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irgies. Hymns, 
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I. The "Way to be happy. 
II. The Woman taken 

III. The Two Records of Crea- 


IV. The Fall and the Repent- 

ance of Peter. 
V. The Good Daughter. 

VI. The Convenient Season. 
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The Highway of Nations. 

Late Laurels.-A Tale. Chapters XXV. and XXVI. 

Christmas Evergreens. By Astley H. Baldwin. 

Stephen on Criminal Law. 

Criticism and the Gospel History. 

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CONTENTS. No. 105. 

NOTES Unpublished Humorous and Satirical Papers of 
Archbishop Laud, 1 - A State-Paper Rectified, 5 -A Law 
Pastoral, 6 Particulars regarding Sir Walter Raleigh, 7 
Fashionable Quarters of London, 8 -Rye-House Plot 
Cards, 9 The Lapwing: Witchcraft John Rowe, Ser- 
jeant-at-Law Charles Lloyd Cambridge Tradesmen in 
1635 Robespierre's Remains, 10. 

QUERIES : Old Latin Aristotle John Barcroft Ceno- 
taph to the 79th Regiment at Clifton William Chaigneau 
Eleanor d'Olbreuse - Hyoscyamus - Laurel Water 
Lewis Morris The Prince Consort's Motto Richard 
Salveyne Swinburne Captain Yorke, 11. 

QUERIES WITIT ANSWERS: Pholey Lines addressed to 
Charles I. Crest of Apothecaries' Company Frumen- 
turn: Siligo John Burton James II. and the Preten- 
der New Translation of the Bible, by John Bellamy, 
circa 1818, 12. 

EEPLIES : Exhibition of Sign-Boards, 14 "Est Rosa 
Flos Veneris," 15 Rev. P. Rosenhagen, 16 -Collins, Autho r 
of " To-morrow," 17 John Hawkins Rev. F. S. Pope 
Mrs. Cokayne - John Donne, LL.D. Scottish- Execu- 
tion for Witchcraft Mutilation of Sepulchral Monu- 
mentsLongevity of Clergymen Ehret, Flower Pain- 
ter : Barberini Vase Rev. Thomas Craig Dr. David 
Lamont Baptismal Names Tydides Capnobatse 
Joseph Washington Handosyde Early Marriages 
Revalenta Paper-Makers' Trade Marks Christian 
Names As Mad as a Hatter, 20. 

Notes on Books. &c. 


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Few people would look for humour in anything 
said or written by Archbishop Laud. He, whose 
"hasty sharp way of speaking" is commemorated 
by Clarendon, who said of himself that he had 
"no leisure for compliments," and whose voice 
and manner in speaking were such that they who 
heard and saw him always supposed that he was 
angry such a man seems very unlikely to have 
been gifted with the slightest predisposition for 
drollery. Yet I had occasion, some time ago, to 
point out that, in his letters to his friends, there 
existed traces of a heavy but kindly pleasantry, of I 
which I quoted several examples. I have now, I 

going a step farther in the same direction, to lay 
before you evidence that there really was within 
that cold harsh man for such in his " full-blown 
dignity" he exhibited himself to the world a 
power of appreciating and applying wit and wag- 
gery for which, without this evidence, scarcely 
anyone, I think, would give him credit. 

But I must premise a few words of explanation. 
In 1613 the future Archbishop was, in his fortieth 
year, President of St. John's, Oxford, a Doctor 
of Divinity, and a Royal Chaplain. In that same 
year a most absurd "sedition," as it is termed 
by Antony & Wood, was raised in the University. 
Some of the youngsters, headed by one Henry 
Wightwick of Gloucester Hall, deemed the dig- 
nity of the Convocation House diminished by the 
circumstance that the Vice-Chancellor and Doc- 
tors were in the habit of sitting in their assemblies 
bare-headed. There have been many foolish re- 
bellions ; but surely, if we know the truth about 
this matter, no one was ever more silly than this. 
Like many other hare-brained things, however, 
it found patronage among men of higher standing 
than those with whom it originated ; and, thus 
supported, what appears to have been a mere 
childish outbreak divided and excited the whole 
University. We must suppose that, somehow 
or other, it linked itself to party differences 
of a higher character. Dons as well as under- 
graduates were, for 'several years, kept in hot- 
water by this contemptible dispute. Some of the 
leaders of the dissentients even went the length 
of threatening to follow an example which had 
occasioned considerable trouble once before that 
of secession from Oxford, and the erection of a 
new college at Stamford. 

Occupying an eminent station in the University, 
Laud could scarcely have avoided taking some 
share in the dispute ; and we know that he wae not 
a man to do anything otherwise than energetically. 
Whatever he did or said, we may be sure that on 
such an occasion he took the side of authority ; 
but we have no information on the subject, until 
the proposal was made to dismember the Univer- 
sity. Aroused by a suggestion, which was either 
absurd or of weighty moment, he determined to 
crush it at once by overwhelming it with ridicule. 

The stories of the folly of the Gothamites, 
which were then familiar to everybody, gave 
him a foundation to build upon. He conceived the 
design of publishing a burlesque account of the 
contemplated foundation at Stamford, under the 
name of Gotham (or, as he spelt it, Gotam,) Col- 
lege, introducing into its imaginary regulations 
such Gothamite recollections as could be made 
applicable, with such other strokes of humour as 
could be brought to bear upon the contemplated 
design, in the way of quizzing and contempt. 

The subject has not been mentioned (so far as 
I know) by the biographers of Laud, nor are there 


^ S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

any documents respecting it printed in the edi- 
tion of his Works published in the Library of 
An-lo-Catholie Theology ; but there exist, among 
the State Papers in the Publ.c Record Omce, 
placed at the end of the year 1613 various papers, 
mostly in Laud's handwriting, which clearly in- 
dicate the nature of his contemplated publication 

None of them are probably quite finished ; but 
more or less advanced towards comple- 

, , 

Why the intended pamphlet, or whatever 


all are 

it was to have been, was laid aside, does not ap 
pear. The Gothamite scheme may have ^die 
away, and it was not deemed advisable to stir its 
decaying embers ; or Laud's execution of his de- 
sign, after much touching and retouching (of 
which the papers before us present ample evi- 
dence), may not have pleased him. These manu- 
scripts remain mere wrecks and ruins; but 
there is enough in them to indicate clearly the 
author's purpose, and to demonstrate, unless I 
very much mistake their character, that he pos- 
sessed no mean power of making sport. He dealt 
with the subject before him in his naturally sharp, 
but also in a frolicsome and witty manner. 

The first of these papers an "Epistle to the 
Reader," designed as a preface to the intended 
work seems to be all but complete. I shall give 
it you as it stands. It will be found to be quaint 
and oil-fashioned, but not without touches of 
effective pleasantry. 


" Come, Reader, let's be merry ! I have a tale to tell : 
I would it were worth the hearing, but take it as it is. 
There's a great complaint made against this age, that no 
good works are done in it. Sure I hear Slander hath a 
tongue, and it is a woman's bird never born mute.* "For 
not long since (besides many other things of worth) there 
was built in the air a very famous college, the SEMINARY 
or INNOCENTS, commonly called in the mother tongue of 
that place, GOTAM COLLEGE. T do not think, in these 
latter freezing ages, there hath been a work done of 
greater either profit or magnificence. The founder got 
up into a tree (and borrowed a rook's nest for his cushion) 
to see the plot of the building, and the foundation laid. He 
resolved to build it in the air to save charges, because 
castles are built there of lighter materials. It is not to 
be spoken how much he saved in the very carriage of 
timber and stone by this politic device, which I do not 
doubt but founders in other place* will imitate. Yet he 
would not have it raised too high in the air, lest his Col- 
legians, which were to be heavy and earthy, should not 
pet into it; and it is against all good building to need a 
ladder at the gate. The end of this building was as 
charitable, as the ordering of it prudf nt ; for whereas there 
are many places in all commonwealths provided for the 
lame, and the sick, and the blind, and the poor of all 
sorts, there is none anywhere erected for innocents. This 
founder alone may glory that he is the first, and may 
prove the only patron of Fools. He was ever of opinion 
that, upon the first finishing of his College, it would have 
more company in it than any one College in any Univer- 
sity in Europe. Such height would be waited" upon by 


malice. Therefore he resolved to build it in no Univer- 
sity, but very near one famous one. Not in an}', for 
such a place cannot bear their folly; not far off, for no 
other place so liable to discover and publish their worth. 
I could tell you much more, but it is not good manners in 
the Epistle to prevent the tract. If you will not take 
the pains to walk about this College, you shall be ignor- 
ant of their building. If not to read their orders and 
statutes, you shall not know their privileges. If not to 
be acquainted with some of the students, you shall he a 
stranger in all places, and not well acquainted in your 
own country. One counsel let me give you : whenever 
you visit the place, stay not long in it ; * for the air is 
bad, and all the students very rheumatic. I have heard 
that Ladv Prudence Wisdom went but once (then she 
was masked and muffled, and yet she escaped not the 
toothache.) to see it since it was built, and myself heard 
her swear she would never come within the gates again. 
You think the Author of this Work (who for the founder's 
honour, and the students' virtues, hath taken on him to 
map out this building) must depart from the truth of the 
history. Reader, it needs not. For there is more to be 
said of these men, in truth and story, than any pen can 
set out to the world. His pen is weak, and mine too; 
but who cannot defend Innocents ? Farewell. The founder 
laughed heartily when he built the College : if thou canst 
laugh at nothing in it, borrow a spleen. You know I 
dwell a little too near the College that I am so skilful in 
it, and have idle time to spend about it. But it's no 
matter. What if I were chosen Fellow of the house? 
As the world goes, I had rather be rich at Gotham than 
poor in a better place. You know where I dwell. Come 
to see me at any time when it is safe, that the Ears f of 
the College hang not over me, and I will show you as 
many Fellows of this Society highly preferred as of any 
other. I know you long to hear ; but you shall come to 
my house for it, as near the College as it stands. There 
you shall find me at my devotion for Benefactors to this 
worthy foundation." 

This "Epistle to the Reader" is followed by a 
variety of rough notes, scattered over seventeen 
leaves, many of which contain only a sentence 
or two. They were apparently intended to be 
worked up into the designed work. 

We next have a Latin Charter of Liberties, 
supposed to have been granted to the College by 
the Emperor of Morea. There are among the 
papers two drafts of this charter. In one, the 
Emperor's name is given as Midas. They are 
both framed as if granted to the founder, who was 
at first designated as "Thomas White, miles," but 
the "White" was subsequently struck out. Why 
the name of Sir Thomas White, the founder of 
Reading School, where Laud was educated, and 
of his beloved College of St. John's, was thus in- 
troduced, I am unable to explain. 

The draft of a Foundation Charter of the 
College then follows. It runs in the name of 
" Thomas a Cuniculis, miles auritus, patria? Mo- 

We next have two copies, but with many vari- 
tions between them, of a paper entitled " The 
Foundation of Gotam College." This was the 
author's principal effort. In his account of the 

* Anima prudens in sicco. f They are very long. 

S. V. JAN. 2, '64.] 


rules and regulations of the college, he pours out 
his store of Gothamite recollections, with such 
fresh wit ns he could make to tell against the 
chief members of the party to whom he was 
opposed. It is difficult occasionally to identify 
the persons alluded to, but many of them will be 
easily recognised. The two brothers, Dr. Samp- 
son and Dr. Daniel Price, together with Dr. 
Thomas James, the author of Bellum Papale, were 
clearly leaders in the suggestion which excited 
Laud's dislike. Upon them the vials of his wrath 
were consequently poured. All three were strong 
anti -Romanists. Antony Wood tells us that Dr. 
Sampson Price was so distinguished in that re- 
spect, that he acquired the name of " 'The Mawl 
of Heretics,' meaning papists ;" and that, both he 
and his brother, were regarded with especial dis- 
like at Douay. Both brothers were royal chap- 
lains and popular preachers, and of the same way 
of thinking, that way being in most respects 
nearly as far removed from Laud's way, as could 
co-exist within the pale of the Church of England. 
Dr. Thomas James, the well-known Bodley libra- 
rian, was a man of precisely the same anti-Ro- 
manist views as the Prices, but probably of far 
greater learning than either of them. All these 
had no doubt, like other men, their vanities and 
peculiarities ; and it is upon these foibles that 
Laud seizes and applies them to the purposes of 
his ridicule. Thus, we learn that James was 
highly pleased with his dignity of Justice of 
Peace, whence Laud styles him Mr. Justice 
James, and appoints him library keeper of the 
new college. We learn also, that Dr. Sampson 
Price enjoyed his nap at the sermons in St. Mary's, 
and that Dr. Daniel was fond of an anchovy toast, 
and had a general liking (in which respect he was 
probably not singular, either at Oxford or else- 
where,) for a good dinner. All these points come 
out in the following paper ; which I print, with 
one or two omissions, from one of the two manu- 
scripts, adding here and there passages derived 
from the other. 


" The founder (being the Duke of Morea*) made suit 
and obtained leave for this foundation, that it might be 
erected, anno 1613. The reasons of his suit were : 

" 1. Because, in the midst of so many good works as 

had been done for the bringing up of men in learning, 

there had been none taken in special for the Gotamists. 

" 2. Because every College in the University had some 

or other of them in it, which were fitter to be elected 

and chosen out to live together in this new foundation. 

" 3. Because it is unfit that, in a well-governed com- 

^raon wealth, such a great company of deserving men, or 

* This is not consistent with the foundation charter 

noticed before, and is an evidence that the author's 

design was still unsettled. In the margin is written, 

Bn Thomas Curiinsby, con-founder." This is evi- 

ntly the "Thomas * Cuniculis," mentioned in the 

toundation charter. 

youth full of hope as those are (for stultorum plena sunt 

omnia'), should want places of preferment or education. 

" Maintenance. Their mortmain is to hold as much as 
will be given them, without any stint; which favour is 
granted them in regard of their number (being the great- 
est foundation in Christendom), and at the instant re- 
quest of the honourable patroness the Lady Fortuna favet : 
provided always, that they hold no part of this their land, 
or aught else, in capite, but as much as they will in 
Knight's service, so they fit their cap and their coat 

" Sociorum numerus. The number of Fellows may not 
be under 500, and 200 probationers (if so many may be 
found fit) ; which it shall be lawful to choose out of anv 
College in Oxford : Provided that when, if ever, there is 
any eminent man found in the other University of Cam- 
bridge, or any other, it shall be lawful for them, Avhich 
after the founder shall be put in trust with the election, 
to admit them in veros et perpetuos socios. 

" The statutes are appointed to be penned in brief, for 
the help of their memory, which yet is better than the 
wit of an3 r of the Fellowships. [Memorandum. In making 
of a speech, they must not stop at any time, but when 
their breath fails.] There is leave granted they may re- 
move ' Cuckoo- bush,' and set it in some part of the'Col- 
lege garden : and that in remembrance of their famous 
predecessors they shall breed a Cuckoo every year, and 
keep him in a pound till he be hoarse ; and then, in mid- 
summer moon, deliver him to the bush and let him at 

" Because few of these men have wit enough to grieve, 
they shall have ' Gaudyes ' * every holyday and every 
Thursday through the year ; and their ' Gaudyes ' shall 
be served up in woodcocks, gulls, curs, pouts, geese, gan- 
ders, and all such other fowl, which shall be brought at a 
certain rate in ass-loads to furnish the College. But on 
other days which are not 'Gaudyes,' they shall have all 
their commons iu calf's head and bacon, f and, there- 
fore, to this purpose all the beef, mutton, and veal, shall 
be cut out by their butcher into calves' heads ; and on 
fish- days conger, cod's head, or drowned eel, with a piece 
of cheese after it of the same dairy with that cheese 
which their wise predecessors rolled down the hill, to 
go to market before them. 

" Broths, caudles, pottage, and all such settle- brain, 
absolutely forbidden. All other meats to be eaten assa. 

" Fasts. They are to fast upon O Sapientia. The 
solemn day of their foundation, Innocent's day. [Another 
solemn feast day to be renewed, St. Dunstan's.] 

"Benefices. Gotam annexed to the headship. The 
other benefices belonging to the Fellows are Bloxam, 
Duns-tu, Dunstable, St. Dunstan's (East, West), Totte- 
ridge, Aleton, Battlebridge, Gidding (Magna, Parva), the 
prebend of Layton Buzzard, Little Brainford, Little Wit- 
nam (Mr. Dunns being patron of Little VVitnam, gave it 
to a good scholar), a petition being made by the College 
that VVitnam, and all that Mr. Dunns had in his gift, 
should belong to the College. [Added in the margin : 
Cookeham (Magna, Parva), Steeple Bumstead, Uggly, 
St. Asaphs.] 

" An Act of Parliament held for them. 

" The College to be furnished with all munition save 
head-pieces. None of the generations of Wisemen, Wise- 
dom, or Wise, eligible into the hou?e, for the disgrace their 
predecessors have done to the College. The book of Wis- 
dom to be left out of their Bibles. To abjure Pythagoras, 
Tacitus, Tranquillus, and Prudentius. 

* Diet. "Nepenthe potus." A fool at second course. 
Mustard with everything to purge the head. 

f It being lawful for them, as well as the toivn's-b;>ys, io 
eat bread and butter in the streets. 


3, V. JAN. 2, '64. 

isssi h s ^- - S HSSS 

OK** dMemKK Collegium.- Experience to be ex- 
nelled for fear of corrupting the company, and yet in 
some cases to be admitted, for ISxperienfia stultorum ma- 

^"ignoramus ' to be played every year that they may 
be perfect, and on their election day a mock play. 

" No pictures but We three.' . 

Si sapientior fiat ipso facto amoveatur, nan si dochor, 
because the greatest clerks are not always the wisest 

he be honest and constant expelletur, he is not un- 


l aprimer; Tenteelly; Howes' C*jviifc.;| 

tatione, Puerile* ; a children's dictionary; Seneca, 

y keep their Act, Dr. James to answer in 

Lottery Dr. Sh. being out of office, and so 
parted'with his custom, drew a pillow. Dr. Dan. Price, 
'anchovies,' and could not draw anything but victual. 

" Statutes i grc.' He that dies, if he have not a son 
worthy to succeed him, must leave one of the Fellows 

Benefactor*. Will. Sommers, Charles Chester, Patch, 
"Buble,"^[ &c., Fortuna pracipue. [Margin. Tom Cop- 
per of Okingham.f] 

" The College never to be overthrown, because the 
world cannot stand without such a foundation. There- 
fore these willing to guide, &c. 

"Exercis. Scltol. Disputations Deanimaet intelligentus 
forbidden. An de. sensu et sensato? They must maintain 
a vacuum. The diversity of moons in divers places, with 
the cheesy substance of it. 

" For geography, Sir John Mandeville's Travels ; and 
the South Indies." 

" Exercises. They may play at no game at cards but 
Noddy and Lodam. "No Christmas pastime but blindman- 
buff, push-pin, and blow- point; no race, but the wild 
goose race ; no walking in the summer, but to look [for] 
birds' nests especially the cuckoo. 

"Apparel. Wear no gloves but calfs skin, yes, and 
goose skin ; no breeches but motley, and are therefore to 
have all old cloak-bags given them to help the poorer sort : 
and these to be kept in their wardrobe till time serve : 
they are to pluck off their fur from their gown, that they 
may prove true men. A feather in their cap, they 
cannot be too light-headed. 

" lAinds. They must hold nothing in capite, but as 
much as they will in socage, and nothing in fee tail but 
fee simple. 

** Probationers. None admitted till past twent3*-four, 
lest he prove wiser, and so be cut off from the hope of the 

" He may be chosen, be he never so old, if he be able 
to show himself juveuis moribus, et sic inidoneus auditor. 

* Many of the books and authors here mentioned are 
well known those I have not thought it necessary to 
note. Some few I do not know. 

t Wood notices Prince Henry, his First Anniversary 
1G13, 4to, as written by Dr. Daniel Price. He also 
preached Prince Henry's funeral sermon. 

J Josias Bird published Love's Peerless Paragon, a 
sermon on Cant. ii. 10, in 1613. He was chaplain to 
Alice, Countess of Derby. See Wood's Fasti, i. 334. 

Perhaps the Commentary of Cartwright, the Puritan 
on the Book of Proverbs. 

|| Howes's Chronicle. 

Tf Who were these? 

- luwa . chosen, because, being senior proctoi 
of Cambridge, the University refused him to be ^ the 
father of the TAct; a thing not known before, and given 
him for his worth. c 

Morly chosen for a most famous sermon made at bt. 
Mary's in Oxon, upon which both head and fellows took 
such a liking to him that there was [a] particular statute 
for him, that he should not be expelled whatever he 
committed, but still be thought worthy of his place 

" Traveller's place. Coryat's successors : if he have a 
child eligible, they are bound to elect him. No man may 
travel but in the Ship of Fools, never coming near the 
Cape Bonse Spei, and their travel must be most toward 
< Gotsland ' ; Fooliana the fat ; Morea. . 

The head to be married and to keepe his wife m the 
College, that the children may be right-bred. 

He must give over his house that accepts of any other 
)enetice but those that are in the College gift ; but with 
any of them he may keep his house as long as he will. 

" They must roast their own eggs, but their fuel to 
be borrowed out of the town. 

Founders' kinsmen. The Dunces, Half-heads, Calfes, 
Medcalfes, Woodcock?, Blocks, Goslings, Wildgooses,. 
larebrains. , , . . 

" Election. Their election to be at Cookoe t time 
nore formally, but at all times else extra ordwem, b< 
cause of the number of those who continually will be pro- 
vided for the place. 

" Pictures to be set up in their quadrangles. Qihavrla 
Assentatio, Oblivio, MtcroTrovia, Voluptas, Amentia, De- 
.itiaj; Duo dii Ke^ioy, Deus comissationis, NiJYperos 
'JTTVOS, Dulcis somnus. 

Among other rough notes intended for inser- 
tion in their proper places in the complete work 
occur the following : 

" Whereas there hath been a foolish and sophistical 
book intituled An Homo sit Asinui, which maketh a doubt 
of that question, and lastly resolves negatively : that 
hereupon there may be a college which shall not b}' such 
quaint and sophisticate quiddities, but by most gross and- 
sensible realities, prove the whole tract to be false. 

" No physicians, for physicians are no fools. 

"No other tongue to be spoken than their mother 
tongue, lest they should forget that to which they were 
born, and ne affectare videantur exotica. 

" No division of texts in sermons, because no division 
must be in the Church. 

" St. Needes [Neots?],ifitwerc not for their patroness, 
Fortune, had all dwelt there. 

" Asses to be kept against the consumption of their 

" Young Mr. Linkes to be schoolmaster to and of the 
seminaria of the College. 

* Of Pembroke Hall, proctor in 1611. 

t Originally written " at Midsummer moon." 

3i S. V. JAN. 2, '64.] 


" Paul Clapham, another of the seminary schoolmasters. 

" They have this privilege of nature newly bestowed, 
that their old men shall not be ever- bis pueri, if they 
make a good choice at first. 

" Tell the holes of a sieve on both sides. 

" Excluduntur medici. 1st. Quia, a fool or a physician. 
2nd. Less he should cure the rest. 3rd. Lest any man 
that is sick should borrow a physician hence and be 

" Domimis Thomas Lectus, collegii con -founder, et ob 
hoc pre clarum opus jam nuper rime honor e militis assignatus. 

"The schoolmen foresaw this worthy foundation should 
be ; otherwise they bad never distinguished of 
f Intellectualis, 

A A'J. I Sensitivus, 
Appetites J NatvraliSt which no where 

(. else is to be found. 

" They must swear by nothing but ' By this Cookoe,' 
or 'By the swine tha't taught Minerva;' Juro per 

" This title, ' Octavus Sapiextum ' annexed to the 

There are many other similar random jottings 
which I must leave, at any event for the present, 
and among them that which some people may 
esteem the most curious thing of the whole, the 
outline of perhaps an intended Latin play upon 
the same subject. It is divided into what would 
have been acts or scenes, and the first of them 
runs thus : 

" Ingrediuntur, Dr. Sampsonus, Dr. Danielus, Albeeus> 
Equinus, colloquentes de Oxonid, relinquenda et Stan- 
fordiae erigendo collegio suis ingeniis magis digno. Causas 
hujus secessionis enarrant, prsepropere faciendum. Dr. 
Dan. et Albeeus statuunt statim Stanfordiam iter facere, 
et ibi situm commodissimum designare. Interea Equinus 
recipit se apud Vilpolum rhetorem insignem acturum ut 
literas sua.sorias ad Dominum Lectum det, qua? istos ad 
hoc collegium junctis sumptibus sediGcandum efficaciter 
hortantur. Exeunt." 

I shall feel obliged by your correspondents 
directing me to any sources of information re- 
specting the subject to which these curious papers 
relate. On many grounds they seem to me to 
have an interest. Unless your readers think so 
too, I fear they will consider that I have trespassed 
very unreasonably upon your pages. 


5, Upper Gloucester Street, Dorset Square. 


In the Miscellaneous state papers which were 
edited by the second earl of Hardwicke in 1778, 
in two quarto volumes, we have various specimens 
of the correspondence of James I. and the favorite 
Buckingham. I shall not presume to characterise 
the letters on either side, unexampled as they are 
in some particulars, the interpretation of an ob- 
scure phrase in one of the letters, assigned to the 
year 1624, being the main object of this note. The 
extract which follows, modernised by the noble 
editor, contains the phrase in question : 

" Duke of Buckingham to king James, 
Dear dad and gossip, 

In one of your letters you have commanded me to 
write shortly, and merrilj'. * * * This inclosed will give 
you an account of the Dunkirker's ships. By this little 
paper you will understand a suit of fine Hollands. By 
the other parchment, a suit of my Lord President's. Of 
all do but what you please, so you give me your blessing, 
which 1 must never be denied, since I can never be other 

Your Majesty's most humble slave and dog, 


Now, what are we to understand by a suit of 
fine Hollands? No doubt the manuscript has 
been mis -read, and we must have recourse to 
another text. 

In 1834 a small volume entitled Letters of the 
duke and duchess of Buckingham made its appear- 
ance at Edinburgh. It contains the above-de- 
scribed letter printed from the Balfour papers 
LITERATIM, and the extract must therefore be 
repeated : 
" Dere dad and gossope, 

In one of your letters you have commanded me to 
right shortlie and merelie. * * * This inclosed will give 
you an account of the Dunkerkers ships; by this little 
paper you will understand a sute of hue Holland's, by this 
other parchment a sute of my Lord Presidents ; of all doe 
but what you please, so you give me your blessing, which 
I must never be denied, since I can never be other than 
Your Maty, most humble slave and doge, 


I have forgotten to write my legable hand in this letter, 
forgive me." 

The editor adds this note to the mysterious 
phrase "Hardwicke makes this a suit of fine 
Hollands" But the critic leaves it, with regard to 
the majority of readers, almost as much a mys- 
tery as before ! I must act the commentator. 
The form of the small h was sometimes used as a 
capital. A fac-simile of the signature of sir Henry 
Wotton appears thus, henry Wotton so hue means 

We now advance to 1846. The same letter 
was edited in that year by Mr. Halliwell. For 
hue Holland he substitutes Hugh Holland, and 
adds this note "This is, of course, a petition of 
a person of the name of Hvgh Holland" 

The accumulation of materials on the life and 
writings of Shakspere, the splendor of the volumes 
in which those materials are embodied, and the 
recent patriotic proceedings at Stratford-upon- 
Avon, have obtained for Mr. Halliwell a very 
eminent position, but I cannot conceal the sur- 
prise which I felt on observing that he had failed 
to recognise, in a person of the name of Hugh 
Holland, the pupil of Camden the friend of Ben. 
Jonson the eulogist of Shakspere ! 

The best account of Hugh Holland is given by 
Fuller in his Worthies of England, 1662. (Wales, 
p. 16.) but it is devoid of dates. The Cypres 
garland of Holland, 1625, 4. also contains many 


[3'd S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

particulars of his career. Besides that poem, and 
Tome fugitive verses, he left three works , in ma- 
nuscript, 1. A metrical description of the chitf 
cities of Europe; 2. A chronicle of the reign ol 
Q Elizabeth; 3. A memoir of Camden. 1 he duke 
of' Buckingham was his patron, and h.s service 
are thus recorded : 
Then vou great lord, that were to me so gracious, 

In twenty weeks (a time not very spacious) 

To cause'mc thrice to kiss (me thrice your debtor; 

That hand which bore the lilly- bearing sceptre. 

It is very probable that our non -poetical poet 
presented one of the three manuscripts on each of 
those occasions. Alas ! neither the praise of Cam- 
den, nor the friendship of Ben. Jonson, nor the 
patronage of Buckingham) availed. He did not 
obtain the favor which he solicited ; and, as Fuller 
expresses it, he " grumbled out the rest of his life 
in visible discontentment." He died at \Vest- 
minster in 1633, and letters of administration, of 
which an attested copy is in my possession, were 
granted to his son, Arbettinm, on the 31 August. 


The Terrace, Barnes, S.W. 


The Transactions of the Northern Circuit are 
said to be recorded in a book accessible to mem- 
bers of the circuit only, and to them under the 
understood protection of " private and confiden- 
tial." So the Northern Circuit keeps to itself a 
large amount of very good wit till it becomes 
mouldy a word which may be applied to jokes 
when the circumstances under which they were 
made are forgotten. Should some modern Cneius 
Flavius treat this book as the Roman did that of 
Appius Claudius, he will serve the public ; but I 
wish it to be understood that I have not seen 
the sacred volume, or obtained an extract bv 
treachery. The poem which I offer was repeated 
to me by one remarkable for the accuracy of his 
memory; and by putting down what I remem- 
bered then, and hearing scraps quoted by others, 
I think I can give a satisfactory copy. 

About thirty years ago, Joseph Addison joined 
the Northern Circuit. Sir Gregory Lewin had 
been on it some years. Addison had been a pleader 
under the bar : he was a first-rate lawyer, a good 
scholar, and a thorough gentleman. He was 
neither p-dantic nor obtrusive, but he loved to 
talk law to those who could appreciate it. Sir 
Gregory Lewin broke with meteoric brilliancy on 
the criminal courts, which he led for some time 
I believe till he died. In 1834 he published A 
Report of Coxes determined on the Crown Side of 
the Northern Circuit,* marvellous work, well 
worth an hour's perusal. He took a clumsy note 
of the cases, and had a strange style in writino- 

the marginal summary. Take two examples from 
consecutive pages (113, 114): "The hand- 
writing of prisoner, not in itself pnma facie evi- 
dence "of forgery ; " and " Possession in Scotland 
evidence of stealing in England." I could not 
explain what follows more briefly. Tb.3 Eclogue 
is by the late John Leycester Adolphus, whose 
reputation is still too fresh to need revival by 
me. The best part of the wit will be understood 
by lawyers only, and the Common Law Procedure 
Act is making much of it obsolete. The next 
generation will know no more about it than the 
present does of attornments; but I think you 
have enough of us among your readers to ex- 
cuse the insertion of a piece which I know Lord 
Macaulay thought the best imitation he ever read. 
Persons are mentioned of whom I know nothing. 
If anything interesting is known about them, a 
statement of it will be acceptable. I believe all 
but one are dead. I leave a blank for his name, 
though I am sure he would relish the joke even 
more than the char. 

SCENE : The Banks of Windermere.TmE : Sunset. 


Addison. How sweet, fair Windermere, thy waveless 

coast ! 
'Tis like a goodly issue well engrossed. 

Lewin. How sweet the harmony of earth and sky ! 
'Tis like a well- concocted alibi. 

A. Pleas of the crown are coarse, and spoil one's tact, 
Barren of fees, and savouring of fact. 

L. Your pleas are cobwebs, narrower or wider, 
That sometimes catch the fly, sometimes the spider. 

A. Come let us rest beside this prattling burn, 
And sing of our respective trades in turn. 

L. Agreed : our song shall pierce the azure vault ; 
For Meade's case shows, or my report's in fault, 
That singing can't be reckoned an assault,* 

A. Who shall begin? 

L. That precious right, my friend, 

I freely yield, nor care how late I end. 

A. Vast is the pleader's rapture when he sees 
The classical endorsement, " Pleasa draw Pleas." 

L. Dear are the words 1 ne'er could read them 

" We have no case; but cross-examine rigidly." 

A. Blackhurst is coy, but sometimes has been known 
To strike out " Hoggins" and write " Addison." 

L. Me Jackson oft deludes, on me he rolls, 
Fiendlike, his eye, then chucks the brief to Knowles. 

A. Thoughts much too deep for tears pervade 

When I assumpsit bring, and, godlike, wave the tort. 

L. When witnesses, like swarms of summer flies, 
I call to character and none replies; 
Dark Attride gives a grunt ; the gentle bail iff sighs. 

A. A pleading, fashioned of the moon's pale shine, 
I love, that makes a youngster new-assign. 

L. I love to put a farmer in a funk, 
And make the galleries believe he's drunk. 

A. Answer, and you my oracle shall be, 
How a sham differs from a real plea. 

* " No words or singing are equivalent to an assault.' 
Meade's and Belt's case, Lewin, Cro. Ca. 184. 


3 rd S. V. JAN. ?, '64.] 


L. Tell me the difference first 'tis thought immense, 
Between a naked lie, and false pretence. 
Now let us gifts exchange, a timely gift 
Is often found no despicable thrift. 

A. Take these, well worthy of the Roxburgh Club, 
Seven counts struck out in Gobble versus Grubb. 

L. Let this within thy pigeon-holt s be packed, 
A choice conviction on the Bum-boat Act. 

A. I give this penknife case, since giving thrives, 
It holds ten knives, ten hafts, ten blades, ten other knives. 

L. Take this bank-note, the gift won't be my ruin ; 
'Twas forged by Dale and Kirkwood, see 1st Lewin.* 

A. Change the venire knight; your tones bewitch: 
But too much pudding chokes, however rich. 
Enough's enough, and surplusage the rest, 
The sun no more gives colour to the west. 
And one by one the pleasure-boats forsake 
Yon land with water covered, called a lake. 
'Tis supper-time ; the inn is somewhat far, 
Dense are the dews, though bright the evening star. 
And . . . might drop in and eat our char." 



Thirty or more years ago, I began to make col- 
lections for a new "Life of Sir Walter Raleigh ;" 
but the publication of Tytler's biography, and 
another subsequently by Mr. Whitehead, induced 
ine to forego my scheme. I find, however, among 
my scattered papers, a few that I think may, some 
time or other, be of use to those who are looking 
for, or arranging, additional materials ; and, as I 
do not know of a better depository for them than 
" N. & Q.," I add two or three of them now : 
hereafter, if acceptable, I will transmit others for 
insertion. There are so many memoirs of Sir 
Walter, that it is possible I may include some 
particulars already printed ; but, to begin, I do 
not believe that such is the case with the follow- 
ing information, derived from the original ac- 
counts of the Lieutenant of the Tower, at the 
time when Sir Walter Raleigh and his friend and 
coadjutor Lawrence Key mis, or Kemys, were 
in custody early in the reign of James I. Of 
course, this was only about the middle of Raleigh's 
career ; but I do not profess to observe chrono- 
logical order in my contributions to his history, 
and those who at any future period may avail 
themselves of thorn will be able at once to deter- 
mine to what dates they belong, and what events 
they illustrate. The first account is thus headed : 

" The demaundes of Sir George Harvie, Knight, Lieut* 
of the Tower of London, for the diett and charges of 
Prisoners in his custodie for one whole quarter of a yeare, 
viz. from Michaelmas, 1603, to Christmas following." 

After a statement of the charge on account of 
" the late Lord Cobham, and the late Lord Gray," 
we arrive at this entry : 

* Kirk wood's case, Lewin, Cro, Ca. 143. 

" S r Walter "| Item for the diett and charges of S r Wai- 
Raleigh, Vter Raleigh, Knight, for himself and two 
Knight, j servants, from the 16 Dec r , being then sent 
from Winchester to the Tower againe, for 
one weeke and a half ended the xxv th of 
December, att iiij u the weeke - - vj 11 ." 

" Lawrence"| Item for the diett and charges of Lawrence 

Kemishe, > Kemishe, Esquior, from the 29 th Sept. 1603, 

Esquior. ) untill the last of December, on which day 

he was discharged from the Tower, being 

14 weekes and two dayes, at xl 8 the weeke 

xxviij u xj viij*.'* 

Here we see the precise charge made for Ra- 
leigh, and that he was attended by two servants ; 
but no servant is mentioned in the entry for 
Kernys, who we know was often examined and 
questioned as to his complicity with Sir Walter 
and his friends, in the plot for which they were 
tried at Winchester. The next account relates 
to the Fleet Prison, to which it should seem both 
Raleigh and Kemys had been removed : it is from 
Christmas, 1603, to the feast of the Annunciation, 
1604. It is in this form : 

" Sir Walter 1 Item more for the diett and charges in 
Raleigh, Vthe Fleete of Sir Walter Raleigh, Knight, 
Knigbt. J and two servants, for two weekes and a 
halfe, at v 11 the weeke - - xij 11 x 8 ." 

The charge, therefore, for Sir Walter was 
greater in the Fleet than it had been in the 
Tower : for Kemys, who accompanied him, it was 
the same as in the Tower, viz. : 

" Lawrence ) Item for the diett and charges of Law- 
Kemishe. j rence Kemishe, from 25 Dec r , 1603, untill 
the last thereof, being one weeke at xl 8 the 
weeke --..--- xl." 

Here we see that no addition of Esquire was 
made to the name of Kemys while he was confined 
in the Fleet. It is to be presumed that he was 
discharged at the end of the week ; and we meet 
with no farther mention of him, on this authority, 
in either place of confinement. Of Raleigh we 
next hear after his return to the Tower, in an 
account by the Lieutenant, from the feast of the 
Annunciation, 1604, to the feast of St. John the 
Baptist in the same year. The charge is for 
thirteen weeks; not at 41. per week, as in the 
first instance, but at 51. per week, as in the Fleet ; 
and the total is 65/. The latest account by the 
Lieutenant of the Tower, that I was able to pro- 
cure a sight of, was down to June 24, 1605 ; when 
the charge of 51. per week for Raleigh and his 
two servants was continued. 

I may mention by the way, and as a biogra- 
phical note of some interest, connected with the 
i'ate of Henry Constable, author of the beautiful 
sonnets published in 1592 under the title of 
Diana, that he was in the Tower for ten weeks in 
1604, between the feasts of the Annunciation and 
St. John ; and that the charge by the Lieutenant, 
for keeping and maintaining him, was 31. per 
week. In the next account nothing is said of 


[3 rd S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

him ; so that we may infer that he was no longer 
in custody there. 

Reverting to Kemys, it may be farther stated, 
that there is extant from him, but never yet 
printed that I am aware of, a long letter to the 
Earl of Salisbury, dated August 15 [1604], deny- 
ing the truth of any allegations against him ; and 
bearing testimony to his long friendship for, and 
dependence upon, Sir Walter Raleigh. ^ Kemys, 
as is well known, afterwards destroyed himself on 
shipboard in a fit of grief and despondency at 
the unmerited anger of Raleigh, who had been 
his effectual patron. 

Among my miscellaneous papers, connected with 
the long and friendly intercourse between Raleigh 
and Lord Cobham, tried together at Winchester, 
I have met with the following letter, which bears 
the date only of " 12 th August," but in what pre- 
cise year I am unable at this moment to deter- 
mine : perhaps some of the readers of " N. & Q." 
will be in a condition to supply the year from 
circumstances mentioned in it. It is addressed 

" To the right honorable my singular good Lorde, the 
Lord Cobham, Lo. Warden of the five Ports," &c. 

" My worthy Lorde, I am now arived, having stayde 
so long as I had means. I caused the Antelope to be 
revitled for 14 dayes, which was as much as that place 
could afforde ; and that being spent, I durst not tarry to 
cum home towards winter in a fisherman. I presume 
there is no cause to doubt it : the castells are defensibell 
enough, the country reasonabell well provided, and the 
Spaniards will either do some what more prayse worthy, 
or attend a better opportunitye. I am reddy now to obey 
your commandments. If you will come to the Bathe, I 
will not faile yow, or what soever else your L. will use 
me in in this worlde. 

" I will now looke for the L. Henry of Northumber- 
land^ who, I think, will be here shortly, knowing my 
returne ; and I doubt not but he will meet us also att the 
Bathe, if your L. acquaynt hyme with the tyme. It is 
best, if your L. propose it, to take the end of this moneth 
att farthest. 

"I here that the Lord Chamberlayn is dead : if it be 
so, I hope that your L. may be stayde uppon good cause : 
if it b not so, I could more willingly cum eastward then 
ever I did in my life. How so ever [it] be, they be but 
things of the worlde, by which thos that have injoyed 
them have byne aa littell happy as other poore men ; but 
the good of these thinges wilbe, that while men are of 
necessity to draw lotts, they shall hereby see their 
chanses, and dispose them selves accordingly. I beseech 
'our L. that I may here from yow: from'hence I can 

sent yow with nothinge but my fast love and trew 
tion, which shall never part from studying to honor 
yow till I be in the grave. 

WemoQth, the 12 of August. " W ' RALEGH ' 

[P.S.] " My L. Vicount hath so exalted Micros' sutes 

agaynst me in my absence, as neather M' Sergent Heale 

nor any one else, could be hard for me to stay trialls 

while 1 was out of the land in her Majesties seYvice, a 

right anu curtesy afforded to every begger. I never 

busied mysealf with the Vicount, neather^ of his extor- 

as or poisonings of his wife, as it is here avowed and 

I have forborne hyti.e in respect of my L 

Thomas, and chiefly because of M' Secretory who in his 

love to my L. Thomas hathe wisht mee to it : but I will 
not indure wrong at so pevishe a foole's hand any 
longer. I will rather loose my life ; and I think that my 
L. puritan Periam doeth think that the Queen shall have 
more use of roggs and villayns then of mee, or els he 
would not att Byndon's instance have yielded to try ac- 
tions agaynst me, being out of the lande." 

The whole of the above is in the handwriting 
of Raleigh, as well as the following document, 
which may serve to explain what is said in the 
P.S. regarding Mieres. 

" Know all men that I S* Walter Ralegh, Knight r 
Capitaine of her ma ties Gard, and Lord Warden of the 
Stanneries of Devon and Cornwall, doe hereby aucthorise 
John Meere, my man, to take, cutt, and cary away, ov 
cause to be cutt downe, taken, and caryed awaye, all such 
manner of Trees, growinge in my manor of Sherborne, or 
else'wher within any other my manors, or lands, in the 
hundreds of Sherborne, or Yedmyster in the county of 
Dorset, when he shall think convenient, to be employed 
to my necessarie use in my castell of Sherborne, as to 
hym I have gy ven dyrection : whom I have appointed as 
well keper of the same castell, and to demand and keepe 
the kayes of the same, as also to be overseer of all my 
woods and tymber within the sayd hundreds, that no 
spoyle be made therein; or of any Fesaunts, or other 
game of the free warren whatsoever, within the same. 
Sloreover I doe aucthorise him hereby to receave to my 
use all knowledge mone}-, dew unto mee by my tenauntes 
within the sayd hundreds. In witnes where of I, the 
the sayd S r Walter Ralegh, have here unto put my hand 
and seale the xxviij th daye of Auguste in the xxxiiij th 
yeare of the Saigne of our Soveraigne Lady Elizabeth, 
by the grace of God Queene of England, Fraunce, and 
Ireland, defender of the Faythe, &c. W. RALEGH." 

Out of this deed of 1586, no doubt, grew the 
lawsuit between Raleigh and Meere, which Jus- 
tice Periam had heard during the absence of Sir 
Walter from England. J. PAYNE COLLIER. 



[NO. n.] 

Though York House (late Norwich House), in 
the Strand, was granted to Archbishop Heath by 
Queen Mary, for the town residence of the Arch- 
bishops of York, in lieu of their former palace 
seized by Henry VIII., it is doubtful whether he 
or any of his successors ever inhabited it : for Sir 
Nicholas Bacon was residing in it, certainly a& 
early as the second year of Elizabeth's reign. He 
had previously resided in Noble Street, Foster 
Lane, Cheapside, in a house which he built, 
called Bacon House. 

Of the London residence of Queen Elizabeth's* 

! next Lord Chancellor, Sir Thomas Bromley, there 

1 is no record ; but it is not improbable that he 

also^ inhabited York House, inasmuch as several 

of his successors did. 

Lord Chancellor Sir Christopher ITatton had a 

grant of the Bishop of Ely's house, in Holborn, 

I long before he had possession of the Great Seal, 

3* d S. V. JAN. 2, '64.] 



and continued to reside in it till his death. His 
name, and the bishop's title, are preserved in the 
streets built upon its site. 

Sir Christopher's successor, Sir John Puckering, 
who was only Lord Keeper, lived at first at Rus- 
sell House, near Ivy Bridge, in the Strand. He 
then removed to York House, under a lease from 
the archbishop ; which enabled his widow to keep 
possession for a year after his death. 

At the end of that year v the archbishop granted 
a new lease to Sir Thomas Egerton, Queen Eliza- 
beth's next Lord Keeper ; who resided in it till 
his death, in 1617; having been created Lord 
Chancellor by James I., and ennobled with the 
titles of Baron Ellesmere and Viscount Brackley. 

King James's second Chancellor, Lord Bacon, 
after residing for a short time in Dorset House, 
Fleet Street, removed to York House> the place 
of his birth ; which, soon after his disgrace, be- 
came the property of the Duke of Buckingham ; 
and within fifty years was converted into various 
streets and alleys, now, or lately, designated by 
the names and titles of that nobleman George 
Street, Villiers Street, Duke Street, Of Alley, 
and Buckingham Street. 

Sir Thomas Coventry, Lord Coventry, Lord 
Keeper to Charles I., died in Durham House, in 
the Strand now the site of the Adelphi. The 
Lord Keeper's country house was at Canonbury, 

I do not know the residences of King Charles's 
three remaining Lord Keepers Sir John Finch 
Lord Finch of Fordwich ; Sir Edward Lyttelton, 
Lord Lyttelton of Mounslow ; and Sir Richard 
Lane. Nor can I trace with any certainty the 
London houses of the Commissioners of the Great 
Seal during the Commonwealth. 

The Earl of Clarendon, the first Lord Chan- 
cellor of Charles II. after the Restoration, resided 
at first in Dorset House, Fleet Street, before 
mentioned as an early residence of Lord Bacon ; 
then at Worcester House in the Strand, the same 
as Russell House, where Sir John Puckering had 
for some time resided as Lord Keeper in the 
reign of Elizabeth ; and lastly, at the splendid 
mansion he built at the top of St. James's Street. 

Sir Orlando Bridgeman, who succeeded the 
Earl, while he" held the Seal resided in Essex 
House in the Strand now the site of Essex 

Anthony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftesbury, 
while he held the office of Lord Chancellor, re- 
sided in Exeter House in the Strand, where 
Exeter Street and Burleigh Street now are. The 
Earl afterwards lived atThanet House, in Alders- 
gate Street, where several of the nobility had 
mansions in that reign. 

Sir Heneage Finch, Earl of Nottingham, the 
next Chancellor, resided at Kensington in a man- 
sion which has since become a royal palace ; but 

he also had a town house in Great Queen Street, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, where he died. 

Sir Francis North, Lord Guilford, who was 
Lord Keeper to Charles II. and James II., resided 
when he was entrusted with the Great Seal in a 
great brick house, near Serjeants' Inn in Chan- 
cery Lane. His brother, in his entertaining 
biography of the Lord Keeper, intimates that he 
removed to some other house ; but, as far as I 
recollect, omits to name where it was situate. 

The infamous Chief Justice Jeffreys, the last 
Chancellor of James II., heard causes in his house 
in Duke Street, Westminster. 

Lest I should fatigue your readers, and occupy 
too much of your space, I will stop here, and 
commence my next contribution with the Revo- 
j lution. EDWARD Foss. 


I have met with a nearly perfect pack of play- 

! ing-cards, ornamented with figures and inscrip- 

| tions, all of which relate to the celebrated Rye- 

I House Plot. The cards are distinguished by the 

! mark of the suit, usually on the right-hand upper 

i corner, but in some of the suit of Diamonds, and 

! the ten of Spades, on the left-hand upper corner. 

The number in the suit is indicated by the 

Roman numerals, i , ii., &c., to x., and then by the 

: words, Knave, Queen, King. The figures on 

j these last court cards have no relation to their 

i character as cards. Twelve cards are missing 

| namely, the iv. and vii. of Hearts; the iii., vi., viii., 

and x. of Diamonds ; the iii., iv., ix., and King of 

Spades ; and the i. and x. of Clubs. 

The figures upon the suit of Clubs are as fol- 
lows : 
i. Missing. 

ii. Figure of a man resting on a walking-si ick, 
! and the inscription "West going downe to White- 
| hall." 

iii. A man going to a door, with the inscription 
| " Keeling going to the L d Dart." 

iv. A man, wearing a hat and robed, sitting, 
and another man standing before him with his hat 
1 in his hand. Inscription, "Keeling examined by 
S r L. lenkins." 

v. A man, wearing a sword and hat, with words 
from his mouth, " I beg the King's mercy," bow- 
ing to another man in an official dress. Inscrip- 
tion, " C. Rumsey delivering himselfe." 

vi. Two men in official robes, one of them 
wearing a hat, standing at a table, examining 
another man, behind stands a guard. Inscription^ 
"Rumsey examined by the King and Councell." 

vii. A man in a hat writing at a table, the 
words from his mouth " I must discover all." In- 
I scription, "West writing a letter to S r G. J." 
viii. One man, attended by a guard with a 



13 rd S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

javelin, arresting another man from behind. In- 
scription, "Lord Grey Apprehended." 

ix. The Tower of London in the back ground. 
A man in a hat and flowing wig landing from a 
boat, received "by another man ; a coach standing 
by. Inscription, "Lord Grey making his Escape." 

x. Missing. 

Knave. A man in gown and bands, with the 
words from his mouth, " Fight the Lairde's bat- 
tle." Inscription, "Ferguson the Independent 

Queen. In the front, a man standing by an 
overturned cart ; at a distance a coach and six on 
the road. Inscription, " A conspirator overturn- 
ingji cart to stop the King's coach." 

King. A nobleman sitting in an arm-chair, with 
the words from his mouth, " Assist me friends." 
Behind him a shadowy black figure with horns, 
evidently the evil spirit, holding the back of his 
chair. Inscription, " The Lord Shaftsbury." 

The six of Hearts has a representation of the 
execution of Lord Russell, with the inscription, 
" L d Russell beheaded in Lincoln's Lin Feilds." 

This may be sufficient to give a notion of these 
very curious cards ; and I should be glad to know 
whether any other copy of them is known to be 
in existence. T. C. 

an old French book a few days since I met with a 
word which caused me some vexatious research. 
The author tells his readers how they may render 
themselves invisible, and his directions are "To 
wear a wig made of the hairs of a person who has 
been hung, having first had the wig steeped in 
the blood of une pupu" I sought for the mean- 
ing of pupu in Chambaud's quarto French and: 
English Dictionary, in French and Latin, French 
and German, French and Spanish, French and Por- 
tuguese, French and Dutch dictionaries in vain ; 
but at last discovered that the word was obsolete, 
and synonymous with the modern huppe, and in 
English signifies a lapwing, peewit, and hoopoe ; 
that in Latin it is upupa; in Greek, *7re(/; in Ger- 
man Wicdehopf; in Dutch, kievet; in Italian, bub- 
bola ; in Spanish, avefria ; in Portuguese, pavon- 
cmo; and that it is our old Ovidian friend, the 
naughty Tereus, who fell in love with his sister- 
law, Philomela, whose tongue he cut out lest 
she should tell his wife how badly he had behaved 
and who afterwards dined upon the remains of 
his son Itys I traced the pupu afterwards 
from Ovid Met vi. 672, 673, 674; to Virgil, 
Eclog vi. 78 ; to Plautus, Copt. Act V. Sc. 4, Hne 
7 ; and found honourable mention made of it in 
I Imv s Natural History, in .Elian, De Animal i. 

;1U - 2; VI6 X ' 16 xvi 

K- ,n ; VI ,V1 6; ' nas, 

ib. i. c. 40. ^ |, sl t I wish to know is, does the 
Jnpwmg, so remarkable a bird in ancient lore and 

legend, and an ingredient in mediaeval French 
magic, hold any importance in the folk lore of 
England ? 

I append in the original the receipt for making 
one's self invisible : 

" Porter une peruque faite des cheveux d'un pendu, et 
trempee dans le sang d'une pupu, afin de se rendre in- 


Dinan, Cotes du Nord, France. 

quiries have been made in previous volumes re- 
specting Serjeant Rowe. From an Inq. p. m. at 
Exeter Castle, Oct. 28, 35 Henry VIII., it ap- 
pears he died on the 8th of October, leaving a son 
of the same name, aged thirty-five years and up- 
wards, a widow Agnes, and property in Dart- 
mouth, Totnes, &c., &c. Another copy states, 
that his son John was thirty years of age, and his 
wife's name Mary. 

It will be seen from the above, that Serjeant 
Rowe was closely connected with Devonshire ; 
and that, therefore, the statement in the Rowe 
pedigree (Harl. MS., 1174), that he was the son 
of John Rowe, of Rowes Place, Kent, is highly 

A family of the name of Rowe, or Roe, had 
been seated in the West of England for at least 
a century before the reign of Henry VIII. 

C. J. R. 

CHARLES LLOYD, the poet, the friend of Words- 
worth, Lamb, and Southey, died at Chaillot, near 
Paris, January 16, 1839, aged 64. (Gent. Mag. 
N". S. xi. 335.) He was son of Charles Lloyd, 
Esq., banker of Birmingham ; was born in that 
town, and privately educated by Mr. Gilpin. On 
August 31, 1798, being twenty-three years of age, 
he was admitted a Fellow Commoner of Cains 
College, but never graduated. The late Mr. 
Justice Talfourd, in his Memorials of Charles 
Lamb, referring to the year 1799, says : " Lloyd 
had become a graduate of the University." This 
is a mistake ; but it. must be observed that 
another Charles Lloyd, a native of Norfolk, pro- 
ceeded B.A. at Emmanuel College in that very 


loq. : 

"Tis beere that drowns the soules in their bodies. 
Z/wsow's cakes, and Paix his ale, hath frothed their braines : 
hence is the whole tribe contemned ; every prentice can 
jeere at their brave Cassockes, and laugh the Velvet Caps 
out of countenance." Randolph, Aristippus, 1635, p. 12. 

^ Topicks or Common-places are the Tavernes; and 
Jfamnn, Wolfe, and Farlowes, are the three best tutors in 
the Universities." Aristippus, 1635, p. 15. 


3 rd S. V. JAX. 2, '64.] 




" The mortal remains of Robespierre, St. Just, and 
LebaV' says the Patrie, "have just been discovered by 
some workmen occupied in digging the foundations of a 
house at the Batignolles, at the angle of the Rue du 
Rocher and the old Chemin de Ronde. Those men, who 
played 80 important a part in the Revolution, were buried 
at the above spot ; the cemetery of the Madeleine being 
too full at the period of their death to admit of fresh 
interments." Leeds Mercury, Nov. 5, 1863. 


OLD LATIN ARISTOTLE. In a volume of Latin 
Sermones, printed at Cologne, and in the original 
binding, I have found parts of two leaves of an 
early edition of Aristotle in Latin. I know that 
they are early, because of the contractions, of the 
Gothic letters, and by the omission of the first 
letter of quoniam, which was to have been sup- 
plied by hand. I give a short extract belo\v, and 
I know that it Li from the 4th book, near the 
beginning of the treatise ' ; De Aninia;" and that 
it is not the translation in the folio, Paris, 1629. 
The page is printed in columns, just two inches 
wide. As far as potentia, in the extract, the Ger- 
man-text letters are half an inch high. 

" [qluoniam an|te eade potenjtia || Postq; phus deter- 
mine vit qua si queda pambula | ad potencia, vegetativa 
hie incipit | determinate de ipa & duo facit. qr. | '' 

Will some of your bibliographical readers be 
so kind as to tell me the edition to which my 
fragment belongs ? WM. DAVIS. 


JOHN BARCROFT. In " N. & Q ," 3 rd S. iv. 187, 
it is stated that Laurence Halsted, Keeper of the 
Records in the Tower of London, was born in 
1638, and married Alice, daughter of John Bar- 
croft, Esq. Is anything known of John Barcroft ? 
There was a John Barcroft, perhaps his son, 
whose history presents some remarkable features. 
He was one of Cromwell's officers in Ireland, 
where it is to be supposed that he did good service, 
as he was rewarded with the estate of Castle Car- 
bery, near Edenderry, the name of which be 
changed, according to the fashion of the times, to 
Ask Hill. The Castle Carbery estate reverted, on 
the Restoration, to the Colleys or Cowleys, ances- 
tors of the Duke of Wellington, to whom it had 
belonged from the time of Queen Elizabeth. John 
Barcroft, sickened perhaps by the scenes of blood 
which he had witnessed during his service under 
Cromwell, joined the sect of Quakers, and be- 
came one of the principal founders of the Quaker 
colony at Balitore, co. Kildare, respecting which 
some interesting particulars are given in the Lead- 
beater Papers. URSAGELLUS. 


Sir William Draper, nearly a hundred years a^o, 
erected in his garden at Clifton, near Bristol, a 
cenotaph in memory of the officers and soldiers of 
the 79th regiment who fell during the war in the 
middle of the last century. This memorial is 
alluded to in the Ann. Reg. 1768, vol. xi. 236 
! (6th edit. 1800). The inscription, which is in 
j Latin, is given in the Gent. Mag. 1792, vol. Ixii. 
| parti, p. 168; and a translation of it occurs in 
j the same volume at p. 162. According to the 
I Gent. Mag. 1789, vol. lix. part n. p. 607, it would 
, seem that under the base of the sarcophagus the 
exploits of the regiment in the East Indies are 
I particularised, and the names added of thirty-four 
| officers who were killed in action. These names, 
as far as I have been able to learn, riot having 
been copied into any journal, I would suggest, 
against the chances of that obliteration which 
time and the weather work on all exposed monu- 
ments, that one of your Clifton or Bristol readers, 
interested in preserving the records on such me- 
morials, impose on himself the task of sending you 
a list of the names of those brave fellows for in- 
sertion in ** N. & Q." To your military readers 
and others no doubt such a list would be useful, 
more so as the London Gazettes of the period the 
chief source of reference in many instances only 
note the deaths in war by totals. 

For purposes of identity, the names should be 
followed by any other information, such as dates, 
and the names of the battles and sieges in which 
the officers lost their lives, if such particulars occur 
on the cenotaph. M. S. R. 

WILLIAM CHAIGNEAU. The famous Irish novel 
entitled The History of Jack Connor, and which 
I believe first appeared in 1752, is attributed to 
William Chaigneau, Esq., who, in 1796, is re- 
ferred to as deceased (Gent. Mag., Ixvi. 823). 
Information respecting him will be acceptable. 

S. Y. R. 

ELEANOR D'OLBREUSE. Where can I find par- 
ticulars of the parentage of this lady, who married 
one of the Dukes of Zelle, and so became an 
ancestress of our present royal family ? 


New Shoreham. 

HYOSCYAMUS. In Bishop Hall's Quo Vadis 
(sec. 5), the following pas-age occurs : 

" The Persian Hyoscyamus, if it be translated to Egypt 
proves deadly ; if to Jerusalem, safe and wholesome." 

I wish to know whether this is a positive fact? 


LAUREL WATER. It was stated in conversa- 
tion after Donellan's trial for the murder of Sir 
Theodosius Boughton, that a book on botany was 
lent to the captain by Mr. Newsom, the rector of 
Harborough, and that it was returned with the 


NOTES AND QUERIES. [3^ s. v. JAN. 2/64. 

leaf doubled down, saying that laurel water dis- 
ked was a deadly poison. Can any of your 
botanical readers state in what book this account 
of laur,l-water is to be found? A book called 
the Toilet of Flora was published in 17/9. This 
book is not in the British Museum Perhaps one 
of your readers may possess the book, and be able 
to state what the account of laurel-water is. 


LEWIS' MORRIS. At the commencement^ of 
Lord Teignmouth's Life of Sir William Jones is a 
letter signed Lewis Morris, in which the writer 
states, that he has sent Sir William, as a new 
year's "ift, and in pursuance of an old Welsh 
custom among kinsmen, a pedigree, showing then- 
descent from a common ancestor. Can any ot 
your readers inform me whether the writer is the 
celebrated antiquary and poet spoken of by Mr. 
Borrow in his recent work, Wild Wales, and whe- 
ther anything is now known of the pedigree in 
question ? I should be glad to know, too, whether 
Lewis Morris has now any lineal descendants 
living ? H - H - 

the Prince Consort" Treu und Fest" was one 
so strikingly applicable to his high character, that 
I should be glad to know its origin. On reading 
in the Bock of Revelations (xix. 11), that he that 
sat upon the White Horse was called "faithful 
and true," it occurred to me that the Elector of 
Saxony, from whom Prince Albert probably de- 
rived it, might have taken the motto from this 
passage in Luther's translation; but upon examin- 
ation, I find Luther's words are : " Treu und 
Wahrhaftig." As it seems probable that this 
motto, and the white horse in the arms of Saxony, 
have been derived from this passage, may I ask 
When, and by whom they were first used ? 


RICHARD SALVEYNE. In Chiswick church, 
near London, upon a monument is read this im- 
perfect inscription 

" Orate pro anitna Mathildis Salveyne uxoris Rychardi 
Salveyne militia Thesaurar: Ecclesie. MCCCCXXXH." 

So states an old MS. in my possession, but I do 
not find it recorded in the copious list of inscrip- 
tions under "Chiswick" in Lysons's Middlesex 
Parishes, though it existed in Weever's time. 

It is further stated in the MS. this Richard 
Salveyne was of the same family as Humphrey 
Salwey, escheator of the county of Worcester, 
whose tomb at Stanford in that county is there 

The monument at Chiswick I presume to be no 
longer in existence. I do not find Richard Sal- 
veyne in Burke's elaborate pedigree of that family. 
Is anything known about him, why his wife should 
be buried at Chiswick, and what was his official 
capacity ? THOMAS E. WINNING-TON. 

SWINBURNE. Is anything known of a person 
of this name who was living about 1610 ? He was 
secretary to Sir Henry Fanshaw. CPL. 

CAPTAIN YORKE. I am anxious to obtain in- 
formation about a Mr. Yorke, a Captain in the 
Trained Bands of London, who lived about the 
middle of the last century. It is thought that he 
was descended from the Yorkes of Erthig, Den- 
bighshire, Wales ; and I should be grateful to 
any correspondent who could give me any details 
as to the Captain's connection with the Yorkes of 

Cape Town. 


PHOLEY. What is the meaning of this word 
in the following advertisement, which I copy from 
a List of Books printed for and sold by Edward 
Cave, at St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell ? 

Travels into the inland parts of Africa, containing a 
description of the several Nations for the sp^ce of COO 
miles up the River Gambia, with a particular account of 
Job Ben Solomon, a Pholey, who, in th-3 year 1733, was in 
England, and known by the name of the African. Being 
the Journal of Francis Moore, Factor for several years to 
the Roval African Company of England." 

E. H. A. 

[An interesting account of the Pholeys, a free and in- 
dependent people of Gambia, is supplied by the author in 
the above work, in, the first edition, 1738, p. 30, in the 
second edition (no date), p. 21. He says, "In every 
kingdom on each side of the river Gambia there are some 
people of a tawny colour, called Pholeys, much like the 
Arabs ; which language they most of them speak, being 
to them as the Latin is in Europe; for it is taught in 
schools, and their law, the Alcoran, is in that language. 
They are more generally learned in the Arabick than the 
people of Europe are in Latin, for they can most of them 
speak it, though they have a vulgar tongue besides, called 
Pholey. They live in hoards or clans, build towns, and 
are not subject to any kings of the country, though they 
live in their territories ; for if they are illtreated in one 
nation, they break up their towns, and remove to another. 
They have chiefs of their own, who rule with so much 
moderation, that every act of government seems rather 
an act of the people than of one man. This form of govern- 
ment goes on easily, because the people are of a good and 
quiet disposition, and so well instructed in what is just 
and right, that a man who does ill is the abomination of 

all, and none will support him against the chief 

The Pholeys are very industrious and frugal, and raise 
much more corn and cotton than they consume, which 
they sell at reasonable rates, and are very hospitable 
and kind to all ; so that to have a Pholey town in the 
neighbourhood, is by the natives reckoned a blessing. 
They are strict Mahometans ; none of them (unless here 
and there one) will drink brandy, or anything stronger 
than water and sugar."~| 

3' d S. V. JAN. 2, '64.] 




following verses from MS. on a fly-leaf, at the 
end of a copy of Jus Imaginis apud Anglos, or, 
the Law of England relating to the Nobility and 
Gentry, by John Brydall, of Lincoln's Inne, 
Esquier, 1675." 8vo 

" Great Charles, thou Earthly God, Celestial Man ! 
Whose life, like others', though it were a span, 
Yet in that life was comprehended more 
Than earth hath waters, or the oceans shore ; 
Thv heavenly virtues angels shall rehearse ; 
It is a theme too high for human verse. 
He that would know the right, then let him look 
Upon this wise incomparable book, 
And read it o'er and o'er; which, if you do, 
You'll find the King a priest ar.d prophet too; 
And sadly see our lot, although in vain " 

(Cetera desunt.} 

They appear to have been written by the hand 
of one William Thomas, as they follow these 
words: "John ffarr his Booke. William Tho- 
mas witnes, 1675." But they were evidently not 
William Thomas's composition, as he was an un- 
educated fellow, who wrote 

" Grate charls, though earthly god se- 
Lastiel man, huse Life Like others " 

and so on oshians for "oceans," Engels for " an- 
gels," &c. : on which account I have modernised 
the spelling, in order to make the whole intelligi- 
ble. They seem to have been really the production 
of one who could write verse, as well as the most 
extravagant adulation, and may be taken as an 
extreme example of the poetical hyperbole of that 
hyperbolical age. The " incomparable book," for 
which they were first written, was probably the 
Eikon Basilike. Do they occur in print in any 
edition of it ? J. G. N. ' 

[These lines are entitled " An Epitaph upon King 
Charles," signed J. H., and are usually found printed in 
the earlier editions of the Eikon Basilike., e. g. that by 
Royston, 24mo, 1649 ; that printed at the Hague by S. 
Brown, 24mo, 1649 ; and in the Dublin edition of 1706. 
Vide " N. & Q." 2** S. iv. 347 ; v. 393, 464 ; vi. 179.] 

will be glad to know the meaning of the rhino- 
ceros, or whatever the animal may be, which orna- 
ments all things sent from Apothecaries' Hall. 

[The unicorn, as fictionized in heraldry, is a white 
horse, having the horn of the narwhale emanating from 
the forehead ; the belief in the animal being based on the 
passage in Job xxxix. 9 : " Will the unicorn be willing 
to serve thee?" but the original word "Rem," thus 
translated " unicorn," is, by St. Jerome, Montanus, and 
Aquila, rendered "rhinoceros"; and in the Septuagint, 
" monoceros " signifies nothing more than "one horn." 
The rhinoceros is therefore the misinterpreted unicorn of 
the ancients; and, from a belief in the fabulous medicinal 
qualities of the horn, has been advanced as the crest of 
the Company of Apothecaries, on some of whose sign- 

boards the rhinoceros presented the similitude of any- 
thing but the real beast ; and being frequently mistaken 
for a boar, the practice of painting the monster became 
more monstrous, and the boar proper has, to be more 
agreeable to the eye, been bedizened as a blue boar. 
Beaufoy's Tradesmen's Tokens, edit. 1855, p. 58.] 

FRUMENTUM: SILIGO. In an account, temp. 
Edw. III., I find these words used for distinct 
kinds of grain. What kinds? In Littleton's 
Latin Dictionary, " siligo " is defined as " fine 
wheat, whereof they make manchet;" and "fru- 
mentum " as " all manner of corn or grain for 
bread." But in my account, the price of fru- 
mentum is 7s. and 85. the quarter, that of siligo, 
5*. 6d. and 6s. 4d. only. Can I be referred to any 
more definite explanation of these terms ? 

G. A. C. 

[Frumentum was used in the Middle Ages somewhat 
indefinitely, but it most frequently signifies wheat. Pure 
wheat" Saepe saepius designatum opinor triticum purum, 
nee aliis granis mixtum." (T)u Cange in verb.} In the 
passage before us it is certainly wheat. 

Siligo, in Middle-Age Latin, means rye. We know 
that in classical Latin it signifies a fine \\heat, praised by 
Columella and Pliny, as preferable to ordinary wheat for 
food, being finer, whiter, and lighter; but in the Middle 
Ages it almost always represents rye, as it assuredly does 
in this passage.] 

JOHN BURTON. I have in my possession a 
rather scarce tract of 31 pages, entitled Saccrdos 
Parcecialis Rusticus, published at Oxford in 1757. 
Its author is "Johannes Burton de Maple-Durham 
in Com. Oxon. Vicarius." The duties of the parish 
priest are in it beautifully described in classical 
hexameters, 630 in number, and occasionally re- 
mind one of the picture, in Goldsmith's Deserted 
Village, of the country clergyman. 

Is anything known of the author, and what 
college in Oxford claimed him as an alumnus ? I 
presume that the same person was the author of the 
following effusions in " Selectee Poemata Anglorum 
(Editio Secunda Emendatior, 1789)," viz. "De 
borse Epinicion," p. 28 ; " Psalmus cxxxvii.," p. 
107; " Hortus Botanicus," p. 147; and "Psalmus 
xlvi.," p. 275 for the name " J. Burton, S. T. P." 
is appended. OXONIENSIS. 

[Dr. John Burton, a learned critic and divine, was 
educated at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He died on 
Feb. 11, 1771, in the seventj'-sixth year of his age, and 
was buried at the entrance of the inner chapel at Eton. 
His Life has been published by his pupil and intimate 
friend, Dr. Edward Bentham. Most biographical diction- 
aries also contain some account of him.] 


your readers refer me to any work giving details 
of the court held by James II. and the Pretender 
at St. Germain-enrLaye, until the death of the 



[3 V < 1 S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

former? Did James II. confer patents of nobility 
upon any of his adherents, and upon wh m *l R 

[The state of the Court of St. Germains will be found 
in the following works: (1) A View of the Court of St. 
Germai*sfrom the Year 1690 to 1693, [by John Macky], 
8vo. 169G. (2.) " The Life of James //., containing an 
Account of his Birth, Education, &c., the State of his 
Court at St. Germains, and the particulars of his Death. 
Lond. 8vo, 1702." (3.) Clarke's Life of James II., ii. 
472-647, copied from the Stuart Papers in Carlton House. 
Consult also chap. xx. of Lord Macaulay's History of 
England, iv. 380. * For the titles of nobility conferred by 
James II. after his abdication, see " N. & Q." 2 nd S. ix. 
23; x. 102, 215, 337.] 

BELLAMY, circa 1818. Bellamy did not complete 
the whole Bible. Query, how much did he pub- 
lish? GEO. I. COOPER. 

[Eight parts of this new translation were published, 
namely, from Genesis to the Song of Solomon, pp. 1368. 
See Home's Introduction to the Holy Scriptures, ed. 184G, 
v. 304.1 

(3 rd S. iv. 307.) 

Bonnell Thornton's object in establishing an 
exhibition of sign-boards was to convey satire on 
temporary events, objects, and persons. It took 
place at an opportune time, when the good- 
natured public was not disposed to consider it as 
an insult; and for a period it is said to have 
answered the witty projector's most sanguine 

The mention made of this exhibition by the 
newspaper press of the day, presents so many il- 
lustrations of the state of art, and of the spirit 
of the times, that a few extracts from it may not 
be unacceptable. 

The St. James s Chronicle of March 26, 1762, 
after noticing the preparations of the Society of 
Arts, adds 

" The Society of Sign-Painters are also preparing a 
most magnificent collection of portraits, landscapes, fancy- 
pieces, history-pieces, night-pieces, Scripture-pieces, &c. 
&c., designed by the ablest masters, and executed by the 
beat han-is in these kingdoms. The virtuosi will have a 
new opportunity to display their taste on this occasion, 
by discovering the different styles of the several masters 
employed, and pointing out by what hand each piece is 
drawn. A remarkable cognoscenti, who has attended at 
the Society's great room, with his eye-glass, for several 
mornings, has already piqned himself on discovering the 
famous painter of The Rising Sun ' (a modern Claude) 
in an elegant nightpiece of' The Man in the Moon.'" 

The London Register for April, 1762, as quoted 
in Mr. Pye's Patronage of British Art, gives us 
the following account of the exhibition itself : 

" On entering, you pass through a large parlour and 
paved yard, of which, as they contain nothing but old 
common signs, we shall take no further notice than what 
is said of them in the Catalogue, which the reader will 
not find to be barren of wit and humour. On entering 
the grand room, you find yourself in a large and com- 
modious apartment, hung round with green baize, on 
which this curious collection of wooden originals is fixed 
flat, and from whence hang keys, bells, swords, poles, 
sugar-loaves, tobacco-rolls, candles, and other ornamental 
figures, carved in wood, which commonly dangled from 
the pent-houses of the different shops in our streets. On 
the chimney-board (to imitate the style of the catalogue) 
is a large blazing fire, painted in water-colours; and 
within a kind of cupola, or rather dome, which lets the 
light into the room, is written in golden capitals, upon a 
blue ground, a motto disposed in the form following: 


' From this short description of the grand room (when 
we consider the singular nature of the paintings them- 
selves, and the peculiarity of the other decorations), it 
may be easily imagined that no connoisseur Avho has 
made the tour of Europe ever entered a picture-gallery 
that struck his eye more forcibly at first sight, or pro- 
voked his attention with more extraordinary appearance. 
We will now, if the reader pleases, conduct him round 
the room, and take a more accurate survey of the curious 
originals before us; to which end we shall proceed to 
transcribe some of the most conspicuous features of the 
ingenious Society's Catalogue, adding, by the way, such 
remarks as may seem necessary for his instruction and 
entertainment : 

"No. 1. Portrait of a justly celebrated painter, though 
an Englishman and a modern. 

" No. 8. ' The Vicar of Bray.' The portrait of a beni- 
ficed clergyman at full length. ' The Vicar of Bray ' is 
an ass in a feather -topped grizzle, band, and pudding- 
sleeves. This is a much droller conceit, and has much 
more effect, as here executed, than the old design of the 
ass loaded with preferment. 

"No. 9. 'The Irish Arms.' By Patrick O'Blaney. 
N.B. Captain Terence O'Cutter stood for them. This 
sign represents a pair of extremely thick legs, in white 
stockings, and black gaiters. 

"No. 12. ' The Scotch Fiddle.' By M'Pherson. Done 
from himself. The figure of a Highlander sitting under 
a tree, enjoying the greatest of pleasures, scratching 
where it itches. 

" No. 16. ' A Man.' Nine tailors at work, in allusion 
to the old saving, ' Nine tailors make a man.' 

"No. 19. "'Nobody alias Somebody.' A character. 
The figure of an officer, all head, arms, legs, and thighs. 
Tiiis piece has a very odd effect, it being 30 drolly exe- 
cuted that 3'ou don't miss the body. 

" No. 20. ' Somebody, alias Nobody.' The companion 
of the foregoing, both by Hogarty. A rosy figure, with 
little head and a huge body, whose belly swags over, 
almost quite down to his shoe-buckles. By the staff in 
his hand, it appears to be intended to represent a con- 
stable: it might also be mistaken for an eminent justice 
of the peace. 

"No. 22. ' The Stragglers : a Matrimonial Conversa- 
tion/ By Ransby. Represents a man and his wife fight- 
ing for the breeches. 

3** S. V. JAN. 2, '64. J 



" No. 23. ' A Freemason's Lodge ; or, the Impenetrable 
Secret.' By a Sworn Brother. The supposed ceremony 
and probable consequences of what is called 'making a 
mason.' Represents the master of the lodge with a red- 
hot salamander in his hand, and the new brother blind- 
fold, and in a comical situation of fear and good-luck. 

" No. 27. ' The Spirit of Contradiction.' Two brewers 
\rith a barrel of beer pulling different ways. 

"No. 35. 'A Man in his Element.' A sign for an eat- 
ing-house. A cook roasting at a fire, and the devil basting 

" No. 36. A Man out of his Element.' A sailor falling 
off a horse, with his head lighting against a milestone. 

"No. 37. A Bird.' By Allison. Underneath is writ- 

'A bird in hand far better 'tis 
Than two that in the bushes is.' 

"No. 38. 'A Man loaded with Mischief,' is represented 
carrying a woman, a magpie, and a monkey on his back. 

"No. 39. 'Absalom Hanging.' A perukemaker's sign 
by Sclatter. Underneath is written 

' If Absalom had not worn his own hair, 
Absalom had not been hanging there.' 

But the cream of the whole jest is No. 49 and No. 50' 
its companion, hanging on each side of the chimney 
These two are by an unknown hand, the exhibition 
having been favoured with them from an unknown quar- 
ter. Ladies and gentlemen are requested not to finger 
them, as they are concealed by the curtains to preserve 
them. Behind the curtains are two boards, on one of 
which is written Ha ! ha ! ha ! ' and on the other * He ! 
he ! he'! ' At the opening of the exhibition, the ladies 
had infinite curiosity to know what was behind the cur- 
tains, but were afraid to gratify it. This covered laugh 
is no bad satire on the indecent pictures in some collec- 
tions, hung up in the same manner with curtains over 

" No. 66. A Tobacconist's Sign.' By Bransby. The 
conceit and execution are admirable. It represents a com- 
mon-councilman and two friends drunk over a bottle. 
The common-councilman, asleep, has fallen back in his 
chair. One of his friends (an officer) is lighting a pipe 
at his nose; whilst the other (a doctor) is using his 
thumb as a tobacco- stopper. 

"Some humour was also intended in the juxtaposition 
of the signs, as The Three Apothecaries' Gallipots,' and 
'The Three Coffins,' its companion." 

The locale of the exhibition was the house of I 
Bonnell Thornton in Bow Street, Covent Gar- ! 
den as we learn from the following advertise- I 
ments, and from the title-page of the catalogue. 
The latter reads as follows : 

"A Catalogue of the Original Paintings, Busts, Carved | 
Figures, &c. &c , now Exhibiting by the Society of Sign i 
Painters, at the Large Room, the upper end of Bow- j 
street, Covent Garden, nearly opposite the Playhouse ! 
Passage. Price One Shilling." 4to. 

An advertisement was inserted in the cata- 
logue, and also in the daily papers, in these 
words : 

" The Society of Sign Painters take this opportunity of ' 
refuting a most malicious suggestion, that their exhlbi- 
bition is designed as a ridicule on the exhibitions of the 
Society for the Encouragement of Art?, i-., and <>f the 
artists. They intend theirs as an apprudix only, or in 
the style of painters, a companion to the others/ There 
is nothing in their collection that will be understood by ; 

any candid person as a reflection on any body, or body of 
! men. They are not in the least prompted by any mean 
I jealousy, to depreciate the merits of their brother arti.-ts. 
i Animated by the same public spirit, their sole view is to 
I convince foreigners, as well as their own blinded country- 
men, that however inferior the nation may be unjustly 
deemed in other branches of the polite arts, the palm for 
sign-painting must be universally ceded to us, the Dutch 
I themselves not excepted." 

The purchase of a catalogue entitled the owner 
to an admission to the exhibition. A printed 
! slip was appended to it in the form of a ticket, 
i which was torn off by the door-keeper upon pre- 
sentation, thus rendering the catalogue unavail- 
able for a second admission. 

Copies of the catalogue are of very rare occur- 
rence. The only one I ever saw was sold at 
Puttick's about a twelvemonth since. 


(1 st S. i. 214, 458 ; 3 rd S. iv. 453.) 

As this question appears to be of so ancient a 
date as the first volume of " N. & Q.," it certainly 
ought to be disposed of at the earliest oppor- 
tunity. The lines will be found in the Anfhologia 
Veterum Latinorum Epigrammalnm et Poematum 
of Peter Burman, the younger; and, also, in the 
collections of Wernsdorf and Meier, founded on 
the same work. It is pretty evident, from their 
epigrammatic character, that they are not a part 
of a larger poem, but complete in themselves. 
Burman quotes De la Cerda as his authority for 
the lines, but I can give an earlier one, having 
found them, introduced seemingly as a quotation 
into a work of Lievinius Lemnius, the learned 
Canon of Zeric-Zee, entitled Herbarum atque 
Arborum qua in Bibliis passim obvice sunt Expli- 
catio, Antwerpise, 1566. Lemnius does not give 
any authority or reference for the lines ; but in 
the Opera Omnia of Virgil, edited by the learned 
Spanish Jesuit Johannes Ludovicus de la Cerda, 
they are again quoted, the editor telling us that 
they were found incised on marble. The lines 
occur in a note to a passage in the first book of 
the JEneid ; and the first six books of the JEneid, 
edited by La Cerda, were published at Lyons in 
1612. This, probably, is all the reply that can 
now be given to the first query of J. S. L. ; his 
second does not admit of so ready an answer. 

One, who had a very complete idea of the world 
of literature, shrewdly observes that 

"Commentators sometimes view 
In Homer more than Homer knew." 

And, in all likelihood, most of the readers of 
" -N r . & Q." will coincide in the opinion, that, 
generally speaking, the notes and quotations of 
commentators and aimotators should be received 



[3'd S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

cum grano. I would not presume to say that 
Lemnius coined the lines to suit his purpose ; still, 
withal, they have a comparatively modern aspect. 
When the authority is so very vague as " reperi- 
untur in marmore," we have every right to look 
for internal evidence, and that, as far as regards 
the antiquity of the lines which, indeed, is the 
whole gist of the question is, in my humble 
opinion, wanting. For they seem to be deficient of 
the sonorous ring of the ancient Augustan metal, 
as well as of the quaint, flat chink of the mediaeval 
Latinity. And being the only authority, as far as 
lam aware, for the often -repeated assertion, that 
the ancients respected the rose as an emblem of 
silence, and consecrated it to Harpocrates, these 
lines, with regard to their antiquity, afford a very 
interesting question ; or, as J. S. L. puts the 
query " Is the custom therein referred to the 
origin of the phrase sub rosa ? " 

There is, however, something more than a 
custom referred to in the lines ; there is, also, a 
sacred principle. As is well known, it was a 
custom for the ancients to decorate their festal 
tables with roses ; but that they recognised the 
rose as a sacred symbol of silence, through an 
alleged mythical connection between the flower, 
Cupid, Venus, and Harpocrates, is exceedingly 
doubtful ; there being no other authority for the 
assertion than these lines, of which the authorship 
is unknown, and the antiquity most questionable. 
La Cerda, though not the first to quote the lines, 
is, in all probability, the first who alleges that 
they were found on marble ; and the manner in 
which he introduces them into print is rather sus- 
picious, they being dragged in as an annotation to 
the following passage in the text : 

" Hie Regina gravem gemmis auroque poposcit, 
Implevitque mero pateram, quam Belus et omnes 
A Belo soliti : turn facta silentia tectis." 

A more inappropriate quotation than the lines 
in question can hardly be imagined ; silence, it is 
true, is alluded to in the text, but there is cer- 
tainly not one word about roses. How then does 
the commentator connect the two? By artfully 
and illogically dragging in another quotation, in 
which roses are alluded to, without any reference 
to silence. Here it is, from the nineteenth epi- 
gram of the tenth book of Martial : 

" Haec hora est tua, dum furit Lvu, 
Cum regnat rosa, cum madent'capilli : 
Tune me vel rigid! legant Catones." 

It is not, then, without justice observed in the 
Biographic Universelle, in allusion to De la Cer- 
da s Virgil 

" Que le jcsuite Espagnol cxplique souvent ce qui n'a 
P^ besom d'etre expliqutf, et quelquefois ce qui ne devrait 

Whatever doubt there may be respect in n- the 
ancient Romans using the rose at their feasts, as 

an emblem of secresy, it is certain that the Teu- 
tonic races did from a very early period. The 
custom and principle is particularly German, ac- 
cording to the ancient proverbial saying 

" Was Kir Kosen, bleib' unter dem Rosen." 
And Wernsdorf decides against the antiquity of 
the lines in question, because they form the only 
Latin notice of a peculiarly German custom and 
idea, while Meier, in his edition of Burrnan, goes 
further, and says the Latin lines were written on 
the German proverb 

" Hoc epigramma factum est, ut proverbium illud, Hoc 
sub rosa dictum est, explicaretur poetice." 

When looking for the origin or explanation of 
an emblem or symbol, we must study the natural 
features of the subject, and resolutely reject every 
thing approaching to the fabulous or mythical. 
And so, we cannot conclude better than in the 
words of our worthy English philosopher, Sir 
Thomas Browne, who says : 

" When we desire to confine our words, we commonly 
say, they are spoken under the rose ; which expression 
is commendable, if the rose, from any natural property, 
may be the symbol of silence, as Nazianzene seems to 
imply, in these' translated verses : 

' Utque latet rosa verna suo putamine clausa, 
Sic os vincla ferat, validisque arctetur habenis, 
Indicatque suis prolixa silentia labris,' 

and is also tolerable, if by desiring a secresy to words 
spoken under the rose, AVC only mean in society and com- 
potation, from the ancient symposiac meetings to wear 
chaplets of roses about their heads: and so we condemn, 
not the German custom, which over the table describeth 
a rose in the ceiling." 

The lines which have caused so much inkshed 
have been thus paraphrased : 

" The rose is Venus' pride ; the archer boy 

Gave to Harpocrates his mother's flower, 
What time fond lovers told the tender joy 
To guard with sacred secresy the hour : 
Hence, o'er his festive board the host uphung 

Love's flower of silence, to remind each guest, 
When wine to amorous sallies loosed each tongue, 
Under the rose what passed must never be 



(2 nd S. x. 216, 315.) 

Nobody seems to have looked at Mr. John 
Taylor's Junius Identified. An extract from this 
work, and the original communication to the 
Athenaeum, on which the question was raised in 
your pages, will secure your having all that has 
been said (Taylor, p. 119, Athcnceum, Aug. 28 and 
Sept. 4, 1858) : 

" The Rev. Philip Rosenhagen was the schoolfellow,, 
and continued through life the mutual friend, of Sir Philip 
Francis and Mr. Woodfall. ... It is a little remarkable^ 

3'd S. V. JAN. 2, '64.] 



that to Mr. Rosenhagen the letters of Junius were at one 
time attributed, though certainly without foundation. 
In the Essay prefixed to the last edition of Junius the 
conjecture is thus noticed : 'It is sufficient to observe 
that Mr. Rosenhagen, who was a schoolfellow of Mr. H. 
S. Woodfall, continued on terms of acquaintance with 
him in subsequent life, and occasionally wrote for the 
Public Advertiser: but he was repeatedly declared by 
Mr. Woodfall, who must have been a competent evidenc.e 
as to the fact, not to be the author of Jumna's Letters. A 
private letter of Rosenhagen's to Mr. Woodfall is still in 
the possession of his son, and nothing can be more dif- 
ferent from each other than this autograph and that of 
Junius.' " 

The following are the communications to the 
Athencsum: the second by myself. The first is an 
extract from the Gazetteer of Jan. 24, 1774 : 

" The celebrated Junius is at last discovered to be the 
Rev. Phil. R gen. He was originally a great ac- 
quaintance of Mr. Home's, and a contemporary of his at 

Cambridge. Mr. R gen was there celebrated, above 

all others, for his classical abilities. Mr. R gen was 

in London during the whole time of Junius's publication ; 
for a considerable time before, and ever since, he has been 
abroad. He is now resident at Orleans in France, where 
he cuts a very conspicuous appearance, having married a 
very beautiful and accomplished young lady, sister of the 
celebrated Mrs. Grosvenor ; nor does he make it any secret 
where he resides that he is the author of Junius." 

" The identity would have been perfectly clear in 
1774, though few would see it in 1858. The Rev. Philip 
Rosenhagen is lost, because he published nothing with 
his name. But he was very well known in the literary 
world, and better still in the convivial world : this, how- 
ever, must have been more after 1774 than before. He 
had tbe sort of reputation to which Theodore Hook 
should attach a name, as the brightest and most enduring 
instance of it. He took a high-bottle degree in England, 
and was admitted ad eundem in India, where he went as 
chaplain some time before 1798, to increase and fortify 
the well-earned gout which he carried out with him. I 
think I have heard, from those who knew him, that he 
had been one of the boon companions of the Prince of 
Wales. He was a necessary man to be fixed on as the 
author of Junius, at a time when any man of much talent 
and no particular scruple, who wrote nothing which he 
acknowledged, was set down as one to be looked after in 
that matter. And if it should turn out after all that 
Junius is to be written by some biting scamp on whom no 
lasting suspicion has settled, this same Philip Rosen- 
hagen has a fair chance. I think that the Junius rumour 
was current among his acquaintance." 

It now appears that the Junius rumour was so 
strong, that Woodfall himself had to deny it re- 
peatedly. M. 


(3 rd S. iv. 445.) 

It will be difficult, at the lapse of more than 
half a century, to obtain many particulars of the 
life of John Collins. Of the many who laughed 
at his humorous monologue, The Brush per- 
formed as an interlude at the Theatre Royal, 
Birmingham, then under the management of the 
elder Macready, at the end of last, or the begin- 
ning of the present century those who are alive 

were mostly children, who cared little about the 
private doings of the performer who amused them 
in public ; while the elders who accompanied them 
have made their exits from that larger stage, on 
which they were fellow-actors with him. He was 
" born at Bath, and bred up to the business of a 
stay-maker," as I gather from a short notice of 
him, as " an actor," in the Thespian Dictionary, 
8vo, 1805; and we may conclude that his father 
was a professor of the sartorial art, from his 
verses, " The Frank Confession," "inserted by the 
author some years ago in the Bath Chronicle, in 
consequence of a report being spread with a view 
to injure him in the eye of the fashionable world ; 
which report was nothing more nor less than his 
being the son of man who supplied his employers 
with raiment for the body, while he was furnish- 
ing the public with amusement for the mind.'* 
In this piece the verses occur : 

" This blot on my scutcheon, I never yet try'd 

To conceal, to erase, or to alter ; 
But suppose me, by birth, to a hangman allied, 
Must I wear the print of the halter? 

" And since 'tis a truth I've acknowledg'd through life, 

And never yet labour'd to smother, 
That ' a taylor before I was born took a wife, 
And that taylor's wife was my mother.' 

" Yet, while I've a heart which nor envy nor pride 

With their venom-tipp'd arrows can sting, 
Not a day of my life could more gladsome!}' glide, 
Were i't prov'd I'm. the son of a King ! '" 

From an expression in this piece 

" While I, brushing hard over life's rugged course, 
Its up and down bearings to scan," &c. 

we may also infer that, while in Bath, he had 
turned his attention to the stage ; and set to work 
with his Brush to "rub off" cares and troubles. 
His name is not to be found in Pye's Birmingham 
Directory for 1785; but we may suppose that he 
shortly afterwards made his appearance in that 
town, as we find among his verses an " Impromptu, 
on hearing the young and beautiful Mrs. Second 
sing, at the Musical Festival in Birmingham, for 
the Benefit of the General Hospital there," this 
lady being one of the vocalists engaged at the 
Festival of 1793. We find his name, "Collins, 
John, Great-Brook Street," in the Directory for 
1797 ; since which, and the previous one, a period 
of six years had elapsed. It was in that street, in- 
deed, nearly opposite the church at Ashted and 
not Camden Street, though he may have subse- 
quently removed there that he is known to have 
lived ; and he was editor, and part proprietor 
with Mr. Swinney, of the Birmingham Chronicle^ 
under the firm of Swinney & Collins. This paper 
was subsequently purchased, or at least edited, by 
Mr. Joseph Lovcll, a pin-maker in the town. I 
mention the fact as possessing some interest : this 
gentleman having been the son of Robert Lovell, 



[3 rd S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

the Pantisocrat of former days, the early friend 
and brother-in-law of Coleridge and Southey, who 
were consequently the uncles of our Birming- 
ham editor. Lovell also became a resident in Great 
Brook Street, where he died. Collins had no fa- 
mily : his wife, remembered as a handsome woman, 
suffered from that fearful malady a cancer in the 
breast, and never rallied from an operation for its 
removal. His portrait the chief characteristic of 
which is so happily hit off by MB. PINKERTON 
is, as I have been informed by contemporaries, 
an admirable likeness. I believe that the Brush 
was never published. There is also a theatrical 
portrait of him in the character of Master Slender. 
Several copies of mnemonical lines on English 
history have appeared in these pages. The fol- 
lowing by Collins, are illustrative of his manner, 
and will be read with interest. I transcribe them 
from the probably unique original broadside in 
the possession of Mr. William Hodgetts, an in- 
telligent printer of Birmingham, who knew Collins 
personally ; and whose portfolios are not more 
crammed with literary and artistic scraps of rarity 
and local value, than his head is full of the im- 
printed traditions and memories the "trivial 
fond records" of a long and active life wholly 
devoted to letters. Why does not such a man 
provide against the prospective loss of the vast 
mass of facts he has accumulated, by embodying 
them in an autobiography or local chronicle? 
But this by the way. The document is as 
follows : 


A Comic Song, 
In Doggerel Verse ; 

Repeatedly sung with Universal Applause by Mr Dienum 
at the Theatre Royal, Drury Laue ; 

and written by 


Author of the ' Oral and Pictorial Exhibition,' which 

bears that Title. 

" The Romans in England awhile did sway ; 
The Saxons long after them led the wav", 
Who tugg'd with the Dane till an overthrow 
They met with at last from the Norman bow ! 
Yet, barring all pother, the one and the other 
ere all of them Kings in their turn. 

u Bold Willie the Conqueror long did reign, 
Rufus, Ins son, by an arrow was slain : 
And Harry the first was a scholar bright, 
Ami Stephy was forced for his crown to fight- 

k .-t, barring all pother, the one and the other, &c. 
" Second Henry Plantagenet's name did bear 
And Cceur de- Lion was his son and heir ; ' 

M;.gna Charta was gain'd from John, Harry the third put his seal upon. 

k et, barring all pother, the one and the other, &c. 

- f he first like a tvgcr bo'd 
t ,, s,,oml by rebels was bought and s.,1,1 ; 
And lMv the third was his subjects' ,, r i,le f 
Jl.ough hi* .grandson, Dicky, wa< popp'd aside. 
ket, barmig all pother, the one and the other &c 

" There was Harry the fourth, a warlike wight, 
And. Harry the fifth like a cock would fight ; 
Though Henny his son like a chick did pout, 
When Teddy his cousin had kick'd him out. 

Yet, barring all pother, the one and the other, &c. 

" Poor Teddy the fifth he was kill'd in bed, 
By butchering Dick who was knock'd on the head; 
Then Henry the seventh in fame grew big, 
And Harry the eighth was as fat as a pig, 

Yet, barring all pother, the one and the other, &c. 

" With Teddy the sixth we had tranquil days, 
Though Mary made fire and fnggot blaze; 
But good Queen Bess was a glorious dame, 
And bonny King Jamy from Scotland came, 

Yet, barring all pother, the one and the other, &c. 

" Poor Charley the first was a martyr made, 
But Charley his son was a comical blade ; 
And Jemmy the second, when hotly spurr'd, 
Ran away, do you see me, from Willy the third. 
Yet, barring all pother, the one and the other, &c. 

" Queen Ann was victorious by land and sea, 
And Georgy the first did with glory sway, 
And as Georgy the second has long been dead, 
Long life to the Georgy we have iu his stead, 

And, may his son's sons to the end of the chapter, 

All come to be Kings in their turn. 

" %* As the idiom of this whimsical ballad may seem 
rather singular, it may be necessary to observe, that it 
was originally sung in the character of an Irish School- 

" Printed and sold by Swinney Ferrall, No, 75, 
High Street." 

This song, which was highly popular in its day, 
will be also found in the Scripscrapologia, but with 
a different heading. 

The first piece in this volume is a 

" Previous Apostrophe (for it cannot be called a Dedi- 
cation) to MR. MEYLER, Bookseller at Bath, at once the 
most ingenious and most indolent Bard of his Day ; who, 
having written a Thousand excellent Things, which he will 
not be at the trouble of transcribing and arranging for 
Publication, is now become such a Bui yer of his Talents, 
that they are all consigned to an old Lumber Box in the 
Corner of his Garret; and he seems quite indifferent 
about adding to the Heap the bare composition of another 

These verses were not without effect, for soon 
after appeared : 

"Poetical Amusement on the Journey of Life; con- 
sisting of various pieces in Verse, Serious, Theatric, Epi- 
grammatic, and Miscellaneous. By William Meyler. 
Bath. 8vo. 1806." 

At p. 193, of this amusing collection, we find 
retort courteous to "John Collins, Esq." 

" The well-known and facetious author of The Morning 
Brush ; who, in an Apostrophe, prefixed to a collection of 
his 1 oems, published under the humorous title of Scrip- 
scrapologia, has censured the author, &c. . . . Perhaps 
the vanity that was awakened by the praise, mixed with 
those friendly censures, was the prime cause of this 
Volume being put to press." 

These lines will be thought, perhaps, a little too 

3 rd S. V. JAN. 2, '64.] 



long ; but, especially in connection with the sub- 
ject, may appear to merit preservation : 

" When Players and Managers of Drury, 
Some full of dread, and some of fury, 
Consulted lately to enhance, 
Their Treasury's close-drain'd finance; 
Ere bounced had ' Carlo ' into water, 
Or Cherry shown his ' Soldier's Daughter ' ; 
'Mongst various schemes to prop the Stage, 
Brinsley declared he'd now engage 
His long expected play to finish, 
And all their cares and fears diminish ; 
Make creditors and audience gay 
Nay, actors touch their weekly pay. 
' Fair promises ! ' Mich. Kelly cries, 
On which no mortal e'er relies ; 
Again to write you will not dare, 
Of one man, Sir," you've too much fear.' 
' Fear ! whom ? I dread no man's control.' 
1 Yes, yes, you dread him to the soul.' 
'Name him at once, detractive Vandal! ' 
1 The author of Tlie School for Scandal: 
Thus, Collins, does it hap with me,) 
Since noticed by a Bard like thee, V 
And blaz'd in thine ' Apostrophe.' J 
I fain had written long ago, 
Some tribute of my thanks, or so ; 
Some warm and faithful sweet eulogia. 
At reading thy Scripscr apologia ; 
But whisp'ring fears thus marr'd the cause 
' Thy Muse is not the Muse she was ; 
When scarce a d<iy but would inspire 
Her mind with some poetic fire. 
Disus'd to rhyme, in "old chest laid," 
She's now an awkward stumbling jade; 
And if thou e'er deserved the bays, ) 
Resume no more thy peccant lays, >- 

Nor damn thy friend's poetic praise.' J 

Ah ! when I now invoke the Nine, 
Ere I have liammer'd out a line, 
Some queer sensations make me stop, 
And from my hand the goose-quill drop ; 
' Richard's himself,' no more be said, 
For Richard's of himself afraid. 

