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NOTES AND QUERIES: 



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of JntrtvCotmmmftatfott 



JOB 



LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, 
GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 



<( When found, make a note of.' 1 CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



SECOND SERIES. VOLUME NINTH. 
JANUARY JUNE, 1860. 



LONDON: 
BELL & DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET. 

1860. 



AC-, 

3cys 
NT 



LIBRARY 

72818:0 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 

A MEDIUM OF INTER-COMMUNICATION 

FOB 

LITERARY MEN, ARTISTS, ANTIQUARIES, GENEALOGISTS, ETC. 

"When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



No. 210.] 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 7, I860. 

NO . 210. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: The Bonasus, the Bison, and the Bubalus, 1 
The Beffana, an Italian Twelfth Night Custom, 5 The 

Aldine Aratus, Ib. Bankrupts during the Reign of 
Elizabeth, 6 The King's Scutcheon, Ib. Alexander of 
Abouoteichos and Joseph Smith Peele's "Edward I." 
Ib. 

MINOR NOTES : Sir Isaac Newton on the Longitude 
Relics of Archbishop Leighton Longevity of Clerical In- 
cumbents Carthaginian Building Materials Swift's 
Cottage at Moor Park, 8. 

QUERIES: Rev. Thomas Bayes, &c.,9 The Throw for 
Life or Death, 10 An Excellent Example: Portrait of 
Richard II. Peppercomb Oliver Goldsmith Memo- 
rial of a Witch Yoftregere Crispin Tucker The 
Four Fools of the Mumbles Cleaning a Watch on the 
Summit of Salisbury Spire Accident on theMedway 
Temple Bar Queries Translations mentioned by Moore 
Bishop preaching to April Fools The Yea-and-Nay Aca- 
demy of Compliments Ballad of the Gunpowder Treason 

Dispossessed Priors and Prioresses Supervisor Ame- 
rica known to the Chinese, &c., 11. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: A Case for the Spectacles 
" Trepasser : " to die Life of Lord Clive " A propos de 
bottes " " The Ragman's Roll " Claude, Pictures by, 13. 

REPLIES: Watson, Home, and Jones, 14 George Gas- 
coigne-the Poet, 15 Barony of Broughton : Remarkable 
Trial, 16 Bocardo Horse-talk Claudius Gilbert 

Heraldic Drawings and Engravings Three Church- 
wardens Notes on Regiments Rev. William Dunkin, 
D.D. Sir Peter Gleane Spoon Inscription Mrs. Myd- 
dleton's Portrait Lingard's " England : " Edinburgh and 
Quarterly Reviewers, 17. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



THE BONASUS, THE BISON, AND THE 
BUBALUS. 

Herodotus, in the passage in which he describes 
the camels of Xerxes as attacked by liens on their 
march across the upper part of the Chalcidic pe- 
ninsula, through the Paeonian and Crestonian ter- 
ritories, mentions incidentally that there were, in 
his own time, wild oxen in this region, whose horns, 
of immense size, were imported into Greece (vii. 
126. ; see " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. viii. 81.). 

Aristotle adverts to the bonasus in several pas- 
sages of his works on natural history ; and in one 
he gives a detailed description of the animal 
(Hist. An., ii. 1. and 16.; ix. 45. ; De Part. An., 
iii. 2.). The following is a summary of his ac- 
count: The bonasus, in appearance, size, and 
voice, resembles an ox. It has a mane ; its colour 
is tawny ; and it is hunted for the sake of its 
flesh, which is eatable. Its horns are curved, and 
turned towards one another, so as to be useless 
for attack. Their length is somewhat more than a 
(nrida/j.^, or palm (= 9 inches) ; their thickness is 
such that each contains nearly half a chous (= 
nearly 3 pints), and their colour is a shining 
black. It is a native of Paeonia, and is found on 
Mount Messapius, which forms the boundary of 
Paeonia and Msedica. The Pseonians call it by 
the name of monapus. (H. A., ix. 45. ; compare 
Camus, Notes, vol. ii. p. 135.) 



The preceding account of Aristotle is repeated 
in an abridged form in Pseud-Aristot. de Mirab. 1.,. 
where the name of the mountain is corrupted into 
"Ua-au'os, that of the animal into &6\ivdos, and the 
Paeonian name into iJ.6va.nros ; and in Antig. Caryst. r 
Hist. Mir., 53., where the name of the mountain 
is corrupted into Mapowos, and the Paeonian name 
of the animal into ju<Wros. There is a short 
notice of the same animal in JElian, Nat. An., vii. 
3., where its Pseonian name is said to be jurfw^.. 
The account of Aristotle is briefly reproduced by 
Pliny, N. H., viii. 16. 

Messapius is known as the name of a raountaia 

j in Bceotia (JEsch. Ag., 284. ; Strab. ix. 2. 13.),. 

i and as the ethnic appellative of tribes in Locris 

and lapygia (Thuc., iii. 101.) ; but the mountain 

of that name on the borders of Paeonia is only 

mentioned in the passage of Aristotle just cited.. 

Pteonia is the country lying between Macedonia, 

and the territory inhabited by the Thracian tribe 

of the Msedi. (See Dr. Smith's Diet, of Anc. 

Geogr., art. HJSDI.) 

Pausanias, writing about 1 70 A.D., and there- 
fore at an interval of about 500 years from Aris- 
totle, states that he had seen Pseonian bulls ia 
the Roman amphitheatre, which he describes as 
shaggy over the whole body, but particularly on 
the'breast and neck (ix. 21. 2.). He likewise re- 
cords a brazen head of a bison, or Paeonian bull, 
dedicated at Delphi by Dropion, son of Deon, 
king of Paeonia; and he proceeds to give a de- 
tailed account of the manner in which these savage 
animals were hunted. He speaks of them as an, 
extant species, and says that they are the most 
difficult of all animals to take alive (x. 13.). 

Oppian, the author of the Cynegetica, a poem 
composed about 200 A.D., describes the bison 
((Vo>j/), and states that its name was derived from, 
its being an inhabitant of Bistonian Thrace. It 
has (he says) a tawny mane, like a lion. Its 
horns are pointed, and turned upwards, not out- 
wards ; hence it throws men and animals upright 
into the air. The tongue of the bison is narrow 
and rough, and with it he licks off the flesh of his 
prey (Cyn., ii. 159175.). 

Athenaeus, xi. c. 51., illustrates at length the 
ancient custom of drinking from horns ; and he 
cites Theopompus as stating, in the 2nd book of 
his Philippica, that the kings of Paeonia, in whose 
dominions there were oxen with horns so large as 
to hold 3 and 4 choes (9 and 12 quarts), used 
them as drinking cups, with silver and gold rims 
round the mouth. 

An epigram in the Anthology, attributed to the- 
poet Antipater (who lived about 100 B.C.), de- 
scribes the head of a wild bull, dedicated by 
Philip of Macedon, which he had killed in the 
chase, upon the ridges of Orbelus. This mountain 
was situated on the Pasonian frontier of his king- 
dom (Anth. Pal., vi. 115.). An extant epigram of 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2"* S. IX. JAN. 7. '60. 



Addieus the Macedonian, who was contemporary 
with Alexander the Great, likewise celebrates the 
feat of Peucestes, in killing a wild bull in the 
defiles of the Pseonian mountain of Doberus ; the 
horns of which he converted into drinking cups, 
as a memorial of his prowess (Anth. Pal t ix. 300.). 
It is remarkable that this epigram in the Vatican 
MS. is inscribed, 'A5aioi> els TlevKe<frt]v rov KO.XOV- 
fj-evov ^opfipov Aoxewravra : for fo/xjSpoy is evidently 
the same word as zubr, which, according to Schnei- 
der, Eel Phys., vol. ii. p. 25. (Jena, 1801), was 
anciently zombr or zimbr, the native Polish name 
of the Aurochs, to which reference will be pre- 
sently made. 

The Prconian bull of Herodotus and Theo- 
pompus, the Pseonian bonasus of Aristotle, the 
Pseonian bison of Pausanias, and the Thracian 
bison of Oppian, are evidently the same animal. 
Wild oxen, of great ferocity, are mentioned by 
Varro as abundant in Dardania, Media, and 
Thrace at his own time (R. R. ii. 1. 5.). 

Besides the Pseonian bonasus or bison, other 
races of oxen are mentioned in antiquity as dis- 
tinguished by the size of their horns. Thus 
JElian (Nat. An. iii. 34.) states that the horn of 
an Indian ox, containing three amphorae, was 
brought to Ptolemy the Second. (A Greek am- 
phora = 8 gallons 7 pints.) Pliny (viii. 70.) says 
that the horns of Indian oxen are four feet in 
width. The same writer reports that the northern 
barbarians were accustomed to drink out of the 
horns of the urus ; two of which contained a Ro- 
man nrna (= 2 gallons 7| pints). Some horns 
of a Sabine ox, of great size, were preserved in 
the vestibule of the temple of Diana on the 
Aventine at Rome, and were illustrated by a 
sacred legend. (Livy, i. 45. ; Val. Max. vii. 3. 1.; 
Victor, de Vir. III. 7.; Plut. Qucest. Rom. 4.) The 
Molossian oxen had very large horns, the shape 
of which was described by the historian Theo- 
pompus. (AtJien. xi. p. 468. D.) Buffon re- 
marks that some of the species of ox have horns 
of great size : there was one (he says) in the 
Cabinet du Roi, 3 feet in length, and 7 inches in 
diameter at the base ; he adds that several tra- 
vellers declare themselves to have seen horns 
which contained 15 and even 20 pints of fluid. 
(Quad. torn. v. p. 75.) 

An account of a carnivorous race of wild oxen 
in Ethiopia is given in Agatharchides, de Mari 
Rubro, c. 76. with C. Miiller's note; Diod. iii. 
35. ; Strab. xvi. 4. 16. ; JEIian, Nat. An. xvii. 45. ; 
Plin. N. H. viii. 30. Most of the details are 
fabulous. It may be observed that Oppian, in 
the passage above cited, describes the Pteonian 
bison as a carnivorous animal. 

According to Caesar, three wild animals were 
found in the Hercynian forest. 1. An ox having 
on its forehead one horn with antlers. 2. The 
alces. 3. The- urus, a large ox with a horn of 



great size, which was used as a drinking horn. (B. 
G. vi. 268.) 

Macrobius, Sat. vi. 4. s. 23., commenting on 
Virg. Georg. ii. 474., " Silvestres uri," says : 
" Uri Gallica vox est, qua feri boves significan- 
tur." 



In the tragedy of Seneca, Hippolytus thus ad- 
dresses Diana : 

" Tibi dant variae pectora tigres, 
Tibi villosi terga bisontes, 
Latisque feri cornibns uri." Hipp. 63 5. 

Pliny (viii. 15.) distinguishes the bison jubatus 
from the urus, and makes them both natives of 
Germany. He considers them as animals un-. 
known to the Greeks, and therefore as different 
from the Pasonian ox, the description of which he 
copies from Aristotle ; for in another passage he 
states that the Greeks had never ascertained the 
medicinal properties of the urus and the bison, 
although the forests of India abounded with wild 
oxen (xxviii. 45.). 

According to Solinus, c. 20., in the Hercynian 
forest, and in all the north of Europe, the bison 
abounded ; a wild ox with a shaggy mane, swifter 
than a bull, and incapable of domestication. He 
likewise states that the horns of the urus were of 
such a magnitude, as to be used for drinking 
vessels at the tables of kings. 

The bison was one of the. animals brought to 
Rome for the combats or hunts in the circus. Thus 
Martial describing the prowess of a certain Car- 
pophorus, in fighting with wild animals in the 
Roman amphitheatre, says : " Illi cessit atrox bu- 
balus atque bison." (Spect. 23.) Again, in 
speaking of the games of the circus, he says : 

" Turpes esseda quod trahunt bisontes." i. 105. 
Lastly, in his enumeration of a number of 
things which are not so worn as the old clothes of 
Hedylus, he includes 

" Rasum cavea latus bisontis." ix. 58. 

j an allusion to the cage in which the animal was 

! kept at Rome. Compare Horat. Art. Poet., ad 

': Jin. : " Velut ursus objectos caverc valuit si fran- 

i gere clathros." Dio Cassius (Ixxvi. 1.) describes 

i a great celebration of games in the time of Se- 

verus (202 A.D.), at which 700 animals were let 

loose and slain in the amphitheatre, namely, 

bears, lions and lionesses, leopards, ostriches, wild 

asses, and bisons. " The latter," says Dio, " is a 

species of oxen, savage both in its race and its 

appearance" (^upSapmbv T<> yevos ical T>/Z/ fyiv). 

The bubalus is coupled by Martial with the 
bison ; he mentions them both as animals killed 
in the games of the circus. Pliny (viii. 15.) states 
that the bubalus was in his time commonly con- 
founded with the urus ; whereas the former was 
properly an African animal, resembling both the 
ox and the deer. Herodotus (iv. 192.) and Poly- 
| bius (xii. 3.) mention the bubalus as an African 



2^ S. IX. JAN. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



animal, and the latter speaks of its beauty. Strabo 
(xvii. 3. s. 4.) makes it a native of Mauritania, and 
couples it with the dorcas. According to Oppian, 

ftlie bubalus is a stag, less than the euryceros, but 
greater than the dorcus. Cyneg. ii. 300-314. (The 
platyceros of Pliny, xi. 45., is a stag.) Ammianus 
Marcellinus (xxii. 15. s. 14.) says that capreoli and 
bubali are found in the arid plains of Egypt. 
Philostratus (Vit. Apollon. vi. 24.) describes 06ay- 
poi and fiovrpayoi in ^Ethiopia. "The latter (he 
remarks) partake of the natures of the ox and the 
stag." It is recorded by Dio that C. Fufetius Fango, 
a commander sent by Caesar to Africa, having re- 
tired into the mountains after a defeat, was 
alarmed at night by a herd of bubali which ran 
across his encampment, and which he mistook for 
the enemy's horse, and that he killed himself in 
consequence (xlviii. 23. ; compare Appian, B. C. 
v. 26.)- 

Gesner and Buffbn conceive the bonasus of Aris- 
totle to be the European bison or aurochs. Cu- 
vier (notes to the French translation of Pliny, 
torn. vi. 416.), identifies the bonasus of Aristotle 
with the aurochs, and accounts for the curvature 
of the horns in the bonasus by supposing that it 
was an accidental peculiarity of the individual 
described by Aristotle. The author of the art. 
Bison in the Penny Cyclopaedia likewise identifies 
the bonasus of Aristotle with the aurochs. But 
Camus (Notes sur FHist. d'An. tfArist, p. 138.) 
thinks that the European bison and the ancient 
bonasus were distinct species of wild oxen, which 
is likewise the conclusion of Beckmann in his ex- 
cellent note, Aristot. Mir. p. 11. 

An account of the fossil oxen, and of their re- 
mains, is given by Pictet in his Traite de Paleon- 
tologie (ed. 2.), torn. i. p. 363-6. Pictet (p. 364.) 
considers the urus as an extinct species. The 
fossil oxen of the British isles are described in 
Professor Owen's Hist, of Brit. Foss. Mamm., p. 
491-515. 

A peculiar race of wild oxen, having an affinity 
to the extinct species, is still extant in the forest 
of Bialavieja, which is situated in the government 
of Grodno in Lithuania, at no great distance 
from the confines of Prussia and Russia, and which 
covers an area of twenty-nine square German 
miles of fifteen to a degree. These oxen, known 
in Germany by the appellation of aurochs, bear 
the native Polish name of Zubr. Their number 
in 1828 was estimated to be between 700 and 900. 
The aurochs or European bison is described as 
being of great weight and of enormous strength, 
but as a slow mover : it is stated that he can 
master three wolves. He has large horns, and a 
long shaggy mane. The existing species has al- 
ways been confined to Lithuania, and probably 
to the forest of Bialavieja ; where it has been 
preserved, in consequence of this district having 
been kept untouched, as a hunting ground for the 



kings of Poland. A full and authentic account of 
the aurochs, and of the forest which it inhabits, is 
given in the elaborate work of Sir Roderick Murchi- 
son, M. de Yerneuil, and Count Alexander von 
Keyserling, On the Geology of Russia in Europe 
(1845, 4to.), vol. i. pp. 503. 638. Two young 
animals of this species, a male and a female, were, 
in consequence of the application of Sir Roderick 
Murchison, presented by the Emperor Nicholas 
to the Zoological Society of London : but unfor- 
tunately they died in a short time. Professor 
Owen has informed me that he dissected the 
young male, but found its anatomy so closely 
agreeing with the description by Bojanus in the 
Nova Ada Acad. Natur. Curios.^ 4to. torn, xiii., 
as not to require recording in the Proceedings of 
the Zoological Society. Many preparations of the 
bones and viscera were made for the Museum of 
the College of Surgeons, one of which shows the 
difference in the number of ribs between the 
European and American bisons, the former (or 
aurochs) having fourteen and the latter fifteen 
pairs. For a copious history of the wild oxen of 
Europe, see Griffith's Cuoier, vol. iv. pp. 411-8., 
4to. 

The Pseonian bonasus, or bison, appears to have 
been a species of wild ox, cognate, but not iden- 
tical, with the aurochs. The ancient bonasus, 
like the modern aurochs, was confined to a single 
and limited tract of Europe ; but since, unlike its 
modern congener, it was not preserved in a royal 
forest, it became extinct. The aurochs would 
long ago have met the same fate, if its race had 
not been perpetuated by the accidental protec- 
tion which it has received from the kings of 
Poland and the emperors of Russia. The un- 
wieldy size of the aurochs, and its slowness of 
movement, would, notwithstanding its enormous 
strength, have soon made it the prey of men, if it 
had not been intentionally preserved from destruc- 
tion ; and its savage nature would have prevented 
it from being perpetuated in a state of domestica- 
tion. It may be remarked that the horns of the 
bonasus, as described by Aristotle, resemble in 
shape the horns of the Indian buffalo. 

The ancient bubalus appears originally to have 
been a species of antelope, found in Northern 
Africa (Antilope bubalus of Pallas). It is called 
Beto'el-wash, or wild ox, by the Arabs : in size 
it is equal to the largest stags (Penny CycL, art. 
ANTELOPE, No. 61., vol. ii. p. 90.). A full ac- 
count of the lubale is given by Buffon, Quad., 
(torn. v. p. 309. ; torn. x. p. 180.) : he identifies 
it with the same species of North African ante- 
lope or gazelle, to which he gives the appellation 
of vache de Barbarie. The same view is taken by 
Camus, Notes sur VHist. d'An. d'Aristote, p. 146. 
Bochart (Hierozoicon, ii. 28.; iii. 22.) likewise 
considers the bubalus as a species of stag. The 
herd of animals which ran across the encamp- 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 n * S. IX. JAX. 7. 'CO. 



ment of Fango at night, and which he mistook for ' 
the enemy's horse, were doubtless a herd of this 
species of antek>pes, and not of buffaloes, as the ! 
word ov/8aAi5es in Dio is erroneously rendered I 
in Smith's Biogr. Diet., art. FANGO. 

The transfer of the name bubalus from an an- 
telope to a wild ox, which had become common in 
the time of Pliny, and was the established use in 
later times, doubtless originated in the supposed 
derivation from 0ui)s or bos. This etymon is given 
by Isidore Origin, (xii. 1.), though he designates 
the bubalus as an animal found in Africa, which 
cannot be tamed. When Martial speaks of the 
bubalus and bison being killed in the Roman cir- 
cus, he refers to wild oxen; it is certain that 
wild animals of this genus were transported alive 
to Italy, and slain in the combats of the amphi- 
theatre. Pausanias states that the Pieonian bulls 
had been exhibited in his time at Rome ;' bisons 
are expressly mentioned by Dio as included in 
the great spectacle of Severus ; and Martial even 
speaks of bisons being harnessed to Celtic cars on 
a similar occasion. 

Agathias states that when Theodebert, king of 
the Franks, was hunting in his dominions (in ! 
some German or Belgian forest) in 552 A.D. he j 
met with his death in the following manner : 

" While he was on his way to the chase, he was en- i 
countered by a bull, of great size and extended horns ; j 
not of the tame kind, which has been broken to the ! 
plough, but an inhabitant of the woods and mountains, j 
accustomed to attack everything which it meets. These j 
wild oxen are, I believe, called bubali ; and they abound j 
in this region : for the valleys are covered with trees, j 
the mountains are in a state of wildness, and the climate | 
is cold; circumstances in which this animal delights, j 
Theodebert, seeing one of these bulls rushing upon him 
from a thicket, stood to receive the onset with his lance ; 
but the bull missed his aim, and was carried against a j 
tree, the force of the blow overthrew the tree, and Theo- 
debert was killed by the fall of one of the branches." : 
(i. 4. ; compare Gibbon, c. 41. vol. v. p. 206.) 

Gregory of Tours likewise records an event ! 
which grew out of the anger of King Gun tram at , 
a bubalus having been killed without his permis- j 
sion in a royal forest in the Vosges in 590 A.D. i 
(x. 10. ; Dom Bouquet, vol. ii. p. 369.). In the i 
sixth century, therefore, wild oxen were pre- | 
served in forests for the hunting of the Frankish 
kings. An adventure of Charlemagne near Aix- 
la-Chapelle is described by the Monachns San- 
gallensis (ii. c. 11. In Pertz, Mon. Germ. Ant. 
vol. ii. p. 751.), who says that he was in the habit 
of going into the forest to hunt the bison or the 
urus; and that on one occasion his boot was torn 
in an encounter with a wild bull. 

The law of the Alamanni inflicts a penalty on 
any person who kills a bison or a bubalus. " Si 
quis bisontem, bubalum, vel cervum prugit (?), 
f uraverit aut occiderit, xii. sol. componat." ( Lex 
Alamann. tit. 99. 1.) A similar provision occurs 
in the Law of the Bavarians : " De his canibus 



qui ursos vel bubalos, id est, majores feras, quod 
svartzwild dicimus, persequuntur, si de his occi- 
derit, cum simili et vii. solid, componat." (Lex 
Bajuvar. tit. 19. s. 7.) 

The Nibdungen Lied, a poem of the 13th cen- 
tury, likewise commemorates the hunting of the 
bison. Thus it is said of Guntlier and Hagen : 

" Mit ihren scliarfen Spicren sie wollten jagen Schwein, 
Baren und Wisencle : was mochte Kithneres gesein ? " 
V. 3671. ed. v. der Hagen. 
Again, in another place : 

" Darnach schlug er schiere ein 'n Wisent und ein 'n 

Elk, 
Starke Ure viere und einen grimmen Schelk." 

V. 37534. 

In which passage Sclielk appears to denote a red 
deer. 

A " wisentshorn" is mentioned v. 8018. Von 
der Hagen, in the Glossary, derives loisent from 
bisen, bissen, to rage ; but the word is manifestly 
a corruption of bison. 

PaulusDiaconus,~indeed, states that bubali were 
first introduced into Italy in 596 A.D., and caused 
great astonishment to the inhabitants. " Tune 
primuni caballi silvatici et bubali in Italiam delati, 
Italia} populis miracula fuerunt." (iv. 1. in 
Murat. Script. Eer. It. vol. i. p. 457.) The bu~ 
balus here signified appears, however, to be the 
buffalo, which still exists, in a state of domestica- 
tion, in different parts of Italy, but particularly 
in the Roman Campagna and the Pontine Marshes, 
where these animals have long been preserved by 
the government of the Popes. See Buffon, Quad. 
torn. v. p. 52. and the valuable communication 
of Monsignor Caetani (whose family had long 
reared the buffalo in the Pontine district), in- 
serted by Buffon in torn. x. p. 67. Buffon re- 
marks that the buffalo was unknown in ancient 
Italy, and that the animal introduced in the sixth 
century was of the Indian or African breed. 

The word bubalus, as appears from passages 
cited by Ducange in v., also occurs in medieval 
writers under the forms bufalus and biiflus ; and 
hence have been derived the Italian bufalo or 
bufolo, and the French buffle. This origin of the 
modern Romance forms is pointed out by Monsig- 
nor Caetani in Buffon, who, in illustration of the 
conversion of b into/, compares the Italian bifolco 
from the Latin bubulcus. 

Instead of the Italian word buffalo, which is 
now employed by naturalists, our ancestors used 
the word buff, from the French buffle, to designate 
the animal. They likewise used buff-skin and 
buff-leather, for the skin and leather of the buffalo. 
See the Etymologica of Junius and Skinner, Cot- 
grave's French Dictionary, Todd and Richardson 
in v. Johnson, in his Dictionary, has the follow- 
ing explanation : 

" Buff. n. s. a sort of leather prepared from the skin of 
the buffalo; used for waistbelts, pouches, and military 
accoutrements. 2. The skins of elks and oxen dressed in 



2- d S. IX. JAN. 7. '60. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



oil, and prepared after the same manner as that of the 
buffalo. 3. A military coat made of thick leather, so that 
a blow cannot easily pierce it." 

The word buffle bears the same meaning in French : 
" Buffle se dit aussi d'uii cuir de buffle ou autres 
anirnaux, prepare et accommode pour porter a la 
<*uerre comme une espece de juste-au-corps." 
(Diet, de VAcad.) The word " buffe, buffle, buffet, 
coup de poing, soufflet," is, according to Barba- 
zan, cited by Roquefort in v., derived from buffle, 
because thick gloves (still called buffle) were made 
of the hide of the buffalo. 

Consignor Caetani, in Buffon, torn. x. p. 81., 
states that the skin of the Italian buffalo is used 
for the traces of ploughs, and for the coverings of 
boxes and trunks; and that it is not employed, 
like that of the ox, for making the soles of shoes, 
because it is too heavy, and admits the water. 

The expression " to stand buff," for " to stand 
firm," which occurs in Hudibras's epitaph : 
" And for the good old cause stood buff, 

'Gainst many a bitter kick and cuff; 
alludes to the thick leather jerkin which served as 
a defence. As the leather used for this jerkin was 
of a tawny hue, the word luff came to denote a 
colour (" buff-coloured ") ; hence it acquired as 
an adjective the sense which it now commonly 
bears in English, and which is peculiar to our 
language. This acceptation of the word is how- 
ever of no great antiquity ; the earliest writer 
from whom it is cited is Goldsmith ; and it is not 
even mentioned in Johnson's Dictionary. We may, 
therefore, conclude that the phrase "blue and 
buff," for the colours of the Whig party, does not 
ascend beyond the middle of the last century. 

G. C. LEWIS. 



THE BEFFAXA, 
An Italian Twelfth Night Custom. 

The Beffana is said to have been an old woman, 
who was busily employed in cleaning the house 
when the three kings were journeying to carry 
the treasures to be offered to the infant Saviour. 
On being called to see them pass by, she said she 
could not just then, as she was so busy sweeping 
the house, but she would be sure to see them as 
they went back. The .kings however, as is well 
known, returned to their own country by another 
way ; so the old woman is supposed to be ever 
since in a perpetual state of looking out for their 
coming, something after the manner of the legend 
of the wandering Jew. She is said to take great 
interest in the welfare of young children, and 
particularly of their good behaviour. Through 
most parts of Italy on the twelfth night the 
children are put to bed earlier than usual, and a 
stocking taken from each and put before the fire. 
In a short time there is a cry, " Ecco la Beffana ! " 
and the children hurry out of bed, and rusli to 



the chimney ; when lo ! in the stocking of each is 
a present, supposed to have been left by the Bef- 
fana, and proportioned in its value to the be- 
haviour of the child during the past year. If any 
one has been unusually rebellions and incorrigible, 
behold ! the stocking is full of ashes. This de- 
grading and disappointing circumstance is gene- 
rally greeted by a torrent of tears, and the little 
rebel is then told, if he or she will promise most 
faithfully to be better behaved for the future, the 
stocking shall be replaced, and perhaps the Bef- 
fana may rely on the promises of amendment, and 
leave some little present as she comes back. Ac- 
cordingly the child is pat to bed ngain, and in a 
short time the cry is again raised, " Here's the 
Beffana," and the child jumps up, runs to the 
stocking, and finds some little toy there, which of 
course the parents have placed there in the in- 
terim. Any misbehaviour during the following 
year is met with, " Oh ! you naughty child, what 
did you promise on Epiphany ? No more presents 
will you get from the Beffana." 

On the preceding night a sort of fair is held, 
consisting of the toys so to be presented, which is 
crowded to excess. On one occasion when I 
witnessed it at Rome, the soldiers were sent for 
to clear the way, as the people got so closely 
packed there was no means of getting about. 
The interest excited could scarcely be believed in 
England. 

The name Beffana is probably a corruption of 
Epifania. ;A. ASHPITEL. 

Poets' Corner. 



THE ALDINE ARATUS. 

In the Catalogue of the portion of the Libri 
library sold by Messrs. Leigh Sotherby and Wil- 
kinson in August, the Lot 138. stands thus : 

" 138. ARATI Solensis Pbtenomena, cum Commentariis, 
Grace. Accedit Procli Diadochi Sphaera Thoma Linacro 
Britanno Interprete ad Arcturum Cornubice Valliaque II- 
lustrissimum Principem. 

" FIRST EDITION, LARGE PAPER, VERY RARE, unknown 

to Renouard, folio (Venetiis apud Aldum, 1499). 

" This is a portion of the Aldine Edition of the Astro- 
nond Veteres taken off separately, probably for the use of 
Aldus himself, as there are several marginal notes in 
his AUTOGRAPH. No copy of the complete work on large 
paper is known. Prefixed to the translation of Proclus 
are the Dedication to Alberto Pio Prince of Carpi, the 
letter of the celebrated William Grpcyn to Aldus, dated 
London, VI Cal. Sept. and the Dedication of Linacre to 
the Prince of Wales." 

1 have long been somewhat incredulous about 
" Very rare " books, and my scepticism has not 
been diminished by finding that (so far as I can 
judge from a cursory comparison) a volume which 
has been on my shelf some forty years just an- 
swered this description. Not being acquainted 
with the handwriting of Aldus, I cannot tell whe- 
ther the Greek MS. notes in the margin of my 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2<* S. IX. JAN. 7. 'GO. 



copy are his autographs ; but I see nothing in 
their character or ink which should lead one to 
doubt that they may be. It occurred to me that 
if there were two copies thus annotated or cor- 
rected, there would probably be more ; and I 
should be obliged to any readers of " N. & Q." 
who have access to the catalogues of large collec- 
tions, if they would give me information; and also 
if they would tell me what Lot 138. of the first 
day's sale at the Libri sale sold for. 

Having this occasion to mention my copy, may 
I be allowed to state, very briefly, one or _ two 
particulars respecting it which are not entirely 
without interest, and may perhaps elicit some 
farther Notes and Queries ? 

(1 .) About the middle of the book, at the be- 
ginning of the sheet N of the Greek text, on a 
page most of which is blank, there is written 

" Domino Edouardo Wotono hunc libru dono 
dedit Joannes Foxus. 1529. 

A more recent hand (probably a good way on in 
the succeeding century) has written on the side of 
this inscription 

" he made the booke of martyres ;" 
and underneath the name of Fox has added "Mag- 
dalenensis." 

(2.) On what was a blank page at the end of 
the book, there is what I suppose to be an ela- 
borate horoscope, of which 1 do not understand 
much more than what follows : 
" Elnerse nobilissitnas 

filiae Comitis Wygor 

nise prasclarissimi 

genitura. An. D. 1527 

die Aprilis 28. hora fere 

vndecima ante meri- 

die." 

(3.) The book having beeri rebound, and the 
fly-leaf having parted from the board, some more 
modern hand (but still of the seventeenth cen- 
tury) has written on it a copy of political verses, 
eighteen in number, which may perhaps be known 
to those who are better acquainted with the poetry 
of the period. They begin : 

" Come imp roiall come away 
Into black night we'l turne bright day." 

I must not, however, trespass too much on your 
columns, and will at present only add, that the 
title-page of the volume is marked with the H.M. 
familiar to book collectors. If this should meet 
the eye of any such who has a priced catalogue of 
Mr. Meen's books, I should be glad to know what 
the Aratus sold for. S. R. MAITLAND. 

Gloucester. 



BANKRUPTS DURING THE REIGN OF 
ELIZABETH. 

At a time when the law of bankruptcy is about 
to be revised, it may not be uninteresting to the 



readers of " N. & Q." to look back at a list of 
>ersons whose failures in trade seem to have given 
ilann to the country ; and it may be presumed 
rorn its date, the 17 tli of Elizabeth, to have been 
;he moving cause of the revise taking place of the 
Bankruptcy law as it had existed from its first 
nstitution in the 34th of Henry VIII. : 

List of Bankrupts, an preserved in the Lansdowne MS., 
vol. xiii. art. 13. of the Thirteenth Year of Queen Eliz- 
abeth ; specifying the several Places throughout the King- 
dom ivhere the Bankrupt failed, and in most instance* 
the amount for iL'hich he became registered as a Bankrupt. 

London. George Harmer, grocer, bankrupt for 10007. 

London. William Cowper, vyntner, for 200 marks. 

Newe Sarum. John Cannon, chapman, for 3007. 

London. John Blackman, grocer, for COO/. 

London. Wilfride Lawtie, scryviner, for 30 07. 

Somerset. Henry Grenefall, of Ilmynster, for 3007. 

London. Richard Lethiers, dyer, for 1000 marks. 

Norff. John Keyrk, tanner, for 3007. 

Devon. Roger Androwe, for 1207. 

London. Gefferey Goffe, draper, for 6007. 

London. Peter Vegleman, for 20007. 

London. William Longe, for 20007. 

Yorke. John Johnson, merchant, for 3007. 

Norff. Richard Skarle, chapman, for 6007. 

Sowthwarlie. Danne Weston, for 4007. 

Brystowe. George Higgyas, merchant, for 10007. 

Carmarthen. "William Lloyd, chapman, for 1007. 

Shrewsbury. Roger Benyngton, draper, for 4007. 

Civistat. Sar. George Snelgar, tanner, for . . . 

London. Robert Turner, for 3007. 

London. James Stocke, goldsmyth, for 3007. 

London. RafFe Burton, clothier, for 1057. 

London. Thomas Parker and William Parker, for 3007. 

London. Richard Sharpe, mercer, for 10007. 

Cornewall. Nicholas Morcombe, merchant, for lOOe 7 . 

London. Anthony Tucke, for 20007. 

Hallyfax. Wylliam Cater, clothier, for 10007. 

Bark. Bryan Chamberlan, for 60007. 

Devon. Pawle Yartle for 1007. 

Yorkeshire. William Carter, clothier, for 6007. 

London. Thomas Staynton, mercer, for 30007. 

London. William Bodye, merchant, for 4007. 

London. Charles Hobson, chaundeler, for 5007. 

Coventry. Walter Pyper, alias Stone, clothier, for 3007. 

London. Fawke Salter, for 8007. 

Surr. William Childe, for 4007. 

Devon. John Tucker, merchant, for 4007. 

Safforne Wallden. William Clarke, tanner, for 4007. 

London. Ellys Hamer, mercer, for 5007. 

Exeter. Anthony Halstaffe, merchant, for 4007." 

HENRY ELLIS. 



THE KING'S SCUTCHEON. 
I copy the following from a deposition in the 
Domestic Papers of the State Paper Office, under 
the date of 1620, June 17. The whole paper 
contains an account of a squabble at an inn in 
Norwich, in which William Paslew, one of the 
messengers in ordinary of the King's chamber, 
was seriously hurt. Paslew was staying at the 
inn upon Council business, when, at about eleven 
o'clock at night, the inmates were aroused by " a 
great extraordinary knocking" at the gate. Pas- 
lew had just before accompanied some persons 



S. IX. JAN. 7. 'CO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



who had called upon him to the inn yard, and 
having wished them goodnight, had stepped into 
the kitchen to have a gossip with the landlady. 
Attracted by the uproar at the gate, he again went 
out into the yard; and just at that moment, the 
chamberlain of the inn opened the gate and ad- 
mitted a magnate of that country, Mr. Augustine 
Sotherton, accompanied by one Mr. Mileham. 
The extract to which I now wish to draw atten- 
tion will tell the remainder of the story : 

" When the said Mr. Sotherton and Mr. Mileham were 
come into the yard, and the said Paslew, seeing and 
knowing them, did friendly salute them, asking them if 
ihey pleased to drink a cup of wine, which the said Pas- 
lew" called for, and courteously put off his hat, and stood 
still bare, and drunk to him, the said Mr. Sotherton, and 
told him that he knew well his father, saying that he was 
an honest gentleman and a merchant ; whereupon the 
said Mr. Sotherton bodd the said Paslew leave prating 
of his father; unto which the said Paslew answering, 
said, ' I say nothing but well of your father.' ' No,' said 
Mr. Sothertou, 'you are a prating knave.' 'No,' said 
Paslew, ' I am no knave, I am the King's servant;' and 
therewith shewed him his Majesty's Scutcheon, hanging there 
upon the breast of the said Paslew. Unto which the said 
Mr. Sotherton said: 'Are you the King's man? No! 
you are a counterfeit, and a 'cheating knave.' Unto which 
Paslew replied, and said: 'A better man than you would 
not have said so. If your father had been alive, he would 
not have said so.' With that the said Mr. Sotherton 
drew out his Stillato, and struck the said Paslew there- 
with upon the head, being still bare-headed, and broke 
his head, so that the blood ran down about his face to 
the quantity of a pint at least, and so continued bleeding 
as that they had much ado to stanch it." 

Another witness describes the wound given to 
Paslew as " a cut, of the length of an inch and a 
half at the least, down to the skull." 

The circumstance of an English gentleman of 
the reign of James I. wearing, and using, his stiletto 
is one worthy of notice ; but I specially wish to 
ask your correspondents whether they can refer 
me to any example, either in reality or in en- 
graving, of the kind of badge which is here 
termed "the King's Scutcheon" (scutcliin in the 
original), and is described as if hung round the 
neck of Paslew. JOHN BRUCE. 



ALEXANDER OF ABONOTEICHOS AND 
JOSEPH SMITH. 

"No one can read the graphic account which 
Lucian gives of his contemporary the oracle-mon- 
ger Alexander, a little pamphlet in which the 
author's keen sense and inborn hatred of charla- 
tans are seen to the best advantage, without 
being struck by the marked resemblance which 
the history bears to that of the founder of Mor- 
monism. 

Thus in chapter ten we are told that Alexander 
commenced his career by discovering brazen plates 
in the temple of Apollo at Chalcedon, which pro- 
mised the speedy advent of .ZEsculapius and his 
father Apollo. Again, by appealing to ancient le- 



gends and by winning the support of existing oracles, 
Alexander produced much the same effect upon 
his Paphlagonian neighbours as Smith and his 
successors have done among our Bible-reading 
populations, by promising a city of the blessed in 
the West, and by a caricature of Old Testament 
institutions. In chapter forty-two we find hus- 
bands ready to surrender their wives to be 
" sealed " to the prophet, and, if he did but deign 
to cast his eye upon them, rejoicing as though the 
happiness of the house were thenceforth secure. 
Alexander's jealousy of " the Atheists " (i. e. 
Christians and Epicureans) has its parallel in the 
Mormon treatment of " Gentiles," which, however, 
it must be confessed, is but a natural result of the 
cruel persecutions which broke up the settlement 
at Nauvoo. The claim to the gifts of healing, of 
tongues, and of revelations, is also common to the 
two impostors, and in the followers of both we see 
the same implicit obedience, even in matters which 
would seem least of all to admit of external inter- 
ference, the same surrender of "fortune, and often 
of an unspotted reputation, to a delusion openly 
denounced by intelligent bystanders. Would that 
we could add that the ends of the two were the 
same ; would that Smith, like Alexander, had 
been suffered to die in peace, and that his blood 
had not been shed to become the seed of a spuri- 
ous church ! 

To complete the parallel it need only be added 
that the chief followers of Alexander the impos- 
tor and of Smith disputed the succession to their 
masters' inheritance of successful lying much as 
the captains of Alexander of Macedon fought for 
the dominion of the world. J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 



PEELE'S "EDWARD I." 

There are two passages in this play which show 
in a remarkable manner how most glaring typo- 
graphical errors may escape the notice or baffle 
the sagacity of even the most acute critics. It 
is well known that this play has been edited by 
Mr. Dyce, and criticised by Mr. Mitford, and 
yet the passages in question are unnoticed or un- 
explained. 

In p. 91. (Dyce's 2nd edit.) the Novice says to 
the Friar, who had desired him to hie to the IQWH 
and return " with*cakes and muscadine and other 
junkets good and fine :" 

" Now, master, as I am true wag, 
I will be neither late nor lag, 
But go and come with gossip's cheer, 
Ere Gib our cat can lick her ear. 
For long ago I learned in school 
That lovers' desire and pleasures cool. 
Saint Ceres' sweets and Bacchus' vine ; 
Now, master, for the cakes and wine." 

It is so printed and pointed by Mr. Dyce, and 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



IX. JAX. 7. '60. 



neither he nor Mr. Mitford makes any remark on 
it ; arid yet surely the four last lines are at least 
very like nonsense. Now I think it is easy to 
make good sense of thorn by supposing them to 
be a paraphrase of the Terentian Sine Cerere et 
Liberofriget Venus which the Novice had "learned 
in school." I would amend them thus : 

" For long ago I learned in school 
That Love's desire and pleasures cool 
Sans Ceres' wheat and Bacchus' vine. 
Now, master, for the cakes and wine." 

At p. 104. we read : 

-' But specially we thank you, gentle lords, 
That you so well have governed your griefs 
As, being grown unto a general jar, 
You chuse King Edward, by your messengers, 
To calm, to qualify, and to compound: 
Thank Britain's strife of Scotland's climbing peers." 

On this last line Mr. Dyce says, " There is some 
mistake here." Mr. Mitford is silent. Would it 
not be sound criticism to read the last two lines 
as follows? 

" To calm, to qualify, and to compound 

TK ambitious strife of Scotland's climbing peers." 

By the way, Guenthian, the name of the Friar's 
mistress, is the Welsh female name Gwenllian, and 
it is properly accented. THOS. KEIGHTLET. 



SIR ISAAC NEWTON ON THE LONGITUDE. In 
a. MS. Diary of Sir John Philipps, the fourth ba- 
ronet of Pieton Castle (ob. 1736), I find the follow- 
ing interesting entry : 

" Jan. 9, 1724, 1 waited upon S r Is. Newton with M r 
"Semler's book concerning y e Longitude. He said there 
was no other way of finding the Longitude at sea, than 
by improving y e method whereby it is found by land, i. e. 
by y e eclipses of the moon, and y e inmost satellites of 



work was rather keeping y c longitude than finding it, 
and that he believed no dock cou'd be so justly made and re- 
gularly ordered as to keep y e ship's way for any considerable 
voyage without y e loss of many leagues. That 'twou'd be very 
difficult to measure the way of y e sea by any other me- 
thod than what is used at present, because y e ship will 
carry the surface of y e water along with it." 

What would Sir Isaac have said could he have 
beheld the marvellous perfection to which the 
construction of the marine chronometer has been 
brought in the present day ? 

JOHN PAVIN PHILLIPS. 

Haverfordwest. 

RELICS OF ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON. Extract of 
a letter from Mr. Leigh ton Dennett, Woodman- 
cote Place, October 16, 1859, to James Reid, Esq., 
Wellfield, near Glasgow : 

"With regard to Archbishop Leighton I am afraid I 
-.shall not be able to furnish you with much information," 



more than is generally known to everybody who has read 
his works. I believe you are aware that my father holds a 
little farm at Horsted Keynes that was Archbishop Leigh- 
ton's, which is in his possession, on account of his being 
the nearest living heir. He has also his coat of arms en- 
graved on a silver seal attached to a piece of the watch 
chain that Archbishop Leighton wore, which is steel, the 
impression of which I enclose. We have also a copper- 
plate of his likeness, from which at different times there 
has been a great many struck off, and the plate is now 
much worn. It is about the size of a quarto volume, and 
from its general appearance one would be inclined to 
think it must have been the frontispiece of some work, 
although it is not the same as we generally see bound up 
with Leighton's works, but certainly the features in both 
are similar the inscription on the plate is as follows, 
Robertus Leightonus S.S. Th professor Primarius et Aca- 
demic Edinburgenae Praefectus, ^Etatis 46." 

The impression of the seal above referred to is 
enclosed : would the Editor be pleased to describe 
it to his readers. G. N. 

[The seal bears the arms of Leighton, a lion salient,and 
the crest a lion's head erased. It is not an archiepiscopal 
seal, but was probably the seal of Leighton when a3'oung 
man, as the helmet is that of an esquire. The helmet 
and lambrequin show it to be a seal as early as Charles I. 
or earlier; the colours are consequently not marked. 
According to Nisbet the arms of Leighton are argent, a 
lion salient gales. ED. " N. & Q."] 

LONGEVITY OF CLERICAL INCUMBENTS. A 
Note in/' N. & Q." (2 nd S. yiii. 53.) on this sub- 
ject reminds me that when sixty years of age in 
1 848 I had occasion for a certificate of my bap- 
tism, and on proceeding to my native town, In- 
gatestone, co. Essex, after a lapse of half a cen- 
tury, I found the same rector living, the Rev. 
John Lewis, who was so at the period of my birth 
and baptism, and had the custody of the old 
Registers, there being no register of births in 
those days. The old gentleman was still hearty 
at the age of eighty-six, and recollected me and 
my parents, and himself handed me the required 
document. He survived only a few months from 
that time. JNO. BANISTER. 

Charter-house, London. 

CARTHAGINIAN BUILDING MATERIALS. Brixey's 
private hotel at Landport, near the railway sta- 
tion, has been partly built with the materials of 
a house in Portsmouth recently pulled down to 
form a site for the new barracks. One of the 
chimney-pieces has been transferred to the coffee- 
room. It is a fine specimen of marble-work, and 
evidently had been constructed by a connoisseur 
and traveller (Qy. who ?). The frieze is of Egyp- 
tian green marble in a bordure or moulded band 
of white alabaster. Deeply engraved in well- 
formed Roman capitals is 

"BASILICA PTOLOEM.E ALEXANDRIA. MAR. 21. 

1801." 

On the north jamb immediately under the necking 
and a patera is cut "CARTHAGE," and on the south 
side in a corresponding situation " D. B. C. 146." 



2 d S. IX. JA*. 7. '60. ] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



9 



This Carthaginian marble is very beautiful ; it has 
dark red veins on a light brown. A. J. DUNKIX. 

SWIFT'S COTTAGE AT MOOR PARK. A short 
time ago, being at Waverley Abbey, I was invited 
to see a cottage which was said to have been inha- 
bited by Swift. It is a very small low building, 
at the end of Moor Park (which, as is well known, 
was formerly the seat- of Sir William Temple), 
and appears to have been the house of some of the 
labourers. Over the door of one of the rooms the 
following lines are painted : 

"Pleruraque grata) divitibus vices; 
Mundieque parvo sub lare pauperum 
Ccenje, sine aulauis et ostro, 
Sollicitam explicuere frontem." 

These lines, which you will remember are from 
Horace, Carm. iii. 29., seem ill to accord with that 
spirit which never was at ease but among coronets 
and mitres. They are said to have been placed 
there by Swift's order ; but if so, the inscription 
must have been renewed, for, from the appearance 
of the paint, it can scarcely be twenty years old. 
Sir William Temple died 1699, and Swift, as it 
appears from a letter to Stella, Sept. 1710, was 
afterwards on bad terms with the family. From 
its appearance it seems difficult to believe that he 
ever inhabited the cottage ; though such is the 
tradition. Can any reader of " N". & Q." give any 
farther information on the subject ? A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 



tilueritf. 

REV. THOMAS BATES, ETC. 
Before I make my Query let me second the 
proposal made in p. 456. preceding, that decision 
should not be announced on subjects which cannot 
be discussed. It is not to the credit of our age 
that abstinence on this point is necessary for 
peace : but it cannot be denied that on all subjects 
on which men think warmly it is openly avowed, 
by four persons out of five at least, that opinions 
contrary to their own are offensive. A century 
and a half ago opinions might be openly stated, 
and opinions about opinions as openly : we have 
rescinded the second permission, and are there- 
fore obliged to rescind the first. We are a tender 
and ticklish race. I forget what illionth of an 
inch Newton found for the thickness or rather 
thinness of a soapbubble; but the skin of an 
educated man will beat it in time, if we go on as 
now. 

^ Unquestionably no banner of any side in reli- 
gious or political controversy has ever been dis- 
played in "N. &Q," Whether this be due 'to 
the discretion of contributors or to the suppres- 
sion of the editor is among the secrets of the edi- 
tor's desk ; and had better remain so. But there 
is a diminutive of the banner called a banderol or i 



bannerol^ of which I believe each knight had one 
for himself: and this is sometimes half unfurled ; 
and more frequently of late than in former years. 
In the very admonition which I now second there 
is a division of the members of one church into 
" High Churchmen and Puritans," which is very 
like a banderol : though perhaps all that is meant 
is, as in Swift's celebrated case, that the piebald 
horses of all degrees of mixture shall by common 
intendment be included under black and white 
horses. 

There are many ingenious ways of unfurling the 
banderol. A person may contrive to let us know 
that he thinks &c. is &c. and not &c. by h^s mode 
of informing us that " the pages of ' N. & Q.' are 
not the place to discuss whether &c. be &c. or &c." 
Again, there are clever modes of eliminating all 
but the opinion which is to be insinuated. 
" Grandmamma," said the little boy, " I wish one 
of us three was hanged ; I don't mean pussy ; and 
I don't mean myself." This little boy, now grown 
up, has written several articles in " N. & Q,.," and 
some of no mean merit : and he writes under more 
than one signature. 

Your journal is a kind of public pic-nic, at 
which each person is expected to present his dish 
quite plain, without any condiment except salt. 
There are difficulties about any other arrangement. 
" Ah ! " said an epicure at a public table, " Peas ! 
the first this season ! Capital ! " shaking pep- 
per over them all the time. His opposite neigh- 
bour thereupon scattered the contents of a little 
box over the dish, quietly observing, " Sir ! 
you like pepper ; I like snuff." Nee lex justior 
ulla. 

I was led to these reflexions by a Query which I 
have to make, in which, by very little manage- 
ment, I might have shaken the flag of heresy in 
the faces of the orthodox of all varieties. In the 
last century there were three Unitarian divines, 
each of whom has established himself firmly 
among the foremost promoters of a branch of 
science. Of Dr. Price and Dr. Priestley, in their 
connexion with the sciences of life contingencies 
and chemistry, there is no occasion to speak : their 
results are well known, and their biographies are 
sufficiently accessible. The third is Thomas Baye?, 
minister at Tunbridge Wells, where he died in 
1761. Whiston belongs to an older period, though 
he must have been long the contemporary of 
Bayes : and so does Humphrey Ditton. It might 
be made a query which wrote most, Whiston or 
Priestley. I see Priestley's writings set down as 
making seventy octavo volumes ; and the Whis- 
ton list was too long for the Biographia Britan- 
nical Could any good references be given for 
complete lists of the writings of both ? 

To return to Bayes. I want to find out more 
about him : and therefore state all I know. He 
first turns up, in 1736, as one of the writers in the 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2"i S. IX. JAN. 7. '60. 



celebrated Berkleian controversy about the prin- 
ciples of fluxions : 

"An introduction to the Doctrine of Fluxions, and de- 
fence of the mathematicians against the objections of the 
author of the Analyst, so far as they are designed to 
affect their general methods of reasoning. London: 
Printed for J. Noon .... 1736, 8vo." 

This very acute tract is anonymous, but it was 
always attributed to Bayes by the contemporaries 
who write in the names of authors; as I have 
seen in various copies : and it bears his name in 
other places. 

Whiston, in his Autobiography (p. 425., 2nd 
ed.), mentions a conversation he had at Tunbridge 
Wells with Bayes in 1746. He calls Bayes the 
successor of Humphrey Ditton, who it thus ap- 
pears was also Unitarian. 

But the work on which the fame x)f Bayes will 
rest is his paper in the Philosophical Transactions 
for 1763, and the supplement in the volume for 
1764. These papers were communicated after 
Bayes's death by Mr. Richard (afterwards Dr.) 
Price. They are the mathematical foundation of 
that branch of the theory of probabilities in which 
the probabilities of the future are matter of cal- 
culation from the events of the past. Bayes 
shows a very superior mathematical power : and 
Laplace, who makes but slight mention of him, is 
very much indebted to him. More justice has 
been done by Dr. C. Gouraud, in his short His- 
toire du Calcul des Probdbilites, Paris, 1848, 8vo. 

"Bayes, geometre anglais, d'une grande penetration 
d'esprit, de'termina directement la probabilite que les pos- 
sibilites indiquees par les experiences deja faites sont 
comprises dans des limites donue'es, et fournit ainsi la 
premiere idee d'une theorie encore inconnue, la theorie 
de la probabilite des causes et de leur action future 
conclue de la simple observation des eVenements pas- 
se'es." 

Bayes gave more than the premiere idee: he 
worked out a method for solving problems involv- 
ing large numbers of cases : not so easily used as 
Laplace's method helped by tables, but far more 
easy than could have been expected. Accord- 
ingly, Bayes is one of the chief leaders in the ma- 
thematical theory of probabilities. What he did 
was of small extent, judged by paper and print, 
but of fundamental importance and wide conse- 
quence : he is of the calibre of De Moivre and 
Laplace in his power over the subject. He chose 
to keep his researches to himself, and they would 
probably have been lost but for Dr. Price : of 
whom I may add that he appears as a far more 
powerful mathematician in his explanations and 
comments upon Bayes than in any part of his 
own writings on his own subjects. 

I have ascertained that there is no chance of 
any of Dr. Price's papers being in existence, at 
least of those which have any reference to the 
time at which Bayes was alive. A. DE MORGAN. 



THE THROW FOR LIFE OR DEATH. 
I want an authority for the following, recorded 
in the Familie Magazijn for 1859, p. 271. : 

"As King William III. of England, the Stadtholder 
of the Netherlands, was besieging Namur in 1695, sundry 
soldiers from his army suffered themselves to be seduced 
by the want which reigned in tiie camp to go a maraud- 
ing, though such a transgression of the martial law had 
been forbidden on pain of death. Most of these ma- 
rauders were caught by the country people and killed: 
only two of them Avere able again to reach the camp un- 
scathed. In the mean while, however, their absence had 
been noticed, and without delay they were sentenced to 
death. Already the following morning it had to be exe- 
cuted by hanging. 

" The morning had dawned, and the necessary prepa- 
rations were being made to follow up the verdict. The 
general- in-chief, however, to whom both the condemned 
were known as brave soldiers, wanted to save one of 
them, and thus commuted their yesterday's judgment in 
so far, that they should have to throw at dice for their 
life. 

" In former times it often was the custom, in the appli- 
cation of military punishments, when the judge did not 
desire to bring the law home upon all the delinquents, to 
let it be decided by lot, who should be free and who 
should suffer. And so it also happened in this case, that 
both the marauders were led to a drum, in order there- 
upon to cast the decisive throw. A few hundred paces 
farther the fatal pole already stood erect, and its aspect 
rendered the scene, so awful in itself, still more impres- 
sive. Full of anxious expectation, a group of officers, the 
regimental chaplain, and the executioner, silently and 
with an earnest mien surrounded the poor fellows. With 
a shaking hand one of the condemned now took up the^ 
dice, which were offered to him. He threw . . . two* 
sixes ! But, as soon as he noticed what he had cast, he 
wrung his hands in despair and gave himself up as lost. 
Who, however, will picture his delight, when, in the next 
moment, he saw that his fellow also had thrown . . . two 
sixes ! 

" The commanding officers were not a little stricken with 
this strange occurrence, and stared at each other in mute 
astonishment. They were nearly at a loss how to act. 
But the orders which had been "given to them were too 
precise, that they should have dared to deviate from them : 
BO they commanded both the men to throw again. This 
was done : the dice were cast, and indescribable was the 
universal amazement, when in the throws of both there 
upturned . . . two fives! Loudly the spectators now 
called out, that both should be pardoned. The case, in- 
deed, was extraordinary, and the officers thus resolved to 
ask for new directions in such an out-of-the-way predi- 
cament, and momentarily to put off the execution. 

" To get further orders, they accordingly applied to the 
court martial, which they still found assembled. Long 
was the discussion, but at last the disheartening reply 
was given, that new dice had to be tendered to the delin"- 
quents, and that again they had to tn>- their lot. Once 
more both of them cast, and, lo . . . each had thrown 
two fours'! 

" * This is the finger of God ! ' said all present. 

"The officers, now quite upset, again laid down the 

strangeness of the case before the still deliberating court 

! martial. This time, even over the members of that court, 

there crept a shudder. They began to distrust the justice 

of their sentence, and resolved to make the decision of the 
i dilemma, whether or not the judgment should be executed, 
i depend on the general-in-chief, whose arrival they every 

moment expected. 



IX. JAN. 7. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



" The Prince of Vaudemont came. Immediately lie 
was informed of the singular fact, and, in order better to 
appreciate the case, he made both the Englishmen appear 
before him. Now, they had to tell him all the circum- 
stances of their clandestine desertion of the camp and 
everything besides, that had occurred to them. The 
prince listened attentively, and when they had spoken, 
his mouth uttered to the poor culprits the word of 
4 Pardon,'' ' It is impossible,' quoth he, ' in such an 
uncommon case, not to obey the voice of divine Provi- 
dence.' " 

J. H. VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht, Dec. 17, '59. 



AN EXCELLENT EXAMPLE I PORTRAIT OF 

RICHARD II. William Lambarde, Esq., Keeper 
of the Records in the Tower, wrote a " Pandectee 
of all the Rolls, Bundles, &c., in the Tower of 
London," whereof Queen Elizabeth had given to 
him in charge, 21 Jan. 1600-1. He records the 
following speech from her : 

" Her Majestic chearefully receaved the same into her 
Hands, saynge you intended to present this Booke unto 
mee by the Countice of Warwicke; but I will none of 
that, for if any subject of myne doe mee a service, I will 
thankfully accept it from his owne hands. Then open- 
inge the Booke, saves, you shall see I can read," &c. 

The Queen 4i demaunded whither I hadd seene any true 
Picture or lively Representation of his Countenance or 
Person. To which Lambarde replied, ' None but such 
as be in comon Hands.' And Her Majesty continued, 
' The Lord Lumly, a lover of Antiquities, discovered it 
fastened on the backside of a doore of a back Roome wich 
hee presented unto mee, praynge with my Good Leave 
that I might putt itt in Order with my Auncestors and 
Successors. I will commaund Tho. Kneavett, Keeper of 
my House and Gallery at Westminster,' to shew it unto 
thee.' " 

Is this portrait extant ? 

" Being called away to prayer, shoe putt the Booke in 
her Bosome, having forbidden mee, from the first to the 
last, to fall uppon my knee before her, concludinge, 
'Farewell, Good and honest Lambarde.' 1601, 4th Au- 
gust." 

W.P. 

PEPPERCOMB. I shall feel obliged to any one 
who will enlighten me as to the origin of the 
name of Peppercomb, a pretty little coomb open- 
ing on the Bristol Channel halfway between 
Bideford and Clovelly. 

The only other instances I know of the word 
Pepper appearing in names of places are Pepper- 
Hill, near Launceston, Cornwall, and Pepper- 
Harrow, near Godalming, Surrey, and in both 
these cases also I am ignorant of the cause of the 
nomenclature. N. S. L. 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH. His room or garret in 
Trinity College, Dublin, was held in veneration 
by the students ; and a piece of glass on which he 
had written his autograph was handed down from 
tenant to tenant as a sacred relic. It is now no 
longer there ! What became of it ? 

GEORGE LLOYD. 



MEMORIAL OF A WITCH. In Lord Hollo's Park, 
Dunconib, Perthshire, is a stone cross bearing this 
inscription : 

" Maggy Walls burnt here as a witch, 1657." 

Will any of your numerous readers state if 
they know of any other memorial to an unfortu- 
nate witch ? CHATTODTJNUS. 

YOFTREGERE. In Alton church (Hants) is 
the following inscription, which, as nearly as I 
could do so, is copied verbatim et literatim : 

" Xofr Walaston grome of y e chambers & on of y e yoft- 
regere unto Hen. viii. Ed. vi. Philip & Marye & Elizth." 

I suppose this awkward-looking word to be as- 
tringer, or one of the description of falconer?, 
given by many old authors. Juliana Berners (ed. 
Wynkyn de Worde, 1496, b. iij recto) says, "Ye 
shall understonde that they ben callyd Ostregeres 
that kepe goshavvkes or tercelles ; " and Cowell 
(Law Diet.} says " Ostringers, falconers, properly 
that keeps a goshawke." 

Can any of your readers give more information 
on the subject, and does it throw light on the 
disputed passage in All's Well that Ends Well 
" enter a gentle Astringer ? " A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

CRISPIN TUCKER. Where can I meet with any 
account of this worthy, said to have been a 
poetaster and bookseller on old London Bridge 
somewhere about the beginning of the last cen- 
tury. Are any broadsides, poems, or books written 
or published by him st ill to be met with ? C. T. 

THE FOUR TOOLS or THE MUMBLES. In The 
Daily Telegraph of Dec. 6th was a capital leader 
on the " Four Merchants of Liverpool," in the 
course of which the writer mentioned that : 

" An old Welsh story, entitled the Four Fools of the 
Mumbles,' relates how certain Cambrians proved them- 
selves the supreme Idiots of the Universe.' 

Where is the story of the Four Fools of the 
Mumbles to be found ? AMBROSE MERTON. 

CLEANING A WATCH ON THE SUMMIT or 
SALISBURY SPIRE. The papers from time to time 
note the circumstance that some daring person 
has climbed this spire to oil the weathercock. 
This is a dangerous feat, as the top of the spire is 
404 feet from the ground. It is ascended by 
ladders for about three-fourths of its height, 
which are fixed inside the spire. A small door 
then opens, and the adventurer has to climb the 
rest of the way by a series of irons, something 
like the handles of flat irons, which are fixed in 
the stone work, and by which he is able to make 
his way to the top to complete his dizzy work. 
About forty years ago, I am told, some persons 
were assembled at the "Pheasant" in Salisbury, 
and were talking about this feat, when a watch- 
maker, of the name of Arnold, who was present, 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



2d S. IX. JAN. 7. '60. 



offered for a small wager to ascend the spire ; to 
take with him his tools and a watch ; to take^the 
watch to pieces on the very top of the spire ; 
to clean it properly, and bring it down in less 
than an hour. He accordingly climbed the spire, 
fixed his back against the stem of the weather- 
cock, completed his task, and descended within 
the given time. This is so curious a circumstance 
in the annals of horology, I should be glad of the 
exact date, if any readers of " -3ST. & Q." could 
furnish it. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

ACCIDENT ON THE MED WAY. A correspondent 
in the Maidstone Journal (Dec. 24, 1859) in 
describing an ancient cannon lately found in the 
river at Gillingham Reach, says that whilst 
making inquiries respecting the discovery, he was 
informed of a singular occurrence^ which is re- 
lated to have happened some sixty or seventy 
years since, and which is believed to be unnoticed 
in any of the Kentish annals : 

" At the period in question, the captain of a ship of 
war lying in the Medway, at no great distance from the 
Gun Wharf, gave a ball on board, and whilst the fes- 
tivities were at the highest, the vessel suddenly sank, 
and but few escaped a watery grave. Our informant said 
he had heard his grandmother frequently relate the 
anecdote, and her vivid recollection of seeing the ladies 
and officers brought out of the river in full dress and 
laid upon the Gun Wharf." 

Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." furnish 
any information respecting this catastrophe ? 

ALFRED J. DUNKIN. 

Dartford. 

TEMPLE BAR QUERIES. If any of your cor- 
respondents could give me any information con- 
cerning the early history of Temple Bar, I should 
feel greatly obliged, especially with reference to 
the following points of inquiry. Who built the 
present Bar ? The City or the Government ? 
Was the former Temple Bar of wood or of stone ? 
If the latter, when was it built ? When were the 
rails and posts removed, and the first bar erected 
across the street? Was that bar removed in 
James I.'st reign? Have there been three bars? 
Answers to any of these Queries would greatly 
oblige me, or any communications privately ad- 
dressed. J. A. G. GUTCH. 

52. Upper Charlotte Street, 
Fitzroy Square. 

TRANSLATIONS MENTIONED BY MOORE. In 
reading, lately, Moore's Memoirs and Journal, I 
found in the latter, under date 2nd Sept. 1818, 
mention made of "a collection of translations 
from Meleager, sent to me with a Dedication to 
myself, written by a Mr. Barnard, a clergyman of 
Cave Castle, I think, Yorkshire. They are done 
with much elegance. I had his MS. to look over." 
Can you or any of your readers state whether 
such a work was" ever published, and when and 



where? and if a copy of the book is now procura- 
ble, at what price, and from whom ? 

I would ask the same questions as to another 
passage in the same Journal, under date 22nd 
Aug. 1826, wherein the poet acknowledges re- 
ceipt of " a letter from a Mr. Smith sending me a 
work (Translations from the Grcelt) by Leopold 
Joss." What was the title of this work, by whom 
published, and where now to be got ? SENEX. 

BlSHOP PREACHING TO APRIL FoOLS. Full 

fifty years ago, before you had taught us to make 
a note, I had an old story book, square, and with 
many woodcuts. One story was : " How a Ger- 
man Bishop, after the manner of Howlglass, did 
preach to a Congregation of April Fools." The 
bishop was represented with a crozier in his hand, 
and a sword by his side. Can any reader of " N. 
& Q." oblige me with the story, which I have 
completely forgotten, as well as the name of the 
book ? P. J. T. 

THE YEA-AND-NAY ACADEMY OF COMPLI- 
MENTS. Lately I picked up at the stall of a 
" flying stationer " an imperfect copy of a book, 
which has verified the saying, " A groat's worth 
of _wit for a penny" The running title of it is, 
" The Yea-and-Nay Academy of Compliments." 
It appears to me a cleverly written performance, 
and curiosity induces me to inquire of the Editor 
of " N. & Q." who was its author ? 

From numerous local references, it looks to be^ 
the production of a London scribe. Its entire 
object is to show up through a variety of phases of 
character the Friends or Quakers, named the 
" Bull-and-Mouth people," and who seem to have 
been under considerable obloquy and persecution 
for their principles. 

A jocular anecdote, related at p. 28, of " Friend 
B. a Quakering vintner," who had sold some wine 
to the king a " prince of very excellent humour' 
but which wine Friend would not deliver till 
he had obtained an interview with the king as to 
its payment, makes me think that the allusion is 
to the " merry monarch," and that the book may 
date some time in the reign of Charles the Second. 

G.N. 

BALLAD OF THE GUNPOWDER TREASON. Can 
any of your correspondents supply a copy of the 
real original ballad of the gunpowder treason ? 
Every one almost can give you a couplet or so, 
and there it stops. Few would imagine how very 
difficult it is to obtain the entire ballad as sum; 
on the 5th of Nov. a century ago. M. H 

DISPOSSESSED PRIORS AND PRIORESSES. Have 
any biographies at any time been published of the 
priors and prioresses who were deprived of their 
monasteries by Henry VIII. ? I wish to ascer- 
tain the subsequent fate of Agnes Sitherland, who 
was the last prioress of the Nunnery of Grace- 
Dieu at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and surrendered it 



2 nd S. IX. JAN. 7. 'CO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



on the 27th of October, 1539. According to Ni- 
chols, in his History of Leicestershire, she received 
sixty shillings reward, and a pension, the amount 
of which, however, he does not mention. Has not 
some pious Catholic recorded the sufferings ^and 
deaths of these persons ? T. E. S. 

SUPERVISOR. In the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth, and earlier periods, I find many references 
to the supervisors of the counties of England, and 
also the supervisors of North Wales and of South 
Wales. AVhere can I learn what were the duties 
of this officer, who appears to have received a fee 
from the crown ? I do not think he acted as 
"surveyor," in the present meaning of that word; 
but I imagine that he was more of a local receiver 
of rents for the crown. I shall be glad to have a 
certified explanation of the duties of the officer. 

W. P. 

AMERICA KNOWN TO THE CHINESE. In an In- 
dian paper some time ago appeared a letter from 
a correspondent in China, in which it was asserted 
that a Chinese book had been discovered, con- 
taining an account of a voyage to Mexico in the 
fourth century of the Christian Era. Has any- 
thing been heard about this at home ? EXTJL. 
Bombay Presidency. 

CRESWELL: SLAVES. About five years ago, a 
paragraph went the round of the papers to the 
effect that an owner of slaves, named Creswell, 
had died in America, at New Orleans or St. Louis 
I think, intestate. This was afterwards followed 
by another paragraph relating to the sale, &c., of 
his property. A relation of mine is anxious to 
learn the title and dates of any newspaper con- 
taining them ; but references to American papers 
would be preferable. S. F. CRESWELL. 

Radford, Nottingham. 

AUTHORSHIP. Will any reader be so good as 
to tell me who were the authors of these two 
books ? 

1. " The History of the Church of Great Britain from 
the Birth of Our Saviour until the Year of Our Lord 
1G67. London, 1674, 4to." (The Dedication signed 
G. G.") 

[By George Geeves. Vide the Rev. H. F. Lyte's Sale 
Catalogue, Lot 1646; and Straker's last Catalogue ar- 
ranged according to Subjects, no date, art. 6110.] 

2. " De Templis ; a Treatise of Temples. London, 
1638, 12mo." (The Dedication signed " R. T.") 

A TEMPLAR. 

HERBERT'S SUNDAY. Can any of your corre- 
spondents call to mind an old church tune, to 
which those words of George Herbert may be set, 
" Oh day, most calm, most bright ! " &c. 6, 8, 8, 
8, 8, 8, 6 ? VRYAN RHEGED. 

THOMAS RANDOLPH. Thomas Randolph was 
Master of the Posts and Chamberlain of the Ex- 
chequer to Queen Elizabeth. In Historical Notes 
he is mentioned as Sir Thomas, and is said to have 



been four times ambassador to Scotland, and to 
have died in 1590. He married Mrs. Ursula 
Coppinger, and had a son Ambrose. His second 
child Frances married Thomas Fitzgerald, who, 
with his wife, was buried at Walton-upon-Thames. 
What were his arms, and was he related to the 
poet Thomas Randolph, who died in 1634? or 
to Dr. John Randolph, Bishop of London in 
1809 ? I should be grateful for any farther infor- 
mation relating to him.* SHILDON. 

PETRARCH. Some months ago I observed an an- 
nouncement of some new discovered Italian poetry 
of Petrarch. Has the fact been confirmed, or has 
anything more transpired as to the supposed dis- 
covery of farther poems by the lover of Laura ? 

VAUCLLSE. 



A CASE FOR THE SPECTACLES. I have lately 
met with a volume with the following title : 

" A Case for the Spectacles, or a Defence of Via Tuta, 
the Safe Way, by Sir Humphry Lynde, Knight, in answer 
to a Book written by J. R. called a paire of Spectacles, 
Together with a treatise Intituled Strictune in Lyndo- 
mastygem by way of supplement to the Knight's answer, 
where he left off prevented by death. And a Sermon 
Preached at his Funerall at Cobham, June 14th, 1636. 
By Daniel Featley, D.D. London : Printed by M. P. for 
Robert Milbourne, at the signe of the Vnicorne in Fleet 
Street, neere Fleet Bridge, 1638." 

Where can I find any account of this contro- 
versy, and any particulars in connexion with Sir 
Humphry Lynde and Daniel Featley, D.D. ? 
Who was the J. R. mentioned in the title-page ? 
At p. 17. of the work a "Mix Lloyd the Ro- 
manist" is spoken of in terms that lead one to sup- 
pose he was the author of the Paire of Spectacles. 
At p. 18. the same person is called John Floyd, 
and the name occurs, spelt in this manner, at pp. 
116. 127. 142.; p. 145. he is said to be a " Jesuite." 
Is anything known of this Lloyd or Floyd ? 

LIBYA. 

[On June 27, 1623, a discussion took place at Sir H. 
Lynde's house on the Romish controversy. Drs. Featlcv 
and White on one side, and the Jesuits Fisher and Swete 
on the other. A report of the debate was published by 
command of Archbishop Abbot, entitled The Romish 
Fisher Cavght and Held in his Owne Net; or a True Re- 
lation of the Protestant Conference and Popish Difference : 
a Justification of the one, and Refutation of the other, in 
matter of Fact and Faith. By Daniel Featly, D.D. 4to. 
1624. The names of the persons present at this discus- 
sion are given at p. 46. A Case for the Spectacles, &-c. 
has been republished by the Reformation Society in Gib- 
son's Preservative against Popery, Supplement, vol. v., 
edited by R. P. Blakeney, M.A.] 

" TREPASSER : " TO DIE. I shall feel much ob- 
liged to any correspondent of " N. & Q." who will 
furnish me with the exact value and origin of the 

[* Thomas Randolph is noticed in our last volume, 
pp. 12. 34. ED.] . 



14 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. JAN. 7. '60. 



above ancient French word. Is it a single or com- 
pound word ; and, if the latter, can it be an abbre- 
viation of outre-passer, as if one should say "to pass 
out of time ?" An answer will oblige A. B. R. 

[The French etymologists derive trepasser, through its 
corresponding noun tre'pas. death (in old Fr. trespas, It. 
trapasso, Romance traspas, trespas,) from L. trans and 
passus; and Me'nage is very decided in maintaining that 
the Fr. tres (of disputed origin) is from the L. trans. 
We think, however, that some consideration is certainly 
due to our correspondent's suggestion that trepasser may 
possibly be an abbreviation of outrepasser, taking outre 
(formerly oultre) as a Fr. modification of the L. ultra, 
and at the same time bearing in mind that we have in 
It. oltrapassare, oltrepassare, and in Romance outrapas- 
sar, outrepassar.] 

LIFE OF LORD CLIVE. Who has collected the 
best account of this extraordinary man ? Or must 
his Life be sought for in the history and the 
journals of the times in which he lived ? 

VRYAN RHEGED. 

[Consult The Life of Robert Clive, collected from the 
Family Papers, communicated by the Earl of Powis, by 
Major- Gen. Sir John Malcolm, K.C.B., 3 vols. 8vo., 1836. 
Also " Lord Clive," by the late Lord Macaulay, in The 
Traveller's Library, 1851.] 

" A PROPOS DE BOTTES." Can any one tell 
me the origin of the phrase a propos de bottes f 

SELRACH. 

[In offering the received explanation of this phrase, it 
is necessary to premise that on this side of the Channel, 
we use the expression in a sense somewhat more limited 
than that attached to it by the French. We say "& pro- 
pos de bottes " (or " a propos to nothing "), when a sub- 
ject is " brought in neck and shoulders.'" But in France 
they apply the phrase to any thing that is done without 
motive. "II dit des injures a. propos de bottes." "II se 
fache a propos de bottes." The saying is thus accounted 
for. A certain Seigneur, having lost an important cause, 
told the king (Francois I.) that the court had un-booted 
him (1'avait de'botte). What he meant to say was, that 
the court had decided against him (11 avait etc* deboute, cf. 
med.-Lat. debotare). The king laughed, but reformed the 
practice of pleading in Latin. The gentlemen of the bar, 
feeling displeased at the change, said that it had been 
made a propos de bottes. Hence the application of the 
phrase to any thing that is done " sans motif raison- 
nable," or " hors de propos." (Cf. Bescherelle on botte.) 
A slightly different explanation, but to the same effect, 
is given by Carpentier under debotare, DuCange.] 

"THE RAGMAN'S ROLL." What is the origin of 
this title to the catalogue of names of those Scots 
who swore fealty to Edward I. ? DORRICKS. 

[So many conjectures have been offered respecting the 
origin of the uncouth appellation, " Ragman Rolls," that 
we must refer our correspondent to the editorial Preface 
to Instrumenta Publica sive Processus super Fidelitatibus 
et Homagiis Scotorum Domino Regi Anglia Factis A.D. 
12911296 (Bannatyne Club), 4to. 1834, edited by T. 
Thomson, as well as to Dr. Jamieson's elaborate illus- 
trations of the meaning of this word in his Etymological 
Dictionary, 4to. 1808. Mr. Thomson says, that " it seems 
to be abundantly obvious that in diplomatic language 
the term Ragman properly imports an indenture or other 
legal deed executed under the seals of the parties ; and 
consequently that its application to the Rolls in question 



implies that they are the record of the separate ragmans, 
or sealed instruments of homage and fealty, executed by 

the people of Scotland Dr. Jamiesou is inclined to 

prefer a Teutonic etymology, suggested by what seems to 
have been rather an infrequent use of it, implying ac- 
cusation or crimination. It must, however, be confessed 
(adds Mr. Thomson) that after all the origin of Ragman 
still remains a problem for future lexicographers."] 

CLAUDE, PICTURES BY. According to Smith's 
Catalogue of Painters, Claude's * " Judgment of 
Paris " is in the possession of the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh. I should be obliged to any reader of 
" N. & Q." who would inform me in which of his 
Grace's collections it is contained. Also in what 
collection is Claude's " Cephalus and Procris," 
which, when engraved by Vivares, was in the 
possession of Lord Clive ? H. S. ORAM. 

[Of" Cephalus and Procris" there are two pictures in 
the National Gallery. Of the " Judgment of Paris " 
there are four ; one in the collection of the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh, and one formerly in that of the Prince of Peace 
at Rome.] 



WATSON, HORNE, AND JONES. 

(2 nd S. viii. 396.) 

It would be satisfactory if MR. GUTCH'S Query 
should draw forth any sermon written by the 
Rev. George Watson. I never yet met with one, 
nor can I find mention of his name and works in 
any Catalogue which I have consulted. Their 
scarcity will presently be explained. The sermon," 
of which Mr. JONES speaks in MR. GUTCH'S ex- 
tract, is thus alluded to by Bishop Home, in his 
Commentary on the Nineteenth Psalm : 

" If the reader shall have received any pleasure from 
perusing the comment on the foregoing Psalm, he stands 
indebted to a Discourse entitled ' Christ the Light of the 
World,' published in the year 1750, by the late Rev. Mr. 
George Watson [of University College] for many years 
the dear companion and kind director of the author's 
studies ; in attending to whose agreeable and instructive 
conversation he has often passed whole days together, and 
shall always have reason to number them among the best 
spent days of his life ; whose death he can never think of 
without lamenting it afresh : and to whose memory he 
embraces, with pleasure, this opportunity to pay the tri- 
bute of a grateful heart." Bishop Home's IVorks, vol. ii. 
p. 119. 

The same prelate has appended the following 
note to his own striking and beautiful sermon, 
" The prevailing Intercessor" : 

" The plan and substance of the foregoing Discourse 
are taken from one published some years ago, by my late 
learned and valuable friend the Rev. Mr. Watson. But 
it always seemed to me that he had much abated the 
force and energy which the composition would otherwise 
have possessed, by introducing a secondary and subordi- 
nate subject. I was therefore tempted to work up his 
admirable materials afresh." Works, vol. iv. p. 370. 

An interesting sketch of Mr. Watson's cha- 
racter, with a high tribute to his talents, will be 



2'"'- S. IX. JAN. 7. 'CO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



found in Jones's Life of Bishop Home. The 
latter, as we have seen, was Mr. W.'s pupil, ^and 
was so delighted with his tutor that he remained 
an entire vacation in Oxford in order that he 
might prosecute his studies under one who is 
described as " so complete a scholar, as great a 
divine, as good a man, and as polite a gentleman, 
as the present age can boast of." 

Jones states that Mr. Watson never published 
any large work, and will be known to posterity 
only by some occasional pieces which he printed 
in his lifetime. He notices a sermon preached 
before the University of Oxford on the 29th 
May, " An Admonition to the Church of Eng- 
land," and a fourth sermon " On the Divine Ap- 
pearance in Gen. xviii." This last sermon, Jones 
adds, " was furiously shot at by the Bushfighters 
of that time in the Monthly Review." To this at- 
tack Mr. Watson returned a repi} 7 , so able, in 
Jones's opinion, that if he wished to contrast Mr. 
Watson with his reviewers, he would put the letter 
into any reader's hand, of which he supposes " no 
copies are now to be found, but in the possession of 
some of his surviving friends" Dr. Delany made 
honourable mention of this reply in the third 
volume of his Revelation examined with Candour. 
From the foregoing remark Watson may have 
printed his sermons and other works solely as 
gifts to his friends, and which will account for 
their scarcity. 

He probably induced both his young friends, 
Jones and Home, to adopt the opinions of Mr. 
Hutchinson. 

These opinions, we know, were embraced by 
other excellent men ; the Lord President Forbes 
(pronounced by Warburton " one of the greatest 
men which ever Scotland bred "), Parkhurst, and 
Mr. W. Stevens were in the list, but the. number 
was small, as the system was obscure, and some- 
what unattractive. "As the followers of Hut- 
chinson did not form a distinct Church or Society, 
and continued to belong to the Church with which 
they were formerly connected, they did not so far 
give way to schism as to compose a sect."* 

No men could have been less inclined than 
Hutchinson's friends to constitute themselves a 
party, "that bad thing in itself;" and though they 
were spoken of with contempt and acrimony, they 
could have replied with Hooker, " to your railing 
we say nothing, to your reasons we say what 
follows." At the early age of nineteen Home 
sat down to attack the Newtonian system, and at 
twenty-one he unwisely published his work; it 
was entitled, 

" The Theology and Philosophy in Cicero's Soranium 
Scipionis explained, or a brief Attempt to demonstrate 
that the Newtonian System is perfectly agreeable to the 
Notions of ihe wisest Ancients, and vhat Mathematical 
Principles are the only sure ones. London, 1751." 
Svo, Pp. 55. 

* Mosheim's Ecc. Hist. vi. 304. note. 



A copy of this rare tract was lent me by my 
late valued friend Mr. Barnwell of the British 
Museum in 1830. I have never seen a second. 

Home's friends were sensible of its faults : so 
was the author, who doubtless used his best en- 
deavours to suppress it. It appeared afterwards 
in another and unexceptionable form. Amongst 
the comments passed upon it there is a bitter one 
by Warburton, who tells his friend Kurd, " there 
is one book, and that no large one, which I would 
recommend to your perusal, it is indeed the ne 
plus ultra of Hutchinsonianism." * 

We must not take leave of Bp. Home without 
adverting to one of the most exquisite works in 
our language, his Commentary on the Psalms. 
He had drank deeply of that " celestial fountain," 
as the Book of Psalms has been well called, and 
he tells us that whilst pursuing his daily task, 
"food and rest were not preferred before it." 
The result was the production of a work, prized 
by both the young and the old, described as "a 
book of elegant and pathetic devotion," but which 
deserves the far higher epithet of evangelical. 

Walpole, in 1753, speaks of the Hutchinsonian 
system as " a delightful fantastic one," and some- 
what rashly concludes that it has superseded 
Methodism, quite decayed in Oxford, its cradle ! f 
"One seldom hears anything about it, in town," he 
adds; and certainly it was not likely to engage 
Walpole's attention beyond that of furnishing 
matter of ridicule for his pen. 

Hutchinson's own writings were given to the 
world in 17491765, in thirteen octavo volumes. 
Their slumber for years on book- shelves must 
have been deep and undisturbed. A short but 
masterly notice of the author will be found in 
Whitaker's Richmondshire, i. 364. 

J. H. MA.EKLAXD. 



GEORGE GASCOIGNE THE POET. 

(2 na S. viii. 453.) 

I may take upon me to answer the question 
put by G. H. K. to the authors of the Athena 
Cantab., as 1 believe the only documentary evi- 
dence " relative to the George Gascoigne who 
was in trouble in 1548," is a passage that has 
recently passed under my editorial review in a 
volume (entitled Narratives of the Reformation) 
prepared for the Camden Society, but not yet 
issued to its members. It occurs in the Auto- 
biographical Anecdotes of Edward Underhill (for- 
merly in part published by Strype) and is as 
follows : 

" I caused also mr. Gastone the lawyare, who vras also 
a greate dicer, to be aprehendid ; in whose howse Alene 
(the prophecyer) was mouche, and hadde a chamber ther, 



* Warburton's Correspondence, p. 86. 
f Correspondence) vol. ii. 257. 



16 



NOTES AND QUEPvIES. 



S. IX. JAN. 7. 'GO. 



where was many thynges practesed. Gaston hadde an 
old Avyffe who was leyde under the borde alle nyght for 
deade, and when the'womene in the mornynge came too 
wynde her, the}- founde thatt ther was lyffe in her, and 
so recovered her, and she lived aboute too yeres after. 

" By the resworte off souche as came to seke for thj'nges 
stollen and lost, wiche they wolde hyde for the nonst, to 
bleare ther husebandes' ies withalle, saynge ' the wyse 
mane tolde them,' off souche Gastone hadde choyce for 
hym selffe and his frendes, younge lawers of the Temple." 

To the name of " Gastone " I have appended 
this note : 

" This is probably the true name, and not Gascoigne. 
One of the Knights of the Bath made at the coronation 
of Queen Mary Avas Sir Henry Gaston. 

And in the Appendix I have added these 
further remarks : 

" The authors of the Ailience. Cantubrigienses, vol. i. 
p. 374. are inclined to ' fear ' that this was George Gas- 
coigne, afterwards distinguished as a poet. Still there is 
room to hope to the contrary, not only because Gas- 
coigne's flowers of poesy did not begin to bud until 1562, 
whereas poets generally show themselves at an early age : 
but further, because ''Gastone the lawyer ' had ' an old 
wife ' as early as the date of Underbill's anecdotes, that 
is, about 1551." 

The names Gascoigne and Gaston are, I pre- 
sume, really distinct, and not interchangeable, 
like Berkeley and Barllett, Fortescue and Foshew, 
Throckmorton and Frogmorton, Foljambe and 
Fulgehum, and some others : but of this I am not 
sure, and should be glad to be further informed. 
JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS. 

We beg to refer G. H. K. to Strype's Memo- 
ii. 114. Strjpe cites Foxii MSS. 

C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 



BARONY OF BROUGHTON: REMARKABLE 

TRIAL. 
(2 nd S. viii. 376. 438.) 

Although, as G. J. says, there never were a 
provost and bailies of the barony of Broughton, 
there existed at the beginning of last century, and 
long previously, a court presided over by a Baron 
Bailie appointed by the superior of the barony 
and regality of Broughton (otherwise Brochtoun 
and Burghton), who also possessed the office of 
Justiciar.* At one time the burgh and regality of 
Canongate, part of Leith, and lands in the coun- 
ties of Haddington, Linlithgow, Stirling, and 
Peebles, were included under his jurisdiction, while 
originally the whole formed part of the lordship 
of Holyrood House. The magistrates of Edin- 
burgh afterwards acquired the superiority of 
Canongate and other lands, and the Governors of 



* Sir Lewis Bellenden of Auchineule had a charter in 
1591 of the barony of Broughton, and his grandson Sir 
William Bellenden was, 10 June, 1661, created Lord Bel- 
lenden of Broughton. 



Heriot's Hospital the greater part of the remain- 
der. A remarkable instance of the exercise by 
this court of the highest criminal jurisdiction oc- 
curred 142 years ago.* Two boys, the sons of 
Mr. Gordon of Ellon, Aberdeenshire, were mur- 
dered on 28th April, 1717, by their tutor Robert 
Irvine, in ^ revenge for their having blabbed some 
moral indiscretion on his part which they had wit- 
nessed. This took place on a spot now forming 
part of the new town of Edinburgh, but then open 
ground^ and, being in sight of the Castle Hill, 
it is said persons walking there saw the deed 
committed. The murderer was taken red-hand, 
i. e. immediately after the fact, and put on his 
trial on 30th April before the Baron Court of 
Broughton, when, being convicted by a jury, he 
was sentenced to be hanged next day at Green- 
side (now a part of Edinburgh), having his hands 
first struck off. This sentence was accordingly 
carried into execution on 1st May, and his body 
was thrown into a quarry hole near the place of 
the murder. In this the bailie followed the usage 
of inferior criminal courts possessed of such juris- 
diction, of trying and executing criminals within 
three suns, although the act 1695, cap. 4, ex- 
tended the time of execution to a period not ex- 
ceeding nine days after sentence. In such an 
atrocious case there could be no room for the 
royal mercy. It has been erroneously stated that 
the perpetrator of this crime was taken before the 
Lord Provost of Edinburgh as High Sheriff, who 
had him tried, convicted, sentenced, and executed 
within twenty-four hours. This is negatived by 
the above facts, which are derived from the con- 
temporary notices contained in three numbers of 
the Scots t Courant newspaper. It certainly seems 
startling that at that period the comparatively 
humble judge of a court of barony and regality 
to the south of the Forth should have exercised 
such high functions, and that these powers still 
existed in 1747, when the Heritable Jurisdiction 
Abolition Act (20 Geo. II. c. 43.) was passed. 

B.R. 



BOCARDO (2 nd S. viii. 270.) It is here stated 
(on the authority of Nares) that Bocardo was 
" the old north gate of Oxford, taken down in 
1771," and used as a prison. The following ad- 
ditional information may be acceptable. 

In the Preface to Pointer's Oxoniensis Academia, 
the author says : 

" Bocardo (which is now i.e. 1749 the City Prison 
for Debtors and Felons) was then (i. e. the thirteenth 
century) their Public Library, where not only Books 
were kept, but University Records preserv'd." 



* On a previous occasion, John Balleny, bailie of the 
regality of Broughton, having waived his privilege of 
exclusive jurisdiction in a case of murder, took his seat 
as cojusticiar on the bench of the Supreme Justice Court, 
14 February, 1621. 






S. IX. JAN. 7. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



17 



It is singular that no reference is made to this 
in Ingrain's Memorials. 

Warton's couplet from the Newsman's Verses 
for 1772 has already been given. ^ The following 
note is appended to the couplet in The Oxford 
Sausage : 

" BOCAKDO. The City Gaol, &c. taken down by the 
Oxford Paving Act." 

Bocardo is also mentioned in the same book, in 
The Castle Barbers Soliloquy, 1760. 

In the rare Latin poem Oxonium Poema, 1667 
(from which I quoted the description of Old 
Mother Louse, of Louse Hall, 2 nd S. vii. 404.) 
the author passes from Baliol College, and thus 
speaks of Bocardo : 

"Jame pete Bacardi Turres, Portasque 
" Bocardo. patentes, 

nerl PnS Atque obolum (si forte tenes) da dives 

egenis." 

He then describes Carfax Conduit and church, 
(" Carfaxe quasi quatrevois") and thus refers to 
the Castle : 

"A tergo stat cum veteri Vetus aggere 
" Castle, and Castrum. 

The Gallons. ^ec procul hinc furca est, Fures et 
scorta cavete." 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 

SPOON INSCRIPTION (2 nd S. viii. 512.) Although 
yQur correspondent does not ask for an explana- 
tion of the inscription upon the spoon, one cannot 
answer his inquiry " whether it is probable that 
this spoon was used in the rite of baptism?" 
without attempting to ascertain what the inscrip- 
tion means, crabbed as it is. It consists of Ger- 
man mixed with Latin, and runs thus : 

" AN. NO. 1669. 

DiSBLVT . ESV. CERIST . GOTESSOIN . DEEMS 
GVNSREIN VON ALLEN SVJDEN 

CHIIST TVML. BSBEN. ASTF. ALBES SER 
DENSLENS. WASSEN." 

This, verbally divided, and reduced to ordinary 
type, becomes 

An. no. | 1669. 
Das ] Blut. | esu | Christ. Gotes | Sohn der | ma 

g | uns | rein | von | alien | Sunden. | 
Christ turn | 1. baben. | ast | f. al | bes ser | 

den | alens. | Wassen." 
That is : 

" Anno 1669. 

Das Blut Jesu Christi, Gottes Sohn, der ma- 
cht uns rein von alien Sunden. (See 1 John i. 7., Luther's 

Version.) 

Christum liebhaben ist fiel besser 
den aliens Waschen." 

This, certainly, is not very first-rate German ; 
but it may be thus rendered : 

" Anno 1669. 

" The blood of Jesus Christ, the Son of God, makes us 
clean from all sin. 

" To love Christ is better than all washing." 
"Den" (denn) is an old Ger. form of " dann," 



than, now " als" : just as in old Eng. than was 
occasionally spelt then. 

It seems very probable that the spoon may have 
been either a baptismal gift, or in some way or 
other connected with the rite of baptism. 

Without an opportunity of inspecting the "head 
with long flowing wig," one can hardly venture 
to conjecture whom or what it represents. 

Hone, in his Every Day Book, Jan. 2o., de- 
scribes an old practice at christenings of present- 
ing spoons called Apostle- spoons, the full number 
being twelve. Persons who could not afford this 
gave a smaller number, or even a single spoon 
with the figure of the saint after whom the child 
was named, or to whom the child was dedicated, 
or who was the patron saint of the donor. 

THOMAS BOYS. 

MRS. MYDDLETON'S PORTRAIT (2 nd S. viii. 377. 
423.) A highly respectable tradesman of this 
city has in his possession a portrait of Mrs. Myd- 
dleton. It was originally in the possession of the 
late Sir Edward Hales, Bart., of Hales Place, near 
this city. It is a half-length, and has every ap- 
pearance of being authentic. The lady wears a 
pearl necklace, and is habited in a low dress of 
crimson, with Avhite or yellow. The hair is in 
small curls. JOHN BRENT, Jun. 

Canterbury. 

LINGARD'S "ENGLAND:" EDINBURGH AND QUAR- 
TERLY REVIEWERS (2 nd S. viii. 469.) The two 
articles on Dr. Lingard's History of England, in 
the Edinburgh Review, were written by John (not 
TF.) Allen, This is acknowledged by himself in 
his "Reply to Dr. Lingard's Vindication, in a 
Letter to Francis Jeffrey, Esq., London, 1827," 
in these terms : 

" I have never made a secret of my being the author 
of the two articles in the Edinburgh 'Review on Dr. Lin- 
gard's History of England" 

In an account of John Allen, published in 
Knight's English Cyclopaedia, he is said to have 
taken a degree in medicine at Edinburgh in 1791. 
In 1795 he published " Illustrations of Mr. Hume's 
Essay concerning Liberty and Necessity." Forty- 
one articles in the Edinburgh Review are attri- 
buted to him on subjects chiefly connected with 
the British constitution, and with French and 
Spanish history. The earliest article on constitu- 
tional subjects attributed to him is that on the 
Regency question, May, 1811. In the number 
for June, 1816, he is said to have written an ela- 
borate essay on the constitution of Parliament. 
The latest article which he is supposed to have 
contributed to the Review is that on church rates, 
October, 1839. He wrote the "History of Europe" 
in the Annual Register for 1806; and in 1820, a 
" Biographical Sketch of Mr. Fox." In 1830, he 
published an " Inquiry into the Rise and Growth 
of the Royal Prerogative in England;" and in 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2"d S." IX. JAN. 7. '60. 



1833, a "Vindication of the Ancient Independ- 
ence of Scotland." He died April 3, 1843. His 
character has been eloquently drawn by his friend 
Lord Brougham, in the third series of the " His- 
torical Sketches of the Statesmen of the Time of 
George TIL" 

" A Reply to Dr. Lingard's Vindication of his 
History of England" as far as respects Arch- 
bishop Cranmer, by the Rev. H. J. Todd, appeared 
in 1827. 

The article in the Quarterly Review, vol. xxxiii., 
on the Reformation in England, and that in vol. 
xxxvii. on Hallam's Constitutional History of Eng- 
land, are ascribed to Robert Southey by a writer 
under the signature of " T. P." in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for June, 1844, p. 579. 'A?ueus. 

HORSE-TALK (2 nd S. i. 335.) In making this 
Query, J. K., of Wandsworth, Surrey, assured 
your readers, " It involves an etymological ques- 
tion of considerable interest to students of the 
legal and constitutional history of England, 'as I 
hope to be able to show in your pages hereafter." 
But, although answers were received from your 
learned correspondent F. C. H. (who anticipated 
what I had to say on Norfolk horse talk), from 
MR. STEPHENS, and others, J. K. has not fulfilled 
his promise. I am curious (and may I say) 
somewhat incredulous as to any such results ; 
may I therefore call upon him to lay it before 
your readers ? Let me add a contribution to the 
history of horse talk. In " Robyn Hode and the 
Potter " (2nd ballad in Ritson) ocjcurs the fol- 
lowing stanza (lines 113 117) : 

" Thorow the help of howr ladej", 
Felowhes, let me alone ; 
Heyt war howte, seyde Roben, 
To Notynggam well y gon." 

There can be little doubt, I think, though 
Ritson queries the meaning of " Heyt war howte," 
that it was Robin's exclamation to his horses, 
when with the potter's cart and horses, he 

"... droffe on hes wey 
So merry ower the londe. 
Heres mor and after ys to save 
The best ys behinde." 

As some of your readers, too, will say if J. K. 
fulfils his promise. E. G. R. 



where the enmities of twenty generations lie buried, in 
the great Abbey." 

Gag and Magog. The Giants in Guildhall; their Real 
and Legendary History. With an Account of other Civic 
Giants at Home and Abroad. By F. VV. Fairholt, F.S.A. 
With Illustrations by the Author. (Hotten.) 

Mr. Fairholt is a sound antiquary, and an accomplished 
artist; and in this little volume his pen and pencil com- 
bined have curiously illustrated one of the most interest- 
ing chapters in the social history of the great trading 
corporations of the olden times. 

Government Examinations : being a Companion to " Un- 
der Government," and a Key to the Civil Service Examin- 
ations. By J. C. Parkinson. (Bell Daldy.) 

Mr. Parkinson's Under Government told us pretty ac- 
curately what every situation under government was 
worth, including its prospective as well as its immediate 
advantages ; from this " Companion " we may learn all 
the necessary qualifications for each office, and the steps 
required to obtain admission to the service of the Crown, 
including the most recent change in each office. 

Lens's Extract Boolt prepared for the Reception of Va- 
rious Scraps from Various Sources, but especially from the 
Newspapers. (Letts, Son, & Co.) 

This is really a capital idea. Well may the publisher 
remind us how often we have made cuttings of interest 
from newspapers, and lost them before we could find a 
fitting place for their preservation. This little book, 
wfth its Index, supplies the want : and we think many 
readers of " 1ST. Q." will thank us for drawing their at- 
tention to it. 

We have a few words to say respecting some of pur 
' contemporaries. Fraser is quite up to the mark. Mr. 
Peacock's Memoir of Shelley is extremely interesting. 
The Laureate's Sea Dreams, and Tom Brown at Oxford, 
Chaps. VII., VIII., and IX., give value to Maemillan. 
Bentley's Quarterly Review starts with a strong political 
article, The Coming Political Campaign, and has another, 
Mill on Liberty. The paper on The Ordnance Survey is 
amusing and instructive. The same may be said of that 
on Domestic Architecture. The literary articles are four 
in number, and well varied George Sand, Ben Jonson, 
Modern English, and Greeh Literature, and the Number, 
which fully maintains the reputation which the Review 
has obtained, concludes with a Biographical Sketch of 
The Earl of Dun donald. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

LORD MACAULAY, the brilliant Orator, the exquisite 
Poet, the unrivalled Essayist, and the greatest Historian 
which our age has seen, has been added to the list of the 
mighty dead. Wednesday, the 28th of December, 1859, 
deprived England of him who has in so many ways shed 
lustre upon her glorious literature. Lord Macaulay has 
died full of honours, if not of years, and on Monday he 
will be laid in the " one cemetery only worthy to contain 
his remains in that temple of silence and reconciliation 



Among other articles of interest winch u-e have been compelled to post- 
pone until next v/cek, are papers on The Gowry Conspiracy, The 
Sweeper of the Crossings, Bazels of Baize, Sea Breaches, Suffragan 
Bishop of Norwich ; tot/ether with many Notes on Books, and the 
Monthly Feuilleton on French Literature. 

THE INDEX to t7ic volume just completed will be delivered with "N. & 
Q." of the 2lst instant. 

P. II. B. will find in SJialcspeare's Coriolanus, Act I. Sc. 3. : 
" He has such a confirmed countenance, 
I saw him running after a gilded butterfly." 

V. D. P. The Letter of Cromwell to his daughter Bridget Ireton, of 
whicli you have kindly forwarded us a copji, has been printed by Carlyle, 
vol. i. p. 213, edition, 1857. 

Heplies to other correspondents in our next. 

EnRATA. 2ndS. viii. p. 481. col. ii. 1. 18. from bottom, for 11 Kol- 
rcad " Kol-of ; " 1. 23./or " Konsten," read " Konst-en ; " p. 503. col. i 
1. 9. for " Schouwtooned," read " Schouwtoonech : " 1. 12. for "s 
tien," read " statica ; " p. 529. col. i. 1. 35. for " fitted," read "filled.' 

"NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is 
iisued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPKD COPIES , 
Six Months forwarded direct from the. Publishers (including the Hal 
yearly INDEX) is lls. 4rf., which may be paid by Post Office Order 
favour of MESSRS. BELL AND D AID Y, 188. FLEET STREET, E,C.; to K'~ 
! aU COMMUNICATIONS KOR THS EDITOR shmrfd be addressed. 



2 nd S. IX. JAN. 7. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



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ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHIC 
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CONTENTS OF No. 210. JANUARY ?TH. 

