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Full text of "Notes and queries"

BOUND QY K.NE.l.l>Oti. 



NOTES AND QUERIES: 



A 



Inter*Commumiatfon 



ros 



LITERARY MEN, GENERAL READERS, ETC. 



When found, make a note of." CAPTAIN CUTTLE. 



THIRD SERIES. VOLUME TWELFTH. 
JULY DECEMBER 1867. 



LONDON: 

PUBLISHED AT THE 

OFFICE, 43 WELLINGTON STREET, STRAND, W.C. 

1868. 



AC, 



LIBRARY 

728m 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 






d S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY G, 1867. 



CONTENTS NO 288. 

NOTES : Original MS. of Eii> BacriAt/oj, 1 - English Car- 
dinals 2 - W r illiam D'Avenant on Shakspere, 3 Shak- 
speariana: "Hani let " Hamlet to Guildenstern The 
Merry Wives of Windsor "-"King Henry VI. Part II, 
Ib. -A Rlic of Waterloo -Trivet: John of Bologna 
Irish Etymology Lake Habitations " Imperiale, a Tra- 
gedy by Sir Ralph Freeman," 4. 

QUERIES - John Peep: Different Versions of Stories, 5 
Who killed General Braddock ? Ib. A-?nus Dei " Arti- 
cles to be Observed," 1549 Rev. Dr. Blomberg Robert 
Browning's "Boy and Angel" "The Chessboard of Life," 
by Quis The Word " Dole" Dryden Queries John 
Scotus Erigena Flaxman's Design for Ceilings Ghosts 
in the Red Sea The Hindu Trinity The Irish Grey- 
hound of Celtic Times " Magius de Tintinnabulis" 
Master Marks on China Pare aux Cerfs Quotations 
wanted Scottish Romance Strelley of Strelley, co. 
Nottingham The Tomb at Barbadoes The Valley of 
Mont-Cenis " Vir Cornub." Seth Ward, Bishop of 
Salisbury, 6. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Bishop Catrik or Ketterick 
Bible, 4to, Oxford, 1769 Quotation Charles Lamb, 9. 

REPLIES : James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, the Assas- 
sin of Regent Moray, 10 The Chevalier d'Assas, 12 The 
Bells of St. Andrews Walsh of Castle Hoel Richard 
Deane, the Regicide Perjury Holy Islands Michael 
Angelo's " Last Judgment " Names wanted Farren or 
Furren Family Arms in St. Winnow Church Par- 
venche So called Grants of Arms The Battle of Beauge 
Passage in Lord Bacon Obsolete Phrases: Champhire 
Posset Archbishop Whately's Puzzle Hymn : " When 
gathering Clouds," &c., 14. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



ORIGINAL MS. OF EIKHN BA2IAIKH. 

Some time ago (3 rd S. viii. 396) I ventured to 
ask a question as to the original MS. of the Icon 
mentioned "by Sir Thomas Herbert. I still hold 
the opinion, that the inquiry after this MS. has 
"been singularly neglected ; so much so, as almost 
to give point to Mr. Hallam's sneering implica- 
tion that it never had any real existence. That 
such a MS. did exist, and in a handwriting nearly 
resembling the king's, there can be no doubt ; 
and it certainly is very strange, that, while so 
much inquiry has been made about the account of 
the Icon in Sir Thomas's narrative, no one seems 
to have thought of seeking for the MS. of the 
Icon itself. 

We possess a series of facts which seem, at any 
rate, to encourage inquiry. 

Wagstaffe says that the original MS. account 
of the last two years of King Charles I., written 
by Sir Thomas Herbert, and afterwards published, 
was in 1697 in the possession of his widow, who 
was " married to Henry Edmonds, Esquire, living 
in the town of Worsborough, in Yorkshire." It 
is, therefore, not unreasonable to suppose that 
such books and papers as Sir Thomas possessed at 
his death, among which appear to have been 
some given him by King Charles, were also in 
her hands ; and hence it is not impossible but 
that the precious MS. of the Icon may have been 
there also. 



Now, certainly to within the last few years, 
Worsborough Hall has continued in the possession 
of the direct descendants of this gentleman, 
Henry Edmonds, Esq. The Rev. Joseph Hunter, 
in his History of the Deanery of Doncaster, pub- 
lished in 1831, gives the genealogy of the family, 
notices the picturesque old hall, and says that an 
old cabinet belonging to Sir Thomas Herbert, and 
brought there by his widow, is still preserved ; 
and he goes on with that gentle humour which 
appears peculiar to topographers, from Pennant 
downwards to say, that he has never heard that 
the MS. of the Icon has been found in a secret 
drawer within it. 

Thomas Allen also, in his History of the County 
of York, published in the same year as Hunter, 
mentions the hall and the Edmonds family. 

Is it too much to ask that some member of this 
family will inform us whether any such papers 
or books still exist books given by the king 
would, doubtless, be preserved with great care ; 
or whether anything was ever known in the 
family of such a manuscript ? 

Anthony Wood says that Sir Thomas sent him, 
the account (called " Carolina Threnodia") of the 
last two years of King Charles, about three years 
before his death. This might make us fancy that 
Sir Thomas distributed his MSS., &c., carelessly, if 
it was not clear from Wagstaffe's statement 
which describes the MS. as " a book in folio, well 
bound, fairly written, and consisting of 83 pages," 
and which is attested by five clergymen and two 
esquires, who themselves saw the book at Wors- 
borough that it must have been a copy only 
which was sent to Wood. Sir Thomas deposited 
papers in more than one public library, viz. the 
Bodleian, and that belonging to the cathedral at 
York (not the action of a careless man) 5 and 
though it is not likely that the MS. of the Icon 
was among these, yet a search even here, by some 
one on the spot, might not be entirely a useless 
waste of time. 

It is no doubt quite possible that this precious 
MS. may have gone astray, with those "short 
notes of occurrences," which Sir Thomas says 
" are either lost or so mislaid in this long interval 
of time, and several removes of my family, that 
at present I cannot find them ;" and the fact that 
he omits to state, that he actually possessed the 
MS. \.t the time he wrote his narrative, may 
strengthen this supposition. I am also unac- 
quainted with the exact circumstances of the pub- 
lication of his own MS., independently of Wood, 
in 1702 ; and cannot, therefore, say whether the 
circumstances which led to it were such as would 
be likely to bring to light, or to cause the dis- 
persion of other MSS. ; but I think we have here a 
series of interesting and important facts. We have 
a positive assertion of Sir Thomas, that he pos- 
sessed this MS. ; we have the certainty that books 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 3'd S. XII. J ULY G, '67. 



and property belonging to him have been traced 
to a house which has continued ever since in one 
family, where they have remained undisturbed 
for nearly two hundred years ; and we have seen 
that Sir Thomas, though willing to communicate 
the contents of his MSS., was careful of them, 
and regretted their loss and whether this note 
is so fortunate as to elicit such a reply from the 



Edmunds family as shall lead to farther dis- 
covery or no, I think we are justified in saying 
that this part of the inquiry has been overlooked 
even in the exhaustive analysis to which the sub- 
ject has been subjected. 

J. HENEY SHOETHOUSE. 
Beaufort Road, Edgbaston. 



ENGLISH CARDINALS. 

It may be useful to preserve in " N. & Q." a 
list of English Cardinals since the Conquest ; I 



therefore send the following, which I have care- 
fully compiled, and hope may be found accurate. 

F. C. H. 





In the Reign of 


Created by 


Died 


Robert Pullen 


Stephen . 


Lucius II. 


About 1150 


Nicholas Breakspear, Bp. of Albano (afterwards 
Pope Adrian IV ) 


Henrv II. 


Eu^enius III 


Sept 1 1159 


Boso 


Henry II. 


Adrian IV. 




Herbert Bosham, Archbp. of Benevento 


Henry II. 
Henry III. 


Alexander III. 
Honorius III. 


1218 


Stephen Langton, Archbp. of Canterbury 


John 
Henry III. 


Innocent III. 


1228. 
1241 


John Tolet Bp of Portua 


Henry III. 


Innocent IV. 


1274 


Robt. Kelwardlev, Archbp. of Canterbury 
Win Maclefield" 


Edward I. 
Edward I 


Gregory X., 1272 
Benedict XI 


[1279.] 


Walter Winterburn .. ... 


Edward I. 


Benedict XL 






Edward I. 


Martin IV. 


1287 


Theobald Stampe ... 


Edward I. 


Nicholas IV. 




Thomas Joyce . ... ... 


Edward II. 


Clement V 




John Thoresby, Archbp. of York 
Simon Langham, Archbp. of Canterbury 
Adam Eston, Bp. of Hereford 
Thomas OP .. 


Edward III. 
Edward III. 
Richard II. 
Richard II. 


Urban V.'" 
Urban VI. 


[Nov. 6, 1373.1 
[July 22, 1376.] 




Richard II. 


Boniface XL 




Thos. Langley, Bp. of Durham ... 
Robert Hallam, Bp. of Salisbury 
Richd. Clifford, Bp. of London 
Philip Repington, Bp. of Lincoln ... 
John Kempe, Archbp. of Canterbury 
Henry Beaufort, Bp. of Winchester 
John Bowet, Archbp. of York 

Thos. Bourchier, Archbp. of Canterbury . . . 

1 

John Morton, Archbp. of Canterbury 

Christopher Bamb ridge, Archbp. of York 
Thos. Wolsey, Archbp. of York 
John Fisher, Bp. of Rochester 
Reginald Poole, Archbp. of Canterbury 
William Pevto, Bp. of Salisbury 
William Allen, Archbp. of Mechlin 
Philip Howard 


Henry IV. 
Henry IV. 
Henry IV. 
Henrv IV. 
Henry VI. 
Henry VI. 
Henry VI. 
Edward IV. 
Edward V. 
Richard III. 
Henry VI. \ 
Edward IV. 
Edward V. } 
Richard III. 
Henrv VII. j 
Henry VIII. 
Henrv VIII. 
Henry VIII. 
Mary 
Mary 
Elizabeth 
Charles II. 


Nicholas V., 1452 
Martin V. 1426 

Alexander VI., 1493 

Julius II., 1511 
Leo X., 1515 
Paul III., 1534 
Paul III., 1536 
Paul IV. 
Sixtus V., 1587 
Clement IX., 1G75 


[Nov. 20, 1437.] 
[Sept. 4, 1417. J 
[Aug. 20, 1421.] 

[March 22, 1454.] 
[April 11,] 1447. 
[Oct. 20, 1423.] 
[March 30,] 1486. 

Oct. 1500, set. 90. 

July 14, 1514. 
Nov. 29, 1530, set. 60. 
June 22, 1535, set. 76. 
Nov. 25, 1558, a*. 58. 
April, 1558. 
Oct. 16, 1594, Kt. 60. 
1690, set. 61. 


Henry Stuart, Bp. of Frescati 
Charles Erskine 


George III. 
George III. 


Benedict XIV., 1747 
Pius VII., 1801 


1807, set. 82. 
March 19, 1811, ret. 57. 


Thomas Weld, Bp. of Amyclae 
Charles Acton 


William IV. 
Victoria 


Pius VIIL, 1830 
Gregorv XVI , 1839 


April 10, 1837, set. 64. 
June 23, 1847, set. 44. 


Nicholas Wiseman, Archbp. of Westminster 


Victoria 


Pius IX., 1850 


Feb. 15, 1865, set. 62. 



[To render the above list more useful as an historical 
document, we have supplied those dates distinguished 
with brackets. They have been copied from the Rev. 



Wm. Stubbs's valuable work, Registrum Sacrum Angli- 
canum.En. N. & Q."] 



. 



S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



WILLIAM D'AVENANT ON SHAKSPERE. 

Wishing to refresh my memory on the career 
of sir William D'Avenant, the noted poet and 
dramatist of the seventeenth century, I had re- 
course to the General biographical dictionary of 
Mr. Alexander Chalmers. The article occupies 
five pages ; the authorities cited being the Bio- 
graphia Britannica and the writer himself ! After 
a proemial flourish, which calls for no remarks, 
we have this exciting statement 

" Young Davenant, who was born Feb. 1605, very 
early betrayed a poetical bias, and one of his first at- 
tempts, when he was only ten years old, was an ode in 
remembrance of master William Shakspeare: this is a 
remarkable production for one so young." 

I must here interpose some critical objections 
to the above statement. 1. Herringman, who 
collected and published the works of sir William 
in 1673, and the widow of the poet, who dedi- 
cated the volume to his royal highness the duke 
of York, write D'Avenant. 2. Aubrey and Wood 
assure us that the poet was born in February 
and baptised the 3 March 160f . So also wrote 
the exact Thomas Birch in 1736. Now Chalmers, 
with the option of two admissible modes of stat- 
ing the historic year, adopts a deceptive mode 
which contradicts what immediately follows. 3. 
The assumption that the ode in question was 
written when D'Avenant was only ten years old, 
though made by an editor of twenty-one royal 
octavo volumes of English verse, needs no refuta- 
tion but I shall produce the plain words which 
gave rise to the travesty : 

" Thus much is certain, that our author [D'Avenant] 
admired Shakespear more than any English poet, and 
that one of the first essays of his muse was a poem upon 
his death, which happened when Davenant was about 
ten years old." John Campbell, esq. 1750. (B. B. vol. iii.) 

The authoritative text of the ode on Shakspere 
is contained in Madagascar ; with other poems. By 
W. Davenant. London, printed by John Haviland 
for Thomas Walkly 1638. 12. This small 
volume has been too much slighted by those who 
should have examined it, and the consequence has 
been a series of errors. In 1648 Moseley pub- 
lished a second edition of it with a mutilated 
line, which quite destroys the sense of the stanza ; 
and in 1673 Herringman adopted the same mu- 
tilation. In 1780 Malone judiciously added the 
ode to the commendatory poems on Shakspere. 
He misplaced it, however ; adopted the mutilated 
line of Moseley or Herringman ; and in 1790 re- 
peated his former error. In 1793 Steevens set 
aside his propensity to critical censure, and im- 
plicitly adopted the error of Malone; and in 
1803 Isaac Reed, who had accepted the literary 
legacy of Steevens, with regard to his revised 
notes on the plays of Shakspere, adopted the old 
error, with an addition which converts another 



stanza into nonsense ! In 1810 the old error was 
repeated by Chalmers in the work to which he 
refers as one of his authorities, and it came forth 
once more under the auspices of James Boswell 
in 1821. So ends my case. The offence is neither 
more nor less than this the promotion of a cap- 
tive to the rank of captain without due authority ! 

I must add that Lowndes misdates the Mada- 
gascar of 1638, and that Mr. W. C. Hazlitt, the 
unsparing Aristarchus of bibliographic literature, 
gives both the title of the volume, and its curious 
votive inscription, incorrectly, 

BOLTON CORNET. 

Barnes, S.W. 

SHAKSPEARIANA. 

" The swaggering upspring reels." 

Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 4. 

There has been lately published in Germany 
(Brockhaus, Leipzig) a new edition of Chapman's 
Tragedy of Alphonsus, Emperor of Germany ', 
edited by Dr. Karl Elze of Dessau. The learned 
editor has added numerous notes and a preface 
full of research, showing there was a far greater 
intercourse between England and Germany in 
those times than is generally imagined. The 
work cannot fail to be welcomed in this country 
as a valuable contribution to Elizabethan litera- 
ture, especially as both notes and introduction are 
written in English. At p. 83, we read 

" An Almain and an upspring that is all." 
To this passage the editor appends the following 
note : 

" ' Upspring ' neither means an ' upstart,' as most 
Shaksperian editors [as well as Nares, though he cites 
the present line from Alphonsus~\ have imagined, nor the 
German ' WalzerJ as Schlegel has translated it in Hamlet, 
I. 4, but it is the ' Hiipfauf,' the last and consequently 
the wildest dance at the old German merrymakings. See 
Ayrer's Dramen, ed. by Keller, iv. 2840 and 2846 : 

Ey,jetzt rjeht erst der hupffanff an. 

Ey, Herr,jetzt kummt erst der hupffauff. 

No epithet could therefore be more appropriate to this 
drunken dance than Shakspere's 'swaggering.' I need 
hardly add, that ' upspring ' is an almost literal transla- 
tion of the German name." 

ROBT. CAETWKIGHT, M.D. 



HAMLET TO GUILDENSTEKN : 

" I am but mad north-north-west : when the wind is 
southerly, I know a hawk from a hand-saw." Hamlet, 
Act II. Sc. 2. 

As I can find no explanation of this proverb, I 
will attempt one, by reading anser for hand-saw. 
"I know a hawk from an anser" or goose, this 
being the generic name for our domestic water- 
fowl. In the ignorant mouth it soon became 
handser (conveying no meaning), and at last hand- 
saio, bearing a very inadequate one. Had the 
expression occurred in a speech of the forgetful 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. XII. JULY G, '67. 



and garrulous, but still shrewd old man, Polo 
nius, we might have understood that he knew th 
difference between Hamlet the royal bird, wheL 
himself, and the silly fowl that "love had now 
likened him to. As it is, we understand that h 
advises his friend that he is only mad for th 
nonce, as it suits him ; and when he chooses t< 
be sane, he can distinguish differences as well a 
another. J. A. G. 

Carisbrooke. 

"THE MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR" (3 rd S 
xi. 461.) 

" The luce is a fresh fish : the salt is an old coat." 

I do not see that it is at all necessary to establish 
a connection between the above line and the visit 
of the Danish monarch, as is attempted by MR. 
PROWETT. Amongst the decorations at the coro- 
nation of James I., it is very probable that his 
arms were impaled with those of his consort, the 
davyMer of the King of Denmark, or hers asso- 
ciated with his collaterally, and so the singular 
charge of the stockfish would be publicly known. 
It appears to me exceedingly likely that the words 
were added in reference to the queen's arms, and 
if not before, for the representation before the 
king in 1604. 

Nothing which throws the least light on Shake- 
speare's writings can be deemed unimportant, and 
in this case, I think, thanks to "N. & Q.," a very 
interesting fact is educed from what has been 
considered a dark and unmeaning passage. 

PHILIP E. MASEY. 
24, Old Bond Street, W. 



" The gaudy, blabbing, and remorseful day." 

King Henry VI., Part II. Act'l. Sc. 1. 

The terms "gaudy" and " blabbing " seem very 
inapplicable to anything remorseful, or even pity- 
ful, if we must take the word with such a mean- 
ing. Would not a remorseful man be more 
inclined to be sullen and taciturn ? Shakspeare 
was a complete master of metaphor; his poetic 
instinct was unerring. Query then, 1. Is it 
Shakspeare' s ? 2. If not, how much more of 
King Henry VI. is not Shakspeare's ? 3. Is the 
play of King Henry VI,, in three parts, not a 
single play of Shakspeare's, in five acts, largely 
interpolated by some unknown hand ? J. S. 



A RELIC OF WATERLOO. Including amongst 
its readers and correspondents so large an infusion 
of our Continental neighbours, to their kindness 
in a future number of "N. & Q.' ? the writer will 
probably be indebted for an explanation of an 
official seal picked up immediately after the battle 
on the field of Waterloo by an English captain of 
artillery, in whose family it has remained ever 



since. It is in the form of an engraved stamp 
composed of brass attached to an ebony handle, 
bearing on the lace of the shield the figure of an 
imperial eagle crowned, with wings extended, and 
clasping in its talons a massive kej r with the 
initials apparently " C. J. P." in a monogram 
depending from the key. Surrounding the im- 
press are the words " Payeur de la Guerre." 
As a tradition exists that Napoleon delighted, 
whenever an opportunity allowed, in paying his 
troops himself when on active service, is it not 
possible that this seal was specially employed, 
honoris causa, when the emperor so played " the 
paymaster ? C. R. H. 

TRIVET : JOHN OF BOLOGNA. In Trivet, under 
the year 1250, it is said : " Hoc anno primum 
celebratum est Londoniis, sub Magistro Joanne, 
episcopo Bosonensi, fratrum prsedicatorum capitu- 
lum generale." 

A note to this passage in the edition of Trivet, 
published by the Historical Society, p. 238, indi- 
cates that the person referred to is the celebrated 
Dominican preacher, John of Vicenza. But John 
of Vicenza was neither a bishop nor master of 
the order of Dominicans. The person mentioned 
by Trivet is evidently John, who resigned the 
bishopric of Bologna, and was afterwards chosen 
master of the order, and whose death is recorded 
in Baronius, Ann. Eccl. under the year 1253, with 
a quotation from Capistranatus respecting him. 

F. B. 

IRISH ETYMOLOGY. Permit me, a student of 
;he Irish language, to correct a singular misappre- 
lension of the meaning of the compound word, 
lj.Aij-c-rUtoifi (bolg-an-t-slatoir}, by the 
writer of the interesting review of Kennedy's 
Legends and Fictions of the Irish Kelts, which 
appeared in The Times of Friday, May 31. The 
word is a compound of two nouns with the article 
W interposed; bo l-^a bag or wallet, and foUjji 
he genitive of folAiji a provision, a getting, 
a collection, and literally means a wallet of 
jollections, a magazine, a miscellany, and not 
' bag-of-dirt," as the reviewer ludicrously mis- 
;akes. In the Munster dialect the word is written 
5-AT>c_|-oUcAi ft. The last word of the corn- 
sound, foUiJi, has been obviously confounded 
with rolcAiji, the genitive of the noun J* lc< p = 
dirt. The introduction of the adventitious letter 
before folAijt is owing to a euphonic law of 
he Gaelic called eclipsis, which here silences the 
sibilant by the substitution of the t mute. 

JOHN EUGENE O'CAVANAGH. 

LAKE HABITATIONS. In Lazistan, on the bor- 
ers of Asia Minor and Georgia, it is stated by 
^.mede'e Jaubert in his Voyage en Armenie et en 
'erse, p. 100, that the Lazes have their habita- 



3** S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



tions scattered about here and there on the crests 
of the mountains near the shores of the sea. They 
are of wood and raised on posts. The lower part 
is not inhabited on account of the dampness of 
the soil, and the upper story is surrounded by a 
covered gallery. I may observe that such mode of 
building is not uncommon in Turkey, but some- 
times the lower part is walled in on two or three 
sides as a stable for cattle, or as a covered place 
for the use of the men or women servants. 

Xenophon found the Lazian house among the 
then inhabitants, the Mossunekes, during the re- 
treat of the ten thousand. \ 

It is to be observed that only some of the 
Lazian dwellings are in the nature of lake houses 
or cranoges. HYDE CLARKE. 

"IMPERIALS, A TRAGEDY BY SIR RALPH FREE- 
MAN." The first edition of this work, noticed in 
Mr. Carew Hazlitt's Handbook of Popular Poetical 
and Dramatic Literature, is of the date of 1640. 
I possess a copy of the date of 1639. 

H. ST. J. M. 



JOHNNY PEEP: DIFFERENT VERSIONS OF 
STORIES. 

In Allan Cunningham's one vol. edition of 
Burns' Life and Works, p. 331, I find the fol- 
lowing : 

" Burns was one day at a cattle-market held in a town 
in Cumberland, and, in the bustle that prevails on these 
occasions, he lost sight of some of the friends who ac- 
companied him. He pushed to a tavern, opened the door 
of every room, and merely looked in, till at last he came 
to one in which three jolly Cumberland blades were en- 
joying themselves. As he withdrew his head, one of 
them shouted ' Come in, Johnny Peep ! ' Burns obej'ed 
the call, seated himself at the table, and, in a short time, 
was the life and soul of the party. In the course of their 
merriment, it was proposed that each should write a stanza 
of poetry, and put it with half-a-crown below the candle- 
stick, with this stipulation, that the best poet was to have 
his halfcrown returned, while the other three were to be 
expended to treat the party. What the others wrote has 
now sunk into oblivion. Burns's stanza ran thus : 
" ' Here am I, Johnny Peep, 

I saw three sheep, 
And these three sheep saw me ; 

Half-a-crown a-piece 

Will pay for their fleece, 

And so Johnny Peep gets free.' 

" The stanza of the Ayrshire Ploughman being read, 
a roar of laughter followed, and while the palm of victory 
was unanimously voted to Burns, one of the Englishmen 
exclaimed, ' In God's name, who are you ? ' An explana- 
tion ensued, and the happy party did not separate the 
same day they met." 

In Traits and Stories of the Scottish People, by 
the Rev. Charles Rogers, LL.D. (1867), p. 60, I 
find the following : 

" Sir William Drummond, 'happening to be in London, 
proceeded to a tavern where several of his brother poets 



were in the habit of convening. Before presenting him- 
self, he peeped into the apartment to discover who were 
present. He was observed, and the party called on him 
to enter. He found assembled Sir William Alexander, 
Sir Robert Kerr, Michael Drayton, and Ben Jonson. 
After an evening's enjoyment, the bards fell a rhyming 
about the reckoning. They owned that all their verses 
were inferior to Drummond's, which ran thus : 

" I, Bo-Peep, 

See you four sheep, 

And each of you his fleece : 
The reckoning is five shilling ; 
If each of } r ou be willing, 

It's fifteen pence a-piece.' " 

Which of these is the true story ? They can 
hardly both be so. Mr. Rogers gives no authority 
for his version. It is possible that Burns's verses 
may have astonished three Cumberland farmers; 
but it is not very likely that Drayton and Jonson 
can have gone into raptures over those attributed 
to Drummond. On the face of it, the first is the 
more probable. Is the merit of either epigram 
sufficient to make the question worth an answer ? 
H. K. 

WHO KILLED GENERAL BRADDOCK? 

[The following interesting contribution to English 
biography has reached us in the shape of a cutting from 
The Picayune, forwarded to us from Paris. ED. 

" N. & Q."] 

" LETTER FROM PLAQUEMINES. 

(Special Correspondence of The Picayune.) 

" Parish of Plaquemines, May 31, 1867. 

" In the absence of local news, allow me to entertain 
your readers to-day with a subject which is not entirely 
devoid of interest. 

" Who killed Gen. Braddock ? Gordon, in his History 
of Pennsylvania, and after him Monette, in his History of 
the Valley of the Mississippi, answer that a provincial 
named Thomas Fawcett was supposed to have committed 
the deed. The general had cut down a provincial, for 
disobeying orders in sheltering himself from the enemy's 
fire. The brother, who witnessed the act, determined to 
avenge his death, and awaited the first opportunity, 
when he lodged his ball in the body of his overbearing 
commander. 

" Now, if the following account be correct, a Capt. 
Robert Allison it was who shed the blood of Gen. 
Braddock. 

" The disastrous defeat of this famous general on the 
9th of July, 1755, in the expedition against Fort Du- 
quesne, now Pittsburg, is well known, says a writer in 
the March number of the Historical Magazine. In his 
extreme self-confidence and presumption, disregarding 
the warnings of Washington, he fell into an ambuscade 
of French and Indians, seven miles from the fort ; and 
after having five horses shot under him, was mortally 
wounded, and the whole army then retreated in great 
disorder, leaving their wounded and baggage to the 
mercy of the savage foe. 

" Now, I am informed by a most respectable gentleman, 
a native of Iredell county, North Carolina, where he has 
always lived James S. Allison, Esq., now fifty-four years 
old that when he was a small boy his father lived on 
the same with his grandfather, William Allison, and his 
grandmother, Agnes Allison, whose original name was 



6 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[3rd S.XII. JUI.Y6,'67. 



Allison, and the cousin of her husband. That she was in 
Philadelphia county, Pa., her parents having come from 
Ireland and settled there ; and that she died in 18-4, aged 
about eighty years. That she told him, the sai 1 James 
S. Allison, many a time that she had an old brother by 
the name of Robert Allison, who was a captain in Brad- 
dock's army, in the advanced guard ; and tiiat this 
brother who was also in several skirmishes with the 
Indians in connection with General, then Col. Washing- 
ton, and also a captain in the Pennsylvania troops in the 
Revolutionary War, and was killed near the close of it 
always told her that when they fell into the ambuscade in 
Braddock's campaign, and many had been killed, and 
especially the officers, they could not see the enemy 
among the trees and bushes, nor defend themselves, and 
the general would not let them retreat ; then that he, the 
said Capt. Eobert Allison, directed his orderly sergeant 
to shoot him, in order that they might get out of the 
difficulty without any further useless sacrifice of life. 
This officer, instead of shooting the general, shot several 
horses under him; and then that he, the said Capt. 
Robert Allison, took the gun out of the hands of the 
officer and shot Braddock himself. That he told her, his 
sister, Agnes Allison, not to make this public at that 
time, for he would be hung for it. 

" My informant, however, born in 1812, often heard 
her speak of it, up to 1834, when she died ; and he had 
more knowledge of it than the other grandchildren, for 
he was the oldest grandchild, and was often in the com- 
pany of his grandmother. The two families used water 
from the same spring, in the lower end of Iredell county, 
N. C., to which his grandparents had emigrated from 
Pennsylvania, before the revolution. 

" The name Robert is a prevailing name to various 
branches of the extensive Allison family in this country ; 
the writer has known of at least six of that name. The 
allegations of this old lady on other points, so far as they 
go, correspond with the various histories, but she never 
read any history of the transaction. And no family, 
either in Pennsylvania or in several adjacent counties in 
North Carolina, is of higher respectability than the name 
of Allison. There is no essential improbability in the 
statement, and it is believed that in the Mexican war, 
and the more recent war, in our land, cases of this kind 
have often occurred where officers in the army have been 
purposely shot by their own men. 

" There would" seem to be no motive for Capt. Robert 
Allison to claim this deed for himself, if it were not the 
fact. He would be liable to condign punishment if the 
matter came to light ; hence a good reason for not having 
it known out of the family for a long time, and till the 
danger was past. 

" By way of conclusion, let it be stated here that, ac- 
cording to Bancroft, Braddock had five horses disabled 
under him ; at last a bullet entered his right side, and he 
fell mortally wounded. He was with difficulty brought 
off the field, and borne in the train of the fugitives. All 
the first day he was silent ; but at night he roused him- 
self to say : Who would have thought of it ? ' On the 
night of the 12th of July, he roused from his lethargy to 
say, ' We shall better" know how to deal with them 
another time,' and died. His grave may still be seen, 
near the national road, about a mile west of Fort 
Necessity. 

" Edward Braddock was born in Perthshire, about the 
year 1715, and died near Pittsburg, Pa., on the 13th of 
July, 1755. He had served with distinction in Spain, 
Portugal, and Germany. GLEANER." 



AGNUS DEI. 

" An ancient Agnus Dei, found on board the ' Guil- 
laume Tell,' after its capture by the English. It was sung 
by two priests, who stood chanting on deck till killed by 
the shot from our vessel." Latrobe, Sacred Music, iii. 
1GO. 

What is known of this incident, raid where can 
a full account be seen ? J. T. F. 

The College, Hurstpierpoint. 

"ARTICLES TO BE OBSERVED," 1549. At vol. v. 
p. 243 of Mr. Pocock's recent edition of Burnet's 
History of the Reformation (being No. 33 of the 
collection of Records, part ii. book i.) is a docu- 
ment headed 

" Articles to be followed and observed, according to 
the King's Majesty's Injunctions and Proceedings." 

It consists of a series of orders or injunctions, 
and begins with the words 

"That all parsons, vicars, and curates omit in the 
reading of the injunctions all such as make mention of 
the popish mass, of chantries, &c." 

Burnet appears to have got it in manuscript 
from Dr. Johnstone, an antiquary of that day ; but 
such of Dr. Johnstone's papers "as are still 'extant 
appear to be at Campsall Park, near Doncaster, 
and Mr. Pocock says this document is not among 
them. Can any of your correspondents tell us 
whether the original or an}^ contemporary dupli- 
cate or authentic copy be now in existence, either 
in episcopal registries or private collections or 
elsewhere ? The document has no date. Burnet 
treats it as belonging to the year 1549 or there- 
abouts. Cardwell has reprinted it from Burnet in 
Documentary Annals of the Church, i. 63. 2. 

REV. DE. BLOMBERG. Can any of your cor- 
respondents inform me as to the authentic parent- 
age of the late Rev. Dr. Bloaiberg, -who was 
sometime Vicar of Cripplegate ? He was also a 
Canon of St. Paul's ; and he likewise held an 
official position at court, viz., as Clerk of the Royal 
Closet, or Dean of the Chapel Royal.* H. 

ROBERT BROWNING'S "Bor AND ANGEL." 
Will some student of Browning oblige me with 
answers to two questions anent this enigmatical 
little poem? 1. What is its precise inner mean- 
ing ? 2. On what legend is it founded ? 

With regard to my first question. I see dimly 
in the poem a comparison of three kinds of praise, 
viz., human, ceremonial, and angelic. Farther, I 
see dimly a contrasting of Gabriel's humility with 
Theocrite's ambition. 

With regard to my second question. Is there 



[* Dr. Blomberg's father was a British officer quar- 
tered in the West Indies, where he died in the earlier 
part of the reign of George III. There is a marvellous 
story told of him, that on the evening of his death his 
shade appeared to Major Torriano and another officer 
stationed in St. Kitts. See " N. & Q." 2 d S. vi. 50, and 
Dr. Whalley's Journals and Correspondence, ii. 419. ED.] 



S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



any legend of Gabriel having once occupied the 
papal chair? I happen to remember a supposed 
occupation thereof by the archfiend (see Defoe's 
History of the Devil, and elsewhere), but not by 
an archangel. 

This poem of " The Boy and the Angel " has 
been recalled to me by reading " Kynge Roberd 
of Cysille " (Hazlitt's Early Popular Poetry, vol. i. 
p. 264). There is a general analogy (by contrast, 
perhaps, rather than likeness) between the two 
poems, which points, I think, to the existence of 
a legend kindred to u Kynge Roberd " as the pro- 
totype of Browning's poem rather than to " Kynge 
Roberd" itself as that prototype. There are 
verbal similarities, however. For instance, 

" More blysse me schalle befalle 
In hevyn amonge my ferys alle, 
Ye, in oon owre of a day, 
Then in erthe, y dar welle saye, 
In an hundurd thousand yere." 

(Kynge Roberd of Cysille.^ 

" With God a day endures alway, 
A thousand years are but a day." 

(Boy and Angel.} 

The poem of " The Lyfe of Roberte the Deuyll" 
(Hazlitt's Early Popular Poetry, vol. i. p. 246), 
kindred to " Kynge Roberd of Cysille," but in no 
way kindred to " The Boy and the Angel," has a 



" And on the good frydaye to churche he went ywis, 
Towardes the quyere, & nothing dyd saye; 
For that daye the Pope sayed all the seruyce." 
which is strangely suggestive of Browning's 
" This Easter Day, the Pope at Rome 
Praises God from Peter's dome." 

To "Syr Gowghter" and the Jovinianus story 
of " Gesta Romanorum," I have not present ac- 
cess ; but both, I fancy (while akin to " Kynge 
Roberd of Cysille "), have nothing in common 
with " The Boy and the Angel." 

JOHN ADDIS, JTJN. 

" THE CHESSBOAED OP LIFE," BY Quis. Who 
is author of this miscellany of clever papers 
criticisms, sketches, &c. (1858. London : Jas. 
Blackwood)? The preface is signed D. E. R. I. 

THE WORD "DOLE." In Longfellow's transla- 
tion of Dante (London, Routledge and Sons), occurs 
the following passage from the Inferno, relative to 
the inscription over the gates of hell : 
" Through me the way is to the city dolent ; 
Through me the way is to eternal dole," &c. 

The original is 

" Per me si va nella citta doleute ; 
Per me si va nell' eterno dolore," &c. 

My query is this, Is there any warrant in 
modei'n authors for the use of the word " dole " in 
the sense of sorrow or pain? In Milton and 
Shakspeare I know it is used in this sense. I may 
also remark, that " city dolent " does not appear 



to be a very happy or appropriate translation of 
citta dolente. J. DALTON. 

Norwich. 

DRYDEN QUERIES. I have to thank several 
obliging contributors who have sent useful answers 
to various queries of mine relating to Dryden and 
his works. An attentive examination of his 
writings raises many nice questions, and he has 
not yet been well edited. I venture to trouble 
you with a few more Dryden queries. 

1. What is the meaning of these two lines in 
the poem addressed to Chancellor Clarendon ? Is 
there any passage of a Greek or Roman author 
which Dryden had in his mind when he com- 
pared Clarendon's "brow " to Olympus' top ? 

" And, like Olympus' top, the impression wears 
Of love and friendship writ in former years." 

2. Where does this Latin passage come from, 
ascribed by Dryden to Pliny the Younger? 
" Nee sunt parum multi qui carpere amicos suos 
judicium vocant." (Preface to Annus Mirabilis.~) 

3. What is the meaning of the words, " the 
town so called from them" in these 'lines of 
" Absalom and Achitophel," stating that the old 
Londoners were Roman Catholics (Jebusites) ? 

" The inhabitants of old Jerusalem 
Were Jebusites ; the town so called form them, 
And theirs the native right." 

4. What is the meaning of " Honest Will, and 
so he died" in the play The Wild Gallant, Act I. 
Sc. 2? of "The famous Cobler, who taught 
Walsingham to the blackbirds" in Limberham, 
Act I. Sc. 1 ? of " Call me cut " in Troilus and 
Cressida, Act III. Sc. 2 ; and of neyes in same 
part of same play " Do the neyes twinkle at 
him?" CH. 

JOHN SCOTUS ERIGENA. In William and Mary 
Hewitt's Ruined Abbeys and Castles, p. 48, the 
following curious passage occurs : 

" John Scotus Erigena, an Irish missionary of the ninth 
century, settled at the court of Charles the Bald, in his 
work, Margarita Philosophic, first broached the system 
of Phrenology. A copy of this work is said to be in 
the library of Oxford or" Cambridge. It is said that the 
human skull is mapped out into organs similar to those 
of Gall." 

Can any of your correspondents give me any 
information about this extraordinary statement ? 
I should be much obliged by an extract from the 
work in question in illustration of this subject. 

C. 0. G. N. 

FLAXMAN'S DESIGN FOR CEILINGS, ETC. The 
ceilings of the drawing-room floor at No. 53, 
Portland Place, have attracted my attention by 
their chaste and beautiful design, executed in 
plaster, with medallion paintings; and I have since 
discovered that the adjoining house, No. 52, for- 
merly the property of the late Mr. Knight of 
Wolverley, Worcestershire, but now of B. Bond 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[3'd s. XII. JULY G, '67. 



Cabbell, Esq., is decorated in a similar manner. 
Mr. Knight's son, the present M.P. for West 
Worcestershire, is in possession of Flaxman's 
original design for this house. 

I have been informed these houses were the 
first erected in Portland Place ; and these de- 
signs were probably early works of the distin- 
guished sculptor. 

Is it known that he was much employed in this 
class of artistic decoration ? 

53, Portland Place. THOS. E. WlNNINGTON. 

GHOSTS IN THE RED SEA. Can any of your 
readers tell, whether there is any authority, and if 
so what it is, for the idea of laying a ghost in the 
Red Sea ? Every body has heard of the expres- 
sion "laying a ghost," but disputes the fact of there 
being any authority for connecting this with the 
Red Sea. I am sure I have met with it, but I 
cannot remember where.* E. L. 

THE HINDU TRINITY is represented by the 
letters A. U. M. pronounced OM. U is Vishnu, 
M. is Mahadeva (Siva). Of what name or attri- 
bute of Brahma is the letter A the initial ? Some- 
thing like this has been asked before. 

Is the Hindu Sri the Egyptian Siris and the 
'Greek Ceres ? and is Horus "Epus ? 

HlTOPADESH. 

THE IRISH GREYHOUND OF CELTIC TIMES. 
According to Sir W. R. Wilde (Cat. of Mus. of 
R. I. Acad. p. 248) this ancient breed of dogs 
has passed away from Ireland. If so, of what breed 
are those tall, shaggy, slate-coloured dogs called 
Irish greyhounds or staghounds ? C. A. C. 

"MAGIUS DE TINTINNABTJLIS." I should be 
glad to have the dates of the following writers 
cited in this work and in the notes of Franciscus 
Sweertius ; also a word or two on the main fwints 
in the history of each : 

" Fortunatianus. Wrote Latin verses about St. Me- 
dard. Is not this Fortunatus ? 

Hieronymus Squarzaficus Alexandrinus. Wrote on 
the life of Janus Lernutius, a Dutch poet. 

Nicolaus Reusnerus. Wrote a Latin enigma on " The 
Bell." 

Nicolaus Sipontinus. Wrote on Roman baths. 

Petrus Messias Hispalensis. Wrote on Diverscc lec- 
tiones. 

Philippus Rubenius. A friend of Sweertius ; trans- 
lated Ant. Campus's Hist, of Cremona into Latin. 

Philoxenus. Wrote De Urbibus. 

Paulus Grillandus. Writer on Ghosts, &c. 

Joannes Alexander Brassicanus. Learned jurist. 

Franciscus Rosinus. Historian. 

Thomas Seghetus. Reputed inventor of the Equuleus, 
an instrument of torture. A Briton. 

Vannocius Beringucius Senensis. A renowned bell- 
founder and writer on Pyrotechny. 

J. T. F. 

The College, Hurstpierpoint. 



[ * A facetious explanation of this saying will be found 
in the Gentlemaris Magazine for Feb. 1815, p. 124. ED.] 



MASTER. When did "mister" supplant " mas- 
ter " as a title of courtesy ? CARYLFORDE. 
Cape Town, S. A. 

MARKS ON CHINA. Is there any correct ac- 
count of the marks on china to be obtained ? I 
recently saw some figures with the following 
marks on them : 

Indented:* 4 No. 123 j X 3 No. 307 (with 
"No. 27" printed in red) j X 3 No. 301 (with 
" No. 27 " printed in red) ; X No. 119; x No. 62. 

If you, or any one of your many correspondents, 
can oblige me with information, I shall be ex- 
ceedingly glad. 

There is also a bowl, and the only mark to be 
seen is a clumsy attempt to display either a 
fleur-de-lis or an heraldic eagle. 

H.M. Customs. R. H. RuEGG. 

PARC ATTX CERFS. Pray was there ever in plain 
truth a Park aux Cerfs, or was it a slander on 
Louis XV. to say that he maintained such an 
establishment. I thought that it never existed, 
but I see it referred to by a late reviewer. 

X.Y. 

Bath. 

QUOTATIONS WANTED. 

" As diamonds rough no lustre can impart 
Till their rude forms are well improved by art, 
So untaught youth we very seldom find 
Display the dazzling beauties of the mind 
Till art and science are to nature joined." 

J. F. P. 

What did the following quotation originally 
allude to ? 

" Let day improve on day, and year on year, 
Without a pain, a trouble, or a fear," &c. 

GLWYSIG. 

" The ideal is only the real at a distance." 
Is this Lamartine's ? If so, where is it to be 
found, and what are his words ? BRIGHTLING. 

SCOTTISH ROMANCE. In an article in the Fort- 
nightly Review of June, 1867 (p. 713), by Edward 
A. Freeman, it is affirmed that " one Scottish 
romance goes so far as to make him [Robert 
Bruce] defeat Edward the First [!] at Bannock- 
burn." Would Mr. Freeman, or any of the readers 
of " N. & Q.," oblige me with the title of that 
romance ? A. S. 

Edinburgh. 

STRELLEY OF STRELLEY, co. NOTTINGHAM. In 
the Bodleian Library Catalogue, under MSS., 
Anthony Wood's collection, there is reference to 
notices of this family, 849526, f. 257. I should 
be greatly obliged if any Oxford correspondent 
would copy for me what is therein found, and I 
shall be glad in return for him to command my 
services in any metropolitan quarters. 

HENRY MOODY. 

24, Charles Street, St. James's Square. 



S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



9 



THE TOMB AT BARBADOES. In the Life of 
Lord Combermcre, vol. i. p. 286, occurs an extra- 
ordinary account of a tomb built partly above and 
partly below the surface of the ground, composed 
of ponderous slabs of white sandstone, at Christ 
Church, in the Island of Barbadoes, in which, on 
being opened three separate times for interments, 
coffins were found thrown about in the strangest 
confusion. The wild rumours afloat respecting this 
circumstance induced Lord Combermere to be 
present at a fourth interment. He did so per- 
sonally to inspect the vault ; and having ascer- 
tained that the coffins were in their original 
positions, previous to returning had the whole 
floor strewed with fine white sand. 

The slab forming the door was then fixed in 
position, and firmly secured with cement, on which 
Lord Combermere affixed his own seal, and many 
of those present made private marks. After nine 
months and eleven days, Lord Combermere, at- 
tended by a large concourse of people, revisited the 
tomb, which he found in the same state as when 
he left it, only that the cement had hardened 
into stone, and still bore the impress of the seal. 
An attempt to open the door was attended with 
considerable difficulty, but when at last it was 
successful, it was found that there was a heavy 
leaden coffin leaning against it, and the other 
coffins were scattered about in the same confusion 
as before. Subsequently all of them were re- 
moved, buried in separate graves, and the tomb 
abandoned. My object now is to ask whether 
any or what steps were taken towards ascertaining 
the cause of this phenomenon ? Geologically 
speaking the site of this tomb is somewhat inter- 
esting, a coraline formation protruding through 
the calcareous strata of which the island is com- 
posed. A. C. M. 

THE VALLEY OF MONT-CENTS. In the original 
edition of De Saussure's Voyages dans les Alpes, 
vol. v. p. 142, occurs the following passage : 

" La vallee du Mont-Ce'nis est ouverte an nord-ouest, 
du cotd de la Savoye, et au sud-est du cote du Piemont ; 
tandis qu'au nord-est et au sud-est elle est bordee de 
hautes montagnes." 

It seems quite evident that there is in this a 
misprint somewhere or other ; but where ? Will 
some correspondent take the trouble to collate the 

rsage with some other edition, or to rectify it 
his personal knowledge of the locality ? 

S. II. M. 

"ViR CORNUB." During some researches in 
the Kecord Office I find, under date 1570, a paper 
signed, amongst others, by "P. Edgecombe vir 
Cornub." Can any reader of " N. & Q." tell me 
who was P. Edgecombe, or why he took, par 
excellence, the title of " Vir Cornub " ? or whether 
the words have any special meaning when so 
attached to a signature ? A. E. L. 



SETH WARD, BISHOP OP SALISBURY. In Dr. 
Walter Pope's Life of Seth Ward, Bishop of 
Salisbury, 8vo, London, 1697 (p. 71), he tells us 
that the bishop 

" After dinner, if any extraordinary company were pre- 
sent, he would stay with them, drink a dish or two of 
coffee or tea, while they who had a mind to it drank 
wine, whereof there was plenty and of the best." 

He was Bishop of Salisbury from 1666 to 1688. 
Query, is the custom of tea and coffee after dinner 
noted at any earlier date? That the bishop's 
memory may not suffer at the hands of any in- 
judicious admirer of teetotal principles, we must 
add that his worthy chaplain says : 

" Never was there a more hearty entertainer. I have 
heard him say : < Tis not kind nor fair to ask a friend 
that visits you, VVill you drink a glass of wine ? For 
besides that by this question you discover your inclina- 
tion to keep j'our drink, it also leads a modest guest to 
refuse it tho' he desires it. You ought to call for wine, 
drink to him, fill a glass, and present it : then, and not 
till then, it will appear whether he had any inclination 
to drink or not.' " 

E. CRESY. 



toiflj 

BISHOP CATRIK OR KETTERICK. I send you 
an inscription, which I copied in 1864 from the 
tomb of an English bishop, who lies buried in 
the nave of the church of Santa Croce, in Flor- 
ence, and which is as follows, literatim : 

"^hic jacet dns Johanes Catrik 

Epus quodam Exoniesis ambasiator 

Serenisimi dni regis anglie q. obiit 

xxviii die decebr anno dni m.cccc 

xix cuis anime p'picietur deus." 

The tomb of the bishop is a flat marble slab, 
even with the pavement. The inscription is cut 
around it on the edge, and is still very legible. 
The slab also bears a coat of arms: Three dogs 
or leopards, 2 and 1. Of course there is now 
nothing remaining by which the heraldic tinc- 
tures can be traced. 

John Catrik, or as he is named in Heylin, 
"Ketterick," was, in 1409, made Bishop of St. 
Davids ; whence, in 1414, he was translated to 
Lichfield; and in 1415 to Exeter. He was sent 
in 1419, by our Henry V., upon an embassy to 
Pope Martin V., then at Florence; and died 
shortly after his arrival in that city. Prior to 
1417, there were three popes contending for the 
papacy, but no one of them in possession of Rome. 
In November, 1417, the General Council of Con- 
stance brought a fourth into the field by the 
election of Cardinal Colonna, by the name of Mar- 
tin V. ; but as this Council was not able to put 
the pope they had elected into possession of the 
temporalities of his see, Martin V. accepted the 
invitation of the Florentines; and in February, 
1419, made that city his home, and it was to him, 
that our bishop was accredited. 



10 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. JULY C, '67. 



I have no means at hand by which I can ascer 
tain the purpose of the bishop's mission, but '. 
imagine that it was the object of Henry V. t< 
show that he supported the choice of the Counci 
of Constance. Martin V. left Florence in Sep 
tember, 1420, for Rome j and retained possession 
of the Holy See until his death in February 
1431. C. 

Streatham. 

[The dates of Bishop Catterick's translations, as givei 
in Stubbs's Registrum Sacrum Anglicanum, p. 63, from 
the Lambeth registers, are as follows : consecrated Bishop 
of St. David's, April 29, 1414 ; translated to Coventry 
1415 ; to Exeter, 1419 ; died Dec. 28, 1419. Bishop Cat 
terick and Bishop Hallum (of Salisbury) were the tw< 
English prelates present at the council of Constance 
("N. & Q." 3 rd S. vi. 517.) The inscription on Bishop 
Catterick's tomb in the church of Santa Croce is printet 
in the Gentleman's Magazine for June 1851, together 
with his arms and a description of his monument.] 

BIBLE, 4TO, OXFORD, 1769 (Edited by Dr. 
Blayney). In the Catalogue of Mr. Offer's Li- 
brary (lot 1162) sold at Sotheby's in June, 1865, 
this edition is noted as "very scarce, probably 
having been tacitly suppressed when the delegates 
found Dr. Blayney had taken unwarrantable liber- 
ties in departing from the text of the authorized 
edition." In a catalogue recently issued by the 
same auctioneers, another copy of the same Bible 
occurs with the following note : " The standard 
edition from which nearly all the subsequent have 
been printed." Seeing no possibility of recon- 
ciling these two statements, I shall be glad to 
know which (or whether either of them) is cor- 
rect? F. N. 

[With the exception of the omission of a clause in 
Rev. xviii. 22, Dr. Blayney 's edition of 1769 has always 
been considered the most complete revision of the au- 
thorised version. From the singular pains bestowed on 
it, under the direction of the vice-chancellor and delegates 
of the Clarendon Press, it has hitherto been considered 
the standard edition. We do not agree with the conjec- 
tural statement of George Offor, that the delegates tacitly 
suppressed it on account of the unwarrantable liberties 
in departing from the authorised edition ; but think that 
the rarity of the quarto edition is owing to a calamitous fire 
having destroyed nearly the whole impression. Home's 
Introduction to the Holy Scriptures, ed. 1846, v. 101, and 
Anderson's Annals of the Bible, ii. 560. A full account 
of Dr. Blayney's Collation and Revision was communi- 
cated by him to the Gentleman's Magazine for Nov. 1769, 
vol. xxxix. p. 517-519.] 

QUOTATION. In a former number of " N. & Q." 
the following appeared from Lawson's Maniac : 

" Spare me, oh God, that dreadful curse, 
A disobedient child." 

Can you be so good as to furnish the preceding 



and latter part of the above couplet ? and also 
inform me where the whole poem can be obtained? 

N. J. HEINEKEN. 

[The passage does not occur in The Maniac, by John 
Lawson, as conjectured in " N. & Q." 3 rd S. ix. 535. It 
may probably be found in The Maniac, a poetical tale by 
Anne Bristow, 1810, which is not in the Catalogues of the 
British Museum. ] 

CHARLES LAMB. In Lamb's Essay on " Guy 
Faux," he quotes from a London weekly paper a 
vindication of the would-be wholesale murderer. 
Is the quotation one of Lamb's bits of fancy ? or, 
if not, in what paper did the vindication appear ? 
Lamb says it was " not particularly distinguished 
for its zeal towards either religion." 

FlLITJS 



[" The very ingenious and subtle writer, whom there 
is good reason for suspecting to be an Ex-Jesuit, not un- 
known at Douay," was William Hazlitt, who furnished 
three articles to The Examiner on " Guy Faux," which 
appeared in that paper on Nov. 12th, 19th, and 26th, 
1821, pp. 708, 723, 740.] 



JAMES HAMILTON OF BOTHWELLHAUGH, THE 

ASSASSIN OF REGENT MORAY. 

(3 rd S. xi. 453.) 

In the manuscript chartulary of the monastery 
of Paisley there is a tack for nineteen years, 
granted on May 16, 1545, by John Hamilton, 
Abbot of Paisley (afterwards Bishop of Dunkeld 
and Archbishop of St. Andrews), in favour of 
David Hamilton and Chrystine Schaw, his spouse, 
of "the six merk lands, of old extent, called 
Robin Schaiv's tak, of the ovir mains of Monkton,. 
together with the mills of Monkton and Dal- 
melling, lying in the lordship of Monkton and 
sheriffdom of Ayr." On March 3, 1545, follow- 
ing, a charter will be found in the same volume, 
granted by Abbot Hamilton, to that honourable 
man, David Hamilton, of "the three merk lands 
of Dalmelling, of old extent, called the taylis 
quarter; as also, the 16/8 lands, of old extent, 
called the Jasper steyne steid, which lands the said 
David now occupies, lying within the regality of 
Paisley, barony of Kyle Stewart, and sheriffdom 
of Ayr." Another charter of the same date wa& 
granted by and to the same parties, of " the six 
merk lands of Ovir mains of Monkton, which 
ands the said David now occupies," lying in the 
same regality, barony, and sheriffdom. 

Christeane Schaw, relict of David Hamilton of 
Bothwellhaugh, was charged on February 28, 
570-71, art and part of the murder of Regent 
Moray, either by devising the murder or resetting 
he criminal. The case was continued to the 
ustice Air of Lanark, and no more is heard of it. 



3 rd S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



11 



(Pitcairn's Criminal Trials.} David Hamilton 
must have acquired the lands of Bothwellhaugh 
since 1545, and they were probably the paternal in- 
heritance of his family. It would seem he had 
the following children : James, the assassin, who 
succeeded to the lands of Bothwellhaugh ; John, 
who became Provost of Bothwell; David, who 
succeeded to the lands of Monkton Mains ; and 
Janet, married to James Muirhead of Lauchope. 
James Hamilton was married to Isobel Sinclair, 
and David Hamilton to Alison Sinclair: both 
daughters and heiresses portioners, of Sinclair of 
Woodhouselee, in the parish of Glencross, Edin- 
burghshire. Sir John Bellenden, lord-justice clerk 
to Regent Moray, who deceived James Hamilton 
out of his wife's estate of Woodhouselee, was a 
relation of the Sinclairs. 

On June 27, 1579, a summons of treason was 
instituted against Claud Hamilton, Commendator 
of Paisley; James Hamilton, of Woodhouselee, 
called formerly James of Bothwellhaugh ; John 
Hamilton, Provost of Bothwell, his brother; 
David Hamilton of Monkton Mains ; James Muir- 
head of Lauchope, and others. John Calder, the 
Bute pursuivant, who served the summons, states 
in his indorsation that he summoned James Hamil- 
ton of Woodhouselee or Bothwellhaugh, and 
David Hamilton of Monkton Mains, at their dwell- 
ing-places in Bothwellhaugh, where their wives 
and families make their residence, and delivered a 
copy to each of their wives, who refused to re- 
ceive the same. (Acts of the Scottish Parliament.} 
It may be inferred that an arrangement had been 
made between the brothers, that David was to 
hold the paternal estate of Bothwellhaugh, in the 
parish of Bothwell, Lanarkshire, and James the 
estates of their wives of Woodhouselee. 

Claud Hamilton was the third son of James, 
second Earl of Arran, Duke of Chatelherault, 
Governor of Scotland. On September 5, 1543, Sir 
Ralph Sadler, ambassador of King Henry VIII. 
to Scotland, wrote to his sovereign that the 
governor had now revolted to the Cardinal 
(Beaton) : 

" And on Monday last the Governor had letters from 
the Cardinal ; and "on the same day, towards night, de- 
parted hence suddenly, with not past 3 or 4 with him, 
alledging that he would go to Blackness to his wife, who, 
as he said, laboured of child." Sadler 's Letters. 

u Stern Claud, Grey Paisley's haughty lord," as 
Sir Walter Scott calls him, would therefore be 
born^ in Blackness Castle, parish of Carriden, 
Linlithgowshire. 

The statute of 1685, cap. 21, restoring forfeited 
lands, included Bothwellhaugh's heir ; but the 
following act (cap. 22) excepted the lands of 
Woodhouselee in favour of Sir Louis Bellenden, 
justice clerk, eldest son and heir of Sir John Bel- I 
lenden j which was ratified by 1587, cap. 61, and j 



1592, cap. 11. By an act of Privy Council, passed 
on January 12, 1592, it was ordained that David 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, otherwise designed 
of Monkton Mains ; Isobel Sinclair and Alison 
Sinclair, heretrices, portioners of Woodhouselee, 
should be repossessed; and they were finally 
restored by Act of Parliament 1609, cap. 41. 
David Hamilton died on March 14, 1613, and was 
interred in Dundonald churchyard, where a 
monumental stone was erected to his memory, 
bearing the following inscription in bold relief 
round the margin : 

" HEIR LYE conns OF AXE HONORRABEL MAN 
CALLYT DAUID HAMILTOVNE OF BOTHWELHAVCHE, 
SPOVS TO ELESONE SINCLAIR, in his tyme quha desist the 
14 ofMerche, 1619." 

In the confirmation of his personal estate, in 
favour of Claud Hamilton, his second son, dated 
May 7, 1613, it is stated the death occurred in 
March 1613 ; and in the confirmation of the personal 
estate of Alisone Sinclair, relict of the deceased 
David Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, also in favour 
of Claud Hamilton, dated April 17, 1619, it i& 
stated she died in June, 1618. They both re- 
sided at Monkton Mains, Ayrshire. On Novem- 
ber 29, 1628, James Hamilton was served heir in 
general to his grandfather David Hamilton of 
Bothwellhaugh ; and on February 20, 1630, James 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh was served heir to 
his grandmother, Alison Sinclair; and Alison 
Hamilton (daughter of the assassin) was served! 
heir to Isobel Sinclair, her mother, also on Feb- 
ruary 20, 1630. 

David Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh was fre- 
quently a witness to writs executed by Lord Pais- 
ley, and his son the Earl of Abercorn, in the end 
of the sixteenth and beginning of the seventeenth 
centuries. In the year 1602 David Hamilton, the 
younger, of Bothwellhaugh, is mentioned in con- 
nection with a case of scandal before the Presby- 
tery of Paisley a most scandalous tale of truth, 
which ruined several innocent and guilty persons. 
(Presbytery Records.} The heroine was Elizabeth 
Hamilton, daughter of John Hamilton and Elison 
Bane, who resided in Blackston, one of the man- 
sions of Lord Paisley. She was well connected : 
one of her sisters, Isobel, being married to Thomas 
Knox, a younger son of Ranfurlie, and brother 
of Andrew Knox, Bishop of the Isles ; and another 
sister, Elison, to Kobert Semple, town clerk of 
Paisley, a younger son of Fullwood. Elizabeth 
Hamilton rusticated a short time on a farm on 
Bothwellhaugh, but I have not discovered whe- 
ther young Bothwellhaugh married her. He 
was married, and seems to have predeceased his 
parents, from Claud, the second son, being their 
executor, and his own son James being served 
heir to his grandfather and grandmother. 

This communication may so far supply the in- 



12 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3" S. XII. JULY 6, '67. 



formation desired by your correspondent ANGLO- 
SCOTUS. DAVID SEMPLE. 

Paisley. 

Thanks to the extracts contributed by ME. VERE 
IRVING, we have now got some very interesting- 
information from the records. From these, and 
another source to be cited presently, I infer that 
the John Hamilton employed to murder Coligiii, 
and called by Mr. Fronde " the brother or near 
relative of Chatelherault," was in all probability 
the "Prepositus de Bothvil," who in the for- 
feiture of Oct. 26, 1579, is styled the " brother " 
of Bothwellhaugh. He thus turns out to have 
been " Provost " of the collegiate church of Both- 
well, and a priest of the ancient faith, possibly 
outed from his living by the Reformation, and a 
marked man. The following notices from Ban- 
natyne's Journal (edit. 1806) doubtless apply to 
him, p. 35 : 

" In this meane tyme (August, 1570,) there come from 
Flanderis a little pincke, and in it tuo gentlemen with 
Mr. John Hamyltoun called the Skyrmisher fra Duck 
d'Alva. The heidis of thair commissione are not yet 
notified : but the brute (rumour) is that the lord Sea- 
toun and some utheris suld pass to Flanderis, that Duck 
d'Alva suld assist them in rebellione against the King." 
[The chronicler piously adds] "Lord confound thair ma- 
litioues myndis." 

Again, on pp. 349 et seq., containing the truce 
(for two months from August 1, 1572), procured 
by the exertions of the French ambassador " La- 
crock " (Le Croc), and " Maister Drurier (Drury) 
for the Queene of England," between the Regent 
Mar and the lords of Queen Mary's party then 
holding the castle and town of Edinburgh, we 
find the following persons expressly excepted 
from the truce, viz : 

" James, sometymes erle Bothwell, James Ormistoun, 
sometyme of that Ilk ; Patrick Hepburne, sometymes of 
Beinstoun ; Patrick Wilsoun, sumtyme servand to the 
said erle ; James Hamiltoun, sometyme of Bothwelhauch ; 
Jhone Hamiltoun, sumtymes provest of Bothwell his brother, 
with the whole theives and brocken men, inhabitants of 
the bordoris and heilandis," &c. 

The remarkable confession of l< Arthure Hamil- 
ton in Myrritoun " at once explains the territorial 
connection of Bothwellhaugh with Ayrshire. The 
lands of Monktoun, with which the commendator 
of Aberbrothok bribed the assassin, are in that 
county, and seem, in 1590 and subsequently, to 
have been the property of a " David Hamilton of 
Bothwellhaugh," within the paroch of Monktoun, 
who appears in the Commissary Records of Glas- 
gow as the creditor of a "Thomas Knicht in 
Prestwick" (in same parish) for rent of lands 
there. The editors of Wishaw, unaware of the 
case, supposed they saw an error, and altered 
conjecturally Monktoun into Monkland, a parish 
in Lanarkshire ; thus rather misleading inquirers 
like myself till MR. IRVING came to the rescue. 
Who this David was is not stated. He may have 



been another brother of the notorious James. 
Two sons (one Arthur) appear in David's " Testa- 
ment " (Com. Rec. Glasg.) in 1613, when he died, 
though his tombstone in Crosby kirk is dated 
1619, as stated in the notes to Wishaw. If so, 
he could not be the avus of Alisona Hamilton, 
served heir to a David Hamilton in 1602. It is 
curious that the local tradition of the ancient 
burgh of Prestwick assigns the murderer his last 
resting-place in its seabeaten churchyard, though 
I presume he died in exile. 

As for the "card" story, I gave it quantum 
valeat. It was told rne on the spot many years 
ago by the late Professor Fleming of the Univer- 
sity of Glasgow a gentleman who was tolerably 
versant with the family history of his native 
county. ANGLO-SCOTTJS. 

In the account of the Muirheads of Lauch- 
ope, in the Appendix to Nisbet's Heraldry, it 
is there stated that James Muirhead, " linked in 
friendship, blood, and affinity with the Hamil- 
tons," was married to Janet, daughter of James 
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, who was a brother 
of the house of Orbiston. 

After the murder, Bothwellhaugh took refuge 
for a night with his brother-in-law at Lauchope, 
afterwards burnt to the ground by the Regent's 
party. His connection with the Orbiston family 
does not interfere with his relationship to the 
archbishop, as Calderwood says he was " sister 
sonne to the bastard Bishop of Sanct Andrewes." 

W. R. C. 

Glasgow. 

THE CHEVALIER D'ASSAS. 

(3 rrt S. xi. 34.) 

In giving an answer to SEBASTIAN'S query, 
I cannot refrain from going into the whole 
question about the controversy which has been 
raised and the doubts which have been expressed 
as to the possibility or rather probability of the 
Chevalier d'Assas's heroic act, and his now his- 
torical exclamation. First of all, who was the 
Chevalier d'Assas ? His family belonged to what 
the French call la petite noblesse, but dated from 
the twelfth century, as this is clearly proved by 
the genealogist Cherin, who searched the original 
documents. Louis (and not Nicholas, as some of 
his biographers have baptized him) was born at 
Le Vigan, in the Cevennes, in the year 1733. 
Thus he was only twenty-seven years of age when 
he died, for the engagement near Klostercamp (not 
Kampen) took place in 1760, and not in 1762 as 
SEBASTIAN asserts it. He entered the service 
very early, and was already captain of the Chas- 
seurs du regiment d'Auvergne at the moment ot 
his death. This fatal event happened, as is very 
well known, during the Hanoverian war, at Klos- 
tercamp, near Wesel, where his division was cut 



8* d S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



13 



to pieces by the enemy under command of the 
Duke of Brunswick. On the evening of October 
15th d'Assas went quite alone, they say, to a place 
near his camp, where there was a kind of grove, 
in order to watch the hostile enemy. All at once 
he found himself surrounded by German soldiers, 
who put their bayonets on his breast, threatening 
to kill him on the spot as soon as he would shout 
or warn his friends by any sign whatever. Pre- 
ferring, however, the safety of his regiment to his 
own preservation, he ejaculated with force the 
famous " A moi y Auvergne, ce sont les ennemis ! " 
and fell at the same moment pierced with bayonet 
wounds. 

This is the plain popular story. 1 must con- 
fess that I find a great many improbabilities in 
it. First of all, one single man never goes out 
to reconnoitre the enemy; at least it is a very 
unusual thing. But even admitting this impro- 
bable hypothesis as a fact, who is there to prove 
that d'Assas really used the words above-men- 
tioned ? Who is to demonstrate that he had an 
interior struggle between the natural instinct of 
preservation and the duty to warn his friends ? 
Was there time left to him for such an internal 
contest ? Did the Germans not assassinate him 
as soon as they had seized him ? These questions 
are very natural ; they are produced by spon- 
taneous induction. But now the truth the real 
absolute truth where is it ? I do not think that 
it will ever be obtained; * but what I think 
highly probable is this. A man being seldom or 
never pathetic at the very last moment of his 
existence, I believe that d'Assas, seeing the enemy, 
used perhaps " Hola !" or " Qui va la ? " or any 
similar short exclamation sufficient to warn his 
companions of the impending danger they were in. 
(I do not mean to say at all that I accept this 
version of the occurrence as the only true one. I 
simply try to explain the popular hypothesis in 
the most rational manner possible ; nothing else.) 
It is curious that at the time nobody spoke about 
the heroic act of the Chevalier d'Assas. The 
Gazette de France does not mention it; it only 
inserts (number of October 25, 1760) the name 
of the hero in the list of the fallen. He was even 
so obscure a man then that his name is misspelled 
in the Gazette. We read d'Assar instead of 
d'Assas. Voltaire was the first to call the atten- 
tion of the public to the noble deed of the cheva- 
lier in the second edition of his Precis du regne de 
Louis XV, published in the year 1769. In 1768 
he had already brought it to the notice of the 
Duke de Choiseul in a letter, which has been pub- 
lished since ; but the French government had too 
much to do then to think or to discuss, about such 
an insignificant subject as the unusual death of a 

I shall examine many other suppositions and versions 
of this story afterwards. 



young officer. It was only during the beginning 
of the reign of Louis XVI. that people began to 
talk again about the occurrence near Kloster- 
camp. 

In 1777, Marie-Antoinette heard of the heroism 
of the Chevalier d'Assas. She expressed her sin- 
cere admiration, but also her intense amazement 
that such an act as his should have remained for 
so long a time completely unknown, and ordered 
some one to write about it to the Baron d'Assas, 
brother of the deceased, with the request that he 
should gather more details together about Louis 
and his noble sacrifice, in order to publish them in 
a kind of memoir. The baron readily responded to 
the demand, but at the same time availed himself 
of the favourable opportunity to ask an advance- 
ment for his two sons, and the authorisation of 
adding to his own name that of Klostercamp. 
These particulars will be found in a letter which 
he wrote to the famous patriot Palloy, in answer to 
certain questions which the latter had put to him 
concerning the family relations and the dramatic 
end of the Chevalier d'Assas. Palloy had also 
requested the baron to tell him whether there 
were any portraits of the hero in existence, because 
it was his intention to have one painted on a stone 
of the Bastille. The letters form part of the rich 
and interesting collection of inedited documents 
in possession of M. Feuillet de Conches, the well- 
known amateur of autographs. He has recently 
commenced to publish them. (Louis XVI, Marie- 
Antoinette, et Madame Elisabeth, 1864-1866, i.-iii. 
Paris, H. Plon.) The king wrote to M. Mont- 
barey, Minister of the War Department, about the 
pending question, and finally, after a deliberation 
m council, a perpetual pension was granted to the 
family of d'Assas, represented by the eldest son of 
each new generation. They were also admitted 
at court, and received with much distinction. 

Besides all this, the baron obtained the privilege 
(one which was very much envied at the time) of 
hunting with the king, and his eldest son was ap- 
pointed "capitaine de 1'artillerie." The letters 
patent creating this pension were forwarded on 
October 8, 1777, and registered on March 21 of 
the following year.* This curious and highly in- 
teresting document now belongs to a private col- 
lection. It was sold by Livardet at a public auc- 
tion of autographs held in Paris, on February 19, 
1857. The following is worth quoting, because 
it contains, so to say, the official version of the 
affair near Klostercamp : 

* This pension was forgotten during the stormy days 
of the French Revolution, but Napoleon I. re-established 
it in 1810, and it has always been acquitted since. Let me 
add here that a column was placed during the same year 
on the very spot where d'Assas fell, and his famous excla- 
mation is to be found on it as an inscription. L'e Vigan 
has erected a monument to eternize the name of its 
hero, and a street in Paris has been baptised "Rue 
d'Assas." 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [8* s. xii. JULY 6, '67. 



Louis par la grace de Dieu, Roi de France, etc. De 
toutes les grandes actions que 1'histoire a immortalisees, 
aucune n'est au-dessus de I'he'roisme avec lequel le sieur 
Louis, Chevalier d'Assas, capitaine de chasseurs au re'gi- 
ment d'Auvergne, s'est de'voue' a la mort. La nuit du lo 
au 16 octobre 1760, le prince hereditaire de Brunswick 
voulut surprendre a Klostercamp, pres de Wesel, un corps 
de 1'armee francaise commande' par le marquis de Cas- 
tries. Le chevalier d'Assas, en marchant a la decouverte 
pendant 1'obscurite, tombe dans une embuscade ennemie. 
Environne de baionnettes pretes & le percer, il peut 
acheter sa vie par son silence ; mais 1'armee va perir si 
elle ignore le danger qui la menace. II crie a haute 
voix. ' A moi Auvergne, voila les ennemis ! ' et dans 1'in- 
stant il expire perce de coups. Si cette mort glorieuse 
1'a derobe & notre reconnaissance, nous pouvons du moms 
en faire dprouver les effets a son frere," etc. 

Where did they derive their information from ? 
Probably from the Baron d'Assas' notes and Vol- 
taire's above-mentioned letter. But then how did 
the latter manage to get his ? This he will tell 
us himself. In a letter to Count Schomberg, 
dated October 31, 1769, we read : 

" Je n'ai fait que copier ce que le frere de M. d'Assas 
et le major du regiment rn'ont mande." 

Regarding the peculiar construction of the phrase, 
one might be induced to think that already at the 
time that Arouet wrote the above, doubts were 
entertained as to the probability of the Chevalier 
d'Assas' heroic act, and also as to the manner in 
which it was executed. Was it really so ? Is it 
even decided at present whether the story is fact 
or fiction ? and if it is a fact, has it been de- 
finitively established now in what way it took 
place ? I shall try to answer these questions in a 
following article. H. TIEDEMAN. 

Amsterdam. 



THE BELLS OF ST. AXDEEWS (3 rd S. xi. 437.) 
I was about to send you my view of these legends, 
but my reply has been most satisfactorily antici- 
pated by your valuable and able correspondent 
F. C. H., and I would only beg to endorse it by 
the weight of my opinion, whatever it may be 
worth, and say that it fully agrees with my own. 

As for the letters E. o'. B. they usually stand 
for eorum, which may here be the founder's false 
concord for ejus, sumptibus being understood. 

And as for " Kate Kennedy," that is evidently 
a word compounded of the bishop's name and 
the name of the bell, and with no other reason 
than thinking it a good joke, as the two names 
occurred on the bell, to join them together; and 
perhaps as an excuse for a holiday, they were slan- 
derously joined together for the sake of more 
revelry and such like. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

WALSH OP CASTLE HOEL (3 rd S. xi. 495.) 

The hypothesis of SP. may be very ingenious, but 
I would rather assign the origin of his Welshman's 
arms to an ancestor Kadwalader ap Gronwy, 
Lord of Mochnant, co. Denbigh to whom the 



arms of Argent a chevron gules between three 
pheons, the two in chief pointing to each other, 
the one in base point upwards sable, have been 
assigned, and are also borne by Kadwgan of 
Bachan and the Kyffins of Glas-coed. See the 
Harl. MS., No. 1143. PINGATORIS. 

RICHARD DEANE, THE REGICIDE (3 rd S. xi. 
503.) Would that the regicidal mark on my 
ancestor's name were as apocryphal as is his origin 
from Suffolk ditches or Yorkshire dye-vats! I 
transcribe however, in extenso, his holograph now 
before me, referring to "Ipswich," where he 
seems to have had authority : more probably as 
port-admiral * the recompense, I grieve to say, 
of judicial treason than in the service of the 
Lord Mayor of London : 

"I doe certifye that y e Hoye W m and John of Col- 
cnester, William Hutchhin (sic) Master, was by my 
order comanded out of Harwich for y e reliefe of the Shipp 
Lyberty when shee first came aground on Balsey Landes, 
and that I was an eye-witnesse of y* Dammage w ch the 
sayd Hoy received therein; the charge for repayeing 
whereof will amount to 92 1 10 at least, as I am certified 
by two of y e best Master Shipwrights of Ipswich, who by 
mv desire made survey of her. Given under my hand 
the 23 d day of Octob r , 1650. Ri. DEANE. 
" To all whome it may concerne." 

Three memoranda are endorsed in several 
scripts : 

1. " Navy Office, 25 Octob r , 1650, Com" for the Navy 
to the Com ttec (sic) for the Admiralty. 

" Concerning M r Hutchin's Hoy, Capt n Green's men, 
and other thinges." 

2. " 1 st November, 1650. C. N. for allowing 92 1 10 s O d 
to W m Hutchins for damage don to his Hoye in boarding 
the Libertie. s _ 12 

" Y c bill made out on ye Shipw" certificat." 

It is a strong, and to me a pleasurable contrast, 
to recall the memory of my paternal ancestor, 
Thomas Swift of G-oderich, the father of the Com- 
monwealth's Admiral Deane's son-in-law, who 
sold the larger moiety of his ancient estate in 
Herefordshire, to raise money for the king in his 
conflict with the rebel Cromwell, who had the 
decency, be it remembered, of forbearing to put 
the crown on his own head. 

EDMUND LENTHAL SWIFTE. 

PEKJTTRY (3 rd S. xi. 503.) The prefix is, I 
think, intensive, not opposite. In its bad sense 
meaning in these our times its failure perjuro is, 
I think, pejeropejus juro. If it be purely pre- 
positional, it may follow the general meaning of 
per: 

" . . the cheap swearer through his open sluice." 

Herbert. 

Or, ironice, "thorough" swearing; "through" 
thick and thin ; " through " a deal board ; 

* As I have already observed (ante, p. 482) the date, 
" Admiral, 1649 " a year before the date of the certi- 
ficateis scratched on the back of the portrait. 



,. 



S. XII. JULY C, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



15 



"through" any thing, so that the perjury brings 
profit. E. L. S. 

HOLT ISLANDS (3 rd S. xi. 496.) On the sub- 
ject of the Holy Islands of Pagan times, C. A. C. 
will find an elaborate dissertation in An Inquiry 
into the Primeval State of Europe, 1864 (Marl- 
borough & Co., Paternoster Row). 0. P. 

MICHAEL ANGELO'S "LAST JUDGMENT " (3 rd S. 
xi. 439.) I have the same engraving, but signed 
with an s Wirings. John Wirings, or Wierix, or 
Wierx, was born at Amsterdam in 1550. He was 
the author of many engravings, the best of which 
are the Redemption; several portraits, those of 
Philip II., King of Spain ; Henry III., King of 
France ; Catherine of Medicis, &c.; a dead Christ, 
after Otto-Venius; some after A. Durer. 

I have another engraving, with the same head 
and fur cap, of Michael Angelo, and bearing the 
same inscription. He holds a compass in his 
hand. It is the frontispiece to a work on archi- 
tecture, and is by " Giovanni Battista Montano, 
Milanese, A 1610." P. A. L. 

NAMES WANTED (3 rd S. xi. 313, 430, 487.) 
I am much obliged to D. P. for his answers. I 
took the bugle coat and Sandys of Ombersley 
from a book-plate, with the name carefully 
rubbed out, as D. P.'s. I obtained it, with many 
more, from Dr. Wellesley's collection. Looking 
over Segoing's Armorial Tmversel, among the 
" Armes des plus nobles Maisons d'Angleterre," 
I came across an odd way for spelling Derby 
(evidently from the way it is pronounced) 
" Stanley Comte d'Arbie." JOHN DAVIDSON. 

FARREN OR FTJRREN FAMILY (3 rd S. xi. 489.) 
I do not find any of this name in my collections 
relating to French refugees. I have names of 
similar sound, which I now add : Ferand, Jere- 
mie, Canterbury, 1687; Ferrand, Marg*, Can- 
terbury, 1690; Fairant, Anne, London, 1727; 
Ferrand, Josue, London, 1723; Fairon, Louis, 
London, 1706 ; Feron, Jean, Bristol, 1702 ; Feron, 
Ab' n , London, 1735, 1738; Ferand, Capt" Ni- 
cholas, in Molinier's regiment in Ireland under 
William III. JOHN S. BURN. 

ARMS IN ST. WINNOW CHURCH (3 rd S. xi. 499.) 
I cannot tell H. the name of the bearer of the 
coat which he blazons. But I can add my evi- 
dence to the fact that he has blazoned it as it is 
seen. I made notes of all the arms which I could 
find in St. Winnow several years ago. This coat, 
quarterly per cross embattled argent and sable, 
then stood in glass in the east window of the 
south aisle. It occupied quarters 2 and 3 in a 
shield which showed, in 1 and 4, argent three 
chevronels sable. I have long wished to be cer- 
tain whose shield it is. The coat is repeated, as 
probably H. knows very well, singly in the same 



window, and once, deeply carved, on a bench end. 
I mean the coat, argent, three chevronels sable ; 
no colours appearing on the wood. 

Whose is it ? Lansladron, who had one sum- 
mons to parliament as baron in Edward I.'s reign, 
bore it. So did Ercedekne, also a baron, sum- 
moned for the last time 16 Edward III. Trerice 
took tle coat of Lansladron; and Trecarrel of Tre- 
carrel bore it also. But as Trecarrel of Trecarrel 
had been Esse, a family which bore two chevro- 
nels only, and took the third on coming to Tre- 
carrel and changing the name, some doubt may 
be raised as to the name Trecarrel and the coat 
with three chevronels. I find in Harl. MS. 
1079, in the pedigree of Kelley, among the quar- 
terings of Kelley, the name Trecarrel als Esse with 
the coat, argent, two chevronels sable. 

I am inclined to give the coat to Ercedekne, 
because in the top of the centre light of the same 
window at St. Winnow I saw a shield of Cour- 
tenay. Sir Hugh Courtenay (temp. Hen. VI. and 
Edw. IV.) married Philippa, daughter and co- 
heir of Sir Warin Ercedekne or Archdeacon, and 
with her got Antony in Cornwall and Haccombe 
in Devonshire. Their only child, Joan, married 
twice ; first, Carew ; secondly, Vere. I do not 
know any presumption for the other names which 
has so much probability as what I have suggested 
for Ercedekne. D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

PARVENCHE (3 rd S. xi. 139, 238, 345.) The 
following extract from the Thornton Romances, 
published by the Camden Society, may prove of 
some interest : 

" Corteys lady and wyse, 
As thou artepervenke ofpryse, 
I do me on thi gentryse, 

Why wolt thou me spyll ? " 
Romance of Sir Degrevant, lines 729-32. 

" Note, line 730. Pervenke ofpryse. The Lincoln MS. 
reads ' prudeste of pryse,' and in the Cambridge MS. the 
first word is rather obscurely written as if it were t per- 
veulte.' The phrase corresponds exactly to the more 
modern one, ' the pink of courtesy,' as iu Romeo and 
Juliet, Act II. Sc. 4 

' Parvenke de pris e sauntz pier, 
Sount femmes sur tote autre rien.' 

Wright's Lyric Poetry, p. 7. 

'The primerole he passeth, the parvenke of pris.' 

Ibid. p. 26." 

S. L. 

SO-CALLED GRANTS OP ARMS (3 rd S. vi. 461, 539 ; 
xi. 327, 508.) I cannot agree with P. P. If a man 
takes a confirmation of arms, by so doing he admits 
that he can show no proof of his right to the coat 
confirmed. Therefore a confirmation is in effect a 
grant de novo, for if the arms confirmed were 
really his by right, he would be a madman who 
would pay fees to heralds for a grant of what was 
his without it. G. W. M. 



16 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. XII, JULY 6, '67. 



THE BATTLE OF BEAUGE (3 rd S. xi. 120.) It 
may be interesting to your correspondent J. L. K. 
to know that the Duke of Clarence was unhorsed 
at the battle of Beauge by Sir John Swinton of 
that ilk : 

" And Swinton laid the lance in rest 
That tamed of yore the sparkling crest 

Of Clarence's Plantagenet." , 

Sir VV. Scott, Lay of the Last Minstrel, 

canto v. stanza iv. 

Also Lingard, History of England, vol. iii. 
chap. vi. p. 260 (Edward VI., Charles Dolman, 
1854) : 

" The Duke, who was distinguished by his coronet of 
gold and jewels, received a wound from Sir William 
Swynton, and was slain with a battle-axe by the Earl of 
Buchan." 

Also, Burke's History of the Landed Gentry, 
vol. ii. p. 1342 (published 1847) : 

" Sir John Swinton of that ilk." 

" At the battle of Beauge' in France, in 1420, Swinton 
unhorsed the Duke of Clarence, the English general, 
brother of King Henry V., whom he distinguished by a 
coronet set with precious stones, which the Duke wore 
around his helmet ; and wounded him so grievously in 
the face with his lance, that he immediately expired. . . . 
Sir John afterwards fell at the battle of Vernoil, where 
the Scots auxiliaries were commanded by the gallant 
Earl of Buchan, Constable of France, son of Robert Duke 
of Albany, Governor of Scotland, anno 1424." 

The same facts are also stated in one of the 
notes to Sir Walter Scott's drama of Halidon 
Hill J. G. LLOYD. 

PASSAGE IN LORD BACON (3 rd S. xi. 496.) 

" Again, the meanness of my estate doth somewhat 
move me; for tho' I cannot accuse myself that I am 
either prodigal or slothful, yet my health is not to spend, 
nor my course to get." 

D. will excuse me for remarking that those 
who ask a question respecting a difficult passage 
ought to give a full reference. This letter of 
Bacon's occurs in the Letters from the Cabala, 
and in Basil Montagu's edition of Bacon is found 
at vol. xii. p. 5. Bacon's epistolary style is gene- 
rally very cramped, and this sentence is so ab- 
breviated that it is next to impossible to be sure 
of the meaning. He says that the narrowness of 
his means troubles him, that he cannot tax him- 
self with profuseness nor idleness, and adds, " yet 
my health is not to spend, nor my course to get." 
One difficulty lies in the connectives implying an 
antithesis where I can see none to exist. It seems 
to be equivalent to saying My well-being or 
health does not consist in expenditure ; I am not 
of expensive habits at all ; nor is my course [i. e. 
pursuit of law], as I am directing my researches 
in it, calculated to enrich me much. There is 
another letter of Bacon's to Burghley, given by 
Montagu, in the same volume (p. 476), in which 
he says, speaking of the ordinary practice of law : 
" So as I make reckoning, I shall reap no great 



Benefit to myself in that course." He confesses 
le has as vast contemplative ends as he has 
moderate civil ends ; and he says that if Burgh- 
.ey will not help him, he will purchase out of the 
sale of his inheritance "some lease of quick 
revenue, or some office of gain." That he will 
*ive up the legal career, and turn " sorry book- 
maker,*' or maybe become a true pioneer in " the 
mine of truth." Would that he had yielded to 
this severe and simple instinct ! Office and honours 
soon rained thick upon him, and in their slushy 
train dishonour followed. C. A. W. 

May Fair. 

OBSOLETE PHRASES: CHAMPHIRE POSSET (3 rd 
S. xi. 377.) May I say that I am as much 
amused as surprised at the endeavours to explain 
this phrase, which means neither more nor less 
than camphire or camphor posset the virtues of 
which may be ascertained by a reference to Bur- 
ton's Anatomy (part in. sec. 2, mem. 5, subs. 1), 
or any medical work of the period. The other 
explanations offered would take away all the 
point of the speech. A. F. B. 

ARCHBISHOP WHATELT'S PUZZLE (3 rd S. xi. 
458.) I do not think this puzzle very difficult. 
The man must have kept his fortune in a strong 
box, and taken out money as he required it ; 
being probably (like the fisherman mentioned in 
Crabbe's Borough, Letter 5) ignorant of the in- 
vention of interest. Supposing him at twenty- 
one to have been possessed of 3000Z., and to have 
lived to the age of eighty-one, spending only 507. 
a-year, your correspondent will see there was 
nothing remarkable in his being buried by the 
parish. DENKMAL. 

HYMN: "WHEN GATHERING CLOUDS " (3 rd S. 
xi. 356.) On p. 356 there is a question respecting 
the authorship of this beautiful hymn, at which 
I was surprised. I had not supposed that any 
one doubted that it was written by Robert Grant. 
It appeared first in the Christian Observer, Feb- 
ruary, 1806. The contributor signed himself 
E Y. D. R." In the same publication, Feb- 
ruary, 1812, the hymn was again inserted, intro- 
duced by this note : 

" I send you an improved edition (at least I hope it is 
one) of a hymn which you once honoured with insertion 
in the Christian Observer. If you are of the same opinion, 
you will probabty insert it when you have a spare 
column. EY. D. R." 

In the early volumes of the Observer first ap- 
peared in print many of Heber's hymns, e. g. : 

" Brightest and best of the sons of the morning." 

" O Saviour, when this holy morn." 

" Oh weep not o'er thy children's tomb." 

" In the sun and moon and stars." 

The first hymn was introduced (October, 1811) 
by a letter from the writer, signing himself "D. R." 



S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



17 



The two Grants were, indeed, brothers'. In 
their University course they ran pari passu. In 
1801 (Henry Martyn's year) one was third wran- 
gler, and the other fourth. In after life Robert 
was Governor-General of Bombay, and Charles 
Secretary of State for the Colonies : and while 
one wrote such hymns as that in question, and 
" By thy birth and early years," the other raised 
his University in sacred poetry_ into rivalry with 
Oxford. In 1803, Heber recited "Palestine"; 
and 1806, Charles recited his beautiful poem " On 
the Restoration of Learning in the East." In the 
remarks on these two poems, the reviewer awards 
the palm of genius to Grant, and of taste to 
Heber. S. S. S. 

In 1861 I corresponded with Lord Glenelg on 

the subject of his brother Sir Robert Grant's 

hymns, when his lordship distinctly informed me 

that Sir Robert was author of that hymn. His 

lordship presented me with the little publication 

of his brother's Hymns, edited by himself, in 

which the hymn in question is included two 

versions being given, both from Sir Robert's MSS. 

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 

2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham. 

CHRIST A CARPENTER (3 rd S. xi. 508.) Will 
you allow me to complete a reference in my note 
on this subject? The anecdote about Libanius, 
the sophist, is from Theodoret's Church History, 
book iii. chap, xviii. B. H. C. 

JARVET (3 rd S. xi. 475.) This word is still in 
common use in Dublin. It is employed by stu- 
dents instead of carman, &c. E. L. 

Wilford. 

NUMISMATIC (3 rd S. xi. 497.) See "N. & Q." 
3 rd S. vi. 186, 278. The numbers on sovereigns are 
for the same purpose as those on the shillings. 

JOHN DAVIDSON. 

ONE ALPHABET FOR EUROPE (3 rd S. x. 329, 
400.) In the account given in The Times of the 
visit of the Sclavonian deputies to St. Peters- 
burg in May, it was stated that, in the conversa- 
tion which took place on their reception at court, 
the Empress deigned to express her regret that 
the Sclavonian people had not a common alpha- 
bet and orthography. As Russia professes a 
strong desire to cultivate friendly relations with 
the widely-scattered races of a kindred descent, 
would not the patriotic wish of the Empress be 
best realised by the adoption of the Roman cha- 
racter as the common alphabet ? The use of a 
very few years would be sufficient to prove the 
immense advantages of the new system in an 
empire with such a great future before it as 
Russia. Professor Max Miiller says, in his Sur- 
vey of Languages, that 

" It has been the policy of Russia to support the intro- 
duction of her alphabet among the nations which in 
the course of time she expects to absorb. Still it is a 



curious fact, that the whole Western branch of the Scla- 
vonic family, and some even of the Eastern Slaves 
(Bulgarians and Illyrians), have preferred the Roman 
or German alphabet, and have introduced it even where 
the Cyrillic letters had formerly been used." 

The first step has, therefore, been taken by the 
people themselves, whose united numbers pro- 
bably amount to nearly thirty millions, who 
already use the Roman alphabet. J. MACRAT. 

Oxford. 

OATH OF THE ROMANS (3 rd S. vii. 460.) On 
the approach of Alaric, Honorius took refuge in 
Ravenna. Jovius induced Honorius to swear 
never to make peace with Alaric, 

''n/J.vv Se Kal avrbs opKov, vys /3a<nA.etas w\ia^vos /ce0- 
a\?jy, Kal TOVS &\\ovs dt ras apxas fix 01 ') ravrbv iroirj<rat 

TrapaaKfvdffas Zozimi Hist., lib. v. cap. 50, p. 507, ed. 

Heyne, Lipsiae, 1784. 

Afterwards the moderate demands of Alaric 
were rejected, because Jovius and the courtiers 
had sworn by the head of the emperor. 

Et p.fV yap Trpbs rbv tbv TervxnKfi SeSo/ueVos O'/JKOS, %v 
&v us eiK^s irapiSfiv, eV5i5cWas ry TOV eoC (piXavdpuiriq, 
Ti}V tirl TTJ a<re)3eia ffvyyvufJ.'rjv ' eTrel Se Kara TTJS TOV 
&a(rt\f(0s o/juafJ.uKfffav Kf<pa\r)s, OVK tivai Qefjurbv ouroTs e/'s 
rbv TOffovTOV opKov QttfjLaprf'iv. TOGOVTOV etyXvarrev, 6 
]V iroXiTflav OIKOISO/J.OVVTWV, &eov irpovoias 
. Id., cap. 51, p. 509. 

The above is substantially in Gibbon (Decline 
and Fall, chap, xxxi.), and it may seem imperti- 
nent to quote any other writer when he can be 
referred to; but I think that in "N. & Q." we 
should cite originals when we can. M. Amade"e 
Thierry, in his Rufin, Eutrope, Stilicon, says that 
when Honorius submitted himself to Alaric, 

" Les eunuques et les courtisans admirerent la profonde 
sagesse du prince; ils avaient jure de ne lui jamais con- 
seiller la paix, mais c'etait la paix avec Alaric, et non 
avec Atale ; ils ne violaient done pas leur serment. La 
casuistique byzantine ne se laissait jamais prendre en de- 
faut." P. 426. 

M. Thierry does not give his authority. His book 
is a most agreeable example of history founded on 
poetry. Heyne refers to Aieri Dissert, de Abusu 
Jurament., a work which I have not been able to 
find. H. B. C. 

U. U. Club. 

BARBARA LEWTHWAITE (3 rd S. xi. .) Bar- 
bara Lewthwaite became a servant in De Quin- 

ey's household. In Confessions of an Opium- 
Eater, p. 223 (new edition), he thus alludes to 
her : 

" A more striking picture there could not be imagined 
han the beautiful English face of the girl," &c. 

And in a foot-note 

" This girl, Barbara Lewthwaite, was already at that 
ime a person of some poetic distinction, being (uncon- 
sciously to herself) the chief speaker in a little pastoral 
)oem of William Wordsworth's. That she was really 



18 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3*a S. XII. JULY 6, '67. 



beautiful, and not merely so described by me for the sake 
of improving the picturesque effect, the reader will judge 
from this line in the poem, written perhaps ten years 
earlier, when Barbara might be six years old 
' 'Twas little Barbara Lewthwaite, a child of beauty 
rare ! ' " S. 

" WHEN ADAM DELVED," ETC. (3 rd S. xi. 192,323, 
429, 486.) ME. WYLIE'S alteration of the word 
loam for lame agrees with the accounts we have of 
Adam in several MSS. Thus the Harleian, 1704, 
says that Adam was made of " viij thinges," one 
of which was " slyme of the earth." Another 
source also confirms the reading earth ; for Master 
of Oxford's Catechism, published by .^Elfric So- 
ciety, in answer to the query, " Whereof was 
Adam made ? of viij thingis, A. The first of erthe," 
&c. Lastly, a MS. in the Bodleian reads erthe : 
three pretty fair evidences in MR. WYLIE'S 
favour. I should be very glad to find any allu- 
sion to Adam's lameness ; in several MSS. that I 
have searched there is no mention of it. 

S. W. KERSHAW. 

ST. MATTHEW (3 rd S. xi. 399, 469, 511.) MR- 
C. T. RAMAGE is perfectly right in supposing that 
the saying " Matthai am letzten " refers to the 
last verse of the Gospel of St. Matthew, and that 
the real phrase is " Matthai am letzten sein," 
although u Matthai im letzten sein " would be 
more correct, meaning " im letzten Vers." Since 
I wrote (p. 469) I have inquired into the matter, 
but have not been able to find out who first used 
this very original expression. HERMIT. 

CROMWELL FAMILY (3 rd S. xi. 325,467.)! 
sini unable to give your correspondent, JAMES 
WAYLEN, any further Information on the claim of 
the family of Markham to be descended from 
Oliver Cromwell j but I think that he will admit 
that on the authority of Mark Noble it is more 
probable that Mrs. Feimel was the child of Gen. 
Fleetwood's second than of his first marriage, in- 
asmuch as Noble satisfactorily accounts for all the 
issue of the first marriage, whereas there is no 
certainty as to the issue of the second, though it 
is most probable that there was issue. (See Noble, 
vol. ii. p. 368, 3rd ed., 1787.) 

WILLIAM WICKHAM. 

COMMUNION (3 rd S. xi. 518.) I have always 
understood that communion is derived from com- 
munis, and that from an ante-classical word, munis 
(the root of immunis), which word is probably 
connected with niunus, and bears the meaning of 
" performing a duty," or tf having a duty to per- 
form." Vox may refer to White & Riddle's 
Latin Dictionary, articles " Communio " and 
" Munis." SCRUTATOR. 

If Vox will turn up to this word in the last 
edition of Webster's Dictionary, he will there find 
its derivation given from con and munus. 

HERMIT. 



"HONI SOITQUI MAL YPENSE " (3 rd S. xi. 481.) 

A parody was made in Dublin many years since 
on this motto. 

A worthy knight, Sir Abr. Bradley King, who 
was King's Stationer in that city, and entertained 
well at Kingston, having the royal escutcheon 
over his residence, the city wags interpreted the 
motto thus 

" Honey is sweet and quills make pens." 

COURTOIS. 

BELL AT KIRKTHORPE (3 rd S. xi. 517.) The 
inscription is as follows 

" * LAVRENTIVS : IOHES : DE : BERDESAY : ABBAS : 

A : DI : M : 

in ornamented capitals of the so-called " Lom- 
bardic" character. The date appears to have 
been left incomplete for want of room. J. T. F. 

"BEAUTY UNFORTUNATE" (3 rd S. xi. 517.) 
MR. KEIGHTLEY'S query at once recalls to me 
Tennyson's 

" . . . In every land 
I saw, wherever light illumineth, 
Beauty and anguish walking hand in hand 
The downward slope to death." 

(A Dream of Fair Women.} 

Surely nobody can read Dan Chaucer's " Legend 
of Good Women " without thus moralizing, 
though Chaucer himself (so far as I remember) 
did not express the moral. 

Byron refers to the same notion in his 

" Italia ! oh Italia ! thou who hast 
The fatal gift of beauty ," &c. 

(Childe Harold, iv. 42.) 

I am surprised, however, at MR. KEIGHTLEY'S 
acquiescence in the other portion of Fielding's 
statement, viz. that " Male beauty is fortunate." 
Narcissus, Adonis, Absalom, and a long train of 
handsome heroes suggest themselves in proof of 
the contrary. 

Indeed Thad considered it almost a maxim with 
the poets (classic and romantic), that Fortune was 
hostile to Beauty without regard to sex ; Goddess 
Fortune being at lasting feud with Goddess Na- 
ture. 

Rosalind, of As You Like It, points the distinc- 
tion between the two goddesses : 

" Fortune reigns in gifts of the world, not in the linea- 
ments of nature/' (Act I. Sc. 2.) 

JOHN ADDIS, JUN. 

REYNOLDS (3 rd S.xi. 467.) In my "abbreviated 
sketch," Robert Reynolds is made the son of both 
the wives of his father, James, instead of being 
son of the first wife only ; and the Chief Baron is 
in a like predicament, instead of being the son of 
the second wife only. The Chief Baron's second 
wife is called " Rainboid" instead of " Rambird." 
And, finally, John Hatley is marked as the eldest 
child of Robert Reynolds, instead of being named 



S. XII. JULY 6, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



19 



5 the husband of Isabella Keynolds, the eldest 
ister of Chief Justice Sir James Reynolds. 

H. LOFTUS TOTTENHAM. 

NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Gesta Regis Henrici Secundi Benedicti Abbatis. The 
Chronicle of the Reign of Henry II. and Richard I. A.p. 
1169-1192, known commonly under the name of Benedict 
of Peterborough. Edited from the Cotton MS 8. by 
William Stubbs, M.A. In two volumes. (Longman.) 
The value of Benedictus Abbas has long been made 
known by Hearne's edition, now extremely scarce, and 
to the great value of which the learned Librarian of 
Lambeth bears generous testimony in his Introduction 
to the work before us. That introduction will be read 
with great interest, more especially Mr. Stubbs's critical 
remarks on the distinction and comparative value of 
Chronicles and Histories. Nor will the Preface to the 
second volume, in which the Editor sketches the cha- 
racter and position of Henry II., be found less worthy of 
attention. The present is far from the least valuable of 
the important series of historical documents to which it 
belongs. 

Antenicene Christian Library. Vols. III. and 1 V. (Edin- 
burgh : T. & T. Clark, 1867.) 

If ever the jarring sections of Christendom are to be 
brought into unison, it must be by the common resolu- 
tion stare super antiquas vias. And therefore we cannot 
but heartily welcome this attempt of our Scottish brethren 
to put before the ordinary reader, in a vernacular dress, 
the whole body of Antenicene Theology. Moreover, the 
originals ar% well rendered; and the contents of these 
two volumes are of more than average interest compris- 
ing the works of Tatian the Assyrian, and Theophilus 
of Antioch ; the religious Komance known as the Cle- 
mentine Recognitions, in which St. Peter and St. Barna- 
bas appear as dramatis persona;; and the writings of 
Clement of Alexandria. 

The Practical Angler; or, the Art of Trout- Fishing. 
More particularly applied to Clear Water. By W. C. 
Stewart. Fifth edition, revised and enlarged. (A. & C. 
Black.) 

It is not more than a few years since we first com- 
mended Mr. Stewart's Practical Angler to our piscatorial 
readers, and lo ! a proof that the work deserved their at- 
tention, we have to chronicle the appearance of this its 
fifth edition, revised and enlarged, enlarged certainly, 
'but still not too large to be the Angler's companion by 
the brook side. 

Our Constitution : an Epitome of our Chief Laws and 
Systems of Government. With an Introductory Essay 
by Charles Ewald, F.S.A., of Her Majesty's Record 
Office. (Warne&Co.) 

Intended to occupy an intermediate position between 
strictly technical and legal Essays, and the more popular 
Handbooks on the same subject, this little book is well 
calculated to fulfil that object. Mr. Ewald, who, as one 
of the Civil Service, we are glad to see applying himself 
to such purpose as the work before us, will add to the 
utility of future editions by specifying precisely the 
statutes and chapters of the acts to which he refers. 

Tennysoniana. Notes, Bi liographical and Critical, on 
the Early Poems of Alfred and C. Tennyson, -c. (B. M. 
Pickering.) 
A little volume which we can cordially recommend to 



those of our readers who deem the " growth of a poet's 
mind an interesting study ;" and more especially to those 
who admire and love to trace the progress of Tennyson. 

Sermons preached in Country Churches by R. Drummond 
Rawnslev, M.A. Second Series. (Hatchard & Co 
1867.) 

A set of very sensible and useful discourses ; never 
wanting in solid matter, and yet not above the apprehen- 
sion of a country congregation. 

The Art Journal for July. (Virtue & Co.) 

Deserves especial notice for its illustrations of the Paris 
Exhibition, which furnish at the same time illustrations 
of the world's progress in the social, useful, and orna- 
mental arts. 

THE NATIONAL COLLECTION OF NEWSPAPERS, ETC. 
Mr. Watts has communicated to the Newspaper Press the 
following interesting particulars of the space occupied by 
the collection of newspapers and periodical publications 
in the British Museum. Mr. Watts assures us that the 
attendant whom he, in polite accordance with our re- 
quest, appointed to make the calculation, is a very care- 
ful man, and likely to be accurate. 

The collection of newspapers in the new library is kept 
in 444 presses, containing 9,982 superficial feet. The 
space occupied by the newspapers is 4,162ft. 8in., thus, 
divided : 

ft. 



London Newspapers 
Provincial 
Scotch ,. 

Irish 

Foreign 

Total 



1,675 
1,059 

288 
396 



in, 

8 





744 
4,162 8 



The periodical publications are in 390 presses, contain- 
ing 9,851 superficial feet. In the old library the collec- 
tion occupies a space of 451 yards 4 inches, and in the- 
new library 2,321 yards 2 feet and 11 inches. These 
figures will serve to convey an idea to our country friends 
of the vastness of the national collection of newspapers. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PUECHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books, to be sent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose: 
SCROPB'S SALMON FISHING. First Edition. 
D ALL A WAY'S RAPB OP CHICHESTEH. 

ASHMOLK'S HISTORY- OP BERKSHIRE. 3 Vols. Large paper. 
ORCHARD s COLLECTION op EPITAPHS. 
REMARKABLE TRIALS. 6 Vols. 8vo. 
GOUGE'S SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS. 5 Vols. folio. Fine copy. 

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookseller. 15, Conduit Street, 
Bond Street, London, W. 

PEARSON'S POLITICAL DICTIONARY. 8vo, 1792. 
THE ROYAL REGISTER. 9 Vols. 12mo. 1780. 

MEMOIRS OF J. T. SERRES, MARINE PAINTER TO His MAJESTY. 8VO> 
1826. 

Wanted by Mr. W. Smith. 7, York Terrace, Charles Street, Albany 
Koad, Camberwell, S. 



REMOVAL OF OFFICE OF "NOTES AND QUERIES." 

In future " NOTES AND QUERIES " will be publishel at. the much more 
commodious premises taken for the purpose at No. 43, Wellington 
Street, Strand, W.C. to which office all communications should be ad- 
dressed. 

QUERISTS are again requestednot to mix up several Queries in the same 
communication, but to confine each Query to one special subject. Those 
of our Correspondents who favour us with Replies are requested to affix 
to them the precise reference (page and volume) on which the Query is 
printed. All are entreated to write' plainly especially proper names, 
ami on one side of the paper only. 



20 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. XII. JULY G, '67. 



FAMILY QUERISTS We must again remind our Correspondents that 

we cannot insert Queries respecting Families or Persons not of general 
interest unless the Name and Address of the Querists be added so that 
the Replies, which, can be. of no interest to our readers generally, may 
be sent direct to the parties who desire the information. 

BOOKS WANTED Our friends, who make use. of this department of 

" N. & Q.," are warned how then remit money for books offered them by 
other than well-known respectable booksellers. 

E. V. (Somerset.) The. Bible containing the misprint in the Sixth 
Commandment is noticed in "N. & Q." 2nd S. v. 391 ; viii. 330: ix. 33. 

RHODOCANAKIS. Histoire Nouvelle des Anciena Dues et autres 
Souverains de 1'Archipel, 1698, is attributed by Barbier to P. Robert 
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" 



S. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



21 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1867. 



CONTENTS. N 289. 



NOTES: Richard Duke, the Poet, 21 Poetic Pains, 22 

Hals's " Cornwall," Ib. The Price of Consols A 
Lady's Wardrobe in 1622 The Widow Blackett of Ox- 
ford: Charles Lamb, 23 Bishop Butler's best Book 
Drinking-cup Inscription, 23. 

QUERIES : Anonymous The Curse of Scotland Con- 
secration of a Church by an Archdeacon Drawings 
Dutch Tragedy John Matthew Leigh " Form " La 
Maison de Tit'ai re Large Paper Copies Nautical Say- 
ing Penny Georges Pillesary Old Seals on Charters, 
&c. St. Cataldus and St. Peter Sunk Church The 
Three Pigeons Vis Waltham Abbey Cardinal Wol- 
sey's Bedstead, 24. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Style of " Reverend " and 
" Very Reverend " Satirical Medal Sir John Hadley 
Berkeley Origin of Quotation wanted Astrakhan 
Shakespeare Collection of Bulls, 26. 

REPLIES : Stansfield : Smyth, 27 The Palaeologi, 30 
Abbesses as Confessors, Ib, The Chevalier D'Assas, 31 

Tooth- Sealing, 33 " Conspicuous by its Absence" 
Junius and Dr. Johnson Inscriptions on Angelus Bells 

Churches with Thatched Roofs Iron Hand "To 
Slait " Jefwellis " Morning's Pride" Runic Inscrip- 
tion at St. Molio Numismatics Night a Counsellor 
A Query on Pope Legend of the Book of Job Sword 
Query: Sahagura Bourbon Sprig L'Homme Fossile 
en Europe Palindromic (or Sotadic) Verse The Hin- 
doo Trinity Passage in Lord Bacon William Sharp, 
Surgeon Jarvey Dr. Wolcot The Valley of Mont- 
Cenis, 34.. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



RICHARD DUKE, THE POET. 
It was not until the late Rev. Dr. Maitland dis- 
covered among some family papers a copy of 
" Richard Duke's Discharge of his Father's Exe- 
cutors, 1679," * that any particulars were known 
of the parentage of the poet. Dr. Johnson, who 
has given a short account of him in The Lives of 
the Poets, confesses " Of Mr. Richard Duke I can 
find few memorials." Robert Anderson {British 
Poets, vi. 625) was not more successful. He says, 
" Of Richard Duke very few particulars have de- 
scended to posterity. The accounts of his family 
are obscure and imperfect. Jacob says, his father 
was an eminent citizen of London, but does not 
mention his profession. The year of his birth is 
not known." 

In a " Chronological Table of English History," 
forming part of the Sloane MS. 1711, at the 
British Museum, the following memoranda of the 
family of Duke occur in the order of date, among 
which will be found the day of his birth, as well 
as some additional particulars of his family : 
A.D. 

1595. Aug. I [Richard Duke] came to London to be ap- 
prenticed. 
1607. Aug. I, warden of my companyf for 2 yeres to come. 

* See N. & Q." 2 d S. ii. 4. 

f The Scriveners. During the second year of the 
wardenship of Richard Duke, the following memorable 
event was recorded in the registers of the parish church 



1609. Aug. I went out warden. 
1617. Jan. I master of my company. 

1623. Sept. The first September my mother Stapleton 

died. 

1624. Apr. the 23 d my sonne John was borne. 

1625. Sept. y e 23 d my daughter Suzan died. 

1626. Mar. y e 5 th my father died. 

1627. Feb. 7 my daughter Mary borne. 

1628. July the 12 th my daughter Martha was borne. 
. Aug. The 11 th of August my daughter Mary died. 

1630. Feb. y e 15 th my sonne Robert was borne. 

1631. Aug. y e 7 th my daughter Sarah was borne. 

1632. Nov. y e 11 th my daughter Joane was borne. 
. Feb. first, Joane died. 

1638. Nov. 10 th my daughter Sarah died. 

1640. Sept. 10 th my sonn Robert died at Bowe. 

1641. Apr. 12 th I Richard Duke tooke this shoppe in my 

possession, &c. 

1643. Dec. 30 th I broke my legg. 

1644. Apr. 30 th I was marryed to Martha Macro. 

1645. Feb. the 27 th my daughter Martha was borne att 

one of y e clock in y e morninge. 

1646. Mar. 30 th my daughter Martha dyed and was 

buryed in y e Cloister of S 1 Mich. c. 

1647. Nov" The 7 th my daughter Eliz. was borne. The 

22 d my deere & loveinge wife dyed & was buryed 
in y e chancell by her father. 

1648. Nov r the 30 th I was marryed to Anne Pierce att the 

parish of S 4 Barthews y e lesse by M r How. 
1651. May. The first of May beingThursday my daughter 
Mary was borne betwixt 2 & 3 of y e clock in the 
afternoone. 

1653. Apr. 13 th my Sonne Edward borne betw. 2 & 3 of 

y c clock in y c afternoone. 

1654. Jan. the 12 th my daughter Anne was borne neere 2 

of y e clocke in y e morninge. 

1655. Sept. the 8 th my Sonne Edward dyed& was buryed 

in ye Cloister of S 1 M: C: the 10*. 

1656. Sept. 20 th my daughter Sarah was borne betwixt y e 

hower of one & two in y e morneinge. 
1658. June the 13 th MY SONNE RICHARD WAS BORNE BK- 

TWEENE THE HOWERS OF ONE & TWO IN Y B AFTER- 
NOONE. 

. Aug. the 20 th my daughter Elizabeth dyed and was 

burved by her mother in y e chancel of S* M. C. 
1660. 9 July, sonne Robert borne at 2 clo. morn. 

1662. May 3 my daughter Elizabeth borne and baptized 

the 13 of May. 

1663. Dec. 2. Daughter Eliz. dyed & was buryed the 4 th 

in the cloister of S 4 M. Cornehill. 

1664. Aug. 13. Sonne Peter borne, betwixt 9 & 10 att 

night. Baptized the 21 st . M r J no Sweeting and 
M r Tho. Kelk, godfathers & M rs Joane Man god- 
mother. 

1665. Feb. 14. Daughter Susanne borne betwixt 

1667. Apr. 5. Daughter Elizabeth borne att my uncle 

Whites in Gun Yard in the parish of S' Buttolph 
Algate London & baptized the 6 th of Aprill. 
1667. Sept. 18. Sonne Peter dyed & was buryed in the 
parish of S* Andrew Undershaft on the South Isle 
of y e chancell there on the 19 th . 

of All Hallows, Bread Street : " The xxth daye of De- 
cember, 1608, was baptised John, the sonne of John 
Mylton, Scrivener." 



22 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd s. XII. JULY 13, '67. 



1668. Jul. 15 th my deare and loveing wife Anne Duke 
departed this life in child bedd imediately after 
shee was delivered of a sonne dead borne. 

Duke, it appears, was for some time tutor to the 
Duke of Richmond, the son of Charles II. by the 
Duchess of Portsmouth. The poet is known to 
have enjoyed the friendship and praises of Dry- 
den, Waller, Otway, Lee, Creech, and other con- 
temporary wits of his day, and seems to have been 
a polite and accomplished scholar, and a respect- 
able, though not a great poet. His poems were 
printed by Tonson in a volume with those of the 
Earl of Roscommon in 1717, 8vo. 

In 1710 Duke was presented by Dr. Trelawney, 
Bishop of Winchester, to the wealthy living of 
Witney, in Oxfordshire, which he enjoyed but 
for a few months. On Feb. 10, 1710-11, having 
returned from an entertainment, he retired to bed 
in apparent health, but the next morning was 
found a corpse. His death is thus noticed by 
Dean Swift : 

" Dr. Duke died suddenly two or three nights ago ; he 
was one of the wits when we were children, but turned 
parson, and left it, and never writ farther than a pro- 
logue or recommendatory copy of verses. He had a fine 
living given him by the Bishop of Winchester about 
three months ago : he got his living suddenly, and he got 
his djung so too." Swift's Journal to Stella, Feb. 14, 
1711. Again on Feb. 16, he says, " Atterbury and Prior 
went to bun' poor Dr. Duke." 

J. YEOWELL. 
Barnsburv. 



POETIC PAINS. 

" There is a pleasure in poetic pains, 
Which only poets know. The shifts and turns, 
The expedients and inventions multiform 
To which the mind resorts, in chase of terms, 
Though apt, yet coy, and difficult to win," &c. 

So writes Cowper in " The Task," and its truth 
will be recognised by every one who has ever 
made verses. It is, however, not always a " plea- 
sure," and it is often a needless expense of time ; 
and as it is very generally a rime that is given 
chase to, much labour might, I think, be saved by 
the use of a riming dictionary. Byron, I believe, 
always used one ; and what may appear strange, 
my late friend Rossetti, though actually an impro- 
visatore, always had one by him when loriting 
verses. On the other hand, Thomas Hood told 
me that he had often had to go through the 
dictionary from end to end in search of a word ; 
and I remember when Crofton Croker and I were 
writing the second volume of The Irish Fairy 
Legends, that when I called on him one evening 
he read to me what he had written of his ballad, 
"The Lord of Dunkerron," and he stopped at the 
last stanza without giving the final word, which I 
supplied at once. " By ," said he, slapping the 
table, " I have been hunting for that very word 
these last two hours." All this labour might 



have been saved by a riming dictionary. There 
are cases, however, where it is rather a synonym 
that is wanted. In one of Moore's Irish melodies 
we meet with 

" You may break, you may ruin the vase if you will ; " 
and it is evident that he saw clearly that " ruin " 
was not the proper term, yet it was not till, I be- 
lieve, the last edition which he lived to publish 
that he hit on the more appropriate term " shat- 
ter." 

Campbell, in his u Hohenlinden," was guilty of 
what we may perhaps term the puerility of end- 
ing every stanza with a trissyllable, as rapidly, 
scenery, &c., in which the last syllables were to 
rime. But the last stanza is 

" Few, few shall part where many meet ! 

The snow shall be their winding-sheet, 

And every turf beneath their feet 

Shall be a soldier's sepulchre." 

Here there is no rime, and as we may learn 
from his friend Redding, it seems to have been a 
continual source of trouble to the poet, yet how 
simple was the remedy ! He had only to trans- 
pose, and read 

" A soldier's sepulchre shall be," 
and there would have been rime, cadence, every- 
thing but the aforesaid puerility. It is probable, 
however, that this may never have occurred either 
to himself or his friend Redding. Still I am not 
satisfied with " sepulchre ;" for it does not express 
the poet's idea, which was that every soldier 
should lie dead and covered with snow on the 
spot where he had stood, and it should have 
been 

" A soldier's resting-place shall be." 

THOS. KEIGHTLEY. 



HALS'S " CORNWALL." 

Amongst a large collection of works connected 
with the county, 1 have The Parochial History of 
Cornwall, by William Plals, one of the rarest of 
topographical works. This fragment of his in- 
tended history is a portion of the second part, and 
comprises the account of seventy-two parishes, 
from Advent to part of Helston inclusive, in 160 
folio pages. It was published by Andrew Brice, 
a printer at Exeter, in 1750, and contains tea 
numbers only, when the work dropped from want 
of encouragement or some other reason. Hals 
first brought down his history to 1702, but con- 
tinued it to 1736, and died in 1739, long before 
the well-known epigram of "Here lies poor 
Fred." Now, whatever merit may be due to this 
composition, a reference to Hals will deprive it of 
the stamp of originality, unless we can assume 
that the author was really unacquainted with 
Hals's epigram, and that it is therefore simply 
a question of singular unanimity of thought be- 
tween two persons of distant times and places, 



3 rd S. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



23 



although Hals's example has certainly the benefit 
of priority. He states, under the head of the 
parish of Egleshayle, that there was a Mr. Ed- 
ward Hoblyn, a gent, and attorney-at-lav.', who 
was in possession of an estate in the parish called 
Crone or Groan, and that he was specially ine- 
morable for his saying, when he first began to 

practise, that he would get an estate by the law j A LADY > S WARDEOBB IN 1622. The following 
one way or other (which Hals, without proper deserves a place in "N. & Q.": 
authority, says means right or wrong) ; and as Hals 
proceeds to say 



took place at lOlf , but this included the accrued dividend 
of 1 per cent. The lowest price of the century was 50, 
in July, 1803, on the recommencement of hostilities be- 
tween England and France. The highest point of the 
previous century was 113, in the year 1736; and the 
lowest, in 1798, was 47. During the past twenty years, 
the average price of consols has been 92." 

X. 0. 



" Common fame says he was as good as his word, but 
whether by the first or last way, who can tell ? Where- 
upon since his death, by an unknown but arch hand, was 
fixed upon his grave in this parish church this taunting 
epitaph : 

' Here lies Ned, 

I am glad he's dead. 

If there must be another, 

I wish 'twere his brother, 

And for the good of the nation 

His whole relation.' " 

Under the head of Falmouth, Hals mentions 
Thomas Killigrew, of the Arwinick family, a 
celebrated wit and Master of the Bevels in the 
time of Charles II., but not a regularly installed 
jester. He went to Paris in the time of Louis 
XIV.; but, being politically out of humour, was 
silent, and the great monarch thought him dull. 
He showed him his fine collection of pictures, of 
which Killigrew took little notice, and appeared 
to know nothing about them. At last the king 
showed him a picture of the Crucifixion, which 
was placed between two portraits, but still the 
wit said he did not know what it meant. 

" Why then," said the king, " I will tell you what they 
are : the picture in the centre is the draught of our 
Saviour on the cross ; that on the right-hand of him is 
the pope's picture, and that on the left is my own." 

" I humbly thank your majesty," says Killigrew, " for 
the information you "have given me ; "for though I have 
often heard that our Saviour was crucified between two 
thieves, yet I never knew who they were till now." 

The king^ was now convinced of Killigrew's 
power of wit and satire, for at this time he and 
the pope were cruelly persecuting the French 
Protestants, and dragooning them to mass or 
driving them out of the kingdom. 

Wir. SANDYS. 



THE PRICE OP CONSOLS. The following, taken 
from Morgan's British Trade Journal of July 2, is 
worth preserving : 

"Consols* are now at the highest point thev have 
reached since 1860. They were at 100| ex-dividend in 
1852, while the rate of discount was 2 per cent. The 
highest price touched by consols during the present cen- 
tury was 101, on the 24th Dec. 1852 ; eight vears pre- 
viouslynamely, on the 20th Dec. 1844, transactions 

* " Consols for money and the account yesterday were 
last quoted heavy at 94 and 94 respectivelv." Standard, 
July 4, 1867. 



'Note of Lady Elizabeth Morgan, late Sister to Sir 
Nathaniel Rich, her wearing apparell beinge in a 
great bar'd Chest in my Ladie's Bedchamber, this 
13* day of NoV, 1622. 

" Imprimis. 1 grene damask gowne, kirtell, and wast- 
coate with gould and silver lace. 

1 tamy gould satten gowne and kirtell, and wastcoate 
laid with gould lace. 

1 black silke grograme gowne, kirtell and wastcoate 
striped with silver. 

1 blacke satten gowne, kirtell, and wastcoate set with 
goulde buttons. 

1 willow colored satten peticoate imbrothered." 

P. P. F. 

THE WIDOW BLACKETT OF OXFORD : CHARLES 
LAMB. In the new edition of Elia by Messrs. 
Bell & Daldy, there is an essay named " The 
Gentle Giantess/' the first of Eliana. I would 
ask if this was an Oxford celebrity, or a coinage of 
the pleasant author's brain, as it is by no means 
easy for one unacquainted with C. L. to tell his 
facts from his fictions ? The editor has given an 
interesting appendix, but in it there is no refer- 
ence to this character. 