JBut hence, ye stupefying fears ! 
Why should I dread ? "hence, hence, ye cares ; 
Let me in gratitude's warm strain, 
Thrilling and glowing through each vein, 
Press to my lip that friendly hand 
Which points to where Fame's turrets stand ; 
And as the path I upwards climb, 
'11 and listen to thr rhyme; 
Wlrle Poesy around me glides, 
And Laughter holds her jolly sides. 

Oh ! as I read thy motley page, 
Where wit keeps time with morals sage, 
I trace those days when pleasure's morn 
Bade roses bloom that knew no thorn ; 
When many an Epigram and Song, 
Came from thy voice with humour strong 
Those well-known notes again appear ) 
To come fresh mellow'd to mine ear, V 
With accents faithful, bold, and clear, ) 

May ev'ry pleasure still be thine, 
That hope can wish, or sense define ! 
May Ashted's shades if shades there be, 

For strange is thy retreat to me 

Afford thee health Oh! cordial bliss! 
Enjoying what can be amiss? 

May Ashted's blessings round thee pour, 

Amid th} r autumn's tranquil hour ; 

And may the partner of thy cot, 

(Whom never yet my prayer forgot,) 

Long feel as cheerful, bright and bonny, 

As when she first beheld her Johnny.'' [1804.] 

The well-known song" To-morrow" has figured 
in many collections ; the last stanza, with its fine 
pathos, is eminently poetical. The Rev. Ja;nes 
Plumtre has the following remarks upon it : 

"The serious pun, which is similar to the Paronomasia 
of the Greeks and Romans, is sometimes used by Collins 
in his songs. The " Mulberry Tree " has some, but the 
fruit is not of the best flavour.* The following, in his song 
of " To-morrow, or the Prospect of Hope," (the whole of 
which is given in mv Collection, vol. i. p. 194), is not 
'And when I at last must throw off this frail covering, 

Which I've worn for threscore years and ten, 
On the brink of the grave I'll not seek to keep hovering, 

Nor my thread wish to spin o'er again : 
But my face in the glass I'll serenely survey, 

And with smiles count each wrinkle and furrow ; 
As this old worn-out stuff, which is threadbare to-day, 
May become everlasting to-morrow.' " 

Letters to John Aikin, M.D., on his Volume nf 
Vocal Poetry, 8vo, Cambridge, 1811, p. 3/2 

Having, as we have seen, been successively a 
staymaker, a miniature painter, and an actor, 
Collins was somewhat advanced in life when he 
took up his residence in Birmingham. He was 
a big ponderous man, of the Johnsonian type, and 
duly impressed with a conviction of his varied 
talents. Men of this manner are apt to become 
unwieldy with age; and so it was, I am led to 
believe, with our friend Collins whose Brush 
probably ceased to attract the public, with his 
growing inability to sustain the labours of a 
sprightly monologue. Even in 1804, the date of 
his book, he speaks of it as his "once popular per- 
formance," and he seems then to have retired into 
private life. Pie continued to reside at Great 
Brook Street, Ashted, with a niece, Miss Brent. 
This lady, to whose parentage some degree of 
mystery was attached, was possessed of a fortune, 
and kept some kind of carriage. The uncle may 
not have been entirely devoid of means, but I 
fancy was somewhat dependent on his niece for 
the comforts of age. He died suddenly a few 
years later probably in 1809 or 1810, as Mr. 
Plumpton, in the book above referred to, pub- 
lished in 1811, speaks of him (p. 331) as "the late 
ingenious Collins, author of The Evening Brush " 
and Miss Brent returned to Bath. 

John Collins was undoubtedly a man of shrewd 
and kindly humour, as well as considerable natural 
talent. His song, " To-morrow," is a piece of 
unquestionable merit: 1 hough whether it deserves 
the extravagant laudation of Mr. Palgrave 
whose opinions on poetry will be taken cum gram 
by many who have read his criticisms on art is 
another question. Many other pieces in the little 



S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

volume before me "How to be Happy," p. 110; 
' The Author's Brush through Life," p. 152, &c. 
are of great, if not equal merit, and the entire 
collection is well worthy revival and perusal. 


Your able correspondent, MR. PINKERTON, has 
been enabled to supplement Mr. Palgrave's very 
scanty notice in The Golden Treasury, of the 
author of the admirable poem " To-morrow." 
So long since as June 9, 1855, I had called 
attention, in the pages of this periodical, to Col- 
lins and his Scripscrapologia, and said, " The 
book contains a variety of poetical pieces ; among 
which are several songs. One of these, * In the 
downhill of life, when I find I'm declining,' ?till 
enjoys a justly deserved popularity." ("N. Q." 
!' S. xi. 450.) I also quoted at length (apropos 
to a subject then under discussion) some other 
very popular lines by the same ready writer, but 
which were often ascribed to other authors, 
" The Chapter of Kings," that historical memoria 
technica which contains such well-remembered 
lines as 

" Then Harry the Seventh in fame grew big, 
And Harry the Eighth was as fat as a pig." 

The Scripscrapologia has another song of the 
same character as " To-morrow," and embracing 
many of its qualities. As the book is so rare, 
perhaps you would like to print the song in ques- 
tion, which I here subjoin : 


" In a cottage I live, and the cot of content, 

Where a few little rooms, for ambition too low, 
Are furnish'd as plain as a patriarch's tent, 

With all for convenience, but nothing for show : 
Like Robinson Crusoe's, both peaceful and pleasant, 

By industry stor'd, like the hive of a bee ; 
And the peer who looks down with contempt on a 


Can ne'er be look'd up to with envy by me. 
" And when from the brow of a neighbouring hill, 

On the mansions of Pride, I with pity look down, 
While the murmuring stream and the clack of the mill, 

I prefer to the murmurs and clack of the town, 
As blythe as in j'outh, when I danc'd on the green, 

I disdain to repine at my locks growing grey : 
Thus the autumn of life, like the springtide serene, 
Makes approaching December as cheerful as May. 
" I lie down with the lamb, and I rise with the lark, 

So I keep both disease and the doctor at bay ; 
And I feel on my pillow no thorns in the dark, 

Which reflection might raise from the deeds of the 


For, with neither myself nor my neighbour at strife, 
Though the sand in my glass may not long have to 

I'm determin'd to live all the days of my life, 

With content in a cottage and" envy to none ! 
" Yet let me not selfishly boast of my lot, 

Nor to self let the comforts of life be confin'd ; 
wu 3orilid the pleasures must be of that sot, 
Who to share them with others no pleasure can find ! 

For my friend I've a board, I've a bottle and bed, 
Av,*and ten times more welcome that friend if he's 

"poor ; 
And for all that are poor if I could but find bread, 

Not a pauper without it should budge from my door. 
' Thus while a mad world is involv'd in mad broils, 

For a few Jeagues of land or an arm of the sea ; 
And Ambition climbs high and pale Penury toils, 

For what but appears a mere phantom to me ; 
Through life let me steer with an even clean hand, 

And a heart uncorrupted by grandeur or gold; 
And, at last, quit my berth, when this life's at a stand, 
For a berth which can neither be bought nor be sold." 

I find the following account of this autl.or in 
Dr. Hcefer's Nouvelle Biographie Generate, tome 
xi. col. 194 : 

" COLLINS (John), acteur et litterateur anglais, ne' 
vers 1738, mort en 1808, a Birmingham. II se fit re- 
marquer au theatre dans prcsque tons les genres. II 
chantait avec une rare perfection des Romances et d'autres 
poesies de sa composition. On a de lui : The Morning 
Brush, ouvrage face'tieux. Ses cours publics lui pro- 
curerent une assez grande fortune. II etait aussi un des 
proprietaires du Birmingham Chronicle" 


P.S. A notice substantially the same as the 
above may be seen in the new edition of Midland's 
Biogruphie Uniuerselle, tome viii. p. 606. 

JOHN HAWKINS (1 st S. xi. 325 ; 3 rd S. Sii. 459 ; 
iv. 425.) We beg to refer MR. HARLAND to a 
communication from us, which appeared in your 
columns so recently as June 3 in the present year, 
suggesting that the author of the MS. Life of 
Henry Prince of Wales was John Hawkins, secre- 
tary to the Earl of Holland, and one of the clerks 
of the council, who died in 1631. 



REV. F. S. POPE (3 rd S. iv. 395.) MR. BROD- 
RICK begs to inform the inquirer that Mr. Pope, 
formerly minister of Baxtergate Chapel, Whitby, 
left that place, and died at York, he believes, 
some twelve or fifteen years ago. MR. BRODRICK 
knew and was well acquainted with Dr. Bateman. 
The Rev. W T . L. Pope, Fellow of Worcester Col- 
lege, Oxford, and now Minister of the Chapel of 
Ease, Tunbridge Wells, is the brother of the late 
Mr. Pope, of Whitby. 

18, Talbot Square, Hyde Park. 

MRS. COKAYNE (3 rd S. iv. 305, 338, 415.) 
I thank DR. RIMBATJLT for his courteous and very 
satisfactory answer to my query. His account is 
confirmed in several particulars by Wood in his 
Life of Aston Cockaine, for so he spells the name 
(A. O.^ iv. 128, ed. Bliss.) The tradition of "Dr. 
Donne's chamber " at Ashbourne is valuable as at 

3** S. V. JAN. 2, '64.] 



once identifying her with his " noblest and lov- 
ingest sister." 

H. J. H. thinks it " odd that Mrs. Cokain should 
be so little known," not being aware perhaps that 
there was more than one lady of the name at the 
period. I shrewdly suspect that he has learnt 
something more than he knew before, through my 
query, which, like many others, was addressed to 
* N. & Q.." not in mere ignorance, but in order to 
save time in further consulting books of reference, 
and to elicit something more than I did know on 
the matter. As to the story of Charles Cotton's 
witticism on her head-dress, and his losing her 
estate by his humour, I can scarcely reconcile it 
with the fact that she had children of her own, 
unless she intended to disinherit them for the sake 
of her nephew. Will H. J. H. allow me to ask him 
to trace the relationship ? In *the History and 
Topography of Ashbourne, 8fc. published in 1 839, it 
is stated that Thomas Cockayne lived in London 
under the feigned name of Brown (p. 16). On 
what earlier authority does this statement rest ? 

Some of DELTA'S queries are answered by 
Wood (A. O. iv. 128), who says that "during 
the time of the civil wars he suffered much for his 
religion (which was that of Rome) and the king's 
cause, pretended then to be a baronet made by 
King Charles I. after he, by violence, had left 
the parliament about Jan. 10, 1641, yet not 
deemed so to be by the officers of arms, because 
no patent was enrolled to justify it, nor any men- 
tion of it made in the docquet-books belonging to 
the clerk of the crown in chancery, where all patents 
are taken notice of which pass the great seal ; " 
and afterwards he adds " The fair lordship of 
Ashbourne also was some years ago sold to Sir 
William Boothby, Bart." Dr. Bliss refers to the 
British Bibliographer, vol. ii. pp. 450-463, which 
I have not got. CPL. 

JOHN DONNE, LL.D. (3 rd S. iv. 295, 307.) 
Thanks for the information given in your answer, 
though it does not meet the precise point to which 
my query was directed. I was aware of his ad- 
dressing Lord Denbigh as his patron, but I do 
not see the connection between this and his being 
supposed to have held the rectory of Martins- 
thorpe. May I ask where his will is to be found ? 
Was it ever proved ? The " S r Constantino Huy- 
gens, Knight," to whom Donne's son addressed the 
letter in the presentation copy of the BIA0ANA- 
TO2, now in the possession of your correspondent 
A. B. G., was not the brother but the father of 
great astronomer. 

"HuYGHKNS (Chretien), Hughenim, vit le jour & La 
Have, en 1G'<J9, cle Constantin Huyghens, gentilhomme 
hollandois, connu pur de mauvaises poesies latines, qii*il a 
trfes-bien intitules Momenta desultoria, 1655, in-12." 
Diction n air e Historiqiie, -c., pour servir de Supplement 
aux Delias des Pays-Bas, i. 274. Paris, 1786. 


SCOTTISH (3 rJ S. iv. 454.) I beg to add a more 
complete answer to ANGLUS than I last forwarded 
to you. 

It is true that ish, terminating some words, has 
the signification of rather, as darkish; but the 
other word, brackish, is not an English word at 
all without the ish. But ish has no more mean- 
ing in the word Scottish than it has in Danish, 
Swedish, Spanish, c. A Dane, Scot, or Swede 
is absolutely of Danish, Scottish, and Swedish 
descent, not in degree or rather so. 

In German isch is a termination to the words 
Danisch, Englisch, Schottisch, Swedisch, Spanisch, 
in the same sense as in Danish, &c. SCOTUS. 

Sir Walter Scott, in his Letters on Demonology 
and Witchcraft, mentions a trial and execution for 
this supposed crime which took place in Scotland 
of a date six years later than the English case re- 
ferred to by'PELAGius. In 1722, the Sheriff- 
Deputy of Sutherland gave sentence of death, 
which was carried into execution on an insane old 
woman who had a daughter lame of hands and 
feet, which was attributed to the mother's being 
used to transform her into a pony, and getting her 
shod by the devil (See Letter 9th.") 

Sir Walter adds that no punishment was in- 
flicted on the sheriff for this gross abuse of the 
law. It was the last case of the kind in Scotland ; 
yet such was the force of prejudice, and of mis- 
taken interpretation of the Scriptures that, in a 
declaration published eight years afterwards by 
the Associated Presbytery of Seceders from the 
Church of Scotland (and which will be found in 
the Scots Magazine of 1743) there is classed 
among other national sins, against which they 
desire to testify, " the repeal of the penal statutes 
against witches." S. 

S. iv. 286, 363, 457.) My note of certain monu- 
ments which had suffered mutilation has provoked 
so many observations in the pages of " N. & Q." 
that I cannot let the subject drop without 
making one or two remarks. 

I admit that my language was strong. I in- 
tended that it should be so. The uncalled-for 
destruction of family records, if condemned at 
all, must be condemned strongly. Had the monu- 
ments in question been to members of my own 
family, I should, without a 'moment's hesitation, 
have placed the matter in the hands of my soli- 
citor ; as they did not, I sent copies of the in- 
scriptions in order that for the benefit of future 
genealogists, they might be rescued from oblivion. 
VEBNA assumes that the slabs in question " have 
been overlaid by tile paving, more suited to the 
sacred character of the spot." As far as I can 
remember, the new paving was of white bricks, 
such as I should be sorry to see in any decent 



[3'd S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

kitchen. VEBSA adds, that I am " unfortunate 
in my selection of a signature." When I wrote 
the note, I had just come from a place named 
P - , and wanting to put some letter at the 
end of my note, ex P. suggested itself to me, and 
so I wrote XP. I hope this solution of VEBNA'S 
" mare's nest " will prove as satisfactory as that 
equally intricate puzzle which, when deciphered, 
was " Bill Stumps, his mark." 

I agree entirely with the remarks made by 
whom I have to thank for writing replies which I 
felt too idle to do myself. I must add, in con- 
clusion, that I think the destruction of our old 
sepulchral memorials the only witnesses to the 
greatness of many a bygone family is to be 
deeply lamented. And I would ask, what place 
is so well fitted as the House of God to be a 
storehouse and record room of the names and 
acrions of those who, while living, have worshipped 
at His altars, who are numbered among the faith- 
ful departed, and whose actions 

" Smell sweet and blossom in the dust"? 


A friend of mine visited Hereford Cathedral 
lately on purpose to see if the tombstone of a 
great-great-grandparent required recliiseling or 
any other repairs. Alas! the cathedral had been 
"restored." The tombstone was gone, and nothing 
could be learned about it ; and the whole of that 
part of the floor had been relaid with beautiful tiles 
to look like marbles and granites. The sooner this 
sort of thing is put a stop to the better. P. P. 
LONGEVITY OF CLERGYMEN (3 rd S. iv. 370, 502.) 
lo the instances named by your correspondents 
you may add the following : The Rev. William 
Kirby, the celebrated entomologist, was rector of 
tfarham m Suffolk, sixty-eight years, and died 
July 4 1850, in the ninety-first year of his age 
(Life, by Freeman, p. 505.) 

Dr. William Wall, the author of The History of 
Infant Baptism, was vicar of Shoreham, in Kent 
bity-three years, and died January 13, 1727-g' 
aged eighty-t years. (Hoo k's Ecclesiastical 

f 7 V . Vm< P- 642 -> Dr - Wal1 was sue- 
ceed d in the vicarage of Shoreham by the Rev 



and the prices in manuscript. There were many 
purchasers of the works of the above flower- 
painter. Among them are the names of Lady 
Weymouth, who bought sixty-two pieces, Lady 
Stamford twenty, Lord Brownlow twenty-seven, 
Wedgewood (the potter) eighty, Lord Parker 
nine, Walker ninety-two, Shepherd fifty-one, 
Morrison thirty-six, and many others. I find the 
prices varied from 11. 3s. to 8L 18*. Qd. the lot of 
four paintings. The celebrated Wedgewood was 
a purchaser of prints and other things at this sale, 
and the following note in the catalogue regarding 
his bidding for the Barberini Vase may not be 
unacceptable: " 1029J., bought for the Duke of 
Portland; cost the Duchess 1300/. Mem., the 
contest for the vase was between his Grace and 
Mr. Wedgewood. On his Grace asking Mr. 
Wedgewood why Ire opposed him, he replied, 'He 
was determined to have it, unless his Grace per- 
mitted him to take a mould from it for his pottery, 
as he wished to possess every rare specimen of art 
that could be attained ; ' on which his Grace gave 
Wedgewood his consent, and the vase was knocked 
down, and immediately put into the hands of Mr. 
Wedgewood, who has moulded from the same in 
imitation of bronze, &c." 

I notice Marryatt, in The History of Porcelain, 
states it was knocked down to the Duchess at 
1800/., whereas my Catalogue states 1029/. Which 
is correct ? A. P. D. 

REV. THOMAS CRAIG (3 rd S. iv. 325.) The 
Rev. Thomas Craig, minister of the Associate 
Congregation of Whitby, 1789, who published 
Three Sermons on Important Subjects, Whitby, 
1791, of the time of whose death your correspon- 
dent, S. Y. R., wishes to be informed, was my 
lather. He died in the year 1799. 


bixty-one years Pastor of the Congregational 
Church at Booking. 

DR. DAVID LAMOKT (3 rd S. iv. 498.) Dr 
David Lament, about the date of whose death 

f'n A j mak , es in( l uirv died in 1837. I cannot 
tell the day of the year, but that may, I suppose, 
36 had, from any contemporary local newspaper. 
He was Moderator of the General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland in 1822, and preached be- 
fore King George IV. in the High Church of 
Edinburgh, on the forenoon of August 25, same 

BAPTISMAL NAMES (3 rd S. iii. 328; iv. 508.)- 
should say that in case of any objectionable 
name being given at the font, such as those cited 
at p. 328, vol. in., a refusal might be made to bap- 
se on the ground of the sponsors attempting to 
throw scorn, and to bring contempt, upon so 
solemn an office of the church. 1 very much 
aoubt, however, whether any clergyman could re- 
fuse to give such a name as Bessie." In one re- 

3 rd S.V. JAX. 2, '64.] 



gister I have seen tbe name " Bob " recorded, and 
a clergyman of my acquaintance baptised one of 
his own children by the name "Tom." "Kate," 
too, is of frequent occurrence. Whether Sir 
Thomas Dick Lander's second name was a sur- 
name, or an abbreviation of Richard, I cannot 

TYDIBES (3 rJ S. iv. 139, 318.) I have no 
conjecture as to who or wliat is intended by 
" Tydides;" but a hint or two may put others in 
the way which I cannot find. Of course the head 
of the clerical Melanippus on the table is that of 
some clergyman ill-used by his bishop, perhaps 
his preferment eaten up. For the meal of Tydeus, 
see Smith's Classical Dictionary, iii. 1195. 

The " blazon" of Tydeus is given by ./Eschylus : 

a 8e ir 

eV /xe<ra> 

Septem contra Thebas, \. 389. 

Tydides has added to the arms of Tydeus, 
Gwillim says : 

" He beareth azure, the sun, the full moon, and the 
seven starres, or ; the two first in chiefe, and the last 
of orbicular form in baee. It is said that this coate 
armour pertained to Johannes de Fontibus, sixth bishop 
of Ely, who had that (after a sorte) in his escutcheon 
which Joseph had in his dream." Gwillim, Display of 
Heraldrie, p. 123, second ed. 1632. 

Was any bishop of Ely, about a century ago, 
charged (after a sorte) with ecclesiastical can- 
nibalism ? H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

CAPNOBATJE (3 rd S. iv. 497.) The only in- 
formation I am aware of, respecting the Capno- 
batse, is in the French translation of Strabo, where 
it is suggested that intoxication by inhaling smoke 
and using the vapour of linseed as a bath are 
intended by that designation, referring to He- 
rodotus (i. 202, iv. 75). With due submission, 
I think this very doubtful. Strabo, in the section 
previous to the mention of the Capnobatse (vn. 
iii. 2), refers to the Hippemolgi (milkers of 
mares), Galactophagi (people who live on milk), 
Abii (people devoid of ricnes), Hamaxceci (dwel- 
lers in waggons) ; and in the two following sec- 
tions he mentions the Capnobatae (people who 
cover the smoke), who are described as religious 
(0o<ree?y), and abstaining from animal food (<=/*- 
^ii>xuv)t but who lived in a quiet way on honey, 
milk, and cheese. They were also remarkable 
(Strabo, vn. iii. 4) for living in a state of celi- 
bacy, which they also adopted from religious 
motives. The obvious inference, I conceive, is, 
that requiring no cooking, the Capnobatse closed 
the aperture (KWTJ/OB^KTJ) which served as a chim- 
ney, and thus received the characteristic descrip- 
tion of Ka7n/o&reH, people who cover the smoke. 

Their resemblance to the Hindoos cannot escape 
notice : 

" Contrary to what might have been expected in a hot 
climate, but agreeable to the custom of almost all Hin- 
doos, one small door is the only outlet for smoke, and the 
only inlet for air and light." ("The Hindoos," L. E. K. 
i. 387.) 

Their state of celibacy also has its parallel 
amongst the Hindoos, who, by destroying female 
infants, augment the ratio of the males, and con- 
sequently of unmarried men, leading thereby to 
the legitimatised prostitution of which Ceylon and 
the Nairs of Malabar furnish examples. (The 
Hindoos, i. 247, 285-287.) To remedy this evil, 
marriage is rigidly enforced by the Hindoo parent 
on his child, even prior to maturity, and the 
widower speedily provides himself with another 
wife. (Id. i. 284.) The geographical connection 
is thus shown : " Tartary, or the environs of 
Mount Caucasus, is the original natal soil of the 
Brahmins." (Id. i. 352.) This chain reaches to 
the east shore of the Euxine, whilst the Mysii or 
Moesi, amongst whom the Capnobatas are found, 
occupy the south-western and western coasts of 
the same sea. The linguistic connection of the 
Hindoos, the Romans and Greeks, is well ascer- 
tained. This brief notice of the Capnobatae, which 
Strabo extracts from Posidonius (a teacher of 
Cicero), is an historical trace of what has been 
called the Thraco-Pelasgian origin of the Greeks. 


JOSEPH WASHINGTON (3 rd S. iv. 516.) He 
died a year later than is stated in the reply to 
C. J. R., as his will was dated Feb. 25, and 
proved April 7, 1693-4. He describes himself 
as, not of Gray's Inn, but " of the Middle Temple, 
Gentleman." if he had a son John, he was probably 
dead at the date of his will, for he provides for 
his " only daughter Mary," and then leaves the 
residue of his property to his son Robert, who was 
still living in 1703. The daughter, Mary, was 
unmarried in 1739, when she proved the will of 
her aunt Sarah Rawson. The earliest ancestor to 
whom I can yet trace him positively was Richard 
Washington, gent., of co. Westmoreland, who, ac- 
cording to an Inq. p. m. died Jan. 3, 1555-6. He, 
Joseph Washington, is mentioned in Wood's Aihen. 
Oxon. (ed. Bliss) iv. 394, sub. James Harrington. 

J. L. C; 

HANDASYDE (3 rd S. iv. 29, 95, 432.) The will 
of the Hon. Major-General Thomas Handasyd 
(not Handasyde), who died in his eighty-fifth 
year, March 26, 1729, is probably at Huntingdon. 


St. Neot's. 

EARLY MARRIAGES (3 rd ,S. iv. 515.) I am 

much interested in the inquiry started by VECTIS, 
and am tolerably well acquainted with social 



;O d S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

science literature; but do not know that any 
writer has entered upon a scientific demonstration 
of the postulate, that early marriages tend to 
purity of morals. The statement has often been 
made in fugitive essays, associated with a con- 
demnation of the advice given, and so often re- 
iterated by a certain class of economists, against 
early marriages. There have been as yet no data 
on which to establish it positively. The statistics 
recently published in relation to Scotland, show- 
ing the great number of illegitimate births in 
excess over the standard of Ireland, and even 
England when taken in connection with other 
established facts will go far to prove that " fore- 
sight and restraint" in entering upon marriage 
may be a great evil. It does not follow that 
early marriages are always imprudent ones ; but 
that doctrine has been taught to a most injurious 
extent. When this complex question is entered 
upon fairly, and the condition of Ireland con- 
trasted with that of Scotland, it will be found 
that great mistakes have been made in our in- 
vestigations, and that hasty conclusions have been 
arrived at. 

The whole question is a most important one, 
but to pursue it would not be consistent with the 
objects of " K & Q." I am now manipulating 
the Statistical Returns of the Three Kingdoms, 
with the view of elucidating this subject. VECTIS 
will do well to consult Quetelet. In his Treatise 
on Man (see Chamber's People's Edition) will be 
found some valuable tables, accompanied by his 
own remarks. Althcugh he does not enter upon i 
this inquiry specially, his chapters, where he ' 
examines into the causes which influence the 
.ecundity of marriages, may be read with much 
advantage by those who are interested in the i 
subject immediately before us. It may be well 
also, to consult Sadler's work, The Law of Popu- 
lation. Both these works were published before 
our statistical knowledge had assumed a definite 
form, but they are valuable in every research of 
this kind. rp B 

REVALENTA (3' d S. iv. 496.) I remember the I 
it introduction of the article now called " Reva- i 
lenta. I knew the man who first prepared it I 
and advertised it under the name of " Ervalenta " 
t was then merely the meal of ground lentils; 
the Egyptian sort, but the common lentil, of 
i lighter colour. The botanical name of the lentil 
Entm lens; and probably the name Ervalenta 
found rather too transparent: and so, by 
transposing the first two letters, the article was ! 

etter concealed, and some mystification gained 
and the preparation is now named "Revalenta." 

F. C. H. 

IfifcTir A bt ii f any classifi( *tion of the trade 
marks of the old paper-makers, and the water- 

! marks in their papers, has ever been published ; 

1 but the late Mr. Dawson Turner had collected a 
large quantity of specimens of old paper, which 
he showed me with great self-gratulation on his 
success in what he believed to be a hitherto mi- 
pursued inquiry. He entered into the subject 
with lively interest ; had all his samples of paper 
arranged in chronological order, and initiated me 
readily in the mysteries of " Pot," " Crown," 
"Feather," and "Foolscap." I quite understood 
from him that he could determine the age of the 
paper by its texture and water-mark. Whether 
he contemplated the publication of the results of 
his researches in this line, I do not know ; nor 
have I any idea what became of his large collec- 
tion of old papers, which I suppose were sold, to- 
gether with his extensive library, and very curious 
and valuable collections in various other depart- 
ments. F. C. H. 

CHRISTIAN NAMES (3 rd S. iv. 369, 416, 525.) 
| A correspondent asks, how we are to account for 
I the great prevalence of Pagan names in a Catholic 
country like France, if, as I had asserted, the 
j Catholic Church so much disapproves of Chris- 
I tians bearing baptismal names which are not 
| Christian, and admonishes her clergy not to tole- 
I rate them ? I answer that the first Revolution, 
| when Christianity was openly disowned, and clas- 
| sical models were affected in everything, will ac- 
i count in great measure for the introduction of 
Pagan names ; but it must also be remembered 
that many such names are also the names of Chris- 
tian saints, and as such allowable. The following 
occur to me at this moment: Achilles, Alexander^ 
Apollo, Bacchus, Horace, Justin, Leander, Lucian, 
Marcian, Martial, Marius, Nestor, Plato, Pollio, 
Socrates, Valerian. F. C. H. 

As MAD AS A HATTER (2 nd S. iv. 462.) 

Although an inquiry respecting this simile ap- 
peared in " N. & Q." as far back as June 1860, 
it has not hitherto elicited a reply. The phrase, 
however, has now again come up in that very 
amusing volume, Capt. Gronow's Recollections and 
Anecdotes, 2nd series [may it be followed by a 
third!] 1863, pp. 151, 152 : on the subject of 
politics, my dear Alvanley, he is as mad as a 

One is at a loss to understand why a hatter 
should be made the type of insanity rather than 
a tailor or a shoemaker ; but may not the phrase 
in question be thus explained? The French 
compare an incapable or weak-minded person to 
an oyster : He reasons like an oyster" (huitre). 
i would suggest, therefore, that, through simi- 
larity of sound, the French huitre may, in the 
case before us, have given occasion to the Eng- 
lish Chatter." From " II raisonne comrae une 
nuijre may have come out " as mad as a hatter" 

Ihere are other similar instances, where sound 

3" 1 S. V. JAN. 2, '04 ] 



3 followed rather than signification. So in our 
'ernacular phrase, " That's the cheese ; " i. e. 
1 That's the thing" (chose}. SCHIN. 

JOHN HARRISON (3 rd S. iv. 526.) " Johan 
lorrins" is of course an anagram of John Har- 
ison. What was the relation of this person to 
iis hero, "Longitude" Harrison, and what led 
lini to adopt so transparent a device for concealing 
iis identity ? JOB J. B. WORKARD. 

STEPMOTHERS' BLESSINGS (3 rd S. iv. 492.) The 
roublesome splinters of skin, which are often 
ormed near the roots of the nails, are probably 
;alled "stepmother's blessings," upon the same 
>rinciple that they are called " back-friends ; " 
>oth expressions designating something odious, 
,nd bringing no good. F. C. H. 

" JOLLY NOSE " (3 rd S. iv. 488.) An edition 
>f Olivier Basselin's Vaux de Vire was published 
y M. Louis du Bois in 1821, together with some 
Gorman songs of the fifteenth century from a 
kIS. till then unedited. JOB J. B. WORKARD. 

JANE THE FOOL (3 rd S. iv. 453, 523.) Some 
f the entries relating to this person in Sir F. 
tfadden's edition of the Privy Purse Expenses of 
he Princess Mary would seem to suggest that she 
ras the victim of mental disease. The first entry 
n which she is mentioned bears date 1537. In 
543, in four successive months, March, April, 
kiay, and June, there is a charge of 4fl. per month 
or shaving her head. In July there is a charge 
or 22.9. Qd. paid to her during sickness. In 
August, her head is again shaved. In the suc- 
:eeding January, the charge for shaving her head 
s 8c?., and a like entry appears in July, August, 
,nd September, 1544. All the other entries re- 
erring to her are for clothing. In 1556, she had 
orne disorder of the eye. Is there anything to 
how that she acted as a jester ? 


1 st and 2 nd S. passim.) Numerous communica- 
ions have appeared in the 1 st and 2 nd Series of 
1 N. & Q." on the subject of the earthen jars, or 
>ots, which have been found in several churches 
mbedded in the masonry, and generally under- 
leath the stalls of the choir. In one of these 
,1 st S. x. 434), I described a jar of this kind in 
ay possession; which was found, in 1851, be- 
leath the choir of St. Peter's Mancroft, Norwich. 
. saw several of the jars as they lay in the ma- 
onry horizontally, with their mouths outward, 
hough it could not be ascertained whether they 
iver protruded or appeared in the wall. I gave 
in opinion that they might have been intended 
or sepulchral vases, to receive the ashes of th& 
leart, or some other part of the body of the 
ianons ; but that opinion I have for some time 
ixchanged for the far more probable one, that 

they were intended to increase the sound of the 

Indeed, I consider the question quite set at 
rest by a recent paper in the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine for November last, where the following is 
quoted from the Chronicle of the Order of the 
Celestines at Metz, for the year 1432 : 

" It was ordered that pots should be made for the choir 
of the church of Ceans, he (Br. Odo) stating that he had 
seen such in another church, and thinking that they 
made the chanting resound more strongly." 

It is added, that such jars have been found in 
several churches in France, inserted horizontally 
in the wall, with their mouths emerging. F. C. H. 


St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland', a Memoir of his Life and 
Mission; with an Introductory Dissertation on some 
early Usages of the Church in Ireland, and its historical 
Position from the Establishment of the English Colony to 
the present Day. By Jas. Henthorn Todd, D.D., &c. 
Dublin. (Hodges, Smith, & Co.) 
Any of our readers who have ever toiled (as was 
lately our own fortune) through the previous biographies 
of St. Patrick, and tried to sift truth from fable in the 
writings of Ussher, Ware, Betham, Lanigan, and Cotton, 
will appreciate the welcome with which we opened this 
scholarly memoir of Dr. Todd. The accomplished author 
has studied to produce a complete monograph upon the 
early history of Christianity in Ireland, subjoining be- 
sides some supplementary remarks on the present posi- 
tion of the Established Church. He thinks it necessary 
to argue for the historical existence of the Saint, in oppo- 
sition to the ultra-Protestant extravagance, which would 
resolve the Apostle of Ireland into a mythical personage; 
he denies Patrick's asserted commission from Pope Celes- 
tine, as wanting authority to establish it, and scouts the 
later fables by which the Saint's real history has been 
obscured. He discusses the wholesale conversion of the 
Irish clans under the influence of their chiefs, and their 
relapse into Druidistn after Patrick had been removed 
a useful lesson to our missionaries in the present day. 
He examines minutely into the singular episcopate which 
obtained so long among the Irish, and the multiplication 
of bishops without a see, whose wandering ministrations 
were as unwelcome to the English prelates of the day as 
Irish preaching has since been among ourselves. "He 
describes at length the ancient monastic institutions of 
the country, which Patrick was so instrumental in in- 
augurating, and in connection with some of the monks, 
tells a curious story of primitive copy-right law, which 
will amuse some of our literary readers. St. Finnian 
possessed a beautiful copy of the Gospels ; St. Coiumba 
borrowed it, and made a transcript of it by stealth. Fin- 
nian heard of the fraud, and claimed the copy as his 
own ; and King Diarmait, before whom the holy monks 
carried their cause, decided in Finniau's favour, with the 
remark, " that as the cow is the owner of her calf, so the 
Book is the owner of any transcript made from it." But 
for more of this sort, and for a great deal more valuable 
learning, we must send our readers to Dr. Todd's in- 
teresting and scholarly volume. 

The Seven Ages of Man, Described by William Shakspearc, 
Depicted by Robert Smirke. (L. Booth.) 
The late Robert Smirke's Illustrations of Shakspeare's 

Seven Ages are almost as well known as the matchless 



[3'd S. V. JAN. 2, '64. 

bit of description which callei them into existence. 
Thev are here reproduced in miniature by Photography, 
together with the Droeshout Portrait and the Monument 
and form a quaint and interesting little volume. 
Letters of Queen Margaret of Anjou and Bishop Beching- 
ton and others. Written in the Reigns of Henry V. and 
Henry VI. From a MS. found at Emral in Flintshire. 
Edited by Cecil Monro, Esq. (Camden Society.) 
When we say that this volume contains a series of 
earlv letters comprising, first, Forty-two Letters written 
during the reign of Henry V. and'Henry VI. before his 
Marriage ; secondly, seventeen Letters of Bishop Beck- 
ington, written for the most part in the year 1442, when, 
being then King's Secretary, he was on the point of 
embarking as Ambassador to the Count of Armagnac ; 
and thirdly, Letters of Queen Margaret of Anjou after 
her Marriage in 1445 ; and that the whole space of time 
covered by these Letters may be stated roughly at about 
forty years, namely, from the Battle of Agincourt to the 
Commencement of the Wars of the Roses, we have said 
enough to prove the obligations which historical students 
are under to the Rev. Theophilus Pulston for permitting 
their publication, to Mr. Cecil Monro for the care and 
learning with which he has edited them, and to the 
Camden Society for its judicious application of its funds 
in giving so curious a series of documents to the press. 

A Dictionary of the Bible, comprising Antiquities, Bio- 
graphy, Geography, and Natural History. By various 
Writers. Edited by William Smith, LL.D. Part XI. 

This eleventh Part of Dr. Smith's valuable Dictionary 
of the Bible will be welcome to many of our clerical 
friends, more especially those who took in the first volume 
in Monthly Parts partly because it contains the valuable 
Appendices to that volume, and more particularly as an 
evidence of the intention of the Publisher to afford them 
the same facilities for procuring the completion of the 



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it completed < wai 

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by long-drawn-out novels that won't bring about the 
catastrophe, or by heavy treatises, bulky with informa- 
tion, which one takes up from a sense of duty, but lays 
down with a sense of pleasure." 

"When completed, the work will be most valuable 
a never-exhausted mine of entertaining and informing 
reading for those of every age and condition." 

" The Book of Days will take a high place as a book 
of general reading and reference for the people ; to be kept 
in the homes of the middle classes, in the back- parlours 
of farm-houses, and in cottages, as a family-book always 
to be taken up at any chance snare moment with a cer- 
tainty of readable matter being found well fitted to fill up- 
that spare moment." 

The Book of Days, containing as it does an immense mine of the most amusing as well 

as instructive reading, besides being filled with all sorts of quaint and otherwise 

curious pictures, forms one of the most elegant and appropriate 

Gift-Books ever published. 

Orders for this Work may be left at any Bookseller's, or directed to 

V. JAN. 9, '64.] 




CONTENTS. No. 106. 
NOTES: Walter Travers, B.D., &c, 27 Justice Allan 

Park 28 James Kirkwood, 29 - Of Wit, 30 Dr. Robert 
" Wauchop, 31 A Passion for witnessing Executions 

Longevity Michael Johnson of Lichfield Amen Ring 

Mottoes Charlemont Earldom and Viscount, 33 
QUERIES : Anonymous Mrs. Barbauld's Prpse Hymns 

Burial-place of Still-born Children-Churchwarden Query 

Captain Alexander Cheyne Earl of Dalhousie " Fais 
ce que tu dois," Ac. Giants and Dwarfs General Lam- 
bert The Laird of Lee Language given to Man to con- 
ceal his Thoughts Harriett Livermore: the Pilgrim 
Stranger Madman's Pood tasting of Oatmeal Porridge- 
Sir Edward May - Rev. Peter Peckard, D.D. Penny 
Loaves at Funerals -Mr. W. B. Rhodes -Scottish For- 
mula Trade and Improvement of Ireland Wild Men 

Portrait of General Wolf by Gainsborough, 33. 
QUERIES WITH ANSWEBS : " Adamus Exul " of Grotius 

Cambridge Bible Britannia on Pence and Halfpence 
John Wigan, M.D. John Reynolds Richard Gedney 
Arms of Sir William Sennoke Wegh Twelfth Night : 
the worst Pun Portrait of Bishop Horsley " Educa- 
cation," 36 

REPLIES : Jeremy Collier on the Stage, &c., 38 Roman 
Games, 39 St. Patrick and the Shamrock, 40 Harvey 
of Wangey House, 42 Virgil's Testimony to our Saviour's 
Advent Richard Adams Thomas Coo George Bankes 

Quotation Sir Nicholas Throgmorton Pen-tooth 
Margaret Fox Frith Tedded Grass Pew Rents 
Longevity of Clergymen May: Tri-Milchi Pholeys, 

Notes on Books, &c. 



Born circa 1548; died in London, Jan. 1634. 
In no published memoir of the life of this cele- 
brated divine, have I ever met with an account 
of his parentage, or the place of his birth ; the 
following notes, may, therefore, be of use to some 
future biographer, and save him^the trouble of a 
protracted search. 

The will of "Walter Travers, Clerk," was 
proved in London, at the Prerogative Court, on 
Jan. 24, 1634, and in a clause of it is contained 
this brief reference to his family : 

" My father dying seized of three tenements in Not 
tingham, left the one to his daughter Anne, and the other 
two to his three sonnes then liveing, that is, to me the 
said Walter, the Eldest, John the next, and Humphry, 
the youngest,'' &c. 

Following up this clue, I recently found that, 
among the inhabitants of Nottingham chargeable 
to the subsidies of the 35th and 37th Hen. VIII 
and the 13th Eliz., there lived, at " Brydelsmyth 
Gate, w tb in y e towne of Notyngham," a certain 
" Walterus Travers," by occupation a " Gold- 
smyth." I was afterwards lucky enough, at 
York, to meet with his will ; and as it, at once 
proves that the goldsmith was father to the divine 
I think I need not apologise to the readers o 
" N. & Q." for giving it in full : 

' In the Name of God, Amen : the fiftenth daie of 
September, in the yeare of oure Lorde God a thousande, 
ve Jhundrith, seaventie and five, I Walter Travers, of 
he Towne of Nottinghm, Gold Smythe, beinge weeke 
nd feeble in bodie, but of good, sownde, and perfect re- 
membrance, thanks be to God thearfore, do ordaine and 
make this my laste Will and Testamente, in mann r and 
orme followeinge : First, and before all thinges, I comende 
me into the handes of oure Lorde, who haste created 
and redemed me, beschinge the most humblye, for Jesus 
Christe sake, pardon and forgiveness of all my synes ; 
asseuringe myself also undoubtedlie, as trustinge to thy 
iromeys, O lorde, which cannot deceave, that, altho' I 
>e in my selffe most unworthie of thy Grace, yet, for that 
'esus Christe, thoue wilte receive me to the. Not ac- 
omptinge to me my synnes for whiche he hathe suffered, 
and fully satisfied thie Justice allredie ; but imputing to 
me, of thie fre grace and mercie, that holynes and obe- 
dience whiche he hathe performed, to thie moste perfecte 
awe, for all those that shoulde beleve in hime, and come 
unto the, in his name. Withe faithe, lorde, seinge that 
of thy goodnes thoue haste wroughte and planted in me, 
ay the preachinge of the hollie gospell, I stedfastelie hope 
for the performance of thy promyse, and everlastinge 
liffe in Jesus Christe. This blessed hope shall reste with 
me to the laste daie, that thoue rayse me upp agane, to 
enjoye that liffe and glorie that now I hope for. Thear- 
fore, I commende my sowle into the handes of God, my 
bodie I Will that yt be honestlie buried, and lade upp in 
pease to the comynge of the Lorde Jesus, when he shall 
come to be glorified in his Sayntes, and to be marvolous 
in theme that beleve ; in that daie when this corruptible 
shall put on incorruptible, and this mortall imortalitie, 
accordinge to the Scriptures. And as for those goods and 
landes that God hath given me, I declare this my Will, 
and full mynde and intente thearof, in forme followinge : 
that is to saie, I give and bequethe all and singular that 
my messuage, house, stable, and gardens thearto belong- 
inge, whiche I latelie purchased of Thomas Cowghem, 
late of the saide towne of Nottingham, alderman, deceased, 
wherein I nowe dwell, to Anne Travers my Wiffe, for 
and duringe her naturall liffe, and after her decease, to 
Anne Travers my daughter, and to theires of her bodie 
lawefullie begotten and to be begotten : And, for defalte 
of such issue, to Walter Traverse, John Traverse, and to 
Humfrey Travers, my Sones, equallie amongste theme, 
and to theires of theire bodies lawefullie begotten and to 
be begotten : And, for defalte of such Issue, to the righte 
heires of me the saide Walter Travers, the Testator, for 
ever. Further, I will that the saide Anne, my wiffe, 
duringe her liffe, and allso the saide Anne, my daughter, 
duringe her lyffe, after the decease of my said Wiffe, 
havinge the saide messuage and premyses, shall give and 
paie yearlie ten shillinges at two usuall daies in the yeare, 
by even pofcons, to my Overseers ; to be by theme dis- 
tributed to suche poore people, within the towne of Not- 
tingham, as they shall thinke moste mete and conveniente. 
Allso, I give and bequethe all my other lands, tenements, 
and hereditaments, not before by me given in this my 



[3'd S. V. JAK. 9, '64. 

Testamente and presente laste Will, to my said Wiffe 
Anne Traverse during her naturall liffe ; and after her 
decease, to my saide three Sones, Walter, John, and 
Humfrey, equallie amongeste theme, or so many of theme 
as shal be then livinge, and to theires of theire bodies 
lawefullie begotten and to be begotten : and, for defalt 
of such Issue, to Anne Travers my daughter, and to 
theires off her bodie lawefullie begotten and to be be- 
gotten ; and for defalte of suche Issue, to the righte heirs 
of me the saide Walter Travers for ever. And I will 
that my saide daughter Anne peaceablie permytt and 
suffer my saide thre sones to have and enjoye the saide 
landes to them bequithed, which I boughte of Robert 
Wynsell; notwithstanding anie bondes, or assurance 
thearof, heartofore by me to the saide Anne, or to her 
use, made. And for the disposinge of my goods and 
chattells that God hathe given me, I will that my debts 
be paide and my funeralls discharged, of the whole : and 
the resedewe of all my goods and chattells, gold, silver, 
plate, and howeshoulde stuff, moveable and unmove- 
able (my debts paide and fuuralls discharged), I give to 
Anne my Wiffe, and to Anne Travers my daughter, 
equallie betwixte theme. And I do make and ordeine 
the saide Anne my Wiffe, and my saide daughter my full 
Executrices of this my Testament and laste Will ; and I 
make my wellbeloved Sones, Walter and John Travers, 
Supvisors of the same, to se the same justlie and trewlie 
executed, done, and performed : theis beinge Witnesses 
Lawrence Brodbent, Esquire ; the Queenes Highnes Re- 
ceivor within the Counties of Nottinghm and Derbie 
Thomas Atkinson Symon Willson Richard Ogle 
Arthure Francis John Warde, and others." 

"This will was proved in the Exchequer Court 
of York, 18th January, 1575, by the Oaths of Ann 
Travers (Widow, the Relict), and Anne Travers 
(the daughter), the Co-Executrixes therein named ; 
to whom probate was granted, they having been 
first sworn duly to administer." 

Two of the three sons herein named, Walter 
and Humphry, entered at Cambridge, where 
Humphry became Fellow of C.C. Coll., and after- 
wards married, but left no issue male. Of Walter, 
the future Lecturer at the Temple, and opponent 
of Hooker, I leave the MESSRS. COOPER to give 
an account, in their valuable Athena Cantabridg- 

John Travers, second son, took his degree at 
Oxford in 1570, and was afterwards presented to 
the Rectory of Faringdon, Devon, which he held 
until his death in 1620. He married, on July 25, 
1580, Alice, daughter of John Hooker of Exeter 
and sister to Richard Hooker, Master of the 
iemple. This fact explains a sentence in Walter 
-Travers's Supplication to the Lords of the Council 
(Hooker's Works, iii. 557), where, speaking o f 
Hooker, he says : 

h;^ H h?L n t( iu ive in a " godly P eace and comfort i 
urn, both for the acquaintance and good will which hath 

sen between us, and for some bond of affinity in the 
marriage of his nearest kindred and mine." 

The issue of this marriage was four sons 
Elias, Samuel, John, and Walter who all were 
educated at Cambridge, and entered the church. 
Elias Travers died rector of Thurcaston, Leices- 
tershire, in 1641 ; Samuel was ejected from his 
vicarage of Thorverton, Devon, in 1646, and 
died soon after; John was presented to the 
vicarage of Brixhom, Devon, in Dec. 1617; was 
ejected therefrom in 1646, and died curate of St. 
Helen's, Isle of Wight, in 1659 ; and Walter 
became Chaplain to King Charles I., was pre- 
sented in succession to the Rectory of Steeple 
Ashton. Wilts; the Vicarage of Wellington, 
Somerset; and dying, Rector of Pitminster, 
April 7th, 1646, was buried in Exeter Cathedral. 
Of these four brothers, John and Walter only 
married ; one of the sons of Walter being Thomas 
Travers of Magdalen Coll. Camb., M.A. in 1644, 
who became Lecturer at St. Andrew's, Plymouth, 
and Rector of St. Columb Major, from which 
living he was ejected by the Bartholomew Act, in 

Perhaps some Nottinghamshire antiquary can 
assist me in hunting up the origin of the old gold- 
smyth of " Brydelsmyth Gate," from whom de- 
scended so many distinguished men ? or can, at 
least, point to some class of records likely to bear 
fruit ? If so, he would confer a great favour on 
me, by adopting a like method of imparting his 
information. H. J. S. 



Some thirty or forty years ago, this learned 
judge was travelling the Northern Circuit with 
one of his brother Judges of Assize, and it hap- 
sened that the business at an assize town was not 
*ot through till late on a Saturday. It was abso- 
lutely^necessary to open the Commission on the 
following Monday at the next assize town, which 
was at a great distance in those days of travelling, 
md either for that reason, or because of the heavy 
business to be disposed of there, Justice Park 
3roposed to his brother judge to set off late on 
;he Saturday, and to get as far as they could that 
light, so that they might avoid the necessity of 
ourneying any part of the way on the Sabbath. 
Sis brother judge, who was not so scrupulous on 
that point, protested against the proposal, and the 
esult was a compromise, the terms of which were, 
-hat they should start at a very early hour on the 
Sunday morning, and attend divine service at 
whatever church they might reach in time for the 
morning service. It thus happened that between 
ten and eleven o'clock the steeple of a small parish 
church within a short distance from the high road 
was sighted, and the postboys were ordered to 
make for it. Thus the inhabitants of a quiet 
country village in the Wolds were thrown into a 

3*' S. V. JAX. 9, '64.] 



state of " intense excitement " by the announce- 
ment that " my Lords the Judges " were coming 
to church. The rector selected a sermon, on 
which he rather prided himself; the churchward- 
ens dusted out the squire's pew, where their 
lordships might be the observed of all observers, 
and the rector's wife and daughters selected their 
best bonnets in honour of an event, the like of 
which had certainly never occurred before within 
the memory of the very " oldest inhabitant." The 
Judges were ushered into church with as much 
state as could be mustered by the parish autho- 
rities for the occasion, and all went perfectly well 
and in order till the termination of Morning 
Prayer, when the psalm was to be given out. In 
those days, the selection of the psalms was con- 
fided to the uncontrolled discretion of the parish 
clerk, who, when the tidings of the arrival of tke 
august personages reached his ears, had become 
quite as much alive to the importance of the proper 
performance of his duties upon the occasion as 
the rector and churchwardens were. His guide 
in the selection of psalms upon special occasions 
had been the Table of Psalms set out at the end 
of Tate and Brady's Version, giving alphabeti- 
cally the first words of each psalm. On coming 
to the letter S, he found, " Speak, O ye Judges," 
and concluding that the psalm, of which these 
were the opening words, must be an appropriate 
one, he gave them out, and invited the congrega- 
tion to join in singing the 58th Psalm, which they 
proceeded to do most heartily, being struck by 
the appositeness of the introductory words, and 
thus they sang at the two learned judges : 

" Speak, ye Judges of the Earth, 

If just your sentence be? 
Or must not innocence appeal 
To Heav'n from your decree? 

" Your wicked hearts and judgments are 

Alike by malice swayed ; 
Your griping hands, by weighty bribe?, 
To violence betrayed." 

And so forth ; with all the other denunciations of 
the Psalmist upon the unjust Judges of Israel. 

This is my Note of the circumstances ; my 
Query is, What was the name of the parish where 
they occurred ; who was the rector, and who was 
the brother Judge ? who, by the way, was after- 
wards heard to declare publicly that nothing should 
ever induce him to go to church again with brother 
Park - DORSET. 


Under this name, in the Sibliotheca Britannica, 
Watt has rolled two persons into one, be^innino- 

ith James Kirkwood, the Scottish grammarian* 
going off to James Kirkwood, the minister of 
Astwick, Bedfordshire, and again returning to the 

rst, all under the same heading. Misled by this 

authority, I have only recently, on becoming pos- 
sessed of the several works of these Kirkwoods, 
discovered the confusion ; and as neither (although 
both are of sufficient mark) appear in the new 
edition of Lowndes, I venture a few jottings by 
way of supplying the deficiency in " N". & Q." 

James Kirkwood, the schoolmaster, was a very 
notable character. We first hear of him in 1675, 
when he obtained charge of the school at Linlith- 
gow ; leaning to episcopacy when the Presbyte- 
rians were resolved to extinguish it root and 
branch from Scotland, Kirkwood soon got into 
trouble with his superiors; and the struggle to 
maintain office on the one hand, and to oust the 
schoolmaster on the other which followed, must 
have made it a cause celebre in that quiet burgh. 
The clever pedagogue, however, could not hold 
his ground against the local magnates, and the Do- 
minie was deposed. 

The litigation which arose out of these squab- 
bles is recorded in A Short Information of the 
Plea betwixt the Town Council of Linlithgow and 
Mr. James KirJtwood, Schoolmaster there, whereof 
a more full Account may perhaps come out here- 
after, a quarto tract of twenty pages. Kirkwood 
here intimates that he has a heavier rod in pickle 
for his persecutors, and, being of a waggish and 
satirical disposition, he carried his threat into exe- 
cution. Among other charges brought against 
him was, that he was " a reviler of the Gods of 
the people." " By Gods," says Kirkwood, " they 
mean the twenty-seven Members of the Town 
Council, the Provost, four Baillies, Dean of Guild, 
Treasurer, twelve Councillors, eight Deacons ; 
so that the Websters, Sutors, and Tailors are 
Gods in Linlithgow." 

Tickled with this notion, and being bent upon 
ridiculing the magistrates, he crowned his con- 
tempt for the burghal authorities by publishing, 
in a small quarto, pp. 79 

The History of the Twenty-seven Gods of Linlith- 
gow ; Being an Exact and True Account of a Famous 
Plea betwixt the Town Council of the said Burgh and 
Mr. Kirkwood, Schoolmaster there. Seria Mixta Jocis." 
Edin. 1711, 

which contains many curious particulars regard- 
ing the social and religious state of affairs during 
the contention for supremacy between the Pres- 
byterian and Prelatic parties. 

Our schoolmaster, it might be supposed, steered 
a safer course in his next appointment at Kelso. 
But, no : the same cantankerous humour brought 
about a collision there, and we next have Mr. 
Kirkwood"s Plea before the Kirk, and Civil Judi- 
catures of Scotland. London : D. E. for the Au- 
thor, 1698. Another quarto of about 150 closely 
printed pages, containing the story of his subse- 
quent wranglings with the Kirk Session and 
Presbytery there, in all its minuteness. Beyond 
what can be gleaned from his own words, I find 



V. JAN. 9, '64. 

but little recorded of this remarkable character 
In Penney's History of Linlithgowshire, and in 
Chalmer's Life of Ruddiman, he is spoken of as the 
first grammarian of his day. He frequently him- 
self alludes to the high repute in which he was 
held in this respect by his learned contemporaries, 
but I question if he is to be found in any of our 
biographies, or his name even to be traced in the 
British Museum Catalogue. 

In addition to that I have mentioned, I possess 
his Prima Pars Grammatical in Metrum redacta : 
Authore Jacobo Kirhwoodo, 12mo, Edin. 1675. 
With the Privy Council's Privilege for nineteen 
years ; the Second and Third Parts. Editio Se- 
cunda, 1676 ; and All the Examples, loth Words 
and Sentences of the First Part of Grammar, trans- 
lated into English by I. K. 1676. Contained in one 

As with Watt, my first impression on becoming 
acquainted with the names of these Kirkwoods 
was, that the grammarian and the minister at 
Astwick were identical, and that James Kirkwood 
was one of the rabbled curates for whom the 
government had to provide for in the south ; but 
a very slight examination showed this to be a mis- 
take ; and we find that, while the pugnacious 
schoolmaster was fighting his battles with the 
Gods of Linlithgow and Kelso, the minister of 
Astwick was engaged in England with his pasto- 
ral duties, and in connection with the Hon. Rob. 
Boyle, labouring to supply the Irish with a Verna- 
cular version of the Scriptures. The minister was 
however, also a Scot. He figures in Charter's, 
Catalogue of Scottish Writers as " James Girdwod, 
Minister of Minto, outed for refusing the Test." 
The only work of his which I have is, A New 
Family Booh ; or the True Interest of Families, 
being Directions to Parents and Children, &c. 
With a Preface by Dr. Horneck, 2nd edit. 12mo, 
London, 1693. A frontispiece by Yander Gutch 
in two compartments the happy and the un- 
happy family ; the latter a grotesque representa- 
tion of the wicked parents, with a hopeful lot of 
seven children all in a state of inebriety, with the 
usual accompaniment of the religious chap-book 
the monster in the corner of the picture vomiting 
flames, indicating a family on the road to Tophet 
Perhaps some other correspondent may be able 
:> tell us what became of the restless gramma- 
rian ; and, if any, what was the relationship be- 
tween these two Kirkwoods. J. Q 


Many of our old English words have, in passino- 
from one age to another, dropped, either wholly 
or in a great measure, their original signification. 
The elder D'Israeli has illustrated this in a very 
pleasing way in one of his entertaining works. 

The word WIT has, however, been overlooked, 
and I have something to say, not in example, but 
in illustration of it. 

" Tell me, O tell," says Cowley, " what kind of 
thing is wit ? " a question I admit the propriety of 
his asking, for he defines it but by negatives and 
negatives alone. Every one concedes to Butler 
the name of a wit, and that Hudibras abounds in 
wit of the finest quality. But this is in its present 
sense. What was wit in one age became bombast 
or affectation in another : and he who was styled a 
wit in the age of Elizabeth is styled a poet now. 

" Nothing," says Addison, " is so much admired 
and so little understood as wit'' ..." Wit" 
says Locke, "lies in the assemblage of ideas, and 
putting those together with quickness and variety, 
wherein can be found any resemblance or con- 
gruity, thereby to make up pleasant pictures and 
agreeable visions in the fancy." Addison shows 
that any resemblance cannot be called wit: " thus, 
when a poet tells us the bosom of his mistress is 
as white as snow, there is no wit in the compari- 
son ; but when he adds, with a sigh, that it is as 
cold too, it then grows into wit." ..." True 
wit," says the same great writer, " consists in the 
resemblance and congruity of ideas, and false wit 
in the resemblance of words. Mixed wit, which 
we find in Cowley, partakes of the character of 
both, a composition of pure and true wit." 

I select a few instances of the use of the word 
wit from the works of Dryden : 

"True wit is sharpness of conceit, the lowest and 
most grovelling kind of wit clenches. . . . There are 
many witty men, but few poets. . . . Shakspeare's 
comic wit degenerated into clenches ; his serious swelled 
into bombast. ... No man. can say Shakspeare ever 
had a fit subject for his wit, and that he did not excel. 
. . . One cannot say Ben Jonson wanted wit, but rather 
that he was frugal of it. ... Wit, and language, and 
humour, we had before Jonson's days. . . . If 1 would 
compare Jonson with Shakspeare I must acknowledge him, 
the more correct poet, but Shakspeare the greater wit. 
. . . Shakspeare, who many times has written better 
than any poet in our language, is far from writing wit 
always, or expressing that wit according to the dignity of 
the subject. . . . Donne was the greatest wit, though 
not the greatest poet, of our nation. . . . Donne's 
Satires abound in wit. I may safely say this of the pre- 
sent age, that if we are not so great wits as Donne, yet 
certainly we are better poets. . . . The composition 
of all poems is, or ought to be, wit, which is no other than 
;he faculty of imagination. . . . The definition of wit 
^ which has been so often attempted, and ever unsuccess- 
ully, by many poets) is only this, that it is a propriety 
of thoughts and words ; or in other terms, thoughts and 
words elegantly adapted to the subject." 

Twice has Dryden repeated his definition or 
description of wit ; " which is not," says Addison, 
' so properly a description of wit as of good writ- 
ng in general. If Dryden's be a true definition 
)f wit, I am apt to think," Addison adds, " that 
Euclid is the greatest wit that ever set pen to 

. JAN.9,'64.] 



Wit, in its original signification, Johnson tells 
us, " denoted the powers of the mind the mental 
faculties the intellects." The meaning has been 
greatly extended ; it has been used for imagin- 
ation, and for quickness of fancy or genius. A 
wit, too, has been called a poet, and a poet desig- 
nated a wit. 

Ben Jonson uses the word wit for verse ; he who 
possessed wit possessed the faculty of song. Shak- 
speare, Fletcher, and Jonson formed, says Sir 
John Denham, a triumvirate of wit. What is 
translated poetry, says the same writer, but trans- 
planted wit. Cleveland, wishing to express the 
rank of Jonson among the poets of his age, says, 

" Stood out illustrious in an age of wit."" 

Pope, alluding to Ihe little patronage which 
poets meet with, speaks of 

"The estate which wits inherit after death." 

The mob of gentlemen that twinkled in the 
poetical miscellanies of the days of the Charleses 
are called by Pope the " wits " of their age. 

"But for the wits of either Charles's days, 
The mob of gentlemen who wrote with ease." 

It is not poetry, says Butler, that makes men 
poor, for men have taken to wit only to avoid be- 
ing idle. 

" It is not poetry that makes men poor ; 

For few do write that were not so before : 

And those that have writ best, had they been rich, 

Had ne'er been clapp'd with a poetic itch ; 

Had lov'd their ease too well to take the pains 

To undergo that drudgery of brains ; 

But being for all other trades unfit, 

Only to avoid being idle set up wit." 

t)avenant has a great Nursery of Nature in his 
Gondibert, and foremost in this delightful dwelling 
has a band of pleasant poets : 
"And he who seem'd to lead this ravish'd race, 

Was Heav'n's lov'd Laureate that in Jewry writ ; 
Whose harp approach'd God's ear, though none his face 
Durst see, and first made inspiration, wit." 

That King David was a wit, and wrote wit, 
sounds in an ear of the nineteenth century as a 
sad misapplication of terms. Yet in Davenant 
the word, in its old signification, is very appropri- 
ate, and very poetical. 

Such have been the changes in the meaning of 
of the word wit. Shakspeare was a wit in his age, 
but Wordsworth would have deemed it no com- 
pliment to be called a wit in ours. Johnson's de- 
finition of wit is admirable : "That which though 
not obvious, is, upon its first production, acknow- 
ledged to be just, that which he that never found 
wonders how he missed." * This is near the mark, 
but perhaps this is nearer : " Wit," says Corbyn 
Morris,f " is the lustre resulting from the quick 

* Life of Cowley. 
t Essays on Wit, 

Humour, and Raillery, 8vo, 1744. 

elucidation of one subject, by a just and unex- 
pected arrangement of it with another subject." 

Further illustrations of the early use of the 
word "wit" might worthily find a place in the 
columns of "N. & Q." Shakspeare's daughter, 
" good Mrs. Hall," was (her epitaph tells us) 
" witty above her sexe." 



A few months since an able, affecting, and most 
interesting appeal, in behalf of the Catholic Blind 
Institution, Glasnevin, in the immediate vicinity 
of this city, appeared in the Freeman 's Journal, 
from the pen of its present guardian, Brother 
Jerome Moroney. After enumerating several in- 
stances of the high intellectual attainments, of 
which this afflicted class are capable, such as that 
of Didymus of Alexandria, who had among his 
pupils the illustrious St. Jerome and Palladius; 
Diodatus, the preceptor of Cicero ; Scupi Neria, 
who held a professorship in Bologna, wrote poetry 
in Latin and Italian, and was one of the most 
accomplished scholars of his day ; Salinos, who, 
although blind from his infancy, was yet elected 
Professor of Music in the University of Sala- 
manca about the year 1713; the writer of this 
brief memoir and to this I wish particularly to 
direct the attention of your readers mentions 
that in the year 1542 Dr. Wauchop, although 
blind from infancy, attained, as a divine and a 
scholar, such distinguished eminence, that he 
readily obtained the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
in the University of Paris ; attended on the part of 
Julius III. at the Council of Trent, and was sub- 
sequently appointed by Paul III. to the see of 
Armagh. Now, being under the impression that 
blindness, as well as any prominent physical de- 
fect, constituted what is termed a canonical im- 
pediment, incapacitating the parties for the 
reception of Holy Orders, I was, I confess, some- 
what sceptical as to the accuracy of Brother 
Jerome's statement, more particularly as I could 
find no reference whatever to Dr. Wauchop in the 
profound and learned work of Dr. Lanigan, or 
such writers on Irish subjects as I happened to 
have at hand. At length, however, this worthy 
monk referred me to Dr. Renehan's Collections on 
on Irish Church History, from which I make the 
following extract : 

" Robert Wauchop (alias Venantius) was appointed to 
the see of Armagh by Paul III. when informed of the 
death of Dr. Cremer "in 1542. Wauchop was by birth a 
Scotchman, and although blind from childhood yet such 
were the natural powers of his mind, and such his perse- 
vering industry, that he distinguished himself highly 
during his collegiate studies, and easily obtained the 
degree of Doctor of Divinity from that learned faculty. 
Pope Paul III. had confirmed the Order of the Jesuits, 
and selected Wauchop in 1541 to introduce that order 



[3 rd S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 

into Ireland. In consequence, John Coclure was first sent 
to this country, and after his death many others, among 
whom was Paschasius, Francis Zapata, and the celebrated 
Alphonsus Salmeron, who afterwards attended the Council 
of Trent. VVauchop was shortly afterwards appointed 
to the see of Armagh, but it would appear he never took 
possession of his see, which was already taken possession 
of bv Dr. Dowdal by the appointment of Henry VIII. 
His "learning, piety, and prudence recommended him to 
the confidence, and secured him the esteem of Paul III., 
and so highly did that discriminating pontiff, as also his 
successor Julius III., appreciate his taste for business, that 
he sent him as their Legate h latere to the Emperor of 
Germany and to the Court of France, which gave occa- 
sion to the saying 'Legatus caecus oculatis Germanis.' 
He also attended on the part of the pontiff at the Council 
of Trent during the first ten sessions from 1545 to 1547. 
After the death of Paul IIL, his patron, and the conse- 
quent prorogation of the Council, he started for Ireland, 
and subsequently retired to France, where he died in a 
convent of the Jesuits at Paris, on the 10th of November, 

Now with reference to Dr. Dowdall, above 
alluded to, a few brief particulars may, en passant, 
prove interesting. On the 16th of March, 1543, 
died George Cromer, Archbishop of Armagh ; and 
on November 28, a mandate was issued by Henry 
VIII. for the consecration of George Dowdall. 
He was consecrated by Dr. Staples, assisted by 
other bishops ; but, unlike his suffragan, neither 
the frowns nor caresses of the world could turn 
him from the path of rectitude and duty, as the 
following circumstance will satisfactorily prove. 
The English Liturgy was read for the first 
time in the cathedral of Christ's Church, Dublin, 
on Easter Sunday, 1551 ; and in the same year, 
Sir James Crofts, the Lord Deputy, invited the 
bishops of the Catholic Church and of the Ke- 
formation to have a discussion on religion. The 
prelates assembled in the great hall of St. Mary's 
Abbey, Dublin : the subject of debate being the 
Sacrifice of the Mass. The primate, Dr. Dowdall, 
defended the Catholic doctrines. -His antagonist, 
on the Protestant side, being no other than his 
consecrator Edward Staples, once Catholic bishop 
of Meath.* Whatever may have been the rela- 
lative learning or abilities displayed by the dis- 
putants, there was no doubt on which side lay the 
prospect of worldly promotion. The result of the 
discussion being, says Ware, that it gave to the 
King and Council an opportunity to deprive Dow- 
dall for his obstinacy of the title of Primate of 
all Ireland, and of annexing it to the see of 
Dublin for ever. Accordingly, Brown obtained 
Letters Patent from King Edward VI., dated 
October 20, 1551, that he and his successors should 
be Primates of all Ireland. Dowdall, aware of 
the tone and temper of the parties he had to deal 
with, fled to the Continent and took refuge in the 
monastery of Centre Brabant. Edward VI. died 

See Ware's Bishops, p. 351 ; Moran's Diocese of Meath. 
Ancient and Modern. 

in July, 1553, and was succeeded by Mary, daugh- 
ter of Catherine of Arragon. Soon after her ac- 
cession, Archbishop Dowdall was recalled from 
exile, and the title of Primate of all Ireland was 
by Letters Patent restored to him. To reform 
abuses which crept in during the last two reigns, 
and to remove false brethren from the sanctuary, 
were the especial objects of his care. 

Dowdall having now obtained considerable in- 
fluence in the government of the country, lived to 
see those principles triumph for which he suffered. 
He saw the seeds of true faith and Christian piety, 
planted by his episcopal labours, growing up into 
a rich and abundant harvest, and Providence 
spared him the mortification of seeing the crop 
destroyed by the political^ elements that shortly 
after his death checked their growth and threat- 
ened their entire ruin. Having held a synod of 
his diocese at Drogheda in 1557, he died in the 
year 1558 in England, on the Feast of the As- 
sumption, just three months before the accession 
of Elizabeth to the English throne. Vide Rene- 
ban's Collections on Irish Church History. 

To return, however, to the special object of this 
brief communication. I must not forget, says 
Ware, /that during the life of George Dowdall, 
who was in possession of the see of Armagh (by 
donation from King Henry VIII.), Pope Paul IIL 
conferred that archbishopric on Robert Waucop, 
a Scot, who, although blind from his youth, yet 
applied himself with that diligence to learning, 
that he commenced Doctor in Divinity in Paris. 
He assisted at the Council of Trent from the 1st 
Session held in 1545, to the eleventh in 1547. He 
was sent by the Pope as legate a latere into Ger- 
many from whence arose the proverb, Legatus 
ccecus ad oculatos Germanos a blind legate to 
the sharp-sighted Germans. By his means the 
Jesuits were first introduced into Ireland. He 
died in a convent of Jesuits at Paris, Nov. 10, 
1551. De Burgo, in his Hibernia Dominicana, 
states that : 

" Pater Nicolaus Orlandinus e Societate Jesu Memorise 
prodidit, hac tempestate floruisse Robertum Iba3 Primis, 
virum insignem et super alias fulgentisaimas virtutes eo 
admiratione clignum, quod quamvis a puero fuerit oculis 
captus, nihil tamen minus claro mentis lumine haeresis 
furore obviam ire, laborantique insulas subvenire curave- 
rit, atqueejus Rogatu nonnullos Patres Idibus Sept. Roma 
profectos & B. Igrmtii Patriarch* magistri sui docu- 
mentis iri munere obeundo instructos in Ibernia . . . 
multum opera? impendisse. Post Religiosorum vero Redi- 
tum, Primatum ipsum qui Cone. Triden. interfuit, suam 
Provinciam petentem, Parisiis in Conventu Patrum Soc. 
10 Nov. diem obiisse ea verba identidem proferentem : 
Domine, siPopulo tuo sum opus, ego quidem laborem non 
recuso; sin minus, nequicquam moleste fero ex hujus la- 
boriosissimaa vitai prsesidio et statione discedere divino 
tuo conspectu et roternse quiete recreandus." 

O' Sullivan, in his Catholic History, confirms 
the preceding statement (torn. ii. lib. 3), assuring 
us that he closed his career in a manner worthy of 

3 rd S.V. JAN. 9, '64. J 



his uniform piety, with the zeal of an apostle, and 
the resignation of a saint. The last sentence he 
was heard to utter was " O Lord, if my continu- 
ance here be necessary for the good of Thy peo- 
ple, I shrink not from the useful task which Thy 
will may allot to me ; but if it be not, I cheerfully 
yield up my station in this laborious life, that my 
my spirit may enjoy beatitude in Thy presence." 

Such, Mr. Editor, are a few of the leading facts 
I have been able to collect regarding this extra- 
ordinary man : one who accumulated a vast store 
of knowledge under cirumstances, it must be ad- 
mitted, of the most unfavourable character, and 
of whom it may be said humble Catholic priest 
as he was his history belongs to mankind at large 
rather than to sect or party. T. Me K. 

Looking into Jesse's Life and Correspondence of 
Selicyn the other day, brought to my mind a story 
I have heard of a laird in the north of Scotland, 
who died some thirty or forty years ago ; who 
seems to have had as great a penchant for attend- 
ing executions as the witty George, and whose 
local standing would appear to have made his 
presence at such exhibitions a sine qua non. I 
give the anecdote as I heard it, premising that it 
may be relied on as authentic. On one occasion 
an unfortunate wretch was about to be " turned 
off:" the rope was adjusted, and everything was 
ready. The hangman, however, stood waiting 
with apparent anxiety, evidently for an addition 
to the spectators. Being asked why he did not 
proceed with the business, he replied, with a look 

of surprise at his questioner : ** M (naming 

the laird) is nae come yet!" The hangman's 
paramount desire to please the local dignitary 
(who we may suppose he looked upon in the light 
of a patron), under such circumstances, is fine. 


LONGEVITY. As several instances of longevity 
have lately appeared in your columns, is it not 
worth while preserving the case of Mr. Hutches- 
son, who died last September ? He graduated in 
1804, and was elected Fellow of Clare College in 
1812 : so that he was more than half a century 
a Fellow of that society. J. C. BOSCOBEL. 

work cf Floyer mentioned in my recent Note (3 rd 
'.^ iv. 459), I have found another printed for 
Michael Johnson. Considering the very humble 
way in which he carried on his business, it is 
amusing to read about his " shops " at three dif- 
ferent towns : 

" <bap i u.dKo-'Ba<ravos : or the Touchstone of Medicines, 
Jc. By Sir John FJoyer of the City of Litchfield, Kt., 

D. of Queen's College, Oxford. London: Printed for 
Ucbael Johnson, Bookseller; and are to be sold at his 

shops at Litchfield and Uttoxiter, in Staffordshire ; and 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, in Leicestershire. 1687." 

In the later works of Floyer, the name of Mi- 
chael Johnson does not occur as publisher. Trea- 
tises dated 1698, 1707, and 1725, have the names 
of London publishers only. JATDEE. 

AMEN. As an instance of the curious deriva- 
tions to which even learned men have been driven 
for lack of philological science, may be mentioned 
the notion of St. Thomas Aquinas respecting the 
word afj.-iiv. That Father gravely states, in his 
Commentary upon Isaiah (xxv. extr.), that " the 
word is derived from a privative, and pV the 
moon, q. d. Sine luna, hoc est, sine defectu, puta 
solidum et stabile." W. J. D. 

RING MOTTOES. On a ring dug up at Godstow 
Priory, Oxfordshire. Date early in the fifteenth 
century, black-letter characters : 

Most in mynd and yn myn herrt. 
Lothest from you ferto departt. 

On plain betrothal rings of the seventeenth cen- 
tury : 

I haue obtained whom God ordained. 
God unite our hearts aright. 
Knitt in one by Christ alone. 
Wee Joyne our loue in God aboue. 
Joynd in one by God alone. 
God above send peace and love. 

All exhibited by the Rev. James Beck to the 
Archaeological Institute, March, 1863. (Vide its 
Journal, p. 195.) T. NORTH. 


the " volunteer " Earl of Charlemont, succeeded as 
fourth Viscount April 21, 1734, and was raised to 
the Earldom on Dec. 23, 1763. Francis, his eldest 
son, the late Earl, died last Christmas day ; con- 
sequently, the father and son held the Viscounty 
for more than one hundred and twenty years, and 
the Earldom for one hundred years. S. P. V. 

ANONYMOUS. Who was the author of a little 
treatise on Resurrection, not Death, the Hope of the 
Believer, 12mo, pp. 46, issued in 1838, at the 
Central Tract Depot, 1, Warwick Square, London ? 
Is this Depot still in existence ? VECTIS. 

charming little work, Mr. Murray has just issued 
a charmingly illustrated edition. It contains 
fifteen hymns, of which the tenth, eleventh, and 
twelfth are not in the " new edition, printed 
1799," though they have appeared, I believe, in 
some other modern copies. I have been familiar 
with the remaining twelve hymns for fifty years. 



S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 

The other three have the appearance of imita- 
tions. Can they be from Mrs. Barbauld s pen P 
Or who is the author of them ? S. W. Rix. 


Standing beside the ruins of a Scottish parish 
church built in 1591, and talking with a friend 
about it, he mentioned that he remembered having 
been told by his grandfather, that it had been 
the custom to bury the still-born children of the 
parish all alono- the outside walls of the church, 
and as close to the walls as they could be laid. 
Any information as to such a custom will oblige. 

CHURCHWARDEN QUERY. Considerable con- 
troversy has arisen as to the origin and! duties of 
the officer called sidesman, who is annually elected 
at the same time with the churchwarden. Is he 
the same person alluded to in the 83rd canon of 
Archbishop Whitgift, 1603, which is directed to 
" the churchwardens or questmen " ? A. A. 

" N. & Q." has its readers in Hobart Town, Tas- 
mania, I venture to ask J. M'C. B. (one of your 
correspondents) to assist me with information 
about Captain Alexander Cheyne, who died there 
about six or eight years ago. Captain Cheyne 
was formerly an officer in the Engineers, and hav- 
ing resigned his commission, settled at Hobart 
Town, where he held some official colonial situa- 
tion, such as surveyor-general. I wish to ascer- 
tain the date of his death, and to be favoured with 
a copy of the inscription or any tablet, or tomb- 
stone raised to his memory. It will also greatly 
serve me if any account be added of his colonial 
services, together with the dates and names of the 
offices he may have filled in Tasmania. 

M.S. R. 

EARL OF DALHOUSIE. At the contested elec- 
tion for Perthshire, in 1838, when the Earl of 
Dalhousie (then the Hon. Fox Maule) was un- 
seated by the return of Lord Stormont, it is said 
that Lord Dalhousie retired to the Highland Inn, 
at Amulree, in the same county ; and that he 
there wrote the following, or similar lines, in the 
Visitor's book : 

" Rejected by the men of Perth, 

Cast on the world an ex-M.P. ; 
I sought and found a quiet retreat 

Among thy -wilds, sweet Amulree." 
Is the visitor's book, referred to, still in exist- 
ence ? If so, where can it be seen ? I am told 
that there were many curious stanzas and re- 
marks in it. J, 

" FAIS CE QUE TD DOIS," ETC. Can the famous 
old knightly motto, " Fais ce que tu dois, advienne 
que pourra," be assigned, on good authority, to 
any particular date or person, and what are its 
variations ? F. H. 

GIANTS AND DWARFS. Can any of the readers 
of " JST. & Q." inform me where I can inspect the 
best collections for a history of the giants and 
dwarfs who have been exhibited during the last 
and present century; and can furnish me with 
the names and addresses of those now living, their 
heights, weights, and ages? W. D. 

GENERAL LAMBERT. In Vertue's work on the 
Medals of Thomas Simon, originally published in 
1753, mention is made (p. 31) of a medal of 
General Lambert. The medal, in silver, is stated 
to be in the possession of the heir of the family ; 
and, as I recollect, there was a cast of it in the 
cabinet of Maurice Johnson, Esq., secretary of 
the Gentlemen's Society at Spalding. 

Maurice Johnson died in 1755. 

Is it known what has become either of the 
original medal or of the cast ? P. S. CARET. 

THE LAIRD OF LEE. At a road side just en 
tering the village of Mauchline, in Ayrshire, 
there is a tombstone surrounded by iron rails. 
On the stone is the following inscription : 

"Here lie the bodies of Peter Gillies, John Bryce, 
Thomas Young, William Tiddison, and John Bruning, 
who were apprehended and hanged without trial at 
Mauchline in 1685, according to the then wicked laws, 
for their adhesion to the covenanted worke of Reforma- 
tion. Rev. xii. 11. 

" Bloody Dumbarton, Douglas, and Dundee, 
Moved by the devil and the Laird of Lee, 
Dragged these five men to death with gun and sword, 
Not suffering them to pray or read God's word : 
Owning the worke of God was all their crime 
The Eighty-five was a saint-killing time. 
"Erected by subscription in 1830. The old decayed 
tombstone from which this is copied lies below." 

Who was the personage here alluded to as the 
"Laird of Lee"? M. M. 

THOUGHTS. " Language is given us not so much 
to express as to conceal our thoughts." This 
famous saying occurs, as above quoted, in one of 
Goldsmith's works (The Bee) ; but it has also 
been traced back to South, the eminent divine, 
and it is well known to have been a favourite 
saying of Talleyrand's. Are any of your readers 
aware of any other celebrated person from whom 
the dictum in question has proceeded ? I rather 
think the substance of it may be found in the 
works of some Greek author, whose name I cannot 
however recall. It is certainly, under any circum- 
stances, a remarkable fact that three such totally 
different individuals as the before-mentioned, 
should have promulgated this Machiavellian sen- 
timent independently of each other, unless we 
suppose that Goldsmith derived his from South ; 
but even then, how came the witty Frenchman to 
think of it, who most certainly could scarcely have 
been familiar with the writings of the other two 
persons designated ? And, as I have said before, 

. V. JAN. 9, '64.] 



it will, I believe, be found to be of very great 
antiquity, there being some classical writer upon 
whom the honour(?) rests of originating the say- 
ing in the first instance. ALPHA THETA. 

[The saying has been traced in our 1 st S. vol. i. p. 83, 
to Lloyd in his State Worthies, Dr. Young, Voltaire, and 

GER. In the year 1836, about the end of August, 
Miss Livermore came from Philadelphia to Liver- 
pool : from thence, she crossed to Dublin (through 
the night of Aug. 31), and then proceeded by 
steamer to Plymouth. She remained at Plymouth 
for some time. She called herself " the Pilgrim 
Stranger ;" and she was then on feer way to Jeru- 
salem, in pursuance of what she designated to be 
a divine monition. She spoke of herself as being 
in some way descended from the North American 
Indians ; and also as being the daughter (or 
granddaughter) of " Lord Livermore, Attorney- 
General to King George III., by whom he had 
been honoured with an American peerage." She 
said that Joseph Wolff was one of the two wit- 
nesses in Rev. xi., considering herself to be the 
other : hence, in her lodging in Plymouth, she 
placed Dr. Wolff's portrait on the wall, that the 
two witnesses might be together. After some 
months, she went to Jerusalem ; and after a resi- 
dence there, she returned to America. She paid 
a second visit to Jerusalem ; and, on her return, 
she again stayed (about twenty years ago) for some 
time in Plymouth, and was again in London be- 
fore returning to America. Her opinions and 
professions still continued to be very peculiar. 
She absolutely identified Mohamet Ali and Na- 
poleon Buonaparte ; remarking, however, that it 
was very strange that there was a difference in 
their ages. Can any reader of " N. & Q." give 
information respecting Harriett Livermore ? Is 
she still living ? And if not, when did she die, 
and where ? Did she visit Jerusalem more than 
twice ? L-aEuus. 

RIDGE. In a letter written by Sir Walter Scott, 
dated March 16, 1831 (not published by Lock- 
hart), he describes his state of health at that 
time, and says : 

" I am better, but still very precarious, and have lost, 
as Hamlet says, all custom of my exercise, being never 
able to walk more than half a mile on foot, or ride a mile 
or two on a pony, on which I am literally lifted, while 
my forester walks by his head, for fear a sudden start 
should unship me altogether. I am tied by a strict regi- 
men to diet and hours, and, like the poor madman in Bed- 
lam, most of my food tastes of oatmeat porridge." 

To what do these last words refer ? Y. P. 

SIR EDWARD MAY. The second Marquis of 
Donegal married Anna, daughter of Sir Edward 
May, of Mayfield, county Waterford, Bart. I 

should be glad of any particulars relating to this 
baronet, his ancestors, or descendants. What 
were his armorial bearings ? CARILFORD. 

Cape Town. 

REV. PETER PECKARD, D.D., Master of Mag- 
dalen College, Cambridge, author of a Life of 
Mr. Nicholas Ferrar, published in 1790. I am 
desirous of discovering his present representative 
if there is one living, or, if otherwise, the deposi- 
tary of his literary collections and MSS. Were 
they bequeathed to Magdalen College ? J, L. C. 

tom was wont to prevail at Gainsborough, of 
distributing penny loaves on the occasion of a 
funeral to whomsoever might demand them. What 
was the origin of this custom ? And does it still 
exist ? ROBERT KEMPT. 

MR. W. B. RHODES, author of Bombastes Fu- 
rioso, died in 1826. From the obituary notice of 
the author in the Gent. Mag. he seems to have 
written some other dramatic pieces. What are 
the titles of them, and have they appeared in 
print? R.I. 

SCOTTISH FORMULA. Can any of your readers 
inform me when the following formula was first 
brought into use, and employed by the Moderator 
pro tempore in closing the General Assemblies of 
the Scottish Church ? 

" As this Assembly was constituted in the name and 
by the authority of the Lord Jesus Christ, the only King 
and Head of this Church, so in the same name and by 
the same authority, I hereby appoint the next General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland (or Free Church of 
Scotland, as the case may be), to be held on the 
day of May, 18 ." 

Or words to this effect. O. 


now pursuing some inquiries into the commercial 
history of Ireland. I have obtained a tract of 100 
pages, An Essay on the Trade and Improvement 
of Ireland, by Arthur Dobbs. Published in Dub- 
lin, MDCCXXIX. It is full of important statistical 
information. On the last page it is stated that 
" The rest of this discourse shall be given in a 
second part." Can you or any of your readers 
assist me to the second part, or inform me if such 
second part was ever published ? I think it will 
be the same Arthur Dobbs who is given in Lowndes 
as the author of a work entitled An Account of the 
Countries adjoining to Hudson s Bay, in the North' 
ivest Part of America, London, 1744. But no 
mention is made of the work on Ireland above re- 
ferred to. T. B. 

WILD MEN. What work contains an account 
of the sect who, during the last century, held 
evangelical principles in Scotland, and were termed 
"Wild Men," and these principles themselves 
" Wild Doctrines ? " VECTIS. 



i S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 

BOROUGH. In Mr. Thornbury's British Painters, 
from Hogarth to Turner (vol. i. p. 26), mention is 
made of a portrait of " General Wolfe, in a silver- 
laced coat," and Mr. Thornbury has kindly re- 
ferred me to his authority. In the Catalogue of 
Portraits, appended to G. W. Fulcher's Life of 
Gainsborough (1856), I have found, under the 
heading of "Soldiers and Sailors:" "General 
Wolfe. (Head and bust.) He is in uniform, and 
wears his hat ; the silver lace on which, and on his 
coat, is touched with great brilliancy. Possessor, 
Mrs. Gibbon." (Query,. Gainsborough's sister?) 
Wolfe and Gainsborough were born in the same 
year ; and the latter, it appears, did not remove 
from Ipswich to Bath, where he acquired cele- 
brity as a portrait painter, until 1760 the year 
after Wolfe's death. From this, and other cir- 
cumstances, I think it improbable that the General 
sat to Gainsborough. However, I wish to in- 
quire whether any correspondent of " N. & Q." 
ever met with a reputed portrait of Wolfe by that 
artist ? And if so, when, where, &c. ? 


102, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

durrtrs tottlj 3nsujrrs. 

" ADAMUS EXUL" OF GROTIUS. In 1839 there 
was published " The Adamus Exul of Grotius, or 
the Prototype of Paradise Lost: now first trans- 
lated from the Latin, by Francis Barham, Esq." 
(Pp. xii. and 51.) This pamphlet is introduced by 
a dedication to John A. Heraud, Esq., then the 
editor of the Monthly Magazine, in the October 
Number o^ which, in 1839, this translation from 
Grotius was also inserted. In the preface to the 
translation, Mr. Barham gives a curious account 
of the original Latin drama of Grotius, which 
was not, it seems, included in his collected works. 
Mr. Barham concludes his introduction thus : 

" We may just add, that if this work should excite 
much interest, it is our intention to republish the original 
Latin now extremely scarce." 

Twenty-four years, however, have passed, and 
there has not (so far as I know) been any edition 
of the Latin of this drama. 

Is^the Adamus Exul a genuine production of 
Grotius? If so, why has it had no place in his col- 
lected works ? Is there any mystification about this 
book ? Where can genuine copies of it be seen ? 
What has become of the copy used by Mr. Bar- 
ham ? 

Who was the translator? Was he the editor of 
Collier's Ecclesiastical History, published in nine 
vols. by Mr. Straker? What other works are 
there of Mr. Francis Barham ? L.ZELIUS. 

[A copy of the original Latin tragedy, with the auto- 
graph of Grotius, is in the British Museum. It is entitled 

" Hvgonis Grotii Sacra inqvibvs Adamvs Exvl Tragcedia 
aliorvmque eivsdem generis carminvm Cvmvlvs conse- 
crata Francire Principi. Ex Tj^pographio Alberti Henrici, 
Hagse Comitatensi, 1601," small 4to. It will be re- 
membered that this was one of the works quoted by 
William Lauder in his attempt to defraud Milton of his 
fame as author of the Paradise Lost. 

Mr. Barham was the editor of the first recent reprint 
of Jeremy Collier's Ecclesiastical History, 1840. (The 
edition of 1852, by Mr. Lathbury, is decidedly the best.) 
Mr. Barham's name is also connected with the following 
works: 1. The Life and Times of John Reuchlin, or Cap- 
nion. 2. The Political Works of Cicero, comprising " The 
Republic " and " The Laws," translated from the original. 
2 vols. 3. The Hebrew and English Holy Bible, from the 
text of Heidenheim and the version of Bennett. 4. 
Socrates, a Tragedy in Five Acts. 5. M. Guizot's Theory 
of Syncratism and Coalition, translated from his cele- 
brated article on " Catholicism, Protestantism, and Phi- 

CAMBRIDGE BIBLE. A Bible printed at the 
Pitt Press, dated on the title-page 1837, contains 
a preliminary inscription as follows : 

" In consequence of a communication most graciously 
made by his Majesty King William the Fourth to the 
Marquess Camden, Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge, the Syndics of the Pitt Press, anxious to testify 
their dutiful obedience to His Majesty's wishes, undertook 
the publication of this impression of the Holy Scrip- 

A copy on vellum was printed for his Majesty, 
the first eight pages being struck off at the Public 
Commencement, 1835, by the Chancellor of the 
University, the Duke of Cumberland, and other 
royal and noble personages. The Bible is a quarto, 
in a beautiful type, double columns within red 
lines. My copy was purchased at Sotheby and 
Wilkinson's, and I am under an impression that 
this edition was not sold to the public. 

What was the communication made by King 
William IV. ? H. T. D. B. 

[At the first commencement after the installation of 
the Marquis Camden as Chancellor of the University of 
Cambridge, on July 8, 1835, he and his friends proceeded 
to one of the press-rooms in the north wing of the Pitt 
Press, when the first two sheets of a splendid edition of 
the Bible were struck off by the Chancellor, the Duke of 
Cumberland, Prince George of Cambridge, Duke of Wel- 
lington, Duke of Northumberland, the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, &c. On which occasion the Chancellor in- 
formed the noble personages that His Majesty, William 
IV., had expressed to him a desire to have a copy of that 
Sacred Book from the press which bore the name of the 
illustrious statesman, William Pitt. See the Chancellor's 
speech as reported in the Cambridge Chronicle and Jour- 
nal of July 10, 1835. This is the last edition of the Bible 
in which the reading occurs, Matt. xii. 23, " Is this the 
Son of David?" instead or "Is not this the Son of 

V. JAN. 9, '64.] 




shall be glad of any information as to the origin 
of this figure, when first employed, and ^ why 
adopted. Also why the fourpenny piece is the 
only silver coin which bears it. W. H. WILLS. 


[The earliest coin we have been able to trace with the 
figure of Britannia is a copper halfpenny of Charles II., 
1672. This coin was engraved by Boeder, and the 
figure of Britannia is said by Evelyn to bear a strong 
resemblance to the Duchess of Richmond. " Monsieur 
Roti (graver to his late Majesty Charles II.) so accurately 
expressed the countenance of the Duchess of Richmond 
in the head of Britannia in the reverse of some of our 
coin, and especially in a medal, as one may easily, and 
almost at first sight, know it to be her grace." (Numis- 
muta, p. 27.) Walpole says, he believes this was Philip 
Rotier, and that he, " being in love with the fair Mrs. 
Stuart, Duchess of Richmond, represented her likeness, 
under the form of Britannia, on the reverse of a large 
nedal with the king's head." (Anecdotes of Painting, iii. 
173.) In 1836, it was resolved to issue silver groats for 
general circulation ; the reverse is a figure of Britannia 
helmeted, seated, resting her right hand upon her shield, 
and supporting a trident with her left. " These pieces," 
says Mr. Hawkins, *' are said to have owed their exist- 
ence to the pressing instance of Mr. Hume, from whence 
they, for some time, bore the nickname of Joeys. As 
they were very convenient to pay short cab -fares, the 
Hon. M.P. was extremely unpopular with the drivers, 
who frequently received only a groat where otherwise 
they would have received a sixpence without any demand 
for change. One driver ingeniously endeavoured to put 
them out of circulation by giving all he received to his 
son upon condition that he did not spend them or ex- 
change them. This had, however, one good effect, as it 
made the man an economist, and a little store became 
accumulated which would be useful upon some unex- 
pected emergence." (Silver Coins of England, p. 257.) 
Consult also Ruding's Annals of Coinage, ii. 385.] 

JOHN WIGAN, M.D. Where can any sketch 
of the life of this distinguished physician and 
eminent scholar in the last century be found? 
He edited a magnificent folio edition of Aretceus, 
published at the Clarendon Press at Oxford in 
1723. A John Wigan occurs in the list of Prin- 
cipals of New Inn Hall, from 1726 to 1732, whom 
I presume to have been the same person. 

He was educated at Westminster under Dr. 
Robert Friend, elected to Christ Church as Stu- 
dent in 1714, and died in Jamaica in 1739. Be- 
sides Aretceus he edited Dr. John Friend's Works, 
and was the author of several copies of verses in 
the Carmina Quadragesimalia. Such particulars, 
however, as I can discover about him are but 
meagre. OXONIENSIS. 

[John Wigan, M.D., born 1695, was the son of the Rev. 
Win. Wigan, rector of Kensington. He was educated at 
the Westminster school, and at Christ Church, Oxford, 

A.B. Feb. 6, 1718, A.M. March 22, 1720 ; proceeded M.D. 
July 6, 1727. On Oct. 5, 1726, he was admitted Prin- 
cipal of New Inn Hall, Oxford, and about the same time 
appointed secretary to the Earl of Arran. He was ad- 
mitted a fellow of the College of Physicians, April 3, 1732* 
and settled in London. In 1738 Dr. Wigan accompanied 
his friend Mr. Trelawny to Jamaica as physician and 
secretary, and died there Dec. 5, 1739, aged forty-four. 
Vide Munk's Roll of the College of Physicians, ii. 108, and 
Welch's Alumni Westmonasterienses, ed. 1852, p. 262.] 

JOHN REYNOLDS. Can you furnish any parti- 
culars of the life of John Reynolds, Esq., Admiral 
of the White, who died in 1788. R. S. F. 

[Some particulars of Admiral John Reynolds after he 
entered the navy, are given in Charnock's Biographia 
Navalis, v. 503. On the 30th of October, 1746, he was 
promoted to be captain of the " Arundel " ; was governor 
of Georgia, between 1745 and 1758 ; appointed captain of 
the " Burford" in 1769 or 1770 ; removed into the " De- 
fence " early in 1771, which was his last command as 
private captain. On March 31, 1775, he was promoted to 
be rear-admiral of the Blue, as he was on Feb. 3, 1776, to 
be rear-admiral of the White ; early in Jan. 1778, to be rear 
of the Red, and on the 29th of the same month to be 
vice-admiral of the Blue. On Sept. 26, 1780, he was far- 
ther advanced to be vice-admiral of the White, and on 
Sept, 24, 1787, made admiral of the Blue. His death took 
place in January, 1788.] 

RICHAED GEDNEY. Can you oblige me with a 
few particulars regarding the life of this juvenile 
poet ; the date of his death, &c. ? R. I. 

[Richard Solomon Gedney was born at New York on 
Oct. 15, 1838. At the age of two years he was brought 
over to England, and educated first at Chorlton High 
School, near Manchester, and afterwards at Cheltenham 
College. In his late years he manifested a strong par- 
tiality for dramatic literature; but, alas! this youthful 
aspirant for literary fame did not live to complete his 
eighteenth year. After a protracted illness, he died on 
July 15, 1856, and his remains were embalmed and for- 
warded to America for interment in the family mausoleum 
at Malvern Hall, on the banks of the river Hudson. See 
a brief Memoir of this youthful genius by James Ogden, 
M.D., prefixed to R. S. Gedney's Poetical Works, Second 
Edition, New York, 8vo, 1857."] 

of Sennoke, Lord Mayor 1418, are seven acorns. 
I should be glad to know their relative position, 
and the tinctures of the coat. C. J. R. 

[In Stow's Survey, 1633, fol. p. 561, the seven acorns 
of the coat of Sir William Sevenoke are placed as three, 
three, and one ; but in Burke's Armory we read, " Seven- 
oke (Lord Mayor of London, 1418). Az. seven acorna 
or, two, three, and two." Under the local name " Seven- 
oke," Burke gives " Vert, seven acorns or, three, three 
and one," as in Stow.] 



[3' d S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 

WBGH. In an account, temp. Edw. III., this 
word seems to express a particular or certain 
weight or quantity : thus,; wegh salis et dinndium, 
a wei^h and half of salt. Bosworth's Ang.-Sax. 
Diet, translates " waeg, weg," a wey, weigh, weight ; 
"we<w, wsecg," a mass. The modern usage a 
wei<rhor wey of cheese, for instance is also inde- 
finite. A reference to any authority where used 
otherwise will oblige. Gr- A. C. 