NOTES: The Bonasus, the Bison, and the Bubalus 
The Beffana, an Italian Twelfth Night Custom The 
Aldine Aratus Bankrupts during the Reign of Elizabeth 

The King's Scutcheon Alexander of Abonoteichos 
and Joseph Smith Peele's " Edward I." 

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Relics of Archbishop Leighton Longevity of Clerical In- 
cumbentsCarthaginian Building Materials Swift's 
Cottage at Moor Park. 

QUERIES : Rev. Thomas Bayes, &c. The Throw for Life 
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II. Peppercomb Oliver Goldsmith Memorial of a 
"Witch Yoftregere Crispin Tucker The Pour Fools 
of the Mumbles Cleaning a "Watch on the Summit of 
Salisbury Spire Accident on the Medway Temple Bar 
Queries Translations mentioned by Moore Bishop 
preaching to April Pools The Yea-and-Nay Academy of 
Compliments Ballad of the Gunpowder Treason Dis- 
possessed Priors and Prioresses Supervisor America 
known to the Chinese, &c. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : A Case for the Spectacles 
" Trepasser : " to die Life of Lord Clive " A propos de 
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REPLIES: Watson, Home, and Jones George Gas- 
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Notes on Regiments Rev. "William Dunkin, D.D. Sir 
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S. IX. JAN. 14. '60. 



COMPLETION 

NICHOLS'S LITERARY ANECDOTES 

AND 

ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE 

OF THE 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

IN SEVENTEEN VOLUMES OCTAVO, 



This Day is published, with Seven Plates, price 1Z. Is., 

The EIGHTH VOLUME of LITERARY ILLUSTRATIONS, 
containing : I. Memoir of John Nichols, Esq.,F.S.A., by Alexander 
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Letters of Sir Walter Scott to Mr. Nichols. 

II. Correspondence of Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore, with Andrew 
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V. Characters of his Contemporaries, by the Rev. WILLIAM COLE. 
VI. General Indexes to the Eight Volumes of" Literary Illustrations." 



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Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Vauxhall Bridge Road. 
The Profits will be given to the Building Fund of the West- 
minster and Pimlico Church of England Commercial 
School. 

CONTENTS : 



I. The Wa 
II. The Woman 



taken in 



III. The Two Records of Crea- 

tion. 

IV. The Fall and the Repent- 

ance of Peter. 
V. The Good Daughter. 
VI. The Convenient Season. 
VII. The Death of the Martyrs. 
VIII. God is Love. 

IX. St. Paul's Thorn in the 

Flesh. 
X. Evil Thoughts. 



XI. Sins of the Tongue. 
XII. Youth and Age. 

XIII. Christ our Rest. 

XIV. The Slavery of Sin. 
XV. The Sleep of Death. 

XVI. David's Sin our Warning. 
XVII. The Story of St. John. 
XVIII. The Worship of the Sera- 
phim. 
XIX. Joseph an Example to the 

Young. 

XX. Home Religion . 
XXI. The. Latin Service of the 
Romish Church. 



" Mr. Secretan is a pains-taking writer of practical theology. Called 
to minister to an intelligent middle-class London congregation, he hag 
to avoid the temptation to appear abstrusely intellectual, a great error 
with many London preachers, and at the same time to rise above the 
strictly plain sermon required by an unlettered flock in the country. 
He has hit the mean with complete success, and produced a volume 
which will be readily bought by those who are in search of sermons for 
family reading. Out of twenty-one discoufses it is almost impossible 
to give an extract which would show the quality of the rest, but while 
we commend them as a whole, we desire to mention with especial re- 
spect one on. the ' Two Records of Creation,' in which the vexata 
qucestio of ' Geology and Genesis ' is stated with great perspicuity and 
faithfulness; another on * Home Religion,' in which the duty of the 
Christian to labour for the salvation of his relatives and friends is 
strongly enforced, and one on the ' Latin Service in the Romish Church,' 
which though an argumentative sermon on a point of controversy, is 
perfectly free from a controversial spirit, and treats the subject with 
great fairness and ability." Literary Churchman. 

" This volume bears evidence of no small ability to recommend it to 
our readers. It is characterised by a liberality and breadth of thought 
which might be copied with advantage by many of the author's bre- 
thren, while the language is nervous, racy Saxon. In Mr. Secretan's 
sermons there are genuine touches of feeling and pathos which are im- 
pressive and affecting ; notably in those on ' the Woman taken in 
Adultery,' and on ' Youth and Age.' On the whole, in the light of a 
contribution to sterling English literature, Mr. Secretan's sermons are 
worthy of our commendation." Globe. 

" The sermons are remarkable for their 'unadorned eloquence' and 
their pure, nervous Saxon sentences, which make them intelligible to 
the poorest, and pleasing to the most fastidious. . . . There are two 
wherein Mr. Secretan displays not only eloquence but learningthat on 
the Mosaic account of the creation as reconcilable with the revelations 
of geological science, and that on the Latin service of the Romish 
Church both showing liberality, manliness, and good sense." 
Morning Chronicle. 

" Mr. Secretan is no undistinguished man : he attained a considerable 
position at Oxford, and he is well known in Westminster where he has 
worked for many years no less as an indefatigable and self-denying 
clergyman than as an effective preacher. These sermons are extremely 
plain simple and pre-eminently practical- intelligible to the poorest, 
while theje runs through them a poetical spirit and many touches of 
the highest pathos which must attract intellectual minds." Weekly 
Mail. 

" They are earnest, thoughtful, and practical _ of moderate length 
and well adapted for f&milies." English Churchman. 

" Practical subjects, treated in an earnest and sensible manner, give 
Mr. C. F. Secretan's Sermons preached in Westminster a higher value 
than such volumes in general possess. It deserves success." Guardian. 

London: BELL & DALDY, 186. Fleet Street, B.C. 



New Edition, 8vo., cloth, 10s. 6d., 

IIEA ITTEPOENTA ; or, The Diversions of Purley. 

By JOHN HORNE TOOKE. With numerous Additions from 
the Copy prepared by the Author for Republication. To which is an- 
nexed his Letter to JOHN DUNNING, Esq. Revised and corrected, 
with additional Notes, by RICHARD TAYLOR, F.S.A., F.L.S. 

London : WILLIAM TEGG, 85. Queen Street, Cheapside, E.G. 

In 4 thick Vols. 8vo., illustrated with 730 Engravings, and a Portrait of 
the Author. Price II. Hs. cloth. 

ONE'S YEAR BOOK, EVERY DAY BOOK, 

AND TABLE BOOK. 

*** This work has been thoroughly corrected, and all the plates re- 
paired : the greatest care has also been bestowed on the working of the 
numerous wood-blocks. 

London : WILLIAM TEGG, 85. Queen Street, Cheapeide, B.C. 



E 



H 



S. IX. JAN. 14. 'CO.] 



NOTES AND QUEMES. 



19 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 14, 18GO. 



N. 211. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: The Gowry Conspiracy, 19 The Crossing 
Sweeper, 20 The Graffiti of Pompeii, 21 A Difficult 
Problem solved during Sleep, 22. 

MINOR NOTES : Notes on Regiments The Stuart Papers 
Writers who have been bribed to Silence Child saved 
by a Dog Use of the Word " Sack," 23. 

QUERIES: MS. Poems by Burns, 24 Bazels of Baize, 
--,__ A Question in Logic Quotation Wanted Electric 



mation Metrical 

Tracton Orlers's Account of Leyden Fafelty Clough 
Stakes fastened together with Lead as a Defence Ex- 
traordinary Custom at a Wedding Sepulchral Slabs and 
Crosses Sir Mark Kennaway, 27. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Eikon Basilica: Picture of 
Charles I. Taylor the Platonist To fly in the Air- 
Boiled Anglo-Saxon Literature The Coan " Parlia- 
mentary Portraits," 27. 

REPLIES: Anne Pole, 29 Sea-breaches, 30 The "Te 
Deum " Interpolated ? 31 The Suffragan Bishop of Ips- 
wich, 32 Translations mentioned by Moore Claudius 
Gilbert John Gilpin Note about the Records, temp. 
Edward III. The Prussian Iron Medal Lodovico 
Sforza Misprint in Seventh Commandment MS. News 
Letters Derivation of Hawker Sending Jteck after 
Yes, &c., 33. 

Monthly Feuilleton on French Books, &c. 



THE GOWRY CONSPIRACY. 

We have in the State Paper Office some con- 
temporary letters, apparently partly official and 
partly private, which contain a good deal of in- 
formation about the curious and inexplicable con- 
spiracy of the Earl of Gowry. 

Foremost amongst the writers is Mr. George 
Nicholson, who was in Edinburgh when the plot 
was discovered, and who writes from that city on 
the 6th of August, 1 600, to Sir Robert Cecil, 
Secretary of State. He gives us a long account 
of the different circumstances attending the exe- 
cution of the plot, both before the King arrived at 
Gowry's House, and after, when the Master made 
his attack upon him ; his information being evi- 
dently taken from the report first current in 
Edinburgh, and which was doubtless circulated 
by the Council. His letter is interesting and mi- 
nute. I give it nearly verbatim as far as relates 
to Gowry, omitting here and there a few words : 

" It may please your Honour, 

" This day morning, at 9 hours, the King wrote to the 
Chancellor's Secretary and to others, and to one of the 

Kirk and the King's Secretary told me, That 

yesterday the Earl of Gowry sent the Master his Brother, 
Mr. Alexander Kuthven, to the King, hunting in Falk- 
land Park [and told him], that his Brother the Earl had 
found in an old Tower in his house at St. Johnston's a 
great Treasure, to help the King's service with, which he 
said his Brother would fain have the King go to see 



quickly that day: Whereon, after the King had hunted 
a while, and taken a drink, he took fresh horse, and dis- 
charged his Company, with the t)uke (of Lennox) and 
the Earl of Mar, then in company with him, and taking 
only a servant with him, rode with the Master. The 
Duke (of Lennox) and the Earl of Mar though yet fol- 
lowed, and the King met by the way the Lord of Inchaf- 
fray, who also rode with him to St. Johnston's, where 
the King coming, the Earl meeting him carried him into 
his house, and gave him a good dinner, and afterwards 
went to dinner with the rest of the Company. The 
Master, in the mean time of their dinner, persuaded the 
King to go with him quietly to see it (the Treasure), and, 
the King discharging his Company from following, went 
with the Master from staith to staith, and chamber to 
chamber, looking for it, the lords behind him, until he 
came to a chamber where a man was, whom the King 
thought was the man that kept the Treasure. 

" Then the Master caught hold on the King, and drew 
his dagger, saying he (the King) had killed his Father 
and he would kill him. The King with good words and 
measures, struggled to dissuade him, saying he was 
young when his father, and divers other honest men, 
were executed; that he was innocent thereof; that he 
had restored his Brother, and made him greater than he 
(ever) was; that if he killed him (the King), he would 
not escape nor be his heir. That he presumed Master 
Alexander had learned more divinity than to kill his 
prince, assuring him and faithfully promising him that if 
he would leave off his enterprize he would forgive him 
and keep it secret, as a matter attempted upon beat and 
rashness onely. To this the Master replied : What he 
was preaching that should not help him, He should 
dye.' And that therewith he struck at the King, and 
the King and he both fell to the ground. The Master 
then called to the man there present to kill the King : 
the man answered he had neither heart or hand. And 
yet he is a very courageous man. The King having no 
dagger, but in his hunting clothes with his horn, yet de- 
fended himself from the Master ; and, in struggling, gqt 
to the window, where he cried ' Treason,' which Sir Thp. 
Erskine, John Ramsey, and Doctor Harris hearing, ra.n 
up after the King, but found the door shut as they could 
not pass. Sir John Ramsey knowing another way, got 
up, and in to the King, who cryed to John he was slain : 
whereon John out with his rapier, and killed the Master, 
In the mean time the Earl of Gowry told the Duke and 
the rest that the King was gone away out at a back 
gate, and they ran out, and Gowry with" them ; but miss- 
ing him, the Earl said he wold go back and see where 
the King was. The Earl took with him, a steel Bonnet 
and two Rapiers, and ran up the stairs. Sir John Ram- 
sey meeting him with drawn swords, Sir Thomas Erskin 
and Docter Harris being then come to join, after sundry 
strokes in and killed the Earl ; Sir Thomas being hurt, 
and Docter Harris mutilated and wanting two fingers, 
[During] this stir The Townsmen, and Gowry's friends 
in evil, appearing, said they would have account where 
the Earl was .... and to pacify them the Duke and 
Earl of Mar were sent to the Magistrates, and so quieted, 
[and] the King and his Company got away. The King 
thanking God for his deliverance. Yesternight he 
knighted, as I hear, John Ramsey and Docter Harris, 
but the Secretary told it not me. 

" Upon this, letters came from the Courts, the whole 
Counsell here (at Edinburgh) convened, and in, and at 
one of the clock rose and came all to the Market Cross; 
and there, by sound of trumpets, intimated, but in 
brief, the happy Escape of the King ; and then in, and 
, , . . made (order) jn Council for the people to thank 
God for it, and in joy thereof to ring bejls and build 
bonfires, Mr- David Lindsave, standing at the 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2d S . IX. JAN. 14. '60. 



made a pithy and fit exhortation to the people to pray 
God for it ; and therewith he prayed and praised God for 
the same, the whole Counsel on their knees on the Cross, 
and the whole people in the streets in like sort. The 
bells are yet ringing, the youths of the town gone out. to 
skirmish for joy, and bonfires are to be built at night. 

" The Council go this tyde over to the King for further 
deliberation in this matter. The King at his return to 
Falklands quickly caused [to be] thrust out of the 

house from the Queen, Gowry's two sisters and 

swore to root out the whole house and name. 

" Upon the Convening of the Council, the Ports of the 
Towne were shut for apprehending Gowry's other bro- 
thers, and the lands are to be given to these new knights 
and others. 

" Tins is the information and report come here by the 
Proclamation, which some yet doubt to be fully so. 

" Gowry's Secretary is taken, and matters hoped to be 
discovered, by him. 

" Your honors 

" Humbly at Comandment, 

" GEO. NICOLSON." 

The improbabilities of this story even then, it 
appears, were apparent, and the people seem to 
have doubted the truth of it from the first. In 
another letter, dated the llth of August, also 
written to Cecil, and by Nicholson, we are told 
farther : 

" The Doubt of the truth thereof still increaseth ex- 
ceedingly ; and unless the King takes some of the Con- 
spirators, and gives them out of his hands to the Town 
and Ministers to be tried and examined for the confess- 
ing and clearing of the matter to them and the people, 
upon the scaffold at their execution, a hard and danger- 
ous contempt will arise and remain in the hearts of the 
people, and of great ones, of him and his dealings in this 
matter. For it is begun to be known that the Report 
coming from the King differs. That the man that should 
have been in the Chamber for killing the King, should 
be able, and yet without heart or hand, should have 
many names, and yet that no such man should be taken, 
or known or judged to be" (exist). 

In a letter of a later date (August 14th), we 
have a minute account of the proceedings that 
subsequently took place at the Cross. This Gowry 
conspiracy must have caused James much humili- 
ation : 

" On Monday the King came over the water to Leith, 
then he went to the Kirk, heard Mr. David Lyndsay 
make a pithy exhortation to him to do justice to his de- 
liverance, and afterwards the King came up to this 
town (Edinburgh) ; and at the very Market Cross here, 
Mr. Galloway, his Minister, making Declaration of the 
matter, and taking upon his soul and conscience that it 
was cruel murder intended by Gowry against the King, 
The King then, in the same place where the Officers 
make their Proclamations, confirmed what Mr. Patrick 
(Galloway) had said, and with exceeding wonderful pro- 
testations vowed to do, and to do justice without solici- 
tation of Courtiers." 

We have, besides these two letters, some far- 
ther account from the same individual. In a 
letter to Cecil of the 21st of August he says : 

" The more the King dealeth in this matter, the greater 
doth the doubts rise with the people what is the truth. 
Mr. John Rind, the Pedagogue, has been extremely 
booted, but confesseth nothing of that matter against the 



Earl or his Brother. Neither do Mr. Thomas Cranston 
or George Cragengelt confess anything to argue any 
matter or intent in the Earl (as I heard). These men 
have protested the same very deeply, and that in case 
torture make them say otherwise, it is not true or to be 
trusted. Already the Hangman of this Town is sent for 
and gone to the King, to execute some or all of them." 

W. 0. W. 



THE CROSSING SWEEPER. 

I have more than once heard the following very 
remarkable story from a venerable friend who 
was, rather more than twenty years ago, one of 
the principal members of my congregation ; who 
had himself heard it from the gentleman to whom 
the incident happened, and who was his highly 
respected personal friend. Its substantial truth 
may, therefore, be confidently relied on ; while its 
remarkable character seems to make it worthy 
of preservation among " N. & Q." 

The late Mr. Simcox, of Harbourne near Bir- 
mingham, a gentleman largely engaged in the 
nail trade, was in the habit of going several times 
a year to London on business, at a period when 
journeys to London were far less readily accom- 
plished than they are at present, being long before 
the introduction of railways. On one of these 
occasions he was suddenly overtaken by a heavy 
shower of rain, from which he sought shelter un- 
der an archway, as he had not any umbrella with 
him, and was at a considerable distance from any 
stand of coaches. The rain continued for a long 
time with unabated violence, and he was conse- 
quently obliged to remain in his place of shelter, 
though beginning to suffer from his prolonged 
exposure to the cold and damp atmosphere. Un- 
der these circumstances he was agreeably ^surprised 
when the door of a handsome house immedi- 
ately opposite was opened, and a footman in livery 
with an umbrella approached, with his master's 
compliments, and that he tad observed the gen- 
tleman standing so long under the archway that 
he feared he might take cold, and would there- 
fore be glad if he would come and take shelter in 
his house an invitation which Mr. Simcox gladly 
accepted. He was ushered into a* handsomely- 
furnished dining-room, where the master of the 
house was sitting, and received from him a very 
friendly welcome. 

Scarcely, however, had Mr. Simcox set eyes on 
his host than he was struck with a vague remem- 
brance of having seen him before : but where or 
in what circumstances, he found himself altoge- 
ther unable to call to mind. The gentlemen soon 
engaged in interesting and animated conversation, 
which was carried on with increasing mutual re- 
spect and confidence ; while, all the time, this re- 
membrance kept continually recurring to Mr. 
Simcox, whose inquiring glances at last betrayed 
to his host what was passing in his mind. " You 



S. IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



seem, Sir," said he, " to look at me as though you had 
seen me before." Mr. Simcox acknowledged that 
his host was right in his conjectures, but con- 
fessed his entire inability to recal the occasion. 
" You are right, Sir," replied the old gentleman ; 
" and if you will pledge your word as a man of 
honour to keep my secret, and not to disclose to any 
one what I am now going to tell you until you have 
seen the notice of my death in the London papers, 
I have no objection to remind you where and how 
you have known me. 

" In St. James's Park, near Spring Gardens, you 
may pass every day an old man who sweeps a cross- 
ing there, and whose begging is attended by this 
strange peculiarity ; that whatever be the amount 
of the alms bestowed on him he will retain only a 
halfpenny, and will scrupulously return to the 
donor all the rest. Such an unusual proceeding 
naturally excites the curiosity of those who hear 
of it ; and any one who has himself made the ex- 
periment, when he happens to be walking by with 
a friend, is almost sure to say to him, * Do you see 
that old fellow there ? He is the strangest beg- 
gar you ever saw in your life. If you give him 
sixpence he will be sure to give you five pence half- 
penny back again.' Of course his friend makes 
the experiment, which turns out as predicted ; and, 
as crowds of people are continually passing, there 
are numbers of persons every day who make the 
same trial ; and thus the old man gets many a half- 
penny from the curiosity of the passers-by, in ad- 
dition to what he obtains from their compassion. 

"I, Sir," continued the old gentleman, "am that 
beggar. Many years ago I first hit upon this ex- 
pedient for the relief of my then pressing necessi- 
ties ; for I was at that time utterly destitute ; but 
finding the scheme answer beyond my expecta- 
tions, I was induced to carry it on until I had at 
last, with the aid of profitable investments, realised 
a handsome fortune, enabling me to live in the 
comfort in which you find me this day. And 
now, Sir, such is the force of habit, that though I 
am no longer under any necessity for continuing 
this plan, I find myself quite unable to give it up ; 
and accordingly every morning I leave home, ap- 
parently for business purposes, and go to a room 
where I put on my old beggar's clothes, and con- 
tinue sweeping my crossing in the park till a 
certain hour in the afternoon, when I go back to 
my room, resume my usual dress, and return 
home in time for dinner as you seeypae this day." 

Mr. Simcox, as a gentleman and a man of 
honour, scrupulously fulfilled his pledge ; but hav- 
ing seen in the London papers the announcement 
of the beggar's death, he then communicated this 
strange story to my friend. Whether he men- 
tioned his name or not, I cannot tell t '; but I do not 
remember ever to have heard it, nor did I feel 
at liberty to ask for it. The friend from whom I 
heard this narrative died in 1838, and from his 



manner of relating the incident I should infer that 
it had probably taken place some twenty or thirty 
years before. 

As the interest of this narrative altogether con 
sists in its being a statement of fact, though 
strange as any fiction, I think it my duty to au- 
thenticate it with my name and address. 

SAMUEL BACHE, 
Minister of the New Meeting-House, 

Birmingham. 
December 21, 1859. 

P.S. I have to-day read the foregoing narrative 
to Robert Martineau, Esq., a magistrate of this 
borough, who authorises me to say that he has a 
distinct recollection of it, having himself heard it 
from the same friend, and is also able, therefore, 
to authenticate this statement. S. B. 



THE GRAFFITI OF POMPEII. 

As many of your readers will be doubtless in- 
terested in all that relates to the city of Pompeii, 
I venture to send you a few notes descriptive of 
the following work : 

" Graffiti de Pomp^i. Inscriptions et Gravures trace'es au 
stylet recueillies et interpreters par Raphael Garrucci. 
Seconde edition, 4to. Paris, 1856. Text, 4to. and Atlas 
of Plates." 

These notes are founded upon the text of this 
work, or are extracts from an article in the Edin- 
burgh Review, No. 224., October, 1859 ; but more 
especially from a most interesting tract, 

" Inscriptions Pompeianae, or Specimens and Fac- 
similes of Ancient Inscriptions discovered on the Walls 
of Buildings at Pompeii, by Dr. Christopher Wordsworth. 
8vo. London. J. Murray, 1837." 

Now what are these Grafiiti? Street scrib- 
blings found rudely traced in charcoal or red 
chalk, or scratched with a stylus in the plaster of 
the walls or pillars in the public places of the city. 
A Londoner whose memory is well stored with 
whitewash of this kind, who can recall the gallant 
fleet which sailed down of aforetime the long brick 
wall of Kew Gardens, who remembers the pressing 
appeals made to him to secure his fortune by 
" Gro to Bysh's Lucky Corner," who can revive the 
moral injunctions which met him on all sides of 
"Try Warren's" or "Buy Day and Martin's 
Blacking," whose patriotism was stirred by " Vote 
for Liberty and Sir Francis Burdett," or whose 
humanity was awakened by " an appeal on behalf 
of Buggins and his six small children," may per- 
haps smile at a work which has exhumed in some 
respects not very dissimilar whitewash, although 
generally of a higher character, and of which the 
" scribble " is accompanied by a learned disserta- 
tion. But constituted as man is, he has ever an 
interest in all that illustrates the social history of 
man. We live through associations with the past 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. JAN. 14. '60. 



through knowledge with the future through 
faith. It is a form of that belief in the eternity of 
being which lies in the inward recesses of the 
soul. It is this which impels men to travel, which 
leads to the exploration of the vestiges of anti- 
quity, which makes the graves to give up their 
dead, whether it be the rude tomb of a Saxon 
chief, or the city of Pompeii recovered and bared 
to the glarish eye of day, by the continuous la- 
bours of the most eminent archaeologists. 

In this respect, in relation also to the early 
period of Western civilisation in a form whether 
as regards religion, laws, manners, and customs 
now utterly passed away, the ruins of Hercula- 
neum and Pompeii possess an interest superior to 
all others. The ruins of the East, of Egypt, 
Greece, and Italy are portions of a whole, the 
fragments of successive ages of continuous mental 
development ; but the remains of Pompeii may be 
considered as the perfect monument of a city which 
went down into the grave whilst the sound of re- 
velry was in its streets, and the pulse of life was 
thick beating in its veins. Here society presents 
itself as it lived and moved and had its being. 
Knowledge, arts, public pursuits, social customs 
and manners, general depravity and moral aspects, 
the individual and the general, here alike are 
shown in the deep shadows of a once Jbright day. 
These street scribblings then possess much in- 
terest. Graffiti, as may be readily supposed, are 
of great antiquity. They are found among the 
ruins of Egypt from the days of the Ptolemies to 
those of Victoria : in the peninsula of Sinai, amid 
the ruins of Greece and Italy. Aristophanes, 
Lucian, Plautus, and Propertius allude to them. 
In the city of Rome the eloquence of walls was 
very powerful. It aided the Agrarian Laws of 
Tiberius Gracchus, as it would now the Man- 
chester platform of John Bright. Sometimes they 
are quotations from Ovid, but there are none from 
Horace. This is natural. Ovid presented to the 
Pompeian the reflex subjectivity of his own 
thought; Horace charms by a severe style; the 
first is the poet of sensuous feeling, the latter of 
cultivated intellect. The oldest Latin MS. per- 
haps in existence is a scribble which carries us 
back in imagination from the present to A.D. 18, 

"TI CAESARE TERTIO GERMANICO CAESAR. ITER. 
COS." 

Next an advertisement for a game of rackets 
to be played. Inscriptions which record the 
badge of slavery by their own grammatical forms. 
An appeal to the Pilicrepi or ball players to vote 
for Fermus at the next election of municipal offi- 
cers. A legal threat ? " Somius threatens Cor- 
nelius with an action the day after tomorrow." 
These words were probably scrawled by some 
slave on the stucco while the lawyers of Pompeii 
were engaged in pleading. 

Then scraps of poetry, doggrel verses, notices of 



a spot visited. A name, with the intimation the 
owner was a thief. Verses in praise of a mistress. 
Notice of lost property, and rewards for its re- 
covery. Philosophical apophthegms. School- 
boys' scrawls, to aid perhaps the recital of the 
morning lesson, and first lines in penmanship. 
Lampoons, caricatures, and indications of the 
most morbid, disgusting, lascivious ribaldry. 
Others are of higher pretension, as attempts to 
parody the pompous style of epistolary dispatches. 
"Pyrrhus, C. Heio conlegae salutem. Moleste 
fero quod audivi te mortuam ; itaque Vale." Dr. 
Wordsworth adds, p. 71., an effusion of raillery 
somewhat similar is the following : it is a slave's 
character : " Cosmus nequitiae est magnussimae." 
The new superlative, " magnussimae," coined for 
the occasion, may remind you of the story of his 
eminence Cardinal York, who was irritably tena- 
cious of his royal dignity, and when asked at din- 
ner in too familiar a style, as he thought, whether 
he could taste a particular viand, replied, " Non 
ne voglio, perche il Re mio padre, non ne ha 
mangiato mai, e la Regina mia madre maiissimo." 
To this may be added lists of champions in the 
arena, enumerating their victories. 

It may be doubtful whether literature and art 
have lost much by the destruction of Pompeii. 
Extremes meet ; the highest point of wealthy civi- 
lisation touches upon the extreme of intellectual 
debasement. We may have lost some great me- 
morials of art, of an imaginative and graceful form 
of decoration, the reflection of the happy sensuous- 
ness of an Italian people living beneath the influence 
of a joyous sky, and a philosophy which taught in 
strains of the highest poetry that man should pre- 
fer the present to the future, the actual to a 
possible ideal, omit to think of the morrow, and 
seize with ecstasy the brimming cup of pleasure 
which the DAY presented to his lips but nothing 
which could teach nations how to live, could add 
an invention to promote social happiness, or a 
virtue which could stimulate as example, has 
perished beneath the ashes of this CITY OF THE 
PLAIN. S. H. 



A DIFFICULT PROBLEM SOLVED DURING 
SLEEP. 

In his Volksmagazijn voor Burger en Boer (vol. 
ii. p. 27.), the Rev. J. de Liefde relates a re- 
markable case of somnambulism : and, though it is 
the first time I have seen it in print, I can very well 
remember that my father often told me the same. 
The author writes : 

" In 1839 I fell in with a clergyman (he is now dead : 
but of his truthfulness I never yet entertained a doubt), 
who communicated to me the following incident from his 
own life's experience : 

" ' I was,' said he, * a student at the Mennonite Semi- 
nary at Amsterdam, and frequented the mathematical 



S. IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



lectures of Professor van Swinden.* Now it happened 
that once a banking-house had given the Professor 
question to resolve, which required a difficult and prolix 
calculation. And often already had the mathematical 
tried to find out the problem, but as, to effect this, som 
sheets of paper had to be covered with ciphers, the learnet 
man, at each trial, had made a mistake. Thus, not t( 
overfatigue himself, he communicated the puzzle to ten 
of his students, me amongst the. number, and begged u 
to attempt its unravelling at home. My ambition did 
not allow me any delay. I set to work the same evening 
but without success. Another evening was sacrificed to 
my undertaking, but again fruitlessly. At last I bent 
myself over my ciphers, a third evening. It was winter 
and I calculated to half past one in the morning . . . . al 
to no purpose! The product was erroneous. Low at 
lieart, I threw down my pencil, which already, that time, 
had beciphered three slates. I hesitated whether ] 
would toil the night through and begin my calculation 
anew, as I knew that the Professor wanted an answer 
the very same morning. But lo ! my candle was already 
burning in the socket, and, alas ! the persons with whom 
I lived had long ago gone to rest. Thus I also went to 
bed, my head filled with ciphers, and, tired of mind, I fell 
asleep. In the morning I awoke just early enough to 
dress and prepare myself to go to the lecture. I was 
vexed at heart, not to have been able to solve the ques- 
tion, and at having to disappoint my teacher. But, O 
wonder ! as I approach my writing-table, I find on it a 
paper, with ciphers of my own hand, and, think of my 
astonishment! the whole problem on it, solved quite 
aright and without a single blunder. I wanted to ask 
my hospita whether any one had been in my room, but 
was stopped by my own writing. Afterwards I told her 
what had occurred, and she herself wondered at the 



* Jean Henri van Swinden, born at the Hague June the 
8th, 1746, died March 9th, 1823 ; Art. Liberal. Mag. et 
Phil. Dr. in June 1766, after having publicly defended a 
dissertation De Attraction: appointed Professor of 
Natural and Speculative Philosophy at the Academy of 
Francken, towards the end of the same year ; inaugurates 
his lecture by an oration De Causis Errorum in Rebus 
Philosophicis ; gets just renown and bad health in con- 
sequence of his observations concerning Electricity, the 
Deviation of the Magnetic Needle and Meteorology, 
printed in the works of the most celebrated learned So- 
cieties of Europe ; his Recherches sur les Aiguilles Aimant^es 
et leurs Variations, of more than 500 pages, in 1777, got 
the Medal of the Paris Academy of Sciences, and his Dis- 
sertatio de Analogia Electricitatis et Maqnetismi next year 
is crowned with the prize by the Electoral Academy of 
Bavaria; nominated Professor at Amsterdam of Philo- 
sophy, Mathematics, Astronomy, and Physic in 1785, he 
takes up this post with a public speech, De Hypothesibus 
Physicis, quomodo sint e mente Newtonis adhibendce. In 

'98, he, with Aeneae, is committed to Paris to take part 
in the deliberations about the new system of weights and 
measures: and, of these deliberations, he is called to 
make a report, first to the Class of Mathematical and 
Natural Sciences, and then to the whole Institute. For 
an account of his life and very numerous writings, see 
Hulde aan de Nagedachtenis van Jean Henri van Swinden 
(te Amsterdam bij C. Covens en P. Meyer Warnars, 

24), containing, from pp. 172, a panegyric in his 
Honour by Dr. David Jacob van Lennep, and, from pp. 73 
-100, a poem in his praise by Hendrik Harmen Klijn. 
L List of his Lectures and Discourses in the Society 
Felix Mentis, section Natural Philosophy, fills pp. 103 
LlO, whilst the enumeration of his Works occupies pp. 
Ill 122. 



event ; for she assured me no one had entered my apart- 
ment. 

" ' Thus I must have calculated the problem in my 
sleep, and in the dark to boot, and, what is most remark- 
able, the computation was so succinct, that what I saw 
now before me on a single folio sheet, had required three 
slates-full, closely beciphered at both sides, during my 
waking state. Professor van Swinden was quite amazed 
at the event, and declared to me, that whilst calculating 
the problem himself, he never once had thought of a so- 
lution so simple and so concise.' " 

J. H. VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 



Minat 

NOTES ON REGIMENTS (passim). Allow me to 
call attention to what I humbly conceive to be a 
curious blunder in the motto of the 5th (Prin- 
cess Charlotte of Wales') Regiment of Dragoon 
Guards : " Vestigia nulla retrorsum" 

The birth-place of these words is Horace, 1 
Epist. i. 74. : 

" Olim quod vulpes asgroto cauta leoni 
Respondit, referam : Quia me vestigia terrent 
Omnia te adversum spectantia, nulla retrorsum." 

Thus the real meaning is, the fox is too cau- 
tious to enter the lion's den ; the notion of a trap 
terrifies us ; let us have nothing to do with the 
enemy, because there is danger. 

A mistake as absurd as quaint when considered 
in connection with any British regiment, and spe- 
cially with one bearing on its colours the proud 
titles " Salamanca," " Vittoria," " Toulouse," 
" Peninsula," " Balaklava," &c. 

I wonder if the Regimental Records give any 
explanation of the motto. W. T. M. 

Hongkong, Anniv. Balaklava. 1859. 

THE STUART PAPERS. Inquiry was made in 
"IST. & Q." (2 nd S. iii. 112.), whether there was 
any known list of persons on whom titles were 
conferred by James II. after his abdication, and 
by his son and grandson. A well-informed cor- 
respondent in reply (2 nd S. iii. 219.) gave some 
information in respect to a particular patent, but 
knew not of any published or MS. lists. I think 
it well, therefore, to inform your correspondent 
that Browne, in the Appendix to his History of 
the Highlands, gives a large collection of letters 
I rom the Stuart Papers, and amongst them one 
from Mr. Edgar, secretary to the Chevalier, to 
young -Glengary, wherein he says (iv. 51.), 

"His Majesty being at the same time desirous to do 
vhat depends on him for your satisfaction, he, upon your 
equest, sends you here enclosed a duplicate of your 
jrandfather's warrant to be a peer. You will see that it 
s signed by H. M., and I can assure 3~ou it is an exact 
duplicate copie out of the book of entries of such like papers" 

Here then is proof, of what might reasonably 
lave been assumed, that there was a " book of 
sntries" of such grants. Is that book in exist- 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a g. ix. JAN. 14. '60. 



ence? Is it amongst the Stuart Papers in the 
possession of Her Majesty ? 

How much it is to be regretted that those his- 
torical documents are not in the British Museum. 
At the present rate of publication the contents 
will not be known to our historians for half a 
dozen centuries. The first volume of the Atter- 
bury Correspondence (from that collection) was 
published in 1847, and I am still hoping to live 
to see the second. T. S. P. 

WRITERS WHO HAVE BEEN BRIBED TO SILENCE. 
Is there any truth in the allegation made by 
Cox, in his Irish 'Magazine for March, 1811, 
namely, that the Rev. Dr. Charles O' Conor, libra- 
rian to the Duke of Buckingham at Stow, printed 
in 1792, at Dublin, A History of the House of 
O' Conor (2 vols. 8vo.), but that "administration 
felt alarmed that such a picture of British ar- 
rogance and Irish subjection should go abroad, 
and bought it up. It was offered up as a burnt 
offering in those very cells in Dublin Castle that 
once enclosed an O'Donel, an O'Neil," &c., &c. 
" This book was one of the most interesting on 
Irish affairs." Is there any copy accessible of this 
History of the House of O' Conor? The Rev. Dr. 
Charles O'Conor was formally suspended by Arch- 
bishop Troy in 1812. He occasionally wrote 
under the signature of " Columbanus." W. J. F. 

A CHILD SAVED <BY A DOG. Is the following a 
fact ? 

" A Dundee paper states that as a railway van was 
going along Keptie Street, a child was in danger of 
being run over. Seeing this, a mastiff dog belonging to 
Mr. W. Reid, flesher, sprung from the side paving, seized 
the astonished and frightened child by the clothes, and 
placed it in safety to the delight of a great number of 
lookers on." 

I have this from the New York Independent, 
vol. xi. No. 573. for Thursday, Nov. 24, 1859. 

J. H, VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

USE or THE WORD " SACK." ~- The accom- 
panying extract from the parish register of 
Havering-atte-Bower, Essex, will, I think, be in- 
teresting to the readers of " N. & Q.," inasmuch 
as it exhibits a curious fact, and also as showing 
the common and ordinary use of the word Sack 
at a period which I confess caused me some sur- 
prise, seeing that during the last century the edi- 
tors of Shakspeare are so full of conjecture as to 
what this word applied : 

" At a vestry held at St. Marie's Chappel, Havering, 
yie gth O f NOV. 1717," among other things it was agreed : 
" Likewise y* a pint of Sack be allowed to y Minister 
y* officiates y e Lord's Day y le Winter Season. 

Present, 

" T. Shortland, Chaplain," 
and six others. 

JOHN GLADDING. 



MS. POEMS BY BURNS. 

Having lately purchased a volume .of Burns' 
Poems, dated Edinburgh, April, 1787, being the 
3rd edition, I was surprised to find when I got it 
home that at the end of the volume were several 
pieces in manuscript writing, which I presume were 
pieces that the poet had composed shortly after 
the volume was printed : several blank pages had 
evidently been inserted for the purpose of being 
written on when it was bound. Could any of your 
numerous correspondents give any information whe- 
ther^the handwriting is by Burns, or whose hand- 
writing ? if not his, whether it is any member of 
the family P^ It is printed by Strahan, Cadell, & 
Creech, Edinburgh, and has the whole of the 
original subscribers' names inserted with the num- 
ber of copies, alphabetically arranged, beginning 
with the " Caledonian Hunt, 100 copies," &c., &c. 
The number of pieces in writing is thirteen five 
are evidently in the handwriting of a female. 
Now Cunningham says, in his edition, that the 
Epistle to Captain Grose, which is in this volume 
in manuscript, dated 22nd July, 1790, was not in 
print before 180-: it is dedicated to A. De Car- 
donnel, who was an antiquary. I should like to 
know more about the man, as my volume has also 
the arms of Mansf* S. de Cardonnel Lawson, 
with the motto, " Rise and shine," pasted in the 
inside: although Cunningham does say that it 
was known to exist in manuscript before that 
date, viz. 180-. The" pieces are these, viz. : 

" Sketch. The first thoughts of an Elegy designed for 
Miss Burnet of Monboddo." 

" Epigram on Capt. Grose." 

" Queen Mary's Lament." 

" Epistle to A. De Cardonnel, (beginning) ' Ken ye 
ought o' Capt. Grose?'" 

" Tarn O'Shanter. A Tale." 

" Holy Willies Prayer." 

These are in a lady's handwriting. 

" On seeing a wounded Hare limp by me which a fel- 
low had shot." 

" Song : < Anne thy charms my bosom fire.' " 

A Grace before Dinner." 

" Let not woman e'er complain : tune ' Duncan Gray.' " 

" Sent by a lady to Robt. Burns : ' Stay my Willie- 
yet believe me.' " 

" Here's a health to ane I lo'e dear." 

" On Sensibility : to Mrs. Dunlop of Dunlop." 

" Highland Mary. 

" Ye banks and braes, and streams around 
The castle o' Montgomery." 

I trust you will exCuse the length of this epistle, 
as I found I could not do justice to it unless 
I gave you full particulars, hoping you will be 
able to throw some light on the writing, and 
the name Cardonnel; as I think the gentleman 
may have been a personal friend of the poet's, 
and some relation may be living who can ex- 
plain the matter. T. SIMPSON. 



2a S. IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



BAZELS OF BAIZE. 

In Malcolm's Londinium Redivivum, vol. ii. p. 
147., an extract is given from a MS. of John 
Stowe, which states that " Seven Bazels of Baize 
had been sent into Christ's Hospital, and that as 
many more would have been sent, but for the 
late interruption of Joscelyn Briznan, and his 
unlawful supporters of Castle Baynard Ward." 
This was in July, 1585. This Joscelyn Briznan 
was a retailer of ale, called at that date "a 
Tipler," and the Baize which he was required to 
send to Christ's Hospital, was exacted from him 
as a fine for trespasses which he had committed 
in following that business. 

Bayse-maker. In Chatnbers's Journal, Oct. 
16, 1858, p. 258., in an enumeration of copper 
tokens (the Harringtons alluded to " N. & Q.," 
2 nd S. viii. 497.)j there is mention of a token 
issued by a Bayse-maker. Neither the issuer's 
name, nor the place where it was issued, is men- 
tioned. 

Bayze or bayes, see Skinner's Etymologicon 
Lingua Anglicance, where the following explana- 
tion is given of these words : 

" To play or run at Bayze. Vox omnibus nota, quibus 
fanum Botolphi seu Bostonium agri Lincolniensis Empo- 
rium, notum est, aliis paucis. Sic autem iis dicitur Cer- 
tamen seu 'Ayw, Currendi pro certa mercede, praemio vel 
Bpa/Seiw. Credo & nom Bayes, Laurus, quia fortasse olim 
victor Serto Laureo, consuetissimo victorias insigni, fuit 
redimitus." 

I have given the entire paragraph from Skin- 
ner, literatim et punctuatim, capitals, &c., and have 
done so, not because I have any doubt that the 
entire paragraph does not allude to the old Eng- 
lish game of Prisoner's Base or Prison Bars, as 
described by Strutt at p. 78. of his Sports and 
Pastimes; but because I wish to be informed, 
through the medium of your pages, what particu- 
lar interest the town of Boston had with this game, 
as intimated by Mr. Skinner ; he was a Lincoln- 
shire man, and most probably had some reason for 
what he has said. Nares gives Base, Prison Base, or 
Prison Bars, and shows that it was used by Mar- 
low, Shakspeare, Chapman, and others. Halliwell 
has Bayze, Prisoner's Base, and gives Skinner as 
his authority. Bailey says, "to play or run at 
Bays, an exercise used at Boston in Lincolnshire." 
I am very anxious to know Skinner's and Bailey's 
authority for this ascription. 

I cannot make any satisfactory solution of the 
Bazels of Baize quoted by Malcolm from John 
Stowe' s MS., unless the former has made an error 
in copying from the MS., and that the expression 
ought to read Bavins of Baize or Basse. Bavin 
is the old name for a small fagot of brushwood or 
other light material ; see Bailey, Nares, &c. ; and 
dried rushes are called basse or bass in the northern 
counties of England. See Cowell and other au- 
thorities on the subject. These bavins of baize or 



basse might be useful at Christ's Church' to strew 
the floors with when rushes were used for that 
purpose ; but how the providing them became a 
suitable penalty to be paid by the law-breaking 
" Tipler " I am-quite unable to discover. I ask 
the readers and correspondents of " N. & Q.'* to 
assist me. 

The Bayse-maker who issued the copper token 
alluded to by Chambers, was probably a manufac- 
turer of the coarse woollen cloth with a long nap, 
still known as baise, and formerly known as baize, 
bays, or bayze. Bailey says " Baize, coarse cloth 
or frieze of Baia, a city of Naples ; or of Colches- 
ter, &c., in England." 

If I be right in my conjectures, the word baize 
and its variations bayse and bayze, as given by 
Malcolm, Chambers, and Skinner, meant respec- 
tively dried rushes, coarse woollen- cloth, and 
the game of Prison Base. I shall be glad to re- 
ceive either corroboration or correction of my 
conjectures. PISHEY THOMPSON. 

Stoke Newington. 



A QUESTION IN LOGIC. A great many per- 
sons think that without any systematic study it is 
in their power to see at once all the relations of 
propositions to one another. With some persons 
this is nearer the truth than with others : with 
some it is all but the truth ; that is, as to all such 
relations as frequently occur. I propose a case 
which does not frequently occur ; and I shall be 
curious to see whether you receive more than one 
answer : for I am satisfied, by private trial, that 
you will not receive many. 

When two assertions are made, either one of 
them follows from the other, or the two are con- 
tradictions, or each is indifferent to the other. 

Now take the three following assertions : 

1. A master of a parent is a superior. 

2. A servant of an inferior is not a parent. 

3. An inferior of a child is not a master. 

It is to be understood that absolute equality be- 
tween two persons is supposed impossible : so that, 
any two persons being named, one of them is the 
superior of the other. First, is either of these 
three propositions a consequence of another ? Is 
either a contradiction of another ? Are any two of 
them indifferent ? Secondly, to those who have 
made a study of logic, What theorem settles the 
relation or want of relation of these three propo- 
sitions ? Where has that theorem been virtually 
applied in a common logical process ? I am not 
aware that it has ever been stated. 

Should any correspondent prefer it, he may re- 
quest you to forward his answer to me, as not to 
be published unless it be correct. 

A. DE MORGAN. 

QUOTATION WANTED. I shall be obliged if 
either you, or any of your readers, will inform me 



NOTES AND QUEKIES- 



S. IX. JAN. 14. '60. 



who is the author of, and where I can find, the 
following lines : 

" Can he who games have feeling ? Yes he may, 
But better in my mind he had it not, 
For I esteem him preferable far, 
In rate of manhood, that has not a heart, 
To him who has, and makes vile use of it : 
The one is a traitor unto nature, which 
The other can't be called." 

Wishing you and all your contributors a happy 
New Year, A CONSTANT READER. 

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH HALF A CENTURY AGO. 
Turning over some old magazines to find a date, I 
chanced to light on the following epigram, dated 
Oct. 1813 : 

" On the Proposed Electrical Telegraph. 
" When a victory we gain 

(As we've oft done in Spain) 
It is usual to load well with powder, 
And discharge 'midst a crowd 
All the park guns so loud, 
And the guns of the Tower, which are louder. 

u But the guns of the Tower, 

And the Park guns want power 
To proclaim as they ought what we pride in ; 

So when now we succeed 

It is wisely decreed 
To announce it from the batteries of Leyden" 

To announce it from the batteries of Leyden. 
Cavallo is stated to have been the first to suggest 
the use of electricity in passing signals : and the 
earliest attempts in England are said to have been 
made by a gentleman at Hammersmith. Can any 
reader furnish me with the date and particulars 
of his experiments ? A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

LANDSLIPS AT FOLKSTONE. The cliff at Folk- 
stone has been subject to a recurrence at distant 
periods of sudden descents in vast and very ex- 
tensive masses. 

The first we have particular mention of is in 
the Philosophical Transactions, vol. xxix. p. 469. 
by the Rev. John Sackette, giving an account of a 
very uncommon sinking of the earth near Folk- 
stone in Kent ; and also of the Eoyal Society's 
Transactions by the Rev. John Lyon, vol. Ixxvi. 
p. 200., giving an account of a subsidence of the 
ground near Folkstone, on the coast of Kent. In 
the present century we have to notice three such 
occurrences. There was a descent on Sunday, 
March 8, 1801, which for magnitude was the 
largest and most extensive of any which have 
taken place. Not to encroach upon your space 
with details of this event, it will suffice to refer 
your readers to the Annual Register for 1801 
(Chronicle, pp. 7. and 8.). In enumerating the 
second decline of surface of the cliff in May, 1806, 
it will also be sufficient to point to a curious ac- 
count of it in the Gentleman's Magazine, vol. 
Ixxvi. fpr June, 1806, p. 575. ; and for tfce last 



landslip we have to notice, it will be found in The 
Times of Dec. 14, 1859, as having happened on 
the 8th of that month. 

^ As to me there appears something very extraor- 
dinary in these repeated events, I would appeal 
to any of your geological readers to inform me of 
their cause. 2. 2. 

BOOKS OP AN ANTIPAPAL TENDENCY WRITTEN 

BEFORE THE REFORMATION. I shall be much ob- 

liged to any of your readers who can furnish me 
with the titles of any books printed before the 
year 1516, containing, first, expressions of dissent 
upon religious grounds from the Church of Rome; 
secondly, objections to the temporal power of the 
Church as then exercised ; and, thirdly, prophecies 
of convulsions likely to disturb the Church about 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. I am de- 
sirous of obtaining as complete a list as I can, 
and should also be glad to be furnished with the 
names of any modern writers who have noticed 
these early symptoms of reform. As an example 
of the first class of books, I would mention Pierce 
Plowman's Vision and Complaynte ; as an illustra- 
tion - of the second, Le Songe du Vergier, first 
printed, Paris, 1491, in which the claims of the 
spiritual and temporal powers are supported re- 
spectively by the arguments of a priest and of a 
knight ; and as instances of the third class, the 
prophecies of Methodius and of Joseph Grunpeckh. 

West Derby. 

METRICAL VERSION OF THE PSALMS IN WELSH. 
Are these set to the same tunes as the metrical 
version in English, or have they tunes peculiar to 
themselves ? In particular I would ask whether 
a tune called " Bangor" is suited to the Welsh 
version (6, 6, 7, 7, 7, 7,) ? It does not appear to 
me to be applicable to English words, either of 
the old or the new version ? VRYAN RHEGED. 

LORD TRACTON. I have tried, but in vain, 
to trace this nobleman's ancestry. His family 
name was Dennis. Is there anything known of 
his family ? Y. S. M. 

ORLERS'S ACCOUNT OF LEYDEN. I have in my 
possession a small 4to. volume with the following 
title : 

" Beschrijvinge der Stad Leyden. Tot Leyden By 
Henrick Haestens, Jan Orlers, ende Jan Maire. Anno 
clo.Ioc.xim." 

On the fly-leaf is written (in the handwriting, 
as I have been informed, of the late Wm. Ford 
of Manchester) : " Liber Perrarus et auctoritate 
publica suppressus. v. Fresnoy." The work is 
c[uite perfect, and contains, besides views of build- 
ings and portraits, a series of curious large cop- 
per-plate engravings illustrating the siege of 
Leyden in 1574. I should be obliged if any of 
your correspondents who may be acquainted with 



2*a S. IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Dutch Bibliography would inform me what is the 
value and rarity of this book, and where any 
notice of it may be found ? I should also be glad 
to know why it was suppressed. K. C. C. 

FAFELTY CLOUGH. A few days ago a person 
was brought for interment to the church here, 
who came from a place pronounced " Fafelty 
Clough," a district within a mile hence. Can 
any of your readers give the orthography of this 
word ? Due inquiry has been made amongst the 
local literary authorities, but neither the deriva- 
tion nor spelling can be ascertained. One of the 
gentlemen present while this is being written had 
two masons, father and son, from " Fafelty 
Clough," who were called Joe Fafelty and Jim 
Fafelty, whose real name was Lord. 

This is a district where much stone is got for 
building and flooring purposes, and a suggestion 
is made that the words in question mean Faulty 
Cliff. TRUTH-SEEKER. 

Whitworth, near Rochdale. 

STAKES FASTENED TOGETHER WITH LEAD AS A 
DEFENCE. Bede, in his Ecclesiastical History 
(lib. i. cap. 2.), describes the victory by Caesar 
over the Britons, and his pursuit of them to the 
River Thames ; and goes on to say : 

" On the farther bank of this river, Cassobellaunus 
being the leader, an immense body of the enemy had 
placed themselves : and had studded (prastruxerat) the 
bank of the river, and almost the whole of the ford under 
water, with very sharp stakes (acutissimis sudibus) ; the 
vestiges of which stakes are to be seen there to this day, 
and it appears to the spectators that each of them is thick 
(grosse) as the human thigh, and lead having been poured 
round them (circumfusa? plumbo), they were fixed im- 
moveably in the bottom of the river." 

How this could have been done seems quite in- 
comprehensible : where could they have obtained 
the enormous quantity of lead necessary for the 
purpose, and in what way could the melted metal 
have been used under water? Camden (Hist., 
p. 155.) places the site of the battle that ensued 
at a place called Coway Stakes, near Oatlands, in 
Surrey. I have heard a tradition that some of 
them existed in the memory of persons now living ; 
and that they were of oak, and carefully charred 
by the action of fire, probably to preserve them. 
Can any reader of " N. & Q." inform me whether 
there are now any remains of these stakes, and 
can they throw any light on this singular story of 
their being united together by lead. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

EXTRAORDINARY CUSTOM AT A WEDDING. The 
author of the paper on " Marriage in Low Life," 
in Chambers s Journal (vol. xii. p. 397.), says that 
persons have been known to come, at Easter time, 
into a certain church on the eastern borders of 
London, with long sticks, to the ends of which 
were fastened pieces of sweet-stuff; of which the 



clerk, on going to request them to lay -down their 
staves before coining into the chancel, was re- 
quested to partake. In what church has this ex- 
traordinary practice ever been witnessed ? It is 
the carrying out with a vengeance of the Greek* 
custom of sweetmeats being poured over the 
heads of newly-married couples. I can find no 
reference in Brand. P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

SEPULCHRAL SLABS AND CROSSES. The fol- 
lowing sentence will be found at p. 29. of the Rev. 
Edward L. Cutts' Manual for the Study of the 
Sepulchral Slabs and Crosses : 

" In the case of a layman, the foot of the cross is laid 
towards the east ; in that of an ecclesiastic towards the 
west ; for a layman was buried with his face to the altar, 
a cleric with his face to the people. This rule, however, 
was not invariably observed." 

Unfortunately for those interested in the sub- 
ject there are no references to the localities of 
existing examples ; but which it is probable some 
of your readers will obligingly supply. ' 

In continuation, it is very desirable to know if 
inscriptions were included in the same distinction, 
and consequently were obliged to be read stand- 
ing with the face towards the east. The latter 
question is suggested by the desire to forward an 
example bearing every evidence of being origin- 
ally placed in the position it now occupies. 

H. D'AVENEY. 

Blofield. 

SIR MARK KENNAWAY. In 2 nd S. ii. 368. 
mention is made of a " Sir Mark Kennaway," 
Knight, as brought up from the court of the 
" Savoy, 1716, for divers criminal acts against the 
King's Majesty." 

The wife of a very kind friend of mine, of a 
similar name, is very anxious to obtain some infor- 
mation as to who Sir Mark Kennaway was, and 
from whence, and if your correspondent at the 
time the No. of " N. & Q." was published (Nov. 7, 
1857), could communicate any information, and 
would kindly transmit it to me, or reply in your 
next number, he would very much oblige 

WM. COLLYNS. 

Haldon House, Exeter. 



toft!) 

EIKON BASILICA: PICTURE OF CHARLES I. 
I am much obliged to you and your correspon- 
dents (2 nd S. viii. 356. 444. 500.) for answering 
my Query respecting the editio princeps of this 
work. Since writing about it, I have succeeded 
in obtaining a copy with Marshall's plate, but un- 
luckily the book is imperfect. It agrees in the 
minutest details with the one I first described, and 
has no trace of the curious variations observed by 



* See Schol, on Ar., Plut. 768, 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



IX. JAN. 14. 



E. S. TAYLOR. My present object is to send a 
note respecting the plate, and one which will in- 
terest such of your readers as do not already pos- 
sess the information. 

In New Remarks of London, or a Survey of the 
Cities of London and Westminster, collected by 
the Company of Parish Clerks, London, 1732, al- 
lusion is made either to the original, or a remark- 
able imitation of this picture. Under the head of 
" St. Botolph, Bishopsgate," at p. 152. is the fol- 
lowing : 

" Remarkable places and things. Tho' it was not in- 
tended to mention anything remarkable within any of the 
churches, yet there is one in this which I cannot pass by. 
For here is a spacious piece of painting, being the picture 
of King Charles I. in his royal robes, at his devotion, 
with his right hand on his breast, and his left holding a 
crown of thorns ; and a scroll, on which are these words, 
Christo tracto. And by the crown at his feet these words, 
Mundi calco, sphndidam et gravem. In a book which lies 
expanded before him are these words, In Verbo tuo, on 
the left hand page ; and on the right, Spes mea. Above 
him is a glory, with the rays darting on his majesty's 
head, and these, ' Carolus I. ov OVK $v aios 6 KOO-JUOS,' Heb. xi. 
38. On another ray, shining on his head toward the 
back part, these words, Clarior e Tenebris. Behind his 
back is a ship tossed on the sea by several storms, and 
these words, Immota Triumphans; also Nescit Naufra* 
giiim Virtus, and Crescit sub pondere Virtus. " 

I quote this literally, with its apparent errors. 
For those who have the engraving, it will be 
needless to point out the resemblances and differ- 
ences, as they will be seen at once. There is, 
however, one detail which leads me to imagine 
that the print is a copy the king's left hand is 
here upon his breast, and his right hand holds the 
crown of thorns. This change would easily occur 
in producing an engraving, but I do not see how 
it would be at all likely in copying a painting, or 
a print. 

Whether this interesting picture is still in St. 
Botolph's church, I am not aware; but in the 
third volume of London and Middlesex, 1815 (p. 
153.), the Rev. J. Nightingale says : " On the 
wall of the stairs, leading to the north gallery, is a 
fine old picture of King Charles I., emblematically 
describing his sufferings." At that period this 
painting must have been in the church greater 
part of a century, and it was probably brought 
from the old building, which was removed about 
1725 to make way for the present structure. 

B. H. C. 

[The painting may still be seen on the stairs leading 
to the north gallery of Bishopsgate church. Pepys was 
under the impression that it was copied from the Eikon 
Basilike : " Oct. 2, 1664 (Lord's day), walked with my 
boy through the city, putting in at several churches, 
among others at Bishopsgate, and there saw the picture 
usually put before the king's book, put up in the church, 
but very ill painted, though it were a pretty piece to set 
up in a church." The picture, however, is not the one 
engraved for the Eikon Basilike, but relates to the fron- 
tispiece of the large folio Common Prayer Book of 1661, 
and consists of a sort of pattern altar-piece, which it was 



intended should generally be placed in the churches. 
The design is a sort of classical affair, derived in type 
from the ciborium of the ancient and continental churches : 
a composition- of two Corinthian columns, engaged or 
disengaged, with a pediment. It occurs very frequently 
in the London churches, and may be occasionally re- 
marked in country-town churches^ especially those re- 
stored at the King's coming in. Any one who has ever 
seen the great Prayer-Book of 1661, will at once recog- 
nise the allusion. Vide Gent. Mag., March 1849, p. 226. 
Consult also European Mag.. Ixiv. 391. ; and " N. & O ." 
1* S. i. 137.] 

TAYLOR THE PLATONIST. Has there ever been 
published a biography of Thomas Taylor the Pla- 
tonist? Where can I see a list of his original 
works and translations ? EDWARD PEACOCK. 

[An interesting biographical notice of Thomas Taylor, 
who died Nov. 1, 1835, appeared in The Athenceum, and 
copied into the Gent. Mag. of Jan. 1836, p. 91. Some 
account of his principal works is given in this article. A 
copious and very curious memoir of his early life will be 
found in British Public Characters of 1798, pp. 127152. 
It is supposed to have been written by himself; and cer- 
tainly the minute private particulars it contains, must have 
been immediately derived from him. A Catalogue of his 
very curious library was printed in 1836. See " N. & Q." 
2 nd S. ii. 489. ; iii. 35., for some notices of him.] 

To FLY IN THE AIR. It is a common expression 
with some people, if you ask them to do a thing 
which they think they are unable to do, to answer 
" You might as well ask me to fly in the air." 
Whence did this phrase take its origin ? A. T. L. 

[Without falling back upon antiquity, one naturally 
understands by the expression, " you might as well ask 
me to fly in the air" an intimation that what is asked 
is something wholly beyond the speaker's power to grant ; 
q. d. " You don't suppose 1 am a witch ? " Our folk lore 
is rich in such expressions, implying utter inability : as, 
when a person is asked for money, " You don't suppose 2 
am made of gold? " with which cf. the reply of hale, 
elderly persons, when asked " How are you ? " " Hearty 
as a buck ; but can't jump quite so high ! " But if, in ex- 
planation of the phrase cited by our correspondent, we 
must really come upon the stores of former ages, we 
would suggest that the phrase "you might as well ask 
me to fly in the air," was specially used in reply to those 
requests which could not be carried out and executed 
without expeditiously covering a certain amount of dig* 
tance. " It can't be done in the time, unless I could fly" 
This idea carries back our thoughts to the winged 
seraphs of the Old Testament, who flew to execute the 
divine commands, with the swiftness of lightning : " I am 
a man, not an angel." Or, if the allusion be to heathen 
times, " I am not Iris, the winged messenger of Juno ; 
nor Mercury, the winged messenger of Jove. To serve 
you, I would willingly do any amount of distance on 
Shanks's mare ; but don't ask me to fly : " meaning, u I 
shan't bridge, and am yours," &c.] 

BOLLED. This word is used in Exodus ix. 31. 
What is its exact meaning and derivation ? 

D. S. E. 

[The passage in question is cited in Todd's Johnson, 
where it is stated that the word boll, as applied to flax, 
means the globule which contains the seed. In this sense 
the two concluding clauses of the verse correspond : " the 
barley was in the ear, and the flax was boiled, $o LXX. 



2* d S. IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



29 



TO 8e \ivov <nrepii.a.riov, and Vulg., "et linum jam folliculos 
germmaret." Other interpreters have understood that 
the flax was in that state when it had the corollas of 
flowers; and others, again, that it was in the stalk or 
haulm. Something may be said in favour of either view ; 
but we incline to that first given, both as respects the 
English word boiled, and the true meaning of the original 
passage in Exodus.] 

ANGLO-SAXON LITERATURE. I should be obliged 
if you would name one or more books giving gra- 
phic accounts of Anglo-Saxon manners and insti- 
tutions. S. P. 

[The following works will help our correspondent to 
an acquaintance with Anglo-Saxon manners and institu- 
tions : Sharon Turner's History of the Anglo- Saxons, 4 vols. 
8vo. 1802-5 ; Palgrave's -Rise and Progress of the English 
Commonwealth, Anglo-Saxon Period, 4to. 1832 ; Palgrave's 
History of England, Anglo-Saxon Period (Family Li- 
brary), 1831 ; Lappenberg's History of England under the 
Anglo-Saxon Kings, translated by B. Thorpe, 2 vols. 
8vo. 1845 ; The Saxons in England, by J. M. Kemble, 
2 vols. 8vo. 1849 ; Polydore Vergil's English History, by 
Sir Henry Ellis (Camden Society), 4to. 1846 ; Strutt's 
Chronicle of England, 4to. 2 vols. 1777-8 ; Strutt's Corn- 
pleat View of the Manners, Customs, Arms, fyc. of the In- 
habitants of England, 3 vols. 4to. 1775-6 ; Strutt's Sports 
and Pastimes, 4to. 1801 ; and Miller's History of the An- 
glo-Saxons (Bohn's Illustrated Library), 1856 ; while for 
Anglo-Saxon literature generally he may consult Mr. 
Thomas Wright's Coup d'GEil sur le Progres et sur VEtat 
de laLitteratureAnglo-SaxonneenAngleterre, 8vo. 1836.] 

THE COAN. In Chambers' s Annals of Scotland, 
under the date of Oct. 1602 (vol. i. p. 369.), there 
is a notice of a feud between the clans of Mac- 
kenzie of Kintail and Macdonald of Glengarry. 
After a number of outrages on both sides, Mr. 
John Mackenzie, parson of Dingwall, taking ad- 
vantage of Glengarry's absence on the Continent, 
accused him, before the Lords of Council at Edin- 
burgh, of being instigator of a certain murder ; 
and also " he proved him to be a worshipper of 
the Coan, which image was afterwards brought to 
Edinburgh, and burned at the Cross." What 
was the Coan f DORRICKS. 

[As authors who mention " the Coan," appear to write 
under the impression that their readers understand the 
phrase, we trusted that there were some who knew more 
about it than we do, and that a former Query on the 
subject (2 nd S. vii. 277.) would bring us a speedy answer 
from our friends in the North. In the hope that we may 
yet receive a reply from those who are best able to give 
it, we shall content ourselves for the present with offering 
a conjecture. 

As " the Coan" was " an image used in witchcraft" and 
as it was also " worshipped " an " object of idolatry " 
we know not what to understand by it but an image of 
the devil. The devil was, by general repute and consent, 
the object of witch -worship ; and we are not aware that 
there was any other. The term Coan may on this sup- 
position correspond to the old kuhni, or kueni, which, ac- 
cording to Grimm (Deut. Mythol, 1835, p. 562.), is still a 
provincial term applied in Schweitz (one of the Swiss 
Cantons) to the devil : quasi der kuhne, verwegene, the 
audacious, the daring one ? In Lowland Scotch, also, we 
find " Cowman" the devil ; we suspect, however, that the 
relation between Cowman and Coan is more in sound than 
in etymology. 



The worship of the devil by witches is a practice, 
though essential to our theory, too notorious to need 
more than a passing notice here. In the 14th century, a 
woman confessed " se adorasse diabolum illi genua flec- 
tendo." (Grimm, p. 600.) Some of the rites, indeed, are 
better told in Latin than in English. " Ibi conveniunt 
cum candelis accensis, et adorant ilium caprum osculantes 
eum in ano suo " (p. 601.). The image, or form in which 
the devil was worshipped, was generally that of a goat ; 
and a wooden goat, very likely meaning no harm, may 
have been the identical Coan that was burnt at Edin- 
burgh. The alleged custom of worshipping the devil by 
lighting candles before him has led to the German phrase 
" dem Teufel ein Licht anstecken " (p. 566.), which elu- 
cidates our own " holding a candle to the devil." And in 
allusion to the practice- of honouring the evil one with 
drink-offerings or libations (Cf. " deofles cuppan," the 
devil's cup, Ulfilas, 1 Cor. x. 21.), it is still usual in Ger- 
many to say that a man leaves an offering for the devil 
(" lasse dem Teufel ein Opfer "), when he does not empty 
his glass. Hence our own vernacular phrase, when a 
manfinishes the tankard, of " not leaving the devil a drop." 
Thus many of our commonest expressions have a latent 
connexion with remote antiquity ; for German mythology 
is as old as the hills. 

In connecting "Coan" (through " kueni," the devil,) 
with the modern Ger. kiihn, it should be borne in mind 
that among the old forms of kiihn we find kian, chuen, 
and chuan. Adelung.~\ 

"PARLIAMENTARY PORTRAITS." Who was the 
author of an 8vo. volume, published in London in 
1815, and entitled Parliamentary Portraits; or, 
Sketches of the Public Character of some of the 
most distinguished Speakers of the House of Com- 
mons ? ABHBA. 

[These parliamentary sketches are by Thomas Barnes, 
late principal editor of The Times, who died 7 May, 1841. 
They were contributed to The Examiner, at the time it 
was edited by Leigh Hunt. Moore and Hunt were 
Barnes's intimate companions in youth, and differed from 
him in nothing but the politics of his later life. Leigh 
Hunt, speaking of his imprisonment in 1815, says, 
"There came my old friend and schoolfellow, Thomas 
Barnes, who always reminds me of Fielding. It was he 
that introduced me to Alsager, the kindest of neighbours, 
a man of business, who contrived to be a scholar and a 
musician." Barnes was unquestionably the most accom- 
plished and powerful political writer of the day, and par- 
ticularly excelled in the portraiture of public men.] 



ANNE POLE. 
(2 nd S. viii. 170. 259.) 

The ladies to whom NOTSA referred in reply to 
my Query, were not descended from the same 
branch of the Pole family, and could render me 
no assistance. I write now to give all the inform- 
ation I can, in the hope that it may lead to more. 
Anne Pole was apparently the youngest daughter 
and eleventh child of Sir "Geffrye Poole" (as he 
wrote his own name on the walls of the Beau- 
champ tower in 1562), the brother of Cardinal, 
and second son of Sir Richard Pole, K.G. All 
the Pole or Poole pedigrees, and lives of Arthur 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 n <i S. IX. JAN. i4. ''60. 



Hildersham, agree in making her the wife or se- 
cond wife of Thomas Hildersham of Stechworth, 
Cambridge, though the name of the place is very 
variously spelled. The arms of this Thomas Hil- 
dersham were sable, a chevron between three 
crosses patonce, or. He was the son of Thomas 
Hildersham (married, 1. Miss Hewston of Swaff- 
ham, and 2. Margaret Harleston of Essex), and 
grandson of Richard Hildersham (married Miss 
Ratcliffe of Stechworth), and great grandson of 
Thomas Hildersham of Ely. (Harleian MSS., 
1534. fol. 121. or 122.; 1449. fol. 27 b. ; 1103. 
fol. 226., &e.). He had also two brothers: 1. 
Richard, who removed to Moulton, in Suffolk, 
where he died (30th July, 1573) ; he adopted 
three cinque/oils in lieu of the crosses patonce in his 
arms; and his will was proved at London, llth 
Feb. 1573-4; and 2. William, who died at Cam- 
bridge, leaving a nuncupative will, proved at 
London, 7th June, 1599. By Anne Pole he had 
the well-known Arthur Hildersham ( N. & Q." 
2 nd S. viii. 474.), born 6th Oct. 1563, at Stech- 
worth ; married, 5th Jan. 1590, to Anne Barfoot 
of Lamborn Hall, Essex, who survived him ten 
years ; died 4th March, 1631, leaving, as appears 
by his will (proved at Leicester, 7th May, 1632), 
three sons : Samuel, Timothy, and one between, 
name unknown ; and one daughter, Sara Luni- 
mas or Lomax. In this will he mentions his bro- 
ther Richard, but whether by whole or half-blood 
does not appear. Lady Pole, relict of Sir Geof- 
frey, left a will, proved in London 20th Sept. 
1570, in which she mentioned all her children 
known to be living at the time, except Anne. 
But we have reason to suppose from Clarke's Life 
of Arthur Hildersham, annexed to his Martyro- 
logy, that she, as well as her husband, was alive 
when Arthur was at College, which could not be 
earlier than 1578, as they then cast him off on 
account of his change of religion. Moreover they 
must still have been in relation with the Pole 
family ; as Thomas, his father, had intended to 
get him forward by the interest of the Cardinal. 
From this time all trace is lost of Thomas Hilder- 
sham and Anne Pole. Information is required as 
to when and where they were born, married, died, 
or had their wills proved; as to the name of 
Thomas's first wife or Anne's second husband, and 
as to their other children by this or other mar- 
riages. The registers of Stechworth begin in 1666, 
a century too late, and contain no trace of the 
Hildershams. Those at Moulton contain the 
births of the second family and the death of Ri- 
chard Hildersham, all under the name of Elder- 
sam. There is, however, an old MS. note in the 
fly-leaf of my copy of Arthur Hildersham's Ser- 
mons on the 51st Psalm, which has been altered 
by a second hand. The words inserted by the 
second writer are added in brackets, and those 
omitted are italicised in the following copy i 



" The author of this book, Arthur Hildersham, was 
brother in law or half brother to Miss [M r ] Ward, they 
being both by the same mother, but by different fathers, 
and the said [who had issue] Miss "Ward mar. John 
Savidge of Ashby Old Park." 

This would imply that Anne Pole married a 
Mr. Ward as her second husband, and that the 
Miss Ward was her daughter or grand- daughter 
by this marriage. But Anne Pole's grandson 
Samuel was probably born in 1592 (he was ejected 
from the living of West Felton, in Shropshire, as 
a Nonconformist in 1662), and it is therefore not 
likely that her grand-daughter should have been 
born in 1657, and died in 1735, like this Miss 
Ward. A generation may have been skipped by 
the writer. Miss Ward, that is, Mrs. Savidge, is 
stated on her tombstone at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 
to be the daughter of Thomas and Anne Ward, 
and her own name was Anne. Her parents were 
of Burton-on-Trent, where the registers have 
these entries : 

" 1653. Thomas Ward, paterfamilias, sep. 18 Aug. 

" 1660. Sara Ward, filia Thorn, et Annse, Bapt. 27 
Septembris. 

" 1662. Thomas Ward, paterfamilias : sepultus 11 
March." 

The recurrence of the names Anne and Sara 
(not Sarah), seem to favour the connexion with 
Anne Pole and Sara Hildersham (afterwards Mrs. 
Lummas or Lomax). I am particularly interested 
in tracing this connexion between Anne Pole and 
the Wards. The latter are supposed to have been 
originally from Stenson, near Derby, and may 
have been connected with the Wards of Shenston, 
near Lichfield, whose history is in Nichols's Lei' 
cestershire. Any information which would tend 
to verify or disprove the assertions in the MS. 
note above cited, will be most thankfully re- 
ceived. ALEX. J. EJLLIS. 

2. Western Villas, Colney Hatch Park, N. 



SEA-BREACHES. 
(2 nd S. viii. 468.) 

I, too, have heard many wonderful stories of the 
inroads of the sea in the neighbourhoods referred 
to by your correspondent (?). Among the rest 
my boyish fancy was tickled with the story of a 
Norfolk Curtius who was a very fat man, who 
stopped a breach at its commencement by de- 
liberately sitting down in it while others placed 
sand-bags, faggots, &c., behind him ! Subsequent 
inquiries have not confirmed this anecdote. The 
first Act of Parliament I have found on the sub- 
ject is Anno Vicesimo Septimo Elizabethse Re- 
ginae, cap. xxiv. (1585). This recites an Act 
2 & 3 Philip & Mary, for employing statute labour 
on highways; states that such labour is not re- 
quired in the neighbourhood of these banks, and 
empowers the Justices of the Peace in the general 



2 nd S. IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



31 



Sessions of the County of Norfolk to transfer 
such statute labour of persons residing within 
three miles of the sea banks to make and repair 
any of them, which are not and ought not to be 
made and maintained at the particular charge of 
any person or persons, or at the charge of any 
township, or by Acre-shot, or other common 
charge. 

This act is continued by 3 Car. I. c. 4. and 
16 Car. I. c. 4. The next act is 7 James I. cap. 
xx. The Preamble commences : 

" Whereas the sea hath broken into the County of 
Norfolk, and hath surrounded much hard grounds, be- 
sides the greatest part of the marshes and low grounds 
within the Towns and Parishes of Waxtonesham, Pall- 
ing, Hickling, Horsey," and about seventy other parishes 
in Norfolk and sixteen in Suffolk. 

" For remedy of so great a Calamity it is enacted, 
That the Lord "Chancellor shall from time to time award 
Commissions under the Great, Seal to the Lord Bishop of 
Norwich, and to eleven or more Justices of the Peace of 
Norfolk and to Six or more Justices of Suffolk," 

who have powers given them to levy a tax for 
the repair of the breaches and various other 
necessary purposes. 

This Act, which at first was temporary, was 
continued by 3 Car. I. c. 4. s. 28., and made per- 
petual by 16 Car: I. c. 4. The Act of Elizabeth 
was also only temporary. 

I have been unable to discover any other Act 
on this subject ; nor do I know under what Act 
the Commissioners of Sea Breaches recently levied 
a rate on these parishes. Nor, though I have 
heard that there is an Act, as your correspondent 
says, to make it penal to cut the " marrum," have 
I discovered one. But by the 15 & 16 Geo. II. 
c. 33., " plucking up and carrying away starr, or 
bent, or having it in possession, within five miles of 
the sandhills, was punishable by fine, imprison- 
ment, and whipping." This refers to Lancashire 
and the N.W. counties. I copy it from Halliwell, 
who quotes it from Moor's Suffolk Words. I can 
show that " marrum" was anciently called " starr" 
in Norfolk. 

I have, I fear, made this reply extend to a very 
unreasonable length ; but I am very anxious to 
learn (and willing to impart also, when I know) 
anything concerning the drainage of the marshes 
formed by the rivers discharging themselves into 
the sea at Yarmouth. I formerly put a Query 
on this subject in " N. & Q.," but it elicited no 
reply. It is somewhat singular that so little 
should be known about it, as the Abbey of St. 
Bennet's in the Holm had such large possessions 
in these marshes, which probably was the cause of 
the Bishop of Norwich (who succeeded to the 
property of that abbey) being made a commis- 
sioner by the act 7 James I. cap. xx. But I find 
from the review in the Athenaeum of the Chronicle 
of John of Oxnedes a monk of this abbey 
that some information is there given as to inun- 



dations at Hickling, Horsey, &c., in one of which 
nine score persons perished, and the water rose 
a foot above the high altar in Hickling Priory. I 
have not yet seen the work itself, but hope to do 
so, and to discover in it something bearing on the 
question. E. G. R. 



THE TE DEUM" INTERPOLATED? 
(2 nd S. viii. 352.) 

What is the " offensiveness " of the three ver- 
sicles in the " Te Deum " (11 13), "enumer- 
ating the Three Persons of the Trinity " ? Sup- 
posing the " Te Deum " to have been written, 
according to the current tradition, when an emi- 
nent Father of the Church was baptized, the 
same threefold enumeration would doubtless take 
place in the baptismal formula, as enjoined by 
our Lord himself (Matt, xxviii. 19.). What of- 
fence, then, if it appeared simultaneously in a 
hymn composed on the occasion ? 

On examining the text of the " Te Deum," as 
it exists in the oldest records, we find no shadow 
of a pretext for supposing that the three versicles 
in question " are interpolated." The Latin text, 
which is unquestionably the oldest, has them ; so 
has the old German or Teutonic, into which the 
"^Te Deum " was rendered in the early part of 
the ninth century (** seculi IX' initio in Theotis- 
cam linguam conversus ") ; in fact, no old Version 
is without them. Even. Sarnelli, of^all conjectural 
critics apparently the most slashing and crotchety, 
who would fain omit versicles 2 10., leaves vv. 
11 13 intact. According to his suggestion the 
versicles would run thus: 1, 11, 12, 13, &c. ; not 
that there seems to be the least pretence for this 
omission, any more than for that of vv. 11 13. 

Any attempt to infer the interpolation of the 
three versicles from the supposed " sequence of the 
hymn," (first the even versicles answering the 
odd, and afterwards the odd answering the even), 
must be taken with a grain of salt. That the 
*' Te Deum " was originally divided as it is now, 
there seems great reason for doubting. Its pre- 
sent number of versicles is 29. But in the Teu- 
tonic version, already referred to, the whole 29 
make only 16 distinct portions, thus : 1, 2 ; 3, 
4; 5, 6; 79; 1013; 1416; 17; 18, 19; 
20 ; 21 ; 22, 23 ; 24, 25 ; 26 ; 27; 28 ; 29. Again ; 
three versicles of the hymn as it now stands, 4 6, 
are but an expansion of a single verse of Isaiah 
(vi. 3.). Little can be inferred, then, from the 
sequence or correspondence of the versicles, as we 
now have them in their separate state. 

We are thus led to ask the question, What can 
have first suggested the idea of an interpolated 
" Te Deum " ? Can it by any possibility be Bona- 
ventura's astounding parody ? There, the *' Te 
Deum laudamus " becomes " Te matrem Dei lau- 
damus;" and the three versicles, 11 13, are 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



ix. JAN. 14. '60. 



actually struck out, the " Three Persons of the 
Trinity " give place, in order that the Virgin may 
be worshipped instead ! 

Struck out : 
" Patrem immense majestatis ; 
Venerandum tuum, verum, et unicum Filium ; 
Sanctum quoque Paracletum Spiritum." 

Substituted : 
" Matrem divinje majestatis, 
Venerandam te veram Regis ccelestis puerperam, 
Sanctam quoque dulcedinem et piam." 

Can it be this appalling substitution which first 
suggested the idea that the three older versicles 
are an interpolation ? THOMAS BOYS. 



THE SUFFRAGAN BISHOP OF IPSWICH. 

(2 nd S. viii. 225. 296. 316.) 
In reference to Thomas Manning, suffragan 
Bishop of Ipswich, in 1536, perhaps the following 
information relative to the terms on which he re- 
tired from the office of Prior of Butley, in Suffolk, 
may neither be useless to inquirers, nor destitute 
of interest generally. I copy it from considerable 
collections made by myself some years since for 
the History of St. Mary's College, intended to 
have been established in Ipswich by Cardinal Wol- 
sey, and better known as Cardinal's College an 
establishment which may be said indeed to have 
possessed no real history, as although the build- 
ings were nearly completed, the institution shared 
the fate of its founder, and fell into disgrace with 
him who had conceived the excellent project. 
The article I now forward was taken from the 
Chapter House Papers ; but the particular refer- 
ence, so that the document might be consulted by 
others, I have at present mislaid. Manning suc- 
ceeded Augustine Rivers as Prior of Butley, who 
died Sept. 24, 1528, and was buried in St. 
Anne's chapel in the church of the monastery. 
Manning also became the last Warden of the Col- 
lege of Metyngham. 

" It is agreed on the King's o r Soveraigne lordes be- 
halfe, that Thomas, Suffragan of Gippeswiche, shall have 
these thinges folowyng : 

Annuyties and Wages. 

Ffirst an annuytie or yerly pension for 
the terme of his liff of xx marks. 

Item, reasonable pensions to be granted 
to the chanons of Butley, and ther 
wages due also to be payd - - . . . 

Item, the wages of all the servants to be 



" Jewelrys, Plate, and household Stuff. 

Item, he shall have the mytre and 
crosse staff, w* all his pontificalls - ... 

Item, he shall have his chamber stuffe 
in the Priory of Butley, w* all tha 
app'tenance, and also all the plate be- 
longing as -well to his owne chamber 
and table, as also goyng abrode in the 



Ix combes. 
xxx combes. 
x. 



X. 

v score. 



house (the plate of the churche alone 
excepted) - 

Item, he shall have the good porcion of 
the stuff of household as Brasse, pew- 
ter, copper, candell, and other thinges 
like 

" Corn and Catall 

Item, he shall have barley and malte - 
Item, he shall of whete - 
Item, he shall have^ horse and geldings 
Item, he shall have mares - 
Item, he shall have bullocks 
Item, he shall have of kyne 
Item, he shall have of shepe 

" Dettes to be payd. 

Item, such dettes as be owyng to any 
persons to be payd, that is to say to 
the children of Robert Mannyng - xxxiiij 1 . 

Item, to the Kynsman of William Pres- 
ton - XXX 1 . 

Item, to Alies Broke - xl 1 . 

Item, to the children of Robert Manyng 

the younger ----- xxvj. xiii. iiij. 
Item, to the Kynsfolke of S r Alexander 

Redberd xi. 

Item, to M r Wryotesley, &c. - - xl yearly. 
Item, to John Jay the ferme of Grandy 

hall for - - - - - - xl yeares. 

Item, to the Prio* Sister one annut for 

the term of life - - - - iij. vj. viij. 
Item, of the vestments of the churche 

ij, copes iij, ij vestments for the prests 

and o r chain 1 "." 

I possess other memorials relating to this Tho- 
mas Manning, which shall be given to " N. & Q." 
as soon as I find them. JOHN WODDERSPOON. 

Norwich. 



TRANSLATIONS MENTIONED BY MOORE (2 nd S. 
ix. 12.) In reply to the inquiry of SENEX, I 
beg to say that I am the " Mr. Smith " who sent the 
Greek music and Greek translations to Thomas 
Moore in 1826. 

The English title of the work in question is 
Specimens of Romaic Lyric Poetry with a Trans- 
lotion into English : to which is prefixed a concise 
Treatise on Music, by Paul Maria Leopold Joss. 
Printed for Richard Glynn, 36. Pall Mall, 1826. 

Mr. Joss was a distinguished German gentle- 
man, jurist, and scholar, with whom I was ac- 
quainted in Cephalonia, where he held a civil 
office under our government. Afterwards he be- 
came a professor in the Ionian University, and a 
practitioner at the bar in Corfu. He was there 
when I last heard of him, and there I hope he 
still lives and thrives. If SENEX have any diffi- 
culty in procuring a copy of the work mine is at 
his service. HENRY P. SMITH. 

Sheen Mount, East Sheen. 

CLAUDIUS GILBERT (2 nd S. iv. 128.) He en- 
tered Trin. Coll. Dublin, 23d March, 1685, aged 
sixteen ; was son of Claudius Gilbert, " Theo- 
logii," and was born and educated at Belfast. 

Y.S.M. 



2* d S. IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



JOHN GILPIN (2 nd S. viii. 110.) "In a small 
volume containing a printed book dated 1587, 
and various manuscripts chiefly written by a 
clergyman, Christopher Parkes (Yorkshire), with 
dates from 1655 to 1664, and in another hand 
1701, also on the fly-leaf amongst other direc- 
tions, showing that the volume was in demand, is 
written, * To be left att Mr. John Gilpin's 
House att the Golden Anchor in Cheapside att 
y e corner of Bread S: London.' This was not 
written after 1701, and may have been written 
before that date." 

" Cowper's ballad was first printed in 1782, but 
without the information that it was founded upon 
a story told him by Lady Austen, a widow, who 
heard it when she was a child. Mr. West writes 
in 1839, that Mr. Colet told him fifty years ago, 
say about 1789, or seven years after the publi- 
cation of the ballad, that one Beyer, then in his 
dotage, and who did not live at the corner of 
Bread Street, was the true Gilpin. Mr. Colet 
did not get the true story from Mr. Beyer, which 
must have differed from the poet's amplified and 
excusably exaggerated tale. The fact is that 
Beyer knew nothing about Gilpin till he read 
Cowper's ballad : he was not a train-band captain. 
The reason why the true Gilpin was not disco- 
vered is because nobody looked for him amongst 
the earlier records of the city and its trade com- 
panies. His name was supposed to be fictitious, 
because he did not live in Cowper's time, and it 
was not generally known that Lady Austen had 
told him an old story." 

The above has been handed to me by a learned 
friend, now aged eighty, who tells me that his 
mother told him the story of John Gilpin, eo 
nomine, in his childhood, and said she had heard 
it when a child. A. DE MORGAN. 

NOTE ABOUT THE RECORDS TEMP. EDWARD III. 
(2 nd S. viii. 450.) The contributor of this Note 
has not stated its source, nor the date, either of 
its being written, or of the record from which it 
was derived. The latter appears to be in 1341, 
when Edward the Third had reigned " these four- 
teen yeares," and at which time Thomas de Eves- 
ham (whose name is turned into Evsann) suc- 
ceeded John de St. Paul as Master of the Rolls. 
But we ought also to be informed where this 
memorandum was found, and at least the ap- 
parent age of the MS., which, from the spelling, is 
perhaps not anterior to Elizabeth or James the 
First. J. G. N. 

THE PRUSSIAN IRON MEDAL (2 nd S. viii. 470.) 
The Prussian iron medal was not given to those 
Prussian patriots who in the wars against Nap. I. 
sent in their jewels and plate for their country's 
service, but to those who, as civilians or non- 
combatants, accompanied the Prussian armies. A 
full description of it may be found in Bolzenthal's 



work on medals (Denkmunzen), ed. 1841, p. 26., 
No. 74., and a representation of it in plate xvi of 
the same work. Motto, " Gott war mit uns. Ihm 
sey die Ehre ! " (" God was with us. To Him be 
the glory ! ") And on the field, " Fur Pflichttreue 
/im/ Kriege." (For fidelity in the war.) Form 
oval, with a ring for suspension. To all com- 
batants was granted a circular medal of captured 
gun metal (No. 73.). So far as those patriots 
who devoted their jewels and plate are concerned, 
the facts are these. All being surrendered, " La- 
dies wore no other ornaments than those made of 
iron, upon which was engraved : ' We gave gold 
for the freedom of our country ; and, like her, wear 
an iron yoke. 1 " A beautiful but poor maiden, 
grieved that she had nothing else to give, went 
to a hair-dresser, sold her hair, and deposited the 
proceeds as her offering. The fact becoming 
known, the hair was ultimately resold for the 
benefit of fatherland. Iron rings were made, each 
containing a portion of the hair ; and these pro- 
duced far more than their weight in gold. 

Such is the account given in Edwards's History 
and Poetry of Finger Rings, 1855, pp. 190, 191. 
The author refers in a note to The Death War- 
rant, or Guide to Life, 1844 (London), a work 
which I have not been able to meet with. 

THOMAS BOYS. 

LODOVICO SFORZA. In "N. & Q." (2 nd S. vii. 
47.) I asked why Lodovico Sforza was called 
" Anglus." Among the replies given, MR. BOASE 
(2 nd S. vii. 183.) referred to a medal on which 
Galeazzo Maria Sforza was styled " Anglerie-que 
Comes." My attention has since been drawn to 
a passage in Cancellieri's Life of Columbus, edi- 
tion of 1809, p. .212. note : in which, quoting from 
Ratti's account of the Sforza family, he states 
that " the title of Counts of Anghiera, which had 
belonged to the Visconti, was retained by the 
Sforzas, their successors." Signor Ratti adds, 
that Anghiera having formerly had the rank of a 
city, and having lost that rank, Lodovico Sforza 
restored it by two very ample charters. This act 
strengthens the claim of Lodovico to the title, 
Anglus, given him by Scillacio. Anglerius, or 
Anglus, is formed from Angleria, the Latin for 
Anghiera. NEO-EBORACENSIS. 

MISPRINT IN SEVENTH COMMANDMENT (2 nd S. 
viii. 330.) A correspondent inserts a Query re- 
specting the edition of the English Bible, in which 
the word " not " was omitted from the seventh 
commandment. The edition in which this error 
occurs was printed in 1631, not in 1632. If Nix 
will refer to " N. & Q." 2 nd S. v. 389, 390., he will 
see this edition, and two others of the same year, 
particularly described. It is said that there is a 
fourth issue with a different title-page. This I 
have not seen, but the three others are distinct 
reprints. 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2*S. IX. JAN. 14. '60. 



I have also in my possession a copy of a German 
Bible, Luther's version, printed at Halle in 1731, 
small 12mo., in which the same omission occurs in 
the same commandment. (See Ebert, No. 219.) 
Could this have also been accidental ? 

I desire at this time to correct a mistake in the 
article above referred to (p. 390.). In speaking 
of the American editions of the Douny and 
Rhemish version, the printer has made me say, 
" there was a fourth edition printed in Phila- 
delphia in 1804, from the fourth Dublin edition, 
and perhaps another edition previously." The 
first fourth was superfluous ; and I am now satis- 
fied that no edition of this version was printed 
between the years 1790 and 1805. 

NEO-EBORACENSIS. 

MS. NEWS LETTERS (2 nd S. yiii. 450.) In 
answer to the Query if any particular series of 
such letters exist, I beg to say on the authority 
of Mr. Adam Stark that the Town Council of 
Glasgow was believed to have retained a profes- 
sional newswriter for the purpose of a weekly 
supply from his pen, and that a series of these 
newsletters, descending as low as 1711, was dis- 
covered in Glammis Castle, Scotland. I cannot 
say if they were ever printed. 

Ben. Jonson in his Masque (presented at Court 
in 1600) entitled News from the New World, 
makes one of the characters describe himself as 

" Factor for news for all the shires of England. I do 
write my thousand letters aweek ordinary, sometimes one 
thousand two hundred, and maintain the business at 
some charge, both to hold up my reputation with mine 
own ministers in town, and my friends of correspondence 
in the country. I have friends of all ranks and of all 
religions, for which I keep an answering catalogue of 
despatch, wherein I have my Puritan news, my Protes- 
tant news, and my Pontifical News." 

Twenty-five years subsequently to this Masque, 
Burly Ben, in his Staple of News (acted in 1625), 
clearly notes the transition from the written to 
the printed news-paper when he deprecatingly 
says of the pamphlets of news published and sent 
out every Saturday, that it is " made all at home, 
BO syllable of truth in them; than which there 
cannot be a greater disease in nature, or a fouler 
scorn put upon the times." 

-" . ... Unto some, 
The very printing of them makes them news 
That have not the heart to believe anything 
But what they see in print." 

W. J. STANNARD. 
Hatton Garden. 

DERIVATION OF HAWKER (2 nd S.viji.432.) The 
derivation of hawker from hawk (accipiter) pro- 
posed by Alphonse Esquiros, is just that which 
was preferred by Skinner, and for the same reason ; 
because the hawker, like the hawk, goes to and 
fro. " Hawkers sic dicuntur quia, instar Accipi- 
trum, hue illuc errantes lucrum seu praedum qua- 
quaversum venantur." (Etym. Vocal. Forens.) 



In explanation of this etymology it should be 
borne in, mind that the hawker, who is now a seller, 
was formerly a buyer ; he bought up articles, and 
so raised their price in the market. Hence Skin- 
ner's allusion to the predaceous habits of the 
hawk. 

The hawker's habit of going about from place 
to place, and rambling backwards and forwards, 
" hue illuc," is also a point of correspondence with 
the habits of the hawk kind. Some hawks sail in 
perpetual circles ; the Blue Hawk or Hen Harrier 
" has been seen to examine a large wheat stubble 
thoroughly, crossing it in various directions, for 
many days in succession." (Yarrell, British Birds, 
1856, i. 109.) So also in N. America. Red-tailed 
hawks " may be seen beating the ground as they 
fly over it in all directions." (Nut-tall, 1840, p. 
103.) " Hawkers, persons who went about from 
place to place." (Bailey.) 

Between "hawks" and "hawkers," however, 
there exists an etymological link which is generally 
overlooked ; namely, in the verb " to hawk," in its 
old but not very usual sense of going to and fro. 
This meaning is not mentioned in the Dictionaries; 
and the only example on which I can at this in- 
stant lay my hand is in Bingley's description of 
the dragon-fly. " The Rev. R. Sheppard informs 
me that in the summer of 1801 he sat for some 
time by the side of a pond, to observe a large 
dragon-fly as it was hawking backwards and for- 
wards in search of prey." (Animal Biog. 1813, iii. 
233.) 

How much rushing to and fro, running forwards, 
running back, as the rival parties prevailed, in 
the noble game of hockey ! Hockey was formerly 
Hawkey. (Halliwell.) 

These suggestions are simply offered in illustra- 
tion of the etymology of " hawker " proposed by 
Skinner ; and not with any wish to depreciate the 
derivation which your correspondent appears to 
prefer. THOMAS BOYS. 

SENDING JACK AFTER YES (2 nd S. viii. 484.) 
Fielding, at the end of Tom Thumb, uses sending 
Jack for mustard in a like sense. I do not know 
why : 

" So when the child, whom nurse from danger guards, 
Sends Jack for mustard with a pack of cards, 
Kings, queens and knaves throw one another down, 
And the whole pack lies scattered and o'erthrown ; 
So all our pack upon the floor is cast, 
And my sole boast is, that 1 fall the last." 

FlTZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 



MONTHLY FEUILLETON ON FRENCH BOOKS. 

1. Contes et Apologues Indiens inconnus j usqu'a ce jour, 
suivis de Fables et de Poesies Chinoises, traduction de M. 



IX. JAN. 14. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Stanislas Julien, Membre de PInstitut. 2 vols. 12mo. 
Paris, L. Hachette. 

The study of Oriental literature is now growing rapidly 
in France as elsewhere, and we can already anticipate the 
time when a knowledge of Sanscrit will be considered an 
essential element in every gentleman's education. Messrs. 
Renan, Caussin de Perceval, Renan, Eugene Burnouf, may 
be named amongst those who have chiefly aided in bring- 
ing about this result, and the two volumes to which we 
would call the attention of our readers are attempts and 
very happy ones to interest the reading public in re- 
searches which must open up literary treasures of the 
most remarkable character. 

Both India and China have contributed to the volumes 
translated by M. Stanislas Julien, under the title Contes 
et Apologues Indiens, for the amusing tales there collected 
originally came from the banks of the Ganges ; the San- 
scrit text, however, exists no more, and it is from a Chinese 
version that the French savant has been obliged to perform 
his own task. The development of Buddhism in the 
" celestial empire " sufficiently explains why the Indian 
Avaddnas, or similitudes, should exist at the same time in 
the double form just now mentioned. An additional 
value is imparted to the Contes et Apologues by the fact 
that they have hitherto escaped the observation of all 
those whose pursuits are directed towards either Sanscrit 
or Chinese literature. M. Stanislas Julien discovered the 
whole collection in a Chinese Cyclopaedia, where it occurs 
with the metaphoric title Yu-lin (the forest of similes'). 
The author of this work seems to have been a man named 
Youen-thal, or Jou-hien, who, after having obtained (so 
says the Catalogue of the Imperial Library at Pekin) 
a doctor's degree in 1565, rose, at a later period, to the 
important post of chief justice. The Yu-lin is compiled 
from eleven recueils of similes or comparisons, the titles 
of which are enumerated by M. Julien ; it is an extremely 
valuable production, if we either examine its intrinsic 
qualities or compare it with analogous works of Greek or 
Latin origin. We can only hope that the learned trans- 
lator will be induced to proceed with his undertaking, and 
to give us his promised version of the Fa-youen-tchou-lin, 
as also another volume of Chinese fables. By way of 
sequel to the Indian Avaddnas, which make up the 
greater part of the work, M. Julien has added a few 
pieces purely Chinese by origin, and these are not the less 
curious feature in the series. 

2. Nouvelles Chinoises, traduction de M. Stanislas Julien. 
12mo. Paris, L. Hachette. 

M. Stanislas Julien informs us in the Preface to this 
volume, that " les Chinois possedent plusieurs romans his- 
toriques fort estimes," and he now offers a specimen of 
mandarinic fiction both to the readers who are fond of 
Oriental literature, and to the more frivolous who like 
novels and tales in whatsoever garb they may appear. 
Certainly, after studying the sayings and doings of 
modern heroes and heroines, the chronicles of modern 
fashionable life and the mysteries of French boudoirs, it 
must be uncommonly piquant to know how love-affairs 
were conducted in China during the fourteenth century, 
and to be engrossed by the adventures of Mister Wang- 
yung and Mademoiselle Tiao-tchan. However, it would 
have been quite impossible to translate in extenso one of 
the aforesaid Chinese novels, reaching, as they do, to the 
enormous proportions of twenty volumes and such vo- 
lumes ! Clarissa Harlowe, ScudeVy's Clelie, Alexandre 
Dumas' Three Musketeers, it is true are fascinating enough 
to make us forget their rather undue length ; but who would 
undertake to wade through twice ten quartos of descrip- 
tions, conversations, and narratives, about John China- 
man ? Not half a dozen persons, we would venture to say, 



amongst the subscribers to the Bibliotheque des Chemins 
de Fer. M. Stanislas Julien has therefore very wisely 
limited his enterprising spirit to a selection of three epi- 
sodes, which, complete in themselves, will give a suffi- 
ciently correct idea of the imaginative literature of the 
Chinese. They are borrowed from an historical romance 
entitled San-Kouz-tchi, or History of the Three King- 
doms. 

It is well known that, about the year 220 of our era, 
when the Han dynasty became extinct with the emperor 
Hien-ti, China was divided into three kingdoms, Cho, Wei", 
and Wou. Under the reign of Hien-ti lived a remarkable 
man, Tong-tcho, who from the rank of a general quickly 
rose to become prime minister. Then, carried away by his 
ambition, he rebelled against his master, dethroned him, 
usurped the title of Governor-general of the empire, and, 
after a long series of atrocities, would have seated him- 
self at the helm of the state, if another minister, disgusted 
at his crimes, had not caused him to be murdered. It is 
the death of Tong-tcho that M. Stanislas Julien selects 
as the opening chapter of his volume ; the name of the 
historian who compiled the annals of the three kingdoms 
is Tchin-tcheou, and from his narrative the novelist To- 
kouang-tchong borrowed the chief incidents of his cele- 
brated romance, San-koue'-tchi, in which, according to 
M. Stanislas Julien, " il releva Paridite des faits par un 
style noble et brillant, et entremela son recit d'episodes 
d'un inte'ret dramatique . . . .qui sont de son invention, 
et qui ont puissamment contribue" au succes de son ou- 
vrage." 

The second extract is called Hing-lo-tou, or The Mys- 
terious Painting; and the third, Tse-hiong-hiong, or The 
Two Brothers of Different Sexes, the plot of this last 
tale being founded on one of those disguises, or traves- 
tissements, so common even among novelists of the present 
day. 

3. Les Mbralistes Orientaux, Pense"es, Mazimes, Sen- 
fences, et Proverbes, tires des meilleurs ecrivains de POrient, 
recueillis et mis en ordre alphabetique par A. Morel, 
12mo. Paris, L. Hachette. 

The third publication we have to mention is, like the 
two previously noticed, derived from Eastern sources. In 
a collection of extracts on moral philosophy, the first place 
must necessarily be given to those nations whose penchant 
for proverbs and pithy sayings has always been so strong. 
It is interesting to see how other men have thought on 
the subjects which will always interest the whole of hu- 
manity, and if, to quote from the Preface of the book now 
under consideration, " la nature des proverbes nous ap- 
prend le caractere et le genie propres de chaque nation," 
no better guide can be suggested to an accurate know- 
ledge of nationalities than a work like M. Morel's Mo- 
ralistes Orientaux. " Les pense"es," the translator conti- 
nues, " sur notre destination et notre nature sont force"- 
ment plus sobres ; le sujet y contient et refrene 1'ecrivain, 
sans le priver d'esprit et d'agrement. Ainsi les Chinois 
ont le style inge"nieux quand ils moralisent ; les Semites 
brillent par Penergie pittoresque ; les Persans, par la dou- 
ceur face'tieuse ; les Turcs, par la gravite hautaine ; les 
Indiens, par une elegante simplicite." This enumeration 
includes all the sources from which M. Morel has bor- 
rowed ; the Zend-Avesta, the Hitopadesa, the works of 
Confucius, the Koran, and the Gulistan of Saadi, will be 
found largely quoted from in this volume, which embraces, 
besides, a large variety of extracts supplied by the canonic 
and apocryphal Books of the Old Testament. A short 
account, both biographical and bibliographical, of the 
authors laid under contribution, has been prefixed, and 
also a very copious Index, for the purposes of reference. 