May I be allowed also to notice, what is no 
doubt a printer's error, that in the succeeding 
essay,* in alluding to a celebrated painting by 
Leonard da Vinci, late in the possession of Mr. 
Troward of Pall Mall, he says : 

" He who could paint that wonderful personification of 
the Logos, or third person of the Trinity, grasping a 
globe when the hand was, by the boldest license, twice 
as big as the truth of drawing warranted : yet the effect, 
to every one who saw it, was confessed b}- some magic of 
genius, not to be monstrous, but miraculous and silencing." 

As there is no list of errata (indeed, with this 
exception, there requires none) I mention it for 
future correction, never having heard the third 
person of the Trinity called Logos. J. A. G. 

BISHOP BUTLER'S BEST BOOK. Mr. Froude, in 
his Short Studies on Great Subjects (i. 34), says 
that Bishop Butler 

" Says somewhere, that the best book which could be 
written would be a book consisting only of premises, 
from which the readers should draw conclusions for them- 
selves." 

Does this occur in his " Sermons " or in his 
" Analogy ? " However good such a book might 
be, one seems to feel that the premises would 
hardly pay for erecting; just now tenants would 
be wanting in the shape of solvent conclusions. 



The Reynolds Gallery. 



24 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. XII. JCI.Y 13, '67. 



Doctors' dicta bristle in array on either side of 
every human question of right and wrong. 

C. A. AY. 

May Fair. 

DRINKING-CUP INSCRIPTION. The ^ following 
inscription for a drinking-cup occurs in a most 
unlikely place. In The Co?npleat Clark, containing 
the best forms of all Sorts of Presidents, 1664, p. 850, 
is a form for " a citizen's will." In this docu- 
ment an imaginary J. G. is made to say 

" I give to the worshipful company of M.in L. whereof I 
am a fellow, towards a recreation to be had amongst them 
at my burial, the sum of 67. 13s. 4c?.,and a cup of silver and 
gilt, of the weight of 40 ounces, to remain in that com- 
pany for ever, and to have graven in the bottom these 
two letters J. G., and a posie written in this manner 
When the Drink is out, and the bottom you may see, 

Remember your brother J. G. 

as a remembrance of my Fellowship amongst them. Also 
I will that there be spice-bread given to the Livery ac- 
cording to the custom." 

EDWARD PEACOCK. 



ANONYMOUS. Who was the author of an 8vo of 
sixty-five pages, entitled A Philosophical Enquiry 
into the Origin and Antiquity of the English Lan- 
guage (Dublin, 1843), " in which it is clearly 
proved that it is the immediate gift of heaven to 
man, and the first spoken on earth " ? ABHBA. 

THE CURSE OP SCOTLAND. Several notes on 
this subject appeared in your first series, in which 
the writers endeavoured to account for the nine 
of diamonds bearing this sobriquet. None of 
them appear to have read of or heard any other 
card in the pack so styled. In No. 108 of the 
Connoisseur, however, incidental mention is made 
of " the Knave of Clubs, or the Curse of Scot- 
land." Can your readers offer any reason for this 
card bearing the name, or refer to any other notice 
made of it? W. C. J. 

CONSECRATION OF A CHURCH BY AN ARCH- 
DEACON. It is stated in Newcourt's Repertorium 
(vol. ii. p. 84) that the church of Woodham- 
Walter, in Essex, being fallen very much into 
decay, and standing at a great distance from the 
village, licence was granted to Thomas Earl of 
Sussex, in 1562, to build a new church there on 
such site as he should think fit j which the earl 
did, and the new church was consecrated April 30, 
1562, " by Thomas Cole, Archdeacon of Essex, es- 
pecially commissionated thereto by Edward Grin- 
dall, Bishop of London." 

Is this instance unique, or is it competent to an 
archdeacon to consecrate a church ? 

JUXTA-TURRIM. 

DRAWINGS. Can any of your readers tell me 
of a paste or glue which can be used with safety 



to lay down drawing paper for water-colour 
drawings on another paper ? Common paste can 
be worked more smoothly, and stands the sub- 
sequent wetting better than anything I have yet 
tried ; but after the paper has been put aside for 
a time, the paste is apt to cause spots, which are 
not visible until the washes of colour are laid on 
and cannot be remedied. A. F. B. 

DUTCH TRAGEDY. 

'' The Pedlingtonians proclaimed Daubson for their 
own, and were proud to be Pedlingtonians ; the High- 
lander, where grass will not grow, and the sunshine is 
about as frequent as an eclipse, says, ' This is my own, 
my native land ;' and Laclerque describes a Dutch tra- 
gedj r , in which a Spaniard says to the hero, ' You speak 
like a warrior,' and is answered, ' Yes ! I speak like a 
Dutchman,' on which the Spaniard exclaims ' Would I 
were one ! ' " " On National Pride," in Collectanea, by 
James E. Brenton. Philadelphia, 1834, 12mo, p. 76. 

If such a tragedy exists, I shall be glad of a 
reference to it, I suspect that the translation is 
exaggerated. C. E. T. 

JOHN MATTHEW LEIGH, author of Cromwell, a 
historical play, 1838. Wanted, any information 
regarding the author. Has he published anything 
else ? K. I. 

"FORM." Within the last year or two this 
word has been used in the sporting department of 
our newspapers in a sense that has altogether 
puzzled me. The form of a racehorse used to 
mean his shape ; but now the term is employed 
in a manner altogether new ; and I turn to 
te N. & Q." to enlighten my ignorance. So long 
as I read of " form " only in the sporting portion 
of my newspaper I was content to pass it by, but 
when a word has been used by The Times in an 
editorial article, it acquires a certain degree of 
authority. In March of last year, when comment- 
ing on the University boat-race, The Times thus 
spoke of the Oxonians : " The victors, whose/orm 
was far from faultless, but whose courage was in- 
vincible." And to-day (July 2), in looking over the 
new volume of the Annual Register, I find " form " 
embalmed in the grave pages of that standard 
work. In describing the University boat-race, the 
Annual Register mentions " form " no less than 
seven times, and in their reports of the various 
races of the year this pet word again occurs. Will 
some sporting reader of (( N. & Q." kindly explain 
the sense in which it is used the new meaning 
attached to this old word ? JAYDEE. 

LA MAISON DE TITAIRE. In Monsieur de 
Magny's Nobiliaire de Normandie I find, amongst 
many other strange and wonderful corruptions of 
English places,' names, and titles, the following, 
under the head of " Titaire de Glatigny : " 

" On lit dans , le Nobiliaire Ge'ne'alogique des families 
d'Angleterre, d'Ecosse et d'Irlande (par Joseph Adam de 
Wilberforce, sur la Maison de Titaire, en Anglais 



3"! S. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



25 



Titeyrre) : Les seigneurs de ce nom descendent d'une 
des plus anciennes maisons de Normandie, qui sous le 
regne de Guillaume le Conquerant passerent avec lui en 
\ngleterre .... Les Titaires eurent beaucoup de Sei- 
gneuries, Fiefs ou Manoirs dans les Comte's de FRng, de 
Daubigh, et dans la Principaute' de Galles.' La branche 
anglaise fut repre'sentee en 1730 par Edouard, Lord 
Titevre, Comte de Goring, qui de son mariage avec Jose- 
phine Elizabeth Moyra, fille unique de Lord Moyra, 
Comte de Cambell, avait deux fils et trois filles ! 

Can any of your readers throw any light on the 
above-mentioned personages, or the above-quoted 
author (whose name does not appear in Lowndes), 
or must we conclude that the French surpass 
even ourselves in their ingenuity in pedigree- 
making? F. D. H. 

LAKGE PAPER COPIES. Wishing to know when 
first the custom began of printing certain copies 
of books on large paper as specialities, and having 
no books on the subject to refer to where I am, I 
venture to ask your readers if they would kindly 
assist by giving any information upon the matter 
through that valuable " medium of intercom- 
munication for literary men," "N. & Q.." ? 

A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

NAUTICAL SATING. What is the origin, if 
known, and correct wording of the sailor's com- 
ment on an improbable story : " Tell that to the 
marines, for the sailors won't believe it"? A friend 
insists that it should be " horse marines." 

PIERCE EGAN, JUNR. 

PENNY. Is the Sanscrit word panna, a copper 
value, or coin (?) in the laws of Menu, the origin 
of our word penny ? CALCUTTENSIS. 

GEORGES PILLESARY. Where can I find some 
account of M. Georges Pillesary, General of Ma- 
rine under Louis XIV. ? His daughter Angelique 
was the second wife of the first Viscount St. 
John. French memoirs of his time do not men- 
tion him. LYDIARD. 

OLD SEALS ON CHARTERS, ETC. Will any cor- 
respondent inform me what constitutes the sub- 
stances of seals which are attached to old charters, 
&c.? S. M. P. 

ST. CATALDUS AND ST. PETER. This saint is 
said to have been the first Bishop of Taranto in 
the south of Italy, and by tradition a native of 
Raphoe in Ireland. Can any of your correspon- 
dents acquainted with the saints of the Roman 
Calendar give his Irish name, and state at what 
period he lived ? * The Tarantines claim to have 
received their first knowledge of Christianity from 
St. Peter, who landed, as they say, at a spot about 
twenty miles south of Taranto, on the shore of the 
bay, where a chapel sacred to the Apostle comme- 



[* For some account of St. Cataldus consult Alban 
Butler's Lives of the Saints, May 10 ; and Ware's Ireland, 
by Harris, i. 549. ED.] 



morates the event. They maintain that the first 
mass performed in Italy was in one of the churches 
of their town. Perhaps some one acquainted with 
ecclesiastical history can give authority for this 
statement respecting St. Peter. C. T. RAMAGE. 

SUNK CHURCH. There is on the hill side below 
Saweliffe, in North Lincolnshire, a huge mass of 
travertine, of serpentine form, about forty yards 
long, and rising above the surface seven or eight 
feet in some parts of it, the water from which it 
was deposited being now carried down by an under- 
drain. It has been called, time out of memory, 
" sunk church " or " sunken church." 

According to a note in Wordsworth's Sonnets 
on the Duddon, there is a " Druidical circle about 
half a mile to the left of the road ascending Stone- 
side from the vale of Duddon ; the country people 
call it ' sunken church.' " Can I be informed of 
other antiquities, natural or artificial, bearing this 
appellation ? J. F. 

Winterton. 

THE THREE PIGEONS. Will some one learned 
in the symbolism of signboards explain the mean- 
ing of this sign, which seems to have been a 
common one, and possibly possessed a religious 
significance ? The Salutation Sign, Annunciation, 
and Three Kings of Cologne, suggest some such 
meaning. Goldsmith's famous song has made the 
"Three Jolly Pigeons" familiar. It was a sign 
in the west of Ireland more than a century ago ; 
and I find it also in France at as early a period. 
I quote from Jay's Dictionnaire des Contemporains, 
1825, under the head "Revaiol" 

" Son pere .... acheta a Bagnols . . . une auberge, 
les trois pigeons," &c. &c. 

Vis. Vis argenti (L.), force argent (Fr.), a 
power of money (Mod. Hibernian). Has this 
idiom existence in other languages, as one would 
be disposed to conclude from the examples given ? 

Q. Q. 

WALTHAM ABBEY. Can any of your corre- 
spondents inform me when the existing outside 
arch of Waltham Abbey was erected that is, 
the arch which formerly divided the nave from 
the chancel, and is now built up to form the end 
of the present church ? C. 

CARDINAL WOLSEY'S BEDSTEAD. Twenty years 
ago I was shown at an old farm-house (I think 
the Manor Farm) at Ingarsby, Leicestershire, an 
ancient bedstead, stated by the good people of the 
house to have been brought from the Abbey at 
Leicester, and to have been that on which the 
great cardinal died. Can this statement be cor- 
roborated ? I well remember that the bedstead I 
saw was of elaborately carved oak, ^in ^good pre- 
servation, and evidently of some antiquity. 0. 

Brixton. 



26 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. XII. JULY 13, '67. 



STYLE or "REVEREND "AND " VERY REVEREND." 
Dr. South, in his Animadversions upon Dr. Sher- 
lock's Book, entituled " A Vindication of the 
Trinity," #c., says of Sherlock's friends (p. ii.) : 

" Nay, and some I find creeping under his feet, with 
the title of Very Reverend, while they are charging him 
with such qualities and humours as none can be justly 
chargeable with and deserve reverence too. For my own 
part, I frankly own that I neither reverence nor fear 
him." 

These Animadversions were published in 1693. 
Now, it could hardly have been reckoned, even by 
so uncompromising a controversialist as South, 
an act of sycophancy to give Sherlock his style of 
" Very Reverend," if that had been a mere matter 
of course: so that I should be glad to learn, 
through the medium of "N. & Q.," how long it 
has been the practice in England to address a 
Dean as " Very Reverend." And this suggests to 
me to ask further, since what period it has been 
usual to address a clergyman as " the Rev. Mr. 
B.," or " the Rev. A. B." In a list of annual 
preachers at a school-anniversary, which I saw 
some years ago, the style " Rev." was first used 
(if my memory serves me right) early in the 
last century. At Cambridge, to this day, a 
preacher before the University (if a simple M.A.) 
is described in the notice posted in the colleges 
as " Mr. A. B. of Christ College." S. C. 

[Respecting Deans being styled "Very Reverend," the 
late John Wilson Croker stated in " N. & Q." (1 st S. iii. 437) 
that, in a long series of old almanacks in his library, the 
list of Deans is invariably given as the " Reverend the 
Dean" down to the year 1803. The three following years 
were wanting ; but in that of 1807, the Dean is styled 
the "Very Reverend." From the passage quoted by 
S. C. it would seem that this honorary attribute was in 
use more than a century earlier. 

The title of Reverend was given to the judges as late 
as the seventeenth century. Hence we read, "And as 
the Rev. Sir Edward Coke, late Lord Chief-Justice of 
His Majesty's Bench, saith," &c. By some, this title is 
supposed to have been retained by them from the time 
when ecclesiastics filled the judicial offices ; whilst others 
consider that it was merely a title of respect applied to 
all persons to whom, on account of their position in 
society, great deference was due. In the seventeenth 
century the word Reverend was usually coupled with 
learned, e. g. "That Reverend and learned Dr. Jackson." 
Bishop Patrick quotes " the Reverend and learned Dr. 
Hammond." Beneath the portrait of John Kettlewell 
we read " The true effigy of the Reverend and learned 
Mr. John Kettlewell," &c. Vide " N. & Q.," 1 st S. vi. 
246.] 

SATIRICAL MEDAL. I have had a coin or 
medal shown to me, with a request to try and 
find out what it is. It has two of those double 



faces which most people are familiar with. On 
one side it is a pope's head with tiara, which, 
when turned upside down, represents the devil, 
with a long curling horn (the faces are naturally 
in profile) and big ears. Inscription : ECCLESIA . 

PERVEESA . TENET . FACIEM . DIABOLI. On the 

other side is a cardinal's head ; and this, on being 
turned upside down, presents a fool's head, cap, 
and bells. The inscription is, STVLTI . ALIQVANDO . 
[here, I think, there is a short word obliterated] 
SAPIENTES. There appears to be no date. Can 
any reader of "N. & Q." tell me anything about 
this medal ? The heads are very clear ; the in- 
scriptions not so much so. R. C. S. W. 

[The medal described by our correspondent is figured 
in Rigollot's Monnales des Fous (plate 4, fig. 10), and is 
correctly described by him (p. xc.) as a satirical medal 
directed against the court of Rome. The inscriptions are 
correctly given by our correspondent. Leber describes 
and gives a figure of a similar medal directed against 
Calvin : on one side of which is a double head of Calvin 
mitred and a horned devil, and the inscription, JOAN. 
CALVINUS HERESIARCH PESsiMus ; and on the reverse 
the double head of a cardinal and a fool, and the inscrip- 
tion, ET STULTI, ALIQUAXDO SAPITE, PSAL. XCIII. See 

"N. &Q., : 'l st S. vii. 238.] 

SIR JOHN HADLEY. Can you inform me if 
there is in London a monument or gravestone to 
Sir John Hadley, Lord Mayor of London about 
the year 1463 [?]. Also any information re- 
garding the family as to their ancestry and ^arms 
will much oblige. One branch of the family, I 
believe, settled in Warwickshire. 

GEO. PARSONS. 

Hadley, Hereford. 

[Sir John Hadley, sheriff in 1375, was twice Mayor of 
London, 1379 and 1393. He was buried in the church of 
St. Pancras, Soper Lane, where was his monument. 
There were many old monuments in this church of 
opulent citizens, ranging from 1360 to 1536; but the 
fanatical rage which prevailed after the Reformation 
caused nearly all of them to be demolished. At the great 
fire of London the church itself was destroyed. Sir John 
Hadlev's arms are : Az. a chevron between three annulets 
or, over all, on a fesse of the second, as many martlets 
gules.] 

BERKELEY. I shall be greatly obliged to any- 
one who will tell nie the author, original place, 
and right reading of the line 

" And coxcombs vanquish Berkeley with a grin." 
It is ascribed by Mr. J. S. Mill and Mr. G. H. 
Lewes to Pope ; " but I cannot find it in his 
writings. The line has been recently quoted, 
without a reference, as 

" Fops refuted Berkelev with a sneer." 

W. T. C. 

[This line is taken from Dr. Brown's Essay on Satire, 
part ii. ver. 224. The entire couplet is 



. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



27 



Truth's sacred fort th' exploded laugh shall win, 
And coxcombs vanquish Berkeley by a grin. 

Dr. Brown's Essay is prefixed to Pope's Essay on Man, 
in Warburton's edition of Pope's Works, vol. iii. p. 15, 
edit. 1770, 8vo.] 

ORIGIN OF QUOTATION, WANTED. 

" Pereant qui ante nos nostra dixerint." 
The author of this anathema was long ago in- 
quired for in N. & Q." In 1'* S. xii. 35 \ * re- 
spondent (W. M. T.), quoting from the Biglow 
Papers," gives it to St. Augustine. I have just 
found, in another American author (0. W. Holmes, 
The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, p. 129) a 
different source assigned to it. He cites that 
familiar line from Donatus : 

* Pereant UK qui ante nos nostra dixerwnt.' " 
Donatus the schismatic, or Donatus the gram- 
marian ? And which is right, Lowell or Holmes ? 

H. K. 

5, Paper Buildings, Temple. 

[Warton, in his Essay on Pope, in a note, i. 88 (ed. 
1806), shows that it was Donatus the grammarian : " St. 
Jerome relates that his preceptor Donatus, explaining 
that sensible passage in Terence 

' Nihil est dictum quod non sit dictum prius,' 
railed severely at the ancients for taking from him his 
best thoughts : 

4 Pereant qui ante nos, nostra dixerunt.' "] 

ASTRAKHAN. Where can I find a practical 
account of the manufacture of isinglass as carried 
on in Astrakhan ? Information addressed to Civis, 
care of Mr. Packer, 23, King Street, Portman 
Square, London, will oblige. 

[The account given by Martius of the preparation of 
Russian isinglass is as follows : The swimming bladders 
of the fish are first placed in hot water, carefully deprived 
of adhering blood, cut open longitudinally, and exposed 
to the air, with the inner delicate silvery membrane up- 
wards. When dried, this fine membrane is removed by 
beating and rubbing, and the swimming bladder is then 
made into different forms. Consult Tomlinson's Cyclo- 
pedia of Useful Arts, &c., ed. 1852, i. 754; the Encyclo- 
pedia Britannica, ed. 1856, xii. 628; and the English 
Cyclopaedia, " Arts and Sciences/' iv. 998.] 

SHAKESPEARE. Could you tell me who is the 
author of the following two books ? 

1. " Shakespeare and his Friends ; or the Golden Age 
of Merry England." 

2. " the Youth of Shakespeare." 

Both works were published in 3 vols. by Henry 
Colburn : the former in 1838, the latter in 1839. 

P. O. W. 

[Both works are by Robert Folkestone Williams, 
author of The Domestic Manners of the Royal Family, 
&c.] 

COLLECTION OF BULLS. Where could I meet 
with a collection of all the bulls issued by the 



different popes ? Have they ever been compared, 
and their different doctrines fully examined ? 

E. L. 

[The following work may be consulted : " Bullarum 
Privilegiorum ac Diplomatum Romanorum Pontificum 
amplissima collectio. Cui accessere Pontificum omnium 
vitae, notas, et indices opportuni. Opera et studio Carlo 
Cocquelines, 14 torn. 1733-1762, fol.] 



STANSFIELD: SMYTH. 
(3 rd S. ix. 413.) 

The story of the murder of Sir James Stansfield 
at Newmilns, near Haddington, in 1687, is one of 
grim interest. (See State Trials, by Howell, 
vol. ii. ; Lord Fountainhall's Works, &c.) It is 
remarkable that it has hitherto escaped the sen- 
sation novelists. Certainly, imagination could not 
invent a more dreadful story. The poor knight 
complaining with sighs and tears to his friend, in 
the Edinburgh Coffee-house, that he had no com- 
fort in wife or sons, his dreary ride home to 
Newmilns that bleak November evening, the 
sounds of horror in the house during the night, 
causing his guest, pious Mr. Bell, to betake him- 
self to his praters, thinking the house was in 
possession of evil spirits, the discovery of the 
body floating amidst the ice, the hurried and 
indecent interment, and the suspicions and ru- 
mours consequent on it, the disinterment and 
the scene in Morhame church, when the son as- 
sists to raise his father's body, and the gush of 
blood flows over his parricidal hands, his horror- 
struck exclamation, "Lord, have mercy upon 
me ! " the trial, conviction, and execution, with 
the extraordinary mishap of the slip of the rope, 
the parricide falling on his knees on the scaffold, 
and being ultimately strangled by the executioner, 
dying thus the very death he had inflicted on his 
own father, and the horrible rumours afloat 
respecting Lady Stansfield ; all combine to form a 
picture of horrors never surpassed by the most 
unhealthy imagination of the Eugene Sue stamp. 

The "testament dative and inventar of the 
gudes and gear " of the ill-fated Sir James is 
preserved in the Register of Confirmed Testa- 
ments, General Register House, Edinburgh. 
(Commissariat of Edinburgh, vol. Ixxix.) It was 
given in to the Commissaries of Edinburgh in 
1688 by William Smyth, merchant in Edinburgh, 
as assignee, his brother Alexander, also a mer- 
chant in Edinburgh, becoming "cautioner." It 
appears from it, amongst other particulars, that 
Sir James had incurred debts by bond to one 
James Todrig and Margaret Syme his wife, whose 
daughter, Jean, William Smyth had married ; and 
from the " trial " it appears that Sir James had a 
brother-in-law, Mr. Patrick Smyth, advocate. 



28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3' S. XII. JULY 13, '67. 



The following particulars respecting this family 
of Smyth, which, as far as can be ascertained, is 
now extinct, have been gleaned almost entirely 
from original records and registers, and may 
therefore be deemed worthy of preservation in 
the pages of " N. & Q." Some particulars of 
the Stansfields are added, in the hope of eliciting 
some more information about them. 

I. The Kev. James Smyth, born 1613, died 
1673, was minister of the parish of Innerleithen, 
in Tweedale, and afterwards of the neighbouring 
parish of Eddlestone, where he died and was 
buried. In 1643, when at Innerleithen, he mar- 
ried Euphemia Somervall, of the parish of New- 
ton in Midlothian, and had the following children 
(from Registers of Innerleithen) : 

1. (Name torn out), baptized by Mr. Theodor 
Hay : witnesses William Givan of Cardrona ; Mr. 
John Hay, minister of Peebles; Geo. Tait of 
Pirn ; and Alexander Murray of Kirkhouse. 

No doubt this entry is that of the birth of 
William Smyth, who gave in Sir James Stans- 
field's testament dative, and of whom some par- 
ticulars are given, infra. 

2. James, 1646. I find in 1680 a James Smyth 
in Leith, who, with his wife Isobel Allan, leaves 
that and settles in St. Andrews, and is appre- 
hended for debt there ; George Fogo, late baillie 
of St. Andrews, being his friend and helper 
(General Register of Deeds, " Dalrymple," 1680). 
There is little doubt that these two Jameses are 
one and the same. 

3. Margaret. (No account.) 

4. George, 1650. In 1682 he appears before 
the Presbytery of Peebles with a certificate from 
Mr. William Fogo, minister of St. Ninians, and 
is "entered for his trials." In 1684 he is pre- 
sented to the parish of Dawick (now broken up 
between the parishes of Stobo and Drumelzier) by 
the Archbishop of Glasgow, being inducted by 
one Mr. Robert Smith or Smyth, minister of 
Manor in the same county (Peebles). This Robert 
Smith was formerly schoolmaster at Peebles, and 
appears to have been a relation of the family of 
which we are speaking. His wife's name was Janet 
Buchanan, and they had, with other children, a 
daughter Agnes, born in 1664 ; and as I find from 
the Register of Manor parish that in 1690 Mr. 
George Smyth of Dawick was married, at Kil- 
bucho, by Mr. William Alieson, to Agnes Smith 
of Manor parish, I have no doubt it was to his 
daughter Agnes that George of Dawick was mar- 
ried. George was dead before 1717, leaving a 
daughter Ann, and, possibly, other children. 
(Presbytery Record.) 

5. Alexander, 1652, afterwards a merchant in 
Edinburgh, the " cautioner " for Sir Jas. Stans- 
field's testament. He died at Edinburgh in 1689, 
unmarried. His "testament dative and in- 
ventar " &c. is given in by his brother William, 



who gave in Sir James's, the " cautioners " being 
James Anderson, merchant, David Soniervill, 
merchant, and John Somervill, writer ; the last 
two being, probably, cousins, as his mother was 
a Somervall. (See supra.} 

The testament contains a long list of debtors 
and creditors, which is here re-arranged alpha- 
betically for convenience of reference, occasional 
notes being added to some of the names. 

Debts were owing to the deceased by the fol- 
lowing persons, all residing in St. Ajidrews : 

Jas. and Robert Carstairs ; Baillie Findlay; 
Mr. Jas. Hamilton ; Mrs. Livingstone ; Mr. David 
M'Gill ; Thos. Rankillour, skipper ; John Sangs- 
ter ; James Smyth (qy. his brother ?) : Dr. Skene j 
Dr. Waddel ; and William Watson. 

And by the following, residing in various other 
places : 

Andrew Aitkin ; Sir David Arnot ; the Laird 
of Balroune (who was this ?) ; Jas. Buird ; 
Alexander Brown, merchant} Chas. Chalmer, 
writer ; William Cockburn, merchant in Edin- 
burgh (he was banished, Lord Fountainhall 
tells us, in 1674, for defaming Lady Oxfurd " not 
without reason," says Robert Mylne in a note 
and prayed for a remission of sentence in 1679. 
His brother-in-law, William Clerk, advocate, was 
the Stansfields' lawyer) ; Lady Craigleith ; Pat. 
Crawford, merchant; Lady Crimstain (Grim- 
stain is in the parish of Dunse, Berwickshire ; the 
lady was probably a Home or a Bredfoot) ; Mr. 
James Dalrymple (no doubt Mr. James Dal- 
rymple of Killoch, one of the clerks of session, 
mentioned also in Sir James Stansfield's testa- 
ment dative ; brother of Sir John Dalrymple, 
afterwards first Earl of Stair, and of Mr. Hugh 
Dalrymple, one of the Commissaries of Edin- 
burgh. To the latter, Sir James Stansfield be- 
queathed all his estate, after cutting oft" his eldest 
son Philip, the patricide ; and failing his second 
son John, who seems to have been nearly as bad 
as the elder. Sir James was probably associated 
with the Dalrymples from holding leases over the 
lands of Hailes, Morhame, and others, in East 
Lothian ) ; Mr. Robert Douglas, and Mr. George 
Douglas, brothers of the Earl of Morton (after- 
wards seventh and eighth Earls. Their mother 
was a Hay of Sniithfield, in Peeblesshire) ; Wil- 
liam Donne, writer; James Elies (probably the 
father-in-law of the celebrated James Anderson, 
compiler of the Diplomata Scotia} ; the Laird of 
Gredoun (probably Ker of Graden, in Berwick- 
shire) ; Thomas Hamilton, of Aliestob ; 

Hunter, in Polmood; Charles Kinnaird; the 
Laird of Kinnaldie (Kinnaldie is in the parish 
of St. Viglaus ; the laird was probably a Ren- 
nald) ; Rob. Kyll, W.S. ; James Linton, mer- 
chant; Geo. Livingstone; Geo. Marshall; Wil- 
liam Masman; John Morrison, writer; James, 
Earl of Morton (sixth earl) ; Robert Murray, 



3* d S. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



merchant ; James Nasmyth in Posso (no doubt 
the " Deil of Dawick," father of Sir James, first 
baronet of Posso) ; John Oliphant ; the Laird of 
Prestoungrange (Morrison of Prestoungrange, in 
Haddingtonshire); Mr. Duncan Robertson (sheriff- 
clerk of Argyll; he married Alison, youngest 
daughter of James Aitkin, Bishop of Moray and 
Galloway, who died 1687) ; Mr. Patrick Smyth, 
advocate, and Anna Rutherford, his wife, relict 
of James (Aitkin), Bishop of Galloway (see 
" N. & Q." 3 rd S. viii. 533). Was this Patrick 
Sir James Stansfield's brother-in-law ? Unfortu- 
nately at this date there was another Mr. Patrick 
Smyth, advocate, who married Lillias, daughter 
of Bishop Aitkin. This was Patrick Smyth of 
Rapness, in Orkney, a cousin of Patrick Smyth 
of Braco in Perthshire, now represented by Wil- 
liam Smythe of Methven Castle. He was also of 
Burruine or Burwane, in the parish of Culross, 
and had a house on the south side of the Castle- 
hill of Edinburgh ; and had been Commissary- 
principal of Wigton from 1682 to 1687. Both he 
and his wife Lillias were dead before 1723, 
leaving Archibald, Ann, and Lillias, who married 
one George Cheyne, surgeon in Leith. Any in- 
formation as to the descent of the first Patrick will 
be esteemed a very great favour. There were 
other two Patrick Smyths of the Braco family, 
probably also living at this time, both nephews of 
Patrick' the laird of Braco, viz. Patrick, son of 
John Smyth of Huip, in Orkney ; and Patrick, 
son of Alexander Smyth of Strynzie in Orkney, 
and Isobel Gladstones his wife, born 1665. (Re- 
gisters of Edinburgh.) Robert Sharpe ; Mr. 
A ndrew Smyth, doctor at .... (undecipherable) ; 
Alexander Thomson; Thomas Thomson, student 
in divinity; Patrick Tailziefer; and Thomas 
Young, tailor. 

Debts were owing to the deceased by the fol- 
lowing persons : Mr. William Bullo, " person " 
of Stobo; Alexander Campbell, merchant (he 
was one of the persons present in Morhame church 
when Philip Stansfield assisted to raise his father's 
body) ; John and Lawrence Gellitie ; Robert 
Haly burton; Patrick Johnston; William Men- 
zies; Mr. Robert Smyth, minister (this may 
have been Mr. Robert of Manor, mentioned above, 
or Mr. Robert, minister of the parish of Long- 
formacus, near Dunse : I should much like to 
discover which) ; and Alexander Wood, brewer. 

Mention is made in the testament of a legacy 
to the defunct by the deceased Charles Smyth, 
probably an uncle or near kinsman. 

To return now to the eldest son, William, who 
carried on the line of the family. There appears 
to be no doubt that it is the entry of his birth 
which is torn out of the register of Innerleithen ; 
for circ. 1675, he receives a grant of arms from 
the 'Lord Lyon of Scotland, being described in 
the grant as'" son to the deceast Mr. James Smith, 



minister at Ethelston Kirk." The arms are, 
" Azur, a book expanded, proper, between three 
flames of fire, or ; all within a bordure engrailed 
argent, charged with mullets and cross-crosslets 
of the first. The arms of the family of Braco, 
" Azure, a burning cup between two chess-rooks 
fessways, or," were granted about the same date. 
About 1686, William married Jean Todrig, 
daughter of James Todrig, indweller in New- 
bottle, afterwards of Edgefield (qy. where is 
this ?) and Margaret Syme his wife ; and had the 
following children (from the Edinburgh re- 
gister) : 

1. Margaret, 1687 ; baptized by Mr. Alexander 
Ramsay ; witnesses, Mr. William Smyth, minister; 
Mr. George Smyth, at Daick Kirk (see supra) : 
Mr. Patrick Smyth, advocate (which of them ?) 
and James Todrig. (William Smyth, minister, 
was no doubt William, parson of Moneydie in 
Perthshire, brother of Patrick Smyth of Braco : 
he also married a daughter of Bishop Aitkin.) 

2. James, 1689 ; witnesses, Mr. Duncan Robert- 
son (son-in-law of Bishop Aitkin, see supra) ; 
David Plenderleath of Blyth (in Peeblesshire) ; 
Andrew Aitkin, and James Todrig of Edgefield. 

3. Jean, 1691; same witnesses. 

4. Marion, 1699; witnesses, Mr. Duncan 
Robertson ; Mr. John Plenderleath (a brother of 
Mr. David's above ; he died at Dalkeith, in 1728) ; 
and John Henrie, Cordiner. 

It appears highly probable, from the way the 
two families seem to have been mixed up, that 
this Peeblesshire family of Smyth was a branch of 
the family of Braco in Perthshire. A satisfactory 
identification of the two " Patrick Smyths, ad*- 
vocates," will throw much light on the question ; 
and it would be interesting to determine which 
of them was Sir James's brother-in-law, both for 
genealogical considerations, and on account of the 
horrible rumours afloat respecting Lady Stans- 
field at the time of the murder. 

James Smyth of Innerleithen and Eddlestone 
appears to have had brothers or cousins, as under, 
for he baptizes some of their children, and ap- 
pears to have been otherwise mixed up with them. 
(See Register of Peebles, 1660-80) : 

1. Thomas Smyth, town clerk of Peebles : his 
wife was Isobel Todrig ; and their son John was 
served heir to his father in 1677. (Retours.) 

2. John Smyth, dean of guild of Peebles. 

3. Another Thomas Smyth, whose wife's name 
was Margaret Turnbull, and who left 

i. Thomas, served heir 1699, as "Thomas 
Smyth generosus vir, filius nat. mat. et haer. 
Thomae Smyth quondam lanionis in Peeblis." 

n. Robert, 1662. (What became of him?) 

in. Barbara, 1665. 

This last Thomas appears to have been twice 
married, his second wife being one Margaret 
Aitkins. 



30 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'*S.XII. JULY 13, '67. 



Sir James Stansfield came from Yorkshire. 
Was he one of the Stansfields of Stansfield in 
that country? (See Pedigree, Harl. MS. No. 
4630.) When young he was secretary to General 
Morgan, but soon after took to trade and married 
a Scotch lady. Philip the parricide was sent to 
college at Saint Andrews. He was of age, and 
married, in 1680-82 ; and before 1687 had been 
a soldier abroad, and in several prisons. As early 
as 1683, he attempted his father's life. John, the 
second son, was also an " evil youth." Sir James 
had a nephew named James Mitchell, aged twenty 
at the time of the murder ; wanted, his mother's 
name. 

Any information relative to the Stansfields or 
Smyths will be thankfully received by me, if 
addressed care of the Publisher of "N. & Q." 

F. M. S. 



THE PALJBOIP6L 

(3 rd S. xi. 485.) 

After a careful investigation, I have come to 
the conclusion that the report that descendants 
of this illustrious Byzantine family are at present 
existing in Cornwall, and Cargreen near Ply- 
mouth, earning a miserable existence as miners 
and bargemen, is as groundless as the claims 
(see Morning Star, February 6, 1863,) of a W. T. 
Palseologus, medical officer in the English army, 
and some others in different parts of Europe, who 
boast of such imperial descent without, as it can 
clearly be proved, their having had any just claim 
to that distinction. 

What gave rise to such assertions in England, 
I am at a loss to imagine most probably the 
small brass tablet * fixed against the wall in the 
parish church of Landulph, to the memory of 
Theodore Palaeologus, whose English marriage 
with Marjr Balls, it may be worth noting while 
on the subject, according to the ecclesiastical and 
civil laws of the Byzantine empire, was illegal. 

The name of Palseologus,t though rare in 



* Have any of your antiquarian readers examined per- 
sonally this tablet ? And if so, did they conclude from 
its vetustity that it was really erected at the time of the 
death of Theodore Palaeologus ? The non-mention in it 
of the name of his first wife and daughter (" N. & Q.," 
3 rd S. vii. 506), and the nonconformity in the date of his 
death, which according to the inscription took place the 
21st of January, 1636, with the entry of his burial in 
the Landulph registry book, a copy of which was dis- 
covered by the Rev. F. Vyvyan Jago, deposited of the 
room of the archives in Exeter Cathedral, and from 
which we learn that he was buried the 20th day of Octo- 
ber, 1636, or rather 1637 as, from the mode of calculat- 
ing in use at that time, the year commenced at Lady 
Day (Archeeologia, vol. xviii. p. 92), give grounds to 
suspect its erection, near the mortal remains of Palaeo- 
logus, to be more recent. 

^ t During the reigns of King Charles I. and II., many 
Greeks came over to England from Italy and Spain 



England, is very common amongst the Greeks, as 
well as those of Cantacuzene, Comnenus, Ducas, 
Phocas, &c., without anyone imagining their 
bearers to be descendants of the emperors who 
bore them. 

The frequency of these ancient names of extinct 
illustrious families of the lower empire arose from 
the vanity of the Phanariots traitors of their 
emperor, and cause of the fall of Constantinople 
christening their children with them ; who, after 
the lapse of years, either dropped their vulgar 
surname, substituting the illustrious one given to 
them in baptism and so a Deme'trius Comnenus 
Stephanoupolos became Deme'trius Comnenus or 
simply changed their position, as for instance 
Demetrius Stephanopoulos Comnenus. 

I conclude, observing that the anecdote men- 
tioned by Sir Robert Schomburgk in his History 
of JBarbadoes, that during the last conflict for 
Grecian independence and deliverance from the 
Turkish yoke, a letter was received from the 
provisional government at Athens, addressed to 
the authorities in Barbadoes, inquiring whether 
a male branch of the Palseologi was still existing 
in the island, and conveying the request that, if 
such were the case, he should be provided with 
the means of returning to Greece, and the govern- 
ment would, if required, pay all the expenses of 
the voyage is merely an anecdote and nothing 
more, no such letter ever having been written. 

RHODOCANAKIS. 



ABBESSES AS CONFESSORS. 
(3 rd S. xi. 516.) 

An abbess cannot exercise " ecclesiastica et spi- 
ritalia munera, quibus earn sexus ineptam reddit. 
(Ludov. Richard, Analysis Concilior., torn, iii., sub 
voce " Abbatissa." 

Abbesses are forbidden 1. " Benedictiones im- 
pertiri cum manus impositione; et 2. Signaculo 
sanctaecrucis." (Aquisgranense, "Aix-la-Cbapelle," 
capitular e i. an. 789.) Both are required from a 
confessor. 

They cannot even select a priest to hear the 
confessions of their nuns without the authorisa- 
tion of their superiors. In fact, they possess no 
spiritual jurisdiction whatever "quia nulla cla- 
viuin potestate gaudent." (L. Richard, loc. cit.) 

Priests only can hear confessions, says the Coun- 
cil of Trent; such is, according to that famous 
assembly, " perpetua Ecclesise praxis et traditio, 
seu universorum patrum consensus." (Condi. Tri- 
dent, sess. xiv. c. 1.) 



("N. & Q.," 3 rd S. iii. 172), amongst -whom were some 
bearing the name of Palaeologus, of course not related to 
the imperial family. This must account for the occasional 
entries of that name in the registry books of the parishes 
of St. Katharine Tower, London, St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, 
c. ; also of its mention elsewhere. 



3'd S. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



31 



St. Ambrose says, " Jus absolvendi solis per- 
missum est sacerdotibus." (Lib. I. De Pcenit. 
c. 2.) We find the same doctrine maintained by 
Cyprian (lib. De Lapsis), Chrysostom (De Saccr- 
dotio, iii. 5) ; Jerome (Epist. I. ad Heliodorum) ; 
Augustin (Epist. 128) ; Leo (Epist. 82), &c. 

The following canon of the Council of Nar- 
bonne, in France, 1609, seems sufficiently ex- 
plicit : 

" Ad fidelium confessiones audiendas nullus, siye saecu- 
laris, sive regularis sacerdos sit, aut quacunquedignitate, 
vel auctoritate fulgeat, admittatur, nisi qui per Episco- 
pum .... fuerit approbatus ; . . . . cum alias non sit 
absolvere, sed confitentern decipere ; excepto mortis peri- 
culo, in quo quilibet sacerdos vere pcenitentem potest ab 
omnibus peccatis absolvere." Concil. Narbonense, De 
FcenitentitE Sacramento, cap. 16. 

A very learned French theologian, 1'Abbe C. 
BandeviUe, says : 

"La plupart des regies monastiques, celles de saint 
Benoit, de saint Colomban, de saint Basile, &c., pour 
mieux inculquer 1'obeissance et 1'humilite, assujetis- 
saient les religieux a faire tous les jours leur examen de 
conscience, en presence de leurs superieurs, h leur de- 
couvrir ce qui se passait dans leur ame, et a se soumettre 
aveuglement a leurs decisions. Cette pratique a pu 
etre appelee confession, parce qu'elle demande aussi des 
aveux ; mais elle n'a jamais ete confondue avec la con- 
fession sacramentelle, et n'a jaroais fait partie du sacre- 
ment de penitence. Ce n'est done que dans ce sens qu'on doit 
entendre ce qui a ete dit que des abbesses auraient eu la 
permission d'entendre les confessions de leurs religieuses." 
Diction, de la Conversat. Paris, 1853 ; art. " Confession." 

A. D. F. 



Martene says that the abbesses in early times 
exercised some of the spiritual functions of the 
priesthood, and even confessed their nuns. This 
practice, having led to various inconveniences, 
was suppressed. Bingham (Antiq. b. vii. c. 3, 
s. 13), referring to the statement in the Saxon 
Chronicle, that abbesses were present at the coun- 
cil held at Becancelde or Baccancelde in 694, 
remarks : 

" It is justly noted by learned men as a new thing to 
find abbesses, as well as abbots, subscribing in the Coun- 
cil of Becancelde in Kent, anno 694, and that before both 
presbyters and temporal lords, as the author of the Saxon 
Chronicle reports it. For this is the first time we meet 
with any such thing in the records of the ancient 
church." 

I have before mentioned in "N. & Q." (3 rd S. 
xi. 277) that in Fosbroke's British Monachism, 
p. 292, a drawing from the Louterell Psalter is 
given representing an abbess holding her staff in 
the right hand, and giving the benediction ivith the 
left. Is not this a unique instance ? 

X PlGGOT, JUST. 



THE CHEVALIER D'ASSAS. 
(3 rd S. xi. 34; xii. 12.) 

In my first article on D'Assas I have repro- 
duced the popular version of the Klostercamp 



affair, and while so doing have tried to explain it 
as much as was in my power. Afterwards I have 
reported the official one. Between the two tales 
there is no material difference. I now shall have 
to examine the testimonies on which ulterior and 
entirely distinct accounts have been founded. 
Some have questioned the Chevalier d'Assas's 
heroic deed altogether, because of a passage which 
occurs in Grimm's inedited memoirs. 1 must not 
forget to state that these memoirs are very sus- 
picious, and are generally taken for apocryphal. 
I have read that no one can produce the original 
manuscript. I am not in a position to verify that 
assertion ; besides, here is not the place to settle 
that matter. As an impartial j udge I must regis- 
ter all the evidence of the case, whether suspicious 
or not. All I can do is to evince my individual 
opinion on the probable and improbable sides of 
the question ; the ultimate decision must be left to 
the grand jury the public at large. 

I transcribe word for word the passage in 
Grimm's memoirs referred to : 

" J'e'tais au camp de Rhinberg le jour du combat si 
connu par le deVouement d'un militaire francais. Le 
mot sublime, A moi, Auvergne, ce so?it les ennemis ! ap- 
partient au valeureux Dubois, sergent de ce regiment ; 
mais, par une erreur presque inevitable dans un jour de 
bataille, ce mot fut attribue a un jeune officier nomme 
d'Assas. M. de Castries le crut comme tant d'autres ; 
mais quand, apres ce combat, il eut force" le prince here- 
ditalre & repasser le Rhin et a lever le siege de Wesel, 
des renseignements positifs apprirent que le Chevalier 
d'Assas n'e'tait pas entre' seul dans le bois, mais accom- 
pagne de Dubois, sergent de la compagnie. Ce fut celui-ci 
qui cria A nous, etc. Le chevalier fut blesse en meme 
temps, mais il n'expira pas sous le coup, comme Dubois ; 
et une foule de temoins affirmerent k M. de Castries que 
cet officier avait souvent re'pete a ceux qui le transpor- 
taient au camp : Enfants, ce n'est pas moi qui ait crie, c'est 
Dubois. A mon retour a Paris, on ne parlait que du 
beau trait du Chevalier d'Assas, et il n'etait pas plus 
question de Dubois que s'il n'eut jamais existe. Je ne pus 
convaincre personne," etc. 

Now, first of all, I find it very curious that M. 
de Castries, being so well acquainted with the 
facts of the case, did not offer any opposition at 
all to the letters patent of 1777 rewarding the 
chevalier's family. On the contrary, I read in the 
letter of the Baron d'Assas, mentioned by me in, 
the first article : 

"M. de Castries ne vit pas sans doute avec plaisir 
sortir du sein de 1'oubli une action qui ternissait un peu 
1'eclat de la sienne. La demande de la jonction du nom de 
Clostercamp au mien ne 1'amusa pas davantage ; mais 
j'en recus deshonnetetes. 77 en fit meme de marquees a 
monfils le chevalier, dans son voyage a Brest, et en presence 
de tout le corps de la marine.'" 

Well, how is this ? It would have been quite 
natural, if M. de Castries had protested against an 
undeserved honour being conferred on D'Assas's 
family. I do not for a moment believe that a 
military man of reputation, like M. de Castries, 
would have liked to share the honours of a glo- 
rious engagement with a fictitious hero. But, I 



32 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S . XII. JULY 13, '67. 



ask it once more, if it was his interest to tell the 
truth according to Grimm, why then did he not 
do so ? If he knew the exact details of the case, 
why did he not publish them, were it even only 
to redress the wrong done to Dubois ? Grimm 
says : 

" A mon retour a Paris, on ne parlait que du beau 
trait du Chevalier d'Assas, et il n'dtait pas plus question 
de Dubois que s'il n'eut jamais existe," &c. 

No, I think that I have established the fact, 
that people in Paris at that time neither talked 
about D'Assas nor about Dubois. The Gazette de 
France merely mentions the chevalier's name 
among the fallen, and misspells it. Voltaire re- 
cords his heroic deed for the first time in his 
Precis du regne de Louis XVI, which was pub- 
lished in 1769. Mind, that at the same time he de- 
clares in the most positive manner that he learned 
D'Assas's extraordinary death long after it had 
occurred. This is, I should say, perfectly opposed 
to Grimm's statements. But then also I should 
be glad to learn his motives for not making 
generally known the circumstances of the event, 
such as he alleges to have witnessed them. If 
it was his conviction that Dubois, and not D'Assas, 
merited the title of "hero of Klostercamp," why 
then did he not express this conviction publicly ? 
These various important contradictions in Grimm's 
memoirs induce me to think that they ought 
not to be taken as an authority in the pending 
question. 

The same version of the affair is to be found in 
the memoirs of Lombard de Langres, who was 
Dutch ambassador at the French court during the 
Directoire. (Perhaps Grimm has gathered his 
details from this source.) Lombard published 
his work in 1823. He states (vol. i. p. 230 and 
following) that his father, who filled the place of 
sergeant-major in Auvergne, told him several 
times very positively that D'Assas did not go quite 
alone to watch the enemy in the wood, that 
Dubois accompanied him, 'that it was he who 
shouted " A nous Auvergne," &c., and that after- 
wards D'Assas had time before he died for nobly 
testifying in favour of his companion. Here, at 
least, we do not read about the presence of M. de 
Castries, who interferes in so unlucky a manner in 
Grimm's narrative. I believe Lombard to be 
bona fide : he says (and I fully agree with him 
there) that he could not see the use of his father 
uttering a continual falsehood, for the mere plea- 
sure of lying. He finally tells us : 

" J'ai hesite a rendre ce fait public. J'ai prie un ami, 
M. Cre'tu, employe' au ministere de la guerre, de faire 
toutes les recherches possibles pour savoir s'il ne decou- 
vrirait point sur les registres du temps quelque indice qui 
put jeter du jour sur un fait si remarquable : ses soins 
ont e'te infructueux ; ces registres sont muets. Enfin i'ai 
cru devoir parler." 

No doubt Lombard's account has a certain 



stamp of veracity j but it is, I believe, not at all 
superfluous, and only fair, to state that the Dutch 
ambassador was, above all, notorious for his being 
an anecdotier, as the French call it. He liked to 
compile such matters as Contes militaires, Anec- 
dotes secretes, Niaiseries historiques, &c. Some 
of his assertions brought him into serious trouble. 
He was once, for instance, compelled by Field- 
marshal Lefebvre to disavow himself concerning 
certain details which he alleged to hold from his 
(Lefebvre's) own mouth. 

^ The Bibliophile Beige (vol. iii. p. 130) has fur- 
nished another version. According to this en- 
tirely different one, D'Assas shouted "Tirez, 
Auvergne, c'est 1'ennemi," after Dubois had done 
the same, and was deadly wounded, in the darkness 
of the night, by his own gens de piquet. 

At last I find, in the Memoires de Dumouriez 
(edited by MM. Berville and Barriere), a note 
in which the learned editors, after having men- 
tioned the chevalier's heroic act, go on as fol- 
lows : 

" On regrette que les Memoires de Rochambeau 
[which were published two years after the death of the 
field-marshal, in the year 1809] jettent, avec quelque 
apparence de fondement, des doutes sur la realite' d'une 
si belle action." 

Rochambeau was colonel of the Auvergne regi- 
ment when the engagement near Klostercamp 
took place ; so, of course, he was in a position to 
know things best. In referring to his memoirs, 

I find the following (vol. i. p. 162) : - 

" Je dois a la ve'rite, dont j'ai toujours fait profession, 
de detailler ici le trait connu du Chevalier d'Assas dans 
toute son exactitude. Charpentier, caporal des chasseurs, 
fut le premier qui de'couvrit 1'ennemi dans cette nuit 
tres-noire ; il me rnena sur cette colonne, qui fit feu sur 
nous. Je revins aux grenadiers et chasseurs, je leur 
ordonnai de faire feu par demi-compagnie alteruative- 
ment, et surtout de perir a leur poste plutot que de 
1'abandonner, en attendant 1'arrivee de la brigade. 
D'Assas, un des capitaines de chasseurs, place a 1'extre- 
mite de Paile gauche de ce bataillon, fut attaque et se 
defendait vigoureusement. Un officier lui criant qu'il 
tirait sur ses propres gens, il sortit du rang, reconnut 
1'ennemi et cria : ' Tirez, chasseurs, ce sont les ennemis ! ' 

II fut crible' de coups de ba'ionnette, et voua ainsi a sa 
patrie le sacrifice de sa vie avec cet he'roisme qui a e'te' si 
justement celebrc." 

It is quite true that the chevalier does not play 
as prominent a part in this narrative as in the 
others, but still his deed remains a praiseworthy 
and noble sacrifice. 

Thus, according to the above clear and probable 
account of the event, D'Assas left the ranks of his 
regiment in order to examine the position of the 
enemy ; as a gallant officer he did it himself, and 
was killed before he could rejoin his soldiers. 
Perhaps Dubois was with him. It is even very 
likely that an officer should take some one with 
him in such a case. That D'Assas's act should 
be remembered, and Dubois's deed if any there 






3"i S. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



33 



has been should be forgotten, nobody has a right 
to be astonished at. It is a well-known fact that 
in olden times, and up to the French revolution of 
1789, the illustrious actions of the plebeians did 
not count; those of the nobility only were re- 
corded and rewarded. If Dubois has really been 
a hero, his heroism will for ever be lost in the 
obscurity which surrounds the Klostercamp affair ; 
but D'Assas cannot be deprived of his glorious 
attribute, that is quite certain. His noble sacri- 
fice is a fact, but a fact altered and embellished 
by poetical and imaginary details in the popular 
as well as in the official version. So D'Assas did 
not go to watch the enemy in a wood, for the 
simple reason that there was no wood in the 
neighbourhood of Klostercamp. Between the 
Auvergne regiment, which formed the extremity 
of the left wing, and the canal of Rheinberg, 
there were only a few hedges and a heath. Be- 
sides, the most elementary knowledge of strategy 
would tell us that an army does not encamp near 
a wood without occupying it, at least by outposts. 
The measures of M. de Castries were perfectly 
sound : the French army was in a good position, 
covered by a vanguard of 3000 men at Rheinberg, 
by advanced posts on the canal, and by a division 
which had taken possession of the abbey of Camp 
on the other side of the canal. It is true that the 
French were on the point of being overtaken by 
the enemy : the Germans had surrounded silently 
the abbey of Camp, and driven in some of the out- 
posts; but, says Rochambeau, "ces premieres fusil- 
lades suffirent pour donner 1'alarme." The com- 
bat was progressing when D'Assas's death oc- 
curred ; there is not the slightest doubt left about 
that. All the brigades were fighting, or ready to 
do so, at a moment's notice. Thus, that brave 
officer could not well have saved the army, " en 
1'empechant d'etre surprise ;" for there was no 
surprise, it was no longer possible. The following 
words of the official account, therefore, contain 
an evident and monstrous exaggeration : " L'armee 
va perir si elle ignore le danger qui 1'a menace." 
And the "environne de baionettes pretes a le 
percer, il peut acheter sa vie par son silence," is 
also obviously a licentia poetica. Nobody has 
seen or told that. Dubois and D'Assas were dead, 
and the only witnesses who could have testified 
to it consisted of the German soldiers who put 
them to death. They have never been examined, 
as far as I know ; and even if they had, it is not 
at all likely that they would have recollected or 
even understood D'Assas's exclamation ; for a 
common German soldier (in those days especially) 
must not be presumed to know foreign languages. 
In concluding this inevitably long article, I 
must add, that the successful result of the engage- 
ment near Klostercamp, for the French, was not 
only due to the personal intrepidity of D'Assas 
(which, however valuable it may have been from 



a moral point of view, could not have any ma- 
terial influence on the ultimate issue), but also 
to the talent of their officers, to the valour of 
their troops, and last, though not least, to the 
many heroic deeds of their soldiers, which in a 
battle remain almost always unknown. The 
Auvergne regiment alone lost fifty-eight out of 
eighty officers, and 800 men killed and wounded. 
The other divisions of the army fought with the 
same bravery, and sustained equally heavy losses. 
I end with a quotation from Jules Simon, con- 
taining a universal and everlasting truth : 

" Les hommes aiment naturellement tout ce qui vient 
du coeur, tout ce qui est grand, tout ce qui eT)louit, et 
meme tout ce qui est etrange. Une action hero'ique, 
ou siraplement un acte de ge'nerosite', les emeut infail- 
liblement et provoque leur enthousiasme. Us voient ces 
actions ; ils ne voient pas la justice dans le cceur du juste. 
Soyez D'Assas, et votre nom sera immortel pour un 
moment de courage sublime. Mais Aristide, si le sort ne 
le place pas a la tete de la re'publique, peut n'emporter 
au tombeau qu'une froide estime." 

Amsterdam. H. TlEDEMAN. 



TOOTH-SEALING. 
(3 rd S. x. 391; xi. 450, 491, 523.) 

The doubt of ANGLO-SCOTTJS whether this prac- 
tice ever existed may be removed by reference to 
the Rev. E. H. Dashwood's Sigilla Antigua 
(Second Series), where, in plate 1, will be found 
a representation of " The impression of the teeth 
on the wax, in place of seal, of Agnes, the daugh- 
ter of Agnes, the daughter of William Fiz of 
Fyncham, to a deed by which she enfeoffs Adam 
de Fyncham, in one acre and three roods there, 
s. d. temp. Edw. II." 

This would, however, be the resource only of 
people of inferior rank, and who were actually 
unprovided with a seal : for the same collection, 
derived from the muniments of Sir Thomas Hare ; 
Bart, of Stowe-Bardolph, shows how very cus- 
tomary it was for persons to use any seals of 
which they had become possessed, at second- 
hand, even if bearing the names and arms of their 
former (original) owners. At an earlier date the 
humblest parties who required seals for the trans- 
fer of lands, had them engraved in lead with a 
flower or other simple device, surrounded by their 
name. For a remarkable series see the deeds of 
the parish of Arlesey, in Bedfordshire, described 
in the Collectanea Topog, et Genealogica. 

The rhyming charters attributed to William 
the Conqueror, John of Gaunt, and others are, of 
course, mediaeval pleasantries ; but it may be re- 
marked, with regard to that printed in p. 524, that 
in the line 

" To me that art both Line and Dear," 
there is an obvious error in the word " Line," 
which should be "Hue" or "lieve," an old word 
nearly synonymous with " dear." The name 



34 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. JULY 13, '67. 



"Marode " is evidently a misreading for "Mawde; " 
but whether Miss Strickland be correct in inter- 
preting "Jugg" as Judith, I am not satisfied. 
The line 

" Give to the Norman Hunter " 

means, " I William the King give to thee, Nor- 
man Hunter, who art so lieve and dear," &c. j and 
so in the first line also, " the " means thee. 

There is a place named Hope Baggot, not many 
miles from Hopton-in-the-Hole, otherwise called 
Hopton Cangeford, in Shropshire. Whether 
these were the places intended by the rhymes I 
cannot determine, nor do I know whether Mr. 
Eyton has condescended to notice this apocry- 
phal charter in his History of Shropshire. I agree 
with ANGLO-SCOTUS that Hope and Hopton have 
been engrafted on the verses, which originally be- 
longed to Ettrick Dale and the banks of Yarrow. 

J. G. N. 

"CONSPICUOUS BY ITS ABSENCE" (3 rd S. xi. 438, 
508.) This phrase occurs in Lord J. Russell's 
address to the electors of the city of London, 
dated April 6, 1859, soliciting re-election. Allud- 
ing to Lord Derby's Reform Bill which had just 
been defeated, he writes : 

" Among the defects of the Bill, which were numerous, 
one provision was conspicuous by its presence, and one by 
its absence." 

In the course of a speech delivered at a meet- 
ing of Liberal electors at the London Tavern, 
April 15, he justified his use of the words thus: 

" It has been thought that by a misnomer or a ' bull ' 
on my part I alluded to it as ' a provision conspicuous by 
its absence,' a turn of phraseology which is not an origi- 
nal expression of mine, but is taken from one of the 
greatest historians of antiquity." F. 

JUNIUS AND DR. JOHNSON (3 rd S. xi. 444.) I 
quite agree with your correspondent that the 
sooner Sir Philip Francis is acknowledged, by 
general consent, to have been an " unmitigated 

" (qu. impostor) the better for the credit of 

political investigation and literary criticism in 
this country. But how the discussion, with merited 
contempt, of the hypothesis first broached some 
fifty years after Junms had ceased to write, and 
favoured, we are told, by the silly octogenarian, 
can tend to accelerate the appearance of Junius 
in proprid persona is beyond all reasonable appre- 
hension. 

In Croker's Bosioell (p. 122, 1 vol. edition, 1859) 
it is stated on the authority of Mrs. Piozzi's Anec- 
dotes, that " he (Johnson) delighted his imagination 
with the thought of having destroyed Junius." 

Is there any other evidence to support the notion 
that the " mighty boar of the forest " was terrified 
into silence by the Johnsonian thunder in the False 
Alarm ? or can you specify any commentator of 
Junius who has attributed to the pamphlet the 
cessation of the Letters ? Mr. Prior, I am aware, 



considers that his hypothesis of the disputed au- 
:horship is in some degree fortified by the pro- 
bable unwillingness of Burke to retort upon John- 
sonnamely, on the score of friendship ; but that 
[ suppose gives no colour to the assertion, that 
the anonymous writer felt himself to have been 
destroyed in other words, worsted in the encoun- 
ter of sarcasm and invective 

" Snuffed out by an article," 

which certainly was not the case. 

The inquiry was surely a very narrow one to 
the contemporaries of Junius. Who had been 
specially aggrieved by the ministers principally 
assailed? and, in that class, what individual 
could have been singled among the number by 
the mark of intellectual competency? There 
were not "six Richmonds in the field." We 
might as well believe that any contemporary of 
Shakespeare (" whose magic could not copied 
be ") could have written Macbeth, as that several 
opponents of the Grafton administration could 
have wielded the pen of " Junius." Besides, the 
mere discord of opinion, the " non idem sentire de 
Republica," could scarcely, in the political war- 
fare of those times, have instigated the use of 
such envenomed weapons. The bitterness of per- 
sonal hatred, the sense of intolerable wrong, are 
conspicuous throughout. 

" The satire point, and animate the page." 

Bishop Markham, an early friend and patron of 
Burke (resentful, no doubt, of the aggravated 
calumnies on his firm patron, the Duke of Graf- 
ton), taxed him, almost in direct terms, with 
the authorship of "Junius" telling him that 
his house was a "nest of adders." 

It is remarkable that the long and elaborate 
reply (fifty pages) was never communicated to the 
right reverend accuser, and that we find no posi- 
tive denial on the part of Burke of the imputed 
slanders. Yet the piece is finished with* all the 
force of his genius ; indeed, it may be said that 
no other essay of his pen exhibits in a more un- 
qualified degree, the astonishing power of the 
writer. For the suppression of this letter, the 
only assignable reason, in my judgment, is that 
it lacked the " one thing need/id" the disavowal 
of any share in the production of the " Letters." 

On a reperusal of them (having given many 
days and nights in the interval, to the pages of 
Burke) I am struck with coincidences of thought, 
diction, and even cadence, such as seem to con- 
duct to only one conclusion, namely, that Johnson 
narrowed the question with his usual force of 
discrimination, when he remarked that he " knew 
of no other man than Burke capable of writing 
those letters." Burke admitted to Sir Joshua 
Reynolds that he knew the author,* thereby con- 



[* What evidence is there of this ? ED. " N. & Q."] 



XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



35 



'rovertinff the assertion of the writer (in his dedi- 
3ation), 'that " he was the sole depositary of his 
secret, and that it would die with him " con- 
tradicting it, that is, unless he referred to himself. 
Your space would not allow the setting forth 
of parallel passages ; but on reading Burke, you 
will often come upon single sentences which have 
a familiar sound. As in music, the air is taken j 
but it is a repetition by the same composer. 

L. 

INSCRIPTIONS ON ANGELTTS BELLS (3 rd S. xi. 
410, 531.) 

qttotf = q;uatf). " In God is all, quoth Gabriel." 
See St. Luke, i. 37. 

J. T. F. 

CHURCHES WITH THATCHED ROOFS (3 rd S. xi. 
517.) Your correspondent states that the roof of i 
the church of Little Melton, Norfolk, is thatched, 
and asks if it is unique. This kind of roofing is 
by no means uncommon, and prevails in Norfolk, 
Suffolk, and in a few churches in Cambridgeshire 
and Lincolnshire. The following are examples: 
Norfolk, S. Margaret, Paston ; S. Peter, Bidlington ; 
S. Nicholas, Swafield ; S. Ethelred, Norwich ; S. 
Michael, Ormesby, and Belton. Suffolk, S. An- 
drew, Garleston ; Pakefield ; Gisleham, and Kirt- 
ley. Lincolnshire, S. Margaret, Somersby, near 
Horncastle. JOHN PIGGOT, JUN. 

Thatched churches are by no means uncommon 
in Norfolk, although I know of none covered in j 
like way in any other county. In the next 
parish to Little Melton, Marlingford, the church 
roof is thatched. I could give a dozen instances 
of thatched churches, if I had the good fortune 
to be in that county just now, but I do not like to j 
speak at hap-hazard. The chancel of Horning 
church is, I know, thatched. The custom of 
thatching has doubtless arisen from the ease with 
which reeds are procured in the great marshes 
which even now form so marked a feature in the 
county. The beams supporting the chancel roof j 
at Little Melton are arranged like those of a 
common barn, but those of the nave are placed | 
together in a way which is very effective in an j 
architectural point of view. Instead of being 
shaped like the letter A, they are arranged in a ! 
figure somewhat like that of the " pons asinorum" 
in Euclid. There are faint traces of painting, too, | 
on some of the beams in the nave at 'Little ' 
Melton. C. W. BARKLEY. | 

The old church of Rigsby, near Alford, Lin- 
colnshire, which was rebuilt in 18G3, afforded an 
example of the above-named roof ; and I believe j 
that CUTHBERT BEDE would find one still existing 
at Markby in the same neighbourhood. J. T. M. ! 

Common "in Norfolk and Suffolk, and the j 
northern parts of Cambridgeshire." Handbook of \ 
English Ecclesiology , 1847. The choir of Sher- j 



borne was once thatched. ( Gentleman 's Magazine, 
Sept. 1865, p. 337.) I think I have heard of two or 
three thatched churches in Lincolnshire, but they 
may have been il restored." J. T. F. 

IRON HAND (3 rd S. xi. 49G.) It is stated in 
Scott's Border Antiquities of England and Scotland, 
vol. ii. p. 206, that the 'family of Clephane of 
Carslogie 

have been in possession, time immemorial, of a hand made 
in the exact imitation of that of a man, curiously formed 
of steel. This is said to have been conferred by one of 
the kings of Scotland, along with other more valuable 
marks of his favour, on the laird of Carslogie, who had 
lost his hand in the service of his country." 

An engraving of this interesting relic is given. 
EDWARD PEACOCK. 

The iron hand of the valorous Gotz von Ber- 
lichingen, of the sixteenth century, immortalized 
by Goethe, is preserved at Jaxthausen, near Heil- 
bronn. A duplicate is in the celebrated Schloss 
at Erbach in the Odenwald, famous for its antique 
armour. This extraordinary character died 1562 
at Hornberg Castle, near Mosbach, some short 
distance from Heidelberg, now the property of 
the Gemmingen family, who are Freiherrn or 
Barons ; and here, with a collection of family por- 
traits, late mediaeval weapons, &c., is the complete 
suit of armour of Gotz von Berlichingen at the 
farmhouse, " die volstandige Riistung Gotzens." 
This castle is in the village of Neckarzimmern. 
Here he married, in 1518, Dorothea Gailing, and 
wrote his own life. The castle, it may be in- 
teresting to know, was a fief of Spire, and Gotz 
became possessed of it by purchase after the 
raiibritter (robber knight), Kiintz of Schottestein, 
was beheaded by the Schwabian Bund or Con- 
federacy, being the previous proprietor. The 
MSS. o'f Gotz are preserved among the archives 
of the town of Heilbronn. COURTOIS. 

" To SLAIT " (3 rd S. xi. 520.) A short time 
since, being out rabbiting with my keeper, on 
crossing a field we found several wires set, when 
my man remarked, "I know whose these are; 
he allows to slait this piece for himself." And 
I found he meant that the poacher named con- 
sidered that ground his own, and would look on 
any other poacher as a trespasser. This meaning 
seems to differ from that given ut sttpra. 

E. V. 

JEFWELLIS (3 rd S. xi. 355.) This word is evi- 
dently a corruption of diabhol (the d pronounced 
in the original like/, and bh exactly like v), which 
is the Gaelic name for devil. The statement of 
Lord Argyle's men, as quoted by your correspon- 
dent, when they speak of " the malice and device 
of those jefwellis," just means the malice and de- 
vice of those devils. The Scotch etymologists to 
whom your correspondent refers Jamieson and 
Laing were but little acquainted with the Celtic 



36 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3" S. XII. JULY 13, '67. 



language, from whence a great many words were 
imported into the ancient dialect of the Lowland 
Scots ; words which are still in common use, and 
which, in some cases, are supposed to "be derived 
from the French, though they may be traced to a 
nearer and more natural source. This also ex- 
plains the meaning attached to javel or jevel by 
Way, Nares, and Bishop Kennet, and gives consi- 
derably more significance to the lines quoted from 
Christ's Kirk 

" Lat be, quoth Jock, and call'd him jevel, 
And by the tail him tugged." 

W. M. S. 
Aberdeen. 

" MORNING'S PRIDE " (3 rd S. xi. 457, 529.) 
This rusticism (to coin a word which, I venture 
think, is needed) has been made classical by 
Keble's introduction of it into The Christian Year. 
The third stanza of the poem for the twenty- 
fifth Sunday after Trinity runs : 
" Pride of the dewy morning ! 

The swain's experienced eye 
From thee takes timely warning, 

Nor trusts the gorgeous sky. 
For well he knows, such dawn ings gay 

Bring noons of storm and shower, 
And travellers linger on the way 
Beside the sheltering bower." 

Keble's lines tally with what MR. J. M. Cow- 
PER has heard said in Kent. On the other hand, 
MR. JOHN CAMDEN HOTTEN (at Hampstead), MR. 
H. FISHWICK (in Lancashire), and A. H. (men- 
tioning no county or place in particular), have 
found the expression used of a morning mist that 
is supposed to promise a fine day. And it was 
with this latter view of it that the gardener, or 
the farmer, or the farm-labourer in the east of 
Somersetshire used to say to me as a child, 
" That's the pride of the morning," or " That's 
only the pride of the morning." 

JOHN HOSKYNS-ABRAHALL, JTJN. 

This phrase can scarcely be called a provin- 
cialism, as MR. HOTTEN supposes. He heard it in 
Middlesex, I have heard it in numerous parts of 
Devon and Cornwall, and a few days ago, when I 
spoke of it in a somewhat large party, it was stated, 
on competent authority, to be a common expres- 
sion in Kent, Norfolk, 'and Dorset-, Worcester-, 
and Herefordshires. The prevalent form seems to 
be the "Pride of the morning." 

WM. PENGELLY. 
Torquay. 

'RUNIC INSCRIPTION AT ST. MOLIO (3 rd S. xi. 
194, 334, 499.) So long as DR. WILSON fails to 
recognise the Icelandic sign tyr, in the first letter 
of the intermediate word of the Runic inscription, 
carved within the water-worn recess on Holy 
Island, and confounds the Greek eta with, the 
letter H, from its apparent resemblance to that 
character, he has more reason to correct his own 



" epigraphy r ' than draw attention to my defi- 
ciencies in this respect, real or supposed. 

DR. WILSON will be pleased to observe that I 
am not the author, but the expounder, of the in- 
scription. I am not bound to explain why the 
characters tyr and liagl have been used, in this 
instance, in place of the usual thurs. Sufficient 
for my purpose that I have accurately represented 
the fact. I answer, once for all, that I submitted 
a cast of this inscription to a gentleman well 
skilled in Northern Runic literature, who quite 
confirmed my reading. The letters of the inter- 
mediate word certainly are, as I read, t, h, a, n, e. 
If your correspondent DR. WILSON can find in 
these anything other than the Norse word thane, 
he must possess a fertile imagination. I have not 
seen the new edition of the Prehistoric Annals, but 
do not accept DR. WILSON'S representation of the 
character in dispute, as given in the first. 

I cannot help what Professor Munch may have 
said in regard to this to me at least apocryphal 
saint. I am a disciple and tributary of Professor 
Fact. So far as I am aware, Professor Munch 
did not say that this inscription does not contain 
the word thane. J. 0. RR.* 

As I have occasionally contributed to " N. & Q.," 
and have usually signed my communications 
with the initials of my name, it may be well to 
state that the article on " Scottish Archaeology " 
(p. 334) is not by me. J. C. ROBERTSON. 

Precincts, Canterbury. 

I have been attracted by DR. WILSON'S re- 
joinder to your correspondent J. 0. R. with refer- 
ence to the Runic inscription in St. Molio's cave. 
I beg leave to suggest that the character which 
DR. WILSON reads as a in the imaginary word 
dhane, is not accurately represented in the Prehis- 
toric Annals. No doubt, as there given, it is the 
character dr in one of its forms ; but in the in- 
scription itself the diagonal line, projecting down- 
ward, proceeds from a point nearer to the top of 
the perpendicular line, and certainly suggests to 
me the idea of a carelessly-formed t. Another 
circumstance in favour of this view is that the 
actual letter a in the same word, and also that in 
the word raist, are in another form of the cha- 
racter, represented by a diagonal line intersecting 
the perpendicular line (projecting downward from 
before, and upward from behind). In anything 
of this kind which has fallen under my notice I 
have found the same form of character preserved 
in every recurrence of the same letter throughout 
the entire inscription. Upon the whole I am 
inclined to adopt J. C. R.'s reading of the inter- 
mediate word thane, which makes sense of it, and 
accords with the ordinary import and style of 

[* We have ventured to make a slight alteration in 
the signature of our more recent correspondent, to avoid 
future mistakes as to identity of communication. ED.] 



3'd S. XII. JULY 13, '67. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



37 



Runic inscriptions. No doubt the th is usually 
represented by the character thurs. In this in- 
scription, however, we appear to be presented 
with an exception. 

The idea that two of the words are Norse and 
one Celtic seems rather far-fetched and fanciful, 
and, as it appears to me, not very probable. 

Your learned correspondent DR. WILSON seenas 
to set great store on an acquaintance with the 
Northern Runic alphabet. A knowledge of this 
might be acquired by any one during a lesson of 
a quarter of an hour. S. M. 

Glasgow. 

NUMISMATICS (3 rd S. xi. 497.) The figures on 
Victoria sovereigns, as, " 33, 17, 45, and so on, are 
placed immediately below the ribbon that attaches 
the laurel branches on the reverse/' first appear 
on coins of 1864, and, since that date, occur on all 
silver and gold coins (I have not examined the 
Maundy money), and are what may be termed 
" check numbers." 

Every die has its consecutive number. When 
the minter has a die given him to use, his name 
is registered against the number borne by the die ; 
so that if, on examination, a coin is found to be 
defectively struck, from the die wanting cleaning 
or otherwise, the number in question shows at 
once who is to blame. 

The florin bears this " check number " on the 
obverse, under the neck, at the side of the en- 
graver's initials, and it reads " 7. W.W.," or 
" 25. W.W." 

On the half-sovereign this number is below 
the shield on the reverse j on the shilling and the 
sixpence on the reverse, same as on the sovereign, 
t. e.j below the tie of the laurels. F. J. J. 

NIGHT A COTJNSELLER (3 rd S, xi. 530.) Will 
F. C. H. allow me to point out that no such pas- 
sage as that attributed by him to u Achilles in 
Homer" 



A IM T/O? <$>aivo(j.4vri 
exists in any part of Homer's poems. The words 
are incapable of scansion. A passage in II. ix. 
614, 615, was probably in F. C. H.'s mind 

.... a.fj.a 8 rjoi 



D. P. 



Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 



A QTJERY ON POPE (3 rd S. xi. 519.) The action 
of licking the hand, &c. has been poetically at- 
tributed, not only to lambs, but to lions the 
natural antitheses of the former. 

Thus Spenser, in book i. of the Faery Queen, 
says that the lion that beautiful unprotected Una 
came upon in the wood, instead of devouring 
her 

" Kissed her weary feet, 
And licked her lily hands with fawning tongue." 



William Blake, in one of his Songs of Experience, 
where he relates how that a little girl lost her way 
and was succoured by wild animals, goes on to 
tell that 

" The lion old 
Bow'd his mane of gold, 
And did her bosom lick." 

In one of the Songs of Innocence by the same 
poet we meet with the following invocation : 
" Little lamb, 
Here I am ; 
Come and lick 
My white neck." 

It is stated in Cowper's admirable prose piece 
respecting his pet hares, that on two occasions 
one of the hares testified his gratitude for kind- 
ness received by licking the hand of his master, 
and that in a most elaborate manner. 

If I remember rightly (though I have not read 
the work for several years past), a somewhat 
similar incident is recorded in the episode in 
Tristram Shandy with reference to the poor over- 
worked and ill-fed ass by the roadside, to whom 
a maccaroon is given, accompanied by kind words. 

But perhaps the most extraordinary ascription 
in this kind is that which , is contained in Oow 
per's fine paraphrase of the prophetic vision, in 
The Winter Walk at Noon " : 

" No foe to man. 

Lurks in the serpent now : the mother sees, 
And smiles to see, her infant's playful hand 
Stretch'd forth to dally with the crested worm, 
To stroke his azure neck, or to receive 
The lambent homage of his arrowy tongue." 

J. W. W. 

LEGEND OF THE BOOK OF JOB (3 rd S. xi. 524.) 
I am obliged by MR. ELLIS'S reply, but it is 
scarcely satisfactory. The legend I inquired after 
has several points in common with the history of 
Job other than their respective " sufferings under 
adverse circumstances." Bouchet (Letters on Re- 
ligious Ceremonies') says 

That the gods met one day in Chorcan, the paradise 
of delights, when the question came up whether it were 
possible to find a faultless prince or no. All denied it 
except Vachichten, who maintained that Achandiren 
his disciple had no fault. On this Vichoura Moutren 
said that if Achandiren were placed in his power, he 
would show how much Vachichten was mistaken. The 
gods consented, and Vichoura Moutren put the victim to 
every conceivable trial ; dethroned him ; reduced him to 
poverty ; killed his only son ; carried off his wife," &c. 

Achandiren, however, remained steadfast through 
all his trials, and was eventually rewarded by the 
gods in an extraordinary manner, and had his 
wife and son restored to him. Whence did the 
legend originate, and what is its age ? 

. PlCKARD. 



SWORD QUERY : SAHAGTJM (3 rd S. xi. 296, 431.) 
The Irish are particularly famous for absurd deri- 
vations, and their language being almost unknown 



38 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. JULY 13, '67. 



to the world of literature, they, in most cases, 
escape detection. I need not speak of the ex- 
travagances of Vallancey, but there is actually in a 
translation of the Four Masters, by John O'Don- 
ovan, published so late as 1856, an attempt to 
identify the names of places in Ireland with the 
followers of one Ceasair, who came to that country 
forty days before the Deluge ! ! Nor is the deri- 
vation of Sahagum from an Irish source, as at- 
tempted at page 431 by J. L., less extraordinary. 
I am sure that I need scarcely say here that 
Sahagum, or Sahagun for it is spelled both 
ways i s the name of a small village in Spain, 
well known as a place of eminence in the his- 
tory of Spanish sword-cutlery ; and it was doubt- 
less a nursery for the more famed and more 
modern manufacture of Toledo, as the affix of 
"de Sahagum" frequently occurs to the names 
of Toledo sword manufacturers of the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries. While the mere word 
Sahagum itself, without any maker's name added 
to it, is well known to the collectors of early 
sword-blades. WILLIAM PINKERTON. 

BOURBON SPRIG (3 rd S. xi. 461.) This may be 
the English name of the chinaware manufactured 
from the French model, as we have been told by 
F. C. H. (p. 299), but the original is well known 
to collectors as the Angouleme porcelain. It 
was manufactured at Paris by Dihl and Guerhard, 
in the Rue de Bondy, under the patronage of the 
Due d' Angouleme. I have a tea and coffee set, 
with plates, sugar-basin, &c. nearly all complete. 
The mark is an A with a crown in red, as de- 
scribed by F. C. H., and some of niy pieces also 
have the following : 

" MANUF re 

Me r LE Due 
ANGOULEME, 
PARIS." 

One or two of my pieces want the red mark? 
and the china appears to be of a coarser descrip- 
tion. It may then be of English manufacture ; 
and I would beg F. C. H. to tell me whether the 
red mark was copied on the English pieces made 
from the cup and saucer brought to England by 
the Rev. T. Deterville, and append my address, 
hoping that he may honour me with a line on 
the subject. WILLIAM PINKERTON. 

Hounslow. 

L'HOMME FOSSILE EN EUROPE (3 rd S. xi. 456, 
530.) The following passage from Mr. Beckett 
Denison's Astronomy ivithout Mathematics (p. 30), 
shows that the cold of the glacial period was not 
due to the variation of the polar axis, but to the 
variation of eccentricity of the earth's orbit : 

" Moreover, it is calculated that the eccentricity of 
the earth's orbit was -057 instead of '017, about 310,000 
years ago" [that is, the earth's orbit is now less elliptical 
and more circular] ; " and at the same time the northern 
winter was at aphelion. Therefore the sun was 97 mil- 



ion miles off in winter, instead of 90. And as the heat 
s inversely as the square of the distance, reckoning from 
absolute zero, of no sun at all, which is probably 490 
)elow our zero, it follows that the average winter cold of 
Europe was ~-33, or 72 lower than it is now. Then 
was the glacial period, when all Europe was covered with 
ice, which the heat of summer had not time to melt, and 
which slid and scraped down our valleys like the glaciers 
n the Alps, and as icebergs slide into the Arctic seas. 
See Croll in The Reader, Octr. 1865, and following 
months, and Tyndall On Heat, p. 79." 

T. J. BFCKTON. 

PALINDROME (OR SOTADIC) VERSE (3 rd S. xi. 

504.) A correspondent, under the signature of 
H. K., observes that he has never yet seen any 
palindromic verse in any language which deserves 
to be called pood. I think a few specimens may 
be found which are really good. For instance, 
the Greek line from the great Church of Sancta 
Sophia at Constantinople, which is occasionally 
seen in other places on baptismal fonts or holy- 
water vessels : 

Nfyoy dz/o^juara, jui; \JLQVOV ttyiv. 

The following has the advantage of every word 
reading both ways, without the necessity of run- 
ning one word into another to complete the sense : 

" Odo tenet mulum, mappam madidam tenet Anna." 

A variation appeared, when M. Otto was French 
ambassador to this country at the peace of 1802, 
which is a more perfect palindrome : 

" Otto tenet mappam, madidam mappam tenet Otto." 
I never could find that it had any application to 
the ambassador ; but as compositions in this style, 
I venture to think this and the other two good. 

F. C. H. 

THE HINDOO TRINITY (3 rd S. xii. 8.) 
" The deities are only three, whose places are the earth, 
the intermediate regio"n, and the heaven ; namely, fire, 
air, and the sun. They are pronounced to be deities of 
the mysterious names (Bhur, bhuvah, swar) severally, 
and (Prajapati) the lord of creatures is the deity of them 
collectively. The syllable OM intends every deity; it 
belongs to him who dwells in the supreme abode ; it ap- 
pertains to (Brahma) the vast one ; to God, to the super- 
intending soul. Other deities belonging to those several 
regions are portions of the [three] gods; for they are 
variously named and described, on account of their dif- 
ferent operations ; but in fact there is only one deity, the 
Great Soul. He is called the sun. for he is the soul of all 
beings, and that is declared by the sage : ' the sun is the 
soul of what moves, and of that which is fixed.' Other 
deities are portions of him : and that is expressly de- 
clared by the sage." Colebroke, On 'the Vedas, Asiat. 
Res. viii/395, &c. ; compare Menu, xii. 123. 

The mysterious word OM is, according to the 
Hindoo commentators, composed of three let- 
ters, A tr M, representing the three gods of the 
Trimurti or Hindoo Trinity. In the Institutes of 
Menu the Brahmin is directed to mutter to him- 
self this holy syllable, both at the commencement 
and conclusion of all his lectures on the Vedas, 
without which nothing, it is asserted, will be long 



3*a S. XII. JULY 13, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



39 



retained. Previous to this, however, he is ex- 
pected to sit on the culms of kusa grass (Poa 
cynosuroides) with their points towards the east, 
and to suppress his breath thrice. The legisla- 
tor then informs us that "Brahma milked out, as it 
were, from the three Vedas the letter A, the letter 
u, and the letter M, which form by their combina- 
tion the triliteral monosyllable ; " adding that 
this syllable " is a symbol of God, the Lord of 
created beings " (ii. 74, 77, 84.) 

There does not appear to be any authority for 
appropriating one of the three letters to Bra-man, 
Vishnu, or Shiva, as HITOPADESH assumes. This 
Sramah must not be confounded with the one 
god Brahm. His query as to the identity pf Sri, 
Siris, and Ceres, and of Horus and Eros, can only 
be answered in the negative. (See The Hindoos, 
L. E. K., i. 145.) T. J. BTJCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 

PASSAGE IN LOED BACON (3 rd S. xi. 496 ; xii. 16.) 
C. A. W. is right. I ought to have given a reference 
to the work from which I quoted. It was from 
The Letters and (he Life of Francis Bacon, including 
all his Occasional Works, fyc., with a Commentary, 
Biographical and Historical, by^ James Spedding, 
i. 108-9. Of this most interesting and important 
work the first volume was published in 1861, and 
the second in 1862, bringing down the life of 
Lord Bacon only to the end of his fortieth year 
(1601) ; and I trust I may be allowed to express 
a hope that the publication of the remainder will 
not be long deferred. Mr. Spedding is said to 
have devoted "the best years of an active and 
learned manhood to the preliminary toil" (Dixon's 
Personal History of Lord Bacon, p. 10), and there 
is little risk of error in asserting that no man 
living knows more of Bacon and his works ; cer- 
tainly no one has written his life so far with so 
much ability and impartiality. It is true the 
seven volumes of Bacon's greater works, edited by 
Mr. Spedding and two coadjutors, are done ; but 
if the " letters, life, and occasional works " are 
left unfinished, the loss will be great to all who 
are interested and who is not? in the lesser 
works and the later years of the illustrious philo- 

pher. I). 

WILLIAM SHARP, SURGEON (3 rd S. xi. 497.) 
an Wadd's Nugce Chirurgicce ; or, a Biographi- 
cal Miscellany, illustrative of a Collection of Pro- 
fessional Portraits, 1824, is the following : 

"Sharpe, William. G. Dance del. 1794. W. Daniels sc. 
Born 1729. Died 1810. Sharpe was many years assistant- 
surgeon to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, and was eminent 
in his profession during the time he practised ; but he 
retired upwards of twenty years before his death, and was 
succeeded in his residence and practice by the late Sir 
Charles Blicke, who was also his fortunate successor at 
the hospital, of which he soon became principal surgeon 
a post he held to the last hour of his life. They were 
both good practical surgeons, but their literary labours 
consist of a small pamphlet On Paper Splints; or, a New 



In 



Method of treating Fractured Legs, by the former ; and a 
small one On the Yellow Fever of Jamaica. (1772), bv the 
latter." "j) > 

JARVEY (3 rd S. xi. 475; xii. 17.) The writer 
of " A Tale of the Derby," in London Society for 
the present month, mentions " Jarvey " as applied 
to a Dublin carman. Is it known when the 
word was first used ? 

Apropos of " Cabby," I would "note " a pretty 
little poem entitled "The Cabman's Badge," 
quoted in The Athenceum of May 4 last. 

J. MANUEL. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

DR. WOLCOT (3 rd S. xi. 450, 626.) In the Gen- 
tleman's Magazine for 1819, vol. i. 1 p. 619, I find 
that "John Wolcot, M.D., painter and poet, the 
latter under the assumed name of Peter Pindar, 
was born near Kingsbridge, Devon, 1738, and 
died Jan., 1819, at Camden Town." Thus he was 
credited with a medical doctor's degree at the 
time of his decease, even though ME. MACKENZIE 
WALCOTT doubts his right to it. It is also within 
the bounds of possibility that he might have 
proceeded to some other degree in Divinity or 
Civil Law, for he was in Holy Orders, which 
seems to have escaped MR. WALCOTT. I meet 
almost daily a gentleman who knew Peter Pindar 
well, and only knew him by the name of Dr. 
Wolcot. That I should have erred in spelling 
the Doctor's name, I suppose with two t 's instead 
of one, was an inadvertence. J. B. DAVIES. 

The Catalogue of the National Portrait Exhibi- 
tion of 1867 (No. 809) informs us that Dr. Wolcot 
"took orders." I have before me The Works of 
Peter Pindar, Esq., 4 vols. 12mo, 1809, with brief 
memoirs of the author prefixed. It is here stated 
that Dr. Wolcot, when in Jamaica, endeavoured 
to supply the place of a deceased rector " by read- 
ing prayers and preaching." 

"As, however, he was aware that this irregularity 
could not long be tolerated, he returned to England to 
obtain orders, and, if possible, the vacant living; but, 
notwithstanding the powerful recommendations he pre- 
sented to the Bishop of London, that prelate refused him 
ordination ; and the living being soon filled up by a re- 
gular clergyman, Mr. Wolcott [sj'c] declined applying 
in anj' other quarter for admission to the church." 

What authority have the compilers of the Ca- 
talogue for their statement ? E. S. D. 

THE VALLEY OF MONT-CENIS (3 rd S. xii. 9.) 
By altering the first sud-estinto sud-ouest, S.H.M. 
will obtain the true reading. There is no copy 
of Saussure's great work credite posteri ! in the 
British Museum, but only a short abridgement, as 
if intended for a railway library. My knowledge 
is derived from the maps of the Useful Knowledge 
Society, which appear to have got into hands that 
have a motive for suppressing them for the pur- 
pose of issuing their own rubbish at a higher 
price. T. J. BUCKTON. 



40 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. JULY 13, '67. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D., containing a Series 
of his Epistolary Correspondence and Conversations with 
many eminent Persons, and various original Pieces of his 
Composition. With a Chronological Account of his 
Studies and Numerous Works, fyc. By James Boswell, 
Esq. A. new Edition, elucidated with copious Notes. 
(Routledge.) 

Macaulay characterised Boswell's Johnson " as a great, 
a very great work"; adding very justly: "Boswell is 
the first of biographers. He has no second. He has 
distanced all his competitors so decidedly, that it is not 
worth while to place them. Eclipse is first, and the rest 
nowhere." Of this wonderful book, we have now before 
us, a wonderfully cheap and wonderfully well printed 
edition ; and we are glad to see that, in selecting the 
edition from which to make their reprint, the publishers 
have taken care to use that which is unquestionably the 
best, the sixth, the last published under the judicious 
superintendence of Malone. We hope for the sake of all 
parties, readers and publishers, that the work will be 
widely circulated. 

The Romish Doctrine of the Immaculate Conception traced 
from its Source. By Dr. Edward Preuss. Translated 
by Geo. Gladstone. (Edinburgh, T. & T. Clark, 1867.) 
A complete and exhaustive manual on this subject 
from the Protestant point of view ; written in a conver- 
sational and lively style, but full of solid argument as 
well. Put it side "by side with Bishop Ullathorne's book 
on the Immaculate" Conception, and the ordinary reader 
will have, in the compass of two little 12mo volumes, all 
that he need know respecting one of the most protracted 
controversies of the Western Church. 

Date of our Iliad and Odyssey. (Belfast : printed at the 

Advertiser Office.) 

An ingenious little pamphlet devoted to an examina- 
tion of the true date of the Iliad and Odyssey, which will 
well repay all students of Homer for the time spent in its 
perusal. 

SALE OP SIR WALTER SCOTT'S MANUSCRIPTS. On 
Saturday last, by direction of the trustees of the late Mr. 
Kobert Cadell, of Edinburgh, Messrs. Christie and Man- 
son sold at their rooms, in King Street, St. James's, the 
original manuscripts of Sir Walter Scott's celebrated 
poems, and several of his novels and prose works. 
Amongst them was a portion of "Ivanhoe," which is 
believed to be the only remnant of that romance, which 
Sir Walter Scott wrote with his own hand, as the late 
Mr. John Ballantyne acted as his amanuensis for a con- 
siderable part of it, owing to the author having recently 
recovered from a severe illness. The manuscript of the 
" Lay of the Last Minstrel " was not preserved. All 
these interesting literary relics are in a perfect state of 
preservation, and uniformly bound in russia with uncut 
edges. They are remarkable for the fluency with which 
they were written, and the very few alterations or correc- 
tions which occur in them ; and thus show the facility 
with which Sir Walter sketched out the productions of 
his most entertaining and lively imagination. A vast 
number of literary men were present. The following 
were the prices realised: " Marmion," 191 guineas; 
"The Lady of the Lake," 264 guineas ; "The Vision of 
Don Roderick," 37 guineas ; " Rokeby " (in detached 
pieces parti v, bearing the post-mark of various districts), 
130 guineas; "Lord of the Isles," 101 guineas; "Intro- 
ductory History of Ballad Poetry," 54 guineas ; " Au- 



chmdrane," 27 guineas; "Anne of Geierstein," 121 
guineas ; " Waverley," " Ivanhoe," " The Bridal of Tre- 
maine," and other papers, with autograph, 130 guineas ; 
' Tales of a Grandfather " (portion of the original manu- 
script, with autograph), 145 guineas ; Castle Dan- 
gerous, 32 guineas ; " Count Robert of Paris " (a portion 
only), 23 guineas. The sale realised 1,255 guineas. Mr. 
Hope Scott, Q.C., was amongst the principal bidders. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 
CAUTION. 

When last week we warned our book-buying friends to be 
now they remit money before they receive the books, to other t 
lown respectable booksellers," we were not aware of the extent 



"know 



,i . . ,, , ..** ~~,e of the extent to which 

ingenious speculators were turnin/j our Books Wanted department. 
A gentleman, who advertised in our columns of June 15 for 



, 

volume, received the offer of a copy f< 
forwarded in postage stamps to ' 



a scarce 

8s. 6d. and \0d. postage, to be 
y Mr. A. B. 34, South 



ill 



w ergentieman, not so cautious, remitted the price of a book to say 
Mr. tt. e. 4, George. Street. Richmond, Surrey, but, as the book has not 
been received, he fears he has been done. We agree with him, for the 
letters of Mr. A. B. and Mr. B. C. are in the tame handwriting. An offer 
from. Mr. B. C. to another gentleman was very tempting, but the would- 
oe purchaser declined to pay till the books were sent. They have not yet 
arrived.' 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books, to be sent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose: 
HAZLITT'S LECTURES ON THE ELIZABETHAN AGE. 

ENGLISH POKTS. 

COMIC WRITERS. 



CARLYLE'S FREDERICK THE GREAT. Vols. III. V. VI. 
COLERIDGE'S LECTURES ON SHAKESPEARE. 

Wanted by Mr. G. Cockhead, Bookseller, 73, Norfolk Terrace, 
Westbourne Grove, W. 

BIDDING OF PRAYERS BEFORE SERMON, by Charles Wheatley. London, 
1718, price Is. Reprinted by Leslie. London, 1845, price 2s. 
Wanted by Mr. Geo. E. Frere, Boydon Hall, Diss, Norfolk. 



NOTES AND QUERIES (First Series). Vol. XI. No. 283. 

XII. Nos. 288, 305, 30r, 308. 

Wanted by Mr. WaVvrd,27, Bouverie Street. 



THE POETRY OF ANNA MATILDA. London: J. Bell, 1788. 12mo. 
Wanted by Mr. Bruce, 5, Upper Gloucester Street, Dorset Square, W. 

HENDERSON'S LIFE OF WILLIAM AUGUSTUS DUKE OF CUMBERLAND. 

London, 1766. 8vo. 

PEAKSON'S POLITICAL DICTIONARY. 8vo, 1792. 
THE ROYAL REGISTER. 9 Vols. 12mo. 1780. 
MEMOIRS OF J. T. SERRES, MARINE PAINTER TO His MAJESTY. 870. 

1826. 

Wanted by Mr. W. Smith, 7, York Terrace, Charles Street, Albany 
Road, Camberwell, S. 



to 

THE INDEX TO OUR ELEVENTH VOLUME, THIRD SERIES, will be ready 
on Saturday the 20th instant. 

J. B. It teas Mr. Cobden who compared The Times with Thucydides. 

A CONSTANT RBADER will find the Barmecide's Feast in The Arabian 
Nights. 

JOHN PIGGOT JUN. The inscription in H aworth church is noticed in 
"N. * Q."2ndS. iii. 511. 

ABHBA. The author of An Essay for Catholic Communion was 
Joshua Bassett: see our last volume, p. 479. 

H. CLEMENT. A list of the Presidents of Mexico appeared in 
"N. &Q."3rdS. x.378. 

A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of "N. & Q." is now 
ready, and maybe had of all Booksellers and Newsmen, price ls.6&; 
or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for Is. 8d. 

**# Cases for binding the volumes of " N. & Q." may be had of the 
Publisher, and of all Booksellers and Newsmen. 

"NOTK.S AND QUERIES" is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
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FOR THE EDITOR should be addressed. 

"NOTES & QUERIES" is registered for transmission abroad, 



[. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



41 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 20, 18C7. 

CONTEXTS. N 290. 

NOTES : Manna, 41 Folk-Lore : Herring Folk-Lore 
Ancient Musical Custom at Newcastle Mid-day " Stick- 
ing" Nose bleeding Bonfires on the Eve of St. John, 
42 The Rev. John Hcaley Bromby, A.M., &c., Ib. Cul- 
pepper Tomb at Feckenham Literary Larceny " Lucy 
Neal" in Latin An End to all Things Coat Cards, or 
Court Cards Letter from Kimbolton Library Source 
of Quotation wanted Esparto Grass Emigration, 43. 

QUERIES: Alfred's Marriage with Alswitha Authors 
wanted Battle of Bunker's Hill Inscription at Blen- 
heim "Leo pugnat cum Dracone" Name, &c. wanted 

National Portrait Exhibition: the Fortune Teller 
Poems, Anonymous The Popedom Portraits of Percy, 
Bishop of Dromore Portrait of Mrs. Shelley Solomon 
and the Genii Sprouting Plates and Jars Stains in 
old Deeds, &c. John Stephens Wallace, 45. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Lucifer Hops in Beer 
Gideon Ouseley Birthplace of Cromwell's Mother 
Archbishop of Spalatro's Sermon on Romans xiii. 23 24th 
of February Leasings Lewd Quotation, 47. 

REPLIES: JElius Donatus de Grammatica: History of 
Printing, 49 Cornish Name of St. Michael's Mount, 51 

Cara Cowz in Clowze, Ib. Pare aux Cerfs, 52 Battle 
of Baugeand the Carmichaels of that Ilk, 53 " Manuscrit 
venu de Ste H61ene " Palseologus " Olympia Morata " 
Bourbon Sprig Highland Pistols Robert Browning's 
" Boy and Angel : " " Kynge lloberd of Cysille " The 
Word " Dole " Chevers Family Johannes Scotus Eri- 
gena Dryden Queries : " Neyes " Laying Ghosts in the 
Red Sea Engraved Outlines Bishop Butler's best 
Book Family of De Toni: Arms Johnny Peep The 
late Rev. R. H. Barbara: "Dick's Long-tailed Coat" 
Walsh of Castle Hoel, &c., 54. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



MANNA. 

Is _ it known whether manna is ever found to 
['all in large drops from the atmosphere ? I ask 
this question, as I witnessed a curious natural phe- 
nomenon in the South of Italy, respecting which 
I have never been able to satisfy myself. On a 
scorching forenoon of the month of May, as I was 
slowly wending my way towards the small vil- 
lage of Scalea, which will be found on the northern 
frontier and western coast of Calabria, I was sur- 
prised to observe a number of large drops fall 
around me such drops as sometimes precede a 
thunder-storm. There were no clouds, no wind ; 
everything was calm, and the sun shone in un- 
clouded splendour about midday. I was much 
astonished, and exclaimed to my guide, " What 
is this ? Whence came these drops ? " He at 
once said, without a moment's hesitation, and as 
if he were accustomed to the phenomenon, " It is 
manna.'' ^ I was of course incredulous, and having 
much difficulty in carrying on a conversation with 
one who spoke the Calabrese dialect, I dropped the 
subject. 

Afterwards, however, I found, on conversing 
with intelligent natives, that such drops of manna, 
or what they called manna, were not uncommon. 
I hey could give no explanation of the manner 
in which it was generated in the atmosphere; 
but they had no doubt that it was so, and it was 



always during excessive heat that the drops were 
seen to fall. Of course it is well known that the 
woods of Calabria suppty large quantities of 
manna, which is collected from two species of 
ash, Ornus Europcea and Fraxinus rotundifolia. 
Is it possible that great heat may suck up the 
juice into the atmosphere, and that, being in some 
way condensed, it may fall in the way I wit- 
nessed ? I found during my conversation with 
some of the natives that there appears suddenly 
at times on the leaves of plants, in a way they 
cannot explain, a kind of glutinous substance of a 
sweetish flavour, which stops their growth and 
is otherwise injurious. They call these leaves 
" foglie ammanate " (leaves affected by manna) j 
and they speak also of "vino ammanato," from 
the grapes acquiring a peculiar flavour when 
covered with this substance. There is one shrub 
more particularly on which it appears, which they 
call " f'usaro " or " fusaggine," growing luxuriantly 
in their hedges. It is so called from spindles being 
made of it, and is, I believe, the " spindel-baum " 
of the Germans. I heard also that during the 
continuance of great heat a kind of dew falls, 
which they call " sinobbica," but in what way it 
differs from manna I could not make out. Pos- 
sibly some of your correspondents may be able to 
throw light on some of these points which I have 
started. 

It is curious to find ^Elian (De Naturd Ani- 
malittm, book xv. chap. 7) giving an account of a 
natural phenomenon in India not differing much 
from my statement. He says : 

'' In India, and particularly in the country of the Prasii 
(who extended through the richest part of India from 
the Ganges to the Panjab), it rains liquid honey, which, 
falling on the grass and leaves of reeds, produces won- 
derfully rich pastures for sheep and oxen ; the cattle are 
driven by the herdsmen to the parts where they know 
quantities of this sweet dew (r? 5po'<ros -1} 7Au;teTa) have 
fallen. The animals enjoy a rich banquet on these pas- 
tures, and furnish very sweet milk (irepiy\vKicrToi> 7ci/\a). 
There is no necessity to mix it with honev as the Greeks 
do." 

Diodorus Siculus (book xvii. chap. 75) tells us 
of a tree "not unlike the oak, which distils 
(a7roAei'/3ei) honey from its leaves." Can any of 
your Indian correspondents tell us anything about 
this tree, or confirm ^Elian's account ? Athenseus 
(book xi. chap. 102, ed. Schweighauser, 1804,) 
quotes from Amyntas, the writer of an Indian 
itinerary, to the following effect : 

;e Amyntas in his first book, speaking of the honey from 
the atmosphere (aepo/ieAtros) writes thus : ' They col- 
lect it with the leaves, making it into the form of a 
Syrian cake (iraXde^s 2upiaK7jj) some make it into the 
form of a ball ; and when they wish to enjoy it, breaking 
j oft' a portion, they melt it in wooden cups called tabaette, 
and, after they have passed it through a sieve, drink 
it. It is much like diluted honey, though somewhat 
sweeter/' 

C. T. RAMAGE. 



42 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



f 3^ s. XII. JULY 20, '67. 



FOLK LORE. 

HERRING FOLK-LORE. Much lias been writtei 
concerning the folk-lore of the herring, from the 
time of Martin, who told of the King of the Her- 
rings, to Mr. J. F. Campbell's "Popular Tale " of 
how the fluke got his mouth curled for sneering 
at the herring king j and Pennant has mentioned 
some of the traditions that were believed in rela- 
tion to the migratory habits of the herring. These 
traditions are not unfrequently grafted on to the 
West Highland reverence for the local laird and 
chieftain, an instance of which is recorded in some 
" Keminiscences of the Isle of Skye " (dating to 
about half a century since), published in the 
Argyllshire Herald, June 1, 1867. The writer is 
speaking of the Macleods of Dunvegan : 

" I found that a curious tradition prevailed in the dis- 
trict in connection with the return of the laird to Dun- 
vegan after a considerable absence, but of course no one 
is now found to attach any importance to the strange 
superstition. It was at one time believed by the people 
of Macleod's country, that a visit from their chief after a 
lengthened sojourn in another part of the kingdom would 
produce a large take of herrings in the numerous lochs 
which indent the west side of Skye ; and it also formed 
part of the tradition, that if any female, save a Macleod, 
should cross the water to a small island opposite the 
castle, the fact would prove disastrous to that season's 
fishing." 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 

ANCIENT MUSICAL CUSTOM AT NEWCASTLE. 
I send the following extract from The Newcastle 
Daily Journal of June 17, and inquire whether 
there is any record of a similar performance in 
any other town : 

" THE TRINITY HOUSE AND ALL SAINTS. Yesterday 
being Trinity Sunday, in pursuance of a time-honoured 
custom, the Master, Deputy-Master, and Brethren of the 
Ancient and Honourable Corporation of the Trinity House 
attended officially in All Saints' parish church Newcastle. 
The Rev. Walter Irvine, M.A. preached on the occasion. 
The Master and Brethren were received and escorted to 
the church gates by the church officers, Messrs. Hails 
and Renwick. A noteworthy ' relic of the past ' in con- 
nection with the service was the performance on the 
organ (on the entrance and exit of the Master and 
Brethren) of the national air, ' Rule Britannia.' The 
rendering of a secular air even as an evidence of re- 
specthas been objected to, but Mrs. Watson, the organist, 
cites the custom of half a century, and the example, 
within her own knowledge, of three generations of organists 
in All Saints' church illustrating the saying that old 
customs ' die hard.' " 

J. MANUEL. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

MAT-DAT " STICKING." It is the custom at 
Warboys, Huntingdonshire, for certain of the poor 
of the parish to be allowed to go into Warboys 
Wood ^ on May-day morning, for the purpose of 
gathering and taking away bundles of sticks. 
This annual May-day " sticking," as it is termed, 
was ^ observed on May-day last, 1867. It may, 
possibly, be a relic of the old custom of going to 



a wood in the early morning of May-day, for the 
purpose of gathering May-dew a custom which, 
for its morality, must have been on a par with 
those that obtain in a mixed agricultural gang of 
the present day. CUTHBERT BEDE. 

NOSE BLEEDING. A few years ago I knew a 
man engaged on the Brighton line, who informed 
me that he always wore a red riband round his 
throat to stop his nose from bleeding. E. L. 
BONFIRES ON THE EVE OF ST. JOHN. The 
custom of making large fires on the eve of St. 
John's day is annually observed by numbers of 
the Irish people in Liverpool. Contributions in 
either fuel or money to purchase it with are col- 
lected from house to house. The fuel consists of 
coal, wood, or in fact anything that will burn : 
the fireplaces are then built up with bricks in the 
streets, and lighted after dark. I believe the 
custom is common to every county in Ireland, so 
I have been informed by many Irish resident 
here ; and the only reason for the observance I 
can get is, that " it is Midsummer." I subjoin a 
short notice of the custom from the Liverpool 
Mercury of June 29 : 

" FIRE- WORSHIP IN IRELAND. The old Pagan fire- 
worship still survives in Ireland, though nominally in 
honour of St. John. On Sunday night bonfires were 
observed throughout nearly every county in the province 
of Leinster. In Kilkenny, fires blazed on every hillside 
at intervals of about a mile. There were very many in 
the Queen's County, also in Kildare and Wexford. The 
effect in the rich sunset appeared to travellers very grand. 
The people assemble and dance round the fires, children 
jump through the flames, and in former times live coals 
were carried into the cornfields to prevent blight. Of 
course the people are not conscious that this midsummer 
celebration is a remnant of the worship of Baal. It is 
believed by many that the round towers were intended 
for signal fires in connection with this worship." 

J. HARRIS GIBSON. 

Liverpool. 



THE REV. JOHN HEALEY BROMBY, A.M., 

SEVENTY YEARS VICAR OF HOLY TRINITY, HULL. 

On June 22 last, I availed myself of an oppor- 
tunity which previous flying visits to Hull had 
denied of visiting this aged clergyman, now in 
his ninety-seventh year, as he himself told me. 
On presenting my card, after an interval of nearly 
thirty years, his daughter informed me that her 
father's memory had failed ; and that, unless my 
business was urgent, be begged to decline the 
interview. I said my business was simply to 
shake hands, and say farewell; and I was sure 
that, if she named Clemens Alexandrinus, he 
would remember me. I was then immediately 
admitted. His hand, attenuated indeed, was cool 
and healthy to the touch, his dark eye bright 
and clear ; he sat on a small elbow chair, and in 
a light coloured tight morning gown. I recalled 
many circumstances to his recollection as his 



3'd s. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



43 



approval of the laws and questions of a debating 
society which he allowed to hold meetings in the 
vicar's school ; a sermon he published with the title 
" EIPHNIKON," which, being printed in English 
for want of Greek type, I had read as etphntkon, 
and had applied to a clergyman who lodged in 
the same house with me and had been master of 
a grammar school at Leicester to know its mean- 
ing, which he could not tell me, but which 
I afterwards, on learning Greek, found to be 
eirenikon. The aged vicar repeated this word 
elpyviKbi' twice, and said l< Ah ! yes, tlpriviKtv." 
This sermon was said to have given offence to the 
Archbishop of York, before whom it was preached, 
as containing too comprehensive and liberal views 
for a churchman. I recalled Clemens Alexan- 
drinus to his recollection, and the interview I had 
with him and my Greek teacher, the Rev. John I 
Blezard, on the grammatical construction of a , 
passage quoted by the vicar as a motto to one of 
his sermons, when they gave me some better in- I 
sight into the doctrine of " attraction of cases of | 
nouns." I alluded to the marriage licence he 
granted, and the name of my father-in-law, Major 
Jackson, R.M. all which he bore in rnind as 
freshly as a young man. The only point in which 
he failed, although I tried it twice, was the ex- 
pression in Hebrew, " we are men and brethren," 
for I always considered him a Hebrew scholar. 
Rabbi Hassan, reading with me, always so spoke 
of his interviews with the vicar. On one occasion, 
with the aid of my late accomplished wife (a 
pupil of Mozart through Attwood), I supplied 
the vicar with the musical notes of the Hebrew 
accents, as chanted by Hassan in a manner which 
even the German Jews at Hull admired. The 
late vicar, for he retired a few months ago, was 
particularly interested when I stated to him the 
literary acquisitions I had made, and that I had 
communicated more replies to " N. & Q." than 
any other contributor. He would have arisen at 
parting, but I restrained him and said : "Nothing 
can prevent our soon meeting again." He then 
replied : " I am happy to have seen you, and hope 
we shall meet in a better world." 

T. J. BTJCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 



GUI-PEPPER TOMB AT FECKENHAM. The tomb ! 
of Sir Martin Culpepper at Feckenham, in Wor- | 
cestershire, has been subjected to worse treatment ! 
than the Porter monument at Claines in the same 
county, for it has been (as I am informed by mem- 
bers of the Worcester Diocesan Architectural So- ' 
ciety) buried under the chancel floor during some 
recently so-called restoration of the building. The i 
quaint inscription written by the Lady Joyce Cul- ' 
pepper, his wife, beginning 

" Weep, whoever this tomb doth see, 
Unless more hard than stone thou be," 



is quoted in Nash's History, but the Culpeppers 
have long been extinct in the district, and their 
property has passed into other hands. 

THOMAS E. WINNINGTON. 
LITERARY LARCENY. The authorship of a beau- 
tiful and well-known poem, entitled " Rock me 
to sleep, Mother," is no win dispute in the United 
States. Two persons claim to have been the 
author; one, Mrs. Elizabeth A. C. Akers, of Wash- 
ington, the edition of whose works published by 
the eminent firm of Ticknor & Fields includes it 
as one of her productions. Mrs. A. claims to have 
written it in Italy in 1860, whence she sent it to 
the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post. As pub- 
lished there it consisted of six stanzas. In a 
pamphlet which has just appeared, 0. A. Morse 
vindicates the claims of M. W. Ball, of Elizabeth, 
New Jersey, to its authorship. In this pamphlet 
it is claimed that Ball wrote it in 1857, and read 
it in manuscript to a number of friends, who now 
testify to the fact. The poem as he wrote it con- 
tained fifteen stanzas, and is now for the first time 
given in full. Now, one or the other of these 
parties is guilty of a literary larceny, but which 
one is a question. It complicates this matter very 
much that both respectively had the talent to 
have produced this poem. Has this poem been 
republished in England, or is anything known of 
its authorship ? It is a very remarkable case, and 
has any other like it ever before been known ? 
Frankfort-on-Main. W. W. M. 

" LTJCY NEAL " IN LATIN. I copy the follow- 
ing from a penny paper called Pasquin, published 
in 1847. As only eight numbers appeared, it is 
perhaps as well that this " fly " should be pre- 
served in the " amber " of "N. & Q. : " 

Carmina Canino-Latina JEthiopica. 
" Alabama * natus sum, heri nomen Beale,f 
Puellam flavam J habuit, cui nomen erat Neale ; 
Decrevit ut me venderet, quod furem me putavit, 
Sic fatum, me miserrimum, crudeliter tractavit ! 
O ! mea dulcis Neale, carior luce Neale, 
Si mecum hie accumberes, quam felix essem, Neale ! 
" Epistolam accepi, nigra signatum cera, 
Eheu ! puellam nitidam abstulerat mors fera, 
N unc vitam ago miseram, et cito moriturus, 
Sed semper te meminero, ut Hadibus futurus. 
O ! mea dulcis Neale, carior luce Neale, 
Si mecum hie accumberes, quam felix essem, Neale ! 
(Hiatus haud deflendus.) 

" Notce, a Doctissimo Dunderhead scriptae. 

" * Alabama. Eegio notissima Transatlantica. Incola; 
sane mirabiles sunt. JEs alienum grande conflant, sed 
solvere semper nolunt. Libertatis gloriosi, servitutem 
sanctissime colunt. 

" f Quis fuerit Bselius, incertum est. Non dubito quin 
repudiator fuerit, ut Alabamiensis. 

" J Cave, lector, ne in errorem facilem incidas. Non 
capilli, sed cutis, colorem, poeta describit. 

" Luce. Verbum ambiguum hoc est. Consule doctis- 
simum Prout, literarumet roris Hibernici peritissimum." 

JN. WN. 



44 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[3'd S. XII. JULY 20, '67. 



Ax END TO ALL THINGS. The following, which 
appeared in The Leisure Hour for July 0, 1867, is 
worthy of a corner in " N. & Q. : " 

" EDINBURGH JOURNALISM. The Caledonian Mercury, 
which began in 1662, ceased on Saturday the 20th of 
April, 1867." 

LIOM. F. 

COAT CAEDS, OE COTJET CAEDS. In an article 
in Macmillan's Magazine for April last, Professor 
Max Miiller states, as an illustration of the meta- 
morphic process in language, that coat cards have 
been exalted into court cards. I am not aware 
what the usage may be there at present, but 
thirty years ago they were in East Cornwall 
invariably called coat cards, at any rate by the 
middle and lower classes. WM. PENGELLY. 

Torquay. 

LETTEE FEOM KIMBOLTON LIBEAET. The en- 
closed copy of a letter, which has no address or 
date of year, and which contains much puzzling 
matter, may perhaps be worthy a place in your 
columns, and may elicit some explanation from 
some one of your numerous readers. I met with 
it in the library at Kimbolton Castle : 

" My Lord, 

" I acknowledge your favor, not only in the delivry 
of my Leter, but that you have a desyer to oblidge me 
by a visite weh cold I resay ve it ... trouble to you it 
wold have brought me much satisfaction. I finde such 
cause for y e vallewe I have of my Lord Admirall, and 
such inclination of my owne to love and esteeme his Lo: 
as I know not what it maye groe to war I not so old I 
think it might arrive to ... the action that Co: Go: and 
thos that accompaned him was such a on as seuets well 
with them, and discovered great Corage to incounter 
broome-men and pinne-mackers, and a rabble of such poore 
men who have nothing to offend but the lungs, nor to 
resist but their hands : it may be that this is to ingratiat 
themselves, and that is as meane as the other is foolishe. 
I wish myselfe with you, but I can not come till the 
later end of next weak, if then and thar is fair cause. 
Black Tom has more corage than his Grase, and therefor 
will not be so apprehencive as he is, nor suffer a Gard to 
atend him, knowing he hath terror enough in his bearded 
browes to amaze the prentises. 

" I am, &c. 

"SX. 

" Pergo, the 1C of Maye." 

F. 

SOUECE OP QUOTATION WANTED. 
" Quern Deus vult perdere prius dementat." 

Former references in "N. & Q.," 1 st S. i. 351, 
421,476; ii.317; vii.618; viii.73; 2 nd 8. i. 301. 
The Bishop of Down, in his speech in the House 
of Lords, June 24, 1867 (as reported in The Times 
of the following day), gives a source hitherto, as 
far as I know, unnoticed, at any rate in any of 
the notes above referred to. He speaks of " the 
warning contained in The Sibylline Leaves : ' Quos 
Deus vult perdere prius dementat.' " H. K. 

5, Paper Buildings, Temple. 



ESPAETO GEASS. The following, taken from 
the Newcastle Daily Chronicle, July 8, may be in- 
teresting to many of the readers of " N. & Q." : 

"Last week the 'Melancthon' arrived in the Tyne 
Dock with a cargo of Esparto grass, and in addition to 
the usual cargo of cut grass the ' hold ' contained two 
large tubs of live grass, sent as a present to Captain Han- 
dells. The grass is very handsome, and, though drooping 
in the head, owing to being confined during the voyage, 
the whole seemed very strong and healthy at the root*. 
We understand that "Captain Randells has very gener- 
ously sent one of the tubs to Sir Win. Hooker, Kew Gar- 
dens, London. This is the first specimen of Esparto grass 
ever brought over tn this country. The first cargo of Es- 
parto was brought into the Tyne in 1861, and the imports 
during the first year reached between 16,000 and 17,000 
tons ; every year has witnessed a rapid increase in the 
imports until last year, when the shipments exceeded 
50,000 tons." 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. J. MANUEL. 

EMIGRATION. I send a few notes on this head. 
The total emigration from the United Kingdom 
for the last fifty years that is, from 1815 to I860 
inclusive, has been as follows : 

To the United States .... 3,758,789 
N. American Colonies . . 1,286,020 
Australia and N. Zealand . 929,182 
other places 132,401 

Total . . . 6,106,392 

Or an annual average of 117,430 emigrants. For 
the ten years ending 1866, the average is 163,607 : 
between 1847 and 1854, the average is 305,600. 

The great bulk of the emigration has con- 
sisted of Irish, the number who emigrated be- 
tween 1847 and 1854 being 1,656,044. In the 
following eight years the number fell to 479,915, 
averaging 59,989 a-year ; whilst in the last four 
years it has increased to 431,381, or 107,846 per 
annum. 

Taking the emigrants of 1866, I find their na- 
tionality to be in this proportion : 

Irish 98,890 

English 58,856 

Foreigners 26,691 

Scotch 12,307 

Not distinguished . . . 8,138 
The latter are chiefly cabin passengers. The 
foreigners are generally Germans, Norwegians,- or 
Swedes. Of the above, there proceeded 
To the United States .... 161,000 
,, Australia and N. Zealand . 24,097 
British N. America . . . 13,255 

other places 6,530 

The money remitted by settlers in N. America 
to their friends in the United Kingdom from 1848 
to 1866 inclusive amounted to 13,893,975Z. j the 
highest remittance being in 1854, 1,730,0007. ; the 
lowest in 1848, 460,0007. (See General Report of 
the Emigration Commissioners for 1866 recently 
laid before Parliament.) PHILIP S. KING. 



3'd S. XII. JULY 20, '67. j 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



45 



ALFRED'S MARRIAGE WITH ALSWITHA. There 
is a tradition among the inhabitants of Gains- 
borough, Lincolnshire, that the nuptials of Alfred 
the Great with Alswitha, daughter of Ethelred, 
Earl of Gainsborough, were celebrated in 868^ 
when he was twenty years of age, at a " wonder- 
ful old hall " in that neighbourhood. The mar- 
riage is mentioned by the old chroniclers, Asser 
Menevensis, Roger de Hoveden, Roger of Wen- 
dover, Florence of Worcester, and Matthew of 
Westminster, but not one of them specifies the 
locality where it took place. On what authority 
is the above-named tradition founded ? Is it 
recorded in any document, either printed or in 
MS. ? LLALLAWG. 

AUTHORS WANTED. Can you inform me where 
I shall find the epitaph on the Marquis of Angle- 
sey's leg (shot oft' at the battle of Waterloo), 
which commences 

" Here rests and let no saucy knave 

Presume to sneer or laugh 
To learn that mouldering in the grave 

Is laid a British calf ; " * 

and also the poem I think the title is "Man" 
one of the couplets of which runs 
" If you just saw him walk 

I'm sure you would burst, 
For one leg or t'other 
Would always be first " ? 

F. J. J. 

Liverpool. 

BATTLE OF BTJNKER'S HILL. I shall be very 
much obliged to any of your readers having access 
to a list of the killed and wounded in this battle 
who will kindly ascertain if the name of " Staf- 
ford" occurs in the list, and acquaint me with 
the result by letter. D. M. STEVENS. 

Guildford. 

INSCRIPTION AT BLENHEIM. I have a volume 
of epigrams (London, 1751), on which a former 
owner has made some good notes. Against Dr. 
Evans's "Inscription for the Bridge at Blen- 
heim " 

" The lofty arch his high ambition shows ; 

The stream, an emblem of his bounty, flows," 
he has written " v. Anthol Gr. xcii. 75." I cannot 
find any similar Greek epigram, but perhaps some 
correspondent familiar with the Anthology may 
assist me. T. E. C. 

