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NOTES AND QUERIES: 



iileirfum of inter *Coinmunfcatfon 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



".When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



SECOND SERIES. VOLUME SIXTH. 
JULY DECEMBER, 1858. 



LONDON: 

BELL & DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET. 

1858. 



AC 






LIBRAR 

728058 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



2< S. VI. 131* JULY 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULYS. 1858. 



THE AMBER TRADE OF ANTIQUITY". 

The Greek word electron had a double signi- 
fication : it denoted amber, and also a metallic 
compound, formed by the mixture of gold and 
silver in certain proportions. Whichever of these 
significations was the original one, it is certain 
that the transfer from one to the other was owing 
to the tawny colour and the lustre which were 
common to the two substances. 

The use of the word electron in Homer and 
Hesiod, where it is described as applied to differ- 
ent ornamental purposes, does not determine its 
meaning. Buttmann, however, in his dissertation 
on the subject (Ueber das Elektron, Mythologus, 
vol. ii. p. 337.), has made it probable that it sig- 
nifies amber in the early epic poetry; and he de- 
rives the word from C'AKCO, in allusion to the electric 
properties of amber. The use of the word in the 
plural number for the ornaments of a necklace in 
two passages of the Odyssey (xv. 460., xviii. 295.), 
though not decisive, agrees best with the supposi- 
tion that knobs or studs of amber are meant, as 
in the passage of Aristophanes, where it denotes 
the ornaments fastened to a couch. (Eq. 532.) 
Upon this hypothesis, the acceptation of the word 
in the sense of pale gold would be derivative and 
secondary. (Compare Boeckh, Metrol, U?iter- 
suclmngen, p. 129.) 

The fable of the daughters of the sun being 
changed into poplars on the banks of the river 
Eridanus, and their tears for the death of their 
brother Phaethon being converted into amber, 
though posterior to the early epic poetry, is ante- 
rior to ^Eschylus and the Attic tragedians, who 
introduced it into their dramas. Hyginus even 
ascribes this fable to Hesiod. (Buttraann, Ib. 
p. 342.) 

The notions of the ancients both as to the na- 
ture of amber, and the places where it occurred, 
were singularly conflicting and indistinct ; as we 
learn from the full compilation in Pliny (H. N. t 
xxxvii. 11.). But although Theophrastus speaks 
of it as having been found in Liguria (De Lapid., 
16. edit. Schneider), it maybe considered as cer- 
tain that the amber imported into ancient Greece 
and Italy was brought from the southern shores 
of the Baltic, where it is now almost exclusively 
obtained. According to Herodotus, amber was in 
his time reported to come from a river, called 
Eridanus by the barbarians, which flowed into the 
sea to the north. Herodotus however rejects 
this story : he considers the name Eridanus as 
being manifestly of Greek origin, and as invented 
by some poet; he cannot ascertain that such a 
river exists, or that Europe is bounded by sea to 
the west. He believes however, with respect 



both to amber and tin, that they come from coun- 
tries at the extremity of the earth (iii. 115.). The 
account of Py theas the navigator (about 350 B.C.), 
as recited to us by Pliny, is, that a shore of the ocean 
called Mentonomon, reaching 6000 stadia (750 
miles) in length, was inhabited by the Guttones, 
a nation of Germany ; that beyond this coast, at 
the distance of a day's sail, the island of Abalus 
was situated; that amber was 'thrown upon this 
island in spring by the waves, and was a marine 
concretion ; and that the natives used it as a fuel, 
and likewise sold it to their neighbours the Teu- 
toni. The account of Pytheas was, according to 
Pliny, followed by Tiinaeus ; with this exception, 
that he called the island, not Abalus, but Basilia 
(xxxvii. 11.). The testimony of Timaeus is, how- 
ever, differently reported by Pliny in another 
place (iv. 27.) ; he there states that, according to 
Timasus, there was an island one day's sail from 
the northern coast of Scythia, called Raunonia, 
into which amber was cast up by the waves in 
spring. In the same chapter he likewise says, that 
a large island off the northern coast of Scythia, 
which others called Baltia, was by Timseus called 
Basilia. The account of Diodorus is not very 
different, and is apparently derived from a similar 
source. He states that Basileia is an island in 
the ocean opposite the coast of Scythia beyond 
Galatia : that amber is cast up by the sea on this 
island, and that it occurs nowhere else ; and that 
it is here collected and carried by the natives to 
the opposite continent, whence it is imported to 
Greece and Italy (v. 23.). 

Tacitus informs us, in .his Germania (c. 45.), 
that the ^Estui, who dwell on the right or eastern 
shore of the Suevic Sea, find in the shoal water 
and on the shore, amber, which they call glesum. 
Like other barbarians (he continues) they were 
incurious about its nature, and it lay for a long 
time among the other substances cast up by the 
sea ; they made no use of it, until Roman luxury 
gave it value ; they now collect it and send it on- 
wards, in a rude and unmanufactured state, and 
wonder at the price which they receive for it. 
Tacitus himself believes it to be a gum, which 
distils from trees in the islands of the west, under 
the immediate influence of the sun, falls into the 
sea, and is carried by the winds to the opposite 
coast. One of the islands in the Northern Ocean 
is stated by Pliny to have been named by the 
Roman soldiers Glessaria, from its producing 
glessum, or amber (glass) : it had been reduced 
by Drusus, and was called Austrania, Austravia, 
or Actania, by the natives (iv. 27., xxxvii. 11.). 
Pliny places it near the island of Burchana, which 
was between the mouths of the Rhine and the 
Sala, and was likewise taken by Drusus (Strab. 
vii. 1. 3.). 

These accounts agree in pointing to the northern 
coast of Europe as the place in which amber was 



D. Vi. loi., JULY 5. 00. 



found in antiquity. Pliny, however, adds a state- 
ment of a more precise and satisfactory character. 
Amber was, he says, brought from the shores of 
Northern Germany to Pannonia : the inhabitants 
of this province passed it on to the Veneti, at the 
head of the Adriatic, who conveyed it further 
south, and made it known in Italy. The coast 
where it is found had (he says) been lately seen 
by a Roman knight, who was sent thither by Ju- 
lianus, the curator of the gladiatorian shows for 
the Emperor Nero, in order to purchase it in large 
quantities. This agent visited the coast in ques- 
tion, having reached it by way of Carnuntum, 
the distance from Carnuntum to the amber district 
being nearly 600 miles ; and he brought back so 
large a supply, that the nets in the amphitheatre 
for keeping off the wild beasts were ornamented 
with amber at the interstices ; and the arms, the 
bier, and all the apparatus for one day were made 
of the same material. He brought with him one 
lump 13 Ibs. in weight (xxxvii. 11.). 

Carnuntum was a town of Upper Pannonia, on 
the southern bank of the Danube, between the 
modern Vienna and Presburg ; and after the re- 
duction of Pannonia, it would without difficulty 
have been reached from the head of the Adriatic. 
From Carnuntum to the coast of the Baltic the 
distance (as Cluvier has remarked, Germ. Ant. p. 
692.) is not more than 400 miles. Hiillmann has 
pointed out that in the Middle Ages there was 
a commercial route from the Upper Vistula to 
Southern Germany, which, passing through Thorn 
and Breslau, reached the river Waas, and thus 
descended to the Danube (Handelsgeschichte der 
Griechen, p. 77.). A Roman knight, with a suffi- 
cient escort of slaves, would doubtless have effected 
this journey without serious difficulty. The large 
piece of amber which Pliny reports him to have 
brought is exceeded in size by a mass of 18 Ibs. 
which is stated in M c Culloch's Commercial Dic- 
tionary to have been found in Lithuania, and to 
be now preserved in the Royal Cabinet at Berlin. 
It appears from Tacitus that Claudius Julianus 
had still the care of the gladiators under Vitellius 
in 69 A.D. (Hist. iii. 57. 76.). He was murdered 
in the struggle which accompanied the downfal of 
that emperor. 

Hullmann (Ib. p. 76.) justly points out the im- 
probability that the Phoenician navigators, how- 
ever enterprising they may have been, should have 
sailed through the Sound, and have carried on a 
trade with the southern coasts of the Baltic. He 
makes the remark that, in very early times, trade 
with remote regions was always conducted, not by 
sea, but by land. This opinion is doubtless well 
founded : one reason was the helplessness, timi- 
dity, and unskilfulness of the ancient navigation ; 
but another, and a more powerful one was, that 
land-traffic could be carried on by native travel- 
ling merchants, such as those mentioned by Livy 



as visiting different parts of Italy (iv. 24., vi. 2.) : 
whereas navigators were foreigners, who came in 
a foreign ship, and were as such liable to all the 
dangers and disadvantages to which this class of 
persons were exposed in antiquity. 

Bruckner, in his Historia Reipublicce Massilien- 
sium (p. 60.), adopts the view that amber was 
brought by an overland journey to the Mediter- 
ranean ; but he conceives Massilia to have been the 
point with which the connexion was established. 
It seems, however, much more probable that the 
more direct route to the head of the Adriatic was 
preferred ; and that even in the time of Homer 
amber had reached the Mediterranean, and had 
been diffused over the Grecian world by this 
channel. The Phoenicians were probably the in- 
termediate agents by which this diffusion was 
effected. An embassy from the ^Estii, on the 
southern shores of the Baltic, who visited Theo- 
doric in the sixth century, and who brought him 
a present of amber, appears to have travelled to 
Italy by this route. (See the king's curious re- 
script of thanks, Cassiod. Var. v. 2.) 

Dr. Vincent, whose learned and judicious re- 
searches into the voyages of the ancients give 
great weight to his opinion, conceives it "to be 
agreeable to analogy and to history, that mer- 
chants travelled before they sailed ; " and he refers 
to the transport of silk by land for a distance of 
more than 2800 miles. {Commerce and Naviga- 
tion of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean, 1807, 
vol. ii. pp. 365. 589.) 

Gibbon remarks, with respect to the ancient 
caravan trade in silk, that " a valuable merchan- 
dise of small bulk is capable of defraying the 
expense of land-carriage" (c. 40.). This obser- 
vation applies with peculiar force to amber, which 
combines a great value with a small bulk and a 
small weight. 

The Eridanus was originally, as Herodotus per- 
ceived, a purely poetical stream, without any geo- 
graphical position or character : its locality was at 
first unfixed ; and 2Eschylus called it a river of 
Iberia. At an early period, however, the Eridanus 
became identified in the minds of the Greeks with 
the Po and the Adriatic (see Polyb. ii. 16, 17.) ; the 
Roman poets willingly adopted the fable, which 
ennobled the north of Italy with ancient mytholo- 
gical associations. Strabo indeed rejects it as 
groundless (v. i. 9.), and Lucian ridicules it in a 
short piece (De Electro}, in which he describes 
himself as having been rowed up the Po, and 
having in vain inquired of the wondering boatmen 
if they could show him the poplars which distilled 
amber. But the identification of the Eridanua 
with the Po was doubtless not accidental. If the 
head of the Adriatic was the channel through which 
the Prussian amber found its way to the Greeks, 
it was natural that the story of the tears of the 
Heliades and the poplars which grew on the river 



S. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



bank should be localised on the large river which 
falls into the upper part of the Adriatic (see Bun- 
bury in Dr. Smith's Geogr. Diet., art. ERIDANUS). 
The collection of marvellous stories ascribed to 
Aristotle, written about 300 B.C., describes amber 
as a gum which liquefied from poplars near the Eri- 
danus, in the extremity of the Adriatic, and which, 
having hardened into the consistency of a stone, 
was collected by the natives, and exported into 
Greece (De Mirab. Ausc. c. 81., see also Scymnus, 
v. 395.). Ovid relates this story in its original 
form of a metamorphosis, and shows how the tears 
of the Heliades hardened by the sun, and falling 
into the Eridanus, produced ornaments for the 
II oman ladies. 

" Cortex in verba uovissima veuit. 
Inde fluunt lacrimie, stillataque sole rigescunt 
De ramis electra novis, quse lucidus amnis 
Exeipit, et nimbus mittit gestanda Latinis." 

Met. ii. 3636. 

An unnecessary attempt has been made by some 
writers to identify the Eridanus with some real 
river falling into the Baltic having a name of simi- 
lar sound (see Bayer de Venedis et Eridano Flu- 
vio in Comin. Acad. Petrop. 1740, vol. vii. p. 351.); 
but Heeren has remarked with justice that the 
Eridanus is a fabulous stream, which existed only 
in popular legend, and in the imagination of poets; 
and that nothing is gained by explaining it to 
mean the Rhine or the Raduria ; the truth being 
that all such interpretations are purely arbitrary 
(Ideen, ii. 1. p. 179.). 

The story of amber being found near a river, as 
in the mythological fable, or in an island, as in 
the accounts of Pytheas and Timaeus, does not 
rest on any foundation of fact. Even the insula 
Glessaria, which must be one of the islands to the 
east of the Helder, off the coast of Holland and 
Friesland, appears to have received its name from 
some accidental connexion with amber; as the is- 
lands on this coast are not known to have yielded 
that substance. The notion of amber being 
found in islands gave rise to the belief in the 
existence of the Electrides at the mouth of the 
Po, at the extremity of the Adriatic (Aristot. ib. ; 
Steph. Byz. in v. ; Mela, ii. 7.). Both Strabo and 
Pliny (ib.) remark that the Electrid islands are a 
fiction, and that none such exist in the spot indi- 
cated. It may be remarked that the obscurity of 
vision, caused by distance, multiplied Britain into 
a group of tin islands (Cassiterides). 

There is no mention of amber in the Old Testa- 
ment, and, after the facts above collected, we may 
confidently reject the suggestion of Heeren, that 
the Tyrians sailed into the Baltic, and traded di- 
rectly with the Prussian coast (ib. p. 178.). Even 
with respect to tin, nearly all our positive evidence 
points to its being brought from Britain across 
Gaul to Massilia. The fact of its being called 
" Celtic tin," in the Aristotelic collection of Mar- 



vellous Stories, affords a strong presumption that 
it was known to the Greeks of that age merely as 
an article procured at a Celtic port. The remark 
of HUllmann, as to trade with remote countries 
being carried on by land in early times, seems to 
| apply to tin not less than to amber. (See " 1ST. 
Q.," 2 nd S. v. 101.) 

We learn from Pliny that Hanno, during the 
prosperous period of Carthage, sailed from Gades 
| to the extremity of Arabia, and left a written ac- 
! count of his voyage. He adds that Himilco was 
; sent at the same time to examine the external 
j coasts of Europe (ii. 67., and see v. 1.). The 
| periplus of Hanno is extant ; his voyage was 
j partly for the foundation of colonies, and partly for 
j discovery ; he is supposed to have sailed along the 
coast as far as Sierra Leone ; and, according to the 
best- considered conjecture, his expedition took 
place about 470 B.C. (C. Muller, Geogr. Grcec.Min. 
vol. i. Prol. p. xxii.) The discoveries of Himilco, 
as preserved in a written record, are referred to by 
Avienus in his geographical poem, the Ora Mari- 
tima. He describes certain islands, called the 
GEstrymriian islands, off the coast of Spain, with 
which the Tartessians traded, which produced tin 
and lead, and which were only two days' sail from 
the islands of the Hibernians and the Albiones. 
He proceeds to say that the Carthaginians, both 
of the mother-country and the colonies, passed 
the Pillars of Hercules, and navigated the western 
sea. Himilco stated from personal experience 
that the voyage occupied at least four months, and 
he described the dangers of these unknown waters 
by saying that there was no wind to impel the 
ship ; that its course was impeded by weed ; and 
that while in this helpless state, it was surrounded 
I by marine monsters (v. 80 119.). If the date of 
j the voyages of Hanno and Himilco is correctly 
| fixed, it follows that, at a period subsequent to the 
! expedition of Xerxes, the Carthaginians, though 
| there was a Phoenician establishment at Gades, 
had not carried their navigation far along the 
coasts of the Atlantic ; and that they then sent 
out two voyages of discovery one to the south, 
the other to the north at the public expense. 
The report of Himilco, that the voyage from Gades 
to the tin islands (i. e. to Cornwall) occupied at 
least four months ; and that navigation in these 
remote waters was impeded by the motionless air, 
by the abundance of seaweed, and by the monsters 
of the deep, fables which the ancient mariners re- 
counted of unexplored seas, could not be very at- 
tractive to the traders of the Carthaginian colonies. 
We learn however from Scylax that in his time 
the Carthaginians had established many factories 
to the west of the Pillars of Hercules ; and it is 
highly probable that the merchants who dwelt in 
them may have sailed along the coasts of Spain 
and Gaul for a certain distance to the north. 
Whatever were the profits of this distant trade, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. vi. 131., JULY 3. '58. 



the Carthaginians seem to have maintained their 
commercial monopoly with the utmost jealousy. 
They are stated by Strabo to have sunk any 
strange ship which sailed even as far as Sardinia 
or Cadiz (xvii. 1. 19.) ; and the same geographer 
tells a story of a patriotic Carthaginian wrecking 
his own vessel in order to prevent a Roman navi- 
gator, who had followed him, from finding the 
course to the tin islands. Up to that time, he 
says, the Carthaginians carried on the tin trade 
from Cadiz, and secured the monopoly by conceal- 
ing the route. At length, however, the Romans 
discovered the way ; and when P. Crassus, the 
lieutenant of Caesar, had crossed over to the tin 
islands, the navigation became well known, al- 
though their distance from the mainland was 
greater than that of Britain (iii. 5. 11,). This 
story is not very intelligible, nor is it easy to fix 
a date for the occurrence ; for the Romans were 
not a seafaring people, and they were not likely 
to attempt voyages beyond the Pillars of Hercu- 
les before the destruction of Carthage in 146 B.C. ; 
whereas after that time the Carthaginians had no 
ships or factories ; Gades had been sixty years in 
the hands of the Romans ; and even since the end 
of the Second Punic war the Romans had been 
able to extort the secrets of the Carthaginians 
without resorting to stratagem. The account of 
P. Crassus opening the navigation with the tin is- 
lands (which Strabo considered as distinct from 
Britain) cannot be easily reconciled with the fact 
that before and during Caesar's life the trade in 
British tin was carried on through Gaul. 

Gades was originally a Tyrian settlement; it sub- 
sequently became Carthaginian, but its fidelity 
to Carthage seems to have been ambiguous ; for 
there was a party in it which was in traitorous 
correspondence with the Romans during the 
Second Punic war (Livy, xxviii. 23. 30.). Strabo 
says that the Phoenicians occupied the productive 
district of southern Spain from a period earlier 
than Homer down to the time when it was taken 
from them by the Romans (iii. 2. 14.). Their 
presence can be clearly traced westwards along 
the coast inhabited by the Bastuli as far as the 
Pillars of Hercules, and from the Pillars along 
the Turdetanian coast as far as the Anas or Gua- 
diana, or perhaps as far as the Sacred Promon- 
tory, the south-western extremity of Lusitania 
(Cape St. Vincent). See Movers, Das Phoni- 
zische Alterthum, vol. ii. pp. 615647. Ulysippo, 
the modern Lisbon, is treated by Greek traditions 
as a foundation of Ulysses. This is a mere etymo- 
logical mythus ; and the conjecture of Movers, 
derived from the occurrence of the termination 
-ippo in other proper names, that this is a Phoeni- 
cian form, is probable (Ib. 639.). But if the 
Phoenicians, either of Tyre or Carthage, esta- 
blished any colonies or factories on the western 
coast of Spain, they must have been obscure and 



unimportant, and have perished without leaving 
any historical vestiges of their origin. 

Some commerce was doubtless carried on by 
the Carthaginians, from Gades, with the external 
coasts of Spain and Gaul, and with the southern 
shores of Britain ; but there is nothing to show 
that the Tyrians traded with any country beyond 
the Pillars of Hercules, except the passage in 
Ezekiel alluding to the tin trade with Tarshish, 
and the existence of tin in Greece at the time of 
Homer. If we suppose tin to have been conveyed 
across Gaul in those early times, these facts prove 
nothing more than a trade between Tyre and a 
port in the western part of the Mediterranean. 
This last is the hypothesis respecting the Tyrian 
tin trade which is adopted by Movers in his 
learned work on the Phoenicians. He rejects the 
theory of an ancient trade in tin between Tyre 
and India, which has been founded on the resem- 
blance of the Sanscrit Kastira to the Greek /cacro-i- 
rcpos. He holds, on the contrary, that this form, 
as well as the Aramaic Kastir and the Arabic 
Kasdir, were derived from the Greek ; he refers to 
the passages concerning tin in the Periplus of Ar- 
rian, as showing that this metal was anciently im- 
ported into Arabia and India from Alexandria ; 
and he believes that the Malacca tin had not been 
worked in antiquity (Ib. iii. 1. pp. 6*2-5.) The 
only trace of Indian tin which occurs in any an- 
cient author, is the article in Stephanus of By- 
zantium, which states, on the authority of the 
Bassarica of Dionysius, that Cassitira was an island 
in the ocean near India, from which tin was ob- 
tained. The Bassarica was a poem ; and its author, 
Dionysius, was apparently Dionysius Periegetes, 
who lived at the end of the third or the beginning 
of the fourth century of our era. It celebrated 
the exploits of Bacchus, and, among others, re- 
counted his expedition to India, where it enume- 
rated many names of places (see Bernhardy ad 
Dionys. Perieg. pp. 507. 515.). Whether this 
geographical poet knew of tin being imported into 
Europe from the island of Banca, or whether he 
considered the Indian island of Cassitira as a tin 
island on mere etymological grounds, cannot now 
be determined ; though the latter supposition seems 
the more probable. 

The Greeks were for centuries acquainted both 
with tin and amber, probably through the inter- 
mediation of the Phoenicians, without obtaining 
any certain knowledge of the places from which 
they came. Their incurious ignorance, however, 
was not confined to the two articles in question ; it 
extended likewise to ivory. That ornamental and 
useful substance was known to the Jews in the time 
of Solomon, about 1000 B.C. (1 Kings x. 22.), and 
to the Greeks in the time of Homer, probably 
about 200 years later. It reached the shores of 
the Mediterranean, through various hands, from 
India, and the remote parts of Africa (Pans. i. 



2d S. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



12. 4., v. 12. 3.). But the early Greeks know- 
nothing of the animal to which it belonged. The 
word elephas, with them, meant simply ivory. 
Herodotus mentions the elephant, as an animal, 
and describes it as occurring in the western ex- 
tremity of Africa (iv. 191.). Ctesias, a contem- 
porary of Xenophon, appears to have been the 
first Greek who spoke of the elephant from per- 
sonal knowledge ; he had seen the animal at 
Babylon (TElian, Hist. An. xvii. 29. ; Baehr, ad 
Ctes. pp. 268. 352.). The Greeks, however, may 
be said to have first seen the elephant in the ex- 
pedition of Alexander: it was in consequence of 
their acquaintance with his military capacities 
that the successors of Alexander first used the 
Asiatic elephant in war, and that the Egyptian 
kings and the Carthaginians afterwards used the 
African elephant for the same purpose (see Ar- 
mandi, Histoire Militaire des Elephants, Paris, 
1843, pp. 3943. 64. 85. 134.). Armandi, in his 
military history of the elephant, calls attention to 
this fact, and remarks that the ancients for a long 
time decorated themselves with pearls, and wore 
garments of silk, before they knew that the former 
were obtained from $ shell-fish, and that the latter 
was fabricated by an insect. The natural history 
of the pearl was indeed known to Theophrastus 
(De Lapid. 36. ed. Schneider), as that of the 
silkworm was to Aristotle ; but Virgil seems to 
have thought that silk, like linen and cotton, was 
a vegetable product : he describes it as the deli- 
cate fleece which the Seres, or Chinese, combed 
from the leaves of trees, Georg. ii. 121. 

G. C. LEWIS. 



QUEEN ELIZABETH S EARL OF ESSEX. 

Some years ago, anterior to the publication by 
Captain Devereux of the Lives and Letters of the 
three Earls of Essex, I made considerable collec- 
tions for a separate biography of Robert Deve- 
reux, the decapitated favourite of Queen Eliza- 
beth. For this purpose I purchased a considerable 
mass of contemporary, or nearly contemporary, 
manuscripts ; and turning them over again a day 
or two since, I found several, not hitherto noticed, 
which throw light especially on the fatal transac- 
tion which terminated the career of the principal 
party concerned in it, and of [several of his fol- 
lowers. Some account of them may be acceptable 
in " N. & Q." 

They profess to have been copied from the ori- 
ginals in the handwriting of Sir Robert Cecil, but 
whether those originals still exist is a question I 
am unable to answer. The first to which I shall 
advert has no date, but clearly belongs to the 
spring of 1601, and is thus headed : " The Names 
of such as were in the late Action of Rebellion," 
referring, of course, to the late rash outbreak of 
the Earl of Essex and his friends on February 8, 



1601. I have never met elsewhere with any such 
enumeration, and it begins with 
" The E. of Essex, Lord Sandes, 

Erie of Rutland, Lord Mountegle, 

Earle of Southamp- Lord Cornwall." 
ton, 

It then proceeds to the offenders next in rank : 



Sir Charles Percy, 
Sir Josselyn Percy, 
Sir Edmond Bayn- 

ham, 

Sir Thomas West, 
Sir W. Constable, 
Sir Edward Littleton, 
Sir Christopher Hay- 
don." 



" Sir Charles Danvers/ 

Sir Christopher 

Blount, 

Sir John Davies, 

Sir Gelly Merrick, 

Sir Robert Vernon, 

Sir Henry Carew of 
Kent, 

Sir Edw. Michel- 
borne, 

After about forty other names, including Fra. 
Tresham, Edw. Kynnersley, John Arden, Robert 
Catesby, Richard Greys (after whose name the 
words "for powder" are inserted), Anthony 
Rowse, &c., we come to the following memoran- 
dum : 

"Lord Sussex, prisoner at Sir John Stanhope's, 
Lord Bedford, at Alderman Holydaye's, 
Lord Rich, at Mr. Sackford's," ' 
neither of which names have been previously in- 
serted. The preceding list may perhaps be looked 
upon as in a manner introductory to the next do- 
cument, which is headed, " The names of the 
Traytors, and the several places of imprisonment." 
I see that Capt. Devereux, having no particular 
information on the point, only dismisses it in ge- 
neral terms (vol. ii. p. 147.) ; but here we have 
all the particulars, none of which, as far as I am 
aware, were previously known to historians or 
biographers. Thus we are told that 

" Tberle of Essex, Lo. Monteagle, 

Therle of Rutland, Sir Charles Danvers, 
Therle of Southamp- and 

ton, Sir_ Christopher 
Lord Sands, 
Lo. Cromwell, 



Blount," 



were confined in the Tower ; while Sir John Da- 
vies and Sir Gilly Merricke were sent to Newgate. 
Tresham, " Sir Tho. Tresham's son," Sir Rob. Ver- 
non, Sir Henry Carey, and Sir Edw. Michelborne, 
were secured in the Gatehouse ; and Sir Charles 
Percy, Sir Jaslen Percy, Francis Manners, and Sir 
Edw. Baynham, with many others of less note, in 
the Fleet. Sir Thomas West, " son and heire to the 
Lo. Leware," and five others, were confined in the 
Counter in the Poultry, while others, including 
Catesby and Littleton, were in Wood Street 
Counter. Sir Christr. Heydon, Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges, Gray Bridges, " son and heire to the Lo. 
Shandoys," were sent to the White Lion Prison. 
Against the names of Owen Salisbury and Tracy 



6 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



VI. 131., JULY 3. '58. 



" slain " is written in the margin, and of E. Rey- 
noldes (private secretary to Essex), Cuflfe, Ke- 
mishe, and about a dozen others it is said, " all 
these are suspected, and not known yet whither 
they be committed ; " so that it is clear that the 
paper was prepared very early after the commo- 
tion. In a sort of postscript it is mentioned that 
"The ladie Ritche is with Mr. Sackfbrde, and 
The Earl of Bedford with Sir John Stanhope;" 
whereas we have been previously told that the lat- 
ter nobleman was " at Alderman Holydayes." All 
these details are interesting with reference to so 
remarkable an incident : we know the result as 
regards the principal offender and some of his ac- 
complices, and we are informed in general terms 
that many others were allowed by heavy fines to 
buy themselves out of the hands of the execu- 
tioner. The papers in my possession enable me 
to show, not only the sums originally demanded 
from the prisoners, but those for which they were 
subsequently commuted. I subjoin a statement, 
entitled " Fynes imposed on the Noblemen, and 
other Confederates in the late Rebellion ; the first 
column containing the amount of fine required, 
and the second the amount of fine exacted. Where 
the second column is left blank, we may presume 
that there was no mitigation of the pecuniary pun- 
ishment : 

" Earle of Rutland - - 30,000 U 20,000 U 

Erie of Bedford - - 20,000 U 10,000 U 

Baron Sandys - - 10,000 H 5000 11 

Baron Cromwell - - 5000 U 2000 U 

Sir H. Parker, Lo. Montegle 8000 U 4000 U 
Sir Charles Percy - 500 U 

Sir Josselin Percy 500 marki 

Sir Henry Carey - - 400 

Sir Robert Vernon - 500 m 100 U 

Sir William Constable - 300 m 100 U 
Robert Catesbye - - 4000 m 

Francis Tresham - - 3000 m 

Francis Manners - - 400 m 

Sir George Manners 400 m 

Sir Thomas West - - 1000 m 

Gray Bridges - 1000 m 

Sir Edward Michelborne - 500'" 200 U 
Thomas Cromptou 400 U 

Walter Walsh - 400 U 

Sir Edw. Littleton - 400 11 

Richard Cholmely - 500 m 200 U 

Capt. Selby - - 200'" 

Robert Dallington - 100 11 

Mallery - - 500 m 200 11 

Edward Bushell - 300 m 100 U 

William Downehall 100 m 

Gosnall - - 40 11 

Francis Buck - - 40 11 

Edward Wiseman - - 100 m 

Capt. Whitlock - - 40 11 

Christopher Wright 40 U 

John Wright - - 40 U 



40 U 
100 
40 U 
40 U 
40 U 
40 11 ." 



Charles Ogle 

John Vernon 

Ellys Jones 

Arthur Brome6eld 

John Salisbury 

Capt. William Norreys 

In my recently published Life of Shakspeare, 
prefixed to the new edition of his works, vol. i. p. 
154., and vol. iii. p. 214., I have inserted copies of 
the original examinations of Augustine Phillips, 
the actor, and of Sir Gilly Merrick, respecting the 
performance of a play on the story of Richard II. 
They were derived from the State Paper Office, as 
well as that remarkable note from Lord Buck- 
hurst and Sir R. Cecill, introducing the two execu- 
tioners to the Tower, who were to behead Lord 
Essex ; and it is more than likely that the infor- 
mation above communicated would be confirmed, 
and added to by documents there preserved. 
What I have given is from papers in my own cus- 
tody, and to it, on a future occasion, I may add 
some notes and letters from Essex to Elizabeth 
(from my own ancient copies) which have never 
yet seen the light, and of which Capt. Devereux 
had no information. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 

Maidenhead. 



MARTIN MARPRELATE RHYMES. 

The following bibliographical and literary trea- 
sure is copied from the original in my possession. 
It is a quarto of four leaves, -in black letter, the 
last page blank. Copies are also preserved in the 
libraries of Lambeth Palace, the British Museum, 
Bodley, &c. Although the tract is undated, we 
learn from internal evidence that it was printed 
in 1589, and very shortly after the publication of 
Hay any Worke for Cooper. There is another 
edition entitled Rythmes against Martin Marre- 
Prelate. This latter has been reprinted (with 
some errors) in D'Israeli's Quarrels of Authors. 
The learned editor says, " As a literary curiosity, 
I shall preserve a very rare poetical tract, which 
describes with considerable force the Revolu- 
tionists of the reign of Elizabeth. They are 
indeed those of wild democracy : and the subject 
of this satire will, I fear, be never out of time. 
It is an admirable political satire against a mob- 
government. In our poetical history, this speci- 
men too is curious, for it will show that the 
stanza in alternate rhymes, usually denominated 
Elegiac, is adapted to very opposite themes. The 
solemnity of the versification is impressive, and 
the satire equally dignified and keen." 

The following " rhymes " are very unequal. 
The sense of some of the stanzas is sometimes 
doubtful. They might, perhaps, have been ren- 
dered more intelligible by amended punctuation, 
but this is a liberty I have not thought proper to 
exercise. 



2nd S. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUEK1ES. 



The Rev. W. Maskell, in his History of the 
Marprdate Controversy (8vo. 1845, pp. 207.) 
says, " There were also at least two, perhaps 
more, poetical tracts against Martin." I can 
enumerate four ; and, should the present reprint 
prove acceptable to the readers of " N. & Q.," I 
propose, at convenient seasons, adding the re- 
maining three to its pages. 

EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 

" A WHIP FOR AN APE : 

OR, 

MARTIN DISPLAIED. 

" Ordo Sacerdotum fatuo turbatvr ab omni, 
Labitur et passim Religionis honus. 



" Since reason (Martin) cannot stay thy pen, 
We'll see what rime will doo: have at thee then. 

" A (lizard late skipt out upon our stage ; 

But in a sacke, that no man might him see : 
And though AVC knowe not yet the paltrie page, 

Himselfe hath Martin made his name to bee. 
A proper name, and for his feates most fit ; 
The only thing wherein he hath shew'd wit. 

" Who knoweth not, that Apes men Martins call ; 

Which beast this baggage seemes as't were himselfe : 
So as both nature, nurture, name, and all, 

Of that's expressed in this apish elfe. 
Which ile make good to Martin Marr-als face, 
In three plaine poynts, and will not bate an ace. 

" For first the Ape delights with moppes and mowes, 

And mocketh Prince and peasants all.alike; 
This jesting Jacke, that no good manner knowes, 

With his Asse-heeles presumes all States to strike. 
\Y T hose scoffes so stinking in each nose doth smell, 
As all mouthes saie of dolts he beares the bell. 
" Sometimes his choppes doo walke in poynts too hie, 

Wherein the Ape himselfe a Woodcocke tries: 
Sometimes with floutes he drawes his mouth awrie, 

^And sweares by his ten bones, and falselie lies. 
Wherefore be what he will I do not passe, 
He is the paltriest Ape that ever was. 
" Such fleering, leering, jarring fooles bopeepe ; 

Such hahaes, teehees, weehees, wild colts play : 
Such sohoes, whoopes and hallowes, hold and keepe ; 

Such rangings, ragings, revelings, roysters ray, 
With so foule mouth, and knave at every catch, 
Tis some knaves neast did surely Martin hatch. 
" Now out he runnes with Cuckowe King of May, 

Then in he leapes with a wild Morrice daunce ; 
Now strikes he up Dame Lawaens * lustie lay ; 

Then comes Sir Jeffries f ale tub, tapde by chaunce : 
Which makes me gesse, (and I can shrewly smell) 
He loves both t'one and t'other passing well. 
" Then straight as though he were distracted quite, 

He chafeth like a cutpurse layd in Warde ; 
And rudely railes with all his maine and might, 

Against both Knights and Lords without regarde : 
So as Bridewell must tame his drouken fits, 
And Bedlam helpe to bring him to his wits. 

* This woman is noticed in one of the mock Epitaphs 
upon Martin's funeral. 

f Alluding to some person, or persons, ruinously fined 
for taking active part Avith Martin. D'Israeli points this 
out, but does not say who the parties were, 



" But Martin, why in matters of such waight, 

Doest thou thus play the Dawe and dancing foole ? 
sir (quoth he) this is a pleasant baite 

For men of sorts, to traine them to rny schoole. 
Ye noble States how can you like hereof, 
A shamelesse Ape at your sage heads should scoffe ? 

" Good Noddle now leave scribling in such matters, 

They are no tooles for fooles to tend unto ; 
Wise men regard not what mad Monckies patters ; 
Twere trim a beast should teach men what to do. 
Now Tarletori 's* dead the Consort lackes a vice : 
For knave and foole thou maist beare pricke and price. 

" The sacred sect and perfect pure precise, 

Whose cause must be by Scoggins jests f maintained; 
Ye shewe although that purple Apes disguise, 
Yet Apes are still, and so must be disdainde. 
For though your Lyons lookes weake eyes escapes 
Your babling bookes bewraies you all for Apes. 

" The next poynt is, Apes use to tosse and teare 

What once their fidling fingers fasten on ; 
And clime aloft and cast downe every where, 
And never staies till all that stands be gon. 
Now whether this in Martin be not true, 
You wiser heads marke here what doth ensue. 

" What is it not that Martin doth not rent ? 

Cappes, Tippets, Gownes, blacke Chivers, Rotchets 

white ; 

Communion bookes, and Homelies, yea so bent 
To teare, as women s wimples feele his spite. 
Thus tearing all, as all Apes use to doo; 
He tears withall the Church of Christ in two. 

" Marke now what things he meanes to tumble downe, 

For to this poynt to looke is worth the while, 
In one that makes no choyce twixt Cap and Crowne ; 

Catbedrall Churches he would faine untile, 
And snatc'h up Bishops lands, and catch away 
All gaine of learning for his prouling pray. 

" And thinke you not he will pull downe at length 
As well the top from tower, as Cocke from steeple ? 

And when his head hath gotten some more strength, 
To play with Prince, as now he doth with people? 

Yes, he that now saith, Why should Bishops bee? 

Will next crie out, Why Kings ? The Saincts are free. 

" The Germaine Boores with Clergie men began, 

But never left till Prince and Peeres were dead : 
Jacke Leydon was a holie zealous man, 

But ceast not till the Crowne was on his head. 
And Martins mate Jacke Strawe would alwaies ring 
The Clergies faults, but sought to kill the King. 

" Oh that, quoth Martin, th' were a Noble man ! 

A vaunt vile villaine : tis not for such swads. 
And of the Counsell too ; Marke Princes then : 

These roomes are caught at by these lustie lads. 
For Apes must climbe, and never stay their wit, 
Untill on top of highest hilles they sit. 

" What meane they els, in every towne to crave 

Their Priest and King like Christ himselfe to be? 
And for one Pope ten thousand Popes to have, 

And to controll the highest he or she ? 
Aske Scotland, that, whose King so long they crost, 
As he was like his Kingdome to have lost. 



* This celebrated actor and buffoon died Sept. 3rd, 
1588. He is alluded to in Oh read over D. John Bridges 
(Epistle) ; and again in some Rhymes against Martin. 

f Supposed to have been written by Dr. Andrew Borde. 
It was licensed to Col well in 1566, but the earliest edition 
at present known, bears the date of 1626, 



NOTES AND QUEUIE S. [*- s. vi. 1 31., JULY 3. '58. 



" Beware ye States and Nobles of this land, 

The Clergie is but one of these mens buts : 
The Ape at last on masters necke will stand ; 

Then gegge betime these gaping greedie guts, 
Least that too soone, and then too late ye feele, 
He strikes at head that first began with heele. 

" The third tricke is, what Apes by flattering waies 
Cannot come by, with biting they will snatch : 
Our Martin makes no bones, but plainlie saies, 
Their fists shall walke, they will both bite and 

scratch. 

He'il make their hearts to ake, and will not faile, 
Where pen cannot, their penknife -shall prevaile. 

" But this is false, he saith he did but mocke : 
A foole he was that so his words did scan. 
He only ment with pen their pates to knocke : 

A Knave he is, that so turns cat in pan. 
But Martin sweare and stare as deepe as hell, 
Thy sprite thy spite and mischievous mind doth tell. 

" The thing that neither Pope with Booke nor Bull, 
Nor Spanish King with ships could do without, 

Our Martins heere at home will worke at full ; 
If Prince curbe not betimes the rabble rout. 

That is, destroy both Church, and State, and all ; 

For if t'one faile, the other needes must fall. 

" Thou England then whom God doth make so glad, 
Through Gospels grace and Princes prudent raigne : 

Take heede least thou at last be made as sad, 

Through Martins makebates marring, to thy paine. 

For he marres all, and maketh nought, nor will, 
Save lyes and strife, and workes for Englands ill. 

" And ye grave men that answere Martins mowes : 

He mockes the more, and you in vain loose times : 
Leave Apes to dogges to baite, their skins tocrowes, 

And let old Lanam* lash him with his rimes. 
The beast is proud when men wey his enditings : 
Let his worke goe the waie of all wast writings.! 

" Now Martin, you that say you will spawne out 

Your broyling brattes in every tovrae to dwell ; 
We will provide in each place for your route 

A bell and wbippe, that Apes do love so well. 
And if ye skippe, and will not wey the checke 
We'il have a springe, and catch you by the necke. 

" And so adieu mad Jlfarft'n-marre-the-land, 

Leave off thy worke, and more worke f, hears't thou 

me? 

Thy work's nought worth, take better worke in hand : 
Thou marr'st thy worke, and thy work will marre 

thee. 

Worke not a newe, least it doth worke thy ivracke, 
And thou make worke for him that worke doth lacke. 

" And this I warne thee Martins Monckies face, 

Take heed of me, my rime doth charme thee bad : 
I am a rimer of the Irish race, 

And have alreadie rimde thee staring mad. 
But if thou ceasest not thy bald jests still to spread, 
I'le never leave, till I have rimde thee dead." 

* Query, was this old Robert Lanehara, "Clerk of the 
Council-Chamber door, and also keeper of the same," the 
author of the Letter from Killingworth ? 

f D'Israeli's copy reads " vast writings." 

I This alludes to the scurrilous reply to Bishop Cooper 
Hay any Worke for Cooper. 



TUNBRIDGE WELLS AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF 
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

I do not find in the Histories of this favourite 
watering-place by T. B. Burr in 1766, Amsinck 
in 1810, or John Britton in 1832, any notice of 
the pursuits, &c., of the visitors in the early part 
of the last century : so I send you a description 
by Mr. Ward, author of the London Spy, in vol. 
ii. of Familiar Letters, published by Samuel Briscoe 
in 1724. He says that 

"The chiefest pastimes, next the old trade of Basket- 
making, are the four following: Bowling at Rusthall 
Green, where fools lose their money, and knaves win it ; 
Dancing upon Southborough Green j Walking in the 
Grove where the Ring-doves coo above, whilst the lovers 
bill below and project all things in order to make them- 
selves happy at the next merry meeting ; and Gaming at 
the Groom -porters, where every one strives to win, whilst 
the box runs away with the money. Lodgings are so 
dear and scarce, that a beau is sometimes glad of a barn, 
and a lady of honour content to lie in a garret : the horses 
being commonly put to grass for the servants to lie in the 
stable. My landlord was a farmer, and his very out- 
houses were so full that, having sheared some sheep, he 
abated me half-a-crown a week to let the wool lie in my 
bedchamber. The most noble of their provisions is a 
pack-saddle of mutton and a wheat- ear pie, which is ac- 
counted here a feast for a Heliogabalus, and is indeed so 
costly a banquet, that a man may go over to Amsterdam, 
treat half a dozen friends with a fish dinner, and bring 
them back again into their own country almost as cheap 
as you can give yourself and your mistress a true Tun- 
bridge wells entertainment. The liquors chiefly produced 
by this part of the country are beer made of wood-dried 
malt, and wine drawn out" of a birch tree : the first is in- 
fected with such a smoaky tang, that you would think it 
was brewed in a chimney ; and every pint you drink, in- 
stead of quenching your draught, begets a thirst after a 
gallon : the latter as 'tis ordered drinks almost like mead, 
and makes a man's mouth smell of honey." 

I believe that the fermented juice of the birch- 
tree is still drank in some parts of England. Can 
your readers name them ? 

The difference between the gaiety of Tunbridge 
Wells in the summer and its dulness out of the 
season, was well marked by the common saying : 
" Where are you going to ? " " To Tunbridge 
Wells, where did you think ? change me a guinea;" 
contrasted with the reply, "To Tunbridge Wells, 
good lack ! ! Give me change for a shilling." 

WM. DURRANT COOPER. 

81. Guilford Street, Russell Square. 



DESIDERITJS ERASMUS : THE CICERONIANUS. 

In the accounts which are given of celebrated 
works which few readers are to see, there is al- 
most always wanting a good specimen taken from 
the very work itself. Sometimes it is difficult to 
select quotations which are neither too long nor 
too dependent on context for their force : but in 
many cases it may be feared that the literary his- 
torian does not read with sufficient closeness 



is- 

s 



2* S. VI. 131., JULY 3, '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



become sensible of the existence of the proper 
passages. Being lately engaged in reading (for 
amusement only, and therefore with attention), 
the Ciceronianus, I found a passage which might 
well have become the stock-quotation, the stereo- 
typed specimen, of this very witty but rather prolix 
satire ; the product of a day in which the manual 
was a thick folio, and the squib a not very thin 
octavo. 

If Addison and Erasmus had changed times 
and places, they would probably have taken each 
other's parts as nearly as this could have been 
done. Erasmus was the gentlemanly satirist of 
his day : would that he could have written one 
truly posthumous work to lash the thousand pun- 
sters who made epigrams which they called epi- 
taphs, by help of the word Desiderius ! Perhaps 
the following is the least objectionable : 

" Fatalis series nobis invidit Erasmura, 
Sed Desiderium tollere non potuit." 

For myself I prefer the following, though the 
quality is matched by the quantity : 

" Hie jacet Erasmus, qui quondam bonus erat mus, 
Rodere qui solitus, roditur a vermibus." 

The Ciceronianus, as is well known, is a dialogue 
in ridicule of the affectation current among scho- 
lars of using no word nor idiom except such as 
had been used by Cicero. The learned world was 
making a desperate effort to paganise itself. A 
cardinal would not read the Vulgate, for fear of 
injury to his Latinity. Men altered their names : 
many a devout Peter looked like a heathen under 
the form Petreius ; and Johannes Paulus Parisius 
got rid of all likeness to a Christian by transpo- 
sition into Aulus Janus Parrhasius. Theological 
terms were gradually disappearing among a class 
of theological writers ; and it was becoming rather 
difficult to know whether Christ or Jupiter was 
their lawgiver. The satire of Erasmus is thrown 
over every aspect of the question. It is frequently 
sparkling wit ; and, but for its fearful length and 
consequent dilution, would have been reprinted 
for two centuries at least. The preface is dated 
February, 1528 ; and in that year I believe it 
was published. 

As may be supposed, the absurdity of Christian 
writers finding all their theological words in 
Cicero is made very prominent. Erasmus asks 
how the following is to, be rendered from Cicero's 
writings : 

" Jesus Christus, Vevbura et Filius reterni Patris, juxta 
prophetias venit in mundum, ac factus homo, sponte se 
in mortem tradidit, ac redemit Ecclesiam suam, offen- 
sique Patris iram avertit a nobis, eique nos reconciliavit, 
ut per gratiam fidei justificati et a tyrannide liberati, 
inseramur Ecclesise, et in Ecclesiae communione perseve- 
rantes, post hanc vitam consequamur regnum ccelorum." 

Erasmus then answers his own question as 
follows : 
" Optirai Maximique Jovis interpres ac filius, serva- 



tor, Rex, juxta vattim responsa, ex Olympo devolavit in 
terras, et hominis assnmpta figura, sese pro salute Rei- 
publicae sponte devovit Diis Manibus, atque ita concionem, 
sive civitatem, sive Rempublicam suam asseruit in liber- 
tatem, ac Jovis Optimi Maxiini vibratum in nostra capita 
fulmen restinxit, nosque cum illo redegit in gratiam, ut 
persuasionis munificentia ad innocentiam reparati, et a 
sycophants dominatu manumissi, cooptemurin civitatem, 
et in Reipublicae societate perse verantes, quum fata nos 
evocarint ex hac vita, in Deorum immortalium consortio 
rerum summa potiamur." 

In his concluding remarks, Erasmus cuts the 
ground from under his opponents in the following 
manner : 

"Nee videbitur ullius sermo venustus, qui non congrui 
persona?, nee rebus est accommodatus, monstrosus etiani 
qui res pietatis tractat verbis impiorum, quique materiam 
Christianam Paganicis nugis contaminat. Quod si quid 
hie veniae datur adolescentia?, ne sibi sumat idem juris 
aetas provectior. Qui sic est Ciceronianus, ut parum sit 
Christianus, is ne Ciceronianus quidem est, quod non dicit 
apte, non penitus intelligit ea de quibus loquitur, non af- 
ficitur his ex animo de quibus verba facit. Postremo 
non eodem ornatu tractat res suae professionis, quibus 
Cicero tractavit argumenta suorum temporum." 

There was an affectation of a different kind 
which prevailed in the Universities thirty years 
ago, and, for aught I know, may do so still. The 
young writers forgot that there is no language 
which consists entirely of its own isms ; and that 
plum-pudding is not a congeries of the little fruits 
from which it takes its name. They tried to write 
a Latin consisting of nothing but Latinisms. It 
was said that Vathek was detected as not the 
work of a Frenchman, by the excessive purity 
of its French. No such thing : it was detected 
by its redundance of Gallicisms. Th amateur 
carpenter always uses too much glue. 

Many years ago, a friend of mine, then an old 
man, told me that he was accustomed in his youth 
to play the following trick upon great scholars. 
He found a few consecutive sentences in Cicero, 
for which no one need look long, in which the 
idioms are all as much English as Latin, and the 
words run very nearly in the same order in both 
languages. These he translated into English, and 
showed the whole to the scholar, representing the 
Latin as his own rendering of the English. " Oh ! 
my dear friend," the scholar would say, " this is 
not Latin ! this is English rendered word by 
word; nothing can be more bald!" My friend 
would then humbly request his victim to mend it, 
which would be done on the spot; so that the 
amended Sanscrit, or whatever it ought to be 
called, would have been fit to go into a prize 
essay at Oxford or Cambridge. Cicero was then 
produced, and the poor scholar was brought to a 
sense of his situation. Query, whether it would 
not be a good thing to found prizes in the Uni- 
versities for the best essays which, being very near 
to English, should be written in defensible Latin. 

A. DE MORGAN. 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. "VI. 131., JULY 3. '5?. 



Pennsylvania and the Acadian Exiles. In the 
edition of Longfellow's Evaugeli7ie, published in 
London in 1853, a note is introduced in which it 
is alleged that after the landing of a number of the 
French neutrals in Philadelphia, " the govern- 
ment of the colony, to relieve itself of the charge 
such a company of miserable wretches would re- 
quire to maintain them, proposed to sell them 
with their own consent." 

William B. Reed, Esq., of this city, now the 
Minister of the United States in China, in an 
essay upon " The French Neutrals in Pennsyl- 
vania," published by the Historical Society of 
Pennsylvania in their lute volume of Contributions 
to American History, disproves this statement in 
the fullest manner, showing that these exiles were 
treated with great kindness in Philadelphia, al- 
though there were prejudices against them, both 
as Frenchmen and Roman Catholics, in the minds 
of many, and that their support cost the province 
a sum equal to 7000Z. Pennsylvania!! currency, 
equal to more than 18,000 dollars of our present 
currency. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Kilkenny Theatre. I think the following will 
be worth a place in " N. & Q." 

" KILKENNY THEATRE ROYAL. 

(The last night, because the company go to-morrow 

to Waterford.) 
On Saturday, May 14, 1793. 

Will be performed, b}' command of several respectable 
people in this learned metropolis, for the benefit of Mr. 
Kearns, 

THE TRAGEDY OF HAMLET. 

Originally written and composed by the celebrated Dan. 
Hayes, of Limerick, and inserted in Shakspeare's works. 

Hamlet by Mr. Kearns (being his first appearance in that 
character), who, between the acts, will perform several 
solos on the patent bagpipes, which play two tunes at 
the same time. 

Ophelia by Mrs. Prior, who will introduce several favourite 
airs in character, particularly the "Lass of Richmond 
Hill," and " We'll all be unhappy together," from the 
Rev. Mr. Dibdin's Oddities. 

The parts of the Queen and King, by the direction of the 
Rev. Father O'Callaghan, will be omitted, as too im- 
moral for any stage. 

Polonius, the comical politician, by a young gentleman, 
being his first appearance in public. 

The Ghost, the Gravedigger, and Laertes by Mr. Simpson, 
the great London comedian. 

The characters to be dressed in Roman shapes. 

To which will be added, an Interlude, in which will be 
introduced several sleight of hand tricks, by the cele- 
brated surveyor Hurt. 

The whole to conclude with the farce of 

MAHOMET THE IMPO3TER. 

Mahomet by Mr. Kearns. 
Tickets to be had of Mr. Kearns, at the sign of the Goat's 

Beard in Castle-street. 

% The value of the tickets, as usual, will be taken (if 
required) in candles, soap, butter, cheese, &c., as Mr. 



Kearns wishes, in every particular, to accommodate the 
public. 

N.B. No person whatsoever will be admitted into the 
boxes without shoes or stockings." 

S. R. 

Corpus Christi, or Fete-Dieu. To trace the 
origin of the Fete-Dieu we have to go back to the 
Middle Ages, and from what is published on the 
subject* we find that its birthplace is Liege, and 
gather the following incidents respecting it. 

In the beginning of the thirteenth century a 
nun of the convent at Cornillon, Julienne by 
name, saw one night the moon in her brightest 
colours, and divided in the middle by a black 
line. Not being able to solve this mystery, and 
having consulted other nuns and monks, without 
being the wiser for it, she at last had a special re- 
velation to this effect. A voice from heaven told 
her 

" That the militant Church was prefigured by the moon ; 
that the black line obscuring her brightness in part, sig- 
nified that there was another holy fete wanting in the 
Church ; that God Avished to have it instituted ; that 
this fete was the most august and most holy sacrament 
of the altar; that Maundy Thursday was to be destined 
for its celebration, but on account of so many different 
solemnities celebrated on that day, another day ought to 
be substituted and observed by all Christendom, and that 
for three reasons. First, because the belief in divine 
mysteries, which might diminish in after ages, should be 
confirmed ; secondly, that those who love and seek the 
truth might be instructed the more, and gather strength 
to advance in the way of virtue ; thirdly, that the irre- 
verence and impiety which were daily committed against 
the majesty of this*sacrament might be amended and ex- 
piated by a profound and sincere adoration." 

It was not until the year 1241 that this fete 
was celebrated for the first time at Liege by the 
Canons of St. Martin ; and Urban IV., by his 
papal authority [between 1262 and 1264], pub- 
lished a bull in favour of it, making it at the same 
time incumbent on all churches to celebrate it 
solemnly, and granting one hundred days' indul- 
gence to all who take part in the services of the 
day. JULIUS KESSLER. 

Birmingham. 



GWILLIM'S " HERALDRY. 

The original MS. of this work is said to have 
been deposited in the library of the Earl of Car- 
lisle at Naworth, but I have a memorandum that, 
about the year 1833, it was in the hands of the 
late Thomas Rodd, bookseller. The first edition 
was in 1610 (not 1611, as stated by Moule), and 
there were subsequent editions in 1632, 1638, 1660, 
1679, and 1724. Gwillim having died in 1621, had 
not the supervision of any edition after the first, but 



* Histoire de institution de la Fete-Dieu, par le R. P. 
Bertholet. Liege, 1846, 



2 nd S. VI. 131., Jui* 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



11 



the second edition (1632) is professedly said to 
have been " corrected and much enlarged by the 
author himselfe in his lifetime." In 1660 the 
fourth edition was printed, to which was added 
"about 300 new coats and bearings of eminent 
families, never before inserted," which were col- 
lected by Francis Nower, herald-painter. " This 
edition," says Moule, "had scarcely been issued, 
when the Restoration brought Heraldry into more 
request, and rendered a selection of the examples, 
upon the rise of a new party, necessary, to obtain a 
sale" It was accordingly reprinted, with the 
following alteration in the title : " Since the im- 
printing of this last edition many offensive coats 
(to the Loyal Party) are exploded ; with a supply 
of his Majesties Friends ;" and the volume thus 
amended was dedicated to King Charles II. A 
new address was prefixed by R. B. (Richard 
Blorne), which is worth transcribing, from its 
singularity : 

" To the most concerned, the Nobility and Gentry. 

" My Lords and Gentlemen, 

" This inestimable piece of Heraldry, that has past/b?<r 
impressions with much approbation, had the unhappy 
fate in the last to have a blot in its escocheon, viz. the 
insertion of Oliver's Creatures, which as no merit could 
enter them in such a regiment but usurpation, so we 
have in this fifth impression exploded them, and incerted 
the Persons, Titles, and Dignities of such as his Majesty 
(since his blessed Restauration) conferred Honour upon, so 
that the corn may be intire, of one sheaf, and the grapes 
of one vine. 

R. B." 

It is evident from this statement that the later 
editions of 1679 and 1724 are the sixth and 
seventh, although they are called on their respec- 
tive title-pages the fifth and sixth. Neither of 
the editions of 1660 are in the library of the 
British Museum, and I therefore have been un- 
able to compare them together; but perhaps some 
of the correspondents of "N. & Q.," who have 
the means of doing so, would take this trouble, 
and state how many of the 300 coats of Oliver's 
edition were omitted in Charles's. If the number 
is not great, it might be desirable to have a list of 
the names communicated. F. MADDEN. 



Minat 

Rysheton. Some time after I had succeeded 
to the rectory of Raskington First Mediety, I 
found that it was subject to an annual fee-farm 
rent of forty shillings. Wishing to ascertain 
whence this arose, I consulted a friend, whose 
name often appears in your pages, who happened 
at the time to be employed in the Augmentation 
Office. He said that he probably might find 
something about it in the Records there, and re- 
quested me to call there in a day or two. When 
I called he told me that he had been unsuccessful 
in the search, although he had found three or 



four entries relating to Ruskington. "But," said 
he, " we often find that parties interested have 
quicker eyes that we ; search for yourself." I did 
I so, and after spending some time I had the satis- 
faction of ferreting out the following entry : 

"Com. Lincoln. " Parcell Possession. 

Nuper Priorat 

de Worksop. 
"Annual pension exeund de Rectoria de Riskington ^ 

nl s Rusherton in dicta coin, solvend. ad fest. S li >40s. 
Mich 9 Arch, tante per ann. - - J 

" I have made this Particular by virtue of an act of 
Parliament of March, 1649, for the sale of Fee Farm 
Rents belonging to the late Queen and Prince. 
^ " Ex d per Thorn. Palgrave, Auditor." Memb. 17. No. 

I have lately found the following in the list of 
the possessions of Worksop Priory, Valor Ecclesi- 
asticus, vol. v. p. 175. : 

" Lincoln Comitatus. 

Rysheton. 

" A pension there by year - - xls." 

I believe this to be the pension in question, as 
"Rysheton" does not differ much from "Rush- 
erton." Is my belief correct ? or was any other 
place known by the name of Rysheton ? And can 
any of your readers inform me by whom this pen- 
sion, luckily a money payment, was given to the 
Priory of Worksop ? THE RECTOR. 

Tom Davies. Many years ago I read' a thea- 
trical poem, of which I remember only four lines, 
describing the ghost of Tom Davies, which appears 
to some actor or manager : 

" Not like that Davies, who, in youthful da)', 
Flamed in the stage's front and gave the play ; 
But shy and shambling as he wont to meet 
A penny customer in Russell Street." 

This must have been written after Davies was 

j dead, and before he was forgotten. He died in 

1785. I shall be obliged if any one can tell me 

the title of the work. It is an octavo pamphlet of 

about fifty pages. 

In La Nouoelle Biographic Generate, xiii. 247., 
art. DAVIES, it is said : 

"Une satire decoche'e centre lui, a Voccasion de son 
mariage avec une honnete femme, par Churchill, lui fit en- 
core deserter la scene et reprendre en 1762 son e'tat de 
libraire." 

I have not seen this elsewhere. Had the French 
i biographer any authority for it, or is it an original 
blunder? H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

Wax- work at Westminster Abbey. Can any of 
your readers inform me of the period when wax 
figures of departed greatness were first exhibited 
in Westminster Abbey ? 

From a passage in a rhyming account of the 
tombs there, in The Mysteries of Love and Elo- 
quence (8yo., Lond. 1658, p, 88.), it would appear 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58. 



that, at that time, the following were the waxen 
figures exhibited in the Presses : 

" Henry the Seventh and his fair Queen, 

Edward the First and his Queen ; 
Henri/ the Fifth here stands upright, 
And his fair Queen was this Queen. 

" The noble prince, Prince Henry, 

King James's eldest son ; 
King James, Queen Anne, Queen Elizabeth, 
And so this Chapel 's done." 

Peacham, in his Worth of a Penny, enumerat- 
ing what the simple worth of a penny will effect, 
says, 

" For a penny 3'ou may hear a most eloquent oration 
upon our English kings and queens, if, keeping your 
hands off, you seriously listen to him who keeps the 
monuments at Westminster." 

I suspect that the exhibition of these figures 
originated in the preservation of the carved figures 
carried in state at the funerals of the respective 
royal families. D. 

Mixture of the Chalice in the Office for Holy 
Communion. Are there any known churches in 
England where this ancient custom has been 
handed down from early times ? O. S. 

Women in Parliament. Have women ever sat 
and voted in parliament, either in the House of 
Lords or the House of Commons ? If so, under 
what circumstances ? J. C. W. 

" Lot-Mead." John Aubrey, speaking of the 
parish of Wanborough, says : 

" Here is a Lott-Mead, celebrated yearly with great 
ceremony. The Lord weareth a garland of flowers ; the 
mowers have a pound of beef and a head of garlick every 
man . . . with many other old customs still retayned." 

Lot-mead is a common name for a field in many 
Wiltshire parishes ; but I do not find in Brand, 
or other books of that sort, any account of the 
custom here alluded to. J. 

Mr. Thomas Gary, a Poet of Note. What is 
known of this poet, and was he connected with 
the Falkland family ? He is thus noticed by 
Izaak Walton in his MS. collections for a life of 
the memorable John Hales of Eton, preserved 
among the Fulman MSS. in Corpus Christi Col- 
lege, Oxford : 

" Then was told this by Mr. Anthony Faringdon, and 
have heard it discourst by others, that Mr. Thomas Gary, 
a poet of note, and a great libertine in his life and talke, 
and one that had in his youth bein acquainted with Mr. 
Ha., sent for Mr. Hales to come to him in a dangerous 
fit of sickness, and desired his advice and absolution, 
which Mr. Hales, upon a promise of amendment, gave 
him, (this was I think in the country). But Mr. Gary 
came to London, fell to his own company, and into a more 
visable scandalous life, and especially in his discourse, 
and be (being?) taken very sick, that which proved his 
last, and being much trowbled in mind, procured Mr. Ha. 
to come to him in this his sickness and agony of minde, 



desyring earnestly, after a confession of many of his sins, 
to have his praj'ers and his absolution. Mr. Ha. told 
him he shood have his prayers, but wood by noe meanes 
give him then either the sacrament or absolution." 

J. YEOWELL. 

Stage- Coaches termed " Machines ; " " Bathing- 
Machines^ When was the name machine first 
applied to stage-coaches ? and when did it be- 
come disused ? We constantly meet with it in 
newspaper advertisements of the last century. It 
is curious that, although the word, as applied to a 
public carriage, is quite obsolete, the horses used 
in stage-coaches and omnibuses are, at the present 
day, always known as machine?^. The word 
" bathing-machine " must surely have reference 
to the once familiar name for a public carriage ; 
bathing-machine, quasi bathing- coach not appa- 
ratus or machinery constructed for bathers. 

JAYDEE. 

Church of St. Oswald, Grasmere. On a re- 
cent tour to the lakes of Westmoreland, curiosity 
led me, and certain friends of mine, to the pic- 
turesque churchyard of St. Oswald, Grasmere, 
where lie in sacred repose the mortal remains of 
William Wordsworth. Our curiosity extended, 
of course, to the church itself, an object of pe- 
culiar interest to all who loved the poet. On in- 
quiring of the obliging official (who has the keys 
of the church, and who gave us much pleasing 
information about the inscriptions therein on the 
several tablets), we were told that no record ex- 
isted of the antiquity of the building. It was 
supposed to have been built " about 1000 years 
ago." Can any of your antiquarian readers set 
this interesting question at rest, by naming the 
precise year in which the first stone was laid ? 

WILLIAM KIDD. 

Ancient Jewish Coins. Will some competent 
man say when these were first coined ? C. M. A. 

George Henderson, Sfc. Two individuals of the 
respective names of George and John Henderson 
were farmers at Dirrington and Kippetlaws, in 
the parish of Lonformacus, in Lammermoor, 
during the early years of the last century, being 
tenants of the Trotters of Cattleshiel. Could any 
of the readers of " N. & Q." give any account of 
the descendants of the above-mentioned George 
Henderson ? Of the descendants of his brother 
John, I am already well acquainted down to the 
present time. Of the father of the above indivi- 
duals, whose name is supposed to have been 
Thomas, I should like to know something also, 
especially his age, and the date of his decease. It 
is traditional that he was the writer of the old 
Scottish song of "Muirland Willie." It is also 
conjectured that George and John Henderson 
were natives of the neighbouring parish of Gordon. 
Where did the family come from to that parish ? 
There are still several persons of the name living 



. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



in that parish, but whether in any way related to 
those I have mentioned I do not know. 

MENYANTHES. 

Translation of the Odyssey. In A Winter in 
the Azores, $<?., by Joseph Bullar, M.D., and 
Henry Bullar, of Lincoln's Inn, 1841, vol. ii. ch. 
vii. p. 80., is a specimen, in English heroic coup- 
lets, of a passage in the 4th book of the Odyssey : 
it is called " MS. Transl." 

1. Has any other portion of the same version 
been published ? 

2. Was the translation of the Iliad, published 
at the late Mr. Pickering's, by the same gentle- 
man ? 

3. And was . not that version of the Iliad in 
English hexameters, and priced 2s. 6d. per book ? 

I. O. L. 

Benjamin Martin. In the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for August, 1785 (vol. lv.), is an engraved 
portrait of this voluminous scientific writer, and 
on the opposite page the following note : 

" The original picture will be given by its present pos- 
sessor to the curators of any public repository who may 
think it worth preserving. EDIT." 

The writer would be glad to receive any in- 
formation respecting the whereabouts of this ori- 
ginal. W. G. ATKINSON. 

Great Seal Patent Office, 

25. Southampton Buildings. 



CEtumetf imtl) 

Tradesmen s Tokens. Is there any published 
account of the tradesmen's tokens of the early 
part of this century, and of the last ? H. J. 

[The following works may be consulted : Representa- 
tion of all the Provincial Copper Coins and Tokens of Trade 
on Copper, which were circulated between 1787 and 1801. 
By Charles Pye. Second edition. 4to. Arrangement of 
Provincial Coins, Tokens, and Medalets, issued in Great 
Britain, Ireland, and the Colonies. By James Conder, 
8vo. 1799. A Catalogue of the Provincial Copper Coins, 
Tokens, Tickets, and Medalets, issued in Great Britain, 
Ireland, and the Colonies, during the Eighteenth and Nine- 
teenth Centuries, arranged according to Counties, &c. De- 
scribed from the originals in the collection of Sir George 
Chetwynd, Bart., by Thomas Sharp. 4to. 1834. Privately 
printed.] 

Jewish Millenary Period. Who is the author 
that particularly points out the termination of the 
6000th year of the world, which Mr. Clinton is 
said to have done in his great work on Chrono- 
logy? The Rev. E. B. Elliott, in his Horce Apo- 
calyptica, refers his readers to Mr. Clinton's third 
volume of his work. I have purchased it accord- 
ingly for about thirty shillings (the edition of 1851, 
being his second edition) and cannot find it. Is 
there another edition ? INQUIRER. 

[The above reference in Elliott's Horce Apocalypticce is 
unfortunately wrong. Instead of the third it should have 



been the first volume of Clinton's Fasti Hellenid, where, 
in Appendix V. ( Scripture Chronology "), pp. 283329. 
inclusive, our correspondent will find all the information 
he desires.] 

Eve. The name of the first woman being 
Chavah in Hebrew, why is she called Eve in our 
English Bibles ? M. E. 

Philadelphia. 

[Eve was so called by Adam, because she was the 
mother of all living. In this case the word would pro- 
perly belong to the Hebrew iTH, haiah. The Hebrew 
name is ilin, havah or chavah, which comes from the root 
nin, to live, which root is synonymous with HTl; it 
therefore signifies life. In the Septuagint, Eve, in Gen. 
iii. 20., is rendered Zwij, life, which is the true rendering ; 
but in Gen. iv. 1. it is rendered Evav, Euan or Evan, and 
hence Eve. Vide Ogilvie's Imp. Diet.'] 

Quare, the Watchmaker. At what period did 
Quare, the inventor of the repeater watch, flou- 
rish ? Quere, temp. Charles I. ? Gr. 

[Mr. Quare's fame, as inventor of the repeater watch, 
became known towards the latter end oT the reign of 
James II., about the time when Mr. Barlow endeavoured 
to obtain his patent. A watch of the invention of each 
was brought before James II. and his council. The king, 
after a trial of both specimens, gave the preference to that 
of Mr. Quare, which was notified in the Gazette. See Dr. 
Derham's Artificial Clock Maker, edit. 1700, p. 99.] 

" Amphitryon" Why is the entertainer of 
guests called their Amphitryon ? S. FOXALL. 

[Since the appearance of Moliere's play of Amphitryon, 
in which Sosie says, " Le veritable Amphitryon est 1'Am- 
phitryon ou 1'on dine," the saying has become proverbial, 
and the proper name Amphitryon has consequently been 
very generally applied to a host.] 



ARTHUR MOORE AND THE MOORES. 

(1 st S. xi. 157., &c.) 

Two or three years since some gossiping articles 
appeared in " N. & Q." about these Moores. Still 
there are circumstances which require explana- 
tion. Wm. Smythe, the grandfather of Pope's 
James Moore [Smythe] MR. CARRUTHERS (1 st 
S. x. 238.) says "maternal uncle," but that is a 
mistake was Paymaster of the Band of Gentle- 
men Pensioners ; and the following notice appeared 
in the Historical Register for 1718 : 

May 24. William Smythe, Arthur Moor, and Thomas 
Moor, Esqrs. made joint paymasters to the Board of Pen- 
sioners." 

The Christian name of Thomas I believe to have 
been a mistake, and that the following announce- 
ment from the Weekly Journal of June 14-21, 
1718, is both more full and more correct : 

" A reversionary grant has passed the seals for James 
and Arthur Moore, Grandsons of William Smythe of De- 
vonshire Street, Esq. (younger sons of Arthur Moore of 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



|>dS. fl. 131., JULY 3. '58. 



Fetcham in the County of Surrey, Esq.), to be receivers 
and paymasters of the band of pensioners successively or 
during the life of the survivor after their grandfather?' 

The grandfather Smythe died between Decem- 
ber 19, 1720, when his will is dated, and January 
13, 1720-1, when it was proved (1 st S. xi.) ; and 
under the head of December, 1720, the "chroni- 
cle " attached to the Historical Register announces 

" James Moore and Arthur Moore, Junr., Esqrs. ap- 
pointed to be Receivers-General and Paymasters of the. 
Gentlemen Pensioners." 

At that time, and long after I believe, these offi- 
ces were sold for the benefit of the captain of the 
pensioners, and all who held commissions were 
protected from arrest. The Moores were wealthy 
people; but the father, Arthur, had been for years 
involved in litigation ; and in his will, dated No- 
vember 6, 1729, and proved May 30, 1730, he 
speaks of the prosecutions and persecutions which 
he had suffered in the faithful discharge of his 
duty to the public, and of a consequent possibility 
that his personal estate may be insufficient to de- 
fray his pecuniary bequests. Had the desire to 
secure this office, jointly, any reference to the 
protection they offered, or to the litigation which 
might reach the sons in case of the father's death? 
I merely ask the question that others may consi- 
der and perhaps answer : my purpose is to record 
the fact. 

Another little incident in connexion with James 
Moore may perhaps help to strengthen the con- 
clusion, about which indeed there can be no rea- 
sonable doubt, the date of the publication of The 
Dunciad. Smythe, the grandfather, by his will, 
directed his executors to invest his personal estate 
in land, which he bequeathed to James Moore on 
condition that be took the name of Smythe. It 
was not, however, until the 2nd of George II. 
between June, 1728, and June, 1729 that an 
act was passed " to enable James Moore and his 
issue to take the surname of Smythe, according to 
the will of Win. Smythe, Esq." No wonder 
therefore when The Dunciad was published in 

May, Pope "call'd the phantom M .." The 

sting, however, was taken out of the satire by 
Act of Parliament, passed probably the very 
next month. Out then came the Key to the Dun- 
ciad, which obligingly informed the curious that 
M. or More was " James Moore Smyth" This 
appears to me good circumstantial evidence that 
The Dunciad was published just before, and The 
Key just after, June, 1728 ; the latter has 1728 in 
the title-page. 

While I am writing on this subject, I submit 
for consideration, that we are so much indebted 
to " N. & Q." for information respecting The Dun- 
ciad that we may reasonably hope for a little re- 
specting the Key to the Dunciad. It has struck 
me that this Key was another of Pope's mystifica- 
tions, like the Barncvelt Key to the Loch. Curll 



I was but the tool on this as on so many other occa- 
| sions. The Key was an impertinence for which 
Pope was not responsible; and yet it enabled him 
to give names, where only initials appeared in the 
poem ; to say bitter things, truths or untruths, 
which as a gentleman he dared not have hazarded; 
and to make, with affected simplicity, statements 
tending directly to prejudice those whom he con- 
sidered his enemies. It would be idle to suppose 
that Blackmore had anything to do with the work : 
yet what motive had Curll for making him ridi- 
culous by affixing his name to it ? Pope had. 

A. M. T. 



TOBACCO-SMOKING BEFORE THE BIRTH OF 
MOHAMMED. 

(2 nd S. V. 453.) 

This apocryphal assertion insinuated by Ewlia 
Effendi, as quoted by J. P., was noticed by a 
writer in the Quarterly Review for 1828, vol. 
xxxviii. p. 203., with the following observations: 

"The translator conjectures upon this [the discover}' 
of a tobacco-pipe amongst the stones of a mausoleum a 
thousand years old] that smoking having at first been 
prohibited to the Mohammedans as an innovation, and 
contrary to the principle of their law, the pipe had pro- 
bably been inserted in the wall by some lover of tobacco, in 
order to furnish an argument for the antiquity of the cus- 
tom, and therefore of its lawfulness. The probability of this 
conjecture depends upon the circumstances of the alleged 
discovery, and of these Ewlia has said nothing ; the fact, 
however, is worthy of notice, though, even if there were 
no deception in it, it stands singly and unsupported." 

It is certain that the Turks were taught to 
smoke tobacco by English traders, about the year 
1605, according to Sandys in 1610; and they 
were supplied with the British weed long before 
they began to grow it. In the Athenceum (Aug. 
1, 1857), I published an article entitled History 
and Mystery of Tobacco, in which all the disputed 
points relating to the history of the Herba rixosa 
are examined at large. 

The Wahabytic prohibition of smoking noticed 
by MR. BUCKTON (ubi supra}) as founded on the 
text of the Koran, forbidding " wine inebriating 
liquors," is but one of the very many instances of 
forced interpretations when men desire to make 
out a case for or against. Excepting the sym- 
ptoms betrayed by the beginner, smoking tobacco 
has just the reverse effect to inebriation. If 
smoking promotes thirst in certain temperaments, 
it actually tends to prevent intoxication by coun- 
teracting the stimulus of " inebriating liquors." 
Whilst to the mere amateur puffer of pipe or 
cigar, smoking is often the handmaid of drunken- 
ness by promoting thirst it is, on the other 
hand, very difficult to intoxicate an inveterate 
smoker. " He drinks you with facility your Dane 
dead drunk," &c. ANDREW STEINMETZ. 



<i S. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



HOLLINGSWORTH S ANGLO-SAXON POEMS. 

(2 nd S. v. 467.) 

In answer to the Query of MR. SEVERIN, as to 
whether the poems of Hollingsworth are in the 
old alliterative Beowulf style, or in modern 
metre with rhyme, permit me to say that this 
poet has left many original works. One of these 
is a complete dramatic poem in blank verse, 
varied by modern metres with rhyme; and others, 
translations of celebrated passages from the prin- 
cipal British poets. Amongst the latter he has 
brought before us Shakspeare's Richard solilo- 
quising, 

"Now is the winter of our discontent;" 
Milton's Satan scoffing, 

" Is this the region, this the soil ; " 
and Byron sighing his " Fare thee well " in the 
language of the Venerable Bede and Alfred the 
Great. 

Of these very singular MSS., which show the 
peculiar learning and genius of Hollingsworth, I 
can give but a very imperfect idea by submitting 
the following two short original pieces. They are 
the first that have as yet been made public, and 
should you be able to find room for them in your 
valuable periodical, they will probably interest 
some of your numerous Anglo-Saxon readers. 

GEORGR SEXTON, 
Editor of Hollingsworth's Works. 

11 T<5 bam R 



" Utofsawle dedpan grunde, 

be bam wisan deagel is, 

Runaft Gast on stillre stunde 

Ymb sum bet're Iff j?e ]?is. 
" Ac hwa mseg his runa reccan? 

Hwa his heolster-sprasce net ? 

A'nne beam he sylft bam wreccan : 

Hine J>onn' on tweon for-lait. 

" Ms se byft be ywaft cilde 
Soft be wiss or-feorme se'cft : 
Grimman men be leofaft wilde, 
Ymbe God and Heofen rec5; 

" Runaft him heah-bungen-fa?ge, 
ba he get on heape lift, 
Ymbe beah be winnan maige ; 
Rinc be he to bednne byft. 

" Dedr ys Iff; and wlitig, eorfte : 
Wlite-torht, b^ swegel-weorc ! 
Manne ferhft La ! Hu un-weorfte ! 
Earm and waedla, eng' and deorc ! 

" Hwanon com ic ? Hwider fare ? 
Dysig bonne ! Dysig nii ! 
Hwa, Gast, ah ba sdftan lure 
Rihte leereft butan bu ? 

Heofen-weard ic wende eagan ; 
AVundrigende, swfgend', stand : 
j'onn', me bincft, ic hyr' be' sagan: 
Geondan ys past dedre land ! ' 
" Uppe ! Taec men and on-drfta 
baet he sed his lytelnyss'; 
Bile-hwft swa beam ge-weorfte ; 
Engel-gdd, and God-gewis ! " 



" FOR-HWY SWINCEST bu ? 

" Hit swigung 3^s. Get swincende ic rece, 
Wift dimmum leohte, wfsan dyrnan staef ; 
And ana, blac, mid Nihte Grimmum, Wcecce : 
ba still' j r s eall swa grzef. 

" Hwy swine' ? Hit nys for woruld-gilp and are, 
bast ic of-gife eall swa oftrum swais : 
Ic wat b^et com : burh world ne weorft' ic mare, 
burh world, naht nasfre laes ! 

Her scdlu ys : a uton blifte grene : 
baer mot se besta begen selost buan ; 
Him eall ys swe'tost, fasgrost basr, ic wt'ne ; 
Ne naht ma dyrne run. 

bes lan-dasg swine-full ys : get fint man reste 
ba weorc wel don ys ; bam hed swetost. byft 
be worhte mst, and Hearran willan laste ; 
beah plega waere yft- 

Her eom ic scealc ; wa;s hider send on aerend' ; 
And glenge baes Hltifordes dedran gim : 
Ic swine' baet, ba he bone wille weran, 
Ne bed ne fid ne dim." 



BOOKSELLERS SIGNS. 

(2" d S. v. 130. 346. 466.) 

" The Bible," in Gracechurch Street, John Marshall, 
1706. 

" The Bible," in Newgate Street, over against Blue 
Coat Hospital Gate, William and Joseph Marshall, circa 
1700. (Sol Temple.) 

" The Elephant and Castle," without Temple Bar, 
Francis Smith, 1672. (Bunyan's Justification.'} 

" The Hand and Bible," on London Bridge, Eliz. Smith, 
1691. (Sol Temple.) 

" The Three Bibles," on London Bridge, T. Passinger, 
1684. (Destruction of Troy.) 

" The Three Bibles," ditto, E. Tracy, 1700. 

" The Talbots," Paternoster Row, Thomas Man, 1593. 
(Udall On Lamentations.") 

" The Three Flower- de-Luces," in Little Britain, George 
Sawbridge, 1703. 

" The Dolphin and Crown," west end of St. Paul's 
Churchyard, Richard Wellington, 1703. (Cocker's 
Decimal Arithmetick.) 

" The Tygre's Head," used by Barker, was very 
singular. He called it in print "The Tygre's 
Head;" but numerous cuts in which he pictures 
it, always represent a boars head and tusks, with 
a coronet. 

" The Red Lyon," in Paternoster Row, Bettesworth and 
Hitch, 1700. 

" The Sun and Bible," in Amen Corner, R. Ware, 1700. 

" The Looking-glass," on London Bridge, J. Hodges, 
1 / ob. 

" The Looking-glass," ditto, E. Midwinter, about 1720. 

" The Goldene ball," in Duck Lane, R. Boddington, 
1696. 

" The Goldene ball," by J. Clarke, 1726, 1736. 

* l The Three Pigeons," Roj'al Exchange, B. Ay liner, 
1688. 

" The Golden Lion," St. Paul's Churchyard, J. Robin- 
son, 1682, 1715. 

" The Crosse-Keyes," Paul's gate, R. Thrale, 1658. 

" The Bible and Crown," in Lumbard Street, near the 
Stocks Market, E. Parker, 17041710. 

" The Black 603-," middle of London Bridge, J. Back, 

The Black Raven," Poultry, J. Dunton, 1682. 



16 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2** S. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58. 



The Bible," Bedford Street, Wm. Sheares, 1642. 

" The Stationers' Arms," in Sweeting's Rents, and 
Piazza, Royal Exchange, Benj. Harris, 1676, 1683. 

" The Golden Boar's head," Gracechurch Street, B. 
Harris, 1700. 

" The Legg and Star," Royal Exchange, S. Harris, 1691. 

" The Bell," Poultry, R. Crouch, 1689. 

" The Harrow," Poultry, J. Harris, 1692. 

" The Flower-de-Luce," C. Hussey, Little Britain, 1685. 

" The Rose and Crown," Sweeting's Alley, G. Larkin 
and E. Prosser, 168 K 

" The Hand and Bible," London Bridge, T. Taylor, 1674. 

The Turk's Head," Cornhill, R. Boulter, 1680. 

The Shakespeare's Head," Strand, J. Tonson, 1711. 

GEORGE OFFOR. 



Permit me to add the following to the list con- 
tributed by MR. HACKWOOD : 

" The White Lyon," over against the great north 
doore of Saint Paules, Francis Constable, 1616. 

" The Globe," in Cornhill, Francis Williams, 1626. 

" The Sunne," in Paules Churchyard, John Partridge, 
1630. 

" The Blue-Bible," in Green- Arbour, Michael Spark, 
Senior, 1643. 

" The Hand and Bible," Budge Row, neere Canning 
Street, John Pounset, 1647. 

" The Gilt Bible," in Queen's-Head- Alley, Rapha Har- 
ford, 1648. 

" The Three Daggers," near the Inner Temple- Gate, 
Francis Tyton, 1649. 

" The Printing Press," in Cornhill, Peter Cole, 1649. 

" The Crown," in Duck Lane, William Nealand, 1652. 

' The Seven Stars," in Paul's Churchyard, neer the 
great north-door, Richard Moon, 1655. 

" The Blew Anchor," in Little Britain, W. Godbid, 
1659. 

" The Castle and Lion," in St. Paul's Churchyard, 
Joseph Cranford, 1659. 

" The Greyhound," in St. Paul's Churchyard, H. Evers- 
deii, 1660. 

" The King's-head," in St. Paul's Churchyard, N. W., 
1660. 

" The Elephant and Castle," near Temple Bar, Francis 
Smith, 1660. 

" The Cross-keyes," at Paul's gate, James Thrale, 1661. 

" The Anchor,"' in the lower walk of the New Exchange, 
Henry Herringman, 1662. 

The Turk's Head," in Corn Hill, Dixy Page, 1665. 

" The Black-spread-Eagle," in Barbican, Elizabeth 
Calvert, 1668. 

" The Flower-de-Luce," over against St. Dunstan's 
Church, Charles Harper, 1674. 

" The Peacock," over against Fetter Lane, JohnAmery, 
1674. 

" The Rose and Crown," in Sweething's Alley, Enoch 
Prosser, 1681. 

" The Phoenix," in St. Paul's Churchyard, Henry Mort- 
lock, 1681. 

" The White Hart," in Westminster Hall, Henry Mort- 
lock, 1681. 

" The Trunck," St. Paul's Churchyard, Caleb Swinock, 
1684. 

" The King's Arms," in Little Britain, J. Nicolson, 1699. 

" The Golden Ball," in St. Paul's Churchyard, T. New- 
borough, 1699. 

The Angel," in Pater-Noster-Row, William Boreham, 
1718. 

" The Black Swan," without Temple Bar, D. Browne, 
1721. 



" The Crown," in Ludgate Street, Robert Horsfiekl, 
1764. 

BUCHANAN WASHBOURN, M.D. 



THE CANDOR PAMPHLETS I " PRINCIPLES OF THE 
LATE CHANGES IMPARTIALLY EXAMINED ; IN A 
LETTER FROM A SON OF CANDOR TO THE ' PUB- 
LIC ADVERTIZER.' ALMON. 1765." 

However widely I may differ from Mr. SMITH 
(2 nd S. v. 240. 278. 397.), as to Lord Temple being 
the writer of the Candor pamphlets, I do not mean 
to question or controvert his theory. He is always 
ingenious, well-informed, and therefore instruct- 
ing, arid I am content to read, and to profit inci- 
dentally, though not in the least convinced. As, 
however, the starting-point of his conjecture is, 
as I believe, the above pamphlet, to which I for- 
merly referred, I wish to say a few words, to 
show what were Almon's assertions, and the asser- 
tions or assumptions of others, respecting the au- 
thorship, and to record my reasons for believing 
that it was not a Candor pamphlet at all. 

The " Principles," Almon says (Anec. ii. 46.) 
" was written under Lord Temple's own eye, and 
the greatest part of it dictated by him." Again 
(p. 53.) " Lord Temple dictated, or nearly so, but 
did not write any of it himself; " and like asser- 
tions are made by the writer of a " Candid Re- 
futation," one of the Rockingham party, who as- 
sumes the " Principles " to have been published 

with my Lord 's authority, but talks of " the 

scribe." It must be noticed that although Almon 
affected to know who was the writer of the 
" Candor " pamphlets, and who was the writer or 
dictator of the " Principles," he nowhere, I think, 
confounds or associates them, or in any way con- 
nects them. I have, indeed, a copy of Lord 
Somers's tract on " Security," &c., reprinted by 
Almon in 1771, at the end of which is announced 
" new editions of Letter from Candor to Public 
Advertizer" " Letters on Libels and Warrants " 
" Another Letter to Mr. Almon ; " but no 
mention of the " Principles." The external evi- 
dence, therefore, is against this pamphlet having 
been written by " Candor" and the internal evi- 
dence is, I think, still more conclusive. I pre- 
sume the name was taken as a popular name, 
a name which to a certain extent represented a 
party, by one who belonged to that party, but 
the name proves nothing as to direct connexion 
or relationship, except politically. 

This pamphlet is, as set forth in the first para- 
graph, an answer to " Extracts of a Letter," &c., 
and which had appeared in Public Advertizer, 
Sept. 5th, 1765, which " Letter" was written by 
one of the Bute party, or, as they then called 
themselves, " the King's friends," was fierce 
against the late ministry, especially George Gren- 
ville and the Duke of Bedford, and talks of their 



S. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND. QUEKIES. 



1? 



arrogance and insufficiency. Neither was the 
writer of the " Letter " friendly to the new 
Ministry the Rockinghams. He talks of the 
king's goodness in overlooking their former bad 
behaviour; and hints that Chatham may be 
tempted to supersede them, if they do not behave 
well ; and the writer attacks Temple as dictating 
to Chatham. 

The " Principles " is earnest and outspoken 
going direct to its purpose ; is written with ease 
and the facility of a practised writer, who, as 
such persons are apt to do, makes a common- 
place or a coarse expression serve a hurried pur- 
pose. There is an occasional page or two which 
rises above the average, as on party (p. 38,), the 
Rockingham (47, 48.) ; and in respect to the 
Rockinghams, it foreshadows Chatham's outburst 
in January. The writer sets forth Temple's known 
opinions without reserve ; freely and fully de- 
nounces the misdeeds of the late ministers, but 
maintains that they were turned out on their 
merits their resolution not to submit to the fa- 
vourite. The writer states his dislike or suspicion 
of the new ministry the Rockinghams and 
says that by accepting office they have strength- 
ened the favourite, and made manifest their own 
weakness. 

The " Principles " is a good historical docu- 
ment, and throws a light on the motives, feelings, 
and secret springs of party and individuals, at 
and about the close of George Grenville's ad- 
ministration and the formation of Rockingham's 
ministry ; but there is no trace in it, I think, of 
the " Candor " pen. D. E. 



Ancient Painting at Cowdry (2 nd S. v. 478. 533.) 
In addition to the information furnished by 
MR. WM. DURRANT COOPER, it may be added 
that the print was engraved by James Basire, at 
the expense of the Society of Antiquaries, and 
published June 1, 1778. A description was also 
written to accompany it, by Sir Joseph Ayloffe, 
Bart., and separately printed, 4to., 1778, pp. 20. 
In this description he repeats much of what he 
had previously stated in the Archceologia, vol. iii., 
but enters into fuller details in regard to the 
painting in question. It may also be mentioned 
that a catalogue (now scarce) of the Cowdray 
House paintings exists, thus entitled : 

" A Catalogue of the Pictures at Cowdray-House, the 
Seat of the Rt. Hon. Lord Viscount Montague, near 
Midhurst, Sussex. Portsmouth, printed by R. Carr, at 
Milton's Head, near the Grand Magazine, 1777." 4to. 
pp. 12. 

Dallaway, in his History of the Western Divi- 
sion of Sussex, 1815, vol. i. p. 255., reprints Ay- 
loffe's paper from the Archceologia, and adds 



(p. 246.) a list of the portraits at Cowdray, with 
valuable notes by J. C. Brook, Somerset Herald. 

F. MADDEN. 

Jewish Families (2 nd S. v. 435.) -Most of the 
families who settled originally in Spain and Por- 
tugal claimed descent from the tribe of Judah ; 
those in Germany and the northern countries 
from the tribe of Benjamin; the descendants of 
the other ten tribes not being known with any 
certainty. Since the building of the second Tem- 
ple and their dispersion, several families have at 
different times claimed descent from the House of 
David. There are many who, by their surnames 
of Levi and Cohen, show respectively their de- 
scent from the tribe of Levi and the family of 
Aaron. Cohen being the Hebrew, slightly altered, 
for Priest, all of whom were of the family of 
Aaron. 

The Rothschilds and Salomons, being of Ger- 
man descent, could probably be traced to the tribe 
of Benjamin. The Goldsmids are said to be de- 
scendants of a family of the name of " Uri a 
Levi," which is mentioned in an old work on 
Jewish antiquities as claiming a traditional de- 
scent from the Asmoneans or Maccabees. The 
present head of the family, Sir I. L. Goldsmid, 
Bart., bears as his motto the passage from Exodus 
xv. 11., " Who is like unto Thee O Lord amongst 
the mighty," from the initial Hebrew letters of 
which the name of Maccabee has been derived. 

Should you think these few details worth in- 
serting, they may be the means of eliciting more 
ample information on the subject ; though owing 
to the great persecutions sustained by Jews 
in all countries during the Middle Ages, and the 
frequent changes of residence which took place 
in consequence amongst them, their family re- 
cords seem to be in most cases very imperfect. 

PHILO-JUD/EUS. 

Good News for Schoolboys (2 nd S. v. 493.) 
Your correspondent, EIGHTY-THREE, rather mis- 
directs the gratitude of schoolboys. Roger As- 
cham had not them in his mind when he wrote the 
passage cited at p. 493. But there was a philoso- 
pher long before Roger's time who laid a solid 
foundation for the lasting thankfulness of the 
alumni of all nations. I allude to the man among 
whose pupils were Pericles, Socrates, and Euri- 
pides, proofs in themselves that intervals of 
play and work do not make dull Jacks, the man 
who used to say that he would rather have a grain 
of wisdom than a cart-full of gold, and who, 
heathen as he was, had strong perceptions of the 
doctrine of the immortality of the soul. That 
man was Anaxagoras, not the princely gentleman 
of Argos, but the far-seeing, yet often wild and 
fanciful philosopher of Clazornene. Just before 
his death at Lampsacus, three years subsequent to 
the commencement of the great _and protracted 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



VI. 131,, JULY 3. '58. 



struggle of the Athenians and Lacedaemonians for 
predominance in Greece, 428 B.C., Anaxagoras 
was asked if he had any particular wish, as it 
should be fulfilled if he would only give it expres- 
sion. " Certainly I have," said the kind-hearted 
old man ; "I wish to be remembered with pleasant 
feelings by all schoolboys, and I only ask that in 
memory of me, they may always have a whole 
holiday on the anniversary of my death." And 
this was decreed accordingly ; and this fine, un- 
selfish old fellow was not the mere recommender, 
but the founder of holidays for schoolboys which 
holidays, in further commemoration of his name, 
were long known by the name of Anaxagoreia. 

J. DORAN. 

Arms of Bertrand du Guesclin (2 nd S. v. 494. 
526.) This celebrated warrior was knighted on 
April 10, 1354 (N. S.), by a nobleman of the Pays 
de Caux named Elatse du Marais, in consequence 
of his taking prisoner Hue de Caverle or Caverley, 
who was at the time in possession of Dinan. The 
arms borne by Du Guesclin are thus described : 

"Bertrand portait d'argent, & Paigle de sable a. deux 
tetes et eployee, becquee et membree de gueules, tenant 
en ses serres" une cotice de meme mise en bande, et bro- 
chant sur le tout ; ce qui, joint a. sa valeur, fit que sa 
banniere recut dans la suite le nom d'Aigle-Bretonne." 

Bertrand's clam, or war-cry, was "Notre-Dame- 
Guesclin." 

I quote from M. Manet's Histoire de la Petite- 
Bretagne, vol. ii. pp. 393. 396., and note, 129.; pp. 
394, 395., St. Malo, 1834. W. B. MACCABE. 

Dinan, Cotes du Nord. 

Dr. Donne s Discovery of a Murder (2 nd S. v. 
68.) The following version of this curious story 
(taken from a collection of anecdotes, written 
about the beginning of the last century, in Raw- 
linson MS. B. 258.) will be interesting to MR. 
YEOWELL, in that, while it bears witness to the 
general truth of the alleged facts, it confirms his 
suspicions with regard to that part of the narra- 
tive as found related by him which ascribes the 
discovery to Dr. Donne. Dr. Airy was Provost 
of Queen's College, 15991616 : 

" Dr. Airy, Provost of Queen's College, Oxon., goeing 
with his servant accidently throo St. Sepulchers church- 
yard in London, where the sexton was makeing a grave, 
observed a scull to move, shewed it to his servant, and 
they to the Sexton, who taking it up found a great toad 
in it, but withall observed a tenpenny nale stuck in the 
temple bone; whereupon the Dr. presently imagined the 
party to have been murthered, and asked the sexton if he 
remembered whose skull it was. He answered it was the 
skull of such a man that died suddainly, and had been 
buried 22 years before. The Dr. told him that certainly 
the man was murthered, and that it was fitting to be en- 
quired after, and so departed. The sexton, thinking 
much upon it, remembered som particular stories talked 
of at the death of the party, as that his wife, then alive 
and maried to another person, had been seen to go into 
his chamber with a naile and hammer, &c. ; whereupon 
he went to a justice of peace, told him all the story. The 



wife was sent for, and witnesses found that testified that 
and some other particulars; she confessed, and was 
hanged." 

W, D. MACEAY. 

Aia with a Genitive of Time (2 nd S. v. 493.) 
AJO rpiuv 7jfji.pS)v mean three prospective days. 
(Matt. xxvi. 61.; Mark xiv. 58.) Three days 
retrospective are expressed by atrb rpirqr V 6/ P a * 
(Acts, x. 30.) Vigerus (ix. 2. 1.) does not draw 
the proper distinction betwixt 5ta 5eo eruv and 
5ia Se/corou erous, both which he considers to mean 
" every tenth year," and for the former quotes 
only Xiphilinus, who wrote centuries after clas- 
sical Greek had ceased to be spoken or written. 
Matthias (583.) points out from Herodotus (ii. 4., 
ii. 37.), Plato (Leg. viii. 410.), and Aristophanes 
(Plutus, 584.) the proper use of the ordinal number 
to convey the idea of the periodic return of an 
action : 

" Sonst dient es bey Ordinalzahlen dazu, die Wieder- 
kehr einer Handlung nach einem bestimmten Zeitpunkte, 
oder das Deutsche aller bey Cardinalzahlen auszudriicken, 
wie Sia rpirov ereos, aller drey Jahr, tertio quoque anno." 

The ordinal number may also be used with ia 
to express afterwards, as 5i' evoe/carou ereos. (Herod, 
i. 62.) T. J. BUCKTON. 

Mary, Daughter of Sir Edmund Bacon (2 nd S. 
v. 515.) In reply to your correspondent's Query, 
I beg to inform you, through my MS. Index 
Nominum, that the pedigrees of the Bacon family 
of Garboldisham, and the Wodehouse family of 
Kimberley, may be seen as to the former in 
Blomefield's Norfolk, vol. vii. p. 165. ; but there 
two daughters only are named. And as to the 
latter, on the fly-leaf to face vol. ii. of the same 
family, p. 558. It does not appear there were 
more than two daughters ; the eldest, Leticia, 
married to Armine Wodehouse, and the youngest, 
Mary, is described as single. 

JOHN NURSE CHADWICK. 

King's Lynn. 

Print by Wierix (2 nd S. v. 478.) I know no- 
thing of the subject of the portrait. The meaning 
of the inscription I believe to be " God permits 
him to be king of the present (?) guild, and to 
shoot the bird with his hand." 'AAieuy. 

Dublin. 

Dives (2 nd S. v. 415.) MR. T. CROSFIELD asks, 
" where is Dives mentioned by an old author ? 
and who first introduced the term in connexion 
with the rich man mentioned in the parable of 
Lazarus?" Dives is used as a proper name by 
Chaucer, in the Sompnoures Tale : 
" Lazar and Dives liveden diversely, 
And divers guerdon hadclen they therby." 

J. SANSOM. 

God save King James (2 nd S. v. 432.) In the 
European Magazine for June, 1820, occurs the 
following, which no doubt refers to the song given, 



2** S. VI. 131., JULY 3. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



as above, by DR. RIMBAULT, although the last 
sentence appears to confuse it with the present 
national air : 

"This national hytm has been attributed to various 
authors and composers. Bv the indefatigable researches 
of Mr. Richard Clark, of the Chapel Royal, it is traced to 
the year 1607, and was written on the escape of James I. 
from the gunpowder plot on the 5th Nov. 1605. It was 
introduced at a feast on the 16th July, 1607, given by the 
Merchant Tailors' Company to King James as a day of re- 
joicing on the king's escape, when the gentlemen, boys, 
and others of the Chapel Royal attended in their surplices 
to sing the said God save the King, written at the request 
of the Merchant Tailors' Company. It was revived in 
the year 1746, at the time of the Scottish rebellion, when 
the name of George was substituted for James, and it was 
harmonised for one theatre by Dr. Burney, and for the 
other by Dr. Arne." 

Whilst on the subject, a note from Raikes's 
Diary may be worth registering. 

" Our National Anthem of ' God save the King,' com- 
posed in the time of George 1., has always been considered 
of English origin ; but, on reading the amusing Memoirs 
of Madame de Crequy, it appears to have been almost a 
literal translation of the cantique which was always sung 
by the Demoiselles de St. Cyr when Louis XIV. entered 
the chapel of that establishment to hear the morning 
prayer. The words were by M. de Brinon, and the music 
by the famous Lully. 

" * Grand Dieu sauve le Roi ! 

Grand Dieu venge le Roi ! 

Vive le Roi. 

" ' Que toujours glorieux, 
Louis victorieux ! 
Voye ses ennemis 

Toujours soumis! 
Grand Dieu sauve le Roi ! 
Grand Dieu venge le Roi ! 

Vive le Roi ! ' 

" It appears to have been translated and adapted to 
the house of Hanover by Handel the German composer." 
Diary, i. 288. 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Colour of University Hoods (2 nd S. v. 234. 324. 
402.) The accounts hitherto given have all been 
very inaccurate. Surely it would be easy to ob- 
tain right descriptions from a graduate of each 
University. Every Cambridge man, for example, 
knows, what none of your correspondents have as 
yet hit upon, that an M.A. of that University of 
less than five years' standing, wears a black silk 
hood lined with white silk, while one of more than 
five years has his hood entirely black. C. M. A. 

MR. JOHN RIBTON GARSTIN puts the following 
question: "What hood is used at St. Aidan's, 
Birkenhead, for the degree of B.D., which that 
college is empowered to grant?" I beg leave to 
inform MR. GARSTIN that St. Aidan's, Birken- 
head, is not empowered to grant the degree of 
B.D., nor any other degree. Nor has St. Bee's 
College the power of conferring any degree. But 
St. David's College, Cardiganshire, has ; and the 
degree which it is empowered to grant is Bache- 



lor of Divinity. Wales is a distinct Principality, 
and St. David's College, being the only theological 
college in Wales connected with the Established 
Church, had a perfect right to ask the govern- 
ment to give it the power of conferring the degree 
ofB.D. E.JONES. 

Lampeter. 

Can a Man le his own Grandfather 9 (2 nd S. v. 
504.) Your correspondent W. R. M. thinks the 
case referred to by W. J. F. unprecedented. If it 
be so, the case referred to must be the same which 
came to my own knowledge about thirty years since, 
when a near relative, with whom I was walking, 
having exchanged some words of civility with a 
gentleman and his children, who accidentally 
crossed our path, afterwards informed me that this 
gentleman and his father had married a mother 
and daughter ; and that the gentleman I had seen, 
in fact, was the husband of his own (step) grand- 
mother. I think I was told that there were chil- 
dren by both marriages. For obvious reasons I 
withhold the name of the parties, as well as my 
own name. ANON. 

Ghost Stories (2 nd S. v. 233. 462.) I have 
already supplied a certain amount of information 
respecting the Wynyard ghost story, which ap- 
pears to have been overlooked by CANDIDUS. In 
reply to his more recent queries, I would merely 
state that Lieut. -Gen. Wm. Wynyard, who died 
in 1789, was father of all the persons to whom he 
refers, viz. George West Wynyard of the 33rd 
regiment, Henry Wynyard of the 1 st Foot guards, 
and Wm. Wynyard of the Coldstream guards. 
George West Wynyard, as I have already stated, 
had no twin-brother; but he had, besides the 
above-mentioned, and other brothers, who sur- 
vived him, two brothers who died between 1784 
and 1794, viz. John Otway of the 3rd guard?, 
who died October 15, 1785 ; and Ambrose Lily, 
lieut. in the 20th regiment, who died November 
9, 1792. It was the former of these, as I have 
always understood, whose spirit is supposed to 
have appeared to him. COGNATUS. 

To Kink (2 nd S. v. 433.) This is still a familiar 
word with anglers. The fishing-tackle shops sell 
a preparation to rub the lines to prevent their 
kinking. W. H. LAMMIN. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

We have received Dr. Cureton's Remains of a very 
Ancient Recension of the Four Gospels in Syriac, hitherto 
unknown in Europe, lately published by Mr. Murray. 
This beautifully printed volume contains fragments of 
the four Gospels, from a MS. procured by the late Arch- 
deacon Tattam from the monastery of St. Mary Deipara, 
in the valley of the Natron Lakes. They have been dis- 
engaged from a volume in great part of later date, with 



20 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



VI. 181., JULY 3. '58. 



which they had been bound up for the purpose of com- 
pleting the copy, themselves dating from about the mid- 
dle (Dr. Cureton supposes) of the fourth century. From 
the great antiquity and independent character of these 
remains, they will form henceforth an important item in 
our materials for confirming or correcting the Sacred 
Text. We ought to add that they are accompanied by a 
translation. 

The two pretty volumes of The Ballads of Scotland, 
edited by W. E. Aytoun, which have just been issued by 
Messrs. Blackwood, will be regarded with unmixed satis- 
faction by those who love these outpourings of the old 
national feeling for their own intrinsic beauty and poetry. 
To readers of this class the work will be indeed a trea- 
sure : but to the mere antiquary, who loving " a ballad 
in print " loves it all the better for the rudeness of the 
type, the coarseness of the paper, and who does not ob- 
ject if such rudeness and coarseness extend to the lan- 
guage and incidents of the ballad itself, the collection 
will be somewhat disappointing. No such marks of an- 
tiquity will be found in the work before us. These rare 
old songs have been edited with great good taste, and all 
must be pleased with Professor Aytoun's Introduction, 
and with the literary and historical notices which he has 
prefixed to the various ballads. 

Those of our classical and antiquarian friends who have 
admired Mr. Ashpitel's admirable picture of the Restora- 
tion of Ancient Rome, now exhibiting at the Royal 
Academy, will thank us for calling their attention to the 
Description arul Key, showing the authorities for the various 
Restorations, which has been published by Mr. Ashpitel, 
and which proves him to be as sound an antiquarian as he 
is an accomplished draughtsman. 

It is long since we have seen a volume which more 
completely fulfilled its object than one which has just 
reached us entitled Tokens issued in the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury in England, Wales, and Ireland by Corporations, 
Merchants, Tradesmen, 8fc., described and illustrated by 
William Boyne, F.S.A. How many thousand tokens are 
here described we will not attempt to calculate, but 576 
pages are occupied in the catalogue of them. Fifty-four 
pages, each containing three columns, are filled with the 
Index of Names and Places, and forty- two plates are 
employed to represent the more curious varieties. Are 
we n6t then justified in calling this a very complete 
book upon the subject? 

In the very curious and valuable Catalogue of Dr. j 
Bliss's Library now selling by Messrs. Sotheby and Wil- 
kinson, p. 300., is a statement to which we desire to call 
the attention of our bibliographical friends. It is no less 
than an announcement that Mr. Leigh Sotheby, the 
learned historian of the Block Books, has in so forward 
a state that in one year from this time the first or more 
volumes of it might be published, a Bibliographical Ac- 
count of the Printed Works] of the English Poets to the 



Year 1660, the result of forty years' labour devoted to 
the subject. Mr. Sotheby calculates that such account 
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early literature should combine to publish it. We sin- 
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21 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 10. 1858. 



THE INDIAN REVOLT, AND THE DEBATE IN LONDON 
A.D. 1858. THE MITYLENEAN REVOLT, AND THE 
DEBATE IN ATHENS B.C. 427. 

Of the first of the two subjects named above, I 
will say nothing. The details of that matter, and 
the speeches on the famous proclamation-debate 
on our policy in Oude, are known to every 
one. I only use the title that it may serve to 
mark an historical parallel which occurred to me, 
when reading the debate in question, and which 
may be acceptable to those persons who like to 
draw and dwell upon such parallels. 

In the Peloponnesian war, the Lesbians were 
the unwilling allies of the Athenians, to whom 
they were in some degree subject. The Lacedae- 
monians succeeded in getting these desirable Les- 
bians (they were capital sailors) on their side ; 
and the Athenians immediately blockaded the re- 
volted Lesbian city of Mitylene. The end of the 
process and of some fighting was, that the city 
surrendered ; and when the Athenians entered, 
the first thing they did was to hang the Lacedae- 
monian general, Salsethus, who had sustained the 
revolt, and there was not a mock-philanthropist 
in Athens who objected to the proceeding. The 
other principal agents in the treason were sent 
captives to Athens, where it was decreed that not 
only they, but all the Mityleneans should be put 
to death. A despatch was forthwith sent to the 
\ general commanding there to carry out this de- 
cree. After it had been sent off, the citizens began 
to look at each other, and to ask if it were accord- 
ing to the fitness of things that a people who 
owed no positive allegiance to Athens should be 
entirely destroyed for attempting to get rid of a 
forced and hated subjection. Thucydides will tell 
you what an uproar there was in the city on this 
question. There was no quieting the good tur- 
bulent folks, who loved nothing so much as a poli- 
tical, statistical, moral, religious, or philosophical 
" row," whereon to spend their time, and whereby 
to test the state of parties. Above all, they loved 
a political difficulty. Here was one which offered 
a first-rate opportunity for the leaders of either 
faction. A public assembly was convened to de- 
liberate upon the sanguinary decree ; and the 
debate on the propriety of confiscating the terri- 
tory of Oude, lively as it was, was a small matter 
compared with the eagerness, earnestness, latitude 
of assertion, and unbounded interest, which marked 
the great debate at Athens. The notorious Cleon, 
who certainly was not such a fool as Aristophanes 
makes him, if he delivered the speech reported by 
Thucydides, led the party for the stronger mea- 
sure. The humanitarian side of the " house," and 
the outside people of the same opinion, were re- 



presented by Diodotus. The speeches of both 
orators will bear comparison with any speech de- 
livered on the Oude debate. Cleon's sarcasm, his 
sweeping insults at an unstable democracy, his 
irresistible ridicule of his unlucky auditors, most 
of whom were more ready to hear their own 
voices, as he said, than good sense from others, was 
quite in the style of Hunt and Cobbett when in 
their happiest, or most impudent vein. Cleon 
knew but of one method of dealing with van- 
quished rebels, kill them and take their goods, 
and then their masters will not only have crushed 
daring rebels, but profited by the rebellion. The 
honourable (and rather sanguinary) gentleman 
resumed his seat amid deafening cheers. But these 
billows of sound were hushed into calmness by the 
gentle and business-like Diodotus. He blamed 
nobody, but insinuated his own sentiments into 
the bosom of everybody. He attributes no un- 
worthy motives to the actions of any one, and asks 
for as much civility for himself. He goes into the 
entire question ; and shows, as was shown for the 
men of Oude, that to throw off the insolent yoke 
of new and rapacious masters, is not a deed to be 
met by general massacre or confiscation. There 
was nothing said more to this purpose the other 
night in our august assembly, than was expressed 
more than two thousand years ago in the memor- 
able debate at Athens. One really grows in love, 
as it were, with the humane Diodotus : so mild, 
so charitable, so winning, so irresistible is he in 
working towards the triumphant establishment of 
his principle of mercy. There is, however, one little 
unpleasant drawback, in the ground on which this 
principle is founded by the right honourable 
speaker. He allows that, after all, justice might 
be with Cleon ; and he admits that he too would 
have counselled that all the Mityleneans should be 
butchered, if it were expedient, and any advantage 
could* be got by it. " If they ever so much de- 
served forgiveness," remarked the consistent ora- 
tor, " I declare I would not advise you to forgive 
them, were it not that I am quite sure we shall all 
profit by it ! " So profit and expediency moved 
the heathen assembly ; and they who less than 
three days previously had voted the contrary way, 
now gave their voices for the motion of Diodotus, 

a sample of tergiversation that will excite a 
sneer, and call up a moral sentiment from every 
Joseph Surface among us proud of the legislatures 
of more enlightened times. At Athens, after all, 
mercy was only carried by a narrow majority. 

Then followed the despatching of the new de- 
cree annulling the old one, already on its way, 

having a start of four-and-twenty hours ; and 
then ensued the immortal race which could only 
happen before the days of electric wires and tele- 
grams. The trireme that was ahead carried with 
it orders, not only for the massacre of the inha- 
bitants, but for the destruction of the entire city 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



VI. 132,,'JULY 10. '58. 



of Mitylene ; and there were none but Athenians 
on board. The second trireme, .with the procla- 
mation of mercy, had on board four or five Mity- 
leneans, and these were intensely interested in 
reaching their native city before the bearers of 
the order of destruction. These Mityleneans plied 
the rowers with wine, and fed them with barley- 
cakes, and made magnificent promises to induce 
them to come up with and pass the other boat. 
Consequently, the oars flashed through the waters 
like rapid and regular gleams of lightning. The 
rowers, as they sat and pulled, opened their mouths 
for the cakes dipped in wine and oil, and they 
never ceased altogether from their labour. Even 
when some slept, others stuck to the bench, pulled 
like demons ; and when they too were overcome 
with fatigue, the awakened and refreshed sleepers 
took their place, and kept the trireme flying across 
the waters, and, after all, did not win the race. 
The first boat, however, had only just landed its 
messengers of death as the second shot into the 
harbour. Before the latter had put its anxious 
freight ashore, the active Athenian governor of 
Mitylene had read the condemnatory decree, and 
had, with commendable zeal and little fussiness, 
ordered it to be put in force. The second boat- 
load of messengers contrived to reach him just in 
time to prevent mischief, and thus the wine and 
barley cakes were not mis-spent on the rowers; 
and I hope the Mitylenean gentlemen remembered 
their promises, as half an hour later would have 
made all the difference. J. DORAN. 



EPJSTOLJE OBSCURORUM VIRORUM. 

This is another of those works which are dis- 
cussed by literary historians, who forget that the 
ordinary reader would learn more from a few 
specimens than from opinions and descriptions. 
Its interest has been revived in our own day by 
the late Sir W. Hamilton, in a very learned ar- 
ticle (Edinb. Rev. March, 1831, reprinted, with 
additions, in the Discussions, #*c.). Referring to 
this article, it will be enough to state here that 
Luther's great movement was preceded by a war 
of the theologians against classical literature and 
its cultivators, especially Reuchlin ; that this scho- 
lar, in the course of the fi<ht, published a volume 
of the letters of others to himself, entitled Epistolce 
Illustrium Virorum; that Ulric von Hutten, as- 
sisted by others, thereupon drew up the Epistolce 
Obscurorum Virorum (1516), an ironical collec- 
tion, purporting to be written by the theological 
enemies of the classics, to aid and comfort Or- 
tuinus Gratius against the poets, as they were 
called. This Ortuinus was himself a scholar of 
some note, the only one who had joined the theo- 
logical party ; he was, therefore, selected as the 
chief object of ridicule. The effect was a com- 



plete victory over the monks. So faithfully did 
their enemies represent them, that their party at 
first imagined the work was written on their own 
side, and raised a shout of .approbation. Of this 
there is abundant evidence. Sir Thomas More 
and Erasmus, independently of each other, agree 
that the satire would never have been detected by 
its victims, if it had not been for the word Obscu- 
rorum in the title. Erasmus relates that a Do- 
minican prior in his own town (Louvain) bought 
twenty copies for distribution among his friends : 
and he adds that they were never undeceived, 
in England, until the appearance of the second 
volume, in the last letter of which the writer 
throws off the mask. 

Any one would suppose that the blocks must 
have been cut with a very keen razor, seeing that 
they did not feel the operation ; but the bluntness 
of the tool will be the zest of the story in all time 
to come. Doctors of divinity did not know but 
what they had a looking-glass before them, when 
they read letters in which other doctors vary the 
most stupid ignorance with the most revolting 
obscenity. The accounts which men under the 
vows give of their own lives would disgust an 
immense majority of those who had lived in the 
utmost license of courts and camps. To take 
something short of the worst, if any one who has 
access to the work will find out the letter of Lu- 
poldus Federfusius in the first volume, and bear 
in mind that the satire was not at once detected, 
he will be greatly amused. 

The book opens with a question of grammar, 
propounded to Ortuinus by a B.D., arising out of 
a convivial meeting of theologians. To make it 
intelligible, observe that a Master of Arts was 
nosier magister, but a Doctor of Divinity was 
magister nosier. 

" Tune Magistri hilarificati inceperunt loqiri artifici- 
aliter de magnis question i bus. Et unus quajsivit utrutn 
dicendum Magister nostrandus, vel noster Magistrandus, 
pro persona apta nata ad fiendum Doctor in Theologia 

Et statim respondit Magister Warmsemmel, . . . 

et tenuit quod dicendum est noster Magistrandus .... 
Sed nostro -tras, -trare, non est in usu, .... Turn Ma- 
gister Andr. Delitsch, qui est multum subtilis, . . . . et 
jam legit ordinarie Ovidium in Metamorphosiis . . . et 
etiam legit in domo sua Quintilianum et Juvencum, et 
ipse tenuit oppositionem M. Warmsemmel, et dixit quod 
debemus dicere Magister nostrandus . . . . et non obstat 
quod nostro -tras, -trare, non est in usu, qnia possumus 
fingere nova vocabula, et ipse allegavit super hoc Hora- 
tium. Tune magistri multum admiraverunt subtilitatem, 
et unus portavit ei unum cantharum cerevisiaa Neuber- 
gensis. Et ipse dixit, ego volo expectare, sed pareatis 
mihi, et tetegit birretum, et risit hilariter, et portavit M. 
Warmsemmel, et dixit, Ecce, Domine Magister, ne pu- 
tetis quod sum inimicus vester, et bibit in uno anhelitu, 
et M. Warmsemmel respondit ei fortiter pro honore Sle- 
sitarum. Et Magistri omnes fuerunt laeti ; et postea fuit 
pulsatum ad vesperas." 

Advice is asked on the following point : 

" Et scribatis mihi, an est necessariutn ad jeternain 



2- s. vi. 132., JULY 10. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



salutem, quod Scholares cliscunt Grammaticam ex Poetis 
secularibus, sicut est Virgilius, Tullius, Plinius, etalii? 
Videtur mihi, quod non est bonus modus studendi. Quia, 
ut scribit Aristoteles primo Metaphysics, multa men- 
tiuntur poeta3 ; sed qui mentiuntur peccant, et qui fun- 
dant studium suura super mendaciis, fundant illud super 
peccatis." 

The following is an account of the attempts to 
introduce the heathen mythology in a non- 
natural sense : 

" Debetis scire quod ego pro nunc contuli me ad stu- 
dium Heydelbergense, et studeo in Theologia: Sed cum 
hie audio quotidie unam lectionem in Poetria, in qua 
incepi proficere notabiliter de gratia Dei, et jam scio 
mentetenus omnes fabulas Ovidii in Metamorphoseos, et 
scio eas exponere quadrupliciter, scilicet naturaliter, 
literaliter, historialiter, et spiritualiter, quod non sciunt 
isti Poetas seculares. Et nuper interrogavi unura ex illis, 
unde dicitur Mayors; tune dixit mihi unam sententiam 
qua? non fuit vera : sed etiam correxi earn, et dixi, quod 
Mavors dicitur quasi mares varans; et ipse fuit confusus 
.... [accedunt pluria consimilia] ... Ita videtis quod 
isti Poetaa nunc student tantum in sua arte literaliter, et 
non intelligunt allegorias spirituales, quia sunt homines 
carnales; et ut scribit apostolus i. Corinth. 2,, Animalis 

homo non percipit ea quas sunt Spiritus Dei Diana 

significat beatissimam Virginem Mariam, ambulans mul- 
tis virginibus hinc inde. Et ergo de ea scribitur in Psal., 

Adducentur virgines post earn Item de Jove quando 

defloravit Calistonem virginem, et reversus est ad coelum, 
scribitur Matth. 12., Revertar ad domum meam, unde 

exivi De Actaeone vero qui vidit Dianam nudam, 

prophetizavit Ezechiel c. 16. dicens, Eras nuda et confu- 

sione plena, et transivi per te, et vidi te Item fabula 

de Pyramo et Thisbe sic exponitur allegorice et spirit u- 
aliter : Pyramus siguificat filium Dei, et Thisbe significat 
aniinam humanam . . . Et ista est via qua debemus stu- 
dere Poetriam." 

The following is part of a conversation which 
took place in a mixed party of scholars and the- 
ologians : 

"Tune ergo hospes noster, qui est bonus humanista, 
incepit quaedam dicere ex Poetria, ubi laudavit valde 
Caesarem Julium in suis scriptis, et etiam factis. Pro- 
fecto cum hoc audivissem, erat mihi bene adjuvatum, 
quia multa legi et audivi in Poesi a vobis dum fui in 
Colonia, et dixi : Quoniam quidem igitur incepistis loqui 
de Poetria, non potui me longius occultare, et dico sim- 
pliciter, quod non credo Caesarem scripsisse ilia com- 
mentaria, et volo dictum meum roborare hoc argumento, 
quod sic sonat : Quicunque habet negotium in armis et 
continuislaboribus, ille non potest Latinum discere. Sed 
sic est quod Caesar semper fuit in bellis et maximis labo- 
ribus, ergo non potuit esse doctus, vel Latinum discere. 
Reveroputo igitur non aliter quam quod Suetonius scrip- 
sit ista ilia Commentaria, quia nunquam vidi aliquem 
qui magis haberet consimiliorem stilum Cresari, quam 
Suetonius. Postquam ita dixissem, et multa alia verba 
quai hie causa brevitatis omitto, quia ut scitis ex antiquo 
dicterio, Gaudent brevitate moderni : tune risit Erasmus, 
et nihil respondit, quia eum tarn subtili argumentatione 
superavi. Et sic imposuimus iinem collationi, et nolui 
quaestionem meam in medicina proponere, quia scivi 
quod ipse non sciret, cum non sciret mihi solvere illud 
argumentum in poesi, et ipse tamen esset Poeta : et dico 
per Deum quod non est tarn multum ut dicunt de eo, 
non scit plus quam alius homo : in Poesi bene concede 
quod scit pulchrum Latinum dicere." 