4. La Vie de Saint Thomas le Martyr, Archeveque de 
Canterbury, par Gamier de Pont Saint Maxence, pofete 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



g. jx JAN, 14. '60. 



du douzieme siecle ; public's et pr&e'de'e d'une Introduc- 
tion, par C. Hippeau, Professeur a la Faculte' des Lettres 
de Caen. 8vo. Paris, A. Aubry. 

The history of the quarrel between Thomas k Becket 
and King Henry II. is one which has been the source of 
many controversies. Some writers still exist Avho, for- 
getting what the position of the Church was during the 
middle-ages, would fain represent the Archbishop as 
merely an ambitious, intolerant, and domineering prelate, 
anxious to secure his own power, whilst pretending to 
uphold the authority of the Church; M. Augustin 
Thierry, as most of our readers know, bent upon seeing 
throughout the whole range of English history a perpe- 
tual conflict of races between the Saxons and the Nor- 
mans, and to consider the life of Thomas k Becket as an 
episode in this struggle, and to represent the Constitution 
of Clarendon and the subsequent tragedy as a further act 
of tyranny exercised by the invaders over the conquered 
English. M. Hippeau, in his most interesting and in- 
structive Preface, does not go so far ; and, instead of 
seeing in this transaction a question of nationalities, he 
explains it altogether as the natural issue of that contest 
which has always" been going on between the temporal and 
the spiritual powers the Church and the State. " The 
quarrel," says M. Hippeau, "n'est autre chose qu'une 
question de competence judiciaire. Mais quand le droit de 
juger et de punir est un objet de contestation entre deux 
puissances aussi considerables que Pe'taient au douzieme 
siecle, d'un cote 1'Eglise stipulant en quelque sorte pour 
les peuples, et de 1'autre la Royaute, soutenue dans ses 
pretentious par les chefs de 1'aristocratie militaire, elle ne 
pouvait que prendre des proportions immenses." 

Amongst the numerous writers who have left us bio- 
graphies and memoirs of Thomas & Becket, one of the 
most important is Gamier de Pont Saint Maxence, whose 
Chronicle is now for the first time published in an entire 
form. The Abbe' De la Rue (Bardes et Trouveres, vol. iii.) 
had already given an account, though short and insuf- 
ficient, of that annalist. M. Immanuel Bekker had edited 
(Memoires de V Academic de Berlin, yols. for 1838 and 
1846) a few fragments from his Chronicle, and Dr. Giles, 
alluding to him in his history of the prelate, does not 
consider the details he supplies as deserving much atten- 
tion. We are quite inclined to think with M. Hippeau 
that Gamier de Pont Saint Maxence is on the contrary 
one of the best authorities concerning the eventful life of 
Thomas & Becket, and that he is indeed, " sur tous les 
points essentiels, d'une exactitude scrupuleuse." 

The curious reader, by referring to vol. xxiii. of the 
Histoire Littemire de la France will find, from the pen of 
M. V. Leclerc, an able notice of our rhymester ; we shall 
therefore merely state here that Gamier was in England 
during the year 1172, that is to say, two years after the 
murder of the prelate, and that he spent four in the com- 
position of his Chronicle. 

Guarnier li clercs di Punt fine-ci sun sermun 
Del martir Saint Thomas et de sa passiun ; 
Et meinte fez li list a la tumbe al barun. 
L'an secund ke li sainz fu en 1'eglise ocis 
Comenchai cest roman et mult m'en entremis. 
Des privez Saint Thomas la ve'rite' apris." 

A first narrative, which he wrote under the exclusive 
impression of his own feelings and of his partiality for 
Thomas a Becket, appears to have been less satisfactory : 

" Primes treitai de joie et sovent i menti ; 
A" Chantorbire alai ; laveriteoi; 
Des amis Saint Thomas la verite cuilli 
Et de eels ki 1'aveient des s'enfance servi." 

Garnier's poem consists of 5,872 lines in the Alexandrine 
measure, divided by the rhyme into stanzas of fire lines 



each ; it forms a complete biography of the Archbishop, 
and has been published from a manuscript in the Impe- 
rial Library at Paris (No. 6236, Suppl Fran^ais) manu- 
script which formerly belonged to Richard Heber. The 
British Museum possesses also two manuscripts of this 
metrical Chronicle (Hurl No. 270, and Cotton, Domitian, 
xi.), but both are incomplete. The Wolfenbuttel manu- 
script, edited by M. Bekker (Leben des H. Thomas von 
Canterbury, alt Franzosischen, Berlin, 1838), is better 
than the English texts, though inferior to the French 
one ; it has furnished M. Hippeau with a supplemental 
fragment describing the public penance which the King 
of England had to undergo in Canterbury cathedral. 
The Introduction, extending to nearly sixty pages, not 
only gives the history of the poem, and all the bibliogra- 
phical details connected with it, but also discusses very 
fully the life and character of Thomas k Becket. We 
shall not examine any further this portion of the work, 
except in order to remark that M. Hippeau discards as 
entirely fictitious the famous story respecting Mathilda 
and Gilbert, first recorded by an anonymous compiler in 
the Quadrilogus of 1495, and subsequently adopted by 
M. Augustin Thierry and Dr. Giles, merely on such 
doubtful authority. Not one of Becket's contemporaries 
alludes to the romantic intercourse between the Saracen 
maiden and Gilbert k Becket, whilst Gamier de Pont 
Saint Maxence, and many other writers of the same 
epoch, mention the Archbishop's parents as being both 
of Norman extraction. 

We recommend, in conclusion, M. Hippeau's book 
most especially to the English reader, who cannot but be 
Interested by the fresh light it throws upon a momentous 
episode in the history of this country. The name of the 
publisher, M. Aubry, is enough to guarantee the beauty 
and correctness of the volume as a specimen of French 
typography. GUSTAVB MASSON. 

Harrow-on-the-Hill. 



Among other Papers of interest which will appear in our next Number, 
will be Burghead, Clavie and Durie; English Comedians in Germany; 
Prohibition of Prophecies ; General Literary Index, &c. 

THE INDEX TO VOLUME EIGHT unll be issued with "N. & Q." of Satur- 
day, January 21. 

CHELSEGA. The Carol called Joy's Seven is well known, and printed 
in Sandys' Christmas Carols, p. 157. 

E. W. The oft quoted, 

" Well of English undeflled," 
is from Spenser's Faerie Queen, Book IV. Canto 2. St. 32. 

EXUL'S Anagram, " Quid est veritas? Vir est qui adest," has already 
appeared in " N. & Q., 2nd S. vii. 114. 

X. A. X. Only Part I. of Edward Irving's Missionary Oration was 
published. 

ZETA. Bollard, in his British Ladies, says, " What use Elizabeth 
Legge made of her learning, or whether she wrote or translated any thing, 
I know not. - The following works are not in the British Museum, 
, 1821 ; 

Works, 1794 __ nne Flinerss aot te Jez- 
reelite, 1844, is a dramatic poem. - Edward Lewis was of St. John's 
College, Cambridge, A.M. 1726 -- Edward Stanley, author o/Elmira, 
1790, does not appear in Romilly's Catalogue. 

L. R. P. " Sending to Coventry " has been noticed in our 1st S. vi. 318. 



Jephtha's Daughter 
DarwelVs Poetical "Works, 1794 



Revenge Defeated and Sell-Punished, 1818; 
Anne Flinders's Naboth the Je 



F. K. The Speeches on the Equalisation of the Weights and Mea- 
sures, 1 790, were by Sir John Riggs Miller, Bart, as stated on the title- 
page of the pamphlet. 

ERRATA. 2nd S.viii. p. 497. col. i. line 13. from bottom for "Ann 
Countess of Harington, read "Lady Harington, the widow of John 
Baron Harington above mentioned:" 2nd S. ix. p. 6. col. ii. 1.9. for 
" Thirteenth," read " Seventeenth; " p. 12. col. ii. last line but 2. for 
" Sitherland," read" Litherland." 

"NOTES AND QUEKIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
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all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THH EDITOR should be addressed. 



ix. JAN. 14. '60.] 



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H. E. Bicknell.Esq. 
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W. Freeman, Esq. 
F. Fuller, Esq. 

j. r~ 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 21. 18GO. 



NO. 212. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: "Books Burnt:" Lord Bolingbroke, 37 
Burghead: Singular Custom: Clavie: Durie, 38 Gene- 
ral Literary Index: Index of Authors, 39 The Execu- 
tioner of King Charles I., 41 Edward Kirke, the Com- 
mentator on Spenser's " Shepheard's Calender," 42. 

MINOE NOTES : Origin of " Cockney " Unburied Coffins 

Historical Coincidences : French and English Heroism 
at Waterloo and Magenta The French in Wales Ju- 
nius, 42. 

QUERIES: Lord Macaulay Swift's Marriage Burial 
in a Sitting Posture Monteith Bowl Quotation Wanted 

Excommunication of Queen Elizabeth King Bladud 
and his Pigs Judges' Costume Bp. Downes' "Tour 
through Cork and Ross" Celtic Families Magister 
Richard Hewlett Oldys's Diary The Battiscombe 
Family Crowe Family Charles II. Pepysiana The 
Young Pretender Sir George Paule Pickering Family 

Sir Hugh Vaughan, 44. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWEES : Antonio Guevara Post Of- 
fice in Ireland Anthony Stafford Anonymous Author 
Orrery Sir Henry Rowswell Bishop Lyndwood, 46. 

REPLIES: English Comedians in the Nethei-lands, 48 
The De Hungerford Inscription, 49 Prohibition of Pro- 
phecies, 50 Folk-lore and Provincialisms, 51 The Mayor 
of Market Jew or Marazion The King's Scutcheon Sir 
Peter Gleane Arithmetical Notation Boydell's Shak- 
speare Gallery Sir Robert le Grys The Three Kings 
of Colon Cutting one's Stick : Terms used by Printers 
Heraldic Drawings and Engravings Three Churchwar- 
dens Cabal Geering Hildesley's Poetical Miscellanies 

Discovery of Gunpowder Plot by the Magic Mirror 
Campbellton, Argyleshire, &c., 54. 

Notes on Books, &c: 



"BOOKS BURNT:" LORD BOLINGBROKE. 
In the first volume of the Diaries and Corre- 
spondence of the Rt. Hon. George Rose, edited by 
the Rev. Leveson Vernon Harcourt*, I find the 
following note, which may be added to your re- 
cords of" Books Burnt : " 

"Lord Bolingbroke had printed six copies of his Essay 
on a Patriot King, which he gave to Lord Chesterfield, 
Sir William Wyndham, Mr. Lyttleton, Mr. Pope, Lord 
Marchmont, and to Lord Cornbury, at whose instance 
he wrote it. Mr. Pope lent his copy to Mr. Allen, of 
Bath, who was so delighted with it that he had an 
impression of 500 taken off, but locked them up se- 
curely in a warehouse, not to see the light till Lord 
Bolingbroke's permission could be obtained. On the dis- 
covery, Lord Marchmont (then living in Lord Boling- 
broke's house at Battersea) sent Mr. Gravenkop for the 
whole cargo, who carried them out in a waggon, and the 
books were burnt on the lawn in the presence of Lord 
Bolingbroke." 

The editor has attached this note to the follow- 
ing early entry in Rose's Diary : 

" It appears by a letter of Lord Bolingbroke's, dated 
in 1740, from Angeville, that he had actually written 
some essays dedicated to the Earl of Marchmont, of a 
very different tendency from his former works. These 
essays, on his death, fell into the hands of Mr. Mallet, his 
executor, who had at the latter end of his life acquired a 
decided influence over him, and they did not appear 
among his lordship's works published by Mallet ; nor have 

* 2 Vols. 8vo. Bentley. (Just published.) 



they been seen or heard of since. From whence it must 
be naturally conjectured that they were destroyed bj f the 
latter, from what reason cannot now be known ; possibly, 
to conceal from the world the change, such as it was, in 
his lordship's sentiments in the latter end of his life, and 
to avoid the discredit to his former works. In which re- 
spect he might have been influenced either by regard for 
the noble viscount's consistency, or by a desire not to 
impair the pecuniary advantage he expected from the 
publication of his lordship's works." 

Upon this Mr. Harcourt notes : 

" The letter to Lord Marchmont, here referred to, has a 
note appended to it by Sir George Rose, the editor of The 
Marchmont Papers, who takes a very different view of its 
contents from his father. He gravely remarks, that as 
the posthumous disclosure of Lord Bolingbroke's inve- 
terate hostility to Christianity lays open to the view as 
well the bitterness as the extent of it, so the manner of 
that disclosure precludes any doubt of the earnestness of 
his desire to give the utmost efficiency and publicity to 
that hostility, as soon as it could safely be done ; that is, 
as soon as death could shield him against responsibility 
to man. Sir George saw plainly enough that when he 
promised in those essays to vindicate religion against di- 
vinity and God against man, he was retracting all that he 
had occasionally said in favour of Christianity ; he was up- 
holding the religion of Theism against the doctrines of 
the Bible, and the God of nature against the revelation of 
God to man." 

It is painful to reflect upon this prostration of 
a splendid intellect; and I am but slightly re- 
lieved by Lord Chesterfield's statement in one of 
his letters published by Lord Mahon, in his edi- 
tion of Chesterfield's Works, that " Bolingbroke 
only doubted, and by no means rejected, a future 
state." Lord Brougham says : 

" The dreadful malady under which Bolingbroke long 
lingered, and at length sunk, a cancer in the face, he bore 
with exemplary fortitude, a fortitude drawn from the na- 
tural resources of his mind, and unhappily not aided by 
the consolations of any religion ; for, having early cas*t 
off the belief in revelation, he had substituted in its 
stead a dark and gloomy naturalism, which even re- 
jected those glimmerings of hope as to futurity not 
untasted by the wiser of the heathens." 

We know that Bolingbroke denied to Pope his 
disbelief of the moral attributes of God, of which 
Pope told his friends with great joy. How un- 
grateful a return for this "excessive friendliness " 
the indignation which Bolingbroke expressed at 
the priest having attended Pope in his last mo- 
ments ! 

Bolingbroke died at Battersea in 1752, and 
some sixty years after (in 1813), a home-tourist 
gleaned in the village some recollections of Bol- 
ingbroke and his friend Mallet. The tourist was 
Sir Richard Phillips, who, in the early portion of 
his Morning's Walk from London to Kew, in 1813, 
describes Bolingbroke's house as then converted 
into a malting-house and a mill ! Some parts of 
the original house, however, then remained ; and 
among them " Pope's room," in which he wrote 
his Essay on Man : this was a parlour of brown 
polished oak, with a grate and ornaments of the 
age of George I. 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* S. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



Now for the reminiscences of the two philoso- 
phers : 

" On inquiring for an ancient inhabitant of Battersea 
(says Sir Richard), I was introduced to a Mrs. Gilliard, 
a pleasant and intelligent woman, who told me she well 
remembered Lord Bolingbroke ; that he used to ride out 
every day in his chariot, and had a black patch on his 
cheek, with a large wart over bis eyebrows. She was 
then but a girl, but she was taught to look upon him 
with veneration as a great man. As, however, he spent 
little in the place, and gave little away, he was not much 
regarded by the people of Battersea. I mentioned to her 
the names of several of his contemporaries, but she recol- 
lected none, expect that of Mallet, whom she said she 
had often seen walking about in the village, while he was 
visiting at Bolingbroke House." 

JOHN TIMBS. 



BURGHEAD: SINGULAR CUSTOM: CLAVIE: 
DURIE. 

The village of Burghead is situated on the 
southern shore of the Moray Frith, about nine 
miles distant from Elgin, the county town of 
Morayshire. Though its former glory has now 
departed, it was at onetime a great military strong- 
hold, occupying almost the whole of a remarkable 
promontory which stretches out into the sea in a 
westerly direction. Unfortunately for the anti- 
quary, the fortifications which once defended it 
were almost all demolished in the course of im- 
provements on the harbour and the village, com- 
menced to be made about the year 1808; but a 
beautiful plan of them with sections will be found 
in General Roy's Military Antiquities, plate xxxiii. 
Those who can refer to this map may observe that 
the innermost of the four ramparts, which run 
from sea to sea, makes a semicircular curve round 
a particular spot. This was then a green hollow, 
which tradition had long pointed out as the site 
of the well of the fort; and excavations under- 
taken here in 1809 by the late Wm. Young, Esq., 
resulted in its discovery. It is hewn with great 
care and skill out of the solid rock, and still yields 
a supply of excellent water. An account of this 
interesting relic of the past is said to be contained 
in the Advertisement to the second edition of Pin- 
kerton's Enquiry into the History of Scotland pre- 
ceding the Reign of Malcolm the Third. Edin. 
1814. 

The existence of these remains has given rise 
to various opinions regarding the early history of 
Burghead. Roy, and those who take him as their 
guide, identifying it with the n-repwrbi/ orpcn-cforeSor 
of Ptolemy and the Ptoroton of the treatise De 
Situ Britannia, usually attributed to Richard of 
Cirencester, consider the fortifications to have 
been originally the work of the Romans, admit- 
ting, however, that the Danes may have after- 
wards in some degree altered them during their 
occupation of the promontory. On the discovery 
of the well, antiquaries of this school unhesita- 



tingly gave it the designation it still popularly 
retains^ of the " Roman Well," and it has even 
been dignified by some of them with the name of 
a Roman Bath, though nothing more inconvenient 
for the purposes of a lavatory can well be con- 
ceived. Stuart, misled in this way, actually 
founds an argument in favour of Burghead hav- 
ing been a Roman station, on the existence there 
" of a Roman bath, and also of a deep well, built 
in the same manner (!) " (Caledonia Eomana, 2nd 
eel. p. 214.) But as this is certainly the " Burgh " 
or Fort of Moray, said by Torfaeus (Orcadcs) to 
have been built (circa A. D. 850) by Sigurd, a 
Norwegian chief who had invaded that part of 
Scotland, and which is elsewhere mentioned by 
him as a Norwegian stronghold under the name of 
Eccialslacca, there are others who believe that 
both the fortifications and the well are the work 
of the Norsemen. The Naverna of Buchanan 
(Rerum Scot. Hist.}, which that author repre- 
sents the Danes as seizing and occupying for a 
time in the reign of Malcolm II., is doubtless 
identical with Burghead, as Roy correctly sur- 
mises. Dr. Daniel Wilson, a high authority on 
all questions of Scottish archaeology, is of opinion 
that this fort, along with several others of the 
so-called Roman posts described by General Roy, 
bears conclusive marks of native workmanship. 
He admits, indeed, that Burghead may possibly 
include some remains of Roman works. 

" The straight wall," he says, "and rounded angles, so 
characteristic of the legionary earthworks, are still dis- 
cernible, and were probably still more obvious when 
General Roy explored the fort; but its character is that 
of a British fort, and its site, on a promontory inclosed 
by the sea, is opposed to the practice of the Romans in 
the choice of an encampment." (Prehist. Ann. of Scotland, 

^ The object of the present communication is to 
give a short account of a singular custom that has 
been observed in Burghead from time immemorial, 
in the hope that some of your readers will be able 
to trace its origin, as well as the etymology of 
two words, unknown elsewhere in the north of 
Scotland, which will be frequently employed in 
describing it; and the preceding remarks have 
been made as possibly affording a clue to guide 
the researches of any who may take the trouble of 
inquiring into this somewhat curious subject. 

On the evening of the last day of December, 
(Old Style) the youth of the village assemble 
about dusk, and make the necessary preparations 
for the celebration of the " clavie." Proceeding 
to some shop they demand a strong empty barrel, 
which is usually gifted at once, but if refused, 
taken by force. Another for breaking up, and a 
quantity of tar are likewise procured at the same 
time. Thus furnished they repair to a particular 
spot close to the sea-shore, and commence opera- 
tions. A hole about four inches in diameter is first 
made in the bottom of the stronger barrel, into 



2 d S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



which the end of a stout pole five feet in length 
is firmly fixed : to strengthen their hold a num- 
ber of supports are nailed round the outside of 
the former, and also closely round the latter. 
The tar is then put into the barrel, and set on 
fire; and the remaining one being broken up, 
stave after stave is thrown in until it is quite full. 
The " clavie," already burning fiercely, is now 
shouldered by some strong young man, and borne 
away at a rapid pace. As soon as the bearer 
gives signs of exhaustion another willingly takes 
his place ; and should any of those who are ho- 
noured to carry the blazing load meet with an 
accident, aS sometimes happens, the misfortune 
excites no pity even among his near relatives. In 
making the circuit of the village they are said 
to confine themselves to its old boundaries. For- 
merly the procession visited all the fishing boats, 
but this has been discontinued for some time. 
Having gone over the appointed ground, the 
"clavie" is finally carried to a small artificial 
eminence near the point of the promontory, and 
interesting as being a portion of the ancient forti- 
fications, spared probably on account of its being 
used for this purpose, where a circular heap of 
stones used to be hastily piled up, in the hollow 
centre of which the " clavie " was placed still 
burning. On this eminence, which is termed the 
" durie," the present proprietor has lately erected 
a small round column with a cavity in the centre 
for admitting the free end of the pole, and into 
this it is now placed. After being allowed to burn 
on the u durie " for a few minutes, the " clavie " 
is most unceremoniously hurled from its place, 
and the smoking embers scattered among the as- 
sembled crowd, by whom, in less enlightened 
times, they were eagerly caught at, and fragments 
of them carried home and carefully preserved as 
charms against witchcraft. At a period not very 
remote, superstition had invested the whole pro- 
ceedings with all the solemnity of a religious rite, 
the whole population joining in it as an act neces- 
sary to the welfare and prosperity of the little 
community during the year about to commence. 
But churches and schools have been established in 
Burghead, and the "clavie" has now degenerated 
into a mere frolic, kept up by the youngsters 
more for their own amusement than for any bene- 
fit which the due performance of the ceremony is 
believed to secure. Still there are not a few of 
the " graver sort " who would regret if such a 
venerable, perhaps unique, relic of antiquity were 
numbered among the things that are past and 
gone, and who bestow a welcome on the noisy 
procession as it annually passes their doors. 

Of the great antiquity of the practice now de- 
scribed there can be no doubt, while everything 
connected with it clearly indicates its religious 
character. So far as I have been able to ascer- 
tain, the " clavie " is unknown in all the other 



fishing villages along the north-east coast, or in- 
deed elsewhere in Scotland, which could scarcely 
be the case if it is a remnant of an ancient super- 
stition at one time common to the native popula- 
tion of the north. On the contrary, the inference 
seems plain that it was once foreign to the soil 
where it afterwards became so firmly rooted. But 
when, whence, and by whom was it transplanted? 
If I might hazard a conjecture I should be dis- 
posed to look to Scandinavia for traces of the 
parent stock. Not less puzzling is the etymology 
of the words " clavie " and " durie." Webster 
gives clevy or clevis as a New England term ap- 
plied to a draft iron on a cart or on a plough, sug- 
gesting its derivation from Lat. clavis ; but beyond 
the similarity of their literal elements there ap- 
pears no connexion between the American and 
the Burghead word. Perhaps I ought not to 
omit to mention that the villagers, when speaking 
of the fortifications that crowned the heights of 
the promontory, invariably call them "the baileys," 
said to be an Anglicised corruption of ballium, 
which again has been derived from the Lat. val- 
lum. 

Should any of your correspondents be induced 
by what I have written to take up the investiga- 
tion of these curious questions, they will confer a 
great favour by communicating the result of their 
inquiries to " N. & Q." JAMES MACDONALD. 

Elgin. 



GENERAL LITERARY INDEX. INDEX OF 
AUTHORS. 

A friend of Professor Brewer, editor of Rogeri 
Baconi Opera, under the superintendance of the 
Master of the Rolls, has called my attention to 
that publication, and suggested that a MS. re- 
cently purchased for and deposited in the Chetham 
Library, should be made known to that gentle- 
man. Not having yet seen the volume referred 
to, I know not whether Mr. Brewer is already 
acquainted with the contents of this MS. ; but 
the prospect of affording acceptable information 
to others interested in the works of the great Eng- 
lish philosopher, as well as to the learned Editor, 
induces me to furnish through " N. & Q." the de- 
scription of the MS., and also of his other works, 
which is incorporated in the new Catalogue of the 
Chetham Library. 

" Bacon (Roger) The Myrrour of Alchimy (composed 
by the thrice famous and learned fryer R. B., sometime 
fellow of Martin College, and afterwards of Brazen-nose 
Colledge in Oxenforde ; also a most excellent and learned 
discourse of the admirable force and efficacie of Art and 
Nature, with certaine other worthie treatises of the like 
argument)." Sm. 4to. Creede, Lond., 1597. 

Imperfect, wanting the title-page and first four pages : 
contains pp. 84. 

(I have inserted his titles which I find here, more par- 
ticularly, because I find that the writer of his Life in the 
Biographia Brit., art. BACON, appears not to be '" very 



40 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2a g. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



clear whether he was of Merton College or Brazen-nose 
Hall ; and perhaps," says he, "he studied at neither, but 
spent his Time at the p'ublic Schools." See his Notes, d 
and e.) Radcliffe. 

The same treatises as the " Speculum Alchemic," etc., 
in Part n. The Latin only is in the Bodleian. In the 
British Museum is the same edition, 1597. 

" Perspectiva in qua ab aliis fuse traduntur succincte 
nervose et ita pertractantur ut omnium intellectui facile 
pateant. Nunc primum in lucem edita opera et studio 
Johannes Combachiii. (Cum tractatu de Speculis.) 4to. 
Francofurti, 1614." 

"In eodem volumine, Specula Mathematica. In qua 
ostenditur potestaa Mathematicae in scientiis et rebus et 
occupationibus huius mundi." 

" Item, Joannis Archiepiscopi Cantvariensis [Joannis 
Peccam], Perspective Commvnis Libri Tres. Coloniae. 
1627." 

On his knowledge of all sorts of glasses, see Dr. Plot's 
Hist, of Oxfordshire, p. 215. seqq., and Dr. Freind. His 
Perspectiva is in the 5th book of the following : 

" Opus majus ad Clementem IV. Ex MS. codice Dub- 
liniensi cum aliis quibusdam collate nunc primum edidit 
S. Jebb." Fol. Lond., 1733. 

" It contains a multitude of things that one would 
scarcely expect to find in a performance under this title. 
For it was the custom of our author never to confine his 
thoughts too strictly unto any particular subject ; but on 
the contrary believing, as he did, that all sciences had a 
relation amongst themselves, and were of use to each other, 
and all of them to Theology ; it was very natural for him 
to illustrate this in a work calculated to shew how the 
study of Divinity might be best promoted." Biog. Brit. 
His life is copiously described in theBiographiaBritannica, 
and in the Biographie Universelle, which, observes Dean 
Milman, in his Latin Christianity (vol. vi.), " has avoided 
or corrected many errors in the old biographies." An 
analysis of the " Opus Majus," which is a collection of 
the several pieces he had written before the year 1266, 
and which, to gratify the Pope Clement IV., he greatly 
enlarged and ranged in some order, is given in the 
first work referred to above. Picus Mirandula, Del Rio 
Wierus, and others, maintain that in Roger Bacon's 
works there is a great deal of superstition. See Bayle's 
Diet. But " throughout Bacon's astrological section 
(read from p. 237.) the heavenly bodies act entirely 
through their physical properties cold, heat, moisture, 
drought. The comet causes war, not as a mere arbitrary 
sign, nor as by magic influence (all this he rejects as 
anile superstition), but as by intense heat inflaming the 
blood and passions of men. It is an exaggeration un- 
philosophical enough of the influences of the planetary 
bodies, and the powers of human observation to trace 
their effects, but very different from what is ordinarily 
conceived of judicial astrology." Milman. Maier, in his 
Symbola Aurece Mensce, proves him to have been no con- 
jurer, and to have had no connexion with Friar Bungay 
and the brazen head.* The seven years' labour feigned 
to have been spent on this head must have been given to the 
search of the stone, which is farther proved by the exist- 
ence of some alchemical tracts and letters passing under 
Bacon's name, one of which contains a valuable chemical 
axiom, applicable, according to Maier, to many other 
works besides Bacon's : " Cum dico veritatem mendacium 
puta ; cum mendacium veritatem." Maier's " Symbola," 
etc., reviewed in Thomson's Annals of Philosophy (vol. 
vi.) by the Rev. J. J. Conybeare. " In Geography he 
was admirably well skilled, as appears from a variety of 
passages in his works, which show that he was far better 

* See "The famous Historic of Fryer Bacon," in 
Thoms's Early English Fictions. 



acquainted with the situation, extent, and inhabitants, 
even of the most distant countries, than many who made 
that particular science their study, and wrote upon it 
in succeeding times. This I suppose was the reason 
which induced the judicious Hackluyt to transcribe a 
large" discourse out of his writings into his noble collec- 
tion of Voyages and Travels." . . . . " What he has pub- 
lished is taken out of that part of our author's 'Opus 
Majus,' in which he treats expressly of Geography, and 
gives so clear and plain, so full and yet so succinct an ac- 
count of the then known world, as, I believe, is scarcely 
to be found in any other writer either of the past or pre- 
sent age." Biog. Brit. The writer here gives incorrect 
reference. The " Excerpta qusedam de Aquilonaribus 
mundi partibus ex quarta parte Majoris Operis fratris R. 
Baconi," are not in Hackluyt's collection, but that of 
Purchas, iii. 52 60. 

" Baconus, Bacconus, seu Bacho (Rogerius) De Alche- 
mia Libellus, cui titulum fecit, Speculum Alchemije v. 
Mangeti Bibl. Chemica, i. 613-16. Epistolaa de Secretis 
Operibus Artis et Naturae, et DeNullitate Magiae. Opera 
Johannis Dee," etc., 617-26. Printed, according to the 
Biog. Brit., " Paris, 1542, 4to. ; Basil, 1593, 8vo. ; Ham- 
burgh, 1608, 1618, 8vo. It is also involved in the fifth 
volume of the Theatrum Chemicum" Dee's notes are in 
the Hamburgh edition, and in the two collections. The 
Fire Ordeal is here noticed as having been used by Ed- 
ward the Confessor to test the chastity of his mother. 
Manget, p. 624. The Aqua Purgationis of the Mosaic 
Law is also referred to, p. 618. (See Acoluthus.) "There 
were ordeals by hot water, by hot iron, by walking over 
live coals, or burning ploughshares. This seems to have 
been the more august ceremony for queens and empresses, 
undergone by one of Charlemagne's wives, our own queen 
Emma, the empress Cunegunda." Milman's Latin Chris- 
tianity, i. 397. By Theutberga also, wife of Lothaire II, 
King of Lorraine, see Milman, ibid. ii. 364. The ordeal 
was held by Hincmar (De Divortio Hlotharii et Theut- 
bergae) to be a kind of baptism. All the ritualists 
Martene, Mabillon, Ducange, and Muratori furnish ample 
citations. In the tenth and eleventh chapters he men- 
tions the ingredients of gunpowder, and shows his know- 
ledge of its effects. On Alchemy, or the art of transmuting 
metals, of which our author has left many treatises, see 
Boerhaave's Chemistry, vol. i. p. 200., and Maier's Symbola 
Aurece Mensce. His notions on the medicinal virtues of 
gold, the aurum potabile or golden elixir, are found in 
ch. vii., in " Opus Majus," p. 469., and his book " De 
retardatione accidentium senii" (see MSS. infra.}. In the 
"Opus Majus" (pp. 466-72.) is mentioned the great 
secret, the grand elixir of the chemists, far beyond the 
tincture of gold in its effects. An enumeration of his dis- 
coveries and inventions will be found in Dr. Freind's 
History of Physic (ii. 233. et seqq.} ; Morhofii Polyhistor 
(vide Index) ; Brucker (iii. 817-22.) ; Milman's History 
of Latin Christianity (vi. 302.). For additional refer- 
ences consult Histoire Litteraire de la France. His various 
works, manuscript and printed, are enumerated in Jebb's 
Prcefat., xiii. ; Baleus, 342. ; Pitseus, 366. ; Leland's Com- 
ment, de S. B., 258. ; Cave, i. 741. ; Oudin, iii. 190. The 
most copious list is in Tanner's Bibliotheca Britannico- 
Hibernica. A list of printed editions will be found in 
Watt. See also MSS. in this Catalogue, and Part I. 

" A Catalogue of European Manuscripts in the Chetham 
Library. 

" Bacon (Roger) Medical Treatises ; vellum, 4 to.-, 
Saec. xiii." "A collection of treatises by this author, 
apparently written in the 13th century, in the hand which 
is very commonly used for books of "this description, and 
which differs material^ from books of Law or Theology. 
It contains : 1. p. 1 32 b. His treatise de retardatione 
accidentium senectutis. This work has been printed at 



2 nd S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



41 



Oxford, 1590 date. But the printed work itself is very 
rare, and probably would be much improved by compari- 
son with such a text as this. 2. 32 b 34. An excerpt 
from Bacon's treatise de Regimine Senum et Seniorum. 

3. 34 (b) 37 b. A treatise de Balneis senum et seniorum. 

4. 37 b. The Antidotarium : ' quern fecit Rogerus Bacon.' 
An inedited treatise. 5. 45 b. A treatise 'editione sive 
compositione fratris Rogeri Bacon,' concerning the gra- 
duation of medicines and the composition thereof as 
founded upon the rules of Geometry. 6. 58. ' De errori- 
bus medicorum secundum fratrem Rogerum Bacon.' A 
short treatise of some curiosity. 7. 75. ' Excerpts from 
the Opus Majus of Friar Bacon, as published by Doctor 
Jebb.' 

" F. PALGRAVE. 

1843." 

This description is on a leaf recently inserted. 
In the Catalogue of the Manuscript Library of 
the late Dawson Turner, Esq., from which this 
volume came, there is an " abstract from an ac- 
count of the several articles written upon one of 
the fly-leaves by Mr. James Cobbe, through whose 
hands many of the Spelman MSS. appear to have 
passed." The value of this MS. is diminished 
by the circumstance of every treatise here men- 
tioned being deposited in the Bodleian and other 
libraries. BIBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



THE EXECUTIONER OF KING CHARLES I. 

The following curious dialogue, in metre, is 
copied from a contemporary broadside in the 
British Museum, and is probably unique. The 
date of publication assigned to it by Thomason, 
the collector of the "King's Pamphlets," is the 
3rd July, 1649. The sheet is surmounted with a 
rude woodcut of the executioner, Richard Bran- 
don, in the act of striking off the head of King 
Charles, whose hat, apparently from the force of 
the blow, is thrown up into the air. Between the 
Dialogue and the Epitaph, there is also a repre- 
sentation of a coffin, bearing three heraldic shields 
on its side. Perhaps the long-disputed question, 
" Who was the executioner of Charles I. ?" may 
be determined by this curious contemporary 
broadside. Brandon died on Wednesday, 20th 
June, 1649, and was buried on the following day 
in Whitechapel churchyard. The burial register 
of St. Mary Matfelon has the entry on the 21st : 
" Buried in the churchyard, Richard Brandon, a 
ragman in Rosemary Lane ; " to which has been 
added: "This R. Brandon is supposed to have 
cut off the head of Charles I." It is said that the 
large fee (30Z.) demanded by Brandon for his 
services on the fatal 30th of January, was paid to 
him in crown pieces, the whole of which, upon 
reaching his lodgings, he immediately handed over 
to his wife. 0. 

" A DIALOGUE ; OR A DISPUTE BETWEEN THE LATE 
HANGMAN AND DEATH. 

" Hangm. What, is my glass run? 
Death. Yes, Richard Brandon. 



" Hangman. 

" How now, stern Land-lord, must I out of door? 
I pray you, Sir, what am I on your score ? 
I cannot at this present call to mind, 
That I with you am anything behind. 

" Death. 

" Yes, Richard Brandon, you shall shortly know, 
There's nothing paid for you, but you still owe 
The total sum, and I am come to crave it ; 
Provide yourself, for I intend to have it. 

" Hangman. 

" Staj', Death, thou'lt force me stand upon my guard ; 
Methinks this is a very slight reward : 
Let's talk awhile, I value not thy dart, 
For, next thyself, I can best act thy part. 
Death. 

" Lay down thy axe, and cast thy ropes away, 
'Tis I command, 'tis thou that must obey ; 
Thy part is play'd, and thou go'st off the stage, 
The bloodiest actor in this present Age. 

" Hangman. 

" But, Death, thou know'st, that I for many years, 
As by old Tyburn's records it appears, 
Have monthly paid my Taxes unto thee, 
Ty'd up in twisted hemp, for more security ; 
And now of late I think thou put'st me to't, 
When none but Brandon could be found to do't : 
I gave the blow caus'd thousand hearts to ache, 
Nay more than that, it made three kingdoms quake : 
Yet in obedience to thy pow'rful call, 
Down went that Cedar, with some shrubs, and all 
To satisfy thy ne'er-contented lust, 
Now, for reward, thou tell'st me that I must 
Lay down my tools, and with thee pack from henco ; 
Grim Sir, you give me a fearful recompence. 

Death. 

" Brandon, no more, make haste, I cannot stay, 
Thy know'st thyself how ill / brooke delay ; 
Though thou hast sent ten thousand to the grave, 
What's that to me, 'tis thee I now must have : 
'Tis not the King, nor any of his Peers 
Cut off by thee, can add unto thy years ; 
Come, perfect thy accompts, make right thy score ; 
Old Charon stays, perhaps he'll set thee o'er. 

" Hangman. 

" Then / must go, which many going sent ; 
Death, thou did'st make me but thy instrument, 
To execute, and run the hazard to ; 
Of all thou didst engage me for to do, 
In blood to thee how oft did I carouse, 
Being chief-master of thy slaughter-house ! 
For those the Plague did spare, if once I catcht 'em 
With axe or rope I quickly had despatcht 'em. 
Yet now, at last, of life thou wilt bereave me, 
And as thou find'st me, so thou mean'st to leave me : 
But those black stains, 1 in thy service got, 
Will still remain, though I consume and rot. 
Strike home, all conq'ring Death ! I, Brandon, yield, 
Thou wilt, I see, be Master of the field. 

" EPITAPH. 

" Who, do you think, lies buried here ? 
One that did help to make hemp dear ; 
The poorest subject did abhor him, 
And yet his King did kneel before him ; 
He would his Master not betroy, 
Yet he his Master did destroy ; 
And yet no Judas : In records 'tis found 
Judas had thirty pence, He thirty pound." 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2"* S. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



EDWARD KIRKE, THE COMMENTATOR ON 
SPENSER'S " SHEPHEARD'S CALENDER." 

The ShephearcTs Calender of Spenser was first 
published in 1579, by E. K., who has prefixed 
thereto an epistle to the most excellent and 
learned both orator and poet, Maister Gabriel 
Harvey, and " The Generall Argument of the 
whole Booke." He is likewise author of the "Ar- 
guments of the several Aeglogues, and a certaine 
Glosse or scholion for the exposition of old wordes 
and harder phrases." 

In a letter from Spenser to the " Worshipfull 
his very singular good friend Maister G[abriel] 
H[arvey], Fellow of Trinity Hall in Cambridge," 
dated "Leycester House this 16 of October, 
1579," are these passages : 

" Maister E. K. hartily desireth to be commended unto 
your Worshippe, of whom, what accompte he maketh, 
your selfe shall hereafter perceive, by hys paynefull and 
dutifull verses of your selfe. 

" Thus much was written at Westminster yesternight ; 
but comming this morning, beeyng the sixteenth of 
October, to Mystresse Kerkes, to have it delivered to the 
carrier, I receyved youre letter, sente me the laste weeke ; 
whereby I perceive you other whiles continue your old 
exercise of versifying in English; whych glorie I had 
now thought shoulde have bene onely ours heere at 
London, and the Court." 

At the close, speaking of letters which he wishes 
to receive from Harvey, he says : 

" You may alwayes send them most safely to me by 
Mistresse Kerke, and by none other." 

From the mention of Mrs. Kerke, and of E. K. 
in this letter, it was long since conjectured that 
E. K. was E. Kerke. 

Mr. Craik {Spenser and his Poetry, 40.) re- 
marks : 

" If E. K. was really a person whose Christian name and 
surname were indicated by these initial letters, he was 
most probably some one who had been at Cambridge at 
the same time with Spenser and Harvey, and his name 
might perhaps be found in the registers either of Pem- 
broke Hall, to which Spenser belonged, or of Christ 
Church [Christ's College] or Trinity Hall, which were 
Harvey's colleges." 

Your correspondent J. M. B. ("N. & Q." 1 st 
S. x. 204.) drew the attention of your readers to 
this subject upwards of five years ago. 

We have now ascertained that a person named 
Edward Kirke was ma'triculated as a sizar of 
Pembroke Hall in November, 1571. He subse- 
quently migrated to Caius College, and graduated 
as a member of that house, B. A, 1574-5, M. A. 
1578. 

Spenser was matriculated as a sizar of Pem- 
broke Hall, 20 May, 1569, proceeded B.A. 1572-3, 
and commenced M.A. 1576, 

It will be seen, therefore, that Spenser and 
Edward Kirke were contemporaries at Cambridge, 
and were for some time of the same college. 

As it has also been conjectured that E. K. was 



* Edward King, it may be satisfactory to state 
that the earliest person of that name who occurs 
amongst the Cambridge graduates, is Edward King 
of S. John's College, B.A. 1597-8, M.A. 1601. 
These dates render it very improbable that he 
could have been the E. K. of 1579. 

Under these circumstances we feel justified in 
assigning the editorship of the Shcpheartfs Calen- 
der to Edward Kirke, and shall accordingly notice 
him in the forthcoming volume of Athence Can- 
tabrigienses. He was. evidently a man of consi- 
derable talent, and we cannot but regret our 
inability to give any other particulars of him than 
may be collected from this communication. 

It is somewhat remarkable that none of the 
biographers of Spenser appear to have been aware 
that Gabriel Harvey, the common friend of Spen- 
ser and Kirke, between his leaving Christ's Col- 
lege and being elected a Fellow of Trinity Hall, 
was a Fellow of Pembroke Hall. He was elected 
a Fellow there (being then B.A.) 3rd Nov. 1570 ; 
but we are not now enabled to state how long a 
period elapsed before he removed to a Fellowship 
at Trinity Hall. 

We think it very probable that Harvey was 
the tutor both of Spenser and Kirke at Pembroke 
Hall. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 



ORIGIN OF "COCKNEY." In "The Turnament of 
Tottenham ; or, the Wooeing, Winning, and Wed- 
ding of Tibbe, the Reeves Daughter there," in 
Percy's Reliques, vol. ii. p. 24., occur the follow- 
ing lines descriptive of the wedding feast with 
which the " turnament" closed : 

" At the feast they were served in rich array ; 
Every five and five had a cokney" . 

The learned editor says, with reference to the 
meaning of cokney, that it is the name of " some 
dish now unknown." May not the cant term 
Cockney, applied to Londoners, have arisen from 
their fondness for this dish ? In the same way 
that in Scotland a Fife man is styled a " Kail- 
supper," and an Englishman in France is termed 
" un rosbif." DORRICKS. 

UNBURIED COFFINS. The late interesting dis- 
cussion in the pages of " N", & Q." relative to the 
unburied coffins in Westminster Abbey, calls to 
mind a note which I made some time since from a 
pleasing work entitled An Excursion to Windsor 
in July, 1810, by John Evans, Jun., A.M., Lon- 
don, 1817. In a brief account of Stains, he says : 

" The church is at the extremity of the town, but has 
nothing remarkable, with one exception. In a small 
apartment under the staircase, leading to the gallery, is 
presented the spectacle of two unburied coffins containing 
human bodies, covered with crimson velvet. They are 



2 nd S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



43 



placed beside each other on trestles, bearing respectively 
the following inscriptions : . 

" ' Jessie Aspasia, the most excellent and truly beloved 
wife of Fred. W. Campbell, Esq., of Barbeck, N.B., and 
of Woodlands, Surry. Died in her 28th year, July 11, 
1812.' 

" ' Henry E. A. Caulfield, Esq., died September 8, 1808, 
aged 29 years.' 

" The Sexton tells us, that the lady was daughter of 
W. T. Caulfield, Esq., of Rahanduff, in Ireland, by Jessie, 
daughter of James, third Lord Ruthven, and that she 
bore with exemplary patience a fatal disorder, produced 
by grief on the death of her brother. They now lie to- 
gether in unburied solemnity." 

Feeling an interest in these parties for genealo- 
gical purposes, &c., I would be glad to know if 
the bodies have since been removed to their an- 
cestral burial-place ? or do they still lie under the 
staircase leading to the gallery in the church of 
Stains ? R. C. 

Cork. 

HISTORICAL COINCIDENCES : FRENCH AND ENG- 
LISH HEROISM AT WATERLOO AND MAGENTA : 

" L'EmpeVeur (Napoleon III.) est sur la route. Le 
Colonel Raoul vient lui dire de la part du general Reg- 
naud de St. Jean d'Angely, que la masse des ennemis 
augmente & chaque instant, et qu'il ne peut plus tenir, si 
on ne lui envoj'e pas du renfort. ' Je n'ai personne a. lui 
envoyer,' repond avec calrae 1'Empereur : ' dites au gene- 
ral qu'il tienne toujours avec le peu de monde qui lui 
reste.' Et le ge'neral tenait." Saturday Review, Dec. 31, 
1859, review of La Campagne d Italic de 1859, Chroniques 
de la Guerre, par le Baron de Bazancourt. 

" One general officer was under the necessity of stating 
that his brigade was reduced to one-third its number, and 
that those who remained were exhausted with fatigue, 
and that a temporary relief seemed a measure of peremp- 
tory necessity. 'Tell him,' said the Duke, 'what he pur- 
poses is impossible. He, I, and every Englishman on the 
iield, must die on the spot we now occupy.' . . . ' It is 
enough,' said the general. ' I, and every man under my 
command, are determined to share his* fate.'" Paul's 
Letters to his Kinsfolk, 1816. 

Two curious instances of the two commanders 
and their generals at Waterloo and Magenta, for 
which I suspect Scott and Baron de Bazancourt 
would be equally puzzled if required to produce 
their authorities. J. H. L. 

THE FRENCH IN WALES. The Times news- 
paper, during the last week, has contained a cor- 
respondence relative to the French landing in 
Wales in 1797. The following memoranda made 
at the time appeared in yesterday's issue. If re- 
printed and indexed in " N. & Q." they will be 
of use to the future historian ; if left unnoticed 
in that wide sea of print, they will probably be 
forgotten : 

" To THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES.' 
" Sir, Permit me, with all due deference both to the 
Hon. G. penman and M. Edouard Tate, to give through 
the medium of your columns a full, true, and particular 
account of the French landing in Wales, from an old 
writing in my possession written at the time : 
" ' On the 22d of February, 1797, that part of the De- 



vonshire coast, situated at the mouth of the Bristol 
channel, was thrown into the greatest consternation by 
the appearance of three frigates, which entered the small 
harbour of Ilfracombe, scuttled some merchant ships, and 
endeavoured to destroy every vessel in the port. From 
this place they departed, standing across the channel 
towards the side of Pembroke; they were discovered 
from the heights of St. Bride's Bay, as they were steering 
round St. David's Head. They afterwards directed their 
course towards Fishgard, and came to anchor in a small 
bay not far from Lanonda church, at which place they 
hoisted French colours and put out their boats; they 
completed their debarcation on the morning of the 23d, 
when numbers of them traversed the country in search of 
provisions, plundering such houses as they found aban- 
doned, but offering no molestation to those inhabitants 
Avho remained in their dwellings. The alarm which they 
had first created soon subsided, as their numbers did not 
exceed 1,400 men, wholly destitute of artillery, though 
possessed of 70 cartloads of powder and ball, together 
with a number of hand grenades. Two of the natives be- 
came victims of their own temerity; in one of these in- 
stances a Frenchman having surrendered and delivered 
up his musket, the Welshman aimed a blow at him with 
the butt-end of it, when self-preservation induced the 
Frenchman to run him through the body with his bay- 
onet, which he had not delivered up. Soon after the in- 
vaders surrendered themselves prisoners of war to Lord 
Cawdor, at the head of 700 men, consisting of volunteers, 
fencibles, yeomen cavalry, and colliers. The frigates set 
sail for the coast of France, but two were captured on the 
first night in the ensuing month, while standing in for the 
harbour of Brest, by the San Fiorenzo and Nymph fri- 
gates. They proved to be La Resistance, of 48 guns, and 
La Constance, of 24. The officer in command stated, 
when captured, that the whole expedition consisted of 
600 veteran soldiers, besides sailors and marines. It was 
alleged at the time in favour of the French Government 
that this expedition was merely an experiment.' 
" I am, Sir, yours obedienth r , 
" Leek, Dec. 21." " G. MASSEY." 

K. P. D. E. 

Christmas Eve. 

JUNIUS. If this question ever was solved, the 
secret has not transpired, and the subject may be 
said to remain as problematical as ever. In Quar- 
terly Review for April last (p. 490.), it is stated 
that George III., when labouring under aberra- 
tion of mind, even when most delirious, possessed 
such "reticente" that he never divulged any 
matters which in his rational moments it was his 
object to conceal. It repeats his words to Major- 
Gen. Desaguliers in 1772 : " We know Junius 
he will write no more." And the reviewer adds, 
" there can be little doubt, that the King knew 
Francis's secret, and he never communicated it." 
This, however, is not reconcilable with the follow- 
ing statement in Diaries and Correspondence of 
the Rt. Hon. George Rose, just published by the 
Rev. Leveson V. Harcourt, in 2 vols. 8vo. ; where, 
in vol. ii. p. 184., it is related that, on October 31, 
1804, the King, when riding out with Mr. Rose, 
asked him whether he knew, or had any fixed 
opinion as to who was the author of Junius f To 
which Mr. Rose replied, he believed no one living 
knew to a certainty who the author was, except Lord 



44 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. IX JAN. 21. '60. 



Grenville, but that he had heard him say positively 
he did. That he (Mr. Rose) himself had a strong 
persuasion Gerard Hamilton (Single-speech Ha- 
milton) was the author; that he knew him well, 
and from a variety of circumstances he had no 
doubt in his own mind of the fact. These ac- 
counts being so contradictory, I think we may 
conclude that George III. was not cognisant of 
the authorship of the Letters of Junius^ and so far 
the question remains still a mystery. 2. 2. 



LOUD MACAULAY. I shall be glad if any of 
your readers can favour me, and in so doing 
your subscribers generally, with any addition to 
the pedigree of the late Lord Macaulay, .which I 
here subjoin : 

Rev. Macaulay 

(Dumbarton). 



Eev. John Macaulay = Campbell. 

(Inverary). 

Zachary Macaulay, Esq. 

Thomas Babington, Lord Macaulay. 

I have understood that the late lord's kinsmen 
in Leicestershire claim descent from an ancient 
house of the name. Was this the house of Ma- 
caulay of Ardincaple, to whom the grandmother 
of Smollett the novelist belonged, which is sup- 
posed to have been a branch of the Earls of Len- 
nox, but is claimed as Celtic by writers of that 
school ? The race of a man like the historian is 
a matter of some interest. FITZGLLBERT. 

Canonbury. 

[The following notice of Lord Macaulay's ancestry oc- 
curs in The New Statistical Account of Scotland,. 491., 
Argyleshire : " Lord Macaulay will be deemed by High- 
landers at least, who are said to trace blood relationships to 
sixteenth cousins, to be not very remotely connected with 
the parish of Ardchattan in Argyleshire. His grand- 
mother, the daughter of Mr. Campbell, of Inveresragan, 
in our close vicinity, married the Rev. John Macaulay, 
minister of Lismore and Appin, to which parish he was 
translated from South Uist in 1755. From Lismore Mr. 
Macaulay was, in 1765, translated to Inverary, and after- 
wards he left Inverary for the parish of Cardross. The 
property of Inveresragan, which consists only of two 
farms, was afterwards disposed of to the proprietor of Ard- 
chattan, otherwise it is believed the family of the Rev. Mr. 
Macaulay being the nearest heirs would have succeeded to 
the inheritance." ED.] 

SWIFT'S MARRIAGE. Would one of your able 
correspondents kindly inform me in your valuable 
publication of the reason why Dean Swift mar- 
ried secretly ? Father Prout, in his article on 
Dean Swift's madness, says : 

" The reasons for such secrecy, though perfectly fami- 
liar to me, may not be divulged An infant son was 

born of that marriage after many a lengthened year, &c." 



Who was that child ? Or did the refined and 
gentle Stella ever become a mother ? I am quite 
in the dark on the subject. As a matter of course, 
I do not credit Father Prout's assertion of his 
being the lost child whom William Woods kid- 
napped in the evening of October, 1741. Any 
information on this subject will oblige, 

H. BASCHET. 

BURIAL IN A SITTING POSTURE. This custom 
prevails among the inhabitants of Canara and 
Telinga in India; as also among some of the 
Marattas. Bodies belonging to the " Stone Age" 
have been found buried in this singular posture. 
Some of the tribes of North America also, if I 
remember rightly, adopted this mode of burial. 
I shall feel much obliged if some of your corre- 
spondents will kindly inform me of any other in- 
stances of this kind they may have come across. 

EXUL. 

MONTEITH BOWL. The Corporation of Newark 
possess a silver bowl, with a movable rim shaped 
like the top of a chess castle. The inscription 
round the bowl is as follows : 

" This munteth and thirteen cups were given by The 
Honourable Nicholas Saunderson to the Corporation of 
Newark upon Trent, A. D. 1689." 

Johnson says, " Monteth (from the name of the 
inventor), a vessel in which glasses are washed." 

" New things produce new words, and thus Monteth 
Has by one vessel sav'd his name from death." 

King, Art of Cookery. 

In the new edition of Nares's Glossary, it is 
called " Monteith, a vessel used for cooling wine- 
glasses." Are these vessels common ? Who was 
Monteth or Monteith, and what is the exact use of 
the movable rim ? * R. F. SKETCHLEY. 

QUOTATION WANTED. 

" See where the startled wild fowl screaming rise, 
And seek in marshalled flight those golden skies : 
Yon wearied swimmer scarce can win the land, 
His limbs yet falter on the watery strand, 
Poor hunted hart ! I. The painful struggle o'er, 
How blest the shelter of that island shore: 
There, whilst he sobs his panting heart to rest, 
Nor hound nor hunter shall his lair molest." 

B.E. 

EXCOMMUNICATION or QUEEN ELIZABETH. 
What was the diplomatic effect, according to the 
public law of Europe, of the excommunication 
of Queen Elizabeth ? Did Spain and the Empire 
regularly declare war subsequently to that bull 
of Pius V., or in 1588, before the approach of the 
Armada? or did they consider England beyond 
the pale of international courtesy? Are there 
any documents preserved upon this point ? Were 
the expeditions of Drake against Spain regarded 
as reprisals for the excommunication and the 
Armada ? There was certainly a difference of 

[* Notices of the Mouteith bowl occur in our l rt S. ix. 
452. 599. ; xi. 374. ED.] 



2 d S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES, 



45 



opinion amongst the Romanist jurisconsults upon 
this matter, since France continued diplomatic in- 
tercourse. Are there any historical notices ex- 
tant upon the subject-? J. R- 

KING BLADUD AND HIS PIGS. The city of 
Bath has a curious and somewhat comic tra- 
dition (which is noticed in its local guide books) 
that the old British King Bladud (father of 
King Lear or Leal), being reduced by leprosy to 
the condition of a swineherd, discovered the me- 
dicinal virtues of the hot springs of Bath while 
noticing that his pigs which bathed therein were 
cured of sundry diseases prevailing among them. 
Warner, our chief writer on the history of Bath, 
quotes this tradition at large from Wood, a local 
topographer of the preceding century, who gives 
it without authority. Warner states that al- 
though the legend may appear absurd, it is 
noticed and accredited by most British anti- 
quaries of antiquity. Now as we do not find it 
in Geoffrey of Monmouth, or any early author of 
antiquarian lore whom we have yet consulted, I 
take the liberty of directing the attention of your 
sagacious readers to the point, so that by the aid 
of " N. & Q." the question concerning King 
Bladud's pigs may finally be settled. The direct 
question is this, What are the most ancient ex- 
isting authorities for this legend, which, though ap- 
parently unimportant in itself, is connected with 
some points of old British history, in whose solu- 
tion antiquaries are justly interested. 

FKANCIS BARHAM, 

St. Mark's Place, Bath. 

JUDGES' COSTUME. In Sir William Dugdale's 
Origines Juridicales, at page 98., in the 20 Ed. 
III., the King, by his precept to the Keeper of 
his Great Wardrobe, directs him to provide the 
different justices therein named with, 

" For their Summer Vestments for that present year half 
a short Cloth, and one piece of fine Linnen silk ; and for the 
Winter season another half of a Cloth colour Curt with a 
Hood and three pieces of fur of white Budg. And for the 
feast of the Nativity of our Lord, half a cloth colour Curt, 
with a Hood of two and thirty bellyes of minevere, 
another belly with seven tires of minever, and two furs of 
silk." 

Doubtless, Sir, some of your numerous cor- 
respondents who are learned in mediaeval cos- 
tume will be able to answer some or all of the 
following queries : 

What kind of fabric is meant by linnen silk f 

What is the meaning of " curt ? " Has it refer- 
ence to the colour or the width of the " cloth ? " 

What were " tires " of silk ? 

And what were "furs of silk? " Could they have 
been merely imitations of furs analogous to our 
so-called " sealskin ? " 

An answer to these queries will greatly oblige 

CAUSIDICUS. 



Bp. DOWNES' " TOUR THROUGH CoRK AND 

Ross." Dive Downes, D.D., ancestor of the late 
Lord Downes (for some years Lord Chief Justice 
of the Court of King's Bench, Ireland), was pro- 
moted to the bishoprick of Cork and Ross in the 
year 1699 ; and has been described by Bishop 
King, of Derry, as " a man considerable for gra- 
vity, prudence, and learning, both in divinity, 
ecclesiastical law, and other sciences." He wrote 
(as we are informed by Archdeacon Cotton in 
his Fasti Ecclesia Hibernicce, vol. i. p. 230.), an 
interesting journal of a " Tour through the Dio- 
ceses of Cork and Ross," which is preserved in 
the manuscript room of the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Would it not be a boon to 
many readers to print this document, either se- 
parately, or in some one of the suitable periodi- 
cals of the day ? ABHBA. 

CELTIC FAMILIES. Is there a work about to 
be published purporting to give the history of 
the ancient Celtic families of Ireland, and if so, 
what is its title ? MILES. 

MAGISTBR RICHARD HOWLETT. Can any one 
give me any information as to the ancestors or 
descendants of the above, who in 1616 was tutor 
to Oliver Cromwell at Sidney Sussex College, 
Cambridge ? Was he in any way connected with 
the Norfolk Howletts ? CHELSEGA. 

OLDYS'S DIARY. Oldys left a Diary, and as I 
may judge, of no little interest, from such ex- 
tracts which I have seen. It was in the possession 
of J. Petit Andrews, Esq., of Brompton, in 1785. 
It was entituled Diarium Notabile, and is de- 
scribed as an octavo pocket-book, gilt leaves. In 
whose possession is it at present ? * ITHURIEL. 

THE BATTISCOMBE FAMILY. Having obtained 
all the information I desire concerning the first 
of my Queries through the kind assistance of the 
Editor and B. S. J., I should feel greatly obliged 
to any correspondent for answers to my Queries 
concerning William Battiscombe, who, I have 
since learnt, was nearly related to Mr. Robert 
Battiscombe, the royal apothecary, had two 
brothers James (or John ?) and Daniel (men- 
tioned in the reply) ; had issue William John, 
and died 180-. How were the said Robert and 
William Battiscombe connected ? 

I have also heard that the former married a 
French lady and died s. p. Am I correct, and if 
so, what was her name, and what are the dates of 
their deaths ? When did Peter Battiscombe of 
Vere Wotton, father of the said Robert (living in 
1796) die? A. SHELLEY ELLIS. 

Bristol. 

[* For a notice of Oldys's Autobiography, see our 1 st S. 
v. 529. ED.] 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2<i S. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



CROWE FAMILY. Information is desired re- 
specting the descent, marriages, &c. of Sir Sack- 
vill Crowe, who lived in the time of Charles I., 
and Dr. Charles Crowe, Bishop of Cloyne, Ire- 
land, who died 26 October, 1724.* H. 

CHARLES II. The following letter of King 
Charles II. was written during his residence in 
Jersey : 

" Progers, I would have you (besides the embroidred 
sute) bring me a plaine riding suite with an innocent 
coate, the suites I have for horseback being so spotted 
and spoiled that the}' are not to be scene out of this 
island. The lining of the coate and the petit toies are 
referred to your greate discretion, provided there want 
nothing whe'n it comes to be put on. I doe not remember 
there was a belt or a hat band in your directions for the 
embroidered suite, and those are so necessarie as you 
must not forget them. 

" CHARLES R. 

"Jearsey, 14 th Jan. 
old stile, 1649." 

" To M r . Progers." 

The above letter is printed in Bonn's edition 
of the Memoirs of the Count de Grammont, 
notes, p. 381. My inquiry is directed as to 
where is or was the original of this letter, and is it 
in print elsewhere ? CL. HOPPER. 

PEFYSIANA. 

1. To what church near Southampton does 
Pepys allude, when he speaks, in the Diary for 
April 26, 1662, of a little churchyard, where the 
graves are accustomed to be all sowed with sage ? 

2. Feb. 8, 166f. For "JosiaKs words," read 
"Joshua's words" (xxiv. 15.). 

P. J. F. GANTILLON. 

THE YOUNG PRETENDER. In the first number 
of Cassell's History of England" The Reign of 
George III.," by William Howitt it is stated 
that among the crowd who witnessed the corona- 
tion of George III. was Charles Stuart, the heir 
de jure of the throne ? Is this a well-authenti- 
cated fact ? WM. DOBSON. 

Preston. 

SIR GEORGE PAULE. I am desirous to obtain 
some particulars respecting Sir George Paule, 
author of a Life of Archbishop Whitgift. He de- 
scribes himself as " Comptroller of his Grace's 
Houshold;" and his Life of Whitgift was pub- 
lished, in 1699, in the same volume with Dr. 
Richard Cosin's Conspiracy for Pretended Reform- 
ation. 

Browne Willis (Notit. Parl.) mentions Sir Geo. 
St. Poll as M.P. for the county of Lincoln in the 
parliaments of 1588 and 1592 ; and as M.P. for 
Grimsby in 1603. This Sir George St. Poll had a 
nephew, George, son of John St. Paul of Camp- 

[* Dr. Charles Crow, Bishop of Cloj'ne, died on June 
26, 1726, according to Cotton's fasti Eccles. Hiber- 
nica, i. 271. ED.] I 



sale, by whom he was succeeded in part of his 
estates, and (I suppose) in his baronetcy for he 
was knight and baronet. 

Can the author of the Archbishop's Life be 
identified with either of these Georges (uncle or 
nephew), supposing the saint to have been ban- 
ished from the name in charity to the Puritan 
scruples of the times ? Upon this supposition, the 
Sir George Paul, who is mentioned by Willis as 
M.P. for Bridgnorth in 1628, may possibly have 
been the nephew : the uncle being the last Sir 
George, who lived in Lincolnshire, i. e. the M. P. 
for Grimsby, 1603. 

It should be remembered that Whitgift was 
born at Grimsby, and received the rudiments of 
his education at the monastery of Wellow, where 
hi uncle was abbot ; and that, for seven years of 
his after life, he was dean of Lincoln. 

It may be worth observing farther, that there 
is a George Poivle, Esq., mentioned by Willis as 
M. P. for Hindon, Wilts, in 1601 ; and, four years 
previously, as M. P. for Downton in the same 
county. There would seem to have been a family 
of this name in Wiltshire, apparently in no way 
connected with the St. Paules, or St. Polls, of 
Lincolnshire. Still it is observable that Richard 
Cosin, LL.D., and Richard Cosyn, or Cossyn, 
LL.D., may be found as M. P. for both these 
places in 1586 and 1588. This can hardly have 
been any other than Richard Cosin, " Dean of 
Arches and Official Principal to Archbishop Whit- 
gift," the author of the other treatise bound up 
with the Life. J. SANSOM. 

PICKERING FAMILY. Can you give me any in- 
formation as to John Pickering, who founded the 
grammar-school at Tarvin, near Chester, in 1300. 
Thomas Pickering of Tarvin received the free- 
dom of the city for serving as a volunteer at 
Culloden. Was he descended from this John 
Pickering ? THOMAS W. PICKERING. 

SIR HUGH VAUGHAN, styled as of Littlehampton, 
co. Middlesex, was Gentleman-usher to Henry, 
VIII., and subsequently for some time Captain or 
Governor of the Island of Jersey. Can any of 
your correspondents inform me whether he has 
any recognised descendants ? and where to find 
additional data respecting him, other than that 
given by Bentley in his Excerpla Historica f 

J. BERTRAND PAYNE. 



hut!) 

ANTONIO GUEVARA. A small 4to. volume has 
just come under my notice, respecting which I 
wish to make a Query. It is, judging from the 
typography (for the title-page is wanting) of the 
latter end of the sixteenth or early part of the 
seventeenth century. The indiscriminate use of 



2 nd S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



the v and u is abundantly exemplified in its pages. 
The " Prologue " states the work to be "entituled 
the Mount of Calvary, compiled by the Reuerend 
Father, Lord Antonie de Gueuara, Bishop of Mon- 
donneda, preacher and chronicler vnto the Em- 
perour Charles the fift." Is this work scarce ? 

S. S. S. 

[This work is entitled " The Mount of Caluarie, com- 
piled by the Reverend Father in God, Lord Anthonie de 
Gueuara, Bishop of Mondonnedo, Preacher, Chronicler, 
and Councellor, vnto Charles the fift, Emperour. Where- 
in are handled all the Mysteries of the Mount of Cal- 
uarie, from the time that Christ was condemned by Pilat, 
vntill hee was put into the Sepulcher, by Joseph ^and 
Nichodemus. At London, printed by Edw. All-de for 
lohn Grismond, and are to be sold at his shop, at the 
little North dore of Paules, at the signe of the Gunne, 
1618." Antonio Guevara, a Spanish prelate, was born in 
the province of Alava, and became a Franciscan monk. 
He was nominated to the bishopric of GuadiaB, in the 
kingdom of Granada, and afterwards to that of Mondon- 
nedo in Galicia. He died in 1544. He is the author of 
several other works. The well-known saying, that " Hell 
is paved with good intentions " has been attributed to 
him.] 

POST-OFFICE IN IRELAND. When was the 
post-office first regularly established in Ireland ? 
And where may information upon the subject be 
found ? ABIIBA. 

[Our correspondent will have to consult the Parlia- 
mentary History of the United Kingdom for the inform- 
ation he requires. A proclamation of Charles I., 1635, 
commands his Postmaster of England and Foreign Parts 
to open a regular communication by running posts be- 
tween the metropolis and Edinburgh, West Chester, Holy- 
head, Ireland, &c. But the most complete step in the 
establishment of a post-office was taken in 1656, when an 
Act was passed " to settle the postage of England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland." Additional chief letter offices were 
established by 9 Annas in Edinburgh and Dublin. In 
1784, the Irish post-office was established independent of 
that of England ; but the offices of Postmasters-general 
of England and Ireland were unitecHnto one by 1 Will. 
IV. cap. 8., 1831. By 2 Will. IV. cap. 15. 1832, the Post- 
master-general is empowered to establish a penny-post 
office in any city, town, or village, in Ireland. The new 
post-office of Dublin was opened Jan. 6,, 1818.] 

ANTHONY STAFFORD. What is known of An- 
thony Stafford's history ? The date of his birth 
and death, or any other particulars? Did he 
publish any, and what, works besides The Femall 
Glory ? and is there any modern edition of this 
work known ? The date of the first edition is 
1635. G. J. M. 

[Anthony Stafford, descended from a noble family, was 
born in Northamptonshire, and educated at Oriel College, 
Oxford, where he took his degree of M.A. in 1623. He 
died in 1641. See Lowndes and Watt for a list of his 
works. There is no modern edition of his Femall Glory ; 
hut in 1656 it was republished, and entitled The Prece- 
dent of Female Perfection. A curious account of this 
work will be found in Wood's Athena Oxon., iii. 33.] 

ANONYMOUS AUTHOR. Who was the trans- 
lator of " The Contempt?.- of the World, and the 
vanitie thereof, written by the reuerend F. Diego 



de Stella, of the order of S. Fr. of late translated 
out of the Italian into Englishe." A D nl 1582. 
No place of publication, 16 mo . ? The dedication 
is 

" To my deare and lovinge Countrywomen, and Sisters 
in Christ assembled together to serue God vnder the 
holie order of S. Briget in the towne of Rone in Fraunce." 
It concludes 

"From th prison, Aprilis 7. Anno domini. 1584. nost. 
capt. 7. Your faythfull well wilier, and true frende in 
Christ Jesu. G. C." 

It will be seen the date of the title is two years 
earlier than that of the dedication. The writer is 
evidently a Roman Catholic suffering imprison- 
ment ; probably a prisoner of state detained for 
participation in some of the numerous conspira- 
cies of the reign of Elizabeth. Perhaps some of 
your readers can supply his name. 

G. W. W. MINNS. 

[We have before us the third English edition, trans- 
lated from the Spanish, of Diego's Contempt of the World, 
"at S. Omers, for John Heigham. Anno 1622." 18mo. 
The Dedication commences " To the Vertvovs Religious 
sisters of the holie Order of S. Briget, my deare and lou- 
ing countrie women in our Lord lesus Christi, increase of 
grace and euerlasting happines." The sentence " From 
the prison," &c. is omitted ; but concludes with the words 
" your faithful wel wilier, and true frende in Christ lesu. 
G. C." The " Approbatio " at the end of the book is 
dated " Decembris, 1603," and signed " Georgius Coluene- 
sius, S. Theol. Licent. et Professor, librorum in Academia 
Duacensi Visitator." At first we were inclined to attri- 
bute the initials to Gabriel Chappuys, the editor of the 
French translation ; but the earliest edition we find by 
him in Niceron, xxxix. 109., is that of 1587.] 

ORRERY. Can the etymology of the word 
orrery be ascertained? Has it anything to do 
with the Latin horarium? CURIOSUS. 

[About the year 1700, Mr. George Graham first in- 
vented a movement for exhibiting the motion of the earth 
about the sun at the same time that the moon revolved 
round the earth. This machine came into 'the hands of 
a Mr. Rowley, an instrument maker, to be forwarded to 
Prince Eugene. Mr. Rowley's curiosity tempted him to 
take it to pieces ; but to his mortification he found he 
could not put it together again without having recourse 
to Mr. Graham. From this circumstance, Mr. Rowley 
was enabled to copy the various parts of the machine ; 
and not long after," with the addition of some simple 
movements, constructed his first planetarium for Charles 
Earl of Orrery. Sir Richard Steele (Spectator, No. 552.. 
and Guardian, No. 1.), thinking to do justice to the first 
encourager, as well as to the inventor, of such a curious 
instrument, called it an Orrery, and gave to Mr. J. Row- 
ley the praise due to Mr. Graham. (Desaguliers's Course 
of Experimental Philosophy, i. 431., 4to., and Gent. Mag. 
June, 1818, p. 504.) Webster and other lexicographers 
agree in this etymology ; yet, supposing it to be correct, 
there may still have been some allusive reference to the 
Latin horarium. ] 

SIR HENRY ROWSWELL. Who was Sir Henry 
Rosewell of Ford Abbey in Devonshire? of what 
family ? and on what occasion was he knighted ? 
Grey has noticed him in the preface to his edition 
of Hudibras, and has shown that not he, but Sir 



48 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2 n * S. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



Samuel Luke, was the hero of that poem. Lysons 
tells us that Sir Henry Rosewell married into the 
family of the Drakes, but nothing farther. 

X. A. X. 

[William, third son of Richard Rowswell (sometimes 
spelt Rosewell) of Bradford, in the county of Wilts, was 
solicitor to Queen Elizabeth ; he bought the manor of 
Carswell in the parish of Broadhembury, in the county of 
Devon, and dying in 1565, was succeeded by his eldest 
son William, who purchased the site of the ancient Ab- 
bey of Ford, and seated himself there. He was suc- 
ceeded by his son Sir Henry Rowswell, who resided at 
Ford Abbey in Sir William Pole's time (circa 1630), but 
afterwards sold it to Sir Edmund Prideaux. 

This Sir Henry was knighted at Theobalds on the 17th 
or 19th of February, 1618. His wife was Mary, daugh- 
ter of John Drake of Ashe; his family arms^ per pale 
gules and azure, a lion rampant argent. Crest : a lion's 
head couped argent. We are indebted to Mr. Tuckett's 
Devonshire Collections for the above information.] 

BISHOP LTNDWOOD. Lyndwood, the author 
of the Provinciale, where born ? Was he of a 
family of merchants of that name, to whose me- 
mory there are some brasses in the church of 
Linwood parish, near Market Rasen ? 

J. SANSOM. 

[William Lyndwood, Bishop of St. David's, was de- 
scended from a respectable family seated at Lyndewode or 
Linwood, near Market Rasen, in the county of Lincoln, 
at which place he was born. He is stated to have been 
one of seven children. Gough (Sepulch. Mon. ii. 52.) has 
printed an inscription on a slab in the church of that 
parish to the memory of John and Alice Lyndewode, who 
are thought to have been the father and mother of the 
bishop. The father died in 1419. Gough (&. 53.) has 
also printed another inscription derived from the same 
church, to the memory of a second John Lyndewode, who 
died in 1420, and who is stated to have been a brother of 
the bishop. We are indebted for these particulars to a 
valuable biographical notice of the bishop in the Archceo- 
logia, xxxiv. 411-417.] 



ENGLISH COMEDIANS IN THE NETHERLANDS. 

(l rt S. ii. 184. 459. ; iii. 21. ; vii, 114. 360. $03. ; 
2 nd S. vii. 36.) 

Mr. L. Ph. C. van den Bergh, J. U. D., in the 
first part of his 's Gravenhaagsche BijzonderJieden 
('s Gravenhage Martinus JSTijhoff, 1857), p. 20 
23., writes : 

" Already in 1605 a company of English comedians or 
camerspelers * had erected its trestles at the Hague, and it 
seems they gave some representations during the fair. 
The Hof van (Court of ') Holland, taking ill that this 
was done without its knowledge, thought fit to summon 
the players, and by them was acquainted, that they 
had an act of consent from the Prince, and the magis- 
trates' permission for eight or ten days: that, further- 
more, thej' took three pence a spectator'. Hereupon they 
were forbidden to play after the current week. (Resolu- 
tion 's Hofs, May 10th, 1605.) Thus, probably, this as- 
sociation of actors will have given its representations in 

* Rhetoricians. 



a tent or booth, pitched up for the purpose, and in the 
number of Englishmen then, as appears from elsewhere, 
residing at the Hague, we find good reason for their 
doing so. 

" In the month of June of next year, they, with the 
Stadtholder's leave, again made their entrance-bow to 
the public, but again only stayed for a short time : which 
latter fact, considering the journey from England to the 
Low Countries, makes us surmise that they also will 
have played in other towns of the United Provinces, 
though written proofs of this suggestion still be wanting.* 
And it seems they had ' a good house,' for in the month 
of April, 1607, they, for a third time, found themselves 
at the Hague, and again the Hof interfered and hin- 
dered them from giving any farther representations until 
the fair. 

" But, in 1608, the States, by express edict, opposed 
their authority against all scenical representations of 
whatever kind being given at the Hague, forbidding 
them as scandalous and pernicious to the -commune, and' 
thus, during a couple of years, no vestige of any stage- 
playing occurs. 

" The nation, meanwhile, had grown accustomed to 
such shows: even protestant England had admitted, 
and the Stadtholder with his court seem to have re- 
lished them. And so it happened that when, in 1610, 
the strolling actors again presented themselves, the Court 
of Holland, by resolution of September 24, authorised 
them to perform on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and 
Thursday, for which leave they should have to pay to 
the deacons, in behalf of the poor, a sum of 20 pounds ; 
this licence was prolonged for a week on the 29th. A 
similar permission was granted to them on October 9, 
1612: this time for a fortnight. Whether they since 
came back more than once, I cannot say, as I do not 
again find them noticed before the year 1629, when the 
magistrate, under the stipulation of thirty guilders for 
the orphan -house, repeated for them his allowance to 
perform at the fair. In December of that year their li- 
cence was renewed, and the tennis-court of the Hof, in 
the present Hoflaan, conceded to their use. 

" But once more, since that period, I fell in with an 
English company of actors, which resided at the Hague 



* If Mr. Van den Bergh had looked over his Navorscher, 
he would not have oyerlooked what is stated there (Na- 
vorscher's Sijblad, lo"0, pp. xl. and liv. ; cf. K & Q." 
1 st S. vii. 360. 503.) about the English players and their 
peregrinations ; we can almost follow them step by step. 
I will not mention the troop of Robert Browne (sic, not 
Bronv; vide infra), that, in October, 1590, performed 
at Leyden (Navorscher, viii. 7 ; " N. & Q." 2* S. vii. 36.), 
nor allude to the company of " certain English come- 
dians," who played at the townhall of Utrecht in July, 
1597 ; but will only refer to the association of players 
that (with John Wood as manager?) appears at the 
Court of Brandenburgh before August the 10th, 1604 : 
comes to Leyden on September 30 of the same year : has 
an act of consent from his Excellency of Nassau, bearing 
the date of December 22 : returns to Leyden on January 
the 6th, 1605 : plays at Koningsberg in Prussia before 
the Duchess Maria Eleonora in October : is sent away 
from Elbing " because of its having produced scandalous 
things on the stage : " is found at Rostock in 1606, and 
again dismissed in 1607. It seems this company, as your 
present " Judge and Jury," acted extempore, and like the 
latter frequently overstepped the then much less rigid 
rules of decency. That such English comedians were not 
unknown at Amsterdam in 1615 is proved by what is 
said in Brederoo's Moortje, Act III. Sc. 4. See the trans- 
lation by my friend John Scott of Norwich, " N. & Q,' 
lt S. vii. 361. 



2a S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



at least from November, 1644, to about February, 1645 : 
their names, as recorded in an act passed by notary, 
were : Jeremias Kite, William Coock, Thomas Loffday, 
Edward Schottnel [sic], Nathan Peet and his son. 
{Dingtalen 's Hofs, Reg. No. 25.) It does not appear 
actresses belonged to this troop. 

"To such of my readers, however, as ask me what kind 
of representations these stagers used to give, I, to my i 
disappointment, cannot supply the information wanted : I 
but 1 deem it probable that, with other plays, they also 
will have performed the pieces of Shakspeare, Marlowe, 
Ben Jonson, and their cotemporaries. For only with this j 
supposition I am able to explain to myself how the works 
of the poet I named first came already to be known 
here so early, and so soon were translated into Dutch : j 
and this at a period when they were yet unnoticed else- i 
where. Thus, already in 1G18, the well-known Jan i 
Jansz. Starter gave Ins version of Shakspeare's Mitch 
Ado about Nothing in his Blyendigh Truysspel van Timbre 
de Cat-done endc Fenicie van Messine (Merrily-ending Tra- 
gedy of Timbre de Cardone and I'enicia of Messina) ; 
Leeuwarden, 1618, in 4to. See van Halmael, Bijdragen 
tot de Geschiedenis van het Tooneel [ Contributions towards 
the History of the Stage"]: Leeuwarden, p. 82. Starter's 
performance, being very rare, never came under my 
hands. I may, however, not pass under silence that one 
of my friends, who read Starter's comedy, did not judge 
it an imitation after Shakspeare, but rather a working 
up of an old novel. If it be so, I, of course, retract my 
surmise.* Jacob Struys, in 1634, gave the dramatic 
play of Romeo en Juliette, which was personated in the 
old chamber of the Rhetoricians at Amsterdam, and 
which, to all probability, also, is followed after Shak- 
speare : whilst Jan Vos's notorious tragedy of Aran en 
Titus, of which already in 1656 there appeared a fifth 
edition, is nothing else, as Bilderdijk has demonstrated, 
but a free imitation of the English poet's Titus Androni- 
cus. Perhaps more examples are extant of such trans- 
lations, but how is their earliness to be explained other- 
wise than by the supposition that beforehand their 
originals had become known by the English comedians 
of that time?" 

I conclude with a Letter of Credence, addressed 
to the States General in favour of a Company of 
English Comedians, and communicated by M. van 
den Bergb, l.L, p. 41. He says : 

"This document, recently discovered by the Clark- 
chartermaster J. A. de Zwaan Cz., in a bundle of letters 
belonging to the States General, I thought too interesting 
not to publish it, now the occasion offers. By it we see 
that, already in 1591, in various towns of Holland, and 
probably too at the Hague, English comedians were seen, 
personating tragedies, comedies and histories, quite ac- 
cording to the difference, also made by Shakspeare, with 
whom, for instance, the pieces of which kings are the 
heroes in the same way are called histories. The fact 
that the company was in the service of a private gentle- 
man reminds us of the custom in the middle ages, also 
with us, that the principal barons usually retained one 
or more pla3 r ers, a custom of -which the baronial accounts 
furnish many an example. The agilitez [see " N. & Q." 

ld S. vii. 30.] were tricks, whether of legerdemain [leap- 
ing] or otherwise, performed in the interludes mean- 
whiles to divert the public." 

Follows the letter : - 

" Messieurs, commeles presents porteurs Robert Browne 



["N. &Q."2d S. vii. 36.], Jehan Bradstrier, Thomas 
Saxfield, Richard Jones, avec leurs consorts, estants mes 
joueurs et serviteurs, ont delibere de faire ung voyage en 
Allemagne, avec intention de passer par les pai's de Zea- 
lande, Hollande et Frise, et, allantz en leur diet voyage, 
d'exercer leurs qualitez en faict de muaique, agilitez et 
joeux de commedies, tragedies et histoires, pour s'entre- 
tenir et fournir a leurs despenses en leur diet voyage. 
Cestes sont partant pour vous requerir monstrer et 
prester toute faveur en voz pai's et jurisdictions, et leur 
octroyer en ma faveur Vostre ample passeport soubz le 
seel des Estatz, afin que les Bourgmestres des villes es- 
tantz soubz vos jurisdictions, ne les empeschent en pas- 
sant d'exercer leur dictes qualitez par tout. En quoy 
faisant, je vous en demeureray'a tous oblige', et me treu- 
verez tres appareille' a me revencher de vostre courtoisie 
en plus grand cas. De ma chambre a la court d'Angle- 
terre, ce x e jour de Febrier, 1591. 

" Vostre tres affecsione' a vous 

" fayre plaisir et sarvis, 

" C. HOWARD." 
J. H. VAN LENNEP. 
Zeyst, near Utrecht, 
Dec. 21. 1859. 



* The title of Starter's production aburidantly shows 
Shakspeare was not imitated by him. 



THE DE HUNGERFORD INSCRIPTION. 
(2 nd S. viii. 464.) 

This inscription is printed by Mr. Gough in his 
Sepulchral Monuments, vol.i. p. 107., and engraved 
in his Plate xxxvin. It is also engraved by Sir 
Richard C. Hoare, in his Modern Wiltshire, "Hun- 
dred of Heytesbury," Plate vm. But unfortu- 
nately neither of these plates is from an accurate 
tracing or rubbing. Sir Richard Hoare's, indeed, 
is a mere copy of Mr. Gough's, except that some 
corrections are made in the French inscription, 
and he has left the escocheon blank, where Mr. 
Gough represented the arms of Heytesbury, be- 
cause (he says) " no armorial bearings were ever 
engraved on it." This probably is to be explained 
by the fact of the arms having been painted, not 
" engraved, 1 ' or carved, for it is not likely that 
Mr. Gough supplied them ; and, if painted, they 
were probably obliterated when the stone was re- 
moved from the south wall of the church to the 
north, as Sir R. C. Hoare records. 

Neither Mr. Gough's nor Sir R. C. Hoare's 
copies of the inscription are perfectly correct; 
nor is that furnished to " N. & Q." by MB. HOP- 
PER immaculate. In the fifth line, instead of 
iour we should read com, the phrase tant com being 
a repetition of that spelt tant cu in the second line. 
In the sixth the word queried by MB. HOPPER 
is non. The whole (when the contractions are 
extended) then reads as follows : 

" Ky por monsire Robert de Hungerford taunt cum il 
vivera et por 1'alme de ly aprcs sa mort priera, synk centz 
et sinquante jours de pardon avera, grants' de qatorse 
Evesques taunt com il fuist en vie : Par quei en noun de 
charite" Pater et Ave." 
i. e. : 

" Whoso shall pray for Sir Robert de Hungerford whilst 
he shall live, and for his soul after his death, shall have 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



five hundred and fifty days of pardon, granted by fourteen 
bishops whilst he was alive : Wherefore in the name of 
charity (say) Pater and Ave." 

When Gough, quoting Mr. Lethieullier, states 
that "This plate, having no date, shows it was 
set up in his life-time," he misreports Mr. Lethi- 
eullier's words. Mr. Lethieullier (Archceologia, 
ii. 296.) is speaking of the effigy of Sir Robert 
when he says, "This having been set up in his 
life-time, there is no being certain as to its date." 
The inscription, when it asks for prayers for Sir 
Eobert " so long as he shall live," proves that it 
was erected in his life-time. That fourteen bishops 
should have promised five hundred and fifty days 
of pardon to all comers for an object so perfectly 
personal as the temporal and spiritual welfare of 
Sir Robert Hungerford seems very strange to 
our modern notions ; but there is no d<5ubt that 
there was a market always open for the sale of 
these visionary benefits. The bishops who made 
such grants were generally those of inferior grade, 
or suffragans : the amount, of pardon to which 
their grants were usually limited was forty days, 
and sometimes thirty. If each of the fourteen to 
whom Sir Kobert Hungerford was endebted had 
granted forty days, the total would have amounted 
to 560 : probably they were all for forty days but 
one, and that for thirty days only. There will be 
found a long catalogue of such indulgences granted 
to the fabric of the church of Durham, at the end 
of the edition of the Rites of Durham, printed for 
the Surtees Society in 1842 ; and several to a far 
less important structure, the Guild Chapel atStrat- 
ford-upon-Avon, are described in the folio volume 
upon that building, commenced by the late Thomas 
Fisher, F.S.A., and edited by myself after Mr. 
Fisher's death. JOHN GOUGH NICHOLS. 



PROHIBITION OF PROPHECIES. 

(2 nd S. viii. 64.) 

The prohibition of prophecies dates from anti- 
quity. The Chaldaji or mathematici, the profes- 
sors of astrological prediction, were prohibited 
by various acts of the Roman emperors ; but the 
craving after this species of divination prevented 
the laws from being rigorously enforced. See 
Tacit. Ann. ii. 32., xii. 52. ; Hist. i. 22., ii. 62. In 
the third of these passages Tacitus calls the mathe- 
matici a " genus hominum pot en ti bus infidum, 
sperantibus fallax, quod in civitate nostra et 
vetabitur semper et retinebitur." See also Dio 
Cass. Ixv. 1.; Suet. Vitell 14.; and the laws in 
Cod. Theod. ix. 16.; Cod. ix. 18.; Coll. Leg. 
Mos. et Rom. tit. 15. There was a rescript of the 
Emperor Marcus Antoninus, which denounced 
transportation to an island against any person 
who terrified the minds of others with super- 
stitious fear. (Dig. 48. 19. 30.) A rescript of 



Diocletian and Maximian permitted geometry, 
but proscribed the art of the mathematicus or 
astrologer as pernicious : " Artem geometriae 
discere atque exercere publice interest. Ars 
autem mathematica damnabilis est et interdicta 
omnino." (Cod. ix. 18. 2.) Ulpian (Coll. 15.) 
says on the rescript of Marcus : " Et sane non 
debent impune ferri hujusmodi homines, qui sub 
obtentu et monitu deoruni quEedam vel renun- 
tiant vel jactant vel scientes confingunt." (Com- 
pare Rein, Criminalrecht der Homer, p. 905.) 

According to the law laid down by Pnulus 
(Sentent. Rec. v. 21.), all persons professing to be 
inspired diviners are treated as criminals. " Yati- 
cinatores qui se deo plenos adsimulant idcirco 
civitate expelli placuit, ne humana credulitate 
publici mores ad spem alicujus vi corrumperentur, 
vel certe ex eo populares animi turbarentur." 
Paulus proceeds to declare that the punishment 
for their first offence is flogging and simple banish- 
ment ; but that if this does not suffice, they are 
subject to imprisonment or transportation to an 
island. To consult an astrologer or other di- 
viner concerning the health of the emperor, or 
the state of public affairs, was a capital offence. 
The same punishment was due to a slave for a simi- 
lar consultation concerning the health of his master. 
Paulus adds that the safer course is to abstain not 
merely from the practice of divination, but even 
from all knowledge of it, and from the perusal of 
books of divination. The latter doctrine is re- 
peated in Cod. Theod. ix. 16. 8. with respect to 
the study of mathematical or astrological writings : 
" Neque enim dissimilis culpa est prohibita dis- 
cere quam docere." 

Maecenas in his speech to Augustus warns him 
against magicians, who by false predictions lead 
the people to disturbance. (Dio Cass. Hi. 36.) 

It has been remarked that when a person re- 
ceives a prophecy, promising him some great ele- 
vation of dignity, his disposition is, not to sit 
quiet, awaiting the spontaneous fulfilment of his 
destiny, but to resort to active measures for 
bringing about the event. This observation has 
been illustrated by a reference to the example of 
Macbeth, who is not satisfied to await the natural 
accomplishment of the prophecy of the weird sis~ 
ters that " he shall be king hereafter," but murders 
Duncan in order to obtain his crown. This ten- 
dency of human nature did not escape the pene- 
tration of Tacitus, who thus comments on the 
prediction of the astrologer Ptolemseus that Otho 
would one day become emperor : " Sed Otho 
tamquam peritia et monitu fatorum prsedicta ac- 
cipiebat, cupidine ingenii humani libentius ob- 
scura credendi. Nee deerat Ptolema3us,Jam et 
sceleris instinctor, ad quod facillime ab ejusmodi 
voto transitur." Hist. i. 22. (Compare Meri- 
vale's Rome under the Emperors, vol. vi. p. 386.) 

It is this tendency which has led to the pro- 






S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



hibition of prophecies : notwithstanding the sup- 
posed sanctity of diviners, predictions have been 
rendered penal, because they unsettle men's 
minds, and stimulate them to take active steps 
for accomplishing the downfal of princes, or for 
bringing about other political changes, to which 
the prediction points. L. 



FOLK-LORE AND PROVINCIALISMS. 
(2 nd S. viii. 483.) 

Brangle. This word is used in Lincolnshire, 
and is given by Halliwell in quite an opposite 
meaning to that ascribed to it by the translators 
of Rabelais, where it seems to mean to prevent 
difficulty. Mr. Halliwell says, " Brangled, con- 
fused, entangled, complicated. Lincolnshire" And 
so I have always heard it applied. Thus, a con- 
fused and complicated account is called " a 
brangled account." 

Cushion. In the parish accounts of Wrangle, 
near Boston, " A velvet quishon of greene " is 
mentioned as belonging to the pulpit in 1673. 
See Chaucer's Troilus and Cressida t Book iii. line 
961., where li quishen" for Cushion occurs. 

Leery is frequently used in Lincolnshire to 
express feeling shy, bashful, under restraint. 
Thus, a country girl will say, " I felt quite leery 
when the lady spoke to me." 

Widbin. Your correspondent A. A. says, that 
the Anglo-Saxon for the Red Dogwood is CORN- 
treou. It is rather singular that the botanical 
name of the Dogwood Cornus florida should 
approach so near to the Anglo-Saxon ! 

Singing before Breakfast " If you sing before 
breakfast, you will cry before night," is a very 
common saying in almost every part of Lincoln- 
shire. PISHEY THOMPSON. 

Stoke Newingtou. 

I send a few provincialisms not in Halliwell (ed. 
1855) : / 

Crump, a knock, more especially on the head. 
Cambridgeshire. 

Dee, noise. Cambridgeshire. 

Haling-way, towing-path. Cambridgeshire. 

Cambridgeshire people pronounce two, do, and 
the like, as tew, dew, &c. ; they also insert to- 
gether in such phrases as " What are ye at there, 
together ? " 

Scoggin, a vane, weathercock. Kent. 

Brangle, decidedly from ebranler, to shake 
(act). 

Lear. Halliwell, s. v. says Lear = hollow, 
empty. 

Maiden. I have often heard a most dearly- 
loved deceased friend, born in Lancashire, use the 
word maiden in the sense of clothes'-horse : in 
the same county the word winter-hedge, given by 
Halliwell, is used in the same meaning. 

P. J. F. GANTILLON. 



BKANGLE (2 nd S. viii. 6. 483.), like the Scotch 
brangle, to shake, to vibrate, is probably from the 
French branler, brandir. Cushion is from French 
coussin, from Germ, hussen, hissen, perhaps derived 
from the Heb. D*O> " a bag," " purse." Huffkins 
may be a diminutive formed from huff, " to swell," 
from A.-S. hebban, to " raise." Leer may come 
from leer, " empty," from A.-S. gelcer. A simnel 
or symnel is " a kind of cake made of sugar, flour, 
plums and saffron " (Marriott's Eng. Diet.), from 
L. simila, flour, fine meal; whence the A.-S. 
symbel, simble, simle, a feast, banquet, supper. A 
maiden was likewise a sort of guillotine ; and 
gleer may be connected with the Dan. glar, Icel. 
gler, glass. R. S. CHARNOCK. 



THE MAYOR OF MARKET JEW OR MARAZION 
(2 nd S. viii. 451.) While staying some time since 
at Marazion in Cornwall, I went into the little old 
church with the clergyman, who, pointing out a 
large high bishop's throne-like kind of seat, said : 
" That is the mayor's seat, and it is a common 
saying here ' In one's own light like the Mayor 
of Marazion.' " Certainly the position and appear- 
ance of the seat justifies the legend. 

W. DE MOHUN. 

THE KING'S SCUTCHEON (2 nd S. ix. 6.) In 
answer to MR. BRUCE, perhaps the following in- 
formation may be of service : My father was a 
King's Messenger for upwards of forty years, and 
served under fifteen or sixteen prime ministers. 
When on duty, that is to say travelling with 
despatches, he always wore a scutcheon or badge 
of this description : as well as I can recollect, 
a small lozenge-shaped frame about four inches 
long, made of some metal very strongly gilt, in- 
side of which was the arms of England, painted 
on some kind of stout paper, I think ; so it ap- 
peared to me. This was covered by a thick glass 
let into the frame ; from the bottom of the frame 
and affixed to it by a ring depended a small solid 
silver greyhound, in full chase. The badge was 
worn round the neck by a broad blue ribbon. It 
was his authority for passing turnpikes toll free, 
through parks and any private property, and in 
fact anywhere he had occasion to go, and like- 
wise for pressing posthorses or carriages on the 
road. In reading MR. BRUCE'S Note it struck 
me there was a great similarity in the two cases, 
as I know my father's was a very ancient office, 
he receiving as part of his fees 4d. per day for 
livery, which fee had been in existence from the 
time of Elizabeth. He also held his situation by 
patent. S. J. S. 

SIR PETER GLEANE (2 nd S. viii. 187,) For par- 
ticulars of him, see Blomefield's Norfolk," Village 
of Hardwick," where are still the remains of a 
red-brick house, surrounded by a moat, in which 
he resided. X, Y. 



52 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2* S. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



ARITHMETICAL NOTATION (2 nd S. viii. 41. 460. 
520.) The common usage of the middle ages 
being to divide number into digitus, articulus, and 
compositus, I presume that computus, occurring 
with the two other words, must be taken as either 
intended to be compositus, or as a mistake, until 
more instances are produced. I never found any 
word but compositus joined with digitus and arti- 
culus. 

There is no doubt that compotus and computus 
are the same word, and that either spelling is very 
frequent. But my experience is utterly at vari- 
ance with that of H. F., who pronounces " an ac- 
count of money" to be a meaning of compotus 
common enough to be called the usual one. 
When doctors differ, a third doctor must be called 
in : and I call in Doctor Ducange, whom I have 
never till now consulted on this question. He 
first points out that computus originally means 
computation of any kind, and cites ancient au- 
thors, as Julius Firmicus and St. Jerome. He 
then goes on thus : " Compotus, seu Computus, 
apud Scriptores, Ecclesiasticus potissimum intelli- 

gitur " Of this he goes on to give ample 

instances, noticing also the manner in which Com- 
potista means a settler of time by the sun and 
moon, &c. If H. F. can support his assertion that 
the usual meaning of computus refers to money, it 
will be a useful correction of Ducange. As at 
present informed, I take the fact to be that " Com- 
putus Ecclesiasticus," the standing title of the 
calendar, subsided into "Computus," with "Ec- 
clesiasticus" understood, just as "Holy Bible" 
has subsided into " Bible," or " sum total " into 
" sum," a word which never implied addition 
until it came to stand alone after keeping com- 
pany with " total." No doubt there may be occa- 
sional uses of the original meaning of computus : 
the question is about their frequency. 

Before leaving this subject, I notice some 
amount of tendency to confusion between Com- 
putus and Compositus, from Compositio, used as a 
translation of Syntaxis. The Almanac called the 
" Compost of Ptolemseus " seems to contain the 
word in a confusion between the senses of Com- 
putus and Syntaxis. Ducange notices one instance 
of Compositus used for Computus. 

A. DE MORGAN. 

BOYDELL'S SHAKSPEARE GALLERY (2 nd S. viii. 
50. 97. 313. 457.) It is singular that those gentle- 
men who have attempted to reply to V. H. Q.'s 
original Query should be unacquainted with that 
interesting volume, The Patronage of British Art; 
an Historical Sketch, comprising an Account of the 
Rise and Progress of Art and Artists in London, 
from the beginning of the Reign of George the 
Second, &c., by John Pye, 8vo. 1845. In this 
work (p. 279.) will be found a reprint of Mr. 
Tassie's Sale Catalogue, indicating the subjects, 
names of artists, purchasers, and prices of the 



different works which formed the Shakspeare 
Gallery. V. H. Q. may also be referred to a 
very interesting essay, entitled " The Shakespeare 
Gallery, an Illustration," which forms the second 
section of a pamphlet by that able advocate of 
British Art, the late William Carey, entitled 
Varice; Historical Observations on Anti-British 
and Anti-Contemporarian Prejudices, &c., 8vo. 
1822. The chief object of this essay is to show 
that the striking events of English history, es- 
pecially as delineated by the forcible pencil of 
Northcote, possessed stronger interest and brought 
higher prices at the sale than the more imagina- 
tive and academical compositions of Hamilton, 
Angelica Kauffman, and others. An account 
of the lottery also appeared in the Projector, 
No. XLIL, and was reprinted in the Gentleman s 
Magazine, vol. Ixxv. p. 213. WILLIAM BATES. 

SIR ROBERT LE GRYS (2 nd S. viii. 268.) The 
family of Le Grys is extinct in Norfolk. C. Le 
Grys was owner of the manor-house of Morton 
in Norfolk, of which parish Robert Le Grys was 
rector till 1790. He was a good scholar and a 
friend of Dr. Samuel Parr. X. Y. 

THE THREE KINGS OF COLON (2 nd S. viii. 505.) 
There is, at this time, a public-house in Boston, 
Lincolnshire, called the " Indian Queen ; " it pro- 
bably took its name from some fancifully dressed 
figures which I well remember were painted on 
its ancient sign-board. There were three figures, 
and these were so uncouth, and unlike anything 
known at that time, that the house had borne the 
name of " The Three Merry Devils." This tavern 
originally bore the name and sign of " The Three 
Kings of Cologne," but the sign faded, and the 
title became obsolete, and the medieval designa- 
tion of the house was desecrated and degraded as 
I have stated. 

Another tavern in Boston has, at present, for 
its name the curious combination of " The Bull 
and Magpye," and bears for its sign a literal bull 
and as literal a magpye. This name and sign has 
also mediaeval origin. The ancient title of the 
house was the " Bull and Pie," both words having 
a reference to the Roman Catholic faith ; the bull 
being the Pope's Bull, and Pie or Pye being the 
familiar name in English for the Popish Ordinal ; 
that is, the book which contained the ordinances 
for solemnising the offices of the Church. A MS. 
called The Salisbury Pie, Regula3 de omnibus 
historiis inchoandi, &c.," was advertised for sale 
by Mr. Kerslake, of Bristol, in 1858. This was 
one of the Service Books of the Romish Church. 
There was a celebrated inn in Aldgate called the 
" Pie " in 1659, and later. See Nares's Glossary, 
p. 16. ed. 1857; see also Gutch's Collect. Cur. ii. 
169. Pie or Pye is supposed to be an abridge- 
ment of the Greek word, Pinax, an index. 