_"LEO^PUGNAT CUM DRACONE." Medieval seals 
with this legend, and with a corresponding device 
of a lion fighting with a dragon, are of not infre- 
quent occurrence. I have always imagined them 
to have a religious significance, but am unable to 

[* The epitaph on the Marquis of Anglesey's leg is by 
Mr. Thomas Gaspey, and is printed in " N. & Q " 3 rd S 
ii. 320, 339. ED.]' 



find any text of Scripture on which it may have 
been founded. I would gladly learn the allusion 
they were designed to bear. J. G. N. 

NAME, ETC. WANTED. I have a very old seal 
with these arms viz. sa. a fesse ar. between three 
cinquefoils ar. I shall be greatly obliged if any 
of your readers can inform me to whom these 
arms belong ; also, the crest and motto, and when 
granted. ADAMAS. 

NATIONAL PORTRAIT EXHIBITION : THE FOR- 
TUNE TELLER. In the National Portrait Exhibi- 
tion of this year there is a picture described in 
the catalogue as lt The Fortune Teller," without 
any mention being made as to whose portrait 
it is. Can any reason be assigned why it is 
placed in an exhibition devoted entirely to por- 
traits ? Surely the authorities would not have 
allowed it to be placed there had they not been 
aware that it was a portrait ? Perhaps some of 
the readers of " N. & Q." may be able to elucidate 
the mystery attached to the picture in question. 
EDWARD C. DAVIES. 

Cavendish Club. 

POEMS, ANONYMOUS. I have lately added to 
my collection a small MS. book containing several 
poems, mostly written on some passage from the 
Bible. No author's name is given. Perhaps some 
of the numerous readers of "N. & Q." would 
kindly say if either of the specimens I subjoin 
have ever appeared in print. The MS. also con- 
tains other matters of a commonplace nature. At 
the end is the date 1703 : 

"Prov. xviii. li. 

" ' A wounded spirit who can bear ? ' 
" Is't possible who will believe, 
A spirit can be wounded, add and grieve ? 
What hath no body needs no blows to fear ; 
Yet 'tis most true, "God's word tells you, 
' A wounded spirit who can bear ? ' 
; ' One thing there is a Soul will wound 
So deeply, that 'twill bleed and sound, 
And even die for grief, for shame, for fear ; 
Sin is the thing 
Doth all this bring. 

' A wounded Spirit who can bear ? ' &c. 
" An old stale widdower quite past the best, 
That had nothing about him in request, 
Save only that he carried in his purse, 
Would have a tender wench to be his nurse," &c. 

R. C. 
Cork. 

THE POPEDOM. A writer in the Saturday 
Review, in an article called " The Pope and the 
Bishops," states that there is a tradition among 
the Roman populace that St. Peter reigned as 
pope for twenty-five years, and that none of his 
successors is destined to exceed the term. Can 
any reader of " N. & Q." inform me where I can 
find any particulars of the "tradition" referred 
to ? EDWARD C. DAVIES. 

Cavendish Club. 



46 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [&* s. xn. JULI- 20, '67. 



PORTRAITS OP PERCY, BISHOP OF DROMORE. 
I am surprised that the National Portrait Gallery 
does not contain one of the editor of the Reliqucs 
of English Poetry, and have a great desire to 
know where the fine portrait of him by Sir 
Joshua Reynolds is supposed to be, as one of the 
good bishop's grandsons has informed me that the 
representatives are ignorant of its location. It is 
certainly not in Christ Church Hall, where it might 
naturally be expected to be found amongst those 
of the numerous eminent alumni of the house ; 
and it might not have a niche from the fact of his 
not having been a student, for though presented 
with a college living (Easton-M audit in Nor- 
thamptonshire), it might have come to him as 
chaplain, as it is of very small value. Perhaps on 
this point some Christ Church correspondent 
might throw light. The engraving from this por- 
trait is still to be found, representing him in a 
plain black gown and bands, a loose black cap on 
his head, and in his hand the celebrated MS. 
Folio of Ballads, the very existence of which was 
denied by the sceptical Ritson. 

The original of another portrait of him, in 
crayons, Is somewhere supposed to be hidden. A 
copy of this is in the possession of his grandson, 
Major Meade, and an excellent engraving of it 
is to be found in Dr. Dibdin's Decameron, vol. iii. 
It represents Percy at the close of life, and when 
totally blind, feeding his swans in the palace 
garden at Dromore. Information in regard to the 
location of both is sought by OXONIENSIS. 

Alvechurch, co. Worcester. 

PORTRAIT OF MRS. SHELLEY. May I use 
your columns to learn whether r not any portrait 
of Mary W. Shelley, the poet's second wife, has 
ever appeared in any form ? It seems strange that 
there should not be one, when Mrs. Shelley was 
living so lately. W. 

SOLOMON AND THE GENII. When the Fisher- 
man of the Arabian Nights liberated the Genius 
from the vase, that worthy related the following 
story : 

" I am one of those spirits who rebelled against the 
sovereignty of God. All the other Genii acknowledged 
the great Solomon the prophet of God, and submitted to 
him. Sacar and myself were the only ones who were 
above humbling ourselves. In order to revenge himself, 
this powerful monarch charged Assaf, the son of Barak- 
hia his first minister, to come and seize me. This was 
done, and Assaf took and brought me in spite of myself 
before the king his master. Solomon, the son of David, 
commanded me to quit my mode of life, acknowledge his 
authority, and submit to his laws. I haughtily refused 
to obey him, and rather exposed myself to his resent- 
ment than take the oath of fidelity and submission 
which he required of me. In order, therefore, to punish 
me, he enclosed me in this copper vase ; and to prevent 
my forcing my way out, he put upon the leaden cover 
the impression of his seal, on which the great name of 
God is engraven. This done he gave the vase to one of 



those Genii who obeyed him, and ordered him to cast me 
into the sea, which, tu my great grief, he performed 
directly." 

^ Many other Oriental tales likewise make men- 
tion of " Solomon's " dealings with the Genii. I 
would ask if it is not a mistake of the story-tellers 
to attribute such acts to the son of David ? Do 
they not rather belong to the mythical race of 
pre- Adamite princes, who bore the common name 
of Solomon, and, according to the Mahommedan 
creed (set forth in the preliminary discourse to 
Sale's Koran), ruled over the troublesome beings 
called Genii, who occupied an intermediate place 
in the scale of creation, between angels and devils? 

ST. S WITHIN. 

SPROUTING PLATES AND JARS. In Nature and 
Art, vol. i. p. 141, is a drawing of ajar of porcelain 
exhibiting the curious phenomenon of the enamel 
rising in lumps on the outside and inside of the 
vessel. Mr. Frank Buckland, in the second vol. of 
his third series of Curiosities of Natural History, 
describing a plate with the same peculiarity, 
says : 

" At first sight one would imagine bits of common 
washing soda had been scattered over the plate, and at- 
tached to it by gum ; but on close examination with a 
magnifying glass, I observed numerous excrescences of a 
whitish opaque substance, apparently growing or extend- 
ing themselves out of the centre and rim of the plate. 
The largest eruption (if it may be so called) is about the 
size of a fourpenny-bit, and it has raised up a portion of 
the enamel above the surface of the plate to about the 
height represented by the thickness of a new penny- 
piece." 

Mr. Buckland goes on to say the proprietor told 
him that he had refused a cheque for a thousand 
pounds for his specimen. 

Mr. George Chapman, author of the article in 
Nature and Art above alluded to, offers the follow- 
ing as a probable explanation of the phenome- 

m: 

" Carbonate of soda was used in the enamel as a flux, 
the soda forming a glass with the siluric acid or silica. 
The quantities not having been accurately proportioned 
'the carbonate of soda being most likely in excess), a 
slow decomposition (not necessarily on the surface) has 
been going on for a long time. There is hardly a medi- 
aeval window where such decomposition may not be ob- 
served. The atmosphere of all large towns, London 
especially, contains sulphuric acid, the result of the com- 
bustion of sulphur in the coal. The acid has by slow 
degrees combined with the soda and formed sulphate of 
soda, the moisture of the air supplying the water of crys- 
allization. Every equivalent of sulphate of soda takes 
en equivalents, or more than half its weight of water 
)f crystallization ; the increase, therefore, in the bulk of 
alt on crystallizing is very considerable, and hence the 
prouting." 

I wish to know if any specimens exist in any of 
>ur public museums. It would be worth while 
;o look over china-closets, and see if any of the 
irticles have grown since they were deposited 
here. JOHN PIGGOT, JTJN. 






. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



47 



STAINS IN OLD DEEDS, ETC. I have a very old 
map or plan of an estate with the buildings, &c. 
painted on vellum, and another on parchment. 
They are dreadfully stained. How can I get out 
the stains without injury ? AD AM AS. 

JOHN STEPHENS published Dialogues intended 
for Sunday School Reading and^ Recitation, 1828. 
Can any reader who has seen this book inform me 
whether these Dialogues are written in a dramatic 
form, after the manner of Sacred Dramas, and 
whether they are composed by Mr. Stephens^? 
Any information regarding the author and his 
other writings would be acceptable. B. I. 

WALLACE. When was William Wallace, the 
hero in Scottish history, knighted, and by whom ? 
Can any of your readers refer me to an undoubted 
authority ? F. J. J. 

Liverpool. 



LUCIFER. This word is now used as a poetical 
synonym for Satan. Can any correspondent say 
when the use began, and whether it now extends 
beyond the English language ? Lord Byron, ad- 
dressing Napoleon after his overthrow, says 

" Since him, miscalled the morning star, 
Nor man nor fiend hath fallen so far." 

1 doubt not there are earlier examples. But how 
early ? It is certain that in the fourth century 
there was no such use, as Lucifer was then a 
Christian name and borne by a very celebrated 
Bishop of Cagliari. 

My own theory is, that the practice has arisen 
from a popular misunderstanding of the text of 
the Prophet Isaiah, in which, addressing the King 
of Babylon, the Prophet describes him as falling 
from his throne, as if the morning star should 
fall from heaven : " How art thou fallen, 
Lucifer, son of the morning!" I suspect that 
persons who heard this chapter read in church, 
and did not understand the allusion, imagined 
that it referred to the fall of the angels from 
heaven. I have no books within reach to enable 
me to support or discard this conjecture. Does 
Milton anywhere appear to know the word as a 
name of his " hero " ? I believe not. Johnson, 
I find, does not admit it at all in his dictionary. 
MALVERN WELLS. 

["Lucifer is, in fact," says Miss Yonge, " no profane 
or Satanic title. It is the Latin Luciferus, the light- 
bringer, the morning star, equivalent to the Greek 
<c00-<t!p0s, and was a Christian name in early times, 
borne even by one of the popes. It only acquired its 
present association from the apostrophe of the ruined king 
of Babylon, in Isaiah, as a fallen star : ' How art thou 
fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning ! ' 
Thence, as this destruction was assuredly a type of the 



fall of Satan, Milton took Lucifer as the title of his 
demon of pride, and this name of the pure pale herald of 
daylight has become hateful to Christian ears " (History 
of Christian Names, i. 289). 

There is an allusion to the fabled palace of Lucifer in 
Milton's elegy upon the death of Bishop Andrewes. The 
" Luciferi domus " alluded to, we learn from a note in the 
Aldine edition of Milton (iii. 263), is the palace of the 
sun ; and not, as conjectured by T. Warton, the abode of 
Satan. Milton, however, in the Paradise Lost (book v. 
ver. 757), appears to have adopted the popular gloss upon 
Isaiah xiv. See "N. & Q.," 1* S. v. 275, 352.] 

HOPS IN BEER. How long have hops been 
used in brewing of beer ? In the Harleian MS. 
No. 980, fol. 279, it is stated 

" That about the 4th of Henry VI. [1425-6] an informa- 
tion was exhibited against one for putting an unwhole- 
some kind of weed called an hopp into his brewing." 

M. 

[The hop is probably indigenous in England, and in 
common with alehoof, or ground ivy, has been used from 
very ancient times for a bitter condiment to beer ; though 
perhaps its cultivation for the purpose may be of more 
recent date, at which time a foreign name may have 
superseded its vernacular one. Fuller, in his Worthies 
(art. Essex) notices a petition to parliament in the reign 
of Henry VI. against " that wicked weed called hops." 
He says, " They are not so bitter in themselves as others 
have been against them, accusing hops for noxious ; pre- 
serving beer, but destroying those who drink it." In the 
Northumberland Household Book mention is also made of 
hops as being used for brewing in England in the year 
1512. In 1528 their use was prohibited under severe 
penalties. In RastelPs Collection of Entries it is stated 
that " an aleman brought an action against his brewer 
for spoiling his ale, by putting a certain weed called a hop, 
and recovered damages against his brewer." Even Bluff 
Harry, who loved a sparkling glass, appears to have been 
prejudiced against hops ; for in a MS. dated Eltham, 
January, 1530, occurs an injunction to his brewer " not 
to put any hops or brimstone into the ale ! " 

An interesting series of articles on the history of hops 
appeared in Vol. ii. 2nd Series, of " N. & Q.," of which 
the foregoing is a compendious account. ] 

GIDEON OUSELEY. The name of this worthy 
man, mentioned by CUTHBERT BEDE in his in- 
teresting article in 3 rd S. xi. 493, induces me to 
ask when and where Mr. Ouseley died ? I think 
he was an English gentlemen, and a relative of the 
English baronet of that name. In early life he 
became attached to the Wesleyans; was ap- 
pointed a minister; but not liking the bondage of 
obedience to the Conference in matters of resi- 
dence, he broke the bonds, and itinerated in Ire- 
land on his own responsibility. He was remark- 
able for Ijis controversial zeal, on account of 
which he suffered many things. At different 
times, from personal violence, he lost an eye, had 



48 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



XII. JULY 20, '67. 



his arms and legs broken and injured, his ribs 
were broken two or three times, and his life often 
endangered. I think this was his only title to be 
called an Irish missionary. When I was a boy 
I well remember hearing him preach in the West 
of Ireland, at the house of a friend. 

GEORGE LLOYD. 

Darlington. 

[Mr. Gideon Ouseley died at DuMin on May 14, 1839. 
In 1847 was published " A Memorial of the Ministerial 
Life of the Rev. Gideon Ouseley, Irish Missionary : com- 
prising Sketches of the Mission in connection with which 
he laboured, under the direction of the Wesleyan Con- 
ference ; with notices of some of the most distinguished 
Irish Methodist Missionaries. By William Reilly." 
12mo.] 

BIRTHPLACE OF CROMWELL'S MOTHER. The 
late Hugh Miller, in one of his Essays, p. 36, 
mentions an old house near Queensferry, in which 
Oliver Cromwell's mother, Elizabeth Stuart, first 
saw the light." 

Probably he alludes to Rosyth Castle, once the 
seat of the Stuarts of Rosyth, " a branch (as the 
guide-books tell us) of the royal house of Scot- 
land." But I venture to ask on what authority 
the statement rests of Oliver's mother having 
been born in Scotland ? It is not to be found in 
Noble's or Carlyle's memoirs of Cromwell. Her 
family belonged to the town of Ely, and had been 
long settled there, if we may judge from a pas- 
sage in Principal Tulloch's English Puritanism. 

A. COVENTRY. 

[This tradition is thus noticed in the New Statistical 
Account of Scotland, ix. 240 : " The Castle of Rosyth is 
said by Sir Robert Sibbald to have been the seat of 
Stewart of Rosyth or Durisdeer, a descendant of James 
Stewart, brother to Walter, the great Steward of Scot- 
land, and father of Robert II. There is a tradition that 
the mother of Oliver Cromwell was born in it, and that 
the Protector visited it when he commanded the army in 
Scotland. It is now [1836] the property of the Earl of 
Hopetoun." The genealogists assure us, that Elizabeth 
Steward, the mother of the Protector, was " indubitably 
descended from the Royal Stuart family of Scotland," 
and could still count kindred with them. Carlyle's 
Cromwell, i. 31.] 

ARCHBISHOP OF SPALATRO'S SERMON ON RO- 
MANS xin. 12. In a sermon before me, preached 
in July 1618, reference is made to a sermon by 
the celebrated Mark Antony De Dominis, " Arch, 
of Spalat. Ser. on Rom. 12, 13." As the page is 
added, it seems to be a separate publication. I 
should be much obliged to any one who would 
give me the title and date of this sermon, and 
should be glad to get a sight of it if possible. 

Q. Q. 

[It is entitled "A Sermon preached in Italian, by the 
most Reverend father, Marc' Antony De Dominis, Archb. 



of Spalato, the first Sunday in Advent, Anno 1617, in 
the Mercers Chappel in London, to the Italians in that 
City, and many other Honorable Auditors then as- 
sembled, upon the 12. verse of the 13. Chapter to the Ro- 
mans, being part of the Epistle for that day. First pub- 
lished in Italian by the Author, and thereout translated 
into English. London, Printed by John Bill, 1617, 4to.'' 
Copies of both the Italian and English editions are in the 
British Museum and in the Bodleian.] 

24TH OF FEBRUARY. Will any of the well- 
informed correspondents of your valuable journal 
say if the year of the nineteenth century in which 
a document bearing in it the day of the week 
Tuesday, and also the day of the month, Feb. 24, 
can be discovered ? The only result that I can 
obtain from Nicolas's Chronology of History, p. 49, 
50, " Tables of Dominical Letters, tables D and 
E," is, that it was in one of certain given years of 
the several solar cycles of the present century. 

TH. 

[We find no difficulty in our correspondent's question. 
If the 24th Feb. be a Tuesday, the 22nd is a Sunday. Sir 
Harris Nicolas's Table E, in his Chronology of History, at 
p. 50, shows that whenever the 22nd Feb. is a Sunday the 
Dominical letter is D ; and his Table D, at p. 49, shows, 
that during the nineteenth century, the years 1801, 1807, 
1812, 1818, 1824, 1829, 1835, 1840*, 1846, 1852, 1857, and 
18G3, have been the years on which D, either alone or 
jointly, has been the Dominical letter. In one of these 
years, therefore, the document in question was written. 
Our correspondent will find the same information, given 
in perhaps an easier form, in Mr. Bond's Handy Book 
of Rules for Verifying Dates, 8vo, 1866.] 

LEASINGS LEWD. What is the meaning of this 
expression in the Prologue to Gay's " Shepherd's 
Week"?- 

" Ye weavers, all your shuttles throw, 
And bid broadcloths and serges grow, 
For trading free shall thrive again 
Nor hasings lewd affright the swain.'' 

BAR-POINT. 

Philadelphia. 

[This passage from Gay is quoted among the examples 
under the word " Leasing," both in Todd's Johnson and 
in Richardson's Dictionary. The word leasing is there 
explained as meaning "lying rumour, false report ; lying, 
falsehood ; leasing-roongers, dealers in lying." The word 
occurs in Psalm iv. 2. ] 

QUOTATION. Can you tell me whence the well- 
known line 

" Pleased with a feather, tickled with a straw," 
is taken? C. P. M. 

[Pope, Epistle ii.line 275, has the following- couplet : 
" Behold the child, by Nature's kindly law, 
Pleased with a rattle, tickled with a straw."] 




S. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



49 



I 



.ELIUS DONATUS DE GRAMMATICA. 

(3 rd S. xi. 6.) 
THE HISTORY OF PRINTING. 



(1 st S. i. 277. 340, 402; viii. 62; 2 nd S. v. 439; 
xi. 23; xii. 124,171.) 

" It seems unpardonable," says Beloe, in his Anecdotes 
of Literature, iv. 3t>5, "to undertake the giving an ac- 
count of the writers on the subject of Grammar, without 
saying something of Donatus, whose tract on the eight 
parts of speech has afforded so fertile a source of discussion 
to bibliographers. Popular as this tract was, and useful 
as it probably was found, it seems a reasonable conjec- 
ture that in the infancy of typography this might exer- 
cise the first labours of the earlier printers. We know 
that this was the case with regard to Sweynheim and 
Pannartz, Avhose first production it was at their press 
established at the'Subiaco monastery" [in the Cam- 
pagna di Romaj. "They commenced their splendid 
typographical career by working off three hundred copies 
of a small book which they named Donatus pro puerulis, 
of which it is supposed not a single fragment has survived 
to our days." Cotton's Typographical Gazetteer, p. 273. 
Cf. Quirinus de Scriptor. Optim. Editionibus, edit, a 
Schelhornio, p. 233. "Those who are fond of biblio- 
graphical researches respecting the early editions of the 
grammar of Julius Donatus may in addition to what is 
said of them in Warton's interesting note [Price's edit. ii. 
117] consult the facsimile plates of the ancient editions 
printed abroad in Meerman's Orig. Typog. vol. ii., and 
the clear and erudite manner in which Daunon discourses 
respecting the early editions by Sweynheim and Pannartz 
and others." [The labours of Sweynheim and Pannartz 
extended from 1467 to 1475.] 

" Analyse des Opinions diver ses sur TOrigine de Vlm- 
primerie, p. 15 et seq. The following from Mr. George 
Chalmers is well worth subjoining. The Donat which is 
mentioned in this record was a grammar ; from Donatus, 
.a celebrated grammarian, who was the preceptor of St. 
Jerome, and lived at Rome in the year of the Christian 
iora 354. (By an easy transition the Donat came to sig- 
nify the Elements of any art.") Ames and Herbert's 
Typ. Antiq. ed. by Dibdin, vol. ii. 30G. " Donatus non 
Authoris sed libri cujusdam titulus, estque Institutio 
Grammatices, Harlemi ligno foliatim incisa, ibidemque 
circa annum Christi 1440 edita, et sic conglutinata, teste 
P. Scriverio in Tract, de Arte Typographica. Vulgo 
artis Typographic^ primum specimen habetur. Beug- 
hem, Incunabula Typographicc, s. v. Donatus ; cf. Meer- 
man, i. p. 127. " Meerman's book is written with the 
view of demonstrating that Koster was the inventor of 
the art of printing ; and that Harlem, not Mentz, may 

claim the honour of priority Fanciful as his 

hypothesis relating to Harlem and Koster may appear, 
his book contains a great deal of curious and important 
matter, in the greatest degree illustrative of the early 
history of typography. On the subject of the Donatus 
assigned by Meerman to Koster [ante an. 1441] see his 
Orig. Typ. c. v. 16 ;" Beloe's Anecdotes of Literature, iv. 
pp/,%8, 395. cf. Chevillier, p. 283 ; Oudin's Dissert, de 
primis artis typographic^ inventoribus, vol. iii. 2743, and 
Ottley's Inquiry concerning the Invention of Printing, 
p. 166, who gives extracts from another work written to 
support the claims of Haerlem, Dissertation sur Vorigine 
de rinvention et le perfectionnement de Vlmprimerie, par 
Jacques Koning, Amsterdam, 1819, 8vo. 

Meerman describes thirteen early printed editions of 
Donatus, inter alia : Donatus Minor, pag. 1, Icon Docentis. 



pag. 2 ; Icon S. Hieronynii, Char. Goth. Donatus ethim- 
ologisatus ; Char. Goth. Cf. Santander, ii. 380 ; Brunei, 
and Panzer. One edition under this title was printed at 
Spire, a. 1471. (In the Royal Library, Brit. Mus.) 
Another at Memmingen. Donatus Minor cum Remigio 
ad vsum Scholaru anglicanaru pusilloru in domo Caxton 
westmonasterio fWynkyn de Worde], quarto. See 
Dibdin's edition of Ames & Herbert, ii. 306-8. " In the 
Pepysian collection, Cambridge, supposed to be unique." 
Hartshorne. Is it not the same edition as that mentioned 
in the Bodleian Catalogue, 4to, Lond. per Wynandum de 
Worde, s. a. ? Wynkynde Worde, Caxton's journeyman, 
continued printing from 1495 to 1536. Editio altera, 
Donatus pro pueris. Ad calcem, Printed at West- 
mynstre in Caxton's house, by Wynkyn de Worde, Char. 
Goth. 

" It is well known to the learned," says Cotton, " that 
Strasburg (Argentina) is one of those towns which put 
in a claim to the honour of giving birth to the typo- 
graphic art ; and it has been contended by Schcepflin and 
others that John Gutenberg printed here between the 
years 1440 and 1450." See Santander, vol. i. 81, sq.) 

Donatus is supposed to have been the first pro- 
duction of the Gutenberg press at Strasbourg 
between the years 1436 and 1440. See Fischer's 
Typograpliisclum Seltenheiter, pt. 1, p. 86 (referred 
to in the Bibliotheca Spenceriana, iii. 63.) There 
can be no doubt but that Donatus was also printed 
at Mentz, and perhaps by more than one of the 
first printers at that place, Gutenberg, Fust, and 
Schoiffer. See Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana ab 
Angelo Koccha, p. 411, and Santander, ii. 179. 

" Whoever is desirous of having a fair idea of what 
may properly be called the evidence which we possess 
respecting the invention of typography must not too im- 
plicitly trust Santander ; as, to serve the present turn, 
and bolster up his particular opinions, he seldom scruples 
to omit whatever would make against his system, or to 
exaggerate and give a forced interpretation to what he 
thinks in its favour. Thus in quoting the testimony of 
Ulric Zell, in the Cologne Chronicle, he is quite silent 
upon what is said in it of the Donatuses of Holland ; and 
in like manner, when in the few remaining pages of his 
dissertation he has occasion to cite the very interesting 
account of the invention and establishment of printing at 
Mentz, inserted in the Annales Hirsaugienses (see chap, 
iv.), and which was written by the respectable Trithe- 
mius upon the authority of Schoeffer himself, he studi- 
ously leaves out the beginning of the narrative [ad 
annum 1450] evidently because it states that the first 
book printed by Gutenberg and Fust was printed from en- 
graved icooden blocks, and that the idea of separate charac- 
ters did not occur to them till afterwards ; and he thought 
the circumstance likely to throw discredit upon the de- 
positions of the Strasburg process ; which he had before 
introduced, in proof that Gutenberg had attempted to 
print with moveable characters, at Strasburg, as early as 
1436 or 1438." Ottley, p. 150. 

" The earlier productions of the presses of the illustri- 
ous firm of printers, Guttemberg, Fust, and Schoeffer, 
supposed to have been executed "between the years 1450 
and 1455, are The Mazarine Latin Bible in two large and 
magnificent volumes, of which seven copies are known : 
a Donatus (for which consult the catalogue of the Duke 
de la Valliere torn. ii. p. 8, and Denis' Supplement to the 
Annales Typographici of Maittaire, p. 555), and a Confes- 
sio generalis, or Modus Confitendi, a small rudely-executed 
tract consisting of eight leaves in quarto." Cotton, s. v. 
Moguntina. There is a specimen of this portion of Dona- 



50 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3*4S. XII. JULY 20, '67. 



tus in the Valliere Catalogue, and in Heincken's Idee 
Generate d'une collection complete d'Estampes, p. 257, &c. 
" More ample information and discussion on the invention 
of this noble art, and the claims of Guttenberg, may be 
found in Obeiline's Essai sur les annales de la vie de Jean 
Gutenberg, 1801 ; Fischer's Essai sur les monumens Typo- 
graphiques de Gutenberg, 1802, 4to : Danon's Analyse, ut 
supra, 1803, 8vo ; and the better known works of Schoep- 
flin, Meerman, Fournier, Heinecken, and Lambinet." 
Chalmers' Biographical Dictionary, Dibdin's Typographi- 
cal Antiquities. A large number of testimonies in favour 
of Mentz is given in Oudin's Dissert, ut supra, capp. ii. iii., 
and Palmer's General History of Printing, b. i. chap. iii. 
pp. 9, 12. " The original instrument, which is dated Nov. 
6th, 1455, is decisive in favour of Guttemberg ; but the 
honour of single types, made of metal, is ascribed to 
Faust, wherein he received great assistance from his ser- 
vant and son-in-law, Peter Schoeffer," &c. Luckombe's 
History and Art of Printing. " The general opinion of 
late writers is that the art was first perfected at Mentz 
by the famous trio, Fust, Gutenberg, and Schoeffer ; but 
that nevertheless the earliest use of moveable types must 
be recognised in the rude specimens attributed to Lau- 
rence Coster of Haarlem." Blades's Life and Typography 
of William Caxton, i. p. 38. Dibdin, ut supra, describes a 
Donatus without name of printer, place, or date, folio. 
" Whether Pfister [who had a press at Bamberg from 
1461 to 1481, see Bibl. Spencer, i, 94] or Gutenberg be 
the printer of it, it is impossible to speak with decision, 
but every page of the impression wears so rude an aspect 
that I know of few books which carry a stronger ap- 
pearance of having been executed by means of wooden 
blocks than the one under description. It has neither 
signatures, numerals, nor catchwords, and every page ex- 
cept the last contains 25 lines." 

Nuremberg was amongst the first places to 
admit the newly-discovered art of printing. Creus- 
ner printed there from 1473 to 1497. Brunet 
mentions an edition, "Impressum p. Fridericum 
Kreusner" (a Nuremberg, vers. 1472,) which is 
deposited in the public library, as we are told by 
Santander, vol. ii. pp. 380-1. See also Beloe, 
p. 368. 

Augsburgh, Augusta Vindelicorum, was fur- 
nished with the art of printing at a very early 
period. Denis describes a Donatus, Augustas Vin- 
delicorum, per Herman Kaestlin, 1481. In the 
Bodleian. 

In the same year it was printed Venetiis per 
Erhardum Ratdolt. Joannes de Spira established 
his press at Venice in 1469. 

Cologne, Colonia Agrippina, an imperial city of 
Germany, was one of the first towns to receive | 
and adopt the art of printing after it had been 
promulgated from Mayence. Donatus was there 
printed in 1499 and 1500. Panzer describes no 
less than forty-two editions of grammatical tracts 
by this author, or commentaries on them, after 
this date. 

" The popularity of the Ars Grammatica, especially of 
the second part, De octo partibus Orationis, is sufficiently 
evinced by the prodigious number of editions which ap- 
peared during the infancy of printing, most of them in 
Gothic characters, without date or name of place or of prin- j 
ter, and the typographical history of no work, with the I 
exception of the Scriptures, has- excited more interest ; 



among bibliographers, or given them more trouble." 
Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography. 
Santander (vol. ii. 380) describes various fragments of 
the " Donatus," which have at different times been dis- 
covered. See also Sotheby's Principia Typog., p. 129, sq. 

In reference to the beautiful and interesting 
volume entitled Diomedes, Radcliffe (Bibliotheca 
Chetham., vol. ii. No. 5564), remarks : 

" Editio Princeps et Perantiqua ; cum illuminationibus. 
Per Nicolaum Jenson Gallicum. Sine anni et loci indicio. 
( Jenson Venetiis. Artem typographical^ exercuisseab anno 
1461 ad 1481 memoravit Maittaire ap. Annal. Typog. 
vol. i. p. 37, sqq.y The contents, which may be gathered 
from the first leaf (the authors in this collection de re 
grammatica, are Diomedes, Phocas, Caper, Agraetius, 
Donatus, Servius, and Sergius), are given by Beloe, 
iv. 375, and Dibdin's Bibliotheca Spenceriana, iii. 62. 
The former observes, ' This book is by no means of com- 
mon occurrence.' I only know of one, which is in the 
collection of Lord Spencer." " This impression is de- 
scribed with sufficient minuteness by Fossi in the Bibl. 
Magliabech. vol. i. col 615-16." Dibdin. See also De 
Bure, Belles Lettres, i. 2259 ; and Brunet, who remarks 
that it was intended as a sequel to Nounius Marcellus 
printed by Jenson in 1476. 

" I gladly avail myself," says Beloe, " of this opportu- 
nity to pay my tribute of respect to an individual (Jen- 
son) who has "conferred such essential obligations upon 
literature. So sensible of this have the friends of litera- 
ture been that, like Homer, it has been contended what 
place had the honour of his birth ; some having pretended 
that he was a German, and others a native of Denmark. 
The truth is, that he was born in France, and was occu- 
pied in some department of the mint at Tours, in Nor- 
mandy. As our Caxton was sent by Henry VI. at the 
instigation of Bourchier, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Jenson was sent to Mentz by Louis XI., a great friend 
of learning, to be initiated in the mysteries of the new art 

of printing Jenson established himself at Venice, 

and produced a great number of books between the years 

1470 and 1482 It is probable that he died about 

the year 1481, as after that period no book appeared with 
his name. Some writers have erroneously ascribed to 
Jenson the honour of the invention of printing ; but this 
has arisen from a misconception or from a too literal in- 
terpretation of certain passages concerning him, which 
were only intended to claim to him the improvement, 
and not the contrivance of the art." iv. pp. 403-(>. 

" A reimpression of this collection appeared in 1486, 4to, 
Vicent. per Henr. de sancto Urso. Ed. alt. fol. Ven. 
1495. Ed. alt. Jo. Eiuius recensuit, fol. Ven. per Jo. 
Rubeum et Bernardinum fratres Vercellenses, 1511. 
Grammatici varii, sc. Probus; MaxVictorinus; Donatus: 
Seruius ; Sergius ; Attilius Fortunatianus ; Donatianus ; 
Coesius Bassus ; Terentianus Maurus, et Beda ; ed. H. 
Joh. Parrhasio, fol. Mediolani, Joh. Ang. Seinzenzeler, 
1504. Grammatici illustres 12, fol. in sedibus Ascens. 
1516. Diomedes grammaticus aliique decem et novem 
authores, &c. fol. Venet. 1522. Diomedis grammatici 
opus ab Joh. Caesario emendatum ; item Donati de ora- 
tionis partibus et barbarismo libellus ab eodem recogni- 
tus, 8vo. Haganose, per Joh. Secerium, 1526. Rei gram- 
matica} [Scriptores], scil. Palzemon, Scaurus, Donatus , 
&c. 8vo. Basil, per Adamum Petrum, 1527. Gramma- 
tics; Latinse auctores Latini per Heliam Putschium editi. 
4to. Hanov. 1605. Donatus is one of the thirty gram- 
marians in this collection. See De Bure, 2250 ; "Fabricii 
Bibl. Latina, pp. 256-64; ejusdem Suppl. 781-97; Bibl. 
Regia3 Catalogus in Brit. Museo. Corpus Grammaticorum 
Latinorum veterum collegit, auxit, recensuit, ac potiorcm 



3'd s. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



51 



lectionis varietatem adjecit Frid. Lindemannus. 3 vols 
4to, Lips. These are all in the Bodleian library. Gres 
well, in his Annals of Parisian Typography, mentions 
Diomedis de arte grammatica opus utilissimum, pe: 
Joan. Petit. Sequuntur Phocas, Caper, Agraetius, Dona 
tus, Servius et Sergius. Char. Rom. 4to, T. Kerver 
1494. 

The work of Donatus lias usually been pub- 
lished in the form of two or more distinct and 
separate tracts 1. "Ars sive Editio prima, de 
literis, syllabis, pedibus et tonis." This tract was 
printed in Bedae Opp. vol. i. as well as in the col- 
lections of Putschius and Lindemannus. " Editio 
Secunda, de octo partibus Orationis," as above 
also in Bede's Opp. ', but Dr. Giles, in his new 
edition, rejects these, as they can no longer be re- 
tained among Bede's works. To these are com- 
monly annexed, " De barbarismo," (t De soloe- 
cismo," "De ceteris vitiis," "De metaplasmo,' 
" De schematibus," "De tropis." 

BlBLIOTHECAR. CHETHAM. 



CORNISH NAME OF ST. MICHAEL'S MOUNT. 
(3 rd S. xi. 357, 522.) 

'I by no means stated in my communication 
(3 rd S. xi. 357) that St. Michael's Mount could 
not have had two designations. I know well, from 
long study of Cornish names, that most of these 
are significant appellatives, and that these appella- 
tions are taken from some one of many noticeable 
features, and that as different persons would 
choose different characteristics to distinguish the 
same place or object by, it would have several 
names, until one, by common usage and consent, 
came to be considered as , in fact, the proper 
name. 

Nor did I deny that coz, " old," was Cornish. It 
is given as such by Borlase, but I am inclined to 
think he borrowed it from the Armoric. It is not 
found in Williams's invaluable Lexicon Cornu Bri- 
tannicum, but is given in Le Gonidec's Dictionnaire 
Breton- Frangaise. As an Armoric word, however, 
as Le Gonidec says, " dans la bouche de plusieurs 
Bretons," 2 would be sounded th, which would 
make it the same as the Cornish coth, " old," of 
the Lexicon ; but further, as t, ih ; d, dh in old 
Cornish, became in later times s, z, Camden's 
Careg Cowse might be old rock. But this is not 
the term used by either of Camden's translators. 
Gough has Grey; Bishop Gibson, Hoary rock. 
Of course, what is old may be grey or hoary. 

Now, though in this remote corner of England 
I cannot have access to Camden's original Latin 
text, yet I am pretty sure he did not intend, 
whatever word he uses, to mean simply old. 
William of Worcester gives us " le Hpre rok in 
the Wodd ; " Carew gives as the Cornish of this 
in one place (fol. 3) Car a Clowse in Cowse; * and 



* I overlooked this in my former communication. This 
reading fully confirms the conjecture I threw out as to 



in another (fol. 154), by mistake, Cara Coivz in 
Cloivze, rendering both the hoare rock in the wood j 
and as we know that Camden saw Carew's MS., 
what can be plainer than that he took the name 
and its rendering from him, the latter part of both 
being somehow or other omitted ? * 

That the place had the name of St. MichaeCs 
Mount before its connection with Mont Sant Mi- 
chel (Normandy) is plain from the way it is named 
in Domesday, and in the Charter of Edward the 
Confessor given in Oliver's Monasticon, Davies 
Gilbert, &c. By the bye, the Rev. Rice Rees, in 
his Essay on Welsh Saints, published 1836, says 
that the old story of St. Keyna meeting her 
nephew, St. Cadoc, at Mount St. Michael, has no- 
thing to do with Cornwall, the hill in question 
being one so called near Abergavenny, which still 
maintains its sacred character. 

If I am wrong in the illustration I used of 
Penny come quick, I err in good company Pro- 
fessor Max Miiller, in his paper on " The Jews in 
Cornwall" (Macmillan, April, p. 486), using it in a 
similar way. It is true an, not y, is the Cornish 
article. J"is Welsh ; but, as the Welsh and Cor- 
nish were formerly but one language, y may re- 
main as an article in some old names, and it is 
recognised as the article by Lhuyd, Borlase, 
Pryce, &c. JOHN BANNISTER. 

Parsonage, St. Day, Cornwall. 



Having very recently visited the British Mu- 
seum library, I am able to state that Carew is not 
the earliest authority for the old Cornish name of 
the Mount, for it is mentioned by Camden, 
though less fully than by Carew, in the four 
editions of his Britannia (1586, 1587, 1594, and 
1600) published before the date of the first edition 
of the Survey (1602). In each he gives the 
name thus : " Careg Coivse, i. e. rupis cana." Nor- 
den, who is said to have made his survey in 1584, 
gives the name in the same form. 

WM. PENGKELLY. 

Torquay. 

CAEA Cowz IN CLOWZE. Though somewhat 
new to this branch of criticism, I may perhaps be 
able, from my knowledge of the Celtic tongue 



the source of the error (fol. 154). Further confirmation 
is found (fol. 6), where Carew gives Caraclouse as the com- 
mon name of a peculiar stone, now called Catacleuse or 
Catacleu. 

* I should feel obliged to the Editor to give the ori- 
ginal Latin of " Careg Cowse, i. e. a hoary rock." This 
s given by Bishop Gibson as part of the text. So also- 
Philemon Holland, p. 188 (ed. 1610) " Careg Cotvse, that 
is, the hoary crag or rock." The author of the Life of 
Carew, prefixed to the edition of his works, 1769, says, 
' Mr. Camden, in the sixth edition of his Britannia, 
)rinted in 1607, acknowledges, at the end of his account of 
Cornwall, that our author had been his chief guide through 
t." 



52 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. XII. JULY 20, '67. 



in its various dialects, to throw a little light on 
the British name of Sfc. Michael's Mount, as above 
quoted. If I am not mistaken it is Carrig glas na 
cloiehe. As the name appears to have been taken 
down phonetically by Carew, Camden, Gilbert, 
and the other authorities alluded to in your note, 
the words given by them correspond pretty closely 
with the Celtic pronunciation of the name, as I 
suppose it to be. The meaning of rny version, 
however, is not " the grey rock in the wood," but 
" the grey rock of the stone" or seat or chair. 
This derivation includes both "Myghel's Mount 
and Chaire." 

Your readers have all heard of the stone (or 
coronation chair) of Scone, on which the Scot- 
tish kings were crowned ; and the term applies 
equally to the seat on which the great Cornish 
saint was supposed to be " enthroned." There is 
no such word as Clowze or Kuz in the Cornish 
language ; nor is there any expression that sounds 
like either of them which denotes " a wood," so 
far as I know. The name for it in Gaelic is 
Coille ; and although I have not a Cornish dic- 
tionary beside me, I am inclined to think that the 
term used there is not very dissimilar in sound or 
spelling from that which I have given. Whereas 
cloiehe (the genitive of claeh, or stone,) comes 
tolerably near the phonetic Clowze, while it brings 
out precisely the ancient British name of St. 
Michael's Mount Carrig glas na cloiehe , or the 
Grey Rock and Chair. W. M. S. 

Aberdeen. 

PARC AUX CERFS. 
(3 rd S. xii. 8.) 

The Pare aux Cerfs of Louis XV. had a real 
existence, although it has been the subject of 
much exaggeration, especially by writers of the 
revolutionary period. The recent researches of 
M. le Hoi, the conservateur de la Bibliotheque de 
Versaille, have thrown much light on what has 
hitherto been an historical mystery. They are to 
be found in his interesting work entitled Curio- 
sites historiques sur Louis XIII, XIV, et XV, 
Mesdames de Maintenon, de Pompadour, et Du- 
barri, a copy of which is in the library of the 
British Museum. 

The original Pare aux Cerfs was founded by 
Louis XIII. for the rearing of animals for the 
chase, and existed until 1694, when Louis XIV. 
took the land for building. The notorious sera- 
glio of his successor took its name from being 
situated in a street built on the ground. It con- 
sisted of one small house, containing only four rooms 
and a few closets, and was situated in"the present 
Hue St. Mederic at Versailles. It was established 
by Madame de Pompadour as a means of retain- 
ing her influence over the king, when her own 
charms had ceased to captivate him. The house 
was bought for him, as appears by the deed of 



sale dated Nov. 25, 1755. It was closed by the 
last favourite, Madame du Barri, in 1771 : her 
influence over her royal lover having become 
paramount. It passed into private hands, and 
still exists as a private residence. It appears from 
the memoirs of Madame du Hausset, the waiting- 
woman of Madame de Pompadour, that there 
were never more than two women, and very often 
only one at the same time in the house, which 
was frequently vacant for several months. Lebel, 
the king's valet de chambre, was at the head of the 
small establishment under an assumed name, and 
the king himself passed as a nobleman of the 
court. When the favour of the fair prisoner 
began to wane, she was married in the provinces 
with a dowry of 100,000 livres. If she became a 
mother there, she was seldom allowed to retain 
her child, which received an annuity of 10,000 or 
12,000 livres. As years passed on, the recipients 
of this bounty became numerous, and when any 
died the others inherited the portion that had 
thus lapsed. It would be impossible to say what 
may have been the entire outlay on the Pare aux 
Cerfs; but the assertion of the historian Lacre- 
telle, who carries the sum up to a hundred mil- 
lions, is evidently a gross exaggeration as well 
as that of Soulavie, in the Memoirs of the Duke de 
Richelieu, who states that Louis XV. had por- 
tioned off as many as 1800 damsels, who resided 
in various elegant little retreats dispersed up and 
down the Pare. M. le Hoi has reduced all these 
wild reports to the dull level of fact ; and if the 
hoary voluptuary is not exonerated, at all events 
the measure of his iniquity is much lightened. 
In connection with this subject, I may be allowed 
to state that M. le Roi's book contains some very 
curious particulars concerning the two personages 
who established arid brought to a close an insti- 
tution of so peculiar a character. The learned 
librarian has brought to light the contempora- 
neous manuscript reports of the actual cost to 
France of the reign of these two sultanas. The 
sums distributed by Madame de Pompadour, dur- 
ing the nineteen years of her favour, amount to 
36,327,268 livres 16 sous and 5 deniers ; and 
those expended by Madame du Barri, from the 
commencement of her influence in 1769 to the 
time of her death on the scaffold in 1793, reach 
the amount of 12,429,559 livres. M. le Roi gives 
the details of these enormous sums, and very 
curious they are; but it would lead too far to 
enter into further particulars, and I can only refer 
to his interesting- volume. J. B. DITCHEIELD. 



Of the detestable grossness of Louis XV. there 
| can be no shadow of a doubt. On the authority of 
j Lacretelle, Fantin, and Voltaire, The Penny Cydo- 
j padia says, 

" After the death of his mistress, the Marchioness of 
I Pompadour, an ambitious intriguing woman, but who had 



;;rd S. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



53 



4ill some elevation of mind, he became attached to a 
^iiore vulgar woman, Du Barry, and at last formed a re- 
gular harem after the fashion of the Eastern sultans, hut 
more odious from its contrast with European manners, 
which was called the Pare aux Cerfs " (xiv. 168). " The 
court of France, which, from the time of the Merovingian 
founders of the monarchy, had been, with the exception 
of a very few reigns, remarkable for its licentiousness, be- 
came, during the regency and the subsequent reign of 
Louis XV., the abode of the most barefaced profligacy. 
. . . . The accounts of those scenes which have been 
transmitted to us in the memoirs of several of the actors, 
and women too, seem almost incredible." (Madame 
Xecker, Nouveaux Mdangc, Historiques, ii. 39 ; Point/ 
Cyc., iii. 511.)* 

Capefigue (Louis XV et la Societe du 18 e stecle, 
ch. xlix. an. 1774) says, 

" On entrait dans cette societe' dont le mariage de Figaro 
<levint eiisuite V expression, . . . 1'ecole encyclopedique 
avait ravage les idees et les moeurs ; le sensualisme de 
Diderot, les petits contes libertins de Crebillon, de Mar- 
montel, avaient achieve' de dehonter le monde ; c'etait de 
1'ivresse ; le pouvoir se laissait briser comme la famille ; 
on ne s'expliquait meme pas comment une telle demorali- 
sation pouvait durer." 

T. J. BlJCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 



fact, not an unexampled one ; for there is no animal so 
strange as man." 

This was the Devil turning monk with a venge- 
ance! Carlyle quotes as his authorities for this 
singular fact Dulaure and Besenval. Those who 
are well read in French memoirs of the eighteenth 
century will doubtless remember numerous allu- 
sions to this royal pigsty. When we read of such 
practices carried on by a monarch of one of the 
greatest nations of the earth, how can we avoid a 
j feeling of regret at the failure of the dagger of 
j Damiens? Those good folks who believe in "rose- 
water surgery," and who are thrilled with horror 
when they read of the guillotine massacres, should 
remember that, bad as the guillotine was, the Pare 
aux Cerfs and the Lettre de cachet system were in- 
fiuitely'worse. For these and other diseases, le 
rasoir national was a severe but an effectual cure. 
JONATHAN BOTJCHIEE. 
5, Selwood Place, Brompton, S.W. 



This is not a particularly pleasant subject to 
write about j still, as the mission of " N. & Q." is 
to elicit truth and to clear up doubts, unpleasant 
subjects must occasionally be introduced into its 
pages. There can be no doubt that Louis XV., 
who I suppose was one of the most wicked kings 
that ever disgraced a throne, maintained this 
establishment. Sir Archibald Alison (History 
of Europe, ed. 1853, vol. i. p. 181), quoting La- 
cretelle as his authority, says, 

" It was no wonder the Parisians were tired of Louis 
XV. The Pare aux Cerfs alone cost the nation, while it 
was kept up, no less than 100,000,000 francs, or 4,000,OOOZ. 
sterling." 

Again, at p. 182, 

"What is very remarkable, her [Madame du Barri'sJ 
lasting ascendency was founded, in a great degree, on the 
.skill with which she sought out, and the taste with which 
she arrayed other rivals to herself; and the numerous 
beauties of the establishment called the Pare aux Cerfs, 
who were successively led to the royal couch, never 
diminished her lasting influence." 

Carlyle, who is an incontrovertible authority on 
all matters connected with the Revolution and the 
times immediately preceding it, alludes to this in- 
famous establishment in his French Revolution, 
vol. i. p. 14 : 

' Was he (Louis XV.) not wont to catechise his very 
girls in the Pare aux Cerfs, and pray with and for them, 
that they might preserve their orthodoxy ? A strange 

* Of one of these girls for I will not call them ladies 
Mademoiselle Clairon, it was said : 

" Son triumphe le plus certain 
Est d'avoir en debauche egale' Messaline." 

Capefigue, xlvii. '>84 n. 



BATTLE OF BAUGti AND THE CAKMICHAELS 

OF THAT ILK. 
(3 rd S. xi. 120, 483.) 

I should have replied sooner to the remarks of 
J. R. C. on this subject, but I was in hopes of 
having a thorough search in the Lee charter chest 
for any documents bearing on the question ; as I 
find, however, that some time must elapse before 
this can be carried out, I think it better not to 
delay any longer. 

1. J. R. C. assumes that a William de Car- 
michael, mentioned in a deed of 1410, is the same 
person who attests the two documents to which 
he refers, dated 1423 and 1434 respectively. 

This is extremely improbable, looking to the 
average duration of life at the period, and the 
fact that the attestor of the later deed is men- 
tioned in 1437, and must have survived that date 
for a number of years. The explanation is, that 

| they were a grandfather and grandson, and that 
Sir John of Bauge was the son of the one and 
the father of the other. 

What has misled J. R. C. is supposing that, 
because the latter is described as William Car- 
michael of that ilk in 1423, and Dominm ejusdein 
in 1434, it is impossible that at these dates there 
could have been a Sir John in existence, and in 
possession of the family estates. The error arises 

j from inattention to the rules which regulate the 
tenure and transmission of lands in Scotland, and 

i the principles of the feudal system of holdings. 
Through the kindness of my friend Mr. Fal- 

i coner,- of Usk, I have before me the proof sheets 
of a pamphlet he is about to publish upon the 

1 pedigree of the Dalmahoys of that ilk : one entry 
in which illustrates most forcibly the point in 
question. It is as follows : 



54 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



[3" S. XII, JULY 20, '67. 



" Baptism, 1 Septem., 1648. Sir Alexander Dalmalioy, 
KIEK, of that ilk, Dame Marie Nisbet a daughter named 
Agnes. Wit" Sir Luis Stuart of Kirkhill ; Sir John 
Dalmalioy of that ilk." 

Here we have, in the same document, two per- 
sons described as Dalmalioy of that ilk ; but the 
addition of the word Jler in the case of the first- 
named, makes the matter perfectly clear. In the 
same way William de Oarmichael might be most 
properly described as of that ilk, and as Dominus 
ejusdem during the lifetime of his father Sir John. 

In the feudal system you can have no testamen- 
tary destination of lands. Every conveyance must 
be inter vivos. The mode in which an arrange- 
ment to take place after the death of the present 
proprietor is effected, is as follows : He conveys 
his estate simpliciter to his intended successor, but 
adds a clause reserving his own life-rent and the 
power of alteration. Under these circumstances, 
both the grantor and the grantee would be pro- 
perly described as of that ilk. 

Nothing could be more probable than that Sir 
John de Carmichael, when on the point of going 
abroad on a dangerous service, should have made 
a settlement of his estate in the manner described ; 
and I may add that, looking to the personal ser- 
vices which were due to the crown by its vassals 
in the fifteenth century, permission to serve 
abroad could only be obtained by an arrangement 
providing an efficient representative of the baron 
to call out and command the contribution to the 
national army which the barony was bound to 
furnish. And what better representative could 
Sir John de Carmichael have than his eldest son ? 
who would as a matter of course, in all deeds 
with which his father had no connection, be 
thereafter simply described as Dominus ejusdem. 

As to the claim of the Bishop of Orleans to be 
the hero of Bauge, J. R. C. has not answered my 
questions : 

1. If he was in holy orders at the time? in 
which case he could not have used a lance. 

2. In what manner is he to be dovetailed into 
the pedigree of the Carmichaels of that ilk ? 

3. How in those days, when heraldry was a 
science guided by the most stringent rules, and 
before arms could be found and engraved for a 
very moderate honorarium, he could transmit the 
broken spear and the fesse tortile to that family ? 

In regard to the Carmichaels of Meadowflat, it 
is true that, in the History of the Upper Ward of 
Lanarkshire (vol. i. p. 470), 1 state that John, the 
third son of Sir John Carmichael of that ilk, ob- 
tained a charter of these lands in loll. J. R. C., 
however, omits to state that I give as my autho- 
rity the Register May., Sig. LXVIII. 169 ; and that, 
in the immediately preceding sentence, I mention 
that this only occurred on the failure of an earlier 
family of the same name, to members of which 
all his extracts refer. GEORGE VEKE IRVING. 



" MANTJSCRIT VENU DE S TE HELENE " (3 rd 8. xi. 
520.) In reply to LORD LYTTELTO^'S query, I 
beg to transcribe the following, which appeared 
in the French "N. & Q.," I? Intermtdiaire, 
Oct. 31, 1864 : 

" Les Confessions de Napoleon /"'. Je vois annonce 
comme sorti de presse le mois dernier 1'ouvrage suivant : 
Les Confessions de CEmpereur Napoleon, petit memorial 
ecrit de sa main a Sainte-Helene, parvenu en Angleterre, 
traduit et public chez John Murray, h Londres (1818). 
Traduit sur le texte anglais, Foriginal ayant dispara, et 
augmente de notes par Halbert d' Angers, suivies d'une 
notice historique sur le Due de Reichstadt, 1864. In-18 
de 166 pages. Metz, imprim. Jangel et Didion. Qu'est-ce 
que ce livre ? L'enonce du litre dit-il vrai ? Serait-ce 
par hasard le fatneux Manuscrit venu de Sainte-Helene, 
qui fit tant de bruit et qui mystifia si bien tout le monde, 
y compris le Due de Wellington, lorsqu'il fut public par 
le meme libraire Murray? S'il en est ainsi, je rappel- 
lerais que Napoleon fut oblige de desavouer cet habile 
postiche afin de de'tromper 1' Europe, et qu'il n'y a guere 
plus de vingt ans que Ton en a de'couvert Tauteur. 

" Le Genevois Lullin de Chateauvieux, 1'ami de Ma- 
dame de Stael, se trouvant & la campagne dans 1'automne 
de 1816, avait amuse sa solitude de ce jeu d'imagination, 
puis avait jete le paquet & la poste & 1'adresse de Murray, 
sans indiquer qui faisait cet envoi, et sans se douter pro- 
bablement du succes que sa ruse devait avoir. II etait 
parvenu a garder son secret, qui aurait pu perir avec hii. 
comme celui de Junius, si en 1841, ses enfants ayajit ete 
mis sur la trace par une circonstance fortuite, if n'avait 
lui-meme revele Paventure et ouvert le tiroir ou dormait 
depuis un quart de siecle le brouillon de son ouvrage." 

P. A. L. 

PAL^EOLOGTJS (3 rd S. xii. 30.) I examined the 
tablet in Landulph church several years ago. 
The impression on my recollection is that it is 
coeval with the date inscribed. I took a rubbing 
at the time, and if RHODOCANAKIS will favour 
me with a direct communication, I will let him 
see it. H. T. ELLACOMBE. 

Rectory, Clyst St. George, Devon. 

RHODOCANAKIS, I am glad to find, sustains 
what I have for many years considered a just 
scepticism. 

The burial register of St. Michael, Barbados, is 
a copy of an older original, and therefore it is 
extremely doubtful whether the latter contained 
the double row of asterisks which follow the 
entry of " Palseologus," as it now appears. 

There were many Greek merchants at the time 
in Barbados ; besides which, I fancy that " Palte- 
ologus " is no more exclusively " royal " than 
Stewart, Stuart, Tudor, &c. 

The whole story from beginning to end, in- 
cluding the reputed " sojourn" in Ferrara, seems 
to me to be a modern invention not later than 
the time of Ligon, whose History of Barbado* 
Schoniburgk quotes, and who is, so far as I am 
aware, the first quasi authority on the subject. 

SP. 

" OLTMPIA MORATA " (3 rt) S. xi. 465.) Like- 
wise consult M. Jules Bonnet's very interesting 



-i S. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



55 



111 tie volume : " Olympia Morata : Episode lie la 
-naissance en Italic. Chez Grassart, Paris." 
I possess a volume of this celebrated woman's 
w)rks, together with her husband Ccelius S. 
C irio's letters, printed at Basle MDLXX, with a 
dedication by the latter, of 1562, to Queen Eliza- 
beth. On the back of the red morocco binding is 
repeated five times a crowned heart, surrounded 
b y- rays, and fleur-de-lys at the four corners. 

Could I be informed whom the book originally 
belonged to ? P. A. L. 

BOTJRBON SPRIG (3 rd S. xi. 299, 461 ; xii. 38.) 
As the subject has been introduced into " N. & Q.," 
it may interest some readers to pursue it in the 
same; on which account I prefer answering in 
these pages, to sending MB. PINKERTON a private 
communication, which otherwise I should have 
had much pleasure in doing. I am glad to have 
elicited the valuable information which he has 
given of the French name of this pattern, and 
place of its manufacture. As I observed before, 
I possess the identical coffee-cup and saucer which 
the Abbe Deterville brought over at the first 
revolution ; and also the greater part of the set 
which he had manufactured for him in Stafford- 
shire in imitation of it. The flower is not so well 
designed as on the French set : the handles of the 
cups are less graceful, and the saucers rounded in 
the common shape; while the French saucer 
rather turns in, and is more elegant. 

In answer to the inquiry about the marks, my 
French coffee-cup has no mark at all, but the 
saucer has underneath it an oval, surmounted by 
a ducal coronet; and in the oval is a cypher, 
which I have now made out : it contains the let- 
ters G. and A., all is marked in red. In my 
English set, every piece is marked underneath ; 
but with a W between two curved and crossed 
lines, like Hogarth's line of beauty, all in blue 
colour. F. C. H. 

HIGHLAND PISTOLS (3 rd S. xi. 519.) In answer 
to the query put by MR. DA VIES, I may state that 
the Thomas Caddell to whom he refers was a 
famous pistol-maker at Doune, Perthshire, Scot- 
land. Which Thomas Caddell, however, is the 
Thomas after whom MR. DAVIES inquires, will be 
a difiicult matter to settle, seeing that there were 
three generations of pistol-makers father, son, and 
grandson, all of whose names were Thomas. The 
Caddell family came from Muthill in Strathearn, 
and settled at Doune, in 1647. The head of the 
family was a blacksmith, but he subsequently 
became a pistol-maker, and reached such a pro- 
ficiency in the art as to make the Doune pistols 
famous throughout Scotland. The trade was 
carried on by successive generations of the family 
till near the close of the last century. The sup- 
pression of the rebellion in 1746, and the sub- I 
sequent disarmament of the Highlands, was a great j 



blow to it ; in fact, brought about its extinction. 
Some of Caddell's pistols were richly ornamented 
with silver, gold and jewels, and have been known 
to sell as high as sixty gtiinens a pair. The last 
representative of the Caddell family ^ (Doune 
branch) was drowned near Stirling in 1800. 
There is in existence an 

" Inventory of writs of certain subjects in and about 
Doune, which formerly belonged to Thomas Caddell, 
senior, gunsmith, there ; afterwards to Thomas Caddell, 
gunsmith, there ; his son, Thomas Caddell, gunsmith ; 
his grandson, and Thomas Caddell, manager of the Cotton 
Mill at Corsley, his great grandson, and which were 
afterwards acquired by adjudication at the instance of 
James Smith, manager of the Deanston Works, on a trust 
bond granted by Robert Caddell, slater, in Stirling, cousin 
german and heir of the said Thomas Caddell at Corsley," 
&c. 

Pistol-making is now a lost art in Doune. A 
John Campbell tried to carry it on after the Cad- 
dells had retired; but the trade gradually declined, 
and finally became extinct in the hands of a 
John Murdoch. About twenty years after Mur- 
doch's death a John Paterson attempted to re- 
vive the trade; but although he turned out a 
good article, there was no demand, and with 
Paterson, pistol-making in Doune became a lost 
art. As to the " F. H." after whom MR. DAVIES 
inquires, we have nothing but conjecture to fall 
back upon. The owner may have been one of 
the Hays of Errol, among whom Francis was a 
favourite name, and is at present borne by the 
Hon. Francis, who was born in 1864. Or they 
may have belonged to one of the Hamiltons, who 
were created Earls of Haddington in 1619. Or 
they may have been the property of one of the 
Homes, or possibly again of the Hays of Tweedale, 
one of whom at present bears the name of Fre- 
derick. All this, however, is mere conjecture, 
and must be taken quantum valeat. ANON. 

ROBERT BROWNING'S " BOY AND ANGEL " : 
"KYNGE ROBERD OF CTSILLE" (3 rd S. xii. 6.) 
According to Warton (ii. 22.), "SirGowther" 
is only another version of " Robert the Devil," 
and therefore of "Kynge Robert of Cysille." If 
there be verbal similarities between the two men- 
tioned by MR. ADDIS, they are as nothing com- 
pared with the close following of the old poem in 
the modern version of " King Robert of Sicily " 
in Longfellow's Tales of a Wayside Inn so close 
as almost to call for some acknowledgment of the 
source whence the modern " King Robert " is 
taken. LYDIARD. 

THE WORD "DOLE" (3 rd S. xii. 7.) The fol- 
lowing is an instance -of the use of the word dole 
by a living author : 

" Her father laid the letter in her hand, 
And closed the hand upon it, and she died. 
So that day there was dole in Astolat." 

Tennyson's Elaine. 

JONATHAN BOTJCHIER. 



56 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. JULY 20, '67. 



CHEVERS FAMILY (3 rd S. x. 403, 462.) It has 
not, I believe, been shown clearly who immedi- 
ately succeeded Edward Chevers, who was created 
Viscount Mount Leinsfer by James II. Upon 
this point our leading authorities appear to me 
obscure and contradictory. According to Burke 
(Extinct, Dormant, and Abeyant Peerages, 3rd 
ed.), Lord Mount Leinster had an only brother, 
Jerome, succeeded by his sons Christopher and 
Francis, of whom there are now no male descend- 
ants. This statement is confirmed in " N. & Q." 
3 rd S. x. 462, by ME. JOHN D'ALTON. We are, 
however, told elsewhere by this authority (King 
James 1 s Irish Army List, vol. ii. p. 788), that 

"After much litigation, Andrew and John Chevers, 
the brother and heir " [sic] "of Viscount Mount Leinster, 
succeeded in preserving a portion of the estates allotted 
to the family in Galway ; and the male line of Andrew 
becoming extinct on the death of his son Hyacinth, John 
Chevers became the representative of the house of Kil- 
lyan." 

It appears difficult to reconcile these two sets 
of statements. Had Lord Mount Leinster more 
than one brother ? If so, what were their names ? 

CALCTJTTENSIS. 

JOHANNES SCOTTJS EfilGENA (3 rd S. xii. 7.) A 

complete edition of the works of this great man 
was published by the Abbe Migne at Paris in 
1853. The price is about eight or ten francs. 
There is a copy of it in the London Library, 
12, St. James's Square. K. P. D. E. 

DRYDEN QTJEEIES: "NEYES" (3 rd S. xii. 7.) 
I have not Dryden's plays to refer to, but pro- 
bably neyes means eyes. There is an undoubted 
instance of this in a quotation given in Jesse's 
History of the British Dog, vol. ii., where, at a 
bear-baiting, the bear is described " with his two 
pinke neyes." Is not this, by the way, the ety- 
mology of the name Pinckeney ? It is an instance 
of the " epenthetic n" so common in old English. 
In my new edition of Piers Plowman, the first 
volume of which is just ready, the various read- 
ings furnish several instances. Thus, in the pro- 
logue, 1. 42, instead of at the ale," some MSS. 
have "atthewa/e" or "at nale" ; and again, in 
Passus V. 1. 115, instead of "at the oke (oak) " 
most MSS. have " at the noise " or " atte noke." * 
Hence the explanation of the phrase "for the 
nonce," which simply means " for the once " 
(A.-S. _for than anes), but which so puzzled 
Tyrwhitt, one of our greatest scholars, that he 
was driven to conjecture a derivation from the 
Latin pro nunc. The history of this n seems to be 
simply this, that the dative of the article takes 
the form than in the masculine and neuter in early 
English, and the accusative masculine takes the 
forms then, than, thane, thene. But when the 
noun following began with a vowel, this n was 



* Hence, John a Noakes, or John Nolies. 



transferred to the beginning of such word, and 
this transfer took place not only in the dative and 
accusative cases, but often in all cases for the mere 
sake of euphony, so that we not only find " the 
neyes " in the oblique cases, but even in the 
nominative case. Nor did this addition of n stop 
here ; we may go a step further, and dismiss the 
article altogether, and speak of " two pinke neyes.'''' 
To add to the confusion thus introduced, we have 
numerous instances of the reverse process, the 
taking away of an n, so that instead of a naddcr, 
we now absurdly write an adder. See Ulphilas's 
translation of Luke iii. 7 " kuni nadre," i. e. O 
kin of nadders, O generation of vipers. Other in- 
stances are, an auger, an umpire, miswritten for 
a nauger (a gnawing or biting tool), and a numpirc 
(O. Fr. noumpere). "WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Cambridge. 

LAYING GHOSTS IN THE RED SEA (3 rd S. xii. 
8.) Addison, in No. 12 of The Spectator, allud- 
ing to his London lodgings at a good-natured 
widow's house one winter, observes that on one 
occasion he entered the room unexpectedly, when 
several young ladies, visitors, were telling stories 
of spirits and apparitions; when, on being told 
that it was only the gentleman, the broken con- 
versation was resumed, and 

" I seated myself by the candle that stood at one end 
of the table ; and pretending to read a book that I took 
out of my pocket, heard several stories of ghosts that, 
pale as ashes, had stood at the bed's foot, or walked over 
a churchyard by moonlight ; and of others that had been 
conjured into the Red Sea, for disturbing people's 
rest," &c. 

Brand, vol. iii. p. 72 (Bohn), gives a long ex- 
tract from Grose : a small portion of which I will 
cite, referring E. L. to that article for the rest : 

" A ghost may be laid for any term less than a hun- 
dred years, and in any place or body, full or empty as 
the solid oak ; the pommel of a sword ; a barrel of beer, if 
a yeoman or a simple gentleman ; or a pipe of wine, if an 
esquire or a justice. But of all places, what a ghost least 
likes is the Red Sea ; it being related in many instances 
that ghosts have most earnestly besought exorcists not to 
confine them in that place. It is nevertheless considered 
an undisputed fact that great numbers are laid there, 
perhaps from its being a safer place than any nearer at 
hand, though neither history nor tradition" give any 
account of an escape thence before their time." 

I think we may perceive a mixture here of the 
classic fable of the wandering ghosts of unburied 
men ; and the miracle of the casting out of the 
devils, and their request to our Lord in the Gospel 
history. J. A. G. 

Carisbrooke. 

In the form of exorcising persons possessed by 
the devil, prescribed in the Roman Ritual, the 
evil spirit is thus adjured by the exorcist : 

" Cede ergo Deo + , qui te et malitiam tuam in Pharaone, 
et in exercitu ejus per Moysen servum suum in abyssum 
demersit." 



' S. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



57 



This probably was the origin of laying a ghosl 
ii the Red Sea. In an amusing poem, entitled 
" The Ghost of a boiled Scrag of Mutton/ 1 
rc hich appeared in the Flowers of Literature about 
sixty years ago, there was the following verse 
e nbodying the idea: 

" The scholar was versed in all magical lore, 
Most famous was he throughout college ; 
To the Red Sea full many an unquiet ghost, 
To repose with king Pharaoh and his mighty host, 
He had sent through his powerful knowledge." 

F. C. H. 

Captain Grose, in hi* Provincial Glossary, 
says : 

" Of all places the most common, and what a ghost 
least likes, is the Eed Sea : it being related, in many 
instances, that ghosts have most earnestly besought the 
exorcists not to confine them in that place. It is never- 
theless considered as an indisputable fact that there are 
an infinite number laid there, perhaps from its being a 
safer prison than any other near at hand." 

Although this passage does not answer the 
question, it may be of use to your correspondent 
E. L. K. F. W. S. 

ENGRAVED OUTLINES: No. vin. (3 rd S. viii. 
29.)- 

" Suenan chirimias, y sale escuchando el Arzobispo DON 

BERNARDO, y en acabando de tocar, cantan dentro. 
*' Music. En el pozo esta el tesoro 

Mas rico que la plata, y mas que el oro, 
Bebed, bebed, que nativa 
Esta la mina en el del agua viva. 
Calderon, La Virgen del Sagrario, Jorn. iii. 
t. i. p. 420, ed. Keil, Leipsique, 1827. 

The stage-direction and the verses correspond 
so nearly, that I think there can be no doubt 
that the outline is intended to illustrate the above. 
La Virgen del Sagrario is not one of Calderon's 
prominent dramas, and I am not aware that it has 
been translated into English. Further inquiry is 
desirable. 

The engraving No. vii. does not suit any pas- 
sage in La Virqcn. II. B. C. 



I. U. Club. 



BISHOP BUTLER'S BEST BOOK (3 rd 8. xii. 23.) 
The passage referred to, but somewhat inaccurately, 
by Mr. Froude, occurs in the preface to Bishop 
Butler's Sermons : 

" For the sake of this whole class of readers, for they 
are of different capacities, different kinds, and get into this 
way from different occasions, I have often wished that it 
had been the custom to lay before people nothing in mat- 
ters of argument but premises, and leave them to draw 
conclusions themselves ; which, though it could not be 
done in all cases, might in many." 

S. L. 

FAMILY OF DE TONI : ARMS (3 rd S. vii. 497.) 
It is incidentally stated in the discussion on " Al- 
bini_Brito: the Heraldic Puzzle" that the De 
Tonies, descended from Ralph de Toni, standard- 



bearer to William the Conqueror, bore eagles for 
their arms. I shall be very much obliged for an 
authority for this statement, as it appears from a 
Roll of Arms of the reign of Edward I. in the 
possession of the Society of Antiquaries, and pub- 
lished in The A.rcha?ologia (vol. xxxix. pp. 402-421 ) 
that the arms of Rauf Thorney were argent a 
maunch gules. I notice (p. 420) that to Lucas 
Thani are assigned azure, three bars argent ; and 
to Richard Thani argent, six eagles displayed, 
sable. I conceive that the last-mentioned persons 
were of a different family, and that the descend- 
ants of the Conqueror's standard-bearer bore the 
arms first blazoned. Any definite information 
upon this point will be esteemed a favour. 

JOHN MACLEAN. 
Hammersmith. 

JOHNNY PEEP (3 rd S. xii. 5.) In reply to the 
query of H. K., I beg to state that I assigned the 
story to Drummond of Hawthornden on the autho- 
rity of Ruddiman, the poet's biographer, as quoted 
in Chambers's Lives of Illustrious Scotsmen. I was 
quite aware that the anecdote had been popularly 
connected with Burns, and that it was also as- 
signed to some other poets. Whether the story 
is correctly attributed to Drummond I cannot say, 
but most certainly it has been erroneously given 
to Burns, unless we are disposed to accuse the 
great Scottish bard of plagiarism, of which he was 
certainly incapable. It is, I find, extremely diffi- 
cult to obtain the original version of a story. The 
anecdote about Burns and the Cumberland yeo- 
men I feel satisfied had no foundation whatever. 
CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 
2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham, S.E. 

THE LATE REV. R. H. BARHAM : " DICK'S LONG- 
TAILED COAT" (3 rd S. xi. 476, 531.) I have just 
had the number of Blackwood sent me in which 
fi Dick's Long-tailed Coat " appears. It is headed 
"Family Poetry, No. 1." April, 1831, No. CLXXIX. 
vol. xxix. The first verse is this : 
" Zooks ! I must woo the Muse to-day, 
Though line before I'd never wrolte. 
' On what occasion ? ' do you say ? 
Our Dick has got a long-tail'd coat ! " 

11 My Cousin Nicholas " was begun in Blackwood, 
No. ccxx., April, 1834, vol. xxxiv. It is possible 
the title may have been altered to " Nick's Long- 
tailed Coat," but still I should be glad of any in- 
formation as to why it is omitted from the In- 
goldsby Legends, amongst which it seems to deserve 
a place quite as much as " Misadventures at Mar- 
gate," or " Nursery Reminiscences," &c. &c. 

R. C. S. W. 

WALSH OF CASTLE HOEL (3 rd S. xii. 14.) 
Apart from the question of family, I should be 
glad if PINGATORIS would favour me with the 
details of his reference (Harl. MS. No. 1143), as I 
am unable to consult it. May I ask at whaf 



58 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. XII. JULY 20, '67. 



period, and by ivhom, the arms mentioned were 
assigned to Kadwalader ap Gronwy, for this 
reason, that heraldic ordinaries, I am inclined to 
believe, were of Norman introduction, and are, so 
far as I am aware, never found in the arms of 
ancient Keltic (?) families ? I lately heard some 
very suggestive remarks, by an Irish scholar, on 
the question of the latter arms, but should scarcely 
be warranted in bringing them forward in aid of 
my hypothesis. The prototype of the arms of 
Walsh of Castle Hoel, according to my suggestion, 
are amongst the most ancient in the kingdom (as 
will be seen by a reference to a copy of Dugdale's 
Warwickshire, in the British Museum), and there- 
fore there is no disparagement of Walsh. SP. 

BUTTERFLY (3 rd S. xi. 342, 449, 506.) Perhaps 
it is worth while to add to the quotations already 
given, the following one from one of the " old 
masters " of the English language : 

" And so befel that as he cast his eye 
Among the wortes on a boterflye, 
He was war of this fox that lay ful lowe." 

Chaucer : Nonne Prestes Tale, 1. 453. 
WALTER W. SEE AT. 
Cambridge. 

TOMB AT BARBADOS (3 rd S. xii. 9.) There was 
a full account of this tomb, or rather vault, of the 
Chase family, with a drawing of the position of 
the displaced coffins, in The Spiritualist Maga- 
zine about three years ago, and another by my- 
self in No. 335 of the Dublin University Magazine 
(1860). The builder and first owner of the vault 
was a Mr. Elliott. After a lapse of many years, 
there being no representative in the island of the 
Elliott family, Colonel Thomas Chase took posses- 
sion of the vault, and then commenced the phe- 
nomena in question. SP. 

A. C. M. will find this mystery related and dis- 
cussed in Once a Week, 1st series, vol. xii. pp. 319, 
476, 560. At p. 476 it is suggested that an influx 
of water might cause the disturbance of the 
coffins. JOHN ADDIS, JUN. 

TWO-FACED PICTURES (3 rd S. xi. 257, 423, 510.) 
There have been signs constructed on this prin- 
ciple in this city, except that three faces were 
presented. A person coming up the street would 
see the likeness of one person, and when directly 
opposite of another, whilst one coming down the 
street would see a third likeness. A brewer's 
firm, consisting of three persons, had their names 
placed upon their sign in this way. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

I have Just found what is perhaps the oldest 
recorded instance of a two-faced picture in a note 
on the absurd apeing of Alexander by Caracalla, 
in Gibbon's Decline and Fall, Oxford ed. 1827, 
chap. vi. p. 165. Caricatures had been seen byHe- 
rodian (lib. iv. p. 154), " in which a figure was 



drawn with one side 'of the face like Alexander, 
and the other like Caracalla." ARCHIMEDES. 

PLATS AT ETON (3 rd S. xi. 376, 467.) Having 
looked in vain for an answer to the question of 
R. I. respecting plays at Eton, I beg to tell him 
all I recollect on the matter, which, however, is 
but little. I left at election 1831, and early in 
that year, or late in 1830, a play was acted in 
Long Chamber. We rehearsed for The Rivals ; 1 
say " we," for I was at first a member of the corps 
dramatiquc, but was soon found to be so hope- 
lessly bad, that the manager was compelled to re- 
ject my services, and I resigned at once and for 
ever all pretensions to histrionic fame. If my re- 
collection does not fail me, after several rehearsals 
this play was given up, because " Bob Acres " was 
not satisfied with his performance of that part. 
What other play was substituted I am not quite 
sure, but I am confident it was not an original 
piece, written or adapted for the occasion. I think 
I heard afterwards that " Keate " expressed his 
disapprobation of the theatrical attempt in such a 
manner as prevented any recurrence of the Long 
Chamber stage. C. Y. CRAWLET. 

OLD SEALS ON CHARTERS, ETC. (3 rd S. xii. 25.) 
Bees' wax was used for the more ancient seals. 
What is now used is lac. (See Kitto, Matt, xxvii. 
66 ; also "N. & Q." 3 rd S. xi. 527.) The method 
of the Arabs at the present day is of great an- 
tiquity. " The seal-ring is used for signing letters 
and other writings; and its impression is con- 
sidered more valid than a sign manual." (Gen. xii. 
42, Job ix. 7.) The modern Egyptians " dab a 
little ink upon it with one of the fingers, and it is 
pressed upon the paper, the person who uses it 
having first touched his tongue with another 
finger, and moistened the place on the paper 
which is to be stamped." (Lane's Mod. Egyp., 
L. E. K., i. 44.) The necessitv of sealing arose 
from the universal ignorance of writing. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

" MORNING'S PRIDE " (3 rd S. xii. 36.) If MR. 
HOSKTNS-ABRAHALL will look again at his Chris- 
tian Year he will see it is almost inevitable 
that Mr. Keble referred to the rainbow, mentioned 
in verse 2, as the context to the word pride in 
verse 3, which runs on without any break in the 
language ; thus we have " from thee" i. c. from 
the rainbow, "the swain takes timely warning/' 
&c. Shower and rainbow, rainbow and showers 
frequently alternate with great rapidity. I re- 
member to have counted three different rainbows 
in one mountain ramble of about ninety minutes, 
in Westmoreland ; but in my former remarks I re- 
ferred more particularly to the counties of Middle- 
sex, Bucks, and Berks. It appears that "Morning's 
Pride " is called a shower by some, a mist by 
others : do we not all mean the same ? A mist 



. XII. JULY 20, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



69 



HI. ,y rise in one locality, and fall as a shower at a 
fe v miles' distance. This subject has been well 
tr >ated by an artist in the Art- Journal, where he 
presents studies of mist rising here and falling 
ttere almost within compass of the same land- 



scipe. 



A. II. 



Vis (3 rd S. xii. 25.) There are many examples 
tc be met with in other languages, but I think al 
n: ay be traced up to the words of Solomon, Eccles 
x. 19 : i?3H nN n:iT t|D3 " Money answers 
all things." S. L. 

CONSECRATION OF A CHUKCH BY AN ARCH- 
DEACON (3 rd S. xii. 24.) The archdeacon is the 
bishop's vicegerent or substitute, having eccle- 
siastical dignity and jurisdiction next after the 
bishop. He examines candidates for holy orders, 
and inducts clerks, upon receipt of the bishop's 
mandate. (Wood's Inst.~) EDWARD J. WOOD. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, translated by 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Inferno. (Routledge.) 
The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, translated by 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Purgatorio. (Rout- 
ledge.) 

The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri, translated by 
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. Paradiso. (Routledge.) 
The great works of great poets should be translated by 
nasters of the art. George Chapman, Pope, and Cowper, 
busied themselves to tell in English the great Homeric 
story ; and glorious John did not think it beneath him 
to translate for English readers the writings of the Man- 
tuan Bard. In the same way Dante has here found an 
able and sympathising translator in one who has won 
his own wreath of laurel, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. 
Mr. Longfellow has many qualifications for the labour of 
love which he has undertaken. In the first place he has 
the great one of true poetic feeling, which enables him to 
sympathise with his author, and thoroughly enter into his 
spirit and feeling. Next, he is well versed in the wide 
range of Dantesque scholarship : so that the three 
volumes before us present us, not only with an admirable 
version of The Divine Comedy, but a large body of notes 
and illustrations, well calculated to make the English 
reader understand and appreciate more fully the scope 
and object. of that mighty work. 

A Martyr to Bibliography : a Notice of the Life and 
Works of Joseph-Marie Querard, Bibliographer. Prin- 
cipally taken from the Autobiography of Mar Jozon 
D'Erquar (Anagram). With the Notices of Gustave 
Brunet, J. Asseyat, and Paul Lacroix (Bibliophile 
Jacob), and a List of Bibliographical Terms after 
Perquin. With Notes and Index. By Olphar Thomas, 
Esq., Ac. (Russell Smith.) 

A little volume of great interest and value. Of great 
interest for the amount of information it contains rela- 
tive to the life and labours of one who was in sooth a 
martyr to the art he loved so well ; and of great value 
because it may awaken in all who read it a juster estimate 
of the importance of bibliography. Our readers will 
probably recognise in the anagrammatic name of the 
author a gentleman to whom " N. & Q." has been fre- 
quently indebted for valuable bibliographical communi- 
cations. 



1 A Complete Concordance to the Poetical Works of John 
Milton. By Charles Baxter Cleveland, LL.D., Author 
of the " Compendiums of English, American, and Clas- 
sical Literature." (S. Low.) 

What, the reader may exclaim, another Concordance 
to Milton ! Yes, indeed^ and not before it was wanted. 
Dr. Cleveland tells us that, having occasion to consult 
Todd's Index in connection with Lycidas, he found the 
first two references to which he turned to be wrong. 
Further examination disclosed sixty-three mistakes in its 
references to that short poem of 193 lines. More or less 
time daily, for upwards of three years, did the Doctor 
devote to a Verbal Index of Milton's Poetical Works, in 
the course of which he discovered no less than three 
thousand three hundred and sixty-two mistakes in the 
Index of his predecessor. This Concordance was origin- 
ally published twelve years ago ; since that its accuracy 
has been tested by private scholarship and public cri- 
ticism, and not found wanting. Mr. Low has therefore 
done good service by placing this handsome volume, which 
is applicable to all editions, in the hands of the admirers 
of John Milton. 



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10 

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GEORGE LLOYD. Some notices of the French version of the Psalms by 
Clement Marot and Theodore Beza may be found in Warton's History 
of English Poetry, ed. 1840, iii. 142-144, and in Holland's Psalmist of 

Britain, i. 45, 47, 93 The Introduction to Robert Parsons's Jesuits' 

Memorial, 1690, is by Edward Gee, and not Charles Lee. 

OXONIENSIS. Some interesting particulars of Dr. Deacon, the noiy- 

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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. XII. JULY 20, '67. 



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NOTES AND QUERIES. 



61 



LONDON, SATURDAY, JULY 27, 18G7. 



m CONTENTS NO 291. 

NOTES : Last on Shakespeare, 61 Verna : Creole, &c., 62 
"Empress of Morocco:" "Macbeth" Travesty, 63 
Lucretius French Notions of England " Improve- 
ment" Thomas Moore The Caribs Emigrants 
Mottoes of Companies, 64. 

QUERIES : " Blessing of the Bells" John Bruen, of 
Brueu Stapleford, Cheshire Cap-a-pie Chinese News- 
paper Classic Marquis D'Aytone " Excelsior "Font 
Inscription Rev. J. Guthrie Hasty Pudding Im- 
mersion in Holy Baptism Immortal Brutes Nomas- 
ticon Cistersiense " Assumption of a Mother's Name 
Surname of " Parr" Quotations Smith Queries- Arms 
of Sound, &c. Stuart of the Scotch Guard Titles of 
the Judges Dudley Woodbridge, Esq., 65. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Sir John Bourchier Gene- 
ral Oglethorpe Richard Duke The Blacas Collec- 
tion, 68. 

REPLIES : John Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, Assassin 
of the Regent Moray, 69" Morning's Pride," 70 English 
Cardinals, 71 The Puzzle of the late Archbishop of Dub- 
lin, Ib. Poetic Pains, 72 Stool Ball Junius, Burke, 
&c. "AVhen Adam delved," &c. Funeral Custom 
Bishop Nicolson Curfew at Newcastle-on-Tyne Pun- 
ning Mottoes " Form " Thatched Churches Query 
on Pope " Endeavour " as a Reflective Verb " But 
with the Morning," &c. Penny " Conspicuous from its 
Absence" Palindromics Stansh'eld : Smyth Old Seals 
on Charters, &c. Lines on the Eucharist Bishop Gif- 
fard, &c. Sir John Oldmixon Charles Lamb's " Elia " 
Translations Manna Louis XVI. on the Scaffold 
Letter from Kimbolton Library Nautical Saying 
Oysters with an R in theMonth Cottle Family, &c., 73. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



LAST ON SHAKESPEARE. 
So I entitle these the last remarks that I shall 
make on Shakespeare's plays. If any one will 
add them to my Shakespeare-Expositor, he will 
then have the whole of my labours in the cor- 
rection and elucidation of those immortal dramas. 

" To me she speaks ; she moves me for her theme." 
Comedy of Errors, Act II. Sc. 2. 

As "moves" makes very bad sense here, we 
might read uses, or some similar word ; but I am 
strongly persuaded that the poet's word was loves, 
and, I and m being adjacent letters, the compositor, 
by a most common mistake, took up the latter 
we have, I think, in our poet two instances of this 
confusion of even t and w and as "moves" was a 
good English word, the error was not detected. 
" She loves me for her theme ! " *. e. she pretends 
to love me, to have a theme to expatiate on, as 
she has been doing pronounced in a tone of utter 
astonishment, must have had a most comic effect. 
In my Edition I heedlessly followed Singer in 
reading, with Collier's folio, means for " moves " 
here, and draws for " drives " three lines lower 
down. This speech of Antipholus, and another 
towards the end, should be marked Aside. In 
three of the following speeches we should give 
Adr. not Luc., for Luciana is throughout of a 



sweet, gentle character. The last speech is justly 
given to her. By the way, in King John, Act II. 
Sc. 1, the first and third speeches should be headed 
.fiT. Philip, and not Lewis. 

" Me shall you find ready and willing." 

Taming of the Shrew, Act IV. Sc. 4. 

A word or more has evidently been lost at the 
end. In my Edition and Expositor I supplied 
both ; but I find that elsewhere this word always 
precedes those with which it is joined. The lost 
words may then have been as you, or at once, or 
something similar. 

" The fairest grant is the necessity." 

Much Ado about Nothing, Act I. Sc. 1. 

Those who have written notes on this did not 
understand it, and perhaps the same may be true 
of those who are silent. Yet the meaning is plain, 
though peculiarly expressed. It is this : the 
fairest, most gracious grant of your suit by Hero 
is the necessity, the thing needed, what we want. 
It is not improbable that the poet wrote " is thy 
necessity," which would make the passage less 
enigmatic. 

" The luce is the fresh fish ; the salt fish is an old 
coat." Merry Wives of Windsor, Act I. Sc. 1. 

Shallow had asserted that "the dozen white 
luces " was an old coat, and Sir Hugh had mis- 
understood him. He here corrects him, telling 
him that the luce was the fresh-water fish of that 
name. He then adds, "the salt fish is an old 
coat too" if he was alluding, as is supposed, to 
the arms of the Fishmongers' Company, "Azure, 
two sea-luces in saltire with coronets over their 
mouths"; or he may have only reiterated his 
assertion, saying "the same fish is an old coat," 
and the printer, misled by "'fresh fish," may have 
made it " salt fish." 

" That no dram of a scruple, no scruple of a scruple." 
Twelfth Night, Act III. Sc. 4. 

Whether the critics have understood this or 
not, I cannot say, as I have never seen a note on 
it ; but, to niy shame, I must honestly confess that 
I myself have misunderstood it, in the strangest 
manner. I could of course explain how I caine 
to do so, but " it skills not." To understand it, 
we must take the first and last " scruple " in the 
moral sense, the second as the weight, the third 
part of the dram. I owe this simple and natural 
explanation to J. J. A. Boase, Esq., of Alverton 
Vean, Penzance, the best Shakespearian I have 
ever known. 

" And to thrill and shake, 
Even at the crying of your nation's crow, 
Thinking his voice an, armed Englishman." 

King John, Act V. Sc. 2. 

Here again we have nonsense ; for no one hat 
ever heard of the crow as peculiar to France. 
Collier's folio read crowing and cock for "crying" 



62 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII, JULY 27, '67. 



and " crow," but that is poor. I believe the rea 
word to have been " crower," a word no doubt o 
the poet's coinage, like many others, but in stric 
accordance with analogy. The Bastard, we maj 
see, has been using the most insulting and dis- 
paraging language to the French, and what wa, 
more natural than that he should contemptuously 
term the bird that was regarded as their emblem 
the "crower?" We may observe that s has beer 
effaced at the end of the following line, and so t 
or er may have been effaced here. The play, w( 
may recollect, had been lying for nearly thirty 
years in the play-house. "This explanation,' 
says Mr. Boase, " is very happy, and so simple 
that it would seem marvellous it should not have 
been thought of before, were it not that we fine 
the moral of the old story of Columbus and the 
egg being constantly repeated. The line in which 
' crow ' occurs, and the next, afford strong sup- 
port to the theory of effacement." 

The following corrections seem better than those 
in my Edition and Expositor : 

"The match is made and all is done. So, Sir, 
Your son shall have my daughter with consent." 
Taming of the Shreu; Act IV. Sc. 4. 

" Camillo is 

A federary with her ; and one that knows 
Of her what she should shame to know herself." 

Winter's Tale, Act II. Sc. 1. 

" To Tenedos they come * * * [with favouring winds? 
Troilus and Cressida, Prol. 

In Coriol. i. 10, when proposing the substitution 
of household hearth for " brother's guard," I quite 
forgot to notice that that very phrase occurs in 
Milton's Samson Agonistes, v. 566, in my note on 
which place I had actually made the correction in 
Shakespeare. 

My Expository in fine, is of course far from fault- 
less, and perhaps il sent la vieillesse. I certainly 
regard it as being inferior to my " Comment 
on the Poems of Milton," but I believe it to be 
nearly indispensable to the student of Shakespeare. 
As to the critical notices which I have seen of it 
if they are so to be termed with a few excep- 
tions, they show nothing but ignorance and ma- 
levolence. Few indeed are qualified to give an 
opinion on critical emendations. 

THOS. KEIGHTLET. 



VERXA: CREOLE (GET, GETT, GEET, ETC.): 
BAIRN. 

The connection of the two senses of verna, (1) 
" a native," (2) " a home-born slave," may have 
been but to the best of my knowledge has not 
been elucidated. I think the modern words 
given above worthy of comparison. 

Creole ( Criotto} is rightly interpreted by a cc 
*pondent of "N. & Q." 1 st S. viii. 504. It 



res 



cor- 
is 



now applied to "natives" of the Tropics, men of 
whatever race, animals &c., provided they ba 
" native." That it once, however, implied a mix- 
ture of blood is clear from Acosta's Hist, da las 
Indias, lib. iv. cap. 25 (p. 257, ed. Madrid, 1608) : 

" Esta fruta [he is speaking of the chicozapote~\, dezian 
algunos Criollos (como alia llama a los nacidos de Espa- 
iioles y Indias) que excedia a todas las frutas de Espana." 

It is thus defined in the Diccionario por la Real 
Academia Espanola (ed. 1729) : 

" El que nace en Indias de Padres Espanoles, u de 
otra nacion que no sean Indios. Es voz inventada de los 
Espah'oles conquist adores de las Indias y comunicada por 
ellos en Espafia. Lat. Patria Indus, genere Hispanus." 

The invention of the word by the Spanish con- 
querors is open to doubt. Rather it seems to 
have come from the mother country, and to have 
been contemptuously applied either to hybrids, or 
to such as, retaining purity of blood, yet were held 
degenerate, whether from skyey or from other 
influences. It is connected with criar (to create, 
nurse, suckle). That its application is depre- 
ciatory is indicated by the usage of a kindred dia- 
lect, the Portuguese. I find therein crioh, "a 
home-born slave " $ crioula, " a bond-woman that 
is born in the house " ; galhinna crioula, " a hen 
that is born in one's house." I find in Spanish, 
as well as in Portuguese, criado (criadd), " a male 
(female) servant." 

Get obviously = gotten, begotten. Chaucer's 
"get and borne" is aptly quoted by Jamieson. 
This word (originally applicable to any child) 
appears now not to be used save contemptuously. 
See Scott, "Bride of Lammernioor," vol. xiv. 
p. 67 (Waverley Novels, ed. 18291834) : "And 
where's that ill-deedy gett?" Ross Helenore,* 
p. 146 (ed. Edinb. 1866): "They've gotten a 
*eet that stills no night nor day." Comp. also 
brat, etymologically connected, I fancy, with 
breed. Dam, a mere corruption of dame ( (i He 
that yhad a maide to dame " [Chauc.] " Plow- 
man's Tale," 3291 ; " Soche wordes as we lerneden 
of our dames tonge," Prol. " Test, of Love "), has 
)een treated with similar irreverence. We all 
emernber Shakespeare's 

"... The brat is none of mine ; 



Hence with it ; and, together with the dam. 
Commit them to the fire." 

Grandam perhaps is still respectable.) 

Bairn obviously born. Am I right in thinking- 

ihat this Scottish and North-English word is 

gradually dwindling into a contemptuous desig- 

ation? I am a Yorkshireman, and used some 

fty years ago to hear " t' squire bairn " (the 



* A recent perusal of this work deserving neglect at 
!ie hand of neither poet nor provincialisms-seeking phi- 
ologer has "gotten this geet/' whether stillborn or, 
? not, worthy of your undertaking to be its sponsor will 
ppear hereafter. * 



;jrd S. XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



63 



quire's child). Is the word ever now applied to 
>ne born of gentle blood ? 

Last of all, can one by any etymological arti- 
identify " verna " with ""bairn " ? I long to 



ice 
ranslate 



quicquam qua* vernas 



" Quid ? nutrici uon missuru s quicqua 
;ilit ? " (Plaut. Mil. Glnr. in. 1. 104 = 690), 

n some such fashion as 

" What ? not send aught to the nurse who feeds the 
wee wee bairns at hame ? " 

CHARLES THIRIOLD. 

Tain bridge. 



" EMPRESS OF MOROCCO : " 
TRAVESTY. 



MACBETH " 



There was printed at London, "For Simon 
Neal, at the sign of the Three Pidgeons in Bed- 
ford Street, in Covent Garden, 1074, 4to, the 
Empress of Morocco, a farce acted by his Majesties 
Servants." A portrait is prefixed of the imperial 
lady. 

The Biographia Dramatica gives a very brief 
notice of this singular specimen of a burlesque 
drama, which was intended to throw ridicule on 
Settle' s Emperor of Morocco, then a popular drama, 
and which was so much esteemed that it was ori- 
ginally published with engravings of the scenes. 
The travesty is clever, but coarse, and has been 
attributed to Buffet the actor. 

But the most remarkable portion of the farce 
is the Epilogue, which is denominated 

" A new fancy, after the old and most surprising way 
of MACBETH, perform'd with new and costly MACHINES, 
which were invented and managed by the most ingenious 
operator, Mr. Henry Wright, P. G. Q." Heccate and 
Three Witches, " according to the famous mode of Mac- 
beth," commence "the most renowned and melodious 
Song of John Dory, being heard as it were in the Air 
sung in parts by Spirits, to raise the expectation, 
and charm the audience with thoughts sublime, and 
worthy of that Heroick Scene which follows." Then the 
scene opens "Thunder and lightning is discovered, not 
behind painted Tiffany to blind and amuse the senses, 
but openly, by the most excellent way of Mustard- bowl 
and Salt-Peter." Three Witches fly over the pit, riding 
upon besoms. Then Heccate descends over the stage " in 
a glorious Charriott adorn'd with pictures of Hell and 
Devils, and made of a large Wicker Basket." 

A very strange colloquy follows, wherein the 
witches inform their mistress of all the mischief 
they have done, and receive appropriate rewards. 
Then 

" Enter Two Spirits with brandy burning, which they 
drink, whilst Heccate and the Witches sing- 
To the Tune of A Boat, a Boat, &c. 

Hec. A health, a health, to Mother C[res\vell~l, 

From Moor-fields fled to Mill-bank Castle ; 

[Where] She puts off a rotten new-rigg'd Vessel," 

and so on, the remaining verses being of a simi- 
lar description, relating to several ladies who fol- 
low the profession of Mrs. Creswell. 



Heccate next exclaims 

" Bank-side Manikin thrice has mew'd ! No matter : 
If puss of t'other house will scratch have at her ! 
T'appease your spirits, and keep our farce from harm, 
Of strong ingredients we have powerful charm." 

She then gives an enumeration of charms for 
the critics, not precisely adapted for present re- 
publication. A voice is heard exclaiming, " Huff ! 
no more ! " a " hellish noise " being heard within. 
Then Hecate is called ; thunder and lightning 
follow. While the witches are flying up she 
sings 

" The goose and the gander went over the green, 
They flew in the corn that they could not be seen. 

Chorus They flew," &c. 
A trio by the three witches concludes 

1. 
" Rosemary's green, Rosemary's green ! 

Derry, derr} r down. 

When I am King thou shalt be Queen, 
Derry, derry down. 
2. 
" If I have gold thou shalt have part, 

Derry, derry down. 
If I have none thou hast my heart, 

Derry, derry down." 

The burlesque or travesty of Macbeth had evi- 
dent reference to the production of that tragedy 
in 1674 and previously, and was intended to 
ridicule the witches and their musical accompani- 
ments. 

We learn from Pepys that Shakspere's tragedy 
was extremely popular, and that he greatly enjoyed 
the music and decorations.* Was Lock's music 
then used ? Not being at all versed in the musi- 
cal history of the period, I should be happy to be 
informed on the subject. The acting of Betterton 
was admirable ; and one time when, from the ill- 
ness of that great artist, his place was supplied 
by an inferior performer of the name of Young, 
Pepys was so much horrified that he left the 
theatre, and was followed by his lady, who was 
equally disgusted. 

The tune of " A boat, a boat," is probably the 
popular catch yet occasionally sung. Is not this 
farce the earliest instance of a travesty of Shak- 
spere a species of drama peculiarly adapted to 
the present times ? None of the Shakspere tra- 
vesties have much fun about them : Macbeth tra- 
vesty is really abominable : Hamlet travesty is 
perhaps the best of the lot. The Rehearsal by 
the Buke of Buckingham, and The Critic by 
Sheridan, are full of wit and point, but are intended 
to turn into ridicule certain classes of writers, and 
not to travesty any particular drama. The Tom 
Thumb of Fielding, the Chrononhotontholoaos and 
Dragon of Wantley of Carey, have never been sur- 
passed by any subsequent production of a similar 
description. J. M. 

[* Pepys' notice was on Oct. 16, 1667. He first saw it 
acted Nov. 5, 1664. ED.] 



64 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. XII. JULY 27, '67. 



LUCRETIUS. I have just been reading, in the 
Contemporary Review of last month, an article by 
Mr. Hayman on Mr. Munro's edition of Lucre- 
tius. My attention was particularly drawn to his 
remarks on the following passage in book iii. 
lines 556-7 : 

" Denique corporis atque animi vivata potestas, 
Inter se conjuncta valent, vitaque fruuntur." 

A parallel passage is to be found in book ii. 
lines 400-1: 

" At contra tetra absinthi natura, ferique 
Centauri foedo pertorquent ora sapore." 

Why are the verbs in the plural number in the 
two above passages ? I am convinced that Mr. 
Hayman is right, and that Mr. Munro is wrong in 
the construction of conjuncta in the former pas- 
sage. A subject in the singular number, followed 
by two or more dependent genitives, has the verb 
or participle in the plural. Mr. Hayman says 
that the idiom is not uncommon in Shakespeare. 
He might have added, that it is frequently used 
by half-educated people in the present day. The 
same idiom is very common in Hebrew. I give 
one example from Genesis iv. 10, and translate 
literally: "The voice of thy brother's bloods cry- 
ing to me." The participle crying Is in the plural 
number in the original, agreeing with the depen- 
dent word bloods, and not with the subject voice. 
It has been from want of attention to this idiom 
that the attempts of all the commentators, in- 
cluding the most recent ones, to explain the con- 
struction of the second verse of the second chapter 
of the Epistle to the Ephesians, have been most 
unsatisfactory. The passage can be easily ex- 
plained by any one who is acquainted with the 
Hebrew idiom. E. J. 

Lampeter. 

FRENCH NOTIONS or ENGLAND. I have just 
been reading Mr. Jeaffreson's Book about Lawyers, 
and his chapter on " Judicial Corruption " re- 
minds me of a true story worth perpetuating. A 
few years ago a French gentleman of good sound 
standing was plaintiff in an English lawsuit. So 
good was his social standing that his name is 
known in commercial circles in almost every great 
European metropolis. If any Frenchman, there- 
fore, may be expected to be acquainted with 
English customs and principles, one would expect 
the one in question to be. Yet, a day or two 
before the trial came off, I knew as a positive 
fact that he paid a special evening visit to his 
leading counsel to consult with him as to the 
lowest amount which it would be safe to send to the 

f residing judye to ensure success. He added, what 
disbelieve, that in Paris such a practice is uni- 
versal. R. C. L. 

"IMPROVEMENT." This word, as meaning the 
employment of any special subject or event with 



a view to religious edification, seems of late to 
have been consigned to the list of somewhat 
ridiculous if not vulgar expressions. I have, 
however, recently found it just so employed in 
Cowper's Letters, allowed by general consent to 
be a model of literary excellence : 

" June 21, 1 784. 

" We are much pleased with your designed improve- 
ment of the late preposterous celebrity, and have no doubt 
that, in good hands, the foolish occasion will turn to good 
account." 

FRANCIS TRENCH . 
Islip, Oxford. 

THOMAS MOORE. I send you a paragraph from 
the Dublin Chronicle^ July 31, 1790, which m&,y 
prove interesting to many readers of " N. &Q. : "- 

" The public examinations at Mr. Whyte's school in 
Grafton Street [Dublin] closed on the 22nd instant, with 
an uncommon degree of splendour. A Master Moore, a 
boy not more than ten years old, distinguished himself in 
a remarkable manner, and was deservedly the admira- 
tion of every auditor. A very elegant poetical composi- 
tion was spoken with great propriety by Master Nunn ; 
it is said to be the production of a near relation, and we 
hope will be given to the public. The whole exhibition 
of the day was indeed in a very superior stile, and highly 
creditable to the master." 

ABHBA. 

THE CARIES. In his last report on the Island 
of Dominica, the Governor, Sir Benjamin Pine, 
makes allusion to a remnant of the aboriginal 
Carib population still surviving in Dominica. 
They are mostly settled in a secluded valley 
on the windward side of the island, about four 
hundred and forty in number, a few more being 
found in the north part, near Vieille Case. They 
are quiet and inoffensive, and rarely come before 
the courts of justice. Saliba, where they reside, is 
a collection of very poor huts surrounding a larger 
one, which is used as their church, for they have 
been converted to Christianity by the Roman 
Catholic priests. The men are expert fishermen 
and boatmen as much at home in the water as 
on land. Beyond growing a few provisions, they 
make no attempt at agriculture. One industry is 
peculiar to them and to the Indians of Demerara 
the manufacture of the humattas or Indian baskets, 
which are so closely woven as to be water-proof. 
One cannot but feel, as Sir Benjamin Pine re- 
marks, a sad interest in this remnant of an ancient 
and vanishing people. PHILIP S. KING. 

EMIGRANTS. A great deal of trouble has been 
heretofore experienced by masters of ships in 
making their sea-sick passengers go on deck 
during the voyage to obtain some fresh air, to 
take the exercise which their health requires, and 
while they are thus engaged, to have their berths 
properly cleansed. Fortunately, this difficulty is 
to exist no longer. A master now, finding his 
passengers indisposed to move, has only to send 
one of his seamen with a heated shovel through 



3' d S.XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



65 



the steerage, while another man throws cayenne 
pepper upon it as he is moving along. In the 
words of an officer, the effect is perfectly won- 
derful, for the fumes make the emigrants bolt, 
when coaxing and loud-mouthed orders would be 
perfectly useless. W. W. 

Malta, 

MOTTOES OF COMPANIES. The following are 
curious and apropos : 

Wiredrawers' Company Amicitiam traiiit amor. 

Order of Neighbourly Love An: or proxinu. 

Fruiterers' Company Arbos vitoj Christus, fructus per 
ndem gustamus. 

Blacksmiths' Company By hammer and hand all arts 
do stand. 

Innholders' Company Come, ye blessed," when I was 
harbourless ye lodged me. 

Merchant Tailors' Company Concordia parvse res 
crescunt. 

Tailors' Company, Exeter Discordia maximi dila- 
buntur. 

Glaziers' Company Da nobis lucem, Domine, and 
Lumen umbra Dei. 

Amicable Society Esto perpetua. 

Paviours' Company God can raise to Abraham chil- 
dren of stones. 

Silk Throwers' Company God in his least creatures. 

Founders' Company God the only founder. 

Foundling Hospital Help. 

Sadlers' Company Hold fast, sit sure. 

Gardeners' Company In the sweat of thy brow shalt 
thou eat thy bread. 

Order of the Bee Je suis petite, mais mes picqures 
sont profondes. 

Armourers' and Braziers' Company Make all sure. 

Royal Fishery Company Messis ab alto. 

Butchers' Company Omnia subjecisti sub pedibus, 
and Oves et boves. 

Apothecaries' Company Opiferque per orbem dicor. 

Bakers' Company Praise God for all. 

Hudson's Bay Company Pro pelle cutem. 

Patten-Makers' Company Recipiunt foeminas snsten- 
tacula nobis. 

Salters' Company Sal sapit omnia. 

Scriveners' Company Scribere scientes. 

Clock-Makers' Company Tempus rerum imperator. 

Woodmongers' Company, London The axe is laid at 
the root of the tree. 

Smiths' Company, Exeter Tractent fabrilia fabri. 

Trinity House Guild Trinitas in trinitate. 

Wax-Chandlers' Company Truth is the light. 

Stationers' Company Verbum Domini manet in 
seternum. 

Weavers' Company Weave truth with trust. 

And of towns : 

Corporation of Poole, Dorsetshire Ad morem vilke de 
Poole. 

Town of Cardigan Anchora spei Cerotica? est in te 
Domine. 

J. MANUEL. 

Newcastle-on-Tvne. 



"BLESSING or THE BELLS." The Editor'of 
the Washington Republican states that he is in- 
debted to Mr. Ellis, 310, Pennsylvania Avenue, 
for a copy of a beautiful sacred song, "Blessing 
of the Bells," which had reached its second edi- 
tion. It is gratifying to know that bells are blessed 
in any quarter, for they certainly are not by 
strangers who are passing through this island in 
the summer time, when they are so incessantly 
ringing. W. "W. 

Malta. 

JOHN BRUEN, OF BRUEN STAPLEFORD, CHESHIRE, 
is the subject of an engraving well known to 
Granger collectors. Can any one direct me to an 
original portrait of this worthy ? If one were for 
sale I should like to be informed of it, and its 
price. JOHN BRUCE. 

5, Upper Gloucester Street, Dorset Square. 

CAP-A-PIE. Can you or any of your corre- 
spondents inform me whether the compound word 
cap-a-pie is to be found anywhere except in 
Hamlet in early English literature ? I should be 
glad to be informed further, whether it occurs in 
French writings of the same period ? As I am 
inclined to doubt the correctness of our dictionaries 
with respect to the derivation of the word, I am 
desirous of ascertaining where it is to be found, in 
order to judge how far the spelling or context 
may throw light upon the etymology. D. P. S. 

CHINESE NEWSPAPER. In the city of St. 
Francisco, United States, a journal is published 
in the Chinese language, and called the Flying 
Dragon. I wish to inquire if there is any other 
place in the world (outside of China) where a 
iournal is published in the Chinese language ? 
W. W. MURPHY. 

Frankfort-on-Main. 

CLASSIC. Most persons understand the mean- 
ing of the word classic. Dr. Johnson defines it in 
two ways, first as relating to antique authors and 
literature, and second as appertaining to persons 
and things of the first order or rank. The sphere 
in which the term is used has of late years been 
much enlarged, so that it is customary to hear it 
said that such and such a musical composition is 
classical music. Granted the designation to be 
correct, to what kind of composition is it to be 
applied, and are vocal works, such masterpieces 
as the oratorios of Handel and the operas of Mo- 
zart, to be excluded. A question has arisen on 
this subject, and I would venture to solicit the 
opinion of some one or more musical readers and 
contributors to " N. & Q." upon it. 

WM. BRAILSFORD. 

MARQUIS D'ATTONE. Will you or any of the 
readers of (( N. & Q." oblige me by referring to 



66 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. XII. JULY 27, '67. 



any information regarding the Duke de Moncada, 
Marquis D'Aytone ? His portrait is, I think, in 
the Louvre. How came a Spanish nobleman to 
have for his second title an Anglo-Saxon name ? 

On the French coast there are but two names 
derived from Anglo-Saxon. Are there any in 
Spain? I do not find any At/tone amongst the 
names of places in Spain, as given in Keith John- 
ston's Royal Atlas. A. 

" EXCELSIOR." Has any one drawn attention 
to the fact many must have noticed it that the 
" strange device " on the banner of Longfellow's 
hero ought to have been not Excelsior but Ex- 
celsius ? The youth does not mean to vaunt him- 
self as being hit/her than his fellows, but proclaims 
his aspiration to higher tilings. J. DIXON. 

FONT INSCRIPTION. I shall be much obliged 
if some correspondent would send to " N. & Q." 
the Latin inscription on the font in Threckinghani 
church, Lincolnshire. I may add that it is given 
by F. Simpson, Jun., in his now rare Series^ of 
Ancient Baptismal Fonts, p. 35 ; but the editor 
could not then (1828) decipher it. 

The celebrated palindromic font inscription in 
Greek (which has frequently appeared in the 
pages of "N. & Q.") was not given quite correctly, 
p. 38. It should be as follows : 



I should be glad to know of an instance where it 
has been found on a " holy- water vessel." 

W. H. S. 
Yaxley. 

REV. J. GIJTHRIE. Can any reader of "N.&Q." 
inform me whether the Rev. J. Guthrie, late 
vicar of Calne, is the author of Alphonso, or the 
Beggar Boy, a comedy in verse, 1827 (London : 
Ridgway) ? It is briefly but favourably noticed 
in the Gentleman's Magazine, The comedy is 
dedicated to the Marquis of Lansdowne, and, as 
appears from the preface, was partly written at 
Bowood. Some lines in the comedy are mentioned 
as being intended to represent the character of 
the late marquis. At the time this drama was 
printed Mr. Guthrie, if I mistake not, was the 
Marquis of Lansdowne's chaplain. Another 
comedy, called Athens, by the author of Alphonso, 
was published about 1825. R. I. 

HASTY PUDDING. The following note appears 
in the Scientific American of the 6th July, and 
may be of use to some of your readers : 

" It does not appear to be commonly understood, and 
not even by Webster, that the above title has any other 
significance than the readiness with which this "simple 
dish is prepared. It has its origin in the vernacular of 
England, where the word ' hasting ' is used in the sense of 
stirring or agitating a liquid mass. As hasty pudding 
cannot be made with haste unless it is to be eaten raw. 



but does require a good deal of hasting, or stirring, the 
latter is probably the meaning of the name." 

Can any one inform me if the word " hasting " 
is still in use in this sense ; and if not, furnish 
other examples of its having been so used ? 

R. F. W. S. 

IMMERSION IN HOLY BAPTISM. Prince Arthur, 
eldest son of Henry VII., King Edward VI., and 
Queen Elizabeth, were all baptised by immersion. 
Simpson observes that the first instance of pouring 
being allowed in public baptism is in the first 
Prayerbook of Edward VI., which says, "And if 
the child be weake, it shall suffice to pour water 
upon it." It is strange that the exception has, in 
the English Church, become the rule; just as the 
permitted use of ordinary bread in the Holy Eu- 
charist has supplanted the customary wafer. 

W. H. S. 

Yaxley. 

IMMORTAL BRUTES. Mahomet allows that into 
Paradise will be admitted Abraham's calf, Jonah's 
whale, Solomon's ant, IshmaeVs ram, and Moses" 1 
ox. To these will be added Mahomet's ass, tin- 
Queen of Slicka's ass, the prophet Salech's came/, 
and Beiltis 1 cuckoo. What are the incidents con- 
nected with the animals in italics ? QUERY. 

"NOMASTICON CISTERSIENSE." Can any one 
tell me where I may be able to see a copy of No- 
masticon Cistersiense, edited by Julien Paris. Paris, 
1664, folio ? ANON. 

Junior Athenanim. 

ASSUMPTION OF A MOTHER'S NAME. E. S. S. 
would be glad to know whether a man can take 
his mother's maiden name, or can only add it to 
his own surname ? What are the best steps to 
take to effect such a purpose, and the costs 'i 

Bury St. Edmund's. 

SURNAME OF "PARR." I have long been in- 
quiring as to the origin of the name Parr, but 
hitherto without success. As a patronymic it is 
certainly derived from a manor in the parish of 
Prescot, in Lancashire ; but the question is^what 
is the meaning of the term ? The derivation of 
local names is commonly obvious : " Radclyffe," 
"Stanley," "Towneley," &c., speak for them- 
selves; but why a place should be called "Parr" 
is not apparent. The name is not found in Domes- ^ 
day nor in the Testa de Ncvill. I first meet with 
it in the case of Henry de Parr, who was witness 
to a deed in 1318, and also to one, without date, 
apparently earlier. Mr. Lower, in his English Sur- . 
names, derived the name from u Peter " (through 
Fr. Pierre), but he was not then aware of its local 
use. This I pointed out to him, and he acknow- 
ledged my communication in his later work, Pa- \ 
tronymica Bntannica, but without adding any in- 
formation on the point. Any suggestions will be 
gladly received. HENRY PARR. 

Yoxford Vicarage, Suffolk. 



J^S.XII. JULY 27/67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



67 



QUOTATIONS. Some years since I ^ met with a 
poem at the commencement of which occurred 
the following lines : 
" The chain thou hast spurned in thy moment of power 

Hangs heavy around thee at last." 
I have understood it was written on the Union, 
by Furlong. Can the reader favour me with a 
copy or information where one can he met with ? 

LIOM. F. 

Where does this line occur ? 

" In the clear heaven of her delightful eye," &c. 

SMITH QUERIES. Of what family was Anthony 
Smith, whose daughter and coheiress, Emma, is 
stated to have married, in the early part of the 
sixteenth century, Edward Watson, ancestor of 
the Lords Rockingham ? 

Where can I find the pedigree of Captain John 
Smith, " sometime Governor of Yirgina/'to whom, 
in 1(323, was granted an allusive coat of arms 
viz. Vert, a chevron gules between three Turks' 
heads by " Sigismundus, King of Hungarian " ? 
He was born 1579 ; died 1631. 

Where can I find a copy of the grant of arms to 
Thomas Smith of Hough, county Chester, dated 
.July 7, 1579 ? (See Guillim.) 

Who was John Smith of Newcastle-under- 
Lyme, to whom was granted, in 1561, the follow- 
ing coat of arms : Barry ermine and gules, over 
all a lion rampant sable crowned or ? 

H. S. G. 

ARMS OF SOUXD, ETC. In the Collectanea To- 
j>oymphica et Genealoyica, iv. 101, is described 
an escutcheon of Richard Chetwode, who died 
in 1559-60, consisting of six quartering^ viz. 1st 
Chetwode ; 2nd sable, fretty argent, a fesse ermine, 
on a chief gules, three leopards' faces or; 3rd, 
Okeley ; 4th, argent, a lion rampant gules, crowned 
azure ; 5th, Newell ; and 6th, Foulhurst. 

The 2nd and 4th quarterings are assigned, with 
a query, to Sounde and Lyons. 

Betham (Baronetage, iii. p. 123, &c.) states that 
John Chetwode, living 36 Edw. III., married an 
heiress of Okeley, and had a son John, whose 
wife's name was Margery. His son Roger married 
Margery, daughter and coheiress of David Crewe 
of Pulcroft, and was father of Thomas, whose 

wife was Margaret, daughter and heiress of " 

Sounde, Lord of Sounde, co. Chester." 

According to a pedigree of Brindley in the 
Harl. MS. 1535, fo. 32, David Crewe of 'Pulcroft 
married " Johanna fil: and hte: . . Sounde," and 
had Alice, the wife of Thomas Brindley (22 Rich. II. 
1399), and Margery, wife of Roger Chetwode ; 
and the arms quartered by Brindley are (1) 
Bressy; (2) Crewe; (3) gules, a lion rampant or 
(evidently for Sound). 

Ormerod, iii. 216, says that Sound or Soond 
gave its name to a family, and that Johanna, 



daughter and heir of John de Sound, married 
David Crewe, one of whose coheiresses married 
Roger Chetwode, &c. Under Worleston, pp. 189- 
190, he states that David Crewe of Pulcroft, by 

Johanna, daughter and heiress of Sounde of 

Sounde, had issue Alice, married (1) Geoffrey 
de Boydell; (2) Thomas Brindley (p. 190), and 
Margaret, wife of John Chetwode of Oakley. 

In the Harl. MS. 1412, is a list of arms from 
the Visitation of Cheshire in 1580, among which 
appears, immediately following Chetwode, "Sound, 
B. a lyon ramp, or." 

I have not found the arms of Sound in any of 
the Heraldic Dictionaries, nor are they given by 
Ormerod, but it seems pretty clear that they 
should be gules, a lion rampant or. The last- 
named MS. has evidently confounded Crewe and 
Sound, while Betham has fallen into a similar 
error in confounding two Margarets or Margerys, 
for Crewe was of Sound in right of descent from 
that family. 

I wish to ask on what authority the elaborate 
coat first named (which looks very like a concoc- 
tion of a Tudor Herald) is assigned to Sound ; 
and also whether any of your readers can bear 
me out in the opinion that the true coat of that 
family is a lion rampant or, on a field gules ? 

STUART OF THE SCOTCH GUARD. Amongst 
the very many rare and curious articles scattered 
over the kingdom, upon the dispersion of the 
books in the library of the learned author of Cale- 
donia^ was a little tract in French, consisting of 
eight pages 12mo. The following is a copy of 
the title : 

" Discours sur le Suject de la mort du Seigneur 
Struard Escossois, decapite deuant le Chasteau du Louvre 
a Paris, le Lundy, 27 de Februarier dernier. A Paris. De 
Plmprimerie d'Anthoine du Brueil, entre le Pont Sainct 
Michel, et la rue de la Harpe a 1'Etoile couronnee 
M.DC.XVII." 

Who this Scotch " Seigneur " was, is not ex- 
plained in this moral discourse upon his de- 
capitation, beyond that he seems to have been 
one of the " garde particuliere de la personne de 
sa Majestd," and that he was one of the Scotish 
guard which, for nearly seven hundred years, had 
been chosen to protect the persons of the French 
uionarchs. 

What was the act of treason for which this 
unworthy Scotch guard suffered death ? More- 
over, to which of the numerous races of Stewart 
did he belong? I presume the brochure is 
unique, but in this I may be wrong. J. M. 

TITLES OF THE JUDGES. I am not aware that 
the title of " Reverend " was ever given to the 
Judges individually, as one to which they had a 
right by their position, although we read of them 
collectively as " the Reverend the Judges." I 



68 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. XII. JULY 27, '67. 



know not whence the editorial note (ante, p. 26) 
quotes the expression, " and as the Rev. Sir 
Edward Coke, late Lord Chief Justice of His 
Majesty's Bench, saith " ; but I apprehend that it 
is there used more as a mark of respect, in the 
same way as the coinplimental terms " learned " 
or " respected " are used, than as a designation of 
style to which he was entitled. 

I observe that the word " Honourable " is now 
prefixed to the name of each of the Judges ; and 
I would ask when the custom was introduced, 
and by what authority ? D. S. 

DUDLEY WOODBRIDGE, ESQ. was the eldest son 
of Rev. Benjamin and Mrs. Mary (Ward) Wood- 
bridge, and a grandson of Rev. John and Mrs. 
Mercy (Dudley) Woodbridge. He was born at 
Windsor, Connecticut, Sept. 7, 1677,* and was 
graduated at Harvard College in the class of 1696. 
He removed to Barbadoes, where he was Director 
General of the Royal Assiento Company of Eng- 
land, agent of the South Sea Company, and Judge- 
Advocate of the island. He was also a member 
of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts. His portrait, painted by Kneller 
in 1718, was engraved the same year by Smith. 
He died Feb. 11, 1720.f There is little doubt 
that he was the " Mr. Woodbridge, a New Eng- 
land man," whom Governor Hutchinson calls "the 
projector" of paper money in Barbadoes.J 

He had at least two children namely, Dudley 
and Benjamin, the latter of whom was killed at 
Boston, July 3, 1728, aged nineteen years and two 
months. The former I take to be the Rev. 
Dudley Woodbridge, rector of the parish of St. 
Philip, in the island of Barbadoes, on whose wife 
an epitaph is printed in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1747, p. 393. He died between March 15, 
1747-8, and July 20, 1748, leaving a widow Ruth, 
who died at Boston (Mass.) between Dec. 23, 
1748, and the 9th of the following month. 

