Court cards the scoff, 

And in triumph the King clears the board. 

" John, rubbing his eyes, 

At length with surprise 
Discover' d the tricks of the crew ; 

And gaining in sense 

What he first lost in pence, 
From these wolves in sheep's clothing withdrew." 

Two only of the several parties above men- 
tioned are at the present time in existence. 

N. L. T. 



Derivation of " Notes and Queries. 1 " Sanskrit 
jnd (7i-7/-w<r/o), gn-osco, nosco, notum (or jna, 
jnatam, gndtam, gnotarn, gnotum, notum), nota, 
note, NOTES. En, enti, anti, ant, AND ; or thus, 
erra, einta, ainta, anta, ant, AND : or from Sans, da, 
thus, da, do, ad- do, adde, andde, ande, AND. Heb. 
Nip, to cry out, call out (perhaps formed by 
onomat.) ; thus, kara, quara, quaro, qucero, qucere, 
quere, query, QUERIES. Nunnesius derives qucero 
from xnP^t careo, " quod qui re aliqua careat, 
earn queerit." But see Junius, Skinner (Etym.), 



166 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2*d S. NO 87,, AUG. 29. '57. 



Littleton (Lat. Diet.), Gesenius, and Parkhurst 
(Heb.), Monier, Williams, Wilson, Bopp, and 
Vans Kennedy (Sansk.), and the different forms 
of and in the old Teutonic dialects. 

K. S. CHAKNOCK. 
Gray's Inn. 

Alteration of the Liturgy : Dr. Tillotson.Ex- 
tract from a private letter, dated Nov. 21, 1689 : 

" Our convocation for the settling of religion is broken 
all to pieces. ';, Our presbyterian party hoped D r Tillotson 
would Lave been chosen prolocutor as they call it, but the 
vote being between him and D r Jean, the latter had it. 
D r Tillotson would have granted us all we could have 
wished for, both in the alteration of the Liturgies, prayers, 
ceremonies, and^so forth. But D r Jean is so stiff for the 
Church of England, that he will grant nothing. D r Fair- 
fax proposed an alteration in the Lord's prayer, viz. " Our 
Father which art in heaven" that it was not grammar, 
and therefore ought not to be. That the petition, ' Lead 
us not into temptation,' should be expunged, as it made 
God the author of sin. This was not regarded, and Bax- 
ter, and all the other presbyterian good men will, we are 
afraid, declyne meeting any more." * 

Ci/. HOPPER. 

A Note from Chester. The first line of one of 
the inscriptions on the front of houses, sent to you 
by MR. MACKENZIE ,WA:LCOTT, I saw a few days 
since on the front of a house in Chester, namely, 
" God's providence is my inheritance." The 
house which bears this pious device is popularly 
said to have been the only house in Chester which 
escaped the plague. In this ancient city the 
curfew is still regularly rung, at nine o'clock, not 
merely as a memorial, but with a purpose. At 
that hour the leave of absence to the maids and 
female servants of the city expires, and there is a 
general scudding of holiday damsels homewards, as 
the curfew tolls. It is customary for these ancilla 
to be told, on being engaged, that curfew time is 
that observed in the household. This is perfectly 
understood, and at that hour the humble and 
happy lovers lingering in the street cover up 
their fires and separate. There are some illus- 
trious names in this imperial city of Chester. The 
first costermonger's cart I encountered in the High 
Street boasted no less a proprietor than " Au- 
gustus Caesar." Indeed, very ancient and royal 
families are not extinct in other parts. Last May 
I was loitering along the street between Battle 
Abbey and the fields beyond, and there, close to 
the old fighting ground on which William con- 
quered, I saw that " Harold " was quietly settled 
as a chemist and druggist. J. DORAN. 

Prison-rents under the Stuarts. One of your 
correspondents (to whose communication I am 
unable to make clear reference, being far away 
from my books and papers,) recently expressed 
some surprise at the amount of rent which the 

[* See Birch's Life of Alp. Tillotson, p. 184., edit. 1753 ; 
aud Life of Dr. Prideaux, Dwn of Norwich, pp. 5456.] 



French ambassador is said, in Monarchs retired 
from Business, to have given for the hire of a 
mansion in London, in the reign of William III. 
High prices had been no uncommon thing for 
a long time previously. In the article in the 
Athenceum, on Luttrell's Diary, I see that, under 
Charles II., a guinea was the price of a ticket of 
admission to a public political dinner. It is not 
more now, nor so much if the difference of value 
of money be taken into account. With regard to 
prison-rents, they were exorbitantly high before 
the latter reign. In a " humble remonstrance and 
complaint of many thousand poor distressed pri- 
soners, in prison in and about London, to the 
High Court of Parliament," A.D. 1642, I find the 
remonstrants saying that " the extraordinary rent 
of our chambers in prison surpasses all the usage 
and brokery in the world, 50, 30, 20, 10, and 8 
pounds per annum being an ordinary rent for a 
chamber which a man can scarce turn himself in." 

J. DORAN. 

Abergele, K Wales. 

P. S. Permit me to add here, in reference to 
the hope expressed by J. P. K., that I would not 
transfer the French King John's prison from 
Somerton in Lincolnshire to Somerset, that I had 
never thought of doing so. When BALLIOL de- 
clared that there was no Somerton in Lincoln- 
shire (the topography of which county is among 
the very many things of which I know nothing), 
I concluded he did so on personal knowledge. It 
then occurred to me that Somercot might have 
been the locality. The interesting communica- 
tion of J. P. K., however, leaves no excuse for 
any mistake hereafter made in this matter. 

Sun-Dial Mottoes. 

" Discite justitiam moniti." New Palace Yard, West- 
minster. 

" Vestigia nulla retrorsum." Essex Court, Temple. 

" Time and tide tarry for no man." Brick Court, 
Temple. 

"Pereunt et imputantur." Opposite the Library, 
Temple. 

MERCATOR, A.B. 

Posies for Wedding Rings. I send for your 
consideration the following posies for wedding 
rings, if worthy of " N. & Q." 

" Hearts united live contented." 
" None can prevent the Lord's intent." 
" As God decreed so we agreed." 
" Christ for me hath chosen thee." 
By God alone we two are one." 
God's blessing be on thee and me." 
' Love me and be happy." 
The love is true I owe" you." 
God did foresee we should agree." 
In God and thee my joy shall be." 
Absence tries love." 
Virtue surpasseth riches." 
" Let virtue rest within thy breast.' 



W. P. L. 



Greenwich. 



2 nd S. N 87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



167 



Scolds in Carrickfergus. There was a most 
wholesome regulation for maintaining the peace of 
Carrickfergus, in the county of Antrim, in olden 
times, by providing the following punishment for 
the " noisy nuisance of women scolding :" 

" October, 1574 : Ordered and agreed by the whole 
Court, That all manner of scolds which shall be openly 
detected scolding, or evil words in manner of scolding, 
and for the same shall be condemned before Mr. Maior, 
shall be drawne at the sterne of a boate in the water from 
the end of the peare round about the Queen's Majesties 
Castle in manner of ducking; and after when a cage 
shall be made, the party so condemned for a scold shall 
be therein punished in the manner noticed." Town 
Records. 

ABHBA. 

Scott's " Waverley" The following statement 
of Sir Richard Phillips, the extraordinary author 
of that extraordinary book of books, A Million of 
Facts, may be classed amongst " Things not ge- 
nerally known : " 

" Scott's Waverley was offered, anonymously, to the 
editor of this volume. The price asked for it was refused. 
It then appeared as W. Scott's ; but in a few days the 
name and placards were withdrawn, and the author said 
to be unknown." C. 648, ed. 1842. 

That Scott made some difficulty about the 
price is evident from Lockhart ; Constable offer- 
ing 700Z., Scott suggesting 1000/., the former de- 
clining the suggestion, and ultimately publishing 
the work " on the footing of an equal division of 
profits between himself and the author." (iv. 167.) 
ANDREW STEINMETZ. 

Discovery of Ancient Remains. There was 
discovered in May last, while some workmen were 
employed in improving the churchyard of Colding- 
ham, the tombs of two of the priors of that once 
famous abbey. The one was that of Ernald, who 
was prior from 1202 to 1208 ; the other was that 
of Radulf, who was prior for one year only, in 
1209. The slabs were removed, and two of the 
workmen went down into the vaults with lighted 
candles in their hands. The body of Ernauld is 
sewed in leather. His shoes were found on his 
feet, and a hazel rod, about thirty inches long, 
lying upon his breast. The body of Radulf, or 
Ralfph, is wrapt in a coarse description of woollen 
cloth. The inscriptions on the slabs are as follows : 
" Ernauld, Prior. 
Radulf, Prior, D. G. Coldingham." 

The first is entire, the last broken into frag- 
ments. Both inscriptions are in Latin. The 
above I copy from a provincial newspaper, as I 
think it is proper to preserve all such Notes. 

MENYANTHES. 

Chirnside. 

Origin of the National Song " God save the 
King." If the following has not already ap- 
peared in the pages of " N. & Q.," it may be 
worth recording. The reader will find the pas- 
sage in the State Papers, vol. i. p. 184., under the 



orders for the "Flete taken by the Lord Ad- 
rnirall, the 10th day of August, 1545 : " 

"The watch wourde in the night shalbe thus: 'God 
save King Henrye,' thother shall aunswer, And long to 
raign over us.' " 

R.C. 

Cork. 



"THE JACOBITE'S CURSE." 

In a small quarto tract, entitled The Jacobite's 
Curse, or Excommunication of King George (Glas- 
gow, 1714), I find the following, which is perhaps 
worth preserving in " N. & Q." : 

" God bless, preserve, and restore our Royal Sovereign 
King James the Eight. Curse, Confound, and Destroy 
the Contrivances, and Machinations of his Enemies, Let 
the plagues of ^Egypt be upon them, Let their Children, 
be Fatherless, and their Wives widows, let them beg 
their Bread in a strange Land, and let there be none to 
pity their Fatherless Children, Let them wander thro' 
the Earth like Cain and McKartney, Let them be afflicted 
with Job, but abstract his Patience : Let them be disap- 
pointed like the white trac'd Hatt Gentleman. Let them 
be banished their Country like Marlborough, dye of a 
phrenzy like Queensberry and Godolphin, Let them be 
guilty "of Bigamy, &c., like Wharton. Let them be as 
great Atheists as Sunderland, and as great Sots as Suther- 
land. Let them prosecute other at Criminal Courts like 
the Whig Ministers, and let them be in as great Confu- 
sion as the General Assembly. Let them be like the Squa- 
dron Lords, to change themselves from being Members of 
Parliament, to be Members of the General Assembly. 
Let them be like the Makers of the Union, to dye without 
Beds, and like the Mock Hannoverian Club at Leith, to 
burn their Shirts and Gravats in Emulation of Hannover, 
that they may become a Laughter to their Countrey. Let 
them be as Spurious as the Brood of the Duke of Bruns- 
wick. Let them be as great Fools as the Magistrates of 
Edinburgh, the Whig Lords of England, and the House 
of Commons in Ireland, and as great Fools as the Fol- 
lowers of the Kirk- Session, and let all the Curses from 
the Beginning of Genesis to the End of the Revelations 
be upon all these who have sold their Country, and de- 
sign to destroy the King." 