PISHEY THOMPSON. 






S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



CUTTING ONE'S STICK : TEEMS USED BY PRIN- 
TERS (2 ud S. viii. 478.) May not this phrase, 
which does not mean abrogating a covenant, or 
cutting the connection with anybody, but simply 
going away, be rather derived from an expression 
very commonly used in printing offices ? A com- 
positor who wants a holiday, or a little recreation, 
will say, " Well, I am tired of this. I shall cut 
the stick (i. e. the composing-stick) for to-day, 
and go and take a walk." I have been told the 
phrase " in the wrong box " is derived from the 
compositor's expression when he finds a letter in 
the wrong place; and that "to mind your p's and 
q's" comes from the same source, these letters 
being so like each other, and so liable to be mis- 
taken the one for the other by young compositors, 
who have not got quite used to read letters the 
reverse way. 

May I venture to add, 

" An old-fashioned saying is often in use, 
Bidding people ' to look to their P's and their Q's ; ' 
A better example we now-a-days find, 
Tis our N's and our Q's we are careful to mind." 

A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

The illustration given by SIR J. EMERSON 
TENNENT (p. 478.) from Zechariah, of the "cutting 
one's stick " being symbolical of the abrogation of 
a friendly covenant, or the disruption of family 
bonds, reminds me of the provisions in the Salic 
Law ; and the forms there laid down for a person 
who desired to repudiate all connection with his 
kinsmen : 

" LXIII. De eo qui se de parentilla tollere vult. 

" 1. Si quis de parentilla tollere se voluerit, in mallo 
ante tunginum aut centenariura ambulet, et ibi quatuor 
ftistes alninos super caput suum frangat, et illas quatuor 
paries in mallo jactare debet, et ibi dicere, ut et de jura- 
mento, et de haireditate, et de tota illorum se ratione tollat, 

" 2. Et si postea aliquis de parentibus suis aut moritur, 
aut occiditur, nihil ad eum de ejus hsereditate, vel de 
compositione pertineat. 

" 3. Si autem ille occiditur, aut moritur, compositio aut 
haereditas ejus non ad haeredes ejus, sed ad fiscum per- 
tineat, aut cui fiscus dare voluerit." 

W. B. MAC CASE. 

^ HERALDIC DRAWINGS AND ENGRAVINGS (2 nd S. 
viii. 471.) We are told by that careful antiquary, 
Mr. J. R. Planche, in his Pursuivant of Arms, 
1852, p. 20., that the mode of indicating the tinc- 
tures in engraving is said to be the invention of 
an Italian, Padre Silvestre de Petra Sancta ; the 
earliest instance of its use in England being the 
death-warrant of King Charles I., to which the 
seals of the subscribing parties are represented as 
attached. 

Gules seems to be represented by perpendicular 
lines, as blood running down; azure, by horizontal 
lines, as a level expanse of blue water ; vert, by 
diagonal lines, as indicating a green hill ; sable, 
by the cross lines, as darkness. ACHE. 



THREE CHURCHWARDENS (2 nd S. viii. 146.) At 
Attleborougb, Norfolk, three churchwardens are 
; chosen annually, and there is evidence that the 
I custom existed as far back as 1617. It appears 
from the fourth bell at S. John Maddermarket, 
Norwich, that in 1765 there were three church- 
wardens. I cannot say whether such is the case 
now. At S. Michaei-at* Thorn, in the same city, 
there are, I believe, three. At S. Michael Cos- 
lany (also in Norwich) forty years ago, I am 
told there were three. But this would appear to 
have been -unusual, for when they presented them- 
selves to be sworn, the Archdeacon (Bathurst) 
jocosely exclaimed, " Any more churchwardens 
for S. Michael Coslany, gentlemen, any more ?" 

EXTRANEUS. 

CABAL (1 st S. iv. 443. &c.) I think I can furnish 
as early an instance as any of those adduced by 
your correspondents of the use of this word : 
being employed in a sort of Spy-book (MS.) 
about the year 1663. 

*' Needham (Marchmont} practises physic in S* Thomas 
Apostles, holds no great cabal with the disaffected, though 
much courted to it ; is not very zealous, only despairs of 
grace from the king." 

Macaulay, in History of England, says that 
" during some years the word cabal was popu- 
larly used as synonymous with cabinet" and con- 
siders the appellation as applied to the ministry of 
1671 only a " whimsical coincidence." CL. HOPPER. 

GEERING (1 st S. viii. 340.) Henry Geering, 
late of St. Margaret's, Isle of Thanet, Kent, and 
afterwards of Dublin, Gent., died intestate, and 
administration was granted to Richard Geering, 
of Dublin, his brother, 26 April, 1694, by the 
Court of Prerogative in Ireland. Can any cor- 
respondent from the Isle of Thanet supply me 
with information respecting this Henry Geering 
or- his family ? Perhaps some memorial of them 
appears in the parish register of St. Margaret's. 

Y. S. M. 

HILDESLEY'S POETICAL MISCELLANIES (2 nd S. 
viii. 472.) In the church of Wyton, or Witton, 
Huntingdonshire, is a monument to the memory 
of Mark Hildesley, M.A., who is stated to have 
been for sixteen years rector of that and the ad- 
joining parish (Houghton). He died April 28th, 
1726, aged fifty-eight, and the monument was 
erected by " M. H. Filius Defuncti natu Maxi- 
mus." B. 

DISCOVERY or GUNPOWDER PLOT BY THE MAGIC 
MIRROR (2 nd S. viii. 369.) I have an imperfect 
copy of the Prayer Book with this plate, of a 
much later date than that alluded to at p. 369. 
The title-page and some leaves are gone ; but the 
Order in Council of 1760 for the use of the usual 
prayers is in it ; and the prayers mention King 
George III., Queen Charlotte, and George Prince 
of Wales. S. O. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



2"d S. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



CAMPBELLTON, ARGYLESHIRE (2 nd S. viii. 380.) 
I purchased at a book sale in Edinburgh, nearly 
two years ago, a work entitled Views of Camp- 
bellton and Neighbourhood, published by Wm. 
Smith, junr., Lithographer, Edinburgh (43 pp. 
la. fol.) It contains nearly a dozen views, among 
which there is one of the " Main Street of Camp- 
bellton " with the ancient cross which COTHBERT 
BEDE mentions. In the printed description which 
accompanies the views the cross is thus alluded 
to: 

" The Cross, which stands in the centre of the street, is 
a very handsome pillar of granite, and is richly orna- 
mented with sculptured foliage. It bears on one side 
this inscription : Haec : est : crux : Domini : Yvari : M : K : 
Eachyrna : quondam Rectoris : de Kyregan : et Domini : 
Andre nati : ejus : Rectoris : de Kilcoman : qui hanc 
crucem fieri faciebat.' 

" Gordon (by report only) mentions this as a Danish 
obelisk, but does not venture its description, as he never 
saw it. The tradition of the town, however, is, that it 
was brought from lona, and we are inclined to be of the 
same opinion, although it has been stated in a lately pub- 
lished work that this tradition is improbable, from the 
circumstances of its being likely that the x was not re- 
moved far from where it was originally placed ; as also 
that the name Kyregan, of which M'Eachran was rector, 
sounding something like Kilkerran and Kilcoman, of 
which Mr. Andrew was rector, being similar to Kilcoivin, 
an ancient parish now joined to that of Campbellton. This 
kind of derivation certainly bears some ingenuity, if not 
probability. Yet when one considers the intercourse 
which existed between Kintyre and the island of lona 
for such a length of time, as is proved from the inti- 
macy existing between St. Columba and St. Ciaran 
during the whole of their lives, as also the fact of there 
being many Ionian crosses of undisputed origin dis- 
tributed throughout the country and found in places 
much more unlikely than Campbellton, connected with 
the description of the stone, the nature of the sculpture, 
and the tradition of the country, he is naturally led to 
conclude that the cross was actually brought from lona. 
However, come from where it might, it is a great orna- 
ment to the town. There also a public well of pure spring 
water issues from a fountain in the cross. The Kintyre 
Club has adopted the figure of this x as one of its distin- 
guishing badges." 

Referring to my copy of Pennant's Tour, 1772, 
IJfind that the first paragraph of the above is 
taken from his work. 

If CUTHBERT BEDE desires to get a copy of 
the views and letter-press, I will be glad to part 
with my copy at the price it cost me. J. N. 

Inverness. 

THE BOOK OP HY-MANY (2 nd S. viii. 512.) 
MR. KELLY asks, " Can any of your correspon- 
dents inform" him " in whose custody this doubt- 
less highly curious ancient MS. is at the present 
time ? " The Leabhar Hy Maine, or the Book of 
the O'Kellys, was among the Stowe MSS. These 
were all bought by the present Earl of Ashburn- 
ham, who no doubt is the actual owner. In the 
Transactions of the Tberno- Celtic Society, torn. i. 
part i. p. cxxi., may be seen a lengthened descrip- 
tion of its contents. ' C. 



ROUND ABOUT OUR COAL FIRE (2 nd S. viii. 481.) 
Inferring from DR. RIMBAULT'S article on this 
subject, that he has not seen the first, second, and 
third editions of this tract, I beg to -say that I 
possess the latter, which is, however, without 
date. It contains, moreover, a sheet less than 
DR. RIMBAULT'S edition, and differs too as to the 
title-page, which being shorter, and character- 
istic in its way, I venture to transcribe : 

"Round about our Coal- Fire: or Christmas Entertain- 
ments, containing Christmas Gambols, Tropes, Figures, 
&c. with Abundance of Fiddle-Faddle-Stuff ; such as 
Stories of Fairies, Ghosts, Hobgoblins, Witches, Bull- 
beggars, Raw-heads and Bloodj'-Bones, Merry Plays, &c. 
for the Diversion of Company in a Cold Winter-Evening, 
besides several curjous Pieces relating to the History of 
Old Father Christmas ; setting forth what Hospitality has 
been, and what it is now. Very proper to be read in all 
Families. Adorned with many curious Cuts. The Third 
Edition. London. Printed for J. Roberts in Warwick- 
Lane, and sold by the Booksellers in Town and Countrv. 
Price Is." Pp. 48. 

The cut of the " Hobgoblin Society " is face- 
tiously described as being " from an original 
painting of Salvator Rosa," and the following 
one,, of " Witches at an Assembly," as " from a 
Capital Piece by Albert Durer, as supposed by 
the hardness of the drawing." There is no Pro- 
logue in my copy, but an excellent Epilogue, 
which, however, as DR. RIMBAULT promises to 
return to the subject, I leave to his discretion. A 
copy, bearing the same title as mine, and also 
without date, was sold for seventeen shillings at 
Mr. Halliwell's sale of his Shakspearian collections 
in May, 1856. WILLIAM BATES. 

DICKSON OF BERWICKSHIRE (2 nd S. viii. 398.) 
I am unable to give D. any information as to the 
Dicksons of Brightrig, but I am quite certain 
that the family of Belchester is not extinct. The 
late George Dickson, Esq., of that place, who died 
some few years ago, was married, and left issue 
one son and a daughter ; the former is now an 
officer in the army. CHATHODUNUS. 

NATHANIEL FAIRCLOUGH (2 nd S. viii. 398.) In 
answer to the request of MESSRS. C. II. & 
THOMPSON COOPER for farther information re- 
specting this gentleman, I beg to say that in The 
History and Antiquities of Lambeth, by John 
Tanswell, of the Inner Temple, 8vo. Lond. 1857, 
p. 136., is an account of " Daniel Featlye, Feat- 
ley, or Fairclough, D.D." It states, inter alia, 
that he was 

"Presented to this living [St. Mary's, Lambeth] on 
February 6, 1618. He was the son of John Featley, by 
Marian Thrift his wife, and was born on the 15th March, 
1582, at Charlton-upon-Otmore, near Oxford, but was 
descended from a Lancashire family named Fairclough, 
which he changed to Featley, to the great displeasure of 
his nephew, who wrote an account of his life." 

Nathaniel Fairclough was probably the nephew 
here referred to. T. P. L. 



2"* S. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



55 



LUCKY STONES (2 nd S. viii. 267.) There is no 
mystery about " lucky stones." They are gene- 
rally composed of flint, and come mostly from 
the chalk districts. When flint is in a fluid state, 
its particles have a mutual attraction for each 
other, whereby they will aggregate into Clumps. 
This has been frequently proved by artificial ex- 
periment. When the fluid flint was originally 
disseminated through the chalk, it gradually ag- 
gregated into such nodules or irregular figures as 
the crevices in the chalk favoured. Flint nodules 
are of the most varied and fantastical forms. In 
the case of " lucky stones" the flint merely col- 
lected round something softer than itself, which 
afterwards decayed out or wore out, and conse- 
quently left a hole. P. HUTCHINSON. 

SIR HUMPHRY (OR HUMFREY) LYNDE (OR 
LIND) (2 nd S. ix. 13.) Sir H. Lynde was author of 
Via Tufa and Via Devia (Prynne's Canterburies 
Doome, pp. 168. 170. 185.). He was a friend 
of Simon Birckbeck's (Birekbeck's Protestanfs 
Evidence, 1657 ; Preface, 1.). He is noticed by 
Duport (Musce Subsecivcc, p. 20.). Notices of the 
controversy at his house may be seen in a letter to 
Joseph Mead, printed in the very useful but ill- 
edited collection known as Birch's Court and 
Times of James I. (Lond., 1849, vol ; ii. p. 408.) ; 
and in a letter of John Chamberlain's to Sir D. 
Carle ton (July 12, 1623, S. P. O.) One Humphry 
Lynd, curate of Maidstone, is mentioned by Le 
Neve (Protestant Bishops, vol. i. part i. p. 206.). 

J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 

JOHN LLOYD (OR FLOYD) THE JESUIT (2 nd S. 
ix. 13.) Of John Floyd, alias Daniel a Jesu, 
alias Hermannus Loemelius, alias Geo. White, 
some account may be seen in Berington's Memoirs 
ofPanzani, pp. 124126. 

It is so hard to identify members of a perse- 
cuted sect, forced to assume a succession of dis- 
guises, that I add the following references, with- 
out venturing to affirm that they refer to the 
same person as Panzani. 

One Lloyd, a dangerous Jesuit, occurs in 
Prynne's Canterburies Doome, p. 453. ; Lloyd, 
alias Hen. Smith, a Jesuit, ibid. p. 449. ; one Hen. 
Loyd, or Flud, alias Fras. Smith, alias Rivers, 
alias Simons, provincial of the Jesuits, ibid. pp. 
448-450. J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 

HERALDIC (2 lld S. viii. 531.) The armorial 
bearings on the impalement mentioned by P. 
HUTCIIINSON may possibly be intended for the 
name of Batty or Battie, as they somewhat re- 
semble the coat granted to Battie of Wadworth 
and Warmsworth, Yorkshire, viz. a chevron be- 
tween three goats passant, on a chief a demi- 
savage, or woodman, holding a club over his 
shoulder, between two cinquefoijs. C. J. 



THE " MISERS" OF QUENTIN MATSYS (2 nd S. 
viii. 469.) The Query respecting the Misers of 
this artist, suggests another Query I have long 
thought of asking, namely, on what authority 
are the personages represented in the picture 
styled misers at all ? They appear to me to be 
two merchants looking over their books. Every- 
thing about the room betokens neatness and 
order ; both men are well-dressed in the burgher 
costume of the time ; and certainly the face of 
the man nearest to the spectator is pleasing in 
expression, and bears no trace of a miserly or 
churlish disposition. 

I last saw the picture at the Manchester Ex- 
hibition, and could not get near enough to read 
the entries in the book they are looking over ; but 
I saw that it was an account-book, and if any 
person familiar with Flemish, and with the cur- 
rent hand of the time, will take the trouble to 
read the entries, some light may be thrown upon 
the subject of the picture, and possibly some clue 
may be obtained towards identifying the persons 
represented. . J. DIXON. 

SHAKSPEARE'S CLIFF CALLED HAY CLIFF (2 na 
S. viii. 79.) The poor people for some miles round 
still call it Hay Cliff, i.e. the High Cliff. So in 
West Dorset Hawkchurch is called by the people 
Hay Church, i.e. the church on the high ground. 

G. R. L. 

HENRY SMITH (2 nd S. viii. 254.) I am able to 
supply the missing words of the title-page of the 
edition of Henry Smith's Sermons to which MR. 
BINGHAM refers (" N. & Q." p. 331.) They are 
as follows : 

" At London : Imprinted by Felix Kyngston for 
Thomas Man, dwelling in Pater-noster Row at the signe 
oftheTalbot. 1611." 

My copy has the whole of the " Questions" at 
p. 54. to which MR. BINGHAM refers. Should the 
book be republished, I shall have much pleasure 
in placing my copy at the disposal of the Editor. 

C. J. ELLIOTT. 

Winkfield Vicarage. 

BISHOPS ELECT (2 nd S. viii. 431.) The junior 
bishop never being a member of the House of Peers, 
cannot, of course, take his seat before his-consecra- 
tion ; but I much doubt whether, even under the 
old system that is, before the creation of the see 
of Manchester any bishop elect only could have 
so taken his seat ; as the bishops surely sit in the 
House as Spiritual Peers, and could not come 
under that denomination until entitled to it by 
the act of consecration. J. S. S. 

" PRUGIT (?) " (2 nd S. ix. 4.) As prugit does 
not accord, in tense, with the verbs which follow 
(furaverit, occiderit), Du Cange suspects that the 
passage, as it stands, is corrupt ; and therefore for 
" Si quis bisontem, bubalum, vel cervum prugit, 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* S. IX. JAN. 21. '60. 



furaverit aut occiderit" he proposes to read "Si 
quis bisontem, bubal urn, vel cervum qui prugit, 
furaverit," &c., taking prugit. as equivalent to rugit. 
This emendation Du Cange supports by the two 
following citations from the Lex Longob. : "Si quis 
cervum domesticum alienum, qui non rugit, intri- 
caverit," and "si quis cervum domesticum alie- 
num, qui tempore suo rugire solet, intricaverit." 

The proposed emendation is liable to this ob- 
jection, that we have nothing in the way of 
evidence to prove that prugit ever stood for 
rugit. May not the true solution be that the 
original reading was q rugit (qui rugit) ; and that 
some copyist, not minding his p's and q's, for 
q rugit wrote p rugit, whence prugit ? 

THOMAS BOYS. 



NOTES ON BOOKS. 

Memoirs of the Life and Times of the Pious Robert 
Nelson, Author of "The Companion to the Festivals and 
Fasts of the Church." By Rev. C. F. Secretan, M.A., 
Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Westminster. (Murray.) 

If the virtues of Robert Nelson were not tried in the 
fire of persecution, yet it may be truly said of him that 
the Church of England has had no more zealous, no more 
worthy son none who in his station has done more to 
show by good works what his faith was. The child of a 
wealthy parent, the pupil of so ripe a scholar and good a 
churchman as Bishop Bull, it was Nelson's good fortune 
to make to himself friends of the mammon of unrighte- 
ousness, by using his means and influence for the noblest 
purposes the benefit of his fellow creatures, and the 
promotion of God's honour. It is no small wonder, then, 
that it should be left to a writer of the present day to 
give us the life of one who exercised so much influence 
on the times in which he lived, by his labours and his 
writings, more especially by the publication of his Festi- 
vals and Fasts, which Dr. Johnson pronounced " a most 
valuable help to devotion," and to have had the greatest 
sale of any book in England except the Bible. Mr. 
Secretan has been fortunate in his subject ; and that it 
has been with him a labour of love, is manifest from the 
extent of his researches as well, as the tone of his book. 
While perhaps it is no less fortunate for the memory of 
Nelson that the task of describing his various good works 
and schemes of usefulness should have fallen upon one 
who, having the spiritual charge of a poor metropolitan 
district, is especially enabled to appreciate the value of 
Nelson's labours, and to point out how all the great schemes 
of social improvement, of which we now boast so freely, 
were proposed a century and a half since by this model 
of a Christian gentleman. There can be little doubt 
that Mr. Secretan's Life of Robert Nelson is an important 
addition to our Standard Christian Biographies. 

My Diary in India in the Year 1858-9. By William 
Howard Russell, Special Correspondent of " The Times." 
With Illustrations. 2 Vols. (Routledge.) 

Of the great descriptive power of Mr. Russell, as dis- 
played in his Letters to The Times, in which he painted 
all the pride, pomp, and circumstance of the late glo- 
rious but unhappy war by which we latety reconquered 
India, it would be superfluous to say one word. The 
present volume, which relates to Mr. 'Russell's own per- 
sonal adventures, and what we may call the inner life of 
that great Struggle, is equally striking and interesting ; 



and whether we regard the variety of characteristic 
anecdotes of so many of those who made their names 
famous in those days of peril the daring incidents and 
hair-breadth escapes, or whether we consider the views 
of Indian policy of our relations with the natives of 
the principles which must guide our future rule or the 
occasional sketches of the natural aspect of the country, 
and the characteristics of the various races now under 
our government, we know of no book better calculated 
to amuse the English reader, and to imbue him with a 
vivid notion of the vastness and importance of our Indian 
Empire. 

Country Trips : a Series of Descriptive Visits to Places of 
Interest in various Parts of England. By W. J. Pinks. 
Vol. I. (Pickburn, Clerkenwell.) 

A series of interesting papers originally published 
in The Clerkenwell News. This is really turning the cheap 
press to good account : for these topographical and his- 
torical excursions are well adapted to stimulate juvenile 
curiosity, and enrich the mind with useful knowledge. 
The chapters on St. Alban's Abbey, and the Memorials of 
Shakspeare's house, are particularly interesting. The 
mass of information concentrated in this small volume 
does high credit to the author's diligence and research. 

The success which has attended Mr. Lovell Reeve's 
Stereoscopic Cabinet has induced him to publish a Foreign 
Companion to it at the same price, 2s. Gd., and which 
may be forwarded by post for one penny. The first 
number contains three capital stereoscopic views 1. The 
Halle of Bruges ; 2. Sketch of Character at Rouen ; and 
3. Valley of the Fl on, Lausanne. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Morphy's Games at Chess, being the best Games by the 
distinguished Champion in England and America. Edited 
by J. Lowenthal. (Bohn.) 

There can be no doubt that Mr. Bohn has done good 
service to the chess-playing world by this valuable ad- 
dition to the literature of that fascinating game. 

Rights and Wrongs. A. Manual of Household Law. By 
Albany Fonblanque, Jun., Esq. (Routledge.) 

A very useful companion to Mr. Fonblanque's sketch 
of our constitution, How we are governed, detailing as it 
does in an untechnical and familiar manner our legal 
privileges and duties in the various relations of life. 



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EVANS' SUGAR PLANTERS' MANCAL. 

"Wanted ^Richardson Brothers, 23. Cornhill, E.C . 



tfl 

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Owen. 

G. F. C. See The Life and Death of Thomas Lord Cromwell, by W. 
S. 1602, 4o. ; republished in The Ancient British Drama, i. 350., 1810. 

W. P. The E. O. Table is described in The World, No. 180., in " The 
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favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY, 186. FLEET STREET, B.C.; to whom 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOR TH EDITOR thould be addressed. 



2* s. IX. JAN. 21. '60.] 



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The following are some of the Principal Articles to be found in it : - 
English, Irish, and Scottish History. 

Lord Lovat in 1715 Warren Hastings' Impeachment -English Actors 
in Germany Knights created by Oliver Cromwell - Prohibition of 
Prophecy Napoleon's Escape from Elba Junius and Henry Flood 

Cromwell in Scotland Wolfe at Quebec Massacre of Glencoe 
Duke of Buckingham's Ghost Story The Pretender _ Cornwallis 
Papers -Washington Letter -Jacobite MSS.- Forged Assign ats - 
Gunpowder Plot Rebellion of 1715. 

Biography. 

Abigail Hill Antonio de Dominis Herbert Knowles Cardinal 
Howard Defoe's Descendants Mr. James Payne Robert Nelson 

Miltoniana Sir Humphrey May James Moore Was Bacon a 
Calvinist Sir Thomas Roe Zachary Boyd _ Cardinal Wolsey 
Sir Amyas Paulet Francis Burgersdicius Dr. John Hewett. 

Bibliography and literary History. 

Forgeries on Bunyan Verstegan's Restituta Price of Bibles _ 
Ussher's Antiquitates Caxton Pension, &c. Shakspeariana Michael 
Drayton's Poems Molly Mog Richard Smith's Book Sale Chat- 
terton MSS.' Bibliographical Puzzle Milton's Correspondence 
Abel Ridpath and G. Roper _ Baratariana Mrs. Glasse's Cookery- 
Bacon's Essays Fly-leaf Scribblings _ Book Markers The Book 
of Sports -Jest Books. 

Popular Antiquities and Folk Lore. 

Witchcraft in Churning Clapping Prayer-Books on Good Friday 
Faust Legends Goose at Michaelmas All Fools Day Jack of 
Newbury Supernatural at the Battles of Clavigo and Prague 
Round about our Coal Fire Gossip about Christmas St. Stephen's 
Day. 

Ballads and Old Poetry. 

Molly Mog Elizabethan Poetry Lady Culros' Dream The Wren 
Song Sonnet by Milton Northamptonshire Ballad Bonnie Dun - 
dee John Gilpin O whar gat ye that auld crooked penny. 

Popular and Provincial Sayings. 

Proverbs worth preserving Mrs. Grundy Puppy Pie Folk-lore 
and Provincialisms Pill Garlic Cutting one's Stick Scraping an 
Acquaintance. 

Philology and Classical literature. 

The Vulture in Italy The Lion in Greece _ Classical Cockneyism 
Damask Ancient Name of the Cat Syr Tryamoure Lion in 
Italy. 

Ecclesiastical History, &c. 

Archbishop Leighton's Works Letters of Cranmer and Osiander 

Dean Conybeare Patron Saints Henry Smith Erasmus at Ox- 
ford Episcopal Registers Life of Dean Granville Early Edi- 
tions of Foxe's Martyrs Suffragan Bishops Rev. George Watson. 

Topography. 

Mediaaval Architecture of .Venice Adenborough Mont St. Michael 
_ Bartholomew Fair Calcuith York House Northumbrian 
Notes Richmond and its Maids of Honour Aubrey's Wiltshire. 

Genealogy, Heraldry. &c. 

Earldom of Melfort-Red Ribbon of the Bath -Tricolor Flag 
France _ Heralds' Visitations _ Kempenfeldt Family Butts Fare 

Stratford Family. 

Fine Arts. 

Inn Signs by Eminent Artists Paintings at Vauxhall Artists' 
Quarrels, temp. Charles L Grotesques in Churches Statues with 
Wax Heads Sir P. P. Rubens. 

Miscellaneous Antiquities. 

Celtic Remains in Jamaica How the Lord Chancellor goes to West- 
minster Judges' Black Caps Super-altars Shooting Soldiers 
The Great St. Leger Last Wolf in Scotland Why Luther is re- 
presented with a Goose. 



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Maginn'a Shakspeare Papers. 
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Cephalonia. Notes on the Ionian Islands. 
The Russians as they Are. Drawn by One of Themselves. 
A Vacation Tour in Spain. 

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nOLBURN'S NEW MONTHLY MAGAZINE, 

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No. CCCCLXX. 
The French in Abyssinia. 

EastLynne. By the Author of ' Ashley." Part the Second. Chap. I. 
The Moonlight Interview. -Chap. EL. Mr. Carlyle's Office. Chap. 
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Wallenstein. By Sir Nathaniel. 
Curiosities of Ceylon. 

To Eliza Cook. A Birthday Greeting. By W. Charles Kent. 
Peden the Prophet. 
All Souls' Day. By Mrs. Bushby. 
A Holiday Tour in Spain. By a Physician. 
Washington Irving. By Cyrus Redding. 
Arctic Exploration. 
Resources of Estates. 

A Special Service at Westminster Abbey. By Edward P. Rowsell. 
Will there be a Congress? 

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VT. FORM AND COLOUR. SIR G. WILKINSON. 
VII. WESLEY AN METHODISM. 
VIII. CEYLON AND THE SINGHALESE. 
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PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION, The 

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[2** S. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 



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vl. 
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^!^ 
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Second Series Volume Eighth. 



The following are some of the Principal Articles to be found in it : 

English, Irish, and Scottish History. 

Lord Lovat in 1715 Warren Hastings' Impeachment English Actors 
in Germany Knights created by Oliver Cromwell Prohibition of 
Prophecy Napoleon's Escape from Elba Junius and Henry Flood 

Cromwell in Scotland Wolfe at Quebec Massacre of Glencoe 
Duke ot Buckingham's Ghost Story The Pretender _ Corn wallis 
Papers Washington Letter Jacobite MSS. Forged Assignats 
Gunpowder Plot Rebellion of 1715. 

Biography. 

Abigail Hill Antonio de Dominis Herbert Knowles Cardinal 
Howard Defoe's Descendants Mr. James Payne Robert Nelson 

Miltoniana Sir Humphrey May James Moore Was Bacon a 
Calvinist Sir Thomas Roe Zachary Boyd _ Cardinal Wolsey 
Sir Amyas Paulet Francis Burgersdicius Dr. John Hewett. 

Bibliography and literary History. 

Forgeries on Bunyan Verstegan's Restituta Price of Bibles 
Ussher's Antiquitates Caxton Pension, &c. Shakspeariana Michael 
Drayton's Poems - Molly Mog Richard Smith's Book Sale - Chat- 
terton MSS. Bibliographical Puzzle Milton's Correspondence 
Abel Ridpath and G. Roper Baratariana Mrs. Glasse's Cookery- 
Bacon's Essays Fly-leaf Scribblings Book Markers The Book 
of Sports Jest Books. 

Popular Antiquities and Folk lore. 

Witchcraft in Churning Clapping Prayer-Books on Good Friday 
Faust Legends Goose at Michaelmas All Fo9ls Day Jack of 

Newbury Supernaturals at the Battles of Clavigo and Prague 

Round about our Coal Fire Gossip about Christmas St. Stephen's 
Day. 

Ballads and Old Poetry. 

Molly MOST Elizabethan Poetry Lady Culros' Dream The Wren 
Song Sonnet by Milton Northamptonshire Ballad Bonnie Dun- 
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Popular and Provincial Sayings. 

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57 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 28. I860. 



N. 213. CONTENTS. 

NOTES The Lion in Greece, 57 Shakspeare and Henry 
Willobie, 59 Amesbury, 60 Life of Mrs. Sherwood: 
Fictitious Pedigrees of Mr. Spence, 61. 

MINOR NOTES : Henry VI. and Edward IV. Mariner's 
Compass " Walk your Chalks " Malsh The a-Becket 
Family Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton, 62. 

QUERIES: Radicals in European Languages Church 
Chests Rifle Pits Classical Claqueurs at Theatres 
"Thinks I to Myself" Hooper Ballad against Inclo- 
sures Robert Keith Baptismal Font in Breda Cathe- 
dral: Dutch-born Citizens of England " Antiquitates 
Britannic* et Hibernicse " Noah's Ark British Society 
of Dilettanti Acrostic Henry VII. at Lincoln in 1486 

Rev. John Genest Hotspur Henry Constantino 
Jennings Pye-Wype, 63. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: "Put into Ship-shape" 
Anna Cornelia Meerman Rev. J. Plumptre's Dramas 
Rev. W. Gilpin on the Stage Quotation " The Voy- 
ages, &c. of Captain Richard Falconer" MS. Literary 
Miscellanies St. Cyprian Benet Borughe Topogra- 
phical Excursion, 65. 

REPLIES: Archiepiscopal Mitre, 67 Bunyan Pedigree, 
69 Donnellan Lectures, 70 The " Incident in the '15 ' " 

Dr. Shelton Mackenzie Hymns Song of the Doug- 
lasWreck O f the Dunbar Othobon's Constitutions 
Sympathetic Snails Scotch Clergy deprived in 1689 
Curious Marriage Holding up the Hand Derivation of 
Rip, " a Rake or Libertine" My Eye and Betty Martin " 
Nathaniel Ward Family of Constantino King James's 
Hounds Longevity of Clerical Incumbents The Elec- 
tric Telegraph half a Century ago, 70. 

Notes on Books. 



THE LION IN GREECE. 

In a former article upon this subject (2 nd S. viii. 
81.) I called attention to the improbability of the 
supposition that Aristotle should have received 
upon trust from Herodotus a false statement re- 
specting the occurrence of the lion in Northern 
Greece. It is worthy of note that in one of the 
passages of the History of Animals in which Ari- 
stotle mentions this fact, he introduces it on the 
occasion of a fabulous story that the lioness pro- 
duces only once in her life, because she casts her 
womb in the act of parturition. This foolish 
fable ((j.v8os \-r]p(a5i)$) was, he says, invented by 
some one who wished to account for the rarity of 
the lion (H. A. vi. 31.). Now the author of this 
" foolish fable " is no other than Herodotus him- 
self, who relates it at length (iii. 108.) ; and it 
seems very unlikely that Aristotle should have 
been able to correct the historian's account of the 
parturition of the lioness, but should not have 
thought it worth his while to verify the more ob- 
vious and patent fact, of the occurrence of the 
lion in Northern Greece. (Concerning this fable, 
compare Gell. N. A. xiii. 7. ; ^Elian, V. H. x. 3. ; 
N. A. iv. 34.; and Antigon. Caryst. 21.). 

In another passage of the History of Animals, 
Aristotle states that birds with crooked talons do 
not drink. He then proceeds to remark inciden- 
tally ; a,\\' 'HirioSos riyvfei TOVTO' TreTronjKe yap T^V TT)S 



/j.ai>Tfias TrpoeSpo*/ aerbv eV rfj 8n)yt]fffi rrj irepi TTJI/ 

irOklOpKiaV T^V NlVflU TTlJWTa, Vlll. 18. 

Out of the four manuscripts of this treatise col- 
lated by Bekker, three give 'H<rio5os ; one, a Vati- 
can MS., of inferior authority, has 'HpJSoros. The 
reading, 'H<rto5os, is received by Bekker. Now 
Herodotus twice refers to his Assyrian history, and 
promises to relate in it some facts omitted in his 
general history. One of these is the taking of 
Ninus by the Medes under Cyaxares (i. 106. 
184.). Hence it has been conjectured that Ari- 
stotle in this passage referred to the separate 
Assyrian history of Herodotus : and Wesseling 
(on Herod, i. 106.) and other critics have preferred 
the reading 'Kp68orog in the passage of Aristotle, 
who have been followed by Miiller (Hist, of Gr. 
Lit. c. 19. 2.). Mr. Rawlinson, in his recent 
edition of Herodotus (vol. i. 249.), gives his rea- 
sons for adopting the same view. On the other 
hand, nothing is known of any poem of Hesiod in 
which a narrative of the siege of Ninus could 
have been introduced ; and assuming that the 
siege of Ninus intended by Aristotle is that of 
Cyaxares, the date of this event would, according 
to Clinton, be 606 B.C., which is long subsequent 
to the time assigned to the life of Hesiod. If, 
therefore, 'Hp^Soros be received instead of 'Ho-ioSos 
in the passage of Aristotle, this would be another 
correction by Aristotle of a statement of Herodo- 
tus respecting a point of natural history. 

It must, however, be admitted that the substitu- 
tion of the name of Herodotus in this passage is 
open to powerful objections. There is no proof that 
the Assyrian history of Herodotus was ever pub- 
lished. The traces of it which Mr. Rawlinson 
attempts to find cannot be relied on ; Col. Mure 
thinks that it was never composed (Hist, of Lit. of 
J 4nc.G r r.vol.v.p.332.). The phrase TreiroiVe and the 
introduction of the words rbv TTJS jucwreius irpSeSpoj' 
seem likewise to imply a quotation from some 
poet ; and the mention of so minute a circum- 
stance as an eagle drinking is more suited to a 
poet than to a historian. Hence it appears that 
the context requires the name of a poet who 
might have introduced a narrative of the siege of 
Ninus by Cyaxares. Such a poet may be found 
in Choerilus of Samos, whose epic poem on the 
Persian war of Xerxes (called ntpo^ls), consisting 
of several books, may not unnaturally be sup- 
posed to have contained an episode on the siege of 
Ninus. The words navTeias Trp6eSpos would suit 
hexameter verse. Up6fSpos and irpoedpia are not 
ancient forms : they are quoted from no writer 
prior to Herodotus and Aristophanes. We know 
that the poems of Choerilus were in great repute 
in the time of Plato (Procl. in Tim. p. 28.) ; Ari- 
stotle twice cites Choerilus in his Rhetoric (iii, 14, 
4. 6.), and once, with censure, in the Topics, 
(viii. 1.). He flourished about the year 404 
(Plut. Lys. 18.), and was originally placed in the 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



ix. JAN. 28. '60. 



epic canon. The inscription on the tomb of Sar- 
dunapalus, in which he is called the king of the 
great city of Ninus, appears from Cic. Tus. v. 35., 
Fin. ii. 32., to be the production of the Samian 
Choerilus. (See Anthol. App. 27. ed. Jacobs; 
Naeke's Choerilus, pp. 196. sqq.) 'HaioSos for 
Xwto/Aos was probably an ancient corruption, and 
'HpoSoroy, the reading of one MS., was a conjectu- 
ral emendation of some copyist who perceived 
that Hesiod could not have mentioned the siege 
of Ninus. It may be observed that in the passage 
of a Scholiast cited by Naeke (ib. p. 112.) the 
name of Choerilus has been corrupted into Hero- 
dotus. Concerning the importance of the eagle in 
divination, alluded to by the author cited in this 
passage, whoever he may have been, see Iliad. 
xxiv. 310. ; Xen. And), vi. 1. 23. ; and Spanheim's 
note ad Callim. Jov. 69. 

It has been already remarked that Hesiod could 
not have alluded to the siege of Ninus by Cyaxa- 
res. The time of Cyaxares is fixed within certain 
limits, and to a date long posterior to that of 
Hesiod, by his being contemporary with the total 
eclipse of the sun which separated the Lydian 
and Median armies (Herod, i. 74.), which by no 
astronomer is placed earlier than 625 B.C., and 
which has been fixed by Airy at 585 B.C. (See 
DP. Smith's Diet, of Anc. Biog., art. CYAXAHES ; 
Herschel*s Outlines of Astronomy, ed. 5. p. 683.) 
It may be added that the extant remains of He- 
siod contain no mention of Ninus, or Babylon, or 
the Assyrians, or the Medes, or the Persians ; or 
of any eponymous god or hero connected with 
these cities and nations. Perses and Perseis in 
the Theogony (v. 356. 377. 409. 957.), and Perses, 
the name of the poet's brother in the "Weeks and 
Days," are devoid of all reference to Persia. A 
fragment of Hesiod is indeed preserved, in which 
he speaks of Arabus, the mythical progenitor of 
the Arabians, as the son of Mercury by Thronie 
the daughter of King Belus (Fragm. 29. ed. Marck- 
scheffel; compare Fragm. 32.). The early my- 
thology of the Greeks, however, connected Belus 
with Africa rather than with Asia. Thus .3Sschy- 
lus, in his play of the Supplices, describes Belus, 
the son of Libya, as the father of .ZEgyptus and 
Danaus (v. 314-20.). According to Apollod. i. 
4,, Agenor and Belus were the sons of Neptune 
and Libya : Agenor became king of Phoenicia, 
and Belus king of Egypt. The early logographer, 
Pherecydes, likewise establishes an affinity between 
Agenoi', Belus, ^Egyptus, and Danaus, though by 
different links {Fragm. 40., ed. C. Muller). Hence 
it may be inferred that when Hesiod connects 
Arabus with Belus, he conceives Belus as the re- 
presentative of Egypt, and not of Assyria. He- 
rodotus, however, transfers Belus to Asia : he 
places this name in the series of the Heraclide 
kings of Lydia (i. 7.) ; he mentions also the Tem- 
ple of Jupiter Belus at Babylon, and states that 



one of the gates of this city was called the Belian 
gate (i. 181., iii. 158.). Bel, or Baal, was the 
name of the Jupiter, or principal god, both of the 
Assyrians and of the Phoenicians : see Winer, 
Bibl. R. W. in these names. Hence Virgil makes 
Belus the father of Dido, and the first of the Ty- 
rian kings (JBa., i. 622. 729.). Alexander of 
Ephesus, a writer contemporary with Cicero, spoke 
of Belus as the founder of towns in the island of 
Cyprus (Steph. Byz. in xdir^eos, Meineke, Anal. 
Alex., p. 375.). The idea of Ninus, as the founder 
of the Assyrian empire, seems to have come to the 
Greeks from Ctesias: see Diod., ii. 1. ; Ctesiae 
Fragm., p. 389., ed. Baehr ; Strab., xvi. 1. 2. 
His name does not occur in the early poets or 
mythographers : Herodotus makes him a mythical 
king of Lydia, (i. 7.). Phoenix of Colophon, the 
choliambic poet, who lived about 309 B.C., treats 
him as the primitive king of Assyria, and con- 
founds the inscription on his tomb with that of 
Sardanapalus (Athen. xii. p. 530 B. ; Paus., i. 9. 8.; 
Naeke, Choerilus, p. 226.). 

It should be observed that in the Latin version 
of Avicenna's Arabic translation of the History of 
Animals, the passage is thus rendered : " Home- 
rus, quern Arabes Antyopos vocant, dicens in 
captura Ilion vulturem potu suo et morte prae- 
signasse urbis excidium." (See Schneider, ad loc.J. 
It is clear that Homer cannot be alluded to ; but 
the substitution of Ilion for Ninus might lead to 
a different emendation. The change of THNNI- 
NOT into THNIAIOT, would not be considerable; 
and we might assume that Stesichorus is the poet 
intended, who may have introduced this incident 
in his *I\iov irepffis. But the proper names, both 
of men and animals, have undergone much cor- 
ruption in this Arabic version (see Jourdain, Re- 
cherches sur VAge et T Origins des Tradactions 
Latines d'Aristote (Paris, 1 843), p. 336342. And 
I may add, upon the authority of competent Arabic 
scholars, that there is no word in Arabic which at 
all resembles Antyopos. No reliance can, there- 
fore, be placed on the proper names in this Latino- 
Arabic version, and the substitution of Choerilus 
seems to be the most probable solution of the 
difficulty. 

In estimating the authority of Aristotle's state- 
ments in his History of Animals, we must consider 
not only the careful, sceptical, and scientific cha- 
racter of his mind, but also the means of obtaining 
accurate information which were at his disposi- 
tion. Pliny states that Alexander the Great, 
being animated with a desire of knowing the na- 
tures of animals, employed Aristotle for'the pur- 
pose, and placed at his command several thousand 
men, in Asia and Greece, who were occupied in 
hunting, fowling, and fishing, and those who had 
charge of parks, herds of animals, hives, fishponds, 
and aviaries, in order that his knowledge might 
extend to all countries. It was (Pliny adds) by 



2"d S. IX. JAN. 28. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



59 



information obtained in this manner, that he com- 
posed his voluminous writings on natural history 
(N. H., viii. 17.). The account of the Greek 
writers is somewhat different. Athengeus (ix. p. 
398 B.) states that Aristotle received 800 talents 
(=195,000/.) from Alexander for his History of 
Animals. 2Elian ( V. H., iv. 1 9.) speaks of a gift 
of an enormous sum of money to Aristotle for the 
same purpose, but attributes it to Philip, evi- 
dently confounding the father and son. This 
donation is likewise alluded to, in general terms, 
by Seneca, de Vit. beat, 27. Compare Schneider, 
ad Aristot. H. A. Epimetr. i., vol. i. p. xlii. 

It is immaterial whether Alexander placed the 
services of numerous persons over a wide extent 
of country at Aristotle's disposition for scientific 
information concerning animals, or furnished him 
with the means of purchasing those services on a 
large scale. The two accounts come substantially 
to the same result ; and they are corroborated by 
the internal evidence of the extant work on ani- 
mals. Aristotle exhibits a minute knowledge of 
facts in natural history in a variety of districts, 
which a private observer, unaided by a public 
authority, could not have obtained. He fre- 
quently refers to observations of the habits of 
animals made by professional persons, and parti- 
cularly by fishermen, which he doubtless procured 
in the manner indicated by fliny. The detailed 
account of the lion in H. A., ix. 44., particularly 
describes his habits when attacked by hunters, 
and was doubtless derived from the information 
of persons who had pursued the lion in the field. 

It is very improbable that, with these facilities 
for making inquiries of hunters and herdsmen, he 
should in two places have repeated so important a 
statement as that of the presence of the lion in 
the whole of Northern Greece, from Abdera in 
Thrace to the confines of ^Jtolia, without verifica- 
tion, and upon the mere credit of Herodotus, 
whom he elsewhere designates as a fabulist, and 
whose errors in natural history he points out and 
rectifies in several places. G. C. LEWIS. 



SHAKESPEARE AND HENRY WILLOBIE. 
I do not find in any of the commentators on 
Shakespeare which I have here had an opportunity 
of consulting, any notice of a passage in Henry 
Willobie's Aviso (edition of 1594 or 1596), which 
it may be conjectured refers to him.* As the book 
is, I believe, rare, I extract the passage in full, 
together with two sonnets connected with it, and 

[ * Mr. J. P. Collier, in the Life of Shakspeare prefixed 
to his edition of 1858, refers at p. 115. to this passage in 
Willobie, now, however, we believe printed for the first 
time in extenso. In his Introduction to the Rape of Lu- 
crecey vol. vi. p. 526., Mr. Collier also quotes the allusion 
to Shakspeare from the Commendatory Poem at the com- 
mencement of the Avisa. ED. N. & Q/] 



which, if W. S. may be taken for Shakespeare's 
initials, may not improbably be his writing. 

May we not also conjecture that " Mr. W. H.," 
to whom the first edition (1609) of Shakespeare's 
Sonnets was dedicated, may have been his friend, 
this Henry Willobie? whose sonnets, written 
some years probably before Shakespeare's, must 
have been known to him, and may have begotten 
that is, suggested a similar work to our im- 
mortal bard. 

Cant. XLIIII. 
" Henrico Willobego. Italo-Hispalensis. 

" H. W. being sodenly infected with the contagion of a 
fantastica-11 fit, at the first sight of A, pyneth a while in 
secret griefe, at length not able any longer to indure the 
burning heate of so feruent a humour, bewrayeth the 
secresy of his disease vnto his familiar frend W. S., who 
not long before had tryed the curtesy of the like passion, 
and was now newly recouered of the like infection ; yet 
finding his frend let bloud in the same vaine, he took 
pleasure for a tyme to see him bleed, and in steed of stop- 
ping the issue, he inlargeth the wound, with the sharpe 
rasor of a willing conceit, perswading him that he 
thought it a matter very easy to be compassed, and no 
doubt with payne, diligence and some cost in time to 
be obtayned. Thus this miserable comforter comforting 
his frend with an impossibilitie, eyther for that he now 
would secretly laugh at his frends folly, that had giuen 
occasion not long before vnto others to laugh at his owne, 
or because he would see whether an other could play his 
part better then himselfe, and in vewing afar off the 
course of this loving Comedy, he determined to see whe- 
ther it would sort to a happier end for this new actor, 
then it did for the old player. But at length this Co- 
medy was like to haue growen to a Tragedy, by the 
weake and feeble estate that H. W. was brought vnto, 
by a desperate vewe of an impossibility of obtaining his 
purpose, til Time and Necessity, being his best Phisitions 
brought him a plaster, if not to heale, yet in part to ease 
his maladye. In all which discourse is liuely represented 
the vnrewly rage of vnbrydeled fancy, hauing the raines 
to roue at liberty, with the dyuers and sundry changes 
of affections and temptations, which Will, set loose from 
Reason, can deuise, &c." 

Then follows a Sonnet in eight stanzas (seven 
of which are given in Ellis's Specimens, ii. 376.) by 
H. W., complaining of his want of success in his 
suit, commencing, 

" What sodaine chance or change is this, 
That doth bereaue my quyet rest ? " 

and ending with the following stanza : 

" But yonder comes my faythfull frend, 
That like assaultes hatlToften tryde, 
On his aduise I will depend, 
[for whether] Where I shall winne, or be denyde, 
And looke what counsell he shall giue, 
That will I do, where dye or live." 

Cant. XLV. 
W. S. 

" Well met, frend Harry, what's the cause 
You looke so pale with Lented cheeks ? 
Your wanny face and sharpened nose 
Shew plaine, your mind something mislikes, 
If you will tell me what it is, 
lie helpe to mend what is amisse. 



60 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2A S. IX. JAN. 



'60. 



What is she, man, that workes thy woe, 
And thus thy tickling fancy moue ? 
Thy drousie eyes, and sighes do shoe, 
This new disease proceedes of loue, 

Tell what she is that witch't thee so, 

1 sweare it shall no farder go. 

" A heauy burden wearieth one, 
Which'being parted then in twaine, 
Seemes very light, or rather none, 
And boren well with little paine : 

The smothered flame, too closely pent, 

Burner more extreame for want of vent. 
" So sorrowes shrynde in secret brest, 
Attainte the hart with hotter rage, 
Then griefes that are to frendes exprest, 
Whose comfort may some part asswage : 

If I a frend, whose faith is tryde, 

Let this request not be denyde. 

" Excessiue griefes good counsells want, 
And cloud the sence from sharpe conceits ; 
No reason rules, where sorrowes plant, 
And folly feedes, where fury fretes, 

Tell what she is, and you shall see, 

What hope and help shall come from mee." 

Cant. XLVI. 
H. W. 

" Seest yonder howse, where hanges the badge 
Of Englands Saint, when captaines cry 
Victorious land, to conquering rage, 

Loe, there my hopelesse helpe doth ly : 
And there that frendly foe doth dwell, 
That makes my hart thus rage and swell." 

Cant. XLVII. 

W. S. 

" Well, say no more : I know thy griefe, 
And face from whence these flames aryse, 
It is not hard to fynd reliefe, 
If thou wilt follow good aduyse : 

She is no Saynt, She is no Nonne, 
I thinke in tyme she may be wonne. 

Ars " At first repulse you must not faint, 
veteratoria. Nor fl ye t h e field though she deny 
You twise or thrise, yet manly bent, 
Againe you must, and still reply : 

When tyme permits you not to talke 
Then let your pen and fingers walke. 

Munera " Apply her still with dyuers thinges, 
(crede mitii) (For giftes the wysest will deceaue) 
homfnesq; Sometymes with gold, sometymes with ringes, 
deosq; No tyme nor fit occasion leaue, 

Though coy at first she seeme and wielde, 
These toyes in tyme will make her yielde. 

" Looke what she likes ; that you must loue, 
And what she hates, you. must detest, 
Where good or bad, you must approue, 
The wordes and workes that please her best : 

If she be godly, you must sweare, 

That to offend you stand in feare. 

Wicked "You must commend her louing face, 
CTO witiM For women io y in beauties praise, 
women. You must admire her sober grace, 
Her wisdome and her vertuous wayes, 
Say, t'was her wit and modest shoe, 
That made you like and loue her so. 

You must be secret, constant, free, 
Your silent sighes and trickling teares, 



Let her in secret often see, 

Then wring her hand, as one that feares 

To speake, then wish she were your wife, 

And last desire her saue your life. 

" When she doth laugh, you must be glad, 

And watch occasions, tyme and place, 

When she doth frowne, you must be sad, 

Let sighes and sobbes request her grace : 

Sweare that your love is truly ment, 

So she in tyme must needes "relent." 

In a commendatory poem " In praise of Willobie 
his Avisa," at the commencement of the volume, 
is the following stanza, which is interesting as 
containing perhaps the earliest notice of Shake- 
speare's Rape of Lucrece, if, as I believe, this edi- 
tion of Willobie is the first, 1594 : 

" Though Collatine haue deerely bought, 
To high renowne, a lasting life, 
And found, that most in vaine have sought, 
To haue a Faire, and Constant wife, 

Yet Tarquyne pluckt his glistering grape, 
And Shakespeare paints poore Lucrece rape." 

This poem has at the end, in the place of the 
author's name, 

" Contraria Contrariis : 

Vigilantius : Dormitanus." 

Does it contain the name of the writer in disguise ? 
In the article on Willobie, in Wood's Athena (i. 
756.) is given a copy of his LXIII. Sonnet, which 
shows how essential it is in transcribing ancient 
poetry to copy carefully the ancient spelling : and if 
that had been done in this instance, it will be per- 
ceived that the note of the editor would not have 
been needed. The first lines of one of the stanzas 
are, as given by Bliss : 

" And shall my follie prove it true 
That hastie pleasure doubleth paine? 
Shall griefe rebound, where ioy * grew ? " 

to the third line of which this note is appended : 

* " This line wants a word, perhaps it should be ' ioy 
(first or once) grew.' " Haslewood. 

In the original, "ioy n is spelt " ioye," and 
pronounced as a dissyllable, which of course makes 
the metre all right, without the necessity of inter- 
polating another word. 

W. C. TREVELYAN. 

Wallington, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 



AMESBURY. 

Amesbury, Ambrosebury, Ambrosia, or Ambrii 
Caenobium (see Leland, Coll., ed. 1770, vol. iii. 
pp. 29. 32. 34.). Here, says Bishop Tanner, is said 
to have been an ancient British monastery for 300 
monkes, founded, as some say, by Ambrius, an 
abbat ; as others, by the famous Prince Ambrosius 
(who was therein buried, destroyed by that cruel 
Pagan Gurmundus, who overran all this country 
in the sixth century). (Confer Geoffrey of Mon- 
mouth, lib. iv. c. 4.) About the year 980, Alfrida, 
or Ethelfrida, the queen dowager of King Edgar, 



<* S. IX. JAN. 28. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



61 



erected here a monastery for nuns, and com- 
mended it to the patronage of St. Mary and St. 
Melorius, a Cornish saint whose relics were 
preserved here. Alfrida is said to have erected 
both this and Wherwell monastery in atonement 
for the murder of her son-in-law, King Edward 
(Chron. de Mailross, anno DCCCCLXXIX., Robert 
of Gloucester and Bromton). The house was of 
the Benedictine order, and continued an inde- 
pendent monastery till the time of Henry II. in 
1177. The evil lives of the abbess and nuns drew 
upon them the royal displeasure. 

The abbess was more particularly charged with 
immoral conduct, insomuch that it was thought 
proper to dissolve the community : the nuns, 
about thirty in number, were dispersed in other 
monasteries. The abbess was allowed to go 
where she chose, with a pension of ten marks, and 
the house was made a cell to the Abbey of Fon- 
tevrault in Anjou ; whence a prioress and 
twenty-four nuns were brought, and established 
at Ainesbury. (Chron. Bromton, anno MCLXXVII.) 
Eleanor, commonly called the Damsel of Bretagne, 
sole daughter of Geoffrey, Earl of Bretagne, and 
sister of Earl Arthur, who was imprisoned in 
Bristol Castle, first by King John, and after- 
wards by King Hen. III., on account of her title 
to the crown, was buried according to her own 
request at Ainesbury in 1241, the 25 Hen. III. 

From this time the nunnery of Amesbury ap- 
pears to have been one of the select retreats for 
females in the higher ranks of life. Mary, the 
sixth daughter of King Edward I., took the reli- 
gious habit in the monastery of Amesbury in 1285, 
together with thirteen young ladies of noble fami- 
lies. {Annul. Wigorn.) Walsingham, in the Ypo- 
digma Neustria, says the king and queen were 
averse to this step, and that was taken ad instan- 
tiam regis. (Walsing., Hist.-Angl.} 

Two years after this (A.D. 1287), Eleanor, the 
queen of Henry III. and the mother of Ed- 
ward I., herself took the veil at Amesbury, where 
she died, and was buried in 1292 (Walsing. 
anno 1292). She had previously given to the 
monastery the estate of Chadelsworth, in Berks, to 
support the state of Eleanor, daughter of the 
Duke of Bretagne, who had also become a nun 
there. Amesbury finally became one of the richest 
nunneries in England : how long it remained sub- 
ject to the monastery of Foiitevrault, we are not 
told. 

Bishop Tanner says it was at length made deni- 
zen, and became again an abbey. 

Isabella of Lancaster, fourth daughter of Henry, 
Earl of Lancaster, grand-daughter to E. Crouch- 
back, son of Henry II., was prioress in 1292. 
There is no register extant. Amesbury is seven 
miles north from Salisbury. EDWARD HOGG FEY. 



EPIGRAM CORNER. -No. II. 

" Esse nihil, dicis, quidquid petis, Iinprobe Cinna: 
Si nil, Cinna, petis, nil tibi, Cinna, nego." 

" Twas ' a mere nothing ! ' Cinna said, he sought : 
Then 1, when I refused, denied him nought." 



" Cum rogo te nummos sine pignore ' non habeo ' - 

inquis, 

Idem, si pro me spondet agellus, babes. 
Quid mihi non credis veteri, Thelesine, sodali, 

Credis colliculis arboribusque meis. 
Ecce reum Carus te detulit adsit agellus. 
Exsilii comitem quaeris ? agellus eat." 

" Tom, lend me fifty ! ' Tom's without a shilling 
I'll give a mortgage Tom's cash then is found. 
To trust his old tried friend, Tom isn't willing, 
But trusts implicitly his woods and ground. 
Tom mav ere long need counsel from a friend, 
For mortgage, not for me, let Tom then send." 

" Nubere vis Frisco non miror, Paulla sapisti. 
Ducere te rion vult Priscus et ille sapit." 

" To marry Peter, Polly wisely tries. 
Peter won't have her Peter too is wise." 

" Nil mihi das vivus: dicis, post fata daturum. 

Si non es stultus, scis, Maro, quod cupiam." 
" You'll not advance me sixpence 'till you die, 

Then you may know for what event I sigh." 



' Omnia pauperibus moriens dedit Harpalus hseres 
Ut se non fictas exprimat in lachrymas." 
" When all his fortune Harpax gave the poor, 
His relatives were real mourners sure." 

A. B. R. 



LIFE OF MRS. SHERWOOD: FICTITIOUS 
PEDIGREES OF MR. SPENCE. 

At the present time, when, in consequence of 
increased facilities for consulting original docu- 
ments in our public offices, and from other causes, 
genealogical researches have become so much 
more general than they were a few years ago, it 
behoves inquirers to be on their guard against 
artful and fraudulent persons, who may attempt 
to palm off fictitious pedigrees and heraldry. 

In 1 st S. ix. 220. ME. R. W. DIXON first drew 
attention to the tricks of a Mr. Spence ; and sub- 
sequent communications from LORD MONSON and 
others (1 st S. ix. 275.) were sufficient to put the 
readers of " N. & Q." on their guard against Mr. 
Spence's manoeuvres. But doubtless he had pre- 
viously made a good thing of his pedigrees ; and 
I think we owe it to the cause of truth to expose 
their worthlessness in every instance that may 
come under our notice. 

On reading the letter of the UEV. G. F. DASH- 
WOOD (2 nd S. viii. 435.), I was at once struck with 
the Spencean style of the Butts pedigree; and, 
on looking over the " Table of Descent " in Mrs. 
Sherwood's Life (London, 1854, p. 5.), I can at 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2* S. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 



once trace the old hand. I have already had some 
correspondence on this subject with ME. DASH- 
WOOD, and, while agreeing with me in suspecting 
the earlier portion of Mrs. Sherwood's Table to 
have been compiled from Spencean materials, he 
feels anxious, as everyone who ever knew Mrs. 
Sherwood, either personally or by her writings, 
must do, utterly to repudiate the notion of that 
excellent woman having knowingly sanctioned a 
fraud. 

I see, in the Preface to her Life, that the 
editor thanks her relative, the Rev. H. Short, and 
her kind friend F. G. West, Esq., barrister-at-law, 
for their very able assistance : " without which," 
she says, " I could not have presented to the pub- 
lic the records of relationship with the family of 
Bacon." It does not appear whether these gen- 
tlemen had anything to do with the early part of 
the pedigree. 

The first entry is that of a Butts who married 
the daughter and heir of Sir Wm. Fitzhugh, of 
Congleton and Elton, co. Chester ; and the second 
Butts (Sir William) is slain at the battle of Pole- 
tiers^ after having married a daughter of Sir Ra- 
nulph Cotgrave, Lord of Har grave, co. Chester. 
Then follow three Butts's, all of Congleton. Now, 
on referring to the letters of ME. DIXON and LOED 
MONSON, the reader will find that in each instance 
of pedigree supplied by Mr. Spence, the materials 
were said by him to be derived from documents in 
the possession of the Cotgreave family ; and while 
ME. DIXON was furnished with an ancestor who 
fell at the battle of Wakefield, LOED MONSON was 
offered one who was slain at the battle of Poic- 
tiers. ME. DIXON'S ancestor Ralph was made to 
quarter the ensigns of Fitzhugh, and other noble 
houses, " in right of his mother Maude, daughter 
of Sir Ralph Fitzhugh de Congleton and Elton, 
co. Chester," the authority given being that of 
a very ancient pedigree of the Cotgreaves de Har- 
grave. Still the old cards, shuffled over again ! 
It happened, unfortunately for Mr. Spence, that 
both ME. DIXON and LOED MONSON had made 
genealogy their special study; but, no doubt, 
many persons unacquainted with genealogical mat- 
ters have been made victims to Mr. Spence's 
fictions. 

Perhaps the gentlemen mentioned by the editor 
of Mrs. Sherwood's Life would kindly inform the 
readers of " N. & Q." whether my suspicions are 
correct? and whether they, or Mrs. Sherwood 
herself, compiled the earlier portion of the Butts 
pedigree from materials furnished by Mr. Spence ? 

JAYDEE. 



flats*. 

HBNET VI. AND EDWAED IV. Sir Richard 
Baker says that the body of the deceased Henry 
was treated with great indignity. u He was 



brought from the Tower to Paul's Church in an 
open coffin, bare-faced, where he bled ; from 
thence in a boat to Chertsey Abbey, without 
Priest or clerk, torch or taper, saying or singing, 
and there buried." This cannot be reconciled 
with the following account taken from the Pellis 
receptornm : 

l< De Custubus et expensis circa sepulturam predict! 
Henrici. 

" Die Martis, xxiy die Junii. 

" Hugoni Brice, in denariis sibi liberatis per rnanus 
proprias pro tot denariis per ipsum solutis tarn pro clero, 
tela lineS,, speciebus, et aliis ordinariis expensis, per ipsum 
appositis et expenditis (sic) circa sepulturam dicti Hen- 
rici de Windesore, qui infra Turrim Londoniaj diem suum 
clausit extremum ; ac pro vadiis et regardis diversorum 
hominum portantium tortos, a Turre praedictS, usque 
Ecclesiam Cathedral em Sancti Pauli Londoniae, et abinde 
usque Chertesey cum corpore praesenti per Breve pnc- 
dictum. xW. iii 8 . vi d . ob. 

" Magistro Richardo Martyn in denariis sibi liberatis 
ad Vices; videlicet, una vice per manus proprias ixZ. x s . 
xi d . pro tot denariis per ipsum solutis pro xxviii. ulnis 
telae lineae de Holandia, et expensis factis tarn infra Turrim 
praedictam ad ultimum Vale dicti Henrici, quam apud 
Chertsey in die Sepulturse ejusdem : ac pro regardo dato 
diversis soldariis Calesii vigilantibus circa corpus, et pro 
conductu Bargearum cum Magistris ac Nautis remi- 
gantibus per aquam Thamisis usque Chertesey prseclic- 
tam ; et alia vice viii/. xii 8 . iii d . pro tot denariis per 
ipsum solutis iv. Ordinibus Fratrum infra civitatem Lon- 
donise, et Fratribus Sanctae Crucis in eadem, et in aliis 
operibus charitativis ; videlicet, Fratribus Carmelitis xx 8 . 
Fratribus Augustinis xx'. Fratribus Minoribus xx 8 . 
Fratribus Prsedicatoribus, " pro obsequjis et Missis Cele- 
brandis xl 8 . et dictis Fratribus Sanctae Crucis x 8 ., ac pro 
Obsequiis et Missis dicendis apud Chertesey praadictam, 
in die sepulturae dicti Henrici, Hi 8 . iii d . per Breve prae- 
dictum. xviii 1 . iii'. ii d ." 

JOHN WILLIAMS. 

Arno's Court. 

MAEINEE'S COMPASS. The title of the fol- 
lowing work, now printed for the first time, will 
speak for itself: 

" La Composizione del Mondo di Ristoro D' Arezzo 
Testo Italiano del 1282 pubblicato da Enrico Narducci. 
Rome, 1859, 8vo." 

The following allusion to the compass-needle is 
curious, and must be placed among the early 
ones : 

" E trouiamo tali . erbe e tali . fiori chella . uirtude del 
cielo si muouono e uanno riuolti tutta uia uerso la faccia 
del sole . e tali . no . e anche langola che ghuidi li mari- 
nari che per la uirtu del cielo e tratta e riuolta alia Stella 
la quale e chiamata tramontana (p. 264.) 

The word angola can, I suppose, only mean the 
angled, sharp-cornered, needle which guides the 
mariners, &c. The manuscript is dated as finished 
in 1282, Ridolfo inperadore aletto, Martino quarto 
papa residents, Amen. It is now published to 
rescue Ristoro from oblivion, to show the condition 
of the Italian language in the thirteenth century, 
and to give an idea of the astronomical and physi- 
cal knowledge of the time : it will serve all these 
purposes well. A. DE MOEGAN. 



2" d S. IX. JAK 28. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



* WALK TOUR CHALKS." This is a vulgarism 
which I have heard addressed to one whose com- 
pany is no longer desired, and who is expected to 
depart from your presence eo instanti. Has the 
expr-ession originated as follows ? It appears from 
Mr. Riley's Liber Albus, lately printed, Introduc- 
tion, p. "iviii., that there anciently existed in 
London a custom for the marshal and serjeant- 
chamberlain of the royal households, when in 
want of lodgings for the royal retinue and de- 
pendents, to send a billet (bilebim) and seize arbi- 
trarily the best houses and mansions of the locality, 
turning out the inhabitants, and marking the 
house so selected with chalk. From this probably 
arose a saying, urbane, "You must now please 
to walk out, for your house is chalked;" breviter, 
"you must walk, you're chalked;" brevissime, 
" walk your chalks." C. J. 

MALSH. A Huntingdonshire woman called the 
damp, moist weather that we had at the close of 
last year, as " very mulsh weather." She farther 
explained this species of weather to be " very 
ungiving." Is this word " rnalsh," used in a 
i'eii" country, and, as I find, not peculiar to the 
women from whose lips I first heard it a cor- 
ruption of " marish," a fen word much iised by 
Tennyson ? e. g. : 

" The cluster'd marisli- mosses crept." 
" And far through -the marish green and still." 
" And the silvery marish flowers that throng." 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 

THE A-BECKET FAMILY. Apropos of Mr. 
Robertson's recent history of Thomas a Beeket, 
the following may be worth noting. A certain 
Italian Marquis who was still alive six months 
back, told me about eight years ago that his 
mother had been the last descendant off the 
noble Pisan family of Minabekti, and that the 
origin of this family was, that after the death of 
S. Thomas of Canterbury, a younger brother ran 
away from England and settled at Pisa ; that he 
called himself Becket minor, which in due course 
was transformed into the name given above. I 
am pretty certain, though the name does not 
figure in " Murray," that there is a monument to 
some member or members of the family in Sa. 
Maria Novella. W. H. 

LORD NELSON AND LADY HAMILTON. Anec- 
dotes of this really great man, when coupled with 
' the taint, that, like another Dalikh, she cast 
upon the brave man whom she ensnared by her 
wiles," cannot be of the same value as those bear- 
ing on his great achievements ; but the following 
is brought to memory by some extracts from 'The 
Diary and Correspondence of the late Right Hon. 
George Rose, -c., and may be considered farther 
objectionable as corroborating that infatuation 
which is the only stain on his otherwise unblem- 
ished reputation. 



After the battle of _ the Nile, a largo medal by 
Kuchler, commemorative of the victory, and beau- 
tifully set in crystal, was presented to Lord 
Nelson : on receiving it, he immediately presented 
it to Lady Hamilton, saying, "this is yours by 
undoubted right." It is well known he nourished 
the belief that it was through her influence with 
the Queen of Naples he was enabled to encounter 
the French fleet. 

A full description of this medal is unnecessary; 
but it is of gold, with an attempt to represent the 
setting sun, the position of the fleets, with a me- 
dallion likeness of the hero. H. D'AVENEY. 



RADICALS IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES. What 

number (nearly) of the radical words of any of the 
principal languages of Europe (especially Greek, 
Latin, and Anglo-Saxon) are connected in origin 
with Sanscrit roots ? -and -what proportion does 
the number of radicals so connected in any lan- 
guage bear to the whole number of radicals in that 
language ? J. V. F. 

Dublin. 

CHURCH CHESTS. I should be much obliged 
to any of the learned correspondents of " N. & 
Q." who would refer me to any treatise on church 
chests, or inform me where I could find any ac- 
count of these interesting and often beautifully 
decorated remnants of bye-gone times. 

JOHN P. BOILEAU. 

Ketteringham Park, Wymondham. 

RIFLE PITS. These have b&en said to have 
been first brought into use at Sebastopol, but in 
the account of the siege of Ciudad Rodrigo (Penin- 
sular Campaigns, vol. ii. p. 321.) which was un- 
dertaken by Regnier in June, 1810, the author 
describes the planting of a battery of forty-six 
guns, and says " by this, and by riflemen stationed 
in pits, the fire of the garrison was kept down, and 
the sap was pushed to the glacis." So that rifle- 
pits appear to have been in use half a century ago. 
Is there any earlier notice of them ? A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

CLASSICAL CLAQUEURS AT THEATRES. A very 
high authority, speaking of Percennius, who was 
the ringleader of the formidable revolt of the Pan- 
nonian Legions in the time of Tiberius (A. D. 14), 
and was afterwards put to death by order of 
Drusus, says that he had been originally em- 
ployed in theatres to applaud or to hiss ; but 
referring to Tacitus (Ann. i. 16. &c.), I find he 
merely calls him " dux olim theatralium opera- 
rum," which I suppose would answef to some- 
thing like our stage manager. Is there any other 
authority for representing this Percennius as, 



64 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



s. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 






\vhat the French call, a claqueur ; or of showing 
that such persons were ever employed in ancient 
theatres : and can your readers refer me to any 
other passage where such an office as " dux the- 
atralium operarum " is mentioned ? C. C. T. 

" THINKS I TO MYSELF." It seems the au- 
thorship of this clever and amusing little book 
was much controverted at the time of its ap- 
pearance. A friend of mine, the lamented L. J. 
Lardner, Esq., told me on the best authority, as 
he had it from the author himself, that it was the 
production of a Mr. Dennys. The work, from its 
humour, merits a republication. 

J. H. VAN LENNEP. 
Zeyst, near Utrecht, June 4, 1860. 

HOOPER, the martyr-bishop, had a brother 
named Hugh, who, settling in Jersey, became the 
source of a family now in existence there. I am 
greatly in want of genealogical details respecting 
him : of what family he came ; the names of his 
father, brothers, sisters, &c., and what his ances- 
tral (not episcopal) arms were. Also, the resi- 
dences of his descendants, if any. 

J. BEETEAND PAYNE. 

BALLAD AGAINST INCLOSUEES. I shall be much 
obliged to any one who can furnish me with the 
words of a song very popular among the Lincoln- 
shire peasantry during the last twenty years of 
the eighteenth century the period of the great 
inclosures. It consisted principally, I believe, of 
a bitter invective against landlords and lords of 
manors. 

The following words are all that I ever heard : 

" But now the Commons are ta'en in, 

The Cottages pulled down, 
And Moggy's got na wool to spin 
Her Lindsey-woolsey gown." 

EDWAED PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

KOBEET KEITH. Who was Kobert Keith, the 
translator of a small edition of the Imitation of 
Jesus Christ in four books, by Thomas a Kempis, 
printed at Glasgow, for R. and A. Foulis, 18 mo., 
1774? X. A. X. 

BAPTISMAL FONT IN BREDA CATHEDEAL : 
DUTCH-BOEN CITIZENS OF ENGLAND. In the 
Biographical Notice of Professor L. G. Visscher 
(born, March 1, 1799, ob. Jan. 26, 1859,)* it is 
said that Visscher, by way of a joke, used to call 
himself a citizen of London, because baptism had 
been administered to him at the font of Breda 
cathedral, to which King William III. of England 
had attached the privilege of London citizenship. 
The Professor's father, Teunis Kragt Visscher, on 

* See Handelingen der Jaarlijksche Algemeene Verga- 
dering van de Maatfchappij der Nederlandsche Letter- 
kunde te Leiden, gehouden den 16 e Jvnij, 1859, pp. 66, 67, 



Sept. 19, 1799, was killed by a British bullet near 
Schoorldam, as he was in the act of lifting up his 
battalion's colours, of which the stick had been 
shot in two, and flourished them over his head 
that again they might be conspicuous to all. The 
ball threw him from his horse, when he had already 
passed the bridge ; and the scared animal would 
have carried the flag, which had entangled itself 
into the reins, towards the English, if Sergeant 
Westerheide had not rescued it from the midst of 
the enemy's fire. 

I suppose the privilege, on which Visscher 
jokingly prided himself, will have been settled 
upon the Breda font, because of the English 
troopers residing in this stronghold under Wil- 
liam III. 

But I want to ask a question : Are the chil- 
dren of parents, one of whom the mother, for in- 
stance is English, when born under un-English 
colours, still considered as citizens of your country? 

How long does descent from English blood give 
a right of English birth ? Does it extend to 
grandchildren ? J. H. VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

" ANTIQUITATES BEITANNIC^B ET HIBEENIC.SJ." 
In the year 1836, the Royal Society of Northern 
Antiquaries announced their intention of publish- 
ing by subscription Antiquitates Britannicce et 
Hibernica, or a collection of accounts elucidating 
the early history of Great Britain and Ireland, 
extracted from early Icelandic and Scandinavian 
MSS. Was this intention completed ? and if so, 
where is the work to be purchased or consulted ? 
I always thought it extreme carelessness that the 
editors of the Monumentum Historicum Britannicum 
should have overlooked the great store of matter 
connected with the early history of this island con- 
tained in the early writers and MSS. of Scandi- 
navia and Iceland. C. W. 

NOAH'S AEK. What foundation is there for 
the traditional form of Noah's ark ? With the flat 
bottom and gable roof, it is by no means calcu- 
lated for a safe voyage, although from the dimen- 
sions given in Holy Writ it is generally considered 
to have been the perfection of naval architecture. 

W. (Bombay.) 

BEITISH SOCIETY OF DILETTANTI. I am de- 
sirous to be made acquainted with the history of 
this society, existing about the middle of the last 
century, and which encouraged and assisted Mr. 
James Stuart and Mrs Nicholas Revett in their 
arduous labours, the result of which was that in- 
valuable work The Antiquities of Athens. I am 
desirous to know who were the president and 
principal promoters of this scientific association; 
where in London their meetings were held ; if 
they published their u Transactions ;" and if the 
society is still extant. I have heard it intimated 
that the above bad merged into the Society of Arts, 



IX. JAN. 28. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



which was established in 1753, and was located in 
the Adelphi, and which was presided over and 
patronised at various intervals by Charles Duke 
of Norfolk, the Dukes of Northumberland, Rich- 
mond, Portland, &c. If the Dilettanti were in- 
corporated with the latter society, pray at what 
period did such union take place ? 2. 2. 

ACROSTIC. At the end of a form of prayer for 
the 17th Nov., set forth by authority, temp. Eliza- 
beth (but undated), are some psalms and anthems 
appointed to be sung. One of these, entituled " a 
Song of rejoysing for the prosperous Reigne of 
our most gratious Soveraigne Lady Queene Eliza- 
beth," and "made to the use of the 25th Psalm," 
is arranged so as to be an acrostic of God save the 
Queen : 

G Geve laude unto the Lorde, 
And prayse his holy name 
O Let us all with one accorde 

Now magnifie the same 
D Due thanks unto him yeeld 
Who evermore hath beene 
S So strong defence buckler and shielde 
To our most Royall Queene. 

A And as for her this daie 

Each where about us rounde 
V Up to the side right solemnelie 

The bells doe make a sounde 
E Even so let us rejoyce 

Before the Lord our King 
T To him let us now frame our voyce 

With chearefull hearts to sing. 

H Her Majesties intent 

By thy good grace and will 
E Ever O Lorde hath bene most bent 

Thy lawe for to fulfill 
Q Quite thou that loving minde 

With love to her agayne 
V Unto her as thou hast beene kinde 

O Lord so still remaine. 

E Extende thy mightie hand 

Against her mortall foes 
E Expresse and shewe that thou wilt stand 

With her against all those 
N Nigh unto her abide 

Upholde her scepter strong 
E Eke graunt with us a joyjull guide 

She may continue long. I. C. 

Amen. 

This curious acrostic takes every alternate line 
of the psalm. I want to know who is the proba- 
ble author, whose initials, I. C., are at the foot, 
or do they stand for the words in Christo ? 

ABRACADABRA. 

HENRY VII. AT LINCOLN IN 1486. This 
politic sovereign is recorded to have thought it 
prudent to visit the northern parts of the king- 
dom in the first spring of his reign, and to have 
" kept his Easter at Lincoln." Is it known by 
what route he made his progress from London, 
and by whom he was attended ? 

WILLIAM KELLY. 
Leicester. 



REV. JOHN GENEST. On Dec. 14, 1859, Put- 
tick and Simpson sold among the collections of 
Mr. Bell of Walisend, an autograph latter (signed) 
of the Rev. John Genest, 8 pages folio, and con- 
taining dramatic memoranda for 1712. It was 
dated 8, Bennett Street, Bath, Nov. 20th, and 
was written in a large bold hand. I conclude he 
is the author of Some Account of the English 
Stage, 10 vols. 8vo. 1832. What is known of 
him, and when did he die ? CL. HOPPER. 

HOTSPUR. What is the earliest record of the 
sobriquet "Hotspur " applied to the famous Henry 
Lord Percy of Alnwick? G. W. ERNST. 

Liverpool. 

HENRY CONSTANTINE JENNINGS. This gen- 
tleman was born at Shiplake, Oxfordshire, in 

1731 ; married before ; he buries his wife 

Julianna in 1761 ; he married, 2ndly, a daughter 
of Roger Newell of Bobins Place in Kent ; in 
1815 he is living in Lindsey Row, Chelsea, and in 
or about the same time he preferred a claim to an 
abeyant peerage ; but it is not known with what 
success ; he is supposed to have died in the King's 
Bench Prison about 1818 ; his inveterate love for 
the fine arts was no doubt the cause of it. If any 
kind correspondent of " N. & Q." would furnish 
the pedigree of his family from about 1650 to his 
death it would be thankfully acknowledged by a 
relative. DAVID JENNINGS. 

Charles Street, Hampstead Road. 

* PYE- WYPE. Afield in the parish of Middle 
Rasen is known by the name of Pye- Wype Close. 
There are said to be other places in the county of 
Lincoln bearing the same name. What is the 
meaning of Pye- Wype ? J. SANSOM. 



" PUT INTO SHIP-SHAPE." Can any of the 
readers of " N. & Q." inform me of the origin of 
this phrase ? MERRICK CHRYOSTOM, M.A. 

[The familiar phrase " Put into ship-shape," which, as 
commonly used, signifies " arranged, put into order, 
made serviceable " (as when a vessel in ordinary is rig- 
ged and prepared for sea), appears to have originated, 
verbally at least, from an expression which, unless some 
of our older lexicographers have fallen into error, bore a 
by no means kindred meaning. According to Ash (1775) 
and Bailey (1736) ship-shapen signified unsightly, with a 
particular reference to a ship that was " built strait up," 
or wall-sided. Webster and Ogilvie, on the contrary, 
give " ship-shape " in the sense which it now bears in 
common parlance. " Ship- shape, in a seamanlike man- 
ner, and after the fashion of a ship ; as, this mast is not 
rigged ship-shape; trim your Bails ship-shape." 

We shall feel much obliged to any of our readers who 
will favour us with an example of ship-shapen in the 
older signification of wall-sided or unsightly. "Wall- 
sided " was formerly wale-reared. Cf. A.-S. weall, a 
wall.] 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a s. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 



ANNA CORNELIA MEERMAN. I have a copy of 
Sermons and Discourses, by my late kinsman, Dr. 
George Skene Keith, minister of Keith Hall and 
Kinkell, Aberdeenshire ; London, J. Evans, 1785, 
on the title-page of which is this autograph in- 
scription by the. Doctor's cousin and patron : " To 
Anna Cornelia Meerman, by Anthony Earl of 
Kintore, Sept. 11, 1785." Can any of your readers 
tell me who Anna Cornelia Meerman was ? I have 
a confused notion that I remember her name in 
connexion with literature. KIR'KTOWN SKENE. 

Aberdeen. 

[This lady seems to be Anna Cornelia Mollerus, who 
was first married to Mr. Abraham Perrenot, Doctor of 
Laws, celebrated for his writings on philosophical subjects 
and on jurisprudence, and for some Latin Poems. His 
widow married the Hon. John Meerman, first counsellor 
and pensionary of the city of Rotterdam, and author of 
Thesaurus Juris Civilis et Canonici, and numerous other 
works. Mrs. Meerman accompanied her husband in has 
various travels, and was his constant and happy com- 
panion till his death in 1815. The Meerman Library Avas 
sold by auction in 1824, and produced 131,000 florins.] 

REV. J. PLUMPTRE'S DRAMAS. The Rev. J. 

Plumptre, vicar of Great Gransden, published in 
1818, a volume of Original Dramas. Could you 
oblige me by giving the dramatis persona, &c. 
of three of these little dramas, having the follow- 
ing titles : Winter, The Force of Conscience, The 
Salutary Reproof. ZETA. 

[1. Winter; a Drama in Two Acts. Characters: Mr. 
Paterson, pastor of the village; Richard Wortham, a 
farmer; his sons John, William, and Robert; Henry 
Bright, in love with Betsy; John Awfield, a farmer; 
Thomas, his son ; Kindman, a publican ; Wm. Richards, 
parish clerk; John Bradford, a shepherd; a waggoner 
and a boy. Mary Wortham, wife to Wortham ; Betsy 
and Susan, their daughters ; and Mrs. Kindman. Scene : 
The country. Time : A night and part of the next morn- 
ing in the depth of winter. 

2. The Force of Conscience, a Tragedy in Three Acts. 
Characters : Mr. Jones, a clergyman ; Wm. Morris, a 
blacksmith ; Edw. Selby, his son-in-law ; Robert Ellis ; 
Geo. Martin ; Richard and James, journeymen to Mor- 
ris ; constable of the village and of the town ; gaoler ; and 
three spectators. Esther, daughter to Morris; Dame 
Brown, his housekeeper; Lucy, sister of Ellis. Scene: a 
country village, and a neighbouring county town. 

3. The Salutanj Reproof, or the Butcher, a Drama in 
Two Acts. Characters : Lord Orwell ; Sir Wm. Rightly ; 
Mr. Shepherd, a clergyman; Thomas Goodman, the 
butcher ; Crusty, a baker ; Muggins, a publican ; George, 
son to Goodman ; servant to Lord Orwell ; Mower. Mrs. 
Goodman, wife to Goodman ; Ruth, their daughter ; Mrs. 
Manage, housekeeper to Lord Orwell; Mrs. Crust3 r , wife 
to Crusty; Susan, servant to Crusty; Mowers, &c. 
Scene: a country village about fifty miles from Lon- 
don.] 

REV. W. GILPIN ON THE STAGE. The Rev. 
J. Plumptre, in 1809, published Four Discourses 
on the Amusements of the /Stage. This work at- 
tracted a good deal of notice at the time. Among 
other authors quoted by Mr. Plumptre in support 
of his views regarding the reformation of the 
stage, I find the name of the Rev. W. Gilpin, 



vicar of Boldre. As I am unable to refer to Mr. 
Plumptre's volume, could you oblige me by giving 
the passage in the works of this excellent clergy- 
man, as quoted by Mr. Plumptre. ZETA. 

[The following extract occurs at p. 112. of Plump- 
tre's Discourses on the Stage : " Gilpin, in his Dialogues 
on the Amusements of Clergymen, p. 116., in the person of 
Dr. Stillingfleet, afterwards Bishop of Worcester, says of 
the playhouse, ' What a noble institution have we here, 
if it were properly regulated. I know of nothing that is 
better calculated for moral instruction nothing that 
holds the glass more forcibly to the follies and vices of 
mankind. I would have it go hand in hand with the 
pulpit. It has nothing indeed to do with Scripture and 
Christian doctrines. The pageants, as I think they were 
called, of the last century, used to represent Scripture 
stories, which were very improperly introduced, and 
much better handled in the pulpit: But it is impossible 
for the pulpit to represent vice and folly in so strong a 
light as the stage. One addresses .our reason, the other 
our imagination ; and we know which receives commonly 
the more forcible impression.'" Again, tat p. 187., Mr. 
Plumptre gives the following quotation : " Mr. Gilpin 
(p. 124.) wishes to have different theatres for the different 
ranks of life : ' In my Eutopia (says Gilpin) I mean to 
establish two one for the higher, the other for the 
lower orders of the community. In the first, of course, 
there will be more elegance and more expense ; and the 
drama must be suited to the audience, by the representa- 
tion of such vices and follies as are found chiefly among 
the great. The other theatre shall be equally suitable to 
the lower orders.' "] 

QUOTATION. Would you inform me who is 
the author of a poem entitled " The Fisherman," 
and in which the following couplet occurs ? 

" There was turning of keys, and creaking of locks, 
As he took forth a bait from -his iron box." 

CONSTANT READER. 

[These lines are from " The Red Fisherman," by Win- 
throp Mackworth Praed. See his Poetical Works, New 
York, 1844, p. 71.] 

" THE VOYAGES, ETC. or CAPTAIN RICHARD 
FALCONER." In vain I have tried to get a copy 
of The Voyages^ Dangerous Adventures and Im- 
minent Escapes of Captain Richard Falconer. 
According to the Literary Gazette for 1838, p. 
278., a.Jifth 12mo. edition of the work was re- 
printed in that year from that of 1734, and 
published in London by Churton. Are these 
Voyages a fiction, or not ? J. H. VAN LEKNEP. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht, Jan. 4, 1860. 

[This was a favourite work of Sir Walter Scott, but 
the authorship of it was unknown to him. In a letter to 
Daniel Terry, Esq., dated 20th Oct. 1813, he says: "I 
have no hobby -horsical commissions at present, unless if 
you meet with the Voyages of Capt. Richard, or Robert 
Falconer, in one volume, * cow-heel, quoth Sancho,' I mark 
them for my own." On the 10th Kov. 1814, Sir Walter 
again writes to his Dear Terry, to thank him for Capt. 
Richard Falconer: "To your kindness I owe the two 
books in the world I most longed to see, not so much for 
their intrinsic merits, as because they bring back with 
vivid associations the sentiments of my childhood I 
might almost say infancy." On a fly-leaf of Scott's copy, 
in his own handwriting, is the following note: "This 



2nd s. IX. JAN. 28. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



67 



book I read in early youth. I am ignorant whether it is 
altogether fictitious, and written upon De Jb s plan, 
which it greatly resembles, or whether it is only an ex- 
aggerated account cf the adventures of a real person. It 
is very scarce, for, endeavouring to add it to the other 
favourites of my infancy, I think I looked for it ten years 
to no purpose, and at last owed it to the active kindness 
of Mr. Terry. Yet Richard Falconer's Adventures seem 
to have passed through several editions." (Lockhart's 
Life of Scott, ed. 1845, pp. 248. 305.) The work, how- 
ever, is fictitious, and the production of William Kufus 
Chetwood, who first kept a bookseller's shop in Covent 
Garden, and became afterwards prompter to Drury Lane 
Theatre.] 

MS. LITERARY MISCELLANIES. Can you give 
me any account of the following authors, whose 
works are in the Harleian MSS. ? 1. Geo. Bankes, 
author of " Literary Miscellanies," 4050. 2. An- 
tony Parker, author of " Literary Miscellanies." 
3. Stephen Millington, author of " Literary Mis- 
cellanies." Could you also oblige me with any in- 
formation regarding the dates, and the contents of 
these volumes ? ZETA. 

[Harl. MS. 4050. is a small quarto paper book of 273 
pages, besides some loose papers inserted in different 
parts. It is the Common-place book on theological sub- 
jects of George Bankes, who appears to have been presi- 
dent of some college from the verses addressed to him. at 
fol. 136., and signed Potter. Cent. xvii. 

Harl. MS. 4048. is a paper book, 4to. of 160 pages, 
written in English and Latin, and is the Common-place 
book of Antony Parker. It is chiefly on subjects of divi- 
nity, abstracts of sermons preached by various persons. 
Cent. xvii. 

Harl. MS. 5748. is a paper 4to. book, consisting of 
1. Godwyn's Roman Antiquities, translated, as it seems, 
from the first edition, by Stephen Millington, 1641. 2. 
Phrases collected out of the same book by the same 
person. 3. Six Latin Declamations, each signed Stepu. 
Millington.] 

ST. CYPRIAN. Can you inform me whether 
there is authority for supposing that St. Cyprian, 
Bishop of Carthage and martyr, was a negro ? 

R. T. L. 

[The great St. Cyprian was born in Africa, and pro- 
bably at Carthage, though on this latter point there is 
some difference of opinion. He appears to have inherited 
considerable wealth from his parents, and we find no 
traces of any supposition that he was by birth a negro, 
an idea which may have arisen from his being termed by 
St. Jerome " Cyprianus Afer."] 

BESET BORUGHE. Can you give me any in- 
formation regarding Benet Borughe, author of 
a poetical translation of Cicero's Cato Major 
and Minor, Harleian MS. 116. What is the date 
of the work ? ZETA. 

[The Harl. MS. 116. is a parchment book, written by 
different hands, in a small folio. The third article is 
" Liber Minoris Catonis (fol. 98.) et Majoris " (fol. 99.), 
translatus a Latino in Anglicum per Mag. Benet Borughe. 
There is no date, but the MS. seems to be of the latter 
part of the fifteenth century.] 

TOPOGRAPHICAL EXCURSION. Has that por- 
tion of the Lansdown MS. volume, No. 213., being 



the tour of three Norwich gentlemen through 
various counties in 1634 and 1635, ever been 
printed in extenso ? C. E. Iy. 

[The greater portion of this Itinerary will be found in 
Brayley's Graphic Illustrator, 4to. 1834. The contribu- 
tor states that " no alteration has been made in the lan- 
guage, but the immaterial parts have been omitted, and 
a few words of connexion occasionally introduced." The 
long poem appended to the Itinerary is also omitted. An 
extract relating to Robin Hood's Well is printed in our 
2"dS. Y i. 261.] 



llepltr*. 

ARCHIEPISCOPAL MITRE. 
(2 nd S. viii. 248.) 

It is perhaps singular that no precise answer can 
be given to* your correspondent's Query, " How 
it is that archbishops bear their mitre from within 
a ducal coronet ? " 

The variation in the mode of bearing the mitre 
observed between the metropolitans and the suf- 
fragans, is of modern date. The illustrations 
afforded by the paintings on glass which decorate 
our ancient cathedrals, and the representations 
upon the effigies and other portions of monumental 
remains in those sacred edifices, placed in memory 
of numerous ecclesiastical dignitaries, do not afford 
any authority for a distinction between the mitres 
of Archbishops and Bishops (with the exception 
of the Bishops of the See of Durham}, down to 
the period of the Revolution. 

The Records of the College of Arms do not 
supply a single authority for the mitres of the 
Archbishops issuing from or placed within a Ducal 
Coronet. An examination of the various instances 
where mitres are depicted, will corroborate this 
fact, and particularly those Records termed Funeral 
Certificates, which contain many entries in refer- 
ence to deceased Prelates, and to which the armo- 
rial ensigns of their respective Sees, as well as, in 
numerous cases, those of their paternal bearings 
are attached. 

The last entry of a certificate taken upon the 
death and burial of an Archbishop, is that of Gil- 
bert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, who died 
9th November, 1677 : it is certified and attested 
by Sir William Dugdale, then Garter, and there 
depicted are the arms of the See of Canterbury 
surmounted by the episcopal mitre, without any 
coronet. 

It is hardly credible that at this period any 
authority for the coronet existed, or so experi- 
enced an officer as Sir William Dugdale would 
not only have known it, but have seen that the 
record of his official act had been correctly made. 

The variation, therefore, in practice between 
the metropolitan and suffragans must be traced 
to a period subsequent to the death of Sheldon, 
and is not probably of earlier date than the com- 
mencement of the 19th century. 



frOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 n <* S. IX. tax. 28. '60. 



In a dissertation entitled An Assemblage of 
Coins fabricated by Authority of the Archbishops 
of Canterbury ', published in 1772 by Samuel 
Pegge, M.A. (p. 7.) that writer, when speaking 
of the mitre, remarks, " there is also some differ- 
ence now made in the bearing of the mitre by me- 
tropolitans and the suffragans : the former placing 
it on their coat armour on a Ducal Coronet, a 
practice lately introduced, and the latter having it 
close to the escocheon."* 

In the Gentleman's Magazine for the month of 
May, 1778 (vol. xlviii. p. 209.), is a communica- 
tion (signed Rowland Rouse) in answer to a 
query similar to the present, put to the editor of 
that publication in July, 1775, which had not be- 
fore received any reply. That communication 
contains some remarks upon the subject of mitres, 
illustrated by six wood engravings, exhibiting 
their various shapes and forms, and giving the 
authorities from which they were taken. 

The illustrations are, 

No. I. The mitre of Simon Langham, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, from his tomb, anno 1376. 

No. II. That of Archbishop Cranmer (who 
died 1558), in Thoroton's Antiquities of Notting- 
hamshire, fol., printed in 1677. 

No. III. That of Archbishop Juxon, who died 
in 1663, from a window in Gray's Inn Hallf with 
the date 1663 under it. In another compart- 
ment of the same window, the writer adds, were 
the arms of John Williams Bishop of Lincoln, and 
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal to King James J 
with a mitre of the very same character, and orna- 
mented in the same form and fashion as those 
of the two last- mentioned Archbishops, viz. Cran- 
mer and Juxon, none of them having the coro- 
net. 

No. IV. The mitre of Archbishop Gilbert 
Sheldon, which Mr. Rouse esteems a great curio- 
sity as being the first instance he had met with of 
a specific difference between the mitre of an Arch- 
bishop and that of a Bishop : it was placed over 
the arms of Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, by that very able and judicious 
Herald Francis Sandford, Lancaster Herald, in his 
dedication to him, the Archbishop, of his fine print 
of the chapel and monument of King Henry VII., 
etched by Holler in 1655. He observes that 
this mitre rises from a coronet composed of the 
circulus aureus heightened up with pyramidical 
points or rays, on the top of each of which is a 
pearl. 

This seems to be an instance, and the first of a 

* Mr. Pegge's dissertation is dedicated to Archbishop 
Cornwallis, and on the top of the page is a shield of his 
arms, viz. the See of Canterbury impaling Cornwallis, and 
surmounted with a mitre in the ducal coronet. 

t Dugdale's Oriqines Judiciates. fol. 1671, p. 303. 

J Ib. 302. 

Genealogical History, fol. 1677, pp. 439. 442. 



deviation from the usual mode of depicting the 
mitre, and that on a plate bearing upon the face 
of it the sanction of Lancaster Herald, though it 
is no evidence that the mitre was so used by 
Archbishop Sheldon, to whose funeral certificate, 
as already remarked, the usual mitre was attached 
by Sir William Dugdale twenty years afterwards. 
It may have been the act of the engraver, and not 
that of Sandford. 

Mr. Rouse calls the coronet a Celestial Crown 
(but it is more of an Earl's coronet), and says he 
finds it not many years after changed for a mar- 
quis's coronet, citing the instance of the mitre at- 
tributed to Bancroft. 

No. V. That of Archbishop Sancroft placed 
over his effigies about the time of the Revolution, 
in R. White's print of the Archbishop and six 
Bishops, his colleagues (over each of whom there 
is a plain mitre only), who were committed to the 
Tower for not ordering the declaration of King 
James for liberty of conscience to be read in their 
respective dioceses. The same form of mitre was 
placed by the same R. White over the arms of 
Archbishop Tillotson (Bancroft's successor) in a 
print of him prefixed to a folio volume of his 
Sermons ; but on an octavo edition of Tillotson's 
Sermons, published in 1701, he places a mitre in 
no wise distinguished from that of the ordinary 
mitre of a Bishop, and resembling that of Cranmer, 
No. II. 

In 1730 the Marquis's Coronet seems to have 
yielded to the Ducal Coronet, as in the illus- 
tration, 

No. VI. That of Archbishop Wake, whose 
mitre rises from the Ducal Coronet upon the 
authority quoted of a work entitled The British 
Compendium (Lond. 12mo. 1731) ; and this pro- 
bably induced the remark of Mr. Pegge, that the 
practice was then lately introduced. The same 
authority ascribes a similar rnitre as surmounting 
the arms of Lancelot Blackburn, Archbishop of 
York. 

With the exception of the instance of the mitre 
ascribed by Sandford to Archbishop Sheldon, the 
authorities cited cannot be said to have any of- 
ficial import, but rest upon the acts of engravers 
and persons having no cognizance of the subject, 
and therefore not to afford any authority for the 
practice which subsequently, and has now for 
many years, prevailed with the Archbishops. 

It would seem from these remarks that theirs* 
variation in the usa^e of the initre, by the intro- 
duction of a coronet, is in the case of Archbishop 
Sheldon, in a plate dedicated to him by Francis 
Sandford, Lancaster Herald, which is certainly 
a singular circumstance when adverting to the 
funeral certificate of Archbishop Sheldon, re- 
corded in 1677, where the mitre is without. 
Holler's print was etched in 1655 ; and although 
the dedication of the plate bears the initials of 



2 d S. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Sandford, it is by no means certain that he had 
any supervision in the engraving of the arms, 
since the coronet is evidently fanciful in this in- 
stance, and it was not until years after that the 
Ducal Coronet made its appearance. 

It may be said that down to the Restoration 
there was no difference in the mitres worn, or 
surmounting the armorial ensigns of the Sees of 
the Archbishops and Bishops, with the exception 
of Durham. 

That about the year 1688 Sancroft (who was 
consecrated 27 January, 1677-8, in Westminster 
Abbey, and deprived 1 February, 1690-1) has 
ascribed to his mitre the Marquis's Coronet in a 
print by White, and the Ducal Coronet is ascribed 
to that of Archbishops Wake and Blackburn in 
1730. 

That since 1730 the assumption seems to have 
established itself, and continued to the present 
day ; but nothing like a grant or legal authority 
is to be found for so using the mitre out of a Ducal 
Coronet. 

It has been hinted that the style of " Grace " 
given to the Archbishops, being that given to 
Dukes, may have afforded the suggestion of 
adding the ducal coronet to the mitre. 

In the Lambeth Library is a MS., No. 555., a 
small 4to. bound in calf, containing the arms of 
the respective Prelates of the See of Canterbury 
from the time of Lanfranc to that of Dr. John 
Moore, who died in January, 1805. The arms 
are illuminated on vellum, and surmounted by a 
mitre. 

From the commencement down to the bearing 
of Thos. Herring, Archbishop in 1747, and who 
died 1757, the character of the mitres are similar, 
and in no instance does the mitre appear with a 
ducal coronet. The arms of Herring are followed 
by those of Mathew Hutton, translated from the 
See of York to the See of Canterbury in 1757, 
and his coat is the first surmounted with a mitre 
within the ducal coronet. From that time to the 
succession of Moore, translated from Bangor in 
1783, which is the last in the MS., the mitre ap- 
pears within the ducal coronet. 

In the great window in Juxon's Hall, now the 
library, are the arms of various Prelates since the 
Restoration : some of modern date have the mitre 
out of coronets, which in some instances resemble 
more those of a marquis or foreign count. They 
have been executed by artists without reference 
to accuracy. The bearing, however, of the mitre 
out of a ducal coronet seems to have been adopted 
without variation since the elevation of Hutton to 
the See of Canterbury in 1757. These remarks 
are made more in reference to the mode of bear- 
ing the mitre by the Archbishops of Canterbury, 
though I am not aware of any deviation by the 
Prelates of the See of York since the time of 
Archbishop Blackburn, but have not made that 



rigid inquiry into the subject as in the case of 
Canterbury. G. 



BUNYAN PEDIGREE. 
(1 st S. ix.223.; xii.491.; 2 nd S. i. 81. 170. 234.) 

George Bunyan (1.) married Mary Haywood 
(2.) at St. Nicholas church, Nottingham, 1754, 
and had children : (3.) Thomas, 1755 ; (4.) Ann, 
1756; (5.) George, 1758; (6.) Mary, 1760; (7.) 
Mary, 1762 ; (8.) Elizabeth, 1763 ; (9.) William, 
U64 ; (10.) Sarah, 1765 ; (11.) William and (12.) 
George, 1766; (13.) Amelia, 1767. ^ 

(3.) Thomas, Bombardier, married Mather, 
no children ; burgess list, Nottingham, hosier, 
1776. (4.) Died near London, at Godmaster (?) ; 
(5.) died young ; (6.) died 1761 ; (7.) married 
Mr. Sanigear, cashier in Bank of England, died 
Dec. 11, 1856. The portrait of John Bunyan, 
formerly in her possession (" N. & Q.," 2 nd S. i. 
81.), is now the property of Mr. Wilkinson, Clin- 
ton Street, Nottingham. (8.) Married Thomas 
Pinder, shoemaker, and had children : George, 
Thomas, Catherine, and Mary. (9.) Died young. 
(10.), (11.), and (12.), died when babies. (13.) 
Married Thomas Bradley, 1792, and had children : 
George, Ann, and Thomas ; died 1858. 