The Theologians give frequent specimens of 
| their poetry, as in the following : 

' Et quando disputatio fuit, tune ego in laudem ipsius 
inetrificavi ilia carmina ex tempore, quia ego pro parte 
sum humanista. 

" Hie est unus doctus Magister, 

Qui intimavit bis vel ter 

An esse essentite 

Distinguatur ab esse existentiae ; 

Et de rollationibus, 

Et de praedicamentorum distinctionibus : 

Et utrum Deus in tirmamento 

Sit in aliquo predicamento ; 

Quod nemo fecit ante eum 

Per omnia secula seculorum." 

The following, it must be distinctly stated, is 
an attempt at hexameter and pentameter ; in ho- 
nour of Paulus Langius : 

" Hie liber indignum vexat Jacobum Wimphelingum, 
Langius quern Paulus fecerat mirifice. 
Metrice qui scripsit, etiam quoque rhetoricavit 
Quod omnes artes sunt in cucullatulis, 
Sic quoque Tritemius dixit sic et Eberhardus 
De Campis Voltzius, Paulus et Schuterius. 
Johannes Piemont, Siberti Jacob, Rotger, 
Sicamber, docti cucullatique viri. 
Jam erit confusus Jacobus et omnino trusus 
Wimphelingius, Bebelius, atque ille Gerbelius : 
Sturmius et Spiegel, Lascinius atque Rhenanus, 
Ruserus, Sapidus, Guidaque, Bathodius. 
Omnes hi victi jacent. non audent dicere Guckuck, 
Sic in sacco conclusi VVimphelingiani erunt. 
Non valent in Gra?cis invenire neque Poetis, 
Quod Lango respondeant viro scientifico." 

Two volumes of such matter as this, though 
frequently witty and piquant, are rather difficult 
to get through. Luther acknowledges to Reuch- 
lin that the battle of the scholars and monks was 
a preliminary, and an essential one, to his own 
success : and there is no doubt that the work be- 
fore me was the charge which gained the victory. 
For all this, Sir W. Hamilton, who has spoken 
with more admiration of the letters than any one 
else, could not keep up his attention to the end, 
as the following makes manifest. Erasmus, as we 
have seen, alludes to the mask being thrown off in 
the last letter of the second volume. Hamilton 
says that this probably refers to the last letter but 
one, which, he adds, contains some verses, of which 
he quotes a phrase or two. The verses are as 
follows : 
" Magister Cuculus in Paradise, omni verborum ornatu 

reciso, 

Famosissimo Magistro Ortuino, qui clamat more asinino 
Contra poetas et Latinos, necnon Graecos peregrines, 
Omnium barbarorum defensori, 
Coloniensum praeconi famosiori." 

This is obviously the heading of a letter, but 
the printer has made it the tail of the letter pre- 
ceding. Had Hamilton not been too tired to look 
further, he would have seen that the last letter is 
from this very Cuculus^ and that part of it runs as 
follows : 

" Mirabiles trufas et egregias nequitias audio de vobis 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2- s. vi. 132., jtw 10. 



praedicare, Magister Ortuine, quas unquam in vita mea 
nunquam per Deum Sanctum audivi, quas vos et alii 
Colonienses magistri nostri (curn supportatione) fecistis 
honestissimo et doctissimo viro D. Joanni Reuchlin ; et 
tamen cum audivi, non scivi in tantum mirare, quia cum 
estis bicipites asini, et naturales Philosophi, intenditis 
etiam misere et nebulonice vexare ita pios et doctos viros 
. . . . Et ergo ad furcas cum vobis omnibus, ad quas per- 
ducat vos lictor cum sociis suis, vobis dicentibus orate 
pro nobis." 

The last sentence of this letter, and of the book, 
seems intended to show that the Reuchlinist did 
not put away dirty thoughts when he put off the 
mask of the theologian. 

In another communication I shall make some 
remarks on the history of this satire. 

A. DE MORGAN. 



SWIFTIANA. 



We have heard so much of " Swifticma " lately 
that I am induced to contribute my mite towards 
it. 

Swift, Berkeley, and other distinguished Irish- 
men received no inconsiderable portion of their 
education in the ancient College of Kilkenny. 
The modern building stands on a different site, 
and is, I believe, of altogether a different cha- 
racter. The elder establishment* had been an 
addendum to the Priory of St. John the Baptist. 

The following details were communicated to 
me in 1855 by Alderman Banim of Kilkenny, one 
of the authors of the celebrated O'Hara Tales. I 
afterwards heard that the anecdote had been pub- 
lished in another form ; but I never saw it in 
print, and Alderman Banim believes the facts in 
question to be very little known. 

When the old College of Kilkenny was about 
to be removed the materials were sold by auction. 
A thriving shopkeeper named Barnaby Scott 
purchased the desks, seats, and boards of the 
school-room. On one of the desks was cut the 
name in full JONATHAN SWIFT doubtless with 
Swift's pocket-knife, and by Swift's own hand. Mr. 
Barnaby Scott, solicitor, the son of the purchaser 
of the old desks and boards, died in 1856 ; but pre- 
vious to his death he orally detailed the foregoing 
and the succeeding circumstances to Alderman 
Banim. Mr. Scott distinctly remembered having 
seen the incised autograph when a boy, and added 
that this particular board was, with others of the 
same purchase, used for flooring his father's shop. 
It no doubt still occupies the place wherein it was 
fixed, seventy years ago. The house has been 
lately rebuilt ; but the floor of the shop was not 
removed, and 1 am informed that if any person 
desires to communicate with Mr. Kenny Scott, 
and give him a sum adequate to cover the ex- 

* An accurate and interesting description of the old 
College of Kilkenny appears in John Banim's tale of The 
Fetches. 



pense of the search, the inscribed board of Jona- 
than Swift's desk may, it is more than probable, 
be yet recovered. 

The biographers of Swift tell us that when his 
mother was greatly reduced in circumstances, his 
brother-in-law, William Swift, showed much prac- 
tical kindness and sympathy towards her. 

It would also appear from Lord Orrery's Re- 
marks on the Life and Writings of Swift (p. 16.), 
that William Swift likewise assisted the future 
Dean by " repeated acts of friendship and affec- 
tion." His lordship adds : 

" I have a letter now before me which, though torn and 
imperfect, shows his gratitude and devotion to the uncle 
whom I have just now mentioned, and whom he calls the 
best of his relations." 

As few biographies have been subjected to 
fuller or more trivial illustration than those of 
Dr. Swift, it may interest some of the Dean's ad- 
mirers to trace one of the sources of that income 
on which Uncle William so generously drew when 
Mrs. Swift and her son Jonathan were struggling 
hard against evil fortune. 

The Claims at Chichester House in 1701 (p. 16.) 
records the right of " William Swift of the city of 
Dublin, gent.," to an estate for sixty years by 
lease dated Dec. 26, 1677, formerly belonging to 
Mich. Chamberlain, and situated on " the south 
side of a lane in St. Francis Street, called My 
Lord of Howth's land." Again, at p. 139. we find 
William Swift seised of the estate in fee of Berry- 
more, co. Koscommon, by lease and release dated 
Nov. 29, 1680, from John Campbell and Priscilla 
his wife, formerly the property of L. Flinn and 
Alderman McDermott. Witness John Deane. 

Until the brothers, Godwin, William, Adam, 
and Jonathan Swift (the Dean's father) removed 
from Yorkshire to Ireland, the name of Swift was, 
I believe, unknown in that country ; and from 
various circumstances I infer that the "Wm. 
Swift, Gent." who figures in the Claims at Chi- 
chester House was the generous uncle of the poet 
Swift. 

The book referred to is very scarce. The last 
copy offered for sale in Dublin was at the late Mr. 
Justice Burton's auction, and fetched the high 
price of 41. 4s. 

An old woman lately died in St. Patrick Street 
at the advanced age of one hundred and ten years. 
A friend of mine asked her if she remembered the 
appearance of the celebrated Dean of St. Patrick. 
She described it to him minutely, and added that 
the great man never went outside the deanery 
house that he was not attended through the 
streets by a vast crowd of washed and unwashed 
admirers. WILLIAM JOHN FITZ-PATRICK. 

Stillorgan, Dublin. 



2nd S . VI. 132., JULY 10. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



ARMS Or SELKIRK, SCOTLAND. 

In Chambers's Picture of Scotland may^be read 
the following tradition regarding the origin of the 
arras of the burgh of Selkirk : 

" A band of Selkirk burgesses, eight}' in number, be- 
haved Avith great gallantry at Flodden, from which they 
brought home a pennon, said to have belonged to one of 
the Percy family, which is still preserved by the deacon 
of the Corporation of Weavers. William Brydone, the 
Town-Clerk, who headed this band, was knighted by the 
King, on the field of battle, in consideration of his emi- 
nent bravery. As the party was returning, they found, 
by the side of Ladywood Edge, the body of a female, the 
wife of one of their number, who had fallen: she had 
come forth, in the hope of meeting her husband, but, 
spent with cold and hunger, had died by the way, and 
her child was still endeavouring to draw sustenance from 
her breast. In memor}' of this touching incident, the 
town still bears for its arms the figure of a lady with a 
child in her arms, seated on a sarcophagus decorated 
with the Scottish lion, a wood in the background." 

When at Selkirk, a few years ago, I observed 
on some of the public buildings the arms as de- 
scribed in this notice, and I felt satisfied that they 
were of an older date than that ascribed to them, 
being of a mediaeval ecclesiastical character, evi- 
dently a representation of the Virgin and Infant 
Christ : I therefore, when in Edinburgh shortly 
afterwards, asked Mr. Henry Laing to supply 
me, from his very rich collection of ancient 
Scottish seals, with a cast of the earliest one he 
had of Selkirk. He gave me one (the original of 
which is appended to an indenture of the year 
1426) exactly corresponding to the above de- 
scription and the sculpture at Selkirk, and being 
of a date of (at least) eighty : seven years prior to 
the battle of Flodden. It proves that the arms 
were not taken on that occasion, though the anec- 
dote connected with that event may in course of 
time have been applied to the arms. A descrip- 
tion of the seal may be found in Laing's valuable 
Catalogue of Antient Scottish Seals, p. 215., No. 
1187. W. C. TREVELYAN. 



SECOND-SIGHT AND SUPERNATURAL WARNINGS. 

All ghost stories have a strange fascination 
about them ; and the various corroborations which 
certain well-known tales of this class have re- 
ceived in the pages of " N. & Q.," suggest to me a 
kindred topic, respecting a belief which is said to 
be peculiar to the inhabitants of mountainous 
countries. I allude to what is called second-sight ; 
connected with which are certain supernatural 
warnings with reference to approaching death, to 
which it is difficult to assign a defined name. The 
county of Pembroke is rife with tales of this class ; 
many of them depending upon such trustworthy 
evidence, as to compel the mind to refuse to dis- 
miss them altogether as unworthy of credit ; and 
yet, at the same time, it is difficult to understand 



the object of such interferences with the ordinary 
course of events. I might easily, were I so dis- 
posed, fill an entire number of this periodical with 
authentic records (as far as the evidence of the 
senses may be relied on), which can scarcely be 
referred to the ordinary theory of coincidences. 
From the many stories of the class which I have 
indicated, I may perhaps be allowed to select a 
few ; for the authenticity of which I can vouch s 
either from having heard them from the parties 
to whom they actually occurred, or from having 
been myself an actor in the scene, Many years 
ago, seven or eight members of the family of my 
paternal grandfather were seated at the door of 
his house on a fine summer evening, between the 
hours of eight and nine o'clock. The parish church 
and its yard are only separated from the spot by 
a brook and a couple of meadows. The family 
happened to be looking in the direction of the 
churchyard, when they were amazed by witness- 
ing the advent of a funeral procession. They saw 
the crowd, and the coffin borne on men's shoulders 
come down the pathway towards the church, but 
the distance was too great to enable them to re- 
cognise the face of any of the actors in the scene. 
As the funeral cortege neared the church porch, 
they distinctly saw the clergyman, with whom they 
were personally acquainted, come out in his surplice 
to meet the mourners, and saw him precede them 
into the church. In a short time they came out, 
and my relatives saw them go to a particular part 
of the yard, where they remained for a time long 
enough to allow the remainder of the supposed 
funeral rites to be performed. Greatly amazed at 
what he beheld, my grandfather sent over to the 
church to inquire who had been buried at that 
unusual hour. The messenger returned with the 
intelligence that no person had been buried during 
that day, nor for several days before. A short 
time after this, a neighbour died, and was buried 
in the precise spot where the phantom interment 
was seen. My mother's father lived on the banks 
of one of the many creeks or pills with which the 
beautiful harbour of Milford Haven is indented. 
In front of the house is a large court, built on a 
quay wall to protect it from the rising tide. In 
this court my mother was walking one fine evening, 
rather more than sixty years ago, enjoying the 
moonlight, and the balmy summer breeze. The 
tide was out, so that the creek was empty. Sud- 
denly my mother's attention was aroused by hear- 
ing the sound of a boat coming up the pill. The 
measured dip of the oars in the water, and the 
noise of their revolution in the rowlocks, were 
distinctly audible. Presently she heard the keel 
of the boat grate on the gravelly .beach by the side 
of the quay wall. Greatly alarmed, as nothing was 
visible, she ran into the house, and related what 
she had heard. A few days afterwards, the mate 
of an East Indiaman, which had put into Milford 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



< S. VI. 132., JULY 10. '58. 



Haven for the purpose of undergoing repair, died 
on board ; and his coffined corpse was brought up 
the pill, and landed at the very spot where my 
mother heard the phantom boat touch the ground. 

Some years ago a friend of mine, a clergyman 
resident in the city of St. David's, who was the 
vicar of a rural parish, had a female parishioner 
who was notorious as a seer of phantom funerals. 
When my friend used to go out to his Sunday 
duty, this old woman would accost him frequently 

with "Ay, ay, Mr. vach. you'll be here of a 

week day soon, for I saw a funeral last night." 
Upon one occasion the clergyman asked her, 
** Well, Molly, have you seen a funeral lately?" 

" Ay, ay, Mr. vach" was the reply, " I saw 

one a night or two ago, and I saw you as plainly 
as I see you now ; and you did what I never saw 
you do before." " What was that ? " inquired my 
friend. " Why," replied the old woman, " as you 
came out of the church to meet the funeral you 
stooped down, and appeared to pick something off 
the ground ! " " Well," thought my friend to 
himself, " I'll try, Molly, if I cannot make a liar 
of you for once." Some little time after this con- 
versation occurred, my friend was summoned to a 
burial in his country parish, Molly and her vati- 
cinations having entirely passed from his memory. 
He rode on horseback, and was rather late. Hastily 
donning his surplice, he walked out to meet the 
funeral procession. As he emerged from the 
church porch, his surplice became entangled in 
his spur ; and as he stooped down to disengage it, 
the old woman and her vision flashed across his 
recollection. "Molly was right, after all," said 
he to himself, as he rose up and walked on. 

In the year 1838 I was on a visit to my parents, 
who at that time resided on the spot on which my 
mother was born, and where she passed the latter 
years of her life. Within a short distance of the 
house stood a large walled garden, which was ap- 
proached through a gate leading into a stable- 
yard. From underneath the garden wall bubbled 
a well of delicious spring water, from whence the 
domestic offices were supplied. It was a custom 
of the family, in the summer time, that the water 
for the use of the house should be brought in late 
in the evening, in order that it might be cool ; 
and it was the duty of a servant to go out with a 
yoke and a couple of pails to fetch the water, just 
before the time of closing up the house for the 
night. One evening the girl had gone out for this 
purpose. The night was beautifully fine ; the 
moon shining so brightly that the smallest object 
was distinctly visible. The servant had not been 
absent many minutes, when she ran into the house 
without her burden, and, throwing herself into a 
chair in a state of extreme terror, fainted away. 
Restoratives having been used she recovered a 
little, and upon being questioned as to the cause 
of her alarm, she told us that as she was stooping 



over the well, about to fill one of her pails, she 
suddenly found herself in the midst of a crowd of 
people, who were carrying a coffin, which they 
had set down at the gate of the stable-yard. As 
she had received no intimation of the approach of 
the concourse by any sound of footsteps, she was 
greatly alarmed ; and as the object borne by the 
throng did not tend to tranquillise her nerves, 
she took to her heels, leaving her pails behind 
her. As no persuasion could induce her to return 
to the well, I offered to do so for her, and to as- 
certain the cause of her terror. When I arrived 
at the stable-yard there was neither coffin nor 
crowd to be seen ; and upon asking a neighbour 
whose cottage commanded a view of the well 
whether she had seen a funeral go by, she put a 
stop to any farther inquiry, by asking me " Who 
had ever heard of a funeral at ten o'clock at 
night?" To which pertinent query I could only 
reply by stating what the servant professed to 
have seen. So the matter rested for a fe\v weeks, 
when there occurred an unusually high tide in 
Milford Haven. The water rose far above the 
level of the ordinary springs ; filling the creek, 
and flowing into the court in front of the house, 
it only ebbed when it had reached the door. 
The roadway at the end of the pill was impass- 
able. A person having died on the opposite side 
of the inlet a few days before this, the funeral 
took place on the morning of the high tide ; and 
as it was impossible to take the corpse to the 
parish church by the usual route, the bearers 
crossed the pill in a boat with the coffin, and 
having laid it down at the gate of our stable-yard 
remained there until the boat could bring over 
the remainder of the funer.al concourse. 

In the year 1848 I returned to my home, after 
an absence of some years. A few days after my 
arrival, I took a walk one morning in the yard of 
one of our parish churches, through which there is 
a right of way for pedestrians. My object was a 
twofold one ; firstly, to enjoy the magnificent 
prospect visible from that elevated position ; and, 
secondly, to see whether any of my friends or ac- 
quaintances who had died during my absence 
were buried in the locality. After gazing around 
me for a short time, I sauntered on, looking at 
one tombstone and then at another, when my at- 
tention was arrested by an altar-tomb enclosed 
within an iron railing. I walked up to it, and 
read an inscription which informed me that it was 

in memory of Colonel . This gentleman had 

been the Assistant Poor Law Commissioner for 
South Wales ; and while on one of his periodical 
tours of inspection he was seized with apoplexy 
in the workhouse of my native town, and died in 
a few hours. This was suggested to my mind as 
I read the inscription on the tomb ; as the melan- 
choly event occurred during the period of my 
absence, and I was only made cognizant of the 



2nd S. VI. 132., JULY 10. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



fact through the medium of the local press. Not 

being acquainted with the late Colonel , and 

never having even seen him, the circumstances of 
his sudden demise had long passed from my me- 
mory, and were only revived by my thus viewing 
his tomb. I then passed on, and shortly after- 
wards returned home. On my arrival my father 
asked me in what direction I had been walking ? 

I replied, ' In churchyard, looking at the 

tombs ; and among others I have seen the tomb 

of Colonel , who died in the workhouse." 

" That," replied my father, " is impossible, as 

there is no tomb erected over Colonel 's 

grave." At this remark I laughed. "My dear 
father," said I, " you want to persuade me that I 

cannot read. I was not aware that Colonel 

was buried in the churchyard, and was only in- 
formed of the fact by reading the inscription on 
the tomb." " Whatever you may say to the con- 
trary," replied my father, "what I tell you is true; 
there is no tomb over Colonel 's grave." As- 
tounded by the reiteration of this statement, as 
soon as I had dined I returned to the churchyard, 
and again inspected all the tombs having railings 
round them, and found that my father was right. 
There was not only no tomb bearing the name of 
Colonel , but there was no tomb at all corre- 
sponding in appearance with the one which I had 
seen. Unwilling to credit the evidence of my 
own senses, I went to the cottage of an old ac- 
quaintance of my boyhood, who lived outside of 
the churchyard gate, and asked her to show me 

the place where Colonel lay buried. She 

took me to the spot, which was a green mound, 
undistinguished in appearance from the surround- 
ing graves. Nearly two years subsequent to this 
occurrence, surviving relatives erected an altar- 
tomb, with a railing round it, over the last resting- 
place of Colonel , and it was, as nearly as I 

could remember, an exact reproduction of the 
memorial of my day-dream. 

I do not attempt to account, on rational or phi- 
losophical principles, for any of the occurrences 
which I have narrated. I have merely made a 
plain unvarnished statement of facts, leaving it to ' 
others to draw their own deductions or inferences I 
therefrom. Of course the theory of coincidences 
is an easy mode of severing any Gordian knot ; 
and the cui bono argument may serve as an ad- ' 
junct to the former mode of settling a difficulty. : 
But at the same time the numberless anecdotes of 
a class similar to those which I have imperfectly 
endeavoured to relate, all resting upon unim- 
peachable testimony, must make the thoughtful 
pause, and ask themselves, in the language of our 
master-poet, 

" Can such things be, 

And overcome us like a summer cloud 

Without our special wonder?" 

JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

ILiverfordwest. 



I 

ANDERSON PAPERS. NO. II. 
(i.) Patrick Ellis, Esq., to James Anderson, Esq. 

" Dear Brother, 

" Yours lately, beyond the course of the post, brought 
me the sad news of my dear sister's death, which is a 
great loss to us all, especially to myself; but I believe our 
loss is her gain, being infinitely more happy than she 
could have been with us. A good life must needs make 
a good end, as she discover'd to the last. My wife was 
much affected by her death as well as myselfe : I pray 
God give us the sanctify'd use of all his dispensations. I 
should be glad to hear of your wife's recovery and chil- 
dren's health. My wife and children are all" well, blest 
be the Lord ; so returning my hearty respects, I remain 
" Yo r affectionate Brother and 
" humble Servant, 

" PA. ELMS." 

" This letter is sent enclos'd to me from a 
Prisoner in France not knowing how to 
send it : gett the Postadge, and if he 
pleases to remit me any money I will 
forward it to his brother." 
"London, 15 August, 1705. 

"To 
Mr. James Anderson, 

Writer to her Maisties 
Signet, at his house in Edinburgh." 

Mr. Ellis was a son of Mr. Ellis of Ellieston in 
Scotland; his sister was the wife of Anderson. 
She was apparently a lady of a somewhat violent 
temper, and the husband and wife lived for some 
time separate. 

It is not improbable that the writer of the 
letter may have been a progenitor of the family 
of Ellis which in this century obtained the honour 
of the peerage as Barons Seaford. 

(2.) Mr. Thomas Brand to James Anderson, Esq. 

Of Mr. Thomas Brand very little is known ex- 
cepting what may be gathered from the few letters 
preserved amongst the Anderson papers. He does 
not appear to have been in very opulent circum- 
stances, as in one of his epistles he alludes to the 
circumstance of his keeping lodgers, amongst 
whom he notices Sir David Dalrymple and his 
wife, who remained a week with him ; and he men- 
tions a " Sir William Gordon of Dalfolley, who 
came and saw the lodgings, and said you [Ander- 
son] told him he might have my dining-room floor 
for fourteen shillings a week, and therefore bid 
me no more but fifteen, and so we parted." 

In another letter he says that Mr. Holmes "tells 
me there are severall things in the Tower, amongst 
the records relating to the family of Athol, which 
I design if possible to procure a transcript of, for 
such documents will very much illustrate my 
work." "Again (27 Nov. 1708), he is anxious 
about the pedigree of Affleck of Woodcocdale in 
Angus, he having taken "a premium" to procure 
it, from " the grandchild to one Mr. Affleck who 
was minister of Largo in Fife. That minister's 
grandfather was one Sir John Affleck, a man 
famous about the time of the Reformation," 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. vi. 132., JULY 10. '58. 



" Whitehall, Decem* 18 th , 1705. 
" My dearest Friend, 

" I am to acquaint you of the dispatch of your com- 
mands, which I delivered in to the carrier on Friday last, 
and Avent off from hence yesterday morning by Chris- 
topher Burrell for Newcastle, directed for Mr. Thos. 
Stephenson, merchant on the Bridge, to whom I have 
written by this post. And I do assure you greater dis- 
patch could not be made; for in the first place Mr. 
Campbell told me he could not procure the books, so as 
to be sent you on the Monday after I received yours ; 
and as for the plates, Mr. Collingswood told me that he 
could not possibly get them ready to come off at the time 
you desired, no, not the four large ones, but promised 
they should all be ready to come off the Monday there- 
after, and therefore I thought it might be most con- 
venient to send them altogether. The whole charge 
amounts to 14Z. 10s. Od., and the exchange Mr. Bowden 
reckoned at 13 p. cent, made thirty-seven shillings and 
seven pence, making my bill I drew on Mr. George War- 
render * to amount in the whole to 16Z 07s. 07d. at eight 
days' sight. I have observed your directions in every 
particular as near as possible, except the paper, which is 
something longer than your size ; but I am sure it is im- 
periall, and the finest sort. I never bought any of it 
before by the quire, but have frequently had single 
sheets, for which I always gave sixpence a sheet. 

" I have took the freedom to send down in the box with 
your things a calico gown and pettycoat my sister Lilly 
made in Scotland the first time she was there, and left it 
behind her when she was in London last ; therefore I hope 
'twill give no manner of trouble tho' it should be seen 
by the Custom-house officers, seeing my sister can de- 
clare upon her oath that it was made and worn by her in 
Scotland near 2 years ago. As for the expences, I charge 
to your account. I do assure you, my dear Friend, if it 
had been my own affair it could not have been less ; the 
weather here having been (and still is) so intollerably 
bad that 'twas not possible to stirr without having a 
coach, and sometimes no venturing abroad tho' in a 
coach. 

" Dr. Hicks' Book is in two volumes, large folio (tho' 
as I understand not of the largest that was printed). 
Mr. Campbell charged me for them in quires three gui- 
neas, two shillings the binding, and eightpence postage, 
in all SI. 15s. 02J., which I paid him. I have bespoke 
another sett of copperplates, to be sent by sea according 
to direction, either to Newcastle or Leith, which Mr. Col- 
lingswood promised to get ready as soon as possible, 
which I hope may amount much to the same value of 
those sent you now 

" Since my last to you I have been to wait upon Dr. 
Gibson f, who is now come from the Bishop's family, and 

* An Edinburgh tradesman. He was one of thebaillies, 
and latterly Lord Provost, of Edinburgh. He was created 
a Baronet by George I., and represented the Scotish me- 
tropolis in the British parliament until the period of his 
demise. He was twice married, 1st, to Margaret Lawrie, 
and 2nd, to Grizel Blair, both ladies being daughters of 
Edinburgh citizens, by both of whom he had issue. The 
late Right Hon. Sir George Warrender was his great- 
grandson. 

f Edmund Gibson, who became Bishop of Lincoln in 
1716. He was translated in 1723 to London, and held 
that see until 1748, when he was succeeded by Thomas 
Sherlock. Bishop Gibson was the editor of the Saxon 
Chronicle, an edition which now is held in little esti- 
mation. He also is said, but with what truth we know 
not, to have printed an edition of that clever but not very 
delicate production, the Poleino-Medinia of William 
Drummond. 



lives at his own house in Lambeth, he being the preacher 
of that Church. He is truly a most courteous and discreet 
gentleman, and expresses a very great esteem for you, 
and says he's ashamed, as often as he thinks of you, be- 
cause he has not written to you since he received j'our 
Book*, which he commends extremely; only he says 
that if he had known when you was here that your de- 
sign was to write on that subject, he would have given 
you a more just account of some persons you mention in 
your book, whose character here does not come up to that 
you have been pleas'd in your good-nature to give them. 
In answer to which I told him, that that was an error on 
the right side, for 'twas more commendable to say more 
of men than they deserved, than to detract from them 
any thing of their due. He confess'd it was so, and very 
much applauded your performances, and said it has cer- 
tainly done a great deal of good service to both nations, 
tho' he does believe that Attwood will still write on to 
the end of the chapter ; but says he would advise you to 
be at no further trouble in answering him, and so we 
parted, he obliging me to call upon him again, in order to 
let him know where he might see me, for just then I was 
not fully settled in a lodging. 

" I had almost forgott to tell you that Mr. Archibald 
Campbell told me, that there are some persons here about 
to reprint your book, and I told him that I thought it 
was your design to send hither about 200 copies of them, 
and he wished it might be so, and that they might be 
sent very speedily, because that would put a stop to the 
design of reprinting ; and my dear Friend I have nothing 
more to add, but to tell you that I am, and ever shall be, 
" Yours most affectionately, 

" THOMAS." 

The particulars of the account are appended ; 
but as there is nothing very curious in them they 
have been omitted. 

(3.) James Anderson, Esq., to [James Campbell, Esq., of 
Cawdor?^ 

"Elgin, 16 March, 1716. 
" Sir, 

" I have no news to send you from this county, but 
that Sir John Maclean dyed at Focabers, Sunday last, 
and among his last words cursed the Pretender and Mar, 
and blessed God he was to dye in his bed, and not on a 
gibbet. Huntly has gone throw this town. 

" My son, whose hand I have used in this, offers his 
most humble service. 

"P.S. Just now I have a letter of the 16 th instant from 
Elgin, which says on the postscript that Sir Hugh is 
dead. I expect Breaden, Grant, and Culloden here to- 
morrow, who are coming as commissioners for the county. 
I'll be fully informed by them, and write you by next 
post. The executors will be very easy when the young 
gentleman comes to the possession of the whole estate. 

* Historical Essay : shewing that the Crown and King- 
dom of Scotland is Imperial and Independant. Edinburgh, 
1703, 8vo. The copy in the library of the Faculty of 
Advocates formerly belonged to the Hon. Archibald Camp- 
bell, afterwards a Scotish Episcopalian Bishop ; and the 
following note in his handwriting is engrossed on the 
boards : 

" A very valuable book, bateing the Petition of Right, 
or Pacta Conventa, of Fergus the First. All the records 
cited bv that Author are in the possession of the English. 

"What just Historians they are who after this go on 
still with their old cry, any impartial man may judge." 

f From a draft in the handwriting of Anderson. Mr. 
Campbell was the direct ancestor of the Earl of Cawdor. 
Anderson was his law agent. 



-s. vi. m, JULY io. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



29 



I have also just now a line from her Grace of Argyle, 
who writes me, a gentleman that is Sir Hugh's neigh- 
bour told her two days [before] that he was dead." 

J. M. 



Inscription at Auld-Field House, Glasgow. The 
following is an inscription on the chimney-piece of 
the kitchen in Auld-Field House, in the near neigh- 
bourhood of Glasgow, and formerly the seat, as it is 
still in the possession, of the Maxwells, Baronets of 
Poliok. Its quaintness, as well as the holy truth 
embodied in it, give it a title to be registered in 
"N. & Q.": 

" THE BODIE FOR THE SAVL WAS FRAMD THIS HOVS THE 

BODIE FOR ; 

IN HEAVN FOR BOTH MY PLACE IS NAMD IN BLISS MY 
GOD T ADORE." 

I may mention that the chimney-piece on which 
the above inscription is written is in the oldest 
part of the building, which was plainly a square 
tower or fortalice of that peculiar architecture 
prevalent in the old Scottish castles, the ruins of 
which are everywhere to be seen both in the Low- 
lands and Highlands. The exact date I have not 
been able to ascertain, but its structure proclaims 
it to be very old. M. GREGOR. 

" Nopen" In some parts of Staffordshire a 
Bullfinch is called a Nopen. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

Wasbrough v. Watt: The 'Steam Engine and 
Rotatory Motion. It has been usual to ascribe 
the invention of everything great in relation to 
the steam-engine to the immortal James Watt of 
Birmingham, and amongst other contrivances that 
of producing a continuous motion by means of the 
crank and fly-wheel. From his own account of 
the invention he attempts to show, somewhat dis- 
ingenuously as I think, that the honour is cer- 
tainly due to himself; but that neglecting to take 
out a patent for it, his method was communicated 
by a workman to some one else, who forestalled 
him in his intention. All this may appear very 
well upon the surface, but what are the facts ? If 
the reader will carefully read Mr. Watt's state- 
ment, he will find that from the year 1769, 
through some ten subsequent years, he was en- 
gaged making various experiments to produce the 
wished-for result a continuous motion but 
without effect ; at the end of which time Matthew 
Wasbrough, of this city, " erected (as Mr. Watt 
says) one of his ratchet-wheel engines at Birming- 
ham, the frequent breakages and irregularities of 
which recalled the subject to his mind ;" and he 
then says that he made a model of his method, 
which answered his expectation. Why, then, did 
he not take out a patent for it immediately, in- 
stead of waiting until 1781 ? The truth is, that 



Matthew Wasbrough had preceded him in the in- 
vention by nearly three years, having patented 
his contrivance early in 1779, and to him. belongs 
the honour of producing a continuous rotatory 
motion in relation to the steam-engine, and not to 
James Watt, as is too generally believed. 

GEORGE PRYCE. 
Bristol City Library. 

Major Andre. In the account of the disinter- 
ment of Major Andre's remains in 1821, written 
by Mr. Buchanan, the British Consul at New 
York, and published in the United Service Journal 
for November, 1833, that gentleman, after stating 
that no metal buttons were found in the coffin, 
comes to the conclusion that Andre's body was 
stripped by the Americans, which he styles an 
" outrage " to be " blazoned to the world." 

Dr. Thatcher of the American army, who had 
been present at the execution of Andre thereupon 
published a communication upon the subject in 
the New England Magazine for May, 1834, in 
which he asserts that Andre's uniform and other 
effects were given to his servant. " Mr. Bu- 
chanan accepted the correction, and declared that 
it should be inserted in the United Service Journal, 
in which his own statement had appeared." It is 
said that this was neglected. 

See Mr. Charles J. Biddle's " Lecture on the 
Case of Major Andre," recently published by the 
Historical Society in a volume of Contributions to 
American History. (1858.) UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Expenses of Presentation to a Living in 1683. 
Perhaps it may not be uninteresting to the readers 
of "N. & Q." to see a list of the expenses incurred 
on the presentation and institution to a living in 
the gift of the Lord Keeper Guilford in the year 
1683. The living was in one of our northern 
cities, and was held in plurality : 

s. d. 

" Imp. ffor the broad Seal - - -826 

A gratuity to my Sollicitor - - 3 4 6 

Efor Institution - - - - 4 3 

Ffor Induction - - - - 13 4 

Ffor a license to Preach - - - 15 

To the Secretary Atkinson's Man - 2 6 

To the Butlers - - - 2 

To the Porter - - - - 1 

TotheGroomes - - 1 

Ffor a Sequestration and Relaxation - 1 3 10 
Spent at Induction - - 1 



In all 



-18 9 8" 



Bentlei/s Emendations on Milton. The follow- 
ing lines written about the time of the appearance 
of Bentley's Emendations on Milton have never, I 
believe, appeared in print. The initials of the au- 
thor, or rather the compiler of the volume, would 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. vi. 132., JULY 10. '58. 



seem to have been W. O. ; perhaps William Oldis- 
worth, some of whose poems are inserted. 

To Dr. Bentley, on his licentious and conceited 

alterations of Milten. 

" Milton's intemperate studies oft by night, 
Did but deprive him of organic sight ; 
Thou hast obscured the rays of his bright mind, 
And now the book is like the author blind." 

On Milton's Executioner. 

"Did Milton's prose, Charles, thy death defend: 
A furious foe unconscious proves a friend. 
On Milton's verse does Bentley comment? know 
A weak officious friend becomes a foe ; 
While he would seem his author's fame to further, 
The murderous critic has avenged thy murther." 

CL. HOPPER. 



catteries?. 

OLD BIBLE. 

I have a 4to Bible which belonged to Queen 
Elizabeth, about which I am desirous of informa- 
tion. It is in black-letter type, in double columns, 
with marginal references, and having each leaf (not 
each page) marked in Roman letters and nume- 
rals thus: "Folio I.," &c., and a running title at 
the top of each page. The verses are not numbered 
or separated ; but the chapters are divided into 
paragraphs, with Roman capitals in the margins at 
irregular intervals, and not according to the para- 
graphs. Eve is called "Heva," and the first 
word of Genesis, chapters xxxi. and xxxii., is 
"Bwt," with innumerable other variations from 
the authorised version. The letterpress measures 
G by 4f inches. I do not find any semicolon in 
the punctuation ; but there is a thin stroke (/) 
which is sometimes used as a parenthesis, and also 
as a comma, or to mark a pause. Numbers is 
" Numeri," and the 25th verse of chapter xxi. 
[xxii.] reads, " she wrenched unto the wall." The 
"Psalter," &c., and the Prophets are in "the 
thirde parte of the Byble," which has a separate 
title, inclosed in an architectural border; having 
in the base a shield, containing a tall monogram 
(a printer's or engraver's mark), the base of which 
is a broad A with a cross at the top, surmounted 
by a C, through which rises (from the A) an up- 
right line, having a cross above the C ; and from 
its point a line is deflected to the right-hand. 
In this "Thirde parte" the Canticles is entitled, 
" The Ballet of Ballettes of Salomon," &c., and 
Obadiah " Abdy." The Apocrypha (there called 
" Hagiogropha ") has a separate title, with the 
same border as that to " The thirde parte." Its 
first books are called "The thirde and fourth I 
bookes" of Esdras, being the same as are called 1st j 
and 2nd Esdras in our common version ; and it \ 
ends with 2nd " Machabees," having at the bottom i 
of each column a good woodcut, one representing j 
John preaching in the wilderness, with his bap- ' 



tizing Christ in the background ; and the other, 
the good Samaritan, with the Priest and Levite 
passing by. 

^The first chapter of most of the books begins 
with an ornamented Roman capital, but all the 
other chapters with a plain one. Each separate 
book runs on from the last chapter of the previous 
book. "The Revelacion" ends with first column 
of a page, and the second column begins with "A 
Table to fynde the Epystles and Ghospelles," &c., 
which table is continued on the next page. 

The title-page of the Bible is lost, but that of 
the Testament is perfect, having a grotesque bor- 
der, in the top of which is a woodcut of the last 
supper, and at the bottom is another of Judas be- 
traying Christ. But in no part of the volume is 
there any intimation of the printer's name, where 
printed, or its date. 

On the (once) blank page at the back of the 
last page of the Bible, and facing the title-page of 
the New Testament, is the autograph " ELIZA. - 
BETHE REGINA," with her usual lengthened tail of 
the " z " in " Elizabethe," and of the "A" in "Re- 
gina," as also her more elaborate flourish from the 
tail of the " R " in " Regina." Below this, in the 
same handwriting and ink, is "Testamentu Novu 
p. (probably for pro or per), followed by a word, 
the first letter of which is an intricate flourished 
capital (probably a T), and the letters " desbia," 
as I read them ; the tail of the last letter being 
also elongated exactly like that at the end of 
"Regina." 

Perhaps what I have said may lead to an iden- 
tification of the edition, &c., and an explanation 
of the MS. writing; but I also enclose photo- 
graphs, half the size of the originals, of 1. The 
title- page of " The thirde parte," for the sake of 
the monogram ; 2. The last page of the Bible ; 3. 
The blank leaf on which is the autograph name 
and writing ; 4. The title-page of the New Testa- 
ment. 

The Bible, &c., is bound up between two black- 
letter prayer-books ; that at the end being the 
prayer-book of 1559, with its rubricated title ; 
that at the beginning is imperfect and without a 
title, and has not the Collects, Epistles, and Gos- 
pels, but the Litany with a few prayers called 
" suffrages." " Quene Elizabethe " is prayed for 
in both. 

The binding was before 1697, which is the date 
under the autograph of " RicbA Legg" on the 
fly-leaf. 

If MR. OFFOR will be so kind as to give his 
opinion of the edition and MS. writing, and say 
whether it would be acceptable to the British 
Museum, he will oblige P. H. F. 

[Mr. OFFOR has kindly forwarded the following re- 
ply: 

" From the very accurate description which R. H. F. has 
given of his Bible, it agrees with Ca wood's edition of Crau* 



2" S. VI. 132., JULY 10. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



mer's text, in which, if he had the last or second leaf of 
the Table, he would find this inscription : ' Imprinted at 
London in Povvles Churcheyarde, by Jhon Cawoode, 
Prynter to the Quenes Maiestie Anno MDLXI. Cum 
Priuilegio Regise Maiestatis.' The title-page also bears 
the date 1561. MR. F., in the first word of Gen. xxxi. 
and xxxii., has mistaken a capital 5S (U) for a \V, and 
his quotation from Numeri xxi. should be xxii. He will 
also find that Gen. xi. and xiiii., and many other chapters, 
begin with Gothic capitals. The width of the page at 
the head line is five inches. In a perfect state this book 
is extremely rare. My copy is remarkably perfect ; that 
in the Museum wants the title. Of the autograph I am 
no judge, but it is doubtful whether the Queen would in- 
scribe her name on the last leaf of the Apocrypha. It is 
a very different signature to what I have on the last leaf 
of Tyndale's Obedience 'Elizabeth, daughter Angli 
Franc.' As the British Museum has a copy equally per- 
fect it would only encumber its shelves, unless the au- 
tograph could be identified. The Prayer-Book of 1559 
might be a most desirable acquisition. It is very rare 
and interesting. It is not uncommon to find royal names 
handsomely inscribed on blank pages and margins of 
books by scrivenors, in practising to write them hand- 
somely in the commencement of deeds with elaborate 
flourishes. GEORGE OFFOR."] 



Shahspeare's Will. As a fac- simile is forbidden 
by the regulations of the office, could not the 
matter be compromised by photograms of the 
will in its present state ? It is said to be " very 
much the worse for wear," and surely it might be 
photographed without the slightest risk. As late 
administrations have done much for literature, a 
few words from you, MR. EDITOR, might influence 
" the powers that be " to let Shakspeare's scho- 
lars have a copy of their master's will. ESTE. 

Wallinges and Leads. The meaning of these 
words, which are found upon documents con- 
nected with the salt works in Cheshire, does not 
appear to have descended to the present inhabi- 
tants. 

In "A Just Note of the number of the salt house 
in Northwych, anno xxxv. Eliz.," this passage oc- 
curs : 

"There is and hath been time out of mind within the 
Town of Northwych fyvescore and twelve, four leades and 
one odd leade and no more, but four leades of wallinges 
called the riming wickhouse ; so the total sum is fyve- 
score and thirteen four leades and one odd leade, which 
stand in towne rowe," &c. 

Also in a survey of the wallinges in Northwych, 
anno 1606 : 

"Peter Venables, Esq. and Julius Winnington, gen., 
have one Bay of building called the Lead Smithy wherein 
the occupiers of walling do usually cast their leads ; the 
Lords of the lead smithy do from time to time, when need 
shall require, mainteine the house in good reparacon, and 
provide a good and sufficient pan to melt the occupiers' 
lead in, and in lieu thereof have the lead dishes and proffits 
thereof; the leadcaster hath a halfpenny every lead he 
casteth ; the mould is continually mainteined by the 
Towne, They pay yearly in chief rent ij 8 ." 



Halliwell's Archaic Dictionary gives the word 
" lead-walling, the brine of twenty- four hours' 
boiling for one house. 

" Wallers, women who rake the salt out of the 
leads at the salt-works. Also walle, to boil." 

Would the word wallinges here bear the inter- 
pretation of boiling-houses, and the leads, leaden 
pans for evaporating the brine, instead of iron 
ones, as in use at the present day ? What is the 
meaning of riming. CL. HOPPER. 

A Geological Inquiry. I am anxious to know 
whether it be a demonstrable fact, that any human 
remains have been found prior to the supposed 
first appearance of Adam, that is, about 6000 
years ago ? I see it " taken for granted " that 
men have lived on our globe fifty-seven thousand 
years. This is a puzzler to me, who am only a 
humble inquirer in a much-loved science. In one 
of your contemporaries ( The Critic, of June 19, 
p. 314.) I read as follows : 

" Some recent geological discoveries by Lyell, Agassiz, 
and other eminent men, in the valley of the Mississippi, 
have demonstrated that for 57,000 years, at least, human 

beings have been dwelling there Discoveries of 

this kind, carrying us so far back, make it impossible to 
say when the belief of immortality first arose." 

The above remarks appear in a lengthened re- 
view of Lessing's book on The Education of the 
Human Race. The object of my inquiry is to 
learn whether these things are so, or not. If the 
former, where I can read of them ; for it is de- 
lightful to get as complete a view of the past ages 
as possible. Natural science and the Word of 
God, we know, never contradict one another. 
Theology is one thing, truth and religion are an- 
other. Being of one sweet accord, these last court 
inquiry, and shine the brighter the more fre- 
quently they are examined. For truth only needs 
to be for once spoke out, 

*' And there's such music in her, such strange rhythm, 
As makes men's memories her joyous slaves, 
And cling around the soul, as the sky clings 
Round the mute earth, for ever beautiful." 

W. K. 

Mrs. Boulstred.Wh*t is known of this lady? 
Dr. Donne has written two Elegies on her (Poems, 
edit. 1654, pp. 254. 259.). She is also, under the 
name of " The Court Pucelle," the subject of an 
epigram by Ben Jonson (Works, by Gifford, viii. 
437.) ; and is alluded to in the following passages 
in Ben Jonson s Conversations with William Drum- 
mond, published by the Shakspeare Society : 

" He read a satyre of a lady come from the Bath ; 
Verses on the Pucelle of the Court, Mistress Boulstred, 
whose epitaph Done made." P. 7. 

Again, at p. 38., we learn that Jonson's verses 
had been stolen out of his pocket, which brought 
him into trouble : 

" That piece of the Pucelle of the Court was stolen out 
of his pocket by a gentleman who drank him drousje, and 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. vi. 132., JULY 10. 58. 



given Mistress Boulstraid, which brought him great dis- 
pleasure." 

J.Y. 

Relic of Charles XII. of Sweden. I am in 
possession of a small white glass goblet, about 
3 inches high, 3 inches in diameter at top, di- 
minishing to 1^ inches at bottom, with the fol- 
lowing legend engraved round the brim : 

" VIVAT. PRINZ. CARL." 

It is enclosed in a neat wicker case, with a 
crown on the cover, and the letters H A L, in front, 
worked in coloured threads. It was presented to 
my father many years ago, with the accompanying 
letter : 

" Dublin, 14. Nassau St. 
June 15. 1831. 

Very Rev*. Sir, 

" I trust you will not think me presuming in 
begging your acceptance of a small tribute of my grati- 
tudethe two glasses which I take the liberty of sending 
you. They are curious from their very great antiquity, 
as they were a present from Charles XII. of Sweden to 
Mr. Ford's great-grandfather. When making a tour of 
his dominions, the accommodations in those countries at 
that time were so bad that he stayed one night with 
whatever person was best able to entertain him in the 
different towns he went through, and in the morning 
gave these glasses as a memorial that he had been there 
to Mr. Angql, that being the name of Mr. Ford's rela- 
tive (you may depend on the authenticity of this). With 
the sincerest prayers for your and your Family's happi- 
ness, I beg leave to subscribe myself, very rev d Sir, your 
respectful and obedient humble servant, 

M. A. FORDE." 

I have not been able to ascertain who the 
writer of this letter was, but it has been kept 
with the glass, which alone I have got, ever since. 
The construction of the sentence about the gift 
of the glasses to Mr. Angel is complicated, to say 
the least of it; and I don't know whether it 
means that Charles gave such glasses everywhere 
he lodged, or not. At all events the relic is cu- 
rious, and I should be glad if your correspondents 
could throw any further light upon it. A. A. D. 

Primceval Stone Implements with Wooden Han- 
dles. In Worsaae's Primeval Antiquities of Den- 
mark (translated by William J. Thorns, London, 
Parker, 1849), p. 12., mention is made of the 
fact, that, though stone hatchets have been found 
in Denmark, and such implements must, origin- 
ally, have been provided with wooden handles, no 
wooden handle has yet been discovered to one 
of them. In Ireland, however, according to Mr. 
THOMS, a specimen was found, some years ago, 
near Cocksfown in the county of Tyrone. Per- 
haps the following, from the Literary Gazette for 
the year 1822, p. 605., may throw some additional 
light upon the matter in general : 

" In digging a wefl on the slope of a hill at Ferry 
Harty, east end of the Isle of Sheppy, a small house, or 
hut, buried under the earth, has been discovered. The 
newspapers add, that it is of the most remote antiquity 



and that two skeletons have been found. The building 
had no roof, or it might have been of some perishable 
material ; the walls were Avood, and no iron or other 
metal is seen. There are flints and hard stones, appa- 
rently intended for raes, and cutting instruments, with 
handles of wood, quite complete, and in good preserva- 
tion ; and earthenware utensils (one appears to have been 
a lamp) ; a few fish-hooks of hard stoney horn, and an 
immense quantity of a kind of horsehair. Mr. Barrow, 
the resident Commissioner of Sheerness, has arrived ; and 
by his desire a fence will be erected to inclose and pre- 
serve this extraordinary remnant of antiquity." 

Drawings of the " cutting instruments with 
handles of wood " would be very acceptable. 

J. H. VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst, July 2, 1858. 

Pilgrims' Tokens. Where can I find the best 
account of pilgrims' tokens ? What books have 
been written on the subject ? Where were they 
manufactured ? By the monks of the different 
localities visitations to which they are supposed to 
commemorate? or were there manufactories which 
produced them for the use of the different shrines ? 

D. S. 

Wax Work Monuments. Let me add to the 
Query on this subject in last "N. & Q."(2 nd S. vi. 
11.). Do there exist other examples, either in 
England or on the Continent, of this peculiar class 
of memorial of the illustrious dead ? Were there 
not waxen effigies of the royal family of France 
at St. Denys. W. M. 

Work on Heraldry. I have somewhere read 
that an Edinburgh jeweller published, in the year 
1 786, a work on heraldry, which so pleased their 
majesties, that the queen did not rest until she 
had prevailed upon the king to grant him a pen- 
sion of 200Z. per annum. The author's name ? 
and the title of his book ? ABHBA. 

Family of Blacker, of Carrick Blacker. In 
Burke's History of the Commoners of Great Bri- 
tain and Ireland, vol. ii. p. 48., it is stated that 
" this family derives its name and descent from 
Blacar, king or chief of the Northmen or Danes, 
who settled at Dublin in the beginning of the 
tenth century." On what authority is this asser- 
! tion made ? 

Blacar slew with his own axe, March 26, 941, 

| in a pitched battle on the banks of the Bann, 

| Mairchertach, king of Ailech, called the Hector 

or bravest of his time ; and if the assertion be 

true, " it is a singular fact that his descendants 

have for many generations possessed the site of 

this victory." By some writers he is called Blac- 

| card ; and the name of the family is frequently 

! pronounced Blackard by the lower classes of the 

| people in the north of Ireland. ABHBA. 

Joe Millers Jests. The three first editions 
were published in 1739. The fourth in 1740 ; 
the fifth in 1742 ; the sixth in 1743 ; the ninth in 



vi. m., JULY io. 58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



1747 ; the tenth in 1751. Now there were edi- 
tions in 1744, 1745, 1755, 1762, 1771. Query, 
Can any of your correspondents point out the par- 
ticular dates of the seventh, eighth, and eleventh, 
&c., editions ; or any other editions, down to the 
termination of the last century. J. GIBSON. 

Maidstone. 



tflucrt'eg im'tf) 

Abp. Cranmer, " De non ducenda Fratria" 
In Bale's list of Archbishop Cranmer' s writings 
occurs, " De non ducenda Fratria, lib. II." This 
refers of course to the book composed by Cran- 
mer at Henry's command, and afterwards pre- 
sented to the pope, as related in Strype, Burnet, 
&c. Was this book printed ? if so, when and by 
whom ? What is the title-page, and the first sen- 
tence or two, and where is it to be seen ? 

W. H. C. 

[The Rev. H. Jenkyns, editor of Cranmer's Remains, 
4 vols. 8vo. 1833, has the following note on this work, 
vol. i. p. vi. : " Cranmer is recorded to have first em- 
ployed his pen on the memorable question respecting the 
validity of King Henry VlII.'s marriage with Catharine 
of Arragon. According to the well-known narrative of 
Foxe, he was the person at whose suggestion the King 
appealed to the universities, when indignant at the un- 
expected adjournment of the trial by Cardinal Campegio, 
and the subsequent removal of the cause to Rome. But 
this statement has with reason been disputed : there can 
be no doubt, however, of his having expressed an opinion 
on the case at a very early stage of the proceedings, and 
of his having afterwards been specially commissioned by 
Henry to explain his views in writing. This was the 
origin of his Book on Divorce. The points which it was 
his chief object to establish in it were, that marriage 
with a brother's widow was contrary to the law of God, 
and was consequently incapable of being legalised by a 
papal dispensation .... The work is said to have been 
executed with ability, and seems at the time to have ex- 
cited much attention. It was not only laid before the 
two English Universities and the House of Commons, but 
was presented by its author at a formal embassy to the 
Pope, with a profession of his readiness to defend it in 
open disputation against all impugners. Yet it appears, 
notwithstanding the publication thus acquired, to be now 
lost : and it happens singularly enough, that his only 
extant composition on the question is of a directly oppo- 
site tendency, being a long Letter to the Earl of Wilt- 
shire, in which he details, with much commendation, 
the arguments used by Reginald Pole in support of 
Queen Catharine's marriage, and brings nothing against 
them on his own side, beyond a brief expression of dis- 
sent."] 

London Taverns. In the biographical notices 
of the wits of the reign of Queen Anne frequent 
mention is made of Heycock's Ordinary and Sa- 
lutation Tavern. Can you inform me of their 
locality, as they seem to have escaped the notice 
of our London topographers ? W. H. B. 

[Heycock's Ordinary was near the Palsgrave's Head 
tavern by Temple Bar, and was much frequented by 
members of parliament. Here Andrew Marvell uttered 
the severe castigation to certain members of the House, 



known to be in the pay of the Crown, for ensuring the 
subserviency of their votes. Marvell dined usually at 
this ordinary, and on one occasion, having eaten heartily 
of boiled beef with some roasted pigeons and asparagus, 
he drank his pint of port. On settling the reckoning, he 
took a piece of money out of his pocket, and holding it 
between his finger and thumb, thus addressed his venal 
associates : " Gentlemen, who would let himself out for 
hire, while he can have such a dinner for half-a-crown ? " 
(Beaufoy's London Tokens, p. 225.) 

Salutation Tavern was in Newgate Street, as we learn 
from the following poetical invitation to a social feast 
held there on June 19, 1735-6, issued by the two stewards, 
Edward Cave and William Bowyer : 



SIR, 



"Saturday, Jan. 17, 1735-6. 



" You're desir'd on Honda}' next to meet 
At Salutation Tavern, Newgate Street, 
Supper will be on table just at eight, 
[Stewards] One of St. John's [Bowyer] t'other of St. 

John's Gate [Cave]." 

This summons elicited a poetical answer from Samuel 
Richardson the novelist, printed in extenso in Bowyer's 
Anecdotes, p. 160. : 

" For me, I'm much concern'd I cannot meet 
'At Salutation Tavern, Newgate Street.' 
Your notice, like your verse (so sweet and short !), 
If longer, I'd sincerely thank'd you for it. 
Howe'er, receive my wishes, sons of verse ! 
May every man who meets, your praise rehearse ! 
May mirth, as plenty, crown" your cheerful board, 
And ev'ry one part happy as a lord ! 
That when at home (by such sweet verses fir'd) 
Your families may think you all inspir'd ! 
So wishes he, who, pre-engag'd, can't know 
The pleasures that would from your meeting flow."] 

Peter Charron, " Of Wisdome^ I have in 
my possession a book, the date of whose publica- 
tion I wish to ascertain. It has an engraved 
title-page, and this title : 

" Of Wisdome, three bookes written in French by Peter 
Charro, Doct r of Lawe in Paris, Translated bv Sampson 
Lennard; At London, printed for Edward Blount and 
Will Aspley." 

There is no clue to the date, except its dedi- 
cation to " Prince Henry, Prince of Great Britain, 
Sonne and Heire Apparent to our Sovereigne 
Lord the King." Watt mentions an edition 
of this work published in 1630 ; but as Prince 
Henry died in 1612, mine must have been an 
earlier one, and I can find no information re- 
lating to it. The original was published at Bor- 
deaux, 1601. CLEMENT. 

Cambridge, Mass. U. S. 

[We have before us an edition translated by Sampson 
Lennard, containing the engraved title-page as described 
by our correspondent, without the Dedication to Prince 
Henry, but with a prefatory advertisement of two pages 
" To the Reader." The last page of the volume contains 
the following imprint : " London, Printed by George 
Miller for William Aspley, at the signe of the Parot in 
Pauls Churchyard. 1630." As this appears to be the 
earliest English edition, it is probable that Lennard's 
Dedication of Du Plessis Mornay's History of the Papacie 
to Prince Henry may have been inserted in. our cor- 
respondent's copy of Charron.] 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2-4 s. vi. 132., JULY 10. '58. 



"A Sure Guide to Hell." Who was the author 
of the spiritual itinerary, A Sure Guide to Hell, 
by Beelzebub, London, 8vo., 1750? W. C. 

[It was written by Benjamin Bourn, a London book- 
seller, and the son of a dissenting minister. He died on 
April 15, 1755.] 



K.NIGHTS OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM. 

(1 st S. vii. 628.) 

ME. WJNTHROF gave an extract from Suther- 
land's Hist, of Knights of Malta, in which it was 
stated, that 

" In the reign of Henry VIII. the Knights Ingley, 
Adrian Forrest, Adrian Fortescue, and Marmaduke Bohus, 
refusing to abjure their faith, perished on the scaffold. 
Thomas Mytton and Edward Waldegrave died in a dun- 
geon ; and Richard and James Bell, John Noel, and many 
others abandoned their country for ever, and sought an 
asylum at Malta, completely stripped of their posses- 
sions." 

This statement is supported by Goussaincourt 
in his Martyrology of the Order, but notwith- 
standing I venture to question its accuracy. 

"Ingley" was Sir Thomas Dingley noticed by 
MR. WINTHROP in vol. x. p. 177., whose exe- 
cution along with Sir Adrian Fortescue on July 
9*, 1589, is recorded by Stow and the Grey 
Friars' Chronicle. 

" Adrian Forrest" No execution of a person so 
named is mentioned in any record that I can find. 
Possibly it is a foreigner's mistaken repetition of 
the name "Adrian Fortescue," confused with 
Father John Forrest the Franciscan. 

"Adrian Fortescue" Is it not a mistake to sup- 
pose him a knight of the Order? Goussaincourt 
is the authority, but he is not in the lists taken 
by MR. WINTHROP from the Records at Malta, 
nor those given in the Brit. Mag. for Jan. 1834|, 
and what is known of his history is inconsistent 
with the idea of his being under vows of poverty 
and celibacy. He was the second son of Sir John 
Fortescue of Punsborne, Herts, and joined the 
army of Henry VII , by whom he was created a 
Knight Banneret and a Knight of the Bath, and 
rewarded for his services with several grants of 
land. He married, first, Anne, daughter and 
heiress of Sir William Stonor of Stonor, by 
whom he had an only daughter, married to Sir 
Henry Wentworth ; and secondly, Anne, daugh- 
ter of William Reade of Boarstall, Esq., by whom 
he had a son, Sir John Fortescue of Salden, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and a daughter, 
Elizabeth, married to Sir Thomas Bromley, Lord 

* Stow has the 10th. 

f MR. WINTHROP does not appear to have seen the 
books quoted by Mr. Froude, as several names are given 
by the latter and omitted by the former. Are those 
bdoks? 



Keeper. After his execution his widow remar- 
ried Sir Thomas Parry. Perhaps, as in Stow 
the two are coupled together thus, " Sir Adrian 
Fortescue and Thomas Dingley, Knight of Saint 
John's, and divers other were attainted," it might 
have been supposed both were knights of the 
Order.* 

"Marmaduke Bohus" This must refer to Mar- 
maduke Bowes, Esq., of Angram Grange, Cleve- 
land, who was executed at York, Nov. 26, 1585, 
for entertaining a priest, though he had conformed 
to the established religion. But there seems no 
reason to suppose him a knight. Challoner says 
he was married.f 

Sir David Genson. There is an omission al- 
together of this knight, whose name is spelt also 
"Gonson" and "Jensey." He had been Lieu- 
tenant of the Turcopolier at Malta, and was 
named as a pensioner in the Act for the disso- 
lution. His end is recorded by Stow : 

" 1541. The 1 of July, Sir David Genson, Knight of the 
Rhodes, was drawn through Southwark to S. Thomas of 
Watrings, and there executed for the Supremacy." 

The other names all belong to the reign of Eliza- 
beth. 

" Thomas Mytton and Edward Waldegrave" 
These must be Sir Thomas Metham and Sir 
Edward Waldegrave, who were imprisoned for 
hearing Mass in the beginning of Queen Eliza- 
beth's reign. Sir Edward died in prison Sept. 1, 
1561, "exfsetore carceris in morbum incidens," 
says Bridgwater, who mentions no more than Sir 
Thomas Metham's imprisonment, and not his 
death. They were both knighted by Queen 
Mary at her coronation, and their wives were 
sent to prison with them. They cannot therefore 
have been Knights of St. John, and are not so 
entitled by Bridgwater.J 

"Richard and James Bell" The names lead to 
the supposition that these mean Sir Richard and 
Sir James Shelley, of whom MR. WINTHROP has 
given an account ("N. & Q." 1 st S. x. 201. and 
xi. 179.). 

" John Noel" It seems probable that this refers 
to Sir John Neville, of whom Bridgwater says, 
" equestris ordinis vir, obiit in exilio cum filio." 
But there is no appearance of his being a Knight 
of St. John. 

Sir Thomas Markenfield. He is not mentioned 
by Sutherland, but Bridgwater calls him a Knight 
of St. John, and Dodd adds, that " refusing to 
conform to the alterations made in the beginning 
of Queen Elizabeth's reign, immediately left Eng- 
land, and died abroad. But I have seen no other 
authority to connect him with the Order. 

* Clutterbuck's Herts, Burke's Dormant Baronetage 
(Scotch), Records of the Court of IVards and Liveries, and 
OriginaRa Rolls. 

f Challoner's Missionary Priests. 

J Machyn's Diary, Bridgwater's Concertatio. 



vi. 132., JULY io. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



The issue seems to be, that there were two 
knights executed under Henry VIII. ; and the 
only knights recorded to have returned to Malta 
on the second dissolution of the Priory in Eng- 
land in 1559, are the two Shelleys, Sir Henry 
Gerard, Sir Oliver Starkey, and Sir George Dud- 
ley. Bosio says there were some more there, but 
he does not give their names. Taaflfe names also 
Sir Edward Burrough, perhaps by mistake for 
Sir Edward Browne, as there is no such name as 
the former in the Records.* E. E. ESTCOURT. 

Birmingham. 



BYRON AND ^SCHYLUS. 

(2 nd S. v. 454.) 

J.R. has noticed the resemblance between Lord 
Byron's well-known eulog.y of Henry Kirke White 
in English Bards and Scotch Reviewers : 

" So the struck eagle, stretch'd upon the plain, 
No more through rolling clouds to soar again, 
View'd his own feather on the fatal dart, 
And wing'd the shaft that quiver'd in his heart ; 
Keen were his pangs, but keener far to feel 
He nursed the pinion which impell'd the steel ; 
While the same plumage that had warm'd his nest 
Drank the last life-drop of his bleeding breast." 

And the passage of ^schylus which he cites 

" 'fls S' earl fj-vOwv TWI/ Aij3u<TTiKwj/ Aoyos* 
IIAijyeW arpaKTia Toi-iKw TOV alerbv 
EtTreii' iSovra. jU,T)\avr}i/ Trrepai/xaTOS, 
TaS' oi>x v 71 "' aAAcov aAAa TOIS avrwc TTTepoi? 
'AAtovco/oieo-fla." 

Person, in his long note on the Medea of Euri- 
pides, 139 40. (from which, as given in Dr. Ma- 
jor's edition, I quote), has incidentally shown that 
this phrase became proverbial, and gives several 
references in proof; which see. Compare Diony- 
sius of Halicarnassus (ed. Rejske, 970.) : 

" TaS' OVY VTT' aAAwi/, aAAa TOI? avrwi* Trrepoi? a\.iaK6u.ear8a, 
KATA THN TPAFOIAIAN." 

Again, Eustathius ad Iliad. Z. p. 63235=489. 

"6 ITpotTOs 8r)\a8r) (nefj.ire) TOV BeAAepo<d'r)i', ypa.fJiiJ.aTa KaO' 
CO.VTOV KOfj.[^ovTa, teal TO.VTO. o\>x vw' oAAwv, aAAa rots avrov, 
Tpaya>SiKtos eiirelv, a 



>x 
Trrepotj. 



And, lastly, the Scholiast on Lucian. torn. i. p. 
794.:- 

" Kal OVTCO? rot? oiKet'cH? aAwerrj Trrepots." 

I would suggest that the coincidence of JEs- 
chylus's death being commonly attributed to an 
eagle letting a tortoise fall on his bald head, mis- 
taking it for a stone, may have invested the pro- 
verb with greater significance, and given it a more 
extensive currency. 

That Byron was well acquainted with ^Eschy- 
lus his works testify ; but his admiration, and pro- 
bably his knowledge, seems to have been confined 
to a few only of that poet's plays. 

* Hist, of Order of St. John, iii. 316. 



In 1817, he wrote thus : 

" Of the ' Prometheus ' of JSschylus I was passionately 
fond as a boy (it was one of the Greek plays we read 
thrice a year at Harrow) ; indeed, that and the ' Medea ' 
were the only ones, except the ' Seven before Thebes," 
which ever much pleased me. The 'Prometheus,' if not 
exactly in my plan, has alwa} r sbeen so much in mv head 
that I can easily conceive its influence over all or any- 
thing that I have written; but I deny Marlow and his 
progeny, and beg that you will do the* same." Letters. 
1817. 

Had he borrowed the beautiful metaphor from 
^Ischylus, we might expect that one so particular 
in this respect would have acknowledged his obli- 
gation to the Greek poet ; but, in truth, it seems 
unlikely that he should have derived this idea 
from a Fragment of a play with which he probably 
was unacquainted. 

More reasonably might we suspect that the 
metaphor was suggested by Edmund Waller's 
beautiful lines [see "N. & Q.," 2 nd S. v. 507.]. 
The coincidence is at the least striking, but whe- 
ther it amounts to a plagiarism your readers must 
judge for themselves. JOHN RIBTON GARSTIN. 

Dublin. 



GOLDRIC, OR WALDRIC, CHANCELLOR OF HENRY I. 
(2 nd S. V. 45.) 

In Forester's edition of Ordericus Vitalis (Bonn's 
Antiq. Libr. 1854, vol. iii. 380.), it is stated, in 
the account of the battle of Tinchebrai, which was 
fought on Sept. 28, 1106, that, 

" Then Baudri seized the Duke," Robert of Nor- 
mandy, " and delivered him to the king's guards. This 
man was one of Henry's chaplains, who, joining a body 
of knights, took part in the battle. He was shortly 
afterwards made bishop of Laon, but having deeply ag- 
grieved the people of his diocese, he was killed by the 
inhabitants of his own city, in a garden, on Friday in 
Easter Aveek, with seven dignitaries of his cathedral." 

And in a note at the bottom of the page, where 
occurs the above notice of Baudri, or Waldric, the 
learned translator of Orderic'says : 

" It appears that Baudri employed the wealth heaped 
upon him for the capture of Robert Curthose to secure 
his election by the chapter of Laon. But this profana- 
tion did not last long. Public opinion revolted at seeing 
a mere clerk attached to the court, who was not even a 
sub-deacon, raised to the episcopal and ducal see of 
Laon. By the king's influence, who probably was glad 
to get rid of him, he was provided with a canonry of 
Rouen, and received subdeacon's orders. However, it 
was only by the intervention of Pope Paschal II., to 
whom Baudri appealed at Dijon, that he was confirmed 
in his see. But as he was grossly ignorant, associated 
only with the military, and could talk of nothing but 
dogs and horses, he became odious to his clergy, who 
accused him of several murders and other acts of violence. 
At last, having opposed the establishment of the muni- 
cipality of Laon, he was massacred in a popular tumult, 
on Tuesday, the 22nd of April, 1 . . 2, and his body having 
been subjected to a thousand outrages, was left naked in 
the public street till the next day. He was at length 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. t2 s. vi. 131, JULY 10. 



buried, out of compassion, but without ceremony or 
prayers. See Gall. Christ, ix. col. 526. &c." 

It will be observed that the date of his murder 
is imperfect in the above extract, as there is, 
unfortunately, an error in the type in my copy 
of Orderic by Bohn ; and as I have not got Gullia 
Christiana, I am unable to supply the year. I 
should have supposed it to have been 1112, but 
then another difficulty occurs, as the 22d of April, 
1112, did not fall on Tuesday, but on a Monday, 
and the day mentioned in the text of Orderic is 
" Friday in Easter week," which was the 26th of 
April in 1112 : nor can it be 1122, setting aside 
the improbability of Baudri's episcopate at Laon 
having lasted so long ; but this point can be cleared 
up by reference to the Gall. Christ* 

Waldricus, Goldric, or Baudri, appears to have 
held the post of Chancellor of England from 1104 
to 1107, according to Mr. Hardy's Roll; while 
Lord Campbell, in his Lives of the Chancellors, 
enumerates him as next in the series after Roger : 
but great obscurity prevails with respect to the 
delivery of the great seal during the early part 
of the reign of King Henry I. J. C. R. in his 
note on Waldric is therefore quite correct in 
pointing out, and correcting the mistake made, 
both by Dr. Lingard and Mr. Foss, as to his 
having been Bishop of Llandaff, instead of Laon, 
arising from the error in the old edition of Or- 
deric Landavensis for Laudunensis but which, 
as I have already shown, is stated correctly in 
Mr. Forester's new and excellent translation of 
Ordericus Vitalis, based on the edition published 
by the Societe de VHistoire de France, 1838 1855, 
under the care of MM. Auguste Le Prevost and 
Leopold Delisle, of Paris. A. S. A. 

Barrackpore, E. I., April 14. 



THE PETRILS, OB MOTHER CAREY'S CHICKENS. 

(2 nd S. v. 317. 506.) 

The quotation by MR. HACKWOOD from Knapp's 
Knowledge for the People, as to the apparition of 
these birds " upon the approach or during the con- 
tinuation of a gale," is the very reverse of my 
own experience during eleven voyages across the 
Atlantic in various directions. Sailors no longer 
look upon them as harbingers of the tempest, al- 
though they did so formerly. No superstition, 
however, admits of an easier explanation in ac- 
cordance with the known laws of nature. 

All animated beings, like plants, have their cir- 
cumscribed stations in creation localities in which 
they are adapted to live and " find pasture." (See 
Ly ell's Princ. of GeoL, c. 41.). The petrils (not 
petrels, which is French) have their appointed 

[* The correct date is 25th of April, 1112 ; or as given 
in Gallia Christiana, " vii. cal. Maii, an. 1112, feria v. heb- 
domad* Paschalis."] 



station. It is the ship, therefore, which goes to 
these birds, and not the birds that come to the 
ship : in other words, the ship gets into their sta- 
tion, whence, sometimes, she may be wafted into a 
storm; hence the original superstition. As I have 
frequently seen these birds, and as their appari- 
tion was never followed by a tempest, it is evident 
that this physical cause did not come into opera- 
tion. That is, our ship got into the station of 
these birds, which happened not to be within the 
range of the storm-circuit assuming that storms 
are always raging in certain latitudes, within or 
without which there may be only a steady breeze, 
or even a dead calm according to the modern 
"law of storms." The steady breeze may waft 
the ship in a few hours into the main sweep of the 
tempest. JSTow, there will always be a chance of 
that result until we be able to avoid it by an 
accurate knowledge of the " law of storms," and 
of the course which we must steer according to 
the indications of the barometer and the direction 
of the wind. 

I can bear witness to the superstition as it was 
some six-and-thirty years ago, in my childhood. 
My father caught one of these birds with a line, 
and gave it to me. A murmur instantly arose 
amongst the crew, and I was forced to part with 
my captive, which seemed comfortable enough. 
Had we got into the storm-circuit, perhaps they 
would have been tempted to make another Jonas 
of me to appease Mother Carey. 

The petril keeps in the wake of the ship, a few 
yards from the rudder, disporting in the eddies, 
and literally "picking up a living" from the surface 
of the wave. It must be endowed with great 
strength of wing, since it follows the ship for many 
days together. As it has never been seen on land, 
it is probable that, Ijke other sea-birds, its home 
is some desolate rock in the waste of ocean, of 
which, in its small way, it is a scavenger. Poeti- 
cally, of course, we say : 

" Her nest the wave her fate to roam 
Like bubbles of the Ocean's foam." 

Delighting in an agitated sea, which keeps its 
food on the surface, these birds are scientifically 
called procellaria. In their rapid flight being 
palmiped or web-footed they skim over the sur- 
face of the waves, and even " walk on the water." 
Hence, in fact, the name petril, from the Italian 
diminutive Pietrillo, or little Peter, alluding to the 
fact recorded of St. Peter in the Gospel (Matt, 
xiv.). 

In " K & Q." (2 nd S. v. 317.), the name " Mo- 
ther Carey" was derived from Mater cara, as re- 
ferred to the Virgin Mary. The derivation is 
curious, but, I fear, rather far-fetched and impro- 
bable. If that name had ever been given to the 
bird as translated or upset literally into an Eng- 
lish representative of the original, it must have 
been given originally by the Italians or the Spa- 



a* s. vt 131, JULY io. '68.] NOTES AND QUEBJES. 



37 



niards ; but I can find no authority to that effect 
in connexion with the liturgy of the Virgin, in 
which I have searched in vain for the words 
Mater cara. Indeed, with a memory most reten- 
tive of all that beautiful liturgy, I doubt that the 
word cara is anywhere amongst hundreds 
applied to the Virgin. She is, however, empha- 
tically stvled, with reference to the tempest- 
tost : 

" Fulgens Stella Maris, 
Portus naufragorum." 

ANDREW STEINMETZ. 



DIFFICULTIES OF CHAUCER. 

(2 nd S. iii. 299.) 

Carrenare, These lines from The Booke of the 
Dutchesse 

" And bidde him faste, anone that he 
Go hoodlesse into the drie see 
And come home by the Carrenare" 

are thus paraphrased by MR. BOYS, under the in- 
cognito of ANON. : 

" Nor would she strictly command him to go forthwith 
bareheaded into the dry dock, and come back by the 
careening dock"!! 

Than this nothing, methinks, could be further 
from Chaucer's meaning. What may be the dif- 
ference between a dry and a careening dock, or 
whether it was lady-like, in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, for high-born English dames to be well up 
in matters belonging to the navy, I know not; but 
this I do know, that a much more natural signi- 
fication may be given than the one above to the 
words of our old poet. In the Middle Ages, even 
when Chaucer lived, writers of romance used to 
make the young wooing knight go forth in search 
of noble adventures at the bidding of the illus- 
trious lady whose hand and heart he sought to 
win. Almost always a visit to the Holy Land 
was laid down as one part of his wanderings ; he 
was told to fast as well as fight, and expected to 
show himself a pious pilgrim as well as bear him 
like a doughty man of war. One of the routes 
followed by our countrymen for getting to Pales- 
tine was to go by sea from Pisa to Alexandria, as 
we learn from one of Chaucer's contemporaries, 
Sir John Maundeville, who, in speaking of this 
journey, says, 

"Men gothe be the Rede see and there passed 
Moyses, with the children of Israel, overthwart the see 
all drye," &c.The Voiage, &c., ed. Halliwell, p. 57. 

Surely Chaucer's "drie see" may very fairly be 
understood as meaning the Red Sea, especially as 
he had but just spoken of a great city in Egypt 
"Alisandrie." Furthermore, from this very "drie 
see" mention is made of "coming home by the 
Carrenare." To my mind there is no doubt that 



this word " Carrenare," which up to the present 
moment has been unintelligible to the com- 
mentators and readers of Chaucer, was the re- 
ceived and well-known term for designating that 
part of the wilderness wherein our Divine Lord 
fasted forty days and forty nights (Matt. iv. 2.) ; 
and was then, as it yet is, one of the places visited 
by pilgrims to the Holy Land. In the Life of St. 
Peregrin it is said, 

" Cum pervenisset ad locum deserti, qui Quarantena 
vocatur, in quo Dominus noster Jesus Christus quadra- 
ginta diebus et quadraginta noctibus jejunaverat," &c. 
AA. SS. t. i. Aug. p. 78. 

Sometimes it was called " quarentena," as 
Du Cange shows from several authors in voce. 
In the reprint, edited by Sir H. Ellis for the 
Camden Society, of the Pylgrymage of Sir 
Richard Guylforde to the Holy Land, as late as 
A.D. 1506, its writer tells us that 

" Goynge frome Galylee to Iherico, on the ryght hande, 
is the Moute of Qua'rentena, where our Lorde fasted .xl. 
dayes and .xl. nyghts," &c. P. 52. 

Among our old writers q and c are interchange- 
able letters, in words derived from Latin ; and out 
of quadragesima came quaresima, and, in French, 
caresme, then careme for lent, or the fast of forty 
days. Perhaps a collection of MSS. might afford 
another reading for the word "carrenare:" be 
that as it may, it is not at all unlikely that in this 
as in other instances Chaucer, to suit his purpose, 
and to find a rhyme for "ware," may have, out of 
"Quarentena," coined by an easy process "Carre- 
nare." According, then, to such a gloss, Chaucer 
wished to say that the Duchess whose praises he 
sang was not, like many other high dames, so 
freakish as to exact such hard proofs of regard. 

" She would not tell her knight to wander the world 
over for her sake to go to Alexandria, nay, fast and 
walk bare-headed, under the scorching sun of Egypt, 
into the Red Sea, and come home thence by the Holy 
Land after having been to the wilderness, the ' carrenare ' 
itself, wherein our Lord fasted forty days and forty 
nights." 

D. ROCK. 



ta Minor 

Seal- Engravers' Seals (1 st S. xii. 30.) Your 
correspondent ADRIAN ADNINAN may find the fol- 
lowing directions of use : 

Employ a gas flame or (better) a spirit lamp. 
Hold a stick of best red wax over the flame's 
point (not in it) till it begins to fuse. Take care 
it does not blaze, as the smallest portion of car- 
bon will mar the brightness of the impression. 
Dab the drop of melted wax on the paper, then 
repeat the process till you have deposited enough. 
No'w get an assistant to stretch the paper evenly, 
holding it at some distance over the flame, while 
you stir the wax round as in making an ordinary 



38 



NO^ES AND QUERIES. [2^ s. vi. 132., JULY 10. '58. 



impression. The paper should then be laid on 
the table, and the seal pressed down. The paper 
should be kept on the stretch till all is quite cool, 
and the impression may then be neatly trimmed 
with a scissors. 

The seal should be thus prepared : Grease its 
surface very slightly with candle-grease, using a 
hard brush to get into the cuttings. Sprinkle 
with powdered vermilion. Shake off excess of 
powder, so as to leave only a film. It is then 
ready for use. H. M. 

Dublin. 

Antique Porcelain (2 n4 S. v. 515.) In answer 
to J. W., as to " old family china so often seen in 
cabinets," and more particularly as "to the cups 
and plates said to have belonged to Oliver Crom- 
well," if they are really porcelain, and existed 
previously to the year 1695, the period of the 
earliest porcelain manufacture in Europe, I have 
no doubt of their being Oriental. But, from the 
character of the paintings, it is possible that the 
ware is not porcelain, but Delft earthenware, as 
this latter ware was common in England in 1660, 
the manufacture dating from about 1600. The 
Oriental porcelain is generally a blue pattern 
upon a white ground, and this the Dutch so well 
copied in Delft, that without close inspection it is 
often difficult to distinguish the one ware from 
the other. So the question of Oliver Cromwell's 
cups must remain undecided till further parti- 
culars are obtained. In this I have presumed 
that the ware is blue and white. The date of 
Oriental porcelain is difficult to determine, unless 
the piece bears the Chinese characters which de- 
note the dynasty of the emperor in whose reign it 
was manufactured, and which are given in the 
work upon Pottery and Porcelain mentioned in 
the note of the editor. J. M. 

Monumental Brasses (2 nd S. v. 478.) The col- 
lection of Printings of Monumental Brasses al- 
luded to by J. M. G. was purchased at rather a 
high rate for the British Museum, and is now in 
the Print Room of that institution. The collec- 
tion is valuable only as containing impressions of 
brasses now lost from Marlow, Ingham, Oxford, 
and a few other places. Of these, notices will ap- 
pear in a work on Monumental Brasses which I 
have nearly ready for the press. Can any corre- 
spondent kindly furnish me with information 
respecting brasses not generally known to the 
collectors of rubbings, or which have recently suf- 
fered spoliation or mutilation ? I am in want of 
information more especially from the northern 
and south-western counties of England. 

H. HAINES. 

Paddock House, Gloucester. . 

The collection sold at Craven Ord's sale to 
Thorpe was purchased afterwards by the late 



Francis Douce, and by him was bequeathed to 
the British Museum, where it is now preserved, 
with many other rubbings from monumental 
brasses, in the Print-Room of that establishment. 

F. MADDEN. 

Whipultre (2 nd S. v. 24.) In the original 
communication on the meaning of this word by 
THOMAS BOYS, several guesses were made, and 
others have been hazarded since. It often, hap- 
pens that we wander far away, and seek far- 
fetched derivations when the true meaning is close 
at hand. If I mistake not, the meaning of whip - 
ultre is easily found, and even supplied by Chau- 
cer himself. He has u oke, fir, birch, aspe, alder, 
holm, poplere, wilow, elm, plane, ash, box, ches- 
tein, lind, laurere, maple, thorn, beche, hasel, ew, 
whipultre." Surely this must be the holly, the 
only English tree not previously named. Is not 
holly the very tree for whip-handles or whip-poles, 
and therefore called the whip -pole tree ? F. C. H. 

Mr. Thomas Carey, a Poet of Note (2 nd S. vi. 
12.) He is doubtless the " Tom Carew " (still in 
some places if not in all pronounced Carey) men- 
tioned by Suckling in his Sessions of the Poets. 

"Tom Carew came next, but he had a fault, 
That did not well stand with a Laureat," &c. 

Wood's Athena Oxon., Bliss ed. ii. 657., Cla- 
rendon, Lloyd's Worthies, Phillips, and Lang- 
baine, all contain notices of him. We know him 
best from his beautiful song : 

" He that loves a rosie cheek 

Or a coral lip admires, 
Or from starlight eyes doth seek 
Fuel to maintain his fires ; 
As old Time makes these decay, 
So his flames must waste away." 

Should MR. YEOWELL be disinclined to hunt 
up his authorities for himself, I shall be happy to 
send him what I know in return for this new and 
interesting notice of a very charming old song- 
writer. G. H. KlNGSLEY. 

Dust on Books (2 nd S. v. 515.) Perhaps the 

cheapest method of defending books from dust, is, 
the affixing small falls of leather above the backs 
of volumes on the shelves. When the works fit 
the cases, this old method is found to answer 
pretty well. Another way is to have silken or 
other blinds (silk is best, being closest in fabric,) 
to draw down in front of the tomes during dust- 
ing, or such times as the library is not in use ; it 
also tends to keep colour in bindings, and for pri- 
vate libraries is, I think, the best, glass alone ex- 
cepted. 

It is found that uncut books suffer the greatest 

discolouration, from dust resting upon the tops ; 

and the marks are often observable after binding, 

clearly showing at the top of every sheet fold. 

I Books cut by the paper-knife are less affected, 



2nd S . VI. 132., JULY 10. >58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



though more than when cut by the binder. Gilt 
edges are the best, dust little adhering to metal, 
and is easily wiped off. 

Any more effective way of preserving books 
from dust and dirt than the methods in common 
use would be a great boon to the lovers of books : 
and I, for one, should feel much obliged by a de- 
scription of any plan not indicated here. 

LUKE LIMNER, F.S.A. 

Regent's Park. 

Lilliputian Aztecs (2 nd S. v. 382.) I am much 
obliged for the notice taken of my query. I have 
recently found the following note, which confirms 
my own supposition, and I think settles this 
Barnum business : 

" Many of them were of mixed Indian and Negro blood, 
and were small, undersized, but strongly-made men, with 
reserved, ugly, and brutal looking faces. The mixture 
of two races so degenerate as the Indian and Ethiopian 
is not likely to have a beneficial effect on the descend- 
ants ; but it is a mixture unfortunately very common on 
the frontier of this state (San Salvador) towards Hon- 
duras." 

A note adds : 

" The two mulatto children, which a speculative 
Yankee actually imposed on the credulous in Europe, as 
the last scions of the almost extinct priestly caste of the 
Aztecs, are nothing more than two remarkably unde- 
veloped individuals of this mixed descent, the twin-chil- 
dren of two persons named Innocent and Martina Burgos, 
who are still living in the village of Decora, in the de- 
partment of San Miguel. A Spanish trader, of the name 
of Ramon Selva, got them from the mother, to whom 
they were very burdensome on account of their helpless 
awkwardness, under pretence of having them educated in 
the United States; but instead of that, he made a show 
of them, and afterwards sold them to a person named 
Morris, who is at present, 1 believe, parading them about 
in the best company of Europe." Travels in the Free \ 
States of Central America, by Dr. Carl Scherzer, 1857, 
vol. ii. p. 234. 

F. C. B. 

Milton's Autograph (2 nd S. iv. 287. 334. 371. 
459.; v. 115. 173.) I have in my possession an 
old fcap. 8vo., black-letter Latin grammar in ex- j 
cellent preservation (" Sy sterna Grammaticum, 
Opera et Studio Tho. Farnabii, Londini, Excude- 
bat T. & R. C. impensis Andre* Crooke, 1641 "). j 
On the title-page of the above is written " Ii. 
Milton," evidently an abbreviation of the Latin for | 
John in the dative case. As you cannot give to 
your readers a fac-simile of the autograph, it is 




name, excepting that it is double their height, and 
is not, like them, dotted. The date of the book 
agrees with the time when Milton, having re- 
turned from Italy, was engaged in superintending 
the education of his two nephews, and preparing 
a collection of his Latin poems for the press. It 
is annotated in the margin of that part of the 



book which treats " De ultimis syllabis," a part 
which more than all others would be interesting 
to a poet. WASHINGTON MOON. 

Colour of University Hoods (2 nd S. vi. 19.) 
In justice to myself and your other correspondents, 
I beg to draw C. M. A.'s attention to the fact, 
that the distinction which he alludes to as not 
having as yet been hit upon by any of us, has 
already been twice distinctly stated in your pages ; 
by myself more than a year ago (see 2 nd S. iii. 
435.), and by D. C. L., Cantab., only a few num- 
bers back (2 nd S. v. 501.). J. EASTWOOD. 

Among the number of communications made 
from, time to time as to the shape and colour of 
these articles of university costume, I cannot find 
any reply to a Query I once before submitted to 
the learned in these matters, namely, whether the 
hoods of each degree are, or should be, worn with 
the ordinary black-college or preaching-gown or 
not ? I know of a variety of opinion and usage : 
some persons maintaining that the hood should 
only be worn with the surplice ; others (myself 
included) considering that it is an academic dis- 
tinction, and as properly, if not more so, connected 
with academic costume than with that prescribed 
by church ritual. One word as to which is right 
from some competent authority will oblige 

A. B. R. 

British Pearls (2 nd S. v. 285, &c.) I have seen 
a fair-sized tolerably-well-coloured pearl from the 
common English oyster. I have seen many small 
indifferently-coloured pearls taken from the large 
fresh- water muscle once abundant in the Ser- 
ven in Assynt now rare from the constant chasse 
kept up by the Highlanders. I have seen dozens 
of very small beautifully-coloured pearls taken 
out of the common muscle (Mytilus edulis}, when 
using them for bait, on the east coast of Suther- 
land. I see no reason why we should not find a 
pearl of some sort in any shell lined with nacre. 

Professor Quekett seems to believe that all 
pearls are produced by the boring of small animals 
through the shell, and the pushing forward the 
inner plate of nacre, so as to irritate the animal. 
That pearls can be produced in this way there is 
no doubt : that all are produced in this way I 
doubt very much. I remember remarking that 
the sea muscles, in which I found the roundest 
and fairest pearls, had particularly smooth clean 
shells. I rather incline to the old theory of " abor- 
tive ova" as the cause of the round pearls free in 
the animal ; the pedunculate^ pearls may be pro- 
duced at will by the Chinese method of introduc- 
ing foreign bodies. 

I have heard that pearls are found most plenti- 
fully in fresh-water muscles about ford?, and 
places where cattle go to drink, as if accidental 
injury had something to do with their production. 

G.H.K. 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. VI. 132., JULY 10. '58. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

From the increased attention which is now paid to ob- 
jects of ceramic art, there is little cause for wonder that a 
new edition of Mr. Marryat's History of Pottery and Por- 
celain, Mediceval and Modern, should be called for. The 
work is indeed what it professes to be, " revised and aug- 
mented," and is brought out in a way to justify what 
Mr. Marryat sa3's of his publisher, " that he has spared 
no pains or expense in rendering the work creditable to 
himself, and acceptable to the public." It is illustrated 
with twelve coloured plates, and no less than 240 wood- 
cuts: while not the least valuable portion of it is its 
extensive Table of Marks and Monograms. It forms al- 
together a worthy companion to Birch's History of An- 
cient Pottery and Porcelain, and Labarte's Handbook of 
the Arts of the Middle Ages, issued by the same publisher; 
and we can award it no higher praise. 

Whatever may be the literary merits of the late Sir 
Charles Napier's historical romance entitled William the 
Conqueror, and those merits are sufficiently marked and 
numerous to secure a large body of readers, there can 
be no doubt but that it will be read by many others 
with two very different objects. One class will desire 
to compare the treatment which that subject will re- 
ceive from the man of the sword, with that which it 
has already received from the man of the pen ; and 
the other will be anxious to see Sir Charles's delinea- 
tion of a character, which must have had many attrac- 
tions for the conqueror of Scinde. The Norman bastard 
won England by his good sword, and retained it by his 
powers as an administrator. These were qualities to en- 
sure him favours in the eyes of one who piqued himself 
quite as much on his political abilities as on his great 
military talents. The book, therefore, is one sure to cir- 
culate very widely. 

La Mort d'Arthure : The History of King Arthur and 
the Knights of the Round Table. Compiled by Sir Thomas 
Malory, Knt. Edited from the Text of the Edition of 
1634, with Introduction and Notes. By Thomas Wright, 
Esq., M.A., F.S.A., is the last contribution to Mr. Rus- 
sell Smith's valuable Library of Old Authors, and a 
very welcome one It is. The popularity of Sir Thomas 
Malory's work, which Mr. Wright well describes as " a 
good comprehensive condensation of the romantic cycle 
of King Arthur and his Knights," has been very great. 
Not only was it printed by Caxton, twice by Wynkyn 
de Worde, and again by William Copland ; but in the 
present century, three editions have appeared and grown 
rare. Two of these appeared in 1816 (one under 
the editorship of Haslewood), and in 1817 Southey 
edited a reprint of Caxton's text in two handsome 
quarto volumes, which are now highly prized. Mr. 
Wright's text is from the edition of 1634, and is accom- 
panied by notes illustrative of the obsolete words and 
phrases which are scattered pretty thickly throughout 
the work. So that there can be little doubt that these 
three volumes will find favour in the sight of all lovers 
of old romance. 

We have many more volumes waiting for our notice, 
but must for the present content ourselves with re- 
commending to all lovers of true poetry a little book 
written by the gifted daughter of a gifted sire we 
allude to Miss Proctor's Legends and Lyrics; a Book of 
Verses, in which they will find much true poetry, much 
genuine poetic feeling warbled forthwith all the metrical 
skill for which Barry Cornwall himself is so remarkable. 
The Rev. Charles* Boutell's Manual of British ArcJicB- 
ology, one of Mr. Lovell Reeve's prettily illustrated little al- 
mdine quartos, will form a pleasant travelling companion, 



with its brief notes on Architecture, Sepulchral Monu- 
ments, Seals, Coins, Arms, Armour, Costume, &c., just 
sufficient to give the tourist an additional interest in 
the antiquarian objects of his tour. 

We are happy to announce that the first portion of A 
Catalogue of the Rawlinson Manuscripts, the value of which 
has recently been shown in " N. & Q.," is at press. 

The Surrey Archaeological Society will hold their fifth 
Annual General Meeting at Farnham, on Tuesday next, 
on which occasion the Bishop of Winchester has invited 
the Members to Farnham Castle. This reminds us of 
the Second Part of the Collections of the Society, in which 
will be found papers on Chertsey Abbey by Mr. Pocock ; 
on the Manor of Hatcham, by Mr. Hart; on Horsely- 
down, by Mr. Corner (very curiously illustrated) ; Surrey 
and Southwark Wills, by the same gentleman ; Notices 
of Cold Harbour, by Mr. Johnson; Monumental Brasses 
at Stoke D'Abernon, by Mr. Boutelt, and many other 
miscellaneous papers. The part is altogether a very good 
one. 

We are happy to find that our esteemed correspondent, 
the Rev. JOSEPH BOSWORTH, D.D., of Christ Church, is 
a candidate for the Anglo-Saxon professorship in the 
University of Oxford. The other candidate is the Rev. 
Frederic Metcalfe, B.D., Fellow of Lincoln College. Both 
candidates are Cambridge men, but have been incor- 
porated as members of Oxford University. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose. 

BELOE'S ANECDOTES OF LITERATURE. Volg. V. and VI. 

DISRAELI'S CURIOSITIES OP LITERATURE. Moxon's edit. 1811. Parts 

II. and VII. 
KITTO'S PICTORIAL BIBLE. 1838. Portions of the 3rd and 4th Vols. 

Wanted by J. Gibson, 47. Marsham Street, Maidstone. 



' THE TIMES " Newspaper for December, 1824, and January, 1825. 
"Wanted by Edw. Y. Lowne, 13. New Broad Street, E. C. 



fiatite* to 

Our next number will contain many articles of very great interest. 
INDEX TO THE LAST . VOLUME. With our next Number this will be pub- 

" When the last Index was published, two complaints reache.d us from 
nen: subscribers on the subject of its bring published anil charged with the 
Number. That arrangement was made for general convenience ; but the 
two have alwaj/sbecn so sold, with the understanding that the purchaser 
was not obliged to purchase the Index. 

\ech Hamilton" in our 1st S. vi. 



W. T. will find notices of " 



429. 577.; vii. 285. 333.; xii.306. 413. 521. 

P. PARRY. The queries forwarded are on objects which are not of a 
nature to be discussed in " N. & Q.'" 

T. C. (Dublin). There are three separate editions o/The City Mouse 
and Country Mouse, 4to., 1687; 4to., 16S8; 8vo., 1709. Thepoem does not 
appear to have been reprinted either in the collected Works of Prior or 
the Earl of Halifax. 

WALTER C. CROFTON (Toronto). The four ivorks required may pro- 
bably be obtained through some respectable second-hand bookseller. 

J. R. GABSTIN. Our best thanks are dui to our valued correspondent 
forh is kind suggestions. 

" NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PART*. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
frx Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Ilalf- 
i/Cfirl!/ INDEX) is lls. 4<f.. which maif be paid by Post O/h'ce Order in 
'/.ivnnr of MESSRS. BELL AND DALi>y,186. FLEET STRKKT, E.L.; to whom 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THE EDITOR should be atldressed. 



2"d S. VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 17. 1858. 



EPJSTOL.SB OBSCURORUM VIRORUM. 

(2 nd S. vi. 22.) 

The first volume appeared about the beginning 
of 1516; the second quickly followed it. There 
was a third volume which is hardly mentioned, 
and seems to be a stupid catchpenny, with which 
the authors of the first and second probably had 
nothing to do. It is given in the Frankfort edi- 
tion of 1 757, now before me, of which it fills only 
thirty-two pages. As if to introduce a novelty, it 
makes the Anti-Reuchlinist schoolmasters conju- 
gate their verbs wrongly, and show themselves 
unable to detect the breach of rule in an illogical 
consequence ; things with which their genuine op- 
ponents certainly did not charge them. 

Very shortly after the second volume of the 
Ep. Obs. Vir. appeared the answer of Ortuinus 
Gratius himself, under the title of .Lamentationes 
Obscurorum Virorum. Hamilton says that it has 
been doubted whether this silly rejoinder really 
were the work of Ortuinus, but that he could 
establish the affirmative, by citations from Hutten 
and Erasmus hitherto overlooked. This, he adds, 
is not worth while : but I hold it to be a pity 
that he did not give at least the references. For 
these Lamentations may be divided into two 
parts, of which one might easily be taken for more 
wicked wit of the Reuchlinists, if it had stood 
alone. 

What I call the first part consists of satirical 
letters, in which Reuchlinists are shown up as 
wincing under the condemnation which the Pope 
had bestowed upon the satire. But these Reuch- 
linists are made to be the very Anti-Reuchli- 
nists who had been the objects of the satire. To 
take a more familiar case. Tom Moore published 
a feigned letter of the Prince Regent, beginning, 
" We missed you last night at the hoary old sin- 
ner's." Suppose that a rule had been made ab- 
solute against the writer for a libel, and that a 
wijg, wishing to mortify Tom Moore, had written 
si, letter full of ludicrous terror, but purporting to 
proceed, not from Tom Moore nor from one of his 
set, but from the Regent himself: this would be 
si perfect parallel to the retort made by Ortuinus. 
For example, Bernhard Plumilegius is one of the 
dog-latin anti-classics of the Epistolcc, who writes 
; '_Et ego dixi, tumet es asinus in cute tua, ego 
vidi bene plures Poetas quam tu." But this same 
Plumilegius, in the Lamentationes, is a decent 
Latinist, half dead with fear of the Pope's decla- 
ration against the satire upon himself: " Nam 
i'go (ut ingenue tibi fatear) ita sum animo con- 
sternatus, ut me fortasse vivum posthac visurus 
sis nunquam." If this had been all, we might 



easily have supposed that Hutten and his col- 
leagues finished the fun by forging an answer 
from Ortuinus, and making him exhibit this con- 
fusion of ideas. But the second part seems to 
render such a supposition out of the question. It 
contains the Pope's censure, the letter of disap- 
probation of Erasmus, and a modest and dignified 
letter from Ortuinus himself, taking the satirists 
to task for obscenity, impiety, and slander. But 
this letter preserves the confusion of ideas above 
noticed. For example, the allegorical explana- 
tions of Ovid, some of which I have quoted, and 
which are satirically fastened upon the Anti- 
Reuchlinists by Hutten, are set down as Reuch- 
linist opinions. If the associates of Ortuinus had 
been anything like himself, the letter would have 
been very effective. But, coming from a scholar 
who had voluntarily joined associates who did not 
know they were satirised when the Epistolcs 
were attributed to them, it has little more eifect 
now than then. It is the case of the solitary 
crane netted among the geese. 

The confusion of sides made by Ortuinus sug- 
gests a remark. All persons who are used to 
media? val fun must have noticed the very fre- 
quent occurrence, in good stories and jokes, of 
explanatory allusions, of amplifications of point, 
and other contrivances for keeping the weaker 
brethren from stumbling. Any one who has read 
Gammer Gurton'.s Needle must have been amused 
with the side-note on the woman's search for the 
bacon, " which Diccon had stolen, as hath been 
before rehearsed." To this may be added the 
very small amount of matter which went to a joke. 
Here is the whole of a good thing recorded of 
Cardinal Du Perron, and entered under Canne, 
which would now be spelt cane, in the alphabet- 
ical digest which is cited as the Perroniana. 

" Canne. Un jour voyant aBagnolet des Cannes qui se 
battoient dans le vivier, il dit, c'est la bataille de Cannes." 

That such a man as Ortuinus could so entangle 
the pattern of a satire, must greatly enforce the 
suspicion that these explanations and amplifica- 
tions were really needed, and that our ancestors 
took more time than we do to see a joke, and 
managed to see very little ones. If boys of 
eighteen now read the Principia of Newton, which 
not a dozen men in Europe could read at its first 
appearance, it is not beyond credibility that as 
much improvement may have taken place on 
easier ground. 

The Epistolce attack the parentage of Ortuinus, 
and hint that he was the son of a priest. It does 
not say much for the clergy that this imputation 
was a common resource of the orthodox : Eras- 
mus, as is well-known, had to bear the same re- 
proach. Hamilton observes that Ortuinus, in 
disproving his sacerdotal filiation, which he does 
more than once, always preserves a suspicious 
silence touching his mother. The silence, how- 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. vi. 133., JULY IT. '58. 



ever, is not so very complete. In the letter of 
Ortuinus above alluded to, and in a sufficient ac- 
count of his family, he states that his father was 
still living, but that .his mother died while he was 
very young (f tenera primum estate) and on the 
right side of ill fame : matre mea Gertrude citra 
inhonestatem defuncta. The phrase is one of sin- 
gular brevity and limitation, and seems to admit 
something : it is to me the single point from which 
a suspicion might arise that this epistle was a for- 
gery of the enemy. 

The Epistolcs gradually declined in notoriety. 
I think Bayle had never read these celebrated 
letters. Of Hutten he appears to have thought 
little, and only just knows that he is said to have 
been one of the authors. He says more of these 
epistles in connexion with Hochstrat the inqui- 
sitor, and the proof that he did not die of them, 
than in connexion with Hutten or Reuchlin. But 
the negative proof is the strongest : Bayle does 
not quote them. They were satirical, directed 
against bigotry and stupidity, and very indecent : 
what would Bayle have wanted more ? The letter 
of Federhusius, alluded to in the previous paper, 
would have furnished one at least of his charac- 
teristic notes : and any one who, having read this 
letter, and knowing that Bayle does not quote it, 
imagines Bayle to have read it, does a cruel in- 
justice to his memory. 

There are in our country two extremes of 
opinion about the Epist. Obs. Vir. On the one 
hand, Hallarn accounts for their reception rather 
by their suitableness to the time than by their 
merit : and gives them, iii reference to the Re- 
formation, about as much effect as the Mariage de 
Figaro had on the French Revolution. But he 
forgets, what never ought to have been forgotten 
in connexion with these letters, that the victims 
were taken in by them, and imagined the felon's 
garb in which they were exhibited to be a robe of 
honour. The Puritans never took Butler for a 
Puritan, nor did the admirers of chivalry ever 
imagine that Don Quixote was written by one of 
themselves. The wit which made Erasmus laugh 
till he burst an abscess in the face, and saved 
himself nn operation, will still be found poignant 
and refreshing. The indirect effect upon the 
Reformation is as well-established as such a thing 
can be: for Luther admitted that he could have 
done nothing without the victory gained by 
Reuchlin, and it is not contested that the imme- 
diate cause of the victory was the appearance of 
the Epistolce. 

On the other hand, Hamilton calls the Epistola 
" the national satire of Germany," and Hutten, 
the " great national patriot " of the Germans, 
reproaches the nation with not having published 
a proper edition of it; says that it "gave the 
victory to Reuchlin over the Begging Friars, and 
to Luther over the Court of Rome." He makes 



a hero of Hutten ; hints that he could, if occa- 
sion served, clear his character of the many scan- 
dals which encrust it, and of the unfavourable 
account given by Erasmus. All this amounts to 
more, probably, than can be justified by such 
evidence as indifferent persons require. Hutten 
was a man of some learning, more satire, and not 
particular to a shade in matters of behaviour. He 
was of desperate courage, both physical and 
moral. Though small and weakly, he put five 
robbers to flight with his own good sword : with- 
out any power of commanding respect, he routed 
thousands of monks with his own wicked wit. 

A. DE MORGAN. 



THE REV. WILLIAM CROWE, AUTHOR OF "LEWES- 
DON HILL." 

The impression conveyed in " N. & Q." (2 nd 
S. v. 308.) that there is no edition of the col- 
lected poetical works of the Rev. William Crowe is 
erroneous. Since the original publication at 
Oxford in 1788 of his Lewesdon Hill, there have 
been three, if not four, editions of his poetry, the 
latest of which appeared in 1827; some two years 
before his death. Lewesdon Hill has been warmly 
commended by Wordsworth, who was usually 
penurious enough in dispensing his praise to his 
contemporaries, and has been eulogised in no 
measured terms by Moore, Bowles, and Crabbe *, 
all of whom were personally acquainted with the 
author, and did not allow his eccentricities, some- 
times sufficiently startling, to interfere with their 
appreciation of his genius. 

William Crowe, the son of a carpenter at Win- 
chester, was born in that city about 1752 (the pre- 
cise date of his birth I have been unable to 
ascertain), and having exhibited from childhood 
a remarkable taste for music, along with a happy 
power of giving expression to it by his voice, was 
fortunate enough to attract the notice of several 
members of the Chapter of William of Wykeham's 
famous institution, and was employed, through 
their instrumentality, occasionally as one of the 
choristers of the College Chapel. In accordance 
with a practice, long since discontinued, of select- 
ing one or more boys from this body for admission 
to the foundation of the school, young Crowe was 
elected a " poor scholar ; " and such was the rapi- 
dity of his progress in the branches of polite learn- 
ing which are taught in that establishment, that at 
the earliest period at which it was possible for him 
to become eligible, he was transferred to New 
College, Oxford ; agreeably with the privilege en- 
joyed by Winchester boys of mark when their 
term of probation in the school has been com- 



* Bowles calls Lewesdon Hill the most sublime loco- 
descriptive poem in the English language, and Moore 
considered it the best piece of blank verse since the days 
of Milton. 



2<is. vi. 133., JULY 17. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



43 



pie ted. So indefatigable was the young poet in 
the pursuit of his studies, that he soon attained 
the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, and in 1773 
was elected Fellow of his college. We hear much 
in these days of Civil Service Commissions, and 
Competitive Examinations, of the difficulties which 
used to present themselves to the advancement of 
men of genius in former times ; but I very much 
doubt if the present much-vaunted system will not 
introduce more mediocrity of intellect into high 
places than ever found its way to them under the 
old arrangement. The number of the alumni of 
Winchester School from the date of its foundation 
iu 1387 to the present day, who have risen to 
eminence by the unaided force of their own 
talents and perseverance, forbids the notion 
that our ancestors were as destitute of oppor- 
tunities of self-advancement as modern theorists 
would have us believe. That the times were less 
favourable to that glib mediocrity, that parrot- 
like exhibition of artificially-acquired knowledge 
with which the modern aspirant is crammed for a 
particular object, can hardly be disputed. In the j 
instance in question, the poor carpenter's son be- ! 
came the Professor of Poetry, and afterwards the 
Public Orator of the University to which the hand 
of charity had conducted him ; having adorned j 
our literature by one of the most admirable de- j 
scriptive poems which has been produced in our 
time. After filling the post of college tutor for j 
several years with ability and success, a sermon j 
preached by Mr. Crowe before the University in ! 
1781 produced so strong an impression in his | 
favour that he was presented in the following year j 
to the valuable rectory of Alton Barnes, which he j 
continued to hold until his death. On the resig- | 
nation of Doctor Bandinell in 1784, Mr. Crowe j 
was appointed Public* Orator of the University ; ! 
and long before his death, held church preferment j 
which yielded him (so Mr. Moore affirms on his 
authority), an income of more than 1000/. per 
annum. 

In 1786 Mr. Crowe published his " excellent 
loco-descriptive poem," as Wordsworth calls it, 
Lewesdon Hill. The locality from which it de- 
rives its title is situated in the western part 
of Dorsetshire, and overlooks the whole coun- 
try between it and the sea. To the top of this 
hill the author describes himself as walking on 
a morning of the month of May ; and the poeti- 
cal reader who may happen to possess the re- 
quisite amount of faith, is expected to believe 
that the various scenes which it commands were 
reviewed and described on such a morning be- 
fore breakfast. This poem has been characterised 
by competent judges as one of the best examples 
of descriptive blank verse which has been produced 
in modern times. In the same year Mr. Crowe 
published the Creweian Oration which he had 
delivered to the University on the centenary of 



the Revolution. In 1802 he edited the poetry of 
his friend and schoolfellow William Collins ; but 
the book, shabbily printed and carelessly edited, 
added little to what was already known of Col- 
lins, and nothing to the fame of either the poet 
or his editor. In 1812 Mr. Crowe published, in 
conjunction with Mr. Caldecott, annotated edi- 
tions of " Hamlet" and " As you Like it," as a 
specimen of a projected edition of Shakspearc; 
but was not encouraged by its reception to carry 
out his project. He was in fact deficient in the 
patient industry which is an indispensable quali- 
fication for the efficient performance of such a 
task. He continued until a short time before 
his death to deliver the Creweian Oration, al- 
ternately with the Professor of Poetry, at the 
Commemoration Festivals ; and his remarkable 
appearance in the rostrum, and the sonorous enun- 
ciation of his carefully balanced periods, invested 
his performances with no ordinary interest ; whilst 
the eccentricity of his costume, and his utter 
disregard of all conventional usages, rendered 
him an object of curiosity wherever he presented 
himself. His habits of economy and contempt of 
personal indulgence were such, that he usually 
performed his journeys from Alton-Barnes to Ox- 
ford and back again on foot. On such occasions, 
during the summer season, he would often be en- 
countered pressing forward with rapid and vigor- 
ous strides, with his coat thrown across his stick, 
and his hat in his hand, philosophically indifferent 
to the sensation which such an exhibition was cal- 
culated to excite. For the last two years of his 
life, however, he resided under medical advice at 
Bath, where he died, after a short illness, on 
February 29, 1829. His latest publication was a 
Treatise on English Versification, which may be 
safely recommended as the best work of its kind 
extant. Moore tells us in his Diary that Crowe 
married the daughter of a fruiterer at Oxford, by 
whom he had several children, and that he con- 
tinued, in spite of the college statutes, to hold 
his fellowship notwithstanding ; but how this was 
managed I am wholly unable to explain. Should 
modern reformers succeed in removing the mar- 
riage disqualification for holding such appoint- 
ments, the chances of fellowships for celibataires 
will, I fear, be materially diminished. A. A. W. 



JUNIUS-IANA. 



Junius and Sir Philip Francis : 

[Valuable and important as have been the various arti- 
cles on the authorship of the celebrated Letters of Junius 
which have from time to time appeared in The Athe- 
naum, none have been more so than one entitled " Philip 
Francis and Pope Ganganelli in 177-2," which appeared 
in that journal on the 9th of January last; and in which 
is published the letter to Dr. Campbell describing Fran- 
cis's two hours' interview with Pope Ganganelli in 1772 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [*- s. vi. m, JULY 17. 



a letter to which allusion was made in the memoir of Sir 
P. Francis published in the Monthly Mirror in 1810. 
Written in the year in which Junius ceased to write, it 
was thought this letter would afford a much safer crite- 
rion for judging of Sir Philip's style than any of his pub- 
lished writings, the earliest of which appeared several 
years after Junius had ceased to write. In this private 
letter Francis speaks of that king whom Junius so 
fiercely denounced, " as a great and good king who does 
honour to a throne ; " and, as the following extract shows, 
well might Francis write gratefully of George the Third : 

"The Athenaeum has ever held that it was not within 
the range of human weakness or baseness, for a Francis, 
either father or son, to have written with scorn, contempt, 
and hatred of the king : yet that scorn, contempt, and 
hatred are marking characteristics of Junius Mackin- 
tosh thought them the marking characteristics. The 
King was the very breath of their life the bread they 
ate came from his bounty. The Doctor, indeed, was a 
personal favourite with the King, and both father and son 
were prodigally favoured and rewarded, though there is 
no mention of this in the Memoir. The Doctor, if we 
mistake not, had more than one Crown living ; certainly, 
that of Barrow, in Suffolk. In 1762 he had a grant of a 
pension of 600/. a year for thirty-one years on the Irish 
Fund. In 1763 his son Philip was raised at once from a 
junior clerk in the Secretary of State's office, to be chief 
clerk of the War Office. In 1764 the Doctor was ap- 
pointed chaplain to Chelsea Hospital, an appointment 
which we have reason to believe he soon after sold for 
an annuity ; and in the same }~ear he had an additional 
grant of 3001. a year from the King's Civil List! In 
17 < 1-2, Philip Francis had some difference with Lord 
Barrington, then Secretary at War, and resigned ; but he 
was in 1773 recommended by that same Lord Barrington 
to a much better place Member of the Council of Ben- 
gal. Barrington was not a man whose recommendation 
to a Prime Minister would have ensured the humblest 
appointment ; he was not a leader of either of the great 
parties which then divided the nation ; but he was the 
direct nominee of the King, and did his bidding ; one of 
the King's Friends, as they were called, which, by acting 
in concert, carried to either side a majority, and ensured 
a triumph. Lord North accepted Barrington's recom- 
mendation, although, as Francis afterwards acknowledged, 
Lord North at that time had no 'personal knowledge' of 
him whatever. We cannot doubt that the King ' did it 
all' that Barrington had orders to recommend and Lord 
North to accept the recommendation ; and thus the form 
of the constitution was kept up. The King as we now 
know from his letter to Lord North, June 8, 1773 had 
a high opinion of the ability of Philip Francis; "I 
don't know the personal qualifications of others, except Mr. 
Francis, who is allowed to be a man of talents." There 
is reason to believe that Francis, while in India, corre- 
sponded privately with Lord North or the King ; certain 
that his letters were received by or submitted to the 
King, who expressed his ' fullest approbation ' of his con- 
duct ; and it is said in 4 The Memoir ' that, when Francis 
returned to England, ' nobody would speak to him but the 
King and Edmund Burke.' To us, theref9re, this out- 
burst of feeling about ' the great and good prince ' seems 
more characteristic of a Francis than a Junius." 

But let the reader turn to the letter itself see whether 
the style resembles that of Junius, and even if he should 
see, which we do not, any points of resemblance, then 
pause before he slanders the memory of Sir P. Francis by 
pronouncing him to have been Junius.] 

The "Letters of Canana" Can any readers of 
" N. & Q," throw light upon the authorship of the 



pamphlet described in the following extract from 
Mr. Hotteri's Adversaria : 

" It may, perhaps, interest the readers of Adversaria to 
know that a curious and remarkable Junius pamphlet was 
lately sold at a book sale in London. ' The title of the 
tract is, Twelve Letters of Canana ; or, the Impropriety of 
Petitioning the King to Dissolve the Parliament, 8vo., pri- 
vately printed, 1770. In the sale catalogue it was justly 
described as ' of the GREATEST RARITY, if not UNIQUE.' 
The following description was also added : 'A most re- 
markable pamphlet, unmentioned by all bibliographers. 
It contains a violent attack on JUNIUS, whom the writer 
evidently knew, as in p. 37. are the following lines: 
" When I consider this author as a man of rank and for- 
tune, as one that has refused great offers, and one who it 
is impossible ever should be known (and all these things 
I must believe, for he has told me them himself), I la- 
ment his quality, I grieve for his indiscretion 

I never told to whom these formidable papers were al- 
ways sent before they were permitted to be published ; I 
never explained why, of all the Ministers in your time, 
in or past the chair, ONE ONLY never was abused by 
Junius. For these things might have led to a discovery 
1 had no wish to make," ' &c. The appearance of the 
pamphlet justifies the conclusion that it was privately 
printed ; and we should imagine but very few copies 
were struck off, perhaps not more than half-a-dozen. On 
the title is a curious woodcut engraving of a coat of arms. 

"It was suggested at the time of the sale that this 
might give a clue either to the author or to Junius. Mr. 
Boone purchased the pamphlet for 21. 

" A distinguished bookseller arrived just as the hammer 
decided its future ownership, and he boldly declared he 
would have given 51. rather than have missed it. The 
British Museum will, in all probability, be the repository 
of this singular printed document." * 

ANON. 

Junius' Letters to Wilkes. Presuming that "N. 
& Q." is now seen by many more readers than 
when the question " Where are the original MSS. 
of Junius' Letters to Wilkes?" was inserted in 
the 3rd volume of the 1 st Se.ries, p. 241., will you 
permit me to repeat it ? MR. HALLAM, as it ap- 
pears by his letter to " N. & Q. (1 st S. iv. 476.), 
returned them to the late Peter Elinsley, Princi- 
pal of St. Alban's Hall, some time previous to the 
death of that gentleman, which took place in 1824 
or 1825. Since that event all traces of them have 
disappeared. Is it known what became of Mr. 
Elmsley's books and papers ? I have heard that 
they are in Edinburgh. Can any of your Edin- 
burgh correspondents throw light upon the point? 

M. J. L. 

Single- Speech Hamilton said to le Junius. 
The following, taken from the Political Magazine, 
for January, 1787 (p. 65.), points out Single- 
Speech Hamilton. The italics are in the ori- 
ginal : 

" Anecdote o/JuNius. The Letters of Junius having 
excited the admiration of all Europe, it may not be un- 
acceptable to our readers to make them acquainted with 
the elegant author of them. Not long before Junius ter- 
minated his literary career, the Duke of R ch d was 

[* It was purchased for the British Museum. ED. 
N. & Q."] 



" d S. VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



one day taking a morning walk, when he accidentally 
met with the Right Hon. W in G rr d H m It n, 
who asked his Grace if he had that day read Junius, for 

that he was greater than ever. Mr. then began to 

recite several parts of the letter, which led the Duke to 
return home in order to peruse the remainder ; when, to 
his verv great surprize, he found that no such letter had 
made its appearance in the Public Advertiser of that 
day. His Grace mentioned the circumstance to several 
of "his friends, and, on the following day, the identical 
letter appeared; having by accident or mistake been 

omitted to be inserted, as was intended by Mr. H the 

preceding day. This led to the long-wished-for discovery 
of the author of Junius, and a cabinet council was forth- 
with assembled, to determine on what was necessary to 
be done. The Earl of Suffolk, at that time one of his 
Majesty's principal Secretaries of State, was veiy violent 

on the occasion, and recommended committing Mr. H 

(he being a member of parliament, and privy counsellor 
in Ireland,) close prisoner to the Tower. This measure 
the sagacious Lord Mansfield as violently opposed ; wisely 
observing, that the Letters of Junius had already suffi- 
ciently roused and alarmed the spirit of the nation, and 
the sooner it was quieted the better. In consequence of 

this salutary counsel, a message was sent to Mr. H , 

to acquaint him that he was known, and that it was his 
M j -y's pleasure, he should continue to hold for life, 
apartments which he has ever since occupied in the 
palace of Hampton Court." 

R. WEBB. 

Rev. Edward Marshall, a supposed Author of 
Junius. In the new volume (viii.) of Nichols's 
Literary Illustrations of the Eighteenth Century, 
p. 680., in the course of the memoir of Thomas 
Rodd, senior, the bookseller, mention is made of 
"the Rev. Edward* Marshall, of Charing in Kent, 
one of the supposed authors of Junius' Letters" 
Can any reader of " N". & Q." say where this claim 
has been put forward ? A JUNTUS QUERIST. 



COINCIDENCES AMONG THE POETS. 

The very able and interesting paper on Crashaw 
and Shelley, communicated by D. F. M'CARTHY 
(2 nd S. v. 449.), reminds me of some resemblances 
and coincidences among the poets, of which he him- 
self has so pleasingly treated. As Mason writes to 
Walpole, " I do not pretend to be learned away 
from my books," and can send only a few in- 
stances, supplied chiefly by memory. These are, 
perhaps, sufficiently remarkable to be worthy of a 
place m "N. & Q." And without farther preface, 
I begin with parallel passages by Beaumont and 
Fletcher, and Wordsworth. The subiect is 
"Books": 

"... That place that does contain 
My books, the best companion is to me ; 
A glorious court where hourly I converse 
With the old sages and philosophers ; 
And sometimes, for variety, I confer 



[* The Rev. Edmund (not Edward) Marshall, vicar of 
Charing, was an occasional writer, chiefly on political 
subjects, in the Kentish Gazette, under the signature of 
Cantiauus." Ob. May 5, 1797.] 



With Kings and Emperors, and weigh their counsels. 
Calling their victories, if unjusth" got, 
To a strict account ; and in my fancy 
Deface their ill-placed statues." 

B. and F., Elder Brother, Act 1. 

"... Books we know 

Are a substantial world, both pure and good. 

Round these, with tendrils strong as flesh and blood, 

Our pastime and our happiness will grow. 

There find I personal themes a plenteous store, 

Matter wherein right voluble I am, 

To which I listen with a ready ear." 

W. (Moxon's edit., 358.) 

In Wordsworth and in Spenser this line occurs 
word for word : 

" A weed of glorious feature," 

and both Wordsworth and Dryden use the term 
"fool of nature." I am sorry, however, that my 
defective memory will not allow me to supply the 
references ; and I should be thankful to any cor- 
respondent who would indicate the position of the 
passage in Spenser. Again, here are three very 
similar lines from three very dissimilar poets : 

" He best can paint them who shall feel them most." 

Pope. 
" And what I dictate is from what I feel." Prior. 

(" Your breast may lose the calm it long has known,) 
And learn my woes to pity by its own." 