I wish to learn the Christian and maiden names 
of the wife of Dudley Woodbridge, Esq., and 
also desire to ascertain whether he left any other 
children besides Dudley and Benjamin. Rev. 
Dudley Woodbridge, rector of St. Philip, men- 
tions, in 1748, in his will, a " sister Mary Alleyne 
of Boston, N. E., widow of Major Abel Alleyne, 
formerly of" Barbadoes; but she may have been 
a sister-in-law, though I think not. 

JOHN WAKD DEAN. 

Boston, Massachusetts, U. S. 

* Stiles's History of Ancient Windsor, Ct. p. 837. 

t Noble's Continuation of Granger, vol. iii. p. 260. 

| History of Massachusetts Bay, vol. i. 1st and 2nd ed. 
p. 402 ; 3rd ed. p. 356. 

See Sargent's Dealings with the Dead, vol. ii. 
pp. 550-64 ; Drake's History of Boston, Mass., p. 579 ; 
and Bridgman's Pilgrims of Boston, p. 191. 



fmtft 

SIR JOHN BOTTRCHIER. Can any correspondent 
of "N. & Q." give me some particulars relative 
to Sir John Bourchier, Knight, whose name ap- 
pears among those who signed the death-warrant 
of King Charles I. ? I particularly wish to know 
when and how he died. I cannot find any men- 
tion of him in Caulfield's Memoirs of the Regicides, - 
1817, nor yet in the Trials of the Regicides^ 1714. v 
I should also be glad to know if he was in any 
way related to the Sir James Bourchier whose 
daughter the great Protector married. 

JEAN VAX JEAN. 

[Neither Sir John Bourchier, a Yorkshire knight, one 
of the King's judges, nor the loyal Mr. George Bourchier, 
who was inhumanly shot at Bristol, were related to the 
Protector's wife. (Noble's House of Cromwell, i. 131, ed. 
1787.) On Monday, June 18, 1660, Sir John Bourchier 
surrendered himself to the Speaker, and was committed 
to the custody of the serjeant-at-arms. (Kennett's^e- 
gister, p. 183.) He must have died shortly after his com- 
mittal, for on Feb. 2, 1660-1, Sir Henry Cholmeley pro- 
duces His Majesty's commission authorizing him to give 
pardon and security to any whom he engaged to forward 
the Restoration ; but he used it only in the case of his 
nephew, Barrington Bourchier, whose late father was en- 
gaged in the sentence of the late king. (Calendar of State 
Papers, Domestic, 1660-1661, pp. 446, 501, 557.) In the 
History of King-Killers, 1719, Part v. p. 38, as well as in 
Winstanlej''s Loyall Martyrology, p. 112, it is incorrectly 
stated that Sir John Bourchier died before the Restora- 
tion.] 

GENERAL OGLETHORPE. If General Oglethorpe 
was born (according to most accounts) in London, 
on the 21st of December, 1688, or (according to 
his recent biographer, Mr. Robert Wright) in 
1689, I should be glad if any one would inform 
me who was the James Edward, son of Colonel 
Theophilus and Eleanora Oglethorpe, who was 
born on the 22nd and baptized on the 23rd of 
December, 1696, at St. Martin's-in-the-Fields, 
where I saw the entry a few days ago. J. L. C. 

[This entry conclusively settles the disputed date of 
the birth of the celebrated General James Edward Ogle- 
thorpe, who was the son of Sir Theophilus Oglethorpe 
and Eleanor, daughter of Richard Wall, Esq. See the 
pedigree of the Oglethorpes of Westbrook in Manning 
and Bray's Surrey, i. 614. It also clears up two other 
points in Mr. Wright's interesting Memoir of Oglethorpe 
first, why Oglethorpe's birthday was " kept in Georgia on 
the 21st of December ; " whereas the James, whose baptis- 
mal certificate at St. James's was found by Mr. Wright, 
turns out, as that gentleman shrewdly suspected, to have 
been an elder brother, who probably died young, was 
born on June 1 ; and, next, it furnishes the second Chris- 
tian name, Edward, which appears on the monument 
erected bv his widow in Cranham church. We mav also 



S. XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



call attention to the fact that it proves that the gallant 
old general was eight years younger than was supposed 
he being only eighty-nine, and not ninety-seven, at the 
time of his decease. ] 

RICHARD DTJKE (3 rd S. xii. 21.) I would 
humbly submit that this chronology requires some 
confirmation. The hero is represented to have 
been bound apprentice in 1595 ; we will assume 
him to be then thirteen years of age ; he thus 
becomes warden of his company at twenty-five 
(this is unlikely) ; his youngest child is born in 
1668, when he must be eighty-six years old ; he 
marries thrice, and outlives all three wives. This 
is possible ; but is it not more probable that the 
entries refer to two or more individuals ? H. 

[We must thank our correspondent H., as well as MR. 
WILLIAM BLADES, for their suggestive corrections. The 
primary object of the writer was to supply the exact 
date of the birth of Richard Duke. He has since ex- 
amined the manuscript more critically, and is now of 
opinion that the entries previous to 1641 were made by 
members of the Macro family, into which family Richard 
Duke, father of the poet, married, as appears by the 
entry under 1644. The remaining entries are all in the 
same handwriting.] 

THE BLACAS COLLECTION. Can you help me 
in the search for any catalogue or description of 
the Blacas Collection of Gems in the British 
Museum ? There is an article in the current 
Number of the Intellectual Observer, which I pos- 
sess. Is there not something fuller and better ? 

JOSEPHTJS. 

[Perhaps the best description of the Blacas Museum at 
present published is that contained in the parliamentary 
paper recently printed by order of the House of Commons 
of the Accounts, Estimates, &c. of the British Museum. 
Nearly all the most valuable gems in this collection 
came from the Strozzi Cabinet, noticed in the Museum 
Florentinum of Gori, published in 1731, Preface, p. 14 ; 
also, II. K. E. Kohler, Gesammelte Schriften, St. Peters- 
burg, 1851, vol. iii.] 



-JAMES HAMILTON OF BOTHWELLHAUGH, 

ASSASSIN OF REGENT MORAY. 

(3 rd S. xi. 453.) 

I wish to add a little more information to my 
communication (3 rd S. xii. 10) concerning the 
members of the family. On February 10, 1601, 
David Hamilton, younger, of Bothwellhaugh, ser- 
vant to the Laird of Innerwick (eldest son of 
Alison Sinclair), along with an armed company, 
invaded the tenants of Woodhouselee, assailed 
them with furious language, threatening to take 
their lives unless they desisted from labouring the 
said lands; and on February 19 following, Sir 
James Bellarden, of Broughton, made a complaint 



to the Privy Council. David did not appear, and 
letters of horning were issued against him. (Do- 
mestic Annals of Scotland, vol. i. p. 346.) 

In the Abbreviation of Special Services of 
Heirs for Scotland, the two following will be 
found : 

" Dec. 12, 1643, James Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh, 
heir of Alison Sinclair, daughter lawful of John Sinclair 
of Wodislie, his grandmother in the one half part of the 
10 merk lands of Spotts of old extent called Kingsgrange 
in the Lordship of Galloway E 14/. 14s. Id. in fee farm. 
Dec r 12, 1643, Alison Hamilton, relict of the deceased 
Gavin, formerly bishop of Candida Casa, heiress of Iso- 
bell Sinclair, daughter lawful of John Sinclair of Wod- 
dislie, her mother in the one half part of the 10 merk 
lands of Spotts of old extent called Kings grange in the 
Lordship of Galloway E 14Z. 14s. Id. 

These writs of succession show that Isobel Sin- 
clair and Alison Sinclair, the wives of James 
Hamilton and David Hamilton of Bothwell- 
haugh, were owners of the lands of Spots called 
Kingsgrange in the parish of Urr, stewartry of 
Kirkcudbright. One of these services shows that 
Alison Hamilton had been married to the Bishop 
of Galloway. In Hamilton of Wishaw's History 
of the County of Lanark, p. 133, the editor has 
stated in a note that Mr. Gavin Hamilton was 
Provost of Bothwell in Feb. 1590 and Feb. 1591. 
Mr. Innes, in his Origin of Parishes, vol. i. p. 505, 
mentions that the synod of Glasgow complained, 
in 1591, that the Provost of Bothwell had not 
built the choir of the kirk of Schotts. In the 
old Statistical Account of Scotland, parish of Both- 
well, vol. xvi. p. 324, it is stated that Mr. Gavin 
Hamilton was minister in 1604. Keith, in his 
Catalogue of Bishops, p. 166, states that Gavin 
Hamilton was a son of John Hamilton of Orbis- 
ton, and promoted to the bishopric of Galloway 
in 1606. Keith also says King James VI. gave 
him the abbey of Dundrennan and a grant of 
Wlrithorn annexed to the see of Galloway. He 
died in 1614. His widow, Alison Hamilton, must 
therefore have survived her husband at least 
twenty-nine years. Spottiswood, in his account 
of Religious Houses, says that Whithorn, or Can- 
dida Casa, was a bishop's seat in Galloway, and 
Dundrennan Abbey was situate on Solway Firth, 
about two miles from Kirkcudbright. I may 
mention that the lands of Orbiston and Bothwell- 
haugh, where Gavin Hamilton and Alison Hamil- 
ton were brought up lie contiguous, and that 
John Hamilton, the father of Gavin Hamilton, 
was slain at the battle of Langside, and James 
Hamilton (the assassin), father of Alison Hamil- 
ton, was there taken prisoner on May 13, 1568. 

DAVID SEMPLE. 

Paislev. 

The weapon used in the assassination of the 
Regent is stiU preserved at Hamilton Palace. 
It is a carbine with a brass rifted barrel. Yet 
we are told that Bothwellhaugh loaded it with 



70 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* s. xn. 



27, '67. 



two bullets. What would they think of such a 
proceeding at Hythe or Wimbledon ? It is curious, 
however, to observe the apparently universal ten- 
dency of persons attempting the lives of dis- 
tinguished persons to overload their weapons, 
which generally results in injury to themselves 
as, for instance, the infernal machine of Fieschi, 
and the recent attempt on the Emperor of Russia 
in the Bois de Boulogne. 

GEOEGE VEKE IRVING. 



MORNING'S PRIDE. 
(3 rd S. xi. 457, 529; xii. 36.) 

This expression is, I believe, common in most 
parts of England ; but I have always heard it as 
" the pride of the morning," and applied to abso- 
lute rain, and not merely to grey mist or dew, 
which are too common to be much noticed as 
indications of fine weather. I have heard it said 
of a smart shower, and even of drizzling rain 
falling early on a spring or summer morning. I 
remember one instance in particular. In my 
juvenile days long, long ago I had started 
early in a May morning with three or four com- 
panions for a long walk to Hagley Park, in Wor- 
cestershire. When we set off, it rained formid- 
ably, and we were all very low and disappointed, 
except one, who endeavoured to cheer us up with 
the assurance that it was only the " Pride of the 
morning." He was right : the rain soon ceased, 
and we had a delightful day of sunshine. I be- 
lieve the expression has the same significance as 
another which is commonly known, and applied 
in the summer months " Rain before seven, 
over at eleven " ; to which is often added, t( Rain 
at eleven goes on till seven." 

While upon the subject of weather signs, it 
may amuse your readers if I relate what an 
old man told me this day. I fell in with a 
fine old labourer of eighty-four, trudging cheer- 
fully along with a scythe over his shoulder, and 
looking, as I told him, like the figure of old Time. 
He told me this anecdote, which he had heard in 
his youth : A gentleman on horseback met an 
old shepherd, and asked him what he thought of 
the weather, as he had a long journey before him. 
The shepherd said he believed it would turn out 
a rainy day. " Why so ? " said the gentleman ; 
i( it's very fine now, and I can see no signs of rain 
coming." "Well, sir," said the shepherd, "you 
may depend upon it that the day will be wet 
before long." So the rider went on his way, and 
was well drenched with rain before his journey's 
end. On his return he saw the same shepherd, 
and said to him : " Well, you were right : but 
what did you go by? You must have some 
valuable rules for the weather." u Yes, I have ; 
one at least that never deceives me."'-' Well," 



said the traveller, " that must be worth knowing. 
I'll give you a guinea if you will tell it me." 
" I will," said the shepherd, "when you give me 
the guinea." It was handed to him at once, and 
he said :V Why, sir, I take Moore's Almanac, 
and he said it would be a, fine day : now I always 
find the contrary to what he says is right ; so I 
knew it would* be a rainy day." Now the tra- 
veller, according to my old man's account, was 
actually Francis Moore himself. I left him con- 
siderably astonished, by telling him that it was 
very doubtful if such a person ever existed at all ; 
but that if he did, it was near upon two centuries 
ago. F. C. H. 

It would indeed be a curious coincidence, if the 
expression in The Christian Year 

" Pride of the dewy morning ! " 

were as much a child of the poet's brain as 

Athena sprung, in full array, from the head of 

Zeus. I take it that Mr. Keble, who was born 

and bred in the country, became acquainted in 

I Gloucestershire with the charming rusticism ; and 

| with a poet's keen sense of the beautiful, caught 

j it up, adopted it, and, decking it with the appro- 

1 priate and graceful epithet "dewy," gave it a 

splendid home in his " immortal verse." 

It would seem that he laboured under the 

j slight, and not unnatural error, of supposing that 

" the pride of the morning " is not the mist itself,. 

but the rainbow which sometimes, but not 

necessarily, accompanies it. 

It is clear that he alludes to, and expands, the 
first couplet of the old saw which runs thus : 

" A rainbow in morning, 
Is the shepherd's warning ; 
A rainbow at night, 
Is the shepherd's delight." 

In the rusticism under discussion " the pride 
of the morning" the word "pride" is, I take it, 
equivalent to " ornament." So Spenser says of 
" The lofty trees yclad with summer's pride." 

The use of the English word "pride "in the 
sense of " ornament," maj be illustrated by the 
signification of the Icelandic prydi and pryda; 
the Danish pryde Ko&prydelse ; the Swedish pry da, 
pryduad, and prydmng] and the German pracht 
(akin to the Gothic brehen, to illuminate, to 
shine) ; which last is, I take it, of the same 
family. In the Welsh language, prydus means 
" comely." 

With Spenser's use of the word "pride" may 
; be compared that of the Latin word honor of 
I Virgil, Georg. ii. 404, Mn. i. 591 ; Horace, Od. 
! i. 17, 16, Epod. 11, 6, 17, 18, Sat. ii. 5, 13 ; Ovid, 
' Ars. Am. iii. 392 ; Statins, Theb. ii. 160, vii. 225, 
x. 788 ; Valerius Flaccus, Ara. vi. 296, viii. 31, 
1 237 ; and Silius Italicus, Pun. iii. 487, xii. 244. 
JOHN HOSKYNS-ABEATIALL, JTJN., M.A. 



S. XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



71 



ENGLISH CARDINALS. 

(3 rd S. xii. 2.) 

In the list there given I find several omissions, 
which I venture to supply from memoranda long 
since gathered together for my own consultation, 
chiefly compiled from Richardson's edition of 



Godwin's Prcesulibus Anglicance, 1743, and Ciaco- 
nius's Vitce Rom. Pont., &c. &c., 4 torn., Rome, 
edit. 1677. Where I have repeated the name it 
has been only to rectify some error, or to elicit an 
additional fact as to place of birth, burial, &c. 

PlNGATOBIS. 





Reign. 


Creation. 


Died. 


l-lfric, Archbishop of St. Andrews, in Scotland 


Henry I. 
Stephen 


1099 
1145 


1109. 
1154. 


Boso, nephew to Pope Adrian IV. Buried at Rome 
Henry Blois, brother to King Stephen, Bishop of Winchester. Buried J 


Henry II. 
Stephen | 
Henry II. j 


1155 
1129 


1180-1. 
Aug. 6, 1171. 


Matthew, not given by Godwin (Ciac., torn. i. col. 1096) 

John Cummin, of Evesham, Archbishop of Dublin. Buried in St. J 
Patrick's Church, Dublin, which he had built "| 

For " Robert Somerset " read " Somercote," she Ummarcote. Buried | 


Henry II. 
Henry II. } 
Richard I. > 
John J 

Henry III. 


1183 
1234 


1183-4. 
1212. 

1241. 


Ancherus, Archdeacon of London. Born there, died at Rome ... j 

William Bray, Archdeacon of Rheims. Buried there j 

For " Kelwardlev " read " Kilwardby." Buried in Italy 
For " Hugh Atratus " read " Hugh of Evesham," surnamed Atratus, ) 
a native of Worcester. Died at Rome of the plague j" 
Theobald Stampe 


Henry III. ) 
Edward I. j 
Henry III. > 
Edward I. j 
Edward I. 

Edward I. 
Edward I. 


1261 

1262 
1272 
1281 
1288 


1286. 

April 29, 1282, 
Sept. 11, 1278. 
1287. 
1298. 




Edward I. 


1281 


1290. 




Edward I. 


1288 


(June, 1291.) 




Edward I. ) 


1306 


1310. 




Edward II. J 
Edward I. ) 


1300 


1311. 


William Macclesfield, native of Coventry, of Oxford University. Buried \ 


Edward 11. j 
Edward I. 


1303 


1303. 


Walter Winterburn, bora at Salisbury. Buried at the Friars Preachers \ 


Edward I. 


1303-4 


1305. 


Thomas Joyce, a native of Oxfordshire, brother to Walter, Archbishop 1 
of Armagh. Buried at the Friars Preachers at Oxford J 
Sartorius of Wales 


Edward I. | 
Edward II. J 
Edward III. 


1305 
1361 


1311. 
1361. 


William Grissaut, afterwards Urban Y. Pope 1362 
Grimoaldus cle Grisant, brother to Pope Urban V. Died at Avignon j 


Edward III. 
Edward III. ) 
Richard II. j 
Richard II. 


1366 

1380 


Dec. 19, 1370. 
Dec. 16, 1387. 


For "William Anglicus" read 1 ' William Courtenay," Bishop of Here- 1 
ford, London, and Archbp. of Canterbury. Buried at Canterbury j 
Henry Chicheley, Archbishop of Canterbury. Buried at Canterbury 
John Stafford, Archbishop of Canterbury. "Buried at Canterbury 
Christopher Urswicke, Dean of York and Windsor, Bishop elect of ) 
Norwich. Buried at Hackney, Middlesex J 


Richard II. 

Henrv YI. 
Henfy \I. 

Henry VIII. 


1378 

1428 
1434 


1396. 

1443. 
1452. 

Oct. 24, 1521. 



THE PUZZLE OF THE LATE ARCHBISHOP OF 
DUBLIN. 

(3 rd S. xi. 456, 530.) 

Your correspondents on this subject are not 
quite correct, and, as I had the story from the 
late archbishop at his own house, I may be con- 
sidered good authority on the point. He asked 
the company after dinner How do you account 
for the following fact ? A man inherited an 
estate of 500?. a year, lived upon 300/. ; he never 
gave anything away, and he never met with any 



loss, and yet he died worth nothing. I told his 
grace that I remembered the question and its 
answer, as it was put to the candidates for the 
Professorship of Political Economy when I was 
a student in Trinity College. The professorship 
was founded by Archbishop Whately ; he was 
one of the examiners, and Judge Longfield was 
elected. I told him I thought the case was a ficti- 
tious one, invented to show the nature of a, cer- 
tain kind of property, but he assured us it had 
actually occurred. The owner of the estate sold 
it. He bought an annuity on his own life; he 
saved all his income except 300?. a year, and every 



72 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. XII. JULY 27, '67. 



year invested his savings in another annuity. Of 
course at his death all the annuities ceased. 

A clergyman present remarked that he made 
his whole property a present to an annuity com- 
pany. This would be the case if he had bought 
every annuity from the same company. But sup- 
posing him to have bought from a different com- 
pany every year, each company seems to give 
value, and yet the property is all lost. In this 
case it is not easy to say who was the gainer, or 
what became of the property. I told a story 
which illustrates the opposite description of pro- 
perty. It was taken from a Scotch newspaper ; it 
was headed 

" The best Investment ever made for a Guinea. 

" Died at , aged 90, Mrs. Mac , widow of the 

late Surgeon Mac . This gentleman was married at 

the age of 21, his wife being 19. On the day of his mar- 
riage he paid one guinea to an Amicable Annuity Company. 
He died before the end of the year. His widow survived 
him 70 years, and received an annuity of 20/. a year. 
The guinea, therefore, paid many thousands per cent." 

These stories represent extreme cases of life 
annuities and life insurance. H. 



POETIC PAINS. 
(3 rd S. xii. 22.) 

" Few, few shall part where many meet ! 
The snow shall be their winding-sheet. 
And every turf beneath their feet 
Shall be a soldier's sepulchre." 

In regard to the use of rhyming dictionaries to 
save the poet's agony or pleasure, whichever it 
be called, it is the mania of many men of genius 
to eschew all help, for fear of impairing their 
originality. We laugh at mediaeval u mortifica- 
tions " as superstitious ; but the same fatal folly, 
under a different shape, haunts human nature 
now. A man will not use interest tables nor 
ready reckoners. A translator will not use trans- 
lations, for fear he should be biassed. Some 
speakers and writers will only make use of Anglo- 
Saxon words. There are novelists. who avoid any 
curious incident that has actually taken place in 
the course of human life, lest their inventive 
faculty should suffer diminution. In all the arts 
it is the same thing, and the sciences are not free 
from the tendency by any means. Vanity, self- 
love, and inordinate conceit lie at the bottom of 
all this. Such geniuses as these ought all to live 
in one-storied huts : what right have they to go 
upstairs to bed, stairs that another man built? 
It is a foolish principle, this, of independence. 
Every man should borrow everything that the 
Egyptians can lend him, and as an original cellule 
of littleness must suck in help and nutriment from 
far ages and near neighbourhoods. It is a pri- 
vilege of those who come into the later world to 
find a great deal done to hand; are they not to 
use it as they would an estate, and so to fortifv 



man's natural weakness by every aid and all the 
helps (and few enough they are) that exist around 
them? Certainly, then, as long as they want 
rhyme, good poets are to use rhyming dictionaries, 
as Byron did. ME. THOS. KEIGHTLEY does not 
say whether rhyme altogether be not to a great 
extent a puerility. I should incline to pronounce 
it so, were it not that all sanction, especially all 
modern sanction, lies the other way. If it be not 
a puerility, I see no reason why he should style it 
a puerility in Campbell to end every stanza in 
" Hohenlindeu," with a trissyllable. If you take 
away " Hohenlinden," " The Mariners of Eng- 
land," and one or two more lyrics, from Camp- 
bell, you do indeed reduce him to " the small- 
beer " that Cobbett and others considered him 
to chronicle. To many it has appeared that there 
j is something both grand and new in the rhythm 
of the two closing lines of the first stanza : 

"And dark as winter was the flow 
Of Iser rolling rapidly." 

But it was too good for Campbell to follow up 
in rhyme through seven consecutive verses. Many 
of the rhymes that follow are open to ME. KEIGHT- 
LET'S criticism of puerility. I think it might be 
shown, however, that had Campbell broken the 
trammels and made this fourth line an unrhymed 
one throughout, we should have had a war ode 
that would far better have satisfied the intellect 
as well as the ear, than we have in the present 
version. As a proof of this, if a reader will dis- 
card the idea of rhyme, and "sepulchree," which 
is ridiculous, and read it in the ordinary way as 
the poet's instinct (in spite of his judgment, as 
Mr. Redding tells us) wrote it, he will find that 
the last comes out a really fine stanza with a 
grand terminal pause, and a thousand times better 
than MR. KEIGHTLEY'S wretched, though quite 
correct, jingle would make it. C. A. W. 

While quite agreeing with MB. KEIGHTLEY in 
I the propriety of his transposition of Campbell's last 
line, I cannot give the same approval of the alter- 
ation of the word sepukhre\ and ME. KEIGHT- 
LEY'S reasons for the substitution of resting-place 
rather (it appears to me) strengthen the reasons 
for retaining the poet's own term. 

It seems to me that, as sepulchre may mean 
grave, tomb, or any other synonymous word, 
sepulchre is peculiarly appropriate, as giving 
when covered with snow the appearance to every 
grassy turf or mound of a stone sepulchre a 
whitened sepulchre for the winter season in which 
the slaughter took place. But ME. KEIGHT- 
LEY'S change of arrangement of words has this 
objection still : that two words are called in by it 
to compose the three syllables which it was 
Campbell's desire should terminate each stanza, 
and those formed by one word only. By referring 
to the poem it will be perceived that the poet has 



. XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES ND QUERIES. 



73 



n every instance succeeded in selecting such a 
svord, and in every instance but one it is strictly 
Trisyllabic the exception is in the fourth verse 
artiHery. This would be trifling, but that we 
perceive that the ingenious poet preferred violating 
his rhyme, which he could not find, to his syllabic 
number, which he could. 

Had this specimen of termination occurred in 
some such Scottish psalmody as I have occasion- 
ally met with, I should have been inclined to lean 
to 'the ridiculous idea of the author intending to 
sound it sep-ul-cree and then in his view all 
had been right. J- A. G. 

Carisbrooke. 

I agree with MB. KEIGHTLEY, that it was a 
puerility, if not an affectation, in Campbell to end 
the stanzas of his fine poem of " Holienlinden " 
Avith such words as rapidly, revelry, canopy, &c., 
which do not legitimately rhyme at all. The 
rhyme should fall on the last syllable but two : 
thus a proper rhyming word for revelry would be 
devilry. But with respect to the word sepulchre 
in the last line, I have no doubt he intended it to 
be sounded sepulchree, as we have often heard 
old-fashioned people pronounce massacre massa- 
cree, and thus it would in some measure correspond 
with the concluding words of the preceding 
stanzas. F, C. H. 



STOOL BALL (3 rd S. xi. 457.) In reply to a 
very courteous letter signed H. H,, I beg to say 
that I saw the apparatus for playing this game 
for the first time in a field adjoining the vicarage 
at Horsham, and there received the information I 
then forwarded to " N. & Q." 

The parties who gave me the information seemed 
surprised that I was not aware of the facts they 
informed me of, and assured me, as I have before 
written, that it was a very common game played 
all over Sussex. I remarked at the time I had 
never seen it in Kent, with which county I am 
much better acquainted than with Sussex, but 
was told the game was often played in West Kent. 
Probably some of your numerous readers will be 
able to give us more local information as to this 
interesting subject. 

I think there is a song of Herriclrs especially 
devoted to the game. A. A. 

Poets' Corner. 

JUNIUS, BURKE, ETC. (3 rd S. xii. 34.) It is 
true that in the long letter which Burke addressed, 
but did not send, to Bishop Markham, there is no 
positive denial of the authorship of Junius. 

But in the same collection, a very few pages 
before, Burke says, in answer to Charles Towns- 
hend, " I have been as ready as I ought to be in 
disclaiming writings," &c. 

Next, in writing to the same Bishop Markham, 



he calls the Letters " performances to which I am 
a stranger." 

And, lastly, Mr. Townshend having doubted 
whether his former letter conveyed an absolute 
denial, Burke writes to him, " I now give you my 
word and honour that I am not the author of 
Junius." See Burke's Correspondence (by Lord 
Fitzwilliam, #c.), i. 269, 270, 275. 

LYTTELTON. 



ADAM DELVED," ETC. (3 rd S. xi. 192, 
323, 429, 486 j xii. 18.) Of course, any idea of a 
reference to lameness here is a mere blunder. 
Lam is the regular old spelling of loam, the 
A. -Sax. form being lam or laam. This is made 
yet more certain by the account of Adam's death 
given in the " Oil of Mercy :" see Morris's Speci- 
mens of Early English, p. 144. An angel tells 
Seth the following message : 

" ...... Adam, 

Thi fader (he said) than sal thou say, 

That he sal dei the thrid day 

Efter that thou be commun ham (come home), 

And, as he was, turn into lam (loam) ." 
That is, Adam was made of loam at first, and to 
loam he should return. This settles the point, I 
think, beyond all further controversy. The story 
of the " Oil of Mercy " is from the " Cursor 
Mundi," about A.D. 1320. 

WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Cambridge. 

The original query (" Whence the proverb ? ") 
has become merged in the new query started by 
MR. BLADON as to the lameness of Adam ; and 
from this latter, yet another query branches forth 
in MR. KERSHAW'S researches as to the loam- 
element in Adam. 

I leave untouched the original query, and also 
the general question of Adam's lameness. The 
latter must stand over until MR. BLADON, or some 
other for him, can recover his lost authorities. 1 
address myself to prove (as has been already sug- 
gested) that MR. BLADON'S quotation from the 
Early English Text Society book has no reference 
whatever to Adam's lameness ; and, secondly, that 
loam did really (according to popular belief) enter 
into our protoplast's composition. 

Line 5, p. 79, of E. E. T. S., No. xxvi. 

" Of erthe and lame as was Adam," 
is explained at once by turning up " lame " in the 
glossary of the book. There we find : " Lame, s. 
loam, clay, p. 79, 1. 5." 

Let me premise, before going further, that 
"Robert Thornton's MS." (Lincoln Cathedral 
Library), in which the above-quoted line occurs 
is u a genuine specimen of the old Northumbrian 
dialect" (see E. E. T. S., No. xx., Preface, p. v.) 

Of this Northumbrian dialect Mr. Morris treats, 
in his Preface (p. xxvi.) to Hanipole's " Pricke of 
Conscience" (Philological Society's Early English 
Volume 1862-4). I quote from him : 



74 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



XII. JULY 27, '67. 



" Characteristics of the Northumbrian Dialect from the latter 
Half of the Thirteenth to the End of the Fourteenth 
Century : 

" 1. The most striking peculiarity perhaps, is the pre- 
servation of the long a in words of A.-Sax. origin con- 
taining this vowel, which the Southern dialects changed 
into a long o : A.-Sax. lam ; Northumb. lame ; Southern 
form, loam" 

Mr. Morris gives this among many other ex- 
amples, but it is enough for our purpose. 

In his notes to this same " Pricke of Conscience " 
(p. 272), he gives the following quotation from 
the Northumbrian " Cursur Werld " (Cott. MS. 
Vesp. A. in.) : 

" He that es laverd of erth and heven, 
Mai o that ilk selvin even, 
That first was molten into lame 
Mak a wel fairer licam," &c. 

The subject is the resurrection of the dead in 
the body. 

Lame, then, we may conclude for the future, is 
the legitimate Northern form, as loam is the 
Southern. 

Secondly, to bring the matter home to Adam 
himself; and to show that (whether halt or not 
so) he was made of him, lame, or loam : 

In Specimens of Early English (Clarendon Press 
Series), Mr. Morris gives other quotations from 
the same Northumbrian "Cursor Mundi." One 
of these he calls "The Oil of Mercy"; and of 
this, lines 550-554 run thus : 

" 'Adam 

Thi fader,' he said, than sal thou say, 
That he sal dei the thrid day, 
Efter that thou be commun"ham, 
And, als he was, turn into lam,' &c." 

The cherubin-porter of Paradise-gate is giving 
his final commands to Seth, who is returning to 
the decrepit and life-weary Adam. 

JOHN ADDIS, JUN. 

FUNERAL CUSTOM (3 rd S. xi. 276.) It is said 
that the Society of Free Masons were formerly in 
the practice of throwing gloves into the grave of a 
deceased brother. In this country sprigs of ever- 
green plants are now substituted, as emblematical 
of immortality. BAR-POINT. 

Philadelphia. 

BISHOP NICOLSON (3 rd S. xi. 459.) It was a 
great fault of mine to omit the printers and date 
of my copy of the Exposition of the Catechism of 
the Church of England, c., by the above-named 
bishop. I will now supply the deficiency : 

" London : Printed for Nathanael Webb, at the Royal 
Oak, and William Grantham, at the Black Bear, near the 
little North-door in St. Paul's Church Yard. 1663." 

On the fly-leaf of this edition is the design of 
the " Royal Oak," named in the last query. It 
also contains the following autograph : " E lib. 
Guliel. Waddon, pret, 7 s 8 d ." GEORGE LLOYD. 

Darlington. 



CURFEW AT NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE (1 st S. ii. 
312.) The custom of ringing the curfew here 
was discontinued about two years ago. Various 
reasons are assigned, none of which are satisfac- 
tory. Truly 

" Many precious customs of our ancestry 
Are gone, or stealing from us." 

It was last rung in St. Nicholas' church. 

J. MANUEL. 

Xewcastle-on-Tj T ne. 

PUNNING MOTTOES (3 rd S. xi. 32, 145, 262, 
366.) Allow me to add the following to you? 
list : 

" A Avhite man never wants a weapon" Wightman. 

" Ardua petit ardea " Heron. 

" At spes solamen " Hope. 

" Cheris 1'espoir" Cherry. 

" De hirundine " Arundel. 

" De monte alto " De Mont Alto. 

" God be in my bede " Beedham. 

" Laeto tcre ilorent " and " Lighter than air " Ay re. 

" Latet anguis in herba " and " Anguis in herba " 
Anguish. 

" Let Curzon holde what Curzon helde " Curzon- 
Howe. 

" Light on " Lighten. 

" Magnum in parvo " Little. 

" Mere memor originis " Manson. 

" Nee triste, nee trepidum " Trist. 

" Nil moror ictus " Money. 

" Non pas 1'ouvrage. mais 1'ouvrier " Workman. 

' ; Oriens sylva" Eastwood. 

; ' Saebauld" Sibbald. 

" Sera deshormais hardi " and " Trop hardi " Hardie. 

" Sit saxum firmum" Saxby. 

" Solus Christus meus rupes " Orrock. 

" Sumus" Weare. 

" Toujours gai " Gay. 

'' Ut palma Justus" Palmes. 

J. MANUEL. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

There is always something entertaining in 
glimpses at these curious and often obscure me- 
moranda of other times. "Quod dixi dixi," was 
once translated of a very absolute Dixie : " What 
Dixie has said, he will swear to." The " Ascendit 
cantu " of the Cockburns would hardly apply to 
the modern corruption of their patrimonial parish, 
Cockburnspath, now Coppersmith. Of the old raid 
times, the Border mottoes were tolerably descrip- 
tive: "Furth fortune, and fill the fetters," was 
not meaningless ; but the " Ye shall want ere I 
want" of the Cranstouns was still more plain and 
comprehensive. The ancient joke of " Quid rides," 
for the coach panel of an enriched tobacconist, 
was good, and has been the hint for numerous 
imitations. BUSHEY HEATH. 

"FORM" (3 rd S. xii. 24.) I am not a " sport- 
ing reader of f N. & Q.,' " but perhaps JAYDEE 
will not merely on that account scout my theory 
as to the signification of "form." It is, that it 
means the style or manner in which a thing is 
done, as in " They rowed in good form down to 



3'* S. XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



75 



ihe lock "; and sometimes condition, as when one 
ays, "He was not looking in good form when 
^ast I saw him." ST. Swmmr. 

"Form," in the athletic world, has now the 
neaning of "style," and unless modified by an 
adjective, is understood to mean " good style. ' 

To say that A. B. has " lost his form," would 
signify that he has fallen off from his old good 
style of walking, running, rowing, &c. into an 
inferior one ; whilst if a trainer were to say he 
was " getting C. D. into form," he would imply 
that he was improving the latter's style. 

"Bad form," "poor form," &c. mean "bad 
style," or " poor style." WALTER EYE. 

London Athletic Club. 

THATCHED CHURCHES (3 rd S. xii. 35.) The 
query on this subject reminds me of some lines I 
picked up in Yorkshire many years since. They 
were said to have been once applicable to Beswick, 
a village near Beverley : 

" A thatched church, 
A wooden steeple, 
A drunken parson, 
And wicked people." 

There is nothing very improbable in the first 
half of the verse ; but the remainder is so clearly 
requisite to complete the rhyme, that it is not 
necessary to suppose any foundation for it in 
fact. T. B. 

Old Jewry. 

QUERY ON POPE (3 rd S. xi. 519, 537.) 1 can 
state from personal experience, that lambs, horses, 
and cats will lick both hands and face of their 
master. I know at least four instances of horses 
doing so, one of a pet lamb, and I never had a cat 
belonging to me that did not lick my face, and 
that most elaborately. S. L. 

"ENDEAVOUR" AS A REFLECTIVE VERB (3 rd S. 
xi. 448.) There is a familiar example of this in 
the collect for the Second Sunday after Easter ; 
and a very accessible one in the Order for the 
Making of Deacons. Dean Alford refers, in his 
book on Queen's English (p. 1)G), to the error in 
accentuation of which many clergymen are guilty, 
when they have occasion to use the prayer. I 
know not how ordination candidates acquit them- 
selves in making answer to the bishop. 

ST. SWITHIN. 

" BUT WITH THE MORNING," ETC. (3 rd S. xi. 4G8.) 
I cannot find the line 

" But with the morning cool reflection came," 
in Howe's Fair Penitent, though there is one 
which bears some similarity to it : 

" At length the morn and cold indifference came." 
Does D. think that Sir Walter Scott's quota- 
tion is a paraphrase of this latter line ? 

JONATHAN BOUCIIIER. 



PENNY (3 rd S. xii. 25.) The Sanscrit word 
pannas, according to Eichhoff and Kaltschmidt, 
means Jluclitig, flying, and is in close relationship 
with the Latin penna, the wing-feather or quill of 
a bird, from pat, to fly, to fall. Penny is not 
generally connected with the European languages, 
but is confined to one branch. It is not a very 
old word. The corresponding word to penny in 
the Gothic of Ulphilas is skatt (Mark xii. 15, Luke 
xx. 24). The English penny is related closely to 
the German pfennig, where it is a favourite, for 
they have pfennigmeistcr = treasurer, or cashier ; 
pfennigfuchser = pinch-penny ; pfenniggewicht = 
pennyweight; pfenniglicht = farthing (penny) 
candle; and pfenniywerth = pennyworth. 

T. ,T. BUCKTON. 

The querist seems to misunderstand the com- 
parative study of languages, when he asks if the 
Sanskrit panna is the origin of our word " penny." 
The origin of our word " penny " is the Anglo- 
Saxon pending, pening, peniy, and certainly not the 
Sanskrit panna. It is well known that Anglo- 
Saxon is a branch of the Teutonic class of Aryan 
languages, whilst Sanskrit is a branch of the Indie 
class. Now Teutonic and Indie are co-ordinate 
and not sub-oi'dinaiQ to each other, and it is quite 
an erroneous supposition to believe that Sanskrit 
is the mother tongue of the Aryan languages. 
We may consult the Sanskrit vocabulary for 
the origin of a Pali or of a Prakrit word, but 
not for the origin of an English or of a Latin 
word. Of course we may discover some close 
resemblance between a Sanskrit word and a Latin 
word, for instance; but then we must conclude 
that the origin of both words was a word of that 
Aryan mother-tongue which no longer exists, and 
of which Indie and Italic are remnants. I think 
it useless to dwell on this subject, for I suppose 
that the querist is as well acquainted as myself 
with comparative philology, but that he has not 
been careful enough in the wording of his query. 

As to the etymology of the word penny, the 
querist may refer to Turner's History of the 
Anglo-Saxons, vol. iv. p. 164 : 

" We may be curious," says the author, " to inquire 
into the etymology of the pening. The word occurs 
for coin in many countries. In the Francotheotisc, it 
occurs in Otfrid* as Pfening ; and on the Continent one 
gold pfenning was declared to be worth ten silver pfennig. 
It occurs in Icelandic, in the ancient Edda, as penning. 

" The Danes still use penge as their term for money or 
coin, and if we consider the Saxon penig as their only 
silver coin, we may derive the word from the verb/nmion, 
to beat or knock, which may be deemed a term applied to 
metal coined, similar to the'Latin cudere" 

The same author (Turner) adds in a note to 
this passage : 

" Schilter has quoted an author who gives a similar 
etymology from another language, ' Paenings nomine 
pecunia tantum munerata significant, a plina, quod est 
cudere, signare.' '' Gloss. Tent. p. G">7. 



76 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



[3* d S. XII. JULY 27, '67. 



I find the most probable etymology of the word 
penny in Chambers' s Encyclopaedia, art. " Penny " : 

" The name is evidently the same as the German 
Pfennig, and both words seem to be intimately connected 
with the old German Pfant, a pledge, and the Latin 
pendo. to weigh or to pay." 

The word penny, Anglo-Saxon pending, pening, 
penig, Germ, pfennig, Dan. and Swed. pening, is 
a diminutive, and means probably "little coin." 
I am unable to decide whether the Sanskrit 
panna has the same meaning, for the querist does 
not indicate precisely the passage where it seems 
to designate a copper value. If it means this, 
there is certainly a striking, but by all means for- 
tuitous, resemblance between the two words. 

G. A. S. 

" CONSPICUOUS FEOM ITS ABSENCE " (3 rd S. XI. 

438, 508; xii. 34.) I believe that the French 
anticipated us in the application of this epigram- 
matic expression. " Briller par son absence " has 
been familiar to them ever since the Jesuits suc- 
ceeded in causing the lives of Arnauld and Pascal 
to be excluded from ISHistoire des Homines illus- 
tres by Perrault. It was then, I think, that the 
expression became popularised among them. I do 
not know whether it has been introduced among 
the Germans and Italians. C. T. RAMAGE. 

PALINDROMICS (3 rd S. xii. 38.) 

" A lawyer once chose for his motto ' Si nummi im- 
munis.' And in the time of Queen Elizabeth, a noble 
lady, who had been forbidden to appear at court in conse- 
quence of some suspicions against her, took for the device 
on her seal the moon, partly obscured by a cloud, and the 
motto, ' Ablata at alba.' Taylor, the water-poet, writes 
' Lewd did I live, and evil I did dwel.' " 

Specimens of Macaronic Poetry, London, 

1831, p. vi. 

Why should si nummi immunis be taken as 
specially the motto of a lawyer ? D. 

STANSFIELD : SMYTH (3 rd S. ix. 413 ; xii. 27.) 
From the hasty glance that I have been able to 
give to the records in reference to this matter, I 
can only say that the Laird of Bulronne was pro- 
bably the Laird of Balgone in Haddingtonshire. 
I have at present no time to work out "the ques- 
tion, but F. M. S. will find valuable information 
in the Inquisitiones Speciales for that county, and 
also in the Inquisilioncs Generates. 

GEORGE VERB IRVIXG. 

OLD SEALS ON CHARTERS, ETC. (3 rd S. xii. 25.) 
There is much valuable information on seals to 
charters, their antiquity, &c., in Dugdale's An- 
tiquities of Warwickshire, and he quotes a passage 
respecting them from Ingulphus, secretary to the 
Conqueror when Duke of Normandy, and after- 
wards Abbot of Croyland, from which I gather 
that the substance of the seals attached to old 
charters was wax : " Et chartarum firmitatem 



cum cerea impressione," &c. (Dugdale's Anti- 
quities of Warwickshire, pub. 1656, p. 138.) 

S. L. 

LINES ox THE EUCHARIST (2 nd S. v. 438 ; 3 rd S. 
x. 519; xi. 66, 225, 315.) The following extract 
from Clark's Ecclesiastical History has not been 
noticed hitherto in "N. & Q." It occurs in his 
Life of Queen Elizabeth, p. 94: 

" She had a good vein in poetry. In the time of her 
sister's reign, when a popish priest pressed her hard to 
declare her opinion of Christ's presence in the Sacrament, 
she truly and warily answered him thus : 
" Twas God the word that spake it, 
lie took the bread and brake it, 
And what the word did make it, 
That I believe and take it." 

Clark's Eccles. History. 3rd edit. 1675. 

S. L. 

BISHOP GIFFARD, ETC. (3 rd S. xi. 455.) Joseph 
Francis de Malide, Bishop of Avranches, was 
translated to Montpellier in 1774. He was one of 
the thirty-six bishops who refused to resign his 
see in 1801, which all the French bishops were 
required to do by the concordat between Pius VII. 
and Buonaparte. Pie died in London. 

Renede Moutiersde Merinville was made Bishop 
of Dijon in 1787. He, unlike the above, became 
a demissionairein 1801. I see in Darling's Cyelo- 
pccdiaBibliographica, parti., " Catholick Sermons," 
in two vols. 8vo, by " Giffard B." VILEC. 

SIR JOHN OLDMIXON (3 rd S. xi. 399.) That 
Sir John's name is not to be found in a list of 
knights may be owing to his having been a 
baronet. It is my impression that his eldest son 
succeeded to his title on Sir John's death. An- 
other of his sons was an officer of the United 
States navy about thirty years ago. I remember 
Sir John's widow well. Assisted by her two ac- 
complished daughters, she kept a young ladies' 
school for many years in this city. 

BAR-POINT. 

Philadelphia. 

CHARLES LAMB'S u ELIA " (3 rd S. xi. 193.) 
Charles Lamb's sister Mary was "the quaint 
poetess " who wrote the verses called " The Two 
Boys," quoted in one of his essays. They are to be 
found in a volume published early in this century, 
and entitled Poetry for Children, entirely Original. 
By the author of Mrs. Leicester's School. The 
title-page might have said authors, as I believe 
that Charles Lamb contributed to this volume as 
well as to Mrs. Leicester's School. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

TRANSLATIONS (3 rd S. xi. 478.) The reply to 
this query is literally nil. Champion's Shah- 
Nameh is the only English translation, but that 
is not in prose. The " Veds " recently issued by 
Prof. Max Miiller is useless alike to *the Hindoo 
and to the European, and is a most costly work to 



3'd S. XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



buy. The funds cannot come from the sale of it, 
but must have been lavishly provided. The 
Veds should have been published like Miinter's 
Hebrew Bible and Ulphilas's Moeso-G-othic New 
Testament, with each separate word translated 
above or below the text, with a correct version in 
intelligible Latin or English appended, en regard, 
after the manner of Bagster's Polyglotts. The 
Mishna + the Gemara, = the Talmud, are all 
in like manner still desiderata in English. The 
various commentators on the Koran are the fol- 
lowing, according to Sale : Jallalo'ddin, Al Bei- 
dawi, Al Zamakhshari, Yahya, Al Fermadi, 
Ismael Ebuali, Abu'lkassan Hebatallah, Abu'l- 
feda, Al Hasan, Al Thalabi, Abu Isak, Al 
Kessai, Elmacin, Aimed Ebn Abd'al Halim, 
Abu'lfarag, Ebu Shohuah, Mirat Kainat, Turikli 
Moutakhab, &c. A comparison with France and 
Germany in this respect places Great Britain on 
a very low scale indeed. T. .1. BFCKTOX. 

Streatham Place, S. 

MANNA (3 rd S. xii. 41.) Josephus (Antiq. iii. 
i. 6) gives the best description as known to the 
Jews of his day. The authors who have since 
treated of it in an intelligible manner are Buxtorf, 
Salmasius, Bochart, Scheuchzer, Michaelis, Nie- 
buhr, Faber, and Rosenmuller. The best account 
is given by Burckhardt, who, speaking of the 
Wady-el-Sheikh, to the north of Mount Serbal, 
says 

" In many parts it was thickly overgrown with the 
tamarisk or tarfa ; it is the only valley in the peninsula 
where this tree grows, at present, in any great quantity, 
though some small bushes are here and there met with 
in other parts. It is from the tarfa that the manna is 
obtained ; and it is very strange that the fact should 
have remained unknown in Europe till M. Seetzen men- 
tioned it in a brief notice of his tour to Sinai, published 
in the Mines de /' Orient. This substance is called by the 
Arabs Mann, and accurately resembles the description 
of the manna given in Scripture. In the month of June 
it drops from the thorns of the tamarisk upon the fallen 
twigs, leaves, and thorns which always cover the ground 
beneath the tree in the natural state : the manna is col- 
lected before sunrise, when it is coagulated, but it dis- 
solves as soon as the sun shines upon it. The Arabs 
clean away the leaves, dirt, c. which adhere to it, boil 
it, strain it through a coarse piece of cloth, and put it 
into leathern skins; in this way they preserve it till the 
following year, and use it, as they do hone}", to pour over 
their unleavened bread, or to dip their 'bread into. I 
could not learn that they ever made it into cakes or 
loaves. The .manna is found only in years when copious 
rains have fallen ; sometimes it is not produced at all. 
I saw none of it among the Arabs, but I obtained a piece 
of last year's produce at the convent, where, having been 
kept in the cool shade and moderate temperature of that 
place, it had become quite solid, and formed a small cake ; I 
it became soft when kept some time in the hand, if ! 
placed in the sun for five minutes ; but when restored to ' 
a cool place it became solid again in a quarter of an hour. 
In the season at which the Arabs gather it, it never 
acquires that degree of hardness which will allow of its 
being pounded, as the Israelites are said to have done 
(Num. xi. 8.) Its colour is dirty yellow, and the piece 



which I saw was still mixed with bits of tamarisk leaves; 
its taste is agreeable, someAvhat aromatic, and as sweet as 
honey. If eaten in any considerable quantity, it is said 
to be slightly purgative. The quantity of 'manna col- 
lected at present, even in seasons when 'the most copious 
rains fall, is very trifling, perhaps not amounting to 
more than 5 or COO Ibs. It is entirely consumed among 
the Bedouins, who consider it the greatest dainty which 
their country affords. The harvest is. usually in June, 
and lasts six weeks ; sometimes it begins in July." 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 

Louis XVI. os- THE SCAFFOLD (3 rd S. xi. 521.) 
The story told by A SENIOR, respecting the 
" struggles ' r of Louis XVI. with his executioners, 
is merely the repetition of a silly figment which 
was (for obvious purposes) put about at the time, 
and disproved by abundant evidence : among which 
none is more to the point than the matter-of-fact 
narrative of Sanson the executioner. It appears 
from this, that the sole foundation for the story 
was in the fact, that when Louis advanced to the 
front of the scaffold, wishing to address the people, 
he was forcibly drawn back by the gendarmes 
under Santerre's orders. Louis XVI., though not 
a man of strong intellect or strong will, possessed 
the courage of his family, and maintained his 
personal dignity through scenes even more ter- 
rible than that closing one on the Place de la 
Concorde. It would be well if some other French- 
men, whose martyrdom has not gone beyond a 
comfortable and well-endowed exile, had followed 
his example in this respect. We might not then 
have witnessed the attempt of M. Louis Blanc to 
revive this pitiful slander in our own day. 

C. G. PROWETT. 
Garrick Club. 

LETTER FROM KIMBOLTON LIBRARY (3 rd S. xii. 
44.) Your correspondent F. requires the ex- 
planation I received when greatly puzzled at 
finding " the key of the littel gate that leads to 
Pergo " thus labelled. Pirgo is a manor in the 
liberty of Havering, and near Havering-atte- 
Bower. In the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury it was sold by Henry Grey, Esq., to Sir 
Thomas Cheke, Knt., grandson of the learned 
Sir John Cheke. Sir Thomas Cheke married, 
secondly, Essex, daughter of Robert Rich, Earl of 
Warwick. Their eldest son was born 1625. Now 
if this letter were written previous to 1628, would 
not a very probable solution of its contents be : 

My Lord Admirall the Duke of Buckingham " 
Steenie, who succeeded Lord Howard of Ef- 
fingham, and held the dignity till his murder by 
Felton in 1628. Co: Go: might be Lord Goring, 
who was a distant cousin of some of the Chekes, 
I think, and the said Co: Go: may have been one 
of the officers in the disgraceful expedition of 
Buckingham to the Isle of Rhe, the "broom 
men " and "pinne makers "being the Huguenots. 
Essex Cheke would familiarly sign herself S X 



78 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



(><* S. XII. JULY 27, '67. 



esS-X-ex. Her daughter Essex married, first, Sir 
Robert Bevil of Chesterton, and, secondly, Ed- 
ward, second Earl of Manchester, to whom Kirn- 
bolton belonged. There is a monument to her 
memory and virtues in Kimbolton church. 

I therefore am persuaded that Lady Cheke 
wrote the letter to either the first or second Earl 
of Manchester from Pirgo. THUS. 

I should imagine that the letter signed S X. 
was written by Essex, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Cheke of Pergo, in Havering, co. Essex, wife of 
Edward, Lord Kimbolton, the celebrated Parlia- 
mentary general. Or it may possibly have been 
written by the mother of this lady, Essex, Lady 
Cheke, daughter of Robert Rich, Earl of War- 
wick. No doubt it refers to some of the troubles 
of that unhappy period. E. J. SAGE. 

NAUTICAL SAYING (3 rd S. xii. 25.) In the days 
of evil antipathies national, as between the 
French and English; professional, as between 
soldiers and sailors a marine was called a gulpin 
by the sailors; that is, a person who would 
swallow anything told him. Hence arose the say- 
ing "Tell that to the marines." The latter 
portion was seldom expressed, although implied. 
An empty bottle was disgracefully styled a marine 
officer. It is related that a Lieutenant R.N. called 
out" Steward, take that marine officer off the 
table." A marine officer at the table demanded 
an explanation, or . " Sir," replied the lieu- 
tenant, " it has done its duty, and is willing to do 
it again." J. S. 

Stratford, Essex. 

OTSTEES WITH AN R IN THE MONTH (1 st S. xi. 
302, 373, 414.) During the reign of the Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem, at this island, oysters were 
not eaten by the Grand Masters or the Knights 
during the summer season, and with many of the 
best families this correct rule is observed to the 
present time. W. W. 

Malta. 

COTTLE FAMILY (3 rd S. xi. 376, 529.) Can 
P. W. give particulars of the pedigree of Moses 
Cottle, of Winsley, Wilts, antecedent to 1747 ? 
He appears, like Cottle the poet, to have borne 
the same arms as the Cottells of Devon. C. 

OLIVER CROMWELL (3 rd S. xi. 207.) The Clay- 
pole family, descended from one of the daughters 
of the Protector, have resided in this city for 
about a century and a half. Much information 
respecting Cromwell's ancestors and posterity is 
to be found in the London Magazine for May, 
1774. UNEDA. 

Philadelphia. 

STYLE OP "REVEREND" AND "VERY REVEREND" 
(3 rd S. xii. 26.) In Scotland the Principals of the 
Universities, who are always clergymen of the 
Established Church, have "the title of "Very 



Reverend " ; and the Moderator of the General 
Assembly of that Church, in his address at the 
conclusion of their annual sitting, names the 
members part of whom, the elders, are laymen 
" Right Reverend and Right Honourable." Pos- 
sibly some of the Scotch readers of " N. & Q." 
will be able to explain the reason of such appel- 
lation. G. 
Edinburgh. 

CHEVERS FAMILY (3 rd S. x. 462 ; xii. 56.) 
According to the last edition of Burke's Landed 
Gentry, Edward- Chevers, Viscount Mount Lein- 
ster, had two brothers: Andrew, whose line is 
extinct ; and John, ancestor of the Killian family. 
Here no Jerome appears, though MR. D'ALTON 
called him the only brother in his communication 
toN. &Q." 

In that communication your late respected cor- 
respondent implies that the name Killian was 
given to his estate by the Chevers, transplanted 
by Cromwell in memory of the parish of Killian, 
or Killyan, in Wexford, with which his family 
had been formerly connected. This is an error. 
The name belongs not only to the estate, but to 
the parish and barony of the county of Galway 
in which it is situate : to the former, no doubt, 
from a very early date ; to the barony from 
August 6, 1585, when it was formed at the time 
of Sir John Perrot's composition. Killian was 
then the chief seat of Conor Oge O'Kelly, " com- 
pettitor for the name of tanestshipe of O'Kelly." 

In his Army List of James II,, MR. D' ALTON 
makes the Killian family descend from Walter 
Chevers of Monkstown, transplanted to Con- 
naught in 1676. As to this Walter Chevers, who 
was transplanted in 1653 ; and as to John of May- 
ston, or Macetown ; see some particulars in the 
Cromwellian Settlement (p. 68), and in the records 
therein mentioned. S. P. "\ . 

BRIGNOLES (3 rd S. xi. 455.) MR. J. H. DIXON, 
who resides at Florence, says of this name, " It is 
certainly not Italian " ; yet a distinguished person 
of that name, Ct. Brignole-Sale, has for years 
been Sardinian ambassador at the court of France 
during King Louis-Philippe's reign. I have an 
engraved portrait, by Jean Benoit Castiglione 
(alias il Grechetto), 1616-1676 (Bartsch, P.. 
gr. xxi. p. 35), representing Antony Julius Brig- 
nole-Sale, Marquis Groppoli, in Tuscany, born of 
a patrician and senatorial Genoese family, July 23, 
1605 ; who, after having held A T arious honourable 
public employments in his own country, and hav- 
ing had the misfortune to lose his wife, thought 
himself called to the ecclesiastical state. Later, 
at the age of forty-seven, he became a member of 
the Society of Jesuits, March 11, 1652. He had 
previously written several works; but from the 
time of his taking holy orders, he devoted all his 
thoughts to pulpit eloquence. He died in 1665. 



S. XII. JULY 27, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



79 



Brignole-Sale has been praised by many authors, 
viz. by Maracci, by Crescimbeni, and by Quadrio. 
In the work called Glorie degli Incogniti (p. 67), 
is his portrait, with the following distich : 

" Sal erit insulsum, salibus nisi condiat illud 
Hie Ligur, ex ipso qui Sale nomen habet." 

Mazzuchelli speaks of several works of Brignole- 
Sale, both sacred and profane, in prose and verse. 
His life has been written by Father Visconti 
Metnorie delle virtu del P. Antonio Julio Brignole- 
Salc, Milan, 1666. His principal works are : Le 
Instabilitd deW Ingeyno, etc., Bologna, 1635 ; Tacito 
dbburattato, etc., Venice, 1636; Maria Maddalena 
peccatrice, etc., Genoa, 1636 ; II Carnovale di Got- 
tilvannio Salliebregno (his anagram), Venice, 
1639-1641, &c. &c. P. A. L. 

DOLE (3 rd S. xii. 55.) I have thought of an- 
other instance of the use of this word by a modern 
author, in addition to the one I quoted from 
Tennyson : 

" No need of sulphureous lake, 

No need of fiery coal, 
But only that crowd of human kind 

Who Avanted pity and dole 
In everlasting retrospect 
Will wring my sinful soul ! " 

Hood, Lady's Dream. 

JONATHAN BOTJCHIER. 

THE THREE PIGEONS (3 rd S. xii. 25.) I quite 
agree with N. B. C. in his conjecture that the 
sign _ of "The Three Pigeons" had originally a 
religious significance. The idea of this sign ap- 
pears to have been derived from Gen. viii. 8-12, 
where, in our Authorised Version, Noah is repre- 
sented as thrice sending out the dove. The 
Hebrew word rendered " dove" might quite as 
correctly be rendered "pigeon," and is so ren- 
dered Lev. v. 7, &c. To this we may add that, 
if we refer to the passage in question as it stands 
in the Vulgate, we shall there find that, through 
the want of the definite article in Latin, there is 
nothing which decidedly indicates that Noah 
thrice sent forth the same pigeon j it might rather 
appear to the cursory reader that Noah succes- 
sively sent forth three pigeons. In such an inter- 
pretation, I would submit, the sign of "The 
Three Pigeons " had its origin. 

Whether dove or pigeon is the more proper 
rendering of the original Hebrew (ydndh), is 
hardly a question to be discussed in " N. & Q.," 
and I strenuously disclaim any wish to raise the 
controversy in your pages. It may be well how- 
ever to observe that, in referring to Gen. viii. in 
the French version of Ostervald, we find "pigeon" 
throughout (not to mention other authorities). 
And it would appear from Luther's version, that 
he regarded the passage as really implying that 
Noah sent forth three doves or pigeons succes- 
sively, not the same bud thrice. SCHIX. 



MERIDIAN RINGS (3 rd S. xi. 381, 470.) Rings 
to ascertain the time are regularly sold at the 
Swiss fairs. They are called cadrans. The price 
of one is 20 centimes. They are of the kind 
mentioned in the French Cyclopedic, and the hour 
is told by " un trou, par lequel on fait passer un 
rayon du soleil." A superior instrument of this 
kind has lately been patented at Paris. It is not 
a ring, but a flat graduated instrument. One end 
is slightly elevated, and has a small hole through 
which the sun-rays pass. The cost is about 
eight francs. No doubt it is sold in London. S. J. 

NOAH (3 rd S. xi. 470.) A German gentleman, 
who is studying our language, has favoured me 
with a prose rendering of a song on Noah. The 
English is very bad. The song is as follows : 

" Noah, after having so much water, wished that 
Jupiter would send him something better. He had 
hardly finished his prayer, when he found a beautiful 
young lady [I follow my friends MS.] with a golden cup 
standing beside him. " Noah said, ' Who are you, my 
dear ? ' She answered, ' I am Hebe, and I've brought 
you some nectar to taste ! ' Noah tasted, and was en- 
raptured, and said : ' Do give me the receipt.' Hebe 
then gave Noah some vine cuttings, and told him how to- 
plant them ; and gave him all instructions necessary as 
to gathering the grapes, pressing, and so on. And thus 
was produced wine, which you see is the same drink as 
that which is called by the gods Nectar." 

As I have not seen the original, I cannot vouch 
for the correctness of the translation. The song 
I am told is a favourite with the German students, 
and is from a collection wherein Gambrinus and 
Noah are equally honoured. J. H. D. 

THE LATE REV. R. H. BARHAM (3 ra S. xi. 476, 
531.) Two pieces, called "The Dark-looking 
Man," and "Rich and Poor, or Saint and Sinner," 
were certainly from the pen of Mr. Barham, 
though not found in his works. They appeared 
in The Globe under the signature of " Peter Pep- 
percorn, M.D.," which was the signature appended 
to the parody on " The Burial of Sir John Moore." 
The parody was however not wholly original, but 
founded on one written by the far-famed " Wags 
of Durham." The parody of the " Wags " was 
sent to The Mirror newspaper (since defunct), in 
which it never was inserted, but by some means 
or other it got into Peter Peppercorn's hands, 
and by him was published, with many alterations 
and improvements, in TJie Globe and Traveller. 
In its original state it was too local, and abounded 
in allusions that could only interest a citizen of 
Durham. 

" The Dark-looking Man " commences thus : 
" The shutters were closed, the decanters at hand, 

At the Somerset close by St. Mary-le-Strand ; 

When 'tis painful to think what a conflict began 

'Twixt a merchant so grave and a dark looking man." 

^ Saint and Sinner " I will shortly send to 
" N. & Q." I have a copy by me. I regret that 



80 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. XII. JULY 27, '67. 



I cannot supply a copy of "The Dark-looking 
Man." It is equal to any Ingoldsby Legend. 

S. J . 



ta 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The English Arch'vologist's Handbook. By Henry God- 

win, F.S.A. (Parker & Son.) 

In a very judicious Introduction, Mr. Godwin points 
out the difficulties with which the student of archaeology 
is surrounded from the bulkiness and expense of almost 
all books which treat of this interesting science, and 
shows that the student who may set forth to study our 
national monuments would require a very considerable 
outlay to secure the books, and then having expended a 
camel-load of copper in their purchase, would require the 
camel itself to transport them. But we will let Mr. 
Godwin tell in his own words the object of the book be- 
fore us : " The experience of some years of irksome and 
humiliating, although unavoidable ignorance, has guided 
me in the selection of those subjects on which informa- 
tion is most necessary, and most difficult of attainment ; 
and this information I have with much labour, and at no 
inconsiderable expense, endeavoured to collect, condense, 
and classify, rectifying as far as I could what I con- 
sidered erroneous, and popularising, as far as the matter 
would allow, what appeared too recondite and abstruse." 
Carrying out his object in this spirit, Mr. Godwin has 
produced a little volume in which the English archaeolo- 
gist will find a mass of information readily accessible, 
and we believe perfectly reliable, which will make it not 
only useful as a book of reference in the study, but really 
what Mr. Godwin aimed at a handbook to the archae- 
ologist, a manual to the student of history, and an in- 
structive companion to the English tourist/ 

Fine Arts Quarterly Review. No. IV. New Series. 

The new number of this journal, now so interesting to 
all lovers of art and art students, though late in its ap- 
pearance, will be welcome for the variety and importance 
of the articles it contains. Professor Kinkel's paper on 
Holbein will greatly interest the numerous admirers of 
the great Swiss artist. A notice of the Life and Works 
of Decamps is another valuable contribution to art bio- 
graphy ; while art history is enriched by papers on Artists 
patronised by Charles II.", and a New History of Painting 
in Italy. Art Criticisms, Notices of New Prints and New 
Books, and other miscellanies, make up a capital number 
of the Fine Arts Quarterly Review. 

PORTRAITS OF YORKSHIRE WORTHIES. We have 
received what may be called a tentative List of Portraits 
of the Worthies of Yorkshire, which it is intended should 
form one of the features of the Leeds Exhibition of next 
year. This happy idea originates with Edward Hail- 
stone, Esq., of Horton Hall, near Bradford, whose collec- 
tions of everything connected with his native county are 
so widely known. It was proposed by him about fifteen 
years ago to the Yorkshire Philosophical Society, but 
circumstances did not then permit of it. The Leeds Com- 
mittee, finding their opportunities greater, have now 
requested that gentleman to superintend the formation 
and arrangement of such a gallery in one of the principal 
corridors of their new infirmary. We understand that 
Mr. Hailstone has consented to" undertake this task, and 
also that he has been fortunate enough to associate with 
himself the Rev. James Beck, who is well known to our 
readers by his connection with the National Portrait 
Exhibition and the South Kensington Loan Collections. 
Under such care we are sure that the Gallery of " York- 
shire Worthies" will not only be very attractive, but 
very valuable to historical students. 



THE SHAKESPBARES OF ROWINGTON. We. hope next ive.ek to lay before 
our readers a very interesting paper on tin. subject of this branch of the 
Shakespeare Jamili/. 

G. H. T. Mathematical queries do not come within the objects of 
"N.& Q." 
T. W. T. Theline- 

' The modest water saw its God and blushed," 

i* bu Crashaw. See two interesting papers upon it in our 1st S. vi. 358. 
and viii. 42. 

C. B. (Ingatestone) will find no 7es. than ten articles on Ampers and 
(.&) and its derivation i,t our 1st S. ii. 230, 284, 318; viii. 173, 223, 254, 327, 
376, 524 ; ix. 43. 

C. W. F. F. Some account of the Freebench custom is given in 
" N. & Q." 2nd S. vii. 219-222. 

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.UG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



81 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 3, 1867. 



I CONTENTS NO 292. 

'vOTES: The Shakespeares of Rowington, 81 Arthur 

' Wolfe Lord Viscount Kilwarden, 86 A few more Notes 
on Hannah Lightfoot, 87 - Sweat like a Brock: Cuckoo 
Spittle " The Rose of Dawn " Tradition about Taraer- 
ja'ne _ My Mother's Grave," by the Rev. J. Moultrie 
" Lord Dundreary " Index : Margin, 88. 

QUERIES: Dryden's Morecraft: "Cunning" or "Cut- 
ting"? 89 Bury ins Iron Fragments Richard de Lhol- 
mondeley Clan Tartans Courts of Queen's Bench and 
Exchequer Donizetti and Bellini Frederick, Prince of 
Wales Hans-ing in the Bell-ropesMrs. Lawrence, of 
Wavertreehall, Liverpool - Francis Meres Norden's 
"Survey of Kirton in Lindsey " Paxton Family Quo- 
tations wanted - References wanted Shekel The 
Genealogy of the Ussher Family, 89. 

QUEKIES WITH ANSWERS: George Halyburton, Bishop 
of Dunk eld First Sabbath School in England Vulgate 
Bible, 1491, 92. 

REPLIES: -Solomon and the Genii, 93 The Songs of 
Birds, 94 Doctor Wolcot, Ib. Consecration of a Church 
by an Archdeacon Drawings The Knave of Clubs 
"Leo pugnat cum Dracone " Rev. John Darwell Tomb 
in Barbados Monument of O Piers Shonkes, at Brent 
Pelham, co. Hertford " Magius de Tintinnabulis Ex- 
traordinary Assemblages of Birds Tennyson's Early 
Poems Style of " Reverend " and " Very Reverend " 
Scot, a Local Prefix The " Victoria Magazine " Source 
of Quotation wanted Pare aux Cerfs Scandinavian Li- 
terature, &c., 96. 



THE SHAKESPEARES OF ROWINGTON. 

The Shakespeares of Rowington were at one 
time thought to have had amongst them the 
paternal grandfather of our great poet. Some 
little evidence which looks like an approximation 
to the truth has now directed the tide of opinion 
upon that subject towards a kindred hranch of 
the same stock, which was settled at Snitterfield ; 
but Shakespearean inquirers still look with in- 
terest to the Rowington branch, and gather up 
with pains-taking curiosity every little fact that 
" turns up " respecting them. 

I have now to lay before you some particulars 
which will, I think, be considered definitely to fix 
the status in the world of one family of the Shake- 
speares of Rowington, and to determine some other 
interesting questions respecting them. They wil] 
also go a long way towards removing from them 
all claim to close family connection with the 
poet, and towards disposing of an ingenious sug- 
gestion of MR. COLLIER (who was the first to 
direct attention to the Snitterfield branch as 
containing the poet's ancestors), that the Shake- 
speares of Rowington and Snitterfield might in 
fact be but one branch of the same family, which 
had removed from the former of those places to 
the latter at some unknown period. I am not 
aware that the following particulars have ever 
been published or noticed ; but if it should turn 
out that they have not altogether escaped the 



eagle eyes of some of our multitudinous inquirers, 
'. hope I shall be pardoned for soliciting further 
ttention to them than (so far as I am aware) 
they have hitherto received. 

The facts I am about to state have come to 
ight in the following way. Among the many 
good deeds which are doing at the Public Record 
3ffice under the direction of the indefatigable 
Deputy Keeper, Mr. Hardy, there is in progress a 
very useful and important work of arrangement 
of the remaining Records of the Court of Star 
Chamber. This work is being carried on by 
Mr. George Knight, a gentleman in the Record 
Office of great intelligence and accuracy. Mr. 
Knight happens to be absent at this time, and it 
is on that account that I communicate with you 
on his behalf. It will be understood that I have 
no connexion with the matter, except as Mr. 
Knight's deputy in making this announcement. 
If there be any interest or value in these papers, 
we are indebted for its discovery solely to Mr. 
Knight. 

As the facts which are here disclosed are 
wrapped up in the tautology and formality which 
were the customary characteristics of our legal 
proceedings during the Tudor and Stuart reigns, 
it will perhaps be as well that I should state 
what appear to me to be the results, referring 
your readers to the copies of the documents them- 
selves, which I inclose, in proof of what I state. 

It appears then that at Rowington, which is 
a village in Warwickshire, lying about nine or 
ten miles due north from Stratford-upon-Avon,* 
there was seated a family of Shakespeares, the 
existence of which has been traced back to the 
fifteenth century and down to the seventeenth. 
Among these sharers in a name which has become 
illustrious there was a Richard Shakespeare, who, 
from about 1564 to 1614, occupied his own copy- 
hold messuage situate at " Turner's End or 
Church End " in Rowington, and farmed half a 
yard-land some ten or 15 acres which he held 
together with his house. In this place Richard 
Shakespeare and Elizabeth his wife brought up a 
family of five children four sons, named re- 
spectively William, Richard, Thomas and John, 
and one daughter, named Joan. Of the sons, 
William, the eldest, according to the custom of 
the times in such families as this, remained at 
home and devoted himself to the assistance of his 
father in the cultivation of his little estate ; John, 
the youngest, became a weaver, but continued to 
live at Rowington, although not, after a time, in 
his father's house. Thomas perhaps migrated to 
Kenilworth. Of Richard, the younger, there is 
little information. Joan remained at home, un- 
married. 

* Mr. Hunter says, " about three miles," but surely 
that was a mistake. He was probably thinking of Snit- 
terfield. 



82 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3"i S. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



This state of things lasted until William, the 
eldest son, attained the mature age of forty years. 
During all that time he had worked with _ his 
father in the labours of the farm, and had received 
at his father's hand, in lieu of labourer's wages, 
his " meat, drink, and apparel/' and nothing else. 
In those simple times there was nothing extraor- 
dinary in such an arrangement. It constituted at 
once the reason and the excuse for what Gibbon 
terms " the insolent prerogative of primogeniture." 
It was the customary price paid by the eldest son 
for the reversion of his father's land. The posi- 
tion of William Shakespeare was in truth pre- 
cisely that of the elder son in the parable ; and as 
if by way of following out the parallel, we are 
told that Richard Shakespeare, the father, always 
affirmed that his son William should have his 
lands, and that as he might bestow (that is, j 
settle in life) the rest of his sons and his daughter, j 
so his eldest son was, " in personal estate also, j 
like to fare the better." Nothing could well be j 
nearer to the meaning of the words of the Eastern 
apologue, " Son, thou art ever with me, and all 
that I have is thine." 

But after a service of forty years these prospects 
did not satisfy the eldest son. He yearned after 
a present independence, and remonstrated with 
his father. Again the terms of the sacred nar- 
rative are applicable : " Lo, these many years do 
I serve thee, and yet thou never gavest me " 
not " a kid that I might make merry with my 
friends," but, in the words of the present docu- 
ments, "any stock, or other thing, whereby I 
might raise myself any means to live upon." The 
father took the application unkindly, and resisted i 
it. The bright eyes of a certain Margery had 
probably some influence upon the decision of the 
dissatisfied heir. After some contention, he quitted 
the paternal roof, and with his father's " very good | 
liking and allowance," as he asserts, he went " to 
service." His new way of life was prosperous. He ' 
"got some money into his purse." He married 
Mistress Margery, and moreover, was rich enough j 
to " lend and bestow " much of his earnings upon 
his brother Richard. But his absence occasioned 
trouble at home. As the father's infirmities 
increased with age, the removal of his eldest 
son came to be more acutely felt. It assumed 
more the appearance of a desertion. And there 
were those around the old man who magnified 
what he thought to be his son's precipitancy, into 
an act of unpardonable insubordination. Even 
his very success in his new wav of life was turned 
against him. Joan, the only daughter, to whom 
her father bore " extraordinary favour and affec- 
tion," the aged mother, who, next to the father, 
felt most forcibly the inconveniences attendant ! 
upon the loss of the service of the eldest son, and I 
the youngest son, the Benjamin of the family, i 
all united to keep alive and increase the irritation ! 



and unkindness. The old man came to look upon 
William's conduct as a self-willed abandonment of 
his position. Quarrels, threats, and blows ensued. 
William's access to his father was opposed. It was 
even sought to close the door of his father's house 
against him. The catastrophe may be anticipated. 
In the last month of the old man's life, he settled 
his little farm, after his own death and that of his 
wife, absolutely upon John, but subject to an 
annual payment of 41. to William. The new hen- 
had but a short time to wait for his inheritance. 
The arrangement was legally coaipleted in March 
1614 ; in the following month both the father 
and the mother went to their rest. 

But in such cases the death of the principals is 
but the beginning of fresh troubles. The 41. pei* 
annum was directed to be paid half yearly at 
Michaelmas and Lady Day, in the porch of Row- 
ington church, between the hours of ten and two. 
On the first occasion when a payment was to be 
made, the parties met in the church-porch, and 
the disinherited William received his forty shil- 
lings from the hands of his brother John. On the 
second occasion John Shakespeare went early into 
the church porch. His brother Thomas and two 
of his friends Edmund Fowler, a tailor, and 
Thomas Sadler, a hemp-dresser, both from Co- 
ventry, joined him there. John produced the 
money, and told it out on a bench in the church 
porch. Having done this, and influenced, as he 
states, by former threats of violence on the part of 
William, he left the money in the care of his 
brother Thomas, and charged him and his friends 
to stay the necessary time. William alleged that 
they did not do so ; that they stayed only until 
twelve o'clock ; and that by such breach of the 
stipulated condition his own right as heir had 
revived. He endeavoured to enforce his claim 
by violence, in which he was assisted by Mrs. 
Margery. John then filed a bill in Chancery 
against William to secure the possession of his 
lands. A commission was issued to take the evi- 
dence of Fowler and Sadler as to how long they 
remained in the church-porch. They swore that 
they remained ready to pay the money until " the 
clock had stricken two," and upon their evidence 
Sir Julius Cassar, the Master of the Rolls, de- 
cided in favour of John. William contended that 
the testimony of Fowler and Sadler was untrue, 
and filed a bill in the Star Chamber against all the 
parties. In the bill he states his case fully, and 
in the joint answer of all the defendants John 
and Thomas Shakespeare, Fowler, and Sadler 
their version of the story is reiterated. The result 
does not appear, but if there be any thing else 
about it in these Star Chamber Papers, we may 
be sure that Mr. Knight will discover it. 

The papers appended are copies of the bill and 
answer in the Star Chamber. Mr. Knight in- 
formed me that he had also found the Bill in 



rA g. xil. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



83 



< Chancery, and that it was accurately recited in 
-;he Billm the Star Chamber. The latter bill, it 
dll be perceived, was filed on June 9, 1618. 

JOHN BRUCE. 

" To the Kings most Excellent Maiestye. 
'In all humblenesse complayninge sheAveth to your ex- 
cellent Ma tic yo r humble obedient & dutiefull subject 
William Shakespeare of Koweington in the Covnty of 
Warwick, husbandman, That whereas John Shakespeare 
of Roweington afforesaide, weaver, did the first day of 
May one thousand six hundred and sixteene exhibite a 
bill of complaynt into the hon ble Court of Chauncery 
against yo r said Highnesse subject, Thereby complayn- 
inge and sheweinge. That whereas one Richard Shake- 
speare late of Roweington afforesaide deceased, father of 
yo r saide highnesse subiect, was in his life tyme lawe- 
fully seized to him & his heires accordinge to the cus- 
tom of the manner of Roweington affores'd of and in one 
coppiehould or customary messuage or tenement & 
halfe yeared laude, w th all & singular the appurtences 
therevnto beelonginge, lyinge and beinge in Turners ende 
or Church end in Rowington afforesaide, pcell of the 
manner of Roweington afforesaide, And beinge thereof 
soe seyzed and havinge issue fower sonnes : viz. William 
Richard Thomas &" John Shakespeare, And hee the 
saide Richard the Father bearinge an entyre love & 
affection to the saide John Shakespeare, more" then to the 
saide William his eldest sonne or the rest, And especiall 
for that hee the saide William had for many yeeres togei- 
ther bin very disobedient & vndutiefull to his saide 
Father & taken very vnnaturall and vncivell courseses 
[sic] to his saide fathers great greefe, Hee the saide 
Richard, the father, therefore for many yeeres toogeither 
beefore his death, That is to save for the space of Ten 
yeeres or there aboutes, intendinge after his death & the 
death of Elizabeth his wyfe to leave the saide coppie- 
houlde messuage Lande & p r misses vnto the saide John 
Shakespeare, To hould to him & his heires accordinge 
[to the custom] of the Manner afforesaide, And to that 
end & purposse, did, accordinge to the custome of the 
saide Manno 1 ', make severall surrenders, & beinge still 
soe resolved & determyned did allso, in or about the 
moneth of March in the twelveth. yeere of his Ma tcs raigne 
that nowe is of Englande &c, att Roweington afforesaide, 
surrender into the handes of the Lorde of the afforesaide 
Man or , by Thomas Ley & George Whome his attor- 
neys, & two of the customary tennantes of the Mano r 
afforesaide, accordinge to the custome of the saide Mano r , 
All & singular the afforesaide messuge or tenement 
halfe yearde lande & p r misses, w th all & singular the 
appurten'ces, to these severall vses followinge, That is 
to say, to the vse of him the saide Richard Shakespeare 
& Elizabeth his wyfe for & duringe the terme of their 
naturall lives & the longer liver of them, & after the 
deceasse of them the saide Richarde & Elizabeth then 
to the vse & beehoofe of John Shakespeare & his heires 
for ever, accordinge to the custome of the Manno r 
afforesaide, w th this pviso clause or sentence therein con- 
teyned, That is to say, That the saide John Shakespeare 
his heires execute or assigncs should yeelde pay or cavse 
to bee paide, yeerely and every yeere after the deceases of 
them the saide Richard and Elizabeth, & not beefore, 
vnto the saide William Shakespeare, his eldest sonne as 
afforesaide, for & duringe the terme of his naturall lyfe, 
the some of Fower powndes of good & lawefull English 
mony, at two termes or feastes in the yeere, That is to sa}*, 
at the feast of Sainte Michaell the arke Angell & the 
Anuncation of o r blesse Lady Saint Mary the vergin, by 
even & equall portions, The same allwayes to bee ten- 
dred & payde in the Church porche in the pish Church 



of Roweington afforesaide, betweene the bowers of Tenn 
of the Clocke in the forenoone & too of the Clocke in 
the afternoone of the same dayes, or to the like effecte, 
As in & by the saide Originall surrender it selfe, 
made in the s d Twelveth yeere remayninge in the 
handes of the high Steward of the saide Manno r or his 
then Deputy may appeare, w ch saide surrender beinge 
thus made in mann r A forme afforesaide, They the 
saide Richard & Elizabeth shortly after, that is to say, 
in the moneth of Aprill then next followinge after, did 
both of them departe this lyfe, wherevppon the saide 
John Shakespeare, accordinge to the saide surrender, after 
their deceasses did enter into the saide p r misses & 
shortly afterwardes at the next Courte then after houlden 
for the Manno r afforesaide, in the sayde moneth of Aprill 
in the twelveth yeere of his Ma tic3 raigne afforesaide, The 
saide surrender was by the afforesaide Thomas Ley & 
George Whome two of the saide customary tennants of 
the Manno r afforesaide accordinge to the Custome of the 
saide Manno r brought into the saide Courte then & 
there houlden for the Manno r afforesaide, and p r sented 
beefore the Jurey or homage then & there sworne, vnto 
Henery Michell gentleman the Deputy steward of the 
saide Manno r , who received the same surrender & 
p r sently of his owne heade added these wordes therevnto, 
viz. (or else voyde &c) w ch the saide Steward did w th out 
the consent of the afforesaide John Shakespeare. And 
afterwardes at the same Courte hee the saide then deputy 
Steward did admitt the saide John Shakespeare tennant 
vnto the coppiehould messuage lande & pmisses, To hould 
to him & his heires accordinge to the custome of the 
Manno r afforesaide, wherevppon the saide John Shake- 
speare payed his fyne then therefore assessed by the saide 
Steward, & did his fealty accordinge to the custome of 
the manno r afforesaide. And the same John Shakespeare 
farther shewed that his saide Father & Mother both of 
them dyeinge in the saide moneth of Aprill, Hee the saide 
John Shakespeare at Michaellmas then next followinge, 
accordinge to the pviso or clause in the saide Surrender, 
beinge the first tyme & day of payment after their de- 
ceases, did accordinge to the saide Surrender tender & 
paye vnto the sayde William Shakespeare his brother, at 
or in the Church porch of Roweington afforesaide, be- 
tweene the howers of tenn & two of the clocke afforesaide, 
the some of Fouerty shillings of lawefull English monie 
w ch hee the saide William Shakespeare beinge then & 
there readye did receive accordingely. And at the An- 
nuncation of o r lady then next after, beinge annother day of 
payment, hee the saide John Shakespeare at or in the 
saide Church porch & betweene the howers afforesaide did 
in like manner by himselfe or some other on his beehalfe 
tender & offer to pay vnto him the saide William Shake- 
speare the some of" Forty shillinges more. And hee the 
saide William Shakespeare not beinge their ready to re- 
ceive or demaunde the same, or any other for him, be- 
tweene the saide howers of Tenn & two of the clocke 
afforesaide, to the saide John Shakespeares knoledge, hee 
the saide John Shakespeare or such other as hee ap- 
poynted on his beehalfe to tender & pay the same after 
they had continued there till the hower of two of the 
clock was fully expired or neere there abouts, did depte 
thence & went" about other business supposinge that the 
saide William Shakespeare or any other for him would 
not have come thither at all that day, but would rather 
have sent or come himselfe to the saide John Shakespeares 
howse for the Same, never the lesse the saide John, beinge 
very carefull & respectfull of the payment thereof, did 
allso on the morrow after the day of the saide tender of 
Fouerty shillings as afforesaide, cavse one to goe to the 
howse of the saide William Shakespeare who did in like 
manii offer & tender the same there vnto him the saide 
William in the saide John Shakespeares beehalfe. But, 



84 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



nowe soe it is may it please yo r good LOPP, that the said 
John Shakespeare haveinge on this manner duly tendred 
the saide Forty shillinge vnto him the saide William 
Shakespeare vpon thannuncation of our blessed Lady S 
Mary the vergin last was twelve moneths, & on the mor- 
row after at the bowse of the saide William as afforesaide 
And hee the saide William beinge of a contencious & 
troublesome spirrit, & soe beinge & endeavovringe by 
meanes to trouble & vex the saide John Shakespeare, <fe to 
put him to vnnescessary charges & expences in the Lawe, 
hath not w th standinge the lawefull tender of Fouerty shil- 
lings made as afforesaide, denyed to accept thereof or to re- 
ceive the same of the saide John, but alleadgeth that the same 
was not at all tendred at the place & between the howers 
afforesaide, or that the saide John did not stey out vntil] 
two of the clock accordinge to the saide surrender, ptend- 
inge that the saide messuage & p r misses are thereby for- 
feyted. And there vpon hee the saide William Shake- 
speare & Margery his wyfe or one of them at seuerall 
tymes sithence in most rude & vnlawefull manner hath 
attempted & made diverse entreys into the saide coppie- 
hould messuage Lands & p r misses, & endeavoured to get 
the possession thereof, & hath sore brused and hurtt the 
saide John Shakespeare, & made diverse assaults vppon 
him, & hath allso since hurte and beaten his beasts & 
other cattell beinge in the grownds pcell of the saide 
p r misses, & turned them out of the said growndes. And 
lastly the saide John Shakespeare shewed vnto yo r 
good LOPP, that the saide William Shakespeare in or 
vppon the sixth day of Aprill last, at a Courte then 
houlden for the Manno r afforesaide did in his owne pson 
come into the saide Courte, & in full Court beefore the 
Stewarde then & there beinge, did make clayme & tytle 
to the saide messuage Lande & p r misses as eldest sonne 
& heire of the saide Richard Shakespeare ptendinge the 
same to bee forfeyted, For that the saide John did not 
pay vnto him the saide William the saide some of Fourty 
shillings on the feast day of thannuncation of o r blessed 
Lady S 1 Mary the vergin last was twelve moneth, ac- 
cordinge to the trewe meaninge of the saide surrender, 
And thereby intendeth to sue the saide John at the 
Comon Lawe vppon the saide p v tended forfey ture, notw th - 
standinge the same haveinge bin lawefully tendred as 
afforesaide, & all bee it the saide John in or vppon the 
Anuncation of o r blessed Lady the vergin S 1 Mary last 
was twelve moneth, beinge the saide ptended da}' of for- 
feyture, did tender at the saide Church porch of Rowe- 
ington afforesaide, betweene the howers of tenn & two 
of the clocke [and before the same] weare fully expired, 
or neare there abouts. And there beinge none other dur- 
inge duringe [sz'cj that tyme (to this defend ts knoledge) 
for or on the beehalfe of the saide William to demaund or 
receive it, yet did the saide John Shakespeare like wise 
sende the same to the saide William at his howse on the 
morrowe after. And allso hee the saide John haveinge 
in like manner at Michaellmas last, & at thannuncation of 
o r blesse Lady last, made seu'all tenders of Forty shillinges 
duely at the vsuall place afforesaide & beetweene the howers 
afforesaide, to & for the vse of him the saide William, & 
there beinge ready to receive it [sic] hath allso in very 
gentle & curteous manner by him& others on his beehalfe 
desired of him the saide William Shakespeare to receive 
& accept of the same, toogeither w th all the arrearages 
thereof, yet that to doe hee the saide William Shake- 
speare hath alltogeither refused, & still doeth refuse, & 
pnendeth & soe giveth out that the saide John Shake- 
speare hath forfeyted the same, And prayeth to bee 
releeved tuchinge the same forfeyture, & prayeth proces 
of Subpena against the same William Shakespeare yo r 
highnesse subject, as by the saine bill of Comp 1 * re- 
mayninge in recorde more at large appeareth. After w ch 
yo r saide highnesse subject beinge served w th pees of 



Subpena to appeare in the saide Honorable Co tc did ap- 
peare [and] vppon his corporeall oath given in the saide 
Courte of Chauncery did answer as followeth, That the 
saide Richard Shakespeare in the bill menconed, beinge 
the Comp lts Father, was in his life tyme, about Fyftie 
yeeres toogeither next beefore his death, seized to him & 
his heires accordinge to the Custome of the saide Manno r 
of Roweington, of & in the saide Coppiehould or cus- 
tomary messuage or tenement & halfe yeard lande in the 
Bill menconed w th thapp'tynces, & beinge soe thereof 
seized & havinge Issue Fower Sonnes, That is to say, The 
saide Willia' Shakespeare, his eldest sonne, Richard & 
Thomas his second & third sonnes, & John Shakespeare 
his youngest sonne, And beinge soe seized thereof the 
Comp lts said Father did, vntil the Comp 1 * was growen to 
the age of Forty yeeres or neere there abouts, yemploye 
the comp u in his service w th out ever bestoweinge vppon 
him any stocke or other thinge whereby the Comp u might 
rayse him any meanes to live vppon, onely allowinge 
vnto him meate, drincke & apparrell, allwayes affvrminge 
vnto the Comp 1 * and to others, as well after suclTtyme as 
the nowe Comp 1 ' went from him to service as beefore, 
that hee shoud have his Lande, & that, as hee might be- 
stowe the reste of his brothers & sister, so he was in 
psonall estate allso like to fare the better. And he sayeth 
That about twelve yeeres scithence the comp 1 * by the 
very good likeinge & allowance of his saide Father, did 
goe to service & in such service haveinge gotten some 
monie into his purse, did lende & beestowe much thereof 
vppon Richard Shakspeare the Comp lt9 brother & other 
wise helpe & assist him, & did allso, in all dutiefull man- 
ner, respect & vse his saide Father & mother, and did 
him many services to his very good likeinge & acceptacon. 
But the Comp 1 * 8 saide Father bearinge an extraordinary 
favour & affection to Joane sister of the Comp 11 , did give 
much creadit to what shee vsed to say, w ch shee the 
saide Joane frindinge & loveinge the def * above all the 
rest of her bretheren, the def* & shee combyned them- 
selves toogeither howe they might obteyne the inher- 
ritance of the saide p r misses from the nowe comp 1 *, <fe 
beinge allwayes at home w th him, And this Comp 1 * all- 
waves abroade at service, soe farr p r vayled w th him, by 
some falce Informacons or other sinister meanes not well 
knowne to the Complt, As to get him to make surrenders 
from tyme to tyme of the saide p r misses to some such 
effect as by the bill is set set (sz'c) forth. But by such 
surrenders there was as this comp u hath creadibly harde 
& doeth beleeve to bee trewe allwayes a greater "yeerely 
some appoynted to bee payde vnto the Comp 1 * & his 
heires then is menconed in the Surrender in the Bill 
specified & haveinge soe brought their purposses to passe, 
The def* vsed all the meanes hee coulde to keepe the 
Comp 1 * from comeinge to his saide Father, & many tymes 
when the Comp 1 * was sent for by his saide Father to come 
to him did violently assault the Comp 1 * and offer to shut 
thee doore vppon him, & was soe borne out & embouldned 
by the Comp lts mother & the saide Joane their favours 
w ch they had w th the Comp lts Father, as that hee 
threatned the defend* in the life tyme of their saide Father, 
That yf he did lett him from haveinge the saide p r misses, 
tiee would keepe the Comp 1 * in prison as longe as he lived. 
All w ch charges of the Comp lts saide sister & brother 
the def* weare gen'ally very hardely spoaken of by the 
neighbours there dwellinge. And hee sayeth hee taketh 
it to bee trewe that the saide Richard Shakespeare the 
Jornp 1 * 9 Father did at or neare about the tyme in the 
jill menconed in that bee halfe, surrender into the handes 
f the Lorde of the saide Manno r . by Thomas Ley & 
George Whome his attorneys & then two Customary 
;ennants of the saide Mannor, accordinge to the Custome 
if the saide Manno r , the saide Messuage & p'Tnisses w t!l 
happ r tences to the vse of the saide Richard Shakespeare 



3' d S. XII. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



85 



e Elizabeth his wyfe the Comp lts Father & Mother, for 
c cluringe the terrae of their naturall lives & the longer 
iver of them, & after their deceasses to the vse & bee- 
aooffe of the defendant & his heires, w th such pviso in 
effect & substance as by the bill is set forth. And further 
the then defen 1 & nowe coroplaynant confesseth the sur- 
render of the saide p r misses & the estates exp r ssed in the 
bill of the then Complayn 4 & the condicon conteyned in 
the saide surrender & grant, but denieth that the saide 
Fortv shillinge was tend red accordinge to the saide Con- 
dicon in [we] the feast day of Thannuncacon of S l Mary 
the vergin at such tyme "& in such manner as is men- 
coned in the bill of Comp 14 . But the same was tendred 
the same feast day betweene the howers of Elleaven 
& Twelve, & not afterwarde as by the saide answer 
amongest other thinge appeareth. "To w ch answer the 
saide then Comp 14 replied amongest other thinges mayn- 
tayninge the saide tender of Forty shillinges vppon the 
saide feast day to bee made & tendred agreeable to the 
trewe meaninge of the saide Condicon. And there beinge 
a pfect Issue vppon the saide tender, a Comission was 
awarded out of the Hono We Court of Chauncery vnder the 
great seale of England in vsuall manner vnto John 
Norton gent. Francis Collins gent. Thomas Warner clarke 
& John Greene gent., givinge power & authority to them 
three, or any two of them, to examine such wytnesses as 
as should bee pduced on the pt of the p u or def 4 tuchinge 
the same cavse, wherevppon & by vertue of the saide 
comission the thirteenth day of January one thousande 
six hundred & sixteene, in the fowerteenth yeere of yo r 
Highnesse Raigne of England, &c., The saide Comis- 
sioners did sit to execute the same at Warwick in the 
Count}' of W^r. at w ch day & place by the wicked vn- 
godly & vncorrupt subornacon of the saide John Shake- 
speare & Thomas Shakespeare one Edmonde Fowler of 
the Citty of Coventrey taylor, & Thomas Sadler hempe 
dresser of Coventrey afforesaide weare pduced beefore 
the saide comissioners, wyttnesses on the beehalfe of the 
saide John Shakespeare & by vertue of the saide Comis- 
sion weare then & there sworne vppon the Evangellist of 
God to answer the truth & noethinge else but the truth, 
to all such Inter'gat. touchinge the p r misses as they 
should bee examined of, Soe helpe them God. And there- 
vppon they beinge examined to the Eighth Inter', w ch 
was : It\_em~\, wheither did the Comp u or yo u <>r yo r selfe 
or any other for or on his the saide Comp 148 beehalfe, 
vppon the feast day of Thanunciation in the Thirteenth 
yeere of the Raigne of the Kings Ma tie that now is, in 
the Church porch of the parrish Church of Roweington 
afforesaide make tender or offer, & was in readinesse to 
pay the some of Forty Shillings, accordinge to the effect 
of the afforesaid surrender or pviso therein conteyned, 
beetwine the howers of Ten of the clocke in the fore 
noone & two of the clocke in the after noone of the same 
day, as yo w knowe have credibly hard or do verilv bee- 
leeve ; declare the whole truth of yo r knoledge heeresay 
& beleeffe & the cavses & reasons thereof. To w ch Inter, 
the saide Fowler answered falcely vntruely corruptly & 
vnlawefully, that [vppon the feast day of thannuncacon 
of o r blessed Lady the vergin S 4 Mary in the thirteenth 
yeere of the Kings Ma tic that now is of England, &c. To 
the Eighth Inter, he sayeth, that] * vppon the feast day 
of thannuncacon of o r Lady in the thirteenth yeere of 
the Kings Ma ts raigne that now is, the deponent at the 
request of the saide Thomas Shakespeare came w th the 
saide Thomas Shakespeare & one Thomas Sadler to the 
church porch of Roweington afforesaide, about halfe an 
hower after one of the clocke in the after noone of the 
same day, And this depon 4 sayeth that the saide Thomas 
Shakespeare in the beehalfe of the comp 14 did then & 

* The words within brackets appear to be surplusage. 



there tender the some of Forty shillinge in the p r sents of 
this depon* & the saide Thomas Sadler. And that this 
depon 4 did tell the saide monie to bee payd to William 
Shakespeare the def 4 or to any other to his vse, & that 
the saide Thomas Shakespeare' & this depon 4 & the saide 
Thomas Sadler did there continue ready to pay the same 
monie as afforesaide vntill the clocke had stricken two & 
then there depted. And bee farther sayeth that duringe 
all the saide tyme neither the saide defen' nor any other 
for him did come to receive the saide monie. And after 
the same thirteenth day of January the saide Thomas 
Sadler being pduced a wytnesse on the pt of the p u in 
the saide cavse beefore the Comissioners by vertue of the 
saide Comission & sworne vppon the holy Evangellists 
of God by the saide Comissioners to testifie the truth of 
all such matters as hee should bee examined of tuching 
the cavse in question, beinge examined vppo the saide 
Eighth Inter, most falcely vntruely wickedly & cor- 
ruptly & vnlawefully, by the subornacon of the saide 
John Shakespeare & Thomas Shakespeare, did vntruely 
falcely corrupth r and vnlawefully depose beefore the 
saide Comissioners, the same thirteenth day of January 
in the Fowerteenth yeere of yo T highnesse raigne of Eng- 
land &c. To the eighth Interr. this depon 4 sayeth that 
vppon o r Lady day was twelve moneth, beinge the thir- 
teenth yeere of the Kings Ma t8 raigne that now is, at the 
request of Thomas brother of the Complayn 1 , Hee this 
depon 4 & one Edmond Fowler did come from Coventrey 
to meete the saide Thomas Shakespeare at Rowington, & 
when they weare come w th in about a quarter of a mile of 
Rowington they did meete with the saide Thomas Shake- 
speare, & that theie went all togeither to the Church 
porch of Roweington, & that the saide Thomas did there 
in the p r sents of this deponent & the saide Fowler, on the 
beehalfe of the saide comp u John Shakespeare, tender to 
pay the some of Forty shillings to the vse of William 
Shakespeare the def 4 . And sayeth that they came thither 
about halfe an hower after one of the Clocke, & stayed 
there vntil the clocke had stricken two, & then they 
tould the mony & sawe it was just Forty shillings, w ch 
all the tyme of their beinge their did lie vppon a bench 
in the saide porch, but this depon 4 did not see the saide 
William Shakespeare, nor any other for him, come to 
demaund or receive the saide monie. And soe this de- 
pon 4 the saide Thomas Shakespeare, & the saide Fowler 
went there way togeither, till they had gon' about a 
quart'r of a mile, & then the saide Thomas Shakespeare 
depted from them & went towards Killingeworth, & thin 
depon 4 & the saide Fowler went towards Coventrey. 
Whereas in very deede the tender was made onely bee- 
twine the howers of elleaven & Twelve of the Clocke of 
the same day & not after. And therefore the saide de- 
posicon was most falce vn trewe & corrupt, to the great 
displeasure of Allmighty God & contrary to the lawes & 
statuts of this Realme, & contrary to yo 1 ' highnesse 
peace yo r Crowne & dignity, & to the great p r judice & 
ou'throwe of yo T saide subject & his cavse dependinge 
then in Court e"of Chancery ; w ch deposicons weare shortely 
after the takeinge certifie'd into the saide Courte of Chan- 
cery by the said Comissioners in vsuall manner & there 
published, & the cavse pceedinge to hearinge, by reason 
of the saide deposicons, The cavse at the hearinge was 
decreed against yo r saide subject in the saide Courte by 
the hono blc S r Julius Cesar, Knight, master of the Holies, 
in Easter terme last, to the great damage of yo saide 
subject for w ch yo r saide Subject had [hath?] noe re- 
leeffe but in the High Court of Starr Chamber, where he 
humbly prayeth that hee may bee releeved, & severe 
punishment adjudged vppon the saide def tos accordinge 
to their severall offences & agreeable to the Lawes & 
statuts of this Realme. In tender consideracon whereof 
may it please yo 1 ' excellent Majesty to graunt yo r high- 



86 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



S. XII. Acs. 3, '67. 



writt of Subpena, to bee directed vnto the saide 
John Shakespeare, Thomas Shakespeare, Edmond Fowler, 
& Thomas Sadler, comaundinge them & eu'y of them at 
a certayne day & vnder a certayne payne therein to bee 
lymitted psonnall to bee & appeare beefore yo r excellent 
Ma tie & the Lordes of your most Ho bl privie Counsell 
in the high Court of Starr Chamber, Then & there to 
answer the p r misses & to receive condigne punishment 
for the same as to the Lordes of the most honorable 
privie Councell shalbee thought meete. And yo r saide 
subject accordinge to his bownden duty shall allwayes 
pray to God for yo r highnesse longe to raigne ouer vs. 

" MERE." 
[Endorsed] "Martis nono die Junij anno decimo sexto 

Jacobi Regis Marker. 
Shakespeare v r sus Shakespeare et ai 
Trin. 16 Ja. Regis." 

" Jur. Jouis vndecimo die Junij Anno Decimo sexto 

Ja. Regis. 

"HARKER. The Joint and seu'all answeres of John 
Shakespeare Thorns Shakespeare Edmond 
Fowler and Thorns Sadler defend te to the 
Bill of Complaint of Willm Shakespeare 
Compl*. 

" The said defend 46 saveing to them & eu'y of them 
.now and at all tymes hereafter all advantage of excepcon 
to the incerteinties & insufficiencies of the said Bill of 
Complaint, for Answere therevnto saie that it is true that 
this defend' John Shakespeare did exhibite a Bill of Com- 
plaint into his Ma ties high Court of Chauncery against 
the Complain 1 in such sorte as by the said Bill of Com- 
plaint is sett forth; wherevnto the said Complain 1 an- 
swered in such sort as by the said Bill also appeareth, in 
w ch suite witnesses were examined, and these defend' 68 
Edmond Fowler and Thomas Sadler being examined as 
witnesses did speake theire knowledges and did truely 
depose in such sort as by theire said deposicons may ap- 
peare. Wherevpon the said Cause comeinge to hearing, 
the said Court of Chauncery did decree the messuage 
landes and Tenem tes ttien in question and in the Bill of 
Complaint menconed, vnto this defend 1 , John Shakespeare, 
as by the proceediuges of the said cause remayning of 
record in the said high Court of Chauncery, whereto 
these defend* 63 for more certeyntie referre themselues, may 
appeare. And this defend 1 John Shakespeare for himself 
further saith that the complain* 09 vnthrifty & badd 
courses, and his disobedience to his Father and mother, 
were the cause his said Father did dishenheritt him the 
said complain*, and conveighed the said premisses to this 
defend* in such sorte as by the said Bill of Complaint 
is recited, and further this defend* saith, That aboute 
Twelve of the Clocke of the Feast day of the Annuncia- 
con of our Lady w ch was in the Thirteenth yeare of the 
Raigne of our "Soueraigne Lord the King that now is of 
his Realme of England, this defend* did come into the 
Church porch of Rowington in the Bill of Complaint 
menconed, and according to the provisoe conteyned in 
the surrender in the Bill specified, and in observance 
thereof did then and there tender the some of Fouretie 
shillinges to the vse of the Complain*, but neither the 
complain* nor any for him were there to receaueit. And 
shortlie after for that this defend* heard it reported that 
the Complain* had threatned to cutt of an arme or a legg 
of this defend* [this defendant] well knowing the mali- 
tipus mynd of the said Complain* against him, this defend* 
did therefore for that tyme depart, but before this defend* 
departure he this defend* did in the said porch deliuer 
the, said Fourety shillinges, to Thorns Shakespeare the 
defend', w th direction and authority to paie the said 
Fourety shillinges to the said complain*, or to his vse ac- 



cordinge to the said Proviso if the said complain* or any 
other for him were there to receiue y*, and if neither the 
said Complain* nor any other for him were there, yet to 
stay in the said porch vntill the last instant of the howers 
in the said Bill of Complaint and surrender menconed, 
and then and there to tender the said Fourety shillinges 
to the Complain* 63 vse, and as this defend* think eth, and 
as he hath already proved in the said high Court of 
Chancery, the said Thorns Shakespeare did tender the 
said Fourety shillinges accordingly, and that neither the 
complain* nor any for him were then & there ready to 
receiue y*. And this defend* Thorns Shakespeare for him- 
self saith, that he, according to the direction and autho- 
rity to him given as by the Answere of the said John 
Shakespeare is sett forth, was p r sent in y e church porch 
aforesil at the last instant of the howers before menconed, 
& did then & there tender to the complain 168 use the s d 
Fourety shillinges, but neither y e complain 1 nor any for 
him were there ready to receiue [the same] w ch said ten- 
der this def* did so make in the psence of Edmond Fowler 
& Thorns Sadler two other of y 6 def* es . And these def" 
Edmond Fowler & Thorns Sadler for themselues say y* 
they were p r sent in the Church porch afores' 1 at_the tyme 
before menconed, & did see the s (l defend* Thorns Shake- 
speare then and there tender the afores d some of Fourety 
shillinges to the complain* 68 vse, but neither the complain* 
nor any for him were there ready to receiue y*. And as 
to all & eu'y the piuries, subornacons of periury, falsities 
corruptiones, false corrupt and vnlawful deposicons & 
other the offences & misdemeanors in the said Bill of 
Complaint menconed, these defend* 68 and every of them 
say that they & eu'y or any of them is of them or any 
of them not guilty in such sort manner arm forme as the 
same are in the said Bill of Complaint sett forth, w th out 
that that any other matter cause or thing in the said Bill 
of Complaint conteyned materiall or effectuall in the law 
to be answered vnto by these defend' 68 & herein by these 
defend' 68 not sufficiently answered confessed & avoided 
trauersed or denyed is true, all w ch matters these defend' 6 * 
and every of them is & are ready to averre & proue as 
this honourable Court shall award, and humbly pray to 
be dismissed hence w th theire reasonable costes and charges 
on theire behalfes Avrongfullv sustevned. 

"Ric. WESTON." 



ARTHUR WOLFE, LORD VISCOUNT 
KILWARDEN. 

As a fair specimen of the inaccurate "writing 
which we frequently meet with in the current 
literature of the day, I select the following short 
paragraph from Sir Cusack P. Honey's IIoiv to 
Spend a Month in Ireland, p. 49, London, 1861 : 

" In this street, also [Thomas Street, Dublin], Lord 
Kilwarden was dragged from his carriage by a mob, in- 
furiated by the execution of Robert Emmett (whose 
memory has been preserved in more than one of Moore's 
beautiful lyrics), and was rescued with difficulty, and 
only after his nephew [the Rev. Mr. Wolfe] had been 
brutally murdered." 

These words would lead us to suppose that 
Rohert Emmet (not Emmett) had suffered the 
extreme penalty of the law ; and that while Lord 
Kilwarden'a nephew was murdered, as was the 
case, his lordship's life was saved with difficulty 
from the fury of his assailants. But what were 
the facts ? A very few words will suffice to prove 



. XII. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



87 



that there is no little inaccuracy on the part of 
Sir C. P. Honey. 

The attack on " the great and good " Lord 
Kilwarden (as Lord Avonmore justly styled him 
in his address to the grand juries of the county 
and city of Dublin) took place on July 23, 1803, 
as is mentioned, for example, in Maxwell's His- 
tory of the Irish Rebellion, p. 409 ; but the sentence 
of death passed on Emmet was not carried into 
execution until the 20th of the following Sep- 
tember, his trial having been held only the day 
before. Therefore most certainly it was not the 
case, that the mob had been " infuriated by the 
execution of Kobert Emrnett." 

Of the attack on Lord Kilwarden, with whom 
his daughter and nephew were at the time, Dr. 
E. R. Madden has supplied full particulars in the 
third volume of his United Irishmen ; their Lives 
and Times, London, 1860. To his work I refer 
those who may wish to have more information 
upon the subject than I would ask space for in 
U N. & Q."; and I shall merely state, that 
Mr. Wolfe was murdered on the spot ; that Miss 
Wolfe had a wonderful escape; and that Lord 
Kilwarden, having been mortally wounded, "lived 
for about an hour after he had been carried to 
the watch-house" in an adjoining street not 
exactly, I think, what is to be inferred from Sir 
0. P. Roney's statement. In Maxwell's History, 
there is a striking illustration of " The Murder of 
Lord Kilwarden," by George Cruikshank. 

I have in my possession the duplicate of Lord 
Kilwarden's will, dated December 25, 1800 ; and 
also a codicil, in his lordship's handwriting, dated 
July 31, 1802. From the latter, which is a highly 
interesting document, and one that does honour 
to the writer, I gladly make an extract : 

" Whereas my beloved daughter Elizabeth Wolfe hath 
been long afflicted by a cruel disease, from which there 
is no reasonable ground to hope she will recover, and it 
therefore becomes necessary, upon a due consideration of 
my afl'airs, to make a different provision for my said 
daughter Elizabeth from that which I make for her 
sister [Marianne], I therefore, with grief of heart (for 
never did father love a daughter more dearly, nor ever 
did or can a daughter better merit a father's love), revoke 
the legacy of six thousand pounds by my said will given 
to my said daughter Elizabeth ; and 1 give the sum of 
six thousand pounds to the said William [afterwards 
Lord] Downes and Robert French, their executors, ad- 
ministrators, and assigns, upon trust," &c. 

Dr. Madden furnishes the following notice of 
Miss Wolfe's death, and with it I conclude : 

"Miss Elizabeth Wolfe, youngest daughter of Lord 
Kilwarden, who was in the carriage with her father when 
he was massacred in July, 1803, died at Clifton, near 
Bristol, in May, 1806." 

ABHBA. 



A FEW MORE NOTES ON HANNAH LIGHTFOOT. 

Thanks to the kindness of a gentleman to whom 
I took the liberty of addressing some inquiries 
a few weeks since, I have just been put in pos- 
session of the following documents, which show 
us what were the steps taken by the religious 
body of which Hannah Lightfoot was a mem- 
ber, on discovering that she had transgressed the 
rules of the society in being married by a priest. 
It is, as will be seen, a series of extracts from the 
Proceedings of the Society's Meetings for West- 
minster. 

" Fourth Quarter. At a Quarterly Meeting for West- 
minster, held at the Savoy, the 1st of 1st mo., 1755. 

This meeting being informed that it is currently re- 
ported that Hannah Lightfoot is married by the Priest, 
and since absconded from her husband, on which this 
meeting appoints Michl. Morton, Jms. Marshman, and 
Mary Keene, to visit her thereon and make report. 

At a Monthly Meeting for Westminster, held at the 
Savoy, 5th of 2nd mo., 1755. 

Michl. Morton, James Marshman, and Mary Keene 
continued to visit Hannah Lightfoot and make report. 

M. M. 5th, 3rd mo., 1755. 
Minute in same words. 



First Quarter. Q. M. 2nd, 4th mo., 1755. 
James Marshman continued to speak to Hannah Light- 
foot. 



M. M. 7th, 5th mo., 1755. 

The friends appointed to speak with Hannah Lightfoot 
continued. 

M. M. 4th, 6th mo., 1755. 

Present (9 names), which not making a sufficient nuir.- 
ber, could not proceed on business. 

Second Quarter. Q. M. 2nd of 7th mo., 1755. 
Minute as in 5 mo. 



M. M. 6th, 8th mo., 1755. 
Similar minute. 



M. M. 3rd, 9th mo., 1755. 

The friends appointed to visit Hannah Lightfoot re- 
port they have made inquiry concerning her, were in- 
formed by her mother that she was married by a priest, 
but was not fully satisfied she wss absented from her 
husband. 

The friends before appointed continued to visit her. 

Third Quarter. Q. M. 1st of lOt'-i mo., 1755. 
The friends appointed to visit Hannah Lightfoot con- 
tinued. 

M. M. 5th of llth mo., 1755. 
Same as 10th month. 



88 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



M. M. 3rd of 12th mo., 1755. 

The friends appointed to visit Hannah Lightfoot con- 
tinued, and are desired to acquaint her that this meeting 
intends to give forth a testimony of denial against her. 

Fourth Quarter for 1755. Q. M. 7th, 1st mo., 1756. 

The friends appointed to visit Hannah Lightfoot re- 
port they have made inquiry after her, and cannot hear 
where she can be spoke with, or where she is, on which 
this meeting appoints said friends, with Wm. Donne and 
Nathl. Might, to prepare a testimony of denial against 
Hannah Lightfoot for marrying by a priest, against the 
known rules of the society, to be brought to our next 
mo. meeting. 

M. M. 4th of 2nd month, 1756. 

The friends appointed to prepare a testimony of denial 
against Hannah Lightfoot continued. 

M. M. 3rd of 3rd mo., 1756. 

A testimony of denial against Hannah Lightfoot was 
brought in pursuant to the direction of last meeting, 
which was read and approved, and is as follows, viz. : 

' Whereas Hannah Lightfoot, a person educated under 
our profession, and who for several years past resided 
within the compass of this meeting, did then enter into a 
state of marriage by the priest with one not of our society, 
which is directly repugnant to the good rules and orders 
well known to be established amongst us, on which this 
meeting appointed friends to visit her, who several times 
endeavoured to find where she was, in order to speak 
with her, but to no purpose, nor could they obtain any 
intelligence where she is : We therefore being desirous 
(as much as in us lies) to clear the truth which we pro- 
fess, and ourselves from any aspersions which through 
the misconduct of the said Hannah Lightfoot maj' be cast 
upon friends, do hereby testify against such her pro- 
ceedings as aforesaid, and disown her for the same, as one 
with whom we can have no fellowship until, from a peni- 
tent mind and true contrition of heart, she shall be in- 
duced to signify her unfeigned sorrow for her offence, 
and that this may be her case is what we truly desire.' 

Nathl. Might or James Marshman is desired to carry 
a copy hereof to the next 6 weeks' meeting. 



First Quarter. Q. M. 7th of 4th mo., 1756. 

Nathl. Might reports he delivered a testimony of denia 
against Hannah Lightfoot to The Six Weeks' Meeting." 



have been called for the Crown, and would have 
produced a certificate of the birth of Henry 
Wheeler, witnessed by Hannah Lightfoot. This 
I presume to be the fourth document referred to 
by Mr. Jesse in his communication to The Athe- 
nceum, and described by him as u the parchment 
' birthnote ' of Hannah Lightfoot's first cousin 
Henry Wheeler." But the same gentleman was 
also to have produced a letter from Hannah 
Lightfoot to her aunt, showing that she had been 
secretly married without the consent of her rela- 
tions, but which letter contains nothing on the 
face of it to show that the marriage was to a 
person much superior in rank to herself. 

I am sorry to say I have not been able to get a 
sight of this very interesting paper; but as it 
would appear to be in the same custody with the 
fourth document referred to by Mr. Jesse, I pre- 
sume that when that gentleman inspected the 
one he did not overlook its far more interesting 
companion. If he has seen it, it is a pity that he 
has not thought it right to tell us its date and 
something about its contents. 

WILLIAX J. THOMS. 



SWEAT LIKE A BROCK : CUCKOO SPITTLE. On 
the tips of hedges, flowers, grass, &c. there ap- 
pears in summer a white froth. In some parts, 
and especially in Ireland, this is called " cuckoo 
spittle," and in other places " brock sweat," 
originating the saying which will be met with in 
inland counties, {t To sweat like a brock." This 
" brock " is a small green insect like a grain of 
wheat, and in the warm weather throws out the 
froth above mentioned. LIOM. F. 



I need scarcely point out to the reader that, in- 
teresting as the extracts are, there is nothing in 
them in the slightest degree to contradict the 
opinion which I originally expressed and still 
maintain that, as far as George III. is concerned, 
" the story of Hannah Lightfoot is a fiction, and 
nothing but a fiction, from beginning to end." 

Would I had been enabled to lay before the 
readers a still more interesting paper, the exist- 
ence of which I have only recently ascertained. 
About a fortnight since I was informed, upon 
authority which could not be doubted, that if the 
trial Ryves v. The Queen had not broken down so 
signally, a gentleman of high position in the City, 
whose name it is not necessary to state, would ; 



"THE ROSE OF DAWN." In Tennyson's 
of Sin, the line 

" God made himself an awful rose of dawn," 
occurs twice. The simile always appeared to me 
far-fetched ; and I remember seeing somewhere that 
it comes originally from the Persian, and is to be 
found in Hatiz. 

In Tannhduser (a poem published a few years 
back), there is the same simile, copied I suppose 
from Tennyson : 

" That mellowing morn blown open like a rose." 
Keats, however, in his Hyperion (book i.), uses 
the same rose-simile, applying it curiously not to 
dawn, but to sunset : 

" And like a rose in vermeil tint and shape, 
In fragrance soft, and coolness to the eye, 
That inlet to severe magnificence 
Stood full blown, for the god to enter in." 

JOHN ADDIS, JUN. 
Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

TRADITION ABOUT TAMERLANE. M. Semenoff, 
the Russian geographer, who in 1857 visited Lake 









3'* S. XII. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



89 



Issykkul, in Central Asia, on his way from thence 
to the Thian Shan range, crossed a marshy plateau 
5500 feet above the sea level, called the Santasch, 
where he found a curious mound of stones ; which, 
according to a tradition of the mountain Khir- 
gese, was raised by the soldiers of Tamerlane. 
On his march from Samarcand to the valley of 
the Hi (A.D. 1400), that Tartar Khan, wishing to 
count his numerous host, ordered each man to 
throw a stone on this spot. Returning from his 
expedition, he again crossed the Santasch; and 
desiring to know the number of troops he had 
lost, ordered his men as they passed to take each 
a stone from the mound, which, thus reduced to 
its present size, gave the number of warriors that 
had fallen in the campaign, and formed at the same 
time their monument. Descendants of Tamer- 
lane's troops exist at Kuldja, the capital of the 
Chinese western frontier province of Hi: these 
Dzungani, as they are called, are a Mahometan 
race, who, while retaining their own faith, have 
adopted the customs and language of the Chinese, 
but many of whom still speak the Tartar lan- 
guage. "I have made this note on perusing a 
recent Report on the Tea Trade of Russia, by 
Mr. J. Savile Lumley, Secretary of Embassy 
at St. Petersburg a most ably written docu- 
ment, and which contains much interesting in- 
formation that is new concerning the little known 
countries of Central Asia, Amooria, c. (See 
" Reports by Her Majesty's Secretaries of Em- 
bassy and Legation on the Manufactures and 
Commerce of the Countries in which they reside," 
No. 7, 1867.) PHILIP S. KING. 

"Mr MOTHER'S GRAVE," BY THE REV. J. 
MOTJLTRIE. In this poem, originally inserted in 
The Etonian, I find the passage 

" . . . . That unstartled sleep 
The living eye hath never known." 

Twelve years before The Etonian was published, 
Mr. John Ambrose Williams, the original pro- 
prietor and founder of the Durham Chronicle, 
published his Metrical Essays. In an " Elegy on 
a lonely Grave," first verse, we read 

" Ah ! who beneath this scanty heap 
Of earth, with moss and weeds o'ergrown, 
Is laid in that unstartled sleep 
The living eye hath never knoivn." 

The lines (in italics) are often quoted with 
Moultrie attached ; but surely Mr. Williams is 
their real author. J. H. DIXON. 

" LORD DUNDREARY." The following is an 
extract from a theatrical critique in The Daily 
Telegraph, July 2, on Mr. Sothern's impersona- 
tion of " Lord Dundreary " ; and the facts which 
it gives seem to be worthy of preservation in 
these columns : 

" Originally introduced to the metropolis on the llth 
of November, 1861, the singular humour and artistic 



completeness of the embodiment quickly impressed the 
public, and so permanent was the effect, that Lord Dun- 
dreary remained on the Haymarket boards for the extra- 
ordinary term of 496 nights, thus securing for ' Our 
American Cousin ' the longest run recorded in theatrical 
history. When it is recollected, in connection with this 
circumstance, that Mr. Sothern had previously given 800 
representations of the same character in America, we 
arrive at a fact which, merely regarded as a curiosity of 
computation, is wholly without a parallel in Thespian 
annals. On these very practical grounds, accepting the 
result as a simple arithmetical deduction, it is plainly to 
be perceived that Mr. Sothern has accomplished a feat 
which had no precedent, and which it is probable will 
be long remembered as a solitary instance of histrionic 
longevity." 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 

INDEX : MARGIN. Readers of " N. & Q." know 
the value of both. For the use of the next col- 
lector of " Curiosities of Literature," I notice the 
following : 

1. History of Kingston-upon-Hull, by J. J. 
Sheahan. 1864. In the index (contained on 
pp. 689704), I find "Index to this volume, 
689." How considerate ! 

2. Reflexions upon Ridicule ; or, What it is that 
makes a Man ridiculous. 8vo. London, 1706. 
On p. 365, the use of thee and thou is declared to 
be " extreme finical." Certainly a foreigner must 
have compiled the index, for there it is recorded : 
" Thee and coffee, the use of it very finical, 365." 
What would Dr. Johnson have said to this ? 