There are some allusions in the foregoing worth 
elucidation. For example: Who is M c Kartney, 
here coupled with Cain ? and who the white-hatted 
gent? and where may be found further parti- 
culars about the Leith Club ? The author of my 
book holds up this Hellish Lybel to public reproba- 
tion, and commences by ascribing it to " A Cer- 
tain Person who has render'd himself infamous by 
his Doggrel against the Kirk and Magistrates of 
Edinburgh;" adding, "M'Fleckno is not better 
known in England, than this uncircumcised Doctor 
is in Edinburgh," which seems to point at Dr. 
Pitcairn ; although he farther on ascribes it to 
Mr. R. C 1 d r. If a true bill against the 
latter, where is Calder's doggrel to be found ? 

J. O. 

[Calder disclaimed both the doggrel and The Jacobite's 
Curse. He says, " It is nothing with this scandalous 



168 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* S. N 87., AUG. 29. '57. 



author to speak at random, as he does where he asserts 
that Mr. R. C. made a doggrel upon the magistrates of 
Edinburgh, which is as gross a lie as the other, viz. that 
he was the author of The Curse, for he professes upon the 
former asseveration, that he never made nor heard any 
such thing." See " The Spirit of Slander Exemplified in 
a scandalous pamphlet called The Jacobite's Curse, written 
by a scandalous scribbler, an undoubted child of him that 
is styled ' the accuser of the brethren, a liar and mur- 
derer from the beginning.' To which the principal per- 
son, Mr. R C Id r, that is traduced in page 8. gives 

this Reply to a Member of Parliament : 

If some mischief thou didst not hatch and plot, 

Thou'd hang thyself, as did Iscariot. 

Edinburgh, by R, Freeman, 12mo., 1714."] 



DR. GOLDSMITH I LIFE S PAINTER. 

In a curious little book now before me, entitled : 

" LIFE'S PAINTER of Variegated Characters in Public 
and Private Life, by George Parker, Librarian to the 
College of Wit, Mirth, and Humor, and Author of the 
Views and Society of Manners, &c. To which is added, 
A Dictionary of Modern Flash, or Cant Language, so 
much in use with the Swells of the Town. 

* The proper study of mankind is man.' 
' In life's journey rather seek a safe than a primrose path.' 

A modern Bamfylde Moore Carew, but not like him, who 
ended his Days comfortably in the Country ; this went 
about from Race to Race selling Gingerbread Nuts, and 
at last finished his Career in the Poor- House at Liverpool. 
London : printed by R. Bassam, No. 53, St. John's Street, 
West Smithfield. (Price One Shilling.) Post, n. d." 

In this volume occurs the following strange pas- 
sage. The author, describing night-houses, and a 
particular drink called " Hot," says : 

" This was a favourite liquor of the celebrated Ned 
Shuter's : I remember spending an evening with him, in 
company with that darling of his age, Doctor Goldsmith ; 
staying rather late, as we were seeing the doctor to his 
chambers in the Temple, where he then lived, Shuter 
prevailed on him to step into one of these houses, just to 
see a little fun, as he called it, at the same time assuring 
the doctor, that no harm might be apprehended, as he was 
well acquainted with the Cove and Covess, Slavey and 
Moll Slavey, that is, the landlord and landlady, man and 
maid servant: upon the strength of this, we beat our 
rounds till we arrived at the door of the house ; in the 
middle of the door was a wicket, through which the 
landlord looked, and the moment he saw Shuter, without 
any questions the door flew open as if by enchantment ; 
we entered ; the doctor slipt down on the first seat he saw 
empty. Shuter ordered a quart of gin hot; we had no 
sooner tasted it but a voice saluted Shuter thus: ' I say, 
master Shuter, when is your benefit? Come, tip us a 
chaunt, and hand us over a ticket, and here's a bobstick 
(shilling).' Shuter took the man by the hand, and 
begged to introduce him to the doctor, which he did in 
the following manner: 'Sit down by my friend; there, 
doctor, is a gentleman as well as myself, whose family has 
made some noise in the world ; his father I knew, a drum- 
mer in the third regiment of guards, and his mother sold 
oysters at Bill ngsgate; he's likewise high horned, and 
deep learned, fur he was borned in a garret, and bred in a 
night-cellar.' As I sat near, the doctor whispered me, to 
know whether I knew this gentleman Mr. Shuter had in- 



troduced ; I replied, I had not that honour, when, imme- 
diately, a fellow came into the box, and in kind of under 
voice asked the person Mr. Shuter had introduced, ' How 
many there were crap'd a Wednesday ? ' The other re- 
plied, 'three.' 'Was there e'er a cock among them?' 
resumed the other (meaning a fellow who died game). 
' No, but an old pal of yours, which I did a particular 
piece of service to as he was going his journey ; I took 
the liberty of troubling him with a line, which he no 
sooner got about his neck, than I put mv thumb under 
the bur of the left ear, and at the same time, as I de- 
scended from the cart, I gave him such a gallows snatch 
of the dew beaters, that he was dead near twenty minutes 
by the sheriff's watch before the other two. I don't re- 
collect that I have crap'd a man better for this last 
twelvemonth.' The doctor beckoned to Shuter, and in 
the same breath cried out, ' for heaven's sake who is this 
man you have introduced to me? ' 'Who is he? ' says 
Shuter; ' why, he's squire Tollis, don't you know him? ' 
'No, indeed,' replied the doctor. 'Why,' answered 
Shuter, ' the world vulgarly call him the hangman, but 
here he is stiled the crap' merchant.' The doctor rose 
from his seat in great perturbation of mind, and exclaimed, 
' Good God! and have I been sitting in company all this 
while with a hangman?' The doctor asked me if I 
would see him out of the house, which I did, highly 
pleased with the conversation of two men, whose feelings 
of nature as widely differed as those of the recording 
angel in heaven's high chancery (as mentioned in Sterne's 
story of La Fevre) to the opposite one of the midnight 
ruffian, who murdered the ever-to-be-lamented Linton." * 

My Queries are, 1. Has this strange adventure 
ever appeared in any Life of Goldsmith ? 2. Is 
anything known of this book and its author ? 

M. E. BERRY, 

[George Parker was born in 1732, at a village called 
Green Street, near Canterbury, and in his early'days en- 
tered the naval service, which he soon quitted for the gay 
scenes of London life. He was compelled through dis- 
tress to enter as a private soldier in the 67th regiment of 
foot, under the command of the immortal Wolfe, then 
colonel of the regiment. In this regiment he continued 
a private, corporal, and Serjeant for seven years ; but at 
the end of the war returned home as a supernumerary 
exciseman. He subsequently went upon the stage in 
Ireland, and in company with that facetious gentleman 
the Rev. Brownlow Ford, strolled over the greater part of 
the island. On his return to London he played several 
times at the Haymarket; and was afterwards introduced 
to Mr. Colman through the friendship and interest of Dr. 
Goldsmith. But on account of his figure being too gross, 
Mr. Colman declined his services. Parker then joined 
the provincial strolling companies, and was engaged for 
one season with Mr. Digges, then manager of the Edin-? 
burgh Theatre. Returning to England, he commenced 
lecturer upon elocution, and in this character travelled 
through France and Holland. In 1782, we find him. 
seated in the chair of the school of eloquence at the Ly- 
ceum in the Strand, which probably proved an easy chair 
to him for the remainder of his life. The edition of Life's 
Painter, published by J. Ridgway in 1789, 8vo., contains 
his portrait, Parker was also the author of A View of 
Society and Manners in High and Low Life : being his 
Adventures in England, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, France, 
Sfc., in which is comprised a History of the Stage Itinerant, 
London, 2 vols. 12mo., 1781; Humorous Sketches, Satir- 
ical Strokes, and Attic Observations, 8vo., 1782.] . 



* Mr. Linton, a musician, who was robbed and mur- 
dered in St. Martin's Lane. 



2 nd S. N 87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



169 



SIB WILLIAM KEITH. 

The precise locale of Sir Wm. Keith's decease 
seems to be involved in some obscurity. R. R., in 
reply to my Queries, intimates that there was 
such a prison as the " Old Bailey." (" N. & Q.," 
June 6th.) F. A. C. (June 27th) disagrees with 
him in this particular. I am sure that I have fre- 
quently heard the Old Bailey* spoken of as a 
prison, and when in London some twelve years 
since, such a building was pointed out to me by 
my guide ; but the location I have forgotten. 
Perhaps he was imposing upon my credulity or 
ignorance as a stranger in " the world of brick 
and mortar." 

I am inclined to the belief that Sir William 
died in the Fleet Prison : for in a letter to John 
Adams, in 1813, Thos. McKean of Pennsylvania, 
writes, in alluding to Keith's plan of taxing the 
colonies (the first on record, by-the-by), suggested 
to Sir Robert Walpole : " He was then, I believe, 
in the Fleet Prison ; " intimating also that Sir 
William is alluded to by Peregrine Pickle, in his 
amusing autobiography, as one of the inmates of 
that institution. Sir William, it is known, was 
very poor, and burthened with debt for several 
years previous to his death. I also find that in 
1732 he was in Parliament, in place of Sir Arch. 
Grant, expelled. (Qent's Mag., 1732, vol. ii.) 
Lady Keith died in Philadelphia in the year 1740. 
Her tombstone may still be seen in Christ church- 
yard, Philadelphia. 