From (13.) mainly I learnt, among others, these 
particulars: Her father was born at Elstow 
(this was said doubtfully), and his marriage dis- 
pleased Mary Haywood's father, who called him 
" the tinker," and made him go to church ; but 
he used to say, " This morning I have had milk 
and water, this afternoon I will have some strong 
drink;" and used to go to the meeting-house. 
But after the birth of Thomas, (2.) was never 
called the tinker's wife. (This is probably the 
foundation of the report that a son of John Bun- 
yan married a woman of property in Nottingham, 
and had to abjure his sect.) 

(1.) got into debt in consequence of his politics, 
and was by Lord Howe made Inspector of Stores 
in Philadelphia on approval. He there died of 
fever (there is another story), when (13.) was 
about twelve or thirteen years old. This would 
be about the time of the occupation of Phila- 
delphia by the British, and UNEDA could probably 
make some discovery on the point. 

(1.) had a brother, Capt. Wm. Bunyan, drowned 
at sea : his wife Elizabeth lies in St. Mary's 
chancel. Nottingham burgess list : Wm. Bunyan, 
Lieutenant in the Navy, 1767. Bunyan, Capt. 
William, as well as his brother George, voted for 
Hon. William Howe, 1774. Perhaps some naval 
book-worm could help me to farther information. 

(1.) had a sister Catharine, a maiden lady, 
whom he fetched from Bedford, and settled as 
milliner in Nottingham : a sister or other near 
relation, Susanna, who came from Bedford on 



70 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2 n * S. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 



visits, and afterwards kept school at Stamford, 
and died there. Catherine died at Matlock. 

(13.) had a Josephus, which Mr. Mawkes, for- 
merly curate of Ockbrook, took in exchange for 
another book : in it was written : " The gift of 
Catherine Bunyan to Ann Bunyan ;" " Catherine 
Bunyan, the gift of her honoured father." She 
thought the name should have been supplied as 
John. S. F. CHESWELL. 

School House, Tunbridge, Kent. 



DONNELLAN LECTURES. 
(2 nd S. viii. 442.) 

The following is a complete list of the Donnel- 
lan Lecturers, and of the subject of their lec- 
tures : 

1794. Thomas Elrington, D.D. "The Proof of Chris- 
tianity derived from the Miracles recorded in the New 
Testament." Published. 

1795. Richard Graves, D.D. "That the Progress of 
Christianity has been such as to confirm its Divine Ori- 
ginal." Not published. 

1796. Robert Burrowes, D.D. George Millar, D.D. 
(in room of Dr. Burrowes resigned) " An Inquiry into the 
Causes that have impeded the further Progress of Chris- 
tianity." Not published. 

1797. Richard Graves, D.D. "The Divme Origin of 
the Jewish Religion, proved from the internal Evidence 
of the last Four Books of the Pentateuch." Published. 

1798. William Magee, D.D. "The Prophecies relat- 
ing to the Messiah." Not published. 

1799. John Ussher, A.M. John Walker, A.M. (in room 
of Mr. Ussher, resigned). 

1800. William Magee, D.D. "The Prophecies relating 
to the Messiah." 

1801. Richard Graves, D.D. "The Divine Origin of 
the, Jewish Religion, demonstrated chiefly from the inter- 
nal Evidence furnished by the last Four Books of the 
Pentateuch." Published. 

1802. Joseph Stopford, D.D. 
1803-6. (No appointment.) 

1807. Bartholomew Lloyd, D.D. "The Providential 
Adaptation of the Natural to the Moral Condition of Man 
as a fallen Creature." Not published. 

1808. (No appointment.) 

1809. Richard H. Nash, D.D. "The Liturgy of the 
Church of England is conformable to the Spirit of the 
Primitive Christian Church, and is well adapted to pro- 
mote true Devotion." Not published. 

1810-14. (No appointment). 

1815-16. Franc Sadleir, D.D. "The various Degrees 
of Religious Information vouchsafed to Mankind, were 
such as were best suited to their Moral State at the pecu- 
liar Period of each Dispensation." Published. 

1817. (No appointment.) 

1818. William Phelan, A.M. "Christianity provides 
suitable Correctives for those Tendencies to Polytheism 
and Idolatry which seem to be intimately interwoven 
with Human Nature." Published in Phelan's Remains, 
London, 1832. 

1819. Charles R. Elrington, D.D. " The Doctrine of 
Regeneration according to the Scriptures and the Church 
of England." Not published. 

1820. (No appointment.) 

1821. James Kennedy-Bailie, B.D. 

1822. Franc Sadleir, D.D. "The Formulas of the 



Church of England conformable to the Scriptures." Pub- 
lished. 

1823. James Kennedy-Bailie, B.D. " The Researches 
of Modern Science tend to demonstrate the Inspiration of 
the Writers of Scripture, particularly as applied to the 
Mosaic Records." Published. 

1824-26. (No appointment.) 

1827-32. Franc Sadleir, D.D. " The Socinian Contro- 
versy." Not published. 

1833-34. (No appointment.) 

1835-37. Joseph Henderson Singer, D.D. 

1838. James Henthorn Todd, D.D. " Discourse on the 
Prophecies relating to Antichrist in the Writings of 
Daniel and St. Paul." Published. 

1839-41. James Henthorn Todd, D.D. "Six Dis- 
courses on the Prophecies relating to Antichrist in the 
Apocalypse of St. John." Published. 

1842. William Digby Sadleir, D.D. 

1843-47. James Henthorn Todd, D.D. 

1848-49. Samuel Butcher, D.D. "On the Names of 
the Divine Being in Holy Scripture." Not published. 

1850. (No appointment.) 

1851. Mortimer O'Sullivan, D.D. "The Hour of the 
Redeemer." Published. 

1852. Wjlliam Lee, D.D. " The Inspiration of Holy 
Scripture, its Nature and Proof." Published. 

1853. William De Burgh, D.D. " The early Prophe- 
cies of a Redeemer, from the First Promise to the Pro- 
phecy of Moses." Published. 

1854. Charles Parsons Reichel, B.D. " On the Chris- 
tian Church." Not published. 

1855. James Byrne, A.M. "Six Discourses on Na- 
turalism and Spiritualism." Published. 

1856. James Mac Ivor, D.D. " Religious Progression." 
Not published. 

1857. John Cotter Mac Donnell, B.D. " The Doctrine 
of the Atonement, deduced from Scripture, and vindi- 
cated from Misrepresentation and Objections." 

1858. James Wills, B.D. Lectures not published. 

1859. James Mac Ivor, D.D. " Religious Progression." 
Not published. 



Dublin. 



THE "INCIDENT IN 'THE '15.' " (2 nd S. viii. 409. 
445.) General Wightman's seizure of Lady 
Seaforth's coach and horses made some noise at the 
time. Thus Baillie, writing from Inverness on the 
30th March, 1716, to Duncan Forbes, says : 

" General Wightman hath taken six coach horse with 
coach and shaes of Seafort the coach is sent on board 
one of the ship's . . . Some say here that it would have 
been better service to have taken the guns and the swords 
from the rebels than Seafort's coach ; but G. W. is fond 
of the bonny coach and fine horses." 

We might infer from this that the seizure 
was a self- appropriation, and the probability is 
strengthened by another seizure. 

Hosack, in a letter to Forbes, tells him that 
Fraserdale's chamberlain gave Lord Lovat " some 
information about Fraserdale's plate; and Lord 
Lovat as he was going to Ruthven demanded it 
of Provost Clerk ; but he positively refused him, 
and I believe there happened some hott words. 
Afterward Lovat in his passion dropt something 
of it to Wightman ; who, when Lovat was gone, 
by arreast and threatenings of prison, procured 



2** S. IX. JAK. 28. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



71 



the plate from the Provost. I do not know yet 
what Cadogan may do in it, but Wightman did 
not make the prize for Lovat." Lovat and Fra- 
serdale both claimed to be head of the clan : 
Fraser, a Mackenzie, as having married the heir- 
ess, a daughter of the late Lord, and Lovat as his 
heir male. Lovat's loyalty, I suspect, rested on 
the fact that Fraserdale was of the adverse fac- 
tion. Baillie, writing to Forbes, says : 

" I am pretty well informed that it is not above 150 

pounds in value; also I may observe that G *- W n 

keeps well what he takes." 

Hosack reports the results on the 10th April : 

" I hear Gen 1 Cadogan has made Lovat a present of 
his half of Fraserdale's plate, and that he has compounded 
for the other half \v h Wightman." 

This is confirmed by a letter from Lovat. 

T. 1. 1. 

DR. SHELTON MACKENZIE (2 nd S.viii. 169.235. 
258.) Thinking it possible that Dr. Mackenzie 
had not seen the above references to himself in 
" N. & Q.," I lately drew his attention to the sub- 
ject, in order that he might have the opportunity 
of clearing up the difficulty. I have just received 
his reply, dated " Philadelphia, Dec. 26th, 1859 ;" 
and from it make the following extract : 

" I have just looked over the ' Life of Maginn,' prefixed 
to the 5 volume edition of Mtuff tin's Miscellanies, and find 
that it does not contain a word, in its 100 pages, of Ma- 
ginn's having helped Ainsworth, in prose or verse. But 
I do find, in a previous biography which I wrote for vol. 
v. of my edition of Noctes Ambrosiance, that (on the au- 
thority of the Maginn biography written by Keiiealy, in 
the Dublin University Magazine), I have said, ' Most of 
the flash songs, and nearly the whole of Turpin's " Ride 
to York " in Rookwood, were written by Maginn.' I dare 
say that, when writing the enlarged and more elaborate 
Memoir for the Miscellanies, 1 doubted the fact, and 
therefore omitted it. Maginn, among other reasons, did 
not know the country between London and York; but 
Ainsworth did. 

" An account of my death did appear, Nov. 1854, not 
in New York, but in the London Times." 

I may add to the above, that Dr. Mackenzie is 
now the "literary" editor of the Philadelphia 
Press, a leading democratic, anti-administration 
paper, published in the city whose name it bears. 

R. T. 

Albany, N. Y., Dec. 27. 

HYMNS (2 nd S. viii. 512.) "Lo! he comes 
with clouds descending," claims for its author 
Charles Wesley, and is to be found in his hymns 
of Intercession for all Mankind, 1758. Thomas 
Olivers composed the tune to it only. " Great 
God ! what do I see and hear ; " the first verse by 
Ringwald, the remaining three by W. B. Collyer, 
D.D. The remaining two hymns seem to be 
piecemeal compositions, of which most of the 
modern compilations consist, especially Mercer's. 

DANIEL SEDGWICK. 
Sun Street, City. 



SONG OF THE DOUGLAS (2 nd S. v.. 169. 226. 
245.) MR. Girps may be glad to learn, even 
two years after his inquiry, that, if an article in 
the Spectator of the 24th Dec. 1859, may be be- 
lieved, the song of which he quotes some lines is a 
modern production, written by the authoress of 
the Life of John Halifax, who has lately published 
this with other poetical pieces. The Spectator 
gives the poem as follows : 

" Could ye come back to me, Douglas, Douglas, 

In the old likeness that I knew, 
I'd be so faithful, so loving, Douglas ! 
Douglas, Douglas, tender and true. 
" Never a scornful word should grieve ye, 
I'd smile on ye sweet as the angels do, 
Sweet as your smile on me shone ever, 
Douglas, Douglas, tender and true. 

" to call back the days that are past ! 

My eyes were blinded, your words were few ; 
Do you know the truth now up in heaven, 
Douglas, Douglas, tender and true ? 

" I never was worthy of you, Douglas, 

Not half worthy the like of you. 
Now all men seem to me shadows ; 
And I love only you, Douglas, tender and true. 

" Stretch out your hands to me, Douglas, 

Drop forgiveness from Heaven like dew, 
As I lay my heart on your dead heart, Douglas, 
Douglas, Douglas, tender and true." 

These fervent lines require not the accessory 
charm of being linked to an old legendary verse 
with which they appear to have no connexion. 
They are the outpourings of the heart of a too 
scornful maiden, who, having hastily refused an 
offer from a suitor, finds, after his death, that she 
had really loved him, and had not intended to be 
taken at her word. 

The question still remains whether the single 
line in Holland's Howlet is original, or quoted 
there from some earlier poem. STTLITES. 

WRECK OF THE DUNBAR (2 nd S. viii. 414.) 
The Dunbar was not wrecked entering Melbourne, 
but at a very short distance from the South 
Head at the entrance of Port Jackson (Sydney 
Harbour, Kew South Wales), at a place well 
known as The Gap. The unhappy event was 
caused by an error of judgment in mistaking The 
Gap for the entrance to the Harbour. 

Lloyd's agent at Sydney, or Messrs. J. Fairfax 
& Sons, the respected proprietors of the prin- 
cipal newspaper there, The Sydney Morning 
Herald, would doubtless assist your correspondent 
in carrying out his praiseworthy intentions. 

The man saved was, I believe, a sailor, and his 
rescuer probably a man belonging to one of the 
Sydney Head pilot boats. 

Reference to Deacon's files of newspapers from 
the colony about the date referred to would en- 
able your correspondent to obtain the information 
he seeks. W. STONES. 

Blackheath. 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 



OTHOBON!S CONSTITUTIONS (2 nd S. viii. 532.) 
Perhaps it may not be amiss to add that Otho- 
bonus was afterwards Pope, under the title of 
Adrian V. His reign, however, was very short, 
as he died one month and nine days after his 
election, and before episcopal consecration. Some 
years before the Council of London over which 
he presided, that is circa an. 1252, he had been, 
although a Genoese, Archdeacon of Canterbury. 
He was well qualified, therefore, from his know- 
ledge of the state of the English church, to direct 
and control the deliberations of the Synod. It 
is of some interest to know what popes had, pre- 
viously to their wearing the tiara, held church 
preferment in England. There was one, for in- 
stance, who was Bishop of Worcester ; at least, 
appointed Administrator of the Diocese by a Bull 
dated 31 July, 1521. This was Cardinal Julianus 
de Medicis, afterwards Clement VII. 

If your correspondent will consult the Oxford 
edition of Lyndwood's Provincial, an. 1679, he 
will not only find the Constitutions of Othobonus 
annexed, but a very copious glossa by John de 
Athona, alias John Acton. I have often mar- 
velled why that same edition should have re- 
ceived the University " imprimatur ; " for, al- 
though there are undoubtedly many things suited 
to the present state of things in England, yet a 
great part as to doctrine, and a greater part as to 
discipline, is applicable only to the times pre- 
ceding the separation from Rome. Some things, 
indeed, there are which not one of us, whether he 
belongs to Rome or Canterbury, considers binding. 
For example, what should we say of the following 
strict injunction of one of the Constitutions of 
Othobonus, " De habitu Clericorum ? " 

" Statuimus et district^ precipitous, ut Clerici universi 
vestes gerant non brevitate nimia ridiculosas et notandas, 
sed saltern ultra tibiarum medium attingentes, aures 
quoque patentes, crinibus non coopertas. et Coronas ha- 
beant probandfi latitudine condecentes .... Nee, nisi in 
itinere constituti, unquam aut in ecclesiis, vel coram Prae- 
latis suis, aut in conspectu communi hominum, publice 
infulas suas (vulgo Coyphas vocant) portare aliquatenus 
audeant vel praesumant. Qui autem in Sacerdotio sunt, 
qui etiam sunt Decani aut Archidiaconi, necnon omnes in 
Dignitatibus constituti Curam animarum habentibus, 
Cappas clausas deferant." 

JOHN WILLIAMS. 

Arno's Court. 

SYMPATHETIC SNAILS (2 ud S. viii. 503.) I 
remember reading on this subject a series of com- 
munications which appeared in La Presse, a Paris 
newspaper, a few years since. I am unable to 
state the precise time, but think it was between 
the years 1852 and 1856. J. MACBAY. 

SCOTCH CLERGY DEPRIVED IN 1689 (2 nd S. viii. 
329. 538.) To the works mentioned by B. W. 
add Lawson's History of the Scottish Episcopal 
Church from the Revolution to the present Time, 
8vo. Edinb. 1842. J. MACRAY. 



CURIOUS MARRIAGE (2 nd S. viii. 396.) Such 
public notifications as those mentioned by MR. 
REDMOND were also customary in Scotland, as in 
the following instances : 

" Last week Mr. Graham, younger, of Dongalston, was 
married to Miss Campbell of Skirving, a beautiful and 
virtuous young lady." Glasgow Courant (Newspaper), 
Feb. 9, 1747. 

" On Monda}' last, Dr. Robert Hamilton, Professor of 
Anatomy and Botany in the University of Glasgow, to 
Miss Mally Baird, a beautiful young la^dy with a hand- 
some fortune." Ibid., May 4, 1747. 

" On Monday last, Mr. James Johnstone, Merchant in 
this place, was married to Miss Peggy Newall, a young 
ladv of great merit, and a fortune of 4000Z." Ibid., Aug. 
3, 1747. 

An anecdote is current of an old Glasgow shop- 
keeper who announced a large portion to each of his 
daughters in the event of their marriage. The bait 
took rapidly, but when it came to the paying part 
of the business, he pled as his apology for non- 
performance an inadvertency in having at that 
time added the "year of God" into the balance 
sheet of his property as pounds sterling. G. N. 

HOLDING UP THE HAND (2 nd S. viii. 501.) The 
mode of making an affirmation, which MR. BOYS 
says " is the oldest form of an oath recorded in 
the Bible," is still practised in the United States 
of America. The Members of Congress, when 
they qualify for that office, are asked whether they 
will swear or affirm their loyalty to the constitu- 
tion and the laws of the country. Those who 
swear, take the oaths in the English form ; those 
who affirm, hold up the right hand, and bow in 
assent, when the Speaker has repeated what they 
are required to affirm. False affirmation is sub- 
jected to the same penalties as perjury, and no 
distinction is made in any of the courts of law be- 
tween evidence taken either by oath or affirma- 
tion. The President of the United States is 
allowed to affirm if he chooses, instead of taking 
the oath in the accustomed form, when he is in* 
ducted into office. PISHEY THOMPSON. 

Stoke Newington. 

DERIVATION OF RIP, " A RAKE OR LIBER- 
TINE " (2 nd S. viii. 493.) This is a terminal ab- 
breviation (like 'bus from omnibus) of a word of 
reproach very commonly used in the last century, 
viz. demi-rep, meaning a person with half a repu- 
tation. It may be classed with another slang 
term current about the same time, a detni- 
fortune, which was applied to a carriage drawn by 
a single horse, long before the brougham was 
invented, or found so generally useful. J. G. N. 

" MY EYE AND BETTY MARTIN " (2 nd S. viii. 491 .) 
The only origin I have ever heard ascribed to 
this phrase is, that it is derived from a monkish 
form of expression, " Mihi et Beati Martini" In 
the same spirit I have heard the expression, 
" Lets sing old Rose, and burn the bellows" de- 



S. IX. JAN. 28. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



73 



rived from a schoolboy's merry shout on the 
arrival of the holidays, " Let's singe old Hose and 
burn libellos"- meaning, " let us singe the mas- 
ter's wig, and burn our books : " this, of course, 
would only apply when the master's name was 
Rose. These expressions, so widely spread 
through the length and breadth of England, cer- 
tainly had an origin in something. I shall like to 
receive others than those I have thus only half 
in earnest ascribed to them. PISHEY THOMPSON. 

Stoke Newington. 

NATHANIEL WARD (1 st S. ix. 517.; 2 nd S. v. 
319. ; viii. 46. 76.) Since writing our former 
letter respecting the loyal rector of Staindrop, our 
attention has been drawn to the circumstance 
that your correspondent Socius DUNELM (2 nd S. 
v. 319.) attributes to him the address prefixed to 
Samuel Ward's Jethro's Justice of Peace, 1627. 
We take it, however, to be clear that that address 
was written by another Nathaniel Ward, who was 
of Emmanuel College; B. A. 1599, M.A. 1603. He 
was preacher at S. James's, Duke Place, London ; 
afterwards beneficed in Essex, and died 1653. 
As to him see Brook's Lives of the Puritans, iii. 
182. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

FAMILY OF CONST ANTINE (2 nd S. viii. 531.) 
I conceive that your querist J. F. C. alludes to a 
family whose pedigree, &c., is given 1h Hutchins' 
Dorset, to which work I would refer him for full 
particulars. 

William Constantine of Merly was born 1612 ; 
educated and reader at the Middle Temple ; was 
Recorder of Dorchester and Poole, and knighted 
1668. His son Harry (by his first marriage) was 
born 1642, and died 1712, having sold Merly to 
Ash of , county Wilts, who in 1752 disposed 
of it to Ralph Willett, proprietor of a large estate 
at St. Christophers, W. I. 

Monuments of the Constantine family are to be 
seen in the minster church of Wimborne. 

Hutchins' History and Antiquities of the County 
of Dorset was originally published in 1774, a new 
edition of which is about to be brought out by 
Mr. Shipp, bookseller, Blandford, who would be 
glad to receive corrections and additions from au- 
thentic sources. WILLETT L. ADYE. 

Merly House, Dorset. 

KING JAMES'S HOUNDS (2 nd S. viii. 494.) Per- 
sons unaccustomed to old manuscripts are very apt 
to mistake the contraction ^ for an e, and conse- 
quently to read hoiunde for "howndes," as is twice 
done in the extracts from the churchwardens' ac- 
counts of Bray here printed. It is also necessary 
to the uninitiated to explain that prepte means 
"precept:" precepts were issued by the justices, 
at the motion of the royal purveyors, to furnish 
the king's and the prince's hounds with their re- 
quisite provender. J. G. N. 



LONGEVITY or CLERICAL INCUMBENTS (2 nd S. 
ix. 8.) Besides the instance of clerical longevity 

S'ven by your correspondent in the case of the 
ev. 'John Lewis, late rector of Ingatestone in, 
the county of Essex, other instances can be given 
occurring in the same county, and not very 
far from Ingatestone. The parish of Stondon 
Massey, distant about six miles from Ingatestone, 
affords a remarkable instance, as it had only two 
rectors during a period of 106. years, viz., the 
Rev. Thomas Smith, who was presented to the 
living in 1735, and died in 1791, when he was 
succeeded by the Rev. John Oldham, who died 
in 1841. Apropos to this subject is the following 
extract from the volume of the Gentleman s Mag' 
azine for 1791 : 

" On January 19th, 1791, died the Kev. Thomas Smith, 
Rector of Stondon Massey, Essex. He was one of the 
five rectors of the five adjoining parishes, whose united 
ages amounted to more than four hundred years. The 
others were Harris ofGrensted, Henshaw of High Ongar, 
Salisbury of Moreton, Kippax of Doddinghurst." 

At the present day, the parish of Kelvedon 
Hatch, in the same county, has only had three 
rectors in a century, viz. the Rev. John Cookson, 
who was presented to the living in 1760 ; he died 
in 1798, and was succeeded by the Rev. Ambrose 
Serle, on whose death, in 1832, the Rev. John 
Banister, the present highly esteemed and uni- 
versally respected rector, was inducted into the 
living. A SUBSCRIBER. 

THE ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH HALF A CENTURY 
AGO (2 nd S. ix. 26.) In reply to A. A., I beg to 
say that, putting aside 1he anticipations of the 
electric telegraph, which were numerous and 
curious, Stephen Gray, a pensioner of the Charter 
House in 1729, made electric signals through a 
wire 765 feet long, suspended by silk threads. 
Franklin's experiments (1748) and those of Ca- 
vallo (1770) left electric telegraphy where they 
found it. The first instrument that can be called 
a telegraph was made by Mr. J. R. Sharpe, of 
Doe Hill, near Alfreton, in 1813. This employed 
the newly discovered voltaic electricity ; and thus 
forms an epoch in the art of electric telegraphy. 
M. Simmering, also, in 1814, made a voltaic 
electric telegraph. In the mean time, however, 
the experiments of Mr. Ronalds, near Hammer- 
smith, had been commenced ; and in 1816, that 
gentleman constructed his telegraph, which was 
a most simple and ingenious contrivance, but -con- 
tained one element of failure, for long distances, 
viz. the employment of frictional electricity. To 
him, however, belongs the merit of some of the 
mechanical details adopted in modern telegraphs.* 
He was, I believe, the uncle of Dr. Donaldson of 
Cambridge. CLAMMILD. 

Athenseum Club. 



* See Descriptions of an Electric Telegraph, and of 
borne other Electrical Apparatus. 8vo. London. 1823. 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. JAN. 28. '60. 



NOTES ON BOOKS. 

Hamlet by William Shakespeare, 1603; Hamlet by 
William Shakespeare, 1604. Being exact Reprints of the 
First and Second Editions of Shakespeare's Great Drama 
from ihe very rare Originals in the Possession of his Grace 
the Duke of Devonshire, with the TWO Texts printed on 

Eite Pages, and so arranged that the Parallel Passages 
'.ach other. And a Bibliographical Preface, l>y Samuel 
nins. (Sampson Low.) 

It may be a question whether the first and second edi- 
tions of Hamlet are most to be prized for their rarity or 
their literary value, as illustrating the progress of the 
great workman by whom this wondrous drama was 
fashioned. The forty admirable facsimiles produced by 
the liberality of the Duke of Devonshire, under the super- 
intendence of Mr. J. P. Collier, and as liberally presented 
to various public libraries and known Shakspeare stu- 
dents, served apparently but to stimulate a desire on the 
part of a larger public 'for the opportunity of comparing 
the two editions. This they ai-e now enabled to do in a 
most satisfactory manner for fewer pence than the ori- 
ginals are worth pounds, thanks to the typographical 
skill of Mr. Allen, Jun., of Birmingham, and to the edi- 
torial supervision of Mr. Timmins. 

A. History, Military and Municipal, of the Ancient 
Borough of Devizes, and, subordinately, of ihe entire Hun- 
dred of Potterne and Cannings in which it is included. 

This is obviously the work of a Devizes man, and in 
the eyes of the inhabitants of Devizes we doubt not it 
will find great favour. The author has avoided the fault 
of making his book a mere mass of dry names and dates, 
but he has fallen into another mistake, that of not con- 
fining his book to the proper subject of it, and it is 
almost as much occupied with the history of England 
generally as of Devizes in particular. This will, how- 
ever, make the History of Devizes more acceptable to the 
general reader. 

An Analysis of Ancient Domestic Architecture m Great 
Britain. By F. T. Dollman and J. R. Jobbins. (Mas- 
ters.) 

The examples in the present work are extremely well 
chosen, and the elevations and details are drawn to a 
larger scale than usual, with a view to supply an archi- 
tectural want that has long been experienced both by 
students and professors. The work bids fair to be one of 
great usefulness to all who are interested in the study of 
our ancient domestic architecture. 

Although the Quarterly Review just issued (No. 213.) 
contains only seven articles, it will be found a varied and 
amusing number. The first paper on The Australian 
Colonies and the Gold Supply is obviously written by one 
who is master of the subject. Cotton Machines and their 
Inventors is an interesting sketch of the rise of what is 
now one of our most important branches of industry. 
China and the War gives a good sketch of recent pro- 
ceedings in that country, and of the course to be pursued 
hereafter. Religious Revivals is a temperate and well- 
considered article. The Roman Wall in Northumberland 
will please the antiquary and scholar; and a masterly 
sketch of the Life and Works of Cowper will please all 
readers. The last article, Reform Schemes, is the only 
really political article in The Quarterly, and shall we 
confess the truth ? we have not yet read it. 

BOOKS RECEIVED 

Brief Sketches of Booterstown and Donnybrook. By the 
Rev. B. H. Blacker. (Herbert, Dublin.) 

A carefully compiled little volume, relating briefly the 
annals of the Fair- renowned Donnybrook. 



Memoirs, Journal, and Correspondence of Thomas Moore. 
Edited and abridged from the First Edition by the Right 
Hon. Lord John Russell. People's Edition. To be com- 
pleted in Ten Parts. (Longman & Co.) 

It is difficult to believe that cheap publishing can go 
bej'ond this an edition of Moore's Memoirs and Journals* 
with Eight Portraits, for Ten Shillings. 

Routledge's Illustrated Natural History. By the Rev. 
J. G. Wood. (Routledge.) 

This capital popular Natural History improves as it 
proceeds. This Tenth Part exceeds in beauty and in- 
terest any of those which have preceded it. 

DR. HICKES' MANUSCRIPTS. 

A painful rumour has been the topic of conversation in 
literary circles during the past week. It appears that 
three large chests full of manuscripts, left by the cele- 
brated Dr. George Hickes, the deprived Dean of Wor- 
cester, were consigned to the custody of his bankers after 
his decease. Owing to the dissolution of the firm, the 
premises have been lately cleared out, and the whole of 
these valuable documents committed to the flames in one 
of the furnaces at the New River Head ! Here is a loss, 
not only to the ecclesiastical student who wishes to form 
an impartial judgment on the history of the English 
Church at the eventful period of the Revolution ; but of 
papers illustrative of the biographical and literary history 
of the close of the seventeenth century. For it is well 
known that Dr. Hickes was a person of such political, 
ecclesiastical, and literary eminence in his time, that he 
was in daily correspondence with the most learned men 
at home and abroad. It is melancholy to contemplate 
the loss literature has sustained when we consider that 
Dugdale, Gibson, Nioolson, Elstob, Robert Harley, Earl 
of Oxford, \^fcnle3% Pepys, Kettlewell, Jeremy Collier, 
Dodwell, and his bosom friend the pious Robert Nelson, 
were among his correspondents. Dr. Hickes died on Dec. 
15, 1715. Mr. Thomas Bowdler was his executor, and Mr. 
Annesley the overseer of his will. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentleman by whom they are required, and whose name and address 
are given below. 

J. J. GRosLEy, A Toun IN LONDON, &c., translated from the French. 2 

Vols. 8vo. 1772. 

F. A. WENDEBORN, VIEW OP ENGLAND TOWARDS THE CLOSE OF THE 

18xH CENTUKT, translated by the author himself. 2 Vols. 8vo. 1 790-'J. 

Wanted by Mr. Jos. Thorne, 11. Forteaa Terrace, Kentish town, N.W. 



MUNCHACSEN'S TRAVELS. Mr. Philips will find no less than seven arti- 
cles on this subject in our 1st Series. 

J. H. (Glasgow"). Has not our correspondent misunderstood the Arch- 
bishop, whose remarks refer only to the "first edition " o/The Directory. 

? There is no such word as Paudite. The Gibsone motto is 
" Pandite cselestes ports." 

H. B. It has never been satisfactorili/ shoivn tliat Richard Baxter was 
the author of The Heavy Shove. Our correspondent wishes to know wJio 
was the, author o/Salve for Sore Eyes, and Pins and Needles for the Un- 
godly. 

H. B. The lines on London Dissenting Ministers were printed, for the 
first time, in our 1st S. i. 454. See also pp . 383. 445. of the same volume. 

F. R. S. S. A. The reference is to the University of Marburg, a town of 
Hessen-Cassel in Germany. We believe it keeps an agency in London J or 
conferring its academical honours. 

"NOTES AND QtjKniKs" is published ctf noon on Friday, and is aho 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The subscription for STAMPED COPIES /or 
Six Months forwarded direct from the Publishers (including the Half- 
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favour of MESSRS. BELL AND DALDY ,186. FLEET STREET, E.G.; to whom 
all COMMUNICATIONS FOR THB EDITOR should be addressed. 



2 nd a IX. JAN. 28. '60.] 



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UNITED KINGDOM 

LIFE ASSURANCE COMPANY, 

No. 8. WATERLOO PLACE, PALL MALL, LONDON, 



The Funds or Property of the Company as at 31st Decem- 
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NOTES: The Lion in Greece Shakspeare and Henry 

"Willobie Amesbury Life of Mrs. Sherwood: Fictitious 

Pedigrees of Mr. Spence. 
MINOR NOTES: Henry VI. and Edward IV. Mariner's 

Compass " Walk your Chalks" Malsh The a-Becket 

Family Lord Nelson and Lady Hamilton. 

QUERIES: Radicals in European Languages Church 
Chests Rifle Pits Classical Claqueurs at Theatres 
"Thinks I to Myself" Hooper Ballad against Inclo- 
sures Robert Keith Baptismal Font in Breda Cathe- 
dral: Dutch-born Citizens of England " Antiquitates 
Britannicse et Hibernicse " Noah's Ark British Society 
of Dilettanti Acrostic Henry VII. at Lincoln in 1486 
Rev. John Genest * Hotspur Henry Constantine 
Jennings Pye-Wype. 

QTT FRIES WITH ANSWERS: "Put into Ship-shape" 
Anna Cornelia Meerman Rev. J. Plumptre's Dramas 
Rev. W. Gilpin on the Stage Quotation " The Voy- 
ages, &c. of Captain Richard Falconer" MS. Literary 
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REPLIE S : Archiepiscopal Mitre Bunyan Pedigree 
Donnellan Lectures The " Incident in the '15 ' " 
Dr. Shelton Mackenzie Hymns Song of the Doug- 
lasWreck of the Dunbar Othobon's Constitutions 
Sympathetic Snails Scotch Clergy deprived in 1689 
Curious Marriage Holding up the Hand Derivation of 
Rip, a Rake or Libertine" My Eye and Betty Martin" 
Nathaniel Ward Family of Constantine King James's 
Hounds Longevity of Clerical Incumbents The Elec- 
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NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



75 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 4. 1800. 



N. 214. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: Philip Rubens, the Brother of Sir Peter Paul 
Rubens, 75 Gowrie Conspiracy, 76 Firelock and Bayo- 
net Exercise, Ib. St. Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Here- 
ford, 77. 

MINOR NOTES : What's in a Name Fish, called Sprot 
Elizabeth Blackwell, M.D. Singhalese Folk-lore <? Could 
we with ink the ocean fill " Vise, Vised, Viseed,;Visaed 
Leighton's Pulpit, 78. 

QUERIES : A Jew Jesuit, 79 Mob Cap Naval Ballad 

" Frederic Latimer " Scottish College at Paris Trea- 
surie of Sirnilies Arms Inscription John Ffishwick 

Versiera The Sea Serjeants The Label in Heraldry 
Michael Angelo Thomas Sydenham Rev. Christopher 
Chilcott, M.A. " Bregis," &c. John Du Quesne ''The 
Black List " Meuce Family Foxe's Book of Martyrs 
Dinner Etiquette Sir Eustace or Sir Estus Smith, 79. 

QUEBIES WITH ANSWERS : Matthew Scrivener King 
David's Mother The Butler of Burf ord Priory Monkey 

Samuel Bayes Crinoline : Plon-Plon Neck Verse, 
&c. Herald quoted by Leland,82. 

REPLIES: The Hyperboreans in Italy, 84 Drummond 
of Colquhalzie, Ib. Patron Saints, 85 Bishops Elect, Ib. 
Macaulay Family, 86 The Young Pretender in Eng- 
land, Ib. Breeches Bible Bacon on Conversation 
Dr. Dan. Featly Poems by Burns Destruction of MSS. 

Origin of '* Cockney " Sir John Danvers Familiar 
Epistles on the Irish Stage Folk-lore Rev. William 
Duukin, D.D. Sana-Culottes James Anderson, D.D. 
Henry Lord Power This Day Eight Days Refreshment 
for Clergymen Lever " Modern Slang," &c. "The 
Load of Mischief" Bazels of Baiae Samuel Daniel 

Mince Pies Stakes fastened together with Lead as a 
Defence Trepasser Supervisor Hymns for the Holy 
Communion Oliver Goldsmith The Prussian Iron 
Medal The Oath of Vargas, &c., 87, 



PHILIP RUBENS, 

THE BROTHER OF SIR PETER PAUL RUBENS. 

Philip, the third son of John Rubens and Maria 
Pijpelincx*, was born at Cologne (v. Kal. May, 
1574), to which place his parents had fled from 
their native city of Antwerp. The father himself, 
a man of great erudition, took upon himself the 
education of his son Philip at home, until the boy 
had arrived at the age of twelve, when he closed 
a life of usefulness. The widow, with her chil- 
dren, returned to Antwerp ; and Philip, having 
finished his studies, entered the service of Joannes 
Richardotus, President of the Council, as his secre- 
tary, and was entrusted with the education of his 
two sons, William and Antony. He became after- 
wards the disciple and friend of the learned Jus- 
tus Lipsius, and travelled into Italy with one of 
the sons of his first patron, Richardotus. He re- 
turned thence 1604. 'It appears, moreover, that 
at one period he accepted the position of librarian 
to the Cardinal Ascanius Colonna. The Duke of 
Tuscany also invited his services, but being sum- 
moned by the senate of Antwerp to become their 
secretary, he returned to the city of his ancestors. 
Anno 1608, on the 9th of October, his mother de- 
Query, which is the correct orthography of this sur- 
name, Pypelincx, or Pijpelincx? 



parted from the world, having completed the 
seventieth year of her age. 

Philip wedded the youngest of the three daugh- 
ters of Henricus de Moy, who, within a year of 
their marriage, presented him with a daughter, 
whose name we learn from the monument was 
Clara. But in the flower of his age, and arrived 
at the summit of his ambition, being seized with 
a deadly fever, on the v. Kal. Sept. 1611, he was 
snatched from his sorrowing friends and compa- 
triots, leaving his brother, the great painter, the 
only surviving child of seven. 

Within two days, his remains were committed 
to the earth in the church of St. Michael. 

Shortly after (pridie Id. Septemb.), his widow 
gave birth to a son, to whom Nicolaus Rokoxius 
stood sponsor, and gave him at the font the name 
of his father. 

In memory of her husband, she erected a monu- 
ment with this inscription, the wording of which 
is alleged to be from the pen of Sir Peter Paul 
Rubens, the force of which would be marred by 
any translation : 

" PHILLIPPO RUBENIO, I. C. 

Joannis civis et senatoris Antverp: F. 

Magni Lipsi Discipulo et Alumno 

Cujus doctrinam paene assecutus, 

Modestiam feliciter adaequavit : 

Bruxellae Prassidi Richardoto, 

Romas Ascanio Cardinali columnar, 

Ab Epistolis, et studiis, 

S. P. Q. Antverpiensi a secretis. 

Abiit, non obiit, virtute et scriptis sibi superstes, 

V. Kal. Septemb. Anno Christi MDCXI. astat. xxxix. 

Marito bene merenti Maria de Moy, 

Duum ex illo liberorum Claras et Philippi mater, 

Propter illius ejusque matris Mariaa Pijpelincx sepulchrura , 

Hoc moeroris et amoris sui monumeutum P. C. 

Bonis viator bene precare manibus : 

Et cogita, praeivit ille, mox sequar." 

Upon his decease," Joannes Noverus addressed 
to his brother a long epistle of condolence, which 
commences thus : 

" Quod in luctu summum est Petre Paulle V. amicis- 
sime ad nobis indenuntiato hoc casu fratris tui luctuos- 
sima scilicet in morte evenisse, merito in cselum sublatis 
testamur suspiriis," etc. 

Various of his friends and admirers wrote elegies 
upon his death. One, addresssed " Ad eximium 
virum Petrum Paulluin super obitu fratris ejus 
Phillipi Rubeni," I suspect to be from the pen of 
one of the Brant family. The concluding lines of 
one of these elegiac compositions, by Laurentius 
Beyerlinck, makes an elegant allusion to the 
;alents of the great painter : - 
" Fac etiam ut fratris frater post fata superstes, 

CEmula cui caelo dextera, mensque data est ; 

Qua poterit, certa sellers arte exprimat ora, 

Et frater fratris vivat in effigie 

Dumque hie arte sua, superestque in imagine Frater 

Alteri ab alterius munere surget honos." 

The undermentioned letters, Avritten by Philip 
;o his brother Peter Paul, would have made an 



76 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



IX. FEB. 4. '60. 



important augmentation to the recently published 
Rubens' Papers, viz. one dated " Louanii xii. Kal. 
Jun. MDCI.," commencing : " Ann us est mi frater 
cum Italia te abduxit," etc. Another from the 
same to the same, dated " Patavii Idib. Dec. 
MDCI.," beginning: "Prima votorum Italian! vi- 
dere," etc. Another from the same to the same, 
dated " Patavii Idibus quintil. MDCII.," which com- 
mences thus : " Fabulam narras vei potius agis 
mi frater," etc. 

Philip was the author of some pieces addressed 
to his brother : one, a kind of epithalamium, with 
this heading, " Petro Paullo Rubenio Fratri suo 
et Isabellas Brantiae nuptiale fcedus animo et stilo 
gratulatur." Another dedicated " Ad Petrum 
Paullum Rubenium, navigantem," sent to him 
" three years since (as he mentions), when he went 
into Italy out of Spain." 

I would by way of Query inquire the date of 
this paper, as I find no mention of the great ar- 
tist being in Spain at so early a period. To 
conclude, I cannot refrain from adding the flat- 
tering testimonial given to him by that prince of 
scholars Justus Lipsius : 

" Omnis ordo, 
Quisquis haec leges. 

Ex fide et vero scies scripta. Philippam Rubenium domo 
Antverpia, annos P. M. quatuor in domo et contubernio 
meo egisse, mensae participem, serrnonis et disciplinae. 
Probitatem a natura et modestiam attulisse, item semina 
aliqua doctrinse, quae immane quantum in spatio illo 
brevi auxit : LatinS, et Graeca literatura promptus, utrave 
orationis sive scriptione disertus, soluta et nexa. His- 
torias et antiquitatem addidit et quicquid boni bonitate et 
celeritate ingenii hausit, judicio direxit. Adeo supra rem 
nihil adstruo, ut pro re non dicam. Vis fidem ? experire 
et sub modestiae illo velo, sed paulatim relege, quae dixi 
et quae non dixi. vos quibus virtus et honor curse, 
carum hunc habete, producite, applaudite: ita utraque 
ilia vos respiciant, et hunc Fortuna, qua? pro meritis non- 
dum risit. Scripsi et signavi 

" JUSTUS LIPSIUS, Professor et His- 
toriographus Regius Lovanii, xv. 
Kal. Oct. MDCI." 

CL. HOPPER. 



GOWRIE CONSPIRACY. 

On looking into the alleged letters of Logan of 
Restalrig, as they were for the first time correctly 
given in Mr. Pitcairn's Criminal Trials (Part u. 
vol. ii.), there are some things not easy to be re- 
conciled with their genuineness. One of them 
bears to be dated at Fastcastle, which is in Ber- 
wickshire, upwards of forty miles from Edin- 
burgh ; and though the name is not given of the 
party to whom it was sent, that party was evi- 
dently Alexander Ruthven, the Earl of Gowrie's 
brother. It contains this passage : 

" Qhen ye hav red, send this my letter bak agane with 
ye berar, that I may se it brunt myself, for sa is the 
fasson in sik errandis, and if ye please, vryt yowr an- 
swer on the bak hereof in case ye vill tak my vord for 
the credit of the berar." 



It is added afterwards : " For Godds cause 
keep all things very secret." 

This letter, it is professed, was sent by the per- 
son called " Laird Bour," Logan's confidential 
servant ; and on the very day of its date in Ber- 
wickshire, appears another letter from Logan to 
Bour himself, committing the other to his charge, 
and dated from the Canongate of Edinburgh. This 
last apparent incongruity may possibly admit of 
explanation, though it is not easy to see how ; 
but, letting that pass, there remains to be ex- 
plained 

1. How came Logan either to trust the letter 
to Bour, and much more, how came he to write 
to him, when the indictment itself bears (see p. 
280. of the volume), that Bour was literarum 
prorsus ignarus, confirmed by what is afterwards 
said of Bour on p. 257., " he could not read 
himself." 

2. Is it at all probable that, after the death of 
the Earl of Gowrie and his brother, Logan, who is 
represented as so anxious to destroy the letter 
immediately after it had served its purpose, should 
not have done so without at least any farther de- 
lay, seeing the risk he personally ran by its pre- 
servation ; yet 

3. Not only does he not appear to have looked 
after it, but to have allowed this confidential ser- 
vant, Mr. Bour, to take it (without returning it 
to himself) to Sprot the notary, in order that 
Sprot might decipher it for Bour's information ; 
and 

4. Logan lived six years afterwards, and al- 
lowed Sprot to keep possession of it all along. 

Some of your readers, who take an interest in 
this mysterious subject, may perhaps be able to 
find a clue for unravelling this piece, so as to put 
it in keeping with King James's account of the 
business. G. J. 



FIRELOCK AND BAYONET EXERCISE. 

At a time when the rifle and sword-bayonet 
have caused the introduction of new evolutions in 
France, and will, I have no doubt, ultimately 
work a revolution in our own army, your mili- 
tary readers may be interested by the following 
document found amongst a mass of papers con- 
nected with the army in Ireland in the seven- 
teenth and early part of the eighteenth centuries, 
preserved in the Ormonde Muniment Room at Kil- 
kenny Castle. JAMES GRAVES, A.B. 

Kilkenny. 

THE EXERCISE OF THE FIRELOCK AND BAYONETT. 

Words of Comand. 

TAKE CARE. 

1. Joyne your Right hand to y 
Firelocks - - " - I. 

2. Poise your Firelocks - - 1. 

3. Joyne*yo r left hand to yo r Fire- 
locks - - - -I. 



2" S. IX. FKB. 4. 'GO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



r k 

3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
' 8. 

9. 
10. 

11. 
12. 

13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 
17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30. 
31. 
32. 
33. 
37. 
38. 
39. 
40. 
41. 
42. 
43. 
44. 
45. 
46. 



Cock your Firelocks - - 1. 

Present - - - 1. 

Fire - - - - 1. 

Recover your Armes - - 1. 

Handle your slings - - 1. 

Sling your Firelocks - - 1. 

Handle your Matches - - 1. 

Handle your Granades - 1. 

Open your Fuse 1. 

Guard your Fuse - - 1. 

Blow your Matches - - 1. 
Fire & throw yo r Granades - 1. 

Returne your Matches]- - 1. 

Handle your Slings '- - 1. 

Poise your Firelocks - - 1. 

Rest upon your Armes - 1. 

Draw your Bayonetts 1. 
Screw your Bayonetts on y e 

Muskett - - - 1. 

Rest 3'our Bayonetts - - 1. 
Charge your Bayonetts breast 

high - - - - 1. 

Push yo r Bayonetts - - 1. 

Recover your Armes - - 1. 

Rest upon your Armes - 1. 

Unscrew your Bayonetts - 1. 

Returne your Bayonetts - 1. 

Half cock your Firelocks - 1. 

Blow your Pans - - 1. 

Handle your Primers - - 1. 

Prime - - - 1. 

Shut your Pans - - 1. 

Cart about to Charge - 1. 

Handle your Cartridges - 1. 

Open your Cartridges - 1. 

Charge \v th Cartridge - - 1. 

Draw forth your Ramers - 1. 

Hold them up - - - 1 . 
Shorten them against your brest 1. 

Put them in y e Barrills - 1. 

Ram downe your charge - 1. 

Recover your Ramers - - 1. 

Hold them up - - - 1. 

Poise your Firelocks - - 1. 

Shoulder your Firelocks - 1. 

Rest your Firelocks - - 1. 

Order your Armes - - 1. 

Ground your Armes - - 1. 

Take up your Armes - - 1. 

Rest your Firelocks - - 1. 

Club your Firelocks - - 1. 

Rest your Firelocks - - 1. 

Shoulder - - 1. 
"This is y Exercise that was 

Flanders bv Liev*. General 

170|." 



ST. THOMAS CANTILUPE, BISHOP OF 
HEREFORD. 

The learned Alban Butler asserts that St. 
Thomas of Hereford was born in Lancashire. 
He gives no authority for the assertion. Can 
any of your readers tell me if it rests on any 
foundation ? The point is apparently trivial ; but 
it is, nevertheless, interesting to thousands of 
Roman Catholics, at least the Catholics of Lan- 
cashire, reverencing him as they do as a canonised 
saint; and, indeed, is not devoid of interest to 



any Englishman, who must regard this holy bishop 
as one of the bright stars of the English eccle- 
siastical firmament. 

In my opinion, there is not the slightest founda- 
tion for this assertion. In consulting Dugdale's 
Baronage, I find that the principal residence of 
the noble family of Cantilupe was at Kenilworth. 
William, the first Lord Cantilupe, grandfather of 
St. Thomas, was appointed Governor of the 
Castle of Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, which, 
says Dugdale, was " his chief residence." He also 
received from King Henry III. the confirmation 
of the manor of Aston, in the same county, and 
called from the name of the family Aston Canti- 
lupe, now Aston Cantlow. His son William, the 
father of the saint, succeeded to his sire's posses- 
sions, embracing property in various counties ; 
but there is not the least trace of any connexion 
witlrLancashire, either by landed property, or by 
personal residence of St. Thomas's parents. On 
the contrary, as to the father, his movements 
were in a contrary direction. Having executed 
the office of sheriff for the counties of Nottingham 
and Derby, he had summons (26 Hen. III.) "to 
fit himself with horse and arms, and to attend the 
king in his purposed expedition " against France. 
(Baronage, p. 732.) In 28 Hen. III. " he was 
one of the Peers sent by the King to the Prelates 
to solicit their aid for money in support of his 
wars in Gascoigne and Wales." In the next 
year he was sent as the representative of England 
to the first General Council of Lyons, 1245. In 
fine I cannot discover anything whatever that 
connects him with Lancashire. As to his mother, 
also, there could be nothing which would require 
her presence in that county. She was a French 
lady, previously a widow Milisent, Countess of 
Evreux. St. Thomas, then, was most probably 
born at Kenilworth, or Aston Cantilupe, and was 
consequently a Warwickshire man. 

At the same time, I think I can detect the origin 
of the error. Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was on 
the 22nd of March, 1322, beheaded at Pontefract 
for high treason and rebellion. After his death, 
an extraordinary idea of his sanctity prevailed in 
the northern counties : so much so that a guild 
was dedicated in his name, called " Gilda Beati 
Thomae Lancastriensis ; " a stone cross was erected 
on the hill where he was executed, which was so 
frequented by pilgrims from the neighbouring 
parts that Edward II. commanded Hugh Spencer 
and a band of Gascoignes to station themselves 
on its summit, " to the end that no people should 
come and make their praiers there in worship of 
the said Earle, whom they took verilie for a 
martyr." However, as this " St. Thomas of Lan- 
caster " WHS an unrecognised saint, the fame of 
his sanctity gradually died away ; but as there 
was another St. Thomas, a real canonised saint, 
the date of whose canonisation, 1319, moreover, 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. IX. FKB. 4. '60. 



nearly coincided with the execution of the Earl 
in 1322, the popular tradition confounded one 
Thomas with the other, and St. Thomas of Here- 
ford was in the ideas of the northerns St. Thomas 
of Lancaster. I give this as merely my own 
speculation. 

Perhaps it may be appropriate in conclusion to 
quote the words of Edward I. in his first letter 
to the Pope, urging the canonisation of Thomas. 
He thus describes his character : 

" Thomas, dictus de Cantilupo, Ecclesire quondam 
Herefordensis Antistes, qui nobili exortus prosapia, dum 
carnis clausus carcere tenebatur, pauper spiritu, mente 
mitis, justitiam sitiens, misericordiaa deditus, mundus 
corde, vere pacificus." (Rymer, ii. 972.) , 

He then proceeds to speak of the miracles 
performed. This was written in 1305; but it 
was not till after repeated appeals to Rome by 
Edward II., which may be seen in Rymer, vol. 
iii., that the desired canonisation was obtained, 
to the great joy of the English Church and 
nation. JOHN WILLIAMS, 

Arno's Court. 



WHAT'S IN A NAME. The following anec- 
dote shows how the French laugh at the Re- 
publican ideal, and if not true, is at least ben 
trovato : 

Under the Republique Franchise the titles of 
nobility were of course abolished with the prefix 
du or de ; farther, the saints were abolished ; 
farther, the names of the months were abolished. 
Figurez-vous the arrival of a French nobleman, 
well disposed to the government of the day, at the 
bureau for some certificate or .other document; 
the following colloquy ensues : OFFICIAL. 
" What name P " GENTLEMAN. " Monsieur le 
Comte du Saint Janvier ! " OFF. " Quoi ? "Re- 
petition. OFF. " No Monsieur now." GENT. 
" Well, le Comte du Saint Janvier" OFF. 
(wrathfully) " No counts." GENT. "Pardon; 
du Saint Janvier." OFF. " Sacre bleu, no dus. 
GENT. " Saint Janvier." OFF. (with a roar) 
"No saints here! "-GENT, (wishing to be con- 
ciliatory) " Citoyen Janvier" OFF. "Look at 
ordonnance, cy no Janvier now." GENT. " Mais, 
must have a name ; what shall I call myself." 
OFF. " 'Cre nom. Citoyen Nivoise ! " grand 
crash. Liberte, Egalite, Fraternite. 

C. D., LAMONT. 

FISH, CALLED SPROT. The following Note may 
be interesting : 

" 26 s - 8<* received from four London boats, called 'Stale- 
botes ' fishing in the waters of Thames for Fish called 
' Sprot ' between the aforesaid Tower and the Sea from 
Michaelmas in the 2 nd year to Michaelmas in the 3 rd year 
of King Edward 2 nd for one year during the season, to 
wit, of each boat 6s. 8d. by ancient custom belonging to 
the aforesaid Tower." Accounts of John de Crumbewell, 



late Constable of the Toiver of London. Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 15,664. f. 164 b . 

" Also 2^- each from Pilgrims coming to S. James's 
(supra muros, at what is now called Cripplegate)." 

ELIZABETH BLACKWELL, M.D. This lady is 
not the first instance of a female taking a medical 
degree, for we read of " A famous young woman 
at Venice, of the noble family of Cornaras, that 
spoke five tongues well, of which the Latin and 
Greek were two. She passed Doctour of Physick 
att Padua, according to the ordinary forms, and 
was a person of extraordinary virtue and piety." 

CL. HOPPER. 

SINGHALESE FOLK LORE. The following bit of 
Singhalese folk lore deserves a place in your 
columns : 

" The Singhalese have the impression that the re- 
mains of a monkey are never found in the forest: a be- 
lief which they have embodied in the proverb, that ' he 
who has seen a white crow, the nest of a paddy bird, a 
straight coco-nut tree, or a dead monkey, is certain to 
live for ever.' This piece of folk lore has evidently 
reached Ceylon from India, \srhere. it is believed that per- 
sons dwelling on the spot where a hanuman monkey (S. 
entellus) has been killed, will die, and that even its bones 
are unlucky, and that no house erected where they are 
hid under ground can prosper. Hence, when a house is 
to be built, it is one of the employments of the Jyotish 
philosophers to ascertain by their science that none such 
are concealed; and Buchanan observes that 'it is per- 
haps owing to this fear of ill-luck, that no native will 
acknowledge his having seen a dead hanuman.' " 

This extract has been taken from Sir J. Emer- 
son Tennent's charming book on Ceylon, 3rd edit, 
vol. i. p. 133. A note is appended to the last sen- 
tence of the extract : 

" Buchanan's Survey of Bhagulpoor, p. 142. At Gib- 
raltar it is believed that the body of a dead monkey is 
never found on the rock." 

W. SPARROW SIMPSON. 

" COULD WE WITH INK THE OCEAN FILL." 
From the General Index to the 1 st S. of " N. & 
Q.," p. 110., I find eleven articles have appeared 
on these interesting lines. Another version oc- 
curs in a small volume of MS. Poems, circa 1603, 
in Addit. MS. 22,601., p. 60., Brit, Museum : 
" If all the earthe were paper white 

And all the sea were incke, 
'Twere not enough for me to write 
As my poore harte doth thinke." 

VISE, VISED, VISEED, VISAED. All these turns 
of a word are occasionally met with in our " best 
public instructors," in connexion with passports. 
The first is tolerable, if we suppose that there is 
no English way of expressing " is your passport 
vise?" As for the three others shades of Me- 
nage and Johnson ! what barbarisms are here! 
In the second and third, two participles are yoked 
together in the same word by a sort of Anglo- 
French alliance ; not on equal terms however j 
for the French, at the same time that it retains 



2 ni1 S. IX. FEB. 4. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 



the termination of its participle, monopolises the 
sound of the vowels. And as to the fourth, 
which has turned up conspicuously within the last 
few days in a correspondence with the United 
States Legation, I think " it weareth such a mien 
as to be shunned, needs but be seen." If the 
whole trio were to settle, as little imps, on the 
sensorium of a philologist during sleep, they 
surely would conjure up the visions of Fuseli, and 
produce a night-mare. 

I beg to propose, therefore, that as this little 
foreigner is perpetually crossing and recrossing 
the Channel, and is the bosom, companion of 
thousands of Englishmen, he receive a patent of 
naturalisation, and the garb of a Briton ; and 
that he henceforth be styled Mr. Vise. " Is your 
passport vised ? " will then be plain English. And 
what objection can there be ? It would scarcely 
be a new coinage. There is a cognate word, re* 
vise. It would, with a little use, be as natural 
to say, " to vise a passport," as to revise a proof- 
sheet. 

" Multa renascentur quse jam cecidere, cadentque, 
Qua> nunc sunt in honore vocabula, si volet usus." 

This has been lately exemplified in the word 
" telegram." It sounded oddly at first ; but now 
it is universally adopted. 

I have hitherto spoken only of the verb. The 
case of the substantive visa is somewhat different. 
But even here, the word vise might be used as a 
substantive also : just as a revoke at whist, e. g 1 ., 
or even as in the case of the word revise itself, 
which, as a substantive, is used in the printing- 
office to denote the revised proof; and in " 1ST. 
& Q." (2 ad S. ix. 6.) your distinguished corre- 
spondent SIR HENRY ELLIS speaks of the " re- 
vise of the bankruptcy law." However, this is 
not so necessary as the avoiding of the barbarisms 
above alluded to. JOHN WILLIAMS. 

Arno's Court. 

LEIGHTON'S PULPIT. It may be interesting to 
your correspondents who have been writing on the 
history and works of Archbishop Leighton to 
know that the pulpit in the church of Newbattle 
(near Edinburgh), of which parish he was at one 
time minister, and from which the present in- 
cumbent preaches, is the pulpit he then filled, it 
having never been changed. T. 



A JEW JESUIT. 

The following story may be interesting at the 
present time, when the case of the Jewish boy 
Mortara is exciting so much attention. It oc- 
curs in a very remarkable work by an Irish 
divine of the last century, the Rev. Philip Skel- 
ton, whose writings I would recommend to your 



readers. The work I quote from is entitled 
Seiiilia, or an Old 2\ fan's Miscellany , because it 
was written in the seventy-ninth year of the 
author's age. It consists of a number of mis- 
cellaneous articles, chiefly theological, but con- 
taining also anecdotes on antiquarian, historical, 
and other subjects. The folk lore contributors 
to "N. & Q." would find in it several things 
to their taste ; and the following may be taken 
as a sample. It is the 136th article (vol. vi. p. 
139.) of Skelton's Works, edited by the Rev. 
Robt. Lynam, A.M., Lond., 1824. 

" An old gentleman, a Romanist, and a man of truth, 
who had studied physic at Prague, and practised it here 
[i. e. I suppose, in Ireland] with reputation, told me 
that when he was there two Jews were executed for some 
crime on a public stage; that three Jesuits, mounting 
the stage with them, did all that was in their power to 
convert them to Christianity in their last moments ; that 
one of these Jesuits pressed his arguments with a force 
of reason, and a most astonishing power in speaking, 
surpassing all that the crowded audience had ever heard ; 
that the Jews did nothing all the time but spit in his 
face with virulence and fury; and that he, preserving 
his temper, wiped off the spittle, and pursued his per- 
suasives, seemingly, al least, in the true spirit of Chris- 
tian meekness and charity, but in vain. This very 
Jesuit soon after died; and when he was near his exit, 
his brethren of the same order, standing round his bed, 
lamented in most pathetic terms the approaching loss of 
the greatest and ablest man among them. The dying 
man then said : ' You see, my brethren, that all is now- 
over with me. You may, therefore, now tell me who I 
am.' One of them answered ; * Our order stole you when 
little more than an infant from your Jewish parents, and, 
from motives of charity, bred you a Christian.' ' Am I 
a Jew, then? ' said he; ' I renounce Christianity, and die 
a Jew.' As soon as he was dead, the Jesuits threw his 
naked body without one of the city gates, and the Jews 
buried it. Query, had this man ever been a Christian ? 
or, if he mistook Jesuitism for Christianity, how came it 
to pass, that the approach of death, and his being pro- 
nounced a child of Abraham, should all at once recall 
him to his family, and set his mere blood in his estima- 
tion above all the principles he had been habituated to 
from infancy? This is no otherwise .to be answered, but 
by taking it for granted that either he was delirious at 
the last, or judged that he had never known anything 
but chicane and hypocrisy for Christianity." 

In addition to the queries here proposed by our 
author, I would ask whether the name of the 
Jesuit, who in this remarkable manner returned 
to Judaism, can be ascertained? and whether 
there is any historical record extant in confirma- 
tion of the story ? JAMES H. TODD. 

Trin. College, Dublin. 



MOB CAP. Having often wondered what 
could be the origin of this word, I was pleased to 
see the following passage, but am still at a loss 
for the derivation of the word, which, if not known, 
the passage may assist in the elucidation of it : 

"The enormous Elizabeth Ruff, and the awkward 
Queen of Scots' Mob, are fatal instances of the evil in- 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. IX. FEB. 4. '60. 



fluence which courts have upon fashions." The Con- 
noisseur, Thursday, January 2, 1755. 

W. P. 

NAVAL BALLAD. I am anxious to recover the 
words of a rough naval ballad of the last century 
relating to an engagement between the British 
under the command of Sir Thomas Matthews and 
a Spanish fleet. 

I never knew but one person who had heard of 
it, and he could only remember a fragment. The 
following is all that now clings to my memory : : 

" Our Captain he was a man of great fame, 
Sir Thomas Matthews, that was his name ; 
An4 when in the midst of the battle he came, 
He cried, ' Fight on my jolly boys with courage true 

and bold, 

We will never have it said that we ever was con- 
trolled.' " 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 

" FREDERIC LATIMER." Who is the author of 
a novel entitled Frederic Latimer, or, the History 
of a Young Man of Fashion, 3 vols., 1799 ? Is it 
the case that the leading incidents of this story 
are taken from reality ? and to what members of 
the aristocracy do they relate ? A. J. BEATSON. 

SCOTTISH COLLEGE AT PARIS. Allusion was 
made in a work I once read to the curious MSS. 
preserved in the Scottish College at Paris and 
the repositories at St. Germains. Can any of 
your correspondents tell me the locale of the 
college, and whether any MSS. exist there rela- 
tive to the residence at St. Germains of James 
the Second and the Pretender. N. H. R. 

TREASURIE OF SIMILIES. I have an old book 
of which I should much like to discover the full 
title, as my copy is very imperfect. The running 
title is "a Treasurie or Storehouse of Similies," 
and it seems to have consisted of about 900 pages, 
small quarto, published, I should suppose, in the 
early part of the seventeenth century.* There are 
many words and allusions in it which I am at a 
loss to understand. Perhaps some of your readers 
may help me. The writer at p. 793. says : 

" As sweete trefoile looseth his sent seven times aday, and 
receiveth it againe, as long as it is growing, but being 
withered and dried, it keepeth still its savour, so the 
godly, living in the body, shall often fall and recover 
againe ; being dead shall no more fall, but continue in 
their holinesse." 

What fact in the natural history of the trefoil 
does this refer to ? Again 

"As the great Castle Gillofer floureth not til March and 

[* This work is entitled A Treasvrie or Store- Hovse of 
Similies : both pleasaunt, delightfull, and profitable, for all 
estates of men in generall. Newly collected into ff cades and 
Common -places. By Robert Cawdray. London, Printed 
by Thomas Creede, dwelling in the Old Chaunge, at the 
Signe of the Eagle and Childe, neare Old Fish-Streete, 
1600. It is dedicated "to the Right Worshipfvl, and his 
singular benefactors, Sir lohn Harington, Knight, as also 
to the Worshipfull lames Harington, Esquire, his brother." 
ED.] 



April, a yeare after the sowing, and Marian's Violets two 
yeares after their sowing ; so the grace of God received in 
baptism does not by and by shew forth itself till some 
yeares after the infusion," p. 669. 

What are these two flowers ? The book is full 
of these curious references, and I should like to 
know more about it. H. B. 

ARMS. Can you inform me what family bore 
the following arms : Argent, 3 bars gules be- 
tween six martlets proper, 3, 2, and 1 ? * 

C. J. ROBINSON. 

INSCRIPTION. Wanted an explanation of the 
following inscription, which is to be seen in Dry- 
burgh Abbey on one of a number of stones, an- 
cient and modern, collected and let into a ruined 
wall by the late Lord Buchan. The man who 
at present shows the Abbey says that he has heard 
that it is the tombstone of a suicide : 

" + FL<DS 
TJAR5/C." 

I fancy that these letters may be a contraction 
of longer words. K. M. B. 

JOHN FFISHWICK. Can any of the readers of 
" N. & Q." give me any information respecting the 
ancestors of the above ? He was licensed incum- 
bent of Wilton, alias Northwich, Cheshire, in 
1675, and was buried there in Nov. 1718. H.F.F. 

VERSIERA. Can Prof. DE MORGAN or any 
of your correspondents explain the reason of the 
strange appellation given to the Curve called, in 
Italian, the " Versiera," in English, the " Witch " 
of Agnesi, invented by the celebrated female 
mathematician of Milan ? On reference to the 
Italian dictionaries, I find the word " Yersiera " 
means a fiend or hobgoblin. PASCAL. 

THE SEA SERJEANTS. I have been informed 
that there was a Masonic body of Loyalists at- 
tached to the house of Stuart who adopted this 
designation. Does any reader of " N. & Q." 
remember to have seen them alluded to, and if so, 
where? S. P. R.+ 

THE LABEL IN HERALDRY. What is the 
meaning of the heraldic bearing of the label as 
a distinguishing mark of an eldest son ? I have 
failed to discover it, after many inquiries. 

JOAN FAMITCH. 

MICHAEL ANGELO. The following entry is 
from a grant book of Edw. VI. Is anything 
known farther respecting the circumstances under 
which the said grant was made ? 

" Nov. 28, 5 Ed. vj. An annuitie of xx u to Michaell 
Angelo of Florence, for life, to be.payd at th'augment' 
from Christmas last quarterly." 

ITHURIEL. 

[* There appears to be some inaccuracy in the above 
description. It must either be 2 bars between 6 martlets 
8, 2, and 1 ; or on 3 bars 6 martlets 3, 2, and 1. ED."] 



. IX. FEB. 4. 'GO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



81 



THOMAS SYDENHAM. Some time about the 
commencement of the present century, there was 
a Thomas Sydenhaui, Esq., in the East India 
Company's Madras military establishment. He 
was afterwards Resident at the Court of the 
Nizam at Hyderabad, and subsequently returned 
to Europe. I am desirous of learning where and 
when he died : if possible, also, where and when 
he was bom ; if he was married, and left any 
children, and what became of them. I wish be- 
sides to discover in what part of England his 
parents resided prior to his going out to India. 
If any reader of " N. & Q." will kindly furnish 
the above information, I shall be much obliged. 

E. Y. H. 

REV. CHRISTOPHER CHILCOTT, M.A. I should 
be greatly obliged for any information respecting 
this clergyman, the name of his cure, &c. He 
was of Magdalen Hall, Oxford; B.A. 1687, M.A. 
1690, and is believed to have settled in one of the 
western counties. C. J. ROBINSON. 



" BREGIS," ETC. In an inventory of the _ 
of the church of Bodmin delivered over to the 
churchwardens, A. D. 1539, occur the following- 
items, concerning which I would ask information : 

" It. too coopes of white Satyn of bregis. 
It. too coopes of red satyn of bregis. 
It. a pere of vestments, called molybere, 
It. a front of molyber. 
It. 3 vant. clothes. 

It. a boxe of every with a lake of sylver. 
It. one Jesus cotte of purpell sarcenett. 
It. 4 tormeteris cotes." 

The document is transcribed in the Rev. John 
Wallis's " Bodmin Register." THOMAS Q. COUCH. 

JOHN Du QUESNE. Who was Johannes Du 
Quesne, Baro de Crepon, of whom there is an 
engraving by Drevet. Arms, a chevron between 
three oak branches bearing acorns ; supporters, 
two greyhounds gorged. F. D. 

" THE BLACK LIST." A work in my posses- 
sion is intitled 

"The Principles of a Member of the Black List set 
forth by way of Dialogue, London : Printed for George 
Strahan, at the Golden Ball, near the Ro} T al Exchange in 
Cornhill. 1702. 8vo. pp. 575." 

It is dedicated to 

" Robert Hurley, Esq., late Speaker to the House of 
Commons, and to all the Honourable and Worthy Mem- 
bers of the late Parliament whose names are inserted in 
a Paper commonly called the Black List." 

At first sight one would take it as a book of a 
political complexion, whereas it is on the whole a 
body of " Christian Meditations," or in other 
words, a kind of system of divinity ; and if all 
the members of the "Black List" espoused its 
sentiments, they were not by any means a dan- 
gerous class in the nation. I think, however, 
there must have been some political reference in- J 



tended by the designation " Black List," and if 
any one can clear up why so called, it will add 
to the interest of the reader as rather a curious 
book of the period. G. N. 

MENCE FAMILY. Rev. Benj. Hence, B.A., 
Merton Col. Oxford, 1746; M.A. King's Col. 
Cam. 1752 ; Vicar of St. Pancras, and Cardinal 
of St. Paul's, 1749 ; Rector of All Hallows, London 
Wall, 1758 ; ob. 19 Dec. 1796. 

" In whom the classical world have lost a scientific 
genius, and whose vocal powers as an English singer re- 
main unrivalled." (Gent, Mag. vol. Ixvi. 1116.) 

" 20 Feb. 1786. Died, Samuel Mence, one of the Gen- 
tlemen of H.M. Chapel Royal, St. James, and one of the 
Lay Vicars of Lichfield, brother of the Rev. B. Mence of 
St. Pancras." (Gent. Mag. vol. Ivi. 276.) 

Information respecting the character of these 
brothers will be acceptable to W. MENCE. 

Liverpool. 

FOXE'S BOOK OF MARTYRS. Notwithstanding 
the careful inquiries of MR. NICHOLS and your 
other correspondents, there still remains one point 
connected with the early history of the Book of 
Martyrs which stands in need of investigation. 
Indeed, I am rather surprised that the point -has 
not been investigated by some of your contribu- 
tors, as it involves a question of some literary 
interest. Many of your readers are aware that 
doubts have been from the first entertained of 
the genuineness of Knox's History of the Reforma- 
tion. The first book of that history, written, ac- 
cording to M'Crie in 1571, contains long extracts 
from Foxe's Book of Martyrs, and on this ground 
alone Archbishop Spottiswoode denies that Knox 
ever wrote the History, for, as he asserts, no edi- 
tion of Foxe had then appeared. The archbishop's 
argument we now know rests on a false founda- 
tion ; but it establishes a very curious fact, that, 
within a century of the publication of the first 
edition of the Book of Martyrs, the edition of 
1563 was become so scarce as to be unknown 
even to so accomplished a scholar as Spottis- 
woode. I would propose therefore for investi- 
gation the following points : 

Is there any copy in Scotland of the edition of 
1563, whose existence in that country can be 
traced back to 1570, or thereabouts? 

Were any means used to destroy the copies of 
the early editions ? as we can scarcely ascribe to 
time alone their extreme rarity. 

Can any evidence be adduced to prove (what I 
believe to have been the case) that the accounts 
of the Scotch martyrs were furnished to Foxe by 
Knox ? R.J) 

Aberdeen. 

DINNER ETIQUETTE. The writer of some very 
agreeable criticism, in one of our late Reviews 
(but I cannot now lay my hand on it) respecting 
Miss Austen's novels, observes on the traits of 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES- 



I>a S. IX. FEB. 4. '60. 



social manners in her time which they occasionally 
reveal. Among others he quotes a passage which 
shows that in those days (at least in such com- 
pany as Miss Austen frequented) it was the cus- 
tom for the ladies to proceed first to the dining- 
room, the gentlemen following, instead of marching 
in pairs, each gentleman with a lady, as now ; and 
asks what other authority there is for this extinct 
fashion ? 

Madame de Genlis says in her Memoirs that 
such was the fashion in Parisian dinners in her 
youth : 

" Lea femmes d'abord sortaient toutes du salon ; celles 
qui 6taient leplus pres de la porte passaient les premieres. 
. Le maitre et la raaitresse de la maison trouvaient 
facilement le raoyen, sans faire de scene, d'engager les 
quatre femmes les plus distingue'es de 1'assemble'e & se 
mettre & c6t^ d'eux "... (that is, I suppose, each flanked 
by a brace of ladies) " Commune'ment cet arrangement, 
ainsi que presque tous les autres, avait e'te decidd en par- 
ticulier dans le salon." 

The authoress goes on to say that the modern 
(or Noah's ark) fashion was confined to stiff pro- 
vincial dinners in her youth, and introduced in 
food society at Paris, along with other vulgarities, 
y the Revolution. Your correspondent would be 
glad of any information respecting this curious 
change of custom. There must be those alive who 
can almost remember it for themselves, or at least 
describe it from good traditional authority. 

CI-DEVANT. 

SIB EUSTACE OR SIR ESTUS SMITH. Any in- 
formation concerning Sir Eustace or Sir Estus 
Smith, who resided at Youghal, in Ireland, about 
the year 1683, his family or descendants, would 
confer a great favour. S K. 

New York. 



tflucrted 

MATTHEW SCRIVENER. I shall be glad of 
some information respecting Matthew Scrivener, 
a divine of some eminence in the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He wrote A Course of Divinity, or an In- 
troduction to the Knowledge of the True Catholic 
Religion, especially as professed by the Church of 
England, in two parts ; the one containing the 
Doctrine of Faith, the other the Form of Worship. 
London, printed by Tho. Roycroft for Robert 
Clavil in Little Britain, 1674. Is this book of any 
value or rarity ? Where was Scrivener edu- 
cated ? and when did he die ? Did he write any 
other books on divinity besides the above ? 

ALFRED T. LEE. 

[Matthew Scrivener was a Fellow of St. Catharine 
Hall, Cambridge, and vicar of Haselingfield in that 
county. An indenture dated 1 June, 1695, recites, " That 
Matthew Scrivener, bv his will bearing date 4 March, 
1687, did give unto the Master and Fellows of St. Ca- 
tharine's Hall in Cambridge, and their successors, all 
lands in Bruisyard or Cranford (Suffolk), or elsewhere 



adjacent, part of the rents and profits thereof to be em- 
ployed for certain uses and purposes therein mentioned, 
and the remainder of the rents to be expended about the 
| chapel of the said college or hall." One of these pur- 
! poses mentioned in his will was the augmentation of the 
| living of Brnisyard of 6Z. 13s. 4d. per annum (Addit, 
MS. 5819., fol. 96 b. Brit. Mus., and Kennett's Case of 
\ Impropriations, p. 281.). Besides the work noticed by our 
correspondent this learned Divine wrote 1. Apologia 
pro S. JScclesice Patribus adversus Joannem Dall&um de usu 
patrum, fyc. ; accedit apologia pro ecclesia Anglicana ad- 
versus nuperum schisma. 4 Lond. 1672. 2. A Treatise 
against JDrunkennesse, with Two Sermons of St. Augustin. 
12mo. Lond. 1685. 3. The Method and Means of a true 
Spiritual Life, consisting of Three Parts, agreeable to 
the True Ancient Way. 8vo. Lond. 1688.] 

KING DAVID'S MOTHER. Can any correspon- 
dent kindly enlighten me? I have searched in 
vain in Josephus, and many of the commentators. 
Some persons imagine that they have discovered 
her in 2 Sam. xvii. 25, where Abigail is stated to 
be the daughter of Nahash, and sister to Zeruiah. 
Now these were undoubtedly the daughters of 
Jesse, but St. Jerome (Hieron. Trad. Heb. in lib. 
2. Reg. cap. 17.) distinctly states that Nahash and 
Jesse were one and the same person. Abulensis 
and Liranus confirm this, and, indeed, it is so ex- 
plained in the margin of our own Bibles. There 
is no other passage in the Bible that throws any 
light upon the matter. I repeat it, if any corre- 
spondent, skilled in Rabbinical lore, will answer 
this Query he will confer a great favour upon me. 
I can hardly think that the mother of so great a 
monarch is utterly unknown. 

Since writing the above, I have referred to the 
admirable index of the First Series of " N. & Q.," 
and found that the question has already been 
asked (vol. viii. p. 539.). It seems to have pro- 
duced but one reply (vol. ix. p. 42.), and that 

I merely refers to 2 Sam. xvii. 25. The supposition 
of Tremellius and Junius, as to Nahash being the 
mother of David, appears to me to be completely 
set aside by St. Jerome, who has not only stated 
positively that Nahash and Jesse are the same 

; person, but has explained the meaning of the 
name (a serpent), and why Jesse was so called. 

C. 

Workington. 

[Our correspondent appears to have thoroughly inves- 
tigated this question. We, also, have looked into it, 
and have come to the conclusion that it cannot now 

1 be decided. David occasionally makes mention of his 
mother in the Book of Psalms ; and as he more than once 

1 speaks of her as the Lord's " handmaid," we may con- 
clude that at any rate she was a good and pious woman, 
although her name cannot be found in Sacred Writ. ] 

THE BUTLER or BURFORD PRIORY. Can any 
one give me the title of a book, published many 
years since, containing an anecdote related, I 
think, by Mr. Edgeworth, of a butler in the ser- 
vice of Mr. Lenthall of Burford Priory (a de- 
scendant of the Speaker of that name), who, 
I having drawn a considerable lottery prize some 



2** S. IX. FEB. 4. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



83 



5,000/., if I remember rightly one day quietly 
intimated to his master his desire to leave his ser- 
vice for a time, in order (for so I think the story 
ran) to gratify a life-long wish of living like a 
gentleman for at least one or two years, and 
who, at the expiration of that period, having run 
through the whole of the money in the interval, 
actually again presented himself at the Priory, 
desiring to be reinstated in his old place ; which 
(he being a valuable servant) was accordingly 
done ; and in that humble capacity, occasionally 
waiting upon the narrator of the anecdote, he 
afterwards contentedly remained, it is said, for 
many years. R. W. 

Athenaeum, Pall Mall. 

[The circumstance will be found narrated in The Percy 
Anecdotes, in the volume entitled " Eccentricity," p. 25.] 

MONKEY. Is this word to be derived from 
the Dutch or Flemish mannehe, a little man, a 
man in miniature ? J. li. VAN LENNEP. 

[The derivation suggested by our correspondent is 
supported, not only by French and German, but by some 
analogies of our own language. Ikey is little Isaac, Suhey 
is little Sue ; so monkey, little man. The same law of 
etymology which applies to monkey may be extended to 
donkey. Here don is dun (allusive to colour) ; whence 
donkey (affectionately), little dun. The ass bears in se- 
veral languages a name referring to his colour, dun or 
russet. Heb. chamor (red) ; Sp. and Port, burro, from Gr. 
Trvppb? (red). From this derivation of donkey a learned 
lady of our acquaintance always pronounced" the word 
dunkey (so as to rhyme with monkey}. Monkey, however, 
may be derived from mono, f. mono, the common name in 
Sp. for a monkey, or from the Port, macaco.'] 

SAMUEL BAYES. Can any of your readers 
oblige me by the information where I may gain 
any particulars of the life of Samuel Bayes, vicar 
of Grendon in Northamptonshire. In 1662 he 
was living privately at Manchester, and there 
died. In what year, and where buried ? 

C. J. D. INGLEDEW. 

Northallerton. 

[The Rev. Samuel Bayes was a native of Yorkshire, 
and received his education at Trinity College, Cambridge. 
He held for some years the living of Grendon in North- 
amptonshire, which he lost at the Restoration ; and he 
seems afterwards to have had another living in Derby- 
shire, but was obliged to quit that also upon the passing 
of the Bartholomew Act in 1662. Upon his being silenced 
he retired to Manchester, " where he died many years 
since," says Baxter. Vide Calamy's Account, p. 496., and 
Continuation, p. 643.] 

CRINOLINE : PLON-PLON, ETC. Would it not 
be welMo save the time and trouble of future 
philologists by recording the origin of such mo- 
dern words as the above ? Somebody must know 
the exact origin of "crinoline" a word appar- 
ently very modern, and will perhaps inform those 
less enlightened. "Plon-Plon" is a nickname 
now very commonly used for a Prince of the 
Bonaparte family, but not one in a hundred knows 
its origin or meaning. As several correspondents 



explained " Bomba," perhaps some one will ex 
plain this. ESTE ; 

[Crinoline is properly a stuff made of crin, or horse- 
hair, "etoffe de crin." The crin was mixed with black 
thread. Plon-plon is said to have been originally craint 
plomb, and gradually changed to plon plon for the sake of 
euphony. It was originally applied to the Prince in 
question during the Crimean war, for reasons sufficiently 
obvious.] J 

NECK VERSE, ETC. In the Penitent Pilgrim, 
1641, attributed to R. Brathwaite, chap. 18., it 
is thus referred to : " Should I with the poor 
condemned prisoner demand my look:' Bailey, 
Diet, vol. ii., describes the process thus : " The' 
prisoner is set to read a verse or two in a Latin 
book [Bible] in a Gothick black character, com- 
monly called a neck verse" Can any one point 
out what verse is commonly called a neck verse f 
It is drolly alluded to in Gay's What-tfyc call 
it f a farce where a man about to be shot reads 
part of the title to the Pilgrim's Progress as his 
neck verse. In the same interesting little volume 
by Brathwaite, chap, viii., the author, among 
other enjoyments, mentions " odoriferous soots to 
cheer thy smell " Can this mean sweets ? The 
word is strangely used by Chaucer and Spencer. 

In an hour glass, what term is used for the 
small opening that allows the sand to escape from 
the upper to the lower department, called by 
Brathwaite the " Crevit of thine hour-glass ? " 

GEORGE OFFOR. 

[The verse read by a malefactor, to entitle him to 
benefit of clergy, was generally the first verse of the 51st 
Psalm, Miserere mei, Deus." See the examples iii 
Nares's Glossary, under " Neck-verse, and " Miserere." 

Soote is sweet ; used by Chaucer as sote : e. g. 

" They dancen deftely, and singen soote, 
In their merriment." 

Spenser's HobbinoWs Dittie, Sheph. Kalend., Apr. 111. 

We are not aware of any particular technical name 

for the aperture in the centre of the hour-glass, but it 
would most probably be styled the neck.'} 

HERALD QUOTED BY LELAND. In Shilton's 
Battle of Stoke Field is quoted in extenso an ac- 
count of the march of the army of Henry VII. 
from Coventry to Nottingham, " from a journal 
kept by a herald attached to the forces," and 
" Leland" is given as the authority for it. I pre- 
sume that Leland's Collectanea must be the work 
referred to, which I have not at present an op- 
portunity of consulting. Is it known who was the 
herald by whom these curious particulars were 
recorded ? WILLIAM KELLY. 

Leicester. 

[We have not been able to get a sight of Shilton's 
Battle of Stoke Field; but the account of the progress of 
Henry VII. from Coventry to Nottingham is printed bv 
Leland (Collectanea, iv. 212214., ed. 1770) from the 
Cotton. MS. Julius, B. xn. pp. 2027. From the intro- 
ductory paragraph (omitted by Leland), we learn that 
he King was accompanied by " John Rosse, Esq., and 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



IX. FEB. 4. '60. 



counsellor of the said King, Lyon King-of-Arms, and 
Unicorn- pursuivant."] 



THE HYPERBOREANS IN ITALY. 
(2 nd S. vi. 181.) 

In a former article I offered some remarks upon 
the passage of Heraclides, cited by Plutarch, in 
which he speaks of Rome as captured by an army 
of Hyperboreans, and as being situated at the 
extremity of Europe, near the Great Sea. 

The most probable supposition seems to be, 
that Heraclides conceived Rome as situated in 
the far west, on the shore of the external or cir- 
cumfluous ocean, and as having been invaded by 
an army of Hyperboreans who descended along 
the northern coast of Europe. 

Niebuhr, however, in his History of Rome, vol. i. 
p. 86. (Engl. transl)., inverts this testimony, and 
brings the Hyperboreans to Italy, in order to 
identify them with the Pelasgians. As a support 
to this fanciful combination, he cites a passage of 
Stephanus Byzantinus in Tapnvvia, who, after stat- 
ing that TapKwia or Tarquinii is a city of Etruria, 
which derived its name from Tarchon (compare 
Miiller, Etrusker, vol. i. p. 72.), adds, that the 
Tarcyniei are a nation of Hyperboreans, among 
whom the griffins guard the gold, as Hierocles re- 
ports in his work entitled the Philistores. 

Hierocles, a writer of uncertain date, but pos- 
terior to Strabo, composed a work called fciAtWo- 
pes, which appears to have contained a collection 
of marvellous stories relating to remote countries. 
Three fragments of this work are extant (see C. 
Miiller, Frag. Hist. Gr. vol. iv. p. 429-30.). 

The Tarcynaei of Hierocles seem to have taken 
the place of the one-eyed Arimaspians, who are men- 
tioned by yEscbylus as dwelling near the griffins, 
in an auriferous region, at the eastern extremity 
of the earth (Prom, 782.). According to Hero- 
dotus, the Arimaspians stole the gold from the 
griffins ; the griffins dwelt beyond the Arimas- 
pians, and guarded the gold ; the Hyperboreans 
dwelt beyond the griffins, and reached as far as 
the sea (iii. 116., iv. 13. 27.). But there is no 
reason for thinking that the Tarcynaei were any 
thing but the fictitious name of an imaginary 
people, supposed to dwell near the griffins at the 
extremity of the earth, or that they had any con- 
nexion with Italy. 

Niebuhr adds a further conjecture, founded on 
the mention of irep^epees in Herod, iv. 33. This 
was a name of certain sacred officers at Delos, 
which was derived from their bringing sacred gifts 
from the Hyperboreans, by a circuituous route 
passing through the Adriatic and Dodona, Nie- 
buhr supposes that 7rep<j>py is borrowed from the 
Latin word perferre, and that the gifts in ques- 



tion were sent from a Pelasgian tribe in Italy, 
called Hyperboreans, by way of Dodona to De- 
los. The- learning respecting these bearers of 
sacred sheaves is collected by Spanheim ad Callim. 
Del, 283. There is nothing in the passages ad- 
duced by him which gives any countenance to 
this wild conjecture. The explanation of Miiller, 
(Dor. ii. 4. 4.), who connects the legends respect- 
ing the Hyperborean messengers with the worship 
of Apollo has more to recommend it; but the 
subject is one of those fragments of ritual history 
in which it is prudent to keep strictly within the 
limits of the accounts handed down to us by the 
ancients. G. C. LEWIS. 



DRUMMOND OF COLQUHALZIE. 
(2 nd S. viii. 327.) 

Perhaps the following cutting from the Perth- 
shire Courier of 27th October may be useful to the 
correspondent who inquires about the Colquhalzie 
family : 

" A correspondent of Notes and Queries asks ' Can 
any of your readers oblige me with information whether 
Drummond of Colquhalzie in Perthshire, whose estate 
was forfeited in 1745 or 1746, was related to the then 
Earl of Perth ? and if so, in what degree ? ' On seeing 
the above, we consulted Malcolm's Genealogical Memoir 
of the most noble and ancient House of Drummond (pub- 
lished at Edinburgh in 1808), which contains an ample 
genealogy of the family of Colquhalzie, as a branch from 
the main stem of the Drummonds. The following is 
an abstract of the account of this ancient Perthshire 
family : 

" Sir Maurice Drummond, Knight of Concraig, was 
the second son of Sir Malcolm Drummond, the 10th 
thane of Lennox. He married the only child and heiress 
of Henry, heritable steward of Strathearn, and got with 
her the* office and fortune of her father at his death. 
They were confirmed to him by King David Bruce, and 
his nephew Robert, earl of Strathearn, in 1358. He 
left issue 1, Sir Maurice, who succeeded; 2. Malcolm, 
founder of Colquhalzie; and 3, Walter of Dalcheefick. 
This Sir Malcolm, the 10th thane, was the ancestor of 
the families of Concraig, Colquhalzie, Pitkellony, Mewie, 
Lennoch, Megginch, Balloch, Broich, Milnab, &c. These 
were great and respectable families, whose posterity 
flourished long in Strathearn ; but they are all now ex- 
tinct except Lennoch and Megginch. 

" Malcolm Drummond, the second son of Sir Maurice, 
purchased the half lands of Colquhalzie, and his succes- 
sors afterwards secured the other half. He was a man 
of great action and courage. At the battle of Harlaw he 
and his brother Maurice did considerable service. He 

married Barclay, daughter to the laird of Collerny 

in Fife, and had one son, John, who succeeded. 

"John Drummond, 2d of Colquhalzie, married 

Campbell, daughter of the brother of the earl of Argyle, 
and had by her four sons and a daughter. 

" Maurice (eldest son), 3d of Colquhalzie, succeeded 

about 14C6. He married Cunningham, daughter to 

the laird of Glengarnoch, by whom he had only one 
daughter, Margaret. 

" Margaret Drummond, heiress of Colquhalzie, married 
John Inglis, a gentleman in Lothian, the marshal, and 
a special servant to James IV., and left three sons and 
two daughters. Her youngest daughter, Margaret Inglis, 



S. IX. FEB. 4. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



got the lands of Colquhalzie as her portion, and married 
David, third son of Thomas Drummond, first of Drum- 
mond-ernoch, who, by her right, was next laird of Col- 
quhalzie, and had a son (John) and a daughter. 

" John Drummond, 6th of Colquhalzie, married 

Campbell, daughter of Donald Campbell, abbot of Cupar, 
in 1538, brother to the laird of Ardkinglas, and got with 
her the lands of Blacklaw in Angus. He had three 
sons and five daughters. 

" John Drummond (eldest son), 7th of Colquhalzie, 
married Jean Mauld, daughter of the laird of Melginch 
(Megginch), in Angus, and had four sons and four 
daughters. The third son, David, at first minister of 
Linlithgow, and lastly at Monedie, married Catharine, 
sister to Patrick Smith of Methven. 

"John Drummond (eldest son), 8th of Colquhalzie, 
married Barbara Blair, daughter to the laird of Tarsappie, 
and sister to Sir William Blair of Kinfauns, arid had 
three sons and three daughters. 

"John Drummond (eldest son), 9th of Colquhalzie, 
flourished at the Revolution, and married Anna, daughter 
to David Graham of Gorthie, and had four sons, John, 
David, Robert, and James. 

" By the grandson of John, the estate teas sold, and the 
male line of the family is now extinct. 

" The Memoir says nothing about forfeiture in 1745 or 
1746." 

I may add that the name of the present pos- 
sessor of the Colquhalzie estate is Hepburn. 

R. S. P. 



PATRON SAINTS. 
(2 nd S. viii. 141. 299.) 

Some additions to the names already given will 
be found in the following lines, transcribed from 
a scarce book entitled The Mobiad ; or Battle of 
the Voice (being a satirical account of an Exeter 
election), by Andrew Brice of Exeter, 1770: 

". . Convene a Chapter of those Saints who bear 
O'er Trades and Traders tutelary care. . . 
ST. BLAISE, who (if Monks neither fib nor doat) 
Invok'd, whip ! presto ! heals a squinzy'd Throat, 
Though with his Flesh in bleeding Tatters rent, 
Might come th' endanger'd Combers President. 
To save her Coopers from a mortal quarrel 
Might interpose ST. MARY of the BARREL. 
To just St. JOSEPH ought our MUSE refer, 
The tugging Joiner and the Carpenter. 
Bricklayers should St. GREGORY obtain ; 
The Grace of ST. ELOI shou'd Goldsmiths gain. 
ST. ANN should Grooms assist, though none invoke ; 
Ev'n Butchers claim ST. MARY OF THE OAK ; 
ST. JAMES to Hatters might his goodness grant. 
Upholsters, sav'd from Fall, might praise VENANT. 
ST. LE'NARD should no Stone-cutter forsake, 
Nor MARY OF LORETTO those who Bake. 
For Taylors the beheaded Saint had stood, 
Who duck'd Repentants in Old Jordan's Flood. 
ST. CRISPIN might his Gentlecraft relieve ; 
ST. EUSTACE aid to Innholders shou'd give ; 
The Flea'd Apostle with his knife might side ) 
The broil'd ST. LAURENCE Safety to provide V 
For Curriers and tough Tanners of the Hide ; ) 
The last-named Saint might in like Wardship hug 
Those who apply or vend th' aperient Drug : 
Nor leave of Aid the Woollen-drapers bare, 
Nor who at Wholesale deal in Staple Ware. 



The swarthy Artists sweating at the Forge 
Should draw, unasking, to their Help, ST. GEORGE ; 
Carmen ST. VINCENT have a Guardian Saint ; 
SAVIOR keep Sadler s safe ; LUKE those who paint. 
Nay JOB perhaps for some had present been 
Who've done lewd Worship to the Cyprean Queen, 
Since divers might, on Scrutiny, be found 
With aking Bones who hoarsly snuffle Sound! 
These, and the rest, whom canonizing ROME 
Appoints o'er Craftsmen might in Vision come." 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 



BISHOPS ELECT. 
(2 nd S. viii. 431. ; ix. 55.) 

Great discussion has at all times taken place as 
to the nature of a bishop's right to a seat in Par- 
liament. A satisfactory conclusion will best be 
arrived at by a short consideration of a bishop's 
position as regards temporalities both before and 
since the Conquest. During the reigns of the 
Saxon kings, bishops held their lands in frank 
almaign, and were free from all services and pay- 
ments, excepting only the obligation to build and 
repair castles and bridges (and as it should have 
been added, to contribute towards the expences of 
expeditions). William I., however, deprived them 
of this exemption, and instead thereof turned 
their possessions into baronies, so that they held 
them per baroniam, and this made them subject to 
the tenures and duties of knights' service. 

The bishops as such were members of the 
Mycel-synod or Witena-gemot. Another argu- 
ment in favour of their spiritual capacity in Par- 
liament is, that from the reign of Edw I. to that 
of Edw. IV. inclusive, great numbers of writs to 
attend the Parliament were sent to the ''guar- 
dians of the spiritualities " during the vacancies of 
bishoprics, or while the bishops were in foreign 
parts. The writs of summons also preserve the 
distinction of prelati and magnates ; and whereas 
temporal lords are required to appear in fide et 
ligeantia, in the writs of the bishops the word lige- 
antia is omitted, and the command to appear is 
in fide et dilectione. See Selden's Titles of Ho- 
nour, 575. 

A bishop confirmed may sit in Parliament as a 
lord thereof. It is laid down indeed by Lord 
Coke that a bishop elect may so sit ; but in the 
case of Evans and Ascuith, M. 3. Car.) Jones held 
clearly that a bishop cannot be summoned to 
Parliament before confirmation, without which the 
election is not complete ; and he added that 
it was well known that Bancroft, being trans- 
lated to the bishopric of London, could not 
come to Parliament before his confirmation. A 
bishop, however, can sit before he has received 
restitution of temporalities, says Dr. Richard 
Burn, because he sits by usage and custom. 
Lord Coke says archbishops and bishops shall be 
tried by the country, that is, by freeholders, for 



86 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2a S. IX. FEB. 4. '60. 



that they are not of the degree of nobility (see 1 
Inst.31. ; 3 Inst. 30.). Seldeu seems clear that this 
is the only privilege bishops have not in common 
with other peers. However, it seems to be agreed 
that while Parliament is sitting, a bishop shall bo 
tried by the peers (2 Hawkins, 424.). The result, 
therefore, seems to be that a bishop elect cannot 
sit in Parliament. J. A. PN. 

J. S. S, remarks, that " the bishops sit in the 
House of Lords as spiritual peers" and that they 
" could not come under that denomination until 
entitled to it by the act of consecration" Is this 
strictly correct ? The bishops sit in convocation 
as spiritual peers, no doubt ; anil, being spiritual 
persons, they sit as peers in the House of Lords. 
But they sit there in right of their temporal baronies. 
It is probable, therefore, that they are entitled to 
take their seats, not upon consecration, but upon 
their being legally invested with their baronial 
rights. I speak, of course, of their .constitutional 
right as peers, without reference to the writs of 
summons, by which they take their seats in the 
present day. J. SANSOM. 

I think J. S. S. does not recollect that the 
bishops are spiritual lords, not peers, and are en- 
titled to a Writ to the Parliament in virtue of 
their temporalities, held, as the old law writers 
say, per baroniam. It is certain that in early 
times bishops elect could sit. See the Parl. Rolls, 
18 Edw. L 15 b, when the Parliament granted an 
aid to the king upon the marriage of his daugh- 
ter, when many bishops were present, and amongst 
them "Willielmus Electus Eliensis" (William de 
Luda, Archdeacon of Durham, elected 12 May, 
1290, consecrated 1 Oct. following.) C. A. 



THE MACAULAY FAMILY. 
(2 nd S. ix. 44.) 

Permit me to correct a slight inaccuracy into 
which your correspondent FITZGILBERT has fallen 
as to the ancestors of Lord Macaulay. The Rev. 

Macaulay (Dumbarton)," whom he mentions 

as great-grandfather of the historian, was never 
located in Dumbarton. He was minister of Har- 
ris, one of the parishes in the Western Isles, and 
will be found alluded to along with his son John 
in the Jacobite Memoirs of the Rebellion, edited 
from the MSS. of Bishop Forbes by Robert Cham- 
bers. This John was first ordained minister of 
South-Uist, in 1745 ; in 1756 he removed to Lia- 
more, and nine years afterwards made a second 
change to Inverary, where he was minister when 
Dr. Johnson made his tour to the Hebrides. In 
1774, and in the face of considerable opposition 
from the Ultra-Calvinistic section of the Presby- 
tery, he was translated to the parish of Cardross 



in Dumbartonshire, where lie died in 1789. As 
appears from the gravestone in the churchyard 
there, he had a family of twelve children by Mar- 
garet, third daughter of Colin Campbell of Invers- 
regan. One of his daughters, Jean, married, in 
1787, Thomas Babington, Esq., of Rothley Tem- 
ple, Leicestershire, who, I am informed, had been 
iin the habit of residing for a few months in the 
year at the manse of Cardross for the benefit of 
This herdth. A son, Zachary, whose career is well 
known, had (besides other children) by a daugh- 
ter of Quaker Mills of Bristol, a son Thomas, 
christened Babington, in honour of the husband 
of Aunt Jane, who I dare say made the best mar- 
riage of the family. This Thomas Babington be- 
came, as we all know, Lord Macaulay. The 
descent, therefore, seems to stand thus : 

Rev. Aulay M'Aulay, of Harris. 
Rev. John M'Aulay, Cardross=Margaret Campbell. 

Zachary Macaulay=Sarah Mills, Bristol. Jean=Thomas Babiiiirton, 

Rothley Temple. 

Thomas Babington Lord Macaulay. 

Your correspondent alludes to the late lord's 
kinsmen in Leicestershire as claiming descent 
from the ancient house of M'Aulay. If he means 
the Babingtons, I fear the claim could only be 
made out with reference to the present represen- 
tative of the family, Thomas Gisborne Babington, 
Esq., whose mother was the Jean M'Aulay above 
mentioned. From the descent as given in 
"Burke," there appears to have been no earlier 
connexion with the house of M'Aulay, nor in the 
papers formerly belonging to the present family 
of Ardincaple (which I had occasion to examine 
somewhat minutely when preparing their scheme 
of descent for my History of Dumbartonshire) did 
I see anything leading me to believe that any 
member of the clan had settled so far south. I 
have not been able, I may say, to connect Lord 
Macaulay's ancestors with the Dumbartonshire 
house of Ardincaple, but there was no other clan 
of the name in Scotland, and it may be therefore 
reasonably inferred that a connexion more or less 
distant existed between the minister of Harris 
and his contemporary Aulay Aulay, the last lineal 
representative of the once powerful family of Ar- 
dincaple. As the descent of this clan is but 
imperfectly understood, I will be glad on u future 
occasion (by permission of the Editor of " N. & 
Q.") to make certain salient points in its history 
the subject of another paper. J. IRVING. 

Dumbarton. 

THE YOUNG PRETENDER IN ENGLAND. 
(2 nd S. ix. 46.) 

The evidence as to Charles Edward having wit- 
nessed the coronation of George III. is very slight, 
and not trustworthy. It consists entirely of what 



2d s. ix. FEB. 4. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Hume has written on the subject, which is to this 
effect. "Lord Marechal, a few days after the 
king's coronation, told uie that he believed the 
yooDg Pretender was at that time in London, or 
at least had been so very lately, and had come 
over to see the show of the coronation, and had 
actually seen it. I asked my lord the reason for 
this strange fact? Why, says he, a gentleman 
told me so, who saw him there, and that he even 
spoke to him, and whispered into his ear these 
words : ' Your royal highness is the last of all 
mortals I should expect to see here.' ' It was cu- 
riosity that led me,' said the other ; ' but I assure 
you,' added he, ' that the person who is the object 
of all this pomp and magnificence is the man I 
envy the least.'" 