Hammond. 
Again, Pope's line 

" To err is human, to forgive divine," 
has a remarkable affinity to one in a brilliant but 
not commendable prose writer, Petronius Arbiter, 
who says: "Nemo nostrum non peccat, homines 
sumus non dii." And I may add that the maxim 
of the last writer, " Nequaquam recte faciet qui 
cito credit," is traceable in the maxim of Halifax : 
" Men are saved in this world by want of faith." 
How close, too, are the following, by Wordsworth 
and by Hood : 

" So that a doubt almost within me springs 
Of Providence" W., Powers of Imagination. 

" Even God's providence seeming estranged." 

H., Bridge of Sighs. 

Milton has somewhere the words, " tormented 
all the air," but I have seen them cited from an- 
other poet. The citation may be wrong, as in the 
case of an editor of a British son of song who 
ascribed to Warton the passage from Milton : 

" And over them triumphant Death, his dart 
Shook, but delay'd to strike." 

How familiar to us is the line 

" Even in our ashes live their wonted fires ; " 

but Chaucer said something very like it in the 
Reeve's Prologue, long before : 

" Yet in our aijshen olde is fyr i-reke." 
In Chaucer, too, occurs the line 

" Blake or white I take ne kepe." 
The Irish poet who wrote the famous " Croo- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2 d s. vi. 133., JULY 17. ' 5 s. 



skeen Lawn," has the same sentiment when dis- 
cussing fair maids or brown, and expresses equal 
admiration for " colleen dhuv no bavvn." Equally 
close are Pope's 

" At ev'ry word a reputation dies," 
Churchill's Apology 

" And reputation bleeds in ev'ry word," 
and Sheridan's prose remark of Sir Peter Tea- 
zle 

" A character dead at eveiy word." 

Here I pause : not for lack of other examples, 
but that the perfume of the bean blossoms which, 
for the moment, have entire possession of old 
Richborough Castle, invites me to a spot where 
poets may have an antepast of Araby the Blest, 
and prosaic gluttons dream of bacon. J. DORAN. 



THE SEVEN CHAMPIONS AND SHAKSPEAIJ,!!!. 

We might suppose that no portions of Shaks- 
peare's reading, no source whence he might have 
derived ideas or images, could have escaped MR. 
COLLIER, MR. DYCE, and so many others, who 
seem, as it were, to live in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. It was, therefore, with no small 
surprise that, when lately reading the Seven 
Champions of Christendom with a view to Spenser, 
I discovered that it had evidently been a favourite 
with Shakspeare ; so much so, as that he had 
actually borrowed some of his most beautiful 
imagery from it. I adduce the following in- 
stances : 

" The current that with gentle murmur glides, 

Thou knowest, being stopped, impatiently doth rage ; 
But, when his fair course is not hindered, 
He makes sweet music with the enameled stones, 
Giving a qentle kiss to every sedge, 
He overtaketh in his pilgrimage." 

Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act. II. Sc. 7. 

" As they passed along by a river's side, which gently 
running made sweet music with the enameled stones, and 
seemed to give a gentle kiss to every sedge he overtook in his 
watery pilgrimage." Seven Champions, Part III. ch. xii. 

" Beauty's ensign yet 
Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, 
And Death's pale flag is not advanced there." 

Romeo and Juliet, Act V. Sc. 3. 

" Where they found, in Duke Ursini, Death's pale flag 
advanced in his cheeks." Seven Champions, Part III. ch. 
xi. 

" As zephyrs blowing beneath the violet, 
Not wagging his sweet head." 

Cymbeline, Act. IV. Sc. % 

" It seemed indeed that the leaves wagged, ns you may 
behold when Zepkyrus with a gentle breath plays with 
them." Seven Champions, Part III. ch. xvi. 

Cymbeline is one of the latest of Shakspeare's 
plays, and this shows how the language of the 
Seven Champions had impressed itself on his 
mind. I am hence induced to think that in 



" Fly with false aim ; move the still-peering air, 
That sings with piercing," 

Airs Well, Act III. Sc. 2. 

J the poet's word for " still- peering," which is un- 
I doubtedly wrong, was " still-fleeting ; " for in the 
i Seven Champions (Part III. ch. x'iii.) we meet, 
" Whose feathered arrows outrun the piercing eye, 
j and cut a passage through tlie fleeting air." I do 
: not like " still piecing" which is the reading most 
! approved, though I know that piecing signifies 
| joining as well as eking, adding ; but there is an 
i unpleasant jingle between it and piercing, even 
I supposing the latter pronounced percing. I once 
' thought that " still-peering " might be right, 
! taking still in the sense of tranquil ; but I can 
i find no authority. When in composition, it al- 
| ways denotes continuance. 

1 may have been anticipated in these dis- 
coveries, but having examined the Bosvvell-Ma- 
lone editions, and those of Collier (1st), Knight, 
Singer, and Dyce, I have found no traces of 
i them. THOMAS KEIGIITLET. 



KING ALFRED S JEWEL. 

Upon a recent visit to Oxford, the place of niy 
nativity, I paid my accustomed devoir to the 
many interesting antiquities which pertain to the 
University, and amongst those in the Ashmolean 
Museum. In this receptacle of curiosities, there 
j is not one more rare than King Alfred's jewel ; 
some particulars in relation to which may not in- 
appropriately be recorded in the pages of " N". & 
Q." I should be glad if any of its readers can 
furnish me with more information in relation to 
this precious jewel than is contained in Brayley's 
Graphic Illustrator, which, I think, establishes its 
authenticity beyond dispute. 

This very curious and beautiful specimen of 
Anglo-Saxon art was found in the isle of Athel- 
ney in Somersetshire about the close of the seven- 
teenth century. It is of pure gold enamelled, 
and on one side partly faced by crystal ; the 
weight is somewhat more than an ounce, and its 
length about two inches and a half. 

We learn from Asser (his friend and biogra- 
pher) that when King Alfred had by his victories 
secured the blessings of peace, he resolved to ex- 
tend among them a knowledge of the arts ; for 
which purpose he collected " from many nations an 
almost innumerable multitude of artificers, many 
of them the most expert in their respective 
trades." Among the workmen were " not a few " 
who wrought in gold and silver; and who, acting 
under the immediate instructions of Alfred " in- 
comparably executed" (so says Asser) "many 
things with those metals." In accordance with 
the inscription on the jewel itself, therefore, which 
records the name of Alfred in those peculiar cha- 



S . VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



racters designated as the Gallic-Saxon by Dr. 
Hickes, we can hardly err in referring this unique 
production to the time of that illustrious monarch. 

The jewel is of an oval form ; but at the lower 
end is a projecting head of some sea or scaly mon- 
ster, from whose jaws issues a small tube, within 
which is fixed a minute pin of gold ; intended 
probably to connect this ornament witli a band 
or collar when worn pendant from the neck. 
The edge has a purfled border of a rich net or 
filagree work, within which, " on a plane rising 
obliquely " (as described by Dr. Musgrave in the 
Philosophical Transactions, vol. xx., Xo. 247.), 
" is the inscription, which in Saxon letters reads 
thus ' .EIrptb mec Heic Ire^ycpan,' " i.e. Alfred 
commanded me to be made. At the inner side of 
the inscription is a narrow border of gold, edged 
with leaves or escallops, which fasten down a thin 
plate of crystal. This covers a kind of outline 
representation of a half-length male figure, with a 
grave countenance, wrought upon the area within. 
His head is somewhat inclined to the right, and in 
each hand is a sceptre, or rather lily, the flowers 
of which rise above the shoulders, but are con- 
joined at the bottom. 

On the reverse, upon a thin plate of gold, re- 
tained in its place by the purfled border, on a 
matted ground, is a larger lily artificially set and 
occupying nearly the whole of the central space. 
The stalk and the leaves rise from a bulbous root, 
and the upper part expands into three flowers, 
not ungracefully disposed. 

There has been much contrariety of opinion 
among antiquaries as to whom the figure was in- 
tended to represent, and it has been assigned to 
the Saviour, to Pope Martin, to St. Cuthbert, and 
to the great Alfred himself. Wotton, in his Short 
View of Hickes' s Thesaurus, p. 16., remarks, 
"As to the man in it, that profound gravity in 
his countenance, and the two sceptres, emblems 
of the power which the Father gave to CHRIST, 
both in heaven and earth, make me believe that 
the picture is JESUS, whom Alfred, perhaps while 
he staid at Rome, would out of piety have drawn 
from some famous artist." 

May not Alfred have lost this precious jewel 
during his sojourn in the isle of Athelney, in 
which it was found ? EIGHTY-THREE. 

Worcester. 



Allan Ramsay. We learn from Wodrow's Ana- 
lecta, a most amusing collection of gossip, little 
known in the South, that Allan Ramsay had excited 
the wrath of the righteous by his taste for light lite- 
rature. In 1733 there was "printed and sold by 
Allan Ramsay," Edinburgh, 12mo., The Devil of 
a Duke, or Trapolins Vagaries, a (Farcical Bal- 
lad) Opera, as acted at the Theatres of London and 



Edinburgh. The same year Drury had success- 
fully produced a musical afterpiece of the same 
name : copies of both are before me, and upon 
looking into the two, I find the former to be an 
enlargement of the latter ; the first scene, with 
the songs, being entirely new, the English version 
commencing with what is the second scene in the 
Scotch one. There are various additions and 
songs in the Scotch opera. The dramatis persona; 
are the same, with a single alteration, "the Puritan" 
being, probably to please the Scotch palate, con- 
verted into a " Quaker." All the songs occurring 
for the first time in Ramsay's edition are to Scotch 
tunes, the other ones being at the same time re- 
tained and sung to English tunes, excepting one 
to Daintie Davie, which occurs in both versions. 
The airs in scene 1. are ' ; What should a Lassie 
do with an Old Man," "Willy was a Wanton 
Wag," " The Lads of Dunse," " Almansor," " O'er 
Boggy," and " Colin's Complaint." May these 
additions not be by him, seeing he was both prin- 
ter and publisher, though he did not choose to 
put his name to them ? J. M. 

Acrostics on Queen Victoria. Acrostics, Greek 
and English, on the name of the Queen Victoria, 
on occasion of her inaugurating the People's Park, 
Birmingham : 

" B Lorov <TQV TOV irayK\ei,Tov 
'I (TTOpovtrii/ ot <ro<f><.<TTal, 
K al yap Koafj.ov rov Se o\ov 
T b Kparos <rou afA$i/3ai'yet. 
'fl pcua 6' eTTK^aveia. 
'P aSi'w? 7roA.iv etcreA#e 
'I Aapa 5' diro/SatVovo'a, 



[The wise shall write the history of thy all-glorious 
life, for thy power protects the entire world. Thy coming 
is propitious. Enter safely the town ; and joyfully de- 
parting, mayest thou remain free from care.] 

<l V ictoria comes not as the tepid Queen, 
I ntent to honor potent Leicester's scene. 
C oming to Birmingham, her great design, 
T o test the philosophic truth divine 

f man's characteristic, as tool maker ; * 

R oam where you will, you need not elsewhere take her. 

1 f Queenly Bess was good ev'n to the letter 
A dmitting it, Victoria still is better." 

Ink Recipes. 

" TJie Ink of the Ancients. Mr. Joseph Ellis, in the 
Journal of the Society of Arts, remarks that the late Mr. 
Charles Hatchett, F.R.S., explained to him that by mak- 
ing a solution of shellac with borax, in water, and adding 
a suitable proportion of pure lamp-black, an ink is pro- 
ducible which is indestructible by time, or by chemical 
agents, and which, on drying, will present a polished 
surface, as with the ink found on the Eg3^ptian papyri. 
Mr. Ellis says he has made such ink, and proved the cor- 
rectness of Mr. Hatchett's formula, if not its identity with 
that of ancient Egypt." 

Coathupes Writing Fluid. To eighteen ounces 
of water, add one ounce of powdered borax, and 



* " 'O Se avflp 

Arist. Pol. i. 2. 



oir\a. 



(bvero.t. <f>poirn<rei Ka.1 



48 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. [2- s. vi. 133., JULY 17. 58. 



two ounces of bruised shellac, and boil them in a 
covered vessel, stirring them occasionally till dis- 
solved. Filter when cold through coarse filtering 
paper ; add one ounce of mucilage ; boil for a few 
minutes, adding sufficient powdered indigo or 
lamp-black to colour it. Leave the mixture for 
two or three hours to allow the coarser particles to 
subside. Pour it from the dregs, and bottle for 
use. 

Carbon Ink. Dissolve real Indian ink in 
common black ink ; or add a small quantity of 
lamp-black, previously heated to redness, ground 
perfectly smooth, with a small portion of the ink 
made very hot. J. B. NEIL. 

Matthew Tindal, D.C.L. As my ancestor Dr. 
Matthew Tindal has been frequently mentioned 
in " N. & Q." in the article entitled " Stray Notes 
on Edmund Curll," by S. N. M., I send you the 
following information relating to himself and his 
family ; it is extracted from a pedigree recently 
compiled for me from legal evidence by Mr. G. 
W. Collen of the Heralds' College : Matthew 
Tindal, D.C.L., Fellow of All Souls' Coll., Oxford, 
was baptized at Beerferris, co. Devon, May 12, 
1657. He was the eldest son of the Rev. John 
Tindal, B.D., Rector of the same parish, and 
Anne bis wife, daughter of Matthew Hals of 
Efford, in the county of Devon, Esq., by Sabina, 
daughter of Thomas Clifford of Ugbrook in the 
parish of Chudleigh, co. Devon, Esq., and aunt of 
Thomas Lord Clifford of Chudleigh, Lord High 
Treasurer of England. He had one brother, the 
Rev. John Tindal, rector of St. Ives, Cornwall, 
and vicar of Cornwood, co. Devon, who married 
Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Nicolas Prideaux of 
St. Thomas, in the island of Barbados, Esq., and 
Member of Council. No sister is mentioned 
either in the will of the father, John Tindal of 
Beerferris, or in the pedigree compiled by Mr. 
Collen ; consequently I am at a loss to know who 
" Mrs. Anne Parre" can be who is mentioned in 
the " Stray Notes," as a sister of Matthew Tindal, 
and who is said to have commenced a suit in 
Doctors' Commons to set aside his will. 

ACTON TINDAL. 

Manor House, Aylesbury. 



iftiturr 

"Hibernia Merlinus" 1683. I have a copy of 
a curious little volume of forty-eight pages, 24mo., 
and entitled Hibernice Merlinus for the Year of 
Our Lord 1683, which was purchased at the sale of 
Mr. Monck Mason's library on the 29th of March 
last (No. 16. in the catalogue). It was compiled 
by John Bourk, Philomath ; was printed in Dub- 
lin in 1683, by Benjamin Tooke and John Crooke, 
printers to the king ; and contains " the Constitu- 



tions of the Air, the Rising and Setting of the 
Sun, the Tides, the Terms and their Returns, with 
many other Useful Observations, fitted to the 
Longitude and Latitude of all Places within this 
Kingdom of Ireland, and the Western Parts of 
England." There is likewise "a Chronology of 
all the Chief Governours from 1172 to 1682, with 
many other Remarkable Observations and useful 
Tables, with Additions ; with High-ways, Fairs, 
and Markets." 

Is there any earlier specimen of an Irish al- 
manac ? ABHBA. 

Original Sin. Who first gave the inherent 
corruption of our nature the term of original sin f 



Cathedral Virge. 

" Acts, orders, and decrees made, ordained, decreed, and 
enjo\ r ned by the R l . Rev d . ffather in God, Edward L d . Bp. 
of Corke and Rossein the ordinary visitacon of the Deane 
and Chapter ; and in the visitacon of the Quire of the 
Cathedrall Church of S 4 . ffinbary, Corke. begunne the 
third day of Novemb r . Ann Dni 1688, and from thence 
duelv continued from day to day before the said L d . Bp. 
in the Chapter House aforesaid, in presence of Rich*. 
Sampson, Not. Pub. Dep. Reg." 

" Item, the said Lord Bp. decreed, enjoyned, and or- 
dered as in his last visitacon that the Virge be not sett 
up an end hereafter by the Deanes stall, but that it be 
laid downe by the cushion before the senior dignitary or 
pbendary then psent, according to the Antient and usuall 
custome"of all Cathedralls both in England and Ireland. 
And that for better observation hereof the Irons nailed to 
the post by the Deane's Stall for such rediculous setting 
up the Virge be forthwith taken or strucken down before 
they be three years standing. 

" E. CORKE AND ROSSK." 

Is this custom of laying the virge on the cushion 
before the senior dignitary or prebendary's stall 
still observed in any of the English cathedrals ? 
In this country I have always remarked that the 
virge was placed in an erect position against the 
pillar at the left side of the dean's stall, whether 
he happened to be present or not. R. C. 

Cork. 

Bonhams of Essex. Can any of your readers 
inform me when General Pinson Bonham died ? 

. H. J. H. 

Judges, frc., Gowns, Wigs, frc.As the con- 
troversial matter in " N. & Q." relating to aca- 
demic gowns may now be considered to be at an 
end, can you be induced to reprint the table with 
the corrections it has received ? Permit me also 
to ask, how are the gowns described worn by 
judges, queen's counsel, barristers, &c., in Eng- 
'land, Ireland, and Scotland ? Also, what are the 
varieties of wigs ? Judges of Courts of Record in 
England are entitled to wear silk gowns ; and 
on this account they are worn by county court 
judges and recorders. What wigs are they en- 
titled to wear ? Lastly, what is the legal prece- 
dence of judges of county courts since the act 



VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



forbidding them to appear at the bar of any court 
of law as practitioners? X. X. 

Teresa and Martha Blount. Are any portraits 
in existence of these ladies, the friends of Pope ? 
and if so, have engraved copies been made of them? 

UNEDA. 
Philadelphia. 

The Pronunciation of the Latin Language. The 
earliest teachers of the dead languages in the 
British colonies now forming the Middle States of 
the American Union, were natives of Ireland, in 
which country the Latin language was (and, I be- 
lieve, still is) pronounced in the same manner as on 
the continent of Europe ; hence that pronuncia- 
tion prevailed here universally until within the 
last thirty years. Musa, musce, were pronounced 
musah, musay, and not mnsay, mnse, as in Eng- 
land. The vowel i was almost universally sounded 
like the English e, and not like the English z, the 
sound of which is, I think, not to be found in any 
of the modern languages of Europe which are 
derived from the Latin. It was understood here 
that Latin was pronounced in Scotland in the 
same way as in Ireland and on the continent of 
Europe. 

About thirty-five years ago, a sort of conven- 
tion was held in New England of college profes- 
sors, which resolved that thereafter the English 
sound of a as in word fate, and the English sound 
of <z like e in mere should be adopted in their 
teaching, thus following the mode peculiar to 
England alone of all the European countries. 

This new method of pronouncing has since 
spread somewhat beyond the limits of New Eng- 
land, as many professors of languages migrate to 
other States of the Union. I believe that the 
continental pronunciation is more probably cor- 
rect than that in use in England and lately intro- 
duced here ; but in settling the question it may 
be well to inquire how Latin is pronounced in 
Hungary, where it has always been a living lan- 
guage, serving as the medium of intercommunica- 
tion among the different races inhabiting that 
country, and speaking distinct languages. Who 
can tell through the medium of " N. & Q." how 
Latin is pronounced in Hungary ? What is the 
pronunciation of the vowel e in Latin words on 
the continent of Europe, and how is it to be dis- 
tinguished from (B ? UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

Waters and Gilbert Arms. I should like to 
obtain some information in regard to the follow- 
ing coat of arms : Argent, on a chevron vert, two 
fleur-de-lis, between three cinque-foils or, on a 
chief gules, two crescents of the third ; by the 
name of Waters. Also in regard to an " Hon. 
Henry Gilbert, of Barkeshire, in England," to 
whom a coat of arms was granted " in the year 



1703;" and a "Sir Stephen Waters, Knight, of 
the West of England," to whom arms were granted 
" in the year 1621." In fact, any items of inform- 
ation relating to them or their descendants will 
be most acceptable to CLEMENT. 

Cambridge, America. 

Engraved Portraits of Turner. N. J. A. would 
be glad to know what portraits of J. M. W. 
Turner are extant, their merits and price, as he 
1ms never been fortunate enough to meet with 
more than one, and that one by no means realises 
his ideal as gathered from Mr. Ruskin's mention 
of him. 

Sir Philip Savage. Wanted any particulars 
respecting the parentage of The Right Honourable 
Philip Savage, Chancellor of the Exchequer in 
Ireland in the reign of Queen Anne. FM. 

Heraldic Query. Can a family, entitled to 
bear arms, receive the right to quarter the arms 
of another family, in which the connecting link be- 
tween the two families is not entitled to bear 
arms ? For instance, the A. family bore arms ; 
its sole heiress married into the B. family, which 
was not entitled to that privilege. The heiress of 
the B.s married into the C. family. Can the de- 
scendant of the C.s quarter the arms of his an- 
cestors, the A.s ? 

Also, can a person quarter the arms of a family, 
none of the blood of which runs in his veins? For 
instance, suppose the brother of L. M.'s grand- 
mother (father's mother) marries the heiress of a 
family, that their only issue was a son (he quar- 
tered his mother's arms), who, dying without issue, 
his estate and that of his mother, the heiress, 
went by law and by will to his nearest heir (his 
cousin), L. M.'s father. Is L. M. entitled to 
quarter the heiress' arms with bis own ? 

So. 



Roses and Lances blessed by the Pope. Barriere, 
in the introductory Essay to the Memoires du 
Comte de Brienne, p. 163., says : 

" Elle (Rome) envoyoit, a. Pepoque dont nons nous oc- 
cupons une rose benite aux princesses qui se mariaient et 
des lames benis pour les enfans des Hois." 

How long has this custom ceased ? Who was 
the last princess of France who received " la rose 
benite " on her marriage ? Who was the last 
prince to whom the blessed lance was forwarded ? 

R. L. 

White Horse in Yorkshire. There was for- 
merly a figure of a horse (similar to that so well- 
known white horse in Berkshire) on the Hamble- 
don Hills on the north part of the West Riding 
of Yorkshire. It is said to have been in existence 
at the commencement of the present century, and 
was to be seen looking east from Ripon. Can any 
Yorkshire antiquary furnish information on this 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. [-2^ g . vi. 133., JULY 17. '58. 



subject ? and what day of the year the cleansing 
of it, which was celebrated as a holiday, took 
place ? W. H. 

Ghost Story of Colonel Blomberg. In a 
little book, entitled The Unseen World (Burns, 
1847), there occurs a ghost-story regarding 

a Colonel B , the father of a dignitary of 

the church then living. The Colonel being cut 
off in an expedition amongst the Indians of North 
America, his spirit appeared to two brother officers 
at head-quarters, and requested them, on their 
return to London, to seek in a particular place he 
pointed out for a paper important to the interests 
of his infant son, and to present this paper along 
with the son to Queen Charlotte, who would be the 
making of his fortune. It is added that all was 
done as the shade requested, and that young 
B did prosper accordingly. 

I have heard this story in society, and been in- 
formed that the person whose fortunes were ad- 
vnnced in so extraordinary a way was the Rev. 
Frederick William Blomberg, who died in March, 
1847, aged eighty-five, Chaplain in Ordinary to 
the Queen, and Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's. 
The obituary notice of Dr. Blomberg, in the 
Gentleman s Magazine, says nothing of the ghost- 
story, but gives a fact in conformity with it, 
namely, that the doctor was a member of a family 
which had long been attached to the court, and 
was educated in intimate association with the 
children of George III. ; it also exhibited a series 
of preferments such as falls to the lot of few, and 
amply justifies the prediction of the paternal sprite, 
if any such prediction was ever made. 

Can any reader of " N. & Q." give exact and 
reliable information regarding this alleged spiri- 
tual visitation, the proper designation of Colonel 
Blomberg, the date and circumstances of his death, 
the names of the two brother officers, the nature 
of the paper deposited in London, &c. CANDIDUS. 



to iff) 

Richard Mulcaster. In Wilson's History of 
Merchant Taylors' School, part i. p. 86., is the fol- 
lowing extract from Queen Elizabeth's payment 
for plays : 

" 18 March, 1573 4, to Richard Mouncaster for two 
plays presented before her on Candlemas-day and Shrove 
Tuesday last, 20 marks; and further for his charges, 20 
marks. 

'11 March 1575 6, to Richard Mouncaster for pre- 
senting a play before her on Shrove Sunday last, 10 
pounds." 

Query 1st. What were these plays ? Were they 
translations of the classic drama, and do any of 
them exist now ? Shakspeare was only ten years 
of age at this time. Mulcaster also assisted to ar- 
range the pageants at Kenilworth Castle, and I 



am disposed to think that he was present himself, 
and personated the " olde mynstrel of the Northe 
Countrie." He certainly composed the verses. 
See a description of his dress in Percy's Reliques 
of Antient Poetry, p. Ixxi. 

Query 2nd. Was Mulcaster present at Kenil- 
worth on this occasion ? R. M. 

[Mulcaster appears to have been early addicted to dra- 
matic composition, and his name occurs, as our correspon- 
dent has shown, among those who assisted in the plays 
performed before Queen Elizabeth in 1572 and 1576. In 
1575, when Elizabeth was on one of her progresses at 
Kenilworth, Mulcaster produced some Latin verses, which 
were spoken before her, and printed in Gascoyne's 
Princely Pleasures at Kenilworth, and in Nichols's "Pro- 
gresses of Queen Elizabeth, i. 493. In 1580, he prefixed 
some commendatory verses to Ocland's Anglorum Pralia, 
and others, two years afterwards, to his Eipyvapxta.. He 
likewise addressed some verses to Elizabeth on her skill in 
music, printed in Tallis and Bird's Discantus Cantiones, 
&c., 1575, 4to., and inserted by Ballard in his Memoirs of 
Queen Elizabeth. His separate works were, his Positions, 
wherein those primitive Circumstances be examined which 
are necessarie for the training up of Children, either for 
Skill in their e Booh, or Health in their Bodie. Loncl. loSl, 
1587, 4to. To this a Second Part was promised, which 
seems to have been completed in 1582, by the publication 
of The First Part of the Elementarie, ichich entreateth 
chefely of the right writing of the English Tung. In 
1601, he published his Cathechismus Paulinus, in usum 
Scholce Paulince conscriptus. Most biographical dictiona- 
ries contain notices of Mulcaster; consult also his Life by 
Sir Henry Ellis in Gent's Mag. Ixx. 419. 511. 603; Wil- 
son's History of the Merchant Taylors' School; Knight's 
Life of Colet; Warton's History of Poetry ; and Fuller's 
Worthies.'] 

Mountery College, Wells. This college was 
founded by Bishop Ralph Erghum about A. D. 
1400 (or rather by his directions, by his execu- 
tors) for fourteen priests, who, it is presumed, 
had duties to perform in the cathedral. Any in- 
formation, from Dugdale, or elsewhere, as to this 
j institution, will be very acceptable ; and (if it can 
be obtained) a copy of or extracts from the 
bishop's will, or the foundation deed, or any other 
document connected with the college ; also, its 
revenues at the Dissolution, and the exact period 
when it was dissolved. INA. 

Wells, Somerset. 

[Tanner (Notitia, edit. 1787) gives the following ac- 
count of this College : " Ralph Erghum, bishop of Bath 
and Wells, who died A. D. 1401, appointed by his will his 
executors to build in the street then called La Mountery, 
since College Lane, houses for the fourteen chantry priests 
officiating in the Cathedral of Wells, and a hall for them 
to eat in Common, which were called Mountrey or 
Moundroy College ; valued 26 Hen. VIII. at 120/. Is. 4rf. 
per annum, in the whole, as Sancroft's MS. Valor ; at 
831. 16s. as Dr. Archer; and at IU. 18s. 8d. as Dugdale 
and Speed (which last is said to be the clear value in 
Sancroft's MS.) and granted, 2 Edw. VI., to John Ayl- 
worth and John Lacy." Tanner then adds in his notes, 
that " this society was styled ' Societas presbyterorum 
annuellarum Nova? aulae Wellens.' (Dr. Hutton e resist, 
increased before the Ifo- 
ere were seventeen who 



Wells.) Their number probably 
formation ; for in A. D. 1555, th 



2- S. VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



had pensions, and are styled ' Colleginarii sive cantaristce 
in collegio sive Nova auk de la Mount eroy prope civita- 
tera Wellensem.' (Liber MS. pension urn penes Petrum 
Le Neve.) There are but fifteen said to have pensions 
in Willis' Abbies, ii. 200., but their pensions amounted 
to 62Z. 8s. per annum. Qucere. Whether this College was 
not dedicated to St. Anne, and had not the induction of 
the chantry priests ; for 24 July, 1520, ' Hen. Harrison 
institutus ad cantariam S. Kalixti in eccl. cath. Wel- 
lensi ; et scriptum fuit pro inductione principalibus col- 
legii S. Annag de Wells.' Dr. Button's Collections out of 
the registers of Wells."] 

Priory of St. John, Wells, Somerset. I am 
anxious to obtain accurate information about this 
Priory, or Hospital, as it is often called. It was 
founded about 1206 by Hugh de Welles, after- 
wards Bishop of Lincoln, and his brother Joceline 
de Welles, afterwards Bishop of Bath and Glaston- 
bury, which title he was induced to drop for 
" Bath and Wells." The Priory or Hospital was 
(it is said) founded for a prior and ten brethren, 
and as such it is referred to by Godwin and other 
authorities. It was dissolved in 1539. The ruins 
are now being removed for the erection of public 
schools, and before the whole fabric is swept 
away, I wish to preserve some memorial of the 
establishment. Will any of the readers of " N. & 
Q." give such particulars as they can from Dug- 
dal'/s Monasticon or elsewhere as to the design 
and objects of this priory ; the number of the 
inmates at its dissolution ; the value of its re- 
venues at that time? Was it altogether a religious 
institution, or partly religious and partly eleemosy- 
nary ? Early notice of this would be taken as a 
great favour. INA. 

Wells, Somerset. 

[The following is Dugdale's account of this priory, as 
given in the last edition of his Monasticon, vi. 664. : 
' Hugh de Wells, archdeacon of Wells, and afterwards 
bishop of Lincoln, was, about the beginning of King John's 
reign, the original founder of this hospital, in the south 
part of the city of Wells, dedicated to St. John Baptist, 
which was so much augmented by Josceline, bishop of 
Bath, and other benefactors, that in the 26th Henry VIII. 
the yearly revenues of the master and brethren [Dr. 
Hutton says, A. D. 1350, there were ten priests and 
brethren] amounted to 411. 3s. 6fc7. according to Speed; 
and 40/. Os. 1\d. according to Dugdale. The site and 
most of the lands belonging to this house were granted, 

J Henry VIII. to John Clerk, then bishop of Bath and 
Wells, and his successors, in consideration of the manor 
and park of Dogmeresfield, &c. However, the crown got 
it again afterwards, and granted it, 17 Eliz., to "Sir 
Christopher Hatton. In some of the Records, as well as 
in the Valor of King Henry VIII., this house is called a 
priory. In the latter record also the last master, John 
Pynnock, is called prior. The surrender of this hospital, 
dated 3d Feb., 30th Hen. VIII., is in the Augmentation 
Office. Appendant to it is the common seal, representing 
St. John_Baptist, with the following legend, SIGILU HOS- 
PITAL, sci. JOIIANNIS. D. WELLES." Tanner says, "If 
Hugh founded the priory before he went from Wells, it 
must be so; for he was made bishop of Lincoln in llth 
King John ; but Dr. Hutton saith, that by his will dated 
anno pontificates S, he gave 500 marks towards founding 
an hospital here at Wells ; so that perhaps it might not 



be founded till after his death, which happened 19 Hen. 
III., when Josceline was bishop of Bath." Both Dugdale 
and Tanner give numerous references to various rolls and 
charters.] 



THOMAS CAREY, OR CAREW. 

(2 nd S. vi. 12. 38.) 

I feel greatly indebted to MR. G. H. KINGSLEY 
for his interesting reply to my query ; and any 
unpublished particulars lie may possess of the ele- 
gant and witty Carew, " Love's Oracle," will, I am 
sure, be most acceptable to the readers of " N. 
Q." Perhaps the best and longest account of this 
charming old song-writer is that by Kippis in his 
Biographia Britannica ; but even this sketch, in- 
teresting as it is, makes one desirous to know 
more of this perspicuous and natural poet. Phil- 
lips states that Carew " was reckoned among the 
chiefest of his time for delicacy of wit and poetic 
fancy ; " and a contemporary pronounced his 
verses 

" As smooth and high 
As glory, love, or wine, from wit can raise." 

Oldys, in his notes on Langbaine, informs us, 
that " Carew's Sonnets were more in request than 
any poet's of his time, that is, between 1630 and 
1640. Many of them were set to music by the 
two famous composers, Henry and William Lawes, 
and other eminent masters, and sung at court in 
their Masques, &c." The first edition of Carew's 
Poems, Songs, and Sonnets, bears an imprimatur 
under date April 29, 1640, at the commencement 
of those troublous times when, as good Izaak 
Walton assures us, "it was dangerous for honest 
men to live in London." But notwithstanding 
the convulsed state of the nation, the Poems were 
again published in 1642. In 1651, a third edition 
was required; and a fourth in 1670-1.* Honest 
Tom Davies, the bookseller, rescued them from en- 
tire neglect, by reprinting them in 1772. In 1810, 
Mr. John Fry of Bristol printed a Selection from 
Carew's Poems, to which he prefixed a meagre ac- 
count of the author. In the following year he 
proposed to publish a complete edition of his 
works, as we learn from the following communi- 
cation to the Gentleman' s Magazine for Jan. 1811, 
p. 32.: 

" I am now collecting materials at my leisure for a 
complete edition of Carew's Works, containing some 
pieces hitherto unpublished. The materials of his life are 
few; it is possible, however, some of your numerous 
readers may be able to assist me with information from 
manuscript authorities tending to supply in some measure 
the deficiency. It appears from Oldys's MS. notes to 
Langbaine, that the Prince of Wales then had in his pos- 
session a Vandyke, containing a portrait of Carew. 
Query, In whose possession is that painting at present, 

* Dr. Bliss's copy of this edition sold for 11-s, 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES, [2* s. vi. 133., JULY 17. v>8. 



and are there any other portraits of Carew in exist- 
ence ? " 

Mr. Fry's " Complete Edition " was never pub- 
lished, nor was his query respecting the portrait 
ever answered by Mr. Urban's correspondents. 
Fortunately, however, the portrait, or rather the 
double portrait of Thomas Killegrew and Thomas 
Carew, may be now seen in the Vandyck room at 
Windsor Castle. It appears that these two court 
gallants had a dispute in presence of Cecilia Crofts 
(afterwards the wife of Thomas Killegrew) so re- 
markable as to become the gossip of the whole 
court ; and this picture seems to have been 
painted (in 1638) as a memorial of the circum- 
stance. Walpole informs us that 

" Killegrew and Carey had a remarkable dispute before 
Mrs. Cecilia Crofts, sister of the Lord Crofts, to which 
Vertue supposed the picture alluded, as in a play called 
The Wanderer was a song against Jealousy, written on 
the same occasion." Anecdotes of Painting, i. 326., edit. 
1849. 

Walpole is not quite correct ; the song is not in 
The Wanderer, but in Killegrew's tragi-comedy, 
Cicilia and Clorinda, Part II. Act V. Sc. 2. Im- 
mediately after the song is the following note by 
Killegrew : 

" This chorus was written by Mr. Thomas Carew, cup- 
bearer to Charles I., and sung in a Masque at Whitehall, 
anno 1633. And I presume to make use of it here, be- 
cause in the first design, 'twas writ at my request upon a 
dispute held betwixt Mistress Cecilia Crofts and myself, 
where he Avas present ; she being then maid of honour. 
This I have set down, lest any man should believe me so 
foolish as to steal such a poem from so famous an author ; 
or so vain as to pretend to the making of it myself; and 
those that are not satisfied with this apology, and this 
song in this place, I am always ready to give them a 
worse of my own. Written by Thomas Killegrew, resi- 
dent for Charles II. in Venice, August, 1651." 

This song is also printed in Carew's Poems. 
Songs, and Sonnets, edit. 1671, p. 82., and is 
worthy of being reproduced, if it be only for its 
historical connexion with the Vandyck painting at 
Windsor : 

" JEALOUSY : A DIALOGUE. 

" Ques. From whence was first this Fury hurl'd, 
This Jealousy into the world? 
Came she from hell ? Answ. No, there doth reign 
Eternal hatred with disdain ; 
But she the daughter is of Love, 
Sister of Beauty. Quest. Then above 
She must derive from the third sphere 
Her heavenly offspring. Answ. Neither there 
From those immortal flames could she 
Draw her cold frozen pedigree. 

" Quest. If nor from heaven nor hell, where then 
Had she her birth ? Ansiv. In th' hearts of men : 
Beauty and Fear did her create, 
Younger than Love, elder than Hate. 
Sister to both, by Beauty's side 
To Love, by Fear to Hate allied : 
Despair her issue is, whose race 
Of fruitful mischief drowns the space 
Of the wide earth, in a swoln flood 
Of wrath, revenge, spite, rage, and blood, 



" Quest. Oh, how can such a spurious line 
Proceed from parents so Divine? 

"Answ. As streams which from their crystal spring 
Do sweet and clear their waters bring, 
Yet mingling with the brackish main, 
Nor taste nor colour they retain. 

" Quest. Yet rivers 'twixt their own banks flow 
Still fresh ; can Jealousy do so ? 

" Answ. Yes, whilst she keeps the stedfast ground 
Of Hope and Fear, her equal bound ; 
Hope sprung from favour, worth, or chance, 
Tow'rds the fair object doth advance; 
Whilst Fear, as watchful sentinel, 
Doth the invading foe repel ; 
And Jealousy thus mixt, doth prove 
The season and the salt of Love : 
But when Fear takes a larger scope, 
Stifling the child of Reason, Hope 
Then sitting on th' usurped throne, 
She like a tyrant rules alone. 
As the wild ocean unconfin'd, 
And raging as the northern wind." 

Carew, also, has a poem entitled " On the Mar- 
riage of T. K. [Thomas Killegrew *] and C. C. 
[Cecilia Crofts], the morning stormy." I may as 
well add, that two of the most tender and grace- 
ful pieces in Carew's volume, " The Primrose " 
and "The Enquiry," were written by Herrick. 
(Retrospective Review, vi. 225.) Since writing 
the preceding, I find that Thomas Maitland, after- 
wards Lord Dundrennan, edited an edition of 
Carew's Poems, Songs, and Sonnets, with a Masque, 
Edinb., 1824, crown 8vo., of which only 125 
copies were printed. This edition I have not seen. 

Permit me to conclude with a query : Who is 
the Thomas Gary, the translator of The Mirrour 
which flatters not, by Le Sieur de la Serre, 8vo., 
1639 ? At the end of this volume are several 
poems signed " Thomas Gary," and dated " Tower 
Hill, August, 1638." J. YEOWELL. 



MIRACULOUS CHANGE OF SEASONS. 

(2 nd S. iii. 466.) 

Gianone gives a good account of the change in 
the Kalendar, and concludes it thus : 

" Fu osservato, che conservandosi nella Chiesa di S. 
Gaudioso, una caraffina di sangue di S. Stefano portata 
iu Napoli, secondo che scrive il Baronio (Martyroloa. 
die 3 Aug.}, da S. Gaudioso Vescovo Africano, la quale 
era solita liquefarsi da se stessa il di terzo d'Agosto, se- 
condo il calendario antico : da poi che Gregorio fecequesta 
emendazione, non bolle il sangue, che alii 13 d'Agosto 
nel qual di, secondo la nuova riforma, cade la festa di 
San. Stefano ; onde Guglielmo Cave (Hist, della Vita di 
Martiri) scrisse, che questa sia une pruova manifesto, che il 

* Granger (Hist, of England, iii. 414. edit. 1775) is 
wrong in attributing the following painting to Thomas 
Killegrew: "dressed like a pilgrim; no name, but these 
two verses : 

" ' You see my face, and if you'd know my mind 

Tis this: I hate myself, and all mankind.' " 
Musgrave says, " This is the print of Abraham Symonds, 
and is so inscribed in the Pepysian collection," 



2- s. vi. IBS., JULY 17. '58.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



53 



calendario Gregoriano sia stato ricevuto in cielo, ancor che 
in terra alcuni paesi abbiano ricusato di seguitarlo. 

" Lo stesso narrarsi esser accaduto nel bollimento di 
sangue di S. Gennaro a' 19 Settembre, e Panzirolo, in 
pruova della verita dell' emendazione Gregoriana rap- 
porta nel Cap. 177 de Clar. Leg. interp. una istorietta che 
:nerita esser trascritta colle sue stesse parole : ' Hasc anni 
ememiatio divinitus est comprobata ; quoddam enim nucis 
genus reperitur, quod tota hyeme usque ad noctem Jo- 
amiis Baptistse foliis ac fructibus velut arrida caret; mane 
ultro ejus diei, more aliarum foliis fructibusque induta 
reperitur. Haec post ejus anni correctionem, decem cliebus 
priusquam antea consueverit, id est eadem nocte divi 
Joannis qute retrocessit, et non ut antea virescere csepit.'" 
Istoria Civile del Regno di Napoli, lib. xxxiv. c. 3. vii. 
301. Italia. 1821. 

This, or some such passage, may have misled 
the author of the Almanack de Touraine into the 
notion that Cave believed the miracle. I do not 
know whether his Lives of the Martyrs had been 
translated, nor whether Gianone understood Eng- 
lish. Most likely he cited at second-hand ; for 
he was too honest to misrepresent wilfully. Cave 
tells the miracle in a sceptical manner, and ob- 
serves : 

"But the miracle of the miracles lay in this, that when 
Pope Gregory XIII. reformed the Roman Calendar, and 
made no less than ten days difference from the former, 
the blood in the vial ceased to bubble on the 3d of August 
according to the old computation, and bubbled on that 
wl.'ich fell according to the new reformation, a great 
justification, I confess, as Baronius well observes, of the 
authority of the Gregorian Calendar, and of the Pope's 
constitutions; but yet it was ill done to set the Calendars 
at variance when both had been equally justified by the 
miracle. But how easy it was to abuse the word [world?] 
with such tricks, especially in these latter ages, when the 
artifice of the priests was arrived to a kind of perfection 
in these affairs is no difficult matter to imagine." Apos- 
tolic, or Lives of the Primitive Fathers for the Three First 
Centuries. By W. Cave, D.D. p. 18. Lond. 1682. 

I cannot find any testimony as to the Glaston- 
bury Thorn. The subject is curious, and I hope 
some correspondent will be able to carry it further. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 



DEAFNESS AT WILL. 

(2 nd S. v. 358.) 

The evils so justly complained of by your cor- 
respondent might be remedied by constructing the 
outer walls of our dwelling-houses with hollow 
bricks, which are known to be non-conductors of 
sound. The reason of this is, that the hollow 
portion being filled with rarefied air, every sound 
which finds its way into such a mass is effectually 
buried there, and cannot penetrate to the outer 
surface. If the space between the two surfaces 
of the partition walls, and that between the ceil- 
ing of one room and the floor of another, were 
filled with brown paper gummed over with flock 
or sawdust, it would aid materially to deaden the 
sound. Or if the spaces were filled with shavings, 



tow, or cut straw, it would probably have the 
same effect. All these substances are bad con- 
ductors of sound, because they shut up a large 
quantity of air between their minute and detached 
parts, so that they cannot readily transmit an im- 
pulse. The sound is thus entangled, as it were, 
and, being no longer able to preserve its regular 
outline, becomes deadened, if not altogether lost. 

The Rev. Dr. Brewer, from whose charming 
little volume on Sound and its Phenomena (Long- 
mans, 1854,) I gather my knowledge of these 
matters, has the following sensible paragraph : 

" It is truly surprising that no ingenious mechanic has 
yet contrived a substance for partition-walls, where cheap- 
ness and lightness are especially considered. Nothing, 
for example, could be easier than to%iake panels with. 
two sheets of common pasteboard, or tarpauling separated. 
from each other by wooden blocks. Sawdust should be 
thickly strewed over the inner surfaces, and the inter- 
vening space be well filled with coarse tow or cut straw. 
A wooden * upright,' the thickness of the blocks, would 
hold the panels in their place, especially if the edges were 
made to lap over the supporters. Such a partition-wall 
would be a real boon in hotels, &c., where chambers are 
often separated by half-inch wood, or by simple canvass." 

I have somewhere read, that if the walls of 
rooms were covered with a solution of gulta percha, 
before papering, it would effectually deaden all 
sounds from the adjoining chambers. Or, I be- 
lieve, a substitute for this is the gutta percha 
paper, so extensively used of late years in cover 
ing damp walls. 



EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 



MOWBRAY FAMILY. 

(2 ad S. v. 436.) 

In answer to your correspondent's inquiry, I 
believe there is no doubt that Geoffrey, the war- 
rior bishop of Coutances, was a member, and bore 
(previous to his consecration) the name of the 
family of Monthray, or (as it was afterwards 
called in England) Mowbray. Lecanu (Histoire 
des Eveques de Coutances) speaks of him (p. 119.) 
as "issu de 1'illustre famille de Montbray, natif de 
la paroisse de Montbray" And in a subsequent 
page (132.) he says, in a note, 

" La famille de Montbray, qui a subsiste en Angleterre 
et en Normandie, plusieurs siecles encore apres notre 
eveque, portait pour armes de gueules un lion d'argent : 
mais nous n'oserions affirmer que ces armes aient ete cellea 
de Geoffroi, car alors les armes etaient personelles." 

On the death of the Bishop his possessions (as 
your correspondent correctly states) passed into 
the hands of his nephew Robert de Mowbray, who 
being taken in arms against William Rufus was 
detained in prison a great number of years. Ulti- 
mately he died without issue, and with him ended 
the direct line of the Mowbrays in England. 

Another Norman Baron, Roger de Albiui, had 
married a Mowbray, a sister (if I mistake not) of 



54 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. vi. iss., JULY 17. >5 



the Bishop ; her name was Amicia, and by her he 
was father of Nigel de Albini, who was thus the 
near relation (first cousin, as I take it) of Robert 
de Mowbray. 

Robert de Mowbray had taken to wife Maude, 
daughter of Richard de Aquila. After her hus- 
band had been for some time a prisoner, this lady 
was, by special leave of the Pope, permitted to 
marry Nigel de Albini, who, by the gift of King 
Henry T., had all the lands of her former husband 
Robert de Mowbray given him. 

After a while Nigel de Albini put away his wife 
Maude, on the ground of her being the wife of 
his kinsman, and wedded another, viz. Gundred, 
daughter to Girald de Gornay, by whom he left 
issue Roger, who* became possessed of the lands 
of Mowbray, and by the special command of King 
Henry assumed the surname of Moivbray. From 
this Roger are descended the Mowbrays of Eng- 
land. 

I should be obliged by any information respect- 
ing the progenitors of Roger de Albini, who was 
the father of Nigel ; as well as of William de 
Albini, from whom the Earls of Arundel were 
descended. Was there any connexion between 
this Roger de Albini and the family of Neel de St. 
Sauveur, hereditary Vicomte of the Cotentin ? In 
particular, is there any ground for supposing that 
Roger de Albini was a younger son of one of the 
Neels de St. Sauveur f MELETES. 



AUTHORSHIP OP THE CANDOR PAMPHLETS. 

(2 nd S. v. passim.') 

As to who was the author, I have-not grounds 
even for a conjecture ; but I agree with D.E., and 
believe that the writer was certainly a lawyer. I 
think, from Almon's Letter to Temple, that Temple 
did not know the writer, or rather that Almon 
assumed that he did not. 

Wilkes, though the writer was an able advocate 
on his side, was indignant at his calling him " a 
worthless fellow," and he asks in a letter to Al- 
mon (Wilkes's Cor. ii. 95.), Dec. 1764: "What 
does he mean by ' he ever avoided my acquain- 
tance?' I never heard of him till now?" It 
ought to be inferred from this that both Wilkes 
and Almon knew the writer; but I suspect it 
is a loose expression, and means only " What 
does the writer mean? I know nothing about 
him ? " It is possible that Wilkes, after all, may 
have known more than Almon, and assumed that 
Almon was as well informed as himself; butj 
doubt. There is further a puzzling passage in 
the same letter, which I cannot apply. Separated 
from the foregoing by some talk about Churchill, 
Wilkes says : " I observe that Wright highly con- 
demns me as too ludicrous from the expression of 
stolen goods," &c. : it was nervous, not ludicrous. 
It was treating the case as it deserved ; and he 



add?, "the same dull lawyer" likewise condemns 
the second letter to the Secretaries. My first im- 
pression, was that Wilkes still referred to the 
Enquiry, and that Wright was the assumed or 
known writer of it : but though the letter to the 
Secretaries is condemned in the Enquiry as " in- 
decent and scurrilous," " unbecoming any gen- 
tleman," it is not called " ludicrous;" and Wilkes 
seems to dwell on, to argue on, and to quote that 
word. I therefore presume that Wilkes had re- 
ceived a batch of pamphlets, and noticed the En- 
quiry and another written by Wright. Wilkes 
indeed, though very angry, says, " There is much 
good sense, and I suppose a great deal of sound 
law in the Enquiry" whereas he seerns to despise 
" the dull lawyer " Wright. Wilkes assuredly 
believed that he knew the writer of the Enquiry, 
for, in a "Letter on Public Conduct of Mr. Wilkes," 
dated Oct. 29, 1768, he says: "I am entirely of 
opinion with ****** [ S I X stars, which might serve 
for Camden], who declares ' I do not scan the pri- 
vate actions,' &c. . . I shall not now stay to show 
how far the Equity of this rule was violated by the 
concealed author himself, before he got half through 
his pamphlet, in a manner equally indecent and 
unjust to a sick and absent friend whom he basely 
wounded," &c. Again Wilkes, in his " Letter to 
George Grenville," dated Nov. 4, 1769 (p. 51.), 
refers to Postscript on " Letter concerning Libels^' 
quotes from it, and says, " a book written by the 
greatest lawyer of this age," which again might 
characterise, in Wilkes's opinion, Camden or Dun- 
ning. 

I may add that there was no " Master in Chan- 
cery" of the name of Wright; and it is on the 
reference to the Enquiry in Wilkes's Letter to 
Grenville that Almon says, in a note, the Enquiry 
was written by " a late Master in Chancery." 

A. C. P. 



tfl ifttmrr 

Crashaw and Shelley (2 nd S. v. 449. 516.) As I 
only see " N. & Q." in monthly parts, I have been 
unable sooner to notice the former of these articles 
by PROFESSOR M'CARTHY, and to thank him for 
pointing out, what your other correspondent has 
frankly and justly accepted for me, the typogra- 
phical error referred to. It is truly provoking 
that in spite of the utmost care and desire to pro- 
vide a perfect text, such oversights will be made by 
the very best of editors ; and, therefore, some excuse 
may be found for the fault of one whose unlucky 
case does not admit of his enjoying much literary 
ease. W. B. TURNBULL. 

Hymnology (2 nd S. v. 171.) Having in my pos- 
session the original copy of the hymn " Come 
thou fount of every blessing," composed by Lady 
Huntingdon about 1750, I send it for insertion in 



2*S. VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



" N. & Q." And I hope the publication of it 
will counteract the undue licence that has been 
taken with this beautiful hymn by the congrega- 
tional body. (See Congregational Hymn Book, 
p. 534.) The manuscript of this hymn was for- 
merly in the possession of Mrs. Diana Bindon, an 
intimate companion of Lady Huntingdon, and 
was recently purchased at the sale of Bindon 
BJood's Library. Z. 

Hymn by the Countess of Huntingdon. 

1. 
" Come thoti Fount of every blessing, 

Tune my heart to sing th3 T praise : 
Streams of Mercy never ceasing 

Call for loudest songs of praise. 
Teach me some melodious sonnet, 

Sang by angel hosts above ; 
Praise the Mount, I'm fix'd upon it, 
Mount of thy redeeming love. 

2. 
" Here I'll set my Ebenezer, 

Hither by thy grace I'm come : 
And I hope by thy good favour, 

Shortly to arrive at home. 
Jesus sought me when a stranger, 

Wandering from the fold of God ; 
He to rescue me from danger 
Interpos'd his precious blood. 

3. 
" Oh ! to grace how great a debtor 

Daily I'm constrain'd to be: 
Let that grace now like a fetter 

Bind my wandering heart to thee. 
Prone to wander, Lord, I feel it, 
Prone to leave the God I love : 
Here's my heart, take and seal it : 
Seal it for thy courts above. 

4. 
" that day when, freed from sinning, 

I shall see thy lovely face: 
Cloathed then in blood-wash'd linen, 
How I'll sing thy Sovereign grace. 
Come, dear Lord, no longer tarry, 

Take my raptured soul away ; 
Send thy angels now to carrv 
Me to realms of endless day. 

5. 
" If thou ever didst discover 

To my faith the promised land, 
Bid me now the stream pass over, 
On that heavenly border stand. 
Now surmount whate'er opposes 

Into thy embraces fly : 
Speak the word thou didst to Moses, 
Bid me get me up and die." 

Samaritans (2 nd S. v. 514.) " Where may be 
found the most complete history of this nation ? " 
If the inquiry refers to the Samaritans of the 
whole country of Samaria (Shomeroniiri), such 
works as Prideaux's Connection, Calmet's Diction- 
ary, Horsley's Sermon* XXIV.-XX VI., Hengsten- 
berg's Authentic, des Pentat., Wilson's Lands^of the 
Bible, and Robinson's Biblical Researches, should 



be read. If the inquiry is limited to the Shome- 
rim (=keepers), now reduced to a few families at 
Sychem (= Nablous = Sychar) near Gerizim, 
so called also by Epiphanius 4>uAa/ces, and by Je- 
roine custodes, as keepers of the Law of Moses, 
then those writings should be consulted which dis- 
tinguish this fragment of Israel from the heathe;i 
Samaritans, who desired to join in the recon- 
struction of the temple at Jerusalem in the time 
of Ezra ; such as Josephus' Antiquities, ix. xi. xii. 
xiii. ; Scaliger's Antiquitates Ecdesice, 1682 ; Lu- 
dolf's Epistola Samaritans Sichemitarum, 1684 ; 
Hottinger's Exercitat. An1i-morinianis, 1644 ; Ac- 
tis Eruditorum, 1691 ; Cettarius Gentis Samaritance 
Historia et Cceremoniis, 1693; Huntington (Bishop 
of Raphoe), Epistola:, 1704; Reland's Diss. de 
Samaritanis, 1 706 ; Wolf's Bibloth. Heb. ; Eieh- 
horn's Repertorium, ix. xiv. ; Jahn's Biblische 
Archdol; Winer's Biblische RealworterTjuch ; Pliny 
Fisk in the American Missionary Herald, 1824 ; 
Kitto's History of Palestine and Biblical Cyclopce- 
dia; but above all, De Sacy's Correspondance des 
Samaritains, 8fc., in Notices et Extr. des MSS. de 
la Bibliotli. du Roi, xii. See also "N. & Q,," 1 st 
S. viii. 626. ; 2 nd S. i. 157. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Alderman BadtwellQ^ S. iv. 150.) Backwell's 
Bank, which your correspondent J. K. mentions 
as being one of those " robbed by Charles II. on 
his shutting up the Exchequer," was I think 
represented in the year 1760 by the firm Back- 
well, Sir Wm. Hart, Croft & Co. As late as the 
year 1770, and possibly later, Back well's Bank 
was current by his name ; Backwell, Hart?Croft 
& Co. being then bankers in Pall Mall. In the 
year 1810, when it stopped payment, it was re- 
presented by the firm Devaynes, Dawes, Noble & 
Co., so that no bank at this day represents Back- 
well's. If the bank I have mentioned as existing 
in the years 1760 and 1770, and down to 1810, 
represented the bank alluded to by J. K. (and I 
have no doubt that it did), it must have been one 
of the oldest banks in this country ; as Lord Ma- 
caulay in his History of England (vol. vii.) says, 
that : 

" In the reign of William, old men were still living 
who could remember the days when there was not a single 
banking house in the city of London. So late as the 
time of the Restoration every trader had his own strong 
box in his own house; and when an acceptance was 
presented to him, told down the crowns and Caroluses on 
his own counter. Before the end of the reign of Charles 
the Second, a new mode of paying and receiving money 
had come into fashion among the merchants of the capital. 
A class of agents arose, whose office it was to keep the 
cash of the commercial houses." 

And in vol. i. of the same History we read : 

" The Bankers were in the habit of advancing large 

sums of money to the Government. In return for these 

advances they received assignments on the revenue, and 

were repaid with interest as the taxes came in. About 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2nd s . vi. 133., JULY 17. 5 8. 



thirteen hundred thousand pounds had been in this way 
intrusted to the state. On a sudden it was announced 
that it was not convenient to repay the principal, and 
that the lenders must content themselves with interest. 
They were consequently unable to meet their own en- 
gagements. The Exchange was in an uproar. Great 
mercantile houses broke, and dismay spread through so- 
ciety." 

This, I suppose, is what J. K. refers to when 
he says that " Backwell was one of the bankers 
robbed by Charles the Second on his shutting up 
the Exchequer." So that there is much historical 
interest attached to this bank. Possibly some 
of your correspondents may be able to give more 
information than I can respecting it ; perhaps 
some may be able to say " who were Backwell's 
partners in his lifetime, and who immediately 
succeeded to him after his flight to Holland ; and 
whether he resumed banking on his return ? "* 

H. C. HART, M.A. 

Seals (2 nd S. v. 512.) MR. FRENCH'S judicious 
suggestion, if generally acted upon, would not 
only be an encouragement to what he properly 
styles "an useful and elegant art," but greater 
authenticity would be given to legal proceedings 
by persons using their own seals, rather than 
adopting, as he states, " unmeaning and ugly 
seals" affixed by the law stationer a practice so 
perfectly absurd and contradictory, that a man 
whose name is John Jones may perhaps place that 
name before a seal bearing the initials O. N". 

From age or infirmity, or from both causes, a 
great change may have occurred in the hand- 
writing of a person whose signature is to be de- 
posed 10, and a witness may from that change feel 
some hesitation in swearing to the signature ; but 
if he should find it followed by an impression of 
the seal, constantly worn and used by the de- 
ceased, additional evidence would be afforded, 
and his belief, as to the authenticity of the signa- 
ture, would be materially strengthened. True it 
is that the forger of the name may for the better 
accomplishment of his object, either privately ob- 

[* Our attention has been called to the following pas- 
sages in Pennant's London, pp. 538-9. (ed. 1813), which 
illustrate this subject : 

" Mr. Granger (vol. iii. 410.) mentions Mr. Child as 
successor to the shop of Alderman Backwel, a banker in 
the time of Charles II., noted for his integrit}', abilities, 
and industry; who was ruined by the shutting up of the 
Exchequer in 1672. His books were placed in the hands 
of Mr. Chilil, and still remain in the family." 

" From the west of Temple Bar (Middleton and Camp- 
bell, now Coutts,) to the extremity of the western end of 
the town, there was none till the year 1756, when the 
respectable name of Backwel rose again, conjoined to those 
of Darel, Hart, and Croft, who with great reputation 
opened their shop in Pall Mall." And to the name Back- 
wel, Pennant adds the following note : " Of the same 
family with the great Mr. Backwel. He favoured me 
with a beautiful print of his worthy relation, which had 
been engraven in Holland, after his flight from his pro- 
fligate country." ED. "N. & Q."] 



tain or steal the use of the seal; but to place 
a double difficulty in the commission of a fraud is 
not unimportant. 

My excellent friend, the late Sir R. Inglis, one 
of the most correct and accurate of men in all the 
transactions of life, was very particular on this 
point. His example I have followed. J. H. M. 

Earthquake at Lisbon, 1755 (2 nd S. v. 395. 524.) 
On this event Bishop Warburton's remarks 
are very striking. They were pointed out to me, 
half a century a^o, by the late Mr. Maltby of the 
London Institution : 

" To suppose," says the bishop, " these desolations the 
scourge of Heaven for human impieties, is a dreadful re- 
flection ; and yet to suppose ourselves in a forlorn and 
fatherless world, is ten times a more frightful considera- 
tion. In the first case, we may reasonably hope to avoid 
our destruction by the amendment of our manners : in 
the latter we are kept incessantly alarmed by the blind 
rage of warring elements. 

" The relation of the captain of a vessel to the Ad- 
miralty, as Mr. Yorke told me the story, has something 
very striking in it. He lay off Lisbon on the fatal 1st 
Nov. preparing to hoist sail for England. He looked 
towards the city in the morning, which gave the promise 
of a fine day, a'nd saw that proud metropolis rise above 
the waves, flourishing in wealth and plenty, and founded 
on a rock that promised a poet's eternity, at least to its 
grandeur. He looked an hour after, and saw the city in- 
volved in flames, and sinking in thunder. A sight more 
awful mortal eyes could not behold on this side the day 
of doom." * 

A CONSTANT READER (2 ud S. v. 395.) states that 
he had heard the water in Loch Ness at the time 
of the earthquake " rose some seven or eight feet 
higher than it was ever known to do before or 
since," and asks for information on this point. 
Tradition may have handed down the fact on the 
spot, and it may be expressly noticed in some con- 
temporary works. Warburton says it made men 
tremble from one end of Europe to another ; from 
Gibraltar to the Highlands of Scotland. Charles 
Emily, who wrote a poem on "Death" for the 
Seatonian prize, in the year when Bp. Porteus 
was the successful candidate, (1759,) alludes to 
the earthquake at Lisbon, and in the 14th stanza 
we have the following lines : 

" . . . . . Many a palace fair, 
With millions sinks ingulpht, and pillar'd fane; 
Old Ocean's farthest waves confess the shock ; 
Even Albion trembled conscious on his stedfast rock." f 

J. H. M. 

Bramhull Arms (2 nd S. v. 478.) Burke in his 
Armory gives as the arms of Bramhall, Ches. and 
Lond. (confirmed Nov. 21, 1628), " Sa. a lion 
ramp, or." 

The fact of a seal with an heraldic device being 
attached to a letter is not always a criterion that 



* Bishop Warburton's Letters, p. 204. (not dated, but 
probably written in Dec. 1755.) 
t Pearch's CoU, of Poems, i. 22. 



2* S. VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



it is the correct bearing of the writer. Letters, 
like deeds, are not unfrequently sealed with some 
signet which may have come into the accidental 
possession of the writer, and the seal might possi- 
bly have belonged to the first husband of the 
bishop's wife.* The Life of Bramhall mentions his 
being born in Yorkshire, and descended of a good 
and ancient family, but does not particularly spe- 
cify in what county that family was located. 

The following bearings of the Bramhalls, taken 
from an Heraldic MS. in Queen's College, Oxon., 
may perhaps interest the querist : 

" Bromehall. A. a chev. bet. three crosses patte Sa. 
Bremeall. Az. a lion ramp, le de furshe or. 
Bromhall. Sa. a lion ramp. or. 

Bromehall. A. a chev. int. 3 crosslets formy fitche sa. 
Bromhall. Er. on a chief az. a demy lion ramp. or. 
Bromeall. Az. a lion ramp, with 2 tails or." 

CL. HOPPER. 

Paintings of Christ bearing the Cross (2 nd S. v. 
378. 424. 505.) There is a small painting of this 
subject in the Louvre by Paul Veronese, and thus 
noticed in the Catalogue, Paris, 1852 : 

" Jesus-Christ sur le Chemin du Calvaire : 

" Le Christ succombe sous le poids de la croix que 

deux bourreaux soutiennent. Plus loin, la Vierge e'va- 

nouie dans les bras de Marie Madeleine. Dans le fond, la 

ville de Jerusalem." 
" Collection de Louis XVI. Ce precieux tableau n'est 

qu'ebauche dans certaines parties." 

A faithful copy of this picture forms an altar- 
piece in the parish church of St. Mary, Booking, 
Essex. W. H. F. 

A Geological Inquiry (2 nd S. vi. 31.) In reply 
to your correspondent W. K. in your last number, 
I beg to refer him to a most elaborate and valuable 
ethnological work published in America, and 
entitled Types of Mankind or Ethnological Re- 
searches based upon the Ancient Monuments, Paint- 
ings, Sculptures, and Crania of Races, and upon 
their Natural, Geographical, Philological, and Bi- 
blical History, illustrated by selections from the 
inedited Papers of T. G. Morton, M.D., by J. C. 
Nott and Geo. R, Gliddon. London, Triibner 
and Co. In this work the subject of "Have 
fossil human bones been found ?" is most fully dis- 
cussed, and clearly demonstrated that such have 
been found. The passage quoted by W. K. is thus 
alluded to 

"From these data it appears that the human race ex- 
isted in the Delta of the Mississippi more than 57,000 
years ago ; and the ten subterranean forests, with the one 
now growing, establish that an exuberant flora existed 
in Louisiana more than 100,000 years earlier; so that 
150,000 years ago the Mississippi laved the magnificent 

* By the Reformation of the Ecclesiastical Laws drawn 
up in King Edw. VI.'s reign, it was appointed that the 
seal of a dead man should be defaced. This is now in 
force in case of a bishop's death, when his episcopal seal 
is broken in the presence of the archbishop of the province 
(vide a curious treatise on seals by Lewis). 



cypress forests with its turbid waters." (Dowle's Tableaux 
of New Orleans.) 

For farther information on this most interest- 
ing inquiry, I would^ refer your correspondent to 
Man tell, Petrifactions and their Teachings, 1817, 
pp. 464. 483. ; ib. Wonders of Geology, Lond., 
12mo., 6th edit., 1848, pp. 86-90. 258-9. ; ib. Me- 
dals of Creation, Lond., 12mo., 1844, pp. 861-3.; 
Martin, Nat. Hist, of Mammiferous Animals, Man, 
and Monkeys, Lond. 8vo., 1841, pp. 332-6. 354-7. 

From the above-mentioned works, and espe- 
cially the American one, he will obtain all that has 
been collected up to the present time bearing on 
this intensely interesting inquiry. 

J. W. G. GUTCH. 

Weston-Super-Mare. 

On the subject of the discovery of human re- 
mains by geological research, W. K. will find a 
scientific article in the Revue des Deux Mondes, 
March 1, 1858, by E. Littre, entitled Histoire Pri- 
mitive. T. J. BUCKTON, 

Lichfield. 

" Whipultre" (2" d S. vi. 38.) Whether F. C. 
H. is right or not in supposing that the holly 
is the " whipultre " because " whip-handles " or 
" whip-poles " are made from it when young, I 
do not know ; but there is an agricultural imple- 
ment or article, whose name ought to be accounted 
for : it is called a " whippletree " (see Royal Agri- 
cultural Society's Catalogue, Chelmsford show, 
1856, p. 310.). It is thus used when a pair of 
horses are harnessed to a plough, abreast, the 
traces of each horse are hooked to the ends of two 
cross-bars, about, three feet long, being linked at 
their middle to the ends of another strong bar, the 
centre of which is attached to the plough. These 
cross-bars are called " whippletrees " or " Hem- 
pletrees." I do not know that they have any 
connexion with the holly-tree or its wood. In Nor- 
folk and Suffolk the holly-tree is called " Christ- 
mas " from its berries being used at Christmas time 
to dress up church-windows, &c. In the same 
counties a fence formed of holly, planted close, 
and clipped, is called a " Hulver-hedge." (O.) 3. 

I am happy to confirm the opinion of F. C. II. 
respecting " whipultre " from Chaucer ; for I re- 
member when at Grafton in Canada, nine years 
ago, being shown a piece of wood, which is there 
called "whippletree," and it corresponded with our 
holly. The village was settled by N. E. Loyalists, 
whose descendants retain many old English words 
now obsolete in the metropolis. J. MACKINTOSH. 

The Amber Trade of Antiquity (2 nd S. vi. 1.) 
SIR G. C. LEWIS, in his learned note on this sub- 
ject, says, "there is no mention of amber in the 
Old Testament" (ante, p. 3.). This seems to be 
an oversight, for the word occurs twice at least. 
See Ezekiel i. 4. and viii. 2,, where certain appear- 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2- s. vi. iss., JULY 17. 



ances are said to Lave been " as the colour of 
amber" In each of these places, the Septuagint 
has the words &s fy>a<m r/AeWpou : but whether 
amber, or the metallic compound which went by 
the same Greek name, be meant by the original 
word, is of course a question for Hebrew scholars. 

DAVID GAM. 

Tom Davies (2 nd S. vi. 11.) If H. B. C. had 
looked to the authorities cited at the end of the 
article which he alludes to (for the Nouvelle Bio- 
graphic Generale adopts the very useful and com- 
mendable practice of naming its authorities), he 
would have seen " Nichols' Sawyer, Boswell's Zz/e 
of Johnson" referred to. On turning to Croker' s 
edition of Boswell's Johnson, London, 1835 (vol. 
ii. p. 163.), I find the following note by Croker 
on the words of the text, "his wife, who has been 
celebrated* for her beauty." 

The sarcasm to which Mr. Croker alludes, ap- 
pears to be the latter of the two quotations, and 
not that relating to his wife ; so that the French 
biographer has not stated the report, such as it is, 
accurately. 'AAieus, 

Dublin. 

Jewish Family Names (2 nd S. v. 435. ; vi. 17.) 
There is one circumstance connected with these 
names which I think has not yet been mentioned 
in "N. & Q." Although it greatly increases the 
difficulty of tracing Jewish families to their origin, 
the mention of it just now may probably lead to 
some interesting elucidation. 

Some years ago I was acquainted with a He- 
brew family named Bright, and the name being 
quite new to me amongst them, I inquired how it 
came to pass that they bore a name so little like 
what their origin would have led me to expect. 
I was told that at the time when persecution was 
so rife upon the Continent, and many Hebrew 
families fled for refuge to this country, it was not 
uncommon to exchange their family name for that 
of the town from whence they had come ; and my 
friend's ancestors had originally resided in Bay- 
reuth, which had gradually been corrupted to 
Bright. N. J. A. 

Sibbes Family (2 nd S. v. 514.) I am not en- 
abled to say what the arms of this family are, but 
1 imagine your correspondent is in error when he 
says that the manor there referred to was sold by 

* " By Churchill, in The Rosciad, where, rather in 
contempt of Davies than out of compliment to his wife, 
he exclaims : 

" ' . . . . on my life, 
That Davies has a very pretty wife.' 

" Davies's pompous manner of reciting his part the 
satirist describes with more force than delicacy : 
" ' He mouths a sentence as curs mouth a bone.' 

" This sarcasm drove, it is said (post, April 7, 1778), 
poor Davies from the stage. C." 



his grandson ; whereas I am enabled to say that, 
unless Blcmefield is in error, the manor was sold 
by his son and heir Robert Sibbes in 1594. My 
authority, through my MS. Index, is Blomefield's 
Norfolk, vol. i. pp. 481, 482. 

JOHN NURSE CHADWICK. 
King's Lynn. 

Can a Man be his Own Grandfather? (2^ d S. v. 
434. 504.; vi. 19.) May I be allowed a few 
words of explanation ? ANON, says, that I think the 
case referred to by W. J. F. unprecedented. I 
confess I did think so at the time I read it, and 
think it so still if it happened as at first stated. I 
therefore remarked that it required some explan- 
ation, and that explanation was afforded in a foot- 
note at the time ; the consequence was that several 
lines were omitted from my Note, which caused 
ANON, to fall into the mistake he has done. He 
will see that the case mentioned by him as haying 
come to his knowledge about thirty years since 
does not bear the. slightest resemblance to the one 
referred to by me and by W. J. F., and conse- 
quently is not, as he supposes, the same. 

W. R. M. 

I picked up at a friend's house the other even- 
ing the following curious and ingenious puzzle, as 
I take it to be, and which is very much after the 
fashion of the question set and answered in the 
affirmative by your correspondent W. J. F. in a 
former number. I have copied it exactly as it 
was shown tne, except in one particular, and that 
is, in the names of the persons alluded {o, which I 
have deemed prudent to suppress: giving instead 
the fictitious names of Jones and Smith : 

" Old Jones had two daughters by his first wife, of 
which the youngest was married to old John Smith, and 
the eldest to John Smith's son. Old John Smith had a 
daughter by his first wife whom old Jones married. 
Therefore old Smith's second wife (formerly Miss Jones) 
would call out, ' my father is my son, and I am my mo- 
ther's mother; my sister is my daughter, and I am 
grandmother to my brother.' " 

My friend did not know whether this had really 
taken place or not, but it seems rather an impro- 
bable affair. O. 

Bertrand du Guesclin (2 nd S. v. 494. 526. ; vi. 
18.) From a note-book of a tour made many 
years ago, which embraced Dinan in Brittany, I 
am enabled to give you the epitaph, not on Du 
Guesclin, but on his heart ! which was, it would 
seem, retained there while his body was honoured 
by sepulture in St. Denis among the French 
kings. The style and sculpture of the inscrip- 
tion are equally quaint, and are excised, or cut in 
raised characters over the device "1'aigle eploye 
on a 2 tetes de sable couronnes d'or," twice re- 
peated, once above and once below, and between 
them a heart rudely carved : 

" Cy gist le cueur: du; Messire berlrad du guesil qui o.y 



2nd S. VI. 133., JULY 17. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



59 



fou vivat: conestable de Frace: qui trespassa le xiii. Jour 
de Juliet: 1'an mil iii c iiii xx dont son corps repos avecques 
ceulx des Roys a Sainct denis: en france." 

The above is in the church of St. Saveur, Di- 
nan, and is remarkable as marking the then dis- 
tinct existence of France and Brittany as separate 
kingdoms, by noting that the hero lay at St. Denis 
in France. A. B. 11. 

Belraont, June 28, 1858. 

Archbishop Francis Marsh (2 nd S. v. 522.) 
My respected friend, JOHN D' ALTON, at the conclu- 
sion of his interesting details respecting Arch- 
bishop F. Marsh and Primate Narcissus Marsh, 
declares that lie " is not aware of any connexion 
between our present eminent physician, Sir Henry 
Marsh, and either of the above prelates." Whether 
the relationship really exists, I know not; but it 
is at least certain that the Dublin University Ma- 
gazine for December, 1841 (p. 688.), distinctly 
records and traces Sir Henry's descent from Arch- 
bishop Francis Marsh. I may add that the series 
of biographies of eminent living Irishmen, which 
have so long been appearing in the University 
Magazine, are believed to contain information 
supplied from the most authentic sources, i. e. the 
parties themselves : 

" The paternal ancestors of Sir Henry Marsh originally 
resided in Gloucestershire. That they were a family of 
the highest respectability, we may conclude from the fact 
that one of them, Francis Marsh, "Esq., married the sister 
of Sir Thomas Aylesbuiy, Bart., father of the Lady Hyde, 
Countess of Clarendon, and grandfather of Anne, wife of 
James Duke of York, afterwards King of England. The 
grandson of this Francis Marsh was the well-known 
Francis Marsh, Archbishop of Dublin, and was the first 
of the family Avho settled in Ireland." 

Your correspondents interested in the Prelates 
Marsh may be glad to learn that I have in my 
possession the original of a curious unpublished 
letter from Archbishop Narcissus Marsh to the 
Duke of Ormond, dated Nov. 13, 1711. It is of 
much historical interest, and if your correspon- 
dents wish, I shall send a copy of it for insertion 
in " N. & Q." WILLIAM JOHN FITZ-PATRICK. 

Oliver : Arthur (2 nd S. v. 315. 441.) Before 
answering the above Query, I had made diligent 
but ineffectual search for some account of the 
author of Oliveros y Artus, and the date of its 
publication. I have since found a note among 
the additions of Gayangos and Vedia to their 
translation of Ticknor's History of Spanish Litera- 
ture : 

" El rey Artus 6 mas bien, La Historia de los nobles 
Cavalleros, Oliveros de Castillo, y Artus de, Algarve. Tene- 
mos si la vista un ejemplar del dicho libro, impreso en 
Burgos en 1499, edicion que no vio Mendez. Es en folio, 
con figuras grabados en madera, y al tin de el see lee : 
' A loor e alabanza de nuestro redemptor JesuChristo e de 
la benedita virgeu nuestra seriora sancta Maria ; fue aca- 
bada la presente obra en la muy noble c leal cibdad de 
Burgos, a xxv dias del mcs de Mayo, afio de nuestro re- 



dempcion, mil ccccxcix.' Let. got, a dos columnas. 
Ademas de las ediciones de este libro que cita Brunet de 
1501 y 1604, hay una de Sevilla, 1510, por Jacobo Crom- 
berger, Aleman, a" xx dias de Novembre, folio, letra de 
tdrtis, a dos columnas, sin foliacion, 34 hqjas. Las figuras 
son diferentes de las de la edicion de 1499. En las pri- 
meras ediciones se expresa que la obra fue' traducida del 
Latin al Frances por Felipe Camus, licenciado in utroque : 
pero en las del siglo xviii y posteriores se atribue a un 
tal Pedro de la Floresta." (i. 523.) 

Is any English version known ? H. B. C. 

u. u. c. 

When should Hoods be worn (2 nd S. vi. 39.) 
Surely hoods are part and parcel of the academic 
costume : for when the degrees are conferred, the 
candidates do not wear surplices and hoods, but 
gowns and hoods. That they are afterwards but 
little worn, except with the surplice, must arise 
from carelessness. The first Book of Common 
Prayer, temp. Edward VI., says : 

" It is also seemly that graduates when they do preach 
should use such hood as pertaineth to their several de- 
grees." 

May I ask what vesture the preacher used ? 
The sermon then, as now, occurred in the Com- 
munion Service; but "white Albe plain with 
vestment or cone," was the attire of the celebrant ; 
how could a hood be worn in this case ? If there 
was a change made before entering the pulpit, 
what was it ? What was the practice before the 
Reformation ? B. A. 

Ancient Jewish Coins (2 nd S. vi. 12.) These 
were first coined, about 143 B.C., by Simeon, Prince 
of Judea ; permission to coin money having been 
granted him by Antiochus, son of Demetrius. 

D. I. D. I. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

At the present pleasant season, when the jaded Lon- 
doner is panting for fresh iields and pastures new, Guide 
Books are favourite, and no doubt profitable subjects for 
publishers. We have several such before us ; and name 
first for its compactness and completeness, Slack's Pic- 
turesque Guide to Yorkshire, with a Map of the, County, 
and several Illustrations, Interspersed with song and 
legend, rich in statistical information, and abounding in 
descriptions of all that can interest the tourist, this little 
volume, which will fall easily into one of the many 
pockets of the Traveller's Tweed, ought to be the com- 
panion of all who intend strolling among the sunny 
wolds and picturesque dales of a county which boasts the 
variety as well as the beauty of its scenery. 

More specially local in its interest, and produced with all 
the luxurv of paper and richness of illustration for which 
Mr. II. J. Parker is celebrated, is The Handbook for Visi- 
tors to Oxford ; and its object, which is to tell the visitor 
in a few words the history, and chief points of history, of 
those buildings which will meet his eyes in his walks 
through Oxford, is well carried out. When we add that 
the book is illustrated with 128 woodcuts by Jewitt, and 
28 steel plates by Le Keux, our readers will judge what 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2nd s . vi. 133., JULY 17. >58. 



a handsome book is Parker's Handbook for Visitors to 
Oxford. 

Of less extent, but scarcely less interest, is a work pro- 
duced with the same profusion of illustration by the same 
publisher, entitled The Mediaeval Architecture of Cheshire, 
by Henry J. Parker, F.S.A., with an Historical Introduc- 
tion by the Rev. Francis Grosvenor ; illustrated by En- 
gravings by J. H. Le Keux, O. Jewitt, &c. To the visitor 
to the quaint old city, it will prove an amusing and in- 
structive companion. 

We may here well introduce the following communi- 
cation from M. Masson : 

Francois Villon (Jannet's edition, BibL Elzevirienne}. 

In addition to the remarks I have offered on that poet 
in a previous number of "N. & Q.," I beg leave to 
subjoin a few bibliographical statements^ 

There exist thirty-two editions of Les (Euvres de Fran- 
coys Villon, besides seven of the Repues Franches, and 
of other small pieces which are not generally admitted to 
be written by that poet. Of these editions, seven are 
amongst the treasures of the British Museum. 

1. (13. cf. ed. Jannet, p. xi.) "Les (Euvres de Maistre 
Fran^oys Villon. Le Monologue du Franc Archier de 
Baignollet. Le Dyalogue du Seigneur de Mallepaye et 
Baillevent. On les vend an premier pillier de la grande 
salle du Palays, pour Galiot du Pr, MDXXXII. (Brit. Mus. 
1073. a 2., bequeathed by Thomas Tyrwhitt, Esq., 1786.) 

2. (16. cf. ibid. p. xii.) Les (Euvres de Fransoys Villon 
de Paris, revues et remises en leur entier par Clement 
Marot, Valet de Chambre du Roy. On les vent & Paris, en 
la grant salle du Palais, en la boutique de Galiot du Pre. 
(Brit. Mus. 241. c. 83.) 

3. (29, cf. ibid. p. xiv.) Les (Euvres de Fran<;oys Vil- 
lon, avec les Remarques de diverses Personnes (Eusebe de 
Lauriere, Le Duchat et de Formey). La Haye, Adr. 
Moetjens, 1742, 8. (Brit. Mus. 240. i. 8.) 

4. (31. cf. ibid.) M. Prompsault's edition (Brit. Mus. 
1464. g.) 

5. M. Jannet's edition. (Brit. Mus. 12, 234 a.) 

6. (5. cf. ib. xv.) Le Recueil des Repues Franches de 
Maistre Fran9oys Villon et ses Compagnons. (Br. Mus. 
c. 22. a. 44.) 

7. (28. cf. ib. xiv.) Les (Euvres de Francois Villon, 
etc. Coustelier's edition, 1723. (Brit. Mus. 12,418. 1065 f. 
241 f. 17.) 

The British Museum, therefore, possesses three copies 
of the 1723 edition, and the one catalogued 241 f. 17. de- 
serves, as vou will see, special notice. 

In the 'preface to M. Jannet's excellent volume (p. 
xiv.) I find the following remark : 

" II y avoit dans la bibliotheque de M. Glue de Saint 
Port,conseiller honoraire an grand conseil, un exemplaire 
de cette Edition annote par La Monnoye." 

Now this annotated copy is precisely the volume 241 f. 
17., and although the editions of MM. Prompsault and 
Jannet have, like it, been revised from a collation of the 
MS. belonging to M. de Coislin, yet the octavo I am now 
describing contains several important readings which 
have escaped the notice of previous commentators. 

The fresh matter just brought to light will be made 
available towards a reprint of the Elzevirian edition, for 
I have inserted all La Monnoye's marginal corrections in 
my own copy. In the meanwhile I transcribe here the 
amended title-page which this critic has left in MS. at 
the beginning of the volume now in the British Mu- 
seum : 

" L'Histoire et les Chefs de la Poe'sie Francaise, avec la 
Liste des Poetes Provencaux et Fran^ais, accompagnee 
de Remarques sur le Caractere de leurs Ouvrages." 

" Poesies de Francois Villon et de ses Disciples, revues 
sur les diffe'rentes Editions, corrige'es et augmente'es sur 



le Manuscrit de M. le due de Coislin, et sur plusieurs 
autres, et enrichies d'un grand nombre de Pieces, avec 
des notes historiques et critiques." GUSTAVE MASSON. 
Harrow-on-the-Hill. 

The Kent Archaeological Society will hold its first An- 
nual Meeting at Canterbury on Friday the 30th of the 
present month, under the Presidentship of the Marquess 
of Camden ; and from the arrangements which have been 
made, and the zeal of the Members, Council, and Secre- 
taries, there is little doubt that the gathering will be 
worthy of the county. 

A numerous and important meeting of Gentlemen con- 
nected with the Newspaper and Serial Press was held at 
Peele's Coffee House on Monday last, for the purpose of 
organising such a united system of action as should insure 
the repeal of the Paper Duties in the course of the coming 
Session. That, while efforts are making on every side for 
the spread of education, a tax which bears so heavily 
upon the production of elementary books should continue, 
is an anomaly which cannot long" exist. The days of the 
paper duty are numbered ; and the result of the present 
movement will doubtless be to make paper .both better 
and cheaper. 

Lord Talbot de Malahide has introduced a Bill into 
the House of Lords on the subject of Treasure Trove. 
This will be good news to Archaeologists, who should 
give the Bill their best attention during the recess, that 
when reintroduced in the next Session a perfect measure 
may be produced. 

We invite the attention of our antiquarian and genea- 
logical friends to the very important announcement from 
the Society of Antiquaries on the subject of preserving a 
record of existing Monumental Inscriptions, which will be 
found in our advertising columns. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

LE NEVE'S MONDMENTA ANGLICANA. 5Vols. 8vo. 17171719. 

*** Letters, stating particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to he 
sent to MESSRS. HULL & DAI.DV, Publishers of " .NOTES ANl> 
QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose. 

AKEBMAN'S CATALOGUE OP RARE AND UNEDITED ROMAN COINS. 2 
Vols. 8vo. 

Wanted by W. Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh. 



WESTMINSTER REVIEW, January, 1858. 

Wanted by Charles Goulden, Bookseller, Canterbury. 

IRONSIDES' HISTORY OF TWICKENHAM. 
Miss LETITIA HAWKINS' ANECDOTES AND MEMOIRS. 
Wanted by Dr. Diamond, F.S.A., Twickenham House, Twickenham. 



tn Carretf poutteuttf. 

Among other papers of interest and value which will appear in our 
next dumber, ive may call attention to one by Sir G. C. Lewis On the 
supposed Circumnavigation of Africa in Antiquity. . 

Mn. GoTCH'sLisr OF UNIVERSITY HOODS. Incompliance with the re- 
quest of many correspondents, this will be 'i cproduced in its present cor- 
rected form. 

FiREFj,y. The Cromwellian edition of KteiUim's Heraldry, 1660, is a 
common book ; but the amended edition of that date is rare. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published, at noun on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The suhsrription for STAMPKU COPIES for 
t-tx Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (inctudma the Ifutf- 
ycarly INDEX) is \\s.\d., which may be paid by Post Office Order in 
favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DAi,Dy,186. FLEET STREET, E,C.; to whom 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOR TH EDITOR should be addressed. 



2nd S. VI. 131, JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 24. 1858. 



ON THE SUPPOSED CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF AFRICA 
IN ANTIQUITY. 

The views of those who maintain the probability 
of voyages by the Phoenicians to distant lands 
who suppose them to have sailed to the amber- 
coast of the Baltic, and even hint, at their having 
reached America receive some confirmation from 
the accounts, preserved by the ancients, of the 
circumnavigation of Africa. These accounts lie 
within a small compass, and deserve a separate 
examination. 

The accurate knowledge of the Greeks re- 
specting Egypt began with the reign of Psam- 
initichus (Herod, ii. 154.), and we are able to fix 
an authentic chronology for the Egyptian kings 
from his reign to that of Psammenitus, who was 
deposed by Cambyses ; being a period of 145 
years ending at 525 B. C. 

B. C. 

Psammitichus reigned - 670 616 

Neco - --- 616600 

Psammis - - - 600595 

Apries - - - 595570 

Amasis - - - 570526 

Psammenitus - 526 525 

We learn from Herodotus that Neco began to 
dig a canal connecting the Nile with the Red Sea ; 
and that 120,000 men had perished in its form- 
ation, when he desisted from the work, in con- 
sequence of the admonition of an oracle. He 
afterwards turned his attention to military af- 
fairs ; he built vessels of war both in the Red Sea 
and in the Mediterranean ; and he invaded Syria 
(ii. 1589.; Diod. i. 33.; Plin. vi. 29.) But 
soon after the abandonment of the canal, and 
with a view, as it appears, of accomplishing the 
same object by different means, he sent some 
vessels, navigated by Phoenicians, to circumnavi- 
gate Africa, ordering them to commence their 
voyage from the Red Sea, and so reach Egypt 
by the Pillars of Hercules and the Mediterranean. 
If this voyage could be effected, a ship would sail 
between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean * ; 
to connect which was the object of the canal. 
Herodotus proceeds to state that the Phoenicians, 
starting as they were ordered, sailed along the 
Southern Sea; and, whatever part of Africa they 
hud reached, when autumn arrived, they landed, 
sowed the ground, and awaited the harvest; and 
having gathered the corn, they then continued j 
their voyage: that having thus consumed two 
s, in the third year they passed the Pillars of 

* It may be observed that Herodotus here calls the 
Mediterranean the /SopTjo) 0dA.a<nra, as opposed to the VOTI'IJ 
flaAao-o-o, the sea to the south of Libya, ii. 158., iv. 42. 



Hercules, and returned to Egypt. " The account 
which they gave," says Herodotus, " which others 
may, if they think fit, believe, but which to me is 
incredible, is that when they were sailing round 
Africa, they had the sun on their right hand." 
Herodotus adds that the Carthaginians at a later 
period maintained that Africa could be circum- 
navigated ; and he subjoins a story of Sataspes, a 
Persian nobleman, who, in the reign of Xerxes 
(485 465 B. c.) was relieved from a sentence of 
crucifixion, upon the singular condition that he 
should circumnavigate Africa. Herodotus tells 
us that Sataspes obtained a ship and sailors in 
Egypt ; passed the Pillars of Hercules, and having 
rounded the western promontory of Africa, called 
Soloeis, pursued his voyage to the south ; but 
after sailing many months, and finding that he 
was still far from the Red Sea, he turned back, 
and came again to Egypt. The account which 
he gave to Xerxes on his return was that, at the 
extremity of his voyage he sailed by little men, 
dressed in purple, who, when he landed, left the 
towns and fled to the mountains ; that his crew 
used to take nothing, except some sheep; and 
that the reason why he did not proceed further 
was, that the ship stuck fast, and would not 
move. Xerxes did not believe this story, and, 
as Sataspes had not fulfilled the required condi- 
tion, ordered him to be crucified. Herodotus 
adds that an eunuch of Sataspes, when he heard 
of his master's death, fled to Samos with a large 
sum of money ; and that this money was dis- 
honestly retained by a Samian, with whom it had 
doubtless been deposited. " I know the name of 
this Samian " (says Herodotus), " but suppress 
it out of regard for his memory." (iv. 42, 43.) 
It will be observed that Herodotus resided |t 
Samos during the early part of his life, and thus 
might have had an opportunity of becoming ac- 
quainted with a circumstance which must have 
occurred within his lifetime. 

The next reference to this subject occurs in 
Strabo. This geographer quotes Posidonius as 
treating of the circumnavigation of Africa, and as 
referring to the expedition mentioned by Hero- 
dotus (which is by an error of memory attributed 
to Darius instead of Neco), as well as to a certain 
Magus who was represented by Heraclides Pon- 
ticus to have assured Gelo (485 478 B. c.) that 
he had performed this voyage. Posidonius de- 
clared that these voyages were unauthenticated 
by credible testimony ; but he related the fol- 
lowing story of a certain Eudoxus, who lived in 
the second century before Christ, as deserving of 
belief. Eudoxus of Cyzicus (he said), being in 
Egypt in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes the 
Second (170 117 B. c.), accompanied this king 
in voyages up the Nile ; on one of these occasions, 
an Indian was brought to Ptolemy by the guards 
of the Red Sea, who said that they had found him 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2- s. VL is*, JULY 24. v>8. 



alone and half dead in a ship. By the king's ! 
command, the Indian was taught Greek ; where- j 
upon he offered to steer a ship to India : the ! 
voyage was made under the guidance of this ! 
Indian, and Eudoxus went out and returned with 
the ship ; but the king took away all the precious 
stones which he brought back. In the following 
reign of Queen Cleopatra (11789 B. c.) Eu- 
doxus was sent on a second voyage to India 
with a larger expedition ; but on his return he j 
was carried by adverse winds beyond ^Ethiopia, 
along the eastern coast of Africa. Having landed 
at different places, he communicated with the in- 
habitants, and wrote down some of their words. 
He here met with a prow of a ship, saved from a \ 
wreck, with a figure of a horse cut in it ; and 
having heard that it was a part of a vessel which 
had come from the west, he brought it away. 
On his return to Egypt, he found that Cleo- 
patra had been succeeded by her son (Ptolemy 
Soter II. Lathyrus, 89 81 B.C.), who again de- 
prived him of all his profits in consequence of an 
accusation of embezzlement. Eudoxus showed the 
prow which he had brought with him to the mer- 
chants in the harbour ; they immediately recog- 
nised it as belonging to a ship of Gadeira ; and 
one ship-captain identified it as having formed 
part of a vessel which had sailed along the western 
coast of Africa beyond the river Lixus, and had 
never returned. Eudoxus hence perceived that 
the circumnavigation of Africa was possible ; he 
then took with him all his money, and sailed 
along the coast of Italy and Gaul, touching at 
Dicaearchia (or Puteoli), Massilia, and other ports, 
on his way to Gadeira ; at all which places he 
proclaimed his discovery, and collected subscrip- 
tions : by these means he procured a large ship 
and two boats, and having taken on board some 
singing boys, physicians, and other professional 
persons, he steered his course through the Straits 
for India. After some accidents in the voyage, 
they reached a part of the African coast, where 
they found men who used the same words as those 
which he had written down in his former course 
from the Red Sea ; whence he perceived that the 
tribes which he had reached from the west were 
of the same race as those which he had reached 
from the east, and that they were conterminous 
with the kingdom of Bogus (Mauretania). Eu- 
doxus, having ascertained this fact, turned back 
his ship ; when he had arrived at Mauretania, he 
attempted to persuade King Bogus to send out 
another expedition. The final results of this 
attempt were not, however, known to Posidonius. 
(Strab. ii. 3, 4.) The King Bogus here men- 
tioned is either the King of Western Mauretania, 
who, with Bocchus, was confirmed by Julius 
Caesar in 49 B. c., or he is an earlier king of the I 
same name. The Latin writers call him Bogud ; 
Dio Cassius writes his name Boyouos. Pliny says 



that the two divisions of Mauretania, Eastern and 
Western, were respectively named after their 
kings Bocchus and Bogud. (" Namque din regum 
nomina obtinuere, ut Bogudiana appellaretur ex- 
tirna ; itemque Bocchi, qua? nunc Ca3sariensis." 
N. H. v. 1.) Compare Strab. xvii. 3. 7. 

The voyage of Eudoxus was likewise reported 
by Cornelius Nepos, who stated that, in his own 
time, Eudoxus, in order to escape from Ptolemy 
Lathurus, had sailed from the Reel Sea, and had 
reached Gades (Mela, iii. 9. ; Plin. N. H. ii. G7.). 
The historian Cailius Antipater, who lived about, 
120 B c., also declared that he had seen a man 
who had made the voyage from Spain to ^Ethiopia 
for commercial purposes (Plin. Ib. repeated by 
Marcianus Capella, lib. vi.). 

Before examining these accounts in detail, it is 
necessary to ascertain the notion formed by the 
ancients respecting the geography of Africa. 

Strabo says, that although the world is divided 
into the three continents of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa, the division is unequal : for that Europe 
and Africa put together are not equal in size to 
Asia; and that Africa appears to be smaller even 
than Europe. He describes Africa as forming a 
right-angled triangle ; the base being the distance 
from Egypt to the Pillars of Hercules ; the other 
side of the right-angle being the line of the Nile 
to the extremity of ^Ethiopia, and the hypotenuse 
being the line connecting the latter point with the 
Pillars of Hercules (xviii. 3. 1.). 




^Ethiopia. 

Elsewhere he likens Africa to a trapezium, 
which figure is formed by supposing that the 
eastern extremity of the south-western coast is 
parallel to the northern coast (ii. 5. 33.) 

Mela has a similar notion of the form of Africa. 
He says that its length from east to west is greater 
than its width from north to south ; and that its 
greatest width is the part where it adjoins the 
Nile (i. 4.) 

As the ancients believed that the Northern 
Ocean swept across the back of Europe, from the 
vicinity of the Caspian and the Palus Mreotis, 
along the shores of Scythia, Germany, and Gaul, 
to the Pillars of Hercules thus suppressing the 
Scandinavian peninsula and the chief part of 
Russia so they believed that the Southern 
Ocean extended in a direct line from the Pillars 
of Hercules to the extremity of ./Ethiopia beyond 
Egypt ; and hence they called the Negro tribes 
on the western coast of Africa ^Ethiopians, and 



2nd S . VI. 134., JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



brought them into connexion with the ^Ethiopians 
of the Upper Nile. According to the statement 
of Scylax, some persons thought that the zEthio- 
pians of the northern shores of Africa were con- 
tinuous with those who inhabited Egypt ; that 
Africa was a peninsula stretching to the west, and 
that the sea was uninterrupted from its western 
extremity to the Egyptian side ( 112.) 

According to Juba, the Atlantic Sea began with 
the Mossylian promontory, near the south-eastern 
extremity of the Red Sea; and the navigation 
thence to Gades, along the coast of Mauretnnia, 
was in a north-westerly direction (Plin. vi. 34.). 

Aristotle, arguing that the form of the earth is 
spherical, explains upon this hypothesis the opi- 
nion of those who not only connect the country 
near the Pillars of Hercules with India, as well as 
the seas in those two quarters ; but account for 
the presence of elephants both in Africa and India 
by the resemblance of the most remote extremes. 
The true explanation, according to Aristotle, is, that 
India is near the north-western coast of Africa, be- 
cause the earth is a sphere (De Ccelo, ii. 14.). So 
Eratosthenes expressed an opinion that, if it were 
not for the great size of the Atlantic (or external) 
Sea, a ship might sail along the same parallel from 
Iberia to India (ap. Strab. i. 4. 6.) On the 
other hand, Seneca thought that this distance was 
not great, and that the voyage could with favour- 
able winds be made in a short time. (" Quantum 
enim est, quod ab ultimis litoribus Hispaniaa usque 
ad Indos jacet? Paucissimorum diernm spatium, 
si navem suus ventus implevit." Nat. Qucest. i. 
Pra3f. 11.) 

The belief as to the affinity between the ex- 
treme east and the extreme west explains some 
of the mythological stories respecting the popu- 
lation of Africa : thus the Maurusii are said to 
have been Indians who accompanied Hercules to 
the west of that continent (Strab. xvii. 3. 7.) 

These opinions as to the shape of Africa, though 
predominant, were not universal : for Polybius 
considers it to be unascertained whether the sea 
passes round it to the south (iii. 38.). According 
to Mela, the question long remained doubtful, 
but it was settled by the voyages of Hanno and 
Eudoxus (iii. 9.). 

Such being the notions of the ancients respect- 
ing the shape of Africa, the next, point to be 
ascertained is, how far their geographical explor- 
ation of the coast can be proved by sure evidence 
to have extended. 

The entire northern coast of Africa had, from a 
remote period, been visited by the Phoenician na- 
vigators^ $ who, together with their colonists the 
Carthaginians, likewise established themselves in 
force on the southern coast of Spain, and used 
their establishments at Gades and its neighbour- 
hood as starting-places for ulterior discovery. 
Their efforts seem to have been directed princi- 



! pally towards the opposite coast of Africa, and not 
to the Lusitanian coast a policy connected with 
the natural views for the extension of the Cartha- 

E'niari empire. Tingis, the modern Tangier, and 
ixus and Thymiateria lying to the south on the 
same coast, are expi'essly mentioned as Cartha- 
ginian foundations : we also hear of a large num- 
ber of Tyrian or Carthaginian towns on the 
western coast of Mauretania, which, having once 
amounted to 300, were destroyed by the neigh- 
bouring barbarians. These extensive settlements 
are indeed discredited by Strabo (xvii. 3. 3.), and 
Pliny (v. 1.) ; but it cannot be doubted that the 
Phoenicians, both of Tyre and Carthage, used their 
important port and factory of Gades as a means 
of extending their dominion on the opposite coast 
of Africa (Movers, vol. ii. pp. 521 554.) 

An authentic record of the most important of 
these attempts still remains in the Periplus of 
Hanno, whose voyage is conjecturally fixed at 
470 B.C. The extant narrative is probably an 
exact transcript of the original, which (like the 
bilingual inscription of Hannibal, Livy, xxviii. 
46.) may have been engraved on brass, both in 
Punic and Greek. The expedition was part.ly for 
colonisation, partly for discovery. The most dis- 
tant settlement was not far from the Straits ; the 
extent of the exploring voyage cannot be fixed 
with certainty. Gossellin takes it only as far as 
Cape Nun ; the more prevailing opinion extends 
it to a point near Sierra Leone. The numbers of 
the expedition appear to be exaggerated ; but its 
strength was such as to enable it to master all 
opposition of the natives. Some of the circum- 
stances related in the exploring part of the voyage 
are manifestly fabulous ; but there is no reason 
for doubting the general truth of the account. 

We are informed by Pliny, that when Scipio 
was in command in Africa (about 146 B.C.), he 
employed Polybius the historian to explore the 
western coast of that continent, and furnished him 
with a fleet for the purpose. Pliny gives a sum- 
mary of the extent of coast examined by Polybius ; 
the furthest point which he visited was the river 
Bambotus, in which were crocodiles and hippo- 
potami (Plin. v. 1.) This voyage is referred to 
by Polybius in an extant passage of his history 
(iii. 59.) Pliny's account of the places which he 
visited is analysed by Gossellin, who identifies the 
Bambotus with the Nun (Recherches sur la Geo- 
graphie des Anciens, torn. i. p. 106.) Gossellin thinks 
that the ancients never passed Cape Boyador. 

Another proof of the voyages of the Gaditane 
navigators to the south, along the African coast, 
is the fact that they had discovered the Canary 
Islands, certainly before the time of Sertorius, 
about 82 B.C., and probably at a much earlier 
period. (See Plut.Ser*. 8.,Diod. v. 19, 20., Aristot. 
Mir. Auac. 84. ; Dr. Smith's Diet, of Geogr., art. 
FORTUNATE INSULTS.) 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. O* S. VI. 134, JULY 24. '58. 



On the eastern coast of Africa, the ancients had, 
from an early period, navigated the Red Sea, and 
had made considerable progress along the southern 
coast of Asia. Herodotus indeed informs us that 
Darius (521 485 B.C.) hearing that the Indus, as 
well as the Nile, contained crocodiles *, wished to 
ascertain where that river joined the sea. He ac- 
cordingly sent Scylax of Caryanda, and other per- 
sons whom he could trust, to ascertain the truth. 
They started from the city of Caspatyrus and the 
land of Pactya, and sailed down the Indus to the 
east, until they reached the sea. They then sailed 
by sea to the west, and in the thirtieth month 
reached the point from which Neco had sent the 
Phoenicians to circumnavigate Africa. After this 
voyage, adds Herodotus, Darius subdued the In- 
dians, and navigated the intermediate sea (iv. 44. 
Compare iii. 101.). 

The Scylax of Caryanda, here mentioned by 
Herodotus, is cited by Aristotle and other writers 
as having left a work containing geographical and 
ethnographical notices of India ; but the account 
of his voyage down the Indus, and from the mouth 
of the Indus to the Persian- Gulf, is discredited by 
Dr. Vincent, on grounds which deserve attentive 
consideration, and which are regarded as conclu- 
sive by C. Miiller, in his recent edition of the 
Minor Greek Geographers. (Commerce and Navi- 
gation of the Ancients in the Indian Ocean, vol. i. 
pp. 303-311. ; vol. ii. pp. 13-15., ed. 1807 ; Geogr. 
Gr. Min.j vol. i., Prol. p. xxxv.) G. C. LEWIS. 

(To be concluded in our next.) 



Essays on the Reformation, Letters on the Eccles. 
Hist. Soc. Edition of Strype's Cranmer, and other 
| papers in the British Magazine ; Strype's Parker, 
Cheke, and Aylmer, with Thomas Baker's notes 
(very numerous and important on the Life of 
Parker), in the library of St. John's College, 
Cambridge ; publications of the Parker Society ; 
Archbp. Laurence's Bampton Lectures (ed. 1820), 
pp. 200. 225. seq. ; Gent. Mag., July, Aug., Dec., 
1833 (pp. 16. 124. 492. 494.) ; British Magazine, 
vol. xxii. pp. 3. seq., 140. 380., vol. xxiv. pp. 482. 
486. ; Waterland's Letters to Lewis (in Water- 
land's Works). On the Life of Parker, see " N. 
& Q." 2 nd S. ii. 266. ; on Wharton's notes in the 
Life of Cranmer, D'Oyly's Life of Saner oft (1st 
ed.), vol. ii. p. 151. For letters and other papers 
relating to Strype, see beside the Catalogues of 
the great Collections of MSS., Sir Henry Ellis's 
Letters of Eminent Literary Men, Thoresby's Cor- 
respondence, ii. 272., and often, Letters from the 
Bodleian, ii. 41. seq. A great mass of Strype's cor- 
respondence is preserved at Milton, Cambridge- 
shire, which may perhaps deserve the attention 
of the Camden or some of our other publishing 
societies. Sir E. Brydges (Restituta, iii. 538., iv. 
261.) may also be consulted. J. E. B. MAYOR. 
St. John's College, Cambridge. 



MATERIALS FOR A NEW EDITION OF STRYPE. 

[Our readers w'll we are sure be as glad as we are, to 
see that, although Dr. Maitland's interesting Pamphlet 
on the subject of a new and revised edition* of Strype's 
Works was but privately printed, it has had the effect of 
drawing general attention to the subject. How pleased 
we should be to hear that the Delegates of the Clarendon 
Press or if they decline it, some eminent publishing 
firm, had taken the matter in hand. ED. " N. & Q."] 

As DR. MAITLAND has again called attention to 
the value of Strype's works, and has urged the 
necessity of a thorough revision and illustration 
of the text, it may not be out of place to make a 
beginning, by bringing together references to con- 
tributions which have been already made to this 
national undertaking. Hoping that the readers 
of " N. & Q." may supply my deficiencies, I sub- 
mit my scanty gleanings to their judgment. See 
Machyn's Diary (Camd. Soc.) ; Dr. Maitland's 

* Alexander the Great, finding that there were crocodiles 
in the Indus, and that a bean grew on the banks of the 
Acesines,' which fell into the Indus, similar to the Egyp- 
tian bean, concluded that the Indus and the Nile were 
the same river ; and wrote word to his mother Olym- 
pias that he had discovered the sources of 'the Nile. 
Arrian, Anab. vi. 1. 



Strype : the Cranmer Register. I see, by a 
notice in the Athenceum, that Dr. Maitland is 
again calling attention to the want of accuracy in 
Strype's quotations from Archbishop Cranmer's 
Register ; and I, for one, shall rejoice if Dr. Mait- 
land, following the suggestion of the reviewer of 
his " Notes," should be himself induced to under- 
take the revision of Strype for a new edition. . 

But is there any reason why the Register itself 
cannot be printed in extenso ? or, if too long for 
publication, at least such parts of it as are of 
special interest ? However, it seems hardly con- 
ceivable that any of the items in such a document, 
extending over so stirring a period, should be 
wanting in general interest. J. SANSOM. 

It is exceedingly vexatious to read in a late num- 
ber (2 nd S. v. 448.) that space cannot be spared 
in your pages for DR. MAITLAND'S Notes and 
Queries on 'the works of our great antiquary 
the Rev. J. Strype, whose antiquarian researches 
are invaluable and of high authority. The inde- 
fatigable, learned, and judicious DR. MAITLAND 
has thrown additional light upon the transactions 
noted by Mr. Strype ; and surely they must not be 
hid in a private publication. Cannot you spread 
them over a few pages of " N. & Q.," so that nothing 
shall be lost ? The number of ecclesiastical students 
who are diligently inquiring into the great and 
important changes which took place in our eccle- 
siastical affairs from the reign of Henry VIII. to 



S. VI. 134., JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



that of James I., claim your reconsideration as to 
publishing the recent discoveries of DR. MAITLAND, 
and will, I trust, induce you to preserve them in 
your pages. GEORGE OFFOR. 



HEALE-HODSE : REMARKABLE INSTANCE OF THE 
PROVISIONS OF AN UNJUST WILL BEING DE- 
FEATED. 

As Heale House in Wiltshire is about to be 
visited by the archaeologists assembling in Salis- 
bury, the following narrative may add somewhat 
to the interest of the spot : 

Sir Robert Hyde of Dinton, Sergeant-at-Law, 
and M.P. for Salisbury, came by the demise of 
his brother Lawrence [B. p. m. though there 
were daughters] into possession of the Heale 
estates in the Amesbury Valley ; and by the ele- 
vation of his kinsman, the Earl of Clarendon, was 
himself created Chief Justice of the Common 
Pleas. He had moreover in his possession a va- 
riety of interesting heir-looms, specified as " the 
pearl necklace, and the chain belonging to the 
watch, and the diamonds in that chain, and the 
picture of James I. and his four children, and a 
small picture of Charles II.," the memorials of the 
well-known royalism of the house of Hyde and 
of their relationship to the crown through Lord 
Clarendon's daughter ; and he appears to have 
been very desirous that the landed estates con- 
taining so interesting a member as Heale House, 
should, together with the aforesaid heir-looms, 
always belong to a Hyde, and finally revert to an 
Earl of Clarendon. In pursuance of this design, 
therefore, in a settlement of his property which 
he executed by deed, enrolled in the Common 
Pleas two years before his death, he passed over 
the daughters of his brother Lawrence, who had 
lived on the estate before himself, in favour of 
the sons of his next brother, Alexander Hyde, 
the Bishop of Salisbury ; and in default of issue, 
then to the sons of other brothers. But now, 
mark the result. In a very few years after the 
Chief Justice's death, one of his nephews, Dr. 
Robert Hyde, being the very first person who had 
the power to cut off the entail, did so ; and left 
Heale to a person bearing another name, his sis- 
ter, the widow of Dr. Levinz, Bishop of Sodor 
and Man ; thus totally frustrating the cherished 
designs of his uncle. But this is only half the 
story. We have now to see how the estate came 
to be possessed by persons of exactly an opposite 
way of thinking, viz. the descendants of Oliver 
Cromwell. The widow Levinz left the Heale 
estates, worth more than 2000Z. a year, together 
with all the heir-looms aforesaid, to Matthew 
Frampton, M.D., of Oxford, who had married 
her only daughter (though that daughter pre- 
deceased her) ; and from Dr. Frampton, who 
died in 1742, the estates passed in succession to 



three nephews, and these all dying without male 
issue, then to a cousin, William Bowles, a canon 
of Salisbury, who came into possession in 1759, 
only seventeen years after Dr. Frampton's death. 
This canon Bowies' son William married Dinah, 
the second daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas 
Frankland, a descendant of Oliver; and William 
Bowles was himself a Foxite, and a member of 
the Wilts Reform Association of 1780. [This 
William Bowles, by the way, is father of the Ad- 
mirals Bowles.] Thus it came to pass that a spot 
consecrated to Royalism became the abode of a lady 
who piqued herself not a little on her relationship 
to the usurper. Here it was that Dr. Samuel 
Johnson came to pay a visit to his friend Bowles 
(Whig though he was) ; and in the very parlour 
probably where the fugitive Charles had supped 
in disguise, the Doctor and his friend laid their 
plans for a new and improved life of Oliver the 
Great. [See Boswell's account of that visit. Bos- 
well does not say that the new life of Cromwell 
was planned at Heale, but his narrative indicates 
it.] 

So much for the fortunes of Heale. But what 
became of the descendants of the Bishop of Salis- 
bury, in whose favour the will was made ? The 
following article in the Annual Register will at 
least inform us respecting one of them : 

"There is now living [February, 1768] in Lady Da- 
cre's Almshouses, Westminster, one Mrs. Windimore, 
whose maiden name was Hyde. She was grand-daugh- 
ter of Dr. Hyde, Bishop of Salisbury, brother of the 
great Lord Chancellor Hyde, Earl of Cfarendon ; and she 
lost her fortune in the South Sea year, 1720. She is also 
a distant cousin of their late Majesties Queen Mary and 
Queen Anne, whose mother was Lady Anne Hyde, 
Duchess of York, whose royal consort was afterwards 
King James II. A lively instance of the mutability of 
all worldly things, that a person related to two crowned 
heads should, by a strange caprice of fortune, be reduced 
to live in an almshouse! She retains her senses in a 
tolerable degree; and her principal complaint is that she 
has outlived all her friends, being now upwards of an 
hundred years of age." 

If comment on the above be admissible, it might 
be this. While the venerable lady, impoverished 
by the South Sea bubble, and sitting alone in the 
Dacre Almshouse, is no more an object of pity 
than Mrs. Bowles, surrounded with affluence, and 
brewing a dish of tea for Dr. Johnson ; yet the 
short-sighted provisions of the will-maker, who 
would gladly have averted such a result, may 
surely be allowed to remind us that our own 
stewardship ceases with our own life. 

J. WAYLEN. 



THE BLUE BLANKET. 



Not having seen a notice of this celebrated ban- 
ner in the pages of " N. & Q.," and considering it 
well worthy of preservation in that curious miscel- 
lany, I have extracted the following from The 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2 nd s. vi. is*., JULY 21 '58. 



Freemasons Magazine of July 7, where it occurs 
in an account of laying the foundation stone of 
the new Masonic Hall in Edinburgh : 

" As many inquiries have been made regarding the 
banner called The Blue Blanket,' which was displayed 
in the late Masonic procession in Edinburgh by the Lodge 
of Journeymen of that city, we give the following parti- 
culars, chiefly gleaned from the history of this famous 
relic written in 1722 by Alexander Pennicuick, Burgess 
and Guild Brother. According to the statements of that 
worthy Brother of the incorporated Fraternity, a number 
of Scotch mechanics followed Allan, Lord Steward of 
Scotland, to the holy wars in Palestine, and took with 
them a banner on which were inscribed the following words 
from the 51st Psalm, viz. : ' In bond voluntate Tua edifi- 
centur muri HierosolynHe.' Fighting under this banner 
these valiant Scotsmen were present at the capture of 
Jerusalem and other towns in the Holy Land; and on 
their return to their own country they deposited the ban- 
ner, which they styled ' The Banner of the Holy Ghost,' 
at the altar of St." Eloi the patron saint of the Edin- 
burgh tradesmen in the church of St. Giles. It was 
occasionally unfurled, or worn as a mantle, by the repre- 
sentatives of the trades in the courtly and religious pa- 
geants that in former times were of "frequent occurrence 
in the Scottish capital. In 1482, James III., in conse- 
quence of the assistance which he had received from the 
craftsmen of Edinburgh, in delivering him from the castle 
in which he was kept a prisoner, and paying a debt of 
6000 merks which he had contracted in making prepara- 
tion for the marriage of his son, the Duke of Rothsay, to 
Cecil, daughter of Edward IV. of England, conferred on 
the good town several valuable privileges, and renewed 
to the craftsmen their favourite banner of ' The Blue Blan- 
ket.' James's Queen, Margaret of Denmark, to show her 
gratitude and respect to the crafts, painted on the banner, 
with her own hands, a St. Andrew's cross, a crown, a 
thistle, and a hammer, with the following inscription: 
Fear God and honour the King, grant him a long life 
and a prosperous reign, and we shall ever pray to be 
faithful for the defence of his sacred Majesty's royal per- 
son till death.' 

" The King decreed that in all time coming this flag 
should be the standard of the crafts within burgh, and 
that it should be unfurled in defence of their own rights, 
and in protection of their sovereign. The incorporated 
crafts were, therefore, ever ready to hoist their banner 
when any of their privileges were assailed ; and hence 
James VI., in his Basilicon Doron, which he addressed to 
his son Henry, Prince of Wales, says : * The craftsmen 
think we should be content with their work, how bad 
soever it should be; and if in anything they be con- 
troulled, up goes ' the Blue Blanket.' The crafts, never- 
theless, showed no less alertness in bringing it forth to 
uphold the honour and independence of their country, and 
to protect the life and liberty of their sovereigns. It is 
said to have flaunted amidst a thousand streamers of all 
shapes, devices, and hues on the Borough Muir, when the 
craftsmen rallied under the Earl of Angus, the Lord Pro- 
vost, to accompany James IV. to the disastrous field of 
Flodden. It was displayed to assemble the incorporated 
trades to protect Queen Mary when she was insulted, and 
her life placed in jeopardy, by the incensed populace, 
after her surrender to the confederated nobles at Carbery 
Hill ; and,it went up to rescue James VI. himself from a 
rabble that assailed him in the Old Tolbooth, for refusing 
to listen to a petition presented by the Presbyterian minis- 
ters, complaining of his undue leaning in favour of the 
Popish party. The last time it was publicly exhibited 
was on the visit of George IV. to Scotland, in 1822. 
" The privilege of displaying it at the Masonic proces- 



sion was granted to the Journeymen in consequence of 
their original connexion with the Masons of Mary's 
Chapel, one of the fourteen Incorporated Trades of the 
City. It was delivered to the assembled Journeymen, on 
the morning of the procession, by Convener Tibbetts, who 
is the custodier of it during his term of office, in pre- 
sence of several of the deacons of the trades, and a large 
concourse of the citizens. In performing this ceremony 
the Convener referred to the historical character of the 
banner, and the important occasions on which it had 
floated above the heads of the citizens ; and he expressed 
a hope that while it was in the hands of the Journey- 
men it would be protected with scrupulous care. Bro. 
William Hunter, Master of the Journeymen, in repty, 
said that the whole Journeymen felt honoured in being 
entrusted with so precious a relic on this auspicious occa- 
sion ; that it would be guarded by two of the brethren 
armed with ponderous Lochaber axes, and that every 
Journeyman would feel his honour at stake in returning 
it safe and sound to the keeping of the Convener. ' The 
Blue Blanket ' was long in a very tattered condition ; but 
some years ago it was repaired by lining it with blue ^silk, 
so that it can now be exposed without subjecting it to 
much injury. It was inspected by the Duke of Atholl, 
Lord Panmure, and other notables taking part in the pro- 
cession, who expressed their gratification at seeing a relic 
so famous in the annals of the city." 



THE GRECIAN TEAR OF HERODOTUS. 

MR. RAWLINSON calls attention to the error by 
which Herodotus makes the year equal to 375 days 
(i. 32.) This statement occurs in the report of a 
speech of Solon to Croesus ; and Herodotus may 
have so received it with that manifest error (not 
so manifest to Solon as to himself perhaps) with- 
out deeming it needful to point it out and ex- 
plain it ; for the subject of the whole speech was 
moral and political, not arithmetical or astro- 
nomical. He states 
That in 70 years of 360 days each = 25,200 
there were intercalated 35 months 
of 30 days - - = 1,050 

making in 70 years - - 26,250 days, 

which give 375 days to the year. This settles 
the pretensions of Solon, as a reformer of the 
calendar, by a side wind, unless it is treated as 
an erroneous report. He should have stated that 
in 70 years there were - 25,200 days, 

and that every third year a 
month of 30 days should 
be intercalated, 23 X 30 = 690 
less the omission of one 
month every eighth year *, 
8 X 30 - = 240 
say, 15 X 30 = 450 

making in 70 years - 25,6,50 day?, 

or 366 per annum, near enough for a rough ap- 
proximation, f 

* Censorinus, Die Natal. 18. 

f If we take a period of 72 instead of 70 years, this 



2" S. VI. 131., JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



The error of Solon, his reporter, or Herodotus, 
or of the MSS., has caused Mr. Rawlinson to fall 
into the error of rendering Sia rpirou ereos (every 
third year (ii. 4.) "every other year;" and Sir 
G. Wilkinson likewise (Herod, vol. ii. p. 286.), 
" at the end of every second year" (see Matthias, 
Gr. Gr. 580.), thus reckoning thirty-five inter- 
calary months in seventy years instead of fifteen. 
The Grecian year in use in the time of Herodotus, 
subsequent to Solon's, and before Melon's, was 
probably that of Cleostratus, the period being 8 
years of 354 days, intercalating 3 months of 30 
days, together 2922, or 365| days in the year. 
(Hist. ofAstron. U. K S. 21 .) The Thebans did 
not intercalate months, or strike out days like 
the rest of the Greeks, but made their year con- 
sist of 12 months (of 30 days each), and 5 days. 
(Diod. Sic. i. 50.) 

A short method of settling a difficulty, which has 
perplexed so many scholars, is to treat the whole 
story of Solon's interview with Croasus as a fic- 
tion, the right one, if Voemel is correct in his 
chronology. (Penny Cyc. art. " Solon," p. 213.) 

T. J. BUCKTON. 



Minor 

Dr. Johnson and- the Odes of Horace. In the 
Literary Gazette of July 3, is a review of Lord 
Ravensworth's Translation of Horace, which starts 
by saying that Dr. Johnson said, " the lyrical part 
of Horace can never be properly translated ;" and 
according to the reviewer, it appears that his 
snying still holds good. It seems, however, that 
the Doctor had a mind to try his genius in that 
way, for I happen to have his translation of the 
14th Ode in Book II., which was sent to me bv a 
lady in Scotland. It appears probable that it 
was translated for some friend, during his visit to 
Scotland ; being written on a quarter of a sheet 
of paper, on both sides, and has his autograph : 
" Sam. Johnson." It has not been published, and 
was found on looking over the papers of a lately 
deceased nobleman. The last verse runs thus : 

" After your death, the lavish heir 
Will quickly drive away his woe; 
The wine you kept with so much care 
Along the marble floor shall flow." 