It may not be generally known on your side of 
the water that Sir William. Keith's " baronial 
seat" is still an object of interest here. The 
house erected by him in 1722 is still in fair pre- 
servation. It is situated in the county of Mont- 
gomery, Pa., about twenty miles from Philadelphia. 
There he had a " plantation " of 1200 acres, and 
lived in a style becoming his descent, and con- 
genial to his tastes. I am preparing a history 
of that noble estate from the date of its foundation 
to the present time, with its varied and inter- 
esting social, literary, and political associations. 
Keith's career in the colonies was a chequered 
one, and he has the credit of first suggesting to 
the crown the taxing of the colonies. I have a 
document which shows this conclusively. I also 
have a document containing a schedule of his per- 
sonal property conveyed to his wife when he left 
"Fountain-Low," his plantation, for England. 
It evinces that he lived in elegant style for that 
day. His stud consisted of four stallions for the 
coachj seven saddle horses, and six others for 
breeding and draught. He had large herds of 
choice cattle, some twelve negro slaves, besides 



[* Newgate, the chief prison for the city of London, is 
in the Old Bailey; the Court at which the criminals are 
tried is the Old Bailey: hence the confusion referred to by 
our correspondent. ED. " N. & Q."] 



other domestics ; plate, china, and glass in profu- 
sion, and furniture of the most costly description. 
He also had a brewhouse on his premises for the 
manufacture of his own beer. The traditions of 
the neighbourhood relate that he kept an open 
house to his friends, and that there were many 
convivial gatherings under his ample roof. Much 
more of interest I have, which may not be in- 
truded upon your columns at present. 

I am very desirous of learning something re- 
garding Hugh Henry, or Henry Hugh, Fergusson, 
as mentioned to you in " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. iii. 266. ; 
I believe I stated all I knew of him. He was Com- 
missary of Prisoners for General Howe in 1777-8, 
went to England in 1779, and is supposed to have 
died in Flanders in the service of the government. 

Can any of your correspondents enlighten me 
farther, at an early date ? H. C. W. 

New York. 



Syon Sancti Adriani. In a recent number of 
"N. & Q." (2 nd S. iii. 421.) mention is made of 
the village of Eckeren, near Antwerp, by a corre- 
spondent who seems well acquainted with it and 
its vicinity. Perhaps he or some other corre- 
spondent would be so obliging as to inform me 
whether there is or was a monastery or convent 
there known as " Syon Sancti Adriani," or by any 
equivalent appellation. I am well aware that the 
great monastery of St. Adrian is or was at Gram- 
mont. The motive of this inquiry is the hope of 
elucidating an obscure legend on a conventual 
seal. W. S. W. 

Lady Chichester. Can any reader of " N. & 
Q." explain the following passage written in May, 
1615: 

" The Ladie Chichester, the onelye sister of the Coun- 
tesse of Bedford, is dead, w ch gaue a new wound to her 
and the olid Ladye." 

The then Earl of Bedford was Edward Rus- 
sell, the third earl, who married Lucy, sister and 
coheir of John, second Lord Harrington ; but 
whom did the other coheir marry ? I am unable 
to trace any Lady Chichester who was sister to a 
Countess of Bedford. Sir Arthur Chichester, 
created Baron Chichester of Belfast in 1612, mar- 
ried Letitia, daughter of the famous Sir John 
Perrott. His elder brother, Sir John Chichester, 
Knight, married, but his wife's name is not given 
in the pedigrees to which I have access ; whilst 
his younger brother, called Sir John Chichester 
the Tounger, is not stated to have been married. 
He had been taken prisoner and beheaded in Ire- 
land in 1597, by James MacSorley MacDonald, 
afterwards Earl of Antrim. Who was the old 
lady referred to ? JOHN MACLEAN. 

Hammersmith, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a S. N 87., AUG. 29. '57. 



Envelopes first Introduced. Were envelopes 
ever used previous to the present century ? In 
examining some papers recently at the State 
Paper Office, I met with one cut nearly the same 
as one of our modern envelopes, and attached to 
a letter of 1696, May 16 ; addressed by Sir James 
Ogilvie to the Right Hon. Sir Wm. Trumbull, 
Secretary of State. The size was 4 by 3 inches. 

CL. HOPPER. 

Old Ballad of the Means. The following 
couplets form a portion of a song, or rather an- 
cient ditty, which may yet be heard among the 
peasantry of the Mearns, and which my informant, 
a very sagacious person, tells me she has not only 
oftentimes heard sung, but sung herself in her 
younger days. The lines quoted are all which 
now apparently exist, and I should be glad to have 
the name of the author of the words, chiefly 
notable, I admit, for their simplicity. One " Cap- 
tain Wedderburn, servant to the king," proposes 
to his mistress, who, it appears, is somewhat nice 
as respects her palate as well as her lovers ; and 
she in reply, to try his troth, or perhaps from some 
wish to start difficulties in the way of loves which 
before seemed to have " run smooth," is made to 
require of him as under: 

"I must have to my supper a bird without a bone, 
And I must have to my supper a cherry withouten 

stone ; 

And I must have to my supper a bird withouten ga', 
Before I lie in your bed either at stock or wa'." 

To these demands he replies : 

" When the bird is in the shell I'm sure it has no bone, 
And when the cherry is in the bloom I'm sure it has no 

stone; 

The Dove she is a gentle bird, she flies withouten ga", 
And so we'll lie in one bed, and you'll lie next the wa'." 

I should be glad to have the " hole in the bal- 
lad " supplied, or if you were to direct me to a 
quarter in which I can get it done, you will 
oblige K. 

Arbroath. 

Mitred Allots North of Trent. Can any cor- 
respondent of "N. & Q." inform me whether 
there were any more than two mitred abbots north 
of the Trent, namely, the abbots of Selby and S. 
Mary's at York? During a recent ramble in 
Wensleydale I paid a visit to the interesting ruin 
of Jerveaux Abbey, near Middleham, so rich in 
sepulchral slabs, and was told that its abbot was 
mitred. Is this correct ? 

The privileges of the mitred abbot were (Fos- 
broke's British Monach., c. viii.) : 

" The dalmatic or seamless coat of Christ signified holy, 
and immaculate piety: the mitre was emblematical of 
Christ the head of the church, whose figure bishops bore : 
the crosier or pastoral staff, their pastoral care: the 
gloves, because occasionally worn or laid aside, typified 
the concealment of good works for shunning vanity, and 
the^demonstration of them for edification : the ring that 



as Christ was the spouse of the Church, so scripture mys- 
teries were to be sealed from unbelievers, and revealed to 
the Church : and the sandals, because as the foot was 
neither covered nor naked, so the gospel should neither 
be concealed nor rest upon earthly benefits." 

OxONIENSIS. 

Rev. Richard Graves. If the present possessor 
of Mickleton, Gloucestershire, or any other mem- 
bers of the Graves family, are in possession of any 
letters or other documents illustrative of the life 
and character of the Rev. Richard Graves, some 
time rector of Claverton, near Bath, the communi- 
cation of such to the Rev. T. KTLVERT of Claver- 
ton Lodge, near Bath, who is employed on a Me- 
moir of Mr. Graves, will be duly esteemed. 

Witchcraft. Few are the subjects which do 
not directly or incidentally fall under discussion 
in the " N. & Q.," and perhaps I may obtain in- 
formation relative to branding a female with the 
appellation of a witch. I beg to quote two entries 
of burials from the register of the parish of Tet- 
bury, as specified at p. 130. of "the History of 
that town by the Rev. A. T. Lee," recently pub- 
lished : 

" 167, March 12 th , a child of Witch Warrand." 
" 1689, a child of Witch Comleys, May 1 st ." 

May I ask if such insertions, in a public re- 
gister, defamatory as at least they were, were not 
also actionable as libellous? And whether the 
officiating clergyman making such entries would 
incur the responsibility of them ? QUJERITUR. 

Portraits of Henrietta Maria and Prince Charles. 
I lately purchased a copy of The Life and 
Death of Henrietta Maria de Bourbon, Queen to 
Charles the First, which is a reprint of Smeaton, 
dated 1820, of the edition by Dorman Newman, 
1685. There is an engraved frontispiece to it, 
representing Henrietta Maria and Prince Charles, 
with their right hands joined. There is no en- 
graver's name to the print, and I do not find it 
mentioned in Granger. 

I shall therefore feel particularly obliged if 
any one, conversant wto prints, would inform me 
by whom it was originally engraved, and if ex- 
pressly for the above work in 1685. Also, if the 
portrait of the Prince has been copied from any 
previous print. P. 

"Siege of Vienner Who is the author of The 
Siege of Vienne, a tragedy, published by Bell and 
Bradfute, Edinburgh, 1839 ? X. 

Collections of Prints. 1ST. J. A. would thank 
some correspondent of " N. & Q." for directions 
or suggestions as to the best manner of preserving 
(and also of arranging) a collection of from 4000 
to 5000 old prints and etchings. They have been 
kept for a long time in portfolios, some with and 
some without leaves, but neither will prevent their 



s. N 87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



171 



often being damaged. Is there any piece of fur- 
niture made to contain such a collection ? 

James Johnson, M.D. I would feel greatly 
obliged to anyone who would supply a complete 
list of the works (and last editions) of James 
Johnson, M.D., Physician Extraordinary to the 
late King." S. G. 

Dublin. 

The Auction of Cats. In the memoir of the 
eccentric Richard Robert Jones, given in the Im- 
perial Magazine, July, 1826, it is stated : 

"Another of his peculiarities is a partiality for the 
'whole race of cats, which he seems to regard with the 
greatest affection, and to resent any injury done to them 
with the utmost indignation. This singular predilection 
has led him to adorn the numerous books on grammar 
which he has himself written, with prints of cats cut from 
old ballads, or wherever else he can discover them, and to 
copy everything that has been written and strikes his 
fancy respecting them, amongst which is The Auction of 
Cats in Cateaton Street, the well-known production of one 
of the most celebrated wits of the present day." 

What is this "Auction of Cats"? To what does 
it allude ? Is it a print or a poem ? and who was 
its well-known author ? When the above memoir 
was written, Jones was resident at Liverpool. Is 
he still alive ? G. CREED. 

3Iuseum Street. 

Arms. Can any reader of " N. & Q." inform 
me to whom the following arms belong : Argent, 
a fess sable, charged with a mullet between 2 
pellets of the field. D. J. 

Manners Family. Edward Manners, Esq., of 
Goadby Marwood, co. Leicester, who died Feb. 19, 
1811, had a sister, Rosalia, wife of Thos. Thoro- 
ton, Esq. How were they connected with the 
Rutland family ? and were there any other bro- 
thers or sisters ? C. J. 