[The following passages in the " Statutum de ponderi- 
bus et mensuris" (which we transcribe from a MS. copy 
in a hand temp. Edw. I. ; see also Statutes of the Realm) 
will explain as well as may be the question asked by our 
correspondent : 

" Waga enim, tarn plumbi, quam lane, sepi, vel casei, 
ponderat xiiij petras." And in another place we have 
" Qualibet petra habet xiij libras."] 

the amusements of Twelfth Night, did any one 
ever hear of a prize given to the party who could 
make the worst pun? JOSEPH MILLER. 

[We never did ; but we have heard many puns which 
might fairly be admitted to the competition. We once 
heard of a prize offered for the worst conundrum, which 
was won by the following : 

" Why is the bellowing of a single bull less melodious 
than the bellowing of two ? Give it up ? " 

Answer : " Because the first is only a bull, but the 
second is a bull-bull " (bulbul, a nightingale). 

This was unanimously admitted by the friends as- 
sembled to be the worst conundrum they had ever heard, 
and as such received the prize.] 

the numerous publications of the Bishop, was 
there ever a portrait of him published in any of 
them, or in any contemporary publications of his 
time, or since ? GEO. I. COOPER. 

[A Memoir of Bishop Horsley, with a portrait, may be 
found in the European Magazine, Ixiii. 371, 494. In 
Evans's Catalogue of Engraved Portraits, Vol. i. p. 177, 
are the following : 8vo, Gd. ; large folio, 5s. proof, 7s. 6d., 
by J. Green, engraved by Meyer; 4to, 2s. 6d. by Hum- 
phrey, engraved by Godby.] 

" EDUCATION." Who was the author of a work, 
entitled, Of Education, especially of Young Gen- 
tlemen? My copy is "the fifth impression, Ox- 
ford, printed at the Theatre for Amos Curteyne, 
anno 1687, and has a woodcut of the Sheldonian 
Ineatre on the title-page. H. T. D. B. 

[This is one of the productions of Obadiah Walker, 
sometime Master of University College, Oxford, who 
espoused the faith of the Roman Church on the accession 
of James II., and abjured it on his abdication. Commons' 
Journals, Oct. 26, 1689; and Dod's Church History, ii.3 ] 

(3 rd S. iv. 390, 435.) 

The notice of Collier's Short View in Colley 
Gibber's Apology, led me early to procure the 
book, 'and its own proper merit and interest, to 
search after the works of those who took part in 
the controversy with him. One of these led to- 
another, till at length (in the way that Charles 
Lamb said that he had managed to acquire the 
wonderful mastery over tobacco, by which he as- 
tonished the weaker nerves of Dr. Parr: "by 
toiling after it, Sir, as some men toil after vir- 
tue ") I succeeded in obtaining a very complete 
collection. In looking this over with the list of 
your correspondent, I find that I am able to add 
the titles of the following : 

"Overthrow of Stage-Playes, by way of Controversy 
between D. Gager and D. Rainoldes, wherein is manifestly 
proved that it is not only unlawful to be an Actor, but a 
Beholder of those Vanities. By Dr. John Reynolde." Lon- 
don, 4to, 1599. 

" Theatrum Redivivum ; or, the Theatre Vindicated, by 
Sir Richard Baker, in Answer to Mr. Pryn's Histrio- 
Mastix, Wherein his groundless assertions against Stage- 
Plays are discovered, his mistaken Allegations of the 
Fathers manifested, as also what he calls his Reasons, to 
be nothing but his Passions." London, 12mo, 1662, 

[These pieces of course belong to former controversies- 
I mention them as connected with the subject, and just 
falling under my hand.] 

"A Vindication of the Stage, with the Usefullness and 
Advantages of Dramatic Representation, in Answer to- 
Mr. Collier's late Book, entituled," &c. 4to, London,1698, 
pp. 29. 

" A Letter to Mr. Congreve on his Pretended Amend- 
ments," &c. 8vo, London, 1698, pp. 42. 

44 A Further Defence of Dramatic Poetry ; Being the 
Second Part of the Review of Mr. Collier's View, &c. 
Done by the same Hand." 8vo, London, 1698, pp. 72. 

"A Representation of the Impiety and Immorality of 
the English Stage, with Reasons for putting a stop thereto, 
and some Questions addrest ^to those who frequent the 
Play-Houses." 12mo, London, 1704, pp. 24. 

"Serious Reflections on the Scandalous Abuse and 
Effects of the Stage : in a Sermon preached at the Parish 
Church of St. Nicholas in the City of Bristol, on Sunday 
the 7th Day of January, 170|. By Arthur Bedford, M.AV* 
&c. 8vo, Bristol, 1705, pp. 44. 

" The Stage- Beaux toss'd in a Blanket, or Hypocrisie 

Alamode ; Exposed in a true Picture of Jerry , 

a Pretending Scourge to the English Stage, a Comedy, 
with a Prologue on Occasional Conformity ; being a Full 
Explanation of the Poussin Doctor's Book, and an Epi- 
logue on the Reformers. Spoken at the Theatre Royal in 
Drury Lane. 4to, London, 1704, pp. 64. 

[This piece was written by the celebrated Tom Brown.] 

" The Evil and Danger of Stage Plays, shewing their 
Natural Tendency to Destroy Religion, "and introduce a 
General Corruption of Manners, in almost Two thousand 
Instances, &c. By Arthur Bedford." 8vo, London, 1706, 
pp. 227. 

[" As the eminent labours of Mr. Collier and others 

3'd S. V. JAN. 9, '64.] 



have justly alarmed the nation ; so I hope that my weak 
endeavours may be in some measure serviceable for their 
further conviction," &c.] 

" A Defence of Plays ; or, the Stage Vindicated from 
several Passages in Mr. Collier's Short View,' wherein is 
oftered the most Probable Method of Reforming our Plays, 
with a Consideration how far vicious Characters may be 
allowed on the Stage. By Edward Filmer, Doctor of the 
Civil Laws." 8vo, London, Tonson, 1707, pp. 167. 

[This is the work of which the imprint is sought.] 

The Works of Mr. Robert Gould," &c., 2 vols. 8vo, 
London. 1709. 

[The second volume contains "The Play House, a 
Satyr." In three parts, some 1200 lines, very " free " and 

" A Serious Remonstrance on Behalf of the Christian 
Religion, against the horrid Blasphemies and Impieties 
which are still used in the English Play Houses, to the 
great Dishonour of Almighty God, and in contempt of the 
Statutes of this Realm, shewing their plain Tendency to 
overthrow all Piety, and advance the Interest and Honour 
of the Devil in the World ; from almost Seven thousand 
Instances taken out of the Plays of the present Century, 
and especially of the last four years, in defiance of all 
methods hitherto used for their Reformation. By Arthur 
Bedford, M.A., Chaplain to the Most Noble Wriothesley, 
Duke of Bedford," &c. 8vo, London, 1719, pp. 383. 

[In this very curious book, the reverend compiler has, 
with singular industry, and, as it would appear, out of 
consideration for the convenience of lovers of obscene and 
blasphemous reading, produced a manual which saves the 
necessity of reference to our more licentious writers for 
the drama. Thus we are reminded of those judicious 
editions of the Classics, in usum scholarum, so neatly sati- 
rised by Byron in Don Juan, canto I. xliv. Very little is 
known of the Rev. Arthur Bedford ; he was successively 
Vicar of Temple in the city of Bristol, and Rector of New- 
ton St. Loe, in the county of Somerset. He afterwards 
resided in London as chaplain to the Haberdashers' Hos- 
pital at Hoxton, and died September 13, 1745. His other 
works are enumerated in the Fly-Leaves, published by 
Mr. Miller late of Chandos Street, 12mo, 1854, p. 176, 
1st Series."] 

"The Conduct of the Stage considered; Being a Short 
Historical Account of its Original, &c., humbly recom- 
mended to the consideration of those whofrequent the Play - 
Houses. 'One Play- House ruins more Souls than Fifty 
Churches are able to save,' Bulstrode's Charge to the 
Grand Jury of Middlesex, April 21, 1718." 8vo, London, 
1721, pp. 43. 

"The Absolute Unlawfulness of the Stage Entertain- 
ment fully demonstrated, by W. Law, A.M." 2nd ed. 
8vo, London, 1726, pp. 50. 

_' A Short View, &c., by Jeremy Collier." 8vo, London, 

[" Containing several Defences of the same in answer 
to Mr.^ Congreve, Dr. Drake," &c. I cite this reprint of 
Collier's original work here, in chronological sequence, 
as being the best edition, and the one to be specially 
sought for by the collector, as he will here have, without 
further trouble, the " Defence," the " Second Defence," 
and the " Further Vindication" in reply to Dr. Filmer.] 

"An Oration, in which an Enquiry is made whether 
the Stage is, or can be made, a School for forming the 
Mind to Virtue, and proving the Superiority of Theatric 
Instruction over those of History and Moral Philosophy. 
By Charles Poree of the Society of Jesus. Translated by 
Mr. Lockman." 8vo, London,'l734, pp. 111. 

The citation of the last two pamphlets has taken 
me somewhat beyond the Collierian controversy 
proper ; but they are not without value and im- 
portance as bearing on the general subject. 



(3 rd S. iii. 490; iv. 19.) 

Allow me to assure CHESSBOROUGH that, to the 
best of my belief and information, I have not 
" misquoted the passage from Justinian," sent by 
me to your columns some months ago, in the hope 
of eliciting, if possible, an exact explanation of the 
games therein alluded to. I have since consulted 
several of the best editions of the Corpus Juris, 
and cannot find anything to justify the substitu- 
tion of " cordacem " for " contacem ; " and, be- 
sides, from an extract which I shall presently give, 
it will be seen that the " quintanum contacem " 
is quite another thing from the " cordax," with 
the aid of which CHESSBOROUGH interprets the 

Among those which I have consulted I may 
mention the well-known editions of Dion. Gotho- 
fredus, cura Sim. van Leeuwen, Amst. 1663; the 
Corpus Juris Academicum^ Friesleben, 1789 ; and 
a modern stereotyped edition (1858) of the Corpus 
Juris, originally prepared by the critical brothers, 

The passage I before sent to you was (taking 
the Gotbofredan edition as our guide) from Code, 
3, 43, 3, in med. By way of further explanation 
I would take the liberty (assuming that the work 
is not in CHESSBOROUGH'S hands) of quoting a 
previous passage, c. 3, 43, 1, which has the ad- 
vantage of a few notes (cura van Leeuwen) in 
explanation of the text : 

" Duntaxat autem ludereliceat novopoXov** liceat item 
ludere Kovro^Lov6^oKov^ KOVTOOHJV K6vrana, et item liceat 
ludere 5 %(ap\s TTJS ir6pirns, id est, ludere vibratione Quin- 
tiana, 51 absque spiculo, sive aculeo aut ferro, a quodam 
Quinto ita nominata hac lusus specie. Liceat item ludere 
jrepixvrrjv, id est, exerceri lucta : 53 liceat vero etiam ex- 
erceri hippice, 55 id est, equorum cursu," &c. 

Having before me the information contained in 
this passage, what I wanted was a reference to 
some work of authority containing a full and ac- 
curate description of the different games. If such 
a work does not exist, I reciprocate the wish ex- 
pressed by CHESSBOROUGH, that some modern 

" 48 Id est, singulari saltu. 

49 Saltu conto sussulto. 

50 Alii legunt KO.T fyi(a>, vel Catampo, vel Catabo, quod 
genus est ludi Festo. 

51 Ab inventore sic dicta. 

52 Seu colluctatione. 

53 'JTHTI*^. Troia sive Pyrrhica, curriculum equorum," 



[8 rd S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 

"Strutt" would give to the world the results of 
his researches in this neglected held. 

A difficulty occurs in CHESSBOROUGH s render- 
in" of the "singular! saltu" a somersault; be- 
cause, supposing"* to be a somersault, how, in the 
"saltu conto sulsulto" could it be thrown with a 
nole ? May it not rather have been an ordinary 
Syin* jump? The note marked 50 may give 
CHES D SBOEOUGH a better clue if he will kindly con- 
tinue his inquiry, and oblige one at a distance who 
has not his facility for reference and research. 

What was the " vibratio Qumtiana ? for if it 
was " ab inventore sic dicta," as the note says it 
was (note 51 ), it is at variance with CHESS- 
BOROUGH'S reference to the " Quintanus or five 
deep rows of the circus." Would it not rather 

be an exercise in which a Kovrbs was hurled 
at some object, the Kovrbs being "sine fibula, 
X*>pls rrjs irop-irns, i. e. without a hooked point or 
prong, to avoid danger. I admit this to be an 
explanation par hazard, and therefore will not 
stake my " etymological sagacity " on its accuracy. 
The vfpixvrriv was evidently a wrestling match, 
" exerceri lucta," but of what precise nature still 
depends on some of your obliging correspondents. 

I have no doubt that the " hippice " was some 
modification of the " ludus Trojae," for, judging 
from the account given by Virgil (JEn. v. 545) of 
that very intricate movement, it would scarcely 
have been worth the performer's while to have 
played for the single " solidus," which Justinian 
fixed as the legal limit. 

I find I omitted to add another game to those of 
which I before sought explanation, viz., what ex- 
actly were the " lignea equestria " ? In the Code 
3, 43, 3, ad Jin., these words occur : " Prohibemus 
etiam ne sint equi (seu equestres) lignei," &c. 
And in the " argumentum " preceding the (Go- 
thofredan) text, the following amusing passage is 
given : 

" Balsamon notat de equi lignei signification^ incidisse 
apud Imperatorem gravem quondam disputationem, qui- 
busdam asserentibus ilium ludum significari, quo pueri 
extra circum aurigando pro equis hominibus utuntur; 
aliis, vero, contro contendibus ligneam esse fabricam per 
scalas ligneas exaltatam, habentem in medio diversa fo- 
ramina : nam qui hoc genere ludebant, quatuor globules 
diversorum colorum superjiciebant ex superiore parte, et 
qui primus globulorum per foramina ex ultimo foramine 
egrediebatur, hie victoriam dabat ei, qui projecerat." 

^ This extract may assist in the solution of the 
difficulty, although, if there was " gravis dispu- 
tatio apud Imperatorem," as to its exact meaning, 
we can hardly now look for a precise settlement. 
I have no access here to the works of Balsamon, 
who was a scholar and ecclesiastic of the Greek 
church in the twelfth century, ;md wrote Com- 
mentariiu in Photii Nomocanonem, 4to, Paris, 
1615. Photius wrote his Nomocanon about the 
year 858 A.D. ; it was published at Paris, 4to, with 
a Latin version, by Justel, 1615. The latter es- 

pecially of these works might furnish us with an 
explanation. We know that in the Roman chariot 
races the charioteers were divided into different 
factions (greges v. factiones), according to the 
colours of their livery (v. Adams's Rom. Ant.) ; 
thus we have the white faction (/. alba), the red 
(russata), the sky or sea-coloured (veneta), the 
green (prasina) ; and afterwards the golden and 
the purple (aurea et purpurea) ; and Adams tells 
us, on the authority of Procopius (Bell Pers. i.), 
" that in the time of Justinian no less than 30,000 
men lost their lives at Constantinople in a tumult, 
raised by contention among the partisans of these 
several colours." The constitution prohibiting 
these " lignea equestria," CHESSBOROUGH will re- 
member, was Justinian's own : but can he trace 
any connection between the two matters ? ^ In 
conclusion I may add, that in the hope of satisfy- 
ing my curiosity, I have consulted different com- 
mentators on the Code, but find that, like ^ those 
on the Digest, they deal with the general subject of 
the " alea" without specifying or inquiring into 
the character of the prohibited games. 


Cape Town, S. A. 

(3 rd S. iv. 187, 233, 293.) 

I am certainly not a little surprised to find 
CANON DALTON taking up this subject in a serious 
manner, having always considered it as a weak 
invention of an enemy. Admitting, as we must 
do, that St. Patrick was a Christian, a man of 
common sense, and ordinary ability, the story 
falls to the ground at once. For, surely, it must 
be evident to the meanest capacity, that neither 
as a symbol, argument, nor illustration, can any 
material substance, natural or artificial, be com- 
pared to the Divine mystery of the Trinity in 

It is pleasant to turn from this absurd, if not 
egregiously irreverent, story of St. Patrick and 
the Shamrock, to the charming and instructive 
legend of St. Augustine, on the same holy and 
incomprehensible subject. When this revered 
Father was writing his De Trinitate, he one day 
wandered on the seashore, absorbed in profound 
meditation. Suddenly, looking up, he observed a 
beautiful boy, who, having made a hole in the 
sand, appeared to be bringing water from the sea 
to fill it. " What are you doing, my pretty 
child ? " inquired the holy man. "" I am going 
to empty the ocean into that hole I have just 
made in the sand," replied the boy. " Impos- 
sible ! " exclaimed the saint. " No more impos- 
sible," replied the child, " than for thee, O Au- 
gustine, to explain the mystery on which thou 
art now meditating." The boy "disappeared, and 

3rd S . V. JAN. 9, '64. ] 



Augustine then understood that he had been 
vouchsafed a celestial vision. 

The earliest notice that I know of the story of 
St. Patrick and the Shamrock, is found in The 
Koran, not that of Mahomet, by the way, but a 
work attributed to the indecent scoffer and dis- 
grace to his cloth, Laurence Sterne, and runs as 
follows : 

" Explaining the mystery of the Redemption once to a 
young Templar, I happened to make an allusion, adapted 
to his own science, of the levying a fine, and suffering a 
recovery ; this simile was repeated afterwards to my dis- 
advantage ; and I was deemed an infidel thenceforward. 
And why ? merely because 1 am a merry parson, I sup- 
pose for St. Patrick, the Irish patron, because he was 
a grave one, was canonized for illustrating the Trinity 
by the comparison of a Shamrock." * 

The various differences of opinion, respecting 
what plant really is the shamrock, are most ludi- 
crous. A Mr. Bicheno, a Welshman, I believe, 
discovered it in the wood-sorrel, Oxalis acetosella; 
and MR. REDMOND, who, at least, has an Irish 
name, follows the example of Moore, and calls it 
" a grass." But it must be recollected that 
Moore can claim poetical licence for his error, 
and does not fall into Mr. REDMOND'S curious 
confusion of ideas, by speaking of a " trefoil 
grass." f That " all flesh is grass " we know, 
but MR. REDMOND will find a difficulty in per- 
suading us that all vegetable is. The plant known 
all over Ireland as the shamrock is, most un- 
doubtedly, the white clover, trifolium repens : it is 
not " peculiarly indigenous to some parts of Ire- 
land only," but to my certain knowledge is found 
in England, Scotland, and France. Curiously 
enough, in the last-mentioned country, it bears a 
a kind of implied sanctity, its common French 
name being Alleluia ; while a kindred plant, the 
large clover, cultivated for fodder^both in France 
and England, is termed Saintfoin Foenum sanc- 

MR. F. R. DAVIES shrewdly hits the mark, 
when he notices the white clover as a sacred 
plant of ancient Pagan times. Almost all tri- 
foliated plants have been so. Pliny, in his Natural 
History, tells us 

" Trifolium scio credi pravalere contra serpentium 
ictus et scorpionum, serpentesque nunquam in trifolia 

* From The Posthumous Works of a late celebrated 
Genius, Deceased. This rather rare book is reviewed in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for 1770. My copy bears the 
imprint, Dublin, MDCCLXX. Some bibliographers have 
erroneously attributed this work to Swift. This error 
can only be accounted for by the well-known fact, that 
as travellers not unfrequently describe places they have 
not visited, so bibliographers very often take it upon 
them to describe books they have never seen. [ The Post- 
humous Works of a late Celebrated Genius Deceased, a kind 
o'' Shandiana, including also The Koran, is by Mr. Richard 
Griffith, of Millecent, co. Kildare. Vide Gent. Mag. vol. 
Ixvii. pt. ii. p. 755, and "N. & Q." 1" S. i. 418. ED."] 

t Grass produces blades, not leaves. 

aspici. Pra3terea, celebratibus auctovibus, contra omnia 
venena pro antidoto sufficere." 

These are very remarkable passages, to the 
comparative mythologist ; taking them in con- 
nection with the legends of St. Patrick, the 
snakes, and the shamrock. 

About fifty years ago, Dr. Drummond, a dis- 
tinguished Irish botanist, found in the western 
part of the county of Cork, a variety of clover 
with a brown spot in the centre of each leaf, 
which he poetically and fancifully named " the 
real Irish Shamrock;" this plant, however, is 
English, as well as Irish, and I have discovered 
it growing, plentifully, beside the towing path on 
the Surrey side of the Thames, between the Cross 
Deep at Twickenham and Teddin^ton Lock. 

As I have just observed, many tri- foliated plants 
have been held sacred from a remote antiquity. 
The trefoil was eaten by the horses of Jupiter * ; 
and a golden, three-leaved, immortal, plant, af- 
fording riches and protection, is noticed in Homer's 
Hymn, in Mercurium. In the palaces of Nineveh, 
and on the medals of Rome, representations of 
triple branches, triple leaves, and triple fruit, 
are to be found. On the temples and pyramids of 
Gibeliel-Birkel, considered to be much older than 
those of Egypt, there are representations of a 
tri-leaved plant, which in the illustrations of 
Hoskins's Travels in Ethiopia seems to be nothing 
else than a shamrock. The triad is still a favourite 
figure in national and heraldic emblems. Thus 
we have, besides the shamrock of Ireland, the 
three legs of Man, the broad arrow of England, 
the phaon of heraldry, the three feathers of the 
Prince of Wales, the tri-color, and the fleur-de- 
lis of France. Key, in his exceedingly interesting 
work, Histoire du Drapeau, des Couleurs, et des 
Insignes,de la Monarchic Franqaise (Paris, 1837), 
gives engravings of no less than 311 different 
forms of fleur-de-lis, found on ancient Greek, 
Roman, Egyptian, Persian, and Mexican vases, 
coins, medals, and monuments. Including also 
forms of the fleur-de-lis used in mediaeval and 
modern Greece, England, Germany, Spain, Por- 
tugal, Georgia, Arabia, China, and Japan. It 
also appears on the mariners' compass, and the 
pack of playing-cards ; two things which, however 
essentially different, are still the two things that 
civilisation has most widely extended over the 
habitable globe. WILLIAM PINKERTON. 


For a good summary of the evidence in favour 
of the Wood Sorrel, see an article by Mr. James 
Hardy in the Border Magazine, i. 148. (Edin- 

burgh, Sept. 1863.) 


Callimachus, Hymn, in Dianam. 



[3** S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 


(3 rd S. iv. 529.) 

In answer to the appeal of your correspondent, 
C. P. L., I beg to inform him that Wangey House 
stands on the south side of Chadwell Heath, about 
two miles from the town of Romford, but in the 
parishes of Barking and Dagenham. The present 
house was erected in the second quarter of the 
last century ; but I have a rudely drawn sketch 
of the old Harvey mansion, from the large map 
of Barking Manor, A.D. 1653. The Manor of 
Wangey has for some centuries been held distinct 
from the manor house and lands. The Harveys 
lived at Wangey House from early in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, when Alderman, afterwards 
Sir James, Harvey, purchased the estate from Cle- 
ment Sysley of Eastbury House until far on in 
the reign of King Charles II. Of this there is 
good evidence. See Visitation of Essex, 1634, in 
the College of Arms ; Funeral Certificates, Col- 
lege of Arms ; Dagenham Parish Registers ; 
Harvey Wills at Doctors' Commons; Barking 
Manor Court Rolls, &c. From these and other 
sources, I have collected much relating to the 
Harveys as a considerable Essex family. Sir 
James Harvey, who died in 1583, was father 
of Sir Sebastian Harvey, who settled at Mardyke, 
an old house still standing near Dagenham 
James, who succeeded his father at Wangey 
and William, who died, s. p. in 1610. Sir Se- 
bastian Harvey died intestate in 1620, leaving 
one daughter, Mary, afterwards the wife of John 
Popham. James Harvey had a very large family, 
and died in 1627. His stately monument, with 
its quaint inscription, still remains in the rector's 
chancel at Dagenham church. Samuel, his second 
son, who lived at Aldborough Hatch, in Barking 
parish, married Constance, daughter of Dr. Donne, 
and widow of the celebrated Edward Alleyn. At 
his house, of which I have also a tracing from the 
map of 1653, Donne was taken with his last ill- 
ness. Samuel Harvey's children eventually in- 
herited the property of the family. 

Numerous entries of the Harvey family are 
scattered through the Registers of Dagenham, 
Barking, Romford, and Hornchurch. There must 
be many entries also in the Registers of St. 
Dionis' Backchurch, Fenchurch Street, as the 
town house of the Harveys stood in Lime Street ; 
and the earlier generations were buried in St. 
Dionis' church. I found about forty entries at 
Dagenham. The last, January 21, 1677-8, re- 
cords the burial of James Harvey, gent. He 
had, not many years before, sold the Wangey 
estate to Thomas Waldegrave. 

These brief notes may be acceptable to C. P. L., 
as no account of the Harvey family is to be found 
in Morant's or any other History of Essex* They 

* These Harveys must not be confounded with the Har- 
veys of Chigwell, co. Essex; nor with the Herveys of 

are not, however, offered as a satisfactory account 
of the family, and I shall be happy to give him 
further information. EDWARD J. SAGE. 

Stoke Newington. 

(3 rd S. iv. 490.) The exact words of the line 
quoted by your correspondent are not, I believe, 
to be found in Virgil. The line intended by the 
author of the Christian Mystery is doubtless the 
seventh in the well-known fourth eclogue, or Pol- 
lio, of Virgil. 

" Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto." 

In the " Argument " prefixed to this eclogue in 
Forbiger's Virgil, Lipsia3, 1852, vol. i. p. 62, the 
writer observes 

" Vaticinationem Sibyllas de Christi natalibus expres- 
sam esse, quam Virgilius ingeniose ad natales nobilis 
pueri transtulerit jam Lactantins, Inst. vii. 24, statuit, 
et Constantinus M. in Orat. ad Sanctorum Ccetum, Eusebii 

libris de demonstrare voluit. Cujus 

auctoritatem quum olim plerumque Christiani homines 
(cf. Wernsdorf, Poet. Lot. Min. t. iv. p. 767, sq.") turn re- 
centioribus temporibus viri docti secuti sunt plerique." 
And again 

"Succurrebat jam vaticinium illud vulgatum de rege 
sive heroe venturo vel nascituro (cf. Suet. Aug. 94), quod 
sub Nerone iterum increbruit." (Suet. Vesp. 4.) 

With this of Virgil's, we may compare the first 
eclogue of Calpurnius. 


In the mediaeval dramatic colloquy concerning 
our Saviour's birth, contributed by MR. WORKARD, 
he says that Virgil gives his evidence thus : 

" Ecce polo demissa solo nova progenies est," 
but that he cannot anywhere find the words. The 
idea, if not the actual words, I thought, sounded 
familiar to my ears on reading it, and on referring 
to the fourth Eclogue, I found the sentiment thus 
expressed : 

" Jam nova progenies coelo demittitur alto." 
This is so very like what is put into Virgil's 
mouth, that we may surely conceive the other to 
be merely an error of copyists, or a line written 
down from memory. Might not the Mantuan 
possibly, when summoned after so long rest, have 
somewhat adapted his metre, to that of the rest of 
the dialogue, and spoken thus ? 

" See, sent down from highest heaven, 
Wondrous child to man now given." 


Clare College, Cambridge. 

RICHARD ADAMS (2 nd S. x. 70 ; 3 rd S. iv. 527.) 
Some light may be thrown upon his identity from 
the facts, that the one of this name, who was the 
second son of Sir Thomas Adams, Alderman of 

Marks, an important manor house, which stood within a 
mile of Wangey. They were in no way connected with 
these families. 

3 rd S. V. JAN. 9, '64.] 



London,* &c., was born on January 6, 1619-20 
and died without issue on June 13, 1661. He 
was buried in Lancaster Church, where there is 
or was, a monumental inscription. He would have 
been only seventeen years of age in 1637 ; rather 
young to be the author of the verses in the Cam- 
bridge collection. If, also, he were admitted a 
Fellow Commoner of Catharine Hall in April, 
1635, he would have but barely passed his fifteenth 
year. The MESSRS. COOPER can judge of the pro- 
babilities better than I can. J. L. C. 

THOMAS Coo (2 nd S. vi. 344, 375, 376.) This 
person, who represents himself as starving in New- 
gate in November, 1633 (Bruce's Calendar Dom. 
State Papers, Car. I. vi. 310), was of Peterhouse, 
B.A. 1586-7 ; M.A. 1590. 



GEORGE BANKES (2 nd S. ix. 67.) We make 
no doubt that the president of some college, whose 
Common-Place Book constitutes MS. Harl. 4050, 
was George Bankes, Fellow of Peterhouse, Cam- 
bridge, B.A. 1597-8; M.A. 1601; Taxor, 1615; 
Vicar of Cherryhinton, Cambridgeshire, 1629-38. 
We have transcripts of many college orders signed 
by him. In 1633 and 1635 he adds president to 
his name. 

For the information of such of your readers as 
may not be conversant with the usages of this 
University, we may explain that in that College, 
President is synonymous with Vice-Master. The 
term certainly occasions confusion, as in one in- 
stance here, and in several at Oxford, it denotes 
the head of the college. 


QUOTATION (3 rd S/iv. 499.) In reply to your 
correspondent M. S., the lines he alludes to must, 
I imagine, be these : 

" Tender- handed stroke a nettle, 

And it stings you for your pains ; 
Grasp it like a man of mettle, 
And it soft as silk remains. 
" Thus it is with vulgar natures, 

Use them kindly they rebel ; 
But be rough as nutmeg-graters, 
And the rogues obey you well." 
The author was Aaron Hill, and they will be 
found at p. 822 of the Elegant Extracts. W. 
I find in Nichols's Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, 
vol. i. p. 215, mention made of a Sir Nicholas 
Throcmorton, Knight, as having received the 
degree of Master of Arts at a convocation held at 
Oxford, Sept. 6, 1566. A note at the foot of the 
page referring to the convocation gives its place 
in the Calendar, viz., Fasti Oxon. vol. i. col. 100. 
Perhaps this may be of some assistance to the re- 
searches of MR. THEOBALD SMID. Various other 
members, I should suppose of the same family, 

with variously spelled names, may be found in 
the same book at the following pages : vol. i. 
pp. 192, 197 note, 534; vol. ii. pp. 73, 86. 

K. K. C. 

PEN-TOOTH (3 rd S. iv. 491.) I am inclined to 
think that the Huntingdonshire labourer meant 
pin, though he said pen-tooth : for the e and i are 
very much confounded in the eastern counties, 
and very likely so in the bordering county of 
Huntingdon. In Norfolk, a person will speak of 
a pin when he means a pen for sheep, or cattle ; 
and a pen-tooth was probably a />m-tooth (a ca- 
nine tooth), which is more sharp-pointed than our 
other teeth. Thus the uvula, in Norfolk, is called 
the pin of the throat ; and Shakspeare speaks of 
the pfh, or point of the heart F. C. H. 

MARGARET Fox (3 rd S. iv. 137.) The follow- 
ing are the arms of her first husband, of the name 
of Fell, of St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, Middlesex, 
granted Jan. 9, 1772 : Ar. three lozenges in fesse 
vert, between as many damask roses ppr. seeded 
or barbed of the second. Crest, out of a mural 
coronet, gu. a dexter arm embowed in armour, 
ppr. garnished or, holding in the hand ppr. a tilt- 
ing spear of the last. DURHAM. 

FRITH (3 rd S. iv. 478), in the Weald of Kent* 
where also it signifies a wood, is pronounced 
" fright." This is another of the singularities of 
pronunciation peculiar to that county, derived, 
probably, from their ancestors, the Jutes. Thus, 
a ditch, or dyke, is called a " dick." It seems not 
unlikely that such variations may throw light on 
the original languages, or dialects, of the Angles, 
Jutes, and Saxons. The word " burh,'* variously 
pronounced " borough," " burgh," and " bury," is 
an instance which has already been given. Can 
your readers furnish more. They might be of great 
service to the philologer. A. A. 

TEDDED GRASS (3 rd S. iv. 430, 524.) Our best 
thanks are due to your correspondents; for, in all 
archaeological investigations the most valuable in- 
formation we can have, next to the proof of what 
a thing really is, is the being assured of what it is 
not. It seems pretty clear that tedded grass is 
that first shaken out of the swath. Now what are 
tods of grass ; surely the weight of less than half a 
truss of hay would have been in those times a very 
inconsiderable remuneration. Are the tods the 
hay-cocks ? I should explain my reason for this 
query is, that an answer may throw some light on 
that very important subject, the wages of workmen 
in the middle ages. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

PEW RENTS (3 rd S. iv. 373, 443.) Your cor- 
respondents are really in error when they suppose 
that before the Reformation there were no pews 
nor pew rents. This is one of the very things ob- 
ected against the Romanist party by Bishop Bale 



S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 

in his Image of bothe Churches, printed by Richard 
Jugge, London, no date (circa, 1550), B b viii. 
recto. Among other things he enumerates, 

" All shrynes, images, church-stoles, and pewes that are 
well payed for, all banner staves, Pater-noster scores, and 
peces of the holy crosse." 

I say nothing of the spirit or taste which per- 
vades the work, but it is impossible that such 
things as pews and pew rents could have entered 
into the bishop's head if they never existed. The 
first edition is placed by Watt 1550, only two 
years after Grafton printed the first Primer, and 
long before the Reformation had time to influ- 
ence the " manners and customs " of the people. 

A. A. 

LONGEVITY or CLERGYMEN (3 rd S. v. 22. j^-The 
Rev. Peter Young, minister of Wigton, was ap- 
pointed to that charge in 1799, and is now the 
only minister in the Church of Scotland who 
dates from the last century. G. 

MAY: TRI-MILCHI (3 rd S. iv. 516.) As an 
illustration of the milk-producing qualities of the 
month of May, I may mention that when my 
housekeeper expressed surprise to the fish boy, 
who brought her shrimps one May morning, that 
they were so early, he answered: " Oh, yes, ma'am, 
shrimps always come in in May with the fresh 
butter." KENT. 

PHOLEYS (3 rd S. v. 12.) These people are 
clearly the Fulas, otherwise called Fulani, or Fel- 
latahs. The description of their character by 
Edward Cave, in 1733, is singularly in accordance 
with what modern travellers have stated of them. 
The works of Clapperton and Dr. Earth should be 
consulted by E. H. A., if he is curious to learn 
more. j\ G. 


The Life and Correspondence of George Calixtus, Lutheran 
Abbot of Konigshutter, and Professor Primarins in the 
University of Helmstadt. By the Rev. W. C. Dowding, 
M.A. (J. H. &. Jas. Parker.) 

We heartily thank Mr. Dowding for introducing us to 

asnpe a scholar, as good a Christian, and as kind-hearted 

a man as ever breathed. And we hope our readers will 

B no time in making acquaintance with so pleasing a 

biography. Here they may read of College life at Helm- 

stadt, out-heroding the worst bullying of our public 

schools of conversions to Rome among his old fellow- 

collegians, which were grief of heart to our Protestant 

essor of the thirty years' war scattering his 600 

academics to the winds of the abortive conference at 

morn of his yearnings and strivings to heal over the 

wounds of disunited Christendom. It is a touching 

story ; troubles abroad, but peace always at the heart' 

It is a biography which will always be profitable to the 

thoughtful reader. Just now it possesses an additional 

est, as taking us into the debatable ground of Hol- 

tem and Sleswig, which Mr. Dowding puts well before 

ie eyes of his readers. Calixtus was a Sleswiger 

Narratives of the Expulsion of the English from Normandy, 
BICCCCXLJX MCCCCL. Robertus Blondellus de Reduc- 
tione Normannice ; Le Recouvrement de Normendie par 
Bxrry, Herault du Roy ; Conferences between the Am- 
bassadors of France and England. Edited by the Rev. 
Joseph Stevenson. (Published under the Direction of 
the Master of the Rolls.) (Longman.) 

The learned editor of the present volume remarks, with 
great truth, that there could be no more appropriate ac- 
companiment to the volumes which treat of The Wars of 
the English in France which have already appeared in. 
the present Scries of Chronicles than the tracts here 
printed from MSS. in the Imperial Library at Paris; 
which enable us to trace, day by day, and step by step, 
the causes which led to the expulsion of the English from 
Normandy. Blondel's narrative records with consider- 
able minuteness the events which occurred from the 
capture of Fougeres, when the truce between England 
and France was broken, to the final expulsion of the 
English after the loss of Cherbourg and is the most im- 
portant record which we have of this interesting period. 
The work of Jacques le Bouvier, surnamed Berrv, the 
first King of Arms of Charles VII., closely follows that of 
Blondel in its arrangement and details; but contains 
some particulars not recorded by him. The negociations 
between the Ambassadors of France and England, which 
extended from the 20th June to 4th July, 1449, give 
completeness to the work, on which the editor has be- 
stowed his wonted diligence and learning. 

A Spring and Summer in Lapland; with Notes on the 
Fauna of Lulea Lapmark. By an Old Bushman. 

Originally published in The Field, where they were 
favourably received, these Notes on Lapland and its 
Fauna will be very acceptable to lovers of natural his- 
tory, and particularly so to students of ornithology. 

The Brown Book : a Book of Ready Reference to the 
Hotels, Lodging and Boarding Houses, Breakfast and 
Dining Rooms, Libraries (Public and Circulating^), 
Amusements, Hospitals, ScJiools and Charitable Institu- 
tions, in London ; with full Information as to Situation, 
Specialty, fyc. ; and a handy List, showing the nearest 
Post Office, Money Order Office, Cabstand, Police Sta- 
tion, Fire-Engine, Fire-Escape, Hospitals, -c., to One 
Thousand of the Principal Streets of the Metropolis. 
(Saunders & Otley.) 

A book containing the information detailed in this 
ample title-page cannot but be very useful, if the in- 
formation be correct ; and we are bound to state that, as 
tar as'we have been able to test it, The Brown Book is as 
correct, and consequently as useful, as any of its Red or 
Blue contemporaries. 

The Common Prayer in Latin. A Letter addressed to the 

Rev. Sir W. Cope, Bart. By William John Blew. 

With a Postscnpt on the Common Prayer in Greek. 

(C. J. Stewart.) 

A learned and temperate pamphlet on a subject deserv- 
ing the serious attention of all Churchmen. 

Morning, Evening, and Midnight Hymns, by Thomas Ken, 
D.D. With an Introductory Letter by Sir Roundell 
Palmer; and a Biographical Sketch by a Layman. 

This edition of Ken's Hymns, with Sir Roundell Pal- 
mer s introductory examination into the authenticity of 
the text of them, and the biographical sketch of the good 
Bishop's Life, form one of the most interesting parts of 
Mr. Sedgwick Library of Spiritual Songs. 

3'< S. V. JAN. 9, '64.] 



the result of the present movement for a Tercentenary 
Celebration of Shakspeare's Birth whatever form the 
Memorial, which is to spring out of it, may assume 
the most remarkable tribute to the memory of the great 
poet is the simple List of the Members of the Committee. 
Here we see at a glance the representative men of all 
classes social, literary, professional, artistic, and scien- 
tific throwing aside all distinctions of creed, politics, or 

rank, to do homage to the memory of the one whom they 
all agree to honour. This is a fitting tribute to him whose 
large-hearted Catholicity found " good in everything." 

One word as to the fittest form for a Shakspeare Me- 
morial. Looking to what Shakspeare has done for Eng- 
lish literature how he has enriched and moulded it, and 
made it known throughout the world A FREE PUBLIC 
LIBRARY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE would, in our opinion, 
be a worthy memorial of him who tells us 

" A beggar's book outwortli's a noble's blood." 

Few would refuse to contribute, both in money and books, 
to such a second National Library, the keepership of 
which would be a post of honour for a man of letters 
a library of which the shelves should be in the first place 
fitted with all the various editions of the poet's works, 
and all the writings of his commentators, and which 
would justify its founders in inscribing on its wall 




Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Book* to be sent direct to 
the gentlemen by whom they are required, und whose names auti ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose : 

QUFEN ELIZABETH'S BOOK OF PRAYERS. ' Either edition or parts of 


ROMANCM. Folio. Venetiis: J. Variscus. 

Wanted by Rev. J. C. Jackson, 5, Chatham Place East, 
Hackuey, N.E. 

LASTKOZZF, by P. B. Shelley, 

Wanted by J/r. John Wilson, 93, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

THE TORCH: Journal of English and Foreign Literature. 4to, 18389. 
THE PARTHENON: Journal of English uud Foreign Literature, ito, 
1K58 40. 

Wanted by Mr. Camdcn L'otten, Piccadilly. 

to Carrr spauttrnts. 

THE INDEX to our last i:olume will be issued with " N. & Q." on Satur- 
day next. 

Among other articles of interest which will appear in our next Number 
we may mention 

FANTOCCINI, bf/ Mr. Husk. 

8. SINOLHTON will find many earlier versions of "God tempers the 
wind" #c. in tJie 1st vol. of\st Series of "N. & Q." 

A. W. D. The custom on All Souls' Day in Shropshire is noticed in 
our 1st S. iv. 381,506 

G. (Edinburgh.) On cowultinfj seven articles in our 1st S. (see Gen* 
Index, p. 40) our correspondent will jind several conjectures why the 
Kim: cf Diamonds is rnllul the Curse of Scotland. The. explanation sup- 
plied by the game of Pope Joan (.Hi. 'a), is probably the correct one. 

Jos. HARGROVE. Some particulars of the Eev. Wm. Gurnall, may be 
found in our 1st S. x. 404. 

J. C. LINDSAY. For notices of the Mappa Mundi consult our 2nd S. iv* 

OXOMKNSIS. The custom ofplacinff salt on the breast of a corpse Jias 
been discussed in our 1st S. iv. 6, 43, 162; x. 395. 

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In One large Volume Octavo, price 21s. With a Map of Eastern Equatorial Africa by CAPTAIN SPKKE; 
Numerous Illustrations chiefly from Drawings by CAPTAIN GRANT; and Portraits Engraved on Steel of 

WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London. 

\J At this season of the yenr. J. Campbell begs to direct attention to 

this fine eld MALT WHISKY, of which he has held a large stock for 

30 years, price 20*. per gallon; Sir John Power's old Irish Whisky, 18.; 

Hennessey's very old Pale Brandy, 32s. per gallon (J. C.'s extensive 

business in French Wines cives him a thorough knowledge of the 

Brandy market): E. Clicquot's Champagne, t>6s. per dozen: Sherry, 

ale, Golden, or Brown, 30s., 36-i., and 42s.; Port from the wood, 30*. 

id 36., crusted. 42s., 48s. and 54s. Note. _ J. Campbell confidently 

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S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 



(Price 2s. 6d. Monthly). 

THE JANUARY NUMBER (now ready) com- 
mences a New Volume, and contains the following interesting 
articles, the most important of which will be continued throughout the 

^"on the Preservation of Pictures painted in Oil Colours. By J. B. 

The National Gallery. 

The Proto-Madonna. Attributed to St. Luke. Illustrated. 

Almanac of the Month. From Designs by W. Harvey. 

Art^Work in January. By the Rev. J. G. Wood, M.A., &c. &c. 

The Church at Epheaus. By the Rev. J. M. Bellew. 

British Artists: their Style and Character. By J. Dafforne. Illus- 

The Houses of Parliament. 

Progress of Art- Manufacture : Art in Iron. Illustrated. 

Portrait Painting in England. By Peter Cunningham, F. S.A. 

Hymns in Prose. Illustrated. 

Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers. Illustrated. 

History of Caricature and of Grotesque in Art. By T. Wright, 
M.A., F.S.A. Illustrated. 

New Hall China. A History of the New Hall Porcelain Works at 
Shelton. By Llewellynn Jewitt, F.S.A. Illustrated.. 

The Department of Science and Art. 

William Blake the Artist. 

New Method of Engraving and Multiplying Prints, &C.1 

Early Sun-Pictures. &c. &c. &c. 

Also three Line Engravings, viz.: 
" Alice Lisle." By F. Heath. From the Picture by E. M. Ward, 

R A 
" Venice'; from the Canal of the Giudecca." By E. IBrandard. 

From the Picture by J. M. W. Turner, R. A. 
" A Vision." By K. A. Artlett. From the Bas-relief by J. Ed- 

Engravings will be given during the year 1864 from Pictures by E.M. 
Ward. R.A., W. P. Frith, R. A., T. Faed, A.R.A., H. O'Neil, A.R.A., 
J. Philip, R.A.. NoelPaton, R.S.A., J. R. Herbert, R.A., A. Elmore, 
B.A., D. Maclise,R.A.,P. F. Poole, R.A., John Linnell, F. Goodall, 
A.R. A., C. R. Leslie, R.A., J. C. Hook,R.A.,&c. &c. 

Of works in Sculpture, the " Reading Girl " (Magni), the " Finding of 
Moses" (Spence),- Ariel" (Lough), "Monument to Nicholson" (Foley), 
" Religion" (Edwards), " Prince Leopold and Prince Arthur " (Mrs. 
Thornycroft), Ac. *c. 

Selections from the Turner bequest to the nation will also be con- 

Examples of the works of Newton, Mulready, Penry Williams, 
Muller, E. Crowe, Mrs. E. M. Ward, Miss Osborne, W. J. Grant, and 
others, will be given during the year. 

London: JAMES S. VIRTUE, 26, Ivy Lane. 

HEDGES & BUTLER, Wine Merchants, &c. 
recommend and GUARANTEE the following WINES: 

Pure wholesome CLARET, as drunk at Bordeaux, 18s. and 24s. 
per dozen. 

White Bordeaux 24s. and 30s. per doz. 

Good Hock 30s. 36s. 

Ekling Epernay Champagne 36s., 42s. 48s. 
i Dinner Sherry 24s. BOs. 
24s., 30s. 36s. |, 

They invite the attention of CONNOISSEURS to their varied stock 
of CHOICE OLD PORT, consisting of Wines of the 

Celebrated vintage 1820 at 120s. per doz. 

Vintage 1834 108s. 

Vintage 1840 ',', 84s. 

Vintage 1847 72s. 

all of Sandeman'a shipping, and in first-rate condition. 

Fine old "beeswing" Port, 48s. and 60s.; superior Sherry, 36s., 42s. 
48s. ; Clarets of choice growths, 36s., 42s., 48s., 60s., 72s.. 84s.; Hwdihei- 
mer, Marcobrunner, Rudesheimer, Steinberg, Leibfraumilch 60s 
Johannwberger and 8teinberger,72s., 84s., to 120*.; Braunberger Grun- 
haiwen, and Scharzberg, 48. to 84s.; sparkling Moselle, 48s 60s fife 
78. : very choice Champagne, 66s. 78s. ; nne old ^SackrMalmsey Fron- 
tinac, Vermuth, Conrtantia, Lachrymte Christi, Imperial Tokav and 
other rare wines. Fine old Pale Cognac Brandy, 60s and 72s ner do? 
yerv choice Cognac, vintage 1805( which gained the first 
S'A* 1 ".<J&*** iti * 5). "<* K?r doz. FoS 


Brighton : 30, King's Road. 

(Originally established A.n.1667.) 

AU-DE- VIE. This pure PALE BRANDY, 18s. 

Illustrated with nearly 1,500 Engravings on Wood and 12 on Steel, 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION of 1862, C9ntaining speci- 
mens of the best exhibits in the International Exhibition from the 
works of the most famous English and Continental Art-Manufacturers; 
also Engravings on Steel and Wood of the Sculpture; accompanied with 
Essays, by various contributors, on the Progress and Development of 
Art as exemplified in the works exhibited; and a History of the Ex- 
hibition: forming a most interesting and valuable record of the Ex- 
hibition at South Kensington. In one vol. royal 4to, cloth gilt, 21s. 
London: VIRTUE BROTHERS & CO., 1, Amen Corner. 


Nearly ready, in post 8vo, price 7s. 6d. cloth, 

SISTANT on all Matters relating to Cookery and Housekeeping : 
containing Bills of Family Fare for Every Day in the Year; which 
include Breakfast and Dinner for a Small Family, and Dinner for Two- 
Servants. Also, Twelve Bills of Fare for Dinner Parties, and Two for 
Evening Entertainments, with the Cos* annexed. By CRE-FYDD. 


Now ready, 8vo, pp. 408, with many Engravings, cloth, 14s. 

Instruments played on with the Bow; from the Remotest Times 
to the Present. Also, an Account of the Principal Makers, English, 
and Foreign. By W. SANDYS, F.S.A., and S. A. FORSTER. 

London : J. RUSSELL SMITH, 36, Soho Square. 

" PHONOGRAPHY is a RAILROAD method of communicating thought 
a railroad by reason of its expedition a railroad by reason of its ease." 


Price Is. 6d,, Free by Post, 


London: F. PITMAN, 20, Paternoster Row, E.C. 


Is the CHEAPEST HOUSE in the Trade for 

PAPER and ENVELOPES, &c. Useful Cream- laid Note, 2. 3d. per 
ream. Superfine ditto, 3s. 3d. Sermon Paper, 3s. 6d. Straw Paper, 2. 
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Copy Address, PARTRIDGE & COZENS, 
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(Established 1735.) 

T MAPLE and CO. for CARPETS. Choice New 

tl Patterns. 



T MAPLE and CO. for BEDSTEADS, in Wood, 

V m lr ? n ' *.? BrasSl fltted witl1 Furniture and Bedding complete. 
An Illustrated Catalogue Free on application. Entrance 145, Totten- 
ham Court Road. 

THE PRETTIEST GIFT for a LADY is one of 
nesVof Producti?n arded at the In *ational Exhibition for " Cheap- 

Manufactory, 338, Strand, opposite Somerset House. 

3'd S. V. JAN. 9, '64.] 







The Hon. R. E.Howard, D.C.L 

James Hunt, Esq. 

John Leigh, Esq. 

Edm. Lucas, Esq. 

F.B. Marson.Esq. 

E. VansittartNeale, Esq., M.A. 

Bonainy Price, Esq., M.A. 

Jas. Ly s Seager, Esq. 

Thomas Statter, Esq. 

John B. White, Esq. 

ners Cocks, Esq., M.A..J.P. 
H.Drew, Esq., M.A. 
John Fisher, Esq. 
W. Freeman, Esq. 
Charles Frere, Esq. 
Henry P. Fuller, Esq. 
J. H. Goodhart.Esq., J.P. 
J. T. Hibbert, Esq.,M.A.,M.P. 
Peter Hood, Esq. 

Henry Wilbraham, Esq., M.A. 
Actuary Arthur Scratchley, M.A 

Attention is particularly invited to the VALUABLE NEW PRIN- 
CIPLE by which Policies effected in this Office do NOT become VOID 
through the temporary inability of the Assurer to pay a Premium, as 
permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at in- 
terest, according to the conditions stated in the Society's Prospectus. 

The attention of the Public is confidently invited to the several 
Tables and peculiar Advantages offered to the Assurers, which will be 
found fully detailed in the Prospectus. 

It will be observed, that the Rates of Premium are so low as to 
afford at once an IMMEDIATE BONUS to the Assured, when compared 
with the Rates of most other Companies. 

The next Division of Bonus will be made in 1864. Persons entering 
within the present year will secure an additional proportion. 

MKDICAL MEN are remunerated, in all cases, for their Reports to the 


The Rates of ENDOWMENTS granted to young lives, and of ANNUITIES 
to old lives, are liberal. 

Now ready, price 14s. 


on SAVINGS BANKS, containing a Review of their Past History and 
Present Condition, and of Legislation on the Subject; together with 
roach Legal, Statistical, and Financial Information, for the use of 
Trustees, Managers, and Actuaries. 



Patent, March 1, 1862, No. 660. 


VT SOFT GUMS, without springs or palates, are warranted to suc- 
ceed even when all highly-lauded inventions have failed. Purest ma- 
terials and first-class workmanship warranted, and supplied at half 
the usual costs. 


27, Harley Street, Cavendish Square, and 34, Ludgate Hill, London; 

134, Duke Street, Liverpool; 65, New Street, Birmingham. 
Consultations gratis. For an explanation of their various improve- 
ments, opinions of the press, testimonials, &c., see " Gabriel's Practical 
Treatise on the Teeth/' Post Free on application. 

American Mineral Teeth, best in Europe, from 4 to 7, 10 and 15 
guineas per set, warranted. 


MAPPIN BROTHERS beg to call attention to their Extensive 
of New Designs in sterling SILVER CHRISTENING 
TS. Silver Cups, beautifully chased and engraved, 31., 31. 10."., 
., a*., a. 10s. each, according to size and pattern; Silver Sets of Knife, 
F -V rk ' a d 8 P n ' in Cases, II. Is., II. 10s., '21., 21 10s., 31. 3s., 41. 4s.; 
Silver Baam and Spoon, in handsome Cases, 41. 4s., 61. 6s., 81. 8s., 
101. 10s._ MAPPIN BROTHERS, Silversmiths, 67 and 68, King Wil- 
^ a 2l S J e ?V Lond011 Bridge ; and 222, Regent Street, W. Established 
in Sheffield A.D. 1810. 


1 ,000 others. 2s. 6d. each._2, New Bond Street, London. 

STRENGTH.-When the system is weak and the nerves un- 
strung, disease is certain to present itself unless some purifying and 
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In such cases, no treatment can equal that by these excellent Pills ; no 
other Plan can be pursued so well devised for ejecting all impurities 
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lolloway s Fills so fortify the stomach and regulate the liver that they 
raise capability of digestion, and thus create new power. This is the 
i why Holloway's Pills have gained their present popularity, and 
ffi and strennh'S 11 throughout the globe as a " fresh source of 

Instituted A.D. 1820. 

A SUPPLEMENT to the PROSPECTUS, showing the advantages 
of the Bonus System, may be had on application to 




Established 1809. 

Incorporated by Royal Charter and Special Acts of Parliament. 
Accumulated and Invested Funds ............ <2,122,8'.'8 

Annual Revenue ............................... 122,401 

John Mollett, Esq. 
Junius S. Morgan, Esq. 
G. Garden Nicol, Esq. 
John H. Wm. Schroder, Esq. 
George Young, Esq. 


JOHN WHITE CATER, Esq., Chairman. 
CHARLES MORRISON, Esq., Deputy-Chairman- 

A. De Arroyave, Esq. 
Edward Cohen, Esq. 
James Du Buisson, Esq. 
P. Du Pre Grenfell, Esq. 
A. Klockmann, Esq. 


A. H. Campbell, Esq. I P. P. Ralli, Esq. 

P. C. Cavan, Esq. | Robert Smith, Esq. 

Frederic Somes, Esq. 

Manager of Fire Department George H. Whyting. 
Superintendent of Foreign Department G. H. Burnett. 

Secretary- F. W. Lance. 
General Manager David Smith. 


The Company grants Insurances against Fire in the United King- 
dom, and all Foreign Countries. 
Mercantile risks in the Port of London accepted at reduced rates. 

Losses promptly and liberally settled. 

Foreign .Sisfcs. The Directors having i , 

Foreign Countries are prepared to issue Policies on the most favour- 

ing a practical knowledge of 

able terms. In all cases a discount will be allowed to Merchants and 
others effecting such insurances. 


The following Statement exhibits the improvement effected during 
the last few years : 

No. of Policies Sums. Premiums, 

issued. . . s. d. 

1858 .... 455 .... 377,425 12,565 18 8 

1859 .... 605 .... 449,913 .... 14,070 1 6 

1860 .... 741 .... 475,649 .... 14,071 17 7 

1861 .... 785 .... 527,626 .... 16,553 2 9 

1862 .... 1,037 .... 768,334 .... 23,641 
Thus in five years the number of Policies issued was 3,623, assuring 7 

the large sum of 2,928,947?. 

The leading features of the Office are : 

1. Entire Security to Assurers. 

2. The large Bonus Additions' already declared, and the prospect of a 
further Bonus at the next investigation. 

3. The advantages afforded by the varied Tables of Premiums unre- 
stricted conditions of Policies and general liberality in dealing with 
the Assured. 

Forms of Proposal and every information will be furnished on appli- 
cation at the 

Head Offices : LON DON 58, Threadneedle Street. 

4. New Bank- buildings. 
EDINBURGH 64, Princes Street. 




This delicious condiment, pronounced by Connoisseurs 


is prepared solely by LEA & PERRINS. 

The Public are respectfully cautioned against worthless imitations, and 
should see that LEA & PERRINS' Names are on Wrapper, Label, 
Bottle, and Stopper. 


*** Sold Wholesale and for Export, by the Proprietors, Worcester; 
SONS, London, &c., &c. ; and by Grocers and Oilmen universally. 

Now ready, 18mo, coloured wrapper, Post Free, 6d. 


x/ work, by DR. LAV1LLE of the Faculty of Medicine, Paris, ex- 
hibiting a perfectly new, certain, and safe method of cure. Translated 
>y an English Practitioner. 

London: FRAS. NEWBERY & SONS, 45, St. Paul'i Church Yard. 


[3' d S. V. JAN. 9, '64. 


Nearly ready. 


For 1864. 


cr nn account of 'the Government, Population, Revenue, 
.nVavi^ducrtton. Religion, and many other particulars 
of All the Countries in the World. 


" The STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK " is intended to supply a want 
;,, Fnclih Literature- a want noticed and commented upon more than 
nftf "a years a" by the^ate Sir Robert Peel. All readers of newspapers, 
h Mother wort*; all educated men. must have f^^fi5"S c > a 
)v>lr of reference civin" an account of Countries and Mates, in me 
S^nnlrTaKbiographical dictionary would give a sketch of 

^Th^ STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK" contains a full account of 
11 the State* of Europe, Asia. America, and Australasia, considered 
under theiTp^ tkal wcial, and commercial aspects. In the descrip- 
aoriSch individual state, the plan adopted has been to begin with the 
HEAD S. Emperor, President, as the case may be, and. going through 
all the subordinate functionaries, to give a complete account of the go- 

cyinyactsand Figures has been aimed at throughout. None 
bu"toSl Documents have been consulted, in all cases wherever they 
could be had; and only where these haveiailed or been manifestly im- 
perfect, has recourse been had to other authorities. 
In the Press. 



Rector of Evernley, Chaplain in Ordinary to the Queen, and Professor 
of Modern History in the University of Cambridge. 

2 Vols. Svo, cloth, 36s. 


Professor of History and English Literature in University College, 

Toronto, Author of " Prehistoric Man. 

Second Edition, revised and nearly re-written, with numerous 

Nearly ready, crown Svo. 


Chapter, on 

Vol. I. Svo, cloth, 21*. 


From the Foundation of the Achaian League to the Disruption of 

the United States. 


Late Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford. 

Vol. I_General Introduction History of the Greek Federations. 

2 Vols. demy Svo, cloth, 32s. 


By T. L. KINGTON. M.A., 
of Balliol College, Oxford, and the Inner Temple. 

Second edition, Svo, cloth, 10. 6d. 


Being an Attempt to explain the Real Issues involved in the 

American Contest. 
By J. E. CAIRNE8, M.A., 

Profcwor of Jurisprudence and Political Economy in Queen's 
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Svo, cloth, 7s. 6d. 



Reprinted from the " Times," with considerable Additions. 
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Crown Svo, cloth, 8s. 6cf., 




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Vol. III. (completing the Comedies), 10s. 6cZ. 



Trinity College, Cambridge. 

To be completed in Eight Volumes, demy Svo, price 10s. Gel. each. 
Vol. IV. will be published on March 24, 1864. 

With numerous Illustrations, medium Svo, 2 Vols. cloth, 32s. 


With Selections from his Poems and other Writings. 


Author of" The Life of William Etty, R.A." 

Illustrated from Blake's own Works, in Fac-simile and in 


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Regius Professor of Technology in the University of Edinburgh, and 

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Crown Svo, cloth, 12s. &7. 


With a Map, and numerous Woodcuts. 
By CHARLES MANSFIELD, M.A., of Clare College, Cambridge. 

With a Sketch of his Life. 


Svo, cloth, 14s. 

TRAVEL IN 1861. 


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With Ten Maps, illustrating the Routes. 

Crown Svo, cloth, 12s. 


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Svo, cloth, IS* 1 . 


By J. FITZJAMES STEPHEN, of the Inner Temple, Barrister-at- 
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Nearly ready, Svo. 




Printed by GEORGE ANDREW SPOTTISWOODE, at 6 New-street Square, in the Parish of St. Bride, in the County of Middlesex ; and 
Published by WILLIAM GREIG SMITH, of 3'i Wellington Street, Strand, in the said County. Saturday, January 9, 1864. 





" When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 

No. 107. 


f With Index, price 1O</. 
I Stamped Edition, lid. 

The Office of NOTES & QUERIES is removed to 32, Wellington Street, Strand, W. G. 

published this Day, SATURDAY. 







London : LONGMAN & CO. Edinburgh : A. & C. BLACK. 

Now ready, in 2 Vols. 8vo, with Portrait, 30s. 


V ; TO ANNE. Edited, from the Papers at Kimbolton, by the 

HURST & BLACKETT, 13, Great Marlborough Street. 

Now ready, in post 8ro, price 2s. 6rf., to be published half-yearly, 

HE BROWN BOOK: a Book of read Reference 

for the use of Visitors and Residents in London, containing selected 
to of Hotels, Boa riling-houses, Dining-rooms, Lodsings, &c ; full 
and practical Information as to Charities of every Description, Libraries 
and Institutions ; Days of Meeting of the Scientific Societies ; Amuse- 
ments, Theatrical, Musical, &c.; with other useful information. The 
whole classified in a novel manner. Also, a handy List showing the 
nearest Post Office, Telegraph Station, Cab Stand, I ire Engine, &c. &c. 
to 1000 principal Streets. 

London: SAUNDERS, OTLEY, & CO., 66. Brook Street. W., and all 
Bo .ksellers, Newsagents, and Kailway Bookstalls. 

Now Ready, price 5*. 6rf. (Post Free), mounted on India Paper, 

OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE. Beautifully photographed 
from the o ipinal as preserved in the first folio edition of Miakespeare's 
Works. Ben Jonson, the friend and companion of the Poet, bears 
witness to its excellency as a likeness, saying that 

' The graver had a strife 
With nature to outdo the life." 

Beneath the portrait is an accurate facsimile of Shakespeare's Auto- 
graph, copied from the original in the British Museum. 

F. 8. ELMS, 33, King Street, Covent Garden. 

Illustrated with nearly 1,500 Engravings on Wood and 12 on Steel, 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION of 18H2, containing speci- 
mens of the best exhibits in the International Exhibition from the 
works of the most famous English and Continental Art-Manufacturers; 
also Engravings on Steel und Wood of the Sculpture; aceorm aniedwith 
Essays, by various contributors, on the Progress and Development of 
L> exemplified in the works exhibited; and a History of the Ex- 
biuon: forming a most interesting and valuable, record of the Ex- 
hibition at South Kensington. In one vol. royal 4to, cloth gilt, 21s. 
London: VIRTUE BROTHERS & CO., 1, Amen Corner. 


\J Information is requested as to where the Portraits of the Colonel 
and his wife, Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson. may now he sten or where the 
FnT,fiT S Mttnu V lpt * of th t Lady (who.e " Memoirs" were published 
in 1806) can now be found. 

Address, CAPT. HUTCHINSON, R.N., Chilham, near Canterbury 

SRD S. No. 107. 

On January 20th will be published, price 6., 

No. III. 

I. The Camirus Vase (with an Illustration in Chromo-litho- 

II. The Loan Collection at South Kensington. n. 

III. Raphael's School of Athens. 

IV. Modern French Etchings (with Two Plates). 
V. Early History of the Royal Academy II. 

VI. Horace Vernet. 
VII. Catalogue of Pictures belonging to the Society of Antiquaries. 

VIII. Poussin Drawings in the Royal Collection II. 

IX. " Who was Francesco da Bologna ?"_II. 
X. Works of Cornelius Visscher III. 
XI. Recent Additions to the Na'ional Gallery. 
XII. Recent Additions to the National Portrait Gallery. 
XIII. Record of the Fine Arts. 

Title, Preface, and Index to Vol. I. 
London : CHAPMAN & HALL, 193, Piccadilly. 


O BARONETAGE for 1864. Twenty-sixth Edition. Just published, 
price 38* , in One Vol., royal 8vo. 

" The first authority on all questions respecting the aristocracy." 


" A book of superior merit." Observer. 

"A 'P erage and Baronetage ' which may be classed among the 
institutions of the country." Daily Telegraph. 

" Wonderful exactitude and correctness." Illustrated London News 

" A complete cyclopaedia of the titled classes."_Pos. 

London: HARRISON. Bookseller to the Queen and His Royal 
Highness the Prince of Wales, 59, Pall Mall. 

cated to the Baronets Mayer de Rothschild. Folio, elegantly il- 
lustrated, hound, &c. To subscribers. 16s. N.B. No subscriber's narrei 
can be received Inter than the 20th of this month, after which date the 
price to the public will he One Guinea C. Lonsdale's Musical Cir- 
culating Library, i6, Old Bond Street. 


Now ready, in small 8vo, with Frontispiece, 5*. cloth, 

Reading, Reference, and Conversation on Subjects of Living 
Interest, useful Curiosity, and umu>ing Research : from the best and 
latest Authorities. By JOHN TIMES, F.S.A., Author of" Things not 
Generally Known." 

LOCKWOOD & CO., 7, Stationers' Hall Court, Ludgate Street. 


CATALOGUE, No. 7, Gratis and Post Free. 
By GEO. FINDLEY, 89, High Street, Leicester. 



J recent large find, sent Post Free to any Address for 13 Stamps. 
A Catalogue lot warded on application. 

W. H. JOHNSTON, 3, Queen Street, Cheapside, London. 


[3'd S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 


This day is published, 





Captain H.M, Indian Army. 

In One large Volume Octavo, price 21s. With a Map of Eastern Equatorial Africa by CAPTAIN SPEKE ; 
Numerous IllustratLa chiefly from Drawings by CAPTAIN GEANT; and Portraits, engraved on Steel, ot 


WILLIAM BLACKWOOD & SONS, Edinburgh and London. 

HEDGES & BUTLER, Wine Merchants, &c. 
recommend and GUARANTEE the following WINES: - 
Pure wholesome CLARET, as drunk at Bordeaux, 18s. and 24*. 

per dozen. 
White Bordeaux .......................... 24s. and SO*, per doz. 

Good Hock ................................ 30*. 36*. 

Sparkling Epernay Champagne ...... 36s., 42*. 48s. 

Good Dinner Sherry ........................ 24s. iJO*. 

Port .............. .. .................. 24.,30s. 36s. 

They invite the attention of CONNOISSEURS to their varied stock 
of CHOICE OLD PORT, consisting of Wines of the 

Celebrated vintage 1820 at 120*. per doz. 
Vintage 1834 ............. , 108*. 

Vintage 1840 .............. 84*. 

Vintage 1847 ............ 72s. 

all of Sandeman's shipping, and in first-rate condition. 

Fine old "beeswing" Port, 48s. and 60s.; superior Sherry, 36*., 42*., 
48*.; Clarets of choice growths, 36s., 42s., 48s. ,60s., 72*., 84*.; Hochhei- 
mtr, Marcoforunner, Rudesheimer, Steinberg, Leibfraumilch, 60*.; 
Johannesberger and Steinberger, 72s., 84*., to 120$.; Braunberger, Grun- 
haustn, and Scharzberg, 48*. to 84*.; sparkling Moselle, 48*., 60s., 66*., 
78*. ; very choice Champagne, 66*. 78*. ; fine old Sack, Malmsey, Fron- 
tignac, Vermuth, Constantia, LachrymseChristi, Imperial Tokay, and 
other rare wines. Fine old Pale Cognac Brandy, 60s. and 72*. per doz.; 
very choice Cognac, vintage 1805 (which gained the first class gold 
medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1855), 144*. per doz. Foreign Liqueurs 
of every description. On receipt of a post-office order, or reference, any 
quantity will be forwarded immediately, by 


Brighton : 30, King's Road. 

(Originally established A.D.1667.) 


V_> At this season of the year. J. Camobell begs to direct attention to 
this fine old MALT WHISKY, of which he has held a large stock for 
30 years, price 20*. per gallon; Sir John Power's old Irish Whisky, 18*.; 
Hennessey's very old Pale Brandy,, 32s. per gallon (J. C.'s extensive 
business in French Wines gives him a thorough knowledge of the 
Brandy market): E. Clicquot's Champagne, ti6*. per dozen; Sherry, 
Pale, -.olden, or Brown, 30*., 36*., and <2*.; Port from the wood, 30*. 
and 36*., crusted, 42*., 48s. and 54*. Note. J. Campbell confidently 
recommend* hitVin de Bordeaux, at 20s. per dozen, which greatly im- 
proves by keeping in bottle two or three years. Remittances or town 
reference* ihould be addressed JAMBS CAMPBELL, 158, Regent Street. 

EAU-DE-VIE. This pure PALE BRANDY, 18*. 
per gallon, is peculiarly free from acidity, and very superior to 
recent importations of Cognac. In French bottles, 38s. per doz.; or in 
a case for the country. 39.. railway carriage paid. No agents and to 
i obtained only of HENRY BRETT & CO., Old FurM's MWstlflery, 
Holborn, B.C. and 30, Regent Street, Waterloo Place, S.W., London 
Prices Current free on application. 

J MAPLE and CO. for CARPETS. Choice New 


T MAPLE and CO. for BEDSTEADS, in Wood, 

V r,, Iront *P d BraM - fitted with Furniture and Bedding complete, 
ham [c UStra Ro aUlogue Free on ft PPtication. -Entrance 145, Totten- 

" PHONOGRAPHY ia a RAILROAD method of communicating thought 
a railroad by reason of its expedition a railroad by reason of Us ease." 


Price Is. Gd., Free by Post, 


London: F. PITMAN, 20, Paternoster Row, E.G. 


_O SUGG, Bookseller, Brighton. Six CATALOGUES thus Classified : 
Theological, Scientific, Classical, Medical, Foreign, and Miscellaneous, 
are now ready, and any will be sent for a Stamp. The Books can be 
seen in London. 12,000 Volumes. 

The important Library of a Gentleman, deceased. 


IX Auctioneers of Literary Property and Works illustrative of the 
.cine Arts, will SELL BY AUCTION, at their House, No. 13 (late Z) 
Wellington Street, Strand, W.C., on WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 20, 
1864, and following Day, at One o'clock precisely, the VALUABLE 
LIBRARY of a Gentleman, Deceased, comprising some very important 
Works, and privately printed Books, in very choice Condition, including 
Halstead's Succinct Genealogies of the Houses of Alno, &c., of excessive 
rarity, 1685; Duke of Rutland's Journal of his Tours in England and 
Wales, 3 vols. fine copies in citron morocco; Alhin's Natural History of 
Birds, 3 vols., a very fine original copy; Martyn's Figures of Rare Plants, 
4 vols. in 2, with 131 beautiful drawings in colours, in morocco super 
extra, by Lewis; Vieillot et Oudart, Galerie des Oiseaux; Redoute 
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3"i S. V. JAN. 16, '64.] 




CONTENTS. No. 107. 

NOTES : Mr. Froude in Ulster, 47 Shakspeariana : 
Stephano "Hamlet" Hamlet's Grave, 49 "The 
Grand Impostor, 50 St. Mary's, Beverley, 51 Fantoc- 
cini, 52 One Swallow does not make a Summer" 
Pruidical Remains in India Anagrams A Note on 
Notes Zachary Boyd, 53. 

QUERIES: Manuscript English Chronicle, 54 Baroness 

The Bloody Hand Books of Monumental Inscriptions 

Alfred Bunn Thomas Cook Cromwell Cullum 
Enigma English Topography in Dutch Fowls with 
Human Remains " The Leprosy of Naaman " Nicholas 
Newlin Northumbrian (Anglo-Saxon) Money Order 
of St. John of Jerusalem Painter to His Majesty 
Pocket Fender Pumice Stone References Wanted 
Spanish Drought Torrington Family, 54. 

QUKRIES WITH ANSWERS: Halifax Law Charles Left- 
ley Psalm ic. 9 Dissolution of Monasteries, Ac. 
Hiorne, the Architect Copying Parish Registers, 56. 

REPLIES: Reliable, 58 Sir Robert Gifford, 59 Mrs. 
Fitzherbert, Ib. St. Patrick and the Shamrock, 60 
Quotation : " Aut tu Morus cs," Ac. Storque Heraldic 
Visitations printed Clerk of the Cheque Quotations 
Wanted vixen : Fixen Rob. Burns Brettingham 
Shakspeare and Plato Laurel Water Pholey Penny 
Loaves at Funerals "Trade and Improvement of Ire- 
land " Arms of Saxony " Est Rosaflos Veneris " " The 
Amateur's Magazine "Mad as a Hatter Richard Adams 
Madman's Food tasting of Oatmeal Porridge Sir Ed- 
ward May Sir William Sevenoke Longevity of Clergy- 
men Paper Marks The Laird of Lee Frith Silver 
Potato and Point Greek and Roman Games, &c., 61. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



In two chapters of the eighth and last pub- 
lished volume of his History of England, Mr. 
Froude has sketched the leading events of the 
struggle with Shane O'Neill at the commencement 
of Elizabeth's reign ; but the theme was worthy 
of a much larger space, and indeed required an 
ampler treatment, to render it intelligible to Eng- 
lish readers. In that struggle the Scots formed a 
principal element, and, in connection with their 
settlements in Ulster during the fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries, Mr. F. had rare and plentiful 
materials at hand. The whole story of these 
Scottish settlements, however, ia told at page 10, 
in the following words : " The Irish of the North, 
and the Scots of the Western Isles, had for two 
centuries kept up a close and increasing inter- 
course." This intercourse, practically speaking, 
began with the marriage of John Mor Macdonnell 
to Marjory Bisset, sole heiress to the Glynns or 
Glens of Antrim, about the year 1400, and a 
simple recital of facts in the history of their de- 
scendants, the Clan Ian Vor, or Clandonnell South, 
would have been highly important in reviewing 
the leading parties throughout Ulster during the 
sixteenth century. 

But without any previous knowledge of these 
Scots, the reader is introduced to a company of 
them thus, at page 10 : 

" James M'Connell (Macdonnell) and his two brothers, 
near kinsmen of the House of Argyle, crossed over with 
2000 followers to settle in Tyrconnell, while to the Cal- 
logh O'Donnell, the chief of the clan, the Earl of Argyle 
himself gave his half -sister for a wife." 

James Macdonnell had not only two, but seven 
brothers, the sons of Alexander of Isla, all of whom 
were leaders of greater or less note in the ranks of 
the Clan Ian Vor, and all of whom were probably 
born and brought up on the Antrim coast, where 
their father resided from the year 1493, having 
been then banished from Scotland by James IV. 
They were not, however, " near kinsmen of the 
house of Argyle," neither had they any immediate 
family relationship with the Campbells, farther 
than that James Macdonnell, the eldest brother, 
was married to a daughter of Colin Campbell, the 
third Earl of Argyle. James Macdonnell and 
two of his brothers may have gone on some expe- 
dition into Tyrconnell (Donegal), as the allies of 
the O'Donnells, but they never went there for the 
purpose of settling permanently, although their 
movements may have been so represented, or mis- 
represented, by English officials. James Mac- 
donnell, when in Ulster, had his own well-known 
town and castle at Red Bay, on the Antrim coast, 
and his two brothers, Colla and Sorley (who no 
doubt went with him into Tyrconnell on the oc- 
casion referred to by Mr. Froude), dwelt re- 
spectively at Kinbann and Ballycastle, on the 
same coast. Mr. Froude always speaks of Calvagh 
O'Donnell as " the Callogh," thus adopting the 
phraseology of English emissaries. By them he 
is no doubt also misled, in supposing that Argyle 
gave his " half-sister " to the " Callogh " as wife. 
The fact that the lady in question is always 
termed Countess of Argyle naturally enough puz- 
zles Mr. F., seeing that, had she only been the 
Earl's half-sz'sfer, she could not have had the 
title of Countess. This lady, however, has been 
hitherto regarded as the step-mother only, of 
Archibald, fourth Earl of Argyle, having been 
his father's second wife, and consequently Countess 
dowager of Argyle. She afterwards became the 
second wife of Calvagh O'Donnell, but continued 
to retain her Scottish title. She was one of the 
seven daughters of Hector Mor Maclean, Chief 
of the house of Dowart, in Mull. Her mother 
was Mary, daughter of Alexander of Islay, and 
sister to James Macdonnell. After her abduction 
by Shane O'Neill, Sussex wrote to Elizabeth that 
" Thre of the Mac Illanes (Macleans), Kynsmen 
of the Countess of Oirgyle" had offered great 
services to her captor for her release. It must 
be admitted, however, that the lady is still some- 
what of a genealogical puzzle, but it is certain she 
could not have been half-sister to the then Earl 
of Argyle. The latter is represented as being a 
wonderful match-maker, for he is described as 
proposing to marry James Macdonnell's widow 


[3 rd S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 


I snrina after they had sown their own barren 

( another half-sister of Argyle," page 395) to spnng afterj e^ ^ ^ throughout 

Shane O'Neill, after the latter had repudiated or | garcne* ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ emergency aros6j 

however, reinforcements were summoned by the 
simple means of lighting a great nre^n^orr- 

Shane O'Neill, amc* "~ * 

put away James Macdonnell's daughter; and, 
again (page 387), as making arrangements witn 

O'Neill for marrying two of his children by t J. I jj e ad, which is the nearest point 01 me AUU-IIU 
T& r^^ -* -k <he ^annel^e ^ on, y 

nearest point of the Antrim. 

eleven miles and a half in breadth. Mr. Froude 

"The following is Mr. Froude's account (p. 380) 
of Shane O'Neill's celebrated expedition against 
the Scots, in the spring of 1565 : 

" O'Neill lav quiet through the winter. With the 
spring and the fine weather, when the rivers fell and the 
c-round dried, he roused himself out of his lair, and with 
his galloglasse and kern, and a few hundred 'harquebuss- 
men ' he dashed suddenly down upon the * Redshanks ' 
and broke them to pieces. Six or seven hundred were 
killed in the field ; James M'Connell and his brother 
Sorleboy were taken prisoners ; and for the moment the 
whole colony was swept away." 

In this brief space, Mr. Froude compresses all 
the stirring events of that remarkable campaign ; 
the mustering of O'Neill's force in Armagh after 
the solemnities of Easter his march into Clande- 
boye, and the gathering of the gentry in that ter- 
ritory, with their adherents, around the standard 
of their great chief the battle of Knockboy, near 
Ballymena, where Somhairle Macdonnell with- 
stood, for a time, the overwhelming force of 
O'Neill the siege and capture of Red Bay 
Castle (Uairadergh) the landing of the Scots at 
Cushindun under James Macdonnell, and their 
union with Sorley Boy's small force their re 
treat before O'Neill northward along the coast 
to Baile Caislean (now Ballycastle) the furi- 
ous battle of Gleanntaisi, in that district, com 
mencing at five o'clock on the morning of the 
2nd of May O'Neill's halt at Ballycastle, where 
he listened to, but rejected, the despairing pro- 
posals of the Scots, and from which he addressed 
his celebrated letter to the Lords Justices, in- 
forming them of his victory his subsequent 
capture of the Castles of Downesterick and Dun 
luce his sending James and Sorley Macdon- 
nell, together with nineteen other Scottish leaders, 
captured on the field of Gleanntaisi, to dungeons 
in Tyrone and his own triumphant return into 

In selecting the season of spring for this " dash" 
against the Scots, Shane was not so much con- 
cerned about " when the rivers fell and the ground 
dried" as about the necessity of having the blow 
dealt before the period when reinforcements began 
generally to arrive from Scotland. The Scots 
were known to leave Antrim each season in Oc- 
tober, or early in November, except such num- 
bers as were necessary to hold certain positions 
along the coast, and as regularly to return in the 

Head ; and in Norden's Map of Ulster prefixed to 
vol. ii. of the State Papers, we have the following 
announcement at the latter headland : " At this 
marke the Scotts used to make their Warning 
Fires." It is not unlikely, however, that Fair- 
head, which is much higher and more prominent, 
although further from Cantire, may have been also 
used for the same purpose ; but on what authority 
Mr. Froude's statement rests, I do not know. 

At page 418, Mr. Froude thus describes the 
place of Shane O'Neill's assassination : 

" In the far extremity of Antrim, beside the falls of 
Isnaleara, where the black valley of Glenariff opens out 
into Red Bay, sheltered among the hills and close upon 
the sea, lay the camp of Allaster M'Connell (Alexander 
Oge Macdonnell) and his nephew Gillespie." 

The county of Antrim extends along the coast 
from Belfast to Coleraine, but the point here so 
indefinitely referred to is neither at one ex- 
tremity nor the other. Shane O'Neill was slain in 
the present townland of Ballyteerim, overlooking 
Cushindun Bay, and still containing traces of the 
building in which his last fatal interview with 
the Macdonnells took place. In Norden's Map 
prefixed to the State Papers, vol. ii., the name of 
this townland is Balle Teraino, and it is accom- 
panied with the following note : " Here Shane 
O'Neale was slayne." Mr. Froude has, no doubt, 
some authority for associating that chieftain's 
death with the " falls of Isnaleara " and the 
black valley of Glenariff." We are told, also, 
that O'Neill's lifeless body was " nung into a 
pit dug hastily among the ruined arches of Glen- 
arm," and if so, the assassins must have carried 
the corpse a distance of at least twelve miles! 
Local tradition affirms that the mutilated remains 
were buried in an old church enclosure at, or 
near, the place of assassination, and Campion 
tells us that O'Neill's last resting-place was 
" within an old chapell hard by." 

The Scottish leader whom Mr. Froude desig- 
nates as " Gillespie " was the eldest son of James 
Macdonnell, and, as such, was naturally more in- 
terested than any other in avenging his lather's 
death, and repudiating the false story of his 
mother's proffered marriage with O'Neill. Mr. 
Froude, misled by others, represents Gillaspick 
Macdonnell as nephew of James Macdonnell, but 
Campion is correct in stating that " Agnes 

3' d S. V. JAN. 16, '64. J 



(James MacdonnelPs widow), had a sonne Mac 
Gillye Aspucke, who betrayed O'Neale to avenge 
his father's and uncle's quarrell." It is not likely 
that a nephew of the lady only by marriage would 
have stood up so fiercely for her reputation. This 
Gillaspic, or Archibald, was James MacdonnelFs 
eldest son, and is always mentioned as his heir in 
the various grants of lands in Cantire made to 
his father by Mary Queen of Scots.* James Mac- 
donnell had a nephew (son of his brother Colla) 
named also Gillaspick, but he was killed by an 
accident at Ballycastle, just on the day he came 
of age, and could not have been more than fifteen 
years of age at the time Shane O'Neill was slain. 

Mr. Froude iwrites too decidedly in the VCR 
victis style, and is angry because the Irish did not 
accept with a better grace the blessings of subju- 
gation. He utters complaints as he proceeds, 
pretty much in the spirit which dictated the let- 
ters of Fitzwilliam and Piers. The queen, for- 
sooth, " cared to burden her exchequer no further, 
in the vain effort to drain the black Irish morass, 
fed as it was from the perennial fountains of Irish 
nature." (Page 377-8.) This writer also speaks 
as if he really believed that the Irish and Scottish 
chieftains were more truculent or ferocious than 
English officials. Shane O'Neill is described 
(page 420) as a " drunken ruffian," and Allaster 
M'Connell (Alexander Oge Macdonnell) acts 
(page 413) " like some chief of Sioux Indians." 
All thi* may be true, but their " Irish nature" is 
not blacker than English nature after all. The 
English were caught twice plotting the secret 
assassination of Shane O'Neill by poison ; and 
Sussex, the Lord Deputy, was concerned in at 
least one, if not both, of these infamous affairs. 
As Mr. Froude proceeds, he will find that Sir 
James Macdonnell, of Dunluce, was poisoned, in 
1601, by a government emissary, named Douglas, 
whom that chief was hospitably entertaining at 
his castle on the Antrim coast. Mr. F. will also, 
no doubt, meet the following extract from a letter 
written by Sir Arthur Chichester, and descriptive 
of a journey made by that famous statesman and 
soldier from Carrickfergus along the banks of 
Lough Neagh : 

" I burned all along the Lough within four myles of 
Dungannon, and killed 100 people, sparing none, o"f what 
quality, age, or sex soever, besides many burned to death ; 
we kill man, woman and child ; horse, beast, and what- 
soever we find." 

This stolid monster's policy was, that the Irish 
could be more quickly reduced to subjection by 
hunger than any other means ; hence he destroyed 
corn and cattle in every direction ; and during 
his administration, little children in Ulster were 
seen eating the flesh of their dead mothers ! 

Belfast. GEO. HILL. 

"^ Parochiale!S ScoticB > voL iL P art l > under 


" But roomer, fairy, here comes Oberon," 

Midsummer Night's Dream, II. 1. (Puck.) 

By thus adding r to the roome of the first folio, 
on the supposition that the printer or copier 
dropped it through carelessness or ignorance, the 
line can be scanned, and the rhythm is, I think, 
better, and the expression less prosaic than those 
of any other reading. Room and roomer were sea 
phrases, which, in speaking of the sailing of ships, 
meant to alter the course, and go free of one 
another, or of rocks or land, or more generally in 
reference to the wind, to go, as we now say, large 
or free (or roomer, freer) before the wind. Thus 
we read in Hakluy t 

"Then might the Hopewell and the Swallow have 
payed roome [payed off before the wind] to second him, 
but they failed him, as they did us, standing off close by 
a wind to the eastward ; " 

and in the same, Best, narrating how in Frobisher's 
second voyage the ships were caught in a storm 
amidst drifting ice an<f icebergs, says : 

"We went roomer [off our course, and more before the 
wind] for one (iceberg), and looted [luffed up in the 
wind] for another (and so up and down during the whole 

Hence roomer aptly expresses one of the two 
courses which must be adopted by an inferior 
vessel when it meets another, whose sovereignty 
entitles her to hold on her way unchecked, and 
the course which would be adopted if it were 
wished to get away unchallenged. The fairy had 
luffed, and so stayed her course to speak with Puck. 
Having interchanged civilities, Here, says Puck, 
comes Oberon, bearing down upon you full sail; 
do you, vassal as you are of a power that he is 
unfriends with, alter your course ; go off before 
the wind, and free of him. In a word, roomer. 
Why should not the earth-engirdling imp have a 
few such phrases at command, or have gone mas- 
querading as a sailor-boy, especially in Attica or 
in England in 1595 ? in both which places even 
Titania seems to have been fond of Neptune's 
yellow sands. Or, if objection still be made, I 
would quote the inlander Romeo, who talks as 
though by nature of the high top-gallant of his 


"Now is the jerkin under the line." Tempest, I\ r . 1 
meaning it was put as were the stakes at tennis, 
and so could be taken by the winner. 

" Let us keep the lawes of the court ; 
That is, stake money under the line (sotto la corda), is it 

not so? 

Yea, Sir, you hit it right : 
Here is my money ; now stake you." 

Florio's Second Fruites, ch. 2. " At tennis 
in Charter House Court." 




[3 rd S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 


" Thus has he (and many more of the same breed that 
I know the drossy age dotes on), only got the tune of 
the time and outward habit of encounter, a kind of 
yesty collection, which carries them through and through 
the most fond and winnowed opinions, and do but blow 
them to their trial, the bubbles are out." (First Folio.) 

Act V. Sc. 2. 

" Prophane and trennowed (trennowned) quartos fanned 
and winnowed." Warburton. 

Hamlet of course means that Osric and his com- 
peers have not that inward wit necessnry to parley 
true euphuism, but only the outward trick of the 
language, which, while it passed with folks of like 
inind, would not stand the trial of better judg- 
ments. So at least he says in the rest of the pas- 
sage; but when he is made to say that their 
yesty collection of words carries them through 
and through the winnowed, or fanned and win- 
nowed, opinions of the age through the wheat of 
the world he is made to say the contrary of what 
he means, and the contrary to the fact ; for Osric 
did not pass through two such winnowed opinions 
as those of Horatio and Hamlet. Or if, contrary 
to all analogy of speech, the fanned and winnowed 
opinions are the chaff and not the wheat, what 
sense is there in a yesty collection carrying one 
through either wheat or chaff? or if a yesty col- 
lection did such a strange act, where, after such a 
passage, would be the bubbles that the puff of air 
is to blow away ? But if for winnowed or tren- 
nowed, we read vinewed or vinnewed and blue 
vinney is Dorsetshire, and vinewedst is spelt in 
the folio edition of Troilus and Cressida "whinidst" 
we have a change that restores the sense a word 
not incongruous with, but suggested by, the meta- 
phorical yesty collection, and a repetition of that 
Shakspearian expression, a mouldy wit. In truth, 
Hamlet's metaphor is drawn from Sly's pot of ale, 
as is shown by the words, " blow them to their trial." 
The yesty collection is the frothiness of sour and 
stale beer, which passes with those of corrupted and 
vitiated taste ; but when tried and blown upon by 
more sober j udgments flies off, and does not remain 
like the true head of sound liquor or wit. 


HAMLET'S GRAVE. Writing of Elsinore, Ma- 
hony, in a small work on The Baltic, published in 
1857, says: 

" It was not here, but in Jutland, according to Saxo 
Grammaticus, from whose Chronicle Shakspeare drew the 
plot of his inimitable tragedy, that Amblettus, or Hamlet, 
about four centuries before the Christian era, avenged the 
murder of his father. But though the tourist will seek 
in vain the grave of the Danish prince, he will find 
ample compensation in the many romantic stories con- 
nected with the monuments in the old cathedral and the 
gloomy vaults of Kronburg Castle." 

This reminds me of the following story, au 
nntruire, lately told by a friend. He visited 

Elsinore this autumn, and hearing that the Eng- 
lish who called there always asked for and visited 
" Hamlet's grave," he undertook the same pil- 
grimage. On his road, at a short distance out 
of the town, he came to a place called Marienlyst, 
a public garden nicely laid out, and with the 
usual refreshment rooms of the continental states. 
Sauntering along the walks, he met a gentleman, 
with whom he entered into conversation, and 
stated his object in being there. After .a few 
turns of the path, the gentleman pointed to a 
block of stone about three feet high, something 
like part of a column standing on a slight mound, 
and said, " That is Hamlet's grave." My friend 
thanked him, but, seeing a smile on his coun- 
tenance, asked " What is the matter ? " " Well," 
said he, " I will explain. On the establishment of 
this place a short time since, a countryman called 
on the proprietor to say that he was so much 
troubled with the English visitors who flocked to 
his garden to see ' Hamlet's grave,' and did him 
so much damage, that he would be greatly obliged 
if the proprietor would allow him to place the 
stone at the back part of his garden, by which 
means he" would be relieved of it, and both of them 
be greatly benefited. This was acceded to, and 
here is the grave. I fear you will think you have 
had your walk for nothing." As dinner was not 
quite ready, he made a sketch of the spot. 

Have any of your correspondents and readers 
experienced this walk to " Hamlet's grave " ? and 
if so, have they ever heard how this block came to 
be originally attributed to this so-called " Prince 
of Denmark," and when it may have been first 
named and placed in its former position? It 
would seem to lie between 1857 and 1863. 



I have lately acquired a copy of The Grand 
Impostor Detected, or an Historical Dispute of the 
Papacy and Popish Religion, by S. C., Part i., 
4to, Edinburgh, 1673. The initials upon the title 
are, in the dedication to the Duke of Lauderdale 
and preface, extended to Samuel Colvill j and it 
is still a moot point whether the man, who here 
so seriously handles the Pope is identical with 
he of the same name who, in the opposite vein, 
showed up the Scottish Covenanters in the Mock 
Poem,orWhiggs > Supplication, 8vo, London, 1681. 
The last is undoubtedly a piece of coarse texture, 
and, at first glance, assorts so ill with the former, 
that without closer inspection one might accept 
the inference drawn by Lowndes that there were 
two of these Samuel Colvills. I have, however, 
looked into the long preface of the polemic ; and, 
on comparing passages with others in the Author's 

3* S. V. JAN. 16, '64.] 



Apology for the Mock Poem, find sufficient re- 
semblance in the phraseology to warrant the belief 
that they are both written by the same hand ; and 
should the books be in the possession of any of 
your correspondents, I shall be glad to have my 
opinion checked. Charter, a contemporary, in 
his Catalogue of Scottish Writers (not published 
until 1833), certainly assigns both to the same 
person Samuel Colvill, Gentleman, and brother 
to Alex. Colvill, D.D., and it is only upon the 
apparent incongruities of style displayed by the 
polemic and poet, that any doubt upon the sub- 
ject existed. With respect to the author, there 
does appear to be a most remarkable want of in- 
formation. Can nobody supply a biographical 
Note which would explode or confirm the popular 
belief, in his being a son of Lady Culros ? 

A correspondent, some time back, suggested 
that he might be also the " S. C." who wrote The 
Art of Complaisance, 12mo, London, 1673; but, 
believing him to have written the Grand Impos- 
tor, it is highly improbable that in April of that 
year the same individual obtained an imprimatur 
both at Edinburgh and London : and that, too, 
for works of such an opposite character. It seems 
to me also, that we should know something more 
regarding the publication of the Whiggs' Suppli- 
cation. There are many contemporary manu- 
scripts of the poem about, which, coupled with 
what the author says in his Apology, would almost 
lead to the belief that it was at first extensively 
published in that way : indeed, as far as we know, 
it may have got into print surreptitiously the 
original edition bearing only " London, printed in 
the year, 1681." 

In Chalmers's Life ofRuddiman, we find that our 
author was alive in 1710: it being noticed that 
the North Tatler was printed at Edinburgh that 
year by John Reid for Sam. Colvill. As the 
author of the Scots Hudibras has come in for 
more abuse than commendation, I may record 
Daniel Defoe, when dealing with his own ene- 
mies, adopts the language used by honest Sam. 
Colvill in his Apology, to repel malicious criti- 
cism. Cunningham, too, in his Hist, of Great 
Britain (always supposing there is but one 
Samuel), is said to have complimented him upon 
being a strenuous defender of the Protestant re- 
ligion ; but I do not find the passage in Thomson's 
edition, 1787. Finally, who was the " S. C.," 
alluded to by Peterkin in the following extract 
from his Records of the Kirk of Scotland, Edin- 
burgh, 1838 ? Speaking of the powers exercised 
over the Kirk by the English Commissioners in 
1654 : 

"They pat," says he, Mr. John Row, in Aberdeen ; Mr. 

. Leighton, in Edinburgh ; Mr. P. Gillespie, in Glas- 

nv ; and Mr. Samuel Colvill they offered to the Old 

-ollege of St. Andrews : this last is still held off, but the 

other three act as principals." 

A. G. 

P.S. The author of the Grand Impostor designed 
a much larger work, but says it would be difficult 
for him to publish it all at once ; and, I think, no 
more than this Part i., treating " Of the Bishop- 
rick of St. Peter," appeared. Samuel Colvill, in 
his dedication, calls himself a condisciple of his 
patron ; and relninds his grace that he had before 
received his countenance, by th'e acceptance of 
several trifles from him. What were they ? 

I should add, while upon the subject, that to 
me the London imprint, 1681, to the Mock Poem, 
appears a blind. At the period the Presbyterians 
were at the height of their resistance to the 
episcopal intrusion ; and it would hardly have 
been safe to have openly published at Edinburgh 
such a book, with the aggravation of what may 
be considered a Puritanical armorial device upon 
the title. Colvill was, of course, a prelatic advo- 
cate ; and my belief is, that the book was printed 
at Edinburgh, and not at London as indicated. 
The second impression of 1687 was avowedly from 
Edinburgh, without the device ; and " Sam. Col- 
vil " signed to the Apology for the first time. 


Some seven years ago I explored for the first 
time the priest's chambers belonging to this noble 
perpendicular church. The inner room, which, if 
I remember right, contained no furniture but an 
old box and a shelf or two, was strewn, and heaped 
with antique books, folios and quartos, brown, 
wormeaten, dilapidated. They lay jumbled toge- 
ther on the shelves, tossed together on the floor ; 
some open ; all dusty and uncared for. The lat- 
tice stood wideband the wind and rain were driving 
in ; the bindings of the books were wet accord- 
ingly, and clouds of loose leaves were eddying 
about the room. These books were the remains 
of the old church library of St. Mary's, and this 
was their normal condition. 

After seven years I returned to the place last 
September in company with the parish clerk. 
The window was still open, but it was not raining 
this time, and the books, such of them as survive, 
had been, by some pious hand, thrust piecemeal 
and sausage-fashion into that same old box. When 
the lid was lifted, and the simoom of disturbed dust 
that arose had been fanned away by the clerk's 
coat-tail, I spent my ten minutes in jotting down 
the titles, as far as I could discover them, of the 
topmost volumes. Behold the random result : 

" St. Bernard on the Canticles, folio. 
" Crakenthorp's Logic. 
"Calvini Op. (one vol. of), folio. 
" The Theologia Naturalis of Raymond Lebon, folio. 
" The Theatrum Hist, lllust. Exemplorum, folio. 
" Sylvester's Du Bartas. (A fine, 1 think folio, copy.) 
" Guicciardini's History of Florence." (A fine and 
early Italian edition.) 



[3 rd S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 

Nearly all these were seventeenth century edi- 
tions, and had originally been noble copies and well 
bound ; and everyone of them had lost its title- 
page, and few or many of its leaves. As I closed 
the lid, I addressed to my companion certain 
brief, and possibly, caustic remarks ; but he, re- 
adjusting his coat-tail the while, in a spirit of 
meekness, replied, " Sir, it was always so ! Why," 
he continued, " they used to make bonfires of the 
books, and I remember when I was a boy (he 
looks about forty now) the clerk that was used to 
light the vestry fires with 'em." 

Apres tout, what matters it? For, as my 
friend again remarked, with a sympathetic snuffle, 
" T' books is nigh all gone now, Sir." A. J. M. 