T. G. LOMAX. 
Lichfield. 

Materials for the History of French Protest- 
antism. A. recent volume of the Bulletin de la 
Societe. de VHistoire du Protestantisme Franqais 
contains the account of a journey through Hol- 
land, undertaken by an agent of the Society for 
the purpose of discovering manuscripts or rare 

method of intercalation gives 365^ days for a year, short 
of Delambre and Laplace only by 2 hours and 49 minutes, 
that ofCleostratus being in excess 11 minutes. 



books relating to French refugees who settled 
in that home of civil and religious freedom. The 
Bulletin itself, and M. Haag's biographical dic- 
tionary, La France Protestante, abundantly prove 
that the Society does not shrink from labaur, and 
deserves more general support than it has yet met 
with in this country. In the hope of eliciting 
other references to unexplored sources, I send an 
extract from Mr. Cowie's Catalogue of MSS. and 
Scarce Boohs in the Library of St. Johns Coll., 
Cambridge (4to., Cambr. Ant, Soc,, 1842) : 

" T. 1 7. Memoires et Actes toucliant ceux de la Re- 
ligion pretendue Reformee en France. MS. folio, paper. 

" This volume, and all the following were given to the 
College by William Grove, B.D., formerly Fellow of the 
College, in 17G2. 

" The present volumes are a collection of all kinds of 
papers relating to the French Protestants, both in the 
way of laws against them, &c., and their own internal 
arrangements." 

J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 

Aytouris " Ballads of Scotland : " Henri/sons 
" Fables." In the introduction to Professor Ay- 
toun's Ballads of Scotland" which has just issued 
from the press of Messrs. Blackwood (p. lix.), the 
author, in alluding to the influence which the 
poetry of James I. had on his successors, adduces 
" the compositions of Robert Henryson, a writer 
of the age of James II.," and gives a quotation 
from the prologue to Henryson's Fables. He 
afterwards says, " I am tempted to insert one 
other composition by this remarkable poet, whose 
Fables, which, hitherto have existed only in manu- 
script, are I understand to be shortly printed 
under the superintendence of Mr. David Laing ; " 
and then follows the poem of " The Abbay Walk." 
The learned professor could not have furnished 
a better proof than this note affords of the length 
of time in which he has been engaged, as he 
tells us, in the task of " collecting and restoring, 
in so far as that was possible, the scattered frag- 
ments of the Scottish Ballad Poetry." The note 
for that part of his "Introduction" which I 
have quoted regarding Henryson, must have been 
written prior to 1832 ; for in that year I find that 
The Moral Fables of Robert Henryson were, by 
the Maitland Club, " reprinted from the Edition 
of Andrew Hart." The professor's memory, how- 
ever, has misled him, in recording the then in- 
tended publication as from a MS. hitherto inedited, 
because the Maitland Club edition was, as already 
seen, reprinted from one by Andrew Hart, which, 
however, as stated in the preface to the reprint, 
was "not ihefrst edition." D. J. 

Paisley. 

Who was John Bunyan ? John Bunyan was 
simply a gipsy of mixed blood, who must have 
spoken the gipsy language in great purity; for 
considering the extent to which it is spoken to- 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* S. VI. 134., JULY 24. '58. 



day in England, we can well believe that it was 
very pure two centuries ago. Beyond being a 
gipsy, it is impossible to say what Bunyan's pedi- 
gree really was. His grandfather might have 
been an'ordinary native, even of fair birth, who, in 
a thoughtless moment, might have " gone off with 
the gipsies;" or his ancestor, on the native side 
of the house, might have been one of the " many 
English loiterers " who joined the gipsies on their 
arrival in England when they were " esteemed 
and had in great admiration ; " or he might have 
been such a " foreigner tinker " as is alluded to in 
the Spanish gipsy edicts, and in the act of Queen 
Elizabeth, in which mention is made of "stran- 
gers" being with the gipsies. The last is ex- 
tremely probable, as the name Bunyan would 
almost seem to be of foreign origin. It is there- 
fore possible that there was not a drop of English 
blood in Bunyan's veins, although England is en- 
titled to the credit of the formation of his character. 
Tinker is a gipsy word according to Jamieson's 
Scottish Dictionary ; the verb tink means to "rivet, 
including the idea of the noise made in the opera- 
tion of riveting, a gipsy word." 

Bunyan says in bis Grace Afounding : 

" After I had been thus for some considerable time, ano- 
ther thought came into my mind 5 and that was whether 
we (his family and relations) were of the Israelites or no? 
For finding in the Scriptures that they were once the pe- 
culiar people of God, thought I, if I were one of this race 
(how significant is the expression!) my soul must needs 
be happy. Now again I found within me a great longing 
to be resolved about this question, but could not tell how I 
should; at last I asked my father of it, who told me we 
(his father included) were not." 

How strange it is that the world should attempt' 
to degrade the immortal pilgrim from being this 
great original into being the off-scourings of all 
England! Does caste exist nowhere but in India? 

J. S. 

New York. 

Folk Lore at Lichfield. The effigy at the E. 
side of the S. transept is said to be that of one 
of two brothers, who, being worsted in a mutual 
trial of skill in building the western spires, took 
a stone and leaped down and destroyed himself. 

The Bowercoss Hill is said to have been the 
site of a battle between three kings of old, who 
slew each other, the latest survivor being king 
of Lichfield, and so remaining for a time master 
of the field. MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M. A. 



INEDITED LETTERS BY MR. MORGAN. 

These letters were found among the papers of 
the family of Willoughby of Peyhembury, Devon, 
which became extinct about the middle of the seven- 
teenth Century. The copy appears to be a cotem- 



porary one. I send it to " K & Q." in hopes 

that some of your readers may perhaps be able 

to throw some light on the now mysterious, but 

evidently melancholy, circumstances to which 

they allude. In Lysons' Devonshire, p. 453., men- 

| tion is made of a family of Morgan, which was for 

fifteen descents possessed of an estate (Morgan's 

| Hayes) in the parish of Southleigb, which was in 

I the immediate neighbourhood of the Willoughby's 

' property. W. C. TREVELYAN. 

Wallington. 

" Comfort yourself, my mother, the Holy Ghost be your 
comfort ; your son dieth not, but sleepeth till the Lord 
Jesus Christ revive him ; such rest in Christ is life, and 
such life shall last long. I go to sleep before you, but we 
shall wake together, and after such waking then shall we 
sleep no more. Then fare .... night or day shall last 
for ever. That book is true that hath all this, therefore 
fear not, my mother ; the peace of that Christ and His 
grace overshadow you and yours, and for His mercy's sake 
serve God, fear God, love God, and teach your children 
this. Trust me, that time is lost in which we do not 
this : I used my time so ill that now my time is gone. 
Whoso abuseth his time shall have his time cut off. 
Warn you my brethren this, I pray, and bless them all. 
The loss of me is not great to you that have many 
others, and to me the loss is less, since I go to that Christ. 
I thank Him, that in taking away my time He hath yet 
given me time to love Him, to know Him, to trust in 
Him : I say he hath given me time, yea, and time I have 
had to serve Him, but a slothful servant was I. Howbeit, I 
trust in his mercy that he will not call me to reckoning, 
and, therefore, if anybody hath to account to me, I forgive 
him in the witness of Christ, freely. Bless you, my sis- 
ters ; I beseech God to bless them. Bless and forgive the 
widow, I beseech you, my mother, even in these last 
words that ever I shall use to you : you are the root of 
her, and she is a reed subject to many winds : if she forsake 
her root, there is great danger these times will make her 
wither. I do remember to you my youngest brother: 
if you love me, be good unto him : the rest may do well 
enough. It grieveth me to have done to John Came 
that wrong that I once did : I pray you, mother, and desire 
my brother to be good to him in that case for which he 
sued. I beseech God to prosper you ever, and my Father 
Sturton, a most loving father to all yours. I doubt 
not I have your blessing. Pray for me and forgive me, 
your lost sou in this world, whom I trust you shall find 
in Heaven. JOHN MORGAN." 

" Even he whom thou hast hoi pen forth to death, salute 
thee. The Peace of our Lord Jesus Christ and His Grace 
and Mercy be with thee and all thy children ! Take 
the counsel of him which loveth thee now no mor*e with 
natural love ; for thou hast quenched it, but with a Chris- 
tian love which thou canst not quench. First, serve God 
thyself, and bring up thy children in His fear. The fear 
of God is a bridle to the disordered nature. Be charitable 
and hate nobody, for conceived malice poisoneth the heart 
and soul. Never lift up thy plumes again. Trust me, 
this world is vain. Comfort thy heart and live for thy 
children's sake. Their father, I think, would not have 
died for thee; woe to those babes if you were gone. 
Trust not these friends of thy husband's side : at last they 
may chance to hate thee for me. Thou hast the best na- 
tured mother alive. I have written that she may love 
thee, yet thou art a simple woman in an open field. 
Trust thine own root, unless thou perish. He is not in 
case now to lie that write thee these, therefore believe him. 
The Lord Jesus Christ bless thee and thine. Forgive 



P. VI. 134., JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



me and pray for me. Written by the dying hand of some- 
times thy brother, now by thee overthrown. 

" JOHN MORGAN." 

Indorsed, " Mr. Morgan's letters written before 
his death." 



THE BERN BBS-STREET HOAX. 

Would any reader of "N. & Q." inform me 
from whence we derive the word hoax, which I 
believe has been added to our vocabulary in the 
present century ? My attention to this term has 
been attracted by observing, in "Memoirs of Rev. 
R. H. Barham " (Ingoldsby Legends}, that a trick, 
which has had none to parallel it, was contrived 

by the late Theodore Hook and Henry H , 

formerly of Brazen- nose College, with Mr. Bar- 
ham. It may not be unacceptable to many of 
your readers to know some particulars of this 
prodigious and completely successful imposition, 
whicrT took place on November 26, 1810. The 
subject of it was most unfairly a very respectable 
lady in Berners Street, (it was said of the name of 
Tottingham,) but the situation being centrical was 
considered to have led to the spot being deter- 
mined upon. Very early in the morning wag- 
gons, some with coals and others with furniture | 
from upholsterers, began to arrive, as well as 
hearses with coffins, and trains of funeral coaches ; 
also tribes of professional men of every imagin- 
able class. At noon the lit. Hon. Joshua Jona- 
than Smith, the Lord Mayor, with full equipage 
drove up, " to take the affidavit of the lady, who 
from illness could not attend at the Mansion 
House." Six stout men bearing an organ ; cart- 
loads of wine ; drays with beer ; carpet manufac- 
turers, coach and clock makers, curiosity dealers, 
and in short agents and tradesmen of every de- 
nomination, were made dupes of, and in the rear 
almost a myriad of servants "wanting places" 
helped to increase the crowd. The unfortunate 
victims of this dupery were so impacted together 
that they were unable to make their escape, and 
were compelled for many hours to endure the 
gibes and jeers of the unpitying mob. Till late 
at night the whole neighbourhood was a scene of 
confusion beyond description. DELTA. 



Mivun 

Swift Family. Where shall I find the most 
complete collection of genealogical facts relative 
to that family of Swift of which the great hu- 
morist was so illustrious a member ? I am 
anxious to be in possession of all that is already 
known preparatory to commencing some genealo- 
gical researches which I contemplate. 

About ninety years ago a person of the name 
of John Swift was in business as a sail-cloth 



manufacturer at Whitby ; he married Mary Col- 
lins, daughter of Collins, a farmer at Pen- 

dleton, near Manchester. This John Swift's 
father was a Yorkshireman, and is believed to 
have been a farmer. Whether he occupied his 
own land or rented a farm is not known. It is 
certain that he dwelt for the greater portion of his 
life in his native county. A member of the family 
who was an accomplished genealogist compiled a 
pedigree of the family, which demonstrated that 
these Swifts were of the same race as the Dean. 
This gentleman's papers were lost, destroyed, or 
stolen some years ago. I should be glad of any 
information relative to the ancestors of John Swift. 
As a foundation for farther investigation, it is very 
important to know where John Swift was born, 
where his father lived s and what was his father's 
Christian name. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

The Manor, Bottesford, Brigg. 

Bulgarian, Spc., Names. I shall be thankful 
to any correspondent of " N. &. Q." who will 
kindly tell me the meaning of the terminating 
syllable, vo or va, so frequently occurring in the 
names of places in the Turkish Principalities and 
in Albania, &c. 

I give at random some of the names in question, 
viz., Orsova, Rahova, Rassova, Craiva, Bresova, 
Hirsova, Sistova, Petrova, Irnova, Orschova, Mo- 
rava, Margorova, Telova, Turnova ; Giurgevo, 
Tettovo, Mezzovo, Mavrovo. Is it the old Scla- 
vonic plural ? A. C. M. 

Columbus. I have a picture representing a 
man of somewhat under thirty, which I imagine 
may be a portrait of the "long-visaged, grey-eyed 
Genoese mariner " by one of the elder Bellenis. 
It bears a device of a comb with two cockle-shells. 
What I wish to ask is, whether any of your readers 
have met with this device in connexion with 
any representation of Columbus? We are told 
that his father was a woolcomber, and that he, the 
son, worked at the trade, and that he did not 
bear arms till they were given him by Ferdinand. 

M. P. 

"Pleasure lies in its pursuit." Where is this 
line to be found ? Shakspeare expresses the same 
thought in the Merchant of Venice, Act II. Sc. 6. : 

" All things that are, 
Are with more spirit chased than enjoyed." 

ElRIONNACH. 

Quotation wanted. 

"The maiden's majesty, at Art's commands, 
Inspires the marble, and Athena stands." 

M.(l.) 

Perham, Sussex. Wanted information as to 
the situation of Perham in Sussex, said to have 
once belonged to Sibilla, wife of Herbert ; how 
Herbert became possessed of Perham, and who 
his wife was ; and any dates as to the time of 



70 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. [2- S. VI. 184., JULY 24, '58. 



Herbert and Sibilla's death. Sibilla was grand- 
mother to Peter Fitz Herbert, one of the Magna- 
Charta 'barons. M. (1.) 

Cabry Family. What is known of Joseph 
Cabry, miniature-portrait painter ? Who did he 
marry ? He had a son, Joseph, also a portrait 
painter, &c. He was in Ireland during the rebel- 
lion of 1798; he was afterwards, from 181016, 
major of Duke of York's School at Chelsea. In 
1792 he married Ann Halcrow, at Islington 
church. It is believed the Cabry family were 
related to those of the Lords Petre and Der- 
wentwater. Any particulars or pedigrees of the 
families, or either of them, will greatly oblige 

JAMES COLEMAN. 
Bloomsbury. 

Black Paper , $<?., for Rubbings of Brasses. 
Can any of your readers inform me where I can 
obtain the Hack paper and brass-looking sub- 
stance used for rubbings of monumental brasses? 
I have seen several, and have been informed some 
member of the Camden Society invented it. 

T. M. 



Great Gates of the Great Exhibition. 
became of the great gates which were exhibited 
at the Crystal Palace Exhibition in 1851 ? If sold, 
who purchased them ? and where are they now ? 

A.B. 

English and Welsh Language in Pembrokeshire. 
As you have correspondents who date from 
Haverfordwest, perhaps some of them could in- 
form me to what extent the English language has 
displaced the Welsh in the county of Pembroke- 
shire. G. C. G. 

Demosthenes Advice. It is said that Demo- 
sthenes, when asked what was the first thing an 
orator should attend to with a view to attaining 
excellence, replied, "action." The second? "ac- 
tion." The third? "action." Who transmitted 
this anecdote to posterity, and where is the pas- 
sage to be found ? What is the Greek word used 
by Demosthenes for " action," and what does it 
mean ? I find that my speeches in the House 
don't tell, and I should like to try Demosthenes' 
dodge. TRISTRAM. 

Forged Assignats. I have heard it asserted 
that during the war with France that followed 
the revolution of 1789, Mr. Pitt's government 
landed on the French coast a large number of 
forged assignats, for the express purpose of weak- 
ening the, national credit of the republican go- 
vernment. Can any of your readers say what 
ground there is for this anecdote ? It would be 
well for the honour of England, and for the credit 
of modern warfare, if it were totally disproved. 
On the other hand, if true, the historian should be 
enabled to verify the fact. E. C. R. 



The Vesper Hour said to be " between the Dog 
and the Wolf. 1 ' Why is the hour of vespers so 
designated? In the year 21-22 of Edward L, 
Agne?, widow of Walter of Hindemer^, complain- 
ing of an assault made on her house, says the in- 
surgents came 

" Die Dominica post annunciationem Beattc Mariao 
Virginia bora vespertina, scilicet inter canem et lupum, 
anno regni regis Edwardi duodecimo/' Rotuli Parl. i. 
122. 

J. W. 

Bibliographical Queries. Who wrote the fol- 
lowing : 

1. " Melantius upon the Education of the People," 8vo. 
Dublin, 1789. 

2. " Sketch of the Reign of George the Third, from 
1780 to the close of 1790," 8vo., Dublin, 1791. 

3. " Impartial Relation of the Military Operations in 
Ireland, in consequence of the landing of French Troops 
under General Humbert, in August, 1798," 8vo., London, 
1799. 

4. " Letter to the Roman Catholic Clergy of Ireland on 
Revealed Religion, and the Purity of the early Irish 
Church." Bj- Catholicus Verus, 8vo., London, 1824. 

ABHBA. 

Stirling Peerage. The American earl died 
without issue male, his line ending in heirs female. 
Are his collections to substantiate his claim still 
existing ? J. M. 



Miniaturists and Illuminators. Some weeks 
ago a Query of mine was printed relating to the 
lives of the miniaturists and illuminators. Can 
no one tell me whether anybody has written a 
biography of any of them ? I wish especially for 
particulars concerning Arise Mending, Altavante, 
and Giulio Clovio. JOHN W. BRADLEY. 

[There has been lately printed, but with this provoking 
proviso, "Not published," a work of great research, and 
containing a considerable amount of curious and varied 
information, which we hope our correspondent, " by Hook 
or by Crook," will be able to peruse. It is entitled Two 
Lectures on Illuminated Manuscripts, and of the Art of 
Illumination, London, 1857. This Paradise of Dainty 
Devises is the joint production of Richard Thomson, Li- 
brarian of the London Institution, and William Tite, 
Esq., M P., F.R.S., F.S.A. Two of the artists inquired 
after are noticed in this delightful work. The Florentine 
artist, named ATTAVANTE or VANTE, was employed by 
Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary. M. Curmer has 
published several very interesting specimens of his style, 
the finest of which are taken from the Roman History 
written out of the works of Orosius, a MS. preserved in 
the Bibliotheque de 1'Arsenal. Lanzi states that Atta- 
vante was living in 1484; but his royal patron died in 
1490. DON GIORGIO GIULIO, or GIULIO CLOVIO, was 
born at Grisone, a town in the province of Austrian-Italy 
called Croatia. As Vasari states that " from his child- 
hood he was kept to the study of letters, and that he took 
to design by instinct," it seems to be almost unquestion- 
able that he was educated in some religious establishment, 
where also he acquired the rudiments of the Art of Illu- 
minating. When he was eighteen he went into Italy, 



2- S. VI. 134., JULY 24. '58.'] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



and became a pupil of Giulo Romano ; but though his 
original inclination led him to the painting of large sub- 
jects, his instructor and his friends perceived that his 
real excellence lay in the execution of small pictures.^ 
He accordingly cultivated this talent, and placed himself 
under the instruction of Girolamo Veronese, called also 
"dei Libri," a celebrated decorator of books. After the 
devastation of Home by the Spaniards in 1527, for the 
sake of security Giulio attached himself to the Order of 
Scopetine Canons-Regular at Mantua, and took their 
habit in the monastery of San Ruffino. In the course of 
the next five years he executed several very excellent 
works ; but in one of those removals from one monastery 
to another, which Vasari states was the manner of those 
friars, he broke his leg, and was taken to the monastery 
of Candiano to be cured. Giulio Clovio died in 1578, at 
the age of eighty ; and there is something extremely 
touching and honourable in the manner in which Giorgio 
Vasari writes of him as he was living ten years previously. 
' Xow Don Giulio, although being old he does not study 
or do anything but seek the salvation of his soul by 
good works, and a life spent wholly apart from mundane 
affairs, being in all respects an old man, and living as 
such, does yet continue to work occasionally, amidst the 
repose and comfort by which he is surrounded in the Far- 
nese palace: where he willingly and most courteously 
shows his productions to those who visit him for the pur- 
pose of seeing them, as they would any other of the won- 
ders of Rome." For notices of Anse Memling, better 
known as Hans Hemling, see Boisseree, in the Kunstblait, 
>'(>.' 11 (1821), and No. 43 (1825). The latest edition of 
1!: van's Dictionary of Painters, 8vo. 1849, gives an ex- 
cellent compendium of the notices of this artist, furnished 
by different writers.] 

"Peruvian Tales." In 1734 was printed at 
London 

" Peruvian Tales, related in One Thousand and One 
Hours, by one of the select Virgins of Cusco to the Ynca 
of Peru, to dissuade him from a resolution he had taken 
to destroy himself by Poison." 

They are represented as " translated from the 
Original French by Samuel Humphreys, Esq.," 
and are by him dedicated to the Princess Amelia. 
Two volumes then appeared, and a third was ad- 
vertised. No third volume by Mr. Humphreys 
ever was printed ; but in 1739 " John Kelly, Esq." 
favoured the world with what it is presumed 
was his own composition, viz. a continuation of 
these talcs, the "French" author having in the 
interim died. Upon turning to the Biographia 
Dramatica, a " Mr. Humphreys " (Christian name 
not given) is mentioned as the author of three 
oratorios and one opera, and it is said that he 
died at Canonbury, January 11, 1738, aged about 
forty. 

Perhaps some of your correspondents can iden- 
tify the Mr. Humphreys of the Biographia with 
the alleged translator of the Peruvian Tales, and 
mention where the French version is to be found. 
From the appearance of the third volume so soon 
after the death of Humphreys, supposing they are 
the same persons, one might infer that he was not 
a translator, but a manufacturer of the tales ; and 
it is odd that the French novelist and his English 
adapter should die about the same time. 



Kelly was probably the same person who is 
stated in the above work to have written four or 
five dramatic pieces, and who died July 16, 1751. 

Lowndes, in his useful but very incomplete 
work, notices only the third edition of the Peru- 
vian Tales, Load. 1750, in 3 vols., and ascribes 
the whole work to Humphreys. 

We regret exceedingly that in the reprint of 
Lowndes almost all the errors have been retained: 
an improved and enlarged edition is much wanted. 

J. M. 

[From the following notice of Samuel Humphreys iu 
the Daily Post, copied in Nichols's History of Canonbur//, 
p. 32., it would appear that the dramatist was also the 
translator of Peruvian Tales: "On Jan. 11, 1738 [1737], 
died at Canoiilmn r , aged about forty, Mr. Samuel Hum- 
phreys, 'tie was,' says the Dailtj Post, 'a gentleman 
well* skilled iu the learned languages, and the polite 
among the modern. Though he was very conversant in 
and fond of history, and every part of the Bdlcs Lettres, 
yet his genius led 'him chiefly to poetiy, in which (had 
Fortune been as indulgent to him as Xature) he would 
have left such compositions as must have delighted late 
posterity. The admired Mr. Handel had a due esteem 
for the harmony of his numbers ; and the great Ma3cenas, 
the Duke of Chandos, shewed- the regard he had for his 
muse, by so generously rewarding him for celebrating his 
Grace's seat at Canons. Some disappointments Mr. Hum- 
phreys met with forced him to appear as a translator, on 
which occasion the graceful ease and other beauties of 
his versions gained him no little applause ; but his too 
intense application (for he sometimes wrote the whole 
night), and his never taking any exercise, greatly im- 
paired his health; and at last brought him into a con- 
sumption, which proved fatal to him. His corpse was 
buried, in a private but decent manner, in Islington 
Churchyard.' He wrote Ulysses, an opera ; translated 
Spectacle de la Nature; wrote Canons, a poem, and seve- 
ral other pieces. "J 

Anonymous Works. Who wrote the following 
works ? 

" The Free-born Subject, or the Englishman's Birth- 
right : asserted against all Tyrannical Usurpations either 
in Church or State. Lond. 1679, 4to. pp. 34." 

[By Sir Roger L'Estrange.] 

'' The History of Passive Obedience since the Refor- 
mation. Amsterdam, 1689, 4to. pp. 132. exclusive of 
preface and list of authors." 

[By Abraham Seller.] 

JOSEPH Rix. 

St. Neots. 

Lady Radclif and her Descendants. What is 
i known of the Lady Mary Tudor Radclif, daughter 
! of Francis, Earl of Derwentwater, and her de- 
j scendants. Any particulars of them would greatly 
j oblige JAMES COLEMAN. 

[" Lady Mary Tudor Radcliffe, only daughter of Ed- 
| ward [Francis?] second Earl of Derwentwater, married 
! William Petre of Stamford Rivers, and died without 
| leaving issue surviving." (Dilston Hall, by W. S. Gibson, 
i 1850, p. 28.) The death of her mother, Mary Tudor, na- 
tural daughter of King Charles II., by Mrs. Davis, is 
i thus noticed in the Chronological Diary of the Historical 
' Register for 1726 ; "Nov. 5, died ;t Paris, aged fifty- three 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. [2- S. VI. 134, JULY 24. '58. 



years, or thereabouts, the Lady Mary Tudor, Countess 
of Derwentwater, relict of Francis Ratcliffe, second Earl 
of Derwentwater, who had issue by her three sons and 
one daughter, viz. James, who succeeded his father in the 
earldom, and was beheaded for high treason on Tower 
Hill in 1716, Francis and Charles, and the Lady Mary 
Tudor. She was twice married after the death of the 
Earl, her first husband, viz. to Henry Graehme, Esq. ; and 
after his decease to Rooke, Esq., son of Brigadier- 
Gen. Rooke."] 



MILTON'S FIRST EDITION or " PARADISE LOST. 
(2 nd S. v. 82. 322. 399.) 

The paper of your correspondent LETHREDI- 
ENSIS (2 ad S. v. 322.) had satisfied me that my 
description of the title-pages to the first edition of 
Paradise Lost was not arranged in the order in 
which those title-pages appeared; and on con- 
sulting the Appendix to Capel Lofft's edition of 
the First Book of the poem, and finding what was 
evidently a cancelled leaf in the volume with the 
No. 1. A title, undoubtedly the rarest of all, I sup- 
posed that this pointed out the text as first issued. 
But S. W. S. (2 nd S. v. 399.), states that this leaf 
is in his copy with the title-page of 1668; he 
does not say whether with the name of Parker or 
Simmons. 

LETHREDIENSIS has misunderstood my observa- 
tion as to the reprinting of the preliminary leaves. 
I referred to those which appeared in my copies 
with the title-pages Nos. 2., 3., and 4. I ex- 
pressly said that in No. 5., 1669, they had been 
reprinted. Capel Lofft in what he states re- 
specting the variations in these leaves was not 
perhaps aware that there were two issues with 
the date 1669, to the first of which (No. 4.) the 
unaltered preliminary leaves were prefixed. As j 
my manuscript was inaccurate, I must ask you to 
reprint the description of the title-pages, so as 
to facilitate a reference to the remarks I wish to 
make. 

No. IA. London: Peter Parker and 1667. The 
words " By JOHN MILTON," are in small type 
and capitals. 

No. 1. London, Peter Parker, &c. 1667. The 
same words in larger characters. 

No. 2. London, Peter Parker, &c. 1668. The 
Author, J. M. 

No. 3. London, S. Simmons, &c. After the 
name John Milton is an ornament made up of 
printer's stars. 

No. 4. London, S. Simmons and T. Helder, 
1669. The word Angel is not in italics, and a 
period after Brittain. 

No. 5. agrees with No. 4., except that Angel 
is in italics, and there is a comma after Brittain. 

In both Nos. 4. and 5. the words Little Brittain 
are in italics. 

I have five copies ; the title-pages Nos. I A., 2 



and a duplicate No. 3. are prefixed to the same 
volume, to which I shall refer as No. 2. It is 
impossible, without taking the volume to pieces, 
to ascertain which title-page belongs to the text ; 
but my other copy with the No. 3. title does not 
agree with this in the text. S. W. S.'s remark 
already quoted shows that the text must be that 
of either 2. or 3. 

In No. 1. the poem follows the title-page. In 
Nos. 2., 3., and 4., the Address of the Printer to 
the Reader, and the Arguments to each Book, 
follow the title-page, and a Table of Errata also 
precedes the poem. In No. 5. the Address is 
omitted, but the Arguments and Errata succeed, 
and have all been reprinted. 

I take the following list of variations from 
Capel Lofft's Appendix. 

Errata. 

Lib. i. 1. 4. Hundreds, reads hunderdg. In all except 
5, where it reads hundreds (B) read hunderds. 

Lib. iii. 1, 760. For with read in. In No. 2. alone do 
I find this error. LETHREDIENSIS suggests why with 
was left among the errata, even in those copies in which 
the mistake was corrected. 

Lib. v. 1. 257. In 1. 3. and 5. a* new paragraph, and 
a comma after cloud. No. 2. a new paragraph, and no 
comma ; in 4. the line is unbroken, and has a comma. 

Numbers. 

Liber iii. In 1. the numbers of the lines are wrong 
from 50 to 80, then 80 being omitted, 90 falls in the 
right place. In 2. these numbers are correct. In 3., 4., 
and 5., lines 50 to 600 correct, then 600 wrong, and to 
the end like No. 1. 

Liber iii., 1. 530. The 3 is omitted, and no space be- 
tween the 5 and in 1. 2. and 5. In 3. and 4. the 3 is 
omitted, and a space left between the 5 and 0. 

Liber iii. 1. 610 in No. 1. printed for 600, and the num- 
bers wrong to the end of the book. 740 is placed oppo- 
site the 741st line, and 750 opposite the 751st. Nos. 3., 
4., and 5. agree with 1. In 2. 610 is printed for 600, 
and the numbers run on incorrectly to the 730th line. 
740 is then placed opposite the 731st line, and 750, 760, 
are misprinted. Thus the reference to the 761st line in 
the errata appears to be correct. The book really con- 
tains only 742 lines, and in none of my five copies are the 
numbers correct throughout the whole book. 

Liber iv. In 1. and 2. the numbers wrong ; 80 for 90, 
and so on to 110. Then 120 correct. In ail the others, 
correct. 760 placed a line too high in all, and the num- 
bers continue so to the end of the book. 

Liber v. 510., correct in all but 4. and 5. There reads 
150. 

Liber ix. 230., in all but 5. the 3 is replaced by the 
letter g. 

The Verse and Arguments. 

These are not found in No. 1. In the Verse 
Lofft gives four variations between the copies 
1668 and 1669, and twenty-four in the Argu- 
ments. These occur in my copies (2, 3, and 4. 
agree, and 5. differs from the others) with the 
exception of the 24th. All read cherubi?; none 
cherubim*. 

On page xxxv. of lists of editions, Lofft men- 
tions a title-page to the second edition with the 
date 1672, small 8vo. twelve books ; he, however, 



2nd S . VI. 134., JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



73 



describes only that of 1674, and says in his Pre- 
face, p. iv., that he had never seen the 1672 title- 
page. It is not mentioned by Lowndes. I have 
three copies, one almost large paper, but the 
date in all is 1674. Has any one ever seen that 
of 1672 ? NEO-EBORACENSIS. 



GHOST STORIES. 

(2 nd S. v. 233. 285. 341. 462. 487.) 
So much has been recently said upon this sub- 
ject that I think the Beresford story worth re- 
cording in extenso in the pages of "N. & Q. : " it 
may be the means of some of the Tyrone family 
attesting the truth of the facts as therein stated, 
particularly with reference to the possession of the 
pocket-book and the black-ribband, said to have 
been worn round the wrist: 

" Lord Tyrone and Lady Beresford were born in Ire- 
land ; they were both left orphans in their infancy to the 
care of the same person, by whom they were educated in 
the principles of Deism by their guardian. When they 
were each of them about fourteen years of age they fell 
into very different hands. The persons on whom the 
care of them now devolved used every possible endeavour 
to eradicate the erroneous principles they had imbibd, 
and to persuade them to embrace the revealed religion, 
but in vain ; their arguments were insufficient to con- 
vince them, though they were powerful enough to stag- 
ger their former faith. Though now separated from each 
other, their friendship continued unalterable, and they 
continued to regard each other with a sincere and frater- 
nal affection. After some years had elapsed and they 
were each of them grown up, they made a solemn pro- 
mise to each other, that whoever should first die would, 
if permitted, appear to the other to declare what religion 
was most approved of by the Supreme Being. Lady 
Beresford was shortly after addressed by Sir Marcus 
Beresford, to whom after a few years she was married ; 
but no change in condition had power to alter her friend- 
ship ; the families frequently visited each other, often 
spent more than a fortnight together. A short time after 
one of these visits, Sir Marcus Beresford remarked, when 
his lady came down to breakfast in the morning that her 
countenance was unusually pale, and bore evident marks 
of terror and confusion. He inquired anxiously after her 
health ; she assured him she was well, perfectly well. He 
repeated his inquiries, and begged to know if anything had 
disordered her? She replied no ; she was as well as usual. 
'Have you hurt your wrist, have you sprained it? ' said 
he, observing a black-ribband bound round it. She re- 
plied 'no, she had not ; ' but added, 'let me conjure 3 r ou, 
Sir M., never to inquire the cause of my wearing this rib- 
band ; you will never more see me without it ; if it con- 
cerned you as a husband to know it, I would not for a 
moment conceal it from you. I never in my life denied 
you a request, but of this I must entreat you to forgive 
my refusal, and never to urge me further on the subject.' 
' Very well, my lady,' said he, smiling, ' since you so 
earnestly desire me, I will inquire no further.' 

"The conversation here ended; but breakfast was 
scarcely over when Lady B. inquired if the post was come 
in ? She was told it was not. In a few minutes she again 
rang the bell for her servant, and repeated the inquiry, 
is not the po^st yet come ? She was told it was not. ' Do 
you expect any letter?' said Sir M., 'that you are so 
anxious concerning the coming of the post.' *' I do,' she 



answered, ' I expect to hear that Lord Tyrone is dead } 
he died last Tuesday at four o'clock.' 'I never in my 
life,' said Sir M., 'believed you superstitious, but you 
must have had some idle dream which has thus alarmed 
you.' 

" At that instant a servant opened the door, and deli- 
vered to them a letter sealed with black. 'It is as I ex- 
pected,' exclaimed Lady B., 'he is dead.' Sir M. opened 
the letter ; it came from Lord Tyrone's steward, and con- 
tained the melancholy intelligence that his master had 
died the Tuesday preceding, at the very time Lady B. 
had specified. Sir M. entreated her to compose her spirits, 
and endeavour as much as lay in her power not to make 
herself unhappy. She assured him she felt much easier 
than she had for some time past ; and added, ' I can com- 
municate to you intelligence which I know will prove 
welcome. I can assure you, beyond the possibility of a 
doubt, that I am with child of a" son.' SirM. received the 
intelligence with that pleasure which might be expected, 
and expressed in the strongest terms the felicity he 
should experience from such an event, which he had long 
so ardently desired. 

" After a period of some months, Lady B. was delivered 
of a son. She had been the mother* of two daughters 
only. Sir Marcus survived the birth of his son little more 
than four years. After his decease his lady went but lit- 
tle from home ; she visited no family but that of a cler- 
gyman who resided in the same village, with whom she 
frequently passed a few hours ; the rest of her time was 
entirely devoted to solitude, and she appeared for ever de- 
termined to banish all other society. The clergyman's fa- 
mily consisted of himself, his wife, and one son, who at Sir 
M.'s death was quite the youth. To his son, however, she 
was afterwards married in a space of a few years, not- 
withstanding the disparity of his years, and the mani- 
fest imprudence of such a connection, so unequal in every 
respect. 

"The event justified the expectation of every one; 
Lady B. was treated by her young husband with neglect 
and cruelty, and the whole of his conduct evinced him 
the most abandoned libertine, utterly destitute of every 
principle of virtue and humanity. To this, her second 
husband, Lady B. brought two daughters; afterwards, 
such was the profligacy of his conduct, that she insisted 
upon a separation. They parted for several years, when, 
so great was the contrition he expressed for his former 
ill- conduct, that, won over by his supplication and pro- 
mises, she was induced to pardon, and once more reside 
with him ; and was, after some time, made the mother of 
another daughter. 

" The day on which she had lain in a month, being 

the anniversary of her birth-day, she sent for Lady , 

of whose friendship she had long been possessed, and a 
few friends, to request them to spend the day with her. 
About noon, the clergyman by whom she had been bap- 
tized, and with whom she had all her life maintained an 
intimacy, came into the room to inquire after her health ; 
she told him she felt perfectly well, and requested him to 
spend the day with her, it being her birth-day. ' For,' 
said she, ' I am forty-eight this day.' ' No, my Lady,' 
answered the clergyman, ' you are mistaken, your mother 
and myself have had many disputes concerning your age, 
and I have at length discovered I am right ; happening 
to go last week to the parish you were born in, I was re- 
solved to put an end to my doubt, by searching the re- 
gister, and find that you are forty- seven this day.' 

"'You have signed my death-warrant,' said she, 'I 
have not much longer to live. I must, therefore, entreat 
you to leave me immediately, as I have something of im- 
portance to settle before I die.' 

" When the clergyman had left Lady B., she sent to 
forbid her company coming ; and at the same time to re- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. vi. 184, JULY 2*. 



quest Lady and her son, of whom Sir M. Beresford 

w/is father, and who was then about twelve years of age, 
to come to her apartment. Immediately upon their ar- 
rival, having ordered her attendants to quit the room: 
' 1 have something to communicate to you both before I 
die, a period which is not far distant. You, Lady, are no 
stranger to the friendship that always subsisted between 
Lord Tyrone and myself; we were educated under the 
same roof, in the same principles those of Deism. When 
the friends into whose hands we afterwards fell endea- 
voured to persuade us to embrace the Revealed Religion, 
their arguments, though insufficient to convince us, were 
powerful enough to stagger our former faith, and to leave 
us wavering between two opinions. In this perplexing 
state of doubt and uncertainty, we made a solemn promise 
to each other, that whichever should happen to die first 
would, if permitted by the Almighty, appear to the other, 
to declare what religion was most acceptable to Him. 
Accordingly, one night, when Sir M. and myself were in 
bed, I awakened, and discovered Lord Tyrone sitting by 
my bed-side. I screamed out, and endeavoured, but in 
vain, to awake Sir M. " For Heaven's sake, Lord Tyrone," 
said I, "by what means or for what purpose came you 
here at this time of night? " " Have you then forgot our 
promise," said he ; " I died last Tues'day at four o'clock, 
and have been permitted by the Supreme Being to appear 
to you, to assure you that the Revealed Religion is the 
true and only religion by which we can be saved. I am 
further suffered to inform you, that you are now with 
child of a son, which is decreed shall marry my daughter ; 
not many years after his birth, Sir M. will die, and you 
will marry again, and to a man whose ill treatment you 
will be rendered miserable by; you will bring him two 
daughters, and afterwards a 'son", in child-bed of whom 
you will die, in the forty-seventh year of your age." 

" ' " Just Heaven," exclaimed I," " and cannot 1 prevent 
this ? " " Undoubtedly you may," returned he, " you have 
a free assent, and may" prevent it all by resisting every 
temptation to a second marriage ; but your passions are 
strong, you know not their power; hitherto you have 
had no trial, nor am I permitted to tell you; but, if after 
this warning you persist in your infidelity, j'our lot in 
another world will be miserable indeed." " Mav I ask," 
said I, "if you are happy?" "Had I been otherwise," 
said he, "I should not have been thus permitted to ap- 
pear to you." " I may thence infer you are happy ; " he 
smiled ; " but how," said I, " when morning comes, shall 
I be convinced that your appearance thus to me has been 
real, and not the mere phantom of my own imagination ?" 
" Will not the news of my death," said he, " be sufficient 
to convince you?" "No," returned I, "I might have 
had such a 'dream, and that dream might accidentally 
come to pass ; I wish to have some stronger proof of its 
reality." "You shall," said he; then, waving his hand, 
the bed-curtains, w r hich were of crimson velvet, were in- 
stantly drawn through a large iron hoop, by which the 
tester of the bed, which was of an oval form, was sus- 
pended : " In that," said he, " you cannot be mistaken ; 
no mortal could have performed this." " True," said I, 
" but sleeping we are often possessed of far greater strength 
than awake; though awake I could not have done it, 
asleep I might I shall still doubt." He then said, 
" You have a pocket-book, in the leaves of which I will 
write; you know my handwriting." I replied, "Yes." 
He wrote with a pencil on one side of the leaves. " Still," 
said I, "in the morning, I doubt, though awake, I may 
not imitate your hand, asleep I might." " You are hard 
of belief," said he, "I must not touch you, it would injure 
you irreparably ; it is not for spirits to touch mortal 
flesh." " I do not regard a small blemish," said I. " You 
are a woman of courage," said he, " hold out your hand." 
I did ; he touched my wrist ; his hand was cold as marble ; 



in a moment the sinews shrunk np, every nerve withered. 
' Now," said he, "while you live, let no mortal eye be- 
hold that wrist ; to see it would be sacrilege." He stopped 
I turned to him again he was gone. During the 
time in which I had conversed with him, my thoughts 
were perfectly calm and collected ; but the moment he 
was gone, I felt chilled with horror, and a cold sweat 
came over me, every limb and joint shook under me. I 
endeavoured to awake Sir M., but in vain, all my efforts 
Avere ineffectual. In this state of agitation I lay some 
time, when a shower of tears came to my relief. I dropped 
asleep. In the morning Sir Marcus arose and dressed 
himself as usual, without perceiving the state in which 
the curtains remained. When I awoke, I found Sir Mar- 
cus was gone down. I arose, and having put on my 
clothes, went into the gallery adjoining our apartment 
and took from thence a long broom, such a one as in a 
large house is frequently used to sweep the corners, with 
the help of which, though not without difficulty, I took 
down the curtains, as I imagined their extraordinary 
position would excite wonder among the servants, and 
occasion inquiries I wished to avoid. " I then went to my 
bureau, locked up the pocket-book, and took out a piece 
of black ribband, which I bound round my wrist. When 
I came down, the agitation of mv mind on my counten- 
ance was too visible to pass long\mobserved by Sir M. ; 
he instantly remarked my confusion, and inquired the 
cause. I assured him I was well, perfectly well ; but in- 
j formed him Lord Tyrone was no more ; that he died on 
the preceding Tuesday, at the hour of four, and at the 
same time entreated him to drop all inquiries concerning 
the black ribband he noticed on my wrist. He kindly 
desisted from further importunity, nor did he ever after 
imagine the cause. You, my son, as had been foretold, 
I brought into the world ; and in little more than four 
years after your birth, your father died in my arms. 
After this melancholy event, I determined, as the only 
probable means by which to avoid the dreadful sequel of 
the prediction, to give np every pleasure, and to pass the 
remainder of my days in solitude : but few can endure to 
remain in a state of sequestration. I commenced an in- 
tercourse with one family, and only one ; nor could I then 
see the fatal consequences which afterwards resulted from 
it. Little did I imagine that their son, their only son, 
then a mere youth, would prove the person destined by 
fate to prove my undoing. In a few years I ceased to re- 
gard with indifference ; I endeavoured by every possible 
means to conquer a passion, the fatal consequences of 
which (if I should ever be weak enough to yield to its 
impulse) I too well knew, and fondly imagined I should 
overcome its influence; when the evening of one fatal 
day terminated mv fortitude, and plunged me in a mo- 
ment doAvn that abyss I had been so long meditating how 
to shun. He had frequently been soliciting his parents 
to go into the army, and ait length obtained their per- 
mission, and came to bid me farewell before his departure. 
" ' The moment he entered the room, he fell down on 
his knees at my feet, and told me he was miserable 
that I alone was the cause of it. That instant my forti- 
tude forsook me, I gave myself up for lost; and consider- 
ing my fate as inevitable, without further hesitation 
consented to an union, the immediate result of which 
I knew to be misery, and its end death. The conduct of 
my husband, after a few years were passed, amply war- 
ranted my demand for a separation ; I hoped by this 
means to avoid the fatal sequel of the prophecy; but, 
won over by his repeated entreaties, I was prevailed on to 
pardon, and once more to reside with him, though not 
until after 1 had, as I supposed, passed my 47th year; 
but, alas ! I have heard this day from indisputable au- 
thority, that I have hitherto laid under a mistake with 
regard to my age, that I am but 47 this day. Of the 






2nd S. VI. 134., JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 

near approach of my death, therefore, I entertain not the 
least doubt, but I do not dread its arrival ; armed with 
the sacred precept of Christianity, I can meet the King 
of Terrors without dismay ; and without a tear bid adieu 
to the regions of mortality for ever. 

" ' When I am dead, as the necessity of its conceal- 
ment closes with my life, I wish that you, my Lad}-, 
would unbind my wrist, take from thence the black rib- 
band ; and let my son, with yourself, behold it.' Lady B. 
here paused for some time, but resuming her conversation, 
she entreated her sou to behave so as to merit the high 
honour he would in future receive from an union with 
Lord Tyrone's daughter. Lady B. then expressed a wish 
to lie down on a bed to compose herself to sleep. Lady 

and her son immediately called her attendants, and 

quitted the room, after having first desired them atten- 
tively to watch their mistress ; and should they observe 
any change in her, to call instantly. An hour passed, 
and all was silent in the room ; they listened at the door, 
and every thing was still; but in about half an hour 
more, a bell rung violently. They flew to her apartment ; 
but before they reached the door of it, they heard the 

servants exclaim ' My mistress is dead.' Lad}' then 

desiring the servants to quit the room: Lady B.'s son 
wij.h herself approached the bed of his mother ; they knelt 

down by the side of it. Lady then lifted up her 

hand, unbound the black ribband, and found the wrist 
exactly in the same state Lady B. had described every 
nerve withered, every sinew shrunk up. Lady B.'s son, 
as has been predicted, is now married to Lord Tyrone's 
daughter. The black ribband and pocket-book are now 
in the possession of Lady , by whom the above nar- 
rative is stated, in Ireland; who, together with the 
Tyrone family, will be found ready to attest its truth. 
Dublin, August, 1802." 

J. SPEED D. 



75 



" At eight o'clock they're wondrous fond, 

At nine they'll hardly know ye, 
At ten perhaps you're made they're joke, 

At Church they'll fav'r show ye, 
For least their thoughts should fix on prayer, 

They ev'ry one will greet-a 
With, now do you do? are you a player? 

And, where shall we two"meet-a ? 

3. 

" A twelve they to the well repair, 

Of Lethe drink so deep-a, 
That tho' 3*ou think you have 'em fast, 

They'll no appointment keep-a. 
A turn they walk ; a Raffle throw, 

Tho' nought they e'er shall gain-a 
Unless they leave such trifling sport, 

And throw a mcrrv main-a. 



Sewardstone. 



TUNBRIDGE WELLS AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF 
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

(2 nd S. Vl. p. 8.) 

The note of MR. DURRANT COOPER reminds me 
of some verses in MS. relating to the same sub- 
ject, which I found some time since in looking 
over a quantity of old papers. The second is, I 
apprehend, the later production of the two, and 
which might be readily dated if I happened to 
have at hand any memoir of Beau Nash, who was 
eighty-three years of age at the period illustrated 
by the verses. And I will leave to others better 
versed than myself in the fashionable scandal of 
that celebrated watering-place to fill up the 
blanks in the poetry, required as much by the 
rhythm as the rhyme. W. S. 

" Tunbridge Life. Sony. 



" All you that wish the world to learn, 

To Tunbridge Wells repair-a, 
Where you will see more in a day 

Than elswhere in a year- a. 
Not that our numbers do surpass 

What you may elswhere find-a, 
But here no mortals you can meet 

An hour in a mind-a. 



" The next two hours as chance directs, 

In play their time is spent-a, 
At Hazard, Basset, or Quadrille, 

Scarcely with all content-a. 
For Rowly-Powly, noble game, 

There eves and ears invite-a, 
And Pass "and Xo Pass is a sound 

Which gives them true delight- a. 

5.* 

" At five the Church bell rings e'm out 
Where custom makes them pray- a, 
But with how much devotion fir'd 
I'll not pretend to say-a. 

6. 
" At six the walks and walls are cler'd, 

And all the Belles are seated, 
At Upton's, Morley's, or at Smith's, 

With tea and tattle treated ; 

For to do justice to the Beaux, 

In scandal they ne'r deal-a, 

For each one's of himself too full 

To mind the Commonweal-a. 

7. 
" From six till ten they dance or play, 

Or Punches grace "attend-a, 
Oh ! that his sage rebukes would make 

Them their wild ways amend-a. 
What's after that among them done 

Judge as you can the best- a ; 
But sure 'twere wise if with my muse 
They all would go to rest-a." 

No. 2. 

Say Muse the names of all the motley throng, 

Whom Tunbridge lulls with Country dance and song, 

Whom empty Love inflames and Water cools, 

Begin, and give a Catalogue of Fools. 

Trembling with Palsies, and decrepit age 

Let X .... h stand foremost in the crowded page, 

That child of eighty ! own'd without dispute 

Thro' all the realms of Fiddling absolute ; 

Alas ! old Dotard ! is it fit for thee 

To couple dancing fools at eighty -three? 

Go, get thee to tin- Grave, we're' tired all 

To see thee still, still tottering round a Ball. 

But Hark, my Muse, what distant noise approaches? 

French horns I hear and rattling sound of coaches ! 

* The first four lines of this stanza are absent. 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



d S. VI. 134., JULY 24. '58, 



Lo ! with retinue proud from Lewis race 
Usher'd bv bowing Peers arrives his Grace, 
With civil pride our homage he receives, 
And nods from side to side to grinning slaves. 
There gentle A . . . hb . . . . m familiar Bows, 
And youthful M . . . ch declines his laurell'd brows, 
(Him the proud Laurell of th' Olympic game 
And Chariot races consecrate to fame.) 

There A y pays his Levee sneer, 

And for one moment quits his Lovely F . . . r, 

There foreign princes, envoys, plenipo's, 

Germans and Russian, Frenchmen, Friends and Foes, 

All crowd to catch the Ministerial look, 

And pay obeisance to th' Almighty D . . . ke. 

But who comes here so gallant and so airy ? 

Oh ! 'tis the pulvili'd and the gay Sir H ... rr . . y, 

Painted for sight and essenc'd for the smell, 

In spite of nine and forty he looks well. 

Vermillion lends his Cheeks a blushing grace, 

And fills up all the furrows of the Face. 

O Lady K why are you alone ? 

Why were the dear Miss P ms left in Town ? 

But for amends here easy L . . . . n swims 

In loose undress and negligence of Limbs ; 

So indolently gracefull you wou'd swear 

'Twas Cleopatra's self that saunter'd there. 

Nor let us pass the little face of Nevill, 

Long since styl'd decent, sensible, and civil, 

And sure that praise was true ; but why my dear, 

So very intimate, so close with F . . . . r ? 

happy F . . . ! whose husband roams abroad, 

And leaves her eas'd of that ungratefull load, 

Leaves her to Love and A y free, 

Leaves her to Tunbridge Walks and Liberty I 
These are the prime the rest 'twere long to tell, 
Who in the Wilds of Kent and Yorkshire dwell, 
Misses and Fops, 'twere tedious to rehearse, 
Coxcombs below the Dignity of Verse. 
Peace then B . . . . by, whom his Name describes, 
A clumsy dunce among the Female tribes : 
To Joke the awkward heavy Coxcomb tries, 
And thinks each Woman that beholds him dies. 
Peace to the stale impertinence of Colley, 
His old, absurd, and out of fashion'd folly ; 
Peace to a thousand Girls with idiot faces, 
Whom yet some fools call Goddesses and Graces ; 
Peace to the noisy chatt'ring crew who strive 
To seem the most transported things alive. 
Yet let us pay a compliment to W .... d, 
Ripe as the swelling clusters of the Vineyard, 
Happy she smiles with inoffensive joy, 
Happy to dance with Monsieur M . . . . poix. 
More fools appear and more in plenteous crops, 
But damn the rest, I'm sick of numb'ring Fops." 



EPISTOL^ OBSCURORUM VIRORUM. 

(2 nd S. vi. 22. 41.) 

The following so-called epigram on the above 
work is printed in Schelhorn's Amcenitates Lite- 
rarice (torn. ix. pp. 660, 661.)- I wi U onl J ad(i 
that it is certain that Erasmus had no hand in the 
satire, 
" Dum Monachi Hebraeam Reuchlini prodere Musam 

Sacrilegi tentant, Biblia sacra puta : 
Dumque Sophistarurn gens illiterata Camoenas 

Humanas nostris pellit ubique scholis : 
Nobilis Huttenus docto collusit Erasmo, 
Atque hunc composuit non sine laude librum. 



In quo nil fictum est nisi nomina sola virorum, 
Quorum opera et studia hie verbaque vana notat. 

Utque magistrorum nostrorum barbariem ille 
Miris perstringens salibus exagitat; 

Sic tu non lusum, sed inertia saecula ride, 
Vel potius defle tempora stulta hominum." 

Among the imitations of the Epistolce which 
have appeared at various times, Schelhorn men- 
tions one to which Jansenism gave occasion. The 
title is this : 

" Epistolae Doctorum et Eloquentorum et Catholicorum 
Virorum ad varia membra et supposita S. FacultatisColo- 
niensis pro congratulatione et aliis materiis seu subjectis 
supra declarationem prselibatfe Facultatis circa Constitu- 
tionem S. D. Clementis XI. contra P. Quesnel, autore 
venerando Domino Joanne Jacobson, Vicario Vlaerdini- 
ensi, Aquisgrani, 1715." 

WILLIAM J. DEANE. 

Ashen Rectory. 

Mr. Gladstone, in his Homer and the Homeric 
Age, has put forward at some length a theory that 
Artemis or Diana is the traditive representative 
of the Virgin Mary. In a passage quoted by 
PROF. DE MORGAN (2 nd S. vi. 23.) from the Epi- 
stolce Obscurorum Virorum, I find an identical 
theory stated. The passage is, " Diana significat 
beatissimam Virginem Mariam, ambulans multis 
virginibus hinc inde." 

The coincidence appears to me worth noting ; 
while the different spirit with which the two 
writers view the same theory presents a strong 
contrast. If I might add an undergraduate's 
opinion of Mr. Gladstone's work, I would say that 
it appears to me so far to excel all that has been 
hitherto written on the subject, amounting to an 
extensive library, as to make it desirable that an 
auto-da-fe on the Caliph Omar principle should 
be forthwith made of all the previous commen- 
taries, Wolff's Prolegomena especially included. 

J. S. 



Sfteplterf to Minor 

Amber in the Old Testament (2 nd S. vi. 57.) 
The Hebrew word (chashmal), which occurs three 
times in Ezekiel, i. 4. 27., viii. 2., and which is 
rendered ^Aewrpoj/ in the Septuagint and amber 
in the authorised version, is considered by biblical 
critics to be a metallic substance ; namely, either 
a mixture of gold and silver, or a mixture of gold 
and brass, or brass simply. See Winer's JBibL 
Realwort, art. Metalle. De Wette, in his version 
of the Old Testament, renders the word by Gol- 
derz. G. C. LEWIS. 

Blue and Bvff (2 nd S. v. 304.) In the No- 
Popery Riots of 1780, the colour worn by Lord 
George Gordon and his friends was blue. The 
leaders of the vast concourse of men who marched 
from St. George's Fields to the Houses of Parlia- 
ment wore blue ribands in their hats ; and each 



2 d s . vi. 134, JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



division was preceded by a banner, bearing the 
words " No Popery." (Cunningham's Handbook 
of London, art. " Coachraakers' Hall.) When the 
riots were at their height, Lord George Gordon 
appeared in the House of Commons with a blue 
cockade ; upon which Col. Herbert stood up in 
his place, and declared that he would not sit in 
the House while a member wore the badge of 
sedition in his hat ; and that, unless the noble lord 
removed the offensive cockade, he would cross 
the floor and remove it himself. Lord George, 
pretending to yield to the wishes of his friends, 
took down the cockade, and put it in his pocket. 
(Massey's History of England during the Reign 
of George III., vol. ii. p. 465.) The account of 
these riots in the Annual Register for 1780 men- 
tions the blue cockade in several places, as also 
blue flags. See Ann. Reg. vol. xxiii. pp. 191. 257. 
261. 272, 273. L. 

Greenwich Palace (2 nd S. v. 457.) In reply to 
the inquiry concerning engravings of old Green- 
wich Palace, if your correspondent will favour me 
with a call I shall have great pleasure in showing 
him a large collection of old engravings, drawings, 
portraits, &c., connected with " our pleasant, per- 
fect, and princely palaice." 

W. POPHAM LETHBRIDGE. 

Greenwich Hospital. 

Swift (2 nd S. vi. 24.) " An old woman lately 
died in St. Patrick Street at the age of 110 years; 
and being asked if she remembered the appear- 
ance of the celebrated dean, she described it mi- 
nutely " ! ! 

The interrogator must have been very gullible ; 
or else he must be liable to be suspected of being 
akin to the dean's hero, Gulliver. 

If by dying lately we can allow him to mean as 
long as eight years ago, the old woman would 
only have been an infant in arms in 1741. Dean 
Swift died in 1745, and having become decidedly 
insane or idiotic in 1741, is not likely to have 
been allowed to exhibit himself in the streets 
after that, so that the old woman must have had 
a very precocious power of observation, as well as 
a wonderfully tenacious memory. H. W. 

Junius" Letters to Wilkes (2 nd S. vi. 44.) The late 
much respected Mr. Joseph Parker of Oxford was 
the Rev. Peter Elmsley's executor, whose library of 
printed books was purchased by Messrs. Payne & 
Foss of Pall Mall, of which a considerable portion 
was sold at Oxford to members of the University. 

Mr. Parker received particular instructions 
from Dr. Elmsley relative to the Wilkes papers. 
Probably Mr. Parker's son, the Rev. Edward 
Parker, Rector of Great Oxendon, Northampton- 
shire, could give information respecting them ; or 
Mr. J. H. Parker of Oxford may know what be- 
came of these interesting papers. H. F. 



Carrenare" (2 nd S. vi. 87.) The difference 
between docking and careening a ship consisted 
in this ; that, in careening, a ship was laid on her 
side in the water. A representation of a ship so 
"laid over" maybe seen in Falconer's Marine 
Dictionary, edited by Burney (1830), Plate VII. 
Fig. 5. ; and also in Jal's Glossaire Nautique 
(1848), p. 423., where the hull appears " le cote 
droit dans Yean, et la moitie gauche de la carene 
au soleil." As, in Chaucer's days, there was a 
royal palace at Greenwich, there can be no dif- 
ficulty in supposing that the high-born dames of 
the court knew the difference between a dry and 
a careening dock. 

Though well aware that wooers in those days 
were often sent forth, by dames whom they sought 
to win, on pilgrimages into distant lands, I am 
still inclined to think that the three lines at pre- 
sent in question refer to a mandate of a different 
kind, and one which was to be executed forth- 
with : " anone that he go hoodlesse" &c. Chaucer 
commends her whose praises he sings, for not 
exacting any such task. Is not this commenda- 
tion, as I have already ventured to suggest (2 nd 
S. iii. 299.), a satirical allusion to some fair ladye 
of the court who had actually imposed such a 
journey ? As the mandate was to " go hood- 
lesse," may it not have been laid upon Chaucer 
himself, who is generally pictured with a hood, 
but who certainly never visited Palestine ? 

Although the Red Sea was on one memorable 
occasion divided, yet, as it soon closed again, one 
cannot easily suppose that it went in Chaucer's 
days by the name of the " dry sea." Nor, if it did, 
can we imagine a high-born dame so cruel as to bid 
her suitor "walk into" it, an exploit which al- 
most cost the lives of Bonaparte and his suite. 

THOMAS BOYS. 

Blunderbuss (2 nd S. v. 396.) Without de- 
tracting anything from the explanation of the 
word blunderbuss, as possibly having its origin in 
the stunning {etonnants, attonantes) effects of the 
explosion, I may be permitted to observe that a 
derivation from the Dutch bulderen (to bellcw, to 
thunder, to roar, cognate with balderen) would 
answer the purpose very well. Though, as far as 
I can remember, the word bulderbus does not occur 
in Dutch, still we have the term bulderbas, which 
now means a blustering fellow, but which, in 
olden time, may have signified a blunderbuss, 
even as, till this day, draribas (from draaijen, to 
turn) denotes a swivel. 

Now, as nobody likes not to understand the 
sense of a word he uses, and would rather change 
it than leave it unexplained, the term bulderbas 
may very well, in such a way, have been trans- 
formed into the English sounding term blunder- 
buss ; and for the following reason : the short and 
wide-mouthed blunderbuss was, most probably, 
loaded with slugs, which its explosion would needs 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* S. VI. 184, JULY 24. '58. 



spread around. In close fights it was a very ap- 
propriate weapon for one against many ; and thus 
we see the guards of old mail-coaches provided 
with it, to make amends for inferiority in number. 
Now, may not the name blunderbuss have been 
derived from its hits at random, an explanation 
that very well does for the human blunderbuss 
too ? J. H. VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst. 

Tattooed Britons (2 nd S. v. 103.) Your cor- 
respondent L. adverts to the custom, which the 
ancient Britons, partly at least, had in common 
with the Sandwich Islanders, of tattooing their 
bodies with blue. It is not uninteresting to find, 
that this painful mode of ornamenting the human 
form still exists, not only amongst sailors in Eng- 
land, but also on the Continent ; and that it is no 
uncommon thing there to see a labourer's breast 
and arms pricked with various devices. Amongst 
the military in Holland gunpowder is rubbed into 
the needle-wounds, and a blue colour ensues. 
The only difference is, that we do not see now 
" pictos ore Britannos." 

J. H. VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst. 

Byron and Henry Kirke White (2 nd S. vi. 35.) 
Among the variety of sources to which reference 
has been made as suggesting to Byron the memor- 
able simile of the " struck eagle, in his eulogy on 
Henry Kirke White, I do not remember an allu- 
sion to the noted Sir Roger L'Estrange's Fables of 
JEsop and other Eminent Mythologists. And yet 
the book had extraordinary popularity in its day, 
notwithstanding the coarse vulgarity of its style ; 
and was one eminently calculated, from the amus- 
ing variety of its contents, to excite the attention 
of the schoolboy, to whom the homely familiarity 
of its language would be rather acceptable than 
otherwise. Byron's famous satire was an early 
work, written when all his school recollections 
were fresh upon him ; and it is therefore not im- 
probable that the image which he has expanded 
so eloquently may have had its humble origin in 
the 48th Fable of L'Estrange's collection, which 
is as follows : 

" The Eagle and Arrow. 

" An Eagle that was watching upon a Rock once for a 
Hare, had the ill Hap to be struck with an Arrow. This 
Arrow, it seems, was feather'd from her own Wing, which 
very Consideration went nearer her Heart, she said, than 
Death itself." 

L'Estrange's "Reflection" on the above, and 
the fable of the " Thrush taken with Birdlime," 
which immediately follows it, thus terminates ; 
and I quote the passage, because it somewhat 
strengthens the probability before suggested : 

" There needs little more to be said," he remarks, " to 
the Emblems of the Eagle and the Thrush, than to ob- 
serve, that both by Chance, and by Nature, we are made 



accessary to our own Euins : And that's enough to trouble 
a Body, though not to condemn him." 

T. C. SMITH. 

P. S. I have been told that a similar image oc- 
curs in the works of the famous Jeremy Taylor. 
Can any of your correspondents refer me to the 



Heraldry (Scottish} (2 nd S. vi. 32.) I suspect 
that the work on heraldry which your correspon- 
dent ABHBA is in quest of is the one compiled by 
" David Deuchar of Morningride, Seal Engraver 
to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales," and 
published in one vol. 8vo. at Edinburgh in 1805, 
and which was afterwards " enlarged " by his son 
" Alexander," and published in 2 vols. 8vo. in 
1817 under the title of British Crests. The com- 
piler may have got a pension from the crown, but 
I rather suspect not. The " extensive Heraldic 
Library, valuable MSS. and Manuscript collec- 
tions relative to the Principal Families of Scot- 
land," which had been formed by the Deuchars 
during a period of upwards of EIGHTY YEARS, 
was sold by auction at Edinburgh in April, 1 846. 

T. G. S. 

King Alfred's Jewel (2 nd S. vi. 46.) An accu- 
rate description of this jewel, with five figures 
drawn on stone by the author, may be found at 
pp. 9298. of Gorham's Hist, and Antiq. of 
Eynesbury and St. Neots in Huntingdonshire, a 
work not often found complete, and of which no 
perfect copy has been retained in the British 
Museum. Dr. Hickes concluded that the figure 
on the obverse probably represented St. Cuth- 
bert, who is said by William of Malmesbury to 
have appeared to Alfred at Athelney. But Mr. 
Gorham remarks that all the other chronicles 
which refer to this incident agree that it was St. 
Neot, not St. Cuthbert, who was seen by Alfred 
in his sleep both at Athelney and on other occa- 
sions. St. Neot was the relative and the spiritual 
counsellor of the king, and was venerated by him 
above all other saints ; and Mr. Gorham thinks it 
can scarcely admit of a reasonable doubt that the 
miniature was intended for that holy man. The 
legend given at p. 47. is not quite correct : it 
should be *:/YELFRED MEE HEHT EEVVR- 
D5YN. The jewel was found in 1693 at Newton 
Park, some distance north of the site of Athelney 
Abbey ; in 1698 it was in the possession of Colonel 
N". Palmer of Fairfield in Somersetshire ; and in 
1718 was deposited in the Ashmolean Museum 
by his son, Thomas Palmer, Esq. JOSEPH Rix. 

St. Neots. 

"Pittance" (2 nd S. v. 437. 526.) The word 
pittance is derived from the Low-Latin pictantia ; 
which is explained by Du Cange to be " Portio 
monachica in esculentis ad valorem unius Pietae, 
lautior pulmentis quse ex oleribus erant, cum pic- 
tantise essent de piscibus et hujus modi." A 



2* d S. VI. 134., JULY 24. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 



picta was a small coin of the counts of Poitou 
(Pictavium). Afterwards pictantia, or pitantia, 
came to mean a portion of food, or a meal gene- 
rally. The officer who distributed the rations of 
the monks in a convent was hence called pictan- 
tiarius, or pitancier ; and the same name was ex- 
tended to a steward, or maitre d 1 hotel. Roquefort, 
Gloss, de la Langue Rom., explains pitancerie as 
" lieu d'un convent oii se faisoient des distribu- 
tions de vivres pour les repas des religieux." As 
the word pictantia, or pitantia, appears to have 
been sometimes extended to distributions of food 
made to the poor at monasteries, its origin was 
misconceived, and it was supposed to be derived 
from pietas or pitie. Hence, in Italian, it is writ- 
ten pietanza, in allusion to pietd. L. 

University Hoods (2 nd S. vi. 39.) The statutes 
of Elizabeth for the government of the University 
of Cambridge direct the wearing of the hood as 
well as of the gown by graduates within the pre- 
cincts of the University : 

"Statuimus ut Nemo ad aliquem in universitate gradum 
evectus nisi toga talari caputioque ordini congruente .... 
indutus Collegio exeat .... Et si quispiam disputation! 
publicae in sua facultate, publicis in ecclesia Beatje Maria? 
precibus, concioni ad clerum, sepulturis, congregatiouibus 
sine toga habitu et caputio gradui conveniente juxta an- 
tiquuni academiai morem interfuerit, eandein mulctam in- 
currat." Cap. xlvi. 

In the pulpit of St. Mary's church the non- 
regent hood, and not that proper to the degree, 
was to be worn : 

" Concionatores autem in concione sua utentur caputio 
usitato non-regentis." Cap. xlv. 

On the 24th May, 1414, a statute was passed by 
the senate enacting, 

" Quod nullus baccalaureus, cujuscanque fuerit facul- 
tatis, in scbolis, processionibus aut aliis actibus quibus- 
cunque uti praesumat penula aliqua vel pellura aut 
duplicatione de serico, sindone, aut veste altera consimilis 
pretii seu valoris in tabardo, caputio aut in alio habitu 
quocunque scbolastico sed tantum furruris buggeis aut 
agninis, quibus in suis caputiis solummodo uti debent, 
. . . ." Statuta antiqua in ordinem redacta, 176. 

I have not time at present to enter more fully 
into the subject. \V. M. C. 

Queen's College, Cambridge. 

Payment of M. P.'s (2 nd S. iv.440.) In 1660, 
as appears by an entry in their books, the Com- 
mon ^Council of Newcastle- upon-Tyne ordered 
Mr. Elliot to be paid 1821. 10s., or at the rate of 
10i-. per diem for the time he sate as Burgess for 
the town in the Long Parliament, 1647-8. 

E. II. A. 

Engravers Impressions (2 nd S. vi. 37.) Your 
correspondent H. M. is very nearly correct in his 
description. If any of your readers are interested 
in the matter, I should have great pleasure in 
showing them the modus operandi, as there are 
several little matters to attend to, such as the 



peculiarity of the wax, and also the different heat 
required for metal and stone seals, which cannot 
well be described. To a collector the information 
would be valuable, as the proof impressions will 
keep much better than those taken in the ordinary 
manner. I enclose my own 

" Instructions for taking Impressions from Metal and 
Stone Seals. Warm tbe seal a little by holding the face 
of it near the side of a candle, make it so as you can just 
feel it warm against your face. Then take the stick of 
wax and hold it above the candle, that the end of it may 
be melted without burning ; apply it to the letter, and 
stir it to the required shape. Press the warm seal down 
quickly while the wax is tolerably hot, let it remain a few- 
seconds, and remove it carefully. Metal seals require to 
be made warmer than stone." 

" To produce the Dead Surface, as in Proof Impressions. 
Warm the seal, take a soft plate brush, and rub it in 
a little olive oil; brush over the warm seal with it by 
sticking the ends of the hair on the face of the seal ; then 
dip a good size pencil brush in the best Chinese vermi- 
lion, and tap it lightly on the greasy seal ; blow off the 
loose vermilion from the seal, and melt the wax and 
seal. as above." 

T. MORING. 

44. High Holborn. 

To obtain Copies of Seals from Impressions 
(2 nd S. vi. 171.) When the impression is not 
cracked or underset. The best manner is with 
plaster of Paris ; first having oiled the surface, 
mix the plaster, and work the same in with a 
brush, so as to prevent any air-bubbles being on 
the surface. After that, thicken the back up"to a 
point so as to form a knot to pull it off with, 
which, if the plaster is good, will be in about five 
minutes. Then place the cast near the fire to 
dry, which will take some time ; then shape it 
with a sharp knife to the required thickness, and 
then immerse it into clean boiled linseed oil fur 
five minutes; take it out, and let it stand with 
the impression part upwards for a few hours, and 
then it will be ready for all ordinary uses for 
taking impressions ; the oil preventing it sticking, 
and likewise hardening the plaster. 

When the impressions are cracked and underset. 
Bread, kneaded up as described in " N. & Q." is 
the best method. 

Gutta Percha is not well adapted for the pur- 
pose, in consequence of its being affected by heat, 
in use the sharpness and shape is soon lost. 

The electrotype, where the impression can be 
destroyed or others obtained, is by far the best 
method of reproducing the original. T. MORING. 



BOOK SALES. 

One of the most remarkable collections of Waltonian 
literature was sold by Messrs. Sotheby & Wilkinson, on 
Friday, July 1G, 1S58. Of course the most covetable lot 
was No. 129., being a collection of the whole five editions 
of The Compleat Angler, published during the author's life : 



80 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. [2><is. vi.m,JuLY24.'58. 



501. 10s. This was followed by another tempting lot, 
The Angler of 1676, containing Walton's double auto- 
graph signature at full length, with an autograph letter 
of fourteen lines to his friend Mrs. Wallop, wife of 
Henry Wallop, Esq. of Farley, co. Southampton, 35/. 
Pickering's beautiful edition of The Angler, 1836, illus- 
trated with 580 ancient and modern portraits, 24/. 10s. 

The Secrets of Angling, a poem by J. D. [John Den- 
nys], first edition, 1613, 6/. : the Second Edition, 31. 14s. : 
and the Fourth Edition, 1652, 41. Ws.Love and Truth, 
1680, attributed to Walton, 31. 3s. A presentation copy 
of Walton's Lives, 1670, with the author's autograph, 
5/. 10s. At the same sale the following rare and curious 
work turned up : An Effectual Shove to the Heavy- Arse 
Christian, by William Banyan, Minister of the Gospel in 
South Wales. Sold by Win. Pennock, a picture shop in 
Pannier Alley, in Paternoster Row, printed for the author, 
and sold by J. Roson, St. Martin's-le- Grand. 1768. The 
owner of this curious volume gave some account of it in 
" N. & Q." 1 st S. vi. 38. : see also 1* S. v. 416. 515. 594. ; 
and vi. 17. It also contains a folding satirical plate en- 
titled " Faction Display'd," in which the " Whore of 
Babylon " is seated on a headless monster, the Devil 
firing the tail ; up start the heads of " Tindal, Hoadly, 
the Pope, De Foe, Sir Roger L'Estrange, and Milton." 
The plate seems of an earlier date than the volume. It 
sold for 9/. 2s. Qd. We must not forget to notice that 
the first edition of Master Richard Verstegan's Restitution 
of Decayed Intelligence in Antiquities, 1605, sold for 1Z. 13s. 

Lot 760, our worthy correspondent GEORGE OFFOR, 
Esq., would no doubt have secured had it possessed the 
autograph of John Bunyan instead of that of Archbishop 
Laud: " Tindall, Frith, and Barnes: the whole Workes 
of these three worthy Martyrs, and principall Teachers of 
the Churche of England, collected and compiled in one 
tome together, beyng before scattered," a portrait, by 
Pass, from the Heroologia, inserted, black letter, Arch- 
bishop Laud's copy with his autograph signature, prior 
to his elevation to" the episcopate, on the title to Frith's 
Works. Printed by John Dave, fol. 1573, 6/. 6s. A sin- 
gularly pure copy of Edmund Spenser's Works, fol. 1611, 
sold for 51. 7s. Gd. 

SURRENDEN COLLECTION. Messrs. Puttick and 
Simpson sold by auction on June 8, 1858, and four fol- 
lowing days, a collection of Books and Manuscripts for- 
merly in the celebrated library at Surrenden, co. Kent. 
A Discourse vpon the entended Voyage to the Nether- 
moste Paries of America: written by Captaine Carleill, 
black-letter, 8 leaves [1583], 14/. The Byble in Eng- 
lyshe, with a Prologe thereinto, made by Thomas [Cran- 
mcr], Archbysshop of Canterbury. Richard Grafton, 
(fynisshed in Apryll), 1540, fol. to this lot is the fol- 
lowing note: "First edition of Cranmer's Bible, second 
impression, the date of the first impression is ' April,' that 
given to the second in Lowndes (new edition) is ' July.' 
This copy agrees with the latter, but the difference of 
date should be noted." It sold for 22/. 10s. Bridges and 
Whalley's Northamptonshire, 2 vols. fol., interleaved, 
1791, containing 1337 coats of arms, beautifully painted 
by Dowse, 40/. George Hay's Confutation of the Abbote 
of Crosraguels [Quintin Kennedy], Masse, black-letter, 
4to., 1563, 1U De Bry et M. Merian, Collectiones Pere- 
grinationum in Indiana Occidentalem et Indiam Orienta- 
lem, 25 parts in 7 vols. fol., 1590-1634, 132Z. Froissart's 
Chronicles, 'first edition, black-letter, 2 vols. fol., by R. 
Pynson, 1523-5, 407. Hasted's Kent, 4 vols. fol., 1778- 
99. The author's copy with MS. corrections, and 2528 
coats of arms painted by Dowse, 94Z. Queen Mary: A 
Supplicacyo to the Quenes Maiestie, black-letter. Im- 
prynted at London by John Cawoode, anno 1550, 8vo. 
Undescribed by bibliographers. 17/. 5s. Rump Songs, 



both parts in 1 vol., with engraved title and frontispiece, 
8vo., 1662, 5/. 10s. Weever's Ancient Funerall Monv- 
ments, large paper, fol., 1631, with a few MS. notes by 
Sir Edward Dering, the first baronet, 32/. Apocalypse : 
Here bigynneth y e Apocalips, on vellum, in double 
columns, 4to., pp. 90. A most interesting Manuscript of 
the Apocalypse, in English, with Saxon Abbreviations, 
an Interpretation or short Commentary being intermixed. 
The Translation is that of Wicliffe, and the Manuscript 
is contemporary with the Translator. This is one of the 
two Manuscripts used by Mr. Lewis for his edition of 
Wicliflfe's Testament (folio, 1731). It is also noticed as 
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S. VI. 135., JULY 31/'58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



81 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 31. 1858, 



ON THE SUPPOSED CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF AFRICA 
IN ANTIQUITY. 

(Concluded from p. 64.) 

Whatever may be the authenticity of the Per- 
sian expedition under the command of Scylax, it 
is certain that the ancients had, at an early period, 
navigated the Red Sea. They were acquainted 
with the island of Socotra, which they called Dios- 
coridis Insula ; and the Periplus of the Eryth- 
raean sea, attributed to Arrian, which was com- 
posed in the first century of our era, describes the 
southern coast of that gulf as far as the north- 
eastern promontory of Africa (Cape Guardafuy). 
From this point the description of the eastern 
coast of Africa is carried, according to Gossellin, 
as far as the island of Magadasko, in lat. 2 T. ; 
but according to Dr. Vincent (vol. ii. pp. 178- 
180.), who is followed by C. Miiller, in his recent 
edition, as far as the island of Zanguebar, in lat. 
6 S. " Beyond this point (says the Periplus) 
the ocean is unexplored; but it is known to turn 
to the west, and, stretching away along the south 
towards the regions of ^Ethiopia, Libya, and Africa 
on the opposite side, to unite with the western sea" 
( 18. ed. C. Miiller; Vincent, ib. p. 186.). 

Such being the geographical limits which the 
knowledge of Africa possessed by the ancients can 
be ascertained to have reached, the question re- 
mains whether the accounts of the entire circum- 
navigation of this continent in the single cases 
above adverted to are worthy of belief. 

In the first place, the story of the Magus re- 
ported by Heraclides Ponticus may, with Posido- 
nius, be safely rejected ; neither is any credit due 
to the merchant who assured Caelius Antipater 
that he had sailed round Africa. These stories 
doubtless did not rest on any firmer basis of 
reality than the exploit of Menelaus, whose voyage 
of eight years, mentioned in the Odyssey, in 
which he visited the ^Ethiopians, the Sidonians, 
the Erembi, and Libya, was interpreted by one 
of the ancients as referring to a circumnavigation 
of Africa from the Pillars of Hercules to the In- 
dian Ocean (Strab. i. 2. 31. Compare Od. iv. 
84.). 

The account of Eudoxus of Cyzicus was ac- 
cepted by Posidonius ; but it is discredited on 
sufficient grounds by Strabo, who subjects it to a 
detailed examination (ii. 3. 5.). The story of the 
Gaditane prow found on the eastern coast of 
Africa, and identified by a ship-captain as belong- 
ing to a particular vessel, is an evident fabrication, 
resting on the erroneous belief that the distance 
between the coasts of Abyssinia and Morocco is 
inconsiderable. This seems to have been a fa- 



vourite mode of proving the circumnavigation of 
Africa ; for Pliny states that when Caius Caesar 
(Agrippa), the son of Augustus, was in the Red 
Sea (during his command in Asia Minor), a part 
of a wreck was found there, which was recognised 
as belonging to a Spanish ship (ii. 67.). It should 
be added that, according to Cornelius Nepos, Eu- 
doxus effected the entire circumnavigation from 
the Red Sea to Gades ; which is not affirmed in 
the detailed narrative of Posidonius. In like 
manner Pliny states that Hanno sailed round 
Africa as far as Arabia (ii. 67.) : whereas his ex- 
tant account shows that he made no great progress 
along the western coast. 

There remains only the account of the expedi- 
tion in the time of Neco, given by Herodotus. 
This account has attracted much attention, and 
has been considered credible by many modern 
writers (see Gossellin, ib. vol. i. p. 199.), particu- 
larly by Major Rennell, Geogr. Syst. of Herod., 
vol. ii. p. 348. ed. 2. ; Prof. Heeren, Ideen, i. 2. pp. 
79-85. ; and, lastly, by Mr. Grote, Hist, of Gr., 
vol. iii. pp. 377-385. Before we yield to the argu- 
ments advanced by critics of such high authority, 
we must give due weight to the circumstances 
which detract from the credibility of the narra- 
tive of Herodotus. Many of these are stated by 
Gossellin, who, in the first volume of his work 
on ancient geography, has subjected this question 
to a systematic investigation. The objections to 
it are, however, set forth with the greatest force 
and completeness by Dr. Vincent in his valuable 
work already cited (vol. ii. pp. 186-205.). See also 
Ukert, i. 1. p. 46.; ii. 2. p. 35.; Forbiger, vol. i. 
p. 64. ; and the art. LIBYA in Dr. Smith's Diet. 
ofAnc. Geogr., vol. ii. p. 177. 

In the first place, it must be remarked that the 
interval between the last year of the reign of 
Neco and the birth of Herodotus was 117 years ; 
and therefore that at least a century and a half 
must have elapsed between the time of the sup- 
posed voyage and the time when Herodotus col- 
lected materials for his history. The reign of 
Neco is contemporary with Pittacus and Perian- 
der, and is anterior to the legislation of Solon ; 
it is a period as to which our knowledge even of 
Greek history is faint and imperfect ; and we are 
not entitled to suppose that the tradition of such 
an event in Egyptian history, resting doubtless on 
oral repetition, could have reached Herodotus in 
an accurate shape. No particulars are given as to 
the persons who commanded the expedition, or as 
to the number or character of the ships concerned ; 
and we are not informed how the difficulties which 
must have surrounded such an enterprise were 
overcome. 

The general system of navigation in antiquity, 
whether the vessel was impelled by sails or by 
oars, was to keep close to the shore, and never to 
venture into the open sea, except in order to 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. vi. 135., JULY 31. '58. 



reach an island, or to cross a channel of moderate 
width. Navigation was moreover suspended dur- 
ing the winter months (Plin. N. H. ii. 47. ; Veget. 
de Re Mil. v. 9.)' A modern vessel takes water 
and provisions for the whole or a large part of its 
voyage, and stands out to sea, steering its course 
by the compass, and by astronomical observa- 
tions : it is likewise assisted by charts. An an- 
cient vessel crept along the shore ; advanced 
merely from one port or landing-place to another ; 
stopped at night, when the difficulty of steering 
was greater ; and took in water and food at the 
successive stations. The mean rate of a day's sail 
(exclusive of the night) is estimated by Rennell 
at about thirty-five miles (ib. p. 360.), and at 
every interval of this length it put into land. It 
was therefore dependent on its communications 
with the coast, and its successful progress could 
only be ensured under one of two conditions: 
either that the coast was friendly, or that, if the 
coast was unfriendly, it had sufficient force to 
overawe the natives. The first of these cases was 
the ordinary state of navigation in the Mediterra- 
nean ; either when a Phoenician ship sailed along 
the northern coast of Africa, or when a Greek ship 
made its way along the coasts of Greece and Italy. 
The second case is exemplified by the early voy- 
ages of the Phocaeans, which they are said to have 
made in long narrow ships of war, and not in 
merchant vessels built for carrying a cargo (He- 
rod, i. 163.). Other examples are found in the 
expedition of Nearchus from the mouth of the 
Indus to the head of the Persian Gulf, whose re- 
lations with the natives are described throughout 
as hostile and suspicious, and who chiefly ob- 
tained food by the method of plunder (Arrian, 
Indica, c. 20. sqq.) ; in the expedition of Hanno, 
who sailed along the western coast of Africa with 
a fleet which (according to his own account) con- 
sisted of sixty war penteconters, and 60,000 men 
and women ; and in the voyage of Polybius along 
the same coast, who is expressly stated to have 
been furnished by Scipio with a fleet for the pur- 
pose ("ab eo accepta classe," Plin. v. 1.). 

Major Rennell, proceeding from the remark 
that *' the difficulties of coasting- voyages do not, 
in respect of their length, increase beyond arith- 
metical proportion," inquires, " What should have 
prevented Scylax, Hanno, or the Phoenicians from 
extending their voyages, had their employers been 
so inclined, and preparations had been made ac- 
cordingly?" (Ib. p. 354.). 

It is true that a coasting-voyage might have 
been indefinitely lengthened under the conditions 
favourable to its performance : for example, it is 
quite conceivable that an ancient ship, starting 
from a port of Syria, might have followed the 
coasts of Asia Minor, Greece, and Italy, as far as 
Massilia, and have repeated this course continu- 
ously, backwards and forwards, until it had com- 



pleted as great a distance as would be necessary for 
the circumnavigation of A frica. But these were not 
the conditions under which the voyage of the Phce- 
nicians, ordered by Neco, was undertaken. We are 
not informed that they were provided with a suf- 
ficient force to compel submission at the places 
where they landed : on the contrary, the account 
of their landing in the autumn in order to sow 
their corn, and of their waiting until the harvest, 
implies that they relied for food upon their own 
resources. It seems incredible that a^ew vessels, 
thus situated, could have made their way from 
the Red Sea to the Straits of Gibraltar. The 
probability is, that the ^ crews would have fallen 
victims to the jealousy and hostility of the bar- 
barous natives. Navigation in early times was 
generally connected with piracy ; and an unknown 
ship arriving on a coast would not fail to be re- 
garded as an enemy. The mere difficulty of lan- 
guage would in such a length of coast as that in 
question, and with so vast a succession of different 
savage tribes, have rendered friendly communica- 
tion impossible. The Periplus of Hanno mentions 
that he took with him interpreters ; but even his 
limited expedition reached a point at which his 
interpreters could not understand the language of 
the natives ( 11. 14.). He assigns the failure of 
food as the reason for turning back. 

The length of time mentioned by Herodotus 
seems likewise insufficient, if we subtract the in- 
tervals between seed-time and harvest, and allow 
for the other casualties of such a navigation. 
Herodotus states that the expedition of Scylax 
occupied thirty months in its voyage down the 
Indus, and thence to the Red Sea ; whereas the 
time allowed for the circumnavigation of Africa is 
under three years, with a further deduction for 
the periods requisite for bringing the crops to 
maturity. It may be added that the Phrenicians 
could not have provided themselves with seeds 
proper for the different climates and soils to be 
passed over ; and as they could as easily have ob- 
tained provisions from the natives, as information 
respecting the proper seed and the seed itself, it 
is difficult to understand how the mode of pro- 
curing food to which they are described to have 
had resort could have been successful. More- 
over, the proper time for sowing would not have 
fallen in autumn in the southern hemisphere, as 
Gossellin has remarked. It may be considered 
as certain that neither Neco nor Herodotus had 
any idea of the great length of the voyage from 
the Red Sea to the Straits of Gibraltar, and that 
they both believed Africa to be a peninsula of 
which the Nile was the base. (Compare Vincent, 
vol. ii. p. 565.) 

The only circumstance in the account which 
invests it with credibility, is the report of the 
navigators, disbelieved by Herodotus himself, that 
they had the sun on their right hand : the most 






2nd s . vi. IBS., JULY si. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



obvious interpretation of which supposes them to 
have reached the southern hemisphere. Upon 
this statement, however, which is the main title of 
the story to acceptance, two remarks may be 
made. In the first place, Herodotus himself as- 
cended the Nile as far as Elephantine (ii. 29.) ; 
and Elephantine is opposite Syene, which is nearly 
within the tropic, and which contained afterwards 
the celebrated well. Now if Herodotus himself 
had visited a place where the shadows were ver- 
tical at the solstice, it is not unlikely that he may 
have obtained the story of Neco's expedition from 
persons who might conceive that a, sufficient pro- 
gress southward would bring the navigator to a 
region where the shadows at noon inclined from 
north to south. In the next place, Nearchus, 
the admiral of Alexander the Great, in the de- 
scription of his coasting-voyage from the mouth 
of the Indus to the Persian Gulf, stated that in 
a part of his course the shadows were either ver- 
tical or fell to the south (Arrian, Ind. c. 25.). 
Now, when we consider that Nearchus could not 
have been south of 25 north latitude, which is 
north of the tropic, and of the latitude of Ele- 
phantine (24 N.), we can easily conceive that 
the informants of Herodotus may have imagined 
for the Phoenician navigators of Neco a physical 
phenomenon to which the Nile above Elephantine 
afforded an approximation, and which Nearchus 
declared himself to have actually witnessed at a 
higher latitude (see Vincent, ib. vol. i. pp. 222. 
304.). Onesicritus, who accompanied Alexander 
in his expedition, likewise stated that there were 
certain parts of India, he specified one to the 
north of the Hyphasis or Sutledge, where the sun 
was vertical at the solstice, and there were no 
shadows. (These places were called by him &nctot.) 
He declared moreover that in these districts the 
constellation of the Great Bear was never visible 
(Plin. ii. 75., vii. 2.). Pliny also reports that at 
Mount Maleus, in the territory of the Oretes in 
India, the shadows fall to the south in summer, 
and to the north in winter ; that at the port of 
Pattala (Tatta on the Indus) the sun rises to the 
right, and the shadows fall to the south (ii. 75.). 
Eratosthenes affirmed that in the country of the 
Troglodytes, on the south-eastern coast of the Red 
Sea, the shadows fell to the south for forty-five 
days before and for the same period after the 
solstice (Plin. ii. 75, 76., vi. 34.). 

Some ambassadors from the island of Tapro- 
bane,^ or Ceylon, who came to Rome in the time of 
the Emperor Claudius, are represented by Pliny as 
having expressed their wonder that the shadows 
fell to the north and not to the south ; and that 
the sun rose to the left, and not to the right (Plin. 
vi. 24.) ; although, as Dr. Vincent remarks, they 
must have annually witnessed that phenomenon, 
when the sun was south of the equator (vol. ii. 
p. 492.). 



These examples prove that the imagination of 
the ancients was active in conceiving the solar 
phenomena of the northern hemisphere to be re- 
versed, even in districts which lay to the north ot 
the tropics. It may be observed that the ancients 
had likewise heard accounts of the long polar 
nights, which they transferred to latitudes in which 
this phenomenon did not exist. Thus Csesar states 
that the smaller islands near Britain had been 
reported by some writers to be continually dark 
for thirty days in winter. He adds, that on in- 
quiry he was unable to confirm this statement ; 
but he ascertained by means of water clocks that 
the nights in Britain were shorter than on the 
continent (B. G. v. 13.). One of the stories of 
Pytheas, respecting his fictitious island of Thule, 
was that it had six months of continual light, and 
six months of continual darkness (Plin. ii. 77., 
Mela, iii. 6.). 

It may be remarked that the Romans under 
the empire are said to have penetrated very far 
into Africa by land : thus, P. Petronius, prefect 
of Egypt in the time of Augustus, is stated to 
have marched 970 miles south of Syene (Plin. vi. 
35.) ; Ptolemy likewise describes two other Ro- 
man officers, as having by marches of three or four 
months respectively, reached a district south of 
the equator (i. 8. 5., Vincent, vol. ii. p. 243.). It 
is not impossible that the Egyptians may at an 
early time have ascended far into the interior of 
Africa ; and in navigating the Red Sea, they 
would soon have passed the tropic. 

On the whole, we may safely assent to the posi- 
tion of Dr. Vincent, that " a bare assertion of the 
performance of any voyage, without consequences 
attendant or connected, without collateral or con- 
temporary testimony, is too slight a foundation to 
support any superstructure of importance " (ib. 
p. 307.) ; and we may conclude that the circum- 
navigation of Africa in the time of Neco is too 
imperfectly attested, and too improbable in itself, 
to be regarded as a historical fact. G. C. LEWIS. 



EAELY TRIBUTE TO THE GENIUS OF MILTON. 

The following from a collection of poems pub- 
lished 1689, is said to be the earliest laudatory 
acknowledgment of his immortal genius. It is 
extracted from a pastoral dialogue between 
Thyrsis and Corydon, entituled a Propitiatory Sa- 
crifice to the Ghost of J M . The great 

poet is alluded to under the name of Daplmis: 

" Daphnis ! the Great Reformer of our Isle, 
Daphnis ! the patron of the Roman stile, 
Who first to sense converted doggrel rhymes, 
The muses' bells took off, and stopped their chimes. 
On surer wings, with an immortal flight, 
Taught us how to believe and how to write; 
And could we but have reached his wondrous height, 
We'd chang'd the constitution of our state, 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. C2 nd s. vi. 135., JULY si. '58. 



Where reason must enlightened souls confute, 
To common earth 'tis still forbidden fruit ; 
For all in torrents his inventions flow, 
And drown the little vales that lie below, 
And yet so sweet, malice would silenced die ; 
So perfect they could prejudice defy. 
Daphnis ! whose modesty might justly boast, 
His errours least, his excellencies most: 
Well might we blush at every sacred line, 
To see a soul so humble, so divine." 

A slight allusion is made to his blindness 

" (Like Tages) born a poet from the womb, 
And sung himself from 's cradle to his tomb ! 
Inspired with melody with his first breath, 
Improving art and learning till his death. 

But when his age and fruit together ripe 
(Of which blind Homer only was the type), 
Tiresias-like he mounted up on high, 
And scorned the filth of dull mortality, 
Conversed with Gods, and graced their royal line, 
All ecstasy, all rapture, all divine." 

The concluding stanzas run thus 

Corydon. "Even tombs of stone in time will wear 

away, 

Brass pyramids are subject to decay; 
But lo ! the poet's fame shall shine 
In each succeeding age, 
Laughing at the baffled rage 
Of envious enemies and destructive time. 

Thy >r sis. " Rest, Phoenix ! in thy Paradise above, 
Thy works enjoy a Paradise of love ; 
Tho' some with a rank emulous poison swell, 
Others admire and praise, but none excell ; 
May our poor rustic muse add ciphers to thy fame ; 
Thy works are everlasting monuments to thy name." 

The author styles himself a late scholar of Eton, 

and his presumed name was Go 1. Is there 

any clue to the writer ? CL. HOPPER. 

[The author of these lines was Charles Goodall, who 
died at the early age of eighteen. Wood (Athence, iv. 
256.) has the following notice of him : " Charles Goodall, 
a most ingenious young man of his age, son of Dr. Charles 
Goodall, fellow of the College of Physicians at London, 
was born at St. Edmund Bury in Suffolk, educated at 
Eton College, became a student at Oxford in Lent term, 
1688, aged seventeen years, and soon after one of the 
postmasters of Merton College, but soon cut off to the 
great reluctancy of his tender parent, and of all those 
who were acquainted with his pregnant parts. There are 
extant of his compositions, Poems and Translations writ- 
ten upon Several Occasions, and to Several Persons. Lond. 
1689 (Anon.) He died much lamented on May 11, 1689, 
and was buried in the south aisle of Merton College 
church."! 



KNOCKIN-STANE. 

It is well to preserve every relic of our ances- 
tors to note down the memorials of the past 
to keep in memory the customs of by-gone times, 
many of which are fast fading away from the 
minds of the present generation : among these may 
be noted the method of preparing pot-barley in 



Scotland. In all country families, some three or 
four generations back, before the invention of 
barley-mills, they possessed a large mortar or 
" knockin-stane," in which they shelled or decor- 
ticated, or unhusked the grain, with a strong 
knockin-mell or wooden pestle. These mortars 
were generally formed out of a close-grained or firm 
sandstone, and were often placed in the butt of the 
cottage, or at the door -cheek, to be ready on all 
occasions when barley was required for the ordi- 
nary broth or kail of the peasantry a standing 
dish in Scotland, and very savoury and palatable, 
if properly cooked, and compounded of a piece or 
tiley of beef, mutton, or pork, a good strow of 
shred kale or colewort, turnip, carrot, a handful of 
oaten-meal for a lithing, and half a pound of knocked 
bear or barley ; or in quantity proportioned to the 
size of the pot, or the number of the family. These 
Scotch kail, or barley-broth, served up in plates of 
earthenware, or in the "timmer trenchers," or 
"pouther plates" of avid lang syne, and eaten or 
supped with a dodgel of pease- and-barley meal 
bannock, or oaten- meal cake, formed a very de- 
licious mess that is to say, if the cook is at all 
up to her vocation, as before said : and the " kail- 
suppers o' Fife," or of the Merse, never think they 
get a dinner, where the kail is absent from the 
board, however substantial may be other viands 
placed there. To dyspeptics, our Scotch broth is 
said to be deleterious, but we aver that a Scotch- 
man will rather suffer the pains and penalties of 
indigestion than forego his favourite kail. 

In our popular poetry, many allusions are made 
to the knockin-stanes, as in that famous schoolboy 
lilt : 

" Davy Doits, the king o' loits, 

Fell owre the mortar stane, 
When a' the rest got butter-and-bread, 

Davy Doits got nane." 

Or, in the old song : 

" My lairdships can yield me 

As meikle a year, 
As had us in pottage, 
And good knockit beir." 

Many of those stones still remain about villages 
and old farm places some lying about among 
rubbish some turned bottom up by the doors of 
cottages as a rustic seat some built into cottage 
walls or garden walls some used as pig-troughs, 
&c., &c. The other day we counted half a dozen 
of those old mortars, in various situations, in our 
village, and which there still serve to keep up the 
remembrance of old patriarchal times. Is there 
not one in the British Museum ? MENYANTHES. 

Chirnside. 



BASE COIN IN THE TIME OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

The following letters are extracted from the 
public records of Wells, and may prove of suffi- 






2" S. VI. 135., JULY 31. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



cient interest to the readers of " N. & Q." as to 
entitle them to preservation in its pages : 

" To our trusty and welbeloved the May'r or Baylyves, 
and to ther bretheren at Wells, 

" ELIZABETH, &c. By the Quene. 
" Trustye and welbeloved we greet youe well. Wheras 
it come is to our knolege that since our p'clamacons for 
the decrine of base moneys, ther arysethe some dyference 
amongst sondrye our subjects being ignorant for the 
knolege and discerninge of the base Festons of ij d from 
th'other of iiij d , and that the rather because suche marks 
as wer at the first added to the said baseste Testons wer 
oute, We, to whome the weale and quietnesse of our 
people ys moste tender, have by advyse of our Counsayle 
publyshed and notyfyed dyvers good meanes as in suche 
a case could be dyvysed for the informacon of oure people 
in the knoledge of th'one from th'other. And yet as we 
p'cyve the ignorant sorte be not so fully instructed as 
wer convenyante, And therfore we have erdeyned that 
in sondrye places of our Realme ther shuld be certeyne 
trustye p'sons appoynted, not only to informe our people 
therin, but alsoe to stampe the saide Testons wyth seve- 
rall stamps or prynts. And consyderynge that that 
Towne is populous, and that many of our subjectts re- 

sorte therto at sondrye tymes We havyng 

and of our consyderaunte do ordeyne that vppon receyte 
of thes oure letters ye imedyately shall assemble your 
bretheren together, And if ther be any Gentleman dwell- 
yng in that Towne, or wythyn a myle of the Towne, 
beinge a Justice of Peace in anye parte theraboute, Ye 
shall send for hym, and in your Hall or Talbothe, or 
other comonplace of your Assemblyes by what name so- 
ever it be called, in the open p'sents of them all, ye shall 
reade this Letter, and then vnseale a Bagge whiche this 
messenger shall delyver vnto you, conteynynge in it too 
stampynge yrons and a round plate of steele ; th'one of 

?ron conteynynge the printe of a Greyhownde, th'other a 
ortcullice : and beinge soe in open place consydered ye 
shall, by th'assente of youre bretheren and such Justices 
of the peace as ye shal ther call, yf any bee nygh at hand, 
or by the more p'te of them, choose to youreself fowere 
mo. of the wysest and meeteste p'sons of the Towne, 
wherof the Justice of Peeace to bee one, to sytte wyth 
youe for the execucyon of the contents folowinge: Ye, 
wyth the fower p'sons chosen, shall forthwythe sytte in 
the open place 'forsaide, or att the Markett Crosse, call- 
ynge to youe some Goldsmythe of the beste knolege yee 
can gette, or some other p'son havinge beste knolege" in 
the matter of moneys, and shall ther be ready to judge 
and discerne of all man'r of Testons that anye oure sub- 
jectts shal bring vnto youe whiche be of the value of ij d 
to be stryken wyth th'yron havinge the Greyhownde 

vppon the [sic] of the Teston, whervppon the 

Kynge's face ys, behind the hedd over the showlders, 
and th'other Testons of iiij d yee shall stryke wyth 
th'other yron havinge the Portcullice before th'face, and 
so f 'wyth redelyv'r the same moneys to the same p'sons 
that dyd p'sent them vnto youe. And ye shall take good 
regard that yn no wyse ye doe stampe any Teston valued 
at ij d wy'the the stampe of the Portcullice. Yee shall alsoe 
by auctorytye herof swere the Goldesmith to judge and 
discerne trewlye betwyxte th'one moneys and th'other, to 
th'vttermoste of his knolege. And for the contynew- 
ance of youre syttynge att one tyme, or for youre dayes 
of syttynge, Wee do refarre that to youre discrestcyon, as 
ye shall see cause geven vnto youe by confluence "of our 
people vnto youe wyth ther moneys, so as ye neither 
sytte before nyne of the clocke in the forenoone, nor after 
three in the afternoone ; nether vppon anye holyedaye, 
nor that fewer of youe sytte at one tyme than fower be- 



i sydes the Goldesmythe, yf anye suche can be had ; and 

! at every tyme when ye shall sitte and have done, ye 

shall, before you dep'te, in open p'sents putte vppe the 

1 Yrons into the Bagge, and cause the same to be sealed 

vppe wythe waxe, and wythe the seale of one of youre 

| assistantce ; and youreselfe ether to kepe the saide yrons 

j vntill the next sittinge or ells to cause them to be safelye 

locked vppe in your chest wher youre Charters are, or 

suche lyke do remayne, in suche sorte as the same yrons 

j be noe wyse vsed nor sene but in the open place when 

! you shalbe assembled togethar for this purpose. And 

j after one Monethe paste yf ye see noe more ned of the 

i vse herof, ye shall cause them to be sealed ope and sent 

j to oure Treasurer of oure Mynte by some trustye p'son 

I And soe not doutinge but ye wyll have good regarde to 

j our meenyngs, We pray youe vse suche expedycon and 

discrestion herein as to suche a case doth appetyne, And 

to bestowe youre labours herein to the quyettinge of oure 

people, wythowte takynge anye thynge for the same. 

And before one Monethe shall pass, we truste to cause a 

quantvtye of fyne moneys to be sent into those p'ts for 

the vse and comforte of your Subjectts. Yeven vnder oure 

Sygnet at oure honore of Hampton Courte the xvj th daye 

of October in the second yeare of our Raygne." 

" To our lovinge freinds, the Mavor and his bretheren or 

other Officers of the Towne of Welles. 
" After our moste hartye comendacons. Wheras vppon 
the late decryinge of base moneyse, order was taken for 
the avoydynge of contention, and to th'ende th'moste 
! symple myghte descerne the dyfference of the Testons 
decried, that those nowe at iiij d ob. shuld be marked 
wyth a Portcullice, and th'other at ij d wythe a Grey- 
hownde, And for this purpose yrons wer sent vnto youe 
and dyvers other ptyes of the Realme wythe charge to 
use the advise of some skylfull Goldsmyth or other of 
Skyll in discerninge and markinge of those Testons valued 
by" p'clamaacon at ij d , som of which are found to be 
marked wythe the Portecullyce, and broughte owte of 
sondrye ptes of the Realme to the Tower of London there 
to be exchanged for iiij ob., whiche sorte of Ignorance or 
rather greate negligence or deceyte may bred further 
contensyon. And yt is not to be suffered. And as we 
se no reson that the Queue's Majesty shuld beare the 
burden in the exchange in gevinge iiij ob. for the Testons 
that mey be by sondry means knowen to be ij d , so 
thinke we yt wer better than this maner of markinge as 
yt is vsed wer, lest consyderynge that before this order 
was geven whiche was purposelye don to helpe the symple, 
the dyfference of the Testons myght be well knowen as 
well by the markes appoynted in the p'clamacon as the 
lyvel coler of ye Testons, as by the lengthe of the necke 
of the Kynge's picture beinge a specyall note to discerne 
them of ij d from the other; and therfore we wyll and 
charge you to have specyall and earnest consideracon 
hereof. And yf youe shall not be able of youre owne selves 
or by the aj'de of some others to knowe them from the 
others whiche youe may ryghte doe wythe some leasur 
rather than wyth haste to hynder soe goode a purpose. 
Then we require you in the Queue's Majestye's name to 
forbeare to cause any more Testons to be m'rked, and 

rather to suffer them to passe wyth those not 

dyfference that are alreddy by dyvers meanes published 
.... to be broughte as they be to the Tower wher they 
may be more p'fyc'ly discerned, then thus vnder color of 
her Majesty's marke vtterly and deceytfully to vtter 
abrode Testons at better price than they be valued by 
her Majesty's order and p'clamacon. And as we 
nothinge doubt that youe doe kepe a certen note of the 
some that you doe marke, soe we require you ernestly to 
observe that order, soe as thene you may make a p'fycte 
accompte of the hole some that you shall have marked 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2 s . vi. 135., JULY 31. T,S. 



And soe fayre youe well. Frome Hamptone Court the 
eight of Novembre 1560. Youre lovinge friends, 
" N. Bacon. C. 
E. Bedford. 
Thomas Parry. 
Ambrose Cave. 
Willm Cecill." 

INA. 
Wells, Somerset. 



WALTER SCOTT AND THE TWO PLINYS. 

Can you, or any of your numerous readers, ac- 
count for the error, not to say blunder, committed 
by Sir Walter Scott in Waverley, the first of his 
series of great national tales of wonder and de- 
light ? It has passed through not only all the 
editions, but is continued in the people's edition, 
revised and corrected by himself, with explanatory 
notes and comments, and published by Robert 
Cadell, Edinburgh, 1841. 

In the 12th chapter (p. 110.) of this latter edi- 
tion, he makes the learned pedant, the grandilo- 
quent Baron of Bradwardine, a classical scholar, 
a law student, and a continental traveller, of 
whose reputation as a man of books, he is as chary 
as over the character of his "prodigious" Abel 
Sampson, commit a gross error in the fathership 
of one of the best known of Roman classics. 

In the Baron's Palinodia, as to "the blessed 
Bear pf Bradwardine," and its prenocturnal effects, 
the bookful Latinist, the victim of veneration for 
Titus Livius, confesses to his guest, Captain Wa- 
verley, who is represented as no mean scholar, 
that he would not " utterly accede to the objur- 
gation of the younger Plinius, in the fourteenth 
book of his Historm Naturalis /" 

Every reader of biography knows that the elder 
Pliny was the great Roman naturalist, whose 
thirty-seven books on natural history, which, 
amidst some superstition and much credulity, is 
one of the most precious monuments of literary an- 
tiquity which has reached our times. 

The younger Pliny, on the contrary, was a rhetori- 
cian, an advocate of great distinction in the Roman 
forum, the governor of a large province, of con- 
sular dignity ; whose only known writings are his 
admired, though somewhat artificial, "Letters" to 
his friends ; and his panegyric on the Emperor 
Trajan, the greatest and the best of the Caesars. 

It is the less excusable, because this most cap- 
tivating of tale-tellers admits in his general pre- 
face (p. 9.), that before he began Waverley, he 
had qualified himself by study for his profession 
of a pleader. And again, p. 15., of the same pre- 
face, he states, among other reasons for his silence 
as to the authorship of the Waverley Novels : 
"My friendships were formed my place in so- 
ciety fixed my life had attained its middle 
course." Therefore, youthful carelessness cannot 
be imputed to the learned advocate, the accom- 



plished cyclopaedist, the rounded, polished, uni- 
versal genius, such as he describes his own 
parallel, the all-to-all, the grave, the gay, the in- 
quiring, searching Counsellor Pleydell. 

It may, probably, have arisen, by a kind of ag- 
nomination, from seeing the name of the great 
Roman naturalist called Plinius Secundus,& sur- 
name, in all probability, bestowed upon him by 
the Emperor Vespasian for his military services, 
as being second or next to him, Caius Plinius Se- 
cundus, Veroiiensis. The younger Pliny, when 
adopted by his illustrious uncle, received from 
him, as the family name, in addition to his own of 
Caius Plinius, Novocomemis, the surname of Se- 
cundus, for the Plinian family. 

I know of no better solution to this surprising 
mistake ; but probably you, or some of your clas- 
sical readers, may help me to a better. 

JAMES ELMES. 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS : PARISH BOOKS. 

The subject of parish documents of different 
kinds has several times received from " N. & Q." 
the attention it deserves, and there seems to be a 
wish in other -quarters to do it ample justice. In 
the matter of copying sepulchral inscriptions, it 
will never answer to portion out the work by dis- 
tricts to persons ignorant of the names formerly 
general in that assigned to them, or who have not 
the knack of decyphering. Most ludicrous mis- 
takes will otherwise arise ; so that when one 
thoroughly competent person cannot be found, it 
is better for two to make independent copies for 
collation ; after which, if sent to press, each should 
look over the proofs. A person who has not seen 
the original inscriptions, and is bothered by writ- 
ing done in an- awkward position or bad light, will 
allow suicidal blunders to pass, crede experto. As 
regards light, an otherwise illegible incised in- 
scription can often be made out in the evening, or 
by a lamp placed at the side ; when the shadow 
will be deepened, precisely in the same way as we 
can distinguish valleys in the moon. In all cases 
the dates of beginning and ending the MS. should 
be attached, with signature. 

It would be well if an impression could be made 
upon sextons, and clerks in orders or not, that 
slabs, plates, &c., ought not to be buried, used up, 
or otherwise made away with. In one church 
known to me it is said that the vicar, during the 
restoration, had most of the monuments good, 
bad, and indifferent buried under the flooring ; 
he was an Evangelical clergyman, and of course 
opposed to display. Another, holding the other 
extreme, had an objection to high-backed tomb- 
stones, and stated in my hearing that he had 
persuaded his people, some of whom were not very 
willing, to have these memorials of their families 
cut somewhat diagonally, so that two nice trefoil 



d S . VI. 135, JULY 31. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



87 



mediarval-looking stones, with fresh and abbre- 
viated epitaphs, might stand as the representatives 
of each original. This seems very much like de- 
struction of identity, and perhaps of legal value, 
for the sake of pleasing individual taste. At one 
church it was told me by the sexton, that when a 
family had left the neighbourhood, and its memo- 
rial sunk or was in the way, the custom was to 
bury it. 

Parish registers frequently give valuable local 
and historical information, marginal, interlined, 
on the covers, or in the body of the text. Thus a 
storm, pestilence, famine, skirmish, prodigy, dates 
of buildings, plantations and public works, those 
of political and religious events, the appointment 
of public officers, rental and value of land, mate- 
rials and labour, particulars of clergymen's and 
squires' families, are often directly stated ; while 
we can glean the existence of hamlets, trades and 
their introduction, inns, churches, gaols, bridges, 
rivers and locks, pits, the influx of a foreign popu- 
lation or band of refugees, the rise of a person by 
the Mr. attached to his name, the increase of a 
parish, &c., and even the antecedents and bias 
of the incumbent, or his deputy. 

The progress of surnames can here be studied ; 
and the manner in which the clerk would, where 
allowed, distort the spelling to suit the common 
method of pronunciation in the district : as, very 
naturally, Hambleton for Hamilton, where b is in- 
serted between the labial and dental; Huthwit 
and Breffit for Huthwaite and Braithwaite ; 
potticary, apoticary, jeale, Hennery, marcer, 
scoolmaister ; were for singular was, now also 
pronounced wor ; though such as these are not 
conclusive as to pronunciation at a time when bad 
spelling was general. S. F. CRESWELL. 

St. John's Coll., Cambridge. 



Minor 

Unckronicled Pedigrees. After reading the 
article by F. S. A. (2 nd S. v. 201.) on the Preser- 
vation of Monumental Inscriptions, it pccurred to 
me that much might also be done for the future 
topographer and genealogist by devoting a num- 
ber of "N. & Q." occasionally to unchronicled 
pedigrees, properly authenticated by reference to 
parish registers, wills, &c. 

In your title-page you state that " N. & Q." is 
intended to be " a medium of intercommunication 
for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealo- 
gists," &c. ; and I for one became a subscriber 
solely on account of the genealogical information 
that might be gathered from its pages. 

Should this hint meet your approval, it will not 
only fulfil one of the intentions for which " N. & 
Q." was originally designed, but, by the infusion 
of a little new blood, add considerably to its in- 
erest. 



You will greatly oblige a " subscriber from the 
commencement " by giving this a place in an early 
number. GENEALOGICUS. 

The late Dr. Shuttlcworth^ Bishop of Cnickester. 
The son of the late eminent Bishop Shuttle- 
worth gave me a copy of the following verses by 
his episcopal father. They are so beautiful that 
they deserve recording. The son thought he re- 
membered his father saying, at the time, that the 
idea of them occurred in S. Chrysostom, or some 
of the early Fathers. They are as follow : 

" EIGHT AND WRONG. 

" Do right ; though pain and anguish be thy lot, 
Thy heart will cheer thee, when the pain's forgot; 
Do wrong for pleasure's sake, then count thy gains, 
The pleasure soon departs, the sin remains ! "" 

But on turning over the pages of George Her- 
bert the other day, I found (accidentally) the fol- 
lowing couplet : 

" If thou do ill, the joy fades, not the pains : 
If well ; the pain doth fade, the joy remains." 

Geo. Herbert's dtmrch-porck. 

These verses seem to be identical in substance 

with the former : but perhaps you, Sir (or some of 

your learned readers), can inform me as to the 

original ? JOHN PEAT, M.A. 

Weald Parsonage, Seven oaks. 

Epigram on Milton. These famous lines have 
been translated by T. P. in an early number of 
the Gent. Mag. : 

" Tres magnos vario florentes tempore vates 
Graecia cum Latio et terra Britanna tulit. 

Grandis Maeonidem, distinguit lenta Maroiiem 
Majestas, noster laude ab utraque nitet. 

Tendere non ultra valuit Natura; priores 
Tertius ut floret, junxerat ergb duos." 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Macaulays History : Steinkirk. I observe that 
throughout the sixth volume of Lord Macaulay's 
History of England (1858), the name of the town 
in Flanders where Luxembourg gained his great 
victory is printed Steinkirk. Why is this ? If the 
Flemish spelling be adopted, it should be Steen- 
kerk ; if the French, Steenkerque, or Steenquerque. 
Steinkirch would be the German way of spelling ; 
but Steinkirk is half German and half Scotch. 

While quoting from the new edition of Lord 
Macaulay's work, I would gladly offer to the pub- 
lishers my tribute of thanks for the elegant yet 
unpretending style in which it has been got up. 
To me it seems quite the model of a "handy 
book;" portable and compact, yet boldty and 
clearly printed ; with a back margin such as Eng- 
lish books (I know not why) hardly ever display. 
All the essentials of good printing are given, at a 
moderate price, without any affectation of typo- 
graphical showiness. JAYDEE. 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. vi. 135., JULY si. '58. 



" THE TESTAMENT OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS." 

Can any of the readers of " N". & Q." throw 
farther light upon the authenticity of the following 
work than that to which it itself pretends ? 

"The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, the Sons of 
Jacob, Translated out of Greek into Latine, by ROBERT 
GROSTHEAD, sometime Bishop of Lincoln ; and out of 
his Copy into French and Dutch by others, and now Eng- 
lished. To the Credit whereof an Ancient Greek Copy, 
Written in Parchment is kept in the University Library 
of Cambridge. GLASGOW, Printed by Robert Sanders, 
and are to be sold in his shop in the Salt-mercat, a little 
below Gibsons Wynd, 1720," small 12mo., pp. 102. 

The Testament of each Patriarch is headed by a 
rude woodcut giving a full-length portrait of 
him, with some portion of his pursuits, and a short 
delineation of characters in verse, besides the 
prose narration. 

Seemingly to remove all doubt of genuineness, we 
are supplied at the end of the work with addi- 
tional information to that noticed above, as to its 
history, which being rather of a curious antiqua- 
rian nature, and the book not now easily to be 
procured, permission may be granted for quoting 
in extenso : 

" How these Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs were 
first found, and by whose means they were Translated 
out of Greek into Latine. 

" These Testaments were hidden and concealed a long 
time, so as the Teachers and the Ancient Interpreters 
could not find them. Which thing happened through the 
Spightfulness of the Jews, who, by Reason of the most 
evident, manifest, and often Prophesies of Christ that are 
written in them, did hid(e) them a long while. At length 
the Greeks, being very narrow searchers out of Ancient Writ- 
ings, sought these Testaments warily, and got them more 
warily, and Translated them faithfully out of Hebrew into 
Greek. Nevertheless, this writing continued yet still un- 
known, because there was not any man to be found that 
was skilfull both in the Greek and Latine, nor any Inter- 
preter that might procure the Translation of this Noble 
Work, untill the Time of Robert the Second, Surnamed 
Grosthead, Bishop of Lincoln, who sent diligent searchers 
as far as Greece to fetch him a Copy of the said writing 
without respect of Charges, which he bare most liberally. 
Therefore to continue the Memories of these most light- 
some Prophesies to the Strengthning of the Christian 
Faith, that Reverend Bishop did in the Year of our Lord 
1242, Translate them Painfully and Faithfully, Word for 
Word, out of Greek into Latine (in which two Tongues 
he was counted very skilfull) by the Help of Mr. Nicolas 
Greek, Parson of the Church of'Datchot, and Chaplain to 
the Abbot of St. Albons, to the intent, that by that means 
the evident Prophesies, which shine more bright than the 
Day-light, might the more gloriously come abroad to the 
greater confusion of the Jews and of all Hereticks, and 
Enemies of the Church of Christ, to whom be Praise and 
Glory for ever. Amen." 

The work appears to have been early known in 
England, and in a poetical dress, of which there is 
a notice from the pen of Myles Davies (Critical 
History, London, 1716, p. 359.) : 

"Another zealous Protestant Confessor was John Pul- 



laine, a Yorkshire-Man. Born, . . . and a frequent Preacher 
in King Edward the 6 th9 Reign) of the Gospel Reforma- 
tion. He writ a learned Tract against the Arians, and 
translated into English verse The Ecclesiastes of Solomon, 
History of Susanna, History of Judith, History of Hester, 
and the 'Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs, &c. Some 
will have it that he did not dye before the year 1565." 

The little handy volume in question contains 
much entertaining religious reading, and it is said 
to have been once very popular in the west of 
Scotland, but is now fallen altogether into disuse. 
It reaches back to 1720, about which period a 
great variety of literature of a similar class, 
printed generally in a coarse cheap form, ema- 
nated from the Glasgow presses, and the foregoing 
may be taken as an example of the t#ete and style 
of these books. As a feature of those olden times 
when in country towns booksellers were scarce, 
and from bad roads intercommunication difficult, 
it appears that several of the Glasgow merchants 
grafted on their commercial business the publish- 
ing of books, who, as tradition affirms, carried them 
on their pack-Worses, and supplied their customers 
with them, along with their other commodities ; 
and as an instance at hand one may be cited, 
" Spiritual Songs or Holy Poems ; a Garden of 
True Delight, Printed for John Gibson, Merchant 
in Glasgow, 1686." Such were of the higher 
kind of publications issued by the merchants, 
which, while serving the wants of their country- 
men, and making a little profit to themselves by 
an honest industry, were doubtless also intended so 
far to counteract the pernicious effects of those 
denounced some years previous by an eminent 
Scottish divine, who says, "our Schooles and 
Countrey are stained, yea, pestered, with idle 
Bookes, your children are fed on fables, love songs, 
badry ballads, Heathen husks, youth's poyson," 
&c. With the mind so impregnated we are not 
therefore surprised to find an old Presbyterian 
minister complaining of his flock : " Thou sees 
that many people go away from hearing the word, 
but had we told them stories of Robin Hood or 
Davie Lindsay, they had staid ; and yet none of 
these are near so good as the word that I preach." 
Another class, commonly named Chap- Books, 
the origin of the bulk of which is not perhaps 
much more than a century and a quarter ago, were 
(to enumerate only a few of them) such as 

" John Thompson's Man, or a short Survey of the Diffi- 
culties and Disturbances that may attend a married 
Life." 

'The witty and entertaining Exploits of George Bu- 
chanan." 

" The comical Sayings of Paddy from Cork." 

" Fun upon Fun, or the comical and merry Tricks of 
Leper the Tailor." 

" Janet Clinker's Oration to the Glasgow Society of 
Clashing Wives." 

" The comical Transactions of Lothian Tom." 

"History of the Haveral Wives." 

" The comical History of Simple John and his Twelve 
Misfortunes." 



I 



2nd s. VI. 135., JUT,Y 31. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



"The whole Proceedings of Jockey and Maggy's 
Courtship and Marriage." 
"John Cheap the Chapman." 
" The Laird of Cool's Ghost." 
"TheWifeofBeith." 