Margins. In a title-deed dated 1750, it is 
margent; in another, 1758, relating to the same 
property and prepared by the same person, margin. 
Was this the period of the change, or were the 
words used at that time indifferently ? W. C. B. 



DRYDEN'S MORECRAFT: "CUNNING" OR 
"CUTTING"? 

Who and what was Morecraft, referred to in 
Dry den's Prologue to the Marriage a la Mode ? 
He is called " cutting Morecraft" in all the mo- 
dern editions, and it is so printed in the 4to edi- 
tion of the play of 1691, the earliest I have seen. 
But in a copy of the Prologue printed in Covent 
Garden Droller}/, 1672, it is " cunning Morecraft," 
which seems unobjectionable, and is more easily 
understood. The copy in the . Covent Garden 
Drollery has several variations from the Prologue 
as since printed, some of which are improvements ; 
but it has also some obvious errata. The play 
was produced during the Dutch war of 1672, and 
the Prologue describes the theatres as deserted. 
The lines are here printed as in Covent Garden 
Drollery, the variations of Scott and Bell's edi- 
tions, which follow the 4to of 1691, being inter- 
lined : 



90 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3rd S. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



Our city friends so far will hardly j roam ' 
They can take up with pleasures nearer home, 
And see gay shows 1^} gaudy scenes elsewhere, 

For ( w . e presume A I they seldom come to hear ; 

( tis presumed) J 
But they have now ta'en up a glorious trade, 

A < l {3fg} MOT< * raft masquerade. 



A masking ball to recommend our play." 
Strut may be a misprint j but it is quite as 
likely that it should be " cunning Morecraft's strut 
in masquerade." Now, who and what was More- 
craft ? Mr. Robert Bell says, " a fashionable hair- 
dresser." Scott says that it is a reference to 
Morecraft, an usurer, in Beaumont and Fletcher's 
play of The Scornful Lady, who " turns a cutter, 
or, as we now say, a buck." It is certainly More- 
craft, an usurer, whom Dryden introduces in his 
translation of the second Epode of Horace : 
"Thus Morecraft said within himself: 
Eesolved to leave the wicked town 
And live retired upon his own, 

He called his money in : 
But the prevailing love of pelf 
Soon split him on the former shelf, 
He put it out again." 

Oldham's Morecraft would seem also to be an 
usurer. Mr. R. Bell, who edited Oldham also, 
again calls him there "a fashionable hairdresser": 
" Let thriving Morecraft choose his dwelling there, 

Rich with the spoils of some young spendthrift heir." 
Imitation of third Satire of Juvenal. 

Now, should it be cunning or cutting Morecraft ? 
And is there any authority for Bell's statement 
that he was a fashionable hairdresser ? 

The Covent Garden Drollery copy of the Pro- 
logue to Marriage a la Mode has two lines which 
do not appear in the other editions. After the 
sixth line come 

" Those that durst fight are gone to get renown, 
And those that durst not, blush to stand in town." 

And lines 4 and 5 which stand in the modern 
editions 

" Fop-corner now is free from civil war, 
White-wig and vizard make no longer jar" 

appear in the Covent Garden Drollery, line 4 the 
same, but line 5 

" While wig and vizard masks no longer jar." 
Vizard-mask would be a decided improvement; 
while may be a misprint for white. CH. 



BURYING IRON FRAGMENTS. Can any reader 
of "N. & Q." tell me if there is, or was, any 
superstitious belief connected with the practice of 
burying fragments of iron under door stones ? In 
making some recent alterations at this place, it 
became necessary to lower the earth on the out- 



side of the wall of a part of the house that had 
been used as a kitchen since 1757. At about six- 
teen inches below the surface of the ground, we 
came iipon a pavement, which had no doubt been 
a part of the mediaeval building. Of this pave- 
ment some of the stones had been removed, and a 
great quantity of iron such as fork heads, broken 
scythes, bars, axes, and bits of chain buried in 
their room. These things were all deposited in 
once place, just outside a doorway which was 
made in 1757. There were far too many of them, 
and they were arranged too neatly to have come 
together by chance. EDWARD PEACOCK. 

Bottesford Manor, Brigg. 

RICHARD DE CHOLMONDELEY. Ormerod, vol. 
iii. p. 189, says that David Crewe of Pulcroft 
(3 Henry IV.) married Ellen, daughter and co- 
heiress of Richard de Cholmoudeley, and had 
issue Thomas, father of David, &c. I do not find 
this Richard in the Cholmondeley pedigree. Who 
was he ? H. S. G. 

CLAN TARTANS. What is the earliest example 
of these in existence ? I do not inquire for written 
descriptions, as 1 am pretty well up in these, but 
for actual preserved specimens the date of which 
can be proved to be earlier than the commence- 
ment of the seventeenth century. Neither do I 
care for examples of plaids with more or fewer 
stripes at the ends of various colours. What I 
want to obtain is a description of any piece of 
tartan which can be shown by trustworthy evi- 
dence to have existed before the year 1600, and 
in regard to which there is any evidence that 
w! at is called the general set indicates a particu- 
lar clan or sept. GEORGE VERB IRVING. 

COURTS OF QUEEN'S BENCH AND EXCHEQUER. 

' ; The Chief Justice of this Court is always appointed 
Chancellor of the Exchequer, when that office becomes 
vacant by death or unexpected resignation." 

Beatson's Political Index says this, speaking of 
the Court of Queen's Bench. Is this a fact now- 
a-days, or when was such a rule abolished ? The 
same authority tells me, with regard to the Court 
of Exchequer, that 

" When at any time the Barons are of different opinions 
concerning the decision of any cause, they call to their 
assistance the Chancellor of the Exchequer, who decides 
in favour of one of the parties by his casting vote." 

How long is it since this was a fact ? 

R. C. L. 

DONIZETTI AND BELLINI. Do portraits of the 
Italian composers Donizetti and Bellini exist; 
and if so, where can I see them ? 

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

FREDERICK, PRINCE OF WALES. In common, 
I believe, with a large body of } r our readers, I 
have been surprised and interested by Mr. Sandys' 
curious note on Hals's Cornwall and Hals's anti- 






. XII. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



91 



cipation of whatWalpole supposed to be a Jacobit 
epitaph upon Frederick, Prince of Wales 

" Here lies Fred, 
Who was alive and is dead,'' &c. 

Is any other version or application of these line 
known ? 

Walpole, in describing the character of thii 
prince, says, " his chief passion was women/' anc 
furnishes some illustrations of this. Can any o 
your readers say whether he left any natura 
children ; and, if so, where any notices of them 
are to be looked for? F. P. 

HANGING is THE BELL-HOPES. In looking 
over some old family letters, written upwards o 
a century ago, I came upon the following odd 
phrase in one of them. The writer, in speaking 
of his intended marriage, says t( So what so long 
has been hanging in the bell-ropes will at last be 
brought to a happy period." I do not remember 
to have ever met with this expression elsewhere. 
Has any reader of "N. & Q." ever heard it, and 
was it in use during the last century ? 

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

MRS. LAWRENCE, OF WAVERTREE HALL, LIVER- 
POOL. This lady, a sister of the late General Sir 
Charles D'Aguilar, was an intimate friend of Mrs. 
Hemans, and well known in the literary circles of 
Liverpool forty years ago. She was herself au- 
thor of several literary works, both original and 
translated viz. 1. Goetz von Berlichingen, a drama 
translated from Goethe, 1799. 2. S. Gessner's 
Works, in three vols. translated from the German, 
1802, published anonymously. 3. Last Autumn 
at a favourite Residence, Sfc. containing miscel- 
laneous poems, 1829; a second edition in 1836 
contains recollections of Mrs. Hemans, &c. &c. 
4. Cameos, 1833, Liverpool ; second edition, 1849. 

The object of nry present inquiry is to ascertain 
whether Mrs. Lawrence is the author of a little 
anonymous volume containing Saul, a traged}-, 
translated from Alfieri, and Jephfhd's Daughter, a 
drama, 1821, by a Lady. The profits for the benefit 
of the Bible Society. This little book was printed 
by McReery, of Liverpool, and published by 
Cadell, London, the printer and publisher of the 
translation of Gessner named above. Am I right 
in supposing the anonymous volume of 1821 was 
by the translator of Gessner's works published in 
1802? 

Mrs. Lawrence died about the year 1858. Can 
any Liverpool correspondent give the exact date ? 
I think Mrs. Lawrence had a son who was a 
clergyman in the Church of England, but I do not 
know whether any of her family are still resident 
in Liverpool. R. I. 

FRANCIS MERES. Francis Meres, author of the 
Wit's Treasury, 1598, was made rector of Wing 
in Rutlandshire in 1G02. He died in 16-16. Is 



there any evidence extant as to how he obtained 
this rectoryship, through whose interest, &c. ; and 
if not, what is the most likely place or book in 
which to search for information ? 

HENRY FLOWER. 
5, Carlton Terrace, 
Lower Park Road, Peckham. 

NORDEN'S "SURVEY OEKIRTONINLINDSEY." 
I am extremely anxious to consult, for an anti- 
quarian purpose, John Norden's Survey of the 
Manor and Soke of Kirton in Lindsey, co. Lincoln. 
It was taken in or about the year 1616. This 
great manor was, until very recent days, a part of 
the possessions of the Duchy of Cornwall. I am 
however informed, that this survey is not to be 
found among the records of the duchy. An ab- 
stract of it is preserved among the Moore MSS. in 
the Public Library at Cambridge. I think it is 
not probable that the original document has 
perished. If it exists in any of our public offices, 
or in private hands, I shall be very much obliged 
to anyone who will direct my attention to it. 

CORNUB. 

PAXTON FAMILY. In what year was a 

Paxton, Esq., sheriff of Coventry ? * Where can 
an account of his family be found ? and what were 
the names of his children, one of whom married 
the Rev. George Hughes, one of the ejected min- 
isters ? She died at Exeter during the civil war. 
Is any stone or memorial to her memory extant ; 
if so, in what church ? GEORGE PRIDEAUX. 

QUOTATIONS WANTED 

" Each soldier his sabre from him cast, 
And bounding hand in hand, man linked to man, 
Yelling their uncouth dirge, long danced the kirtled 

clan." 

" With gentle hand and soothing tongue, 

She bore the leech's part ; 
And while she o'er his death-bed hung, 
She paid him with her heart." 

" Now welcome, lady, exclaimed the youth, 
This castle is thine, and these dark woods all." 

JONATHAN BOUCHIER. 

REFERENCES WANTED. 

St. Bernard. 
Dicitur certe vulgari proverbio : Qui me amat, amat 

et cauem ineum. 
Inter seculares nuga} nugas sunt; in ore Sacerdotis 

blasphemite." 

St. Augustin. 

Multi adorantur in ara qui cremantur in igne. 
Anima magis est ubi amat quam ubi animat. 
Libera me ab homine malo, a meipso. 
Misericordia Domini inter pontem et foutem. 
Aliquem fortunse filium reverentissime colere ac vene- 

rari. 
Qui laborat orat." 



[* The name of Paxton does not occur in two lists of 
le sheriffs of Coventry we have consulted. In 1622-3 
ohn Potston was sheriff. ED.] 



92 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



rd S. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



Gregory Agrigenf. 
" Non mihi sapit qui sermone, sed qui factis sapit." 

St. Ambrose. 
" Nulla ajtas ad perdiscendum est." 

St. Cyprian* 

" Ad unum corpus humanum supplicia plura quam 
membra." 

Boethius. 

" Da pater augustam menti conscendere sedem ; 
Da fontem lustrare boni." 

Maci'obius. 
" Bonoe leges mails ex moribus procreantur." 

Celsus. 
" Succurrendum parti maxime laboranti." 

M. W. 

Can any one supply me with the remainder of 
a passage beginning 

" Before thy sacred altar, Holy Truth, 
I bow in manhood as I knelt in youth." 

ALFRED AINGER. 

" Humility, the fairest, loveliest flower 
That bloomed in Paradise : the first that died. 
It is so frail and delicate a thing, 
That if it think upon itself it's gone." 

F. G. W. 

SHEKEL. I have a shekel of which I should be 
glad to know the probable age and value. It is 
apparently of somewhat the same type as that 
figured in Akermann's Numismatic Illustrations of 
the New Testament, p. 7. The inscriptions are the 
same, viz., on the one side piO^ ^>p^, and on 
the reverse nt?npn b*JWJ"i*i except that the 
letters are not quite so ancient in form. The cen- 
tral portions, however, are considerably different. 
The vase is not so distinctly a vase, but might 
pass for an altar, and has smoke ascending from it; 
while on the opposite side, instead of a stalk with 
three flowers merely, there is a branch, apparently 
olive, with many twigs and leaves or flowers. 
The whole is in good preservation, and is about 
the size of a florin. GAMMA. 

THE GENEALOGY OF THE USSHER FAMILY. I 
have good reason to know that the genealogy of 
this family, as given by the late Sir William 
Betham, and printed in Dr. Elrington's valuable 
Life of Archbishop Ussher (Dublin, 1848), is by 
no means accurate or complete; and also that 
your correspondent MR. LOFTUS TOTTENHAM has 
it in his power, and is well qualified, to correct 
what is wrong in the document, and to supply de- 
ficiencies. May I hope that he will favour the 
public with a proper genealogy of the family of 
one of the brightest ornaments of the Irish church ? 

ABHBA. 



toitft 

GEORGE HALYBTJRTON, BISHOP OF DTJNKELD. 
I am desirous of ascertaining the relationship of 
the bishop to Professor Thomas Halyburton, of 
St. Andrews. The professor's father, George 
Halyburton, was of the family resident at Pitcur, 
co. Angus, and married Margaret Play fair, and 
was minister of Aberdalgy, from which he was 
ejected in 1662 " by his near kinsman the bishop." 

Your correspondent MARION made an inquiry 
in " K& Q." (3 rd S. i. 347) as to the family, but 
no precise information has yet been forthcoming. 

The Grove, Henley. JOHN S. BURN. 

[We have submitted this intricate point of family his- 
tory to our valued correspondent MR. GEORGE VERE 
IRVING, who has kindly forwarded the following obser- 
vations : 

" I am afraid I can give you very little assistance as to 
this query. The principal's father, who was George 
Haliburton, minister of the united parishes of Aberdalgie 
and Dupplin, is sometimes referred to as the clergj'-man 
of one and sometimes of the other. (See Wodrow, Dr. 
Burns's edit, 1840, vol. i. p. 328, and vol. ii. p. 333.) He 
remained in the parish, but lived in great privacy in a 
house provided for him by Mr. George Ha} r , of Balhousie, 
Aberdalgie and Dupplin. This must have been in the 
latter parish, as his son is said to have been born there. 
From the last notice in Wodrow he appears, however, to 
have got into trouble again in 1676. 

" He first went to Aberdalgie as assistant and successor 
to a Mr. Playfair, whose daughter Margaret he married. 
Their son, the principal, was born in Dec. 1674. It 
would be an important point to ascertain if the principal 
was the first son of the marriage, or if he had an elder 
brother, who however might have died in infancy the 
custom in Scotland being to name the eldest son after 
the paternal, and the second after the maternal grand- 
father. 

" It is a most remarkable and curious fact that in 
Wodrow's list of ejected ministers George Haliburton is 
described as younger of Duplin. In the Neiv Statistical 
Account of the united parishes, the following explanation 
is given : He was ' named junior to distinguish him from 
his cousin, minister of Perth, who, afterwards conforming, 
became Bishop of Dunkeld.' 

" Although cousins in Scotland is often used in a very 
extended sense, and although the two parishes are adjoin- 
ing, so that some distinction was necessary, I think that 
the adoption of the word younger indicates a very near 
connection. 

" Lady Cowpar's letter about the bishop shows he was 
cousin also of the Pitcurs ; but in those cases of interces- 
sion the so-called relationship is often more distant than, 
the expression would now import. 

" The bishop's son was served heir to him in extensive 
properties in the counties of Forfar, Kincardine, and 
Perth. (Inquis. Spec., Nos. 423, 509, and 749 respectively.) 
As neither a Scotch bishop nor clergyman had large re- 



3*d S. XII. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



93 



' enues at that time (nor indeed any time after the Refor- 
j lation), it is almost impossible to conceive that he could 
Lave purchased these with his savings. They must, 
1 herefore, either have been conveyed to him by his father, 
< >r purchased with money derived from him. 

" From experience I know that our parish registers in 
Scotland are worth little till after the Revolution, having 
been kept on loose sheets ; indeed, the presbytery records 

ire full of injunctions to the Book Sessions to get bound 

books. GEORGE VERB IRVING." 3 

EIBST SABBATH SCHOOL IN ENGLAND. I have 
seen it recently recorded that the first Sabbath 
school in Great Britain was formed by Mr. Robert 
Raikes in Gloucester in 1781 : 

"As Robert Raikes walked out one day, 
To see if children were at play, 
Some boys were seen on Sabbath day 
A playing, playing ah me, 
Then away, awav." 

The "Golden Shower, p. 104. 

May I ask what is known of Mr. Raikes, and if 
it is true that he was the first to establish Sab- 
bath schools in England ? W. W. 

Malta. 

[Robert Raikes was born in 1735, and succeeded his 
father as a printer and editor of the Gloucester Journal. 
He received a liberal education, and prospered in trade. 
He formed a plan of bestowing upon the prisoners in 
gaols moral and religious instruction, and regular em- 
ployment ; but his greatest recommendation is, in con- 
junction with the late Rev. Thomas Stock, the institution 
of Sunday schools in 1781. He died at Gloucester, 
April 5, 1811, aged seventy-five years. Most recent 
biographical dictionaries give some account of him. 
Consult also the European Magazine, xiv. 315 (with por- 
trait) ; xv. 350* ; Gentleman's Magazine, vol. ci. (pt. ii.), 
pp. 132, 294, 391, and Joseph Ivimey's Memoir of William 
Fox, 18mo, 1831.] 

VULGATE BIBLE, 1491. I have a copy of the 
Vulgate Bible, about the rarity and value of 
which 1 shall be glad if you or any of your cor- 
respondents can give me any information. It has 
no title-page, but s~eems in other respects quite 
complete and in good order, with old wooden 
boards. At the end of the Book of Revelation 
there is the following colophon (I do not give 
the contractions) : 

" Impensis attamen et singular! cura spectabilis viri 
Nicolai Keslers civis Basiliensis Anno Legis Nova; Mil- 
lesimo quadringentesimo Xonagesimo primo. Nona 
Januarii." 

The first letter of each chapter is coloured. 

GAMMA. 

[This is the second edition of the Biblia Sacra Latino, 
printed at Basil by Xic. Kesler. The first edition ap- 
peared in 1487, and is described in Sibliotheca Sussexiana, 
vol. i. part ii. p. 338 ; and some account of the second edi- 
tion is given by Panzer, Annales Typograpldci, i. 169, as 
well as by Masch, pt. ii. vol. iii. p. 134. Both editions 
are extremely rare.] 



SOLOMON AND THE GENII. 
(3 rd S. xii. 46.) 

The stories of the pre-Adamite Jins, Peris, Divs, 
and Tacwins have come down to us through 
Jewish traditions. (Sale, Prelim. Dis. iv.) But 
the Koran and its commentators have something 
to say on the subject of Solomon and the Jins 
(Genii) or devils (ch. ii. p. 13 ; xxi. p. 270 j xxvii. 
p. 310, Sale). In Surat, xxxviii. (p. 374, Sale), 
Allah says : 

" We also tempted Solomon and placed on his throne 
a devil in human form." ..." We made the wind subject 
to him ; it ran gently at his command, withersoever we 
directed. And we also put the devils under him and 
among them, such' as were every way skilled in building, 
and in diving for pearls, &c." 

The Talmudists have the following fable of 
Asaf and Sakhar. (See Sale's note to the above 
quotation.) 

Solomon having taken Sidon, and slain the 
king of that city, brought away his daughter 
Jerada, who became his favourite ; and because 
she ceased not to lament her father's loss, he 
ordered the devils to make an image of him for 
her consolation ; which being done, and placed in 
her chamber, she and her maids worshipped it 
morning and evening, according to their custom. 
At length Solomon, being informed of this idolatry, 
which was practised under his roof, by his vizir 
Asaf, he broke the image, and having chastised 
the woman, went out into the desert, where he 
wept and made supplications to God, who did not 
think fit, however, to let his negligence pass with- 
out some correction. It was Solomon's custom, 
whilej he eased or washed himself, to entrust his 
signet, on which his kingdom depended, with a 
concubine of his named Amina. One day, there- 
fore, when she had the ring in her custody, a 
devil named Sakhar came to her in the shape of 
Solomon, and received the ring from her ; by 
virtue of which he became possessed of the king- 
dom, and sat on the throne in the shape which 
he had borrowed, making what alterations in the 
law he pleased. Solomon, in the meantime, being 
changed in his outward appearance, and known to 
none of his subjects, was obliged to wander about 
and beg alms for his subsistence ; till at length, 
after the space of forty days, which was the time 
the image had been worshipped in his house, the 
devil flew away, and threw the signet into the 
sea; the signet was immediately swallowed by a 
fish, which being taken and given to Solomon, he 
found the ring in its belly, and having by this 
means recovered the kingdom, took Sakhar, and 
tying a great stone to his neck, threw him into 
the lake Tiberias. (Talm. En Jacob, part ii, et 
Yalkut in Lib. Reg. p. 182; Al Beid. Jallal. 
Abu'lfeda.) T. J. BTJCKTON. 



94 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



THE SONGS OF BIRDS. 
(3 rd S.xi. 380.) 

Besides the works of Kircher and Bechstein, 
referred to by the editor and correspondents, I may 
mention that a very interesting and entertaining 
book called The Music of Nature, by Mr. Gar- 
diner, appeared between thirty and forty years ago, 
in which this subject was treated on. The author 
converted into musical notation almost all the 
sounds under the sun, ranging from the inflexions 
and modulation of Edmund Kean's voice down to 
the bray of a donkey ! If I recollect right, he 
also set to music the colours of the prism ! No 
doubt his musical enthusiasm carried him great 
lengths. Nevertheless there is much that is 
noteworthy in the book. Having been myself 
musical from my very cradle, and having made 
long and frequent observations of the songs of 
birds, I have come to the decided conclusion that 
the natural songs of English birds (the only birds 
with which in a state of nature I am acquainted) 
are never capable of musical notation are never, 
in fact, in tune with our musical scale. People 
may be startled by such an assertion, which is, in 
other words, that all birds sing out of tune. But 
I think that any musical man with what is com- 
monly, but erroneously, called a good ear* for 
music, and also an ordinary amount of musical 
science, will, on trying the experiment, find that 
the intervals of birds' notes do not correspond 
with ours, and that they never sing according to 
any key corresponding with ours. I have care- 
fully guarded my assertion by restricting it to 
natural song, and therefore it is hardly necessary 
to add that it does not relate to piping bullfinches, 
&c., which may be taught by their power of imita- 
tion to sing correctly in tune. My observations 
lead me to suppose that birds have not only great 
pleasure in singing, but some of them are endowed 
with not only a talent for imitation but also with a 
spirit of emulation. I have frequently listened 
for a length of time to a little robin imitating 
the cadences of a thrush in a neighbouring tree, 
repeating them with a fair degree of accuracy, 
and evidently straining its little throat (but in 
vain) to equal the superior power and richness of 
the larger bird. 

I have seen it remarked somewhere very 
likely in that charming little book, White's 
Natural History of Selborne that early in the 
season singing birds appear to be out of practice, 
and perform but poorly ; but as the spring ad- 
vances, and they exercise their voices, they improve 
in quality and execution. This observation I can 
confirm. I have heard a thrush (which I con- 

* The musical faculty is undoubtedly an intellectual 
one not depending on the external organ. Many musi- 
cal geniuses, like Beethoven, have been stone deaf, and 
many unmusical people have the most acute hearing. 



sider the king of English feathered songsters) evi- 
dently practising his song with great care, and 
trying new cadences and variations, and very in- 
teresting it was to listen to the performance. The 
lark may be said to have the greatest execution, 
but the quality of the thrush's voice and its ex- 
pression I think rank it as a whole above the 
lark. The blackbird's tone is good, but its song 
is monotonous. It will repeat the same strain 
without altering a note for a whole evening. The 
robin is a sweet and accomplished songster, and, 
considering its size, has plenty of power. Indeed 
the great distance to which birds with their tiny 
throats can send their sweet songs shows a con- 
struction of their organ as one of the most won- 
derful of the numberless wonderful works of the 
Almighty. M. H. R. 



DOCTOR WOLCOT. 
(3 rd S. xi. 450, 526 ; xii. 39.) 

In the English Encyclopedia (Siogr.) vol. vi, 

E. 781, I find it stated that, before leaving Eng- 
md with Sir W. Trelawney for Jamaica, l( Wol- 
cott (sic) procured the degree of M.D. from the 
University of Aberdeen." The same paragraph 
adds that, " having his hopes of a -lucrative prac- 
tice in Jamaica dispelled," "Dr. Wolcott pro- 
ceeded to England, and was ordained by the 
Bishop of London." 

If this account of the English Cyclopedia be 
correct, it sets at rest MR. MACKENZIE WALCOTT'S 
doubt of Peter Pindar's medical degree ; and also 
invalidates the statement which E. S. D. has 
quoted from the memoir prefixed to the works of 
Peter Pindar in 4 vols. 12mo, 1809. Also, it leads 
me to conclude that "VVolcot was spelt indiffer- 
ently with a single or a double t, although the 
latter shocks MR. WALCOTT'S accuracy. 

In Rose's Biographical Dictionary (vol. xii. 
art. " Wolcott "), 'it is stated that he graduated 
M.I), at Aberdeen, and further, that on his return 
from Jamaica he took orders. 

In Chambers' Cyclopedia of English Literature 
(vol. ii. p. 78) it 'is stated distinctly that " the 
Bishop of London ordained the graceless neophyte, 
and Wolcot entered upon his sacred duties." 

My own edition of the Doctor's poems is a 
quarto of the date 1787. It has no preface or 
introduction, nor can I hit upon any internal evi- 
dence bearing upon the question at issue. But 
this at least may be said, that there is a consensus 
of authority that the Doctor was an Aberdeen 
M.D., ahd not a soi-disant doctor ; also, that the 
error of spelling, if it be one, into which I fell 
in my first reply to a query, is one which such 
accurate men as Rose and C. Knight have shared 
with me. J. B. DAVIES. 

Moor Court, Kington. 



AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



95 



In the Dictionary of Universal Biography, edited 
by John Francis Waller, Esq., there is an article 
on Wolcoft (spelt with two tf's) by Mr. Francis 
Espinasse, in which it is stated that 

" After a course of schooling: in various places, diver- 
sified bv a year's residence in Normandy, he removed to 
Fowey in Cornwall, where a kind uncle, a medical man, 
who had already defrayed the expenses of his education, 
adopted him as'his heir, and brought him up to his own 
profession. ... He was anxious to see the world, and at 
his request his uncle persuaded Sir William Trelawney, 
appointed governor of Jamaica, to take Wolcott with 
him. On his arrival in Jamaica he practised medicine, 
an( j strange episode in the history of such a man he 
actually went to England, and was ordained by the 
Bishop of London, that he might accept a cure of souls 
in Jamaica. The duties of his new charge were, of course, 
but indifferently performed, and after the death of the 
governor of Jamaica, Wolcott returned to England. . . . 
After various ineffectual attempts to obtain a medical 
practice in Cornwall, he removed to London." 

In Chambers' Cyclopedia of English Litera- 
ture, vol. ii. p. 78, it is said that 

"Wolcot's (with one t here) uncle, a respectable sur- 
geon and apothecary at Fowey, took the charge of his 
education. He was instructed in medicine, and ' walked 
the hospitals' in London, after which he proceeded to 
Jamaica with Sir William Trelawney, governor of the 
island, who had engaged him as his medical attendant. 
.... His time being only partly employed by his profes- 
sional avocations, he solicited and obtained- from his 
patron the gift of a living in the church, which happened 
to be then vacant. The Bishop of London ordained the 
graceless neophyte, and Wolcot entered upon his sacred 
duties. . . . Bidding adieu to Jamaica and the church, 
Wolcot accompanied Lady Trelawney to England, and 
established himself as a physician at Truro." 

Mr. Espinasse says that there is a copious 
memoir of Wolcot in the Annual Biography and 
Obituary for 1820. If E. S. D. will refer to this, 
he will probably obtain the information he is 
seeking 1 as to whether or no Peter Pindar really 
took orders. JONATHAN BOTTCHIER. 

5, Selwood Place, Brompton, S.W. 



I did not accuse MR. DAVIES of being incor- 
rect to a " t," but of misspelling Wolcot's name 
as " Walcott," thus confounding two families 
essentially distinct. As regard's Wolcot's quali- 
fications for a degree, the European Magazine says 
that he was " appointed physician-general to the 
island of Jamaica,'' but gives no hint of his place 
of graduation, and touching his amateur clerical 
function (to use the gentlest term for the act), 
the same authority adds : 

" This circumstance of his life honest Peter has always 
been unwilling to acknowledge, but as impartial bio- 
graphers we think it our duty to reveal it to our readers." 
(1787, vol. xii. 92.) 

Mr. Redding says : 

" He completed his studies at Paris, and had quitted 
the paternal roof at an early age to reside with an uncle 
at Fowey .... there he was to be initiated in the art of 
manslaying secnndum artem," 



but there is no notice again of any graduation. 
He also says that " Wolcot had scarcely qualified 
for the office " [a colonial living], " when he re- 
signed it." The Scots' Magazine (iv. 192) and 
Mr. Cyrus Redding spell his name with one t; 
the European Magazine gives two ts. The one 
ascertained fact remains that MR. DAVIES should 
have written Wolcot or Wolcott, not Walcott. 
MACKENZIE E. C. WALCOTT, B.D., F.S.A. 



Memoirs of persons written during their life- 
time are seldom of much value. Little confidence 
can, I think, be placed in the memoir prefixed to 
Peter Pindar's works, 1809. The language of the 
extract given by E. S. D. shows clearly that Dr. 
Wolcot himself could not have sanctioned it. 
Moreover, it is exceedingly improbable that a 
member of the household of the Governor of 
Jamaica would have been permitted to act in a 
manner so irregular as stated in the memoir. 
The following passage from an article on Dr. 
Wolcot in the Penny Cyclopedia is very circum- 
stantial : 

" Before leaving England, Wolcot procured the degree 
of M.D. from the University of Aberdeen. . . . The 
Incumbent of a valuable living in the island being dan- 
gerously ill, the Governor suggested to his young friend 
that he might obtain preferment in the Church. Wolcot 
upon this hint proceeded to England, and was ordained 
by the Bishop of London ; but on his return the clergy- 
man whom he was to succeed had recovered, and he was 
obliged to remain contented with the curacy of Vere." 

The authority for this article is stated to be 
the Annual Biography and Obituary for 1820. 
Dr. Wolcot was certainly not an estimable, but 
he was a remarkable man, and the question which 
has been raised with regard to his ordination 
ought to be settled. The only way to do so 
authoritatively, is to examine the records of ordi- 
nations in the diocese of London. Perhaps some 
of your readers have access to them, and will do 
this. H. P. D. 

The variations in statement with regard to 
" Peter Pindar " in the notes of several of your 
correspondents, and their reference to different 
authorities for their different statements, may be 
settled by turning to the Annual Biography, 1819, 
in which periodical is a memoir, evidently drawn 
up by an intimate friend, after Wolcot's decease. 
He was, as the Gentleman's Magazine states, 
" John Wolcot, M.D., painter and poet." He 
obtained a doctor's degree (1767) at Aberdeen in 
Scotland, and in the same year went with Sir 
William Trelawney to Jamaica, and at his decease 
returned to Cornwall and practised as a physician. 
He never "took orders," t. e. was not ordained by 
a bishop of the church in England, though he 
might have officiated clerically in Jamaica from 
the want of clergy in that island. In 1780 he 



96 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



*d S. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



settled in London, and with Opie, afterwards a j 
celebrated portrait-painter, practised the^pictorial 
art, abandoning physic, and turning his whole i 
thoughts and attention to satirical odes, from ! 
which he acquired the sobriquet of " Peter Pin- I 
dar.'' " Rev." is a gratuitous title given him in | 
the Catalogue of National Portraits at Kensington, 
1867. This is the simple history of " Peter Pin- | 
dar," which I can vouch for from my own know- 
ledge of Dr. Wolcot when he resided at Somers j 
Town in the years 1817, 1818. My brother during ! 
those years was accustomed, after official hours in j 
Downing Street, where he held a good appoint- 
ment, to spend his evenings with the Doctor, to 
cheer him in his blindness. He heard from him- 
self his career in life, and therefore must be accu- 
rate as to its facts. His statement is that which 
I have briefly given to set your correspondents 
right where they differ. Not to take up your 
space, I shall only add one fact which has been 
omitted in your columns, viz., that the M.D. was 
not merely a satirical English poet, but a Latin 
scholar. I have somewhere among my literary 
papers an epigram in the style of Martial, an im- 
promptu of " Peter Pindar " on my brother pre- 
senting him with a hare, lepus, which he repaid, 
then and there, with lepos, a witty pleasantry. 

QUEEN'S GARDENS. 



CONSECRATION or A CHURCH BY AN ARCH- 
DEACON (3 rd S. xii. 24.) If it be a fact that 
Woodham-Walter church was consecrated by an 
archdeacon, the ceremony was a violation of the 
ancient canons which forbid any under the rank 
of a bishop to consecrate a church. Bingham 
(book viii. chap. ix. 3) says : 

" The office of consecration by some ancient canons 
is so specially reserved to the office of bishops, that pres- 
byters are not allowed to perform it. The first Council 
of Bracara, anno 563, makes it deprivation for any pres- 
byter to consecrate an altar or a church, and says the 
canons of old forbad it likewise." 

H. P. D. 

DRAWINGS (3 rd S. xii. 24.) The best material 
" to lay down drawing-paper for water-colour 
drawings on another paper " is a solution of dextrin, 
or, as it is sometimes called, British gum, which 
is made by the torrefaction of starch. It is this 
material which is employed to form the adhesive 
layer at the back of postage and receipt stamps. 
Ordinary paste made with wheat flour has always 
an acid reaction, and with but little damp under- 
goes decomposition, producing spots and discolor- 
ation of delicate pigments from which dextrin is 
free. SEPTIMUS PIESSE, PH.D. 

THE KNAVE or CLUBS (3 rd S. xii. 24.) With 
regard to the knave of clubs as a card of ill-omen, 
like the nine of diamonds, it may be that some 
light can be thrown upon it by the verse of an 



old Jacobite song, representing the Earl of Mar 
and the Duke of Argyle, who 

" In a game at the cards for a kingdom would play ; " 
and goes on to relate that Argyll found himself, 
by fair means 

" To win quite unable, 

So he shifted the knave of clubs under the table." 
And " faith (as Ophelia says) I will make an end 
on't " 

*' Great Mar, in a passion, four shillings threw down, 
But it wanted another to make up the crown ! " 

BUSHET HEATH. 

" LEO PUGNAT CUM DRACONE " (3 rd S. xii. 45.) 

This is in allusion to Apocalypse, v. 5 <l Behold 
the lion of the tribe of Juda, the root of David hath 
prevailed," &c. The standard of the tribe of Juda 
was a lion : the prophetic blessing of Jacob to his 
son Juda was "Juda is a lion's whelp: to the 
prey my son thou art gone up." (Genesis xlix. 9.) 
Christ was of the tribe of Juda, and is compared 
to a lion, because he fought against the devil, 
death, and sin, and overcame by his sacred passion 
and death ; and as the devil is so often symbolised 
by a dragon, the lion fighting with the dragon 
was an appropriate emblem of Christ overcoming 
the devil F- 0. H. 

See Rev. v. 5 and xii. 7-9, with Cornelius a 
Lapide on these passages. This commentator 
gives nine reasons, more or less cogent, for Christ's 
being called a lion, and also shows why the devil 
is called " draco." He refers to, and appears to 
endorse, the opinion that in the second passage 
" Michael" is Christ. The motto sounds like a 
line from a hymn; the mediaeval hymns fre- 
! quently contain the same idea, which is no doubt 
rounded on the many Scripture passages where 
I Christ is represented as contending with Satan, 
! either in his own person or in the persons of his 
"faithful soldiers and servants." See also Psalm 
; Ixxiv. 14, 15 (Vulg. Ixxiii. 13, 14), and St. Augus- 
tine thereon. I should be very much obliged if 
J. G. N. would kindly favour me with impres- 
sions of seals bearing this device. J. T. F. 
The College, Hurstpierpoint. 
REV. JOHN DARWELL (3 rd S. xi. 409, 529.) 
| This composer's name is invariably spelt as above, 
I whereas it ought to be Darwall. 1 have received 
: the following particulars concerning him from a 
I friend who is connected with the family. The 
i Rev. John Darwall was descended from an old 
! Cheshire family ; his father, Handle Darwall, was 
i rector of Haughton, near Stafford, and died in 
' 1777. Mr. John Darwall was vicar of Walsall 
i from 1769 to 1789, the date of his death. The 
j gentlenfan of the same name, who was resident in 
i Birmingham in 1790, and whose name appears 
i among the subscribers to Dr. Miller's Psalms of 
that date, was incumbent of Deritend, which is a 
district in that town, and was a son of Mr. John 



3 r<l S. XII. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



97 



Darwall, vicar of Walsall. I "believe the original 
MS. of the music of the tune u Darwall," and 
which is said to differ from the version in circula- 
tion, is in the possession of the Rev. Leicester 
Darwall, incumbent of Criggin, near Shrewsbury. 
The musical talent which was made public by 
the hymn tune in question seems to have existed 
in the family for many generations, and is still 
extant in the present representatives of it. Mr. 
Handle Darwall, the rector of Haughton, who 
was a jocose as well as a learned and musical man, 
is reported to have rather risked passing his exa- 
mination for orders by answering an inquiry of 
the examining chaplain as to what else he could 
do, by replying that he could fiddle ! 

W. I. S. HORTON. 

TOMB IN BARBADOS (3 rd S. xii. 9, 58.) An in- 
flux of water, considering the locale of the tomb 
(or more correctly vauti), would be as extraor- 
dinary a phenomenon as the one it has been put 
forward to account for. SP. 

MONUMENT OP PIERS SHONKES, AT BRENT 
PELHAM, co. HERTFORD (3 rd S. ix. 219, 400.) 
I appear to have forgotten to make a communi- 
cation which I intended upon this subject, in 
order to refer to the Gentleman's Magazine for 
May, 1852, in which accurate representations were 
given of the monument in question, and of the 
coffin-lid. They were engraved from drawings 
by the late Mr. Thomas Fisher, F.S.A., author of 
Collections of Bedfordshire, and accompanied by 
some remarks from the present writer. There is 
also another engraving of the monument in the 
Antiquarian Itinerary for Sept. 1816. The design 
of the coffin-lid is remarkable ; but nothing very 
mysterious or wonderful, at least to the eye of a 
modern antiquary. An angel is conveying to 
heaven the soul of the deceased, which is repre- 
sented in the customary shape of a miniature 
.naked man, raising his hands in the attitude of 
prayer, and his lower limbs concealed by the 
sheet in which he is carried. Surrounding this 
representation are the four winged beasts of the 
Revelations employed as symbols of the evan- 
gelists. In the centre of the stone is a four- 
leaved flower, or cross flory. And at the feet two 
other leaves of architectural foliage rise from the 
mouth of a dragon. The tomb upon which this 
coffin-lid is placed is either another monument, or, 
if erected purposely to sustain it, was the work of 
the same fanciful person who wrote the inscriptions 
on the wall above, attributing the tomb and the 
carving to " PIERS SHONKES, who died Anno 
1086." This idea was evidently a village legend 
adopted by the writer of the four Latin, and six 
English lines already printed in "N. & Q.," which 
are not older in style than the sixteenth or per- 
haps seventeenth century. There was a family of 
Shonk or Shonkes which owned land in the parish, 



and a manor still retains their name, as mentioned 
in the quotation from Gough's Sepulchral Monu- 
ments given in the editorial note to the first com- 
munication above referred to ; and it may further 
be remarked that Clutterbuck has noticed one 
Peter Shonke occurring as a witness to a deed 
dated Claveriug in Essex in 21 Edw. III. The 
coffin-lid may be somewhat older than that date; 
but possibly not. J. G. N. 

"MAGIUS DE TlNTINNABTJLIS " (3 rd S. xti. 8.) 

I send the following notes on some of the writers 
mentioned : 

Fortunatianus. Born in Africa, Bishop of Aqui- 
leia in the time of Constantino ; wrote plain com- 
mentaries on the Gospels, A.D. 300-336. But 
perhaps Venantius Fortunatus is meant. 

Hieronymus Squarzajicus Alexandrinus. Wrote 
a Life of Petrarch, printed with the poet's works 
by Henry Petri, before A.D. 1574. 

Nicolaus Reumerus. Born at Loewenberg in 
Silesia, A.D. 1545 j wrote a Sylvula Genealogica of 
the Bavarian and Palatine princes, together with 
Latin poems, 4to, Laugingee, 1568 ; and, in con- 
cert with Georgius Sabinus, an account of the 
Caesars from C. Julius to Maximilian II. of Aus- 
tria, 8vo, Leipsic, 1572 ; and many other works 
on Law, History, Philosophy, and Poetry. He 
wasProfessor of Classics for five years atLauingen, 
then made Doctor of Laws in 1583, and became 
Professor of Law, first at Strasburg, then at Jena. 
Was employed by Rudolph II. as ambassador, and 
rewarded by being created a Count Palatine. He 
died A.D. 1602. 

Petrus Messias Hispalensis, of Seville, published 
the Diverse Lectiones first in Spanish, which were 
translated into Italian, French, and German be- 
fore A.D. 1574. There is a book published at 

Florence, mentioned in the Universus Terrarum 
Orbis of Lasor a Varea, with this title 
" Congiura e subito amotinamento occorso nella citta 

di Firenze, e le morti che ne seguirono (nella Selva rino- 

vata) parte v. cap. xiv." 
by Pietro Messia ; but no date is given. 
Philippus Rubenius, son of John, senator of 

Antwerp, and brother of the painter Peter Paul 
Rubens; wrote Electorum Libros ii., Poemata 

varia, and Epistolcc ; and translated B. Asterii 

Atnascei Episcopi Homilias Grcec. Latine. Died 

A.D. 1611, aet. 37. 

Philoxenus. There were several of this name, 

but I can find no work entitled " De urbibus," by 

any of them. 

Paulus Grillandus, a Florentine lawyer, wrote 

on Crimes and their Punishments, and a book on 

Heretics, A.D. 1550-1574. 

Joannes Alexander Brassicanus [Kohlburger]. 

Born at Wittemberg in Prussia, A.D. 1500, printed 

scarce works, to which he added original prefaces ; 

e. g. the works of Eucherius, some agricultural 

treatises, Salvianus on the Judgments and Provi- 



98 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3rd s. XII. AUG. 3, '67. 



dance of God, Petronius Arbiter, besides elegies, 
dialogues, and epigrams of his own, written and 
published when only nineteen years of age ; and 
a commentary on the Hymn to Apollo, A.D. 1523. 
He died A.D. 1539. 

Franciscus Rosinus. One Rosinus is mentioned 
by Gesner as a writer on Alehymy before A.D. 1574, 
but no Christian name is given. 

Vannocius Beringucius Senensis published a work 
in Italian on Pyrotechny at Venice, A.D. 1540. 
He wrote also on Metals and Engines of War. 

The above account is compiled chiefly from 
Conrad Gesner's Bibliotheca, edited by Semler, 
A.D. 1574, and from Hoffman's Lexicon. 

E. A. D. 

The following notes, which go but a little way 
towards answering your correspondent's queries, 
are from Epitome Bibliothecce Conradi Gesneri con- 
scripta primum a Conrado Lycosthene Rubeaquensi : 
mine denuo recognita .... per Josiam Simlerum 
Tigurinum. Tiguri, 1555 : 

" Hieronymus Squarzasichus, descripsit vitara Francisci 
Petrarchse, qua; ab Henrico Petricum Petrarchan operibus 
impressa est." Fol. 77. 

" Paulus Grillandus Florentinus jurispertus, scripsit de 
diversis criminibus, ubi etiam de calumniatoribus agit : 
alias de criminibns et poenis eorum. Ejusdem liber de 
haereticis habetur impressus." Fol. 143. 

" Vannocius Biringucius Senensis scripsifc Italice Pj-ro- 
techniam, lib. 10, opus impressum Venetiis an. D. 1540 
in 4 chart 44. Tractat autem de natura metallorum, et 
ratione fundendi ea et separandi et de campanis et tor- 
mentis bellicis." Fol. 177. 

K. P. D. E. 

EXTRAORDINARY ASSEMBLAGES OF BIRDS (3 rd S. 
xi. 106, 220, 361.) Some six years ago, on a 
morning in May, an unusually heavy thunder- 
storm occurred at Loophead, the northern cape of 
the^ estuary of the Shannon, immediately after 
which the puffins and pretty kittiwake gulls, 
countless numbers of which build their nests in the 
cliffs around, especially in an inaccessible island 
off the Head, assembled in a tumultuous manner, 
as if engaged in a troubled council, occasionally 
collecting on the island in noisy groups, then 
again dispersing during the whole day until sun- 
set ; when apparently with one consent both gulls 
and puffins flew northwards in a body, forsakin- 
their nests, at that season full- of eggs, and did not 
return until March in the following year. 

What could have prompted this strange and 
sudden exodus at the breeding season? Could 
the electric fluid have had the effect of addling 
the eggs, and some mysterious instinct have dis- 
covered the irreparable injury ? Or did a scarcity 
of sprats and other small fry, forming the food of 
sea-birds, render migration unavoidable? The 
island^ a singularly picturesque object, with sheer 
precipitous sides upwards of three hundred feet 
high, is only about thirty yards distant from the 
opposite cliff, and on it are ruins of several build- 



ings, the nature and purpose of which are un- 
known, either to history or local tradition ; neither 
would it be possible to reach the island except by 
a suspension bridge, no vestiges of which exist. 
An ingenious gentleman of Clare, who has a sum- 
mer residence in this wild and solitary region, has 
laid the abutments on the mainland of a flying 
bridge, and if he completes the work this mystery 
may yet be solved. But what of the bird exodus? 
Can any correspondent adduce and account for 
similar instances ? J. L. 

Dublin. 

TENNYSON'S EARLY POEMS (3 rd S. ix. 111.) It 
is a point not to be overlooked in Tennysonian 
bibliography, that subsequently to the joint pub- 
lication of Poems by Two Brothers (Alfred and 
Charles Tennyson), in 1827, each of the brothers 
published a volume of poems separately. Alfred's 
first distinctive publication is well known to col- 
lectors ; but Charles's contemporaneous volume is 
a lost fact in literary history. A copy of it now 
lies before me. It is dated " Cambridge, 1830," 
and is entitled Sonnets and Fugitive Pieces, by 
Charles Tennyson, Trin. Coll. Amongst the 
sonnets is one addressed to " A. H. H.," immor- 
talised in In Memoriam, and there is a poem 

addressed "To ," which the internal evidence 

shows to mean one of the writer's brothers, pro- 
bably Alfred. The prevailing tone of the poenis 
is pensive and melancholy; but it can hardly be 
said that there is discoverable in them the smallest 
germ of the brilliant fancy and subtle intellectu- 
ality which mark the Tennysonian poetry. 

D. BLAIR. 

Melbourne. 

STYLE OF " REVEREND " AND " VERY REVEREND " 
(3 rd S. xii. 26, 78.) G. will find on inquiry that 
a great many of the formalities connected with the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland are 
founded upon those of the old national parliament, 
which, unlike that of Great Britain, consisted of 
only one house. The Lord High Commissioner 
represents the Crown in the same way as Lauder- 
dale, Rothes, and others, did in the Parliament. 
The Moderator fills the place occupied by the 
Chancellor as chairman of the house. The terms 
" Right Reverend " and " Right Honourable " are 
precisely those which would be used by the old 
commissioners in addressing the Lords Spiritual 
and Temporal, and Commons of Scotland in Par- 
liament assembled ; being, in fact, equivalent to 
the well-known " Lords and Gentlemen " of our 
own day. Can G. tell me where I can procure a 
copy of a most amusing brochure by my _late 
friend William Edmonstone Aytoun, entitled 
Our Zion, or Presbyterian Popery, by Ane of that 
Ilk, 1840, which contains a most amusing account 
of the forms of the Assembly. Aytoun gave me a 
copy of it, and, deeply to my regret, I lent it to a 



3 rd S. XII. AUG. 3, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



99 



lady who died shortly afterwards, and I have never 
been able to fall in with another copy, although 
I have made occasional inquiries during the last 
twenty-five years. I applied to Aytoun himself, 
but he informed me that he had only his own copy, 
and was afraid that it was entirely out of print. 
GEORGE" VEKE IRVING. 

SCOT, A LOCAL PREFIX (3 rd S. xi. 155, 283.) 
Having occasion to look into the Appendix 
(vol. ii.) of Nisbet's Heraldry, for another pur- 
pose, I stumbled upon the following passage, 
which strongly corroborates the views I stated in 
regard to compound names in the discussion 
which appeared under the above title ; and as it 
falls under the head of Res noviter, it may per- 
haps find a place in "N. & Q.," although the 
original discussion is closed. It occurs in a notice 
of Sir John Scott of Scots Tarvet, p. 293 : 

" When a gentleman of his relation, Inglis of Tarvet, 
was by necessity of his affairs obliged to sell his estate, 
Sir John bought it. ... Having finished this trans- 
action, he expeded a deed under the Great Seal, erecting 
and incorporating the lands and estates of Inglis Tarvet 
and Wemyss Tarvet into a new barony, to be in all time 
hereafter called the barony of Scots Tarvet. The charter 
of creation is of date the 11 th of September, 1611." 

The change from English to Scott is very re- 
markable. GEORGE VERB IRVING. 

THE "VICTORIA MAGAZINE " (3 rd S. x. 187.) 
The writer of the drama of the Spanish Marriage 
was Charles Whitehead, author of Richard Savac/e 
and other works of fiction, and once sub-editor of 
Bentley^s Magazine. Mr. Whitehead ended his 
days, not happily, in this city. D. BLAIR. 

Melbourne. 

SOURCE or QUOTATION WANTED (3 rd S. xii. 44.) 

" Quern Dens vult perdere prius dementat." 
The Bishop of Down is in error if he has stated 
that the origin of this expression is The Sibylline 
Leaves. It is referred to as a remarkable saying of 
some one unknown by Sophocles (Antig.^ 632-635). 

2o(/na ~/ap e/c TOU 
KAeiz'bz' e?ros Trstpavrat, 
T2> Ka.K'bv 5oK6? TTOT' 
T<j3 5' ffj.fj.ev 1 OTU> 
Qeta &yei irp'bs &TCU'. 

" In wisdom hath an illustrious saying been, by some 
one, set forth: 'That evil sometimes appears good to 
one whose mind God hurries on to ruin.' " 

Upon which the Scholiast gives the exact 
words : 

"Qrav 8' 6 Sai^ai/ avfipl iropffvvr) /ca/cct, 
Tbv vovv e/8AaiJ/e irpxrov < /SouAeuerai. 

" When God prepares evil for man, he first injures the 
mind of him to whom he wills it." 

The same distich is given as a fragment of 
Euripides, omitting, however, the last two words, 
/3ot/AetJTai, " to whom, he wills it." The exact 



words in Latin are to be found only in the Index 
prior of Barnes's Euripides (Cantab. 1694). 
" Deus quos vult perdere, dementat prius." 

Incerta, v. 436. 
T. J. BUCKTON. 
Streatham Place, S. 

Possibly some of those earlier references in 
"N. & Q." may coincide with the subjoined, from 
Bohn's Diet, of Classical Quotations, p. 544 : 

"Oraf 5e taifUOV avSpl Tropavvri Ka/ca, 
Tbu vovv e/3Aa^e irpu>TOi>. 

(A fragment of Euripides quoted by Athenagoras.) 

C. A. W. 

May Fair. 

PARC AUX CERFS (3 rd S. xii. 62.) MR. BOTJR- 
CHIER quotes a passage from Alison's History of 
Europe, to the effect that the mistress of Louis XV. 
maintained her ascendancy by her skill in seeking 
out, and her taste in arraying rivals. But Pro- 
fessor Yonge, in his History of France under the 
Bourbons (vol. iii. p. 247) shows that her object 
was only to satisfy the king's lust by a constant 
succession of victims, who passed away before 
they had time or opportunity to become her rivals 
in any way but the most sensual : 

" She (Madame de Pompadour) lived in dread of some 
rival who might supplant her; and to insure herself 
against any influence of that kind, she now conceived 
and carried out a plan of unprecedented wickedness . . . 
They (the girls in the Pare aux Cerfs) were educated 
with great care, Louis himself frequently watching their 
progress in different accomplishments, and Avith strange 
and unaccountable hypocrisv, superintending their re- 
ligious studies and exercises of devotion until they were 
old enough to become his victims. Then, after a few 
weeks, or perhaps a few days, they were dismissed with 
large presents of money, which were augmented if they 
became mothers. If here and there one seemed more 
than usually attractive, and likely to awaken in the king 
more than a passing fancy, the" marchioness took care 
that she was removed at once/' 

Alison implies, though he does not positively 
state, that it was Madame du Barri, who formed 
the infamous establishment. And the Penny 
Cyclopaedia, quoted by MR. BUCZTON, states : " he 
(the king) became attached to a more vulgar 
woman, Bit Barry, and at last formed a regular 
harem/' &c. But Du Barri only succeeded to the 
office of procuress. It was Pompadour who ini- 
tiated the vile scheme. Professor Yonge points 
out that the Pare aux Cerfs was one of the estates > 
which she had extorted from the king, and upon 
which a house had been built for her. (( She now 
restored it to Louis, and drawing on the Treasury 
for the erection of additional buildings, filled them 
with female children whose shapes and features 
served to hold out a promise of future loveliness." 

H. P. D. 

SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE (3 rd S. xi. 378.) 
Allow me to inform R. I. that Part n. of Klem- 
nuing's valuable Chron, Cat. of Swedish Dram. Lit. 



100 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. XII. Auo. 3, '67. 



lias not yet appeared, and that 1. 0. F. Miiller's 
Frode is a pastoral, but in prase; 2. Bjering's 
pieces are real pastoral dramas; 3. N. Sundt's 
pieces are novelettes. G-EORttE STEPHENS. 

Cheapinghaven, Denmark. 

CHURCHES WITH THATCHED ROOFS IN NORFOLK 
(3 rd S. xii. 35.) In addition to those mentioned, 
I beg to inclose a list of others similarly clothed, 
viz.: Bridgham, Old Buckenham, Chedgrave, 
Crostwick, Hackfcrd, Hales, Heckingham, Kemp- 
ston, Kirby Bedon, Mantby, Rockland St. Mary, 
Skingham, Sizeland (or Sisland), Thorpe (next 
Haddiscoe), Thorpe (next Norwich), and Thurl- 

ton. NORFOLKIENSTS. 

I send an extract from an old account book of 
the parish of Markby, where the church has a 
thatched roof, as your correspondent J. T. M. 
writes : 

" Itt is agreed by the inhabitants of the towne of 
Markby, that Mr. Richard White shall have all the Tiles 
that is on the church, provid that he of his owne cost 
shall thach the same. And we doe chuse him to be 
churchwarden for this yeare, 1672. Witnes our hands," 
&c. 

Prom Markby parish account book : 
" Memorandum, That the Constables of Markby-cum- 
majmbris did compound w th George Sweete, High Con- 
stable of the weopnetacke of Caulsworth, this 9 th day of 
Aprill, 1615, being Easter Day, for xiii pound of butter, 
three hennes, and iij capons, assessed upon the towne 
above saide by the saide George Sweete, as appeared by 
a warrant sent unto us by the saide High Constable for 
the King's Ma ties privie diet ; for the w ch pticulars we 
paid for every pound of butter thre penc, for every henne 
viij d , and for" every capon xij d ." 

FELIX LAURENT. 

To WHOM DID SORREL BELONG? (3 rd S. ix. 
258; x. 127.) Is there good authority for the 
belief that the horse belonged to either of the 
gentlemen referred to ; and if so, to which of 
them ? I refer your correspondent H. P. D. to 
Miss Agnes Strickland's Lives of the Queens of 
England, vol. xii. p. 28. London, Colburn, 1848 : 

"He [the Prince of Orange] rode into the Home Park, 
at Hampton Court, the morning of February 21 [1702], 
to look at the excavation making, under his directions, 
for a new canal, which was to run in another longitudinal 
stripe, by the side of that which now deforms the vista, 
and injures the air of Hampton Court gardens." 

The Prince of Orange was mounted on Sir 
John Fenwick's sorrel poney, when, just as he 
came by the head of the two canals, opposite to 
the Ranger's Park pales, the sorrel pony happened 
to tread in a mole-hill, and fell. Such is the tra- 
dition of the palace ; and it must be owned, that 
after a careful examination of the spot, the author 
prefers its adoption to the usual assertion of his- 
torians that the Prince of Orange's " pony 
stumbled when he was returning from hunting," 
especially when the mischievous effects of the 



subterranean works or moles in that soil are re- 
membered. For an officer of rank, who resides in 
the vicinity, asserted that he had twice met 
with accidents which threatened to be dangerous, 
owing to his horse having plunged his forefoot to 
the depth of more than fifteen inches in mole- 
hills at Bushy Park and the Home Park. There, 
too, may be seen the half-excavated canal, which 
has remained without water and in an unfinished 
state. ANON. 



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r 



S. XII. AUG. 10, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



101 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 10, 1867 



CONTENTS. NO 293. 



NOTES : Battle of Harlaw: Heirs: Heirs Male, 101 
An old Newspaper: a Royal Marriage Custom: Haber- 
dasher, 102 Goethe's Sensibility, 103 Pictures by West, 
104. Fly -leaves : Izaak Walton Two Churches under 
one Roof Naval Review at Portsmouth, 1778 Salmon 
Fishing Mr. Brig-fat's Epigrammatic Saying Sale of 
Old Manuscripts and Books "Thus ! " Earl St. Vincent- 
Liverpool Shipowners and their Flags in 1793 Seeing in 
the Dark, 104. 

QUERIES: Bridt Clubs of London Old Engravers 

First Coloured Jury in America Furies " Glue " for 
" Glaze" The Hamilton Family in Ireland " High Life 
below Stairs" Langmead Family A Literary Trick 
" Married on Crooked Staff " National and Family Por- 
traitsThe Oath of Le Faisan Obituary Medalet of 
Edward V. " Rev. Thomas Pierson, late Pastour of 
Brompton Brian, Here ford" Quotation Royal Authors 
Ryder, Wy vill, and More Families Michael Wiggins, 107. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Lord Howard of Escrick 
J ohn Archer Designation of Scotch Law Courts Scot- 
ticisms, 109. 

REPLIES: Lucifer, 110 Assumption of a Mother's Name 
111 Junius, Burke, &c. Poetic Pains, 113 Surname 
of "Parr" Calligraphy Beauty Unfortunate Quar- 
ter-Masters, &c. " Stuart of the Scotch Guard " Quo- 
tation wanted References wanted Royal Arms of 
Scotland Threckingham Font-inscription Style of 
" Reverend " and " Very Reverend " Titles of the Judges 

Immortal Brutes Dole Richard Dean Waltham 
Abbey Philology Battle of Baug6 Commander of 
the Nightingale Mottoes of Companies Punning Mot- 
toes " Conspicuous from its Absence," &c., 114. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



BATTLE OF HARLAW : HEIRS : HEIRS MALE. 

The battle of Harlaw, which has formed the 
subject of two old Scotish ballads one of which 
from tradition has been given in " N. & Q.." 
naturally created a great sensation in the district 
of Mar, where the onslaught of the Highlanders 
and Men of the Isles was so very fierce, that the 
memory of the event was not likely to pass soon 
away from the recollection of those who suffered 
from their ravages; and the remembrance of 
which would be transmitted as a sort of heirloom 
from father to son, accompanied, no doubt, with 
imprecations on the memory of Donald of the 
Isles, who had occasioned the mischief. 

Nevertheless, however bloody were the con- 
sequences, they were caused by the illegal attempt 
of Robert Duke of Albany/ who, in his endea- 
vours to aggrandise his own race, was desirous to 
wrest the earldom of Ross from its lawful heir. 

In order to show how the case really stood, it 
may be necessary to state, that the attempt by 
the Regent to get hold of the earldom appeared 
under the guise of a legal instrument, executed, 
or said to be executed, by Eufamia Countess of 
Ross a lady who had taken the vows long be- 
fore, was a professed nun, and in this way barred , 
from doing anything to the prejudice of the next \ 
heir to the earldom. Fortunately, the original 
deed has been preserved. It was 'found amongst 



some loose papers in the Register House, when 
Lord Hailes was preparing his admirable and un- 
answerable case for the Countess of Sutherland. 
This was in 1771, when his lordship (one of the 
lady's guardians) prepared and printed an ab- 
stract of it. Besides being a valuable historical 
document, this pleading has another value in the 
estimation of Scotish lawyers : for it proves that 
the word " heirs " then had precisely the same 
meaning it has now ; that it never was presumed 
to mean heirs male, as, where such succession was 
intended, the distinctive term "masculus" was 
added. 

The following is the abridgement : 

" Robertus Dux Albania;, etc., dedisse, etc., carissimae 
nepti nostrje, Eufamite, etc. etc., filise et heredi quon- 
dam Alexandri de Lesley, Comitis de Rpsse, totum et 
integrum comitatum de Rosse, etc. etc., qui, quae, et quod 
fuerunt dicta; Eufamiae haereditarie ; et quern, quas, et 
quod eadem Eufamia, non vi et metu ducta, nee errore 
lapsa, sed merci et spontanea et voluntate sua, in sua 
pura et Integra virginitate, in prsesentia venerabilium in. 
Christo Patrum Domini Finlai, Episcopi Dunblanensis, 
in castro de Strivlyne, die Mercurii, duodecimo die mensis 
Junii ultimo praeterit., in manus nostras, etc., resignavit, 
etc. Tenend., etc., praedictee Eufamiae, et heredibus suis 
de corpore suo legitime procreatis sen procreandis ; quibus 
forte deficientibus, Johanni Stewart, Comiti Buchanie, 
filio nostro carissimo, et heredibus suis masculis de cor- 
pore ejus legitime procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus 
forsitan deficientibus, Roberto Stewart fratri suo ger- 
mano, et heredibus suis masculis de corpore suo legitime 
procreatis seu procreandis ; quibus forsitan deficientibus, 
domino nostro Regi, et lueredibus suis regibus Scotiae, de 
doinino nostro Rege, et hseredibus suis, in feodo," etc.* 

This resignation by the professed nun was nu- 
gatory ; for the succession was regulated by a 
charter of David II., dated October 23, 1370, of 
the earldom of Ross, where a remainder is given 
to Sir Walter Leslie and Eufamia de Ross (the 
grantee's daughter) : " et heredibus de ipsa Eu- 
famia legitime procreatis, seu procreandis." The 
possibility of a failure of male heirs is contem- 
plated, because there is a special provision that, 
upon the succession corning to females, " semper 
senior heres femella " was to succeed without 
division. 

Leslie and Eufamia had a son, who married a 
daughter of Albany^ by whom he had a daughter 
also called Eufamia; who, either from mental 
or personal defects, was induced to embrace a re- 
ligious life and become a nun. The consequence 
of this was that her aunt, the wife of Donald of 
the Isles, the instant Eufamia took the vows, 
became Countess of Ross by reason of the substi- 
tution to " heirs " in King David's charter. 

It was thus to vindicate the right of his wife 
to the earldom that Donald had recourse to arms. 
That he was unsuccessful, was his misfortune. 
He might truly exclaim, from Lucan : 

" Victrix causa Diis placuit, sed victa Catoni." 

* June 15, 1415. Page 29 of case. 



102 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3* S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



In truth, the regency of Albany was very 
much after the fashion of a later period, when, 
as Wordsworth says 

" . . . [this was] the simple plan, 
That those should take who had the power, 
And those should keep who can." 

Acting on this principle, Albany's son, the Earl 
of Buchan, kept the earldom of Ross until he was 
slain at the battle of Verneuil in France, 1424 j 
when James I. who, in pursuance of his resolu- 
tion to humble the magnates of Scotland, was 
far from scrupulous seized the earldom as next 
male under the nun's resignation. Coming north, 
in 1427, the king induced Alexander, the son of 
Donald, and his mother, the ejected Countess of 
Ross, and several Highland chieftains, to place 
themselves in his power. He confined the countess 
in prison, dismissed her son, and put many of the 
chieftains to death. 

Alexander took his revenge for the incarcera- 
tion of his mother and death of his adherents, by 
burning Inverness ; but James, in 1429, effectually 
forced the earl to submission, by routing his 
army, composed of Islanders and Ross-shire men. 
Donald of the Isles is stated, in the genealogical 
account of the clan or family of Macdonald,* to 
have died in France in the year 1427 ; and the 
countess had, in all probability, predeceased him, 
as Alexander took the title of earl about that 
period. 

In 1431, Alexander obtained a pardon from 
the crown, and his earldom was restored to him. 
He died in 1448 or 1449, according to the genea- 
logical account of the family,* leaving three sons : 
John, Hugh, and Celestine. John retained the 
earldom until forfeited in 1475, when it was per- 
petually annexed to the crown. In 1476 he was 
restored to a small part of his lands. " From the 
ruins of his family that of Mackenzie sprung, now 
one of the most powerful clans in the Eastern 
Highlands," so says the genealogist of the 
family. 

The case of Ross has a parallel in that of Mar ; 
where a like injustice was perpetrated, by the 
crown taking advantage of a resignation by a 
life-renter in favour of a bastard of the A*lbany 
breed ; who, by a series of extraordinary outrages, 
possessed himself of the person and estates of 
Isobel Countess of Mar, and then endeavoured to 
put the earldom past the heir of line, the legiti- 
mate successor an injustice that was not re- 
medied until more than a century afterwards, 
when Queen Mary, moved by the gross " in- 
justice" of her predecessor, placed the heir of line 
in the precise place of his ancestress. J. M. 



Privately printed, Edinburgh, 1819, p. 66. 



i AN OLD NEWSPAPER : A ROYAL MARRIAGE 
CUSTOM: HABERDASHER. 

In a recent issue of the Peterborough Advertiser 

was an article containing many extracts from an 

j early number of TJie Stamford Mercury, one of 

| the oldest of the provincial newspapers. Some of 

| these extracts possess more than local interest, 

! and may, perhaps, be allowed a niche in " N. & Q,." 

The paper is of the date March, 1733-4 

" and the ' Foreign Affairs ' posts, show us that Russia 
and Poland were at war, as were Germany and France. 
The latter is curiously enough described as 'having a 
plan whereby to become masters of Luxemburg,' and 
then, as of late, Great Britain offers her intervention to 
preserve peace. In such way does 'History repeat 
itself.' The great event at home was a royal wedding. 
The Irish, or at least the Peers, had ' a grievance,' for not 
having places assigned them equal to the English Peers, 
they resolved not to attend the wedding, and to keep 
their wives a\ray. This must have been dreadful for the 
ladies. George II. occupied the throne, and the wedding, 
that of the Princess Royal to the Prince of Orange, came 
I off notwithstanding the disgust of the Irish Peers. There 
is a long description of the doings at the wedding, one 
of the formalities sounding curiously to the present 
generation. The scribe says : 

" About Twelve the Royal Family supp'd in publick 
in the great State Bail-Room ; their Majesties were 
placed at the Upper End of the Table under a Canopy ; 
on the Right hand sat the Prince of Wales, the Duke, 
and the Prince of Orange, and on the Left the Princess 
of Orange, and the Princesses, Amelia, Caroline, and 
Mary : the Countess of Hertford carv'd. About two the 
Bride and Bridegroom retir'd, and were afterwards seen 
by the Nobility, tfcc., sitting up in their Bed-Chamber in 
rich Undresses. The Counterpane to the Bed was Lace 
of an exceeding great Value." 

" The fashions at Court on the occasion were these : 

" The Ladies mostly had fine laced Heads, dress'd 
English ; their Hair curl'd down on the Sides, powder'd 
behind and before; with treble Ruffles, one tack'd up to 
their Shifts in quil'd Pleats and two hanging down ; the 
newest fashion'd Silks Avere Paduasoys, with large Flowers 
of Tulips, Pionies, Emvnonies, Carnations, &c., in their 
proper Colours, some wove in the silk and some em- 
broider'd." 

" The assizes are on, and at Northampton ' one man 
was cast for breaking open a house, but respited before 
the judge left the town.' Parliament was engaged in 
discussing Triennial Parliaments, and the question was 
negatived by 247 against 184." 

The court costume has been mentioned ; but 
here is the costume of a lady who had broken out 
of the House of Correction at Peterborough, and 
for whose recovery the sum of half-a-guinea was 
offered. The date is March 19, 1733-4^: 

" Note. The said Sarah Smith is a thickish Person, of 
a middle Stature, with a darkish Complection, black Eye- 
Brows somewhat arch'd, Avith Pimples appearing in her 
Face : had on, when she broke out, Irons of [sic] both 
Legs and Tammy Gown strip'd with Green." 

A Mr. Taylor advertises himself as "Haber- 
dasher of Hats " : thus giving a peculiar meaning 
to a singular word, whose origin has afforded 



8'* S. XII. AT 



AUG. 10, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



103 



nuch discussion in these pages ; and, in the fol- 
owing paragraph, we find an old use of a proverb 
Jiat is yet vigorous : 

" We hear from Thorney Fenn, in the Isle of Ely, that 
Mr. Jeremiah His of that Place, lately sent up a Score of 
Hogs to London, which he sold there for 20 Pounds, 
which Money he put in the present Lottery, in which he 
has already had a Prize of a thousand Pounds. Of this 
Gentleman it may very properly ie said, He brought his 
Hogs to a fine. Market." 

CUTHBERT BEDE. 



GOETHE'S SENSIBILITY. 

Goethe is usually represented as unimpassioned. 
It is probable, however, that he was naturally 
under the influence of a delicate nervous system, 
like his mother, but which he succeeded in con- 
trolling. The following will show that he was 
capable of strong emotions. After the battle of 
Jena, in 1806, the Emperor Napoleon I., sensibly 
irritated, permitted the Grand Duke Charles- 
Augustus of Saxe- Weimar to return to his estates, 
but not without evincing a lively mistrust. From 
that time the noble and generous German was 
surrounded by spies, who approached almost to 
his table. 

" At this time," says Talk, " my own affairs called me 
frequently to Berlin or Erfurth, and as I knew in these 
places many of the superior authorities, I discovered cer- 
tain remarks in the registers of the secret police which 
were placed every evening before the emperor, and which 
I hastened to commit to paper with the intention of 
making it known to our sovereign. Goethe, on this oc- 
casion, gave me so strong a proof of his personal attach- 
ment to the grand duke, that I regard it as a duty to 
exhibit to the German public this bright page in the life 
of their great poet. On my return to Erfurth, I called 
on Goethe, and found him in his garden ; we spoke of the 
domination of the French, and I reported precisely all 
that I was about to communicate to his highness. It is 
stated in the writing, that the Grand Duke of Weimar 
was convicted of having advanced four thousand thalers 
to General Blucher, our enemy, after the defeat of Lu- 
beck ; ( that ever} 1 " one besides knew that a Prussian 
officer, Captain de Ende, had come to be placed near her 
lioyal Highness the Grand Duchess, in the capacity of 
grand maitre de la cour ; that it could not be denied that 
the installation of so many Prussian officers was in itself 
something offensive to France ; that the emperor would 
not allow such a conspiracy to plot against him in the 
dark, in the centre of the German confederation ; that 
the grand duke appeared to omit nothing calculated to 
awaken the anger of Napoleon, who nevertheless had 
many things to forget respecting Weimar ; that thus it 
was that Charles-Augustus had been seen, accompanied 
by Baron Muffling, in passing through his estates, visiting 

the Duke of Brunswick, the mortal enemy of France 

' Enough,' exclaimed Goethe, his eye inflamed with anger; 
'enough, I need no more ; what do they want then, these 
Frenchmen ? Are they men who require more than hu- 
manity can perform ? How long, then, has it been a 
crime to remain faithful to his friends, to his old com- 
panions in arms, in misfortune ? Is it so small a matter 
for a brave gentleman that it is denied that our sovereign 
should efface from the most happy memories of his life 
the seven years' war. the memory of Frederick the Great. 



who was his uncle in fine, all the glorious affairs of our 
old German confederation, in which he has himself taken 
so lively a part, and for which he has risked his crown 
and sceptre ? Is your empire of yesterday, then, so solidly 
established that "you have nothing to fear for it in the 
future vicissitudes of human destiny ? Assuredly, my 
nature brings me to the peaceable contemplation of affairs, 
but I cannot see without irritation that impossibilities 
are required from men. The Duke of Weimar maintains 
at his own cost the Prussian officers out of pay, advances 
4,000 thalers to Bliicher after the defeat of Lubeck, and 
you call this a conspiracy ! and you make it a crime ! 
Suppose that to-day or to-morrow a disaster should reach 
your grand army," what merit would it not be, in the 
eyes of the emperor, in the general or field-marshal who 
should act in like circumstances as our sovereign has 
acted ? I say, the grand duke does what he ought ; he 
would be wanting to himself if he did otherwise. Yes, 
and when he shall, at this game, lose his estates, his people, 
his crown, and his sceptre, like his predecessor the unfor- 
tunate John *, he should hold to what is good, and not 
wander from the generous sentiments prescribed to him 
by his duties as a man and a prince. Misfortune ! What 
is misfortune ? It is misfortune when a sovereign receives 
favourably strangers who are installed in his house. And 
if his fall should occur, if the future bring him the fate 
of John, well ! we, even we, will perform our duty, we 
will follow our sovereign in his misfortunes as Lucas 
Kranach followed his, and we will not quit him a mo- 
ment. The women and children, in seeing us pass through 
their villages will open their tearful eyes and cry, See the 
old Goethe and the Grand Duke of Weimar that the French 
emperor has despoiled of his throne because he would 
remain faithful to his friends in adversity, because he 
visited the Duke of Brunswick, his uncle, on his death- 
bed ; because he would not allow his companions of the 
bivouac to die of famine.' At these words he stopped, 
choking, large tears rolling down his cheeks ; then, after 
a moment's silence, ' I would sing for my bread, I would 
put our disasters in rhyme. In the villages, in the schools, 
wherever the name of Goethe is known, I would sing the 
shame of the German people, and their children should 
learn my complaints by heart, and when they became 
men, sing these in honour of my master, and restore him 
to his throne. See, my hands and feet tremble ; I have 
not been so moved for a long while. Give me this report, 
or rather take it yourself; throw it in the fire, let it 
burn, let it be consumed ; gather the ashes of it, plunge 
them into the water, let it boil, I will bring the wood ; 
let it boil till it is destroyed ; that the last letter, the 
last comma, the last point, may vanish in the smoke, and 
that nothing may remain of this shameful manifesto on 
the soiLof Germany.' " 

In tnis narrative the following points are note- 
worthy: 1. Goethe, thrown off his guard, dis- 
closes, besides his tenderness, egoism and poco- 
curantism, and reminds us of ego et rex mem. He 
has a special spite against a bit of paper that no 
one else would have wreaked his vengeance upon. 
2. Bliicher, glad enough then to obtain a plate of 
meat and the sovereign loan of 600/., was, nine 
years afterwards, the god of the Londoners, who 
nearly wrung his hands off, and to whom, and not 
to the Duke of Wellington, they attributed the 
success at Waterloo. Certainly Blucher was the 
right man in the right place, but not exactly at 

* John Frederick, deprived of his electorate of Saxony 
by the emperor in 1547. 



104 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



g. xil. ADO. 10, '67. 



the right time. One remark of his the only one 
I have heard was in reply to the simple question, 
What do you think of London ? " I think it is a 
capital city to sack." It is not unlikely indeed 
that France and Prussia also have this in petto. 

3. The kind feelings of the Duke of Saxe-Weimar 
towards the Prussians are likely to be returned in 
a different way by Prussia to the duke's successor 
who holds the key to Austria. 4. Fouche's system 
of espionage and reports to Napoleon ; these were 
prepared on the expansion and contraction prin- 
ciple. The first paper the emperor looked at was 
little more than a table of contents ; if he wished 
to know a trifle more, he looked at No. 2 report 
of the same transaction; and if very much in- 
terested, he looked at the amplest report, No. 3 or 

4, as the case might be. Napoleon was a great 
economist of time. 5. Falk thought he had sur- 
reptitiously got sight of this report, but there can 
be no reasonable doubt that it was designedly put 
in his way for the purpose of his carrying the 
news directly or indirectly to the ears of Charles- 
Augustus. ' T. J. BTJCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 



PICTURES BY WEST. 

It may be of interest to some of the cor- 
respondents of " N. & Q." to know that two 
paintings by Sir Benjamin West are at this time 
to be found in the county of Wilts, of which I 
beg to offer a few particulars ; respecting each of 
them, any additional information, or confirmation 
of the traditions I mention, will be very accept- 
able. The first is a copy in oils of the larger pic- 
ture of the death of General Wolfe, painted for 
the engraving made by Woolcott in 1776. It 
once belonged to an ancestor of mine, and was 
given by him to the father of the lady in whose 
possession it now is. I have reason to believe 
that it was won in a raffle, after the engraver 
had finished his plate. Probably some person 
conversant with the history of the larger picture 
may be able to give some information on this 
point. The other is a copy given by Wes^him- 
self as a parting present to an old servant, in 
whose family it has been handed down to the 
present owner, with a careful tradition of its 
acknowledged value, and the history of which I 
now wish to perpetuate in " N. & Q." 

James Dyer, a native of Westbury Leigh, in 
Wiltshire, was a private in the Life Guards. At 
a review in Hyde Park before George III., Dyer 
by some accident was thrown from his charger ; 
he regained his footing, and stood by the side of 
his horse, resting his hand on the pommel of the 
saddle. West was struck with the fine figure 
and the very handsome face of this stalwart Wilt- 
shireman, and the expression with which his 
noble horse seemed to regard the unfortunate ac- 



cident : he made a sketch on the spot, and after- 
wards a finished painting, which was kept by 
West, and after his death is said to have been 
exhibited with other works of that distinguished 
painter. Dyer obtained his discharge in the course 
of a few years, and was taken into West's service. 
He often sat for his face and figure, in several of 
West's historical paintings, and lived with Sir 
Benjamin some years. When he left, to settle 
in his native village, Sir Benjamin copied, and 
presented to him, his likeness and that of his 
horse, from the picture painted some years before, 
and it has been handed down in the family in an 
undoubted succession ; whilst the painting itself 
carries with it unmistakeable evidence of its 
genuineness. It is very possible that West's 
biography and the catalogue of his paintings may 
have some reference to each of these productions, 
which it would be very satisfactory to add to the 
facts I have here stated. I leave my address 
with the Publisher of " N. & Q."; most willing 
to reply to any particulars wherein your readers 
may desire additional evidence. I have authority, 
in reference to the second picture, to say it can 
be purchased when its real value is fully ascer- 
tained. The first I presume would not be parted 
with. E. W. 



FLY-LEAVES : IZAAK WALTON. On the fly-leaf 
of 

" The Free-lioldei-'s Grand Inquest touching our Sover- 
eign Lord the King and the Parliament, &c. &c. By the 
learned Sir Robert Filmer, Knight. London, 1679, 8vo," 

there is this inscription, " J. K. Don[um] Magistri 
Isaaci Walton." The initials evidently mean 
John Ken, Walton's brother-in-law, to whom in 
his will he bequeathed a mourning ring. 

The doctrines of the ultra-Ton- Filmer were 
probably in unison with those of John Ken and 
his brother, the ejected bishop, which would 
make the book a very acceptable present. How 
and when the volume itself came north is un- 
known, but it was for many years in the singu- 
larly curious library at Whitehaugh, in the county 
of Aberdeen, which some few years since was 
sold by piecemeal in the sale-rooms of the late Mr. 
Nisbet, and is now possessed by Mr. T. Chapman. 

Ken got his bishopric, as the story goes, in a 
somewhat unusual way. Mrs. Eleanor Gwynn had 
been refused a lodging by this clergyman, who 
was too upright a man to trade upon the vices of 
his master, and Charles had been told what had 
occurred. Thus the court had no doubt that 
Ken's future preferment was barred. Upon a 
vacancy occurring of the bishopric of Bath and 
Wells, and there being many applicants, Charles 
settled the claims by nominating " the little man 
who had refused Nell a lodging," stating that so 
stern a monitor would make fin excellent bishop. 



, 



S. XII. AUG. 10, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



105 



This venerable man, who could rebuke the 
faults of his monarch, was equally remarkable for 
tenacity of principle ; for, after the revolution had 
removed the obstinate James from the throne, he 
nevertheless held himself so much bound by his 
oath that he declined allegiance to William and 
Mary, and paid the natural penalty of his con- 
scientious scruples. J. M. 

Two CHURCHES TINDER OJTE ROOF. Instances 
of two churches in one churchyard have been 
mentioned in your columns, but the following 
example of two churches under one roof must be 
unique. Two distinct churches are under one 
roof at Pakefield, near Lowestoft All Saints' 
^and St. Margaret's forming a double aisle of 
similar architecture and dimensions, divided by 
seven pointed arches on octagonal pillars. It was 
evidently erected for two distinct congregations, 
and each had their own altar with raised steps. 
There is a square tower at the west end, the 
lower compartment of a richly painted rood screen, 
^ind the silver chalice is dated 1337. This in- 
stance is mentioned in Mr. Nail's Handbook to 
Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft, from which book 
a great deal of valuable matter may be derived. 
JOHX PIGGOT, Jtnsr. 

NAVAL REVIEW AT PORTSMOUTH, 1778. 

< : There should lie see, as other folks have seen, 
That ships have anchors, and that seas are green ; 
Should own the tackling trim, the streamers fine, 
With Sandwich prattle, and with Bradshaw dine ; 
And then sail back, amid the cannons' roar, 
As safe, as safe, as when he left the shore." 

Heroic Postscript, N. F. H. for Wit, ii. 19. 

Such, was the spirit in which a review at Ports- 
mouth, in the presence of royalty, was spoken of 
in the days of George III. The satirist had pre- 
viously discharged an arrow at his Majesty on 
account of his alleged excessive seclusion of him- 
self: 

" Our sons some slave of greatness may behold, 
Cast in the genuine Asiatic mould ; 
Who of three realms shall condescend to know 
No more than he can spy from Windsor's brow." 

Heroic Epistle. 

Then, because the naval review at Spithead was 
ordered about two months after, the poet took 
credit to himself for producing the display by his 
animadversions. See note, p. 19. 

An account of George III.'s visit to the navy 
at Spithead, &c., will be found in the Annual 
Register for 1778, p. 232. (Appendix to the Chro- 
nicle.) Information had lately been received 
of the treaty between France and the revolted 
American colonies of Great Britain. VV. D. 

SALMON PISHING. Doubtless many of the 
readers of "N. & Q." are anglers: here is good 
news for them, and worth making a note of. Mr. 



Walpole, in his report for last year as Inspector of 
Salmon Fisheries, states that there is considerable 
improvement and increase in the take of fish. In 
North Devon, for instance, at the Taw and Tor- 
ridge, salmon were sold at 8d. per pound ; on the 
Exe, 4000 salmon were caught last season against 
400 in previous years ; on the Usk, 3000 fresh- 
run fish were taken by anglers alone ; on the Dee 
47 net licences were taken out, the average daily 
take of each net being 17 salmon ; and 400 fish 
were taken by the rod,"as against 100, the greatest 
number caught in any previous year. On the 
Wear there were more fish than had been seen in 
the last fifty years ; whilst the conservators of the 
Ribble and Plodder report that in one fishery, 
where only 90 salmon were taken in 1859, 9000 
were taken last summer ! This is indeed satisfac- 
tory intelligence, and shows the beneficial effects 
of the Salmon Fishery Acts. PHILIP S. KING. 

MR. BRIGHT' s EPIGRAMMATIC SAYING. Mr. 
Bright, in a speech at Birmingham the other day, 
quoted from some doggrel verse, I rather _ think 
about St. Patrick, a clever though coarse saying, to 
the effect that " the beasts (meaning the Conserva- 
tives) had committed suicide to save themselves 
from slaughter." For the original source of this 
idea, we must mount up two thousand years and 
more to Antiphanes, one of the earliest and 
most celebrated Athenian poets of the middle 
comedy, whose first exhibition was about B.C. 383. 
I refer to the lines (Fragm. Comicorum Grcccorum, 
p. 567, ed. Meineke) : 

Tts 8' ovxL Qavd-Tov fJUffQotySpos, 
*Os evzKa TOV % 



And at a much later period we find Martial 
(Book n. Epigr. 80) adopting the same idea : 
" Hoc rogo, non furor est ne moriare, mori." 

" When Fannius from his foe did fly, 
Himself with his own hands he slew : 
Who e'er a greater madness knew ? 
Life to destroy for fear to die." 

Anon. 1695. 

C. T. RAMAGE. 

SALE OF OLD MANUSCRIPTS AND BOOKS. 

"In a collection of interesting manuscripts sold in 
London last week at the rooms of Sotheby, Wilk r nson, 
& Hodge, the following lot was included : Robert Burns' 
ode, ' Bruce's Address to his Troops at Bannockburn ' 
tune, Lewie Gordon. The autograph manuscript of this 
poem is written on two sides of a letter addressed to Cap- 
tain Millar, Dalswinton. The letter commences : 

" ' DEAR SIR, The following ode is on a subject which 
I know you by no means regard with indifference : 



O Liberty 
Thou mak 
Giv'st beaut 



'st the gloomy face of nature gay, 
ty to the sun, and pleasure to the day." 



It does me so much good to meet with a man whose 
honest bosom glows with the generous enthusiasm, the 
heroic daring, of liberty, that I could not forbear sending 



106 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [3* s. xn. AUG. 10, '67. 



you a composition of my own on the subject, which I 
really think is in my best manner, &c. 

(Signed) 'ROBERT BURNS.' 

" ' A more desirable memorial of this beautiful Scottish 
poet,' says the Catalogue, it would be impossible to 
possess.' This precious relic of the great Scottish poet 
is framed and glazed, and enclosed in a handsome ma- 
hogany case ; it went for 12/., and was purchased by 
Mr. Robert Thallon, who immediately drew a cheque for 
the amount, and was congratulated by the auctioneer on 
his obtaining so great a bargain." 

This transaction I have remarked with much 
concern. On June 24, 1861, the autograph above 
referred to was placed in my hands, as the Acting- 
Secretary of the National Wallace Monument 
Committee, with a view to its being shown to 
subscribers, and afterwards deposited in the struc- 
ture of the monument. The gentleman who 
handed it to me was my late friend Sir James 
Maxwell Wallace. He had succeeded to it on 
the death of his brother, Mr. Wallace of Kelly, 
M.P. for Greenock, to whom it was presented by 
the son of Captain Millar, who regarded him as 
the head of the Wallace family, and therefore 
its proper custodier. When I left Stirling, in the 
autumn of 1863, 1 returned the document to Sir 
James, at his request, but he expressed no inten- 
tion of retiring from his promise to deposit the 
document in the monument. Sir James died a 
few months ago. CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 

2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham, S.E. 

"THUS !" EARL ST. VINCENT. I was struck with 
the signature THUS in your publication (3 rd S. 
xii. 27), believing it came from one bearing the 
honoured name of Jervis. It reminded me, that 
when a midshipman on board H.M.S. " Hibernia " 
we had in our band the bass drum bearing the 
arms and motto (Tnrs) of the great and glorious 
Earl St. Vincent, which he left on board on 
striking his flag. A messmate of mine asked the 
black drummer the meaning of the word ; a stiff 
glass of grog was to be the reward. The black 
came down into the cock-pit at the dinner hour, 
and, after some squabble, getting the glass of grog 
in hand, called out in a stentorian voice : " The 
meaning of the word, sare, is, when you calfch a 
fool, sare, to swallow him THUS," amid the up- 
roar of some dozen reefers. 

And now a little about the Earl St. Vincent. 
The victory that gained his title properly stamps 
his effigy in gold. He was a man of tremendous 
energy. I know nought of his conduct towards 
his superiors, or if he thought he had any. How- 
ever, when in command all felt the weight of his 
power, and succumbed. There was one exception 
to make it a general rule. When captains went 
on board his ship, and " made their bow," if not 
low enough according to his bending he would 
cry out "Lower, lower, lower ! " One captain, I 
think named Pakenham Tommy Pakenham his 
sobriquet answered " No, not for His Majesty." 



I forget the sequel. It is curious that in the 
greatness of the man there should be found room* 
for this littleness. This Tommy Pakenham was- 
" a don't care sort of fellow." It was said his 
every hair would make a toothpick. J. S. 

Stratford, Essex. 

LIVERPOOL SHIPOWNERS AND THEIR FLAGS IN 
1793. I lately unearthed in Mr. Tweedy's re- 
nowned " old curiosity shop," at Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, a pint mug of common creamy white 
earthenware, decorated with " an east view of 
Liverpool lighthouse and signals on Bidstone 
Hill, 1793." The lighthouse stands near the 
centre of the group, and fifty-six signal-flags, all 
specially numbered, are arranged from left to 
right. A small compass, with the fleur-de-lis 
pointing to the right, indicates the north. I send, 
you the names and flag numbers of the ship- 
owners, as arranged below the picture in four 
columns, thinking they may be of some little in- 
terest to Captain Cuttle, as well as to those con- 
nected with the great seaport of Liverpool : 

1. Mr. Slater's. 29. Mr. C. Jones'. 

2. Mr. Dawson's. 30. Greenland Ships'. 

3. Mr. Watt's. 31. Men-of-War. 

4. Mr. Kent's. 32. Ships'. 

5. Mr. Fisher's. 33. Bigs'. 

6. Mr. Bolton's. 34. Snow's. 

7. Mr. Ingram's. 35. Well-Boat's. 

8. Messrs. Dunbar & Co.'s 36. Mr. Gregson's. 

9. Mr. Ashton's. 37. Messrs. Breeze & Co/* 

10. Mr. Blackbourn's. 38. Mr. Leyland's. 

11. Mr. Kenyon's. 39. Mr. Bostock's. 

12. Mr. Bent's. 40. Mr. Tomlinson's. 

13. Mr. Backhouse's. 41. Messrs. Rawlinsou's. 

14. Mr. Bradstock's. 42. Mr. Tarleton's. 

15. Messrs. T. & E. Hodg- 43. Dublin Packet's. 

son's. 44. Messrs. Lake's. 

16. Mr. Dickson's. 45. Mr. Benson's. 

17. Messrs. Browne's. 46. Mr. Jackson's. 

18. Mr. Freeland's. 47. Mr. Ken-ley's. 

19. Mr. Copland's. 48. Messrs. Alanson & ('../,- 

20. Messrs. Earl's. 49. Messrs. Mason & Co.'s 

21. Mr. R. Fisher's. 50. Belfast Trader's. 

22. Mr. Ward's. 51. Dublin Trader's. 

23. Mr. Staniforth's. 52. Lond Cheese Ship's. 

24. Mr. Wilding's. 53. Harper & Brad's. 

25. Mr. Brooks's. 54. Mr. Beckwith's. 

26. Mr. France's. 55. Mr. Rumble's. 

27. Mr. Boats's. 56. Mr. Ratcliff's. 

28. Mr. Birch's. 

Then follow signals for (t vessels in distress or 
on shore," and also for ships coming in or going- 
out. 

I conjecture that this mug was made for the 
special use of Liverpool seafaring men, that, when 
taking their ease in their inn, they might imbibe 
professional instruction as well as beer. 

GEORGE HARDCASTLE. 

Sunderland. 

SEEING is THE DARK. The biographer of 
Lamennais, I observe, states that this very re- 
markable man had the faculty of seeing in the 
dark. It is stated of the two Scaligers, father 



3 rd S. XII. AUG. 10, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



107 



and son, I know not on what authority, that both 
of them were able to pursue their studies through 
the night without lamp or candle. D. BLAIK. 
Melbourne. 



tilueritf. 

BEIDT painted in the manner of, and similar 
-subjects to, Weenix. Can any reader inform me 
where I can find an account of this artist ? In 
Bryan and Pilkington's dictionaries he is not 
named. W. B. 

CLUBS OF LONDON. 1. Un de vos lecteurs, 
MR. E. Foss, F.S.A., vous communiquait dans le 
Xo 234 (1 st S. ix. 383), les quelques mots sui- 
vants : 

" In the reign of Henry IV., there was a club called 

* La Court de bone Compagnie," of which the worthy 
old poet Occleve was a member, and probably Chaucer. 
In the works of the former are two ballads, written about 
1413 ; one, a congratulation from the brethren to Henry 
Somer, on his appointment of the Sub-Treasurer of the 
Exchequer, and who received Chaucer's pension for him. 
In the other ballad, Occleve, after dwelling on some of 
their rules and observances, gives Somer notice that he 
is expected to be in the chair at their next meeting, and 
that the ' styward ' has warned him that he is 

" ' for the dyner arraye 
Ageyn Thursday next, and nat is delaye.' " 

'That there were certain conditions to be observed by 
this Society appears from the latter epistle, which com- 
mences with an answer to a letter of remonstrance the 

* Court ' has received from Henry Somer, against some 
undue extravagance, and a breach of their rules." 

Seriez-vous assez bon pour m'apprendre dans 
quelle collection, et, si possible, dans quel volume 
se trouvent les deux ballades manuscrites dont parle 
MR. Foss? J'ai parcouru plusieurs collections, 
inais mon pen d'experience des manuscrits anglais 
a rendu mes recherches vaines. 

2. Quelle est 1'etyrnologie de Mums (Shadwell 
ecrit Muns dans ses Scoivrers, 4, 1691), Tityre- 
tus, Hawkabites, ou Hawkubites, et meme Haw- 
cubites et autres associations de jeunes debauches, 
confondus en general sous la denomination de 
Mohocks du temps de la Restoration et de la reine 
Anne ? Faut-il ecrire Mohock or Mohawk, comme 
dans le Gentleman's Magazine f T. H. 

OLD ENGRAVERS. I shall be glad of informa- 
tion respecting two old prints in my possession. 
The one represents our Saviour with the crown 
af thorns and purple robes, and bearing the reed 
in his hand, mocked by the soldiers. In the left- 
hand corner are the subjoined date and signature 
" 1538, 10 . AN . BO." ' 

The subject of the other print is Christ dis- 
puting with the doctors in the Temple. The 
date and signature are in the right-hand corner as 
follows : u 1568, (B." S. L. 



FIRST COLOURED JURY IN AMERICA. It may 
be recorded in "N. & Q." that a jury composed 
entirely of coloured men was empanelled in 
Navasola, Texas, not long ago, and that it is the 
first instance known in the United States. 

This is one of the strange events which have 
occurred since the termination of the late civil 
war. Is such an instance known in England ? 

W. W. 

Malta. 

FURIES. In an old commonplace-book, under 
the head " Furies," many translations are given 
from the tragic poets, especially yEschylus and 
Seneca. The following lines have no reference, 
and I think them sufficiently noticeable to excuse 
me asking for one : 

" Meanwhile, the sons 

Impetuous mix'd in fight ; close on whose rear 
Hung the black Furies, stern, and drench'd in gore. 
Horrid, insatiable, their white teeth crash'd, 
And fierce they combated for those which fell ; 
For all were thirsty for the dark red blood, 
And whom they first beheld, falling, or fallen. 
Recently wounded, on him strait they cast 
Their mighty talons." 

V. H. 

"GLUE" FOR "GLAZE." In Newton's Travels 
and Discoveries in the Levant, vol. ii. p. 81, I ob- 
serve the following statement : 

" The usual mode of taking up mosaic pavement is to 
glaze canvas on the upper surface, and to lay a bed of 
plaster of Paris upon this." 

May I not ask, if the word "glaze," in the 
above sentence, is not a misprint for glue ? 

W. W. 
Malta. 

THE HAMILTON FAMILY IN IRELAND. Could 
any of your correspondents, who have of late been 
writing so intelligently respecting the Hamil- 
ton family, inform me concerning that branch of 
the family which, early in the seventeenth cen- 
tury or previously, settled in the North of Ire- 
land ? I am especially desirous of ascertaining 
whether there is any notice in the public or pri- 
vate records of the Hamiltons of the marriage, in 
1682, of Mary Hamilton, daughter of the Presby- 
terian minister at Bangor, to a John Alexander, 
whose son, I am informed, became one of the 
Presbyterian ministers at Dublin. 

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 
2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham. 

" HIGH LIFE BELOW STAIRS." * Some years 
ago I inquired in these pages for evidence of the 
authorship of the abovenamed farce, which is 
sometimes attributed to Garrick sometimes to 
Dr. Townley. 



f * The writer of this farce was the Rev. James Town- 
ley, master of Merchant Taylors' School. It was printed 
in 8vo in 1759. See " X. & Q." 2 nd S. xi. 191.] 



108 



NOTES AND QUERIES, 



[3'd S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



I have not at the moment niy " N. & Q." to 
refer to, but the impression left on my mind is that 
the replies elicited went to prove that the divine, 
and not the actor, was to be accredited as the 
writer, the subject, as is well known, being sug- 
gested by a paper in The Spectator. I revert to 
the matter in consequence of a statement which 
appears in All the Year Round (July 20), entitled 
" Old and New Servants," in which it is stated : 

" There is an admirable farce, the credit of which a 
clergyman-schoolmaster assumed, which really came from 
David Garrick," &c. 

I should like to know whether the writer of 
the article in question has any authority in sup- 
port of this distinct charge against the " clergy- 
man-schoolmaster," or whether, in accusing another 
of a breach of the eighth commandment, he places 
himself in a position to be reminded of the ninth? 
CHARLES WYLIE. 

LANGMEAD FAMILY. Richard Langrnead (son 
of Nicholas Langmead, of East Allington, co. 
Devon, gent.), matriculated at Exeter College, 
Oxford, March 14, 1667, at the age of eighteen ; 
took his B.A. degree, Oct. 16, 1671 ; and M.A. 
July 9, 1674. Any information respecting his 
subsequent career will oblige 

T. P. 

2, Tanfield Court, Temple. 



" A French author, finding his reputation impeded by 
the hostility of the critics, resolved to adopt a little 
stratagem to assist him in gaining fame and money in 
spite of his enemies. He dressed himself in a workman- 
like attire, and retired to a distant province, where he 
took lodgings at a farrier's shop, in which he did a little 
work every day at the forge and anvil. But the greater 
part of his time was secretly devoted to the composition of 
three large volumes of poetry and essays, which he pub- 
lished as the works of a journeyman blacksmith. The 
trick succeeded all France was in amazement. The 
poems of this ' child of Xature,' this ' untutored genius,' 
this ' inspired son of Vulcan,' as he was now called, were 
immediately praised by the critics, and were soon pur- 
chased by ~ everybody. The harmless deceit filled the 
pockets of the poor poet, who laughed to see the critics 
writing incessant praise on an author whose every former 
effort, they made a point of abusing." JBlrmingham Jour- 
nal, July 28, 1867. 

The above has an historical air, but I think is 
not entirely new. It looks like an old story with 
the names omitted and the facts altered. I shall 
be glad to be directed to the original. 

FIT/HOPKINS. 
Garrick Club. 

" MARRIED ON CROOKED STAFF." In the Dub- \ 
lin Weekly Journal, February 20, 174f, the fol- j 
lowing announcement appeared : 

" Last week Mr. Travers Hartley, an eminent linen- ' 
draper in Bride Street [and for some time, if I mistake 
not, M.P. for the City of Dublin 1, was manned to Miss i 



Spence on crooked staff, a young lady of great beauty, 
fine accomplishments, and a large fortune." 

What is the meaning of the phrase here em- 
ployed ? ABHBA. 

NATIONAL AND FAMILY PORTRAITS. Much in- 
terest has been felt in our Gallery of National 
Portraits, and would you allow me to ask how it 
is that in the mansions of our nobility and gentry 
the portraits are generally restricted to their more 
immediate line ? Many old families have formed 
alliances with distinguished races now extinct, but 
whose portraits remain in out-of-the-way places, 
or left on the walls of residences possessed by new 
people. These portraits are often by first-rate 
painters of the day, and would they not form an 
interesting addition, both as regards art and asso- 
ciation, to many an ancestral hall ? Perhaps, if 
you will admit this suggestion, many portraits of 
value may be preserved or recovered. H. B. 

THE OATH or LE FAISAN. In p. 8 of Duruy 's 
Histoire des Temps Modernes, we meet with the 
phrase <( Toute la noblesse de Flandre et de Bour- 
gogne jura sur le faisan de s'armer," &c. "What 
is the oath of " le faisan " ? IGNORAMUS. 

OBITUARY MEDALET OP EDAVARD V. I have 
now in my possession a curious silver medal, 
which I will describe in the hope that a short 
notice of it may prove interesting to those readers 
of "N. & Q." who, like myself, have not before 
met with an example. 

Its weight is rather more than that of a six- 
pence of 1864; it measures 1^ inch in diameter, 
and the engraving is now very faint. 

On the obverse there is an oval band, supported 
by two nondescript figures, apparently satyrs; 
and surrounding a king, robed, standing, with 
crown " above " his head, and holding a sceptre 
tipped with a fleur-de-lis, in his right hand. On 
the oval band is a legend, of which, by the help 
of a lens, I can distinguish these words : 

" OBIIT 1483 V . EDWARDVS . 5 . REX." 

Perhaps the te v " is the second letter of the month 
June. 

On the reverse in the centre, a shield of arms, 
encircled with the Garter of the Order, and en- 
signed with a crown, bearing quarterly 1 and 4 
France modern, 2 and 3 [England]; with the 
legend : 

"RAINED 2 MONTHES BVKIED ix DE TOWER." 

At the time of his father's death, April 9, 1483, 
Edward V. was thirteen years of age ; he was 
deposed June 22, 1483, and, with his brother the 
Duke of York, murdered in the Tower. 

W. II. SEWELL. 

Yaxley. 

" KEV. THOMAS PIERSON, LATE PASTOUR OF 
BROMPTON BRIAN, HEREFORD." Such is the name 
and designation found on the title-page of a small 






.. 



* S. XII. AUG. 1U, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES, 



109 



quarto, entitled Excellent Encouragements against 
Afflictions, or Expositions of Four Select Psalms 
(1647), issued under the care of good Christopher 
Harvey, who is so lovingly associated with the 
saintly George Herbert. I am anxious to know 
more of Pierson. Can any reader of "N. & Q." 
give me references to authorities other than Wood, 
Athena (a mere scrap), and the notice (very 
slight) in the Cole MSS. ? Harvey dedicates the 
above volume to Sir Kobert Harley, Knight, and 
intimates that Pierson had bequeathed his MSS. 
to him and the publication of any approved to 
himself. I should greatly like to have informa- 
tion on Pierson and Harley. Pierson edited 
Perkins's works, and is by all spoken of as 
" famous," and yet nothing seems known of him. 

STUDENT. 

QUOTATION. Can any reader of "N. & Q." 
inform me if the following verse (written on the 
margin of an old Bible, " breeches " copy, 1597) 
is part of any old tradition : and, if so, where to 
be found ? I copy literatim : 

" but whilst John at Jerusalem did staye 
god tooke the blessed virgienes life away 
that holy wife that mother that pure maid 
at eretsemanv in hir graue was laid." 

W. R 8. 

ROYAL AUTHORS. Will any of your corre- 
spondents kindly give me their assistance in form- 
ing a correct list of royal authors at the present 
time ? With your permission I will begin by 
naming H.AI. Queen Victoria, the Emperor Napo- 
leon, King Louis of Bavaria, the King of Sweden, 
who " paints fairly and writes poetry ; " as also 
the Swedish Prince Oscar, so well known by the 
translation of The Cid into his native language, 
by a volume of pleasing poetry, and very recently 
by his valuable contributions " to the war his- 
tory of Sweden." W. W. 

Malta. 

RYDER, WYYILL, AND MORE FAMILIES. Can 
any reader of " N. & Q." give me information re- 
specting the descendants of Sir Thomas More, espe- 
cially the descendants of his grandchildren ? Also 
if there is any note of any branch of the family 
going to America about 1634 ? There was a family 
of More living near Haddon, Bampton, and Bices- 
ter, county Oxon, previous to 1637. Notices of 
them especially required. Also, of family of 
Wyvill of York, and of the family of Rider or 
Ryder. Was Edward Ryder any relation to Sir 
Wm. Ryder, Lord Mayor of London, who died 
1669, and is the Journal of the aforesaid lord 
mayor extant? Address, H. A. B., Mr. Lewis, 
Bookseller, Gower Street, Euston Square, London, 

MICHAEL WIGGINS. In Bombastes Furioso we 
read, " play Michael Wiggins o'er again !" What 
tune is it, and where can it be found ? S. J. 



toitft 

LORD HOWARD OF ESCRICK. What was the 
Christian name of the Lord Howard who appears 
so discreditably in the Rye House Plot trials^ 
Was it Thomas or William ? Was he the second 
or the third Lord Howard of Escrick, and if he 
was William, the third lord, what is the date of 
his succession to the title ? The peerage-chroni- 
clers, Collins, Banks, and Burke, all make the 
mistake of giving Edward, the first Lord Howard 
of Escrick, the discredit of the proceedings which 
belong to one of his sons. They all agree, not- 
withstanding, in saying that the first lord died in 
1675. Collins and Banks make the second lord, 
Thomas, die in 1683 j Burke says he died in 1678. 
Whenever he died, he was succeeded by bis 
brother William. Was this in 1678 or in 1683, 
or when ? CH. 

[Thomas Howard, the second baron, was in the first 
Foot Guards, and died at Brussels in 1678, whilst with 
his regiment. William his brother and third baron, took 
a very active part in the Committees of the House of 
Lords soon after he was there seated, in giving credit to 
Oates's plot, and to the proceedings and trial of his inno- 
cent relation, the Viscount Stafford, whom he condemned. 
He became the chief evidence against his friends in the 
Rye House Plot, as well as on the trials of Lord William 
Russell and Algernon Sidney. From all accounts he was 
desperate both in character and estate, and was con- 
sidered a disgrace to his family. He died in 1694. Con- 
sult Burnet's History of his Own Time, and Cobbett's 
State Trials, viii. 370 ; ix. 430, 602, 850, 1065.] 

JOHN AECHER. This person wrote a pamphlet 
on 

" The PersonaU Reigne of Christ vpon Earth. That 
Jesus Christ with the Saints shall visibly possess e a 
Monarchiall State in this World. By Jo. Archer, 1643." 

Does he figure among the Fifth Monarchy men 
of that time ? GEORGE LLOYD. 

Darlington. 

[The first edition of The PersonaU Reigue of Christ was 
published in 1642, under the name of Henry Archer. He 
is also called Henry in the account of him by Benjamin 
Brook in the Lives of the Puritans, ed. 1813, ii. 455, but 
his correct name is John Archer. He was minister ot 
Allhallows, Lombard Street, London, and on account of 
his nonconformity was suspended by Archbishop Laud. 
He retired to Arnheim, in Holland, and became co-pastor 
with Dr. Thomas Goodwin of the English church. He 
appears to have been living in 1645.] 

DESIGNATION OP SCOTCH LAW COURTS. Until 
now, I had understood that the law courts in 
Scotland were styled "Supreme": for instance, 
the title of " S.S.C." always stood for "Solicitor 
to the Supreme Courts." In a marriage notice 
which has just appeared in our local papers, the 
term "Solicitor before the Imperial Courts of 
Scotland" is used. I should be glad to know 



110 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



when the change was made. Doubtless some of 
your Edinburgh correspondents can give the in- 
formation required. J. MANUEL. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

[No change has taken place in the title of the corpora- 
tion referred to. The substitution of Imperial for Su- 
preme is simply a mistake. Very probably the drawing 
up of the marriage notice was entrusted to an English 
relative of the bride, and he did not do so until after the 
departure of the happy couple, hence the error.] 

SCOTTICISMS. Can any of your readers tell me 
the meaning of "casten" and "broken" in the 
following passage ? 

" The Crowner suld haue all the comes lyand in binges 
and mowes casten and broken" Skene, De Verborum 
Significatione, 1597. 

[Anglice. The Crowner is entitled (when grain has 
been left in the field lying in heaps or small stacks) to 
all single pickles that may be thrown or shaken off, and 
to the whole ears in the case of barley and wheat, and 
several pickles connected by their stalks in the case of 
oats which may have been broken off.] 



LUCIFER. 
(3 rd S. xii. 47.) 

I think it should be noted that Lucifer was 
applied to Satan, in English literature, at least 
four hundred years before Milton's time, and pro- 
bably long before that.* In some " Early Eng- 
lish Homilies," which Mr. Morris is editing for 
the Early English Text Society, and the date 
of which is about 1220-30 A.D., it is stated most 
explicitly. The book is not yet published, but I 
quote from a proof-sheet, p. 219 : 

"Tha wes thes tyendeshapes alder swithe feir isceapan, 
swa that heo was gehoten leoht berinde " : i. e. " Then 
was this tenth order's elder veiy fair shapen, so that he 
was called light-bearing." 

The context explains that there were originally 
ten orders of angels; nine of which are angels 
still, but the tenth order fell from heaven through 
pride, and their chiefs name was Light-bearing, 
or Lucifer. 

So again, in A.D. 1362, Langland wrote : 

" Lucifer with legiouns lerede hit in heuene ; 
He was louelokest of siht after vr lord, 
Til he brak boxumnes thorw bost of himseluen." 
Langland, Piers Plowman, pars i. 1. 109. 

That is 

" Lucifer with his legions learnt it (viz. obedience) in 
heaven. He was loveliest to look upon, next to our Lord, 
until he brake obedience, through boast of himself." 

* It has been so applied " from St. Jerome down- 
wards." Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. 



Still more curious is the English form of the 
name, Ligber (A.-S. tig-bar, flame-bearing), as in 
the following : 

" Ligber he sriclde a dere srud, 

And he wurthe in himseluen prud," &c. 
i. e. " Ligber, he shrouded him in a noble shroud, and 
he became in himself proud." 

This I quote from Mr. Morris's "Genesis and 
Exodus," 1. 271 : the date is about 1250 A.D. 

No doubt this is all derived from a misapplica- 
tion of Isaiah xiv. 12. But I think it is worth 
while to add, in confirmation of this, and by way 
of further illustration, that we hardly ever find 
an allusion to Lucifer in early English without 
finding, at the same time, a mention of his trying 
to seat himself in the north a curious perversion 
of the verse following, viz. Isaiah xiv. 13, which 
is, in the Vulgate, 

'* Qui dicebas in corde ttto : in ctelum conscendam, super 
astra Dei exaltabo solium meum, sedebo in monte testa- 
menti, in lateribus aquilouls." 

Compare the Septuagint version eVl ra o/nj ra 
wJ/TjAa ra irpus Roppav ; and the English, "in the 
sides of the north." Thus, even as early as Cred- 
mon, who speaks of Satan as " like to the light 
stars," we find, " that he west and norili would 
prepare structures" ; as Thorpe translates it in his 
edition, at p. 18. So, too, in the " English Homi- 
lies," three lines below the quotation already 
given : " and sitte on north[d]ele hefene riches," 
i. e. and sit on the north-part of the kingdom of 
heaven. So again in " Genesis and Exodus," 
1.277: 

" Min flight he seide Ic wile uptaken, 
Min sete north on heuene maken." 

So again in some (not in all) of the MSS. of 
Piers Plowman, as, e. g. 

" Lord, why wolde he tho, thulke wrechede Lucifer, 
Lepen on a-lofte in the nortlie syde ? " 

Langland, Piers Plowman, ed. Whitaker, p. 18. 
In fact, Satan's name of Lucifer, and his sitting 
in the north, are generally found in company. 
Even Milton has 

" At length into the limits of the north 
They came ; and Satan to his royal seat 

The palace of great Lucifer" &c. 

Paradise Lost, v. 755-760. 

WALTER W. SKEAI 
Cambridge. 



To the bold assertion from MALVERX WELLS, 
that it is certain that in the fourth century there 
was no use of the name Lucifer to designate 
Satan, as it was then a Christian name, and borne 
by the celebrated Bishop of Cagliari, I answer 
that it was applied to Satan by that learned ex- 
positor of Holy Scripture, the illustrious Origen, 
in the third century : 



. 



r <'S. XII. AUG. 10, '6 7.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



Ill 



" Uncle vel ille qui Lucifer fait, et in celo oriebatur 
etc. In Ep. ad Rom., lib. V. 

And by Theodoret in the fourth : 
'E(aff^6pov CCUTOJ/ KoAe?, .... aTTfiitaffev ecafftyopc e/c 
TOU ovpavov fis yr\v -ntffuvri. In Esaicc cap. xiv. 12. 

" He calls him Lucifer, .... he compared him to 
Lucifer who fell from heaven to earth." 

Also by St. Jerom in the fourth century : 

" Et ceciclit Lucifer Et ille qui in paradise cle- 

liciaruin inter duodecim nutritus est lapides, vulneratus 
a monte Domini ad inferna descendit ; (Esai. xiv.) unde 
et Salvator in Evangelic, Videbam, inquit, Satanam 

quasi fulgur de ccclo cade.nte.rn Et tamen cum ceci- 

derit Lucifer, immo post casum coluber antiquus : virtus 
ejus in lumbis ejus." Adv. Jovin., lib. ii. cap. 3. 

The famous Bishop of Cagliari was named 
Lucifer \>y a singular exception ; but I believe no 
other instance can be found. It is not true, as 
asserted by Miss Yonge, that the name was borne 
by any Pope : she probably had in her mind the 
name of Lucius. Much less is it true that its 
application to the devil arose from any " popular 
misunderstanding " of the text of Isaias. For the 
holy Fathers in general understood that passage 
primarily of the fallen angel Lucifer, though ap- 
plied by the prophet to the King of Babylon, 
whose pride might be compared to that of the 
fallen angel. Thus, the passages above quoted 
from Origen, Theodoret, and St. Jerom ; to which 
may be added the following : 

From Tertullian, in the third century : 

" Pne manu erit hujus scvi dominum diabolum inter- 
pretari, qui dixerit, propheta referente : Ero similis Altis- 
simi, ponam in nubibus thronum meum." Adv. Marcionem, 
lib. v. cap. xi. 

From St. Athanasius, in the fourth century: 

Tldvres Se of opdus TrioTeiWres (is rbv Kvpiov, irarovvi 
TOV etVoWa, 6->]ffOfj.cu rbv 6p6vov aov eVaj/a> T&V v^f\u>v, 
apajS/ycrojUcu, U/J.QIOS fffo.ij.ai T< fyiffrCj}. Contra Arianos, 
Orat. I. 

" All who rightly believe in the Lord, shall trample 
upon him who said : I will place my throne above the 
clouds, I will ascend, and I will be like to the Most 
High." 

F. C. H. 

This name has been applied to Satan by the 
Fathers and later writers of the Church, ever since 
the time of St. Jerome. Cornelius a Lapide con- 
stantly so uses it in his Commentary, and its use 
is not in the least " poetical." It may have arisen, 
not so much from a "misunderstanding" of Isaiah 
xiv. 12, as from a deeper understanding of it, as 
referring not only to the fall of Belshazzar, but 
to the still greater fall of Satan, as Miss Yonge so 
well shows. (See Cornelius a Lapide, in loco.} 

J. T. F. 
The College, Hurstpierpoint. 



ASSUMPTION OF A MOTHER'S NAME. 
(3 rd S. xii. 66.) 

A question has been asked by E. S. S. which 
opens a very interesting part of the genealogical 
history of the country. His question is indeed 
only what a man can do now. There is no doubt 
that any man can take any name. All dispute 
as to the legality of this proceeding is at an end ; 
and those who dislike the practice have only to 
hope that its possible inconvenience in the future 
may at last end in some late remedy. If any one 
wishes to " take his mother's maiden name " or to 
"add it to his own surname " changes not at all 
unreasonable in themselves he has only to pub- 
lish his choice in The Times or elsewhere, and he 
will be legally known by his new name. 

But this change to the mother's name has a 
long prescription of use. I give Habington's ac- 
count of it. The extract is made from Lord 
Lyttelton's manuscript of Habington's " Collec- 
tions for Worcestershire made in reigns of James 



from it. Speaking of Warmedon, he says : 

" In the body of the churche and southe window, gules 
a fesse or, and towe mollettes in cheife argent. This 
coate is often boren in Malvernes faire churche [it is still 
to be seen there. D. P. ] and elsewheare as Bracies' armes. 
But in my opinion is Pohers' coate w ch Braci as heyre to 
Poher did assume for his owne. For before kinge Ed- 
ward the thyrd 13 of hys raygne quartered France and 
England, all our gentellmen men bore singell coates, in 
so muche as yf a gentellman had maryed w th a gentell- 
woman who was an inheritrice and had a sonne by her, 
thys heyre yf hee wold chuse hys mothers armes must 
refuse hys fathers. And it was moreover used to keepe 
hys fathers name and beare liys mothers coate. Or, on 
the contrary, to take hys mothers name and continewe 
hys fathers armes. And so Bracie of Warmedon and the 
Ligons theyre heyres have borne eaver since not Bracies' 
but their ancestors Pohers' armes." 

This statement of Habington exhausts the sub- 
ject. Instances are familiar to those who have 
given attention to genealogy. But the knowledge 
of the rules stated in this passage of Habington 
nay save : persons to whom it is a new study 
some perplexity and surprise. I said something 
on the subsequent practice as to arms before the 
nstitution of the College of Arms, in vol. vi. 
). 126, which I will not waste time in repeating. 

D. P. 
Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

There is nothing to prevent E. S. S. frdm pub- 
lishing his change of surname, and then what he 
wishes to do is legally complete. (See the case of 
Luscomb v. Yates, 5. Barn & Alderson's Reports, 
555, and Falconer on Surnames, p. 9; and Sup- 
plement, pp. 15 and 16.) There never was a 
public authority to invent new names. The thou- 
sands of surnames which are used were originally 



112 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



personal and private inventions. The Par. Paper, 
April 14, 1863, No. 157, p. 5, gives the items of 
charges on obtaining a royal licence to change a 
name. They amount to 447. 13s. exclusive of the 
stamp duty, and the stamp duty is 107. when the 
change is voluntarily made, and 507. when condi- 
tionally made under the direction of a will or 
settlement. 

In Scotland it is not the practice to ask the 
sovereign to sanction what the law permits all 
persons to do. Any person may by his own act 
change his name (as Lord Clyde did from 
Me Liver to Campbell) ; and if in Scotland an 
official certificate of the change is desired, such 
certificate is granted by the Lyon-King-of-Arms 
Office; and by the recent Act of Parliament, 
30 Viet. c. 17 (May 3, 1867), the fee to be paid 
for a " certificate regarding change of surname " 
is fixed to be fifteen shillings. C. C. 

E. S. S. may take his mother's maiden surname, 
or any other surname he pleases, either in substi- 
tution of, or in addition to, his present surname. 
The change must be a total one ; that is, he cannot 
retain the old name for any particular purpose, or 
adopt the new with any exception ; and it must 
be made publicly. Some have considered it suffi- 
cient public notice to insert an advertisement in 
The Times or other newspapers, and the cost of 
this need be but a few shillings. Others think it 
desirable to add solemnity to the act by executing 
a deed-poll to be enrolled in Chancery. This was 
the course adopted by the late learned editor of 
Hayes and Jerman On Wills, and reader on real 
property to the Inns of Court, Mr. T. S. Badger, 
who assumed the additional name of " Eastwood " 
on acquiring an estate so named. This method 
need not cost more than a few pounds. Others, 
again, where required by the terms of any will, or 
where a change of arms as well as of name is de- 
sired, or where from any other cause they desire 
to obtain a higher sanction to the change than 
their own mere volition, apply for a licence under 
the royal sign manual, which of course is much 
more costly. All this ground, however, has been 
gone over before in several learned articles in the 
sixth volume of your present series. 

JOB J. B. WOKKARD. 

In Scotland, when the mother retains her 
maiden name, a son may, at his option, take either 
father's or mother's name, or both : this is the 
Roman, or civil law, view of the case. But in 
the English ecclesiastical law a woman, on mar- 
riage, becomes so incorporated with her husband 
that neither her name nor anything else belongs 
to her except her wedding ring, and one shift. 
How the tables will be turned when the Houses 
of Ladies and Commons' women make the laws ! 

T. J. 



JUNIUS, BURKE, ETC. 
(3 rd S. xii. 34, 73.) 

Your noble correspondent will, I trust, permit 
me to remark, that a character of " special plead- 
ing," and something very like equivocation, per- 
vades the letter of Burke to which he refers. The 
first letter to Markham was unsatisfactory to the 
prelate, and required to be supplemented. The 
" denial " which it contains is, at most, a protest 
against the charge of authorship, and little else 
than a dexterous fence of words. That the long 
letter would have been equally ineffectual, was 
acknowledged by the writer of it, when he re- 
solved to suppress so elaborate a vindication of 
himself. 