BEVERLEY MINSTER. I have found the follow- 
ing lines on Beverley Minster in an old newspaper 
(date 1836), and should like very much to know 
who is their author. They are of considerable 
merit, and aptly describe that beautiful structure, 
the west front of which is perhaps the finest speci- 
men of the perpendicular style in England : 

" Built in far other times, those sculptured walls 
Attest the faith which our forefathers felt, 
Strong faith, whose visible presence yet remains : 
We pray with deeper reverence at a shrine 
Hallowed by many prayers. For years, long years, 
Years that make centuries those dimlit aisles, 
Where rainbows play, from coloured windows flung, 
Have echoed to the voice of prayer and praise ; 
With the last lights of evening flitting round, 
Making a rosy atmosphere of hope, 
The vesper hymn hath risen, bearing heaven, 
But purified the many cares of earth. 
How oft has music rocked those ancient towers, 
When the deep bells were tolling ; as they rung, 
The castle and the hamlet, high and low, 
Obeyed the summons : earth grew near to God. 
The piety of ages is around. 
Many the heart that has before yon cross 
Laid down the burden of its many cares, 
And felt a joy that is not of this world : 
There are both sympathy and warning here. 
Methinks, as down we kneel by those old graves, 
The Pott will pray with us." 


quisitely humorous portrait of Lanthorn Leather- 
head, with his " motions " of Hero and Leander 
and Damon and Pythias, in his comedy of Bar- 
tholomew Fair, is familiar to every reader of the 
old dramatists. A large circle of readers of an- 
other class of literature will remember how, a 
century later, Steele and Addison celebrated the 
" skill in motions " of Powell, whose place of ex- 
hibition was under the arcade in Covent Garden. 
In April, 1751, the tragedy of Jane Shore was ad- 
vertised for representation at " Punch's Theatre in 
James-street, in the Haymarket," by puppets ; 
"Punch's Theatre" being, of course, located in 
Hickford's Room ; and other puppet exhibitions 
were announced at different times during the last 
century. Strutt (Sports and Pastimes, edit. Hone, 
1838, p. 167), says: 

"A few years back [i.e. before 1801] a puppet-show 
was exhibited at the Court end of the town, with the 
Italian title, Fantoccini, which greatly attracted the no- 
tice of the public, and was spoken off as an extraordinary 
performance: it was, however, no more than a puppet- 
show, with the motions constructed upon better prin- 
ciples, dressed with more elegance, and managed with 
greater art, than they had formerly been." 

I have a note of an "Italian Fantoccini" hav- 
ing been exhibited at Hickford's Room in Panton 
Street (the same place as the before-mentioned 
" Punch's Theatre in James-street," it having en- 
trances in both streets), in 1770; but it is more 
likely that the exhibition, referred to by Strutt, 
was one which was shown in Piccadilly in 1780, 
and which continued open during the greater part 
of that year. Many different pieces, chiefly of an 
operatic kind, were represented; and from the 
advertisements, which are very numerous, I have 
selected the following as best explaining the 
nature of the performance : 


Italian Theatre, No. 22, Piccadilly. At the Italian 
Fantoccini, on Thursday next, will be performed a 
Comedy in three Acts, called The Transformations ; or, 
Harlequin Soldier, Chimney Sweeper, Astrologer, Statue, 
Clock, and Infant.' End of Act I. Several favourite 
Italian Songs, Duets/ and Chorusses. End of Act II. A 
Dance in Character. And End jf Act III. A most mag- 
nificent Representation of a Royal Camp. The whole to 
conclude with a general grand Chorus. Tickets at Five 
^each may be had as above, and of Signor 

Micheh, No. 61, Haymarket, where Places may be taken 

- - puppets have always been amongst m Eleven in the Forenoon till Five in the Evening. 
favourite amusements of the British public. The Room is neatly fitted up, kept warm, and will be 
. speak not of that most popular of wooden ner- Illu . m 1 mated with Wax. The Doors to be opened at Six, 
formers, Mr. Punch, but of such entertainers as Je '* 3t SeV6n ' Clock P reciselv - ' Vivant Rex et 
have aimed at the representation of more re^u- 

Jarly constructed dramas. The allusions to them " ( Tuesdav > January 18th, 1780.) 

rider writers are numerous; but it will | E^l^l?^ 5?1 *? P^adilly. This, and 
here those of Shaksneare. in his 

.- e ~.v, a ,, uigmn- uouieiu, ana otner celebrated 
Composers. End of Act II. A Dance in Character. And 
of the Opera, a Merry new Dance. To which will 

3' d S. V. JAN. 16, '64. ] 



be added a new Entertainment, in one Act, called ' Har- 
lequin's Love-Triumph, By the Magic Art.' With an 
additional Farce of Harlequin, while refreshing himself 
with a Dish of Macaroni, is surprised by the Appearance 
of a Spaniard from a remote Corner, who sings a favourite 
Comic Song. In which Harlequin will take his Flight 
round a Room of 60 Feet long and 40 Feet wide, in a Man- 
ner truly surprizing, and never before exhibited in 
Europe." The whole of the Scenery and Machinery en- 
tirely new. The public is acquainted by the Managers 
that* this valuable Edifice is just imported from Italy ; 
and is, in small Compass, the exact Model of the superb 
Teatro Nuovo at Bologna, and the Scenery are the Paint- 
ing of the celebrated Bibbiena. Front Seats 5*. Back 
ditto 2*. 6d. Tickets may be had as above, and of Signor 
Micheli, No. 61, Haymarket. Places may be taken from 
Eleven in the Forenoon till Five in the Evening. The 
Room is neatly fitted up, kept warm, and will be illu- 
minated with 'Wax. The Doors to be opened at Half- 
past Six, and to begin at Half-past Seven o'Clock pre- 
cisely. $3T Any Ladies or Gentlemen may have a 
private Exhibition any Hour in the Day, by giving 
Notice as above the Day before. Vivant Rex & Regina. 
" (Wednesday, February 23d, 1780.)" 

Signor Micheli named in these announcements 
was, in all probability, a gentleman who held the 
post of copyist to the Opera-house, at that period, 
when but few opera songs were printed singly, 
and the copyist had the privilege of supplying the 
dilettanti with manuscript copies, a very lucrative 

Can any reader of " N. & Q," say which of the 
existing houses in Piccadilly bore the No. 22 in 
1780? The numbering of the houses was altered 
after the removal of several for the formation of 
Regent Circus. 

In conclusion, I may just remind the reader of 
the " Marionettes " exhibited some years since at 
the Adelaide Gallery behind St. Martin's Church, 
(where " Practical Science " has now given way 
to tea and coffee and cheap ices), and of George 
Cruikshank's admirable delineation of the itinerant 
Fantoccini shown in the streets of the metropolis 
in 1825. W. H. HUSK. 

The original of this proverb appears to be the 
Greek " Mia xc\i8wi/ tap ov TroteT" which we have 
in Aristotle, Ethic. NIC. (A); and I think the 
old version is the better. Was the form " One 
swallow does not make a Spring 1 ' ever in use? 

This leads me to notice what appears to me to 
be a singular omission. We are accustomed to 
look upon the advent of the swallow as one of the 
surest signs of returning Spring ; and yet I can- 
not, at present, recall a single passage of our old 
poets containing any allusion to the swallow as 
spring's harbinger. And not only this, but I find 
the swallow connected more especially with sum- 
mer : 

" The swallow follows not summer more willing, than 
we, your Lordship." 

Shakspeare, Timon of Athens, Act III. Sc. 0. 

A modern poet has the same idea : 

" And the swallow 'ill come back again with summer 
o'er the wave." 

Tennyson's May Queen. 

It is true Shakspeare says : 


That come before the swallow dares, and take 
The winds of March with beauty ; . ." 

Winter's Tale, Act IV. Sc. 3. 

And allowance must of course be made for poetic 
license ; but that which strikes me as remarkable, 
is the absence of passages connecting the swallow 
directly with the first return of spring. And I 
shall be obliged if your correspondents will refer 
me to any such passages, if such there be. No 
poet has shown a greater love for our small birds 
than Chaucer, and yet he seldom mentions the 
swallow. The only instance I can recollect is in 
u The Assembly of Foules," and that is not com- 
plimentary : 

" The swalowe, murdrer of the bees smale, 
That makes honie of flowres fresh of hew." 

Perhaps the bird's lack of song was the cause 
of the poet's neglect, for he loved the small birds 
for their song. No one can read Chaucer without 
noticing how he loved the warbling of the little 
feathered songsters, especially in the early morn- 
ing. R. C. HEATH. 

lication of the Notes on the religion of the Druids 
in "N. &. Q." (3 rd S. iv. 485), it may interest 
some of your readers to learn that throughout, the 
south of India, situated in secluded spots, such as 
mountain summits, sequestered valleys, and tracts 
overrun by jungle, are to be found cromlechs, 
cistvaens, tolmens, upright stones, double rings 
of stones, cairns and barrows, containing earthen- 
ware cinerary urns, spearheads, &c. &c., and 
every other relic of the Druidical religion occur- 
ring in our own country. They have been exa- 
mined, and are fully described in one of the 
periodicals of the Madras Presidency. They 
furnish another interesting link in the chain of 
evidence connecting the ancient inhabitants of 
Europe with those of India. H. C. 

ANAGRAMS. A copy of the Jesuita Vapulans 
[Lugd. Bat. 1635] has written upon a flyleaf as 
follows : 


" Veritas res nuda, 
Sed natur& es vir, 
Vir natura sedes, 
E natura es rudis, 
Sed es vita rarus, 
Sed rure vanitas, 
In terra sua Deus, 
Veni, sudas terra." 

B. H. C. 




[3'd S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 

A NOTE ON NOTES. The words of Captain 
Cuttle, " When found, make a note of," are often 
quoted, but there is a much older authority for 
such a quotation : " Note it in a book, that it may 
be for the time to come." Is. xxx. S.City Press. 

ZACHABY BOYD. The following notice of this 
Scots worthy, whose poetical version of the Old 
Testament still remains in MS., occurs in the 
Commissary Records of Glasgow, end of May, 
1625 : 

"Elizabeth Fleming, executrix, confirmed to umquhile 
Robert Fyndley, Merchant, and Mr. Zacharia Boyd, now 


I have before me a bound volume, containing a 
MS. Chronicle of England ; comprising 103 leaves 
of vellum, written probably by, the same hand, 
and 22 leaves of paper, by another. 

The vellum is manifestly deficient of a leaf or 
leaves at the beginning, as it commences in the 
middle of a sentence, and the first marginal 
chapter-title, in the (present) first page, is C xx. 
It ends also with an imperfect sentence, in 
C ccxx. 

The paper appears complete at its beginning. 
The first chapter-heading is C. ccxxxiij, but it is 
deficient at the end. 

The dates of the vellum run from, say, B.C. 400 
to A.D. 1345. 

Those of the paper, from 20 Edw. Ill, (say 
1346) to the Battle of Agincourt, 1415. 

In the vellum, the initial letters of the chapters 
are fine, and finely illuminated with red and blue 
ink, the decorations sometimes occupying the 
entire margin of a page ; and the chapter-head- 
ings in the outer margin are likewise red and 
blue, and the chapter-titles red. 

In the paper continuation the ink is inferior ; 
the chapter-headings, initials, and paragraph 
marks are in red ink ; the handwriting more 
current and neat, but less legible, at least to me. 

The following are extracts. Page 1 begins 
with these words : 

" heir unto the Realme bot he was not of strengths. 
Bot neverthelesse this Donebaude ordeyned him a great 
power and conquered (loegrins?) and than this Done- 
baude wente into Bcotlande for to conquer it. Bot 
Seatter (Scortter?) the king thereof assembled a grete 
power of hys people and of WalLshemen whos ruler was 
onePudah (Rudah? Rudak?). Bot Seatter and Rudak 
was slaine and then this Donebaude toke feialte and 
homage of the cuntree and reigned thair in peace and 
quiete that many yeres afore it was not soe. 

[In red ink] " Howe Donebaud was the first king that 
ev r wered crowne of golde in Britaine w l honour and 

(P. 102.) " In the yere of our Lorde MCCCXXXVII and 
of King Henry XII. [tc: it was Edw. III.] In the 

moneth of Marche, at a Plemt holde at Westminster, 
King Edwarde made of the Erledom of of ['<?] Corne- 
walle a Duchie, and gave it unto Sir Edwarde his first 
sonne, and he gave him also the erledom of Chester, and 
he made vi erles, that is to say, Sir Henry the Erles son 
of Lancaster was made Erie of Leyxfar [ PLancaster], 
William Bouyhon (Bohun), Erie of Northampton, Wil- 
liam Mountaleyn [Mountacute], Erie of Salysbury, Hugh 
of Arundele, Erie of Gloucester, Robert Ufford, Erie of 
Suffolk, William of Clynton, Erie of Hunteyndon, &c. 
&c. &c." [Howe puts this in 1336.] 

" Howe Kyiig Edwarde came to Sleus (?) and discom- 
fyte alle the power of France. 

" And in the xv yere of Kyng Edwardys raigne King 
Edwarde comaunde fro that tyme forthe for to wryte in 
hys wryttes and all hys other wrytinge the date of hys 
reygne of France the furste, and so he wrote unto hys 
lordes of Englonde, sptell and temporell, and thanne he 
come againe into Englonde with the quene and hyr 
childn, and soone after yat he wente agayne into France 
for to warre upon the King of France, the whiche had 
assembled and ordered to him a grete power of Almane 
of (potovins?), and at Slurs they mette together and 
foughte sore, when was killed xxxiij menne of the kinge 
[power?] of France, &c. &c. &c." 

I should be glad to learn whether the Chronicle 
is a known one, and whether it has been printed. 
The handwritings indicate that the MSS. were 
respectively produced at or soon after the last 
periods to which they refer ; and the style of 
narrative, in each case, towards the end, would 
lead to the belief that the writers were contem- 
poraneous with the facts they record, W. P. P. 

BARONESS. Is the daughter of a Freiherr en- 
titled to be addressed as baroness in England? 
In Germany the address is Fraulein, or Miss. 
Which is correct ? ABRACH. 


THE BLOODY HAND. James I. granted the 
arms of Ulster as an honourable augmentation to 
be borne by " the baronets and their descendants." 
Out of this concession arise two questions: Is 
the word descendants to be interpreted as in- 
cluding those not in tail to the baronetcy daugh- 
ters, for example, and their children ? If so to be 
interpreted, is the concession limited to the de- 
scendants of baronets of 1612? For example, a 
baronet of Anne's creation has a son and daughter: 
Does the daughter bear the bloody hand within 
her lozenge? Does her husband retain it in her 
coat which he impales ? Her brother dies, and 
she becomes her father's heiress : Does her hus- 
band bear the bloody hand in the escutcheon of 
pretence which thereupon he assumes, and does it 
appear in the children's quarterings P E. STIRPE. 

shall I find a list of the different collections of 
monumental inscriptions which have been pub- 
lished ? Of course, I am well acquainted with 
such as Weever, Le Neve, Parsons, Gough, &c. 

3'd S. V. JAN. 16, '64.] 



There is a list of some of the principal collections 
in Sims's Genealogists' Manual. 


ALFRED BUNN. Where was this comedian born, 
and when ? His mother died in Dublin. Was 
her son an Irishman? Bunn's father was an 
officer. Of what rank? In what regiment? Bunn 
died a Roman Catholic. Had he been educated 
at Stonyhurst, Ushaw, or any other Roman 
Catholic college ? What were the leading facts 
of his life before he became lessee of the Theatre 
Royal Birmingham in 1826 ? 

I ask merely for information's sake, with no 
unfriendly purpose. Many persons must be quite 
familiar with all the incidents of his career. Bunn 
published a volume of poems in 1816.* 


THOMAS COOK, alderman of Youghal, is men- 
tioned as the author of MS. Memoirs of that town 
(" N. & Q." 2 nd S. xii. 310). Information re- 
specting him will be acceptable. I particularly 
wish to ascertain at what period he lived. 

S. Y. R. 

CROMWELL. Is it generally known that Sir 
Marcus Trevor was created at the Restoration Vis- 
count Dungannon, for his signal gallantry in 
wounding Oliver Cromwell at the battle of Mar- 
ston Moor ? His daughter was the second wife 
of an ancestor of the late Lord Dungannon, by 
whose death without issue the title has again be- 
come extinct. E. H. A. 

CULLUM. I am anxious to ascertain whether 
Sir William Cullum,t the first Baronet, had any 
relative named Dorothy Cullum, and who " Master 
John Archer " was, to whom he bequeathed a ring, 
with the inscription " ASJS : T.C so shall thee " .* 


ENIGMA. Will some one of your fair readers 
give the solution of the following, by the cele- 
brated Earl of Surrey ? 

" A Lady gave a gift, which she had not, 
And I received her gift, which I took not : 
She gave it me willingly, and yet she would not ; 
And I received it, albeit I could not : 
If she gives it me, I force not, 
And if she takes it again, she cares not, 
Construe what this is, and tell not ; 
For I am fast sworn, I may not." 

J. L. 



" In A Description of England and Scotland, written in 
High Dutch, and printed at Nuremberg, 1659, Maps of 
the principal towns are given, -which are generally pretty 
correct; but Stafford is represented as a walled town, 
with drawbridge and port-cullis, and seven hills in the 

[* See p. 309 of our last volume for some notices of 
the biography of Alfred Bunn. ED.] 

[t Sir Thomas Cullum was the first Baronet. Wotton's 
Baronetage, ii. 20. D.] 

distance, and Rutland has a citadel and artillery." (To- 
pographical Notes, by John Ridley, M.A., London, 1762, 
p. 17.) 

Was Stafford ever walled, or Oakh am fortified? 
Any fuller account of the book printed at Nurem- 
berg, or information where I can see a copy, will 
oblige T. P. E. 

years ago, during the construction of the new 
docks at Great Grimsby, Lincolnshire, I was pre- 
sent at the exhumation of some human remains, 
on the banks of the Humber. They were found a 
short distance above the highwater line, beneath 
six feet of sand, and one or two feet of clay, which 
appeared to have been the original surface before 
the deposition of the sand. They consisted of the 
perfect skeleton of a figure of small stature, and 
were laid east and west. There were no remains 
of any metallic or other substances in connection 
with them ; but under the left arm were the bones 
of a fowl, a cock apparently, from the long spurs 
on the legs. Can any of your readers inform me, 
through your columns, whether similar instances 
have occurred of the bones of fowls being found 
in juxtaposition with human remains, and to what 
people and customs they may be referred ? 

J. D. MACKENZIE, Captain. 

" THE LEPROSY OF NAAMAN." Can any one 
acquainted with the literary history of Leeds 
inform me who is author of this sacred drama (by 
J. C.) Leeds, 1800 ? It seems to have been the 
production of a very young author, and contains 
at the end a few pieces of poetry. The editor of 
this little book mentions that the juvenile author 
had written another sacred drama on the subject 
of Joseph. R.I. 

NICHOLAS NEWLIN. Can any of your Irish 
readers give me any information respecting the 
family, arms, &c. of Nicholas Newland, subse- 
quently written Newlin, of Mount Mellick, 
Queen's co. Ireland, afterwards of Concord and 
Birmingham, in Pennsylvania, Esq.? He was a 
Quaker and a gentleman of good family, as will 
appear from books of that time, and came to 
Pennsylvania in 1683 with William Penn. He 
was a friend of Penn's, and soon after his arrival 
was made one of the provincial, or governor's 
council, and a Judge of the Common Pleas. 

The council was at this time (1685) the supreme 
legislative, judicial, and executive bodjr. His 
son, Nathaniel Newlin of Concord, Birmingham, 
and Newlin, Esq., was a Justice of the County 
Courts, a Member of the Provincial Assembly, 
Commissioner of Property, Trustee of the General 
Loan Office of the province, &c. He was one of 
the largest landed proprietors in the colony. 

| Newlin township, in Chester county, was first 

j owned by, and called after, him. 

No. 1009, Pine Street, Philadelphia. 


. V. JAN. 16, '64. 

Mr. Bruce, in his invaluable work on the Roman 
Wall, says, at p. 433 of the edition of 1851, 

" Saxon money is found in Northumberland of a date 
coeval with the arrival of that people." 

Will Mr. Bruce kindly describe that Saxon 
money in the pages of " N. & Q-" C. 

the publishers of Sir R. Broun's Synoptical Sketch 
(3 rd S. iii. 270), and Sir G. Bowyer's Ritual of 
Profession, frc. (ib. note to p. 450.) R- W. 

PAINTER TO His MAJESTY. Not finding any 
list of those who filled this post, can you inform 
me who was the person herein referred to ? 

"In 1700, upon a vacancy of the king's painter in Scot- 
land, he (Michael Wright) solicited to succeed, but a 
shopkeeper was preferred." Walpole's Anecdotes, frc., 
Wornum's edition, 1862. p. 474. 

W. P. 

POCKET FENDER (3 rd S. iii. 70.) 

" He travels with a pocket fender." 

" Pocket toasting-forks have been invented, as if it 
was possible to want a toasting-fork in the pocket ; and 
even this has been exceeded by the fertile genius of a 
celebrated projector, who ordered a pocket-fender for his 
own use, which was to cost 200Z. The article was made, 
but as it did not please, payment was refused. An action 
was in consequence brought, and the workman said upon 
the trial that he was very sorry to disoblige so good a 
customer, and would willingly have taken the thing back, 
but that really nobody except the gentleman in question 
would ever Avant a pocket fender. 

" This same gentleman has contrived to have the whole 
set of fire-irons made hollow instead of solid. To be sure 
the cost is more than twenty-fold, but what is that to the 
convenience of holding a few ounces in the hand when 
you stir the fire, instead of a few pounds? This curious 
projector is said to have taken out above seventy patents 
for inventions equally ingenious and important." Es- 
priella (Southey), Letters from England, London, 1807, 
vol. i. p. 185. 

Who was the gentleman ? Was there any such 
trial ? At that time the plaintiff could not have 
made the statement as above described, as he 
could not have been a witness when a party. 

J. M. K. 

PUMICE STONE. In a note to Garth's Ovid's 
Art of Love, in vol. iii. of Poetical Translations 
(no date or editor given), I read on the lines 
" But dress not like a fop, nor curl your hair, 
Nor with a pumice make your body bare" 

" The use of the Pumice Stone is very ancient ; the 
Romans plucked up their hair with it, and the book- 
binders now smooth their covers with it .... The 
peasants in some parts of England take off their beards 
with it, instead of a razor." 

What date could this have been at? And was it 
with the pumice stone that the ancient Britons 
removed their beards ? W. P. P. 

REFERENCES WANTED. !. Alexander, being 
asked where he would lay his treasure, answered^ 
among his friends ; being confident that there it 

would be kept with safety, and returned with in- 

2. When or by whom was the phrase " Per- 
fervidum ingenium Scotorum" first employed as 
embodying a peculiar characteristic of the Scot- 
tish nation ? VECTIS. 


" There is a tradition that in the great drought of 
Spain, which lasted a quarter of a century, the rivers 
were dried up and .the cracks of the earth were so wide 
and deep that the 'fire of Purgatory was visible through 
them. Allusions to this are frequent in the old Spanish 
romances." Notice of Baretti's Travels in General Maga- 
zine, December, 1772. 

I wish to know if there is any historical record 
of this drought, and shall be glad of any reference 
to the poets who mention it. J. M. K. 

TORRINGTON FAMILY. In the north transept 
of Great Berkhampstead church is a handsome 
monument, *' whereon," says Weever, " the shape 
of a man in knightly habiliments, with his wife 
lying by him, are cut in alabaster." These are 
said to be the memorials of Richard and Margaret 
Torrington, who lived early in the fourteenth 
centurv. Is anything further known respecting 
them?" C.J.It. 

HALIFAX LAW. I find in Motley's United 
Netherlands (i. 444), the following passage, oc- 
curring in a letter written by Leicester to 
Burghley : 

" Under correction, my good Lord, I have had Halifax 
law to be condemned first, and inquired upon after." 

I have often heard of that peculiar kind of trial 
as applicable to Jedburgh, whence the term 
" Jedburgh justice;" but, with the exception of 
the gibbet law, I have not read of any peculiarity 
attached to Halifax, and shall feel obliged by any 
one referring me to any other instance by any 
author in which Halifax law is mentioned in the 
same spirit as Leicester quotes it; and judging 
by the manner in which he uses the phrase, it 
would seem to have been proverbial in his time. 


28, Southgate Halifax. 

[There was a slight difference between the Jedburgh 
and Halifax law, although the mode of procedure by 
the latter was not very satisfactory to the poor crimi- 
nal. The inhabitants within the forest of Hardwick 
claimed a right or custom, from time immemorial, that if 
a felon be taken with goods to the amount of 13d. stolen 
within their liberty, after being carried before the lord's 
bailiff and tried by four frith-burgers, from four towns 
within the said precinct, he was, on condemnation, to be 
executed on the next market-day. But after his execu- 
tion a coroner was to take the verdict of a jury, and 

3i S. V. JAH. 16, '64.] 



sometimes of those who condemned him. The instru 
inent or process of execution, similar to the noted French 
guillotine, was denominated " Halifax gibbet law." See 
Bentley's Halifax, and its Gibbet Law placed in a true 
Light, 12mo, 1761.] 

CHARLES LEFTLEY. The following elegant 
lyric was given to me, many years ago, by a per- 
son of considerable poetical taste, who told me it 
was written by " Leftley." I neglected then to 
inquire who Leftley was ; but I should be glad if 
any of your correspondents could give informa- 
tion as to who he was, and whether any of his 
writings were published, and are now in ex- 
istence ? 

The style of this little lyric is so truly aerial 
and Shakspearian, that it reminds one of Ariel's 
song in the Tempest "Where the bee sucks, 
there suck I " : 


" Zephyr, whither art thou straying? 

tell me where? 
With prankish girls in'gardens playing, 

False as fair? 

A butterfly's light back bestriding? 
Queen bees to honeysuckles guiding? 
Or on a swinging harebell riding, 

Free from care ? 
" Before Aurora's car you amble, 

High in air ! 
At noon with Neptune's sea-nymphs gamble ; 

Braid their hair. 

Now on tumbling billows rolling; 
Or on the smooth sands idly strolling ; 
Or in cool grottoes, listless lolling, 

You sport there ! 
" To chase the moonbeams up the mountains, 

You prepare ; 
Or dance with elves on brinks of fountains, 

Mirth to share! 

Now with love-lorn lilies weeping : 
Now with blushing rose-buds sleeping, 
While fays, from forth their chambers peeping, 
Cry, ' Oh rare ! ' " 

C. H. 

[Charles Leftley was educated at St. Paul's School, 
and subsequently employed as parliamentary reporter to 
The Times. A constitution naturally weak was soon 
impaired by his constant exertions of mind and body : a 
decline ensued, and he died in 1797, aged twenty-seven. 
For farther particulars of him consult the following 
work : " Sonnets, Odes, and other Poems, by the late 
Mr. Charles Leftley, together with a short Account of 
his Life and Writings. By William Linley, Esq., Lond. 
12mo, 1815." This work is noticed in the Gent. Mag. for 
June 1815, p. 536.] 

PSALM xc. 9. Our Prayer-Book version (and 
the Bible version is to the same effect) runs thus : 
" We bring our years to an end, as it were a tale 
that is told." What is the authority for this trans- 
lation ? The Septuagint version is as follows : 

" ra tTTj fyuwf wfffi apaxvy e/JifXeTUv" The Vulgate 

says : " Anni nostri sicut aranea meditabuntur." 

De Sacy has this paraphrase : " Nos annees se 
passent en des vaines inquietudes comme celle de 
1'araignee." Wycliffe's rendering is curious. 
Has ireyn found its way into any of our archaic 
glossaries ? He says : " Oure yeris as an ireyn 
shul be bethoyt." JAMES DIXON. 

[The old ireyn is, no doubt, equivalent to irain and 
arain, aranye and arrow, which in our language formerly 
signified a spider (aranca). It would appear, then, that 
Wycliffe intended to follow the version of the LXX. and 
the Vulgate. For this rendering, we are unable to as- 
sign a shadow of authority ; but the passage is obscure, 
as it stands in the original Hebrew. 

It will be remarked that, in our Authorised Version, 
the passage stands thus " As a tale that is told :" where 
the last three words, being italicised, are intended as 
explicative, and have nothing that corresponds to them 
in the Hebrew. Moreover, in the marginal renderings, 
for " as a tale " we find, " Or, as a meditation,'" which is 
perhaps the better rendering of the two. In Halliwell we 
find irain, arain, aranye, and arran, but not ireyn.] 

bishop Laud, in his Diary, under the date of 
1622, June 22, &c , observes : 

"I saw two books in folio of Sir Robert Cotton's. In 
the one was all the Order of the Reformation in the time 
of Hen. VIII. The original letters and dispatches under 
the King's and Bishops', &c., own hands. In the other, 
were all the preparatory letters, motives, &c., for the 
suppression of the Abbies : their suppression and value, 
in the originals. An extract of both which books I have 
per capita" 

Are these in existence, and have they been 
printed? W. P. 

[The two books consulted by Abp. Laud are now 
among the Cottonian manuscripts in the British Museum, 
Cleopatra, E. iv. v., and entitled " A volume of papers 
and letters (most of them originals) relating to Monas- 
teries, and the Dissolution of them in the time of Henry 
VIII." "A collection of papers, chiefly originals, con- 
cerning the Reformation of the Church in the reign of 
King Henry VIII., many of them corrected by the King's 
own hand." For the contents of each volume see the 
Catalogue of the Cottonian Library, pp. 589596. Much 
of the former MS. has been printed in the volume edited 
by Mr. Wright for the Camden Society.] 

HIORNE, THE ARCHITECT. A tower in Arun- 
del Park is called Hiorne's Tower, from the name 
of the architect called in seventy years ago by the 
then Duke of Norfolk to rebuild Arundel Castle. 
He also built the tower of St. Mary's church, Nor- 
wich. Can any of your readers give an account of 
him, where he was born, where .he died, and his 
Christian name ? AN INQUIRER. 

[F. Hiorne, who was architect to Charles, Duke of 
Norfolk, and built the three-cornered, or triangular tower, 
in the park, recently used as an armoury for the Arundel 
Yeomanry, was an architect at Warwick, and then at 
Birmingham, at the early part of the present century.]] 



V. JAN. 16, '64. 

spondent of "N. & Q-" tell me if I have a right 
to make copies of parish registers (if accompanied 
by the parish clerk to see that I do not mean 
mischief), without being compelled by the incum- 
bent to have certified copies, and to pay 2s. 7. 
for each of them ? K- R c - 

[There is no right to take extracts, or to make copies: 
the legal right is limited to inspection, and to a compari- 
son of the certified extract with the original,] 

(2 nd S. iii. 28, 93, 155, 216; 3 rd S. iv. 437,524.) 

The word reliable was so fully discussed in 
" N. & Q." 2 n< ^ S. that I almost wonder at your 
reopening the question. Having done so, how- 
ever, doubtless you will give me a small space to 
reply to some points in F. C. H.'s letter. 

If you remember, Sir, the very same objections, 
far better put, though with much less strong lan- 
guage, were brought against this word as have 
been now reiterated. The beginning of the 
discussion rose from a letter by ALPHA in the 
Athenaeum. Then the controversy seemed to be 
carried on by the Athenfeum versus The Times. 
(" Slipshod newspaper writers.") Now the Athe- 
naum itself comes m for its share of polite lan- 

First, then, I am at a loss to know how this 
word can be a vile " compound." I thought that 
it being a word quite incapable of composition 
was its one fault ; but no, it has another, it ap- 
pears, for, says F. C. H., such a word as reliable 
ought to mean " disposed to rely upon," appli 
cable only to such amiable " persons. " It is a 
gross perversion of language to use it in the sense 
of anything to be relied upon." So I suppose 
Credible, which I have proved incontrovertibly 
to be an exactly corresponding word, of the same 
form and sense, and suffering from the same ac- 
knowledged defect, must mean " disposed to be- 
lieve " ; batable (= debateable) disposed to bate 
or fight ; amabilifi, disposed to love, not loveable 
but amore abundant ; cum multis aliis. If it were 
not for what comes after, I should have though 
that a sentence, so unintelligible, must have been 
incorrectly printed. ALPHA and many others have 
stated that -ble, -able, always are equivalent t< 
passive infinitives. This I showed by numerou 
examples to be a mistake. Now we are told tha 
it is a gross perversion to make one particula 
example anything else than a weak future par 
ticiple active. " Disposed to," F. C. H. shouh 
really explain what this sentence means, for t 
the uninitiated it seems to lack sense altogether. 

The reason given by the supporters of the word 
. Jiable for its use is, that it is a most convenient 
vord, perfectly intelligible, and now really under- 
tood by all, and that it expresses z particular 
hade of meaning not to be found in any other 
.vord. This is uniformly denied, and usually the 
vord trustworthy is proposed as a synonyme ; but 
his word does riot express the exact shade of 
meaning; for it applies properly to persons, 
whereas we want a word to express the same of 
kings. It is an unthoughtful and inaccurate 
sxpression to speak of a thing being worthy of 
rust ; and so thoughtful writers want a word to 
uit the idea of a " thing to be relied on." F. C. H. 
waxes very bold upon this point. " We can," 
says he, " use in the same sense a host of legiti- 
mate expressions ; in fact, our language abounds 
with words expressive of the meaning to which ^ 
his vile compound has been so lamentably ap- 
plied." And yet I venture to affirm that he has 
lot adduced a single instance. But then in place 
thereof he has given us a good long string of 
words which have a perfectly different significa- 
tion. Quantity must make up for quality. Such 
as they are, then, let us glance through them. 
We can proclaim a person or a source of informa- 
tion to be 

1. Trusty. Yes, of a person ; no, of a thing. 

2. Credible. Of a person or fact. True ; but 
the word is in Latin at least as defective as re- 

3. Veracious. Applied to a fact would be utter 
nonsense.* Veracious means speaking truth. 

4. Authentic. Absurd of persons, and nihil ad 
rem in any way. The facts might be authentic 
but quite unreliable. 

5. Respectable. These men are respectable; 
these facts are respectable. Would anyone trans- 
late either expression into worthy of being relied 
upon ? 

6. Undeniable.' " The persons I shall next 
produce, my lud, are undeniable." His lordship 
would be a clever fellow if he made much out of 
it. Again : these facts are undeniable, would be 
sense, but would not mean the same as unre- 

7. Indisputable. The same. Witnesses being 
indisputable is not sense. If it means anything, it 
must be such as cannot be disputed against, as 
vile a word, therefore, as reliable. 

8. What are we to say of an undoubted wit- 
ness ? Has the word ever been used in the sense 
of trustworthy ? I trow not. We all know what 
undoubted facts are. We can rely upon them 
certainly, because they are undoubted and cer- 
tain, but the reliableness is not even hinted at in 
the word undoubted. 

9. Incontrovertible can surely never be used of 
persons. It may well be used of facts, but then 
it also suffers from the same defect as No. 8. It 

3'd S. V. JAN. 16, '64.] 



expresses much more than reliable, though it 
does not give the exact shade of meaning at all. 

In conclusion, I can only say that I think this 
word has caused a great deal of causeless irrita- 
tion and stormy language language showing far 
worse taste than the use of this word which I have 
shown before to be only one out of many, and quite 
as well formed as many words in Latin and English, 
which have been used at all times by the best 
writers. J. C. J. 

(3 rd S. iv. 429.) 

In answer to the query of your correspondent 
as to the politics of this worthy man and sound 
lawyer, perhaps the following facts, coming from 
one that knew him, may not be unacceptable : 

Sir Robert Gifford, like many other able law- 
yers, is now forgotten. His appearance on the 
trial of Queen Caroline was, although on the 
unpopular side, remarkably brilliant. It was 
neither so rhetorical or eloquent as that of his 
opponent, Brougham, but it was powerful and to 
the point, and worthy of the position he held as 
Attorney- General. 

He was a Tory from the time of his first ap- 
pearance, and was never a " rat." He rose from 
the ranks, and in attaining his ultimate high sta- 
tion, had no aid from political jobbery or aris- 
tocratic connections. He early attracted the 
notice of Lord Eldon for his ability as a lawyer. 
Latterly, from holding briefs in Scottish cases, he 
acquired a sound knowledge of the law of that 
country. Then, as now, the peers had been, 
grumbling at the vast quantities of appeals from 
the North ; and as Lord Eldon, even with the 
aid of Lord Redesdale, could not master them, it 
became a matter of serious consideration how to 
dispose of them. 

Thus it was that Sir Robert was pitched upon 
by the ministry to abate the evil, and as Deputy 
Speaker of the House of Lords, to hear and 
decide them. It was at one time thought that 
Sir Robert should only have a life-rent peerage ; 
but the expediency as well as legality of such a 
measure was doubted by sound constitutional 
lawyers. Indeed it was generally rumoured that 
on the thing being suggested to the proposed life- 
rent nobleman, it was without hesitation declined. 
He had been raised to the Bench as Lord Chief 
Justice of the Court of Common Pleas January 8, 
1824, and created, January 30, a Peer of the Realm 
by the style and title of Baron Gifford of St. 
Leonard's, in the county of Devon. In April he 
resigned his office as Chief Justice, and was ap- 
pointed Master of the Rolls. His decisions in 
Scotch cases gave general satisfaction ; and as he 
was somewhat more rapid in giving judgment 

than Lord Eldon was, he very soon disposed of 
the greater portion of the arrears. His lordship 
died prematurely on Sept. 4, 1826, to the great 
regret of his friends and to the loss of his country, 
for he was both an able and impartial judge. As 
he was born Feb. 24, 1779, he was therefore in 
the forty-seventh year of hig age. 

Lord Gifford was a good-looking man ; mild in 
his general demeanour, and courteous to counsel ; 
a kind husband, and an affectionate father. He 
married as soon as his circumstances would admit, 
and he was fortunate in the object of his choice, 
for Lady Gifford was as amiable as she was beau- 
tiful. She was, if I [mistake not, a clergyman's 
daughter. His eldest son, and inheritor of his peer- 
age, married a daughter of the Lord Fitzhardinge, 
a nobleman whose claim to be Baron Berkely by 
tenure was, we are inclined to think, somewhat 
hastily disposed of some short time since by a 
Committee of Privileges. J. M. 

(3 rd S. iv. 411, 522.) 

I am quite unable to answer M. F.'s inquiry as 
to whether Mrs. Fitzherbert had a child either by 
her first husband, Mr. Weld, or her second, Mr. 
Fitzherbert ; but if not, the child introduced into 
the caricatures referred to by M. F. is probably 
an allusion to a piece of scandal current at the 
time, and which was given to the public in a 
pamphlet entitled Nemesis, or a Letter to Alfred. 
By * * * *. There is no date, but there can be 
little doubt that it was published in 1789, inas- 
much as it contains an affidavit by the Rev. 
Philip* Wither, stating that it reached him by 
the Penny Post ; that he was totally ignorant of 
the author, and that he believed every part of it 
to be strictly true, except so much of it as related 
to himself. ^ The affidavit is dated Feb. 11, 1789. 
The following passage gives Nemesis' scandalous 
account of Mrs. Fitzherbert : 

'The first time the Prince saw Mrs. Fitzherbert was 
in Lady Sefton's box at the Opera, and the novelty of 
her face, more than the brilliancy of her charms, had the 
usual effect of enamouring the Prince. But he had not 
to do with a raw, unpractised girl. An experienced 
dame, who had been twice a widow, was not likely to 
surrender upon common terms. She looked forwards 
towards a more brilliant prospect -which her ambition 
might artfully suggest, founded upon the feeble character 
of an amorous young Prince. She adopted the stale arti- 
Sce of absenting herself for some months, and went to 
Plombiers, in Lorrain, where she contracted an intimacy 
with the Marquis de Bellevoye,* with whom she with- 
drew for some time, and lived in the greatest familiarity. 
The consequence of this intercourse was a necessity of 

* Reputed the handsomest man in France before he was 
shot in the face, but that accident cooled Mrs. Fitzher- 
bert's passion. Note in Original. 



[3^ g. v. JAN. 16, '64. 

retiring to Paris,* where, by means of her two Scotch 
Toad-eaters, the scandalous transaction was industriously 

" Lest the matter should come to the ears of the 
Prince, it was thought right to come to England imme- 
diately, and by Mr. Bouverie and Mr. Errington's assi- 
duitv, the marriage was concluded. Whether in Grafton 
Street or Cleveland Square shall be fully disclosed. Her 
relations, particularly her uncle, Mr. Farmer and Mr. 
Throgmorton, were first proud of the event ; but since 
the publication of your book, they have been very shy 
upon the subject. 

"The Marquis came over last winter, and became 
known to the Prince. Mrs. Fitzherbert, fearing a disco- 
very, spoke of him as a man unworthy the Prince's ac- 
quaintance. The Marquis, piqued, demanded the two 
thousand pounds she had borrowed from him; she re- 
fused to pay him unless he gave up her letters, with her 
notes of hand, which he refused. She then sent Anthony 
St. Leger and Weltje to negociate; and after much de- 
bate, by means of the Abbe' Lechamp, the matter was 
compromised for the sum of two hundred pounds ; but 
the letters were not given up, and may hereafter be pub- 
lished to the disgrace of a P * * * * who stands in 
so eminent a relation with respect to this country. Her 
brother Wat Smith, whom she had ill-treated, divulged 
many of the secrets, but he has been lately silenced by a 
large sum of money. Immense sums have been lavished 
in trinkets, and much is due to Gray and Castlefranc on 
her account. The expenses of puffing paragraphs in her 
favour, and of suppressing others against her, have 
amounted to large sums, which must come out of the 
public purse 

" She has correspondence in France through the Gros 
Abhd, the Duke of Orleans's bastard brother, and through 
Abbe' Taylor, and some Irish Friars in many parts of 
Italy," &c. 

A charge so gross could not pass unnoticed by 
the lady. The Rev. Philip Wither, who styled 
himself " Chaplain to Lady Dowager Hereford," 
and was a writer of political and polemical tracts, 
was indicted for libel, found guilty, sentenced to 
imprisonment in Newgate, and died there before 
the term of his imprisonment had expired. 

T. S. 

(3 rd S. v. 40.) 

^ Though no one is bound to believe the tradi- 
tion of St. Patrick and the Shamrock, it is not 
to be summarily disposed of as attempted in the 
article referred to above. This is the first time 
I have heard that any one considered the subject 
as a weak invention of the enemy ; though this 
correspondent declares that he has always so con- 
sidered it. I am perfectly at a loss to conceive why 
he should so consider it. It is a very respect- 
able tradition, very widely received, very firmly 
believed, very respectably defended, and very 
warmly cherished by a whole nation, and many 

* Does the author design to insinuate that Plombiere 
was unable to furnish a midwife, and the other accom- 
modation necessary for a lady obedient to the divine 
command increase and multiply ? Note in Original. 

others for many centuries. What could any 
enemy to Christianity have hoped to gain by in- 
venting such a story ? We may perhaps guess 
what MR. PINKERTON would assign for his mo- 
tives, as he seems to consider the tradition unten- 
able, because St. Patrick was too much of " a 
Christian, a man of common sense, and ordinary 
ability," to have recourse to such an expedient. 
Now I should maintain exactly the reverse, and 
contend that it was precisely because the saint 
was such a man, that he was most likely to employ 
the Shamrock as he is believed to have done. 

He laboured to convert a rude, illiterate nation 
of Pagans to the belief of the sublime truths of 
Christianity. What more natural, when he incul- 
cated the belief in the great, fundamental doctrine 
of the Blessed Trinity, than to employ an object 
calculated to facilitate in some degree to their 
uncultured minds the belief of the mysterious 
Trinity ? As a " Christian," he would be anxious 
to gain their souls to Christ, and gladly take up a 
simple plant to help to illustrate his divinity. As 
a " man of common sense," he would see that the 
easiest way to enlighten their rude minds would 
be to adopt some very simple image, which their 
capacity could readily take in ; and as a man of 
" ordinary ability," he would employ that ability 
in choosing an illustration most likely to produce 
the effect which he desired. Certainly every one 
knows that no material substance can be com- 
pared to the divine mystery of the Trinity ; but 
this St. Patrick never attempted. He used the 
shamrock, not in comparison with the mystery, 
but as some sort of illustration, however feeble 
and imperfect, to soften the difficulty for the poor 
^Pagans, which it was well calculated to do. For 
myself, I am free to own, that being a "Christian," 
and I hope " a man of common sense " to boot, 
were I engaged to preach Christianity now to a 
nation of heathens, I should readily make use of 
any such illustration; and am confident that it 
would greatly facilitate their belief in the divine 
mystery of the Blessed Trinity. 

The well-known name of Herb Trinity given to 
the Anemone hepatica, on account of the three 
lobes of its leaf, shows that other Christians and 
men of common sense, besides St. Patrick, have 
found plants with similar leaves, in some degree 
symbolical of the adorable Trinity. F. C. H. 

I send you these few lines merely with the 
view of informing MR. W. PINKERTON that I 
really see no reason why he should express his 
surprise on finding " that CANON DALTON takes 
up the subject in a serious manner." 

What was the subject? I sent a Query, to 
know on what foundation rested the ancient 
tradition, that St. Patrick made use of the Sham- 
rock to illustrate the Blessed Trinity ? F. C. H. 

. V. JAN. 16, '64.] 



answered, with his usual kindness, to the effect 
that, though the tradition was ancient and vene- 
rable, there seemed to be no historical foundation 
for it. 

ME. PINKERTON now comes forth, and calls 
the tradition an " absurd, if not egregiously ir- 
reverent story." Why, I cannot understand, 
except that he appears, in his first paragraph, to 
have made a very strange mistake : these are his 
words : 

" For, surely, it must be evident to the meanest capa- 
city, that neither as a symbol, argument, nor illustration, 
can any material substance, natural or artificial, be com- 
pared to the Divine Mystery of the Trinity in Unity." 

Thus your correspondent supposes that St. 
Patrick compared the Shamrock to the mystery 
of the Trinity ! Surely there must be some mis- 
take. Is there not a great difference between 
comparing the Shamrock to the Blessed Trinity, 
and making use of it merely as a faint illustra- 
tion of Three distinct Persons united in one 
Divine Person ? This latter is all that the tradi- 
tion affirms ; hence, I cannot see the least absur- 
dity in supposing the Saint to have made use of 
the Shamrock for this purpose. 

MB. PINKERTON refers to the well-known trea- 
tise of St. Augustine De Trinitate. There the 
Saint makes use of an illustration to explain, in an 
imperfect manner, the teaching of the Church on 
the adorable Mystery of the Blessed Trinity. He 
mentions that, as there are three Persons in one 
God, so the three distinct powers of the Soul 
the Will, the Memory, and the Understanding 
is an emblem or illustration of the Trinity. Now, 
I maintain that these two different illustrations, 
made use of by St. Patrick and St. Augustine, 
are far from being absurd or " egregiously irre- 
verent." J. DALTON. 

Without interfering in the discussion as to St. 
Patrick and the Shamrock, which I am content 
to leave in CANON DALTON'S hands, I beg to point 
out to MR. PINKERTON that the appearance of the 
fleur-de-lys on the mariner's compass has no 
bearing at all upon his case. His words are these 
(p. 41):- 

" It " (the fleur-de-lys) " also appears on the mariner's 
compass and the pack of playing cards; two things 
which, however essentially different, are still the two 
things that civilisation has most widelv extended over 
the habitable globe." 

I will not pause to examine the exactness of 
the assertions contained in this extract. My only 
object in this reply is to mention the facts which 
concern the fleur-de-lys. 

The fleur-de-lys appears on the mariner's com- 
pass, because Gioia invented, or perfected, it. 
Moreri says : 

" Gioia (Jean) natif d'Amalphi dans le Royaume de 
Naples, ayant ou'i parler de la vertu de la pierre d'Aimant, 

s'en servit dans ses navigations, et, peu & peu, & forces 
d'experiences, il inventa et perfectionna la Boussole. 
Pour marquer que cet instrument avoit e'te' invente' par 
un sujet des Rois de Naples, qui etoient alors Cadets de 
la Maison de France de la Branche des Comtes d'Anjou, 
il marqua le Septentrion avec une Fleur-de-lys, ce qui a 
etc' suivy par toutes les nations." 

Moreri gives no date to Gioia. But the Tablettes 
Chronologiques of the Abbe Lenglet du Fresnoy 
place him under the year 1302. It is true that 
Du Fresnoy says, " II paroit par Guyot de Pro- 
vins, Poeta Fran9ois de la fin du xii siecle, que 
la Boussole etoit des-lors en usage en France." 
But, if that statement is true, it only carries the 
fleur-de-lys to the place from which Anjou and 
Naples obtained it. And if, as is usually sup- 
posed, playing cards " were extended over the 
habitable globe " from France, the appearance of 
the fleur-de-lys upon them is taken back to the 
same source, and the value of both these instances 
will be determined by the value of the French 
fleur-de-lys itself as an instance. 

The introduction of the well-known incident in 
the life of St. Augustine does not seem very appo- 
site, and not a sufficient excuse for the expressions 
" absurd, if not egregiously irreverent," which I 
regret to see in the pages of " N. & Q.," as used 

'Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

iv. 515.) J. W. M. will find the required quota- 
tion in Dr. King's " Supplement to the Life of 
Sir Thomas More " (printed in extenso in Faulk- 
ner's Chelsea, vol. i. p. 113 " Ayscough's Cat. 
MSS. Brit. Mus. No. 4455 " is the reference given 
in the foot note.) 

The passage at length is as follows : 
" Sir Thomas being one day at my lord mayor's table, 
word was brought him, that there was a gentleman, 
who was a foreigner, inquired for his lordship (he being 
then Lord Chancellor); they having nearly dined, the 
Lord Mayor ordered one of his officers to take the gen- 
tleman into his care, and give him what he best liked. 
The oflicer took Erasmus into the lord mayor's cellar, 
where he chose to eat oj T sters and drink wine (as the 
fashion was then) drawn into leathern jacks and poured 
into a silver cup. As soon as Erasmus had well refreshed 
himself, he was introduced to Sir Thomas More. At his 
first coming in to him, he saluted him in Latin. 

Sir Thomas asked him, Undevenis? 
Erasmus. Ex inferis. 
Sir Thomas. Quid ibi agitur ? 
Erasmus. Vivis vescuntur et bibunt ex ocreis. 
Sir Thomas. An noscis ? 
Erasmus. Aut tu es Morus aut null us. 
Sir Thomas. Et tu es aut deus, aut daemon, aut meus 

King's Road, Chelsea. 

The words " Aut tu es Morus aut nullus," are 
those of Erasmus ; and the retort " Aut tu es 



[3 rd S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 

Erasmus aut diabolus " are those of Sir Thomas 

Amongst his other eminent acquaintance, he 
(More) was particularly attached to Erasmus. 
They had long corresponded before they were 
personally known to each other. Erasmus came 
to England for the purpose of seeing his friend ; 
and it was contrived that they should meet at the 
Lord Mayor's table before they were introduced 
to each other. At dinner they engaged in argu- 
ment. Erasmus felt the keenness of his antago- 
nist's wit; and when hard pressed, exclaimed, 
" You are More, or nobody," the reply was, 
" You are Erasmus, or the devil." (Gallery of 
Portraits, L. U. K. ii. 27.) T. J. BUCKTON. 

STORQUE (3 rd S. iv. 475.) Does not Ogygius, 
in calling his victim " my stork " taunt him with 
the excess of trropyfi he has displayed ? 

In the copy of Randolph's posthumous Poems, 
1638, in the British Museum, the following -ana- 
gram of the name of Richard, Lord Weston, 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, created Earl of 
Portland in 1632, is written on a flyleaf: 

" Vir durus ac honestus. 
Richardus Westonus, 
Vir durus ac bonus. 
" Te licet durum vocat ac honestum, 
Xominis foelix anagramma vestri, 
Sis tamen quasi mini mite durus, 

Valde et honestus. 

"Allthough your Lordshippe's happy annagraffifne, 
Give you of hard and honest both the name, 
Yet let that hard (I praye you) fall on mee 
Gently, and pay mee with your honesty. 


As Randolph died in 1634, and the Poems were 
published by his brother after his death, I am at 
a loss to understand this flyleaf inscription. 


The Visitation of London, taken by Robert 
Cooke, Clarenceux, 1568, has recently been edited 
from MS. Harl. 1463, by MR. J. J. HOWARD and 


CLEBK or THE CHEQUE (3 rd S. iv. 43, 417) is 
an omcerinthe King's Court, so called because he 
hath the check and controlment of the yeomen of 
the guard, and all other ordinary yeomen belonging 
either to the king, queen, or prince ; giving leave, 
or allowing their absence in attendance, or di- 
minishing their wages for the same : he also, by 
himself or deputy, takes the view of those that 
are to watch in the court, and hath the settin" of 
the watch. 33 Hen. VIII. c. 12. Also there is 
an officer of the same name in the king's navy at 
Plymouth, Deptford, Woolwich, Chatham, &c. 
19 Car. II. c. 1. (Jacob's Law Dictionary, 1772, 
*"*> wee-) W. I. S. HORTON. 

QUOTATIONS WANTED (3 rd S. iv. 474, 498, &c.) 
The lines commencing 

' Few the words that I have spoken 

are by the Rev. J. Moultrie, Rector of Rugby, 
and appear in the volume of Poems published by 

In Bishop Alley's Commentary on St. Peter's 
Epistles, the lines * 

" Hoc est nescire, sine Christo plurima scire ; 
Christum si bene scis, satis est, si castera nescis " 

are thus rendered : 

" To know much without Christ is nothing expedient ; 
But well to know Christ is onely sufficient." 

The original source of the thought I am unable 
to indicate. 

What authority has J. L. for calling the couplet 
an epitaph ? C. J. R. 

" God and the doctor," &c. 

The following lines by Quarles convey the same 
sentiment : 

" Our God and soldier we alike adore, 
Ev'n at the brink of ruin, not before ; 
After deliv'rance both alike requited, 
Our God's forgotten, and our soldier's slighted." 

I have heard the lines as' quoted by T. C. B., but 
fancy they are only a version of the above. 


VIXEN : FIXEN (3 rd S. iv. 389, 463.) In looking 
through Gammer Gurton's Needle (printed 1575, 
or, according to Oldys, as quoted by Hawkins, 
1551) in Dodsley's Old Plays, I have discovered 
the word " fixen " twice used 

" That false fixen, that same dame Chat," &c. 

Act III. Sc. 2. 

" Ah, Hodge, Hodge, where was thy help, when fixen 
had me down? "Act III. Sc. 3. 


ROB. BURNS (3 rd S. iv. 497.) Watt's Biblio- 
iheca Britannica is far from an immaculate work, 
and I venture to think the Caledonian Musical 
Museum of 1809, there ascribed to the younger 
Burns, is among the compiler's errors of commis- 
sion. A book under that title is mentioned by 
Lowndes under " Songs," with a portrait of 
Burns ; this, with the probability that it is (in 
common with a host of books, under the titles 
Caledonian Musical Repository, Edinburgh Mu- 
sical Museum, &c. &c.), full of the lyrics of the 
Ayrshire bard, is, I presume, its only connection 
with the name of Burns. 

That Robert Burns, Jun., in early life had an 
inclination for his father's divine art, we know ; 
but Chambers one of the latest of the poets' 
biographers, tells us that although he wrote a 
few songs and some pieces of miscellaneous poetry 
of considerable merit, his removal in 1804 to 
London repressed his literary aspirations, which 

fr* S. V. JAN. 16, '64.] 



were ultimately crushed out by a long life of 
routine drudgery at the Stamp Office. J. O. 

BRETTINGHAM (3 rd S. iv. 458.) Thanks to 
MESSES. COOPER for the dates of the death, &c. of 
this architect and of his son. Can they furnish the 
date of death and place of burial of Robert Furze 
Brettingham, also an architect, and supposed to 
have been a nephew of the father above named, 
and whom he appears to have succeeded in the 
art ? The latest date of him given in the profes- 
sional account in the Dictionary of Architecture, 
is that of 1805, when he resigned his official post 
in the Board of Works, but was probably in prac- 
tice much later, as he was then only about forty- 
five years of age. WYATT PAPWORTH. 

SHAKSPEARE AND PLATO (3 rd S. iv, 473.) 

" It is truly singular," says Coleridge, " that Plato, 
genuine prophet and anticipator as he was of the Pro* 
testant Christian Era, should have given, in his Dialogue 
of the Banquet, a justification of our Shakspeare ; for he 
relates that, when all the other guests had either dis- 
persed or fallen asleep, Socrates only, together with Ari- 
stophanes and Agathon, remained awake; and that, 
while he continued to drink with them out of a large 
goblet, he compelled them, though most reluctantly, to 
admit that it was the business of one and the same 
genius to excel in tragic and comic poetry, or that the 
tragic poet ought, at the same time, to contain within 
himself the powers of comedy." Remains, vol. xi. p. 12. 


LAUREL WATER (3 rd S. v. 11.) 

" In the observations on Donellan's case contained in 
Mr. Townsend's Life of Justice Buller (Lives of English 
Judges, p. 14), the following statement is made : In his 
(Donellan's) library there happened to be a single number 
of the Philosophical Transactions; and of this single num- 
ber the leaves had been cut only in one place, and this 
place happened to contain an account of the making of 
laurel water by distillation.' Nothing is said of this in the 
reports of the trial. It is something like the evidence in 
Palmer's case about the note on strychnine in the book, 
although much stronger." Stephen's General View of 
the Criminal Law of England, 1863, p. 348 n. 

R. R. DEES. 

Wallsend, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

I have a copy of the Toilet of Flora, which I 
procured through a notice of " Books Wanted " 
in " N. & Q." There is no mention in it of laurel 
water ; but in a work published nearly half a 
century prior to that namely, the Supplement to 
Mr. Chambers's Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, 
1753, the poisonous quality of laurel water is no- 
ticed under the article " Lauro-Cera^us," the 
author there observes : " This was discovered in 
Dublin by the accident of two women dying sud- 
denly after drinking some the distilled laurel 
water." Several experiments were then made by 
Drs. Madden and Mortimer, and communicated 
to the Royal Society. See Phil. Trans. Nos. 418, 



I possess a small 8vo, printed for J. Murray, 
32, Fleet Street, and W. Nicoll, St. Paul's Church- 
yard, 1779, entitled The Toilet of Flora. I am 
afraid AN INQUIRER will not obtain the informa- 
tion he expects from the book* The only mention 
of laurel water is at p. 1, in the following terms : 

u An Aromatic Bath. Boil for the space of two or three 
minutes in a sufficient quantity of river water, one or 
more of the following plants viz. laurel, thyme, rose- 
mary, wild thyme, &c., &c. ; or any other herbs that have 
an agreeable scent. Having strained off the liquor from 
the herbs, add to it a little brandy or camphorated spirits 
of wine. This is an excellent bath to strengthen the 
limbs ; it removes pains proceeding from cold, and pro- 
motes perspiration." 

A. F. B. 

PHOLEY (3 rd S. v. 12.) The Pholeys, better 
known as Foulahs, are well described in Mungo 
Park's first Travels in Africa. He speaks of 
them in several parts of his book as he happened 
to come among them. They are found near the 
Gambia, and in all the kingdoms of the windward 
coast of Africa. They are of a tawny complexion, 
with silky hair and pleasing features. They are 
of a mild disposition, and retain their own lan- 
guage, though most of them have some knowledge 
of Arabic. They are employed in husbandry ; 
have large herds and flocks, and use milk chiefly 
as their diet, but not till it is quite sour. They 
make butter, but not cheese. They also possess 
excellent horses, fhe breed of which seems to be a 
mixture of the Arabian with the original African. 
See Mungo Park's Travels in Africa in 1795-6-7, 
chapters ii. iv. xir. F. C. H. 

Whether the custom of distributing penny loaves 
at funerals still exists at Gainsborough, I do not 
know ; but the other question of ROBERT KEMPT 
is very readily answered. He asks what was the 
origin of this custom. It was the pious practice 
of our ancestors to direct in their wills that doles 
of bread or other alms should be given to the 
poor at their funerals, whereby they performed 
a double act of charity, relieving the corporal 
wants of the poor, and securing their prayers for 
the repose of their own souls. This custom not 
only prevailed in England till the change of reli- 
gion in the sixteenth century, but has been kept 
up among Catholics ever since. I could point out 
many recent instances where sums of large amount 
have been distributed in loaves of bread to the 
poor at the funerals of wealthy Catholics. There 
can be no doubt that the custom at Gainsborough 
is a remnant of this ancient practice. F. C. H. 

v. 35.) Arthur Dobbs published a second part 
of his Essay on the Trade and Improvement of 
Ireland in 1731, 8vo. There is no account of 
him in Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, but 
your correspondent may find a short notice of 



[3*d S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 

him in McCulloch's Literature of Political Eco- 
nomy (1845, 8vo, p. 46), taken from a note by 
George Chalmers in his copy of Dobbs's Essay. 
There is, however, a fuller biography of Arthur 
Dobbs in George Chalmers's valuable " Lives of 
the Writers on Trade and Political Economy," 
which is a storehouse of information on the sub- 
ject. It is in manuscript in my possession, form- 
ing a thick 4to volume, and has never yet been 
published. JAS. CEOSSLEY. 

The second part of Arthur Dobbs's Essay on the 
Trade and Improvement of Ireland was published 
at Dublin in 1731. Both parts of the work have 
recently been reprinted in vol. ii. of 

"A Collection of Tracts and Treatises illustrative of 
the Natural History, Antiquities, and the Political and 
Social State of Irefand, at various Periods prior to the 
present Century : in Two Volumes." Dublin, 1861, 8vo. 

All the above-mentioned works are in the 
library of Trinity College, Dublin. 'AAteus. 


ARMS OF SAXONY (3 rd S. v. 12.) The writer 
of the Query entitled " The Prince Consort's 
Motto," expresses his opinion that the white horse 
of Saxony is derived from a passage in the Book 
of Revelations (xix. 11). The armorial bearing 
in question is, without doubt, of a date long ante- 
rior to the era of the Reformation. The Horse 
was the emblem on the standard of the earliest 
Saxon invaders of the South of England, and is 
preserved in the names of the Saxon leaders 
Hengist (German, Hengst = Stallion) and Horsa 
(our " Horse " and the German " Ross.") We 
find it again in the arms of Kent. Those Saxon 
invaders most probably were of the same race as 
the present inhabitants of Hanover and West- 
phalia, if we may judge from their speaking the 
" Platt-deutsch," or Low German, which is the 
same branch of the Teutonic from which the 
Anglo-Saxon was descended. Further, the arms 
of Hanover, as well as of Westphalia, are, to this 
day, a white horse. DE LETH. 

" EST ROSA FLOS VENERIS " (l t S. i. 458 ; 
3 rd S. iv. 453 ; v. 15.) The passage sought after 
in the Rhodologia of Rosenberg is as follows : 

" Rosam Cupido Veneris filius, ut poetse fabulantur, 
Harpocrati, silentii Deo, digito labia compescenti, donavit. 
Unde raps ille cumprimis Septentrionalium, fluxisse vide- 
tur, ut in canaculis Rosa lacunaribus supra mensarum 
vertices affigatur, quo quisque secret! tenax esset, nee 
facile divulgaret ea, quaa sub rosa, id est, silentii fide dicta. 
Qua de re elegantissimus Poeta sequentem in raodum 
canit : " Est rosa flos Veneris," &c. Part 1, cap. 2. 
The author of the lines is not named. 


" THE AMATEUR'S MAGAZINE" (3 rd S. v. 26.) 
There was yet another monthly periodical called 
The Amateur, which also had an existence of 
nine months, having been born in July, 1855, and 

having expired in March, 1856, during which time 
eight numbers were published. It was ^intended 
to be a quarterly publication ; but " in conse- 
quence of the encouragement" that the first 
number received, it was altered to a monthly. At 
its fourth issue its price was reduced from 1*. to 
6d. It was " projected by a small staff of unpro- 
fessional writers," and was published at 16, Great 
Marlborough Street. I believe that its editor 
was Mr. E. C. Massey, a young and clever writer, 
whose first published work (anonymous) was The 
Green-eyed Monster; a Christmas Lesson. By 
Whatshisname (pp. 101). James Cooke, Fen- 
church Street, 1854. CDTHBERT BEDE. 

MAD AS A HATTER (3 rd S. v. 24.) Colchester 
and all its natives remonstrate against your cor- 
respondent SCHIN'S suggestion as to the origin of 
this phrase. Even the hatters there are not will- 
ing to remove the obnoxious cap from their own 
heads on such terms. Neither sound nor sense 
could reconcile them to the notion of making the 
oyster a symbol of madness. Finding some time 
ago I think in Halliwell's Dictionary that 
gnattery is used in some parts of England in the 
sense of irritable, I fancied that in the same places 
a gnat might be called a gnatter, and hence " as 
mad as a gnatter." I do not think I was far 
wrong ; though perhaps natter, the German name 
for adder, points to the true origin. It is easy to 
trace the progress a natter, an atter, a hatter. 


RICHARD ADAMS (2 nd S. x. 70; 3 rd S. iv. 527; 
v. 42.) We see no reason to doubt the identity 
of the Richard Adams, who died in 1661, with the 
Fellow Commoner of Catharine Hall. At the 
period in question admission at a college at the 
age of fifteen was no unusual occurrence, nor is 
there anything remarkable in Latin verses by a 
lad of seventeen. W T e shall be obliged by a copy 
of the monumental inscription to Richard Adams 
in Lancaster church. 



RIDGE (3 rd S. v. 35.) The following extract 
from the Nodes Ambrosiance may enlighten your 
correspondent Y. P. It is necessary, however, in 
the first place to observe, that the conversation 
has been turning on the Letters on Demonology 
and Witchcraft, recently contributed by Sir Walter 
Scott to the Family Library, then in course of 
publication : 

" Shepherd. I'm inclined to gang alang wi' you, Sir. 

" North. You must go along with me, James. 

" Shepherd. Na; no unless I like 

" North. However, suppose that Sir Walter had stated 
the real difference. How does he illustrate it ? 

" Shepherd. Hoo can I tell ? 

" North. By the story of an insane patient in the In- 
firmary of Edinburgh, who, though all his meals consisted 

3" S. V. JAN. 16, '64.] 



of porridge, believed that he had every day a dinner of 
three regular courses, and a dessert ; and yet confessed 
that, some how or ot/ier, everything he ate tasted of porridge ! 
Works of Professor Wilson, vol. iii. pp. 137, 138. 


SIR EDWARD MAT (3 rd S. v. 35.) Sir Edward 
May, M.P. for Belfast, was the son of Sir James 
May, M.P. for the co. Waterford, who was created 
a baronet June 30, 1763. A few particulars 
of the pedigree appear in Burke's Extinct and 
Dormant Baronetcies. Arms : gu. a fess between 
eight billets, or. R- W. 

SIR WILLIAM SEVENOKE (3 rd S. v. 37.) In the 
" List of Mayors of London," compiled by Paul 
Wright, B.D., F.S.A., 1773, appended to Hey- 
lin's Help to English History, the arms are de- 
scribed " Az. seven acorns or," and are engraved 
three, three, and one. This is probably correct. 

R. W. 

LONGEVITY OF CLERGYMEN (3 rd S. v. 22, 44.) 
The Preston Chronicle of Jan. 9, 1864, records the 
demise on Jan. 3, of the Rev. Joseph Rowley, in- 
cumbent of Stalmine, Lancashire, for sixty- four 
years ; having been appointed thereto in the year 
1799. The reverend gentleman was for fifty-four 
vears v i z . from 1803 to 1858, chaplain of Lan- 
caster Castle, during which period he attended 
the execution of no less than 170 persons. 


PAPER MARKS (3 rd S. iv. 515.) The Rey. 
Samuel Dunne, son of the archdeacon, an anti- 
quary of some eminence, communicated in 1795 
to the Arch&ologia a very interesting and valuable 
article on Paper Marks. It is chiefly drawn up 
from some materials collected by Mr. Thomas 
Fisher, printer, of Rochester, and is illustrated 
with six plates exhibiting various marks from 
1473 to 1712. The size and form of the paper 
bearing the mark is shown, and the substance of 
the material is described as far as it can be. Alto- 
gether it is a very curious document. X. A. X. 

THE LAIRD or LEE (3 rd S. v. 34.) The 
Laird of Lee is commonly understood to be Lock- 
hart of Lee. Wodrow (vol. i. p. 282), says that 
Sir James Lockhart of Lee was the only sober 
man at the drunken meeting of Council at Glas- 
gow, 1662, which ejected so many ministers, and 
that he alone opposed it. This was more than 
twenty years before the Mauchline Martyrdom; 
so that, however likely, it cannot be quite certain 
either that he is the person alluded to in the 
inscription on the Mauchline Monument, or, sup- 
posing he is, that it does him justice. J. R. B. 

FRITH SILVER (3 rd S. iv. 477, 529.) Fee-farm 
rents are payable to Lord Somers in most parts 
of the North Hiding of Yorkshire ; and regular 
audits held at certain market towns, and collec- 
tions made by Mr. Samuel Danby, of 7, Gray's 

Inn Square. The devisees of a Mr. Robinson have 
also a similar claim upon all estates which once 
possessed a deer park, surrounded by a bow rake. 
I believe frith silver is in lieu of underwood. 
Although I apprehend Mr. Danby is our best 
authority. EBORACUM. 

POTATO AND POINT (3 rd S. iv. 496.) 
" I was indebted for my first glimmering knowledge of 
history and antiquities "to those evening converzationi 
round our small turf fire, where, after a frugal repast 
upon that imaginative dish, 'potatoes and point,' my 
father used to talk of the traditions of other times. 

" When there is but a small portion of salt left, the 
potatoe, instead of being dipped into it by the guests, is 
merely, as a sort of indulgence to the fancy, pointed at 
it." Memoirs of Captain Rock, London, 1824, p. 243. 

W. D. 

GREEK AND ROMAN GAMES (3 rd S. v. 39.) 
It may be added that the Nomocanon of Photius, 
and the Scholia of Balsamon, were republished in 
Voelli et Justelli Bibliotheca Juris Canonici Ve- 
teris, Greece et Latine, Paris, 1661, 2 voll. fol. In 
loc. cit. Tit. xiii. c. 29, Balsamon supplies no 
further illustration than what has already been 
quoted. He only adds : 

" Videtur etiam mihi quoque alterum hunc ludum a 
lege aversabunde vitari et puniri; utpote qui cottum 
confirmet." P. 1131. 

For Karros, see Ducange, Glossarium Media et 
Infimae Latinitatis : "-TV KV&OV, fjroi rbv KOTTOV." 


CHURCHWARDEN QUERY (3 rd S. v. 34.) The 
sidesmen appointed last Easter at the meeting of 
the parish of St. Michael's, Lich field, were thir- 
teen in number; and were designated to the 
eight out- townships included in that parish. They 
are only assistants to the churchwardens, in re- 
ference to their respective townships. Their 
duties in recent times appears, from Canon 90 of 
the Constitutions of 1562, to be to prevent ab- 
sence of parishioners from church, and disturb- 
ance to the congregations by absentees. In 
Canon 89, the word " churchwarden " is made 
equivalent to questman (say inquestman or in- 
quirer) ; but prior to these Constitutions, there 
was a distinction, for 

" In the ancient episcopal synods, the bishops were wont 
to summon divers creditable persons out of every parish, 
to give information of, and to attest the disorders of clergy 
and people. These were called testes synodales ; and 
were in after times a kind of impanneled jury, consisting 
of two, three, or more persons in every parish, who were 
upon oath to present all hereticks and other irregular 
persons (/Ten. Par. Ant. 649). And these in process of 
time became standing officers in several places, especially 
in great cities ; and from hence were called synods-men, 
and by corruption sidesmen. They are also sometimes 
called questmen, from the nature of their office, in making 
inquiry concerning offences." 

By Canon 90, if the minister and parishioners 
cannot agree in the choice of these sidesmen, or 



[3*d S. V. JAN. 16, '64. 

questmen, in Easter week, the ordinary of the 
diocese is to appoint them (Burn's Eccles. Law, 
i. 399). T. J. BUCKTON. 

SIR EDWARD MAY (3 rd S. v. 35.) I have se- 
veral old letters in the autograph of Sir Edward 
May in my possession, and CARILFORD might, 
perhaps, communicate with me direct in his own 
name . J. EBARDON. 

Stillorgan, co. Dublin. 

CHAIGNEAU (3 rd S. v. 11.) The name has re- 
vived my boyish remembrance of a story, strangely 
illustrating the social habits and feelings of the 
last century ; as I heard it narrated more than 
seventy years ago, by a then elderly aunt of mine, 
a lady as well nurtured and as kindly hearted as 
any of her time. 

The Mr. Chaigneau whom it commemorates 
was an eminent laceman in Dame Street (the 
Regent Street of) Dublin, where his speciality, 
though less expansive, was more expensive than 
are our wives' and daughters' crinolines. One 
day, a titled lady honoured his shop with a visit 
in her sedan chair ; during her explorations, 
the shopman observed her " conveying " a card 
of lace into her muff. On her departure, he 
informed his master of this leze-l)outi(jue, who 
posted after her ladyship, and, with the requisite 
bows and begging pardons, suggested her having 
unconsciously, of course taken, &c. &c. Of 
course, also, Madam was indignant. That a person- 
age of her fortune and position could condescend 
to the vulgarity of shoplifting ! The laceman per- 
sisted in the " mistake " : would she be good 
enough to order her sedan back to the shop ? 
would she allow it to be examined? Growing 
desperate, he insisted on the search ; whereupon, 
drawing the card of lace out of her muff, she 
exclaimed (well do I remember my aunt's words 
and tone), " There, fellow ; there is your lace ; 
and it shall be the dearest lace to you that ever 
came out of your shop." The promise was duly 
kept : the esprit de corps was too strong for the 
tradesman : from one of the richest of his calling 
he gradually became one of the poorest ; dwindled 
down into bankruptcy, and obtained his discharge 
by cutting his throat. 

Such was my aunt's story ; she never mentioned 
the lady's name, and, if she had, I would not dis- 
entomb it. E. L, S. 


Macaulay's much-talked- of New Zealander takes his seat 
upon the ruins of St. Paul's, he will get but a very im- 
perfect notion of what the great city was, of which the 
remains lie spread before him, unless he has the good for- 
tune to pick up from among them an old Post Office 

London Directory. There he would be told in unmis- 
takeable characters the true history of London's great- 
ness, a volume of nearly 3000 closely, yet clearly printed, 
pages, pointing out not only every mart where men do 
congregate, but the quiet homes to which the hundreds 
and thousands of those busy men retire when the day's 
work is done, would speak more clearly of the wealth, 
intelligence, and vast extent of London than acres of 
crumbling ruins. For sixty-five years has the Post Office 
London Directory gone on increasing in size, accuracy, 
and utility until it has reached a completeness commen- 
surate with the labour and expense which have been be- 
stowed upon it, and which makes it a Commercial Annual 
Register of the metropolis of England. If the reader 
would wish for evidence of the progress of commerce and 
manufactures in London, and how the Post Office Direc- 
tory keeps pace with this progress, he will find it in the 
simple fact that about fifty new trades have been added 
to the present volume. 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books to be sent direct to 
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Wanted by Messrs. Longman & Co., 39. Paternoster Row, E.C., London. 
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HANNAH HEWITT; or, the Female Crusoe, by Charles Dibdin. 3 Vols. 
1792. 411, Strand. 

ZEBA IN THE DESERT; or, the Female Crusoe, from the French. Lon- 
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Wanted by Mr. Percy B. St. John, Southend, Essex. 

LECTURES ON ENGLISH HISTORY, by a Lady. 2 Vols. Parker: London. 

THE CAMP OF RBFUOB. Knight: London. 


A pamphlet or magazine containing an article on Hereward the Saxon, 
by jlev. E. Trollope, 1B602. 

Wanted by Mr. Gisborne, 25, Birchin Lane, B.C. 


GEORGE W. MARSHALL. The extract relative to tltf. discovery o/Nune- 
ham Regis is from our own columns. See many articles on the subject in 
our 1st Series vi. 386, 488, 558; vii. 23, 507; viii. 101. 

8. (Edinburgh.) For the origin of the name oftJie " Domesday-Booh " 
consult " N. & Q." 1st S. xi. 107; 2nd S. xi. 102, 103. 

T. BKNTLEY. Has our Correspondent consulted Bishop Monk's Life 
of Dr. Richard Bentley, the second editin,2 vols,8vo. 1883? Kippisa 
Bipgraphia Britannica, ii. 224247, contains also a well-written lije of 
this distinguished critic. 

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CONTENTS. N. 108. 

NOTES The Resurrection Gate, St. Giles'- in-the Fields 
67 Decay of Stone in Buildings. 68 Curious Modern 
Greek and Turkish Names, 75." The Temple," by George 
Herbert, 69 Inedited Letter from Lord Jeffrey to Ber- 
nard Barton, 70 Book Hawking. Ib. The Owl Early 
"Works of Living Authors Origin of Names " County 
Families of England," &c., 71. 

QUERIES: Richardson Family, 72 A Fine Portrait of 
Pope, Ib. Baro Urbigerus, Alchemical Writer Samuel 
Burton " The Cork Magazine" 1847-8 Dowdeswell 
Family Nathaniel Eaton Fingers of Hindoo Gods 
Heraldic " Heraclitus Ridens " The Holy House of 
Loretto Rev. Edward James, A.M., Vicar of Abergavenny 
from 1709 to 1719 " Massacre of the Innocents " Wil- 
liam Mitchel, "The Great Tinclarian Doctor " Oratory 
of Pitt and Fox: "Sans Culotides" Petrarcha Por- 
trait of our Saviour Mrs. Parker the Circumnavigator 
Perkins Family Quotation Sussex Newspapers Pas- 
sage in Tennyson J. G. Wille, 73. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWEBS : William Dell, D.D. " Lingua 
Tersancta," by W. F. Leonartius Pamingerus Miss 
Bailey Sundry Queries Mottoes and Coats of Arms 
" The Athenian Mercury " " Notes to Shakspeare," 75. 

REPLIES: The Lapwing: Churchwardens' Accounts, 77 

Parish Registers : Tombstones and their Inscriptions, 78 

St. Patrick and the Shamrock, 79 John Shurley, 80 
French Coronets Baroness The Bloody Hand Arms 
of Saxony Satirical Sonnet : Gozzo and Pasquin Bull- 
bull Salden Mansion Madman's Food tasting of Oat- 
meal Porridge Churchwarden Query Devil a Proper 
Name Watson of Lofthouse, Yorkshire Longevity of 
Clergymen Arthur Dobbs, &c., 80. 

Notes on Books, &c. 


I notice with regret that this gate, with its in- 
teresting old carving, has recently been removed. 
Whether it is the intention of the vestry to re- 
store it remains to be seen. 

The gate-entrances to churchyards were for- 
merly designated by carvings in wood, of which 
only a few remain : one of these was the semi- 
circular basso-relievo of the "Last Judgment," 
within the pediment of the north gate of St. 
Giles' -in-the-Fields. Another on the same sub- 
ject, but much inferior, is preserved in the east 
gate of St. Stephen, Coleman Street. A figure 
of Time was formerly to be seen over the north 
gate of St. Giles', Cripplegate. It has been taken 
down and set up within the church, over the west 

The " Kesurrection Gate," by which name it 
is commonly known, was originally erected in 
1687. In the previous year the vestry made an 
order : 

" That a substantial gate, out of the wall of the 
churchyard near the round-house, should be made ; and 
also a door answerable to it, out of the church, at the 
foot of the stairs, leading up to the north gallery." 

In pursuance of this resolution, the gate was 
erected and adorned with the curious piece of 

wood-carving, representing, with various altera- 
tions and additions, Michael Angelo's " Last 

In Edward Hatton's New View of London, 1708, 
speaking of the gate and wall, the author says : 

" The churchyard is fenced with a good brick wall ; 
and under a large compass pediment over the gate, near 
the west end, is a prodigious number of carved figures, 
being an emblem of the Resurrection, done in relievo, 
very curiously, and erected in the year 1687." 

The erection of the gate, and the ct ceteras 
connected with it, cost the parish 185/. and up- 
wards ; out of which, 27/. was paid for the carving 
work. The several other items of charge, accord- 
ing to Parton, were as follows : 

" The New Gate. 
Mr. Hopgood's bill 

Wheatley's bill 

Woodman, the mason 

Bailey, bricklayer - 

Townsend, painter - 

Sands, plumber 
Gravel for walk - 
Spreading ditto, and rubbish - 
Love, the carver's, bill - 

s. d. 

11 10 




- 27 

Total - 

- 185 14 6' 

This gate was of red and brown brick, and 
stood near the centre of the churchyard wall. It 
was taken down in 1800; and the Tuscan gate, 
recently removed, erected in its place the carv- 
ing being placed in the new gate in the same 
situation it occupied in the old one. 

The author of the second edition of Ralph's 
Critical Review of the Public Buildings, Statues, 
and Ornaments, in and about London and West' 
minster r , 1783, speaking of St. Giles' Church, 
says : 

" The bas-relief of the Resurrection, which is over the 
north gate of the churchyard, is a remarkably bold and 
characteristic piece of carving, and is in good preserva- 
tion. This last circumstance is, perhaps, owing to the 
narrowness and hurry of the street, which prevents its 
being taken notice of. But the subject is unhappy even 
for a painter, and much more for a sculptor, as it is im- 
possible for the most creative fancy to imagine the small 
number in this piece can represent the multitude of all 
nations gathered from all the corners of the earth.' The 
faces seem to want variety." 

Malcolm also commends the carving. Speaking 
of the church, in his Londinum Redivivum (iii. 
491), he says : 

" A very neat Tuscan gate has recently been, erected ; 
and the arch is filled by the celebrated representation of 
the Resurrection a performance of infinite labour and 
mnch merit, carved about 1687." 

J. T. Smith, however, was of a different opinion 
to that just expressed. Speaking of the old gate- 
way, in his Book for a Rainy Day (1845, p. 20), 
he adds : 

" Over this gate, under its pediment, was a carved 
composition of the ' Last Judgment,' not borrowed from 



[3' d S. V. JAN. 23, '64. 

Michael Angelo, but from the workings of the brain of 
some ship -carver." 

Who shall decide upon the merits of a work, 
when sages differ ? Some years ago, examining 
the carving with a powerful glass, I was much 
pleased with its execution. It appeared to me to 
be a work above the ordinary degree of merit. 
I may add that I discovered, cut upon a small 
square in the middle of the lower group of figures, 
the following inscription: "A. P. 3." What 
does this mean ? The entry in the old accounts 
informs us that the sculptor's name was Love. 



At a time when so much is said and thought of 
the decay of stone in our public buildings, the 
following passage from a letter to King Henry V. 
from an officer having the charge of public works 
at Calais, may not be read without interest, as 
showing the precautions taken in earlier times to 
preserve them. It is to be found in a late publi- 
cation of the Camden Society, entitled Letters of 
Queen Margaret of Anjou, Bishop Beckington, and 
others, p. 20 : 

" SOUVEUAINE LORDE, &c., as touching the stone of 
this cuntre, that shuld be for the jainbes of your doores 
and windowes of your said chapeli, I dare not take upon 
me to sett any more therof upon your workes, hit freteth 
and freeth so foule with himself, that, had I not ordained 
lynnesede oyle to bed [bathe?] hit with, hit wolde not 
have endured, or plesed your Highnesse. Wherfore I 
have paveyed xiij tons tight [weight?] of Cane stone, for 
to spede youre workes withal." 

From this it will be seen that, at that early 
period, linseed oil was applied to stone to preserve 
it, and whatever those who consider only the 
benefit of trade may say, it did and still does 
answer the purpose ; but not unless properly ap- 
plied. For stone should be duly kept and sea- 
soned before being used in a building, especially 
if in tended for carving, just as much as timber ; 
for the stone which is positively the hardest to 
cut is by no means, as an invariable rule, the most 
durable ; but the best is that which, after being 
cut, hardens, and forms itself an exterior coat ; 
and this is the case with the Caen stone, which is 
soft when first taken out of the quarry. But if 
expected to form itself a coat, it must not be cut, 
and then exposed at once to the inclemency of 
the weather, but should be placed for a time in 
the dry, under a shed, constantly exposed to the 
air, but not to rain or tempests. When this has 
been properly done, and the stone is thoroughly 
dry, linseed oil may be applied, and will preserve 
it ; not making streaks, as might be apprehended, 
unless very carelessly laid on, but producing a 
pleasing and subdued gray tint. There is value, 
I conceive, in the suggestion often made of placing 

the stone as it lay in its natural bed ; but to cut 
it out of the quarry, and use it green (so the 
workmen term it), as is too often done at present, 
what is it but a knavish practice of the builder to 
provide for a second job ? For, in this state, the 
sun affects, and the winds and frosts crack and 
shiver it ; and if oil be applied, this makes the 
matter still worse by confining that moisture 
which ought to be permitted to ooze out, and thus 
hastening instead of preventing the decay of the 
stone, which, as a general rule, should have been 
quarried for some time, and have become perfectly 
dry before being used in the construction of 
buildings. It is no uncommon thing among small 
churches to find the clusters of pillars in the in- 
terior composed simply of hard chalk, which 
answers the purpose very well. But let us sup- 
pose these to have been put together while the 
chalk was yet damp, and what would have been 
the consequence ? That the first frost would have 
shivered and broken them ; but the chalk being 
quite dry when put together, frost does not at all 
affect it. And something analogous to this may 
be observed in the use of much of our stone. 

I have before me an instance of linseed oil ap- 
plied more than twenty years since to ornamen- 
tal carving in stone out of doors, and deeply cut, 
which it has preserved. W. 


I have devoted some spare hours to many pages 
of " N. & Q.," where, especially of late, have ap- 
peared lists of Christian names and surnames, 
curious and otherwise, together with their sup- 
posed derivations. It was my good fortune, when 
in Asia Minor, &c., to be intimate with many 
scores of Greek and Turkish better class peasants, 
and acquainted with perhaps as many of the other 
sex of both nations; indeed, to use their own 
phrase, " Was I not their good brother ? ' It 
struck me, a few days ago, that as I had collected 
the names of most of these old friends of mine, 
and given, moreover, some time and attention to 
their derivations, a list of them might, if printed, 
amuse your readers. It would at all events per- 
haps help some, one writer of our Eastern fictions 
to a few unstereotyped names for their heroes 
and heroines ; for really we have had only about 
a dozen proper names in these Eastern novels for 
this last half century. If agreeable, I may, at 
some other time, give the historiographs of Arme- 
nian names a thing totally uncared for, it seems; 
meanwhile, I append a few bona-fide modern 
Greek and Turkish names, common to all ages, 
and with the orthography best allied to their trus 

The following are a few classical nam j these. 

3" S. V. JAX. 23, '64.] 



however, are very scarce : Female Calliope, Cle- 
opatra, Irene, Penelope, Sophi, Hebi. Male 
Dimitri, Bacchyevani, Adoni, Xerxo. 

Of modern names palpably allied to ancient 
ones, take for instance: Female Angelica, Pipina, 
Xristalania, Harcondoo. Male Marco, Apostoli, 
Manoli, Theofani, Stephani, Michali, Petrali, 
Yeoree, Yanako. 

As examples of female names made from male 
names, witness the following. The male roots are 
in italics : Female Panayoteetsn, Athanasoolz, 
.Xmfofooletha, Zacharoola, Stamateetsa, Costin- 
din a, Fam'voola, Photeetsa, Sevastilama. 

To continue with female names, and as illus- 
trating how, by means of affixes to some female 
names, other Christian female names are formed, 
I have noticed : Female Zoe becoming Zoe- 
teetsa ; Helene, Helenika ; Sevastee, Sevastalauia ; 
Katina, Kateriteena, and Vasili, Vasilikee. 

Sometimes again, the various nouns by this 
German system of addition become female names, 
thus : Female Paraskevoola, or born on Friday ; 
Kiriakeetsa, or born on Sunday ; Staphelia, or so 
named from the grape (the red variety of which 
they will, by-the-bye, not eat on St. John the 
Baptist's day) ; Triandafooletha, from the numeral 
30, and so on in endless variety. 

Nor are comical names scarce; and these, as 
in our own country, seem to have lost their evil 
power, and are used in common with the less 
suggestive ones ; for instance : Female Castania, 
the chestnut-haired ; Astrienne, the starfaced ; 
Troumethela, the onion-headed ; and, as illus- 
trating good qualities, Kalee, the good one ; and 
Gramatiche, the writer. 

As examples, however, of real nicknames, the 
mention of which sets the cafe in a roar, but 
which are nevertheless transmitted to posterity, 
take these few : Male Garfelia Faga, or Gar- 
pelia the glutton; Alexi Hesti, or Alexi, the 
open bowelled; Evendria Glegori, or the sharp 
Evendria. It is noticeable also, that if the poor 
wight resides in some of the littoral villages 
where Turks and Armenians "most do congre- 
gate," the nickname, to be more effective, will 
take a Macaronic construction ; as for instance, 
Lefteri Sakalee, or Lefteri with no beard; or 
again, Anesti Kirkiyelani, or Anesti the forty 
liars. Neither friend nor foe escapes this ten- 
dency to give every one a name that will de- 
monstrate your person to them in a moment. 
And I may as well add that for two years I cer- 
tainly had no other name amongst the Greeks 
than Cochineas Diavolos, and no other amongst 
the Turkomans than Yapigi Baski. 

When a stranger comes to reside in a village 
or town large enough to render surnames neces- 
sary, he is called after the village or island from 
which he emigrated, thus : Male Kireeako Dar- 
danelli; Andoni Nichoretta; Sali Mytilene ; 

Panayote Tenedeo ; Vargheli Gallipolliti, and so 
on ; and if he has been a traveller abroad, in some 
cases, when he returns, the family name altogether 
changes, and Nikifori Lala, who has been to Eng- 
land (or says he has), becomes Nikifori Englaiso ; 
and by the same rule, Steliano Gheyikli becomes 
Steliano Spania. 

Other surnames are derived from the occupa- 
tions of the persons who bear them, and remain 
similarly permanent in the family. Thus we have, 
Male Ancholi Seece, or Ancholi the Groom; 
Fotaki Arabajee, or Fotaki the cart driver ; Ali 
Meelona, or Ali the Miller ; Adam Caffajee, or 
Adam the Coffee- keeper ; Seraphim Asvesti, or 
Seraphim the Lime-burner ; and Steli Pappuchee, 
or Steli the Shoemaker. 

The above are a few of the rules which these 
modern Greek proper names, &c. seem to follow. 
Of course there are scores of other names, which, 
like irregular verbs , are, so to say, words " in 
their own right," such as the male names Spero, 
Pani, Xafi, &c. The first named / hope never to 
meet again. Of female names of this order, take 
Keyinee, a matron from Giourkioi ; and Marootha, 
the beauty of El-Ghelmez. 

It must be understood that the foregoing names 
were all noted down in Asia Minor. In Greece 
Proper, other rules have sway with still more 
grotesque results. On a future occasion, I may 
send the more striking combinations found in the 
larger towns, in comparison with which even the 
name of Chronontonthologos would suffer. 

To conclude, here are the more common Turkish 
names from the villages in the interior. These 
rarely alter even in towns, and above all, have no 
jokes performed upon them ; rarely either do they 
take surnames : Male Of old favourites, say 
Mehmet, Mustapha, Magrup, Evrahaim, Mussa, 
Sulieman, Ishmael, Hussein, Achmet, and Osman. 
Female Of old favourite female names, take 
Fatimeh, Ayesha, Sultanna, Musleumeh, Esmeh, 
and Gulezer ; and amongst those not so common 
to us, I quote from out of my married friends, 
Kusoon, Sabuer, Gulu, Nacharlu, Baghdad, Yas- 
galoo, Mavehlee; and from my single (at least 
then single) list, take Sheriffeh, Aleef, Ismehan, 
and Sevler the last-named being the infinitive 
mood of the Osmanli verb to love, and a very 
pretty verb too. W. EASSIE. 

High Orchard House, Gloucester. 


" The Church Porch. 

" Constancy knits the bones, and makes us stowrc" 
Some copies read tower. 

" The Thanksgiving. 

" Shall I weep blood ? Why, thou hast wept such store 
That all thy body was one door." 



[3** S. V. JAN. 23, '64. 

Some copies read gore. See this word in " The 

" Repentance. 

" Man's age is two hours' work, or three." 
What does this mean? The expression, "An- 
gel's age," is used in the poem entitled " Prayer." 

" Jordan. 

" May no lines pass, except they do their duty 
Not to a true, but painted chair ? " 

What chair is here alluded to ? 

" Riddle who list, for me, and pull for prime." 

What is meant by pulling for prime ? It can 
hardly mean, I presume, ringing for matins. 
Does it refer to the old game " Primero " ? * 

" So devils are our sins in perspective." 

Query, Does this mean that our sins in per- 
spective appear to have " some good " in them ? 

" TliK Quiddity. 

**, But it [a verse] is that which while I use 
I am with thee, and TWOS* take all" 

Some copies read, " must take all." Does not 
" take " here mean captivate f It seems to be so 
used in the poem entitled " Gratefulness." 

" Christmas. 

" We sing one common Lord ; wherefore he should 
Himself the candle hold." 

Should there not be a comma after " should " 
and " candle " ; " hold " meaning, as I think, 


* Only a sweet and virtuous soul, 
Like season'd timber, never gives ; 
But when the whole world turns to coal, 
Then chiefly lives." 

Some copies read : " But tho' the whole world 
turn to coal." Neither reading makes the sense 
very clear. 

All the editions of The Temple I have met with 
differ materially in many parts, and I much doubt 
whether there is one that is free from many 
errors. J. D. 


" Edinburgh, Jan. 28th, 1820. 

"Dear Sir, I have very little time for correspondence 
especially at this season, or I should have great plea- 
sure in cultivating yours. My answer to your former 
letter to me makes it less necessary to write at large in 
this. The novelty of a Quaker poem will rather attract 
notice and curiosity, I should imagine, than repel it. 

[* In the Works of George Herbert, edit. 1859, 8vo 
(Bell & Daldy), is the following note to this line : " Pull 
for prime." A French phrase, meaning, ' to pull, or draw, 
for the first place,' especially in sports involving a trial 
of strength." Vide " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. iv. 496. ED ] 

But if I can conscientiously promote your notoriety 
without hurting your feelings I certainly shall do so. 

" I confess to the review of Clarkson, and also lay 
claim to the paper on Prison Discipline. There is some 
necessary levity in the former the latter was written 
from the heart. As to the phrase about honesty to which 
you object, it was not set down in mere unmeaning wan- 
tonness, but was intended as the mild and mitigated Ex- 
pression of an opinion founded perhaps upon too narrow 
an observation, but very seriously and conscientiously en- 
tertained, that the lower classes and ordinary dealers of 
your society, were rather more cunning and grasping, and 
illiberal in their transactions than the associates of other 
sects. I had recently had occasion, in the course of my 
profession, to see several instances of this, and was rather 
shocked and disgusted at finding instances of harshness 
and duplicity that amounted almost to criminal fraud, 
coolly [raised? illeg."] and defended by persons of this 
persuasion. It is possible that our Northern climate may 
corrupt them, and very likely that the instances may be 
rare and casual yet Quaker traders, I learn, are gene- 
rally reckoned among traders to be sly and stingy, and 
ready to take advantage, and I cannot believe the repu- 
tation to be wholly without foundation. I have said 
that the body is generally illiterate, and I think you 
agree with me. That it has contained many eminent 
men since the days of Penn and Barclay no candid per- 
son will dispute I have myself the happiness of knowing 
several. I am well acquainted with Mr. Walker of Lon- 
don, and flatter myself I may call W. Allen my friend. 
To the philanthropy and calm and wise perseverance of 
the body in all charitable undertakings, I shall always be 
ready to do justice. But I trust I need make no profes- 
sions on this subject, nor does it seem necessary to dis- 
cuss further the points of difference between us. I sup- 
pose you don't expect to make a convert of me, and I 
certainly have not the least desire to shake you in your 
present convictions. There are plenty of topics, I hope, 
on which we may agree, and we need not seek after the 
exceptions. I shall be happy if my opinion of your poem 
can be ranged in the first class. Being always, with great 
esteem, your faithful ser* 


"P.S. Do not let your Quaker Whigs be discouraged 
by abuse or ridicule. Being Whigs they must have 
borne abuse whether they were Quakers or not. That 
circumstance only suggested the [word illeg. ~\ topics 
abuse is one of the ways and means of electioneering, and 
cannot be dispensed with. Never mind it." 

The above letter has not, I think, been printed. 
It is well worthy recording for many reasons. 
I received the original through Mr. Dawson Tur- 
ner's sale. The penmanship is as hard to deci- 
pher as any MS. in modern English well can be. 



I should like you to publish the following as a 
Note, worthy of remembrance of all literary per- 
sons. A man, dressed in a suit of black, with a 
white neckcloth, called recently at my private 
residence ; and, as I was at my office, he expressed 
a wish to see my wife. On entering her room, he 
stated that he had been requested by the rector 
of the parish to call upon me, and wished to see 
me personally. My wife told him I returned 

3'd S. V. JAN. 23, '64. J 



home to dinner at six, and could be seen soon 
after that hour ; but he stated that the night air 
was injurious to his health, and asked for my 
office address, which she gave him. When I 
returned home, she mentioned the circumstance ; 
and we both concluded that it was the rector's 
new curate, who wanted my subscription to some 
local charity. I was, therefore, fully prepared 
for the " curate," when he presented himself a 
few days after at my office. However, to my 
surprise, he stated that his object in calling was 
to request my subscription to a new work Bun- 
yaris Life and Writings ; which he led 'me to infer 
the rector was about to edit. He produced a 
letter from the clergyman, whose handwriting I 
recognised ; and, as I was very busy, I did not 
read it, but at once told the man I would sub- 
scribe for one copy. He tried to get me to take 
two ; but I told him one would suffice. He then 
produced an order book, and requested me to 
write the usual order ; and asked me how I would 
have the work, in numbers or volumes ? So I 
desired him to supply it in volumes, as the work 
appeared. He produced what seemed to be a 
" number," and opened it at the middle, where a 
handsomely engraved frontispiece showed the 
character of the work. This volume was in 
violet calf, and in a handsome binding. A few 
days after, while I was in Ireland, my wife in- 
formed me that/bwr volumes of Bunyan's Works, 
bound in cloth, had been sent, with a demand for 
2Z. 16s. and, luckily, she had not paid the money. 
On my return home, I found it was an old work 
undated of Stebbing's, which I subsequently as- 
certained had been published in 1859. Soon 
afterwards, the publisher sent me an impudent 
reply to my letter of remonstrance, that the work 
was not the same I had ordered, not having been 
edited by our rector; and the result was, a 
County Court summons. I was, however, not 
daunted by this, and told my story to the judge ; 
and he, after hearing my " clerical" friend (who, 
by-the-bye, appeared in his every-day dress, and 
had dropped the white "choker"), decided that 
the man had no claim on me, the order having 
been obtained under false pretences. I trust, 
if my Clapham and Brixton neighbours have 
been similarly imposed on, they will adopt a like 
course with the " Canonbury " publisher. 