Hume says that this story came to him from so 
near the fountain head, " as to wear a face of 
great probability." But it amounts to this, ' 
Lord Marechal told Hume that somebody (who is 
nameless) had told him that he (the anonymous 
somebody) had seen the prince, and held the above 
absurd dialogue vrith him. We have better evi- 
dence of the presence of Charles Edward in Eng- 
land in 1750 and 1753. In the former year, Dr. 
King says in his Memoirs, that he saw and con- 
versed with the prince at Lady Primrose's. Thick - 
nesse, in his Memoirs, states that the prince was 
over here about 1753-4 ; and Lord Holdernesse, 
who was Secretary of State in 1753, told Hume 
that he first learned the fact from George II., who 
remarked that when the Pretender got tired of 
England he would probably go abroad again. 
The ostensible domicile of Charles Edward at that 
time was Liege, where he lived under the title of 
Baron de Montgomerie. J. DORAN. 

The Querist will find the subject noticed in the 
2nd volume of Sir Walter Scott's novel of Red- 
gauntlet, vol. ii. p. 246., and a relative note, p. 254. 
No special allusion is made, however, to the Preten- 
der ; but it is said that when the champion flung 
down his gauntlet as the gage of battle, an un- 
known female stepped from the crowd and lifted 
the pledge, leaving in its stead another gage, with 
a paper expressing that if a fair field of combat 
were allowed, a champion of rank and birth would 
appear with equal arms to dispute King George's 
claim to the throne. 

Sir Walter justly considers this as " probably 
one of the numerous fictions which were circulated 
to keep up the spirits of a sinking faction;" and 
had such an incident actually occurred, it is in- 
conceivable that it should not have been noticed 
in any contemporary newspaper or other publica- 
tion. G. 

Edinburgh. 

BREECHES BIBLE (2 nd S. viii. 530.) This an- 
ecdote, attributed to Cracherode, was, sixty years 
' ; ince, reported of Rev, Richard Walter, M.A., 



chaplain of the Centurion, who published, in 1748, 
the celebrated voyage of Lord Anson. The book 
affirmed to have been covered by the Reverend 
journalist, and afterwards presented to the British 
Museum, was the Bible that had been his daily 
companion on the voyage. Could not this fact be 
ascertained by some reader at the Museum, and 
the right donor ascertained, with the present state 
of the gift, with its covering, that had been round 
the world before its application to its present pur- 
pose ? E. D. 
[Nothing is known of the volume bound in buckskins 
in the Cracherode or any other collection in the British 
Museum, so that we may conclude it was a joke of the 
facetious bibliopole, Dr. Dib.din. ED.] 

BACON ON CONVERSATION (2 nd S. viii, 108.) 
Lord Bacon, at the beginning of his 8th book De 
Augmentis Scientiarum, and in the correspond- 
ing passage of his work on the Advancement 
of Learning, treats the subject of Conversation, 
or behaviour in intercourse with men, as a de- 
partment of civil science. He remarks, however, 
that the subject had been already treated by 
others in a satisfactory manner. " Verum hasc 
pars scientise civilis de conversatione eleganter 
profecto a nonnullis tractata est, neque ullo inodo 
tamquam desiderata reponi debet " (vol. ix. p. 6., 
ed. Montagu.). In the Advancement of Learning 
the passage stands : " But this part of civil know- 
ledge hath been elegantly handled, and therefore 
I cannot report it for deficient." 

The writer principally referred to by Lord Ba- 
con in this passage is undoubtedly Giovanni della 
Casa, who was born in 1503, and died in 1556, 
and whose work, Galateo, trattato dei costumi, 
published in 1558, particularly related to the sub- 
ject of conversation. It acquired great celebrity, 
was translated into many languages, and was par- 
ticularly renowned for the elegance of its style (to 
which the words of Bacon allude). Another wri- 
ter, whom Lord Bacon doubtless had in his mind, 
is Castiglione, who, in the second book of his Cor- 
tigiano, lays down rules for the conversation of the 
courtier, both with his sovereign and with his 
equals (see the Milan ed. of 1803, vol. i. p. 127. 
147.). Castiglione died in 1529, and his Cortigiano 
was published in the previous year. L. 

DR. DAN. FEATLY (2 nd S. ix. 13.) Dr. D. 

Featly (alias Fairclough, see Clarke's Lives, 1683, 
p. 153.*) is mentioned in Howell's Letters (last 
ed. p. 354.) ; in Lloyd's Memoires, p. 527. ; in 
Clarke's Lives (1677), p. 295. ; in. Fuller's Wor- 
thies (8vo. ed.), iii. p. 24. ; a Life and Death of 
Dr. Dan. Featly, published by John Featly, ap- 
peared in 1660 (12mo.) ; J. F. was, I suppose, the 
Dr. John Featly, nephew of Dr. Daniel, rector of 
Langer, Notts, and precentor of Lincoln, whose 
younger brother, Henry, lived at Thorp, Notts 



* The second page so numbered in Fairclough's Life, 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. FEB. 4. '60. 



(Calamy's Continuation, p. 699.). Among Dan. 
Featly's friends were Simon Birckbeck (Protestants 
Evidence, 1657, Pref. 1, 2.), and Sir H. Lynde 
(Prynne's Canterburies Doome, p. 185.); among 
his fellow-collegians Thomas Jackson (ibid. p. 
356.); he was chaplain to Sir Thomas Edmonds 
(ibid. p. 409.), and domestic chaplain to Abp. 
Abbot (ibid. pp. 59. 62, 63.). He wrote an answer 
to the learned Rich. Mountague (ibid. p. 159.). 
These facts will suffice to mark his position with 
regard to the controversies of his day, and to pre- 
pare us to learn that his Sermons suffered con- 
siderably from the censorship under the rule of 
Abbot's successor at Lambeth. Prynne, with a 
zeal worthy of Mr. Mendham or Mr. Gibbins, has 
ejiabled us to judge for ourselves of the wisdom 
of Laud's Literary Policy, by printing in extenso 
the pages which offended " the cursory eyes," as 
Milton has it, " of the temporizing and extempor- 
izing licensers." (Ibid. pp. 108, 109. 170. 185. 
254. 258. 269, 270. 279282. 284. 293. 299. 308, 
309. 315.) 

In the scarce Life of Bishop Morton (York, 
1659), the hopes raised in Bp. Morton and other 
hearers of Featly's act (for the degree of M.A.) 
are said to have been abundantly fulfilled by the 
learned labours of his riper years, and more par- 
ticularly by his disputation at Paris with Dr. 
Smith, titular Bishop of Chalcedon (pp. 28 30., 
where is a notice of his death.) 

Farther information may be derived from the 
indexes to Wood and to Hanbury's Historical 
Memorials. J. E. B. MAYOR. 

"St. John's College, Cambridge. 

POEMS BY BURNS (2 nd S. ix. 24.) It will 
afford me pleasure to send to the care of your 
publishers, or, if supplied with the address, di- 
rectly to your inquiring correspondent, T. SIMPSON, 
a letter written by Burns in 1788 for comparison 
with the MSS. in his copy of the third edition of 
the Poems, 1787 ; which may help to solve one 
portion of the Query. 

The name of Adam Cardonnel, without the pre- 
fix " De," occurs in a very early list of the mem- 
bers of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
He was elected in 1781, and for some time held 
the office of Curator. 

In 1786 he published Numismata Scotioe, 4to., 
Edinburgh ; and, 1788-93, in parts, London, 4to. 
and 8vo., dedicated to his " kinsman Sir William 
Musgrave, Bart., F.R.S.," Picturesque Antiquities 
of Scotland^ etched by Adam De Cardonnel. 

GILBERT J. FRENCH. 

Bolton, 18tU January, 1860. 

DESTRUCTION or MSS. The bump of dcstruc- 
tiveness does really seem to have acquired in 
some persons what the Ettrick Shepherd called 
a " swopping organisation ;" and you have done 
good service to the cause of literature and ec- 



clesiastical biography, by giving publicity to the 
remorseless combustion of three large chests of 
manuscripts (how interesting, how invaluable, we 
may well suppose,) of the celebrated Dr. Hickes, 
sometime Dean of Worcester. Allow me to place 
on record, in " N. Q.," another very sad case 
of destruction ; that of the official correspondence 
of the Military Chest attached to the Duke of 
Wellington during his peninsular, campaigns. A 
writer now living, who served in that depart- 
ment under the Duke in Spain, Portugal, and 
the South of France, formed the design, some 
twelve years since, of inditing a " Financial His- 
tory of the Peninsular War." No matter how 
he would have accomplished his task, well or ill ; 
the subject itself was at any rate most in- 
teresting, abundant in curious facts, and rich in 
lessons of monetary admonition ; lessons which, 
the next time we commit ourselves to continental 
campaigning, we shall have to learn over again, 
and perhaps again forget. Having formed his 
plan, the intending author naturally turned his 
thoughts to the valuable store of facts, dates, 
sums total, and particulars, preserved, as he sup- 
posed, in the aforesaid correspondence. Alas! 
some new arrangements . had been made in a 
public office ; and to his consternation he was in- 
formed that, in the accompanying process of 
routing out, the correspondence had been DE- 
STROYED ! 

Should others of your readers be acquainted 
with similar acts of vandalism, I trust they will 
take the present opportunity of communicating 
them, while public attention is directed to the 
subject. AN OLD PENINSULAR. 

ORIGIN or " COCKNEY" (2 nd S. ix. 42.) In his 
newly published Dictionary of Etymology Mr. 
Wedgwood says : 

" The original meaning of cockney is a child too ten- 
derly or delicately nurtured; one kept in the house, and 
not hardened by out-of-doors life: hence applied to citi- 
zens, as opposed to the hardier inhabitants of the country, 
and in modern times confined to the citizens of London." 

He adds these quotations : 

" Cocknay, carifotus, delicius, mammotrophus." " To 
bring up like a cocknaye mignoter" " Delicias faccre, 
to play the cockney" " Dodeliner, to bring up wantonly 
as a cockney." (Tr. Par., and authorities cited in notes.) 
" Puer in deliciis matris nutritus, Anglice, a cokenay. 
Hal." (Halliwell's Diet, 1852.) " Cockney, niais, mignot. 

Sherwood. 

The rest of his explanation is too long to ex- 
tract ; this, however, may be cited : 

" The Fr. cogueliner, to dandle, cocker, fedle, pamper, 
make a wanton of a child, leads us in the right direction." 

R. F. SKETCHLEY. 
SIR JOHN DANVERS (2 nd S. viii. 171. 309. 338.) 

Permit me to correct a mistake which I am 
told exists in my communication relative to the 
Danvers family (p. 338.). Sir John Danvers, the 



2 nd S. IX. FEB. 4. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



regicide, married for his second wife, Elizabeth 
(not Ann, as I aui told I have given it), daughter 
of Ambrose, son of Sir John Dauntesey of West 
Lavington, Knt. She is called on her monument 
" ex asse haeres," but had a sister Sarah, a coheir 
in blood, married to Sir Hu^h Stukely, Bart. 
Elizabeth Dauntesey was baptized 20th March, 
1604; died 9th July, 1636, aged thirty-one; 
buried at West Lavington. She left by Sir John 
Danvers one son, Henry, who was heir to his 
uncle, the Earl of Dan by ; died 1654, and his 
father Sir John the year following : also a 
daughter Elizabeth, married to Robert Villiers, 
who declined the title of Viscount Purbeck (see 
Sir H. Nicolas' s Adulterine Bastardy), and had 
issue a daughter, Ann, to whom her brother, 
Henry Danvers, bequeathed " the whole of the 
great estate in his power," married Sir Henry 
Lee of Ditchley, Bart., 1655 ; and Charles Henry, 
Mary, who died young. EDWARD WILTON, Clerk. 
West Lavington, Devizes. 

FAMILIAR EPISTLES ON THE IRISH STAGE (2 nd 
S. viii. 512.) I have little doubt that this tren- 
chant satire is rightly attributed to J. W. Croker: 
it is included in the list of his works in the Biog. 
Diet, of Living Authors, 1816 ; and in his biogra- 
phy in Men of the Time, 1856, it is mentioned as 
his " first publication," and as giving " earnest of 
the then power of sarcasm which characterises some 
of his more mature productions." On the title- 
page of my copy is written in (as I am led to be- 
lieve from comparison with a facsimile) Croker's 
sprawling hand : " Wm. Gifibrd, Ex dono Au- 
toris"; and on the fly-leaf, probably from Gif- 
ford's neater pen, " by Croker." The author, 
whoever he may be, was thus described in The 
Freeman's Journal in revenge for the castigation 
inflicted on it : 

" A shabby barrister, who never could acquire as much 
by legal ability as would powder his wig, has resorted to 
the expedient of ' raising the wind ' by a familiar epistle, 
assassinating male and female reputation. The infamous 
production has had some sale, as will whatever is replete 
with scurrility, obscenity, and falsehood ; but this high- 
flying pedant, of empty-bag fame in his profession, will 
shortly find that peeping TOM will be dragged forth to 
public view in a very familiar manner." 

The author himself, in the preliminary matter 
to the fourth edition, has compiled some matter 
"disjecta membra poetse," he calls it "to enable 
the world at last to ascertain who I am." Among 
this we are told that the "Epistles" are attri- 
buted in various publications to Ball, Croker, and 
Thomas ; to which the author appends the follow- 
ing significant note : 

" Of two of those Gentlemen, I have not the least per- 
sonal knowledge, and of the third 1 will venture to say 
(without meaning any disparagement to his abilities), 
that tio/v he came to be suspected should rather be en- 
quired of his friends than his enemies." 

An interesting account of Edwin and his melan- 



choly end will be found in Mrs. C. B. Wilson's 
volumes, Our Actresses. It appears that the re- 
cord on his tombstone alludes to the " murderous 
attack," and that in his last moments his " impre- 
cations on his destroyer were as horrible as awful." 
Nevertheless, it seems that there were other causes 
for his " fevered frenzy," Plures crapula quum 
gladius. Poor Edwin had invited a friend on the 
evening preceding his fatal illness, " to help him 
to destroy himself with some of the most splendid 
cognac that France ever exported to cheer a 
breaking heart." The friend did not come ; doubt- 
less the actor had the less difficulty in achieving 
his object, and thus we have to write of him : 

" Poor fellow ! his was an untoward fate ; 
'Tis strange the mind, that very fiery particle, 
Should let itself be snuffed out by an article 1 " f 

Don Juan. 
WILLIAM BATES. 

FOLK-LORE (2 nd S. viii. 483.) Stuckling ap- 
pears to be derived from the German stuck, a piece, 
and the diminutive affix -ling. 

To feel leer means properly to feel faint from 
hunger, and connects itself with the German leer, 
empty. LIBYA. 

REV. WILLIAM DUNKIN, D. D. (2 nd S. viii. 
415.) I cannot find his entrance into Trin. Coll. 
Dublin, but I find that Patrick Dunkin, son of 
the Rev. Wm. Dunkin, born at Lisnaskea, co. 
Fermanagh, entered that College 29 April, 1685, 
aged 19 ; and William, son of Patrick Dunkin, 
Gent, (probably the same person), born in Dublin, 
entered 9 April, 1725, aged 18. Y. S. M. 

SANS CULOTTES (2 nd S. vii. 517.) The same 
gentleman who informed me as to the tricolor 
says, this name was given to the revolutionists, 
not because they went without the nether gar- 
ments, but because they wore trousers instead of 
the knee-breeches, which were then de rigueur part 
of the costume of every gentleman. Thepantalon 
thus became the mark of the anti-aristocratic, and 
instead of sans culottes being a name of reproach, 
it was adopted by the party as a proud designa- 
tion. A. A. 
Poets' Corner. 

JAMES ANDERSON, D.D* (2 ud S. viii. 169. 217. 
457. &c.) The following obituary notice of this 
eminent antiquary, from the tfcots Magazine for 
1740, may form a fitting sequel to the Anderson 
papers, which have for some time past appeared 
mN.&Q." 

" On Monday, May 28, died at his house in Essex 
Court in the Strand, London, the reverend and learned 
JAMES ANDERSON, D.D., a Member of the Church of 
Scotland, and native of this kingdom, author of the 
Royal Genealogies, and several other works : a gentleman 
of uncommon abilities and most facetious conversation ; 
but notwithstanding his great talents, and the useful 
application he made of them, being, by the prodigious 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2>i S. IX. FEB. 4. '60. 



expense attending the above-mentioned works, reduced 
to slender circumstances, he has, for some years, been 
exposed to misfortunes, above which the encouragement 
due to his works would easily have raised him. But the 
remembrance of his qualifications and the many hardships 
under which he was publicly known to labour, will serve 
to show succeeding generations. There was a time when 
Italian singers, by English contributions, were favoured 
with 5 or 6000/./?er annum, and a gentleman who by more 
than twenty years' study gave the world a book of incon- 
ceivable labour and universal use, was suffered to fall a 
victim to his attempts to serve mankind! " 

ANON. 

HENRY LORD POWER (2 nd S. viii. 378. 518.) 
I am much obliged to MR. C. LE POER KEN- 
NEDY for his communication in reply to my 
Query ; but I think it only right to inform him, 
that Henry Lord Power, who "was buried at St. 
Matthew's, Ringsend, 6th May, 1742, is not to be 
confounded with the Hon. Richard Power, one of 
the Barons of the Court of Exchequer in Ireland, 
who committed, suicide near Ringsend, 2nd Fe- 
bruary, 1794. Mr. D' ALTON'S communication is 
very satisfactory, and will be duly acknowledged 
in Brief Sketches of the Parishes of Booterstown 
and Donnybrook, in the County of Dublin. 

ABHBA. 

THIS DAY EIGHT DAYS (2 nd S. viii. 531.) 
This expression is not confined to Ireland, for I 
have heard it in the mouths of the common people 
in Scotland. J. MACRAY. 

This peculiar mode of expression must doubt- 
less come from the French auwurcThui en huit. 

W. 

REFRESHMENT FOR CLERGYMEN. " N. & Q." 
(2 nd S. ix. 24.) contains an extract from the 
parish books of Havering-atte-Bower, directing an 
allowance to the clergyman of the parish of a pint 
of sack during the winter season on a Sunday. 
In the vestry book of the parish of Preston, under 
date the 19th April, 1731, it is ordered that "two 
bottles of wine be allowed any strange clergyman 
that shall at any time preach." A rather liberal 
allowance, will no doubt be the exclamation. I 
would ask, was the " bottle of wine " then the 
quantity we now consider' a " bottle." In the 
churchwardens' accounts, a few years later, I find 
frequent payments for "red port" at the rate of 
6s. a gallon. Was the "red port" of that day 
the Portuguese wine we now call port ? 

WM. DOBSON. 
Preston. 

LEVER (2 nd S. viii. 540.) What in the world 
can have induced MR. J. H. P., quoted by your 
correspondent E. A. B., to put into print that lever 
meant a cormorant, I cannot possibly conceive. 
The arms of Liverpool are a bird with a sprig of 
something holden in its bill, and I can assure him 
it is the weed, and not the bird, which is the lever. 
Motto : " Deus nobis hsec otia fecit." If he calls 
upon me to eat my words, though I decline doing 



that, I can assure him I have eaten the lever. 
It is to be met with at the tables of the merchants 
in Liverpool, and if MR. J. H. P. has any friend 
resident there, he no doubt would forward to him 
a pot, for his particular gratification. 

A SEA GULL. 

"MODERN SLANG," ETC. (2 nd S. viii. 491.) I 
omitted to say in my mention of the slang word 
BAGS as applied to trousers, that it is probably of 
University origin, and is borrowed from " the 
variegated bags " of Euripides rovs &v\d 
rovs TrotKikovs. (Cyclops, 182.) CUTHBERT BEDE. 

" THE LOAD OF MISCHIEF " (2 nd S. viii. 496.) 
Unless very lately removed, the sign of " The 
Man laden with Mischief" still exists in Norwich. 
In addition to the drunken wife, the monkey and 
the magpie as described by X. Y., the man is 
bound to the woman by a chain securely fastened 
by a padlock. This little addition to the items 
mentioned by X. Y. will perhaps render unneces- 
sary any farther explanation. However ungallant, 
the meaning seems sufficiently clear. D. G. 

BAZELS OF BAIZE (2 nd S. ix. 25.) Your cor- 
respondent MR. PISHEY THOMPSON might have 
saved 'himself much trouble and useless ety- 
mological discussion, if he had looked into the 
MS. from which Malcolm quoted, but which he 
could not read. Stowe made his r just like a *, 
and the mysterious " bazels of baize " are nothing 
more nor less than " barrels of beer," as may be 
verified by any one who will turn to Stowe's 
original paper in MS.Harl. 376. fol. 4., where it is 
plain enough " barells of beare." The name of 
Turnar Malcolm has metamorphosed into the 
strange one of" Briznau ;" and no doubt there are 
plenty more such blunders. I must observe that 
Malcolm does not give any reference to this MS., 
but a little trouble would have found it. This 
instance is only one more proof (among many) of 
the inutility of relying on a printed text, without 
being assured of its accuracy. Zo. 

SAMUEL DANIEL (2 nd S. viii. 204.) Your 
correspondent denies that Samuel Daniel was a 
Somersetshire man born, on the strength of the 
inscription on the tablet at Beckington, which, 
however, gives no hint on the subject, either 
one way or the other. As it is not that inscrip- 
tion, to what authority does your correspondent 
refer ? G. H. K. 

MINCE PIES (2 nd S. viii. 488.) In farther il- 
lustration of the religious idea . connected with 
the above Christmas dish, I quote The Connois- 
seur for Thursday, December 26, 1754 : 

" These good people would indeed look upon the ab- 
sence of mince pies as the highest violation of Christmas; 
and have remarked with concern the disregard that has 
been shown of late years to that old English repast ; for 
this excellent British Olio is as essential to Christmas 



2 J S. IX. FKH. 4. 'CO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



as pancakes to Shrove Tuesday, tansy to Easter, furmity 
to Midlent Sunday, or goose to Michaelmas Day. And 
they think it no wonder, that our tinical gentry should 
he so loose in their principles, as well as weak in their 
bodies, when the solid substantial Protestant mince pie 
has given place among them to the Roman Catholic 
Amulets, and the light, puffy, heterodox Pets de Re- 
ligieuses" 

W. P. 

STAKES FASTENED TOGETHER WITH LEAD AS A 
DEFENCE (2 na S. ix. 27.) This title is altogether 
gratuitous. It takes for granted the very point 
which is in doubt. Sudes circumfusce plumbo does 
not mean stakes fastened together with lead, but 
stakes round which lead has been poured. Now 
the pouring of lead round stakes, or, which is 
the same thing, dipping the stakes into molten 
lead (temperature 612) would be a very effica- 
cious and rapid means of charring them. Tra- 
dition says that the stakes were charred ; the 
passage is therefore sufficiently clear without 
supposing the impossible process of pouring lead 
round stakes inserted into the bed of a river 
under water. 

But a friend of mine has some doubts about 
the correctness of the text. He cannot give the 
Britons credit, for so much engineering skill as 
the above explanation would suppose. He there- 
fore suggests to read fluvio for plumbo, which 
would make the passage perfectly clear. J. N". 

Cannot Bede's expression, " circumfusse plumbo," 
be translated, " having been surrounded by lead," 
i. e. tipped or shod, to make the stakes sufficiently 
weighty to be rammed into the bed of the ford. 

It is clear from the general scope of the sen- 
tence that the operation, whatever it was, was 
done before they were placed in the water. 

The "very sharp" points would of course be 
uppermost. CHELSEGA. 

TREPASSER (2 nd S. ix. 13.) This word in its 
original form undoubtedly includes the letter s , 
it cannot possibly, therefore, be an abbreviation 
of outre-passer. Besides, this mode of abbre- 
viation is not French, it is Italian : as we eee in 
micida, homicide ; and Masaniello, for Tornmaso 
Aniello. M. Louis Barre, in his Preface to the 
Complement du Dictionnaire, says that the French 
language rejects such contractions as barbarous. 
As to the " value " also of the word, required by 
your correspondent, it is not in common use. "II 
ne se dit," says the Dictionnaire de T 'Academic, 
" que des personnes qui meurent de leur mort 
naturelle, et n'est guere usite." And as to the 
substantive trepas, the same high authority says, 
" II n'est ^guurc ^ usite dans le discours ordinaire, 
mais on I'eniploie souvent dans la poesie, et dans 
le style soutenu." JOHN WILLIAMS. 

SUPERVISOR (2 nd S. ix. 13.) Perhaps the pas- 
sage from the " Charta feodi," quoted by Du 
Cange, may designate the officer in question : 



" Habetur ** formula constituendi receptorem et super- 
visorem omnium et singulorum dominiorum et manerio- 
rum, et tenementorum, &c." 

But, in the reign of Elizabeth, and in previous 
reigns also, there were other persons, also called 
supervisors, such as supervisors, of wills, whom 
each testator himself appointed to see that the 
executors faithfully fulfilled their duties, ns may 
be seen in the " Wills and Inventories " pub- 
lished by the Surtees Society. JOHN WILLIAMS. 
Arno's Court. 

HYMNS FOR THE HOLY COMMUNION (2 nd S. vii. 
415.) It was the custom to sing a short hymn 
at St. Catherine's church, Dublin, some few years 
ago, at that period of the service immediately before 
the Lord's Prayer, after " alt had communicated." 
The usual hymn was that beautiful one commenc- 
ing " May the Grace of Christ our Saviour," which 
is not one of those " appointed " at the end of the 
Metrical Psalms. I never heard it elsewhere, but 
it had a very solemnising effect. GEORGE LLOYD. 

OLIVER GOLDSMITH (2 nd S. ix. 11.) The piece 
of glass on w-hich he inscribed his name when a 
student in Trinity College, Dublin, has been in- 
closed in a frame and deposited in the Manuscript 
Room of the College Library, where it is still to 
be seen. 'AAtetfy. 

Dublin. 

THE PRUSSIAN IRON MEDAL (2 nd S. ix. 33.) 
In answering the Query (2 nd S. viii. 470.), MR. 
BOYS says as follows : 

" So far as those patriots who devoted their jewels and 
plate are concerned, the facts are these : All being surren- 
dered, 'Ladies wore no other ornaments than those made 
of iron, upon which was engraved : " We gave gold for 
the freedom of our country ; and, like her, wear an iron 
yoke ! " ' A beautiful but poor maiden, grieved that she 
had nothing else to give, went to a hair-dresser, sold her 
hair, and deposited the proceeds as her offering. The 
fact becoming known, the hair was ultimately resold for 
the benefit of fatherland. Iron rings were made, each 
containing a portion of the hair; and these produced far 
more than their weight in gold." 

A historical event of much interest seems to be 
here stated in a manner likely to produce an in- 
accurate impression, in illustration of which I beg 
to quote the following passage from an official 
despatch of Senor Pizarro, the Spanish ambassa- 
dor in Prussia in 1813, and which is printed in 
extenso among the " Pieces Justificatives " in the 
twelfth volume of D'Allonville's Memoires d'un 
f/omme d'Etat (Prince Hardenberg) : 

" La soeur du roi a envoye toua ses bijoux au tre'sor 
pour soutenir la guerre et k Pinstant toutes les femmes, 
faisant le sacrifice de ce qui leur est si cher, se sont em- 
pressees d'envoyer les leurs, et jusqu'aux plus legera 
ornemens, pour ce louable objet. Quand je dis toutes les 
femmes, je n'exagere point, car je ne crois pas que Ton 
puisse en excepter un seul individu, except^ de la classe 
indigente, qui ne possede pas un seul article en or. Tous 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



n d S. IX. FKB. 4. 'GO. 



les anneaux de mariage ont e'te' deposes sur 1'autel de la 
patrie, et le gouvernement a distribue en echange des 
bagues en fer avec cette inscription, ' J*ai change de Vor 
pour du fer.' Cette bague si precieuse par sa valeur mo- j 
rale peut encore etre regardee commeun objetde curiosite j 
par la beaute du travail du fer, que je ne crois pas que j 
Ton puisse travaiHer ainsi dans aucun autre pays. Si ; 
quelque dame se permet un bijou, il est en fer. II est j 
vrai que 1'elegance du travail compense la valeur de la : 
matiere. II est impossible de se procurer a la manufac- 
ture ces bagues patriotiques, vu qu'elles sont donnes ex- | 
clusivement aux proprie'taires comme un marque qu'il a | 
e'te depose' au bureau quelque bijou d'or ou d'argent en 
don patriotique. Ce que j'envoie ci-jointe a Votre Ex- 
cellence m'a ete donnee par une dame qui en possedait 
deux, car tous mes efforts pour en acheter un & la manu- 
facture ont e'te inutiles." 

This account states distinctly that the iron 
rings were not procurable except from govern- 
ment, and in exchange for gold or silver jewels 
given up for the public service. MR. BOYS' ac- 
count, although not asserting the reverse, seems 
to lead to a different impression : for his episode 
of the maiden's hair has clearly nothing to do with 
the distribution of rings by government, as de- 
scribed by Senor Pizarro, although the one might 
be mistaken for the other, or rather confounded 
with it. Z. 

THE OATH OF VARGAS (2 nd S. yiii. 355.) The 
story (respecting the above painting), to the best 
of my recollection, is this : One Vargas, a 
Spaniard, was appointed by the Dujte of Alva 
chief of the so-called " Bloody Tribunal," or In- 
quisition, established during the Spanish domina- 
tion over the Netherlands. This Vargas was a 
man distinguished by his fierce bigotry and fana- 
ticism. On one occasion, when presiding over 
the aforesaid tribunal, he arose and took a solemn 
oath upon the crucifix before him, saying : " That 
if he knew or" suspected that his own father or 
mother were tainted with the accursed sin of 
heresy, with his own hands would he consign them 
to the stake." 

This rather startled some of his worthy con- 
freres^ who were not quite prepared to go to such 
lengths. The picture is in water-colour, by 
Louis Haghe, and was first exhibited at the New 
Water-colour Society in 1841 or 1842, and was 
afterwards purchased by one of the prizehoMers 
of the London Art Union. It is now the property 
of W. Leaf, Esq. If your correspondent can pro- 
cure one of the New Water-colour Exhibition 
Catalogues for the above years, he will find the 
story attached to the picture. E. DOWNES. 

SEPULCHRAL SLABS AND CROSSES (2 nd S. ix. 27.) 
A few years ago, I was visiting Mr. Gaskell at 
his Highland lodge, called Inverlair, in the county 
of Inverness, when I strolled one day to a bury- 
ing-ground, about two miles off, most romantically 
situated amongst the mountains ; and there I saw 
several gravestones, placed for the most part, as 
* in England, at the head of the bodies, which lay 



with their faces towards the east ; but there were 
also monumental stones to the memory of two or 
three priests, whose bodies were laid " with their 
faces to the west," as Mr. Cutts states. And on 
asking some of the people present at a funeral 
why this difference occurred, they said it was 
the custom of their religion to place the bodies of 
their priests in this position. The population was 
almost exclusively Roman Catholic. 

I do not recollect whether the inscriptions were 
included in the same description ; but my impres- 
sion is, that they all, both clerical and lay, faced 
one way. J. W. 

An example of the peculiarity in clerical sepul- 
ture mentioned by your correspondent, occurs in 
the cemetery of the Seven Churches of Glenda- 
lough, co. Wicklow. 

A portion of the burying-ground, which occu- 
pies the site where formerly the sacristy stood, is 
still called the " Priest's House," and is set apart 
for the repose of the Catholic clergy. 

The tombstones are all, to the best of my re- 
collection, of the upright kind called head stones. 

The inscriptions over the clerical graves all 
face the west, while all the others in the cemetery 
face the east. W. D. 

MR. D'AVENEY is informed that the passage he 
cites from Mr. Cutts's otherwise valuable Manual 
is wrong. In this country there never existed 
the slightest distinction between the clergy and 
laity with regard to the placing of the head and 
feet in the grave, or upon their sepulchral stones. 
The cleric, from a bishop down to the lowliest 
clergion, was invariably buried with his face to 
the altar, just like the layman ; and the difference 
which is noticed by Mr. Cutts is somewhat 
modern in Italy itself, where it began, and even 
there had no existence before the sixteenth cen- 
tury. If MR. D'AVENEY will look into Dr. Rock's 
Church of our Fathers (torn. ii. p. 473.), he will 
find this very question gone into. LITURGIST. 

BOOKSTALLS (2 nd S. viii. 494.) As a pendant 
to ABRACADABRA'S communication on this subject, 
I send an extract from an unpublished volume of 
" Recollections of the late George Stokes, Esq." : 

" One interesting fact Mr. Stokes was accustomed to 
mention in connexion with these editorial labours : he 
was exceedingly anxious to compare Wickliffe's Lani 
of Light, written about 1400, with one of the early coi 
of the work, from a conviction that various errors had 
crept into the later editions. He inquired in every direc- 
tion for the work, searched many libraries and catalogues, 
but all in vain. He had occasion to visit the British 
Museum for some literary purposes, and had the proof- 
sheets of Wickliffe's writings in his pocket. On retiring 
from the Museum, he passed down a court leading into 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, and observed in an old tea-chest a 
number of books, all marked sixpence each. He was led 
by curiosity to examine the lot ; and there, to his joyful 
surprise, he found the old black-letter book he had long 
been seeking in vain. This book he valued at several 



S. IX. FEB. 4. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



pounds. On examining the work, he discovered that 
his suspicions were well founded as to the inaccuracies of 
the more recent editions." pp. 28, 29. 

THE DBISHEEN CITY. The note on the 
"Origin of Cockney" (2 nd S. ix. 42.) calls to 
mind a name given to the city of Cork " The 
Drisheen City" consequent on a dish peculiar 
to Cork. I have often heard of that dish, but 
never tasted it. Of what is it composed ? It is 
not considered complimentary to a Cork man, to 
ask him if he is a native of the " Drisheen City ?" 

S. REDMOND. 

Liverpool. 

SON OF PASCAL PAOLI, ETC. (2 nd S. viii. 399. 
502.) Can any farther particulars be given of 
the unfortunate Colonel Frederic ? I have re- 
ferred to the Gent's Mag., 1797, p. 172., but find 
that the account of the suicide of the son becomes 
merely a peg whereon to hang an account of the 
reverses and death of the father. I have before 
me a little volume by the former, entitled 

" Memoirs of Corsica ; containing the Natural and Po- 
litical History of that important Island; the principal 
Events, Revolutions, &c., from the remotest Period to 
the present Time. Also an Account of its Products, 
Advantageous Situation, and Strength by Sea and Land. 
Together with a. Variety of interesting Particulars which 
have been hitherto unknown. Illustrated with a New 
and Accurate Map of Corsica, by Frederick, son of Theo- 
dore late King of Corsica." London, &c., 12mo., 1768, 
pp. 165. 

WILLIAM BATES. 

ANNO REGNI REGIS (2 nd S. viii. 513.) 
Supposing that a king comes to the throne in A.D. 
1850, and that his regnal years are reckoned from 
a given day of a given month in that year, e. g. 
from the 10th June ; his first year will contain 
the days commencing with 10th June, 1850, and 
terminating with 9th June, 1851 ; his second year 
the days commencing with 10th June, 1851, and 
terminating with 9th June, 1852, and so on; his 
fifth year, containing the days commencing with 
10th June, 1854, and terminating with 9th June, 
1855 ; and his tenth, the days commencing with 
10th June, 1859, and terminating with 9th June, 
1860. To find in what year of our Lord any day 
in a given regnal year falls will not be difficult ; 
suppose 13th July, in the 18th year of the king 
be proposed, his 18th year commences with 10th 
June, 1867, and ends with 9th June, 1868; the 
proposed day will fall, therefore, in A.D. 1867. 
Generally the nth year of the reign will end in A.D. 
(1850-|-n) on the 9th June, and of course com- 
mence on the 10th June, A.D. (1850-f-w 1) or 
A.D. (1849+ w) ; and from this it is easy to see in 
what A.D. any proposed day of any A. B. will fall. 

If, however, the king's reign commences on a 

moveable feast, as that of our own King John 

did, recourse must be had to a perpetual almanac, 

ables of regnal years, in order to discover on 



what days of the month the successive feasts fell 
in successive years of our Lord. If, as occasion- 
ally happened in the reign of King John, a regnal 
year terminates later in a year of our Lord than 
it commenced in the preceding year, a certain 
number of days in the two years of our Lord 
will be common to the same regnal year; and 
further information, such as the mention of the 
days of the week corresponding to these doubtful 
days, or their distance from a feast-day, will 
be necessary before it can be decided to which 
year they belong. Thus, suppose the 6th regnal 
year to commence on 10th June, 1859, and on the 
17th June, 1860, these two days being assumed 
to answer respectively to a moveable feast and its 
eve, it is clear that the 10th, llth, 12th, 13th, 
14tb, 15th, 16th, and 17th June, A. B. 6, may be- 
long either to A.D. 1859, or A.D. 1860. But if 
in addition we should know that, e. g. the 12th 
June, A. B. 6, was Whit-Sunday, it would be clear 
that it belonged to the former A.D., and not to the 
latter. 

If MB. HUTCHINSON'S Query, which I cannot 
agree with him in considering " foolish," be 
aimed at more recondite difficulties than these, I 
can only regret that I should have missed them in 
this reply. H. F. 

A GLOUCESTEBSHIBE STOBY. In 2 nd S. viii. 304. 
mention is made of the old manor-house of the 
family of Stephens, styled Chavenage, near Tet- 
bury ; and now occupied by the Hon. Mr. Buller 
(of the Churston family), which stands upon its 
original elevation, with its furniture of the age of 
Queen Elizabeth ; and the hall of which contains 
a considerable collection of armour and weapons 
which saw the fields of battle then raging on the 
Cotswold hills, in the time of Charles I. 

It appears that Nathaniel Stephens, then in 
Parliament for Gloucestershire, was keeping the 
festival of Christmas, 1648, at Chavenage, having 
shown much irresolution in deciding upon sacri- 
ficing the life of the monarch, was wavering on 
the subject, when Ireton, who had been dispatched 
" to whet his almost blunted purpose," arrived at 
the manor-house and sat up, it is said, all night 
in obtaining his reluctant acquiescence to the 
sentence of the king from the Lord of Chavenage. 
It appears that in May, 1649, the latter was seized 
with a fatal sickness, and died the 2nd of that 
month, expressing his regret for having partici- 
pated in the execution of the sovereign. 

So far circumstances have every semblance of 
fact, but on these a legendary tale has been 
founded, which the superstitious and the believers 
in supernatural appearances are now only begin- 
ning to disbelieve. When all the relatives had 
assembled, and their several well-known equipages 
were crowding the court-yard to proceed with 
the obsequies, the household were surprised to 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



g. ix. FEB. 4. 



observe that another coach ornamented in even 
more than the gorgeous embellishments of that 
splendid period, anO. drawn by black horses, was 
approaching the door in great solemnity. When 
it arrived, the door of the vehicle opened in some 
unseen manner ; and, clad in his shroud, the shade 
of the lord of the manor glided into the carriage, 
and the door instantly closing upon him, the coach 
rapidly withdrew from the house ; not, however, 
with such speed, but there was time to perceive 
that the driver was a beheaded man, that he was 
arrayed in the royal vestments, with the garter 
moreover on his leg, and the star of that illus- 
trious order upon his breast. No sooner had the 
coach arrived at the gateway of the manor court, 
than the whole appearance vanished in flames of 
fire. The story farther maintains that, to this day, 
every Lord of Chavenage dying in the manor- 
house takes his departure in this awful manner. 

PROVINCIALIS. 

AMBIGUOUS PROPER 1ST AMES IN PROPHECIES (2 nd 
S. vii. 395.) In previous articles examples have 
been collected of ambiguities in predictions re- 
specting the death of celebrated persons. The 
following may be added to the number. JEschy- 
lus had been warned by a prophecy that he would 
be killed by a " bolt from heaven." Being in 
Sicily on a visit to Hiero, an eagle, which had 
carried away a tortoise, dropped it from aloft in 
order to crack its shell ; but the animal fell upon 
JEschylus, and caused his death, although the 
clearness of the sky had removed from his mind 
all idea of danger. It is said that this verse was 
engraved on his tomb : - 

" Ale-rov e QVVX&V /3pyju,a TVJrels eOavov." 

See Biograph. Grcec., ed. Westermann, p. 120. 
122. ; Pliri. N. H. x. 3. L. 

TRANSLATIONS (OR IMITATIONS) OF MELEAGER 
(2 nd S. ix. 12,) If SENEX will refer to " N. & Q." 
2 ud S. iv. 251., he will find an account of the Rev. 
Edward William Barnard, of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, incumbent of Brantinghamthorp, 
Yorkshire. He is there stated by yourself, Mr. 
Editor, to have published Trifles, imitative of the 
Chaster Style of Meleager, (Carpenter, 1818, 
8vo.) 'AAteu*. 

Dublin. 

HERBERT KNOWLES (2 nd S. viii. 28. 55. 79. 116. 
153.) I have consulted the various works quoted 
by your correspondents as containing notices and 
poems of Herbert Knowles, except the Literary 
Gazette, which I have not been able to procure. 
With the exception of a fragment of eignt lines, 
entitled " Love," none of them contain any other 
verses, except those given by D. '(" N. & Q.," p. 
153.), and the " Three Tabernacles." Is there 
leally nothing more of bis in print? 

Knowles is spoken of in Southey's Life as an 



orphan, whose education was principally paid for 
by strangers. How is this statement to be recon- 
ciled with that of your correspondent J. S. (" S; 
& Q.," p. 79.), who says he was the brother of J. 
C. Knowles, an eminent barrister and Q. C. ? 

H. E. WILKINSON. 
Bayswater. 

THE MOHOCKS (2 na S. viii. 288.) See Swift's 
Letters, 5th ed, Lond. 1767, 8vo. vol. i. pp. 141. 
143. 149. . JOSEPH Rix. 

BURIAL IN A SITTING POSTURE (2 nd S. ix. 44.) 
I can give EXUL two instances of nations bury- 
ing their dead sitting, the Nasamones, a Libyan 
tribe, who were said by Herodotus (Bk. iv. 190.) 
to bury their dead sitting, and to be careful to 
prevent anyone dying in a reclining position ; 
and the Japanese, who bury their dead sitting, 
and carry them to the grave in a kind of sedan- 
chair. See a picture and notice of their mode of 
burial iii vol. ii. of the Narrative of Lord Elgin '.? 
Mission to China and Japan, in 1857, '58, '59. 
By L. Oliphant. Blackwood, 1860. T. H. W. 



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95 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 11. I860. 



NO. 215. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: Dr. John Wall is, 95 Sir Peter Paul Rubens: 
" Spiriting away," 96 The Nine Men's Morris, 97 Prin- 
ters' Marks, Emblems, and Mottoes, 98 Gunpowder-plot 
Papers, 99. 

MINOR NOTES: How a Toad undresses Biographical 
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School Richard Person, 100. 

QUERIES : Hornbooks Age of the Horse The Land of 
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phin Editions " Barley Sugar " Essaies Politicke and 
Morall " Longevity White Elephant, 103. 

REPLIES: Dr. Hickes's Manuscripts, 105 Burghead : 
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at West Herling : " et pro quibus tenentur," 107 Sundry 
Replies, 108 Rev. John Genest Firelock and Bayonet 
Exercise Destruction of MSS. Dicky Dickinson Sea- 
breaches Heraldic Drawings and Engravings Crowe 
Family King Bladud and his Pigs Robert Keith The 
Yea-and-Nay Academy of Compliments Bavin Tay- 
lor the Platonist Notes on Regiments Hymns 
Thomas Maud Marriage Law Lloyd, or Floyd, the Je- 
suitSir Henry Rowswell Names of Numbers and the 
Hand Chalking Lodgings Flower de Luce and Toads 
Radicals in European Languages Greek Word, 108. 

Notes on Books. 



DR. JOHN WALLIS. 

Among the founders of the Royal Society, dis- 
tinguished as many of them were by breadth and 
liberality of pursuits, perhaps none displayed a 
greater versatility than Dr. Wallis. As a mathe- 
matician he corresponded on equal terms with 
Flamstead, Leibnitz, and Newton, and solved the 
puzzles proposed to scientific Europe by Fermat 
and Pascal. 

His scholarship, an acquisition then perhaps 
more usual and more esteemed among mathe- 
maticians than now, was shown in the publication 
of valuable editions of several Greek mathe- 
matical and musical writers, and in his English 
Grammar, a work which was the basis of many 
succeeding grammars, was often reprinted (<?. g. 
with the tract De Loquela, Hamburg, 1688, 8vo. 
and by Bowyer In 1765), and, in spite of some 
absurd etymologies, may still be perused with 
pleasure and profit. His theological writings 
have been commended by Archbishop Whately ; a 
volume of his sermons* was thought worthy of 
publication towards the close of last century, and 
his Letters on the Trinity have been reprinted in 

* " Sermon*; now first printed from the original manu- 
scripts of John Wallis, D.D., sometime Savilian Pro- 
fessor of Geometry To which are prefixed Memoirs 

of the Author. . . . London. 1771." 8vo. 



our own day. By his skill in the art of deciphering 
he more than once did good service to the govern- 
ment in its struggles with France ; while he ap- 
plied his observations on the formation of sounds 
to the discovery of a method of " teaching dumb 
persons to speak." It is greatly to be desired 
that some one capable of doing him justice would 
draw up a fuller memoir of Wallis than has yet 
appeared. The following references will show 
that materials abound : Wood's Fasti and Athena, 
Biographia Britannica, General Dictionary, and 
Chalmers, under " John Wallis ; " his own auto- 
biography published after the preface to Hearne's 
Langtoft ; Saxii Onomasticon, iv. 553.; indexes 
to the Lansdowne MSS. and to the diaries of 
Evelyn, Pepys, Thoresby, Hearne, and Worthing- 
ton. Le Neve, Monum. Anglic. (17001715), 
p. 58. ; John Dunton's Life (ed. Nichols), pp. 658 
661.; Baxter's Life (see Index); Monthly 
Mag. for 1802, vol. ii. p. 521. ; Aubrey's Lives; 
Calamy's Own Times, i. 272275.; Life of Isaac 
Milles, 138, 139. ; Philos. Trans.^ No. xvi. p. 264. ; 
letters in Sir L. Jenkins' Works, ii. 654.; in Europ. 
Mag. vol. xlix. pp. 345, 427. (against adopting 
the Gregorian year) ; in Neal's Puritans (ed. 
Toulrnin), iv. 390., and in R. Boyle's Works (to 
Boyle) ; in Edleston's Newton Correspondence, p. 
300. (to Newton) ; many letters and notices in 
Rigaud's Correspondence of Scientific Men of the 
Seventeenth Century (Oxf. 1841, 2 vols.); a letter 
to Bp. Lloyd in Bp. Nicolson's Correspondence, 
i. 121. seq.; letters from Fermat in F.'s Varia 
Opera Mathematica (1679) ; one fromOlave Rud- 
beck (4to., Upsala, 1703 ; in the Bodleian) ; 
verses on Eliz. Wilkinson (Sam. Clarke's Lives, 
1677, pp. 428, 429.) 

He was a friend of Kennett's (Kennett's Life, 
p. 3.) ; of Dr. Thomas Smith's (Smith's Vitas, 
&c., Pnef. p. x.); of Cosimo Brunetti's (Tira- 
boschi, ed. Firenze, 1812, vol. viii. p. 98.) 

He was engaged to decipher letters * proving 
the Prince of Wales (" James III.") to be a sup- 
posititious child ; on which Kneller, who took 
his portrait for Pepys, told the doctor in broken 
English, that an expert might be mistaken in 
characters, but a painter could not be mistaken in 
his lines. (See the racy anecdote in Europ. 
Mag. Feb. 1797, pp. 87, 88.) On his Algebra, 
see Edleston's Newton Correspondence, p. 191.; 
cf. ibid. 276, 277., and Whiston's Life, p. 269. 
His " Remarks " were printed with Thos. Sal- 
mon's Proposal to perform Music in Perfect and 
Mathematical Proportions, Lond. 1688, 4to. On 
his answer to Hobbes, see Europ. Mag. Aug. 1799, 
pp. 91, 92. (Ibid. Nov. 1798, p. 308. is an abusive 
notice of him by Aubrey.) 

He was a witness against Laud (Prynne's Can- 

* The author of Barwick's Life (see Index) wrongly 
states that Willis deciphered intercepted letters of 
Charles I. 



96 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[2nd s. IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



terb. Doome, p. 73.) On the other hand, in 
common with the leading Puritans, he signed 

" A serious and faithfull Representation of the Judge- 
ments of Ministers of the Gospell Within the Province of 
London. Contained in a LETTER from them to the 
GENERALL and his COUNCELL of WARRE. Deliuered to 
his EXCELLENCY by some of the Subscribers, Jan. 18. 
1648 [i. e. 164|.] London, 1649." (4to.), 

and also the 

" Vindication of the Ministers of the Gospel in and 
about London, from the unjust Aspersions cast upon their 
former Actings for the Parliament, as if they had pro- 
moted the bringing of the King to Capitall punishment. 
WITH A short Exhortation to their People to keep close 
to their Covenant-Ingagement. London. 1648." 4to. 

Wallis again, and more successfully, endea- 
voured to moderate the excesses of the triumphant 
Puritans, when with Wilkins, Ward, and Owen, 
he threatened them with 

" The infinite contempt and reproach which would 
certainly fall upon them, when it should be said that 
they had turned out a man [Pocock] for insufficiency, 
whom all the learned, not of England only, but of all 
Europe, so justly admired for his vast knowledge and 
extraordinary accomplishments." (Lives of Pocock, 
Pearce, Newton, and Skelton, i. 174. ; cf. ibid. 137. 231.) 

He was himself among the triers, and his letters 
to Matthew Poole (Baker's MS. xxxiv. 460. seq., 
and thence in Z. Grey's Answer to Neal's 4th 
volume, Append. No. 83. seq,) contain some of 
the best extant materials for the history of their 
proceedings. J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 



SIR PETER PAUL RUBENS: 

" SPIRITING AWAY." 

I am indebted to the arrangement of the Do- 
mestic Papers of Car. I. in the State Paper Office,' 
now in course of being calendared by Mr. Bruce, 
for a letter, which has lately turned up, from Se- 
cretary Sir John Coke to Secretary Lord Dor- 
chester. 

It possesses I think a two-fold interest, both as 
relating to the time of the great Flemish painter's 
departure from England and to the " spiriting 
away," if the term may be aptly used in this 
sense, of " gentel women " to the Spanish nun- 
neries, and of " yong boies " to the schools of the 
Jesuits. 

With reference to the departure of Rubens 
from London, I have already stated my belief that 
he left London about 22nd Feb. 1630 (vide " N. 
& Q." 2 nd S. viii. 436.). From the contents of 
Sec. Coke's letter it would, however, appear that 
Rubens had not left Dover on 2nd March, 1630 ; 
and it is probable that he was farther detained 
there two or three days, waiting for the King's 
reply to this letter. 

It may be worthy of remark that Rubens' arri- 



val in England, as well as his departure from this 
country, were delayed by causes as unforeseen as 
they were unexpected. The Marq. de Ville's 
hesitation to go to Dunkirk, in one of the King's 
ships, which ship was appointed to fetch Rubens 
from thence, delayed his arrival ; Charles I.'s per- 
mission for certain English subjects to accompany 
the Spanish ambassador's son-in-law and Rubens, 
delayed his departure. The Frenchman was in 
no hurry to comply with the King's wish that he 
should leave England ; the English were waiting 
for Charles I.'s permission to do so. 

It is evident that Sec. Coke considered this 
letter of no little importance. 

" Right honorable, 

" I receaved an advertisment that above a dozen yong 
women and boies attended at the ports to get passage 
under the protection of the Spanish Ambassador's sonne- 
in-law and Mons r Rubens. And because 1 found it was 
donne w th out his M te8 knowledg, or anie licence sowght 
from the state, I thowght it my dutie to prevent it, and 
not to suffer such an affront to bee cast uppon us, that 
Ambassadors or Agents of Foren Princes should assume 
such a libertie, w ch is not permitted in those contries 
from whence they are imploied, nor was indured here in 
for-mer times. I did therfore give notice therof by letter 
to the Lord Warden of the Cinq Ports, whose careful 
ministers in his absence gave order for their stay. Now 
this night I receaved a letter from the Spanish Ambassa- 
dor taking knowledg that an English gentelwoman was 
going over in the companie of his sonne in law Don Jean 
de Vasques and Mons. Rubens, w th a maid servant and 
two other gentelmen that had passes from the Lords of 
the Councel, to the end that the said gentelwomau 
should bee ther maried to a chevalier of good accompt, in 
regward wherof his Lordship desired mee to take order 
for their release and free passage. I answered that his 
Lordship wel understood that by our lawes none but mer- 
chants could pass beyond the seas w th out licence from his 
M te or his Councel" under six of their hands. If bee 
pleased to make known the names and qualities of theis 
women, I would move the Lords, who 1 doubted not 
would proceed w th due respect to his Lordship, if they 
found no just cause for his Ma tes service to refuse them 
allowance. But this gave him not content, and hee pur- 
poseth (as his jnessinger tould mee) to send presently to 
his Ma te for coiuands. In regward wherof I thowght fit 
to give his Ma te this accompt, and then to obey what hee 
shal direct. The advertisment I receaved was that theis 
women went (sic) sent over w th good portions to bee put 
into Nunneries, w ch they cale mareage, w ch is the ordi- 
narie stile of al their letters, and this is ment by the 
mareage of this gentelwoman. The yong boies are sent 
to the schooles of the Jesuites, and go not emptie handed. 
I thowght it a good service to interrupt this libertie iu 
regward of the consequence, so I rest, 

" Your Lordship's humble Servant, 
" JOHN COKK. 

" London, 

2 March, 1629-30." 

(Indorsed.) 
"FOR HIS M TBS ESPETIAL, AFFAIRS. 

" To the right honorable the Lord Viscount Dorches- 
ter, principal Secretarie of State to his M te , give 
this at Newmarket. 
" hast, hast, 
' hast, post hast. 
" London, 2 March, at seven in the morning." 



. IX. FEB. 11. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



I have said that this letter is interesting as re- 
lating to the spiriting away of gentlewomen and 
young boys. It is, however, perhaps scarcely cor- 
rect to apply the term "spiriting away" to Ru- 
bens and Don Juan de Vasquez for persuading 
these people to leave their native country for a 
foreign state. A few years later it might per- 
haps have been called so by many who then com- 
plained of somewhat similar practices. 

By reference to one of the volumes of Mr. 
Bruce's Calendar, Car. I. vol. i. p. 196. art. 23., 
I find that one John Philipot, bailiff of Sandwich, 
petitions the council in consequence of an occur- 
rence somewhat similar to that described in 
Secretary Coke's letter. The bailiff complains 
that divers watermen of London had lately con- 
veyed two boats full of young children to Tilbury 
Hope, where a ketch stayed to take them to Flan- 
ders ; and he prays that the Master of the Water- 
men's Company may be required to bring forth 
these men, " that so they may answer for this 
offence, and some remedy may be given for pre- 
venting the like courses in time to come." This 
petition is endorsed " Mr. Phillpott about spirits." 

In the early part of the succeeding reign, the 
practice of spiriting away was much resorted to, 
and a thriving trade was driven by many "wicked 
persons" who by fraud or violence sent over 
" servants " and others to inhabit the then rapidly 
increasing English plantations abroad. Several 
petitions were presented to Charles II. and his 
council from merchants, as well as planters^ mas- 
ters of ships, and others, against " the wicked 
practise of a lewd sort of people called Spirits and 
their complices." Complaints were made that there 
was " a wicked custom to seduce or spirit away 
young people" to go to the foreign plantations in 
various capacities; and that such a practice existed 
seems to have been so universally believed that when 
any persons, more particularly of inferior station, 
were about to leave the country, it was concluded 
that they were spirited away. This led to incal- 
culable mischief, and many frauds and robberies 
were committed in consequence. "Evil-minded 
people " voluntarily offered to go on a voyage, or 
to settle in a distant colony. They received money, 
clothes, and other necessaries for their outfit ; but 
no sooner did the vessel get clear of Gravesend, 
or put into any port, than they contrived to get 
away. They pretended they were betrayed, car- 
ried off without t their consent, in fact, spirited 
away. 

William Haverland, himself "a spirit," in his 
information taken upon oath, declares that John 
Steward, of St. Katherine's parish, Middlesex, 
hath used to spirit persons away beyond the seas 
for the space of twelve years ; and he several times 
confessed that " he had spirited away five hundred 
in a year." 

To prevent the evils which must have resulted 



from such extraordinary proceedings, Charles II. 
granted a commission, in Sept. 1664, to the Duke 
of York and others to examine all persons before 
going abroad ; whether " they go voluntarily, 
without compulsion, or any deceitful or sinister 
practise whatsoever." At the same time the King 
erected an " office for taking and registering the 
consents, agreements, and covenants of such per- 
sons, male or female, as shall voluntarily go or be 
sent as servants to any of our plantations in 
America." It was however, notwithstanding this 
commission, found necessary to resort to parlia- 
ment for prevention of these abuses; and at 
length, on 18th March, 1670, "An Act" was 
passed (see Commons' Journal, p. 142.) " to pre- 
vent stealing and transporting children and other 
persons ; " whereby any person spiriting away by 
fraud or enticement, with the design to sell, carry 
away, or transport any person beyond the sea, 
shall suffer death as a felon without clergy. 

W. NOEL SAINSBURY. 



THE NINE MEN'S MORRIS. 

In the note on u The nine men's morris is filled 
up with mud" (M. N. J>., ii. 1.), in the Variorum 
Shakespeare this game is described by Mr. James, 
evidently from his own knowledge of it, and a 
diagram is annexed ; but from neither the de- 
scription nor the diagram can I form the slightest 
conception of the manner of playing the game. 
How, for example, can eighteen men be employed 
when there are only sixteen places ? It would be 
well if some resident of Warwickshire were to 
send the " N. & Q." a more accurate description ; 
for I suppose it is still played. I have sometimes 
thought, by the way, that Shakespeare may have 
made a mistake, and meant the game of " nine- 
holes," which, as it must be on a flat, was more 
likely to be affected by the overflow of a river. 

" These figures," says Mr. James, " are, by the 
country people, called nine men's morris or merrils, 
and are so called because each party has nine 
men." Now merril is plainly the French merille 
or marelle, of which the following account is 
given by M. Chabaille in his Supplement to the 
Roman du Renart : 

" Le jeu de me'rille or marelle, trks en vogue avant Fin- 
vention des cartes, se joue sur une espece d'&hiquier coupe* 
de lignes qu'on tire des angles et des cotes par le centre. 
Les deux jouers ont chacun trois jetons qu'ils placent al- 
ternativement a Pextremite' de chaque ligne, et celui qui 
les range le premier sur un meme cote [ligne?] gagne 
la partie. On notnme aussi marelle un autre jeu d'en- 
fants, ou les joueurs poussent a cloche-pied un petit palet 
dans chaque carre' d'une espece d'echelle trace'e sur lo 
terrain." 

In this last description every one will recognise 
at once the well-known game of "hop-scotch," 
called in Ireland " scotch-hop ;" and, as a proof of 
its Caledonian origin I presume, the highest bed 



98 



NOTES AND QUEBIES. 



IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



is there named porridge. But this is, I apprehend, 
not the right etymon, and the English form is the 
more correct one. In Richardson's Dictionary, 
the first sense of scotch, is, "to strike," and I 
think it is rightly derived from A.-S. scytan, to 
shoot or throw out. In Scotland and Ireland, to 
scutch flax, is by beating to drive off the ligneous 
part of the stalk ; and in Ireland there is a mode 
of threshing wheat called scutching, which is per- 
formed by striking the head of the sheaf against a 
piece of timber, so as to drive out the largest and 
best grains. "Hop-scotch," then, I take to be 
hop and drive out: 

" A right description of our sport, my Lord." 

The other jeu de merelle is as plainly our 
" noughts and crosses," &c. the Irish " tip-top- 
castle." In a former number of " N. & Q." I have 
endeavoured to show that it was a favourite game 
in the days of Augustus, and now we have the 
testimony of M. Chabaille that it formed the re- 
creation of " lords and ladies gay" in the Middle 
Ages. So much indeed, he says, was it in vogue, 
that " merelmestrait, c'est~k-dire un coup maljoue," 
was a common saying. As to the cause of the 
name merelle being given to two games of such 
opposite characters, it was most probably the cir- 
cumstance of the division into beds being common 
to both. It has sometimes struck me that merrils, 
the counters, &c., being the object in view, may 
be the origin of the name of marbles, which never 
were made of the carbonate of lime so called. 

But there is one thing very strange about this 
game of merelle, &c. It is probably more than 
two thousand, nay, may be more than three thou- 
sand years old, and has consequently been played 
by myriads, perhaps millions of people ; and yet 
there is a very simple rule or principle, the pos- 
sessor of which is infallibly certain of winning 
every game : when, consequently, there is an end 
of all interest and pleasure. When I was a boy 
and that's some years ago it was discovered and 
communicated to me by a peasant-boy with whom 
I was playing at " tip-top-castle." Now surely it 
is hardly within the limits of possibility that so 
simple a principle should not have been discovered 
over and over again, times without number ; and 
in that case, how could the game have continued 
to exist ? It would indeed be wonderful, if what 
had eluded the men and the women of centuries 
and centuries, should have been detected by an 
Irish cow-boy ; " No better doe him call." 

While I am on the subject of my boyish days, I 
must notice another game at which I used to play. 
It was called " cat," and was cricket in effect, only 
that, instead of wickets, there were holes, and in- 
stead of a ball, a shuttle-shaped piece of wood : in 
all other respects, it was played precisely like 
cricket. My father's gardener was the instructor 
in it of myself and the sons of our workmen, with 
whom I used to play it. I have never seen or heard 



of it anywhere else, either in England or in Ire- 
land ; but I remember, about five-and-twenty 
years ago, meeting with a very clear allusion to 
it, and by its name of " cat," in an old play, I 
think Woman beware of Women. 

THOS. KEIGHTLEY. 



PRINTERS' MARKS, EMBLEMS, AND MOTTOES. 

I have often thought, and now venture to ex- 
press my thought in " N. & Q." (which indeed is 
its proper and best vehicle), that it would be an 
acceptable service to many young readers who 
love books, and who now and then ride their little 
hobby-horses as small collectors of old books, if 
some of your correspondents, who are more versed 
in book- lore, would explain some of the pictorial 
and emblematical marks, and the mottoes, &c. of 
the printers and publishers of the olden time, 
and their relation (if any) to the printers &c. 
themselves. 

I have met with many that have puzzled, and 
some that puzzle me still, though I have been a 
reader and small collector for nearly seventy 
years. I am sure, therefore, that young readers 
would be thankful for the explanations suggested. 

May I be allowed to mention a few of those 
emblems ? If so, I will begin with the well- 
known mark of the celebrated Stephens family, as 
my 

No. 1. It consists of a man in ample drapery, 
who stands beneath, and points up with his right 
hand to a tree, branched, from which some 
broken boughs have fallen and others are falling, 
and to which last the figure is pointing with his 
left hand. In the tree are some round balls 
resting on the branches, but none on those fallen 
down : and all these balls seem to be bound with 
a single band, which crosses itself. A scroll pro- 
ceeds from the tree bearing the words " NOLI 
ALTVM SABEEE ; " to which, as I have read, was 
sometimes added " SED TIME." 

This emblem, as used by Robert Stephens, in 
his edition of Pagnini's Liber Psalmorum Davidis, 
12mo. M.D.LVI., differs from that used by his 
brother Henry Stephens, in Beza's Novum Testa- 
mentum, fo., anno M.DLXV, and other his printed 
works ; in the former's having the mark of a 
double cross rising out of a small object like an 
oval stone on the ground ; which may be his own 
private mark, and is not found in his brother's 
mark. 

No. 2. I find on the back of the last leaf of 
my copy of Justinian's Institutes in Latin and 
Greek, being a small thick quarto of 977 pages, 
having the colophon "Basilese in officina Henrichi 
Petri. Anno M.D.XLIIII. Mense Martio." This 
emblem represents a sharp rocky pinnacle rising 
from between two lower rocks. On the right 
hand of the observer a draped hand proceeds out 



2*1 S. IX. FEB. 11. 'GO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



of the clouds, holding a hammer, resting on the 
top of the pinnacle, from which issue flames, as 
the effect of a blow of the hammer : and, on the 
left hand, a human face comes from the clouds, 
blowing on and exciting the flames. 

No. 3 Is the mark or emblem in the title- 
page of Bartholomew Kechermann's (of Dantzic) 
Sy sterna Ethica, 12mo. " Hanoviee apud Petrum 
Antonium, MD.CXIX." It is inclosed in an oval 
frame which bears the motto, " NVLLA EST VIA 
INVIA VIRTVTI;" and represents a steep rocky 
hill, on which stands a pelican feeding her young 
with blood from her breast the old ^emblem of 
maternal love ; and below is a man with a sword 
by his side attempting to climb up the mountain 
by a very steep road or ravine which winds up it. 

No. 4 Is on the title-page of a very small 
volume, entitled " Gallicae Linguae Institutio, 
Latina sermone conscripta. Per loannern Pil- 
lotum, Barrensem. Antwerpias apud Joannem 
Withagium. 1558." The colophon reads, 
" Antwerpiae Typis Amati Calcographi." 

This mark or emblem represents an old blind 
man with a beard, walking, and carrying astride on 
his shoulders a lame man, who holds a crutch in 
his right hand, and points to the road, or to the 
monogrammic mark, with his left. The blind 
man has a long staff in his right hand, and what 
seems to be a basin (as in the act or habit of 
begging), in his left, and a kind of musical instru- 
ment hanging at his. left side. The blind man's 
dog, loose, walks a little in advance on one side. 

In a vacant space in front is, probably, the 
printer's monogrammic mark, consisting of the 
united letters xw, from which rises a line which 
is crossed above, and is surmounted with a figure 
of four, having its tail crossed. 

The whole is within an oval frame, bearing the 

mottO, " MVTVA DEFENSIO TVTISSIMA." 

No. 5 Is on the title-page of a copy of Pliny's 
Epistles, &c. : 

" Lugduni excusum " (as the colophon sa3 r s), " pse- 
clarum hoc opus in sedibus Antonii Blanchardi Limoui- 
censis: suraptu honesti viri Vicentii de Portonariis, de 
Tridino, de Monteferrato. Anno Millesimo quingentesimo 
xxvii." 

It is surrounded by a quadrangular border, 
which contains the words *' VICENTIVS . DE POR- 
TONARIIS . DE TRIDINO . DE MONTE FERRATO ; " 
and represents a draped female figure with ex- 
panded wings, holding before her breast an empty 
box or shrine, upright, with open doors on its 
sides and bottom ; on the borders of which doors 
are the words " GRA PLENA PLVS OVLTRE AVE 
MARIA." The figure stands between the letters 

M p The emblem is repeated on the back of 

the last leaf; but is from a larger block, in which 
the attitude of the figure and the position of the 
four letters are reversed. 



No. 6 is the large and handsome mark of Peter 
Chouet on the title-page of Petri Ravanelli'a 
Bibliotheca Sacra, folio. " Genevse, M.DC.L." 

In the centre is an aged male figure, with a 
glory round the head ; from behind which rises a 
spreading palm-tree. He is sitting on a covered 
table or long bench, on each end of which is an 
urn or jug. Immediately before him is a square 
pit or well, having an open arched frame-work 
rising from within it, in the centre of which is a 
tube. A staff rests in his left arm, in the hand 
of which he holds a vase, from which his right 
hand seems to be taking something, in a line with 
the tube. There are upright water-urns on each 
side of the well, and in the front of it one over- 
turned, and the fragments of others. 

In the distant background (on the observer's 
left hand), are the sacrifices of Cain and Abel ; 
and in the middle ground, Cain slaying Abel. On 
the right hand is the destruction of the Egyptians 
in the Red Sea, and Moses and the Israelites on 
the opposite shore. 

The whole is surrounded with an oval frame 
and grotesque border, in which, at the top, are 
sitting two female figures, with palm branches, 
bearing water-urns on their heads ; and below, 
two satyrs pouring water from urns, and having, 
in a bottom compartment, the motto, " SOLA DEI 

MENS . IVSTITIJE NORMA." P. H. FlSHER. 



GUNPOWDER-PLOT PAPERS. 
The house adjoining the Parliament House, 
which, at the beginning of this conspiracy, was 
chosen by Catesby for the purposes of the plot, 
belonged to one Mr. Wynniard, the Keeper of the 
King's Wardrobe. Mr. Wynniard, however, did 
not reside in it at that time, but had let it to a 
gentleman of the name of Ferrers, in whose occu- 
pation it was at the commencement of the year 
1604. In that year the conspirators, finding the 
house very advantageously placed, resolved to 
hire it, their intention being, as is well known, to 
undermine the adjoining foundations of the House 
of Lords. Though this intention was ultimately 
abandoned, by reason of the discovery of a cellar 
more convenient than the mine, yet the excava- 
tions were commenced in earnest and under many 
disadvantages. Afterwards, when the plot was 
discovered, and many of the conspirators known 
to the Council by name, some agents of the govern- 
ment, whilst searching their residences and the 
hiding-places and resorts of the Romanists, dis- 
covered the following document. It is the agree- 
ment between Henry Ferrers and Thomas Percy, 
who was deputed by his companions to obtain 
possession of Mr. Wynniard's house, as to the 
terms on which Ferrers would part with his in- 
terest in it, he being at that time, as previously 
stated, the lessee of Mr. Wynniard, and the occu- 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



pier of the premises. Hitherto this agreement, 
though occasionally mentioned, as by Mr. Jardine 
in his Narrative, has remained unpublished. 

" Memorand. that it is concluded betweene Thomas Per- 
cie of London, esquier, and Henry Ferrers of Bad- 
desley-Clinton, in the Countie of Warwick, gentleman, 
the xxiiii day of May, in the second yeare of the 
reigne of o r Soverayne Lord King James*. 
" That the said Henry hath graunted his good will to 
the sayd Thomas to enioy his house in Westminster, be- 
longing to the parliament house, the said Thomas getting 
the consent of M r Wyniard, and for his offering me the 
said Henry for my charges bestowed theruppon as shall 
be thought fit by twoo indifferent men chosen be- 
tween us. 

*' And that he shall also have the other house that 
Gideon Gibbons resideth in, with an assignment of a 
lease from M r Winiard thereof, for his offering me as 
aforesaid, and asking the now tenant's will. 

'* And the said Thomas hath lent unto me the said 
Henry thirtie poundes, to be allowed uppon recognizances 
or to be repaide againe at the will of the said Thomas. 

" HENRY FERRERS. 
' Sealed and delivered in the 
presence of 



Jo. Whyte, 
and Xryster Symons." 

(Endorsed 
by Cecil.) 



" The Bargaine 
between Ferris and 
Percy, for y e blooddj' 
cellar, found in 
Wynter's Lodgings." * 

No mention is made in any other of these 
papers of the second house, occupied by Gibbons. 
It is generally understood that only one was used 
by the conspirators. Gibbons was a porter, and 
he and two other porters, " betwixt Whitsuntide 
and Midsumer" in that year, as he tells us in his 
examination of the 5th of November, 1605, " car- 
ried three thousand Billetts from the Parliament 
stairs, to the vault under the parliament house, 
which Johnson (Fawkes) piled up." f 

The Earl of Northumberland was supposed to 
be privy to the hiring of this house, and to have 
sent his "servant," Sir Dudley Carleton, to try 
and induce Ferrers to let Percy have it. When 
the earl was suspected on account of his relation- 
ship to Percy of being acquainted with the plot, 
the hiring of this house is one of the points 
touched on in the interrogatories administered to 
him on the 23rd of November, 1605, preserved in 
the State Paper Office, j His lordship, however, 
asserted " that he never knew of the hiring, or 
heard of it until this matter was discovered." 

Connected with this agreement is one other 
document, which I think worthy of being pub- 
lished in your columns : namely, a receipt for the 
rent of this house, as follows : 

" Receuved by me, Chrofer Symons, servant to M r 
Henry Ferrers, the sume of v 1 to my M r ' 8 use, from M r 
Thomas Percy, which makes in all xxxv 1 , which my 



" Gunpowder-Plot Book," No. 1. 
Domestic Series, James /., vol. xvi. p. 15. 
"Gunpowder-Plot Book," 112. 



said M r hath had of him in consideration of the charges 
of his house in Westminster, which house he hath nowe 
past over to the saide M r Percy, with condion that soe 
much of the saide some of xxxv 1 as shall exceede the in- 
different charges bestowed by my said M r uppon that 
house by the indifferent Judgment of two or fore men, 
equaly choosen, shal be repayed againe unto M r Percy at 
the feast of St. Michael the Ark Angell, which shalbe in 
the year of our Lord God 1605. In witness whereof, in 
my M r ' behalf, I have subscribed my name the xiiii th 
of July 1604. 

" CHRISTOPHER 
SYMONS."* 

Mr. Ferrers appears to have been a gentleman 
of good name and fortune. Baddesley Clinton, 
where he lived, is a small parish seven miles from 
Warwick. The living of that place, at the present 
time, is in the gift of Lady H. Ferrers. Wynniard 
died before the discovery of the plot, and his 
widow afterwards married Sir John Stafford. 

w. o. w. 



How A TOAD UNDRESSES. A gentleman sent 
to The New England Farmer an amusing de- 
scription of " How a Toad takes off his Coat and 
Pants." He says he has seen one do it, and a 
friend has seen another do the same thing in the 
same way : 

"About the middle of July I found a toad on a hill 
of melons, and not wanting him to leave, I hoed around 
him; he appeared sluggish, and not inclined to move. 
Presently 1 observed him pressing his elbows hard against 
his sides, and rubbing downwards. He appeared so 
singular, that I watched to see what he was up to. After 
a few smart rubs, his skin began to burst open, straight 
along his back. Now, said I, old fellow, you have done 
it ; but he appeared to be unconcerned, and kept on rub- 
bing until he had worked all his skin into folds on his 
sides and hips; then grasping one hind leg with both 
his hands, he hauled off one leg of his pants the same as 
anybody would, then stripped the other hind leg in the 
same way. He then took this cast-off cuticle forward, 
between his fore legs, into his mouth, and swallowed it ; 
then, by raising and lowering his head, swallowing as 
his head came down, he stripped off the skin underneath, 
until it came to his fore legs, and then grasping one of 
these with the opposite hand, by considerable pulling 
stripped off the skin; changing hands, he stripped the 
other, and by a slight motion of the head, and all the 
while swallowing, he drew it from the neck and swal- 
lowed the whole. The operation seemed an agreeable 
one, and occupied but a short time." (From the New 
York Independent, Dec. 29, 1859.) 

HOMO SUM. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

BIOGRAPHICAL NOTES FROM THE ADMISSIOI 
REGISTER or MERCHANT TAYLORS' SCHOOL. 
The following extracts from Dugard's MS. Register 
of Admissions to Merchant Taylors' School inter 
1644 1661 may not be without interest to your 
general readers, especially since Sir Bernard 

* Gunpowder-Plot Book," No. 1. A. 



IX. FEB. 11. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



Burke in his latest work has thrown an air of ro- 
mance upon the first two names : 

1. " Henry Palceologus, only son of Andrew Palseologus, 
Gent., born in the parish of S. Catharine Tower, London, 
31 Jan. 1633 ; admitted 9 August, 1647. 

2. " Thomas Umfrevile, eldest son of William Umfrevile, 
Esq., born in the parish of Stanaway, co. Essex, 25 April, 
1638; admitted 16 Sept. 1652. 

3. " William Grosvcnor, only son of Henry Grosvenor, 
Gent., born in the parish of Lillishall, co. Salop, 13 May, 
1638. Admitted 15 May, 1654. 

4. " George Gilbert Peirce, only son of Sir Edmund 
Peirce, Knt., born at Maidstone, co. Kent, 16 March, 
1634; admitted 27 April, 1647. 

5. " Roger Radcliff, eldest son of Andrew Radcliff, 
gent., born at Oswestry, co. Salop, 9 May, 1644; ad- 
mitted 10 March, 1655. 

6. " Thomas PertivaU, second son of Zouch Percivall, 
Esq., born in the parish of Staughton, co. Leicester, 10 
Feb. 1644; admitted 12 March, 1656. 

7. " John Farewell, second son of Sir John Farewell, 
Knt, born in the parish of S. Leonard's, Shoreditch, 
London, 24 March, 1642: admitted 7 Nov. 1659. 

8. " Thomas Willoughby, only son of Thomas Wil- 
loughby, born at Virginia in America, 25 Dec. 1632 ; 
admitted May 13, 1644. 

9. " John Lilburn, eldest son of John Lilburn, gent., 
deceased, born in the parish of S. Martin's, Ludgate, 
London, 12 Oct. 1650; admitted 3 April, 1661." 

The two following are from Dugard's admission 
book to the private school which he opened in 
Coleman Street, and which seems to have at- 
tracted a very large number of pupils : 

10. " Thomas Doxey, only son of Thomas Doxey, yeo- 
man, born in New England, 1651; admitted 3 April, 
1662. 

11. " JEliah Yale, second son of David Yale, merchant, 
born in New England, 1649; admitted 1 Sept. 1662." 

I should be glad to receive information re- 
specting the bearers of any of the above names. 

C. J. ROBINSON, M.A. 

RICHARD PORSON. Whether the relaxation of 
a mighty mind, or the playful mental contest of 
the mightiest Grecian of modern times in his at- 
tempt at practical frivolity, can be deemed suffi- 
cient to make the following anecdote palatable, 
must rest with others to decide. After Porson 
had arrived at the summit of his literary fame, he 
was visited by his first instructor Mr. Summers, 
who was accompanied by his earliest patron, the 
Rev. George Hewett. On their being conducted 
into his room, he took no notice beyond an in- 
different glance ; but Mr. Hewett, addressing him, j 
said " as we were in town we determined to come j 
and see you ;" this drew no observation from j 
Porson, but rising he rang the bell, and then de- 
sired the servant to bring candles. The man, 
familiar with such eccentricities, instantly obeyed, 
and placed them on the table. "There," ex- 
claimed Porson, " now you see me better." 

H. D'AVENBY. 



HORNBOOKS. In the year 1851, MR. TIMPS 
drew attention to the subject of Hornbooks by a 
Query in vol. ii. of your First Series (p. 167.), 
and a reply appeared at p. 236. of the same 
volume, and a short Note by myself at p. 151. of 
the 3rd vol. No other information, so far as I 
know, has been elicited in your columns, and as I 
am now engaged in preparing a History of Horn- 
books, I beg to be permitted to reopen the sub- 
ject, and to say how much obliged I should be by 
the kind assistance of your many correspondents 
in accumulating a farther store of information on 
this interesting but little known topic. Any re- 
miniscences with which your correspondents might 
favour me would be thankfully acknowledged; and 
if any Hornbooks should be forwarded to me for 
comparison with those in my possession, they 
should be carefully preserved and speedily re- 
turned, free of charge to the sender. Commu- 
nications may be either addressed to me at my 
residence, or to the care of my publishers, Messrs. 
Triibner & Co., 60. Paternoster Row, or to Mr. 
Tegg, 85. Queen Street, Cheapside. 

KENNETH R. H. MACKENZIE. 

35. Bernard St., Russell Sq., W.C. 

AGE or THE HORSE. Aristotle (Hist. Anim. 
v. 14.) states that a horse lives about thirty-five 
years, and a mare above forty. He adds that 
horses have been known to live seventy-five years. 
The average age of the horse, in modern times, 
falls far short of that stated in this passage. Does 
modern experience furnish any authentic example 
of a horse having attained the age of seventy-five 
years ? * L. 

THE LAND OF BYHEEST. In Caxton's Golden 
Legend, I find mention of the "Land of Byheest" 
the word is used more than once. I can find 
neither in Bosworth nor Skinner any word nearer 
than here, or *' BEHEST" (mundatum). This mean- 
ing would, in a sort, answer for the sense I attach 
to it ; but I would be glad to have a clearer ex- 
planation, or to be assured that this is the right 
sense. A. B. R. 

Belmont. 

WATER FLANNEL. I read lately in a small 
work called Words by the Wayside, designed as 
an introduction to the study of botany, a state- 
ment so singular that I venture to ask for in- 
formation respecting it. It is to the effect that 
some years ago, during a very wet season, a 
meadow in Glocestershire was covered in a single 



[* Buffon, in his Hist. Nat. an viii. (of the Republic), 
vol. xix. pp. 392-396., gives an interesting account of a 
draught horse that lived to the age of fifty (1724 to 
1774), that is, says Buffon, double the age of his race : 
" le double du terns de la vie ordinaire de ces animaux." 
ED.] 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 d S. IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



night with a fungus called water flannel, and that 
the villagers, after much surprise at the phe- 
nomenon, proceeded to cut off pieces, which they 
used instead of flannel in the fabrication of gar- 
ments for themselves and families. The narrator 
of the anecdote says, " a woman gravely assured 
me that it wore well, although I should not have 
thought it would have borne a needle." I wish to 
ask the botanical name of the substance meant, 
and if it has ever been known to grow of sufficient 
size and strength to be used as described. SIGMA. 

STUART'S " HISTORY OF ARMAGH." It has been 
stated in print that the late Dr, Stuart, whose 
History of Armagh is well known, left materials 
for a second edition, ready for the press. Is it 
the fact that he did so ? and, if he did, who has 
the MS. at present ? It would in all probability 
be a very acceptable addition to the topography 
of Ireland. ABHBA. 

HYMN-BOOK. I have an old hymn-book want- 
ing title-page and greater part of preface. On 
p. xv. is the following paragraph, the last in the 
preface : 

" I here present thee with a Collection of such HYMNS 
which I think are agreeable to the word of God, and the 
experience of all true Christians ; in which I hope I have 
carefully avoided those compositions which breathe the 
proud pernicious and unscriptural spirit of Arminianism ; 
or that savour of the poisonous, antichristian, and licen- 
tious doctrines of Antinomianism." Pp. xvii. to xxiv. 

A Table of Contents, p. 1 . A Collection of Hymns, 
frc. Hymn I. : The Musician, " Thou God of har- 
mony and love." 

On p. 3. is Hymn II. For the Lord's Day 
Morning, " The Saviour meets his flock to-day." 

I should feel exceedingly obliged to any corre- 
spondent who would have the kindness to inform 
me who is the editor, and give a copy of the title- 
page with date. C. D. H. 

DR. JOHNSON: DELANY. The Edinburgh He- 
view for October, 1859, contains an article on the 
Diary of a Visit to England in 1775, by Dr. 
Campbell. In one of his interviews with Dr. 
Johnson, he says : 

" He (Dr. Johnson) told me he had seen Delany when 
he was in every sense gravis annis ; but he was (an) able 
man," says he: "his Revelation examined with Candour 
was well received, and I have seen an introductory pre- 
face to a second edition of one of his books, which was 
the finest thing I ever read in the declamatory way." 

Which of Dr. Delany's works did Dr. Johnson 
allude to ? LL. 

MONSIEUR TASSIES. Michael Lort, in a letter 
to Mr. Tyson, dated London, March 9, 1776, no- 
tices the following circumstance :- 

"There is a Monsieur Tassies here that makes great 
noise among the great people. He has the art of reading 
a play, and adapting his voice, action, and countenance 
to every character in it, to such perfection, that no set of 
the best actors could go beyond him in the excellency of 



the performance ; so that happy are they that can prevail 
with Mons. Tassies to favour them with his company and 
performance for an evening; and happy are they that 
can be admitted to an audience, where his only reward is 
said to be a good supper, for he eats no dinner before he 
performs. Count Lauregais having spoken slightingly of 
his character, a challenge has been given, but I do not 
hear it is accepted." 

Can any one supply a few particulars of Mon- 
sieur Tassies ? J. Y. 

SONGS AND POEMS, ETC. Songs and Poems of 
Love and Drollery, by T. W., printed in the year 
1654. This is the title of an imperfect book of 
mine, said to be written by Thomas Weaver of 
Christ Church, Oxford, in 1633. It contains, 
among other ballads, one to the tune of " Chevy 
Chace," of which the title is " Zeal overheated, or 
a Relation of a Lamentable Fire which happened 
in Oxford in a Religious Brother's Shop," &c. : 
which gave great offence, and Weaver was appre- 
hended and tried as a seditious person, but was ac- 
quitted. The book contains other songs in ridicule 
of the Puritans. Beloe, in his Anecdotes of Litera- 
ture (vol. vi. p. 86.), says : " This volume is very 
rare." And Mr. Chappell, in his Popular Music 
of the Olden Time (p. 420.), states that " this 
Book of Songs is not contained in the King's 
Pamphlets, nor have I been able to see a copy." 
Can any of your readers point out where a perfect 
copy can be seen ? ALOYSIUS. 

USSHER'S "VERSION OF THE BIBLE." Can you 
oblige me with a reference to any printed account 
(besides what has been given by Ware) of Am- 
brose Ussher's English Version of the Bible, 3 vols. 
4to. ? He was a celebrated oriental scholar, and 
brother to Archbishop Ussher ; and many of his 
MSS., including the translation in question (which 
was made before the present Authorised Version, 
and dedicated to King James L), are preserved 
in the library of Trinity College, Dublin. He 
was elected a Fellow of that college in 1601 ; and 
in 1616, he held a parish in the county of Louth. 

ABHBA. 

GLASGOW HOOD. Can you give me any in- 
formation with respect to the Glasgow hood ? I 
have been unable to find out either its nature 
and colour, or whether it is worn by graduates 
now-a-days. 

I have been told by some that it is doubtful as 
to its colour depending upon the interpretation 
ofccendeus ; by others, that it is said to be identical 
with that of Bologna. WILLIAM WATSON. 

SYMBOL OF THE Sow. As legends frequently 
vary in phraseology, the following description of 
a modern representation of one, in carving, on the 
shouldering of a stall head, requires some explan- 
ation in reference to the datails. A sow is stand- 
ing, while giving nutriment to her progeny of ten ; 
before her is the trough with her provender. The 
question is, does any version of the legend enter 



2 nd S. IX. FEB. 11. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



into a description of such minute details, or is it 
possible to associate such rural scenes with the 
solemnity due to the church, and to banish un- 
seemly mirth from the minds of village hinds ? 

H. D'AVENEY. 

FANE'S PSALMS. Can any correspondent state 
where a copy of the following work may be con- 
sulted or purchased : The Lady Elizabeth Fanes 
(or Vane's} Twenty -one Psalms, and 102 Prove?*bs, 
1550? It is noticed in Herbert's Ames, 760, 
1103. H. V. 

SOILED BOOKS. I see you have many noted 
book collectors amongst your contributors. Would 
any of these gentlemen kindly communicate the 
results of their experience as to the best mode of 
cleaning the leaves of old books discoloured by 
water-stains, finger-marks, and general exposure. 
The first and last leaf of many a fine old book is 
thus disfigured ; and some ready process for re- 
storing their pristine whiteness would be received 
very gratefully by other country bibliomaniacs 
besides J. N. 

SIR JETHRO TULL. The celebrated Jethro 
Tull, the author of The Horse-hoe Husbandry, is 
said by Chalmers to have died at Prosperous 
Farm in Shalborne, January 3, 1740-41, a parish 
partly in Wiltshire but chiefly in Berkshire ; but 
he was not buried there, the tradition of the place 
being that his body was carried away to avoid an 
arrest for debt. Can any reader of your journal 
point out the place of his "interment ? Then again, 
in the entry-book of his Inn of Court, he is de- 
scribed (December, 1693,) as the son and heir of 
Jethrow Tull of Howberry in the county of Ox- 
ford ; but in the books of the parish (Crowmarsh) 
in which the Howberry estate is situated, there is 
not any mention of his birth. I should feel much 
obliged if any of your numerous readers can sup- 
ply the desired information. 

Tull married, in 1699, Susannah Smith of Bur- 
ton Dasset in Warwickshire. 

CUTHBERT W. JOHNSON. 
Croydon. 

SIR SAMUEL MORELAND. The well-known 
engraving of Sir Samuel, by Lombart, is from a 
painting by Sir Peter Lely. Will anyone kindly 
inform me where the original can be seen ? 

A. G. W. 

ANGLO-SAXON POEMS. In a Daily Telegraph, 
a few days ago, I have found a very interesting 
notice, of which I send you a cutting : 

" A curious discovery of great interest to the lovers of 
Anglo-Saxon literature has just been made in the Royal 
library at Copenhagen. Two parchment sheets of octavo 
size, hitherto used as a cover to other and less valuable 
manuscripts, were found to contain Anglo-Saxon poetry, 
dating as far back as the end of the ninth century. The 
contents refer to the achievements of King Died rich, and 
give the same version of the legend as is found in the 



German poem of Beowulf. The principal interest attach- 
ing to the document, however, is a philological one, the 
number of Anglo-Saxon manuscripts of that period so 
important for the development of the language beine- 
extremely small." 

^ Can any of the readers of " N. & Q." throw 
light upon this ? H. C. C 



STtuftotrtf. 

THE SINEWS OF WAR. At most of the rifle corps 
meetings allusion has been made to " Money, the 
sinews of war." Can this expression be traced to its 
source? R. F. SKETCHLEY. 

[;This maxim occurs in Boyer's Eng. and Fr. Die. as 
far back as 1702 ; " Mony is the Nerve of War, L'ar- 
gent est h Nerf de la Guerre; " and again (under Sinew), 
" Mony is the Sinews of War." The earliest use of the 
maxim which we have met with is Italian, and occurs in 
the writings of Francesco d'Ambra, a noble Florentine 
who died in 1558, and was the author of three comedies not 
published till after his death. In his comedy entitled 
"II Furto," we find Zinpano saying, " Primieramente 
perche ilneruo della guerraeil danaio, mi occorre ricoi'dare, 
che le provision! de' danari sien gagliarde," &c. 11 Furto 
ed. 1584, 12". Venice, Act II., p. 12. verso. 

But though we find no earlier instance of the maxim 
itself, there is quite enough to indicate that the lesson of 
martial policy which it conveys had been learnt and pon- 
dered long before. We apprehend, indeed, that for the 
origin of the maxim we must go at least as far back as 
the times of Philip of Macedon. When Philip inquired 
at Delphi how he might vanquish Greece, the Pythia, 
according to Suidas, replied, "Fight with silver spears, 
and thou shalt vanquish all." 

'ApyupeW \6yxflcri finxov, Kaliravra KpaTTjcms. 

There are some various readings, and Erasmus has the 
line thus: 

'Apyvpeais Aoy^aiai /xe&ov, Ka l iravTa. vunio-et?. 

Adag. CMl. 1606, col. 1335. 
Which he renders 

" Argenteis pugna telis, atque omnia vinces." 
Yet, between the two saj-ings, there is obviously a 
shade of difference. When the Pythia admonished Philip 
to "fight with silver weapons," she evident!}' meant 
" Give largesses ; bribe : " " videlicet innuens, ut guosdam 
largitionibus ad proditionem sollicitaret, atqua ita consecu- 



morelegitimate and honourable uses of the "legal tender,'* 
in providing the means of warfars, warlike stores and car- 
riage, in paying the troops, &c. : " che le provisioni de' da- 
nari sien gagliarde, e che i soldati sien ben pagati, accib 
che per il padrone volentieri si sottomettono a tutti i peri 
coli." ~ 



" DELPHIN EDITIONS." What authority is 
there for attributing the origin of this term to a 
series of classical works said to have been pre- 
pared for the use of the French "Dauphin"? 
Of course every schoolboy knows the title-page 
of his large Virgil, and other useful works of the 
kind, so that I do not wish to appear ignorant of 
the " In usum Serenissimi Delphini ;" but what 
I desire to know is, whether the term " Dolphin 
Editions" was derived from the Dauphin, for 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2^ s. IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



whom these editions were prepared, or whether 
there may not have been some other cause for the 
name ? I find the well-known Aldine symbol of 
the "dolphin and anchor" early used by the Pari- 
sian printers. Take, for instance, an Aldine Ta- 
citus before me : here is the usual badge of Aldus, 
and the following description of the printer of this 
particular work : 

" Parish's, apud Robertum Colombellum via ad D. lo- 
annaem Lateranensem in Aldina Blbliotheca MDLXXXI. 
Cum privilegio Regis." 

Now was the term " Delphin" taken out of com- 
pliment to the future monarch of France, or had 
it been previously applied to the printed classics 
in memory of the Venetian father and promoter 
of classical publications ? Or was it perhaps a 
chance admixture of these two ideas ? I forget to 
how many volumes the Delphin series extends, 
but even the brain of embryo royalty could hardly 
have waded through one-tenth of the number. 

C. LE POER KENNEDY. 

]_It must be borne in mind that the dolphin was the 
armorial bearing of the Dauphins of Auvergne from the 
time of Guy the Fat in the twelfth century. This may 
account for the origin of the name given to the celebrated 
collection known as the Delphin Classics, consisting of 
sixty volumes, printed between 1674 and 1694, and 
originally destined for the use of the Dauphin, son of 
Louis XI\ r . The device of Aldus Manutius was the 
anchor and dolphin, borrowed from a silver medal of the 
Emperor Titus, presented to Aldus by Cardinal Bembus. 
On one side of the medal was the hea'd of the Emperor ; 
on the reverse a dolphin twisted round an anchor; and 
the emblem, or hieroglyphic, is supposed to "correspond 
with an adage (o-n-e^fie /SpaSews) said to have been the 
favourite motto of Augustus. That venerable biblio- 
grapher Sir Egerton Brydges thus poetically eulogises 
the device of Aldus : 

" Would you still be safely landed, 

On the Aldine anchor ride ; 
Never yet was vessel stranded 
With the dolphin by its side. 

" Nor time nor envy e'er shall canker 
The sign that is my lasting pride ; 
Joy, then, to the Aldine anchor, 
And the dolphin at its side ! 

" To the dolphin, as we're drinking, 

Life, and health, and joy we send ; 
A poet once he saved from sinking*, 
And still he lives the poet's friend."] 

BARLEY SUGAR. Can you inform me whence 
the term " Barley Sugar " (a misnomer as far as 
barley is concerned) is derived? Am I ri^ht in 
supposing it to be a corruption from " Morlaix 
sucre ? " Sucre de Morlaix," in Brittany. T. C. 

[Barley sugar appears to have been so called, because 
formerly in making it the practice was to boil up the 
sugar with a decoction of barley. " Barley sugar, sao 
charum hordeatum . . . should be boiled up with a decoction 
of barley, whence it takes its name. In lieu thereof, they 
now generally use common water. To give it the brigh- 



[* Arlon, a lyric poet and musician.] 



ter amber colour, they sometimes cast saffron into it." 
Chambers's Cyclop. 1788. See also Ogilvie's Imp. Dic- 
tionary, and Pereira's Mat. Med. The corresponding 
French name is Sucre d'orge, " substance formce de sucre 
et d'eau d'orge, roulee en batons." (Bescherelle.) We 
have no knowledge of the " Sucre de Morlaix ; " but shall 
be happy to make acquaintance with it.] 

"ESSAIES POLITICKE AND MoRALL, 

By D. T., Gent. Printed by H. L. for Mathew Lownes, 
dwelling in Paules Churchyard, 1608. Small 8vo., pp. 
138. With Six pages of Title and Dedication to the 
Right Honojable and vertuous Ladie, the L-adie Anne 
Harington." 

Can any of your readers throw light on the 
authorship of this able and well-written series of 
essays ? Lowndes notes the existence of such a 
work, without saying in what collection it is to be 
found. J. M. 

[Attributed to Daniel Tuvill.' The work is in the 
British Museum.] 

LONGEVITY. I possess a thick duodecimo of 
about 500 pages, with the following title : 

" Viri Illustris Nicolai Claudii Fabricii de Peiresc, Se- 
natoris Aquisextiensis Vita, per Petrum Gassendum, &c. 
Hagse Comitis, 1651." 

In it there is given the following instance of 
longevity in England : 

"Praeter haec, copiose disseruit de hominum longasvi- 
tate, occasione illius senis, qui superiore Novembri occu- 
buerat in Anglia, post exactos annos centum et quinqua- 
ginta duos," p. 462. 

This was in the year 1636. Does any one 
know who this alderman of 152 was ? H. B. 

[" The old man in England" is no other than that, ex- 
traordinary instance of longevity, Thomas Parr; who, 
through the change .of air and diet in the court of Charles 
I., where he was exhibited by the Earl of Arundel, died 
in 1635, at the age of one hundred and fifty-two years 
and nine months. His body was opened b}' Dr. Harvey, 
who discovered no internal marks of decay.] 

WHITE ELEPHANT. I have recently seen an 
old portrait of a gentleman in blaek armour wear- 
ing a white elephant jewelled, suspended round 
the neck by a broad blue ribbon. Will some 
of your readers till me what this decoration 
means ? I am anxious to ascertain whom the por- 
trait represents. J. C. H. 

[The Order of the White Elephant of Denmark was 
instituted by Canute IV. in 1190, and renewed by Chris- 
tian L, some say in 1458, others in 1478. The collar of 
the order at first was composed of elephants and crosses 
formed anchor-wise. They were linked together, and 
suspended from them was an image of the Virgin Mar}', 
surrounded with a glory, and holding the Infant Jesus 
upon her arm. This badge and collar were afterwards 
changed ; and in the place of the former was substituted 
an elephant of gold and white enamel, with tusks and 
trunk of gold. It stands upon a mound of green ena- 
melled earth, and bears upon its back a tower or castle, 
furnished with lire- arms. This, above and below, is set 
with diamonds, and beneath the tower is a small cross 
consisting of five diamonds, which is placed on the side 
of the elephant. Upon the neck of the animal is seated 






2 nd S. IX. FEB. 11. 'GO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



a little Moor of black enamel, who holds a spear of gold 
in his right hand. This badge is suspended from a double 
gold ring, and the knights wear it attached to a rich, 
broad, sky-blue watered ribbon, which is worn scarf-wise 
over the left shoulder. The motto of the order is " Mag- 
naniini Pretium." Vide Historical Account of the Orders 
of Knighthood [by Sir Levatt Hanson], 2 vols. 8vo. No 
date.] 



DR. HICKES'S MANUSCRIPTS. 
(2 nd S. ix. 74.) 

During the first half of the last century a cer- 
tain registrar of the Consistory Court of Durham 
was in the habit of lighting his pipe with one of 
the old wills under his charge, and of glorying in 
his deed. "Here goes the testator," was his 
usual exclamation when so employed. That was 
bad enough, certainly ; but yet it was only a bit- 
by-bit destruction, and was at length arrested. 
But what are we to say of this literary holocaust, 
the consigning of " three large chests " of MSS. 
to the devouring element ? " Here goes the most 
learned author of Thesaurus Linguarum Septen- 
trionalium /" 

But it is not only on account of the loss of 
notes connected with philology that this wholesale 
destruction is to be deplored, but still more on 
account of additional materials for the history of 
the Conjurors and their proceedings being thus 
irrecoverably lost. Dr. Hickes was one of the 
f most prominent, and at one time was the main- 
stay and the sole rallying point of the succession 
of nonjuring bishops. On Feb. 24th, 1693, he 
was consecrated Suffragan Bishop of Thetford by 
the deprived Bishops of Norwich, Ely, and Peter- 
borough. Thomas WagstafFe was at the same time 
consecrated Bishop of Ipswich. The latter died Oct. 
17, 1712, leaving Dr. Hickes the sole surviving 
nonjuring bishop. In order, therefore, to per- 
petuate the succession, he engaged two Scotch 
bishops, Gadderar and Campbell, to assist him in 
consecrating others; namely, Jeremy Collier (the 
historian), Samuel Hawes, and Nathaniel Spinkes. 
This took place June 3rd, 1713. It is very remark- 
able that Gadderar had been himself consecrated by 
Dr. Hickes on 24th Feb. 1712, in London, assisted 
by Falconar and Campbell. There are several 
interesting letters from Dr. Hickes to T. Hearne, 
Dr. Charlett, &c. published in " Letters from the 
Bodleian Library and Ashmolean Museum," Lon- 
don, 1813, in none of which does he allude to his 
own episcopal character. I have no doubt, there- 
fore, that among the mass of papers destroyed 
there must have been many interesting memorials 
of the proceedings of the Nonjurors. I conclude 
with this Query, Did Dr. Hickes in his will give 
any directions about these manuscripts? Also, 
what is the reason why they were for upwards of 



a century consigned to the darkness of a lumber- 
room ? JOHN WILLIAMS. 
Arno's Court. 