Quotation Wanted: " Dingle' and Derry " Sfc. 
Of what production do the following lines form a 
portion ? 

" Dingle and Derry sooner shall unite, 
Shanon and Cashan both be drain'd outright, 
And Kerry men forsake their cards and dice, 
Dogs be pursu'd by hares, and cats by mice, 
Water begin to burn, and fire to wet, 
Before I shall my College friends forget." 

"Dingle and Derry" remind one of Dan and 
Beersheba. ABHBA. 

Thomas Ingram and Thos. Bennett. These 
names figure at p. 121. of Musce Anglicance, as 
part authors of the verses entitled " Desiderium 
Gulielmi." Information is wanted respecting them, 
and especially of their parentage. 

JAMES KNOWLES. 

Lost Manuscripts. Many valuable manuscripts 
have been lost, or lost sight of. It might lead to 



useful results, and would certainly be very inter- 
esting, if some of your correspondents would re- 
gister in your pages all the "modern instances" 
of which they know. It is desirable that time and 
circumstances of disappearance should be recorded 
when practicable, with any other matters of con- 
sequence. B, H. C. 

John Bracholme, of London, citizen'and tobac- 
conist, living April 4, 1701. Anything relating 
to him would be acceptable. JAMES KNOWLES. 

Valence. I am desirous to ascertain the mean- 
ing of this word. It is the name of two villages 
in England, Newton Valence, in Hampshire ; and 
Sutton Valence, in Kent. Is the surname Va- 
lentia derived from it? F. M. MIDDLETON. 

Stanton, near Ashbourne. 

Lightning on the Stage. How is lightning 
represented on the stage ? In Mrs. London's 
Botany for Ladies, 1851, she says : 

" The seeds of the common club-moss (Lycopodium 
clavatum) are used at the theatres to imitate lightning." 

F. M. MIDDLETON. 

Stanton, near Ashbourne. 

Prester John. Can any of your readers in" 
form me whether the question of Prester John 
has been definitely settled, and the different ac- 
counts of his "habitat" reconciled. E. II. E. 

" Mrs. Macdonald." When, and by whom, 
was the exquisite little Scotch air, "Mrs. Mac- 
donald " composed ? Are there any words to it, 
and what is the origin of the name ? A. C. 

Bristol. 

Heat and Cold. I enclose an extract from Dr. 
Kane's Expedition to the Arctic Regions; in re- 
ference to which, will any of your scientific readers 
state what are the conditions which influence our 
perceptions of different degrees of heat and cold, 
which so frequently differ so essentially from those 
indicated by the thermometer ; as in the instance 
mentioned by Dr. Kane in the enclosed extract : 

" For the last four days of the month we were at the 
margin of the Arctic circle, alternating within and without 
it. We passed to the south of it on the 30th, to recross 
it on the 31st with an accidental drift to the northward. 
We were experiencing at this time the rapid transitions 
of seasons which characterise this climate. The mean of 
the preceding month, April, had been + 7 96' ; that of 
May, 20 22' a difference of nearly twelve degrees. At 
the same time there was a chilliness about the weather, 
an uncomfortable rawness, both in April and May, which 
we had not known under the deep perpetual frosts of 
winter. Cold then seemed a tangible palpable some- 
thing, which we could guard against or control by cloth- 
ing and exercise ; while warmth, as an opposite condition, 
was realisable and apparent. But here, in temperatures 
which at some hours were really oppressing, 60 to 80 
in the sun, and with a Polar altitude of 45, one half the 
equatorial maximum, we had the anomaly of absolute 



172 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S . tfo 87., AUG. 29. '57. 



discomfort from cold. I know that hygrometric condi- 
tions and extreme daily fluctuations of the thermometer 
explain much of this; but it was impossible for me to 
avoid thinking at the time that there must also be a 
physiological cause more powerful than either." 

G. 
Sidmouth. 

James II. and Court of Rome. Where can I 
find a full account of the negociations between 
King James II. and the Court of Rome, as well 
during his reign, as during his residence in Ire- 
land and St. Germains ? Wishing to examine it 
for a special purpose, perhaps some of your 
readers, possessing a knowledge of the subject, 
would, in a letter under cover to the editor, state 
if there are any references to the Roman Catholic 
Church in England and Ireland, particularly the 
latter, and if the question of the regalities be 
mooted. W. R. G. 

Haworths of Haworth, Can any of your 
readers give me, or tell me where I may find, 
some information respecting the Haworths of 
Haworth, near Keighley ? How long the family 
lived there, when they left, whether they are now 
extinct, and what were their arms ? MOWBRAY. 

" Die arme Seele" Can any of your readers 
inform me who is the author of a short German 
poem called " Die arme Seele " ? It is translated 
in Boyd's Collection of Ballads, but I have never 
oeen able to meet with it in the original. KARL. 

Regimental Colours. Can any of the readers 
of " N. & Q." inform me what is the origin and 
meaning of blessing colours before presenting 
them to a regiment ? F. L. MILLS. 

Gloucester. 

Nell Giuyiis Sister. Eleanor Gwyn, the mo- 
ther of the Duke of St. Albans, had a sister 
Rose, married to Captain John Cassells ; a man of 
some fortune, who. spent it in the service of the 
crown. He died in 1675, leaving his widow in a 
destitute condition, whom King Charles II. re- 
lieved with a pension of 200. per annum. This 
she received until the accession of William and 
Mary. It appears that in that reign she was a 
second time a wife, having married a person of 
the name of Forster. She was living a widow in 
the year 1694. Is anything further known of 
either of these two husbands, and had she issue of 
either?* CL. HOPPER. 

[* In the biography of Nell Gwyn this sister is noticed 
under both names. In a bill for a" sedan is the following 
item : For careing you to Mrs. Knights, and to Mrs. 
Cassdh, and to Mrs. Churchills, and to Mrs. Knights, 
4s." In the codicil to her will, made October 18, 1687, is 
the following bequest: "That Mrs. Rose Forster may 
have two hundred pounds given to her, any time within 
a year after my decease." Cunningham's Nell Gwyn, 
pp. 142. 168. ! ED. ] 



Dr. Young's "Sea Piece.'"-- Can any of your 
readers explain the connection between this poem 
and the Foreign Address by the same author ? 
The Sea Piece was written in 1733, and the 
Foreign Address in 1734; but the earliest edition 
of The Sea Piece which I have seen is in 4 to., 
1755, published by Dodsley; and it, as well as the 
reprint of his Works in 1762, (which also passed 
under the author's eye,) contains verses almost 
literally identical with some in the Foreign Ad- 
dress. F. R. DALDI-. 

Henry Butler. Was there a Henry Butler of 
note in the time of Queen Elizabeth ? If so, was 
he publicly employed ? I should be glad of any 
information concerning him. J. C. J. 

Copes. Have copes ever been worn by cler- 
gymen in the ordinary services in the present 
century ? And can anyone say why they have 
fallen into disuse ? By ordinary services, I mean 
other than coronations or state funerals. 

M. W. C. 

Kymyn. On the horologe of the Earl of Essex 
and Ewe in my possession, the name of the maker 
is thus engraved, "James Kymyn fecit 1593." 
Can any of your correspondents furnish particu- 
lars of this man ? E. D. 



(Hutrfetf imti) 

Walewski. " N". & Q." seems to be open te all 
kinds of inquiries, whether wise or otherwise. I, 
therefore, " will be a fool in question, hoping to 
be the wiser by your answer." I wish to be in- 
formed whether our newspaper writers have any, 
and, if any, what authority for mentioning, as they 
constantly do, the Count Walewskz/ and Countess 
Walewska ? If these eminent persons are, as I sup- 
pose them to be, man and wife, can the use of the 
distinctive termination be supported by any pa- 
rallel instance ? It does not occur to me that in 
any other Russian or Polish name I have ever met 
with a similar practice. For example, we do not 
meet with Count Wielhorsky arid Countess Wiel- 
horska, or of Count Chreptowitsch and Countess 
Chreptovna. If among families of Slavonic origin 
this fashion prevails, can any similar practice be 
adduced from other races ? In England it would 
certainly startle us to be informed that Mr. Abbot 
and Mrs. Abbess had entertained their friends at 
dinner, or that Mr. King and Mrs. Queen had 
arrived in town ; and equally strange would it 
seem to learn " through the usual channels of in- 
formation " that John Bull, Esq., with Mrs. Cow, 
and their juvenile family had taken their departure 
for their country seat at Ball's Cross, near Ches- 
hunt. R. S. V. P. 

[The nature of the Polish language requires the change 
of termination in all Polish names to distinguish the sex, 



2* S. NO 87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



as there is no necessity of using the prefixes Mr. and Mrs., 
or the titles Count and Countess; and if these are used 
out of compliment, the name must agree in gender, 
number, and case, with the title. Thus, if you say, at 
Countess Walewska's ball, you change the termination of 
the nominative a into iej : Na balu Hrabiny Walewskiej, 
&c. Jt may be that our correspondent has never met with 
the names" Wielhorska, Chreptowiczowa, but in the Polish 
language the change of the termination is indispensable. 
With regard to foreign names the Polish language follows 
the rules of the language from which they are derived, 
and would thus appear to be more tolerant than the 
English. With respect to names like those of Bull, 
Abbot, and King, though there are scarcely any of that 
import, most of the Polish names being derived from 
places, such names do not take the sexual appellative, 
but merely the termination of the gender. Thus, if there 
be such a name in the Polish language as Bull, Byk, the 
feminine would not be Cow, Krowa, but Bykowa, &c.] 

Bishop of Aleria. Some one of your readers 
may possibly be able to inform me who was " the 
Bishop of Aleria " mentioned by Johnson in his 
preface to Shakspeare. I have searched all the 
books I know of likely to help me to the name, 
and have inquired of all the reading men in my 
circle of acquaintance, but in vain. 

A. M. CANTUABIENSIS. 

["This bishop was John Andreas, born at Vigevano in 
1417, who became secretary to the Vatican library under 
Paul II. and Sixtus IV. By the former he was employed 
to superintend such works as were to be multiplied by the 
new art of printing, at that time brought into Rome. He 
published Herodotus, Strabo, Livy, Aulus GelHus, &c. 
His schoolfellow, Cardinal de Cusa, procured him the 
bishoprick of Accia, a province in Corsica ; and Paul II. 
afterwards appointed him to that of Aleria, in the same 
island, where he died in 1493. See Fabric. Bibl. Lot. iii. 
894. Beloe, who has abridged many of Andreas's pre- 
faces, justly observes, that " when the length of time is 
considered which at the present day would be required to 
carry any one of the classical works through the press, it 
seems astonishing, and hardly credible, that so much 
should have been accomplished in so very short a pe* 
riod." Anecdotes, iii, 274.] 