N. H. E. 
Devonshire Road, South Lambeth. 

THE OWL. I had no idea until I met with the 
follow ing items in the churchwardens' accounts at 
St. Mary's Church, Beverley, that the owl was a pro- 
scribed bird, but had supposed that he was pro- 
tected. Such, however, seems not to have been 
the case at Beverley. I transcribe the text and 
context for the years 1642 and 1646 : 

1G42, 26 th April. To the ringers, when the king 

came in anil went out - xi 8 viij d 

6 th July. Paid the ringers when the king t 

came in - iij viij d 

16 th July. For ringing when the king 

came from New wark - iiijviij d 

Paid to Jas. Johnson for killing three 
owles in the Woodhall closes, that 
he did steadfastly affirme them to 
belong to this church - xvii d 

1646. Paid John Pearson for killing an urcbant ij*. 

Paid John Pearson for catching three urchants vj d 

Paid Duke Redman for killing of eight jack 

dawes ------- vj d 

Paid to the sexton for killing an oule, and car- 
rying the ammunition in the chamber - j* ij d 


year 1809, Mr. E. B. Sugden first published his 
Letters to a Man of Property ; and on Feb. 12, 
1863, the 7th edition of the same work, under its 
new title of A Handy Book on Property Law, was 
issued by its author (now Lord St. Leonards), 
still in the vigour of his faculties. 

In the year 1815, Dr. Charles Richardson pub- 
lished his Illustrations of English Philology ; and 
in 1854, published his valuable summary of the 
Diversions of Purley, with the title of The Study 
of Language. T. H. 

ORIGIN OF NAMES. The following extract 
from the letter of an emigrant to Kaflerland, is a 
modern specimen of giving surnames to parties 
descriptive of some quality or peculiarity in the 
party named, and as such may be worth record- 
ing in N. & Q. :" 

"Our master, Mr. P , is called E-gon-a-shalaw, 

which means broad-sbouldered ; Mr. D , Emoounyous, 

because he rose early when he first came out ; Mr. T . 

Umolotagas, that is, thin-faced ; Mr. F , Maka-wha, 

because his eye-brows meet; Mr. S , Ins-w-bo, 

weakly- looking; Mr. N , Mafumbo, stooping; Mr. 

R , Is-stop, large nose ; Mr. G , El-tabala, very 

silent ; Mr. W , Mack-ka-coba, because he stoops in 


H. T. E. 

cidentally met with the above work a few days 
since, and am induced, in the cause of heraldry 
and genealogy, to suggest that in such compila- 
tions it would be better that a distinction should 
be made between claims and descents, founded on 
documentary evidence or the undisturbed posses- 
sion of real estate, and those put forth on the mere 
conjecture of the parties immediately interested. 
I say this because many are misled by a claim, 
and take it for granted that there is evidence for 
the same ; but in the work referred to several 
such claims have been inserted without any inves- 
tigation, and, consequently, Pepper's Ghost is so 
like a reality, that serious errors arise, when such 
a record is considered as a book of reference. B. 



V. JAN. 23, '64. 



Conon Richardson, Abbot of Parshore Abbey, 
married, after the dissolution, a Miss Pates of Bre- 
don, co. Vigorn ; and had issue two sons, Conon 
and Thomas. Conon had issue an only son, Sir 
William Richardson, Knt., who died s.p. Thomas, 
by his first wife Elizabeth, had a son Conon, of 
Tewkesbury ; and by his second wife Anne, daugh- 
ter of Leonard Mazey, of Shechenhurst, Worces- 
tershire, he had further issue : seven sons, and six 
daughters. The sons were Henry, of London, 
haberdasher, buried A.D. 1634; who, by his wife 
Anne, daughter of Anthony Nicholls of Morton- 
Hinmars, Gloucestershire, had issue a son Kenelm. 
The other sons of Thomas were Edmund, Leonard, 
Rafe, John, William, and Christopher. The arms 
borne by this family were : " Argent, on a chief, 
sable; 3 leopards' heads erased of the 1st." 

I find, in the Harl. MSS., the very same arms 
given to another family of Richardson : John 
Richardson of Roskell, or Rostill, co. York, mar- 
ried Isabel Hart of Botrington, and had issue two 
sons and three daughters. William, the elder son, 
was of Southwark ; and by his wife Jane, daugh- 
ter of Robt. Harrison of Milton Green, Cheshire, 
had issue Thomas (at. 17, anno 1623), John, Wil- 
liam, Francis, and Mary. George, the second 
son, had issue by his wife who was a sister to 
Sir John King, Knt. a son Richard. 

Sir Thomas Richardson, Serjeant-at-Law (anno 
1620), bore the same arms as given at p. 240 of 
Dugdale's Origines Juridicales. And I find that 
Capt. Edward Richardson, of Colonel James Cas- 
tles' Regiment, who was " second son of William 
Richardson, Esq., descended of the ancient family 
of the Richardsons of Pershore, in the county of 
Worcester," was registered May 22, 1647, by 
" Wm. Roberts," Ulster King, as bearing the same 
arms, with a crescent for difference. His descen- 
dants continue to use these arms. 

William, the father of this Edward, may have 
been a son of Conon of Tewkesbury. I am 
anxious to know his exact descent. I shall feel 
greatly obliged to any of your correspondents 
who will kindly furnish me with any additional 
information respecting this family ; so as to con- 
nect the several branches which are named above. 
I shall be glad to know anything respecting the 
parentage and descendants (if any) of Sir Thomas, 
and whether he was the same person as the Chief 
Justice [of the Common Pleas, 1626, and] of the 
King's Bench, 1631 ? whose arms, however, Dug. 
dale gives, at p. 238, as " Or (instead of argent) 
on a ch.," &c., quarterly with " ermine on a can- 
ton, azure, a saltiro gules." 

Nash's Worcestershire contains a slight refer- 
ence to Conon and his issue. 


In The Builder of this day (Jan. 9th, 1864), Ifind 
the following "curious," or rather marvellous "dis- 
covery at Gloucester," in which " a fine portrait 
of Pope " is concerned, and which, if true, is cer- 
tainly worth recording in " N. & Q." : 


" It may not be generally known, or it may possibly 
be forgotten, that in the olden time county families often 
came into their principal city or town for some of the 
winter months, where they had their regular town houses ; 
and those who had not, bestowed themselves in lodgings. 
A visit to the metropolis was then a much more serious 
business than it is now-a-days. Folks were then content 
with the amusements the city afforded them : the the- 
atres, the assemblies, parties, &c., were a sufficient attrac- 
tion ; consequently many fine old mansions will be found 
in our principal towns, now devoted to very different 
purposes from what they were originally built for. One 
of these abodes, the town house of the Guises, a mansion 
of about Queen Anne's period, has of late been occupied 
as a school of art ; and in making some alterations for 
this purpose, the architect observed an unusual, and, as 
it seemed to him, a needless projection of panelling in a 
small sitting-room, always called 'Pope's room.' He 
made up his mind to remove this projection, and in doing 
so brought to light a fine portrait of Pope. This led him 
to suspect that the opposite side might also contain some 
treasure, and on taking it down a painting was revealed, 
since said to be the Temptation,' by Guido. A man in a 
rich dress of the time of Francois Premier is holding up 
a string of pearls to a woman, who appears to be resisting 
his entreaties and tempting offer. It is described to us 
as a remarkably fine painting. 

"Pope was a frequent visitor in Gloucestershire and 
the neighbouring county of Hereford. His well-known 
lines to the ' Man of Ross ' were written during his sojourn 
in the neighbourhood. In Gloucestershire he was a guest 
of the family of the Guises, who had a seat, Highnam 
Court, not far from the city ; another, called Kendcombe, 
in the same county ; and the house in Gloucester alluded 
to. He was also a not infrequent visitor at the Bathursts, 
Lydney Park, near Cirencester. 

" Why these pictures were ' walled up ' one cannot 
form any reasonable conjecture: there were no public 
troubles in Gloucester at that time. Are we justified in 
attributing their concealment to some anticipated family 
dispute respecting them, which might have been avoided, 
perhaps, by thus shutting them out from the world? 
Fortunately they were in a dry place, on each side of a 
fire-place, and have received no injury from their long 

" The pictures are now in the possession of Mr. Baylis, 
Thames Bank, Fulham." 

Mr. Baylis's very remarkable collection of anti- 
quities and articles of virtu, particularly pictures, 
is now of long repute ; but is it still at Thames 
Bank, Fulham? I was under the impression that 
it had for many years left that locality. 

And are these pictures from Gloucester now 
in his gallery, or have they ever been ? Even if 
they are so, collectors are liable to be imposed 
upon by the dealers, and such a tale as the above 
is surely a most suspicious one. Is it even new, 
or cut from an old newspaper ? Perhaps some cor- 
respondent at Gloucester will clear these doubts. 


3 rd S. V. JAN. 23, '64.] 



ask for information respecting the under- described 
work and its author. I am unable to find any- 
thing about either in ordinary books of reference 
at hand. 

It is a thin 12mo of 86 pages, consisting of two 
treatises continuously paged. The first title-page 
is wanting, but the title at the beginning of the 
101 Aphorisms of which the first treatise is com- 
posed runs thus : 

" APHOKISMI URBIGERANI ; Or, Certain Rules, clearly 
demonstrating the Three Infallible Ways of preparing the 

The title-page of the second treatise is as fol- 
lows : 

" Circulatum minus Urbigeranum, OR, THE PHILO- 
certain Ways of Preparing it, fully and clearly set forth 
A Servant of God in the Kingdom of Nature. Experto 
Crede. LONDON, Printed for Henry Faithorne, at the 
Rose in St. Paul's Church-yard, 1690." * 


SAMUEL BURTON. Wanted, any information 
respecting Samuel Burton, Esq., whose decease at 
Sevenoaks, in Oct. 1750, is mentioned in the 
obituary of the Gentleman's Magazine. He had 
served the office of High Sheriff for the county of 
Derby, and had attained the age of sixty-eight 
years. E. H. A. 

"THE CORK MAGAZINE" 1847-8. Who was 
author of an article in this Magazine on George 
Sand's " Seven Chords of the Lyre," No. I. pp. 35- 
43. R. I. 

DOWDESWELL FAMILY. " Rich. Dowdcswell, 
astatis suse 46, anno 1726," is written on the back 
of a portrait in my possession. Can any of your 
correspondents inform me who this Richard 
Dowdeswell was ? I think he or his son married 
a Miss Leverton. J. D. 

NATHANIEL EATON. One of my maternal an- 
cestors, Nathaniel Eaton, of Manchester, in 1674, 
married Christian Tawdry, of " The Riddings," 
and Bank Hill, Timperly, Cheshire. He was a 
member of the Society of Friends, but I suspect 
was a son or grandson of one of the six Non- 
conformist ministers, of the name of Eaton, who, 
ac'jording to Calamy, were ejected from their 
livings by the Act of Uniformity in 1662. This 
conjecture is strengthened by the fact that the 
mother of Christian Vawdry (Margaret, daughter 
of Oswald Moseley, of Garratt, near Manchester), 
alter the death of her first husband, Robert Vaw- 
dry, father of Christian Vawdry, married the well- 

[* There ought to be a beautifully engraved frontis- 
piece, which is explained at the end of the volume". A 
German translation of it was printed at Hamburgh in 
1705. The name Urbiycrus looks like a pseudonym. 

known John Angler, minister of Denton, Lanca- 
shire, who had as intimate friends or coadjutors, 
several . Nonconformist ministers of the name of 

I shall feel obliged by any information or sur- 
mise as to the parents or relations of the above 
Nathaniel Eaton, at the same time remarking that 
his marriage in 1674 is inconsistent with his being 
the Nathaniel Eaton, born in 1609, who, according 
to Calamy, was the first master of the College at 
New Cambridge in New England, and who after- 
wards died in the King's Bench. M. D. 

FINGERS OF HINDOO GODS. What is the mean- 
ing of the position of the fingers below described, 
which I have observed in effigies of gods and 
kings on Hindoo pagodas, as well as in sculptures 
of saints and abbots on Christian cathedrals ? 
The upper part of the right arm is pressed close 
to the right side, the lower part of the arm 
doubled up against the upper part, so that the 
hand is brought up to the shoulder ; the palm of 
the hand is turned to the front, the fore and 
middle fingers pointing upwards : the thumb and 
other fingers being doubled on to the palm. 

H. C. 

HERALDIC. I shall feel obliged if you can tell 
me, is there any tradition by which the history or 
origin of the following arms can be found ? 

"Per cheveron inverted or and sable, a lion 
rampant. Countercharged crest, a demi-moor 
holding in dexter hand an arrow, and in sinister 
a shield or. Motto : Mors potius macula." 

J. B. 

"HERACLITUS RIDENS," a weekly fly-sheet, 
issued in 1681-2, and republished in 1713, runs 
over with abuse of Whigs and Dissenters. It is 
in the form of dialogues between Jest and Earnest. 
The wit is coarse and strong, and the book is 
altogether a racy specimen of peoples English in 
those happy days. There are some useful his- 
torical and literary allusions in it. It lived to be 
eighty-two numbers old. In his postscript, at 
the end, the author alludes to his successful pre- 
servation of the nominis umbra ; wherein he says; 
" he has had such a felicity (notwithstanding all 
the conjectures that have been made of him), as 
that he is not more publicly known than the 
author of the Whole Duty of Man" 

Was Heraclitus Ridens ever revealed ? 

B, H. C. 

since, I read a letter in the Daily Telegraph that 
the Santa Casa has been removed to Milan. Is 
this a fact? And if so, what are the circum- 
stances ? A Loretto guide-book says, that angels 
carried this house, in 1291, from Nazareth to 
Tcrsatto in Illyria; and, in 1294, from Illyria to 
Loretto. B. H. C. 



[3" S. V. JAN. 23, '64. 

GAVENNY FROM 1709 TO 1719. Can and will 
any reader of " N. & Q-" oblige by giving some 
reference where to find any further particulars of 
him, and did he leave any descendants, and their 
names ? GLWYSIG. 


" Some of the pictures " (at Bruges) " are overcrowded, 
and absurdly minute. In the hospital is a ' Massacre of 
the Innocents,' by Hamlin, in which all out-of-the-way 
methods of killing are exhibited. Beneath is a descrip- 
tion in uncouth Latin and Dutch, which I am sorry I 
had not time to copy. One child's throat is said to be 
too small for the dagger, and the eyes of another are at 
the back of its cleft skull, illustrating oculos per vul- 
nus vomit.' " Journey through Holland and the Nether- 
lands in 1777, by H. Ward, p. 56. 

I do not think that there is any such picture 
now in the hospital. Any account of this, or a 
copy of the verses, will be acceptable. Is Hamlin 
a slip of the pen for Memling ? T. P. E. 

DOCTOR." Can any reader of " N". & Q." supply, 
or direct me to, information regarding this fanatic, 
who published many indescribable books and broad- 
sides in Edinburgh and Glasgow at the beginning 
of last century, of which I possess a few ? 

" The reason I call myself the Tinclarian Doc- 
tor, ' says he, " is because I am a Tinklar and 
cures old Pans and old Lantruns," which humble 
occupation he seems to have neglected and set 
hiniself up for a Light to the Ministers and a 
director of crowned heads. 

Speaking of Popish practices abroad, he ob- 
serves, " I have written so much about them in 
my French Travels, that I need not write of them 
here." Is this book of the Tinker's known ? * 

J. O. 

P.S. The Doctor seems to have been at one 
time literally the Lamplighter of Auld Reekie. 
When the magistrates dismissed him from that 
post, he assumed the more spiritual office ; and 
his pertinacity in teaching both the clergy and 
laity in his incoherent fashion must have been 
sufficiently annoying to the Kirk. Some time 
ago I purchased his Testament, in which, in the 
usual style of these mad prophets, he applies, and 
inveighs against " the beast in the Revelations, 
whose number is six hundred, three score, and 
six." If the ministers had had the lotting of this 
book, they could not have retaliated better than 
the auctioneer, who, as may be seen by the undis- 
turbed ticket, accidentally lotted The Great Tin- 
clarian Doctor, 666 ! 

TIDES." In a contemporary satire Sans Culo- 

[' The death of this singular character is thus an- 
nounced in The Scots Magazine for March, 1740 (ii. 143) : 
" William Mitchel, White-ironsmith, Edinburgh, well 
known by the name of Tinclarian Doctor." ED.] 

tides, by Cincinnatus Rigshaw, Professor of Theo- 
philanthrophy, &c., 4to, 1800 there is a curious 
passage illustrative of the different styles of ora- 
tory of Pitt and Fox. It is an imitation of 
Virgil's eighth Eclogue, and runs as follows : 

" Inconstant man ! from me thy fancy roves, 
And Pitt's big voice, and sounding periods loves j 
Thou lov'st no more, when I impassion'd speak, 
My shrill-ton'd treble's energetic squeak : 
Thy taste no more Judaic charms allows, 
My chin's black honours, and my shaggy brows ! 
Begin my muse, begin the plaintive strain ! 
Hear it St. Ann's, and hear each neighbouring plain." 

]NTo one who only knows the two great states- 
men by their portraits, could suppose that the 
"big voice and sounding periods" belonged to 
Pitt and " shrill ton'd treble's energetic squeak " 
to his great rival. Among the readers of "N. & Q." 
there are still some who must have listened to 
them both. Will they kindly give myself and 
your readers the benefit of their reminiscences ? 
One confirmation of the statement I have met 
with, though I cannot now recollect my autho- 
rity, namely, that the late Lord Stanhope, in his 
style of speaking, bore a marked resemblance to 
his distinguished relative. May I add a second 
Query : Who was the author of Sans Culotides ? 
obviously, a violent Pittite. S. H. Y. 

PETRARCHA. I have three editions of this 
poet, that of Filelfo, folio, 1481, and two. others. 
Reading in that most agreeable of bibliographers, 
Dibdin, p. 756, Lib. Comp., he says, " an edition 
by Rovillio, 18mo, 1574, with two suppressed 
leaves. The previous editions of Rovillio are 
1550-1." Now on examining my two copies I 
find " II Petrarcha ; in Lyone appresso G. Rovillio, 
1564," size 4 in. by 2 in., printed with italic letter. 
The other II Petrarcha, Venice, by the well-known 
Nicolo Bevilacqua, 1564, size of the text 4^in. by 
2 in. ; and this edition has a preface of four pages 
by G. Rovillio. So that he (Rovillio) printed, or 
caused to be printed, two distinct editions of the 
poet in the same year. I don't think this has 
been noticed before. Of the earlier edition above 
named I know nothing. I should be glad of any 
information concerning the suppressed leaves men- 
tioned by Dibdin. WM. DAVIS. 

Hill Cottage, Erdington. 

quarian Repertory, vol. iii. (ed. 1808), p. 428, I 
find a letter from Wm. Lottie, Canterbury, dated 
July 15, 1780, with a drawing " of a very old 
picture painted on oak on a gold ground." 

The accompanying drawing in the Repertory is 
a very fine representation of our Saviour, bearing 
an inscription that it was 

" Imprinted by the predesessors of the great Turke, 
and sent to the Pope Innosent the VIII. at the cost of the 
Grete Turke for a token for this cause to redeme his 
Brother that was takyn presonor." 

3<-<* g. v. JAN. 23, '64.] 


Where the original of this painting was at the 
date of the communication (1780) is not stated. 

From the newspapers I observe that a cameo j 
has lately been discovered, said to have been 
executed by order of Tiberius, and supposed to 
be a representation of our Saviour. 

Could any of your correspondents inform me 
where the painting above referred to is to be 
seen ? What resemblance it bears to the alleged 
cameo, and if the painting is a copy of the cameo ? 


was published at London, in 8vo, A Voyage round 
the World in the ''Gorgon'" Man of War, Captain 
John Parker, performed by his Widow for the Ad- 
vantage of a numerous Family. (Nichols's Lit. 
Anecdotes, ix. 158, Gent Mag. Ixv. 941.) ^ I shall 
be gJad to know the Christian name of this lady,* 
and the date of her death. The work appears, 
from the review of it, to be of a very interesting 
character. S. Y. R. 

PERKINS FAMILY. Does there exist, in MS. or 
in print, a more detailed and complete history of 
the family of Perkins than the one to be found 
in Burke's Landed Gentry ? A reference to such, 
if in existence, would hugely oblige me.f 


QUOTATION. Are the following lines by Geo. 
Wither, or by any one of his timer Or, are they 
of more modern and less illustrious parentage ? 
" Oh God of glory ! Thou hast treasured up 
For me my little portion of distress ; 
But with each draught, in every bitter cup 
Thy hand hath mixt, to make its soreness less, 
Some cordial drop ; for which Thy Name I bless, 
And offer up my mite of thankfulness." 


SUSSEX NEWSPAPERS. I have in my possession 
the first number of the Hastings Chronicle, 6d. 
[July 29, 1829], and of the Brighton Chronicle, 
2rf. [May 13, 1829.] The latter is composed of 
facetious skits on contemporary abuses, but the 
Hastings production is of a more pretentious 
character, devoting three columns to a " retro- 
spective review of literature." Did any subse- 
quent numbers appear? Is anything known of 
the contributing staff of the Hastings Chronicle ? 

Are any of the earliest numbers of the Sussex 
Advertiser in existence ? \ An imperfect copy was 
sold a short time ago, and now, I believe, forms 

[* The Dedication to the Princess of Wales in the 
above work is signed M Mary Ann Parker, No. 6, Little 
Chelsea." ED.] 

tt A carefully drawn -up pedigree of the Perkins of 
Orton-on-the Hill, co. Leicester, is printed in Nichols's 
Leicestershire, vol. iv. pt. ii. p. *854. ED.] 

[J A perfect set of the Sussex Advertiser, from its com- 
mencement in 1825 to the present time, is in the British 
Museum. ED.] 

part of the plant of that newspaper, but the 
earlier numbers are wanting. 


PASSAGE IN TENNYSON. To what does Tenny- 
son allude when he speaks of the right ear filled 
with dust, in the following stanza from his poem of 
the Two Voices f 

" Go, vexed spirit, sleep in trust ; 
The right ear that is tilled with dust 
Hears little of the false or just." 

M. O. 

J. G. WILLE. I have in my possession a large 
folio volume of engravings by the elder Wille, of 
which I can find no mention in any bibliographical 
work. The title is as follows : (Euvres de Jean 

Georges Wille, e graveur Allemand 

Paris, 1814. Then follows a Life of Wille in 
English, French, and German ; and after that, 
forty-one of his most celebrated plates. At the 
end of the volume is a " Recueil de paysages et 
autres figures .... Paris, 1801 ;" thirty-six in 
number, by the same engraver. 

I hope some of your readers will be able to in- 
form me how many copies of this work were pub- 
lished ; whether the engravings contained therein 
are late or early impressions; and what is its 
present market value. J. C. LINDSAY. 

New York. 

WILLIAM DELL, D.D. Can you inform me 
whether the "Mr. Dell," who was sent by the 
Commissioners as one of the ministers of religion 
to attend King Charles I. before his execution, 
was the William Dell, afterwards Master of Gonvil 
and Caius College, Cambridge, and Rector of 

Is anything known of William Dell beyond the 
few sermons of his still extant ? S. S. 

[William Dell, D.D. received his education at Emanuel 
College, Cambridge, where he was chosen Fellow, and 
held the living of Yeldon, co. Bedford. About the year 
1645 he became chaplain to the army, constantly attend- 
ing Sir Thomas Fairfax, and preaching at head -quarters. 
On May 4, 1649, he was made Master of Caius College, 
Cambridge, which he held with his living at Yeldon till 
he was ejected by the Act of Uniformity. Although 
tinctured with the enthusiasm of the times, he was a man 
of some learning, with very peculiar and unsettled princi- 
ples. Wm. Cole has left a very unfavourable account of 
Dr. Dell among his MSS. He says, " On Dell's appoint- 
ment as Chaplain to the General Sir Thomas Fairfax, at 
the surrender of the garrison at Oxford, he, among others 
of his tribe, was sent down there to poison the principles 
of that university ; and on the morning of the martyr- 
dom of King Charles, he, with other bold and insolent 
fanatical ministers, went with all the solemnity becoming 



[S** S. V. JAN. 23, '64. 

a better cause, and all the confidence and assurance pecu- 
liar to the fanatical tribe, to offer their unhallowed ser- 
vices to the blessed martyr, whom they had thus brought 

to the scaffold Dr. Dell was so little curious 

where his carcase was deposited, that he ordered himself 
to be buried in a little spinney, or wood, on his estate 
in the parish of Westoning, co. Beds ; and I was told by 
my worthy good friend, Dr. Zachary Grey, that his son 
Humphrey Dell, riding or walking by the spinney with 
an acquaintance, reflecting too severely as a son upon his 
father's base conduct and actings in the late Rebellion* 
could not help exclaiming pointing to the place where 
his father was buried < There lies that old rogue and ras- 
cal, my father !' " (Addit. MS. 5834, p. 271.) Dell's works 
were republished in 2 vols. 8vo, in 1817. Vide The Non- 
conformist's Memorial by Calamy and Palmer, ed. 1802, 
i. 258 ; Neal's History of the Puritans, ed. 1822, v. 191 ; 
and the Monthly Magazine, xv. 426.] 


give me any information concerning the following 
book ? Is it a rarity, or of any value ? It con- 
sists of four parts each having a separate title- 
page : 

"Lingua Tersancta; or, a most Sure and Compleat 
Allegorick Dictionary to the Holy Language of The 
Spirit ; Carefully and "Faithfully expounding and illustrat- 
ing all the several Words or Divine Symbols in Dream, 
Vision, and Apparition. &c. By W. F., Esq., Author of 
the New Jerusalem. London: Printed for the Author, 
and sold by E. Mallet near Fleet-bridge, 1703." 

The other parts are " The Fountain of Moni- 
lion," "The Divine Grammar," "The Pool of 
Bethesda watch'd." The first part, the title- 
page of which I have given at length, runs (in- 
cluding an index) to 566 pages. CLTJTHA. 

[This work appears to be one of the singular produc- 
tions of William Freke, Esq. (a younger son of Thomas 
Freke, Esq. of Hannington, Wilts), of Wadham College, 
Oxford, and afterwards a barrister of law. He wrote 
An Essay towards an Union between Divinity and Morality, 
1687, 8vo. In this he styles himself Gul. Libera Clavis, 
. e. Free Key, i. e. Freke. Also A Dialogue, by way of 
Question and Answer, concerning the Deity : to which is 
added, a Clear and Brief Confutation of the Doctrine of 
the Trinity, 1693 ; which he sent to several members of 
parliament, who voted them to be burnt in Palace Yard, 
the author being indicted in the King's Bench, 1693, and 
found guilty, the following year was fined 500/., and to 
make a recantation in the four courts in Westminster 
Hall. He published also a Dictionary of Dreams, 4to, a 
medley of folly, obscenity, and blasphemy. Although his 
understanding was deranged, he was permitted to act as 
justice of the peace for many years. He resided at the 
Chapelry of Hinton St. Mary, co. Dorset, where he died 
in 1746. Hutchins's Dorsetshire, iii. 153 ; Wood's Athena, 
by Bliss, iv. 740 ; and " N. & Q." 2 n * S. x. 483.] 

LEONARTIUS PAMINGERUS. There is a curious, 
and it may be presumed a rare collection of 
Elegies to the memory of this person, who died 

on May 3, 1567. It was printed at Ratisbon in 
August, 1568. 

His portrait is given at the end of the volume, 
with the following " Hexastichon " above it : 
" Ista Leonard Pamingeri effigies est, 

Attamen artificis non bene sculpta manu, 
Sic igitur paulo melius pingemus eundem : 

Corpora vir praestans, ingenioque fuit, 
Et bene Christicola de posteritate merendo, 
Extulit harmonicis dogmata sacra modis." 

The woodcut, notwithstanding the statement 
above, has every appearance of being a good 
likeness. Paminger has on him a fur robe, and 
holds in his hand what seems to be a music book. 
He is represented as being seventy-three years of 
age. Where can any account be found of him or 
his works? J. M. 

[Leonard Paminger, or Pamiger, an eminent musical 
composer of the sixteenth century, resident at Passau, 
was a learned man and intimate friend of Luther. He 
composed a great variety of church music, edited by his 
son after his decease, and published at different periods, 
1573, 1576, 1580. See Dictionary of Musicians, ed. 1824, ii. 

Miss BAILEY. The popular song of " Unfor- 
tunate Miss Bailey " was admirably translated 
into Latin not later, I think, than 1807 or 1808. 
Can any one oblige me by stating where I can 
find the Latin version in question ? Eurydice is 
dying to see it. ORPHEUS. 

[As probably many others would be as pleased to see 
Miss Bailey in her Latin costume as Eurydice, we sub- 
join a copy of it : 

" Seduxit miles virginem, receptus in hybernis, 
Prascipitem quae laqueo se transtulit Avernis. 
Impransus ille restitit, sed acrius potabat, 
Et, conscius facinoris, per vina clamitabat 
' Miseram Baliam, infortunatam Baliam, 
Proditam, traclitam, miserrimamque Baliam.' 
" Ardente demum sanguine, dum repsit ad cubile, 
' Ah, belle proditorcule, patrasti factum vile ! ' 
Nocturnae candent lampades Quid multa ? imago dira 
Ante ora stabat militis, dixitque, fumans ira, 
' Aspice Baliam, infortunatam Baliam, 
Proditam, traditam, miserrimamque Baliam.' 
" ' Abito -cur me corporis pallore exanimasti ? ' 
' Perfidius munusculum, mi vir, administrasti 
Pererro ripas Stygias recusat justa Pontifex, 
Suicidam Quaestor nuncupat, sed tua culpa, carnifex. 
Tua culpa, carnifex, qui violasti Baliam, 
Proditam, traditam, miserrimamque Baliam.' 
" ' Sunt mi bis deni solidi, quam nitidi quam pulchri ; 
Hos accipe, et honores cauponabere sepulchri ! ' 
Turn Lemuris non facies ut antea iracundior, 
Argentum ridens numerat, fit ipsa vox jucundior 
' Salve, mihi corculum ! lusisti satis Baliam ; 
Vale, mihi corculum ! nunc lude, si vis, aliam.' " 
It was written by the Rev. G. H. Glasse, and printed 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for August, 1805, vol. Ixxv. 
pt. 2, p. 750.] 

SUNDRY QUERIES. !. When an Englishman 
would say " I got a regular scolding for that" a 

S. V. JAN. 23, '64.] 



Scotchman would say " I got my kail through the 
reek for thaC What is the origin of this last 
phrase ? 

2. Were Superville's sermons ever translated 
from the French into English ? 

3. Is there an English translation of Saurin's 
sermons ? Avus. 

[1. Jamieson explains the phrase, but does not give its 
origin. " To gie one his kail throw the reek,' is to give 
one a severe reproof, to subject to a severe scolding match. 
' If he brings in the Glengyle folk, and the Glenfinlas and 
Balquhidder lads, he may come to gie you your kail 
through the reek.' Rob Roy, iii. 75." 

2. Daniel de Superville's Sermons have been translated 
by John Reynolds, 2 vols. 8vo. York, 1812; and by 
John Allen, with Memoirs, Lond. 8vo, 1816. 

3. James Saurin's Sermons have been translated by 
Robert Robinson, Dr. Henry Hunter, and Joseph Sut- 
cliffe, in 8 vols. 8vo, fifth edition, 1812.] 

direct me in what book I can find the mottoes 
used by some of the nobility (peerages now ex- 
tinct), with their coats of arms, about the middle 
of the seventeenth century ? The crest and arms 
are found in many works on heraldry, but the 
mottoes are not given in any work I have con- 
sulted. G. W. 

[The following works may be consulted : Book of Fa- 
mily Crests and Mottoes, with 4000 engravings of the 
Crests of the Peers and Gentry of England and Wales, 
Scotland and Ireland : a Dictionary of Mottoes, c. 
Elvin's Hand-Book of Mottoes, translated with Notes and 
Quotations, 12mo, 1860. Fairbairn's Crests of Great 
Britain and Ireland, by Butters, 2 vols.roy. 8vo, 1861.] 

period of time did this publication extend ? Who 
were the writers therein ? Are copies scarce ? 

P. A. G. 

Dungannon, Ireland. 

[The Athenian Mercury was a continuation of the 
Athenian Gazette under another title, both of them super- 
intended by that eccentric bookseller, John Dunton, 
assisted by the Rev. Samuel Wesley, Mr. Richard Sault, 
and Dr. Norris. The first number of the Athenian Ga- 
zette was published 17th March, 1690-1, and that of the 
Athenian Mercury 13th Dec. 1692 : the last number came 
out on Monday, Hth June, 1697. Both works at last 
swelled to twenty volumes folio ; these becoming jvery 
scarce, a collection of the most curious questions and 
answers was reprinted under the title of The Athenian 
Oracle, in 4 vols. 8vo. Consult Nichols's Literary Anec- 
dotes, iv. 74, 77 ; v. 67-73 ; and " N. & Q." 1" S. v. 230 ; 
vi. 436.] 

" NOTES TO SHAKSPEARE." Who is the author 
of Notes and Various Readings to Shakspeare. 
Lond. Edw. and Chas. Dilly ? The address to the 
reader is subscribed "E. C.," and dated 1774. I 

have only the first part. Was a second presented 
to the public ? WYNNE E. BAXTER. 

[This appears to be the first volume of Edward Capell's 
Notes and Various Readings to Shakspeare. Lond. 1779-80, 
4to, 3 vols. Vol. iii. of this work is entitled " The School 
of Shakspeare, or Authentic Extracts from divers English 
Books that were in print in that Author's Time, evidently 
showing from whence his fdbles were taken,"] 

(3 rd S. iii. 423 ; v. 10.) 

I thank MR. MAC CABE for his note, as it throws 
light, I think, on an old provincial word that has 
puzzled me very much. In the churchwardens' 
accounts of a parish in Dorset, 1701-24, I found 
amongst the various and numerous payments for 
" varments' " heads, one entry which all inquiry 
had hitherto failed to elucidate, viz. the payment 
of one shilling per dozen for " popes, pops, or 
poops' heads." AVhether bird or beast remained a 

In the parochial accounts of Chedder, Somerset, 
" woope's heads" are mentioned a synonymous 
word, it seemed probable, varying with the dialects 
of the two counties. It now turns out that pupu 
is an obsolete French word, and synonymous with 
huppe, hoop (Bailey's Dict.\ a lapwing. 

Why a price should have been put on the head 
of this harmless and beautiful bird I won't pre- 
tend to say, unless it were from the mistaken 
opinion that it fed on the grain in those cornfields 
which it often frequented for the purpose of pro- 
curing its natural food. The names by which it 
was known in this country 150 years ago seem to 


be quite obsolete now. 

W. S. 

Your correspondent W. B. MAC CABE wishes 
to know whether " the lapwing, so remarkable a 
bird in ancient lore and legend, holds any import- 
ance in the folk-lore of England." I am not 
aware that the lapwing (Vanellus cristatus, Flem.) 
figures at all as a remarkable bird in ancient lore. 
The pupu unquestionably denotes the hoopoe 
(Upupa epops), a bird belonging to an entirely 
different order, and which has been long, and is 
still, regarded in the East with superstition. It 
is the tTroiJ/ of the Greeks, and the upupa of Pliny, 
and certainly the term is used in a restricted 
sense to signify the hoopoe alone. In my article 
on " Lapwing," in Dr. Smith's Diet, of the Bible, 
I have endeavoured to show that the hoopoe is 
the bird meant by the Hebrew dukephath. The 
Egyptians seem to have spoken of this bird under 
the name of koukoupha (see Horapollo, i. 55 ; and 
comp. Leeman's notes; Jablonki Opera, i. s. \.\ 



f 3<-d S. V. JAN. 23, '6-1. 

Bochart, Hicrog. Hi. 107-115, ed. Rosenmuller.) 
The Arabs call ifc liudhud; corap. Moore, Lalla 
Roohh, p. 395 (eel. Lond., one vol. 1850) 
" Fresh as the fountain underground, 
When first 'tis by the lapwing found " 

where Moore has the following note : " The hud- 
hud or lapwing is supposed to have the power of 
discovering water underground." (See "Lapwing, 
Smith's Diet.) The blood of this bird was be- 
lieved by the Arabs to have supernatural effects. 
To this day they ascribe magical powers to the 
hoopoe, and call it the "Doctor." As to the old 
French word pupu, I refer your correspondent 
to Belon, L'Histoire de la Nat. des Oyseaux, p. 
293, who says : 

"Nous lay donnons ce nom (la huppe) a cause de sa 
creste, mais les Grecs 1'ont nominee epops, a cause de son 
cry. Nous la nommos un puput : car, en oultre ce qu'elle 
fait son nid d'ordare, aussi fait une voix en chantant qui 
dit puput." 

I need not say that the account of the materials 
which are here said to form the nest of the hoopoe, 
originally proceeding from Aristotle, though 
still, I believe, credited by some of the lower orders 
in France, contains a gross libel on the bird, 
which, it is true, is not very cleanly in its habits, 
but is not so bad as is reported. 

From the fact of the lapwing, or peewit, having 
a crest, and being a better known bird in Europe, 
it is easy to see how la huppe might occa- 
sionally be used to denote this bird. The lap- 
wing, according to Dr. Leyden, quoted by Yar- 
rell (Brit. Birds, ii. 484, ed. 2nd), is still regarded 
as an unlucky bird in consequence of the Cove- 
nanters in the time of Charles II. having been 
discovered by their pursuers from the flight and 
screaming of these restless birds. 



(3 rd S. iv. 226, 317.) 

If it would be performing a really useful work, 
and if others will take it up, I will do my part 
by copying the inscriptions on all the tombstones 
in the churchyard of my parish. I have often 
thought of doing it, but have never had resolu- 
tion. Some of my friends tell me it is not neces- 
sary, for that the parish register is quite enough 
for all purposes. It may however be remarked, 
that the register contains the date of the burial, 
but not the day of the death, as the stone does. 
In some registers I know, I have seen occa- 
sionally both circumstances recorded ; but this is 
rare. And the stone contains more than the 
register. It generally mentions the age of the 
deceased person, or date of birth ; together with 
some genealogical particular, as whose son or 

daughter. ANTIQUARIUS and E. are quite right 
in advocating the desirableness of having copies 
taken of all parish registers down to the time 
when ' they first began to be made in duplicate. 
The insecure places in which these valuable books 
are kept, in most parishes, is a subject deserving 
the most severe censure. I know instances, and 
have heard of others, where the register has been 
burnt or otherwise destroyed ; because it was in 
some closet at the vicarage instead of safe in the 
parish chest, where it ought to be. All the 
original registers ought to be deposited in some 
central office in London (accessible to the public 
of course), and an attested copy of each one fur- 
nished to each parish. It has always been mar- 
vellous to me that some Member of Parliament 
has never taken up this truly national subject. 
And it is high time that some check should be 
put upon the reckless destruction of old churches 
that is now going on all over the country. How 
many crimes are committed in the name of 
" restoration ! " Of course, it is the interest of 
architects to knock one church down, and build 
up another. A clergyman consults an architect 
on the state of his church ; and then, very soon 
afterwards, unconsciously to himself, becomes 
little better than a puppet in the hands of his 
architect. Many of our old churches, which are 
now being levelled with the ground, might be re- 
tained to the admiration of generations yet un- 
born, if the spirit of preservation, instead of the 
spirit of destruction, were more prevalent in the 
land. It would be well for our churches, if every 
vicar of a parish were something of an architect, 
for so indeed he ought to be. In that case he 
would be the master over his architect, instead 
of being his servant, as he is now in too many in- 
stances. As for churchwardens, they need not be 
named ; because they are, generally, three degrees 
more ignorant, and ten degrees more pig-headed, 
than their betters. It has long been a dictum 
with me, that not one clergyman in ten, or one 
churchwarden in a hundred, is fit to have the care 
of his own church or parish register. These 
are hard words, no doubt ; but I beg to say this 
opinion has been forced upon me by clergymen 
and churchwardens themselves. I have watched 
them from time to time, and have found them 
wanting. Remember, I am speaking of the great 
majority : for there are some few honourable ex- 
ceptions, but only a few. Let clergymen study a 
little of architecture, and a little of antiquities; and 
then they would be better able to appreciate the 
venerable features in the fabric of their churches, 
and guard them with a jealous care against the 
sweeping measures of an architect, or the igno- 
rance of churchwardens. P. HUTCHINSON. 

.V. JAN.23,'C4.] 



(3 rd S. v. 40, 60.) 

While innocently wandering in the pleasant 
meads of literary antiquities, culling a flower here 
and there, and occasionally interchanging courte- 
sies with congenial spirits delighting in similar 
pursuits, I find that I have unwittingly stumbled 
into a perfect Santa Barbara of something very 
like odium theologicum. Of course, the consequent 
explosion took place, sudden, fierce, and strong 
as a treble charge could make it, but, with respect 
to myself, quite innocuous ; in all good feeling, I 
earnestly hope that the magazine has suffered as 
little injury as the intruder, and that the engineers 
have not been hoisted by their own petards. 

First in place, as first in ability and candour, 
appears F. C. H. His argument, if it be worthy 
of the name, has no reference to what St. Patrick 
did or did not, but as to what he (F. C. H.) would 
do, if placed in similar circumstances, and just 
amounts to this I would do it, argal St. Patrick 
did. Apart from its obvious weakness, this is a 
most dangerous method of dealing with things 
spiritual. Eliminate the beautiful language and 
florid French sentiment from M. Kenan's Vie de 
Jexus, and we shall find a very similar absence of 
reasoning, if I may so express myself, impotently 
brandished against the miracles of our Saviour 
M. Renan cannot work miracles, he would not if 
he could, and therefore, &c. &c. I have not the 
honour of being personally acquainted with 
F. C. H., but from his communications in this 
Journal, I believe him to be a Christian gentleman 
and scholar, a man of common sense, and more 
than ordinary ability ; nevertheless, he must ex- 
cuse me for not placing him in the same category 
as St. Patrick, the venerated Apostle of my much 
loved native land. " What could any enemy to 
Christianity have hoped to gain by inventing such 
a story ? " asks F. C. H. I answer, the story is 
one eminently calculated to throw contempt on 
the sacred mystery of the Trinity ; but I would 
certainly despair of being able to bring F. C. H. 
to my opinion. 

With respect to CANON D ALTON'S communica- 
tion^ I am sorry to say it is characterised by 
nothing less than disingenuousness. He says, 
alluding to me, " Your correspondent supposes 
that St. Patrick compared the Shamrock to the 
mystery of the Trinity." This is incorrect ; my 
paper was, on the contrary, an objection to that 
supposition, as expressed by others. Again, he 
says, " ME. PINKERTON refers to the well-known 
treatise of St. Augustine De Trinitate" This 
also is incorrect ; I referred to and related a legend 
of St. Augustine, said to have occurred when he 
was writing De Trinitote. CANON DALTON then 
adduces St. Augustine's verbal illustration of the 
Trinity, and ends by saying, " I maintain that 

these two different illustrations, made use of by 
St. Patrick and St. Augustine, are far from being 
absurd or egregiously irreverent," thereby im- 
plying that I had applied these epithets to St. 
Augustine's illustration which again is incor- 

It is curious to observe how the word illustra- 
tion has been modified by F. C. H. and CANON 
DALTON, since they first used it, regarding this 
alleged act of St. Patrick. The former now terms 
it " some sort of illustration, however feeble and 
imperfect," and the latter, " a faint illustration." 
To illustrate a subject is literally to throw light 
upon it, and may be done either rhetorically, or, 
in our commonest use of the word at the present 
day, by a pictorial or material representation ; 
the latter, of course, being the stronger and more 
forcible. A wretched man, named Carlile, a few 
years ago, exposed in his shop-window in Fleet 
Street, a hideous engraving, under which were 
the words " Jews and Christians, behold your 
God ! " A Jewish gentleman smashed the pane, 
and in consequence was taken before a magistrate. 
The gentleman pleaded just indignation as his 
excuse ; while Carlile urged that the engraving 
was carefully made from Scriptural descriptions of 
the Deity. The magistrate at once dismissed the 
case, observing that the exposure of such an en- 
graving was a blasphemous insult to the com- 
munity at large. Suppose Carlile had put a 
shamrock in his window, and had written beneath 
it, Christians, behold your Trinity ! would the 
blasphemy or insult be any the less ? 

I could say something of the word comparison ; 
its derivation from the Latin com par, signifying 
the putting together of equals ; of the well-known 
mode of comparison by illustration ; but I fear it 
would be of little service to persons seemingly 
ignorant of the meaning of the simple word tradi~ 
tion. (Vide 3 rd S. iv. 187, 233, 293). 

D. P. points out *' that the appearance of the 
fleur-de-lys on the mariner's compass has no 
bearing at all" upon my case. As in the same 
paragraph, I was endeavouring to show that " the 
triad is still a favourite figure in national and 
heraldic emblems," I am certain that it has a very 
extended and important bearing. For D. P.'s 
information on the antiquity of the mariner's 
compass, I am obliged ; but as an old sailor and 
traveller in almost all parts of the globe, who has 
long studied the history of that most valuable 
instrument, I fancy that I know much more about 
it than is to be found either in Moreri or Du 

The legend of St. Augustine, which D. P. 
terms a well-known incident in the life of that 
saint, is not apposite, I am told. If words have 
any meaning, it was not intended to be so. I 
designated it as charming and instructive, while I 
stigmatised the story of St. Patrick as absurd, if 



[3*4 S. V. JAN. 23, '64. 

not egregiously irreverent. As these last words 
refer to a simple matter of opinion, and seem to 
have given offence, I retract them, with regret 
that I had ever used them ; though, of course, my 
opinion remains unchanged. And it is consoling 
to me, in this case, to be informed by F. C. H. 
that " no one is bound to believe the tradition of 
St. Patrick and the Shamrock." Having thus 
retracted my expression of opinion, I shall con- 
clude with a matter of fact. The reply of F. C. H. 
though feeble, was at least fair; but the com- 
munications of CANON DALTON and D. P. are 
tainted by cither a stolid misapprehension, or 
wilful perversion, of what I did write. And I 
confidently appeal to the grand jury, formed by 
the intelligent readers of " N. & Q.," if this lan- 
guage be too strong for the occasion. 


(3 rd S. iv. 499.) 

This author, John Shurley, or Shirley (for he 
wrote his name both ways), was a voluminous 
writer of ephemeral productions in the last quar- 
ter of the seventeenth century. He is, undoubt- 
edly, the person so graphically described in the 
following passage from old John Dun ton's Life 
and Errors : 

" Mr. Shirley (alias Dr. Shirley) is a goodnatured 
writer, as I kno\v. He has been an indefatigable press- 
mauler for above these twenty years. He has published 
at least a hundred bound books, and about two hundred 
sermons ; but the cheapest, pretty, pat things, all of them 
pence a-piece as long as they will run. His great talent 
lies at collection, and he will do it for you at six shillings 
a sheet. He knows to disguise an author that you shall 
not know him, and yet keep the sense and the main 
scope entire. He is as true as steel to his word, and 
would slave off his feet to oblige a bookseller. He is 
usually very fortunate in what he goes upon. He wrote 
Lord Jeffreys'* Life for me, of which six thousand were 
sold. After all, he subsists, as other authors must expect, 
by a sort of geometry." Edit, 1818, i. 184. 

Besides numerous small tracts and ballads, 
mostly printed by " William Thackeray in Duck 
Lane," Shirley was the author of the following 
works, chiefly " collections " as Dunton expresses 
it a list very far short of the " hundred bound 
books " which came from his ready pen : 

1. The Most Delightful History of Reynard the Fox 
in heroic verse. 4to, 1681. 

J. The Renowned History of Guy, Earl of Warwick ; 
containing bis noble Exploits and Victories. 4to, 1681. 

3. Ecclesiastical History Epitomiz'd. 8vo, 1682-3. 

4. The Honour of Chivalry ; or, the Famous and De- 
lectable History of Don Bellianis of Greece. Translated 
out of Italian. 4to, 1683. 

5. The History of the Wars of Hungary, or an Ac- 
count of the Miseries of that Kingdom. 12mo, 1685. 

6. The Illustrious History of Women ; the whole Work 

enrich'd and intermix'd with curious Poetry and delicate 
Fancie. 8vo, 1686. 

7. The Accomplished Ladie's rich Closet of Rarities. 
12mo, 1688. 

8. The True Impartial History of the Wars of the 
Kingdom of Ireland. 12mo, 1692. 

9. The Unfortunate Favorite; or, Memoirs of the 
Life of the late Lord Chancellor [ Jefferies]. 8vo, n. d. 

When T. B. says, " there is no mention of him 
[J. Shurley] in Bonn's edition of Lowndes" he is 
in error. The works in the above list, marked 2, 
6, 7, and 8, are duly chronicled by Lowndes ; but 
under Shirley, not Shwrley. There should have 
been a counter reference under the latter name. 
In this respect much might be done towards im- 
proving this (with all its errors) valuable hand- 
book to the literary collector. 

Anthony Wood mentions a John Shirley, the 
son ,of a London bookseller of the same name, 
who was born in 1648, and entered Trinity Col- 
lege in 1664. But for the certain fact that this 
person died at Islington in 1679, I should have 
imagined him to have been the John Shirley of 
whom I have given a notice ; especially as Wood 
tells us " he published little things of a sheet and 
half-a-sheet of paper." 

Dunton, it will be seen, calls our author " Mr. 
Shirley, alias Dr. Shirley." If, therefore, we sup- 
pose him to have been originally educated for the 
medical profession, he may have been the author 
of the following works, unnoticed by Lowndes or 
his editor. They were certainly written by a John 
Shirley : 

1. A Short Compendium of Chirurgery. 8vo, 1678. 

2. The Art of Rowling and Bolstring, that is, the 
Method of Dressing and Binding up the several Parts. 
8vo, 1683. 


FRENCH CORONETS (3 rd S. iv. 372.) In answer 
to M. B., there are descriptions and engravings of 
the coronets worn by the French nobility in Sel- 
den's Titles of Honour, and in the Vicomte de 
Magny's Science du Blason. Paris, 1858. 

F. D. H. 

BARONESS (3 rd S. v. 54.) Foreign titles give 
no rank in this country. The daughter of a baron 
would be received as the daughter of a baron by 
the style to which she is entitled in her own 
country. G. 

THE BLOODY HAND (3 rd S. v. 54.) Your cor- 
respondent has raised TWO questions upon false 
data : a reference to one of the thousand patents 
which exist would have shown that no such grant 
was made to baronets and their descendants. For 
their greater honour and distinction all baronets 
of England and Ireland, as do now the baronets of 
the United Kingdom, enjoy the privilege granted 
to them and ** their heirs male " of their body, of 

3rd s. V. JAN. 23, '64.] 



bearing in a canton a hand gules, which was in 
fact a grant to the baronet for the time being, 
and is a distinction borne by, and personal to, the 
individuals enjoying and possessed of the dignity. 
Such a grant as your correspondent alledges would 
have overshadowed the land by this time with the 
" Bloody hand of Ulster." G. 

ARMS OF SAXONY (3 rd S. v. 12, 64.) Let me 
add a passage from Fliessbach's Muntzsammlung, 
to what DE LETH says about the arms of Han- 
over : 

"Hannover hat kein eigenthiimliches Wappen. Auf 
dem Revers der Munzen zeigt sich entweder das Alt- 
s'dchsische rcnnende Pferd," &c. &c. 


S. iii. 151.) Chevreau gives a sonnet by M. des 
Yveteaux, founded on Martial's Vitam quce faci- 
unt beatiorem (lib. x. ep. 47), and says : 

" Un Abbe, qui avoit lu le sonnet crut me donner quel 
que chose de fort bon, en me dormant a Rome le sonnet 
qui suit : 

" Haver la moglie brutta ed ingelosita ; 

Amar chi mai veder non si possa ; 

E ritrovarsi in mar quando s'ingrossa, 
E non aver da chi sperar aita ; 
Lo star solingo in parte erma, e romita ; 

Viver prigione in sotterranea fossa ; 

Haver il mal Francese insino al ossa ; 
E cortegiando strapessar la vita. 
Haver Ferrari, e zingari vicini ; 

Trattar con gente cerimoniosa ; 
L' haver & far con hosti, e vettorini ; 

Certo rendon la vita assai noiosa : 
Ma star a Roma e non haver quattrini, 

E piu d'ogn' altra insopportabil cosa." 

Chevrceana, t. i. p. 295, Amst. 1700. 

Gravina settled at Rome, in 1685. His repu- 
tation was high, and he was the principal founder 
rf the Arcadians in 1695; but he was not ap- 
pointed Professor of Civil Law till 1699. His 
;emper was not good, as may be seen by the 
quarrels between him and Sergardi, and probably 
le was unquiet at waiting so long for promo- 
tion. The Letters from Roma and Bologna are 
lated 1699^. ^ Chevreau does not say when he met 
;he "Abbe"; but supposing him to be Gravina, 
ve may guess that the sonnet as described in the 
Letters was written in an impatient spirit before 
he appointment, and the sting changed from, "to 
eek promotion at Rome without ready money," 
o "star in Roma e non aver quattrini" after it. 
le might have thought the sonnet too good to be 
Mt, though the point was spoiled, as the evil of 
>eing without money is not felt more at Rome than 
a many other places. I think this is enough to fix 
he authorship of the sonnet ; but would Chevreau y 
rho never omits an opportunity of naming a 
lever or illustrious acquaintance, have called so 
''Anguished a man as Gravina " Un Abbe" ? 

is a satirical dialogue been Gobbo (not 

Gozzo) and Pasquin, of which I cannot give an 
account, not having been tempted to read enough 
of it. Though probably stinging when fresh, it is 
not interesting now. The title is 

"Le Visioni politiche sopra gli interessi piu recon- 
diti, di tutti Prencipi e Republiche della Christianity, 
divisi in varii Sogni e Ragionamenti tra Pasquino e il 
Gobbo di Rialto." Germania, 1671, 24mo, pp. 540. 

H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

BULL-BULL (3 rd S. v. 38.) A joke on this 
name of the nightingale is told as having been 
made by the late Lord Robertson (a Judge of the 
Court of Session, well known as Peter or Patrick 
Robertson), in order fully to see the wit of which, 
it is necessary to explain to your English readers 
that in the Scotch vernacular the word " cow " is 
pronounce^ "coo." A lady having asked him, 
" What sort of animal is the bull-bull ? " he replied 
" I suppose, Ma'am, it must be the mate of the 
coo-coo " (cuckoo). G. 


SALDEN MANSION (3 rd S. iv. 373.) KAPPA will 
find a small engraving, with a history of the old 
mansion at Salden, and of the branch of the For- 
tescues to whom it belonged, in the first volume 
of the Records of Buckinghamshire, published at 
Aylesbury, by Pickburn, for the Bucks Archseolo- 
gical Society. F. D. H. 

RIDGE (3 rd S. v. 35, 64.) In Sir Walter Scott's 
novel, The Pirate, there is the following note : 
A late medical gentleman, my particular friend, told 
me the case of a lunatic patient confined in the Edinburgh 
Infirmary. He was so far happy that his mental alien- 
ation was of a gay and pleasant character, giving a kind 
of joyous explanation to all that came in contact with 
him. He considered the large house, numerous servants, 
&c., of the hospital, as all matters of state and consequence 
belonging to his own personal establishment, and had no 
doubt of his own wealth and grandeur. One thing alone 
puzzled this man of wealth. Although he was provided 
with a first-rate cook and proper assistants, although his 
table was regularly supplied with every delicacy of the 
season, yet he confessed to my friend, that by some un- 
common depravity of the palate, everything which he 
ate "tasted of porridge." This peculiarity, of course, 
arose from the poor man being fed upon nothing else, and 
because his stomach was not so easily deceived as his 
other senses." The Pirate, vol. ii. chap. xiii. note i. 


CHURCHWARDEN QUERY (3 rd S. v. 34, 65.) 
In answer to A. A. I extract the following : 

" Sidesmen (rectius synodsmen) is used for those per- 
sons or officers that are yearly chosen in great parishes in 
London and other cities, according to custom, to assist 
the churchwardens in their presentments of such offenders 
and offences to the ordinary as are punishable in the 
spiritual courts : and they are also called questmen. They 
take an oath for doing their duty, and are to present per- 
sons that do not resort to church on Sundays, and there 
continue during the whole time of divine service, &c. 
Canon 90. The}- shall not be cited by the ordinary to 



S. V. JAN. 23, '64. 

appear but at usual times, unless they have wilfully 
omitted for favour, to make presentment of notorious pub- 
lick crimes, when they may be proceeded against for 
breach of oath, as for perjury." Canon 117. Jacobs 
Law Dictionary, 1772, sub v. 


DEVIL A PROPER NAME (3 rd S. iv. 141, 418, 

"Formerly there were many persons surnamed 'the 
Devil.' In an ancient book we read of one Rogerius 
Diabolus, Lord of Montresor. An English Monk, Wil- 
lehnus, cognomento Diabolus. Again, Hughes le Diable, 
Lord of Lusignan. Robert, Duke of Normandy, son of 
William the Conqueror, was surnamed ' the Devil.' In 
Norway and Sweden there were two families of the name 
of Trolle,' in English, Devil ; ' and every branch of 
their families had an emblem of the devil for their coat of 
arms. In Utrecht there was a family called ' Teufel,' (or 
Devil) ; and in Brittany there was a family of the name 
of < Diable.' "Monthly Mirror, August, 1799. 


515.) The following may assist SIGMA THETA in 
his inquiry after the Watsons of Lofthouse, York- 
shire. The pedigree in the British Museum is 
evidently that of the Watsons of Lofthouse near 
Wakefield, a branch of the Watsons of Bolton-in- 
Craven. In the year 1493 W. Watson, of Lofthouse, 
had a quarrel with Gilbert Leigh, Esq., about 
some land, and referred the case to Sir Ed. Smith, 
and Sir John York, of Wakefield, for arbitration. 
About the year 1600 John Rooks, of Royds Hall, 
near Bradford, mar. Jennet, dau. and co-heir of 
Richard Watson, of Lofthouse, Esq. ; soon after 
which event the family appear to have removed to 
Easthaye, near Pontefract, as we find that Ed- 
mund Watson, of Easthaye, answered to the sum- 
mons of Dugdale at his sitting at " Pomfret, 7 
Apr. 1666," and claimed, Arms. Argent, on a 
chevron azure between three martlets gules, as 
many crescents or.* Crest. A griffin's head erased 
sable, holding in his beak, or, a rose-branch slipped 
vert. " For proofe hereof there is an old glasse 
window in an house at Loftus, which was antiently 
belonging to this family, as Mr. John Hopkinson 
affirms." This was Mr. Hopkinson, the Loft- 
house antiquary, who attended Dugdale, in his 
Visitation of Yorkshire, as his secretary, and com- 
piled the MS. pedigrees of the Yorkshire families, 
a copy of which is in the British Museum. 

I do not trace any connection between the Wat- 
sons of Lofthouse and those of Bilton Park, who 
appear to have sprung from the North Riding, 
and to have acquired Bilton Park by purchase of 
the Stockdales. See Hargrove's Knaresborough 
(Tc-ng), and Dugdaie's Visitations of Yorkshire, 
K'l. Surtees' Society, Whitaker's Craven, also his 
Loidis and Elmete, James's Bradford, and the 
Richardson Correspondence. C. FORREST. 

Lofthouse, near Wakefield. 

* These arms alightly differ from the Wataons of New- 
castle, dr. 1514. 

The gentleman whom PRESTONIENSIS terms the 
Rev. Joseph Rowley, was named Joshua. He was 
a son of Sir Joshua Rowley, Bart., and after being 
educated at Harrow School, was admitted a pen- 
sioner of St. John's College, Cambridge, March 29, 
1787, and a fellow commoner, March 1, 1788, pro- 
ceeding B.A., 1791, and commencing M.A., 1794. 


ARTHUR DOBBS (3 rd S. v. 63.) May I express 
a hope that your correspondent, MR. CROSSLEY, 
will kindly favour us with some particulars from 
If not with the whole of) George Chalmers's un- 
published biography of Arthur Dobbs ? Francis 
Dobbs, whose Concise View from History and 
Prophecy, &c. (Dublin, 1800), is certainly a curi- ; 
osity, was, I presume, a member of the same 
family. ABHBA. 

AND Ross" (2 nd S. ix. 45.) Having sent a query 
respecting this valuable and interesting document, 
I may be permitted to record in " N. & Q.," that 
" the whole of Bishop Dive Downes's Tour through 
the Diocese of Cork and Ross, in 1699 and follow- 
ing years, has been incorporated into" the Rev. 
Dr. Brady's Clerical and Parochial Records of 
Corh, Cloyne, and Ross, of which two volumes 
have appeared (Dublin, 1863). ABHBA, 

OF WIT (3 rd S. v. 30.) MR. PETER CUNNING- 
HAM has favoured us with several interesting ex- 
amples of the various uses of the word " wit : " 
may I be allowed to append to his illustrations one 
or two Biblical passages which show the prosaic 
definition of the term, as implying ingenuity, sa- 
gacity, discernment, or knowledge generally : 

" For I was a witty child, and had a good spirit." r 
Wisdom of Solomon, viii. 19. 

"I wisdom dwell with prudence, and find out know- 
ledge of witty inventions." Proverbs, viii. 12. 

Holofernes commends Judith for her wit, or 
wisdom : 

" And they marvelled at her wisdom, and said, there is 
not such a woman from one end of the earth to the other, 
both for beauty of face and wisdom of words. Likewise 
Holofernes said unto her, . . . and now thou art both 
beautiful in thy countenance, and witty in thy words." 
Judith, xi. 20-23. 

I suppose the earliest use of this word, as a con- 
stituent, occurs in the Anglo-Saxon, witena-gemote, 
which may be taken to have represented the col- 
lective wisdom of the nation in those days. What- 
ever may have been the intellectual powers of 
those who composed the witan, we may presume 
that the knowledge of which the senators gave 
proof, was solid, prosaic, and practical ; we can 
hardly fancy a sprightly Saxon cutting jokes, or 
capable of any lively association of ideas, that 
could find its embodiment in a pun worth record- 
ing in " 1ST. & Q." F. PHILLOTT. 

3' d S. V. JAN. 28, '64.] 



ST. MART MATFELON (3 rd S. iv. 5, 55, 419, 483 
I did not at all undertake to interpret the wore 
" Matfelon : " all that I attempted m my forme 
communication was an approximate verification o 
the meaning said by competent authority to hav 
been traditionally given to it. 

Pennant undoubtedly intimates that the wore 
" Matfelon " was said to be Hebrew or Chaldaic 
Chaldaic being formerly employed in a vagu 
sense to express the almost identical dialects o 
Arabic and Syriac. This word, " Matfelon, 
after allowing for the corruptions and abbrevia 
tions naturally incident to its use for centuries 
bears so strong a resemblance to the Arabic par 
ticiple equivalent to the word "Paritura," tha 
even if I quoted Pennant incorrectly, yet I thin! 
it more probable that he should be mistaken in 
citing a current tradition, than that so curious a 
coincidence should be entirely unfounded. Bu 
my impression is that I quoted Pennant cor 
rectly ; and, at all events, if we credit Pennant' 
testimony to a matter of fact, i. e. the existence o 
such a tradition, the word "Matfelon" was sup- 
posed to express one of the sacred functions 
assigned by the divine counsels to the Blessec 
Virgin Mary in her relation to the incarnation o 
her adorable Son. 

Since I last wrote I find that it is not at al 
necessary to regard " Matfelon " as feminine, anc 
abbreviated from " Matvaladatum," because, al- 
though in opposition with " Mary," Eastern syn- 
tax commonly admits the agreement of an epithel 
in gender with the more worthy masculine to 
which it may refer. In tracing also the wore 
"Matfelon" to the Arabic " Matvaladon," or 
" Matfaladon," I should be glad if one of your 
correspondents would supply me with examples 
of d being passed over in rapid pronunciation. 
The d is nearly = the hard th t and this is dropped 
in the pronoun them. In Greek and Sanscrit 
there is a kind of interchange of the letters d, s, 
and h ; some Latin supines lose the d. In Eng- 
lish Cholmondeley makes Chomley, Sawbridge- 
worth, Sapsworth. In Scottish bridge makes brigg, 
&c. I should be pleased with some more exam- 

My learned friend A. A. appears to ignore 
Pennant's tradition, and therefore my remarks 
do not apply to his suggested interpretation. 
But, I would ask, are any examples of a similar 
form m dedicating churches ? Would the name 
of God be subjoined even to that of his greatest 
saints? J R 

St. Mary's, Great Ilford. 

QUOTATIONS WANTED (3 rd S. v. 62.) I have 
been accustomed to the following form of the 
verses : " Hoc est nescire," etc. : 

" Qui Christum noscit, sat est si oetera nescit : 
Qui Christum nescit, nil scit, si cietera noscit." 

I have seen these verses attributed to St. Au- 
gustin. The thought was very likely his origi- 
nally, but the verses smack rather of mediaeval 
quaintness. F. C. H. 

MRS. FITZHERBERT (3 rd S. iv. 411, 522 ; v. 59.) 
I was personally acquainted with Mrs. Fitzher- 
bert, and have long been intimate with her re- 
latives and connexions ; and I have always heard 
that she never had a child at all. Indeed I have 
not the least doubt that this is correct. 

F. C. H. 

(3 rd S. v. 53.) The late ingenious Dr. Forster, 
in his Circle of the Seasons, quotes a line from 
Horace, connecting the Zephyrs of Spring with 
the arrival of the swallow : 

" Cum Zephyris si concedes et hirundine prima." 
He also mentions that the swallow's return was 
a holiday for children in Greece, in anticipation 
of which they used to exclaim : 

He quotes some poet, to him unknown, who 
says, writing of Spring : 

" The swallow, for a moment seen, 
Skimmed this morn the village green ; 
Again at eve, when thrushes sing, 
I saw her glide on rapid wing, 
O'er yonder pond's smooth surface, when 
I welcomed her come back again." 

Dr. Forster gives the 15th of April as " Swal- 
low Day," and as named in the Ephemeris of 
Nature, X.e\i$ovo<j>opia ; and he mentions that the 
west wind is called in Italy Chelidonius, from its 
blowing about the time of the swallow's appear- 
ance. All these passages bear upon the subject 
of MR. HEATH'S enquiry, as connecting the swal- 
low with the first return of Spring. F. C. H. 

I can refer MR. HEATH to one modern poet, 
who, in a well-known passage, connects the swal- 
ow with the earlier of the two seasons : 
" . . . . underneath the eaves, 

The brooding swallows cling ; 

As if to show me their sunny backs, 

And twit me with the Spring." 

Hood's Song of the Shirt. 
Alrewas, Lichfield. 

PSALM xc. 9. (3 rd S. v. 57.) The following 
xtract, from a very striking sermon by the Rev. 

A. J. Morris (I believe) an Independent minister, 
nay be interesting to MR. DIXON, and to other 
eaders : 
" ' We spend our years as a tale that is told.' The 

words scarcely give the true idea. * That is to]d,' is in 
alics, the sign of insertion by the translators : there is 
othing answering to it in the original. Instead of ' tale,' 
le margin has ' meditation ; ' 'we spend our years 
8 a meditation.' But even this hardly gives the full 



[8'd S. V. JAK. 23, >64. 

thought. Hengstenberg observes, that the word 'can- 
not signify a conversation, a tale: for it always de- 
notes something inward, and is never used of a conver- 
sation with another. As little can it denote a pure 
thought, for the noun in the other two passages where it 
occurs stands for something loud ; and the verb properly 
denotes, not the pure thought, but what is intermediate 
between thought and discourse. The Psalmist compares 
human existence, as regards its transitory nature, to a 
soliloquy, which generally bears the character of some- 
thing transitory and broken. The mind does not ad- 
vance beyond single half-uttered words and sentences, 
and soon retires again into the region of pure thought. 
To such a transitory murmur and ejaculation is that 
human life compared, which stupid dreamers look upon 
as an eternity.' 

" The word occurs twice : in Job xxxvii. 2, Hear 
attentively the noise of his voice, and the sound that 
goeth out of his mouth ;' and Ezekiel ii. 10, ' And there 
was written therein lamentations, and mourning, and woe.' 
In the first passage, the reference is to the thunder, the 
loud and sudden claps of thunder, which is the voice, the 
utterance, the grand soliloquy of God. In the second 
passage, the word describes the broken accents of grief- 
the abrupt and incomplete exclamations of deep and 
overwhelming sorrow. So when life is described in the 
text : the meaning is, that it is a brief and broken ex- 
clamation, a hurried voice, a short and startling sound, 
which soon is lost in the silence of eternity." 


Alrewas, Lichfield. 

S. iv. 515; v. 61.) The story mentioned by 
your correspondents is of very doubtful authority. 
Jortin ignores it. Knight knows nothing of it. 
It is nowhere noticed in Erasmus's own works. 
The German writers, Hess and Muller, do not 
even allude to it. Burigni narrates the tale on 
very doubtful evidence. His words are : 

" Des Auteurs, dont le suffrage a la ve'rite' n'est pas 
d'un grand poids, ont pre'tendu que la connaissance de 
Morus et d'Erasme avait commence d'une faoon singu- 
liere," etc. 

And he refers, for the origin of the incident, to 
" Vanini et Garasse, Doctrine curieuse, lib. i. s. 7, 
p. 44." (Vie (FJErasme, i. 184.) There is one 
circumstance which seems at once to render the 
story incredible. The scene of it is laid in 
London, after More had become famous. Now 
Erasmus was at Oxford in 1479, probably at the 
very time that More was resident there. He 
distinctly mentioned More (ep. 62) among the 
friends whose acquaintance he had made at Ox- 
ford, Charnock and Colet. It is scarcely likely 
that two such men should have been residing at 
the University at the same time ; and have pos- 
sessed mutual friends, and yet have never met 
ill a later period in London. But if the date of 
the story be referred to the time when More had 
become Chancellor, i. e. in 1529, or even after he 
had been knighted, t. e. about 1517, its absurdity 
is manifest ; as it is quite certain, from numerous 
letters, that Erasmus and More had often met 
before these dates ; and we know that the En- 

comium Moria was completed, in 1510, in More's 
own house. W. J. D. 

SIR EDWARD MAT (3 rd S. v. 35, 65.) R. W. 
should have mentioned where, in Burke' s Extinct 
and Dormant Baronetcies, the pedigree of this baro- 
net is given. From his arms, " Gu. a fesse between 
eight billets or," he was clearly of the family of 
the Mays of Kent, of which one of the late repre- 
sentatives, the eccentric but amiable and worthy 
Walter Barton May, Esq., built Hadlow Castle, 
near Tunbridge, a singular and handsome struc- 
ture, after the fashion of Beckford's Fonthill 
Abbey. It is now the property of Robert Rodger, 
Esq., J. P. A. 

SCOTTISH GAMES (3 rd S. iv. 230.) Permit me 
to help in the elucidation of my own queries on 
this subject. I would remark that I naturally 
thought it needless to refer to Jamieson's Dic- 
tionary, when one so learned in Scottish matters 
as Mr. Fraser Tytler indicated ignorance ; but I 
have done so, and the following is the result : 
Prop= a mark or object at which to aim (only 
reference, Dunbar's Poems, Bannatyne ed. p. 53.) 
Sax. Prap. It means a thing supported, propped 
up. This justifies my "Aunt Sally" conjecture. 
" Lang Bowlis," = " a game much used in Angus, 
in which heavy leaden bullets are thrown from the 
hand. He who flings his bowl furthest, or can 
reach a given point with fewest throws, is the 
victor. It is not " Golf" then ; but " Row-bowlis," 
as distinguished from " Lang Bowlis," is likely to 
be our modern game of bowls the bowls used 
in it resembling (and perhaps originally they 
were) bullets. There is no trace of the game in 
Jamieson. " Kiles " are referred to in Jamieson 
as " Keils," not, however, as Scotch ; and the de- 
finition given of cognate words supports my sug- 
gestion that " nine pins " is meant. There is no 
trace, so far as I can see, of " Irish Gamyne " in 
Jamieson. " Tables " must be chess or draughts. 
Jamieson quotes " Inventories, A 1539, p. 49," in 
which distinction is made between " table men " 
and " chess men," but he thinks " tables " never 
meant draughts, only chess and dice. Perhaps 
Mr. Tytler's construction misled me in thinking 
he asked the meaning of " Tables." He must 
have known. J. D. CAMPBELL. 

(3 rd S. v. 11.) In compliance with the sugges- 
tion of your correspondent M. S. R., I send you 
the following, copied from the cenotaph in front 
of Manilla Hall, Clifton : 


Field Officers. C. Brereton, J. Moore. 

Captains. Huntcall, Stewart, Wingfield, Delaval, 
Chisholm, Cheshyre, Upfield, Strachan, Muir, Moore. 

Lieutenants. Whaley, G. Browne, Hopkins, Robinson, 
T. Browne, Le Grand, Winchelsea, Roston, Campbell, 
Fryer, Turner, Richbell, Bouchier, Bristed, Ilardwick. 

3* S. V. JAN. 23, '64.] 



your correspondent points to the particular 
les of the Annual Register and Gentleman's 

Ensigns. Collins, Paslette, La Tour, Hosier, M'Mahon 
Surgeons. Smith, Atherton. 



Magazine, in which the Latin inscription and a 
translation are to be found, I do not send them 
with this, but the names and dates of the battles 
(of which he desires to be informed) inscribed on 
the cenotaph are as follow : 

The lines of Pondicherry stormed, Sept. 10, 1760. 

Pondicherry surrendered, Jan. 16, 1761. 

Carricall taken, April 5, 1760. 

Siege of Madras raised, Feb. 17, 1759. 

Battle of Wandewash, Jan. 22, 1760. 

Arcot recovered, Feb. 10, 1760. 

Manilla Hall, which was built on Clifton Downs 
by Sir Wm. Draper soon after his return from 
the capture of Manilla from the Spaniards, is now 
the Boarding School of C. T. Hudson, M.A. of 
St. John's College, Cambridge, for some years 
Head Master of the Bristol Grammar School. 

The cenotaph in question stands on the right- 
hand of the portico (as you come out of the hall), 
and on the left-hand is a handsome obelisk, some 
twenty-five or thirty feet high, to the memory of 
Lord Chatham, bearing this inscription : 

" GULIELMO PITT, Com. de Chatham : Hoc Amicitiae 
privatae Testimonium, simul et Honoris public! Monu- 
mentum posuit Gulielmus Draper." 

J. C. H. 

RELIABLE (3 rd S. v. 58.) The strictures of 
J. C. J. on the new-coined word " reliable," are 
more confident than convincing. 

As I have not had the advantage of seeing what 
he may have previously written on the subject, I 
cannot judge whether he has shown that it is " a 
mistake to consider the terminations -ble and 
-able equivalent to Passive Infinitives," but as the 
word under discussion is intended by those who 
employ it to come under that rule, this is imma- 
terial. The objection to its construction is ob- 
vious. It expresses only " to be relied," whilst 
it is meant to express "to be relied upon." It 
may possibly be that other words in common use 
have an equally defective formation, but that is 
no justification for encumbering the language 
with more of such awkwardnesses. " Depend- 
able" is, to use J. C. J.'s phrase, an " exactly 
corresponding word 1 ' with reliable, which " cre- 
dible " (to be believed) is not. 

J. C. J. maintains that the word supplies a de- 
ficiency in the language, and he rests his plea on 
the broad allegation that "trust" and its deriva- 
tives are " properly " limited to personal applica- 
tion. I altogether demur to so arbitrary a re- 
striction. To " trust a tale," "trust his honesty," 
" trust his heels," c. &c., vide Shakspeare, 

" He might in some great and trusty business in a main 
danger fail you." Ail's Well that Ertdt Well, 

In what old romance does the valiant knight 
fail to boast of his " trusty blade " ? 

" Trustworthy data" " trustworthy facts," 
" trustworthy documents," &c. &c., are phrases of 
everyday occurrence, and I must take leave to 
assert not less correct than common. 

" Trustworthy " itself is not a word of great 
antiquity ; but as I consider it, till better proof 
be offered to the contrary, to answer every pur- 
pose for which " reliable" or " dependable" can 
be required, I must unite in the protest against 
the intrusion of adjectives 

"... Scarce half made up, 
And that so lamely and unfashionably ; " 

and it is a satisfaction to me to observe that the 
use of " reliable " is hitherto confined to a class 
of writers little likely to influence aspirants to a 
pure English diction. X. 

LEWIS MORRIS (3 rd S. v. 12.) I have amongst 
my books a large-paper copy of the first edition 
of Cambria Triumphans, by Percy Enderbie, 
which was once the property of Fabian Philipps, 
the author of Veritas Inconcussa, and has his au- 
tograph on the title-page. One hundred and two 
years after its publication, the book became the 
property of Lewis Morris, the antiquary ; whose 
autograph, with the date 1753, is also on the title- 
page. On one of the fly-leaves is the following 
note : 

" This copy of Cambria Triumphans belonged to that 
distinguished antiquary, Lewis Morris; the marginal 
notes are in his own handwriting. This book was given 
to me by his son William Morris, of Gwaelod, near 
Aberystwith, Cardiganshire, S. W. Eobt. F. GreviUe." 

This very rare book passed into my hands after 
the dispersion of the library of the Hon. Kobert 
Greville about two years ago. I wish that I 
could aSbrd H. H. more information on the sub- 
ject of Lewis Morris ; but I have shown that, not 
many years ago, he had a son living at Gwaelod, 
who is perhaps yet alive. 



SOCRATES' DOG (3 rd S. iv. 475.) G. R. J. will 
find the following in Bryant's Mythology, vol. ii. 
p. 34 : 

' It is said of Socrates that he sometimes made use of 
an uncommon oath, /uot rbv KVVO. ncal-rbi/ xijva, by the dog 
and goose, which at first does not seem consistent with 
the 'gravity of his character. But we are informed by 
Porphyry, that this was not done by way of ridicule : for 
Socrates esteemed it a very serious and religious mode of 
attestation : and under these terms made a solemn appeal 
to the son of Zeus." 

Thus far the learned Bryant ; what reference 
the oath has to Bible matters, I cannot now dis- 
uss ; but Daniel, xii. 1, has reference to it.* 


* And at that time chall Michael stand wp," c; A 



[S" S. V. JAN. 23, '64. 


The. Psalms interpreted of Christ. By the Rev. Isaac Wil- 
liams, B.D. Vol. I. (Rivingtons.) 
Those of our readers who are acquainted with Mr. 
Williaras's volumes on the Gospels, will know what to ex- 
pect in this Interpretation of the Psalms. They will find 
the same accumulation of patristic learning, the same 
devotion to the very letter of Holy Scripture, the same 
vein of kindly thoughtful piety. Mr. Williams ("as might 
be expected) adopts that system of interpretation, which 
supposes all the Psalms of David to be spoken in the 
person of Christ, which St. Augustine has worked out in 
his Enarrationes, and with which English readers have 
been familiarised by the Exposition of Bishop Home. It 
is matter of interest to see this old patristic interpreta- 
tion rising up now-a-days, and not afraid to confront the 
rude trenchant spirit of modern criticism. 

Alexandri Neckam De Naturis Rerum Libri Duo. With 
the Poem of the same Author, De Laudibus Divines 
Sapiential. Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq., M.A., &c. 
Published under the Direction of the Master of the Rolls. 

The present volume furnishes a very curious addition 
to the Series of Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain 
and Ireland during the Middle Ages, now publishing 
under the direction of Sir John Romilly, for it supplies 
us, in Neckam's Treatise De Naturis Rerum, with a 
manual of the scientific knowledge of the close of the 
twelfth century, made yet more interesting and instruc- 
tive by the contemporary anecdotes so freely introduced 
by its author. Alexander Neckham, for so was the au- 
thor of the two documents now first published generally 
designated, was foster-brother of Richard Coeur de Lion, 
having been, moreover, born on the same day in the 
month of September, 1157. He was educated at St. Albans, 
then became a distinguished professor at Paris, and after- 
wards, according to Mr. Wright (p. xii.), proceeded to 
Italy, though that gentleman seems subsequently (p. 
Ixxiv.) to doubt such visit. Neckam eventually became 
Abbot of Cirencester, and, dying at Kempsey in 1217, 
was buried in Worcester Cathedral. Mr. Wright's in- 
timate knowledge of Mediaeval Literature and Science, 
pointed him out as a fitting editor for this very curious 
Mediaeval Encyclopaedia. 

The Divine Week; or, Outlines of a Harmony of the Geo- 
logic Periods with the Mosaic Days of Creation. By the 
Rev. J. H. Worgan, M.A. (Rivingtons.) 

Mr.Worgan's title sufficiently explains the subject of 
his work and the method by which (in his judgment) 
the Mosaic Account of the Creation is best squared with 
the discoveries of geology. Instead of understanding 
the sacred writer to be describing the preparation of the 
globe for man, its present highest occupant, and to ignore 
(as not coming within the compass of his design) the 
previous revolutions which it had experienced a view 
adopted by the late Dr. Buckland our author maintains 
the theory which at one time found favour with the late 
Hugh Miller, that the Mosaic Narrative exactly covers 
the geological period, each " day " coinciding with some 
well-marked epoch in the formation of the crust of our 

The Quarterly Review, No. 229. 

The new Number of The Quarterly opens with a paper 
on "China," to which the recent ill-judged proceedings 
of Prince Rung give peculiar interest. It is followed 

by one on " Ne\r Englanders and the Old Home," in 
which we are vindicated from the sneers of Mr. Haw- 
thorne. The paper on Forsyth's " Life of Cicero," like 
that book, holds a mean between the excessive adula- 
tion of Middleton and the unwarrantable aspersions of 
Drumann. A good paper on " Captain Speke's Journal " 
is followed by one on " Guns and Plates," which goes to 
show that we are a-head of all other nations in respect 
of artillery. The writer of the paper " On Eels " has 
certainly " caught the eel of learning by the tail." A 
learned paper on " Rome in the Middle Ages " next fol- 
lows, and the Quarterly winds up with a long paper on 
that most intricate and vexed question, " The Danish 

Journal of Sacred Literature. By B. Harris Cowper. No. 
VIII., New Series. (Williams & Norgate.) 
Among the more interesting articles are, " A few Days 
among the Slavonic Protestants of Central Europe," 
" Oriental Sacred Traditions," and a translation of selected 
^Ethiopic Hymns, Liturgies, &c., by Mr. Rodwell. 



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lymns on a Variety of Divine Subjects, 1761, may be found in our 2nd S. 

T. BENTLF.Y. The Query must be accompanied with our Correspon- 
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CONTENTS. N. 109. 

NOTES : Erroneous Monumental Inscriptions in Bristol 
&c., 87 Reduction ofRathlin in 1575, 89 Fashionable 
Quarters of London, 92 John Frederick Lampe, Ib. 
Palindromical Verses : Jani de Bisschop Chorus Musarum, 
93 Esquire Lord Gardenston English Wool, in 1682 

A Testimony to our Climate, 94. 

QUERIES : Milton's Third Wife and Roger Comberbach 
of Nantwich, 95 American Authors An Aldine Book 
Balloons: their Dimensions Beech Trees never struck 
by Lightning John Bristow British Gallery and British 
Institution Curious Essex Saying To Compete Earl- 
dom of Dunbar Elma, a new Female Christian Name 
Freemasons Gainsborough Prayer-Book Haccombe 
and its Privileges The Haight Family Irenaeus quoted 

Thomas Lee of Darnhall, co. Cheshire Lepel Col. 
James Lowther Wm. Eussell M'Donald Sir Wm. 
Pole's Charters Poor Cock Robin's Death "Li Sette 
Salmi " Stamp Duty on Painters' Canvass Mr. Thacke- 
ray's Literary Journal Colonel Robert Venables Mr. 
Wise Words derived from " JSvum," 96. 

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Old Age and the Grave " Maiden Castle Horses first 
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REPLIES: Mutilation of Sepulchral Monuments, 101 
Psalm xc. 9, 102 Sheridan's Greek Quotation Wanted 

Enigma Cruel King Philip Orbis Centrum Greek 
Proverbs The Shamrock and the Blessed Trinity 
Trade and Improvement of Ireland Arthur Dobbs 

Kindlie Tenants Quotations Wanted Baptismal 
Names Passage in Tennyson Alfred Bunn, 103. 

Notes on Books. &c. 



Beneath an arch cut in the wall which separates 
the Elder Lady Chapel from the north aisle of 
Bristol Cathedral is an altar tomb, which is usu- 
ally ascribed to Robert Fitz-Harding, the founder 
of the Berkeley family, and Eva his wife. Mr. 
Britton, however, says (Bristol Cathedral, p. 57), 

^'may with more certainty be referred to the 
third Maurice, Lord Berkeley, who died in 1368, 
and Elizabeth his wife." Both of which statements 
are, I believe, incorrect. 

At the foot of this tomb is a modern inscription 
on -i plain marble tablet, which records that it is 

The Monument of Robert Fitz-Harding, Lord of 
Berkeley, descended from the Kings of Denmark; and 
Eva Ins wife, by whom he had five Sons and two Daugh- 
ters: Maurice, his eldest Son, was the first of this Family 
that took the Name of Berkeley: This Robert Fitz- 
Harding laid the Foundation of this Church, and Monas- 
tery of St. Augustine, in the year 1140, the fifth of King 
Stephen ; dedicated and Endowed it in 1 148. He died in 
the year 1170, in the 17th of King Henry the Second." 

On the summit of this tomb repose the effigies 

of a male and female ; the former habited in "the 

d armour of the fourteenth century, and the 

latter in the female attire of the same period. 

From this circumstance it is clear that these 
figures could not be intended to represent Robert 
Fitz-Harding and his lady, who nourished two 
centuries before; and it will appear also upon 
examination that it is equally incorrect to appro- 
priate them to a warrior who died in 1368, and his 

The head of the male figure is covered with a 
conical skull-cap or helmet which is attached to 
a hawberk or tippet of mail by an interlaced cord. 
Chain mail also appears on the lower part of the 
body and the feet ; but the upper portion, as well 
as the front of the arms and legs, are covered 
with plate armour. This kind of mixed body- 
armour was introduced in the reign of Edward 
II., who ascended the throne in 1307. The dress 
of the female effigy also refers to the same period 
namely, the beginning of the fourteenth cen- 
tury, when the attire of ladies of rank was com- 
posed of the coif, hood, or veil, and wimple 
covering the head, neck, and chin; whilst the 
body was enveloped in a long loose robe, over 
which was worn a cloak or mantle. This fashion 
appears to have changed early in the reign of Ed- 
ward III., who succeeded his father in 1327, when 
the loose dress was superseded by the tight-bodied 
gown conforming to the shape of the person. 

These particulars clearly decide the age of this 
monument, and fixes the date of its erection at 
the commencement of the reign of the last-named 
monarch. If additional evidence were required, 
we find it in the tomb itself on which these effigies 
repose, for the sides are embellished with a series 
of recessed canopied niches and buttresses, of a 
style clearly indicating that the monument be- 
longs to the same period as the figures resting 
upon it. 

A comparatively recent inscription on a small 
brass plate, on the south side of this tomb, records 
that it " was erected to the memory of Maurice, 
Lord Berkeley, ninth Baron, of Berkeley Castle, 
who died the 8th day of June, 1368. Also of the 
Lady Margaret, his mother, daughter of Roger 
Mortimer, Earl of March, and first wife of Thomas, 
eighth Lord Berkeley. She died the 5th day of 
May, 1337." Why a female should in this case 
be represented on a tomb by the side of a man 
who was the husband of another, it is difficult to 
conceive. Mr. Britton is assuredly wrong in as- 
signing these effigies to so late a period as 1368, 
when the fourth, and not as he says, the third 
Maurice, Lord Berkeley, died; for the attire of 
both figures is too early for that date. The third 
Maurice, Lord Berkeley, died in 1326. He was 
twice married, his first wife being buried at Port- 
bury, a. manor belonging to the family, about seven 
miles from this city, and in the county of Somer- 
set ; but his second wife, who was Isabel, daugh- 
ter of Gilbert de Clare, whose arms appear over 
the high altar of the church, is, I have no doubt, 



[8** S. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

the female represented with this third Maurice 
her husband, on the monument referred to. 


On a chantry tomb in the Newton Chapel also 
in the cathedral, is the following inscription 
which was placed there " by Mrs. Archer, sister 
to the late Sir Michael Newton of Bafrs Court 
1748 " 

' In memory of Sir Richard Newton Cradock of Barrs 
Court, in the "County of Gloucester, one of his Majesties 
Justices of the Common Pleas, who died December the 
13th, 1444, and with his Lady lies interr'd beneath this 

The above inscription remained undisputed by 
any writer until the meeting of the Archaeological 
Institute for 1851 was held in this city, when, in 
a paper by the REV. H. T. ELLACOMBE, M.A., 
F.S.A., the statement it contains was completely 
refuted. It was there shown that, although its 
erection " may have been to the memory of a Cra- 
dock, the notion that the judge was buried there 
must have arisen from some misapprehension, and 
it is not true that he died in 1444 ; (for) the last 
fine levied before him was in November, 1448." 

MB. ELLACOMBE then proceeds " to prove, be- 
yond a doubt, that Judge Cradock and his lady 
rest in Yatton church, Somerset ; " where, in the 
centre of the De Wyck Aisle, or north transept, 
stands a very handsome alabaster altar tomb. Its 
sides are enriched with five beautifully-wrought 
niches, within which are full-length figures of 
angels holding shields, which Collinson says (Hist, 
of Somerset, vol. iii. p. 619), were once charged 
with the arras of Newton and Shirburn, impaled 
with Perrott ; but they are now almost entirely 
obliterated. The east and west ends of the tomb 
have each two niches, with figures and shields 
corresponding with those on the sides. On the 
summit, the venerable judge is represented in the 
costume of men of his rank at the time in which 
he lived a skull-cap (beneath which his hair is 
seen) tied under his chin, and his person is covered 
with a robe reaching to his feet ; over his shoulders 
he wears a tippet extending halfway down his 
arms. Covering all is a cloak or mantle, fallino- 
nearly to the ankles. This is fastened on the 
right shoulder by a button, and beneath it round 
the neck is a collar of esses. This cloak lianas 
gracefully on the left side, and is passed over 
the left arm after the manner of the chesible 
on that of ecclesiastics. Round the middle is an 
ornamental girdle, from which depends a short 
sword in an enriched scabbard; and also the 
gypciere or purse, common in the reigns of Henry 
VI. and Edward IV. The head of the judge rests 
on what appears to have been a helmet, sur- 
mounted with a wreath crowned with a ducal 
coronet, from which issues a garb, the crest of the 
family ; his feet rest against two dogs. 

On the left side of the judge lie the effigies of a 
slender female habited in a flowing robe, reach- 
ing to the feet ; but to the upper part of the per- 
son it fits tight down to the wrists, where it is 
laced, leaving however the breasts exposed. Over 
this is another robe reaching to the knees, and 
terminating with a broad hem ; it is suspended 
from the neck by narrow bands, passing over the 
chest, and leaving the under robe, which sits close 
at the hips, exposed below the waist, which is en- 
circled with a small ornamented girdle. From a 
curb-chain round the neck was apparently sus- 
pended a cross, beneath which a cord, reaching to 
the knees, terminates with small tassels. Higher up 
in the neck is an ornamental collar or band, from 
which hangs a jewel. A cloak or mantle, fastened 
across the breast by a cordon and jewels, extends 
to the feet, which it nearly envelopes. The head, 
once supported by angels, is covered with the 
mitred head-dress, the front having a broad 
turned-up lappet above the forehead, from whence 
the mitre issues. On each side at the feet is a 
small dog, and the hands of both figures are raised 
as in supplication ; but the entire monument, 
with its effigies and beautiful sculpture, is much 

" This tomb (says Mr. Ellacombe) is by tradition as- 
cribed to Judge Cradock. The female figure is supposed 
to represent Emma de Wick. The inscription is gone. 
There can be no doubt, from the costume, that the male 
effigy is that of a judge. That it is a Cradock is con- 
firmed by the garb or wheat-sheaf, on which his head is 
laid. Besides, in the interesting accounts of the church- 
wardens of Yatton, anno 1450-1, among the receipts there 
is this entry : ' It. recipimus de D'no de Wyke per manu' 
J. Newton, filii sui de legato Dn'i Rici. Newton, ad p' 
Campana xx 8 .' 

; That this date is nearer the time of his death than 
1444, as stated on the monument in the Cathedral, is 
confirmed by the fact of the fine levied in 1448." 

MR. ELLACOMBE then proceeds to give other 
reasons for his opinion, and finishes his remarks as 
follows : 

" I conclude, therefore, that Judge Cradock's tomb is 
n Yatton Church, and that the tooib in Bristol Cathedral 
s not his. 1 have not been able to assign that tomb to 
any other of the family, unless it be to Richard Newton, 
a grandson of the judge, the time of whose death, 1500, 
would accord well with the design of the monument ; and it 
s not known where he was buried. If my view be correct, 
the circumstance of his being called Richard, after his 
grandfather, might have led to the mistake." (Proceed- 
ngs of the Archaeological Institute, 1851, pp. 237242.) 

A third erroneous monumental inscription in 
Bristol Cathedral is that to the memory of 


which is chiselled on a pedestal of marble, after 
the manner of the Perpendicular style of English 
architecture, beneath a bust of the poet laureate, 
and is as follows : 

3'd S. V. JAN. 30, '64.] 



"Robert Southey, 

Born in Bristol 
October iv., MDCCLXXIV. 

Died at Keswick, 
March xxi., MDCCCXLIII." 

This error is perhaps the most inexcusable of all. 
Southey himself says (Selections from his Letters, 
vol. iv. p. 334), I was born August 12th, 1774, in 
Wine Street, Bristol, where my father kept a 
linen-draper's shop;" and in another place he says 
that he "was born at No. 11, Wine Street, below 
the pump : " the house now occupied by Messrs. 
Low and Clark, furriers, &c. Southey's family 
seems, in its elder branch, to have " long since 
disappeared ; " but a younger son " emigrated 
from Lancashire, and established himself as a 
clothier at Wellington, in Somersetshire." From 
this younger son the poet derived his descent. 

The last error of the same character which I 
shall notice at present, is on a tablet erected in 
Highbury Nonconformist Chapel in this city, to 
commemorate the names of Jive sufferers, and the 
date of their martyrdom, who, in the reign of 
Queen Mary, rather than abjure the Protestant 
faith, sealed the truth with their blood on this 
spot. The tablet records as follows : 

" In Memory 
of the undernamed 


who, during the reign of Queen Mary, 
for the avowal of their Christian faith, 

were burnt to death on the ground 

upon which this Chapel is erected. 

Richard Shapton, Richard Sharp, 

suffered Oct. 1555. May 17th, 1557. 

Edward Sharp, Thomas Hale, 

Sept. 8th, 1556. May 17th, 1557. 

Thomas Banion, 
August 17th, 1557. 

* Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after 
that have no more that they can do.' " 

The error on this tablet is in the number of the 
sufferers, and not in the fact; and it occurs in 
the names of the first two martyrs there men- 
tioned, the mistake resting with Mr. Seyer, the 
author of the Memoirs of Bristol, who perpetually, 
throughout his work, quotes the dubious manu- 
script calendars relating to this city, which I have 
before shown were, according to his own testi- 
mony, utterly unworthy of credit (2 nd S. v. 154). 
One of these records (says Mr. Seyer) contains 

, i ,. 1 1 V f J s 

the following : 

" 1555. On the 17th of October, one William Shepton 
(alias Shapman, alias Shapen), a weaver, was burnt for 

Another calendar (he continues) is thus : 
" 155G. This year two men, one a weaver, the other a 

cobbler, were burnt at St. Michael's Hill for religion. 

And (it is added) a sheerman was burnt for denying the 

sacrament of the altar to be the very body and blood of 

Christ really and substantially." 

Does he then mean to say there were three ? 
He then cites a third of these mischievous calen- 

dars, in which the name of Edward Sharpe occurs, 
and this, I have no doubt, has caused the error 
referred to : for there is no mention whatever of 
such a person having suffered martyrdom in Bris- 
tol by any writer deserving the name of an autho- 
rity. In the best edition of Fox's Martyrs that 
of 1646 four only are recorded, namely, William 
Sarton, who was burnt September 18, 1556 ; 
Richard Sharp, May 7, 1557 ; Thomas Hale, 
burnt in the same fire with Eichard Sharp, and 
Thomas Benion, who suffered on the 27th of the 
same month and year. (Acts and Monuments, vol. 
iii. pp. 749, 750, 855.) GEORGE PEYCE. 

Bristol City Library. 


Many are of opinion that Milton's well-known 
similitude of English history, prior to the ac- 
cession of Henry VII., applies better to the 
early state of Ireland than to his own country. 
Notwithstanding, however, the deliberate judg- 
ment of so eminent an authority in the one case, 
arid its very ready acceptance by the multitude in 
the other, I fully concur with your correspondent, 
MR. GEO. HILL, that the history of the Conquest 
or " Plantation " of Ulster, in the sixteenth century, 
is deserving of more extended treatment than it 
has hitherto received at the hands of the professed 
historian, more particularly in our own time. 
Happily, the day has dawned when the governing 
policy of Queen Elizabeth and her immediate suc- 
cessors in the land of St. Patrick, can be discussed 
by all sincere loyalists and lovers of truth and 
justice, as well there as here, without any danger 
of rekindling the extinct fires of national bigotry. 
In the lapse of three centuries, the angularities of 
the Celtic and Saxon natures respectively have 
been rounded off, old factious rivalries have ceased, 
and, underthemore benign sway of our present most 
excellent sovereign, the two peoples have become 
one indeed, cherishing the same loyal sentiments, 
, the same political aspirations. The experience of 
the Past is the property of both, and both may 
deduce from it, if they will, many invaluable les- 
sons for the Present and Future. But this, by- 
the-way. My purpose is, in some measure, to 
supplement the paper of MR. HILL (vide supra, 
p. 47.) I do not pretend to have studied so 
deeply the various incidents of the sanguinary 
struggle in Ulster, in the beginning of Elizabeth's 
reign, as that gentleman has done ; but when in- 
vestigating, some months ago, the early career of 
Sir Francis Drake, I had occasion to consult 
sundry documents and correspondence of the 
period bearing upon it, which are preserved in the 
State Paper Office. That labour resulted in the 
discovery (or that which is tantamount to it) of a 
very interesting passage in the life of the admiral. 