These were amply diffused through the country 
by the foot-/>ac&man, with his small wares on his 
back, and sold at a trifle, the perusal forming 
in much later times the evening's amusement of 
many young folks in towns, as well as of the farm- 
servants in the rural districts ; the latter having 
usually a large bundle of them in a bole by the 
kitchen fire, from whence they were drawn, for 
one to read while the women plied their spinning- 
wheels. In general, their dialect and composition 
unmistakeably prove them to have been the pro- 
ductions of native, humble writers, and prominent 
among these was Dougal Graham, the Glasgow 
.Bell-man. Although comprising in their pages 
matters and passages very exceptionable to de- 
cency, they must be acknowledged as possessing 
numerous striking characteristics of certain con- 
ditions of society, now valuable in tracing the 
footsteps of a better civilisation. The printing of 
these Tracts is yet continued here and there, though 
considerably upon the wane, happily supplanted 
by sounder and more useful information in the 
cheap newspapers and abounding periodical litera- 
ture of the day. G. N. 

[Our correspondent -will find some remarks on the au- 
thenticity of The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs in 
Life of Bishop Grosseteste, pp. 67-69 : Pegge says, 
" I'.ishop Grosseteste translated The Testaments of the 
Twelve Patriarchs out of Greek into Latin, being told of 
the book by John de Basing, upon whose information the 
Bishop sent to Athens for it. Matthew Paris intimates, 
that this work had been suppressed or secreted by the 
Jews, on account of the open and manifest prophecies 
contained in it relating to our Saviour. He fancied that 
the Testaments had formerly been parcel of the original 
Hebrew Scriptures, and were concealed whilst they con- 
tinued in an untranslated state; for it must have been 
out of the power of the Jews, after a Greek version was 
once made, to have kept them private to themselves. 
But this was never the case ; for, according to the opinion 
of Fabricius, they were not so much as written in that 
language, though Dr. Grabe thinks they were. 

"Matthew Paris pretends the Testaments were un- 
known to the Christians in the time of St. Jerome: 'Nor 
in the time of St. Jerome, or of any other holy interpreter, 
could it in any way whatever come to the knowledge of 
the Christians, on account of the scheming malice of the 
Jews.' (Hist. Major, p. 597.) But this is a mistake; for 
this gross piece of forgery is older than Origen, and was 
probably composed in the second century, or the close of 
the first. (Grabii, Spicilegium, i. 131.) Cave thinks at the 
end of the second; Dodwell places it in the first; and 
others believe it was composed by some Jew before our 
Saviour's death. (Pvapin, p. 356.) But this is not at all 
probable. 

" Some have thought the Greek text of this book was a 
translation made by John Chrysostora from an JI ; l.n-.w 
original ; but the grounds of this opinion are not suffi- 
cient to support it. (Tanner, Bibliotheca, p. 348.) 

" Bishop Grosseteste was firmly persuaded of the au- 
thenticity of this book : he not only translated it into 



Latin from the Greek originals ; but, in a letter of his to 
King Henry III. he alleges the words of the 'T<-xt<tmi'.nts, 
and argues from them, as the undoubted word of God."] 



Pensions granted ly Louis XIV. to Literary 
Men. In the year 1663, Louis Quatorze granted 
pensions to several literary men. A copy of the 
list, or any information respecting it, will be very 
acceptable to J. M. H. 

The Mowbray Family. I am much indebted 
to MELETES for his information. I have two more 
Queries : 

1. Who was Geoffrey de Wirce, whose vast 
estates fell into the hands of Nigel de Albini, the 
founder of the English family of Mowbray (Dug- 
dale, .Bar. vol. i. p. 122.) ? In a recently-drawn-up 
pedigree I lately inspected, he is described as 
being the same person as Geoffrey Bishop of Cou- 
tance, and the authority given is Domesday-Book. 

2. Wm. de Mowbray, who died in 1222, had 
two sons Nigel and Roger. Nigel, according to 
Dugdale (Bar. vol. i. p. 125.), lived several years 
after his father's death. Mr. Courthope, in his 
Historic Peerage, does not recognise him as a 
Baron by Tenure, and Glover, Somerset Herald, 
in his Collections, states that he died during his 
father's lifetime : which is correct ? Perhaps a 
reference to Dugdale's authorities, which he 
gives, but which I have no means of consulting, 
might explain this disagreement. T. NORTH. 

Leicester. 

Classical Cockneyism. On looking over Ca- 
tullus this morning, I came upon the following 
satire on the abuse of "poor letter II.," which is 
worthy of Punch at the present day : 

" CAommoda dicebat, si quando commoda vellet 
Dicere, et insidias Arrius Ainsidias. 
Et turn mirifice sperabat se esse loeutum, 
Quum, quantum poterat, dixerat /tinsidias. 
Credo sic mater, sic liber avunculus ejus, 
Sic maternus avus dixerit atque avia. 
Hoc misso in Syriam, requierant omnibus aures, 
Audibant eadem haec leniter et levitor. 
Nee sibi postilla metuebant talia verba, 
Quum subito adfertur nuntius horribilis : 
lonios fluctus, postquam illuc Arrius isset 
Jam non lonios, esse sed //ionios." 

Carmen Ixxxiv. ad Arrium. 

This " exasperation of the H " seems to be a 
sort of original sin in enunciation, as we find it 
ridiculed and joked at nearly two thousand years 
ago. Are any other instances to be found in the 
classics ? WILLIAM FRASER, B.C.L. 

Alton Vicarage, Staffordshire. 

Some Effects of Inebriety. About the close of 
the last century there were published in the 
Morning Chronicle some most facetious and hu- 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. vi. 135., JULY 31. '58. 



morous jeux cTesprit entitled " Epigrammata 
Bacchanalia." These effusions of genius were 
occasioned by the Right Hon. Wm. Pitt, when 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, and the Right Hon. 
Henry Dundas, when Secretary at War, making 
their appearance in the House of Commons one 
evening when each 

" Plenoc(ue Bacchi pectore turbidum 

Lrotatur." Hor. Od. ii. 19. 

The writer in the Chronicle quoting Horace 

" Accessit fervor capiti numerusque lucernis " 

Satyr, lib. ii. 1. 
makes Mr. Pitt exclaim, 

" I can't discern the Speaker, Hal, can you ? " 
To which Mr. Dundas replies, 

"Not see the Speaker! d me I see two." 

Besides this double vision there is another 
consequence of too deep vinous potations spoken 
of, which is, that candles " dance the hays," or 
perhaps "haze," to the eyes of the intoxicated 
person ; which is a term I do not comprehend, and 
could wish to have explained. E. 

My Lady Moon. In The Christmas Holidays, 
by Miss Cave, Shrewsbury, 1789, a game is men- 
tioned which I do not know, and which, as far as 
I can learn, is not known in Salop now : 

" To merry hearts our active hands beat time, 
In Hunt the Slipper, and My Lady Moon." 

What is the latter ? R. M. G. 

Nicolas de Champ. Gr. N. says (" N. & Q." 2 nd 
S. v. 389.) the only child, a daughter, of Nicolas 
de Champ became Mrs. Hall. Will G. 1ST. kindly 
give the names of her daughters (if she had any), 
and who they married ? I am interested in the 
name Hall. " NON So. 

Poetical Squib. In Political and Friendly 
Poems, London, 1758, is one entitled "To Mr. J. 
H. going a-fishing " : 
" A splash, a bubble, and your pulse beats high, 

As swift beneath the surface sinks your fly ; 

1 A three-pound trout,' you cry. How blank your look ! 

A mangey barbel dangles on your hook. 

So P for T baited, and brought on 

A fit of gout at sight of D . 

So' the Cadmean, of delusions full, 

Fished for a deity and caught a bull." 

Can any of your correspondents help me to the 
meaning of the last four lines ? A. W. 

' Madrigals. The popularity of madrigals, I am 
glad to observe, is not on the decrease ; indeed, 
the recent performance of so many of them by 
the Bradford Society at Buckingham Palace by 
her Majesty's command is proof that they are 
favourites with royalty, whose patronage must 
increase their reputation. Observing in the se- 
lection some of my old friend Mr. Pearsall's, I 



am induced to inquire through the " K & Q." if 
any of his relations or friends can inform me of 
bis age when he died abroad, and what family he 
[eft behind him. These particulars are omitted 
"n the biographical sketch of him which appeared 
in the Gentleman's Magazine. Feeling an interest 
also in the history of madrigals, their name and 
origin, could any of your readers direct my at- 
tention to the best authors who have written upon 
them ? I possess Morley and Play ford among the 
elder writers, and Oliphant and Dr. Rimbault 
among the moderns. I am anxious to add to the 
very valuable information which Mr. Pearsall left 
behind him, of which I possess a copy containing 
materials for a far more extensive and erudite 
history than I have before met with, and which 
I trust will be perpetuated in a volume par- 
ticularly devoted to the subject. J. M. G. 

Rubens. Richard Symonds, in one of his note- 
books upon painters and paintings, makes the fol- 
lowing entry : 

" RUBENS. Sold King Charles his statues he had in. 
King James (s?c) for 10 thousand pound, w ch he had 
bought for 1000?." 

To what does this refer ? CL. HOPPER. 

Serfdom in England. I heard it stated a few 
days ago that serfdom continued in force in the 
mining districts of the North of England till a late 
period in the last century, and that it required an 
Act of Parliament to abolish it. Was this so, or 
not ? If it was, can any of your readers tell me 
the title and date of the Act ? 

HENRY KENSINGTON. 

Clinton's " Fasti Hellenici"In the concluding 
part of Horce Apocalypticce, by the Rev. E. B. 
Elliott, late Vicar of Tuxford, and Fellow of Trin. 
Coll. Cam., a reference is made to an Essay on 
Hebrew Chronology, by the above-named writer, 
which I cannot discover, or even ascertain to 
exist. In his (Elliott's) " Conclusion," he has at 
page 1423. this passage : 

" Clinton, in his Essay on Hebrew Chronology, appended 
to his Fasti Hellenici, has greatly elucidated this sub- 
ject." 

My edition of the " Horae, &c." is 1844. ISTow I 
possess Clinton's " Fasti, &c." (2nd edition, with 
additions, 1851), and no Essay on Hebrew Chro- 
nology is appended to it. Can any of your 
correspondents inform me, first, Is there a later 
edition, to which this essay is added, or, secondly, 
can it be met with separately ? * INQUIRER. 

Haunted House at Harlsden. I have heard 
there is a good house at Harlsden, near Wilsdon, 
on the Harrow road, which is believed to be 
haunted, and to be also unlucky to all tenants, on 
which account it has been for some time unoc- 

[* See " N. & Q." 2* S. vi. 13."] 



2nd S. VI. 135., JULY 31. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



cupied. The popular account of the matter _ is, 
that these unpleasant peculiarities of the mansion 
are owing to the woodwork having been formed 
out of the timber which composed the scaffold on 
which Charles I. was executed. Is there any good 
reason for believing that the said timber was so 
used, and what are the particulars as to the alleged 
haunting and ill-luck ? TOMPION. 

Works printed ly Plantin and the Stephenses. 
Where can I find an accurate list of the works 
printed by Plantin and the Stephenses ? I have 
many copies which I do not find mentioned either 
in Harwood, Dibdin, or Moss. I am forming a 
collection solely for the purpose of showing the 
works of the Elzevirs, Stephenses, Plantin, Morell, 
and the Aldi, but I am incessantly embarrassed by 
the difficulties attending the collation of copies 
printed at a later period after the respective 
offices had passed into other hands. This is 
especially the case with the works illustrating 
antiquities, chronology, &c. As these specimens 
of old typography are now very rarely to be met 
with in any well-arranged series, any information 
bearing on the above points will greatly oblige 

C. W. STAUNTON. 

FotJieringay Castle. This was anciently the 
residence of the great House of York, and the 
birthplace of Richard III. According to the 
Rev. H. K. Bonney, M. A., who published a his- 
tory of the place in 1821, 

" Edmund of Langley, on taking possession, found it 
so much dilapidated as to induce him to rebuild the 
greater part of it. He paid particular attention to the 
keep, the ground-plan of which was in the form of a 
fetterlock. The fetterlock enclosing a falcon was after- 
wards the favourite device of the family." 

Again : 

" Whilst that powerful family was contending for the 
crown, the falcon was represented as endeavouring to 
expand its wings, and force open the lock. When it had 
actually ascended the throne, the falcon was represented 
as free, and the lock open" 

Query. How was the fetterlock represented, 
and where is such representation to be found? 
Also, where is a view of Fotheringay Castle to be 
found ? as I have searched several topographical 
works to no purpose. C. W. STAUNTON. 

Britton on Shahspeare" s Bust. In what work 
can I find the following reference : Britten's 
Remarks on the Monumental Bust of Shakspeare, 
published in 1816. Charles Knight makes refer- 
ence to the work in his Biography of Shakspeare, 
but does not specially mention the title of the 
book in which the remarks are to be found. 

Also can I be referred to an engraving of the 
bust, which has been published of late years, and 
illustrates the monument very clearly. I do not 
refer to that published in Boydell's edition, but 
a much lighter print, almost square, and giving 



the inscription on the tomb, &c. very distinctly. 
I saw the print some few months since at an old 
book-stall, and would gladly find that which I 
then omitted to secure. I should feel greatly 
obliged for a clue to this print, which, as nearly 
as I can recollect, would be about folio size. 

EDWD. Y. LOWNE. 

"An Autumn near the Rhine'' Will any of 
your correspondents acquaint me with the name 
of the author of An Autumn near the Rhine, and 
Sketches of the Courts and Society of some of the 
German States, &c.," published by Longman & 
Co. in 1818. J.E. T. 

The Master of the Game. Can you or any of 
your readers tell me anything about an old vellum 
manuscript I have now before me, called 

" Ye Boke offhuntyng, whych ys clepyde the Maystre 
off Game." 

It commences (after a table of contents) with a 
dedication 

" To the honour and Reverence of yow ray Ryght 
Wyrshypffull and Dredde Lord, Henry (?) by the grace 
of Gode eldest sone and heyr unto the hygh excellent & 
Cristen Pry nee Hery (?) the iiij te . By ye fforsayde the ( ?) 
Kynge of Ingelonde and off Ffraunce, Prynce of Wales, 
Duke of Guyene, of lancastre, off Cornwayll and Erie of 
Chestre." 

E. H. K. 

" Pizarro." I have two versions of Pizarro, 
regarding which I seek information : 

" Pizarro, or the Death of Rolla, from Kotzebue, by 
Richard Heron." Lond. 8vo. n. d. 

This, in the List of Plays in Biographia Dra- 
matica, is, agreeably to the title, assigned to 
Richard, but in the Lives it is given to Robert 
Heron. The latter certainly is known as a dra- 
matist, and until I obtained the play I believed it 
to be his. How is this ? and who was Richard 
Heron ? 

"Pizarro, a Tragedy in Five Acts; differing widely 
from all other Pizarros, by a North Briton." 8vo. Lond. 
n. d. 

Can any correspondent supply the name of the 
North Briton ? J. O. 



"Avon" 



imtl) 
Who was the author of 



" Avon, a Poem in Three Parts, Birmingham, printed 
by John Baskerville, and sold by R. and J. Dodsley in 
Pall Mall. 4to. 1758 " ? 

It is not mentioned by Mr. Halliwell, though 
the allusion to the poet in the first canto would, I 
think, justify its appearing under the above head- 
ing. I would also inquire, whether it might not 
be desirable that the pages of " N. & Q." should 
record the " SHAKSPEARIANA " that have appeared 
since Mr. Halliwell's publication, which ends with 



92 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. [*' s. vi. 135., JULY si. '58. 



the Memoirs of Edward Alleyn, by Mr. Collier in 
1841. I have no doubt that many of your corre- 
spondents are able to furnish the requisite in- 
formation. CHARLES WYLTE. 

[The author of this poem was the Rev. John Huckell, 
who, from the specimens extant of his poetical genius, 
ought to have found a niche in our biographical dic- 
tionaries. He was a native of Stratford-upon-Avon, 
baptized Dec. 29, 1729, and educated at the Free Gram- 
mar-school of this town. After studying at Oxford, he 
took orders, and was presented to the curacy of Hounslow 
in Middlesex. He died deservedly esteemed and re- 
gretted, and was buried at IsleworthT, Sept. 20, 1771. In 1 
the Gent. Mag. for April, 1813, p. 357., is a poem by him, 
entitled, " An Epistle to David Garrick, Esq., on his 
being presented with the Freedom of Stratford-upon- 
Avon ; and on the Jubilee held there to the Memory of 
Shakspeare in Sept. 1769." See also the Gent. Maq. for 
March, 1813, p. 212.] 

JBunkum. 

" A diffuse and angry orator having made a somewhat 
irrational and very unnecessary speech in the House of 
Representatives at Washington, when nobody thought it 
worth while to contradict him, was afterwards asked by 
a friend who met him in Pennsylvania Avenue why he 
had made such a display ? ' I was not speaking to the 
House,' he replied ; ' I was speaking to Buncombe ' a 
county or district by the majority of whose votes he had 
been elected." Illustrated News for June 26, 1858. 

Where is Buncombe ? and is this the origin of 
the phrase " speaking Bunkum" ? 

WILLIAM ERASER, B.C.L. 

Alton, Staffordshire. 

[Bartlett, in his Dictionary of Americanisms, has given 
the origin of the phrase : " A tedious speaker in Congress 
being interrupted and told it was no use to go on, for the 
members were all leaving the house, replied, 'Never 
mind; I'm talking to Buncombe.' Buncombe, in North 
Carolina, was the place he represented." Judge Halli- 
burton of Nova Sco'ia thus explains this expressive 
word : " All over America every place likes to hear of its 
members of Congress, and see their speeches ; and if they 
don't, they send a piece to the paper, inquirin' if their I 
member died a natural death, or was skivered with a ! 
bowie knife, for they hante seen his speeches lately, and 
his friends are anxious to know his fate. Our free and 
enlightened citizens don't approbate silent members ; it 
don't seem to them as if Squashville, or Punkinsville, or 
Lumbertown was rightly represented, unless Squashville, 
or Punkinsville, or Lumbertown, makes itself heard and 
known, ay, and feared too. So every feller in bounden 
duty talks, and talks big too, and the smaller the State, 
the louder, bigger, and fiercer its members talk. Well, 
when a critter talks for talk sake, jist to have a speech 
in the paper to send home, and not for any other airthly 
puppus but electioneering, our folks call it Bunkum. Now 
the State of Maine is a great place for Bunkum its 
members for years threatened to run foul of England, 
with all steam on, and sink her about the boundary line ; 
voted a million of dollars, payable in pine logs and spruce 
boards, up to Bangor mills ; and called out a hundred 
thousand militia (only they never come) to captur a saw 
mill to New Brunswick. That's Bunkum all that 
flourish about Right o' Search was 'Bunkum all that 
brag about hangin' your Canada sheriff was Bunkum 
all the speeches about the Caroline, and Creole, and 
Right of Sarch, was Bunkum. In short, almost all that's 
said in Congress, in the Colonies (for we set the fashions 



to them, as Paris gals do to our milliners), and all over 
America, is Bunkum. Slavery speeches are all Bunkum; 
so are Reform speeches too."] 

Whim-wham. I had often heard this strange 
word amon^ those expressions boys will use 
among themselves in play ; but I find it in such 
grave company unexpectedly that I am induced 
to query its meaning. Among the memoranda 
preserved in the Collectanea Curiosa, i. 385., 
connected with the trial of the seven bishops, I 
find directions for their lordships' communicating 
secretly with the archbishop, by delivering their 
missives to a private friend, to be given into his 
grace's own hands. Among the rest the Bishop 
of Ely is desired to send his " to. Madam Womock 
at Elie, in a woman's hand, with a whim-wham /" 
(this last word being followed by a kind of dash 
of crossed lines), probably means a flourish or ex- 
travaganza of the pen ; but the origin of the name 
is worth asking after. A. B. R. 

Belmont. 

[In the passage quoted from the Collectanea Curiosa 
this word seems to mean a whimsical ornament, or flourish 
of the pen. Hence we find in Nares's Glossary, " WHIM- 
WHAMS. Trinkets, trifles, ivhimsical ornaments. A mere 
reduplication of whim."] 

Satyra qua inscribitur Lis. In the Epistolia, 
Dialogi Breves, Oratiunculce, Poematia, ex variis 
utriusque Lingua Scriptoribus of Henricus Ste- 
phanus (Secundus) 1577, I find the following : 
" Inter poematia autem est Satyra elegantissima, 
quae inscribitur Lis, non prius edita." This 
satire is the last poem in the book ; it consists of 
147 lines, and is placed immediately after the 
Moretum ascribed to Virgil. Can any of your 
classical correspondents give me any information 
respecting this poem ? C. W. STAUNTON. 

[This satire is by Michael de 1'Hospital, or Hopital, 
Chancellor of France, and is reprinted in his fEuvrcs 
Completes, Paris, 8vo. 1825, vol. iii. p. 113., where it is 
entitled " Ad Jacobum Fabmin, Pra3sid. Inquis. in senatu 
Parisiensi. Litium execratio."] 



CRANMER'S LOST BOOK, " DE NON DUCENDA 

FRATRIA." 

(2 nd S. vi. 33.) 

On referring to Jenkyns's Preface to The Re- 
mains of Thomas Cranmer, Oxford, 1833, I find, 
to the passage quoted in answer to my Query, the 
following note appended : 

" Its loss may perhaps have been occasioned by the in- 
corporation of its arguments into a Summary of the 
reasons for the divorce, which was published shortly 
afterwards by the King's printer, Berthelet, with the 
judgments of the Universities prefixed. The contents of 
this Summary are described by Burnet, Reformat., vol. i. 
p. 195. See also Strvpe, Memorials, vol. i. p. 141. ; Ames, 
Typogr. Antiq., ed. Dibdin, art. 1133." 






2"* s. vi. 135., JULY si. '58.] ' NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



On this note and the references I have some 
observations to make. 

1. The article in Ames, 1133, is the title-page 
of the very book, an inspection of which occa- 
sioned my query, and I had already consulted it. 
The title is as follows : 

" Gravissimae, atque exactissimre illustrissimarum 
totins Italia? et Galliaj Academiarum censune, e/ficacis- 
nimis etiam quorundam doctissimorum uirorum arflitmen- 
tuttonilnis explicates, de ueritate illius propositions, 
Videlicet quod ducere relictam fratris raortui sine liberis 
ita sit de iure diuino et natural! probibitum : ut nullus 
Pontifex super huiusmodi matrimoniis coutractis sine 
contrahendis dispensare possit." 

The words in Italics seem to indicate something 
following and commenting on the censures, and 
this is confirmed by the verso of the title, which 
begins thus : 

" Elenchus sacrorum conciliorum, et doctorura eccle- 
siasticorum, quorum autoritate sequentes Academiarum 
censurae pariter et libellus ipse potissimum innituntur." 

Accordingly, on the verso of b 3, we have 
"Prsefatio ad Lectorem," and on A. begins the 
libellus ipse, " Postquam deus opt. max., etc." The 
book goes on to Q 4, consisting thus of seventy- 
two leaves altogether, and concludes : 

" Impress. Londini in officina Thomse Berthlreti regii im- 
press, mense April. An. Drii M.D.XXX." 

Of this book there is a copy in the British Mu- 
seum, though from the words " efficacissimis . . . 
explicate " being omitted without indication in the 
catalogue [ACADEMIA], and in Lowndes [DIVORCE], 
I infer that their edition has the Censurce alone, and 
not the treatise which is described in these words. 
The CensurcB were printed in English in Novem- 
ber next year (Maitland's List of Early Books at 
Lambeth, p. 193.), whether with or without the 
treatise I cannot say ; though I suspect without 
it, as there is nothing in the English title corre- 
sponding to the words noted above. In 1532, the 
Censura were reprinted in Latin with the treatise, 
so far as I can find. Now I think if Mr. Jenkyns 
had seen the book, he would not have described it 
as a Summary of the reasons for divorce, the parti- 
lar case being nowhere stated in it, nor alluded to. 
Such a Summary may be seen in Burnet, " Records 
to Book II.," No. 36., consisting of twelve articles ; 
eight of which apply to the particular case as dis- 
tinguished from the general question. Mr. Jen- 
kyns having apparently conceived the idea that 
the book printed with the Censures was such a 
summary as this, extended and argued, naturally 
inferred that it was something more and something 
different from Cranmer's book, though Cranmer's 
arguments might be compressed in it, and applied ; 
that it contained a statement of facts, &c. But it 
does not ; it is simply such a treatise as Cranmer's 
is described to have been, an abstract legal dis- 
cussion of the question stated in the title, and 
nothing more. 



2. It is difficult to determine whether Burnet 
saw the book in question. The Censures which 
he gives ("Records to Book II." No. 34.) are 
taken from the edition of 1532, so that he may 
not have seen that of 1530. But that he perused 
the treatise is evident, for he gives a long abstract 
of its arguments, mixing them up with those of 
other documents printed and MS. in his hands 
(vol. i. Part i. p. 177. ed. 1816, Oxford). At all 
events the question whether the book he was 
using was Cranmer's or not is not alluded to by 
him, so that it would seem the possibility of its 
being Cranraer's never occurred to him. And 
why should it not have occurred to him, if he had 
had the edition of 1530 under his eye ? However, 
he had a great deal of work to do without 
watering down all the literary dust that rose about 
him in the course of it. 

3. Strype (Memor. vol. i. p. 141. eel. 1711), 
after giving the title verbatim as above, and a list 
of the Universities, thus proceeds : 

" Next after these censures of the Universities fol- 
lowed in this book the judgments of divers learned men: 
for abundance of learned men had now employed their 
pens in this argument, to the number of above an hun- 
dred, whereof Dr. Cranmer was one." 

From this sentence, which implies a total mis- 
conception of the nature of the book, I infer that 
Strype had not closely inspected it, but had been 
led astray by the modesty of the title. The book 
is by no means a series of opinions or testimonies 
of learned men, as his words would lead the reader 
to suppose ; but a doctrinal and legal treatise on 
the question, in the course of which, as in any 
other treatise, such opinions are adduced as the 
argument requires. In truth, it is much less of a 
catena than a similar work of Pusey's or Keble's 
at the present day would be. 

4. The conjecture of Mr. Jenkyns cited above, 
which accounts for the loss of Cranmer's book by 
supposing its main arguments incorporated in this 
extant treatise, is a very ingenious and happy 
conjecture, if it be first established that Cranmer's 
book is lost; but what reason is there for sup- 
posing that Cranmer's book was ever published or 
even circulated in any other shape, that Cran- 
raer's book was different from this, larger or smaller 
than this ? On the contrary, if it be considered 
that this is the royal book on the question printed 
by the king's printer, at an early stage of the 
business, and about the time when we know Cran- 
mer had finished his work ; that there is no men- 
tion made of any other person being employed or 
authorised by the king to write such a work ; that 
the purport of this work and that of Cranmer as 
described to us are identical ; that it is extremely 
improbable that Cranmer's was not printed, and 
another printed instead of it of which we have 
heard nothing ; or that being printed, it has not 
been carefully preserved somewhere ; I think a 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. VI. 135., JULY 31. '58. 



strong presumption may justly arise that the book 
to which the Censures, were prefixed in 1530, is 
simply and entirely Cranmer's book as it was 
printed, and read by his contemporaries. Observe 
also that the book seenis to have lain in type from 
the date of the colophon to the latter part of the 
year 1530, when it was issued in its present shape, 
at least I know no other way of accounting for 
the fact that the Censura are of various dates 
subsequent to April in that year.* There seem 
also to have been good reasons why Cranmer's 
book should have been published so quietly and 
modestly, and without his name. The king's case 
was Better recommended to the Universities who 
were being solicited for opinions, by an impersonal 
statement, free from the defiance and invidious- 
ness of an avowed attack upon the dispensing 
power of the Pope ; and, therefore, more likely to 
carry weight and be read with fairness, like a 
state paper, As for Cranmer, he did not write for 
his own sake ; it was a law paper drawn for his 
client, the king, and which the latter was at li- 
berty to publish and to circulate in the shape and 
way he thought best adapted to further his pur- 
poses. On the whole, there appear to me strong 
grounds for the conjecture that Cranmer's book 
is not lost, except so much of it as may have been 
modified or withdrawn in publication, and of every 
printed book so much has been lost. It may be 
interesting to state, that the copy in the Advocates' 
Library, which has occasioned these remarks, for- 
merly belonged to Henry Sinclair, Bishop of Ross, 
1560 ; and before him to the community of Preach- 
ing Friars at St. Andrew's, as appears from the 
following inscription under the imprint : ' 

" Codex coitatis frm predicator(um) Ciuitatis sci and' 
ex Idust' et dono Re d vp. f. Jo. gresoun niucialis." 

W. H. C. 
Advocates' Library, Edinburgh. 



THE SEVEN CHAMPIONS AND SHAKSPEAEE. 
(2 nd S. VI. 46.) 

Without in any way claiming a priority in the 
discovery of the truly interesting parallel passages 
adduced by MR. KEIGHTLEY, perhaps I may be 
allowed to observe, without placing any great 
importance upon it, that the evident acquaintance 
of Shakspeare with the popular history of the 
Seven Champions was pointed out by me in print 
upwards of a year ago ; and I have since seen with 
great pleasure that ME. COLLIEE, in his recently 
published edition of the works of the great poet, 
has extensively used the same romance in illustra- 
tion of his author's text. The subject is one of great 



* Does not the fact that a separate edition of the Cen- 
sures was published in 1530 give some countenance to the 
conjecture that the treatise may have been privately 
printed by itself also ? 



interest, and I have long been convinced that we 
are only at the commencement of discoveries of 
the kind made by ME. KEIGHTLEY, who could do 
great service by continuing his researches in the 
same direction. To say nothing of the obvious 
circumstance that no one -person can exhaust a 
single book, (for a parallel that will strike one 
reader may escape another,) the extent of Elizabe- 
than literature is so vast, it is certain many gene- 
rations must elapse before the subject can be at 
all nearly" exhausted. All the Elizabethan popu- 
lar English romances are full of singular illustra- 
tions of Shakspeare that are at present scarcely 
known; and I hope this suggestion may reach the 
attention of some of your readers who may have 
leisure to enter upon one of the pleasantest courses 
of reading that can be imagined. There are 
dozens of volumes that deserve the strictest ex- 
amination for this purpose. Even so common a 
book as Florio's Montaigne, 1603, the work from 
which Shakspeare transcribed so literally a passage 
from the Tempest, has never been thoroughly 
read by Shakspearian critics, who are not numer- 
ous enough to have exhausted a hundredth part 
of the treasures in their grasp. The romances of 
Amadis de Gaule, Morte Arthure, and numerous 
others translated before the close of the sixteenth 
century, should be most carefully read. The 
American critics could here be of great service. 
We are so spoilt by the accessibility to choice 
rarities, we are apt to overlook important sources, 
merely because they are common. 

Will ME. COLLIEE, whose bibliographical know- 
ledge of such matters is so profound, favour us 
with some information as to the earliest dates of the 
various parts of the Seven Champions. The second 
part was, I know, published in 1597, and again in 
1 608, but was the third part, that referred to by Ms. 
KEIGHTLEY, ever printed in Shakspeare's time, or 
was it not possibly a later addition ? This question 
is of course of the greatest importance in respect to 
the value of the parallel passages quoted by ME. 
KEIGHTLEY, who will, Thope, follow up the sub- 
ject by a close examination of the entire romance, 
viewed in connexion with Shakspeare, an author 
of far more importance in every way than Spen- 
ser, not to mention that the chief works of the 
latter were published before the appearance of the 
Seven Champions of Christendom. 

J. O. HALLIWELL. 



CEASHAW AND SHELLEY. 

(2 nd S. v. 449. 516.; vi. 54.) 

I am glad to learn from the letter of your cor- 
respondent A. A. W. (2 nd S. v. 516.) in reply to 
some observations of mine upon certain resem- 
blances which appear to me to exist between the 
poetry of Crashaw and of Shelley, that the opinions 



2nd S . VI. 135., JULY 31. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



I ventured to express in the paper alluded to (2 nd 
S. v. 449.) are in accordance with those of the 
Rev. George Gilfillan. Until I read your cor- 
respondent's letter, I was not aware that Mr. 
Gilfillan had ever written a line upon the subject. 
Had I known that I had so powerful an ally, it is 
almost superfluous for me to say that I would 
have framed my views with more confidence, 
and that I would have been only too glad to 
strengthen my argument by the authority of one 
whose opinions on any literary question are en- 
titled to so much respect. As my opinion was 
formed quite independently, and in complete 
ignorance of Mr. Giltillan's ; as I find a similar 
opinion entertained by others whose literary dis- 
tinction Mr. Gilfillan has himself recognised, I 
think there must be more in it than your cor- 
respondent can at present persuade himself to 
believe. As the passages given in my letter were 
taken almost at random, it is satisfactory that a 
resemblance has been established in one instance 
at least, according to the unwilling testimony of 
A. A. W. himself. 

I do not mean to follow up this question any 
farther. My wish, as expressed in my letter, 
was to awaken a stronger interest in the works 
of the elder poet than I fear exists, by showing 
that he was not deficient in some of the charac- 
teristics which have rendered the poetry of the 
younger so attractive. It was by no means my 
intention to detract from the merits of the latter ; 
for I believe that after he freed himself from the 
imitation of Thalaba-metres, and from the puerili- 
ties and crudities of thought and style recorded 
in Mr. Hogg's two bulky volumes, no more original 
poet than Shelley is to be found in English liter- 
ature. 

On the other matters referred to by A. A. W., 
I may be permitted to add a word. The correc- 
tion of the text suggested by me your corre- 
spondent seems to think was superfluous, as the 
error appears to him to be an " obvious misprint." 
He forgets that the volume contains two versions 
of " The Weeper " in which the error alluded to 
(if tile an ^ error), is found, and that the same 
" obvious misprint " occurs in both, a circum- 
stance which I think can have no precedent in 
any book printed and edited with similar ele- 
gance and care. He forgets also that the " ob- 
vious misprint " was deliberately adopted as the 
true reading by one at least of the previous edi- 
tors of Crashaw, Chalmers ; from which piece of 
information supplied by himself I am now dis- 
posed to believe that the "obvious misprint" is 
no misprint at all, but that it is the reading of 
Chalmers adopted in preference by MR. TURN- 
BULL as the correct reading, which perhaps it 
may be. 

Your correspondent refers to various editions 
of Crashaw, which I regret I have no oppor- 



tunity of examining. Living by the sea-side 
away from libraries, I had no access to them 
when I wrote, nor have I now. My remarks were 
based solely upon the very full information sup- 
plied by MR. TURNBULL in his edition, an edi- 
tion which I felt, and still feel, to be entirely 
satisfactory. 

Your correspondent, in reference to a remark 
in my letter that Shakspeare himself was called 
by one of his contemporaries " a daw decked out 
in our feathers," states that this is " new to him." 
I thought that every one tolerably acquainted 
with the literature of Shakspeare's time, was 
familiar with the remarkable passage in the ad- 
monitory Address appended to Robert Greene's 
Groafs Worth of Wit Bought with a Million of 
Repentance, which was printed shortly after 
Greene's death in September, 1592. It was from 
this tract that the line given in my letter was 
quoted by me from memory. The Irish Sea and 
a good deal of English soil lying between me and 
the British Museum, I cannot refer A. A. "W. to 
the original edition of Greene's Groafs Worth of 
Wit. I can only quote from books in my own 
possession, namely, works so easily accessible as 
Chambers s Cyclopcedia of English Literature, and 
BeWs Annotated Edition of the English Poets. 
Here is the passage as given in the first. After 
alluding to Marlowe, Lodge, and Peele, Greene 
thus continues : 

" For there is an upstart crow beautified with our 
feathers, that with his tiger's heart wrapt in a player's 
hide, supposes he is as well able to bombast out a blank 
verse as the best of you ; and being an absolute Johannes 
Fac-totum, is, in his own conceit, the only S/iake-scene in 
a country." 

" The punning allusion to Shakspeare," says the writer 
in Chambers, " is palpable : the expression ' tiger's heart,' 
&c. are a parody on the line in Henry VI., part third, 

" ' tiger's heart wrapt in a woman's hide.' 

" Cyclop, of Lit. i. p. 169." 

Mr. Bell, in his edition of the Poems of Greene 
and Marlowe (London, 1856), prints the entire of 
this curious piece of advice, which Greene ad- 
dressed to " the Satanic School " of his day in 
the following words : 

" To those Gentlemen, his quondam acquaintance, that 
Spend their Wits in making Plays, K. G. wisheth a 
better exercise, and wisdom to prevent his extremities." 

The atheism of Marlowe is rebuked with more 
compunction indeed, but in a high-handed tone 
that reminds one of the furious onslaught of 
Southey just alluded to. Mr. Bell makes the 
following remarks on the passage referring to 
Shakspeare, to which I would respectfully draw 
the attention of your correspondent A. A. W. : 

" Dibdin, in his Reminiscences, observes that there is 
not the slightest mention of Shakspeare by any contem- 
poraneous writer. He had overlooked this address, which 
not only contains a very remarkable reference to Shak- 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. |>is. VLISS., JuLY3i.'58. 



speare, but the earliest intimation we have of Shakspeare's 
occupation at the theatre. It is from the passage about 
' the upstart crow beautified with our feathers,' and ' the 
only Shake-scene in a country,' that we obtain the first 
hint of Shakspeare's dramatic apprenticeship as an adapter 
to the stage of the writings of others." Annotated Edi- 
tion of the English Poets, " Poems of Greene and Marlowe," 

In conclusion, I have to thank another cor- 
respondent, A. B., for his reference to Leigh 
Hunt's Indicator for May, 1820. 

D. F. M'CARTHY. 

Dalkey, Dublin Bay. 

P.S. With respect to Shelley's visits to Dublin 
in 1812 and 1813, I shall have some remarks to 
make on a future occasion relative to a projected 
" History of Ireland " to which he alludes in a 
letter dated " 17. Grafton St. Dublin, 20 March, 
1812," addressed to Captain Medwin. Of this 
History, on which he says he was engaged " with 
a literary friend," 250 pages were then printed ! 
The fate of this curious project has baffled the 
researches of some of Shelley s biographers. Mr. 
Hogg, the latest of these, has not noticed it at all. 

Since this Note was forwarded to " N. & Q.," 
MB. TURNBULI/S courteous and good-humoured 
explanation has appeared (2 nd S. vi. 54.), which 
proves that on this subject my second thought 
has not been my best. The error alluded to is 
merely typographical, as in my first communica- 
tion I had supposed it to have been. 



LORD LYON KING-OF-ARMS. 

(2 nd S. v. 496.) 

The following list of Lyon Heralds with addi- 
tional information respecting them may not be 
unacceptable to A. S. A., and some of the readers 
of " N. & Q." : 

1. Sir William Cumyn was second son of Wil- 
liam Cumyn of Culter and Inveralochy, an old 
cadet of the Earl of Buchan, and received from 
his father in 1483 the lands of Inveralochy, Aber- 
deenshire, on the narrative that William had taken 
his part in a family quarrel against his other sons 
Alexander (his heir) and James. He seems to 
have been a bustling personage, acted as macer 
from 1479 to 1494 * ; was a pursuivant in 1483, 
and in 1494 was appointed Marchmont Herald. 
As such he was knighted in 1507, and is designed 
October 25, 1518, " Lioune King-of-Armes." 

2. Henry Thomson was Lyon either before or 
after Sir William Cumyn. In a notice early in 
the sixteenth century, mention is made of Chris- 

* This office was of more importance in ancient times 
than of late, when, according to Pleydell (v. Guy Man- 
nering) " one of the requisites to be a macer or officer 
in attendance upon our Supreme Court is that they shall 
be men of no knowledge.** 



tina Douglas, relict " Henrici Thomsone, Leonis 
Heraldi Regis Armorum." 

3. Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount. 

4. Sir Robert Forman of Luchrie. John For- 
man was, February 18, 1594, served heir in gene- 
ral of his father, " doniini Roberti Forman de 
Luchrie, Militis, Leonis Regis Armorum." 

5. Sir William Stewart. 

6. Sir David Lyndsay of Rathillet. 

7. Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount. 

8. Sir Jerome Lyndsay of Annatland. 

9. Sir James Balfour of Kynnaird, Knt., was 
constituted for life Lyon King-of-arms by com- 
mission dated at Whitehall, May 8, 1630, with a 
pension of one hundred marks sterling. He died 
13th, and was buried 19th February, 1657, in 
Abdie church, where there is a monument to his 
memory, stating his age to have been fifty-three. 

10. Sir James Campbell of Lawers, Knt., was 
appointed by Oliver Cromwell, who, having in the 
later years of his protectorship surrounded him- 
self with a House of Lords and high officers of 
state, did not neglect heraldic accompaniments. 
He therefore nominated Sir James " Lord Lyone 
King-at-Armes" for life, by patent dated at 
Westminster, May 13, 1658, a few months before 
his death. In this he says, " we have actual! ie 
crowned and invested, and by these presents in- 
vest and crown him therein," a strange act for 
the head of a Republic ! Of course Sir James 
lost the office on the Restoration, but he had a 
pardon from Charles II., December 6, 1661. He 
was son of Sir Mungo Campbell of Lawers (second 
son of Sir James Campbell of Lawers, and brother 
of John Campbell, first Earl of Loudoun, husband 
of Margaret, heiress of Loudoun), who succeeded 
to the estate of Lawers on the resignation, in 
1624, of his father with consent of his elder 
brother. He was knighted in his father's lifetime, 
and died in 1702 or 1703.* 

11. Colonel Alexander Durham was appointed 
Lyon King-of-Arms in succession to Sir James 
Balfour of Denmylne (to whom he was related) 
by patent dated August 28, 1660. He was sub- 
sequently knighted, and having purchased in 1662 
for 85,000 marks the estate of Largo from John 
Gibson of Durie, had a charter thereof, January 
1, 1663. 

12. Charles Erskine or Areskine, afterwards a 
baronet, and of Cambo, was installed and crowned 
by the Earl of Rothes, his Majesty's High Com- 
missioner at Holyrood House, September 25, 1663. 

13. Sir Alexander Erskine, second Bart, of 
Cambo, was conjoined with his father in the office 



* Of Sir Mungo and his descendants no notice is taken 
by Wood in his Peerage of Scotland. The estate of 
Lawers was acquired about '1723, in consequence of the 
embarrassed state of their succession, by Colonel, after- 
wards Lieut.-General Sir James Campbell, K.B., father 
of the fifth Earl of Loudoun. 






* S. VI. 135., JULY 31. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



of Lyon by patent dated April 1, 1671. In like 
manner he and his son Charles had a conjunct 
grant of the same, Jan. 29, 1702. He was not de- 
prived of the office, but held it till his death, which 
took place in February, 1727 (not 1735, as stated 
by A. S. A., probably on the authority of the 
Peerage writers). In the notice of his death he 
is called Lyon King-at-Arms. The reversionary 
grant in favour of his son does not appear to have 
taken effect. 

14. Alexander Brodie of Brodie. In his com- 
mission as Lyon Herald King-of-Arms, July 6, 
1727, his appointment is said to be on the death 
of Sir Charles Areskine, the father, and Sir Alex- 
ander Areskine, the son, who last held the office. 

15. John Campbell, younger (afterwards Hook 
Campbell), and Alexander Campbell, Esquires, 
sons of John Campbell of Calder, had a joint com- 
mission of the office of Lyon Herald King-of- 
Arms, April 3, 1754. The former officiated at 
the coronation of George III., September 22, 1761. 

16. Robert, ninth Earl of Kinnoull, and his son, 
Thomas, Viscount Dupplin, were appointed, May 
26, 1796, with the benefit of survivorship. The 
salary was raised from 300Z. to 600Z. by Privy Seal 
Warrant, July 25 following. 

17. Thomas, tenth Earl of Kinnoull, the present 
holder of the office. His lordship officiated at the 
procession of George IV. in Edinburgh, August 
22, 1822, from Holy rood House to the Castle, but 
acted by deputy at the coronations of that so- 
vereign, of William IV., and of Queen Victoria. 

During the tenure of office of the last two 
noble Lyons, as well as of a great number of their 
predecessors, the appointment has been little more 
than a sinecure, conferred for political reasons, 
and exercised by deputes holding office during 
pleasure ; and the loss of respect and confidence 
caused by the mercenary and ignorant doings of 
the officials in recent times has been so great that 
no remedy can be successful unaccompanied by 
a sweeping change of the system. It is to be 
hoped, therefore, if the subsistence of such an in- 
stitution be deemed expedient, that on the first 
voidance of the office of Lord Lyon, it shall not 
be filled up till a thorough investigation be or- 
dered by authority.* Why should this ancient 
office continue a sinecure, and not be filled by an 
able and zealous antiquary, discharging, like Sir 
James Balfour and his predecessors, the duties 
personally, as in the case of the Kings-of- Arms of 
England and Ireland ? A depute would then be 
unnecessary, except for matters of form and special 
emergencies, and the subsidiary existing appoint- 
ments are quite sufficient in number to constitute 
an efficient college of arms. After a commission 
composed of competent individuals shall have re- 
ported as to the proper measures to be taken to ob- 

* As was lately done in the case of the principal keeper 
of the Register of Sasines, on the death of Mr. Pringle. 



tain this, there will be no difficulty in framing an 
act of parliament to carry these into effect, should 
that be necessary. Much edifying information 
respecting "the duties, salaries, fees, and emolu- 
ments " of the " Office and Court of the Lord 
Lyon" will be found in the Tenth Report of the 
Commissioners on the Courts of Justice in Scot- 
land, dated May 20, 1822. R. R. 



t0 

Heraldic Query (2 nd S. vi. 49.) Armorial en- 
signs are transmitted by hereditary descent, and 
all who inherit the blood of the original grantee 
are entitled to this honorary distinction. For this 
reason, I think, a plebeian alliance of the nature of 
that described would not so degrade the family of 
A, as to invalidate the right. The honour simply 
remains in abeyance, B.'s family not being able to 
quarter the arms because that family had no arms 
of its own with which to do so ; but in the family 
of C; the impediment is removed. 

For the same reason L. M. is not entitled to 
quarter the arms of his grandmother's brother's 
wife, there being no consanguinity between them ; 
but I have no doubt that upon a petition to the 
crown, through the Heralds' College, the right 
would be granted upon payment of the usual fees. 
The inquirer had better apply to G. Harrison, 
Esq., Windsor Herald. JOHN MACLEAN. 

Hammersmith. 

Coincidences among the Poets (2 nd S. vi. 45.) 
DB. DOBAN'S article on the above subject brought 
to my mind a very remarkable "coincidence;" 
but, in the strict sense of the term, hardly one 
" among the poets," although few would deny that 
the " story of Le Fevre " is the creation of a poet 
in posse, if not in esse. 

The readers of Tristram Shandy and Lalla 
Rookh will not fail to recognise the following : 

" He shall not die by G ! cried my Uncle Toby. 

The accusing spirit which flew up to Heaven's chancery 
with the oath, blushed as he gave it in, and the record* - 
ing angel, as he wrote it down, dropped a tear upon tins 
word, and blotted it out for ever." 

" . . . . there written all 
Black as the damning drops that fall 
From the denouncing Angel's pen, 
Ere Mercy weeps them out again." 

DB. DOBAN, too, in his playful allusion to the 
" bean blossoms " and " dreams of bacon," has, 
unwittingly perhaps, added another instance of 
"coincidence among the poets:" see Southey's 
" Apology for the Pig :" 

And there ! the breeze 

Pleads with me, and has won thee to the smile 
That speaks conviction. O'er yon blossom'd field 
Of beans it came, and thoughts of bacon rise." 

J. J. SOMEBS. 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. vi. 135., JULY si. '58. 



Caste (2 nd S. v. 455.) I think that in the In- 
stitutes of Menu, . the castes are denominated 
Dchadi : but having just now no means of refer- 
ence, must leave the decision to those better ac- 
quainted with the subject. 

The word caste is evidently derived from the Por- 
tuguese. Casta is both Spanish and Portuguese ; 
and, in all probability (as suggested by MR. WAR- 
WICK), is from the Arabic, kaza, a tribe. 

The elements of those languages are Latin, 
Gothic, Arabic, and some Celtic. Now, no such 
word as casta occurs either in Latin or (I believe) 
in its immediate offspring the Italian, which has 
not (like its two sister languages of the Peninsula) 
been subjected for so long a period to Moorish 
influence. Nor does it occur in any other Indo- 
European language to which I have access; at 
least in the sense indicated by our caste. There 
is a casta in the Gaelic, and a cast in the Welsh, 
but both have very different meanings. 

In languages of the Germanic family the near- 
est approach in point of sound, at least, is found 
in hasten (Germ.), cest or cyst (Anglo-Sax.), kista 
(Icel.), kista (Swed.), kiste (Dan.), chest (Eng.), 
all having a sense of containing, comprehending 
which is also the sense of tribe or caste. Again, 
there is the Latin cista, and Greek kista , the Latin 
castrum and castellum, and in Persian hastr, which 
may be taken in a similar sense. However, it is 
not without considerable hesitation that I venture 
on such observation. 

If MR. WARWICK will refer to Webster, and 
Todd's Johnson, he will find the word spelt cast, 
and perhaps it may be given in a similar form by 
Richardson. A. C. M. 

Judges' Gowns, Sfc. (2 nd S. vi. 48.) In addition 
to the inquiries made by X. X., I would beg for 
information respecting the kinds of hat, or chapeau- 
bras, worn or rather borne by judicial officers. 
I believe that in India, and some of the colonies, 
the judges, though robed like English judges, do 
not wear wigs. What kind of hat do they wear ? 

The silk gown, alluded to by X. X., I have 
always understood to be appropriated to legal ap- 
pointments under the crown. Hence it is worn by 
the judges of the Superior Courts (on certain oc- 
casions), and by Queen's Counsel. On this ground 
I conceive it to be the correct costume for a 
County Court judge. I believe that recorders 
were not entitled to wear a silk gown, until by 
the Municipal Reform Act the appointment was 
vested in the crown. MELETES. 

Academical Dresses (2 nd S. v. 477.) I believe 
that it will be found, upon investigation, that the 
different dresses of the different degrees at the 
Universities are a good deal the result of our an- 
cient sumptuary laws. The different materials of 
stuff, silk, fur of different kinds, scarlet cloth, 
velvet, &c., being each appropriated by statute to 



different ranks of society to which the different 
degrees corresponded. Now the nature of the 
materials are not much attended to r and Bachelors 
of Arts wear both silk hoods and gowns, to which 
they are not entitled, their rank only giving them 
the privilege of wearing fur of a cheap sort. The 
Sophista Generalis wore a hood without fur. The 
Master of Arts wore silk ; the Doctor scarlet 
cloth and ermine if he chose ; the Bishop sable. 
I should be glad to see this fact illustrated by a 
correspondent well versed in the old sumptuary 
laws. With respect to the form of the gowns, the 
two great divisions are what are supposed to be 
the lay and the clerical ; the type of the one being 
the Oxford S. C. L. gown, of which the under- 
graduate's is a corruption ; the other being the 
scholar's gown, of which the B. A. and M.A. 
appear to be developments. It used to be said 
that the Oxford Proctors' gown was the original 
M.A. gown, and that the present one was compa- 
ratively modern. The Proctor at Oxford wears 
an ermine hood also in right of his office. 

WILLIAM FRASER, B.C.L 
Alton Vicarage, Staffordshire. 

General Pinson Bonham (2 nd S. vi. 48.) 
According to Hardwicke's Annual Biography, 
General Pinson Bonham died at Great Warley, 
Essex, April 19, 1855, aged* ninety-two. 'AAievs. 

Dublin. 

Miss Elizabeth Bonham (daughter of the late 
Gen. Pinson Bonham) begs to inform the EDITOR 
of " N. & Q." that her father departed this life, at 
his seat, Great Warley Place, Brentwood, Essex, 
on April 19, 1855, in the ninety-third year of his 
age. If H. J. H. wishes to know any farther 
particulars, he can write to Miss E. Bonham, at 
37. Upper Brunswick Place, Brighton. 

Stains on Engravings (2 nd S. v. 483.) The 
second edition of a very excellent manual has just 
been published : 

"Essai sur 1'Art de restaurer les Estampes et les Livres, 
on Traite sur les meilleurs Proce'de's pour blanchir, de- 
tacher, decolorier, reparer et conserver les Estampes, Livres 
et Dessins. Par A. Bonnardot. Seconde Edition, refondue 
et augmented, suivie d'un Expose' des divers Systemes de 
Reproduction des Anciennes Estampes et des Livres Rares. 
Paris, chez Castel. 1858." 

This extremely useful little volume can be had 
of Mr. Nutt, 270. Strand. M. L. 

Friday Dreams (2 nd S.v. 594.) The following 
is amongst the folk lore attached to Friday 
dreams : 

" Friday's dreams, and Saturday told, 
Is sure to come true if it's ever so old." 

H.J. 

The Jesuit Osorius (2 lld S. v. 477.) SIGMA will find 
an account of this unfortunate martyr in Tanner's 
Societas Jesu usque ad Sanguinis et Vitas Profusio- 






2-' S. VI. 135., JULY 81. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



nem Militans, Prague, 1675, folio, p. 504., with an 
engraving of his martyrdom. G. O. 

Tradesmen's Tokens (2 nd S. vi. 13.) -Add the 
undermentioned work to the list : 

" The Virtuoso's Companion and Coin Collector's Guide. 
London: published for the Proprietor by M. Denton, 
Hospital Gate, West Smithfield, 1795." 

240 plates, four coins with reverses on each 
plate. The above appears to be the date of the 
first volume. I believe published in eight volumes. 

SAM. SHAW. 

" Vox et prceterea nihil" (1 st S. i. 247. 421.) 
The following extract from the Commentary of 
Cornelius a Lapide on Isaiah xl. 3. will throw 
some light upon this saying, which it seems to 
me is generally wrongly used in a depreciatory 
sense : 

" Octavo, quia quidquid in Joanne erat, vox erat ; to- 
tus penitentiam et sanctitatem pnedicabat. Oculi, manus, 
vestis, cibus, quidquid denique in eo erat claraabat ' Feni- 
tentiam agite, pafate viam Domini ; appropinquat regnum 
coslorum ? ' ^Sic vulgo dicimus ' Philomela est tota vox,' 
quia non aliud facit quam canere. Unde a Syris voca- 
tur Sphar colo, id est, avis vocis, hoc est avis vocalis, ip- 
saque quasi vox. Talis vox sit concionator et erit ' mal- 
leus conterens petras. ' " 

Here the saying respecting the nightingale is 
applied in a good sense, as affording an example 
to an earnest and faithful preacher. 

WILLIAM FRASER, B.C.L. 

Alton Vicarage, Staffordshire. 

Wax-work at Westminster Abbey (2 nd S. vi. 11. 
32.) Under date of 1761, Horace Walpole com- 
plains, that " the chapter of Westminster sell their 
church over and over again : the ancient monu- 
ments tumble upon one's head through their ne- 
glect, as one of them did, and killed a man, at 
Lady Elizabeth Percy's funeral ; and they erect 
new waxen dolls of Queen Elizabeth, &c., to draw 
visits and money from the mob." 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 

Do the following remarks, which occur in an 
article on " The Tomb of Queen Eleanor, &c., in 
Westminster Abbey " (Builder, Dec. 9, 1854), re- 
fer to the above ? if so, they may be perhaps 
worth noting : 

" On the top of Henry's (V.) Chapel were formerly 
deposited the ragged regiment, as it was called by those 
who exhibited the curiosities of the Abbey. The regi- 
ment consisted of wooden effigies (clothed in the costume 
of the time) of several kings, queens, and other important 
persons, who have been buried here. These effigies were 
in former times borne in the funeral processions of the 
great, and served to remind the spectators of the living 
appearance of those about to be committed to the dust. 
We are told that this regiment, which is particularly 
curious as examples of costume, is still preserved in some 
dark and secluded corner. There is now in this place 
several models of churches; one of which is the model 
constructed by Sir Christopher Wren, in the reign of 



Queen Anne, of his proposed alteration of the Abbey 
Church by erecting an elevated spire in the central tower. 
We believe that the other models are those of St. Mary's 
and St. Clement's in the Strand, St. Paul's, Covent Gar- 
den, and St. John's, Westminster. Here are also, it is 
said, some models by Roubiliac, together with some other 
matters of interest." 

Every one will agree with the writer of the 
article, when he says : 

" We see no reason why these should be shut up from 
the public ; or if the exhibition of them would detain the 
vergers too long, why not send them to the Architectural 
Museum? " 

My memory hardly serves me as to whether 
the architectural models above referred to are 
amongst those by Wren now at the Kensington 
Museum ? R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Dr. Johnson and the Odes of Horace (2 nd S. vi. 
67.) I do not know whether the whole transla- 
tion, to which MR. LOMAX alludes, has been pub- 
lished ; but the verse quoted by him was given to 
the world long ago. It will be found engraved in 
facsimile in the 8th edition of Boswell (4 vols., 
1816), as a specimen of Johnson's handwriting 
when at school in his sixteenth year. It seems to 
be part of one of his school exercises and other 
occasional compositions, of which Boswell says he 
had obtained a considerable collection, and some 
of which he has inserted in his book. Two of 
these are translations from Horace, Book i. Ode 
22., Book ii. Ode 9. See Boswell, vol. i. pp. 27 
34., 8th edit. 

If the entire translation has really never been 
published, perhaps MR. LOMAX will send you a 
copy. DAVID GAM. 

Lord Tyrone and Lady Beresforcls Ghost 
Stories : Ghosfs mode of reckoning Time (2 nd S. 
vi. 73.) 

" Said she (Lady Beresford) 'I am forty- eight to day.' 
' Xo, my Lady,' answered the clergyman, ' you are mis- 
taken ; your mother and myself had many disputes con- 
cerning your age, and I have at length discovered I am 
right: happening to go last week to the parish you were 
born in, I was resolved to put an end to my doubt by 
searching the register, and find you are FORTY-SEVEN to- 
day.' " 

Lord Tyrone's ghost (p. 74.) : 

" You will bring him two daughters, and afterwards a 
son, in child-bed of whom you will die in the FORTY- 
SEVENTH year of your age." 

If Lady Beresford was forty-seven that day, 
she was in her forty-eighth year according to 
human reckoning. 

I observe, according to J. SPEED D., the ghost 
prophesies she will die in child-bed of a SON. 
According to the narrative, she had at her death 
lain in a month of a DAUGHTER. J. H. L. 

Teresa and Martha Blount (2 nd S. vi. 49.) 
There is an engraving in 4to. of Martha Blount, 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [a- s. vi. 135., JULY si. '58. 



by Plcart, taken from M. Blount's at Maple- 
Durham; and also one, the same size, of Miss 
Teresa Blount, by Evans, taken from M. Blount's 
picture at Maple-Durham. BELLAISA. 

Clerical Peers (2 nd S. v. 494.) To the list add 
Barons Saye and Sele, treasurer of Hereford, and 
De Saumarez ; and Fairfax and De Freyne. 
Among bishops occur the names of Earl Corn- 
wallis (Lichfield), and Lord Crewe (Oxford and 
Durham) ; but there is no mention of a duke or 
a marquess among either prelates or canons and 
deans of the Church of England. 

MACKENZIE WALCOTT, M.A. 

Fulfilment of a Prophecy through Fear (2 nd S. v. 
390.) The account of the death of the Scotch 
King Natholocus, taken as Hollinshed gives it, is 
so good an example of the fulfilment of a predic- 
tion through a " sudden revulsion of feeling " that 
it deserves noting in connexion with the commu- 
nication given by CUTHBERT BEDE as above. Na- 
tholocus having sent " one of his trustie servants 
unto a woman that dwelt in the ile of Comlekill, 
esteemed verie skilfull in forshewing of things to 
come, to learn of her what fortune should hap of 
the war " in which he was engaging against his re- 
bellious people, 

"The witch, consulting with her spirits, declared in 
the end, how it should come shortlie to pass, that the 
king should be murthered, not by his open enemies, but 
by the hands of one of his most familiar friends in whom 
he had reposed an especiall trust. The messenger de- 
manding by whose hands that should be? 'Even by 
thine,' saith she, ' as it shall be well knowen within these 
few daies.' The gentleman hearing these words railed 
against her verie bitterlie, bidding her go like an old 
witch ; for he trusted to see her burnt before he should 
commit so villanous a deed. And departing from her, he 
went by and by to signifie what answer he had received ; 
but before he came where the king layj his mind was al- 
tered ; so that what for doubt on the one side, that if he 
should declare the truth as it was told him, the king 
might happilie conceive some great suspicion that it 
should follow by his ineanes as she had declared, and 
thereupon put him to death first; and for feare, on the 
other side that if he keepe it secret, it might happen to be 
revealed by some other, and then he to run in as much 
danger of life as before; he determined with himself to 
worke the surest way ; and so comming to the king, he was 
led aside by him into his privie chamber, where all other 
being commanded to avoid, he declared how he had sped, 
and then falling forthwith upon Natholocus, with his dag- 
ger he slue him outright." 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Black Paper and Bronze Rubber for Brasses 
(2 nd S. vi. 70.) The black paper and metallic 
rubber can be obtained from the inventor, Mr. 
Henry S. Richardson, bookseller, of Church Street, 
Greenwich. J. J. H. 

Gates of fhe Great Exhibition (2 nd S. vi. 70.) 
If A. B. means the malachite gates, they were pur- 
chased by Sir Henry Stracey, Bart., sometime M.P. 
for East Norfolk ; and are now at the entrance to 
his park at Rackheath, Norfolk. H. D'AVENEY. 



La Faqon de Birabi (2 nd S. v. 513.) May not 
this refer to the old French game of " Biribi," 
which has merged into " Roulette " ? The former, 
however, was originally from Italy, where it is 
called "Biribisso." An account of the game is 
found in L'Encyc. Method.; Diet, de Mathem.; 
Alberti, Bescherelle, and Landais. 

R. S. CHARNOCK. 

Mrs. Windeymore (2 nd S. vi. 65.) In a volume 
of the Annual Register, subsequent to the one 
quoted by MR. WAYLEN, namely, the volume for 
the year 1772, the termination of the earthly ca- 
reer of the grand-daughter of Dr. Hyde, Bishop 
of Salisbury, Mrs. Windimore, is related in the 
following manner : 

" January 6. In Emanuel-hospital, near Tothill-fields, 
aged 108, Mrs. Windeymore ; she was second cousin to 
Queen Anne, and had been upwards of fifty years in that 
hospital." 

BUCHANAN WASHBOURN, M.D. 



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ta 

Among other interesting articles which wil? appear in our next number, 
we may announce a paper by Mr. Ste.inme.tz on Amber in the Bible, &c.; 
Part Three of The Anderson Papers; communications by Dr. Kingsley 
and Dr. Rimbault on Thomas Carew and Thomas Carey; and the first 
of a valuable series of Inscriptions on Memorial Stones of the Scottish 
Covenanters. 

We hope next week to give among our Notes on Books some notes on 
the last Quarterly Review, Hingeston's translation of Opgrave's Book 
of the Illustrious Henries, and the. curious volume lately published by 
Pickering, The Booke of the Pylgrymage of Man. 

MINISTERIAL WHITEBAIT DINNER. The date and origin of this meet- 
ing will be, found explained in a veri/ intf resting paper in our 1st Series, 
vol. xii. p. 168.,/or wfn'cfi we were indebted to the kindness of tfie late 
Right Hon. John Wilson Croker. 

JACOB. The rule laid down by the late Bishop of Tendon an to the pro- 
per Collects, #c., to be used when a Saint's Day falls on a Sunday, will 
be found in" N. & Q.," 1st S. vi. 200. 

W.'s Query as to the existence of any institution near London where a 
girl twelve years old could, be. fitted to become a doin<'.<t/<- m-mint is not 
suited to our columns. We ourselves should, however, lie glad to knoio of 
such an institution. 

MARRIAGE OF COUSINS. TEE BEE will find this subject dismissed in our 
1st Series, viii. 307. 525.; x. 102. 

PERNIO'S Query should be addressed to one of the medical, journals. 

SPECTATOR. We have pointed out in-our last volume, p. 72., how the 
writers in the Spectator may be identified. 

MUGHRIB. On the authorship of Robinson Crusoe, see " N. & Q." 1st 
S. x. 345. 448. 

ERRATCM. 2nd S. vi. p. 76. col. ii. I. 10., for" Morningride" read 
" Morningside." 

"NOTES AND QDERJKS" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
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all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THB EDITOR should be addressed. 



2 nd S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 7. 1858. 



AMBER IN THE BIBLE AND THE PHILOLOGY OF 
ELECTRUM, AMBER, AMBERGRIS, ETC. 

SIR G. C. LEWIS says (2 nd S. vi. 3.), "there is 
no mention of amber in the Old Testament." * The 
word occurs thrice in Ezekiel, i. 4. and 27., and 
viii. 2. The phrase is similar in the three in- 
stances " as the colour of AMBER." The subject 
is not devoid of interest, and I have bestowed some 
little trouble in turning it over. 

Consulting the Polyglot we find a variety of 
renderings. The Septuagint has &s opavis ^AeKrpou. 
The German is wie Licht helle. The French, 
comme un metal qui sort dufeu. The Italian, come 
l<i scmbianza di Jin rame (copper or brass). The 
Spanish, como apariencia de electro. The Vulgate, 
species electri. The Catholic or Douay Bible has 
"the resemblance of amber,'' and, viii. 2., "the 
appearance of amber." Walton's interlinear trans- 
lation, flanimae crepitantis ocidus, thus literally 
rendering \\])_ oculus, instead of " colour " or " ap- 
pearance." Lastly, the "Jewish School and Family 
Bible" renders the passage "as the colour of gold 
ore" whilst the Arabic Version gives the Persian 
kah-ruba, quidam aspectus succini, i. e. amber, 
vulgo, " Carabe." 

Commenting on this passage in Ezekiel, Dr. 
Adam Clarke observed : " The word tfteKrpov which 
we translate amber was used to signify a com- 
pound metal, very bright, made of gold and 
brass : " still it is impossible positively to state 
what the Prophet meant by the word so variously 
rendered. It is well known that the first chapter 
of Ezekiel as containing much mystery and 
obscurity was withheld from the perusal of the 
ancient Hebrews until they attained their thir- 
tieth year. (St. Jerom. Epist. ad Pauling 

The original is "PDCTI Chaschmal, which is said 
to be the opetxaA/cos and orichalcum of the Greeks 
and Romans a compound of gold and silver 
perhaps of any metal with gold, if not simply our 
brass, an alloy of copper and zinc ; but certainly 
the electrum of the ancients, whatever were the in- 
gredients of the compound metal : hence the use 
of the word by the Septuagint and in the Vul- 
gate. (Cf. Winer, Lex. in h. v.) 

On the other hand, Buxtorf says, that Chasch- 
mai means pruna (a live coal), " summe ignita, 
adeoque ardeutissima, quasi ?JJ 8J>H festinanter 
excidens et consumens;" and he translates the 
passage " velut color prunae ignitissimas : " and fur- 
ther to complicate the matter, the Talmud (B. 



[* It is obvious from Sir G. Lewis's Note (p. 76.) re- 
ferring to the mention of amber in Ezekiel, that his 
remark applies, not to the word, but to the substance. 
ED. "N. &Q."] 



Chagiga 13. b.) refers the word to one of the ten 
orders of angels (Chajoth), deriving it from 



Chaschah, " to be silent," and /vft, malal, " to 
speak " angels, in fact, who sometimes are silent 
(when Jehovah speaks), and sometimes shout 
forth the praises of His works. Another interpre- 
tation is given by Maimonides (in More Nebochim, 
Pt. 3. c. 5.) as implying the sense of festinare et 
excidere. Fiirst quotes the Talmudic interpreta- 
tion, and renders it very finely by Glanzwesen, a 
lustre-being, whilst he gives the earlier meanings 
as Glanzmetall, Glanzerz, Golderz, which last is 
adopted, as we have seen, by the Jewish Family 
Bible. 

Bochart (Opera, iii. lib. vi. c. 16.) has most ela- 
borately examined this passage in Ezekiel. He ob- 
serves, very pertinently, that the preceding word, 
py3, colour, is never applied but to inanimate ob- 
jects, and quotes numerous instances : he therefore 
concludes that if Chaschmal was the name of an 
angel, the Prophet would not have said " of the 
colour of Chaschmal," but " in the likeness simi- 
litude" He thinks that the word does not mean 
so much electrum, a metal compounded of gold and 
silver, as one consisting of gold and brass ; and 
infers that Ezekiel borrowed the word from the 
Chaldaeans, amongst whom he was a captive whilst 
writing his prophecies. He maintains that it 
meant the compound metal orichalcum. 

He says that amongst the ancients r/AcKrpoz/ had 
three meanings : 1. Succinum (our amber) ; 2. A 
metal composed of gold and silver ; 3. A transpa- 
rent stone called maha by the Arabians. He con- 
cludes that Chaschmal could be neither amber nor 
the maha, since the latter does not shine in the 
fire, and the former burns dull, and is converted 
into pitch and rosin. It seems to follow, therefore, 
that, after all, SIR G. C. LEWIS is right in saying 
that " there is no mention of amber in the Old 
Testament" although it occurs in our version. 

The word electrum occurs in several forms in 
Greek, and it is impossible to decide whether the 
substance so called received its name from that of 
the Sun, HXeKrcap, or the star HAe/crpa, one of the Pleia- 
des, or that the effulgence of the metal originated 
the names of the luminaries. Throughout all the 
proper names, evidently involving the original word, 
the idea of brightness, that which is brilliant or 
eminently beautiful, prevails ; and it should seem 
that, whatever its origin, fafKrup, as applied to the 
Sun, was borrowed and given as a name to the 
metal whose radiance seemed to vie with the solar 
beam. The fanciful etymology by which Butt- 
mann derived ^Aeicrpoj/ from t'\Ko> is simply absurd ; 
since, by the very proposition, eAKo>, " to draw," is 
supposed to refer to the electrical property of 
amber -a property which was only discovered in 
the sixth century B.C. by Thales consequently 
long after umber, by its golden or brass-like 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



colour, bad obtained the name faatrpoi', as applied 
to the metal long before called by that name ! 
The same writer maintains that amber was the 
original substance so called, but his only reason is 
easily disposed of, as I trust to show in the sequel. 
The passages in Homer and Hesiod mentioning 
tf\tKTpov leave the question undecided as to whe- 
ther they mean the metal or the fossil resin ; 
whilst the very nature of the description would 
seem to enforce the belief that these poets describe 
the precious metal compounded of gold and silver, 
or, at least, of gold and brass ; for never did am- 
ber shine so gorgeously as either of those alloys in 
their well-burnished brightness. 

As to the etymology of the word, we can trace 
it with some probability to the Sanscrit rak-ta, 
"red, coloured red;" rak-ta itself being derived 
from raj, " to shine," " to be coloured ; " raj being 
kindred with raj, " to shine," "to be resplendent," 
and the radical element of TJ Ae/c r . . ., that is, 
the second syllable, may be connected with raj. 
(See Pott, Etym. Forschung. \. 237.) Again, the 
terminations- fwp, Lat. lor, trum, tru, are the same 
agent-affixes as the Sanscrit tri (= tar or tar) ; 
Greek rpo(y), Lat. tnt(m) ; and it is evident that 
the same have been perpetuated in the German, 
the English, and other cognate idioms ; for in- 
stance, Ge lach ter, laugh ter, and innumer- 
able other words with that termination or agent- 
nffix. (See Bopp, Vergieich. Gram. 1147.) The 
tvord may therefore mean that which is " resplen- 
dent," "shining," "bright," if this be the correct 
etymology. The change of the Sanscrit r to I in 
Greek and Latin is an established fact; and a 
few other instances will suffice. Sansc. gru, Gr. 
KAU-(CO), Sansc. siirya, Gr. J/A(O-($), Sansc. sr'i, Lat. 
sal-i(re), Sansc. lirn'a, Lat. lana. The Russian 
for amber is Jantar (Yantar), seeming to uphold 
this derivation : for the Sclavonic is Gantar (Lith. 
Gintaras) the root gan being apparently the 
Sclavonic ogn, ogen, aghni, " fire " (Latin ignis), 
and decidedly the Sanscrit agni, " fire the god 
of fire one of the most ancient and most sacred 
objects of Hindu worship;" and agni, in San- 
scrit, also means " gold ! " I know not whether 
my conjecture be right, but it seems to me to 
bear, out the argument, as an analogous formation 
with HAe/cTp of the Greek thus agni-tar, ogn- 
tar, gan-tar, jan-tar. 

There seems to be no word in Sanscrit which 
can be taken for a certainty to mean " amber " or 
" electrum," the words so rendered by Mr. M. 
Williams being compound words, which are ren- 
dered by Professor Wilson as " a gem, apparently 
amber," OP " a sort of gem apparently amber." 

In the Allgem. Encyclopcedie of Ersch and Gru- 
ber (in voce "Bernstein"), it is suggested that the 
word f/Ae/crpoj/ was borrowed from the Phrenicians 
because, according to the writer, the word 
Eleck means in Arabic resin, which the heat of 



the sun causes to exude from trees ; and we are 
reminded of the Heliades who were changed into 
poplars, and whose tears were transformed into 
grains of amber. It is to this fable so " ancient" 

that Buttmann appeals for his fancy that amber 
was the original faeKrpov. In the first place, who 
can define the adequate antiquity of this incident 
of the fable ? And, secondly, why should not the 
grains, or tear-drops, have been originally merely 
compared to the brightness of the metal ^Xewrpoj', 
and only by Hyginus and Ovid materialised into 
the substance so naturally in accordance with the 
whole poetic conception ? 

" Inde fluunt lachrymae : stillataque sole rigescunt 
De ramis electra novis : quse lucidus amnis 
Excipit et nuribus mittit gestanda Latinis." 

There are, however, serious objections to the 
etymology suggested by Ersch and Gruber, ap- 
parently countenanced by this poetic conception. 
The word elech I have been unable to find in any 
Arabic Lexicon although I find in Meninski's 
Lexicon what he articulates as celcek, with a variety 
of meanings, as usual ; amongst the rest, not " re- 
sin" or "gum," but merely "quod adhaeret, uti 
manui sic tenacius lutum," which may be trans- 
lated into London-mud. It seems to be merely a 
fanciful articulation of the Persian lac, lak, and 
the Sanscrit laksha words which have become 
common with us in the name of the well-known 
gum-lac or shellac the same being the product 
of the insect Coccus lacca ; and it is said to be 
so named from Laksha (Sanscrit), the number 
100,000, with reference to the number of insects 
in a nest. If faeKTpov be Semitic in its root, per- 
haps we may refer it to the Arabic elk, or alk, " to 
shine," " to be resplendent," or " shining," " re- 
splendent : " for the meaning is thus variously 
given ; but I may express a doubt as to this ety- 
mology of the Greek word, in spite of the apposite 
signification. On the other hand, it is worthy of 
notice that lak, laksha, lakh, are Hindustani words 
derived from the Sanscrit, signifying gum-lac : 
the gum formed by the Coccus lacca and sealing- 
wax ; whilst lakha is " lac, a red die." (Shakesp. 
Diet.) Of course those who incline to this ety- 
mology may refer to e'A-e^as which is certainly 
the Sanscrit ibha, " elephant," with the Semitic 
article al, el. I may observe that all the wares 
enumerated in 1 Kings, x. 22., are names of San- 
scrit origin. "For the king had at sea a navy 
of Tharshish with the navy of Hiram : once in 
three years came the navy of Tharshish, bringing 
gold, and silver, ivory and apes and peacocks" 
Thus, apes, in the Hebrew koph, Sansc. kapi t 
Greek K^OS and /o)/3os ; peacocks, tukim, Sansc. 
qikhi, Greek racas but this is denied by Gesenius 

although the Malabar name is togci, evidently 
derived like the Greek. The Hebrew schenhab- 
him, " ivory," is the Sanscrit ibha, meaning " ele- 
phant" the original of the Latin cbur. But 






2 nd S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



schen-habhim is "tooth of elephants" the He- 
brew )>, schen, "tooth," being prefixed to the 
Sansc. ibha : in the Targuin it is phil. The 
same ibha became in Gaelic and Erse boir like 
ebur of the Latins. It is curious that the Latins 
should have adopted the Greek formation for the 
name of the animal, and have fashioned the ori- 
ginal ibha into ebur, the whole for the part : 
but Juvenal has reversed the figure, using ebur 
for elephant (S. xii. 112.) The Celtic retains the 
Indo-European formation, namely, olifant or ele- 
fant. The word Ophir is the 'Sown-dpa of Ptolemy 
in Sanscrit su-para, " beautiful coast." 

The name for amber in Persian, adopted by the 
Arabians, is Kah-rubd ; evidently so named after 
the discovery of its electric attraction, as developed 
by friction : for hah means " grass or straw," that 
is, any light matter ; and rubd means " robbing," 
" carrying off by violence," and, therefore, " at- 
tractive." So that kah-rubd means straw-attract- 
ing ; just as the Persian for magnet, dhan-rubd, 
means iron- attracting. 

The word amber is the Arabic dmbar, meaning 
ambergris a different substance. The two sub- 
stances seem to have been confounded by the 
early travellers and writers, although it is impos- 
sible to account for the error. When Purchas 
speaks of amber he evidently means ambergris, 
which the Persians supposed to be the intestinal 
product of the Sea Cow {Gau anberi or ambcri}. 
We now know that ambergris is discharged by 
the spermaceti-whale when wounded, or is found 
in its intestines when the whale is found dead in 
the ocean, or is captured in a sickly condition. 
Now the word dmbar means " a fish," " crocus," 
and "Jimus" which last word accurately desig- 
nates the substance which we enjoy as a perfume; 
and the three meanings, fish, crocus (yellow), and 
fimus, most curiously and exactly designate the 
source,, the colour, and the nature of ambergris. 
In like manner, Du Cange defines ambar, Kowpos 
i-X&vos, stercus piscis ; but he quotes an authority 
as follows, " dicitur ab ambrosia," the absurdest 
of derivations. The whale of Jonah is, in Ethio- 
pian, anbara. 

Amber was called electrum from its colour and 
brilliancy ; Succinum from succus, as it were a 
juice of the earth. It was called Sacal by the 
Egyptians ; Glessnm by the Latins from glades ; 
and Leucelectrum from XCVKOV, " white," and ^Ae/c- 
rpovi also by the Greeks, irrepvyio^pov, "wing- 
bearing," from its attractive property. (Golius, 
Lex. Arab., in voce.} 

^ The Germans have preserved the original mean- 
ing of dmbar; their word for ambergris beino- 
ambra, whilst their word for "amber" is Bern- 
stein, evidently the Bengalee barna, meaning 
"amber." Amongst other Bengalee names of 
amber is haridra, which is very close to the Celtic 



Elydr, decidedly meaning the mixed metal V/AV-C- 
rpov. 

Ambergris is, etymologically, merely Amur a 
j chrysea, that is, golden ; corrupted by the French 
| into ambre gris, hence our ambergris ; the word 
| having been early corrupted into the Low Latin 
ambar griseum (Zedler, Univers. Lex., in voce 
Ambra). I may mention that "amber" has ac- 
tually been derived from the German anbrennen, 
" to burn," by an etymologist who forgot to won- 
der why, in that case, the Germans themselves 
should call the substance "Bernstein," and not 
"amber"! 

The notion that amber is a gum is now ex- 
ploded. No number of trees could by mere exu- 
dation have produced the immense quantity of 
the substance found in almost every region of the 
globe. It is, in its formation, analogous to pitch 
the result of a high subterraneous temperature 
acting on the destroyed forest-conifers of some an- 
terior world-epoch. That it has been in a lluid state 
like tar before it becomes pitch is proved by 
the fact that insects have been found in a perfect 
state of preservation within it, evidently entrap- 
ped in it whilst in the state of fluidity ; and the 
species of insects (amongst others, the scorpion,) 
so found, prove it to have been the product of a 
hot climate. It may be called a bitumen of the 
naphtha or petroleum kind, hardened into its pre- 
sent state by coming in contact with vitriolic salts 
or sulphuric acid. (Cf. Berzelius, Chim. vi. 589. 
and Brewster, Edin. Phil. Journ. iv. 332.) Enor- 
mous pieces have been found ; but the largest was, 
I suppose, that so quaintly described in Beilen- 
den's Translation of Hector Boethius, vol. ii. : 

" Twa year afore arrivit ane gret lump of this goum in 
Buchquhane, als meikle as ane hors; and was brocht 
hame be the herdis (quhilhis were kepend thair beistis) 
to thair housis, and cassen in the fyre ; and becaus they 
faud ane smell and odour thairwith, thay schew to thavr 
maister that it was ganane [good] for the sens [scent] 
that is made in the kirkis. Thar maister was ane rude 
man, and tuk bot ane litill part thairof. The maist part 
was destroyit afore it come to ony wyse mannis eris, and 
sa the proverb was verifyit ' The 'sow curis no balmc,' 
[ = ' throwing pearls to swine.'] " 

ANDREW STEINMETZ. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MEMORIAL STONES OF THE 
SCOTTISH COVENANTERS. 

What are usually called among the people the 
gravestones or tombstones of a number of the mar* 
tyred Scottish Covenanters, are to be found in 
various places of the country, and are most inter- 
esting historical memorials of that barbarous 
period. The inscriptions on a few of these stones 
within reach I have copied from them for "N. & Q ," 
and if other Scotch correspondents would do the 
same where they exist, a series might be obtained 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



vi. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



well worthy of preservation ; as time, in the shape 
of decay, is fast telling upon the lettering of some 
of them. 

These inscriptions, rough and homespun as 
they generally are, are not to be measured out 
and criticised as literary productions. Most of 
them, in all probability, were composed shortly 
after the Revolution of 1688 by brave men in the 
middle ranks of life, who had themselves endured 
many hardships for the cause, who were more 
anxious about truth than ornament, and who 
with heartfelt sorrow deplored the serious disasters 
' which had befallen their deceased friends. 

It is sometimes fashionable in high quarters to 
deride the Covenanters, but I am strongly of 
opinion there is no really true-hearted, indepen- 
dent Scotchman, however much he may be amused 
with certain caricatures from able pens, that will 
not inwardly give to these writers for this depart- 
ment of their labours the cold shoulder. Unques- 
tionably the Covenanters had their faults, but 
which were counterbalanced by many sterling, 
patriotic, and religious virtues. 

In the High- Church Yard of Glasgow. 

" Here lies the Corps of 

Robert Bunton, John Hart, Robert Scott, 

Matthew Patoun, John Richmond, James Johnston, 

Archibald Stewart, James Winning, John Main 
who suffered at the Cross of Glasgow for their Testimony 

to the Covenants and 
Work of Reformation, because they durst not own the 

authority of the then Tyrants 
destroying the same betwixt 1666 and 1688. 

" Tears sixty-six and eighty-four 
Did send their souls home into glore 
Whose bodies here interred ly 
Then sacrific'd to tyranny 
To Covenauts and Reformation 
Cause they adhered in their station 
These nine with others in this yard 
Whose heads and bodies were not spar'd 
Their testimonies foes to bury 
Caus'd beat the drums then in great fury 
They'll know at resurrection day 
To murder saints was no sweet play." 

This stone, which I think has been renewed in 
the lettering, formerly covered the grave of the 
sufferers ; but many years since was built into the 
wall of the north transept of the cathedral, where 
it now appears, and is quite adjacent to the spot 
of interment. The latter is what was called in 
old times the "common ground" of the church- 
yard, in which were buried the city hangmen, 
executed malefactors, and those so poor for whom 
no resting-place could elsewhere be provided. 
The heads of the martyrs were placed upon iron 
spikes on the Old Tolbooth at the Cross, to which 
allusion is made in the epitaph; and the other 
parts only of their mangled remains, under the 
denomination "corps," found a grave. ^These 
spikes were to be seen nearly up to the time of 
the demolition of the Tolbooth in 1814. 



It is likely that the martyrs had, through some 
special doom, been appointed to " suffer at the 
Cross of Glasgow" (at that time not the usual 
place of execution), perhaps to stamp the pro- 
ceedings with greater eclat in vindication of the 
high authority of law and government. 

A curious incident may be noticed in one re- 
spect additionally hallowing the grave of the mar- 
tyrs named. Mr. John Reekie (see " N. & Q.," 
2 nd S. iii. 183.), the famous Greek scholar, who 
professed the religious principles of the Covenan- 
ters, on his death-bed gave special commandment 
concerning his bones, that he should be laid 
among them in the same grave, which was accord- 
ingly done; and I find the record of it in the 
Registers of the High Churchyard : " 9th Janu- 
ary, 1811, John Reekie, Teacher, aged 64."* 

Tablet fronting Castle Street, Glasgow. 

" Behind this Stone Lyes 

James Nisbet 
Who suffered Martyrdom at this Place 

June 3 r * 1684 

Also James Dawson 

And Alexander Wood 

Who suffered Martyrdom Oct r . 24 th . 1684 

For their adherence to the Word of God and 

Scotlands covenanted work of reformation 

Here lye Martyrs three 

of memory 
Who for the Covenants did die 

And witness is 

'Gainst all these Nations perjury 
Against the Covenanted Cause 

Of Christ their living King 
The BRITISH rulers made such laws 
Declar'd 'twas Satans reign 
As BRITAIN lyes in guilt you see 
'Tis ask'd reader art thou free 
This Stone was Renewed by 

The Proprietors of 

The Monkland Navigation 

April 1818." 

These martyrs suffered at an old place of exe- 
cution in Glasgow, named the Howgate head (now 
Castle Street), a short distance north from the 
cathedral. They were probably buried in the 
precincts of, or perhaps at the foot of the gallows 
or gibbet, and the old stone laid over their re- 
mains. The ground having been appropriated by 
the Monkland Canal Company as a depot for coals, 
had occasioned the removal of the stone, and the 
setting of it up in its present position. 

A few remarks from a paper read by me at a 



* It may be mentioned for the information of corre- 
spondents interesting themselves in genealogical re- 
searches and monumental inscriptions, that the earliest 
Register of Deaths for the city of Glasgow, in a complete, 
form, is contained in a volume from 1st January 1699 to 
1st June 1723. At the commencement of this volume, 
abstracts of deaths are given for some years previous to 
1699, but no names or details. The Records of the barony 
parish of Glasgow for the registration of births and mar- 
riages do not extend farther back than the year 1669. 
(Information from the Keepers of both Registers.') 



2 nd S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



meeting of the Glasgow Archaeological Society, 
" On the old Tolbooth at the Cross of Glasgow," 
taken down in 1814, may convey to distant 
readers of " N. & Q." some idea both of the place 
(the Howgate head) where the martyrs suffered, 
and the circumstances then attending a penal 
execution. 

To consult with very remote antiquity, the 
public place of execution is noticed as being on the 
Gallowmuir, at the east end of the city, from 
whence we have drawn the title of one of our 
streets leading to the Cross, viz. the Gallowgate or 
Gallows-gate, or road to the gallows. This place 
was afterwards changed to the Howgate (or 
Hollow-gate, from a deep recess in the highway 
filled up about thirty-five years ago) on the north 
side of the city beyond the Cathedral, and it was 
again removed to the castle yard (the ground of 
the Archbishop's Castle), near the present in- 
firmary. At what period the gallows was first 
erected on those two last sites is not ascertained, 
but executions are stated to have taken place at 
the Howgate head as far back as 173 years or 
thereby. This frightful engine, as I have under- 
stood (from old inhabitants) was a permanent 
fixture. A coarse representation of it may still 
be seen cut on a stone of the wall of the cathedral, 
on the north side, a few feet up, to commemorate 
a hangman's grave, dated 1769, a high post with 
transverse beam for suspension, and the ladder on 
which the criminal ascended, who was pushed off 
by the executioner. It is thus mathematically 
described and immortalised by Professor Moor of 
Glasgow in a MS. piece of invective against some 
one of hie friends : 

" And when in airy dance he dangles 

Upon two sticks set at right angles ; 

When on his throat the rope impinges, 

His neck will then be off the hinges : 

Let him cut capers in the air ; 

The world and he will then part fair." 

On these mournful occasions we are also in- 
formed that 

" The criminal was led out from the Tolbooth at the 
Cross, arrayed in a loose dress of white linen with trim- 
mings of black. His arms being pinioned, he had his 
station at the end of a cart, on which lay extended be- 
fore his eyes the coffin or shell in which his body was 
about to be deposited. He had an open Bible in his hand, 
and was usually attended by one or two clergymen, who 
encouraged him in his devotions by the way, and aided 
him in his preparations for eternity. The magistrates of 
the city, preceded by the town-officers with their halberts, 
and accompanied by a strong military guard, formed the 
procession. On its arrival at the Bell o' the brae (in 
former times a very steep part of the High Street) it 
stood still, when occasionally a verse or two of a Psalm 
were sung, the malefactor himself giving out the line, 
and the multitude raising their hats in token of sym- 
pathy, whilst every window adjacent was crowded with 
spectators. The affecting ceremony was sometimes per- 
formed in front of the Alms House * in Kirk Street, where 



the tremulous notes of the criminal were intermingled 
with the plaintive intonations of the passing bell, and 
the whole catastrophe was summed up by a psalm and a 
prayer, and frequently a last speech at the execution." 

About 1784 the public place of execution was 
transferred to the outside of the Tolbooth at the 
Cross. G. N. 

(To be concluded in our next?) 



* This is a small building still standing, which be- 



FORMS OF PRAYER. 

The following notices of unusual forms are 
mostly taken from Sale Catalogues : 

1. An earlier form than any published by the Parker 
Society, in their volume of Q. Eliz. Services, occurs in a 
Catalogue of Books sold by Messrs. Puttick & Simpson 
some time back [July 24-6, 18.] 

" 433. A Christian meditacion or praier to be sayed at 
all tymes whensoever God shall upset vs wyth anye mor- 
tall plague or sicnesse. B. L. vellum, 8 T0 . Imprynted at 
London by W. Alben, 1551." (Has this any pretension 
to authoritative use?) 

2. " Forme of Prayer used at Newport, in the Isle of 
Wight, Sept. 16, 1648, for a Blessing upon the Personall 
Treatie betweene the King and Parliament." (This con- 
sists of one sheet 8vo., and a copy was sold at Sotheby's 
on the llth June last.) 

3. " The Forme and Order of the Coronation of Charles 
II. ... at Scoone, Jan. 1. 1651. A description of the 
Ceremonial is on the back of the title : the rest of the 
book (pp. 24, 4 to ) is taken up with a Sermon delivered 
on the occasion by Master Robert Dowglas, Minister at 
Edinburgh, and Moderator of the Commission of the 
Generall Assembly. Aberdene: Imprinted by James 
Brown, 1651." 

4. A Form of Prayer, with Thanksgiving, to be used 
the 28 of June, 1660, for His Majesties happy return to 
his kingdoms. 4*>. B. L., pp. 42. Bill and Barker, 1660." 

This form is said on the title to be " Set forth by Au- 
thority ; " but an apparently contemporary MS. note in 
my copy states, " This booke was set forth by some priuat 
man without lycence or authority, for which the printers 
were questioned by the Parliament." Can this statement 
be verified? 

5. " Service for th.e Healing, 1686. Form for the Healing 
and Blessing of Cramp Rings, 8, 1789. Convocation 
Service (Latin), 1689, 1700, 1701, 1703, 1747, 1807. 
Form of Dedication and Consecration of a Church or 
Chapel, 1703. Consecration Service of Churches (Convo- 
cation form), 1712. Form, &c., for the dreadful Fire of 
London, 1741, 1753, 1764." (Which of these were pub- 
lished separately?) 

6. " A Form of Prayer and Thanksgiving to Almighty 
God for having made his Highness the Prince of Orange 
the Glorious Instrument of the Great Deliverance of this 



longed to the fourteen incorporated Trades of Glasgow, 
and was anciently used as an hospital for decayed mem- 
bers. It is situated near the cathedral in front of the 
street, and had a small steeple or belfry containing a bell, 
rung or tolled at the passing of a funeral to the church- 
yard. A stone tablet below bore the inscription " Gif to 
the puir, and thou shall have treasure in heauen." This 
belfry (a most interesting relic of antiquity) was, by 
whose orders I know not, ruthlessly pulled down, I think, 
about thirty years ago, probably from the idea that, as it 
projected a little on the public pavement, it interrupted 
the passage along. 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



,2 ntl S. VI. i.%., AUG. 7. '53, 



Kingdom from Popery and Arbitrary Power, 31 Jan., 
Feb. 14. In the Savoy: printed by 'Kdvv. Jones, 1688. 
Issued by Authority of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal." 

7. " Prayers, &c., during this time of Publick Appre- 
hension from the danger of Invasion, &c. No title-page. 
Colophon: Holy Rood House Printer, by M r P. B , Prin- 
ter to His most Sacred Majesty for llis'Royal Houshold, 
Chapel and Colledge, 1688." "(This is the only Scotch 
edition of a form I have seen noticed. Are there others?) 

8. " Fast, c., Nov. 13, for the Protection of the King, 
and bringing to light more Machinations against him, 
Dublin, 1678. Form, &c., During H. M. expedition in 
Ireland, Dublin, 1690^ Fast, c./Feb. 17, For a Blessing 
on Arms, Dublin, 17-17." Another remarkable Dublin 
form is the following, lately in Mr. Hotten's Catalogue : 
" A Prayer to be used on occasion of the late Earthquakes 
in all Churches and Chapels, within the Cities of London 
and Westminster, and the Bills of Mortality during the 
Time of Lent, after the Prayer against the Mortality of the 
Cattle. By His Majesty's Special Command. Dublin : 
Printed in the year MDCCL." (Of this I have seen no 
London edition, or notice of one.) 

Of the above I only possess Nos. 3, 4. G, 7., 
and the Convocation form of 1747 [4to., Basket t, 
pp. 16.] Of the others I have been only able to 
gain the information I have given. Anything 
additional as to their authority, full titles, history, 
&c., would be valuable either communicated to 
me personally, or through " 1ST. & Q ," by posses- 
sors of copies of them. Mr. J. C. Hotten, book- 
seller, 15lB. Piccadilly, is about to publish in the 
Adversaria, attached to his Catalogue, a detailed 
catalogue of these Liturgical remains, and desired 
communications on the subject. The first portion 
containing those of James I. will appear in his 
next number. Latin editions of the " Healing- 
Convocation Service and Fire of London," are to 
be found in the Latin Prayer Books. I have 
modern copies of some of the Irish, Welsh, and 
Channel Islands (French) forms. When were 
these first issued ? I must answer a Query of my 
own as to the existence of any forms of Geo. IV.'s 
reign in the affirmative, as Dublin and Welsh 
copies of the King's Recovery form of 1830 have 
been kindly sent me. E. S. TAYLOR. 

Ormesby St. Margaret, Norfolk. 



DISPUTE BETWEEN THE ABBOT OF GLASTONBUEY 
AND THE DEAN OF WELLS. 

The following curious document, which I have 
reason to think has never been published, gives 
the particulars of the settlement of a dispute be- 
tween Adam de Sodbury, Abbot of Glastonbury, 
and John of Godle (or de Godlegh), Dean of 
Wells, which affected no inconsiderable portion 
of the possessions of the Abbot and the Dean. 
Moddesley (or Mudgeley, as it is now called) is 
an ancient manor which appertained to the church 
of Wells from a very early date. Soon after the 
Restoration, Dr. Creyghton, who was in exile 
with Charles II. (by whom he was made Dean of 
Wells), set to work in order to obtain restitution 



of portions of the possessions of the deanery 
which had been illegally alienated from it; and, 
among others, the manor of Churchland in Wed- 
more (adjoining Mudgeley) was the subject of a 
long and harassing lawsuit. The matter was at, 
length tried and decided in the Dean's favour. 
The papers connected with these proceedings 
have fallen into my hands, and many of them, as 
connected with our local history, are most valu- 
able. From these documents I have selected tho 
following for publication in " N. & Q.," which I 
consider as a most valuable mine from which 
future historians, topographers, and antiquaries 
will be enabled to extract almost inexhaustible 
treasures. The document is evidently translated 
from the original record, and bears marks of hav- 
ing been frequently handled in the course of the 
law-proceedings referred to. 

"28 May, A 1 Edw. 3. [A.D. 1327.] 

"An Accord 1 of differences betwene Adam, Abbott of 
Glaston, and John of Godlc, Deane of the Church of St. 
Andre we of Wells. 

"For div's trespasses done by the Abbot in the Dean's 
Manner of Modesley ; and the like trespasses done by the 
Deane in the Abbott's Manner of Mere. 

" 1. The Deane did Challenge ye w'th th'ap- 

p'tences w'ch doth extend it selfe'from the diche w'ch is 
called Patchneberghelake of the east p't, and from thence 
extends itselfe to the water of the Poole of Ferlingmore, 
and so by the said Poole and streame runinge from the 
Poole to'the diche w'ch is called Lichelake, of the west 
p'te, to be his soyle app'teyning to his Manner of Modes- 
ley, as in right of his Church ot' St. Andrewe of Wells. 

""2. And the Abbot doth clayme the s'd Moore to be his 
so.yle p'teyuing to his Manner of Meere. 

"And the Deane did Challenge for him and his Villeins 
in the Manners of the s'd Deane, of Modesley, Wedmore, 
and Marke Com'on of pasture at all tymes of the yeare 
for all manner of Cattle in Goduemoore. 

"And the Deane did Challenge for him and his Villeins 
of the said Manners of Modesley, Wedmore, and Marke, 
and also for his Villeins of the P ? bend of Wedmore and of 
the Manners of the said Deane of Moore and Bids'h'm, 
Com'on of pasture at all tymes of the yeare ev'rj' yeare for 
all mari'er of Cattle in Oxemoore. 

" The Agrecmente by these bound, viz*, beginning of 
the north p'te from Councell's Wall vnder the Close of 
W m Counsell of Modesley, and so from thence ly nelly and 
directly and so forth viito a certaine Streame runninge 
vnder Cowebridge, directly oppisite to the east corner of 
a certaine close called Parishmead, nere to the hamlett of 
Westy. 

"And vpon the same bounds shalbe made and sus- 
tayned fower Stone Crosses. Whereof 2 Crosses shalbe 
made and sustayned at the chardges of the Dean for the 
tyme being on the northside. 

" And the 2 Crosses at the chard^e of the Abbott of 
Glassonbury at the tyme being of the sowth p'te forever. 

" All w'ch moyty of the said Moore not inclosed w'ch 
lyeth next the Ditch called Lichlake, doth remayne to 
the Deane, to remaine to him and his Successours in do- 
meane services and liberty w'th't impediment of the Ab 
bott and his successours or Bailiff whatsoev'r forever. 

" And therevpon it is agreed and granted from hence- 
forth that the Dean and his Successo's may have and 
peacebly and quietly hold all those p'cells of the afores'd 
Moore w'ch before that agreem 1 in former tyme was in- 
closed w th all the Manor of Moddesley w th th'app'teoc's, 






2 1 " 1 S. VI. 13G., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



so that neither the Abbott or his successors any right or 
claime in the Mannor of Moddesley and p'cells inclosed 
may require or challendge for ever. 

""And moreover that the Deane and his successors and 
all their men as well Free as bond of the Man's of the 
Deane, of Modeslee, Wedrnore, and Marke may peacebly 
and quietly have com'on of pasture in the Moore of the 
s'd Abbott called Godney Moore, every ycare for all 
manner of Cattle. And that the Deane and his succes- 
sors and theire Tennants, Free and bond, of their manner 
of Wedmore, Modeslee and Marke, and the ten 15 of the 
Prebend of Wedmore, and of Moore and Bidesham, Com'on 
of pasture for all manner of Cattle in the More called Oxn- 
moore, w th owt impediment of the Abbott and his succes- 
sors forever. 

" And that the Deane and his successors and their ten- 
nants, Free and bond, may have passage by boat evry 
[day] from Sun rising to Sun settinge in the waters of 
the Poole called Ferling Mere, and in all the Streame 
Course running from the s'd Poole vnto Lichlake, going 
and retorning as often as they pleas, w*owt the impedim* 
and contradict" of the Abbott and his succ's and bailiffs 
forever. 

"And it is graunted by the Deane that the Abbott and 
his successors may have and enjoy the Mannor of Meer 
w th th'app'tenc's, and the s'd Poole called Ferlingmere, 
together w th the Streame and Course of Water running 
from the Poole vnto Lichlake. 

" And all the Fishing of the Poole and Streame, w th 
the soyle of the Poole, Streame, and Course from all 
Claime of the Deane and his Successors for ev'r. Saving 
the Freepassage. And that the Abbott and his succesors 
w th the soyle of the Deane may sustaine and repaire 
Hatch Were and Bordine Were and Parish Were by the 
View of the Bailiffe of Modesley vpon warning given. 

"Furthermore that the Dean and his succ's ma}' have 
com'on of pasture for all manner of Cattle, and also Tur- 
bary in the moyty w'ch remayneth to the Abbott, and 
have Hogsties* in the same moyty, and take Oilers f and 
soyle to repaire them. 

" And the Abbott to have the like com'on of Hogsties * 
in the Dean's Moyty. 

" And that all the Tennants of the Deane and Abbott, 
free and Villaines, and other their nearest neighbours' 
tennants may have com'on of pasture and Turbary in both 
the moyties of the Moore called Yealmore, at this p'sent 
not inclosed, as they wont to have. 

" And to build and repaire Hogsties*, and all their 
Cattle to chace and rechase to the water for ev'r." 

INA. 

Wells, Somerset. 



ANDERSON PAPERS. NO. III. 
(1.) Mr. Thomas Paterson to James Anderson, Esq. 

London, Sber 30 th , 1710. 
" Sir, 

" I wrote you the last post your daughter is now in St. 
Martin's Lane in one Mrs. Johnston's (there Janet is with 
her). She continues much about the same. Since the 
last, I have gott further insight into the original of her 
distemper, which is chiefly thus: It seems its gone 
against her inclination to live with the old gentleman, 
and they knowing her indifFerency of their complaints, 

* The word is translated as I have written it. Does it 
mean common for Hoggacius or Hoggaster, i.e. Sheep of 
the second year, or Hoggus, Hogietus, a Hog or Swine* 
beyond the growth of a pig ? 

t Query, Fuel ? 



made them glade to part with her at any rate ; and on 
this account, she has starved and mismanaged herself on 
purpose, as I am informed, to get free of them. However, 
she has promised, so soon as her former strength is re- 
stored, to returne home to them ; but I am afraid it will 
take a long time, pretending that as an excuse ; but had 
she stay'd there, she would have been entirely lost, for 
she would neither eat nor drink, and only out of discon- 
tent; her aunt* would not take her home to her house, 
nor advise her to any thing, seeing you left no charge 
with her. I was mighty uneasy about it, not knowing 
what to do with her ; and she having no one else here 
that would condescend, or so much as advise me what to 
do, so I begg you'll write her a strict charge to return to 
the old gentleman so soon as she is well. Janet is very 
careful about her. I advised you formerly that I had 
given her two guineas, and since have not thought fitt to 
trust her with any more ; but have given Janet twenty 
shillings to lay out for her, and (she) is to account with, 
me for it when spent. If I don't write you in a post or 
two, you may conclude she is recovering." 

(2.) James Anderson, Esq., to Mr. Thos. Paterson. 

" Dec. 12, 1710. 

" [You did] well in letting Janet have any money ne- 
cessary for Mary, to manage, and continue so with as 
sparing a hand as is possible; and bid her stay with 
Janet till I give further directions, and that she goe not 
abroad without her. Pray Janet to take notice of this." 

Miss Mary Anderson gave her father much 
vexation. She was evidently a young woman of 
a violent temper. This she inherited probably 
from her mother ; as Anderson, judging from his 
correspondence, was of a quiet and amiable dis- 
position. Fortunately the young lady found fa- 
vour in the eyes of Mr. Peter de Garden, or 
Gardeine, the son of a respectable foreign mer- 
chant, who married her in 1715. The marriage 
had the effect of reconciling the father and 
daughter. 
This letter is addressed 

" MR. GEORGE TURNER, 

" Apothecary, next door to 
the Devil Tavern, by 
" Charing Cross, 
" London." 

(3.) James Anderson, Esq., to Mr. Turner. 

Edinburgh, Feb. 26*, 171. 
" My dear Sir, 

" I hope my good friend, Mr. Turner, will excuse my 
not writing him sooner, when I tell him I was very long 
on the road, and upon my arrival had some matters of 
very much consequences to me to look after besides the 
inevitable formalities of giving and returning some visits. 
This was scarce over when the measles, which has been 
frequent and dangerous here, came in my family; and I 
myself was attacked with rheumatick pains, that have kept 
me at home these three weeks ; and I underwent a full 
career of drudgery of your trade. I am now, blessed be 
God, pretty well again ; and in a day or two, Mr. Crow 
and I are to visit honest Mr. Semplef, where, to be sure, 
your friend will kindly remember you. In the throng of 
all, Mr. Crow and I were not unmindful of your affair, 

* Mrs. Ellis, probably, the wife of her maternal uncle. 

t Commonly called Simple Samuel. He was minister 
of Hibberton, near Edinburgh. Various particulars re- 
lative to him will be found in the Anakcta Scotica. 



108 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



which you'll know by his letter. There being no sure 
hand, I remitted a bill to Mr. Charles Patersonne last 
week, which is payable at fourteen days sight ; and de- 
sired him to pay you 32/., and take my note with our 
acquitance upon it to me and Mr. Crow, to whom I en- 
dorced the bill, and gave it to Mr. Paterson with any let- 
ters of Mr. Crow's about it. For the exchange now it must 
make more. I am far more obliged to my kind friend 
Turner, who may assure himself of a true friend to the 
utmost of my power. Mr. Crow gives his kind service to 
you. I shall be glad to hear from you, and know how all 
my friends are. If you'll favour me with any news, 
they'l be most acceptable to 

" Yours, most sincei-ely, 
"JAMES ANDERSON." 

J. M. 



Extraordinary Literary Blunder. Dr. Johnson, 
in reference to the word Curmudgeon, says, " It 
is a vicious manner of pronouncing cceur mechant*, 
Fr. an unknown correspondent." The author or 
printer of Dr. Ash's Dictionary (editions of 1775 
and 1795) imagined that " an unknown cor- 
respondent" was Johnson's translation of cceur 
mechant, as is evident from the following extract 
from Ash's Dictionary: " Curmudgeon (s. from 
the French cceur, unknown, and mechant, a cor- 
respondent), a miser, a churl." R. E. 

Dryden' s Funeral. In Luttrell's Diary (Ox- 
ford, 1857), it says, under the entry for May 14, 
1701 : 

"Yesterday Mr. Dryden was carried in great state 
from the College of Physicians to Westminster Abbey, 
and interred next Chaucer and Cowley. llth June. Fixed 
on Mr. Dryden's tomb in Westminster Abbey." 

Then follows this epigram : 

" John Dryden had enemies three, 
Sir Dick f, old Nick, and Jeremy.J 
The fustian knight was forced to yield; 
The other two maintain'd the field ; 
But had the Poet's life been holier, 
He had o'ercome the Devil and old Collier." 

JAMES ELMES. 

Monumental Inscriptions. I rejoice to see the 
prospectus issued by the Society of Antiquaries 
relative to the proposed collection of monumental 
inscriptions. May their efforts be crowned with 
success, say I. It strikes me, however, that it 
should be distinctly understood whether this col- 
lection is intended to be accessible only to mem- 
bers of the Society, or whether the public is to have 
access as a matter of right. The appeal is made 
to the public, and many will no doubt respond to 
it, but it would seem very ungracious if hereafter 
an industrious contributor should be denied the 
privilege of consulting the collection. Still, if it 
be now plainly understood that such is the inten- 

* Cceur, " heart ; " mchant, " wicked." 
+ Sir Richard Blackmore. 
I Jeremy Collier. 



tion, no reproach can hereafter be cast on the 
Society, though possibly the collection will not at- 
tain the magnitude it otherwise would. 

THOS. BENSLEY. 

5. Bolt Court, Fleet Street. 



THE KNIGHT OF KERRY. 

The mention of this gentleman's name lately in 
connexion with the Atlantic cable at Valentia, 
reminds me of a Query I have long intended 
asking some of your able genealogical correspon- 
dents, Where can I find the best and most au- 
thentic history or pedigree of the Fitzgeralds or 
Geraldines, Earls of Desmond, and their descend- 
ants ? I shall attempt part of an answer myself, 
by^ saying, that in conversation with the late 
knight some twenty years since, in reply to a 
question of mine, he said, that when George IV. 
was in Ireland, the king ordered Sir Wm. Betham, 
Ulster King-of-Arms, to make out a history, or 
trace of descent of the Fitzgeralds, especially in 
reference to the Knights of Kerry, Glin, and 
White Knight, represented by the Earl of King- 
ston. It was done, and the late Knight of Kerry 
had a copy in his possession, but unfortunately 
placed it in a drawer in the bed-room of his hotel 
in Dublin : on looking for it a day or two after- 
wards, it was gone ! and after inquiry, the cham- 
bermaid said, she saw a roll of papers in the 
drawer, but not thinking they were of any value, 
lighted the fires with them! (The knight was 
naturally indignant enough, but his public duties 
soon occupied his mind, and he thought no more 
on the subject.) But he told me that the original 
document was by the king's orders lodged in the 
Home Office, and I could easily obtain a copy. 
A few years since, one day passing down White- 
hall, it occurred to me to ask at the Home Office 
whether I could procure such a document, and 
how. I inquired from a porter in the hall where 
should I go, alluding to what I wanted : but in the 
rudest and most uncivil manner he told me to 
" write about whatever I wanted, or go upstairs 
and ask." Being discouraged by a clerk " up- 
stairs," who stared at me, but " could not tell 
anything about it," I let the matter drop. Per- 
haps some other correspondent may be more for- 
tunate in obtaining a clue to this curious docu- 
ment. I know reference is often made to the 
Geraldines in local histories, and in histories of 
Ireland, but in no instance have I yet been able 
to find any continuous satisfactory index or ac- 
count of this once powerful family. 

(Mem. Why are the porters, or messengers, as 
they wish to be called, in our public offices so 
proverbial for their rudeness to strangers ? Ci- 
vility or a little politeness is just as easy ; I had 
painful experience of the fact myself, while en- 



2 S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



109 



gaged in an office of one of the highest depart- 
ments of the state, and having occasionally to call 
at other offices, until I became known, then the 
stiffness was thawed somewhat !) 

While on the subject of the Knights of Kerry, 
I may as well place on your indelible pages the 
following epitaph on a former knight, the monu- 
ment on which it is inscribed forming (says a 
local publication) part of a rickstand for a neigh- 
bouring squire ! Smith, in his History of the 
County, p. 177., says, this was "a handsome monu- 
ment of black marble, with the inscription in gold 
letters." Sic transit gloria ! 

" Immodicis brevis est aetas, 
et rara senectus. 

H. S. E. 

Johannes FitzGerald, Eques Kerriensis ; 
Ex antiqua stirpe Equitum Kerriensium 

Oriundus, 
Suavitate ingenii, et integritate morum 

Eximius. 

Erat in ore venustas, 
In pectore benevolentia, 

In verbis fides, 
Candidas, facilis, jucundus, 
Quot notos tot habuit amicos, 
Inimicum certe nemiuem. 
Tails quum esset. Febri correptus 
Immature obiit 

A. D. 1741. 

Hoc monumentum 

Charissimi mariti memorise sacrum 

Margaretta conjux, mcerens posuit." 

Where is the first sentence to be found ? 

SIMON WARD. 



Precedency and Colonial Laws. In a work 
entitled A View of the Constitution of the British 
Colonies in North America and the West Indies, by 
Anthony Stokes, Chief Justice of Georgia, Lon- 
don, 8vo., 1783, is a table of precedency, in p. 
190., said to be " compared and adjusted from the 
several Acts and Statutes made and provided in 
England for the Settlement of the Precedency of 
Men and Women in America, by Joseph Edmond- 
son, Mowbray Herald." 

If any of your colonial jurists or antiquarian 
readers can refer me to any authority for the pre- 
cedency in question, and particularly the several 
Acts and Statutes referred to, I should be much 
obliged. Edmondson printed a small duodecimo 
of engraved plates, entitled Precedency, but there 
is no such thing in it as the table printed in Mr. 
Stokes's work. G. 

Cathedral- Service Tradition. 

1. Why did one Petty Canon at the Abbey this 
morning (July 25, 1858, St. James's Day, 8th 
Sunday after Trinity), read the wrong first lesson, 
i.c. 1 Kings xiii., instead of Ecclesiasticus xxi.? 

2. Why did the other Petty omit to read the 



collect commemorating the Sunday and the week 
following, after the collect for the day, i.e. St. 
James's Day, had been read ? 

3. What possible tradition can justify the use 
of a lesson, proper to a day, when that day is not so 
much as commemorated at the service ? 

4. How, with any approach to common sense, 
not to speak of right ritualism, can a Sunday col- 
lect be used through a week, when it has not been 
used, even by way of commemoration, on the first 
day of that week, i.e. the Sunday, itself? 

5. What customary, or book of tradition, is 
there to instruct the Petties in the otherwise un- 
written canon of their duties ? 

6. Even if the collect of the Sunday is used 
when saint's day and Sunday occur, as it always 
ought to be, is it right arbitrarily to mix up the 
lessons of Sunday and saint's day together, wan- 
tonly choosing this, and as wantonly rejecting 
that? 

7. Ought not the lessons to follow the cele- 
bration, not the commemoration? i.e. the saint's 
day, not the Sunday ? 

8. If one lesson may be taken and the other, the 
right lesson, left out, what is to hinder the Petty 
Canon frgm choosing a Sunday epistle while the 
greater gun gives voice to the gospel for the saints 
day f JACOB. 

The Critic's Pruning -knife. 
" When critic science first was known, 

Somewhere upon the Muses' ground 
The pruning-knife of wit was thrown. 
Not that which Aristarchus found ; 
That had a stout and longer blade : 

"Twould at one blow cut oif a limb. 
This knife was delicately macle > 

Not to dismember, but to trim, 
With a soft harmless edge at top ; 

'Twas made like our prize -fighters' swords. 
Pages and chapters 'twould not lop, 

But cut off syllables and words. 
Well did it wear, and might have worn 

Still many an age, and ne'er the worse ; 
Till Bentley's hand its edge did turn 

On Milton's adamantine verse. 
Warburton seized the blunted tool, 

Fitter for oyster-opening drab. 
For critic use 'twas now too dull, 

But though it would not cut, 'twould stab. 
Then Shakspeare bled with every friend 

That loved the bard : he threatened further ; 
And God knows what had been the end, 

Had not Tom Edwards cried out murther. 
Affrighted at the fearful word, 

Awhile he hid the felon steel. 
Now shoAVS it Mason, lends it Hurd ; 

And see what Gray and Cowley feel." 
The preceding verses are transcribed from a 
copy which seems to have been made about fifty 
years ago. They are without the author's name ; 
perhaps some of your correspondents can state by ~ 
whom they were composed, and whether they 
have been already printed? Edwards died in 
1757 : the third edition of his work, entitled 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



Canons of Criticism, and a Glossary, being a Sup- 
plement to Mr. Warburtoris Edition of Shakspeare, 
was published at London in 1750. Kurd's edition 
of the Select Works of Cowley appeared in 1769 ; 
and Mason's edition of Grays Poems and Letters, 
with Memoirs of his Life and Writings, in 1775, 
six years afterwards. Warburton died in 1779 : 
so that these verses were probably written in the 
interval between 1775 and 1779. L. 

St. Peters Net at Westminster. There is a tra- 
dition that, many years ago, a piece of net hung 
in the cloisters of the Abbey, which was exhibited 
as part of the genuine net of the apostle. Does 
any neighbour remember any such thing ? and 
can they throw any light upon the story ? A. A. 

Private Baptism. Will any of your clerical 
readers favour me with information on the follow- 
ing subject : how far it is usual for the officiating 
minister at a private baptism to destroy, after the 
ceremony, the basin containing the water ? 

CLERICUS RUSTICUS. 

Portrait. I have a portrait in oil, life size, of 
an aged lady seated in an arm-chair, holding in 
her right hand a full-blown rose ; the leaves drop- 
ping on the arm, which rests on the -irrm of the 
chair on the elbow ; showing the palm of the hand, 
and the back of the rose. The left hand drops on 
the other arm of the chair, the four fingers only 
visible ; upon neither hand any ring. The dress, 
black damask satin ; over her cap a sort of veil, 
flowing at the back, of thick white material. On 
the left, on a table, covered with crimson velvet, 
is laid a gold watch, in a tortoiseshell case, with 
blue ribbon attached, pointing to half-past twelve. 

Size of portrait, about 4 feet by 3 feet 9 inches. 
If you can inform me the signification of what is 
evidently symbolical in the picture, you will con- 
fer a great favour on a SUBSCRIBER. 

Pedigree of Cowley the Poet. What is known 
of the pedigree of Cowley ? or can his descent be 
traced 'from the Cowley s who were ancestors to 
the Duke of Wellington ? JAMES GRAVES. 

Kilkenny. 

Gilbert Wood. Is there still a wood in Surrey 
of the name of Gilbert Wood ? And why was it 
so called ? G. H. H. 

Ancient Seal. An old brass seal, found in a 
newly ploughed field at Croughton, near Brackley, 
bears the following inscription, in Gothic capitals, 
round the edge between two dotted rings : 
" * IESVSELIOLISEGAIELEL * C." 

Within the inner ring are two squares, having 
double lines, crossed one under the other alter- 
nately, and disposed so as to show eight corners, 
between which are the following letters, similar to 
the foregoing, but smaller : " LJEGE TEGE." 



Within the octagonal area is a profile head of a 
man with long hair, looking to the right ; beneath 
the head appears to be a bull-dog crouched up; 
and underneath the dog, a branch with leaves, 
1 springing up and spreading itself on each side of 
the man's head. 

The seal is one inch in diameter, is deeply cut 
in, and is well preserved. 

Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." explain 
this seal ? H. T. W. 

Population of London. What was the amount 
of the population of London and Southwark at 
the beginning of the seventeenth century ? 

X. Y. Z. 

Patrick Family. Where is there to be seen a 
pedigree, or any genealogical notes of the family 
of Patrick, of which Doctor Symon Patrick, Bishop 
of Ely, was a member ? He is said to have been 
born at Gainsborough, in the county of Lincoln. 

K. P. D. E. 

Kirkby, Stanley, Clarke, Martin. What is 
known of Mr. Kirkby and Mr. Stanley, Oxford 
men in 1775, their B. A. degree coming shortly 
afterwards ? The former was probably the son 
of a wine-merchant in Nottingham, and it ap- 
peared usual for the latter to pass through that 
town for the vacation. They are both frequently 
mentioned as friends in the letters of a Christ 
Church man of that period. 

Information is also requested about William 
Clarke and Samuel Martin, Vicar and Curate 
respectively of Bramcote, near Nottingham, at 
about the same date. The latter is said to have 
gone to sea as chaplain, in consequence of having 
been jilted. S. F. C. 

Quotation. Whence is the passage 

" Those golden tears which men call stars " 
taken ? It is quoted in the beginning of Longfel- 
low's Hyperion. MUGHRIB. 

Death of Rev. Stephenson in his Pulpit : 

Monument. Can any of your readers give me 

information respecting the Rev. Stephenson, 

who expired in his pulpit some time previous to 
1839 ? I believe there is a monument erected to 
his memory in the church of the parish where he 
was buried. Where is the church ? and who was 
the sculptor of his monument ? VRTAN RHEGBD. 

Edward Webbe. In 1590 was published 

" The rare and most wonderfvll Things which Edward 

Webbe, an Englishman borne, hath seene and passed in. 

his troublesome Travailes, in the Cities of Jerusalem, 

i Damasko, Bethlem, and Galely: and in the Lands of 

! Jewrie, Egypt, Grecia, Russia, and Prester John. London, 

i by A. I., for William Barley." 

A second edition was published the same year. 
Could any of your readers give me any biogra- 



2"S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



phical account of the author, besides that con- 
tained in his narrative. BERTRAND DU GUESCLIN. 

''Dans votre lit" Between fifty and sixty 
years ago, in the social days of an early dinner, 
sin agreeable family rubber, and a light supper, I 
can well remember the pleasant custom of a 
cheerful song from many of the company before 
the final break up of the innocent domestic party 
assembled. Amongst many other songs, at that 
period obtaining, there was a fashionable little 
canzonet called " Dans votre lit !" 

In those cheerful days this little madrigal was 
prominent ; but time has rendered it obsolete, 
and I cannot find any one who can tell me the 
words of the two stanzas following the first verse. 
Perhaps some one of your numerous readers (of 
the olden time) might happen to remember them. 
The first verse I remember was 

" Dans votre lit, that bright parterre, 

Where blooms the rose and lily fair, 
A smiling jonquil I would be, 

To bloom sweet flower, beside of thee, 
Dans votre lit, dans votre lit," -c. 