Christopher Love. I am anxious to ascertain 
the parentage of Christopher Love, whose long 
trial appears in the State Trials, who was exe- 
cuted on Tower Hill in 1651,. by Cromwell's par?- 
ticular prosecution. This eminent Presbyterian 
is described in Biographical Dictionaries as a 
native of Cardiff. He was attended on the scaf- 
fold by Manton, Calamy, and Ash. Was he not 
the son of Sir Thomas Love, Vice- Admiral of the 
Fleet, who mentions in his will his son Christo- 
pher, student of Winchester College, 1627 ? 
Christopher Love, the Presbyterian martyr, was 
an Oxford man. Sir Thomas Love was a native 
of Eawats in North ants. He mentions this place 
in his will ; and also his kinsman Dr. Nicholas 
Love, Warden of Winchester College. There is 
no doubt, therefore, that be belonged to the an- 
cient family of Love of Northants, whose pedigree 
is recorded in the Heralds' College. The name of 
Dr. Nicolas Love appears therein. T, L. 

L Wood in his Athena, iii. 278., states that Christopher 



Love, son of a father of both his names, was born at Car- 
diff in Glamorganshire, became a servitor of New Inn, 
1635, aged seventeen years." This statement is also con- 
firmed by a MS. Life of Christ. Love in the Sloane MS. 
3945., evidently written by some one personally ac- 
quainted with him. It states, that "he was the son of 
Mr. Christopher Love of Cardiff in Wales. His mother 
was a lady's daughter of a great family. He was the 
youngest child of his parents, and being the child of their 
old age (his mother being fifty years old when she did 
bear him), he was dearly beloved of them. They were no 
way wanting to bring him up in learning, though they 
never intended him for the ministry ; but from a child he 
was very much taken with his book ; and though his 
father and mother were too indulgent over him in giving 
him time for play and sinful recreations, in carding and 
dicing, yet I have heard him say, that he never neglected 
his learning." See " N. & Q." 1 st S. xii. 266.] 



NIEBUHR AND THE ABBE SOULAVIE. 

(2 nd S. iii. 401.) 

The extraordinary .hallucination of Niebuhr in 
pronouncing the spurious Memoirs of the Minority 
of Louis XV., published by the Abbe Soulavie 
as the production of Massillon, to be " the best 
historical work in the French literature," and 
worthy to be placed " beside Thucydides and Sal- 
lust," has been satisfactorily exposed by your 
correspondent E. T. Some of your readers may, 
however, ask who the Abbe Soulavie may be, and 
what was the literary character and position of a 
man capable of composing memoirs which Nie- 
buhr, even under the erroneous belief that they 
were written by Massillon, could deliberately 
place at the head of the historical literature of 
France, and could consider as standing on a level 
with the history of Thucydides. 

According to the detached life, in the Biogra- 
phie Universelle, the Abbe Soulavie was born in 
1751 or 1752, and he was cure of Seven t, and 
vicar-general of the diocese of Chalons at the out- 
break of the French Revolution. He adopted 
warmly the new ideas, and became a member of 
the Jacobin Club. He was allied with the ex- 
treme revolutionary party, such as Chabot, Collot- 
P'Herbois, Barere, &c. ; and used all his influence 
in the press for promoting the overthrow of the 
monarchy. He was one of the first priests who 
married. In 1790 he promulgated a false charge 
against the Abbe de Citeaux, of having shut up 
a monk of his order in a wooden cage, and left him 
to die, in revenge for a blow which he had re- 
ceived. At this time he published the four first 
volumes of the Memoirs of Richelieu, founded 
upon papers communicated to him by the family ; 
but of which he made a fraudulent use, with a 
view of blackening the memory of Richelieu, and 
of nattering the revolutionary ideas of the day. 
In reference to this work, the writer of his life in 
the Biogr. Univ. calls him a " hardi faussaire." 



174 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd s. NO 87., AUG. 29. '57. 



In 1791, the Memoirs of the Minority of Louis 
XV. appeared as the work of Massillon, under the 
editorship of Soulavie. The French critics are 
unanimous in regarding this work as spurious, 
and as the production of the supposed editor. 
The author of the art. MASSILLON, in the same 
excellent Dictionary, says of these Memoirs, that 
they "passent generalement pour un ouvrage 
suppose ; ils offrent des traits hasardes et des ex- 
pressions inconvenantes, non moins indignes de 
1'orateur que du prelat." In this censure the 
writer of the life of Soulavie himself concurs : he 
characterises these Memoirs as a "rhapsodic fa- 
briquee par le pretendu editeur. Jamais le 
brigandage litteraire ne fut pnusse pins loin. 
Soulavie prete a 1'auteur du Petit Careme des 
phrases et des expressions que le valet de chambre 
du Cardinal Dubois ne se fut pas permis d'ecrire." 

In May 1793, Soulavie was appointed President 
of the French Republic at Geneva. From this 
post he was dismissed in the December following, 
but the execution of the decree was suspended 
through the influence of Barere. He was recalled 
after the fall of Robespierre (Aug. 1794), and 
sent to prison, where he remained until 1796. 
After the 18th Brumaire Sieyes and Roger Ducos 
placed his name on a list of persons sentenced to 
transportation, but he was saved by Bonaparte. 

From this time he devoted himself exclusively 
to literature. In 1799 he published spurious me- 
moirs of the ex- director Barthelemy, and sold the 
manuscript as genuine. In the latter part of his 
life, he was reconciled to the church, and he pub- 
lished an avowal of his religious errors. He died 
in March, 1813. He had made a collection of 
engravings relating to French history in 162 folio 
volumes, which Napoleon seized after his death. 

The literary character of Soulavie is thus sum- 
med up by the author of his life in the Biographic 
Universelle : 

" Quelque mepris que meritent les falsifications his- 
toriques de Soulavie, son style trivial et prolix, et ses j 
tableaux souvent obscenes, toujours de mauvaise societe; 
on est quelquefois seduit par la grande facilite de sa nar- 
ration et par la hardiesse de ses apei^us. Ses ecrits seront 
utiles a consul ter pour ceux qui voudront ecrire avec 
impartialite 1'histoire de nos troubles; ils pourront y 
trouver, au milieu d'une foule de mensonges, des docu- 
mens authentiques, des revelations precieuses, et des 
aveux qu'on n'aurait pas obtenu sans la revolution. En 
un mot, pour un historien judicieux et instruit, les indi- 
gestes compilations de Soulavie peuvent devenir ce que 
le fumier d'Ennius fut pour Virgile." 

Such is the literary character of Soulavie, and 
such is the estimate of his works formed by well- I 
informed critics of his own nation. Now if Nie- I 
buhr had been simply deceived by a literary j 
forgery, he would have committed an error which j 
has^ been committed by many persons of perspi- | 
cacity and sound sense. But that he should dis- 
cover surpassing excellences in the spurious work 



of such a writer, and that he should deliberately 
put a production of the Abbe Soulavie at the 
head of French historical literature, and on a level 
with the greatest histories of classical antiquity, 
must be considered as an indication of the pre- 
dominance of fancy, uncontrolled by judgment 
and discretion. L. 



GRAVESTONES AND CHURCH REPAIRS. 

(2 nd S. iii. 366. 453. 494. ; iv. 136.) 

The practice of removing tombstones, so justly 
condemned by K., does not appear to be alto- 
gether a modern invention. Mr. Raine tells us 
that when St. Cuthbert's tomb, in Durham Cathe- 
dral, was opened, May 17, 1827 

" The blue stone was found to rest upon soil eighteen or 
twenty inches in thickness, beneath which was a large 
slab of freestone of nearly a similar size, containing upon 
its lower face the name of RICHAKD HESWELL, a monk 
who is known to have died before the year 1446, and 
which must have been removed, in 1542, from the ceme- 
tery garth on the south side of the church, the onlv 
burial place of the monks, to serve as a cover to the vault 
below it. Its surface was purposely turned downwards, 
to show that it was converted to a use for which it was 
not originally intended." Brief Account of Durham 
Cathedral, p. 58. 

Upon this subject, the Rev. C. Boutell says : 

" It may be confidently asserted that incised slabs of 
memorial were once very common in our churches, particu- 
larly in the churches of tbos"e districts which produce the 
stone, though now they have generally been demolished 
or removed.* This may, in most cases, have resulted 
from the unsightly aspect of the slabs when worn away, 
as they would be liable to be worn away by habitual 
attrition ; they would according!}' be taken up when the 
church was undergoing some repair or alteration, and, 
being considered as altogether unfit to appear in the re- 
newed structure, they would be built up in the walls of 
the new portions ; or, in some instances, they would be 
again laid down in the pavement, but not until the ori- 
ginal surface of the stone had been entirely cut away ; or 
they would be reversed, and worked to a smooth surface 
on the other side. This system of demolishing the mo- 
numental memorials of others, and indeed of appropriat- 
ing them afresh (as was constantly done) in the capacity 
of monuments, it is most difficult to account for, parti- 
cularly in men who bestowed so much care and attention 
upon what they designed to commemorate themselves." f 
Christian Monuments, p. 10. 

It is indeed difficult to account for this species 
of sacrilege, which, as has been shown, dates 
back to a period when churchwardens were not, 
for the sanctity of the grave is respected even 

* In the Archaeological Journal, vol. iv. pp. 37. 58., is 
an interesting account of the discovery of a vast number 
of early incised slabs, during the recent repairs in Bake- 
well Church, Derbyshire. In many other churches similar 
collections of monumental slabs have been observed. I 
may add, that a very considerable number of slabs of this 
character now form part of the pavement of the church 
at Gorleston, in Suffolk. 

t Archaologia, vol, xxx. p. 121, 



2 nd S. N" 87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



175 



among savage and heathen nations. It proves, at 
any rate, the existence of a mean, irreligious, uti- 
litarian spirit, as well as the "keen desire for 
church renovation," mentioned by your corre- 
spondent : and, as monumental memorials are 
admissible for legal evidence, their wilful destruc- 
tion, obliteration, or concealment, can scarcely be 
" in harmony with the law." That this abomina- 
ble system was rife in Shakspeare's day, we might 
conclude from his well-known epitaph (which I 
here copy from Mr. Fairholt's Home of Shak- 
speare, almost the only work in which it is cor- 
rectly given) : 

"GOOD FREND FOR lESVS SAKE FORBEARE, 
TO DIGG TIE DVST ENCLOASED tEARE : 

BLES'E BE Y B MAN Y T SPARES TIES STONES, 

AND CVRST BE HE Y T MOVES MY BONES." 