[3ra s. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

After his successful voyage to the West Indies 
in 1572, Drake, in the following year, joined the 
standard of Walter Earl of Essex, when that 
easily-gulled courtier was moved to undertake 
his quixotic expedition to " the gall and nursery 
of all evil men in Ireland," as in one of his de- 
spatches thence to the Lord Treasurer, he desig- 
nated Ulster, the scene of his exploits.* Ostensibly 
his object was "to rid her majesty's subjects of 
the tyranny of the Scots ; " | but really to seize 
upon the district of Clanheboy or Clanhughboy (co. 
Antrim), the ancient territory of the O'Neils, de- 
scendants of the princes of Tyrone; which, after its 
conquest, the too confident adventurer proposed to 
divide amongst the most distinguished of his fol- 
lowers. This pretty little scheme of spoliation 
was patronised by, if it did not originate with, the 
queen, and was finally brought to bear by the in- 
tervention of Leicester, who only desired to banish 
his rival from the court. It generally happened, 
whenever Elizabeth condescended to participate 
with any of her subjects in speculation sofa pecu- 
niary or political nature that she got the best of the 
bargain, and such was the case in the present in- 
stance. She bestowed upon Essex two birds in 
the bush for the one which he placed in her hands. 
In other words, the earl was compelled to surrender 
fifteen of his manors in England for the possible 
acquisition of half a county in Ireland. Amongst 
his followers were, besides Drake, the Lords Dacre 
and Rich, Sir H. Knollys and his four brothers, 
and three of the "black" sons of Lord Norreys. 

According to all the published biographies of 
Drake, the fact of his service in Ireland, between 
the years 1573-1575, is known only by tradition. 
It has been said that he fitted out, at his own ex- 
pence, "three frigates" (or rather frigots, a very 
different class of vessel to our frigate, which was 
not introduced into the royal navy until at least a 
century later), with which he rendered material 
aid to the filibustering cause ; but in what parti- 
cular way, or in what particular place, had passed 
put of remembrance. The facts which I have dis- 
interred from the national archives show, that he 
was commissioned for the service by the queen, and 
that he commanded the squadron which conveyed 
Essex and his force, comprising 1200 horse and 
foot, to the scene of their adventure. He landed 
them at Carrickfergus in the last week of August, 
1573. His own ship, called the "Falcon," was 
probably a hired one, as also her consorts. If so, 
the duty of selecting them had devolved upon 
himself, and hence the tradition of his havin"- sup- 
plied them at his own cost. 

How Essex fared on his arrival in Ireland ; how 
he was persistently thwarted by a jealous Lord- 
Deputy; how he was gradually deserted by his 
ollowers of every degree ; and how, in fine, he 

* Essex to Burghley, 23 June, 1574, 8. P. O 
t Vide his Proclamation, 20 Sept. 1573. Ib. 

was crushed to death by an ever-increasing weight 
of disappointment, sorrow, and anguish, are mat- 
ters too well known to need recapitulation in this 
place. The only real success he could boast of, in 
his Irish campaign, was the surprisal and reduction 
of the island of Rathlin a service in which he 
had no personal share. It was effected by the 
naval skill and military courage of Francis Drake 
and John Norreys. 

Of the early history of Rathlin or Raghery* I 
know very little, beyond the fact that, from a very 
remote period, it served for a stepping-stone to 
the Scots, " who came (as that marvellously in- 
dustrious compiler, Mr. Rowley Lascelles, ex- 
presses it) swarming from the Hebrides into 
Ulster." It lies about five miles off the northern 
coast of Antrim, immediately opposite to Bally- 
castle. Its shape is that of an acute angle, of 
which the upper or horizontal line extends (ac- 
cording to the Ordnance survey) four miles, and 
the lower or perpendicular line three miles. 
Access to its shores is, I believe, at all times dif- 
ficult, so many shoals encompassing them ; and, 
owing to a very singular and violent connection 
of the tides, known locally as the " Sloghna- 
morra," or gulp of the sea, it is sometimes ex- 
ceedingly dangerous, if not altogether imprac- 
ticable. The Kinramer, or western end of the 
isle, is craggy and mountainous, and the coast 
destitute of a harbour ; but the Ushet, or eastern 
end, is more level and fertile, besides being sup- 
plied with several small ports. 

At the time when Essex resolved to surprise 
it, the island was subject to Sorley Boy, or 
Somhairle M'Donnel (youngest son of Alexander 
M'Donnel, quondam Lord of the Isles), who, on 
the death of his brother, Alexander Oge M'Dou- 
nel, possessed himself of it, assuming at the same 
time the chieftainship of the Irish- Scots, and 
seizing upon the person of his nephew, the son 
of his deceased brother, whom he detained there 
as an hostage. This captive is " the pledge * 
mentioned below by the Earl, in his despatch to 
the Queen, and one of the few. who was specially 
exempted from butchery by his exasperated 

The want of provisions, although it was the 
height of summer, obliged Essex to break up his 
camp, which was then in the vicinity of Carrick- 
fergus, and betake himself to the Pale. Before 
his retreat, he garrisoned the town, and left it in 
charge of John Norreys. Its safety was further 
insured by the presence of Drake. Although, as 
before intimated, Essex took no personal share in 
the attack upon Rathlin, the plan and all its de- 

* I have read somewhere, that the name of the island 
has suffered so many variations in its orthography as 
renders it now impossible to determine what ma}' be the 
most proper. From the days of Pliny to our own, it has 
been spelled in ten or a dozen different ways. 

3'* S. V. JAN. 30, '64.] 



tails originated with, and were perfected by him- 
self. The whole shows that he was not deficient 
in military sagacity or skill. In his despatch to 
Elizabeth he says : 

" I thought good to leese' no opportunity that might 
serve to the annoying of the Scot (against whom only I 
have now to make war), and finding it a thing very 
necessary to leave a good garrison at Carigfergus, for that 
purpose I appointed CCC footmen and iiij xx horsemen to 
reside there, under the rule of Capt. John Norroyce, to 
whom I gave a secret charge, that having at Carigfergus 
the three frigates, and wind and weather serving, to 
confer -with the captains of them, and on the sudden to 
set out for the taking of the island of the Raughliens 
(with care in their absence to leave a sufficient guard for 
the keeping of the town of Carigfergus) ; and when I 
had given this direction (to make the Scots less sus- 
picious of any such matter pretended), I withdrew myself 
towards the Pale, and Capt. Norryce with his company 
to Carigfergus, with my letters of direction unto the 
captains of the three frigates, which he found there ready 
for my service." * 

Norreys, accordingly, on the departure of his 
chief, took counsel with Drake, Potter, and Syday, 
" the captains of the three frigates," who, readily 
assenting to the practicability of the proposed 
scheme, concluded to take it in hand at once. 
They collected all the small boats belonging to 
the town, which would suffice for transports, and 
on July 20th, the expedition got under weigh 
from Carrickfergus. It is not added what number 
of men was told off for this service. Owing to 
the variableness of the winds the fleet, when at 
sea, parted company, and nearly three days were 
consumed in making the island. No other incon- 
venience, excepting the loss of time, resulted from 
this delay ; for (says Essex), " all so well guided 
themselves, that they met at the landing-place of 
the Raughliens the xxij day in the morning at 
one instant." The spot chosen for the debarca- 
tion of the troops was probably in Church Bay. 

The islanders, perceiving the tardy approach of 
the English, and fully comprehending their object, 
had ample time to prepare for resistance. They 
drew up all their forces on the beach, every foot 
of which they obstinately contested ; but being 
at length overpowered by the invaders, they fled, 
panic-stricken, " to a castle which they had, of 
very great strength," where, outstripping their 
pursuers, they shut themselves in. The castle 
referred to by the Earl was probably that which 
bore the name of the Bruc;*, from the fact of his 
having found an asylum there, in the winter of 
1306, when driven out of Scotland by Baliol. 
The foundations of it are still visible in the north- 
eastern corner of the island. 

The English proceeded to invest the place, and, 

alter^ much hard fighting, in which several- fell 

on either side, including " the captain " of the 

esieged, the latter were compelled, on the 26th, 

. S. P. O. Essex to the Queen, July 31, 

to capitulate, almost unconditionally. Only the 
lives of the " Constable," and of his wife and 
child, were guaranteed ; " all the rest were to 
stand on the curtesy " of the victors. What fol- 
lowed is best described in the language of Essex : 
" The soldiers being moved and much stirred with the 
loss of their fellows, which were slayne, and desirous of 
revenge, made request, or rather pressed to have the 
killing of them, which they did all, saving the persons 
to whom life was promised, and a pledge which was 
prisoner in the castle was also saved, who is son to Alex- 
ander Og M'Alyster Harry. . . . There were slayn that 
come out of the Castle, of all sorts, CC ; and presently 
news is brought me, out of Tyrone, that they be occupied 
still in killing, and have slayn [all] that they have 
found hidden in caves and in cliffs of the sea, to the 
number of CCC th more." 

Deteriores omnes sumus licentia ! For myself, I 
am thankful to have lived in the age of Mormon 
and Zadkiel, instead of in that of Bacon and 

The spoil taken in the island amounted to 4000 
sheep, 300 kine, 200 stud mares, and sufficient 
" beer-corn " to supply 300 men for a whole year, 
besides other more valuable household property. 

If ferocious to his enemies, Essex was grateful 
to his friends, more especially to the conquerors 
of Rathlin. In beseeching the queen to favour 
them with a letter of thanks for their services, he 
assures her majesty that, ' ; both for captains and 
soldiers, there is no prince in Christendom can 
have better, nor more willing minds to serve her " 
than these. He reiterated this request to the 
lords of the Council, as well as to Walsingham, to 
whom, in a private communication, he adds in a 

" I do understand this day by a spy, coming from 
Sorleboy's camp, that upon my late journey made against 
him, he then put most of his plate, most of his children, 
and the children of the most part of his gentlemen with 
him, and their wives into the Raughliens, which be all 
taken and executed, as the spy saith, and in all to the 
number of vjC th . Sorley then also stood upon the main- 
land of the Glynns, and saw the taking of the island, and 
was likely to run mad for sorrow (as the spy saith), 
tearing and tormenting himself, and saying, that he then 
lost all that ever he had." 

"As the spy saith," twice repeated! Let us 
flatter ourselves with the idea, that the writer's 
humanity was slightly touched that he was har- 
bouring an agreeable suspicion that some, if not 
all, of these helpless women and children had 
escaped from the swords of his fiendish soldiery. 

Essex set great store by his conquest of Rath- 
lin : it was the only fruit of his costly labours in 
Ulster. Among the Cott. MSS. in the British 
Museum, there is one (Titus, B. xii. f. 417), 
entitled " The Earle of Essex''t)eclaracon in what 
Estate he founde Ulster at his arrival there, and 
how he left it at his comeing awaye." The Earl 
remarks therein, inter alia, "when I was dis- 
charged, I left the Raughliens in her maj tyi pos- 
session, as the best mean, in my opinion, to 


[3'd S. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

banish the Scot." He is asked (probably by 
Burghley) : " What is meant to be done with the 
isle of Ruughliens ; and how may it be recovered 
and kept ; and what profit may grow thereby ? " 
To which Essex replies : " A fortification in the 
Raughliens, with a sufficient force to resist their 
landing at the first, is the most requisite ; within 
short space [it] will bear the charge with a gain." 
Of the subsequent fortunes of the island, I know 
nothing. & 

[NO. in.] 

The Revolution introduces us to the great 
Lord Somers ; who, soon after he was appointed 
Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, removed from 
the Temple to Powis House, in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. This house King William determined 
should be for ever appropriated to the use of the 
Chancellor or Keeper. It was, therefore, pur- 
chased by the government, in 1696, for that pur- 
pose; and Lord Somers, and his successor Sir 
Nathan Wright, both remained in it while they 
held the office. 

Lord Cowper, during his first Chancellorship in 
Queen Anne's reign, also resided in the same 
house, as also did his successor Lord Harcourt ; 
but before Lord Cowper's second Chancellorship, 
in the beginning of the reign of George I., the 
house had come into the possession of the Duke 
of Newcastle, and was thenceforward called New- 
castle House. It still exists, and forms the north- 
west angle of Lincoln's Inn Fields, leading into 
Great Queen Street. After leaving this house, 
Lord Cowper removed to Great George Street, 

I am not certain where Sir Thomas Parker, the 
unfortunate Earl of Macclesfield, resided while he 
was Lord Chancellor of George I. ; but he was at 
the time of his death building a house in St. 
James's Square ; and he died, in 1732, in his son's 
house in Soho Square. 

Of George II.'s first Chancellor, Peter, Lord 
King, I do not know the town residence. His 
second Chancellor, Charles, Lord Talbot, lived 
and died in Lincoln's Inn Fields, but in what 
house is not stated. His third Chancellor, Philip, 
Lord Hardwicke, who held the Great Seal nearly 
twenty years, died seven years after his resigna- 
tion in a house so far west as Grosvenor Square ; 
but his residence, while he was in office, was in 
another Powis House in Great Ormond Street, 
the site of which is now occupied by Powis Place. 

Of the numerous Chancellors of George III., 
I do not know the official residences of Robert 
Henley, Earl of Northington, nor of Charles 
Pratt, Lord Camden; but the latter died at his 
house in Hill Street, Berkeley Square, in 1794, 

twenty-four years after his retirement, when mi- 
gration to the west had become common. 

Henry Bathurst, Lord Apsley and Earl of Ba- 
thurst, on receiving the Great Seal, resided in Dean 
Street, Soho ; but afterwards built Apsley House, 
in Piccadilly, now the residence of the Duke of 

For the town residences of the Hon. Charles 
Yorke, of Edward, Lord Thurlow, of Alexander, 
Lord Loughborough, and of some others with 
which I am unacquainted, I must rely upon your 
numerous correspondents. 

John Scott, Earl of Eldon, resided when Lord 
Chancellor, at first in Bedford Square, and then 
in Hamilton Place, Piccadilly. 

Thomas Erskine, Lord Erskine, during the brief 
period in which he held the Great Seal, resided 
on the south side of Lincoln's Inn Fields, in the 
house afterwards occupied by the Verulam Club. 
John Singleton Copley, Lord Lyndhurst Lord 
Chancellor to three sovereigns, George IV., Wil- 
liam IV., and our present Queen died the other 
day (as we all have cause to lament) at the patri- 
archal age of ninety-two, in the house in George 
Street, Hanover Square, which he occupied while 
in office. 

Lord Brougham's residence while Lord Chan- 
cellor to William IV., was in Grafton Street, New 
Bond Street. 

With regard to Queen Victoria's Chancellors, I 
require information as to the residences of the 
Earl of Cottenham, Lord Truro, and Lord St. 
Leonard's, while in office ; but they were all in 
the west. 

Lord Cran worth resided in Upper Brooke Street, 
Grosvenor Square. 

Lord Chelmsford's house was, and is, in Eaton 

Lord Campbell carried the Seal as far south- 
west as Stratheden House, Knightsbridge : and 
the present Chancellor, Lord Westbury, lives at 
much the same distance north-west, in Hyde 
Park Gardens, Bayswater Road. 

Having thus shown the migration of these legal 
functionaries from one extreme to the other, I 
hope some of your correspondents will supply you 
with the progress of fashion which has led other 
classes and professions from the east to the west. 
And I shall be obliged by any additions to, or 
corrections of, the details which I have offered 
you. EDWAKD Foss. 


The statements made by the musical historians 
and biographers concerning the time and place of 
the death of this excellent composer (whose music 
to Henry Carey's Dragon of Waniley, and to the 
mock opera of Pyramus and Thisbe, is conceived 

3 rd S. V. JAN. 30, '64.] 



in the true spirit of burlesque,) are very contra- 

Hawkins (History of Music, London, 1776, v. 
371), says "Lampe died in London about twenty 
years ago." Burney (History of Music, iv. 672, 
London, 1789,) tells us that Lampe, "quitting 
London in 1749, resided two years at Dublin ; 
and in 1750 went to Edinburgh, where he settled, 
very much to the satisfaction of the patrons of 
music in that city, and of himself; but in July, 
1751, he was seized with a fever which put an 
end to his existence at the age of fifty-nine." 
This statement is repeated, in nearly the same 
words, in the article "Lampe" in Kees's Cyclo- 
pcedia (also written by Burney), the date 1748, 
however, being substituted for 1749. The ac- 
count given in Burney's History is copied in 
Gerber's Lexicon der Tonkunstler (iii. 166, Leip- 
zig, 1813), and in Schilling's Lexicon der Ton- 
kiinst (iv. 312, Stuttgart, 1837). The Dictionary 
of Musicians (London, 1824,) states that "Lampe 
died in London in the year 1751 ;" and Fetis 
(Biographic des Musiciens, Brussels, 1840, vi. 34), 
says, " II mourut en 1756." 

The General Advertiser, London newspaper, of 
Thursday, September 12, 1751, has the following 
paragraph : 

" By letters from Edinburgh, we have the following 
inscription, taken from the monument of Mr. Lampe, the 
celebrated Master of Musick, who lately died there : 

" ' Here lie the mortal Remains of John Frederick 
Lampe, whose harmonious Compositions shall outlast 
monumental Registers, and with melodious Notes through 
future Ages perpetuate his Fame, 'till Time shall sink 
into Eternity. His Taste for moral Harmony appeared 
through all his Conduct. He was a most loving Hus- 
band, an affectionate Father, Friend, and Companion. 
On the 25th Day of July, 1751, in the 48th Year of his 
Age, he was summoned to join that heavenly Concert 
with the blessed Choir above, where his virtuous Soul 
now enjoys that Harmony which was his chief Delight 
upon Earth.' " 

It is curious (supposing this inscription to be 
accurate) that the statements of all Lampe's bio- 
graphers should be more or less tainted with 
error : Burney, whose account in other respects 
is correct, erring with respect to the deceased's age. 

Can any of your readers inform us in what 
church, churchyard, or other place of sepulture 
in the Scottish metropolis, Lampe's remains rest ? 
What is the character of his monument, if exist- 
ing ? And whether the copy of the inscription, 
given in the General Advertiser, is correct or 
not? W. H. HUSK. 


The pages of " N. & Q." have repeatedly con 
tained specimens of Palindromical verses anc 
other kinds of misdirected literary labour ; but ] 

do not recollect of having ever met with any 
notice of a work now before me, which I should 
magine to be unparalleled in the annals of such 
I subjoin its title, verbatim : 

" Jani De Bisschop Chorus Musarum, id est, Elogia, 
Poemata, Epigrammata, Echo, JEnigmata, Ludus Poeti- 
cus, Ars Hermetica, &c. Lugduni Batavorum, 

{Job : Du Vivie, ) 
et VMDCC." 

Is : Severini J 

The volume, a stout small 8vo of 434 pages, 
commences after two dedications, one of them to 
Cornelius De Witte, Baro de Ruiter with a 
series of elogia on different members of the De 
Ruiter family. A poem on the Birth-day of 
William III. and others on the Praise of Amster- 
dam, the Fire of London, &c. succeed. Next 
in order are the Epigrams, occupying nearly 160 
pages, and for the most part wofully deficient in 
point, all at least I have had patience to read. 
Here is one of the best : 

" Erasmus infans. 

" Parvus eras, nee Erasmus eras mus, dictus Erasmus, 
Die age, si Sum mus, tune quoque summus ero." 

The next division of the work, and th'e first 
which is characteristic of it entitled Ludus 
Poeticus begins with a Palindromical poem ; 
apparently, however, not written by Bisschop, as 
it is termed Melos retrogradum ayvdxrrov. 

This composition extends to no less than sixty 
lines, but the first six will probably be enough for 
the readers of " N. &Q." 

" Sumere tironem si vis, me norit eremus : 
Jurem non animo, nomina non merui. 

Aspice : nam raro mittit timor arma, nee ipsa, 
Si se mente reget, non tegeret Nemesis. 

Me turn animat recte, me dem, et certamina mutem, 
Si res una velit utile, vanus eris." 

It will be observed that each line may be made 
the same syllabically, whether read from right to 
left, or vice versa. 

Next in order is a poem, In Natalem Christi, 
extending to eighteen lines, and constructed on a 
model which will be best understood by a speci- 
men : 

" Magne puelle, jaces lecto, te stringit egestas ; 
Agne tenelle, taces tecto, me cingit honestas. 
^Ethera pax spernit, dux majestate tremenda: 
Sidera fax cernit, lux libertate verenda." 

Various classes of similar verses succeed, which 
I shall name in order, giving a specimen of each. 

" Concordantes Versus. 
ventus quas obruit 

Accendit flammas, unda. 

vinum quod temperat 

Correlativi Versus. 
Praedator, miles, lictor, neco, saucio, macto, 

Plebem, hostem, furem, fraudibus, ense, cruce. 
Sic legito prtecedentes versiculos : predator neco plebe 



[3'd S. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

fraudibus: miles saucio hostem ense; Kotor mtteto furem 

Scalaris gradatio. 

Sol solus solidat solamina sollicitorum 
Sollicitatorum sollicitudinibus. 

Gigantei Versus, 
" Terrificaverunt Otthomannopolitanos 

Intempestivis anxietudinibus. 
Debellaverunt Gratianopolitanos, 
Terriculamentis, Carlomontesii. 
Depugnaverunt Constantinopolitani, 

Opprobramentis illachrymabilibus." 
Versus recurrentes seu reciproci, ex heroico Pentametrum. 
" Agros cultor aro non pigra sedulitate. 
Sedulitate pigra non aro cultor agros." 

Litercs Retrogrades. This is a letter regarding 
a young man to his father, which, read from the 
beginning, expresses praise, and, from the end 
(the punctuation at the same time being slightly 
altered), censure. One sentence, forming about 
one-fifth of the whole, will suffice : 

Pater, filius tuas frugi vivit, nee preciosius tempus, 
et pecuniam dilapidat ; frequentandis identidem templis 
et gymnasiis, non compotationibus, comessationibus, ve- 
natui, aleis, ludis operam dat. Vice versa. 

" Dat operam ludis, aleis, venatui, comessationibus, 
compoljationibus, non gymnasiis et templis identidem fre- 
quentandis : dilapidat pecuniam et tempus preciosius, nee 
vivit frugi tuus filius, pater." 

Lusus in liter a A. Laua Gulielmi III., -c. 
" Agglomerata acies, addensans agminis alas, 
Advolat auxiliis, arvoque affulget aperto : 
Auriacusque ardens animis, animosior arte, 
Auctoratus adest, arma aureus, aureus arma 
Adfremit ; auratis armis accingitur armos." 

And so on for thirty-three lines more. 

Echo in Ignaticolas. This is a long poetical 
invective against the followers of Ignatius Loyola, 
extending to fifty-two pages, and containing many 
references to notorious members of the order and 
their nefarious doings. Each line ends with an 
" echo," thus 
" Patres, Jesu nomen sibi arrogantes, furantur, urantur. 

Est societas superba, famosa, passim in visa, orbi fatalis ; 

Patres quserunt gloriam sui, non Dei majorem ; o rem ! 

Ignatium, hominem militarem Deo, assimulant, simu- 

Logogriphi. Virtus, virus, vir, tus. 
T si sustuleris medio de nomine ; rerum 
Optima quae fueram, rerum tune pessima fio. 
Mas caput est ; mea cauda petit sibi funus, et ignes." 
JEnigmata. Of these there are upwards of 
three hundred. We subjoin the sixty-ninth, on 
a telescope : 

" Non video ; per me facio vidisse remota : 
Extender, minnor; manus adjuvat. Aspicis ex me 
Sidera, quue fugiunt oculos. Ego servio nautis." 

We also subjoin one of a different class : 

" Oo papapa, ii mamama : mors rumrum erit phusphus- 

phus sescaenns, et mimiminus vitae rererenae : felicicici iii 

ad pammm mimiminare popopount. 

" Sic legito mces prcccedentes : Obis pater, ibis mater : 

mors duorum erit triumphus teternus, et terminus vita ter- 
rence : feliciter iter adpatriam terminare poterunt" 

Among some Sententics retrogrades, p. 414, oc- 
curs the famous line which has been discussed in 
" K & Q." : 

" Sator erepo tenet opere rotas." 

It will be observed there is a slight difference 
between this version and the common one. If 
we suppose Erepo to be a proper name, then, 
some such meaning as this might be educed from 
this puzzling line, which it is worth noting Biss- 
chop speaks of as ancient (antiquum) The planter 
Erepo holds (or arrests) by an effort the wheels. 

A nagramma ta. 

" Quid est veritas ? Est vir qui adest. 
Ignatius Xaverius. Gavisi sunt vexari. 
Cornelius Jansenius. Calvini sensus in ore." 

I have now furnished the readers of " N". & Q." 
with sufficient materials for forming an estimate 
of this extraordinary volume. Their astonish- 
ment will be immeasurably enhanced when they 
read the following sentence, which comprises the 
whole of a preliminary address to the reader, with 
the exception of a reference to the very numerous 
typographical errors which occur throughout the 
work : 

" Si poematum meorum fontes, ingenii tui palato sapiunt* 
addam praeterea ferculorum delicias, quinque alia volu- 
mina, eadem, ut hie libellus, forma in octavo imprimenda ; 
quorum secundum volumen erit Heroicorum poematum ; 
tertium Elegiacorum variorum plurimorum : quartum 
Elegiacorum in Patrem Commire Jesuitam Gallum, qui 
MARINE STUARTS reginse Manes consceleravit : quintum. 
Lyricorum : sextum Elogiorum : septimum undecim mil- 
Hum sententiarum fere novarum : octavum Comoediarum. 
ac Tragcediarum Latinarum : nonum denique imaginem 
secundi saeculi Jesuitarum." 

The discrepancy between the general and spe- 
cific enumeration of these MS. volumes is very 
curious, and not corrected in the list of errata. 

I suspect the work is rare. Besides my own 
copy, I have only traced it in three Catalogues 
one of these that of Dr. Parr's Library, where it 
occurs under the head of " Recentiores Poetici, 
Satirici, Faceti, &c." No note appears to have 
been found in Dr. Parr's copy, but I may quote 
what he says of the whole class in which he bad 
placed it : " Most of them very rare, and very 
expensive ; all expensive except one, and that 
not a very cheap one." 

Should any of the readers of " N". & Q." desire 
to see some further specimens of Bisschop's la- 
bours, I shall be happy to transmit a few for in- 
sertion in its pages. J. D. 


ESQUIRE. I have just found the following 
among some papers, which may be interesting to 
readers of " N. & Q. : " 

^ " In tbe year 1825, at the Gloster Spring Quarter Ses- 
sions, three vinegar-makers indicted certain thieves for a 

S* A S. V. JAN. 30, '64.] 



robbery, and called themselves Esquires in the indict- 
ment. In proving the case they proved themselves to be 
vinegar-makers, and the witnesses who swore to that 
fact, were cross-examined at length as to the fact of their 
being esquires, which they negatived. On this, Counsel- 
lor Ludlow took an objection to the indictment on the 
ground of misdescription, which was fully argued. He 
said, that if the culprits were convicted on such an in- 
dictment, they might be indicted at a future time for 
the same offence by the same parties under the true de- 
signation of vinegar-makers, without being able to sup- 
port a plea of autrefois acquit, by the production of the 
first indictment. It was argued on all hands, that if a 
person be an esquire, and also a vinegar-maker, he may 
call himself by his more worthy addition ; but it was 
contended that a person who was not an esquire had no 
right to call himself so to the detriment of a party ac- 
cused. In support of the indictment, it was said among 
other things, that the vinegar-makers might be esquires 
by reputation, such esquires being mentioned in some old 
law books ; but this was opposed by the dictum of Coke, 
Reputatio est vulgaris opinio ubi -non est veritas. The 
Court decided against the validity of the indictment, and 
the thieves were acquitted. Shutt and Justice were the 
counsel for the prosecutors." From a note given many years 
ago by a Barrister who was in the court at the time. 

H. T. E. 

LORD GAEDENSTON, one of the Judges of the 
Court of Session in Scotland founded about a 
century ago the present village of Laurencekirk, 
on his property in Kincardineshire. To encourage 
strangers to settle in it, he gave Free Rights (copy- 
holds) at an unusually low rate, and consequently 
got several of them taken by parties of question- 
able respectability. He built an inn in the vil- 
lage, and put into one of the rooms an album, 
inviting travellers to write in it any suggestions 
or observations ; and he called frequently to look 
at the contents. It is said that he felt much nettled 
on finding in it one morning the following lines: 
"From small beginnings Rome of old 
Became a great and populous city, 
Though peopled first, as we are told, 

By outcasts, blackguards, and banditti ; 
Quoth Thomas, ' Then the time may come 
When Laurencekirk shall equal Rome.' " 



ENGLISH WOOL IN 1682. In turning over the 
pages of a learned disquisition written by a Ger- 
man and published " Francofurti ad Viadrum " 
in 1682, I found the following passage relative 
to the merits of English wool, which may be worth 
transferring to your columns : 

" Post Hispanicam praecipua bonitas est lan Angli- 
canae ; ut enim oves Anglicanae nostras Germanicas magni- 
tudine ac pinguedine superant; sic melior etiam illarum 
lana; cujus rationem reddunt, turn quod pabulis alantur 
minus ]tis, quae opiliones fugere jubent, turn quod ea 
regione oves vix bibant, sed ad sitim extinguendam 
coelesti fere rore sint content. Quibus alia adhunc ad- 
jicitur quod Angli lac agnis non subducant, ut in Ger- 
mania contingit, sed ejus usum continuum ipsis conce- 

This occurs at section 64 of a Dissertatio juri- 
dica de Lana et Lanificis, by David Coffler. In the 

summary of contents the passage is thus indicated : 
" Lana Anglicana melior est Germanica, et quae 
ratio ejus." J. M. 

the 20th instant chronicles the death of eight per- 
sons between seventy and eighty, of five between 
eighty and ninety, and of four over ninety. The 
united ages of these seventeen persons giving an 
average of eighty-two years for each. On the 
2 1st we read of fifteen dying between seventy and 
eighty, of eight between eighty and ninety, and 
one over ninety. The average of these twenty- 
four being very nearly seventy- six years a-piece. 
On the 22nd there appeared two over ninety, six 
between eighty and ninety, and ten between 
seventy and eighty. The average here being 
nearly seventy-nine. On the 23rd, thirteen be- 
tween seventy and eighty, seven between eighty 
and ninety, and one over ninety, making an aver- 
age of seventy-nine and a half each. We suppose 
our American cousins would say, if these eighty 
individuals, whose longevity we have noticed, had 
lived anywhere else but in our own land of fogs 
and changeable weather, they would never have 
died at all. K. C. L. 


In turning over the leaves the other day of a 
little book, entitled Description ofNuneham- Court- 
ney, in the County of Oxford, 1797, 8vo, I^met with 
the following note, in the catalogue of pictures in 
the library, given at p. 28 : 

" Milton, by Vandergucht, after the original in the 
possession of Lord Onslow ; at the back of which is the 
following inscription ; - 

" 'This original picture of Milton* I bought in the 
year 1729 or 1730, and paid twenty guineas for it, of Mr. 
Cumberbatcb, a gentleman of very good consideration 
in Chester, who was a relation and executor of the will 
of Milton's last wife, who died a little while before that 
time. He told me it hung up in her chamber till her 
death, and that she used to say her husband gave it her, 
to show her what he was^ in his youth, being drawn 
when he was about twenty-one years of age. 

' AK. ONSLOW.' " 

In Mitford's edition of Milton's Works (p. vii., 
note), I read: "The picture of Milton, when 
about twenty, was in the possession of the Rt. 
Hon. Arthur Onslow." This portrait forms a 
frontispiece to Masson's Life of Milton. My 
object in troubling you with this Note, is, to 
ascertain the connection between Mr. Comber- 
bach and Mrs. Milton, alluded to in the above 

* An account of the different portraits of Milton will 
be found in the Lancashire and Cheshire Hist. Society 
Publications, vol. xii. p. 135. 



[3 rd S. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

extract; and I may add, that any information 
relative to the family of Comberbach, or, as it is 
frequently spelt, Cumberbatch, will be very ac- 
ceptable to and gratefully received by me. 

In the first volume of Pickering's edition of 
Milton's Works, 1851, there is a pedigree of the 
family of Milton by Sir Charles Young, Garter. 
From this, it appears that Milton married three 
times : first, to Mary, daughter of Richard Powell ; 
second, to Catherine, daughter of Captain Wood- 
cock ; both of whom died in child-bed, having had 
issue. By his third wife" Elizabeth Minshull of 
Stoke, near Nantwich, co. Chester, marr. lie. 
dated 11 Feb. 1662 ; died, very old, at Nantwich, 
in 1729 (a relation to Dr. Paget) ; will, in which 
she is described as Elizabeth Milton of Nantwich, 
co. Chester, wid., dated 22 Aug. 1717, proved 
at Chester, Oct. 10, 1727," he had no issue. To 
this extract (from Sir G. C. Young's pedigree) 
there is this note : 

Elizabeth Milton, after payment of debts and funeral 
expences, gives the residue of her effects to her nephews 
and nieces in Namptwich equally to be divided, without 
naming them, and appoints her loving friends Samuel 
Acton and John Allcock, both of Namptwich, exors: 
the latter only proved the will." 

From this it would appear that Mr. Comber- 
bach was not an executor. That he knew some- 
thing of the Milton family, is shown by the 
annexed extract and note from Peck's New Me- 
moirs of Milton, p. 1 : 

" Mr. Milton's mother (I am informed *) was aHaugh- 
ton of Haughton Tower in Lancashire." 

" * From a letter of Roger Comberbach, of Chester, Esq., 
to William Cowper, Esq., Clerk of the Parliament, dated 
15 Dec. 1736." 

This letter is, I suppose, lost ; but, if extant, it 
might afford some information. 

I have consulted the accounts of the Minshull 
family given by Ormerod (History of Cheshire, 
vol. iii. pp. 181, 191), and in the Publications of 
the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire 
(Session II. pp. 85, 232), but am not able to dis- 
cover the connection between Elizabeth Minshull 
and Mr. Comberbach from them. 

Mr. Masson (Life of Milton, vol. i. p. 23), 
says : 

" Roger Comberbach was Eoger Comberbach * the 
younger, son of an elder of that name, who was born in 
1666; and became recorder of Chester, and author of 
some legal works. Both father and son were interested 
in the antiquities of Cheshire, and both knew Nantwich 
well, where the elder had been born. Milton's widow 
died at Nantwich in 1727, and might have been known 
to both." 

I cannot tell in what way the Comberbachs, 
father and son, evinced an interest in the anti- 
quities of Cheshire. I must say I doubt it. At 

' See an account of his descendants in Ormerod, vol. iii. 
pp. 229, 232 ; Burke's Commoners, vol. ii. p. 461 ; Burke's 
Landed Gentry, art. " Swetenham of Somerford Booths." 

the last Visitation of Cheshire, we find Roger 
Comberbach, of Nantwich, among those who dis- 
claimed their right to arms. And as far as I can 
learn from the College of Arms, no grant has 
ever been made. My desire to obtain informa- 
tion concerning this family, must be my apology 
for trespassing so much on your valuable space. 

AMERICAN AUTHORS. Can any of your Ame- 
rican readers give me any biographical particu- 
lars regarding two American poets and dramatists? 
1. Jonas B. Phillips, author of Camillus, a play, 
acted at the Arch Street Theatre, Philadelphia, 
in 1833. He was also author of several other 
plays. 2. Dr. Ware, author of Dion, a Play, 
acted at Philadelphia, about 1828. Who was 
this Dr. Ware ? There are two or three American 
Dr. Wares. I find these authors mentioned in 
Rees's Dramatic Authors of America, Philadelphia, 
1845. R. I. 

AN ALDINE BOOK. Looking over a very high 
shelf of classical books during the Christmas 
holydays, I met with Pomponius Mela and So- 
linus, commencing with an address by Franciscus 
Asolanus, 12mo, Venice, 1518. On consulting 
A. A. Renouard, I find that it is an interesting 
edition, considered as science or literature ; ^but I 
am only concerned here with it bibliographically. 
Renouard (I write from memory) describes the 
book on two 8vo pages, but he omits to say that 
it is printed in Italic letter, that large square 
spaces have been left for an illuminated or orna- 
mental letter at the beginning of each chapter, 
which (in my copy) is only a piccolo in the middle 
of the square. But, in the collation, after men- 
tioning that there should be 233 feuillets and 
three more, the last with the anchor (one of the 
most elegant and delightful bookmarks I know), 
he says nothing of four at the beginning of the 
book, which there should be to make it complete. 
The register says that *a, b, &c. are in quater- 
nions. Renouard has omitted altogether the four 
leaves with the star. Will some of those who 
enjoy the luxury of Aldus's editions, and of Re- 
nouard's Aide in 3 vols., be so good as to tell me 
whether I am correct, and whether the title-page 
is given literally correct by Renouard, and how 
it is arranged lineatim ? WM. DAVIS. 

Hill Cottage, Erdington. 


dar's " Geant " balloon the largest that has ever 
been constructed ? I should be particularly 
obliged to any of your correspondents who will 
furnish me with the dimensions of some of the 
most remarkable ones that have preceded it. 
Aeronautic Treatises disagree with one another 
so strikingly on this point, that I should be glad 
to know how to get at the truth. R. C.^L. 

S'-i S. V. JAN. 30, '64.] 



This is an opinion which prevails in Kent, but, 
strange to relate, in Buckinghamshire, which 
abounds in these trees, the saying is unknown. 
On taking some long rides through the woods 
there last summer, we observed Oak, Elm, and 
Ash, which had evidently suffered more or less 
from the thunder-stroke, but not one Beech, 
though they are often the loftiest trees in the 
forests. Since this time my friend has made re- 
peated inquiries on the subject, and cannot meet 
with any one who has seen such a thing. Can 
any of your readers assist me with any further 
information? If it be true that the Beech is 
proof to the electric fluid, it will be very valuable 
information, as lives are lost almost every year 
by persons taking shelter from storms of rain 
beneath trees which are not so favoured. The 
same thing is said of the Bay (Laurus nobilis) in 
Italy.* A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

JOHN BRISTOW. Mr. Samuel Tymms, in his 
Family Topographer (vi. Cumberland, 37), makes 
the following statement : 

" Of Stainton was Mr. John Bristow, who published a 
Survey of the Lakes after attaining his S4th year. He 
never employed a surgeon or physician, nor gave a fee 
to a lawyer ; his clothes were spun in his house, and made 
of the wool of his own sheep." 

It will be seen that the material matter known 
as a date is wanting in this account. I cannot 
trace the publication alluded to. Under the cir- 
cumstances I have recourse to your columns, in 
the hope of obtaining from Mr. Tymms or from 
some other quarter more definite and precise in- 
formation respecting John Bristow and his book. 

S. Y. K. 


I possess a landscape thus inscribed on its back : 
" Exhibited at the British Gallery, 1821." I want 
to know in what this designation differs from that 
of the British Institution (so called at present), 
where are exhibited the works of the ancient 
masters, in Pall Mall ? L. F. N. 

CURIOUS ESSEX SAYING. They say in this 
county "Every dog has his day, and a cat has two 
Sundays." The former half of the proverb in some 
form or other may be said to be cosmopolitan, but 
what can the latter half mean? Does it allude to 
the supposed tenacity of life of the feline race, or 
is there any special folk lore attached to it ? 

A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

To COMPETE. Can any correspondent favour 
me with the earliest recognition, in an English 
work, of this verb ? In reading an old smoke- 

[* For several' articles on this subject see " N & O " 
!* S. vi. 129, 231 ; vii. 25; x. 5l3.-Ei>.] 

dried Scotch book, Guthrie's Great Interest, Glas- 
gow, 1736, I find the verb, and I find Jamieson 
has no other authority than the passage in which 
I found it independently. He mentions that the 
verb has no existence in English. It is not in 
Walker's Dictionary, 1831. J. D. CAMPBELL. 

EARLDOM or DUNBAR. Can any of your 
readers inform me whether anything more than 
may be read in Douglas's Peerage, is known re- 
specting this earldom having been claimed or as- 
sumed after the death of George Home, or Hume, 
created Earl of Dunbar in 1605? A "Lord 
D unbar " is mentioned in a paper now before me, 
dated Feb. 2, 1613-14: who was he? George, 
Earl of Dunbar, died in January, 1610-11. 


5, Upper Gloucester Street, Dorset Square. 


The late much-lamented Earl of Elgin and Kin- 
cardine has left an only surviving daughter by 
his first wife Elizabeth-Mary, only child of Charles 
Lennox Cumming-Bruce, Esq. Her name is Lady 
Elina Bruce. This name of Elina is one I never 
saw before. Is it a composition from the first 
syllables of her mother's two names Elizabeth 
and Mary ? J. G. N". 

FREEMASONS. I have lately found an allusion 
to the craft in a place where it would be least 
expected. In the edition of the letters and pane- 
gyric of Pliny the younger, published at Leipsic 
in 1805, with notes by Gesner and others, I find 
the following passage in a note of Gesner : 

" Novimus, quid nuper de Collegii Fabrum Liberalium 
Britannici coloniis per Franciam et Italiam metuerint 
quidam principes." P. 528. 

Perhaps some member of the craft will elucidate 
this historical allusion of the German annotator. 

H. C. C. 

known of the editor of an edition of the Common 
Prayer Book, with notes, and " ornamented with 
a set of elegant copper plates ; " bearing the im- 
print, " Gainsborough : Printed by J. Mozley, 
MDCCLXXVIII ? " The volume is octavo, and con- 
tains the Common Prayer ; the New Week's Pre- 
paration ; a Manual of Private Devotions ; and 
Brady and Tate's Psalms. The plates are original 
enough, and are all inscribed " Gurnill, Sculpt" 
The book is curious as an edition of the Prayer 
Book, and as a specimen of the Lincolnshire press. 
Probably, with a view to escape danger from 
prosecution, Mr. Mozley put at the head of his 
title-page: "The Christian's Universal Compa- 
nion." B. H. C. 

his Worthies of Devon, under " Thomas Carew," 
speaking of Haccombe, says 



[3** S. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

" It Is, as to the number of dwellings, the smallest 
parish in England ; consisting but of two dwellings, the 
mansion-house and the parsonage ; but it enjoys privileges 
bevond the greatest. For it is out of any hundred, and 
beyond the precincts of any officer, civil or military, to 
take cognizance of any proceeding therein. And by 
royal grant from the crown, it is exempted from all duties 
and taxes, for some noble service done by some of the 
ancestors of this family [Carew], towards the support 

What were the services rendered, to gain for 
this parish such extraordinary privileges? Mr. 
Maclean, in his Life and Times of Sir Peter Carew, 
reproduces in a note this account from Prince, but 
offers no explanation. It is also given in Gorton 
and other topographical dictionaries. It appears 
from the Carew pedigree given by Mr. Maclean, 
that the founder of the Haccombe branch was 
Nicholas Carew, who lived in the middle of the 
fifteenth century ; it is therefore to be presumed 
that the services in question were rendered by 
him, or at a subsequent period. I have not been 
able to find a notice of any grant of the kind in 
Rymer, but the Index to that work is very faulty. 

Prince further says that the Rector of Hac- 
combe "'tis said," may claim the privilege of 
wearing lawn sleeves, and of sitting next the 
bishop ; and is under the visitation only of the 
archbishop of Canterbury : a kind of chorepi- 
scopus. Lysons, however (Hi?t. ofDevoit), denies 
that the rector has any such privileges.* E. V. 

THE HAIGHT FAMILY. I would feel truly 
obliged for any facts regarding the locality and 
genealogy of the Haight family which any of 
your correspondents may be able and willing to 
communicate. I believe its origin is undoubtedly 
English, and the limited information I now have, 
tends to show that one branch of it, at least, 
settled in this country some little time prior to 
the middle of the last century, at Rye, West- 
chester County, N. Y. Perhaps your corre- 

rndent, A, who so kindly furnished important 
ts respecting the Tylee family, may possess 
and be willing also to impart information touching 
this inquiry. D. K. N. 

New York. 


" Irenaeug ascribes to the personifications and suspension 
of the powers of nature by the evil spirits, the apparition 
of Castor and Pollux, the water carried in a sieve, the 
ship towed by a lady's hand, and the black beard which 
became red at a touch." A Letter to Dr. Gortin. by 
Thomas Severn, B.D., London, 1759, p. 22. 

The author quotes abundantly, but seldom by 
chapter or page. I have found him accurate in 
those quotations which I could trace. I cannot 
find the above, and shall be obliged by being told 
where it is, or where the delusions are mentioned. 

C. T. H. 

[* These privileges are noticed in our 1* S. ix. 185. 


According to the pedigree of the Lee family given 
in Ormerod's History of Cheshire, vol. i. p. 466, 
Thomas Lee of Darnhall married Frances, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of R. N. Venables, of Antrobus 
and Wincham. The issue of this marriage was Na- 
thaniel, born 1655 ; Thomas, born 1661 ; Robert, 
born 1664; John, and Elizabeth. Ormerod says 
nothing of this marriage or issue of the Thomas 
Lee born in 1661. In a pedigree I have seen, he 
is said to have married Jane, daughter of Thomas 
Davis, Esq. of Corby Park, Northamptonshire. 
Can any of your correspondents give me any in- 
formation on this point ? D. S. E. 

LEPEL. I should be obliged by any information 
on the following points relating to Brigadier- 
General Nicholas Lepel, father of the celebrated 
Mary Lepel, who was married in 1720 to Lord 
Hervey : 1. When did he enter the army? 2. 
What were his arms ? 3. What the date of his 
death ? 4. What is the name of his father ? 


COL. JAMES LOWTHER. Col. James Lowther, 
who was M.P. for Westmoreland, died at Caen, in 
France, in 1837. Can any of your readers state 
the day and month ? Also, the date of his birth 
and marriage ? F. R. A. 

WM. RUSSELL M'DONALD. This gentleman, 
who died Dec. 30, 1854, is noticed in the obituary 
of the Gent. Mag. Feb. 1855, as editor or pro- 
prietor of a work called The Literary Humourist. 
What is the date of this publication ? Was it a 



SIR WM. POLE'S CHARTERS. Can any reader 
of " N. & Q." inform me where is to be seen a 
copy of Sir William Pole's (the celebrated Devon- 
shire antiquary) " great volume of MS. Charters," 
" as big," as he says himself, " as a church Bible ?" 
I do not at present recollect to have seen it 
quoted in any work later than Collins's Peerage 
of England, by Brydges, published in 1812. 


POOH COCK ROBIN'S DEATH. Is it a fact that 
in a church, the name of which I forget, about 
twenty miles from Stamford, there is a colored 
glass window containing a representation of the 
death of poor Cock Robin ? If so, could you or 
any of your readers tell me the name of the 
church? And are there supposed to be any 
similar instances ? W. P. P. 

" Li SETTE SALMI." Under this title I have a 
metrical version of the Seven Penitential Psalms, 
in MS. It comprises 118 verses of eight lines 
each ; one verse to a page, with the Latin text 
above. The seven psalms are followed by fifteen 
lines, which I give below for the sake of the inter- 
weaving of the Latin lines. Book-worms have 

3* S. V. JAN. 80, '64.] 


almost destroyed this pious effort, and yet nearly 
all of it can be read. Unhappily, the enemy ha 
devoured the more important portion of th 
author's name : " Can. Jacopo nt ." I shouh 
be gratified to ascertain this author's name. Th 
first line of the sixth psalm is 

" Signer* che uedi i miei pensieri aperti." 


" Ecco che la mia morte s' auicina, 

E di molti peccati ho colmo il petto, 
Domine ad adiuuandu me festina. 

" Hor tempo e ch' io pianga il mio difetto, 
E spieghi auanti h te le mie querele, 
Vt passer solitarius in tecto. 

" Sempre fui peccator fero, e crudele, 

Mil sol per tua bonta Signor ti pregho, 
Omnes iniquitates meas dele. 

" Auanti h te le mie genocchia piegho, 
E in te sol la mia salute pende, 
Quia unicus, et pauper sum ego. , 

" Dhe fa ch' io scampi quelle pene horrende, 
Ghe nel inferno si paton si graui, 
>eus in adiutoriu meu intende." 

B. H. C. 

conflicting statements have been volunteered as 
to the exact date at which a stamp duty was 
imposed by the government of the day on the 
canvasses used by artists. 

The Excise mark is to be often found upon the 
backs of pictures of the period ; and upon some 
said, by competent judges, to have been painted 
by Sir Joshua Reynolds t about the years 1780, 
1781, 1782. 

The mark is of this character : 


8 3 ,,;,! 


G. R. (double cypher, reversed.) 
J. J. 0. 

It is important to establish the above fact be- 
yond controversy, as the genuineness and origi- 
nality, and thus the great money value, or 
otherwise, of various pictures said to be by 
.Thomas Gainsboroughf and Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
lepend uponjixingof the date (by official refer- 
ence) on which this duty mark was first stamped 
>n canvasses : as well as when the same mark 
leased to be impressed thereon on the repeal of 
;he duty. It is by some alleged to have been 
irst imposed during the American war, which 
jegan in 1775, and terminated during the Pitt 
dmmistration in 1783; but the Excise duty is 

* The spelling is carefully copied. 
Sir Joshua Reynolds died Feb. 23, 1792. 
Thomas Gainsborough died August 2, 1788. 

said to have remained unrepealed till long after- 

The proprietors of theatres also are said to 
have loudly complained, during its imposition, of 
the oppressiveness of this tax ; from the great 
expense added thereby to the canvasses used for 

The recital of the Acts* of Parliament both 
imposing and repealing this duty would be im- 
portant, as placing the question beyond dispute. 

It is desired to know, decisively, at what date 
a duty was first imposed by the government of 
Great Britain on the canvasses used by artists ? 
And also, the date of repeal of said duty ? 

L. F. JST. 


stated in the Edinburgh Review (1848), that Mr. 
Thackeray started and edited a weekly critical 
journal. Can any reader tell me the title of the 
journal referred to? The statement has lately- 
been repeated in several quarters the old Par- 
thenon being named by Mr. Hannay ; but I think 
a very slight perusal of the Parthenon would con- 
vince any one that Mr. Thackeray's hand was not 
there. T. 

author of The Experienced Angler, served in the 
Parliamentary army, and was Governor of Chester 
in 1644. In 1649, he was Commander-in-Chief 
of the forces in Ulster, and Governor of Belfast, 
Antrim, and Lisnegarvey. In 1 654 he, with Ad- 
miral Penn, was joint commander of the expedi- 
tion sent by Cromwell against Hispaniola ; and 
on their return, in the following year, both com- 
manders were committed to the Tower. Here I 
ose sight of Venables. Any other information 
respecting him will be thankfully received. 

In the Harleian MSS. there is a paper, partly 
n the handwriting of Colonel Venables, detailing 
;he time he served in Cheshire, and the amount 
of pay due to him from 1643 to 1646. A similar 
record of his services in Ireland, if it could be 
obtained, would be of great value and interest. 

The notices of Venables in the Civil War tracts, 
NTickolls's State Papers, and the reprint of his 
Experienced Angler, are known to the inquirer, 
n the last work, there is a curious typographical 
error. Speaking of fish rising to the artificial 
[y, the author is represented to say : " and they 
will bite also near Tom Shane's Castle, Mountjoy, 
Antrim, &c., even to admiration." Who was 
Shane, or where was his castle ? one, who 
mew the district referred to, would be inclined 
o inquire if he did not at once see that the 
words should be " near Toome, Shane's Castle, 
Mountjoy, Antrim, &c." 

* The information might possibly be obtained by a 
eference to some of the Stamp Acte, 



[3' d S. V. JAN. 80, '64. 

Venables must have left much curious docu- 
mentary matter behind him ; and it is with the 
hopes of discovering some of it, if still in exist- 
ence, that this query is penned. 

What was the connexion between Venables and 
Isaac Walton? The latter says that he never 
saw the face of the former, and yet he wrote a 
commendatory address for the Experienced 
Angler. W. PJNKERTON. 

MR. WISE. Warton, in a letter written in 1790, 
mentions " Mr. Wise, the librarian." I should be 
glad if any of your readers could kindly tell me 
who this Mr. Wise was, and what was the destin- 
ation of his papers ? J. O. HALLIWELL. 

West Brompton. 

permit me to ask which is the correct way to spell 
words derived from the Latin avurn; whether 
coeval, primeval, and medieval, or with a dipth- 
thong ? There is the authority of good authors 
for both? P. 

ROYAL ARMS. 1. Do princesses, daughters of 
the sovereign, wear coronets similar to those worn 
by the younger sons of the sovereign ? and is that 
of the Princess Royal different from those of her 
sisters ? 

2. When is the label of 5 points used to dif- 
ference the royal arms ? Should it be used in the 
case of the present Duke of Cambridge and his 
sisters ? 

3. Should the arms of a Royal Duke be im- 
paled with those of his wife ? and if so, the Duke 
being a Knight of the Garter, should the Garter 
encircle the escutcheon ? 

4. In emblazoning the arms of her Majesty and 
the late Prince Consort, would it be right to 
make use of two shields, one with the Queen's 
arms, and the other with the Prince's ? and should 
each shield have separate supporters, and be in 
fact in every way separate from the other ? 


[Answers to such professional and technical queries 
can hardly be expected from the general readers of this 
work. Its pages would be outrun speedily by such 
questions. We have endeavoured to procure a satisfac- 
tory answer in this case. 

1. The coronets of the Princesses, including the Prin- 
cess Royal, are exactly similar to those>of the brothers. 

2. The label of 5 points has been used to difference the 
arms in the cases of grandchildren and nephews of the 
Sovereign ; but it does not follow as a rule that the label 
of 5 points should be used. The Duke of Cambridge 
uses the label of 3 points granted to his father. 

3. If the Royal Duke be a Knight of the Garter, the 
arms of himself and wife should be on separate shields, 
his own being surrounded by the Garter. 

4. In emblazoning the arms of the Queen and her late 
Consort, two shields with separate supporters, crowns, 
&c., must be used under the same mantle (if mantle be 
included). In the case of a Princess of Wales, her arms 
would only be put in a separate shield by the side of her 
husband's ; her coronet would be that of her husband. 
See answer 3.] 

BACON QUERIES. Lord Bacon heads the lega- 
cies to his friends by one of " my books of orisons 
or psalms curiously rhymed," to the Marquis 
Fiat, late Lord Ambassador of France. 

Was this a MS. or some early copy in English 
or French ? Was it Marot's ? 

The great chancellor also orders the sale of his 
chambers in Gray's Inn, calculating the produce 
of the ground floor, with the third and fourth 
floors, at 300Z. as a small relief to twenty-five 
poor scholars of the two universities. 

Is the situation of those chambers now known, 
and is the tree that went by the name of this great 
philosopher and lawyer still standing ? If so, at 
what part of the gardens ? J. A. G. 

[The book of "orisons or psalms " was doubtless his 
own production, entitled Certaine Psalmes in Verse, by 
Francis Lord Verulam. Lond. 1625, 4to. Dr. Cotton 
mentions two editions of this work, one for " Street and 
Whitaker," the other for " Hannah Barrett and R. Whit- 
aker." The Psalms are, i. xii. xc. civ. cxxvi. cxxxvii. 
cxlix. Walton, in his Life of George Herbert, informs 
us, that " Sir Francis Bacon put such a value on Mr. 
Herbert's judgment, that he usually desired his appro- 
bation, before he would expose any of his books to be 
printed ; and thought him so worthy of his friendship, 
that having translated many of the prophet David's 
Psalms into English verse, he made George Herbert his 
patron, by a public Dedication of them to him, as the 
best judge of Divine poetry." 

Lord Bacon's chambers were in Coney Court, looking 
over the gardens towards St. Pancras church and High- 
gate Hill ; the site is that of No. 1, Gray's Inn Square, 
first floor. The house was burnt Feb. 17, 1679, with sixty 
other chambers. (Historian's Guide, 3rd edit. 1688.) The 
trees said to have been planted by Lord Bacon in Gray's 
Inn Gardens are probably destroyed ; at any rate, " none 
now exist coeval with his time." Cunningham's Hand- 
Booh of London, ed. 1850, p. 209.] 

Bohn's edition of Lowndes, this book appears 
under the heading of Cohausen, John Henry. In 
brackets is added (" translated by Dr. John Camp- 
bell"). A quotation from Dr. Johnson is ap- 
pended, and a reference to the Retrospective 

The writer in the Retrospective Review (vii. 76) 
begins his account of the book thus : 

" The author of Hermippus Eedivivus was John Henry 
Cohausen, a German physician, who did not quite make 

3'd S. V. JAN. 30, '64.] 



good his own theory, but died in a sort of nonage, when 
he was only eighty-five years of age. His book was 
translated into English by Dr. John Campbell, and has 
always been considered curious, as giving a summary of 
the many facts and opinions which have been published 
respecting this very interesting subject," &c. 

D'Israeli, in his Curiosities of Literature, under 
the head of " Literary Blunders," writes of this 
book as follows : 

" But the most singular blunder was produced by the 
ingenious Hermippus Redivivus of Dr. Campbell, a curious 
banter on the hermetic philosophy, and the universal 
medicine ; but the grave irony is so closely kept up, that 
it deceived for a length of time the most learned. His 
notion of the art of prolonging life, by inhaling the breath 
of young women, was eagerly credited. A physician, 
who himself had composed a treatise on health, was so 
influenced by it, that he actually took lodgings at a 
female boarding school, that he might never be without 
a constant supply of the breath of young ladies. Mr. 
Thicknesse seriously adopted the project. Dr. Kippis 
acknowledged that, after he had read the work in his 
youth, the reasonings and the facts left him several days 
in a kind of fairy-land. I have a copy, with manuscript 
notes by a learned physician, who seems to have had no 
doubts of its veracity. After all, the intention of the 
work was long doubtful; till Dr. Campbell assured a 
friend it was a mere Jew d'esprit," &c., &c. 



[The person whom Dr. Campbell meant to represent 
under the character of Hermippus Redivivus was Mr. 
Calverley, a celebrated dancing-master, whose sister for 
many years kept a school in Queen's Square, London, 
where likewise he himself lived. A picture of him in the 
dancing-school was formerly there, drawn at the great age 
of ninety-one, May 28, 1784. Vide " N. & Q." 1 S. xii. 
255; 2 n ' d S. ix. 180.] 

MAIDEN CASTLE. I wish to know the deriva- 
tion of the name Maiden Castle, which is applied 
to an ancient earthwork situated on an elevated 
plain between Dorchester and the sea-coast, and 
which appellation I believe attaches to several 
other similar camps or fortresses in England. 

Mldan is a word belonging to the Indo-Euro- 
pean, or Aryan, class of languages, and means a 
plain. It is possible that the same word with the 
same meaning may have been employed by the 
early inhabitants of that part of Britain whose 
ancestors were Aryans. Were such the case, 
Maiden Castle, or Mldan Castle,' would be synony- 
mous with the Castle on the Plain. H. C. 

[Maiden Castle is one of the largest and most complete 
Eoman camps in the west of England. Some derive the 
word Maiden from the British Mad, fair or beautiful 
(whence the Saxon word Maid or Maiden), and thence 
conclude that fortifications so called were deemed im- 
pregnable. Mr. Baxter's derivation (Gloss, voce Dunium) 
is more probable, who deduced it from the British Mai 
Dun, the Castle of the great hill : in his opinion, it is the 
Dunium of Ptolemy, the capital of the Durotriges. Cam- 
den changes this into Durnium to make it correspond 

with Durnovaria. Baxter calls Dunium " Arx in excels o 
monte posita ad mille fere passuum a Durnovaria," now 
Maiden Castle, q. d. Mai dun, or the great hill, or hill of 
the citadel or burgh. Vide Hutchins's Dorsetshire, ii. 

your readers inform me when horses were first 
shod with iron? I have just had brought me a 
stone about five inches over, on which is plainly 
impressed the mark of a pony's or mule's shoe. It 
was found near the scythe-stone pits on the Black- 
borough Hills, between Honiton and Cullompton. . 

[Beckmann (History of Inventions, i. 442454, ed. 
1846) has a valuable article on the history of horse-shoes 
from the most remote period. Their early use in England 
is thus noticed by him : " Daniel, the historian, seems to 
give us to understand that in the ninth century horses 
were not shod always, but only in the time of frost, and 
on other particular occasions. The practice of shoeing 
appears to have been introduced into England by Wil- 
liam the Conqueror. We are informed that this sovereign 
gave the city of Northampton as a fief to a certain person, 
in consideration of his paying a stated sum yearly for the 
shoeing of horses; and it is believed that Henry de 
Ferres or De Ferrers, who came over with William, and 
whose descendants still bear in their arms six horse- 
shoes, received that surname because he was entrusted 
with the inspection of the farriers. I shall here observe, 
that horse-shoes have been found, with other riding fur- 
niture, in the graves of some of the old Germans and 
Vandals in the northern countries ; but the antiquity of 
them cannot be ascertained."] 

Bishop of Salisbury in A.D. 1661 ? In Cardwell's 
Synodalia (sub anno 1661) p. 683, xxxi. Sessio 
cxxv., I find, " Introducto libro precum in La- 
tina concept', relatum fuit curae et revision! re- 
verendi in Xto patris Johannis permissione divina 
Sarum episcopi." Brian Duppa was Bishop from 
1641 to 1660, and Humphrey Henchman from 
1660 to 1663 ; John Earle, 1663 to 1665. 

M. N. 

[The Convocation summoned by Archbishop Juxon on 
May 8, 1661, continued its sittings until Sept 26, 1666. 
Session 125 was holden on the 18th of May, 1663, at 
which time John Earle was Bishop of Salisbury, having 
been recently translated from Worcester to Sarum.] ; 

(3 rd S. iv. 286, 363, 420, 457 ; v. 21.) vi ^ 
I have read with much interest the communica- 
tion from your correspondent upon this subject. 
The matter is one well deserving the most careful 



S. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

attention of all who are engaged either in the 
enlargement, or restoration of our churches ; for 
it is while carrying on these works, that the de- 
struction of ancient memorials is generally per- 
petrated; but it is extremely difficult to know 
what is to be done in some cases where really, if 
monumental absurdities are to be left untouched, 
there must be an end either to tjie enlargement 
of churches to meet the spiritual wants of an in 
creasing population, or of such improvements as 
good taste would dictate in the restoration of 
fine architectural features wantonly cut away to 
make room for ridiculous and costly monuments 
encumbered with weeping cupids, heathen urns, 
lamps, festoons, and other inappropriate devices 
mostly ill chosen, and badly executed. As far, 
therefore, as these mistaken designs are con- 
cerned, I can see no reason why they may not be 
removed (with pfoper sanction), when they inter- 
fere with church extension ; but whenever this 
becomes necessary, the utmost care should be 
taken to preserve the inscriptions. Frequently 
it happens that the obituary occupies a very small 
part of a gigantic monument ; surely the refixing 
of these small tablets, without their offensive 
framework, would be sufficient. In regard to 
brasses upon the floor, incised inscriptions and 
effigies on stone slabs, &<$., it would really be well 
that these should neither be hid or materially 
altered in their positions, excepting under the 
most cogent circumstances; and then a regular 
entry of the fact should be made in the parish 
book. It frequently happens that, from exces- 
sive dampness, there is a necessity for raising the 
church floor, and sometimes in the re-arrangement 
of seating, parts of the floor formerly seen be- 
come concealed ; and others, hitherto hid, are 
brought to view. Whenever this occurs, the 
altered state of things should be duly noted, and 
this seems all that can be done under the circum- 
stances. Few will deny that there is much more 
beauty in well arranged encaustic tiles than in 
damp and broken grave slabs ; but if this advan- 
tage is to be only gained by destroying memorials 
of well-known ancient families, it is certainly bet- 
ter to forego artistic feeling than to annihilate 
the records. Colour appears to be one of the 
inducements for substituting tiles for stone ; and, 
no doubt, the flooring of a church may be as 
much an object of design and skill as any other 
part, but colour is not essential. Perhaps no 
floor is more beautiful than that of the Cathedral 
of Sienna, wholly devoid of colour, yet rendered 
exquisite by its numerous incised effigies and 
other devices. It is rarely, however, that such 
floors are to be met with. However, whether 
plain or enriched, I feel the force of your cor- 
respondent's observations; and hope that his 
remonstrance will induce those who are the 
authorised guardians of our churches to be a little 

more careful when meddling with monumental 
inscriptions. And here I may add, that feeling 
the importance of this and kindred subjects, a 
standing Committee has been appointed by the 
Eoyal Institute of British Architects " for the 
conservation of ancient buildings and monuments;'* 
and that the members will always be ready to aid 
those who are altering or adding to old structures, 
in resisting wanton and unnecessary spoliation. 


(3 rd S. v. 57.) 

" We bring our years to an end like a tale [that 
is told] " is not quite correct as to the last word, 
tale; and the Greek and Latin versions are de- 
cidedly wrong in translating njn (=7e in pronun- 
ciation), spider. According to Calasius, this word 
occurs thirty-eight times in the O. T. The errors 
of Wycliffe and De Sacy arise from copying the 
Septuagint and Vulgate. This is remarkable in 
De Sacy, who was a Jew, or of Jewish extraction, 
and who altered his name, Isaac, by anagram, to 
De Sacy. The word HJH (hege) has the same 

meaning as 

(hego) in Syriac, and 

(haju) in Arabic, namely, meditation, and the re- 
sult of meditation. This meaning is very clear 
from Psalm i. 2 : " And in thy law will I meditate 
day and night " ; also from Psalm ii. 1 : " The 
people imagine vain things." The word was used 
first by Joshua (i. 8), and is not found in the Pen- 
tateuch, although the ninetieth Psalm is attributed 
to Moses. See Gesenius. Mendelssohn has ein 
geschwdtz, a chattering ; De Wette, ein laut, a 
sound. Others translate it, a breath, a sigh, a 
thought. A Spanish Jew, who spoke Arabic, 
once told me that fljij meant any thought that 
arose in the mind. In Arabic it means to com- 
ose a poem, and in that language, as well as in 
lyriac, it means to divide a word into syllables, as 
an effort of thought. From the same root the 
Chaldee derives its words for rhetoric and logic. 
The proper and only known Hebrew word for 
spider is BO3K, accavish, as Mr. Aldis Wright 
states in Smith's Bible Diet. (iii. 1370). See 
Job, viii. 14, and Isaiah, lix. 5. The Arabic, fol- 
lowing the Syriac version, has spider in Ps. xc. 9, 

(goge) in error, I conceive, for 
, (hagogo), a phantom, or an imagination 

, .. hagga, being also a phantasm in Hebi, 
which is the sense given by J. D. Michaelis 
Ps. xc. 9. (See Eichhorn's Heb. Lex., i. 415.) 1^ 
nference may be drawn that the interpreter, mis- 
taking the Hebrew word for the Syriac one sig- 
nifying spider, gave that as the meaning to the 


3'd S. V. JAN. 80, '64.] 



Greek amanuensis of the LXX. Similar error 
of hearing occur in this Greek version. In Eich 
horn's Repert. (xviii. 137), fvohler quotes Schu 
tens on this word (Prov. xxv. 4), " ut vaporem 
exsestuantem," but attributes to Kimchi a bette 
sense, who says, " the word nan denotes speech 
which comes from the mouth ; as this passe 
swiftly, so swiftly fly our years." In such wa 
also do Rashi and Aben Ezra explain the won 
and so Jerome translates " ut sermonem." 



I venture to send you some further remarks 
in addition to your own respecting the meaning 
of the latter portion of Psalm xc. 9 ; Vulgate 
Psalm Ixxxix. 

The only difficulty arises from the obscurity o 
the Hebrew word nan. Professor Lee, in hi 
Hebrew, Chaldee, and English Lexicon (sub voce) 
translates it as meaning a murmur, which gradu 
ally declines and fails. Winer renders it by cogi 
tatio : so also does Gesenius (Lexicon Manuale 
Heb. et Chaldaicum). Castell (sub vocei) give 
several meanings, as, sermo, loquela, gemitus, mur 
mur, and refers to this Psalm. Hengstenberg 
(Commentary on the Psalms, vol. xii. in Clark's 
Foreign Theological Library, Edinburgh, 1848) 
will not admit that the word can mean a conver- 
sation, or tale; but prefers the translation a 
soliloquy, ^because it generally bears the character 
of something transitory. 

In examining the ancient Syriac, Arabic, and 
-3Sthiopic Versions, such as we find them in Wal- 
ton's Biblia Polyglotta (Londini, 1656, torn, iii.), 
it is remarkable to see how closely they agree 
with the rendering of the Septuagint Version, 
and with the Vulgate. Thus, in the Syriac we 
have to quote the Latin translation : " Nam 
cuncti dies nostri confecti sunt indignatione t 
et defecerunt anni nostri sicut aranea." 

In the Arabic we have: "Nam cuncti dies 
nostri finierunt, et in ira" tua* consumpti sumus : 
anni nostri ceu textura aranese sunt labentes." 

In the ^thiopic version, the translation runs 
Quoniam omnes dies nostri defecerunt; 
et in ir& tu defecimus. Anni nostri sicut ara- 
neae meditati sunt." 

The Chaldee Paraphrase (Targum) gives, how- 
ever, a different meaning to the Hebrew word 
"V, as if it originally signified the breath of the 
mouth : " Consumpsimus dies vitie nostraj ut hali- 
tum oris in hyeme." Rosenmuller (Scholia in 
Veins Testamentum, Pars Psalmos continens, torn. 
. Lipsiae, 1804, p. 2298) remarks, that this mean- 
ing is by no means to be rejected. 

It seems to me, that all the various renderings 
of the Hebrew word can easily be reconciled one 
with another, and be made to express the mean- 
ing of the Psalmist which is, to show us with 

what rapidity our years pass away. The transla- 
tors of the Bible Version may have intended the 
words, a tale that is told, to correspond with the 
Latin words sermo or loquela. Rosenmuller (ut 
supra) appears to give the meaning of the ex- 
pression : " Evanescunt vitas nostrae dies, sicut 
verbum emissum in aerem statim dissolvitur, 
neque revocari amplius potest." 

But I am inclined to consider the Sttrel apcix^ 
of the Septuagint version, and the sicut aranea of 
the Vulgate, the most correct rendering of the 
Hebrew, particularly as the Syriac agrees with 

Bochart, in his Hierozoicon (Cap. XXII. torn, 
iii. p. 501, ed. Lips.) supposes that in the Hebrew 
Codices which were used by the LXX., another 

word, 71D3, was then found, with the meaning 
sicut aranea, which is almost the same in Arabic. 
(See Rosenmiiller's Scholia in Vetus Testamentum^ 
Pars Psalmos continens, torn. iii. p. 2300, ed. 
Lipsiae.) J. D ALTON. 


SHERIDAN'S GREEK (3 rd S. iii. 209.) Another 
version of the story of Lord Belgrave's quotation 
from Demosthenes in the House of Commons, is 
given by Mr. De Quincey in his " Selections 
Grave and Gay. Autobiographic Sketches. Edin- 
burgh, 1854." Vol. ii. p. 40. HERUS FRATER. 

QUOTATION WANTED (3 rd S. iv. 288.) 

" Stand still, my steed, 
Let me review the scene " 
is from Longfellow's poem, " A Gleam of Sun- 
shine." E. V. 

ENIGMA (3 rd S. v. 55.) Is the answer to the 
Earl of Surrey's enigma " A refusal " ? E. V. 

If we suppose the recipient of the gift to be an 
llegitimate child, and the lady its mother, I think 
,he word ^awiewill answer all the requirements of 
his enigma. F. C. H. 

CRUEL KING PHILIP (2 nd S. xii. 393 ; 3 rd S. i. 
158.) The lines are a paraphrase of Lucian : 

>i\iinrov yovv rbv Mae5^a tyk Otaffd/Afvos ouSt 
paTetv fyavrov Svvarbs "fif e'Seixflrj 8e (JLOI v ycwiSitp 
fjLi&Oov aKo6/*tvos ra ca6pa rwv VTroSrj/j.drui'. TroAXous 
e Kal &\hovs $ iSelv fv roTy rpi68ois ^frairovvres, 
pas \fy<a Kal Aopeiovs, Kal TloAvKparcs. 
Philonides. "AToira 8*77777 ra irepl TUV ^affi\fiu>v, Kal 

* This remark of course implies, that as the word njH 
oes not mean a spider, some other word was originally 
sed, as Bochart supposes. Cappell, however, in his 
ritica Sacra (torn. ii. pp. 559-607), tries to reconcile the 
eptuagint rendering with the Hebrew, thus : " Anni 
ostri similes sunt telis aranearum, quas meditantur, id 
t, quas texunt." One of the meanings given to the 
ebrew noun is meditatioj which you seem to prefer. 



[8* S. V. JAN. 30, '64. 

fiiKpov Sew &rrra* rl 8e 6 'SaKparys firparre, Kal Ato- 

9, /Col ? TtS OA\OS TWV ffOfy&V ', 

Menippus. 'O ytteV 2<i>Kpdrj]s KO/CC? irepiepxtrcu Ste- 
x<uv aTroi/Tas* <n5c<n 8' atV<j5 rio\afi^57jy, KO! 'OSwr- 
y, /col NeVrwp, Kai e? Tiy AdAoy j/eKpJy' ri /ucWot 
OLVT$ Kal Siy^Kfi IK TTJS (papfJ-OKOirocrias TO. 
j. 6 5e jSeATioToy Aioyemis irapoiKe'i pev 'ZapSavcurdhy 
al M(8a T <J>piryl, icol #AAoiy -ncrl TW^ 
v, K.r.A Necyomantia, c. 19, ed. Bipont. 1790, 
iii. 23. 

If J. K. will lend me What S saw in the 

Invisible World for a day or two, and let me 
know through the office of "N. & Q" where I 
may send for it, I shall be greatly obliged. 

H. B. C. 
U. U. Club. 

ORBIS CENTRUM (3 rd S. iv. 210.) Ebn Haukal 
begins his Oriental Geography (p. 2 of Ouseley's 
translation) with the following sentence : 

" We begin with Arabia, because the Temple of the 
Lord is situated there, and the holy Kaaba is the Navel of 
the World." 

Perhaps your correspondent does not know that 
the inhabitants of Boston (Massachusetts), with 
that self-laudatory spirit which they inherit to 
such a remarkable degree from their English an- 
cestors, call their city " the hub of the universe." 


St. Paul, Minnesota. 

GREEK PROVERBS (3 rd S. iv. 286); GREEK 
GAMES (vols. iv. and v. ) ; ANCIENT HUMOUR 
(iv. 471)." I shall be glad," says MR. W. BOWEN 
ROWLANDS, " of any examples of this saying %\(j> 5 
$\os in Greek authors." 

u *HAi| %\iKa repTTfl, &c. JSqualis aequalem delectat.] 
Huic paria sunt, Semper similem ducit Deus ad similem, 
Clavum clavo et paxillum paxillo pepulisti ; hoc est, er- 
ratum altero errato curasti." Proverbiorum Dioaeniani 
Centuria V. 

""HA<jj riv %\ov tKKpovis.~\ Pollux, lib. ix. Onomast. 
originem refert ad ludum quern KivSaAtfffjibv Graeci nomi- 
nant : 'O 5* Kii>5aA<r/z6s, &c. Verum cindalismus ludus 
est paxillorum. Kji/SctAous enim paxillos vocaverunt. 
Opus autem erat non modo paxillum terra argillosae in- 
figere, sed etiam infixum elidere verberantem caput altero 
paxillo. Unde etiam proverbium manavit, "HAw rbv tfXov, 
TroTToAw rbi/ Trarrd\ovj Clavo clavum, et paxillo paxil- 

Schottus, the editor of Adagia, sive Proverbia 
Gracorum ex Zenobio sen Zenodoto, Diogeniano, et 
Suida Collectaneis, Antverpiae, 1612, folio, refers 
in loc. (Suida Cent, vii.) to Hieronymi Epist. ad 
Rusticum Monachum, and to Erasmus, Chil. i. 
Cent. ii. initio, who quotes Publii Syri Mimus, 
"Nunquam periculum sine periclo vincitur." 
There is an English proverb not unlike viz. 
' Every man cannot hit the naile on the head." 
And the Greek word ^AOS reminds us of an in- 
stance of patristic humour, Chrysost. in 2 Cor. xi., 
Of Acumfri/T^s ^Aous, ^Acou* | to <, quoted in Alex. 

Mori in Novum Fcedm Notes, ed. by J. A. Fabri- 
;ius, Hamburgi, 1712, ad Act. xxvi. v. 14. 


(3 rd S. v. 61.) I request you will kindly allow me 
to correct a serious mistake which I inadvertently 
made in my remarks on " St. Patrick and the 
Shamrock." The proper expression should have 
Deen? "As a faint illustration of Three distinct 
Persons, united in one Divine Nature" Instead 
of using the word Nature, I unfortunately wrote 
Person. J. D ALTON. 

v. 35.) The second part of the Essay on the above 
subject was published in Dublin in 1731, and 
dedicated to the Duke of Dorset, at that date 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. The author was a 
member of the Dobbs family of Antrim, among 
whom are several names of distinguished literary 

The second portion of the Essay is replete with 
curious and reliable information on the social and 
industrial condition of Ireland 140 years ago. I 
happened to open that part at p. 96, where the 
author notices one remarkable impediment to 
industry, which happily has been in great part 
removed within the last thirty years. I mean, 
the great number of holidays. He writes : 
" There are forty-nine more holidays in Ireland 
than our law allows, including St. Patrick's day, 
his Wife's, and his Wife's Mother's." Now, on 
referring to the life of the great Apostle of Ire- 
land from the pen of his most distinguished 
biographer, Dr. Todd, I cannot find any mention 
whatever of his wife, or whether he left offspring 
to transmit his name and virtues to Posterity; 
though the learned Doctor informs us, pp. 353-4, 
that the Saint's ancestry, both on father's and 
mother's side, were highly respectable ; and quotes 
Patrick's own statement to that effect in the cele- 
brated epistle against Coroticus : " Ingenuus sum 
secundum carnem ; nam Decurione patre nascor," 
&c. It is conjectured that it was this passage 
which suggested the composition of the ancient 
Irish ballad 
" St. Patrick was a gentleman, and born of decent people." 

I enclose my card for T. B., who is welcome to 
any further information from J. L. 


ARTHUR DOBBS (3 rd S. v. 63, 82.) It may in- 
terest ABHBA to know that I possess an impres- 
sion of a book-plate of the Dobbs' family. The 
arms on it are those of Dobbs' quartering Dalway, 
with an escutcheon of pretence for Osborne. There 
is no name printed on it, but I have assigned it to 
Arthur Dobbs, as I find from Burke's Landed 
Gentry that an M.P. of that name married an 
heiress of the Osborne family. H. M. L. 

JAN. 30, '64.] 



KINDLIE TENANTS (3 rd S. iv. 355.) The ex- 
tract from the supplement to Jamieson's Diction- 
ary does not exactly answer H. E. N.'s question. 
Dr. Jamieson was a divine, not a lawyer ; but 
even in the popular Scotch law-books (see Burton's 
Manual, p. 292), the answer given applies more 
precisely to what are termed " rentallers " than to 
the peculiar class of holders called kindly tenants, 
known only to exist in Annandale and Orkney. 
Perhaps the following interesting extract from a 
work written so far back as 1842, but still excel- 
lent, affords the most definite information. Speak- 
ing of four contiguous villages called Four Towns, 
in the parish of Lochmaben, Fullertoris Gazetteer, 
vol. i. p. 588, says : 

" The villages are Hightae with 400 inhabitants, Green- 
hill with 80, and Heck and Smallholm with about 70 
each. The lands are a large and remarkably fertile tract 
of holm and haugh, stretching along the west side of the 
river Annan from the immediate vicinity of Lochmaben 
Castle, the original seat of the royal family of Bruce, to 
the southern extremity of the parish. The inhabitants of 
the villages are proprietors of the lands, and hold them by 
a species of tenure nowhere else known in Scotland, 
except in the Orkney Islands ; and they have from time 
immemorial been called 'The King's Kindly Tenants,' 
and occasionally the ' Rentallers of the Crown.' The lands 
originally belonged to the Kings of Scotland, or formed 
part of their proper patrimony, and were granted, as is 
generally believed, by Bruce, the Lord of Annandale, on 
his inheriting the throne, to his domestic servants, or to 
the garrison of the castle. The rentallers were bound to 
provision the royal fortress, and probably to carry arms 
in its defence. They have no charter or seisin, and hold 
their title by mere possession, and can alienate their pro- 
perty by a deed of conveyance, and procuring for the 
purchaser enrolment in the rental-book of Lord Stormont. 
The new possessor pays no fee, takes up his succession 
without service, and in his turn is proprietor simply by 
actual possession. The tenants were in former times so 
annoyed by the constables of the castle that they twice 
made appeals to the crown ; and on both occasions in the 
reigns respectively of James VI. and Charles II. they 
obtained orders under the royal sign-manual to be al- 
lowed undisturbed and full possession of their singular 
rights. In more recent times, at three several dates, these 
rights were formally recognised bv the Scottish Court of 
Session, and the British House of Peers." 

This, then, is a species of holding sui generis, 
and altogether different from the low cottiers of 
the laird's rental-book, because the law will not 
recognise these unless there be two things in 
existence besides mere possession there must be 
a lease, and there must be a rent. 


QUOTATIONS WANTED (3 rd S. v. 62, 83.) In 
the verses quoted, the word est is unfortunately 
printed instead of scit, so that the point and anti- 
thesis are marred. The lines should run thus : 
" Qui Christum noscit, sat scit si caetera nescit : 
Qui Christum nescit, nil scit si caetera noscit." 

F. C. H. 

BAPTISMAL NAMES (3 rd S. iv. 508.) I can sup- 
ply an instance of a Christian name which strikes 

me as more curious and unaccountable than any 
mentioned in your columns. The present Vicar 
of Canon Pyon, Herefordshire, is the Rev. R. 
Cockaboo Dawes. I should be interested in hear- 
ing of any other instance of this euphonious 
cognomen. R. C. L. 

PASSAGE IN TENNYSON (3 rd S. v. 75.) I cannot 
see that there is any particular allusion in the 
second line of the passage : 

' Go, vexed spirit, sleep in trust ; 
The right ear that is filled with dust 
Hears little of the false or just." 

The words M. O. gives in italics, are simply an 
expression for the peace and silence of the grave. 
The specification of the right is not uncommon, as 
in St. Matthew : " If thy right eye offend thee," 
&c. E. J. N. 

ALFRED BUNN (3 rd S. v. 55.) Mrs. Bunn, the 
mother of Alfred Bunn, about the year 1819, kept 
a lady's school at South Lambeth. D. N, 


Stereoscopic Views of the Rttins of Copan, Central America, 

taken by Osbert Salvin, M.A. 

We are indebted to Messrs. Smith, Beck, & Beck for a 
series of Stereoscopic Views, which cannot fail to interest 
alike the antiquary and the ethnologist. They consist of 
Photographs of Monoliths and other sculptured remains 
of Indian art from the ruins of Copan, which is situated 
in the republic of Honduras, close to the frontier of Gua- 
temala. That these monuments are connected with the 
ancient worship of the country there can be little doubt 
though the date of their erection, and the race of Indians 
by whom they were erected, are alike unknown. Mr. 
Salvin does not look upon them as of remote antiquity, 
for the stone of which they are formed is not one capable 
of offering great resistance to the action of the weather, 
and it is therefore matter of congratulation that such 
effective representations of them have been secured. Some 
of the monoliths are very striking, so is the representa- 
tion of the Jaguar's Head, the Square Stone with Hiero- 
glyphics, and especially that containing a Head, and other 
sculptured stones. The whole series, indeed, must be most 
acceptable to ethnological students. 

Sibliot/ieca Chethamensis : Sive Bibliothecce Publicce Man- 

cuniensis,ab Humfredo Chetham armigero fundatce, Cata- 

logi Tomus IV., exhibens Libros in varias Classes pro 

Varietate Argumenti distributes. Edidit Thomas Jones, 

.A., Bibliothecas supra dicta: Gustos. (Simms, Man- 


The readers of "N. & Q." have seen in the contribu- 
tions to our pages of the learned Librarian of the Chetham 
Library such unquestionable evidence of his erudition, 
diligence, and knowledge of books, as to render any com- 
mendation of the present Catalogue perfectly uncalled for. 
A glance at the four goodly volumes of the Chetham 
Catalogue is sufficient to call forth from all reading men 
their congratulations to the people of Manchester on the 
possession of so valuable a library, and also of a Librarian 
who strives so zealously to turn that library to good ac- 



V. JAN. 30, '64. 

The New Testament for English Readers : Containing the 
Authorised Version, with Marginal Corrections of Read- 
ings and Renderings, Marginal References, and a Criti- 
cal and Explanatory Commentary. By Henry Alford, 
D.D., Dean of Canterbury. Vol. I. Part II. The Gos- 
pel of St. John, and the Acts of the Apostles. (Riving- 

We have so recently called attention to the First Part 
of this very useful work, that we may content ourselves 
with announcing its satisfactory progress. The present 
portion, it will be seen, extends to the conclusion of the 
Acts of the Apostles. 

Cre-Fydd's Family Fare. The Yovny Housewife 1 s Daily 
Assistant ii all Matters relating to Cookery and House- 
keeping, 8fc. SyCre-Fydd. (Simpkin & Marshall.) 

There are three recommendations to this new Manual 
of Domestic Economy 1st, the receipts are practically 
available for the moderate and economical, yet reasonably 
luxurious, housekeeper; 2ndly, they have been tested, 
and served on the table of the authoress, and passed the 
ordeal of fastidious and critical palates ; and, lastly, the 
quantity of every ingredient used is carefully given, as 
well as the exact time required for cooking. Cre-Fydd 
has in this way done good service to her countrywomen, 
and their husbands. 

ARUNDEL SOCIETY. The annual publications of this 
Society for the year 1863 will be a chromo- lithograph 
from a drawing by Signer Mariannecci, after F. Lippi's 
fresco " The Raising of the King's Son ; " another from 
Masolino's " SS. Peter and John giving Alms ;" two life- 
size heads from the same ; and a line engraving, after Fra 
Angelico's picture " St. Stephen thrust out of the City," 
in the Chapel of Nicholas the Fifth, in the Vatican. 
These will appear in a few weeks. At the same time will 
appear two extra publications : 1. A chromo-lithograph 
after Fra Angelico's picture, " The Annunciation," in the 
Convent of St. Marco, Florence ; 2. " The Conversion of 
Hermogenes," after Masaccio's picture in the Eremitani, 
Padua. The annual publications by the Arundel Society, 
for 1864, will consist of a chromo-lithograph after Luini's 
fresco at Soronno, " The Presentation in the Temple ; " a 
full-sized head from the same; an engraving of "The 
Conversion of Saul," after the tapestry in the Vatican, 
designed by Raphael, and comprised in the series repre- 
sented by the Hampton Court Cartoons (the cartoon of 
" The Conversion of Saul " is lost), and a line engraving, 
continuing the series after Fra Angelico's pictures in the 
Chapel of Nicholas the Fifth, from the picture of " St. 
John." By way of occasional publication there will be 
added to next year's issue a chromo-lithograph, after Luini's 
picture at Soronno, "Christ among the Doctors." M. 
Schuitz, who made the drawing from Memling's famous 
triptych in the Hospital of St. John, Bruges, for the So- 
ciety, is to superintend the process of chromo-lithograph- 
ing his own work. This will be done in Paris. If the 
copyist is as successful with the reproduction as he has 
been in his more immediate work, the result will have 
the highest value. Independently of its Art value, the 
original ia interesting for containing a portrait of Mem- 
ling looking through a window in the central part of the 
triptych, as if a spectator of the scene it represents, " The 
Adoration of the Magi." On the opposite side of this 
composition kneels Brother Jan Floreins, donor of the 
picture to the hospital. On the left wing is painted the 
"Presentation in the Temple," on the right "The Nati- 
vity." The exterior panels of the work, which protect 
those within, are respectively painted with figures of St. 
John with the Lamb, and St. Veronica holding the suda- 



Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Book to be sent directto the 
gentleman by whom it is required, whose name and address are given 
for that purpose:- 

don, 1775. 8vo. 
Wanted by Mr. James A. Hewitt, Grave Street, Cape Town, S. A. 


GEORGE W. MARSHALL. A work on " Hall Marks on Plate" by which 
the date of manufacture of English plate, mat/ readily be ascertained, has 
been recently published by Mr. W. Chaffers, F.S.A. 

tory of this popular piece of music in " N. & Q." 2nd S. i. 356. 

BETA (Sheffield) will find the parody on Wolfe's monody on tJie Death 
bfSir John Moore, and of the hoax which claimed the original for Dr. 
Marshall of Durham, in "N. & Q." 1st S. vi. 81; and at p. 158 of the 
same volume it is shown that the author of the Parody was the Rev. T. 
Barham, the inimitable Ingoldsby. 

A NON-SUBSCRIBER. George William Frederick, the grandson o f 
George II., was created Prince of Wales April 20, 1751 : his father Fre- 
derick having died March 20. George I. ascended the throne in August, 
1714, and on Sept. 27, 17U, his eldest son (born Oct. 30, 1683) was created 
by Patent Prince of Wales. 

H. C. will find in "N. & Q." 2nd S. vii. 481. a calculation of the num- 
ber of books, chapters, verses, words, and letters, contained in the Old and 
New Testaments. Consult also Townley's Biblical Anecdotes, p. l.. 

W. P. P. There are many legends of " The Lover's Leap " in the 
Dargle, co. Wicklow ; two of the most touching are printed inS. C. HaWs 
Hand- Books for Ireland, Dublin and Wicklow, p. 114. 

C. B. (Montrose.) The Latin version of T. Haimes Bayly's song, 
"I'd be a Butterfly," is by the late Archdeacon Wrangham, and is printed 
in his Pyschae, or Songs on Butterflies, 1828, p. 8, as well as in Arundines 
Cami, edited by Henry Drury, A.M., 8vo, 1841, p. 11. Consult also 
' N. & Q." 1st S. xi. 304, 435. 

EPSTLON. Theabbreviationx of y e and y l for the and that are simply 
mutations of one form of the Saxon th, J>. 

R. S. FITTIS is thanked for his communication ; but the extracts are 
from printed books easily accessible. The life of I aul Jones has yet to b& 

HIPPKUS. For the origin of the name of the " Domesday- Book " con- 
sult " N. & Q." 1st S. xi. 107; 2nd S. xi. 102, 103. 

A DEVONIAN. The Irving and the Dead, 12mo, 1827, 1829, is by the 
Rev. Erskine Neale, M.A., Vicar of Exning in Suffolk. It made two 

NOTES AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
issued in MONTHLY PARTS. The Subscription for STAMPED COPIES for 
Six Months forwarded direct from the Publisher (including the Half- 
yearly INDEX) is 11*. 4d., which may be paid by Post Office Order, 
payable at the Strand Post Office, in favour of WILLIAM G. SMITH, 32, 
THE EDITOR should be addressed. 

'NOTES & QUERIES " is registered for transmission abroad. 


1) MAIOLI and ILLUMINATED styles -in the most superior 
manner, by English and Foreign Workmen. 


English and Foreign Bookbinder, 


Is the CHEAPEST HOUSE in the Trade for 

PAPER and ENVELOPES, &c. Useful Cream-laid Note, 2s. 3d. per 
ream. Superfine ditto, 3s. 3d. Sermon Paper, 3s. Gri. Straw Paper, 2*. 
Foolscap, 6s. 6d. per Ream. Black bordered Note, 5 Quires for Is. 
Super Cream Envelopes, 6d. per 100. Black Bordered ditto, U. per 
100. Tinted lined India Note (ft Colours), 5 Quires for Is. 6d. Copy 
Books (Copies set), Is. 6<f. per dozen. P. & C.'s Law Pen (as flexible 
as the Quill), 2s. per gross. Name plate engraved, and 100 best C&rda 
printed for 3s. 6d. 

ffo Charge for Stamping Arms, Crests, Sic.from, own Dies. 

Catalogues Post Free; Orders over 20s. Carriage paid. 
Copy Address, PARTRIDGE & COZENS. 

Manufacturing Stationers, 1 , Chancery Lane, and 192, FleetSt. E.G. 


\J MAPPIN BROTHERS beg to call attention to their Extensive 
Collection of New Designs in sterling SILVER CHRISTENING 
PRESENTS. Silver Cups, beautifully chased and engraved, 31., 31. 10s., 
41., bl., 51. 10s. each, according to size and pattern; Silver Sets of Knife, 
Fork, and Spoon, in Cases, ll. Is., \l. 10s., 21., -21 10s., 31. 3s., a. 4s.; 
Sliver Basin and Spoon, in handsome Cases. 4Z. 4s., 61. 6s., 81. 8s., 
lOZ. 10s. MAPPIN BROTHERS, Silversmiths, 67 and 68, King Wil- 
liam Street, London Bridge ; and 222, Regent Street, W. Established 
in Sheffield A.D. 1810. 

3'd S. V. JAN. 30, '64.] 










T. Somers Cocks, Esq., M.A..J.P. 

Oeo. H. Drew, Esq., M.A. 

John Fisher, Esq. 

W. Freeman, Esq. 

Charles Frere, Esq. 

Henry P. Fuller, Esq. 

J. H. Ooodhart, Esq., J.P. 

J. T. Hibbert, Esq.,M.A.,M.P. 

Peter Hood, 


The Hon. B. E. Howard, D.C.L 
James Hunt, Esq. 
John Leigh, Esq. 
Edm. Lucas, Esq. 
F.B. Marson.EBq. 
E. Vansittart Neale, Esq., M.A. 
Bonamy Price, Esq., M.A. 
Jas. Lys Seager,Esq. 
Thomas Statter, Esq. 
John B. White, Esq. 
Henry Wilbraham, Esq., M.A. 
Actuary Arthur Scratchley, M.A. 
Attention is particularly invited to the VALUABLE NEW PRIN 
CIPLE by which Policies effected in this Office do NOT become vo:i 
through the temporary inability of the Assurer to pay a Premium, a 
permission is given upon application to suspend the payment at in 
terest, according to the conditions stated in the Society s Prospectus. 

The attention of the Public is confidently invited to the severa 
Tables and peculiar Advantages offered to the Assurers, which will be 
found fully detailed in the Prospectus. 

It will be observed, that the Kates of Premium are so low as tc 
afford at once an IMMEDIATE BONOS to the Assured, when comparei 
with the Rates of most other Companies. 

The next Division of Bonus will be made in 1864. Persons entering 
within trie present year will secure an additional proportion. 
MKDICAX MEN are remunerated, in all cases, for their Reports to the 


The Rates of ENDOWMENT* granted to young livei, and of AKNDITI 
to old lives, are liberal. 

Now ready, price 14s. 


on SAVINGS BANKS, containing a Review of their Past History and 
Present Condition, and of Legislation on the Subject; together with 
much Legal, Statistical, and Financial Information, for the use 01 
Trustees, Managers, and Actuaries. 


O S T E O I D O Iff, 

Patent, March 1, 1862, No. 560. 


\JT SOFT GUMS, without springs or palates, are warranted to suc- 
ceed even when all highly-lauded inventions have failed. Purest ma- 
terials and first-claw workmanship warranted, and supplied at half 


27, Harley Street, Cavendish Square, and 34, Ludgate Hill, London 

134, Duke Street, Liverpool; 66, New Street, Birmingham. 
Consultations gratis. For an explanation of their various improve- 
ments, opinions of the press, testimonials, &c., see "Gabriel's Practical 
Treatise on the Teeth.* Post Free on application. 

American Mineral Teeth, best in Europe, from 4 to 7, 10 and 15 
guineas per set, warranted. 


.. FLEET-STREET, has introduced an ENTIRELY NEW 
ESCRIPT10N of ARTIFICIAL TEETH, fixed without springs, 
r?' r ^ ture ?V They 80 Perfectly resemble the natural teeth as 
not to be distinguished from the originals by the closest observer ; they 
change colour or decay, and will be found superior to any 
eth ever before used. This method does not require the extraction of 
8?;.?llSi P "S'? 1 P rati on, and will support and preserve teeth 
nn rJ?^ & P d l 8 guaranteed to restore articulation and mastica- 
t cation^ 1 * ""* rendered 8Ound ** U8eful * 

PRETTIEST GIFT for a LADY is one of 

Manufactory, 338, Strand, opposite Somerset House. 

TTOLLOWAY'S OINTMENT. -All varieties of 

Ar-ri-Y- cer ? ion ' b d legs, 8 ? res - wounds, and eruptions can be cured by 

the diliKent use ot this cooling, soothing, and healing unguent The 

d .i and otten fallln K fashion of strapping the edces of ulcers toWthPr 



Instituted A.D. 1820. 

A SUPPLEMENT to the PROSPECTUS, showing the advantages 
of the Bonus System, may be had on application to 


HEDGES & BUTLER, Wine Merchants, &c. 
recommend and GUARANTEE the following WINES: 

Pure wholesome CLARET, as drunk at Bordeaux, 18s. and 24s. 
per dozen. 

White Bordeaux 24s. and 30s. perdoz. 

Good Hock 30s. 36s. 

Sparkling Epernay Champagne 36s., 42s. 48s. 

Good Dinner Sherry 24s. :-Os. 

Port 24s., 30s. 36s. 

They invite the attention of CONNOISSEURS to their varied stock 
Of CHOICE OLD PORT, consisting of Wines of the 

Celebrated vintage 1820 at 120s. perdoz. 

Vintage 1834 108s. 

Vintage 1840 , 84s. 

Vintage 1847 72s. 

all of Sandeman's shipping, and in first-rate condition. 

Fine old "beeswing" Port, 48s. and 60s.; superior Sherry, 36*., 42s., 
48s.; Clarets of choice growths, 36s., 42*., 48s. ,60s., 72s., 84s.; Hochhei- 
mer, Marcobrunner, Rudesheimer. Steinberg, Leibfraumilch, 60s.; 
Johannes berger and Steinberger, 72s., 84s., to 120s.; Braunberger, Grun- 
hausen, and Sclmrzberg, 48s. to 84s.; sparkling Moselle, 48s., 60s., 6>8., 
78s.; very choice Champagne, 60s. 78s.; fine old Sack, Malmsey, Fron- 
tignac, Vermuth, Constantia, Lachrymae Christi, Imperial Tokay, and 
other rare wines. Fine old Pale Cognaxc Brandy, 60,s. and 72s. per doz.; 
very choice Cognac, vintage 1805 (which gained the first class gold 
medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1855), 144s. per doz. Foreign Liqueurs 
of every description. On receipt of a post-office order, or reference, any 
quantity will be forwarded immediately, by 


Brighton: 30, King's Road. 