I should be much pleased at the revival of my 
early recollection. W. R. 

The Cromwell Family. Who were the Crom- 
wolls so frequently to be found in lists of Drainage 
Commissioners for Lincolnshire in the fourteenth 
and succeeding centuries ? Dugdale, in his Em- 
bankment and Drainage, mentions these among 
other?. 

Robert de Crumwell, A.D. 1375, who sat on a 
Commission connected with Skegnes and Grimsby. 

Sir Ralph Crumwell, a name appearing in 
several lists of such Commissions for the parts of 
Lindsey from A.D. 1379 to A.D. 1452. 

Sir William Crumwell, who appears in the same 
Commission with Sir Raphe Crumwell, A.D. 1425. 

Lord Cromwell, in one for the south of Lin- 
colnshire, A.D. 1462. 

Oliver Cromwell and Robert Cromwell (proba- 
bly father to the regicide), A.D. 1605. 

Sir Oliver and Mr. Henry Cromwell, A.D. 1618. 

Gougli, and other writers, do not go farther 
back than Henry VIIJ.'s Vicar-general, when 
tracing Oliver's origin. J. H. B. 

Chapel Scala Celi. In the will of Alice Nicoll, 

widow, of Kingston, Surrey, dated July 12, 1515, 

g|>n in the Collections of the Surrey Archseolo- 

g^{ ^ociety, p. 181., is a bequest of five masses 

f GI i 7, wounds of our Lord, "in the chapell 

>kaly Ce; at Westmynster." Where was this 

.* not stated to be in the Abbey, but 

s,mp y at Westminster. The author, or editor, in 

ci note Siysu ~~- 

/h S? 11 "? f the Au S ustine Friara, 
M,, the place of the greatest profit was 
ai y called Scala ^g ' 



only chapel (except that of the same name at Westmin- 
ster, and another of our Lady at St. Botolph's church at 
Boston) which enjoyed equally extensive privileges with 
the chapel of Scala Cell at Rome." 

The author would very much oblige if he would 
kindly give his authorities for these statements. 
By the chapel Scala Celi I suppose is understood 
that at Rome, exactly opposite the Lateran, which 
is more commonly called the " Scala Santa," or 
the chapel " Sancta Sanctorum." In this are 
twenty-eight steps or stairs of white marble, said 
to be those taken from Pilate's house, and which 
our blessed Saviour is supposed to have ascended. 
The privileges granted are to those who go up on 
their knees repeating certain prayers, and are said 
to be the extensive indulgence of a thousand 
years. Unfortunately there is a rival in Ger- 
many, claiming to be the genuine staircase. How- 
ever neither of them fit the place at Jerusalem 
from whence they are said to have been taken, as 
has been proved by the personal measurement of 
a friend, and fellow F. S. A. 



Minor: ati*rfc* tot'tib 

Wad Mines in Cumberland. Where can I pro- 
cure the most complete account, historical and 
otherwise, of the celebrated black lead or Wad 
mine at Borrowdale, in Cumberland ? When was 
it first discovered, and if the mine is still at work ? 

S. R. 

[No particular history has been written, we believe, of 
the famous black-lead or wad mines in Cumberland. 
According to the Parliamentary Gazetteer, once a year 
the mine in Borrowdale is opened, and a sufficient quan- 
tity of plumbago is extracted to supply the market dur- 
ing the ensuing j'ear. The whole annual produce, valued 
at 3,000/., is carried to London, where it is exposed to 
sale at the black-lead market, held in a public-house in 
Essex Street in the Strand. For the fullest particulars of 
the wad mines, consult Hutchinson's History of Cumber- 
land, vol. ii. pp. 212220. inclusive. The Borrowdale 
mine was originally opened in 1710, and having been inge- 
niously plundered a few years later, the legislature passed 
an Act (25 Geo. II. c. 10.) making it felony " to break 
into any mine or wad-hole of wad or black-cawke, com- 
monly called black-lead, or to steal any from thence." Tho 
Act also recites, "that the same hath been discovered in 
one mountain or ridge of hills only in this realm, and that 
it hath been found by experience to be necessary for divers 
useful purposes, and more particularly in the casting of 
bomb-shells, round-shot, and cannon-balls /"] 

James Chambers, Itinerant Poet. A volume 
printed at Ipswich in 1820, entitled The Poetical 
Works of James Chambers, Itinerant Poet, with a 
Life of the Author, being in my possession, but 
wanting pp. 7, 8., also 17, 18, 19, and 20. of the 
" Life," I should feel obliged by getting permis- 
sion from the owner of any perfect copy to make 
a transcript of those pages, or to have the same 
done for me, directed to 7. Fisher Street, Red 
Lion Square. I shall also be glad of some parti- 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



culars of the closing portion of the life of Cham- 
bers, or other matter concerning him ; for, accord- 
ing to a statement contained in my volume, of his 
advanced age of 62 in the year 1810, it may be 
supposed he has long ere this paid the debt of na- 
ture. J. D ACRES BERLIN. 

[James Chambers, " Student in Philology, Phytology, 
and Theology, and author of Reflections on Storms and 
Tempests, &c." and commonly called the " Itinerant 
Poet," long wandered over the county of Suffolk as a 
pedlar, and selling his own effusions. He was born at 
Soham in Cambridgeshire in 1748, and died at Stradbroke 
in 1827. So used was he to wander about, that though 
some friends put him into decent cottages at Woodbridge, 
Worlingworth, &c., and gave him proper clothes, yet he 
could not be induced to settle, but preferred a life of 
wandering privation to the comforts of a home.] 

Miss Sophia Woodroffe.' Can you give me 
any account of Miss Sophia Woodroffe, author of 
Lethe and other Poems, 16mo., 1844. I think there 
is a short notice of the authoress at the beginning 
of the volume, written by the Rev. Dr. Faber. 

K. INGLIS. 

[Dr. Faber has only prefixed a " Preface," not a bio- 
graphical sketch. In it he states that Miss Woodroffe 
died in the arms of her afflicted mother, on Saturday, 
May 11, 1844, at the house of a valued clerical friend of 
the family, Mr. Auriol, where, during some time, she 
had been on a visit.] 



MR. THOMAS CAREY, "A POET OF NOTE," AND 
THOMAS CAREW THE WELL-KNOWN POET. 

(2 nd S. vi. 12. 38. 133.) 

Is there not pome confusion between two poets 
of somewhat similar names Thomas Carew and 
Thomas Carey ? I believe that the extract given 
by MR. YEOWELL from Izaak Walton's MS. col- 
lections for a Life of John Hales, refers to Mr. 
Thomas Carey, " son to the Earle of Monmouth, 
and of the Bedchamber to his late Majesty," and 
not to the well-known poet Thomas Carew, " Gen- 
tleman of the Privy Chamber, and Sewer in Ordi- 
nary to Charles the First." 

Wood (Fasti, i. 352.), speaking of Henry Carey, 
the frequent " translator of books," afterwards 
Earl of Monmouth, says he was admitted B.A. of 
Exeter College, Feb. 17, 1613, and then adds the 
following : 

" THOM. CAREY of the same coll. was admitted on the 
same!day. This Thomas, who was younger brother to 
the said Henry Carey, was born in Northumberland while 
his father Sir Robert Carey was Warden of the Marches 
towards Scotland, proved afterwards a most ingenious poet, 
and was author of several poems printed scatteredly in 
divers books ; one of which, beginning ' Farewel Fair 
Saint, 1 &c., had a vocal composition of two parts set to it 
by the sometime famed musician Henry Lawes. Upon 
the breaking out of the rebellion in 1642, he adhered to 
his Majesty, being then of the bedchamber to, and much 
esteemed by, him. But after that good king had lost his 



head, he took it so much to heart, that he fell suddenly 
sick, and died before the expiration of the year 1648, 
aged 53, or thereabouts. Soon after his body was buried 
in a vault (the buvying-place of his family) under St. 
Joh. Bapt. chappel within the precincts of St. Peter's 
church in Westminster." 

Sir Egerton Brydges, in his Memoirs of the 
Peers of England during the Reign of James the 
First, p. 434., giving an account of the Carey 
family, adds in a note, 

" Mr. Malone somewhere, I think, doubts the existence 
of two poets of the names of T. Carey and T. Carew, and 
supposes them the same. But if so, he is mistaken." 

In the Memoirs of Marshal de Bassompierre s 
Embassy to England in 1626, p. 104., I find the 
following passage : 

"Monday, 23rd. Viscount Semilton [ Wimbledon], Gor- 
ing, Chery, and others came to dine with me. Afterwards 
I was to take leave of the Dutch ambassador." 

Upon the obscure name, Chery, the learned 
English translator of the book in question (the 
late J.W. Crokeryadds an interesting note, which 
I quote at length : 

"Chery. I have no doubt that this was one of the sons 
of the Earl of Monmouth ; and, as the elder brother was 
now Lord Leppington, this was probably Thomas Gary, 
gentleman of the king's bedchamber. We are not sur- 
prised to find him in the society of painters and ingenious 
persons (see p. 101.), for he was a literary man, the author 
of several poems, some of which have come down to us. 
He died a little after the king, of a broken heart for the 
fate of his royal master and friend, aged fifty-three ; so 
that he was now about thirty. 

" It is said (Bridges's Mem. i. 434.) that Mr. Malone 
somewhere melts down into one, two poets of this age, 
Thomas Gary and Thomas Carew. I do not recollect the 
passage ; but they are, I believe, sometimes confounded. 
Walpole mentions Thomas Carew, a wit and poet of the 
time, and gentleman of King Charles's privy chamber, 
whose portrait was painted by Vandyke, with that of Henry 
Killegrew. (Anec. 222.) I have sometimes doubted whe- 
ther Thomas Carew was of the privy chamber, and sus- 
pected that his name was confounded with that of Thomas 
Cary, son of Lord Monmouth, gentleman of the bed- 
chamber, and the person (I have no doubt) mentioned in 
the text ; but there are so many evidences to show that 
Thomas Carew was honoured with this office, that I can 
doubt no longer ; though certainly such a near similarity 
of Christian and surnames, of talents, and characters, and 
offices, in two different persons, is, at first sight, very im- 
probable. Rymer has preserved a grant of a pension of 
500/. a year for life to Thomas Cary, groom of his ma- 
jesty's bedchamber, dated 28th of May, 1625. (Fad. 
xviii. 95.) Thomas Carew was the author of that beau- 
tiful song, so often reprinted, ' He that loves a rosie 
cheek.' It is singular, that Mr. Campbell, in his late e#- 
tion of fragments of the English Poets, should hav* in- 
serted this poem one of the best known in our ]' J g u age 
twice over in the same volume ; once as thp Deduction 
of Carew, and again as that of an anonymo* d a ' 

I do not wonder that Malone was Confused with 
the two poets of similar names, fcr Care * s w 
doubtless- pronounced, as it was sometimes spelt, 
Cary; as also was the author's o- r the Mrvey of 
Cornwall. The similarity, too, rf their appoint 
ments in the household of Ciarles I and the 



2* d S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



corresponding duration of their lives, all these 
circumstances combined might easily have puz- 
zled wiser heads than that of our Shakspearian 
commentator. Lest, however, there should still 
be a lingering doubt upon the matter, I may add 
that, among the poetical contributors to Henry 
Lawes' Ayres and Dialogues for One, Two, and 
Three Voyces ; The First Booke, 1653, folio, both 
names occur, and with the following designations : 

" Mr. Tho. Gary, Son to the Earle of Monrnouth, and of 
the Bedchamber to his late Majesty." 

"Mr. Tho. Carew, Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, 
and Sewer to his late Majesty." 

I am glad to find that MB. YEOWELL is turning 
his attention to a complete edition of the works of 
the charming old poet Thomas Carew. A good 
edition is much wanted, and it cannot be in better 
hands. 

The biography of Carew is in much confusion. 
The time of his birth is uncertain. Fry says, 
" probably about 1577." Brydges says, " a typo- 
graphical error ; it should be 1597." Lord Dun- 
drennan says, " the year 1589 has been assigned 
as the period of his birth." 

The same uncertainty exists as to the time of 
his death. Ellis, in the " Chronological List of 
Poets," prefixed to the Specimens (4th edit. 1811, 
vol. i.), fixes Carew's birth in 1577, and his death 
in 1634, adding in a note, 

" Notwithstanding what is said in iii. 156., it has been 
thought best on deliberate consideration, to place Carew's 
birth as above. His death certainly happened in 1634." 

Upon which Thomas Campbell observes, 

" When Mr. Ellis pronounced that Carew certainly died 
in 1634, he had probably some reasons for setting aside 
the date of the poet's birth assigned by Lord Clarendon ; 
but as he has not given them, the authority of a contem- 
porary must be allowed to stand." 

Wood says that he died about 1639, Tvhich year 
is probably correct, and for the following reasons 
assigned by Peter Cunningham in a note to Camp, 
bell's Essay on Poetry, p. 207. : 

" He [Carew] is mentioned as alive in 1638, in Lord 
Falkland's verses on Jonson's death ; and as there is no 
poem by Carew in the ' Jonsonus Virbius,' it is not un- 
likely that he was dead before its publication." 

Carew, like his shadow Gary, is supposed to 
have lived a gay and dissipated life, and to have 
died penitent. Clarendon says, 

_ " His greatest glory was, that after fifty years of his 
life spent with less severity or exactness than it ought to 
have been, he died with the greatest remorse for that 
licence, and with the greatest manifestation of Chris- 
tianity that his best friends could desire." 

This statement is in some measure confirmed by 
the comparatively recent discovery in the Ash- 
molean Library of a number of metrical Psalms 
paraphrased by Carew, and supposed to have been 
penned at the close of his days. These Psalms 
form no portion of Carew's printed works, and 



have been overlooked in the Rev. John Holland's 
Psalmists of Britain. They are thus described in 
Mr. Black's excellent Catalogue of the Ashmolean 
Manuscripts *, No. 38., col. 45. : 

" 115. ' Eight Psalmes, translated by Mr. Thomas 

Carew.' 

" i. Happie the man that doth not walke." 
" ii. Why rageth heathens, wherefore swell." 
" li. Good God unlocke thy magazine." 
" cxiii. Ye children of the Lord that waite." 
" cxiv. When the seed of Jacob fledd." 
" cxxxvii. Sitting by the streames that glide." (Printed 

in the quarto edition of Wood's Ath. Oxon. ii. col. 659 

60.) 

" xci. Make the greate God thy forte, and dwell." 
" civ. My soule the great God's praises singes." 
" They occupy 6 pages, marked 98 a, b, etc." 

To Mr. Black's description I may add that the 
first psalm is printed in Mr. Fry's Bibliographical 
Memoranda, 4to. Bristol, 1816. Speaking of the 
Psalms, he says : 

" They shall be inserted in the forthcoming edition of 
our Poet's works, which has been for more than four 
years in preparation for the press, and will, it is to be 
hoped, when it appears, present the correct text of a 
valuable author, and Memoirs somewhat improved, be- 
yond any existing Life, by the addition of new and im- 
portant facts." f 

Malone writing to Fry, June 18, 1810, says 
that : 

" In the British Museum there are some old tran- 
scripts 'of various of Carew's Poems; and if the poetical 
treasures of that repository be carefully examined, I be- 
lieve some unpublished songs of his may be found." 

The Ashmolean Library contains MSS. of several 
of Carew's songs. For instance, " I will enjoy 
thee nowe my Celia, come," (No. 36, 37., art. 197.; 
see also No. 38., art. 82.) ; " He that loves a rosie 
cheeke " (No. 38., art. 8.) ; " When this flye liv'd 
she used to playe " (/&. art. 10. ; see also No. 47., 
art. 35.) ; " I saw fayre Celia walke alone " (Ib. 
art. 11.) ; " Like to the hand that hath bine used 
to playe" (II. art. 81.) ; " If when the sunn at 
noone displayes" (Ib. art. 218.), &c. &c. 

In the Malone Collection (MS., No. 13,), is a 
song by Carew, beginning, " Tell me, Utrechia, 
since my fate ; " and doubtless if the MS. treasures 
of the Museum, Bodleian, and Ashmolean Libra- 
ries were attentively examined, many other of his 
stray lyrics might be discovered. 

I should also suggest a careful examination of 
the various printed Music Books from 1630 to 
1680; particularly the early collections of Ayres 
and Dialogues published by John Playford. I 
may add that Walter Porter's Madrigales and 
Ayres, of Two, Three, Foure and Five Voyces, 1632, 
contains those exquisite lines, " He that loves a 
rosie cheek," set to music of four voices, eight 



[* It is much to be regretted that there is no Index to 
this useful work. ED.] 

[t Query, What has become of Mr. Fry's Carew docu- 
ments? ED.] 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



years before the published collection of Carew's 
poems. (See the British Bibliographer, vol. ii. 
p. 318.) 

Who is the real author of the Masque Cesium 
Brittanicum, " performed at Whitehall in theBan- 
quetting-house on Shrove-Tuesday-night, the 18. 
of February, 1633 ? " It was printed for Thomas 
Walkley, with Carew's name, in 1640, but is also 
found in the folio edition of The Works of S r 
William Davenant, 1673, p. 360.* 

I am acquainted with three engraved portraits 
of Thomas Carew. One from the picture at 
Windsor ; another from a medal by Varin ; and a 
third, I think different from either, published by 
Horace Rodd, EDWARD F. RIMBAULT. 



The only notice of the translation of De la 
Serre's work that I T have as yet met with is in 
Allebone's Critical History of English Literature, 
Philadelphia, 1855, where I find the following : 

"Gary, Thomas, Serins., 1691, 4to. a trans, of the Sieur 
de la Serres' Mirrour which flatters not; with some verses 
by the translator, 1639, 8vo." 

Watt tells us that the Thomas Carey who pub- 
lished sermons in 1691 was prebendary of Bristol. 

I have unfortunately been unable to find any 
authority for Allebone's statement, and I am the less 
inclined to depend on it from his making no men- 
tion of any other Thomas Carey or Cary. There 
was, however, a Thomas Carey alive in 1638, who 
might well have been the translator, the brother 
of Henry Carey, Earl of Monmouth ; whose father 
was " Warden of the Marches towards Scotland," 
and who (Thomas) was born in Northumberland 
at the time his father held that office, about 
1595. Thomas Carey was admitted B.A. (Exet. 
Coll. Oxon.), Feb. 17, 1613. Wood says that 
" He was a most ingenious poet, and was author 
of several poems printed scatterdly in divers 
books, one of which beginning 'Farewel Fair 
Saint,' was set by Henry Lawes. Upon the break- 
ing out of the rebellion, 1642, he adhered to his 
majestic, being then of the bed chamber, and 
much esteemed by him. But after that good 
king lost his head, he took it so much to heart 
that he fell suddenly sick, and died before the 
year 1648, aged 53 or thereabouts." (I am not 
answerable for Wood's dates.) 

I do not assert that I have any positive proof 
that Mr. Allebone is wrong ; but I do think that 
there are several points which make it probable 
that the Earl of Monmouth's brother, and not the 
Prebend of Bristol, was the translator of De la 
Serre. It is strange that a poet of power enough 
to. write the verses at the end of that work should 

[* The first edition, in 1634, was published anony- 
mously by Thomas Walkley, and it is attributed by the 
best dramatic authorities to Thomas Carew, the Sewer in 
Ordinary to Charles I. ED.] 



be silent for half a century, and then produce 
nothing but a couple of quarto sermons ; and that 
the Thomas Carey who translated the work was 
a poet, I think the following verses, which de- 
serve to be written in letters of gold, prove : 
" Doe something ere thou doe bequeath 
To wormes thy flesh, to aire thy breath ; 
Something that may, when thou art cold, 
Thaw frozen spirits when 'tis told ; 
Something that may the grave controule, 
And shew thou hadst a noble soule. 

Doe something to advance thy blisse, 
Both in the other world and this." 

The book reads like a prophecy of the misery that 
the faithful servant of this prince saw hanging over 
him. It was dedicated by De la Serre to the King 
and Queen of England, and was published just when 
the king's cause must have begun to look gloomy 
in the eyes of far-seeing men. I think that the 
allusion to " the last summer's sad effects," in the 
Advertissement au Lecteur, may possibly refer to 
the trial of Hampden : it is a point which may be 
worth the examining. 

The translator was known as an original author 
before he published De la Serre, as I think at 
least we may gather from the following : 

" Friend, here remoulded by thy English hand 

(To speake it is no feare) 

Tn hew as slicke and cleare. 
Nay, when thy owne Minerva now doth stand 

On a composing state (sic orig.), 

'Twas curtsie to translate (sic orig.). 
But most thy choise doth my applause command 
First for thy selfe, then for this crazie land." 

I have more to say, but I have trespassed too 
much on your space already. Only permit -me to 
ask if anything is known of the "Carey"* whose 
clever, and more than clever, cavalier and other 
poems were published in 1771, "from a MS. in the 
possessioifbf the Rev. Mr. Pierrepoint Cromp." 

Gr. H. KlNGSLEY. 



DEMOSTHENES' ADVICE. 

(2 nd S. vi. 70.) 

Valerius Maximus has preserved the Greek 
word ri vrfoKpiffis of Demosthenes which he thrice 
repeated as most effective in oratory, and the 
heading of the chapter (viii. 10.) is de pronuntia- 
tione, et apto motu corporis. The remarks of 
Aristotle {Rhetoric, iii. 1, 2.) on this word show 

[* " Ah ! j'ou do not know Pat Carey, a younger bro- 
ther of Lord Falkland," says the "disguised Prince 
Charles to Dr. Albany Pvochecliffe, in Sir Walter Scott's 
Woodstock. The first edition of his poems appeared 
under the following title, Poems from a Manuscript writ- 
ten in the Time of Oliver Cromwell, 4 to., 1771. In 1820, 
Sir Walter Scott, ignorant, as he confesses himself, at the 
time of an earlier edition, edited once more the poems, 
from an original MS. presented to him by Mr. Murray. 
The first edition contains nine poems, the "second edition 
thirty-seven. See " N. & Q." l !t S. viii. 406, ; x. 172.] 



2 nd S. VI. 130., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



that such " art of delivery " (elocution), although 
it had lately been introduced into tragedy and 
public recitations, had not been fully treated of, 
and had been only partially handled by Thrasy- 
inachus on the excitement of compassion : but that 
when it should be introduced into oratory it would 
produce the same results as acting. He adds, in 
effect, artis est celare artem : 



" Atb Sei \av6dveiv Troiouvra?, KCU. 11117 8oKet Ae'yew *eirAja<rue- 
vwj, aAAa TTC^VKOTW?, TOJTO yap iriOavoi'' eKeivo 5e, rovvavrLov' 
ois -yap Trpb? eiri /SpvAeuo^ra SiaaAAoj/Tai, naOdnep -pbs TOVS 
oivovs TOVS /ne/uy/ievovs." 

"On which account observation must be parried by 
not appearing to speak in an artificial way, but naturally, 
the one method inducing persuasion, the other the con- 
trary, because people put themselves on their guard, as 
they would against adulterated wine." 

Harris (Philolog. Inq. ii. 4.), speaking of Gar- 
rick's acting, says : 

"And how did that able genius employ his art? Xot 
by a vain ostentation of any one of his powers, but by a 
latent use of them all in such an exhibition of nature, 
that, while we were present in a theatre, and only be- 
holding an actor, we could not help thinking ourselves 
in Denmark with Hamlet, or in Bosworth Field with 
Richard." 

He had no aid in his acting from dress, as he 
appeared in a court suit of sky-blue and scarlet in 
Macbeth. 

Aristotle also observes that vjroKpia-is is a gift of 
nature, and rather without the province of art : 
" fffn (pixreus rb viroKptriKov ttva.1, nal arsx^orepov.^ 

Quinctilian (vi. 2.) says : 

" Afficiamurque antequam afficere conemur .... per 
quas imagines (<acTa<ria?) rerum absentiuni ita repraj- 
sentantur animo, ut eas cernere oculis, ac prsesentes ha- 
bere videamur : has quisquis bene conceperit, is erit in 
affectibus potentissimus." 

This power of imagination, and control over 
it, is required to impart vitality to all the other 
numerous qualifications of an orator. The House 
of Commons is a different arena from that of 
Demosthenes : few of the members can expect to 
obtain a hearing ; and a speaker, whether orator 
or not, is listened to in deference to the number 
of members he, as the exponent of his set or 
party, is likely to bring to the vote. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

The famous answer of Demosthenes to the ques- 
tion about oratory that action is the first, 
second, and third meaning by action, delivery 
and voice still more than gesture, is referred to by 
Cicero, de Oratore, lib. iii. 214., Orat. 55., and 
Brutus, 234. ; and Cicero considers it as applying 
more to the voice than the gesture. The Greek is 
not fKtyuvrjffis, nor frfpyeia, but it plainly includes 
both. E. C. B. 



The story about Demosthenes is told in more 
than one of the Greek rhetoricians ; for a more 



familiar passage, see Cicero, De Clavis Oratorilms, 
c. 38. : 

"Demosthenem ferunt ei, qui quecsivissef, quid primum 
esset in dicendo, actionem ; quid secundum, idem ; et idem 
tertium respondisse." 

The Greek word used is, if I remember aright, 
viroKpiffis ; what it means is obvious. If your cor- 
respondent does not think it is obvious, he will find 
plenty of references in Ernesti's Lexicon of tlic 
Greek Rhetoricians, to places where he will find 
enough to satisfy him. M. P. D. 



TRANCE-LEGENDS. 

(1 st S. x. 457. 480.; 2 nd S. iii. 162.) 

" Peter the Goatherd is the ' Ziegenhirt ' of Otmar's 
Collection of the Ancient Tales and Traditions cur- 
rent in the Hartz. The name of Frederick Barba- 
rossa is associated with the earliest cultivation of the 
Muses in Germany .... Frederic was a patron of the 
minstrel arts ; and it is remarkable that the Hartz tra- 
ditions still make him attached to similar pursuits, and 
tell how musicians, who have sought the caverns where 
he sits entranced, have been richly rewarded by his 
bounty. 

"The author of the Sketch Book has made use of this 
tale as the plot of his ' Rip Van Winkle.' There are 
several German traditions and ballads which turn on the 
unsuspected lapse of time under enchantment ; and we may 
remember in connexion with it, the ancient story of the 
'Seven Sleepers' of the fifth century. (Gibbon, vi. 32.) 
That tradition was adopted by Mahomet, and has, as 
Gibbon observes, been also adopted and adorned by the 
nations from Bengal to Africa, who profess the Maho- 
metan religion. It was translated into Latin before the 
end of the sixth century by Gregory of Tours; and 
Paul us Diaconus (De Gestis Longobardorum), in the 
eighth century, places seven sleepers in the North under 
a rock by the sea-shore .... The next step is to ani- 
mate the period dropt from real life the parenthesis of 
existence with characteristic adventures, as in the 
story of 'the Elfin Grove' in Tieck's Phantasus ; and as 
in 'The Dean of Santiago,' a Spanish tale from the Conde 
Lucanor, translated in the New Monthly Magazine for 
August, 1824, where several similar stories are referred 
to." German Popular Stories from MM. Grimm, Lond. 
1824-5, 2 vols , vol. ii. p. 250. 

Another trance-legend we may notice is that 
of Dornroschen or Thorn-Rose, commonly called 
" The Sleeping Beauty." Tennyson has depicted 
the leading incident in his poem entitled " The 
Sleeping Palace," if I remember right. 

" Dornroschen is a Hessian story. MM. Grimm ob- 
serve a connexion between this fable and the ancient 
tradition of the Restoration of Brynhilda by Sigurd, as 
narrated in the Edda of Sremund, in Volsunga Saga. 
Sigurd pierces the enchanted fortifications and rouses the 
heroine. ' Who is it,' said she, ' of might sufficient to 
rend my armour and to break my sleep?' She after- 
wards tells the cause of her trance : ' Two Kings con- 
tended ; one hight Hialmgunnar, and he was old but of 
mickle might, and Odin had promised him the victory. 
I felled him in fight; but Odin struck my head with the 
Sleepy-Thorn (the Thorn-rose or Dog-rose, see Alt- 
deutsche IValder, i. 135.), and said I should never be again 
victorious, and should be hereafter wedded.' (Herbert's 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2d S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



Miscel. Poetry, vol. ii. p. 23.) Though the allusion to the 
Sleep-Rose is preserved in our heroine's name, she suffers 
from the wound of a spindle, as in the Pentamerone of G. 
B. Basile, V. 5. The further progress of Sigurd's or 
Siegfried's adventures will be seen in * The King of the 
Golden Mountain.' " Germ. Pop. Stories, vol. i. p. 222. 

" In these popular stories, observe MM. Grimm, is 
concealed the pure and primitive Mythology of the Teu- 
tons, which has been considered as lost for ever .... It 
is curious to observe that this connexion between the 
popular tales of remote and unconnected regions is 
equally remarkable in the richest collection of tradition- 
ary narrative which any country can boast; we mean 
the 'Pentamerone, overo Trattenemiento de li Picceritte,' 
published by Giov. Battista Basile, very early in the 
17th century, from the old stories current among the 
Neapolitans. It is singular that the German and the 
Neapolitan tales (though the latter were till lately quite 
unknown to foreigners, and never translated out of the 
Italian tongues) bear the strongest and most minute re- 
semblances." Ib. pp. viii. ix. 

The advertisement to the second volume states 
that "The Translator once thought of following 
up these little volumes with one of selections 
from the Neapolitan Pentamerone." ' May I ask, 
Has the Pentameron ever been translated into 
English, or is there any prospect of it ? * 

ElRIONNACH. 



LADY BERESFORD'S GHOST STORY. 
(2 nd S. vi. 73.) 

This narration seems to be compiled from 
family tradition ; but it involves so many errors 
as to persons and dates, that, without some clearer 
authentication from the family, little importance 
can be attached to it. 

The Lady Beresford referred to appears to 
have been Nicola Sophia Hamilton, daughter of 
Lord Glenawly, and the wife of Sir Tristram 
(not Martin) Beresford, to whom she was married 
in 1687. The birth of their son took place in 
July, 1694, and Sir Tristram survived the event, 
not four, but seven years. The Lord Tyrone 
referred to must have been John, the second earl, 
who died unmarried in his twenty-ninth year, 
14th October, 1693. It will be observed that the 
story, in one remarkable particular, harmonises 
with these dates. The daughter not of John 
the second, but of James the third Earl of Tyrone 
was married to the son of Sir Tristram and Lady 
Beresford, on whom the Earldom of Tyrone was 
afterwards conferred. The second husband of 
the unhappy lady was 'Richard Gorges, who rose 
to the rank of a general in the army, and by 
whom she had two daughters and two sons. 
" Lady Beresford," says the peerage, " deceasing 

[* A selection was published in 1848 by Bogue, and 
entitled, The Pantamerone ; or, the Story of Stories. Fnn 
for the Little Ones. By Giambattista Basile. Translated 
from the Neapolitan by John Edward Taylor. 16mo. 
1848. The entire work was translated into German by 
Professor Liebrecht in 1846, 2 vola. 12mo. It has a pre- 



23rd February, 1713, was buried in the Earl of 
Cork's tomb in St. Patrick's Cathedral." 

The greatest inaccuracy of the narrative is as 
to Lady Betty Cobbe, for that lady (nee Lady 
Elizabeth Beresford, being youngest daughter of 
Marcus Earl of Tyrone, and married in 1755 to 
Thomas Cobbe, Esq., son of the Archbishop of 
Dublin), belonged to a later age, being in fact 
the grand-daughter of the heroine of the black 
ribbon. 

It is a minor inaccuracy, yet helping to lessen 
the credit of the narrative, that the 14th of Oc- 
tober, 1693, the day of the Earl of Tyrone's 
death, was not a Tuesday, as was stated, but a 
Saturday. 

It may be hoped that some member of the 
Beresford family will be able to state the source 
of the narrative, and supersede its errors with 
more authentic particulars. CANDIDUS. 



HYMNOLOGY. 



(2 nd S. vi. p. 54.) 

The " Congregational Body," whose " undue 
licence " is complained of by Z., is so well able 
to take its own part, that it may appear quite 
superfluous in one who does not belong to that 
body to stand forward as its defender. But I so 
much admire the Congregational Hymn-Book, as 
being the most copious and impartially selected 
work of the kind with which I am acquainted, 
that I would say a few words in defence of what 
Z. considers to be unfair treatment of his fa- 
vourite hymn. In the Index to the Hymn-book, 
" Come thou fount of every blessing " is attri- 
buted to Robinson. Now, if Lady Huntingdon 
really composed it as it stands in Z.'s copy, she is 
undoubtedly the real author, and,, so far, " undue 
licence " has been taken ; but, on comparing Z.'s 
copy of the hymn with that printed in the Congre- 
gational Hymn-Book, I think any one must be 
struck with the immense improvement which has 
been attained by means of slight alterations ; all 
that is devotional in the original having been re- 
tained, and its grotesqueness removed. Compare 
the first stanza, as given by Z.*, and as it stands 
in the Congregational Hymn-book.^ 



face by Jacob Grimm, and is very learnedly illustrated 
by the translator.] 

* " Come thou Fount of every blessing, 
Tune my heart to sing thy praise ; 
Streams of Mercy never ceasing 

Call for loudest songs of praise. 
Teach me some melodious sonnet, 

Sung by angel hosts above ; 
Praise the Mount, I'm fixed upon it, 

Mount of thy redeeming love." 
f " Come, thou Fount of every blessing ! 
Tune my heart to sing thy grace. 
Streams of Mercy, never ceasing, 
Call for songs of loudest praise. 



2 nd S. VI. 130., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



The last two stanzas quoted by Z. do not ap- 
pear in the hymn-book version, and certainly such 
rhymes as " freed from sinning " and " blood- 
washed linen" may excuse the omission. Dis- 
coverers are apt to overrate the value of what 
they find, and I think this has been the case with 
Z. on the present occasion. 

While on the subject of hymns, I would ask 
the following query : Who is the author of the 
beautiful hymn 

" Not here, as to the prophet's eye, 
The Lord upon his throne appears ? " 

It stands as No. 465. in the last edition of the 
Congregational Hymn-Book. 

My Query about Luther's Hymn (2 nd S. iv. 
151.), is still unanswered. JAYDEE. 



ttf 

Derivation of Hoax (2 nd S. vi. 69.) On the 
subject of the word hoax, I beg to inform DELTA 
he will find the following answer to his Query 
under Hocus-Pocus in Dr. Richardson's Diction- 
ary : "Malone considers the modern slang hoax 
as derived from hocus, and Archdeacon Nares agrees 
with him." In my dictionary (called Smart's 
Walker by the proprietor-publishers, though my 
own title was Walker Remodelled) the word occurs 
in its alphabetical place both in the larger work, 
and in the epitomised edition ; and I avail myself 
of the opportunity of regretting that I did not re- 
fer to its origin, as I might have done. I have 
been less negligent in some other similar cases ; 
for instance, the words quiz, to quiz, quizzing ; 
and if any statement as to these has not yet ap- 
peared in "N. & Q.," perhaps it may be worth a 
place in its pages. 

" These words which are only in vulgar or colloquial 
use, but which Webster traces to learned roots, originated 
in a joke. Daly, the manager of a Dublin play-house, 
wagered that a word of no meaning should be the com- 
mon talk and puzzle of the city in twenty -four hours : 
in the course of that time, the letters q, u, i, z, were 
chalked or posted on all the walls of Dublin with an 
effect that won the wager." 

B. H. SMART. 

Athenaeum, Pall Mall. 

Jonathan Sidnam (1 st S. xi. 466.) The MS. 
translation of "Pastor Fido" by this author 
would seem not to have been printed. In the 
Biographia Dramatica there is a notice of a piece 
with the following title : "Filli de Sciro, or, Phillis 
of Scijros, an excellent pastoral, written in Italian 
by C. Giudubaldo de Bonarelli, and translated 
into English by J. S. Gent" 4to., 1655. A trans- 
Teach me some celestial measure, 
Sung by ransomed hosts above ; 
Oh ! the vast, the boundless treasure 
Of my Lord's unchanging love ! " 



lation was at the same time made of "Pastor Fido," 
but both of them were laid aside. These transla- 
tions were made about twenty years before the 
publication of Phillis of Scyros. 

I think there can be little doubt that Jonathan 
Sidnam was the author of both these translations. 

P.S. Would your correspondent be kind enough 
to inform me what is the title of the MS. play in 
five acts by J. Sidnam ? R. INGLIS. 

Who wrote " An Autumn near the Rhine ? " (2 ntl 
S. vi. 91.) In reply to the inquiry of your cor- 
respondent J. E. T,, I beg to say that the author 
of An Autumn near the Rhine was Charles Edward 
Dodd, Esq., Barrister, of the Middle Temple, who 
died very soon after the publication of this, his 
first, attempt at authorship. The book had a large 
sale, and is now scarce. WILLIAM KIDD. 

Hammersmith. 

Classical Cockney ism (2 nd S. vi. 89.) In addi- 
tion to the REV. WM. ERASER'S note on classical 
cockneyism, and of the abuse of poor letter H, 
permit me to add a classical pun by Julius Csesar 
on Sylla' s assumption of the Dictatorship. Sue- 
tonius relates that when Sylla, whose illiterative- 
ness was well known, was about to take upon 
himself the office of Dictator, Csesar said, " Sylla 
nescivit literas, non potuit dictare" 

Dr. Johnson asserted, under the letter H, in 
his great English Dictionary, that H is in Eng- 
lish, as in other languages, a note of aspira- 
tion, and is therefore no* letter and, in his 
Grammar of the English Tongue, added, "that it 
must be pronounced with a strong emission of 
the breath, as hat, horse" and that "it seldom 
begins any but the first syllable, in which it is 
always sounded with a full breath, except in heir, 
herb, hostler, honour, humble, honest, humour, and 
their derivatives." 

John Wilkes observing on ibis dictum, said, " that 
the author of this observation must be a man of 
quick apprehension, and a most comprehensive 
genius," In a note to a subsequent edition of his 
Grammar, the sturdy moralist replied to the flip- 
pant wit, by adding : " It sometimes begins mid- 
dle or final syllables in words compounded, as 
block-head ; or derived from the Latin, as compre- 
hended" JAMES ELMES. 

Pronunciation of the Latin Language (2 nd S. vi. 
49.) UNEDA asks " who can tell .... how 
Latin is pronounced in Hungary ? " A great 
number of persons no doubt, but not I. 

I may be permitted, however, to say thus much. 



* It is related of a certain ludimagister of this class, 
who having left a basin of soup intended for his morning 
lunch, told one of his disciples to take it away and heat 
it. When asked for, the boy said he had eaten it. "I did 
not tell you to eat it, Sirrah, but to heat it." " So please 
you, Domine," was the reply, "you have always told us 
that H was no letter." 



118 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



d S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



Some ten years ago, while walking between 
Northfleet and Greenhithe, I was accosted by a 
man in the dress of a sailor, speaking Latin quite 
fluently. He went on with me, talking and tell- 
ing his adventures, for some distance, how he 
had served under Napier in the Pedroite expe- 
dition, &c., all which might have been true or 
false, but telling his story all the time in capital 
Latin, and with an almost exact English pronun- 
ciation. I remarked upon that, and asked him to 
explain. He said he was an Hungarian, but, 
upon landing in England, had determined to con- 
form his pronunciation to ours as near as possible. 
He said there was but little alteration needed, 
and that in less than a fortnight he talked as he 
did at the moment he was speaking to me. When 
we came to a stop I gave him a trifle ; he received 
it with a " Deo et tibi gratias," adding (I had two 
companions), " Dominus vobiscum," to which of 
course I responded, " Et cum spiritu tuo." The 
gist of which is, he, an Hungarian, spoke Latin 
like an Englishman ; and, as he said, almost na- 
tively, which is all I know about Hungarian 
Latin. O. C. CREED. 

Illuminated Clock (2 nd S. iv. 387. ; y. 57.) 
Fronting the quai at Havre is a clock dial illumi- 
nated in a way similar to that over Mr. Bennett's 
shop in Cheapside, z. e. with the face of the dial 
dark, and the hours and two revolving hands 
bright. K. W. HACKWOOD. 

Plantin Press (2 nd S. vi. 91.) Does MR. 
STAUNT'ON know of the list of Plantin books pub- 
lished at the Plantin Press in 1615? It consists 
of ninety-two pages 12mo., and is arranged ac- 
cording to subjects : 

" 1. Theologici et Ecclesiastic!. 2. Utriusque Juris. 
3. Medici. 4. Histor. et Geogr. 5. Philosophic!, 
& c> 6. Poetici. 7. Grammatici. 8. Elenchii. 9. Ve- 
teres Auctores. 10. Grace. 11. Hebraice, Chald., Sy- 
riac. 12. Italic!. 13. Hispanic!. 14. Gallic!. 15. 
Teuton, et Flandic." 

In the same volume I have a Catalogue of 
Oporinus' books, Basil, 1552 ; and of Calder and 
Colinceus, Paris, 1546. J. C. J. 

Judas Iscariot (2 nd S. v. 294. 343.) -- 1 have 
read, where I know not, that the Armenians, who 
believe hell and limbo to be the same place, say, 
that Judas, after having betrayed our Lord, re- 
solved to hang himself because he knew that 
Christ was to go to limbo and deliver all souls 
which he might find there out of purgatory ; and 
he therefore expected forgiveness, by being there 
before him. But the devil, who was more cun- 
ning than he, knowing his intention, held him over 
limbo till the Lord had passed through, and then 
let him fall into hell. 

I shall be glad of any reference to this legend. 
R. W. HACKWOOD. 



Original Sin (2 nd S. vi. 48.) The English 
Church in her ninth article, and the Council of 
Trent at their fifth session (June 17, 1646), have 
expounded this doctrine, which Augustin main- 
tained as orthodox, against the heresy of Celestius, 
the Irishman, and Pelagius (= Morgan), the 
Welshman ; which heresy agitated the whole 
church in the three continents known at the com- 
mencement of the fifth century. Prior to this 
period I do not find the expression peccatum 
originale, or, more properly, peccatum originis. 
Although the work of Augustin, DC Peccato Origi- 
nali (418 A.D.), probably first gave publicity to the 
term, the doctrine nevertheless existed in the 
early Church : for, in the second century, Clemens 
Alexandrinus (P&dag. in. xii. p. 262.) says, 
"rJ> fi\v yap ^ctyict/mveii/, iraffiv /J.<J)VTOV Kat Koiv6v" 
("for sin is innate and common to all"); and 
Tertullian (Test. Animal, iii.) says, exinde totum 
genus de suo semine infectum, suce etiam damnationis 
traducem fecit ; " thence made the whole human 
race, now contaminated by being sprung from his 
[Satan's] seed, partakers also of that condemna- 
tion which befell him." In the time of our Saviour 
the equivalent expression was, " born in sin," used 
in the terms of David (Ps. li. 5.), and expounded 
by St. Paul (Rom. v. 18.) ; but the Jews attached 
a different meaning to that expression, when they 
said to the blind man restored to sight, " thou 
wast altogether born in sin"; assuming, according 
to their strange doctrine, that he had actually 
sinned before his birth (Bereshith Rabba, xxxiv. 
12. ; Lightfoot and Kuiuoel on John ix. 2. 34.) 
See Waddington's Church History (n. xi. 176.), 
and Blunt's Early Fathers (n. xiii. 585.) 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichdeld. 

" Inter canem et lupum" (2 lld S. vi. 70.) This 
phrase is not to be restricted to the vesper hour 
of the Romish church ; it refers to that time of 
the evening or morning, when, from the dimness 
of the light, a wolf could with difficulty be dis- 
tinguished from a dog ; or when 

" Grey twilight, from her shadowy hill, 
Discolours Nature's vernal bloom, 
And sheds on grove, and stream, and rill, 
One placid tint of deepening gloom." 

If the Querist, J. W., refers to Adelung's Glos- 
sarium Manuale, he will there find the phrase ex- 
plained and illustrated by other quotations, in 
voce Canis, sub fine. GEORGE MUNFOKD. 

East Winch. 

Effects of Inebriety (2 nd S. vi. 90.) E. gives 
an epigram on the appearance of Messrs. Pitt and 
Dundas, " JBacchi plenus, full of wine," from the 
Morning Chronicle, which I have heard from good 
authority attributed to Person, who was brother- 
in-law to Perry, the editor and part-proprietor of 
that journal. Coleridge wrote in that paper about 



S. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



the same time, and might have contributed it. His 
hatred to the great statesman is well known, and 
his atrocious apologue of "Fire, Famine, and 
Slaughter, a War Eclogue," which appeared in a 
newspaper of the day. Famine says : 

"Sisters! Sisters! who sent you here ?" 
Slaughter replies to Fire : 

" I will whisper it in her ear." 
Fire answers : 

" No! no! no! 
Spirits hear what spirits tell, 
'Twill make a holiday in Hell." 

Famine adds, after much similar dialogue : 

" Letters four do form his name ; 
He let me loose and cried, Halloo ! ' ' I 

To him alone the praise is due." 

The whole is terrific ; but it was written in | 
1796, when the author was young, a republican, | 
and a most imaginative poet. 

In a more genial mood, Coleridge speaks of the 
bibacity of the great statesman, and of the extra- ! 
vagant gaming of his distinguished rival, Fox. He ; 
concludes his didactic poem on "Imitation," by ! 
saying : 

" On Folly every fool his talent tries ; 
It asks some toil to imitate the wise ; 
Though few like Fox can speak like PITT can think 
Yet all like Fox can game like PITT can DRINK." 

JAMES ELMES. 

Coatliupe's Writing Fluid (2 nd S. vi. 47.) I 
have tried to make ink according to the above re- 
ceipt given in " N. Q.," and have not succeeded. 
Can your correspondent say where I have failed ? 
I proceeded as follows : To one pint and two 
wine-glasses of soft water, I added 1 oz. borax 
(powdered), and 2 oz. bruised shellac. These I 
boiled in a tin vessel covered with a plate, until 
all was dissolved. When mixture had cooled, 
three or four hours afterwards, I strained it 
through a piece of fine muslin (not having filter- 
ing paper at hand), and added an ounce of dis- 
solved gum. Then placed it on the fire as before; 
and as it became hot, added about 1 oz. of lamp- 
black, stirring the mixture till it boiled. I then 
removed it from the fire ; but finding- that it was 
only a brownish black, I added about another 
ounce of lamp-black, and boiled it again ; then 
poured it into a pitcher, and left it till the following 
morning. The result was then found to be a 
blackish-brown liquid, with a heavy sediment of 
lamp-black, &c. The lamp-black had, in fact, 
only mixed mechanically from the boiling and 
stirring, and not combined chemically as the co- 
louring matter of ink should do. V. S. D. 

The Blue Blanket (2 nd S. vi. 65.) Pennecuick's I 
Historical Account of the Blue Blanket, or, Crafts- \ 
incus Banner (1722), was -reprinted at Edinburgh ; 
iii 1826, with plates representing the arms of the j 



incorporated trades and the celebrated "Blue 
Blanket," or " Pennon of the Crafts of Edinburgh." 

T. G. S. 

Edinburgh. 

Medical Men at Funerals (2 nd S. v. 477.) 
Such was the custom in this city until the close 
of the last century, when the following circum- 
stance caused it to be discontinued. Dr. Long- 
field, then an eminent physician here, was as 
usual attending the funeral of one of his patients, 
going to be interred at Christ Church. As the 
mournful cortege passed by the Exchange, a witty 
cobbler named Bounce, whose habitat was in this 
locality, suddenly popped his head out of his stall, 
and thus addressed the doctor : " Fine morning, 
Doctor ; I perceive you are carrying home your 
work." Since which time medical men have not 
attended funerals here. It is, however, usual in 
some of the towns in the county for the apothe- 
caries as well as the doctors to attend, wearing 
scarves and hatbands of white linen tied with 
black or white lutestring, according as the de- 
ceased may have been married or not. R. C. 

Cork. 

" Dance the hays " (2 nd S. vi. 90.) H. inquires 
the meaning of " to dance the hays," and suggests 
" haze" as an amendment. "To dance the hay or 
hays," a term well known to the dancing-masters 
in the dancing days of George III., and the old 
quadrilles of the last century, is to dance in a ring, 
like dancing round hay-cocks. Shakspeare says : 

" 1 will play on the table to these worthies, 
And let them dance the hay ; ' J 

and Michael Drayton has it : 

" This maids think on the hearth they see, 
When fires well nigh consumed be," 
There dancing hays by two and three." 

JAMES ELMES. 

Dean Swift (2 nd S. vi. 77.) In reply to H. W. 
I beg to say that it was not I, but the Rev. J. F. 
Ennis, Curate of St. Catharine's in Dublin, who 
acted as " interrogator " on the occasion alluded 
to. He informed me in 1848 of his conversation 
with the old woman anent Dean Swift, and he 
probably mentioned some other points which have 
since passed from my memory. I admit that it 
was not, strictly speaking, correct to say that the 
old woman " lately died." Your readers, however, 
may remember that my communication referred 
to men and incidents of the last century ; and 
when, in a postscript, I used the word " lately " 
in connexion with the death of one who remem- 
bered Swift in 1740, I meant comparatively lately. 
I am not certain as to the precise age of the old 
woman. The conversation took place probably 
about the year 1835. 

WILLIAM JOHN FITZ-PATRICK. 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. VI. 136., AUG. 7. '58. 



NOTES ON BOOKS AND BOOK SALES. 

The late Mr. Hill, of the Royal Society of Literature, 
had long busied himself with collecting materials for a 
history of ttfose works which, resembling in their character 
the world-renowned masterpiece of John Bunyan, had 
anticipated, and, as he seemed inclined to believe, had 
suggested, The Pilgrim's Progress. The papers which he 
left behind him at his death have fallen into most con- 
scientious and painstaking hands : the result is a volume 
full of deep interest to the admirers of John Bunyan, and 
of no small value in illustrating the history of religious 
allegories. The Ancient Poem of Guillaume de Guileville, 
entitled Le Pelerinage de FHomme compared with the Pil- 
grim's Progress of John Bunyan, edited from Notes collected 
Ly ike late Mr. Nathaniel Hill of the Royal Society of 
Literature, with Illustrations and an Appendix, is a literary 
curiosity, produced with all the elegance of the Chis- 
wick Press : and containing much information, not only 
respecting De Guileville and his curious poem, but also 
respecting his early translators Chaucer and Lidgate. 
The book, indeed, is a pleasant discourse touching the 
prevalence of allegorical literature in the Middle Ages 
the popularity of De Guileville in England the paral- 
lelisms between De Guileville and Bunyan and con- 
tains notices also of other early predecessors of our great 
allegorist. The work, let us add, is illustrated with fac- 
similes of old woodcuts and illuminations ; and is alto- 
gether a quaint, pleasant, and instructive volume. 

We have before us another proof of the benefits which 
are destined to accrue to historical literature from the 
admirable scheme of Sir John Romilly. The Rev. C. F. 
Hingeston, the learned editor of Johannis Capgrave Liber 
de Illustribus Henricis, has just published a translation of 
that work, thus placing the historical information to be 
found in it within the reach of the mere English reader. The 
Book of the Illustrious Henries, thanks to Mr. Hingeston's 
tact, preserves throughout very much the character of 
Capgrave's own book ; and we trust will be received with 
so much favour by the reading world as to justify the 
publishers in producing a series of translations of the 
more important of the Collection of Early Chronicles now 
appearing under the authority of the Master of the Rolls. 

The Quarterly sustains its character for pleasant as well 
as instructive reading. The opening article on Admiral 
Blake, founded on Hepworth Dixon's admirable biogra- 
phy, is a paper to be read with especial interest at the 
present moment, when our navy engages so much atten- 
tion. Two other articles of a biographical character give 
value to the present number ; namely, one on Wycliffe, 
and one on Professor Blunt and his works. A paper on 
Iron Bridges and one on Shipwrecks form its utilitarian 
portion. To these, perhaps, we should add the paper on 
the British Museum, in which the necessity for the re- 
moval of the Natural History Department is strongly 
insisted upon. Mr. Buckle's History of Civilisation forms 
the subject of a thorough Quarterly article ; and the small 
halfpemyworth of politics to be found within the drab 
wrapper of the great Conservative Review, is the closing 
one, " On the Condition and Future of India." 

A collection of autograph letters, and some important 
manuscripts, the property of S. W. Singer, Esq., was sold 
by Messrs. Sotheby and Wilkinson on August 3, 1858. 
A letter of John Dryden to his cousin Mrs. Stewart, 1698, 
printed in his Prose Works, 101. Another, not printed, 
containing a remonstrance to Dr. Busby respecting his 
conduct to Dryden's son, 11. Oliver Goldsmith's letter 
to Sir Joshua Reynolds, 8/. 5s. Dr. Johnson's letter of 
condolence to Lady Southwell, 51. 15*. Mary Queen of 
Scots to the Cardinal of Loraine and the Duke of Guise, 
1559, 111. 15s. A Conveyance from John Milton of the 



City of Westminster of a bond for 400J. from the Com- 
missioners of Excise to Cyriack Skinner of Lincoln's Inn, 
with the autograph signature of the poet, and his seal 
attached, 191. 19s. A most interesting, and probably 
unique letter, from " Pretty Nelly Gwynne " to Mr. Lau- 
rence Hyde, the second son of Lord Chancellor Clarendon. 
Nelly was no scribe, and could with difficulty scrawl her 
initials ; she therefore here employs the pen of one of her 
merry companions, but evidently insists upon her very 
words being written down, although she cannot make her 
write all she wishes. It sold for 131. POPIANA. Notes 
and Collections respecting Pope and his Works, consist- 
ing of Remarks on Ruffhead's Life ; notes of various in- 
quiries made by Warton, Malone, Isaac Reid, and others, 
11. 2s. 6d. CHAUCER. Troilus and Creseid, written in 
five Books by the most famous Prince of Poets, Geofrey 
Chaucer, done into Lattine, with y e Comments by Sir 
Fra. Kynaston, knt., fol. 1639. This MS. formerly be- 
longed to Dean Aldrich. 271. 10s. Promptorium Par- 
vulorum, on vellum, a MS. of the 14th century, 12/. 
Speculum Vitcc : the Myrrour of Life, a translation from 
the Latin of John of Waldby, by William of Nassyngton, 
on vellum, of the 14th century, 84/. Another copy of an 
earlier date, but imperfect, 31 J. Then followed the MS. 
collections of Joseph Spence, consisting of 21 Lots : the 
first was the original MS. of his Anecdotes of Books and 
Men, inquired after in " N. & Q." (2 n * S. iv. 452. ; v. 17.) 
A note in the Catalogue states that "in regard to the 
authenticity of these papers it may be important to state, 
that the whole of Mr. Spence's papers came into the 
hands of Bishop Lowth, who, with the Rev. Mr. Rolle, 
was one of his executors. They were given by the bishop 
to a Mr. Foster, who had been in his service as Secretarv, 
or some confidential capacity, and became at that gentle- 
man's decease the property of his nephew, from whom 
they were obtained by Mr. William Carpenter, who 
placed them in Mr. Singer's hands for publication, and 
by subsequent arrangement they became the property of 
Mr. Singer." This interesting lot was knocked down to 
the lucky purchaser for 10s. ! In Lot 200., among other 
miscellaneous papers relating to Poetical History, by Mr. 
Spence, is a valuable MS. evidently prepared for the 
press, entitled " Collections relating to the Lives of some 
of the Greek, Latin, Provincial, Italian, French, and 
English Poets, arranged in alphabetical order." It sold 
for 10s. 6d. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

GIUSEPPINO; an Occidental Story. London. 1821. 

W. AVERELL'S DIALL FOR DAINTY DARLINUS. Blackletter. 1681. 

**# Letters, statin? particulars and lowest price, carriage free, to he 

sent to MKSSHS. BELL & DALDY, Publishers of ".NOTES AND 

QUERIES," 186. Fleet Street. 

Particulars of Price, Ac., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose. 

CANONICAROM HORABUM LIBER SECUNDUM ORDINEM NOVJB RUBRICS 
IMPERIAIIS ECCLESI-* BABENBKROENSIS. John Senseuschmidt et 
Henricus Pctzensteiner. 1484. An imperfect or poor copy will do. 
Wanted by liev. J. C. Jackson, 17. Suttoii Place, Hackney. 



SUCKLING'S HISTORY OF SUFFOLK. Vol. I. 4to. 

Wanted by Thos. Jfillard, 70. Newgate Street. 



at(ce to 

JACOR. The latter fjc.ntlc.man whom you have, named, maJ.'Cs a corrc- 
Kjiintding objection. 

".NOTS AND QUKRIS" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
bix Months forwarded direct from the Publisher.-; ( incltKttng the Half- 
yi'tirl// INDEX) is 11s. 4ci., which may be paid by Post Otlice Order in 
favour of MESSRS. BKLL AND DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET, B.C.; to whom 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOR TUB EDITOR should be addressed. 



2- s. vi. is?., AUG. 14. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 14. 1858, 



INVOLUNTAKr VERSIFICATION. 

" Par ma foi," exclaims the citizen in Moliere's 
play, delighted with his newly-discovered accom- 
plishment, "par ma foi, il y a plus de quarante 
ans que je dis de la prose, sans que j'en sfusse 
rien ! " Perhaps, to take the converse of M. Jour- 
dam's case, there are not a few prose-writers in 
our own language who would be equally surprised 
to discover the variety of unsuspected metrical 
combinations that might be extracted from their 
own gravest compositions. Suppose, for instance, 
that anybody had ventured to tell one of the most 
vigorous of modern writers, the late William Cob- 
bett, that in his racy Saxon style, thrown off 
without stopping to pick out fine words, or round 
off polished sentences, and yet so full of natural 
melody, he had all along not unfrequently been 
writing verse without knowing it; or that, in those 
charming "Rural Rides" of his, he had been 
unconsciously perpetrating all sorts of classical 
metres, we may imagine the contemptuous in- 
credulity of the old man, and the torrent of the 
choicest mob-English with which he would have 
overwhelmed the pedant who dared to talk to him 
about the number of iambics and anapsests to be 
found in his pages, or the happily proportioned 
recurrence in his sentences of what the philoso- 
pher of Salisbury maintained to be " the essential 
ingredients of English prose, which, like salt in a 
banquet, serves to give it a relish the two Paeons 
and the Cretic." 

And yet, however incomprehensible all this 
would have been to the author of the Political Re- 

fister, who had not a philological notion in his 
ead, it may not be uninteresting to bring toge- 
ther a few of those curious deviations into invo- 
luntary metre which occasionally startle us in 
the writings of the greatest masters of prose com- 
position. 

In the preface to Dryden's translation of Vir- 
gil's Pastorals, the writer, comparing the harmony 
and grace of the classic poets with modern pro- 
ductions, observes, that " the Greek tongue very 
naturally falls into iambic ; and the diligent reader 
may find six or seven and twenty of them in those 
accurate orations of Isocrates. The Latin," he 
adds, "as naturally falls into heroic: the begin- 
ning of Livy's history is half a hexameter, and that 
of Tacitus an entire one; and the former histo- 
. rian, describing the glorious effort of a colonel to 
break through a brigade of the enemy, just after 
the defeat at Cannae, falls unknowingly into a 
verse not unworthy Virgil himself: 

" ' HJBC ubi dicta dedit, stringit gladium, cuneoque 
Facto per medios , &c.' " 

To the hemistich of Livy and the hexameter of 



Tacitus, he might have added the spondaic verse 
with which, by a singular coincidence, Sallust 
also commences his narrative of the Jugur thine 
war : 

" Bellum scripturus sum quod populus Komanus ; " 
and another from the same historian : 

" Cnsei Pompeii veteres, fidosque clientes," 

as well as that fine line from the Germania of Ta- 
citus (which sounds very much like a quotation 
from some Latin poet), in which he describes the 
sacred grove of the Sennones, as 

" Arguriis patrum, et prisca formidine sacram." 

But, in truth, there are few of the classical prose- 
writers in whose pages we may not discover these 
" disjecti membra poetae." * Quintilian, however, 
denounces strongly the occurrence of such casual 
verses, or fragments of verse, " Versum in ora- 
tione fieri, multo faadissimum est totum ; sicut 
etiam -in parte deforme : " Cicero, too, speaks of it 
as " valde vitiosum ; " and elsewhere, while he 
allows " numeris astrictam orationem esse debere," 
adds, that it ought " carere versibus ; " and yet no 

practice himself. 



writer oftener falls into the 



Hexameter lines are met with in his writings, 
and even his own favourite " esse videatur," which 
closes so many of his periods, is the beginning of 
an octonary iambic. Mr. Say, in his Essays on 
the Harmony, Variety, and Power ofNumbers(l 745), 
thus describes, and at the same time exempli- 
fies in English, the use and power of the iambic 
and anapasst, with which Cicero flashes in the face 
of guilty Catiline : 

" It has at once a sharp and a sudden sound : the same 
which men use when they pour out a torrent of words in 
their anger." 

There is a sort of bastard hexameter, which is 
of frequent occurrence in Latin prose-writers, 
and is perhaps a more offensive blemish in point 
of style than a legitimate verse, having the rhythm 
of the hexameter without its quantity. It is a 
curious fact, however, that this sort of slipshod 
verse was gravely practised by some of the old 
monkish writers. Commodianus, an ecclesfastical 
writer in the beginning of the fourth century, and 
a contemporary of Pope Sylvester, composed a 
treatise against the Pagan idolatry in this " mid- 
dle style," as Dupin calls it, " neither verse nor 
prose." His work is entitled Instructiones, and 
was printed from an ancient MS. by Rigaltius, in 
1650. The following crabbed lines are a specimen 
of this lawless method of versification : 

" Respicis infelix bonum discipline oelestis, 
Et ruis in mortem, dum vis sine frreno vagari, 
Perdunt te luxuria, et brevia gaudia mundi 
Unde sub inferno cruciaberis tempore toto." 

Even in the original language of the New Testa- 

* See Dissertatio de Versu inopinato in Prosa, by Fred. 
Simon Loester. Lips. 1688. 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2- s. vi. 137., AUG. u. '58. 



ment a metrical development may occasionally be 
traced; as in the first chapter of the Epistle of S. 
James, where two hexameter lines occur in the 
17th verse: 

" Ilao-a S6<rts ayady /cat TTOLV SiopTj/xa reAetov," 

and 

" OVK eVt frapoAA.ayTj, rf rpOTnjs a.7ro<TKiaoyAa." 

The first of these is so elegant, that it has been 
conjectured by several critics to be a quotation ; 
and the technical phraseology of the latter verse 
might perhaps warrant the supposition that both 
lines are a fragment of some lost astronomical 
poem. 

" Our own language and the French," adds 
Dryden's preface, " can at best but fall into blank 
verse." It is quite true that it is blank verse into 
which our own prose style seems most prone to 
run, but it is by no means the only form of in- 
voluntary metre to which it is subject. Mr. 
Crowe, the late Public-orator at Oxford, says very 
truly that an anapasstic cadence is prevalent 
through the whole Book of Psalms in our beau- 
tiful Prayer Book version. And he gives the fol- 
lowing examples, taken from the first psulin 
alone : 

"That will bring forth his fruit in due season." V. 3. 

" And, look, whatsoever he doth it shall prosper." V. 4. 

"Away from the face of the earth." V. 5. 

"Be able to stand in the judgment." V. 6. 

" And the way of the ungodly shall perish." V. 7. 

The very next psalm (in the Bible version) affords 
an example of the hexameter cadence, pointed 
out long ago by Harris in his Philological In- 
quiries : 

" Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a 
vain thing? " V. 1. 

And again : 

" Kings of the earth stand up, and rulers take counsel | 
together." V. 2. 

The following couplets also occur in the 
Psal ms : 

" Great peace have they that love thy law, 
And nothing shall offend them." 

" Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace 
Whose mind is stayed on thee." 

" let thine ears consider well 
The voice of my complaint." 

The following line is in the 1st Book of 
Samuel : 

"Surely the bitterness of death is past." 
Sometimes the New Testament version also runs 
into metrical forms : e. g , 

" When his branch is yet tender and putteth forth 

leaves, 
Ye know that the summer is nigh." 

" Husbands love your wives, and be not bitter against 
them." 



Great poets have " lisped in numbers," and Ovid 
says of his own boyhood, 

"Sponte sua carmen numeros veniebat ad aptos, 
Et quod conabar scribere, versus erat." 

Old Fuller, in his Good Thoughts, tells us, in his 
own quaint way, that " there went a tradition of 
Ovid, that when his father was about to beat him 
for following the pleasant, but profitless study of 
poetry, he, under correction, promised his father 
never more to make a verse, and made a verse in 
his very promise : 

* Parce, precor, genitor, posthac non versificabo.' 
* Father on me pity take, 
Verses I no more will make.' " 

Even in ordinary conversation there is a ten- 
dency to run into the cadence with which the 
speaker is most familiar, and it is recorded of 
John Kemble, as well as of his accomplished sis- 
ter, Mrs. Siddons, that their table-talk often flowed 
into blank verse. Sir Walter Scott used to repeat 
an amusing anecdote of the latter, who, when 
dining with him one day, unconsciously frightened 
a footboy half out of his wits, by exclaiming, with 
the look and tone of Lady Macbeth, 
" You've brought me water, boy, I asked for beer." 
The following scrap of metre occurs, strangely 
enough, in a scientific treatise by the learned 
Master of Trinity, Dr. Whewell ; but I am at this 
moment unable to lay my hand on the more precise 
reference : 

" There is no force, however great, 
Will draw a line, however fine, 
Into a horizontal line 
That shall be accurately straight." 

But perhaps the oddest instance of involuntary 
versification is one mentioned by Twining in a 
note to his translation of Aristotle's Poetics, and 
found where nobody would expect to find such a 
thing, in Dr. Smith's System of Optics. The 47th 
section, ch. ii. book i., begins thus : 

" When parallel rays 
Come contrary ways, 

And fall upon opposite sides : " 

" What," adds Twining, " would Quintilian have said 
to half an anapaestic stanza, in rhyme, produced in a ma- 
thematical book, the author of which was supposed to 
have possessed an uncommon delicacy of ear? " 

The possession of such a faculty is, however, no 
security ; for the finer ear of Addison, who would 
stop the press to add a conjunction, or to erase a 
comma, allowed the following inelegant jingling 
sentence to pass without detection : 

" What I am going to mention, will perhaps deserve your 
attention." 

Dr. Smith's ludicrous deviation into verse re- 
calls to mind an equally absurd stanza introduced 
by the poet Cowper into one of his playful letters ; 
although it can scarcely fall under the category 
of involuntary metre, inasmuch as it was the pro- 



vi. is?., AUG. u. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



duction of a young Templar of sprightly parts, 
who employed his leisure in the meritorious de- 
sign of reducing Coke's Institutes into a metrical 
form for the benefit of the legal profession, a re- 
sult cleverly effected, in the specimen given, by 
the addition to the author's text of the line in 
brackets : 

" Tenant in fee 
Simple is he, 

[And need neither quake nor quiver,] 
Who holds his lands, 
Free of all demands, 
To him and his heirs for ever." 

Of all our great writers, Milton seems to afford 
the most complete example of this kind of nume- 
rous prose. Among frequent specimens of unpre- 
meditated verse that occur in his prose-writings, 
while the lighter anapaestic cadence is rarely 
found, he generally falls into the graver iambic 
and heroic measures. His ear was so attuned to 
these cadences, that it was scarcely a poetical ex- 
aggeration to say, that he 

" . . fed on thoughts that voluntary move 
Harmonious numbers ." 

Allow me, then, in connexion with the above 
remarks, to close this paper with the result of an 
experiment which I recently made, by dipping 
into the first that came to hand of the seven 
volumes of Milton's Prose Works by Symmons 
(vol. iv. p. 14.), in order to ascertain how many 
verses of the heroic measure I could discover in a 
single page. I may add, that I made a similar 
trial with Clarendon and with Barrow, but in vain. 
With Hooker and Jeremy Taylor, especially the 
latter, I had greater success. Among contempo- 
rary writers, Lord Macaulay, in his History, not 
unfrequently falls into blank verse, and it abounds 
in the magnificent periods of Mr. De Quincey. 

I must premise, that, in arranging this page of 
Milton metrically, I have, in one or two instances, 
ventured to omit or transpose a word or a sylla- 
ble : making, however, due allowance for some 
harsh lines, the general result is certainly very re- 
markable. 

" Leir, who next reigned, had only daughters three, 
And no male issue : governed laudably, 
And built Caerleir, now Leicester, on the bank 
Of Sora. But at last, failing through age, 

Determines to bestow his daughters 

And so among them to divide his kingdom. 

Yet first, to try which of them loved him best, 
(A trial that might have made him, had he known 
As wisely how to try, as he seemed to know 
How much the trying behooved him,) he resolves 
A simple resolution, to ask them 
Solemnly in order; and which of thorn 
Should profess largest, her to believe .... 

Gonerill, the eldest, apprehending well 
Her father's weakness, answers, invoking heaven, 
That she loved him above her soul . . . 
' Therefore,' quoth the old man, o'erjoyed, ' since thou 
So honourest my declining age, to thee 
And to the husband thou shtlt choose, I give 



The third part of my realm.' So fair a speeding 
For a few words soon uttered, was to Regan, 
The second, ample instruction what. to say. 
She, on the same demand, spares no protesting ; 
'The gods must witness, that to express her thoughts 
She knew not, but that she loved him above 
All creatures; ' and receives equal reward. 

But Cordelia, 

The youngest, though the best beloved, and now 
Before her eyes the rich and present hire 
Of a little easy soothing, the danger also 
And the loss likely to betide plain dealing, 
Yet moves not from the solid purpose of a 
Sincere and virtuous answer. ' Father,' saith she, 
' My love towards you is as my duty bids : 
What should a father seek, what can a child 
More promise? They who pretend beyond this 
Flatter.' When the old man, sorry to hear 
This, and wishing her to recall those words, 
Persisted asking ; with a loyal sadness 
At her father's infirmity, but something 
O'the sudden harsh, and glancing rather at 
Her sisters, than speaking her own mind ' Two ways 
Only,' said she, ' I have to answer what you 
Require me : the former, your command, is 

I should recant ; accept then 

This other which is left me ; look how much 
You have, so much your value is, and so much 
I love you. 'Then hear thou,' quoth Leir, now all- 
in passion, ' what thy ingratitute hath gained thee ; 

because thou hast not reverenced 

Thine aged father equal to thy sisters, 
Part in my kingdom, or what 'else is mine, 

Reckon to have none.' " 

The History of Britain, Book I. 

Milton, in a Latin epistle to his Neapolitan 
friend, Manso, tells him that in early youth he 
had meditated an epic poem, which was to chro- 
nicle the chief events from the landing of Brutus 
to the time of Arthur : 

revocabo in carmine reges, 
Brennumque, Arviraguraque duces, priscumque Be- 

linum, 
Arturumque, etiam sub terris bella moventem." 

If, as has been conjectured, the youthful im- 
pulse of attachment to this subject produced his 
History of England, it is not improbable that a 
lingering reminiscence of the intended epic may 
have suggested the poetical diction, and have im- 
parted to this first book the metrical cadence that 
so largely pervades it. W. L. NICHOLS. 

Grasmere. 



SWJFT : GULLIVER'S TRAVELS. 

Few persons, while reading these grotesque 
fictions, trouble themselves to verify Swift's right, 
to the praise which has always been given to him 
for his accurate preservation of proportions. It 
may be affirmed, from his other writings, that- 
Swift was not much given to arithmetic ; and it 
may be^presumed that the eye of some friend was 
upon his manuscript of the travels. Arbutlmot 
was the most likely person : his work on ancient 
weights and measures was published nearly at the 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2^ s. vi. 137., AUG. u. '58. 



same time with Gulliver. It is worth notice that 
there is a faint resemblance to the leading idea of 
the travels, in a letter from Arbuthnot to Swift, 
so far back as 1714 : the travels appearing in 
1726 and 1727. Arbuthnot is describing what he 
intends to do with Martinus Scriblerus, who is 
to have a theory that the effect of a medicine is 
inversely as the bulk of the patient, whence he is 
to infer the comparative sizes of the ancients and 
moderns from the quantities of their doses. 

Swift has masked with so much art the arith- 
metical questions which arise, that the interest of 
the reader is well preserved. If any one had been 
made to see, on opening the book, that the Lilli- 
putian scale is one inch to each of our feet, and 
the Brobdingnagian one foot to each of our inches, 
he would have felt that the author had not left 
himself much to calculate. I have no doubt that 
many of your readers will admit that they never 
collected, from the actual travels, the idea of this 
simple proportion running through the whole. It 
is only let out gradually, and under precautions. 
The first Lilliputian who enters on the scene is 
described as " a human creature not six inches 
high." Fortunately for Swift, the average stature 
of a man must be described as " not six feet : " 
had it been six feet, with nothing to speak of 
more or less, he must have discovered the scale at 
the very outset. In like manner, the first definite 
indication of the Brobdingnagian stature is con- 
veyed in the description of a monster who " took 
about ten yards at every stride : " the average 
human step is thirty inches, the twelfth part of ten 
yards. 

There would have been no difficulty about the 
proportions of lengths : but it may be questioned 
whether Swift would, without assistance, have 
given a true account of solid proportions. Gil- 
bert White was a very keen observer, but he 
printed a tremendous mistake (Nat. Hist, of Sel- 
borne, Letter xci.) which has not, I think, been 
noticed by any of his commentators. A plover 
having legs eight inches long to four ounces and a 
quarter of weight, he presumes that a flamingo, 
weighing four pounds, ought to have legs ten 
feet long, to be as longlegged a bird, for its weight, 
as the plover. For ten feet he ought to have said 
twenty inches ; which is about what the flamingo 
actually has. Swift is correct enough on such 
points, to the surprise, no doubt, of some of his 
readers, who may be puzzled to know how it is 
that a large Lilliputian hogshead only holds half 
a pint. Some readers will say (as White would 
have done) that this is making our hogsheads hold 
only twelve half pints : but for 12 should be 
read 12 X 12 x 12 or 1728. Thus the cask which 
Gulliver emptied at a draught answers to 108 gal- 
lons in one of our hogsheads, and this would be the 
Brobdingnagian half-pint. This 1728 is, however, 
put down as 1724 in the description of the num- 



ber of daily dinners allowed to the Man-moun- 
tain ; a slight mistake in multiplication. If there 
be a point in which Swift has overdone the mon- 
ster, it is when he makes him drag after him 
fifty line-of-battle ships, which had held 30,000 
men. Swift therefore supposes that a man, up to 
his neck in water, could drag by a rope a mass 
equal to 50-1728ths of a line-of-battle ship of his 
own time. This is a feat of the following kind. 
Make a model of an average line-of-battle ship of 
Swift's time on a linear scale of 4-13ths; that is, 
for every 13 feet let the model have 4 feet. Fill 
the model with stores of the proper size, but let 
there be neither guns nor crew. CouM a man up 
to his neck in water drag this model after him? 
I think not. Or put it thus : The 30,000 men 
who jumped out of their ships when they saw 
what was coming would amount in weight and 
bulk to a little more than seventeen men of our 
size. Could a man, up to his neck in water, drag 
the boat which would hold seventeen men not 
closely packed? Probably not; and still less 
could Gulliver have dragged the ships. 

There is one point which it probably never 
entered into Swift's head to provide for. He evi- 
dently means the force of gravity to be same in 
Lilliput as in England. ISTow, in order to judge of 
the relation of a Lilliputian to gravity by making 
the case our own, we must proceed thus. Imagine 
gravitation to be augmented into a force of such 
energy that a stone should fall twelve times as far 
in the first second as it now does : it is plain that 
our bodies, knit together as they now are, would not 
support their own weight. Gulliver's Lilliputians, 
such as Swift meant them to be, would have been 
mechanical impossibilities, unless their muscular 
power had been such that a much smaller number 
of them than Swift intended could have held down 
the man-mountain by main force. The fiction 
corresponding to Gulliver, as to the matter of 
gravitation, has been written in our own day. It 
is the " Tale of a Chemist," which first appeared, 
I think, in Knight's Quarterly Magazine, and was 
reprinted in 1846 in Knight's Penny Magazine 
(vol. ii. p. 177.). This chemist learns how to 
pump the gravity out of his own body, and goes 
through a number of adventures in consequence. 

It has not, so far as I can find, been noted by 
the commentators that the Lilliputian religion is 
by no means uncommon among us: not indeed 
that its followers form a distinct sect, but that they 
are scattered through all persuasions. Gulliver has 
given only one of their doctrines, but that one is 
quite enough to substantiate my assertion : it is 
contained in the following words, " All true be- 
lievers break their eggs at the convenient end." 

The voyage to Laputa is pronounced by John- 
son to be the least amusing of the Gulliver fictions. 
Swift is here attempting to ridicule a class of 
men of whom he knew nothing ; and his success 



2"* S . vi. 137., AUG. 14. '58.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



125 



arises from his readers knowing as little. It is 
dangerous to attempt an attack on any knowledge 
of which the assailant is ignorant, whether in ficti- 
tious representation or sober argument. In our 
own day we have had an assailant of the mathema- 
tical sciences, of no mean name, wbo was so little 
versed in the meaning of the most elementary 
terms that, in an attempt of his own to be ma- 
thematical, he first declares two quantities to be 
one and the same quantity, and then proceeds to 
state that of these two identical quantities the 
greater the one the less is the other. 

Swift's satire is of course directed at the mathe- 
maticians of his own day. His first attack upon 
them is contained in the description of the flap- 
pers, by which the absorbed philosophers were 
recalled to common life when it was necessary. 
Now there is no proof that, in Swift's time, or in 
any time, the mathematician, however capable of 
withdrawing his thoughts while actually engaged 
in study, was apt to wander into mathematics 
while employed in other business. No such thing 
is recorded even of Newton, a man of uncommon 
power of concentration. The truth I believe to 
be, that the power of bringing the whole man to 
bear on one subject which is fostered by mathe- 
matical study, is a power which can be, and is, 
brought into action on any other subject : so that 
a person used to mathematical thought is deep in 
the concern of the moment, totus in illo, more 
than another person ; that is, less likely to wander 
from the matter in hand. Should any one of 
your readers be prepared to name a mathema- 
tician of whom he thinks that Swift's Laputan is 
a fair caricature, I will enter upon the point by 
the help of existing biographies. 

Swift's technical knowledge is of a poor kind. 
According to him, beef and mutton were served 
up in the shapes of equilateral triangles, rhom- 
boids, and cycloids. This beats the waiter who 
could cover Vauxhall Gardens with a ham. These 
plane figures have no thickness : and I defy all your 
readers to produce a mathematician who would 
be content with mutton of two dimensions. As 
to the bread, which appeared in cones, cylinders, 
and parallelograms, the mathematicians would 
take the cones and cylinders for themselves, and 
leave the parallelograms for Swift. 

The tailor takes Gulliver's altitude by a quad- 
rant, then measures all the dimensions of his 
body by rule and compass, and brings home the 
clothes all out of shape, by mistaking a figure in 
the calculation. Now first, Swift imagines that 
-the altitude taken by a quadrant is a length ; 
whereas it is an angle. Drinkwater Bethune, in his 
Life of Galileo, tells a story of a Cambridgeshire 
farmer who made a similar mistake, confounding 
the degree of the quadrant with the degree, 69 
miles odd, on the earth's surface: by which he 
brought out strange conclusions as to the sun's 



distance. It is awkward satire to represent the 
mathematician as using the quadrant to deter- 
mine an accessible distance. Next, what mathe- 
matician would use calculation when he had all 
his results on paper, obtained by rule and com- 
pass ? Had Swift lived in our day, he would have 
made the tailor measure the length of Gulliver's 
little finger, and then set up the whole body by 
calculation, just as Cuvier or Owen would set up 
some therium or saurus with no datum except the 
end of a toe. 

According to Swift, the houses are ill built, 
without a right angle in any apartment, from the 
contempt the Laputans have for practical geo- 
metry. Swift knew the ideas of the Platonic 
school better than those of his own time, in which 
a course of mathematics included almost every- 
thing to which geometry or arithmetic could be 
applied. Swift lived at the time which just pre- 
ceded the separation, in the treatises, of pure and 
applied mathematics: at the time in which this 
separation was about to become an imperative 
necessity. The great Cursus Mathematicus of 
Dechales (4 vols. fol.), of which the second edi- 
tion was published in 1690, represents the idea 
attached to mathematics in his youth. It contains, 
besides what we should now call mathematics, 
practical geometry, mechanics, statics, geography, 
the magnet, civil architecture, construction of 
roofs, cutting of stones, military architecture, hy- 
drostatics, hydraulics, navigation, optics, music, 
fireworks, the astrolabe, dialling, astronomy, as- 
trology, the calendar. 

The touch at the belief in astrology, then not 
uncommon among astronomers, is fair satire : but 
Swift contradicts himself when he makes his ma- 
thematicians strongly addicted to public affairs. 
He speaks with great contempt of their political 
opinions, which we may explain if we remember 
that Swift was a Tory, and the most leading ma- 
thematicians were Whigs. His arithmetic is good. 
His diameter of 7837 yards does give his 10,000 
acres; and his satellites of Mars are correctly 
placed, so as to have the squares of the times as 
the cubes of the distances. I have no doubt Jie 
was here helped to the true answers. That Swift 
could himself extract a cube root, or use loga- 
rithms, is more than Apella would have believed, 
even after twenty years' service in the marines. 

The college of projectors satirises a peculiar 
class of men, of whom few are to be found among 
well-informed mathematicians. Swift has made a 
sad bungle of the only case in which he had to 
use technical terms : 

" There was an astronomer who had undertaken to 
place a sundial upon the great weathercock oil the town 
house, by adjusting the annual and diurnal motions of the 
earth and sun, so as to answer and coincide with all acci- 
dental turnings of the wind." 

What this may satirise I cannot guess. Did 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



d S. VI. 137., AUG. 14. '58. 



Swift confound the adjustment of the theory or 
tables of a celestial body with the adjustment of 
the celestial body itself? 

When Swift brings forward Scotus and llarnus, 
and presents them to Aristotle as standing to him 
in the same relation as Didymus and Eustathius 
to Homer, he shows more ignorance than a scholar 
ought to have had. Had he written now, he 
might as well have presented M c Culloch and 
Cobbett as in one and the same relation to Adam 
Smith. Ramus would have offered to maintain 
QucBCunque ab Aristotele, et multo magis a Scoto, 
dicta essent, commenticia esse : while Cobbett 

would have asked Swift what the he meant 

by bringing him acquainted with two " Scotch 
feelosophers." 

Of the voyage to the Houyhnhms there is 
nothing to be said : for there are no proportions 
in the story, geometrical or moral. Of its details 
I shall only say, first, that Swift was quite wrong 
when he said no animal is fond of salt except man ; 
next, that Queen Anne was quite right when, 
years before, she refused to allow Swift to be made 
a bishop. A. DE MORGAN. 



BAPTISM OF JAMES PRINCE OF SCOTLAND, AFTER- 
WARDS KING JAMES SIXTH OF SCOTLAND AND 
FIRST OF ENGLAND. 

The baptism of this prince is noticed by Bu- 
chanan and Robertson, but without any particular 
details. The latter says that the Earl of Bedford, 
the English ambassador, was attended by a nu- 
merous and splendid train. Francis, the second 
Earl of Bedford, K.G., called by his biographers 
" the Great Earl of Bedford," the brightest orna- 
ment of his eminent family," was, after "many 
public employments, sent by Queen Elizabeth in 
the year 1566 to stand surety for her Majesty in 
the office of godmother, which she had taken upon 
herself at the request of Queen Mary. The Earl 
carried with him, as is said, a font of pure gold, 
as an honorary gift at the solemnity of the chris- 
tening, which took place 15 December in that year. 

The Earl of Bedford was honourably employed 
on many subsequent occasions, wherein one was 
to treat with the ambassadors of France sent to 
negotiate a marriage between the Duke of Anjou 
and Queen Elizabeth. He stood godfather to the 
renowned navigator Sir Francis Drake, who took 
from him his Christian name. The earl died at 
Bedford House in the Strand, July 25, 1585. 

In a manuscript in the College of Arms is pre- 
served the following account of the Earl of Bed- 
ford's progress and reception : 

" A brefe notte of my Lord of Beddfortfs enter- 
taynement into Scotland to the Christening of 
theyre young prynce. 
" 1586. Monday being the ix th of December, my 

lord of Bedforde toke his Jorney w th all the Eng- 



lyshe gent, towards Donebare, and at the bownde 
Redde ther mett him the Lord Hordme, the Lord 
of Shefford, the 1. of Ormeston, the L. Heaton, the 
Le Hatton, the le Howsto, the Le Langton, and 
James Lader of the privie chamber, w th divers 
others, to the nomber of one hundreth horse, or 
ther a boutts, and w th in iiij myles of Donne barre, 
at a place called Enderwik, ther mett my L. of B., 
M r Jaymes Melvyn, a sarvant to the Quene of 
Scotts ; agayne w th in one myle of the said towne 
ther mett him the L. Whitlawe, Captayne of Don- 
barr, w th xij or xvj horsse ; and at our entrynge 
of the said towne, we had a volye of ordenaunce 
out of the castell of xxiiij u shott ; that night my 
1. was p'sented from the Captayne w th wyldfovvle, 
wyne, and conyes, &c. The next daye, the x th of 
the same montlie, ther went out of the towne of 
Donbarr w th my L. of B., the Lord Herune and 
his trayne, ij myles or therabotts towards Eten- 
borowgh, and ther mett w th him therle of Sother- 
land and one Justice Clarke, the Le. of Basso, 
the Le. of Waroghto, the Le of Trebrowne, the 
Le of Sownton, the le of Colston, the Le of 
Brymston, the Le. of 'Caveston, the le of Edmes- 
ton, and Oliver Synkler, w th many other, to the 
nomber of vij xx horse ; and at mosselborowgh they 
mett w th him ther the Lord of Bortyck w th xx u 
horse ; and a myle from Etenborowghe ther mett 
w th him the le of Cragmyle, otherwise cawled the 
Provest of Etenbowrghe, w th divers the burgeses 
and marchaunts of the towne to the nomber of viij xx 
horse, and so entered the towne of Etenborowghe ; 
and being in the myds of the streat, ther was shott 
xv greate pecs of ordinaunce out of the castell, and 
then we past to the Duk Shatteleroys, w ch was 
ffurnyshed w th hangings, and a riche bedde of the 
Quenes for my Lord of Bedford to lye in, and 
a nother for m r Gary. The xi th daye of Decem- 
ber, in the morning erly, my Lord of Bedford, w th 
all the gent., went to a sarmond in S l Gyles 
Churche ; and after dyner he went to the French 
in." G. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON MEMORIAL STONES OF THE 
SCOTTISH COVENANTERS. 

(Concluded from p. 105.) 
Tablet on the South Wall of the High Churchyard. 
" Here lyes the Body of y e Rev d . M r . Robert Maxwell who 
Served Chryst in the work of the Gospel at Monk-toun 
& Prestick from 1640 to 1665 when he was Ejected for 
Nonconformity & after that Exercised his Ministry 
Partly there and partly in this City & the Conn trey 
Round till March 26. 1686 when he fell asleep 
In Christ at Bogtoun House Cathcart aged 75 
& Robert Maxwell his Son and Euphan Paton his Spouse 
& belong 8 to Mr. Patrick Maxwell Min r at Inchenan * 
And now to his Son the Rev d Mr. Thomas Maxwell 
Minister of Stewarton 1777.f" 

* He died in 1749. 

f I possess a document, very carefully written, from 
the hand of this minister, granted to my grandmother by 



2- s. vi. 137., AUG. 14. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



(A tablet below, tlie inscription now nearly 
worn out, notices the more remote descent of the 
family.) 

" Here lyes the body of Patrick Maxwell 
of Allhouse * Mercht. Taylor who died 
deacon Conveener f Septr. 1623, & 
Bessy Boyd, his Spouse." 

the father's side. It is cited simply as a curiosity to show 
the readers of " N. & Q." a specimen of what was called 
a Church Certificate or " Sine," given to a person when 
removing from one 'place to another parish or district of 
the country, viz. : " That the Bearer Jean Whyte * a 
Widdow resided in this parish for the most part from her 
Infancy Untill the date hereof Behaveing her Self Soberly 
and Honestly, free of publick Scandal or Ground of Church 
Censure known to us Was Allowed to partake of the Sa- 
crament of the Lords Supper In this place. And for any 
thing Known here at her removeal from this parish May 
be Admitted a Member of Any Christian Congregation or 
Society where providence shall Determine her Lott (to 
the Interval of Session) Is Attested Att Stewartoun 
This 30 th Day of May 1772 years .... By .... 

" Tho s Maxwell Min*. 
John Bell Sess. Clk." 

* Or Auldhouse, near Pollock Shaws, the latter the 
Seat of Sir John Maxwell of Pollock. 

f The head of the fourteen Incorporations of the Trades' 
House of Glasgow. The property of Auldhouse had come 
into the hands of Robert Sanders, Printer in Glasgow, 
who by a Deed of Mortification dated 9th February, 1728, 
made provision in it in favour of a student who has passed 
the course of philosophy, and is following his studies in 
divinity in the University, in order to become a preacher 
of the Gospel, value 100/. of Scots money, to be held for 
live years, as also to the Merchants' House of the city of 
Glasgow for " the use, well, and behoove of the poor de- 
cayed Members thairof," and for having five poor boys 
bound apprentices to lawful trades. He also subsequently 
left his whole moveable estate to the Merchants' House 
for the same benevolent purposes. The heritable estate 
is described in the deed as " All and hail, that my fyve 
merk land of old extent of Auldhouse with the mannour 
place theirof, houses, biggings, yeards, orchards, mosses, 
muires, meadows, and haill parts, privileges, and perti- 
nents thereto belonging ; and sicklyke, all and haill, that 
my maines of Kirkland of Eastwood, extending to ane 
thirteen shilling four pennie land of old extent (&c.) all 
lying within the parochine of Eastwood (of this parish 
the eminent historian Robert Wodrow was long minister) 
and Sheriffdome of Renfrew." Sanders was a bookseller 
as well as a printer, and kept a shop first above the Gram- 
mar school Wynd (High Street), and afterwards in the 
Salt Market. In acknowledgment of his bounty a fine 
full-length oil-portrait of him was placed in the Mer- 
chants' Hall, still to be seen. His father Robert Sanders 
(but who was a printer only) was the first who took the 
title of " Printer to the City," and frequently used the 
city arms on his title-pages with the old motto. From 
the press of both father and son (but particularly from 
that of the former) emanated a great many books, tracts, 
poems (some of the latter good specimens "of black letter), 
and curious publications, several of which I have seen oc- 
casionally in London Catalogues, and are now much 
prized by Bibliophilists and those persons concerning 
themselves with old-world literature, respecting whom a 
large portion of the Scotch people would pronounce 
" half daft," and for whose benefit the information of this 
Note is principally intended. Mr. Sanders, junior, left no 

* Her maiden name. 



In the Churchyard of the village of Cathcart. 
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This is a fine original stone in good preserva- 
tion, a fac-simile of which I made nearly forty 
years ago. The scene of this inhuman trans- 
action, " Lone of Polmadie," lies two miles south- 
eastof Glasgow, and about three miles from the 
place of interment. An author who had been a 
"living witness" of these barbarities, commenting 
on the times in a " Warm and Serious Address^ 
Glasgow, printed for Robert Smith, and sold by 
him at his shop at the sign of the Gilt Bible, Salt 
Marcat, 1742," 12mo. pp. 16., thus most graphic- 
ally and feelingly speaks : 

"Indeed at the Restoration there were Divisions 
amongst our Pastors and Teachers, and the Lord of 
the Vineyard was angry and made the fire of his Anger 
burn hot against his own Altar, that the Blood of the 
Martyrs of our Lord behov'd to be shed for the guilt of a 
broken Covenant. Indeed at that Time the Gospel was 
banished from the Churches, for Tyranny was then upon 
the Throne and in the Court, and Prelacy and Hierarchy 
were then in the Church ; yea Truth was banished out of 
the Land, and Prophanity of all Kinds was tollerate and 
approven of without restraint, and serious Godliness durst 
not appeal', neither in Publick nor Private, for the Law 
then made it Death if known in Publick or in private 
Families. The Soldiers had Orders to stop family Wor- 
ship, of which I am a living Witness: Yea, Major Bal- 

issue. I think it may be inferred from the tenour of the 
deed, that at the time he executed it, he was a widower, 
but had not given up hopes of a " future marriage," and 
of children being " procreat of his body." 



128 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. vi. 137., AUG. 11. '58. 



four * (see epitaph) made it his Business to go thorow, 
especially on the Sabbath Night, with his Men ; and if he 
heard any that were worshipping God, if he could not get 
Access to them, he broke open the Doors ; and if there 
^were any amongst them, not belonging to that Family, 
he carried all of them to Prison. And this was the Case 
until the Reign of K. James the Seventh, when he granted 
a Toleration for all Sects, which no doubt was designed 
for Evil, but our gracious God turned it about for Good. 
Glory be to God for Christ, whose Merits procured it. 
And Glory be to the only wise and merciful God, that 
altho' the Design was bad, he brought out of the Womb 
of his providential Care and Love to his poor persecuted 
Church an happy Revolution, by that now glorified In- 
strument K. William of blessed "Memory, whom our gra- 
cious God made use of to deliver us from bloody Tyranny 
and Slavery, and give us free Liberty and Exercise of 
Gospel-worship, in plenty and purity, whereby many 
Sons and Daughters were begotten by the Word of Truth, 
being backed by the powerful Spirit of Jehovah; and 
many made to flock in to the blessed Shiloh, to the ad- 
vancing of the Mediator's Kingdom and Glory in poor 
degenerated Scotland. I am a living Witness of God's 
signal appearing at that Time." 

In another curious and scarce pamphlet, dated 
" Edinburgh, Sept. 1742," we learn that it was 
" Done by an old soldier of Drumclog who was 
Author of the (preceding) Warm Address," and who 
resided " on this side of the Water of Air." The 
religion of this veteran, like that described by the 
author of Sir Hudibras : 

" 'Twas Presbyterian true Blue, 
For he was of that stubborn Crew 
Of Errant Saints, whom all Men grant 
To be the true church Militant." 

(Edit. Dublin, 1732, Canto i. p. 26.) 

But not seemingly having been able altogether to 
enjoy the tranquil and prosperous days of the 
church which he had seen 

" The Trenchant Blade, Toledo trusty, 
For want of Fighting was grown rusty, 
And ate into itself for lack 
Of some Body to hew and hack." 

Ibid. p. 32. 

He had, therefore, set about defending her 
against all her foes, whether Deists f, or religious 

* This hero may in future be classed with the " bloody 
Clavers." 

f He levelled hia musket at Robert Foulis, " Elzevir of 
Glasgow," and thus amusingly descants: "Beware of a 
piece printed by Robert Foulis, printer in Glasgow, which 
I am persuaded is abominable lies, and wonder that any 
man should have taken in hand to print it, being such a 
corrupt piece. I have been at some pains to inquire what 
Foulis is, and from whom he is descended, and I hear he 
is the son of one Andrew Foulis (Faulls), that kept a 
two-penny change (public house) above the Tolbooth, 
and that his son was a shaver to his trade, but got a flea 
in his lug (ear), and went to France, and there he got a 
lick of a French mug (the holy water), which has quali- 
fied him to work wickedness, now when he has come 
home, which I would not have thought, that such a fellow 
as he, who is the extract of dull droff drink, would have 
been so active in wickedness. . . . But I know what 
Foulis will say for himself, says he, 'tis the privilege of 
the press. A poor insipid ground to warrant you to pub- 
lish lies, and destroy revealed religion and advance Deism. 



bodies of his countrymen lately sprung up, who 
had dissented from her communion, and had dis- 
gusted him with their inconsistencies and certain 
modes of Church Polity. He favours us with his 
views in the following paragraph from the above- 
mentioned pamphlet : 

" This from an old soldier who lived in these times 
aforesaid, and carried arms before and since the Revolu- 
tion in defence of Presbyterian Church Government, and 
was, and is willing to spend and be spent to support the 
true interest of Christ in poor Scotland. Having drawn 
his sword in defence of this good cause, he will not put it 
up, through the strength of my Captain General Christ, 
until I beat down his, and my enemies of Christ's Church 
in this land so much ran down by the Devil, and glib 
Gib* and his adherents." 

. . But perhaps you (Foulis) will say I am a Jesuit, 
and for that my master keeps me. Well, then, I advise 
you to go back to France, and trade and traffick there ; 
for indeed your ware is not the commodity that Scotland, 
especially Glasgow and the West of Scotland, hath use 
for, if it be not some godless Atheists that live among us," 
&c. ... He also aims a volley at one of the Professors of 
the University : "I am informed that piece of Robert 
Foulis's printing did flow from one of the Teachers in the 
University of Glasgow. Had I been acquaint with them, 
I might have known more still ; but being at a distance, 
I am at a loss ; but were I present, I would not be afraid 
to answer some of that teacher's learn'd, couch'd, deistical 
performances, which is a trampling upon revealed re- 
ligion and serious godliness, take care least God spue 
you out of his mouth. Rev. iii. and 16 ver." 

* Adam Gib was an early minister in Edinburgh of the 
Secession Church, and one of the leaders of the Anti- 
burgher split from it. He was an able clergyman, but it 
is said sometimes gave sufficient room for attack, through 
his scurrility, bad temper, and haughtiness; he, however, 
met with his match in his opponent, the " old soldier " of 
Drumclog, as must be allowed by all in the following 
specimen : " Now Adam, altho' of a long time you have 
been purging out a great deal of your filth and excre- 
ments, you have not provided a place without the camp 
to dig, so as you may cover that which has come from 
you. Have j r ou got a paddle upon your weapone to dig 
with ? If you have not provided these, I pray you, Adam, 
haste you ; for the stink is so great, that the filth that 
has come from you, in the camp of God, by your want of 
a right place, and a paddle to dig and cover it, is like to 
raise a dreadful plague in the Lord's camp." This pam- 
phlet \vas followed by a rejoinder, entitled " A Seasonable 
Advice to Mr. Adam Gib (Minister of the Gospel at Edin- 
burgh}, and the rest of his Brethren anent Love and 

Charity, by J. W , A.M., Glasgow, 1742," 12mo., pp. 

8. ; " with some Remarks on the Observations published 
by Andrew IFaddell, Soldier in Dumbarton Castle," who 
turns out to be the Old Soldier of Drumclog. This more 
polished writer had, however, formed too low an estimate 
of the latter in addressing Adam Gib, when he says : " It 
cannot but wound any good Man who loves Religion, to 
see a mean common Soldier, who perhaps understands 
little of Learning or Piety, provoked by your invectives to 
take you to task," &c. The "soldier" had doubtless 
been an old Covenanter both of knowledge and virtue in 
its extensive meanings, and who wielded a vigorous quill, 
and, what was remarkable in one of his religious stand- 
ing, had divested himself of popular prejudices in having 
also become an eloquent and judicious advocate for White- 
field, in " A Warning and Reproof, with Advice from the , 
word to those (the Secession] who have spoken, and do 



a-* s. YI. is?., AUG. 14. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



The foregoing extracts, together with the Epi- 
taph, may so far serve as a mirror to Lord Ma- 
caulay in. which to see himself and the period in 
relation to the despised Covenanters, who were 
good stuff, and not men to be meddled with. 

These extracts and foot-notes may be rather 
lengthy, but I think the old soldier such a verit- 
able fac- simile of those who so gallantly behaved 
at the battle of Drumclog, that to do him and his 
party justice scarcely less could be said ; and he 
is well worth mustering to public view, even in 
the days of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. He had 
been a native of Lanarkshire. 

In the Churchyard of Hamilton. 

" At Hamilton 

lie the heads of 

John Parker, Gavin Hamilton 

James Hamilton 

and 

Christopher Strang 

who suffered at 

Edinburgh 

Dec r . 7. 1066 _ 

(four sculptured heads in a line) 
Stay, passenger take notice 

what thou reads ; 
At Edinburgh lie our bodies 

here our heads ; 
Our right hands stood at Lanark, 

these we want ; 
Because with them we swarc 

the Covenant. 
Renewed 

MDCCCXVIII." 

G. N. 



NOTES ON HYMN-BOOKS AND HYMN WRITERS. NO. I. 

The English churches are rich in hymns. Since 
the Reformation a great amount of religious 
poetry has got into circulation. Some of it is trans- 
lated, some of it consists of paraphrases of scrip- 
ture ; but the greatest part is original. Hymns, 
properly so called, these pieces are not. Many of 
them are prayers in verse. Many describe the 
spiritual conflicts of the writers. All are curious 
as marks of the depth of feeling of their ages. It 



speak Calumniously, and with Bitterness against the 
Work of the Spirit of God at Cambuslang, Kilsyth, and 
Cadder, and other places in the Land ; by one who loves 
to have the Mediator's Kingdom and Glory advanced, in 
gaining of Souls to him, by Gospel Means, according to 
his Will in his Word. N.B. By the Author of the Warm 
and Serious Addrens. Glasgow: printed by William 
Duncan, in Salt-mercat, 1742," 12mo. pp. 24. In addition 
there are " Observations in Defence of the Work at Cam- 
buslang against the Malicious Spirit of the Act of the 
Associate Presbytery Anent their Late Fast, written by a 
Soldier. Glasgow: printed by R. Smith, 1742," 12mo., 
pp. 8. Here, with martial fire,'he speaks of " King George 
my Master." In all probability he was connected with 
the first raised Cameronian Regiment, and who, at the 
date of these effusions, must have seen at least his four- 
score years. These tracts are from a collection relating 
to those times in my possession. 



would be a work of interest to trace them to their 
sources. But from their being imputed to vari- 
ous writers, it is often very difficult to find out 
their true authors. Our hymn-books are innu- 
merable. Their quality, however, is far inferior 
to their quantity. Frequently the writers' names 
are not attached to their compositions. The col- 
lections used by the Church of England are ge- 
nerally very meagre : the collections used by 
dissenters are often filled with mere religious 
rhymes. In some of the former the editors only 
admit what has been written by their own ortho- 
dox divines ; in many of the latter they insert 
much that is unpoetical and untasteful. Many 
hymns have been so altered that it is impossible 
to find out their originals. John Wesley, in his 
preface to the Methodist collection, begs that all 
compilers who may wish to borrow any composi- 
tions from it will do so without alteration, because 
they cannot improve upon what the authors meant 
to express. But though no selector has a right to 
alter, he may omit or choose particular verses. 
To this, the most severe writer can have no ob- 
jection. 

Heal hymns, that is songs of adoration, we have 
few. But nominal hymns, many of which possess 
great beauty, are very plentiful. The true gold 
needs to be carefully melted out from the masses 
of dross with which it is mixed. It will well re- 
pay the trouble taken to separate it, and yield a 
rich reward. Our hymns are the heirlooms of 
the Church and nation : as much a part of their 
wealth as cathedrals and castles ; as much a part 
of their glory as martyrs and poets. They should 
therefore be duly cared for. 

The monks of Britain seem to have had but 
little of the spirit of poetry. Caius Sedulius, a 
native of Scotland, who lived about 340, and who 
is said to have become Bishop of Achaia, wrote a 
hymn beginning : 

" A solis ortus cardine." 

But no very good translation of it has been 
made. Beda, also, was the writer of several. 
" Hymnum canamus glorias," 

is perhaps his best. Of this we have no worthy 
English version. 

Csedmon the cowherd rendered portions of the 
Bible into Anglo-Saxon verse. He also composed 
some hymns that were extensively sung by the 
people. But interesting as they are as relics of a 
by-gone age, they are but of slight use to a 
modern hymnist. 

Up to the time of the Reformation, the sacred 
poetry of the Church is common property. It 
should, therefore, when translated, find a place in 
every hymn-book that makes a claim to complete- 
ness. Many of these translutionsfroni the Latin 
are finding their way into general use. A few of 
the compositions of the best writers all of which, 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. vi. 137., AUG. H. >58. 



with many others, we want revived are the un- 
rhymed hymns of Ambrose ; the Cathemerinon of 
Prudentius ; " Veni Creator Spiritus," sometimes 
ascribed to Charlemagne, and certainly written 
about that period ; " Totum Deus in te spero," by 
Hildebert ; " Jesus dulcis Memoria," by Bernard 
of Clairvaux ; " De Contemptu Mundi," by Ber- 
nard de*Morley : 

" Brief life is here our portion, 

Brief sorrow, short-lived care ; 
The life that knows no ending, 
The tearless life is there. 



more space. I trust you will allow me room for 
some remarks another time. HUBERT BOWER. 



" But now we fight the battle, 

And then we wear the crown, 
Of true, and everlasting, 
And passionless renown. 

" Thine ageless walls are bounded 

With amethyst unpriced ; 
Thy saints build up its fabric, 

And the corner stone is Christ. 
Thou hast no shore, fair ocean, 

Thou hast no night, bright day ; 
Dear fountain of refreshment 

To pilgrims far away." 

" Dies Iras," by Thomas of Celano, of which we 
have several translations and imitations. Perhaps 
for vigour, the best is the one by Mr. Irons.^ Sir 
Waiter Scott has caught its force and fire in his 
" Day of wrath, that dreadful day." Herrick ap- 
pears to have imitated some parts of it in his 
"Litany to the Holy Spirit." " Stabat Mater," 
by James de Benedictis. After this the Middle 
Age ecclesiastical poetry began to decline. Fran- 
cis Xavier, however, about the time of the Eng- 
lish Reformation, produced his wonderful but 
mystic hymn, " O Deus, ego arno Te." Several 
translations of it have been made. The following 
imitation has perhaps caught a little of its spirit : 
" My Saviour I would love Thee well. 

With pure and perfect love ; 
Not from the dread of pains in hell, 

Nor hope of joys above. 
When Thou Avert hanging on the wood, 

Thou didst my soul embrace ; 
And when the spear set free Thy blood, 

That mystic fount of grace, 
" Thou worest a purple robe for me, 

A crown of twisted thorn ; 
Yes, Lord, for one Thine enemy, 

Who mocked in bitter scorn. 
" Then why do I not love Thee more, 

Most loving Jesus, why ? 
Not from the fear of Satan's power, 

Nor hope of joys on high? 
" Not that my soul should rise above 

One single painful thing ? 
But with a pure, unselfish love, 

my eternal King." 

I had hoped to be able to say a few words about 
the versifiers of the Psalms, and the writers of 
English hymns. But I cannot ask you for any 



Robert Dundas. The central house on the west 
side of Adam Square, Edinburgh, now occupied 
by the School of Arts, was at one time possessed 
by Robert Dundas of Arniston, who held the 
office of Lord President of the Court of Session 
from 1760 to 1797. In reference to his Lordship's 
possession of it, the following jeux d'esprit are re- 
counted. 

The Lord President, by his casting vote, de- 
cided the famous Douglas cause against the legi- 
timacy of the claimant, the first Lord Douglas : 
the other judges having been equally divided in 
opinion, seven to seven. His view had been pre- 
viously supposed to be otherwise ; but when the 
final judgment (afterwards reversed by the House 
of Peers) was given, he stated that he had " got 
a new light" on the subject. He was conse- 
quently very obnoxious to the mob, who took a 
warm interest for the claimant ; and on the after- 
noon of the day, a concourse of people surrounded 
his door, and broke his windows. His Lordship 
appeared at one of these, and civilly inquired of 
the assailants why they did so ? To which a wag 
in the crowd replied : . 

" Your Lordship has said you have got a new light,' 
As your windows are broken, 'twill shine in more 
bright." 

After the Lord President's death, the house 
came to be occupied by a Mr. Spottiswoode, an 
ironmonger ; on which change of tenants, the fol- 
lowing distich was made, it is said, by Henry Er- 
skine, then Dean of the Faculty of Advocates : 

" This house, where last a lawyer dwelt, 
A smith does now possess. 
How naturally the Iron Age 
Succeeds the Age of Brass." 

G. 
Edinburgh. 

" / do not pin my faith upon his sleeve" The 
singularity and apparent irrelevancy of this saying 
has induced me, for want of better evidence, to 
hazard the following conjecture: In feudal 
times, and at later periods, when heraldry was a 
social science, and persons of family were known 
by their arms, or cognisance or crest, commonly 
called their badge, as well or better than by their 
names, it was the practice for their servants and 
personal attendants to wear sewed or pinned on 
their sleeve the cognisance of their master on a 
round silver plate, like our watermen of the pre- 
sent day. But in times of feud or party strife 
these badges were sometimes forged or fabricated 
for the occasion. A knowledge of this fact might 
lead a person to say, " I do not pin my faith on his 



2'd S. VI. 137., AUG. 14. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



sleeve ; " i. e. I do not believe the evidence of his 
sleeve, as to the party to which he belongs : hence 
the common acceptation, " I do not believe the 
fact on his evidence." E. G. B. 

An Aristocratic Handwriting : Doff. The fol- 
lowing extract shows that, in 1724, a badly- 
written scrawl was considered an evidence of 
gentle blood : 

" The Badness of tie Hand put me in Doubt at first, 
whether the Letter came from a Man of Wit, or a Man 
of Quality; but by the good Sense and good Spelling he 
cannot be a Lord." (The Humorist ; being Essays upon 
Several Subjects. 3rd edition. 1724. p. 123.) 

At p. 184. in the same book we have the ety- 
mology of doff, expressed by the way in which 
the word is printed : 

" I wou'd not d'off my Hat, because they belong'd to 
Popish Idolatry" 

CTJTHBERT BEDE. 

An Obvious Misprint. Permit me to point out 
a remarkable instance of the above in my own 
letter, published in "N, & Q." (2 nd S. vi. 95. 
line 8. col. 1.), where I am represented as being 
engaged in the extraordinary occupation of "fram- 
ing my views." I need scarcely say that the dis- 
tinction of having my " views " included in the 
portfolio of " N. & Q." is quite sufficient for my 
ambition ; and that I had no idea of having them 
^framed" a sort of suspended animation which 
even the proofs that support them would scarcely 
merit. What I wrote was, that I would have 
" pressed my views" or opinions on the particular 
subject under discussion with more confidence, 
had I known they were in accordance with those 
of the distinguished writer and critic to whom I 
alluded. D. F. M'CARTHT. 



Abp. Sharp : Lord Melfort. Can any of your 
readers inform me whether either of the two fol- 
lowing MSS. are in existence, or accessible to the 
student? 

1. The MS. Diary of Archbishop Sharp (of 
York), from which his Life was compiled by his 
son, Archdeacon Sharp. 

2. The MSS. of Lord Melfort's Letters to 
Robert Nelson, stated by Birch (Life of Tillot- 
5o/i) to be then in the possession of Philip Car- 
teret Webb, Esq. C. F. SECRETAN. 

Westminster. 

Colonel Horton, the Parliamentarian. Jeremy 
Hprton, a colonel in the Parliament's service, cer- 
tainly died in the spring or summer of 1647, and 
the probate to his will is dated December 2, 1647. 
He, I presume, is the Colonel Horton who, ac- 
cording to Clarendon, attempted Donnirigton 
Castle in 1644. But what relation does he bear 



to the Colonel Horton so conspicuous in South 
Wales in May, 1648? at whose death, in Ireland, 
in 1649, Cromwell magnifies his "courage and in- 
tegrity " (see Carlyle, and all the histories of the 
time). Jeremy Horton appointed a nephew, Wil- 
liam Horton, his executor. Was this William the 
colonel who fought in Wales and Ireland, and 
was nominated a " King's Judge ? " 

Both the Hortons aforesaid are always spoken 
of in the newspapers and histories as " Colonel 
Horton" without a Christian name, which argues 
that there were not two contemporaneously. Even 
in the Commons Journals, where Colonel Horton's 
services in 1648 are so particularly noticed, and 
1000/. a-year settled on his brigade, the Christian 
name never occurs. Pray illuminate me. J. W. 

John Bull. Can any of your Oxonian readers 
inform me of the college, degree, works, or any 
particulars of an able biblical scholar who gives 
his name to a MS., "John Bull, 1816"? 

JAKOB ULMEN. 

Benselyn, Bensley. Would R. T. (who commu- 
nicated respecting the Rev. R. Talbot, 2 nd S. iii. 
255.) be so kind as to inform me whether the 
Institution Books to which he refers give any, 
and what, further particulars respecting the two 
individuals following ? 

" John Benselyn, of Hapton, Priest, Rector of Thorp- 
Parva, 1390 (March 8), ob. 1420." 

" Richard Bensley, instituted to the Rectory of Cavers- 
field, Bucks, in 1582." 

TEE-BEE. 

Queen's Picturer, 1642, Sec, The following is 
an extract from the Civil War Tracts, dated Wed- 
nesday, August 17, 1642 : 

" This day it was reported to the House that at the 
Queen's Picturer in London, hath been seene seueral 
meetings of about forty persons at a time, and the house 
by the trained band being begirt and entred, they pri- 
uately conveyed themselves away; and narrow search 
being made about the house, they found a private way 
down into a vault under the ground, in which they might 
goe a quarter of a mile, leading them to the Thames side, 
where they might privately take boat and escape. That 
they found a maid in a place hid in the house, and being 
examined, she said she knew nothing of the cause of 
their meeting there, if she should die therefor. Upon 
which it was ordered strict watch should be kept about 
the house night and day, and the passage to the water 
underground stopped, which was done accordingly." 

This curious extract suggests the following 
Queries : 1 . Who was the Queen's Picturer ? 2. 
Where was the house alluded to ? E. G. B. 

Dr. Callcotfs Glee, " O snatch me swift" Is 
there any clue to the authorship of the poetry of 
this celebrated glee ? Mr. Horsley, in his memoir 
of Dr. Callcott, (prefixed to a Collection of his 
Glees, Canons, and Catches, published in 1824,) 
thus relates the story of that composition : 

" It now remains for me to speak of the Glee, ' O snatch 
me swift from these tempestuous scenes,' which I cons;- 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2-* s. vi. 137., AUG. u. > 6 8. 



cler the master -piece of my Friend's genius and science. 
For this admirable production we appear to be indebted 
to an accidental circumstance. The Doctor had agreed 
to accompany some friends to the Theatre, on an evening 
when a very popular Actor was to make his appearance ; 
it therefore' became necessary to obtain places on the 
opening of the doors. To lose an hour, in waiting for the 
commencement of the performance, was what my Friend 
could not think of; and, contrary to his usual custom, he 
was without a book in his pocket. Seeing, therefore, a 
second-hand volume of poems on a stall, he purchased it, 
and found therein the following beautiful lines, that gave 
rise to a composition, which, perhaps, may be called the 
first of its class : 

snatch me swift from these tempestuous scenes, 
To where life knows not what distraction means ; 
To where religion, peace, and comfort dwell, 
And cheer, with heartfelt rays, my lonely cell. 
Yet, if it please Thee best, thou Power Supreme ! 
My bark to drive thro' life's more rapid stream, 
If low'ring storms my destin'd course attend 
And ocean rages till my days shall end ; 
Let ocean rage, let storms indignant roar, 
I bow submissive, and resigned adore,' " 

The title of the book was, it appears, Pleasing 
Reflections, and it was published in 1788.* A. R. 

"The Duke of Wellington's Despatches" ly 
Lieutenant- Colonel Gurwood. At the commence- 
ment of a review of these important volumes, in 
BlackwoocCs Magazine for January, 1837, is the 
following note : 

"We have been informed within these few days, 
that Sir Frederick Adam has discovered three volumes of 
his Grace's letters in his own handwriting in the Mysore 
Residency. These letters embrace the period immedi- 
ately subsequent to the Duke's taking the command of 
Seringapatam in 1799, up to his illness at Bombay in 
1801. They are all addressed to Colonel Barry Close, 
and there appears to be only one of them which has 
found its way in^o print. Some of these are of the 
highest interest and importance, and they all afford proof, 
it is said, of the versatility and extent of the Duke's ca- 
pacity." 

Have these valuable documents been preserved? 
In whose possession are they ? Is the public 
likely ever to be gratified with their publication ? 

J. M. G. 

Saint Sunday. In the collection of Wills, in 
the Journal of the Surrey Archaeological Society, 
p. 182., in one of Alice Nicoll, 1515, is this pas- 



" Also I bequeth to the 3 r mage of Seynt Sonday v pound 
of wax for a tapier, to burne every Sonday in service time 
as long as it will endure." 

Who is this saint, and what is his legend, and 
how would his name be latinised ? A. A. 

" Treatise on the Sacrament" Who wrote A 
Treatise, Chewing the Possibility and Convenience of 

[* The piece is taken from Pleasing Reflections on Life 
and Manners, selected from Fugitive Publications, 12mo., 
1787. It occurs at p. 292., and is entitled " The Wish of 
a Man of Reflection : written in London," and makes 
twenty-two lines.] 



the Reall Presence of our Saviour in the blessed 
Sacrament, &c , with a curious woodcut in the 
title, small 8vo., Antwerp, 1596. T. G. L. 

Mary's Abbey, Dublin. Is there any plan or 
map extant of the portion of Mary's Abbey, Dub- 
lin, where the Irish Parliaments assembled ? 

ABHBA, 

Quotations Wanted. 
" Time doth transfix the florish set on youth, 
And delves the parallels on beauty's brow, 
Feeds on the rarities of Nature's truth, 
And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow." 

Q, W. 

Tho world gre\v lighter as the monster fled." S. C. 
There'll be wigs on the green." . II. H. D. 

Who first used these memorable words : 

" Prayer moves the hand that moves the universe " ? 

ABHBA. 

" Fortnight's Excursion to Paris." Who is the 
author of " Sketch of a Fortnight's Excursion to 
Paris in 1788," in the Gent. Mag., 1797-98 ? 

R. INGLIS. 

Algarotti. Who was the translator of An Essay 
on the Opera, by Algarotti, 12mo,, 1767? 

R, INGLIS. 

William Tyndale. Can you direct me to any 
information or illustration of Tyndale or his times, 
or of individuals connected with him, c., de- 
veloped since the publication of the Rev. C. 
Anderson's Annals of the English Bible, which 
supplies so much information on the subject ? 

S. M. S, 



iftfturr 



fe fottf) 



Hooker's " Ecclesiastical Polity.' 1 ' Being the 
possessor of the very rare first editions of the first 
four, and also the fifth book of Hooker's famous 
work, I was pleased the other day to lay my hand 
on what seemed to be the first edition of the re- 
maining three books, which it is well known from 
honest Izaak's account were not published in the 
lifetime of the author, but in 1648, some years 
after his death. To my surprise, however, I 
found the title-page running thus : The Lawes of 
Ecclesiasticall Politie, the Sixth and Eighth Books, 
Sfc., with an apology in the introductory address 
" to the Reader" for the non-appearance of the 
seventh book : " the endeavours used " to recover 
which "had hitherto proved fruitlesse." This 
work is in quarto, and does not therefore corre- 
spond with the previously published volumes. 
Can any correspondent say when and how the 
seventh book was published ? Lowndes says 
truly, that the first four books were published in 
1594 (though the volume is undated) ; the fifth 



vi. 137,, AUG. n. >58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



book in 1597 (the date being in the title-page) ; 
but he is incorrect in saying " seventh and eighth 
books 1648, 4to.," besides leaving the sixth 
book quite unaccounted for. LETHREDIENSIS. 

[When Mr. Keble published the first edition of Hooker's 
Works, he had not met with the edition of the Sixth and 
Eighth Books published in 1648, so that it would seem 
to be rather scarce. A copy was sold by Sotheby and 
Wilkinson on June 5, 1857 (see " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. iii. 
478.)- The particulars relating to the manuscripts of the 
judicious Hooker their fate and their perils would be 
a curious but painful chapter in our literary history. It 
was on Dec. 28, 1640, when Archbishop Laud was com- 
mitted to the Tower, that his librar}', containing Hooker's 
manuscripts, was made over to the custody of Prynne, his 
inveterate opponent. From him it passed to the notori- 
ous Hugh Peters, by a vote of the Commons, June 27, 
1644. About four years afterwards, and on the very eve 
of the martyrdom of Charles I., the Sixth and Eighth 
Books of The Ecclesiastical Polity were given to the world, 
and announced as " a work long expected, and now pub- 
lished according to the most authentique copies." We 
are told of six transcripts with which the edition was 
collated. It is perplexing to understand when these 
copies got forth, and how they were all alike deficient in 
the Seventh Book, which the setter forth of this edition 
declares to be irrecoverable. No trace of the lost Book 
appears until 1662, when Dr. Gauden, recently promoted 
to the See of Worcester, set forth a new edition of The 
Works of Mr. Richard Hooker, and augmenting it by 
this Seventh Book. He distinctly says, " The Seventh 
Book, by comparing the writing of it with other indis- 
putable papers, or known manuscripts of Mr. Hooker's, 
is undoubtedly his own hand throughout." It is grati- 
fying to find that the recent learned and able Editor of 
Hooker's Works favours its genuineness by internal evi- 
dence, notwithstanding it bears marks of hasty writing. 
See Mr. Keble's valuable Preface to the Third Edition, 
1845, and an interesting article on Hooker in D'Israeli's 
Amenities, ii. 335.] 