The subject is characterised by Mr. Townshend 
as a "disagreeable " one ; he is forced to recur to 
it (such at least is the drift of the second letter) ; 
but why was it imperative upon him to revive a 
topic associated with so much of unpleasant feel- 
ing, except for the reason that the answer to his 
former appeal had been evasive ? As regards 
Burke, we find that this reiterated and more 
sifting inquiry " gives him pause " ; he must 
need "consult his pillow twice, 7 ' before he can 
venture to say il No ! " to a plain question on a 
matter of fact. Is it not probable (to say the 
least) that the interval, with its " pillow " con- 
sultation, was devoted to the consideration of a 
question of moral casuistry, in relation to the 
matter as it stood the question, namely, whether 
he was under any social obligation to declare 
"the whole truth, and nothing but the truth," 
in the demand of a self-constituted and un- 
authorised inquisitor? On the principle enun- 
ciated by Johnson (in reference to this particular 
subject) there was no such obligation. It will 
be remembered, however, that Johnson takes the 
distinction, that the disavowal of Burke, ad- 
dressed to himself, was a voluntary one. If it 
had been elicited by questioning, he might not 
have felt himself bound (as we may infer) to give 
it his implicit credence. Burke, nevertheless, 
may have reasoned to his own conviction, that, 
even in that case, he was answering the question 
of general society one which individuals of it, 
a part for the whole, had already thrust upon 
him, personally and pertinaciously. 

It should seem that Mr. Fitzherbert himself 
was scarcely satisfied. He repelled the accusa- 
tion, but " in so awkward a manner as to increase, 
rather than remove, the suspicions of the company 
he was addressing." Anything like embarrass- 
ment, on such an occasion, can only be attributed 
to misgivings in his own mind, which perplexed 
j him in the performance of the task assigned to 
I him. He spoke as an advocate, from instructions 
| furnished to him bj r the accused party. He wa 
the familiar friend, the " alter ego " of Burke 



3'd S. XII. AUG. 10, J 67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



113 



whom lie had introduced into public life), and 
vvhen we read of his "awkwardness," we can 
scarcely refrain from & surmise that he knew more 
;han had been confidentially imparted to him. Mr. 
fownshend was of opinion that Dr. Markham's 
i( doubts" ought to be removed. Mr. Burke 
made an attempt that way, and kept it to himself.' 
Perhaps he regarded the bishop as a sort of 
" father confessor," and felt compunctions about 
offering to his ghostly teacher a masterpiece of 
writing, when nothing was needed in the matter 
but plain speaking. It would have been easier 
(at least) to say, " I know no more who wrote, 
dictated, inspired, or (in any sense of the word) 
1 authorised ' the ' Letters of Junius,' than I know 
the same things concerning the first 'Book of 
Chronicles.'" 

In the Correspondence of the Earl of Chatham, 
there is a letter from the Duke of'Grafton to 

Lord C (then at Bath) recommending Mr. 

Burke for office (most likely for high office) in 
the strongest manner. This may have been the 
very situation in the Ministry, his aspiration to 
which Burke so ingeniously vindicates, or pal- 
liates, in the reply to Markham, the bishop (as 
we learn from that letter) having sneered at the 
" ambition " of the political adventurer (as mani- 
fested on some particular occasion), characteris- 
ing it as overweening, if not ridiculous, when 
measured with his pretensions ; using, in fact, the 
arr/umentum ad hominem in a spirit not very nearly 
akin to spiritual-mindedness ! 

The prime minister declined to accede to the 
proposition, alleging-, as a main objection, "the 
gentleman's principles of trade." It is possible 
that Burke never became aware that the duke's 
professions of a zeal to serve him had been acted 
upon ; or he may have attributed the ill success 
of the project to a want of earnestness on the part 
of his grace. It will be seen by the letter re- 
ferred to that the duke had done his utmost. 

It is well known that contemporary opinion 
pointed to Burke, and to Burke alone j and of the 
contemporaries of Junius, one at least, and he not 
the least interested in the question Lord Mans- 
field (who survived the period twenty-four years) 
retained, to the last, the conviction that Burke 
" was the man." But is it to be doubted that 
Lord Mansfield was conversant with the case in 
all its bearings, with the imputations and the 
denials ; and that lie had brought to bear on the 
determination of it all the powers of the most 
consummate judge of evidence the world ever 
saw? 

And besides, although, if Burke was not the 
writer of Junius, he must have bethought himself j 
who was. We have not heard that he ever be- 
tokened an interest in the subject, or offered an 
opinion or a surmise in relation to it. 

After all with respect to the negative allega- 



tions of an incriminated party, whether sponta- 
neous or the reverse the question presents itself, 
does the right exist to enforce confession by tor- 
ture, physical or moral ? In other words, is a 
man entitled to have a secret, and to keep it, altd 
mente repostum ? 

The first right is absolutely conceded, the 
second is virtually denied, if you hold that he is 
bound to indulge the curiosity of every meddler, 
in regard to that which he would have owned 
before, if it had consisted with his inclinations 
or his convenience to do so. Sir Walter Scott 
must have denied the authorship of the Waverle}- 
Novels, in direct terms, hundreds of times before 
he avowed it. L. 



POETIC PAINS. 
(3 rd S. xii. 22, 72.) 

C. A. W., I think, departed somewhat from the 
courtesy belonging to literary discussions when 
he termed the transposition which I proposed in 
the last stanza of Campbell's " Hohenlinden ' ' 
"wretched jingle." I further cannot agree with 
him in thinking that it would have been better if 
the finallines of the stanzas did not rhyme. J. A. G. 
and the well-known and respected contributor to 
" N. & Q.," F. C. H., are far more courteous ; 
and I have only to remind them that, by Mr. Red- 
ding's account, the poet did not pronounce the 
word sepulchree. I must further remind J. A. G. 
that the poet's idea seems to have been that the 
snow would form one vast "winding-sheet," cover- 
ing the whole of the dead without distinction; 
and, as they would only be thus far buried, the 
word " sepulchre " as applied to the spot where 
each lay would be quite inappropriate. 

I will now observe that Campbell has likewise 
marred two of his other finest poems by the em- 
ployment of inappropriate terms at the end of 
lines. In his beautiful "O'Connor's Child" we 
have 

" When all was hushed at eventide, 

I heard the baying of their beagle ; 
Be hushed, my Connocht Moran cried, 
Tis but the screaming of the eagle.'" 

" The baying of their 'beagle " / He might as 
well have said " the baying of their poodle" It is 
a catachresis indeed to use " beagle " for blood- 
hound, the dog that was meant, and how easily 
it might have been avoided ! If I had been the 
poet I would have given in preference 



and 



" Their bloodhound's baying reached my ear,'' 
' 'Tis but the eagle's scream we hear," 



" 'Tis the eagle's scream ; there's nought to fear." 



114 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 3'd S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



The other poem begins thus 

" Ye mariners of England ! 

That guard our native seas, 
Whose flag has braved a thousand years 
The battle and the breeze ! " 

Now surely "the breeze " never was an object 
of terror to a seaman. The last line, since storm 
could not be used, should have ended with tjale ; 
and how easy would it have been to make a 
second line ending with the noun or verb sail! 

These remarks of mine will, I trust, be regarded 
in their true light as merely critical exercitations. 
THOS. KEIGHTLEY. 

Surely Campbell designedly wrote the unrhym- 
ing word sepulchre in the last line of his very fine 
stanza sepulchre as we usually pronounce it. The 
very jar in the rhythm seems to my ear to make 
the poem only more beautiful, breaking as it 
does the monotonous smoothness of the lines 
that smoothness which is to some ears tiresome 
in Moore's polished sonnets. He must have done 
it on the principle of the break of line in Virgil, 
11 Arcades ambo." 

I remember a poor fellow, an usher in a school, 
being terribly laughed at for making, in his copy 
of Campbell, a pencil note if cemetery would 
read better here." F. C. H.'s conjecture that the 
poet meant the word to be pronounced sepulchres 
is, I think, incorrect. Massacre used, I know, to 
be pronounced massacree, but sepulchre was for- 
merly called sepiilchre. The poor people in Cam- 
bridge to this day call the church there St. 
8e-pul-curs, the accent being thrown on the 
middle syllable. C. W. BARKLEY. 



OF "PARR" (3 rd S. xii. 66.) The 
origin of this name, like that of Parry, Price, and 
Dalton, is to be found by separating the initial P 
and D from the root words Arry, Rice and Alton. 
So also Bowen, Belis, Powel. Parr as originally 
written was probably Ap-Ar = son of Ar. Ar in 
Gaelic means ploughing, tillage, agriculture. Ar 
or air in the same language means battle, slaughter, 
field ^of battle. Ar also means a bond, tie, chain, 
guiding j likewise land, earth (Macleod and De- 
war, p. 31.) In the Welsh language Ar means 
speech, also surface, tilth, or ploughed land. 
(Pughe, i. 109.) But par (=py-ar) in Welsh 
means a pair, fellow, match, or couple ; and par 
(=pa-ar) means causing, causative. (Pughe, ii. 
396.) If another probable derivation be sought, 
then it may have its origin from the same root as 
the German aar, a bird of prey, particularly the 
eagle. _ _ Er in Bretagne still means an eagle, and 
the initial syllables of Aruspex may have affinity 
with the same root. (Adelung, Worterb. p. 5.) 

T. J. BUCKTON. 
btreatham Place, S. 



This patronymic is by no means uncommon, and 
I consider it to be an abbreviation of Parry, de- 
rived from ap-Harry, the Welsh form of Harrison. 
The ancient and ennobled family, Parr of IvendaJ, 
formerly Parre, must, I think, be a corruption of 
the Norman Barri ; the letters P and B become 
counterchangeable in the course of centuries, and 
the heraldic bearings are sufficiently near to coun- 
tenance this supposition. 

As to the old township of Parr in Prescott ('. c. 
Priest's-cot) parish, Lancashire, it would arise 
from some local peculiarity or distinction such 
as a park, parish, parsonage, priest's or pardoner's 
cell, probably long since swept away. A. H. 

CALLIGRAPHY (3 rd S. xi. 402.) The finest 
Danish specimen which I have seen is Joh. Chris- 
toph. Oehlers' Die offene Schreib-Sclwle (long 
title), oblong folio, undated. Oehlers here calls 
himself " Buchhalter, bestellten Schreib- und 
Rechne-Meister zu St. Nicolai in Flensburg, 
anjetzo verordneten Ober-Meister zu St. Jacobi in 
Hamburg." The work is dedicated to the Danish 
King Frederick IV., and is written throughout. 
Some of the plates are wonderful masterpieces. 
Plate 3 is a large portrait of Frederick IV. on 
horseback all as delineated by Oehlers in the 
pen-manner. This rare work is without place or 
date. When it appeared I do not know, probably 
at Hamburgh somewhere about 1720, or a little 
later. GEORGE STEPHENS. 

Cheapinghaven, Denmark. 

BEAUTY UNFORTUNATE (3 rd S. xi. 517 ; xii. 18.) 
The Host of the Canterbury Tales thus bewails 
the fate of Virginia, as related by the Doctor of 
Physic : 

" Alias ! to deere boughte sche hir beaute. 
Wherfore I say, that alle men may se, 
That giftes of fortune or of nature" 
Ben cause of deth of many a creature. 
Hir beaute was hir deth, I dar wel sayn 
Alias ! so pitously as sche was slayn ! 
[ Of bothe giftes, that I speke of now, 
Men han ful often more for harm than prow." J 

(1. 1378-13,715, ed. Wright.) 
JOHN ADDIS, JUN. 
Rustington, Littlehampton, Sussex. 

QUARTER-MASTERS, ETC. (3 rd S. xi. 501.) 
Relative rank is even now a vexed question of 
the present system, and we frequently see gazette 
announcements of honorary rank being conferred 
on individuals ; and a case occurred a few years 
since of an officer using, on his visiting card, the 
style of his relative rank. 

Honorary rank is simply the shadow of a sub- 
stance to meet certain supposed social require- 
ments, while relative rank is an official fiction for 
the prevention of disputes, but which does not in 
the least assimilate the functions of individuals. 

A curious treatise mi^ht be written on names 









i" S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



115 



a id titles that have lost their original force or 
si *nificance. 

For example : " Cresar " in the first century, 
a id "Cuesar" in the fifth. Caliph, Khalifa, &c. 
Kooli, Cooly. Captain, in all its varied associa- 
tions. Sergeants, at law and in the army. Major 
a ad sergeant-major (apropos, the corporal-major 
referred to by your correspondent would not lie 
styled "major," except by one of his own or of 
an inferior class an officer would not so style 
him). 

StibadJtar, the native captain of a Sepoy regi- 
ment, although bearing that lordly title, was 
nevertheless under the orders of the European 
sergeant-major; and although he could be a mem- 
ber of a court-martial, composed however only of 
natives, his title meant nothing, and practically 
and virtually he was simply a regimental sergeant. 

In the same way, we have honorary University 
degrees: and in the army the rank even of 
"general officer" conferred" on men who to all 
intents and purposes have none of the attributes 
of a bond fide general ; but it is a. graceful com- 
pliment paid, under certain circumstances, to old 
officers and means no more than what the world 
may choose to value such rank at. In certain 
grades of society "the general" is greatly re- 
vered; and there are men who would sacrifice 
even the comfort of their families to enjoy a 
distinction which a return ticket to America can 
equally effectually confer ! 

There is a great difference, however (heraldi- 
cally speaking), between the real rank and the 
honorary or relative. Thus, an honorary captain 
say an old paymaster or quarter-master does not 
hold the commission of a regimental captain, 
which gives the latter a legal precedence even of 
those who hold equal relative rank. 

Some men obtain from society as by some in- 
herent attraction in themselves titles to which 
they are not entitled, while others are denuded of j 
those which they really do possess. 

Thus, an unobtrusive D.D. will be constantly ' 
addressed " Mr.," while the more important looking 
inferior B.D. is styled "Doctor." So likewise I 
the pretentious looking old subaltern will be 
styled "Major," while his captain is addressed 
"Mr." Of course these mistakes do not occur in 
good society. SP. 



" STUART OF THE SCOTCH GUARD " (3 rd S. xii. ! 
07.) What did this " Discours " discourse about, j 
if it gave neither the "causa causans" of this ! 
Scotch " Seigneur's " beheading, nor any par- 
ticulars about his pedigree ? 

His being decapitated under Lcivis XI. was not 
proof evident of his being an " unworthy Scotch 
Guard," as many an innocent man was sent ad 
patres, by this cruel and unscrupulous monarch. 

P. A. L. 



QUOTATION- WANTED (3 rd S. xi. 457.) 
" For treason, d'ye see 
Was to them a* dish of tea, 
And murder bread and butter." 

LYDIAED will find in Shenstone's Rape of the 
Trap the following lines : 
" A river or a sea 
Was to him a dish of tea, 
And a kingdom bread and butter." 
No doubt but that Sir W. Scott borrowed the 
lines from Shenstone, altering them to his own 
purpose. C. J. 

KEFERENCES WANTED (3 rd S. xii. 91.) 

St. Bernard. 

" Inter sseculares migce nug sunt ; in ore Sacerdotis 
blasphemise." 

The correct reading I believe to be as follows : 

" Nugse siquidem inter sasculares nugse sunt, in ore 
autem Sacerdotis blasphemia." 

Lib. II. de Consider 'atione, cap. 13. 

St. Cyprian. 

" Ad unum corpus luunannm supplicia plura qtiam 
membra." 

This also is incorrectly worded ; in St. Cyprian 
it stands thus : 

" Ad hominis corpus unum supplicia plura quam mem- 
bra." Epist. I. ad Donatum. 

St. Ambrose. 
" Xulla setas ad perdiscendum est." 

I believe the sense is given here instead of the 
true reading, and I suspect the following is in- 
tended : 

" Nemo est qui doceri non egeat dum vivit." 

Lib. I. Officiorum, cap. 1. 
Or perhaps this : 

" Omnis setas perfecta Christo est." 

Ep. 30 ad Valentinianwn. 

F. C. H. 

M. W. will find the words 
" Da pater angustam menti conscendere sedem ; 
Da fontem lustrare boni," 

in the ninth poem of the third book of Boethius. 
They are continued as follows : 

" da luce reperta 

In te conspicuos animi transflgere visus." 

According to the Leyden edition of 1671, they 
were imitated by Buchanan " in Franciscano ' ' 
thus : 

" Ad fontes penetrare boni, tenebrisque remotis 
Tollere perspicuos animi ad ccelestia visus." 

E. B. NICHOLSOX. 
Tollbridge. 

The first from Cliildc Harold, canto n. It 
should, however, be " palikar," not ft soldier." 

The third from T. Moore's little poem, " You 
remember Ellen." W. J. BERNHARD SMITH. 

Temple. 



116 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3** S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



ROYAL ARMS OF SCOTLAND (3 rd S. x. 231, 279, 
316, 379, 479.) There were a few articles in 
"N. & Q." in regard to the " Royal Arms of 
Scotland/' and a monument in Westminster Ab- 
bey, circa 1570, was one of the earliest quoted. 
Irrespective of coins, I find it on the title-page of 
Major's History of Scotland, printed at Paris 1521 ; 
on the Black Acts of Scotland, printed at Edin- 
burgh, by Davidson, 1541 ; and again by Lek- 
previk, 1566. And in addition, I am in possession 
of a MS. on vellum, formerly belonging to Rev. 
Dr. Wellesley, Principal of the New Inn Hall, 
Oxford, with the Rules of the Order of the Gar- 
ter, where he notes : 

" This identical book sent, with the Insignia of the 
Garter, to James V. of Scotland." Vide Ashmole, p. 396. 

In this book is a beautiful illumination of the 
arms of England and Scotland of the period, circa 
1535. W. P. TTTRNBULL. 

Philadelphia. 

THRECKINGHAM FONT-INSCRIPTION (3 rd S. xii. 
66.) I remember examining this inscription 
about the year 1844, after my friend Mr. F. A. 
Paley had stated, in his Introduction to Van 
Voorst's Baptismal Fonts, that no one had de- 
ciphered it. It is a rather badly cut black-letter 
inscription, and I made it, without much doubt, 
to be this : " * Ave Maria gracie p . d . t [plena, 
dominus tecuml." 

Another inscription, in a more uncommon posi- 
tion, occurs at Scredington church ; in the same 
neighbourhood. It is on the side of the dress of 
the stone effigy of a priest. I should be glad to 
know if it has been deciphered ? At Newton, 
near the same places, is the indent of the brass of 
a small mitred figure. What bishop or abbot 
was buried there ? 

On the last page of Thoroton's Nottinghamshire 
(vol. i. 4to, ed. 1790) there is an absurd cut of 
the font-inscription at Newark, quite unintel- 
ligible. I have a note that it should be : " Game 
innati sunt hac .... fonte renati." C. R. M. 

STYLE OF " REVEREND ' ' AND " VERY REVEREND ' ' 
(3 rd S. xii. 26, 78, 98.) G., who dates from 
Edinburgh, ought to have known better than to 
venture the assertion that the Principals of the 
Scottish Universities " are always clergymen of the 
Established Church," and " have the title of Very 
Reverend." Is not Sir David Brewster, the pre- 
sent distinguished Principal of Edinburgh Univer- 
sity, a layman ? Is not Principal Forbes of St. 
Andrew's a layman ? Neither of these Principals 
have ever assumed, or have ever been addressed 
as " Very Reverend." No doubt it was formerly 
provided that the Principals of the different 
Scottish Colleges should be in orders, but this 
provision was altered by a recent Act of Parlia- 
ment. The truth plainly is, that "Very Re- 
verend " is from mere courtesy applied to Scottish 



Principals of Colleges who happen to be in orders 
to the Moderator of the General Assembly, and to 
Provincial Synods. The practice of such courtesy 
titles is comparatively modern. The designation 
of " Reverend " is not used in the Acts of the Ge- 
neral Assembly. Each clerical member of the 
court is styled thus, "Mr. A. B., Minister atC." 
Formerly two persons only in a parish were 
honoured with the prefix of " Mr.," these being 
the minister and the schoolmaster. 

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. 
2, Heath Terrace, Lewisham. 

I feel indebted to MR. VERE IRVING for his 
satisfactory explanation, which besides suggests 
the origin of another matter. I mean what is 
called the "Committee of Bills" in the General 
Assembly of the Church of Scotland. Before 
any business is submitted to the consideration of 
the full house, it is brought under the examina- 
tion of that committee, and reported on by it, which 
quite corresponds with the procedure in the 
Scotch Parliament as to the " Lords of the Arti- 
cles," whose duties seem to have been analogous 
to those of this committee. 

I regret that I cannot assist your correspondent 
as to Professor Aytoun's brochure. I trust he 
may yet procure a copy of it, as it must be 
worthy of preservation. G. 

TITLES OF THE JUDGES (3 rd S. xii. 67.) The 
term "Reverend" seems to have been originally 
used in the sense of " venerable," and hence ap- 
plied to those who by age or office were such. 

Among other instances, Sir William Dugdale 
commences his pedigree of the Howards with 
William Howard, " a learned and reverend j udge 
of the Court of Common Pleas." 

Thus, too, it was applied to senators, as in the 
opening of Othello's apology : 

" Most potent, grave, and reverend Seigniors." 

Bishops were originally styled "Reverend 
Father," without the adjunct " Right." Cranmer 
was thus designated in the title of one of his 
controversial works printed by Daye, 1580 ; and 
this style was not confined to prelates. In -a 
letter from Laurence Humphrey to Henry Bui- 
linger, dated Feb. 9, 1566, the latter is addressed, 
"pater in Christo reverende." 

One has often heard dissenting ministers charged 
with u usurping " the style of " Reverend." There 
is really no usurpation in the matter. The title 
is only conventional, and commonly given to all 
ministers of religion, without reference to theis 
state connection or theological opinions. 

HENRY PARR. 

Yoxforcl Vicarage. 

IMMORTAL BRUTES (3 rd S. xii. 66.) By Ish- 
mael's ram, is meant the ram " a noble victim " 
(Koran, swat xxxvii. p. 369, Sale) : the very 
same which Abel sacrificed, and which was sent 



3 S. XII. AUG. 10, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



117 



o Abraham out of Paradise when he offered 
"smael (not Isaac, as we have it) in sacrifice, 
.saac, the Mahometans say, was not then born. 
The horns of this rani were hung up on the spout 
3f the Caaba till they were burned, together with 
that building, in the days of Abd'allah Ebu 
Zobeir. I can find nothing on the subject of 
Moses's ox, nor of the Queen of Sheba's (Bal- 
kis's) ass. Solomon had been informed that 
Balkis's legs and feet were covered with hair 
t( like those of an ass," which he tested by her 
entering his palace where it was floored with 
glass, which she mistook for water (swat xxvii. 
p. 312, Sale). Neither can I find anything of her 
cuckoo ; although the lapwing carried messages 
between her and Solomon (surat xxvii. p. 310, 
Sale). In a dispute which was to be settled by a 
miracle, Saleh overcame the Thamudites by set- 
ting a rock in labour, which was delivered of a 
she camel answering the required description of 
his opponents; and which immediately brought 
forth a young one, ready weaned, as big as her- 
self. This camel never raised her head from a 
well or river till she had drunk up all the water 
in it ; and thus, being well charged with milk, 
she went about the town crying it: "If any 
wants milk let him come forth " (Koran, surat vii. 
p. 124 n., Sale). T. J. BTJCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 

DOLE (3 rd S. xii. 7, 55, 79.) Will MR. JONA 
TIIAX BOUCHIER forgive me for questioning 
whether the "dole" of his quotation from Hooc 
is not rather the Anglo-Saxon cleel than the 
Latin dolor of his most apposite quotation from 
Tennyson ? 

Hood is rather fond of using " dole " in this 
sense of pittance or chanty. In his " Ode to Rae 
Wilson, Esquire/' we have 

" Playing the Judas with a temporal dole" 
and again, in " Miss Kilmansegg," 

" Stolen, borrowed, squandered, doled." 

"Dole" (.=dolor) seems of the very rarest oc- 
currence in modern poetry. I have looked through 
half-a-dozen poets without finding a single in- 
stance of it. 

Shakspeare uses the word in both senses : 

" when I consider 

What great creation and what dole of honour 

Flies where you bid it." 

Att's Well that Ends Well, Act II. Sc. 3, 1. 165. 

" In equal scale weighing delight and dole." 

Hamlet, Act I. Sc. 2, 1. 13. 

JOHX ADDIS, JTJIS T . 

I think I am correct in saying that the word dole, 
in its Scottish form dool, dule, meaning grief or 
sorrow, is sometimes used at the present time, in 
poetry written in the Scottish dialect. I cannot 



lay my hands just now on a more recent example 
than the following verse of a beautiful little 
ballad : 

" Row weel, my boatie, row weel ; 
Row weel, my merry men a' ; 

For there's dool and there's woe in Glenfiorich's bowers. 
And there's grief in my father's ha'." 

The ballad from which this verse is taken was 
first published in The Wanderer (Glasgow, 1818). 
I quote from The Harp of Renfrewshire (Paisley, 
1819), a collection of poetry, original and selected. 
William Motherwell was' one of the editors of 
this now scarce work, for which he wrote an essay 
on the "Bards of Renfrewshire." 

D. MACPHAIL. 

Johnstone. 

RICHARD DEAN (3 rd S. xi. 482.) Is your cor- 
respondent aware that escutcheons on a herse 
are not reliable evidences of a right to bear those 
arms, and that even the arms mentioned in funeral 
certificates can be shown, in several instances, to 
have been the wrong ones. I do not mean by 
these remarks to impugn the correctness of the 
arms in question, but merely to canvass the re- 
liability generally of such genealogical-heraldic 
evidence. I inclose a note of an incorrect funeral 
certificate for the Editor's satisfaction, but do not 
wish to bring forward cases which even in their 
errors betrav rather ignorance than wilful corrup- 
tion.* SP. 

WALTHAM ABBEY (3 rd S. xii. 25.) The arch 
mentioned by your correspondent C. is the western 
arch of the lantern, which remains perfect though 
blocked. The church of which the present build- 
ing is only a mutilated portion, was probably built 
by Harold, and consecrated in 1059 or 1060. The 
confirmation charter bears date 1062. Some con- 
sider that Harold's church was replaced by another 
in 1177, and that therefore the present church is 
not the remains of Harold's edifice. But if the 
architecture looks too much advanced for 1060, it 
does not look advanced enough for 1177. The 
enrichment is confined to surface ornament, and is 
of simple, almost rude, character, and totally lacks 
the elaboration of ornament which might be ex- 
pected in a building of 1177. Waltham Abbey 
church, though built in 1060, belongs to the Nor- 
man branch of the Romanesque family, this 
branch existing simultaneously with the Saxon in 
England during a considerable portion of the 
eleventh century. Your correspondent will find 
much information respecting this church and the 
burial of Harold in a valuable paper by Mr. E. A. 
Freeman, in the Transactions of the Essex Arclice- 
ological Society, vol. ii. part 1. 

JOHN PIGGOT, Jujsr. 



So at p. 488 (names wanted) it ought to be considered 
,hat book plates are no authority. They generally mean 
nothing at the present day. 



118 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



This arch, which forms part of the east end of 
the present church, appears upon researches made, 
from various authors, to be quite primitive, having 
escaped the hands which time and fashion bring j 
part of this end belongs to the lord of the manor, 
and is kept in repair by the same. Before the sur- 
render of the abbey the tower stood near the east 
end in conjunction with the choir, or, as Farmer 
says, some eastern chapel, and other old buildings 
coeval with the monastery, which were destroyed 
in 1562, according to the imprimis given by Dr. 
Thomas Fuller, when the tower was removed to 
the west end. This arch, which is now entirely 
exposed to the weather, was doubtless a medium 
into some of those places above named, as it is 
recorded by the same quaint historian, that the 
churcli typified the Church Militant, and the 
chancel represents the Church Triumphant, and 
all who will pass out of the former into the latter 
must go under the rood-loft, that is carry the cross 
and be acquainted with the affliction. This is 
the most authentic account I have in my posses- 
sion to give. W. WINTERS. 

Churchj'ard, Waltham Abbey. 

PHILOLOGY (3 rd S. x. 494 ; xi. 99.) A satis- 
factory reply has been given by MR. BATES to the 
query as to the authority for postum as a Latin 
word for tobacco ; but two other questions have 
not been answered, namely, (1) How bad occurs 
in English and Persian only, and not in the cog- 
nate tongues ? and (2) what is the derivation of 
archipelago, and when was it first called the holy 
sea? 

The reply to the first is, that the word bad 
in Persian means desire, and is placed at the end 
of imperatives to supply the place of our may or 
let, as zindeghiani-i padishah diraz BAD long life 
to the king ! In Persian the word bed corresponds 
in sense with the English bad, but like the Persian 
abod, and the English abode, must be treated as an 
accidental resemblance, for the affinity cannot be 
traced through the German or Sanscrit. Since 
the time of Leibnitz there has been, however, no 
reason to doubt the relationship of the German 
and Persian languages. 

The reply to the second query is more difficult. 
The term archipelago, as a Greek derivative, would 
mean chief sea, but it could only be so considered 
in reference to the Black Sea and not to the Me- 
diterranean or Atlantic. The word, however, is 
now used geographically to designate clusters of 
islands in many parts of the globe, for which the 
Grecian archipelago is remarkable. Gibbon con- 
siders archipelago to be a corruption of ayiov WAO- 
70?, holy sea, the name given to it by the modern 
Greeks, from its being frequented by monks and 
caloyers (x. c. 53, p. 102 n.). But both may be 
considered as corruptions of the name by which it 
was known to yEschylus, " y 



Alyaiov (Ayam. 670). So Mount Ida is styled by 
Hesiod "the yEgaean mountain" (Theog., 484, 
Gaisford's ed.). Strabo (viii. c. 7. s. 5), who uses 
the same word, considers it as derived from 
yEgse in Eubcea (Homer, //., xiii. 21). So does 
Damm (Lex. 1040). Perhaps it is originally the 
plural form of f) 717, at yaicu, lands as distinct from 
sea and sky j also islands (Homer, Odys., viii. 284 ; 
Dammii Lex., 182). T. J. BTJCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 

BATTLE OP BATJGE (3 rd S. xii. 53, 54.)" 1. If 
he [the Bishop of Orleans] was in holy orders at 
the time ? in which case he could not have used 
a lance." 

Popes and Cardinals have been known to en- 
dorse the steel harness to mention but one of 
each Julius II., and Kichelieu at La Rochelle. 

P. A. L. 

COMMANDER OF THE NIGHTINGALE (3 rd S. xi. 
440, 523.) The Nightingale was a sixth-rate 




entered that of France, and was in command of 
the Nightingale when she was captured by Capt. 
Haddock of the Ludlow Castle, Dec. 30,* 1707 : 
Smith was tried for high treason and hanged. 
Capt. Charles Guy, or Gay, was appointed to the 
Nightingale March 23, 1709 ; he died in 1712, and 
was succeeded in the same year by Ezekiel Wright, 
who died in 1736. J. HARRIS GIBSON. 

Liverpool. 

MOTTOES OP COMPANIES (3 rd S. xii. 65.) MR. 
J. MANUEL gives as the motto of the Amicable 
Society " Esto perpetua." If this is the Amicable 
Society "for a perpetual Assurance Office esta- 
blished in London in the year 1706," it has at 
last, after 160 years of existence, belied its motto 
by becoming merged by Act of Parliament in the 
Norwich Union Assurance Office. 

JOB J. B. WORKARD. 

PUNNING MOTTOES (3 rd S. xii. 74.) The Hopes 
of Balgony have certainly the " At spes solamen," 
but the Hopes of Hopetoun and those of Rankil- 
lour have substituted for this " At spes infracta." 
Looking to the crest, a shattered globe sur- 
mounted by a rainbow, this is certainly a better 
idea, and reminds one of Horace, from whom the 
hint may have been taken 

" Si fractus illabatur orbis." 

One of the most atrocious of these punning 
mottoes is that of Cave, " Cave, Deus adsit." 

BTJSHEY HEATH has entirely missed the jingle 
in that of the Cockburns, whose motto is not 
" Ascendit cantu " (which would rather apply to 
Lark or Larkins), but " Accendit cantu." 

The " Nihil verius " of the Scotch Veres I 



3rd g. XII. AUG. 10, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



119 



h ive already mentioned ^ in " N. & Q." when 
t eatin^ of a different subject. 

GEORGE VERB IRVING. 

The " Quid rides " reminds me of the story, in 
my schooldays, of an usher seeing one of the 
toys with a thick lump in one of his cheeks, who 
asked " Quid est hoc ? " To which the lad, 
spattering out a large piece of chewing tobacco, 
replied " Hoc est quid," for which repartee the 
master forgave him. P. A. L. 

Bishop Burgess's brother had made his fortune 
by the sale of pickles and sauces at his house in 
the Strand, which respectable firm still continues. 
It is said that he was thinking of setting up his 
carriage, and asked his brother, the bishop, for a 
motto to his arms, who gave him the following 
from Virgil : 

" Gravi jamcludum saucia cura." 

" CONSPICUOUS FROM ITS ABSENCE " (3 rd S. xi. 
438, &c.) The recurrence of this phrase in 
"N. & Q." has several times recalled to me a 
story of the Emperor Galerius, which contains 
a parallel idea. The story is a favourite one of 
De Quincey ; so I give it in his words : 

" ' Sir,' said that emperor to a soldier who had missed 
the target in succession I know not how many times 
(suppose we say fifteen), ' allow me to offer my congratu- 
lations on the truly admirable skill you have shown in 
keeping clear of the mark. Not to have hit once in so 
many trial*, argues the most splendid talents for miss- 
ing."' Worksl\Q\. xiv. p. 161 note, ed. 18G3. 

JOHN ADDIS, JUN. 

BUTTERFLY (3 rd S. xi. 342, &c.) Two more 
quotations from Chaucer to append to that of MR. 
SKEAT ( xii. 58) : 

" I sette right nought of the vilonye, 
That 3e of wommen write, a boterflie." 

Canterbury Tales, 1. 10,178, ed. Wright. 
" Such talkvng is nought worth a boterflye." 

II. 1. 16,276. 

JOHN ADDIS, JUN. 

NOSE BLEEDING (3 rd S. xii. 42.) When I was 
a boy at school the remedy for this efflux was to 
put a bunch of keys down the back while the 
clothes were on. The cold metal never veiy 
rapid in its descent produced, as it was consi- 
dered, " a chill " to the blood. CHISWICK. 

STAINS IN OLD DEEDS (3 rd S. xii. 47.) If he 
could have done so, ADAMAS should have ex- 
plained something of the nature of the stains that 
he wishes to remove. Are they ink stains, wine 
stains, or the stains only attributable to age? 
He may try the following recipe, I think, with 
advantage: Dissolve a quarter of an ounce of 
oxalic acid in a wineglassful of boiling water; 
when the solution is cold apnly it lightly to the 
stains with a camel's-hair pencil ; afterwards wash 



! off the solution with fair water, using the pencil 

as an artist does to remove water-colours from 

drawings. If this be ineffectual, try very weak 

hydrochloric acid, manipulated in the same way. 

SEPTIMUS PIESSE. 

BUMBLEPUPPY (3 rd S. xi. 426.) This is the 

usual English name. In France the name is 

I tonneau. In Switzerland it is called crapaud, 

I from the toad. The toad's mouth is the great 

i aim of the players ; in general it counts a thousand. 

Russian billiards is the best game of this sort, and 

more genteel. S. J. 

24TH OF FEBRUARY (3 rd S. xii. 48.) There 
is as light mistake in your calculation : the 24th 
February in the years 1812 and 1840 is not a 
Tuesday, but a Monday. All the other dates ap- 
pear to be right. E. A. C. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

La Lyre Francaise. By Gustave Masson. (Macmillan.) 
This is a new volume of Macmillan's favourite Golden 
Treasury Series, and, thanks to the merit and beauty of 
its contents and the zeal and good taste of its editor, will 
certainly not be the least popular among them. We 
doubt whether, even in France itself, so interesting and 
complete a repertory of the best French lyrics could be 
found. A rapid but clear and intelligent sketch of French 
chanson literature precedes the collection, which contains 
no fewer than thirty-six Religious Songs and Hymns ; 
twenty-three Patriotic and Warlike Songs ; sixty-four 
Bacchanalian and Love Songs ; fifty-three Satirical 
Songs, Epigrams, &c. ; twenty Historical Songs, Vaude- 
villes, Parodies, and Complaintes ; and lastly, some thirty- 
four Miscellaneous Poems. These are followed by a 
series of valuable Notes ; a Chronological Index ; an 
Index of the first lines, and an Index of Writers. It is 
a beautiful little volume for a travelling companion. 
History of Dudley Castle and Priory, including a Genea- 
logical Account of the Families of Sutton and Ward. 
By Charles Twamley. (Russell Smith.) 
Mr. Twamley is a native of Dudley, and the history 
of its Castle having long been to him a source of great 
interest, he has for some years been collecting informa- 
tion respecting it and the two families of Sutton and 
Ward, whose names are so intimately associated with it. 
The present little volume, the result of his labours, will 
be received with welcome by his fellow townsmen, and 
referred to with satisfaction by all who desire to know 
the history of Dudley Castle and Priory. 

Tinsley's Magazine, conducted by Edmund Yates. No. 1. 
(Tinsley Brothers.) 

This is a new candidate for the favour of the Magazine- 
loving public, conducted by Mr. Yates, with a spirit which 
not only deserves success, but bids fair to command it. 
With " The Adventures of Dr. Brady," by W. H. Russell, 
whose vigorous pen here deals as readily with fiction as 
it has heretofore done with the stern realities of life ; and 
" The Rock Ahead," which gives promise of being one 
of the Editor's best stories there is abundant interest 
for those who regard a good story or two as the back- 
bone of a magazine ; while the rest of the Number is 
characterised by papers, many of which treat of topics of 



120 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. XII. AUG. 10, '67. 



the day ; and we suspect the last article of all will not 
be the least popular " Paris Fashions," with such " loves 
of bonnets!" 
The Broadway, London and New' York, No. 1, August. 

(Routledge!) 

The ink with which we had written the preceding 
notice Avas scarcely dry when, we received the first 
Number of Messrs. Routledge's new International Maga- 
zine : and a thoroughly good first Number it is. It opens 
with five chapters of a new story, " Brakespeare ; or, 
The Fortunes of a Free Lance," by one of the most 
vigorous and popular of modern writers ; which is fol- 
lowed by some dozen other papers of great variety, in- 
cluding *a graceful little poem, " Charmian," by Robert 
Buchanan ; and " A Wonderful Crab," with eight wood- 
cuts, by Ernest Griset, which is worth the price of the 
whole Magazine, and more. How Messrs. Routledge 
can afford such a miscellany for sixpence, passes com- 
prehension ; but their expectation of an enormous sale, 
based on the acknowledged fact that there are in the 
world twice as many sixpences as shillings, will, we 
have no doubt, be realised. 

MESSRS. VIRTUE & Co. purpose commencing, in 
October, the publication of a new Monthly Magazine, 
under the Editorship of ANTHONV TROLLOPE. It will 
be called The New Metropolitan Magazine. 



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Vide " N. & Q." 1st S. iii. 518, and the biographical dictionaries. 

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3'd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



121 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 17, 18G7. 



CONTENTS. N 294. 

IIOTES: Shakespeariana : Runaway's Eyes : "Romeo and 
Juliet " Curious Printing of the First Folio Hain let 
to Guildenstern " Troilus and Cressida " " As you like 
it," 121 " Chevy Chase," 123 Political Epigrams of last 
Century, 124 English Adherents of the House of Stuart, 
125 Fata Morgana in the Japygian Peninsula Notes on 
Fly-leaves False Quantity in Byron's "Don Juan" 
Silver Font Washington's Masonic Apron Stuffing the 
Ears with Cotton An old Don-Juanic Rhyme Lines 
from a Canadian Paper Holland : fine Linen, 126. 

QUERIES: Unknown Object in Yaxley Church, Suffolk, 
128 Portraits of Yorkshiremen, Ib. Lord Darnley 
Depledge Ermine in Heraldry Passage from Fortescue 

Earl of Home " Frightened Isaac " Sir Godfrey 
Kneller Passage in " Don Juan " Permanent Colours 
A Philosophic Brute Poem concerning St. Sepulchre's, 
London Qualifications for Voting " Quiz " Royal 
Christian Names Samuel Smith, of Prettlewell, Essex 
Scotish Peers: Eglinton Earldom Shenstone's Inn 
Verses .Vent Wells in Churches, 129. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: The Tool in Pagan Times 
St. John of Beverley, 132. 

REPLIES: Pews or Seats, 133 Cap-a-pie, 135 Bishop 
Hay, 136 Debentures " Oil of Mercy " " Thus ! " 
Earl St. Vincent Duke of Moncada, Marquis D'Aytone 

" Cut one's Stick" Coat Cards or Court Cards " Sup- 
pressed Poem of Lord Byron" Perjury Source of 
Quotations wanted James Hamilton " All is lost save 
Honour " Shekel Frederick Prince of Wales Hang- 
ing in the Bell-ropes Churches Almack's Walking 
under a Ladder Rule of the Road Verna : Creole, &c. 

Drinking Healths in New England, &c., 136. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



SHAKSPEARIANA. 

RUNAWAY'S EYES : " KOJIEO AND JULIET " 
(Act III. Sc. 2). 

" That runaway's eyes may wink," &c., &c. 

Is there room in "N. & Q." for yet one word 
on this thoroughly winnowed, but still "vexed" 



If we resolve on adopting a conjectural reading, 
I suppose opinions may fairly be divided between 
"rude day's/'' "rumour's," and " rumourers'." 
As for "unawares/' I heartily agree with the 
critic who pronounced it " villainous," and should 
be much disposed to apply the same epithet to 
" renomy's." " Enemies' "' is neither very good 
nor very bad certainly not satisfactory. 

Let us make one more effort to expound the 
text as it stands. Warburton, who holds Phoebus 
to be meant, or Halpin, who stands up gallantly 
for Cupid, may possibly be right. Indeed it i's 
impossible not to admit the great ingenuity of 
the argument for the last interpretation. But, 
even if I acquiesced in the conclusion, I should 
still dissent from the dictum of a critic in Black- 
wood, that " there could not be a happier-chosen 
and more expressive word than 'runaway's' as 
here employed." 

How Steevens can satisfy himself that Night 
herself is the personage intended, I cannot under- 



stand : still less how Douce can resort to the 
extraordinarily forced interpretation that Juliet 
alludes to herself as "a runaway from duty." 
Blackstone, who seems to read "runaway eyes," 
supposes, if I understand his note, these words to 
mean the stars a good-enough interpretation, 
quoad general sense, and reminding us of 

" Stars, hide your fires ! 

Let not light see my black and deep desires." 

Macbeth. 

But it is difficult to feel quite satisfied with the 
propriety of the epithet "runaway," as applied to 
these winking e} r es of night. Day and night are 
both runaways: day at the approach of night ; 
and night, in turn, at that of day. Everything in 
nature is a runaway from something which suc- 
ceeds it. 

First. "Why may not "runaway's eyes," or 
"runaway eyes," mean the eyes of those prying 
pests of society, whose business and pleasure it is 
to lie ever on the watch for any faux pas on the 
part of their neighbours, and, having seen one, to 
run away and spread the discovery through every 
" scandalous college " of which they are members? 
Does not Juliet simply mean : May the eyes of 
any watcher, lying perdu to run away with a re- 
port of our meeting, be made to wink be blinded 
in spite of their malicious acuteness, by the dark- 
ness and our interview consequently remain un- 
seen and untalked of? "Untalked of" seems to 
me conclusive that Juliet was afraid of somebody 
who could "talk." So evidently thought the. 
German translator, when he rendered the passage 
(one-volume Shakspere, Wien, 1826) : 

" Verbreite deinen dichten Vorhang, Nacht, 
Du Liebespflegerinn ! damit das Auge 
Der Neubegier sich schliess', und Romeo 
Mir unbelauscht in diese Arme schliippe ! " 

To me this interpretation is the simplest and 
most satisfactory : but secondly, to bring out this 
meaning more unrnistakeably, is it not possible 
that the second word is the one misprinted its 
first letter having also got accidentally tacked on 
to the preceding word; and that we ought, in- 
stead of "runaway's eyes," to read "runaway 
spies," or, with the alteration of only one letter, 
" runawaye spyes " ? Everyone notoriously loves 
his own brain-children too much ; but I must say, 
if we are to alter at all, this alteration appears to 
me to be as reasonable and small as any hitherto 
suggested by bigger men than I. But I am quite 
content to gather the same meaning, without any 
alteration whatever, from, the words as they stand. 

" Even the attempt," says ME. KEIGHTLEY, "to 
elucidate, if it be only a single word in our great 
dramatist, though mayhap a failure, is laudable /' 
and I therefore offer no apology for casting my 
small conjectural pebble on the huge cairn which 
commentators and critics have heaped over the 
bones of Shakspere. 



122 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



g. XII. AUG. 17, '67. 



In the copy of Romeo and Juliet, in the library 
of the Garrick Club adapted to the stage by 
David Garrick, revised by- J. P. Kemble, and 
published as it is acted at the Theatre Royal 
Covent Garden (1811), the reading is 

'' That the runaway's eyes may wink," &c. 
Is there any authority whatever for this ? 

H.K. 

CURIOUS PRINTING OF THE FIRST FOLIO. I 
am not aware if the circumstances of the position 
of Troilus and Cressida, in the volume of 1623 
have been fully commented on by bibliographers 
and editors 1. It does not appear at all in the 
list of contents. 2. It is inserted, out of all order 
as to paging and signature, after Henry VIII. 
which ends the histories, and before Coriolanus, 
which should commence the tragedies. 

It has remains of its own paging on the 2nd and 
3rd pages only, being 79, 80 respectively ; and, on 
what should be the 81st page, appears as a signa- 
ture apparently the italic capital G, followed as 
an interpolated signature by p reversed, the usual 
mark used to indicate a paragraph in the autho- 
rised version. On examining further I find that 
it has evidently been displaced to make room for 
Timon of Athens. There is no signature i i, nor any 
pagination from 100 to 108 inclusive among the 
tragedies. Romeo and Juliet ends at p. 77, being 
part of signature y g ; Julius Caesar begins at p. 109, 
being part of signature k h. Troilus and Cressida, if 
continuously paged, would begin at p. 78, being 
part of signature "(7 italic, and end at p. 106. If 
we then allow a page and a blank for the prologue, 
we exactly fill the space required ; whereas, Timon 
of Athens, the substitute, falls short by eight 
pages of the required quantity. From this it is 
quite evident that, as the volume was originally 
set up in type, Troilus and Cressida must have 
been " cast off" to follow Romeo and Juliet, and 
to precede Julius Ccssar. 

It will be curious at this distance of time to 
speculate as to the causes of this alteration. 
There is one anomaly, however: allowance is 
made in this paging for the prologue to follow, not 
precede Troilus and Cressida; but it is not pos- 
sible the whole play can have been shifted from 
its original position merely on account of a diffi- 
culty so easily remedied, and thus placed, as it 
were, in limbo between history and tragedy, as 
though the editors were in doubt with which 
division properly to locate it. H. 



HAMLET TO GUILDENSTERN (3 rd S. xii. 3.) 

" I am but mad north-north west ; when the wind is 
southerly, I know a hawk from a hand-saw." 

As your correspondent J. A. G. can find no ex- 
planation of this proverb, he offers a solution of 



the difficulty by substituting anser, pronounced 
by the ignorant handset; and at last handsaiv. I 
have always considered the word to be a corrup- 
tion of hern-shaw ; i. e. heronry. Heron was gra- 
dually contracted, in the speech of the vulgar, to 
hern, and at length crept intopoetry. Gay writes : 

" The tow'ring hawk, let future poets sing, 
Who terror bears upon his soaring wing ; 
Let them on high the frighted hern survey, 
And lofty numbers paint their airy fray." 

The encounter between the hawk and the heron 
was a favourite pastime in the middle ages for 
princes and nobles, and they watched the contest 
with strained gaze, as the one attacked and the 
other threw himself on his back to receive his too 
eager assailant on the long sharp beak, which fre- 
quently proved a fatal stratagem to the bird of 
prey. That Shakspeare was a dear lover from 
early youth of field sports we gather from the 
hackneyed version of his deer-stealing say rather 
poaching in Sir Thomas Lucy's domain, and his 
ridicule of that worthy squire for inflicting ma- 
gisterial punishment on the culprit. And it is 
curious to note in this our day three hundred 
years later a similar result, how the offenders 
against the game laws have the press and play- 
wrights as apologists for their transgressions. No 
doubt there was near the domain at Charlecote a 
heronry as well as a deer preserve, and our im- 
mortal bard may have incurred the penalty of the 
sixteenth century twenty shillings for killing a 
heron, and ten shillings for robbing her nest. At 
any rate he was much more likely to put into 
Hamlet's mouth a proverb relating to the highly- 
prized sport of hawks and herons, than any allu- 
sion to a silly goose. 

" The heron, when she soareth high, sheweth winds." 
By which I take Bacon to allude to the practice 
of using this bird in field sports. And though 
Hamlet might feign to be "mad north-north 
west " to deceive the players to suit his own pur- 
pose, yet Shakspeare artistically adds, " when the 
wind is southerly," to show he was no fool as a 
sportsman. QUEEN'S GARDENS. 

" TROILUS AND CRESSIDA," Act IV. Sc. 5, 
1. 59. 

" O, these encounterers, so glib of tongue, 
That give a coasting welcome ere it comes." 

I find in Roquefort a quotation very apposite to 



" Mais le Dieu d'amours m'a suivi, 
Et de loin m'estoit costoiant, 
Me regardant et espiant, 
Comme le veneur fait la beste, 
Pour me ferir de sa sajete." 

Roman de la Rose. 

Roquefort gives, " Costoier = Suivre, aller 
apres. " Cotgrave gives, " Costoyer = To accoast, 



J'd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



123 



s de, abbord ; to be, or lye by the side of ; also, to 
c >ast along by, or go by the coast of." 
Coleridge's proposed emendation 

" That give accosting welcome ere it comes," 
s jarcely affects the meaning of the passage ; for, 
I as Sir Toby Belch tells us, " ' Accost ' is front her, 
loard her, woo her, assail her." 

Accost, I think, had not its modern (narrowed) 
signification in Shakespeare's time; though the 
Twelfth Night passage might indicate a new- 
fashioned use of the word. Twelfth Night has 
many allusions to the affected language of the 
time. 

The Latin costa would be equally the root of 
coasting and accosting. JOHN ADDIS, JTJN. 

Rustington, Littlehampton. 



" AS YOU LIKE IT," Act II. Sc. 7, 
" Sans teeth, sans eyes," &c. 

As Shakspeare's originality of idea or expres- 
sion has given rise to so much discussion, it may 
be presumptuous to put forward a scrap like that 
which is now sent to you. Should it be thought of 
any value, or should it not have been hit upon by 
any commentator, of which I am not aware, it 
may perhaps obtain a place among your various 
collections respecting him. 

His reading and acquaintance with books has 
been canvassed by those who are better acquainted 
with the subject than myself. But it is agreed 
that the translation of " The Essayes of Michael 
de Montaigne, by John Florio (I forget his real 
name), printed at London by Val. Sims for Ed- 
ward Blount, dwelling in Paule's Churchyard, 
1603," was a production not unknown to him. 
Indeed this was proved by the discovery some 
years back of a copy of this small folio, containing 
the autograph of the poet, and now placed among 
the literary treasures of the British Museum. 
Turning over the pages of one in my possession 
the other day, I came upon the following passage 
in the second book, 12th chapter, p. 306 ; where 
is a long rambling dissertation, as usual, of " om- 
nium gatherum " amounting to an hundred pages, 
and hooked upon the simple title of " An Apologie 
for Reymond Seybond." It is merely the expres- 
sion that struck me with its similarity to the 
phrase in the celebrated close of the Stages of 
Man, and it runs thus in exposition of a passage 
from Cicero, De Natura Deorum : ?- 

" The infinite number of mortall men, concludeth a 
like number of immortall. The infinite things that kill 
and destroy, presuppose as many that preserve and profit. 
As the soules of the Gods, sans tongues, sans eyes, and 
sans eares, have each one in themselves a feeling of that 
which the other feele," &c. 

Has this been observed by any of the annota- 
tors upon Shakespeare ? U. U. 



CHEVY CHASE." 

The ballad bearing this title has been a source 
of serious difficulty to students alike of history 
or ballad literature. While professing to give an 
account of a certain contest at Otterbourne, and 
borrowing remarkable incidents from the histori- 
cal battle fought at that place, the causes, dimen- 
sions, and effects assigned to the struggle are so 
very dissimilar that the opinion has been started, 
and strongly pressed by Bishop Percy, that a 
separate battle is referred to, with which the au- 
thor of the ballad mixed up the incidents of 
Otterbourne. My object is to prove the utter 
worthlessness of the ballad historical!}', to explain 
in a novel way the name of the battle, and thence 
to show the hunting expedition, which forms the 
chief stumbling-block of commentators, to be a 
fiction engendered by a curious instance of lin- 
guistic corruption. 

The two versions of the ballad, the older and 
the more recent, are of course to be found in 
Percy's Reliques ; they agree throughout in stat- 
ing the facts as follows: The combat took place 
at Otterbourne, and was occasioned by the Percy's 
vow to hunt the Cheviot in spite of Douglas. 
The result was indecisive, 1447 out of 1500 Eng- 
lish bowmen being killed, and 1945 out of 2000 
Scotch spearsmen. Douglas was shot dead by an 
arrow ; Percy slain by a lance thrust. 

The only battle that ever took place at or near 
Otterbourne was contested on the one side by 
Douglas, with 2000 foot and 300 lances ; on the 
other, by Harry Hotspur and Ralph, sons of the 
Percy, commanding 8000 foot and 600 spears. It 
was occasioned by Northumberland sending his sons 
to encounter the two Scotch armies which had 
entered England. The English attacked the ene- 
my's camp between Otterbourne and Newcastle, 
and were eventually routed with the loss of 1800 
men, 1000 others being wounded. The invaders 
lost only 100 in killed, 200 in prisoners. Douglas 
was slain by a spear thrust, while Hotspur was 
captured. 

I have given this brief summary of the fight, 
which occurred August 19, 1388, after reading the 
very full narrative of Froissart, derived from two 
French knights who had served on the English 
side in the contest, and from " a knight and two 
squires of Scotland, of the party of Earl Douglas." 
The minuteness of this account, the fact that it 
was obtained from combatants on both sides, and 
the confirmation afforded by other historians, are 
a sufficient guarantee for Froissart's accuracy. 

It will be at once seen from this bare outline 
that the ballad consists of a pitifully mangled 
account of the battle of Otterbourne: and the 
minstrel, besides openly mentioning this place as 
the scene, has so blended various incidents and 
names connected with that contest as to destroy 
all doubt on the subject. Nor was there any 



124 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3** S. XII. AUG. 17, '67. 



other occasion on which a Douglas was slain. 
The only reason for supposing a separate battle is 
the much dwelt on hunting-party. Yet why 
should the least credit be attached to a writer so 
grossly ignorant of the circumstances of Otter- 
bourne, and so dependent as to borrow whole 
stanzas from the more ancient and (except where 
numbers are concerned) very accurate ballad, 
"The Battele of Otterbourne." 

Again, the composer places the event in the 
reign of Henry IV. and " Jamy the Skottishe 
Kyng," and makes it immediately antecedent to 
Hombledon j but Richard II. reigned in England, 
the first " Jamy " was not born till ten years 
after, and Hombledon was not fought till 1402. 
The writer, therefore, must have lived a very long 
period subsequent to Otterbourne, or its chro- 
nicler, whose last stanza proves him to have com- 
posed his poem after 1403. 

From this disgraceful distortion of the simplest 
facts we may gather that any event narrated by 
the writer of our ballad is ipso facto disentitled to 
our credit. It remains to be seen whether we 
cannot even find further reasons for setting aside 
that story of the hunting expedition which affords 
its title to the ballad, and forms so prominent a 
feature in it. My own conjecture is that this 
arose from Otterbourne being styled " The Battle 
of (the) Chevachees." Chevachees or clicvachies 
(otherwise chivachies) were forays, raids over the 
border into an enemy's country, in one of which 
the Scots were engaged at this very time. The 
word occurs in Chaucer, during whose life Otter- 
bourne was fought. I find it in the eighty-fifth 
line of the Prologue to the Canterbury " Tales, 
where Wright has a note on it. It still exists in 
the French chevauchee and our chivy. 

What could be more natural than that the 
knightly class should style this " The Battle of 
(the) Chevachees," just as they spoke of the Battle 
of Spurs and that the Saxon populace, ignorant 
of these long aristocratic French words, should 
construe the title into Battle of (the) Chevy- 
Chase " ? 

If we place together the various orthographies 
of both words, the change becomes astonishingly 
easy. Thus : 

Chevet 1 , 



Chyviat 

are the spellings of ballads. The other has four 
forms 

Chevachies -ees 

Chivachies -ees. 

It is impossible for any change to be more j 
simple ; while there exist numberless instances of ' 
similar corruptions e. g. lantern into lantliorn, \ 
asparagus into sparroivgrass ; while the Sura/ah \ 



Doivlah and Hirondette have become Sir Roger 
Dowlas and Iron Devil, and Caton Fidele has un- 
dergone transmutation into a Cat and Fiddle. It 
is also remarkable that Chevy-Chase is invariably 
written in the ballad with a hyphen, and not 
separatim. 

Hence then, in my belief, arose the idea that 
the battle of Otterbourne took place during a 
hunting expedition in Cheviot. The story itself 
furnishes corroborative testimony. The composer 
shows his ignorance by speaking of Otterbourne 
as in Cheviot, although at least a dozen miles 
distant. Nay, the very vow of Percy would have 
been unnecessary, or rather a proof of cowardice, 
for the Cheviots were no less Northumbrian than 
Scotch, Cheviot itself clearly appertaining to Eng- 
land rather than Scotland. 

No one can admire more than myself the quaint, 
martial, racy style of the ballad in its older form, 
but I cannot side with Bishop Percy in the face 
of the silence of historians, the self-evident ignor- 
ance of the author, and the improbability of the 
narrative. Very careful investigation satisfied me 
of the truth of a conjecture which, if correct, 
settles the whole question, and completely re- 
moves an historical difficulty. It has received 
the unqualified approval of those whose judg- 
ment on such a point is more safe and valuable 
than my own ; and I submit it to the readers of 
"N. & Q.," deprecating any severe censure on an 
attempted solution, whether true or false, of a 
question at once interesting and perplexing. 

E. B. NICHOLSON. 

Tonbridge. 

POLITICAL EPIGRAMS OF LAST CENTURY. 

I have never happened to note in any miscella- 
neous collection of epigrams or political squibs 
any extracts from a very odd volume, of which 
the title runs : 

"Epigrams of Martial, with Mottoes from Horace: 
Translated, Imitated, Adapted, and Addrest to the Nobi- 
lity, Clergy, and Gentry. With Notes Moral, Historical, 
Explanator}', and Humorous. By the Rev. Mr. Scott, 
M.A., late of Trinity College, Cambridge. London : 
Printed for J. Wilkie, St. Paul's Church-yard, J. Walter, 
Charing Cross, and H. Parker, Cornhill. JIDCCLXXIII." 

The oddity of this remarkable volume lies in 
the perfect unreserve with which the author, who 
is a clergyman, and who publishes his name, al- 
ludes to all the current political and private 
scandal of the time. Not often does one meet 
with plainer speaking. The volume, moreover, 
contains numerous allusions to personages and 
events of the time which a tolerably extensive 
acquaintance with the gossip literature of the 
last century does not always help me in decipher- 
ing. Thus, I at once recognise Burke under the 
nickname of the " Irish Jesuit Edmund ; " but I 
am at a loss to guess who "Cream-coloured 



3 rd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



125 



Tommy " and " Jerry Mungo " were, with several 
,.ther equally pointed and picturesque personal 
llusions. 

Perhaps a few specimens of this reverend epi- 
grammatist's quality may not "be unacceptable to 
the readers of " X. & Q." Here is a hard hit at a 
noted political character of the period : 

" To the Right Hon. Richard Rigby, Esq. ; when mellow, 
promising everything ; but when sober, performing nothing. 
" You are full of promises, my friend ! 

When you are drunk all night : 
And say that everything shall end 

To all my wishes quite. 
But in the morn you nothing do, 

And therefore be advised ; 
Be drunk both night and morning too, 

Your word will then be prized." 
Here is a severe blow levelled at an eminent 
astronomer : 

" To Mr. Neville JMaskelyne. On an Empty Fellow. 
" OfNevill ! why do you oppose 

"A vacuum in nature ? 
Since by your head you so disclose 
You're such an empty creature ! " 

The epigrammatist is particularly severe on 
Wilkes, Dr. Dodd, Stephen Fox, and the Whig 
leaders generally. Dodd he plainly stigmatises as 
a tuft-hunter, a sycophant, and a "specious hypo- 
crite. To Wilkes he applies a translation of the 
epigram of Sannazarius on Cesar Borgia : 

" ' Nothing or Cesar,' Borgia woiild be. True : 
Since he's at once both ' Nought and Cesar ' too ! " 

An epigram on Lord Holland makes allusion to 
a dark and dubious transaction in his lordship's 
career : 

" To Lord Hld. 

" Would I slip out and fling the Bailiff? 
As somebody once, 'tis said, did Ayliffe : 
No, not of Egypt were I Caliph ! '" 
Many of the epigrams are not quotable, and but 
few of them possess any literary merit. One 
supplied to the author by an " unknown hand " 
seems to me extremely fine : 

" On the Passage of the Israelites out of Egypt. 
" When Egypt's King GOD'S chosen tribe pursued 
In crystal walls th' admiring waters stood. 
When through the desert wild they took their way, 
The rocks relented, and poured forth a sea. 
What limits can Almighty Goodness know, 
When seas can harden, and when rocks can flow ? " 

Is there anything known of the author of this 
book ? D. BLAIK. 

Melbourne. 

[With our correspondent we are curious to know a 
little about the author of these Epigrams. He is clearly 
the ' Rev. William Scott, A.M., late scholar of Eton, and 
of Trinity College. Cambridge," probably the A.B. 1746, 
and A.M. 1750, of the Cantabrigienses Graduati, and the 
author of several pamphlets. At one time he is styled 
" Morning Preacher at St. Michael's, Wood Street " ; and 
again, " Assistant Morning Preacher at St. Sepulchre's, 
Snow Hill." He appears to have been a caterer for the 
booksellers ; and by not publishing his Christian name in 



his early productions, led the public to believe they were 
from the pen of Mr. James Scott, late Fellow of Trinity 
College. His work, The Epigrams of Martial, was pub- 
lished on the first of January, 1773, and on the eighth of 
the same month the following paragraph made its ap- 
pearance in the Public Advertiser : 

" We can assure our readers that a book lately pub- 
lished by J. Wilkie in St. Paul's Churchyard, entitled 
Epigrams of Martial, &c., is not written by the Rev. 
James Scott, late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
and now rector of Simonburn in Northumberland ; nor 
does that gentleman know anything either of the work 
or its author." 

His next production, A Sermon on Bankruptcy, 1773, 
is one of Bishop Fleetwood's discourses, with some alter- 
ations. (See his Works, p. 728, fol.) His Sermon on 
the King's Accession, preached on Sunday, Oct. 25, 1772, 
is dedicated to David Garrick, and as he rightly states 
in the Dedication', " will be thought, no doubt, as much 
out of character as dedicating a corned} 1 - to an arch- 
bishop." In 1774 he published two sermons, entitled 
" O Tempora ! O Mores ! or, the best New Year's Gift 
for a Prime Minister ; by the Rev. William Scott, late 
of Eton," and dedicated it to " Lord North, Prime Minister 
of England." On its title-page is the following : " N.B. 
The pulpit was refused at eight of the most capital 
churches in the city. Above a thousand copies were 
ordered before it was sent to press; and two hundred 
more by a gentleman for one of our North-American 
colonies." After the year 1778 we lose sight of our 
author. Er>.l 



ENGLISH ADHERENTS OF THE HOUSE OF 
STUART. 

Of Francis Turner, Bishop of Ely, it is said : 

" There can be no doubt that after Francis Turner's 
return to England he carried on a secret correspondence 
with the Court of St. Germains, and was deep in Sir 
John Fenwick's plot. While that bold Northumbrian 
baronet stood at bay, nearly hunted to the death.^ the 
government blood-hounds were keen on the scent of 'one 
Grascome, a nonjuring clergyman, who had hitherto 
defied all their efforts in tracking his whereabouts. Al- 
though the most active of all the pamphleteers who stirred 
up the lire of insurrection in those times, Grascome walked 
invisible through all plots. At last he was ascertained 
to be in the house of a French silkweaver in Spital- 
fields. The Prince of Orange's messengers surrounded 
the house with an armed force, then went in and captured 
a gentleman, who gave his name as Harris. He was, 
however, identified by several persons there as the de- 
prived Bishop of Ely, Dr. Francis Turner. When he 
j was questioned, and asked to give an account of himself, 
I the bishop said very coolly, ' that he had no other account 
I to give but that he came there to dine, for he did not 
I live there, his lodgings were at Lincoln's Inn.' When he 
j found that the government officials meant to detain him, 
he wrote to Secretary Vernon (who details this odd ad- 
venture in his letter to the Duke of Shrewsbury [ Earl of 
Shrewsbury]), and demanded his freedom, alleging 'that 
he held a pass to go to France if he chose, but he had 
made no attempt to avail himself of it.' Secretary Ver- 
j non and the other State Minister, Windebanke (to 'whom 
I the bishop likewise appealed), referred him to Sir William 
I Trumbull. The oddity of the case was, that the Bishop 
: of Ely knew as well they did that the Prime Minister, 
i Shrewsbury, was himself deep in the plot, and was only 
I watching the signs of the times to declare for King 
1 James II. The result was that Sir William Trumbull 



126 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



S. XII. Aue. 17, '67. 



set the dauntless clerical Jacobite at liberty. He retired 
to his lodgings in Lincoln's Inn, where he rested perdu, 
varying the monotony of seclusion by occasional visits to 
Moor-park, that fair oasis in the Southern Highlands of 
England, cultivated and improved by Sir William Tem- 
ple. All the doings therein were completely isolated from 
the rest of the island, excepting the near town of Farnham, 
by the deep sands of the wild Surrey heaths. Here Francis 
Turner was received with great affection by that myste- 
rious statesman Sir William Temple. We can trace the 
Christian prelate's influence for good on the mind of Tem- 
ple's protege, Jonathan Swift. His noble ode to Truth, 
written in memory of Sancroft, is endorsed as composed 
at the request of Dr. Turner, Bishop of Ely." 

So far Miss Strickland, in her Lives of the Seven 
EisJwps, and your correspondent would observe 
that the Englisli adherents of the House of Stuart 
have been underrated in their services in favour of 
the Scotch and Irish followers of the same noble 
house. One may instance General Monk's great 
service in restoring King Charles II. Next in 
order comes the Duke of Berwick, whose success- 
ful enterprise in setting the crown of Spain on the 
rightful claimant's head, the Duke of Anjou, the 
grandson of Louis XIV., made the Bourbon family 
compact possible. Then Lord Chatham's (who, 
under the name of patriot, was no doubt a con- 
cealed Jacobite ; his frequent attacks on the em- 
ployment of Hanoverian troops in this country 
show his leaning) measure in attacking Canada, 
and taking it from the French, resulted in France 
and Spain joining to support American indepen- 
dence, and wrested the American colonies now 
the fine country of United States out of the hands 
of the House of Hanover. 

Washington was the descendant of a Royalist 
who fought for King Charles I. ; and Lord Mahon 
mentions in his History of England that, when 
the Scotch in the neighbourhood of New York 
offered to raise the standard of Prince Charles Ed- 
ward Stuart, a paper amongthe Stuart Papers states 
that his answer was " for them to mind their own 
business; " that is, that the then representative of 
the Stuart family wished them to side with 
Washington, which no doubt they did. And, 
lastly, let us not forget Dean Swift, whose 
Drapier Letters to the People of Ireland kept 
them from a useless insurrection, and paved the 
way, with William Pitt's union of England and 
Ireland, to the measure, afterwards carried by 
Daniel O'Connell, of Catholic Emancipation, and 
seating the Irish Catholic members in the Eng- 
lish House of Commons ; thus creating a powerful 
body of Irish Catholic members in support of the 
English Catholics, always great adherents of the 
House of Stuart. This measure (the Catholic 
Emancipation) would have been of no use if Wil- 
liam Pitt, the worthy son of Lord Chatham, 
had not by the union of Ireland with England 
abolished the Irish Parliament, because Ireland 
was commanded by the English fleet. 

Y. C. 



FATA MORGANA IN THE JAPYGIAN PENINSULA. 
Have travellers in Italy found this natural phe- 
nomenon anywhere else than at the Straits of 
Messina ? In travelling over the Japygian penin- 
sula, which I have in a late number of "N. & Q." 
(3 rd S. xi. 516) mentioned in respect to artificial 
mounds, I heard the natives speak of what they 
called tf Mutate," and on questioning them as to 
what they meant, I found that this was only 
another name for what is known as the "Fata 
Morgana." At Nardo and Galateo, and more 
particularly at Manduria, they assured nie that at 
dawn, when the atmosphere is perfectly calm, or ' 
when a "scirocco" is just beginning to blow, the 
appearances at times are very remarkable, ex- 
hibiting, if we can believe them, beautiful repre- 
sentations of castles, plains with cattle and flocks, 
men on horseback, and, what must be striking, 
the edges of the figures are often fringed with the 
prismatic colours. The figures are constantly 
changing, and hence no doubt the origin of the 
name " Mutate " which the natives apply to it. I 
am not able to confirm this from personal obser- 
vation, nor have I been able to find any mention 
of the phenomenon in any English work. Per- 
haps some of your correspondents can refer me to 
one. The only allusion to it that I have seen is 
in Antonii de Ferrariis Galatei De Situ Japygice 
Liber (Lycii, 1727). He says : 

" In his paludibus (agri Neritini) ut in campis Mau- 
durii et Galesi et Cupertini phasmata quacdam videntur, 

quas mutationes aut mutata dicunt vulgus Vide- 

bis quandoque urbes et castella et turres, quandoque 
pecudes et boves versicolores et aliarum rerum species 
seu idola, ubi nulla est urbs, nullum pecus, ne dumi qui- 
dem. Mihi voluptati interdum fuit videre haec ludicra, 
hos lusus naturae. Haec non diu permanent, sed ut va- 
pores, in quibus apparent, de uno in alium locum et de 
una forma in aliam permutantur, unde fortasse mutata 
nominantur." 

I have observed in another part of Italy some 
approach to the " mirage " which is here described. 
At early dawn, on my way through the Caudine 
Forks towards Benevento, thick mists rested on 
the lower valleys ; as the sun rose and the mist 
began to be dissipated, the villages seemed to be 
raised by the refracted light into the heavens. It 
no doubt requires a peculiar vapoury state of the 
atmosphere to produce the refraction necessary to 
cause such appearances. C. T. RAMAGE. 

NOTES ON FLY-LEAVES. At the end of the 
MS. No. XLV., in University College, Oxford 
which contains a copy of Piers Plowman in its 
earliest form is the following note : 

" Euery man whoes wife wereth a great horse must 

keep a frenche hood, quod Josua SI in the parlement 

house. 

" Euery man whoes wife wereth a frenche hode must 
kepe a great horse ; all one to hym. 

" the kinge was borne thre yeer after I cam to y e 
court. 



S.XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



127 



" I cam to y e court iij yeer after the king was borne. 

" Drinke er you goe ^ horse-mylle, 
goe er you drinke J mylle-horse. 

" If Hunne had nat sued the pmnunire, he shuld nat 
3 aue ben accused of heresie. 

" If Hunne had nat ben accused of heresie, he shuld 
i at h'aue sued the premunire. 

" The cat kylled the mouse, mus necabatur a cato. 

" The mouse kylled the cat. catus necuit murem. 

" catus rauri mortem egit. 

" mus interemit catu/n.'* 

All this obviously refers to some member of 
Parliament who was unfortunate enough to put 
che cart before the horse, evidently to the great 
amusement of some hearer who " made a note " 
of it. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

FALSE QUANTITY IN BYRON'S "!)ON JUAN." 
Xot only in Clarke's, but Murray's edition, I find 
the following line : 

" And so Zoe spent her's, as most women do." 

I have corrected my copies as follows, till the 
true or a better reading is announced : 

" And so- too Zoe spent her's as most women do." 

(ii. 136.) 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

SILVER FONT. The font at Canterbury was of 
silver, and was sometimes sent for to West- 
minster on the occasion of a royal christening. 
Simpson refers to Harl. MS. 6079, which I had 
not time to consult. W. H. S. 

WASHINGTON'S MASONIC APRON. At a recent 
masonic celebration in Winchester, Virginia, the 
masonic apron worn by the orator, W. H. Travers, 
Esq., formerly belonged to General Washington, 
having been presented to him by General La- 
fayette. This apron has the flags of France and 
the United States combined, beautifully wrought 
upon it in silver and gold, forming by their com- 
bination the principal masonic emblems. It was 
sent to Mount Nebo Lodge, of Winchester, Vir- 
ginia, by a member of the Washington family, in 
1811, and has been ever since carefully preserved 
by the brethren. W. W. 

STUFFING THE EARS WITH COTTON. It is an 
odd coincidence that this phrase, which was used 
in the condemned cells of Newgate during the 
chaplaincy of the excellent and book-loving Rev. 
H. S. Cotton, to express the exhortations of the 
minister of religion to the condemned criminal, 
was used with an exactly similar meaning by 
Henry IV. of France. When it suited the 
humour or the policy of that monarch to turn 
Catholic for a time, his confessor was the Abbe 
Coton ; and Henry was accustomed to say of the 
confessor's pious counsels, that they were " stuffing 
his ears with Coton." The immediate authority 
for this anecdote is Steinmetz's History of the 
Jesuits, but it is the common property of all the 
writers upon the times of Henry IV. "D. BLAIR. 

Melbourne. 



AN OLD DON-.TUANIC RHYME. In his transla- 
tion of Don Quixote, Shelton (or his reviser, 
Captain Stevens, edit. 1700), commences his ver- 
sion of Abtissidora's farewell to her impracticable 
knight-errant thus 

" Xow, in the name of the devil, 

Why, Sir Knight, so uncivil, 
To be gone, and take never a have of us ? 
Pray do not bestir 
So, with whip and with spur, 

The ribs and the flanks of your furious Bucephalus." 

E. L. S. 

LINES FROM A CANADIAN PAPER. I enclose an 
imperfect copy of a few lines from a Canadian 
newspaper, of date 1833. They were probably 
taken from L'Ami du Peuple, printed in Montreal. 

As the lines express attachment to our govern- 
ment as well as patriotic feeling, I would send 
copies of " N. & Q." to an old friend in Canada 
should you think them worthy of a place. I think 
that the perusal of the lines will be gratifying to 
readers of the paper, if it be still in circulation 
after so long an interval : 

' ; * * * Canada, terre cherie, 

Par des braves tu fus peuple' ; 

Us cherchoient, loin de leur patrie, 

Une terre de liberte. 
" Xos peres, sortis de la France, 

Etoient 1'elite des guerriers, 

Et leurs enfans en leur vaillauce 

N'ont jamais Hetris les lauriers. 

" Belles, sont belles nos campagnes ! 
In Canada qu'on vit content ! 

Sublimes montagnes, 
Bords du superbe St.-Laurent. 

*' Habitant de cette contree 
Que nature veut embellir, 
Tu peus marcher tete-leve'e, 
Ton paj-s doit t'enorgueillir. 

" Respecte la main protectrice 
D'Albion, ton digne soutien ; 
Mais fais echoir le malice 
D'ennemi nourri dans ton sein. 

" Ne flechis jamais sous 1'orage, 
Tu n'as pour maitres que les loix ; 
Tu n'es point fait pour Pesclavage, 
Albion veille sur tes droits. 

" Si d' Albion la main cherie 
Cesse un jour de (te) proteger, 
Soutiens toi seule, 6 ma patrie, 
Meprise un secours ctranger." 

CONSTANT READER. 

HOLLAND: FINE LINEN. We are assured by 
the learned Samuel Johnson that HOLLAND means 
Fine linen made in Holland '; and so wrote Noah 
Webster for the information of transatlantic 
students. Such also was the conclusion of the 
writer till he chanced to hit on the paragraph 
which follows : 

" La ville de GLAI>UACH est petite, il y a des Calvinistes 
et des Juifs, mais le nombre des Catholiques, qui out 
pour cure un religieux, est plus grand. C'est la qu'on 



J28 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. XII. AUG. 17, '67. 



fait ces belles toilcs, qu'on transports dans toutes _les 
parties de 1'Europe, et qu'on appelle ordinairement toiles 
de Hollande parce que les Hollandois viennent les enlever, 
et en font un tres-grand commerce/' Voyage litteraire 
de deux religieux benedictins de la congregation de Saint 
Maur. [Dom Edmond Martene et do'm Ursin Durand]. 
A x Paris, 1717-24, 4 ii. 221. 

I do not find Gladbach in Malte-Brim or BalM : 
it must be near Dusseldorf. The old names of 
textile fabrics may sometimes lead to erroneous 
notions, but the Holland of former times was no 
doubt similar to that of our own times. In the 
Union inventories we read of holland sheets (1596), 
and holland toivels (1620) and in one of the 
wardrobe accounts of prince Henry, eldest son of 
James I. we have holland for small furnishings at 
10/ an ell, and holland for shirts at 13 1 4 an ell. 
Such were the charges of master Alexander Wil- 
son, tailor to the Princes grace, in 1608. 

BOLTOX 



UNKNOWN OBJECT IN YAXLEY CHURCH, 
SUFFOLK. 

Some time since there were found in the par- 
vise of the north porch of this church two orna- 
mental iron wheels, which I will endeavour to 
describe more particularly. 

Each wheel, made of sheet iron, consists of two 
circles and two Greek crosses rivetted around 
and upon a convex boss, or umbo, pierced in the 
centre. From the centre of the umbo to the cir- 
cumference of the inner circle is eight and a half 
inches, and of the outer circle fourteen and three- 
quarter inches. Between each of the intersections 
of the crosses is rivetted upon the centre umbo a 
leaf, cusped, five inches in length ; and upon the 
inner (or middle) circle two similar leaves also 
pointing- outwards, falling in the eight compart- 
ments on each side of a fleur-de-lis rivetted on 
the outer circle and pointing inwards. These 
wheels are separate and injured ; there is but one 
fleur-de-lis remaining, and that not perfect. Both 
wheels together weigh thirteen pounds. 

I am very desirous to know the use of these 
strange objects. The accomplished author of De- 
corative Painting in the Middle Ayes (E. L. Black- 
burne, Esq.), who is now engaged in the renova- 
tion of the church, is of opinion that they are the 
hinge-plates or hinge-fronts of one of the church 
doors ; but I do not feel persuaded that this was 
their use, for I cannot find any indication upon 
the wheels to show that they have been wrenched 
off as from a door, or were ever fastened to one. 
My own belief is that for some purpose they 
were intended to be fastened together, either for 
use or for ornament. Both the central bosses are 
pierced by a hole a quarter of an inch in diameter. 

Last Sept. (1866), when the Norfolk Archaeo- 



logical Society visited Long Stratton (St. Mary's) 
church, a pair of wheels in every respect similar 
was shown us in the vestry. The two were 
brought together cymbal-like, and hung up by a 
ring at the end of a handle, the lower part of the 
handle forking from the circumference to the 
centre, where it was fixed by a strong pin. I 
can compare it to nothing but to the familiar 
trundle that children are seen with in the streets. 

I fear, notwithstanding my diftuseness, that I 
have scarcely made myself intelligible to readers 
but I shall be much obliged for any help from, 
those who have understood me. 

P.S. Does this extract throw any light on the 
puzzle ? 

" MIDSUMMER EVE. Durand, speaking of the sites of 
the Feast of St. John Baptist, informs us of this curious 
circumstance, that in some places they roll a wheel about 
to signify that the sun, then occupying the highest place 
in the zodiac, is beginning to descend, and in the am- 
plified account of these ceremonies given by the poet 
Naogeorgus, we read that this wheel was taken up to the 
top of a mountain, and rolled down from* thence ; and 
that, as it had previously been covered with straw, twisted 
about it and set on fire, "it aopeared at a distance as if the 

sun had been falling from tffe sky People imagine 

that all their ill-luck rolls away from them together with, 
this wheel." Bonn's Brand, Pop. Antiq. i. 208, quoting 
Harl. MS. 2345, art. 100. 

W. H. SEWELL. 

Yaxlev. 



PORTRAITS OF YORKSHIREMEN. 

Can any of your readers inform me where 
portraits of the undermentioned persons are to be 
found? 

1. Joel Bates, by Dance : born at Halifax, and 
conducted Handel's "Messiah" in Westminster 
Abbey. 

2. Dr. John Berkenhout; born at Leeds, au- 
thor of the Synopsis, and Commissioner to the 
American States. 

3. John Bigland born in Holderness. Author, 
eighteenth century. 

4. William Blanchard, by De Wilde, actor,* 
born at York, 1800. 

5. Dr. Thomas Burnet, by Kneller; Chaplain 
to King William HI. 

6. Rev. Francis Fawkes, writer- born 1721- 
1777. 

7. John Flaxman, sculptor born at York, 1755. 

8. John Harrison, inventor of the chronometer ; 
bom 1693 ; died 1776. 

9. Thomas Harrison, architect: born 1744. 
Designed the bridge over the River Dee, and 
other works. Died 1829. 

10. George Holmes, Record Keeper; born at 
Skipton, 1662 ; died 1749. 

11. Henry Jenkins, centenarian. 

12. John'Kettlewell, Nonjuring divine, 1653- 
1695. 



3 rd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



129 



13. William Lodge, of Leeds, painter, engraver, 
and traveller; born 1688. 

With the engraved portraits I am acquainted ; 
but any information respecting portraits in oil of 
the above-named persons, either through your 
columns or direct, will be a favour. 

EDWARD HAILSTONE. 

Ilorton Hall, Bradford, Yorkshire. 



LORD DARNLEY. Sandford says, in his useful 
work, that Darnley was not five months in Scot- 
land before his marriage with the queen; and 
that he, " at the time, did not exceed his nine- 
teenth year." 

Can you inform me what was the exact date of 
his birth, which is said to have occurred at Temple 
Newsome in 1545, as I am desirous of ascer- 
taining his age at the time of his assassination ? 

Mary's marriage with Darnley was most pro- 
bably political. He was a dangerous rival : his 
descent from Margaret Tudor had placed him too 
near the crown of England. Had he remained in 
the South, and propitiated Elizabeth, it is very 
probable he would have been her successor. 

That Darnley passionately loved Mary, appears 
certain. He was young, accomplished, and, un- 
fortunately for himself, credulous. This was soon 
found out ; and the whispers as to Eizzio's inter- 
course with his wife brought about the cata- 
strophe that ultimatelv ended in his own murder. 

J. M. 

DEPLEDGE. I wish to learn, through your in- 
structive journal, the meaning of a term used by 
the villagers for a portion of the place in which 
I live. It is called "the depledge." I find 
nothing to help me in the dictionaries but the 
obsolete word "pleached," used by Shakspeare, 
and reintroduced into poetr} r by Emerson in his 
last volume of verses, where he writes of his 
" pleached garden"; while Shakspeare had writ- 
ten " the pleached bower," and of " pleached 
arms." In my; deeds the field is called the 
" depleach," which comes nearer to the ancient 
term for woven or plaited work. My " depledge " 
used to be a " boggart place " a dark mass of 
trees; and I wonder often whether the term 
" depledge," or " depleach," arose from this cir- 
cumstance : if so, why the prefix de- ? None of 
the old inhabitants can tell me why the place is 
called the " Depledge " ; so I ask you, Mr. Editor, 
is the name elsewhere used for & tangled collec- 
tion of trees, a pleached " natural " bower ? 

D. S. 
Cheadle, Cheshire. 

ERMINE IN HERALDRY. I am told that an 
ermine field in a coat armorial is indicative of 
regal descent; but I can find nothing, in any 



heraldic work within my reach, at all confirma- 
tory of such an origin. May I beg for any specific 
information upon this point ? M. D. 

PASSAGE FROM FORTESCUE. In an unpublished 
treatise by Sir John Fortescue, the author of the 
De Laudibus Leyum Anglice, which bears the title 
of De Naturd Ley is Natures, the following passage 
occurs as part of a statement intended to prove 
that a woman has no right of succession to a 
kingdom : 

" Philosophus " (meaning, I take for granted, Aris- 
totle) " in libro de Animalibus dicit quod mulierum 
membra qua; ad actus generations, gestus, et nutriment! 

prolis ordinantur grossiora sunt quam virorum, 

sed cetera earum membra minora existunt quam 

virorum ; scilicet ossa et nervi .... minora sunt, de- 
biliora, et minus virtuosa in fceminis quam in viris ; dicit 
etiam quod mulier est mas occasionatus." 

What is the sense of this phrase? I have 
looked through the De Animalibus in vain for 
the original passage. One is tempted to render 
"occasionatus", "with a specialty." But the 
word is not to be found in Facciolati, and is 
found in Ducange, with the sense of tributis gra- 
vatus, taxed for the king's "occasions." Should 
I therefore translate " a mulcted male " ? a male 
with something taken away an imperfect male ? 

C. P. F. 

EARL OP HOME. In Lodge's Genealogy of the 
Peerage, voce u Home/' occurs this statement : 

" Maldred left three sons, of whom Dolphin, the eldest, 

was ancestor of the Nevilles and Cospatrick, the 

youngest, who, with his descendants, are styled Earls, was 
great-grandfather of Waldave, Earl of "Dun bar .... 
which title was forfeited in 1435 by George eleventh 
earl," &c. 



but to call in the aid of others to rectify what 
seems like a succession of mistakes 

1. Was Dolphin the eldest son ? 

2. Was Cospatrick the youngest? 

3. Were they not " called Earls " (the descend- 
ants of C.), and as good titles as any other earls ; 
nay more, as kings of Northumbria, were they 
not, previously to their exile, of superior rank ? 

4. Were not these Earls of D unbar, at that 
early period, what the Douglases afterwards be- 
came? 

5. Was not the royal House of Stuart descended 
from " Alan the Steward " of the then Earl of 
Dunbar ? 

6. Did George, eleventh Earl of Dunbar, really 
forfeit his title, and was it not rather unjustly 
taken from him, and the inferior one of Earl of 
Buchan (which he refused to accept) offered in 
exchange ? 

Setting aside Drumniond's Noble Families, there 
is a pedigree of this Northumbrian family in a 
work generally admitted to be comparatively ac- 
curateI allude to Surtees' Durham, and Lord 
Kame's well-known Essay on a cognate subject 



130 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



. XII. AUG. 17, '67. 



(so to speak) seem to confirm niy impressions. 
However, I should be glad -to know how the 
ancient earldom of Dunbar stands in the estima- 
tion of Scottish antiquaries, for I am at a loss to 
discover any more noble or ancient, and yet the 
statements quoted are at least equivocal. SP. 

" FRIGHTENED ISAAC." In what book, play, or 
song does this once proverbial phrase first occur ? 
I dare say yourself, or some of your readers, can 
instruct me as to the origin of a comparison 
"You look like frightened Isaac" which lean 
remember to have heard as many as thirty years 
ago. C. T. B. 

SIR GODFREY KNELLER. Can any of your 
readers inform me if a list exists of the paintings 
of the above artist ? I am anxious to identify a 
painting (evidently a portrait), of which the sub- 
ject is a child playing with a lamb. H. Or. M. 

Whitehall Yard. 

PASSAGE IN " DON JUAN." What is the mean- 
ing of the passage within a parenthesis in the fol- 
lowing lines from Don Juan, canto vii. stanza 5 ? 

" Newton (that proverb of the mind), alas ! 
Declared with all his grand discoveries recent, 
That he himself felt only like a youth 
Picking up shells by the great ocean, Truth." 

JATDEE. 

PERMANENT COLOURS. It is as easy for a 
painter to put good colours on his canvass as bad, 
if he has them. It is satisfactory for a painter 
who expends a deal of time and trouble upon a 
large subject, especially if it be of a historical 
nature, to feel that his work will last. There is 
no doubt that in many of the old paintings, exe- 
cuted by most of the greatest names of past ages, 
some of the colours have blackened by time, some 
have altered, and some have faded out. Warned 
by these changes, modern artists and modern 
chemists have more or less turned their attention 
to the discovery of new pigments which it is 
hoped shall be of a more permanent nature. As 
I am only an amateur, I have not advanced to 
the higher walks of artistic knowledge ; but my 
present object is directed rather to the chemistry 
of colours than to their manual application to 
canvass. All the yellows made of that cheap 
and common but beautiful substance, chrome, I 
believe are very evanescent. I should like to 
know what yellow was used by the ancients. 
Cadmium yellow, strontian yellow, and one or 
two others, are vaunted in the present day ; but 
what do chemists and the best painters think of 
their permanency ? Perhaps it may be said that 
sufficient time has not yet elapsed to have enabled 
artists to judge and decide on this particular sub- 
ject, and that nothing but a long space of time 
can settle it. I dare say I am an unreasonable 
and an impatient fellow, but I cannot wait till 
our great-grandchildren have given their opinion. 



Pink, or lake, is another transitory colour. This 
is rather an important one, as it is a component 
part of the purples and grays. W T hat is the best 
recommended at the present time to stand, with- 
out waiting for our great-grandchildren ? A year 
or so ago, I recollect that some correspondent of 
l( N. & Q.," who was amusing himself with illu- 
minating, made some inquiry on the subject of a 
brilliant scarlet. My own object just now is the 
heraldic decoration of the panels of a flat Gothic 
ceiling, where a good scarlet is a necessary colour. 
I think that DR. HUSENBETH recommended a 
particular scarlet, on the assurance of his own 
personal experience. If this article should meet 
his eye, would he mind repeating the name of 
that particular scarlet, as I have not got a file of 
" N. & Q." by me ?* There is a pigment in powder 
known in the trade as "pure scarlet," some of 
which I have obtained, and its appearance is very 
good. Can this be the same as that recommended 
by the learned D.D. ? P. HUTCHINSON. 

A PHILOSOPHIC BRUTE. What Greek author 
gives this designation, and to what brute ? 

B. J. T. 

POEM CONCERNING Si. SEPULCHRE'S, LoN- 

DON. Perhaps some of the numerous readers of 
" N. & Q." might be able to inform me where I 
shall find a poem concerning the above church, 
respecting a culprit repeating over the acts of in- 
justice of the law which brought her to crime. I 
think it is entitled "Legends of St. Sepulchre," 
and part of the poem runs someway thus : 

" England robbed me of my son, 
I robbed enough to save my life. 
And for this I hung and for 
This I swung," &c. &c. &c. 

The author's name also will oblige 

CHARLES JAS. HILL. 

Dublin Friends Institute. 

QUALIFICATIONS FOR VOTING. Can any of your 
readers afford me a complete list of qualifications 
for voting under the old system ? In Preston, 
&c., the suffrage was practically universal. In 
Andover, &c., the town council were the electors. 
In Dowton, &c., the burgage holders. In Lon- 
don, liverymen. In Wootton Bassett, scot and 
lot. In counties, freeholders. Were there any 
other rights ? If so, what were they ? 

ANTIQUARY. 

"Quiz." Who is the author of two little 
volumes, Sketches of Young Ladies, and Sketches of 
Young Gentlemen, both illustrated by "Phiz""? 
The former is said to be by " Quiz"; the latter is 
anonymous, but obviously written by the same 
person. The publishers are Messrs. Chapman and 
Hall ; and the date of publication of the copies 
before me, which are each of the second edition, 



1* See a N.&Q."3'*s.x. 116J 






S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



131 



is, of the former 1837, of the latter 1838. I 
-emember, when they came out, they were com- 
monly attributed to the then young author of 
Pickwick ; but as they have never, I think, been 
included by Mr. Dickens in his collected Works, 
I suppose common belief was incorrect. Perhaps 
some of your readers can answer my question. 

0. T. B. 

ROYAL CHRISTIAN NAMES. The Times of 
July 29 announced the baptism of the daughter 
of the Prince of Teck, who received eight Chris- 
tian names. When did the custom of giving so 
many names to royal children come into vogue ? 
In Spain the absurdity is carried to a greater 
height than in any other country. In Germany 
six or eight names are commonly given ; but four 
is the largest number hitherto bestowed upon the 
infants of our royal family. Private persons often 
give several baptismal names to their children j 
but of these one or two are generally surnames, 
for the purpose of marking the connection with 
the motber's or paternal grandmother's family. 
As princes are not known by their surnames, can 
any reason of a similar character be assigned for 
giving a string of ordinary Christian names to 
royal children F At the marriage of princes and 
princesses who rejoice in many names, is it usual 
(as in the case of private persons with only two 
or three names) for the officiating clergyman to 
pronounce them all at the appointed places in the 
service? H. P. D. 

SAMUEL SMITH, OF PRETTLEWELL, ESSEX. 
Wanted any sources of information on this worthy 
and voluminous writer. I know Wood's Athence, 
Calamy, Palmer, and Davids' JEssex. He died 
and was buried in Dudley, Worcestershire, after 
the Restoration. Shropshire and Worcestershire 
readers of " N. & Q." will kindly aid.* 

STUDENT. 

SCOTISH PEERS: EGLINTON EARLDOM. In 
looking carefully over the Articles of Union, I 
have been unable to find any clause annulling or 
superseding the previously existing jurisdiction of 
the Court of Session in questions of Scotish peer- 
ages. I have been told that, during the discus- 
sion which preceded the framing of these articles, I 
it was proposed to introduce a clause transferring 
the jurisdiction in such matters to the future 
House of Peers of Great Britain ; but this idea 
was abandoned in the apprehension that such an 
attempt would have led to the breaking oft' of the 
Union altogether. Thus the Court of Session re- 
mained untouched, and retained precisely the 
same jurisdiction it possessed before the union of 
the two crowns. This is distinctly proved by the 
clause relative to the College of Justice. 



Jr 



* A short account of Samuel Smith is given in 
S. & Q." 3i S. iv. 501. ED.] 



It is not generally known that James VI., about 
a century before, had made an attempt to tamper 
with the laws of his country in relation to the 
Earldom of Eglinton, which had originally be- 
longed to the family of Montgomery ; but which 
the last heir male had transferred by a territorial 
charter to his cousin, a Seton who took the 
name of Montgomery, and assumed the earldom 
upon the death of his relative. 

James, who had begun to relish the English 
fashion of patents, took umbrage at this, and in- 
sisted that the new earl should abandon his 
peerage. This he boldly but respectfully refused 
to do, whereupon the monarch desired the Privy 
Council to take the refractory nobleman to task. 
After giving the matter their deliberate consider- 
ation, the members unanimously refused to inter- 
fere, as they had no jurisdiction ; and said that, 
if his majesty wished to take further steps, he 
must proceed before the Court of Session, which 
however he did not venture to do ; and it is under 
the original charter, infeftment and retour, that 
the Seton Montgomeries now hold the peerage. 
The books of the Privy Council, and the protest 
of the earl, distinctly prove the above statement. 

What I am desirous of knowing, is, at what 
time was any statute passed in the British Par- 
liament removing the original jurisdiction in such 
question of the Court of Session to the House of 
Lords ? for I have not been able to find any one. 

J. M. 

SHENSTONE'S INN VERSES. The verses begin- 
ning "To thee, fair Freedom, I retire" are 
stated, in the collection of Shenstone's poems, to 
have been "written in an inn at Henley-on- 
Thames." They are inscribed on the centre pane 
of the second row (from the bottom) of a room 
on the first floor of the Red Lion the large old 
inn by the church at Henley. But is this copy of 
the verses in Shenstone's handwriting ? Many a 
pane of glass has endured more than a hundred 
years, but the chances against a pane in the 
window of a much frequented hotel are heavy. 
Comparison with a letter of Shenstone's would 
nearly settle the question. 

ABRAHAM DE REMENHAM. 

VENT. Narrow roads are called vents in some 
parts of Kent. Thus, at Ightham, Seven Vents is 
the name of a spot where seven roads meet. 
Huntington, S. S. in his Kingdom of Heaven taken 
by Prayer, tells us of " a place called the Four 
Wents, where four roads or ways meet," near 
Cranbrook. Is this word vent one of the " Holmes- 
dale provincialisms," or is it common in other 
counties ? Huntington gives a new rendering of 
the Weald of Kent. In many parts of his book 
from which I have quoted, he calls it the Wild of 
Kent a name perhaps not inappropriate to this 
wooded and remote tract of the county. 

EDWARD J. WOOD. 



132 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



AUG. 17, '67. 



WELLS IN CHUKCHES. In the church, of Saint 
Eloi at Rouen (now used for Protestant worship), 
there was formerly in the choir a well, now filled 
up, from which the water was drawn by means 
of a chain. From this is derived the proverh 
still used in Rouen, " It is cold as the chain of 
the well of Saint Eloi." The doors of this church 
were closed, although I visited it on Sunday, so 
I could not enter, though I found no difficulty in 
seeing any of the Roman Catholic places of wor- 
ship. Would any correspondent inform me if any 
other instance of a well in a church is known, and 
whether the church of Saint Eloi contains any 
other object of interest ? JOHN PIGGOT, JUN. 



tottft 



THE FOOL IN PAGAN TIMES. 

" ' You know,' says Seneca, writing to Lucilius, ' that 
Harpaste, my wife's fool, lives upon me as an hereditary 
charge ; for, as to my own taste, I have an aversion to 
those monsters ; and "if I have a mind to laugh at a fool, 
I need not seek him far I can laugh at myself. This 
fool has suddenly lost her sight.' " rQuoted from Mon- 
taigne's Essays, book ii. ch. xxv., W. Hazlitt's ed. 1842. 

Much has been written of the fool of the middle 
ages ; but what is known of that usher of mirth 
in earlier times, particular!}' among the Greeks 
and Romans? A lady's fool, and this fool a 
female, are peculiarities, it appears to me. Should 
the subject have an interest for others, I confess 
I should much like myself to have it developed 
by some of the learned pens of U N. & Q." The 
buffoonery of Thersites, and the clever mimicry of 
the Athenians, have nothing to do with my query 
any more than the Pasquin of papal Rome. 

J A. 9 VJT 

Carisbrooke. 

[The Philistines sent for Samson that he might " make 
sport," and David feigned himself foolish at the court of 
Achish. Patroclus is represented by Shakspeare as per- 
forming the part of a mimic for the amusement of 
Achilles, and Thersites as doing the same for Ajax. In 
Greek we have the name /uccpiW (as distinguished from 
the natural fool, ^/>os), but no good authority for its 
use. Under the Empire, but not in earlier times, pro- 
fessed fools or jesters appear to have been frequent among 
the Romans : the difficulty is to distinguish with accu- 
racy between the various terms, ualatrones, fatui, coprece, 
scurrce, moriones, &c. the meaning of which, though 
they may be verbally defined, appears to have been 
occasionally convertible. 

On the passage cited from Seneca by Montaigne, the 
commentator in Lemaire remarks : " Hsec fatua, ver- 
nula ut videtur, joci causa alebatur, 'yeXuToiroiova'a., 
haereditate tamen ad Senecam transmissa. Luxus enim 
ambitionisque [causa?] nanos, nanas, copreas, etc., in 
familiis habuisse Romanes, pnesertim hujus aevi, patet." 
Martial bought a man for a fool ; but the fool turned out 



to have as much sense as other people, and the poet 
wanted his money back. 

" Morio dictus erat : viginti millibus emi. 
Redde mihi nummos, Gargiliane : sapit." 

On this epigram the scholiast savagely remarks, that 
"fools and jesters were bought either for pleasure and 
amusement, or else, as now, that the house may contain 
some bigger fool than its master " (" vel, sicut hodie, ut 
sit in sedibus aliquis domino ipso stultior "). 

Foolishness, in fact, appears to have been so much in 
request amongst the Romans, that there were some 
persons who feigned themselves simpletons, in order to 
raise their own selling price : " Haec addemus, quum in 
deliciis apud divites essent stupidi et hebetes viri, simu- 
lasse mox quosdam, ut magno venirent, stultitiam" 
(Commentator on Martial, xiv. 210.) 

We ma}- remark that, in addition to those fools or 
jesters who formed part of the household, there were 
others who used to drop in, or were introduced b}- the 
Romans at their feasts : 

" Balatroues were paid for their jests, and the tables of 
the wealthy were generally open to them for the sake of 
the amusement they afforded." Dr. Smith, Dictionary of 
Greek and Roman Antiquities. 

It has been suggested that the mediaeval practice of 
having a fool or jester attached to the household came 
in from the East after the time of the Crusades. Meyer, 
Conv. Lex. on " Hofnarren." See more particularly Flo- 
gel's Geschichte der Hofnarren, s. 90, et seq.~\ 

ST. JOHN OF BEVEKLEY. Mr. Trollope, in his 
address at Hull, says, speaking of St. John of 
Beverley, that 

" Henry V. attributed his victory at Agincourt to the 
intercession of the saint, on whose day the battle was 
fought, and whose festival the monarch afterwards directed 
to be kept over all England." 

In King Henry V. Act IV. Sc. 3, Henry says : 
" This day is call'd the feast of Crispin." 
" And rouse him at the name of Crispin." 
" These wounds I had on Crispin's day." 

Which is correct ? S. 

[Mr. Trollope's statement is quite correct. In 1037 
the bones of St. John of Beverley were translated from 
his grave at York to his monastery at Beverley by Alfric, 
Archbishop of York, and the anniversary of this transla- 
tion was celebrated in the province of York on the 25th 
of October, the feasts of SS. Crispin and Crispinian. (See 
Calendar prefixed to the Sarum Use.) 

As King Henry V. attributed to the intercession of St. 
John of Beverley the glorious victory of Agincourt, it 
was ordered in a synod held in the year 1416, that his 
festival should be solemnly kept throughout England on 
the 7th of May, the day of his death in 721. Lyndwood, 
Provinciate, ed. 1679, p. 103, and Appendix, p. 70. An 
English translation of Archbishop Chichley's Constitu- 
tion for the change of the festival is printed in John 
Johnson's Laws and Canons of the Church of England, 
1851, ii. 485.] 



3 td S. XII. AUG. 17, '67. ] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



133 



PEWS OH SEATS. 
(3 rd S. xi. 46, 107, 198, 338, 421, 500.) 

One word more, Mr. Editor, by your permission, 
upon this subject; and that not so much upon 
the antiquity of pews or seats for their inquiries 
upon which we are much indebted to your cor- 
respondents but rather upon the point to which 
those inquiries lead, one much canvassed at the 
present moment the propriety of fixing seats or 
pews in our churches at ail. 

I am led to believe (and use this form of expres- 
sion to denote simply my own personal belief, and 
not as laying down the law tor others) that our 
first churches were very plain, long, and narrow ; 
little else, indeed, than a shelter from the weather, 
not even paved, but strewed with rushes, as one 
of your correspondents has described them, and 
with very narrow and many lancet windows nar- 
row, to keep out the weather, as they were not 
glazed ; and splayed widely on the inside, or in 
older cases, as in some at Kipon, towards the out- 
side. And in this splaying the earliest indication 
of taste or ornament is to be discovered; for 
when made on' the inside, not unfrequently, the 
light is directed to a certain point, of which a 
remarkable instance may be seen in the chancel 
of Kilpeck church, Herefordshire (once the old 
chapel of a castle), where the light from all the 
windows in the semi-circular apse is made to fall 
as nearly as possible on the spot where the altar 
stood, and of course guided the eye to that place. 
Would that modern architects would attend to 
apparent trifles of this kind ! 

if we suppose the floors of churches to have 
been originally of mere earth, and strewed with 
rushes, of course we cannot suppose them to have 
had seats; and the services being short, these 
might have been dispensed with. But they must 
nave gradually come into use, both to relieve the 
sick and infirm, and to enable the congregation to 
kneel. And I believe that a difficulty in cutting 
a regular pavement gave the first origin to en- 
caustic tiles, the earliest builders finding it easier 
to make and burn a clay floor than raise one of 
smooth stone from the quarry ; proofs of which, 
or what at least appear to me such, are often 
found in the churches of remote and retired vil- 
lages, many of which have no regular pavement 
even at the present day, because the masons of 
ruder times found difficulty in properly working 
a material which would be hard enough for the 
purpose. And I must here, en passant, make a 
remark on the absurdity of the modern custom of 
paving the whole area of a church with encaustic 
tiles, as if it were either a restoration or improve- 
ment. That it is not a restoration, I will en- 
deavour to show presently: but it is not an 



improvement, because they are always liable, 
with a little wear, to get 'out of order. If they 
are not glazed, they wear out ; and if they are, 
become slippery and dangerous, and so cold in 
winter that a person obliged to stand long on 
them, as the minister is in reading the Com- 
munion Service, soon becomes, even if dressed in 
thick shoes, very unpleasantly sensible of their 
effects in the winter. As to the whole area of 
churches having been at any time paved with 
them, and that for this reason the same thing is 
to be done now, it cannot be supposed that the 
builders in ruder times either had, or could have 
made, a sufficient number for the purpose. It i 
true they are often found in many different parts 
of our ecclesiastical edifices, but this arises from 
the fact, that they were used only in the most 
sacred parts of these, generally before altars (of 
which there were often many in a church), and 
sometimes let into the floor as a mark where cer- 
tain parties were to take their stand in the Roman 
Catholic processions round the congregation. 
And the first of these uses seems a direct allusion 
to a passage in the Book of Exodus, xxiv. 8, 9, 

" 8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled it on the 
people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant, which 
the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words. 

" 9 Then went up Moses and Aaron, Nadab and 
Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel.: 

" 10 And they saw the God of Israel: and .there was 
under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, 
and as it were the body of heaven in his clearness." 

Now, whoever has happened to turn his ob- 
servation to the great attention commonly paid to 
what is termed by artists keeping in our ancient 
churches, where the altar was made the great 
point, and everything else kept subordinate to it, 
will easily judge that, even without any reference 
to the passage already quoted, whatever was most 
beautiful and attractive would be placed there, 
and confined to that spot. I am not ignorant that 
encaustic tiles, especially those commemorative 
of benefactors, were very generally employed in 
chapter-houses, and also perhaps in the monks' 
scriptoria or libraries ; but this was the work of a 
later age ; and my purpose is to show that there 
was a limit to their use in places of public wor- 
ship, which it would both be more correct and 
desirable still to observe. 

Upon the question of the precise time when seats 
or pews were first introduced into our churches I 
will not enter, leaving it to be settled by those 
learned correspondents who have already favoured 
you with communications upon the subject ; but 
that which does press upon us, in the present 
church-restoring (query, c/mrch-altermy ?) age, is 
how to arrange the interior of our churches so as 
to attract and accommodate as many as possible 
within them ? And to accomplish so desirable a 
purpose, those of the modern school tell us that 



134 



NOTES AND QUERIES. \s s. xn. AUG. 17, -67. 



pews are to be swept away, monuments taken 
down, Minton to reign supreme on the floor, and 
some other equally eminent artificer in clay to 
astonish the external world by a fantastic and 
pastry-like looking coping on the roof, and then 
the minister and congregation will be perfectly 
happy, especially if the services have a reforma- 
tion corresponding to that of the building. 

These particulars are not given in caricature, 
but they so often appear in practice that they 
seem to form the staple of church restoration. 
Certainly it is extraordinary that, considering the 
sums paid for their erection, and the legal pro- 
perty which Blackstone tells us families have in 
them,* parties should submit as they do to have 
the monuments of their ancestors removed and 
perhaps destroyed ; but it is to be hoped that a 
late Act t, which gives a remedy independent of 
the Ecclesiastical Courts, by enacting, inter alia, 
that anyone unlawfully and maliciously destroying 
or damaging any monument, &c., shall be guilty 
of a misdemeanour, and liable, on conviction, to 
imprisonment for any term not exceeding six 
months, with or without hard labour, besides 
being answerable for the damage, may correct 
this. But with respect to seats or pews in 
churches, our only consideration noiv appears to 
me to be, what is best to be done in the matter, 
without following blindly either old practices or 
new lights. 

I will -therefore take it for granted that, unless 
it is wished to have the whole area of a church 
open, and to hire a chair for one's devotion, as in 
Prance, it is necessary in England, where the 
people pray with and follow the minister in what 
he is saying, that there should be seats or benches 
to enable them to do so. And are these to be ap- 
propriated or not ? If they" are simply free to any 
one, there is no opportunity of having a hassock 
to kneel on, or having a book to pray from, but 
these must be brought and taken away at every 
service. Thus, in truth, it is found that the seats 
called open are generally appropriated, from the 
necessity of the case ; and, to mention a circum- 
stance which occurred to myself, upon going some 
time since into a church in Wiltshire, considered 
to be par excellence a free church, and attempting 
to take my seat, before I could say a word of 
prayer, the verger, approaching me, said, "Sir, 
you cannot sit here." " Why not ? " I replied ; 
" is not this a free church ? " " Don't you see the 
card ? " he rejoined ; " you can sit here," pointing 
to seats evidently meant for servants. I should 
not have objected to being so displaced, whatever 
I might have thought of the seat so rudely 
appointed me, because there was a handsome 
cushion on the bench of which I had originally 
taken possession, which clearly was private pro- 

* Bl. Comm. ii. 428. 

t 24 & 25 Viet. ch. 97, 39. 



perty, had it not been professed that the church 
was open and free, which it clearly was not. But 
it may be asked, what arrangement do you pro- 
pose ? You admit that seats are necessary, yet 
object to their being perfectly free or appro- 
priated. Would you go back to pews? Not 
except under strict modifications. 
. I would propose, in the first place, that all 
seats in churches should be only so high that, 
when the congregation stand up, they only, and 
not their seats, should be seen ; that the making 
of pews should be permitted, provided they har- 
monize in size, height, and other respects with 
other arrangements, and that, if the wind blows 
unpleasantly, they should be allowed doors; but 
that in all cases, there should be a requisite 
number of really free benches for the poor, and 
that for this purpose, especially in agricultural 
parishes, the pews (if any) should be placed 
against the walls, and the free seats in the middle 
of the church. 

There is no point on which people, generally 
speaking, are more sensitive than on the right to 
a pew ; and therefore, in conversation some years 
since with a venerable archdeacon of our church, 
now no more, and who had been very active in 
refitting the interior of the churches in his dis- 
trict, I was astonished to hear him declare that 
the distribution and appropriation of the pews, 
so put in order, gave him little or no trouble. 
" My custom," he explained, " is, sometime before 
niy visitation, to send notice to the churchwardens 
of each parish, that they should consider and 
talk over the arrangements of the pews, seating 
the parishioners according to their rank in society, 
but never removing any one without a sufficient 
reason, and when this was done, to enter the 
whole in a roll. When my visitation takes 
place," he continued, " I call for this; and after 
examining it, ask publicly if any one is dissatisfied 
with, or has any reason to complain of, any part 
of the proposed arrangement ; if such complaint 
is made, I hear and determine it ; which done, or 
in case there is no appeal, I sign the roll to be 
deposited in the parish chest, and that arrange- 
ment of seats continues in force for three years, 
until my next visitation, but only in regard to 
such parties as continue to reside in the parish, 
and to attend the church services." 

I have before observed that the first origin of 
pews is a question for antiquaries, and of little 
practical utility. The point with us is, to know 
how congregations may be enabled, either by an old 
or new arrangement, to say their prayers devoutly 
and in comfort ; and the plan suggested by my 
friend the archdeacon appears to me, from its 
simplicity and compliance with the law, fully and 
satisfactorily to accomplish this, and to be liable 
only to one objection, that it certainly is not 
destructive. W. 



3'd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



135 



CAP-A-PIE. 
(3 rd S. xii. 165.) 

I think your correspondent D. P. S. does very 
wisely in thus asking for examples of the occur- 
rence of this phrase before proceeding to give his 
theory of the etymology ; for it is not uncommon 
for etymologists to construct a theory Jirst, and 
look about for facts afterwards, and it is this prac- 
tice which has often brought etymology into con- 
tempt. In the present instance, I think the re- 
ceived explanation may stand. 

First, by way of examples. The phrase occurs, 
according to the dictionaries, both in Prescott and 
Swift. In A.D. 1755 we meet with 

" Armed cap-a-pee, forth marched the fain- king." 

Cooper, Tomb of" Shakspear. 

Tracing back, we come to 

" Arm'd cap-a-pie, with reverence low they bent.' 1 

Dryden, Palamon and Arcite, 1. 1765. 

There is also another curious instance. In a 
poem called "Psyche, or Love's Mystery," by 
Joseph Beaumont, published in 1651, we have 

" For knowing well what strength they have within, 

By stiff tenacious faith they hold it fast ; 
How can those champions ever fail to win, 
Amidst whose armour heav'n itself is plac'd." 

Psyche, canto xii, st. 136. 

At that time, Joseph Beaumont was an ejected 
Fellow of St. Peters College, but he lived to be 
master of the college nevertheless, and half-a- 
century later his poem attained to a second edition, 
viz. in 1702. In its second form, the poem was 
much expanded, so that the above stanza, 136, 
became stanza 154, and at the same time a varia- 
tion was made, so that it ran thus : 
" How can those champions ever fail to win, 
Who, cap-a-pe, for arms, with heaven are drest." 

I have little doubt but that many more examples 
might be found ; and now for the etymology. 

The received one is, that cap-a-pied means from 
head to foot, and surely it is simply equivalent to 
the usual French phrase, " arme de pied en cap," 
for which Raynouard gives the quotation : 
" De pied en cap s'armera tout en fer." 

Laboderie, Hymn Eccl. p. 282. 

The only objection to this seems to be that there 
is a reversal of the order of the words. But if, 
leaving the Langue a" Oil, we consult the Lanyue 
d'Oc, we shall then find the words in their right 
order, and at the same time establish, as I think, 
the right explanation beyond a doubt, besides 
showing that the phrase existed in the twelfth 
century. In his Proven9al Lexicon, Raynouard 
gives " CAP, KAP, s. m. Lat. caput, tete, chef" j 
and he goes on to explain the phrases de cap en 
cap (from one end to the other); del cap tro als 
pes (from the head to the foot); del premier cap 
tro en la fi, (from the first beginning even to the 



end. The second of these is clearly the one we 
want, and he gives the following example: 
" Que dol si del cap tro als pes" 

Guillaume Adhe'mar (died A.D. 1190). 

This he translates by lt Qu'il se plaint de la tete 
jusqu'aux pieds." 

When your correspondent says he doubts this 
explanation, I suspect he is being misled by a 
French proverb given by Cotgrave, viz. " n'avoir 
que la cape et Vepee" which means, "to have 
nothing left but your mantle and your sword, to 
be brought to dependence on your own exertions." 
The resemblance between the two phrases cap-a- 
pie (head to foot), and cape et Tepee (mantle and 
sword), is certainly striking, but they seem to be 
quite distinct nevertheless, and I do not think 
they can be proved to be otherwise. 

WALTEK W. SKEAT. 

22, Regent Street, Cambridge. 



Shakspeare no doubt wrote cap-a-pie, for he has 
repeated the same expression on the same subject 
twice a few lines below : " from top to toe," " from 
head to foot." The corresponding modern French 
is the reverse, de pied en cap. But Montaigne 
(ii. 9) wrote de cap a pied. The armour which 
Shakspeare had in his mind was of the time of 
Richard II., and probably that made at Milan 
expressly for Henry Duke of Hereford,* to wear 
in the famous duel at Coventry ; for the most cha- 
racteristic novelty is the visor, ventaille or baviere 
(as it is indifferently called), of the bascinet, 
which, from having been simply convex, had 
assumed the shape of a truncated bird's beak. 
To this Shakspeare refers when he says, " he 
wore his baviere (beaver) up." In a MS. copy of 
the " Roman de la Rose," two women are repre- 
sented fighting one with sword, the other with 
spear in ordinary dress, except that each has a 
helmet or bascinet, with long projecting baviere 
down. (See "British Costume," L. E. K., 159.) 

T. J. BTTCKTON. 
Streatham Place, S. 

I venture to give an extract from the play of 
Albumazar with reference to cap-a-pie, and, 
although the word there is not so compounded, it 
affords an example of early English literature 
(quarto edition of 1615, Act II. Sc. 1) : 

" Trinculo. Hee that saith I am not in love, hee lies 
De cap a pe ; For I am idle, choicely neate in my cloaths, 
valiant, & extreme witty : My meditations are loaded 
with metaphors, & my songs sonnets : Not a cur shakes 
his taile but I sigh out a passion: thus do I to my 
mistresse," &c. &c. 

"Whatever opinions may be formed with regard 
to this inimitable play, it is quite certain that the 



* Afterwards King Henry IV. See Shakspeare's 
Richard II. 



136 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 r a S. XII. AUG. 17, '67. 



plot and details are unequalled, and that it was 
written in 1603. (Mr. Torakis was paid in 1615 
for making a transcript of it/) The mystery at- 
tending this play will certainly be cleared up; 
and I am quite sanguine that my views, so often 
expressed, as to " Shakspeare being the author of 
it, and the maker of the manuscript notes in my 
copy/' will be found to be correct. 

HENEY INGALL. 



This compound word occurs twice in Shakspeare 
in The Winters Tale as well as in Hamlet. 
Quoth Autolycus (Act IV. Sc. 4, 1. 717, Cam- 
bridge ed.), " I am Courtier Cap-a-pe" (Thus 
spelt and italicised in folio, 1623.) 

The Hamlet line stands in the first folio 
thus 

" Arin'd at all points exactly, Cap a Pe ; " 
while the quartos of 1603 and 1604 both read 
Capapea." See, however, Cambridge Shakespeare 
for other variations of spelling. 

JOHN ADDIS, JTJN. 

Cap-a-pie is used by Lord Berners in his trans- 
lation of Froissart, chap, ccxxxvi. fol. 137, col. 2 : 
" Also we have xx thousand of other moiited on 
genettes cap apcc." HENRY H. GIBBS. 



BISHOP HAY. 
(3 rd S. xi. 427.) 

In the English Catholic Directory for 1867, 
the episcopal title of Bishop Hay, V.A.L.D. of 
Scotland is " Daulia," and correctly so. Episcopm 
Dauliensis the name of this church, in partibus 
infidelium should not be Daulis, with all defer- 
ence to F. C. H. I state this on the authority of 
Le Quien's Oriens Christianus (torn. ii. p. 235), 
which ought to be conclusive on the subject. 
Under the head of " XLII. Ecclesia Diaulia} " is 
given 

"Diaulia, ArauAta, vel AtauAeia ; civitas episcopalis, 
est secuncla sub Athenarum metropolita in notitiis Leonis 
Imp., et aliis deinceps, /3'. 6 AtaiAtas. Ipsa nimirum est 
quae Ptolemozo AauAJs, Danlis, Straboni AauAeioz/, Dau- 
lium, urbs quaedatn exigua Phocidis in monte assurgens, 
ubi vicus hodie est, quindecim millibus pass. Delphis 
distans ad septentrionem. Plinius, lib. iv. cap. 3, Dry- 
m<zam regionem Daulidem appellatam (licit. In episcopa- 
tum unum Diaulia conjuncta est cum Talantio, de quo 
supra." 

From this it is sufficiently evident that it is 
Diaulia or Daulia, and not " Daulis ; " and in the 
ancient lists are found the names of the following 
Greek bishops of the united sees of Diaulia and 
Talantium or " Oreum "1. Sophronius, episco- 
pus Diaulice et Talantii, 6 Aiav\ias K al TaXwriov 
2<j>po'wos ; " and 2. Chrysanthus Diaulice, adeo- 
que Talantii ; Chrysantho de Diaulia." (Oriens 



Christ., ii. 203.) It will be sufficient to add, that 
the see of Daulia, or Diaulia, was in the diocese 
of Illyricum Orientalis and province of Hellas, 
being "a suffragan bishopric of the metropolis of 
Athens. 

Perhaps a few additional particulars regarding 
Bishop Hay may here be introduced with refer- 
ence to "N. & Q." (3 rd S. xi. 312) and ME. 
COOPEE'S query. 