There is a traditionary story, that "his wife 
and daughters did earnestly desire to be laid in 
the same grave with him ; but that not one, for 
fear of the curse above said, dare touch his grave- 
stone." As times go (and have gone), it would 
be better if some such lines as these of Shak- 
speare took the place of those fulsome churchyard 
chronicles that have given rise to the proverb 
" Menteur comme une epitaphe" The non-inter- 
ference with Shakspeare's gravestone has not 
been extended to the gravestones of his family ; 
for Mr. Fairholt, in his account of the stone com- 
memorating the last resting-place of Susanna, 
wife of Dr. John Hall, says : 

" The whole of the rhyming part of her epitaph had 
been obliterated ; and upon the place was cut an inscrip- 
tion to the memory of one Richard Watts. This has in 
its turn been erased, and the original inscription restored 
by lowering the surface of the stone, and recutting the 
letters." 

I also (like your correspondent K.) could men- 
tion a church, where two gravestones to the 
members of an ancient family had been removed 
to the outside of the entrance to the south porch, 
where they still lie, with their inscriptions (one of 
them to a person possessing the singular name of 
Scudamore Cheese) well-nigh obliterated. Last 
year the chancel of this same church was restored. 
The chancel was unusually large, and free from 
pews, &c. ; on its floor were about a score of me- 
morials, the inscriptions on some being very in- 
teresting, and one (which has already been given 
in " N. & Q.") very curious. The whole of these 
inscriptions, with their coats-of-arms, &c., are 
now concealed by a flooring of encaustic tiles laid 
over, and upon them. The inscriptions have not 
been transferred to the tiles (in the manner men- 
tioned by the REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE) save in 
one instance, that of the rector's own family. 
Happening to be on the spot before the tiles were 
laid down, I made a plan of the gravestones, and 
an accurate copy of their inscriptions ; and this is 
the only record existing of these now-unseen me- 



morials ; though I am about to make a duplicate 
copy to present to the register-box of the parish. 
CUTHBERT BEDE, B.A. 



DR. JOHN DONNE S WILL. 

(2 nd S. iv. 127.) 

W. L. inquires for a curious document : think- 
ing it may probably interest your readers at large, 
I send you a copy taken from a Broadside printed 
Feb. 23, 1662. 

" Dr. Donne's Last Will and Testament, July 21, 1657. 
Video meUoraproboque. 

In the name of God. Amen. I John Donne, by the 
Mercy of Christ Jesus, being, at this time, in good and 
perfect understanding, do hereby make My last Will and 
Testament in manner and form following : First, I give 
my good and gracious God an Intire Sacrifice of Body 
and Soul with my most humble Thanks, for that his 
Blessed Spirit imprints in me now an assuredness of Sal- 
vation of one, and the Resurrection of the other ; and for 
that Constant and Cheerful Resolution which the same 
Spirit Established in me, to live and dye in the same Re- 
ligion Established in England by the known Law. In 
Expectation of the Resurrection, I desire that my Body 
may be buried in the most private manner that may be 
in the Churchyard of the Parish where I now live, without 
the Ceremony of Calling an}' Officers. And I desire to be 
Carried to my Grave by the ordinary Bearers of the Dead, 
without troubling any of my Friends, or letting them 
know of my Death by any means, but by being put into 
the Earth. And I desire" my Executor to interpret my 
meaning on this Request, by my Word, and not by his 
own Discretion; who peradventure, for fashion's sake, and 
apprehending we shall never meet, may think to order 
things Better for my Credit. (God be thanked) I have 
not lived by Jugling, therefore I desire to dye and be 
buried without any : And not having, (as I hope,) been 
burdensome to my Friends in my Life, I would not load 
their shoulders being Dead. I desire and appoint the 
Right Honourable Jerome, Earl of Portland to be my 
Executor, hoping that for all his Cares of me, and Kind- 
nesses to me, he will undertake to see this my Will punc- 
tually performed ; Especially concerning my Burial. To 
the Most Excellent, Good, Kind, Vertuous, Honorable Lady 
Portland, I give all the Rest that I have in this Will Tin- 
bequeathed: And I do not this foolishly (as may at the 
first sight appear) because my Lord is my Executor ; but 
because I know it will please the Gaiety of her Humour, 
which ought to be preserv'd for all their sakes that have 
the honour and happiness to be known unto her. To the 
Right Honourable The Lord Newport, I bequeath the 
Picture of St. Anthony in a round Frame. To my very 
good friend Mr. John Harvy, the Picture of the Samaritan, 
by whose kindness I have been often refreshed. To my 
good friend Mr. Chr. Gise, Sir Thomas Moor's Head, 
which upon my Conscience I think was not more Inge- 
nious than his o'wn. And I write this rather as a Comme- 
moration than a Legacy, for I have always made a diffe- 
rence between Kindnesses and Courtesies. To Mr. George 
Pitt, I give the Picture of my Dutch Fair, which is full of 
Business, but where there is'alwaies room for a Kindness. 
And I brag of the favours I received from him, because 
they came not by Chance. To my Cousin Henry Stafford, 
son to my kind friend Mr. William Stafford, I give all my 
Printed Books, which although they are of no great value, 



176 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87., 



29. '57. 



yet the) 7 may seem proportionable to his youth, and may 
serve as a Memorial to encline him to be as indulgent to 
poor Scholars as his Father and Grand-Father have been 
before him. And by this means I give not only a Legacy, 
but entangle it upon other men that deserve their Kind- 
ness. To my honourable Friend Sir Allen Broderick I 
give my Cedar Table, to add a fragour to his Excellent 
writing. To my kind Friend Mr. Thomas Killigrew, I 
give all my Doves, that something may descend upon a 
Courtier that is an Emblem of Kindness and Truth. To 
my servant Mary Web, if she be with me at the time of 
my death, I give all my Linnen that belongs to my per- 
sonal use, and Forty Shillings above her Wages, if it does 
not appear that she hath occasioned my death, which I 
have often lived in fear of, but being alone could never 
help ; although I have often complained of my sad Condi- 
tion to my nearest Relations, 'twas not fit to trouble 
others. To Mr, Isaac Walton, I give all my Writings 
under my Father's hand, which may be of some use to his 
Son, if he makes him a scholar. To the Reverend Bishop 
of Chichester [Henry King], I return that Cabinet that 
was my Father's, now in my Dining-Room, and all those 
Papers which are of Authors Analysed by my Father, many 
of which he hath already received with his Common-Place 
Book, which I desire may pass to Mr. Walton's Son, as 
being more likely to have use for such a help, when his 
age shall require "it. These four Sides of this Small Paper 
being written by my own hands, I hope will be a Suffi- 
cient Testimony that this is my last Will. And such 
Trivial things were not fit for a greater Ceremony than 
my own Hand and Seal, for I have lived alwaies without 
all other Witnesses but my own Conscience, and I hope I 
have honestly discharged that. I have in a Paper an- 
nexed something at this present ; and may do some things 
hereafter, which I presume my most honourable good 
Lord of Portland will see performed. 

" JOHN DONNE. 

fMARLEBURGH. 

{WILL. GLASCOCKE. 

"When I made this Will I was alone; afterwards I 
desired my good friends the Earl of Marleburgh, and Mr. 
Glascocke, to witness it, which was in Nov, the 2nd, 1661. 

" JOHN DONNE. 
" ' Non Curo quid de me Judicet haeres.' Hor." 

J. O. 

[Our best thanks are presented to J. 0. for this curious 
document; but it is not the will of Dr. John Donne, Dean 
of St. Paul's, inquired after by W. L., but that of his son, 
who is described by Anthony a Wood, in his usual sar- 
castic mariner, as no better than "an atheistical buffoon, 
a banterer, and a person of over-free thought, yet, valued 
by Charles II." This will is printed in the Appendix to 
Sir Harris Nicolas's Life of Izaak Walton, p cxlix., pre- 
fixed to The Complete Angler, edit. 1836. John Donne, 
jun., was born in 1604, educated at Westminster and 
Christ Church College, Oxford. He took the degree of 
LL.D. at Padua, and at Oxford, June 30, 1638. "That 
he was a clergyman," observes Dr. Zouch, "and had some 
preferment in the diocese of Peterborough [the rectory of 
UpfordJ, we learn from a letter written to him by Dr. 
John Towers, Bishop of Peterborough, his diocesan, 
wherein his lordship thanks him for the first volume of 
his father's Sermons, telling him that his parishioners 
may pardon his silence to them for a while, since by it 
he hath preached to them, and to their children's chil- 
dren, and to all our English churches, for ever." This 
letter, dated July 20, 1640, is prefixed to the third volume 
of his father's Sermons ; but afterwards to the time of his 
death, he dates "From my house in Covent Garden." He 
died in the winter of 1662, and was buried near the stand- 



ing dial, at the west end of St. Paul's Church, Covent 
Garden.] 



t0 Minav 

Bottfe (2 nd S. iv. 87.) The French bouteille, 
the Italian bottiglia, and the Spanish botija, are 
the modern forms of the Low Latin buticula. 
This word is the diminutive of butta, a cup, cask, 
or other vessel for holding wine ; of which a full 
account is given by Ducange in v. butta. The 
latter word corresponds with the German butte or 
biltte, concerning which see Adelung, in v. The 
Low Latin butta passed into Byzantine Greek, 
which had the words fiovrrts and &OVTTIOV for cup : 
Meurs. Gloss. Grcecobarb. in jSour^j. 

The phrase " bottle of hay " is not, as MR. 
KEIGHTLEY supposes, a corruption of " bundle of 
hay," but is derived from the French " botte de 
foin," or rather from the old word botlel or boteau, 
which is explained by Roquefort (Glossaire de la 
Langue Romane), " une botte, une poignee, un 
faisceau, plusieurs choses attachees ensemble." 
This word seems to be derived from botulus or 
botellus, which signified in ancient Latinity a 
sausage, a collection of stuffed meat* Botulus is 
cited by Gellius from the Mimes of Laberius (xvi. 
7.), and both botulus and botellus are used by 
Martial (xiv. 72.; v, 78.; xi. 31.). Botellus, 
from its meaning of sausage, afterwards acquired 
the signification of bowel, whence the Ital. budello, 
and the French boyau (Ducange, in botellus). 