(Originally established A.D. 1667.) 


\J At this season of the year, J. Campbell begs to direct attention to 
this fine old MALT WHISKY, of which he has held a large stock for 
30 years, price 20s. per gallon; Sir John Power's old Irish Whisky, 18s.; 
Hennessey's very old Pale Brandy, 32s. per gallon (J. C.'s extensive 
business in French Wines gives him a thorough knowledge of the 
Brandy market): E. Clicquot's Champagne, <6s. per dozen: Sherry, 
Pale, Uolden, or Brown, 30s., 36s., and 42s.; Port from the wood, 30s. 
and 36s., crusted, 42s., 48s. and 64s. Note. J. Campbell confidently 
recommends hisVin de Bordeaux, at 20s. per dozen, which greatly im- 
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CONTENTS. N. 110. 

NOTES: -Publication of Diaries, 107 - Documents, &c., 
retarding Sir Walter Raleigh, 108 -Twelfth Day, 109- 

ding , 

eaf Scribblings,&c.,110-The Newton Stone, Ib.- 
Cardinal Beton and Archbishop Gawin Dunbar Men- 
delssohn's Oratorio, " St. Paul "- Easter - Dialects ,of 
the Suburbs - Sword-blade Inscriptions Source of the 
Nile The Princess de Lamballe, 112. 
QUERIES: Ancient Seals, 113 Author wanted Mr. 
Daniel Campbell Chess The Comet of 1581 Chaworth 
or Cadurcis: Hesdene- Oliver de Durden, &c.-Grum- 
bold Hold Dr. Hill: Petition of I. Hyla Holden 
Kuster's Death - Lanterns of the Dead : Round Towers of 
Ireland Leigh Family ofSlaidburn, co. York -Literati 
of Berlin Marking of Saddles, &c The Empress Maud 
Model of Edinburgh -Mottoes Wanted Newhaven in 
Prance Order of the Cockle in France Proverb Wanted 

Roman Historian Seals Shakspeare Portraits 
Translators of Terence Vichy Writs of Summons 
Situation of Zoar, 114. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Colkitto and A. S. The Nile 

Major Richardson Pack Spenser's " Calendar " Quo- 
tations Springs Retreat Durocobrivis Anony- 
mous, 118. 

REPLIES Cromwell's Head, 119 Colonel Robert Vena- 
bles, 120 Works of Francis Barham, Ib Mr. Wise, 121 

" One Swallow does not make a Summer " Bermuda 

" Pig and Whistle " St. Willibrord : Frisic Literature 

Grave of Pocahontas Fingers of Hindoo Gods Lon- 
gevity of Clergymen " Author of good to Thee I turn " 
Richardson Family The Lapwing William Mitchell, 
the Great Tinclarian Doctor Elma, a Christian Name 
Natter Caspar de Navarre : Spengle, &c., 122. 



Those who publish the private diaries of de- 
ceased persons, or extracts from them, are apt to 
fall into the error of biographers. They feel a 
tenderness towards the writer, and omit anything 
which may show him unfavourably. Objection 
may be taken to this practice, even when the 
diarist is only speaking of himself. But, when he 
is speaking of others, and especially when he is 
speaking against others, such omission may be a 
grave wrong to those who are represented. It 
may be that the omitted parts would completely 
destroy the value of the whole testimony. Sup- 
pose, for instance, a person of some name should 
leave memoranda imputing delinquencies of vari- 
ous kinds to various persons ; suppose that, among 
the rest, it should be found that the late Duke 
of Wellington either wanted courage and con- 
duct in the field, or, was bribed by the enemy. 
If at a future time these memoranda should 
find a publisher or an extractor, who should 
omit the slander on the Duke and retain what is 
said about others who would not be so well 
known, it is clear that those others would not be 
treated with historical fairness. The editor or 
extractor might very innocently think only of his 
author, and of the wretched figure he would 
make : but his readers have a right to expect 
that he should think of them, and of the other 
parties assailed. 

In 1855 (l ft S. xii. 142) I quoted some brutally 
coarse remarks which Reuben Burrow wrote in 
the fly-leaf of a book. In giving them I had a 
meaning which I did not explain. Two years be- 
fore, some extracts from the diary of Reuben 
Burrow had been published in a scientific journal : 
these extracts contained various disparagements, 
which possibly might be slanders; accompanied 
by the statement, taken from a friendly bio- 
graphy, that " his habits had been formed by 
casualty and the necessities of the moment rather 
than by design and the prudent hand of a master." 
This biography also describes him as having, in 
private life, " some of those excentricities which 
frequently, attend genius, though by no means 
necessarily." This gentle allusion to the habits 
of a man whose stories about other persons were 
put into print, induced me to publish the fly-leaf 
above alluded to. I then knew nothing of the 
journal or diary, except the extracts. I have 
lately been made aware that the extractor, a 
friend from whom I am obliged to differ widely 
in this matter, presented the diary to the library 
of the Astronomical Society soon after the com- 
pletion of the extracts. I am thus enabled to 
supply deficiencies, and to give the character of 
this accuser of the brethren in the manner in 
which I hold it ought to have been given. 

It is very gratifying to think that such " ex- 
centricities " in private life as Burrow exhibited 
are not " necessarily " the accompaniments of 
" genius." Even in his day the gifted man would 
not often leave to his son and three daughters a 
note book in which obscene epigrams are recorded, 
and in which the dismissal of a servant is noted 
with his name mispelt into the foulest word in 
the language, vowels and all. But this is pos- 
sibly consistent with truthful evidence, and sound 
judgment upon the conduct of others. For a 
specimen of the reliance to be placed on Burrow 
in these particulars, I shall content myself with 
quoting the following passage. He was starting 
for India, and Lord Howe, with the fleet which 
was to relieve Gibraltar, protected the India 
fleet for a time, and then left them a convoy : 

" The weather continued pretty much the same till 
the end of September, and the wind was sometimes 
favorable ; yet Howe never took the least advantage of 
it; but on Sept. 30, when we were in lat. 48 6', and the 
French West India fleet were expected every moment 
with five ships of the line, this scoundrel Howe left us 
entirely to ourselves, with only a fifty- gun ship to take 
care of us, and went away from us, though he might 
have convoyed us a much, greater distance without the 
least interference with his destination. From the stu- 
pidity and carelessness of this rascal's behaviour, I can 
have no other opinion but that he and his brother are a 
couple of cowardly scoundrels, or else that they are bribed 
by the enemy : for I am certain that they might by this 
time (Oct. 6) have been all at Gibraltar; and indeed 
much sooner, had they used the least industry or con- 
trivance. What damned stupidity this cursed nation of 
ours has fallen into. Though this cursed rogne and his 



S. V. FEB. 6, '64. 

brother have already behaved in the worst manner pos- 
sible in America, yet they are now trusted with another 
expedition " 

At the time in question, Lord Howe had run a 
very brilliant career : and as he did relieve Gibral- 
tar according to instructions, and as the India fleet 
was not hurt by the French, we may surmise that 
he knew how to manage. The whole of the above 
passage is omitted in the extracts, though parts 
before and after come under marks of quotation. 
This omission is not due to supposed irrelevancy 
or want of interest, for it is quoted that the car- 
penter had forgotten to close the ports, by which 
the water came in and created alarm. I hold 
that enough ought to have been given to show 
what kind of person the writer was. Having ex- 
amined the stories which he tells about other 
mathematicians, I find much reason to think that 
he is no more to be depended on about them than 
about Lord Howe. His plan seems to be, to take a 
rumour, or the gossip of an acquaintance, and to 
erect it into a positive fact of a decided character. 
There is an old joke it seems to have been no 
more against Halley, which has lived in oral 
tradition, and I think has been printed. Halley 
was sent to Germany by the Royal Society to 
examine the astronomical methods of Hevelius, 
and it was the laugh of his friends against him 
that he had flirted as we now say with Mrs. 
Hevelius, and made her husband jealous. Such 
badinage was sure to arise especially in the 
reign of Charles II where a young and highly 
accomplished single man was entertained inthe 
house of a friend who had a handsome wife. Bur- 
row affirms that Halley betrayed the confidence of 
his host to the utmost, and uses the plainest words. 
I have given enough to show that Reuben 
Burrow must not be taken as a witness against 
the character of any other person. I may add 
that he records nothing but what is disparaging, 
nothing or just next to nothing to the hoTiour 
or credit of any one whom he mentions. His 
antipathy to Wales, the hero of the abuse trans- 
cribed by me, as above mentioned and with 
whom he seems to have been on terms of friendly 
acquaintance while fly-leafing him in every one 
of his works has some of its sources laid open. 
The chief of them seems to be that to Mrs. 
Wales he attributes the lies as he calls 
them about Mrs. Burrow owing black eyes 
and a swelled face to some of her husband's ex- 
centricities which attend genius, but not neces- 
sarily, in private life. This is the most credible 
aspersion of Burrow's whole lot. His biographer 
admits that he was an occasional pugilist; the 
witness is one against whom nothing has, ever 
been produced ; and the story is, taking all we 
know of Burrow, natural and probable in its 
Details. A. DE MORGAN. 



I send for insertion, if you think them worthy 
of a place in " N. & Q.," a few more papers from 
my collections regarding Sir Walter Raleigh, his 
friends, and relatives : the dates of some of them 
are uncertain, as no year is mentioned ; and as to 
others the commencement of the year, whether on 
January 1 or on March 25, will make a differ- 
ence, for which, of course, allowance must not be 
omitted. The documents were copied by me 
from the originals at various periods, some of 
them as far back as the year 1830 or 1831. 
Addressed in Raleigh's hand thus : 
" For her ma ts speciall affairs. To the right honor"* 
my very good L. the L d Cobham, L rd Warden of the 
Cinkportes, her ma tes leiftenant generall of Kent, att 
Plymouthe. From Sherborne the 13 of Aug. at 12 in 
the night. Post hast, hast, post with spede. Hast, post 
hast, hast for life. 

" I have sent your L. M r Secretories letter, by which 
you may perceve that 8 sayle of Spaniards ar entred into 
our seas as high as S l Mallos. Your L. may see that if 
you weare not loose, you should be tied above for a while. 
If you needs will into Cornwale, then make hast, or I 
think yow wilbe sent for. I can say no more, butt that 
I am your Lordshipp's before all that leve. 

" W. RALEGH." 

Lady Raleigh added the following postscript in 
her own hand-writing : 

' And I could disgest this last word of Sur Wai tar's 
letter, I wold expres my love likewise : but unly this : I 
agree and am in all with Sur Wai tar, and most in his 
Love to you : I pray hasten your returne for the eleket 
sake, that we may see the bathe to gether. 

" Your trew poore (rind, E. RALEGH." 
(Indorsed) " 17 Jan?, 1595. S r Jo. Gilbert to Sir Wa. 
Raleghe. Report of a Frenchman latelie come out of 

' To my ho. good brother, syr Walter Raylygh, Knyght, 
lo. warden off the Stanerys and captayne of her ma- 
jestys garde, att Sherborne. 

" My ho. good brother. Heare arryved, yn this ses- 
shons weake, a Frenche mane which came owt of Spayne, 
and ys servante too my Lls. off the gowarsen, who' re- 
portes that the Kynge of Spayne has seante all his forces 
of Spanyards and Itallyans from Cartagena too the Duke 
of Savoye, and soo into the lowe cowntryes; and they 
cary with theame 3 myllions off money for paye of the 
sodgers theare. Antony Godderde demandyd off him 
whether the Kynge of Spayne seante any forses ynto the 
[ndes to the empyer of Gwyana? he awnswyrd that of 
:hat empyer he harde nott, but the Kynge 'had seante 
forses too the dell awradoo [the El Dorado~\, and made 
jroclamasyon thorro Spayne, that they that woldeshulde 
lave lyberty to goo with theare wyves and chyldreane. 
The fyrste attempte that the Spanyardes pre'tende to 
make wilbe agaynste flushynge, and soo upon Inglande ; 
and theare wilbe and ys reddy yn Spayne and in the 
stretes 100 saylle off shyppes, "gallyasses and gallys, to 
sett saylle by the ende off february : more I have not 
larde. The Lo. bleasse all yowr actyons. Exter, thys 
17 off Janowary, 1595. 

" Yowres for ever too be commandyd, 

(Indorsed) "16 Mar. 1595, S r Jo. Gilbert to S* Wa. 

3' d S.V. FEB. 6, '64.] 



" Too my ho. good brother, syr Walter Raylygh, Knyght, 
Lo. Warden off the Stanerys, and captayne of her 
majesty's garde. 

" My ho. good brother. Heare are arryvyd 3 fly 
bottes from Saynt Lucar, which came from thense the 
26 of february laste, who reporte that theare are theare 
20 saylles of men of war amakinge reddy, butt nott with 
haste ; wheareoff 5 of theame are of the greteste shypps 
off Spayne. Theare came owte of Saynt Lucar, yn theare 
company, sertyne shyppes which weant for Lusborne, 
loden with 1400 tones off corn too be bakyd ynto bysky 
for the kynges provysion; and theare came at thatt 
tyme too other greatte shyppes too Saynt Lucar, off 600 
tones apesse, too lode come and too retorne too Lusborne. 

" They further reporte that the Kynge bofte 6 hulkes 
off 200 tones apesse, which are gone to the dell awrado, 
full of men, womene, and chylderne, and vyttells ; wheare 
off theare weante 1400 soldyers. 

" Theare are arrj'vyd att Saynt Lukar, abowte 5wekes 
paste, 3 of the Kynges frygottes, which brafte from 
Saynte John de Porteryka 2 myllions and a halfe of 
sylver, as the reporte was amongeste merchantes ; and 
that syr francys Drake rechyd theare owtewarde: at 
that tyme they were alodj'nge off the tresure. He en- 
teryd the harbors with hys pynasses, and fyryd one of 
the frygottes. Syr francys cowlde nott enter the har- 
boor with his shyppes, for they had sunke a frygotte yn 
the harboro, and by that meanes lost both the towne, 
treasure, and frygottes. Thys ys all that I can at thys 
presaunte advertys yow off; and soo levynge to troble 
vow, I commvt vow to the protectyon off the Allmyghty. 
From Greane'wage this 1G off marche, 1595. 

" Youres for ever to be commandyd, 


The following paper seems to have reference to 
the Expedition to Cadiz, under the Earl of Essex ; 
it is without date or indorsement : 

" And because it may happen by fight, or otherwise, 
that you, our Admirall of these forces committed to your 
charge, may miscarrye in this action (which God, we 
hope, will prevent), we have thought good (providinge 
for all events) to appoynt and authorize in such extre- 
mitye our Servant S r Walter Raleigh, Captayne of our 
Guard, and Lieutenant of our County of Cornewalle, to 
take the charge of our said fleet and forces, beinge now 
our Vice-admyrall of the same. And in the meane while 
that he be assistant unto you in all your enterprises and 
attemptes, and all other resolutions and determinations 
for these our services, as well for the annoyance of the 
Enemye as for the safegarde of our fleet, and forces afore- 
sayd. In wytnes whereof we have caused these our 
Letters to be made Patentes, to contynue duringe our 
pleasure. Witnes our self," &c. 


P.S. From a MS. volume of miscellaneous 
poetry and prose, in the library at Bridgewater 
House, I extracted the following ; but it strikes 
me that I have seen it in print, and if any of the 
correspondents of "N. & Q." can tell me where 
the lines are to be found, I shall be obliged to 


" Here lyes the noble Warryor that never blunted sword : 
Here lyes the noble Courtier that never kept his word ; 
Here lyes his Excellency that govern'd all the State; 
Here lyes the L. of Leicester that all the world did 
hate. WA. RA." 


It is still the custom in parts of Pembrokeshire, 
on Twelfth-night, to carry about a wren. 

The wren is secured in a small house made of 
wood, with door and windows the latter glazed. 
Pieces of ribbon of various colours are fixed to 
the ridge of the roof outside. Sometimes, several 
wrens are brought in the same cage ; and often- 
times a stable-lantern, decorated as above-men- 
tioned, serves for the wren's house. The pro- 
prietors of this establishment go round to the 
principal houses in their neighbourhood : where, 
accompanying themselves with some musical in- 
strument, they announce their arrival by singing 
the " Song of the Wren." The wren's visit is a 
source of much amusement to children and ser- 
vants ; and the wren's men, or lads, are usually 
invited to have a draught from the cellar, and 
receive a present in money. The " Song of the 
Wren " is generally encored ; and the proprietors 
very commonly commence high life below stairs, 
dancing with the maid-servants, and saluting them 
under the kissing-bush where there is one. I 
have lately procured a copy of the song sung on 
this occasion. I am not aware that it is in print. 
I am told that there is a version of this song in 
the Welsh language, which is in substance very 
near to that given below : 


" Joy, health, love, and peace, 
Be to you in this place. 
By your leave we will sing, 
Concerning our king : 
Our king is well drest, 
In silks of the best ; 
With his ribbons so rare, 
No king can compare. 
In his coach he does ride, 
With a great deal of pride ; 
And with four footmen 
To wait upon him. 
We were four at watch, 
And all nigh of a match ; 
And with powder and ball, 
We fired at his hall. 
We have travell'd many miles, 
Over hedges and stiles, 
To find you this king, 
Which we now to you bring. 
Now Christmas is past, 
Twelfth-day is the last. 
Th* Old Year bids adieu- 
Great joy to the New." 

It would appear, from the ninth line of the 
song, that the wren at one time used to occupy a 
coach, or that her house was placed upon wheels. 

The word "hall" is fitly used for the wren's 
nest: it is really a "hall," or covered place. And 
it is from the shape of his nest, that the wren gets 
his name, meaning covered. 

The reference to " powder and ball" is curious ; 
and there is another song about the wren, still 



[3 rd S. V. FEB. 6, '64- 

surviving in this district, which contains a refer 

ence to guns and cannons. I regret that I can 

only remember two verses ; and as far as I know 

they are not printed : 

" Where are you going? ' says the millder to the malder 

' Where are you going? ' says the younger to the elder 

' I cannot tell,' says Fizzledyfose : 

* To catch cutty wron,' says John the-red-nose. 

" * How will you get him ? ' says the millder to the malder 
' How will you get him ? ' says the younger to the elder 
' I cannot tell,' says Fizzledyfose : 
'With guns and great cannons,' sa} s John the-red 

Perhaps I ought not to call this a song, as ] 
never heard it sung, and it is very little known 
here ; but I suspect it used to be sung when the 
party of seekers were setting out in search ol 
the wren, which they wanted for the Twelfth- 

The wren here is generally called, by the com 
mon people, " cutty wron," or " cutty wran." 

Query. What are the meanings of the words 
" millder " and " malder " ? J. TOMBS. 

In a MS. circa 1450: 

" Qua? librura scripsit ipsum 
Videat in patria Jesum Christum. 

In a Salisbury book, 1527 : 

" Mi bewte ys fayr ye may well see 
Wherfor I ynke mi" mast' Dygbe 
Whersomever ye me see or happyn to mette 
I dwel w 1 mi master Dygbe in Lym Strette 
Wheresomever I am in vilage towne or cite 
Mi dwellyng is in Lyme Stretwith mi master digbe 
Pore pepull for mi master digbe doth py (pray) 
For he refreshyt them both night and day 
Many a poore body ye may here see 

Pray for that ma mi master digbe 

Mi master digbe is of London noble cite 
Wherein I was made & had mi fayre bewte 
Poor men & rich men of evrv degree 
Is bound to pray for mi master Digbe 
Whosoever in me doth look & rede 
Pray for mi master Digbe God be hys spede 
Mi master digbe dwellethe in Lyme Strett 
Wher mony a noble marchand there doth mette." 

Time of Elizabeth 

" Omnipotens Christe 
Mihi Salter cui constat liber iste 

Dogmata plura dare." 

"Si tibi copia si sapientia formaque detur, 
Sola superbia destruit omnia si dominetur." 

The following, from a book formerly belonging 

to the celebrated John Dey, the astrologer: 

" In Dei Nomine Amen. 

The thirde day of December a Dm 1576. I. Thomas 
Watson of Walton in the county of ." 

Then follows, in the same hand 
"When ye hande shaketh memento 
When ye lippes blacketh confessio 
When ye harte paineth contrissio [sic.] 
When ye winde wanteth satisfactio 
W T hen ye voise roleth mei miserere 
When ye limmes fayletb libera nos domine 
When ye eyes holloweth nosce teipsum 
For ther doth forbere(?) vade ad judicium." 

I will conclude this with an acrostic hymn 
where I copied it I quite forget : 
"I llustrator mentium 
E rector lapsorum 
S anctificator cordium 
V itajustorum 
S alus peccatorum 

"M ater orphanorum 
A djutrix lapsorum 
R efugium miserorum 
I lluminatrix csecorum 
A dvocata peccatorum." 

J. C. J. 


In reading Dr. D. Wilson's interesting work on 
the Pre-historic Annals of Scotland, I was struck 
with the resemblance of the inscription on the 
Newton stone (vol. ii. p. 214,) to those of certain 
rocks in North-west India. It appears that Col. 
Sykes also detected the similarity. In short, the 
letters the powers of which are well known, and 
with the appearance of which I am familiar are 
almost precisely those of the Arian variety en- 
graved on the sepulchral stones of the topes, and 
'n other Buddhistic inscriptions found in Affghan- 
stan, the ancient Ariana. The characters are 
cnown as the Arian or Bactrian, and are closely 
related to the Phoenician. The letter like O is, 
icwever, not in the Arian ; but in the Phoenician 
t has the power of the Hebrew ayin, y. There 
s one word, at the end of the fourth line, which 
s in the Lit character the oldest form of San- 
scrit : this word is Nesher. 

Having so clear a clue, I readily wrote the 
whole inscription in equivalent Hebrew letters, 
,hus : 

jny -oy -aw rm 

In English letters, thus : 

domiti babeth 
zuth Ab-ham-howha 
min phi Nesher 
chii cam an 
sh'p'ha joati hodhi. 

V. FEB. 6, '64.] 



It will be observed that the lines are arranged 
in measure : three lines of four syllables, and 
three of five. 

The words are unmistakably Hebrew, with 
Chaldaic admixture, as in the word man (l^D) ; 
and the literal rendering is as follows : 

" Silently I rest in the tomb ;* Ab-ham-howha'f 
is in the home of splendour. From the mouth 
(or doctrine) of Nesher, \ my life was as an over- 
flowing vessel ; my wisdom was my glory." 

The word Nrsher being inscribed in the ancient 
Sanscrit character, employed by the early Bud- 
dhists, indicates that the person so named was an 
ancient teacher of the doctrines of Buddha, from 
the first seat of Buddhism ; and that the person 
commemorated on this sepulchral stone, as one 
instructed by this teacher, was himself a Buddhist 

The fact that we find an inscription in the 
Arian and Lat character of India, known to be 
Buddhistic, on a tombstone of very early date in 
such a place, is sufficient proof that a Buddhist 
colony was established there at the time of its 
erection. The form of the letters in the word 
Nesher, is certainly that of the Sanscrit of the 
fifth century B.C. 

From Buddhistic history we know that, soon 
after the death of Godama Buddha, or Sakya, mis- 
sionaries went out in all directions to promulgate 
his doctrines. This occurred about five hundred 
years B.C. Northern mythology plainly indicates 
its connection with India and Buddhism. 

But the most interesting circumstance is the 
Hebrew character of the inscription on the 
Newton stone, though the letters themselves re- 
semble those in use in North-western India at 
the period of Buddhist ascendency, and both the 
ancient Sanscrit form of letter and that of the 
Arian are found together in several instances on 
the same rock, as transcripts of the same inscrip- 
tion and in the same language. 

How can an inscription, presenting examples 
of both those forms of letters, and expressing 
Hebrew words, and found in Scotland, be ac- 
counted for? There are numerous evidences 
that many of the Israelites, especially those of the 
Ten Tribes, wandered from the place of their 
captivity into Bactria and North-western India, 
and there became Buddhists. Traces of such 
persons are found in several parts of Europe, but 
especially in Great Britain ; where an extensive 
Hebrew influence, and yet not Jewish, was cer- 
tainly established at a very early period. Among 
the several facts connecting this Hebrew influ- 
ence in Britain with Buddhism, is a singular pas_- 

* 333, mound, tumulus or vault. 

I take this to be adopted as a proper name, signi- 
fying father of a wrong- doing or perverse people. 
I Nesher, in Hebrew, means an eagle. 

sage quoted by the Rev. E. Davies, in his work 
on the Mythology of the British Druids (Appen- 
dix, No. 12). The passage consists of four short 
lines, which Mr. Davies suspected might be 
Hebrew ; in consequence of Taliessin, the Welsh 
bard, having stated that the bardic lore was de- 
rived from a Hebrew or Hebraic source. The 
lines referred to are in an ancient Druidical hymn 
in praise of Lludd the Great ( Welsh Archaeology, 
p. 74). These lines are described as the prayer 
of five hundred men, who came in five ships. 
Mr. Davies transcribed the passage in Hebrew 
characters, but did not attempt to translate it. 
When literally rendered, however, even from Mr. 
Davies's transliteration, it makes very <rood Bud- 
dhistic sense. The Hebrew source of this passage 
is further indicated by the fact, that those who 
used it are represented as saying : " We all at- 
tend upon Adonai," the Hebrew name of the 

The Dannaan of Irish tradition are not un- 
likely to have been Israelites of the sailor-tribe 
Dan, who very early mingled with the maritime 
population of Zidonia (see Deborah's Song, &c.). 
Dr. Latham thinks it probable that the Danai of 
Homer, &c., were Danites. (JEthn. of Europe, 
p. 137.) 

If the Dannaan of the Irish were Danites, we 
can account for the presence of Hebrews in Scot- 
land during the pre-historic period : for, as we 
are informed, the Tuatha de Dannaan introduced 
their monuments into Scotland, Ireland, and 
Wales, long before the Christian era. 

Then, as Great Britain was known to India 
before the death of Godama, we can understand 
how Israelitish converts to Buddhism there might 
also know that Hebrew colonists dwelt in Britain, 
and desire to join them ; and, according to the 
zeal of the time, introduce Buddhism. 

From the direct reading of the Newton stone, 
as well as from collateral evidence, there is then 
reason to conclude that it was erected to the 
memory of a Hebrew Buddhist missionary of 
some influence in pre-historic Scotland. The 
inscription in the Ogham character, on the same 
stone, is possibly a transcript in the same or an- 
other language, and may serve to test the cor- 
rectness of the reading thus confidently offered. 
Can you favour me with information concern- 
ing any other northern inscription in the same 
character? And also inform me, where I may 
find a copy of the Ogham inscription on the New- 
ton stone ? Is there any published explanation 
of the Ogham alphabet ? 





[3'd S. V. FEB. 6, '64. 

DUNBAR. In the book of protocols or notarial 
instruments before the Reformation kept by nota- 
ries public, occasionally valuable facts are re- 
corded. Very many of these books have perished, 
but still there are several yet preserved. In 
looking over certain extracts from the Protocols 
of Cuthbert Simon, the following entries occur : 

" Jacobus secundus Archiepiscopus Glasguensis Ordi- 
natus et consecratus fuit apud Striviling dominica in 
albis, viz. xv Aprilis, anno M, quinquagesimo nono et 
duravit usque ad quintum junii anno xxiij et sedes 
turn vacavit per translationem ejus ad Archiepiscopatum 
Sancti Andree. 

" Jacobus quartus Scotorum rex coronatus fuit apud 
Sconara in die Sanctas Maria? Magdalene videlicet -xxij 

" Jacobus quintus coronatus fuit in castro de Striviling 
per Jacobum Glasguensem Archiepiscopum xxij Sep- 
tembris, Anno Domini M, quinquagesimo xiij. 

" Gawinus Archiepiscopus Giasguensis consecratus fuit, 
Edinburgi quinta Februarii, Anno Domini M, quinquages- 
imo xxxiiij." 

The first prelate here mentioned was the cele- 
brated Cardinal Beaton, whose hostility to the 
English interest was the foundation of all the mis- 
fortunes of the unhappy Mary. Had she been 
affianced to the youthful Edward, and received a 
virtuous education in England, instead of having 
her youth corrupted by the vicious, wicked, and 
immoral practices of the French Court, her fate 
would have been otherwise than it was; but 
under the training of Catherine de Medici a 
worse woman than even her namesake of Russia 
and with the example of Diana of Poictiers, the 
king's mistress, before her, whose pet she was 
how was it possible that the best disposition in 
the world could escape contamination ? 

Beton was the second James ; the first was 
James Bruce, a son of Bruce of Clackmanan, 
Archbishop of Glasgow. Keith was not aware 
when or where he was consecrated. See Scotish 
Bishops, Edin. 1824, 8vo, p. 255. 

Gawinus was Gavin Dunbar, a nephew of 
Gavin Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen. He was an 
accomplished man, and the education of James V. 
was entrusted to him. He was Prior of White- 
haven in Galloway. J. M. 

is always desirable that any erroneous statement 
of fact, particularly when contained in a work 
carrying on its face an appearance of authority, 
should be pointed out as soon as possible. In 
the recently published volume of Letters of Felix 
Mendelssohn Bartholdy, there is appended to a 
letter written by Mendelssohn to his mother on 
October 4, 1837, in which he refers to the Musical 
Festival held at Birmingham in that year (at 
which he had conducted his oratorio, St. Paul), a 
note by the editors, Mendelssohn's brother and 
cousin, stating that St. Paul was performed for 

the first time in England at that festival. ^ This 
note has been retained, without comment, in the 
English translation (by Lady Wallace) of the 
Letters. But the statement is incorrect, as there 
had been three performances of the oratorio in 
England prior to that at the Birmingham Fes- 
tival on September 20, 1837. The first of these 
performances was at the Liverpool Musical Fes- 
tival, under the direction of Sir George Smart, 
on Friday morning, October 7, 1836 ; the second 
was in London, by the Sacred Harmonic Society, 
on March 7, 1837, and the third by the same . 
body on September 12, in that year. The com- 
poser was present, as an auditor, at the latter 
performance, which he would have conducted, 
but for the interference of the Birmingham Fes- 
tival Committee, who considered that his doing 
so would have been a virtual breach of his en- 
gagement with them. He had, however, super- 
intended three of the rehearsals, and it was in 
remembrance of his association with the Society 
on this occasion that the silver snuff-box men- 
tioned by him in the letter of October 4, 1837, 
was presented to him. W. H. HUSK. 

EASTER. In The Chronology of History, by 
Sir Harris Nicolas (at pp. 8891), a rule is given 
for finding Easter, independently of all tables. 
The rule as printed is incorrect, and gives an 
erroneous result when G is the Sunday letter, 
and the epact is either 6, 13, 20, or 29. The 
error occurs in subdivision (g) of the rule, p. 89. 
It should provide that, when subdivision (/) gives 
no remainder, G is the Sunday letter; and the 
number under G should be, not 7, but 0. For 
instance, in the year 1849, the epact was 6 ; and 
G was Sunday letter, and Easter fell on April 8. 
Applying the rule as printed, it should have 
fallen on April 15. Thus, under subdivision (w), 
45-6=39. Under subdivision (o), 27-6=21; 
which, divided by 7, gives no remainder. Then 
by subdivision (jo), to 39 must be added 7, and 
no remainder is given by subdivision (o) to be 
deducted. 4631=15, the day of April on which 
Easter did not fall in that year. 

DIALECTS or THE SUBURBS. My engagements 
in London, and my residence in the direction of 
Highgate, necessitate a diurnal transition from 
end to end, between Kentish Town and the Ox- 
ford Street extremity of Tottenham Court Road. 
These daily journeys by omnibus, up and down, 
have brought me into acquaintance with some 
extraordinary specimens of suburban dialect. / 
Allow me to place on record in " N. & Q." a 
few examples, not only for the amusement of your 
readers, but as evidences of that modification and 
disguisement, whereof our pliable vernacular has 
always shown itself so susceptible. 

Three Busses. Cads vociferate " Addle-head 
tav'rn ! " tf Break-neck awms ! " " Iguy till ! " 

3'i S. V. FEB. 6, '64.] 



Rekkap ! " " Geddish Down ! " Whereby 
please to understand Adelaide Tavern ; Breck- 
nock Arms ; Highgate Hill ; Red Cap ; Kentish 

Here the news-boys interpose, with a phraseology 
of their own " Heaving Staw ! " Dillitilli- 
grawph!" "Heaving Stann'rd!" "Imbortint- 
frummimerrikey ! " " Litterfr'm Man Hadd'n ! " 
Evening Star; Daily Telegraph ; Evening Stan- 
dard ; Important from America; Letter from 

Here a cad shouts" Full inside ! " "I vish I 
vos ! " responds a hungry loafer from the footway. 
" I owney vish / vos ! " 

In the morning this is altered "Full inside !" 
cries the cad. To whom sarcastically replies the 
driver of a rival bus "Hope yer injoyed yer 
brekfast ! " SCHIN. 

your interesting and valuable journal have, from 
time to time recorded, for the amusement of its 
readers, quaint inscriptions on sundials and on 
bells. Permit me to send you two curious mot- 
toes, which were found on sword blades, and 
communicated to me by Mr. Latham, of the firm 
of Wilkinson & Co., the eminent sword-makers in 
Pall Mall. The first is from an old Spanish blade, 
and runs thus : 

" Non ti fidar di me se il Cor te manca." 
" Trust not to me if thy heart fail thee " 
and the second is from a Gascon sword : 

" Si mon bras redoutable estoit arme de ce Fer. ' 
J'attaquerois le Diable au milieu de 1'Enfer." 

W. F. H. 

SOURCE OF THE NILE. The following note may 
be interesting at the present time : 

" November, 1668. 

" At a Meeting of the Council of the Royal Society of 
London for Improving Natural Knowledge : 
" Ordered, that these documents be printed. 

"BROUNKER, Pres." 

The discourses were printed accordingly, with 
the following title : 

" A Short Relation of the River Nile, of its Source and 
Current, &c., &c. London : printed for John Martyn, 
printer to the Royal Society ; and are to be sold at the 
sign of The Bell, without Temple Bar, 1669." 

In this little book, which I have recently been 
reading, there is a wonderful resemblance in the 
description of the source of the .Nile, and that 
which has been lately read before the Royal So- 

remembered by the readers of French History, 
that one of the most horrible atrocities of the 
Reign of Terror was the murder of this unfor- 
princess in 1793. After death, the remains were 
subject to the greatest indignities, and the head 
carried upon a pike through the streets of Paris. 

A question has been raised since as to what be- 
came of the head after the mob had satiated their 
fury by its public exhibition. A late number of 
Galignani sets the question at rest by the publi- 
cation of a document which has been lately dis- 
posed of at a sale of autographs in the Rue Drouet. 
The document is as follows : 

" Section of the 15.20. Permanent Committee. Sep- 
tember 3rd. Year IV. of Liberty, and I. of Equality. 
Citizen Jacques Pointal of the Corn Market, 69 Rue des 
Petits Champs, applied to the Committee for permission 
to inter the head of the ci-devant Princess de Lamballe, 
which he had succeeded in obtaining possession of. As 
the patriotism and humanity of the said citizen could 
not but be commended, we immediately proceeded to the 
cemetery of Enfants-Trouve's, near the place where our 
Committee met, and within our section, where we had 
the said head buried, and we have given the present act 
to serve the said citizen as a discharge and authorization. 
Done by the Committee, in the above-mentioned day 
and year. DESEQUELLK, Commissioner of the 15.20." 

T. B. 


I have a cast of the fine old seal of the borough 
of Stamford, the matrix of which, I believe, is 
preserved in the Museum of the Society of Anti- 
quaries, London. Its relief is very high, and its 
workmanship singularly beautiful. The device is 
the Virgin and Child, seated under a rich canopy, 
with a praying figure beneath, the legend appa- 
rently being, " Stavnford . Bvrgenses . Virgo . 
Fvndvnt . Tibi . Preces." From its having four 
projecting hinges, similar to those on King Ed- 
ward's double staple seals, I feel alnjost satisfied 
that this is only one side of the ancient double 
seal of Stamford. If I am correct as to this, is 
the other side of the matrix still in existence, or 
are impressions from it still extant ? 

I have also copies from the seals now used by 
the Boroughs of Glastonbury, and Bury-St.- 
Edmund's/but both are very small and modern, 
the former having for device a mitre in front of 
two crossed croziers on a shield, with the legend, 
" Floreat Ecclesia Anglie ; " and the latter, a 
crest merely of the wolf with its paw resting on 
the crowned head of the martyred king, with 
motto of " Bvry . Sci . Edi." As both of these 
towns once possessed ancient and striking seals, I 
would like greatly to ascertain where casts from 
them are to be procured. 

Seal-engraving appears to be almost a lost art 
for the last 300 years, as the high relief, beauty 
of design, and richness of execution of even the 
smallest seals up to that period contrasts forcibly 
with such as have been executed since then, es- 
pecially with the more recent examples. There 
are some exceptions, I must acknowledge, to this 



S. V. FEB. 6, '64. 

sad decadence, but they are far from being nu- 
merous. Can any reason be assigned why seals 
cannot now apparently be engraved in the bold 
and beautiful manner in which this was done four 
or five centuries ago? 

My collection of English municipal seals is now 
a very extensive one, mainly through the kind 
facilities afforded by your columns, but I have 
long been desirous to obtain some of the older 
seals of cities and towns, which I yet want, to 
render it as complete as possible. I beg to 
name those above referred to, also the doubl 
seals, now used, of the cities of London anc 
Dublin; the double seals of the boroughs o 
Shaftesbury, Southampton, and New Shoreham 
the 1589 seal of the city of Winchester; th 
ancient seals of Hereford and Northampton ; and 
those now used by New Windsor and Queen- 
borough. To those I would add two ecclesias- 
tical examples, viz., the singularly beautiful seals 
of Christ Church,, Canterbury, and of Thomas 
Arundel, Archbishop of Canterbury, 13961414. 
You know my address, and should any readers 
of " N. & Q." communicate with me, and kindly 
favour me with gutta-percha casts of all or any 
of the seals I have named, I would gladly re- 
ciprocate the obligation out of my own very ex 
tensive collection of mediaeval seals. E. C. 


" This world's a good world to live in, 

To lend and to spend and to give in ; 
But to beg or to borrow, or ask for one's own, 
'Tis the very worst world that ever was known." 

It was ^bought by a friend to be Sheridan's ; 
he has, however, searched his works without suc- 
cess -* K. R. C. 

MR. DANIEL CAMPBELL. Any information will 
be gratefully received respecting " Mr. Daniel 
Campbell, Minister of the Gospel," author of 
Sacramental Meditations on the Sufferings and 
Death of Christ. The seventh edition, published 
in 1723, is dedicated to Archibald, Duke of Ar- 
gyle, with a preliminary letter, also addressed 
To my own Flock, and Parishioners of the 
Parishes of Kilmichael of Glasrie, Killimire and 
Lochgear." C. W. BINGHAM. 

CHESS. Has not at last a copy been discovered 
of Vicent, Libre dehjochs, partilis, #r., 1495 ? 
According to the Illustrated London News, No. 
833, a rumour to this purport was afloat some 
years ago. Was ever a reply published by the 
writer of the Essay on Persian Chess (N. Bland, 
Esq.), or in bis behalf, to the critical remarks of 

[* This quotation, with variorum readings, was in- 
quired after unsuccessfully in our 1 S. ii. 71, 102, 156.- 

Prof. Duncan Forbes, 1860, in The History of 
Chess ? Did nothing more appear about this sub- 
ject ? COLON N A. 

THE COMET or 1581. Reading lately Bret- 
schneider's Collection of Melancthon s Letters, in 
four quarto volumes, I came upon the following 
notice of a comet, which may be interesting to 
some readers. It is in a letter of Melancthon to 
Camerarius, of date August 18, 1531 : 

"Vidimus Cometen, qui per dies amplius decem 
jam se ostendit in occasu Solstitiali. Videtur autem 
super Cancrum aut extremam Geminorum partem posi- 
tus. Nam occidit post solem horis fere duabus ; et mane 
paulo ante solis ortum in oriente prodit ; ita cum coelo 
circumagitur, proprium motum quern habeat quaerimus. 
Est autem colore candido, nisi si quando nubes eum pal- 
lidiorem reddunt. Caudam vertit versus Orientem. Mihi 
quidem videtur minari his nostris regionibus, et prope- 
modum ad ortum meridianum vertere caudam. Non 
vidi ante cometen ullum, et descriptiones hoc non diserte 
exprimunt. Erigit caudam supra reliquum corpus. Qui- 
dam affirmant esse ex illo genere quoa vocat Plinius 
i<icty, quia sit acuta cauda. Id ego non potui oculis 
judicare. Quasso te ut mihi scribas an apud vos etiam 
conspectus sit ; quod non opinor ; distat enim a terra vix 
duobus gradibus ; si tamen conspectus est, describe dili- 
genter, et quid judicet Schonerus, significato." (Vol. ii. 
p. 518.) 

In a second letter to Camerarius, of date Sept. 
9, he remarks : 

" Cometen hie judicavimus a Cancro ad Libram usque, 
proprio motu vectum esse. Quanquam autem in Libra 
nunc est Jupiter, tamen illius motus causam existimant 
Martis motum esse, qui nunc ab Arcto discedit. Et plane- 
tas cometse sequuntur, ut scis." (/&. p. 537.) 

Melancthon at this time was in Thuringia, I 
think in Erfurt. I believe there is a letter of 
Luther regarding this same comet, but I cannot 
lay my hand on it. There was a comet in 1527, 
on which Gerhard (Gerhardus Novimagus) wrote 
a treatise ; and how did it happen that Melanc- 
thon had not seen it ? H. B. 


Sybilla de Chaworth, wife of Walter d'Evreux, 
and mother of Patrick, Earl of Salisbury ? " Pat- 
rick de Cadurcis or Chaworth, and Maud his wife, 
testified and confirmed by their deed all dona- 
tions made by their children," &c. Of what 
family was this Maud ? Temp. Edw. I. we find 
that " Maude de Chawarde held the Vill of Etlawe, 
co. Glouc r ." 

On what authority do the Scropes * quarter 
the arms of Chaworth ? Several of the posses- 
sions of Ernulphde Hesdene in Somersetshire and 
Gloucestershire are found (temp. Wm. Rufus) to j 
)e the property of Patrick de Chaworth. Rud- 
der (Hist. Gloucestershire, p. 510), says Hesdene ] 
conveyed Kempsford, and adds, under "Hatherop," 

It does not appear to me that the Tiptoffs, through 
whom (apparently) the Scropes claim this right, were 
ustly entitled to it. 

3' d S. V. FKB. 6, '64. ] 



that that manor "probably passed to the Cha- 
worths at the same time." 

Collinson (Hist. Som. i. 160), states that some 
hides in Western, formerly the property of Hes- 
dene, were in the possession (temp. Wm. Rufus) 
of Patrick de Cadurcis; "but how he (Hesdene) 
parted with his estate does not appear." 

Is there any authority for Rudder's statement, 
or did he not, from the fact of the manors in 
question being found afterwards in the possession 
of Chaworth, conjecture that they were conveyed 
by Hesdene ? Does it not seem that Chaworth 
became possessed of this property in right of his 
wife Maud, who might have been a sister or daugh- 
ter of Hesdene ? 

I may add, that I have reasons for doubting the 
accuracy of a pedigree of Hesdene inserted in 
Burke's Visitation of Seats and Arms. H. S. G. 

OLIVER DE DURHEN, ETC. In vol. ii. p. 63, of 
a publication of the year 1742, entitled Antiquities 
of the Abbey Church, Westminster, and under the 
head of " Monuments to remarkable Persons 
Buried in that Church," it mentions that next to 
the monument of King Henry III. is one of " Oli- 
ver de Durden, a Baron of England, and brother 
of King Henry III." 

Query. 1. What was the name of his mother, 
and was he a half-brother of King Henry III. ? 
I cannot obtain the information from Rapin or 
the other historians of that period. 

2. Is there any book or record in which the 
names of Henry III.'s barons are given ; and if so, 
where can it be seen ? ANTIQUARY. 

GRUMBOLD PI OLD. One of the three manors 
in the parish of Hackney has this name. It for- 
merly belonged to the vicars of the old church, 
and the tradition is they were so severe in exact- 
ing their fines, and there was such dissatisfaction 
and grumbling among the tenants in consequence, 
that it acquired the nickname of Grumble Hold. 
Surely, if this were the case, no lord or steward of 
a manor would have chosen to place such a name 
at the very head of each Court Roll. May it not 
rather be St. Grumbold's or St. Rumbold's 
Manor? The name is a corruption of Rumual- 
dus. Hasted (Hist, of Kent, in. p. 380) says that 
the fishermen of Folkestone used to make a feast of 
whitings every Christmas Eve, and call it "Rum- 
bold Night." The old church at Hackney is 
sometimes called that of St. John, and sometimes 
of St. Augustine. Any further information would 
oblige. A. A. 

Poets Corner. 

DR. HILL : PETITION OP I. In 1759, Dr. Hill 
wrote a pamphlet, entitled To David Garrick, 
Esq., the Petition of I, on behalf of herself and 
Sinters. ^ The purport was to charge Mr. Garrick 
with mispronouncing some words, including the 
letter i, as furm for firm, vurtue for virtue" and 

others. The pamphlet is now forgotten. (Dra- 
matic Table-Talk, ii. 144, Lond. 1825.) What 
pronunciation did Dr. Hill insist upon ? Was the 
i \nftrm and virtue ever sounded as in vinegar, or 
virulence 9 W. D. 

HYLA HOLDEN of Wednesbury, gent., born 1719, 
died 1790; married in 1745 Elizabeth, daughter 
of John Walford of Wednesbury, gent. (BaTter, 
Hist. Northamptonshire, i. 317.) 

Particulars of their issue and descendants will 
oblige. Also any particulars of the Walford 
family. H. S. G. 

KUSTER'S DEATH. In Monk's Life of Bentley 
(p. 317), the following communication is made in 
a letter of Kuster's friend, Wasse : 

" We heard soon after that he [ Kuster] had been 
blooded five or six times for a fever, and that upon open- 
ing his body there was found a cake of sand along the 
lower region of his belly. This, I take it, was occasioned 
by his sitting nearly double, and writing on a very low 
table, surrounded with three or four circles of books [for 
his edition of Hesychius probably] placed on the ground, 
which was the situation we usually found him in." 

Is any reliance to be placed upon the story of 
the " cake of sand along the lower region of his 
belly," or is it merely a case of calculus ? 


IRELAND. In the admirable dictionary of M. 
Viollet le Due (vol. vi. p. 155) is a very curious 
account of certain towers which are found in 
cemeteries in the centre and west of France, and 
in which formerly lights were burned at night to 
indicate the proximity to the last resting-places of 
the dead. He states they are also called fanal, 
tourniele, and pbare. The earliest notice he gives 
is from an old chronicle of the Crusades, which 
states : 

"Then died Saladin (Salahedins), the greatest prince 
that there was in Pagandom, and was buried in the 
cemetery of St. Nicholas of Acre near his mother, who 
was there very richly interred ; and over them a beauti- 
ful and grand tower (une tourniele biele et grant) where 
is night and day a lamp full of olive oil, and the hospital 
of St. John of Acre pays, and causes it to be lighted, who 
hold great rents which Saladin and his mother left 

The author says, however, there is a tradition 
that they were " menhirs," or erections of stone, 
consecrated to the Sun in Druidical times. He 
gives illustrations of three of these lanterns of the 
dead. They have all a small door raised some 
distance above the ground, and an opening or 
window at the top, where the lighted lamp was 
exhibited. One is from Celfrouin (Charente), 
and is like a pier surrounded by clustered columns 
about six feet in diameter, and including a sort 
of conical top or spire about forty feet high. The 
mouldings, &c., show it to be the work of the 
thirteenth century. The second exists at Ciron 
^Indre), has a similar door, and six lancet windows 



[3 rd S.-V. FEB. 6, '64. 

at the top, and is not more than twenty-five feet 
hiMi, The third is at Antony (Vienne), and is 
square with small jamb-shafts at the angles, and 
is about thirty-five feet high, and seems also to be 
of the thirteenth century. They all stand on 
flights of steps. 

Is it possible that the round towers of Ireland 
were intended to serve as cemetery lights or lan- 
terns of the dead ? In France these fanals seem 
to be confined to the Celtic districts, and it is not 
impossible that the Celtic races in Ireland may 
have seen and copied them. They have the same 
entrances a little above ordinary reach, the same 
windows at top, and the same conical caps. Could 
any among the French antiquaries who peruse 
" N. & Q." favour us with some further informa- 
tion with regard to these curious towers ? It is 
not impossible after all that they may be the means 
of dispelling the mystery which has hung so long 
over the far-famed round towers of Ireland. 

A. A. 

wish to obtain information relative to the ancestry 
of Richard Leigh, of Birkitt, in Bolland, in the 
county of York. He was buried at Slaidburn, 
March 1, 1676. His wife's name was Jane ; I do 
not know her surname. They had issue Leonard, 
of whom presently ; William, who married and 
left issue; James, also married and left issue; 
Ellin, married to Nicholas Parkinson, and had 
issue five sons and one daughter. 

Leonard Leigh married '(May 9, 1657,) Eliza- 
beth Brigg; and had issue Richard, who was 
father of Leonard Leigh of Harrop Hall, who left 
issue a daughter Anne, married to Samuel Har- 
rison of Cranage Hall, in the county of Chester. 

The arms borne by this family were : A cross 
ingrailed ; arid in the first quarter, a mascle. 

To any of your correspondents who will favour 
me with a reply, I shall be happy to give further 
information as to the descendants of the first- 
mentioned Richard Leigh. 



" Nothing could be more second-rate and second-hand 
than the litterateurs of the court of Berlin. Voltaire was 
the only ahle man whom Frederick ever persuaded to 
join them : he ridiculed them and their master as soon as 
flattery ceased to he profitable. Maupertuis was a small 
astronomer ; Boyer, a pedant, quoting Greek and Latin, 
which he could not construe ; Clairfons, who translated 
Dante into unreadable French ; and Hersted, whose double 
version of the Henriade might be taken for a burlesque. 
Yet Frederick was so proud of these and his other medi- 
ocrities, that he published a catalogue of them in three 
large volumes." Notes made in North Germany, p. 172, 
London, 1776. 

I shall be glad to know the full title of the 
Catalogue in three volumes, and anything about 
Clairfons or Hersted, of whom I cannot find any 
account. E. T. H. 

MARKING OF SADDLES, ETC. In an old docu- 
ment, of A.D. 1570, relating to the bounds of a 
forest and the rights of certain owners of land 
therein, it is mentioned that " The servants of Sir 
A. B. did, in the fence-month, mark saddles, 
waynes, and carts, at certain gates and other 
places ;" and that " the said marking was farmed 
3ut at so much per annum." Can any reader pro- 
duce notices of a similar custom in explanation ? 

J . 

THE EMPRESS MAUD. I have read that a Life 
of the Empress Maud, daughter of Henry II., was 
written by Arnulphus, Bishop of Liseux; and that 
it is now in the library of the College of .Navarre 
at Paris. Has this life ever been translated or 
published ? G. P. 

New York. 

MODEL OF EDINBURGH. About twenty years 
ago there was exhibited, first in Edinburgh, and 
afterwards in Glasgow, London, and other places, 
a beautiful model in wood of the city of Edin- 
burgh showing the Castle, the public buildings, 
and each individual house in the different streets 
and squares with much accuracy and distinctness. 
It was, according to my recollection, about twelve 
feet in length and eight in breadth ; was very 
elaborate, and must have taken long to construct, 
being in every respect most creditable to the 
framer. It attracted considerable notice at the 
time, and a friend told me that, being in the room 
at Piccadilly where it was shown, the late Duke 
of Wellington was among the visitors; and he 
heard his grace say, that his seeing this model would 
induce him to visit the original, which, however, he 
never did. 

Can any of your readers state whether this 
piece of work is still in existence, where it is, and 
who was the artist ? J. R. B. 

MOTTOES WANTED. A company is established 
to supply Burton-upon-Trent with water from 
Lichfield and the tributaries of the river above 
that city : the object is not co supersede the use 
of the present Burton water in brewing, but to 
economise it by bringing water from another source 
for domestic and manufacturing and other pur- 
poses, and also for all other brewing purposes ex- 
cept that of making ale. Mottoes, conveying the 
following ideas in Greek or Latin, especially from 
classic authors, are requested : 

1. To succour, not to supersede. 

2. We bring silver to save gold. 

The latter means that the Burton springs being 
valuable as gold, we bring silver to economise its 
use. T. J. BUCKTON. 


NEWHAVEN IN FRANCE. Dugdale, in his 
Baronetage, under " Stourton," says that William, 
Lord Stourton, died A.D. 1548, " being Deputy- 
General of Newhaven, in France, and the Marches 

3 l S. V. FEB. 6, '64.] 



thereof." Lord Stnurton was in command of one 
of Hen. VIII.'s fortifications, near Boulogne. Is 
there any place at or near that town bearing, or 
known to have borne, the English name of JNew- 
haven ? J- 

Peerage of 1720, which has already been the sub- 
ject of a query (3 rd S. ii. 67, 117), and which the 
kindness of your correspondent G. enabled me to 
identify as the third edition of Francis Nichol's 
British Compendium, the famous Sir James Hamil- 
ton, Earl of Arran, and Regent of Scotland 
during the minority of King .James V., is said to 
have been " Knight of the Cockle in France." 
This is doubtless " L'Ordre de Chevalerie du Na- 
vire, ou de la Coquille de Mer, institue en 1269, par 
S. Louis," in commemoration of a hazardous naval 

The collar of the Order was composed of 
escallop shells alternately with double crescents, 
and their badge was a ship-rigged arg. floating 
upon waves of the same. What were the circum- 
stances of the hazardous naval expedition, in com- 
memoration of which it was instituted ? 


Cape Town, S. A. 

PROVERB WANTED. Can you tell me where I 
may find the first mention of the following, and 
which is the earlier form ? " We praise the food 
as we find it " ; and " We praise the fool as we 
find him." An early reply will much oblige. 



" The Roman historian describes a supposed lunatic 
mutilated and confined so long in a narrow cell, as so 
nearly to have lost the human form, that, on his libera- 
tion, he was too offensive to be pitied deformitate miseri- 
cordiam amisit." A Letter to Sir W. Garrow, A..G., by 
Charles Barton, M.D., London, 1813, pp. 64. 

The Letter is on the bad management of lunatic 

Who is the Roman historian so vaguely quoted, 
and where can I find the passage ? M. M. 

SEALS. Will any collector of seals, &c., kindly 
furnish me with an impression or cast of a seal 
or gem representing a man approaching a house, 
and carrying on his back what appears to be a 
sheaf of corn ? The seal is oval, and about an 
inch long. If sent to the post office at this place 
it would be gratefully received, and repaid in 
kind. M. M. S. 


there treating especially on this subject, besides 
those by Mr. Boaden and Mr. Wevill ? G. W. 

me any account of this Charles Hennebert ? He 
published Terence (volume i.), translated into 
French, Cambridge University Press, 1726, 8vo. 

2. Who is translator of the Andria of Terence, 
Cambridge and London, Hamilton, 1659 ? 

3. The comedies of Terence, translated by S. 
Patrick, 1745, revised and materially improved by 
James Prendeville, Dublin, 1829, 8vo. Wanted 
any information regarding the editor. R. I. 

VICHY. Where can information as to Vichy 
and its mineral springs be procured ? These aquas 
calidie appear to have been known to the Romans. 

S. P. Q. R. 

WRITS OF SUMMONS. William De Rythre, 
Lord of Rythre in the county of York, had sum- 
mons to parliament from the 28th Ed. I. to the 
6th Ed. II. inclusive. In the 26th Ed. I. he had 
summons to Carlisle equis et armis, in which writ 
he is designated as a baron ; the earls and barons 
then summoned being respectively distinguished 
by their rank. Is it therefore to be inferred that, 
although in this case, no record of a summons to 
parliament earlier than that of the 28th Ed. I. is 
extant, yet that a previous summons had been 
addressed either to himself or an ancestor ? 


SITUATION OF ZOAR. The exact situation of 
this ancient city is, I am aware, still a matter of 
discussion amongst biblical critics, but I was not 
prepared for such exactly opposite statements re- 
specting it as appear in the articles on u Moab " 
and "Zoar" in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of the 
Bible, both by an author to whom students of the 
Bible are deeply indebted Mr. Grove of Syden- 

Under the article "Zoar," vol. iii. p. 1834, we 
find the following remarks : 

" The definite position of Sodom is, and probably will 
always be, a mystery, but there can be little doubt that 
the plain of Jordan was at the north of the Dead Sea ; and 
that the cities of the plain must therefore have been 
situated there instead of at the southern end of the lake, 
as it is generally taken for granted they were." 

And then, after giving what seems to my mind at 
least very satisfactory reasons for this opinion, Mr. 
Grove concludes : 

" These considerations appear to the writer to render it 
highly probable that the Zoar of the Pentateuch was to 
the north of the Dead Sea, not far from its northern end, 
in the general parallel of Jericho." 

Let us now turn to the article " Moab," vol. ii. 
p. 391, also written by Mr. Grove, and what do 
we find 

" Zoar was the cradle of the race of Lot. Although the 
exact position of this town has not been determined, 
THERE is NO DOUBT that it was situated on the south- 
eastern border of the Dead Sea." 

Can these two statements be reconciled? If 
not, which, in Mr. Grove's opinion, contains ^ the 
most probable account of the situation of ancient 
Zoar ? A. E. L. 



[3* S. V. FEB. 6, '64. 

COLKITTO AND A. S. In Milton's Sonnets, 
there are some obscure allusions. Thus, in the 
6th [llth], who is meant when he says : 
" Why is it harder, Sirs, than Gordon, 
Colkitto, or Macdonnel, or Galasp? " 

The last two were chiefs in Ireland in the war 
of 1565 ; but who are the first two, Gordon and 
Colkitto f Again, in his lines " On the New 
Forcers of Conscience," we have 
" .... A classic hierarchy- 
Taught ye by mere A. S. and Rutherford." 

The latter is the well-known Scottish divine, 
Samuel Rutherford ; but who is " A. S." 



[Warton has the following note on the first passage : 
" Milton is here collecting, from his hatred to the Scots, 
what he thinks Scottish names of an ill sound. Colkitto 
and Macdonnel are one and the same person; a brave 
officer on the royal side, an Irishman of the Antrim 
family, -who served under Montrose. The Macdonalds 
of that family are styled, by way of distinction, Mac 
Collcittock, i. e. the descendants of the lame Colin. 
Galasp is a Scottish writer against the Independents. 
He is George Gillespie, one of the Scotch members of the 
Assembly of Divines, as his name is subscribed to their 
Letter to the Belgick, French, and Helvetian churches, 
dated 1643 : in which they pray < that these three na- 
tions may be joined as one stick in the hands of the 
Lord : that all mountains may become plains before them 
and us: that then all who now see the plummet in our 
hands, may also behold the top-stone set upon the head 
of the Lord's house among us, and may help us with 
shouting to cry, Grace, Grace, to it.' (Rushworth, p. 
371.) Such was the rhetorick of these reformers of re- 
formation ! " 

A. S. noticed In " The New Forcers of Conscience," is 
Dr. Adam Steuart, a minister of the Scottish Kirk, and 
a doughty champion he appears to have been in the 
polemics of that time; witness his effusion entitled, 
" Zerubbabel to Sanballat and Tobiah," imprim. Mar. 
17, 1644, 4to. Consult Watt's Bibliotheca for his other 

THE NILE. I have noticed in The Times and 
other papers, recently, the question mooted as to 
whether Captain Speke did really discover the 
source of the Nile. It has occurred to me that 
he may have done so in part, by tracing one of its 
sources. Some of your readers are, no doubt, 
well acquainted with the moorland districts of 
this kingdom ; and if those regions are visited in 
the summer season, they will leave with the impres- 
sion of having discovered the rise of one of the 
many rivers flowing from that district; but visit 
>t place again the following spring, and that 
same sprhg, which they thought was the river 

head, will in many cases be traced for a mile or 
more in some other direction. May not this be 
the case with Captain Speke's discovery ? 

I had recently a parcel from a bookseller's shop, 
wrapped up in an old map. On examination, I 
found it to be an old map of Africa, having the 
Nile to the lakes Zaire and Zastan. The map is 
curious, and apparently about two hundred years 
old. It was once, I should think, part of a book. 
On the back is printed a description of Africa, 
commencing thus : " Africa as it lay nearest the 
first people." It is engraved by Abraham Goos. 
I shall be glad to know from what folio work it 
is taken, and if of any real value ? G. P. 

[Abraham Goos published various maps at Amsterdam 
in the early part of the seventeenth century. Dr. 0. 
Dappers's Beschreibung von Africa (Description of Africa), 
fol. Amsterdam, 1670, has a large map of Africa; but 
this map does not bear the name of Goos. The question 
respecting Captain Speke and the Nile will probably give 
occasion ere long to sharp discussions, but on a scale far 
beyond the disposable space in " N. & Q."] 

MAJOR RICHARDSON PACK. I should be glad 
to know something respecting the author of a 
small volume, entitled Miscellanies in Prose and 
Verse, the second edition : London, printed for 
E. Curll, in Fleet Street, M.DCC.XIX. The volume 
is dedicated to the Honourable Colonel William 
Stanhope, His Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary 
and Plenipotentiary at the court of Madrid. This 
dedication is signed " Richardson Pack," who is 
styled Major Pack in an eulogistic poem by G. 
Sewell, prefixed to the work. The author ap- 
pears to have served in Spain, and to have pos- 
sessed an elegant literary taste ; although his 
poems are disfigured by the licentious freedom in 
vogue in his day. Among the prose articles in 
the volume, is a Life of Wycherley, the poet. 



[Richardson Pack was educated at the Merchant Tay- 
lors' School, and was for two years at St. John's College, 
Oxford. His father intending him for the legal profes- 
sion entered him at the Middle Temple ; but the study of 
the law not agreeing either with his health or inclination, 
he joined the army, and served abroad under Gen. Stan- 
hope and the Duke of Argyle. The Major died at Aber- 
deen in Sept. 1728. The various editions of his Poetical 
Miscellanies, all published by E. Curll, may be seen in 
Bohn's Lowndes. For other particulars of him consult 
Gibber's Lives of the Poets, and the biographical dic- 

SPENSER'S " CALENDAR." I have recently met 
with an old translation into Latin hexameters 
of Spenser's Calendar. As the title-page of my 
copy is missing, I should feel obliged if any one 
would inform me of the author's name and the 
date of the publication. Let me inquire, too, 

3' d S. V. FEB. 6, '64.] 



whether there is any version extant of the other 
poems of Spenser, and of the " Faerie Queene " in 
particular? X. 1. 

[The following is the title:" Calendarium Pastorale, 
aive vEglogae duodecim, totidem Anni Mensibus accom- 
modatae, Anglice olim scriptae, nunc autem eleganti La- 
tino Carmine donate a Theodoro Bathurst. Lond. 1653, 
8vo." It is dedicated by the editor, William Dillingham, 
to Francis Lane. Some copies have no date. It was re- 
published by John Ball, with a Latin Dissertation, " De 
Vita Spenseri et Scriptis," and an augmented glossary. 
Lond. 1732, 8vo, with cuts by Foudrinier.] 

QUOTATIONS. Where are the following quota- 
tions to be found ? 

i ; A thing 

O'er which the raven flaps her funeral wing." 
[Byron's Corsair, canto n. stanza xvi.] 

" Perhaps it was right to dissemble your love, 
But why did you kick me downstairs? " 

[These lines first appeared in the Asylum for Fugitive 
Pieces, 1785 ; and again in The Panel, by J. P. Kemble, 
1788 (Act I. Sc. 1). It has been conjectured that Mr. 
Kemble was the author of them. See " N. & Q.," 2 nd S. 
vii. 176; viii. 37.] 

" 'Tis sweet to know there is an eye will mark 
Our coming, and look brighter when we come." 
[Byron's Don Juan, canto i. stanza 123.] 

G. F. B. 

Who is the author of the following specimen of 
grandiloquence ? 

" Britanniarum majestas ad ortum solis ab hesperio 
cubili porrecta." 

J. L. 

[This quotation, wherever it occurs, is altered from the 
following passage in Horace, Od. lib. iv. carm. xv. : 

" Famaque et imperi 
Porrecta majestas ad ortum 
Solis ab Hesperio cubili."] 

SPRINGS. What is the meaning of the word 
" springs" in the following passage ? 
" Tf aught of oaten stop, or pastoral song, 
May hope, chaste Eve, to soothe thy modest ear, 
Like thy own solemn springs, 
Thy springs, and dying gales." 

Collins, Ode to Evening, 1 4. 


[Spring, as used in this passage, is a Scotch word, and 
signifies a quick and cheerful tune on a musical instru- 
ment. The word occurs in Douglas's Virgil, clxvii. 6 : 
" Orpheus mycht reduce agane, I ges<>, 
From hell hisspousis goist with his sueit stringis, 
Playand on his harp of Trace saplesand tpnngis.*' 
Vide Jamieson's Scottish Dictionary.] 

RETREAT. A certain time during the day at 
which the guard turns out under arms, the 
picquets are inspected, and the band or drums 
and fifes play for about ten minutes. " Retreat" 

is in some way affected by the time of the year ; 
the hour at which it comes off being regulated by 
the time of sunset. What is the reason for the 
name retreat being applied to this particular pa- 
rade, if it may be so termed ? JOHN DAVIDSON. 

[The military term retreat has various significations; 
but whenever it is applied to a parade or muster of the 
troops, we think the expression must have originally 
referred to the men's retiring to their quarters when the 
muster was over, not to the muster itself.] 

DUROCOBRIVIS. Can you direct me to any 
book, where conjectures are hazarded on the site 
of the Roman town Durocobriva, besides those 
contained in the works of Camden, Chauncy, and 
Clutterbuck, which are within my reach? In 
modern atlases this town is represented as occu- 
pying the present site of Maiden Bower, near 
Dunstable. Are there sufficient reasons for this 
decision ? C. D. 

[The learned William Baxter is of opinion that tbfc 
site in question was Woburn, in Bedfordshire. He also 
maintains that the proper orthography was Durocobrivis. 
See his Glossarium A.ntiquitatum Sritannicarum, edit. 
1719, p. 113.] . 

ANONYMOUS. Who was the author of 
" An Autumn near the Rhine ; or Sketches of Courts, 
Society, and Scenery, &c., in some of the German States 
bordering on the Rhine. With a Map of the Eastern 
Part of Germany as settled at the Congress of Vienna. 
London, 1818"? 

T. H. 

[By Charles Edward Dodd, Esq., Barrister of the 
Middle Temple, who died very soon after the publication 
of his work.] 

(3 rd S. iv. 175.) 

Mr. Frank Buckland, in his letter to The Quean 
newspaper of the 16th inst., which no doubt some 
of your readers have also seen, has thrown a new 
light upon Cromwell's head. Visiting a friend 
lately in Hampshire, who possesses some interest- 
ing relics of Charles L, he was informed by him 

" that, despite all the curious stories about the existence 
of Oliver Cromwell's head, he thought he knew of the 
existence of a head, which all evidence seems to prove to be 
the very head of this great man. [_These italicised words 
I do not know whether Mr. Buckland's, or his friend's.] 
The story is as follows: 'Oliver Cromwell was buried 
in Westminster Abbey. I well recollect my father, the 
Dean [Buckland, of course], pointing out'the place to 
his friends. The grave was situated in the very centre 
of the centre chapel, at the east end of Hen. VII.'s Chapel ; 
but there is no stone to mark the place.' " [These italics 
are Mr. Buckland's.] 

Mr. Buckland then quotes the usual historical 
account of the magnificent burial of the Protector 



S. V. FEE, 6, '64. 

at Westminster (which is still a disputed point, 
however); and that it was disinterred by the 
Royalists, hung at Tyburn, and cast into a hole 
beneath the gallows. 

He then continues, what I presume to be his 
friend's story (for he is rather involved in his 
mode of stating it), thus : 

" The head was subsequently separated from the body, 
and placed on an iron spike over the gate at Temple 
Bar. Here it remained till it was blown down by the 
wind. It was at that moment picked up by a soldier, 
who immediately secreted it. It remained in this soldier s 
family for several generations; till at last, not many 
vears ago, it was given by the last survivor of his family 
to Mr. Wilkinson, a surgeon of Sandgate, near Folke- 
stone, and is at this moment in the possession of that 
gentleman's son. The skin covering the skull is quite 
dry and hard, but in excellent preservation. The hair of 
the mustache still remains ; and the wart also, which we 
see represented in his portraits, is plainly to be seen ; and 
the flesh has been embalmed, which would not have been 
the case with the remains of an ordinary person. I re- 
gret to say I have not seen it myself. [I presume, Mr. 
Buckland means he has not?] With the head are pre- 
served the actual documents, in which are offered large 
rewards for the restoration to the authorities of the head, 
after it was blown down ; and severe threats upon those 
who retained it knowingly, after these notices were 

I will not now enter upon the vexed question 
as to the place of burial of Oliver Cromwell ; but 
if the above facts are correct, and there appears 
no reason to doubt, surely some means ought to 
be taken to have the head and documents ex- 
amined, by Mr. Wilkinson's permission, by some 
person competent to iudge of their historical 
value. H. W. 

(3 rd S. v. 99.) 

He favoured the rising in Cheshire under Sir 
George Booth on behalf of Charles II. in August, 
1659, but lay concealed, designing to surprise 
Chester had Booth succeeded in his bold en- 
terprise. In March following, General Monk 
gave Colonel Venables the government of Chester 
Castle, and he aided the Restoration. What re- 
ward he received we cannot state, but his friend 
Dr. Peter Barwick petitioned Charles II: that 
Colonel Venables might be honoured with some 
eminent mark of the royal favour, since it was 
sufficiently known that ne formerly both coulci 
have restored his majesty to his throne, and woulc 
have done it, if he had not been hindered by the 
perfidiousness of some to whom the king's business 
was trusted. 

Colonel Venables was an Independant in re- 
ligion, and in 1664 was denounced to the govern- 
ment as one who had secretly promoted the rising 
in Yorkshire, known as the Farnley Wood Plot 
There was probably little truth in the accusa- 

tion. He seems thenceforward to have lived in 
retirement at his seat in Cheshire. He died in 
1687, being buried on July 26. 

As respects him, we have references to Life of 
Dr. Peter Barwick, 162, 184186, 190, 207, 219, 
26 277, 431, 451, 456, 471, 521, 522; Borlace's 
Irish Rebellion, 277, 282, 283, 314; App. 24; 
Campbell's Chancellors, 4th ed. vi. 2; Carlyle's 
Cromwell, ii. 65,66; iii. 81,97,144, 145; Claren- 
don, Cromwelliana, 55, 58, 65, 70, 71, 142; 
Green's Cal. Dom. State Pap. Car. II., iii. 512; 
Leon. Howard's Letters, 1 ; Hunter's Life of Oli- 
ver Heywood, 179 ; Lancashire Civil War Tracts, 
33, 354; Life of Adam Martindale, 210, 216; 
Autobiog. of Hen. Neiccome, 207 ; Norris Papers, 
19 ; Ormerod's Cheshire, i.487 ; Granville Penrfl 
Memorials of Sir Wm. Penn ; Sainsbury's Cal. 
Col. State Pap. ; Thomas's Hist. Notes, 657 ; 
Thurloe's State Papers ; Whitelock's Memorials ; 
Zouch's Life of Walton, ed. 1823, 33, 34. 

Lord Campbell was evidently under the impres- 
sion that Colonel Venables was a mere country 
squire ; and a more recent writer, having occa- 
sion incidentally to mention the colonel, appears 
to have been equally unaware of his historic and 
literary fame. C. H. & THOMPSON COOPER. 

(3 rd S. v. 36.) 

I observe with some surprise in "1ST. & Q." a 
note of inquiry respecting my published writings, 
to which note is appended an account of a few of 
them. I do not know, nor even guess, the names 
of those correspondents who have thus favoured 
me with their notice ; nor do I complain of their 
remarks, which are written with that gentlemanly 
courtesy which distinguishes the pages of your 
periodical. But, as the titles of my books have 
been thus publicly requested, it seems fair that I 
should be allowed" to give a completer list of them 
than that which appears in your pages, which 
abound in bibliographic information. I have 
such an esteem for your journal as a permanent 
record of the curiosities of literature and science, 
that I take the pains to correct your list by the 
following additions : 

Besides my English versions of Cicero's Re- 
public and Laws, I translated for the first time 
into English Cicero's Divination and Fate, pub- 
lished in Bohn's Classical Series. Some other of 
my publications are versions of the Ecclesiastes 
and Canticles of Solomon, and the Prophecies of 
Micah from the Hebrew. An improved Mono- 
tessaron, or Harmony of the Gospels, in a revised 
translation, published by Messrs. Kivington ; 
Man's Right to God's Word, from the French prize 
treatise of M. Boucher ; The. Pleasures of Piety, a 


3' d S.V. FEB. 6, '64.] 



poem. A Key to Alism and the Highest Initia 
tions; being a treatise on the system of universa 
theology, theosophy, and philosophy. A Life Oj 
James Pierrepont Greaves, an eminent mystic 
noticed at large in Mr. Morell's History of Philo- 
sophy. A Life of Colston, the Bristol philanthro 
pist. The New Bristol Guide, &c. Of course I 
do not mention a multitude of compilations to lead- 
ing journals and periodicals. 

As to the Adamus Exul, to which the inquiry o: 
your correspondent is especially directed, I woulc 
mention that the only original copies of the Latin 
I ever saw were two contained in the library of thai 
great book collector, Mr. Heber. Long before 
his death, he told me he possessed them, and his 
words were verified ; for after his death they were 
sold among the books of his library. One copy 
of these scarce literary curiosities passed into the 
hands of Mr. Lilly, the London bookseller; and I 
persuaded my friend Mr. Hallam, the historian, to 
have it purchased for the British Museum. Whe- 
ther it was so or not I cannot tell. The other 
came into the possession of a private gentleman. 
Both of these copies were kindly lent to me, and 
I collated them with Lauder's edition of the Ada- 
mus Exul, Dr. Parr's copy of which I still possess. 
I found that it faithfully agreed with the Latin 
original of Grotius, with the exception of a very 
few words. My English version of this wonderfully 
rare and grand tragedy is sometimes very literal, 
and sometimes merely paraphrastic, especially in 
the choruses. But The Times, and other leading 
organs of criticism, seemed to grant in their re- 
views that I had established this fact that Milton 
was more indebted to the Adamus Exul than to 
any poem in existence. It is desirable that the 
Latin original should be reprinted. But the 
public taste for truly Miltonic poetry is at a very 
low condition. I fear that if new Miltons were now 
to arise they would suffer as much from neglect as 
he who received five pounds for the copyright of 
the noblest epic in the universe. 


(3 rd S. v. 100.) 

As Warton in the Life of sir Thomas Pope, 
published in 1772, records his obligations to "the 
late ^ learned Mr. Francis Wise, Deeper of the 
archives," for transcripts of some curious papers 
from the collections of Strype and Charlett, I 
cannot but conclude that he is the Mr. Wise said 
to be alluded to by Warton in 1790; but I do 
not find any of his letters of that date in Mant, 
or Wooll, or in the Garrick Correspondence. 

Francis Wise was educated at Oxford, and 
obtained a fellowship in Trinity College, M.A. 
1717; B.D. 1727. At an early period of his 

career he was a sub-librarian in the Bodleian ; in 
1726 was elected keeper of the archives ; and in 
1750 Radcliffe librarian. He retained the two 
latter offices till his death in 1767, aged 72. His 
edition of the Annales rerum gestarum JElfredi 
magni seems to have been carefully prepared, 
and the list of 340 subscribers proves the esti- 
mation in which he was held. 

For his other works, I must refer to the four 
noble folios, compiled by the reverend Bulkeley 
Bandinel and his associates, which exhibit to the 
students of all countries, at all hours, and at a 
very moderate expense, the incomparable treasures 
of the Bodleian Library. BOLTON CORNET. 

The Mr. Wise about whom Mr. J. O. HALLI- 
WELL makes inquiry was Radcliffe Librarian at 
Oxford. There is a good deal said of him in 
BosweWs Johnson under the year 1754, in which 
year Johnson and Boswell visited him at Elsfield. 
He took a great interest in the gift of the M.A. 
degree which Johnson received from the Univer- 
sity, by diploma, in February -1755. A short 
account of him is given in a book not quite so 
commonly seen as BosweWs Johnson the Lives 
of Leland, Hearne, and Anthony a Wood, edited 
by Warton and Huddesford, Oxford, 1772. The 
Life of Anthony a Wood was republished by the 
late Dr. Bliss in 1848. I do not know of any 
second issue of the Lives of Leland and Hearne, 
which are contained in the first of the two volumes 
of Warton and Huddesford. I therefore tran- 
scribe the passage. It is a note, at p. 26 of the 
Life of Hearne : 

" Francis Wise, B.D. was son of Francis Wise, Mer- 
cer in Oxford, and was entered of Trinity College in the 
year one thousand seven hundred and eleven, elected 
Scholar, and afterwards Fellow of that Society. In 1719 
he was appointed Under Keeper of the Bodleian Library, 
and in 1727 was elected Gustos Archivorum by the Uni- 
versity. At this time he was domestic chaplain to the 
Right Honourable the Earl of Guilford, then Lord 
North, in whose family he frequently resided at Wroxton 
in Oxfordshire : by that Nobleman he was presented to 
the Donative or Curacy of Elsfield near Oxford, under 
whom also he held a small Estate in that Place on a long 
Lease, upon which he built a commodious little House, 
where he resided during the last Years of his life ; and 
spent his Time in literary pursuits, and as an Amusement 
n forming an elegant Garden, which, though a small 
>iece of Ground, was diversified with every object in 
Miniature that can be found in a larger Scale "in the most 
dmired Places in this Kingdom. Jn 1750 he was ap- 
pointed Radcliffe Librarian by the Officers of State, and 
died October 6, 1767. He published 

'Asser's Life of Alfred.' 

1 Account of the Vale of White Horse, Berks, 1736.' 
' Of White Leaf Cross, Bucks.' 
' Red Horse, Warwick.' 

'An Enquiry concerning the first Inhabitants, &c., 
History and Chronology of the Fabulous Ages, 1764.' 

He had a younger brother, Robert Wise, B.D. Fellow of 



[3 rd S. V. FEB. 6, '64. 

Trinity College, Oxford, an eminent tutor there; an uni- 
versal Scholar, more particularly an excellent Mathema- 
tician, but of such extreme Diffidence and Modesty, that 
had a longer life been allowed him, the public never 
would have reaped any advantage from his Studies. He 
died in 1750. This "note is subjoined to preserve the 
Memory of a worthy Man which otherwise will be lost." 

To this extract I will only add that many Oxford 
men, all who were fond of that beautiful walk to 
Elsfield, will recollect Mr. Wise's garden, in 
which some at least of the " objects " mentioned 
by Warton and Huddesford were visible when I 
was last in Elsfield. I am sorry that I can give 
no account of " the destination of his papers." 


Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

(3 rd S. v. 53.) All poetical references which I 
have seen speak of the appearance of swallows as 
harbingers of summer only. The readers of 
" N. & Q." may possibly remember an impromptu 
attributed to Sheridan when George IV. was 
Prince of Wales. One very cold day the prince 
came into a coffee-house where Sheridan happened 
to be, and called for something to drink to warm 
him. He was so pleased with the first glass that 
he called for a second, and then a third, and then 
declared himself comfortable. Sheridan imme- 
diately wrote on a slip of paper the following 
lines, and handed them to George : 
" The Prince came in, and said 'twas cold, 

Then put to his mouth the rummer, 
Till swallow after swallow came, 

When he pronounced it summer." 

J. O'B. 


I would add to examples from Horace, for 
R. C. HEATH'S information, a citation from Cow- 
ley, exactly what that correspondent desires. 
("Anacreontic xi. The Swallow.") Our poet re- 
proaches this vivacious and active, but tuneless 
bird, for breaking hig rest and robbing him of a 
delightful dream. It commences : 

" Foolish prater; what dost thou 
So early at my window do 

With thy tuneless serenade ? " 

and concludes thus, which is to the purpose of 
R. C. H. : 

" Thou this damage to repair, 

Nothing half so sweet or fair ; 

Nothing half so good can'st bring, 
Though men say thou Lring'st the Spring." 

J. A. G. 

BERMUDA (3 rd S. iv. 397.) You might add to 
your quotations, in further illustration of a diver- 
sity of opinion upon the same subject, the follow- 
ing from two works of good repute : 

"It is universally agreed that the nature of the Ber- 
muda Island* has undergone a surprising alteration for 

the worse since they were first discovered ; the air being 
much more inclement, and the soil much more barren 
than formerly .... In short the Summer Islands 
are now far from being desirable spots .... The 
water on the islands, except that which falls from the 
clouds, is brackish, and at present the same diseases 
reign there as in the Caribee Islands .... The 
north or north-east wind renders the air very cold." 
Dobson's Encyclopaedia, 1798. 

" The islands are healthy, the climate is delightful." 
New American Cyclopaedia, 1858. 

If SELRAHE'S object is a literary one, this note 
from Pinker ton's Geography may help him : 

"In the Novus Orbis of De Laet (pp. 27-30) there is 
some interesting information concerning these islands." 

Also the description in Raynal's Hist, of the, East 
and West Indies^ iii. 524. 

From my own knowledge I can state (what 
everybody knows perhaps), that it is the custom 
for invalids to spend the autumn and winter there, 
until about the middle of February, when they 
generally leave for Santa Cruz (also called very 
unhealthy by some writers), the Havana, or else- 
where, the prevailing winds of the " vexed Ber- 
moothes" beginning at that season to be very 
unpleasant. With the exception of the early 
spring months the climate is delicious. 

I observe the variety of spelling Summer, 
Summers, Sommers, and Somers. The same oc- 
curs in the name of Sir George Somers, from 
whom the name of the group is said to come. If 
age gives authority, see Smith's General Historie 
of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles; 
but the title is all I know of the book, having 
never seen it. But, again, A Plaine Description 
of the Barmudas, now called Sommer Islands^ with 
the manner of their Discoverie, anno 1609. By 
W. C., London, 1613. 

Since writing the above, I have made a note of 
Letters from the West Indies, by William Lloyd, 
M D., London, 1838; An Historical and Statisti- 
cal Account of the Bermudas from their discovery 
to the present Time, by Wm. F. Williams, London, 
1848 ; Bermuda, by a Field Officer, London, 1857. 

ST. T. 

" PIG AND WHISTLE " (3 rd S. iv. 101.) Pro- 
bably many of your readers are familiar with this 
name at Cambridge. I believe it existed once on 
the signboard of an inn in Trinity Street, now 
called the Blue Boar; but, however this maybe, 
a few years back it was the popular cognomen for 
a new hostel built opposite the Gate of Trinity 
College. The argument for the name being at- 
tached to this building was rather a droll one. It 
was because it was situated midway between a cer- 
tain college (which shall be nameless) whose so- 
ciety was styled, in rival-undergraduate slung, 
" Pigs," and another whose Principal has a name 
said to be unpronounceable without a " whistle." 

R. C. L. 

3* S. V. FEB. 6, '64.] 



ii. 388.) The bookseller Hugo Suringar, of 
Leeuwarden writes to me : 

M Tf you have not yet replied to the second part of 
W. C.'s query in the* Nawrscher, you might tell him, 
there exists a Frisic Grammar bv Bask, revised by De 
Haan Hettema in 1832 (price 'fl. 1-80, or 3s.); that, 
besides, in 1863, a very concise Frisic Grammar was pub- 
lished by Colmjin (for about fl. 1, or Is. 8rf.) ; and 
that the Frisic Vocabularies are, that on the Poems of 
Gysbert Japix, by Epkema, in 4to, 1824 (antiquarian 
price fl 5, or 8s. 4d.) an excellent book; Richthofen, 
Altfriesisches Worterbuch, in 4to, 1840 (fl. 7 a fl. 10, 
11s. 8rf. to 16a. 8d., antiquarian price): I think out of 
print ; de Haan Hettema, Proere van een Friesch Neder- 
landsch Woordenloelt, in 8vo, 1832 (fl. 1, Is. 8rf.) 

" Excepting Richthofen, I have these all for sale. I 
should thus be able to suit j r our querist, and further ac- 
commodate him with any production of Frisic literature 
he might desire, as I try'to keep these in stock as com- 
pletely as possible. 

" Forgive me, that I, though totally unacquainted with 
you, yet make free to forward you the above : the pur- 
pose of the Navorscher will, I hope, be promoted by it." 
Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

GRAVE or POCAHONTAS (2 nd S. vii. 403.) 

" 161R, June. Geo. Lord Carew. Extracts from Letter 
to Sir Thos. Roe ; in the form of a journal : 

" Sir Thomas Dale returned from Virginia and brought 
divers men and women of that country to be educated in 
England. One Rolfe also brought his wife, Pocahuntas, 
the daughter of Powhatan, " the Barbarous Prince." 
P. 1 8. ( Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, 1574- 

" 1617, 18 Jan. London. The Virginian woman Poca- 
huntas has been with the King. She is returning home, 
sore against her will." P. 428. ( Calendar of State Papers, 
Domestic Series, 16111618.) 

"1617, 29 March, London. The Virginian woman 
died at Gravesend on her return." P. 454. {Calendar of 
State Papers, Domestic Series, 16111618.) 

Should not the date of her burial be March 21, 
16|f, instead of MayZl, 1616. The church of 
St. George at Gravesend was destroyed by fire 
in 1727, where she was buried. I inclose you a 
transcript from the parish register that was sent 
to me in 1859: 

" 1616, May 2j. Rebecca Wrothe, wyff of Thomas Wroth, 
gent, a Virginia Lady borne, was buried in the Chaunn- 

G. J. HAY. 

FINGERS or HINDOO GODS (3 rd S. v. 73.) In 
Higgins's Anacalypsis H. C. will find some curious 
speculations and theories on this subject. How- 
ever, I have not the book within reach, and there- 
fore cannot give particular references. Enne- 
moser, in his Hist, of Magic (Howitt's translation, 
Bolm's Scientific Library, vol. i. pp. 251-271), 
gives to this symbol a magnetic interpretation. 
How for this so-called magnetic hand is connected | 
with the phallic hand of the Romans seems doubt- 
ful. On the latter see a note of Douce on a pas- 
sage in Henry V. JOHN ADDIS. 


LONGEVITY OF CLERGYMEN (3 rd S. v. 22, 44.) 
The Rev. James Powell, close upon eighty years 
of age, has been over fifty years curate of Dill- 
wyn, in Herefordshire, and is so still. R. C. L. 

I send you an extract from the Preston Chroni* 
cle of January 23, 1864 : 

On Friday last (Jan. 19th), the venerable rector of 
Croston, the Reverend Streynsham Master, M.A., died at 
the rectory there, at the patriarchal age of 97. The de- 
ceased, both in years and in length of ministerial service, 
was the oldest clergyman in Lancashire, having been in the 
ministry above seventy-five years. He was also the oldest 
benefited clergyman, having been inducted to the rectory 
of Croston, on the death of his father, in 1798, and had 
thus been in the enjoyment of that valuable benefice 
above sixty-five years*. His father, the Rev. Robert 
Master, D D. was the rector from May, 1759, to Sep- 
tember, 1798, so that the incumbency of father and son 
extended over the long period of nearly 105 years, a rare 
instance of prolonged enjoyment of an ecclesiastical be- 


AUTHOR or GOOD TO THEE I TURN " (3 rd S. iv 
353.) Some few weeks ago a correspondent in- 
quired who wrote the hymn, commencing " Author 
of good we rest on Thee." He will find it in 
Martineau's Hymns for the Christian Church and 
Home, attributed to Merrick ; but, as that version 
seems to differ in a few places from the one printed 
in " N. & Q.," I append a copy : - 
"Author of good ! to Thee I turn ; 

Thy ever wakeful eye 
Alone can all my wants discern, 

Thy hand alone supply. 
" let Thy fear within me dwell, 
Thy loVe my footsteps guide ; 
That love shall vainer loves expel, 

That fear all fears beside. 
"And since, by passion's force subdued, 

Too oft, with stubborn will 
We blindly shun the latent good, 

And grasp the specious ill ; 
" Not to my wish, but to my want, 

Do Thou thy gifts supply 
The good unasked in mercy grant 
The ill, though asked, deny." 


RICHARDSON FAMILY (3 rd S. v. 72.) Though 
I cannot offer a satisfactory reply to your corre- 
spondent, or trace out the various branches of the 
Richardson family, I may point out some inac- 
curacies in his querv. No person of the name of 
Conon Richardson is recorded as Abbot of Per- 
shore, either in Dugdale, Stevens, or Styles's his- 
tory of the Abbey ; but to a person of this nam, 
the Sheldon family, who received the grant 
at the dissolution of monasteries, conveyed the 
manors of Pershore. His son married Anne, 
daughter of Leonard Meysey (not Maxey) of 
Shechenhurst, near Bewdley. 

At the close of the seventeenth century, there 
existed in the Abbey church of Tewkesbury a 
monument to Couon Richardson "ab equestri 



S. V. FEB. 6, '64. 

familiS de Pershor oriundo;" who died aged 
eighty-six. The tomb was erected by his only 
son Edward, and may possibly be now in the 
church. The arms Argt. on a-chief sable, three 
lions' heads erased of [the first], langued gules 
are drawn on my MS. 

The Richardson family have so long been ex- 
tinct in the county of Worcester, that we have 
lost all trace of their descendants : but the stately 
Abbey of Pershore, whose property they once 
held a small part indeed of its ancient magni- 
ficence is under restoration by Mr. Gilbert 
Scott ; who, I understand, thinks its great lantern 
tower was erected by the same architect, or by a 
close imitator of him, who built the steeple of 
Salisbury Cathedral. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON. 

An account of the parentage and descendants of 
Sir Thomas Richardson will be found in the sixth 
volume of Foss's Judges of England, p. 359. He was 
created a Serjeant-at-Law in Michaelmas Term, 
1614, and King's Serjeant in February, 1625 ; 
was chosen Speaker of the Parliament that met 
in January, 1620-1 ; appointed Chief Justice of 
the Common Pleas in November, 1626 ; and pro- 
moted to the Presidency of the Court of King's 
Bench in October, 1631. 

The two representations of arms in Dugdale's 
Origines Juridiciales are of the same person. One 
in p. 240, in the chapel of Lincoln's Inn, of which 
society he was a member, put up when he was 
Speaker in 1620-1 ; and the other, in p. 238, in 
Lincoln's Inn Hall, when he became Chief Jus- 
tice of the Common Pleas. 

There was no other serjeant of the name during 
the reigns of James I. or Charles I. E. A. O. 

THE LAPWING (3 rd S. v. 10, 77.) - Notwith- 
standing the lexicographers, I cannot think it 
likely that the same word would have been used 
to designate two such very dissimilar birds as the 
lapwing or peewit, and the hoopoe ; and there can 
be but little doubt, I should suppose, that roij/, 
upupa, pupu, huppe, or, as given in the Petit Ap- 
parat Royal, hupe, are only various forms of the 
latter name. 

That the common name for the lapwing in 
former days was peewit would appear from what 
MR. MACKENZIE WALCOT calls "the Bursar's 
Rebus," in one of the windows of the Bursary at 
New College, Oxford, viz. a lapwing with the 
motto " Redde quod debis ; " i. e. pay it, or pay 
weight, which has long been its traditional ren- 

In the west country I cannot find that it bears 
any other name than peewit; and it certainly 
seems to me exceedingly improbable that its name 
should have been altogether changed, and its 
former designation utterly lost, during the com- 
paratively short period of 150 years, in the neigh- 
bouring counties of Dorset and Somerset. 

The question, then, still remains what were 
these wopes, or popes, or pops, or poups upon 
whose unhappy heads a price was set by our rude 
forefathers in vestry assembled? If I might 
hazard a conjecture, I should be inclined to sug- 
gest, though with some diffidence, that they might 
have been bullfinches, which birds, under the naW 
of mopes, or mwoaps, are still but too justly regarded 
in the west with the fiercest animosity, on account 
of their bud-destroying propensities. The curious 
interchange of the letters M. and P. in the nick- 
names Molly and Polly, Matty and Patty, Meg and 
Peg, rather helps my supposition. 


We need not, I think, go to Old French for the 
word pope, as applied to a bird. The bullfinch is 
so-named in some parts of England, and he has 
always had a bad repute as a mischief-maker in 
gardens and orchards. JAYDEE. 

I think that I can elucidate the mystery which 
at present hangs over the parochial accounts re- 
ferred to by your correspondent W. W. S. Pope, 
Nope, Alp, Red-Hoop, and Tony-Hoop, are all 
provincial appellations of that beautiful and in- 
teresting, but very destructive bird, the common 
Bullfinch. To its mischievous propensities orni- 
thologists, from Willughby downwards, have un- 
fortunately been compelled to testify. 

" Libentissime vescuntur primis illis gemmis ex ar- 
boribus ante folia et flores erumpentibus, praecipue florum 
Mali, Pyri, Persicse, aliarumque hortensium, adeoque 
non leve damnum hortulanis inferunt, quibus idcirco 
maxime invisse sunt et odiosae." 

Thus writes Willughby. I could give quotations 
to the same effect from Montagu, Selby, Yarrell, 
and many others ; but I have cited quite enough 
to show " why a price should have been put on " 
popes' or woopes' or hoops' heads by church- 
wardens at the commencement of the eighteenth 
century. W. T. 


DOCTOR (3 rd S. v. 74.) For information respect- 
ing this oddest of characters, J. O. cannot do 
better than consult the very valuable and most 
interesting Domestic Annals of Scotland, written 
by Robert Chambers, LL.D., &c., vol. iii. p. 358. 
See also, Traditions of Edinburgh (p. 42), by the 
same author. WILLIAM PINKERTON. 

ELMA, A CHRISTIAN NAME (3 rd S. v. 97.) In 
answer to the query of J. G. N., I have to say 
that Elma was the name by which the late Lady 
Elgin was familiarly called, as he supposes, from 
the first syllables of her two Christian names. 
Her daughter was so christened ; her father, in 
his distress at her mother's death, being unable 
to think of any other name. 


3 rd S. V. FJJB. 6, '64.] 



NATTER (3 rd S. v. 64.) One query begets 
many. Your correspondent B. L. of Colchester, 
while searching for the origin of the simile " Mad 
as a hatter," has dug up some etymological re- 
mains, which lead my thoughts in another direc- 
tion. When, at Cambridge, we used to make 
botanical excursions under the delightful guidance 
of the late Professor Henslow, we used to be 
shown at Gamlingay a species of toad found in 
that neighbourhood, and known to the villagers 
as the natter-jack. What is natter in this word ? 
Is it the German word for adder, or is it merely 
a corruption of the English word adder as thus, 
an adder-jack, a natter-jack, and so called from the 
fact that the animal in question crawls instead of 
hopping like common toads ? Does the word 
occur in any other compounds among obsolete or 
merely local names of reptiles ? 


Alrewas, Lichfield. 

GASPAR DE NAVARRE : SPENGLE (3 rd S. iv. 88.) 
It would seem, from the notice in the Bibliotheca 
Hispana Nova, that there was a Latin version of 
Gaspar de Navarre's work ; but perhaps Antonio 
translated part of the title only. I believe the 
Spanish book is very scarce, but there is a copy 
in the British Museum : 

" Tribunal de Supersticion Ladina, dirigido a Jesus 
Nazareno, por el Doctor Gaspar Navarro, canonigo de la 
santa iglesia de Jesus Nazareno de Montaragon, naturel 
de la Villa de Aranda de Moncago. Huesca, 1631." 4to, 
pp. 244. 

The passage, corresponding with that quoted, 
is : 

" Maleficio tacito Hainan los magos a aquel que se da. a 
las Brujas, para que no sientan los tormentos que les da 
la justicia: este se suele dar por comida o por bevido os 
les imprime el Demonio en las espaldas, o les pone y ab- 
sconde entre la came y el pellejo, para que no digan la 
verdart, aunque mas les atormenten : como lo dizen los 
Inquisidores de Germania, in Malleo, part. i. quajst. 14. 
Y con estos hechizos ellas se estan burlando, y riendo de 
los tormentos: y para que estas no sientan, suele el De- 
monio aplicar remedies frigidissimos. Y viendo esto la 
gente barbara se espantan mucho, pareciendoles que es 
cosa milagrosa, y es cierto que no lo es ; porque esto lo 
haze el Demonio, el quel, como tengo provado en las dis- 
putas passadas, no puede hazer milagros. Pero haze el 
Demonio esto, poniendo ciertos medicamentos, que quie- 
ten o entorpezean el sentido, o detergan el influxo de la 
facultad animal a los organos en el tal persona, que cau- 
sen humores erases, y gruesos que impieden la via, pa- 
raque los espiritus vitales no passen a las partes exteri- 
ores y assi impieden el sentimiento y dolor. Otras veces 
el mesmo Demonio se apodera de los sentidos exteriores 
por si proprio para que no sientar ; otras vezes de cosas 
naturales en quantitad haze medicamentos que turban los 
humores ; otros vezes detiene el Demonio los tormentos, 
no lleguen al sentimiento, subllevando al paciente, y 
aliviandole del tormento, teniendo los cordeles floxbs, 
y aunque mucho les aprieten, es de poca importancia, 
que como el Demonio tiene superioridad sobre las cosas 
corporales (si Dios le da lioencia) haze lo que quiere 
dellas." P. 56, b. 

Speiigle is an error of the press for " Sprenger," 

author of Malleus Maleficorum, which is often 
cited by Gaspar de Navarre. FITZHO'PKINS. 

Garrick Club. 

EPITAPH : " Hoc EST NESCIRE " (3 rd S. v. 83.) 
This epitaph (as written, 3 rd S. iv. 474) is in- 
scribed on a monument in the church of the vil- 
lage of Atcham, near Shrewsbury. Whether then 
and there original, I know not. The mode of 
sentiment would suggest Boethius (Anicius) or 
Lactantius, as the author, rather than the cele- 
brated Bishop of Hippo. J. L. 