Cricket. When, and where, originated the 
game of cricket, and what is the etymology of the 
term ? The game, it is said, is almost, if not 
quite, unknown on the Continent. Perhaps the 
recent visit of the Due de Malakoff to Lord's 
Ground, and the presentation there made to him 
of a complete set of bats, balls, &c. may eventuate 
in his countrymen borrowing this sport, as well as 
horse-racing, from us. LEFEBVRE. 

[The game of cricket, which is peculiar to our island, 
has been derived from the Saxon Cricce :or Creag, a 
crook'd stick or club. Like other British sports, it has 
undergone considerable modifications, more particularly 
in the past fifty years, and hence the difficulty of deter- 
mining the precise date of its origin. Doubtless cricket 
was played in some rude form as early as any game of 
ball, or even before balls were made, with cats or bits of 
stick. ( Vide Dr. Jamieson's Etymological Diet., art. Cat 
and Dog, pp. 76. 83.) Strutt, in his Sports and Pastimes, 
could discover no earlier notice of it than that by D'Urfey, 
in his Cambro- British doggerel (1719) : 

" Hur was the prettiest fellow 

At foot-ball or at cricket, 
At hunting-chase, or prison-base, 

Cot's plut, how hur could nick it ! " 
Milton's nephew, however, Edw. Phillips, directly refers 
to the cricket-ball in his Mysteries of Love and Eloquence 



(1685), which is probably the first mention of the word 
in its modern English form by any author in present use. 
Strange to say the game is omitted (as known, at least, 
by its present name) both in the Schedule of Sports, 
drawn up by command of James I , and in the recapitu- 
lation of popular amusements in Burton's Anatomy of Me- 
lancholy. The poets of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries are likewise mute on it. But in the Gent. Mag. 
for March, 1788, a correspondent writes that, "in the 
Wardrobe Account of the 28th year Edw. I. (1300), pub- 
lished by the Society of Antiquaries, among the entries 
of money issued for the use of his son Prince Edward in 
playing at different games, is the following item : ' Do- 
mino Johanni de Leek, Capellano domini Edwardi fiT ad 
ereaq 1 et alios ludos per vices, per manus proprias apud 
Westm. 10 die Aprilis. 100 S.' " And the same writer adds 
in a note, "Mr. Barrington has suggested that cricket is 
alluded to under two Latin words, denoting the ball and 
bat sport, in a proclamation of Edw. III. (1363) ; as also 
in a statute, 17 Ed. IV. (1477), by the pastime of handyn 
and handout (Archceol. vii. pp. 50. 378.)." Consult also 
Elaine's Encyclopedia of Rural Sports, Lond. 1852, and 
the Cricketer's Manual, by "Bat," Lond. 1851.] 

HacJmey Worthies. Can any of your readers 
refer me to any notices of Sir Thomas Player and 
Sir Stephen White, both of Hackney ? Their 
arms are given in Gwillitn's Heraldry, at pp. 113. 
133. A. A. 

[Sir Thomas Player, Chamberlain of the City of Lon- 
don, was one of the City members both in the Westminster 
and Oxford parliaments, 167879. Pepys, in his Diary, 
has the following entry under Mar. 14, 1665-6 : " Thence 
to Guildhall, in our way taking in Dr. Wilkins, and there 
my Lord [Brouneker] and I had full and large discourse 
with Sir Thomas Player, the Chamberlain of the City, a 
man I have much heard of, about the credit of our tallys, 
which are lodged there for security to such as should 
lend money thereon to the use of the navy." On May 8, 
1683, Sir Thomas Player was fined 500 marks for being 
concerned in a riot at Guildhall at the election of sheriffs 
on Midsummer-day, 1682. (Echard, Hist, of England, 
iii. 671.) He is accused of libertinism in a pasquinade 
entitled The Last Will and Testament of the Charter of 
London, 1683, in which occurs the following bequest to 
him : " To Sir Thomas Player I leave all the manor of 
Moorfields, with all the wenches and bawdy-houses there- 
unto belonging, with Mrs. CresswelFs [who kept a noted 
bagnio] for his immediate inheritance, to enjoy and oc- 
cupy all, from the bawd to the whore downward, at nine- 
teen shillings in the pound cheaper than any other 
person, because he may not exhaust the chamber by 
paying old arrears, nor embezzle the stock by run- 
ning into new scores." (Somers's Tracts, by Scott, viii. 
392.) Dryden has likewise gibbeted him in Absalom and 
Achitophel : 

" Next him, let railing Rabshakeh have place, 
So full of zeal he has no need of grace ; 
A saint that can both flesh and spirit use, 
Alike haunt conventicles and the stews." 
Sir Thomas Player was buried at Hackney, Dec. 9, 1672. 
(Lysons' Environs, ii. 497.) The only notices of Sir 
Stephen White that we can discover relate to his pious 
gifts to the parishes of Hackney, Bocking, and Braintree. 
See Robinson's History of Hackney, ii. 375., and Report of 
Charity Commissioners, xxxii. pt. i. 774. 780. Sir Stephen 
White was buried at Hackney, Dec. 26, 1678.] 

Pitfield of Hoxton. The usual tradition in 
Shoreditch is, that the person who bore this name, 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. vi. 137., AUG. u. 



and gave it to Pitfield Street, was a poor cow- 
keeper, who afterwards made a large fortune by 
the sale of milk. Is this the same person as Sir 
Charles Pitfield of Hoxton, whose arms are given 
in Gwillim, p. 158., azure, a bend engrailed be- 
tween two cygnets royal, argent, gorged with 
ducal crowns, with strings reflexed over their 
backs, or ? He says Sir Charles " is descended 
of the ancient family of the Pitfields of Symons- 
bury, in the county of Dorset." A. A. 

[The arms described by Gwillim are certainly those 
of Sir Charles Pitfield of Hoxton, who resided there in a 
large brick house long since demolished; and who be- 
queathed, by his will dated October 16, 1680, to the 
parish of St. Leonard, Shoreditch, an acre of land for the 
benefit of the poor, &c. Now, as Pitfield Street stands 
upon a portion of the land left by Sir Charles, it most 
probably was so named as a memorial of his pious gift. 
It seems very doubtful whether Pitfield the cowkeeper 
was in any way related to the family of Sir Charles; for 
this celebrated dairyman was living in 1746, at which 
time the Hoxton estate had descended to Mary Pitfield, 
the great-granddaughter of Sir Charles, who subse- 
quently married Humphrey Sturt, Esq., M.P. for Dorset- 
shire. In those blessed old times, when, as Sir John 
Fortescue has it, " the might of the realm of England 
standeth upon archers," the lovers of the long bow 
erected in the Finsbury Fields certain wooden pillars at 
varying distances, which they called marks. In these 
marks, and in the privilege of access to them, the Artil- 
lery Company had a paramount claim. Now in the 
story of the cowkeeper, as narrated by the Hon. Daines 
Barrington (ArcJueologia, vii. 56.), there is a little ob- 
scurity. He tells us that, " so late as 1746, the Artillery 
Company obliged a cowkeeper of the name of Pitfield to 
renew one of these marks, and caused it to be inscribed, 
Pitfield's repentance." We find, however, that one of the 
marks bearing the name of Pitfield appears in a plan of 
the Finsbury Fields published in 1737. So that, after all, 
it would seem that the cowkeeper had defaced a mark 
erected by some descendant of the family of Sir Charles 
Pitfield. But this is a point some Toxophilite may be 
able to clear up.] 



FORGED ASSIGNATS. 
(2 nd S. VI. 70.) 

Some account of this alleged forgery is given in 
Cobbett's " Paper against Gold," a series of letters 
written chiefly from Newgate in the years 1810 
11, but not concluded until 1815. About the 
beginning of May, 1811, reports were circulated 
that a vast number of forged notes on the Bank 
of England had been imported from France and 
Holland, where they were manufactured for the 
express purpose of deranging our finances. The 
report was circulated chiefly through the country 
papers, being carefully excluded from the London 
daily journals. From this circumstance Mr. Cob- 
bett takes occasion to justify the French Govern- 
ment, asserting that our own Government had 
done the same in 1791, and that this was but a 
fair reprisal. He then (p. 316.) broadly asserts 



that counterfeit French paper-money was fabri- 
cated in immense quantities, and alleged that 
from the speeches in the English Parliament, the 
Government of England at that time looked upon 
the debasement of those assignats as the sure 
means of subverting the new order of things in 
France. This, however, is only assertion, no proof 
being brought forward by Cobbett that either of 
the Governments sanctioned such forgeries ; 
neither has he given any one particular speech in 
the house upon the subject. Certain statements, 
however, had been made upon a trial in 1795, 
before Lord Kenyon, which at first sight appear 
indeed to give some foundation to the assertions 
referred to by E. C. R. ; at all events they show 
us whence the report had its origin. 

Espinasse's Reports, Mich. Term, 36 Geo. III. 
1795, are cited by Cobbett. I give the extract 
at length : 

" Strongitharm against Lakyn. Case on a Promissory 
note. Mingay and Marryat for the Plaintiff; Erskine 
and Law for the Defendant. The acceptance and endorse- 
ment having been proved, Erskine for the defendant 
stated his defence to be, that the note was given for the 
purpose of paying the plaintiff, an engraver, for the en- 
graving of copper-plates upon which French assignats 
were to be forged, and contended, that as the considera- 
tion of the note was a fraud, it contaminated the whole 
transaction, and rendered the note not recoverable by 
law. Caslon, an indorser of the note, called as a witness, 
proved that the defendant, having it in contemplation to 
strike off impressions of a considerable quantity of as- 
signats to be issued abroad, applied to him for the pur- 
pose of recommending an engraver, representing to him 
that they were for the Duke of York's army. He applied 
to Strongitharm, who at first declined the business 
totally, but being assured by the witness that it was 
sanctioned by Government, at length undertook the 
work. 

" Lord Kenyon said, if the present transaction was 
grounded on a fraud, or contrary to the laws of nations, 
or of good faith, he should have held this note to be void, 
but it did not appear that there was any fraud in the 
case, or any violation of positive law. Whether the is- 
suing of these assignats for the purpose of distressing the 
enemy was lawful in carrying on the war, he was not 
prepared to say ; or whether it came within the rule an 
dolens an virtus quis in hoste requisit ? But let that be as 
it might, it did not apply to the present case. The Plain- 
tiff supposed that they were circulated by the authority 
of the higher powers of this country, and he therefore 
did not question the propriety or legality of the measure. 
His Lordship declared his opinion therefore to be, that 
the Plaintiff was entitled to recover. The jury found 
accordingly." 

Now upon this trial rests the whole case, so far 
as the charge against the English Government is 
concerned ; and very insufficient evidence it is to 
receive such a charge upon ; it was not even at- 
tempted to be shown on behalf of the plea in de- 
fence that the employer of the engraver was an 
accredited or known agent for the Government in 
any transaction whatever, which is what we may 
feel assured such a man as Erskine would have at 
once done, could it have been done. That a vast 



s. VI. 137., AUG. 14. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



number of assignat?; were forged and circulated 
at that time there is no doubt ; there is also no 
question as to such forgeries being of English 
execution ; but we shall require much more than 
this trial (which is the only evidence brought by 
Cobbett in support of the charge) to convince us 
that the English Government ever resorted to a 
step' so dishonourable and also impolitic as to em- 
ploy engravers to forge the paper-money of another 
kingdom. JOHN JEWELL PENSTONE. 

Stanford in the Vale, Berks. 



I take it this anecdote is derivable from that 
most prolific of all sources, the voluminous writ- 
ings of the celebrated and insinuating pseudolo- 
gist "IT-IS- SAID," who, one regrets to see, aided 
by the notorious' Mr. Potts of Eatanswill, has been 
most malevolently busy with many of the worthiest 
of our men of mark, living and dead. In this 
special instance let us try and reduce fiction to 
fact. On the determination of the Constituent 
Assembly to issue assignats, it was required to 
have printed an enormous quantity of this repre- 
sentative paper (no less than four hundred mil- 
lions were struck off on April 19, 1790), involving 
the necessity of an immense number of engraved 
copper-plates from which to print them. And as 
there was no method then, as now, of taking from 
an original hardened steel-plate duplicates in soft 
steel afterwards hardened, and thus securing that 
each (like our postage stamps for instance) should 
be pro re identical, the revolutionary government 
adopted the singular project of employing artists to 
engrave three hundred facsimiles. This excessively 
ingenious idea of the ruling powers, however, was 
plainly open to the objection that other native 
and less scrupulous " artistes " could have no diffi- 
culty in engraving more assignats which should be 
equally as much facsimiles as the government's 
three hundred : that they did so is matter of his- 
tory; and equally so that the bank authorities 
could not as it was not in the nature of things 
possible they should be able to tell their own 
from the unauthorised ones, the natural se- 
quence was utter want of confidence in them. 
To remedy the evil, they in their emergency hit 
upon the more sensible plan of engraving a plate 
in intaglio, from which they took in relief copper 
punches, called mother-punches. They then struck 
from the latter many hundred daughters, which 
last, printed from in the usual manner of copper- 
plates, possessed the required advantage of being 
all perfect facsimiles of their intaglio progenitor. 

It was on the failure of the first-mentioned 
issue of assignsits, with a lack of ingenuousness 
perhaps not now much to be surprised at, nor at 
all inconsistent with the known acrimonious sen- 
timents of some of their body towards this coun- 
try, that some of the revolutionists deemed it 
t io A)r the obvious odium attaching to such 



an act to attribute such failure to the agency 
of Pitt's government deluging their country with 
forged instruments, a charge against " the pilot 
that weathered the storm " assuredly resting on no 
better foundation than that of the editor of The 
Anatomy of the Mass, 1561, who attributed the 
fifteen pages of errata (a tithe of his text) to the 
artifice of Satan ! W. J. STANNARD. 

Hatton Garden. 

There can be no reasonable doubt of the cor- 
rectness of what E. C. H. says he has " heard as- 
serted " on this subject ; though probably not " any 
of your readers " can say " what ground there is 
for this anecdote," farther than its general belief 
at the time, as I well remember. I have now be- 
fore me five of the forged assignats. They were 
struck off on thin sheets of a whity-brown paper ; 
each sheet containing eight, at least : four of mine 
are yet on the same piece of paper. 

They have engraved borders, fths of an inch 
deep, 4f inches wide, and 2f inches high, exclusive 
of the line all round the outside, and that up the 
right and left hand within. In a central compart- 
ment of the upper side of the border are the 
words 

"Loidu240ctobre, 1792, 

L'an 1 R De La Republique." 

And in a similar compartment in the border be- 
low, the words 

" La loi punit de mort le contrefacteur, 
La nation recompense le denonciateur," 

each compartment being flanked by small em- 
blematical figures. 

The assignat within the border reads thus : 
" Domaines nationaux. 

Assignat 

de dix livres, 

payable au porteur. 

Caisaud. 
Serie 1 10 1 36." 

the figures "10" being white on a dark ground, 
within a wreath, supported by draped female 
figures, winged, with trumpets. The name, Cai- 
saud, is a signature imitated : on one side of 
which is impressed on the paper a figure of liberty, 
supporting the cap on a spear, and resting her 
left hand on a Roman fasces, but which has not 
(as far as I can see) the usual axe-head, the dia- 
bolical use of which has stamped the French revo- 
lution with infamy. I cannot name the figure 
on the other side, but it seems to hold an inverted 
torch. P. H. FISHER. 

Stroud. 



ARMS OF BRUCE. 

(2 ml S. v. 236. 264.) 

In connexion with this subject, a few remarks 
as to the descent of the old Suotish Earls of Car- 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2 nd s. vi. 137, A. H. '58. 



rzcft may perhaps not be unacceptable ; they are 
extracted from a MS. work I am at present com- 
piling, chiefly on the plan of the late Sir N. H. 
Nicolas's Synopsis of the Peerage of England, and 
giving the dates of creation, descent, &c., of every 
Scotish title of peerage which has existed since 
the accession of King Malcolm Cean-mhbr, A.D. 
1057, a desideratum in our genealogical litera- 
ture which I hardly feel capable of supplying, at 
least with the resources available in India, and 
removed as I am from all public libraries and 
kindred sources of reference. But I must remark 
that there is actually no Peerage of Scotland, 
worthy of the name, in respect to accuracy or re- 
search, in existence at the present day : 

" CAERICK. 

Earls. 

I. 1185. 1. Duncan Mackdowall, eldest s. and h. of Gil- 
bert, Lord of Galloway (s. of Fergus, first 
Lord, or Prince of Galloway, on record, 
ante 1142, ob. 12 May, 1161), resigned his 
claims to that lordship on his father's 
death, 1 Jan^, 1185, at the desire of King 
William the Lyon, and in favour of his 
cousin, Roland" (who, consequent^, be- 
came Lord of Galloway, and ob. in Dec. 
1200) : created Earl of Carrick, co. Ayr, 
in Sept. 1185, by King William ; ob. post 
1201. 

IT. 12 . . 2. Neil Maclcdowall, s. and h., ob. 23 

June, 1250, s. p. m. 
Countess. 

1250. 3. Marjory Mackdowall, dau. and h. She m. 
1, ante 1255, Adam de Kilconcath, who 
ob. 1270, s. p. ; and 2, in 1273, Robert de 

Brus the elder, who survived her, 

ob. cir. 1292. 

Earls. 

III. 125-. . Adam de Kilconcath, jure uxoris, ob. 1270, 

s. p., at the siege of Acre, in Palestine, 
during the Crusade. 

IV. 1274. 1. Robert de Brus, jure uxoris; s. and h. of 

Robert de Brus, fifth feudal Lord of An- 
nandale, and 'competitor' for the Crown 
of Scotland, 1286-92 (ob. Nov. 1295), be- 
came Earl of Carrick on his marriage, 
but resigned the dignity in favour of his 
eldest son, 1293, and ob. 1304. 

V. 12'93. 2. Robert de Brus, the younger, s. and h., 
succeeded on his father's resignation ; and 
having been crowned King of Scots, 27 
March, 1306, as Robert I., this earldom 
became United to the Crown. 

VI. 1314. 3. Edward Bruce, Lord of Galloway, created 
Earl of Carrick, cir. 1314, by his elder 
brother, King Robert I., crowned as King 
of Ireland in May, 1315 ; and killed at 
the battle of Dundalk, 5 October, 1318, 
s. p. 1. 

VI I. 1318. 4. Robert Bruce, Lord of Liddesdale, nat. s., 
on -whom the earldom was bestowed by 
his uncle, K. Robert L, after his father's 
death in Ireland, on which the dignity 
had again become United to the Crown, for 
want of legitimate heirs. Ob. 12 Aug. 
1332, s. p., at the battle of Dupplin. 

VIII. 1332. 5. Alexander Bruce, brother and h. (being 
also a natural son of King Edward Bruce). 



Ob. 20 July, 1333, s. p. m. sup., at the 
battle of Halidon-hill. 
Countess. 

II. 1333. 6. Elinor Bruce, only dau. and h. She m. 
1 Sir William de Cunynghame, Knt., of 
Kilmaurs; and 2, Sir Duncan Wallace, 
Knt., (which latter, however, does not 
appear to have had the title in right of 
his wife, though she is still styled Coun- 
tess of Carrick in a charter of K. Rob. II. 
to herself and her husband). Ob. post. 
1374 (and in the reign of K. Robert II. as 
appears from charters). 

Earls. 

IX. 1361. William de Cunynghame, jure uxoris: and 
confirmed in the" dignity by King David 
II., an. 33 : as he appears to have had no 
issue by this (his second) with the Coun- 
tess of Carrick, the dignity again became 
United to the Crown, cir. 1363. 

X. 1363. 1. John Stewart, Lord of Kyle, eldest s. and 
h. of Robert, the Steward of Scotland; 
created Earl of Cavrick 22 June, 1363, by 
his grand-uncle, King David II. ; and, on 
his father's accession to the throne of 
Scotland as King Robert II., in 1371, he 
resigned the earldom, and obtained a new 
charter of the dignity to " himself, Anna- 
bella his wife, and the heirs of their bodies 
in fee," 1 June, 1374: succeeded to the 
crown in 1390 as King Robert III., when 
the title descended to his eldest son. 

XL 1390. 2. David Stewart, Prince of Scotland, s. and 
h., became Earl of Carrick on his father's 
accession to the throne; created also 
Duke of Rothesay 28 April, 1398 ; and 
ob. 26 March, 1402, s. p. 

XII. 1404. 3. James Stewart, brother and h., Prince of 
Scotland, 1402 : created Earl of Carrick 
10 Dec. 1404, by his father K. Rob. III. ; 
suc d to the throne as King James I. in 
1406 (though not crowned till 21 May, 
1424, owing to his captivity in England), 
when this dignity finally merged in the 
crown; and has ever since been always 
borne by the heir-apparent to the throne 
of Scotland, from 1430 to 1566; and by 
the Prince of Wales since the union of 
the two crowns in 1603. The present 
possessor of the title, H. R. H. Albert 
Edward, Prince of Wales, is the thirtieth 
Earl of Carrick, in direct succession from 
the original creation of the title." 

A. S. A. 

Barrackpore, E. I., June, 185S. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. 

Direct Carbon Printing. Having been the first to 
communicate to you the particulars, so far as divulged, 
connected with the discovery of Direct Photographic 
Printing in Carbon by Mr. John Pouncy of Dorchester, 
may I beg of you to transcribe from Saturday's Times the 
following remarkable attestation thereof from the organ of 
the French Society of Photographers, as communicated to 
that journal by M. Horace M. Moule, but the original of 
which I have perused ? 

" The subjoined extracts from the Bulletin de la Societe 
Francaise de Photographic will be interesting to all prac- 



2 d s.vl.i3?.,AuG. i4.'58.j NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13? 



titioners of the art. I will briefly state what occasioned 
the remarks of which they form a part. 

" Mr. John Pouncy, of High West-street, Dorchester, was 
accepted in June last as a competitor for the 8,000f. prize 
offered by M. le Ducde Luynes for the best specimen of pho- 
tographic printing in carbon. This prfze will be adjudged 
next year, and meanwhile the Duke has submitted all the 
processes and specimens which he has received to the ex- 
amination of a commission appointed by the French Pho- 
tographic Society. 

"Several of these specimens, &c., were brought before 
the notice of the July meeting, the Bulletin of which has 
just been issued. Mr. Pouucy's proofs, as will be seen 
below, had been submitted to the severest possible tests, 
and had successfully resisted all. The following extracts 
from the minutes will now speak for themselves : 

" * M. Girard communicated to the society some informa- 
tion regarding the positive proofs which Mr. Pouncy has ob- 
tained by means of a new process, and which have been 
sent by the author with a view to their competing for the 
prize of the Due de Luynes. 

" 'About four months since certain photographic jour- 
nals in England, and more especially that conducted by 
Mr. Thomas Sutton, have been employed in considering a 
process hitherto kept a secret and discovered by Mr. 
Pouncy, of Dorchester a process from which photogra- 
phic proofs may be obtained, the blacks of which are 
drawn in carbon. 

" ' In one of the numbers of this journal, Mr. Sutton, 
who had had an opportunity of examining the proofs, 
pronounced the opinion that they were produced bong, 

fide from carbon M. Girard added that it had 

seemed interesting to him to examine these proofs with- 
out delay and without waiting for the labours of the 
society to commence, that thus no one might be left in 
needless suspense. According to his tests they are the 
legitimate results of carbon they have resisted a long 
immersion in concentrated nitric, or hydrochloric, acid ; in 
aqua regalis ; in cyanide of potassium ; in cyanide of po- 
tassium strengthened with iodide ; and, lastly, in alkaline 
sulphurets. Not one of these powerful agents has influ- 
enced them in the least.' 

" We have thus a problem solved in photography, a 
most important desideratum gained; for, whatever may 
be the artistic value of Mr. Pouncy's proofs, here is one 
plain fact he has printed photographs in carbon, and 
his prints have resisted the most powerful known tests in 
chymistry. Now, the process by which these results 
have been achieved has been secured by a provisional 
patent since April last. In a very short time the inven- 
tor a hard-working, practical photographer will have 
to decide whether the patent shall be proceeded with or 
not. Meanwhile, the process might be purchased. Is it 
possible that so valuable an invention will be lost to the 
English public, and all for want of a wealthy patron of 
photography to step forward and secure it ? " 

I myself know enough of the nature of Mr. Pouncy's 
process to be able to warrant its indelibility. 

SHOLTO MACDUFF. 



The Salutation Tavern (2 nd S. vi. 33.) - The 
Salutation is still in existence. The proper sign 
is the " Salutation and Cat," a curious combi- 
nation, but one which is explained by a lithograph, 
which some five years ago hung in the coffee- 
room^ and was presented to the late proprietor by, 
I believe, one of the Ackermanns. An aged 



dandy is saluting a friend whom he has met in the 
street, and offering him a pinch out of the snuff- 
box which forms the top of his wood-like cane. 
This box-nob was, it appears, called a " cat " 
hence the connexion of terms apparently so foreign 
to each other. Some, not aware of this explana- 
tion, have accounted for the sign by supposing a 
tavern called " the Cat " was at some time pulled 
down, and its trade carried to the Salutation, 
which thenceforward joined the sign to its own ; 
but this is improbable, seeing that we have never 
heard of any tavern called " the Cat " (although 
we do know of " the Barking Dogs ") as a sign. 
Neither does the Salutation take its name from 
any scriptural or sacred source, as the Angel and 
Trumpets, SfC. 

The late landlord preserved a tradition of the 
house to the effect that Sir Christopher Wren 
used to smoke his pipe there whilst St. Paul's was 
in course of rebuilding. 

More positive evidence had he to show of the 
" little smoky room at the Salutation and Cat" * 
where Coleridge and Charles Lamb sat smoking 
Oronoko and drinking egg-hot f ; the first dis- 
coursing of his idol, Bowles J, and the other rejoic- 
ing mildly in Cowper and Burns, or both dream- 
ing of " Pantisocracy, and golden days to come 
on earth." 

It is strange that the old tavern has been over- 
looked by London topographers. Talfourd men- 
tions it as "in the neighbourhood of Smithfield," 
a very vague description. The quiet unassuming 
entrance is No. 17. Newgate Street. 

ALEXANDER ANDKEWS. 

Ancient Jewish Coins (2 nd S. vi. 12.) I am 
afraid that D. I. D. I. (p. 59.) is in error in sup- 
posing that these were first coined about 143 B.C. 
by Simeon, Prince of Judaea. It is a curious fact 
that though the majority of the Jewish coins 
known were formerly ascribed to Simon Macca- 
bseus, there are none of them which, with our 
present knowledge, can with any degree of cer- 
tainty be attributed to him, as all the coins bear- 
ing the name of Simon must be brought down 
to the age of Barcochab, the leader of the revolt 
of the Jews against Hadrian. There are, how- 
ever, coins known of Jonathan and John Hyrca- 
nus, the predecessor and successor of Simon 
Maccabeus, so that the Jewish coinage certainly 
bears date previous to the concession of the right 
of coinage to Simon by Antiochus. M. de Sau- 
lay, in his Ttecherch.es sur la Numismatique Ju- 
daique (Paris, 1854, 4to.),.is inclined to carry back 
the earliest shekels to the pontificate of Jaddua, 
a contemporary of Alexander the Great ; and 



* Lamb to Coleridge, Talfourd's Life and Letters of 
Lamb, vol. i. pp. 14, 15. 
f Same to Same, Ibid., pp. 41 43. 
J Same to Same, Ibid., p. 54. 
Elia to Southey, London Mayadne, October, 1823. 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. VI. 137., AUG. 14. '08. 



there is nothing in their appearance or fabric that 
would necessarily imply a later date. Nothing, 
however, can at present be affirmed with certainty 
as to the era when the Jewish coinage originated. 
C. M. A. would do well to consult M. de Saulay's 
work, and some remarks upon it in a late number 
of the Numismatic Chronicle. J. E. 

Swift Family (2 nd ^ S. vi. 69.) MR. PEACOCK 
will find some very interesting details respecting 
the grandfather of the Dean, his wife, family, &c., 
in Walker's Sufferings of the Clergy, ed. 1714, 
part ii., p. 361. This supplies some interesting 
particulars of his ejection from Goodrich, of which 
place he was vicar. The Beauties of England and 
Wales (for Goodrich, see the volume of Hereford- 
shire), also furnishes farther details of the vicar, and 
the anecdote of his humorous manner of present- 
ing 300 broad pieces of gold to the king at Rag- 
land. It also mentions that he was accustomed, 
after ejection from his living, to travel about 
among his former parishioners, administering the 
eucharist from a chalice he carried with him. 
This afterwards was presented by his grandson, 
the dean (1726), to the parish, and is used at the 
present time in administration of the sacrament. 
On the base of this cup is the following inscrip- 
tion : 

" Jonath. Swift, S. T. D. Decan. Eccles. S* 1 Pair. Dubl n , 
hunc Calicem Eccles. de G-oderidge sacrum voluit." 

Underneath the base is the following : 

"Tho. Swift hujus Eccles. Vica r notus in historiis ob 
ea quse fecit et passus est pro Car Imo. ex hoc calice 
aegrotantibus propinavit. Eundem Calice Jonat n Swift, 
S. T. D. Decan. Eccles. S tl Pat r Dubl n Thomas ex filio 
nepos huic Eccles. in perpetuam dedicat 
1726." 

In the same parish, a house of old construction 
is still associated with the family, and said to have 
been built " soon after the troubles," and occu- 
pied by one of the vicar's sons. S. M. S. 

Query as to a MS. Work by Milton (2 nd S. vi. 
84.) Milton, who " sung himself from 's cradle 
to his tomb," is fast receiving the honours so long 
overdue to his transcendent merits. In Dr. Adam 
Littleton's Latin Dictionary (5th edition, 4to., 
London, 1715), after acknowledging and enumer- 
ating the authorities employed in his laborious 
compilation, it is said : 

" We had by us, and made use of, a manuscript collec- 
tion, in three large Folios, digested into an alphabetical 
order, which the learned Mr. JOHN* MILTON had made 
out of Tully, Livy, Caesar, Sallust, Quintus Curtius, Jus- 
tin, Plautus, Terence, Lucretius, Virgil, Horace, OvH, 
Manilius, Celsus, Columella, Varro, Cato, Palladius: in 
short, out ,of all the best and purest Roman authors." 

He says also that he seldom omitted to name 



* Littleton dedicated his Dictionary to Charles II., but 
does not appear by this expression ta fear praising the 
poor blind regicide, as the illustrious poet was after called. 



both the author and the place whence he fetched 
his authorities : 

" This," he says, " was known to be Stephens's method, 
and the same may be seen in Mr. Milton's manuscript, 
and the same may Jbe seen by the curious or doubtful." 

This manuscript, though used by Littleton in 
his Dictionary, must have been, even after his 
using it, an invaluable Latin Lexicon, drawn from 
such pure sources by such a scholar as Milton.* 
Can any of your readers favour me with any in- 
formation as to the whereabouts of this manu- 
script ? JAMES ELMES. 

Unlucky Days (1 st S. vii. 232.; viii. 305.; xi. 
203.) A beautiful illuminated Latin MS., in the 
library of W. H. Wade-Gery, Esq., at Bushmead 
Priory, Bedfordshire, affords two or three various 
readings. As to Jan., Feb., April, May, June, 
and Nov., it agrees with viii. 305. ; as to March 
and Dec., with vii. 232. ; as to Aug., with xi. 203. 
July reads " Tredecimus ; " September, " Tertia 
Septembris : et septima (ttbtf.) fert mala meni- 
bris;" October, "Tertius et denus virtutibus est 
alienus." 

Is it known why these days, or any of them, 
were deemed unlucky ? JOSEPH Rix. 

Madrigals (2 nd S. vi. 90.) It is surely to be 
lamented, that in publishing such a query, J. M. 
G. did not give his full name and address. 

I, too, possess "valuable information" which 
my friend Mr. Pearsall left behind him ; but 
should object to communicate it to any anony- 
mous Querist. 

However, on the subject of madrigals, much 
may be seen in Felix Farley's Newspaper, Jan. 2 
and 9, 1858, written long ago by Mr. Pearsall ; 
and also six very amusing and instructive letters 
of his on musical composition in the Bristol Jour- 
nal, May, 1839, addressed to the students of the 
Royal Academy of Music. Why he assigned the 
credit of these to William Cobbett's assumed name, 
I know not. 

Mr. Pearsall was sixty-two when he died, 
strangely omitted in the Gent. Mag : though it 
appears in the slips I had worked off, as also the 
names of his children by his wife Eliza, daughter 
of William Armfield Hobday of London, Gent. ; 
viz. Robert Lucas, who has served in the Austrian 
army, and is lately married to a daughter of the 
late Lieut. Hamilton Finney ; and two daughters, 
Elizabeth Hill, married in 1839 to Charles Wynd- 
ham Stanhope, Esq., and Philippa Swinnerton, 

lately married to Hughes, Esq., barrister. 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Clyst St. George. 

Interment in Church Walls (2 nd S. v. 275.) - 
These are said traditionally to be the tombs of 

[* Vide Nichols's Literary Anecdotes, v. 210. ; and " X. 
& Q." 2"* S. iv. 183. ED.] 






2- s. vi. is?., AUG. H. >58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



339 



persons who died excommunicated, and thus the 
sentence, which denied burial " either in the 
church or in the churchyard," was evaded. One 
of the Stanley family, who is known to have been 
under the censures of the church, is buried ex- 
actly under the centre of one of the thick walls at 
Manchester cathedral ; an arch being thrown over 
so that the tomb may be seen on each side. A 
similar story occurs in the Merry Deuill of Ed- 
monton : Maister Peter Fabell covenants with the 
evil spirit, " when I am buried, either within the 
church, without the church, in the church-porch, 
churchyard, street, field, or highway, take thou 
my soule." When old age overtakes him, "he 
went, and digd his deathbed in the church wal, and 
there rested day and night, hartyly praying and 
repenting him of all the euill he had committed." 
The consequence is the devil, finding the letter of 
the bond against him, is compelled to quit the field, 
and let him die in peace. A. A. 

Bulgarian, #(?., Names (2 nd S. vi. 69.) The 
language spoken by the Bulgarians and their 
Turkish conquerors is Slavonian, according to 
Malte Brim. The termination ovo or ava does not 
appear to be from the Slavonic plural oy, but is a 
favourite one, as in Russian, golova, head ; zabava, 
entertainment ; koroleva, queen ; slovo, word ; 
tchuvstvo, sentiment ; Jtorova, cow, &c., and in par- 
ticular the genitive singular of all words forming 
ego or ogo is pronounced evo or owo, as moevo, 
son's ; odnovo, one's ; kovo, of whom ; whilst the 
same termination is spoken as it is written in the 
accusative, moego, odjiogo, kogo. A rationale for 
such idioms cannot probably be discovered. It is 
erroneously stated in the " Bible of every Land," 
that the Bulgarian affixes the article to the termi- 
nation of words, for it possesses no article. This 
mistake appears to have arisen from confounding 
the language of the Bulgarians (=Volgarians, com- 
ing from the Volga in the fifth century), with that 
of their conquerors, the Turks (A.D. 1360), whose 
language is a compound of Arabic, Persian, and 
Tatar; the first prefixing the definite article a/, 
the Persian affixing the indefinite article z, and the 
Tatar, like the Slavonian, having no article, but 
supplying its place by varying the termination 
(i. e. by inflexion and declension). This will also 
account for similarity of terminal syllables. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

Physicians' Pees (2 nd S. v. 495.) In a work 
entitled Levamen Infirmi, written about 1700, the 
. usual fees to physicians and surgeons at that time 
are thus recorded : 

" To a graduate in physic, his due is about 10s., though 
lie commonly expects or demands 20s. Those that are 
only licensed physicians, their due is no more than 6s. 9/., 
though they commonly demand 10s. A surgeon's journey 
is \2t!. a mile, be his journey far or near. Ten groats to 
bet a bone broke or out of joint ; and for letting of blood, 



Is. The cutting off or amputation of any limb is 5/., but 
there is no settled price for the cure." 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Derivation of " Caste " (2 nd S. vi. 98.) There 
can be little doubt that we derive caste from the 
Sp. and Port, casta, through the Fr. caste. But 
are not all these words traceable to the Latin ? 
Casa is in Latin a hut, cottage, or shed, and in 
mediaeval Latin a house of any kind (from Heb. 
HD3, to cover). Hence casati, servants who 
lodged on the premises, and casata, a homestead, 
a household, a family. In Italian, casata is a 
family, lineage, or race ; and from this Italian 
word, dropping the second , appears to be de- 
rived the Sp. and Port, casta. Casta, it is to be 
observed, has properly much the same meaning as 
the It. casata, " A race, lineage, particular breed, 
or clan." THOMAS BOYS. 

Chestnut in Britain (2 nd S. v. 10.) A friend 
has just sent me the following passage from vol. 
Ixii. of the Quarterly Review, p. 335. It is from a 
review of London's Trees and Shrubs of Britain : 
" In the interesting historical introduction the difficulty 
respecting a well-known passage in Csesar's Commentaries 
\ is happily explained. Caesar says, that he found in Bri- 
I tain all the trees of Gaul except the abies, which was sup- 
I posed to mean the Scotch fir, and the fagus, which is 
generally considered to be the Leech. Now as the Scotch 
! fir and the beech are undoubtedly to be found wild in vari- 
' ous parts of Britain, and as the beech, in particular, 
I abounds in Kent, the very county through which Ciesar 
I passed, this passage has thrown commentators into de- 
i spair. Mr. Loudon cuts the Gordian knot, by showing 
I that the abies of the Romans was the silver fir, and the 
fagus the sweet chesnut, neither of which trees grow Avilcl 
j in Britain." 

This is cutting the knot with a witness ! as if 
i Caesar did not know the difference between Abies 
i and Pinus ; between beech-mast and Castaneae 
I nuces, which last formed, as they do still, such an 
important part, of the food of the Italians. But 
\ the fact is, though the beech abounds in Kent, it 
is only in the chalk districts near Sevenoaks, c. 
In the weald, and on the clays, it is scarcely ever 
found ; while chestnut grows freely everywhere. 
If the Romans had proceeded due westward from 
Folkstone, and turned to the north to cross the 
j river before coming upon the Bagshot sand dis- 
trict, they would neither have observed the fir 
nor the beech, at least in any conspicuous quan- 
tity, though a few miles away in either direction 
would have shown them plenty of both. A. A. 

Roses and Lances blessed by the Pope (2 nd S. vi. 
49.) Princesses were not alone favoured with 
" la rose benite." Heylin says : 

" Sergius IV. (1009) was the first that on Christmas 
night, with divers ceremonies, did consecrate swords, 
Roses, and the like, to be sent as tokens of love and 
honour to such Princes as deserved best of them, or whom 
they desired to oblige. Thus Leo X. sent a consecrated 
Rose to Frederick, Duke of Saxony, requesting him to 
banish Luther; and Paul 111., uft hallowed sword to 



140 



NOTES AND QUERIES, [** s. vi. 137., AUG. u. '58. 



James V. of Scotland, to engage him in a war against 
Henry VIII," 

R, W. HACKWOOD. 



KOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

We have before us a long array of goodly volumes, 
"yclothed in black and red," waiting for notice. Fore- 
most among these, we may mention a new volume issued 
by the Surtees Society, namely, The Acts of the High 
Commission Court within the Diocese of Durham. They 
are extracted from two volumes : one of Acts, extend- 
ing from 1628 to 1639; the other of Depositions, 
extending from 1626 to 1638; preserved among Dr. 
Hunter's MSS. in the library in the Dean and Chapter of 
Durham. Our readers may readily imagine what an in- 
sight this volume furnishes into the usages of the Church 
and of Society during the period to which it relates; 
while, as the editor, Mr. Hylton Longstaffe, well observes, 
" the very proceedings of the High Commission must be 
read with interest." The volume, which is very carefully 
edited by Mr. Longstaffe, is one altogether strikingly 
illustrative of a state of things which has now long 
passed away, and its publication is alike creditable to the 
Surtees Society and its editor. 

The North Country Antiquaries have been very active of 
late. Mr. Inglcdew, whose name has frequently appeared 
in our columns, has published a handsome volume illus- 
trative of The History and Antiquities of North Allerton 
in the County of York. The work is the result of many 
years' industrious research, and the public and private 
history of North Allerton, its antiquities, public buildings, 
registers, folk lore, are duly recorded in a way to gratify 
its inhabitants, and the curiosity of all who are in- 
terested in the history of this ancient town. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. Translations from the German, ly 
Thomas Carlyle. This, the last issued volume of Mr. 
Carlyle's collected works, contains his admirable Trans- 
lations from Musccus, Tiech, and Richter. We know no 
translations at all comparable to these for conveying to 
the reader, not the words only, but the very spirit of the 
German originals. 

Manual of Sepulchral Memorials, ly the Rev. E. Trol- 
lope, F.S.A. An admirable collection, not only of designs 
for monuments, but of appropriate inscriptions. Mr. 
Trollope has paid great attention to the subject one on 
which the public taste requires still to be greatly im- 
proved. 

Roman Sepulchral Inscriptions, their Relation to Archae- 
ology, Language, and Religion, by John Kenrick, M.A. 
This little volume originated in two papers read before 
the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, and carries out very 
successfully its design of showing how the labours of the 
antiquary connect themselves with the history of man- 
ners, institutions, and opinions. 

The very curious Commonplace Book of worthy Master 
Hilles, with all its quaint illustrations of the social con- 
dition of the times in which he flourished, to which Mr. 
Froude has called attention in this month's Fraser, has 
been for some time before the Camden Society Avith a 
view to its publication ; and it would probably have ap- 
peared before this, under the superintendence of a very 
competent editor, Dr. Rimbault, but for some difficulty 
in getting a transcript. 

The second and remaining portion of Dr. Bliss's exten- 
sive library is now being dispersed by Messrs. Sotheby 
and Wilkinson. The sale commenced on Aug. 9, ami 
closes on Aug. 18. The Catalogue is a literary curiosity, 



as the books are all arranged chronologically. I. Books 
printed at Oxford, from A.D. 1585 to 1857. II. Works 
illustrative of Oxford and Oxfordshire. III. Versions of, 
and Commentaries on, the Psalms of David, chronologi- 
cally arranged. IV. Books printed in London in the 
three 3 r ears preceding the Great Fire, in which many of 
the copies are presumed to have been destroyed. V. 
CHARACTERS : a most extraordinary series of Humorous 
Publications, arranged in chronological order. On Aug. 
19 and 20, will be sold Dr. Bliss's Collection of Autograph 
Letters, containing the greater portion of the Ormonde 
Correspondence; numerous historical documents temp. 
Charles I. and Charles II.; and a collection of original 
Charters from King John to Queen Elizabeth, with the 
seals. 

It is rumoured in literary circles that preparations are 
being made at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, for the 
reception of a considerable portion of the manuscript trea- 
sures of Sir Thomas Phillipps, of Middle Hill, Bart, 
indisputably the finest collection possessed by any private 
gentleman in this kingdom. 

Many of our literary friends will miss an old familiar 
face in the Reading Room of the British Museum. Mr. 
John Grabham died on Monday last, August 9, at his 
residence in Noel Street, Islington, aged 57. His father 
was editor and original proprietor of the long-established 
and still flourishing paper, The Bristol Mercury. Mr. 
Grabham was first employed in the British Museum on 
March 4, 1833 ; and in 1847, we find him as Second Super- 
intendent. He was a good Greek and general scholar; 
was well acquainted with the contents of the Museum 
Library; and ever ready to facilitate the researches of 
literary students. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentleman by whom they are required, and whose name and address 
are given below. 
MONA ANTIQUA RESTAURATA. By Rev. H. Rowlands. Dublin. 1/23. Or, 

2nd edition, London, printed by H. King, Southampton Street, 

Strand, 1760. 

LIFE OP LORD LOVAT. By Duncan Forbes. 
VALFY'S SHAKSPEARE. Vola. I. and III. London. 1832. 

Wanted by Thos. James, Bookseller, Southampton. 

GLANCR BEHTVD THE GRILLS OP FRANCE. By the Author of "Flemish 
Interiors." 
Wanted by Messrs. ReU <?- Daldy, 186. Fleet Street, London, B.C. 



ta 

W.'a Qmrtt ha* brought. MI tJie information that the. Rescue Society has 
several stations where youna (,;<!,< I'm,,, /</,>' to eighteen are instructed in 
domestic matters; and also of the St. Andrew s Home, Great YcUlham, 
Essex, which has, among other excellent objects, that <>j proviaatg 
I raining School for Girls intended fur service. 

F. S. A. has probably overlooked the articles on the commencement and 
ending of Sunday in our 1st S. ix. 198. 281. ; X. 38. 

ACH E. Cowricr, in his Progress of Error, refers to Anthony van Leu- 
wenhoek, a celebrated Dutch philosopher, u-ho particularly excelled in 
microscopical observations: he was born at Delft in 16:32, (Ufa ''/"/ 
1723. 

R. INGLTS. " The Patriarchs," a sacred drama, is by Rci: Wm. $/u p- 

herd Passing Thoughts in Ver*e, &c. 1854, contain* <> Prologue, 

Songs, ami F./iHofiti" to " Bombastfs Furioso," as plrif/rfl at Mrs. s 

at the Charterhouse. Also a scene from Metastasio, almost literally 
translated. . __ 

ERRATCM. -2nd S. vi. p. 78. col. ii. lines 40, 47.,/or kEVVRJGAN 
read IrEVVREAN. 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPKD COPIES for 
kix Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (inclurling the Half- 
uarl!/ INDEX) is 11s. Id., which man be paid by Post Office Order in 
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all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THB EDITOR should be addressed. 






2^ s. vi. IBS, AUG. 21. '58.] NOTES AND QUEETES. 



141 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 21. 1853. 



THE KOOD-LOFT. 

Any attempt to give a precise history of the 
Rood-loft, with a nominal reference to the par- 
ticular purposes for which it was originally de- 
signed, and to which it was subsequently applied, 
would be necessarily incomplete without some 
short reference to the ambon from which they de- 
rived their origin. 

The curtain typifying the vail of the Temple, and 
which screened the celebrantes in the chancel from 
the people in the nave, has long passed away, and 
left no trace beyond a record ; but the division of 
a church defying all ocular communication, is oc- 
casionally maintained, as in the church of " Notre 
Dame de Consolation " at Vilvord. 

The ambon is one of the earliest appendages of 
the many appliances which in different ages have 
been deemed necessary for the due observance of 
the rites and ceremonies of the Christian churches. 
Although it was destined for the full display of 
tlio Itoman services, it must now be numbered 
with the things that were, to be followed by a far 
more gorgeous substitute. 

The author of the Archeologie Chretienne, 
Oudin, at page 118., says 

" A pen pres au milieu de la grande nef se trouvaient 
1'ambon ; c'etaient des especes de petites chaires destinies 
a la lecture des E'vangiles, des E'pitres, des Livres de 
1'Ancien Testament, a la recitation des diptyques et aux 
predications des evcques ; on les trouve indiquees comme 
placees au milieu de 1'eglise. II y a quelque fois plu - 
sieurs ambons dans une meme dosilique; on en voit oil il 
s'en rencontre trois : 1'un pour re'citation des Propheties 
et de 1'Ancien Testament; le second, commum-ment 5, 
gauche, pour la lecture de 1'E'pitre, et le troisieme a droite 
pour PE'vangile : lorsqu'il ne s'en trouvait qu'un, d'apres 
Ducange, il y avait deux degres dans la partie supe- 
rieure, 1'un, plus eleve, destine' h la lecture de 1'E'vangiie ; 
1'autre, place tin pen plus bas, oil on lisait 1'E'pitre; 
d'apres le P. Cahier, la distinction des fonctions y etait 
signale'e extericurement par le ceremonial. Contrairement 
done j\ 1'opinion de Fleury, 1'ambon etait le chreur propre- 
ment dit, puisque le concile de Laodicee y place les chan- 
tres, en nous donnant lieu de reconuaitre que ce mot 
indiquait souvent tout 1'espace occupc par le clerge des 
ordres infe'rieures." 

Schayes, in his Histoire de V Architecture en 
Belgique, says on the same subject, at p. 126. 
vol. ii. : 

"Les jube's formant 1'entre'e du choeur n'apparaissc-nt 
que vers la I'm du xiii c ou au commencement du xiv 
sice 'le. Us remplacercnt alors les ambons et servirent 
primitivement h la lecture de 1'e'pitre et de 1'evangile: ce 
ne fut que plus tard qu'ils recurent une autre destination, 
et que Ton y plaoa 1'orgue et les chantres, lorsqu'il n'y 
avait pas dc tribune en tete dela nef. Us se composaient 
generalement de trois ou de cinq arcades ouvertes en 
guise de portes, surmontces d'une plateforme et que fer- 
maient des portes a claires voies, en bois, en bronze ou en 
fer. Ces portes etaient garnies dc ridcaux qui se tiraient 



pendant la celebration de la messe, comme anterieure- 
ment ceux du ciborium. Souvent il n'y avait d'ouvert 
que 1'arcade centrale ; le fond des arcades laterales etaient 
mure et on y adossait des autels." 

The projecting compartment in the rood-loft at 
Merevale in Warwickshire over the entrance to 
the choir bears out the general description of the 
ambon, and appears designed to typify the passage 
from this to a better world. 

It is doubtful whether an example of an analo- 
gium now exists, and the question whether it 
formed part of the rood-loft, or was a detached 
construction, and became the precursor of the 
modern pulpit, is difficult, if not impossible, to 
determine. 

The Dictionnaire d' Archeologie Sacree, adopting 
the words of Durandus in the Rationale Offi- 
ciorum, says, 

" The analogium is so named because the word of God 
is from thence read or preached to the faithful." 

Hart, in his Ecclesiastical Records, p. 224., says, 

" The analogium was a reading-desk of Spanish metal 
cast, on which was placed the martyrology or breviary; 
and the lessons relating to the Saints were read from it." 

In the Encyclopedic Mcthodique, under the . 
word jube, is the following passage referring to 
the ambon : 

" In place of an isolated tribunal they constructed an 
elevation at the entrance of the choir, and made it a part 
of the building, placing spiral steps on either side. Thus 
the jube was an arcade separating the nave from the 
choir." 

In continuation, the jube is styled " an elevated 
tribune upon which they sing morning lessons on 
fetes, and read the Epistles and Gospels." 

In the Dictionnaire d' Archeologie Sacree already 
quoted, it is stated under the word jube, " this 
name was given to that part of the sacred build- 
ing from the first word which the deacon or reader 
pronounced when he asked the benediction of the 
bishop or priest, 

' Jube domine benedicere.' " 

But it has been suggested that these words were 
addressed to the Deity, and give to "jube" the 
meaning of " velis." The sentence would then be 
" Be pleased, Lord, to bless us." 

In the article " Cloture du Choeur," it is stated, 

"In the front part there is a jube which enabled the 
Epistles and Gospels to be read on an elevated place, so 
that those who were present might take part in the cere- 
monies." 

The position of the desk over the entrance to 
the choir agrees beautifully with the typical cha- 
racter of church architecture in which the choir 
stands for heaven, and the nave for the world. By 
the study of God's holy word the Christian passes 
safely from probation to reward. 

In the Architectura Canonica, the author, giv- 
ing a description of primitive Christian churches, 



142 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. VI. 138., AUG. 21. '58. 



says, the third division was the " Sanctuary," 
separated from the nave by "lattices" called 
cancelli, from whence our word " chancel." The 
not unfrequent custom of glazing these lattices 
has by no means passed away, but one reference 
will be sufficient. In the chapel to the Convent 
of the Barnardines at Bornhain on the Scheldt 
the organ is placed on the rood-loft, and the lat- 
tice-work beneath is glazed for the convenience 
of the ordinary worshippers, who are not per- 
mitted to enter the chancel, or what is now more 
generally called the choir. Thus in effect they 
see and hear alike indistinctly, but the primary 
object is apparently attained. 

The construction of the rood-loft, to which the 
present screen formed the frontage, was probably 
a portion of the duties imposed upon the inmates 
of the monasteries ; and, it may be readily conjec- 
tured, were first erected in the chapels of their 
own convents, and were afterwards admitted in 
the cathedral, collegiate and parish churches. 
The monks were conversant with the arts in 
Flanders, which may in some measure account for 
the superior style of the decorations lavished upon 
this comparatively modern addition to our English 
churches. To elevate their own sacred observ- 
ances by mysterious seclusion, and to raise to the 
utmost- all devotional veneration, these barriers 
were constructed all gorgeous without, to prompt 
the feelings of the people to hallow the holy rites 
within. 

Fosbroke, in his Antiquities, treats on the later 
ages of the rood-loft, and brings forward the more 
practical purposes to which it was applied in re- 
ference to the formule. The position of the rood 
was the most prominent, and as the people in 
general could not see the high altar, it was on 
that object they directed their eyes in adoration 
at the moment the sanctus bell announced the 
elevation of the Host. The fact is established, 
that the figures upon the loft varied as much as 
the figures painted on the panels beneath ; per- 
haps more scriptural, but less illustrative of 
miracles and inartyrology. 

" Rood-lofts, or galleries, were built across the nave, at 
the entrance of the chancel or choir, for the images of the 
Crucifixion, Mary and John, and sometimes rows of 
Saints on either side, and where the musicians played. 
There is a remarkable similarity in the style of rood-lofts. 
The gallery is commonly supported by a cross- beam 
richly carved with foliage, sometimes superbly gilt, and 
underneath runs a screen of beautiful open tabernacle 
work. One at Honiton, in Devonshire, precisely re- 
sembles that engraved by Sir R. C. Hoare. Mary and 
John were not always the images which accompanied the 
crucifix, for we find the four Evangelists substituted in- 
stead. At Gilden Morden, in Cambridgeshire, the rood- 
loft is very long and complete ; having a double screen, 
forming two pews, about six feet square, on each side of 
the passage to the chancel ; the upper parts of light open 
Gothic work of the 15th century; the lower part is 
painted with flowers and figures of Edmond and Erken- 



wold, with their names and inscriptions added." Ency- 
clopaedia. ofAntiq. i. 97., ed. 1825. 

The following quotation from the Antiquities of 
Durham throws additional light on the purposes 
to which the rood-loft was applied : 

" Also, on the back side of the said rood, before the 
' quire ' door, there was a loft, and the clock stood in the 
south end thereof. Underneath the loft, contiguous to 
the wall, was a long form, reaching from one rood door 
to the other, whereon men rested themselves to say their 
prayers and hear divine service." 

As the last days of these venerated barriers 
draw near, so are the notices of the latest writers 
made available. Martin, who lived at the time of 
the Reformation, describes in a narrative form 
the exact state of the parish church of Long Mel- 
ford, in Suffolk, with all its furniture, decorations, 
books, vestments, plate, and ceremonies as he re- 
membered them ; and among other items, we read 
as follows : 

" There was a fair Rood-Loft, with the Rood, Mary 
and John on every side, with a fair pair of organs stand- 
ing thereby, which loft extended the breadth of the 
Church ; and on Good Friday a Priest, then standing by 
the Rood, sang the Passion : the side whereof, towards 
the body of the Church, in twelve partitions in board, 
was fairly painted with images of the twelve Apostles." 

The same author, in reference to the utensils 
and furniture belonging to Melford church, among 
other things, while on the subject of the copes and 
vestments, names : " A cope of red silk for Good 
Friday, with vestments of the same." 

Chambers, in his Norfolk Tour, (vol. i. p. 236.) 
in speaking of the vestments and utensils which 
belonged to Wytchingham Church, enumerates 
" twenty-four candlesticks of laten for the rood- 
loft." 

Many opinions founded on scriptory gatherings, 
or the more questionable authority of tradition, 
may be with advantage recorded as illustrative of 
the written positions already quoted. 

The loft is believed by some to have formed a 
beat, walk, or tramp, and was occupied by the 
sacrist, who gave intimation to the people of what 
was passing within the chancel, and guided their 
adorations. 

Another opinion prevails, that the loft was oc- 
cupied by the serving man, whose duty it was to 
ring the sanctus bell, when the priest pronounced 
the " Ter Sanctus," to- draw attention to that 
more solemn office, the canon of the mass, which 
he was now about to commence. The bell sus- 
pended for this purpose is retained in few churches, 
but it is to be found at Long Compton, Which- 
ford, and Brailes, in Warwickshire, where this 
bell is still preserved, hung in an arch at the 
apex of the nave, with the rope hanging down 
between the chancel and the nave. 

The loft was too small to admit the representa- 
tion of a mystery, but it is very probable the 



vi. 138., AUG. 21. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



influence of scenic effect was attempted, and varied 
in the different localities, as the tearing of the 
veil which shrouded the rood on the first dawn of j 
Easter Sunday. 

To what extent the uniformity of the services 
was carried, is now probably a question which it ! 
is impossible to determine ; but it must be doubted j 
whether it really existed as in the example at Han- 
worth, in Norfolk, where one of the most beautiful 
and perfect lofts remain : there also is preserved 
a very perfect lectern of the same date, where, on ! 
the opposite side to the stand, there is still legible 
the square-formed notes of a chant with the fol- 
lowing words, which were repeated at the end of 
the Epistle and Gospel by the choristers: thus 
proving that, at least in that church, neither 
readers nor choristers were upon the loft : 

" Glori a tibi domine, 
Qui natus es tie virgine 
Cum sancto spiritu 
In sep'terna secula. Amen." 

Probably the only existing example of the rood- 
loft being applied to decorative purposes at stated 
periods in the churches of England, is described 
at p. 11. of the Architectural Antiquities in the 
Neighbourhood of Oxford, where, describing the 
church of Charlton-on-Otmoor, it is stated : 

" On this rood-loft a garland is placed, from imme- 
morial custom, on May-day, strung upon a wooden cross, j 
which remains in the position of the ancient Holy Hood I 
until the following year, when the flowers and" ever- 
greens are again renewed." 

The steps to the loft are either built to wind 
round a column, or were cut in the solid wall, and 
were not unfrequently in an exterior turret ; but 
were always too narrow to admit the ascent of a 
procession, or even a priest fully robed, and which 
it is not improbable the newel form was adopted 
purposely to prohibit. H. D'AVENEY. 



" Fii da alcuni faceti detto, che se gli astrologi, non 
sapendo le vere cause de' moti celesti, per salvare le ap- 
parenze, hanno dato in eccentric!, et epicicli, non era ma- 
raviglia, se volendo salvare le apparenze de' moti sopra- 
celesti, si dava in eccentricita d' openioni." Hist, del 
Cone. Trid., Lond. 1619, p. 222. 

The allusion is well explained in " The Life of 
Samuel Fairclough," p. 184. (printed in Samuel 
Clark's Lives of Sundry Eminent Persons, Lond., 
1683, fol.) : 

" He could never expect to see or find peace on earth 
amongst men. until the spirits of men were so acted by 
the Spirit of God, as the spheres are said (in the old phi- 
losophy) to be acted above by angels, where all the little 
smaller epicycles and circles of every particular orb do 
all give themselves up wholly to the conduct and motion 
of the larger and greater spheres ; and truly (said he) it 
is this, which (according to that hypothesis) doth make 
the sweetest music in heaven." 

J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 



MILTON AND FATHER PAUL. 

I do not find that the commentators have pointed 
out the source of the singular lines in the Par. 
Lost, viii. 82, 83. Yet no one who considers the 
strong attractions which the bold and eloquent 
History of the Council of Trent must have pos- 
sessed for the author of Areopagitica, and observes 
the exact verbal correspondence of the two pas- 
sages cited below, will doubt that Milton was in- 
debted here to Father Paul : 

" . or if they list to try 
Conjecture, he his fabric of the heav'ns* 
Hath left to their disputes, perhaps to move 
His laughter at their -quaint opinions wide 
Hereafter, when they come to model heav'n 
And calculate the stars, how they will wield 
The mighty frame, how build, unbuild, contrive 
To save appearances, how gird the sphere 
With centric and eccentric scribbled o'er, 
Cycle and epicycle, orb in orb." 



COLD HARBOUR. 

With a view of placing the evidence on this 
much-disputed subject in a more accessible form 
in " N. & Q.," I beg to enclose a list of the Cold 
Harbours 1 have recorded up to the present time. 
This will be found to include the Rev. Mr. Harts- 
horne's list of about eighty in the Salopia Antiqmi, 
and all those referred to in " N. & Q.," the Gen- 
tleman s Magazine, and the Archceologia, and many 
others. In most cases the names have been ob- 
tained by me primarily from the Ordnance Sur- 
vey, and other topographical sources ; and the 
comparison with Mr. Hartshorne's list was a sub- 
sequent measure. It is possible that in some few 
instances the same Cold Harbour may be found 
repeated by mistake. 

The examination I have made of this subject 
in this more extensive survey brought me to the 
same conclusion as Sir Richard Hoare, Mr. Fos- 
broke, Admiral Smyth, the Rev. Mr. Hartshorne, 
Mr. Albert Way, and Mr. Benjamin Williams, 
that the Cold Harbours are in Roman situations. 
I have marked some in the following list with R. 

With regard to the meaning of Harbour, I have 
no difficulty in adhering to the old school of Lye 
and Junius, but I am not able to arrive at a de- 
cided opinion as to the meaning of Cold. That it 
is neither Celtic nor Latin I have no doubt, nor 
that it is a Germanic word. I incline to the 
opinion that it means empty or abandoned; but it 
is difficult to apply a definite meaning to Cold as 
a prefix, which is applied to so many Roman sites 
besides harbours ; and I am unable to satisfy my- 
self as to the application of the prefix Chil and 
that of Windy, more particularly in Windy Har- 
bour, which in some shires replaces the denomina- 
tion Cold Harbour. The subject is beset with 
difficulties until a large mass of facts can be ac- 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2nd s. vi. m, AUG. 21. '58. 



cumulated and classified on the terms Cold, Chil, 


Kent 




Cold Harbour, 


Ditton. 


Windy, and generally on topographical nomen- 
clature. 


" 


R. 
R. 


" 


Eltham. 
Lympne. 
Lamberhurst. 


The places are here classified by counties, as 


" 


E. 


" 


Maidstone. 


being more convenient for reference : 


" 


& 


.. 


Ncwington. 


Bedfordshire R. Cold Harbour, Biggleswade. 


99 







Northbourne. 
Northfleet. 


R. Dunstable. 


99 


. 


" 


Penshurst. 


R. Harrold. 
Berkshire R. Stadhampton. 
R. , Wallingford. 
R. Wantage. 
Buckinghamshire R. Aldbury. 
R. Barton Hartshorn. 
R. Fenny Stratford. 
R. Gayhurst. 
R. Great Marlow. 
R. Great Misseiiden. 


99 

9 

9 

9 
9 


11. 

E. 
R 

R. 


99 

N 


Sellinge. 
Stoke-in-Hoe. 
Sittingbourne. 
Sutton-al-Hene. 
Trench. 
Tunbridge. 
Woodnesborough. 
Woolwich. 
Wrotham. 

\Vvp 


Cambridgeshire E. Arbury. 
Cornwall Gwinear. 


Lincolnshire 


. 


,9 


v v 3 c. 
Benington. 


Ladock. 
R. Trewednack. 







If 


Jjoston* 
Coates. 


Derbj'shire Cold Arbour, Dethwick. 
R. Cold Harbour, Wormhill. 
Devonshire R. Bampton. 


99 


R, 





Jb rciston* 
Grantham. 
Grimoldby. 
Kirkstead. 


R. Dolton. 


H 


"P 




T rin f IT 


R. Modbury. 
R. Uffculme. 
Dorsetshire Poorstock. 
R. Stanton St. Gabriel. 
R. Wareham. 


99 

Middlesex 


R. 


99 

99 


J^OUtli. 

Steingotc. 
London. 
Blackball. 
Finchley. 


Essex R. Maldon. 
R. Purfleet. 
Flintshire 99 Rhydlan. 
Gloucestershire R. Dursley. 
R. Kingscote. 
R. Newent. 


99 

99 

Monmouthshire 
Norfolk 
Northamptonshire 
Nottinghamshire 


R. 

R. 
R. 


99 

59 

99 


Kingsland. 
Magor. 
Fordham. 
Radstone. 
Mansfield. 


R. St. Briavel's. 


> 


. 


99 


m 1 1 


R, Stoke Gifford. 
R. Stretford. 


Oxfordshire 


1!. 


99 
99 


Bicester. 
Brill. 


R. Wick. 
R. Pill, Caerwent. 
R. JReen, Berkeley. 
R. Cold Arbour, Oxenhall. 
Hampshire R. Cold Harbour, Andover. 
R. Broughton. 


99 

H 

Radnorshire 


R. 
B, 

ft. 


99 

99 
9> 
99 


Biddenham. 
Chesterton. 
Deddington. 
Oakley. 
Bailey Hill, Kiiigh- 
ton. 


Emsworth. 
R. Fareham. 


Somersetshire 


R. 


99 


Ditcheridge. 
Fonthill. 


Gosport, 
R. Havant. 
R. Hungerford.* 
R. East Straiten. 
R. Lower Wallop, Win- 
chester. 
Herefordshire R. Stretford. 


99 

Surrey 


U. 

R. 

R. 


99 
99 

99 
99 
99 


Westbury. 
Blechingley. 
Camber well. 
Cranley. 
Croydon. 
Dorking. 
T pith TTill 


Hertfordshire R. 99 Berkhampstead. 
R. Harborough Banks. 
St. Alban's. 

T> Ware 


Sussex 


B. 


99 

99 
99 


j^eiLii iTiii. 
Arundel. 
Bignor. 

Cliiddingley. 


iv. w are. 
R. North of Do. 
R.. Watford. 


99 




99 
99 


Dallington. 
Etchingham. 


Huntingdonshire R. Alconbury. 







99 


Fittleworth. 


R. Tempisford. 


" 




99 


Iden. 


Kent R. Addington. 


" 




99 


Wivelisneld. 


' R. Aldington. 


" 




99 


Worth. 


II. Aylesford. 
Bishopsbourne. 
Bridge. 
R. Barham Downs. 


Westmorland 
Wiltshire 


R. 


99 
9> 
99 
99 


Underbarrow. 
Broad Blunsden. 
Brokenborough. 
Orickliiclo 


Chiselhurst. 


99 


}\. 


99 


Marlborough. 


* Hartshonie, Salopia Antiqua. 


99 


R. 


>9 


Tetbury. 



2-* s. vi. m., AUG. 2i. '58.] NOTES AND QUEMES. 



145 



Wiltshire 



R. Cold Harbour, Trowb ridge. 



Worcestershire 
Yorkshire 



E. Wartninster. 

R. Westbur}\ 

R. West Lavington. 

R. Droitwich. 

R. Bishop's Burton. 

Lessay. 

Cold Arbor, Cottingham. 

Those who examine the list of names here given, 
and apply Sir Richard Hoare's rule of identifica- 
tion, will find significant hints of Roman localities 
in Chester, Wieh or Wick, Ford, Borough, Ridge, 
Street, Stone, Wool, Wye, Hunger, Ware, Hare, 
&c. HYDE CLARKE. 

42. Basinghall Street. 



TEETOTALISM. 



I know not whether any notice has ever been 
taken in " N. & Q." of a passage in vol. vii. 
p. 202. contributed by " ROBERT SMART, Sunder- 
land," where, instancing some " erroneous forms 
of speech," he observes : 

" The much used word Teetotal ought to be written 
Tea-total ; it implies the use of tea instead of intoxicating 
liquors; that was its original meaning. Let us return to 
the proper spelling ; better late than never." 

The late Rev. W. J. Conybeare, in an article on 
" Teatotalism and the Maine Law," which ap- 
peared in the Edinburgh Review of July, 1854, 
and was republished in his volume of Contribu- 
tions to the Edinburgh, makes substantially the 
same assertions : 

" The name Teatotal is said to have originated in the 
stammering of a speaker at a temperance meeting, who 
declared that nothing would satisfy him but tea-total 
abstinence. The audience eagerly caught up the pun, 
and the name was adopted by the champions of the 
cause. We observe that they have now taken to spell it 
Tee-total instead of Tea-total ; but they had far better 
give up the name altogether. The pun no doubt is poor 
enough, but the new spelling makes the adoption of the 
term seem like absolute imbecility." 

Now, wfcat will your readers think when I 
assure them that not one of the above statements 
is correct? 1st. That the word in question was 
never spelt tea-total ; 2d. That it never had the 
slightest reference to tea ; 3d. That, consequently, 
it was never intended or accepted as a pun ; and 
4th. That the spelling has remained the same 
from the beginning. As to the use of tea, it is 
notorious that some persons having abandoned the 
use of intoxicating liquors, have also renounced 
the use of tea, believing that, though not com- 
parable in rnischievousness to alcoholic drinks, it 
is not so innocuous as cocoa, milk, or water. In 
Webster's Dictionary another set of errors makes 
its appearance. The first edition is without the 
word; but that of 1854, revised by the learned 
professors of Yale College, has " Teetotaler " with 
the following definition : " One who is pledged to 



abstain from all intoxicating liquors. A cant 
word, formed by the initial letter of temperance 
and the adjective total." We should have ex- 
pected in that case that as total-temperance was 
meant, the word would have been " totaltee," 
and not "teetotal." The simple facts are, that 
when the question of revising the old temper- 
ance pledge, so as to exclude all intoxicating 
liquors, was under consideration in Preston, a 
working man of the name of Richard Turner 
applied to the proposal, not a cant word, but one 
long in use as an idiomatic local expression, the 
term " teetotal." He had probably heard and 
uttered it hundreds of times before, in the sense 
of " completely," " absolutely without any ex- 
ception," or, as we sometimes say, " out-and-out." 
The formation of the word is clear enough, the 
first syllable " tee" being the mere duplication of 
the initial " t " of total, for the sake of greater 
emphasis and force. Its application to total ab- 
stinence from inebriating liquors was accidental, 
and the use of it by Richard Turner would pro- 
bably have escaped observation had he not, 
through a habit of stammering, drawn the atten- 
tion of the people to the distinction he was wishing 
to convey. No one would have been more sur- 
prised than he to learn that he was perpetrating 
a pun. If the origination of this term with its 
present meaning was strange, it is not less strange 
that it should have been so grossly misunderstood. 
When men of learning stumble in open day over 
a word which is the badge of millions of indi- 
viduals, and of one of the greatest moral move- 
ments of the age, a word which has always been 
spelt in one way, and the proper meaning of 
which has been explained in hundreds of speeches 
and scores of pamphlets, are we not cautioned 
against a hasty confidence in the conclusions of 
even the ablest scholars on subjects confessedly 
recondite and obscure ? DAWSON BURNS. 



" The Florence Miscellany, 1785." Amongst 
the books sold in the library of the late Mrs. 
Mostyn at Brighton (who had sate on Dr. Samuel 
Johnson's knee as the daughter of Mrs. Thrale, 
afterwards Piozzi), is an 8vo. volume bearing the 
above title, and containing verses by Mrs. Piozzi, 
Bertie Greathead, Robert Merry, William Parsons, 
Esq., printed at Florence for G. Cam, printer to 
his Royal Highness by permission. It is on very 
thick paper, and evidently intended for private 
distribution only. As everything connected, how- 
ever remotely, with " surly SamJ' is interesting to 
most English people, some account of this volume 
may be considered worth preservation in your 
pages. Mrs. Piozzi's contributions to the volume 
are nine : one stanza, in her translation of the 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



s. vi. isa, AUG. 21. 58. 



Marquis Pindemonti's Hymn to Calliope, is appli- 
cable to the present Indian war : 

" . . . The voice from high, 
Resounding through our nether sky 
Defenceless Britain taught to dare" 
And fix the sea, her seat of war ; 
Till Asia's prostrate pomp was seen 
Bending before old ocean's Queen, 
For such was all controuling Heaven's command, 
Who sways by force the sea, with laws shall rule the 
land ! " 

Mr. Greathead's .contributions are only six ; 
whilst Mr. Merry's number nineteen, and those of 
Mr. Parsons thirty- one ; verses by Italian writers, 
and music composed by Signor Piozzi, increase 
the size of this interesting volume to 224 pages. 

E. D. 

Somersetshire Pronouns. Next to pronouncing 
s in the manner of z, the great point of the 
Somersetshire dialect is the inversion of no- 
minative and accusative in she and her, we and us. 
But the inversion is not perfect in the other pro- 
nouns ; for though I is placed where me should be, 
there is no vice versa, or at least not a regular usage. 
The following perfect instance of the first inver- 
sions was related in my presence by the person 
who heard it. Some children were at play in a 
field, to whom a woman seemed to a passenger to 
be calling out violently. The passenger said to 
the children, "Do you not hear your mother call- 
ing to you? " and the answer was, " Her isn't a- 
calling of we : us doesn't belong to she." 



M. 



Indian Game Fowl. Now that the poultry- 
mania of the last few years has to a great extent 
subsided, and Poultry Chronicles and Poultry 
"N. & Q.'s " thereunto attached have come to a 
perpetual end, it may not be thought out of the 
province of our own " N. & Q." to' notice, as a 
matter of natural history, a breed of fowls kept 
up by a friend of mine in this locality which 
present characteristics very distinct from all the 
known species. They were brought from India 
in the same ship with the "baby elephant," I 
believe, and are represented as being kept by the 
Indian Rajahs for cock-fighting. They are of a 
cinnamon colour, not much larger than the Ban- 
tam fowl ; but with immensely strong yellow legs, 
and muscular development. In many points they 
resemble the "Cochin-China" in miniature, espe- 
cially in the head and eye, and in their upright 
carriage. The cock's tail is scanty, and droops ; 
and the plumage of both sexes is of a remarkable 
close, solid texture, almost to the extent of that of 
the grebe. 

Their weight, in comparison with their size, is 
enormous; and their prowess and endurance in 
warfare is such, that all other fowls are invariably 
worsted. The hens fight as much as the cocks, 
and they are continually engaged in it. 

I hope this imperfect description will be re- 



cognised by some naturalist acquainted with India, 
who may be able to give us their proper designa- 
tion. I should add, that they are now perfectly 
acclimated, and have bred freely. E. S. TAYLOR. 

The last Charge at Waterloo. In the accounts 
of the laying of. the first stone of the new Adelphi 
Theatre by Mr. B. Webster on 15th inst. (July), 
we are told that 

" At the moment of lowering the stone might be heard 
a bugle gallantly sounding a charge from an adjoining 
building, obedient to a preconcerted signal ; the bugle so 
sounded being the identical instrument that had given 
the signal for the last charge at Waterloo, and the lips 
awakening its spirit-stirring tones being the same lips 
which had performed that office in that critical moment, 
and now belonging to the respected door-keeper of the old 
Adelphi." Herald, July 16, 1858. 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Early Wheat, fyc. : 

"Abingdon market, Monday, July 19, 1858. To-Jay 
we had a sample of new wheat offering ; the whole of the 
piece carried and threshed ; quality fine, and the yield very 
good ; also some samples of peas, and several samples of 
new seeds. There will be a great quantity of corn car- 
ried this week if the weather keeps fine. The crops are 
remarkably good." 

In the year 1811, reaping commenced in Kent on 
July 24; in 1818, in Surrey, on July 27; in 1819, on 
July 31 ; in 1822, on July 16 ; in 1825, on July 22 ; in 
1826, on July 23 ; in 1828, on July 31 ; in 1831, on July 
29 ; in 1833, on July 31 ; in 1834, on July 23 ; in 1835, on 
July 27. 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Johnson's Epitaph on Goldsmith. Three strange 
mistake^ are made in a translation of Dr. John- 
son's Latin epitaph on Goldsmith, given in one of 
the numerous small editions of Goldsmith's Life 
and Works. The lines in the original stand thus : 

" Natus Hiberhia Forniae Lonfordiensis 
In loco cui nomen Pallas." 

The translation given is, 

" He was born in the Kingdom of Ireland, 

At Ferns, in the Province of Leinster, 

Where Pallas had set he)' name.'^ 

The translator calls Forney Ferns, Longford 
Leinster, and mistakes the name of the little Irish 
village, Pallas, for that of the goddess of wisdom 
and patroness of learning. ABHBA. 



Gibbon's ludicrous Love Scene. What is the 
meaning of the following passage from the re- 
cently published Life of Cardinal Mezzofanti, by 
C. W. Russell, D.D., President of St. Patrick's 
College, Maynooth ? 

" In this year [1823], Mezzofanti made the acquaint- 
ance of the celebrated Duchess of Devonshire, during one 
of her visits to the north of Italy. The success of her 
magnificent edition of Horace's Fifth Satire his journey 
to Brundusium had suggested to her the idea of a 



I 



2- s. vi. 138, AUG. 21. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



similar edition of the Eneid. The first volume, with a 
series of illustrations, scenical as well as historical (of 
Troy, Ithaca, Gaeta, Gabii, &c.), had appeared in Rome 
in 1~819: UEneide di Virgilio, recata in versi Italiani, da 
Annibale Caro, 2 vols. folio. It was printed by De Ro- 
manis. The Duchess was the Lady Elizabeth Hervey, 
daughter of the episcopal Earl of Bristol ; and after the 
death of her first husband (Mr. Forster) had married the 
Duke of Devonshire. She is the true heroine of Gibbon's 
ludicrous love scene at Lausanne, described by Lord 
Brougham, but by him related of Mademoiselle Susan 
Curchod, afterwards Madame Necker. See an article in 
the Biographic Universelk (Ixii. p. 452.), by the Chevalier 
Artaud de Montor ; also, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays 
(vol. i. p. 64.), by an ' Octogenarian,' (the late Mr. James 
Roche of Cork, the ' J. R.' of the Gentleman's Magazine, 
and a frequent contributor to the Dublin Review, and 
other periodicals), a repertory of curious literary and 
personal anecdotes, as well as of solid and valuable infor- 
mation." P. 259. 

Does it mean that the Duchess of Devonshire, 
and not Mademoiselle Curchod, was the object of 
Gibbon's attachment ? If so, the writer is clearly 
in the wrong. G. L. S. 

Dean Swiff s Correspondence with Chetwode. 
Mr. Wilde, in his Closing Years of Dean Swiff s 
Life, p. 29., makes mention of the Dean's corre- 
spondence with Knightly Chetwode, Esq., from 
1714 to 1731; and expresses a wish that "our 
friend [Edward Wilmot Chetwode, Esq. of Wood- 
brook, Portarlington,] could be persuaded to pub- 
lish this interesting correspondence." He adds, 
" it is a debt he owes to his ancestors, his country, 
and himself." Feeling the same wish as Mr. 
Wilde, I have thought it well to send a Note upon 
the subject, and hope the repetition of the wish 
may not be in vain. ABHBA. 

Parish Church of Donnybrooh, co. Dublin. 
Considerable attention being now directed to- 
wards the preservation of monumental inscrip- 
tions, I am induced to put the following Query, 
in the hope of an answer from some one of your 
Irish correspondents. What became of the ma- 
terials of the old parish church of Donnybrook, 
near Dublin ? They were very improperly sold, 
I believe, about thirty years ago, shortly after 
the opening of the present parish church, and 
probably were soon beyond recovery. As there 
were several monuments in the interior of the 
building, not one of which was transferred to the 
new building, or (as far as I am aware) left be- 
hind by the purchaser in the graveyard, it is de- 
sirable to ascertain, if possible, whether they are 
still in existence. The yard is in use, and con- 
tains the dust of many well-known individuals, 
lay and clerical. Of the latter I may specify 
Archbishop King (ob. 1729), Bishop Clayton 
(ob. 1758), and Dean Graves, Regius Professor 
of Divinity (ob. 1829) ; in fact, as Archdeacon 
Cotton has well observed, " Donnybrook grave- 
yard is rich in buried ecclesiastics." Tombstones, 
with full particulars (which will, I hope, be soon 



placed on record, in compliance with the invi- 
tation of the Society of Antiquaries of London), 
cover the remains of Bishop Clayton and Dean 
Graves ; but there is nothing to mark the grave 
of Archbishop King. 

The large iron gates, I may add, serve to orna- 
ment and protect a neighbouring fruit-garden ; 
but the fate of the monuments has so far baffled 
my inquiries. ABHBA. 

Murder in France. In the South of France, 
about fifteen years ago, a commercial traveller 
killed a man whom he had robbed, cut him to 
pieces, and packed them in a trunk. He was 
seized by the police while nailing it up, and singing 
" a la Grace, a la Grace," which in the newspaper 
account was called a hymn. Can any of your 
readers refer me to a contemporary, or an authen- 
tic report of this case ? E. T. 

Sash Windows. What is the history and ori- 
gin of these windows ? The derivation of the 
word is no doubt the French chassis, a groove, or 
anything that slides in a groove. They seem first 
to have come into use after the great fire. But 
they must have been rare in Queen Anne's reign, 
as appears from the following advertisement in 
The Tatler, No. 178., May 27 to 30, 1710 : 

" To be lett, in Devonshire Square, near Bishopsgate, a 
very good Brick House of 3 Rooms of a Floor, and a good 
Hall, with very good light and dark Closets, the whole 
House being well wainscotted, and sash'd with 30 Sash 
Lights, a very pleasant and convenient Office below Stairs, 
a good Yard, a good Vault for Wine, &c., with a very 
good Warehouse and Cellar for Merchandize. Enquire at 
the Baker's in Devonshire St*, near the House." 

A. A. 

Casts of Seals. As a few of my gutta-percha 
casts have lately split in several places, like a 
cracked shilling, and have thus become compa- 
ratively worthless, I would like much to know if 
there is any way for preventing such a mishap in 
future ? Were they not so liable to be broken, 
sulphur casts are far preferable in many re- 
spects to gutta-percha ones. The latter require 
to be made pretty thick, else they are apt to curl 
up, and become very brittle ; so it would be very 
desirable to know how they can be preserved from 
splitting, when made of a proper thickness. 

Several of the casts which I have from time to 
time received from correspondents appear to be 
coloured throughout, green, brown, and other 
tints, and as none of them have become injured 
like the uncoloured ones, above referred to, some 
collector will perhaps kindlv say how the gutta- 
percha is prepared, so as tcPlave this apparently 
preservative colouring matter thoroughly incor- 
porated with it, before the matrix is applied, and 
also what substances are used. 

Are casts of the following seals in existence? 
and, if so, where can I obtain copies of them, as I 
would like much to add them to my collection ? 



148 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. VI. 138., AUG. 21. '58. 



The ancient seals of St. Alban's and its abbey, 
of Glastonbury and its abbey, of Knaresborough, 
of Malmesbury Abbey, and of Bury St. Edmund's. 

Replies to the above Queries will greatly oblige 

ALIQUIS. 

Decoration ly Planting young Birch Trees. 
Passing through Tunbridge last week, I was sur- 
prised to find a number of young birch trees, or 
branches of birch trees, ten or twelve feet high, 
planted in the street like trees, before almost 
every house and shop. The waving boughs and 
the bright green leaves really made a very pretty 
decoration. On inquiry I found they were placed 
there on the occasion of the examination of the 
boys at the Public School, and the visitation of 
the Skinners' Company, under whose patronage 
the establishment has always been since its 
foundation; that the custom has existed time 
out of mind; that no other tree, or flower, or 
garland is ever used except the birch alone ; and 
this is always planted like a growing tree. There 
is no tradition of the origin or reason of the cus- 
tom, though it seems probable that birch alone 
being used, that tree the horror of all boys, its 
scholastic use is pointed at. Can any reader of 
"N. & Q." cite a similar custom elsewhere, or en- 
lighten us a little as to its history or origin ? 

A. A. 

Welowes and Roses. - Capgrave, in his Chroni- 
cle, mentions the following curious circumstance 
under date A.D. 1338 : 

" In that same yere welowes bore roses, rede and freche, 
and that was in Januarie." 

Against this is his private mark placed, where he 
vouches for facts on his own authority. 

What does he mean by " welowes bore roses ? " 
The curious circumstance of that flower blooming 
in January is nothing in comparison with this. 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Heraldical. Arms: azure, a chevron chequy, 
argent and gules. I shall be obliged by any one 
stating to what family the above belong. C. J. 

"It is not worth an old .Song- /"^- What could 
have given rise to this expression of contempt for 
any valueless article ? It seems peculiar to the 
English, for the Scotch, Irish, and Welsh, have a 
great esteem for old songs. J. Y. 

Prisoners taken at Duribar. It has been said 
that Cromwell sent several hundred Scotch pri- 
soners taken at Dunbar to the fen country, where 
they settled permanN,ly. Are any traces of this 
immigration to be found, such as their names, 
personal appearance, peculiar customs, or other- 
wise ? T. 

Lord's Day, not Sabbath. In all Roman Ca- 
tholic countries the first day is called the Lord's 
Day (Dominica), and the seventh the Sabbath 



(Sabbate). This seems certainly to be the correct 
designation. Can your readers tell me why so 
many pertinaciously call the Lord's Day by the 
Jewish name Sabbath, and when it first became 
the practice ? F. S. A. 

Nostradamus: Joachim. In 1 st S. x. 486. you 
inserted a Query of mine as to a prophecy of 
Nostradamus and Joachim. The passage cited by 
H. B. C. (1 st S. xi. 93.) renders it probable that 
the prophecy was invented by Marino. I have 
examined several editions of Nostradamus without 
success. When part of a Query is answered, the 
rest is liable to be overlooked : so perhaps you 
will allow me again to ask, Who was Joachim, or, 
as Marino calls him, the "Reverendo Abbate 
Gioacchino ? " and where are his prophecies to be 
found ? E. L. 

Alice de Hahenaye, or Hackney. In Strype's 
Stow, vol. ii. p. 168., is a curious account of the 
disinterment of the bodies of Richard Hackney 
and Alice his wife, in the churchyard of St. Mary 
at Hill in 1497; when the body of the latter was 
found perfect, after having been buried more 
than a century and a half. Richard was Sheriff of 
London, 1322. In Dugdale's Account of Sop- 
well Nunnery, vol. iii. p. 363., it is stated that after 
the death of Phillipa, in 1330, the nuns unani- 
mously elected Alice de Hakeney prioress ; but 
this coming to the cars of the Abbot of St. 
Alban's, to which monastery Sopwell was a cell, 
he ordered the election to be set aside, and ap- 
pointed Alice de Pekesdene. Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." inform me whether this was 
the same Alice de Hakney (the word is spelt all 
sorts of ways) ? and can they throw any light on 
a subject full of interest to the topographical his- 
tory of both Hackney and Sopwell ? A. A. 

Dover. Where shall I find any accurate draw- 
ings of the ancient architecture in Dover Castle, 
especially of the chapel in the keep? Where 
shall I find drawings and descriptions of Barfres- 
tone church, near Dover ? What is the history 
of the camp at Coldred, near Dover ? E. F. D. C. 

" The Masque of Flowers" Is anything known 
regarding the authors of The Masque of Flowers^ 
4to. 1614. This masque was presented by the 
gentlemen of Gray's Inn, at the Court at White- 
hall, in the Banquetting House, upon Twelfth- 
Night, 1613. The Dedication to* Sir Francis 
Bacon is signed J. G., W. D., T. B. R. INGLIS. 

Threlheld or Thirheld Family. Is it known to 
what family belonged Edward Threlkeld, LL.D., 
who was Rector of Great Salkeld, Archdeacon of 
Carlisle, and Chancellor of Hereford in the reign 
of Queen Elizabeth ? He was fellow of King's 
College, Cambridge, and, as Antony Wood says, 
so much admired in the University for his excel- 






2 S. VI. 138., AUG. 21. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



lent knowledge and eloquence, that he was thought 
to use the help of some good genius. His wife's 
name was Margery Leighton. A MS. of Erdes- 
wick in the British Museum gives his arms : ar- 
gent, a maunch gules, quartering argent, three 
stars gules; and the crest, a maiden looking over a 
tower wall. 

I should also be glad to know who was the Rev. 
William Threlkeld or Thirkeld, who married the 
eldest daughter (and purchased the shares of the 
remaining co-heiresses) of Lancelot Threlkeld, 
Esq., of Melmerby. He held the rectory of 
Melmerby from 1684 to 1701, and is described as 
a collateral branch of the family. Was he iden- 
tical with Win. Thirkeld, M. A. (not of Oxford), 
who was Vicar of Bishopton in the county of 
Durham from- 1681 to 1686? or with William, 
son and heir of Edward Thirkeld of Durham, 
Gent, (younger brother of Anthony Thirkeld of 
Dale, co. Cumberland), who entered his pedigree 
in 1666 (Dugdale's Durham Visitation) ? The 
eldest son was then eighteen years of age. Any 
information tending to elucidate the parentage 
and descent of the above Edward and William 
Thirkeld would oblige E. H. A. 

Prince of Wales' s Badge, 1666. In S. Ni- 
cholas' church, Ipswich, there is an escutcheon on 
the wall of the nave, on which is the Prince of 
Wales's badge, with the date 1666. How can this 
date be accounted for ? HILTON HENBURY. 

Characters in Gulliver's Travels. Is there any 
sense to be made out of the proper names and 
other strange words which are scattered through 
Gullivers Travels ? If so, what is the key to the 
language of Lilliput, Brobdingnagia, Houyhmnn- 
land, &c. ? HILTON HENBURY. 

MS. Life of Dr. George Hickes. I was in- 
formed some years since, that the late Rev. Dr. 
George Townsend, Canon of Durham, possessed a 
MS. Life of Dr. George Hickes, formerly belong- 
ing to the library of the Rev. John Lewis, M.A., 
of Margate. Canon Townsend's library was sold 
by Puttick and Simpson in December, 1855. Was 
this MS. Life of Dr. Hickes sold with his other 
books ; and if so, who was the fortunate pur- 
chaser ? J. Y. 

Triptych at Oscott. At S. Mary's College, 
Oscott, there is a picture, of which I send you the 
description, in the hope that a notice of it in the 
" N. & Q." may lead to the discovery of its coun- 
terpart, if it exist in England. 

It is one of the leaves of a triptych. On the 
side which would be seen when open are S. An- 
tony, S. Ursula, and S. George. On the reverse 
is the kneeling figure of the Blessed Virgin, part 
of a representation of the Annunciation. It is 
surrounded by a framework, and its dimensions, 



within this frame, are 5 ft. 6| in. X 3 ft. 2 A in. ; the 
frame being about 2 inches wide. 

At the top, in the framework, are the names 
of the painters : 

"JOHANNES ET YVO STRIGEL." 

Below the figure of the Blessed Virgin, on the 
panel, is an inscription in two lines : 

" Anno dili mcccclxv pcuratoes ecciie put cu adiuvamie 
pduci viuetib' coraite hugone do motfort et uxoe u' Ely /a." 

The counterpart would present the Archangel, 
the rest of the inscription, and perhaps some in- 
dication of the home of the painters. I do not 
remember having met with their names elsewhere. 

DANIEL. 

The City of Alcliud. Can any reader of " N". 
& Q." throw light on the following passage from 
The Descripcyon of Englondo at the end" of The, 
Crony clcs of Englonde, printed by Wynkyn de 
Worde, 1528? 

" Other men wolde suppose that Alcliud was that cyte 
that now is called Burghara in the north Countree of 
Westmerlonde, fast by Comberland, and standeth upon 
the river Eden ; the cite is there wondersly seen. Deme 
ye now where it is buylded." 

Has this identity of Alcliud and Burgham or 
Brougham been established by any subsequent 
writer ? C. A. 



Dormant Biography, Where can I find a bio- 
graphical memoir of Mr. Samuel Chifney, who 
died about fifty years ago, and was well known 
in his day as the racing, or stud-groom of the 
Prince of Wales (George IV.) ? He was author of 
a work entitled Genius Genuine, which sold at 
forty shillings, and which might be a high price for 
the work ; but Sam Chifney, as he was called, 
was such an adept in all the recondite mysteries 
of the race-course, that the cost of the production 
was disregarded. Chifney rode a horse called 
Escape on two consecutive days' races, October 
20 and 21, 1791. The results of these two days 
are too well known to be otherwise than ever- 
memorable in the annals of jockey ship. Contempo- 
rary with Chifney was Dick Goodison, stud-groom 
to William, fourth Duke of Queensberry ; and 
in consequence of the termination of the two races 
above-mentioned, such animosity was engendered 
between these two persons that it could not be as- 
suaged by their mutual friends ; and, like the ser- 
vants of the Montagues and Capulets, the two 
grooms meeting each other, some such dialogue 
passed as this 

Gregory. " Do you quarrel, Sir ? " 

Sampson. " If you do, Sir, 1 am for you ; I serve as 
good a man as you." Romeo and Juliet. 

In short, such extreme hatred was only to be 
decided by a duel, not with pistols, but a down- 



150 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. YI. IBS., A. 21. 58. 



right pugilistic combat, which a newspaper of the 
day describes as follows : 

"Friday last the long-talked-of battle between the 
noted Dick Goodison and Sam Chifney took place. They 
fought for half an hour extremely well, when victory de- 
clared for Goodison, who won owing to the superior 
strength and length of his arms." 

More of these two heroes and the race in ques- 
tion, perhaps, some readers of " N. & Q." would be 
so obliging as to supply. 

[Very little appears to have been recorded of Samuel 
Chifney, senior, the celebrated jockey. He died Jan. 8, 
1807, in the rules of the Fleet Prison, to which he had 
been confined some years for a small debt. His Genius 
Genuine was published (1804) chiefly in vindication of 
his conduct in reference to the two days' races above re- 
ferred to, and contains "A Full Account of the Prince's 
Horse 'Escape ' running at Newmarket." The work was 
" sold for the Author, 232. Piccadilly, and nowhere else. 

Price Five pounds." Richard Goodison, commonly 

known as " H 11 Fire Dick," was by birth a Yorkshire- 
man, and first distinguished himself on the turf in 1777. 
He died about the year 1826, near Newmarket, where be 
cultivated successfully a very extensive farm.] 

Cinna : Panurge. 

" Some think he writes Cinna, he owns to Panurge." 
Goldsmith. 

" Barre, in his strong language, spoke of a ' villain, a 
dirty scoundrel,' who wrote in the service of the govern- 
ment under the signature of Panurge or Cinna." Mas- 
sey's History of England, vol. ii. p. 99. 

Who was the person alluded to by Colonel 
Barre, of such notoriety that his supposed pre- 
sence at the feast where " the pasty was not," 
was held out as a compensation for the loss of 
Johnson and Burke ? J. H. L. 

[The individual was Dr. James Scott, familiarly called 
by Goldsmith " Parson Scott." After studying for a 
short time at Catherine Hal), he migrated to Trinity 
College, Cambridge, and gained three prize medals. In 
1765, at the suggestion of the Earl of Halifax, he pub- 
lished some political letters, signed " Anti-Sejanus " in 
the Public Advertiser. For a short time he was lecturer 
at Trinity Church, Leeds, but returned to the metropolis, 
and wrote a variety of political pieces in the public 
journals under the signature of " Old Slyboots." In 1771, 
he was presented, through the interest of Lord Sandwich, 
to the rectory of Simonburn, in Northumberland. " I 
congratulate "the ministry and the university," writes 
Nicholls to Gray the poet (April 29, 1771), " on the 
honour they have both acquired by the promotion of 
Mr. Scott; may there never be wanting such lights of 
the Church ! and such ornaments of that famous seminary 
of virtue and good learning." During the contest of 
Lords Sandwich and Hardwicke for the Cambridge High 
Stewardship, when Scott was busy, as usual, in libelling 
for his profligate patron, Gray had described the infamous 
party-hack as hired to do all in his power to provoke 
people by personal abuse, yet " cannot so much as get 
himself answered." ( Works, iv. 34 ; v. 135.) Soon after 
Dr. Scott's induction to Simonburn, he became involved 
in litigation with his parishioners ; and a suit which he 
commenced against them in 1774, after having been 
carried on for twenty years, at an enormous expense on 
both sides, was at length disposed of by his consenting to 
relinquish the claim he had set up for the tithe of agist- 



ment, on the defendants undertaking to pay 2,400/. to- 
wards the costs which he had incurred. Dr. Scott died 
at his house in Somerset Street, Portman Square, on Dec. 
10, 1814, in the 81st year of his age.] 

Moonshine. Can any of your readers favour 
me with the origin, or probable origin, of the 
term " all moonshine?" A. G. 

["Moonshine" is in old-fashioned and provincial Eng- 
lish "an illusive shadow," "a mere pretence" (Halliwell, 
Holloway). The expression, " It is all moonshine," is 
now variously applied, whether as referring to empty 
professions, to vain boasts, to promises not trustworthy, 
to questionable statements, or to an} r kind of extravagant 
talk. There exist, in several languages, so many words 
of lunar connexion, all implying variableness or incon- 
stancy, that possibly this phrase also, " It is all moon- 
shine," may have been primarily employed to express 
some degree of fickleness, caprice ; in allusion to the in- 
constancy or changeableness of the moon, or rather 
moonlight. When any one professes or promises great 
things, which we do not expect to see realised, we say, 
"It is all moonshine:" for moonshine is very shifty; 
one week we have it, another we have it not ; nay, it 
shifts from night to night. "Lunes," in old English, are 
not only fits of insanity, but freaks. And the term "lu- 
natic " itself did not properly signify a person always in- 
sane, but one who was mad at intervals, dependant, as 
was supposed, on the phases of the moon. This distinction 
is still very accurately maintained in Spanish philology: 
" Lunatico. El loco, cuya demencia no es continua, siuo 
por inter valos que proceden del estado en que se hall a la 
Luna." Hence also in French, modern and old : " II a 
des lunes," he is whimsical or fantastic; " Tenir de la 
lune," to be inconstant, mutable ; ." Avoir vn quartier de 
la lune en la teste," or " II y a de la lune," he is change- 
able, giddy, capricious. In the "language of symbols," the 
moon is the emblem of hypocrisy, as in the following 
device : 

" La Lune, avec ces mots, 

Mentiri didicit. 
(Elle trompe toujours.) 

Pour rhi/pocrisie, dont la Lune est le simbole." 
Menestrier, Philosophic des Images, vol. i. p. 266. 

Another emblem is the following : 
" La Lune. 

Non vultus non color unus. 

Pour une personne qui ' 'est pas sincere." Ib. i. 269. 
" Moonshine," in conformity with these ideas, was pro- 
bably employed originally in characterising the talk of 
persons too mutable to be relied on from one time to 
another.] 

Bishop Abbofs MS. Commentary on Romans. 
Is there not in the Bodleian Library a complete 
Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans, in 
MS., by Robert Abbot, Bishop of Salisbury? 
So says Erasmus Middleton, in his Evangelical 
Biography, vol. ii. p. 382. Is it not to be re- 
gretted that such a work by such a man should 
be lost to the public ? ABHBA. 

[The work is in the Bodleian, and consists of four 
volumes, Nos. 36383641., entitled "Rob. Abbot, Episc. 
Sarisb. Praelectiones sacrae in S. Pauli Epistolam ad Ro- 
manos." It is written in a very clear hand, and filling 
3692 pages in folio, 21 lines in "a page, 8i inches wide. 
The same library also contains the following MS. : No. 
8120. "Collections out of Mr. Robert Abbot's Answer to 
D. Bishop."] 






s. VL 138., AUG. 2i. '68.3 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



Lady Ashburton. About thirty or thirty-five 
years ago, Lady Ashburton, a widow said to be 
possessed of a fortune of 200,000/., made a great 
iigure in the Northern metropolis. It was sup- 
posed that her fortune ultimately descended to 
Lord Cranstoun, to whom she was related. Who 
was the Lord Ashburton ? Dunning, I think his 
name was. Of what family was she ? T. 

[The lady above referred to was Anne, widow of 
Packard Barre Dunning, the second and last Baron Ash- 
1 mi-ton of that family, who died at Friars' Hall, Rox- 
burghshire, in February, 1823. She was the daughter of 
William Cunningham, of Lainshaw, Esq.] 

Tennis. Our English game of Tennis is iden- 
tical with the French Jeu de Paume ; but what is 
the meaning of the English name Tennis f It is 
old, being mentioned by Shakspeare, who must 
himself have been a tennis-player from the cor- 
rectness with which he speaks the language of the 
game : 

" We're glad the Dauphin is so pleasant with us. 
His present and your pains we thank you for. 
When we have match'd our rackets to these balls, 
We will, in France, by God's grace, play a set 
Shall strike his Father's crown into the hazard. 
Tell him he 'ath made a match with such a wrangler 
That all the Courts of France will be disturbed 
With Chases." 

And the Cronycles of Englonde (Wynkyn de 
Worde, 1528), speaking of the Dauphin's insult- 
ing present to Henry V., says, " And somwhat 
in scorne and despyte he sent to hym a tonne full 
of tenes balles." A PLAYEE. 

[Richardson, in his Dictionary, explains that the name 
of this game, Tennis, " is from the French Tenez, ac- 
cipe, take a word which the French, who excel in this 
game, use Avhen they hit the ball." Dr. Richardson 
adds, " Skinner has two other conjectures not so plausi- 
ble." See N. & Q." 1" S. xii. 308. ] 

Dr. Bongout. Who wrote The Journey of Dr. 
Bongout and his Lady to Bath in 177--. Dodsley, 
1778 ? T. G. L. 

[On the title-page of a copy of this work we find the 
following MS. note : " By Dr. Robert Bragg, well known 
to the connoisseurs in painting." This worthy, however, 
has not found a niche in any biographical dictionary, so 
that we shall be glad to have a few particulars respecting 
him.] 



CATHEDRAL-SERVICE TRADITION. 

(2 nd S. vi. 109.) 

I sympathise with JACOB, and hope he will 
condole with me; since on S. James' Day his 
cathedral-service and my parish-church tradition 
were identical with private judgment. Private 
judgment could alone have guided one petty 
canon to have inserted the wrong lesson, and the 
other to have omitted the right collect, and both 



to have mingled in one heterogeneous mass the 
key-notes of two different offices. It appears to 
me to be simply absurd to mingle what never 
could have been intended to be, and what never 
used to be, mixed. It may be a question with 
some persons whether the office for the Saint's 
day, or Sunday, be used : but I cannot under- 
stand any compromise between the two, proceeding 
upon principle. On the greater holy days, of 
course, the lesser saint's day office gives way. But 
if private judgment which in some form or 
another answers most of JACOB'S Queries pre- 
vail, the custom of the church carries no weight. 

There is only ohe case which suggests itself to 
me, as in any degree lawful, in which the lessons 
for the Sunday and the office of Holy Communion 
for the saint's day might be used ; and that is 
where Morning Prayer and Holy Communion are 
said at different hours, such as before and after 
breakfast. This I should not think advisable. 

The two latest authorities I have at hand are 
Mr. Procter and Professor Blunt. With all ad- 
miration for the latter, neither of these writers 
are, I believe, eminent rubricians. It may not be 
amiss, however, to hear what they say. On the 
subject of Proper Lessons, the Professor " ven- 
tures to say thus much, that in general the weight 
of argument is on the side of adopting the lessons 
for the holy day. For, 1st, "on some Holy Days, 
e.g. the Epiphany, the Athanasian Creed is made 
to supersede that of the Apostles; and he argues 
from the Creeds to the Lessons, 2d, " on some, 
e.g. Conversion of S. Paul, there is no second 
lesson appointed, and the minister is driven for 
the second lesson, at least, to the saint's day." 
3d. It is argued from the analogy of the rubrics 
of the state services. Still Mr. Blunt says there 
is a difficulty of course he means the lessons 
from the Apocrypha. In the cases these are ap- 
pointed to be read on a saint's day, he thinks, 
that from the analogy of the rule on which proper 
lessons are selected, that hesitation to adopt them 
may be reasonable. This is clearly opposed to his 
second great argument. He does not attempt to 
show that the church ever intended a mixture of 
services. Whilst upon no fewer than three saints' 
days, S. Peter, Conversion of S. Paul, and All 
Saints, which cannot I believe fall on any greater 
holy day, the church has deliberately selected 
special lessons from the Apocrypha and the New 
Testament, and the minister, to use the Profes- 
sor's words, is driven to use the selected second 
lesson at the least. Unless then it can be shown 
what I do not think can be proved that the 
church sanctions an admixture of offices, the onus 
probandi that the selected saint's day lessons be 
not used, lies with JACOB'S and my own opponents. 
To my mind this consideration is final. 

Mr. Procter takes the same line of analogy from 
the Sunday lessons as Mr. Blunt, only with less 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. vi. m, AUG. 21. '58. 



success. He apparently approves of conglomerate 
offices ; at least, he does not condemn them ; and 
. asserts that the most usual mode of conducting 
service i. e. modern irregular practice prompted 
by private judgment is what JACOB condemns. 
It seems, then, that modern use and recent 
authorities are against us. Perhaps some one will 
enlighten us as to ancient and Catholic custom. 

O. S. 

On the subject of holy-days falling on Sundays, 
and the rules for the reading of the lessons, &c. in 
such case, your correspondent e JACOB will find 
the following in Wheatly on the Common Prayer, 
p. 190. : 

" In relation to the concurrence of two holy-clays to- 
gether, we have no directions either in the rubric or else- 
where which must give place, or which of the two services 
must be used. . . . For this reason some ministers, when a 
holy-day happens upon a Sunday, take no notice of the 
holy-day (except that sometimes they are forced to use 
the second lesson for such holy-day, there being a gap 
in the column of second lessons in the calender), but use 
the serVice appointed for the Sunday ; alleging that the 
holy- day, which is of human institution, should give way 
to the Sunday, which is allowed to be of divine. But 
this is an argument which I think not satisfactory ; for 
though the observation of Sunday be of divine institu- 
tion, yet the service we use on it is of human appoint- 
ment." Nor is there anything in the services appointed 
to be used on the ordinary Sundays, that is more peculiar 
to, or tends to the greater solemnity of the Sunday, than 
any of the services appointed for the holy-days. What 
slight, therefore, do we show to our Lord's institution, if, 
when we meet on the day that He has set apart for the wor- 
ship of Himself, we particularly praise Him for the eminent 
virtues that shined forth in some saint, whose memory 
that day happens to bring to our mind ? Such praises 
are so agreeable to the duty of the day, that I cannot bu4 
esteem the general practice to be preferable, which is, to 
make the lesser holy-day give way to the greater; as 
an ordinary Sunday, for instance, to a saint's day; a 
saint's day to one of our Lord's festivals ; and a lesser 
festival of our Lord to a greater : except that some, if 
the first lesson for the holy-day be out of the Apocrypha , 
will join the first lesson of the Sunday to the holy-day 
service: as observing that the church, by always ap- 
pointing canonical Scripture upon Sundays, seems to 
countenance their use of a canonical lesson even upon a 
holy-day, that has a proper one appointed out of the 
Apocrypha, if that holy-day shall happen upon a Sunday." 

M. C. H. 

In the Clerical Papers, edited by the Rev. W. 
II. Pinnock (Cambridge, 1853) pp. 368372., 
your correspondent will find the opinions of vari- 
ous bishops and eminent writers, with regard to 
the concurrence of holy days, given at full length. 
The following directions of Dr. Mant, Bishop of 
Down and Connor, seem to have been followed 
at the Abbey : 

" In the case of the Lord's Day concurring with a 
Saint's day, I prefer the First Lesson for the latter, unless 
it be from the Apocrypha, when the Sunday Lesson from 
a Canonical Book may on the whole be preferable .... 
When a Saint's day coincides with the Lord's Day, I 



prefer the Collect for the former. The reading of both 
Collects is not agreeable to the provision of the Church." 
Ilor. Lit. pp. 45. 48. 

The late Bishop of London, however, in his 
Charge for 1842 (p. 65.) recommends the use of 
the Lessons for the Sunday, the Collects for both 
days, and the Epistle and Gospel for the Saint's 
day, RESUPINUS. 



FOTHEBINGAY CASTLE AND CHURCH. 

(2 nd S. vi. 91.) 

In reply to the inquiries of MR. STAUNTON, I 
beg to mention that I visited the site of Fothcr- 
ingay Castle in May, 1857, and May, 1858. The 
quotation which he has referred to, relative to 
the fetterlock, appears substantially, although in 
other words, in Camden's Mag. Brit. ; but there 
is a slight want of accuracy in Camden's stating 
that, when Edward of Langley rebuilt the castle, 
he made the keep in the form of a fetterlock : " the 
highest fortification, commonly called in castles the 
keepe, in the form of a fetterlock." The lofty cir- 
cular mount, where the keep once stood, yet re- 
mains ; and it does not differ from those which 
may be sfcen in many other places where keeps 
of castles were formerly standing. It was not 
the keep, but the Castle of Fotheringay, which 
was built in the form of a fetterlock. All the 
walls of the castle have been completely demo- 
lished, the stonework has been removed, and it 
is believed that the Talbot Inn at Oundle, which 
is evidently of the age of James I., who demolished 
the castle, was built with the stones from it. 

Sufficient remains of the earthworks and ram- 
parts of the castle, however, are yet there (except 
on the side (western) nearest to the village of 
Fotheringay, (where they have been levelled within 
the memory of persons now living,) to show that 
the castle was built in the form of a fetterlock, 
with a flat face or portion on the side (westward) 
nearest to the village, and circular on the east- 
ward portion. A very small mass of masonry, a 
few feet long, lies near the river, and seems to 
have slipped or been thrown down from the outer 
wall. 

I cannot reply to the part -of the inquiry as to 
where a view of the castle (as I presume in its 
original state) can be seen, for I never saw one. 

The church of Fotheringay must once have 
been a magnificent edifice; but at present all 
that remains of it is the nave with its side aisles, 
and the tower, which are very beautiful. The 
nave is now used for divine service. The church 
contains a very handsome and large stone font, 
apparently of the early part of the fifteenth cen- 
tury ; which is not only an object of interest from 
its beauty, but as King Richard III. was born at 
Fotheringay on October 2, 1452 (see William of 



s . vi. 138, AUG. 21. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



Worcester), it is only a reasonable inference that 
he was baptized at that font. 

When the chancel was destroyed, the bodies of 
Richard Duke of York, Cecily his Duchess, and 
Edward Duke of York, his uncle, were removed 
from the places in the church where they had 
been originally deposited (wrapped in lead), and 
were interred near the present altar, and monu- 
ments of plaster (now whitewashed) were erected 
over them by the order of Queen Elizabeth. A 
correct description of them is given in Gou^h's Ad- 
ditions to Camden, except that the inscriptions are 
at present quite legible, and not, as there stated, 
almost defaced. 

On the left (north) side of the altar, when 
facing it, are the armorial bearings of Richard 
Duke of York, impaling those of his Duchess, 
and the following inscription : 

" Richard Plantagenet, Duke of York, Nephew to Ed- 
ward Duke of York, and Father to King Edward 4 th , 
was slain at Wakefield in the 37 th year of Henry 6 th , 
1459,* and lies buried here with Cecily his wife 

Cecily,. Duchess of York, Daughter to Ralph Neville, 
first Earl of Westmoreland." 

On the monument on the right side of the altar 
are the armorial bearings of Edward Duke of 
York, and the following inscription : 

" Edward Duke of York was slain at the battle of 
Agincourt, in the 3 d year of Henrj' 5 th , 1415. 

" These monuments were made in the year of our Lord 
1573." 

There is not any monument, or inscription, to 
the memory of Edmund Earl of Rutland ; whose 
body was, with that of his father, Richard Duke 
of York, first interred at Pontefract, and after- 
wards removed and interred in Fotheringay 
church. RICHARD BBOOKE. 

Canning Street, Liverpool. 



LORD LYTTELTON S VISION. 
(2 nJ S. V. 165.) 

I know not whether the enclosed version of Lord Lyt- 
tel ton's apparation has ever appeared in print. I copied 
it from an old MS. account (at least fifty years old) of a 
gentleman in this county at whose house I have lately 
been staying, and whose mother was a collateral descend- 
ant of his lordship. J. S. 

Wirkworth, Derbyshire. 

"The remarkable circumstances attendant on the 
death of Lord Lyttelton having been so variously 
represented, a statement of the relations may af- 
ford the public some degree of satisfaction, and 
tend^to prove that the intervention of that Divine 
providence which governs the universe is not in- 
consistent with reason or truth. The authority 
of the narrative may be depended upon. 

* I am not able to account for the date 1459, as all the 
old writers, as far as I am aware, give the year 1460 as 
that in which the battle of Wakefield was fought. 



" There was a gentleman of much respectability 
who had a residence at Clent, near Hagley Park, 
the seat of Lord Lyttelton. The family con- 
sisted of himself, wife, son, and four daughters, 
the eldest married, the others living with their 
parents. In June, 1778, the gentleman died, pre- 
vious to which time Lord Lyttelton was in the 
habit of visiting the family, but afterwards ap- 
peared desirous of greater intimacy ; to accom- 
plish which he repeated his visits in the autumn, 
and made the young ladies a present of some ele- 
gant paraphernalia on New Year's day, 1779, with 
a letter subjoined, written in the phraseology of 
Scripture (of which the following is a copy), 
probably to ingratiate himself with the mother, 
who was a lady of exalted understanding and 
great dignity of manners. 

" ' The 1st chap, of St. Thomas' Epistle to the 
Clentiles. 1st. Behold I will speak to you, oh 
daughters of Clent, in the language of wisdom, 
and give you understanding in the paths of peace. 

" ' 2nd. Look not, Eliza, upon men, yea upon 
the sons of men, with an eye of concupiscence, 
saying, I am not short- sighted ; for verily the 
wicked will beware of the intentions of the heart. 

" 3rd. Take heed of thy ways, lest thou be 
like the foolish woman, even like Mary {Mrs. 
Cameron*}, who will repent as Magdalen re- 
pented. 

" * 4th. Did she not turn away from her mother, 
even the mother who brought her forth, to seek 
after new conventions ? 

" * 5th. But be thou steady, like the cedar of 
Mount Libanon, that taketh not to the earth, but 
lifteth her tall head to the oaks. 

" ' 6th. As to thee, oh Christian ! (Mrs. Wil* 
kinsoii)) remember after whom thou art called, 
and seek not thy cloak in the dark.f 

" ' 7th. Trust not thy cunning, for that which 
appeareth to thee wisdom, is but folly to the 
wise. 

" ' 8th. Go to, thou art brown, but thou art 
pleasant to look upon, and thy ways are full of 
pleasantness. 

" ' 9th. Thy eye is as the eye of the Basilisk, 
and it burneth like the red star in the tail of 
Sagittarius. 

" ' lOth.^Thou dost excel all the daughters of 
the West in the works of thy needle, and thy 
voice is sweet in the ear. 

" * llth. When thou singest thy voice is like 
the voice of the nightingale when she mourneth 
for her mate by the river of Solon in the shady 
groves of Jehoshaphat. 

" 12th. Thy mother putteth her trust in thee, 
be thou to her a comfort when her heart is sad, 



The married sister, who had acted imprudently, 
f The circumstance of the cloak refers to a reply that 
Miss Christian made when interrogated respecting her 
absence, that she was looking for her cloak. 



154 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [a* s. vi. iss., AUG. 21. '08. 



that she may boast of thee and say : I am the 
mother of Christian. 

" ' 13th. Unto thee, oh Margaret ! thou rosebud 
of sweetness, peace be unto thee ! 

" ' 14th. Verily, thou art fresh as the dew that 
hangs on the lily in the morning, which is de- 
voured by the greedy sun. 

" ' 15th. Thy cheek is soft, even as the down 
of the plume which the cursed wash never in- 
vaded. 

" ' 16th. Thy lips shed the perfumes of Arabia, 
and the fountain of health is in thy mouth. 

" ' 17th. Thou art a daughter of the spring, and 
early dost thou put forth thy loveliness ; and 
many are the days thou shalt see. 

" * 18th. But mind, thou blossom of youth, the 
finest bud is the soonest blasted, and behold the 
ruffian winds prey on its sweets. 

" * 19th. Avoid thou the tempter in the wilder- 
ness, and cast thou the serpent under thy feet. 

" * 20th. For although thy words are fierce 
and violent, thy heart is soft as the plumes on 
the breast of the swan. 

" '21st. Grow up yet a little and the sons of 
men shall be captivated by thy comeliness, and 
the great men of the land shall sigh for thy beauty. 

" * 22nd. Now unto thee, oh Mary, the mother 
of Eliza, of Christian, and Margaret, to thee be all 
honor and praise. 

" ' 23rd. Thou dost hold up thy head in the 
Temple among the rulers of the people, high is 
thy fame in the land, thy sentences are mighty 
and full of wisdom, like to the Proverbs of the 
son of Sirach. 

" ' 24th. Behold ! thou art a woman of exceeding 
spirit, justice and temperance enlighten thy ways. 

" * 25th. Yet thou art a lonely and a widow 
woman, and the wickedness of man is against 
thee. 

" * 26th. Trust not therefore to thyself, but 
take unto thee a helpmate, for so the Lord has 
appointed. 

" ' 27th. Then shalt thou be defended from the 
peril and dangers of widowhood, and shalt an- 
swer the end of thy creation. 

" 28th. Trust thou to the honesty of a friend, 
and believe in the counsel of him who has under- 
standing.' 

" The poor mother, not apprehending any dis- 
agreeable consequences, read the letter to her 
daughters, who were then of tender age, the 
youngest 15, the next 17, and the other 19: 
which inadvertence (as the mother afterwards 
thought upon it) rested very much on her mind ; 
and from repeated attentions on the part of his 
lordship, familiar intercourse ensued, which ter- 
minated in the residence of the three young 
ladies at Hagley Park, quite contrary to the ex- 
press command of their mother, whose delicacy 
was shocked at her daughters being under the 



same roof with a man of Lord Lyttelton's cha- 
racter. 

" In September his lordship's engagements re- 
quiring him to visit Ireland, Miss Christian, at 
his instigation, accompanied him, together with a 
lady of Irish extraction : this indiscretion greatly 
augmented the mother's afflicted state. About a 
month after that period, the two sisters, who had 
remained at Hagley Park during the absence of 
the party, went to meet them at a place where 
they were expected to land, and all came together 
to his lordship's town residence in Hill Street, 
Berkeley Square, where they continued till No- 
vember. On the 26th of that month, about two 
in the morning, Lord Lyttelton was awakened by 
something like the fluttering of a bird among the 
curtains of his bed, which suddenly escaped, and 
the figure of a woman of majestic aspect (the 
very image of the mother of the young ladies, as 
declared by his lordship), made her appearance 
and told him to prepare for his departure for 
another world, for that within three days he should 
be with her in the state of the dead. 

" This most extraordinary occurrence making 
a deep impression on the mind of Lord Lyttel- 
ton, he, early in the morning, communicated it 
to the ladies, who ridiculed what appeared to 
them the effect of a heated imagination ; and to 
divert his gloom proposed a visit to Epsom, 
where his lordship had a seat that he won from 
Lord Foley. Here they spent the night, and 
the following day returned to Hill Street, where 
a party was invited to meet them, and all the 
jocularity exerted on the occasion could not dis- 
sipate the anxiety of his lordship, though he af- 
fected to treat the circumstance with contempt, 
and exclaimed upon retiring, ' If I live over to- 
night, I shall jockey the ghost!' The young 
ladies accompanied his lordship to his room to 
notice some paintings, and presently retired, when, 
before they were undressed, a servant ran hastily 
to their door, demanding admittance, and declared 
that his lordship was dying. Before the ladies 
could reach the room, his lordship was speech- 
less, and on their entry expired in great agonies. 
What render the circumstances still more remark- 
able is, that the next post brought the young 
ladies an account of their mother's death, who 
departed precisely at the time Lord Lyttelton 
saw the vision." ' LEEK. 



ANCIENT SEAL. 

(2 nd S. vi. 110.) 

The seal in question is apparently an old talis- 
man or magic seal ; many of the characters in- 
scribed upon it corresponding to the attributes 
(in magic) of the planet Mercury. The square 
within a square certainly belongs to that planet, 
being termed " the seal or character of Mercury." 



2nd s . vi. 138., AUG. 21. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



The metal of the seal itself, the young man 
bearded, the dog (sometimes biting his own tail), 
the rod or staff with serpents entwined (in H. T. 
W.'s seal, the branch with leaves springing up 
and spreading itself on each side of the man's 
head, may be the engraver's version of the said 
rod and winged cap of Mercury), are all in magic 
lore connected with the same planet. The in- 
scription round the edge is a more difficult matter, 
at least so far as giving any meaning to it is con- 
cerned. Such seals always had an inscription 
round them, supposed to be the name of some 
spirit, good or bad, with some divine name " con- 
gruent with his spirit and office, to give it greater 
force and efficacy" : these names being formed in 
various ways, according to certain or rather un- 
certain rules, which it would require a long course 
of study to understand at all. The general plan 
was similar to that of the Cabalists, viz. taking a 
sentence of Scripture, and putting together the first 
letters of each word to form a new word (as in 
the well-known instance of Maccabseus, from M, 
C, B, I, the first letters in the sentence, meaning, 
" Who is like unto thee among the gods, O ! 
Lord ?" So Jesu, from a sentence meaning "Mes- 
siah shall come ;" Elion by a similar process, &c.). 
Sometimes the last letters were taken ; sometimes 
the middle letters ; or, as my author says, " a let- 
ter is put for a word, and a letter extracted from 
a word, either from the beginning, end, or where 
you please ; and sometimes these names are ex- 
tracted from all the letters one by one, even as 
the seventy -two names of God are extracted from 
three verses of Exodus, the first and the last 
verses being written from the right to the left ; 
but the middle contrariwise from the left to the 
right ; and sometimes a word is extracted from a 
word, or a name from a name, by the transposi- 
tion of the letters as Michael from Malachi; 
sometimes by changing the alphabet, by which 
Jehovah may become Kuzu ; sometimes, by reason 
of the equality of the numbers, names are changed, 
as Metatron for Sadai the letters in both making 
up 314," &c. "And these (he very properly adds) 
are the hidden secrets concerning which it is most 
difficult to judge, or to deliver a perfect science ; 
neither can they be understood or taught in any 
other language but the Hebrew." (Barrett's 
Magus, ii. 40.) 