The same erroneous conjecture as to the cor- 
ruption of " bottle " from " bundle " of hay had 
been previously made by Skinner. See Richard- 
son in bottle. 

The phrase "bottled spider," in Shakspeare, 
which MR. KEIGHTLEY finds it difficult to explain, 
and which he proposes to alter into " bloated 
spider," occurs in the following passage : 

" Poor painted queen, vain flourish of m}- fortune ! 
Why strew'st thou sugar on that bottled spider, 
Whose deadly web ensnareth thee about? " 

Rich. ///., Act I. Sc. 3. 

where Johnson explains the epithet as meaning 
that a spider resembles a bottle as having a pro- 
tuberant belly. This explanation is adopted by 
Todd, in his edition of Johnson s Dictionary, and 
it appears to be satisfactory. It is confirmed by 
the use of botija, which is stated in the Dictionary 
of the Spanish Academy to be a term applied in 
jest to a short fat man, from the shape of a wine 
cask or jar. If any alteration is needed, it would 
be better to read bottle-spider, according to the 
same idiom as bottle-nose. L. 

The Winged Burgonet (2 nd S. iv. 129.) This 
unlucky piece of spurious armour might have been 
sent to Manchester ; but Certainly not by the 
Tower authorities, as I have seen it fot sale in a 



2-ds.N'87.,AtG.29.'57.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



177 



shop in Holborn, long before the Exhibition was 
opened. W. J. BERNHARD SMITH. 

Temple. 

Pedigree (2 nd S. iv. 69.) Those who speculate 
so boldly on this word, seem to overlook the early 
modes of spelling it; which rather countenance 
the suggestion that it is to be referred to pied de 
grue. It is found as pedegru, petygru, pedegrw, 
pedygru, pedegrewe, petygowe, and pedicru. 

Cranmer Family (2 nd S. iv. 68.) --Your cor- 
respondent MB. JAMES KNOWI^ES will find in 
Thoroton's Hist, of Notts, s. v. " Aslacton," a pe- 
digree of the Archbishop's branch of the Cranmer 
family for ten descents, viz. from Hugh de Cran- 
mer (c. Ed. I. ?) to Thomas Cranmer de Aslacton, 
great nephew of the archbishop, who married 
Alice, daughter of John Lucy, ux. 1. ; and Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Thomas Hutchinson, relict of 
Will. Brookesby, ux. 2. This Thomas (the last of 
the Cranmers of this branch) appears to have died 
8th Dec., 1 Eliz, J. SANSOM. 

A Watery Planet (2 nd S. iv. 127.) By a 
"watery planet" we may understand a planet 
that was supposed to produce an excess of aqueous 
humours in patients under its influence. 

When u Mr. Havers " wrote in his cash or day 
book that he " was stroken with a waterye planet," 
and withdrew from his " comptinge house " to his 
chamber, " his face and brest being all wett," 
there is good reason for inferring from the Symp- 
toms that his malady was no other than a mitigated 
form of the sweating sickness ; and the very ex- 
pression that he employed, " stroken with a 
waterye planet " points to this conclusion. We 
throw in a qualifying term, and say " a mitigated 
form," because the patient did not die till the 
third day ; and the regular disease, when it killed, 
made much shorter work. Its last appearance, 
as an epidemic, was in 1551. 

There is extant, by Dr. Caius, A Sake or Coun- 
Seill against the disease commonly called the sweate, 
or sweating sicknesse (1552), in which the Doctor 
expressly indicates sidereal influences as one cause 
of the disease. " To this mai be ioyned the evel 
disposition of constellation, whiche hath a great 
power and dominion in ai erthly thinges." (Fo. 
13. verso.) This, then, is the explanation of the 
" waterye planet." 

But if in those days not only popular opinion, 
but medical science, imputed human maladies to the 
stars, how could George Lord Carew be at a loss 
to understand the phrase " stroken w th a waterye 
planet ? " It is very possible that at the period 
when his Lordship penned the account of " Mr. 
Havers" and his malady, 1615, the sweating sick- 
ness had well nigh died out ; and the old idea of 
its originating in the watery influences of a planet 



may have been one of which, as he expressed him- 
self, he was "merelye ignorant." But Havers 
may have retained the notion, and may have ap- 
plied it to his own case. The power of the stars 
Dver the affairs of men found credit with some 
persons up to a far later period. THOMAS BOYS. 

Artillery and the Bow. I have an indistinct 
recollection of a Query in your pages respecting 
the simultaneous use of artillery and the bow. I 
have not " N. & Q" at hand, and send the follow- 
ing " on chance : " 

" Now mariners do push 

With right good will the pike, 
The hailshot of the harquebush 
The naked slaue doth strike. 
Through targe and body right 

That downe he falleth dead, ^ 

His fellow then in heauie plight 

Doth swimme away afraid. 
To bathe in brutish bloud 

Then fleeth the grey goose wing, 
The halberdiers at hand be good, 

And hew that all doth ring. 
Yet gunner play thy part, 

Make hailshot walk againe, 
And fellows row with like good heart, 
That we may get the maine. 

Our arrowes all now spent, 
The negroes 'gan approach/' 

Voyage of R. Baker to Guinie, 1562. 
Hakluyt, p. 133., edit of 1589. 

E. H. E. 

"Teed? "Tidd" (2 nd S. iv. 127.) On the 
title-page of my copy of Spelman's Glossary is the 
name of a former owner of.it, " Chr. Theed'," 
and in the text at the word Theada is this mar- 
ginal note : 

" Fortasse ex hinc nomen meum Theed originern capit." 
Theada, Theoda, Theuda, is from the Sax. Deob, 
" people* nation, or province." 

Deadman (ib. 128.) is, according to Halliwell, 
a west country word for " scarecrow ; " may it 
not, however, as a surname, be connected with 
the above ? J- EASTWOOD. 

"Flash:" "Argot'' (2 nd S. iv. 128.) Ros- 
trenen (Diet. Franc. Bret., Rennes, 1732), under 
** Argot," refers to 

Narquois, 1'argot, le Jargon des Giieux $ Narquoist 
filou, adroit. C'est unfin narquois." 

Bescherelle (Diet. Nat., Par., 1845) under 
" Narquois" says : 

" Ce mot, dans le xvii siecle, a ete synonytne d'argot. 
On.' Ais&it parler le narquois, savoir le narquois, pour dire 
Parler efr entendre le jargon qu'employaient entre eux 
les voleurs et les escrocs. II est employe ainsi dabs 
Tallement des Reaux, torn. i. p. 139.*' Also "Narquois, 
homrne fin, subtil, ruse', qui se plait a tromper les autres, 
ou a s'en moquer," from " Narquin, mendiant, voleur, 
coupeur de bourses." 

Menage, under " Narquois" says : 

" On appelle ainsi le jargon des Gueux. Du mot nar- 
quin, qui giguifioit mendiant, contrefaisant le soldat d- 



178 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2 



., AUG. 20. '57. 



trousse'. Ce jargon est ancien : et au rapport du Presidant 
Faucbet (livre 1., De I'Origine des Chevaliers, ch. i.), il a 
commence du tans de Charles VI. ou de Charles VII., 
duquel tans, il dit eu avoir vu des Ballades et des Rimes. 
11 y a un Dictionnaire de ce jargon, intitule Le Jargon, 
ou langage de V Argot reforms, comme il est presentement en 
usage parmy les bons pauvres : tire et recueilli des plus 
fameux Argotiers de ce temps : imprime a Troye chez Ni- 
cholas Oudot. Et dans ce Dictionnaire, le mot de narquois 
est explique par celuy de soldat." 

The Fr. argu (obs.) is " fin, subtil, ruse ; " said 
to be from Lat. argutus. The Bas Bret, argu is 
" debat." If argot is from the Celtic, query Bas 
Bret, var, oar, and wad, coed in Welsh, ar and 
coed, whence argoed, which is (says Owen) "a 
surrounding wood, and that many places, from 
their being situated amidst woods, are called 
Argoed" But see Menage under " Ergo-glu" 
" Ergot" and "Ergoter" Also Roquefort (<?to.) 
under " argu" et seq. R. S. CHAENOCK. 

Gray's Inn. 

Surname " Deadman" (2 nd S. iv. 128.) I 
think I can satisfy your correspondent as to the 
origin of the surname Deadman, which he con- 
jectures may have been applied in the first instance 
to a gravedigger ; a very unsatisfactory guess by 
the way. 

I know a person vulgarly called by the same 
name, which I thought an unaccountable one, till 
I found his name was in fact Debenham : I have 
heard him called Deadmewi? or Deadmant. Simi- 
larly I know a family commonly called Bradman ; 
they spell their name Bradnam ; it ought most 
likely to be Bradenham. Debenham is a parish in 
Suffolk ; Bradenham a parish in Norfolk. 

Without some such elucidation as this there is 
but little doubt that had the origin of the name 
Bradman been required, some one would have 
suggested that the first of the name was a nail 
worker, a maker of brads. 

Corruptions of names are strange, and strange 
too are sometimes the attempted corrections of 
corruptions. I have seen inscribed over the shop 
of a tradesman the name Bacchus, undoubtedly 
the right name would be Backhouse, often pro- 
nounced Back-us. 

In the same town might be seen the name Ba- 
laam, which should, I conceive, have been spelt 
Baylham, for in the same county there is a parish 
of the latter name. 

Can any of your correspondents explain the 
name Totman f Is it not most probable that it 
should (on the same principle as the first two 
names mentioned) be Tottenham ? 

A good deal has been writ about the name Anne, 
as applied to a man, and as a surname : did none 
of the inquirers know that there was a King of 
the East Angles named Anna f BRAMBLE. 



NOTES ON RECENT BOOK SALES. 

A very important collection of early English Bibles and 
Testaments, Liturgies, Psalters, and portions of the Scrip- 
tures and old English literature, was sold by Messrs. 
SOTHEBY & WILKINSON, on Aug. 20, 21, 22, 1857. We 
confine ourselves in the present article to the biblical 
literature : 

109. Bible and Holy Scriptures conteyned in the Olde 
and Newe Testament, translated according to the Ebrue 
and Greke and conferred with the best translations, with 
most profitable annotations, &c., woodcuts, maps, &c. 
Olive morocco extra, gilt edges, by F. Bedford (No. 25. 
of Lea Wilson). Geneva, Rouland Hall. 1560. 1W. 10s. 