ARG. A SALTIRE Az. (3 rd S. iv. 325.) This 
coat of arms, mentioned by your correspondent, 
appertains to the family of Yorke, of Bewerley, 
Yorkshire. See Burke's History of the Com- 
moners of Great Britain and Ireland (edit. 1838), 
vol. iv. p. 744. CARILFORD. 

Cape Town. 



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THK RBV. F. PHILLOTT. We fear that the articles on the Immaculate. 
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CONTENTS. No. 111. 

NOTES: Schleswick: the Danne-werke, 127 A Witty 
Archbishop, 128 The Infant Prince of Wales, 129 An 
Old London Rubbish Heap, Ib. A General Literary In- 
dex, &c., 131 Congreve the Poet A Heroine Primula: 
the Primrose Camel born in England Sir Francis 
Walsingham Neology Lynch Law in the Twelfth Cen- 
tury, 132. 

QUERIES : Thomas Jenny, Rebel and Poet, 132 Ameri- 
canisms Anonymous Aubery and Du Val Great 
Battle of Cats Becket Robert Callis Posterity of the 
Emperor Charlemagne Family of De Scarth The Danish 
Right of Succession Engraving on Gold and Silver 
Descendants of Fitzjames Thomas Gilbert, Esq. Pos- 
terity of Harold, King of England Hindoo Gods The 
Iron Mask Leighton Family Matthew Locke Lord 
Mohun's Death, 1677 Napoleon the First The Oath 
ex-officio Pope's Portrait Practice of Physic by Wil- 
liam Drage Proverbial Sayings Stone Bridge Ulick, 
a Christian Name White Hats Life of Edward, Second 
Marquis of Worcester, 133. 

QUEBIES WITH ANSWERS: Hilton Crest: "Houmout" 
Trousers Dr. George Oliver Bishop Andrewes' Will 
Top of his Bent Blind Alehouse, 136. 

REPLIES : A Fine Picture of Pope, 137 Socrates' Oath 
by the Dog, 138 Decay of Stone in Buildings, Ib. Ro- 
man Games, 139 Burton Family, 140 Stamp Duty on 
Painters' Canvass Situation of Zoar The Old Bridge at 
Newington Maiden Castle Rye House Plot Cards 
Newhaven in France Lewis Morris Twelfth Night: 
the worst Pun Sir Edward May Quotation Toad- 
eater Crapaudine The Owl Heraldic Passage in 
Tennyson, &c., 141. 

Notes on Books. Ac. 


The war now disturbing Denmark has recalled 
attention to the very ancient fortification which 
forms a defence for Jutland from attacks on the 
southern frontier. Torfaeus says the name is not 
Dana-verk " Danorum opus," but Dana-virhi, 
" Danorum vallum," or the " Danish entrench- 
ment;" and the narratives of various assaults 
which it has withstood, and of its vicissitudes of 
destruction and restoration, are to be found in the 
collections of Langebek, Wormius, and Suhm, 
as well as in the Saga of Olaf Tryggveson and 
others of the Norse chronicles. 

There is some confusion as to the time of its 
original construction. Mr. Laing, in his version 
of the Heimskringla, says in a note at p. 390, vol. i. 
that it was raised by Harald Blaatand to resist 
the mcursions of Charlemagne ; and the Archae- 
ological Society of Copenhagen, in their Index 
to the Scripta Historica Ixlandorum, vol. xii. 
p. 118, describe it as "vallum vel munimentum 
illustre, in finibus Daniae meridionalibus posi- 
tum ; quod^a Regina Thyria filioque Haraldo cog- 
nomine Blatoon extructum esse fertur." 

But whatever the date of its original formation, 
this remarkable work was in complete preservation 
and efficiency in the time of the King Olaf Tryggve- 
son, who reigned in Norway between A.D. 995 and 

1000 ; and his Saga recounts the two expeditions 
conducted by the Emperor Otho, to compel the 
Danes by force of arms to conform to Christianity. 
In the second of these, when Otho, A.D. 998, led 
an army to the Daneverk, its condition is thus 
described in'the Saga : 

"De meridie Ottho Imperator veniens, Danavirkum 
accessit, munimentorum istius valli defensore cum suis 
Hakono Jarlo. Danevirki autem ea erat constitutio, ut ab 
utroque mari duo sinus longius in continentem penetrent, 
inter intimos quorum recessus relictum terras spatium 
munierant Dani, ducto ex lapide, cespite, atque arboribus 
vallo, extra quod fossa lata atque profunda in altum erat 
depressa, sed ad portas disposita castella." Snorri Stur- 
leson, Heimskringla, vol. i. p. 217. 

Another version of the same Saga, edited by 
Svienbjorn Egilsson, in the collection of the histo- 
rians of Iceland, published by the Royal Society 
of Copenhagen, gives some minuter particulars, 
describing the nature of the country between the 
Eider and the Schlei : 

" Duo sinus hinc illinc in terrain insinuant ; inter in- 
tima vero sinuum brachia Dani aggerem altum et lirmum. 
extruerant, etc. Centeni quique passus portam habebant 
cui superstructum erat castellum ad defensionem muni- 
menti ; nam pro singulis portis pons fossae erat impositus." 
Scrip. Hist Islandice, t. i. 144 : see also ib., t. x. 228, 
etc. ; xi. 23. 

History it is said repeats itself; and the result 
of the assault of the Emperor Otho has a parallel 
in the present war between the Prussians and the 
Danes : when the former, instead of persevering 
in the attack on the Danne-verke, turned the 
flank of the defenders by a movement across the 
Schlei, by which they succeeded in landing their 
troops in the rear of the great embankment. 
Precisely the same strategy is stated, in the Saga, 
to have been resorted to by the German Emperor 
nearly a thousand years before. Earl Hakon, 
who commanded on the side of the Danes, so suc- 
cessfully repulsed every assault of the enemy, 
that Otho fell back towards the south ; collected 
his ships of war at the mouth of the Schlei, 
landed them to the north of the Danne-verke, 
and eventually achieved a victory. The cata- 
strophe is thus narrated in the Saga of Olaf Trygg- 


Cecidere ibi ex Imperatoris acie plurimi, nullo ad 
vallum capiendi emolument; quare Imperator (re non 
ssepius tentata !) inde decessit .... turn flexo mox 
Slesvicum versum itinere, cum totam illuc classem acci- 
verat, exercitum inde in Jutlandiam transportavit." 
Heimskringla, torn. i. p. 218. 

This battle is celebrated, in the Vellekla, in a 

Eissage thus rendered into English by Mr. 
aing : 

" Earl Hakon drove, by daring deeds, 
These Saxons to their ocean steeds ; 
And the young hero saved from fall 
The Danaverk the people's wall." 




. V. FEB. 13, '64. 


An industrious student, a deep thinker, an acute 
reasoner, a learned mind, a correct, and at times, 
elegant writer these are titles of honour which 
the mere outside-world, travelling in its flying 
rail way- carriage, will gladly award to the late 
Archbishop of Dublin. JSTot so familiar are cer- 
tain minor and more curious gifts, which he kept 
by him for his own and his friends' entertainment, 
which broke out at times on more public occa- 
sions. He delighted in the oddities of thought, 
in queer quaint distinctions ; and if an object had 
by any possibility some strange distorted side or 
corner, or even point, which was undermost, he 
would gladly stoop down his mind to get that 
precise view of it, nay, would draw it in that odd 
light for the amusement of the company. 

Thus he struck Guizot, who described him as 
" startling and ingenious, strangely absent, fami- 
liar, confused, eccentric, amiable, and engaging, 
no matter what unpoliteness he might commit, or 
what propriety he might forget." In short, a 
mind with a little of the Sydney Smith's leaven, 
whose brilliancy lay in precisely these odd analo- 
gies. It was his recreation to take up some in- 
tellectual hobby, and make a toy of it. Just as, 
years ago, he was said to have taken up that strange 
instrument the boomerang, and was to be seen on 
the sands casting it from him, and watching it 
return. It was said, too, that at the dull intervals 
of ^a visitation, when ecclesiastical business lan- 
guished, he would cut out little miniature boome- 
rangs of card, and amuse himself by illustrating 
the principle of the larger toy, by shooting them 
from his finger. 

The even, and sometimes drowsy, current of 
Dublin society was almost always enlivened by some 
little witty boomerang of his, fluttering from mouth 
to mouth, and from club to club. The archbishop's 
last was eagerly looked for. Some were indif- 
ferent, some were trifling ; but it was conceded 
that all had an odd extravagance, which marked 
them as original, quaint, queer. In this respect he 
was the Sydney Smith of the Irish capital, with this 
difference that Sydney Smith's king announced 
that he would never make the lively Canon of St. 
Paul's a Bishop. 

Homoeopathy was a medical paradox, and was 
therefore welcome. Yet in this he travelled out 
of the realms of mere fanciful speculation, and 
clung to it with a stern and consistent earnestness, 
faithfully adhered to through his last illness. 
Mesmerism, too, he delighted to play with. He 
had, in fact, innumerable dadas, as the French call 
them, or hobby-horses, upon which he was con- 
tinually astride. 

This led him into a pleasant affectation of being 
able to discourse de omnibus rebus, $*c., and the 
more recondite or less known the subject, the 

more eager was he to speak. It has been sup- 
posed that the figure of the " Dean," in Mr. Le- 
ver's pleasant novel of Roland Cashel, was sketched 
from him. Indeed there can be no question but 
that it is an unacknowledged portrait. 

" What is the difference," he asked of a young 
clergyman he was examining, " between a form and 
a ceremony ? The meaning seems nearly the 
same ; yet there is a very nice distinction." Va- 
rious answers were given. " Well," he said, " it 
lies in this : you sit upon a form, but you stand 
upon ceremony." 

"Morrow's Library " is the Mudie of Dublin ; 
and the Rev. Mr. Day, a popular preacher. " How 
inconsistent," said the archbishop, " is the piety of 
certain ladies here. They go to day for a sermon, 
and to morrow for a novel ! " 

At a dinner party he called out suddenly to the 

host, " Mr. ! " There was silence. " Mr. , 

what is the proper female companion of this John 
Dory ? " After the usual number of guesses an 
answer came, " Anne Chovy." 

Another Riddle. "The laziest letter in the 
alphabet ? The letther G ! " (lethargy.) 

The Wichlow Line. The most unmusical in the 
world having a Dun-Drum, Still- Organ, and a 
Bray for stations. 

Doctor Gregg. The new bishop and he at 
dinner. Archbishop : " Come, though you are 
John Cork, you mustn't stop the bottle here." 
The answer was not inabt : " I see your lordship 
is determined to draw me out." 

On Doctor K x's promotion to the bishopric 

of Down, an appointment in some quarters un- 
popular : " The Irish government will not be able 
to stand many mere such Knocks Down as this ! " 

The merits of the same bishop being canvassed 
before him, and it being mentioned that he had 
compiled a most useful Ecclesiastical Directory, 
with the Values of Livings, &c., " If that be so," 
said the archbishop, " I hope next time the claims 
of our friend Thorn will not be overlooked." 
(Thorn, the author of the well-known Almanack.) 

A clergyman, who had to preach before him, 
begged to be let off, saying " I hope your Grace 
will excuse my preaching next Sunday." " Cer- 
tainly," said the other indulgently. Sunday cam 
and the archbishop said to him, " Well ! Mr. 

what became of you ? we expected you to preucl 
to-day." " Oh, your Grace said you would excuse 


S'd S. V. FEB. 13, '64.] 



my preaching to-day." ' " Exactly ; but I did not 
say I would excuse you /ram preaching." 

At a lord lieutenant's banquet a grace was 
given of unusual length. "My lord," said the 
archbishop, " did you ever hear the story of Lord 
Mulgrave's chaplain ? " " No," said the lord lieu- 
tenant. " A young chaplain had preached a ser- 
mon of great length. Sir,' said Lord Mulgrave, 
bowing to him, ' there were some things in your 
sermon of to-day I never heard before.' * 0, my 
lord,' said the flattered chaplain, * it is a common 
text, and I could not have hoped to have said any- 
thing new on the subject.' '/ heard the clock 
strike twice, said Lord Mulgrave." 

At some religious ceremony at which he was to 
officiate in the country, a young curate who at- 
tended him grew very nervous as to their being 
late. " My good young friend," said the arch- 
bishop, " I can only say to you what the criminal 
going to be hanged said to those around, who were 
hurrying him, ' Let us take our time ; they can't 
befjin without us.' " TORICK JUNIOR. 


I have met with the curious fact, that the 
infant Prince of Wales, whose birth is now the 
subject of universal rejoicing, is descended from 
King Henry VII. in eight different ways, six 
being through his mother ; so that he derives 
more Tudor blood from his mother than his father 
in the ratio of three to one. The subjoined out- 
line of the descents may not be uninteresting to 
some readers of " N. & Q." 

Paternal Descents. 

I. 1. Princess Margaret ; 2. James V. King of 
Scotland ; 3. Mary, Queen of Scots ; 4. James I. 
King of England; 5. Princess Elizabeth of Eng- 
land ; 6. Princess Sophia of Bohemia ; 7. George I. 
King of England ; 8. George II. King of Eng- 
land; 9. Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales; 10. 
George III. King of England; 11. Edward, Duke 
of Kent; 12. Queen Victoria; 13. [Albert-Ed- 
ward, Prince of Wales. 

II. 1. Princess Margaret; 2. Lady Margaret 
Douglas; 3. Henry Earl of Darnley ; 4. James I. 
King of England ; 5. Princess Elizabeth of Eng- 
land; 6. Princess Sophia of Bohemia ; 7. George I. 
King of England ; 8. George II. King of Eng- 
land; 9. Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales ; 10. 
George III. King of England; 11. Edward, 
Duke of Kent; 12. Queen Victoria ; 13. Albert- 
Edward, Prince of Wales. 

Maternal Descents. 

III. 1 to 8, as Descent I. ; 9. Princess Mary 
England; 10. Charles, Landgrave of Hesse 

Cassel; 11. Louisa-Caroline of Hesse Cassel ; 12. 
Christian IX., King of Denmark; 13. Alexandra, 
Princess of Wales. 

IV. 1 to 8, as Descent I ; 9. Princess Louisa 
of England; 10. Princess Louise of Denmark; 
11. Louisa-Caroline of Hesse Cassel ; 12. Chris- 
tian IX. King of Denmark ; 13. Alexandra, 
Princess of Wales. 

V. 1 to 3, as Descent II. ; 4 to 13, as Descent 

VI. 1 to 3, as Descent II. ; 4 to 13, as Descent 

VII. 1 to 9 as Descent III. ; 10. Frederick, 
Prince of Hesse Cassel ; 11. William, Prince of 
Hesse Cassel; 12. Queen of Denmark ; 13. Alex- 
andra, Princess of Wales. 

VIII. 1 to 3 as Descent II. ; 4 to 13 as De- 


Having determined to build a bridge over the 
Thames, the first thing to do is to sink shafts for 
the foundations of the piers ; and a nice long work 
it is, for the deeper you get, the more you can't get 
any foundation at all. Even as far back as Thames 
Street this is the case very unsatisfactory to 
contractors ! but the old rule holds good here as 
elsewhere the ill wind to the bridgemakers is all 
in favour of the antiquaries. For why is all this 
land on the Thames bank up to Thames Street so 
rotten and unstable ? Simply because it is a vast 
rubbish heap. At the top we have the debris of 
former buildings, the ruins of the Great Fire. 
Let us watch awhile the navvies as they pick 
away and cart off the rubbish ; first a few coins 
of later reigns, old broken pots and crockery of all 
sorts, not unlike the roughest of the present day. 
Here some ancient weights remind you, that once 
upon a time here stood the old Steelyard. What 
are those black bits of leather the men are shak- 
ing and knocking the dirt off? Look closely at 
one, and you will see it once covered the dainty 
foot of some fair city damsel. How prettily her 
little red stocking must have peeped through the 
curiously cut open-work in front, mighty pretty 
to look at, but not over warm one would think. 
Here is a shoe of the reign of Queen Bess, with 
its long heel, and pointed toe ; not thrown away 
before a huge hole had been worn in the sole. 
How any feet could have been tortured into 
the boots belonging to those soles, not unlike 
hour-glasses in shape, one can hardly imagine. 
Close to these more pottery, broken, but still in 
other respect the same as when it was thrown 
away ; jugs of common unglazed stoneware, orna- 
mented round the bottom with the great thumbs 
of the potters. Here and there a bit of better 
quality of the same shape, but heavily glazed. 



[3 rd S. V. FEB. 13, '64. 

Here a good bit of fine glazed black ware surely 
perfect ; no, its handle has gone. Next conies a 
glorious old Bellarmine jug, with the three lions 
of England on either side. The pick has unfor- 
tunately made a small] hole in one side, but no 
great consequence, for, on nearer observation, you 
you see it is like the rest, thrown away because 

Dig a little further, and up turn relics of 
knightly deeds mixed with the thrown-away tools 
of the craftsman spurs without rowels ; some 
with long spikes instead ; some with rowels ^ an 
inch and a half in diameter, having a terribly 
fierce look. How did the horses fare, you wonder. 
Up turns a great horseshoe ; and you remember 
that the beasts in question were the great Flemish 
fellows, and you hope they had thicker skins than 
our more graceful and beautiful favourites. Those 
horseshoes are worth looking at. See how for- 
ward the nails are put: surely better than we 
do. Again, they are evidently cut with a sharp 
instrument out of a thick sheet of metal, pro- 
bably when cold ; a fact which would account for 
their being as good as new. What are those queer 
looking bits of pipe-clay, with the names of the 
makers stamped on the edges ? Are they tobacco- 
stoppers ? Let us try. Here'are a lot of old pipes, 
but what tiny bowls. It will not do, the things 
will not go into them at all ; and still there are 
so many, they must have been for some use. 
They served our ancestors for curl papers to keep 
their wigs in order. Just look at those pins 
some three inches long ; some with leaden heads, 
no doubt considered highly ornamental. What 
a curious collection of old knives and forks, and 
how strangely time has affected them. This fork 
see ! might be polished again it is so nearly 
perfect, even the ivory handle with silver studs is 
undecayed, though discoloured. Its partner, the 
knife, is quite gone nought but the shape re- 
remains handle all powder, and blade not much 

Shall we never get down to terra firma? Surely 
we must now be over twenty feet below the sur- 
face, and how dark the soil is getting. It looks 
as if we were on the banks of a great river. 
And so you are ; in a few feet more you will be on 
the old Roman river bank, and then the rubbish 
heap will be still more interesting than higher up. 
Even here, however, will be some familiar things 
not unlike those in use in the present day. 

" Would you like to buy some of these things 
we've found," says a simple looking navvy ? " Let 
us^see what you have." "I've got the right stuff 
this time, guv'nor ; but the man as has found 'em 
wants a tidy bit. Here is a big lead battle-axe ; 
I see it took out of that there hole with my own 

^ If you are a collector beware ! That man, 
simple as he looks, can supply you with an un- 

limited store of false relics of all ages all found 
on the spot of course. If you are not a good 
judge of such things leave them alone altogether, 
or you will lose your money, and be well laughed 
at by friends and foes. 

"It caligatus in agros." So it seems by those boot 
soles which have just been once more brought to 
light. Surely these must be the horrible military 
nailed boots so harassing to the corns of the civi- 
lian; there is not a space without a great nail. 
Look here, too, on this one is a bit of Roman pottery 
sticking ! Military boots ! no such thing ; why 
they would only fit a lady ; and here is a tiny one, 
just so armed, which must have belonged to quite 
a child. No doubt this hill side was then rough 
and muddy enough, and so they required stout 
under leathers. Why here is a sandal, beauti- 
fully cut out of one sheet of leather no nails here. 
It was well worn, however, before the wearer cast 
it off; the holes in the bottom are still visible. 
Here one is struck by the enormous quantity of 
broken red pottery. How perfectly indestructi- 
ble it is, but all broken ; much had been mended 
and rivetted by the Romans themselves. Their 
drills must have been as good as ours, so perfect 
and smooth are the holes for the rivets. Here, 
too, we have A and B scratched on the surface to 
show how the bits fitted. Broken to fragments 
as it is, all the pottery and glass is well worth 
examination. Though not one perfect, or nearly 
perfect, bowl be found, from the fragments you 
may make a regular Roman pattern book, and 
very excellent patterns too ; consisting of adapta- 
tions of all sorts of English and other plants 
beautifully conventionalized. Here and there are 
fine geometrical ornaments; but, above all, how 
excellent are the animals lions fighting with 
boars, wolves, dogs, leopards, tigers just about to 
spring. On one bowl are many illustrations of 
the gladiator's labours ; surely that man is fighting 
with a bull ; here the secutor is pursuing the re- 
tiarius. There are wild beasts ; one poor fellow 
is lying flat on his back, dead ; the author of his 
death is missing. Mixed with this 'redware we 
have ladies' ornaments, some very odd ; one 
bracelet is formed out of a bit of iron wire, and that 
is all ; another is made of iron, bronze, and copper 
wire twisted together, showing how cheap orna- 
ments were fashionable among the lower orders 
then as now. Among them must probably be 
classed those great bone skewers, of which I see 
so many lying about, if indeed some of them 
were not tools. Do you want to know what the 
Romans had for needles and pins ? here you may 
satisfy your curiosity. Pins there are of bone 
and ivory; needles also of the same. Some of 
bronze very well made, but rather coarse, from 
an inch to six inches in length. See, too, there is 
a good and perfect gimlet ; look at the ring on 
the top to put a cross piece of wood through 

3* S. V. Fiy*. 13, '64.] 



instead of over as with us. Those two long 
spikes are no doubt the tops of pila. Now turns 
up a meat hook, a small bell, and an iron finger- 
ring ; some soldier's perhaps. Here are a quan- 
tity'of writing pens, with sharp points at one end to 
write with, and a flat edge at the other to erase with. 
To make us sure that the bank of the Thames 
in Koman times extended thus far, we now ac- 
tually come upon their embankment ; great piles 
driven in with transverse timbers all along the 
old water line. But now we must bid good bye 
to our rubbish heap, for down comes the concrete, 
and in a day or two the hole will be closed for 

ever ! 

J. C. J. 



" During three years (458460) Auvergne and Dau- 
phine were convulsed by violent and continued volcanic 
eruptions .... attended by earthquakes, shaking as it 
were the foundations of the earth. Thunders rolled 
through the subterraneous caverns; so awful were the 
concussions, the sounds, the fires, that the beasts of the 
forest, driven from their haunts, sought refuge in the 
abodes of mankind. 

" An impending invasion of the Goths added to the 
terror of the threaten ings of Nature. Instructed, and pro- 
fiting by the example of the Ninevites, Mamertus, 
Bishop of Vienne, assembled his people in prayer and 
humiliation. To avert the evil, he instituted the solemn 
Litanies, or Rogations on the three days preceding the 
Feast of the Ascension, because they were the only days 
of the year then actually set apart for the purpose of such 
solemn supplications. These forms of prayer, rendered 
more impressive by the awful character of the calamities 
and portents which had suggested them, corresponding 
so nearly with the signs and judgments of Scripture, 
were speedily adopted throughout Gaul and England. 
Here they were continued by usage and tradition, until 
finally established as a portion of the national ritual in 
the, Council held at Cleofeshoe (A.D. 749), which ap- 
pointed that three days should be kept holy, after the 
manner of former times ; and it is hardly needful to ob- 
serve, that the Rogation days retain their station in the 
Rubric of the Church of England at the present day. 

" A remarkable epistle of Sidonius Apollinaris, Bishop 
of Clermont . . . addressed to Mamertus himself .... 
preserves a full notice of the earthquakes and volcanic 
eruptions. Alcimus Avitus, the successor of Mamertus, 
carries on the chain of testimony. This prelate .... 
composed an ample series of Rogation Homilies ; and in 
addressing his people, he recalls to their memory the 
events which a great portion of them must have wit- 
nessed, and exhorts them to gratitude for the deliverance 
they had received." [Homilia de Rogat. v. Grynsei 
Orthodoxographa, p. 1777 ; Sirmondi Opuscula, ii. 150-7 ; 
Ejusdem Opp., ii. 134-40 ; Bibliotheca Maxima, ix. 591-2 ; 
Sermo Feria tertia in Rogat. v. Martene Thesaurus, i. 
47 56.] 

" Amongst the strange examples of the oblivion at- 
tending written evidence, not merely when lurking in 
Archives or concealed in manuscripts, but when amply 
Jffused by means of the printing-press, we may remark 
that this is perhaps the first time that Avitus has been 
quoted as elucidating either Sidonius, or Gregory of 

Tours the latter of whom also notices the events, though 
with more brevity." Quarterly Review, vol. Ixxiv. 
294, sgq. 

This is a strange statement, inasmuch as in the 
edition of Sidonius by Sirmondus, referred to by 
this writer, as in that by Savaro, these two au- 
thors Sidonius and Avitus are illustrated by 
each other ; and Sirmondus expressly remarks : 
" Cum hac autem epistola [lib. vii. ep. 1] compa- 
randa est Alcimi Aviti Homilia de Rogationibus 
. . . sunt enim ut argumento, sic tota narrationis 
serie simillimae." The spiritual weapons with 
which the Arverni were instructed by Pope Ma- 
mertus succeeded, observes Sidonius, " si non 

eflectu pari, affectu certe non impari 

Doces denuntiatse solitudinis minas orationum 
frequentia esse amoliendas : mones assiduitatem 
furentis incendii aqua potius oculorum quam 
fluminum posse restingui : mones minacem terrae 
motuum conflictationem fidei stabilitate firman- 
dam." Cf. Baronii Annal. Eccl. ad A.c. 475 ; 
Beyerlinck, Theatrum Humana Vitoe, vi. 356. 

" The title of Pope is given to Mamertus by the 
early writers, and perhaps the style of Pope was 
assumed by or given to the see of Vienne so 
venerable for its antiquity." 

The treatise, De Statu Animce, inserted in Gry- 
naei Orthodoxographa (pp. 1248 1306), and in 
Biblioth. Maxima, vi., is by a brother of the bishop. 
See Butler's Lives of the Saints, May 11. 

" Quid plura," writes Gregory of Tours, refer- 
ring to the same terrors (Hist. Franc., lib. ii. 
s. 34 ; in Bouquet, Gallicarum R. S., ii. 553 ; 
Acta Sanctorum, Maii xi.) "penetravit excelsa 
poli oratio Pontificis inclyti, restinxitque domus 
incendium flumen profl uentium lacrymarum." Cf. 
Adonis Chronicon, ad annum 452 (in Bibl. Pair., 
1618, ix. ; Bibl. Maxima, xv. 796) ; "Binii Notas 
ad Hilari Papae Epistolas," in Labbe, iv. 1047; 
and " Concil. Arelatense," ibid. p. 1040, sqq. ; 
Rupertus, lib. ix. c. 5. (In Hittorpii Suppl. de 
Divinis Ojficiis, i. 1028). Liturgia Gallicana, 
Mabillonii, p. 152. Baronius (ubi supra, vi. 310,) 
adds : " At de his (Rogationibus) consule a nobis 
dicta in Notationibus ad Romanum Martyrologium 
(ad 25 Aprilis) locupletius." Other authorities 
are given in Ducange's Glossarium. 

" We have two sermons of St. Mammertus, one on the 
Rogations, the other on the Repentance of the Ninevites, 
being the twenty-fourth and twenty-fifth among the dis- 
courses which bear the name of Eusebius of Emisa." 
[These are printed in Biblioth. Pair., 1618, torn. v. par. 1, 
pp. 568-9, sub nomine Eusebii Gallicani. By Hooker these 
Homilies are all ascribed to Salvianus, Book vi. iv. 6.] 
"For an account of the literary history of these Homilies, 
and of the various opinions which have been entertained 
regarding their origin, see Oudin, Comment, de Scriptor. 
Eccles., i. 390426. He does not mention Salvian as one 
of the supposed authors, but after deciding against the 
claims of Eucherius and Hilary of Aries, acquiesces in that 
of Faustus Regiensis." Keble. 




[3 rd S. V. FEB. 13, '64. 

CONGREVE THE POET. In a foot note to p. 213, 

yol. ii., Cunningham's edition of Johnson's Lives 
of the Poets, it is stated on the authority of Leigh 
Hunt, that Congreve's mother was Anne Fitzher- 
bert, daughter of Sir Thomas Fitzherbert. This 
statement is erroneous. The mother of the poet 
was a Miss Browning; his grandmother was the 
Anne Fitzherbert spoken of. Congreve's father 
was Colonel William Congreve, who was the son 
of Richard Congreve, a cavalier named for the 
Order of the Royal Oak. Richard Congreve was 
descended from Richard Congreve, temp. Henry 
VI , whose ancestor was Galfrid de Congreve of 
Stretton and Congreve, temp. Edward II. He 
was descended from another Galfrid de Congreve 
and a daughter of the house of Drawbridgecourt 
of Hants, temp. Richard I. The family was settled 
at Congreve, in Staffordshire, long before the Con- 
quest. The best portrait of Congreve is undoubt- 
edly that by Sir Godfrey Kneller, now in the 
possession of the junior branch of the family. 

H. C. 

A HEROINE. The following, which I have 
extracted from a New York paper, seems to me 
. worthy of preservation : 

"Mrs. Catherine Shepherd has just died at Hudson, 
New Jersey, upwards of 100 years of age. Her father 
was Jacob Van Winkle, a descendant of one of the origi- 
nal Dutch settlers there. Her husband was a soldier of the 
revolution. From a steeple at South Bergen she saw the 
British fleet take possession of New York, and the British 
army marching to Philadelphia. The British soldiers 
hung her father because he would not give them up his 
money, and after leaving him for dead, she cut him down, 
and restored him to life. She risked her life in carrying a 
message to the American commander at Belleville, to 
warn him of a night attack from the British forces, by 
which she saved the American troops from destruction."" 

T. B. 

" 'Cur,' mea Phillis ait, 'de te mihi primula venit, 

Primula, flaventes rore gravata comas?' 
Scilicet ingenti permiscet gaudia curse, 
Atque inter medias spes quoque pallet amor." 

I forget where I met with these lines, but sus- 
pect they are of Etonian origin. I do not think 
they have ever appeared in print. 

Primula here ^undoubtedly means the primrose; 
but the London gardeners give to a different plant 
of the same species, which bears a crimson flower, 
the name of primula. See in the conservatory at 
the Pantheon, Oxford Street, Jan. 1864. 

W. D. 

7th January last, a young camel was born at Hack- 
ney, during the stay of Wombwell's Menagerie 
there. As this is said to be the first instance of 
one being born in this country, it is worth noting. 

By-the-bye, what is the proper name for a 
young camel? Is it a calf? J. C. J. 

while to record in " N. & Q." that Lodge in his 
memoir of this statesman gives him the title of 
K. G. But on reference to Beltz's History of the 
Order of the Garter, I do not find his name, nor 
does it appear in the Catalogue of these Knights 
contained in Sir Harris Nicolas' s Synopsis of the 
Peerage. Sir Francis seems to have received 
very little recompense from Queen Elizabeth for 
his services. SHEM. 

NEOLOGY. A few days ago, I was at a party 
of literary people, where the question was asked : 
" What is neology ?" The answer that was given, 
whatever might be its merits in other respects, 
appeared to me to have so much wit in it as to 
deserve being made a Note of. 

"Neology" said the gentleman who under- 
took to solve the question "Neology is the 
visible horizon that bounds the out-look of the 
popular mind ; and, as such, it recedes as the 
popular mind advances. In the time of Galileo, 
the revolution of the earth round its axis was 
neology. Half a century ago, neology was barely 
distinguishable from geology. In the present day, 
neology consists in the application or, as some 
deem it, the misapplication of learning and com- 
mon sense to the records of revelation. Who can 
say what will be the horizon of the popular mind 
ten years hence ? " MELETES. 

have lately stumbled upon the following in Harl. 
MS. 3875, fo. 288. The scribe, in a side-note, 
naively remarks that it is " a sharpe reckoning " ; 
and in this most of the readers of " N. & Q." 
will I think agree : 

" Testiculi presbiteri abscisi. Alexander archie'pus 
(Ebor') salutem, &c. Noverit universitas vra, quod acce- 
dens ad nostram p'sentiam Joh'es de Clapham, nobis ex- 
posuit, quod ipse olim quendam d'num Jo'hem Biset, 
capellanum, cum Johanna filial Lodowici de Skirrouthe, 
uxore sua, solum cum sola in camera quadam ostio clause 
turpiter invenit, qui dolorem hujusmodi ferre non valens, 
testiculos prefati Pre&byteri abscidit. Nos autem, auditis, 
et plenius intellectis factis antedictis cum cireumstantiis, 
p'fatum Jo'hem de Clapham ab excessu hujusmodi absol- 
vimus in format juris, et eidem pro p'missis penam in- 
junximus salutarem. Dat' apud Cawoode, 20 Decemb r , 



Thomas Jenny, gent., was one of the persons 
attainted by Parliament in respect of the great 
northern rebellion in 1569. 

From an abstract of his examination in Sir 
Cuthbert Sharp's Memorials (271, 272) it ap- 
pears that he had been trained up under Sir 
Henry Norris and Thomas Randolph in the 
queen's service in France and Scotland. 

3 Td S. V. FEB. 13, '64.] 



These circumstances render it almost certain 
that he was the author of the following poems : 

Poem by Thomas Jenye, entitled " Maister Randolphe's 
Phantasy, a brief calculation of the proceedings in Scot- 
land, from the first of July to the last of December." 
[This poem extends to about 800 lines, and is dedicated 
to Thomas Randolphe, in an epistle dated by the author 
" At his Chamber in Edinburgh," 31 July, 1565. It 
professes to give an account of the proceedings and 
troubles in Scotland, consequent on the marriage of the 
queen with Lord Darnley, and is supposed to be narrated 
by Thomas Randolphe."] (Thorpe's Cal Scottish State 
Papers, 227.) 

" A Discovrs of the present troobles in Fraunce, and 
miseries of this tyme, compyled by Peter Ronsard, gen- 
tilman of Vandome, and dedicated unto the Queene 
Mother. Translated by Thomas Jeney, gentilman. Ant- 
werp, 4to, 1568. Dedicated to Sir Henry Norries, Knight, 
L. ambassadour resident in Fraunce." (Ritson's JBibl. 
Poetica, 257.) 

Randolph, in a letter to Cecil, dated Berwick, 
May 26, 1566, alludes to an untrue accusation 
against him of writing a book against the Queen 
of Scots called Randolphes Phantasy, and Queen 
Elizabeth, by a letter dated Greenwich, June 13, 
in the same year, remonstrates with the Queen of 
Scots on her unjust treatment of Mr. Randolph 
in regard to his Phantasy. (Thorpe, 234, 235.) 
Jenny, after his attainder, fled from England, and 
was at Brussels in June 1570. (Thorpe, 293.) 
He was living there in 1576, and had a pension 
from the king of Spain. 

He is sometimes called Genynges or Jennings. 

In Wright's Queen Elizabeth and her Times 
(i. 255) is a letter from Mr. Jenye to Cecil, dated 
Rye, 13 July [1567], whereby it appears that the 
writer had come from Dieppe to Rye in order to 
provide an English barque for the escape of the 
Earl of Murray from France. The allusion to 
" my Lorde my master " is apparently to Sir 
Henry Norris, and there can be no reasonable 
doubt that this Thomas Jenny is the writer of 
the letter referred to. 

I desire specially to ascertain, (1.) Whether 
Maister Randolphe's Phantasy was printed, and 
if so, where ? (2.) Whether Thomas Jenny can 
be identified with Thomas Brookesby, alias Jen- 
nings, who figures in the investigations relative 
to the Gunpowder Plot? (See Green's Cal. Dom. 
State Papers, Jas. I. i. 250, 292, 293, 297, 303.) 
And generally I shall be glad to receive any other 
information respecting Thomas Jenny and his 
Works. 's. Y. R. 

AMERICANISMS. Are the words, "conjure" and 
"conjurations," unknown in England? So it 
would seem from a note on the passage, " I do 
defy thy conjurations " (Romeo and Juliet, Act V. 
Sc. 3), in Dyce's Few Notes (p. 115), where the 
commentator cites a passage from an early drama 
to prove that conjuration means earnest entreaty. 

The word, in this sense, is in every-day use in 
the United States. 

I find, in the London Spy for April, 1699 (p. 15.), 
the expression : " When we had liquored our 
throats," &c. Perhaps this may be regarded ns 
the origin of our cant phrase, " to liquor," or " to 
liquor up" meaning, to take a dram. It is, of 
course, confined to the vulgar. 

Mr. Trollope, in his North America, uses the 
verb " be little," which has always been considered 
a gross Americanism. The Greeks used the verb 
HiKpvvw, the Germans verkleinen y and the French 
rapettisser, in the same way. J. C. LINDSAY. 

St. Paul, Minnesota. 


" The Honour of Christ vindicated ; or, a Hue and Cry 
after the Bully who assaulted Jacob in his Solitude-. 
Printed for, and sold by the Booksellers of London and 
Westminster. M.D.CCXXXII." 

Who wrote this tract, which is dedicated " To 
the Reverend Dr. J. T." Who was the Doctor ? * 
It advocates the view that an emissary of Esau 
invaded the quiet of Jacob, and tried to assassi- 
nate him. It is certainly not a reverent produc- 
tion ; but it is hard to say what was considered 
irreverent in days when Swift could write as he 
wrote on the subject of the Spirit. Would the 
date admit of the tract having been written by 
that bookseller, named Annett, who was prose- 
cuted some time or other for blasphemy ? C. 

AUBERY AND Du VAT.. Can you refer me to 
any information respecting Mons. Aubery and 
Mons. Du Val, who came to England as Commis- 
sioners of France in the reign of King Edward 
VI. ? They are mentioned in a letter from Tho- 
mas Barnabe to Sir William Cecil, Secretary of 
State, to be found in Strype's Ecclesiastical Me- 
morials (edition of 1822, vol. iv. part n., fol. 491). 

P. S. C. 

GREAT BATTLE OF CATS. More than thirty 
years ago, I have a perfect recollection of hearing 
the following strange story told as a fact, by a 
gentleman who believed it to be true. I was 
very young at the time, and the story made a 
strange impression on my mind. I find it in an 
old note-book of my own, from which I wish to 
transfer it to a lasting niche in " N. & Q. " 

The narrator, was a Kilkenny gentleman, and 
the scene of the alleged conflict was laid on a plain 
near that ancient city. The time might have been 
some forty years before the tale " as it was told to 
me :" so that, calculating up to the .present time, 
the bella horrida bella would be about seventy-five 
or eighty years ago. My informant stated that 
he knew persons, then alive, who actually in- 
spected the " fiejd, after the battle." 

One night, in the summer time, all the cats in 

[* Probably the Rev. Dr. Joseph Trapp. ED.] 



[3'd S. V. FEB. 13, '64. 

the city and county of Kilkenny, were absent from 
their " local habitations ;" and next morning, the 
plain alluded to (I regret I have not the name) was 
found covered with thousands of slain tabbies ; and 
the report was, that almost all the cats in Ireland 
had joined in the contest ; as many of the slain 
had collars on their necks, which showed that 
they had collected from all quarters of the island. 
The cause of the quarrel, however, was not stated ; 
but it seemed to have been a sort of provincial 
faction fight between the cats of Ulster and 
Leinster probably the quadrupeds took up the 
quarrels of their masters, as at that period there 
was very ill feeling between the people of both 
provinces. I have no doubt, that this Note will 
elicit something further on this curious story, of 
which the above is a skeleton. 

This has nothing to do with the story of the 
two famous Kilkenny cats. S. REDMOND. 


BECKET. Can any reader give me a clue to 
the history of a " Captain Becket," who perished 
fighting under Marlborough (where, I cannot 
say) ? He married Elenor Percy. The tradition 
is, that she was a ward in Chancery ; and that, in 
consequence of his marriage with her, Becket was 
obliged to escape to the Continent. His descend- 
ants are quite numerous. ST. T. 

ROBERT CALLIS was author of The Reading upon 
the Statute 23 Hen. VIII. cap. 5, of Sewers, 2nd 
edit. 1685, 4to. I shall be glad of any informa- 
tion concerning him or his family. 


Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

It would appear by Burke's Peerage, and indeed 
by other publications of a kindred character, that 
Lord Kingsale derives his descent from John, 
only son of William De Courci, Baron of Stoke- 
Courci, co. Somerset, and Lord of Harewood. 

An inquisition held on the death of this Wil- 
liam De Courci, who was Justice of Normandy, 
and who died A.D. 1186, represents that he had 
but one son William, and a daughter Alice, who 
married Waryn Fitz-Gerold, Chamberlain to 
King John. 

According to the testimony of deeds, the au- 
thority of which is unquestioned and unquestion- 
able, William de Courci, brother of Alice, wife of 
Waryn Fitz-Gerold, died unmarried and without 
issue, 9 Ric. I., whereupon his sister Alice became 
his sole heir, in which capacity she had livery of 
all his estates. In further confirmation of this 
fact, Waryn Fitz-Gerold, only son and heir of his 
mother Alice, obtained, A.D. 1205, a charter of 
free warren in respect of the . manor of Hare- 
wood. That William de Courci was the last 
lineal descendant in the male line of the Emperor 
Charlemagne. This being the case, perhaps from 

some of your numerous correspondents informa- 
tion may be obtained as to the origin of the house 
of Kingsale. HIPPEUS. 

FAMILY OF DE SCARTH. Can your corre- 
spondent P. inform me whereabouts in Holstein 
stands the stone marking the place where fell 
Skartha, the friend and companion of Swein ? 
This Swein, or Sweyne, must be the King of 
Denmark who, in the year 1003, established him- 
self in England ; if so, he probably bestowed the 
lands in Orkney, bearing the name of Skarth, on 
his descendants (after whom they would be thus 
named) to be held by udal tenure, which it seems 
is peculiar to Orkney, though your other corre- 
spondent, SHOLTO MACDUFF, says that in Annan- 
dale some lands were granted under a somewhat 
similar title by Bruce, the Lord of Annandale, on 
his inheriting the throne, to the garrison of his 
castle. I merely throw out this suggestion for 
the sake of a reply from those better informed 
than myself, and I should be glad to hear more 
on the subject. J. S. D. 

of your numerous Shaksperian readers account 
for, or explain why, the right of succession, which, 
on the death of the king should have seated 
Hamlet on the throne of Denmark, is never 
alluded to by any one in the whole course of the 
play ? And I should also be glad to know if any 
of the commentators have made any observations 
on the subject ? G. E. 

to inquire, how long has the art of engraving 
articles of gold and silver been practised? I 
have looked into Herbert's History of the Gold- 
smiths' Company, but he is not definite on this 
head. I should like to know the first engraved 
arms. This was probably on a salt, which was 
formerly placed in the centre of a table : above 
which, sat the lord and his family ; below, the 
higher servants of the household. Hence the by- 
word, to " sit below the salt." INQUIRER. 


English or foreign, can I find an account of the 

descendants, to the present time, of James Fitz- 

james, Duke of Berwick, natural son of James II. ? 


THOMAS GILBERT, ESQ. A volume, styled 
Poems on Several Occasions, by Thomas Gilbert, 
Esq., late Fellow of Peter House, in Cambridge, 
was published in London, 8vo, in the year 1747. 
The dedication of the work is to J. Hall Steven- 
son, Esq., of Skelton Castle, and dated from 
Skinningrave. Information respecting this gen- 
tleman is requested by EDWARD HAILSTONE. 

Horton Hall. 

3'i S. V. FEB. 13, '64.] 



A genealogical work, entitled, Recherches sur 
TOrigine de plusieurs Maisons Souveraines a" Eu- 
rope, compiled at St. Petersburgh by the Baron 
de Koehne, and printed at Berlin by Ferdinand 
Schneider in 1863, states that Wladimir, Grand 
Duke of Kiew, seventh in descent from Rurick, 
and ancestor of the Romanof Emperors of Russia, 
married Gida, daughter of Harold II., King of 

Can any genealogist say whether Harold had a 
daughter named Gida, or whether he left any 
posterity at all ? HIPPEUS. 

HINDOO GODS. Is there any book with a list 
of most of the Hindu gods and illustrations of 
their images ? Having a number of idols in bronze 
and stone, I am desirous of naming them ; -and the 
account given in The Wanderings of a Pilgrim in 
Search of the Picturesque is the only book I have 
on the subject. 

Also, I should be obliged if I could be in- 
formed what constitutes the difference between 
the images of Budha and Gauda. 


THE IRON MASK. Among the arms brought 
from Paris to this country, after the defeat of 
Napoleon, and now displayed as a trophy in the 
Rotunda at Woolwich, may be seen the armour 
of the renowned Chevalier de Bayard, and a 
curious helmet, or iron mask, which I have heard 
some persons affirm to be the iron mask which 
figures so conspicuously in the romance of French 
history. Can you,jpr any of your readers decide, 
whether it is that famous headpiece ? H. C. 

LEIGHTON FAMILY. A daughter of the Hon. 
Mr. Compton, one of the younger sons of the Earl 
of Northampton, married Mr. Leighton, whose 
son, Wm. Leighton, married Miss Dilly, of the 
family of the publisher Dilly, of the Poultry, Lon- 
don. I wish to ascertain the true spelling of 
Leighton. Has the family ever spelt it Layton ? 



MATTHEW LOCKE. I am anxious to find out 
whether Matthew Lock, the composer of the 
music in Macbeth, married Alice Smyth. 

Edmund Smyth, of Annables, Herts, had ten 
children, of whom Alice was probably the youngest. 
I do not know the exact date of her birth, but her 
father's seventh child was born in 1648. Alice 
was married to Matthew Lock, whose arms were : 
1, 3, 5, azure; 2, 4, 6, or ; a falcon, with wings 
expanded, or. 

Were these the arms of the musician ? And if 
he was not the husband of Alice Smyth, was he 
any relation ? j\ j^ 

LORD MOHUN'S DEATH, 1677. In a MS. letter 
before me, written to Locke in October, 1677, it 

is mentioned : " My Lord Mohun hath lately de- 
ceased of his wound, to the great affliction of all 
his friends." This was the fourth Lord Mohun, 
who was an active politician in Charles II.'s reign 
in opposition to the court, and had made a cele- 
brated motion in 1675 for the dissolution of the 
Parliament. Can any of your readers help me to 
any particulars about Lord Mohun's death ? 

C. H. 

NAPOLEON THE FIRST. Is there any published 
work in which I can find the actual number of 
men raised by Napoleon : the details, manner, 
and times of the several levies, whether by en- 
rolment, enlistment, or otherwise ? The histories 
to which I have access simply say- that he took 
the field with so many men ; that he now en- 
larged his army by such and such a number, &c. 
The information which I seek is such as might be 
valuable to a general recruiting- officer, or a 
provost-marshal. ST. T. 

THE OATH EX-OFFICIO. Can any of your 
readers refer me to the form of this oath ? It was 
administered in the Star Chamber, and in the 
Court of High Commission. It compelled the 
person to confess or accuse himself of any criminal 
matter. It was abolished by the 13th Car. II. 
cap. 12. JOHN S. BURN. 


POPE'S PORTRAIT. Can any one explain the 
allusion to Pope's portrait in the following pas- 
sage of Tristram Shandy, vol. viii. chap. ii. ? 

" Pope and his portrait are fools to me no martyr is 
ever so full of faith or fire I wish I could say of good 
works too." 

Sterne has added a note to the passage, " Vide 
Pope's Portrait." J. B. GREENING. 

I possess a curious old book with the title : 

" The Practice of Physick ; or, the Law of God (called 
Nature) in the Body of Man, &c. &c. To which is added 
A Treatise of Diseases from Witchcraft. By William 
Drage, Med. and Philos. at Hitchin, in Hertfordshire. 
London : Printed for George Calvert, at the Half-Moon 
in St. Paul's Churchyard, 1666." 

A second title describes the latter work : 
" Daimonomageid ; a Small Treatise of Sicknesses and 
Disease from Witchcraft and Supernatural Causes. Never 
before, at least in this comprised Order and general 
manner, was the like published." 

This appears to have been printed by J. Dover, 
living in St. Bartholomew's Close, 1665, and is 
separately paged. 

I have before seen a copy of this work, but 
without the " Treatise on Witchcraft ; " but I 
ind no mention of the author in Bonn's Lowndes. 
Can you give me information respecting him, and 
whether he is the author of any works on philo- 
sophical subjects ? T. B. 



[3' d S. V. FEB. 13, '64. 

PROVERBIAL SAYINGS. Two common sayings 
are, " One half of the world knows not how the 
other lives," and " Needs must when the Devil 
drives." They are (the latter slightly varied) in 
Bishop Hall's Holy Observations, Nos. xvii. and 
xxx. (Works, ed. 1837, 101, 103.) Is this their 
original source ? LTTTELTON. 

STONE BRIDGE. In a document bearing date 
1599, an event is recorded as having occurred at 
" Stone Bridge, in the Parish of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields." Where was Stone Bridge ? 


been the origin of this name, which at first was 
peculiar to members of the family of De Burgh, 
but was subsequently used by many others in 
Ireland ? ABHBA. 

WHITE HATS. When did the fashion of wear- 
ing a white hat commence ? Had the colour in 
question any political significance ? Whence, also, 
its continued unpopularity ? for, twenty years 
since, the wearer of one was hooted at by boys 
in the streets, and termed a " Radical ; " and, even 
now, he is frequently questioned by them as to 
his affinity to the " Man who stole the Donkey." 

White hats are evidently of old date (whatever 
their shape might have been), as can be shown 
by the following extract from one of the letters 
carried by Lord Macguire to his execution (A. D. 
1644) : 

" Most loving Sir. My master his coach shall wait for 

r infallibly. That day your friend William shall go 
coach all the way, upon a red horse, with a white hat, 
and in a gray jacket, and then," &c. &c. Vide Rush- 
worth's Collections, vol. v. pt. in. p. 737. 


CESTER. Having been some years collecting ma- 
terials for a Life of Edward, second Marquis of 
Worcester, author of the Century of Inventions, I 
have consulted the British Museum Library, 
State Paper Office, Bodleian Library, and the 
Beaufort MSS., &c. 

The work affords an excellent opportunity for 
the introduction of any information, particularly 
arising from stray MS. documents, however ap- 
parently uninteresting. I have reason to believe 
that many of his letters lie scattered, one here, 
another far distant ; also, receipts for the loans of 
money during the Commonwealth, and between 
1660 and 1666. 

Information respecting his " honoured friend," 
Colonel Christopher Coppley, would likewise be 
interesting. He was under Fairfax's command 
in the north. 

My work is written in order of date, and will 
extend to from 400 to 500 pages octavo. H. D. 

'r toiifj 

HILTON CREST: " HOUMOUT." 1. Why do the 
Hiltons of Hilton Hall, Durham, bear 'as their 
crest the singular device of a Moses' head ? 

2. The entire motto of Edward the Black 
Prince is stated to have been, " De par houmout. 
ich dien." To what language does "houmout" 
belong, and what is its signification ? DENKMAL. 
[The Hilton crest, as given by Surtees (Durham, ii. 
20), is " on a close helmet, Moses's head in profile, in a 
rich diapered mantle, the horns not in the least radiated, 
but exactly resembling two poking -sticks." This is pro- 
bably one of the earliest exemplars of this singular bear- 
ing, which Dr. Burn (History of Westmoreland, i. 541), 
calls " the crest of cuckoldom." He says, " Horns upon 
the crest (according to that of Silius Italicus, * Casside 

cornigera dependens infula ') were erected in terrorem. 

And after the husband had been absent for three or four 
years, and came home in his regimental accoutrements, it 
might be no impossible supposition, that the man who 
wore the horns was a cuckold. And this accounts also, 
why no author of that time, when this droll notion was 
started, hath ventured to explain the connection. For 
woe be to the man in those days that should have made a 
joke of the holy war ; which, indeed, in consideration of 
the expence of blood and treasure attending it, was a 
very serious affair." 

Several attempts have been made to ascertain the origin 
and the meaning of Houmout, one of the mottoes of Edward 
the Black Prince. (See two papers in the Aichccologia, vols. 
xxxi. and xxxii. ; the first by Sir Nicholas Harris Nico- 
las, and the second by J. R. Planche', Esq.) According 
to the former, " the motto is probably formed of the two 
old German words, Hoogh moed, hoo mocd, or hoogh-moe, 
i. e. magnanimous, high-spirited, and was probably 
adopted to express the predominant quality of the Prince's 
mind." Mr. Planche', on the other hand, conceives that 
" Houmout is strictly speaking Flemish ; and, instead of 
considering Houmout' and 'Ich Dien' as two separate 
mottoes, is inclined to look upon them as forming one 
complete motto." 

Dr. Bell, however, by dividing " Houmout " into two 
words, is of opinion that " the entire rendering Hou mout 
ICH DIEN is almost vernacular, and plain English How 
MUST I SERVE." Vide his recent work New Readings 
for the Motto of the Prince of Wales, Part I. 8vo, 1861.] 

TROUSERS. When did the word " trousers " 
come into the language ? It is never used in this 
country except among Englishmen, " pantaloons " 
being the substitute. J. C. LINDSAY. 

St. Paul, Minnesota. 

[This word (variously spelt trossers, trousers, and trow- 
zers) frequently occurs in the old dramatic writers. In 
Act I. Sc. 1, of Ben Jonson's Staple of Newes, Peniboy, 
junior, "walks in his gowne, waistcoate, and trouses," ex- 
pecting his tailor. A man in The Coxcomb of Beaumont 
and Fletcher, speaking to an Irish servant, says, "I'll 
have thee flead, and trossers made of thy skin to tumble 
in." Trossers appear to have been tight breeches. 

3 rd S. V. FEB. 13, '64.] 



" Trowses (says the explanatory Index to Cox's History 
of Ireland) are breeches and stockings made to sit as close 
to the body as can be." See the Commentators on Shak- 
speare, King Henry V. t Act III. Sc. 7.] 

DR. GEORGE OLIVER. What relation is the 
Dr. George Oliver, the author of The Religious 
Houses of Lincolnshire and other works on Free- 
masonry, to the late Dr. George Oliver, the His- 
torian of Devon, and author of several works of 
a kindred nature ? They appear to have been 
written about the same period. As the names 
are similar, can a distinct list of each author's 
writing be procured, as it appears very difficult 
to make it from the Publisher's Catalogue f 


[Future biographers and bibliographers, it is to be 
feared, will be sorely puzzled in assigning to each of the 
above authors his own special productions. Their Chris- 
tian and surnames are not only the same ; but both were 
contemporaries, and both divines, Doctors in Divinity, as 
well as ecclesiastical antiquaries. For lists of their re- 
spective works consult Bonn's new edition of Lowndes. 
We cannot trace any relationship between the late Dr. 
George Oliver, D.D. of St. Nicholas Priory, Exeter, and 
the present Rector of South Hykeham, Lincolnshire.] 

BISHOP ANDREWES' WILL. In a list of printed 
wills, given by MR. C. H. COOPER (3 rd S. iii. 30), 
is that of Bishop Andrewes. May I ask your cor- 
respondent where I can find a copy ? An outline 
of jthe will is published in Gutch's Collectanea 
Curiosa (vol. ii.), and an extract in " The Life 
of Andrews," No. ill. of The Englishman s Li- 
brary ; but I do not think the will has ever been 
printed in its integrity. I possess a MS. copy. 


[Bishop Andrewes's Will, with three Codicils, is printed 
in extenso from the original in the Registry of the Pre- 
rogative Court of Canterbury, in his Two Answers to 
Cardinal Perron, published in the Library of Anglo-Ca- 
tholic Theology, 8vo, 1854.] 

TOP or HIS BENT. How is this expression de- 
rived ? ST. T. 

[From Bend, to make crocked ; to inflect ; as in Hamlet, 
Act IV. Sc. 2. : They fool me to the top of my bent; " 
to which Mr. Douce has added the following note : " Per- 
haps a term in archery ; t. e. as far as the bow will admit 
of being bent without breaking."] 

BLIND ALEHOUSE. What is the meaning of 
this ? I find it in the Life of Nich. Ferrar, 
Wordsworth's Eccles. Biog. v. 183, edit. 1818. 

ST. T. 

[The phrase " Blind-alehouse " occurs also in Etherege's 
Comical Revenge, 1699 : " Is the fidler at hand that us'd to 
ply at the blind-alehouse ? " We also read of a blind path. 
The meaning of both phrases is clearly that of unseen ; 
put of public view; not easy to be found ; private. Gosson, 
in his Schole of Abuse, 1579, mentions Chenas, "a. blind 
village in comparison of Athens."] 

(3 rd S. v. 72.) 

INCREDULUS having appealed to a Gloucester 
correspondent to clear up the mystery of the 
" Curious Discovery at Gloucester " of " a fine 
picture of Pope," and of " The Temptation," by 
Guido, I gladly embrace the opportunity of placing 
your readers in possession of what information 1 
have been able to glean in reference to it. The 
" Curious Discovery " surprised no one more 
than Mr. Kemp, the master of our School of Art. 
An Italian master found under his very nose, and 
he not aware of it ! 

The paragraph in The Builder has but a very 
slight substratum of truth. In the first place, the 
" discovery," if a discovery at all, is by no means 
a recent one. The picture said to be by Guido 
was never walled up in any recess, but occupied 
a panel in Mr. Kemp's bedroom, and was never 
considered to be of any value, either by Mr. 
Kemp, an artist of experience, who closely in- 
spected it, or by any gentleman connected with 
the Art School. It was, I am assured, coarse in 
execution, and as a work of art almost contempt- 
ible. Mr. Kemp remarked, also, that the head 
of the Tempter appeared to have been painted 
more recently than the other parts of the body. 

The picture said to be of Pope occupied an 
oval panel (evidently constructed for it) over the 
kitchen mantelpiece, and, from what I have heard 
of it, I am inclined to think it merits as little con- 
sideration as The Builder's Italian master. It 
was surmounted by a bust, which certainly bears 
a resemblance to Pope, judging from the most 
authentic portraits of him. The old housekeeper 
at the School (an illiterate woman) believed it 
to be a portrait, not of Pope, but of a Pope (of 
Rome), and on that ground had a great aversion 
to it, and regarded it with a painful degree of 
awe. She used to say that the eyes of the pic- 
ture (though it was much injured by dirt, smoke, 
&c., " followed her all over the kitchen when she 
was at work ;" and she did not attempt to conceal 
her satisfaction on its removal. 

The house in which the alleged discovery was 
made once belonged to the Guises, as is evidenced 
by the arms of that family being carved in several 
of the rooms. The modern owner was Miss Cother, 
from whom Mr. Baylis probably obtained the 
pictures. By the way, if I am not misinformed, 
Mr. Baylis, some years ago practised as a surgeon 
in this city, and was doubtless acquainted with 
Miss Cother. 

There is a tradition that Pope was a frequent 
visitor at this mansion, and one of its old walnut 
pannelled rooms is yet called " Pope's Study." 

I shall be happy to furnish any other informa- 
tion that can be obtained. F. G. B. 



s. V. FEB. 13, '64. 


(3 rd S. iv. 475, 527; v. 85.) 
Your correspondents who have remarked upon 
the above well-known oath of Socrates, have not 
noticed the fact that the philosopher is alluding to 
the worship paid to the Egyptian divinity, Anubis. 
Socrates expressly refers to this deity in the words, 
^ et rovro fdfffis aveteyKTOV, ju& r\)V Kvva, rbv fdyvirr'aav 
6f6v, o& aoir 6no\oyfi<Ti KaXAi/cAT/y, K.T.A.. The use of 
this form of oath has its origin in the religious 
scruples of the mind of the devout Greek. Ac- 
cording to tradition Rhadamanthus first imposed 
upon the Cretans the law " that men should not 
swear by the Gods, but by the dog, the ram, the 
goose, or the plane tree." Your correspondent, 
MB. J. EASTWOOD (3 rd S. iv. 527), very perti- 
nently refers to Potter's Grecian Antiquities for 
information on the subject. The passage in ques- 
tion is so interesting that I will briefly quote some 
of its parts : 

" Sometimes either out of haste, or assurance of their 
being in the right, they swore indefinitely by any of the 
Gods. . . . Others, thinking it unlawful to use the 
name of God upon every slight occasion, said no more 
than Nal /MX. rov, or " By" &c., by a religious ellipsis 
omitting the name. Suidas also mentions the same cus- 
tom, which, saith he (u0jiu"ei irpbs eycre/Setaj/), inures 
men to a pious regard for the name of God. Isocrates, in 
Stobaeus, forbids to swear by any of the Gods in any suit 
of law about money, and only allows it on two accounts, 
either to vindicate yourself from the imputation of some 
wickedness, or to deliver your friends from some great 
danger. . . . Pythagoras, as Hierocles informs us, 
. . . rarely swore by the Gods himself, or allowed his 
scholars to do so ; instead of the Gods, he advised them to 
swear by r^v rerpaKT^ the number four," ... as 
thinking the perfection of the soul consisted in this number, 
there being in every soul a mind, science, opinion, and sense. 
... By which instances it appears that though the 
custom of swearing upon light and frivolous occasions was 
very common among the Greeks ... yet the more 
wise and considerate sort entertained a most religious re- 
gard for oaths." Antiquities of Greece, i. pp. 293, 294. 

Porphyry's words, to which Bryant (Ancient 
Mythology, i. p. 345) refers, are as follows : 

Ot;5e 'S.wKpdTT/is, rbf Kwa Kal rbv xn va O)iu/lk, eTrcufej/, 
oA\ei Karct T)>V TOV Albs Kat Maias ireuSa eiroiftro TOV 
'6pnov De Abstinent, iii. 285. 

The Egyptian Anubis was identified by the 
Greeks with Hermes, the son of Jupiter and 
Maia. (See on this subject Jablonski, Pantheon 
tflgyptiorum, lib. ii. cap. i.) Hence, if Porphyry is 
correct, it would seem that the pious and reverent 
Socrates, instead of invoking the sacred name of 
Hermes, uses an expression which implies the same 
meaning; or else, as perhaps is more probable, he is 
merely strengthening his assertion in accordance 
with the command of Rhadamanthus, without re- 
ference to any definite God. I may state that 
your correspondent, LE CHEVALIER Du CIGNE 
(3 rd S. v. 85), misrepresents Bryant's opinion with 

regard to the terms " by the dog and the goose." 
The whole of the argument employed by Bryant 
in the chapter from which your correspondent's 
quotation is taken, is meant to show that the 
Greek words, KVW and xX are a corruption of the 
term " Cahen, the Cohen, fPD (priest), of the He- 
brews." The Greeks, says Bryant, with his cha- 
racteristic mode of explaining myths, " could not 
help imagining from the sound of the word, which 
approached nearly to that of KiW and cams, that 
it had some reference to that animal, and in con- 
sequence of this unlucky resemblance they con- 
tinually misconstrued it a dog." (i. p. 329.) 




(3 rd S. v. 68.) 

W. appears to be unaware that this fatal liabi- 
lity in most kinds of freestone may be arrested 
or averted by means of a solution of silica and of 
calcium ; by which Mr. Frederick Ransome forms 
sand into an artificial freestone, surpassing in 
strength and (so far as chemical tests can fore- 
show the effects of time and weather exposure) 
in durability, any kind of building-stone known. 

Freestone, as found in quarries, consists mainly 
of sand consolidated into a mass by cementing 
substances introduced amongst it in the opera- 
tions of nature ; and is more or less durableac- 
cording to their composition, and to their insolu- 
bility in the water and the acids to which they 
may be exposed under the influences of the at- 
mosphere. Even in different parts of the same 
quarry, the strength of these cementing substances 
seems to differ : so that, in selecting the stone for 
a building, it is impossible to make sure of its 

Boiled linseed-oil has long been a means re- 
sorted to, in this part of the country, to arrest 
the disintegration of building-stone ; and, no 
doubt, it is found to effect its purpose for a few 
years, that is, so long as it remains sufficiently in 
the stone to bar the entf ance of moisture. But 
ultimately, the oil itself becomes decomposed and 
washed out by the action of the weather, and the 
parts of the stone that had been saturated with it 
crumble more readily than those that had not 
been anointed with it. 

By a judicious application of Mr. Ransome's 
solutions, the originally defective natural cement 
that held together the sandy particles of the stone, 
and the gradual decomposition of which is letting 
it crumble into sand, is effectually replaced not 
on the surface merely, but for some distance 
within the substance of the stone by pure sili- 
cate of lime, insoluble in and impervious to mois- 
ture : a cement which the lapse of time only 
hardens, and the strength of which, as witnessed 

3rd s. V. FEB. 13, '64.] 



in the concrete remains of our buildings of the 
early ages, is proverbially known. Atmospheric 
influences have no effect upon it. I have experi- 
mentally applied these solutions to the purpose 
I mention ; and, although it is only the lapse of 
many years that can afford the absolute test of 
their efficacy, the instantaneous arrest of the de- 
cay that was rapidly defacing the building, and 
which has not reappeared during weather of the 
most trying kind, convinces me that time will 
prove the remedy to have been most effectually 

Mr. Ransome's discovery is one of the most 
remarkable instances in our time of the practical 
result of scientific induction. EXPERTO CBEDE. 


The communication of W. on this subject, and 
his suggestion that stone should be kept some 
time before it is used, reminded me that there is 
great authority for the antiquity of the practice. 
We find, in the Holy Scriptures (1 Chron. xxii.), 
that King David " set masons to hew wrought 
stones," and prepared " timber also and stone " 
for the building of the temple by Solomon after 
his death. M. E. F. 

The remarks of W. are worthy of note, espe- 
cially as to the use of linseed oil. I can speak of 
its virtue from experience of forty years and 
more ; but when it is applied, the stone should 
not be in a green state. 

In the quotation from the recent Camden vo- 
lume, in a letter in which the writer speaks of 
"Lynsede oyle to bed hit," the editor of that 
volume put a query whether it means bathe. I 
must differ from him, because to bed a stone is a 
phrase in common use among masons for setting a 
stone in its place ; and in setting freestone (indeed 
I believe all stone), it is usual to souse the beds 
with water. And I would suggest, that instead of 
sousing with water, the clerk of the works had 
provided linseed oil to be used in bedding the 
stones instead of using water ; and as the king was 
to pay, the cost was not heeded. By such a pro- 
cess every stone^ould be thoroughly saturated 
with the oil, which would no doubt be a greater 
preservative of it than merely brushing oil over 
the surface. H. T. EIXACOMBE, M.A. 

(3 rd S.iii. 490; iv. 19, &c.) 

Will you allow me to answer that part of my 
own query, under this head, which refers to the 
Ko'vTa| Koi/raj/oV, and to apologize for trespassing so 
largely upon CHESSBOBOUGH'S patience, as well as 
upon your space : for I find that almost all the 

information I required is given by Strutt, in his 
Sports and Pastimes of the People of England 
(London, 1801, 4to, p. 92) ; where, speaking of 
the derivation of the exercise of the Quintain, he 
refers to this very code of Justinian's (De Alea- 
toribus), and identifies the /c<Wo Kovrav6v t " vibra- 
tio Quintana," therein mentioned, with the pet or 
post Quintain of later times; adding that the 
words, x w pk T ^ y TupflTjs, " sine fibula," provided 
that it should be performed, as I suggested, with 
pointless spears, contrary to the ancient usage, 
which required, or at least permitted, them to 
have heads or points. 

This exercise, as in common use among the 
the Romans, is spoken of at large by Vegetius 
(Epitome Institutorum Rei Militaris, Paris, 1762, 
lib. i. cap. xi. et xiv.) ; and also it would appear 
by Johannes Meursius (De Ludis Gracorum, in 
tit. (Wo KQVTOVW, Florence, 1741), who is, I be- 
lieve, Van Leeuwen's authority for the statement, 
that " a Quincto auctore nomen habebat ;" and Du 
Fresnoy Du Cange, in his Glossarium ad Scrip* 
tores Media et Infimae Latinitatis (Paris, 1733-36, 
fol., in voce "Quintana"). 

I regret that I have not access to the works of 
the two last-mentioned authors, and would feel 
very grateful to any of y^our correspondents, who 
are more fortunate in this respect than I am, for 
an account of the Quintain as given by them. 

I would also ask, if the words xpts rijs TTJ/WTTJS, 
" sine fibula," do not refer more to the point 
(cuspis, acies, CUXM, wTo^a,) of the weapon, than 
to the head? If, that is, it were not a spear 
having a blunt or pointless head " hedded with 
the morne " so that it could do no hurt ? 

Scaliger's definition of the word "fibula," as 
used by Caesar (De B. G., iv. xiv.), is " Corpus 
durum, oblongum quod ingreditur in ^foramen 
aliquod, quasi findat, illud quod perforat" (Casar. 
Commen., 1661, Amstelodami, ex officina Elze- 
viriana, p. 139, curS, Arnoldi Montani). 

Strutt also tells us, on the authority of Julius 
Pollux (Onomasticon, lib. ix. cap. 7), that the 
Greeks had a pastime called " Hippas " ( f Jmros) ; 
which was one person riding upon the shoulders 
of another, as upon a horse ; and gives two very 
curious illustrations of a sport of this kind, as 
practised in England, at the commencement of 
the fourteenth century, from MSS. in the Royal 
(2, B. vii.) and Bodleian (2464, Bod. 264, dated 
1344,) Libraries. May this not be the " hippice" 
(WJKJ?) of Justinian's code? If so, it was a 
modification of the Ludus Trojse ; for the per- 
formance of which, a singje solidus must have 
been an ample reward. As before, I reserve my 
" etymological sagacity " ! UUYTE. 

Capetown, S. A. 



V. FEB. 13, '64. 

(2 nd S. iv. 22, 124; ix. 19 ; 3 rd S. v. 73.) 

The following memoranda, as showing some- 
thing of the origin of the Burtons of Weston- 
under-Wood, the ultimate ownership of their 
landed estates, the precise way in which those 
estates passed, and other facts destructive of state- 
ments hitherto adopted, may be considered rele- 
vant by your correspondent E. H. A. 

Francis Burton of Weston-under-Wood, parish 
of Mugginton, co. Derby, yeoman, was living 13 
Jac. I., being then 56 years of age (Add. MS. 
6692, p. 261, British Museum.) William Burton 
was buried at St. Alkmund's, Derby, April 7, 1680. 
(Parish Register.) 

Francis Burton of Weston-under-Wood, gent., 
was father of one son and two daughters, viz. : 

I. Francis Burton of Weston-under-Wood, Esq., 
whose descendants, by his first wife, appear to have 
been Francis Burton of Ednaston, gent., died 
Oct. 9, 1742, aged 70; Richard, his son, died June 
3, 1745, aged thirty-six; Mary and Francis (in- 
fants) died 1740; John Burton, died Dec. 29, 
1708, aged thirty-five, all buried at Brailsford. 
Margaret Burton (probably widow of one of the 
fore-named) was buried at Brailsford in 1779. 

Francis Burton married (secondly ?) Mary Good- 
win at St. Alkmund's, March 18, 1682. He was 
High Sheriff of Derbyshire in 1706, and died July 
6, 1709, leaving, by Mary his wife, one son : 

I. Samuel Burton of Derby, Esq., High Sheriff 
of the county in 1719, buried at St. Alkmund's. 
His monumental inscription (according to Glover) 
reading, in brief, thus : 

" Underneath this place lies interred the body of Samuel 
Burton, Esq., who died October 24th, 1751, aged 67. His 
decease having rendered extinct, in the male line, a 
family which had been very anciently seated in this 
county, Joseph Sikes, Esq., of Newark, Notts, as only 
surviving issue of Mr. Burton's first cousin in the female 
line, became heir-general of the family and estates." 

II. Margaret Burton married William Cham- 
bers of Derby, gent. She died Nov. 26, 1685, 
and was buried at All Saints, Derby. Their only 
child (to survive) Hannah Chambers, married 
Joseph Sikes of Derby, gent., at St. Alkmund's, 
April 1722. She was buried at St. Michael's, 
Derby, May 3, 1751 ; and he at the same place, 
May 23, 1752, having made his will April 11 pre- 
ceding. They had 1. Samuel Sikes, baptised 
at Alkmund's June 18, 1723; said to have mar- 
ried Sarah Webber ; predeceased his father, s. p. 
2. Joseph Sikes, of the Chauntry, Newark, heir- 
general of the Burtons, baptised at St. Alkmund's 
Nov. 14, 1724; married Jane Heron, who died 
s. p. ; and 2. Mary Hurton, by whom he left at 
his decease, March 10, 1798, Joseph Sikes, LL.B. 
(of whom presently) ; Hannah-Maria Sikes, mar- 

ried George Kirk, Esq.; Sophia- Josepha Sikes, 
married Rev. Hugh- Wade Grey, M.A. 3. Ben- 
jamin Sikes, baptised at St. Michael's Aug. 15, 
1726, predeceased his father, s. p. 

III. Mary Burton, married Ebenezer Crees of 
Derby, gent., who died March 5, 1691, and was 
buried at All Saints'. Joseph Sikes, LL.B. of 'the 
Chauntry, Newark, thus inherited the estates of 
the Burtons, situated in the parishes of St. Alk- 
mund, Derby, Brailsford, and other dispersed 
parts of the county, the value of which estates is 
considerable. This gentleman had a fancy for 
adding initials to his name other than those to 
which he was really entitled. Thus, in one edi- 
tion of Burke's Commoners, the letters " F.R.S. 1 ' 
are so attached. 

Your correspondent has asked, " Who was Sir 
Francis Cavendish Burton.? " The answer is an 
maginary person, who existed only in the brain 
of Mr. Sikes, who, instead of ascertaining the real 
parentage of his grandfather (if he did not know 
it), made a " short cut," and attached his name at 
once to the pedigree of Sykes of Leeds, by con- 
cocting the marriage of Martha Burton with 
Richard Sikes, thus imposing upon Dickinson in 
his Antiquities of Notts, Burke in his Commoners, 
and Hunter in his Families Minorum Gentium. 
The latter is in the British Museum, Add. MS. 
24,458, the learned compiler of which, when he 
found out the hoax, wrote against this particular 
statement But this is all a mistake. 

As a specimen of what Mr. Sikes could do in 
the way of " mistakes," allow me to append the 
following from the Clerical Journal Directory of 
1855, the italics being mine : 

" Sikes, Joseph, F.S.A., Author of Strictures and Com- 
mentary on the much- appreciated Life of the remarkable 
Dr. Anthony Ashley Stkes, as applied to the insidious 
' Characteristics ' of his once celebrated namesake Anthony 
Ashley, second Earl of Shaftesbury." 

That the " Strictures and Commentary " would 
have been a literary curiosity had they existed, 
the readers of " N. & Q.," will be prepared to 

Joseph Sikes, LL.B., died April 21, 1857, leav- 
ing his property to Mr. Francis Baines (whose 
daughter Mr. Sikes had previously adopted), and 
who is the present owner of the estates of the 
Burtons, whose heraldic honours he has not appro- 
priated, though he has assumed the name and 
arms of Sikes. 

The arms of Cavendish (!) were quartered by 
the late Mr. Sikes, the imaginary marriage re- 
ferred to in this letter being the sole founda- 
tion for such an absurdity. Rightly or not, the 
Burtons of Weston- under- Wood used the arms 
of those of their name at Dronfield ; and these 
Mr. Sikes quartered with something like reason ; 
but their consanguinity (if any) must have been 
very remote. It is a curious coincidence that a 

B TA S. V. FEB. 13, '64. ] 



family named Sykes was contemporaneous with 
that of Burton, at Dronfield members of it 
serving as churchwardens, &c., in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. It also terminated in 
a heir-general in 1799, the estates now vesting in 
Mr. Kobert Sykes Ward. Query: Could there 
possibly be a common ancestry between Sykes of 
Dronfield and Sikes of Derby and Newark ? In 
the endeavour to solve this question, the informa- 
tion concerning the Burtons of Weston-under- 
Wood was acquired. JAMES SYKES. 

99.) The query of L. F. N. may be thus an- 
swered. The excise duty on painters' canvass was 
levied in July, 1803, under the Printed Linens Act, 
43 Geo. III. capp. 6869. It was one of Pitt's 
schemes for the maintenance of the war against 
France. The duty, paid by the colourmen or 
vendors of the strained canvasses for artists, was 
threepence-halfpenny the square yard, and the 
excise officer used to visit their workshops three 
times in each week, measure the strained can- 
vasses for the amount of duty to which they were 
liable, and stamp them on the back. The order 
from the excise Office, for the non-gathering of 
the duty, was issued on March 17, 1831 ; stating 
the duty had ceased on the first of that month. 
It is idle, therefore, to suppose that any asserted 
picture by Gainsborough, or Reynolds, having 
the excise brand on the back, could be painted 
by artists who were deceased long before : the 
former in 1788, and the latter in 1792. Several of 
the supposititious paintings by Sir Joshua, painted 
during the infliction of the war tax, were doubt- 
less painted by Christopher Pack ; of whom some 
notice will be found in the 1857 volume of Wil- 
lis's Current Notes, while under the writer's edi- 
torial management. J. H. BURN. 

London Institution. 

SITUATION or ZOAR (3 rd S. v. 117.) I am 
very grateful to A. E. L. for the good-natured 
way in which he has noticed my misdeeds. The 
article under the head of " Zoar " (Dictionary of 
the Bible, vol. iii. p. 1856, &c.) contains my own 
conclusions as to the position of the place if 
conclusions they can be called on evidence so im- 
perfect. When I wrote the article on " Moab," I 
had not looked into the question for myself; but 
accepted without hesitation the positive state- 
ments of Robinson and others. I discovered the 
error some time since, and it will be corrected in 
the second edition. G. GROVE. 

323.) Allow me again to call attention to the 
stone inscription, once more threatened with ex- 
tinction. After I noted on it in " N. & Q." the 
stone was replaced nearly upon the same site, and 

screened by wooden palings ; but now new build- 
ings are being erected on the grounds once occu- 
pied by the Fishmongers' Almshouses, and I sadly 
fear the relic of civic jurisdiction will be totally 
martyred unless some one in authority flies to 
the rescue. To those who saved it in its former 
peril I address this, and I hope they will assist in its 
being restored upon as near its former site as pos- 
sible. Our landmarks are being torn down, but 
this one should remain to tell of olden times in 
South London. T. C. N. 

MAIDEN CASTLE (3 rd S. v. 101.) The de- 
rivation of Maiden from the Celtic Mad, cannot 
be satisfactorily established, since the word in its 
primitive form existed in the Teutonic tongues 
long before the Saxon had come into contact with 
the Cymry. It is found in the A. S. mcegd, maid, 
daughter; maga, son, male relative; Goth., magus, 
the equivalent of irais, T^KVOV ; magaths, wapeevos ; 
Old High Ger., magad; Mod. Ger., magd; Old 
Frisian, maged, &c. These may all be traced to 

Sanskrit, <FT^Ef , madhya, unmarried woman, vir- 
gin ; but the connection is more apparent than 
real. Madhya is doubtless derived from 

madhu, sweetness, honey; Gr., ^ueSu; Lat., mel; 
A. S., medn; Eng., mead, &c. Magd, maga, and 

their congeners, may be traced to Sanskrit, ?f iT i 

mah, the primary idea of which is " power," but 
which is also applied in the sense ofgignere, par- 
ticularly in the Teutonic derivatives. (See Bopp, 
Sans. Gloss., 253 ; Grimm, Deutsch. Gram., ii. 27 ; 
iii. 320.) Originally, then, Maiden, with its male 
equivalent (now lost), signified blood relations. 
Grimm derives the Scottish Mac (filius) from the 
same source. 

A maiden fortress is generally understood to 
mean one which has never been captured; a 
maiden mountain ( Jungfrau) one which has never 
been ascended. Is it necessary to go further for 
an explanation in the present instance ? 

J. A. PlCTON. 


RYE-HOUSE PLOT CARDS (3 rd S. v. 9.) Alder- 
man Masters lent me a pack of these cards to 
exhibit at the soiree given by Dean Alford at Can- 
terbury, on the occasion of the Kent Archaeologi- 
cal Association holding their annual meeting in 
the metropolitical city. 



NEWHAVEN IN FRANCE (3 rd S. v. 116.) In 
answer to your correspondent J., I beg to ^ state 
that Newhaven in France, so called in English in 
1548, is identical with the place now called Havre. 




[3rd g. V. FEB. 13, '64. 

LEWIS MOERIS (3 rd S. v. 12.) In the Intro- 
duction to the Welsh Poems of Garonwy Owain 
(Llanrwst, 1860), pp. Ixxxv. Ixxxvi., there is 
given some little account of Lewis Mdrys amongst 
others who were at all connected with that highly 
gifted, but unhappy, Welsh writer. As this ac- 
count of Lewis Morys was drawn up by Dafydd 
Ddu Eryri, it must have been written a good while 
ago, probably fifty years. I think that it first ap- 
peared in some earlier .edition of Garonwy Owain. 
From it we learn that Lewis Morys was born 
March 12, 1700, in the parish of Llanfihangel 
Tre'r Beirdd, in Anglesey, as shown by the re- 
gister. He was the eldest son of Morys ap Rhi- 
siart Morys and Margaret his wife, who was the 
daughter of Morys Owen, of Bodafen y Glyn, in 
the same parish. Lewis Morys, in his early days, 
followed his father's employment of " cowperiaeth." 
He afterwards became a land-surveyor, and sub- 
sequently obtained a situation in the custom-house 
at Holyhead; he afterwards was collector at 
Aberdyfi, in Merioneth. He was long connected 
with various Welsh literary undertakings, and he 
bad a reputation amongst his countrymen as an 
antiquary and scholar. He died April 11, 1765. 

Dafydd Ddu Eryri does not mention Lewis 
Morys's troubles, especially his imprisonment on 
account of supposed deficiencies in his accounts. 
He also passes by his quarrels with other literary 
men. Some curious statements on these subjects I 
have seen in Welsh Magazines. As he died ninety- 
nine years ago, a son of his can hardly have been 
recently living at Gwaelod, as MR. JOHN PA YIN 
PHLLUPS seems to suppose. LAELIUS. 

The Cambrian Register, vol.ii. 1796, contains a 
Memoir of Morris, adorned with a portrait, taken 
from a mezzotinto print, after a drawing by Morris 

The detur pejori, not for the worst " pun," but for 
the worst conundrum, as our grand master itali- 
cises the distinction between the two perpetrations, 
is mine: I protest myself the Senior Pessime. 
In 1815, when the Byronic muse was mystifyino- 
and trustifying the world, I indited a ballad, which 
my old friend, John Taylor, of The Sun, got si"ht 
of, and inserted therein. Half a stanza will show 
the bitaurine bellow no less luscinian at Istamboul 
than Snug the Joiner's leonine roar had been in 
Athens : 

" When my lord he came wooing to Miss Anne Thrope 

He was then a Childe ' from school ; 
He paid his addresses in a trope, 

And called her his sweet bul-bul : 
But she knew not, in the modern scale, 
That a couple of bulls was a nightingale," &c. 

Some years later Mr. Jerdan noticed my idle 
joke in his Autobiography, honouring it with the 
ascription to one of THE SMITHS, I forget which. 

Being too conscientious to descend from my " bad 
eminence," I declared to him its paternity, which 
he promised to record in a forthcoming edition. 
Whether this ever forthcame I know not ; but if 
the saddle be put on the right horse by "1ST. & Q." 
I shall rest contented with the tulit alter honores. 
The conundrum has long been unjustly discredited. 
Johnson etymologised it " a cant word," and de- 
fined it " a low jest, a quibble, a mean conceit," 
like the dislocated Hs and supernumerary Us 
which have possessed themselves of our theatres. 
Better justice has, however, been done to this ill- 
used term (2 nd S. vii. 30), distinguishing it as a 
play of sentiment, whereas a pun is but a word- 
play ; and, referring it to the classical etymon, 
Koivbv Suoii/, commune duorum. 


SIR EDWARD MAY (3 rd S. v. 35, 65, 84.) See 
Burke' s Extinct Peerage, p. 611, "May of May- 
field," commencing with Edward May, Esq., the 
first settler in Ireland, from whom Sir Edward 
May appears to have been in the fifth descent. 
Numerous references to pedigrees, in the Harl. 
MSS., of the Mays of Kent, may be found in Sims's 
Index to those and other MSS. in the British 
Museum. R. W. 

QUOTATION (1 st S. xii. 204). 

" Death hath a thousand wa}'s to let out life." 

The only reply which seems to have been 
offered respecting this quotation is in 2 nd S. vii. 
177, and that is unsatisfactory. These words, 
slightly varied, are placed in the mouth of Zeno- 
cia, in Beaumont and Fletcher's play, The Custom 
of the Country, Act II. Sc. 1 : 

" Death hath so many doors to let out life, 
I will not long survive them." 

Blair, in The Grave, v. 394, has these words 
(in connection with suicide) : 

" Death's thousand doors stand open who could force 
The ill-pleas'd guest to sit out his full time, 
Or blame him if he goes? " 

Cf. Virgil's expression, JEn. ii. 661 : 
"... patet isti janua letho." 


TOAD-EATER (2 nd S. ii. 424) is, literally, our 
Dutch dood-eter (dead-eater), fern, dood-eetster, a 
person, who, to borrow another Dutch expression, 
" eats one's clothes off one's body," or " one's 
ears off one's head." In English, the adjective 
dead in composite words, also assumes the sense 
of "hopelessness" or worthlessness," as, for 
instance, "a dead bargain" (for the salesman), 

" dead-wind," a dead-lift," &c. 


Zeyst, near Utrecht. 

CRAPAUDINE (3 rd S. iv. 423, 443.) The answers 
ot K. S. CHARNOCK and W. I. S. HORTON on this 

3'd S. V. FJDB. 13, '64] 



subject very much interested me, and I have been 
trying to find out something more of its physical 
properties than was contained in the replies of 
those gentlemen, but without success. One finds 
in French dictionaries the word crapaudine trans- 
lated " toadstone," but what is exactly meant by 
the word I cannot say : for the toadstone is an 
igneous rock (almost a porphyry), found in 
Derbyshire, near Matlock, and derives its name 
from the German todstein (death-stone), because 
where it occurs the lead lode dies or ceases; 
therefore, it is plain that, in the sense in which it 
is now used, it has no connection with erapaud. 

Mentioning the subject to a friend, I find the 
word has a great number of meanings. My friend 
writes to me : 

" D'abord en ce qui regarde 1'article des ' Notes and 
Queries ' je crois que la reponse a e'te concluante : il est 
eVident que 1'expression 'Crapaud Ring' signitie une 
bague avec une Crapaudine moutee en chaton : c'est-a- 
dire, une sardonic ocille'e qu'on croyait jadis exister dans 
la tete de certains crapauds. Mais ce mot Crapaudine 
(et c'est ce que je vous ai dit) n'a pas rien que ce sens en 

" 1. Dans un sens me'canique ce mot s'applique a une 
sorte de sabot en metal (fer ou bronze) creuse pour re- 
cevoir le pivot d'une porte, ou 1'arbre d'une machine ; il a 
pour synonyme le mot Grenouille. 

" 2. Dans un sens hydraulique, on appelle Crapau- 
dine une sorte de soupape qui sert a vider les eaux d'un 
bassin et dont la forme ressemble assez a, la crapaudine 
d'une porte. 

" 3. En architecture militaire il a e'te employe dans le 
moyen age pour signifier un engin guerrier, possedant la 
forme d'un morceau de fer creux, que j'ai pu appeler assez 
improprement de nom de ' canon' (Dictionnaire d' 'Architec- 
ture de Viollet Leduc)." 

Spiers, in his Dictionary, says it also means 
(Bot.) iron-wort. 

The Derbyshire toadstone is a rather coarsely- 
grained dark green rock, amygdaloidal in parts, 
and sometimes containing small pieces of a white 
crystalline mineral (calcite?) it could not pos- 
sibly be used for a ring. An account of it will 
be found, I believe, in Beete Jukes's Geology. 
Although the name is taken from todstein, I find 
no rock mentioned as todstein in Blum's Litho- 
logie. I should imagine the stone to be a chryso- 
lite variety, peridot (a dirty green one, peculiarly 
marked). JOHN DAVIDSON. 

^ THE OWL (3 rd S. v. 71.) Time was when this 
bird created panics when it made its appearance, 
and set all the augurs consulting. It certainly 
has been responsible for much mischief in this 
way. Except as a great recluse, a meditative 
character, and having the singular faculty of 
seeing everything when ordinarily gifted mortals 
can see nothing, one really wonders how the owl 
ever came to be regarded as an attribute of the 
famed goddess of wisdom. But the entry quoted 
by OXONIENSIS proves, pretty clearly, it had not 
wiped away its reproach in the seventeenth cen- 

tury. Perhaps the Beverley sexton was only in- 
dulging a classical prejudice, when he charged 
in the churchwardens' accounts for killing his 
"oule;" thinking that a bird of ill omen, that 
presaged calamity or death in the place where it 
appeared, was not fit to enjoy life and that 
" ignavus," "profanus," " funereus," were epithets 
too good for it. 

This bird met with very rough treatment at 
the hands of rustics. It was a custom in some 
parts to hunt and kill owls on Christmas Day. 
A barn-owl, " screeching " its invocation to Mi- 
nerva behind a clap-net, could hardly hope for 
quarter from her village votaries. An allusion 
to this pastime appears in some Christmas carols. 

The prophet has made this bird the symbol of 
desolation: "The screech-owl* shall rest there." 
Isaiah xxxiv. 14. F. PHILLOTT. 

I fear that many benighted farmers still con- 
tinue to slay this, one of their best friends, though 
I know of many honourable exceptions. In the 
days of Apuleius, poor " Billy Wix" had a worse 
fate to encounter than being shot first, and then 
nailed to the barn gable the polished Greeks cru- 
cified him alive ! Hear what Apuleius says in 
the third book of the Golden Ass : 

" Quid? quod et istas nocturnas aves, cum penetrave- 
rint Larem quempiam, sollicite prehensas foribus videmus 
adfigi; ut, quod infaustis volatibus familiae minantur 
exitium, suis luant cruciatibus." 



HERALDIC (3 rd S. v. 73.) The arms inquired 
for by J. B., Dublin, are those of the family De 
la Barca, and are derived from those of Leon. 
They are no doubt derived from some gallant 
exploit during the wars of the Moors in Spain. 
The crest, now changed into a " blackamoor," 
was originally a Moor of Spain. This is, of course, 
attributable to the skill of the herald engravers 
of a past age. The arms are borne by one of the 
branches of the family of " Barker ;" but I doubt 
if they could give authority for the assumption. 
I suppose "chevron inverted" is a misprint for 
invected; and the punctuation of the query b 
somewhat astounding. LATRANS. 

PASSAGE IN TENNYSON (3 rd S. v. 75, 105.) The 
poet laureate elegantly alludes to that side on 
which we generally sleep. The right ear is thus 
distinguished from that which is turned heaven- 
ward. It is, antithetically, of the earth earthy. 
' No poetry could stand such materialistic probing 
as has been applied to the lines in question. We 
should never think of asking a chemist for a scien- 
tific explanation of Gray's beautiful line, 
" E'en in our ashes live their wonted fires."" 

* Marginal reading, " night monster." 



v. FEB. 13, '64. 

Without a perception of the immateriality of the 
idea, even Shakspeare's 

" Pity, like a naked ne\v-born babe, striding the blast," 
would seem a physical impossibility, and highly 
absurd. The very explanation is injurious. B. 

"AuT TU MORUS ES," ETC. (3 rd S. v. 84.) In my 
communication on this subject, the date of Eras- 
mus's sojourn at Oxford was printed 1479 in- 
stead of 1497. W. J. D. 

ELEANOR D'OLBREUSE (3 rd S. v. 11.) She was 
the daughter of Alexander II., Baron d'Olbreuse, 
by Jacquette, daughter of Joachim de Poussart, 
Baron de Wandre. CHARLES BRIDGER. 

ALDINE VOLUME (3 rd S. v. 96.) There is in 
Stanford library a copy of Pomponius Mela, Soli- 
nus, &c., from the Aldine Press, Venice, 1518. 
It is printed in italic type, with large square 
spaces left for onamental letters at the beginning 
of each chapter, as described by your correspon- 
dent. Renouard, as regards this copy, is not 
quite literally correct. 

The title-page states the contents as given in 
his Annales de Vlmprimerie, but with the ; anchor, 
and without the date and place of publication. 
Then follows the preface of F. A. Grolanus, and 
the 233 " fcuillets," but only one additional page, 
containing the register, publisher's name, and date. 

Renouard's account, to which I have referred, 
is, however, a substantial, though perhaps not pre- 
cisely literal, account of this curious volume. 


Stanford Court, Worcester. 

I possess a Prayer-Book not unlike the Gains- 
borough copy of your correspondent, printed by 
Gower and Pennell, Kidderminster, without date, 
but probably published about the close of the last 
century. The Litany and Occasional Prayers are 
inserted in the Morning Prayer, as they are read 
in churches, not in separate services as in the 
Authorised Version. 

It is an 8vo vol. containing the Common Prayer, 
Psalms, Collects, &c., but no metrical version of 
the psalter. It has one copper-plate of the Nati- 
vity as a frontispiece. 


Stanford Court, Worcester. 

CATHERINE (3 rd S. iv. 270.) A thin volume of 
65 folios or 130 pages, 8 inches high by 5f broad, 
on thick paper with narrow margins. Evidently 
printed in a hurry, the type employed varying, 
the sheets being alternately in small and large 
type. It was no doubt printed for the exclusive 
use of the members of the papal consistory. A 
small round has been cut out of the first folio 
about the size of a half-crown piece, thereby re- 
moving the stamp of the particular cardinal's 

arms to whom this copy belonged, and slightly 
injuring the text of the verso of the first folio. 
Otherwise this volume, of which no other copy is 
known to exist, is in excellent preservation. 
The title is as follows : 


De licentia ac cocessione Sanctissimi D. N., & ad insta- 
tiam praeclari D. excusatoris illustrissimi ac inuictissimi 
Regis Angliae, Nos Sigismondus Dondolus de Pistorio 
aduocatus Cosistorialis minimus. & Michael de Conradis 
Tuderto utriusq ; iuris Doctor, praescripti illustrissimi Re- 
gis & D. excusatoris Aduocati in sacro publico Pontificio 
jonsistorio, praesidente summo Pontifice cum suo sacra- 
sancto Senatu, infrascriptas Conclusiones pro tenui posse 
nostro sigillatim, ac singulariter defensare conabimur. 
Die aut. xvi. preesentis Mensis, prinia ex infrascriptis 
conclusionibus disputabitur & successiue alias disputa- 

On the verso of the title, the pleadings com- 
mence : 

" Facti Contingentia Tails Proponitur. 

UM ad aures clarissimi Domini Odoardi Karne. ll.Doc- 
\J tons Anglican! perlatu esset, madato R. P. D. Pauli 
de Capisucchis sacri Auditorii Pontificii Auditoris meri- 
tissimi, in causa matrimoniali inter Henricum regem 
Anglian, & Catherinam illustrissimam Regina uertente, ut 
asseritur, delegati Apostolici, praescriptu illustrissimum 
Regem ad instantiam memoratae illustrissimae reginae per 
edictu citatum extitisse, ut comparere deberet in Curia 
coram eo per se uel per procuratorem, idem D. Odoardus 
tanq. excusator & excusatorio nomine dicti Regis coram 
praedicto D. Paulo comparuit, quasdem materias excu- 
satorias exhibens," &c. &c. 

The conclusions are twenty-five in number, and 
occupy two pages. The six next pages are occu- 
pied by 

"Tenor Materiarum pro parte Domini excusatoris Se- 
renissimi ac inuictissimi Regis Anglise Propositarum." 

The heading of page nine is as follows : 

" Beatissime Pater ex articolis contends in materiis - 
alias datis, S. V. eliciuntur Conclusiones infrascripte 
coram S. V. & suo Sacrosancto Senatu in amplissimo 
Cosistorio penultima Februarii proposite & disputate." 

(P. 12.) " Responsa data penvltimo die Februarii," &c. 

(P. 26.) " Responsa data sexta die Martii in Presen,tia 
S. D. N. in Cosistorio ad allegations aduocatorum Sere- 
nissime Regine deductas contra Lres coclusiones ilia die 


. 42.) " Responsa data xiii. Martii," &c. 
. 61.) " Responsa data xx. Martii," &c. 

The volume ends thus : 

" Et ex predictis remaet iustificata predicta ultima con- 
clusio, & responsum est adversariorum obiectioni." 

W. H. J. W. 

PRIVATE SOLDIER (3 rd S. iv. 501.) I fear you 
will have some difficulty in arriving at a true 
derivation of this title. I apprehend it is soldier's 
slang. The word is not recognised by military 
authority. In the army there are officers, non- 
commissioned officers (that is, Serjeants and cor- 
porals), and rank and file. If, by court-martial, a 
non-commissioned officer is reduced, the pun- 
ishment is thus worded : in the cavalry, " to the 

3'* S. V. FEB. 13, '64.] 



rank and pay of a dragoon;" in the artillery, to 
a "gunner, or driver" as the case may be; in 
infantry, to a " sentinel" You will observe, that 
in no case is " private soldier" admitted. I will 
give your readers another query : Why do soldiers 
call the dark clothes of the civilian, which they 
occasionally wear when putting off their scarlet 
tunics, "coloured clothes"? Bar a lucus a non 
lucendo, I am at a loss to conceive. EBORACUM. 

(3 rd S. iv. 388, 520.) Possibly A Loyal Oration 
(1717) may be the first tract printed in Birming- 
ham, but the earliest book printed there that I 
have met with, is 

" A HELP against SIN in our ordinary Discourse. As 
also against prophane Swearing, Cursing, evil Wishing, 
and taking God's Holy Name in vain : And also against 
Triming on the Lord's" Day Shewing that it is neither a 
Work of Mercy, nor Case of Necessity : and, therefore, 
ought not to be done on that Day. 

*' Remember the Sabbath Day to keep it Holy. Exodus 
20, 15 (sic). 

" Six Days may Work be done, but the Seventh is a 
Sabbath of Rest . . Holy to the Lord; whosoever doth any 
Work thereon, shall surely be put to Death, see Exodus 
31, 15. 

" Publish'd by the Author, R. H[amersley], Chyrur- 
geon in Walsall, Staffordshire, 1719. Birmingham : 
Printed by H. S. in New Street." 

It is a 12mo (pp. 64), and my copy is in the 
original leather binding. At p. 27, Hamersley 

says : 

" Some years past I put out a little book . . . called 
Advice to Sunday Barbers, but there were but a few of 
those books printed." 

If the Advice was printed in Birmingham, it 
would be before A Loyal Oration. 

Information respecting Hamersley, or