He was of Protestant parentage, and was edu- 
cated as a physician ; but, having become a 
Roman Catholic in 1748, he entered the Scottish 
College at Rome Sept. 10, 1751, and was or- 
dained priest there April 2, 1758. Having returned 
to Scotland in the autumn of 1759, he was sent 
as missionary to Preshome, Banffshire, in Novem- 
ber of that year. Soon after Bishop Smith's 
death in 1766, Mr. Hay was appointed to the 
Edinburgh mission ; and, on Bishop Grant's pos- 
tulation, he was nominated coadjutor for the 
Lowland district of Scotland ; his consecration 
taking place on Trinity Sunday, May 21, 1769 
(the year " 1729 " is a misprint in the Catholic 
Directory for this year), in the chapel of the 
seminary at Scalan, the officiating prelate being, 
it is believed, Bishop James Grant, on whose death 
in 1778 he succeeded to the sole cure of the 
vicariate. On Aug. 24, 1805, by virtue of powers 
given him by the Holy See, Bishop Hay transferred 
his episcopal authority and vicarial faculties to his 
coadjutor, Bishop Alexander Cameron, and re- 
tired to the seminary at Aquhorties, where he 
died Oct. 15, 1811, in the eighty-third year of his 
age, fifty-fourth of his priesthood, and forty- third 
of his episcopate. 

He was the author of numerous works, chiefly 
controversial and devotional, most of which have 
been republished at various periods up to the pre- 
sent time ; and they ave still greatly valued by 
members of the Roman Catholic church, of which 
he was so distinguished an ornament. 

A. S. A. 

India, July, 1867. 



DEBENTURES (3 rd S. x. 501; xi. 47.) This 
word is older than the " Rump Act " of 1649. 
Among the minor poems of Ben Jonson is a droll 
copy of verses, beginning 

"Father John B urges, 

Necessity urges 

My humble crv 

To Sir Robert 'Pye, 

That he will venture 

To send my debenture " 

(or sign), or words to that effect, for I am quoting 
without book, and many years have passed since 
I read the verses. Their gist is, that Ben wants 
his pension, which has fallen into arrear, and to 
this intent importunes " Father John Burges," 
probably an underling in the Exchequer, to move 



3 rd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



137 



>ir Robert Pye, a still more important official in 
: ay Lord Treasurer's department. The " De- 
.ienture" itself, I conjecture, was a species of 
. 0. U. issued by the Crown when as frequently 
lappened it could not pay ready money to its 
;;ervants: the which I. 0. U.'s the recipients got 
cashed or discounted, as they might, by goldsmiths 
or money-scriveners, who, in their turn, took their 
chance of the Court being in funds to come down 
: n force on the Exchequer. Similar I. 0. U.'s, 
under the more pretentious title of " Certificates 
of Indebtedness, were issued by the United 
States Government to their contractors and others 
during the recent Civil War. Royal Debentures, 
flung to various parasites, were common at the 
Court of Spain during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries. GEORGE AUGUSTUS SALA. 

" OIL OF MERCY " (3 rd S. xii. 73.) This legend 
is much older than the " Cursor Mundi." It is 
taken from the apocryphal " Gospel of Nicode- 
inus," part n., otherwise called "The Descent of 
Christ to the Underworld ; " where, at the express 
desire of Adam, his son Seth relates to the pro- 
phets and patriarchs assembled in Hades his ex- 
pedition to _ the gate of Paradise in quest of the 
~ :1 A curious illustration of the popularity of 



oil. 



this legend occurs in the famous History of Rey 
nard the Fox. One of the jewels which Reynard 
pretended to have sent as a present to the king 
was " a rynge of fyn golde, and within the rynge 
next the fyngre were wreton lettres enameled 
with sable and asiire, and ther were thre Hebrews 
names therm.' 1 Reynard could not read Hebrew, 
so he applied to "Maister Abrion of Trier," a 
jew, who " understandeth wel al maner of lan- 
guages," and learned from him that " they were 
tho thre names that Seth brought out of Paradys 
whan he brought to his fadre Adam the Oyle of 
Mercy." (Caxton's Reynard, p. 112. London, 
1844.) 

Here we have a different version of the story, for 
in the Gospel abovementioned it is distinctly 



distinctly 

stated by Seth hihiself that the angel sent him 
back without the oil. (Cowper's Apocryphal Gos- 
pels, &c. ^ Lond. 1867, p. 302.) ; and Sir John 
Maundeville, who relates it as he found it current 
in his day among "the Cristene men that dwelleu 



upon all occasions he spoke his sentiments freely, 
and won all hearts by his plain, manly, straight- 
forward dealing both with officers and men under 
his command. The motto, therefore, chosen for 
him by his sister, when the admiral was raised 
to the peerage, was deemed appropriate, and, after 
the general fashion of mottoes, had a double 
meaning. The sailors, however, of later days, 
through a mistaken conception of the sound, and 
ignorant of the term, call out, " Very well, Dice !" 
when, if spoken correctly, they ought to say, " Very 
well Thus" ; just as we familiarly say, "Do so- 
and-so Thus." J. S. 
Stratford 3 Essex. 

DUKE OP MONCADA, MARQUIS D'AYTONE (3 rd 
S. xii. 66.) Aytone seems to be the same as 
Aytona or Aitona, the name of a small place near 
Lerida in Catalonia. 

Aytona is not an Anglo-Saxon name (cf. 
Ay jones in New Castile, Ay, Saint-^y, AyAms, 
Aydie, Ayna,c, Ayrens, Aytre, &c., in France; 
and Cortona (Kdprava) or Crotona, the ancient 
capital of North Etruria ; Dertona, now Toitona, 
in Liguria, Cortona in the land of the Jaccetani, 
&c. ; also Aytane, the name of a mountain in 
Valentia). 

I am not acquainted with any particulars con- 
cerning the Duke of Moncada, Marquis D'Ay tone, 
but I know of a William Raymond de Moncada, 
who distinguished himself in 1140 at the capture 
of Alcaraz, a fortified town near Lerida. 

G. A. S. 

"Cui ONE'S STICK" (3 rd S. xi. 397.) An 
American savant having suggested that the ex- 
pression was derived from Prospero's breaking his 
wand (see The Tempest), the editor of Yankee 
Notions said that such derivation must be erroneous, 
as, in America, those who " cut their sticks " were 
anything but Prosperous ! S. J. 

COAT CARDS OR COURT CARDS (3 rd S. xii. 44.) 
Coat is provincially used for Court in the North of 
England. Thus, "in Craven, a house which for- 
merly belonged to the Hebers is called " Stainton 
Coat," but " Stainton Court " is the real name. I 
could give other examples. S. J. 

SUPPRESSED POEM OF LORD BYRON " (3 rd S. 



beyond the sea in Grece," with considerable addi- i xi. 477, 528.) FILIUS ECCLESI^ must excuse me 
tions as quoted by Mr. Cowper in his introduc- 
tion, p. xxxvii., says, that "the aungelle wolde 
not late him come in, but seyed to him that he 
myghte not have of the Oyle of Mercy." I can 
find no mention of the three names anywhere but 
in the Reynard. F. ]\[. ! 

"THUS!" EARL ST. VINCENT (3 rd S. xii. 106.) ! 
The motto Thus is a naval term, an order given to ! 
the steersman when he must not deviate from j 
the point he is steering. Now Lord St. Vincent 
was celebrated for his straightforward conduct; 



but I cannot but tell him that his reply to my 
query is not very logical. "Don Juan" was 
never a "suppressed poem." No publisher in 1867 
would call it so. " Don Leon " was advertised in 
several papers. A friend writes me that he be- 
lieves, " owing to some interference, the poem of 
' Don Leon ' has been burked." The sudden with- 
drawal of the advertisements seems to warrant 
such a belief. S. JACKSON. 

PERJURY (3 rd S. xi. 497.) The per in thia 
word is, as A. B. rightly surmises, a negative 



138 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67. 



prefix. It occurs also in the words per-fldus 
faithless ; per-do, to destroy ; and its passive per-eo, 
to be destroyed. It seems probable that it may 
be a different word to the intensive per, and may 
fairly be compared with the Gothic fra, Germ. 
ver, Eng. for, as in forlorn, forsworn, fordone. 
Might not this again connect itself with the Greek 
Trep (originally meaning bad', cf. Kiihn's Zeit- 
schrift, vol. xiv. p. 188) as seen in Wpircpos ? If 
so, perperus and perperam ought to be added to 
the foregoing list. 

On the other hand, the force of the prep, inter, 
in intereo, interficio, interfio, renders it possible 
that per may denote a going through with a thing, 
and hence its completion and annihilation. 

SCTSCTTATOR. 

SOURCE OF QUOTATIONS WANTED (3 rd S. xii. 44, 
92.) 

" Quern Deus vult perdere prius dementat." 
Mr. Ed. Fournier, in his valuable little work, 
IS Esprit des Autres, says : 

" Souvent Ton ne sait vraiment a qui rendre le pret 
que vous a fait la Sagesse des moralistes, ou 1'Esprit des 
poetes. Nous n'avions jamais pu de'couvrir d'oii venait 
le fameux ' Quos vult perdere Jupiter, dementat prius.' 
On le pretait aux ecrivains du siecle d'Auguste ; mais 
dementat semblait d'une bien petite latinite'. Enfin la 
vraie source nous fut indiquee par notre ami Ch. Read 
(a gentleman well known to the readers of the French 
" N. & Q." L'Intermediaire'), qui, un jour, k la Biblio- 
theque imperiale, nous ouvrant, a la p'age 497, le tome ii. 
de la traduction latine des Tragedies d'Euripide par J. 
Barnes (Leipzig, 1779,) nous y fit lire un fragment 
d'Euripide, cite par Athe'nagoras, qui, sous la forme 
latine que lui avait donnee Barnes, etait tout a fait la 
phrase que nous cherchions. Puisque vous la connaissez 
en latin, il suffira de vous donner le passage grec : 
"Orav 5e Sat/j.cav avdpl Tropffvvr} Ka/cct, 

Tilt VOVV C0\a\l/f: TTpUTOV. 

"Une seule chose reste a savoir, c'est la disposition 
qu'il faut donner aux mots de la phrase latine. M. Bois- 
sonade y a pourvu, en parvenant a faire, avec ces mots, 
un vers i'ambique 

' Quos vult Jupiter perdere demeq,tat prius.' " 

P. A. L. 

rt Before thy mystic altar, heav'nly Truth, 
I kneel in manhood, as I knelt in youth : 
Thus let me kneel, till this dull form decay, 
And life's last shade be brighten'd by thy ray : 
Then shall my soul, now lost in clouds below, 
Soar without bound, without consuming glow." 

Memoirs of Sir William Jones's Life, 4to, 
p. 370. A note says : 

" These lines were written by Sir William Jones in 
Berkeley's Siris : they are, in fact, a beautiful version of 
the last sentence, amplified and adapted to himself." 

E. KING. 

JAMES HAMILTON (3 rd S. xii. 69.) Fieschi's 
infernal machine was not loaded by himself, but 
by his friend Pepin, who purposely 'overloaded it, 
hoping by the bursting of it to* kill him too. 



" Dead men tell no tales," thought Pepin ; but 
" murder will out." Fieschi was only wounded. 

P. A. L. 

"ALL is LOST SAVE HONOUR" (3 rd S. xi. 275, 
407.) A line of Dryden's, in his " Asteea Re- 
dux," referring to the battle of Worcester, is a 
curiously literal translation of the phrase " Tout 
est perdu hors 1'honneur : " 

" And all at Worcester but the honour lost." 

Your correspondent L. has lately shown that 
Francis I. did not use the famous phrase, as it has 
been generally given, in writing to his mother. 
Where does the phrase first appear? It is so 
given by Voltaire in his Essai sur les Mcews et 
T Esprit des Nations, p. 174. CH. 

SHEKEL (3 rd S.xii. 92.) On consulting Evelyn's 
Numismata I find that the "more ancient shekels 
bear the stamp of the pot of manna as some con- 
ceive, or as others, the censer or thuribulum, 
casting forth a cloud of incense, and not seldom 
reversed with a sprig of Opo balsamum, or the 
rod of Aaron, as is conjectured, for they do not 
all agree." I would suggest that the shekel men- 
tioned by your correspondent GAMMA answers to 
the above description. S. L. 

FREDERICK PRINCE OE WALES (3 rd S. xii. 90.) 
That singular man the Rev. Henry Etough, 01 
Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, rector of Therfield 
" had compiled," says John Duncombe, " a ' History of his 
own Times' (a political Atalantis), somewhat in the 
manner of Burnet, which, I am told, he had carried 
down as far as the characters of Frederick Prince of 
Wales and Lord Bolingbroke. But his sarcasms were 
too free and too libellous ever to be printed." Nichols' 
Literary Anecdotes, viii. 263. 

" The papers of the Rev. Henry Etough consisted, not 
only of general memoirs of his own time, but separate!}* 
those of particular people, such as Frederick Prince of 
Wales," &c.Ibid. ix. 807. 

If Etough's MSS. are in existence (are they, 
and if so, where ?) they may very probably supply 
an answer to the query with respect to natural 
children of the Prince of Wales. It is exceed- 
ingly likely that Horace Walpole was acquainted 
with the MSS., and that he took from them the 
illustrations in support of the assertion that the 
prince's "chief passion was women," for his 
father Sir Robert was Etough's patron, and made 
use of him to perform the ceremony on his mar- 
riage with Miss Skerret, on which occasion, says 
Duncombe 

" He requested a favour, which Sir Robert previously 
promised to grant, not doubting it was some preferment ; 
but in truth it was only a certain political secret, which, 
as far as he knew, the minister disclosed." Ibid. 
viii. 262. 

If Etough cared more for political secrets than 
for preferment, there may be some curious secret 
history in his MSS. It is satisfactory, at any rate, 
that he sought the former rather than the latter ; 



3 rd S. XII. AUG. 17, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



139 



tor Gray's severe epigram on him shows the 
opinion entertained, by some at least, of his 
sinfitness for the priestly office. H. P. D. 

HANGING IN THE BELL-ROPES (3 rd S. xii. 91.) 
If, after the publication of banns, the marriage does 
not come oft; the " deserted one " is said in Wor- 
cestershire to be "hung in the bell-ropes." The 
phrase is probably known in many other counties. 

SIGNET. 

This expression is in common use in North Lei- 
cestershire near Ashby-de-la-Zouch, and is ap- 
plied to persons on whose behalf the banns of 



are said to be "hanging in the Dell-ropes, 
dently meaning that the ringers are waiting for 
the marriage ceremony to be performed, so that 
they may aid in celebrating the event. 

EDW. HEAED. 

40, Sherboume Street, Islington. 
This is a common phrase in Cumberland at the 
present day. A couple are said to be " hingin' 
i' t' bell reaps " during the period which transpires 
between the first publication of banns and mar- 
riage. ME. BOTJCHIEE will find an illustration of 
its use in a clever dialect ballad by the author of 
"Joe and the Geologist," entitled "Lai Dinah 
Grayson," in the Songs and Ballads of Cumberland, 
p. 425. SIDNEY GILPIN. 

CHTJECHES (3 rd S. xii. 75.) The lines supplied 
by T. B. have brought to my recollection a foot- 
note in Black's Picturesque Tourist of Scotland, 
1845, p. 360 : 

" The parish church of Kinghorn is without a spire. 
This, and some other circumstances, supposed to be cha- 
racteristic of the town, have given rise to the following 
couplet : 

" Here stands a kirk without a steeple, 
A drucken priest, and a graceless people ; " 

and of the lines, p. 309, taken from an old song, 
which appear to have reference to the village of 
Little Dunkeld, Perthshire : 
" O what a parish, what a terrible parish, 

O what a parish is that of Dunkell ! 
They hae hangit the minister, drowned the precentor, 

Dung down the steeple, and drucken the bell. 
Though the steeple was down, the kirk was still 

stannin', 
Theybiggit a burn [qy. barn ?] where the bell used 

to hang ; 
A stell-pat they gat, and they brewed Hieland whisky, 

On Sundays they drank it, and rantit and sang." 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. J. MANUEL. 

ALMACK'S (3 rd S. x. 138.) There is no reason 
to attach shame to those Irish who so frequently 
during the last century modified their real names 
of unmistakeable origin. The shame attaches to 
not only the political intolerance, but the social 
prejudice of the time. I myself know various 
families from whose names the and the Mac 



were lopped off, actually by the advice of persons 
who wished to befriend them. HOWDEN. 

WALKING UNDEE A LADDEE (3 rd S. ix. 501.) 
The walking under a ladder is less of a super- 
stition than an old coarse joke, formerly frequent 
among the lower orders. It took its rise in the 
structure and formalities of the old gallows at 
Tyburn, where there was no platform, but to 
which the patient ascended by a ladder that was 
afterwards withdrawn. The "old joke was dis- 
agreeable, and, its application being lost, people 
still go on doing what their fathers did before them. 

HOWDEN. 

EWLE or THE ROAD (3 rd S. ix. 443.) The 
rule of the road is simply, in the first instance, 
the necessity of having some rule by which 
vehicles may not come into everlasting collision ; 
but, in the second instance, the French rule has a 
rationale of its own, which gives it additional 
convenience. In passing to the right of a road, 
and not to the left, as in England, you have your 
ivhip-handfree, in case of starting, bolting, gibing, 
or any other danger of too much juxtaposition. 

HOWDEN. 

VEENA: CEEOLE, ETC. (3 rd S. xii. 62.) In 
reply to one of the questions asked by ME. THI- 
EIOLD, I may say that the Scottish word " bairn " 
is not "gradually dwindling into a contemptuous 
designation," as applied to small children. I have 
often heard Scottish mothers say, when speaking 
endearingly to their children, " ma bonnie bairn." 
These words, when spoken with a strong Scottish 
accent, by a mother to her child, are very sweet 
indeed. The word is used contemptuously when 
applied to larger children and grown-up people. 
If anyone does a childish act, he is called a 
" muckle bairn." A childish person is said to be 
"bairnly." D. MACPHAIL. 

Johnstone. 

DEINKING HEALTHS IN NEW ENGLAND (1 st S. 
ix. 423.) May I be permitted to call VESTATJE'S 
attention to the following extract, which I have 
taken from a most interesting work, both to Old 
and New England readers, bearing the title of 
The Life and Letters of John Winthrop, by the 
Hon. K. C. Winthrop, of Boston. Vide vol. ii. 
p. 52. The entry bears the date of October 25, 
1630 : 

"The governour, upon consideration of the inconve- 
nience which had grown in England by drinking one to 
another, restrained it at his own table, and wished others 
to do the like, so as it grew, by little and little, to dis- 
use." 

The learned author adds the following note : 

" Winthrop, in this reform, was nearly half a century 
before Sir Matthew llale, who left a solemn injunction to 
his grandchildren against the drinking or pledging of 
healths." 

Malta. W.W. 



140 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[ 3^ s. XII. AUG. 17, '67. 



"OTHERGATES" (3 rd S. x. 446; xi. 122, 184.) 
Surely othergates, algates, and the like are in no 
way uncommon. Chaucer's' charming Creseide, 
for instance, swears 

" To Diomede I woll algate be true." 

Troilus and Creseide, b. v. verse 1008. 
But in Eger and Grine (Bishop Percy's folio 
MS. ed. Furnivall) I find a substantive way-gate 
which is new to me. It occurs twice 

" & saw the way-gate of that Ladye." 1. 380. 
" for to see the waygate of her loue Sir Egar." 1. 648. 
It seems a mere pleonasm. 

JOHN ADDIS, JTJN. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Knapsack Guide for Travellers in Tyrol and the 
Eastern Alps. Illustrated with Maps and Plans. 
(Murray.) 

Handbook for Travellers in Scotland. With Travelling 
Maps and Plans. (Murray.) 

A Handbook for Travellers in Gloucestershire, Worcester- 
shire, and Herefordshire. With Map and Plans. 
(Murray.) 

Swallows are no surer sign of summer than is the ap- 
pearance of a new Handbook from the great house in 
Albemarle Street that the time is come for wearied and 
overworked Londoners to seek " fresh fields and pastures 
new " ; and as in our good old schoolboy races we were 
wont to be started with a one ! two ! three ! and away ! 
so does Mr. Murray on the present occasion use pretty 
nearly the form, and say Tyrol ! Scotland ! Gloucester- 
shire"! off ! The general character, utility, and correct- 
ness of Mr. Murray's Guides are now so universally 
recognised, that we may spare both ourselves and our 
readers any dissertation on the peculiar merits of the 
volumes before us, beyond saying that the Tyrol Hand- 
book is as complete and compact as a Knapsack Guide 
should be ; that the Handbook for Scotland, with its 
Maps and Routes," contains almost a larger amount of 
information than it would seem possible to include in 
the compass of one volume ; and that in the Guide to 
Gloucestershire, Worcestershire, and Herefordshire, will 
be found, we believe, the essence of the History of the 
three counties admirably condensed. Next to an intel- 
ligent friend, a well-arranged and trustworthy guide is 
unquestionably the most desirable companion either in 
home or foreign travel ; and such Mr. Murray offers to 
all intending travellers, at a very small charge, in the 
long series of Handbooks which have made his name a 
household word in almost every corner of the habitable 
and visitable world. 

Routledge's Pronouncing Dictionary of the English Lan- 
guage. ; founded on the Labours of Walker, Webster, Sfc., 
and enriched with many thousand Modern Words con- 
nected with Science, Literature, and Art. Edited by 
P. Austin Nuttall, LL.D. (Routledge.) 
As we are not exactly of the opinion of the old lady 
who thought a Dictionary would be very amusing reading 
if it were only divided into chapters, we confess we have 
not read the work before us, but having looked at the 
Key to English Pronunciation, and found the test words 
which we referred to accurately marked, we can have no 
doubt that it is a carefully compiled and useful Pro- 
nouncing Dictionary. 



The Doom of the Gods of Hellas, and other Poems. Eu 

A. W. Ingram. (Bennett.) 

This little selection of poetry has been a labour of love 
with its respected author, and contains the ideas collected 
in the annual holiday of a country clergj-man, usually 
spent in a Continental tour. The minor poems, and 
more especially the sonnets, contain the germ of a poetic 
mind, well stored Avith literary knowledge. Possibly a 
less imposing title would have been more suitably em- 
ployed in indicating the works of an author whose" turn 
of thought and style prove his success to be rather in 
cultivating the " molle atque facetum " than the " forte 
epos." We venture to predict success to this, and we 
trust future efforts of his pen. 

MR. EGBERT THOMPSON. This gentleman, who has 
done so much for Horticulture and Meteorology during a 
long and active life, and to whom England owes much 
for the services he has rendered to Pomology, being about 
to retire from active duty in the service of the Royal 
Horticultural Societv, the Council took the initiative in 
the formation of a Committee for collecting and present- 
ing him with a substantial testimonial expressive of their 
cordial sympathy with him in his declining years, and 
their high appreciation of his services to science. Sub- 
scriptions may be forwarded to the Society's Bankers, or 
to any Member of the Committee. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &e., of the followine Books, to be sent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose: 

POEMS BY Miss MORRIS. Privately printed. 

English Tracts referring to the Vaudois or Waldenses in Piedmont, 
France, and Bohemia from Iti27 to 1660. 

Wanted by Mr. John Wilson, 93, Great Russell Street, W.C. 

CLCTTERHCTCK'S HERTFORDSHIRE. 3 Vols. Large paper. 

DIBDIN'S DC:CAMKHO,\. 3 Vols. (two copies). Large or small paper. 

WINDSOR CASTLE. Cruikshank's plates. 

WlTSIOS ON THE CoVKNANTS. 2Vols. 8VO. 

PALEY'S PHILOSOPHY. Small edition. 
BARKSTEAD'S POEMS. 8vo. 1607. 

HIRE.M; on, THE FAIR GREEK. Svo. 1611. 

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookseller. 15, Conduit Street, 
Bond Street, London, W. 

BELL'S LIFE. All Nos. for 1850. 

Wanted by G. T. J., 25, Essex Street, Strand. 
BELL'S LIFE. All Nos. for 1850. 

Wanted by Damns ff Co. 1, Finch Lane, Cornhill. 



I's SHAKESPEARE. Vols. II. und III. 18mo edition. 
HTS ON SELF-CULTURE, by Grey and her Sister Maria. 
IH MOKE'S SACRED POETHY. 12 mo edition. 
Wanted by Mr. G. Cockhead. 73, Norfolk Terrace, W. 



ta 



,. 

'%?: 



OCR SECOND SERIES. Subscribers who want Numbers or Parts 
complete their Second Series are recommended to make early applica- 
tion/or the same, as the few copies on hand are beiny made up into sets ; 
and when this is done, no separate copies can be sola. 

S. JACKSON. The examples of the word " Dole" (ante, pp. 7, 55, 79) 
are allusive of its meaning in the sense of sorrow or pain, nut the act of 
distributing or dealing. 

| ERRATUM 3rd S. xi. p. 506, col. i. line 8, after " was " insert " by." 

! A Reading Case for holding the weekly Nos. of "N. & Q." is now 
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or, free by post, direct from the publisher, for 1*. 8d. 

*** Cases for binding the volumes of " N. & Q." may be had of the 
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" NOTES AND QOERIES " is published at noon on Friday, and is also 
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"NOTES & QUERIES" is registered for transmission abroad. 



uo. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



141 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 24, 1867. 



CONTENTS. N 295. 

NOTES- By whom was the Harp brought into Europe? 
the Irish Harp, 14.1 May-Fires. Isle of Man, 144 The 
Seven Ages of Man " Rattening " Writing on the 
Ground Dramatic Critics Washington Relics Origin 
of Mottoes Oxvmeli Epistolare Town and College 
Conduit Mead 'The Three oldest Towns in the United 
States, 145. 

QUERIES : Colonel John Vernon, 147 Aphorisms 
Buns Campbell's " Hohenlinden " Fitzralph Brass 
Harvest Home H. L. W. Key-cold: Key: Quay Mor- 
ris-Dance Nointed Petting Stone The Protesting 
Bishops Arms of Prouy Quotation wanted "Saw- 
ney's Mistake " Family of Serle, 148. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS: Ste. Ampoule M. de La- 
moignon's Library T. K. Hervey Playing Cards 
Richard Corbet " Songe d'un Anglais " " A Vision, 
&c. " Venella," 149. 

REPLIES: Rev. John Wolcot, M.D., alias Peter Pindar, 
Esq., 151 Immersion in Holy Baptism, 152 Brignoles, 
Ib. Earl St. Vincent, 153 Parc-aux-Cerfs, 76. As- 
sumption of a Mother's Name, 154 " Albumazar " 
Henry Alken, Artist The Late Rev. R. H. Barham 
Classic Campbell's " Hohenlinden " Smith Queries 
Dundrennan Abbey Family of Fisher, Roxburghshire 

" Leo puguat cum Dracone" Lines on the Eucharist 

Mrs. Lawrence, of Liverpool Needle's Eye Courts 
of Queen's Bench and Exchequer " Excelsior : " Excel - 
sius Quotations wanted Marquis D' Ay tone Married 
on Crooked Staff " The Three Pigeons" Battle of 
Bauge" Quarter-Masters, &c., 155. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



BY WHOM WAS THE HARP BROUGHT INTO 
EUROPE ? THE IRISH HARP. 

The reply of Sr.* to the query "By whom 
was the harp brought into Europe ? not the 
lyre of the Greeks, but the great triangular- 
shaped harp, as used by the Irish and Welsh, and 
as seen on the monuments of Egypt and As- 
syria " t does not appear to apply to the " drift 
of the query ; " indeed, my conviction is that, 
evidence as it undoubtedly is of the biblical re- 
search and ingenious speculations of the writer, 
he has drifted far and widely away from it. From 
his conclusions I am forced to dissent^for my ex- 
perience has taught me to have some faith that the 
aids which inquiries such as the query is calcu- 
lated to stimulate, are not only " pleasing exertions 
of ingenuity, and to a certain extent useful," 
but that they also " worm out," with occasional 
reliability, " the secrets of the speechless past." 
Hooke had a faith vital enough to animate him 
with the hope of being able " to raise a chronology 
from the mere study of broken and fossiled shells," 
and to identify the intervals of time wherein such 
catastrophes and mutations as have been noted 
have happened, and the illustrious author of 
Cosmos accepted the assurance as of probable ac- 
complishment. (Bonn's edition, p. 6.) To Cuvier 



* 3^ S. xi. 391. 



t 3ra S. xi. 214. 



a fossil tooth suggested the form, through all the 
minute details of construction, of an extinct 
species of animals. The modern discoveries of 
geographers, archaeologists, ethnologists, and phi- 
lologers have served to disclose some of the hidden 
treasures of the past the migrations, conquests, 
and defeats of the successive swarms of Celts, 
Iberians, Teutons, Scandinavians, and Sclaves. 
Indeed, as has been well observed, " the hills, the 
valleys, and the rivers are writing tablets on 
which the nations of olden times have inscribed 
their records." 

With the aids of such lights as the traditions 
and antiquities of Ireland, the testimony of ex- 
terns, and the deductions from accepted facts sup- 
ply, I venture to offer some remarks elucidatory, 
if not quite satisfactory, in reply to the query. 

The first mention of the harp yet found in 
Irish MSS. is in the " Dinn Seanchas " compiled 
by Amergin Mac Amalgaid, A.D. 544. It is there 
related that in the time of Geide, monarch of Ire- 
land, A.M. 3143, "the people deemed each other's 
voices sweeter than the warblings of a melodious 
harp, such peace and concord reigned among 
them." In the earliest Irish records, some of 
which are transcribed in the Books of Leacan and 
Ballymote, a very remote antiquity is claimed for 
the Irish harp. Some writers have concluded 
that there is indeed a probability that it is indi- 
genous, and from the most early period in common 
use among the Irish, Britons, Gauls, and ancient 
Germans, and all the " ubiquitous " Celtic nations. 
(Walker's Irish Bards, Appendix, p. 115, 4to, 
Lond. 1786; Leslie's Races of Scotland, p. 448, 
8vo, Edinb. 1866.) It was also well known 
throughout Asia, and is thought to be the earliest 
musical instrument with which man was ac- 
quainted. It has been found on sculptured stones 
in these islands, and on a monument in Brittany 
described by Penhouet in the Arcliceologie Armo- 
ricaine. A legend of the invention of the Irish 
harp is given in an Irish romance, " The Introduc- 
tion to Tain-Bo-Cuailgne," Cattle Prey of Cool- 
ney a copy of which, written in the twelfth 
century, exists, supposed to have been transcribed 
from a book of the seventh century. 

The tracts referred to above in the Books of 
Leacan and Ballymote report that the harp was 
brought into Ireland by the Tuatha-de-Danaans, 
A.M. 2539, a people learned in the arts and sciences, 
who occupied the island before the arrival of the 
Milesians, a kindred people who, through devious 
wanderings, had reached Egypt, and there so- 
journed contemporaneously with the Israelites, 
and had arrived in that country in their migra- 
tions from the north-east, or Scythia, the cradle 
of the race. Gildas, Nennius, Bede, Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, the earliest of British chroniclers, and 
several other authors record these facts, and quote 
them expressly from the Irish annals. These 



142 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3rd s. XII. AUG. 24, '67. 



pretentions to so old an origin, and to a civilisation 
so advanced, of the ancient Irish, were for many 
ages deemed absurd and visionary. The study of 
ethnology, philology, and geographical nomencla- 
tures, national customs and folk-lore, have contri- 
buted to bring these claims within the pale of 
historical recognition. 

Baxter, Lhuyd, Chalmers, Whitaker, Skene, 
Robertson, Garnett, Davies, Pritchard, Betham, 
Williams, Latham, Zeuss, Taylor, and other 
scholars, have, with their industrious explorations 
in the rich soil of a productive field, educed evi- 
dences on which reliance may be placed, and have 
tracked the wanderings of the ubiquitous Gael ; 
have proved that large portions of Spain were 
anciently Gaelic; have identified the limits of the 
Gaelic region, in Italy; have followed in the foot- 
steps of the Gael along the Alps, and gave to them 
the name ; and have recognised the settlements of 
the scattered clans, who, retracing their path, fixed 
their abode in Asia Minor, and gave a patronymic 
name to the district Galatia, or the land of the 
Gael. And there they lono; retained their lan- 
guage and ethnical peculiarities. (Jerome, Com- 
mentary on the Epistle to the Galatians, Proccmium ; 
Taylor's Words and Places, p. 234.) Evidences 
of the relations of Ireland with Africa are crop- 
ping daily to the surface, and the old and widely- 
spread traditions of the " blessed isles of the west " 
which mingle with the earliest details of the his- 
toric period may yet be vindicated as the mythic 
reliques of a primitive religion and a prehistoric 
civilisation. 

Ireland has been in possession of the triangu- 
lar-shaped harp from time immemorial. The 
senachies (chroniclers) record that three harpers 
accompanied the Tuatha-de-Danaans to Ireland 
(A.M. 2539), and their conquerors, the Milesians ; 
and that their conquerors, the Milesians (A.M. 
2736, Keating), were accompanied by harpers. 
Keating relates that Miled, the father of the 
princes who led this colony, had sent twelve 
young men to learn the principal arts and sciences 
of Egypt; that each of them became expert in 
his own particular profession by the end of the 
seven years they had resided in the land of the 
Pharaohs. (Hist, of Ireland, p. 177. O'Mahony's.) 

Whatever may be the value of this testimony, 
it is generally admitted that the harp is the first 
musical instrument with which man has been 
acquainted. In the fourth chapter of Genesis the 
invention of it is appropriated to the antediluvian 
era. Bruce discovered the triangular-shaped harp 
painted in a tomb called Biban el Molook, near 
the pyramid of Gfzeh, in which the remains of 
kings of Egypt were deposited. The harp was 
not known to the early Greeks. Their stringed 
instruments as well as their letters were intro- 
duced from Asia, the cradle-land of the Gael. The 
cithara, says Plutarch (De Musicd), was originally 



styled Asiatic. Heraclides of Lesbos supposed 
it to have been invented by Amphion (Plut. 
De Musicd). Trepander, two hundred years after 
Homer, was the first who became eminent as a 
harper. Timotheus of Miletus, about four hundred 
years B.C., added four to the seven strings pre- 
viously in use. According to Athenseus, Sopho- 
cles calls it a Phrygian instrument. The mytho- 
logical tradition pointed to an Egyptian origin, 
representing Mercury as having found the tortoise, 
from the shell of which he framed the first 
cithara, among the mud of the subsiding Nile. 
All authors agree that the Irish harp is very 
different from any stringed instrument used among 
the Romans; and Fortunatus (lib. vii. carm. 8) 
mentions it as an instrument of the barbarians. 

Long before the lyre was known in Rome or 
Greece, the Gael of Ireland had attained a high 
degree of perfection in the form and management 
of the harp. The Irish harper made use of two 
kinds of instruments the cruit and the clairseach. 
The latter is supposed to have been employed in 
producing martial strains, and used in banquet- 
halls; the former thrilled from its chords the 
softer breathings of love and sorrow. The pagan 
Gael would listen to no instruction of Druid and 
Ollav (priest and professor) that was not wedded 
to verse ; their systems of physics and meta- 
physics, the precepts of their religion and their 
laws, were enshrined in poetical compositions set 
to music, and so conveyed and preserved from 
generation to generation; and thus the art and 
science of music were not only religiously culti- 
vated by them, but were at all times esteemed 
the most polite branches of education ; and even- 
when the Christian dispensation had supplanted 
Druidism, they continued to be in equal repute. 
In rank, the minstrels were the coequals of the 
nobles, and at the festive boards to them were 
assigned seats of the highest honour ; extensive 
land estates were settled upon them ; many of 
them as late as the seventeenth century occu- 
pied stately castles. The legal records of that 
period show that the annual rental of one of 
this class was equivalent to 5000/. of our present 
money. Their persons and properties were held 
inviolable by all classes ; the eric or compensa- 
tion, levied -under the brehon-law, for the killing 
of a chief professor was next in amount to that 
exacted for a prince or a king. 

The Gael, as well as the Egyptains, must have 
paid great attention to the study of music, for 
each arrived at a very accurate knowledge of the 
art ; had it not been so they could never have 
possessed such scientifically constructed instru- 
ments, nor have acquired so perfect an acquaint- 
ance with the principles of harmony. Music, 
like every science, as has been judiciously re- 
marked, has its regular gradations of progression 
from infancy to maturity; and while improve- 






3'd g. XII. AUG. 24, '67. J 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



143 



cnent follows improvement, the powers of the 
human mind must be stimulated and enlarged, 
and an exalted order of intellect attained. Beau- 
ford, no mean authority, opines that the Irish 
harp has the true musical figure, and that the 
Irish bards in particular seem, from experience and 
from practice, to .have discovered a form found 
to have been constructed on true harmonic prin- 
ciples, challenging the strictest mathematical and 
philosophical scrutiny. (Walker's Irish Sards, 
Appendix 117, 4to. Lond. 1786.) He considers, 
judging from the form of the Egyptian harp as 
given by Bruce (since then confirmed by Denon and 
Roscellini), that the endeavours of the Egyptian 
artists were ineffectual to discover the true form 
such as the Irish had; "for," he adds, "no sys- 
tem of musical strings whose diameters are equal 
can be tended on the given curve." (Ibid. App. 
p. 119.) 

Many writers have denied the antiquity and 
early civilisation claimed for Ireland, but it has 
never been questioned that in the most remote 
times the Irish had a national music peculiar to 
themselves, and that their bards and harpers were 
eminent in its performance, and were admittedly 
the best musicians in Europe. Giraldus Cam- 
brensis, who had been sent to Ireland by Henry 
II. with his son John, prejudiced as he un- 
doubtedly was, highly commends the Irish music, 
and says : " In their musical instruments alone do I 
find any laudable industry among the people, in 
these they are incomparably skilful^ beyond all 
other nations ; " and he then remarks, that " both 
Scotland and Wales strive to rival Ireland in the art 
of music the former from its community of race, 
the latter from its antiquity." ( Topography of Ire- 
land, b. iii. c. 11.) The writer does not note 
what, from its proximity to his time, must have 
been known to him, that towards the close of the 
preceding century (about A.D. 1098) Griffith ap 
Conan, King of North Wales, born in Ireland, 
and descended by his mother's side from Irish 
parents, brought with him from the land of his 
birth "several skilful musicians that devised in 
manner almost all the instruments which were 
afterwards played in Wales, chiefly the harp or 
crowth (cruith), and the music that is there used, 
and which he was the first to bring over into 
Wales." (Caradoc of Llancarvan, Chronicle of 
Wales, p. 147, printed at Shrewsbury.) Wharton 
(Hist, of English Music) says that " as late as the 
eleventh century the practice continued among 
the Welsh bards of receiving instruction in the 
bardic profession from Ireland." 

The Italians were in possession of the harp 
before the time of Dante. Galilei the elder, 
writing about the middle of the sixteenth century, 
records the fact : " This most ancient instrument 
was brought to us from Ireland, as Dante, born 
1265, testifies, where they (the harps) are excel- 



lently made, and in great repute, the inhabitants 
of that island having practised upon it for many, 
many ages." 

Several learned men, observes M. Guigene, are 
of opinion that the Europeans are not indebted to 
the Egyptians for the harp ; and he adds the sin- 
gular surmise that it originated in the North, and 
was introduced into England, and subsequently 
into Ireland, by the Saxons. It is only in the dark 
days of Ireland's depression such a bold assertion 
could be hazarded, when ages of intestine convul- 
sion had all but extinguished her literature and 
eclipsed her olden fame. In days when it ceased 
to be known that Irish armies occupied a consi- 
derable portion of England. (Fide Ethelwerd's 
Chronicle, A.D. 444 ; Annales Saxonici, 603 ; Gildas, 
sect. 14.) When the Irish fleets swept her shores j 
when Scotland was in her grasp ; when the Isle of 
Man, the Hebrides, the Orkneys, Iceland, and the 
Faroe Isles were subject to 'her sway. (Dicuil, 
Liber de Mcnsura Orbis, circa 825 ; Hardy's De- 
scriptive Catalogue of Materials relating to Hist, 
of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. i. part ii. 
p. 500) ; and when her conquests extended from 
Armorica to the foot of the Alps. (Keating's Ire- 
land, edited by O'Mahony, New York, pp. 188, 
395.) The only property the Saxon could have 
had in the harp was its Teutonic name, which the 
Gael never adopted. The instrument itself he re- 
ceived from Ireland, as he did his letters. (Yeo- 
well's Ancient British Church, p. 148.) That it 
was of Irish origin the Norman kings admitted, 
for when they coined money for Ireland they im- 
pressed it with the harp as the national emblem. 

I hope I am justified in concluding that the 
probabilities are corroborative of these deductions 
that to Ireland the harp is indigenous, and from 
an early period in use among the Irish, the Gauls, 
the ancient Germans, and all the Celtic nations ; 
that in the remote past the Africans and the G ael 
were not strangers to each other; that it is as 
reasonable to assume that the Gael took their harp 
to Egypt as that they brought it from it. One 
assertion I hesitate not to make, that the Gael or 
Celt spread widely over the western parts of the 
old world, north and south, and bore with them , 
civilisation and arts anterior to those of Greece ; 
and that during the social convulsions that revolu- 
tionised the continent, Ireland the far isle of the 
west, remote from war and its disturbing influ- 
ences was the refuge, asylum, school, and strong- 
hold of the kindred clans ; and that in that " sacred 
isle " is now to be found the larger portion of what 
survives of the memorials of the race its lan- 
guage, its institutions, its traditions, its laws, 
and its history. JOHN EUGENE O'CAVANAGH. 

Lime Cottage, Walworth. 



144 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [3 rd s. xn. AUG. 24, '67. 



MAY-FIRES, ISLE OF MAN. 
The custom of making, on tjie night of May 11 
(May eve, 0. S.), large fires similar to the Irish 
fires referred to by MR. J. HARRIS GIBSON in 
" N. & Q." (3 rd S. xii. 42), still obtains in the Isle 
of Man. On a fine evening these fires have a 
very beautiful appearance, as they blaze on the 
mountains and other elevations. While the fires 
are burning, horns are blown in all directions. It 
is customary, too, on the same evening to place 
" May-flowers," as they are termed by the pea- 
santry, at the entrances of the cottages, and of 
the out-offices in which the domestic animals of 
the farm are kept. The flower used for the pur- 
pose is the marsh marigold (Caltha palustris). 
Crosses made of sprays of the mountain ash or 
keirn, as it is called in the Manx dialect are 
worn on the same night. 

Though the pretext for these customs is pro- 
tection against witchcraft, there seems to be little 
faith now entertained as to their efficacy . The 
peasantry say that the fires are supposed to burn 
the wizards and witches; while the Jceirn cross, 
and the flowers and leaves of the Caltha, are sup- 
posed to possess a charm against the supernatural 
powers of enchanters and mountain hags. 

Sir John Lubbock, in his learned and interest- 
ing Prehistoric Times, when alluding to Professor 
Nilsson's opinion that the Phoenicians had settle- 
ments in Scandinavia, says : 

" The festival of Baal or Balder was, he [Professor 
Nilsson] tells us, celebrated on Midsummer's night in 
Scania, and far up into Norway, almost to the Loffbden 
Islands, until within the last fifty years. A wood fire 
was made upon a hill or mountain, and the people of the 
neighbourhood gathered together in order, like Baal's 
prophets of old, to dance round it, shouting and singing. 
This Midsummer's-night-fire has even retained in some 
parts the ancient names of Balders bal, or Balders fire." 
P. 47. 

Sir John says further : 

" Baal has given his name to many Scandinavian 
localities: as, for instance, the Baltic, the Great and 
Little Belt, Beltberga, Baleshaugen, Balestranden," &c. 
P. 48. 

The Rev. John Kelly, LL.D., who died in 1809, 
in his Manx and English Dictionary (which had 
not been published, until recently printed by the 
Manx Society, and edited by the Kev. William 
Gill) has ingeniously endeavoured to show that 
numerous Manx words are derived from the name 
of the Phoenician deity, and indicate the worship 
of the sun as Baal. Mr. Archibald Cregeen, how- 
ever, in his Dictionary of the Manx Language, 
published in 1835 (a work of great research and 
ability), does not, I believe, even mention the 
name of the god. 

Dr. Kelly gives Baal as a Manx word, signify- 
ing " Baal, Apollo, the sun, Beel, Bel or Bol, king 
of the Assyrians," &c. In reference to the Manx 
word Grian, the sun, he remarks : 



" The sun was anciently worshipped by the Celts under 
the name of Bel, Beal, Baal, Boal, orBeul, and by the 
Greeks under the name of Apollo, which differs Very 
little in the sound. He [Apollo] was called Grian, from 
grianey or grianagh, to bask, heat, or scorch ; which word 
was Latinised into Grynaeus and Grannus, which became 
a classical epithet of Apollo." 

The alleged derivation of Grynseus from the 
Manx word arian, the sun, few antiquaries will, 
I think, be prepared to adopt. It is, I think, quite 
as probable that Apollo, as schoolboys are taught 
to believe, derived the epithet from the town of 
Gryneum, where he is said to have had a temple. 
It is, moreover, doubtful that Apollo and the sun 
were identical. Dr. Lempriere says : 

" Apollo has been taken for the sun, but it may be 
proved by different passages in the ancient writers that 
Apollo, the Sun, Phoebus, and Hyperion were all dif- 
ferent characters and deities, though confounded together. 
When once Apollo was addressed as the Sun, and repre- 
sented with a crown of rays on his head, the idea was 
adopted b} T every writer, and thence arose the mistakes." 

Dr. Kelly gives the word Baalan-feale-oin, which 
he translates "The chaplet of the plant (?) worn 
on the eve of St. John the Baptist." He says 
that the etymology of the word is, An, a chaplet, 
Baal, of Baal, fcailly, on the feast, JEoin, of John. 
The word is, however, spelled by the editor Bol- 
lan-y-feail-oin. Mr. Kelly does not seem to have 
known the name of this plant, which is the mug- 
wort (Artemisia vulaaris). 

The words Laa Boaldyn (Cregeen), May-day, 
Dr. Kelly writes Baaltinn (Laa) ; and attaches 
the meaning " May-day, or the day of Baal's 
fire or of the sun ; from tinn, celestial fire, and 
Baal, the god Baal, or the sun." Boayldin (Cre- 
geen), a name given to two valleys in the island, 
is also spelled by Dr. Kelly in the same manner, 
and supposed by him to have the same etymology 
as the other word applied to May. He also- 
affirms that the word Tynwald has the same 
etymology, a word which is clearly not a Manx 
word at all, but is derived from the two Danish 
words ting, a court, and bold, a mound of earth 
the Court on the Mound, where the Manx statutes 
are promulgated. 

Of Laa Boaldyn, May-day, Cregeen says its 
etymology is not well known ; but observes that 
it is said by some to have been derived "from 
boal, a wall, and teine (fire), Irish, in reference to 
the practice of going round the fences with fire 
on the eve of this day." As to the word Boayl- 
dyn, Cregeen states that the valleys are no doubt 
so called from boayl dowin, a low place. As boayl 
means place, why should not boayl tinn mean the 
place of fire, and not Baal's fire ? 

Dr. Nuttall, in his Archesological and Classical 
Dictionary, quoting, I think, from Dr. Jamieson, 
says that "Among the ancient Scandinavians 
and Caledonians the words bael, baal, bail, bayle, 
&c., denoted a funeral pile, or the blaze there- 



3** S. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



145 



from." The word baal, in the Danish language, 
signifies " a pile of wood" ; but the Eastern word 
Baal, I believe, denotes " lord." The word beeal, 
in the Manx dialect, means " entrance " : thus, leeal 
y pliurt denotes an entrance into a harbour. Is 
it not possible that some at least of the prefixes, 
forming parts of Scandinavian words, and men- 
tioned by Sir John Lubbock as being derived 
from the Phoenician Baal, may have had their 
origin in equivalents of bual, an entrance, boal, a 
wall, or boayl, a place, in the Celtic or some other 
ancient European languages ? 

That the sun was worshipped by the early in- 
habitants of Man, I am much disposed to believe. 
The form of some of the ancient tumuli of the 
island leads to this belief: two seem to have been 
constructed in an annular form, with radiations. 
But if the sun was a deity among its primeval 
occupants, was he worshipped under the name of 
Baal ? J. M. JEFPCOTT. 

Isle of Man. 



THE SEVEN AGES or MAN. In a poem entitled 
" This World is but a Vanyte," from the Lambeth 
MS. 853, about 1430 A.D., printed in Hymns to 
the Virgin and Christ (edited by F. J. Furnivall 
for the Early English Text Society), at p. 83 we 
have a very curious comparison of the life of man 
to the seven times of the day. The number s'even 
is here determined apparently by the hours of the 
Romish church. Thus, corresponding to matins, 
prime, tierce, sext, nones, vespers, and compline, 
which were called in old English uhtsang, prime- 
sang, undernsang, middaysang, nonsany, evensang, 
nightsang, we have the following periods of the 
day and of man's life : 

1. Morning. The infant is like the morning, at 
first born spotless and innocent. 2. Midmorrow. 
This is the period of childhood. 3. Undern 
(9 A.M.). The boy is put to school. 4. Midday. 
He is knighted, and fights battles. 5. High Noon 
(i. e. nones or 9th hour, 3 P.M.). He is crowned 
a king, and fulfils all his pleasure. 6. Mid- 
overnoon (i. e. the middle of the period between 
higt noon and evensong). The man begins to 
droop, and cares little for the pleasures of youth. 
7. Evensong. The man walks with a staff, and 
death seeks him. After this follows the last 
stanza : 

" ' Thus is the day come to nyght, 

That me lothith of my lyuynge, 
And doolful deeth to me is flight, 

And in coold clay now schal y clinge.' 
Thus an oold man y herde mornynge 

Biside an holte vndir a tree. 
God graunte us his blis euerlastinge ! 

This world is but a vanite ! " 

The resemblance of this to Shakespeare's 
" Seven Ages " is curious and interesting. 

WALTER W. SKEAT. 



"RATTENING." As this word has become 
notorious in the inquiry into the Sheffield out- 
rages (and has recently been introduced into the 
London book trade), and as its origin is uncertain, 
it may be well to inquire about its early use and 
real meaning while there are some alive who 
may be able to say whence it came and what the 
word really means. In the recent inquiry at 
Sheffield, the word seemed generally to mean the 
concealment or destruction of the " bands " (the 
straps by which grindstones, &c. are turned), in 
order to compel some obstinate workman to con- 
form to the " Union *' rules. My own recollec- 
tion of the meaning of the word is very different, 
and on referring to a work where I first saw the 
word many years ago, I find the following : 

" The murders which these men sometimes commit are 
perpetrated by a process known under the name of rat- 
taning. The 'grinder in Sheffield performs his daily 
labour seated across a sort of wooden bench, known by 
the name of the Horse, the place which would be that of 
the lowest part of the horse's neck being the position of 
the grinding stone, which is sent round with the greatest 
velocity by a mill. The stone is made steady upon its 
iron spindle by means of wedges, and rattaning consists 
in driving one of these wedges so far as slightly to crack 
the stone. The effect is, that soon after the stone is put 
into its full motion, it separates, the pieces flying off as 
though sent from the mouth of a cannon, and the un- 
happy workman, bending in unconsciousness over the 
instrument of his destruction, experiences a most horrible 
death." The Age of Great Cities; or, Modern Civilisation 
viewed in its Relation to Intelligence, Morals, and Religion. 
By Robert Vaughan, D.D., President of the Lancashire 
Independent College. Second edition. London : Jack- 
son & Walford, &c. 1843. 

Although the passage is rather verbose and 
clumsy, the process of "rattaning " is described 
pretty clearly, and apparently from positive per- 
sonal knowledge. What, then, is the etymology 
of the word ? Did " rattaning " begin with 
grinders ? How long has the word been used 
in a more general sense ? How should it be 
spelled ? Rattaning, rattening, rattan-ning ? 
Fifty years hence these and a dozen other queries 
will be asked about what is now unfortunately 
a very " familiar word," and then there will be 
no hope of an adequate reply. For the present 
I withhold my own speculations and researches 
(which are in no way satisfactory) in the hope 
that some philologist or some Sheffield reader 
will settle the whole question by a brief history 
of this word, as to its origin, its changes, and its 
use. ESTE. 

WRITING ON THE GROUND. In John, viii. 6, 8, 
our Lord is so represented. In the Acharnians 
(v. 31) of Aristophanes the word ypd<t>w is used by 
Dicaeopolis (= a just citizen) to express, with other 
words, how he tried to pass off the tedium of attend- 
ing in the Pnyx, or one of the Grecian Houses of 
Commons. This word is translated scribble by Hic- 
kie, but Artaud renders it " je trace des caracteres 



146 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [8- s. xn. AUG. 24, '67. 



sur la sable/' I draw figures on the sand. As this 
play was written B.C. 425, it is probable that ypd^v 
was used in its primary sense of to scratch, scrape, 
or draw marks or figures, and not in the sense of 
writing letters or words, which being done on the 
ground or sand would be speedily obliterated. I 
have seen in engravings of the woman taken in 
adultery, the Hebrew words represented on the 
ground, meaning "thou shalt not commit adul- 
tery/' but such writing seems to me improbable. 
The act, whatever it was, appears to have been a 
sign on the part of our Lord, used twice at this 
interview, to show his unwillingness to hear 
further the subtile crimination of the Jews ; for 
when he looked up the secend time after he had 
again written on the ground, all had gradually 
departed, probably considering that their position 
in moral logic was indisputable. As to the French 
translation of yp<bj>u, drawing figures on the sand 
in this particular passage, it seems to me erroneous, 
for the Pnyx is represented as crowded, and sand 
was probably not there at all, for it was cut out of 
solid rock. " What Dicseopolis scratched or drew 
upon was a tablet, TrrvKrbs iriva.% (Horn., //. f. 169), 
answering the purpose of our pocket memorandum 
books as well as of our post letters. 

T. J. BTJCKTON. 
Streatham Place, S. 

DRAMATIC CKITICS. The following list of 
dramatic critics, taken from the September num- 
ber of The Broadway, in an article written by 
Mr. John Hollingshead, may be worthy of a 
corner in " N. & Q." : 

Times, Mr. John Oxenford. 

Morning Post. Mr. Dumphy. 

Daily News. Mr. John Hollingshead. 

Herald and Standard. Mr. Desmond Ryan. 

Telegraph. Mr. E. L. Blanchard. 

Star. Mr. Leicester Buckingham. 

Advertiser. Mr. F. G. Tomlins. 

Pall Mall Gazette. Mr. G. H. Lewes. 

Globe. Dr. Granville. 



Saturday Review. Mr. John Oxenford. 
Examiner. Mr. Henry Morley. 
Illustrated News. Mr. J. A. Heraud. 
Athenaeum. Mr. J. A. Heraud. 
Illustrated Times. Mr. W. S. Gilbert. 
Dispatch. Mr. Bayle Bernard. 
Weekly Times. Mr. F. G. Tomlins. 
Lloyd's Newspaper. Mr. Sidney Blanchard. 

BTJSKIN. 

WASHINGTON RELICS. A lady has recently 
announced in a New York journal that she will 
dispose of (for the benefit of the Catholic fair in 
that city) a niece of the coffin in which Wash- 
ington's remains were buried for thirty years, as 
also a piece of the ferrule of his walking-stick, and 
a cutting from the embroidered silk dress which 
was worn by Martha Washington. W. W. 

Malta. 



ORIGIN OF MOTTOES. Allied to the subject of 
punning mottoes, of which many examples have 
been given in "N. & Q.," is the origin of mottoes 
of particular families, which are often of historical 
interest. I find the following account of the 
origin of the mottoes of the different branches of 
the Campbell family in The Scotsman's Library. 
1825, p. 219 : 

" The motto of the armorial bearings of the family i., 
' Follow me.' This significant call was assumed by Sir 
Colin Campbell, laird of Glenorchy, who was a Knight 

Templar of Rhodes Several cadets of the family 

assumed mottoes analogous to that of this chivalrous 
knight; and when the chief called ' Follow me,' he found 
a ready compliance from Campbell of Glenfalloch, a son 
of Glenorchy, who says, ' Thus far,' that is, to his heart's 
blood, the crest being a dagger piercing a heart ; from 
Achline, who says, ' VVith heart and hand ' ; from Achal- 
lader, who says^ ' VVith courage ' ; and from Balcardine, 
who says, ' Paratus sum ' ; Glenlyon, more cautious, says, 
' Qua3 recte sequor.' A neighbouring knight and baron, 
Menzies of Menzies, and Flemyng of Moness, in token of 
friendship, say, ' Will God I shall,' and 'The deed will 
show.' " 

The " Grip fast " of Leslie, Earl of Rothe\ was 
gained by the founder of the house, who saved 
Queen Margaret of Scotland from drowning by 
seizing hold of her girdle when she was thrown 
from her horse in crossing a swollen river. She 
cried out, " Grip fast," and afterwards desired her 
words to be retained as her preserver's motto. 
"Primus e stirpe " was the motto assumed by the 
family of Hay of Leys to indicate their right of 
precedence as the eldest of the younger branches of 
the house of Hay of Errol. " Quse amissa salva," 
the motto of the Earl of Kintore, refers to the 
preservation of the regalia of Scotland by Sir John 
Keith, the first Earl, who during the usurpation 
of Cromwell, buried them in the church of Kenneft, 
and pretended to have carried them to France, in 
consequence of which all search for them ceased. 

These few examples of the origin of particular 
mottoes will, I hope, induce some of the corre- 
spondents of " N. & Q." to continue the subject, 
which is full of interest. H. P. D. 

OXYMELI EPISTOLAEE. Some ninety years 
ago, Monsieur Elie Beaumont, a distinguished 
member of the French bar, and founder of an* an- 
nual " Fete des Bonnes Gens " at his country seat, 
sent eight partridges to his parish priest in Paris, 
with instructions to distribute them among his 
poor parishioners. His reverence's reply merits, I 
think, a corner in "N. & Q." (Anecdotes Secretes, 
a Londres, chez James Anderson. Paris, 1779) : 
" Paris, le 23 Janvier, 1778. 

" J'ai recu, Monsieur, les huit Perdrix rouges que vous 
m'avez adressees, afin d'en faire la distribution a mes 
pauvres. Vous me supposez, sans doute, le talent de notre 
divin Sauveur, qui, avec cinq pains et autant de chetifs 
poissons, nourrissoit des milliers d'hommes. II ne fau- 
droit moins qu'un prodige pareil pour repartir huit 
perdrix rouges entre vingt mille malheureux environ, que 
j'ai & soulager tous les jours. H n'est pas d'anatomiste 



3'd S. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



147 



qui put faire cette dissection. D'ailleurs, que vous ne 
voulussiez me promettre de fournir souvent h mes pauvres 
une nourriture aussi succulente, ce seroit un mauvais 
service a leur rendre, que de les en faire tater, et les 
remettre ensuite h un pain grossier et & une soupe peu 
substantielle. J'ai pris le parti, Monsieur, de faire ser- 
vir votre gibier sur ma table, et d'y substituer huit ecus 
que j'ai remis a la messe des aumones. J'espere, Mon- 
sieur, que vous ne me ferez plus manger dore'navant de 
perdrix aussi cheres. Reservez ce gout delicat, cette re- 
cherche ingenieuse qui vous caracterise, pour vos produc- 
tions litteraires ou pour vos institutions sociales, et 
mettez plus de bonhomie dans vos charites. Permettez- 
moi, en qualite de votre Pasteur, de vous rappeler la 
niaxime cvange'lique : Beati pauperes spiritu ! 
"J'ai 1'honueur d'etre, etc. etc." 

E. L. S. 

TOWN AND COLLEGE. I see that Mr. Britton, 
in his very valuable Architectural Dictionary, 
speaks of the word town as denoting " any collec- 
tion of houses too large to be termed a village." 
Local custom in my neighbourhood takes quite a 
difl'erent view of the word. Our own village is 
constantly called the " town," and I heard the 
name applied a few days ago to a neighbouring 
village containing only seventy inhabitants as its 
whole population. The word " college " is also 
curiously applied to any block or attached body 
of two or three cottages. But this is not so 
frequent. FRANCIS TRENCH. 

Islip Rectory. 

CONDUIT MEAD. Conduit Mead was formerly 
an open field of twenty-seven acres, held in fee by 
the City of London. In 1666 a lease of it was 
granted to the Earl of Clarendon, for ninety-nine 
years, at 81. a-year; and a further lease of one 
hundred years, to commence at the termination 
of the former, was given to Lord Mulgrave in 
1694, of a little more than two acres a parcel of 
the same lands. Upon it, in 1744, stood New 
Bond Street, Conduit, George, and other adjacent 
streets, numbering 429 houses besides stables, 
out-buildings, &c. ; producing an annual rental 
computed at 14,240/. 15s. 

Such description I found in an old pamphlet, 
published in the middle of the last century, com- 
plaining of the waste of the corporation property 
in the management of this important estate. Its 
value now must have enormously increased, and 
does the City of London still retain the ground 
rents, &c. ? ' THOMAS E. WINNINGTON. 

THE THREE OLDEST TOWNS IN THE UNITED 
STATES. St. Augustine, in Florida, founded by 
the Spaniards in 1565; Jamestown, in Virginia, 
founded by the English in 1607 ; and Plymouth, 
Massachusetts, founded also by the English under 
Governor Winthrop, in 1620. W. W. 

Malta. 



COLONEL JOHN VERNON. 

Can any correspondent of " N. & Q." give me 
some particulars respecting Colonel John Vernon, 
to whom were granted, in 1664 or 1665, lands in 
Antigua? He was an officer in the Royalist 
army, and died in 1689. I wish to ascertain the 
name of his first wife. His second wife was Eliza- 
beth Everard, widow of Thomas Everard, Gover- 
nor of the Leeward Islands. I wish also to 
ascertain the Christian name of his father, the 
name of his mother, and the name of his eldest 
son's wife. This son was also John Vernon, and 
died in 1704, at Golden Square, St. James's, West- 
minster ; and was buried at St. Edmund's, Lom- 
bard Street, as was also his eldest son, the Hon. 
John Vernon (I believe a colonel in the army), 
who was a Privy Councillor for Antigua, and died 
in 1765 ; having married (1) Anne Lysons, daugh- 
ter and heiress of George Lysons of Gloucester- 
shire, by Magdalene, daughter of Sir Marmaduke 
Rawdon of Hoddesdon, Herts. Their son, James 
Vernon, took the estates after his father, but died 
in 1769 s. p., and was buried at St. Edmund's, 
Lombard Street. He married Margaret Gas- 
coyne, daughter of Sir Crisp Gascoyne, Knt., of 
London, and sister of Bamber Gascoyne, M.P. for 
Truro, &c. 

The Hon. John Vernon married (2) Elizabeth 
Weston, who died in 1760, and was buried at 
Paddington Church, as were also her parents. 
(I should like to ascertain some particulars about 
the pedigree of this Weston family.) Their son, 
John Joseph James Vernon, born 1744, died 1823, 
took the estates on the death of his half-brother 
in 1769. He was a captain in the 4th Dragoons. 
He married (1) Mary, daughter and heiress of the 
Rev. Randal Andrews, Vicar of Preston, Lanca- 
shire. Their eldest son, John Vernon, born 1773, 
died 1859, took the estates. He was a lieut.- 
colonel in the 18th Hussars. He married E. G. 
Casamajor, daughter of Justinian Casamajor of 
Potterells, Herts. Their three sons John, Jus- 
tinian (captain, 15th Hussars), and George James 
(captain, 8th Hussars) all died s. p. 

Captain Vernon married (2) Hannah Mason, 
daughter of Miles Mason of Westhouse, Dent, 
Yorkshire ; and their eldest son, W. J. J. J. Vernon, 
in holy orders, and formerly Vicar of Littlehamp- 
ton and Patcham, Sussex, is now the head of the 
family, and I am his eldest son. 

I cannot find the will of Colonel John Vernon 
(ob. 1689) at Doctors' Commons. I think he 
must have died at Antigua. The executors of 
the will of John Vernon (ob. 1704) were Sir Wil- 
liam Mathew, KB., Colonel Rowland Williams, 
Colonel Edward Byam (of Antigua), Major Ed- 
mund Nott, Archibald Hutchinson, and Nathaniel 
Carpenter. The executors of the will of the Hon. 



148 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3*4 S. XII. AUG. 24, '67. 



John Vernon (ob. 1765) were Sir Edmund Thomas, 
Bart., of Wendoe Castle, Glamorganshire j Rev. 
Martin Madan, and Charles Spooner, Esq., of St. 
Christopher's, W. Indies ; and W. Brown of Cur- 
sitor Street, Middlesex. 

An official account (in Heralds' College, I be- 
lieve) of the funeral of John Vernon (ob. 1704) 
states that he was a cousin of the Right Hon. 
James Vernon, Secretary of State to King Wil- 
liam III. ; and that the funeral was attended by 
Secretary Vernon, Mr. Vernon "of the Exche- 
quer," Lord Radnor (Chas. B. Robartes), Sir 
Charles Hedges, and Mr. Constantine Phipps " of 
the Temple.'' 

I believe some or all of the following families 
were related to the Vernons of Antigua, viz.: 
Boyle, Berkeley, Carew, Clifford, Robartes, 
Hedges, Phipps, St. John, Moore, Buncombe, 
Oxenden, Hurst, Philpott, Bethell, Tipping. 
Manning and Bray, in their History of Surrey, 
mention a place near Egham, as " formerly the 
seat of the Vernons," but they 'give no details. 
I have found among family papers a letter, 
dated from Antigua, and signed " Duncan Grant" 
(Mr. Grant was father-in-law to Mr. Justinian 
Casamajor), and directed to " James Vernon, Esq., 
Little Foster Hall, near Egham." This James 
Vernon was the above-named J. Vernon who 
married M. Gascoyne, and he was my great uncle. 
Mr. Grant was his agent in Antigua. " Little 
Foster Hall " is now " Egham Lodge." The arms 
of this family are : Or, on a fesse azure, 3 garbs 
or. Crest. On a wreath or, a demi-figure of Ceres, 
habited azure, crined or, holding a garb or in the 
sinister arm, and a reaping-hook in the dexter 
hand. Motto. " Ver non semper viret ." 

Arms precisely similar to these were granted in 
1583, by Flower, to a John Vernon of Cheshire. 
( Vide Gwillim's Display of Heraldry.} 

I should feel much obliged to any of your cor- 
respondents who could assist me in my inquiries. 
The references to the pedigrees of the London 
and Surrey Vernons, in the British Museum, are 
as follows : 

Vernon (London), from Derby and Hunts (Add. 
MS., 5533, p. 81). 

Vernon (London), from Middlewich (1096, 
fol. 102 b). 

Vernon of Camberwell, Surrey (Add. MS., 
5533, fol. 272 0). 

Vernon of Farnham, Surrey (Add. MS., 5533, 
fol. 278). W. J. VERNON. 

Leek, Staffordshire. 

APHORISMS. I think it is Bacon who says that, 
amongst all nations the primitive form of phi- 
losophy is that of aphorisms and proverbial 
phrases, and that in the most advanced stage of 
philosophy men will perhaps discard the cumbrous 
impedimenta of many words and many books, and 



return to the brevity and condensation of the 
primitive form. I should be glad to recover the 
passage I have in mind. Q. Q. 

BUNS. When did this term come into ordinary 
use in England? Cotgrave, in v. "Pain," men- 
tions " a kind of hard-crusted bread, whose loaves 
doe somewhat resemble the Dutch bunnes of 
our Rheinish-wine house." This allusion would 
appear to show that the buns of the seventeenth 
century were different in character to the articles 
now so called. J. O. HALLIWELL. 

CAMPBELL'S "HOHENLINDEN." Is there any 
truth in the following story relative to Campbell's 
poem of the tl Battle of Hohenlinden ? " It was 
told to me when a boy, by an old tutor : 

What gave Campbell the first idea of writing 
the poem was, one night he was returning from a 
dinner-party, having freely partaken of the good 
things of this world. On his way he had to pass 
a sentinel, who challenged him with, " Who goes 
there?" To which Campbell replied, "I, sir, 
rolling rapidly!" G. S. R. 

FITZEALPH BRASS. In Pebmarsh church, Es- 
sex, is a brass, c. 1320, commemorating a member 
of the Fitzralph family. Wanted, any particulars 
respecting the family, and the name of the person 
whose brass is in the above church ? 

JOHN PIGGOT, JTJN. 

HARVEST HOME. What authority have we for 
supposing this festival to have been observed by 
the Greeks and Romans ? A. E. D. 

H. L. W. In the Christian Observer, about 
the year 1835 or 1836, there were several poems 
of a religious kind, having the signature of 
"H. L. W." : one a hymn, "God is my shep- 
herd, tender, kind," &c. ; also some poetry, having 
the title " Scenes in Heaven." Can any reader 
inform me as to the authorship ? I think the 
editor at that time was the Rev. S. C. Wilks, at 
present rector of Nursling, Hants. R. I. 

KEY-COLD : KEY : QTTAY. To the instances of 
key-cold given by MR. SKEAT (3 rd S. xi. 171), 
may be added one showing that it was a familiar 
phrase some time after Shakspeare, from Dry- 
den's Sir Martin Marall, Act III. Sc. 2 (produced 
in 1667) : 

" Mrs. Millisent. Feel whether she breathes with your 
hand before her mouth. 

" Rose. No, Madam, 'tis key-cold." 

In Dryden's Annus Mirabilis, in the description 
of the Great Fire of London, it is said : 

" A key of fii-e ran all along the shore, 
And lightened all the river with a blaze." 

Scott preserves the word key. Mr. R. Bell has 
printed quay. What is the sense of the word in 
this passage ? Should it be key or quay ? CH. 



3"* S. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



149 



MORRIS-DANCE. In Strutt's Sports and Pas- 
times, vol. i. p. 223, ed. Hone, 1834, is the fol- 
lowing : 

" The word morris, applied to the dance, is usually de- 
rived from Morisco, which iu the Spanish language signi- 
fies a Moor, as if the dance had been taken from the 
Moors ; but I cannot help considering this as a mistake, 
for it appears to me that the Morisco or Moor dance is 
exceedingly different from the morris-dance formerly 
practised in this country ; it being performed by the cas- 
tanets, or rattles, at the end of the fingers, and not with 
Ijells attached to various parts of the dress. ... I shall 
not pretend to investigate the meaning of the word 
morris ; though probably it might be found at home." 

He also thinks that the Morisco was a dance 
for one person only. 

Can any one tell me what Strutt was probably 
thinking off, or what other derivation there is of 
morris ? 

Cotgrave says, "A morris-dance, Morisque" 
The game of nine men's morris, or five-penny 
morris, may either mean the nine men's dance 
(which any who has played it would readily 
understand), or it may be a mere corruption of 
m&relles, from the French mereau, a, counter. 
Most likely morris (a dance) was substituted for 
merelles, as being better understood. A Morris- 
pike is a Moorish pike. WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Cambridge. 

NOINTED (?). The lower classes in this lo- 
cality are apt to designate a mischievous boy a 
"nointed young rascal," and in a milder form 
will describe him as " a little bit nointed." Does 
this word prevail elsewhere, and what may be its 
presumed derivation ? M. D. 

Warrington. 

PETTING STONE (2 nd S. iv. 208.) Hutchinson, 
in his History of Durham (vol. i. p. 33), speaking 
of a cross near the ruins of the church in Holy 
Island, says : 

It is "now called the Petting Stone. Whenever a 
marriage is solemnised at the church, after the ceremony 
the bride is to step upon it ; and if she cannot stride to 
the end thereof, it is said the marriage will prove un- 
fruitful." 

Brand, in his Popular Antiquities (vol. ii.), 



" The etymology there given is too ridiculous to be 
remembered ; it is" called petting, lest the bride should 
take pet with her supper." 

My query is, What is the date of the latest use 
of this custom in the North of England ? 

J. MANUEL. 

Newcastle- on-Tyne. 

THE PROTESTING BISHOPS. A friend of mine 
has recently purchased an oil painting consisting 
of the portraits of Archbishop Sancroft (in the 
centre), surrounded by those of Bishops Turner, 
White, Lloyd, Ken, Lake, and Trelawney. I 
j udget t to be a well-executed copy of an original, 



by some good artist. Can any of your readers 
tell me where the original is to be found, and the 
name of the artist ? WILLIAM WING. 

Steeple Aston. 

ARMS or PROUY. I shall be much obliged to 
any correspondent of "N. & Q." who will inform 
me what are the arms of Prouy, or Provy, who 
commanded the Angoumois regiment, raised by 
Louis XIV. about 1685. JOHN DAVIDSON. 

QUOTATION WANTED. " Natura in operationi- 
bus suis non facit saltum." Can the true source 
of this be pointed out ? I am aware that it has 
been ascribed to Leibnitz, and also to Linnaeus. 
In the ninth volume, however, of Fournier's 
Varietes historiques et litteraires (p. 247), he prints 
a piece which appeared in 1613, entitled " Dis- 
cours veritable de la vie et de la mort du g6ant 
Theutobocus," and in it this expression is given 
as a citation. It can scarcely, therefore, be ascribed 
to either Leibnitz or Linnaeus. C. T. RAMAGE. 

"SAWNEY'S MISTAKE." Can any of your 
readers give me any clue to the whereabouts of a 
poem, published about 1783, called Saivney's Mis- 
take ? I fancy that it is written in illustration of 
an old Scotch legend. C. C. B. 

FAMILY OF SERLE. Can you assist me in dis- 
covering who are the representatives of a family 
named Serle, who formerly lived at Testwood, 
Hants ? Peter Serle of that place, according to 
Burke's Landed Gentry, married Miss Dorothy 
Wentworth, apparently towards the close of the 
last century, for no date is given ; and this lady 
died, according to the obituary of the Gentleman's 
Magazine, in Berkeley Street, Manchester Square, 
on December 15, 1809. She is described as relict 
of Peter Serle, late of Testwood, Hants. Another 
Peter Serle, Colonel of the South Hants Militia, 
died in the Regent's Park in December, 1826. 

E. WALFORD. 



STE. AMPOULE. On the reverse of a medal of 
Louis XIV (Menestrier, Histoire du Roy Louis le 
Grand, p. 5), above the view of the city of Rheims, 
is a dove descending, holding a flask in its beak, 
and surrounded by rays of light. The explana- 
tion "given is (" SACRAT . AC . SALUT . RHEMIS . 
IVNII . vn ") 

" Sacre et salue' a Eheims le 7 juin, 1654 Le revers 
est la S. Ampoule qui descend du Ciel, avec la ville de 
Rheims, ou se fit le Sacre, et ou il fut salue' Roy par les 
Princes," &c. &c. 

Again, Froude's History of England, v. 454, I 
find in a note 

" The Cardinal of Lorraine showed Sir William Pick- 
ering the precious ointment of St. Amp all, wherewith 
the King of France was sacred, which he said was sent 



150 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3' d S. XII. AUG. 24, '67. 



from heaven above a thousand years ago, and since by a 
miracle preserved : through whose virtue also the King 
held les estroilles." 

Will some correspondent of " N. & Q." kindly 
give me some account of the Ste. Ampoule and 
the sacred oil, or references by which I may be 
able to find it out for myself ? 

JOHN DAVIDSON. 

[The Holy Vial, the Ste. Ampoule, anciently made use 
of at the coronation of the kings of France, was kept in 
the venerable abbey of St. Remi at Rheims. There is a 
tradition that this vial, filled with oil, descended from 
heaven for the baptism of Clovis in the year 496. It was 
formerly brought in great ceremony from the Abbey of 
St. Remi to, the metropolitan church of Rheims by 
four men of rank, who were styled the Hostages of 
the Holy Vial, preceded by the abbot of the convent, 
where it was deposited upon the high altar, and the 
oil contained in it applied to anoint the breast, the 
hands, and the head of the new sovereign. The Ste. 
Ampoule, says the Encyclop. Catholique, was impiously 
broken to pieces by Ruhl, a member of the National 
Convention, in 1794. Certain inhabitants of Rheims, 
however, collected the fragments, and ultimately restored 
them to their place in the cathedral. There is an en- 
graving of this Holy Vial in the European Magazine, 
xxiii. 246. Consult also " N. & Q." 2 nd S. viii. 381. J 

M. DE LAMOIGNON'S LIBRARY. When was the 
Bibliotheca Lamoniana sold, and where did it 
exist ? Several of my books bear its mark, and 
also that of the Pinelli Library, of which I possess 
the catalogue, but have no knowledge of the 
former collection. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON. 

[The library of the celebrated M. de Lamoignon, 
Keeper of the Seals of France, was purchased by Thomas 
Payne, the bookseller, and brought to London in 1793. 
The Catalogue consists of three volumes, 8vo, and was 
printed at Paris in 1791-2. A great many volumes from 
this library are in the British Museum.] 

T. K. HERVEY. In Chambers's Cyclopaedia of 
English Literature, vol. ii. p. 583, I find the fol- 
lowing : 

" Mr. Herve}-, a native of Manchester (1804-1859), for 
some years conducted the Athenceum literary journal, and 
contributed to various periodicals, &c." 

In Dr. Angus's Handbook of English Literature, 
p. 271, occurs the following: 

"T. K. Hervey (1804-1859), native of the neighbour- 
hood of Paisley, and for some time editor of The Athe- 
naeum, &c." 

Which of these statements is the correct one ? 

D. MACPHAIL. 
Johnstone. 

[The account of Thomas Kibble Hervey in the Gentle^ 
man's Magazine for April, 1859, appears carefully com- 
piled. It is there stated that " Mr. Hervey was born in 
Paisley on the 4th of February, 1799. He left Scotland 



in his fourth year with his father, who settled in Man- 
chester as a drysalter in 1803."] 

PLAYING CARDS. Moguls, Harrys, Highlanders, 
Merry Andrews. Can any of your readers inform 
me the origin of any of the above terms as applied 
to the different qualities of playing-cards ? 

EGBERT H. MAIR. 

65, Ludgate Hill. 

[These strange technical names are simply given to 
distinguish the four qualities into which the cards are 
sorted, and which bear respectivel}' a portrait of the Great 
Mogul (the best), of King Henry VIII., a Highlander, 
and a Merry Andrew. We believe these names were 
first adopted in 1832 in the improved mode of manufac- 
turing cards by the Messrs. De La Rue.] 

RICHARD CORBET, Bishop of Oxford, 1628, of 
Norwich, 1632, was a distinguished wit in his 
time. By his writings he appears to have been a 
poet and a traveller. Can you tell me the best 
edition of his works ? W. II. S. 

[The best edition of the Poems of Bishop Corbet is the 
fourth, with considerable additions, edited, with bio- 
graphical notes and a Life of the Author, by Octavius 
Gilchrist, F.S.A., post 8vo, 1807. A notice of this witty 
poet will be found in the Retrospective Review, xii. 299- 
322.] 

u SONGE D'UN ANGLAIS." " Songe d'un Anglais 
[un Francais ?], fidele a sa patrie, et a son Eoi. 
Traduit de 1'Anglais. A Londres; et se vend 
chez M. Elmsley, Strand, 1793. 8vo." Not 
translated, but originally written in French by 
the author. This book seems unknown to French 
bibliographers. Is the author known ? R. T. 

[This spirited work was first printed in French ; but to 
give it a wider circulation it was translated into English 
in the same year. See the Gentleman's Magazine for 
August, 1793, p. 734.] 

"A VISION," ETC. In Davidson's Bibliotheca 
Devon, there is a piece named " A Vision ; or the 
Romish Interpretation of ' Be ye Converted,' " a 
dramatic poem. What is the date, and where 
was the book printed? Can any Devonshire 
reader inform me who wrote this squib, which 
seems to be of an ecclesiastico-political character 
from the title ? R. I. 

[This work was printed and published by the Messrs. 
Seeleys of Fleet Street, in 1851, 8vo, pp. 30.] 

" VENELLA," uncle derivatur? Verb. occ. in 
antiqua charta terrier nuncup. QTJ^RE. 

[Ducange has the following : " VENELLA, ET VENULA. 
Veculus, angiportus, via strictior, Gallis Venelle, quod 
venae, ut ruga rugfe in corpore speciem referat, alii a 
venire deducunt."] 




i s. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



151 



REV. JOHN WOLCOT, M.D., alias PETER 

PINDAR, ESQ. 
(3 rd S. xii. 6, 39, 94.) 

Since my last note, I have made a search. The 
following 'is the result : Wolcot was born in 
1738, as stated by J. B. DAVIES. He was ap- 
prenticed to a surgeon. I cannot find that he 
was ever an L.S.A. or an M.R.C.S. The proba- 
bility is, that he practised " before the Act." He 
became intimate with the old Cornish family of 
Trelawney; and, along with Sir W. Trelawney 
(? Sir Harry'), he went to Jamaica in the capa- 
city of domestic surgeon and medical adviser to 
the baronet's family and estate. His patron, after 
inducing Wolcot to act as an unordained teacher 
of religion, persuaded him to take holy orders. 
He accordingly returned to England. He was 
ordained priest and deacon by Bishop Porteus. 
He then went back to Jamaica, where he had a 
living given to him by the baronet. This he 
resigned: not because he had committed any irre- 
gularities, canonical or otherwise, but in conse- 
quence of the death of his friend rendering the 
island no longer an agreeable residence. He is 
said to have been neither in dress nor manners 
particularly clerical ; but in those days Jamaica 
churchmen were anything but ritualistic ; they 
were not " particular to a shade or two!" Cer- 
tain it is that his conduct as a clergyman did not 
give any offence to the Trelawneys, for he left 
Jamaica and returned to England with the baro- 
net's widow, Lady Trelawney. He then obtained 
a physician's degree, and practised at Truro. I 
cannot discover where he got his diploma. It 
was probably a Scotch one. His poetical pub- 
lications range from 1785 to 1808. He died, as 
stated by MR. DAVIES, in Jan. 1819, at Camden 
Town. He was blind for some years. He was 
buried at St. Paul's, Covent Garden, in a vault 
close to that of Butler, the author of Hudibras. 
The two resembled each other in many respects, 
but not in their worldly prospects. Butler died in 
extreme poverty. Wolcot left a fortune of 20007. 
a-year. 

When E. S. D. speaks of an edition of Peter 
Pindar's Works, 4 vols. 12mo, 1809, " with brief 
memoirs of the author prefixed," he astonishes 
me. I should like to have the title-page in full. 
I would know the publisher's name, and also that 
of the brief biographer. I know no such edition. 
I will not assume that it is a myth.* I can only 

[* This edition in 18mo is entitled " The Works of 
Peter Pindar, Esq. with a Copious Index. To which is 
prefixed some Account of his Life. In Four Volumes." 
Printed by S. Hamilton, Weybridge, and published by 
J. Walker, Paternoster Row ; J. Harris, St. Paul's Church- 
yard, and the other principal booksellers of the time. It 



arrive at the conclusion that it is a pirated edi- 
tion, and that the " brief " prefix is the ignorant 
compilation of some Ned Purdon of the day. I 
am quite certain that no such edition and memoir 
were ever authorised by Dr. Wolcot. Piratical 
booksellers made very free with Peter Pindar, 
and even used that nom de plume for poems that 
never issued from the real Simon Pure, and which" 
oftentimes were the most wretched doggerel 
imaginable. One of these spurious poems was a 
"Hymn to the Virgin [Joanna Southcott], by 
Peter Pindar, Esq." This composition filled a 
small 8vo pamphlet. It was not without merit. 
It may probably be found in the 4 vols. 12mo 
discovered by E. S. D. It will thus be seen that 
"the compilers of the catalogue" have every 
authority " for their statement," and knew what 
they were about when they said that Dr. Wolcot 
"took orders." E. S. D. may rest assured that, 
the Catalogue of the National Portrait Exhibition 
of 1867 is carefully compiled; and that the 
editors, and also the Committee of " The Society 
for Promoting Christian Knowledge," and also 
the acute and accurate Robert Chambers, and 
also the editors of a French Cyclopaedia, are not 
misleading the literary world when they describe 
Dr. Wolcot as "Rev." and in "holy orders.'' 
Wolcot was perhaps no honour to the church; 
but he was never degraded or i( inhibited," 
" once a clergyman, always a clergyman." E. S.D. 
cannot unfrock Peter Pindar. 

As connected with Peter Pindar, I can state as 
a fact that, during his residence in Camden Town, 
he became acquainted with the late Michael 
Scales, better known as "Alderman Scales." Mr. 
Scales was a wholesale butcher in Whitechapel,. 
or rather a salesman. He was a man of good edu- 
cation and gentlemanly manners ; and being an 
excellent stump-orator, he became a violent de- 
mocrat, and one of the most popular civic agita- 
tors. Mr. Scales was thrice elected alderman for 
a City ward, but the Court of Aldermen always 
refused to swear him in. Every frivolous objec- 
tion was raised. One ground of objection was, 
that Mr. Scales had in public recited an immoral 
poem. The piece thus characterised in alder- 
manic affidavits was a MS. poem called " The 
Fleas," written by Dr. Wolcot, and by him pre- 
sented to Mr. Scales. In the expensive litigation 
that ensued between Scales and the aldermen, the 
poem was produced in court by Mr. Scales him- 
self ; and the judges decided that, although " The 



is what is usually called a trade edition. To each volume 
is prefixed two engravings. The Memoir of the Author 
is anonymous, and makes seven pages. The writer states 
that as" the Bishop of London refused him ordination, 
" he declined applying in any other quarter for admission 
to the church, and reverted to a profession for which, it is. 
no great disrespect to say, he was far better qualified." 
ED.] 



152 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. XII. AUG. 24, '67. 



Fleas" was a little legere, it was not enough so 
to disqualify its possessor or, reciter from filling 
a civic dignity ! Mr. Scales once showed me the 
MS. in the doctor's handwriting, but at this dis- 
tance of time I have not the slightest recollection 
of what the fleas did, or said, or saw. The poem 
was never published. Dr. Wolcot published a 
medical work I think, on Tinea capitis. 

S. JACKSON. 



IMMERSION IN HOLY BAPTISM. 
(3 rd S. xii. 66.) 

Baptisteries were exedree or exterior to the 
church (see the authorities in Bingham, iii. 117), 
with distinct apartments for men and women 
(Aug., Civ. Dei, xxii. 8). But " the place was 
immaterial so long as there was water, whether a 
sea or lake, river or fountain, in Jordan or in the 
Tiber, as St. Peter and St. John baptised their 
converts " (Tertul. De Bapt., c. iv.). After the 
sixth century, according to Durant (De Ritibus, 
i. 19, n. 4), on the authority of Gregory of Tours, 
baptisteries were included in the walls of the 
church, and some in the church porch, where 
King Clodoveus was baptised. The baptistery of 
St. John Lateran at Rome is still after the ancient 
model. They were large, and the name peya Qa- 
nffT-fipiov, " the great illuminary," was given to 
them. Councils sometimes met and sat therein. 

Baptism itself was originally administered by 
immersion (see Rom. vi. 4, Col. ii. 12, compared 
with St. Chrysostom, Homil. xxv. in Joh.~) } and in- 
deed generally by trine immersion (Tertul., Adv. 
Prax., xxvi., and De Cor. Mil., iii.), either in 
symbolical allusion to the Trinity (as was the 
opinion of Tertullian, Adv. Prax., ib., and St. Je- 
rome, Ad Ephes. iv.), or perhaps to the three days 
of Christ's lying in the grave (according to St. 
Cyril of Jerus., Mystagog. Catech. ii. 4), or, as is 
the opinion of Gregory (Epist. i. 43), to both. In 
case of sickness the church, even in ancient times, 
administered this sacrament by sprinkling (St. 
Cyprian, Epist. Ixxvi.). Baptism was a Jewish 
custom, to which our Lord adhered. New insti- 
tutions, according to Jewish practice, involved 
baptism by water, as a sign of initiation. Hence 
John's baptism was different to Jesus's. 

With reference to the bread used at the Lord's 
Supper, it was unleavened, and not unlike the oat 
cakes eaten in Lancashire, that is, thin and brittle 
from the many holes with which it was pierced j 
that is, it was passover-bread. The external cele- 
bration of this supper consisted in eating the bread 
and drinking the wine, which were part of the 
offerings of the congregation ; and thereupon the 
bishop, in the name of the people, again offered 
them to God (7rpo(re</>epei/, <W</>epez/, offerebat). On 
this account the Lord's Supper was called first of 
all a Trpofffyopd, oblation, and subsequently also by 



the adoption of a kindred notion, which, however, 
had a tendency to modify the original one, sacri- 
jkium, Bvaia. (See, for instance, Justin Mar., 
Dialog., p. 210; Irenoeus, Adv. Hceres., iv. 18; 
Cyprian, Epist. xxviii. 9, 11, 77, &c. ; and also 
Condi. Namnetense, A.D. 896, c. 9). The bread 
used, being 'common bread, was leavened (itoiris 
&pros, according to Justin Mart., Apol. ; and Ire- 
naeus, Adv. Hcer., iv. 18; Ambros. De Sacra- 
mentis, iv. 4 ; Innocentius, Epist. xxv. ; also Vita 
Gregorii Mag., ii. 41, by John the Deacon, in the 
fourth century). The first notice of the use of 
unleavened bread is in the ninth century, by Ra- 
banus Maurus. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 

W. H, S. represents, in a rather invidious way, 
that the exceptional practice of affusion has be- 
come the rule in the English church, as if in it 
only. If he will turn to the Catechism of the 
Council of Trent, ii. 17, p. 326 of Donovan's 
edition, he will find it stated that affusion was the 
11 general practice " in the middle of the sixteenth 
century. So at least Dr. Donovan has translated 
" vel aquse effusione, quod nunc in frequenti usu 
positum videmus." Has W. H. S. ever tried 
baptising a few children by immersion, after the 
second lesson ? J. H. B. 



BRIGNOLES. 
(3 rd S. xii. 78.) 

P. A. L. is informed that I do not reside at 
Florence. I am too great a traveller to say that 
I have any fixed residence. I presume, however, 
that such an unnecessary remark as P. A. L. com- 
mences his " reply " with is to make my ignorance 
of Italian unde derivators more remarkable. I 
maintain what I have stated at 3 rd S. xi. 455. 
P. A. L.'s reply is to " Brignole," which may be 
and probably is the same name as "Brignoles." 
As Brignole terminates with a vowel, it certainly 
more resembles an Italian name than one ending 
with an s. Italian names rarely end with a con- 
sonant ; genuine Italian names never do so. I 
have met with a few ending with consonants, such 
as Dominus, Fabricius, Livius, &c., but I have 
always regarded such names as of Roman rather 
than Italian origin. Brignoles and Brignole can- 
not rank with this last-named class. The learned 
Italian Professor Arpeggiani of Lausanne, to 
whom I showed the reply of P. A. L., says that 
neither Brignoles nor Brignole is Italian. He is 
of opinion that they are French names. The 
" distinguished person " in P. A. L.'s communica- 
tion, it appears to me, was no Brignoles or Brig- 
nole, but one who bore the surname of <( Sale." 
This is not an uncommon Italian name ; it sig- 
nifies "Salt." We have families so called in 
England, ex. gr. that of Titus Salt of Bradford, 



< -d S. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



153 



M P. Our name may have originated with the 
Pt ritans, and been first assumed by some pious 
m in who considered himself one of " the salt of 
tin earth." But what about " Ct. Brignole- 
Sde" and "Antony Julius Brignole-Sale, Mar- 
qi is Groppoli " ? What signifies the hyphen be- 
tveen Brignole and Sale? P. A. L. is not 
M. A. L., or he would be aware that in some 
pf rts of Italy, in French Switzerland, in many 
Garman districts, and in other parts of the Con- 
tment, it is customary to add the wife's surname 
tc that of the husband. When this is done, the 
name of alliance is, by a hyphen, separated or 
joined to that of the husband, for either expres- 
sion may be used. Sometimes the female name 
comes first ; sometimes it is last. A distinguished 
Professor in Florence is " Signor Ristori-Taylor." 
The Pastor of Orsiere (Canton de Vaud) is "Pas- 
teur Z>>0w-Gaudin." In both these instances 
the wife's name is added. I could collect in 
Lausanne alone a hundred instances of this con- 
tinental custom. " Brignole-Sale " seems to me 
to fall in with this class of names. The surname 
of the ambassador, and of the marquis and priest, 
was Sale, and Brignole is an added name, origi- 
nally one of alliance. The perpetuation of such 
assumptions or adjuncts is very common. If we 
had the genealogy of the Marquis of Groppoli, 
we should probably find that at some period or 
other one of his race married with an English or 
Norman-French lady who bore the name of Brig- 
nole or Brignal. Brignoles is so truly Saxon, that 
I cannot yield it up to Italy. It signifies the 
bridge (brig) of the knoll, i. e. a level verdant 
mead. P. A. L. may be a better Italian scholar 
than I am. I defy him, however, and he may 
take all the Italian dictionaries and vocabularies 
to assist him to make either good or bad Italian 
out of Brignoles, Brignole, or Brig Nole ! Should 
he succeed, I shall expect the result of his labours 
in " N. & Q." Can P. A. L. give the arms of 
the marquis ? JAMES HENRY DIXON. 

Lausanne. 



EARL ST. VINCENT. 
(3 rd S. xii. 106, 137.) 

Lord St. Vincent was exacting upon minute 
points of etiquette to a degree which was irksome 
to his subordinates. It was the custom for a 
lieutenant from each ship in the fleet to go on 
board the admiral's ship, daily I believe, for orders, 
but the office was always fulfilled unwillingly. 
On one occasion, and in a particular vessel, a dis- 
pute arose among the lieutenants, each trying to 
show that the duty was not his ; until, to the 
great relief of the others, a spirited young fellow 
volunteered. He went on board and introduced 
himself to the admiral, then Sir John Jervis, who 
after scanning his uniform, said, " I cannot give I 



my orders to you."" Why not, Sir ? " " I don't 
know who vou are." "lam a lieutenant." "I 
should not judge so from your dress." "I am 
aware of no defect in my dress." " You have no 
buckles in your shoes ! " The lieutenant de- 
parted, supplied the omission, and returning, again 
presented himself upon the admiral's quarter-deck, 
prepared to take his revenge. The first formalities 
having been gone through, Sir John was pro- 
ceeding to give his instructions, when, to his 
great surprise, the lieutenant said he could not 
take his orders. " Why not ? " inquired the 
startled Jervis. " I don't know who you are," 
was the reply. "I am Sir John Jervis, Com- 
mander-in-chief of his Majesty's Fleet, &c." 
" I cannot tell by your dress " (for in truth the 
admiral wore a simple undress). Sir John, with- 
out another word, for he was fairly caught, re- 
tired into his cabin, whence he soon emerged in 
the full costume of an admiral, and the officer, 
having expressed his satisfaction, received his 
orders. 

The story goes that speedy promotion followed 
in this, as well as in the case related by J. S., for 
Jervis had the good sense to appreciate the spirit 
of the one as well as the wit of the other. I have 
heard both anecdotes from one who served in the 
navy during nearly the whole of the war; and 
he added that one of the two officers became an 
especial favourite of the chief whom he had so 
fittingly rebuked, insomuch that orders were given 
for the ship commanded by him to sail near the 
admiral's, for the sake of the personal intercourse 
which this arrangement would facilitate. S. F. 



PARC-AUX-CERFS. 

(3 rd S. xii. 52, 99.) 

The Parc-aux-Cerfs was established in 1753 
by the Duchess of Pompadour. Richelieu, the 
profligate duke, suggested the scheme to her. It 
had aleady become a fashion amongst the aristo- 
cratic roues. The girls received fortunes, and 
married " a la haute bourgeoisie des fermes et de 
la finance " ; and if any had children by the king, 
these were provided for in the army or in the 
church (Capefigue, Louis XV., xxxi. 257). The 
Queen Maria Leczinska and the dauphin (mar- 
ried and having a family) opposed this ignoble 
depravity ineffectually ; but other members of 
the royal family paid court to Pompadour (id. 
259). Pompadour, with dark and freckled skin 
and speckled teeth (id. 208), died at the age of 
forty-two, on April 14, 1764. As duchess, she was 
entitled to a stool in the presence of royalty, 
whilst inferior orders stood ; sitting on hams, as 
at the Turkish court, or on the heels, as in the 
Siamese court, not being allowed. The French 
aristocracy carried their assumption of servile 
power to such an extent, that the king could not 



154 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



AUG. 24, '67. 



take off his shirt or stockings, or put on his night- 
cap, without the personal aid of a posse comitatus 
of aristocrats. No wonder the king delighted to 
get away to his mistress, where all _ sorts of people 
assembled, and he sat sans faqon with them under 
the presidency of the Mailly, Chateauroux, Pom- 
padour, or Barry. Voltaire was a guest. Pompa- 
dour gave him a place at court worth 60,000 
livres in cash ; which he sold, with the king's 
consent, retaining the title " Gentilhomme de la 
Chambre"(Capef. 177). 

Du Barry (not Barri) was twenty-four when 
presented five years before the king's death, pre- 
maturely old, at sixty-four. She is known to us 
only through the Due de Choiseul, who was dis- 
appointed in endeavouring to put " the sceptre of 
the mistress" into the hands of his sister, the 
Duchess de Grammont (Capef. 365). Her birth- 
place was the same as that of the Maid of Orleans 
(Vaucouleurs), and name Lange. She was hand- 
some^ and her enemies, with intended ridicule, 
said that she, as mistress of the king, looked like 
a little girl going to her first communion. She 
gave good and firm counsel to the king in poli- 
tics. When Marie-Antoinette, on her marriage 
with the dauphin, ascertained that Du Barry's 
office at court was to divert the king, she said, 
" with a charming grace," that thenceforward she 
would be Du Barry's rival (id. 368). Louis XV. 
took the smallpox (the cause of his death) at the 
Parc-aux-Cerfs from an old man horresco re- 
ferem ! * The clergy called him to account on 
his death-bed, after condoning at confession the 
king's long life of profligacy ; and yet " Louis XV 
n'avait cesse" d'etre profondement religieux " (id. 
400). After the deatli of Louis XV., Du Barry 
sacrificed all her diamonds and her fortune to 
Marie- Antoinette and the Due de Brassac, of 
whom she was passionately fond. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 
Streatham Place, S. 



ASSUMPTION OF A MOTHER'S NAME. 
(3 rd S. xii. 66, 111.) 

As a Member of the Faculty of Advocates I 
can fully confirm C. C.'s statement that a person 
in Scotland may change his surname as often as 
it suits his fancy. The only difficulty he will 
experience is, that on rare occasions he may have 
formally to prove his identity. 

I could mention families who, within the recol- 
lection of the last and present generation, have 
more than once changed their surnames for no 
cause whatever but that of euphony ; but for 

" Scelus expendisse merentem ! L'ame foible et 
vacillante de Louis XV ne resistoit a aucun vice." 
Sismondi, xxix. 497. 



obvious reasons I abstain from " naming names," 
and confine myself to cases connected with my 
own family. 

1st. I may mention my own ; neither my grand- 
father nor _my father assumed the name of Vere, 
nor did I in the earlier years of my life. Soon, 
after I attained my majority, in looking over our 
charters I found one which contained an injunction 
that we should take that name. As it was fenced 
with no legal penalty, it had been disregarded. It 
was, however, connected with a rather romantic 
incident, which was the cause of our acquiring 
our property, and in consequence I thought it 
wrong to omit it, although I was not legally 
bound to adopt it. The only step I took was 
simply to add Vere to my usual signature, and 
the addition was at once recognised, and I not 
only appeared professionally in court, but signed 
warrants as a magistrate with the addition, and 
no objection was ever made. The only difficulty 
I ever had (and it was a very slight one) was 
when the roll of the University Court of Edin- 
burgh was made up, on which occasion all I had 
to do was to procure a letter from one of the pro- 
fessors under whom I had studied, to the effect 
that the claimant, George Vere Irving, was the 
same person who had attended his classes as 
George Irving. 

2nd. One of my uncles married an iieiress in 
her own right, who lived but a short time, while 
he survived to a very advanced age. It was only 
when searching his repositories after his death 
that I found an old card-plate, and became aware 
that, during their brief union, he had adopted 
her name, which during the quarter of a century in 
which I knew him he never used. 

Under the Act of 1867, to which C. C. refers, 
there is of course an easy process of recording the 
change in the Lyon's Office, which may be useful, 
but formerly an application there was not required 
unless an addition to the arms was desired. No 
such application was necessary in my own case, 
for the simple reason that a previous grant of the 
Lord Lyon combined both the Irving and V 
arms on our shield. 

I must own that, although I have made the 
Civil Law rny especial study, I can find no 
authority in the Corpus Juris for MK. BUCKTON'S 
statement that a mother might retain her maiden 
name, and that the son of the marriage might 
choose between that and his paternal one. But 
in the Civil Law the question is so mixed up with 
points relative to the Patria Potestas and to the 
rules regulating Adoption and Legitimation, that 
questions as to the proper surname become most 
complicated. 

The 32nd section of the Registration Act for 
Scotland, 17 & 18 Viet. c. 80 provides for a change in 
the pre as well as the svuname under certain condi- 
tions. The following sections up to 37 may also 



rd S. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



155 



b' consulted with advantage by anyone interested 
it the matter. GEORGE VERE TRYING. 



All your correspondents seem to dwell on a 
si ipposed necessity of advertising- the assumption 
o;' a different name. I dispute that any such is 
n jcessary. A friend of mine who assumed another 
n line many years ago, never did anything further 
than do so and tell his friends. 

The mere fact of advertising gives no bettei 
legal status, and is in my opinion a useless ex- 
pense, and sometimes a source of more annoyance 
than the original name. For example, if Mr 
Norfolk Howard had quietly assumed that name 
it would not at present stand as a nickname for a 
little animal whose cognomen he originally bore, 
An attorney cannot alter his name without leave 
of the court, or special license. Neither, I should 
presume, can a barrister. RALPH THOMAS. 



" ALBUMAZAR " (3 rd S. ix. 178.) I did not in- 
tend to take any part in the controversy respecting 
the authorship of this play, but a parenthetical 
remark by MR. INGALL, that "Mr. Tomkis was 
paid in 1615 for making a transcript of it " (3 rd S. 
xii. 136), induces me to send the following note, 
written a year ago. 

The authorship of this play has not been as- 
signed to Mr. Tomkis, as H. I. asserts, " because a 
sum of money was paid to him (in 1615) for 
making a transcript of it," for till I sent him an 
extract from our Senior Bursar's book a year or 
two since, no one had ever heard of this payment. 
The extract is from the " Extraordinaries " for 
the year 1615, and is as follows : 

" Item, given M r Tomkis for his paines in penning and 
ordering the Englishe Commedie at o r M appoyntm 1 , 
xx 11 ." 

From the use of the word penning I infer that 
Mr. Tomkis was the author, and not the tran- 
scriber of the comedy. There are several entries of 
payments for transcribing, but in this case it is 
invariably "for coppicing" or "for writing" never 
<f for penmno." 

Thomas Tomkis, Tomkys, Tompkis, or Tompkys, 
was a fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. His 
name first appears among the major fellows in 
1604, and disappears after 1610; from which I 
conclude that he was a layman, and vacated his 
fellowship in consequence of not taking orders. 
He took the degree of B.A. in 1600, and of M.A. 
in 1605. There is no evidence that his name was 
ever written "Tomkins," and therefore I fear 
there is no ground for identifying him with John 
Tomkins, the organist of St. Paul's. 

WILLIAX ALDIS WRIGHT. 
Trin. Coll. Cambridge. 

HENRY ALKEN, ARTIST (3 rd S. xi. 516.) Old 
Henry Alken was originally, I think, either hunts- 



man, stud-groom, or trainer, to a Duke of Beaufort. 
His fertility was truly amazing. I have some soft 
ground etchings by him, dated long anterior to 
1822, and illustrating the once favourite sport of 
bull-baiting. The idea of his fertility, however, 
might be factitiously enhanced if we neglected to 
bear in mind this fact : that he left two or three 
sons, all artists, and all sporting artists, and who, 
for the last thirty or forty years, have been inces- 
santly painting, lithographing, aquatinting, and 
etching for the sporting publishers and for private 
patrons of the turf. The eldest son, Henry Alken, 
1 knew about fifteen years since, and in conjunc- 
tion with him I engraved on steel a panoramic 
view of the funeral procession of the great Duke 
of Wellington, which was published by the well- 
known but now defunct firm of the Brothers 
Akermaun. Their premises, 96, Strand, are now 
occupied by Mr. Rimmel, the perfumer. This 
funeral was a very huge, costly, ugly work, con- 
taining many thousands of figures. The soldiers, 
footmen, and undertakers' men fell to my share, 
while Henry Alken engraved the horses and car- 
riages. It was published, I think, early in 1853, 
and has so much of curiosity about it, that of the 
military uniforms depicted, scarcely^ one now re- 
mains in the wardrobe of Her Majesty's forces. 
Epaulettes, "scales," waist-sashes, black scab- 
barded swords, hussars' pelisses, swallow-tailed 
coatees, have all disappeared, and our infantry 
and cavalry are now attired after the fashion of 
Prussians and Bavarians. Ex- AQUATINT. 

THE LATE REV. R. H. BARHAM (3 rd S. xii. 79.) 
The piece alluded to is as follows : 

" RICH AND POOR ; OR, SAINT AND SINNER. 
BY PETER PEPPERCORN, M.D. 

" The poor man's sins are glaring 
In the face of ghostly warning ; 

He is caught in the fact 

Of an overt act, 

Buying greens on a Sunday morning. 
" The rich man's sins are under 
The rose of wealth and station ; 

And escape the sight 

Of the children of light, 
Who are wise in their generation. 
" The rich man hath a cellar, 
And a ready butler by him ; 

The poor man must steer 

For his pint of beer 
Where the Saint cannot choose but spy him. 

" The rich man's well-stor'd book-shelves 
Supply his Sabbath reading ; 

But the poor man's 'Spatch 

Is the print of Old Scratch, 
And to sure damnation leading ! 

"The rich man hath his carriage 
At hand for Sunday riding ; 

If the poor man start 

The same road in his cart, 
'Tis an infamy past abiding ! 



156 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



-"* S. XII. AUG. 24, '67. 



" The nasal twang of Moses * 

Is the song of the Saints in glory; 
But the hymn of the-lark 
O'er the open park 
Tells a very different story ! 

" The rich man's close-shut windows 
Hide the concerts of the Quality ; 

The poor can but spare 

A crack'd fiddle in the air, 
Which offends all sound morality. 

" The rich man is invisible 

In the crowd of his gay society ; 
But the poor man's delight 
Is a soil in the sight, 
And a stench in the nose of piety." 

Such is the poem. I perhaps wrote too hastily 
in rny last " note." All I would insist upon is, 
that the same signature was appended to the 
parody on the burial of Sir John Moore as was 
appended to " Rich and Poor," and therefore we 
may presume that they came from the same pen. 
But the signature of "Peter Peppercorn, M.D." 
may have been used by more than one facetious 
writer in The Globe. S. J. 

CLASSIC (3 rd S. xii. 65.) This word is used as 
classicus, from classis, a class or rank of citizens 
according to their estate and quality, which was 
again divided into centuries (Livy, i. 41) j also a 
form in schools " Cum pueros in classes distri- 
buerant" (Quint, i. 2). But it is spoken KO.T 
fox-f)v, of the superior class or classes of authors ; 
and although at grammar schools and colleges it 
is chiefly confined to the best Latin and Greek 
writers, yet in the general use of the public it 
applies to the best authors in other languages as 
well which have attained a high degree of cul- 
tivation, the Italian, French, Spanish, German, 
English, &c. The term classic, as applied to first- 
rate authors, necessarily implies inferior grades. 
In Latin, for instance, there are four : (etas aurea, 
(etas argentea, (etas tenea, and <etas ferrea. The 
term classic in music would, according to the 
above usage, apply to all the great masters of 
composition, each eminent in his department : as, 
in the golden age of Latin, Plautus, Lucretius, 
Csesar, Cicero, Virgil, &c., each eminent in various 
kinds of composition. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 

In order to answer your correspondent's query, 
it is necessary to explain what is the origin of the 
term classical. I do not know that this can be 
better done than in the words of De Quincey : 

" The term classical is drawn from the political 
economy of ancient Rome. Such a man was rated as to 
his income as in the third class, such another in the 
fourth, and so on ; but he who was in the highest was 
said emphatically to be of THE class classicus, a class- 
man, without adding the number, as in that case super- 
fluous. Hence, by an obvious analogy, the best authors 



* ? The parish clerk. S. J. 



were rated as classici, or men of the highest class in 
literature; just as in English we say 'men of rank,' 
absolutely, for men who are in the highest ranks of the 
state." 

The proper use of the word in question is no 
more restricted to literature than (as some sup- 
pose) in literature it is confined to the dead 
languages. 

Its use is perfectly legitimate in all the fine 
arts, and consequently in that one to which your 
correspondent more especially refers, viz. music. 
I should say he is quite safe in applying the term 
to the works of all the old masters such as 
Haydn, Gliick, Mozart, Handel, &c. whose works 
have been approved by the verdict of their pos- 
terity. With regard to the productions of con- 
temporary composers, it must be a matter of 
individual taste to a great extent; and as we 
know, degustibus, &c., we shall often have to agree 
to differ. W. A. PAET. 

Manchester. 

CAMPBELL'S " HOHENLINDEN " (3 rd S. xii. 22.) I 
do not desire to argue the question whether or not 
Campbell's use of the trisyllable was a puerility, 
but I protest against MR. KEIGHTLET'S suggestion 
that resting-place would better express the poet's 
idea than sepulchre, which the poet has used to 
express his idea. Campbell, I believe, was a 
pains-taking writer, and did not allow his works 
to go forth to the world without due attention to 
their polish, and therefore it may be presumed 
that he was satisfied with the word he has given 
us; justly, too, I think, for it appears to me the 
substitution of resting-place for sepulchre would 
effect a commonplace, even a platitude. The 
author's object was clearly to raise a horror in the 
reader's mind, and for that purpose he made use 
of the dreary and solemn word sepulchre : 
" . . . a soldier's sepulchre " ! 

"A soldier's resting-place " would convey rather 
a pleasing sense of repose than the horrors of a 
miserable death in the cold snow, and would, 
humbly suggest, be an anticlimax to the first t 
lines quoted by MR. KEIGHTLET. 

JAMES KNOWLES. 



a 

*. 

Vhn 



SMITH QUERIES (3 rd S. xii. 67.) Captain John 
Smith was born at Willoughby in Lincolnshire, 
but was descended (so states Chalmers in his 
Biographical Dictionary} from the Smyths of 
Cuerdley. Some account of his descent may pos- 
sibly be given in the history of the early part of 
his life, published by himself in 1629, at the re- 
quest of Sir Robert Cotton, intitled The true 
Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captain 
John Smith, which is preserved in the second 
volume of Churchill's Collections. An interesting 
life of him is given in Anecdotes of Eminent Per- 
sons, 1804, vol. ii., but nothing is there said of his 



3'd s. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEKIES. 



157 



; ncestors. Chalmers mentions a MS. life of Smith 
>y Henry Wharton, in the Lambeth library. 

H.P. D. 

DUNDEENNAN ABBEY (3 rd S. xii. 69.) Allow 
ne to correct an error in ME. SEMPLE'S communi- 
cation regarding this most interesting ruin, as it 
night seriously inconvenience visitors to the beau- 
tiful scenery and scenes of historic interest in the 
Stewartry of Kirkcudbright. 

The abbey is more than double the distance 
from the pleasant burgh of Kirkcudbright than 
what he states on the authority of Spottiswood. 
As the crow flies it is as nearly as possible five 
miles, and at least a mile farther by the nearest 
road. 

I have been told, although I never attempted 
the route myself, that the easiest access to it 
from the south is by a cross road from Castle 
Douglas. GEOKGE VERE IRVING. 

FAMILY OF FISHER, KOXBURGHSHIRE (2 nd S. 
vii. 394.) Your correspondent SIGMA THETA 
will find some interesting information in Wade's 
History of Melrose Abbey, Edinburgh, 1861, 
pp. 61, 79, 264, and 354. Allow me to remark 
that " Sorrowlersfield " should be "Sorrowless- 
field," anent the origin of which name there is a 
note at p. 265. J. MANUEL. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

"LEO PUGNAT CUM DRACONE " (3 rd S. xii. 45, 

96.) At a meeting of the Archaeological Insti- 
tute, held June 5, 1857, an impression from a 
matrix of pointed oval form, with the device of a 
lion in conflict with a dragon, and the above 
legend, was exhibited by Mr. Arthur Trollope, the 
matrix having been dug up near Peterborough : 
date the fourteenth century. In the Sigilla An- 
tiqua of the Eev. G. H. Dashwood (vol. i. pi. 4), 
an engraving is given of a similar device and 
legend (but in a circular form) as existing amongst 
the muniments of Sir Thomas Hare, Bart, at 
Stowe-Bardolph. It is appended to a deed of the 
time of Henry III. 

I do not possess either of the above examples, 
but I have in my collection of mediseval seals 
one which places beyond a doubt the right inter- 
pretation of the allegory. It bears the legend 
"VICIT LEO DE TRIBV IVDA (.*:?)," and the lion is 
here depicted couchant in the upper part of the 
seal, whilst the dragon is shown below alive, but 
apparently supplicating. It is an impression from 
the seal of Sir William le Buttiller, Baron of 
Warrington, attached to a charter of the date 
17 Edward III. 

I have five other examples of the conflict be- 
tween the lion and dragon, but they afford no 
explanation of the allegory. Two are respec- 
tively the seals of Gervase de Brandicourt and 
Godfrey de Plateau ; the legends of the others 
being illegible. 



May I ask, why in modern times we assign four 
legs to the dragon, since in all mediaeval exam- 
ples it possesses only two f Even the Great Seal 
of the Order of the Garter shows a four-footed 
dragon in conflict with St. George. M. D. 

LINES ON THE EUCHARIST (3 rd S. xii. 76.) 
" 'Twas God the word that spake it, &c. 
(Christ was the word that spake it)," 

are usually ascribed to Anne Askew, not Queen 
Elizabeth. W. 

MRS. LAWRENCE, OF LIVERPOOL (3 rd S. xii. 91.) 
I never heard this lady mentioned as the authoress 
of the works bearing the date 1821 namely, 
Saul from Alfieri, and Jephtha's Daughter, a drama. 
Indeed, the fact that the publication referred to 
was designed for the benefit of the Bible Society, 
would perhaps warrant me in giving a negative 
answer to the query of your correspondent. 

A son of Mr. Lawrence (now deceased) was for 
many years a Liverpool clergyman, and another 
son now resident at that place was mayor of the 
borough during the visit of Sir Robert Peel, which 
took place, I think, a year or two before the un- 
timely death of the great statesman. C. 

NEEDLE'S EYE (3 rd S. xi. 254.) The equivalent 
to the Hebrew "needle's eye," as applied to the 
smaller entrance to a city for foot passengers ad- 
joining the larger one for camels, horses, and 
asses, is the " needle's ear " in Arabic, having the 
same meaning (Koran, vii. 38). In India the ex- 
pression " an elephant going through a little 
door," or " through the eye of a needle," is pro- 
verbial. The Jews also use the latter phrase 
"Perhaps thou art one of the Pombeditha (a 
Jewish school atBabylon) KBn*l KB-lp} ^JH &&B, 
who can make an elephant go through the eye of 
a needle ? " See Lightfoot, Schoettgen, Kuinoel, 
and Kitto, on Matt. xix. 24. Whether ear or eye 
is used, both words mean primarily the hole 
through which a thread passes. Notwithstanding 
Bochart, there is no authority for putting a cable 
in the place of a camel. T. J. BUCKTOX. 

Streatham Place, S. 

COURTS OF QUEEN'S BENCH AND EXCHEQUER 
03 rd S. xii. 90.) When the ancient office of Jus- 
ticiarius Anglise was abolished in the reign of 
Henry III., his principal duties were transferred 
to the Chief Justice of the Court of King's Bench. 
Among them was the management of the royal 
evenue. Thus, in the event of a vacancy in the 
office of Chancellor of the Exchequer, the Chief 
Justice takes his place, or rather receives its seal, 
? or he is not expected to perform any other than 
ts formal duties. Lord Mansfield held the seal 
>f Chancellor of the Exchequer twice, once during 
he three months' vacancy occasioned by the re- 
moval of Mr. Legge, and again on the death of 



158 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 rd S. XII. AUG. 24, '67. 



the lion. Charles Townshend ; and Lord Ellen- 
borough on the death of Mr. Pitt held the same 
office till the new ministry was appointed. (Foss's 
Judges of England, vol. viii. pp. 321, 344.) I am 
not aw'are that the custom has been since 
abolished. 

With regard to II. C. L.'s second question, the 
following passage from the same authority may be 
quoted (Foss, vol. viii. p. 84) : 

" When the Court of Exchequer sat in Equity, the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer was constitutionally Chief 
Judge ; and on the day of his being sworn into office he 
takes his seat on the bench, and some motion of course is 
made before him. In 1732, whilst Sir Eobert Walpole 
held the office, he heard a cause in which Chief Baron 
Reynolds and Baron Comyns were of one opinion, and 
Barons Carter and Thomson were of the contrary, and in 
a learned speech gave his decision. In 1735 an equal 
division of the ordinary court obliged him to pursue the 
same course." 

In 1841 the Equity jurisdiction of the Court of 
Exchequer was abolished. D. S. 

I beg leave to refer R. 0. L. to the first edition 
of Haydn's Book of Dignities, p. 167, where he 
will find his query fully answered ; and particu- 
larly to the foot-note, where it is shown that in 
six instances beginning in 1721 and ending in 
1834 the Lord Chief Justice of the King's Bench 
held the office of Chancellor of the Exchequer till 
a formal appointment to it was made by the 
Crown. The reason of this is also there ex- 
plained viz. that writs and other process issuing 
from the Court of Exchequer require to be sealed 
Instanter with the initial seal of the chancellor. 

G. 

" When the Court (of Exchequer) sits in equity, the 
Chancellor of the Exchequer has a voice (although now 
very rarely exercised) in giving judgment. The last 
case in which the Chancellor was required to sit, owing 
to the barons being equally divided in opinion, was that 
of Naish against the East India Company, Michaelmas 
Term, 1735, when Sir Robert Walpole was Chancellor, 
and his decision in a question of very considerable diffi- 
culty was said to have given great satisfaction." Penny 
Cyclopedia, art. " Exchequer Court." 

H. P. D. 

" EXCELSIOE : " EXCELSITJS (3 rd S. xii. 66.) In 
more than one article of the Saturday Review has 
mention been made of the fact to which MR. 
DIXON calls attention. LYDIAED. 

I think Longfellow is right in using Excelsior 
and not Excelsius. The idea of the poem I have 
always considered as a reflex from a hymn by 
James Montgomery, where we read 

" Higher ! higher ! let us climb 
Up the mount of Glory ! " 

We have here not only the Excelsior, but the 
mount also. True, it is not St. Bernard ; but it is 
an ascent more in accordance with our Christian 
hopes and feelings. J. II. DIXON. 



QUOTATIONS WANTED (3 rd S. xii. 91.) The 
first passage inquired after by MR. BOTJCHIER is 
an inaccurate version of the concluding lines of 
the 71st stanza, canto II. of Childe Harold : 

" Each Palikar his sabre from him cast, 
And bounding hand in hand, man linked to man, 
Yelling their uncouth dirge, long danced the kirtled 
clan." 

RTJSTICUS. 

" Qui me amat, amat et canem meum." S. Bern, in 
Fest. S. Mich., Serm. i. 3. 

" Inter seculares nugte nugaj sunt ; in ore sacerdotis 
blasphemise." S. Bern. De Consid , 1. 2. c. 13. 

" Da, Pater, augustam menti conscendere sedem," &c. 
Boet., 1. 3. met. 9. 

Q.Q. 

" Bonae leges mails ex moribus procreantur," 
stands thus in Macrobius : 

" Vetus verbum est ; Leges, inquit, bonae ex mails 
moribus procreantur." Macrobii Saturn., lib. iii. cap. 
xvii. (or in some editions lib. ii. cap. xiii.) 10. 

[Cf. Liv. xxxiv. 4, 8 : " Sicut ante morbos necesse est 
cognitos esse quam remedia eorum, sic cupidltates prius 
nates sunt quam leges qua? iis modum facerent " ; Tacit. 
Annal. iii. capp. 26 et 27 : " quorum finis est ; et corrup- 
tissima re publica plurimse leges " ; et xv. 20 : " Usu 
probatum est leges egregias, exempla honesta, apud bonos 
ex delictis aliorum gigni." Macrobii Opera, ed. Lud. 
Janus, vol. ii. p. 338. "j 

ANON. 

If W. R. S. inquires for any metrical legend, of 
which the four lines which he quotes form a part, 
I know of none; but if his object is to ascertain 
whether there exists any old tradition of the 
death of the Blessed Virgin Mary at Jerusalem, 
and her burial at Gethsernane, I can inform him 
that such a tradition will be found in most of 
our old accounts of our Blessed Lady. These 
relations give very curious particulars of her re- 
ceiving a divine admonition, by an angel, of her 
approaching death ; of the Apostles assembling at 
Jerusalem on the occasion; of her address to 
them on her death-bed; of her burial by the 
Apostles at Gethsemane, in all which St. John is 
most conspicuous; and of her tomb being opened 
three days after her burial, and her body not 
being found having been assumed into heaven. 
The accounts in various old books in my posses- 
sion agree in most particulars ; but it seems his- 
torically true that she died at Ephesus, having 
been taken thither by St. John when the terrible 
persecution of the disciples broke out at Jeru- 
salem in the year 44. F. C. H. 