Another way of finding out the name of a 
spirit to any desired effect, is given by the same 
author (ii. 60.) ; which, though despairing of being 
able to translate, I am tempted to give verbatim : 

"Any celestial harmony being proposed to thee, to 
make an image or a ring, oV any other work to be done 
under any constellation, if thou wilt find out the spirit 
that is the ruler of that work, the figure of the heaven 
being erected, cast forth letters in their number and 
order, from the degree of the ascendant, according to the 
succession of signs through each degree, by filling the 
whole circle of the heavens ; then those letters which fall 



into the places of the stars, the aid of which you would 
use, being according to the number and power of those 
stars marked without into number and order, make the 
name of a good spirit." 

Again : 

" What letters fall into the place of the aforesaid stars 
j being marked and disposed, according to the order found 
I out above in the stars, and rightly joined together ac- 
cording to the rules of the Hebrew tongue, make the 
I name of a genius ; to which, according to the custom, 
some monosyllable name of Divine Omnipotence, viz. El 
or Jah, is subjoined." 

" The manner of making these rings is thus : when any 
star ascends in the horoscope (fortunately), with a for- 
tunate aspect of conjunction of the moon, we proceed to 
take a stone and herb that is under that star, and like- 
wise make a ring of the metal that is corresponding to 
the star ; and in the ring, under the stone, put the herb 
or root, not forgetting to inscribe the effect, image, name, 
and character, as also the proper suffume.' ? Magus, i. 95. 

The object of making such seals is described in 
the following passage, which, as a curious speci- 
men of a jargon not likely to be one with which 
many of your readers are familiar, I transcribe 
entire : 

" There are certain magic tables of numbers distributed 
to the seven planets, which they call the sacred tables of 
the planets; because, being rightly formed, they are en- 
dued with many great virtues of the heavens, insomuch 
that they represent the divine order of the celestial num- 
bers, impressed upon them by the ideas of the divine 
mind, by means of the soul of the world, and the sweet 
harmony of those celestial rays ; signifying, according to 
proportion, supercelestial intelligences, which can no 
other way be expressed than by the marks of numbers, 
letter?, and characters : for material numbers and figures 
can do nothing in the mysteries of hidden things, but re- 
presentatively by formal numbers and figures, as thev 
are governed and informed by intelligences and divine 
enumerations which unite the extremes of the matter and 
spirit to the will of the elevated soul, receiving (through 
great affection, by the celestial power of the operator), a 
virtue and power from God, applied through the soul of 
the universe ; and the observation of celestial constella- 
tions to a matter fit for a form, the mediums being dis- 
posed by the skill and industry of the Magician.* .... 
The sixth table is of Mercury. . . . And from it is drawn 
a character of Mercury, and the spirits thereof; and if, 
with Mercury being fortunate, you engrave it upon silver, 
tin, or yellow brass, or write it upon virgin parchment, it 
renders the bearer thereof grateful, acceptable, and fortu- 
nate to do what he pleases ; it brings gain, and prevents 
poverty ; helps the memory, understanding, and divina- 
tion, and to the understanding of occult things by dreams ; 
but with an unfortunate Mercury does everything con- 
trary to this." Magus, i. 142. 

I hardly need add, that lege, tege, mean respec- 
tively, "read, conceal." Jeld, the last name in 
the inscription, is very like Jeliel, which is one 
of the seventy-two names of angels of the class 
Shemhamphorce : or, if we use a different division, 
Segaiel is not unlike Sachiel ihe angel whicli 
governs Thursday. Perhaps some other contri- 



* Qy. Have we not had something like this in the 
productions of the modern " spirit-rappers " ? Truly 
there is nothing new under the sun. 



156 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [** s. vi. m, Atm. 21. TO. 



butor will be more successful in deciphering above 
than J. EASTWOOD. 



ARCHDEACON CORRIE OF CALCUTTA. 

(2 nd S. v. 132.) 

The following particulars relative to the pa- 
rentage, birth-place, and education of Dr. Corrie, 
second Archdeacon of Calcutta, and first Bishop 
of Madras and Ceylon, will supply the information 
required by T. HUGHES of Chester, and furnish 
him with some facts not given in the bishop's 
Memoirs, published by his brothers in 1847, or in 
any detailed printed biographical notice of the 
late prelate with which I have met. The data 
are extracted from my MS. Hierarchy of Chris- 
tendom, or Diptycha Ecclesice Universalis, a 
work upon which I have employed my leisure 
hours in India for several years past, but which 
is still far from complete, and containing the Fasti 
of the church in Great Britain and its colonies 
from the introduction of Christianity into Eng- 
land to the present time, thus forming a Bri- 
tannia Sancta. 

Daniel Corrie, LL.D., of Scottish parentage 
and origin, born April 10th, 1777, at the pa- 
rochial schoolhouse of Ardchattan, in Lorn, 
county of Argyle, N. B. His ancestors were 
natives of Dumfries -shire, his paternal grand- 
father having been a miller, in which humble, 
though respectable position he held the lease of 
the cornmill of Duncow, in the parish of Kirk- 
mahoe, about five miles from the town of Dum- 
fries. His father, John Corrie, studied divinity 
at the University of Edinburgh, and held the post 
of schoolmaster of the parish of Ardchattan, in 
Argyleshire, where he married a Miss M'Nab, 
(who died Feb. 10th, 1798), and the future bishop 
was born,' as above stated. Mr. Corrie, shortly 
afterwards, resigned his school, and removed, with 
his wife and children, to the paternal roof at the 
mill of Duncow, Daniel receiving his earlier edu- 
cation at the parish school of Kirkmahoe. Mr. 
Corrie, leaving his family in Dumfries-shire, next 
proceeded to England, and having obtained an 
introduction to Dr. Pretyman*, then Bishop of 
Lincoln, was, after due examination of his quali- 
fications as " a literate person " (and licentiate of 
the Presbyterian Church of Scotland), ordained 
by that prelate, who gave him the curacy of the 
parish of Colsterworth, near Grantham, in his 
diocese, where he resided for many years ; and it 
is probable that his son's education was continued 
at the ancient endowed grammar-school of Gran- 
tham (founded 1528). The Rev. John Corrie 
became, subsequently, Vicar of Osbournby, also 
in the diocese of Lincoln, and Rector of Morcott, 
in the diocese of Peterborough, both livings of 

[* Afterwards Tomline.] 



considerable value ; but he appears to have chiefly 
resided at Colsterworth, in Lincolnshire, until his 
death, which occurred at a very advanced age, in 
April, 1829, before his eldest surviving son had 
been elevated to the episcopate. Daniel spent the 
first seventeen years of his life at home, and the 
succeeding four, 1794 to 1798, principally in 
London and its neighbourhood with a friend, who 
had expressed an intention of providing for him 
in life ; but after his mother's sudden death, he 
returned to his father's roof in May, 1798, and 
removed in October following from Colsterworth 
i to Grantham. In summer of 1799, he was entered 
i at Clare Hall, Cambridge, and went into residence 
there in October of the same year : at Christmas, 
1800, he was appointed to an exhibition at Trinity 
Hall, and removed thither in January, 1801. 
After keeping the usual number of terms at the 
University of Cambridge, Mr. Corrie was ordained 
Deacon, June 13th, 1802, by his father's former 
patron, the Bishop of Lincoln, to the curacy of 
Buckminster in Leicestershire ; subsequently he 
was also nominated Curate of Stoke Rochford, 
which latter curacy he held till his acceptancy of 
an Indian Chaplaincy. In Easter term, 1804, he 
returned to Cambridge for the purpose of keeping 
his law exercises, and was admitted to the degree of 
LL.B. in Easter term, 1805 : he had been ordained 
Priest, June 10, 1804, at Buckden, by the Bishop 
of Lincoln, Dr. Tomline. Having been appointed 
a Military Chaplain on the Bengal Establishment 
of the E. I. Company, he quitted Stoke early in 
1806, and embarked from Portsmouth, March 30, 
landing in Calcutta Sept. 20 following. He was 
successively Chaplain atChunar, 1807 ; Cawnpore, 
1810, and Agra, 1812, after w&ch he was absent 
in England on furlough from January, 1815, till 
August, 1817: then Chaplain at Benares, 1818, 
and Senior Residency Chaplain at Calcutta, 1819. 
During the vacancy in the see of Calcutta, caused 
by the death of Bishop Middleton in July, 1 822, 
followed by that of its first Archdeacon, Dr. 
Loring, in September following, Mr. Corrie was 
nominated, by the Governor-General, one of the two 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners or administrators of 
the bishopric, until the arrival of Bishop Heber, 
in October, 1823, who immediately appointed him 
Archdeacon of Calcutta, and his institution took 
place on the 20th of that month. It fell to Mr. 
Corrie's lot, as Archdeacon of Calcutta, to ad- 
minister the vacant see, as Ecclesiastical Commis- 
sary of the bishopric, on three subsequent occa- 
sions, after Bishop Heber's death, from May, 
1826, to January, 1828; after Bishop James's 
resignation and death, from August, 1828, to De- 
cember, 1829 ; and finally after Bishop Turner's 
death, from July, 1831, to November, 1832. In 
1833 he was nominated Bishop of the newly 
erected see of Bombay, and proceeded to England 
for consecration, leaving Bengal, Nov. 12, 1834, 



2** S. VI. 138., AUG. 21. 58.] KO^ES AND QUERIES. 



15? 



and landing in England, Jan. 13, 1835 after an 
absence from that country of. eighteen years since 
his last visit -when he found that his destination 
was Madras, instead of Bombay, as first proposed. 
He was created LL.D. of Cambridge, by royal 
mandate, June 11, 1835, and consecrated on 
Trinity Sunday following, in the private chapel 
of Lambeth Palace ; he sailed from England on 
the 19th of the same month, June ; landed at 
Madras, October 24 following, and was installed 
in St. George's Cathedral, as first Bishop of 
Madras and Ceylon, on the 28th of that month. 
Bishop Corrie died at his episcopal residence, in 
Madras, Feb. 5, 1837, in the 60th year of his 
age, thirty-fifth of his ministry, and second of his 
episcopate. On the evening of the day of his de- 
cease, his remains were interred in the Cathedral 
burying-ground, where a monument has since 
been erected to his memory, executed by Mr. 
Henry Weekes. 

Though this biographical notice has assumed 
rather too extended proportions, it should be men- 
tioned, in conclusion, that Bishop Corrie married 
at Calcutta in Nov. 1812, Elizabeth, only child of 
Mr. William Myers, house-builder and architect 
of Calcutta, by which lady, who died at Madras 
Dec. 21, 1836, he left only one surviving daughter, 
Anna, who is married to Captain George James 
Walker, formerly of the 13th Regiment of Dra- 
goons, and has issue. Mrs. Corrie's mother mar- 
ried, secondly, John Ellerton, Esq., Indigo manu- 
facturer, of Maldah, in Bengal, and after long 
surviving her second husband, died at the ad- 
vanced age of eighty-six, on the 20th of last 
January, in the Bishop's Palace, Calcutta. This 
venerable lady Hannah, Mrs. Ellerton whose 
high character and extensive charities had gained 
for her universal respect and esteem, during the 
very long period of her residence in Calcutta, 
was considered to have been the " oldest in- 
habitant " European of Bengal, if not of 
British India; as she had been resident in this 
country since the viceroy alty of Warren Hast- 
ings, having landed in Calcutta, at the age of six 
years, in 1778. She had resided in Bishop's 
Palace for many years, and it is probable that the 
shock which she had so recently experienced 
through the death of her old and attached friend 
Bishop Wilson (on the 2d of January, in his 
eightieth year), hastened the event, which could, 
however, hardly be called premature, though 
until the month of her death she had enjoyed 
almost unvarying good health. Mrs. Ellerton 
always said that her own and Bishop Wilson's 
death would occur almost together, and her pre- 
sentiment proved correct, as she only survived 
him eighteen days. 

I shall end this Note, as it must be called, I 
suppose, by a Query. What were Bishop Corrie's 
family arms? I have been unable to discover 
tliem - A, S. A. 



to 

Pilgrims' Tokens (2 nd S. vi. 32.) D. S. will 
find some admirable articles on this subject in 
Roach Smith's Collectanea Antigua (vol. i. p. 81. 
and vol. ii. p. 43.) ; and another by the same 
author in the Archaeological Association Journal 
(vol. i. p. 200.) Engravings of several tokens 
will be found in other volumes of the Journal, and 
some notes upon them in the Archceological Insti- 
tute Journal (vol. vii. p. 400.). An article by Mr. 
Haigh, in The Numismatic Chronicle (vol. vi. 
p. 82.), may also be consulted. I am not aware 
of any books having been written on this subject. 

J. E. 

Eastell Family (2 nd S. in. 208.) If your corre- 
spondent G., who made some inquiries respecting 
the family of Rastell, would send his address to 
J. R., Post Office, Cambridge, he would meet with 
some information on the subject. The subject being 
connected with a private family, is of no interest 
to any one except the writer of the Query. 

Geraldine of Desmond (2 nd S. vi. 108.) A 
friend of mine possesses a MS. account of this 
branch of the family, written I should say about 
the commencement of the last century. It con- 
tains a very full history of the family, and is re- 
plete with genealogical information. Some years 
ago (as the owner informed me) it was borrowed 
by Sir William Betham, who had a copy made 
which he highly prized. I had the MS. for some 
time in my own possession, and made g copy of 
that part relating to the White Knight, which is 
now amongst my collection. Should MR. WARD 
consider my copy worth his perusal, I shall feel 
the greatest pleasure in forwarding it to him. I 
beg to enclose my address. R. C. 

Cork. 

Paintings of Christ bearing the Cross (2 nd S. v. 
378. 424. 505. ; vi. 57.) I am surprised at not 
having seen mentioned among the paintings of 
this subject enumerated by your correspondents, 
the remarkable tempera picture attributed by its 
owner, Mr. Brett, to Raphael, but considered by 
Mr. Scharf, and I believe with good reason, to be 
more probably the work of Cima da Conegliano. 
The colouring was, like tempera pictures gene- 
rally when they have lost their original varnish, 
very light in tone, but at the same time exqui- 
sitely pure, and the expression was most touching. 
Dr. Waagen, in his note upon the picture when 
exhibited, though he placed it under the name of 
Cima da Conegliano, says, "I do not venture to 
give a name to this picture, but it is a work of 
noble and fine sentiment." THOMAS J. GULLICK. 

Sir John Temple (2 nd S. v. 274.) Sir John 
Temple, Knt, Master of the Rolls in Ireland, 
16401644, was born in 1600, and died in 1677. 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2-* s. vi. iss., AUG. 21. 58. 



On the breaking out of the Rebellion of 1641, of 
which he afterwards became the historian, he 
signed, as privy councillor, the royal proclama- 
tion, and induced the Protestant merchants to 
provision Dublin Castle in prospect of a siege, 
upon the then very slender credit of government ; 
but, opposing the cessation of arms in 1643, he 
was imprisoned till exchanged as a republican 
sufferer on the part of the parliament, in whose 
service, and that of Cromwell, he continued, with 
the exception of his being one of the '* secluded 
members," for voting for the king's concessions. 
On the Restoration in 1660 he was continued, or 
rather restored, to his office as Master of the 
Rolls, and was appointed Vice-Treasurer of Ire- 
land, 26th Nov. 1673, which appointment he held 
till his death, four years subsequently. His eldest 
son, Sir William Temple, had a reversionary 
grant, after his father's decease, of the Mastership 
of the Rolls; was created a baronet and privy 
councillor, and is well known for his learning and 
diplomatic abilities ; he died in 1700, at the age 
of seventy-one. From Sir John's second son, Sir 
John Temple, who was successively Solicitor- 
General, 1660 ; Speaker of the Irish House of 
Commons, 1661 ; and Attorney-General, 1690 ; 
dying 10th March, 1704, aged seventy-two, is 
lineally descended the late Premier of England 
Viscount Palmerston ; who might probably be 
able, if applied to, to supply the data required by 
B. P. W. as to Sir John Temple's place of death 
and interment, &c. I regret that I am unable to 
give more than the above information. A. S. A. 
Barrackpore. 

Pensions granted by Louis XIV. to Literary 
Men (2 nd S. vi. 89.) Pro tanto, the following 
extract from Usher's works by Elrington (vol. i. 
p. 223.) may interest J. M. H. : 

" In (Euvres d'Alembert, torn. ix. p. 224, the following 
account is given: Le Cardinal de Richlieu, sensible & 
toutes les especes de gloire, ou, si Ton veut, de vanite, 
avoit aussi voulu, pour se faire panegyriste dans toute 
1'Europe, donncr des pensions & quelques savans etrangers. 
II en offrit une au savant Usserius, Archeveque d' Armagh, 
en Irlande, et tres peu riche, tout Archeveque qu'il etoit, 
car 1'opulence, disoit-il, est reserve'e aux prelats catholi- 
ques. Usserius, au lieu d'accepter la gracieuse proposition 
du Cardinal, lui envoya des levriers, espece des chiens 
qui est excellente en Irlande ; cette fiere et plus haute re'- 
ponse degouta le ministre de faire h d'autres des pareilles 
offres, et de s'exposer & un pareil remerciment." 

CLEBICUS (D .) 

Coathupe's Writing Fluid (2 nd S. vi. 119.) I 
was intimate with the inventor, and for the last 
twenty years I have used it constantly in my labo- 
ratory, and with unvarying success. The formula 
for making it, which I have for years past pub- 
lished in my Literary and Scientific Register and 
Almanac, is as follows, and I have never found 
any difficulty in its preparation : 
" R. Shellac 2 oz., borax 1 oz. ; distilled, or rainwater 



18 oz. ; boil the whole in a closely covered tin vessel, 
stirring it occasionally with a glass rod, or a small stick, 
until the mixture has become homogeneous; filter, when 
cold, through a single sheet of blotting-paper. Mix the 
filtered solution, which will be about 19 fluid ounces, with 
1 oz. of mucilage of gum-arabic, prepared by dissolving 
1 oz. of gum in 2 oz. of water, and add pulverised indigo 
and lamp-black ad libitum-, boil the whole again in a 
covered vessel, and stir the fluid well, to effect the com- 
plete solution and admixture of the gum-arabic ; stir it 
occasionally while it is cooling, and, after it has remained 
undisturbed for two or three hours, that the excess of in- 
digo and lamp-black may subside, bottle it for use." 

The above ink, for documentary purposes, is 
invaluable; being, under all ordinary circum- 
stances, indestructible. It is also specially adapted 
forlaboratory use. J. W. G. GUTCIT. 

Carbon Ink (2 nd S. vi. 48.)-- A correspondent 
of The Builder in September, 1855, says : 

" Until a better substitute can be found I strongly re- 
commend the universal use of Indian ink in preparing 
all manuscripts intended to convey information to future 
ages. It is well known that all the inks in common use 
are far inferior to those used by the ancients that our 
modern inks soon become pale, and in the course of time 
almost, if not entirely, invisible. It is a patent fact that 
Domesday Book, after the lapse of nearly eight centu- 
ries, is in a much better state of preservation than the state 
papers of the period of our last two kings. The inks 
used by our forefathers, I believe, contained carbon ; and 
as that substance is the base of Indian ink, all documents 
prepared with it must, from the indestructible property of 
the carbon, remain unchanged so long as they can be 
preserved from damp and other destroying influences; 
and I am not aware of any plan so likely to secure their 
preservation as that I have adopted." 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

John Bull (2 nd S. vi. 131.) In Michaelmas 
Term, 1811, John Bull passed in the first class, In 
Literis Humanioribus, and In Disciplinis Math, et 
Phys. He was at Christ Church College, the Sub- 
librarian of the Bodleian, afterwards Regius Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew, and Canon of Christ Church. 

C. W. STAUNTON. 

George Henderson (2 nd S. vi. 12.) George 
Henderson, farmer at Kippetlaws, had a son named 
William, who was for many years a schoolmaster 
in Dunse, and died there in 1810. He left two 
sons, 1. George, a baker in Dunse, who died some 
years ago, leaving two sons, one of whom is a 
baker in Lambeth. 2. William, who was bred a 
tobacconist, and settled in Newcastle ; he is dead, 
but left a family. I observe from old deeds of 
lands in Greenlaw parish, that, about the end of 
the seventeenth century, the then proprietor spelt 
his name " Hennysone," which his grandson altered 
to " Henderson." M. G. F. 

Charron on Wisdom (2 nd S. vi. 33.) This 
translation was formerly much read and quoted, 
and reached several editions. Mine has the en- 
graved title-page, "Gulielmus Hole fecit, 1658; 
London, printed for Luke Fawne at the Parrot 
in St. Paule's Churchyard." The plagiarisms 



S. VI. 138., AUG. 21. '58.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



159 



from Montaigne are very considerable. For par- 
ticulars of the translator, Samson Lennard, " Blue- 
mantle Pursuivant," see Bliss' Wood's Athence, 
vol. iii. p. 748., Noble's College of Arms, p. 250. 
Col. Stanley's copy of the original work in French, 
an Elzevir 12mo., sold at his sale for 2Z. 10s. 

E.D. 

Game of " One- and- Thirty" (2 nd S. v. 276. 404.) 
The game which the English call rouge-et-noir 
is the French game of Trente-et-un, by which 
second name it has always been known in France, 
and never by the first. See the Dictionary of 
Games in Encyclopedia Methodique. This French 
game contains a common principle with the games 
of Faro and Basset, once so well known in England. 
But, like those games, the interest is all in the 
question, which wins ? and the details have no 
amusement. It is therefore very unlikely that 
any game which was popular among children 
could have been the Trente-ct-un here described. 

A. DE MORGAN. 

Preservation of Books against Dust (2 nd S. vi. 
38.) Several thousand volumes having been 
under my care for some years past, I have been 
much interested by the recent Notes on " Dust 
on Books." In a town residence this insidious and 
troublesome foe seems quite irresistible. Even in 
mahogany cases, with sides and back also, and 
glass doors in front, kept constantly locked, I find 
it penetrates. The best method towards resisting 
it hjts seemed to be, laying along the top of every 
row of books (which should be almost entirely 
level) a piece of stiff brown paper-millboard, &c., 
which completely covers the upper edges of the 
books, and comes a very little over them in front. 
These can be from time to time removed, dusted, 
and replaced ; for it is surprising how soon the 
dust appears. Without this precaution, I have 
found no benefit from the plan MR. LIMNER names, 
of affixing falls to the edge of the book-shelves ; 
though I believe his plan of drawing blinds down 
in front of the case, would be of service in any 
place where the books are exposed to the sun, 
which soon fades the colour of the bindings. 

I have thought that books bound in morocco, 
or calf, are much more susceptible in general of 
damp, mould-spots, &c., than those in cloth or 
the half-binding formerly used. Perhaps some 
correspondent can account for, or say if experi- 
ence elsewhere corroborates, this ? S. M. S. 

Portraits of Turner (2 nd S. vi. 49.) In reply 
to the inquiries concerning the portraits extant of 
the late Mr. Turner, the artist, I can I think sup- 
ply a satisfactory answer. I believe there are 
only three : the first and best, by the late Chas. 
Turner, sells for II. Is. ; a small full-length sketch 
by Count D'Orsay, price II Is. ; and a head when 
Young by Daniell sells for 7s. Qd. These are all 
I have ever aeon or heard of. J. W. G. Guxcu. 



Private Baptism (2 nd S. vi. 110.) It is a na- 
tural feeling of reverence which prompts the de- 
struction of a vessel once used for baptism in a 
private dwelling, lest it should hereafter be made 
to serve other purposes ; and I know many clergy- 
men who, in the case of poor people, always break 
the basin they provide, and furnish them with 
another of a similar description. But the most 
obvious, and now usual, manner of overcoming 
the difficulty, is, for the minister to take with him 
a small cruet to hold the water, when he is called 
upon to administer the sacrament of baptism 
privately. PRESB. ROFFEUS. 

In reply to CLERICUS KUSTICUS, ray own ex- 
perience would say that it is not customary to de- 
stroy the " basin," nor ought it to be customary to 
use a " basin." To avoid the difficulty which he 
seems to feel, may I suggest that he would find it 
convenient to use, for the containing of tae water 
at the administration of private baptism, the same 
cup which he uses for the containing of the wine 
at the public or private administration of the 
other sacrament ? A RURAL DEAN. 

I saw private baptism twice performed by a 
learned, very virtuous, and very sensible divine, 
now dead. The basin that contained the water 
was sent back to its ordinary use. He who used 
it was too virtuous, even in this slight matter, to 
mislead by directing attention to the basin ; and 
too sensible to suggest any feeling of superstition 
in or after the ceremony by any notice of the 
crockery. T. F. 

It is the custom of some clergymen to destroy 
the vessel which has been used on such occasions, 
for the purpose of preventing its application to 
profane uses. It is not at all a general custom ; 
and the better plan is for the clergyman to carry 
with him a small silver shell which will hold about 
as much water as is necessary to pour upon the 
infant or person baptized. If any water remains, 
it should be thrown on the fire, or poured on to 
the earth outside the house. HILTON HENBURY. 

Stage Coaches termed Machines (2 nd S. vi. 12.) 
In answer to JAYDEE'S Query, I would state 
that the earliest instance I recollect of stage 
coaches being- so called is in the 1st edition of 
Anstey's New Bath Guide, printed in 1766, where 
are the following lines : 

" E'en tho' I'd the Honour of sitting between 
My Lady Stuff-Damask and Peggy Moreen, 
Who both flew to Bath in the London Machine." 
Letter XIII. p. 93. 

F. A. CARRINGTON. 

Ogbourne St. George. 

Tunbridge Wells (2 nd S. vi. 81.) Birkenwasser 
is still made in the Hartz, and very good it is too. 

It. S. CUAHNOCK. 

Gray's Ian. 



160 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. vi. 138., AUG. 21. '58. 



The late Dr. Shuttleworth : Eight and Wrong 
(2 nd S. vi. 135.) It so happens that one can trace 
the history of the sentence inquired for very easily. 
Aulus Gellius (lib. xvi. cap. 1.) writes: 

" Adolescentuli cum etiam turn in scholis essemus, 
ci>evp.viiJ.a.Tiov hoc Grgecura, quod apposui, dictum esse a 
Musonio philosopho audiebamus ; et quoniam vere atque 
luculente dictum, verbisque est brevibus et rotundis vine- 
turn, perquam libenter memineramus. *Av n irparjs KO.XQV 

/xera TroVov, 6 p.ev irovo? ot^erai, TO fie KO.\QV fievei' av n TTOI^OTJS 
ai<rxpoi> jueTa ^601/77?, TO per VjSv oi^eTat, TO fie aicrxpov jue'cei. 

Postea istam ipsain sententiam in Catonis oratione, quam 
clixit Numantiai apud equites, positam legimus: quae 
etsi laxioribus paulo longioribusque verbis comprehensa 
est, proe quam illud Grascum, quod diximus; quoniam 
tamen prior tempore, antiquiorque est, venerabilior videri 
debet. Verbaex oratione hsec sunt: 'Cogitate cum ani- 
mis vestris : si quid vos per laborem recte feceritis, labor 
ille a vobis cito recedet, bene factum a vobis dum vivetie 
non abscedet ; sed si qua per nequitiam nequiter feceritis, 
voluptas cito abibit, nequiter factum illud apud vos sem- 
per manebit.' " (Ed. Tauchm.) 

The saying is repeated by Hierocles, in his 
commentary on the golden verses of Pythagoras 
(p. 134., ed. Needham), with some verbal altera- 
tions. And, as we might expect to find, so ex- 
pressive a sentence did not escape the notice of 
one who was so careful in observing the wisdom 
of the ancients, and applying it to the illustration 
of Christian truth, as Bp. Taylor. It occurs three 
times in the Life of Christ, vol. ii. pp. 519. 540. 
721. (Eden's edition) ; and in Sermons, vol. iv. 
p. 29. E. M. 

Jo. Miller (2 nd S. vi. 32.) One of the editions 
wanting in Mr. Gibson's list is in my possession : 
it is the 8th, with large additions (pp. 208.) ; pre- 
fixed is a full-length portrait of Miller as Sir 
Joseph Wittol in the Old Batchelor. It is appa- 
rently new, bound in clean parchment, and 
clasped. A MS. note records that at Bindley's 
sale Messrs. Longman bought his copy of the first 
edition for III. 5s. E. D. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

" Truth is strange, stranger than Fiction," was the 
saying of Byron ; and few, we think, will read the short 
biographical sketch prefixed to The Poetical Works of 
Alfred Johnstone Hollingsworth, with Memoirs of the 
Writer, Edited by Dr. George Sexton, F.R.G.S., without 
admitting the accuracy of Byron's observation. The 
book is altogether a great literary curiosity. There are 
abundant traces of deep poetical feeling in Hollingsworth's 
" Childe Erconwold," and no less evidence of his ac- 
quaintance with the literature and antiquities of the 
Germanic and Scandinavian races. One consequence of 
this study is the Anglo-Saxon character of the language, 

a character calculated to repel readers who are only 

familiar with what Dr. Sexton calls " the barbarous 
jargon semi-Latin cum French which prevails so ex- 
tensively in our literature." But let such readers not be 
discouraged. Let them master this peculiarity, and they 
will be rewarded by the perusal of a dramatic poem 



abounding in faults unquestionably but as unques- 
tionably rich in poetic excellences. 

Although marked "printed for presentation only," wo 
trust Mr. Gilbert French will excuse our calling attention 
to his interesting essay on The Origin and Meaning of 
the Early Interlaced Ornamentation found on Ihe Ancient 
Sculptured Stones of Scotland, Ireland, and the Isle of Man. 
The theory which Mr. French advances is an extremely 
ingenious one. It is supported with considerable ability ; 
and is advanced with a modesty which prepossesses us in 
its favour. It is one which certainly deserves the serious 
attention of archaeologists. 

We are indebted to the Rev. W. E. Heygate for a very 
good historical tale, The Scholar and the Trooper ; or, Ox- 
ford during the Great Rebellion. As might be expected, 
Mr. Heygate takes a warm Oxford view of the eventful 
period which he describes; but the book will be found, 
even by those who may not share that view, to furnish a 
capital picture of the feelings of the time, and to give 
very accurate information as to the condition of Oxford, 
its inmates, and to the localities of the various battles 
and skirmishes which took place in that neighbourhood 
during the civil wars. 

Our photographic friends will, we are sure, share the 
satisfaction with which we announce that Dr. Diamond 
has been appointed Secretary of the Photographic Society. 
Dr. Diamond is eminently a practical photographer; 
some of his discoveries have been among the most useful 
which have been produced ; and they have always been 
unreservedly communicated to his brother photographers. 
The appointment, therefore, is one which the Doctor has 
well earned, and the Photographic Society has done itself 
credit by this recognition of his services to the Art. 

We are informed that the volumes of Original Papers 
illustrative of the Life of Sir Peter Paul Rubens both as 
an Artist and a Diplomatist, preserved in H, M. State 
Paper Office, collected and edited by W. Noel Sainsbury 
ofH. M. State Paper Office, will be ready for subscribers 
early in November. The Appendix will contain entirely 
new facts respecting several of the most celebrated artists 
of their day ; also the correspondence of that great patron 
of the arts, Thomas Earl of Arundel, and others, which 
will, we are sure, be read with the deepest interest by all 
who take any delight in the History of the Fine Arts. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the .following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentleman by whom they are required, and whose name and addrew 
are Riven below. 

CORY'S ANCIENT FRAGMENTS. 8yo. 
MATHKR'S NEW ENGLAND. Folio. 

ASTATIC RESEARCHES. 12 Vols. 8VO. Or Vols. XL and XII. 
NIMROD ON HISTORY AND FABLE. 4 Vols. 

"Wanted by C. J. Skcct, Bookseller, 10. King William Street, Strand. 



to 

SIR THOMAS PLAYER. In our notice of thi* II'icl-iip.u v:r>rlh>i ('unto, r>. 
133.) we have unfortunately attributed the shortcomings of Sir I 
i'l'i'i/fi; /tr/i., t<> Hint fat In r, a-!,, i n'<i< personally known to /' pus, and ''*'*' 
,,' Hackney, l>cc. 9, 1G72. It was his son, wlm n-n.< <//., chamhcr- 
/ain, that was ffiboetea In Dryden. Sir Thomas Player, jun., died Jan. 
lit, 1685. 

M. N. O. The query should be sent to the Gardener's Chronicle. 

Answers to other correspondents in our next. 

ERRATCM._2nd S. vi. p. 79. col. i. 1. 51 ., for " Elliot " read "Elli- 
son." 

" NOTES AND QUERIES" is pvllished at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Ilalf- 
1/earbi INDEX) is 11s. 4cZ., which may be paid bu Post Ofhce Order in 
favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDv,186. FLEET STREET, E.O.; to wham 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOK XHK EDITOR should be addressed. 



2 S. VI. 139., AUG. 28. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



161 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 28. 1858, 



HUDIBBASTIC COUPLET. 

On turning to the General Index to the First 
Series of " N. & Q.," p. 110., I find that ten arti- 
cles have been printed on the well-known lines 

" For he that fights and runs away, 
May live to fight another day." 

Our literary detectives, however, have failed 
to discover the hiding-place of this pugilistic fugi- 
tive. Lowndes, in his Bibliographer's Manual, 
edit. 1834, vol. iii. p. 1252., and Mr. Peter Cun- 
ningham (Hand-Book of London, edit. 1849, p. 
602.), both refer us to Sir John Mennis's Musarum 
Delicice, 12 mo., 1656, p. 101., as containing them. 
Mr. Cunningham, however, in the new edition of 
his Hand- Book, 1850, has wisely qualified his 
statement, and now tells us, at p. 364., that " Sir 
John Mennis is said to have written this famous 
couplet." 

But not to stop here, MR. T. H. RILEY (1 st S. 
x. 135.) will not permit the editor of " N. & Q." 
(I 4t S. vii. 298. 346.) to deprive Sir John Mennis 
of the authorship, for he assures him (writing in 
August, 1854) that he has a distinct recollection 
of having read the lines in 1841 in a copy of the 
Musarum Delicice, 1656, in Sion College. With 
the assistance of the respected librarian, I have 
carefully examined the old as well as the new 
Catalogue, and cannot discover that any early 
edition of this work was ever in the library. It 
is true I found a small volume by Sir John Men- 
nis, but published anonymously, entitled Wit 
Restord in Severall Select Poems not formerly 
publish't. London, 12mo. 1658, where at p. 33. 
occur the following lines, which may probably be 
those that MR. KILEY had read thirteen years 
before : 

" Saying, Fight on my merry men all, 
And see that none of you be taine, 
For I will stand by and bleed but a while, 
And then will I come and fight again." 

Has not Lowndes betrayed us into a wrong 
scent ? and that instead of looking after the early 
editions of the Musarum Delicice, the quotation 
may more probably be found in some early edi- 
tion of Hudibras. What increases the probabi- 
lity is the fact, that in the Grub Street Journal of 
May 13, 1736, I find the following parody on 
these very lines ; and from the way in which they 
are quoted, one can almost fancy that the writer 
had Hudibras open before him : for he says, " Ac- 
cording to the Hudibrastic method of reasoning 

" ' The coiner that extends a rope 
To coin again can never hope ; 
But he that coins and gets away, 
May live to coin another dav.' " 



Hence I would suggest to the fortunate posses- 
sors of the early editions of Hudibras a careful 
examination of that portion of the work (Part in. 
canto iii. ver. 243.) where a similar passage occurs 
in the later editions : 

" For those that fly may fight again, 
Which he can never do that's slain." 

The first edition of Part i. is dated 1663, but 
that it was published in December, 1662, we learn 
from Pepys's Diary, as well as from Marriotts 
advertisement in the Publick Intelligencer of Dec* 
23, 1662. Pepys, under Dec. 26, 1662, has the 
following gossiping note : 

" To the Wardrobe : hither come Mr. Battersby ; and 
we falling into discourse of a new book of drollery in use, 
called Hudebras, I would needs go find it out, and met 
with it at the Temple : cost me 2s. 6d. But when I come 
to read it, it is so silly an abuse of the Presbyter Knight 
going to the wars, that I am ashamed of it ; and by and 
by meeting at Mr. Townsend's at dinner, I sold it to him 
for I8d." 

Pepys, however, soon discovered that his judg- 
ment was at fault ; for wherever he went he found 
Hudibras the common talk of the metropolis, so 
that six weeks afterwards we find him jotting 
down the following note : 

" Feb. 6. 1662-3. To a bookseller's in the Strand, and 
there bought Hudibras again, it being certainly some ill 
humour to be so against that which all the world cries 
up to be the example of wit ; for which I am resolved 
once more to read him, and see whether I can find it or 
no." 

It may be convenient to give a seriatim list of 
the Three Parts as they appeared, as printed in 
the new edition of Lowndes's Bibliographer's 
Manual, i. 335. : 

" Part I. 16mo. ' London, printed in the year 1663.' 
Without printer or publisher's name, and presumed to be 
spurious. 

" Part I. small 8vo. Lond. Printed by J. G. for Richard 
Marriot, 1663, with Imprimatur Jo. Berkenhead, Nov. 11, 
1662. 

" Part I. 16mo. with exactly the same imprint and im- 
primatur as the preceding. 

" Part II. small 8vo. Lond. Printed by T. R. for John 
Martyn and James Allestry, 1664, with Imprimatur Roger 
L'Estrange, Nov. 5, 1663. 

"Part II. 16mo. with the same imprint and impri- 
matur. 

" Part II. Spurious, under title of ' Hudibras, the se- 
cond part.' Lond. printed in the year 1663. 

" Part III. small 8vo. Lond. printed for Simon Miller, 
1678. 

"Of this there is only one ostensible edition, but there 
are two states of it under the same date. The earlier has 
five lines of Errata at the end : the later has the correc- 
tions inserted, and on the back of the title, ' Licensed and 
entered according to the Act of Parliament for printing.' 

"Hudibras. SECOND EDITION. The First and Second 
Part (in one volume), corrected and amended, with seve- 
ral additions and annotations. Lond. Printed by T. N. 
for John Martyn and Henry Herringman, 1674, small 
8vo. 412 pages. The Third Part. Lond. Printed for Ro- 
bert Home, 1679, small 8vo. 254 pages. 

"Hudibras, in three Parts. Lond. 1710. 18mo. 3 vols. 



162 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. [2<i.s. vi. 139, AUG. 28. '58. 



" Hudibras, in three Parts, with annotations, 1726. 
12mo. 6s. 

" Hudibras, in three Parts, with large Annotations and 
a Preface by Zachary Grey, LL.D. Cambridge and Lond. 
1744. 8vo. 2 vols." 

J. YEOWELL. 



PROVOST MARSHAL OF JMUNSTER. 

The following abstract of the will of Nicholas 
Pett, Provost Marshal of Minister in the reign of 
Queen Eliz., containing an account of the personal 
and real property of this functionary, together 
with the particulars of his official costume and 
armour, may be of interest to some of the readers 
of " N. & Q." The will was executed Aug. 26, 
1572, and proved Sept. 4, same year. A con~ 
temporary copy is preserved in the Dioc. Reg. 
Cork. 

" My body to be buried in Christ Church, wh'n the 
Queens Mat 8 hj'ghnes Cyttie of Corck. I appointe my 
bro r . John Pett my h., and, in his absence, my ffriend 
barnabe Dale. It. I give to M r hayson, appothecarie, 
dwelling upon the bridg of bristowe, in England, two 
chife horses, collored rone, w th all their furnitor. It. to 
my son Will. P. a chife horse, collored grey, and xx 11 to 
be paid out of my entertainment. It. to my man, John 
bell, that nowe waits uppon me, a grey horse and a black 
hackney, and xxxs. It. to Edw d Castelny a pece of 
sylver bieng here w th me at Cariglyn. It. to barnabe 
Dale a square table, &c., and a young cowe for his wife 
Katherine. It. to my maid, Anstas, two cows and a 
caulfe, vz. one brended cowe, and an other w th pure white 
leggs, and two goats, and fower sheepe, and a black 
;pnke coat clothe. It. to my bro r . John Pett a nywe 
gowne bieng colored black. A violet cloke, leid w th gold 
lace, and a peir of bryches of the same color, being leid 
w th gold lace, more a peir shamois host, leid w th black 
lace, and a service book, all this bieng in Waterford in 
the hands of Richard Cusac. It. to s'd John the lese and 
forme of the late Religious house of Ballybegg, in as 
ample a manner as I have. It. to s'd J. 3 nywe shurts 
w th out bands. It. I have, bienge in Dublin in the hands 
of Mau r Peutney, a black truck chest w th two locks, 
wherine lieth my Auncient, and the warrant of my enter- 
tainment and a herners. It. to John Wager, now waiting 
upon Sir Henry Sydney Knight, a dublett yerkenfacon 
of blywe velvett, bieng leid w th gold lace, and a pere of 
breeches sutable to the same. A hatt lyned w th velvett, 
a capp of velvet, bieng nywe w th a black fether, bieng in 
my crest ; a pece, a sword, a Targett, a dagger, my coat 
of'fenc, my skull and my spear bieng at Corck, bally- 
begg, and Cariglyn ; more 3 shurts being at Corck. It. 
to Jasper Wager sVant to S r Warham Sentlegier, Knyght, 
3 yards of striped canvass, an Irish sword, a targett, and 
ij "skulls; a skull and ij daggers, vz. a little one and a 
great ; a fowling pice that barnabe dale hath in pledg of 
a fyld pece w ch I borrowed from him uppon ii years past, 
w ch lies from me in Dungarvan in keeping in Moash 
hores house w th theas pcells, a flask, a touchbox, a skoull, 
and a targett. To Meanes, my horseboy, xxs. To my 
little boy galyglas xxs. To my other horseboys, half- 
crownes a, pice. To barnabe dale all my hand locks and 
irons, and 2 peire of shares ; more to my s'd maid Anstas, 
a chest that I have; and to Adey Wager, ij dosen 
napkins." 

R. C. 



REMAINS OF JAMES II. 

Even in points of minor importance, it is de- 
sirable that your historical notes (especially when 
republished, as in your valuable Choice Notes), 
should be strictly accurate : I therefore write to 
call your attention to a seeming inaccuracy in 
a note at p. 124. of that selection, in which an 
account is given of James II.'s monument at S. 
Germain. 

A reference to Rivington's Annual Register for 
1824 (p. 202.*), will show that the inscription 
commencing " D. O. M. Jussu Georgii IV.," was 
engraved on a tablet in front of a so-called altar 
in which the remains of the king (" unexpectedly 
discovered," according to the same authority,) 
were temporarily deposited until the completion 
of the church, which was then in course of restor- 
ation. The words, "Depouilles mortelles de 
Jacques II. Roi d'Angleterre," as given in Choice 
Notes, are evidently not correct ; the inscrip- 
tion, as given in the Register, being : 

" Ces Despouilles Royales 
Sont ici deposees 

En attendant 
Qu'elles soient placees 

Dans un 

Monument plus 

Convenable, quand la 

Nouvelle Eglise 

Sera constructee." 

I should add, that this temporary " altar-tomb" 
is said to have been placed, not in the uncom- 
pleted church, but in some building of a tem- 
porary nature used as a chapel while the church 
itself was rebuilding. J. II. B. 



ORDER Or ST. STANISLAUS : SIR WILLIAM NEVILLE 
HART. 

I send you a copy of a document in my posses- 
sion, the diploma for a knight of the Order of St. 
Stanislaus, given by Stanislaus Augustus, the last 
king of Poland, to William Neville Hart. If you 
consider it of sufficient interest, you are most 
welcome to publish it in your Notes. The ori- 
ginal bears the sign manual of the king. 

Stanislaus Augustus, Dei Grati& Rex Polonia?, Magnus 
Dux Lithvania?, Russia?, Prussia?, Masovia?, Samo^itia?, 
Kijova?, Volhynia?, Podolia?, Podlachise, Livonia?, Srao- 
lensia?, Severia?, Czerniechovia?que. 
" Universis et singulis quorum interest, aut quomodoli- 
bet interesse poterit, notum faeimus. Postquam ad Regni 
Gubernacula, ita disponenteNumine, concordibus Polonas 
Lithvanieq; Gentis suffragiis feliciter evecti sumus, con- 
festim studio bene-meritos de Nobis et Republica deco- 
randi, bene merituros excitandi Ordinem S l Stanislai Epis- 
copi et Martyris totius Regni et Nostri Patroni, seorsivo 
Nostro Diplomate Die vii Maij Anno Domini MDCCLXV. 
constituimus. Cum itaque Generosus Guilhelmus Ne- 
ville Hart Anglus, meritis et virtutibus qua? ipsum com- 
mendant, pollere dignoscatur, Nosque Bum Gratia Nostra 



2** s. vi. 139., AUG. 28. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



1C3 



dignum ease judicaverimus. Eundem ordine prsefato S 1 
Stanislai condecorandum et numero Ipsius adnumeran- 
dum adscribendumq; esse censuimus : Uti de facto, cum 
omnibus juribus, praarogativis ad men tern prsefati Diplo- 
matis Institutionis ad extrema vitae suae tempora, conde- 
coramus, adnumeramus et adscribimus. Quod omnibus 
quorum interest ad notitiam deducendo, Extraneos amice 
requirimus Subditis vero Nostris mandamus, ut praefatum 
Generosum Guilhelmum Neville Hart pro Equite Ordinis 
S 1 Stanislai habeant, nominent, et agnoscaut. In cujus 
rei fidem praesentes manu nostra subscriptas, Sigillo Nos- 
tro Communiri jussimus. Datum Varsaviae Die xxvii 
Mensis Decembris Anno Domini MDCCXCIV. Regni 
vero Nostri xxxi. 

" STANISLAUS AUGUSTUS, Ilex. 

" Diploma pro Equite Ordinis S 1 Stanislai 
Eppi et Martyris Generoso Guilhelmo 
Neville Hart, Anglo, datum." 

King Stanislaus also conferred on William 
Neville Hart the Order of the White Eagle, and 
appointed him Chamberlain at his Court; but 
when he received this appointment, and how long 
he held it, I have not been able to discover : per- 
haps some of the readers of " N. & Q." can give 
information on this point. On his return to Eng- 
land, in the year 1795, he received permission 
from King George III. to wear the insignia of the 
Order of St. Stanislaus, and to assume the appel- 
lation appertaining to a Knight Bachelor of the 
United Kingdom. Are any particulars known of 
the Travels of Sir W. N. Hart ? From a memo- 
randum which I have in his handwriting, it ap- 
pears that immense numbers of his Journals, 
Histories, Papers, &c., containing accounts of the 
interesting events of which he was a witness in 
Russia, Austria, Poland, Prussia, Germany, Sax- 
ony, &c., as well as valuables collected during his 
thirty years' travels, were destroyed by the fire 
at Roseneath Castle, the seat of the Duke of Ar- 
gyll, where he was staying, in the year 1802. 

The years during which he travelled must, I 
think, have been between 1770 and 1800. 

H. C. HART. 



Minor 

Margate One "hundred and twenty Years Ago. 
Joseph Ames went to Margate in the year 173- (the 
last numeral is cut off) ; and as there were no Mar- 
gate Guides published in those days, he bought 
a copy of the second edition of Lewis's History of 
the Isle of Tenet (4to. 1736), and, after putting in 
it a few notes and drawings, and emblazoning 
some of the coats of arms, gave it to the Society 
of Antiquaries. From this volume I have ex- 
tracted the following Note, in which Ames de- 
scribes what Margate was at the time of his 
visit : 

" The Town of Margate is 72 Post Miles from London, 
16 from Canterbtuy, and 6 from Sandwich. The Can- 
terbury Stage Coach is the nearest, which is 18s. for a 
single person. There are Hoys which go weekly to Lon- 
don to carry Passengers and* Goods. The Passage is 2 



shillings a Head; and since the Physicians have of late 
years prescribed drinking and bathing in Salt water, this 
town is much resorted to on that account ; there being a 
fine sandy beach, and a flat shore, where at all times of 
the Tide the Machines or Bathing Waggons can drive a 
proper depth into the Sea for the accommodation of y e 
Bathers. The Prizes of Provision, as Mutton, Beef, 
Lamb, and Veal, is from 3 pence to 3 pence half Penny 
the Pound ; Butter 8." 

(He then gives a sketch of Margate Pier and 
Harbour; very prominent in the foreground of 
which is a drawing of a bathing machine, pro- 
bably the earliest extant picture of one.) 

"The above is a view of the Machine to bath with ; it 
contains a room to undress and dress in, with steps to go 
down into the Sea; will hold 5 or 6 People. There are 
Men and Women Guides, who, if desired, attend. The 
price is 4 shillings a week, or II. Is. for six weeks, and 
you pay the Guide for every attendance. They drive 
into the Sea till it is about breast high, and then let 
down the Screen, w ch prevents being seen, under which 
you go down the Steps into a fine sandy bottom." 

T. 

Registers of Windsor Parish Church. The 
following extracts from the Registers of Wind- 
sor parish church may interest some of your 
readers : 

George Myllwarde mar d Alyce Montague. 

Mr Will. Bridges mar* M rs "Eliz. Millwarde. 

M r Richard Catesbye. Buried. 

M r John Whore woode mar d M r3 Anne Goodyer. 

M r Francis Whitton mar d M rs Anne Xayler. 

Edward Forth, gent. Buried. 

Bapt. William, son to M r Isaac Walton and Ra- 
chell, his wife. 

Henry ffayrefax mar d ffrances Barker. 

Bur d , Thomas Billingsley, gent. 

Bur d , Martin Eldred, A.M., et Coll. Jo. apud 
Almam matrem Cantab, socius. 

Bur d , Anne Potter, dau. to Christopher Potter, 
late Deane of Worcester. 

Bur d , Mr Nathanael Eldred. 

Mar d , M r George Cuthbert of Willoughby, co. 
Lincoln. Mar d , Jane, daugh. of W m Matting- 
ley, of Cookham, Berks." 

R, C. W. 

Cherbourg : Origin of the Name. Will any of 
your readers favour me with the derivation of 
this word ? Its termination, which is conclu- 
sive enough, and sufficiently indicates its forti- 
fied characters, is the Greek "-n-vpyos, Lat. burgus, a 
tower or fort, a collection of such buildings con- 
stituting the German burg, Eng. burgh or borough. 
I have seen the origin of this seaport traced," as 
in Chertsey (at which point Caesar is supposed to 
have crossed the Thames) to that emperor's 
name, but Ccesaris burgus is at best u conjec- 
tural etymology, and certainly not a satisfactory 
one. The first syllable can hardly be said either 
to denote its geographical position : Cher^ so called 
from the river of that name, being a central de- 
partment of France, and the Divelte, at whose 
mouth the arsenal is situate, not one of its afflu- 
ents even. Query, was CAer-bourg a name be- 



1574. 
1594. 

1595. 
1597. 
1612. 
1636. 

1638. 
1640. 
1646. 

1651. 

1652. 
1653. 



164 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2- s. vi. 189., AUG. 28. '68. 



stowed in anticipation of its imperial favour, the 
pet- fortification ? or was its prefix designed as a 
verbal reproach to future ministers of finance 
for their lavish expenditure of the public money 
in the construction of its gigantic works ? The 
Cherbourg breakwater, one of the many concep- 
tions of Vaularis engineering genius, has required 
for its completion since 1783, the year of its com- 
mencement, a no less sum than 67,300,000 francs. 

F. PHILLOTT. 

Butler and Waller : Howard's "British Princes" 
In Rev.G. Gilfillan's edition of Butler (Nichol, 
Edinburgh, 1854, vol. ii. 167.) are inserted, 
amongst the Genuine Remains of that poet, some 
lines "To the Hon. Edward Howard, Esq., upon 
his Incomparable Poem of ' The British Princes,' " 
commencing : 

" Sir, you've obliged the British nation more, 
Than all their bards could ever do before." 

In Edmund Waller's Poetical Works, under the 
same editorship (1857, p. 152.), we have some 
lines " To a Person of Honour, upon his incom- 
parable, incomprehensible Poem, entitled ' The 
British Princes.' " This latter poem is, with a 
very few verbal alterations, or rather variations, 
in the collocation of words identical with the 
former ; to which we are referred by a foot-note, 
" See our edition of ' Butler.' " Yet there is no 
reference whatever to the discrepancy of state- 
ment regarding the authorship. In Butler, the 
lines are immediately followed (p. 169.) by "A 
Palinodie to the Hon. Edw. Howard, Esq., upon 
his incomparable Poem on ' The British Princes.' " 

Qu. 1 . To which poet are the lines in question 
to be ascribed ? 

2. What excuse can be oSered for such culpa- 
ble carelessness on the part of an editor ? The 
good print and paper of this edition make it ac- 
ceptable to one, like myself, of failing eyesight : 
but as to the " explanatory notes" announced on 
the title-page, why, the only comfort is, that they 
are so few. Take a specimen, from the very first 
page of the volume, above referred, to. Butler 
says : 

" The learned write, an insect breeze 
Is bat a mongrel prince of bees, 
That falls before a storm on cows," &c. 

Hudibras, Part III. Cant. n. 1. 

On these plain words, which a plain body like 
myself would take as an allusion to the breeze, or 
brize, a kind of gadfly, the learned editor pro- 
foundly remarks (without Italics) : 

"' Prince of bees:' breezes often bring along with them 
great quantities of insects; but our author makes them 
proceed from a cow's dung, and afterwards become a 
plague to that whence it received its original." 

To say nothing of the grammar of this sentence, 
think of the nonsense of it ! O that Mr. Bell's 
edition of the Poets were equally adapted to the 
visual infirmities of ACHE ! 



The French Tricolor. The tradition in 
France as to the adoption of this flag, is, that it 
originally was the field of the arms of the Orleans 
family, which was made up in fact of the red of the 
ancient oriflamme, which was, gules, semee ^of lys, 
or ; of the arms of Valois, azure, semee, in like 
manner ; and of Bourbon, argent, semee of the 
same. As the Orleans claimed to be descended of 
all three branches, they took for the field of their 
escutcheon their three tinctures, and blazoned 
them " tierce in pale azure, argent, and gules, 
semee of fleur-de-lys, or." The tradition is, when 
Philip of Orleans threw himself into the arms of 
the republicans and called himself L'Egalite, he 
caused the fleur-de-lys to be erased from the 
escutcheons which were stuck up in the Palais 
Itoyal. The field, being left, it was identified with 
his name, and by degrees became the Republican 
flag. The time is surely not so far distant but 
some person can be found who could inform us if 
this story be correct ; and if not, what really is 
the origin of the adoption of this flag by the 
French nation. I doubt whether my informant 
is correct as to the national drapeau being always 
tb,e arms of the reigning dynasty, and hope some 
of our heraldic friends will throw light upon the 
matter. A. A. 

"Pepys's Diary" : De Foe. I hope the editor 
of the new edition of this charming work will give 
us, in the fourth and last volume, which is still 
due, the portrait of Pepys by Hales.* That by 
Kneller, prefixed to the first volume, shows us 
the writer when he was advanced in life, and as 
he no doubt appeared on great occasions, when he 
put on a solemn and stately aspect. But Hales's 
portrait shows the Pepys we are so familiar with, 
in all the full vigour of his roystering days. Mr. 
Peter Cunningham, the owner of the original paint- 
ing, has already published an engraving from it in 
his Story of Nell Gwynne. 

Can any of your readers inform me what has 
become of the original painting from which the 
portrait of De Foe is engraved which illustrates 
this new edition of Pepys ? And is it the same 
head as that prefixed to De Foe's True Collection 
of the Works of the Author of the True-lorn Eng- 
lishman. MB. FORSTER probably could answer 
my query. JAYDEE. 

Death of a Centenarian. The following is an 
extract from the Nottingham Journal of July 16 : 

" Newark. Death of a Centenarian. Buried, by the 
Rev. S. Rogers, on Sunday last, at the parish church, 

[* As the editor of the present edition retains Lord 
Braybrooke's note (under date 11 April, 1666), in which 
he stated " his impression that the picture is not Pepys's, 
but the copy of the portrait of Mr. Hill the merchant, 
Pepys's musical friend," mentioned 16 May, 1666, Mr. 
Bohn could scarcely be expected to go to the expense of 
engraving it Eu. " N. & Q."] 



2"i S. VI. 139., AUG. 28. '58.1 NOTES AND QUERIES. 



165 



Sutton upon Trent, at the great age of 113 years, Ann 
Hardwick. She was born at South Collingham in this 
county (Nottinghamshire), in the year 1745, and lived 
in the" house in which she died the unprecedented period 
of 94 years, having entered it as a servant when 19 years 

K. F. S. 



flluerfetf. 

THE BURYAKDS. 

Three country seats lying north of Exeter, 
along the new Tiverton road, are so called. The 
peculiarity of the name, and its triple application, 
caused me long ago to make inquiries as to its 
origin. 

All I could learn, however, was that it had 
something to do with the Druids. Perhaps, among 
the numerous readers of " N. & Q.," this may meet 
the eye of one, acquainted with the subject, who 
will be kind enough to tell us whether anything 
authentic, and what, is known relative to it. 

The literal translation of the word is sufficiently 
obvious : it being a compound of dur or dwr, 
water, and gard or gartli^ an enclosure ; either a 
garden, or fort, or any other enclosed space. Now 
I am inclined to think the Duryards were three 
forts, or entrenched camps, constructed for de- 
fence against some enemy on the opposite shore ; 
but by whom I cannot offer an opinion, except 
that they were a Celtic people possibly by the 
Cimbri against the ejected natives of the Stone- 
period more probably by the Belgse (apparently 
Celts) against the Cimbri or Cyinri, whom, in 
their turn, they had driven across the Exe, and 
eventually drove across the Tamar. 

The present valley of the Exe was no doubt in 
those remote times an estuary for some miles 
above the city ; the tides flowing at least as high as 
Cowley Bridge, and probably much farther up the 
valleys of the Exe and the Greedy, which have 
their confluence here. We may presume that at 
low water it presented the usual appearance of 
most estuaries mud banks, with the fresh-water 
winding through them in a tortuous shallow chan- 
nel, offering no very formidable impediment to 
the passage of an enemy contemplating a razzia. 
In their descent to the shore, the invading force 
would undoubtedly file down the cwms or valleys, 
not only as. more convenient than scrambling 
down the steep-wooded faces of the hills, but also 
as concealing their movements, numbers, &c. To 
such invasions it was necessary to establish mili- 
tary posts opposite the points of debouchement, and 
near such places as afforded a facility of landing. 
Such are the positions of the Duryards. Near 
each a depression in the line of cliffs or steep 
ground, extending from St. David's Hill to Cow- 
ley Bridge, offers the only landing-place; and 
opposite to each a cwin descends from the heights 
on the western side of the estuary. 



I should observe that what appears to have 
been the site of the first, or "the Duryard," 
is now occupied by a place called Belmont ; the 
ancient and rejected name having been adopted 
for a more modern house, somewhat in rear of it, 
and higher up the hill. 

The third is called the " Great Duryard," and 
no doubt was a larger and more important work 
than the other two ; not only because it was far- 
ther from support, but also as being opposite the 
great cwm descending from " Waddle-Down," and 
debouching at Ewick-Barton, down which it was 
reasonable to expect the more formidable force of 
the enemy would approach. Beyond the Great 
Duryard farther precaution was rendered unne- 
cessary by the expansion and bifurcation of the 
estuary. 

Having mentioned above the somewhat silly and 
unmeaning name of " Waddle-Down," perhaps 
the highest ground in the neighbourhood of Exeter, 
I would ask learned etymologists whether it is not 
a corruption of the old Anglo-Saxon name, 
" Wathol-doun, the wild-high hill ? " A. C. M. 



Sir John Franklins Arctic Expedition. When 
the ill-fated "Erebus" and "Terror" left our 
shores on their memorable expedition, each ship was 
supplied with 200 tin cylinders for the purpose of 
holding papers which were to be thrown over- 
board at intervals, with the statement of the longi- 
tude and other particulars worthy of record, writ- 
ten in six different languages, and which were to 
be forwarded by the parties finding them to the 
Admiralty. 

Can you or any of your readers inform me whe- 
ther any of these cases have been found? It 
seems strange that out of 400 none should have 
fallen into the hands of those for whom they were 
intended. R. 

Darwin's Botanic Garden. In the Saturday 
Review of Aug. 14, it is said 

" Yet many of the present generation may remember 
that Miss Edgeworth considers admiration "of The Bo- 
tanic Garden as the most obvious proof of poetic taste, 
and Lord Brougham still draws his favourite quotations 
from the repertory of coloured glass which appeared to 
his youthful eye a treasury of jewels." 

Where does Miss Edgeworth advance the 
opinion given by the Saturday Reviewer f 

On what occasion, save in his speech on the 
Steam Engine at Birmingham last summer, has 
Lord Brougham quoted The Botanic Garden ? 

E. B. 

Ancient Funeral Pall in the University Library, 
Cambridge. In the room below the public li- 
brary at Cambridge where the Musical Library is 
kept, the ceiling is formed of a large piece of 



166 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. [2- s. vi. 139., AUG. 28. >58. 



tapestry, which is extended from wall to wall, and 
does duty in the place of whitewash. It is com- 
posed of cloth of gold (as far as I can make out), 
and its dimensions are about twelve feet by eight. 
Extending across its length and breadth are two 
cross-strips of crimson velvet about twelve inches 
wide, on which are embroidered portcullises and 
roses in high relief. An old catalogue of the pic- 
tures in the university library and the colleges 
describes it as a cloth or canopy which was carried 
over the head of Queen Elizabeth on her visit to 
the university. It strikes me that it must be a 
funeral pall, and that the badge indicates a con- 
nection with Henry VII. Is there any record of 
a funeral ceremony in King's College at his death? 
I believe the room in which it is now placed is on 
the site of the old King's College. The tapestry 
is not in a position which does credit to the Syn- 
dicate of the library. HILTON HENBURY. 

Lynn Regis Monument in Barbadoes. In the 
island of Barbadoes at Holborn House, the resi- 
dence of Mr. Grant, is a very remarkable marble 
tablet, three feet wide by five in length, repre- 
senting the town of " Lyn Regis " in Norfolk, 
beautifully sculptured, bearing date 1687. 

The arms engraved thereon are three boars'- 
heads erased, with a cross-croslet issuing from the 
mouth of each, and a Cupid with a mantle the 
crest. 

About the year 1687 Holborn House was the 
seat of government ; Sir Richard Button was the 
Governor, and Edwin Stede Deputy-Governor of 
the island. 

Query. Can information be given as to whose 
arms the above are, and by whom, and under 
what circumstances, this tablet was erected ? J. I. 

" Dean Swiff s Seal" A friend has shown me 
a steel seal, apparently of the early part of the last 
century, engraved on three sides (moving on a 
swivel), with the following devices: First side: 
A shield, quarterly; 1. and 4. On a chief three 
spread eagles ; 2. and 3. On a chevron engrailed 
between three greyhounds courant, three pellets. 
Second side : On a torse, a demi- eagle, wings 
erect, and this motto, IN OMNIA PARATUS. Third 
side : Out of a mural crown, two naked arms, en- 
circled with flames, holding a book ; with the 
same motto. The former crest probably belongs 
to the first quartering ; and the second, which is a 
remarkable one, perhaps to the second quartering. 
It appears to be of historical allusion, Query, 
whether to the preservation of the holy scriptures 
from the flames of persecution ? May I ask to 
what names these heraldic insignia belong? and 
whether to any connected with the celebrated 
Dean Swift. J. G. N. 

The Terra- Cotta Busts of the Ccesars at Hamp- 
ton Court. In a letter to the Gentleman s Maga- 



zine, vol. xxiv., N. S., p. 594., Mr. Jesse says that 
the missing bust (the twelfth) " is in front of an 
inn at Tichfield in Hampshire." Have any of 
the readers of "N. & Q." seen this bust, and will 
they report upon its present state ? T. T. 

Hartlepool Sepulchral Stones.' When the An- 
glo-Saxon cemetery at Hartlepool was opened in 
1833, it is said that a commercial traveller pur- 
chased one of the sepulchral stones. Is it still in 
existence ; and, if so, where ? DANIEL. 

Rev. Wm. Mason. This learned poet, having 
attained the age of seventy-two in full enjoyment 
of his eyesight, composed a sonnet of gratitude to 
the Almighty for this great and unusual gift. I 
have searched in vain for this effusion through 
several editions of his Works, and now hope that 
some more fortunate correspondent may rescue it 
from loss by transferring it to the pages of " N. 
& Q." E. D. 

Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt. About five-and- 
twenty years ago, one Signer Micheli brought 
over to this country a very ancient encaustic pic- 
ture of Queen Cleopatra, which was supposed to 
be a genuine portrait, painted by a Greek artist, 
and which the owner valued at 10,OOOZ. He 
caused an engraving of it to be executed. Is the 
painting still in existence, or where may the print 
of it be seen ? The title of the print was as fol- 
lows : 

" Cleopatra, Queen of Egypt. The original, of which 
the present plate is a faithful representation, is the only 
known and hitherto discovered specimen of ancient Greek 
painting. It has given rise to the most learned inquiries 
both in Italy and France, and been universally admitted 
by cognoscenti, assisted by actual analysis of the colours, 
to be an encaustic painting. The picture is attributed to 
Timomachus, and supposed to have been painted by him 
for his friend and patron, Augustus Caesar, 33 years be- 
fore Christ, to adorn the triumph that celebrated his 
Egyptian victories over Antony and Cleopatra, as a 
substitute for the beautiful original, of whom he was dis- 
appointed by the heroic death she inflicted on herself. 
This plate is dedicated to the virtuosi and lovers of re- 
fined art in the British Empire by the Author, who is 
also the possessor of this inestimable relic of Grecian Art." 

0- 

John M^Keogh. I have a neatly written MS. 
volume, comprising Compendium Logicce and 
Annotata Physiologica, scripta a Joanne M'Keogh 
Hiberno, Parisiis/Feb. 18/1763. Was this John 
M'Keogh the same as the Rev. John Keogh, the 
author of Zoologia Medicinalis Hibernica (8vo. 
Dublin, 1739) ? or, if not (as I am inclined to 
think), who was he ? ABHBA. 

When does the Fast of Lent conclude 9 In 
Roman Catholic countries the conclusion is at 
noon on the Saturday before Easter Day. I was 
at Naples on this day, and was surprised by hear- 
ing the cannon from San Elmo begin to fire ex- 
actly at twelve o'clock : they were responded to from 






2^ S. VI. 139., AUG. 28. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



167 



all the town. The people put on their holiday 
clothes, and went off to Sorrento and Castella- 
mare in crowds. The fast was at an end. We 
often read accounts of persons refraining from all 
food from Good Friday till the end of Lent ; by 
which many sup'pose from Thursday night till 
after mass on Sunday is meant. This would be a 
fast of two days and a half, or sixty hours, and 
would be a serious matter. It, however, turns out 
to be only thirty-six hours, which is quite another 
affair. What was the practice of the early Chris- 
tians ? F. S. A. 

Bock, or Roche, of Closworth, co. Somerset. 
Any information relative to this family, which was 
settled at Closworth, near Yeovil, in 1536 (see 
Valor Ecclesiasticus), and terminated in the per- 
son of John Helyar Rocke, Esq., who died at 
Bath in 1854, aged ninety-one, will be acceptable, 
and especially as to the two following points : 

1. The inscription on the tomb of Acting- Judge- 
Advocate- Gen. Rock, who is buried either at 
Rouen (church of St. Ouen), or else at Caen in 
Normandy. 

2. Richard Rock of Wells ; died 1701, and 
buried in Wells Cathedral. He married Catha- 
rine, daughter of - Pearce, and widow of John 
Standish of Wells. 

Perhaps your correspondent, INA, would kindly 
lend his aid. R. C. W. 

Greek Pronunciation. How do we get our 
method of pronouncing Greek ? I saw a little 
Greek girl a short time ago, who talked quite 
differently to our manner. For instance, in say- 
ing avdp&iros, whereas we say av like ban, and Opu 
like throw, she said av like can't, and the 6p<a quite 
short, dv8puTruQ instead of avVpuwoQ. E. F. D. C. 



Oxford Graduates among the Zouaves. The 
following strange statement occurs in Sir A. Ali- 
son's History of Europe from the Fall of Napoleon 
in 1815 to the Accession of Louis Napoleon in 
1852, vol. vii. p. 529., 1858 : 

" When they [the Zouaves] were transported to the 
shores of the Crimea, though the majority were French, 
they were rather an aggregate of the dare-devils of all 
nations. In their ranks at Sebastopol were some that 
held Oxford degrees, many those of Gottingen, Paris," 
&c. 

What authority is there for this assertion re- 
specting Oxford graduates ? What were the 
names of those persons possessing Oxford degrees 
who fought at Sebastopol as Zouaves ? JATDEE. 

Manuscripts in Lismore Castle. The late Mr. 
Thomas Crofton Croker, in his Researches in the 
South of Ireland, p. 127., says, 

" The manuscripts in Lismore Castle are frequently re- 
ferred to by Smith, but I could learn nothing respecting 
them ; my inquiries were answered by a positive assur- 
ance that no such collection ever existed j but from Dr. 



Smith's character for correctness, as well as from the in- 
ternal evidence of such parts as have been printed in his 
works, there can be no doubt of their authenticity. These 
manuscripts appear to have been title-deeds and letters 
of the Boyle family, the latter replete with extensive 
historical and biographical materials relative to the in- 
trigues and troubles of 1641 ; and it is to be hoped were 
removed and preserved by order of the Duke of Devon- 
shire, the present possessor of the castle." 

Has anything been done towards the publica- 
tion of these documents, in whole or in part, since 
the appearance of Mr. Croker's Researches in 
1824? They appear to be highly interesting and 
important, and I shall be glad to hear about them. 
Their existence, I presume, is beyond denial. 

ABHBA. 

Bruce at Bannochburn. In a recent publi- 
cation (Hawick and its old Memories, M'Lachlan 
& Co., Edinb., 1858), the question is started what 
towns sent levies to assist Bruce at Bannockburn. 
The writer states that there is evidence of Jed- 
burgh being one of these, but he does not name 
any others. Can any of your antiquarian readers 
supply this information ? T. 

Winchester : Bicetre. In Notre Dame de 
Paris, Livre 4 me , c. 2., occurs the following pas- 
sage : 

" C'e'tait un moulin sur une colline, pres du chateau 
de Winchestre (Bicetre)." 

Can you inform me how the name of Winches- 
ter had got into the environs of Paris in the 
fifteenth century ? And is Bicetre a corruption 
of the former ? IGNORAMUS. 

Names ending in ~son. May I take the oppor- 
tunity of inquiring how it happens thai, of the 
numerous and common surnames in -son (as Jon- 
son), so very few instances appear before 1600, 
and so many in Charles I.'s time ? IGNORAMUS. 

Gray's Inn Pieces. In Farquhar's " Sir Harry 
Wildair," Act I. Sc. 1. (Leigh Hunt's Dramatic 
Works of Wycherley, 8fc., Moxon, 1840, p. 543.), 
we have a notice of these (apparently) counterfeit 
coins : 

" Parky. Then give me earnest. 
" Standard. Five guineas. [ Giving her money. ] 

"Parley. Are they right? No Gray's Inn pieces 
amongst 'em? All right as my leg." 

Will any correspondent explain the allusion 
here ? ACHE. 

Robert Peyton. -In the Sale Catalogue of Dr. 
Bliss's MSS. occurs (lot 186.) Robert Peyton, Of 
the Holy Eucharist, dedicated to Henry Earl of 
Holland, Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge. This note is added 

" With an autograph note from Sir Henry Ellis to Dr. 
Bliss, stating he was unable to trace who Robert Peyton, 
the author, was. The author, in his dedication, says, ' I 
have travelled many countries, seen many cities and 



168 



NOTES AND QUEIUKS. 



[2* S. VI. 139,, AUG. 28. '58. 



courts, served in Italy against the Turke and Spaniard, 
but by the blessing of God I officiat at God's altar,' &c. 
The author was a Roman Catholic." 

We take it that the author was the younger 
son of Sir John Peyton, Bart, of Isleham, Cam- 
bridgeshire, by Alice, daughter of Sir Edward 
Osborne (Lord Mayor of London 1585). He was 
elected from Eton to King's College, Cambridge, 
1609, proceeded B.A. 16 , but did not commence 
M.A. till 1629. He has Latin verses in the Uni- 
versity collection on the death of Henry Prince 
of Wales, 1612. In Harwood's Alumni Etonenses 
(212.) it is stated that he travelled into Italy, 
studied the law, and was a justice of the peace, 
but afterwards took orders. In Wotton's Baronet- 
age (i. 31.), and Burke's Extinct and Dormant 
Baronetage (400.), he is erroneously called Fellow 
of Queen's College, Cambridge. 

We hope through the medium of your columns 
to obtain farther information respecting this gen- 
tleman, especially the date of his death. 

C. H. AND THOMPSON COOPER. 

Endowed Schools. Can any one of your corre- 
spondents inform me what is the present condition 
of the following endowed schools, which were 
(some fifty or sixty years since) among the most 
successful in England. They are, I believe, all 
greatly dependant on the good sense and friendly 
cooperation of the trustees, that is, the mayor and 
corporation of the several towns to which they be- 
long. Much is now said about the importance of 
rural associations in the neighbourhood of schools. | 
All these schools, though in towns, possess that 
advantage. The schools about which I would in- 
quire are those of Exeter, Norwich, Tiverton, 
and Reading. If I am rightly informed, the two 
last are nearly extinct. E. C. H. 

Henry Holme. His Manual of Prayers, Medi- 
tations, and Thanksgivings, with Verses of Marts 
Mortality and Hope of Resurrection, 1690, forms 
lot 133. in the Sale Catalogue of Dr. Bliss's 
MSS. Is anything more known of the author ? 
One of the name was of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, B.A. 1671, M.A. 1675. Another was 
Fellow of Trinity College, B.A. 1715, M.A. 1719, 
Taxer of the University, 1721, and B.D. 1727. 

C. H. AND THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

Sharpness Rock, Dover. Which of the several 
cliffs at Dover was named " Sharpness ?" Before 
hanging was introduced as a punishment convicted 
females were thrown off from Sharpness, the Tar- 
peian rock of Dover. G. R. L. 

Edward Courtenay and his Twenty Arguments. 
I have a manuscript of some 150 pages, entitled : 

" Twenty Arguments against the Oath of Alleadgiance, 
Propounded to Mr. Preston, and other Defenders of the 
said Oath, in satisfaction of a late bitter Provocation pub- 



lished on that subject in the name of Mr. Howard. By a 
Lav-Catholicke. ' Jurabis in veritate et in iustitia, et in 
Judicio.' Jerem. iv. 2." 

In a different hand is added : 

" Composed by Edw. Courtenay, who died a Confessor 
in y e Comon Goale at Exon." 

I shall be obliged to anyone who can tell me if 
this work was ever published ? Who Edward 
Courtenay was, and the date of his death ? and 
where I could see or obtain a copy of the pam- 
phlet published in the name of Mr. Howard ? 

It may be observed that a correct quotation 
from the Prophet would not have afforded so apt 
a motto for the writer. The words of Jeremiah 
are : 

" Et jurabis; Vivit Dominus in veritate, et in judicio, 
et in justicia." 

G. CHAPMAN. 

Samuel Grascome. What is known of this non- 
juring divine in addition to the notice of him in 
The Life of John Kettlewell, pp. 325330 ? He 
died in 1718. Did he reside at Caen Wood, 
Hampstead, in 1703 ? J. YEOWELL. 

Post-man and Tub-man. Two barristers prac- 
tising in the Court of Exchequer hold offices 
which are designated by these whimsical names ; 
and by virtue of their offices have pre-audience 
in certain causes and at certain times. Can any 
of your correspondents tell me the origin of those 
offices, and their particular privileges, and who 
has the patronage of them ? LEGALIS. 

Turges of Bristol. Is anything known of one 
"Dr. Turges of Bristol," living in 1689? 

R. C. W. 



Scottish Book of Common Prayer in 1662. 
Public attention having been lately much called 
to the Book of Common Prayer of the Church of 
England, with the view of having the services 
abridged ; and the repetition of the Lord's Prayer 
being commented upon, as one of the obvious re- 
dundancies, I beg to invite the attention of your 
readers to the following passage in a charge for 
" Discipline and for Worship " of Archbishop 
Leighton (then Bishop Leighton) to the clergy of 
the diocesan synod of Dunblane. The charge ap- 
pears in my copy (the collection of the Works in 
one volume by Aikman, published in Edinburgh 
in 1839) to have been delivered in September, 
1662, and under the second head, "For Worship," 
p. 338., the Bishop says, " Secondly, that the 
Lord's Prayer be restored to more frequent use ; 
likewise the Doxology and the Creed." The time 
of this charge would be a little more than two 
years after the restoration of Charles II. (May 29, 
1660), and on this I beg to inquire whether any 






3-* S. VI. 139., AUG. 28. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



169 



of your readers possess a copy of the Common 
Prayer then in use in Scotland, against which the 
good bishop inveighs ? and whether it was pub- 
lished by authority ? and whether, besides the 
points above referred to, it deviates from the 
Common Prayer-Book now in use in our church ? 

PHILO-LEIGHTON. 

[In 1660, when episcopacy was restored in Scotland, 
the Common Prayer was not ordained to be used ; but 
the public worship was to be conducted in the extem- 
porary manner. The Book of Common Prayer sanctioned 
by Abp. Laud can hardly be said to have been used : it 
was silenced by a popular tumult, as soon as the attempt 
was made to introduce it, on July 23, 1637. Seven years 
afterwards a sort of remembrance of it was issued by the 
Kirk, entitled " The New Booke of Common Prayer, ac- 
cording to the Forme of the Kirke of Scotland, our Bre- 
thren in Faith and Covenant," 1644, with C. R. on the 
title-page, 12mo. It was a brief abstract of Calvin's Ge- 
neva Prayer-Book, derived through Knox's Book of 
Common 'Order, and contains the Apostles' Creed and 
Lord's Prayer, but not the doxology. It is probable that 
Bishop Leighton may have used this feeble production. 
Cf. Stephens' Hist, of the Church of Scotland, ii. 460., and 
Hall's Fragment. Lit. i. 8598.] 

Private Chaplains. Will some reader of "N. 
& Q." kindly resolve the following questions ? 

1. Can every peer appoint his private chaplain ? 
if not, by what right do certain noblemen do so ? 

2. Can a commoner do the same ? 

3. If a commoner build a chapel in connexion 
with his dwelling, intending it for family worship 
according to the rites and ceremonies of the 
Church of England, could he call upon the bishop 
to consecrate it ? or, would it be necessary to have 
the bishop's licence for its being used as a place of 
Divine worship? And would consecration, or 
licensing, throw such a chapel open to all who may 
choose to demand admission, although situated in 
the private grounds of an individual ? M. C. 

[All peers, as well as certain commoners, are allowed by 
law (according to their rank and office) to " retain " one or 
more private chaplains. Thus an archbishop may have 
eight ; a Duke or Bishop six ; Marquis or Earl five ; a 
Viscount four ; a Baron three ; the Master of the Rolls, 
the King's Secretary, Treasurer, Dean of the Chapel 
Royal, and Almoner, each of them two; the Superior 
Judges, the Chancellors of the Exchequer and of the Duchy 
of Lancaster, the Attorney and Solicitor-General, &c. each 
of them " one chaplain having one benefice with cure," but 
who may be non-resident on the same. Chaplains "re- 
tained " by Peers of the Realm may purchase a licence or 
dispensation, and take two benefices with cure of souls, 
provided such benefices are not farther distant from each 
other than thirty miles. 

Private chapels attached to the dwellings of peers or 
commoners need no consecration by a bishop : such places 
of worship are wholly independent of him; he neither 
' grants a " licence" to the officiating chaplain, nor has he 
the- power to "deprive" him. Such chapels being strictly 
private the public therefore cannot demand admission into 
them.] 

" The Land o" the Leal" Who wrote our 
much-admired lyric " The Land o' the Leal." It 



has been generally, but erroneously, ascribed to 
Burns, among whose writings it has no place. 
As he does not even name the piece in his pro- 
tracted correspondence with Thomson, in which 
he alludes to nearly all the gems of Scottish song, 
we may conclude it to have been published sub- 
sequent to his death in 1796. T. 

[Wilson, in his Songs of Scotland, has the following 
note on this song : " This beautiful pathetic song is by 
many considered to have been written by Burns, and fre- 
quently do I receive requests to sing Burns's song of 
' The Land o' the Leal ' ; it was written, however, by a 
lady, who has contributed many excellent songs to The 
Scottish Minstrel, under the signature of B. B. She still 
lives [1842], but has an objection to her name appearing 
in print as an author -,ss. The song of ' The Land o' the 
Leal' Avas written , I believe, as the supposed dying 
thoughts of Burns, when bidding a last farewell to his 
Bonnie Jean." Consult also The Select Songs of Scotland, 
published by W. Hamilton, 1848, p. 202.] 

.Bishop Kennetfs Register. Was the second 
volume of this valuable work ever published ? 
If not, where^are the collections which the bishop 
made for it? HILTON HENBURY. 

[Tho second volunj of Bishop Kennett's Register is 
among his other numerous manuscripts in the Lansdowne 
collection in the British Museum. The Bishop's MSS., 
chiefly relating to Ecclesiastical History and the biogra- 
phy of churchmen, consist of 107 volumes.] 

Oast Houses. What is the derivation of the 
word oastf The word does not appear in Richard- 
son's Dictionary ; and though it does in Johnson's 
no derivation is there given. O. 

[Todd says, " perhaps from the Latin ustus, of uro, to 
burn. In some places it is pronounced oost." Webster 
queries it from Greek etma, or Lat. ustus, a kiln.] 

Sir Thomas Scawen. Information of the date 
of the death of Sir Thomas Scawen, who was Al- 
derman of Cornhill Ward, and had (lied before 
the end of the year 1748, will much oblige F. H. 

[Sir Thomas Scawen died September 22, 1730. See 
Manning and Bray's Surrey, ii. 510.] 



NEWTONS APPLE. 



(2 na S. v. 312.) 

" Apples," says Phillips, " in Herbarism or sim- 
pling, are used, not only for the fruit of the apple- 
tree, but for all sort of round fruit." I have a 
book by a French philosopher to prove that the 
moon is an egg laid by the earth. Put these things 
together, and we may arrive at an understanding 
of 'the true conclusion, which is, that Newton's 
apple was the moon, and that he made use of no 
other. All who know the great first step in the 
verification of gravitation will see this at once. 



170 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. vi. 139., A UG . 28. '58. 



To what your correspondent has given should 
be added that the very apple-tree from -which 
Newton's apple fell I mean Mrs. Conduitt's 
apple, not the moon has been settled. The fol- 
lowing is Sir David Brewster's note upon the sub- 
ject (vol. i. p. 27.) : 

" Neither Pemberton nor Whiston, who received from 
Newton himself the History of his first Ideas of Gravity, 
records the story of the falling apple. It was mentioned, 
however, to Voltaire by Catherine Barton, Newton's 
niece, and to Mr. Green "by Martin Folkes, the President 
of the Royal Society. We saw the apple-tree in 1814, and 
brought away a portion of one of its roots. The tree was 
so much decayed that it was taken doAvn in 1820, and the 
wood of it carefully preserved by Mr. Tumor of Stoke 
Eocheford. See Voltaire's Philosophic de Newton, 3me 
part. Chap, iii., Green's Philosophy of Expansive and 
Contractive Forces, p. 972., and Rigaud's Hist. Essay, 

-N 9 

I - 

" Sir, he made a chimney in my father's house, 
and the bricks are alive at this day to testify it, 
therefore deny it not." I shall now proceed to 
some grave criticism upon the whole story. 

First, was it an apple ? This ia very important. 
Voltaire only says, les fruits (Tun arbre. Folkes 
certainly says, pomum, but this, word is only some 
round fruit. Is it not Virgu who talks of the 
poma of a mulberry-tree ? If Hegel could have 
thought objectively for a moment or two, he 
would have seized these points. Next, though 
the story is mentioned in the draft of the account 
sent to Fontenelle which is found in the Conduitt 
papers, it does not occur in the eloge which was 
the consequence. Now, looking at the fact that 
Fontenelle was a writer who loved anecdote, and 
was very unlikely to omit so possible and pleasant 
a story as that of the apple, there is strong pre- 
sumption that either Mrs. Conduitt or her husband 
struck it out, and did not transmit it to Fontenelle. 
There is then nothing certain except that Newton's 
niece talked about some fall of fruit, and that we 
have recollections of her conversation by Voltaire 
and Folkes. If we remember how conversations 
grow by repetition, we may think it possible that 
Newton, in casual talk, mentioned the fall of some 
fruit as having once struck his mind when he was 
pondering on the subject of the moon's motion, 
and that Mrs. Conduitt made too much of it. 
Hence Green's pomum, and its common rendering 
of apple, followed by the actual discovery that 
there was an apple-tree at Woolsthorpe, and, it 
should seem, only one. 

The story of the apple is pleasant enough, and 
would need no serious discussion, if it were not 
connected with a remarkable misapprehension. 
As told, the myth is made to convey the idea 
that the fall of an apple put into Newton's mind 
what had never entered into the mind of any one 
before him, namely, the same kind of attraction 
between celestial bodies as exists between an 
apple and the earth. In this way the real glory 



of such men as Newton is lowered. It should be 
known that the idea had been for many years 
floating before the minds of physical inquirers, 
in order that a proper estimate may be formed 
of the way in which Newton's power cleared 
away the confusions, and vanquished the diffi- 
culties, which had prevented very able men from 
proceeding beyond conjecture. 

In 1609 Kepler published his famous work on 
the planet Mars, in which he establishes his cele- 
brated laws; in 1618 he published his Epitome 
Astronomies Copernicana. Newton began to think 
of gravitation in 1666. In both works, but es- 
pecially * in the second, Kepler raises the idea of 
the planets being moved by a force from the sun. 
He lays especial stress on the fact that the nearer 
a planet to the sun the more rapidly does it move. 
And he implies and inclines to the hypothesis that 
this force must be inversely as the distance from 
the sun. In 1645, when Newton was three years 
old, Bouillaud (see Penny Cyclopaedia) published 
his Astronomia Philolaica, in which he combats 
Kepler, and makes the very remarkable anticipa- 
tion that the force, if any, could not be inversely 
as the distance, but as the square of the distance. 
In 1673, before Newton had published anything, 
Huyghens published his Horologium Oscillatorium, 
at the end of which he gave the complete results 
of circular motion, without demonstration. We 
here find, so far as the circle is concerned, the 
very propositions on centrifugal and centripetal 
balance which Newton gave in the Principia. 
We may presume that Newton, a learned mathe- 
matician as well as an inventive one, knew both 
Kepler and Bouillaud in 1666. On Newton and 
Huyghens I shall probably propose a query, when 
I have further considered a point to which this 
article has drawn my attention. 

What then did Newton do ? He compared the 
fall of the moon with the fall of a stone, and showed 
that the effects are as the inverse squares of the 
distances. He deduced Kepler's laws as conse- 
quences of this hypothesis, and connected elliptic 
motion with the law of the inverse square of the 
distance. He abolished the mysterious centre to 
and from which motions were supposed to take 
place, and introduced universal gravitation (the 
adjective, not the substantive, is Newton's dis- 
covery) : showing that if every particle attract 
every other particle inversely as the square of 
the distance, a whole sphere will attract as if its 
mass were collected at its centre. This last, one 
of the most important points of Newton's con- 
nexion of theory and fact, has nothing which 
strikes : for people in general would imagine that 
the result must be true in all cases. But in truth 
it is true only for the inverse square, and for the 
direct distance, a law which is out of the question. 



* I will not answer for the first edition 
me is of J635. 



the one before 






2 S. VI. 139., AUG. 28. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



371 



These are the points in which Newton starts 
in advance of his predecessors, wjth a powerful 
body of deduction substituted for ingenious con- 
jectures : there is no occasion to say anything 
of what followed. Bouillaud, in raising an ob- 
jection to Kepler, had asked why the planets 
are to be stupidi, while the sun is anima matrix ; 
why the sun is to move the earth, and not the 
earth to move the moon. It used to be said, I 
think of Charles Fox, that before he proceeded to 
demolish his opponent, he would recapitulate that 
opponent's argument with so much additional 
force and clearness, that his friends trembled for 
his power to answer, until he proceeded to show 
them that those who know best how to thrust 
know best how to parry. Bouillaud seems to 
have gone to work in the same way ; at least as 
to the first branch of the performance : before 
proceeding to demolish Kepler, he gives him the 
inverse square of the distance, and a considerable 
approach towards universal gravitation. 

I end with two anagrams* of Newton's name, 
this instant seen, which will illustrate my subject. 
As to some part of Newton's preliminary ideas, 
we must say Not new ; as to the rest, Went on. 

A. De MORGAN. 



MONUMENTAL INSCRIPTIONS. 

(2 nd S. vi. 86.) 

Possessed with the full desire to forward the at- 
tempts of your correspondents to rescue the fast- 
fading inscriptions in our churches from impending 
obliteration, these preliminary suggestive hints are 
thrown out to forward the end proposed. 

It is probable the first division will be formed 
of inscriptions bearing dates previous to the year 
1500. As many of these have been published by 
local historians, others are preserved in the British 
Museum, and some are in private collections, the 
question naturally presents itself whether they 
should be recopied to form parts of the proposed 
national collection. 

The second division would probably be formed 
of inscriptions in which some or all of the requi- 
site dates are omitted. Here it may be asked, 
and the question merits the attention of antiqua- 
ries, At what period were dates first introduced 
in reference to the birth or death of the individual 
recorded, and more particularly when was the age 
first deemed a necessary part of every monumental 
inscription ? 

It is unnecessary now to occupy your space 

* To exhaust the subject, the following may be added. 
As to perceptions, no newt ; as to reputations, won ten, that 
is, remembering that he was not appreciated (how much 
soever admired.) in his own day, ten now. If any one can 
make more out of the word, I think it must be by Swe- 
denborg's theory of correspondences, or something equally 
potent. 



with farther suggestions; some plan must be de- 
finitely arranged. That one difficulty satisfacto- 
rily adjusted, and there remains but little doubt 
that copies of these valuable records will be for- 
warded from every part of the kingdom. 

A tolerably large collection of extracts from 
parish register?, and fully bearing out the pre- 
mises of S. F. CRESWELL, are fully at his service 
on application. H. D'AvENEY. 

It is certainly time for the Society of Antiqua- 
ries to act energetically in carrying out at once 
their proposed measures for the permanent re- 
cording of inscriptions in our churchyards, other- 
wise the less exalted among the population of this 
country will in a few years know very little of 
their ancestors. A new source of mischief has 
arisen among a certain active class of Gothic revi- 
valists, who so love to meddle with and mend our 
old churches and their precincts, that very soon 
little but nineteenth century work will remain. 
They have now taken to advocate the laying 
prostrate all the old tombstones in our church- 
yards, so that the weather, and the feet of passers- 
by, will very speedily obliterate every vestige of 
inscription. 

This has just been most ruthlessly done at the 
parish church of Oakham : every stone has been 
uprooted, shifted, and laid flat on its back, so as 
to form footpaths all round the church. 

Is thereto ecclesiastical authority competent to 
cope with this new phase of barbarism ? Has any 
one an unrestrainable power to do what he likes 
with the memorials of the parishioners ? May he 
with impunity shift them about hither and thither, 
rending them from the spots they were meant to 
mark, and converting these consecrated slabs into 
paving-stones ? 

We had at Oakham some picturesque groups 
of these monumental stones ; all now are reduced 
to a dead level, apparently for the sole purpose of 
providing a commodious play-ground for the 
parish school. 

Cannot a churchyard be set in order without 
scattering to the wind the bones of the parishioners, 
and destroying their tombstones ? (?). 



SERFDOM IN ENGLAND. 

(2 nd S. vi. 90.) 

Your correspondent, MR. KENSINGTON, has been 
misinformed. There have been no serfs in Eng- 
land for at least two centuries. We have not as 
yet, probably never shall have, evidence to prove 
the exact date when all Englishmen became free. 
It would, however, be very difficult to find villains 
anywhere except in the law books after the acces- 
sion of Queen Elizabeth. How long the villain 
continued to be a part of the English constitution 



172 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. [2-* s. vi. 139., AUG. 28. 



in the imagination of our lawyers, it is not easy 
to tell. A form of manumission, or " Release 
from Villenage," is given in the fourth edition of 
The Compleat Clerk, Containing' the best Forms of 
all Sorts of Presidents for Conveyances and Assur- 
ances and other Instruments now in use and practise, 
$-c. London, MDCLXXVII. ; and it is not unlikely 
that it continued to be reprinted among forms 
" now in use " till a much later period. As it is 
probable that few of your readers have ever seen 
such a document, it is worth printing once 
again : 

To all to whom these Presents shall come, &c. T.H., 
Lord of the Mannor of D., sendeth Greeting. WHEREAS 
A. B., otherwise called A. B., our Native Son of C. B., 
otherwise C. B. our Native belonging, or appendant to 
our Mannor of D. in the County of E., was begotten in 
Villenage, and for such a one, and as such a one was 
commonly called, held, had and reputed openly, publicly, 
and privately. KNOW YE, that I, the said T. H., for divers 
good and lawful causes me thereto moving, for me and 
my heirs for ever manumitted, released, and from the 
yoak of Servitude and Villenage discharged, and by 
these my Letters Patents do manumit, free, discharge the 
said A.B. with all his Sequels begotten or to be begotten, 
with all his Goods and Chattels, Lands and Tenements 
by him already bought or hereafter to be bought what- 
soever. KNOW YE also, that I the said T. H. to have 
Remised, Released, and for me my Heirs, &c. hath quit- 
claimed, and by this my present "Writing do remit, re- 
lease, and quitclaim unto the said A. B. and his Heirs, 
and all his Sequels, all and all manner of Actions real 
and personal, Suits, Quarrels, Services, Challenges, Tres- 
passes, Debts and Demands whatsoever, which against 
the said A. B. or any of the Heirs of his Sequels, or any 
of them, I have or had, or which I or my Heirs hereafter 
might have by reason of the Servitude and Villenage 
aforesaid, or for any other cause whatsoever, from the 
beginning of the World until the day of the making of 
these presents ; so that neither I the said T. H. nor my 
Heirs, nor any other by or for us, or in our names, any 
action, right, title, claim, interest or demand of Villenage 
or Servitude by the King's Writ, or by any other means 
whatsoever against the said A. B. or his Sequels begotten 
or to be begotten, or against the Goods, Chattels, Lands, 
and Tenements, purchased or hereafter to be purchased 
from henceforth may exact, claim, or challenge, at any 
time hereafter, but that we be wholly and for ever barred 
by these Presents. And I, the said T. H. and my Heirs, 
the said A. B., with all his Sequels begotten or to be be- 
gotten Free men against all men will warrant for ever by 
these presents. IN WITNESS, &c." 

Although slavery had died out in England 
ages before, it yet remained in full vigour in the 
mining districts of Scotland till about eighty 
years ago, and was not finally abolished until 
quite the close of the last century. Until the 
year 1775 colliers and salters were their masters' 
property as absolutely as the serfs of the middle 
ages. Little seems to be recorded of their con- 
dition ; but as, under the most humane and en- 
lightened system of management, underground 
labourers are ever the most degraded of the popu- 
lation, we may be sure that when to this was 
added the farther debasement of personal slavery, 
their lot must have been very dreadful. In that 



year an act was passed (15 Geo. III. cap. 28.) 
releasing thesQ,people from bondage by a gradual 
process. All persons beginning to work after the 
passing of the act were to be considered free ; but 
those who had already worked could only obtain 
their freedom after a term of years, and then 
only by an expensive process. The consequence 
was, that until the 'passing of the act of 1799 
(39 Geo. III. cap. 39.), which declared that all 
colliers " shall be free from their servitude," 
there were thousands in a state of slavery. 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 
The Manor, Bottesford, Brigg. 



GLASTONBURY AND WELLS CONCORD OF 1327. 

(2 nd S. vi. 106.) 

I would suggest that the latter paragraphs of 
this very interesting document should be read as 
follows : 

" Furthermore, that the Dean and his successors may 
have Common of Pasture for all manner of Cattle, also 
Turbary [turf for fuel] in the moiety [half] which re- 
maineth to the Abbot, and have Hogsties [pigsties] in 
the same moiety, and take Oilers [alder- wood] and soil 
to repair them. 

" And the Abbot to have the like Common of [q. and] 
Hogsties in the Dean's moiety. 

" And that all the Tenants of the Dean and Abbot free 
and villains, and other their nearest neighbour's tenants, 
may have Common of Pasture and Turbary in both the 
moieties of the moor called Yealmore (at this present not 
enclosed) as they wont to have. 

" And to build and repair Hogsties, and all their Cattle 
to chase and rechase to the water for ever." 

The words "build" and "repair" might be ap- 
plied to pigsties, but not to hogget or hog sheep ; 
and the phrase, " Common of hogs," or " hoggets," 
I have never seen : and all the commons that I know 
of, are either for " sheep," for " cows," for " horses, 
oxen, cows, and sheep," or for "all manner of 
cattle." (In later records, " omnimoda animalia.") 

If the phrase in the Concord, " comon of hog- 
sties," be read " common and hogsties," there ap- 
pears to be no difficulty. 

Dr. Boswortb, in his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 
has : 

" ALER, the alder tree. 
ALET. Fire, combustibles." 

These words being, no doubt, pronounced "oiler" 
and " ollet : " a fuel house being in this neighbour- 
hood still called an " ollet house." 

If INA could inform us whether alder trees 
grow at the place in question, or, better still, if he 
could refer to the original concord, which is pro- 
bably in Latin, or possibly JSTorman, he would in 
the former case do much to solve the difficulties ; 
and in the latter explain the matter beyond doubt, 
as the Latin words of the original concord would 
not present any of the doubts which arise on the 
English translation. F. A. CARRINGTON. 

Ogbourne St. George. 



2* & vi. m, AUG. 28. '58.] NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



173 



THE TESTAMENT OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS. 
(2 nd S. Vi. 88.) 

A very good copy of this book (which Dibdin 
calls " one of the most popular manuals of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries ") is now be- 
fore me. The title-page is the same as that of the 
copy referred to by G. N., but is an earlier edi- 
tion. " London : printed by M. Clark for the 
Company of Stationers, 1681." It has in the lower 
half of the page a very good woodcut, within an 
oval, in the style of Le Petit Bernard, which I 
take to be the Israelites dancing before the golden 
calf; and has a full-length figure on a single page, 
with verses beneath, before each " Testament." 
These woodcuts, though originally good, have evi- 
dently seen considerable service. It is in black 
letter, small 12mo. After an epistle " To the 
Christian Reader," signed " Richard Day," of five 
pages, comes 

" The Testament of Jacob made at his 'death to his 
Twelve sons, the Patriarchs, concerning what should be- 
tide them in the last days ; gathered out of Genesis, 48. 
49., and added unto this'Book." 

In the middle of this page is a woodcut of Jacob 
bolstered up in bed with his sons about him, in 
the same style as that on the title-page. The 
following lines are below : 

" Come hearken my Sons, two things I give. 

My blessing, and my ban ; 
The first to them that godly live ; 
The last to wicked man." 

This Testament of Jacob is on the six following 
pages. Then follow on 133 pages without pagin- 
ation " The Testament of the Patriarchs " in their 
order, and it concludes with the account in two 
pages how these Testaments were first found, and 
translated out of Greek into Latin. It appears 
from the Epistle to the Christian Reader that this 
Testament of Jacob was added by Richard Day, 
son of the famous printer John Day, who pub- 
lished editions of the book in 1577 and 1581. 
From the title-page of this last edition, as given 
by Dibdin (" Now Englished by A. G.") the 
English translation is ascribed to Arthur Golding. 
The Testaments themselves, as your remarks have 
shown, are apocryphal. Watt in his Bib. Brit., 
article " WHISTON," however, gives a list of Dis- 
sertations by him, one of which is "A Dissertation 
to prove the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs 
equally Canonical. 1727." 

An early possessor of my copy has enriched it 
on a blank page with his MS. address to the 
Christian Reader. The first verse is as follows 
(there are six in all) : 

" Here is the patriarch's Life 

and conuersation) 
But to beleeue in Christ is true 

JohnGcha. [Saluation]. Act 4 th 12 

and y e 47 verse." 



A subsequent owner, " Mary Cox, 1713," sub- 
joins this to her autograph : 

" In serueing God if I neglect my nebour, 
My zeal hath lost its proof and I my Labour." 

D. S. 



INVOLUNTARY VERSIFICATION. 
(2 nd S. Vi. 121.) 

The following appeared in the Athenamm of 
August 15, 1846 (No. 981.) : it will correct and 
amplify some of MR. NICHOLS'S instances : 

" The Master of Trinity College, Dr. Whewell, a for- 
tunate man in many respects, was yet unfortunate enough, 
five and twenty years *ago, to fall into one of Nature's 
traps. He made some verses in the same manner in 
which M. Jourdain made prose. la his work on Me- 
chanics, he happened to write literatim and verbatim, 
though not lineatim, as follows : 

" ' There is no force, however great, 
Can stretch a cord, however fine, 
Into a horizontal line, 
Which is accurately straight.' 

" The author will never hear the last of this : he can- 
not expect it. Seeing we know not what edition of this 
tetrastich, the other day, in one of the reviews, we thought 
that possibly the legitimate use might be made of it. 
The legitimate use of an accidental versification is the 
justification, by means of it, of some existing stanza. No 
kind of rhythm or metre is permanently pleasing to the 
ear, unless it be one of those into which the ear sometimes 
falls of itself. Some one (we forget who) of our older 
critics, in illustration of iambic metre, says, ' Such verse 
we make when we are writing prose; such verse we 
make in common conversation.' Now, it so happens 
and we believe has not been noticed that Dr. VVhewell's 
fit of the absent muse precisely copies a French stanza, 
used, among others, by Voltaire, as in the following ad- 
vice to the English : 

" ' Travaillez pour les connoisseurs 
De tous les terns, de tous les ages, 
Et repandez sur vos ouvrages 
La simplicity de vos moeurs.' 

A little before the occurrence of the preceding, Prof. 
Woodhouse, in his Treatise on Astronomy, was more un- 
fortunate than Mr. Whewell ; for he only made the first 
half of a stanza, and left the undergraduates to add the 
second. To understand the meaning, it must be remem- 
bered that Mr. Woodhouse was then superintending, for 
the University, the completion of the Observatory, which 
was to be his own official residence ; and some dissatis- 
faction had been expressed at the expense of ornamenting 
the grounds. So, between them, Woodhouse and the 
wags made the following : 
" ' If a spectator 

Be at the equator, 
At the point represented by A : 
So says Mr. Woodhouse, 
Who lives in the good house 
For which other people must pay.' 
" The review above alluded to takes notice of an older 
commencement of a stanza, from < Smith's Optics,' which 
has not yet found its other half: we venture to suggest 
one ; 

If parallel rays 

Come contrary ways, 
And fall upon opposite sides j 



174 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [2* s. vi. 139., AUG. 2s. 5. 



Says one to the other, 
Oh, brother ! oh, brother ! 
They make us take terrible rides.' " 

So far the Athenceum. I may add that old 
Fuller's translation 'of Ovid's precatory verse has 
been made the basis of a story about Dr. Watts, 
who is made to have been afflicted with involun- 
tary versification in his childhood, and to have 
propitiated his father as follows : 

" Pray, father, do some pity take, 
And I will no more verses make." 

There is an instance of successive verses, I 
think, in the third part of Dickens's Christinas 
Carol, beginning 

" Far in this den of infamous resort." 

M. 

Add to the instances noted by MR. NICHOLS 
the following, which have been extracted from 
the most popular works of Mr. Charles Dickens. 
They are written in blank verse, of irregular 
metre and rhythms, common with Southey, Shel- 
ley, and others : 

" NELLY'S FUNERAL. 
(From Oliver Twist.) 
" And now the bell the bell 
She had so often heard by night and day, 
And listened to with solemn pleasure, 

E'en as a living voice 
Rung its remorseless toll for her, 
So young, so beautiful, so good. 

. " Decrepit age, and vigorous life, , 

And blooming youth, and helpless infancy, 
Poured forth on crutches, in the pride of strength 

And health, in the full blush 

Of promise, the mere dawn of life 

To gather round her tomb. Old men were there, 

Whose eyes were dim. 

And senses failing 

Grand ames who might have died ten years ago, 
And still been old the deaf, the blind, the lame, 

The palsied, 

The living dead in many shapes and forms, 
To see the closing of this early grave. 
What was the death it would shut in 
To that which still could crawl and creep above it ! 

" Along the crowded path they bare her now ; 

Pure as the new-fallen snow 
That covered it ; whose day on earth 

Had been as fleeting. 

Under that porch, where she sat when Heaven 
In mercy brought her to that peaceful spot, 
She passed again, and the old church 
Received her in its quiet shade." 

" Oh ! it is hard to take to heart 
The lesson that such deaths will teach, 

But let no man reject it, 

For it is one that all must learn, 

And is a mighty, universal Truth. 

When Death strikes down the innocent and young, 

For every fragile form from which he lets 

'The parting spirit free, 

A hundred virtues rise, 

In shapes of mercy, charity, and love, 



To walk the world and bless it. 

Of every tear 

That sorrowing mortals shed on such green graves, 
Some good is born, some gentler nature comes." 

Throughout the whole of the above only two 
unimportant words have been omitted " z'n" and 
" its " ; " grandames " has been substituted for 
" grandmothers," and " e'en " for " almost." And 
the following is from the concluding paragraph of 
Nicholas Nicklely : 

" The grass was green above the dead boy's grave, 
Trodden by feet so small and light, 
That not a daisy drooped its head 

Beneath their pressure. 

Through all the spring and summer time 

Garlands of fresh flowers, wreathed by infant hands, 

Rested upon the stone." 

A somewhat similar kind of versification in the 
prose may be discovered in the 77th Chapter of 
Barnaby Rudge. (3. 



The interesting paper on this subject in " N. & 
Q." induces me to express an opinion I have long 
entertained, that Shakspeare often wrote in in- 
voluntary measure when he intended his minor 
characters to speak in prose ; and that, in fact, he 
could not help adopting rhythmical language for 
them. 

I am aware of MR. COLLIER'S reasons for " the 
constant confusion between verse and prose no- 
ticeable in the printed productions of Shakspeare;" 
but cannot believe that the poet intended lines of 
verse in many passages which are printed as such 
in modern editions. 

In the first and second folios, the description of 
Queen Mab (Romeo and Juliet, Act I. Sc. 4.) is 
printed as prose, except the last sentence. But in 
the English Parnassus (1677, p. 337.), by Josua 
Poole, the following lines are quoted as distinct 
lines of measure ; and they are the whole of the 
imperfect quotation from Romeo and Juliet : 
" Drawn by a team of little Atomies: 
The Waggon-spokes made of a Spinner's legs ; 
The cover of the wings of Grasshoppers, 
Her traces of the smallest Spider's web, 
Her collars of the Moon-shine's wat'ry beams, 
Her Wagoner a small gray-coated Gnat, 
Her Charriot is an empty "Hasel Nut 
Made by a Squirrel." 

It may be observed that the possessive or geni- 
tive cases are here all marked by an apostrophe ; 
whereas such was not the rule at an early date in 
the seventeenth century. 

Queries. Whence did Josua Poole derive his 
authority for division of the lines ? When was 
the rule established for marking the genitive case 
by an apostrophe ? ' 

I can point to one example of the kind in the 
first folio edition of Romeo and Juliet; and I may 
add that the definitions of this mark in Bailey, 
Johnson, and Webster require correction. J. R 






as. Yi. ids., AUG. 28. 58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



175 



In ME. NICHOLS'S very interesting note, he 
cites as from Tacitus : 

" Auguriis patruin et prisca formidine sacram." 

I cannot find it. A more particular reference 
would much oblige.* J. W. F. 



to Minor: 

William Tyndale (2 nd S. vi. 132.) No impor- 
tant discovery has been made since Mr. Anderson 
published his Annals relative to this illustrious 
man. S. M. S. must be very careful in using any 
information derived from Anderson. His ex- 
tracts from MSS. and printed books are full of 
grievous blunders. In his effort to exalt Tyndale 
at the expense of Coverdale, he has selected pas- 
sages from the New Test, in vol. i. pages 537. and 
538., occupying forty-six lines, which are given as 
literal. In these lines will be found 261 errors ! 
What renders it more unpardonable is that the 
reprints both of Coverdale and Tyndale are ac- 
curate. His errors, variations, and omissions, in 
copying letters and documents to which I referred 
him in the British Museum are surprisingly numer- 
ous. In Ridley's Letter, vol. i. p. 152., which An- 
derson says " we give entire with the exception of 
a very few words which cannot be deciphered," 
he has omitted one hundred and twenty words. 
I copied the whole letter, which is most deeply in- 
teresting. If S. M. S. will favour me with a visit 
copies of these and other documents may be in- 
spected. We yet want an accurate history of the 
English Bible, an imperial 8vo. illustrated, piquant, 
readable. G. OFFOR. 

Victoria Park, Hackney. 

Derivation of "Sash" Windows (2 nd S. vi. 147.) 
Sasse, in old English, was a lock or sluice. In 
Dutch, also, a sluice is sas. May not " sash win- 
dow" have been originally " sasse window," or 
"sas window?" i.e. a window formed like a 
sluice, to let up and down. With this accords the 
Italian definition of a sasse or sluice : " Quella 
chiusura de legname che si fa calare da alto a 
basso, per impedire il passaggio all' acque." On 
similar grounds, a sash window is sometimes de- 
scribed in vernacular French as a window " a 
la guillotine." 

This view of the subject, however, by no means 
forbids our connecting "sash window" with the 
Fr. chassis ; for there seems to have been some 
former relationship between chassis, sasse, and 
sas. THOMAS BOYS. 

Ancient Seal (2 nd S. vi. 154.) H. T. W.'s seal 
has produced a learned disquisition from MR. 
EASTWOOD, but which, I beg to submit, is rather 
beyond the mark. The seal, it appears to me, is 
quite innocent of the black art, or any dealings 
with mercury and magic. It belongs to a class, 

[* Vide De Moribus Germanice, cap. xxxix.] 



by no means unfrequent, in which the legend of 
the seal is intended as a token of good will, fide- 
lity, love, or some such quality, in one correspon- 
dent towards the other. Thus I have before me 
impressions of seals with these inscriptions : " Je 
su prive," "I am private, or secret ;" " Je su sel 
d'amour lei," " I am the seal of true love." Ac- 
cordingly, I decipher H. T. W.'s seal thus : 

" Je su sel 

Jolis e gai e lei." 
" I am a seal, pretty, and gay, and true ; " 

which is, at any rate, a simpler explanation than 
MR. EASTWOOD'S. What the separate letter "c," 
following the legend, may mean, I cannot say ; 
nor do I see anything cabalistic in the device. 
The double square is a common medieval figure ; 
and the head, dog, and branch form, no doubt, 
one of the rebuses so pleasant to the fancy of our 
forefathers. Very possibly, they may allude to 
the three terms of the inscription ; and the long- 
haired head be intended to represent the gaiety, the 
tree or branch the beauty, and the dog the truth 
or fidelity. "Lege tege" is also found on many 
seals as a quibbling motto. I have one which 
reads " Tecta tege, lecta lege." The seal must be 
a good example of the class ; and I should be 
glad to possess an impression, if the owner would 
permit. C. R. MANNING. 

Diss Rectory, Norfolk. 

Impressions on Seals (2 nd S. v. 171. 225. 303.) 
Where the impression is taken upon card for 
permanent preservation in a cabinet, I should 
strongly recommend your readers to melt the 
wax by holding the card over the flame, and rub- 
bing the end of the stick of wax over the surface ; 
or else by breaking off a few small pieces of the 
sealing-wax, and melting them on the card in the 
same way. HILTON HENBURY. 

Daniel Quare (2 nd S. vi. 13.) A patent was 
granted to Quare, Aug. 2, 1695, for the invention 
of a portable weather-glass, or barometer, "which," 
in the words of the patent, " may be removed and 
carried to any place, though turned upside down, 
without spilling one drop of the quicksilver, or 
letting any air into the tube." W. D. MA CRAY. 

Swearing (2 nd S. v. 434.) Your correspon- 
dent MR. HUGHES has given, as above, an instance 
of a penalty imposed for using profane language : 
allow me to note an account, given in the Chelms- 
ford Chronicle some little time back, of the pre- 
sentation of a testimonial to commemorate a 
lengthened non-indulgence in that particular 
luxury : 

" During the past week handbills have been posted in 
and about Braintree, announcing the presentation of a 
' moke ' (donkey) to Henry Ogan, by the landlord of 
the Bird-in-Hand Inn, as a reward for the faithful per- 
formance of a promise not to swear or use profane lan- 
guage for the term of six months. The novel gift was 



176 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. [2* s. vi. 139., AUG. 28. '58. 



accordingly on the 24th instant placed in a cart drawn 
by six other 'neddies,' and a procession was formed, 
headed by a pair of horses and a vehicle decorated with 
evergreens and colours, and containing a brass band and 
the hero, Ogan ; and after parading the principal streets 
of the town returned to the Bird-in-Hand, where, before 
separating, they were entertained with an abundant sup- 
ply of good cheer." 

R. W. HACKWOOD. 

Brother of Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat (2 nd S. v. 
335.) REV. WM. FRASER, B.C.L., Alton, Staf- 
fordshire, requested information respecting the 
family of Fraser of Lovat. 

The writer being much interested in the clear- 
ing up of the uncertainty existing on the points 
mentioned by MR. FRASER, has eagerly antici- 
pated the reply of some well-informed correspon- 
dent ; but, as no person has answered the queries, 
and as the writer has attempted to investigate the 
matter, and possesses some little, though very 
uncertain information, he, in the absence of better, 
has much pleasure in offering it, and earnestly 
begs correction where wrong. 

The Fraser who killed the piper in a brawl was, 
I believe, either the younger brother or eldest 
son of Simon Lord Lovat, who was beheaded (I 
invite correction), but, at all events, he, had not 
Lord Lovat suffered attainder, was the heir to the 
title and estates. 

He was generally supposed to have fled to 
America, from whence claimants to the title, on 
the attainder being reversed, induced by this tra- 
dition, have appeared; but no one has yet suc- 
ceeded in producing the slightest evidence to prove 
he did take refuge in America. 

REV. MR. FRASER says " he is said to have fled 
into Wales, and to have died there." May I ask 
whence he derived this information? because, 
though having paid much attention to this point, 
and personally; acquainted with many members 
of the Lovat family, I heard it only once be- 
fore, in one family, which perhaps never men- 
tioned it before, and never has since. 

This tradition states he fled into Glamorgan- 
shire, and that after some years had elapsed he 
called himself indifferently Fraser and Lovat, by 
way of maintaining a species of identity. He mar- 
ried, and had issue, but whether any male I am 
ignorant, but believe he had : however, one of his 

daughters espoused David Thomas, Gent., of 

Glynn-Nedd, Glamorgan, whose daughter by that 
marriage was the grandmother of Major Hewett 
of Tyr-Mab -Ellis, Glamorgan (vide Burke's Dic- 
tionary of Landed Gentry, 1858), who, together 
with an old lad}', a widow, whose name I forget, but 
whose maiden name, I think, was Fraser, represents 
this Fraser or Lovat (whether an impostor or 
not), and who I believe possesses full and un- 
doubted proofs of the whole affair, and, had she 
been a male, of her right to the title. 

Major Hewett is a gentleman of great courtesy, 



and he would, I am sure, be happy to give names 
and dates, and every information in his power to 
MR. FRASER. 

With respect to evidence of claimants' proceed- 
ings, a namesake, Wm. Fraser, Esq., W. S., 41. 
Albany Street, Edinburgh, an amateur genealo- 
gist, will, I am sure, on application, afford all in- 
formation. CJEDO ILLUD. 

Lotus, Sfc. (2 nd S. iv. 195.221.; v. 138.) In 
looking over the Egyptian-rooms in the British 
Museum a few days ago, I was much struck with 
the offering to Osiris, which consists of a T shaped 
altar, in which is placed a cake of a roundish form, 
while the Lotus-flower and stalk curve over the 
other two. This seems as if it might bear upon 
the questio vexata of the lotus and cake of India. 

It may be an accidental coincidence, but it is a 
singular one, that I have seen the lotus and circle 
represented at the summit of every division of a 
curved ivory Chinese fan (Buddhist) ; and I am 
told that among the Mahommedans the same form 
bears the name of the Prophet's fingers, and also 
at the same time resembles in a most striking 
manner the Ordnance mark, the so-called level 
and broad arrow, which we behold scattered all 
over England, from Cornhill to Cornwall ; while 
the little roadside plant, the bird's-foot trefoil, also 
gives this name, and bears the name of lotus. 
May not this likewise constitute the charm of 
" the five-leaved shamrock ? " I should feel greatly 
obliged if any of your readers can throw any light 
on these curiouj coincidences. Might not this 
universal sign be made use of in engendering feel- 
ings of brotherhood between ourselves, Hindoos, 
Buddhists, and Mahommedans ? W. TELL. 

Towcester. 

" An Assailant of the Mathematical Sciences " 
(2 nd S. vi. 125.) PROFESSOR DE MORGAN at this 
reference tells us of 

" An assailant of the mathematical sciences of no mean 
name, who was so little versed in the meaning of the most 
elementary terms that, in an attempt of his own to be ma- 
thematical, he first declares two quantities to le one and the 
same quantity, and then proceeds to state that of these two 
identical quantities the greater the one, the less is the other." 

I do not say the case is incredible : but it is so 
extraordinary that I should be personally obliged 
to him if he would give me the name of the as- 
sailant in question, and a reference to that work 
in which this strange contradiction occurs. 

C. MANSFIELD INGLEBY. 

Dryderis Lines on Milton (2 nd S. iv. 368.) I 
have an old note which confirms I. Y.'s opinion ; 
but at the same time shows that Dryden was a 
borrower from Salvaggi, who wrote thus : 
" Gnecia Mseonidem, jactet sibi Roma Maroncm j 
Anglia Miltonum jactat utrique parem." 

ERIC. 
Ville Marie, Canada. 



2d S. VI. 139., AUG. 28. '58.] NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17? 



Kaul Dereg and Goldsmith (2 nd S. iv. 309.) 
At the above reference I queried as to whom 
Goldsmith, in one of his Essays, intended by the 
first-mentioned names ; and I then hoped that 
one of your Irish readers would answer the ques- 
tion. This has not been done ; but I have myself 
since found, unaided, an explanation in the de- 
lightful little book of Mr. Wilde, Irish Popular 
Superstitions, published by Orr & Co., London, 
p. 99. 

Cathal (pronounced Kaul} Crovedearg, or the 
red-handed, was the illegitimate son of Turlough 
More O'Conor, the brother of Roderick, and last 
of the Irish monarchs. Through the persecutions 
of the queen he was compelled to flee to a distant 
province, where, in the garb of a peasant, he sup- 
ported himself by manual labour. At length the 
King of Connaught died ; and search was then 
made for this his son, who was afterwards dis- 
covered and crowned : 

" Of him," Mr. Wilde says, " there are many romantic 
tales and superstitious legends still lingering with the 
people in the vicinity (z. e. of Ballintober, near Castle- 
bar), which, were they woven into a novel, would far 
surpass most modern works of fiction." 

To these adventures of Cathal, Goldsmith re- 
ferred, when he said : 

" Every country has its traditions, which, either too 
minute, or not sufficiently authentic to receive historical 
sanction, are handed down among the vulgar, and serve 
at once to instruct and amuse them." 

This allusion of Goldsmith to a memory of his 
boyhood, to a romantic fact in the Celtic tradi- 
tions of his country, is as remarkable as it is 
touching, and must have startled as well as puz- 
zled the cockney literateurs of his circle. With 
this exception, and the great Dean's translation of 
" O'Rourke's Feast," I have never met with any 
reminiscence in the Irish writers of that and the 
preceding age of the folk lore of their own country. 
They might have been Englishmen, for any na- 
tional elements to be found in their literat