First and most rare edition of the famous " Genevan 
Version " (dedicated to Queen Elizabeth'), better 
known as " the Breeches Bible," on account of the 
quaint translation of Genesis vii. 7., which however 
was anticipated by Caxton in his Golden Legend, 
printed in 1483 (folio 27). 

110. Byble (The Whole), that is the Holy Scripture of 
the Olde and Newe Testament, faythfully translated into 
Englyshe, by Myles Coverdale, and newly oversene and 
corrected. Black-letter, extremely rare (No. 19. of Lea 
Wilson). Prynted for Andrewe Hester. 1550. 28Z. 10s. 

The first quarto edition of Coverdale's Bible in a nearly 
perfect state, is quite as rare as the folio edition of 
1535. It was printed at Zurich, by Christopher 
Froschover in 1550, and had 18 preliminary leaves 
in the type of the text, containing brief summaries 
of every chapter in the Bible, but without Preface 
or Dedication ; and it contained also three leaves of 
table at the end. A perfect copy in this state is pre- 
served in the Public Library at Zurich, from which 
a facsimile of the title has recently been taken and 
inserted in this copy. It has the device of Froschover 
(frogs climbing a tree), as well as his name. No 
copy with these 18 leaves is known in this country, 
and but one, we believe, in America. On coming to 
England Froschover's title and preliminary leaves 
were cancelled, and the edition was issued by Hester 
in 1550, with eight preliminary leaves in the form of 
this copy, containing a new title, list of books, dedica- 
tion to Edward VI., and preface, copied with slight 
variations from the first folio edition of 1535, though 
in the preface Coverdale interpolates an important 
historical sentence showing the date when he went 
abroad to print the first edition. Hester's eight 
leaves were again cancelled, and the book was issued 
by Richard Jugge in 1553, with 12 preliminary 
leaves, being a reprint of the eight by Hester, and 
with four additional leaves containing an Almanac 
and Calendar. A facsimile of Jugge's title is also 
inserted in this copy. It, is doubtful whether Hester 
and Jugge cancelled also the three leaves of table. 
At all events, they are so rare that few collectors 
have seen them. They are added to this copy in 
facsimile. 

112. Bible (The) containing the Old and New Testa- 
ment, with Apocrypha. Black-letter, very rare (No. 32. 
of Lea Wilson), wants title and preliminary pieces before 
the end of Letanie (A 8), and the two leaves of table, else 
good copy with the exception of having a few of the 
margins pieced, red morocco super extra, gilt edges, by 
F. Bedford. Ihon Cawood. 1569. 6/. 
No perfect copy of this edition is known. The present 
is not mixed with any leaves from the other two of 
this date, as is usually the case. 
114. Bible (The), containing the Old and New Testa- 



24 S. NO 87., AUG. 29. '57.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



179 



ment, with Apocrypha and Booke of Psalmes in metre. 
Woodcuts. Rare, but dedication mutilated and wants 
title, last leaf of Calendar and List of Faires in the com- 
mencement, and also wants fol. 66, 67. 80, and 81. in the 
Catechism, &c., printed at end of Psalmes in metre. Red 
morocco super extra, gilt edges, by F. Bedford. Geneva, 
by John Crespin. 1569. 41. 18s. 
No. 35. of Lea Wilson. The New Testament is dated 
1568. 

222. Bible. The Golden Legende, conteynynge the 
Lyves and Hystoryes taken out of the Byble, and 
Legendes of the Saintes. 2 parts in 1, woodcuts, black- 
letter, very rare, fine large copy, but wanting six leaves 
in the second part (folio 40, 41, 42,43. 111. and 258. con- 
taining colophon), splendidly bound in morocco, super 
extra, gilt edges, tooled in the antique style, by Hayday. 
Julian Notary. 1503. 21Z. 

This extraordinary work exhibits the earliest printed 
specimen of an "English translation of the Bible, or 
rather portions, as it confines itself chiefly to the 
historical Books and Gospels. A very curious fact is, 
that the editor and translator, William Caxton, has 
used the word "breches" in his rendering of Genesis 
iii. 7. " And thenne they toke fygge levys and sewed 
theym tog3'der for to cover theyr membres in the 
nianer of breches," showing that the Genevan Ver- 
sion is not the original of this quaint expression. 

223. The Bible, that is the Holy Scripture of the Olde 
and New Testament, faithfully and truly translated out 
of Douche and Latyn into Englishe (by Miles Coverdale), 
Woodcuts by H. L. Beham (No. 1. of Lea Wilson). Black 
letter (Angular Swiss or German), quite perfect, with the 
exceptions mentioned in the note, bound in rich brown 
morocco super extra, tooled edges and sides, by F. Bed- 
ford. First English Bible printed, extremely rare. 1535. 
1907. 

This first Protestant translation of the whole Bible into 
English, and probably one of the rarest books in the 
language, is considered as the joint production of 
Tyndale and Coverdale, but is usually termed " Co- 
verdale's Bible." The possession of a fragment only 
of our earliest Bible has always been deemed a sine 
qua non with Biblical collectors, and the prices paid 
for such fragments ranging from 307. to 1507., is the 
surest test of the difficulty experienced in procuring 
even these. The present is a most desirable copy, but 
having the preliminary leaves, folios 1, 2, 5, 6 in 
Genesis, the last seven leaves of Revelations, and the 
map in wonderful facsimile by Harris. When it is 
remembered that no perfect copy as yet is known, and 
that the Earl of Leycester's is the only one with the 
title, we need not be surprised at the late Mr. Lea 
Wilson, who possessed one with title and first leaf of 
dedication in facsimile, offering 1007. to any person 
furnishing him the original title, and the like sum 
for the next leaf, or that he did not live to see the 
accomplishment of his earnest desire to be the owner 
of the first complete copy. At his death his copy 
passed into the hands of Mr. Dunn Gardner, at whose 
sale on July 7, 1854, despite the facsimiles, it pro- 
duced 3657. Mr. Henry Stevens, in his forthcoming 
account of English Bibles, has the following interest- 
ing note with regard to the printing of the work : 
"Nothing whatever is known as to where, or by 
whom it was printed. Since the time of Humphry 
Wanley it has generally been ascribed to Christopher 
Froschover, of Zurich, who printed the quarto edition 
in a similar, though smaller type, in 1550 ; but Chris- 
topher Anderson, in his 'Annals of the English 
Bible,' says, in his Historical Index, p. xxxi. that 
Froschover ' was certainly not the printer of Coverdale's 
Bible in 1535, as ascertained by the present author 



when at Zurich.' Anderson does not give the 
grounds of his conclusion, but he is probably correct, 
as no conclusive evidence has yet been adduced in 
favour of the Zurich printer. My late and lamented 
friend Mr. Wm. Pickering had as early as August, 
1851, completed a series of investigations, by which 
he came to the conclusion that the book was printed 
by Christian Egenolf, of Frankfort. He based his 
argument upon the similarity of the woodcuts and 
the type of Coverdale's Bible, and a German Bible of 
the same sized page printed by Egenolf in 1534; and 
upon a little volume of Bible plates by H. S. Beham, 
first printed by Egenolf in 1533, and again in 1536, 
1539, and 1551, with some additions." Mr. Stevens, 
however, after examining the works mentioned by 
Pickering, came to precisely the opposite conclusion, 
for he found that although the woodcuts and type 
closely resembled each other, they were not identical, 
and therefore naturally observes, " as it is unlikely 
that any printer of that day would have in his office 
two sets of woodcuts and two founts of type so nearly 
alike yet different, we may, I think, fairly conclude that 
Egenolf was not the printer." Mr. Stevens seems to 
have taken great pains to solve the mystery, but 
after many fruitless comparisons of his Coverdale with 
works from the presses of coeval printers, candidly 
confesses " I have found no clue." A leaf of Egenolf 's 
German Bible of 1534 is inserted in the present copy, 
so as to enable every beholder to judge this knotty 
point by comparing the one with the other. 

224. Byble, which is all the Holy Scripture, in whych 
are contayned the Olde and Newe Testament truly and 
purely translated into Englysh by Thomas Matthew. 
Woodcuts. Black-letter, very rare (No. 4. of Lea Wil- 
son), a desirable volume, but has the title and next five 
leaves in admirable facsimile, and wants the first and last 
of the 13 leaves of table, the list of Books, the title to the 
New Testament, O 1 in Revelations, the last leaf of the 
New Testament, and the two following leaves of table. A 
few leaves mutilated are mended. No other defects are 
known, but the volume will be sold not subject to colla- 
tion, good copy in old calf. 1537. 23/. 

This edition was apparently printed abroad for Grafton 
and Whitchurch, and although the version is styled 
Matthew's, it varies but little from Tyndal and Co- 
verdale's translation, the few emendations and addi- 
tions it contains having been furnished by John 
Rogers, the first martyr in Queen Mary's reign, who 
under the assumed name of Matthew superintended 
the publication. The work is beautifully printed, but 
a few important errors occur in the text, e. g. John 
20, " and put my finger into the holes of the nails," is 
omitted, and so is in 1 Cor. 11., " This cup i$ the new 
testament in my blood." In Hebrews 6., " Let us LOVE 
the doctrine " is printed for " Leave the doctrine." 
The disputed verse in 3 John v. is in smaller type. 

225. Bible (The most sacred) which is the Holy Scrip- 
ture, conteyning the Old and New Testament, translated 
into English, and newly recognized with great diligence 
after most faythful exemplars by Rye-hard Taverner. 
Black-letter (No. 5. of Lea Wilson), fine copy, quite com- 
plete, with the exception of having the title in beautiful 
facsimile by Harris, and wanting the three leaves of table 
at end. Morocco extra, gilt edges, by F. Bedford. John 
Byddell for Thomas Barthlet. 1539. 367. 

This is the first edition of Taverner's Bible, and is of 
great rarity. In it the disputed text, 1 John v., is 
printed in smaller type. The word peace is uniformly 
printed peax, thus showing its transition from the 
Latin. Mr. Lea Wilson not having been fortunate 
enough to secure a perfect copy, fell into some errors 
in giving his collation. 



180 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2^