[In a codicil to the will of Dr. George Hickes, dated 
July 18, 1715, five months before his death, is the follow- 
ing passage relating to his books and manuscripts : " I 
give all my manuscripts, letters, and written papers, re- 
lating to any controversies I have been engaged in, unto 
Mr. Hilkiah Bedford, with liberty to him to publish 
in part, or in whole, such of them as he shall think fit. 
I also give him such printed books of that kind as I have 
published, or to which I have prefixed Prefaces, Letters, 
or Dedications; as also such books as are therein an- 
swered by me. And after his decease, or that he shall 
have made such use of them as he shall think proper, I 
give them all to whom Mr. Bedford shall by his last will 
and testament appoint, as a proper person, with whom 
they may be deposited, and with them a catalogue of them 
all, as well such as I have already delivered to him, or 
shall hereafter deliver to him, as all the rest that shall in 
pursuance hereof be delivered to the said Mr. Bedford by 
my executor." 

It appears that Hilkiah Bedford was present at the 
death-bed of Dr. Hickes, and immediately despatched the 
following letter to Thomas Hearne, the Oxford antiquary : 

" Dec. 15, 1715. 

"DEAREST SIR, I received yours, and was waiting an 
opportunity to return the 16s. for the four subscriptions, 
when I was obliged, by very ill news, to write to )'ou 
immediately, before I could get that little bill. It is, Sir, 
to acquaint you, that after a long indisposition, from 
which we hoped he was now rather recovering, our 
excellent friend, the late Dean of Worcester, was at about 
twelve last night taken speechless, and died this morning 
soon after ten. I pray God support us under this great 
loss, and all our afflictions, and remove them, or us from 
them, when it is His blessed will." 

On Jan. 25, 1720, being the festival of St. Paul, Hil- 
kiah Bedford was consecrated a bishop at the oratory of 
the Rev. Richard Rawlinson, in Gray's Inn, by Samuel 
Hawes, Nathaniel Spinkes, and Henry Gandy. 

Hearne informs us that "Dr. Hickes "left Hilkiah 
Bedford his own books and a legacy in money, desiring 
that Mr. Bedford might write his life, which accordingly 
he undertook, but I know not whether he finished it." 
Hearne farther adds, under Dec. 1, 1724; "Mr. Baker 
of Cambridge writes me word that Mr. Bedford died Nov. 
25th last, about ten at night of the stone. By his will, he 
has left his wife and eldest son executors. He was 
buried on Sunday, Nov. 29, in St. Margaret's, Westmin- 
ster, the pall being held up by six friends of his own 
principles, and the office read by another." 

Hilkiah Bedford left three sons, William and John, both 
eminent physicians, and Thomas, a Nonjuring divine 
settled at Compton in Derbyshire. Hearne, in his Diary 
of Dec. 31, 1734, has the following interesting notice of this 
son : " Mr. Thomas Bedford, one of the sons of my friend 
the late Mr. Hilkiah Bedford, is now very inquisitive 
about the liturgies of St. Basil, St. Mark, St. James, St. 
Chrysostom, and other Greek liturgies, and hath wrote to 
me about them, to get intelligence about MSS. thereof 
in Bodley, well knowing, he saith, that there is nobody 
better acquainted with the MSS. there than myself. He 
wants the age of them, and other particulars, and a 
person to be recommended to collate such MSS. But 
having been debarr'd the library a great number of years, 
I am now a stranger there, and cannot in the least assist 
him, tho' I once design'd to have been very nice in exa- 
mining all those liturgical MSS., and to have given notes 
of their age, and particularly of Leofric's Latin Missal, 



106 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2d S. IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



which I had a design of printing, being countenanc'd 
thereto by Dr. Hickes, Mr. Dodwel), &c. It is called Leo- 
flic's Missal, because given by Bishop Leofric to his 
church at Exeter. See Wanley's catalogue in Dr. Hickes's 
Thesaurus, pp. 82, 83. Some part of this MS. is of later 
date than Leofric's time, and Mr. Bedford therefore de- 
sires to have my opinion of the antiquity of the canon of 
the Mass, which is one part of it. I wish I could, gratify 
Mr. Bedford." Thomas Bedford was the editor of a work 
by Simeon, a monk of Durham, entitled Libellusde exordia 
atque procursu Dunhelmensis Eccksia ; with a continuation 
to 1154, and an Account of the hard usage Bishop Wil- 
liam received from Rufus. Lond. Svo. 1732. Thomas 
Bedford died at Compton in 1773, and was buried at 
Ashborne. It is probable that the Bowdler manuscripts 
(now in private hands) may throw some light on the 
subsequent destiny of Dr. Hickes's manuscripts. ED.] 



BURGHEAD: SINGULAR CUSTOM: 
CLAVIE: DURIE. 

(2 nd S. ix. 38.) 

In addition to the two terms now requiring ex- 
planation, clavie and durie, your correspondent 
mentions a third " the baileys." This, it ap- 
pears, is a term invariably applied to the fortifica- 
tions that crowned the heights of Burghead, and 
is supposed to be a corruption of ballium^tliQ Lat. 
vallum. 

If the term "baileys" be thus of Latin origin, 
may we not suspect the same of the two terms 
now in question, clavie and durie? The dune, 
your correspondent informs us, is " a small artifi- 
cial eminence near the point of the promontory, and 
interesting as being a portion of the ancient forti- 
cations " (which, if not wholly Roman, are sup- 
posed to have been Roman in their origin). May 
not durie, then, be torre, which is the It., Sp., 
Port., and Romance form of the Lat. turris ? Cf. 
" Torres Vedras" near Lisbon (Turres Veteres). 
Cf. also with durie (the "small artificial emi- 
nence"), the Med-Lat. turella, and Fr. tourelle, a 
little tower. 

But of what nature was this durie, torre, turella, 
or little tower ? Standing as it did near the point 
of the promontory, may it not have been that very 
usual appendage to a stronghold overlooking the 
sea, a pharos or beacon ? For lighting up a 
beacon it became usual, according to Coke, instead 
of a stack of wood, to employ a "pitch-box" In- 
deed our usual idea of an old-fashioned beacon is 
a fire-box or tar-barrel upon a pole. This may 
explain why the lads of Burghead annually fix a 
pole into a barrel, into which tar is put; and why, 
when the tar has been set on fire, the barrel is 
shouldered, carried up to the durie, and there 
placed to burn : all very intelligible, if the durie 
itself was originally a pharos or beacon. More- 
over, suppose a promontory jutting out into the 
ocean, and at its seaward extremity a tower look- 
ing down upon the waves ; and we may at once 
understand the name of the village itself. Burg- 



head, that is, Burg Head, Burg being here equi- 
valent to the Gr. irvpyos, a tower. Cf. Todd's 
Johnson on Burgh, and Wachter on Burg. Burg 
Head, a head or promontory surmounted by a 
tower. 

But if "baileys" be ballium or vallum, and 
" durie " be torre or turris, what is " clavie ? " 

The clavie, be it borne in mind, is, according to 
your correspondent, the local name of the annual 
tar-barrel burnt on the durie. Several etymolo- 
gies of clavie might be suggested, but I will hazard 
only one. 

"Calefonia" was one form (2 nd S. iii. 289. 519., 
&c.) of " Colophony " or "Colofonia," an old name 
for resin, used also for tar or pitch. May not 
clavie, the tar-barrel, then, be a modified form of 
calefonia? Thus all the three terms, baileys, 
durie, and clavie, would agree in having a Latin 
origin. 

It does certainly appear, as your correspondent 
suggests, that the annual ceremony of the clavie is 
in part a remnant of old northern superstition, on 
which subject I would refer to Grimm's German 
Mythology, where he treats on the superstitious 
practices connected with fire and fire-nights (Deuts. 
Mythol. 1843-4, pp. 567-597., passim}. The Ger- 
man votaries threw into their great annual bon- 
fires offerings (" werfen in das Feuer Geschenke," 
p. 569.). So the Burghead youngsters, having 
set fire to the clavie, throw into the midst of 
the burning the staves of a second barrel, 
which they break up for that purpose. This is 
part of the annual rite. On the Weser the tar- 
barrel (Theerfass) is fastened on the top of a 
pine-tree (Tanne), and set fire to at night (p. 582.). 
So, at night, the clavie is carried burning on the 
top of a pole. From the German bonfires the 
brands, ere wholly consumed, were carried home. 
("Von den Branden trug man gern mifc nach 
Haus," p. 582.). So, the clavie being upset ere it 
has burnt out, fragments were formerly " carried 
home, and carefully preserved as charms against 
witchcraft." THOMAS BOYS. 



MALSH. 
(2 nd S. ix. 63.) 

The above word, slightly varied in form, is 
common in all the eastern counties, and probably 
elsewhere. In Lincolnshire we pronounce it 
Melch. It is only used when speaking of the 
weather, and signifies warmth united with mois- 
ture. A few years ago, when we had a bad 
harvest in this country, an old man met me one 
drizzling morning late in the month of August 
with the following salutation : 

" It's strange melch weather, sir ; I doubt the wheat 
'ill sprout, but it not sa bad yet as it was in ninety-nine ; 
that was the melchest time I ever knew, when we had 
to eat our bread with a spoon, it was so soft," 



& IX. FEB. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



Malsh is in no manner connected, either in 
meaning or by derivation, with marish. 

Marish as a provincial word is not known here. 
I question whether it is to be heard in the mouths 
of the common people anywhere. To Tennyson, 
however, does not belong the honour of its intro- 
duction into English literature. Marish is the 
English form of the mediaeval Latin word maris- 
cus* which latter is probably derived from the 
Anglo-Saxon mersc (old German marsch, whence 
our word marsh}. 

It is a fine old pleasant sounding word, for the 
use of which Mr. Tennyson has very good au- 
thority, as the following examples will show : 

Capgrave : 

" Then was the Kyng ful glad of this chauns, and 
gadered a grete boost, for to goo into Scotland: but 
whan he cam into that Lond, the Scottis fled onto wodes 
and raarices and othir gtranunge place." (Chronicle of 
England, p. 190.) 

Spencer : 

" Only these marishes and rayrie bogs." 

Faerie Queene, b. v. c. x. s. xxiii. 

The word marsh is used by Spencer a few 
stanzas previously. 
Markham (Gervaise) : 

" The more sedgie, marish, rotten, and fertile such 
grounds are, the fitter they are for the hauntes of such 
foule." (Hunger's Prevention, 1655, p. 8.) 

For other instances of the use of marish by 
Chaucer, Lord Berners, Raleigb, Milton, Dyer, 
&c., see Richardson's Dictionary under " Marsh." 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

The word melsh, or melch, as applied to weather, 
is by no means confined to the fen or marsh dis- 
tricts, being common enough in Yorkshire, where 
the writer has often heard it used. Indeed, Hal- 
liwell gives match as a Craven word. So Grose : 

" Melsh, moist, damp, drizzling ; inelsh weather. North. 
Mulch, straw, half-rotten." S. 

It seems, if not an onomatopoetic word, to be 
more connected with the A.-S. milts, mild, than 
with marish, or marsh. Cf. milce, pity, mildness ; 
and the well-known passage in Hamlet (Act II. 
Sc. 2.) : 

" The instant burst of clamour that she made 

Would have made milch the burning eyes of heaven." 

Where milch = moist, certainly gives the best 
sense. J. EASTWOOD. 

This word is pure Dutch, and has nothing 
whatever to do with marish, the old form of 
marsh. Malsch in Dutch means soft, tender, 
ripe (as applied to fruit), and would well describe 
the wet and boggy condition of the ground in 
rainy weather. How the word came to be used 



in Huntingdonshire I know not, unless, indeed, 
any considerable colony of Dutchmen came over 
at any time for the purpose of draining and em- 
banking the fens there. JAYDEE. 



BRASS AT WEST HEELING ; ET PRO QUIBUS 

TENENTUR." 
(2 nd S. viii. 417. 461. 541) 

If, as your correspondent H. HAINES alleges, 
there are very few sepulchral brasses on which an 
expression similar to the above is to be found, the 
same cannot be said of old wills ; for here, there is 
an embarras de richesses; and they all undoubtedly 
fix the meaning according to the Editor's ex- 
planation an obligation to pray. I will select 
a few specimens : 

Extract from the will of Sir Robert Ogle, 
Knt., dated 7th February, 1410 : 

" Volo eciam quod duo honesti et idonei capellani per 
xij annos ibidem pro anima mea, et Johannas uxoris mea? , 
ac omnium parentum et benefactorum nostrorum, et pro 
animalus quibus teneor, celebraturi inveniantur, horas ca- 
nonicas cum placebo et dirige singulis diebus & canone 
licitis prremissa dicturi, et quod sua salaria de terris meis 
in Northmidelton &c. eisdem capellanissolvantur." 

From the will of Alan de Newark, a dignitary 
of York, dated " Ebor. in fest. Trin." 1411 : 

" Item lego omnia alia bona mea distribuenda magis 
pauperibus et egenis in civitate Eboraci et locis aliis, et 
in alios pios usus, ad laudem Dei, et pro mea, et aliorum 
quibus astrictus sum animabus" 

And further on in the same will : 
" Item volo qubd ordinetur ut unus capellanus celebret 
in Ecclesia Ebor. ad altare Sancti Johannis Evangelists; 
pro anima Thomas fratris mei, et animabus parentum 
meoruni, et omnium eorum quibus tenentur, et anima mea, 
per xx annos proxime sequentes mortem meam ; ethabeat 
quolibet anno C s ." 

And once more in the same will : 
" Item volo ut residuum bonorum meorum pauperibus 
et egenis non fictis, pro animd Thomee fratris mei, et 
mea, et animabus parentum meorum et omnium eorum 
quibus sumus obligati, ac omnium fidelium defunctorum, 
fideliter et discrete distribuantur." 

From the will of Robert Wycliffe, Rector of 
Rudby, dated Sept. 8, 1423 : 

" Item volo qubd viginti libra? dentur duobus capella- 
nis celebraturis pro anima mea animabusque patris mei et 
matris, et omnium benefactorum meorum, et pro animabus 
omnium illorum pro quibus teneor, et sum oneratus exorare. 
Et volo qubd Johannes De Midilton sit unus de praedictis 
capellanis." 

From a will, in English, of Sir William Bulmer, 
Knt., dated 6 Oct. 1531 : 

" To the College of Staindrop and the Priests there, 
x 8 ., for tbe soules of my father and mother, and for my 
wyfs saull, and for all fhesaulls lam bound to pray for " 

From the will of Richard Burgh, Esquire, dated 
6 Dec. 1407 : 
" Item lego xiij marcas duobus presbyteris ad cele- 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. FKB. 11. 'GO. 



brandum per unum annum pro animabus Ricardi Regis 
Angliae, Ducis Northfol', Thomae Domini de Clyfford, 
Matthei de Redman militis, pro animabus amicorum 
meorum, et pro animabus omnium fidelium defunctorum, 
de quibus aliqua bona habni, et restitutionem non fed." 

My last extract shall be from the will of no less 
a personage than the celebrated Lord Chief Jus- 
tice Gascoigne, dated " Die Veneris proxime post 
festum Sanctse Lucise Virginis, A.D. MCCCCXIX.": 

" Item do et lego tribus presbyteris post decessum 
menm, tribus annis celebraturis, pro anima mea et ani- 
mabus Elizabeth uxoris me*, et parentum meorum, 
Domini Johannis fratris mei, et pro animabus quibus 
maxime sum obligates exorare, et animabus omnium fide- 
lium defunctorum, liiij marcas." 

This " pro quibus teneor orare " comprised a 
variety of spiritual obligations, not only to bene- 
factors and friends, but to those especially who 
might have been perverted, and led into sin by 
the testator, an obligation which would press it- 
self with great force on the conscience of a dying 
penitent, and urge him to adopt the only repara- 
tion in his power, the procuring of prayers for 
their spiritual welfare. 

Your learned correspondent F. C. H., though 
he prefers another explanation of the words on 
the West Herling brass, admits, I observe, the 
other solution also ; and I think, when he con- 
siders the commentary afforded by these testa- 
mentary expressions, he will acknowledge that it 
is the only solution possible. JOHN WILLIAMS. 

Arno's Court. 



SUNDRY REPLIES. 

Having perused some of the recent Parts of 
" N. & Q." I find there are several points upon 
which I can forward information. 

Scotch Clergy deprived at the Revolution (2 nd S. 
viii. 329. 390.) Although perhaps better adapted 
to meet the second than the first of these Queries, 
there will be found in the first of four quarto 
volumes (vol. A.) presented in 1783 to the Advo- 
cates' Library at Edinburgh by John Swinton 
Lord Swinton, and entitled 

" Kirk Manuscripts, Ane Account of the Names of the 
Ministers and Parishes since the Revolution 1689, distin- 
guishing the Episcopalian from the Presbyterian." 

Knox Family (2 nd S. viii. 400.) If the " Right 
Hon. William Knox, Under Secretary of State 
under Lord North's administration," be of the 
house of Knox, Earls of Ranfurly, your corre- 
spondent FALCON would find in the genealogical 
collections of Walter Macfarlane, Esq., of Macfar- 
lane, the eminent antiquary 

" An exact and well vouched Genealogie of the ancient 
Family of Knox or Knox of Ranfurlie, in the Barony 
and County of Renfrew, in the Kingdom of Scotland." 

Their descent is here traced from 

" Adam Filius Ucbtredi, who in the reign of Alexander 



the Second obtained from Walterus Filius Allani Senes- 
callus Scotiae the Progenitor of the Serene Race of the 
Steuarts, the Lands of Knock in Baronia sua de Ren- 
frew." 

These MS. collections are preserved in the 
Advocates' Library at Edinburgh, and hoAvever 
extensively quoted and referred to as a valuable 
repertory of historical and genealogical informa- 
tion, have never been published. References will 
be found plenteously in Douglas's Peerage, Chal- 
mers' Caledonia, &c. And in the Baronage of 
Scotland, it is recorded under " Macfarlane of 
that Ilk," 

" Walter Macfarlane of that Ilk, Esq., a man of parts, 
learning, and knowledge, a most ingenious antiquary, and 
by far the best genealogist of his time. He was possessed 
of the most valuable materials for a work of this kind of 
any man in the kingdom, which he collected with great 
judgement and at considerable expense; and to which 
we always had and still have free access. This suffici- 
ently appears by the many quotations from Macfarlane's 
Collection both in the Peerage and Baronage of Scot- 
land." 

As many of your readers would perhaps like to 
see an account of the family from which the great 
Reformer is held to have sprung, if you are willing 
to enrich your pages with their history, I shall be 
glad to transmit you a copy. 

Hour-Glass (2 nd S. viii. 488.) In reply to J. 
A. P. who inquires for illustrations from the old 
divines having reference to the hour-glass and 
the brevity of life, I beg to send him two from 
an author of the seventeenth century : 

" Our time to remain in this valley of misery is but 
short; therefore be diligent, O Christians! what know 
ye, but this may be the eleventh hour of the day with 
you, and but one hour to be spent? When sawest thou thy 
hour glass? Therefore be diligent, and upon the improve- 
ment of this much time as thou hast, depends thy ever- 
lasting estate." 

" What think ye of eternity, friends? Did you never 
call time cruel, cruel time, that hasteth not thy pace, 
that long Eternity might approach ? Were you never at 
that, if it had been in your power to have shortened your 
sand-glass, you would have given it a touch in the bygoing" 

It will be observed, however, that in these 
quotations the preacher refers to the hour-glass 
in its daily and familiar use amongst his hearers, 
making his appeal to the manner in which it 
mingled with their every- day thoughts and feel- 
ings, rather than to its employment in the pulpit 
or as present to their view. 

I need only remind your correspondent of the 
effective use made of this feature of the oldei 
time in George Harvey's Preaching of John Knox. 
Query. What is the name of the parish referred 
to ? WILLIAM GALLOWAY. 



REV. JOHN GENEST (2 nd S. ix. 65.) This gen- 
tleman was born in the year 1764, and after the 
usual routine of study at Westminster, was en- 
tered a pensioner at Trinity College, Cambridge, 



S. IX. FEB. 11. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



109 



of which society he became a scholar at the com- 
mencement of his second year, at which time 
he became intimately acquainted with Porson. 
Shortly after taking his degree, he entered holy 
orders, and was for many years curate of a re- 
tired village in Lincolnshire, and afterwards be- 
came private chaplain to the Duke of Ancaster. 
Retiring from the active duties of his sacred office 
on account of ill health, he removed to Bath for 
the benefit of the waters ; and during the intervals 
of leisure there afforded him, he compiled his 
great work, the History of the English Stage from 
1660 to 1830. After nine years of most acute 
suffering, he died at his residence in Henry Street, 
Dec. 15th, 1839, at the age of seventy -five, and 
was buried at St. James's Church. C. P. R. 

FIRELOCK AND BAYONET EXERCISE (2 nd S. ix. 
76.) I n copying the original document which is 
printed at p. 76. supra, I find I have omitted three 
of the evolutions as under : 

34. Shortne them against your 

brest - - 1. 2. ' 

35. Return your Ramers - - 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 

36. Your right hands under y e 

Locks - - 1. 

Instead of the order as printed, 
23. Cart about to charge - 1. 2. 

read 
23. Cast about to charge - 1. 2. 

JAMES GRAVES, A.B. 
Kilkenny. 

DESTRUCTION OF MSS (2 nd S. ix. 88.) Many 
years ago, upon the death of Sir Edward Howorth, 
who, for some years commanded the artillery in 
Spain under the Great Duke, the papers of the 
gallant General fell into the hands of a relative : 
the name I suppress. A very voluminous cor- 
respondence between Sir Edward and the Com- 
mander-in-Chief was destroyed, one letter only 
being reserved as a present to a friend, " who 
might perhaps like to have an autograph of the 
Duke." 

This letter, which I have seen, is one amongst 
many proofs of what the public is just beginning 
to find out, viz., that the Iron (?) Duke was, 
where the occasion justified it, as kind-hearted 
and gentle to his friends as he was formidable to 
his enemies. ANOTHER OLD PENINSULAR. 

DICKY DICKINSON (2 nd S. ix. 26.) In N. 
& Q." are enumerated several landslips which 
have occurred at Folkstone, and perhaps the fol- 
lowing, which is extracted from the London Ma- 
gazine for 1738, is fully as remarkable. Connected 
with it also was an extraordinary personage, who 
has already figured in your columns (Dicky Dick- 
inson, 2 nd S. ii. 189. 273.), and was a considerable 
sufferer therefrom. It was considered as a sub- 
terraneous convulsion, the soil and sand behind 
Dickinson's house being forced eighteen feet or 



more above its level for the distance of one hun- 
dred yards, so completely burying the spa springs 
that they were not again discovered till a diligent 
search for them had been made. We are not 
positive whether Dickinson died a little previous 
or just after this event.* The spa where Dickin- 
son and his mistress were living was so close to 
the sea, and so little defended from it, that he 
wrote 

"Neptune grown jealous of our pow'rs, 
Turns Me and Peggy out of doors." 

The earth after the above displacement settled 
in a slanting direction, and pleasure grounds have 
been formed on the spot, with zigzag walks, al- 
coves, &c. ; and what would be the astonishment 
of Dickinson could he view the various transposi- 
tions now apparent? Where his cottage stood, 
at an expense of more than 10,000/., have 
been erected concert, ball, and refreshment 
rooms, which are attended by many hundreds 
every evening during the season. It is stated 
that Dickinson was buried at the old church at 
Scarborough, but there does not appear that any 
monument was erected to him. On a flat stone, 
facing the south entrance of that church, is inserted 
a metal plate bearing the following inscription to 
the memory of Dicky Dickinson's successor in 
oflfce: 

" Here lyeth the body of MR. WILLIAM TYMPERTON, 
late Governour of Scarborough Spaw, who departed this 
Life on the 12th day of January, 1755, aged 65." 

EPSILON. 

SEA BREACHES (2 nd S. viii. 468.) I have now 
before me a pamphlet bearing the following lengthy 
title: 

"An Essay on the Contour of the Coast of Norfolk; 
But more particularly as it relates to the Marum-Banks 
and Sea-Breaches, feo loudly and so justly complained 
of. Read to the ' Society for the Participation of Useful 
Knowledge,' Oct. 20th, 1789, in Norwich. By M. J. Arm- 
strong, Geographer and Land-Surveyor ; Then a Brother 
of that respectable Association, and now a Member of the 
Society of Arts, &c., in London. Norwich : Printed by 
Crouse and Stevenson, and sold by Wm. Stevenson, in the 
Market Place, 1791," 4to. pp. 18. 

This essay directly relates to the principal sub- 
ject-matter of Note of Interrogation's Query ; and, 
if any such act as that referred to was passed in 
the reign of Anne or George I., the author could 
scarcely have failed to notice it from ignorance of 
its existence, assisted as he was in the compilation 
of his paper, by a communication from the Kev. 
Wm. Ivory of Horsey, a local antiquary of well- 
known intelligence and information. This conclu- 
sion becomes the more certain from the fact that 
the writer of the Essay, in describing the ravages 
committed by the inroads of the sea, and alluding 



[* The landslip took place on Dec. 29, 1737. Dickinson 
died on Sunday, February 12, 1738-9. See "N. & Q-," 
2dS. ii. 273. ED.] 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 2^ S. IX. FEB. 1K 60> 



to the remedies to be adopted for staying the evils 
thereby caused, directs especial attention to the 
statute law which bears upon the case. In so 
doing his only reference is to an act which he 
states had then become obsolete, of 7 Jas. I. c. 
20., continued by 3 Charles I. c. 5., and farther 
continued by 16 Charles I. c. 4., intituled " An Act 
for the speedy Recovery of many Thousand Acres 
of Marsh Ground and other Ground within the 
Counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, lately surrounded 
by the Rage of the Sea in divers Parts of the said 
Counties, and for the Prevention of the danger of 
the like surrounding hereafter." 

Note of Interrogation, if not already acquainted 
with the provisions of this statute, may easily 
perhaps become so ; and I will only farther state, 
that, on 27 Dec. 1791, very extensive sea-breaches 
occurred at Winterton, Horsey, and Waxham, 
when destruction was threatened to all the level 
marshes between those places and Yarmouth, 
Beccles, &c., and that again, in Nov. 1800, the 
sea broke through the banks in the-same localities, 
on which occasion the King's Arms Inn, on Sher- 
ringham Cliff, fell a prey to the waves. 

WM. MATTHEWS. 

Cowgill. 

HERALDIC DRAWINGS AND ENGRAVINGS (2 nd S. 
viii. 471.) I am much obliged to MR. PEACOCK 
for his reference to Petrasancta (2 nd S. viii. 523.), 
but this only informs me when the lines to indi- 
cate tinctures were invented, not when they were 
first used in this country. 

Your correspondent ACHE says (2 nd S. ix. 53.), 
that the earliest instance of the use of these lines 
in England, is " the death-warrant of King Charles 
I., to which the seals of the subscribing parties 
are represented as attached." Were not real wax 
seals affixed to so important a document ? Or 
does ACHE mean that mere sketches of the seals 
were drawn on the original ? 

I am still desirous of a farther reply to my 
Query. It seems hardly possible that the inven- 
tion of Petrasancta, in the sixteenth century, 
should never have been adopted in England till 
1649. 

Perhaps your correspondent, the REV. HERBERT 
HAINES, so learned in all that relates to monu- 
mental brasses, would kindly inform me, through 
your pages, what is the earliest instance he has 
met with in which the tinctures of heraldry are 
indicated by lines on a monumental brass. 

JAYDEE. 

CROWE FAMILY (2 nd S. ix. 46.) Your corre- 
spondent will find an account of the lineage of Sir 
Sackville Crowe in Burke's Extinct Baronetage, 
s. v. C. J. ROBINSON. 

KING BLADUD AND HIS PIGS (2 nd S. ix. 45. )~ 
In a book which I possess, entitled A Discourse of 
Bathe, by Th. Guidot, M.B., London, 1676 (p. 



55.), mention of Bladud is made, and a general 
reference to William of Malmesbury given ; and, 
in pp. 60-1., a quotation from Lidgate's transla- 
tion of Boccace's Riming History of Unfortu- 
nate Princes, fol. 31. I shall be happy to lend 
MR. BARHAM Guidot's book, if he should be de- 
sirous of seeing it. C. J. ROBINSON. 

ROBERT KEITH (2 nd S. ix. 64.) In Lawson's 
edition of Bishop Robert Keith's History of the 
Scottish Episcopal Church, Edin. 1844 : 

" It is asserted that Bishop Keith published, about 
1743, or 1744, some Select Pieces of Thomas a Kempis, 
translated into English. In the Preface to the second 
volume he is alleged to have introduced several addresses 
to the Virgin Mary, for which he was required to give an 
explanation by his brethren. As the present writer has 
failed to obtain any information regarding this perform- 
ance, he cannot offer an opinion to the reader. Tt is 
mentioned in a letter written to Bishop Rait, and in the 
Scots Mag., vol. xix. p. 54." 

The book of your correspondent is, no doubt, 
a later edition of the work here referred to, ori- 
ginally published at Edinburgh in 2 vols. 12mo. 
1721. J. O. 

THE YEA-AND-^AY ACADEMY OF COMPLI- 
MENTS (2 nd S. ix. 12.) -The title in full of this 
book is as follows : 

" The Quakers Art of Courtship ; or, the Yea-and-Nay 
Academy of Compliments, containing Several Curious 
Discourses, by Way of Dialogues, Letters, and Songs, 
between Brethren and Green-apron 1 d Sisters. As also, many 
Rare and Comical Humours, Tricks, Adventures, and 
cheats of a Canting Bully. With several other Matters 
very Pleasant and Delightful. Calculated for the Meri- 
dian of the Bull and Mouth, and may indifferently serve 
the Brethren of the Windmill-order, for Noddification 
in any Part of Will-a- Wisp-Land. By the Author of 
Teagueland Jests. London, Printed, and are to be sold 
by most Booksellers, 1710. Price bound, One Shilling." 

Collation : A (including woodcut, frontispiece, 
and title) to G, in twelves. The book, I believe, 
may be considered scarce. I do not recollect 
having seen any copy but my own. On referring 
to Teagueland Jests (London, printed in the year 
1690) I find they are anonymous. The Jests are 
not less rare than the Courtship. R. S. Q. 

BAVIN (2 nd S. ix. 25.) Here is an example of 
the use of this word : A Savin of Bays : containing 
various Original Essays in Poetry by a Minor 
Poet, Lond., 1762. The poet, evidently a Kentish 
one, says : 

" This Bavin will be found only to contain a little 
the spray -wood carelessly pilfered from about the precinct 
of Parnassus." 

J. 0. 

TAYLOR THE PLATONIST (2 nd S. ix. 28.) Some 
curious particulars respecting him will be found 
in Barker's Literary Anecdotes^ vol. i. p. 261. 

THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 



S. IX. FEB. 11. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



Ill 



NOTES ON REGIMENTS (2 na S. ix. 23.) Is not 
W. T. M. somewhat hypercritical in his remarks 
on "Vestigia nulla retrorsum," the motto of the 
Fifth Dragoon Guards? The three words, al- 
though they occur in two lines of Horace, are to 
be applied on their own meaning, without refer- 
ence to the context. They form the family motto 
of the Earl of Buckinghamshire, and of Levinge, 
Bart. 

In commemorating the services of a very gal- 
lant corps, the motto selected was doubtless in- 
tended to denote its forwardness in action that 
it never advanced backwards, or turned its back to 
the enemy. 

In the published records of the army, there is 
no explanation given of the motto. In 1 705, this 
regiment, then specified as Brigadier Cadogan's 
Horse, formed part of the army under the great 
Marlborough, and defeated four squadrons of 
Bavarian Horse Grenadier Guards, and took four 
standards, with a different motto on each, but the 
words in question were not among them. 

In 1751 a warrant was issued, regulating the 
standards, &c., of cavalry regiments. The second 
and third standards of " The Second Irish Horse" 
(or the Green Horse, from the colour of the 
facings), as the present 5th Regiment of Dragoon 
Guards was then styled, " were to be of full green 
damask, embroidered and fringed with gold ; the 
rank of the regiment in gold Roman characters 
in a crimson ground, within a wreath of roses 
and thistles on the same stalk, and the motto 
1 Vestigia nulla retrorsum' underneath," &c. 

S. D. S. 

The adoption of this motto from Horace (Epist. 
I. i. 73.) by the 5th Dragoon Guards, does not 
imply that they represent either the circumspect 
fox or the old and feeble lion in the fable, to 
whom the fox, in the language of Lokman (vi.) 
addresses the words, "I should enter willingly, 
but in examining the foot-prints (^je! i\51) of 

numerous animals who have entered, I cannot see^ 
one that has returned." We have the same fable 
in Greek (Bohn's Plato, iv. 346. n.) : 

" 2w? ti6i, ^Tfjcriv' el 8' aireijuu, eruyyi/wcret. 
yap l\vi} Or)pC(av e/j.' ftKaAA.' ov. 



TtSv 



r ye 
Twv OVK e^eis, o /act Seiei?." 



Mottoes and adapted quotations need not run 
on all fours with their originals. So Plato (Alci- 
biades, I. 123 A.) puts the words of this fox into 
the mouth of Socrates, in reference to " the im- 
pressions of coined money at Lacedaemon, as it 
enters thither, one may see plainly marked, but 
no where of its going out (ifrAvros Se ovSaprj &t> ns 
" 



- 

The chief duties of the Dragoon Guards are to 
>c in advance and to pursue a flying enemy after 
his ranks are broken; and therefore the motto, 



" No footprints backward," in reference to him- 
self or his horse, does not seem to be a mistake, 
but a very appropriate adaptation. It appears to 
be equivalent to the phrase " We can die, but not 
surrender." T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

HYMNS (2 nd S. viii. 512.) H. W. B. will find 
the original of " Lo he comes with clouds descend- 
ing " in the Rev. Charles Wesley's " Hymns of 
Intercession for all Mankind," 1758, and a verba- 
tim copy of it in the hymn-book now in use 
among the Wesleyans, A Collection of Hymns for 
the Use of the People called Methodists- ; the only 
variation being the use of thy instead of thine in 
the fourth verse. In Dr. liippon's Collection, 
1-787, verse three is omitted, and three other 
verses inserted in its place. In his preface the 
editor says, " In most places where the names of 
the authors were known they are put at full 
length ; but the hymns which are riot so distin- 
guished, or which have only a single letter prefixed 
to them, were many of them composed by persons 
unknown, or else have undergone some consider- 
able alterations." There is neither name nor ini- 
tial letter prefixed to this hymn, in consequence I 
suppose of the " considerable alterations." Sub- 
sequent collectors appear to have copied from 
Rippon rather than from Wesley, since most of 
them have one or other of the inserted verses, and 
scarcely any Wesley's third verse. The original 
was undoubtedly, I think, written by Wesley, 
though generally attributed to Olivers (frequently 
written Oliver). 

This may perhaps be accounted for as fol- 
lows : 

In Mr. Wesley's Sacred Harmony and in Select 
Hymns and Tunes Annext y the tune adapted to this 
hymn is called " Olivers ; " and in the edition of 
A Collection of Hymns for the People called Me- 
thodists, 1797, and several subsequent ones, the 
name " Olivers " appears at the head of the hymn 
as the name of the tune to which it might be sung. 
Perhaps some transcriber may have mistaken the 
name of the tune for that of the author of the 
hymn. 

The Rev. Thomas Jackson, in his Life of Thomas 
Olivers, says that he wrote both the hymn and 
tune. But, in his Life of the Rev. C. Wesley, he 
attributes the hymn to Wesley, and the tune to 
Olivers. C. D. H. 

THOMAS MAUD (2 nd S. viii. 291. 407.) If the 
following afford any information to OXONIENSIS, it 
is at his service. Authors seem agreed that 
Thomas Maud the poet and historian was born at 
Hare wood in 1717, where he spent his early 
youth, and received a liberal education ; as histo- 
rical writers are much in the habit of copying each 
other, this may or may not be true. Burke (Dic- 
tionary of the Landed Gentry} does not even men- 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



tion him in connexion with either branch of the 
family of Maud. He is, however, generally un- 
derstood to be, and no doubt was, a member of the 
Yorkshire branch, descended from Eustace-de- 
mont-alto, surnamed the Norman Hunter. His first 
entrance into active life appears to have been as 
surgeon on board the " Harfleur," Capt. Lord H. 
Poulet, who, on succeeding to the title of Duke 
of Bolton, appointed him agent for his northern 
estates. He resided at Bolton Hall. He travelled, 
making the tour of Italy, Spain, and Germany, 
and after visiting the northern countries of Eu- 
rope returned to his native country. He after- 
wards retired to Burley in Wharfdale, where he 
built Burley House, and spent the latter part of 
his .life, and died 23rd Dec. 1798, aged eighty-one 
years. His published poems are 1. Wensleydale, 
or Rural Contemplations, 4to. Of this there ap- 
pear to have been three editions, viz. 1771, 1780, 
and 1816. 2. Verbeia, or Wharfdale, descriptive 
and didactic, with Notes, 4to. 1782. 3. Viator, or 
a Journey from London to Scarbro 1 by way of 
Fork, with Notes Historical and Topographical, 
4to. 4. The Invitation or Urbanity, 4to. 1791. 
See Barker's Three Days of Wensleydale ; Moun- 
sey's Wharfdale; Jones's History of Harewood ; 
Hart's Lectures on Wharfdale, &c. C. F. 

MARRIAGE LAW (2 nd S. viii. 328.) -- M. hardly 
takes the right view of the law prevailing prior to 
the Act of Geo. II., although he is very near it 
when he says it was " the old law of Christendom," 
being in fact the civil or canon law although the 
English Jurists deny it, and deny at the same 
time that marriage ever was in the English law 
regarded as a sacrament. The essence of the 
Roman civil law of marriage, mistaken by M. for 
the Scotch, is consent. It need not be given, as he 
supposes, in presence of witnesses, but must be 
capable of being proved. In England, however, 
he will, I think, find no case in which marriages 
have ever been held valid unless performed in 
facie ecclesice. The explanation he requires is 
probably this that his old Encyclopaedia of 1774 
(Qy. Rees' ?) was partly the work of a Scotch 
compiler, who engrafted his own notions on an 
English stem. M'PnuN-s " OLD LAWYER." 

LLOYD, OR FLOYD, THE JESUIT (2 nd S.ix. 13.55.) 
Biographical memoirs of this celebrated Jesuit 
will be found in Sotovelli Bibl. Script. Soc. Jes., 
p. 449. ; in Oliver's Collections towards Illustrating 
the Biography of the Scotch, English, and Irish 
Members of the Society of Jesus, p. 94. ; and in 
Rose's Biog. Diet. THOMPSON COOPER. 

Cambridge. 

SIR HENRY ROWSWELL (2 nd S. ix. 47.) He 
was sheriff' of Devon in 1629, and sold Ford Ab- 
bey, in 1649, to Edmund Prideaux, Esq., second 
son of Sir Edm. Prideaux. See History of Ford 
Abbey, London, 1846. C. J. ROBINSON. 



NAMES OF NUMBERS AND THE HAND (2 nd S. viii. 
529.) Bosworth's Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, not- 
withstanding its general excellence, contains some 
etymologies which philology had already exploded 
prior to its publication in 1838 ; amongst these, 
by inadvertence, appears the absurd fancy of 
Jakel, who, in his German Origin of the Latin 
Language (p. 98.), states that the names of the 
numerals ten, twenty, and hundred are all derived 
from the Teutonic for hand. I say, by inadvert- 
ence, because Bosworth has shown in his intro- 
duction (p. iv.) that the names of all the numerals 
in the "Japhetic" class are derived from the oldest 
of that class, the Sanscrit. 

The English numeral ten and the German zehn, 
in common with all the other Germanic dialects, 
are from the Moeso- Gothic taihun ; as the Ro- 
manic dialects form this numeral from the Latin 
decem (pronounced dekc.m by the Romans) and the 
Greek 5e/ca. These, with the Gaelic deich and 
Celtic deg, .are all derived from the Sanscrit da- 
chan. If, therefore, the meaning of our word ten 
is to be sought, it may be found, according to a 
suggestion of Eichhoff (Vergleichung, p. 93.) in 
the Sanscrit word dach, to cut, to break, because 
the series from one, being broken, again com- 
mences, with the addition of one cypher. 

In like manner the English hundred and Ger- 
man hundert are from the Mceso-Gothic hund. 
So this number in the Romanic dialects is to be 
traced to the Latin centum (pron. kentuni) and the 
Greek e/caroV; and these, with the Gaelic dad 
(pron. hiad) and Celtic cant, are all from the 
Sanscrit chatan, which Eichhoff conceives to have 
been derived from cai, and, in reference to the 
second cypher, meaning to cease, to finish, to 
close. 

All the numerals in use by Europeans as well 
as by Persians may be traced, on comparison, to 
the Sanscrit, e. g. 1 unas, 2 dvi, 3 tri, 4 catur, 
5 pancan, 6 sas, 7 saptan, 8 astan, 9 navan. 

The Shemitic class of languages form their nu- 
merals very differently from the Indo-Germanic. 
The Hebrew, as best known, may be taken as a 
type of this class, e. g. 1 echad, 2 shenaim, 3 she- 
losha, 4? arbaah, 5 chamisha, 6 shisha*, 7 shevea, 
8 shemona, 9 thishea, 10 eshra, 100 meah. In 
none of the above words does the English hand, 
or its equivalent in the above languages, form 
any portion of the names of their numerals. An 
examination of Balbi's Atlas Etlmographique du 
Globe will show if the word hand or its equivalent 
is to be found in the numerals of any of the nu- 
merous languages known to comparative philo- 
logy. T. J. BUCKTON. 

CHALKING LODGINGS (2 nd S. ix. 63.) The 
custom recorded in the Liber Albus, of marking 



* The only numeral with a sound resembling the Indo- 
Germanic class. 



2nd S . IX. FEB. 11. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



with chalk lodgings claimed for the use of royalty, 
was observed at a much later period than that at 
which John Carpenter compiled the White Book 
of London (A. D. 1419). In the History of the 
Entry of Mary de Medicis in 1638, printed in 
the Antiquarian Repertory, vol. iv., there are se- 
veral allusions to the custom. During the pro- 
gress of the Queen Mother to the metropolis, the 
quarter-master put his chalk mark on all houses 
which he deemed requisite for the convenient 
lodging of the Queen's retinue. No sooner had 
her Majesty landed at Harwich, . than Sieur de 
Labat, valet-de-chambre and quarter-master to 
the Queen, began to use his chalks, and in obtain- 
ing suitable lodgings he found no difficulty, " be- 
cause every one vied with his neighbour in 
offering his house, as if they had considered it as 
a mark of honour to see their door chalked, since 
it was for the service of so great a princess " (p. 
524.). When the Queen Mother arrived at Col- 
chester, Sieur de Labat was again busy "marking 
the doors of all sorts of houses, which were the 
most commodious for him to appoint for lodg- 
ings " (p. 526.). 

This usage was one that feudalism had intro- 
duced at an early period in France. Although I 
cannot just now refer to it, I have read an allusion 
to the custom in an old romance. 

F. SOMNER MERRYWEATHER. 

Colney Hatch. 

FLOWER DE LUCE AND TOADS (2 nd S. viii. 471.) 
Extract from La Science Heraldique du Blazon, 
k Paris, M.DC.LXXV. 

"Robert Guaguin et Jean Naucler ont donne pour 
Armes & flos premiers Roys, predecesseurs de Clovis, de 
Gueules & trois Crapaux d'argent. Et Paul Mmile les a 
blazonne d'argent a trois Diademes de Gueules. Et Mon- 
sieur de Tillet dit que la fable (qui raconte que 1'Escu des 
trois Fleurs de Lys envoye" au Roy Clovis en 1'Abbaye de 
Joyenval, de 1'ordre de Premontre) fut invente'e du temps 
de Roy Charles VI. Les Blazonneurs de 1'Escu des Ar- 
moiries de France, au dire de Fauchet, voulans montrer 
que les premiers Fran9ois estoient sortis des Sicambres 
habitans des Marais de Frise vers le Pai's d'Hollande, 
donnerent a. nos Roys, la fleur de Pavilee, qui est un petit 
Lys jaune, qui croist sans les Marais de ce Pai's, en champ 
d'azur, qui ressemble a 1'eau, laquelle estant reposee, prend 
la couleur du Ciel, 1'an 1381. Le Roy Charles VI. redui- 
sit 1'Escu des Lys sans nombre, a. trois ; pour symbole de 
la Sainte TrinifeV' 

E. C. GRESFORD. 

RADICALS IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (2 nd S. ix. 
63.) A categorical answer cannot probably be 
given to this Query ; but some considerable ad- 
vance has been made in approximation. Adelung, 
in bis Mithridates, says the radicals in no language 
exceed a few hundreds. The radicals in any of 
the principal languages of Europe have not, I be- 
lieve, been ascertained or numbered; nor in so 
far as they are derivative languages can they be 
properly said to possess any radicals. Eichhoff 
'Kaltschmidt's translation, 196245.) has enu- 



merated 550 radicals in Sanscrit, to which he 
reduces 1288 Greek words and 947 Latin, besides 
a large number of French, Gothic, German, 
English, Lithuanian, Russian, Gaelic, and Celtic 
words. T. J. BUCKTOIC. 

Lichfield. 

GREEK WORD (2 nd S. viii. 88.) The Greek 
word which signifies " that which will endure to 
be held up to and judged by the sunlight," is 
The received etymology derives it from 

L. 



NOTES ON BOOKS. 

Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, of the Reign of 
Charles /., 16281629. Preserved in the State Paper 
Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office. Edited 
by John Bruce, V.P.S.A. (Longman & Co.) 

Every new volume of these Calendars furnishes fresh 
evidence of the importance of the great scheme of his- 
torical publication now being carried out under the super- 
intendence of the Master of the Rolls. The present, 
which is the third volume of the Series of the Calendars of 
Domestic State Papers of the reign of Charles I., is no 
whit inferior to its predecessors in interest or variety. For 
while it illustrates the political history of the period by 
the light which it throws on the Petition of Right, the 
expedition to Rochelle, the assassination of Buckingham, 
the dissolution of the Parliament of 1629, and the subse- 
quent prosecution of Sir John Eliot and other Members 
of the House of Commons, it contributes interesting ma- 
terials to the literature and biography of the time by 
new information respecting Leighton, Ben Jonson, Zouch, 
Townley, Gill, Galileo, Edmund Bolton, Abraham Darcie, 
and many others, as well as the proceedings of the 
Ecclesiastical Commissioners against the London book-, 
sellers for the publication of unlicensed pamphlets. And 
we are sure no lone could sit down to describe effectually 
the social condition of England as it then existed, with- 
out first studying the many illustrations of it to be found 
in this new and valuable" contribution to our stock of 
historical materials. 

The Bibliographer's Manual of English Literature, fyc. 
By W. T. Lowndes. New Edition revised, corrected, and 
enlarged by Henry G. Bohn. Part V. (Bohn.) 

No one an take up the present Part of Mr. Bonn's 
new edition . of Lowndes without admitting its great 
superiority to the original work. The article on Junius 
is certainly by far the most complete of any which we 
have ever seen. The series of Jest Books must number 
some hundreds. Nearly ten columns are occupied by the 
bibliography of Dr. Johnson's Works and the Johnsoniana. 
Under the head of London, including the cross references, 
there is a most copious account of the books, plans, &c., 
which have been published upon the great metropolis. 
But the feature of the present Part which will attract 
most attention, is Mr. Bohn's curious account of his 
being called in to value a collection of family papers, 
which in his opinion are calculated to unravel the Junius 
mystery. They are the political papers of Lord Holder- 
nesse : were then (in July, 1850) in the possession of the 
then Duke of Leeds, and Mr. Bohn believes that the 
facts which he has stated point out the head-quarters of 
information, and " account," to use Mr. Bohn's own 
words, " for some of the irreconcilable difficulties in ad- 
judicating on the claims of Sir P. Francis, who I believe 
to have been largely concerned, although not the sole 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



and unassisted writer." We may probably return to this 
subject on some future occasion. 

The Pre- Adamite Man, or the Story of our Old Planet 
and its Inhabitants, told by Scripture and by Science. 
(Saunders & Otley.) 

Our author attempts to establish the existence of a 
human race anterior to Adam, from the facts of Science 
and the narrative of Holy Scripture. But he is not equal 
to his self-imposed task. It is too early as yet to take 
for an established fact of science, that the stone celts 
found at Croydon and elsewhere were formed by the hand 
of pre-Adamite men, in the absence of any fossil remains 
of the men themselves. And how mere a tyro our author 
is in Biblical Science may be judged from the circum- 
stance that out of the two distinct records of creation, 
combined by Moses in the Book of Genesis, he attempts 
to make a record of two distinct creations ; being ap- 
parently ignorant of the two separate sources (well known 
among 'theologians as the Jehovistic and Elohistic docu- 
ments) upon which Moses framed his narrative. 

Addresses to Candidates for Ordination. By Samuel 
Lord Bishop of Oxfgrd. (J. H. & J. Parker.) 

These addresses, which were actually delivered at the 
successive ordinations of the Bishop of Oxford, are now 
published in a collective form by their gifted author, and 
form as eloquent and heart-stirring a manual of the 
pastoral care as any we have read. It is a volume which 
a sincere and earnest clergyman will hardly be able to 
lay down, except for such acts of devotion as it is designed 
to prompt. 

Hymns from the Gospel of the Day. By the Rev. J. E. 
Bode, M.A. (J. H. & J. Parker.) 

This little volume hardly sustains Mr. Bode's aca- 
demic reputation, and rarely (if ever) rises above the 
level of" pleasing verses." It is marred by some doggrel, 
and contains not a hymn which rivals the poetry of 
Heber, the pathos of Watts, or the bold flights of C. 
Wesley. 

Eucharistic Litanies from Ancient Sources. By the 
Rev. Orby Shipley, M.A. (Masters.) 

Full of grand and deep devotion. Admirable as is the 
one Litany of our own Church, the same ancient sources 
from which it was compiled would supply material for a 
good score of supplemental Litanies, equally rich and 
more varied. 



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B. S. is thanked for his kind note, but the book which he offers is not the 
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M. P. TODD. Mr. Riley's address is, we believe, 31. St. Peter's Square, 
Hammersmith. 

E. W. IT. Sir'-Thomas Browne, in his Vulgar Errors, speaks of the leo- 
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Major erit Glacies post festum quam fuit ante," 
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T. H. N. G. We cannot tell where our correspondent can find the book 
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W. P. The explanation o/Under the Rose given by Newton in his Her- 
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LIULPHUS. The present Earl is nephew to the late Earl. 

DESDICHADO will find much curious information respecting The Earl 
of Norwich and his son George Goring in our \st Series, especially in voL 
ii. p. 65., and a subsequent article by the late Lord Braybrooke at p. 86. of 
the same volume. 

Z. T)iere are no dramatic poems in George Huahes's Poems, 2 vols. 

1850 We cannot obtain a sight of Francis Bcnnock's work, The Stor m 

and other Poems. 

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creasing connexion, saving the great annoyance of returning them. 

A PINT SAMPLE OP BOTH FOR 24 STAMPS. 

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EXCELSIOR BRANDY, Pale or Brown, 15s. per gallon, or 30s. per 



TERMS, CASH. Country Orders must contain a remittance. Cross 
cheques " Bank of London." Price Lists forwarded on application. 
JAMES L. DENMAN, 65. Fenchurch Street, corner of Railway Place 
London, B.C. 



IX. FEB. 11. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



A CHROMATIC MICROSCOPES. SMITH, 

A BECK & BECK, MANUFACTURING OPTICIANS, 6. Cole- 
mSn Street London, E.G. have received the COUNCIL MEDAL of 
the GREAT EXHIBITION of 1851, and the FIKST-CLAS8 PRIZE 
MEDAL of the PARIS EXHIBITION of 1855, "For the excellence 
of their Microscopes." 

An Illustrated Pamphlet of the 101. EDUCATIONAL MICRO- 
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A GENERAL CATALOGUE may be had on application. 



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FOURTH DIVISION OF PROFITS. 

SPECIAL NOTICE. -Parties desirous of participating in the fourth 
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Sum Insured. Bonuses added, fl Amount pay able up to Dec., 1861. 
5,000 >gi,987 10s. 6,987 10s. 

1,000 397 10s. 1,897 10s. 

100 39 15s. 139 15s. 

Notwithstanding these large additions, the premiums are on the 
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death arises; in addition to which advantages, one half of the premiums 
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or deposit of the policy. 

The Assets of the Company at the 31st December, 1858, exclusive of 
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No charge for Volunteer Military Corps whilst serving in the United 
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Policy Stamps paid by the Office. 

Immediate application should be made to the Resident Director, 8. 
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P. MACINTYRE, Secretary. 



W 



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8. PARLIAMENT STREET, LONDON, S.W. 
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Actuary. Arthur Scratchley, M.A. 

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pors 



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LOANS from 100Z. to 500Z. granted on real or first- rate Personal 
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Attention is also invited to the rates of annuity granted to old lives, 
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& s. d. 

10 4 c to a male life aged 60) 
12 3 1 65 1 Payable as long 

14 16 3 ,. 70 f as he is alive. 

18 11 10 ., 75J 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. IX. FEB. 11. '60. 



NEW WORKS 

FOR 

GENERAL READING. 



This Day, crown 8vo., 7s. 6ef. 

THREE MONTHS' REST AT PAIT, 

In the Winter and Spring of 1859. 
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This Day, crown 8vo., with Frontispiece, 7s. 6d., 

THE GEM OF THORNEY ISLAND; 

Or,~The Historical Associations of Westminster Abbey. 
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Just published, fcap. 8vo., 6s., 

GEOLOGY IN THE GARDEN; 

Or, the Fossils in the Flint Pebbles, and their Teachings. 
With 106 Illustrations. 

By the REV. HENRY ELEY, M.A., 

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SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 18. 1860. 



C Price Fourpence. 
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THE QUARTERLY REVIEW, No. CCXIIL, is 
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CONTENTS : 

AUSTRALIAN COLONIES AND SUPPLY OF GOLD. 
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CHINA AND THE WAR. 

THE ROMAN WALL IN NORTHUMBERLAND. 
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REFORM SCHEMES. 

JOHN MURRAY, Albemarle Street, W. 



Just published, in 8vo., price Is. 6d., with Map, Plan, and Wood 
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'London : HAMILTON, ADAMS, & CO., 33. Paternoster Row, E.G. 

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LIFE OF RUBENS. 



Just published, price 16s. cloth boards. 

ORIGINAL UNPUBLISHED PAPERS 

ILLUSTRATIVE OP THE LIFE OP 

SIR PETER PAUL RUBENS. 

WITH AN APPENDIX, 

Containing manV important and valuable Documents respecting the 
Formation of the Arundelian Collection of Works of Art ; the 
Collection of Pictures formed by Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset ; 
the purchase of " the Great Mantuan Collection " for Charles the 
First ; and also in relation to the Artists and Patrons of Art of 
that period. 



COLLECTED 



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Office). 

" Mr. Sainsbury has discovered in H. M. State Paper Office docu- 
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formances .... and a variety of particulars informing as to the 
acquisition of some of the masterpieces of art in our English Collec- 
tions." The Times. 

" It is a volume which should find favour with the public at large, 
for its hero belongs to us all." Athenaeum. 

" Mr. Sainsbury has been labouring in the State Paper Office not in 
vain. His volume will, among other things, throw a light on the in- 
troduction of many of the great artist's works into this country, as 
well as on his connection with the English Court." Spectator. 

" Mr. Saiusbury has made a most important contribution to the His- 
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NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



FEB. 18. '60. 



THE CAMDEN SOCIETY, 

FOR THE PUBLICATION OP 

EARLY HISTORICAL AND LITERARY REMAINS. 



The following Books have been issued to the Members in return for 
the Subscription of One Pound, due 1st Alay, 1859 : 

I. DIARY OF THE MARCHES OF THE ROYAL ARMY during 
the Great Civil War, kept bi/ Richard Symonds, now first published from 
the Original MS. in, the Brit. Mm. Edited by CHARLES EDWARD 
LONG, M.A. 

II. ORIGINAL PAPERS ILLUSTRATIVE OF THE LIFE AND 
WRITINGS OF JOHN MILTON, now first published from MSS. in 
the State Paper Office. Edited by W. D. HAMILTON, Esq. 



The following Works are just completed at Press : 

I. LETTE RS OF GEORGE LORD CAREW, afterwards Earl of Tot- 
nes, to Sir Thomas Roe. Edited by JOHN MACLEAN, Esq., F.S.A. 

II. NARRATIVES OF THE DAYS OF THE REFORMATION, 

and the Contemporary Biographies of Archbishop Crahmer : selected 
from the Papers of John Foxe the Martyrologist. Edited by JOHN 
GOUGH NICHOLS, Esq., F.S.A. 

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PHOTOGRAPHIC EXHIBITION, The 
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O LET to any SOCIETY connected with FINE 

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ID 



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NOW BEADY, PBICE SIX SHILLINGS. 



S E R 

PREACHED 



M O N S 



IN WESTMINSTER: 

BY THE 

REV. C. F. SECRETAN, 

Incumbent of Holy Trinity, Vauxhall Bridge Road. 
The Profits will be given to the Building Fund of the West- 
minster and Pimlico Church of England Commercial 
School. 

" They are earnest, thoughtful, and practical of moderate length 
and well adapted for families." English Churchman. 

" Practical subjects, treated in an earnest and sensible manner, give 
Mr. C. F. Secretan's Sermons preached in Westminster a higher value 
than such volumes in general possess. It deserves success. "Guardian. 

" The sermons are remarkable for their 'unadorned eloquence' and 
their pure, nervous Saxon sentences, which make them intelligible to 
the. poorest, and pleasing to the most fastidious. . . . There are two 
wherein Mr. Secretan displaysnot only eloquence but learningthat on 
the Mosaic account of the creation as reconcilable with the revelations 
of geological science, and that on the Latin service of the Romish 
Church _ both showing liberality, manliness, and good sense. " 
Morning Chronicle. 

" Mr. Secretan is no undistinguished man : he attained a considerable 
position at Oxford, and he is well known in Westminster where he has 
worked for many years no less as an indefatigable and self-denying 
clergyman than as an effective preacher. These sermons are extremely 
plain simple and pre-eminently practical _ intelligible to the poorest, 
while there runs through them a poetical spirit and many touches of 
the highest pathos which must attract intellectual minds." Weekly 
Mail. 

" This volume bears evidence of no small ability to recommend it to 
our readers. It is characterised by a liberality and breadth of thought 
which might be copied with advantage by many of the author's bre- 
thren, while the language is nervous, racy Saxon. In Mr. Secretan's 
sermons there are genuine touches of feeling and pathos which are im- 
pressive and affecting; notably in those on 'the Woman taken in 
Adultery,' and on ' Youth and Age.' On the whole, in the light of a 
contribution to sterling English literature, Mr. Secretan's sermons are 
worthy of our commendation'" Globe. 

London: BELL & DALl)Y, 186. Fleet Street, B.C. 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 

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GENERAL INDEX 



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FIRST SERIES, Vols. I. to XII. 

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NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



115 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 18. 1860. 



N'. 216. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: Letter of John Bradshaw, 115 Witty Quota- 
tions from Greek and Latin Writers, 116 Scotish Ballad 
Controversy, 118 Old London Bridge, 119 Tablets for 
Writing: Wax and Maltha, 120 Archers and Riflemen, 
16. 

MINOR NOTES: Lord Eldon a Swordsman Tinted Paper 

Eleanor Gwyn First Coach in Scotland Fore- 
shadowed Photography, 121. 

QUERIES: Maria, or Maria, 122 Archbp. Whateley 
and "the Directory," Ib. Rubrical Query Dutch 
Clock with Pendulum by Christiaan Huyghens Songs i and 
Poems on several Occasions Chalk Drawing Allitera- 
tive Poetry Archbishop King's Lectureship Judge 
Buller's Law Family of Havard Songs wanted Glou- 
cester Custom Col. Hacker Clergy Peers and Com- 
monersSir W. Jennings Hospitals for Lepers Mr. 
Lyde Browne Tumbrel William Pitt's Portrait 
Arms, 125. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Old Welsh Chronicles 
" Gumption " Wm. Stuart, Abp. of Armagh Gender of 
Carrosse Anonymous Ballad Opera, 125. 

REPLIES : Dominus regnavit a Ligno : Psalterium Grae- 
cum Veronense, 127 Rev. Alexander Kilham, Ib. Dr. 
Hickes's Manuscripts, 128 Scottish College at Paris, Ib. 

Philip Rubens Cockade Dinner Etiquette Sepul- 
chres The Prussian Iron Medal " The Voyages," &c., 
of Captain Richard Falconer Ballads against Inclosures 

Donkey The Label in Heraldry, &c., 129. 
Notes on Books, &c. 



LETTER OF JOHN BRADSHAW. 

[The subjoined curious and interesting letter by the 
President of the High Court of Justice which tried and 
condemned Charles I. is valuable as containing some par- 
ticulars of the early life of this celebrated man not 
generally known, j'ohn Bradshaw was the third son of 
Henry Bradshaw of Marple in Cheshire, living in Wy- 
berslegh, 1606, and buried at Stockport, 3rd Aug. 1654. 
In the register of Stockport, the baptism of John is thus 
entered : "John, the sonne of Henrye Bradshaw of Mar- 
pie, was baptized 10th Dec. 1602." Opposite to this the 
word Traitor is written in another hand. The President 
relates in his will that he had his school education at 
Bunbury in Cheshire, and Middleton in Lancashire ; and 
tradition adds that he was also for some time at Mac- 
clesfield, and while there wrote the following sentence on 
a stone in the churchyard : 

" My brother Henry must heir the land, 
My brother Frank must be at his command ; 
Whilst I, poor Jack, will do that 
That all the world shall wonder at." 

Bradshaw served his clerkship with an attorney at Con- 
gleton ; was admitted into the society of Gray's Inn, 15th 
March, 1620, and called to the bar 23d April, 1627. Sir 
Peter Legh of Lyme, knight (Bradshaw's correspondent) 
was sheriff of Cheshire, 1595, M. P. 1601, and died in 

-ED.] 

I find amongst my papers the inclosed copy of 

a letter written when he was a student at Gray's 

Inn by John Bradshaw, afterwards President of 

1 ligh Court of Justice for the trial of Charles I: 

It was given to me by an antiquarian friend, who 

d it from the original, which 1 think he stated 

.9 in the possession of the descendants of the 

person to whom it was addressed. If you think 



it would interest the readers of " N. & Q." it is 
at your service. 

JOHN P. POWELL. 

" WORTHY SUR I receyved yo r Answer to my 
last Ire by yo r servant Birchenhalgh ffor w ch I 
humblie thanke you, assuring my self thereby of 
yo r continued flavor in theise my troublesome 
stormes, towards me so meane & unworthy of the 
least expression of yo r love : But for all this yor 
goodness I shall p'myse you this payment, to 
wryte it w th a pen of brasse in the tables of my 
heart, w ch can as yet resound onelie prayse & 
thanksgyving. Concerning my Ire to my ffather 
I will onelie say thus much, It had too much 
Reason on my syde, for so impartiall a Justice as 
he knew yo r self was to see & arbitrate my cause, 
ffor the ballance of neutralitie wherein he sup- 
posed he held you would questionles on his part 
be y r by ov r turned. But let him do what he please, 
he shall soon r be wearie of aflicting, then I will be 
of suffering, and by the grace of God I will shew 
myself a sonne, though he cease to be my ffather. 
But to end this unpleasing argu mt , I will onelie in 
conclusion ppound this one Dilemma unto yo r 
noble Construction. What ffruit that ffather may 
expect to come of his sonnes studyes that wit- 
tinglie doth suppresse the instrument of his la- 
bors, and wittinglie keepe in ffetters the freedom 
of his mynd, w ch is that chosen toole appoynted 
for the fynishing of all such high attemptes, and 
whether the worke imperfect by reason of such 
Restraint, be layd to his charge that assumed it, 
or to him that was the Impediment, and yet was 
bound to have helped the Accomplishing of the 
Enterpryse. I know S r you understand, and by 
this short question, you may guesse what may 
furth r be urged, but I leave all to y r judgm*, and 
reposing myself on yo r worth I feare no dis* 
astrous censure. 

"ffor neglecting the Exercyses of the howse, 
it is a fryvolous objection. Himself hath been 
satysfyed in it, and Mr. Damport will justify me, 
knowing I never neglected but one Exercyse of 
myne own, w ch vras to argue a case w ch according 
unto course another should have done for me at 
my first coming to the house, and I by ffeeing the 
Butler did of purpose neglect it, onelie deferring 
the tyme, that after I had been heere a whyle, I 
might plead the case for myself; w ch is so far 
from a fault, that, contrarywise the best students 
have ever taken this course, and is and hath been 
comended of those that understand it, and hereof 
I very well know my ffather cannot be ignorant, 
having been acquaynted therew th . But it . eemeth 
how prone he is to take exceptions agaynst me, 
when fynding nothing blameworthy, he returnes 
that for a fault w ch deserveth allowance and 
prayse. Concerning Mr. Damport, he is a worthy 
gentleman ; his love to me doth cause me to re- 
spect him and his worth, in honestie to regard 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. IX. FEB. 18. '60. 



him. But I thanke you for your noble advyse, 
and should esteeme myself base not to pursue and 
follow it, still way ting a good howre, when God 
shall be pleased to enable me to give lyfe unto 
my words by deeds equyvalent thereto. In the 
meane tyme, the trybute of a thankfull heart I 
pay you. 

" Ffor o r domestique news, I have sent you the 
cause of my Lo. of Oxford, w ch is to be heard 
this Terme. The plot it is thought hath been to 
terryfie him so from his Offyce, as to yeld his 
place of High Chamberlayn of England to the 
high swolne ffavoryte and his famylie, w ch his 
great heart will never yeld to ; and therefore to 
make him, if not depending, beholding to his 
greatest Enemie, it is lykelie, for his words he 
shall be shrewdlie censured, and so remayne in 
Durance till Buckingham returne from Spayne 
and gratify him w th his libertie and a release of 
his ffyne, and so asswage his stomacke by this his 
plotted good turne. As it succeeds, I will cer- 
tyfie you. The Ships are yet on the Downes, 
having been crossed and kept backt by contrary 
wyndus from their voyage. We heare no newes 
from Spayne, nor have not heard, this month, 
onelie as it is suspected, the Princes Entertaynm* 
continues not so gloryous as it hath been. It is 
hitherto a true observation that England hath 
been ffatall to Dukes, but above all most omy- 
nous unto the Dukes of Buckingham, of w ch the 
Marquesse hath the tytle, and lykewise Earle of 
Coventrie, and the Duke of Lenox is created 
Duke of .Richmond and Earle of Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, and more Dukes and Earles are expected 
to honor this liberall age. Kit Villers is made 
Earle of Anglesey in recompense of Barkshyre's 
escape, and to increase the kindred, hath marryed 
w th Shelton, his moth r ' s sister's daughter, but we 
are all so used to wonders that this is none at all. 
Lenox, Arundell, Pembroake, and some other 
Nobles who are styled the Lords of the Recep- 
tions have been at Southhampton and Portsmouth 
to p'pare royall lodgings and enterteynment for 
the Prince and his Bryde of Spayne whensoever 
they arryve. 

" Ffor o r forreyn News I have sent you all we 
have had any tyme this month, amongst w ch I have 
sent you the parliam* of Regenspurgh, holden by 
the Emperor and his Princes, wherein you may 
see what is done for the disposing of the Elector- 
ship of the forlorne Palatyne, a discourse not un- 
worth yo r knowledge, who I am sure are as 
zealous for the good of the country and ffriends 
as those that beare greater sway and have better 
power of performance, be they but subjects of 
England. To conclude all my relatyons, I will 
tell you of one mad prancke that happened w th in 
theise two nights. S r Thomas Bartley was ar- 
rested hard by Grayes Inne for 4000 ls debt, and 
was carryed to the higher end of Holborne, and 



committed under custody : About 12 of the clocke 
at night some Gentlemen of o r howse and of Lin- 
colnes Inne, met togeth r for his Rescue, broke 
downe the howse, tooke him away w th them, beat 
the Constables, Serjeants, and Watchmen, and 
though St. Gyles was raysed and almost all Hoi- 
borne, yet they with their swords and pistolls 
kept them of, and brought him along to Grayes 
Inne, there were dyvers hurt with Halberds and 
about 200 swords drawn, and at least 2000 people. 
There are 5 or 6 gent taken and sent to New- 
gate, and wee heare that the names of above 60 
gent, are gyven up to the King, what will be 
done about we shall know in tyme. There are 
more murthers, drownings, deaths, and villaynies 
then hath been known in London of long tyme 
before. I had almost forgot the Moderator, a 
booke uncerteyn wheth r wrytten by a papist or a 
statesmen (for indeed they are now so linked, as 
scarce can admit distinguish" 1 *) for p r paring a 
way to reconciliation betwix the Papists and us ; 
howsoev r by whomsoev r or to what end soev r it is 
penned, it is a treatise I am sure excellently 
curyous and cautelous, and may stand o r syde in 
much stedd when they please to make use of it. 

" I will now drawe to an end, intreating yo r wo p 
not to miscensure my forwardnes in taking notice 
of theise things, for it agrees w th my genius to 
have some smattering herein, neyther do they any 
whyt hinder but further my studyes and judgm 1 . 

" And so with most humble thanks for all yo r 
wo ps favo r % I remayne yo r debtor for them, be- 
seeching God Almightie to p r serve and p'sper you 
for the good of many and my most specyll com- 
fort. 

"Ever resting 

" Yo r wc pi to dispose, 
** Jo. BRADSHAW." 

" Grayes Inne the 
First day of the Terme." 

" (Directed) To the Right WorP 1 " 

S r Peter Legh, Knight, att 

Lyrae in Cheshyre." 



WITTY QUOTATIONS FROM GREEK AND 
LATIN WRITERS. 

Query, whether the numerous classical scholars 
who read your periodical would form and con- 
tribute a collection of WITTY quotations from 
Greek and Latin writers ? 

Query, whether such a collection might not be 
entertaining to those in whom modern publications 
or the occupations of life have not extinguished 
the love of ancient literature ? 

NOTE. By witty I do not mean apt in its usual 
sense. When Burke, speaking in the House of 
Commons on taxation, and the necessity of public 
economy, introduced these words from the Para- 
doxa of Cicero (6. 3.), "non intelligunt homines 



S. IX. FEB. 18. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



quam magnum vectigal sit parsimonia," that was 
an apt quotation, in so much as it confirmed bis 
argument by the testimony of one who was long 
conversant with public affairs as a statesman. 
Lord Clarendon's KT^O. ts ae: selected from Thu- 
cydides as the motto of his History was apt, and 
somewhat arrogant, but time has sanctioned it. 
Very often quotations are, not arguments, but 
illustrations, or they point out direct likenesses or 
differences. A late tourist, Mr. C. Weld, com- 
pares the chesnuts of the Limousin with those in 
Virgil's Eclogue : 

"Sunt nobis mitia poma, 
Castaneae niolles " 

and contrasts the tuneful Cicala of the neighbour- 
hood of Arcachon with the Cicada of the same 
poet : 

" Et cantu querula rumpent arbusta cicada;." 

Apt quotations might be produced on a vast 
variety of subjects, their aptness consisting in 
this, that the words are applied in the same 
sense in which they were first employed. But 
the excellence of a witty quotation is exactly the 
reverse : the secondary sense differs from the 
first ; and the ingenuity is greater in proportion 
as the two senses are more remote. It is the 
essential property of wit to discover points of 
likeness in things apparently dissimilar. 

I do not doubt that many of the readers of "N. 
& Q., whose scholarship is more fresh than mine, 
and their range of reading wider, could, if they 
were so disposed, enlarge a collection of which the 
following sentences are specimens : 

1. Dr. Samuel Parr shall have 'the first place. 
'E/C Ai'os apxw/j.((rOa. 

In 1822 I dined with him at Hatton : the con- 
versation turned on many of the great men of his 
day ; and of Edmund Burke he said, " I have 
heard him on many subjects, political and reli- 
gious, but never did he appear to me greater than 
on one occasion when he talked about Free- Ma- 
sonry." One of the company asked if he spoke in 
favour of the fraternity or against them. " Sir," 
said Parr, " he conversed wisely and eloquently 
on both sides :" 

" Tv$t(Sr)v 8' OVK av yvoujs irorepoiat, /xereirj." II. e. 85. 

2. The same " old man eloquent " told me also 
the following story. In his time there was at 
Cambridge a barber who, by his skill and civility, 
became a favourite with the young men ; so they 
presented him with a silver bowl bearing this in- 
scription : 

" Radit iter liquidum." Virgil. 
I. As Burke has been introduced as the subject 
of one witty quotation, he shall appear as the 
author of another. After a contested election the 
successful candidate was chaired by his political 
friends amidst the acclamations of the multitude. 
Burke's attention was drawn to the scene. I see 
him ; he said, 



" Numerisque fertur 
Lege solutis." Horace, Ode 4. 2. 11. 

4. The following story is perhaps from Athe- 
nasus. I heard it from Richard Kidd, a scholar 
of eminence in his day. At Athens a carpenter 
and a potter quarrelled about a fair damsel, and 
as each of the suitors threatened to carry her off, 
the father brought the case before the magistrate. 
He listened to the parties, and then said to the 
carpenter, 

" MT/TC (TV TOI>&\ dya0os ""ep ewf, aTroai'peo Kovprji'," 

And to the potter, 



." H- a > 277. 

5. Wit is sometimes pathetic, not always jocose. 
When Julian, the nephew of Constantine the 

Great, was invested with the purple, he repeated 
to himself the following line from his favourite 
Homer, at once descriptive of his fears and pro- 
phetic of his fate : 

"*EAA.a/3e rrop^vpeos Odvaros ical /xotpa KpaTaiij." .77. c. 83. 

(See Gibbon, vol. iii. p. 188.) 

6. In the years 1808 and 1809 the Edinburgh 
Review contained two very severe criticisms on the 
educational system pursued at the University of 
Oxford. A reply was published by Copleston 
(late Bishop of Llandaff), an answer to that reply 
by the reviewers in their April number, 1810, and 
the whole controversy was ably discussed by the 
Rev. John Davison, then Fellow of Oriel College, 
Oxford, in the Quarterly Review for August, 1810. 
In these several publications may be found speci- 
mens of all the weapons of literary warfare, lawful 
and unlawful, from the' most polished satire which 
" makes the dangerous passes as it smiles " down 
to vulgar personal abuse. We are concerned only 
with the witty quotations introduced by the de- 
fendant, the aggressor, and the judge : 

Defendant. " 'A*EYAEI 5e n-pbs OLK^OVI XAA- 
KEYE yAwo-o-ac." Pindar. 

Aggressor. " Tale tuum nobis carmen, divine Poeta, 
Quale sopor." Virgil. 

Judge. In order to appreciate the third quota- 
tion (the happiest of all in my judgment) one 
must recollect that the articles in the Edinburgh 
Review were supposed (by some persons) to have 
been the joint production of Playfair, Payne 
Knight, and Sydney Smith. Be this as it may ; 
at all events the number of the aggressors is 
assumed by the Quarterly reviewer to be three: his 
quotation is from Lucretius (Lib. v. 94.) : 

" Horum naturam triplicem, tria corpora, Memmi, 
Tres species tarn dissimiles, tria talia texta, 
Una dies dedit * exitio." 

7. It is likely that many classical witticisms might 
be found in the writings of Sydney Smith, the 
greatest humorist of modern times. I give one 



The word is "dabit" in Lucretius. 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



s. IX, FEB. 18. '60. 



from the first volume of his Works, with his own 
translation and his own remark on it : 

" The motto I proposed for the [Edinburgh"] Review 
was 

' Tenui musam meditamur avena.' 

' We cultivate literature upon a little oatmeal.' 
But this was too near the truth to be admitted." 

8. : 

A. "I am told our new medical practitioner comes 
from your neighbourhood. What do you think of him ? 
Does he send much physic? Does he make frequent 
visits? 

B. "Yes. 

" IIo\Aas 5' i</>0ijmous </a/x<i? ai&t. irpotatyev." Hom. II. a. 3. 

Still I like him, for he cured me. Last month I dined, 
and danced, and supped, and topped up with brandy and 
water, and the next day I felt as sick as a dog : bilious 
derangement and all manner of bad symptoms imVa'rdly. 
I wrote my case to him and he sent me some powders, 
with these two lines from Virgil: 

1 Hi tanti motus atque haec certarnina tanta 
Pulveris exigui jactu compressa quiescunt.' " 

Virg. G. 4. 8G. 

9. : 

Radical. " If I can get such a reform bill, and such a 
House of Commons as I want, the very first measure they 
pass will be the confiscation of Church property. All the 
parsons will go to grief. 

Old Tory. " Of course they will ; the plan is as old as 
the time of JEneas: 

' Due nigras pecudes, ea prima piacula sunto.' " 

Virg. Jn. 6. 153. 
10.: 

A. "Any sport, fishing? Caught a salmon yet, eh? " 

B. "Yes. 

' Vidi et crudeles dantera Salmonea poenas.' " 

Virg. jEn. 6. 585. 
11.: 

A. "Do you never get thrown off that kicking horse 
of yours?" 

B. " Not T ; I am ' servantissimus sequi.' " Virgil. 

12.: 

A. "So you think promotion goes more by interest 
than merit? " 

B. "Yes, I do. Look at those five young officers." 

A. " Well, what then : who are they ? " 

B. " Quinque subaltern! totidem generalib us, orti." 

Aldrieh's Logic. 
13.. 

A. " Is not Percy a bit of a dandy ? " 

B. " Yes. Don't you know what old G. said to him ? 

' Persicos odi, puer, apparatus.' " Jffor. 1. 38. 1. 
14.:- 

A, " What do you think of this bad bright half-sove- 
reign ? Is it not a good imitation ? " 

B. "Yes : it is ' splendide mendax.' "/Tor. 3. 11. 35. 

J. O. B. 
Loughborough. 



SCOTISH BALLAD CONTROVERSY. 
We suspect the dispute has attracted much 
more attention than it deserves, for discussions 



based entirely on what is termed internal evi- 
dence are in most cases unsatisfactory, and when 
applied to traditional poetry, utterly delusive. 

Sir Patrick Spence may or may not be an old 
ballad. This may be remarked of the other al- 
leged fabrications of the wonderful Lady Ward- 
law; but the phraseology is no test one way or 
the other. In the transmission of songs of which 
there is no written record, the language of the 
reciter is generally adapted to the time m which 
he or she lived ; and as the lapse of a century or 
two makes the greatest difference, not only words, 
but lines, where the memory is defective, replace 
what had been previously in the ballad. Our 
readers may remember Sir John Cutler's silk stock- 
ings, so humorously described in the inimitable 
Memoirs of Martinus Scriblerus, which were so 
repeatedly darned with worsted, that at last what 
was silk and what was worsted became a ques- 
tion of some consideration, well worth the con- 
sideration of metaphysicians. This is exactly the 
case with ballad poetry : the original texture may 
be silk, but what it may become in process of 
time by darning we will not be bold enough to 
determine. 

Lady Wardlaw is accused of having forged 
the ballad of Hardiknute. This is strong lan- 
guage, seeing it was originally given to the world 
without any pretence of -its having been taken 
from an ancient MS. The first edition, in folio, 
a great rarity of its kind, is now before me, and 
there is no attempt at imposition. If- the world 
chose to take it as an ancient poem, well and 
good ; but this was no reason for throwing dirt on 
the writer. 

We have our own doubts of the entire authorship. 
Her ladyship's brother -is the reputed author of 
" Gilderoy," a tolerably pretty song on a most 
abandoned scamp. Now it is proved incoii- 
testably in the recent collection of " Scotish 
Ballads and Songs" * that there did exist a pre- 
vious ballad, evidently the germ of the Halket 
one, which was popular in England, and had been 
actually printed in one of the rare little volumes, 
of " Westminster drollery." Not only were words, 
but lines taken from the English song and dove- 
tailed in the Scotish one. 

Is it at all improbable that, in like manner, 
there may have existed at the beginning of last 
century some fragments on the subject attempted 
to be popularised by Lady Wardlaw ? If the 
brother made good use of the miserable English 
ballad, why might not she follow his example? 
How very amusing it would be if in some old dark 
chest or library an old version of Hardilumte 
should turn up ! 

Again, why should Lady Wardlaw be the fabri- 
cator of Sir Patrick Spence? Her brother 

* By James Maidment. Stevenson, Edinburgh. 



s. IX FEB. 18. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



119 



just as likely a person. And here allow me to 
remark that the inference deduced by Mr. Cham- 
bers from the word Aberdour is not warranted. 
The Aberdour referred to in the ballad is not the 
place of that name in Fife, but one on the north 
coast, which runs along the Moray Frith, taking 
its name from a rivulet which falls into the sea a 
little below the church, at a place known as the 
Bay of Aberdour. The sea-coast all along is 
exceedingly rocky and perilous. 

There is another circumstance of moment men- 
tioned by Professor Aytoun, who tells his readers 
that in one of the Orcades, belonging to Mr. Bal- 
four of Trenaby, tradition has preserved a par- 
ticular spot as the grave of Sir Patrick Spence ; 
and we may remark in passing that Spens or 
Spence is an Orkney name, and the unlucky in- 
dividual, if he ever did exist, may have been a 
native of these islands, which not much more than 
three centuries ago were finally united to Scotland. 

There is an odd blunder into which all our emi- 
nent ballad commentators, including Ritson, Sharpe, 
and Laing, have fallen. Lady Wardlaw is re- 
presented as sister of Sir Alexander Halket, the 
author of " Gilderoy." Now, like the Duke of 
Mantua's daughter in the " Minister of Finance," 
Sir Alexander Halket never had existence. The 
duke's daughter and the Scotch baronet are 
equally myths. 

Lady Wardlaw was Elizabeth, the second 
daughter of Sir Charles Halket, Baronet, of 
Pitferran. She married Sir Henry* Wardlaw, 
third Baronet of Pitreavie, on the 13th June, 
1698, and by him, who was served heir of his 
father 24th February, 1698, she had one son, born 
1705, and three daughters. 

On the 26th July, 1699, Sir James Halket was 
served heir male of Sir Charles, his father, in 
certain lands in the parish of Dunfermline. Thus 
Sir James was Lady Wardlaw's brother, and there 
has never been a Sir Alexander in the Halket family, 
at least after the baronetcy was obtained. When 
Sir James died without issue, the estates fell to 
Lady Wardlaw's elder sister. Her husband took 
the name of Halket, and is the lineal ancestor of 
the present family of Pitferran. 

The baronetcy became extinct on the death of 
Sir James in 1705 ; but his' sister's husband, Sir 
Peter Wedderburne, a baronet of 1697, trans- 
mitted the estates and name of the Halkets, as 
well as his baronetcy, to the heirs male of the mar- 
riage, and they are now held by Sir Peter Arthur 
Halket, who received the Crimean medal with 
three clasps for his gallant conduct during the 
war in the Crimea. J. M. 

OLD LONDON BRIDGE. 

In Mr. Peter Cunningham's excellent Hand- 
book of London, Past and Present, the following 



statement occurs : " The first London Bridge is 
said to have been of wood, and to have stood still 
lower down the river by Botolph's Wharf. Its 
architect was one Isambard de Saintes." 

Now it was in building, not the first London 
Bridge, but the bridge that was completed in 1209, 
that the foreign architect here referred to was 
employed; and he was Isenbert, master of the 
schools at Saintes (the Roman Santones of Caesar's 
time, which came to the kings of England by the 
marriage of Eleanor the heiress of Guienne to 
Henry II.). Mr. T. D. Hardy, in his Introduction 
to the Patent Rolls, printed by order of the Record 
Commissioners, makes known some curious facts 
relating to Isenbert's employment, which seem 
worthy of preservation among the memories of 
Old London Bridge. The facts disclosed by the 
Patent Roll are not alluded to by Stowe, who, 
following the Annals of Waverley Abbey, states 
that the building of this bridge was begun about 
1176 by Peter of Colechurch, and finished in 1209 
" by the worthy merchants of London, Serle * 
Mercer, William Almaine, and Benedict Botewrite, 
principal masters of the work," Peter having died 
in 1205. This worthy ecclesiastic and architect was, 
as Stowe informs us, priest and chaplain of St. 
Mary Colechurch in the Poultry; and London 
Bridge seems to have been the favourite object of 
his care, for he is said to have built the new 
bridge of elm timber, which was erected in 1163, 
and to have begun, a little to the west of that 
structure, in 1176, the stone bridge which was 
completed five years after his death, and on which 
his body was buried in the crypt of the chapel of 
St. Thomas of Canterbury within a pier of that 
enduring work. 

But the Patent Roll of the third year of the 
reign of King John (itself remarkable as the ear- 
liest Patent Roll extant, and probably, says the 
learned Deputy-Keeper, the first of the series ever 
made), informs us that King John was anxious to 
bring the bridge to perfection, and in 1201 took 
upon himself to recommend to the mayor and 
citizens of London for that purpose the foreign 
architect above named. The king describes him 
as " our faithful clerk Isenbert, master of the 
schools of Saintes, a man distinguished both for 
his worth and learning, by whose careful diligence 
the bridges of Saintes and Rochelle had been, 
under divine providence, in a short time con- 
structed." 

The king's letter commendatory, addressed to 
"the Mayor and Citizens of London," is dated 
at Molineux in Normandy on the 18th April in 
the third year of his reign ; and the king therein 
states that " by the advice of Hubert Archbishop 
of Canterbury and others, he had entreated and 
urged Isenbert, not only for the advantage of the 



* Serle le Mercer occurs in 1206 in the list of Sheriffs 
of London, and in 1214 as mayor. 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2" S. IX. FEB. 18. '60. 



citizens of London, but also for the general good, 
that he would come and use the same diligence in 
building their bridge." The king therefore grants 
that the profits of the edifices which Isenbert in- 
tended to erect on the bridge should be for ever 
applied to its repair and sustentation ; and con- 
cludes by exhorting the mayor and citizens " for 
their own honour, graciously to receive and be 
courteous as they ought to the renowned Isenbert 
and his assistants; for indeed," adds the king, 
" every kindness and respect exhibited by you 
towards him must be reflected back upon your- 
selves." Mr. Hardy has extracted another docu- 
ment relating to the bridge of Saintes, for the 
building of which Isenbert seems to have gained so 
much credit. In it he is spoken of by King John 
as " our most dear and faithful Isenbert, master of 
the schools at Saintes," and mention is made in 
the document of the houses built on the bridge, 
which had been given to the inhabitants of Ro- 
chelle by Isenbert, apparently at an annual quit- 
rent of 5s. for the repair of the bridge, and which 
the king confirms to them, directing the quit-rent 
to be applied to needful repairs, and " to lighting 
the bridge by night according to the plan of the 
same master of the schools." 

King John's desire for the completion of Lon- 
don Bridge, and his recommendation of Isenbert 
for that purpose during the lifetime of Peter of 
Colechurch, are facts probably little known to 
general readers : they are not mentioned in the 
notice of London Bridge in Mr. Timbs' Curiosities 
of London, and seem to deserve a niche in "N. & 
Q." WM. SIDNEY GIBSON. 



TABLETS FOR WRITING : WAX AND MALTHA. 

Tablets used both for painting and writing 
were in antiquity sometimes made of box-wood : 
hence, irvtfov was equivalent to '&i$\.iov. See Ari- 
stoph. ap. Pott., iv. 18. x. 59. (Fragm. 671., Din- 
dorf.), and Exod. xxiv. 12. ; Isaiah xxx. 8. ; and 
Habakkuk ii. 2., in the Septuagint version ; irvftov 
is a tablet, kept by the author for original compo- 
sition, in Lucian adv. Indoct., 15. 2Eneas Polior- 
ceticus (c. 31. 9.), in describing different modes 
of conveying secret intelligence in writing, states 
that words may be written with good ink upon a 
tablet of box -wood, and afterwards obliterated: 
with whitewash ; but that if the person who 
receives the tablet washes off the white cover- 
ing, the writing will be legible. The word 
Trvoypa(p> is used by Artemidor. (i. 51.) ap- 
parently in the sense of painting, as a fine art. A 
similar application of the word -nv^iov to the art 
of painting, occurs in a fragment of the comic 
poet Anaxandrides (Meineke, Fragm. Com. Gr., 
vol. iii. p. 167.). 

A full account of the ancient custom of writing 
on folding tablets covered with wax, is given in 



Dr. Smith's Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Ant., art. 
TABULAE. (See Ovid, Met., ix. 521. 528. 564.) 
The contrivance of Demaratus, for sending a se- 
cret communication from Susa to LaeedaBmon, 
illustrates the use of waxed tablets. He removed 
the wax from the diptych or folding tablet, cut 
the message upon the wood, and then covered the 
tablet with wax. The Lacedaemonians, finding 
that there was no writing upon the wax, guessed 
the contrivance ; they melted the wax, and read 
the words upon the wood underneath (Herod, vii. 
239.). The same contrivance is described by 
^Eneas Poliorcetic., c. 31. 8. 

Aristophanes (Thesm. 778-80.) likewise de- 
scribes letters cut in wood : 

Aye STJ invaK<av ^ecrroiv Se'Arot 



Where o><'A.rjs 6\Kol means the furrows chiselled 
on the smooth surface of the wood with a cutting 
instrument. 

Besides K^S, or wax, the Greeks used a sub- 
stance called fj.d\6r] for smearing upon tablets. 
See Pollux, x. 58. ; Demosth. ^adv. Steph., ii. 
p. 1132.: " /jid\drj, 6 /j./j.a\ayiu.ft'os Ki]p6s" Harpo- 
cration, referring to Demosth., adv. Steph., and 
citing a verse of Hipponax, " rem* /j.d\6ri r^v 
rp6inv irapaxpiffas" where the word would natu- 
rally mean pitch. According to Festus (p. 135.) 
malta was used by the Greeks to denote a mix- 
ture of pitch and wax. The Greek glossaries give 
as its synonyms nvip&iriffffov and TriffffSuripov. Pliny, 
(N. H. ii. 108.), describes 'maltha as a species of 
bitumen, or mineral pitch, found in a pool at Sa- 
mosata in Commagene (see Trad, de Pline, by 
Grandsagne, torn. xx. p. 294.). According to 
another passage of Pliny, maltha is a cement 
made of lime slacked with wine, together with 
hog's lard and fig juice. Its hardness exceeds 
that of stone (xxxvi. 58.). In Palladius de Re 
Rust., i. 17., maltha is a cement which repairs 
holes in the walls of cisterns. The same writer 
gives the receipts for the composition of two sorts 
of maltha for repairing holes in the walls of hot- 
baths, or of cisterns of cold water. Ducange ex- 
plains the wor-d malta by cement or mortar. See 
Salmas. ad Solin. (vol. ii. p. 771.), who compares 
the Italian smalto. L. 



ARCHERS AND RIFLEMEN. 

Should the result of the present organisation 
of volunteer rifle corps be a general and per- 
manent institution, nothing, assuredly, will tend 
more to prevent panics and preserve peace. The 
danger is in its being allowed to languish, from 
a sense of security and the peaceful aspect of 
the times. This was a danger, even at a time 
when the English nation was renowned for feats 
of war, and victories gained through skill in 



' 



2d S. IX. Fisn. 18. 'CO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



archery ; as appears from the following royal in- 
junction addressed by Edward III. to the sheriff 
of Kent, and to the sheriff of each county, dated 
1st June, 1363, only seven years after the victory 
of Poitiers (Sept. 1356): 

"Rex Vicecomiti Kantize salutem. 

Quia populus regni nostri, tarn Nobiles quam igno- 
biles, in jocis suis, artem sagittaudi ante hsec tempora 
communiter exercebunt, unde toti regno nostro honorem, 
et commodum nobis in actibus nostris guerrinis, Dei ad- 
jutorio cooperante, subventionem non modicam dinoscitur 
provcnisse, 

"Et jam, dicta arte quasi totaliter dimissa, idem po- 
pulus ad jactus lapidum, lignorum, et ferri ; et quidam ad 
pilam raanualem, pedivam, et bacularem ; et ad cani- 
bucam et gallorum pugnarn ; quidam etiam ad alios ludos 
inhonestos et minus utiles aut valentes, se indulgent, 

" Per quod dictum regnum de Sagittariis infra breve 
deveniet verisimiliter (quod absit) destitutum, 

" Nos, volentes super hoc remedium apponi opportunum, 
tibi pnecipimus quod in locis in comitatu tuo, tarn infra 
liberates quam extra, ubi expedite videris, publice facias 
proclamari, quod quilibet ejusdem comitatus, in corpore 
potens, in diebus festivis, cum vacaverit, arcubus et sa- 
gittis, vel pilettis aut boltis, in jocis suis utatur, artemque 
sagittandi discat et exerceat : 

" Omnibus et singulis, ex parte nostra, inhibens, ne ad 
hujusmodi jactus lapidum, lignorum, ferri: pilam manua- 
lem, pedivam vel bacularem ; aut canibucam vel gallorum 
pugnam, aut alios ludos vanos hujusmodi, qui valere non 
poterunt, sub peeua imprisonamenti, aliqualiter intendant, 
aut se inde intromittant. 

" Teste Rege apud Westmonasterium, primo die Junii. 
" Per ipsum Regem." 

This proclamation seems not to have produced 
the desired effect, for I find that it was repeated 
two years later (12 June, 1365) exactly in the 
same terms. It would seem, therefore, that the 
English people were lulled into a feeling of se- 
curity by the peace and the recent victories, and 
indulged their taste for other sports, which by the 
way it is very interesting to note, as they are enu- 
merated in the proclamation. But how stringent! 
Imprisonment for a game at hand-ball ! How dif- 
ferent the language of our gracious Queen, on the 
subject of the volunteer movement. " I have ac- 
cepted with gratification and pride the extensive 
offers of voluntary service which I have received 
from my subjects. This manifestation of public 
spirit has added an important element to our sys- 
tem of national defence." Queen's Speech, Jan. 
24, 1860. JOHN WILLIAMS. 

Arno's Court. 



iHtnor 

LORD ELDON A SWORDSMAN. It is an amusing 
incident in the life of Lord Eldon, that in the 
year 1781, when he was Attorney- General, a thin 
octavo volume (1 14 pages), entitled A few Mathe- 
matical and Critical Remarks on the Sword^ was 
dedicated., to him. The dedication contains the 
.following passage : 

" I ingenuously declare, if I knew but one man in. the 



kingdom to have a sounder judgment and a finer ima- 
gination, a more humane and expanded heart, and a more 
spirited and judicious arm, I should have been still more 
presumptuous than 1 am in prefixing your name to so 
trifling a production." 

The book was published anonymously, printed 
by D.Chamberlaine, No. 5. College Green, Dublin, 
1781. The expert lawyer, it appears, was also an 
expert swordsman, cunning in fence in each cha- 
racter, but 

" Cedant arma toga?." 

Nix. 

TINTED PAPER. It is suggested that, now 
we are to be freed from the paper-duty, tinted 
papers be more used. The relief an occasional 
slight shade of colour affords to those whose eyes 
are constantly poring over bleached and glazed 
sheets is well worth any little difference in price. 
Any one who has intently read a new library 
work for a couple of days will know what this 
means, as well as those who have to look over 
white MSS. 

Experiments have been made in the tints most 
agreeable to the eye, and this improvement has 
already been adopted in some mathematical tables, 
in a few standard books, in catalogues, and in a 
colonial paper or two. Perhaps the way to begin 
is, to print a few tinted copies .of every publica- 
tion, whether bound or unbound, and let pur- 
chasers take their choice. (" N. & Q." not to be 
excepted). 

Query. What would be the extra cost on the 
several varieties of paper ? I am told 10 per cent. 
is the limit. S. F. CRESWELL. 

The School, Tunbridge, Kent. 

ELEANOR GWYN. In a ballad (Collection Old 
Ballads, Brit. Mus.) upon the conflagration of the 
Theatre Royal Drury Lane, Jan. 25, 167, these 
two lines occur : 

" He cryes just judgment, and wished when poor Bell 
Rung out his last, 't had been the stages kNell." 

A MS. note at the back (contemporary hand) 
says being so writ a little k and a great N, some 
thought it reflected upon Nell Gwyn, and tho' 
y e verses were licensed L'Estrange threatned 
to trouble y c printer for making a great N. 
Wherein is the point of this allusion ? 

In a " Dialogue " in a new Song of the Times, 
1683, printed in Marvell's State Poems (2nd col- 
lection), the writer makes Oliver Cromwell's por- 
ter to enter with a Bible given him by Nell Gwynn. 

Is there any foundation for this incident ? 

ITHURIEL. 

FIRST COACH IN SCOTLAND. The first coach 
seen in Scotland was probably that of the Queen 
of James VI. (our James I.). The Diary of 
Robert Birch records that after the King's de- 
parture to England, " on the 30th May, 1603, her 
Majesty came to Sanet Geill's Kirk, weill con- 



122 



NOTES AND QUEKIES, 



S. IX. FEB. 18. '60. 



vpyit with coches, herself and the prince in hey 
awin coche, guhilk came with hir out of Denmarke 
[in 1599], and the English gentlewemen in the 
rest of the clinches." James himself made the 
journey to London on horseback, perhaps because 
he was in the condition of Henry IV. of France, 
who wrote to one of his ministers : " I cannot 
come to you to-day, because my wife is using the 
coach." J. Y. 

FORESHADOWED PHOTOGRAPHY. The assertion, 
ascribed by Bishop Wilkins to Pythagoras, that " he 
could write anything on the body of the moon, so 
that it might be legible at a great distance," is 
referred by the good Bishop to diabolical magic. 
Agrippa is also represented as saying that he knew 
how to do the same. The idea seems to be a sort 
of photographic one, carried to an extreme degree ; 
but Wilkins, in commenting upon it, says : 

" There is an experiment in Opticks, to represent any 
writing by the Sun-beams, upon a wall, or front of a 
house: for which purpose, the letters must first be de- 
scribed with wax, or some other opacous colour, upon the 
surface of the glass, in an inverted form ; which glass 
afterwards reflecting the light upon any wall in the shade, 
will discover these letters in the right form and order." 

Is not this something like a correct first step in 
the wonderful art or science (which is it ?) of 
photography ? * PISHET THOMPSON. 

Stoke Newington. 



MARIA, OR MARlA. 

The Italians generally adhere closely to the pri- 
mitive Latin quantities ; but in this case they 
have lengthened the penultimate syllable contrary 
to old usage. On looking into the Poetce Chris- 
tiani Latini I find this singular circumstance. In 
the curious poem of Tertullian, adv. Martian, iv. 
181., supposed to be written circ. A.D. 200. we 
have this line : 

" Prsedixit Mariam, de qu& flos exit in orbem." 

The same quantity, v. 145. 

In Juvencus, the Presbyter (cir. 330.), de Hist. 
Evang. \. 91. : 

" Exultat Mariae, quum primum afflamina sensit." 

And again, i. 274. : 
" Joseph urgetnr monitis, Mariam puerumque," 

In the distichs attributed to S. Ambrose (340- 
397): 

" Angelus affatur Mariam, qua? parca loquendi." 

In the poem of Pope Damasus (cir. 380), De 
Christo, 6. : 
" Quern verbo inclusum Mariae, mox numine viso." 

[* We have omitted the account of Strada's magnetic 
telegraph, already noticed in our 1 st S. vi. 93. 204. ED.] 



In Aur. Prudentius (cir. 400), Contra Homoun- 

cionitas, 92. : 

" Ante pedes Mariae, pucrique crepundia parvi." 

Now all these give the penultimate as short, but 
in about half a century there is a complete change. 
In Sedulius (cir. 450), Carm. iv. 142. : 

" Nee tibi parva salus, Domino medicante, Maria. 

Ib. 279. : 

" Quidve Maria gemis? Christum dubitabis an unum." 

In Venantius Fortunatus (cir. 450), de partu 
Virginis, 125. : 

" Humano generi gemuit quos Eva dolores 
Curavit gentes, virgo Maria, tuis. 

jft.229.: 

" Nomen honoratura, benedicta Maria per sevum." 

Ib. 358. : 

" Per Christum genitum virgo Maria tuum." 

I quote from Maittaire's collection. Is it not 
strange such a sudden change should take place 
in the pronunciation of so revered a name, and 
that by a people of such sensitive ears. It could 
arise from a reference to the Greek, for the Maptd/u. 
of one Evangelist and the Mo/no of the others 
would seem to imply the contrary. Can any of 
your readers give a probable solution of the diffi- 
culty ?' A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 



ARCHBP. WHATELY AND THE DIRECTORY." 

Archbishop Whately has lately published a 
small volume under the title, Explanations of the 
Bible and of the Prayer-Book (Parker & Son, 
1858), in which (p. 72.) he takes notice of "the 
book called The Directory, put forward by the 
Republican Parliament as designed to supersede 
the Prayer-Book ;" and immediately afterwards 
he says : 

" Of the book I have alluded to, copies are extremely 
rare; which is a remarkable circumstance, considering 
how many thousand copies of it must have been at one 
time in circulation. But (he adds) to those who have 
access to public libraries, it will be worth while to inspf 
it, in order to observe . . . . 