It is perhaps worth while to compare the fol- 
lowing : In a hymn to St. John, in Religious 
Pieces, ed. Perry, p. 90 (Early English Text 
Society), we find* the following : 






,.. 



S. XII. AUG. 24, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



159 



" Thou was bouxsome and bayne his body to tent, 
And to his byddyng bowand to blysse that vs broghte, 
Thou servede that semly till hir soue sent 
Aftir hir hym-selfene," &c. 
/. e. " Thou wast obedient and ready to take care of 

1 is (Christ's) body, and bowing to His "will who brought 

IH to bliss; thou servedst that seemly one (the Virgin) 

till her Son sent after her Himself." 

This exactly agrees in sense with the first two 
lines of the quotation, but I find nothing here as 
to the burial of the Virgin in Gethsemane. 

WALTER W. SKEAT. 

Cambridge. 

The following, which I have extracted from 
the 8th chapter of Maundevile, shows that the 
tradition existed three centuries previously to the 
verses cited by W. E. S. : 

" Also in the myddel Place of the Vale of Josaphathe, 
is the Chirche of cure Ladv : and it is of 43 Degrees, 
undre the Erthe, unto the Sepulcre of cure Lady. And 
oure Lady was of Age, when sche dyed, 72 Zeer. * * * 
In that Chirche were wont to ben blake Monkes, that 
hadden hire Abbot. And besyde that Chirche is a 
Chapelle, besyde the Roche, that highte Gethesamany ; 
and there was oure Lord," &c. <fec. 

E. B. XlCHOLSON. 

Tonbridge. 

(3 rd S. xii. 67.) 

" In the clear heaven of her delightful eye," &c. 
The lines are by Montgomery, and occur in a 
poem of his which I think is entitled " Home." 

F. E. TILL. 

MARQUIS D'AYTONE (3 rd S. xii. 65.) If I mis- 
take not, the celebrated Francis Moncade's title 
was Aytowa, not Aytone, which is not more 
Anglo-Saxon than these other Spanish names : 
Solsona, Tarazona, Ossuna, Ocana, Almanza, &c. 
Born at Valencia on Dec. 29, 1586, he held with 
much distinction, under Philip IV., the highest 
offices of the state : such as Counsellor of State, 
Ambassador at the Court of Vienna, Governor of 
the Netherlands, and General-in-Chief of the 
Spanish armies. Historians are unanimous as to 
his political and military virtues. He died in the 
zenith of his military glory, in the camp of Glock, 
Duchy of Cleves, 1635, just after having routed 
two armies. Like Csesar, he could wield the pen 
as well as the sword. At the age of twenty-seven 
he composed a military history, which is much 
esteemed, entitled Expedition of the Caledonians 
and Arayonese against the Turks ; likewise a life 
of Manlius Torquatus ; also, the history of the 
celebrated monastery of Mount Serrat. A splen- 
did equestrian portrait of him, by Van Dyke, is in 
fact in the Louvre. It is one of its gems. 

P. A. L. 

MARRIED ON CROOKED STAFF (3 rd S. xii. 108.) 
"Crooked Staff" is a portion of house and land 
property in the county of Dublin now, probably, 
in the county of the city. It is near Thomas 



Court and Donore, and near the liberties of the 
Earl of Meath. I have deeds relating to it in my 
office. The phrase, " Miss Spence on Crooked 
Staff," meant, I should think, that she lived there. 

FRANCIS COMPTON, Solicitor. 
43, Dame Street, Dublin. 

"THE THREE PIGEONS" (3 rd S. xii. 79.) I 
cannot think that the sign has any religious 
origin. Three is common on signs. Some threes 
are certainly connected with religion, e. g., " The 
Three Kings," " The Three Crowns," " The 
Three Children," " The Three Women " [Faith, 
Hope, and Charity?]. I have in England met 
with "The Three Jolly Vicars," "The Three 
Jolly Butchers," " The Three Jolly Dogs," " The 
Three Hats" [Cardinals' Caps], "The Three 
Feathers," &c. &c. In Manchester there used to 
be it may still exist a low public-house 
which had for a sign three winged chamber ves- 
sels ! The house was called by a name that I 
cannot transfer to "N. & Q." I have always 
regarded this sign as a Royalist alteration of a 
Puritan sign of " Three Cherubs." Many of the 
threes may have had an heraldic origin. In arms 
where we have a chevron we often find three 
figures of some kind, as Or, a chevron gules be- 
tween three lilies proper, 2 and 1. Some years- 
ago, when travelling in Merionethshire, I rested 
at "The Three Pipes," and on the following day 
I dined at " The Three Cross Pipes." 

I cannot enter on the question about doves and 
pigeons. However, I must remark that doves 
are certainly pigeons, and belong to the same 
natural class, Columba, The Greeks and Rus- 
sians, and I believe the Turks also, never eat the 
dove. They abstain also from eating the pigeon. 
In this they are perfectly consistent. S. J. 

BATTLE OF BAUGE (3 rd S. xii. 53, 54, 118.) 
P. A. L. totally mistakes the nature of my argu- 
ment founded on the fact, that no person in holy 
orders could have used a lance. The use of steel 
harness i. e. defensive armour has no bearing 
on the question. P. A. L. might have surmised 
that no writer connected with Lanarkshire would 
be likely to overlook the reply of Gavin Douglas, 
Bishop of Dunkeld, to his brother prelate : " My 
Lord, your conscience clatters." 

The objection is confined to the lance, sword, 
or dagger, as offensive weapons. To use the 
phraseology of the Scotch criminal courts, an 
ecclesiastic might commit an assault "to the 
danger of life," but not " to the effusion of blood." 

Surely P. A. L. must recollect the case of the 
warlike French bishop, who, to avoid this pro- 
hibition, rode into battle armed with a mace. 

GEORGE VERB IRVING. 

QUARTER-MASTERS, ETC. (3 rd S. xi. 501 ; xiL 
114.) I can assure SP. that I have again and 
again heard an officer of the Life Guards address 



160 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd s. XII, AUG. 24, '67. 



a corporal-major as simply major: of course^ if 
he was on parade, or if he was speaking to a third 
party, he would invariably use the full title. 

GEORGE VEEE IRVING. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

The Apocryphal Gospels, and other Documents relating to 
the History of Christ. Translated from the Originals in 
Greek, Latin, Syriac, 8fc. With Notes, Scriptural 
References, and Prolegomena. By B. Harris Cowper, 
Editor of" The Journal of Sacred Literature." (Wil- 
liams & Norgate.) 

Curious and interesting as they are in many respects, 
the Apocryphal Gospels are known to a large number of 
English readers only from the account which is given of 
them in Hone's wretched compilation, entitled .the Apocry- 
phal New Testament ; the publication of which he after- 
wards so deeply regretted ; and which has been so unscru- 
pulously reprinted and mutilated. It has been said that 
the Churches once received these spurious Gospels ; and 
on the strength of this assertion, for which there is 
not the slightest foundation, they have been used as 
weapons by the enemies of Christianity. But, as Mr. 
Cowper well observes : " Any statement made now, that 
the spurious Gospels were ever regarded in the Church as 
inspired and true, must arise from ignorance or malicious 
misinterpretation, and must be condemned as false and 
deceitful." But these religious novels, fictions, (or what- 
ever we may call them), being as we have said interesting 
in many respects, the English reader is under deep obliga- 
tions to a gentleman of the recognised scholarship of Mr. 
Harris Cowper for employing himself in the preparation 
of accurate translations of them and accompanying 
those translations by valuable prolegomena, scriptural 
references, and illustrative notes. As this is the first 
time that the English reader will have had anything 
laid before him that can pretend to be a complete collec- 
tion of the False Gospels, we trust it will be received, as 
it deserves, with such encouragement as will secure from 
Mr. Cowper his promised translations of the remainder of 
the Christian Apocrypha. 
A Treatise on the Identity of Herne's Oak : showing the 
Maiden Tree to have been the real one. By W. Perry, 
Wood-carver to the Queen. (L. Booth.) 
Mr. Perry having been engaged in carving many 
Shakespearian memorials, including a magnificent casket 
for Miss Coutt's First Folio Shakespeare, out of the maiden 
tree known as Herne's Oak, and which fell from natural 
decay on the last day of August, 1863, was naturally 
led to examine whether this oak or the one felled in 
1796 was the tree immortalised by Shakespeare. His in- 
quiries have convinced him that the tree so lately stand- 
ing was the true Herne's Oak. Whether he will succeed 
in bringing all his readers to the same conviction may be 
doubtful; but at all events he has produced a prettj 
little addition to the library of every Shakespearian col- 
lector. 

Black's Guide to Norway. Edited by the Rev. Eobert 
Bowden, Late British Chaplain at Christiania. (A. & 
C. Black.) 

The ex-British Chaplain at Christiania has here pro 
duced an unpretending little volume, which, with it 
map, sketch of the language, and practical directions 
will be found a compact and useful little volume by al 
intending Tourists of Norway. 



Sallads. How to Dress them in one hundred different 
ways. By Georgiana Hill. (Routledge.) 
How grateful at the present season will this addition to 
ur stock of knowledge on salad-dressing prove, if only 
ne tithe of the receipts turn out as palatable as they are 
novel ! 

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A FOREIGNER. The Popular Cyclopedia, vi. 206-209 (Lond. 1862) con- 

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HEATH'S LIST OF SOME SECOND-HANI 
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Just published, price 12s. 

4 COLLECTION of SEVENTY-NINE OLD 

fjL BLACK-LETTER BALLADS and BROADSIDES, printed 
in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth, between the Years 1559 and 1597, all 
of the highest interest and curiosity, presumed to be unique, and 
hitherto unknown. Reprinted from the celebrated Folio Volume 
formerly in the Library of the late George Daniel, Esq.; accompanied 
with an Introduction and Illustrative Notes. 

*** The above is beautifully printed by Messrs. Whittingham & 
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pages, to range with the Collections of Percy, Ritson, &c. 

A Detailed Prospectus and Descriptive Catalogue of the Seventy 

Ballads, consisting of sixteen pages Svo, may be had on application, or 

will be forwarded on the receipt of two postage-stamps. 

JOSEPH LILLY, 17 & 18, New Street, and 5A, Garrick Street, Covent 

Garden, London. 







S. XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



161 



II 



LONDON, SATURDAY, AUGUST 31, 1867. 



CONTENTS. NO 296. 



1'OTES- The Shnkespoarcs of Rowinpton, 161 ' Oclo- 
neus Shee," or " The O'Shee," 1(52 - Commonplace Book 
from Tom Martin's Library, 103 -" Chevalier's Favourite : 
Stirling of Keiv, 104 - Greek Church in Soho Fields, 165 
Nell Gwyn Margaret's Song in Goethe's ' Faust Mb. 
Notes in Books - To " Burke " Seal of Ethilwald, Bishop 
of Dunwich. A.P. 850- Circular Inscription in Breccles 
Church Norfolk Extraordinary Escape Paganini s 
Violin Jollux, 166. 

QUERIKS: Chalices with Bells Cluaid: Clyd Educa- 
tion : Lancastrian System " Fasti Eboracenses ' In- 
dependent German Governments The Order of Baronets 

Philological Society's " English Dictionary" Pulpit 
in Cold Ashton Church, Gloucestershire References 
wanted Sermons in Stones Family of Worsley, 168. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : Patrick and Peter Enlist- 
ment Money " Whoop! do me no harm, Good Man " 
Caucus: Rink \Vm. Ernie's Monument Old China 
Mummy, 170. 

REPLIES : " Rich and Poor : or, Saint and Sinner," 171 
Lord Darnley, 172 Oath of the Faisan, 173 Lunar In- 
fluence, 178 Calligraphy, 174 Scotish Peers : Egliuton 
Earldom, 175 Mr. Keightley's last Words on Shakspeare 

Strange Old Charter The "Naked" Bed Burial of 
Living Persons Style of " Reverend," &c. Vir Cornub.: 
P. Ecfeecomb " Ye Mariners of England" "Hohen- 
linden " Stranger derived from ' ; E " " Never a Barrel 
the Better Herring" : Coat Cards Portrait of Chenevix, 
Bishop of Waterford Bairn Medalet of Edward V. 
Servius: his Commentary on Terrence Guano Confu- 
sion of Proper Names Clubs of London Pierson Ad- 
ditions to the List of Punning Mottoes, &c., 175. 

Notes on Books, &c. 



THE SHAKESPEARES OF ROWINGTON. 

When I lately transmitted to you, on behalf of 
my friend Mr. Knight, the copy of a Bill and 
Answer in the Star Chamber which gave a curious 
insight into the position in life and family cir- 
cumstances of certain namesakes, and in all pro- 
bability relatives, of our great poet, 1 stated that 
Mr. Knight had informed me that, besides the 
papers of which I then sent you copies, he hac 
found the original Bill in Chancery between John 
and William Shakespeare, out of which the pro- 
ceedings in the Star Chamber arose, and that sucl 
Bill was accurately recited in the papers which I 
then sent you. 

1 have since received a very kind communica 
tion upon this subject from Mr. Cecil Monro 
whose intimate acquaintance with the early pro- 
ceedings in the Court of Chancery has been sc 
often turned to most excellent account. Mr 
Monro informs me that he has been for man) 
years familiar with these proceedings in the Cour 
of Chancery, and he sends me copies, made lonj 
ago, of various orders and reports in the suits fo 
it would seem, there were several of them betweei 
these parties. I feel very much indebted to Mr 
Monro for information thus liberally tenderec 
and I think vour readers will like to be informe 
of its exact nature, although probably it will b 



lought that these papers have not exactly the 
ime degree of interest which attached to the Star 
hamber proceedings discovered by Mr. Knight. 
iy the latter we were taken at once into the in- 
ermost recesses of the Rowington household ; we 
r ere informed of the homely, patriarchal way of 
fe of those assembled there of their family 
rrangements, their feuds, affections, strifes, and 
ealousies. We were made to see the owner of 
ie humble homestead 

" A poor old man, 
As full of grief as age," 

ursued to his dying-bed by the unseemly squab- 
les of his contentious children, and then, almost 
is his last act in life, making a gwasz-testamentary 
isposition of his few acres, which became the 
ource of infinite fresh trouble after his decease. 
i?he human interest which attaches to a connected 
tatement of incidents such as these is not, of 
jourse, to be expected in formal proceedings re- 
specting them in the Court of Chancery ; but as 
ionnected with these Shakespeares, and as mate- 
ials for a more complete history of the family and 
;heir transactions, I send you notes of the papers 
'orwarded to me by Mr. Monro. They are, 

1. The Bill in Chancery fully stated in the 
proceedings in the Star Chamber, and mentioned 
by Mr. Knight. It was filed on May 1, 1616. In 
this cause John Shakespeare, or as the name is 
spelt in the Bill, " Shackspeare," was plaintiff, 
and his brother William Shakespeare was de- 
fendant. Mr. Monro has sent me a copy of this 
Bill. 

2. On May 11, 1616, Lord Chancellor Elles- 
mere made an order in this cause for an injunction 
to stay the proceedings of the defendant at the 
Common Law and in the Court Baron of the 
Manor of Rowington until the cause in Chancery 
had been heard. By the same order a reference 
was made to Mr., afterwards Sir Richard Moore, a 
Master in Chancery, to consider and report upon 
exceptions to be set down in writing against the 
defendant's answer. The reference to this order 
is Reg. Lib. B. 1615, fol. 747. 

3. On May 16, 1616, Master Moore made a 
report, in which he stated the point as to the 
tender of the annuity as it appeared in the Bill 
and Answer, and reported his opinion that the 
plaintiff was "fit to be relieved" in that court. 
This report is printed in Mr. Monro's Ada Cancel- 
laria, 8vo, Lond. 1847, p. 221. 

4. On June 8, 1616, a week was given to the 
plaintiff to reply. (Reg. Lib. B. 1615, fol. 824.) 

5. On the 10th of the same June, Master Moore 
made a supplementary report by direction of the 
Master of the Rolls (Sir Julius Ceesar), signified 
on a petition presented to him by the defendant. 
In this report the Master explains that by the 
relief mentioned in his former report, and to 
which he had stated that the plaintiff was en- 



162 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3r d S. XII. AUG. 31, '67. 



titled, his intention did not extend to the body 
of the cause, but only to establish the possession 
with the plaintiff till the hearing. (Reports, Trinity 
Term, 1610.) 

6. On November 11, 1616, the Master of the 
Rolls permitted the defendant to amend a clerical 
error of 1613 for 1615, several times occurring in 
his answer. (Reg. Lib. B. 1616, fol. 146.) 

7. On the following January 31 there was an 
order nisi for publication. {Ibid. fol. 439.) 

All the above proceedings were in the cause of 
John Shakespeare versus William Shakespeare. 
The entries next mentioned relate to a cause of 
William Shakespeare versus John Shakespeare 
and others. 

8. On November 3, 1617, the plaintiff, in re- 
spect of his poverty, was admitted to sue in forma 
pauperis. (Reg. Lib. B. 1617, fol. 132.) 

9. On the 10th of the same month a reference 
was made to Master Moore to consider the suf- 
ficiency of the answers of the defendants. (Ibid. 
fol. 192.) 

10. In the course of Michaelmas Term, 1617, 
Master Moore made his report, that a statement 
in the answer in relation to the tender of the 
annuity, which was the main point in the cause, 
was insufficient. (See Monro's Acta Cancellariee, 
8vo, Lond. 1847, p. 222. 

Finally, Mr. Monro has sent me copies of the 
-following entries, which seem to relate to a third 
cause in Chancery, between John Shakespeare and 
William Shakespeare. 

11. In this cause, on November 22, 1619, there 
was an order for an injunction to restrain the 
defendant from putting the plaintiff out of pos- 
session of the premises at Rowington, and also 
from suing the plaintiff at common law upon a 
bond of 500/., until defendant had answered the 
plaintiffs bill. (Reg. Lib. B. 1619, fol. 300.) 

12. On the 27th of the same November there 
was an order for an attachment against the de- 
fendant for not appearing. (Ibid. fol. 638.) 

It would be a good deed if some of your cor- 
respondents in Worcestershire, a county fertile in 
antiquaries, would send you for publication whilst 
this subject is in the minds of your readers a 
copy of the will of the Richard Shakespeare of 
Rowington which is mentioned by Mr. Collier 
as proved in the Episcopal Court of Worcester on 
March 31, 1592, and also of that of the other 
Richard Shakespeare of the same place, men- 
tioned in the papers discovered by Mr. Knight. 
The latter will was probably proved in 1614 or 
1615. JOHN BRUCE. 

In introducing this subject (ante, p. 81), ME. 
BRUCE speaks of the land in dispute as " half a 
yard-land, about ten or fifteen acres ; " but further 
on, in the text of the chancery bill, the word is 
spelled "yeared." Ought we not to understand 



that it is intended to describe the consideration 
for which the copyhold was granted viz. as 
paid, by custom of the manor, half yearly at 
Michaelmas and at Lady-day, as was the annuity 
of 31. offered for undisturbed possession ? 

One shilling, or at most two shillings an acre, 
was a good quit-rent in those days. Here is a 
voluntary offer of four shillings per acre per 
annum, which seems disproportionate. H. 



" ODONEUS SHEE," OR " THE O'SHEE." 

With regard to my former communication on this 
subject,* I may repeat that my object is simply to. 
correct the heraldry of a distinguished family, so 
that through inaccuracies it may not be con- 
founded in the same category with those whose 
only pretensions are founded on entirely factitious 
data. 

Distinguished matches, and a pedigree carried 
back into the fifteenth century in Ireland, where 
records were comparatively scarce, place a family 
so circumstanced, genealogically, on a par with 
those in England and Scotland which can be 
traced to the fourteenth century, and distinctly 
separates it from those which sprang up under 
the auspices of the Stuarts and Cromwell. 

As at present given under " Arms " in the 
pedigrees of this family, we find the name u Odo- 
neus Shee," and not O'Shee ; while in the body 
of the pedigree the first of k the family clearly 
made out is ''Richard Shee" and not O'Shee. 

In order to test the earlier portion of this pedi- 
gree, it would be necessary to know, 1st, Whether 
Cooke Clarencieux, in 1582, really did attest the 
pedigree imputed to him ; 2nd, Whether, in that 
pedigree so minutely specific in " Nov. 6, 1381 " 
the evidence is given on which is based the 
assertion that Odoneus Shee was tenth in descent 
from Odanus f Shee j and if the " letters of deni- 
zation'' said to have been granted " at Clomnel, 
on the 6th Nov. 1381," by Roger, Earl of March, 
to the said Odoneus, were ever recorded, and if 
so, where? 3rd. Where is to be found the " Con- 
firmation " of the preceding, by " Letters Patent, 
dated at Naas, 18 Nov. 35 Hen. VI. to Odoneus's 
great-great-grandson Richard Shee, father of Ro- 
bert (who fell at the battle of Moyallow, 6 Aug. 
1500J), and in that document how the connec- 
tion between Richard and Odoneus is carried out, 
and how described? 

Thus we have many difficulties to contend 
with ; for, not in the dark ages, but within the 
limits of recorded history, and even not further 
back than the time of W 7 ifliam the Conqueror, we 
have a gap of ten generations between Odanus 



[* "N. &Q."3rdS. xi. 494.] 

f Odanus I take to have the same origin. 



t 1457, 



3-<i S. XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



163 



i nd Odoneus O'Shee, or Shee ; and again, between 
1 he latter and Richard Shee, of four generations, 
- diich gives us exactly three names to answer for 
j ourteen generations. 

In analysing this curiously confused, but never- 
theless good pedigree, it may be allowable to 
.speculate on the causes of the errors which have 
crept into it ; and, first, we ought to consider the 
peculiar name Odoneus. 

Assuming that Clarencieux attested the pedi- 
gree as it now appears, one cannot avoid sus- 
pecting that tl Cooke " employed some incom- 
petent pursuivant who was better acquainted 
with Greek than with Keltic names. This un- 
known clerk (let us suppose), on being handed 
the record concerning " Shee " and " his three 
brothers, William, Edward, and John Shee" 
mistook the "0" in the first instance for the 
baptismal initial of the chief's name ; and not 
wishing to leave him worse off than his three 
brothers, and at the same time feeling that the 
few English names from which he could select 
would be clearly inappropriate, he ventured on 
the rash experiment of extemporizing one, in al- 
lusion to the " three swords " in the chief's coat- 
of-arms, by interpolating a compound of the verb 
Sovw (v. brandish), or possibly from o5vf?j, in al- 
lusion to the fallen fortunes of the sept. Thus, 
instead of the " O'Shee and his three brothers 
Edmund, William, and John Shee," he concocted 
u Q(doneus) Shee and his three brothers," &c., 
and possibly the absence of \hs prefix " O" to the 
Matter's surname confirmed him in his error. 

Be this as it may, it seems primd facie that 
Richard Shee of Kilkenny must be considered the 
founder of the present family, and it is highly 
probable that, as he was engaged in commerce, he 
founded his fortunes by marrying the heiress of 
his master or of his partner (and these feudal 
merchants of Kilkenny were of great considera- 
tion). And such a conjecture is countenanced 
by what we know of the history of Kilkenny, and 
the _" Notes on the Genealogy of the 'Roth' 
Family," which appeared in the Journal of the 
Arch&ological Society of that city. 

With this marriage, and the following , came all 
those quarterings, some of which are erroneously 
marshalled as "Shee" instead of Bermingham 
and Archer, as previously explained. SP. 



COMMONPLACE BOOK FROM TOM MARTIN'S 

LIBRARY. 

A small quarto volume of MS. Adversaria came 
into my possession a few years ago, which was 
formerly in the library of " Honest Tom Martin " 
of Palgrave. It was rescued from among the 
books and papers not regarded by his bucolic 
descendants as worthy of preservation. Martin's 
autograph monogram is inserted ; and on the fore- 



edge a name "BUK ... co ..." (?) is imperfectly 
traceable. 

The volume, as far as p. 59, appears to have 
been first used as a note-book for inserting, in 
double columns, Latin or Latin and English 
phrases, including many from Cicero, as well as 
references to explanations of passages of Holy 
Scripture, and other brief memoranda of etymons 
and meanings of words. The following are speci- 

.ens : 

" Coles to Newcastle. Lignum fers in sylvam. 

Companion. Quasi com-panis, quia edere fuit amicitia? 
signum. (Patrick's Mensa Mys. p. 106.) 

Company As, East India Company, or &c., in con- 

ventu Panormitano veterem negotiatorem. (Cic. t. i. 
part u. p. 399.) 

Dialectica. So called because all their logick first was 
but some feint reasoning bv way of Dialog. (Rapin, v. ii. 
p. 409.) o 

Psalm-song and Song-psalm. Their difference and 
meaning. (Patrick On Psalms, v. i. p. 468.) 

Psalm 90. Why said to have been written by Moses, 
and yet the age of man is called 60 or 70 years only ? 
(Whiston's Harmony, pref. p. 11.) 

Light of light. Uncle dicitur. (Burnet's Dis. 2, p. 97.) 

Lingua. Unde derivatur. (Lactan. De Opific. 477.) 

Never out of the smoke of your own chimney. Quorum 
cum omnis scientia in ejus regionis (sic) in qua nati sunt 
circumscribatur. (Busbeq. Epis. p. 408.) 

SolcBcisms. A Solae regione ubi vixere linguae corrup- 
tores. (Edwards, Style, f-c. v. ii. p. 230.) 

Mountain of a molehill. E musca elephantum facis. 

Luke, cap. iii. 2. Qd. per Caiaphas and Annas being 
high priests that same year. (Godwin, Antiq. p. 21. 
Jewish.) 

Luke, cap. iv. 20. What, by our Saviour's delivering 
the book, when he had done reading. (76. p. 88.) 

Luke, cap. vii. 37, 38. What, the anointing them with 
ointment, (p. 110.) 

Luke, cap. xxii. 17, 18. What, by the cup of blessing, 
(p. 111.) 

Luke, cap. iv. 20, 17. What, by TTTVO.S and avairrv- 
|os; with the account of the old manner of writing, 
(p. 305.) 

Admiral. Vox Gall, ab Arabibus qui cum eas Europse 
partes primum invaserunt nom. prsefec. navium Almiral 
Mussilmin : unde, &c. (His. Fran. v. ii. pp. 12, 20.) 

Medicus. He, surgeon, embalmer, and anatomist, the 
same in old time. (Edwards, Style, \. iii. p. 188. Ab 
jftgypt. p. 189.) 

Stipulation. Quia per stipulam datam et acceptam 
fieri solebat. (Pat. Men. Mys. p. 46.) 

Superstitio. Unde dicitur. (Lactan. 229.) 

Pin. A pingle. vo. Gallica, quasi spina ; nam spinis 
olim vestes, &c. (Edwards, Style, v. iii., 236.) 

Folio. Liber in folio, et librorum folia, ab antiqua scri- 
bendi via. (Edwards, Style, v. iii., p. 165.) 

Besieged. Signif. attendance, retinue ; as ' besieged by 
them always, having but few English about him.' 
(Clarend. v. iii. p. 198.)" 

The book being inverted, a fresh beginning is 
made at the other end. There is an index in 
Locke's method ; and, with some deficiencies, the 
pages to fol. 117 are occupied with notes and 
" explications," chiefly on subjects connected with 
natural philosophy and mathematics, derived Ap- 
parently from Rohault, Pardie, L'e Clerc, and 



164 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [8'* s. xn. A, si, '67. 



other authors. In some instances no authority is 
quoted, and the notes assume a more didactic 
form. A few extracts are subjoined : 

" Iris. The moon sometimes sets her bow in the clouds 
as well as the sun ; generally of -a white colour, by reason 
of the weakness of the moon's rays. But, once (saith 
Sennerlus) it hapned otherwise, in" the year 1593, when 
after a great storm of thunder and lightning, he beheld 
an 7m lunaris adorned with all the colours of the rain- 
bow. Any of them happen very seldom, and that at a 
full moon. (Plot's Hist. Oxfordshire, p. 4.) Rainbows 
seen sometimes between the beholder and the sun ; some- 
times with the concave towards the sun, when the sun 
was in the south, the convex to the west, &c. (Id. Hist. 
Staffordshire, pp. 4, 5, &c.) 

Sun rising. At Tentiris in Egypt is a Temple with as 
many windows as days of the year, so placed that the 
sun, rising in a different degree of the Zcxliack every da}-, 
does send his beams every day in at a different window. 
(Plot, Hist. Stafford, p. 2.) 

Sulphur. The Thames water is so impregnated that 
at sea, in eight months' time, it hath acquired so spiritu- 
ous and active a quality that, upon opening some of the 
casks, and holding the candle near the bung-hole, its 
steams have taken fire like spirit of wine, and sometimes 
endangered firing the ship [!] (Plot's Hist. Oxfordsh. 
p. 26.) 

Period. D3 7 onisian, otherwise the Lunisolar,is a period 
consisting of 28 multiplied by 19. It shows not only 
that the new moons and full moons return after 532 years 
at the same day of the year, but also at the same holy 
day of the week. (Sturmius, Math. Juven. v. iii. p. 169.) 

Sound. The operators in Iron, notwithstanding the 
great noise of both water and hammers, take their rest 
securely ; and yet when they are awakened to their work 
again, it is done with a tink of a pair of tongs, an instru- 
ment for that purpose ; from whence we may conclude 
that great noises do not, when customary, affect so much 
as smaller when sudden and unusual. (Plot's Hist. Staf- 
fordshire, p. 30.) 

An Invention proposed, to shut up the undulation of 
the Air in a box, and so convey words. (Wilkins's Sec. 
Messeng. pp. 71,72.) 

The Picts' Wall was an 100 m. long, and at the end 
of every mile a tower ; so that by a tube continued they 
could give any sign. (Ibid. p. 71.) 

Fountains. Most probably, saith our author, from the 
sea; because in several countries there are such where 
there is little rain, and then there are found many pas- 
sages or sea-communications underground. In Norfolk a 
mast of a ship was digged up [at] avast depth, and 
shells there are found ; and that famous story of Bern in 
Switzerland, In 1460 was dug up a whole ship with 
masts, anchor, &c., and the carcases of 40 seamen in a 
mine 50 fathom deep. Beside, the Scripture mentions a 
river in Eden before God had caused any rain ; and then 
He speaks of sending forth the waters of the deep, and 
breaking up the fountains of the great deep. (Plot's Hist. 
Staffordshire, pp. 70, 71, &c.) 

Fasting. One John Scot, a Scotchman, fasted 30 or 40 
daies together out of a deep melancholy. The king had 
him for trial's sake, shut up in Edinbourgh Castle, when 
he fasted 32 daies. He went to Rome and gave the same 
proof to the Popes. Afterwards, returning into England, 
was imprisoned by the King (Harry 8th) for some offence, 
and fasted 50 daies. (Plot's Hist. Staffordshire, p. 286.) 

One Mary Vaughton also, who lived of a piece of bread 
and butter of the bigness of half a crown in a day, and if 
meat, not above the quantit}' of a pigeon's leg at most ; 
drinking only milk and water, and yet maintaining the 
same plight. 



These people, like leeches, snails, &c., have little or no 
perspiration. (Ibid. pp. 287, 288.) 

Wind. Blasts trees by a sudden gust. The air, 'tis 
probable, has in it a great mixture of poisonous, corrosive 
particles, which, hapning to light upon those things, 
blast them, as sometimes they do men's faces, to the put- 
ting out an eye. The vulgar verv superstitious about 
this. 

Sympathy. A way of conversing by magnetism, 
(Wilkins's Sec. Messeng. p. 78.) 

Further on a single page is occupied with a list 
of " QUCBS. disputandfe Physics, fyc."- 

" 1. Newtonus recte statuit de Natura perfect! fluidi. 
2. Cordis motus an solvi potest," &c. &c. 

The hand-writing is bold and free. I take it 
to be of the end of the seventeenth or beginning 
of the following century, and cannot doubt that 
the writer was a man of ability and learning. 
Possibly some of his notes may be considered 
worth noting over again. But who can help me 
to identify him ? S. W. Rix. 

Beccles. 

" CHEVALIER'S FAVOURITE " : STIRLING OF 
KEIR. 

There is a small volume bearing the title of 

" The Chevalier's Favourite : being a Collection of 
elegant Songs never before printed, and several other 
Loyal Compositions wrote by eminent hands. Printed in 
the Year M.DCC.LXXIX." 

It has no printer's name, nor any indication 
where it was printed a precautionary and pru- 
dent measure, as the contents afforded abundant 
material for a crown prosecution. 

The songs are exclusively Jacobite, or connected 
with the exiled family and its adherents in one 
way or another. Several possess poetical merit, 
others are indifferent ; but the great bulk might 
be included in a general collection of Jacobite 
remains. 

Amongst other things there is a poem entitled 
" Mournful Melpomene," written by Princess 
Elizabeth, daughter of his most Sacred Majesty 
King Charles I. of England. Two parts : " To the 
tune of ( Robin Adair.' " Of course, we may 
assume that the air to which, in 1779, it was to 
be sung, has nothing to do with the genuineness 
of the verses themselves, which are good in their 
way. The first two stanzas may be taken as a 
specimen : 

" Melpomene, Melpomene, 

Assist my quill, 
That I may pensively 

Now make my will. 
Guide thou my hand to write, 
And senses to indite, 
A Lady's last good night. 

Oh!" pity me. 

" I that was nobly born, 

Hither am sent, 
Like to a wretch forlorn, 
Here to lament : 






3' d S. XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



165 



In this most strange exile, 
Here to remain a while, 
'Till Heav'n be pleas'd to smile, 
^H And send for me." 

These alleged poetical stanzas of the Princess 
Elizabeth, the second daughter of King Charles, 
if genuine, are interesting. Sandford, in his 
Genealogical History, says she was born at St. 
James's, Dec. 28, 1635 ; and that she died of 
;*rief in Carisbrook Castle on Sept. 8, 1650. 

In the same volume is a drama founded on the 
capture of the " Duke of Athol " and Stirling of 
Keir : the former of whom was betrayed by the 
Laird of Drumakill, to whom his grace had en- 
trusted his safety. This is a mistake, as the duke 
was on the side of government ; but the Marquis 
of Tullibardine, his elder brother, upon whom 
the title would have devolved, had he not been 
attainted, would nevertheless, be styled Duke of 
Atholl by the Jacobite party. 

The drama terminates with an interview, be- 
tween Stirling of Keir and his wife, who it seems 
has also been arrested. Whilst lamenting the 
capture of their son, a servant announces his 
escape with the Laird of Craigbarnet they hav- 
ing deceived the treacherous Drumakill. The 
parents' anxiety is thus relieved ; and the tragi- 
comedy terminates with Keir's returning thanks 
for his escape, and trusting Providence would 
" . . . . make order spring, 
Eelieve the nation, and restore the king." 

The Laird of Drumakill was one of the clan 
Buchanan ; and it is quite true he gave up the 
marquis, who was sent to the Tower and died 
there. 

The only other copy excepting the one in my 
possession, was sold many years since at the sale 
of Constable's library, in Edinburgh, for one pound 
eight shillings. J. M. 

GREEK CHURCH IN SOHO FIELDS. 

The following handbill, issued by the Arch- 
bishop of Samos, Joasaph Georginos, relating to 
the Grecian church in Soho Fields, and preserved 
in the British Museum amongst other broadsides 
and single sheets, in a volume marked 816"^, 
may perhaps be allowed a niche in " N. & Q." : 

il FROM THE ARCHBISHOP OF THE ISLE OF SAMOS, IN 
GREECE. 

" An Account of his building the Grecian Church in Sohoe 
Fields, and the disposal thereof by the Master of the 
Parish of St. Martin s-in-the-Fields.. 
" In the year 1676 I came into England with inten- 
tions to publish a book in print, called ' Anthologion,' for 
the use of the Eastern Greek Church ; but finding they 
had no place allotted for the exercise of our religion, but 
that some persons of our Country, Daniel Bulgaris, a 
Priest, and others, who had earnestly endeavoured to get 
one builded, and in order thereunto had obtained his 
Majesty's Gracious Grant for the same two years before 



my arrival; but wanting means, methods, and interest 
to'proceed to the accomplishing this their purpose, they 
desired me to take the business upon me, in which, 
though some difficulties appeared unsuitable to my func- 
tions ; yet in piety to the church, and to promote the 
exercise of the Divine Service thereof, I undertook the 
charge, and proceeded therein as followeth, viz. : I first 
applied myself to the Reverend the Lord Bishop of 
London to acquaint him therewith, and his Lordship did 
so far approve thereof, that he promised -to speak to the 
other Bishops and other Gentlemen to bestow their bene- 
volent contributions towards the building of the said 
church. Next I applied myself to Dr. Barbone, who was 
then concerned in building in Sohoe Fields. He, as soon 
as he was acquainted with my design, promised to give 
me a piece of ground, and to build the foundation at his 
own charge : thereupon I went again to his said Lord- 
ship, and, telling him thereof, he promised to give me a 
piece of ground himself, and sent one Mr. Thrift with me 
and marked out the ground. 

" Hereupon I went to his Majesty, the Duke of York, 
and most of the Nobility and Clergy, who were pleased 
to contribute freely to the building, there being gathered 
both in city and country fifteen hundred (1500) pounds. 
I began the foundation at my own charge; and as I 
received the contributions I went on, and expended 
therein, as may appear by the workmen's receipts, eight 
hundred (800) pounds, and the remainder of the money 
was expended in charges, servants' wages, and Horse 
hire in going about the country, and in my maintenance 
for these six years last past. 

" After some time, the church being found incon- 
veniently situated, being too remote from the abodes of 
most of the Grecians (dwelling chiefly in the furthermost 
parts of the city), it was upon mature consideration 
thought fit to be sold, and another to be builded in a 
more convenient place ; whereupon I applied myself 
again to his Lordship the Bishop of London, who 'was 
pleased to tell me that, when the said church was sold, 
his Lordship would give his grant and title for the build- 
ing of another. 

" Hereupon I endeavoured to sell it, and finding the 
persons who would buy the same, the Lord Bishop of 
London would not consent thereto lest! the party should 
make a meeting-house thereof. Hereupon I went to the 
Doctor of Saint Martin's, who, proposing it to the Parish, 
they consented before the said Lord Bishop to let it be 
appraised by two able workmen. The church was ac- 
cordingly viewed, and rated to be worth 62f>. The 
parish proffered 168, alledging that the ground was 
theirs and not the Bishop's. This agreement falling off, 
I found out others, who proffered 62 more than the 
parish had done ; which they of the parish coming to 
understand, they proffered 200 ; which I refusing to 
take, the Lord Bishop required me to give them the key, 
which I denying to do, they told me they would take 
the church without it, as they did accordingly, breaking 
open the door and taking possession. Hereupon I en- 
deavoured to bring the person who broke open the door 
before a Justice, that I might justify myself, but the 
parish not permitting him to go, I went myself; but 
not finding the justice, I desisted from any further 
proceeding. This relation I have thought fit to make 
that thereby all persons may see I never sold the said 
Church, nor received any sum for the building* thereof. 1 '' 
[The words in italics are struck through with a pen in 
the original print.] 

" London : Printed for A. F., 1682." 

RHODOCANAKIS. 



* Disposal (?). 



166 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3*d S. XII. AUG. 31, '67. 



NELL GwrN. Having seen it mentioned lately 
that the house in which Nell Gwyn resided a 
Hereford had been demolished, at the request o 
the Bishop of Hereford, because the number o 
visitors who went to see it annoyed him, hi; 
palace being near it, I wish to know if any re- 
presentations of the exterior and the interior exist? 
Could not the charitable act of Nell Gwyn (who 
was the daughter of a poor royalist Welsh Captain 
in the army) in founding Chelsea Hospital for 
soldiers have been remembered by the Bishop o: 
Hereford, and so saved her house from demoli- 
tion ? * 

In recollecting the memory of mistresses, the 
noble act of Lord Bolingbroke's mistress occurs to 
one, as related by Lord Mahon in his History of 
England. When Lord Bolingbroke was in danger 
of his life, and wanted money to give him the 
means of saving it by leaving England for France, 
his mistress gave him sixty guineas, the produce 
of her shame, which enabled Lord Bolingbroke to 
escape, when none of his friends who had basked 
in the sunshine of his power were willing to assist 
him. When Louis XV. was in danger from his 
parliament, the Countess du Barri caused a fine 
portrait of King Charles I. to be placed in the apart- 
ment, which Louis XV. might see, thus to cause 
him to act energetically with the parliament and 
save himself and France. Do not let us, therefore, 
uncharitably suppose that these persons had not 
virtues, and virtues too allied with greatness. 
Your correspondent cannot conclude this article 
without hoping that some charitable individual 
will call attention to those wandering women of 
the streets of our great cities, more than ever in- 
creased by the invention of railways, which in- 
duces such numbers to travel, and that this country 
may adopt the humane system of France, which 
collects, every now and then, some of these frail 
ones, and colonises them, instead of letting disease 
send them, as England does, to die in a hospital. 

Y. C. 

MAEGAEET'S SONG IN GOETHE'S u FAUST." I 
did not omit to notice the translations of Lord F. 
Gower, Auster, or Filmore, for any other reason 
than that I made no use of them. The writers 
on the subject of Faust are numerous ; amongst 
whom may be mentioned chiefly, Marlow, Miiller, 
Klingemann, Roder, Lessing, Klinger, Bechstein, 
Hoffmann, Grabbe, Lenau, Lenz, Schreiber, Soden, 



[* We have before us an excellent photograph of Nell 
Gwyn's house in Pipe Well Lane (now called Gwyn's 
Street), Hereford, presented to us by the Rev. Francis T. 
Havergal, M.A., Vicar Choral of Hereford Cathedral, who 
is now preparing for publication a Fasti Herefordenses, 
and other antiquarian memorials of Hereford, with illus- 
trations. Evelyn rather intimates in his Diary, that the 
design of Chelsea Hospital originated with Sir Stephen 
Fox ; that it was begun in 1682. and not finished until 
1690. ED.] 



Holtei, Rosenkranz, Pfizer, Harring, Berkowitz, 
Schone, Chanaisso, and Voigt. Sieglitz has esti- 
mated their number, according to Filmore, at 
one hundred and six. The following is an attempt 
to render Margaret's song, universally admitted 
to be most difficult : 



" My rest is gone, 
My heart is sad ; 
I'll find it never 
And never more. 

" When he's not by, 
I'm in my grave ; 
The world entire 
Is gall to me. 

" My wretched head 
Is turning mad ; 
My wretched mind 
Is torn to pieces. 

" My rest is gone, 
My heart is sad ; 
I'll find it never 
And never more. 

" For him I gaze 
My window through ; 
For him alone 
I leave the house. 



" His stately step, 
His noble form, 
His mouth's dear smile, 
His eye's sweet power. 

" And then his speech 
Is magical ; 
His hand's soft grasp. 
And ah ! his kiss. 

" My rest is gone, 
My heart is sad ; 
I'll find it never 
And never more. 

" My bosom presses 

Itself to him ; 

Oh ! might I clasp 

And hold him fast. 
" And kissing him 

As I desire, 

Upon his kiss 

Dissolve away." 

T. J. BTJCZTON. 



MS. NOTES IN BOOKS. On the fly-leaf of 
Philomela's (Elizabeth Singer's) Poems on Several 
Occasions (John Dunton, 1696,) the following is 
written in a fine hand of the time : 

" To Philomela, occasioned by her Farewell to Love. 

" Bravely Resolv'd ! and Like a Soul Athirst 
For Primitive Freedom, ere the Sex was curs'd ! 
But Hold ! What's this, unthinking I now say ? 
What ! Scorn all Hymen ! cast all Love away ! 
No, no. Such spitefull thought sure ne'er possess'd 
So soft, so warm, and so Divine a Breast ! 
Bid Love Farewell ! Then Bid the World adieu, 
Which Loves and ever must Love such as you." 

In the margins of a much-used copy of Bishop 
Wilkins's Mathematicall Magick, 1648, the fol- 
lowing, which I do not recollect to have met with 
elsewhere, is frequently written : 

" When the raine raneth then the gouse winketh. 
Litel knoweth the goslin what the gouse thiuketh." 

CALCTJTTENSIS. 

To "BTJEKE." There can be no dispute that 
this verb is derived from the name of Burke, the 
assassin and body-snatcher of 1829. But it is a 
singular fact that the Thugs of India give the 
name of "Burkas" to those members of their 
nfamous society whose vocation it is to strangle 
n secret victims marked out for prey. This fact 
will be found stated in an article on " The Thugs " 
n Number 130 of the Edinburgh Review. The 
rerb to " burke " might, therefore, well have come 
;o us from India, had the infamous gang of 1829 
lever been heard of. D. BLAIE. 

Melbourne. 



XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



167 



SEAL OF ETHILWALD, BISHOP OF DUNWICH, 
_ ..D. 850. A drawing of this unique seal will be 
3 Dund, together with a description of it by Mr. 
I iudsonGumey, in TheArch(eologia,\ol. xx. p. 479. 
devious to its discovery at Eye, in Suffolk, in 
1822, it had been denied that seals were in use in 
England between the time of the Romans and of 
Edward the Confessor. A brief description of 
this seal may interest your readers. It is of 
bronze, mitre-shaped, consisting of two rows of 
arches surmounted by a rude fleur-de-lis, sup- 
ported by nine wolves' heads in the interstices of 
the arches. The eyes are formed of small garnets, 
of which only one remains. The device is a cross 
fleury, and the legend, * SIG:EDILVVALDI:EP., with- 
in a circle of small beads. No seal is known of 
any of the other Bishops of Dunwich, and much 
obscurity hangs over the history of these early 
prelates. A drawing of this seal illustrates an 
interesting list of the seals of the Bishops of 
Norwich, by Mr. Bayfield, in Orig. Papers of the 
Norfolk Archaeological Society, vol. i. 

JOHN PIGGOT, JTJN. 

CIRCULAR. I have noted down a few curious 
uses of the word circular : 

" A man so absolute and circular." 

Massinger, Maid of Honour, Act I. Sc. 2. 
" Your wisdom is not circular." 
Massinger, Emperor of the East, Act III. Sc. 2. 

In both these instances, circular seems to equal 
the Latin rotundus. 

" All studies else are but as circular lines, 
And death the centre where they must all meet." 

The Old Law, Act V. Sc. 1. 
Here the "circular lines "=radii. 

" O, my soul 

Kuns circular in sorrow for revenge." 

Ford, 'Tis Pity She's a Whore, Act IV. Sc. 3. 
In this last quotation the meaning is not so 
evident. JOHN ADDIS, JTJN. 

INSCRIPTIONS IN BKECCLES CHURCH, NORFOLK. 
In the chancel : 

" Here resteth the bodyes of John Webb, Esq., and of 
Mary his wife, daughter to Sir Thomas Richardson, Lord 
Chief Justice of England. She died March 10th, anno 
1656, aged 56, and he October 25th, 1658, aged 70 years." 

From the oblong slab containing the above 
inscription to a small slab adjoining, of ovate 
shape, is drawn a buckle, which in a manner con- 
nects them. On the small slab are engraved 
these words : 

" Stat ut vixit, erecta." * 

Was she buried in an upright posture ? The 

[* These words are placed over the coffin of Ursula 
Webb, daughter of the above John Webb. She was in- 
terred in an upright posture by her own desire, according 
to the purport of the inscription. Blomefield's Norfolk, 
ii. 274, ed. 1805. ED.] 



round tower of the same church contains a tablet 
in the wall thus inscribed : 

" The remains of John Stubing lay in the middle of 
this steeple, aged one hundred and seven years and eight 
months. Lived in this parish sixty-seven years, and died 
with the character of an honest industrious man." 

W. H. S. 

Yaxley. 

EXTRAORDINARY ESCAPE. I send you an ex- 
tract which I cut out of Saunders's News Letter of 
August 5, 1867. Mr. Carr's escape was really so 
wonderful, that I think it ought to be preserved 
in the pages of " N. & Q." : 

"EXTRAORDINARY ACCIDENT AND FORTUNATE 
ESCAPE. A few days since, as Charles A. Carr, Esq., 
S.I., Ballycastle, was walking in the neighbourhood of 
the Giant's Causeway, his hat was blown off near the 
edge of a precipice. On going to look where it had 
fallen, the rock on which Mr. Carr was standing gave 
way, and he was precipitated a distance, it is believed, 
of 351 feet, striking alternately against earth and rocks. 
Strange to say, Mr. Carr was able to stand up imme- 
diately afterwards as if nothing had happened. He was 
soon attended by a pic-nic party who witnessed the 
occurrence. The ladies, who were particularly kind, did 
everything that fair hands could to alleviate" his suffer- 
ings. Mr. Carr was cut in twenty-four parts of the body, 
and, after hemorrhage had stopped, he was able to walk 
to the Causeway Hotel a distance of a mile. Before 
reaching it, however, he was met by a medical gentle- 
man who was staying there, who dressed his wounds. 
Mr. Carr, who only remained two or three days in bed, 
is now almost quite well, presenting only a slight cut 
over the eye. Dr. O'Connor has been unremitting in his 
attention. Mr. Carr, who is much respected in the neigh- 
bourhood, has since been visited and congratulated by a 
large number of friends. Correspondent of the 'Northern 
Whig: " 

H. LOFTUS TOTTENHAM. 

PAGANINI'S VIOLIN. The wooden shoe which 
Paganini made into a violin is now for sale in 
Paris. And the fact that this distinguished artist 
played on the instrument is clearly shown by a 
note which Paganini has left ; and can now be 
read in a shop in the Hue Yivienne, where the 
violin is to be sold. W. W. 

Malta. 

JOLLTTX. I remember some time since meeting 
with this name on an old caricature, and being 
unable to fathom its meaning. I have just found 
an explanation of it, which I think it well to 
" make a note of." It occurs in Mason's Ode to 
Sir Fletcher Norton 

" And find it the same easy thing 
To hit a Jollux or a King." 

And in a footnote we are told that a Jollux is " A 
phrase used by the bon ton for a fat parson. See 
a set of excellent caricatures published by Bre- 
therton in New Bond Street." Foundling Hos- 
pital for Wit, ii. 45. T. 



168 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'* S. XII. AUG. 31, '67. 



CHALICES WITH BELLS. Among the specimens 
of church plate in the Paris Exposition are two 
chalices in " argent dore " of the dates 1460 and 
1530, exhibited by the Royal College of Lisbon, 
having three little bells hung round each. Were 
these to answer the purpose of a sanctus bell ? 
have consulted Pugin's Glossary of Ecclesiastical 
Ornament, but he is silent on the subject. Could 
any correspondent give me any information ? 

JOHN PIG GOT, JTTN. 

CLUAID : CLYD. I would be obliged if any of 
your readers, conversant with the ancient and 
modern topography of Picardy, Artois, and Nor- 
mandy in France, would kindly state if there is 
or was any district, town, or river in any of those 
provinces bearing the name of Cluaid or Clyd, or 
any similar sounding names, or into which they 
enter in composition ; noting the exact localities 
where now situated, the present names. If not the 
name of a river, I would be desirous of knowing 
whether adjacent to any, and its ancient and 
modern designation, &c. Of course I would be 
glad to see the authorities quoted. J. W. H. 

EDUCATION : LANCASTERIAN SYSTEM. 

" Of all the institutions connected with the education 
of the lower classes, that of the indefatigable Joseph 
Lancaster is pre-eminently entitled to our admiration. 
In the various schools formed by this benefactor of the 
rising generation, 30,000 poor "children are receiving 
daily instruction in various parts of the kingdom ; and 
by the liberal patronage of his Majesty and the Royal 
Family, manv of the nobility, gentry and clergy, to- 
gether with the philanthropic aid of a British Public, it 
is probable that he will be able to extend his invaluable 

plans to every district in the empire The 

improvement in morals, and the habits of order, among 
the children educated on Mr. Lancaster's system, are of 
the most gratifying nature. In the borough school alone 
5000 children have been educated, whose parents were of 
the poorest description ; and, hitherto, no instance has 
occurred of any one of these being charged with a 
criminal offence in any court of justice." 

The above paragraph is to be found in a note 
to p. 6 of an old-fashioned book published in 
1811, and bearing the title of Chronological, Bio- 
graphical, Historical, and Miscellaneous Exercises, 
by James Butler ; and is extracted from 

" An Account of the Progress of Joseph Lancaster's 
Plan for the Education of Poor Children, and the Train- 
ing of Masters for Country Schools." 

This triumphant assertion may have been some- 
what exaggerated ; but, besides that other works 
of the same period contain here and there lauda- 
tory mention of Lancaster and his system, it 
seems impossible that any one, save a dealer in 
quack medicines, could venture on such statistics 
without their having had some foundation in fact. 
Schools called "Des Lancastres" exist also, or 
did exist not many years ago ; in Switzerland ; 



but as these institutions (so highly praised, and 
so warmly supported, " sixty years since,") have, 
as I am inclined to believe they have, entirely 
died out among ourselves, I should feel much 
obliged to any person or persons lay or clerical, 
intrusted in the subject of education who would 
inform me why they have so died out ? Is there 
some latent defect in the system, which only be- 
comes apparent when it has been at work for 
several years ? Or is it simply that fashkm is as 
all-powerful in matters of education as in matters 
of dress, when the new ever supersedes the old 
without any reference either to use or beauty ? 

NOELL RADECLIFFE. 

" FASTI EBORACENSES." When may " the 
bees " expect the second volume of Mr. Raine's 
most valuable and interesting work on the Lives 
of the Archbishops of York f The first volume was 
published so far back as 1863, and (in 496 _ 
comprised the lives of forty-four prelates, wl 
presided over the northern metropolis of England 
from A.D. 627 until the death of that distinguished 
Archbishop, John de Thoresby, in 1373. The 
completion, or even continuation of the Fasti 
Eboracenses would fill a blank in our ecclesias- 
tical literature; but why should the learned 
editor not give also a volume to the lives of the 
Deans and other dignitaries of the Cathedral of 
York, when he states that he has gathered ample 
materials for such a work, and that "it would 
disclose a vast body of information about many 
good and great, although hitherto unknown dig- 
nitaries, which would be of greater novelty and 
interest than that which is now laid before the 
public," in his first volume ? A. S. A. 

Hindostan. 

INDEPENDENT GERMAN GOVERNMENTS. Does 
there exist any authentic record of the various 
independent Governments of Germany which were 
overthrown in 1806? I am forming a complete 
list of the various free cities, states, &c., and 
should be glad of some aid. TEDESCO. 

THE ORDER OP BARONETS. I do not recollect 
to have seen noticed the remarkable passage of 
Lord Bacon which I am going to offer to 
"N. & Q." Bacon advised the king, in his 
abominable treatment of Ulster, which was called 
" plantation ": " Solitudinem faciunt, pacern ap- 
pellant." And part of his advice, which I now 
produce, was, I think, certainly the first sugges- 
tion of what became the new Order known as 
Baronets. I quote from the original edition of 
" Certain Considerations touching the Plantation in 
Ireland, presented to his Majesty 1606," which is 
included in the Miscellaneous " Works of Lord 
Bacon, published in a single volume in London, 
1657, by William Rawley " his " Chapleine " : 

" And considering the large territories which are to be 
planted, it is not unlike your Majesty will think of 



3 S. XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



169 



i using some nobility there [in Ulster], which, if it be 

< one meerly upon new Titles, of Dignity, having no man- 
i er of reference to the old ; and if it be done also with- 

< at putting too many portions into one hand ; and lastly, 
i , ? it be done without any great Franchises or Commands, 
1 do not see any peril can ensue thereof, as, on the other 
f ide, it ma} r draw some Persons of great estate and means 
into the action, to the great furtherance and supply of 
1 he charges thereof. 

" And lastly, for Knighthood to such persons as have 
siot attained it, or otherwise, Knighthood with some new 
(Differences and Precedence ; it may no doubt work with 
nany." P. 260. 

Six years after, the scheme was carried into 
effect. The " Instructions " are to be seen at the 
end of Guillim. I have them before me now, in 
the first issue of 1660; and show quite clearly 
that it was a thing planned by James and his 
advisers in order to get money. Each baronet 
was to pay for keeping thirty foot soldiers in 
Ireland for three years, at 8d. per day.* 

After Bacon's advice, which I have quoted, it 
is not surprising to find that the first of the new 
dignity, created May 22,1611, was " Sir Nicholas 
Bacon of Redgrave, in the county of Suffolke, 
Knight." D. P. 

Stuarts Lodge, Malvern Wells. 

THE PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY'S " ENGLISH DIC- 
TIONARY." Some years ago several members of 
the Philological Society and other persons under- 
took the labour of compiling a New English 
Dictionary. Many books have been read, and 
thousands of extracts made for the purpose. I 
am very anxious to gather some fruit from these 
labours. Will some one who has authority in 
this undertaking report progress ? I enclose my 
card. L. L. L. 

PULPIT IN COLD ASHTON CHURCH, GLOUCES- 
TERSHIRE. Can any correspondent give me in- 
formation respecting the present condition of this 
curious pulpit? Markland, in his Remarks on 
English Churches, 3rd edit., 1843, says the very 
access to it was closed up. Is it so now ? Tradi- 
tion says that it was occasionally filled \)j Latimer. 
The pulpit itself is of wood, and the canopy of 
stone. Ancient examples are now so rare, that 
existing specimens are very valuable. The Eccle- 
siological Society seem to have lost the enthu- 
siasm which characterised the members in the 
days of the Cambridge Camden field days, so 
graphically described in early numbers of The 
Ecclesioloyist. JOHN PIGGOT, JUN. 

REFERENCES WANTED. 1. "Nisi credideritis, 
non intelligetis/' S. Bernard quotes this scrip- 
tural saying, which seemed to me quite familiar; 
but when I came to look for it, I could not find 
it, and I have not a concordance to the Vulgate. 

2. An old writer says '* Of a great many that 
seem to come to Christ, it may be said that they 



[* See "X. & Q.," 1 st S. iv. 164. ED.] 



are not come to Him, because tliey have not left 
themselves" The passage in italics I fancied was 
taken from Isaiah, but could not find it, and 
Cruden failed me. The same writer quotes a 
similar expression, which 1 should like to trace : 
" Nondum te deseruisti." 

3. Whence the following wish, the Hoc erat in 
votis of some Greek poet : 

Mcco^ ei r6ffov irapeiTj 

"OffOV &pKlOV 



"\VO. 



KCtjltT 



/j.f \aivas. 

4. " Suavis hora sed brevis mora." 

5. " Ubi plus est sapientiae, ibi minus est casus." 

6. " Grave sestimant quicquid illud non souat 
quod intus amant." 

7. Kal (rv TCKVOV. I find this quoted as a sort 
of Greek Ettu Brute! 

8. " Bene conveniunt, et in una sede morantur, 
majestas et amor." 

9. " Tolle Religionem et nullus eris." 

10. 'T/uets fieis 'A07JP&UX, 6eaTal etcJflare yiveffQai Xoj<av^ 

Kal a.Kpoara\ T&V tp-yuv. As well as I remember, 
this pungent reproach occurs in Thucydides or 
Demosthenes. 

11. u Miraculum autem immensum est ipsa prima 
omnium productio seu Creatio, quae miraculorum 
omnium adeo facilem fidem facit, ut post earn nil 
sit mirum." S. Bernard. 

12. " O ! immensa opifex rerum Sapientia ! dextrae 

Divitias artemque tuse miremur in sevum." 

Q.Q. 

What is the reference for the tradition that 
Aristotle derived part of his knowledge of the 
physical sciences from some lost treatise of Solo- 
mon ? A. S. PALMER. 

SERMONS IN STONES. Permit me to ask you 
or any of your able correspondents for an explana- 
tion of the following inscription on stone which 
has puzzled me on my visits to the venerable 
Cathedral of Saint Johnstoune, now forming the 
east, middle, and west churches of these three 
distinct districts and congregations of Perth. 

This stone, with the exception of a large muti- 
lated black marble slab wanting the brass figures 
traditionally said to have been of the Kinnoul or 
Hay family on the north-east wall of the same 
church, is the only memorial of the internal orna- 
ments by ancient worshippers left by the de- 
stroying hands of the zealous followers of John 
Knox. It is situated in the east wall of the east 
church over where the high altar would have 
been in Catholic, or the Tables of the Law in 
episcopal times ; it is about sixteen inches square, 
and of granite apparently, and has a narrow 
moulding cut as a border. The words are in 
Roman letters, well marked and well preserved ; 



170 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'*S. XII. AUG. 31, '67. 



they are probably three proverbs expressed in 
three lines, but divided into nine lines. 

I wish to know whether it was a votive tablet, 
and whether the words are original or are taken 
from any known authors, and how the tablet 
would come to occupy the usual position of the 
Crucifix or the Ten Commandments in churches : 
" SAT + VIXIT + BENE + 

QVI + VIXIT + SPAC 

i VM + BR^E vis + ^Evi + 

IGNAVI + NVMER 

ANT + TEMPORE + 

LAVDE + BONI -f 

OMNEM + CREDE + 

DIEM + TIBI + DILVX 

1SSE + SVPREMVM + ." 

C. W. B. 

U. U. Club. 

FAMILY OF WORSLEY. In the year 1743 a 
gentleman of the name of Worsley was appointed 
an equerry to H. M. King George II. Can you, or 
any of your readers, tell me what was his Chris- 
tian name, and to what branch of the Worsleys 
he belonged ? The Gentleman's Magazine, in 
giving notice of the appointment, describes him 
as Worsley, Esq. S. W. 



toitb 

PATRICK AND PETER. I send you the follow- 
ing scrap, cut from a recent Manchester paper : 

" A curious incident occurred onTuesdaj*- in the House 
of Lords during the progress of the Breadalbane peerage 
case. Mr. Anderson, Q.C., in alluding to one of the per- 
sons whose name had been mentioned, called him Captain 
Patrick Campbell. The Lord Chancellor said the cap- 
tain's name was not Patrick, but Peter. Mr. Anderson 
said they were convertible terms. The Lord Chancellor : 
* What, are St. Patrick and St. Peter the same ? 'Mr. 
Anderson: 'Yes, the names are the same.' Lord Colon- 
say informed the Lord Chancellor that the learned counsel 
was right; in Scotland, Patrick was Peter, and Peter 
was Patrick. The Lord Chancellor said it certainly was 
information to him." 

On what grounds is it said that Patrick and 
Peter are convertible terms ? Patrick seems to be 
the Anglicised form of the Latin Patricius, a 
nobleman ; and Peter, a Greek word, signifying a 
stone. The former, as the name of an order,' being 
much the older word ; the latter first given to the 
Apostle. Can any correspondent throw light on 
the subject? CAMTJL. 

[The above quoted statement is not strictly accurate. 
The two names are not really convertible in Scotland. 
Peter is continually used as a nom (famitie for Patrick, but 
the reverse never occurs. This is much more easily ex- 
plained than the use of Jack for John, instead of James 
(Jacobus). 

Patrick is continually pronounced as Paterick : now 
in old deeds we constantly meet with the contraction 
Pat'r and Pater'. Then the English pronunciation of 



Latin must be attended to, as distinguished from that of 
the Continent and Scotland : the a in the one having the 
same sound as the e in the latter. In Ireland now, and 
in Scotland during old times, and occasionally even in 
the present day, Peter was pronounced as Pater. After 
the Union, the English mode of pronunciation gradually 
found its way into Scotland ; but traces of the old style 
lingered, and, from this unsettled state of matters, arose 
the familiar connection of Patrick and Peter, which, 
however, never occurs in any formal document. It did 
not in the Breadalbane case, where the counsel was quot- 
ing or rather using the name given in the private family 
correspondence.] 

ENLISTMENT MONEY. Can you inform me why 
a shilling is presented to a man on his enlisting 
into the royal service ? GEORGE PIESSE. 

1, Merton Place, Chiswick, W. 

[The payment of a shilling to a man enlisting in the 
Queen's service involves a nice question in military 
ethics. Ostensibly the payment in question is a bounty 
to the recruit, but really the sign or proof of a contract. 
For the origin of this mode of alluring men into the 
army, it is necessary to travel back to the times of 
Edward III. and his successors ; who, during their long 
wars with France, resorted to the practice of recruiting 
by contracts with men of high rank, or of military esti- 
mation, whose influence was probably greater than that 
of the Crown towards preserving voluntary enlistments. 
Upon the formation of a standing army this rule was 
confirmed, so far at least as the ordinary soldier or private 
was concerned. Enlistments are now regulated by the ' 
Mutiny Act; but that Act, we believe, does not specify tho 
amount of bounty to be offered to the recruit ; that is left 
to the discretion of the recruiting officer, who, for ob- 
vious reasons, tenders one of the smallest coins in the 
realm. 

This custom is not, peculiar to enlistment in the army. 
At the present day, and still more frequently formerly, if 
one hired a servant, a shilling or other small coin was 
given to the individual. This is considered a part per- 
formance of the contract on the part of the one partv 
which prevents the other from resiling, derived from 
the well-known Res non Integra maxim of the civil law.] 

"WHOOP! DO ME NO HARM, GOOD MAN." In 

a MS. now in the Chetham Library (No. 8011, 
f. 67), are some verses on Prince Charles's visit to 
Spain, beginning : 

" Our Eaglett is flowne to a place yett vnknowne, 
To meete with the Phenix of Spaine, 
Fether'd many moe will after him goe, 
To waite and attend on his trayne." 

They are " To the tune of ' Whoope ! doe me 
no harme, good man.' " Can any of your readers 
tell me where this old tune is to be found ? 

CPL. 

[This tune is twice alluded to by Shakspeare, in A 
Winter's Tale, Act IV. Sc. 3, and by Ford in The Fancies 
Chaste and Noble, Act III. Sc. 3, where Secco, applying 






3'd S. XII. . 



ADG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



171 



it to Morosa, sings " Whoop ! do me no harm, good 
woman" The tune was arranged with variations by 
W. Corkine, and printed in Lessons for the Lyra- Viol, 
&c., 1610. It was also transcribed by Dr. Rimbault from 
a MS. volume of virginal music, in the possession of the 
late John Holmes. Esq., of Retford, and is printed in 
Chappell's Popular Music of the Olden Time, i. 208.] 

CAUCUS : RINK. Can you inform me as to the 
derivation of the American word caucus? The 
meaning of the word is 

" A meeting of one political party, for the purpose of 
choosing a person or persons to be voted for by all that 
party, for the purpose of preventing a 'split' in the 
party." 

Also, of the word rink. A " skating rink " is a 
meadow, on to which water is let in winter to a 
slight depth for the purpose of skating. 

SCRUTATOR. 

[1. Caucus is a corruption of cauUters, the word meet- 
ing being understood. See " N. & Q.," 1* S. xi. 28 ; 3 r <i 
S. xi. 292, 430. 2. See Jamieson's Dictionary, s. v. " RENK 
and RINK, the course, the proper line in the diversion of 
curling on the ice. Perhaps from A.-S. hrincg, a ring ; 
as the mark is generally a cross enclosed in a circle," <fec. 
In Derbyshire also, by rink, is meant a ring or circle.] 

WM. ERNLE'S MONUMENT. On a monument 
erected to the memory of William Ernie, Esq., in 
the church of All Cannings, near Devizes, are the 
following texts : 

" Where : so : ever : a : dead 
carkas : is : even : thither 
will : the : egles : resorte." 

" I : beleve : that : my : redemer : liveth : and : that 
I : shall : rise : owt : of : the : earth : in : the : last : dai 
and : shall : be : covered : againe : with : mi : skinne 
and : shall : se : God : in : my : flesh : iea : and : I : mi 
selfe : shall : beholde : him : not : withe : other : but 
withe : these : same : eies." 

Can you inform me from what version of the 
English Bible they are taken ? The date of the 
monument is 1587. W. 11. JONES. 

Charmouth. 

[With the exception of the words " I believe " for " I 
am sure that my Redemer lyueth," the texts agree with 
The Bi/ble after the translation of Thomas Mathew. Im- 
prynted at London by Robert Toye, fol. 1551. Black- 
letter. J 

OLD CHINA. I shall be much obliged if you 
can afford me information as to the date and 
manufactory of some old china in my possession. 
It formed part of a dessert service, and consists of 
two dishes and two small plates. The entire sur- 
face is covered with a pattern of vine leaves and 
grapes, in shades of green and purple, interlaced 
with tendrils and branches the latter of a choco- 
late colour, as is the edge of each piece : at the 
back are three separate triangles, each formed by 
three marks, like the impress of a small tube. On 
one of the dishes is the letter B, in green. The 



glaze is fine, and covered with minute cracks ; 
the ground white, though somewhat discoloured 
by age. H. P. 

[From the description given above of these specimens, 
we are inclined to believe they were made about the 
middle of the last century at Stratford-le-Bow. This 
ware is known to collectors as " Bow china."] 

MUMMY. Where shall I find the receipt for 
mummy as prescribed by physicians in former 
times ? CPL. 

[In A History of the Materia Medico, by John Hill, 
M.D., London, 1751, 4to, p. 875, is a chapter treating of 
the different substances used medicinally under the iiame 
of Mummy. A long extract from this article is quoted 
in Johnson's Dictionary, art. " Mummy." Consult also 
Nares's Glossary."] 



" RICH AND POOR ; OR, SAINT AND SINNER." 
(3 rd S. xii. 79, 155.) 

S. J. says, " this piece was certainly from the 
pen of Mr. Barham." Mr. Barham had no more to- 
do with the piece than S. J. " Rich and Poor," 
&c., was written by the late Mr. T. L. Peacock, 
the author of Headlong Hall, Nightmare Abbey, 
and other remarkable books famous forty years 
ago and almost forgotten now. There was never 
any particular mystery about the authorship of 
this very clever satire ; and in one of the notices 
of Mr. Peacock's death, which appeared in the 
daily newspapers some eighteen months since, he 
was duly credited with it. Why S. J. should 
ascribe it to Barham, I cannot understand. It is 
like nothing Barham ever wrote. 

I enclose the true text, which is copied from 
a little duodecimo of fifty or sixty pages, entitled 
Paper Money Lyrics, and oilier Poems. "Only 
100 copies printed, and not for sale." C. and W. 
Reynell, 1837. The Paper Money Lyrics, written, 
in the winter of 1825-26, express sound currency 
doctrines in smart verse. I do not know whether 
you will consider the matter of sufficient import- 
ance to give the correct version of " Rich and 
Poor" in "N. & Q.," but you will probably be 
glad to print the few lines in which the author 
introduces it : 

' Often printed, not quite accurately. It first appeared 
man} 1 - years ago in the Globe and Traveller, and was 
suggested by a speech in which Mr. Wilberforce, reply- 
ing to an observation of Dr. Lushington that ' the Society 
for the Suppression of Vice meddled with the poor alone,' 
said that ' the offences of the poor came more under 
observation than those of the rich.' " 

I think this explanatory note may be interest- 
ing to many of your readers who know "Rich 
and Poor," but probably never heard of the cii> 
umstances under which it was written. 



NOTES AND QUERIES. [3* s. xn. AUG. 31, '67. 



I have only to add, that I do not possess the 
book, and that the copy I send you is taken from 
one I made some two or three years ago : 

" The poor man's sins are glaring 
In the face of ghostly warning ; 

He is caught in the fact 

Of an overt act, 
Buying greens on Sunday morning. 

" The rich man's sins are hidden 

In the pomp of wealth and station ; 
And escape the sight 
Of the children of light, 
Who are wise in their generation. 

" The rich man has a kitchen, 
And cooks to dress his dinner ; 

The poor who would roast 

To the baker's must post, 
And thus becomes a sinner. 

* The rich man has a cellar, 
And a ready butler by him ; 

The poor must steer 

For his pint of beer 
Where the saint can't choose but spy him. 

" The rich man's painted windows 
Hide the concerts of the quality ; 
The poor can but share 
A cracked fiddle in the air, 
Which offends all sound morality. 

" The rrch man is invisible 

In the crowd of his gay society ; 
But the poor man's delight " 
Is a sore in the sight, 
And a stench in the nose of piety." 

S. BLYTH. 

Burton. 

[We suspect that Thomas Love Peacock is but too 
little known by the present generation. He held a re- 
sponsible position in the India House, having from the 
year 1836 been examiner of Indian correspondence. He 
made the acquaintance of Shelley in 1812, and eventually 
became his friend and executor. Mr. Peacock retired 
from his position in Leadenhall Street upon a pension in 
March, 1856, and spent the later years of his life among 
his books. He died on January 23, 1866, at the pa- 
triarchal age of eighty. ED.] 



LORD DARNLEY. 
(3 rd S. xii. 129.) 

The estates of Darnley and Crocston, that be- 
longed to the Stewart-Darnley-Lennox family, 
lie contiguous, in the abbey parish of Paisley, 
county of Renfrew. Tradition has handed down, 
that the courtship, or honeymoon, of Queen Marie 
and Lord Darnley was at Crocston Castle, and 
having been printed in several local histories and 
songs, the one following the other, with im- 
provements, it is generally believed in the locality 
to be strictly true. From that association the 
picturesque ruins of the castle of the Anglo- 
Norman Robert Croc (1160) became a favourite 



subject for poets, painters, and engravers. With 
the view of fixing the authenticity of the actual 
presence of Queen Marie and Lord Darnley at 
Crocston Castle, on such an auspicious occasion, 
by dates, I made a thorough investigation, and 
found out that every day and place could be ac- 
counted for, where they were, from the day 
Darnley entered Scotland till the day of his death, 
and neither the queen nor Darnley ivere at Crocston 
Castle during that period. Darnley was only in 
Scotland one year and 361 days altogether, and 
was barely nineteen years of age when he married 
his cousin, the widow Queen Marie, twenty-two 
and a half years of age, and he was murdered 
before he arrived at twenty-one years of age. I 
could not, however, discover the day or month of 
his birth, to fix his actual age. I may mention a 
few dates that nearly do so. Matthew, fourth 
Earl of Lennox, was defeated at the battle of the 
Muir of Glasgow, fought in March 1543, and he 
escaped to England. The earl in four months 
thereafter, July 1544, married Margaret Douglas, 
aunt uterine of Queen Marie. Their first son 
and child, who survived his birth nine months, 
died November 28, 1545. The second son and 
child was born in 1546, and named .Henry, after 
King Henry VIII. The Earl of Lennox returned 
to Scotland on September 23, 1564, after twenty 
years' exile, and his son Lord Darnley arrived in 
Scotland on February 12, 1564, following. Darnley 
first met the queen at Wemyss Castle, Fifeshire, 
on February 16, 1564, and they were married 163 
days thereafter, on Sunday, July 29, 1565. Their 
son King James VI. was born June 19, 1566. 
Darnley, the second child of the Earl of Lennox, 
would in all probability be born about two years 
after his parents' marriage, which would make 
his birth in July, 1546, and at his marriage he 
would be barely nineteen years of age ; and he was 
murdered on February 9, 1566, before his majority, 
and 235 days after the birth of his son. 

DAVID SEMPLE. 
Paisley. 



There are, perhaps, as many opinions upon 
Mary's conduct with regard to Rizzio as there 
are upon the question which is her true portrait. 
Few, with your correspondent J. M., give Darnley 
credit for having really loved her, and he seems 
generally to have been represented in a less 
favourable light than he deserves. There is a 
letter printed in the first series of Sir Henry 
Ellis's Letters (vol. i. p. 207), from the Earl of 
Bedford and Mr. Thomas Randolph to the Privy 
Council of England, giving a detailed account of 
the death of Rizzio, which, however unfavourable 
to the conduct of Mary, we must suppose, from 
many circumstances, to speak the truth. W. 






. 



3'dS.XII. AUG. 31,'67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



173 



OATH OF THE FAISAN. 
(3 rd S. xii. 108.) 

IGNOKAMUS seeks information on this subject. 
It was the custom during the middle ages at great 
banquets to serve with much pomp and ceremony 
a pheasant or some other noble bird, on which 
the knights swore to visit the Holy Land, or to 
perform some other feat of prowess. In 1453 
Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, vowed stir le 
faisan to go to the deliverance of Constantinople, 
which had recently fallen into the hands of the 
Turks. There is a most curious and elaborate de- 
scription of the whole ceremony in the 29th chap- 
ter of the Memoir es d 1 Olivier de, la Marche. At 
the conclusion of the tournament and banquet 
held by the duke at Lille, Holy Mother Church, 
under the guise of a lady in mourning seated on 
an elephant and escorted by a giant, approaches 
the duke, and delivers a long versified complainte 
claiming the aid and succour of the knights of 
the Golden Fleece : 

"La lamentation de'nostre mere saincte Eglise faicte 
en la salle entra Toison d'or, roy d'armes, portant en ses 
mains un faisan vif, aorne d'un tres-riche collier d'or 
garni de pierreries." 

He presents the faisan to the duke 
" pour ce que c'est la coustume, et a este anciennement, 
qu'aux grandes festes et nobles assemblies on presente 
aux princes, aux seigneurs et aux nobles hommes le paon, 
ou quelque autre oiseau noble, pour faire voeus utiles et 
valables. Ces paroles dictes, mondict seigneur le due 
(qui savoit a quelle intention il avoit faict ce banquet) 
regarda PEglise ; et ainsi comme ayant pitie d'elle, tira 
de son sein un brief contenant qu'il vouait qu'il secour- 
rait la chrestiennete." 

The knights and other nobles (hommes} follow 
the example ; and the next chapter is taken up 
with the curious wording of their vows, which, 
however, were never put in execution. 

J. B. DITCHFIELD. 



I think a quotation from Gibbon will throw 
some light on the subject propounded by your 
correspondent. 

Shortly after the taking of Constantinople by 
the Turks, a chivalrous meeting was convened at 
Lille by Philip, Duke of Burgundy, to concert 
measures for the defence of Christendom : 

" In the midst of the banquet a gigantic Saracen en- 
tered the hall, leading a fictitious elephant with a castle on 
his back. A matron in a mourning robe, the symbol of 
religion, was seen to issue from the castle; she* deplored | 
her oppression, and accused the slowness of her chain- I 
pions. The principal herald advanced, bearing on his ! 
fist a live pheasant, which, according to the rites of 
chivalry, he presented to the duke. At this extraordinary j 
summons, Philip, a wise and aged prince, engaged his j 
person and powers in the holy war against the Turks. 
His example was imitated by the barons and knights of 
the assembly ; they swore to" God, the Virgin, the ladies, 
and the pheasant," &c. Gibbon, chap. 68. 



A note says, " the peacock and the pheasant 
were distinguished as royal birds." W. D. 

A cock in mediaeval times was sometimes called 
a pheasant ; and swearing " sur le faisan/'' that is, 
swearing by the pheasant, corresponds to the old 
English practice of swearing by the cock : 
" By cock, they are to blame." 

Hamlet, Act IV. Sc. 5. 

Gallus, a cock; Gallus, .a Frenchman. No 
wonder then that, as the eagle is the national 
bird of Yankees, the cock should be the national 
bird of the French, and that they should swear 
" sur le faisan," i. e. by the cock. The cock may 
also have been sworn by as St. Peter's bird. 

The unlucky commentators have tried to make 
strange things out of Shakspeare's "By cock." 
But, as if to satisfy us that u cock " here means 
the domestic bird so called, chanticleer, and 
nought besides in earth or heaven, Shakspeare 
elsewhere associates the name with that of an- 
other bird the " chattering pie." Thus : 
" By cock and pie, you shall not choose, sir." 

Merry Wives of Windsor, Act I. Sc. 1. 

And again, Second Part of Henry IV., Act V. 

Sc. 1. ' SCHIN. 

LUNAR INFLUENCE. 

(3 rd S. xi. 8.) 

In confirmation of what A. C. M. has said re- 
specting the power of the moon to render animal 
substances putrid, I may state the opinion of the 
sailors in Southern Italy, which went so far as to 
maintain that the moonbeams proved fatal to 
fish. In passing in an open fishing-boat through 
the beautiful bay of Taranto, near Gallipoli, as 
the sun rose, I observed a number of dead fish 
floating on the surface of the sea. This excited 
my astonishment, and I inquired of the sailors 
if they could account for it. They said these are 
"pesci allunati" "fish killed by the rays of the 
moon." I laughed at the idea; but they per- 
sisted in their assertion, and, in confirmation of 
the moon having effect on fish, they assured me 
that in catching fish during the night they were 
particularly watchful that the rays of the moon 
did not continue to shine on them, as they be- 
came putrid. That the rays could have the effect 
of killing fish seems preposterous ; but as to caus- 
ing putridity, it may possibly be so. I have no 
doubt that the sailors were asserting what they 
believed to be true, as they without the slightest 
hesitation called them "allunati" a word evi- 
dently coined to express the effect ; but of course 
this does not make it a whit more true. As to 
these dead fish, a friend, who has been much in 
the Mediterranean, and has seen them elsewhere, 
suggests that volcanic influences are common, and 
may be the cause of their death. I am aware, 



174 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'dS.XII. AUG. 31, '67. 



from personal experience, that earthquakes are 
constantly felt in this part of Italy, and do not 
doubt that the explosion of noxious gas may 
occasionally cause the destruction of fish. I may 
state that I never saw the phosphorescent ap- 
pearance of the sea more wonderful than it was 
at times during that night, when a slight breeze 
wafted us on. I have often witnessed this phe- 
nomenon in other parts of the Mediterranean, but 
never did I see a more beautiful display than the 
waters occasionally exhibited. As the wind raised 
a gentle ripple, luminous points everywhere darted 
up, till we seemed to be sailing through a liquid 
plain of sparkling stars. Dante might have had 
the scene before his eyes, when he wrote (Para- 
disOj xxx. 61-69) that fine description : 

" E vidi lume in forma di riviera, 

Fulvido di fulgori intra due rive 

Dipinte di mirabil primavera. 

Di tal fiumana uscian faville vive, 

E d' ogni parte si mettean ne' fiori 

Quasi rubin, che oro circonscrive. 
Poi, come inebriata dagli odori, 

Riprofondavan si nel miro gurge ; 

E s' una entrava, un' altra n' uscia fuori." 

" Ilook'd; 

And in the likeness of a river, saw 
Light flowing, from whose amber-seeming waves 
Flash'd up effulgence, as they glided on 
'Twixt banks, on either side, painted with spring 
Incredible how fair : and from the tide 
There ever and anon, outstarting, flew 
Sparkles instinct with life ; and in the flowers 
Did set them, like to rubies chased in gold : 
Then, as if drunk with odours, plunged again 
Into the wondrous floods ; from which, as one 
Re-en ter'd, still another rose." Gary. 

Did this state of phosphorence show that the 
waters of the sea were in a peculiar state, which 
mi^ht affect fish ? I am not sufficient of a natural 
philosopher to venture to give an opinion. 

C. T. RAMAGE. 



CALLIGRAPHY. 
(3 rd S. xi. 291, 401, 487.) 

I have " A Coppie-Booke " still older than any 
of the English ones mentioned by your corre- 
spondents, consisting of six leaves of printed 
matter and nine plates. The title-page of the 
printed matter is as follows : 

" The Art of Faire Writing, with Severall Plain and 
Easie Rules and Directions ; for the Instruction of Men, 
Women, and Children, to Write Variety of Hands in a 
short time. As also how to make good Pens; and hike 
of several colours. Likewise Directions for true Spelling 
and Reading of English ; With two Tables of Numera- 
tion and Multiplication. Sold by John Hancock, at the 
first shop in Popes-head Alley in Cornhill, where is also 
to be sold a very Exact Book of Short-hand, written by 
Theophylous Metcalfe, With new Additions very easie to 
be learned, and but small charge to Memory, as hun- 
dreds can by experience testifie that have learned by it." 



This is " not mentioned by Lowndes," though he 
mentions " Metcalfe, Short Writing, Lond. 1660, 
12mo," "which is said to have passed through 
thirty-five editions, had never, in reality, more 
than one." The pious author, after commenting 
on the " Use and Commodity of the Art of Writ- 
ing both to the Body and Soule," gives some very 
quaint directions " How the Scholler must sit ; " 
how to form the letters, make the pens, c. Then 
follow directions for making various kinds of inks, 
winding this head up with "How to make a 
candle burne in the water," and " How to kindle 
Fire at the Sun." Next are some directions for 
" the true Spelling and Reading of the English 
Tongue."^ The author is, however, by no means 
uniform in hia own spelling, agreeing no doubt 
with the Irishman who thought that "he is a 
poor scholar who cannot spell a word more than 
one way." 

At the end of the table of letters representing 
figures, he combines " MDCLI, 1651, one thousand 
six hundred fifty-one," which, I presume, is the 
date of the work. The " conclusion of the whole 
matter "is 

" And thus having presented unto you these neces- 
saries, I commit you unto the Almighty, and to the spirit 
of His grace, who is able to preserve you blamelesse unto 
the comming of the Lord Jesus." 

^ The other portion of the book, though the same 
size and shape (oblong 12mo), may not have been 
published with it. There is no reference from the 
one to the other. It consists of engraved plates 
of texts, &c. numbered consecutively by half pages, 
each half page having different styles. There are 
twenty half pages. This copy lacks 17 and 18, 
there being but nine pages in it. On the first 
half page is engraved a man sitting at a desk 
writing, and on the second a hand showing the 
manner of holding the pen. In the corner is a 
portion of the nose, the mouth, and chin of a 
human head ; the point of the pen held in the 
hand enters the nostril. What is the meaning of 
this? The title on the first half page is as fol- 
lows : 

" A Coppie-Booke of the Newest and Most Vsefull 
Hands With Easie Rules whereby those that can Reade 
may Learne to Write of themselues. London, printed for 
lohn Hancock, and are to be sovld at the first shop in 
Popes-head Alley, Next to Cornhill. Where allso there 
is sould a New Short-hand Booke Invented by Mr. Met- 
calfe, very Exact, Speedie, and Easie to be learned in 2 
or three dayes without any other Teacher, as many in 
this Cittie can testifie. 1649." 

The texts given are " Halfe Letters," " Secre- 
tary Letters and Hand," "Roman Letters and 
Hand," "Chancery," "Running Hand," "Ittal- 
lian Letters and Hand," " Mixt Hand," &c., with 
quite a number of crude flourishes on the several 
pages. 

These two books, if they are distinct, are both 
quite rare. I have not been able to find any 



.. 



S. XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



175 



lotice of them whatever. The above description 
3f them may be worthy of a place in "N. & Q." 

R. C. 
Cincinnati, Ohio, U. S. 



SCOTISH PEERS : EGLINTON EARLDOM. 

(3 rd S. xii. 131.) 
The Court of Session possesses at the present 
day the only jurisdiction it ever had in questions 
of Scotish peerages. This may appear at first 
sight a startling assertion, but on examination it 
will be found that this jurisdiction was always 
an incidental and indirect one. 

The course which , claimant to a Scotish 
peerage, before the Union, adopted was, to have 
himself served heir either of line or of provision. 
The latter in the case where the patent gave the 
power of naming a successor to the grantee, which 
occasionally occurred. If there was another 
claimant, he took the same step. 

The matter then came before the Court of 
Session as a question of competing briefs, each of 
the parties seeking to reduce the service of the 
other. The same course may be adopted at the 
present time, when the judgment of the Court 
of Session would be reviewed by the House of 
Lords as the final Court of Appeal. 

But this jurisdiction of that House must be 
distinguished from another, which is inherent in 
its own constitution, viz. that of determining 
who its members are. As this affords a shorter 
mode of deciding the validity of a claim than 
that above referred to, it is that now generally 
adopted where the title alone is sought, inde- 
pendent of any estates connected with it. A 
petition is presented to the House, praying that 
the claimant may be recognised as entitled to 
vote at the election of Scotish peers. 

No jurisdiction in these cases could ever have 
belonged to the Privy Council, and therefore that 
body was quite correct in remitting the matter to 
the Court of Session in the Eglinton case. I may 
add that the proceedings adopted by the late Earl 
of Eglinton in establishing his right to the Win- 
ton peerage illustrates very strongly the pro- 
priety of the course I have pointed out as the 
proper one for a claimant of a Scotch peerage. 

In conclusion, I may remark that there are 
instances to be found in the records of the Scotch 
Parliament which show its jurisdiction in the 
matter of peerages, as, for example, that of the 
Douglas and Angus families, independent of the 
protests which are to be found in the minutes of 
most parliaments by one peer against the prece- 
dence granted in the rolls to another. 

The fact that two of the clerks of session act 
as secretaries at the election of the Scotch repre- 
sentative peers, is a totally different matter. 

GEOEGE VERE IRVING. 



MR. KEIGHTLEY'S LAST WORDS ON SHAK- 
SPEARE (3 rd S. xii. 61.) 'It is with regret that 
Shakspearian readers will hear that MR. KEIGHT- 
LET intends to close his valued labours upon the 
text of our great dramatist. If his announcement 
has not ripened into a fixed determination, I 
would have requested some remarks from him 
upon the so well-known and admired passage 
that follows j but which has always, with all its 
beauty, appeared to me to convey its meaning 
with a certain confusion of terms. I will under- 
line those to which I allude, and subjoin my 
reasons, at the risk of being held an ignoramus : 
so I may elicit from MR. KEIGHTLEY, or some 
other of the very capable gentlemen who occa- 
sionally elucidate our poet in the valuable pages 
of " N. & Q.," an enlightenment that may (pos- 
sibly) be required by some others as well as 
myself. 

" And as imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen 
Turns them to sliapes, and gives to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a name." 

Midsummer Night's Dream. 

Now, to body forth, is to give a substance to 
what before had none : to body forth a form to 
things unknown, is to give a shape to what imagi- 
nation has created, but is yet without one : for 
the poet's pen then to turn them into sha2)es is 
needless, since forms are shapes. The poet then 
leaves to his pen the privilege of furnishing lan- 
guage to the creations of his fancy, and thus 
giving a local habitation and a name to those airy 
nothings whether in the simple utterance of 
the words, or in the deathless record of the 
eternal page. J. A. G. 

Carisbrooke. 

STRANGE OLD CHARTER (3 rd S. xii. 33.) The 
charter endeavoured to be transferred to an 
English king and county by one of your corre- 
spondents, has its legend, at any rate original, in 
Scotland. I have seen an ancient and vouched 
copy to Hunter by James II. or IV. (I am not 
sure which), granting to him and his heirs for 
ever the estate of Polmood, and all its lands^and 
pertinents, " as heigh up as Heaven and as laighe 
lown as Hell." The witnesses are his wife and 
lier nurse. BUSHEY HEATH. 

THE "NAKED" BED (3 rd S. xi. 51.) This is 
an institution still very common in Italy, as any- 
one who has had " opposite neighbours " on one 
of the smaller Venetian canals must have become, 
;o his embarrassment, aware. The sleepers in 
cuerpo plead, that as, while in bed, they are her- 
netically shrouded in mosquito curtains, there is 
no harm, save in the getting in and out of bed ; 
but they might shut their windows. The Memoirs 
\f Jacques Casanova are fertile in allusions to the 
'naked" bed; and to judge from the famous 



176 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3 r * S. XII. AUG. 31, '67. 



last-century engraving of "Le Coucher" still to 
be met with on the Paris quays, the ladies of the 
time of Louis XV. entirely disdained the use of 
nightgowns. PULEX. 

BURIAL OF LIVING PERSONS (3 rd S. x. 139.) 
That some, and many, of these stories are un- 
questionably true, can admit of no doubt. There 
is a French bishop and senator at this moment 
living and well who, when a youth, and soon after 
having been ordained, was struck down by a fit, 
supposed to have died, and laid out for burial. 
What is interesting, and highly curious psycho- 
logically and physiologically (as he tells the story 
himself), he lay in a trance amid all the various 
noises around him, but was awakened by the 
voice of a young priest and friend, to whom he 
was particularly attached, calling on him by 
name in a prayer, breathed softly at some distance 
from the body. HOWDEN. 

STTLE OF " REVEREND/' ETC. (3 rd S. xii. 26, 78, 
98, 116.) As I am rather rusty in my Scotch 
ecclesiastical law, I would be obliged by G. in- 
forming me if the General Assembly does not 
appoint annually a committee to arrange its judi- 
cial business, which would correspond to the 
Domini Placitorum of the old Parliament. Per- 
haps he will be amused with the following pas- 
sage in regard to the functions of His Grace the 
Lord High Commissioner, which is the only one 
I clearly recollect in Aytoun's pamphlet : 

" There he sits, not Jupiter tonans, but Jupiter dor- 
miens, till the hour of dinner bright moment for the 
Church Esurient." 

DR. ROGERS is wrong in supposing that the 
title "Mr." was formerly applied to only two per- 
sons in a parish the minister and the school- 
master. It extended to all who had attended 
one of the Universities ; but, of course, was 
dropped where the parson was entitled to a de- 
signation of a higher rank. I have often heard 
rather an amusing instance of this, which oc- 
curred during the visit of George IV. to Edin- 
burgh. The late Sir Henry Moncrieff had fallen 
into the procession, as one of the Doctors of 
Divinity ; but finding that they were to be pre- 
ceded by the knights baronets, he tucked up his 
gown and joined the latter. 

I have often heard it disputed, whether a letter 
to a clergyman should be addressed " To the Rev. 
A. B , M.A.," or, "To the Rev. Mr. A. B ," 
and consider that the former is the more correct 
form. GEORGE VERE IRVING. 

I accept, of course," DR. ROGERS'S correction ; 
though, with due submission to him, it is ex- 
pressed in terms quite unsuited to the importance 
of the matter. I ought, no doubt, to have recol- 
lected that, by the statute 21 & 22 Victoria, c. 83, 
s. 3, it was provided that laymen might be Prin- 



cipals of Universities, and that two such appoint- 
ments had since been made ; but that was merely 
incidental and subordinate to another subject, 
which is quite unaffected by my mistake. 

DR. ROGERS is himself not perfectly accurate 
in saying that the designation of " Reverend " is 
not used in the Acts of the General Assembly. 
These Acts contain annually a " Commission to 
certain Ministers and Ruling Elders for discuss- 
ing affairs referred to them " ; and in giving the 
names of the Committee (which is one of the 
whole house) that of the Moderator conies first, 
and he is uniformly styled " the Reverend " not 
so the others. G. 

Edinburgh. 

VIR CORNTTB. : P. EDGECOMB (3 rd S. xii. 9.) Is 
there a possibility of the word, which looks like 
vir, being vies for the two, in the writing of the 
period, would closely resemble one another ? Pre- 
sumably, this man of mark in his county would 
belong to the knightly family seated at Mount 
Edgcumbe ; * and the year 1570 shows the head 
of the family at that date to have been Peter 
Edgcumbe, Esq., who was found heir to his father, 
Sir Richard, in 156, and died at the age of 
seventy Jan. 4, 160f. His gravestone helps to 
pave the southern alley of Maker church. The 
slab was much worn in 1861, the arms then com- 
pletely effaced, and the rhyming inscription all 
but illegible. The opening lines 

" Lieftenant to my Queen long time, 
And often for my Shire a Knighte," 

show his distinction and favour the conjecture 
that the words appended to his name read at 
length "vicecomes Cornubise." 

JOHN A. C. VINCENT. 

"YE MARINERS OF ENGLAND" (3 rd S. xii. 22, 
72,113.)! defer to the last remarks of MR. 
KEIGHTLET, but will crave his indulgence for a 
few words on his notice of " Ye Mariners of Eng- 
land." I may be wrong, but I do not understand 
the poet to refer to the sailor at all as regards his 
fear of battle or breeze. I think, with^ MR. 
KEIGHTLEY, that the British sailor fears neither, 
more than a breeze may. I fully agree, however, 
that the word employed is tame. It is the flag 
that has withstood, or braved, the fierce conflict 
and the dread tempest. I doubt not that MR. 
KEIGHTLEY'S great command of words, and their 
arrangement, would have rendered him successful 
in accommodating those he has selected for his 
purpose ; but ask his permission to propose two 
different ones for a further reason. I would read 
shore instead of seas. Our shores are native, but 
it is with some strain that we call our seas so. 
Under better correction, I propose 

* This beautiful demesne was, it may be remembered, 
allotted (in imagination) to himself by the Duke of 
Medina Sidonia, High Admiral of the Spanish Armada. 






. 



as. XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



177 



" Ye manners of England ! 

That guard our native shore, 
Whose flag has braved a thousand years 
War's bolt and tempest's roar" 

or, wild winds. The thousand years may be 
objected to as hyperbolical, when claimed for 
England's undisputed supremacy over her native 
seas. J. A. G. 

Carisbrooke. 

MR. KEIGHTLET objects that it is a small com- 
pliment to our gallant sailors to describe them as 
braving the breeze a pleasure to court, not a danger 
to shun; but Campbell does not really apply the 
meaning expressed in " Ye Mariners of England " 
to the sailors themselves, but to ihejlac/, and only 
to the flag, which braves battle and breeze. The 
word breeze here is meant to convey the meaning 
of wind in all its varieties, including of course 
the fiercest gusts of the tempest. H. 

"HOHENLINDEN" (3 rd S. xii. 114.) At the con- 
clusion of this very fine poem we might use a 
modification of the word sepulture, " mode of 
burial," which I think is really meant ; not sepul- 
chre, a place of burial, which implies that the 
body shall be actually immured in some sort of 
superstructure, scarcely consistent with the de- 
scription given in the poem, where the bodies 
rest on the turf enveloped in snow. 

Now, if we substitute sepultury, we have the 
proper termination for rhyme; and, being pro- 
nounced sepultry, the proper allowance also of 
eight syllables for rhythm ex. gr. 
" Shall be a soldier's sepult'ry," 

as expressive of the mode of interment more par- 
ticularly than of the place literally enturfed, 
but not interred. No doubt Campbell has been 
over all this ground before us, but he has not left 
us his reasons. A. H. 

STRANGER DERIVED FROM " E " (3 rd S. xi. 295, 
431.) As ex terra is the origin of the words 
strano in Italian, stranno in Russian, cstranhatge in 
the language of the Troubadours (Reynouard, 
ii. 222), and estrange in Norman French, as well 
as strange, stranger, and extraneous in English, it 
is clear that stranger is not derived from Stranger 
in modern French. The above words, which may 
be traced to the Sanscrit, existed in their respec- 
tive languages long before Europeans acquired any 
knowledge of the Chinese tongue. E by itself 
has no meaning in English, although it has 11G5 
s-impticitcr, or combined with other monosyllables, 
in Chinese (Morrison, part n. vol. i. pp. 127-144). 
The Chinese have three words for stranger, ac- 
cording to Morrison (part in. p. 412), wae-kivo- 
teih-jin, e-jin, and yuen-jin. Philology is clear on 
the point that the monosyllabic languages of 
Asia are of an entirely distinct family from the 
Indo-Germanic (Indo-European), to which the 
Latin belongs. Amongst their 1781 monosyl- 



lables (Marsham, p. 177), some Chinese words 
accidentally correspond in meaning with some 
English monosyllables, as e in Chinese means he 
in English ; but there is no ground from history 
or philology to consider them as derived from a 
common source, or from each other. Since inter- 
course has been established betwixt the English 
and Chinese, both have borrowed from the other's 
vocabulary, and may continue to do so ; never- 
theless, the wide difference of grammatical con- 
struction must always preserve them as distinct 
languages. There is no ground for the suppo- 
sition that Moses had any knowledge of the 
Chinese ; although, as the historian of the emi- 
grant Abram and of his family, he possessed some 
traditions of Babylon and its plain of Shinar, 
whence Abram was expatriated of which he has 
preserved a memorial, confirmed by profane his- 
tory and modern research. T. J. BUCKTON. 

Streatham Place, S. 

" NEVER A BARREL THE BETTER HERRING " : 
COAT CARDS (3 rd S. viii. 540 ; xii. 44.) In Clark's 
Ecclesiastical History is a Life of John Bruen of 
Bruen-Stapleford, who died 1625. From ten ob- 
jections of his to cards and dice, I send two for 
insertion in " N. & Q." from their reference to 
the above headings : 

" Cards seem less evil than Tables, but there is never 
a Barrel better Herring, there is so much craft in 
packing," &c. 

" The Coat Cards were in times past the Images of 
their Idols." 

S. L. 

PORTRAIT OF CHENEVIX, BISHOP OF WATER- 
FORD (3 rd S. xi. 438.) In reply to MB. TRENCH, 
I beg to say that there are several likenesses of 
good Bishop Chenevix of Waterford. Mrs. H. 
Fleury of this city (whose father-in-law was the 
bishop's favourite chaplain) has one. A second 
I know was lately sold by a print collector in 
London. From the latter several copies were 
engraved, one of which is in my possession. 

THOMAS GIMLETTE. 

Cathedral Library, Waterford. 

BAIRN (3 rd S. xii. 62.) Your correspondent is 
not far wrong in supposing that the above word 
is dwindling into a contemptuous designation, at 
least in Yorkshire. I remember an old gentleman 
in the East Riding exclaiming, when his first 
grandchild (a girl) was born, " It's nobbut a 
bairn," meaning to express his disappointment 




Worcester. 



MEDALET OF EDWARD V. (3 rd S. xii. 108.) 
The medalet, as described by your correspondent, 
is one of a numerous series engraved upon thin 
plates of silver by Simon Passe in the reign of 



178 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3'd S. XII. AUG. 31, '67. 



James I. They usually represent the Kings of 
England, with the dates of their deaths, &c. The 
pieces are an inch and one-eighth in diameter, 
and weigh from thirty to thirty-eight grains. 

J. HAEKIS GIBSON. 
Liverpool. 

SEEVIUS: HIS COMMENTARY ON TEEENCE (3 rd 
viii. 518.) In my former note on this subject I 
quoted, at second-hand, what I then imagined to 
"be an extract from a letter of Muretus ; although 
I had carefully examined the whole collection of 
his works, edited by Kuhnken and Frotscher, 
without finding the slightest trace of anything of 
the kind. I have however recently discovered, 
in a note on Catullus (ed. Muretus, 12mo, 1554, at 
fol. 72), the identical words which I quoted. 

F. NOEGATE. 

GUANO (1 st and 2 nd S. passim.} In addition to 
wliat has already appeared in the pages of 
" N. & Q." the following may, perhaps, possess 
some interest : 

" THE GUANO ISLANDS. The broker to the last two 
Chilian loans notices a paper, read at the meeting of the 
Highland Society, which stated that a complete exhaus- 
tion had taken place of the guano in most of the Northern 
Chincha Islands, and that the supply from the Southern 
Islands is of an inferior quality; the exhaustion here 
mentioned is admitted, but the trade, during the past two 
years, has considerably exceeded the average, owing to 
the superior quality furnished by the other islands. As 
to the extent of the supply for the future, it is added, that 
even when the Chincha Islands are exhausted, there 
exist other deposits of such extent as to secure sufficient 
for some generations to come." Local Paper, August 6, 
1867. 

J. MANUEL. 
Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

CONFUSION OP PEOPEE NAMES (3 rd S. xi. 330.) 
This may apply to the name of the author of the 
Shah Nameh, Firdusi, the Persian and Arabic 
equivalent of Paradise. The Persian vav, or as 
the Germans write it, ivaw, is usually a vowel, oo 
but often also a consonant v, as in the conjunctior 
f e, and, together with its compounds : in the or- 
dinal numbers, evvel, first ; duvum, second ; sivnm 
third : in the verb substantive, buvem, buvi, buved 
buvim, buvid, buvend, I am, thou art, he is, we 
you, they are : in the imperatives, rev, go ; shev 
come; shine v, understand; ghanev, sleep : inhavali 
neighbourhood; vesile, reason; vejh, face; yvaz 
recompense ; vasyte, means, &c. 

T. J. BUCKTON. 

CLUBS OF LONDON (3 rd S. xii. 107.) The tw< 
ballads of the old poet Occleve, which I men 
tioned in my communication more than thirteen 
years ago (1 st S. ix. 383), and for a reference t( 
which your correspondent T. H. now inquires 
may be found in Mason's edition of Occleve' 
Poems, published in 4to in 1796, at pp. 59-70. 

EDWAED Foss. 



PIEESON (3 rd S. xii. 108.) Your correspondent 
ill find notice of the Rev. T. Pierson in the in- 
roduction to the Letters of Lady Brilliana Harley 
ublished by the Camden Society in 1854. Pierson 
ad been brought up in Emmanuel College, Cam- 
ridge, and was the friend of the learned Calvinist 
N, Perkins, whose work he had been engaged in 
diting as well as Brightman's on the Apocalypse, 
nd was known to be a profound scholar and 
heologian. He was instituted to Brampton in 
612, and resided there until his death. 

The ministrations of Pierson were not at first 
cceptable to the patron, Thomas Harley, father 
if Sir Robert, who never adopted the reformed 
doctrine ; but, at the intercession of his son and 
amily, he became reconciled, and continued until 
lis dying hour to entertain the highest esteem 
and friendship for him. Pierson set up at Bramp- 
,on Brian the strict observance of Ember Weeks 
and fast, the resort of many godly persons from 
emote places, and established a monthly lecture 
n the adjoining parish of Leintwardyne. 

The life and character of Sir Robert Harley, 
;he husband of Lady Brilliana, is well summed 
up in the Camden Society's publication above 
mentioned ; and his eminent services are recorded 
n the journals of the Plouse of Commons, espe- 
cially during the Long Parliament. 

THOMAS E. WINNINGTON. 

ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF PUNNING MOTTOES 
[3 rd S. xi. 32, 145, 262, 366; xii. 74.) 

" Cupio meliora." Mellior. 

" Opes sibi faciunt alas." Wing. 

" Festina lente." Hester (qy. Huster) and Onslow. 

" Dum spiro spero." Spiers". 

To these I beg leave to add a punning crest 
borne by a gentleman who was rector of an Ox- 
fordshire parish from 1790 to 1832, the Rev. 
James Armetriding namely, a spur, quasi armed- 
riding. W. W. 

In the Litei-ary Gazette occurs one of the 
strangest of these (Ruggles = Brise) " Struggle." 
Greek words have sometimes been used. SP. * 

SEEING IN THE DAEK (3 rd S. xii. 106.) I have 
known an instance of this in a lady who was often 
troubled with "blood to the head," which not 
only produced headaches, but sharpened and 
lengthened her sight for the time to such a degree 
that she could read an inscription at a distance 
which seemed incredible, and could also distin- 
guish objects plainly when the candle was put put 
at night. This unnatural faculty had something 
so uncanny about it that she decided on burning a 
night-light in order to have a reason for being 
able to see. HAEFEA. 

* Surely it is beneath the dignity of heraldry to have 
as mottoes feeble efforts of wit, like those we see in the 
last page of certain penny family papers. 






3" 1 S. XII. AUG. 31, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



179 



SAINTE BAEBE (3 rd S. x. 291.) Sainte Barbe 
is the name in French for the place, in vessels of 
war, where the ammunition is kept. In Catholic 
countries, Sta. Barbara is the patroness of artil- 
lerymen, who celebrate her festival. This pro- 
ceeds, no doubt, from her being considered as 
reserving those who pray to her from the acci- 
ents of lightning, and her name being thus 
associated with thunder. Hence the Spanish 
proverb on ingratitude, " No se acuerda de Santa 
Barbara hasta que truene." HOWDEN. 

PRONUNCIATION OF ROME (3 rd S. xi. 26.) Lord 
Holland not only, like Lord Lansdowne, pro- 
nounced Rome " Roum," but he used to call 
Bordeaux Burdux, which he amusingly justified. 
Lord Grey always pronounced Jersey"" Jarsey," 
supporting it as an old idiomatic propriety ; and 
I recollect him, on the same day, working himself 
into a real passion at the introduction o f theword 
"influential," which he could not bear. I once 
heard Lord Macaulay call Corunna " the Groyne," 
a name which I thought had long been disused. 

HOWDEN. 

L'HOMME FOSSILE EN EUROPE (3 rd S. xi. 456.) 
I possess a lithograph of a fossile humain, to- 
gether with a horse's head, found near Moret 
(Seine and Marne) in the autumn of 1823, and 
which was exhibited in Paris, Boulevard des 
Capucines, where 1 saw it in 1825. It was sup- 
posed to be a man and horse buried under a mass 
of rocks. In striking on what appeared to be the 
human form, it certainly sounded like a bony 
substance. P. A. L. 

RULE OF THE ROAD (3 rd S. xii. 139.) With 
every due deference to LORD HOWDEN'S better 
judgment, and however desirous to chime-in with 
him (being a Frenchman myself) in deeming 
" the French rule of passing to the right of the 
road " as rational, methinks " the left is the right, 
and ^the right is the wrong." The rule which 
obtains in England seems to me far more sensible 
and safe, inasmuch as each " Whip," passing close 
to the other's right wheel, can see at a glance, 
and much better, what distance there is between 
the two, and so avoid a collision. P. A. L. 

PERJURY (3 rd S. xi. 497; xii. 137.) It appears 
to me perfectly erroneous to give per several 
meanings, as SCISCITATOR has done. Your corre- 
spondent cites perfidw (faithless), perdere (to 
destroy), and perire (to perish), in order to show 
that per is a negative prefix unconnected with the 
preposition per. Perjidus certainly may be ex- 
plained by this supposition, but, of the other two 
words, how can "not to give " and "not to go" 
signify " to destroy " and " to perish " ? Taking 
per in the sense which it bears in all other in- 
stances, and which classical scholars have hitherto 
considered to be the only one, no difficulty is 



found. Perjidus (per fides) is " one who breaks 
through faith," perdere (per dare) is " to let fall 
through," perire (per ire) is "to run through," 
to pass away like water running through a sieve, 
to express which Horace uses this very word in 
the eleventh Ode of his third book. The Greek 
Sta sometimes bears a like meaning, as in Sia- 
Tnrn-eH', " to break through belief," " to dis- 
trust." As for "perjury," it comes through per- 
jurium, from perjurus. If this latter word and 
perjuro, or pejero, come from per and jus, "per- 
jury" signifies "breaking through an oath j" if 
they are from per and Juro t it means " swearing 
through " f. e. swearing through one's own words, 
or the facts of the case, just as we speak of 
"swearing through thick and thin," "swearing- 
through a brick wall." As for the extraordinary 
statement that in Greek Trep, intensitive, originally 
signified bad, I have never heard of it, nor can 'I 
conceive on what traditional or philological foun- 
dation it rests. 

The explanation I have given of the etymology 
of perjurium is at once consistent with its mean- 
ing, and with the classical custom of compounding 
prepositions, with simplicity, and with general 
belief. The hypothesis advanced by A. B. and 
SCISCITATOR has this further objection to it, be- 
sides those which I have expressed above, that 
perjurium would merely mean " swearing the con- 
trary " or "not swearing," from either of which 
its actual signification could scarcely be deduced. 

E. B. NICHOLSON. 
Tonbridge. 

ALMACK'S (3 rd S. xii. 139.) Undoubtedly it is 
to be regretted the political intolerance or the 
social prejudice that may have led Scotchmen and 
Irishmen in London during the last century to 
disguise their origin by the modification of their 
names, yet these to a certain extent resembling 
the jackdaw in the fable that disguised its origin 
and pretended to be a peacock afford a fair sub- 
ject for censure, or more particularly for ridicule 
and banter. The English professional singer or 
the dancing-master who assumes a foreign name, 
or Gallicises a purely English one, comes in for a 
share of this. In the case of the Scotchman, Mac 
Caul, this attempt at disguise seems to have been 
useless, for Gilly Williams writing to George 
Selwyn (Feb. 22, 1765,) says that "Alniack's- 
Scotchface in a bag- wig, waiting at supper, would 
divert you, as would his lady in a sack, making 
tea and curtseying to the duchesses." 

JEPHSON HUBAND SMITH. 

UNKNOWN OBJECT IN YAXLEY CHURCH (3 rd S. 
xii. 128.) I am inclined to think that the two 
wheels described by W. H. SEWELL were merely 
ornaments attached to a massive ring (called in 
the East Angles a ringle) for raising the latch of a 
church door. The ring hung on a pivot which 



180 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 



[3** S. XIL AUG. 31, '67. 



passed through the pierced boss in the centre of 
the wheel, and the wheel itself was fixed on the 
door, and formed an ornamental border round the 
ring. I have seen circles very similar ornament- 
ing rings of door latches ; and I know a modern 
edifice in the Tudor style, where the architect has 
introduced iron wheels or circles of this kind of 
various patterns surrounding the rings, by which 
the latches of heavy doors are raised, in imita- 
tion of those employed in former times. 

F. C. H. 



NOTES ON BOOKS, ETC. 

Memoir of William Edmondstoune Aytoun, D.C.L., 
Author of " Lays of the Scottish Cavaliers," Sfc. By 
Theodore Martin. With an Appendix. (Blackwood.) 
William Edmondstoune Aytoun was a scion of the 
same house with Sir Robert Ayton, a scholar and a poet 
whose name has figured recently in these columns. Pro- 
fessor A} r toun was born in Edinburgh on June 21, 1813 ; 
and closed his too short, but useful and blameless life, at 
the comparatively early age of fifty-one, at Blackhills, 
Elgin, on August 4, 1863. This useful and blameless 
life has found a faithful chronicler in his old friend and 
literary associate Mr. Theodore Martin. The book is 
thoroughly genial ; and whether Aytoun's social relations, 
his professional career, or his varied and admirable 
literary studies, pursuits, and successes, form the subject 
under 'consideration, Aytoun is almost always made to 
tell his own story in his own words. The result is a 
biography which endears the subject of it to us. We feel 
that we "have known and esteemed him ; and tracing 
with deep interest his whole career, we close the book, 
feeling how truly his biographer describes him as " a true- 
hearted gentleman"; who "died honoured by his fellow 
citizens, and deeply mourned by those who had the hap- 
piness to know him as a friend." Mr. Martin's Memoir 
of Aytoun will not be the book with which Mr. Martin's 
name will be least favourably associated. 
A Dictionary of Quotations from the English Poets. By 
Henry G. Bohn. (Printed for private' Distribution.) 
This handsome volume of between seven and eight 
hundred pages, which is the result of a taste for collecting 
poetical quotations which beset the author somewhat 
more than half a century ago, is printed, not for sale, but 
exclusively for presents to Mr. Bohn's friends and ac- 
quaintances, or to persons of public esteem with whom he 
may have social relations. Mr. Bohn's volume may, 
therefore, fitly claim on this ground exemption from 
criticism. Not that it need fear it ; for, given the prin- 
ciple on which it is arranged, and which some may pre- 
fer to that adopted by Grocott or Friswell which latter 
we, however, ourselves consider the more preferable one 
it is full, accurate, and satisfactory. 

Cornish's Stranger's Guide through Birmingham ; being an 

Account of the Public Buildings, Religious, Educational, 

and Charitable Foundations, Literary and Scientific 

Institutions, and Manufactories. (Cornish.) 

A compact and useful Guide, made more complete by 

a good map, to that vast emporium of British industry, 

Birmingham that Birmingham which Moore, some fifty 

years since, jokingly characterised as " that ancient and 

ha'penny town." Not even in a political squib would 

Birmingham now be spoken of in terms so little signi- 

ficant of its wealth, industry, and power. 



THE EOXBUKGHE LIBRARY. Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt 
proposes to organize a new Printing Scheme (it cannot 
properly be called a Club) in England under the title of 
the Roxburghe Library. The object of this institution 
is to bring within the reach of everybody who cares for 
them the best inedited remains of our Elizabethan litera- 
ture for a moderate yearly subscription. The Roxburghe 
Library will act in harmony and connection with the 
Early English Text Society's Extra Series. No book 
will be admitted into the Roxburghe Library which has 
merel}' its accidental rarity to recommend it to notice. 
The old texts will be given" verbatim, including (if pos- 
sible) the original woodcuts, <fce. The utmost attention 
will be bestowed on the typography. The Roxburghe 
Library will be printed on fine thick paper, and will be 
bound in the Roxburghe style. One hundred and seventy 
copies will be taken off, in small quarto, and thirty in 
demy quarto, to match the books of the' Roxburghe. 
Maitland, and Bannatyne Clubs. The whole of this im- 
pression will be reserved for subscribers, and will in no 
case be for sale. Mr. Hazlitt says that as experience has 
shown that, of the many literary societies which we have 
had from time to time among us, several have owed their 
decline to internal differences, the Roxburghe Library 
will be under the general direction of one person, subject 
always to any suggestions which may proceed from the 
kindness of friends or correspondents/ To these sugges- 
tions the editor will at all times pay the best attention, 
and, where it seems practicable, they shall be carried out. 
Two volumes a year (and more, if possible) will be issued 
for the subscription of two guineas for the foolscap quarto 
copies, and five guineas for the demy quarto copies. T he- 
first volume will be ready for delivery at an early date. 
An annual return will be made of the 'income and expen- 
diture. Subscriptions and subscribers' names will be re- 
ceived by MR. JOHN RJJSSELL SMITH, 36, Soho Square, 
to whom all communications for the Editor should be 
addressed. 



BOOKS AND ODD VOLUMES 

WANTED TO PURCHASE. 

Particulars of Price, &c., of the following Books, to be sent direct 
to the gentlemen by whom they are required, whose names and ad- 
dresses are given for that purpose: 
MANNING AND BRAY'S SURREY. 3 Vols. Large paper. 
HOTCHINS' HISTORY OP DORSET. 4 Vols. folio. 
BEWICK'S HISTORY or QUDRUPFDS. Large paper. 

SELECT FABLES. Large paper. 

JEsop's FABLES. Large paper. 

Wanted by Mr. Thomas Beet, Bookseller. 15, Conduit Street, 
Bond Street, London, W. 



KERRY MAGAZINE. Vol.11. 1855. 

PEDIGREE OF DARCH, alias ARCHES. Printed in " Devonshire Fami- 
lies'^?). 

Wanted by P. 0., Box 748, Philadelphia, U. S. America. 



ta 



D. M. S. is referred to " 1ST. & Q." 2nd S. viii. 329 for an explanation 
of the " V 'indicia BernardL" 

RALPH THOMAS. A Tour in Quest of Genealogy is by Richard Fen- 
ton. See " N. & Q." 3rd S. ii. 331. 

R. " To return by Weeping Cross " was a proverbial expression fur 
deeply lamenting an undertaking, and repenting of it. See Naret't 
Glossary, and " N. & Q." 1st S. i. 154. 

H. T. ELLACOMBE. The Townley IfSS. are in the British Museum, an 
stated in "N. & Q." 1st S. iv. Htf; vii. 407. 

WM. RAYNKR. The definition of an nrltbassador attributed to Talley- 
rand rightly belongs to Sir Henry Wottim, who unluckily for himself 
wrote the following sentence in Christopher Flecamore'x album: " Lega- 
tns eft vir- bonus, ptretjrt; missus ad mentMitd/un RtipubUctt caru&."Set 
Walton's Life of Sir Henry Wotton. 

J. H. D. For the origin of the inn sign, " The Case is Altered" con- 
sult " N. & Q." 2nd S. iv. 183, 235, 299, 4,8. Ben Jonson wrote "^l Plea- 
sant Comedy called The Case is Altered," Lend. 1609, 4to. 

"NOTES & QUERIES" ia registered for transmission abroad, 



3'd S. XII. SEPT. 7, '67.] 



NOTES AND QUEEIES. 



181 



LONDON, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1867. 



CONTENTS. N 297. 

.TOTES : Star-Cliamber Prosecution for Deer- Stealing, by 
a Sir Thomas Lucy, 181 Mr. W. Carew Hazlitt: Lost 
Books, &c., 183 Herne's Oak: Singular Phenomenon 
presented by the Wood, 184 Folk-Lore : Baptismal Su- 
perstition An Infant Palm Dressing an Infant Som- 
nambulism Superstition about Cats A Norfolk Vulgar 
Error, 184 A New Clock Dial A Naval Yarn on " Draw- 
ing the Long Bow " Death of the Oldest English Resi- 
dent in Smyrna Paranomasia The Centre of the 
"United States Deer Leap Abyssinia, 185. 

QUERIES : Private Act of Parliament The City Poets 

Persius, with the Commentary of Lerissa Quotations 

A Curious Seal The Stars in Arabic Whitsun 
Tryste Fair West's Picture, 186. 

QUERIES WITH ANSWERS : " The Waefu' Heart " Snow- 
don Castle Robert Holmes Camoens' "Lusiad" 
English Journalism Battle of Harlaw, 188. 

REPLIES: Bishop Giffard, 189 Rattening, 191 Har- 
vest Home, 192 Whipping Females, 193 " Ye Mariners 
of England" Earl St. Vincent Last on Shakespeare 

Buns Passage from Fortescue Dole " High Life 
below Stairs " Swatfal Kail Shekel Keats and " Hy- 
perion " The French Word " Ville " in Composition 
Nose-bleeding Two Churches under one Roof False 
Quantity in Byron's "Don Juan" Royal Christian 
Names Bishop Hay Vent : Weald Frederick, Prince 
of Wales John Archer William Sharp, Surgeon The 
Protesting Bishops More Family Marriage of First 
Cousins The Word " Beagle," &c., 194. 

Literary Intelligence. 



A STAR-CHAMBER PROSECUTION FOR DEER- 
STEALING, BY A SIR THOMAS LUCY. 

ME. BRUCE, in his remarks upon th