I am one of the multitude of Presbyterians (a 
layman) who derive instruction and gratification 
too from the Archbishop's works ; but on reading 
what I quote from, I mentally exclaimed, here 
indeed a Curiosity of Literature. The Directory, 
for which the privileged few are sent to ransack 
collections of rarities, has actually been, through- 
out these 200 bye-gone years, a household book, 
not only with Scotch (and English) Presbyterians, 
but with his grace's nearer neighbours the Pres- 
byterians of Ulster. It is one of ten tracts, or 
thereabouts, which, arranged and equipped with* 
ratifying Acts of Parliament and of Assembly, 



S. IX. FEB. 18. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



123 



make up the volume, having the look-Under" s 
title, Confession of Faith, taken from the first 
tract in the series, The Directory being the eighth. 
The whole volume, with additions connected with 
events of 1843, the Free Church of Scotland has 
been scattering like snow-flakes over the land ; 
and the curious student may, at the small charge 
of one shilling, have all the excellent prelate has 
recommended to his notice, and a great deal more. 

Although I write thus confidently, my first sur- 
prise did "merge into scepticism as to the identity 
of the book Dr. Whately refers to with my old 
familiar. And I have diligently turned over all 
historical authorities within my reach, including 
the graphic pages of Principal Baillie, who jour- 
nalised and epistolised on the proceedings of each 
day, as this Directory was elaborated, clause by 
clause, in the famous Westminster Assembly, and 
when completed was established by ordinance of 
the " Republican Parliament." But I may, after 
all, be still at fault ; and, therefore, I respectfully 
"note" what is written above, and " Query," am 
I right or wrong ? J. H. 

Glasgow. 



RUBRICAL QUERY. The following passage oc- 
curs in a quotation in the Edinburgh Review, No. 
224., p. 339., from The Diary of a Visit to Eng- 
land in 1775, by Thomas Campbell, an Irish cler- 
gyman, in which the writer records his attendance 
on Good Friday at the chapel of the celebrated 
Dr. Dodd : 

" Dodd did not read the Communion Service rubri- 
cally, for he kneeled at the beginning, and though it was 
a fast day he and his coadjutors wore, surplices" 

The kneeling was certainly contrary to the 
rubric ; but I know of no rubric which enjoins the 
minister to doff his surplice before he begins the 
Communion Service on fast days ; nor, till I read 
this paragraph, was I aware that it had ever been 
the practice. Perhaps the Editor, or some of the 
readers of " N. & Q.," can afford some informa- 
tion on the subject. A COUNTRY PARSON. 

DUTCH CLOCK WITH PENDULUM BY CHRISTIAAN 
Hi YGHENS. I read, in the Neiv York Indepen- 
dent for Dec. 15, 1859 : 

" The Hartford Times says that a watchmaker in that 
city has repaired and set in running order a German 
clock more than two centuries old. It was built by Huy- 
ghens, somewhere about the year 1640 [ ?], and though 
it has not run for more than half a century, is now keep- 
ing good time, and may last another two centuries. It 
:''>und by the artist, Church, in the possession of a 
Dutch family in Nova Scotia, while he was off on his 
iceberg sketching expedition. In that family it had been 
handed down from father to son for generations. This is 
one of the very first clocks ever made with a pendulum. 
The action of the pendulum on the wheel is not direct, by 
means of a pallet, as in the modern clocks, but operates 
by a Vertical vibrating bar with ' snugs ' on it, catching 
into the teeth at each oscillation of the pendulum. The 



clock strikes for the half-hour and hour, and is wound By 
means of an endless chain. It is an open frame of black, 
ancient oak, exposing the works, which are of brass, and 
nicely finished." 

Now as I know you have readers and corre - 
spondents in the United States, I beg them to 
help me forward by their inquiries as to the name 
of the Dutch family aforesaid. Farther, how it 
can be proved that the clock I mentioned was 
really made by Huyghens ? whether this assertion 
depends on bare tradition, or is confirmed by his 
name on the work ? Can a clock, in good English, 
be said to " run," or is this a translation of the 
Dutch loopen in the same signification ? And 
what are " snugs" ? My dictionaries leave me at 
fault. J. H. VAN LENNEP. 

Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

SONGS AND POEMS ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS. I 
shall feel obliged by being informed of the author 
and date of a 12mo. volume, of which the above is 
the running title from p. 1. to p. 144. ; and after- 
wards the running title is " Apollo's Feast, or the 
Wit's Entertainment," so far as my copy extends, 
which is to p. 166. only, and is also deficient in 
the title-page and preliminary matter. The first 
song is " Sir John Falstaff's Song in Praise of 
Sack." And at p. 24. is, " The Quaker's Ballad ;" 
at p. 37., "The Four-legged Quaker ;" at p. 124., 
" Chevy Chase," in English and Latin on opposite 
pages. To how many pages does the book ex- 
tend ? ALOYSIUS. 

CHALK DRAWING. Among some drawings in 
chalk which I lately selected from the portfolio of 
a bookseller at Antwerp, is one of great artistic 
merit, but I do not know its meaning. An old 
man, in the dress of a Roman soldier, is striking 
a light with two stones. A bow and quiver of 
arrows hang on a broken tree, and two sea-gulls 
and a pigeon are on the ground, which is partially 
covered with snow. The face and figure are very 
fine, but one leg has a buskin, the other a gouty 
shoe. Below is written : 

" Dan had me ook het vuur ontbroken ; maar den 
steen verbrijzelend op rots met moeite, ontstak ik 't 
licht." p. 12. 

The Flemish was explained by the vendor in 
French nearly as difficult to understand as the 
original. May I ask, through " N. & Q.," for a 
translation and an explanation of the subject, if 
known ? E. E. M. 

Kue d'Angouleme, St. Honored 

ALLITERATIVE POETRY. Most of your readers 
are no doubt acquainted with the two poems 
" Pugna Porcorum," and " Canum cum catis cer- 
tamen;" the first dated 1530. Can anyone in- 
form me where I can meet with a poem entitled 
Christus Crucifixus, by Christianus Pierius, a 
German, composed upon the same principle. It 
consists of upwards of 1000 lines, but I am only 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2nd s. IX. FEB. 18. '60. 



familiar with the four following, which will serve 
as an example : 

"Currite Castalides Christo comitate Camcenap, 
Concelebraturae cunctorum carmine certum 
Confugium collapsorum ; concurrite, cantus 
Concinnaturse celebres celebresque cothurnos." 

A. W. S. 

ARCHBISHOP KING'S LECTURESHIP. In the 
Picture of Dublin, p. 174. (Dublin, 1843), there is 
the following paragraph : 

" There is a lectureship connected with this Chapel [of 
St. George, Dublin], endowed by Dr. Wm. King, for- 
merly Archbishop of Dublin, but which has been in abey- 
ance for many years. It is to be hoped that the will "of 
the founder will be strictly complied with ; and that the 
prelate who now fills the see of Dublin will adopt the 
necessary means for its revival." 

Any information regarding this lectureship, 
which, so far as I am aware, is still in abeyance, 
will much oblige. I cannot find mention of it in 
Bishop Mant's History of the Church of Ireland, 
nor in Whitelaw and Walsh's History of the 
City of DuUin. Arcbdeacon Cotton reminds us 
in his Fasti Ecclesia Hibernica, vol. ii. p. 23., 
that as sufficiently appears by the archbishop's 
will, now in the Prerogative Office, Dublin, his 
charities, both public and private, wer many and 
large. ABHBA. 

JUDGE BULLER' s LAW. On 27 Nov. 1782, 
Gilray published a. caricature likeness of Judge 
Buller under the title of '''Judge Thumb" What 
authority is there for the assertion that Judge 
Buller ever ruled That a man might lawfully beat 
his wife with a stick, if it were not thicker than 
his thumb? BENEDICT. 

FAMILY OF HAVARD. This antient family, 
who were descended from Sir Walter Havard, one 
of the followers of the Conqueror, upon whom 
was conferred the lordship of the manor of Pon- 
twylym near Brecon, resided there until the time 
of Thos. Havard, sheriff of Breconshire in 1549 and 
1555, who was the last of the name seated there. 
The mansion of Pontwylym was in 1809 used as a 
farmhouse. In Jones's History of Breconshire I 
find six or eight pages devoted to their genealogy. 
Although they have ceased to be classed among 
the commoners of England, I should be glad to be 
informed who is the present representative of the 
elder branch of this family, or, in other words, the 
head of the house. KALPH WOODMAN. 

SONGS WANTED. I am surprised to find in 
Popular Music no mention of that capital hunt- 
ing song " A southerly wind and a cloudy sky," 
perhaps the best in our language. No doubt Mr. 
Wm. Chappell, whose work cannot be over-esti- 
mated, has good reasons for the omission, and will, 
with ready courtesy, give them. I believe the 
music, which is so happily wedded to the words, 
had a prior attachment to " Somehow my spindle I 



mislaid." May I ask who wrote the two songs, 
and who composed a tune which, particularly as 
respects the second alliance, furnishes so admirable 
an adaptation of sense to sound ? I would also 
like to know if this can be purchased, and where ? 

R. W. DIXON. 
Seaton-Carew, co. Durham. 

GLOUCESTER CUSTOM. I was reading that it 
was the " custom of the city of Gloucester to pre- 
sent to the sovereign at Christmas a lamprey-pie 
with a raised crust." Can any of your correspon- 
dents inform me when this was the custom, and 
when it was left off? J. CHENEVIX FROST. 

COL. HACKER. Information is requested re- 
specting the family and arms of Col. Francis 
Hacker, who lived in Charles I.'s time. G. C. H. 

CLERGY PEERS AND COMMONERS. Can any 
of your readers furnish me with a list of ordained 
clergymen of the United Established Church who 
have ever been created peers ? Early in the pre- 
sent century, in the case of Home Tooke, a bill 
was passed to render clergymen ineligible as mem- 
bers of the House of Commons. What name does 
this bill bear, and what are the terms in which the 
prohibition is made? Clergymen are permitted 
to discharge the civil functions of the magistracy, 
by what argument can they be debarred from the 
tenure of so important a civil right as a seat in the 
House of Commons? Are there any dissenting 
ministers (I don't allude to the front row of the 
" Opposition ") in the House ; if so, how many, 
and of what bodies ? C. LE POER KENNEDY. 

St. Albans. 

SIR W. JENNINGS. Lord Braybrooke, in the 
third edition of Pepys's Diary, iii. p. 341., says 
that Sir William Jennings, who " attended James 
II. after his abdication, and served as a captain in 
the French navy," was " a distinguished sea officer, 
brother to Sir Robert Jennings of Hipon." No 
such person, however, as either Sir Wm. or Sir 
Robert Jennings is mentioned either in the pedi- 
gree of the family of Jenings of Ripon entered 
at Dugdale's Visitation, 15th Aug. 1665, or in any 
local record. Was he more remotely descended 
from' this family, who wrote their name with 
one n, as Pepys (vol. iii. p 201.) does that of 
" Jenings of the Ruby," who distinguished himself 
at the fight of Dunkirk, and was apparently the 
Sir William alluded to ? L. F. 

HOSPITALS FOR LEPERS. I shall feel obliged for 
any information respecting hospitals for lepers. I 
am especially anxious to learn anything about the 
arrangement of their chapels. R. H. C. 

MR. LYDE BROWNE. I have ineffectually en- 
deavoured, in such biographical works as were 
within my reach, to find a memoir of this gentle- 
man, who was one of the most celebrated dilettanti 



S. IX. FEB. 18. ? 60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



and patrons of the beaux-arts that this nation has 
produced ; and I am the more induced to con- 
tinue this search, that I may promote the inquiry 
of your correspondent (2 nd S. ix. 64.) concerning 
the society of English dilettanti, now I fear in de- 
cadence, if not extinct. Mr. Lyde Browne col- 
lected, at his villa at Wimbledon, such a variety 
of splendid objects of virtu as were never before 
seen in this country, and which were described in 
a quarto pamphlet which he published,, entitled, 
Catalogo dei Marmi, eccetera, del Sign. Lyde 
Browne, Londra, 1779. 

I should feel much indebted to any correspon- 
dent of " N. & Q." who would favour me with an 
account, or direct me to a memoir of this distin- 
guished connoisseur ; and to inform me what be- 
came of his collection ? I may add that I have 
understood that several eminent characters were 
members of the associated dilettanti, and that the 
Duchess (Georgiana) of Devonshire (ob. 1806) 
was a principal patroness of the Society. When 
Mr. Lyde Browne's villa became vacant, either by 
his decease or removal, it was taken and occupied 
for a long period by the Right Hon. Henry Dun- 
das (Viscount Melville, 1802). AMATEUR. 

TUMBREL. The punishment of the tumbrel 
for dishonest tradesmen, more especially of brew- 
ers, was one of the privileges claimed by lords of 
manors during the mediaeval period of English 
history. When was it discontinued?' I do not 
allude to the ducking-stool which was continued 
as a punishment for scolds to the early part of the 
present century. M. P. TODD. 

WILLIAM PITT'S PORTRAIT. I have been told 
by a gentleman (who forgets his authority) that 
the only picture in the Louvre at Paris painted 
by an Englishman, is a portrait of the celebrated 
William Pitt, painted by the late John Hoppner, 
R.A. If any of your numerous correspondents 
could verify this statement, I should feel truly 
obliged, as I have a particular wish to know if 
such is the case. LAU. A. PRATT. 

Camden House, Islington. 

ARMS (2 nd S. ix. 80.) The Query should be, 

what family bears the following arms : " Argent 

between 2 bars gules, six martlets sable, 3, 2, and 

' I have searched Gwillim and Edmondson in 

vain. C. J. ROBINSON. 



OLD WELSH CHRONICLES. In Sharon Turner's 
History of the Anglo-Saxons (iii. 465.) is the fol- 
lowing statement : 

" The Red Book of Hengest is still in the library of 
Jesus College at Oxford a parchment in fol. It con- 
tains three Welsh Chronicles, a Welsh Grammar, and 
some Welsh romances." 

Of Saxon and English chronicles we have 



plenty ; but of Welsh not one, I think, has yet 
been Englished and printed. Gildas was indeed 
a Welshman, as was Geoffrey of Monmouth ; but ' 
one is too curt, and the other too doubtful to be 
of much use to a student anxious to know the 
state of our ancient British Church before the 
first aggression upon it in 596. 

I am not a AVelshman, and a visit to Oxford 
would, therefore, be of no use ; but I beg to ask 
any of your learned correspondents for such in- 
formation as they may be in a position to furnish, 
relative to the real age and contents of the three 
Welsh chronicles mentioned by Mr. Turner. 

After Rome had gradually changed the dogma 
and form of our ancient British Church, the chro- 
niclers the Papal I mean very naturally noted 
only such facts as touched the Papal pole, and in 
such way as most to favour it. There is, too, not 
a little ground to suspect that, from 596 to 1170, 
Welsh MSS. were caught up and destroyed, in 
order to darken the history of our ancient Church. 
There is too much proof of this. If, then, the 
above chronicles are valuable, information of the 
fact will oblige ANGLOFIDIUS. 

Bath. 

[A full description of the contents of this "Codex 
Cambro-Britannus membranaceus" is printed in the Rev. 
H. 0. Coxe's valuable Catalogue of the MSS. in the Col- 
leges at Oxford, vol. ii., Jesus College, art. cxi. The Red 
Book of Hengest is of the fourteenth century, and con- 
tains, besides poems, the prose romances known as the 
Mabinogiort, and which were so admirably edited a few 
years since by Lady Charlotte Guest. The only Welsh 
documents that have as yet been published are "the His- 
torical Triads, translated by the late Mr. Parry, editor of 
the Cambro- Briton, and contained in that publication, 
and likewise by Mr. William Probert, of Alnwick, in his 
Laws of Howell the Good, Historical Triads, 8fc. Much 
pertaining to the religious system of the ancient Britons 
will also be found in the Appendix to Edward Williams's 
Poems, whence the late Sir Richard ColtHoare, the author 
of Ancient Wiltshire, *c., drew his information. Consult 
also Rees's Welsh Saints,8vo. 1836, and Williams's Eccle- 
siastical Antiquities of the Cymry, 8vo. 1844.Q 

" GUMPTION." Can any of the readers of " N. 
& Q." inform me of the derivation of this common 
word ? MERRICK CHRYOSTOM, M.A. 

[The few lexicographers, who insert the word "gump- 
tion " at all, note it as " vulgar." Many -words, it is 
true, have been vulgarised by use ; but they are gentle- 
men who have seen better days ; and the antecedents of 
some of them are highly respectable. The proposed de- 
rivations of gumption are various. Gumption has been 
derived from the A.-S. gymene, care. That will hardly 
do. Next, "comptio" has a good claim. Comptus is 
smart (in respect to dress). Comptio is mediaeval, in 
form akin to comptus. Could it be shown (but here is 
the difficulty) that comptio ever signified smartness, we 
should feel little hesitation in presenting comptio as the 
origin of gumption. 

We referred the question to an eminent etymological 
friend, who suggests that " gumptious," which he deems 
the immediate origin of gumption, and in its proper sense 
allied to gumption in meaning, is merely a modified form 
of the Latin adjective conscius (used in the sense of the 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 n *S. IX. FEB. 18. '60. 



less common word, scius, knowing). This does seem a 
little far -fetched. "But first observe," says our friend, 
"that con in conscius is only cum in composition; there- 
fore, conscius is properly cum- scius. Next bear in mind 
that the Latin c (hard) was frequently softened into g. 
Thus Caius, as Terentius Maurns reminds us, was pro- 
nounced Gains ; and accordingly, for legio, pugnando, we 
find in Latin inscriptions lecio, pucnando, &c. ; so that 
conscius might have been pronounced gonscius, and cum- 
scius, gum-scius. which is not so very far from gumptious.", 

" And with regard to the Latin word conscius," adds 
our friend, "don't forget this; that it is not only con- 
scious subjectively, as where a person is aware of some- 
thing in himself, but conscious objectively, i. e. knowing, 
or aware of, something out of oneself. " Facere aliquem 
conscium" to inform any one; "His de rebus conscium 
esse" to be aware of. So in Med. Lat. : " Cogitavi vobis 
facere conscientiam, id est, vobis notum facere." If then 
we view gumptious as an adjective -form of gumption, 
and consequently as, in its proper meaning, equivalent to 
knowing, intelligent, it will follow that the Lat. conscius 
(cum-scius, gum-scius,) comes nearer to gumptious than 
might at first be supposed, in signification as well as in 
form." Very clever, all this; but questionable, we fear. 

Another explanation, however, has been offered, and we 
incline to it. "A person of great gumption" is merely 
short for " a person of great comprehension." Kespecting 
the contraction thus suggested, this is what we would 
say : " Our choice vernacular is fully capable of such an 
atrocity." Comprehension, if thus shortened into gump- 
tion, has undergone a process of evisceration, similar to 
that by which Cholmondeley becomes Cholmley, Wri- 
othesley Wresley, and Brighthelmstone Brighton. Com- 
prehension, compsion, gumption. After all, it will not 
break our heart, if any of our readers can set aside the 
whole of the above derivations by a better.] 

WM. STUART, ABP. OF ARMAGH. In a copy of 
Heylyn's History of the Reformation, fol., London, 
1660-61, I find the text has been carefully read, 
and abundantly underlined in red ink. At the 
end of the history of Queen Mary occurs the fol- 
lowing MS. note in red ink : 

" I Dont much approve of the Style in which the fore- 
going Reign is written. 

" W m Steuart, Abp. of Armagh, Primate of Ireland." 

From p. 25. to p. 62. of this history the leaves 
have been cut through the centre with a knife. 
Can you give me any information concerning this 
" Wm. Steuart ?" Is it likely or possible that his 
critical indignation could have transformed the 
archbishop into a Jehudi (v. Jer. xxxvi. 23.) ? 
Why does he sign his name, in the place above- 
mentioned, with the addition of his titles ? 

C. LE POER KENNEDY. 

St. Albans. 

[The Hon. William Stuart, D.D., was the fifth son of 
John the third Earl of Bute, by Mary, only daughter of 
Edward Wortley Montagu, and the celebrated Lady Mary 
Wortley Montagu. He was educated at Wincheste"r 
school, and became a member of St. John's College, Cam- 
bridge. One of his first preferments was the vicarage of 
Luton, Beds. About this time, Boswell, in his Life of 
Johnson (Croker's edit., 1853, p. 723.), thus speaks of 
him : " On April 10, 1782, 1 introduced to him [Johnson], 
at his house in Bolt Court, the Hon. and Rev. Wm. 
Stuart, son of the Earl of Bute, a gentleman truly worthy 
of being known to Johnson ; being, with all the advan- 



L 



tages of high birth, learning, travel, and elegant man- 
ners, an exemplary parish priest in every respect." Dr. 
Stuart was consecrated Bishop of St. David's in 1793, trans - 
lated to Armagh by patent, dated Nov. 22nd, 1800, and 
enthroned on Dec. 8th. He died in Hill Street, Berkeley 
Square, from accidentally taking an improper medicine, 
on Gth Ma} r , 1822, aged sixty-eight, and was buried at 
Luton Park in Bedfordshire. In Armagh cathedral is a 
full-length marble figure of the archbishop in the atti- 
tude of prayer.] 

GENDER or CARROSSE. The following extract 
from a leading article in The Times of January 
25th, may not be undeserving of being made a 
note of : 

" When Louis XIV. inadvertently called for ' mon 
carrosse," the gender of the noun was immediately changed, 
and carrosse, which, according to all the analogies of the 
language, ought to be feminine, has been masculine ever 
since." 

F. D. C. 

[Another correspondent questions the accuracy of the 
above ; but there cannot be the least doubt that carrosse, 
as The Times represents, was formerly feminine. Cot- 
grave is not particular in giving the genders of French 
nouns ; but in his Dictionary, edit. 1632, we find carrosse 
feminine. Examples are abundant : 

" D'ou vien ..... 
Que toujours d'un valet la carrosse est suivie ? " 

Segnier. 
" Du bruit de sa carrosse importune le Louvre.' 

Theophil 

The Romance carruga was also feminine : " Las 
rugas cargadas" " en la carruga." Cf. Raynouard and 
Bescherelle. " Ce mot [carosse] e'tait du feminin primi- 
tivement." The Grand Monarque, however, if he spoke 
bad French, spoke good Italian: carroccio being, of 
course, masculine.] 

ANONYMOUS BALLAD OPERA. A Wonder ; or, 
An Honest Yorlishireman, a ballad opera : by whom 
written ? when and where first performed ? 

C. J. D. INGLEDEW. 

[This ballad opera is by Henry Carey. Two editions 
were published in 1736 with different title-pages. I. A 
Wonder: or, An Honest Yorkshire.- Man. A Ballad 
Opera, as it is perform'd at the Theatres with Universal 
Applause. London: Printed for Ed. Cook. 8vo. 1736. 
(Anon.} 2. The Honest Yorkshire- Man. A Ballad Farce. 
Refus'd to be acted at Drury-Lane Playhouse : but now 
perform'd at the New Theatre in Goodman's Fields, with 
great applause. Written by Mr. Carey. London : Printed 
for L. Gilliver and J. Clarke. 12mo." 1736. Price Three- 
pence. From the Preface to the latter it seems to have 
been acted for one night only at Drury Lane in 1735. 
The author states, that ' from the very generous recep- 
tion this Farce has met with from the publick during its 
representation in the Haymarket last summer, and Good- 
man's Fields this winter, is a manifestation of the bad 
taste and monstrous partiality of the great Mogul of the 
Hundreds of Drury [Fleetwpod?], who, after having had 
the copy nine months in his hands, continually feeding 
me with fresh promises of bringing it on the stage, re- 
turned it at last in a very ungenerous manner, at the 
end of the season, when it was too late to carry it to any 
other house; but the young actors having, as usual, 
formed themselves into a summer company, Mr. Gibber, 
Jun., sent to me in a very respectful manner, requesting 
the Farce, which accordingly was put in rehearsal ; but 



2"' S. IX. FEB. 18. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



127 



to our great disappointment and surprise the company, 
after one night's acting, was suddenly interdicted, and 
the house shut up." At the end of the Preface, Carey 
bitterly complains of the Curlls of his day those pira- 
tical printers who 

" Rob me of my gain, 
And reap the labour'd harvest of my brain."] 



DOMINUS REGNAVIT A LIGNO. 
PSALTERIUM GILECUM VERONENSE. 

(2 nd S. viii. 470.516.) 

B. H. C. asks, " Do any MSS. of the Latin Vul- 
gate contain these words [a ligno] as part of the 
text ? " The reply must be to this inquiry that 
the Psalter in the Vulgate is the Galilean, and as 
that does not contain " & ligno," it is vain for us 
to seek it in the copies of the Vulgate. It is 
found in the Psalterium Veins, the version made 
from the unrevised copies of the LXX. and in 
the Romanum, the same translation slightly cor- 
rected by Jerome, and adopted at Rome and in 
the cathedral at Canterbury ; while in the Galli- 
canum the version made by Jerome from the re- 
vised LXX., and used by the Gallican Church, 
the words did not appear any more than they did 
in the Hebraicum, or Jerome's version from the 
Hebrew. (The Psalms are the only part of the 
Vulgate in which Jerome's version from the 
LXX. is adopted instead of that taken from the 
Hebrew, even though readings of the old version 
from the Greek have occasionally found their way 
into other parts of the Vulgate as now used by 
the Church of Rome.) 

MR. BOYS inquires if anything is known of the 
Psalterium Gr&cum Veronense. The whole of this 
very ancient copy of the Psalterium Grceco-La- 
tinum was published by Bianchini in his Vindiciee 
Canonicarum Scripturarum (Rome, 1740). The 
Greek text is written in Latin letters: its pro- 
bable date is prior to the middle of the fifth cen- 
tury. The Greek text of this clause runs thus : 
"O Quirios ebasileusen apo xylu." The Latin 
text is that of the Psalterium Vetus. This Verona 
Codex has been strangely neglected by editors of 
the LXX. ; its readings are not even given in the 
it edition of Holmes and Parsons, though it 
seems as if this is perhaps the only copy now ac- 
cessible which contains the Psalms in the un- 
revised LXX., such as -was current in the second 
century, and which was used for the old Latin 
translation. 

One MS. of those collated by Holmes and Par- 
sons has the addition after a fashion, " on. Kvptos 
tScunXevfff UTTO T |uAcw (sic) 156." In the list of 
prefixed to the Psalms the editors thus de- 
scribe this codex : 

" 156. Codex Biblioth. Basilieus. signat. A. vii. 3. mem 



branaceus, forma? quartse, admodum antiquus, accentibus 
iestitutus, ct versione Latina interlinear! prseditus." 

I know of no other Greek authorities for this 
addition as part of the text, though it must have 
been there when Justin and others made their 
citations. It does not appear in the Syriac ver- 
sion of the Hexaplar text (Milan, 1820). 

It is often impossible to say kow readings in the 
LXX. originated : some of those in the Psalms 
arise from the Rubrics still found in the Jewish 
service books. This, however, seems to be con- 
nected with < "tt[J'"'V.5r' ) ? in ver. 12. May not part 
of this have been accidentally misplaced? and 
may not the Greek translator have read fV. ^> 
or something of the kind ? 

As F. C. H. (p. 518.) speaks of the martyrdom 
of Justin as having taken place A. D. 167, as 
though this were undoubted, may I be allowed 
to refer to a paper in No. VIII. of the Journal 
of Classical and Sacred Philology (Cambridge, 
June, 1856), pp. 155193., "On the Date of 
Justin Martyr," by the Rev. Fenton J. A. Hort, 
who gives, I think, good reasons for supposing 
that it occurred nearly twenty years earlier (about 
A.D. 148). S. P. TREGELLES. 

REV. ALEXANDER KILHAM. 
(2 nd S. viii. 514.) 

The Rev. Alexander Kilbam, founder of the body 
known as the Methodist New Connexion, was born 
at Epworth, in the Isle of Axholme, on the 10th of 
July, 1762. He died on the 20th of December, 
1 798. His parents were members of the Wesley an 
Methodist Society, which he himself joined early in 
life. His first attempt as a preacher was at Lud- 
dington, a village but a few miles from the place 
of his birth. He afterwards, in company with 
Mr. Brackenbury, visited Jersey on a mission re- 
lative to the affairs of the Wesleyan body. He 
married, in 1788, a Miss Grey of Scarborough, 
who died in 1796 ; in April, 1798, he again mar- 
ried. The maiden name of his second wife was 
Spurr. The marriage took place at Sheffield. 
His secession, expulsion perhaps I should say, 
from the Methodist Connexion took place in 1792. 
He was the author of many pamphlets relative to 
the affairs of the Wesleyans, and those with whom 
they were from time to time in controversy. I 
regret that I am unable to furnish a list of his 
writings ; but as many were issued anonymously, 
it is difficult to identify them. 

The above are all the facts I have been able to 
gather relative to Alexander Kilham; for any- 
thing additional thereto, I shall be obliged to the 
readers of " N. & Q." A Life of Kilham was 
issued the year after his death (1799) by Mr. John 
Grundell and Mr. Robert Hall, but it is very 
scarce; so much so, that although I have fre- 



128 



NOTES AND QUEKIES, 



C"2 n S. IX. FEB. 18. 'GO. 



quently made inquiries for it, I have never met 
with a copy. A sketch of his career, abridged 
from the above work, may be found in W. Peck's 
Topographical Account of the Ide of Axholme, 
4to., 1815, p. 262. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

P.S. Since writing the above, I have been fur- 
nished with the following list of Kilham's works. 
I believe it not to be complete. It is however, I 
understand, the only Catalogue of his writings 
that has ever been attempted, and as such is worth 
a place in "N. & Q." for the sake of future 
bibliographers : 

On Horse Races, Cards, Playhouses, and Dancing. 
12mo. Aberdeen, 1793. 

The Hypocrite detected and exposed, and the True 
Christian vindicated and supported: A Sermon. 12mo. 
Aberdeen, 1794. 

The Progress of Liberty amongst the Methodists, with 
Outlines of a Constitution. 12mo. London, 1795. 

Kilham's Remarks on an Explanation of Mr. Kilham's 
Statement of the Preacher's Allowance. 12mo. Not- 
tingham, 1796. 

A Candid Examination of the London Methodistical 
Bull. 12mo. London, 1796. 

Kilham's Account of his Trial before the Special Dis- 
trict Meeting at Newcastle. 12mo. Alnwick, 1796. 

Minutes of the Examination of the Rev. Alexander 
Kilham before the General Conference in Lyndon. 12mo. 
London, 1796. 

Kilham's Account of his Trial before the General Con- 
ference in London. 12mo. Nottingham, 1796. 

Defence of the Account of the Trial of Rev. Alexander 
Kilham before the Conference, in Answer to Mather, 
Pawson, and Benson. 12mo. Leeds, 1796. 

The Methodist Monitor, or Moral and Religious Re- 
pository. 2 vols. 12mo. Leeds. Vol. I., 179G. Vol. II., 
1797. 

The Life of the Rev. Alexander Kilhafh, with Extracts 
of Letters written by a Number of Preachers to Mr. 
Kilham. 12mo. Nottingham, 1799. 

Review of the Conduct and Character of Mr. Kilham, 
by a Friend. 12mo. Leeds, 1800. 

Kilham (Alexander), Life of; including a full Account 
of the Disputes which occasioned the Separation [from 
the Wesleyan Connexion]. 8vo. London, 1838. 



DR. HICKES'S MANUSCRIPTS. 
(2 nd S. ix. 71. 88. 105.) 

Allow me to assure your readers that the 
Hickes Correspondence, alleged to have been 
burned, is perfectly safe, for I have this day (Feb. 
13th, 1860) had the pleasure of seeing it, and 
also some more important MSS. of the period 
which had been preserved with it. Probably 
your informant inferred that it was destroyed 
from having learned that some of Hickes's letters 
were amongst the papers burned on the occasion 
to which he alludes. It is true that a few of his 
letters were then burned, but they had been care- 
fully examined beforehand, and were found not 
to possess any value whatever except as auto- 
graphs, F. R- 



DEAN GEO. HICKES. It may perhaps stay the 
hand of the Vandals, bankers or others, who con- 
sider everything written before this century as 
unworthy of a better fate than burning, if they 
learn that old papers, however intrinsically worth- 
less in their eyes, have yet a value even a money 
value in the opinion of some of their contem- 
poraries. As a contribution to the diffusion of 
this piece of " Useful Knowledge," and as some 
slight compensation for a shameful wrong done to 
a learned man's memory, I send a few notes, 
which may, I hope, open the larger stores of 
better informed readers : 

See the Biogr. Brit. (Supplement) ; John 
Nichols's Lit. Anecd. and lllustr., Chauffepie and 
Chalmers ; Whittaker's Richmondshire ; Lath- 
bury 's Noiijurors ; D'Oyly's Life of Sancroft ; and 
Mr. Secretan's valuable Life o/ Rolt. Nelson (add 
p. 288. to the references given in the Index under 
Hiches). The Indexes to Wood's Athence and 
Fasti, Reliquice Hearniance ; Bohun's Autobio- 
graphy ; Birch's Life of Tillotson, and the Diaries 
of Luttrell, Pepys, and Thoresby ; Letters from 
the Bodleian ; Thesaurus Epistolicus Lacrozianus 
(Index to Vol. I.) ; J. A. Fabricii Vita, p. 157. ; 
Waterland's Works (Van Mildert's Index) ; Ken- 
neths Life, pp. 12. 34. 47. seq., 160.; Calamy's 
Own Times, ii. 337. seq. ; European Magazine, 
Dec. 1792, p. 413. ; Nelson's Life of Bull, p. 439. ; 
Duntorfs Life ; Burnet's Own Times. His gift to 
Sion College is recorded in Reading's State of 
Sion College, p. 43. In 1703 he published a trans- 
lation from Fenelon's Telemaque ; his Instructions 
for the Education of a Daughter, from the same 
author, have passed through many editions. In 
1717, Susanna Hopton's Meditations and Devo- 
tions, revised by him, were published in 8vo. 

Of his letters some have been published by Sir 
H. Ellis (Original Letters and Letters of Eminent 
Literary Men) ; some both to and from him by 
Nichols in Bp. Nicol son's Correspondence ; a letter 
to Charlett (Nov. 24, 1694) in the European 
Magazine for May, 1797, p. 329. ; another in Dr. 
Zouch's Works, ii. 106. 

John Lewis of Margate wrote a Life of Hickes 
(Masters's Hist. C. C. C. C\). Where is this ?* 

John Hickes, brother to George, occurs in Ca- 
lamy's Account, p. 248. ; and Conciliation, p. 336. f 

J. E. B. MAYOR. 

St. John's College, Cambridge. 



SCOTTISH COLLEGE AT PARIS. 
(2 nd S. ix. 80.) 

The Scottish College was situated in the Rue 
des Fosses-Saint- Victor. It is now, I believe, a 
Lycee. The principal MSS. relative to the resi- 

[* Inquired after in our 2 nd S. vi. 149. ED.] 

f Or 330. ; the last figure is blotted in my note-book. 



2' ld S. IX. FEU. 18. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



denco of James II. and the Pretender at St. Ger- 
main-en-Laye are preserved in the French Ar- 
chives. The most important are locked up in 
the Secret Archives, and are therefore inacces- 
sible to foreigners. Miss Strickland, however, 
gained access to them through the influence of 
M. Guizot, and has availed herself to some ex- 
tent of the knowledge thus acquired, in her life of 
James's Queen, Mary Beatrice of Modena. The 
Scottish College contained a marble cenotaph 
erected to the memory of James II. by the Duke 
of Perth, on which was placed a bronze-gilt urn 
containing the king's brain. His heart was con- 
signed to the Convent of the Visitation at Chaillot, 
which possessed also the heart of his mother Hen- 
riette Marie. His body was deposited in the 
Church of the English Benedictines, in the Rue 
du Faubourg St. Jacques, and there remained 
uriburied during the space of ninety-two years 
from 1701 to 1793 waiting the time when, ac- 
cording to the directions of his will, it might be 
buried with his ancestors in Westminster Abbey ! 
The way in which it was at length disposed of is 
thus described by an eye-witness, Mr. Fitz- 
Simons, and quoted by the Rev. Dr. Oliver, Col- 
lections, p. 488. : 

" I was a prisoner in Paris, in the Convent of the Eng- 
lish Benedictines, in the Rue St. Jacques, during part of 
the Revolution. In the year 1793 or 1794, the body of 
King James II. of England was in one of the Chapels 
there, where it had been deposited some time, under the 
expectation that it would one day be sent to England for 
interment in Westminster Abbey. It had never been 
buried. The body was in a wooden coffin, inclosed in a 
leaden one, and that again inclosed in a second wooden 
one, covered with black velvet. While I was so a prisoner, 
the sans-culottes broke open the coffin, to get at the lead, 
to cast into bullets. The body lay exposed nearly a 
whole day. It was swaddled like a mummy, bound tight 
with garters. The sans-culottes took out the body, 
which had been embalmed. There was a strong smell of 
vinegar and camphor. The corpse was beautiful and 
perfect; the hands and nails were very fine; I moved 
and bent every finger. I never saw so fine a set of teeth 
in my life. A j'oung lady, a fellow- prisoner, wished 
much to have a tooth ; I tried to get one out for her, but 
could not, they were so firmly fixed. The feet also were 
very beautiful. The face and cheeks were just as if he 
were alive. I rolled his eyes, and the eye-balls were 
perfectly firm under my finger. The French and English 
prisoners gave money to the sans-culottes for showing 
the body. They said he was a good sans-culotte, and 
they were going to put him into a hole, in the public 
churchyard, like other sans-culottes ; and he was car- 
ried away, but where the body was thrown, I never 
heard. King George IV. tried all in his power to get 
tidings of the body, but could not. Around the chapel 
were several wax moulds of the face hung up, made pro- 
bably at the time of the king's death; and the corpse was 
very like them." 

Mr. Banks, in his Dormant and Extinct Peer- 
ages, vol. iv. 450. quotes the Paris papers, af- 
firming that the royal remains were discovered 
and transferred to the Church of St. Germain-en- 
Laye, conformably, as was said, to orders given 



by King George IV. to his ambassador at Paris ; 
that this interesting ceremony took place on the 
10th Sept. 1824; and that the ambassador was 
represented by Mr. Sheldon, a Catholic gentle- 
man, the Bishop of Edinburgh performing the 
ceremony. JOHN WILLIAMS. 

Arno's Court. 



PHILIP ROBENS (2 nd S. ix. 75, 76.) May I 
be allowed to remark, that the letters to Peter 
Paul Rubens, which CL. HOPPER states " would 
have made an important augmentation to the re- 
cently published Rubens' Papers" could scarcely 
have been included in a volume which professes 
to print only the unpublished papers preserved in 
H. M.'s State Paper Office. There are in that 
volume, 'tis true, three or four exceptions ; but 
they are letters of considerable interest, and 
written by the great artist himself. There are, 
doubtless, numerous papers relating to Rubens 
distributed in many parts of the world. 

I would take this opportunity of urging upon 
those contributors to "JN". & Q." who neglect to 
do so, the importance of giving authorities for 
their statements, where practicable. Whenever 
MSS. are referred to, I do think it essential that 
readers should be enabled to verify their authen- 
ticity as well as their accuracy. When a volume 
of " N. & Q." is consulted for reference, how 
much more satisfactory and valuable will that re- 
ference be, if it be added where the particular 
document may be found ; so that, if requisite, the 
printed copy may be compared with the original, 
or who are the authorities quoted, that they also 
may be verified. W. NOEL SAINSBURY. 

COCKADE (2 nd S. viii. 37.) On the question 
whether the servants of gentlemen who are non- 
commissioned officers and privates in Volunteer 
Rifle Corps should wear cockades, I thought that 
a precedent might be obtained from the City 
Light Horse Volunteers a corps which existed 
from the end of the last century to about the 
time of the passing of the Reform Bill. The 
members of it were all gentlemen, who among 
themselves defrayed the entire expenses of the 
corps, and no one was admitted into it who did 
not keep a horse worth 300 guineas; and it is sup- 
posed to have been the finest corps of light 
cavalry that ever exisited. At the beginning of 
the present year I met one who was for many 
years a member of this splendid corps, now a 
D. L. and J. P. of his county, and I asked him if 
the servants of the non-commissioned officers and 
privates of the City Light Horse Volunteers wore 
cockades? He replied, "Never; no one ever 
thought of such a thing ; indeed I am certain they 
did not, and that none of my servants wore cock- 
ades." F. A. CAREINGTON. 

Ogborne St. George. 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2 nd S. IX. FEB. 18. 'GO. 



DINNER ETIQUETTE (2 nd S. ix. 81.) Your cor- 
respondent, CI-DEVANT, has thrown good light 
on the question of dinner etiquette, as raised 
in Fraser's Magazine for January last, in a paper 
containing a reference to Miss Austen's Emma. 
With regard to the very interesting extract pro- 
duced by him from the Memoirs of Madame de 
GenliSj I have a letter from a lady well qualified 
by experience and position to speak on the sub- 
ject. She writes : 

" It seems odd that Napoleon did not bring back the 
old Court etiquette ; and still more so that the emigrant 
nobles should have taken to the revolutionary! modes. 
When I accompanied C. to Paris in 1814, the Noah's ark 
plan was followed by the Bourbon noblesse, with several 
of whom we dined. Our first dinner was one given by 
the Due de Fleury. The new French ministers, includ- 
ing the Due de Blacas, were present. I was handed into 
the dining-room by a French gentleman (whose name I 
forget), whom I afterwards also met at all the grand 
balls given by the King of Prussia and the various Am- 
bassadors. Each gentleman held his hand towards the 
lady he escorted, and she placed on it the tips of her 
fingers. Our names were all written on slips of paper 
placed opposite to our seats at table. Our next dinner 
was at Lafitte's, so that we had an immediate oppor- 
tunity of comparing the ways of the rich parvenus with 
those of the old noblesse ; but all was conducted alike in 
both sets. At home, my father always handed his lady 
to table. He could not bear what he called the new 
fashion of ladies leaning upon gentlemen's arms." 

I have it on the authority of a venerable Scot- 
tish lady that, in her youth in Scotland, the ladies 
always left the drawing-rooom first, and before the 
gentlemen, to go in to dinner ; but I can find no 
evidence that this practice prevailed in London 
society within living memory. At Highbury, and 
in Mr. Woodhouse's circle, the manners of the 
time and class are no doubt correctly described 
by Miss Austen in Emma. W. F. P. 

SEPULCHRES (2 nd S. ix. p. 92.) Notwithstand- 
ing the positive assertion of LITURGIST, supported 
too as it is by the high authority to which he re- 
fers, I, for one, would beg leave to demur for 
awhile, and would solicit farther information from 
other ecclesiastical antiquaries who have turned 
their attention to the subject, and who may be 
able to give early examples of ecclesiastics laid 
with their feet towards the west. * 

In Willis's Current Notes for 1855 (p. 44.) there 
is an interesting article by the vicar of Morwen- 
stow on the position of the buried dead ; and 
therein he mentions an abbot's sepulchre in Clo- 
veily church, having the feet laid towards the 
west ; also, an early priest's grave in his own 
church in the same direction. He speaks of others 
of the same sort " in many an antique church," 
and he goes on lengthily to explain it, and quotes 



[* Our correspondent has probably overlooked an able 
article on this subject in our I 8t S. ii. 452., in reply to the 
Vicar of Morwenstow, from the pen of one of the most 
learned of our ecclesiastical antiquaries. ED.] 



a rubrical enactment (without reference) for the 
burial of the clergy. " Habeant caput versus 
altare." " It was," to quote his own words, " to 
signify preparation and readiness to arise, and to 
follow after their Lord in the air, when he shall 
arise from the east, and, accompanied by his saints, 
pass onwards to the west," &c. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

THE PRUSSIAN IRON MEDAL (2 nd S. ix. 91.) 
Under this reference mention is made by your 
correspondent Z. of " D'Allonville's Memoires 
(Tun Homme d'Etat (Prince Hardenberg )'\ I find 
it stated in the Encyc. des Gens du Monde that 
Prince Hardenberg at his death in 1822 left cer- 
tain memoirs, but that the MS. was impounded by 
the King (of Prussia), who commanded that it 
should not, be opened before the year 1850. On 
the other hand, it appears from the Nouv. Biog. 
Gener. that d'Allonville succeeded A. de Beau- 
champ in the redaction of the " Memoires tires des 
Papiers tfun Homme dEtat" which bear the ear- 
lier date 1831-1837. Are these "Memoires," 
published before the date assigned by the royal 
ordinance, the work cited by Z.? Whether or no, 
where in London might a copy of "D'Allon- 
ville's Memoires dun Homme d'Etat (Prince 
Hardenberg)" be seen ? I have made many in- 
quiries for such a work, but hitherto without suc- 
cess. VEDETTE. 

" THE VOYAGES," ETC., or CAPTAIN RICHARD 
FALCONER (2 nd S. ix. 66.) The edition of 1724 
is the second, and has an engraved frontispiece by 
Cole. I never heard of an edition of 1734. Cheth 
wood, the author, also wrote a similar work en- 
titled The Voyages and Adventures of Captain 
Robert Boyle in several Parts of the World, 
12mo., 1728, and afterwards reprinted. And 
I have also another production of Chetwood, 
entitled : 

" The Voyages, Travels, and Adventures of William 
Owen Gwin Vaughan, Esq. : with the History of his 
Brother Jonathan Vaughan, Six Years a Slave in Tunis; 
intermix'd with the Histories of Clerimont, Maria, Elea- 
nora, and others, full of various turns of Fortune. By 
the Author of Captain Robert Boyle." 2 vols. 12mo., 
1760. 2nd edition, with plates by Vander Gutch. 

This edition is dedicated to his Royal Highness 
the Prince of Wales by "R. Chetwood." The 
latter work is the most amusing of the series, and 
is equally difficult to procure at the present day. 

ALOYSIUS. 

BALLADS AGAINST INCLOSURES (2 nd S. ix. 64.) 
The animosity excited against the Inclosure Acts 
and their authors, and more especially against the 
landlords and lords of manors, who alone were 
supposed to derive benefit from the spoliation of 
the poor cottager, was almost without precedent ; 
though fifty years and more have passed, the sub- 
ject is still a sore one in many parishes : much of 
the indigence and misery caused by the cottager's 



2 d S. IX. FEB. 18. 'CO.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



own imprudence and folly is, up to the present 
time, laid at the door of the much maligned " In- 
closure Acts." I remember, some years ago, in 
hunting over an old library, discovering a box 
full of printed squibs, satires, and ballads of the 
time against the Acts and those who were sup- 
posed to favour them, the library having be- 
longed to a gentleman who played an active part 
on the opposition side. I believe these ballads, 
&c., were almost purely local, and, therefore, 
would be of no service to MR. PEACOCK, your cor- 
respondent, as they bore reference to a county 
very far from Lincolnshire. One little naive 
epigram I remember, which forcibly impressed 
itself on my memory : 

" 'Tis bad enough in man or woman 
To steal a goose from off a common ; 
But surely he's without excuse 
Who steals the common from the goose." 

EXON. 

DONKEY (2 nd S. ix. 83.) In reference to this 
word, a correspondent in 1 st S. v. 78., after refer- 
ring to its absence from our dictionaries, adds : 
" There may, however, be doubts as to the anti- 
quity of this term ; I have heard ancient men say 
tliat it has been introduced within their recollec- 
tion." This is confirmed by the circumstance 
that Mr. S. Pegge (who died in 1800) classes the 
word amongst provincialisms. In his Supplement 
to Grose's Provincial Glossary, appended to Rev. 
H. Christmas's edition (the 3rd) of his Anecdotes 
of the English Language (1844. p. 365.), he gives : 
" DONKY, an ass. Essex" Can your correspon- 
dents give early instances of the use of the word ? 
Why is a donkey universally called, in Norfolk, a 
dickey ? ACHE. 

THE LABEL IN HERALDRY (2 nd S. ix. 80.) 
" Labels were originally a sort of Scarf, or Band, with 
hanging Lingels, Tongues, or Points, which, young men 
wore about their Necks, as Cravats or Neckcloths are 
worn now-a-days. This sort of Ribbands were tied to 
the Neck of the Helmet, and when this was placed on the 
Shield it cover'd the upper part of it ; which served to 
distinguish the Sons from their Fathers, because none 
but unmarried men wore them ; and this was the Occa- 
sion of their being used as Differences," &c. Boyer's 
Heraldry, p. 275., A.D. 1729. 

SENEX JUNIOR. 

FICTITIOUS PEDIGREES (2 nd S.ix. 61.) Although 
Mr. Spence was a great manufacturer of fancy 
pedigrees, he could not very well have forged all 
the Cot<?reave MSS.; but merely, by addition, 
subtraction, or substitution, have put them under 
contribution in the way of ingenious dovetailing. 
Where then, let me ask, are these MSS.? If 
forthcoming and genuine, they might be of valu- 
able service to the county-historian, the antiquary, 
and the genealogist. I believe they were not 
known to, or at least not used by, Mr. Ormerod 
in his valuable History of Cheshire^ a circum- 
stance which, though suspicious, may perhaps be 



properly accounted for by the fact of their being 
private family documents. Now, however, that 
the last of the family is dead, no excuse for pri- 
vacy need be observed. I take this opportunity 
to say, that I quite concur with your valued cor- 
respondent JAYDEE as to the Spencean upper- 
portion of the Sherwood pedigree, and entirely 
exonerate the lady. R. W. DIXON. 

Seaton-Carew, co. Durham. 

BURIAL IN A SITTING POSTURE (2 nd S. ix. 44. 
94.) I can furnish your correspondent with one 
more instance of burial in a sitting position. At 
Messina there is a church attached to one of its 
numerous monasteries, by name, I think, St. Ja- 
como, in which several monks are buried in a 
sitting position, and may be seen through a grat- 
ing in a vault below the church. This church is 
situated at the top of the hill overlooking the 
town on the road to the " Telegraph." I believe 
numerous instances occur at Palermo, but I did 
not get so far. M. FODDER. 

YOFTREGERE (2 nd S. ix. 11.) Can this word 
be in any manner connected with obstringillis, 
which occurs in John of Bridlington's political 
poem, accompanied by the following explanation 
in the commentary ? " Plebs obstriugittis, i. ob- 
structa et captiva." See Political Poems and 
Songs, edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., under au- 
thority of the Master of the Rolls, vol. i. pp. 176, 
177. J. SANSOM. 

PEPPERCOMB (2 nd S. ix. 11.) Pepper- Harrow, 
Peper-Harow, or Peper-Hare, Surrey, was for- 
merly Pipard- Harrow, and in Domesday, Piper- 
herge. According to Manning, it was so called 
from Pipard or Pepard, an ancient proprietor, 
and the Saxon word are, signifying " a possession 
or estate," q. d. Pipard's estate. (The A.-S. are is 
a court-yard, area.) Pepper, in local names, may 
sometimes be a corruption of Peover. There are 
three places (Little, Nether, and Over), so named 
in Cheshire. Pepper may, in some instances, be 
a corruption of Bever, which is found frequently 
in local names, not only in England, but also on 
the Continent, as in Biberach, Biberack, Biebrich, 
Bievres, from G. biber, Fr. bievre, from Latter, 
a beaver. R. S. CHARNOCK. 

DRYBURGH INSCRIPTION (2 nd S. ix. 80.) The 
words appear to be " felo de se et arsa," meaning 
that " the woman committed suicide and was 
burnt." T. J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

BlSHOP PREACHING TO APRIL FOOLS (2 nd S. ix. 

12.)- 

" L'Electeur de Cologne, frere de 1'Electeur de Baviere, 
e'tant & Valenciennes, annonca, qu'il precheroit le l er 
Avril. La foule fut prodigieuse & 1'Eglise, 1'Electeur 
etant en chaire salua gravement 1'auditoire, fit le signe 
de la croix, et cria ; Poisson d'Avril ! ' Puis descendit, 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



O<iS. IX. FEB. 18. 



tandis que des trompettes et des cors-de-chasse fassoient 
un tintamarre digne cl'une pareille sc&ne." Pieces inte- 
ressantes et pen connues, pour servir a VHistoire. Brux- 
elles, 1781, i. 168. 

The work above cited is in four volumes. Pages 
108. to 236. of the first are occupied by a collec- 
tion of anecdotes, " tirees du Manuscrit originel 
d'un Horame de Lettres tres-instruit." Nearly all 
are of the time of Louis XIV. and the Regent. 
That of the " Poisson d'Avril " occurs between 
two of Dubois. Probably there are different ver- 
sions of the same story, as the square-book with 
wood-cuts, and the mention of " Howlglass," indi- 
cate an earlier time than that of the Regent. 

FlTZHOPKINS. 

Garrick Club. 

CALCUITH (2 nd S. viii. 205.) Caleuith, Cel- 
chyth, Cercehede, Chelched, and Chalkhythe were 
names of Chelsea. Sir Thomas More, who re- 
sided there, writes Chelcith. The word means 
chalk-harbour, as Lambeth = Loamhithe means 
clay-harbour, and Rotherhythe red-harbour, all 
in the port of London. 

The objection that Chelsea was not "in the 
kingdom of Mercia" is met by the fact that in 
752 Kent was subject to Mercia. Offa defeated 
the Kentish men in 776 at Ottford. (Penny Cyc. 
art, KENT, p. 193.) T.' J. BUCKTON. 

Lichfield. 

THE LOAD OF MISCHIEF (2 d S. ix. 90.) The 
curious in such matters need not go so far as 
Norwich to look for the sign of the " Man laden 
with Mischief:" it may be seen any day depicted 
over the door of a publichouse on the south side 
of Oxford Street, near Tottenham Court Road. ' 

J. O. 

This sign used to swing some twelve or fifteen 
years ago in all the glory that brilliant colour and 
varnish could give it before a pothouse about a 
mile from Cambridge on the Madingley Road, to 
the best of my recollection. The neighbourhood 
of Cambridge was in those days very rich in the 
sign department. J. EASTWOOD. 

" ROUND ABOUT OUR CoAL FlRE" (2 nd S. ix. 54.) 

It appears that the earliest edition of this pam- 
phlet with a date is the fourth, 1784 (see 2 nd S. 
viii. 481.). MR. BATES describes the third, which 
is without date. I have a copy of an edition 
which I must assume to be the first, because the 
title gives no indication of its being of any later 
issue. It has a bastard title " Round about our Coal- 
Fire ; OR, Christmas Entertainments" on the verso 
of which is the prologue, nearly as given by DR. 
RIMBAULT. Then follows the full title, identical 
with that given by MR. BATES, omitting only the 
words " The Third Edition," with woodcut of a 
Christmas feast, occupying nearly half the page. 
Next comes the Dedication to Mr. Lunn, two 
leaves, and signed only "Yours, &c." B., six; C. 



and D, eights ; E, four, including a leaf of adver- 
tisements. The last numbered page is 48, but the 
Epilogue carries the work two pages farther. 
It would appear, therefore, that my copy and MR. 
BATES'S, though of different editions, are alike in 
contents. DR. RIMBAULT'S copy, containing "great 
additions," has two chapters more than mine. The 
absence of the " Prologue " from MR. BATES'S 
copy may arise from its wanting the half-title. 

R. S. Q. 

" LORD BACON'S SKULL " (2 nd S. viii. 354.) 
Having occasion some time ago to take a stroll 
to St. Michael's church in this town, in order to 
show it to a friend, while he was looking at the 
monument of Lord Bacon I engaged myself in 
conversation with the organist of the church, 
whose father has been for many years sexton of 
the parish. Remembering the story quoted from 
Fuller in " N. & Q." I mentioned it to him, and 
he informed me in turn that on the occasion of the 
interment of the last Lord Verulam, whose family 
vault is situated immediately below the monu- 
ment of Lord Bacon, the opportunity was taken 
to make a search for any trace of the great philo- 
sopher's remains. I understood my informant to 
say that a partition wall was pulled down, and the 
search extended into the part of the vault im- 
mediately under the monument, but no such re- 
mains were found ; nor, in fact, could they find 
anything to show that Lord Bacon's ashes, coffin, 
or anything belonging to him were at that time 
deposited in St. Michael's church. Can it be pos- 
sible that Fuller's story was true, and can it far- 
ther be possible that not only Bacon's skull, but 
that his whole remains, have been removed sur- 
reptitiously from the place in which they were 
once laid ? 

What proof is there that they were ever placed 
in St. Michael's church at all beyond the mere 
fact of Lord Bacon's own desire, which cannot be 
called a proof of its being complied with ? At 
the end of his History of Life and Death, Bacon 
mentions that " Tithon " was turned into a grass- 
hopper, who knows but that the philosopher him- 
self has undergone some such change, and taken 
the opportunity to hop out of his tomb ? 

C. LE POER KENNEDY. 

St. Albans. 

JUDGE'S BLACK CAP (2 nd S. viii. 130. 193. 238. 
406.) "In the island of Jersey, when sentence 
of death is passed, the bailiff or his lieutenant and 
the jurats, all of whom were before uncovered, put 
on their hats, and the criminal kneels to receive his 
doom. This is a very solemn and impressive 
scene." (Vide Hist, of Jersey, 8vo. 1816.) 

CL. HOPPER. 

THE REVOLT OF THE BEES (2 nd S. ix. 56.) - 
This little work, first published about 1820, and a 
fourth edition in " The Phoenix Library " (Gil- 



2nd s. IX. FEB. 18. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



pin), in 1850, has not been correctly attributed to 
Robert Owen. It was written by John Minter 
Morgan, of whom it is said, in a short Memoir 
in the Gent's Mag. for April, 1855, p. 430., "His 
projects were akin to those of Mr. Owen of 
Lanark, with this important difference, that they 
were professedly based upon Christianity." Mr. 
Morgan was the author of several other works on 
social subjects, published anonymously, one of 
which is entitled Hampden in the Nineteenth Cen- 
tury ; or Colloquies on the Errors and Improve- 
ment of Society, Lond. 1834, 8vo. 2 vols. He died 
in Stratton Street, Piccadilly, London, Dec. 26, 
1854. 'AAm'j. 

Dublin. 

PYE-WYPE (2 nd S. ix. 65.) Your correspon- 
dent J. SANSOM asks what is the meaning of Pye- 
Wype, and why a field, a Rasin, is called Pye- 
Wype Close? On reference to Bewick's Birds, 
vol. i. edit. 1804, p. 324., stands Pee-wit, Lap- 
wing, Bastard Plover, or Te Wit (Fringella Vanei- 
lus, Lin. (Le Vanneau, Buff.) Before the inclosure 
of commons and the improved drainage of com- 
mons these birds were very numerous, and at 
the proper season afforded a rich harvest to the 
naked-legged urchins of parishes where they con- 
gregated, who gathered their eggs. They seemed to 
assemble in flocks or families, and not interfere 
with each other's fen or marsh. They are not ex- 
clusively seen on fen or damp land, for I have ob~ 
served them hovering over land considerably 
elevated, and always near the same spot; but I 
never knew them to deposit their eggs otherwise 
than in a low wet situation. In East Norfolk the 
lower classes oftener call them Pye Wypes or Pee- 
wits, than Lapwings or Plovers. 

The above will sufficiently account for certain 
inclosures being called Pye Wype Closes, as we 
hear of Horse Close, Bull Close, Mill Close, &c. ; 
and an instance I know of where a field near a 
manor-house or hall is named Hoggarty Close, 
evidently, in my opinion, meaning Hall-gate-way 
Close, it being close to a road leading to the hall. 

In Leicestershire this word Pye-Wype is the 
common name for the Plover or Pee- Wit. 

LOUISA JULIA NORMAN. 
3. King's Terrace, Soutbsey. 

The Lapwing (Tringa vanellus, Linnaeus) visits 
Lincolnshire in large flocks, and is known there as 
the Grey Plover, and more generally called the 
Pewith or Pye- Wype. Skelton (vol. i. p. 64.) says 
"With Puwyt, the Lapwing." 

In the Percy Household Book, 1512, the Plover 
tiled the Wypes, and in Sweden the same bird 
is called the Wypa at the present time. In the 
United States the Lapwing is called the Pewit, 
from its cry ; in Lincolnshire, the Chuse-it or 
Pt'dt, also from its cry. 



Pye-Wype is evidently derived from the old 
name of the bird Wypes or Wypa ; the prefix pye 
being no doubt a corruption of Skelton's pu. In 
Lincolnshire, places wher.e these birds congregate 
and deposit their eggs*, are frequently called Pye- 
Wype Hill, &c. PISHEY THOMPSON. 

EIKON BASILIKE : PICTURE or CHARLES I. (2 nd 
S. ix. 27.) I have a fine copy of this book so 
solemn to be read " London printed by 7?. 
Norton for Eichard P.oyston, Bookseller to His 
most Sacred Majesty, MDCLXXXI.," 8vo. pp. 256 , 
with fourteen preliminary pages including dedica- 
tion to Charles II. " Majesty in Misery or an Im- 
ploration to the King of Kings,"' 1648, &c. The 
frontispiece is a picture of Charles I. well engraved 
(R. White, sculp.*), on comparing which with the 
description given by B. H. C. of the picture in 
the church of " St. Botolph, Bishopsgate," I find it 
to agree in its particulars, with the exception of 
there being wanting the motto in Greek, Heb. xi. 
38., and also the following mottoes in reference to 



the ship (in the background to the left), * Immota 
Triumphans," "Ncscit Naufragium Virtus" *' Crescit 
sub pomlereVirlus " but in addition, at the bottom, 



of the plate, " Alij diutius Imperium tenuerunt 
nemo tarn fortiter reliquit, Tacit. Histor. Lib. 2. 
C. 47. p. 417." At p. 221. is a portrait of Charles 
II , also very prettily engraved, with the inscrip- 
tion " Bona agere et mala pad Regium est " (p. 
1.). The bookseller, Royston, in consideration _" of 
the great Losses and Troubles he hath sustained 
for his Faithfulness to Our Royal Father of blessed 
Memory, and Ourself in the Printing and Pub- 
lishing of many Messages and Papers of our said 
Blessed Father, and more especially in the most 
excellent Meditations and Soliloquies by the name 
of EIKWJ/ Boo-iA-iKT?," &c., appears to have held an ex- 
clusive patent for the kingdom and the universities 
from Charles II. for the printing and selling of 
this book. Whether the edition be of any special 
rarity and value I cannot say. G. N. 

ELECTRIC TELEGRAPH (2 nd S. ix. 26. 73.) 
An inquirer wishes information respecting the 
earliest attempts in this country to transmit sig- 
nals by electricity. A complete working tele- 
graph is described in a pamphlet entitled, De- 
scriptions of an Electrical Telegraph, and of some 
other Electrical Apparatus, by Francis Ronald 9, 
1823. E. R. 

LORD BOLINGBROKE'S HOUSE AT BATTERSEA 
(2 nd S. ix. 37.) The walls of Pope's room, other- 
wise the "cedar" or "round" room, may still be 
seen from the road. They, however, now support 
a new roof, and can only be distinguished from 
the rest of the building by their circular form. 

CHELSEGA. 



* Known in London as the Plover egg, and said to be 
particularly nutritious. 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



ix. FEB. 18. '60. 



NOTES ON BOOKS. 



An Inquiry into the Genuineness of the Manuscript Cor- 
itions in Mr. J. Payne Collier's Annotated Shakspeare, 



rections 



Folio, 1632 ; and of certain Shahsperian Documents like- 

Mr. 
(Beiitley.) 



wise published by Mr. Collier. By N. E. S. A. Hamilton. 



Embodied in the present volume we have at length the 
charges with respect to the Old Corrector's Folio and 
other Shaksperian Documents which Mr. Hamilton an- 
nounced so long since as the 2nd July last. These charges 
and we use the term advisedly, for in the majority of 
cases there is little or no attempt to establish them by 
evidence are of so grave a character that we are sure 
every reader of right feeling will suspend his judgment 
npon them until he has before him Mr. Collier's explana- 
tions. Whatever may have been the rumours in circula- 
tion, it is clear that Mr. Collier could not reply to them 
until they were put before the world in an authentic and 
tangible 'shape. That moment has now arrived. Mr. 
Collier's reply will, we have no doubt, be very soon in the 
hands of the public, and we shall indeed be greatly sur- 
prised if it does not satisfy all unprejudiced minds as to the 
bond fides with which he has acted in all the matters in 
question. 

The. Gem of Thorney Island ; or Historical Associations 
connected with Westminster Abbey. By the Rev. James 
Ridgway, M.A. (Bell & Daldy.) 

Mr. Ridgway has entered on his self-imposed task of 
giving a popular sketch of the early history of that 
venerable abbey, where the greatest of England's sons in 
arts and arms lie gathered, in an admirable spirit. Dis- 
regarding the architectural beauties of the building, and 
carefully abstaining from an)'- expression of a theological 
nature, Mr. Ridgway has attempted only the faithful re- 
production of the scenes formerly enacted in our great 
abbey church, together with such feelings, beliefs, and 
superstitions of our ancestors as is necessary for recalling 
vividly the memory of past events. The volume ends 
with the funeral of Henry V. the last monarch who 
was buried in (he Confessor's Chapel; and we are sure 
the readers of it will look forward with pleasure to the 
promised continuation, which is to contain the history of 
the sanctuary, and bring the narrative down to the death 
of Edward V. 

BOOKS RECEIVED. 

Parochial Sermons, by H. W. Burrows, B.D. 2nd Series. 
(J. H. Parker.) 

Full of original thought, and genuine feeling. They 
have the ring of a good metal, and well deserve the suc- 
cess which a " second series" implies. 

Plainspoken Words to Dr. Dodge on the Revision of the 
Liturgy. (J. H. Parker.) 

Plainspoken indeed and humorous. Just the pamphlet 
to lend among those of our middle classes who give an 
ear to the different worrying schemes {'or the excision of 
old fashioned orthodoxy from our Prayerbook. 

A Review of the Literary History of Germany from the 
Earliest Period to the beginning of the Nineteenth Century. 
Bij Gustav Soiling. (Williams & Norgate.) 

A rapid sketch of the history of German literature, ac- 
companied by such literary references and bibliographical 
notes as are calculated to render it alike acceptable and 
useful to students. 

Memoirs, Journals, and Correspondence of Thomas Moore. 
Edited and abridged from the Edition by Lord John Rus- 
sell. Part II, (Longman.) 

The present Part, which brings down Moore's life to 
1818, is illustrated with an admirable portrait of Lord 
John Russell. 



Routledge's Illustrated Natural History. By Rev. J. G. 
Wood. Part XI. (Routledge.) 

The present Part, which is chiefly devoted to Seals and 
Whales, well sustains the character of the work for 
amusing information and capital woodcuts. 

SHAKSPERIAN DISCOVERY. We are credibly informed 
that the Master of the Rolls has recently found, enclosed 
in some old Chapter House hassocks, a collection of 
valuable manuscript documents relating to Shakspeare, 
from which it would appear that certain papers in the 
custody of a Puritan descendant of the great poet wer 
not destroyed, as was generally supposed. These inter- 
esting relics seem to have become the property of Lady 
Elizabeth Barnard, the dramatist's grandchild and heir. 
Arrangements have been made for their immediate pub- 
lication. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c.,of the following Books to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, and whose names and ad' 
dresses are given for that purpose. 

MANNING AND BRAY'S SURREY. Fol. Only Vol. III.* 
IRONSIDE'S HISTORY AND ANTIQUITIES OF TWICKBNHAM. 4to. 1737. 
STRICKLAND'S QUEENS OF ENGLAND. Vol. I. 8vo. 1853. 
OXONIANA. Only Vol. IV. 

Wanted by Mr. J. Yeowell, 13. Myddelton Place, E.C. 

Any small copies of H. B. VIROINIS before 1600. 
Volumes II. or III. ofBuiiNEY's HISTORY OF Music. 

Wanted by Rev. J. Jackson, 5. Chatham Place East, Hackney, N.E. 

PART OF THIS SUMMER'S TRAVELS, or News from Hell, Hull, and Hali- 
fax, &c., by John Taylor the Water Poet. Imprinted by J. O. 12mo. 

A SHORT SKETCH OF THE LIFE OF MR. FOSTER POWELL', THB GREAT 
PEDESTRIAN. London. 8vo. No date, but printed for H. K. Westley, 
Strand. With portrait by Harlow. 1 1 pages only. 

THE YORKSHIRE MUSICAL MISCELLANV, comprising an Elegant Selection 
Set to Music. Halifax. Printed by E. Jacobs. 8vo. 1800. 

Wanted by Edward Hailstone, Esq., Horton Hall, Bradford. 

PICINELLI MUNDCS SYMHOLICUS. 2Vols.ini. Colon. 1695. Folio. 

ALSTEDII THEOLOOTA NATURALIS. Hanov. 1623. 4to. 

SIR P. SIDNEY'S WORKS. Any edition from 1629 to 1725, the last especi- 

ally. 

A KEMPIS. Translated by Payne, and published by Dove. 
TRACTS FOR THE TIMES, No. 89. 

HALLAM'S LITERATURE. 2nd Edition. Vols. II. and III. 
HOLE'S REMARKS ON THB ARABIAN NJOHTS. 1797. 
WILLETT'S MEMOIB OF HAWARDBN PARISH, FLINTSHIRE,, Chester. 

1832. 

Wanted by Rev. W. West, Hawarden, Flintshire. 



to 

FITZHOFKINS is referred to our 2nd S. vol. iii. pp. 428. 496. for an < 
count o/Mary Toft. 



i RANK. A jew years since isumstead. oj Moloorn published a (Jat 
logue of Books on Magic; and some thirty or forty years since Denley 
CatJierine Street, Strand, issued several which are highly curious. 

STUDENS is thanked, -but has been anticipated. 

SENBSCENS. The tradition of Bayard's Leap has been given in our 1st ! 

vi. 600 The antecedents of the sif/n in the old North Road, we suspe 

arc not highly respectable, so that we must not hazard an explanation. 

Z. The Rev. Joseph Prendergast, D.D. was of Queen's College, i 
bridge, and Head Master ofLewisham school. 

A iiswers to other correspondents in our next. 

ERRATA. 2nd S. ix. p. 85. col. ii. 1. 21. for "almaign" read 
moign ; " p. 95. col. ii. note, for " Willis " read " Wallis ; " p. 104, col. ! 

1 i\ />i. *-,*.. S:* " fnftfl *' .?.^* > 



1. 35./o>- 



read >**. 



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JL fPEARE INQUIRY, with a Review of the Controversy respecting 
the Corrected Folio, see the ATHENAEUM of Feb. 18. 

Office: 14. Wellinztou Street North, Strand. 



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2i S. IX. FEB. 25. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



135 



LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 25. 1860. 



N. 217. CONTENTS. 

NOTES: Ante-Reformation Archdeacon's Charge and In- 
quisition, 135 "The Temporal Government of the Popes 
State," 137 Notes on Hudibras, 188 Coldharbour, 139 
Sir Peter Paul Rubens, Ib. 



tree The Stanley Family Wellington and Nelson 
Recent Misapplication of the Words "Facetious" and 
"Facetiae," 140. 

QUERIES : " High Life below Stairs," 142 James Ainslie 
Earthquakes in England, &c. Nichols's "Leicestershire" 

Robert Seagrave Motto for a Village School Benja- 
min Leveling Sylvester, &c. Sir Peter Carew The 
Word " Quarter "Charles Kirkham The Music of " The 
Twa Corbies" Josiah King Medal of James III. 
Chronicles of London "Les Mysteres," &c. Crowe of 
Kiplin Family, &c., 142. . 

QUEEIES WITH ANSWERS: Passage in Psalm xxx. 5. 
Coningsby's " Marden "Cromwell's Interview with Lady 
Ingilby Jacob du Rondel "Don Quixote" in Spanish 
" He who runs may read " " The Christmas Ordinary " 

Cavaliere John Gallini, 144. 

REPLIES: Fictitious Pedigrees, 147 Arithmetical No- 
tation, Ib. Brownists, 148 Butts Family, 149 Fane's 
Psalms Bazel of Baize Noah's Ark Songs Wanted 
Excommunication of Queen Elizabeth Sir George Paule 

Treasurie of Similies Old Graveyards in Ireland 
St. Thomas Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford Box called 
"Michael" John Lloyd (or Floyd), the Jesuit Walk 
your Chalks Jennings Family George Gascoigue 
Macaulay Family Samuel Daniel, &c., 149. 

Notes on Books. 



ANTE-REFORMATION ARCHDEACON'S CHARGE 
AND INQUISITION. 

This is a copy verbatim et literatim of a docu- 
ment, occupying six folios (49 54.), in a bundle 
of MSS. (folios 1117.) relating to the diocese of 
Salisbury, from the eleventh to the sixteenth cen- 
tury. The probable date of this Ordo Visitationis 
may safely be fixed at the latter end of the fifteenth 
or beginning of the sixteenth century, being ap- 
parently written by the same hand as the Officium 
Apparitoris, fol. 39., dated A.p. M.D.xxviii. 

" Ordo Visitationis Archini cum forma oneris ejusdem. 

"In primis facto certificatorio sufficiente de executione 
monitionis pro visitatione, et citatis viz. clris et laicis 
vocatis et provisatis ac comparentibj, Jurentur gardiani 
de fideliter exequendo officio, et de fidelit r Inquirendo 
sup articulis sequen, sub forma descripta, 

(",ffonna Juramenti novi Gardiani Ecclioe.) 

" Ye shall truly execute and exercise thoffice of the 
Church- Wardenship that ye are chosen unto, to theBehofe 
and pfite of the Church And faithfully admynystre 
and kepe the Church gudes Jewellis and Ornaments of 
the same And mayntayne the Lyghtte and stokke of 
the said Church, and make a full Accomptte to the po- 
chiaus of the Churche goodis wkwte fraude, disceite or 
colour. Soo God ye helpe and these holy Evangelies. 

(" Fjorma Juramenti gardiani ecclice Jurati ad suuut 
ojficium de Inquirendo sup Arlis.) 

" Ye shall truly Inquyre of all such Articles that shal- 
be declared unto yo u coucernyng the state of yo r 



Churchis, the life and convrsation of the Psons, Vicars, 
Curatts, and mynysters of the same, .And also the Life 
and conv'rsacion of the pochians that ve come fro, and 
of all their opyn crymys and offencs Raynyng amonge 
you yn yo r parchis (And ye shall p'sente nothying for 
hoo malice ne concele nothying for noo coruption ne af- 
fection : But true and whole p'sntment make. Soo god 
ye holpe and the holy Evangelies. 

(" FForma oneris.) 

"Good Christyn people ye shall understande the cause 
of my comyng at this tyme is to doo my office of Visi- 
tacion that I am bownde to doo by the law, Ffor as o r 
holy ffather the pope is godis stuard here yn erthe, and 
hath principall care and charge of all Christyn people, 
whiche cannot exercise this office in hys owne p'per p'son 
in all places, Therfor in o r holy Ffather the popis dis- 
charge of his grete cure is ordeynyd (yn every province 
A Bisshop) in every Diocesse a Bisshop which hath 
cure and charge of all the subiectts w*in their said 
diocesses, And forasmuch as they be not liable to exe- 
cute and exercise their office in these diocesses psonally, 
The law hath ordeynyd that every Bisshop shall have 
certeyne Archideacons whiche be called in the law (ocu- 
lus Epi) the le of the Bisshop whose office is in the 
discharge of the same Bus-hoppe to come and visite you, 
and to inquire of suche crymys and opyn offences and of 
all other things that is or owght to be reformyd among 
you to the lawde of god the increase of vertue and op- 
pression of Synne and Iniquytie. 'And forasuch as I 
(howbeit unworthy) have thoffice of tharchideacon of 
this Archideaconry And doo intende for my discharge 
Afore god (Ne deus sanguinem vrm de manibus meis 
requirat) That is to say, leste god for my negligens shall 
call me to accompte for yo r offence, and execute the 
punyshment that ye shall have for-yo r offence uppon me, 
to plante vertue, and lo reforme and puuyshe Synne and 
Inyquy tie according to y e lawe, whiche reformacion can- 
not ensue w*owte due knowlege and Informacion, which 
must come of you that ar churchwardens that ar callyd 
hether for to Inqwyer and p'sent such opyn crymys and 
offencs that is publishid or suspectid yn the plche ye 
come fro, And if ye doo yo r dutie yn makyng p'sentment 
ye ar dischargid and the charge is in me, And if ye doo 
not truly p'sent but for affection concele Synne and Ini- 
quitie ye shall not only be punyshid Afore god as Acces- 
sories and faurtours of the sa'me synne whiche is not 
reformyd by yo r negligence but also ye shall thereby 
renne and fall into manyfest p'iury. 

" Therfor I exhorte yo u in god, and also charge yo u 
and comaunde yo u loke Uppon yo r conscience and be- 
ware of p'iury The p'ill of A nothe is that, he that 
wylfully dothe p'iure and forswere hymselfe doth for- 
sak god his creator and redemer and his werkis And 
betakith hymselfe to his goostly enemy the devill And 
yn tokyn and testymony ther-of he leith his hand uppon 
the boke By that is understand that he forsaketh all the 
good dedis of Cherite and pitie that he hath doon w* his 
handis And in kyssing of the Booke all the good prayers 
he hath said w* his mowth. I truste ye woll as good Chris- 
tyn people eschew the danngerows p'ill Afore God and 
the worlde thereof, and soo I reqwyre you to do. 

"The Articles ye shall Inquyre of restith grossly uppon 
thre p'ncipals firste is the state of the piche Churchis ye 
come fro, the seconde is the life and conn'sacion of yo r 
psons vicars curatts and mynystres of the same, the 
thirde is the lyfe and co'versacion of the lay people 
of the piche ye come fro whiche I will declare to yo u 
spiaTly. 

"Ffirst as tovvchyng the state of yo r Churchis, ye shall 
inqyre whether the blessed Sacrament of the Auter which 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[2< S. IX. FEB. 25. 'GO. 



is very god in forme of brede, be in a honeste and clene 
pise and lokkyd according to the law and if it be not ye 
shall p'sent it. 

"Also ye shall inqwyre whether yo v Christmatory be 
under lokke and key and if it be not ys shall p'snte it. 

" Also ye shall inqwyre whether ye have sufficiente 
Anter clot his, vestiments, corporalis, and if ye soo have 
whether they he brokyn or dene or honeste, and if there 
be any fawte there ye shall p'sente it. 

"Also whether ye have a Chalis of sylver whiche is 
whole and not brokyn and if ye have nott soo ye shall 
p'sent it. 

" Also whether yo u have sufficient boles yn yo r Churchis, 
that is to say a portuows, a legende, a antiphonar. a sawter, 
a masse book, a manual!, and a pie, whyche ye ar bownde 
to have, and if ye have those bokis whether they be 
brokyn or torne, and if ye lakke any of them or be in an}' 
fawte in them, ye shall p'cent it. 

"Also ye shall inquyre whether ye have sufficient 
tuellis, surplisses a cope crosses, waxe, candilstikks, 
bann'rs for the Rogation weke, and also all other orna- 
ments of the Churche that is accustomyd to be had in 
piche Churchis, and necessary for divyne svice, And if 
ye lakk any of thos or be any fawte therin, ye shall 
p'sent it. 

" Also whether yo T Imagies in the Churche and your 
setts (?) be nott brokyn, and if their be an}' fawte therein, 
ye shall p'sent it. 

"Also whether y r body and stepill of the Church is 
sufficiently repairyd yn tyling tymb' werk wallyng and 
all other repacions, if ther be any fawte therin ye shall 
p'sent it. 

" Also whether yo r fonte be under lokke and key, And 
if it be not ye shall p'sente it. 

" Also whether ye hare sufficient bellis, belle-roppes, 
and -whether they be whole or well framyd or hangid, 
and if ther be any fawte therin ye shall p'sent it. 

" Also whether yo r Churche littyn be sufficiently en- 
closed or kept clene or honest and if their be any fawte 
therin ye shall p'sente it. 

" Also whether be any goods or stokks of yo r churchis, 
geven to the mayntanyng of any lighte of yo r Churchis 
or any other yowse, be decaid or lost or w* olde' and by 
whose negligence ye shall p'sent it. 

" Also whether any p'sons w'holdith any Churche 
stokks or goods belongyng or bequest to the Churche 
and p'sent them. 

"Also whether the churchmen oons A yere gyve ac- 
comptts of the Churche goods to the pochians or noo. 

" Also whether ther be a trew Inventary made of the 
churche goodis and ornaments and Jewells or noo. Of this 
and all other things that concernyth the state of yo r 
Churchis that is necessary to be refbrmyd, ye shall in- 
quyre therof, and p'sent it, by the vertue of y r othis. 

" The seconde p'tie of yo r charge shalbe to inquyre whe- 
ther yo r psones or vicars be resident uppon their benefices, 
And "they be nott ye shall p'sent it. 

"Also whether yo r Channcellis psonage or vicarage 
and all other howses belongyng to them be sufficiently re- 
paired or noo and if their be any fawte therin ye shall 
p'sente it. 

"Also whether they do say there devyne s'vice at due 
owris and due tymis and mynistre sacraments and sacra- 
mentals to there pochians when they be callid or re- 
quyred and if they doo not ye shall p'sente them. 

" Also whether yo r p'sons or vicars or their curetts do 
fowre tymes yn the yere declare and publishe the gen'all 
sentence of excoication the Articles of the faith the 
tenn comanndements the vii dedly syns the vii werkks 
of mersy bodely and goostly the iiii caVdinall vertues and 
the viif beatitudes as he is" bounde to doo,' and if he doo 
not ye shall putc hym. 



" Also whether your p'sons or vicars makith any dila- 
pidacion or alienation of the goods of his churche, "and if 
he doo ye shall p'sente it. 

" Also whether yo r p'song or vicars be lawfully pos- 
sessed of their busnis or not that is to say whether they 
come by it by vests or rewards or granntyng of ffees or 
annuyties or any other wise by symony, and if they have 
doon soo ye shall p'sente them. 

" Also whether yo r p'sons or vicars or p'stys holdith or 
kepeth any suspecte women in their housis" or chambers 
or have any resortyng to them suspiciously, or if they 
re^orte to any, or whether they be notyd or infamyd of 
incontynency or lechery, if ye knowe ye shall p'sente it. 

" Also whether they useth playing at the cards or disc 
or hauntith any opvn taverns or "ale howses or be di-tem- 
bred or dronkyn, yf ye knowe any suche ye shall p'sente 
them. 

" Also whether any of their p'ochians hath decessed by 
their negligence w*oute the Sacraments of the Church 
And if ye knowe any suche ye shall pnte it. 

" Also whether yo r p'sons vicars or preests doo opynly 
were and here wepons or use any apparell contrary to 
the habit of p'sts if ye know any suche ye shall p'sente 
hym. 

" Also whether they doo use any convicious or ri- 
bawde speche, or slannder any p'sone, or if the use brally ng 
quarrellyng or fightyng if ye knowe any suche ye shall 
pnte them. 

" Also whether yo r p'sons vicars and curatts doo denye 
any sacrament of the Churche to any pson, or buryall, for 
any duties or demaunde, if ye knowe any suche ye shall 
p'sent them. 

"Also whether any of yo r p'sons vicars or p'ests use 
any negociation or byyng or sellyng or marchauntise, if 
ye'knowe any suche ye shall p'sent hym. 

Also whether they doo instructe the myddewifes howe 
the shulde ordere them self yn mynystryng the sacra- 
ment of baptyme yn tyme yn the tyme of p'ill and neces- 
site and showe to "them the wordis'of the Sacrament, and 
if there be any faute therin ye shall p'sente hym. 

"Also whether they doo mynystre any sacrament or 
sacramentals to the pochians of another piche w'oute 
licence, if ye know any suche ye shall pnte them. 

"Also whether they doo solemm'se any matrymony 
betwixte any p'sons havyng any opyn Impediment or be 
not lawfully axid If ye doo knowe any suche ye shall 
pnte them. 

" Also whether ye know any p'son vicar or curatt that 
doth admit te any opyn suspendid or cursid p'sone by the 
lawe (or may lawfully) to devyne s'vice, or mynystre any 
Sacrament to them "or co'mitte any poynte of irregu- 
larite, if ye know any suche ye shall pnte it. 

"Also whether they usithe to resorte to any opyn spec- 
tacles, as here baytyngs bull baytings or frays orplacis of 
execution of deth'e, if ye knowe any suche ye shall p'nte 
them. 

" Also whether they fynde and mayntayne suche lightts 
in the chauncell as they ar bownde or suffre their hogga 
or swvne to digge and deforme the Churche yarde, if ye 
knowe any suche ye shall p'nte them. 

" Also whether "the p'sons vicars or Curatts do lie w*in 
there piches or noo, if they doo not ye shall p'nt them. 

"Also whether they suffer their Churchis to take damage 
for not axyng of their tythes and duties that they owght 
to have of" right, for fere of any p'sone or for affection of 
any p'sone or for fere of spending of money. 

'Also whether v r p'sons vicars or Curatts injoyne 
any p'sone in penance in tyme of confession to have 
masses or trentals to thynte'nt they myght have avaun- 
tage by if, And if ye know any suche ye shall p'sente 
them. 



2 aJ S. IX. FEB. 25. '60.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



" Of these articles and all other th yngs concernyng your 
p'sons vicars and p'ests that is to be reformyd ye shall 
inquyre therof and p'sent it, by the vertue of your othis. 

" The thirde pte of your charge is concernyng the lyfe 
and conersacion of the lay people of the piche ye come 
fro. 

" Ffirst ye shall inquyre whether ther be any p'sons 
that be infamyd or suspectid of heresie whichecrafte 
Incantacions or of any sup'sticiows opynyon agenst the 
detennynacion of the Church or wol! dispute or reason of 
dowbts of devynite if ye knowe any suche ye shall p'nte 
them. 

" Also ye shall inqwyre whether any p'sone doo com'itte 
any usary yn lendyng money or corne or any other thinge 
for to have jnricate and aVauntage for the lone, thes 
p'sons be excoicate if ye knowe any suche ye shall p'sent 
them. 

" Also_ye shall inquyre whether ther be any p'sons that 
hath comitted inceste that is to say if any p'sone hath 
carnally knowen his kyus woman If ye know any suche 
ye shall p'nte them. 

" Also whether any p'sone hath comyttid any sacrilege 
that is to sey if any p'son hath carnally offended w l any 
religiows woman or takyn any thing oute of Churche or 
churche yarde or any other halowed place, If ye knowe 
any suche ye shall p'nte them. 

" Also whether any p'sons lyvyth in adowtry that is 
to say if any weddid" man lyvith incontynently w* ano- 
ther woman beside his wife, And yn lykewise a weddid 
woman beside hir husband, yf ye knowe any suche ye 
shall p'nte them. 

"Also whether any p'sons w'in yo r piches lyvith in 
fornicacion that is to say a single man carnally doth of- 
fende w* a single woman being not married or if any 
p'sone hath deflowred and begilde any woman of hir 
virginitie if ye know any suche ye shall p'nte them. 

"Also if their be any p'sons that doith adiuTstre a dede 
mans goods w'oute auturite of thordinary or lette a 
dede mans testament and last wyll, or doith to* holde any 
bequest or legacy made yn his testament or doo make 
any dede of a yeste of his "goodis to thyntente to defrawde 
the churche th'ordinary or his creditors, All thes p'sons 
soo doyng be excoicate yf ye knowe any suche ye shall 
p'nte them. 

"Also if ther be any p'sons that doith w 1 holde 
any tethes as well p'sonall comyng by his crafte as 
p'diall comyng or growyng yn the ffeldis or mixte or 
customable oblations, or geveth counsaile to other to 
wMiolde there tythes or oblacions, all thes p'sons be ex- 
coicate if ye knowe any suche ye shall p'nte them. 

' Also whether ther be any p'sons that doith lay violente 
handis upon preests they be excoicate, yf ye knowe any 
suche ye shall p'nte them. 

' Also whether there be any p'sons that doith brek the 
liberties ot the churrhe in takyng any man that taketh 
the p'vilege of the churche and violently pullith hym 
oute of Churche or Churche yarde, they soo doyng be ex- 
cuu-ate, If ye knowe any suche ye shall present them. 

'Also whether there" be any "p'sons that be unlawfully 
maried together havvng any impediment of consan"- 
guinite carnall or spirall or w'owte bunys axyng, or 
make any p'vy contracts, If ye knowe any suche ye 
shall p'nte them. 

"AUo whether ther be any p'sons that doith jnot 
sanctifie their holydays and comyth nott to their piche 
churchU sonduies & holydays, and those daies iorlow 
their hbors and werks, If ye knowe any suche ye shall 
p nte them. 

" Also if their be any comm'n slawnderers of their ney- 



bors or scoldis or detractors, If ye knowe any suche ye 
shall p'nte them. 

" Also if there be any that be opyn swerers or piured 
psons if ye know anv suche ye shall pnte them. 

"Also'if their be any psons that doith lette thordinarie 
Jurisdiction of the exercise of the same If ye knowe 
any such ye shall pnte them. 

" Also if there be any women that doo oppresse there 
childryn in leyng of them yn the bedde AY* them If ye 
knowe any surhe ye shall p'nte them. 

"Also if there be any lay man or woman Avoll p'sume 
to silt in the Chauncell yn tyme of devyne s'vice agenst 
the Curatt's mynde If ye" knowe any suche ye shall 
p'nte them. 

"Also if their be any p'sons that usith talkyng and 
laugehyng yn the Church yn tyme of devyne s'vice, or 
doo lette dev3 r ne s'vice ye shall truly p'nte them. 

" Also if there be any p'sons that leith violent handis 
uppon his ffather and mother naturall or godfather or 
godmother they be excoicate And if ye knowe any suche 
y6 shall p'nte them. 

" Of these articles inspeciall and of all other things in 
gen'all that concernyth the state of yo r Churchis the life 
and con'ersacion of p'sons vicars Curatts and other my- 
nysters of the same and also the lyfe and con'ersacion of 
the lay people of the piche ye come fro, that ye shall 
fynde to be redressid and reformyd, ye shall truly serche 
and inquire therof, and p'sente it to the Courte, & nott 
lette soo to doo for favo r (ore affection or drede of any 
p'son, uppon payne of p'iury, and goo to getliir, and mak 
yo r bills, and bring them into the Courte." 



"THE TEMPORAL GOVERNMENT OF THE 
POPE'S STATE." 

Among the memoranda of an old friend I have 
found the notice of a work which I think may be 
interesting to many readers at the present mo- 
ment, though I am at present unable to refer 
them to a copy. The following is the title: The. 
Temporal Government of the Pope's State. Lond. 
1788, 8vo., Johnson, pp. 268.* 

This book, my friend's memorandum says, was 
written by an English gentleman (Denham), who 
was Pro v id it or of Corn at Civita Vecchia under 
Clement XIV. (Gangarielli.j He was removed by 
Pope Pius VI., which accounts for the acrimony 
he discovers against him and his projects. The 
work consists of thirty chapters : 

1. Introduction. The Psipal power, too vicious 
to maintain itself, has been supported by the con- 
tributions ol'otlier nations. These were, A D. 1788, 
2,435,002 Roman crowns, 566,279 at, 103 crowns 
=one pound. 

2. The Pope is absolute as a temporal prince. 

3. Pope's Domestic Revenue. Farms of lands, 
taxes and duties on wines and brandies; tuxes 
upon meat, and wheat; duties on all goods imported, 
and a lotto. 

4. Dt-bts of the Si ate. Luoghi di Monte, a 
species of bank of loan. II Motile di Pietci and 11 

[* This work is in the King's Library, British Mu- 
seum. ED ] 



138 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[2 nd S. IX. FEB. 25. '60. 



Sa?i Spirito. Issue CedoU on pledges left, but now | 
without pledges, and to an enormous amount. 

5. Pope's ministers and magistrates in general, 
near 300; all prelates, ignorant, &o. 

6. Plan of the Pope's government. 

7. Sagra Consulta consists of the Secretary of | 
State (Card. Pallavicini), a secretary (M. Gallo), ! 
and eight ponenti ; a criminal court for laymen, 
and for the sanita. 

8. Governor of Rome (Ferd. Spinalli of Na- 
ples). He is also called Vice-Chamberlain. 

9. Pope's Auditor (Ph. Campanelli), a supreme j 
judge in civil causes. 

10. Segnatura di Giustizia (Card. Salviatti), 12 
votanti, and an auditor for Appeals ; Segnatura 
di Grazia (Card. Corsine), a general, and August 
Tribunal, likewise for appeals. 

11. The Tribunal called A. C., Auditor of the 
Chamber. 

12. Senate (Prince Rezzonico). His auditor, 
two collaterals, and one judge of appeal. 

13. Cardinal Vicar (Colonna) has both civil and 
criminal jurisdiction. 

14. The Rota consists of twelve prelates, three 
Romans, one of Bologna, one of Ferrara, one of 
Tuscany, one Milanese, one German, one French, 
one Spaniard, one Venetian. The Pope appoints 
only the five first. Determine on foreign appeals. 

15 21. Apostolic Chamber, consists of the Car- 
dinal Camerlengo, who is the head (Card. Rezzo- 
nico), the Roman Quaestor, the treasurer ( ), 

Prcef. JErarii The Auditor General (J. Gregori), 
and twelve Cherici di Camera ; these have jurisdic- 
tion jointly and separately. These are 1. Pre- 
siden'te delle Armi (P. Maffei) ; 2. Prefetto dell' 
Annona (J. Albani) ; 3. Presidente della Grascia 
(J. Kinuccini) ; 4. President of the Streets ( J. B. 
Busse) ; 5. Prefetto dell' Archive (R. Finoc- 
chietti) ; 6. Presidente della Moneta (J. Vai) ; 7. 
Of the Quays (F. Mantici) ; 8. Of the Prisons ; 9. 
Of the Navy (A. Mariscotti) ; 10. Mills; 11. 
Gavotti; 12. Ruffo. 

22. Major domd (Ramualdus Braschi Onesti, 
Pope's nephew). 

23. Congregatione del Buon Governo (Card. 
Casali) superintends all the communities of the 
state. 

24. Congregationi di St. Ives, protects the poor. 

25. Agriculture. 

26. Manufactures. 

27. Commerce. 

28. General State of Justice. 

29. Nepotism. 

30. Conclusion. Y. S. 



NOTES ON HUDIBRAS. 

The following is copied from the fly-leaves of a 
small edition of Hudibras, date 1800; and as it 
purports to have been originally communicated 



by the author, Butler, to the family from whom 
it came, carries with it a direct authenticity, and 
forms a key to the real persons mentioned in the 
poem. The epigram by Wesley is copied from 
the same book. I am not aware if it has ever ap- 
peared in print, and if not, it may be worth record- 
ing in "N. & Q.":* 

"The Hero of this Poem was Sir Sam 1 Luke, self-con- 
ceited commander under Oliver Cromwell. Ralph was 
one Isaac Robinson, a zealous Butcher in Moorfields, who, 
in 41, &c., was always contriving some new (queer?) 
Cuts of Church Government. Crowderswas one Jephson, 
a Milliner in the New Exchange in the Strand, who fell 
to decay by losing a Leg in the Round Head's service, 
was after obliged to fiddle from one Alehouse to another. 

" Orsin was Josua Goslin who kept Bears in Paris 
Garden, Southwark. 

" Tolgol was Jackson, a Butcher in Newgate Street, 
who got a Captain's Commission for his rebellious bravery 
at Naseby Fight. 

" Mognano was Simeon Wait, a Tinker, as famous an 
Independent Preacher as Burroughs, who, with equal 
blasphemy, would style Oliver Cromwell the Archangel 
giving Battle to the Devil. 

" Trulla was the Daughter of James Spencer, a Quaker, 
debauched first by her Father, and afterwards by Mag- 
nano the Tinker aforementioned. 

" Cerdon was one-eyed Hewson the Cobler, who from 
a private Sentinel was made a Colonel in the Rump 
Army. 

' Colon was Noel Pewyan [Ned Perry?], Hostler, who, 
though he loved Bear-baiting, was nevertheless such a 
strange Precisian that he would lye with any w***e but 
the wh**e of Babylon. 

" Six Members were Lord Kimbolton, Hollis, Pirn, 
Hampden, Stroud, and Sir Arthur Haslerig. 

" Circumcised Brethren were Prynne, Bertie, and Bast- 
wick, who lost their Ears, and Noses were slit, and 
branded in the foreheads for lampooning Henrietta Maria, 
Queen of England, and the Bishops. 

" The Widow was the precious Relict of Aminidab 
Wilmer, an Independent killed at Edge Hill Fight, hav- 
ing 200J. left her. Hudibras fell in love with her or did 
worse. 

" Baited the Pope's Bull, a polemical Piece of Divinity, 
said to be wrote by Dr. Whitaker. 

" Smeck, a contraction of Smcctymnaeus, a word made 
up of the Initial Letters of five factions [of the] Rebels, 
Stephen Marshal, Ed. Calamy, Thos. Young, Matt New- 
common, and W m Spurstow, who wrote and subscribed a 
Book against Episcopacy and the Common Prayer. 

" For some Philosophers, &c. means S r Kenelm Digbjy 
who in his Book of Bodies gives Relation of a German 
Boy living in the Woods and going on all four. 

" Kelly, an Irish Priest who forwarded the Rebellion 
by preaching in Disguise among the Dissenters of those 
Times. 

" Wachum, a foolish Welshman, one Tom Jones that 
could neither write nor read Zany to Lilly the Astrolo- 
ger. 

" Lewkneis Lane, a Nursery of lewd Women, but re- 
sorted to by the Round Heads. 

" Sterry, a fanatical preacher, admired by Hugh Peters. 

"Lame Vicegerent Rich d Cromwell, then was a Poli- 

[* The Epigram by Wesley has frequently appeared 
in print. The Notes are nearly identical with those of 
Sir Roger L'Estrange ; and if Mr. Shadwell's account of 
their origin be correct, point out the source from which 
L'Estrange derived his information. ED. "N. & Q."] 



2 nd S. IX. FEB. 25. '80.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



139 



tichn, S r Anthony Ashley Cooper, afterwards Earl of 
Shaftsbury, tried at the Old Bailey, 24 h Nov r , 1681, for 
libelling the King. 

"To match this Saint there was another Coll 11 John 
Lilburn, Chief. 

" S r Pride, First a Drayman, afterwards a Colonel in 
the Parliament Army. 

" Gre&tCroysado, General Lord Fairfax, an old dansor( ?), 
Old Prideaux, noted equally for extorting money from 
Delinquents as from Dissenters. 

Philip Nye, one of the Assembly of dissenting Minis- 
ters, noted for his ugly Beard. 

" The proceeding Illustrations of the Principal Charac- 
ters in the Poem were taken from a Manuscript in the 
Possession of M r Lomax of Bath, whose Great Grand- 
father was intimate with Butler, and from whom he re- 
ceived the account. 

" Mr. Lomax allowed them to be transcribed by me, 

" J no Shadwell, 
! February, 1803." 

Epigram by Mr. Wesley alluding to a well- 
known text of Scripture on the setting up of a 
monument in Westminster Abbey to the memory 
of Butler : 

" While Butler, needy wretch, was yet alive 
No gen'rous Patron would a Dinner give: 
See him, when starv'd to Death and turn'd to Dust, 
Presented with a Monumental Bust: 
The Poet's Fate is here in emblem shown : 
He ask'd for Bread and he received a Stone." 

J. TANSWELL. 
Temple. 



COLDHARBOUR. 

There has been already so much discussion in 
" N. & Q." as to the derivation of this word, which 
occurs so frequently in the names of places in the 
south-eastern counties of Kent, Surrey, and Sus- 
sex, that I have felt considerable reluctance to 
reopen the subject. But reflection has so con- 
vinced me that I have stumbled upon its real 
origin that I am induced to lay it before your 
readers. Coldharbour, sometimes, and, I believe, 
more correctly, written " Coleharbour," that is, 
" Cole-arberye," or wood-coal, was applied as a 
name to places where charcoal was made or sold. 
Mr. Halliwell, in his Dictionary of Archaic and 
Provincial Words, has 

" Arberye, Wood. In that contree is but lytille ar- 
Itenje, ne trees that beren fruite, ne othere. Thei ly}n in 
tentes, and thei brennen the*dong of bestes for defaute of 
wood." Maundeville's Travels, p. 256. 

" Enhorilde with arborye, and alkyns trees." Morte 
Arthurs, MS. Lincoln, f. 87. 

That the consumption of charcoal by the iron- 
works in these counties in former times was very 
great is well known. Simon Sturtevant, in his 
Metattica, published in 1612, says " there are 400 
milnes for the making of iron in"Surry, Kent, and 
Sussex, as the townsmen of Haslemere have testi- 
fied and numbered unto me;" and he calculates that 
"one milne alone spendeth yearly in char-coale 
500 pound and more" (p. 5. of the reprint of the 



Metallica, by T. Simpson, Wolverhampton, in 
1854.) 

This enormous consumption of charcoal ac- 
counts for the frequency with which the name 
occurs in these counties; as the number of "milnes " 
in a similar manner accounts for the frequency of 
the name of "Hammer Forts" and "Hammer 
Ponds " scattered throughout the " forest ridge " 
of Sussex (see Murray's Handbook for Surrey, 
Hants, and hie of Wight, 1858, p. 135.). The 
name of this manufacture is retained in other 
forms ; for we find the road leading from Godal- 
ming to Peperharrow is called "Charcoal Lane" 
(ib. p. 134.); and there is in the Ordnance Map, 
about one mile west of Nutfield, a place called 
"Col